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Full text of "The 1990 CIA World Factbook"

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*****These eBooks Were Prepared By Thousands of Volunteers!*****


Title: The 2002 CIA World Factbook

Author:  US Government

Release Date: August, 2004  [EBook #6344]
[Yes, we are more than one year ahead of schedule]
[This file was first posted on November 29, 2002]

Edition: 10

Language: English

Character set encoding: ASCII

*** START OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK, THE 2002 CIA WORLD FACTBOOK ***




This eBook was prepared by Philip Serracino Inglott.



CIA -- The World Factbook 2002 -- Country Listing


Afghanistan
Albania
Algeria
American Samoa
Andorra
Angola
Anguilla
Antarctica
Antigua and Barbuda
Arctic Ocean
Argentina
Armenia
Aruba
Ashmore and Cartier Islands
Atlantic Ocean
Australia
Austria
Azerbaijan


Bahamas, The
Bahrain
Baker Island
Bangladesh
Barbados
Bassas da India
Belarus
Belgium
Belize
Benin
Bermuda
Bhutan
Bolivia
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Botswana
Bouvet Island
Brazil
British Indian Ocean Territory
British Virgin Islands
Brunei
Bulgaria
Burkina Faso
Burma
Burundi


Cambodia
Cameroon
Canada
Cape Verde
Cayman Islands
Central African Republic
Chad
Chile
China
Christmas Island
Clipperton Island
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Colombia
Comoros
Congo, Democratic Republic of the
Congo, Republic of the
Cook Islands
Coral Sea Islands
Costa Rica
Cote d'Ivoire
Croatia
Cuba
Cyprus
Czech Republic


Denmark
Djibouti
Dominica
Dominican Republic


East Timor
Ecuador
Egypt
El Salvador
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Estonia
Ethiopia
Europa Island


Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)
Faroe Islands
Fiji
Finland
France
French Guiana
French Polynesia
French Southern and Antarctic Lands


Gabon
Gambia, The
Gaza Strip
Georgia
Germany
Ghana
Gibraltar
Glorioso Islands
Greece
Greenland
Grenada
Guadeloupe
Guam
Guatemala
Guernsey
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Guyana


Haiti
Heard Island and McDonald Islands
Holy See (Vatican City)
Honduras
Hong Kong
Howland Island
Hungary


Iceland
India
Indian Ocean
Indonesia
Iran
Iraq
Ireland
Israel
Italy


Jamaica
Jan Mayen
Japan
Jarvis Island
Jersey
Johnston Atoll
Jordan
Juan de Nova Island


Kazakhstan
Kenya
Kingman Reef
Kiribati
Korea, North
Korea, South
Kuwait
Kyrgyzstan


Laos
Latvia
Lebanon
Lesotho
Liberia
Libya
Liechtenstein
Lithuania
Luxembourg


Macau
Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of
Madagascar
Malawi
Malaysia
Maldives
Mali
Malta
Man, Isle of
Marshall Islands
Martinique
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mayotte
Mexico
Micronesia, Federated States of
Midway Islands
Moldova
Monaco
Mongolia
Montserrat
Morocco
Mozambique


Namibia
Nauru
Navassa Island
Nepal
Netherlands
Netherlands Antilles
New Caledonia
New Zealand
Nicaragua
Niger
Nigeria
Niue
Norfolk Island
Northern Mariana Islands
Norway


Oman

Pacific Ocean
Pakistan
Palau
Palmyra Atoll
Panama
Papua New Guinea
Paracel Islands
Paraguay
Peru
Philippines
Pitcairn Islands
Poland
Portugal
Puerto Rico


Qatar


Reunion
Romania
Russia
Rwanda


Saint Helena
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Saint Lucia
Saint Pierre and Miquelon
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Samoa
San Marino
Sao Tome and Principe
Saudi Arabia
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Singapore
Slovakia
Slovenia
Solomon Islands
Somalia
South Africa
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
Southern Ocean
Spain
Spratly Islands
Sri Lanka
Sudan
Suriname
Svalbard
Swaziland
Sweden
Switzerland
Syria


Taiwan entry follows Zimbabwe
Tajikistan
Tanzania
Thailand
Togo
Tokelau
Tonga
Trinidad and Tobago
Tromelin Island
Tunisia
Turkey
Turkmenistan
Turks and Caicos Islands
Tuvalu


Uganda
Ukraine
United Arab Emirates
United Kingdom
United States
Uruguay
Uzbekistan


Vanuatu
Venezuela
Vietnam
Virgin Islands


Wake Island
Wallis and Futuna
West Bank
Western Sahara
World


Yemen
Yugoslavia


Zambia
Zimbabwe


Taiwan



CIA - The World Factbook 2002

========================================================================


Aruba

Introduction

Aruba

Background:  Discovered and claimed for Spain in 1499, Aruba was acquired
by the Dutch in 1636.  The island's economy has been dominated by three
main industries. A 19th century gold rush was followed by prosperity
brought on by the opening in 1924 of an oil refinery. The last decades of
the 20th century saw a boom in the tourism industry. Aruba seceded from
the Netherlands Antilles in 1986 and became a separate, autonomous member
of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Movement toward full independence
was halted at Aruba's request in 1990.

Geography Aruba

Location:  Caribbean, island in the Caribbean Sea, north of Venezuela

Geographic coordinates:  12 30 N, 69 58 W

Map references:  Central America and the Caribbean

Area:  total: 193 sq km water: 0 sq km land: 193 sq km

Area - comparative:  slightly larger than Washington, DC

Land boundaries:  0 km

Coastline:  68.5 km

Maritime claims:  territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate:  tropical marine; little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain:  flat with a few hills; scant vegetation

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m highest point:
Mount Jamanota 188 m

Natural resources:  NEGL; white sandy beaches

Land use:  arable land: 11% (including aloe 0.01%) permanent crops: 0%
other: 89% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  0.01 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:  lies outside the Caribbean hurricane belt

Environment - current issues:  NA

Geography - note:  a flat, riverless island renowned for its white
sand beaches; its tropical climate is moderated by constant trade winds
from the Atlantic Ocean; the temperature is almost constant at about 27
degrees Celsius (81 degrees Fahrenheit)

People Aruba

Population:  70,441 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:  0-14 years: 21% (male 7,635; female 7,169) 15-64 years:
68.4% (male 23,270; female 24,906) 65 years and over: 10.6% (male 3,081;
female 4,380) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  0.59% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  12.22 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  6.29 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  NEGL migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.07
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female 65 years and over:
0.7 male(s)/female total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  6.26 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   82.19 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  1.8 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  NA

Nationality:  noun: Aruban(s) adjective: Aruban; Dutch

Ethnic groups:  mixed white/Caribbean Amerindian 80%

Religions:  Roman Catholic 82%, Protestant 8%, Hindu, Muslim, Confucian,
Jewish

Languages:  Dutch (official), Papiamento (a Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch,
English dialect), English (widely spoken), Spanish

Literacy:  definition: NA total population: 97% male: NA% female: NA%

Government Aruba

Country name:  conventional long form: none conventional short form: Aruba

Dependency status:  part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; full autonomy
in internal affairs obtained in 1986 upon separation from the Netherlands
Antilles; Dutch Government responsible for defense and foreign affairs

Government type:  parliamentary democracy

Capital:  Oranjestad

Administrative divisions:  none (part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands)

Independence:  none (part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands)

National holiday:  Flag Day, 18 March

Constitution:  1 January 1986

Legal system:  based on Dutch civil law system, with some English common
law influence

Suffrage:  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:  chief of state: Queen BEATRIX of the Netherlands
(since 30 April 1980), represented by Governor General Olindo KOOLMAN
(since 1 January 1992) head of government: Prime Minister Nelson O. ODUBER
(since 30 October 2001); deputy prime minister NA cabinet: Council of
Ministers (elected by the Staten) election results: Nelson O. ODUBER
elected prime minister; percent of legislative vote - NA% elections:
the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed for a six-year
term by the monarch; prime minister and deputy prime minister elected
by the Staten for four-year terms; election last held 28 September 2001
(next to be held by December 2005)

Legislative branch:  unicameral Legislature or Staten (21 seats; members
elected by direct, popular vote to serve four-year terms) election
results: percent of vote by party - MEP 52.4%, AVP 26.7%, PPA 9.6%,
OLA 5.7%, Aliansa 3.5%, other 2.1%; seats by party - MEP 12, AVP 6,
PPA 2, OLA 1 elections: Judicial branch:  Joint High Court of Justice
(judges are appointed by the monarch)

Political parties and leaders:  Aruba Solidarity Movement or MAS
[leader NA]; Aruban Democratic Alliance or Aliansa [leader NA]; Aruban
Democratic Party or PDA [Leo BERLINSKI]; Aruban Liberal Party or OLA
[Glenbert CROES]; Aruban Patriotic Party or PPA [Benny NISBET]; Aruban
People's Party or AVP [Tico CROES]; Concentration for the Liberation
of Aruba or CLA [leader NA]; People's Electoral Movement Party or MEP
[Nelson O. ODUBER]; For a Restructured Aruba Now or PARA [leader NA];
National Democratic Action or ADN [Pedro Charro KELLY]

Political pressure groups and leaders:  NA

International organization participation:  Caricom (observer), ECLAC
(associate), Interpol, IOC, UNESCO (associate), WCL, WToO (associate)

Diplomatic representation in the US:  none (represented by the Kingdom
of the Netherlands)

Diplomatic representation from the US:   Consul General Barbara
J. STEPHENSON embassy:  Curacao telephone: [599] (9) 461-3066 FAX: [599]
(9) 461-6489

Flag description:  blue, with two narrow, horizontal, yellow stripes
across the lower portion and a red, four-pointed star outlined in white
in the upper hoist-side corner

Economy Aruba

Economy - overview:  Tourism is the mainstay of the small, open Aruban
economy, with offshore banking and oil refining and storage also
important. The rapid growth of the tourism sector over the last decade
has resulted in a substantial expansion of other activities. Construction
has boomed, with hotel capacity five times the 1985 level. In addition,
the reopening of the country's oil refinery in 1993, a major source
of employment and foreign exchange earnings, has further spurred
growth. Aruba's small labor force and low unemployment rate have led
to a large number of unfilled job vacancies, despite sharp rises in
wage rates in recent years. The government's goal of balancing the
budget within two years will hamper expenditures, as will the decline
in stopover tourist arrivals following the 11 September terrorist attacks.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $1.94 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  2.5% (2000)

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $28,000 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: NA% industry: NA% services: NA%

Population below poverty line:  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  4% (2000)

Labor force:  41,501 (1997 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:  most employment is in wholesale and retail
trade and repair, followed by hotels and restaurants; oil refining

Unemployment rate:  0.6% (1999 est.)

Budget:  revenues: $135.81 million expenditures: $147 million, including
capital expenditures of $NA (2000)

Industries:  tourism, transshipment facilities, oil refining

Industrial production growth rate:  NA%

Electricity - production:  450 million kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 100% hydro: 0% other: 0%
(2000) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:  418.5 million kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  0 kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports:  0 kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products:  aloes; livestock; fish

Exports:  $2.58 billion (including oil reexports) (f.o.b., 2000)

Exports - commodities:  live animals and animal products, art and
collectibles, machinery and electrical equipment, transport equipment

Exports - partners:  US 42%, Colombia 20%, Netherlands 12% (1999)

Imports:  $2.61 billion (f.o.b., 2000)

Imports - commodities:  machinery and electrical equipment, crude oil
for refining and reexport, chemicals; foodstuffs

Imports - partners:  US 63%, Netherlands 11%, Netherlands Antilles 3%,
Japan (1999)

Debt - external:  $285 million (1996)

Economic aid - recipient:  $26 million (1995); note - the Netherlands
provided a $127 million aid package to Aruba and Suriname in 1996

Currency:  Aruban guilder/florin (AWG)

Currency code:  AWG

Exchange rates:  Aruban guilders/florins per US dollar - 1.7900 (fixed
rate since 1986)

Fiscal year:  calendar year

Communications Aruba

Telephones - main lines in use:  33,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  3,402 (1997)

Telephone system:   more than adequate international:  interisland
microwave radio relay links

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 4, FM 6, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios:  50,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:  1 (1997)

Televisions:  20,000 (1997)

Internet country code:  .aw

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  NA

Internet users:  4,000 (2000)

Transportation Aruba

Railways:  0 km

Highways:  total: 800 km paved: 513 km note: most coastal roads are paved,
while unpaved roads serve large tracts of the interior (1995) unpaved:
287 km

Waterways:  none

Ports and harbors:  Barcadera, Oranjestad, Sint Nicolaas

Merchant marine:  includes a foreign-owned ship registered here as a
flag of convenience: Airports:  1 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 1 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2001)

Military Aruba

Military branches:  no regular indigenous military forces; Royal Dutch
Navy and Marines, Coast Guard

Military - note:  defense is the responsibility of the Kingdom of the
Netherlands

Transnational Issues Aruba

Disputes - international:  none

Illicit drugs:  drug-money-laundering center and transit point for
narcotics bound for the US and Europe

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002



========================================================================


Antigua and Barbuda

Introduction

Antigua and Barbuda

Background:  The islands of Antigua and Barbuda became an independent
state within the British Commonwealth of Nations in 1981. Some 3,000
refugees fleeing a volcanic eruption on nearby Montserrat have settled
in Antigua and Barbuda since 1995.

Geography Antigua and Barbuda

Location:  Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and the North
Atlantic Ocean, east-southeast of Puerto Rico

Geographic coordinates:  17 03 N, 61 48 W

Map references:  Central America and the Caribbean

Area:  total: 443 sq km (Antigua 280 sq km; Barbuda 161 sq km) water:
0 sq km note: includes Redonda, 1.6 sq km land: 442 sq km

Area - comparative:  2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:  0 km

Coastline:  153 km

Maritime claims:   12 NM exclusive economic zone: Climate:  tropical
marine; little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain:  mostly low-lying limestone and coral islands, with some higher
volcanic areas

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m highest point:
Boggy Peak 402 m

Natural resources:  NEGL; pleasant climate fosters tourism

Land use:  arable land: 18% permanent crops: 0% other: 82% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  NA sq km

Natural hazards:  hurricanes and tropical storms (July to October);
periodic droughts

Environment - current issues:  water management - a major concern because
of limited natural fresh water resources - is further hampered by the
clearing of trees to increase crop production, causing rainfall to run
off quickly

Environment - international agreements:  party to: Biodiversity, Climate
Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea,
Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
Whaling signed, but not ratified: Geography - note:  Antigua has a deeply
indented shoreline with many natural harbors and beaches; Barbuda has
a very large western harbor

People Antigua and Barbuda

Population:  67,448 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:  0-14 years: 28% (male 9,618; female 9,293) 15-64 years:
67.3% (male 22,695; female 22,682) 65 years and over: 4.7% (male 1,289;
female 1,871) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  0.69% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  18.84 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  5.75 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  -6.23 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.03
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.69
male(s)/female total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  21.61 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   73.45 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  2.29 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  NA

Nationality:  noun: Antiguan(s), Barbudan(s) adjective: Antiguan, Barbudan

Ethnic groups:  black, British, Portuguese, Lebanese, Syrian

Religions:  Anglican (predominant), other Protestant, some Roman Catholic

Languages:  English (official), local dialects

Literacy:  definition: age 15 and over has completed five or more years
of schooling total population: 89% male: 90% female: 88% (1960 est.)

Government Antigua and Barbuda

Country name:  conventional long form: none conventional short form:
Antigua and Barbuda

Government type:  constitutional monarchy with UK-style parliament

Capital:  Saint John's

Administrative divisions:  6 parishes and 2 dependencies*; Barbuda*,
Redonda*, Saint George, Saint John, Saint Mary, Saint Paul, Saint Peter,
Saint Philip

Independence:  1 November 1981 (from UK)

National holiday:  Independence Day (National Day), 1 November (1981)

Constitution:  1 November 1981

Legal system:  based on English common law

Suffrage:  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February
1952), represented by Governor General James B. CARLISLE (since NA 1993)
elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general chosen by
the monarch on the advice of the prime minister; prime minister appointed
by the governor general cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the
governor general on the advice of the prime minister head of government:
Prime Minister Lester Bryant BIRD (since 8 March 1994)

Legislative branch:  bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate
(17-member body appointed by the governor general) and the House
of Representatives (17 seats; members are elected by proportional
representation to serve five-year terms) election results: percent of vote
by party - NA%; seats by party - ALP 12, UPP 4, independent 1 elections:
House of Representatives - last held 9 March 1999 (next to be held NA
March 2004)

Judicial branch:  Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (based in Saint Lucia;
one judge of the Supreme Court is a resident of the islands and presides
over the Court of Summary Jurisdiction)

Political parties and leaders:  Antigua Labor Party or ALP [Lester
Bryant BIRD]; Barbuda People's Movement or BPM [Thomas H. FRANK];
United Progressive Party or UPP [Baldwin SPENCER] (a coalition of three
opposition parties - United National Democratic Party or UNDP, Antigua
Caribbean Liberation Movement or ACLM, and Progressive Labor Movement
or PLM)

Political pressure groups and leaders:  Antigua Trades and Labor Union
or ATLU [William ROBINSON]; People's Democratic Movement or PDM [Hugh
MARSHALL]

International organization participation:  ACP, C, Caricom, CDB, ECLAC,
FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO,
Interpol, IOC, ISO (subscriber), ITU, NAM (observer), OAS, OECS, OPANAL,
UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador Lionel
Alexander HURST chancery: 3216 New
 [1] (202) 362-5211 FAX:
Diplomatic representation from the US:  the US does not have an embassy
in Antigua and Barbuda (embassy closed 30 June 1994); the US Ambassador
to Barbados is accredited to Antigua and Barbuda

Flag description:  red, with an inverted isosceles triangle based on
the top edge of the flag; the triangle contains three horizontal bands
of black (top), light blue, and white, with a yellow rising sun in the
black band

Economy Antigua and Barbuda

Economy - overview:  Tourism continues to dominate the economy, accounting
for more than half of GDP. Weak tourist arrival numbers since early
2000 have slowed the economy, however, and pressed the government into a
tight fiscal corner. The dual-island nation's agricultural production is
focused on the domestic market and constrained by a limited water supply
and a labor shortage stemming from the lure of higher wages in tourism
and construction work. Manufacturing comprises enclave-type assembly for
export with major products being bedding, handicrafts, and electronic
components. Prospects for economic growth in the medium term will continue
to depend on income growth in the industrialized world, especially in
the US, which accounts for about one-third of all tourist arrivals.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $674 million (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  3.5% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $10,000 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: 3.9% industry: 19.1% services:
77% (2001 est.)

Population below poverty line:  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  0.4% (2000 est.)

Labor force:  30,000

Labor force - by occupation:  commerce and services 82%, agriculture 11%,
industry 7% (1983)

Unemployment rate:  7% (2000 est.)

Budget:  revenues: $123.7 million expenditures: $145.9 million, including
capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)

Industries:  tourism, construction, light manufacturing (clothing,
alcohol, household appliances)

Industrial production growth rate:  6% (1997 est.)

Electricity - production:  100 million kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 100% hydro: 0% other: 0%
(2000) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:  93 million kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  0 kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports:  0 kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products:  cotton, fruits, vegetables, bananas, coconuts,
cucumbers, mangoes, sugarcane; livestock

Exports:  $40 million (2000 est.)

Exports - commodities:  petroleum products 48%, manufactures 23%,
machinery and transport equipment 17%, food and live animals 4%, other 8%

Exports - partners:  OECS 26%, Barbados 15%, Guyana 4%, Trinidad and
Tobago 2%, US 0.3%

Imports:  $357 million (2000 est.)

Imports - commodities:  food and live animals, machinery and transport
equipment, manufactures, chemicals, oil

Imports - partners:  US 27%, UK 16%, Canada 4%, OECS 3%

Debt - external:  $231 million (1999)

Economic aid - recipient:  $2.3 million (1995)

Currency:  East Caribbean dollar (XCD)

Currency code:  XCD

Exchange rates:  East Caribbean dollars per US dollar - 2.7000 (fixed
rate since 1976)

Fiscal year:  1 April - 31 March

Communications Antigua and Barbuda

Telephones - main lines in use:  28,000 (1996)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  1,300 (1996)

Telephone system:  general assessment: NA domestic: good automatic
telephone system international: 1 coaxial submarine cable; satellite
earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); tropospheric scatter to Saba
(Netherlands Antilles) and Guadeloupe

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 4, FM 2, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios:  36,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:  2 (1997)

Televisions:  31,000 (1997)

Internet country code:  .ag

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  16 (2000)

Internet users:  5,000 (2001)

Transportation Antigua and Barbuda

Railways:  total: 77 km narrow gauge: 64 km 0.760-m gauge; 13 km 0.610-m
gauge (used almost exclusively for handling sugarcane) (2001 est.)

Highways:  total: 1,165 km paved: 384 km unpaved: 781 km note: it is
assumed that the main roads are paved; the secondary roads are assumed
to be unpaved (1995)

Waterways:  none

Ports and harbors:  Saint John's

Merchant marine:  total: 762 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,541,940
GRT/5,894,553 DWT ships by type: bulk 20, cargo 469, chemical tanker 9,
combination bulk 4, container 202, liquefied gas 7, multi-functional
large-load carrier 6, petroleum tanker 1, refrigerated cargo 9, roll
on/roll off 35 note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as
a flag of convenience: Australia 1, Bangladesh 2, Belgium 3, Colombia 1,
Cuba 1, Estonia 1, Germany 747, Greece 1, Iceland 8, Latvia 1, Lebanon
2, Lithuania 1, Netherlands 22, New Zealand 2, Portugal 1, Slovenia 6,
South Africa 1, Sweden 2, United Kingdom 1, United States 7 (2002 est.)

Airports:  3 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 2 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 under 914 m:
1 (2001)

Airports - with unpaved runways:  total: 1 under 914 m: 1 (2001)

Military Antigua and Barbuda

Military branches:  Royal Antigua and Barbuda Defense Force, Royal
Antigua and Barbuda Police Force (including the Coast Guard)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:  $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:  NA%

Transnational Issues Antigua and Barbuda

Disputes - international:  none

Illicit drugs:  considered a minor transshipment point for narcotics bound
for the US and Europe; more significant as a drug-money-laundering center

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002



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Afghanistan

Introduction

Afghanistan

Background:  Afghanistan's recent history is characterized by war
and civil strife, with intermittent periods of relative calm and
stability. The Soviet Union invaded in 1979 but was forced to withdraw 10
years later by anti-Communist mujahidin forces supplied and trained by the
US, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, and others. Fighting subsequently continued
among the various mujahidin factions, giving rise to a state of warlordism
that spawned the Taliban in the early 1990s. The Taliban was able to seize
most of the country, aside from Northern Alliance strongholds primarily
in the northeast, until US and allied military action in support of the
opposition following the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks forced the
group's downfall. The four largest Afghan opposition groups met in Bonn,
Germany, in late 2001 and agreed on a plan for the formulation of a new
government structure that resulted in the inauguration of Hamid KARZAI
as Chairman of the Afghan Interim Authority (AIA) on 22 December 2001.
In addition to occasionally violent political jockeying and ongoing
military action to root out remaining terrorists and Taliban elements,
the country suffers from enormous poverty, a crumbling infrastructure,
and widespread land mines.

Geography Afghanistan

Location:  Southern Asia, north and west of Pakistan, east of Iran

Geographic coordinates:  33 00 N, 65 00 E

Map references:  Asia

Area:  total: 647,500 sq km water: 0 sq km land: 647,500 sq km

Area - comparative:  slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries:  total: 5,529 km border countries: China 76 km, Iran
936 km, Pakistan 2,430 km, Tajikistan 1,206 km, Turkmenistan 744 km,
Uzbekistan 137 km

Coastline:  0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:  none (landlocked)

Climate:  arid to semiarid; cold winters and hot summers

Terrain:  mostly rugged mountains; plains in north and southwest

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Amu Darya 258 m highest point:
Nowshak 7,485 m

Natural resources:  natural gas, petroleum, coal, copper, chromite, talc,
barites, sulfur, lead, zinc, iron ore, salt, precious and semiprecious
stones

Land use:  arable land: 12% permanent crops: 0% other: 88% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  23,860 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:  damaging earthquakes occur in Hindu Kush mountains;
flooding; droughts

Environment - current issues:  limited natural fresh water resources;
inadequate supplies of potable water; soil degradation; overgrazing;
deforestation (much of the remaining forests are being cut down for fuel
and building materials); desertification; air and water pollution

Environment - international agreements:  party to: Desertification,
Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Marine Dumping, Nuclear
Test Ban signed, but not ratified: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Hazardous
Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation

Geography - note:  landlocked; the Hindu Kush mountains that run northeast
to southwest divide the northern provinces from the rest of the country;
the highest peaks are in the northern Vakhan (Wakhan Corridor)

People Afghanistan

Population:  27,755,775 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:  0-14 years: 42% (male 5,953,291; female 5,706,542) 15-64
years: 55.2% (male 7,935,101; female 7,382,101) 65 years and over: 2.8%
(male 410,278; female 368,462) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  3.43% note: this rate reflects the continued
return of refugees from Iran (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  41.03 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  17.43 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  10.7 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.07 male(s)/female 65 years and over:
1.11 male(s)/female total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  144.76 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   45.85 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  5.72 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  less than 0.01% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  NA

Nationality:  noun: Afghan(s) adjective: Afghan

Ethnic groups:  Pashtun 44%, Tajik 25%, Hazara 10%, minor ethnic groups
(Aimaks, Turkmen, Baloch, and others) 13%, Uzbek 8%

Religions:  Sunni Muslim 84%, Shi'a Muslim 15%, other 1%

Languages:  Pashtu 35%, Afghan Persian (Dari) 50%, Turkic languages
(primarily Uzbek and Turkmen) 11%, 30 minor languages (primarily Balochi
and Pashai) 4%, much bilingualism

Literacy:  definition: age 15 and over can read and write male: 51%
female: 21% (1999 est.)  total population: 36%

People - note:  large numbers of Afghan refugees create burdens on
neighboring states

Government Afghanistan

Country name:  conventional long form: Islamic State of Afghanistan
conventional short form: Afghanistan local short form: Afghanestan former:
Republic of Afghanistan local long form: Dowlat-e Eslami-ye Afghanestan

Government type:  transitional

Capital:  Kabul

Administrative divisions:  32 provinces (velayat, singular - velayat);
Badakhshan, Badghis, Baghlan, Balkh, Bamian, Farah, Faryab, Ghazni,
Ghowr, Helmand, Herat, Jowzjan, Kabol, Kandahar, Kapisa, Konar, Kondoz,
Laghman, Lowgar, Nangarhar, Nimruz, Oruzgan, Paktia, Paktika, Parvan,
Samangan, Sar-e Pol, Takhar, Vardak, Zabol, Nurestan, and Khowst

Independence:  19 August 1919 (from UK control over Afghan foreign
affairs)

National holiday:  Independence Day, 19 August (1919)

Constitution:  the Bonn Agreement calls for a Constitutional Loya Jirga
(Grand Council) to be convened within 18 months of the establishment of
the Transitional Authority to draft a new constitution for the country;
the basis for the next constitution is the 1963/64 Constitution, according
to the Bonn Agreement

Legal system:  the Bonn Agreement calls for a judicial commission
to rebuild the justice system in accordance with Islamic principles,
international standards, the rule of law, and Afghan legal traditions

Suffrage:  NA; previously males 15-50 years of age

Executive branch:  note: following the Taliban's refusal to hand over
Usama bin LADIN to the US for his suspected involvement in the 11
September 2001 terrorist attacks in the US, a US-led international
coalition was formed; after several weeks of aerial bombardment by
coalition forces and military action on the ground, including Afghan
opposition forces, the Taliban was ousted from power on 17 November 2001;
in December 2001 a number of prominent Afghans met under UN auspices in
Bonn, Germany, to decide on a plan for governing the country; as a result,
the Afghan Interim Authority (AIA) - made up of 30 members, headed by a
chairman and five deputy chairmen - was inaugurated on 22 December 2001
with about a six-month mandate to be followed by a two-year Transitional
Authority (TA) after which elections are to be held; the structure of
the follow-on TA will be announced on 10 June 2002 when the Loya Jirga
(grand assembly) is convened chief of state: Chairman of the AIA, Hamad
KARZAI (since 22 December 2001); note - presently the chairman is both
chief of state and head of government head of government: Chairman of
the AIA, Hamad KARZAI (since 22 December 2001); note - presently the
chairman is both chief of state and head of government cabinet: the
30-member AIA elections: NA

Legislative branch:  nonfunctioning as of June 1993

Judicial branch:  the Bonn Agreement calls for the establishment of a
Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders:  NA; note - political parties in
Afghanistan are in flux and many prominent players have plans to create
new parties; the three main groups represented in the Afghan Interim
Authority (AIA) are: the Northern Alliance (also known as the United
Islamic Front for the Salvation of Afghanistan) - the main opposition to
the Taliban - composed of different ethnic and political groups; the Rome
Group, associated with the former king of Afghanistan, composed mainly
of expatriate Afghans; and the Peshawar Group, another expatriate group;
there are also several "independent" groups

Political pressure groups and leaders:  NA; note - ministries formed under
the Afghan Interim Authority(AIA) include former pressure group leaders

International organization participation:  AsDB, CP, ECO, ESCAP, FAO,
G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF,
IOC (suspended), IOM (observer), ITU, NAM, OIC, OPCW (signatory), UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WToO

Diplomatic representation in the US:   ambassador Ishaq SHAHRYAR (as
of 19 June 2002) chancery:  consulate(s) general: New York telephone:
202-483-6410

Diplomatic representation from the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
Robert Patrick John FINN; note - embassy in Kabul reopened 16 December
2001 following closure in January 1989 embassy:  FAX: NA

Flag description:  three equal vertical bands of black (hoist), red, and
green with a gold emblem centered on the red band; the emblem features
a temple-like structure encircled by a wreath on the left and right and
by a bold Islamic inscription above

Economy Afghanistan

Economy - overview:  Afghanistan is an extremely poor, landlocked
country, highly dependent on farming and livestock raising (sheep and
goats). Economic considerations have played second fiddle to political
and military upheavals during two decades of war, including the nearly
10-year Soviet military occupation (which ended 15 February 1989). During
that conflict one-third of the population fled the country, with Pakistan
and Iran sheltering a combined peak of more than 6 million refugees.
Gross domestic product has fallen substantially over the past 20 years
because of the loss of labor and capital and the disruption of trade
and transport; severe drought added to the nation's difficulties
in 1998-2001. The majority of the population continues to suffer
from insufficient food, clothing, housing, and medical care, problems
exacerbated by military operations and political uncertainties. Inflation
remains a serious problem. Following the US-led coalition war that led
to the defeat of the Taliban in November 2001 and the formulation of
the Afghan Interim Authority (AIA) resulting from the December 2001 Bonn
Agreement, International efforts to rebuild Afghanistan were addressed at
the Tokyo Donors Conference for Afghan Reconstruction in January 2002,
when $4.5 billion was collected for a trust fund to be administered
by the World Bank. Priority areas for reconstruction include the
construction of education, health, and sanitation facilities, enhancement
of administrative capacity, the development of the agricultural sector,
and the rebuilding of road, energy, and telecommunication links.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $21 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  NA%

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $800 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: 60% industry: 20% services:
20% (1990 est.)

Population below poverty line:  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  NA%

Labor force:  10 million (2000 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:  agriculture 80%, industry 10%, services 10%
(1990 est.)

Unemployment rate:  NA%

Budget:  revenues: $NA expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures
of $NA

Industries:  small-scale production of textiles, soap, furniture, shoes,
fertilizer, and cement; handwoven carpets; natural gas, coal, copper

Electricity - production:  375 million kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 36% hydro: 64% other: 0%
(2000) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:  453.75 million kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  0 kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports:  105 million kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products:  wheat, fruits, nuts, wool, mutton, sheepskin,
and lambskin

Exports:  $1.2 billion (2001 est.)

Exports - commodities:  opium, fruits and nuts, handwoven carpets, wool,
cotton, hides and pelts, precious and semi-precious gems

Exports - partners:  Pakistan 32%, India 8%, Belgium 7%, Germany 5%,
Russia 5%, UAE 4% (1999)

Imports:  $1.3 billion (2001 est.)

Imports - commodities:  capital goods, food and petroleum products;
most consumer goods

Imports - partners:  Pakistan 19%, Japan 16%, Kenya 9%, South Korea 7%,
India 6%, Turkmenistan 6% (1999)

Debt - external:  $5.5 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:  international pledges made by more than 60
countries and international financial institutions at the Tokyo Donors
Conference for Afghan reconstruction in January 2002 reached $4.5 billion
through 2006, with $1.8 billion allocated for 2002; according to a joint
preliminary assessment conducted by the World Bank, the Asian Development
Bank, and the UN Development Program, rebuilding Afghanistan will cost
roughly $15 billion over the next ten years

Currency:  afghani (AFA)

Currency code:  AFA

Exchange rates:  afghanis per US dollar - 4,700 (January 2000), 4,750
(February 1999), 17,000 (December 1996), 7,000 (January 1995), 1,900
(January 1994), 1,019 (March 1993), 850 (1991); note - these rates reflect
the free market exchange rates rather than the official exchange rate,
which was fixed at 50.600 afghanis to the dollar until 1996, when it
rose to 2,262.65 per dollar, and finally became fixed again at 3,000.00
per dollar in April 1996

Fiscal year:  21 March - 20 March

Communications Afghanistan

Telephones - main lines in use:  29,000 (1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  NA

Telephone system:   very limited telephone and telegraph service domestic:
Herat, Kandahar, Jalalabad, and Kabul through satellite and microwave
systems international: satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Indian
Ocean) linked only to Iran and 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region);
commercial satellite telephone center in Ghazni

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 7 (6 are inactive; the active station
is in Kabul), FM 1, shortwave 1 (broadcasts in Pashtu, Afghan Persian
(Dari), Urdu, and English) (1999)

Radios:  167,000 (1999)

Television broadcast stations:  at least 10 (one government-run central
television station in Kabul and regional stations in nine of the 32
provinces; the regional stations operate on a reduced schedule; also,
in 1997, there was a station in Mazar-e Sharif reaching four northern
Afghanistan provinces) (1998)

Televisions:  100,000 (1999)

Internet country code:  .af

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  1 (2000)

Internet users:  NA

Transportation Afghanistan

Railways:  total: 24.6 km broad gauge: 9.6 km 1.524-m gauge from
Gushgy (Turkmenistan) to Towraghondi; 15 km 1.524-m gauge from Termiz
(Uzbekistan) to Kheyrabad transshipment point on south bank of Amu Darya
(2001)

Highways:  total: 21,000 km paved: 2,793 km unpaved: 18,207 km (1998 est.)

Waterways:  1,200 km note: chiefly Amu Darya, which handles vessels up
to 500 DWT (2001)

Pipelines:  natural gas 180 km note: product pipelines from Uzbekistan
and Turkmenistan have been in disrepair and disuse for years (2002)

Ports and harbors:  Kheyrabad, Shir Khan

Airports:  46 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 10 over 3,047 m: 3 2,438 to 3,047
m: 4 under 914 m: 1 (2001) 1,524 to 2,437 m: 2

Airports - with unpaved runways:   7 1,524 to 2,437 m: Heliports:  2
(2001)

Military Afghanistan

Military branches:  NA; note - the December 2001 Bonn Agreement calls
for all militia forces to come under Afghan Interim Authority (AIA)
control, but formation of a national army is likely to be a gradual
process; Afghanistan's forces continue to be factionalized largely along
ethnic lines

Military manpower - military age:  22 years of age (2002 est.)

Military manpower - availability:  males age 15-49: 6,896,623 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:  males age 15-49: 3,696,379
(2002 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:  males: 252,869
(2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:  $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:  NA%

Transnational Issues Afghanistan

Disputes - international:  close ties with Pashtuns in Pakistan make
long border difficult to control

Illicit drugs:  poppy ban cut 2001 cultivation by 97% to 1,695 hectares,
with potential production of 74 tons of opium; a major source of
hashish; many heroin-processing laboratories throughout the country;
major political factions in the country profit from the drug trade

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002



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Algeria

Introduction

Algeria

Background:  After a century of rule by France, Algeria became independent
in 1962. The surprising first round success of the fundamentalist FIS
(Islamic Salvation Front) party in the December 1991 balloting caused the
army to intervene, crack down on the FIS, and postpone the subsequent
elections. The FIS response has resulted in a continuous low-grade
civil conflict with the secular state apparatus, which nonetheless has
allowed elections featuring pro-government and moderate religious-based
parties. FIS's armed wing, the Islamic Salvation Army, disbanded itself
in January 2000 and many armed militants surrendered under an amnesty
program designed to promote national reconciliation. Nevertheless,
residual fighting continues. Other concerns include Berber unrest,
large-scale unemployment, a shortage of housing, and the need to diversify
the petroleum-based economy.

Geography Algeria

Location:  Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between
Morocco and Tunisia

Geographic coordinates:  28 00 N, 3 00 E

Map references:  Africa

Area:  total: 2,381,740 sq km water: 0 sq km land: 2,381,740 sq km

Area - comparative:  slightly less than 3.5 times the size of Texas

Land boundaries:  total: 6,343 km border countries: Libya 982 km, Mali
1,376 km, Mauritania 463 km, Morocco 1,559 km, Niger 956 km, Tunisia
965 km, Western Sahara 42 km

Coastline:  998 km

Maritime claims:  exclusive fishing zone: 32-52 NM territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate:  arid to semiarid; mild, wet winters with hot, dry summers
along coast; drier with cold winters and hot summers on high plateau;
sirocco is a hot, dust/sand-laden wind especially common in summer

Terrain:  mostly high plateau and desert; some mountains; narrow,
discontinuous coastal plain

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Chott Melrhir -40 m highest point:
Tahat 3,003 m

Natural resources:  petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, uranium,
lead, zinc

Land use:  arable land: 3% permanent crops: 0% other: 97% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  5,600 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:  mountainous areas subject to severe earthquakes;
mudslides and floods in rainy season

Environment - current issues:  soil erosion from overgrazing and
other poor farming practices; desertification; dumping of raw sewage,
petroleum refining wastes, and other industrial effluents is leading
to the pollution of rivers and coastal waters; Mediterranean Sea,
in particular, becoming polluted from oil wastes, soil erosion, and
fertilizer runoff; inadequate supplies of potable water

Environment - international agreements:  party to: Biodiversity, Climate
Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification,
Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Geography - note:  second-largest
country in Africa (after Sudan)

People Algeria

Population:  32,277,942 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:  0-14 years: 33.5% (male 5,512,369; female 5,311,914) 15-64
years: 62.4% (male 10,175,135; female 9,950,315) 65 years and over: 4.1%
(male 610,643; female 717,566) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  1.68% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  22.34 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  5.15 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  -0.42 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female 65 years and over:
0.85 male(s)/female total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  39.15 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   71.67 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  2.63 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  0.07% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  NA

Nationality:  noun: Algerian(s) adjective: Algerian

Ethnic groups:  Arab-Berber 99%, European less than 1%

Religions:  Sunni Muslim (state religion) 99%, Christian and Jewish 1%

Languages:  Arabic (official), French, Berber dialects

Literacy:  definition: age 15 and over can read and write total
population: 61.6% male: 73.9% female: 49% (1995 est.)

Government Algeria

Country name:  conventional long form: People's Democratic Republic of
Algeria conventional short form: Algeria local short form: Al Jaza'ir
local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Jaza'iriyah ad Dimuqratiyah ash
Sha'biyah

Government type:  republic

Capital:  Algiers

Administrative divisions:  48 provinces (wilayas, singular - wilaya);
Adrar, Ain Defla, Ain Temouchent, Alger, Annaba, Batna, Bechar, Bejaia,
Biskra, Blida, Bordj Bou Arreridj, Bouira, Boumerdes, Chlef, Constantine,
Djelfa, El Bayadh, El Oued, El Tarf, Ghardaia, Guelma, Illizi, Jijel,
Khenchela, Laghouat, Mascara, Medea, Mila, Mostaganem, M'Sila, Naama,
Oran, Ouargla, Oum el Bouaghi, Relizane, Saida, Setif, Sidi Bel Abbes,
Skikda, Souk Ahras, Tamanghasset, Tebessa, Tiaret, Tindouf, Tipaza,
Tissemsilt, Tizi Ouzou, Tlemcen

Independence:  5 July 1962 (from France)

National holiday:  Revolution Day, 1 November (1954)

Constitution:  19 November 1976, effective 22 November 1976; revised 3
November 1988, 23 February 1989, and 28 November 1996

Legal system:  socialist, based on French and Islamic law; judicial
review of legislative acts in ad hoc Constitutional Council composed
of various public officials, including several Supreme Court justices;
has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:  chief of state: President Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA
(since 28 April 1999) head of government: Prime Minister Ali BENFLIS
(since 26 August 2000)
 Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president elections:  15 April 1999
 (next to be held NA April 2004); prime minister appointed by
the president election results: Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA elected president;
percent of vote - Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA over 70%; note - his six opposing
candidates withdrew on the eve of the election citing electoral fraud

Legislative branch:  bicameral Parliament consists of the National
People's Assembly or Al-Majlis Ech-Chaabi Al-Watani (389 seats - changed
from 380 seats in the 2002 elections; members elected by popular vote to
serve five-year terms) and the Council of Nations (144 seats; one-third
of the members appointed by the president, two-thirds elected by indirect
vote; members serve six-year terms; the constitution requires half the
council to be renewed every three years) elections: National People's
Assembly - last held 30 May 2002 (next to be held NA 2007); Council of
Nations - last held 30 December 2000 (next to be held NA 2003) election
results:  party - FLN 199, RND 48, MRN 43, MSP 38, PT 21, FNA 8, Nahda 1,
PRA 1, MEN 1, independents 29; Council of Nations - percent of vote by
party - NA%; seats by party - RND 79, FLN 12, FFS 4, MSP 1 (remaining
48 seats appointed by the president, party breakdown NA)

Judicial branch:  Supreme Court or Cour Supreme

Political parties and leaders:  Algerian National Front or FNA [Moussa
TOUATI]; Democratic National Rally or RND [Ahmed OUYAHIA, chairman];
Islamic Salvation Front or FIS (outlawed April 1992) [Ali BELHADJ and
Dr. Abassi MADANI (imprisoned), Rabeh KEBIR (self-exile in Germany)];
Movement of a Peaceful Society or MSP [Mahfoud NAHNAH, chairman]; National
Entente Movement or MEN [Ali BOUKHAZNA]; National Liberation Front or FLN
[Boualem BENHAMOUDA, secretary general]; National Reform Movement or
MRN [Abdellah DJABALLAH]; National Renewal Party or PRA [leader NA];
Progressive Republican Party [Khadir DRISS]; Rally for Culture and
Democracy or RCD [Said SAADI, secretary general]; Renaissance Movement
or EnNahda Movement [Lahbib ADAMI]; Social Liberal Party or PSL [Ahmed
KHELIL]; Socialist Forces Front or FFS [Hocine Ait AHMED, secretary
general (self-exile in Switzerland)]; Union for Democracy and Liberty
[Mouley BOUKHALAFA]; Workers Party or PT [Louisa HANOUN] note: a law
banning political parties based on religion was enacted in March 1997

Political pressure groups and leaders:  NA

International organization participation:  ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AL,
AMF, AMU, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC,
ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol,
IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MONUC, NAM, OAPEC, OAS (observer), OAU, OIC, OPCW,
OPEC, OSCE (partner), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMEE, UPU, WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador Idriss
JAZAIRY chancery: 2118 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008 FAX: [1]
(202) 667-2174 telephone: [1] (202) 265-2800

Diplomatic representation from the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
Janet A. SANDERSON embassy: 4 Chemin Cheikh Bachir El-Ibrahimi, Algiers
mailing address: B. P. Box 549, Alger-Gare, 16000 Algiers telephone:
[213] (21) 69-11-86, 69-12-55, 69-18-54, 69-38-75 FAX: [213] (21) 69-39-79

Flag description:  two equal vertical bands of green (hoist side) and
white; a red, five-pointed star within a red crescent centered over the
two-color boundary; the crescent, star, and color green are traditional
symbols of Islam (the state religion)

Economy Algeria

Economy - overview:  The hydrocarbons sector is the backbone of the
economy, accounting for roughly 60% of budget revenues, 30% of GDP,
and over 95% of export earnings.  Algeria has the fifth-largest reserves
of natural gas in the world and is the second largest gas exporter; it
ranks 14th in oil reserves. Algeria's financial and economic indicators
improved during the mid-1990s, in part because of policy reforms supported
by the IMF and debt rescheduling from the Paris Club. Algeria's finances
in 2000 and 2001 benefited from the temporary spike in oil prices and
the government's tight fiscal policy, leading to a large increase in the
trade surplus, record highs in foreign exchange reserves, and reduction in
foreign debt. The government's continued efforts to diversify the economy
by attracting foreign and domestic investment outside the energy sector
has had little success in reducing high unemployment and improving living
standards. In 2001, the government signed an Association Treaty with
the European Union that will eventually lower tariffs and increase trade.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $177 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  3.8% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $5,600 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: 17% industry: 33% services:
50% (2000 est.)

Population below poverty line:  23% (1999 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: 4.4%
highest 10%: 25% (1995)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:  35.3 (1995)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  3% (2001 est.)

Labor force:  9.4 million (2001 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:  government 29%, agriculture 25%,
construction and public works 15%, industry 11%, other 20% (1996 est.)

Unemployment rate:  34% (2001 est.)

Budget:  revenues: $20.3 billion expenditures: $18.8 billion, including
capital expenditures of $5.8 billion (2001 est.)

Industries:  petroleum, natural gas, light industries, mining, electrical,
petrochemical, food processing

Industrial production growth rate:  6% (2001 est.)

Electricity - production:  23.556 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 99.58% hydro: 0.42%
other: 0% (2000) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:  21.847 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  210 million kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports:  150 million kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products:  wheat, barley, oats, grapes, olives, citrus,
fruits; sheep, cattle

Exports:  $20 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)

Exports - commodities:  petroleum, natural gas, and petroleum products 97%

Exports - partners:  Italy 23%, Spain 13%, US 13%, France 11%, Brazil 7%,
(2000)

Imports:  $1 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)

Imports - commodities:  capital goods, food and beverages, consumer goods

Imports - partners:  France 29%, US 9%, Italy 8%, Germany 6%, Spain 5%
(2000)

Debt - external:  $24.7 billion (2001 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:  $100 million (1999 est.)

Currency:  Algerian dinar (DZD)

Currency code:  DZD

Exchange rates:  Algerian dinars per US dollar - 77.889 (January 2002),
77.215 (2001), 75.260 (2000), 66.574 (1999), 58.739 (1998), 57.707 (1997)

Fiscal year:  calendar year

Communications Algeria

Telephones - main lines in use:  2.3 million (1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  33,500 (1999)

Telephone system:  general assessment: telephone density in Algeria is
very low, not exceeding five telephones per 100 persons; the number
of fixed main lines increased in the last few years to a little more
than 2,000,000, but only about two-thirds of these have subscribers;
much of the infrastructure is outdated and inefficient domestic: good
service in north but sparse in south; domestic satellite system with
12 earth stations (20 additional domestic earth stations are planned)
international: 5 submarine cables; microwave radio relay to Italy, France,
Spain, Morocco, and Tunisia; coaxial cable to Morocco and Tunisia;
participant in Medarabtel; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1
Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), 1 Intersputnik, and 1 Arabsat (1998)

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 25, FM 1, shortwave 8 (1999)

Radios:  7.1 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:  46 (plus 216 repeaters) (1995)

Televisions:  3.1 million (1997)

Internet country code:  .dz

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  2 (2000)

Internet users:  180,000 (2001)

Transportation Algeria

Railways:  total: 4,820 km standard gauge: 3,664 km 1.435-m gauge (301
km electrified; 215 km double-track) narrow gauge: 1,156 km 1.055-m gauge
(1999 est.)

Highways:  total: 104,000 km paved: 71,656 km (including 640 km of
expressways) unpaved: 32,344 km (1996 est.)

Waterways:  none

Pipelines:  crude oil 6,612 km; petroleum products 298 km; natural gas
2,948 km

Ports and harbors:  Algiers, Annaba, Arzew, Bejaia, Beni Saf, Dellys,
Djendjene, Ghazaouet, Jijel, Mostaganem, Oran, Skikda, Tenes

Merchant marine:  total: 73 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 903,944
GRT/1,051,433 DWT ships by type: bulk 9, cargo 25, chemical tanker 7,
liquefied gas 10, petroleum tanker 5, roll on/roll off 12, short-sea
passenger 4, specialized tanker 1, includes some foreign-owned ships
registered here as a flag of convenience: United Arab Emirates 2
(2002 est.)

Airports:  136 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 52 over 3,047 m: 9 2,438 to 3,047
m: 26 914 to 1,523 m: 5 under 914 m: 1 (2001) 1,524 to 2,437 m: 11

Airports - with unpaved runways:  total: 84 2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 1,524
to 2,437 m: 23 under 914 m: 18 (2001) 914 to 1,523 m: 40

Heliports:  1 (2001)

Military Algeria

Military branches:  Peoples National Army (ANP), Algerian National Navy
(ANN), Air Force, Territorial Air Defense, National Gendarmerie

Military manpower - military age:  19 years of age (2002 est.)

Military manpower - availability:  males age 15-49: 9,016,048 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:  males age 15-49: 5,513,317
(2002 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:  males: 388,939
(2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:  $1.87 billion (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:  4.1% (FY99)

Transnational Issues Algeria

Disputes - international:  part of southeastern region claimed by Libya;
Algeria supports exiled West Saharan Polisario Front and rejects Moroccan
administration of Western Sahara

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002



========================================================================


Azerbaijan

Introduction

Azerbaijan

Background:  Azerbaijan - a nation of Turkic Muslims - has been
an independent republic since the collapse of the Soviet Union in
1991. Despite a 1`994 cease-fire, Azerbaijan has yet to resolve its
conflict with Armenia over the Azerbaijani Nagorno-Karabakh enclave
(largely Armenian populated). Azerbaijan has lost almost 20% of its
territory and must support some 750,000 refugees and internally displaced
persons as a result of the conflict. Corruption is ubiquitous and the
promise of widespread wealth from Azerbaijan's undeveloped petroleum
resources remains largely unfulfilled.

Geography Azerbaijan

Location:  Southwestern Asia, bordering the Caspian Sea, between Iran
and Russia

Geographic coordinates:  40 30 N, 47 30 E

Map references:  Asia

Area:  total: 86,600 sq km note: includes the exclave of Naxcivan
Autonomous Republic and the Nagorno-Karabakh region; the region's autonomy
was abolished by Azerbaijani Supreme Soviet on 26 November 1991 water:
Area - comparative:  slightly smaller than Maine

Land boundaries:  total: 2,013 km border countries: Armenia (with
Azerbaijan-proper) 566 km, Armenia (with Azerbaijan-Naxcivan exclave)
221 km, Georgia 322 km, Iran (with Azerbaijan-proper) 432 km, Iran
(with Azerbaijan-Naxcivan exclave) 179 km, Russia 284 km, Turkey 9 km

Coastline:  0 km (landlocked); note - Azerbaijan borders the Caspian Sea
(800 km, est.)

Maritime claims:  none (landlocked)

Climate:  dry, semiarid steppe

Terrain:  large, flat Kur-Araz Ovaligi (Kura-Araks Lowland) (much of it
below sea level) with Great Caucasus Mountains to the north, Qarabag
Yaylasi (Karabakh Upland) in west; Baku lies on Abseron Yasaqligi
(Apsheron Peninsula) that juts into Caspian Sea

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Caspian Sea -28 m highest point:
Bazarduzu Dagi 4,485 m

Natural resources:  petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, nonferrous metals,
alumina

Land use:  arable land: 19% permanent crops: 3% other: 78% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  14,550 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:  droughts

Environment - current issues:  local scientists consider the Abseron
Yasaqligi (Apsheron Peninsula) (including Baku and Sumqayit) and the
Caspian Sea to be the ecologically most devastated area in the world
because of severe air, water, and soil pollution; soil pollution results
from the use of DDT as a pesticide and also from toxic defoliants used
in the production of cotton

Environment - international agreements:  party to: Biodiversity, Climate
Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection,
Wetlands signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:  both the main area of the country and the Naxcivan
exclave are landlocked

People Azerbaijan

Population:  7,798,497 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:  0-14 years: 28.3% (male 1,122,340; female 1,082,355)
15-64 years: 64.3% (male 2,441,830; female 2,577,109) 65 years and over:
7.4% (male 228,735; female 346,128) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  0.38% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  18.84 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  9.61 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  -5.41 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female 65 years and over:
0.66 male(s)/female total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  82.74 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   67.53 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  2.29 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  less than 0.01% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  less than 500 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  less than 100 (1999 est.)

Nationality:  noun: Azerbaijani(s) adjective: Azerbaijani

Ethnic groups:  Azeri 90%, Dagestani 3.2%, Russian 2.5%, Armenian 2%,
other 2.3% (1998 est.)  note: almost all Armenians live in the separatist
Nagorno-Karabakh region

Religions:  Muslim 93.4%, Russian Orthodox 2.5%, Armenian Orthodox 2.3%,
other 1.8% (1995 est.)  note: religious affiliation is still nominal in
Azerbaijan; percentages for actual practicing adherents are much lower

Languages:  Azerbaijani (Azeri) 89%, Russian 3%, Armenian 2%, other 6%
(1995 est.)

Literacy:  definition: age 15 and over can read and write total
population: 97% male: 99% female: 96% (1989 est.)

Government Azerbaijan

Country name:   Republic of Azerbaijan conventional short form:  Republic
local long form: Azarbaycan Respublikasi

Government type:  republic

Capital:  Baku (Baki)

Administrative divisions:  59 rayons (rayonlar; rayon - singular), 11
cities* (saharlar; sahar - singular), 1 autonomous republic** (muxtar
respublika); Abseron Rayonu, Agcabadi Rayonu, Agdam Rayonu, Agdas Rayonu,
Agstafa Rayonu, Agsu Rayonu, Ali Bayramli Sahari*, Astara Rayonu, Baki
Sahari*, Balakan Rayonu, Barda Rayonu, Beylaqan Rayonu, Bilasuvar Rayonu,
Cabrayil Rayonu, Calilabad Rayonu, Daskasan Rayonu, Davaci Rayonu, Fuzuli
Rayonu, Gadabay Rayonu, Ganca Sahari*, Goranboy Rayonu, Goycay Rayonu,
Haciqabul Rayonu, Imisli Rayonu, Ismayilli Rayonu, Kalbacar Rayonu,
Kurdamir Rayonu, Lacin Rayonu, Lankaran Rayonu, Lankaran Sahari*, Lerik
Rayonu, Masalli Rayonu, Mingacevir Sahari*, Naftalan Sahari*, Naxcivan
Muxtar Respublikasi**, Neftcala Rayonu, Oguz Rayonu, Qabala Rayonu,
Qax Rayonu, Qazax Rayonu, Qobustan Rayonu, Quba Rayonu, Qubadli Rayonu,
Qusar Rayonu, Saatli Rayonu, Sabirabad Rayonu, Saki Rayonu, Saki Sahari*,
Salyan Rayonu, Samaxi Rayonu, Samkir Rayonu, Samux Rayonu, Siyazan Rayonu,
Sumqayit Sahari*, Susa Rayonu, Susa Sahari*, Tartar Rayonu, Tovuz Rayonu,
Ucar Rayonu, Xacmaz Rayonu, Xankandi Sahari*, Xanlar Rayonu, Xizi Rayonu,
Xocali Rayonu, Xocavand Rayonu, Yardimli Rayonu, Yevlax Rayonu, Yevlax
Sahari*, Zangilan Rayonu, Zaqatala Rayonu, Zardab Rayonu

Independence:  30 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday:  Founding of the Democratic Republic of Azerbaidzhan,
28 May (1918)

Constitution:  adopted 12 November 1995

Legal system:  based on civil law system

Suffrage:  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:  chief of state: President Heydar ALIYEV (since 18
June 1993) head of government: Prime Minister Artur RASIZADE (since 26
November 1996) cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
and confirmed by the National Assembly elections: president elected by
popular vote to a five-year term; election last held 11 October 1998
(next to be held NA October 2003); prime minister and first deputy
prime ministers appointed by the president and confirmed by the National
Assembly election results:  Etibar MAMEDOV 11.8%, Nizami SULEYMANOV 8.2%

Legislative branch:  unicameral National Assembly or Milli Mejlis
(125 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 4 November 2000 (next to be held NA November 2005)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party -
NAP and allies 108, APF 6, CSP 3, PNIA 2, Musavat Party 2, CPA 2, APF
"traditionalist" 1, Compatriot Party 1

Judicial branch:  Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders:  Azerbaijan Popular Front or APF
[Ali KARIMLI, leader of "reform faction"; Mirmahmud FATTAYEV, leader
of "traditionalist" faction]; Civic Solidarity Party or CSP [Sabir
RUSTAMKHANLY]; Civic Union Party [Ayaz MUTALIBOV]; Communist Party of
Azerbaijan or CPA [Ramiz AHMADOV]; Compatriot Party [Mais SAFARLI];
Democratic Party for Azerbaijan or DPA [Rasul QULIYEV, chairman];
Justice Party [Ilyas ISMAILOV]; Liberal Party of Azerbaijan [Lala
Shvkat HACIYEVA]; Musavat [Isa GAMBAR, chairman]; New Azerbaijan Party
or NAP [Heydar ALIYEV, chairman]; Party for National Independence of
Azerbaijan or PNIA [Etibar MAMMADOV, chairman]; Social Democratic Party
of Azerbaijan or SDP [Zardust ALIZADE and Araz ALIZADE] note: Political
pressure groups and leaders:  Sadval, Lezgin movement; self-proclaimed
Armenian Nagorno-Karabakh Republic; Talysh independence movement

International organization participation:  AsDB, BSEC, CCC, CE, CIS,
EAPC, EBRD, ECE, ECO, ESCAP, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB,
IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent),
ITU, NAM (observer), OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador Hafiz
Mir Jalal PASHAYEV chancery: 2741
 [1] (202) 337-5911 telephone:
Diplomatic representation from the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
Ross WILSON embassy: 83 Azadliq Avenue, Baku 370007 mailing address:
American Embassy Baku, Department of State,
 [9] (9412) 98-03-35, 36, 37 FAX:
Flag description:  three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), red, and
green; a crescent and eight-pointed star in white are centered in red band

Economy Azerbaijan

Economy - overview:  Azerbaijan's number one export is oil. Azerbaijan's
oil production declined through 1997 but has registered an increase
every year since. Negotiation of production-sharing arrangements
(PSAs) with foreign firms, which have thus far committed $60 billion to
oilfield development, should generate the funds needed to spur future
industrial development.  Oil production under the first of these PSAs,
with the Azerbaijan International Operating Company, began in November
1997. Azerbaijan shares all the formidable problems of the former Soviet
republics in making the transition from a command to a market economy,
but its considerable energy resources brighten its long-term prospects.
Baku has only recently begun making progress on economic reform, and
old economic ties and structures are slowly being replaced. An obstacle
to economic progress, including stepped up foreign investment in the
non-energy sector, is the continuing conflict with Armenia over the
Nagorno-Karabakh region. Trade with Russia and the other former Soviet
republics is declining in importance while trade is building with Turkey
and the nations of Europe.  Long-term prospects will depend on world oil
prices, the location of new pipelines in the region, and Azerbaijan's
ability to manage its oil wealth.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $24.3 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  9.9% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $3,100 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: 22% industry: 33% services:
45% (2000 est.)

Population below poverty line:  64% (2001 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: 2.8%
highest 10%: 27.8% (1995)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:  36 (1995)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  1.6% (2001 est.)

Labor force:  2.9 million (1997)

Labor force - by occupation:  agriculture and forestry 32%, industry 15%,
services 53% (1997)

Unemployment rate:  20% (official rate is 1.3% for 2001) (1999 est.)

Budget:  revenues: $888 million expenditures: $978 million, including
capital expenditures of $NA (2001 est.)

Industries:  petroleum and natural gas, petroleum products, oilfield
equipment; steel, iron ore, cement; chemicals and petrochemicals; textiles

Industrial production growth rate:  5.1% (2001 est.)

Electricity - production:  17.6 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 91.37% hydro: 8.63%
other: 0% (2000) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:  16.7 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  900 million kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports:  1.25 billion kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products:  cotton, grain, rice, grapes, fruit, vegetables,
tea, tobacco; cattle, pigs, sheep, goats

Exports:  $2 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)

Exports - commodities:  oil and gas 90%, machinery, cotton, foodstuffs

Exports - partners:  Italy 43.7%, France 11.8%, Israel 7.7%, Turkey 6.0%,
France 5.6% (2000)

Imports:  $1.6 billion (f.o.b., 2001)

Imports - commodities:  machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, metals,
chemicals

Imports - partners:  Russia 21.3%, Turkey 11%, US 8.9%, Iran 5.8%,
Germany 5.8% (2000)

Debt - external:  $1.5 billion (2001)

Economic aid - recipient:  ODA, $113 million (1996)

Currency:  Azerbaijani manat (AZM)

Currency code:  AZM

Exchange rates:  Azerbaijani manats per US dollar - 4,804 (11 February
2002), 4,656.58 (2001), 4,474.15 (2000), 4,120.17 (1999), 3,869 (1998),
3,985.38 (1997)

Fiscal year:  calendar year

Communications Azerbaijan

Telephones - main lines in use:  663,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  40,000 (1997)

Telephone system:  general assessment: inadequate; requires considerable
expansion and modernization; teledensity of 8.6 main lines per 100
persons is very low domestic: the majority of telephones are in Baku
and other industrial centers - about 700 villages still without public
telephone service; satellite service connects Baku to a modern switch in
its exclave of Naxcivan international: the old Soviet system of cable
and microwave is still serviceable; a satellite connection to Turkey
enables Baku to reach about 200 additional countries, some of which are
directly connected to Baku by satellite providers other than Turkey (1997)

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 10, FM 17, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios:  175,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:  2 (1997)

Televisions:  170,000 (1997)

Internet country code:  .az

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  2 (2000)

Internet users:  12,000 (2001)

Transportation Azerbaijan

Railways:  total: 2,125 km in common carrier service; does not
include industrial lines broad gauge: 2,125 km 1.520-m gauge (1,278 km
electrified) (1993 est.)

Highways:  total: 36,700 km paved: 31,800 km (includes some all-weather
gravel-surfaced roads) unpaved: 4,900 km (these roads are made of
unstabilized earth and are difficult to negotiate in wet weather) (1990)

Waterways:  none

Pipelines:  crude oil 1,130 km; petroleum products 630 km; natural gas
1,240 km

Ports and harbors:  Baku (Baki)

Merchant marine:  total: 54 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 246,051
GRT/306,756 DWT ships by type: cargo 12, petroleum tanker 40, roll
on/roll off 2 (2002 est.)

Airports:  52 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 9 2,438 to 3,047 m: 5 1,524 to
2,437 m: 4 (2001)

Airports - with unpaved runways:  total: 43 1,524 to 2,437 m: 7 914 to
1,523 m: 8 under 914 m: 28 (2001)

Military Azerbaijan

Military branches:  Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces

Military manpower - military age:  18 years of age (2002 est.)

Military manpower - availability:  males age 15-49: 2,131,331 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:  males age 15-49: 1,706,325
(2002 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:  males: 77,099
(2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:  $121 million (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:  2.6% (FY99)

Transnational Issues Azerbaijan

Disputes - international:  Armenia supports ethnic Armenian secessionists
in Nagorno-Karabakh and militarily occupies almost one-fifth of
Azerbaijan - Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE)
continues to mediate dispute; Azerbaijan signed bilateral agreements
with Russia delimiting the Caspian seabed, but littoral states are far
from multilateral agreement on dividing the waters and seabed regimes
- Iran insists on division of Caspian Sea into five equal sectors
while Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Russia, and Turkmenistan have generally
agreed upon equidistant seabed boundaries; Iran threatens to conduct oil
exploration in Azerbaijani-claimed waters, while interdicting Azerbaijani
activities; Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan await ICJ decision to resolve
sovereignty dispute over oilfields in the Caspian Sea

Illicit drugs:  limited illicit cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy,
mostly for CIS consumption; limited government eradication program;
transshipment point for opiates via Iran, Central Asia, and Russia to
Western Europe

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002



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Albania

Introduction

Albania

Background:  In 1990 Albania ended 44 years of xenophobic communist
rule and established a multiparty democracy. The transition has
proven difficult as corrupt governments have tried to deal with high
unemployment, a dilapidated infrastructure, widespread gangsterism,
and disruptive political opponents. International observers judged
local elections in 2001 to be acceptable and a step toward democratic
development, but identified serious deficiencies which should be addressed
through reforms in the Albanian electoral code.

Geography Albania

Location:  Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Ionian Sea,
between Greece and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

Geographic coordinates:  41 00 N, 20 00 E

Map references:  Europe

Area:  total: 28,748 sq km water: 1,350 sq km land: 27,398 sq km

Area - comparative:  slightly smaller than Maryland

Land boundaries:  total: 720 km border countries: Greece 282 km, The
Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 151 km, Yugoslavia 287 km

Coastline:  362 km

Maritime claims:  continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of
exploitation territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate:  mild temperate; cool, cloudy, wet winters; hot, clear, dry
summers; interior is cooler and wetter

Terrain:  mostly mountains and hills; small plains along coast

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m highest point:
Maja e Korabit (Golem Korab) 2,753 m

Natural resources:  petroleum, natural gas, coal, chromium, copper,
timber, nickel, hydropower

Land use:  arable land: 21% permanent crops: 4% other: 75% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  3,400 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:  destructive earthquakes; tsunamis occur along
southwestern coast; floods; drought

Environment - current issues:  deforestation; soil erosion; water
pollution from industrial and domestic effluents

Environment - international agreements:  party to: Biodiversity, Climate
Change, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection,
Wetlands signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:  strategic location along Strait of Otranto (links
Adriatic Sea to Ionian Sea and Mediterranean Sea)

People Albania

Population:  3,544,841 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:  0-14 years: 28.8% (male 528,678; female 493,531) 15-64
years: 64% (male 1,094,034; female 1,175,024) 65 years and over: 7.2%
(male 111,524; female 142,050) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  1.06% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  18.59 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  6.49 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  -1.46 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.07
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female 65 years and over:
0.79 male(s)/female total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  38.64 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   75.14 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  2.27 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  less than 0.01% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  less than 100 (2000 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  less than 100 (1999 est.)

Nationality:  noun: Albanian(s) adjective: Albanian

Ethnic groups:  Albanian 95%, Greek 3%, other 2% (Vlach, Gypsy, Serb,
and Bulgarian) (1989 est.)  note: in 1989, other estimates of the
Greek population ranged from 1% (official Albanian statistics) to 12%
(from a Greek organization)

Religions:  Muslim 70%, Albanian Orthodox 20%, Roman Catholic 10% note:
all mosques and churches were closed in 1967 and religious observances
prohibited; in November 1990, Albania began allowing private religious
practice

Languages:  Albanian (Tosk is the official dialect), Greek

Literacy:  definition: age 9 and over can read and write total population:
93% (1997 est.)  male: NA% female: NA%

Government Albania

Country name:   Republic of Albania conventional short form:  of Albania
local long form: Republika e Shqiperise

Government type:  emerging democracy

Capital:  Tirana

Administrative divisions:  36 districts (rrethe, singular - rreth) and 1
municipality* (bashki); Berat, Bulqize, Delvine, Devoll (Bilisht), Diber
(Peshkopi), Durres, Elbasan, Fier, Gjirokaster, Gramsh, Has (Krume),
Kavaje, Kolonje (Erseke), Korce, Kruje, Kucove, Kukes, Kurbin, Lezhe,
Librazhd, Lushnje, Malesi e Madhe (Koplik), Mallakaster (Ballsh), Mat
(Burrel), Mirdite (Rreshen), Peqin, Permet, Pogradec, Puke, Sarande,
Shkoder, Skrapar (Corovode), Tepelene, Tirane (Tirana), Tirane* (Tirana),
Tropoje (Bajram Curri), Vlore note: administrative divisions have the same
names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative
center name following in parentheses)

Independence:  28 November 1912 (from Ottoman Empire)

National holiday:  Independence Day, 28 November (1912)

Constitution:  a constitution was adopted by popular referendum on 28
November 1998; note - the opposition Democratic Party boycotted the vote

Legal system:  has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:  18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:  chief of state: President of the Republic Rexhep
MEIDANI (since 24 July 1997) head of government: Prime Minister Pandeli
MAJKO (since 22 February 2002) cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated
by the prime minister and approved by the president election results:
Rexhep MEIDANI elected president; People's Assembly vote by number -
total votes 122, for 110, against 3, abstained 2, invalid 7 elections:
president elected by the People's Assembly for a five-year term; election
last held 24 July 1997 (next to be held NA July 2002); prime minister
appointed by the president

Legislative branch:  unicameral People's Assembly or Kuvendi Popullor
(140 seats; 100 are elected by direct popular vote and 40 by proportional
vote for four-year terms) election results: percent of vote by party -
PS 41.5%, PD and coalition allies 36.8%, NDP 5.2%, PSD 3.6%, PBDNJ 2.6%,
PASH 2.6%, PAD 2.5%; seats by party - PS 73, PD and coalition allies
46, NDP 6, PSD 4, PBDNJ 3, PASH 3, PAD 3, independents 2 elections:
last held 24 June with subsequent rounds on 8 July, 22 July, 29 July,
19 August 2001 (next to be held NA June 2005)

Judicial branch:  Supreme Court (chairman is elected by the People's
Assembly for a four-year term)

Political parties and leaders:  Agrarian Party or PASH [Lufter XHUVELI];
Albanian National Front (Balli Kombetar) or PBK [Shptim ROQI]; Albanian
Republican Party or PR [Fatmir MEDIU]; Albanian Socialist Party or PS
(formerly the Albania Workers Party) [Fatos NANO, chairman]; Christian
Democratic Party or PDK [Zef BUSHATI]; Democratic Alliance or PAD
[Nerltan CEKA]; Democratic Party or PD [Sali BERISHA]; Group of Reformist
Democrats [Leonard NDOKA]; Legality Movement Party or PLL [Ekrem SPAHIA];
Liberal Union Party or PBL [Teodor LACO]; New Democratic Party or NDP
[Genc POLLO]; OMONIA [Vagjelis DULES]; Party of National Unity or PUK
[Idajet BEQUIRI]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Skender GJINUSHI];
Unity for Human Rights Party or PBDNJ [Vasil MELO, chairman]

Political pressure groups and leaders:  NA

International organization participation:  ACCT, BSEC, CCC, CE, CEI,
EAPC, EBRD, ECE, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, OIC, OPCW,
OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOMIG, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
Dr. Fatos TARIFA chancery: 2100 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008 FAX:
[1] (202) 628-7342 telephone: [1] (202) 223-4942

Diplomatic representation from the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
Joseph LIMPRECHT embassy: Rruga Elbasanit, Labinoti #103, Tirana mailing
address: U. S. Department of State, 9510
 [355] (4) 247285 FAX:
Flag description:  red with a black two-headed eagle in the center

Economy Albania

Economy - overview:  Poor and backward by European standards, Albania is
making the difficult transition to a more modern open-market economy. The
government has taken measures to curb violent crime and to revive economic
activity and trade.  The economy is bolstered by remittances from abroad
of $400-$600 million annually, mostly from Greece and Italy. Agriculture,
which accounts for 52% of GDP, is held back because of frequent drought
and the need to modernize equipment and consolidate small plots of
land. Severe energy shortages are forcing small firms out of business,
increasing unemployment, scaring off foreign investors, and spurring
inflation.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $13.2 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  7.3% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $3,800 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: 52% industry: 21% services:
27% (2001 est.)

Population below poverty line:  30% (2001 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  3% (2001 est.)

Labor force:  1.283 million (not including 352,000 emigrant workers and
261,000 domestically unemployed) (2000 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:  agriculture 50%, industry and services 50%

Unemployment rate:  17% officially (2001 est.); may be as high as 30%

Budget:  revenues: $697 million expenditures: $1.5 billion, including
capital expenditures of $368 million (2002 est.)

Industries:  food processing, textiles and clothing; lumber, oil, cement,
chemicals, mining, basic metals, hydropower

Industrial production growth rate:  9% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production:  4.738 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 3% hydro: 97% other: 0%
(2000) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:  5.378 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  100 million kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports:  1.072 billion kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products:  wheat, corn, potatoes, vegetables, fruits,
sugar beets, grapes; meat, dairy products

Exports:  $306 million (f.o.b., 2001 est.)

Exports - commodities:  textiles and footwear; asphalt, metals and
metallic ores, crude oil; vegetables, fruits, tobacco

Exports - partners:  Italy 70%, Greece 12%, Germany 6%, The Former
Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 2%, Austria 1% (2001)

Imports:  $1.1 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)

Imports - commodities:  machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, textiles,
chemicals

Imports - partners:  Italy 32%, Greece 26%, Turkey 6%, Germany 6%,
Bulgaria 2% (2001)

Debt - external:  $1 billion (2000)

Economic aid - recipient:  $315 million (top donors were Italy, EU,
Germany) (2000 est.)

Currency:  lek (ALL)

Currency code:  ALL

Exchange rates:  leke per US dollar - 140.16 (November 2001), 143.71
(2000) 137.69 (1999), 150.63 (1998), 148.93 (1997); note - leke is the
plural of lek

Fiscal year:  calendar year

Communications Albania

Telephones - main lines in use:  120,000 (2001)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  250,000 (2001)

Telephone system:  general assessment: Albania has the poorest telephone
service in Europe with fewer than two telephones per 100 inhabitants;
it is doubtful that every village has telephone service domestic:
obsolete wire system; no longer provides a telephone for every village;
in 1992, following the fall of the Communist government, peasants cut the
wire to about 1,000 villages and used it to build fences international:
inadequate; international traffic carried by microwave radio relay from
the Tirana exchange to Italy and Greece

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 13, FM 4, shortwave 2 (2001)

Radios:  1 million (2001)

Television broadcast stations:  3 (plus 58 repeaters) (2001)

Televisions:  700,000 (2001)

Internet country code:  .al

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  10 (2001)

Internet users:  12,000 (2001)

Transportation Albania

Railways:  total: 447 km standard gauge: 447 km 1.435-m gauge (2001 est.)

Highways:  total: 18,000 km paved: 5,400 km unpaved: 12,600 km (1998 est.)

Waterways:  43 km note: includes Albanian sections of Lake Scutari,
Lake Ohrid, and Lake Prespa (1990)

Pipelines:  crude oil 196 km; petroleum products 55 km; natural gas 64 km
(1996)

Ports and harbors:  Durres, Sarande, Shengjin, Vlore

Merchant marine:  total: 7 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 13,423
GRT/20,837 DWT ships by type: cargo 7, includes some foreign-owned
ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Croatia 1, Honduras 1
(2002 est.)

Airports:  11 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 3 2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 (2001)

Airports - with unpaved runways:   4 (2001) 914 to 1,523 m: Heliports:
1 (2001)

Military Albania

Military branches:  Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, Interior
Ministry Troops, Border Guards

Military manpower - military age:  19 years of age (2002 est.)

Military manpower - availability:  males age 15-49: 888,086 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:  males age 15-49: 727,406
(2002 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:  males: 35,792
(2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:  $56.5 million (FY02)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:  1.49% (FY02)

Transnational Issues Albania

Disputes - international:  the Albanian Government supports protection
of the rights of ethnic Albanians outside of its borders in the Kosovo
region of Yugoslavia and in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
while continuing to seek regional cooperation; many Albanians illegally
transit neighboring states to emigrate to western Europe

Illicit drugs:  increasingly active transshipment point for Southwest
Asian opiates, hashish, and cannabis transiting the Balkan route and -
to a far lesser extent - cocaine from South America destined for Western
Europe; limited opium and growing cannabis production; ethnic Albanian
narcotrafficking organizations active and rapidly expanding in Europe

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002



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Armenia

Introduction

Armenia

Background:  An Armenian Apostolic Christian country, Armenia was
incorporated into Russia in 1828 and the USSR in 1920. Armenian
leaders remain preoccupied by the long conflict with Azerbaijan over
Nagorno-Karabakh, a primarily Armenian-populated region, assigned to
Soviet Azerbaijan in the 1920s by Moscow. Armenia and Azerbaijan began
fighting over the area in 1988; the struggle escalated after both
countries attained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. By
May 1994, when a cease-fire took hold, Armenian forces held not
only Nagorno-Karabakh but also a significant portion of Azerbaijan
proper. The economies of both sides have been hurt by their inability
to make substantial progress toward a peaceful resolution.

Geography Armenia

Location:  Southwestern Asia, east of Turkey

Geographic coordinates:  40 00 N, 45 00 E

Map references:  Asia

Area:  total: 29,800 sq km water: 1,400 sq km land: 28,400 sq km

Area - comparative:  slightly smaller than Maryland

Land boundaries:  total: 1,254 km border countries: Azerbaijan-proper
566 km, Azerbaijan-Naxcivan exclave 221 km, Georgia 164 km, Iran 35 km,
Turkey 268 km

Coastline:  0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:  none (landlocked)

Climate:  highland continental, hot summers, cold winters

Terrain:  Armenian Highland with mountains; little forest land; fast
flowing rivers; good soil in Aras River valley

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Debed River 400 m highest point:
Aragats Lerrnagagat' 4,090 m

Natural resources:  small deposits of gold, copper, molybdenum, zinc,
alumina

Land use:  arable land: 18% permanent crops: 2% other: 80% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  2,870 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:  occasionally severe earthquakes; droughts

Environment - current issues:  soil pollution from toxic chemicals
such as DDT; energy blockade, the result of conflict with Azerbaijan
and disagreements with Turkey, has led to deforestation when citizens
scavenged for firewood; pollution of Hrazdan (Razdan) and Aras Rivers;
the draining of Sevana Lich (Lake Sevan), a result of its use as a source
for hydropower, threatens drinking water supplies; restart of Metsamor
nuclear power plant in spite of its location in a seismically-active zone

Environment - international agreements:  party to: Air Pollution,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear
Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands signed, but not ratified:
Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants

Geography - note:  landlocked in the Lesser Caucasus Mountains; Sevana
Lich (Lake Sevan) is the largest lake in this mountain range

People Armenia

Population:  3,330,099 note: Armenia's first census since independence
was conducted in October 2001, but official figures have not yet been
released (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:  0-14 years: 22.2% (male 374,597; female 363,115) 15-64
years: 67.7% (male 1,104,100; female 1,150,282) 65 years and over: 10.1%
(male 141,330; female 196,675) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  -0.15% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  12 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  9.94 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  -3.51 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.03
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female 65 years and over:
0.72 male(s)/female total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  41.07 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   71.12 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  1.53 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  0.01% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  less than 500 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  less than 100 (1999 est.)

Nationality:  noun: Armenian(s) adjective: Armenian

Ethnic groups:  Armenian 93%, Azeri 3%, Russian 2%, other (mostly Yezidi
Kurds) 2% (1989) note: as of the end of 1993, virtually all Azeris had
emigrated from Armenia

Religions:  Armenian Apostolic 94%, other Christian 4%, Yezidi
(Zoroastrian/animist) 2%

Languages:  Armenian 96%, Russian 2%, other 2%

Literacy:  definition: age 15 and over can read and write total
population: 99% male: 99% female: 98% (1989 est.)

Government Armenia

Country name:   Republic of Armenia conventional short form:  Republic;
Armenian Republic local long form: Hayastani Hanrapetut'yun

Government type:  republic

Capital:  Yerevan

Administrative divisions:  11 provinces (marzer, singular - marz);
Aragatsotn, Ararat, Armavir, Geghark'unik', Kotayk', Lorri, Shirak,
Syunik', Tavush, Vayots' Dzor, Yerevan

Independence:  21 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday:  Independence Day, 21 September (1991)

Constitution:  adopted by nationwide referendum 5 July 1995

Legal system:  based on civil law system

Suffrage:  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:  chief of state: President Robert KOCHARIAN (since 30
March 1998) head of
 Prime Minister Andranik MARKARYAN (since 12 May 2000) cabinet:  elected
 by popular vote for a five-year term; special election last held
30 March 1998 (next to be held NA March 2003); prime minister appointed
by the president election results: Robert KOCHARIAN elected president;
percent of vote - Robert KOCHARIAN 59.5%, Karen DEMIRCHYAN 40.5%

Legislative branch:  unicameral National Assembly (Parliament) or Azgayin
Zhoghov (131 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year
terms) elections:  results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by
party - Unity Bloc 61 (Republican Party 41, People's Party of Armenia 20),
Stability Group (independent Armenian deputies who have formed a bloc) 21,
ACP 10, ARF (Dashnak) 8, Law and Unity Party 7, NDU 6, Law-Governed Party
6, independents 10, unfilled 2; note - seats by party change frequently

Judicial branch:  Supreme Court; Constitutional Court

Political parties and leaders:  Agro-Technical People's Group
(formerly Stability Group) [Hmayk HOVHANISSIAN]; Armenian Communist
Party or ACP [Vladimir DARBINYAN]; Armenia Democratic Party [Armen
SARGSIAN]; Armenian Revolutionary Federation ("Dashnak" Party) or ARF
[Hrant MARKARYAN]; Christian Democratic Union or CDU [Azat ARSHAKYN,
chairman]; Constitutional Rights Union [Hrant KHACHATRYAN]; Democratic
Liberal Party/Ramkvar Azatakyan or DL/RA [Ruben MIRZAKHANIAN, chairman];
Law and Unity Party [Artashes GEGAMIAN, chairman]; Law-Governed Party
[Artur BAGDASARIAN, chairman]; National Accord Front [Ashot MANUTCHARIAN];
National Democratic Alliance [Arshak ZADOYAN]; National Democratic Party
[Shavarsh KOCHARIAN]; National Democratic Union or NDU [Vazgen MANUKIAN];
Pan-Armenian National Movement or PANM [Alex ARZOUMANYAN]; People's
Democratic Party [Gagik ASLANYAN]; People's Deputies Group [Hovhannes
HOVHANISSIAN]; People's Party of Armenia [Stepan DEMIRCHYAN]; Republic
Party [Aram SARGSIAN]; Republican Party or RPA [Andranik MARKARYAN];
Shamiram Women's Movement or SWM [Shogher MATEVOSIAN]; Social Democratic
(Hunchak) Party [Yeghia SHAMSHAYN]; Social Democratic Union (formerly
National Self-Determination Union) [Paruyr HAYRIKIAN]; Twenty-first
Century Party [David SHAKHNAZARIAN]; Unity Bloc [Stepan DEMIRCHIAN and
Andranik MARKARYAN] (a coalition of the Republican Party and People's
Party of Armenia); Yerkrapah Union [Manval GRIGORYAN]

Political pressure groups and leaders:  NA

International organization participation:  BSEC, CCC, CE, CIS, EAPC,
EBRD, ECE, ESCAP, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM (observer), OAS (observer),
OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
WToO, WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador Arman
KIRAKOSIAN consulate(s) general: Los
 [1] (202) 319-1976 chancery:
Diplomatic representation from the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador John
M. ORDWAY embassy: 18 Baghramyan Ave., Yerevan 375019 mailing address:
American Embassy Yerevan, Department of
 [374](1) 521-611, 543-900 FAX:
Flag description:  three equal horizontal bands of red (top), blue,
and orange

Economy Armenia

Economy - overview:  Under the old Soviet central planning system,
Armenia had developed a modern industrial sector, supplying machine
tools, textiles, and other manufactured goods to sister republics in
exchange for raw materials and energy.  Since the implosion of the
USSR in December 1991, Armenia has switched to small-scale agriculture
away from the large agroindustrial complexes of the Soviet era. The
agricultural sector has long-term needs for more investment and updated
technology. The privatization of industry has been at a slower pace, but
has been given renewed emphasis by the current administration. Armenia
is a food importer, and its mineral deposits (gold, bauxite) are small.
The ongoing conflict with Azerbaijan over the ethnic Armenian-dominated
region of Nagorno-Karabakh and the breakup of the centrally directed
economic system of the former Soviet Union contributed to a severe
economic decline in the early 1990s. By 1994, however, the Armenian
Government had launched an ambitious IMF-sponsored economic program
that has resulted in positive growth rates in 1995-2001. Armenia also
managed to slash inflation and to privatize most small- and medium-sized
enterprises. The chronic energy shortages Armenia suffered in recent
years have been largely offset by the energy supplied by one of its
nuclear power plants at Metsamor. Armenia's severe trade imbalance has
been offset somewhat by international aid, domestic restructuring of
the economy, and foreign direct investment.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $11.2 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  9.6% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $3,350 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: 29% industry: 32% services:
39% (2000 est.)

Population below poverty line:  55% (2001 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: 2.3%
highest 10%: 35.2% (1996)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:  44.4 (1996)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  3.1% (2000 est.)

Labor force:  1.4 million (2001)

Labor force - by occupation:  agriculture 44%, services 14%, industry 42%
(2000 est.)

Unemployment rate:  20% note: official rate is 10.9% for 2000 (2001 est.)

Budget:  revenues: $358 million expenditures: $458 million, including
capital expenditures of $NA (2001 est.)

Industries:  metal-cutting machine tools, forging-pressing machines,
electric motors, tires, knitted wear, hosiery, shoes, silk fabric,
chemicals, trucks, instruments, microelectronics, gem cutting, jewelry
manufacturing, software development, food processing, brandy

Industrial production growth rate:  3.8% (2001)

Electricity - production:  5.69 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 36.34% other: 0%
(2000) nuclear: 32.34% hydro: 31.32%

Electricity - consumption:  4.89 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  704 million kWh note: exports an unknown quantity
to Georgia; includes exports to Nagorno-Karabakh region in Azerbaijan
(2000)

Electricity - imports:  300 million kWh note: imports an unknown quantity
from Iran (2000)

Agriculture - products:  fruit (especially grapes), vegetables; livestock

Exports:  $338.5 million (f.o.b., 2001 est.)

Exports - commodities:  diamonds, scrap metal, machinery and equipment,
brandy, copper ore

Exports - partners:  Belgium 23%, Russia 15%, US 13%, Iran 10% (2000)

Imports:  $868.6 million (f.o.b., 2001 est.)

Imports - commodities:  natural gas, petroleum, tobacco products,
foodstuffs, diamonds

Imports - partners:  Russia 15%, US 12%, Belgium 10%, Iran 9% (2000)

Debt - external:  $839 million (June 2001)

Economic aid - recipient:  $245.5 million (1995)

Currency:  dram (AMD)

Currency code:  AMD

Exchange rates:  drams per US dollar - 564.08 (January 2002), 555.08
(2001), 539.53 (2000), 535.06 (1999), 504.92 (1998), 490.85 (1997)

Fiscal year:  calendar year

Communications Armenia

Telephones - main lines in use:  568,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  25,000 (2001)

Telephone system:  general assessment: system inadequate; now 90%
privately owned and undergoing modernization and expansion domestic:
the majority of subscribers and the most modern equipment are in Yerevan
(this includes paging and mobile cellular service) international: Yerevan
is connected to the Trans-Asia-Europe fiber-optic cable through Iran;
additional international service is available by microwave radio relay
and landline connections to the other countries of the Commonwealth of
Independent States and through the Moscow international switch and by
satellite to the rest of the world; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat
(2000)

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 9, FM 6, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios:  850,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:  3 (plus an unknown number of repeaters)
(1998)

Televisions:  825,000 (1997)

Internet country code:  .am

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  9 (2001)

Internet users:  30,000 (2001)

Transportation Armenia

Railways:  total: 852 km in common carrier service; does not include
industrial lines broad gauge: 852 km 1.520-m gauge (779 km electrified)
(2001 est.)

Highways:  total: 11,300 km paved: 10,500 km (includes some all-weather
gravel-surfaced roads) unpaved: 800 km (these roads are made of
unstabilized earth and are difficult to negotiate in wet weather) (1990)

Waterways:  NA km

Pipelines:  natural gas 900 km (1991)

Ports and harbors:  none

Airports:  7 (2001)

Airports - with unpaved runways:  total: 7 over 3,047 m: 1 1,524 to
2,437 m: 2 914 to 1,523 m: 3 under 914 m: 1 (2001)

Military Armenia

Military branches:  Army, Air and Air Defense Forces, Border Guards

Military manpower - military age:  18 years of age (2002 est.)

Military manpower - availability:  males age 15-49: 912,650 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:  males age 15-49: 722,035
(2002 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:  males: 34,998
(2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:  $135 million (FY01)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:  6.5% (FY01)

Transnational Issues Armenia

Disputes - international:  Armenia supports ethnic Armenian secessionists
in Nagorno-Karabakh and militarily occupies almost one-fifth of Azerbaijan
- Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) continues to
mediate dispute; border with Turkey remains closed over Nagorno-Karabakh
dispute; traditional demands regarding former Armenian lands in Turkey
have subsided

Illicit drugs:  illicit cultivator of cannabis mostly for domestic
consumption; increasingly used as a transshipment point for illicit
drugs - mostly opium and hashish - to Western Europe and the US via Iran,
Central Asia, and Russia

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002



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Andorra

Introduction

Andorra

Background:  Long isolated and impoverished, mountainous Andorra has
achieved considerable prosperity since World War II through its tourist
industry. Many immigrants (legal and illegal) are attracted to the
thriving economy with its lack of income taxes.

Geography Andorra

Location:  Southwestern Europe, between France and Spain

Geographic coordinates:  42 30 N, 1 30 E

Map references:  Europe

Area:  total: 468 sq km water: 0 sq km land: 468 sq km

Area - comparative:  2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:  total: 120.3 km border countries: France 56.6 km,
Spain 63.7 km

Coastline:  0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:  none (landlocked)

Climate:  temperate; snowy, cold winters and warm, dry summers

Terrain:  rugged mountains dissected by narrow valleys

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Riu Runer 840 m highest point: Coma
Pedrosa 2,946 m

Natural resources:  hydropower, mineral water, timber, iron ore, lead

Land use:  arable land: 2% permanent crops: 0% other: 98% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  NA sq km

Natural hazards:  avalanches

Environment - current issues:  deforestation; overgrazing of mountain
meadows contributes to soil erosion; air pollution; wastewater treatment
and solid waste disposal

Environment - international agreements:  party to: Hazardous Wastes
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:  landlocked; straddles a number of important crossroads
in the Pyrenees

People Andorra

Population:  68,403 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:  0-14 years: 15.2% (male 5,456; female 4,951) 15-64 years:
71.9% (male 25,855; female 23,311) 65 years and over: 12.9% (male 4,425;
female 4,405) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  1.11% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  9.97 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  5.57 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  6.74 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.1
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.11 male(s)/female 65 years and over:
1 male(s)/female total population: 1.09 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  4.07 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   86.58 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  1.26 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  NA

Nationality:  noun: Andorran(s) adjective: Andorran

Ethnic groups:  Spanish 43%, Andorran 33%, Portuguese 11%, French 7%,
other 6% (1998)

Religions:  Roman Catholic (predominant)

Languages:  Catalan (official), French, Castilian

Literacy:  definition: NA total population: 100% male: NA% female: NA%

Government Andorra

Country name:   Principality of Andorra conventional short form:
Government type:  parliamentary democracy (since March 1993) that retains
as its heads of state a coprincipality; the two princes are the president
of France and bishop of Seo de Urgel, Spain, who are represented locally
by coprinces' representatives

Capital:  Andorra la Vella

Administrative divisions:  7 parishes (parroquies, singular - parroquia);
Andorra la Vella, Canillo, Encamp, La Massana, Escaldes-Engordany,
Ordino, Sant Julia de Loria

Independence:  1278 (was formed under the joint suzerainty of France
and Spain)

National holiday:  Our Lady of Meritxell Day, 8 September (1278)

Constitution:  Andorra's first written constitution was drafted in 1991;
approved by referendum 14 March 1993; came into force 4 May 1993

Legal system:  based on French and Spanish civil codes; no judicial
review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:  chief of state: French Coprince Jacques CHIRAC
(since 17 May 1995), represented by Frederic de SAINT-SERNIN (since
NA); Spanish Coprince Episcopal Monseigneur Joan MARTI Alanis (since 31
January 1971), represented by Nemesi MARQUES OSTE (since NA) elections:
Executive Council president elected by the General Council and formally
appointed by the coprinces for a four-year term; election last held 4
March 2001 (next to be held NA 2005) election results: Marc FORNE Molne
elected executive council president; percent of General Council vote -
NA% cabinet: Executive Council or Govern designated by the Executive
Council president head of government: Executive Council President Marc
FORNE Molne (since 21 December 1994)

Legislative branch:  unicameral General Council of the Valleys or Consell
General de las Valls (28 seats; members are elected by direct popular
vote, 14 from a single national constituency and 14 to represent each
of the 7 parishes; members serve four-year terms) elections: last held
4 March 2001 (next to be held NA March 2005) election results: percent
of vote by party - PLA 46.1%, PSD 30%, PD 23.8%, other 0.1%; seats by
party - PLA 15, PSD 6, PD 5, independents 2

Judicial branch:  Tribunal of Judges or Tribunal de Batlles; Tribunal of
the Courts or Tribunal de Corts; Supreme Court of Justice of Andorra or
Tribunal Superior de Justicia d'Andorra; Supreme Council of Justice or
Consell Superior de la Justicia; Fiscal Ministry or Ministeri Fiscal;
Constitutional Tribunal or Tribunal Constitucional

Political parties and leaders:  Democratic Party or PD (formerly part of
National Democratic Group or AND) [leader NA]; Liberal Party of Andorra
or PLA [Marc Forne MOLNE] (used to be Liberal Union or UL); National
Democratic Initiative or IDN [Vincenc MATEU Zamora]; New Democracy or ND
[Jaume BARTOMEU Cassany]; Social Democratic Party or PSD (formerly part
of National Democratic Group of AND) [leader NA]; Union of the People
of Ordino (Unio Parroquial d'Ordino) or UPO [Simo DURO Coma] note:
there are two other small parties

Political pressure groups and leaders:  NA

International organization participation:  CCC, CE, ECE, ICAO, ICRM,
IFRCS, Interpol, IOC, ITU, OSCE, UN, UNESCO, WHO, WIPO, WToO, WTrO
(observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
(vacant); Charge d'Affaires Jelena V.  PIA-COMELLA chancery: 2 United
Nations Plaza, 25th Floor, New York, NY 10017 FAX: [1] (212) 750-6630
telephone: [1] (212) 750-8064

Diplomatic representation from the US:  the US does not have an embassy
in Andorra; the US Ambassador to Spain is accredited to Andorra; US
interests in Andorra are represented by the Consulate General's office
in Barcelona (Spain); mailing address:  280-2227; FAX: (3493) 205-7705

Flag description:  three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side),
yellow, and red with the national coat of arms centered in the yellow
band; the coat of arms features a quartered shield; similar to the flags
of Chad and Romania, which do not have a national coat of arms in the
center, and the flag of Moldova, which does bear a national emblem

Economy Andorra

Economy - overview:  Tourism, the mainstay of Andorra's tiny, well-to-do
economy, accounts for roughly 80% of GDP. An estimated 9 million tourists
visit annually, attracted by Andorra's duty-free status and by its summer
and winter resorts. Andorra's comparative advantage has recently eroded
as the economies of neighboring France and Spain have been opened up,
providing broader availability of goods and lower tariffs. The banking
sector, with its "tax haven" status, also contributes substantially to
the economy. Agricultural production is limited - only 2% of the land
is arable - and most food has to be imported.  The principal livestock
activity is sheep raising. Manufacturing output consists mainly of
cigarettes, cigars, and furniture.  Andorra is a member of the EU Customs
Union and is treated as an EU member for trade in manufactured goods
(no tariffs) and as a non-EU member for agricultural products.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $1.3 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  3.8% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $19,000 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: NA% industry: NA% services: NA%

Population below poverty line:  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  4.3% (2000)

Labor force:  33,000 (2001 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:  agriculture 1%, industry 21%, services 78%
(2000 est.)

Unemployment rate:  0%

Budget:  revenues: $385 million expenditures: $342 million, including
capital expenditures of $NA (1997)

Industries:  tourism (particularly skiing), cattle raising, timber,
tobacco, banking

Industrial production growth rate:  NA%

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: NA% other: NA% nuclear:
NA% hydro: NA%

Electricity - consumption:  NA kWh

Electricity - exports:  NA kWh

Electricity - imports:  NA kWh note: most electricity supplied by Spain
and France; Andorra generates a small amount of hydropower

Agriculture - products:  small quantities of tobacco, rye, wheat, barley,
oats, vegetables; sheep

Exports:  $58 million (f.o.b., 1998)

Exports - commodities:  tobacco products, furniture

Exports - partners:  France 34%, Spain 58% (1998)

Imports:  $1.077 billion (c.i.f., 1998)

Imports - commodities:  consumer goods, food, electricity

Imports - partners:  Spain 48%, France 35%, US 2.3% (1998)

Debt - external:  $NA

Economic aid - recipient:  none

Currency:  euro (EUR); French franc (FRF); Spanish peseta (ESP)

Currency code:  EUR; FRF; ESP

Exchange rates:  euros per US dollar - 1.1324 (January 2002), 1.1175
(2001), 1.0854 (2000), 0.9386 (1999); French francs per US dollar -
5.8995 (1998), 5.8367 (1997); Spanish pesetas per US dollar - 149.40
(1998), 146.41 (1997)

Fiscal year:  calendar year

Communications Andorra

Telephones - main lines in use:  32,946 (December 1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  14,117 (December 1998)

Telephone system:  general assessment: NA domestic: modern system with
microwave radio relay connections between exchanges international:
landline circuits to France and Spain

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 0, FM 15, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios:  16,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:  0 (1997)

Televisions:  27,000 (1997)

Internet country code:  .ad

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  1 (2000)

Internet users:  24,500 (2001)

Transportation Andorra

Railways:  0 km

Highways:  total: 269 km paved: 198 km unpaved: 71 km (1994 est.)

Waterways:  none

Ports and harbors:  none

Airports:  none (2001)

Military Andorra

Military branches:  no regular military forces, but there is a police
force

Military - note:  defense is the responsibility of France and Spain

Transnational Issues Andorra

Disputes - international:  border is undemarcated in sections

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002



========================================================================


Angola

Introduction

Angola

Background:  Civil war has been the norm in Angola since independence
from Portugal in 1975. A 1994 peace accord between the government and the
National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) provided for
the integration of former UNITA insurgents into the government and armed
forces. A national unity government was installed in April of 1997, but
serious fighting resumed in late 1998, rendering hundreds of thousands of
people homeless. Up to 1.5 million lives may have been lost in fighting
over the past quarter century. The death of Jonas SAVIMBI and a cease
fire with UNITA may bode well for the country.

Geography Angola

Location:  Southern Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between
Namibia and Democratic Republic of the Congo

Geographic coordinates:  12 30 S, 18 30 E

Map references:  Africa

Area:  total: 1,246,700 sq km water: 0 sq km land: 1,246,700 sq km

Area - comparative:  slightly less than twice the size of Texas

Land boundaries:  total: 5,198 km border countries: Democratic Republic
of the Congo 2,511 km (of which 225 km is the boundary of discontiguous
Cabinda Province), Republic of the Congo 201 km, Namibia 1,376 km,
Zambia 1,110 km

Coastline:  1,600 km

Maritime claims:   200 NM territorial sea: Climate:  semiarid in south
and along coast to Luanda; north has cool, dry season (May to October)
and hot, rainy season (November to April)

Terrain:  narrow coastal plain rises abruptly to vast interior plateau

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point:
Morro de Moco 2,620 m

Natural resources:  petroleum, diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, copper,
feldspar, gold, bauxite, uranium

Land use:  arable land: 2% permanent crops: 1% other: 97% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  750 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:  locally heavy rainfall causes periodic flooding on
the plateau

Environment - current issues:  overuse of pastures and subsequent
soil erosion attributable to population pressures; desertification;
deforestation of tropical rain forest, in response to both international
demand for tropical timber and to domestic use as fuel, resulting in
loss of biodiversity; soil erosion contributing to water pollution and
siltation of rivers and dams; inadequate supplies of potable water

Environment - international agreements:  party to: Biodiversity, Climate
Change, Desertification, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:  Cabinda is separated from rest of country by the
Democratic Republic of the Congo

People Angola

Population:  10,593,171 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:  0-14 years: 43.3% (male 2,318,326; female 2,272,726)
15-64 years: 53.9% (male 2,904,595; female 2,806,430) 65 years and over:
2.8% (male 131,316; female 159,778) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  2.18% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  46.18 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  24.35 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.02
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female 65 years and over:
0.82 male(s)/female total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  191.66 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   40.18 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  6.43 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  2.78% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  160,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  15,000 (1999 est.)

Nationality:  noun: Angolan(s) adjective: Angolan

Ethnic groups:  Ovimbundu 37%, Kimbundu 25%, Bakongo 13%, mestico (mixed
European and Native African) 2%, European 1%, other 22%

Religions:  indigenous beliefs 47%, Roman Catholic 38%, Protestant 15%
(1998 est.)

Languages:  Portuguese (official), Bantu and other African languages

Literacy:  definition: age 15 and over can read and write total
population: 42% male: 56% female: 28% (1998 est.)

Government Angola

Country name:   Republic of Angola conventional short form:  local long
form: Republica de Angola

Government type:  republic, nominally a multiparty democracy with a
strong presidential system

Capital:  Luanda

Administrative divisions:  18 provinces (provincias, singular -
provincia); Bengo, Benguela, Bie, Cabinda, Cuando Cubango, Cuanza Norte,
Cuanza Sul, Cunene, Huambo, Huila, Luanda, Lunda Norte, Lunda Sul,
Malanje, Moxico, Namibe, Uige, Zaire

Independence:  11 November 1975 (from Portugal)

National holiday:  Independence Day, 11 November (1975)

Constitution:  11 November 1975; revised 7 January 1978, 11 August 1980,
6 March 1991, and 26 August 1992

Legal system:  based on Portuguese civil law system and customary law;
recently modified to accommodate political pluralism and increased use
of free markets

Suffrage:  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:  chief of state: President Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS
(since 21 September 1979); note - the president is both chief of state
and head of government head of government: President Jose Eduardo DOS
SANTOS (since 21 September 1979); note - the president is both chief of
state and head of government
 Council of Ministers appointed by the president elections:  DOS SANTOS
 originally elected (in 1979) without opposition under a
one-party system and stood for reelection in Angola's first multiparty
elections 29-30 September 1992 (next to be held NA) election results: DOS
SANTOS 49.6%, Jonas SAVIMBI 40.1%, making a run-off election necessary;
the run-off was not held and SAVIMBI's National Union for the Total
Independence of Angola (UNITA) repudiated the results of the first
election; the civil war resumed

Legislative branch:  unicameral National Assembly or Assembleia Nacional
(220 seats; members elected by proportional vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 29-30 September 1992 (next to be held NA) election
results: percent of vote by party - MPLA 54%, UNITA 34%, others 12%;
seats by party - MPLA 129, UNITA 70, PRS 6, FNLA 5, PLD 3, others 7

Judicial branch:  Supreme Court or Tribunal da Relacao (judges are
appointed by the president)

Political parties and leaders:  Liberal Democratic Party or PLD [Analia
de Victoria PEREIRA]; National Front for the Liberation of Angola or
FNLA [disputed leadership: Lucas NGONDA, Holden ROBERTO]; National
Union for the Total Independence of Angola or UNITA [Jonas SAVIMBI],
largest opposition party has engaged in years of armed resistance;
Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola or MPLA [Jose Eduardo
DOS SANTOS], ruling party in power since 1975; Social Renewal Party
or PRS [disputed leadership: Eduardo KUANGANA, Antonio MUACHICUNGO];
UNITA-Renovada [Eugenio NGOLO "Manuvakola"] note:  won a few seats and
have little influence in the National Assembly

Political pressure groups and leaders:  Front for the Liberation of the
Enclave of Cabinda or FLEC [N'zita Henriques TIAGO; Antonio Bento BEMBE]
note: FLEC is waging a small-scale, highly factionalized, armed struggle
for the independence of Cabinda Province

International organization participation:  ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEEAC, ECA,
FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO,
IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, NAM, OAS (observer), OAU, SADC, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
Josefina Perpetua Pitra DIAKIDI FAX: [1] (202) 785-1258 consulate(s)
general: New York telephone: [1] (202) 785-1156 chancery: 2100 16th
Street NW, Washington, DC 20009

Diplomatic representation from the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
Christopher William DELL embassy: number
 international mail:  State, Washington, DC 20521-2550 telephone: [244]
 (2) 445-481, 447-028,
446-224, 445-727 FAX: [244] (2) 446-924

Flag description:  two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and black
with a centered yellow emblem consisting of a five-pointed star within
half a cogwheel crossed by a machete (in the style of a hammer and sickle)

Economy Angola

Economy - overview:  Angola is an economy in disarray because of a quarter
century of nearly continuous warfare. Subsistence agriculture provides
the main livelihood for 85% of the population. Oil production and the
supporting activities are vital to the economy, contributing about 45%
to GDP and 90% of exports. Violence continues, millions of land mines
remain, and many farmers are reluctant to return to their fields. As
a result, much of the country's food must still be imported. To fully
take advantage of its rich natural resources - gold, diamonds, extensive
forests, Atlantic fisheries, and large oil deposits - Angola will need
to end its conflict and continue reforming government policies. Internal
strife discourages investment outside of the petroleum sector, which
is producing roughly 800,000 barrels of oil per day. While Angola made
progress in bringing inflation down further, from over 300% in 2000 to
about 110% in 2001, the government has failed to make sufficient progress
on reforms recommended by the IMF, such as increasing foreign exchange
reserves and promoting greater transparency in government spending.
Angola's GDP could be among the world's fastest growing in 2002 if oil
production from the Girassol field, which began production in December
2001, reaches 200,000 barrels per day as expected.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $13.3 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  5.4% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $1,330 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: 6% industry: 70% services: 24%
(2000 est.)

Population below poverty line:  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  110% (2001 est.)

Labor force:  5 million (1997 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:  agriculture 85%, industry and services 15%
(1997 est.)

Unemployment rate:  extensive unemployment and underemployment affecting
more than half the population (2001 est.)

Budget:  revenues: $928 million expenditures: $2.5 billion, including
capital expenditures of $963 million (1992 est.)

Industries:  petroleum; diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, feldspar, bauxite,
uranium, and gold; cement; basic metal products; fish processing; food
processing; brewing; tobacco products; sugar; textiles

Industrial production growth rate:  NA%

Electricity - production:  1.19 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 40.34% hydro: 59.66%
other: 0% (2000) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:  1.107 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  0 kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports:  0 kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products:  bananas, sugarcane, coffee, sisal, corn,
cotton, manioc (tapioca), tobacco, vegetables, plantains; livestock;
forest products; fish

Exports:  $7 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)

Exports - commodities:  crude oil 90%, diamonds, refined petroleum
products, gas, coffee, sisal, fish and fish products, timber, cotton

Exports - partners:  US 44.5%, EU 17.3%, China 22.7%, South Korea 8.1%
(2000)

Imports:  $2.7 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)

Imports - commodities:  machinery and electrical equipment, vehicles
and spare parts; medicines, food, textiles, military goods

Imports - partners:  EU 47.4%, South Korea 16%, South Africa 15.9%,
US 11.3%, Brazil 5.5% (2000)

Debt - external:  $10.4 billion (2001 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:  $383.5 million (1999)

Currency:  kwanza (AOA)

Currency code:  AOA

Exchange rates:  kwanza per US dollar - 32.8716 (January 2002), 22.058
(2001), 10.041 (2000), 2.791 (1999), 0.393 (1998), 0.229 (1997); note -
in December 1999 the kwanza was revalued with six zeroes dropped off
the old value

Fiscal year:  calendar year

Communications Angola

Telephones - main lines in use:  69,700 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  25,800 (2000)

Telephone system:  general assessment: telephone service limited mostly
to government and business use; HF radiotelephone used extensively for
military links domestic: limited system of wire, microwave radio relay,
and tropospheric scatter international: satellite earth stations -
2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 36, FM 7, shortwave 9 (2000)

Radios:  815,000 (2000)

Television broadcast stations:  7 (2000)

Televisions:  196,000 (2000)

Internet country code:  .ao

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  1 (2000)

Internet users:  30,000 (2001)

Transportation Angola

Railways:  total: 2,771 km (inland, much of the track is unusable because
of land mines still in place from the civil war) narrow gauge: 2,648 km
1.067-m gauge; 123 km 0.600-m gauge (2000 est.)

Highways:  total: 76,626 km paved: 19,156 km unpaved: 57,470 km (1997)

Waterways:  1,295 km

Pipelines:  crude oil 179 km

Ports and harbors:  Ambriz, Cabinda, Lobito, Luanda, Malongo, Mocamedes,
Namibe, Porto Amboim, Soyo

Merchant marine:  total: 9 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 39,305
GRT/63,528 DWT ships by type: cargo 8, petroleum tanker 1 (2002 est.)

Airports:  244 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 32 over 3,047 m: 4 2,438 to 3,047
m: 8 1,524 to 2,437 m: 13 914 to 1,523 m: 6 under 914 m: 1 (2001)

Airports - with unpaved runways:  total: 212 over 3,047 m: 2 2,438 to
3,047 m: 5 1,524 to 2,437 m: 30 914 to 1,523 m: 95 under 914 m: 80 (2001)

Military Angola

Military branches:  Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, National
Police Force

Military manpower - military age:  18 years of age (2002 est.)

Military manpower - availability:  males age 15-49: 2,532,469 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:  males age 15-49: 1,272,509
(2002 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:  males: 103,807
(2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:  $1.2 billion (FY97)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:  22% (1999)

Transnational Issues Angola

Disputes - international:  none

Illicit drugs:  used as a transshipment point for cocaine destined for
Western Europe and other African states

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002



========================================================================


American Samoa

Introduction

American Samoa

Background:  Settled as early as 1000 B. C., Samoa was "discovered"
by European explorers in the 18th century. International rivalries in
the latter half of the 19th century were settled by an 1899 treaty in
which Germany and the US divided the Samoan archipelago. The US formally
occupied its portion - a smaller group of eastern islands with the
excellent harbor of Pago Pago - the following year.

Geography American Samoa

Location:  Oceania, group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean, about
half way between Hawaii and New Zealand

Geographic coordinates:  14 20 S, 170 00 W

Map references:  Oceania

Area:   includes Rose Island and Swains Island water: Area - comparative:
slightly larger than Washington, DC

Land boundaries:  0 km

Coastline:  116 km

Maritime claims:  exclusive economic zone: 200 NM territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate:  tropical marine, moderated by southeast trade winds; annual
rainfall averages about 3 m; rainy season from November to April, dry
season from May to October; little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain:  five volcanic islands with rugged peaks and limited coastal
plains, two coral atolls (Rose Island, Swains Island)

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m highest point:
Lata 966 m

Natural resources:  pumice, pumicite

Land use:  arable land: 5% permanent crops: 10% other: 85% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  NA sq km

Natural hazards:  typhoons common from December to March

Environment - current issues:  limited natural fresh water resources;
the water division of the government has spent substantial funds in the
past few years to improve water catchments and pipelines

Geography - note:  Pago Pago has one of the best natural deepwater
harbors in the South Pacific Ocean, sheltered by shape from rough seas
and protected by peripheral mountains from high winds; strategic location
in the South Pacific Ocean

People American Samoa

Population:  68,688 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:  0-14 years: 38.1% (male 13,445; female 12,688) 15-64
years: 56.7% (male 19,228; female 19,741) 65 years and over: 5.2%
(male 1,931; female 1,655) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  2.31% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  24.04 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  4.34 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  3.42 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.06
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female 65 years and over:
1.17 male(s)/female total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  10.09 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   80.21 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  3.4 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  NA

Nationality:  noun: American Samoan(s) adjective: American Samoan

Ethnic groups:  Samoan (Polynesian) 89%, Caucasian 2%, Tongan 4%, other 5%

Religions:  Christian Congregationalist 50%, Roman Catholic 20%,
Protestant and other 30%

Languages:  Samoan (closely related to Hawaiian and other Polynesian
languages), English note: most people are bilingual

Literacy:  definition: age 15 and over can read and write total
population: 97% male: 98% female: 97% (1980 est.)

Government American Samoa

Country name:  conventional long form: Territory of American Samoa
conventional short form: American Samoa abbreviation: AS

Dependency status:  unincorporated and unorganized territory of the
US; administered by the Office of Insular Affairs, US Department of
the Interior

Government type:  NA

Capital:  Pago Pago

Administrative divisions:  none (territory of the US); there are no
first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US Government,
but there are three districts and two islands* at the second order;
Eastern, Manu'a, Rose Island*, Swains Island*, Western

Independence:  none (territory of the US)

National holiday:  Flag Day, 17 April (1900)

Constitution:  ratified 1966, in effect 1967

Legal system:  NA

Suffrage:  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:  chief of state: President George W. BUSH of the US
(since 20 January 2001) and Vice President Richard B. CHENEY (since
20 January 2001) election results: Tauese P. SUNIA reelected governor;
percent of vote - Tauese P. SUNIA (Democrat) 50.7%, Lealaifuaneva Peter
REID (independent) 47.8% elections: US president and vice president
elected on the same ticket for four-year terms; governor and lieutenant
governor elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year terms;
election last held 7 November 2000 (next to be held NA November 2004)
head of government:  Togiola TULAFONO (since 3 January 1997) cabinet: NA

Legislative branch:  bicameral Fono or Legislative Assembly consists
of the House of Representatives (21 seats - 20 of which are elected
by popular vote and 1 is an appointed, nonvoting delegate from Swains
Island; members serve two-year terms) and the Senate (18 seats; members
are elected from local chiefs and serve four-year terms) elections:
House of Representatives - last held 7 November 2000 (next to be held NA
November 2002); Senate - last held 7 November 2000 (next to be held NA
November 2004) note:  Representatives; election last held 7 November 2000
(next to be held NA November 2002); results - Eni F. H.  FALEOMAVAEGA
(Democrat) reelected as delegate for a sixth term election results: House
of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - NA;
Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - independents 18

Judicial branch:  High Court (chief justice and associate justices are
appointed by the US Secretary of the Interior)

Political parties and leaders:  Democratic Party [leader NA]; Republican
Party [leader NA]

Political pressure groups and leaders:  NA

International organization participation:  ESCAP (associate), Interpol
(subbureau), IOC, SPC

Diplomatic representation in the US:  none (territory of the US)

Diplomatic representation from the US:  none (territory of the US)

Flag description:  blue, with a white triangle edged in red that is
based on the outer side and extends to the hoist side; a brown and
white American bald eagle flying toward the hoist side is carrying two
traditional Samoan symbols of authority, a staff and a war club

Economy American Samoa

Economy - overview:  This is a traditional Polynesian economy in which
more than 90% of the land is communally owned. Economic activity
is strongly linked to the US, with which American Samoa conducts
most of its foreign trade.  Tuna fishing and tuna processing plants
are the backbone of the private sector, with canned tuna the primary
export. Transfers from the US Government add substantially to American
Samoa's economic well-being. Attempts by the government to develop a
larger and broader economy are restrained by Samoa's remote location,
its limited transportation, and its devastating hurricanes. Tourism,
a developing sector, has been held back by the recurring financial
difficulties in East Asia.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $500 million (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  NA%

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $8,000 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: NA% industry: NA% services: NA%

Population below poverty line:  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  NA%

Labor force:  14,000 (1996)

Labor force - by occupation:  government 33%, tuna canneries 34%, other
33% (1990)

Unemployment rate:  6% (2000)

Budget:  revenues: $121 million (37% in local revenue and 63% in US
grants) expenditures: $127 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(FY96/97)

Industries:  tuna canneries (largely supplied by foreign fishing vessels),
handicrafts

Industrial production growth rate:  NA%

Electricity - production:  130 million kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 100% hydro: 0% other: 0%
(2000) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:  120.9 million kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  0 kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports:  0 kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products:  bananas, coconuts, vegetables, taro, breadfruit,
yams, copra, pineapples, papayas; dairy products, livestock

Exports:  $345 million (1999)

Exports - commodities:  canned tuna 93%

Exports - partners:  US 99.6%

Imports:  $452 million (1999)

Imports - commodities:  materials for canneries 56%, food 8%, petroleum
products 7%, machinery and parts 6%

Imports - partners:  US 62%, Australia 11%, Japan 9%, NZ 7%, Fiji 4%,
other 7%

Debt - external:  $NA

Economic aid - recipient:  important financial support from the US,
more than $40 million in 1994

Currency:  US dollar (USD)

Currency code:  USD

Exchange rates:  the US dollar is used

Fiscal year:  1 October - 30 September

Communications American Samoa

Telephones - main lines in use:  13,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  2,550 (1997)

Telephone system:  general assessment: NA domestic: good telex, telegraph,
facsimile and cellular telephone services; domestic satellite system
with 1 Comsat earth station international: satellite earth station -
1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 1, FM 1, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios:  57,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:  1 (1997)

Televisions:  14,000 (1997)

Internet country code:  .as

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  1 (2000)

Internet users:  NA

Transportation American Samoa

Railways:  0 km

Highways:  total: 350 km paved: 150 km unpaved: 200 km

Waterways:  none

Ports and harbors:  Aunu'u (new construction), Auasi, Faleosao, Ofu,
Pago Pago, Ta'u

Merchant marine:  none (2002 est.)

Airports:  4 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 2 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 under 914 m:
1 (2001)

Airports - with unpaved runways:  total: 2 under 914 m: 2 (2001)

Military American Samoa

Military - note:  defense is the responsibility of the US

Transnational Issues American Samoa

Disputes - international:  none

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002



========================================================================


Argentina

Introduction

Argentina

Background:  Following independence from Spain in 1816, Argentina
experienced periods of internal political conflict between conservatives
and liberals and between civilian and military factions. After World
War II, a long period of Peronist authoritarian rule and interference in
subsequent governments was followed by a military junta that took power
in 1976. Democracy returned in 1983, and numerous elections since then
have underscored Argentina's progress in democratic consolidation.

Geography Argentina

Location:  Southern South America, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean,
between Chile and Uruguay

Geographic coordinates:  34 00 S, 64 00 W

Map references:  South America

Area:  total: 2,766,890 sq km land: 2,736,690 sq km water: 30,200 sq km

Area - comparative:  slightly less than three-tenths the size of the US

Land boundaries:  total: 9,665 km border countries: Bolivia 832 km,
Brazil 1,224 km, Chile 5,150 km, Paraguay 1,880 km, Uruguay 579 km

Coastline:  4,989 km

Maritime claims:   12 NM exclusive economic zone: Climate:  mostly
temperate; arid in southeast; subantarctic in southwest

Terrain:  rich plains of the Pampas in northern half, flat to rolling
plateau of Patagonia in south, rugged Andes along western border

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Salinas Chicas -40 m (located on
Peninsula Valdes) highest point: Cerro Aconcagua 6,960 m

Natural resources:  fertile plains of the Pampas, lead, zinc, tin,
copper, iron ore, manganese, petroleum, uranium

Land use:  arable land: 9% permanent crops: 1% other: 90% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  15,610 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:  San Miguel de Tucuman and Mendoza areas in the Andes
subject to earthquakes; pamperos are violent windstorms that can strike
the Pampas and northeast; heavy flooding

Environment - current issues:  environmental problems (urban and rural)
typical of an industrializing economy such as deforestation, soil
degradation, desertification, air pollution, and water pollution note:
Argentina is a world leader in setting voluntary greenhouse gas targets

Environment - international agreements:  party to: Antarctic-Environmental
Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic
Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol,
Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous
Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling signed, but not ratified:
Marine Life Conservation

Geography - note:  second-largest country in South America (after Brazil);
strategic location relative to sea lanes between the South Atlantic
and the South Pacific Oceans (Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel,
Drake Passage); Cerro Aconcagua is South America's tallest mountain,
while the Valdes Peninsula is the lowest point on the continent

People Argentina

Population:  37,812,817 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:  0-14 years: 26.3% (male 5,090,046; female 4,854,761) 15-64
years: 63.2% (male 11,968,135; female 11,937,709) 65 years and over: 10.5%
(male 1,636,332; female 2,325,834) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  1.13% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  18.23 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  7.57 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  0.63 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.7
male(s)/female total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  17.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   79.03 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  2.41 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  0.69% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  130,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  1,800 (1999 est.)

Nationality:  noun: Argentine(s) adjective: Argentine

Ethnic groups:  white (mostly Spanish and Italian) 97%, mestizo,
Amerindian, or other nonwhite groups 3%

Religions:  nominally Roman Catholic 92% (less than 20% practicing),
Protestant 2%, Jewish 2%, other 4%

Languages:  Spanish (official), English, Italian, German, French

Literacy:  definition: age 15 and over can read and write total
population: 96.2% male: 96.2% female: 96.2% (1995 est.)

Government Argentina

Country name:   Argentine Republic conventional short form: Government
type:  republic

Capital:  Buenos Aires

Administrative divisions:  23 provinces (provincias, singular -
provincia), and 1 autonomous city* (distrito federal); Buenos Aires,
Buenos Aires Capital Federal*, Catamarca, Chaco, Chubut, Cordoba,
Corrientes, Entre Rios, Formosa, Jujuy, La Pampa, La Rioja, Mendoza,
Misiones, Neuquen, Rio Negro, Salta, San Juan, San Luis, Santa Cruz,
Santa Fe, Santiago del Estero, Tierra del Fuego - Antartida e Islas del
Atlantico Sur, Tucuman note: Independence:  9 July 1816 (from Spain)

National holiday:  Revolution Day, 25 May (1810)

Constitution:  1 May 1853; revised August 1994

Legal system:  mixture of US and West European legal systems; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:  18 years of age; universal and mandatory

Executive branch:  chief of state: President Eduardo Alberto DUHALDE
(since 2 January 2002); note - selected by National Congress in aftermath
of resignation of former President DE LA RUA on 20 December 2001 and
resignations of others who briefly held the office following DE LA RUA's
departure; Vice President Carlos "Chacho" ALVAREZ resigned 6 October
2000 and the post remains vacant; note - the president is both the
chief of state and head of government head of government: President
Eduardo Alberto DUHALDE (since 2 January 2002); note - selected by
National Congress in aftermath of resignation of former President
DE LA RUA on 20 December 2001 and resignations of others who briefly
held the office following DE LA RUA's departure; Vice President Carlos
"Chacho" ALVAREZ resigned 6 October 2000 and the post remains vacant;
note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president election results: Fernando
DE LA RUA elected president; percent of vote - 48.5% ; Vice President
Carlos "Chacho" ALVAREZ resigned 6 October 2000 and a replacement was
not named; DE LA RUA resigned 20 December 2001; following a series of
interim presidents, Eduardo Alberto DUHALDE was selected president by
the National Congress on 1 January 2002 elections:  for four-year terms;
election last held 24 October 1999 (next to be held NA October 2003)

Legislative branch:  bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional
consists of the Senate (72 seats; formerly, three members appointed
by each of the provincial legislatures; presently transitioning to
one-third of the members being elected every two years to six-year terms)
and the Chamber of Deputies (257 seats; one-half of the members elected
every two years to four-year terms) election results: Senate - percent
of vote by bloc or party - NA%; seats by bloc or party - Justicialist
(Peronist) 40, UCR 24, provincial parties 6, Frepaso 1, ARI 1; Chamber
of Deputies - percent of vote by bloc or party - NA%; seats by bloc
or party - Justicialist (Peronist) 113, UCR 74, provincial parties 27,
Frepaso 17, ARI 17, AR 9 elections: Senate - last held 14 October 2001
(next to be held NA October 2003); Chamber of Deputies - last held 14
October 2001 (next to be held NA October 2003)

Judicial branch:  Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (the nine Supreme Court
judges are appointed by the president with approval by the Senate)

Political parties and leaders:  Action for the Republic or AR [Domingo
CAVALLO]; Alternative for a Republic of Equals or ARI [Elisa CARRIO];
Front for a Country in Solidarity or Frepaso (a four-party coalition)
[Dario Pedro ALESSANDRO]; Justicialist Party or PJ [Carlos Saul MENEM]
(Peronist umbrella political organization); Radical Civic Union or UCR
[Angel ROZAS]; several provincial parties

Political pressure groups and leaders:  Argentine Association of
Pharmaceutical Labs (CILFA); Argentine Industrial Union (manufacturers'
association); Argentine Rural Society (large landowners' association);
business organizations; General Confederation of Labor or CGT
(Peronist-leaning umbrella labor organization); Peronist-dominated labor
movement; Roman Catholic Church; students

International organization participation:  AfDB, Australia Group, BCIE,
BIS, CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-6, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol,
IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur, MINURSO, MIPONUH, MTCR, NSG,
OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO,
UNIKOM, UNMEE, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOP, UNMOVIC, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WCL,
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
Diego Ramiro GUELAR chancery: 1600 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington,
DC 20009 consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles,
Miami, New York FAX: [1] (202) 332-3171 telephone: [1] (202) 238-6400

Diplomatic representation from the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador James
D. WALSH embassy: Avenida Colombia 4300, C1425GMN Buenos Aires mailing
address: international mail: use street address; APO address: Unit 4334,
APO AA 34034 telephone: [54] (11) 5777-4533 FAX: [54] (11) 5511-4240

Flag description:  three equal horizontal bands of light blue (top),
white, and light blue; centered in the white band is a radiant yellow
sun with a human face known as the Sun of May

Economy Argentina

Economy - overview:  Argentina benefits from rich natural resources,
a highly literate population, an export-oriented agricultural sector,
and a diversified industrial base. However, when President Carlos MENEM
took office in 1989, the country had piled up huge external debts,
inflation had reached 200% per month, and output was plummeting. To
combat the economic crisis, the government embarked on a path of trade
liberalization, deregulation, and privatization. In 1991, it implemented
radical monetary reforms which pegged the peso to the US dollar and
limited the growth in the monetary base by law to the growth in reserves.
Inflation fell sharply in subsequent years. In 1995, the Mexican peso
crisis produced capital flight, the loss of banking system deposits,
and a severe, but short-lived, recession; a series of reforms to bolster
the domestic banking system followed. Real GDP growth recovered strongly,
reaching 8% in 1997. In 1998, international financial turmoil caused by
Russia's problems and increasing investor anxiety over Brazil produced
the highest domestic interest rates in more than three years, halving the
growth rate of the economy. Conditions worsened in 1999 with GDP falling
by 3%. President Fernando DE LA RUA, who took office in December 1999,
sponsored tax increases and spending cuts to reduce the deficit, which
had ballooned to 2.5% of GDP in 1999. Growth in 2000 was a negative
0.5%, as both domestic and foreign investors remained skeptical of the
government's ability to pay debts and maintain the peso's fixed exchange
rate with the US dollar. The economic situation worsened still further in
2001 with the widening of spreads on Argentine bonds, massive withdrawals
from the banks, and a further decline in consumer and investor confidence.
Government efforts to achieve a "zero deficit", to stabilize the banking
system, and to restore economic growth proved inadequate in the face
of the mounting economic problems. At the start of 2002, newly elected
president Eduardo DUHALDE met with IMF officials to secure an additional
$20 billion loan, but immediate action seemed unlikely. The peso's peg
to the dollar was abandoned in January 2002, and the peso was floated
from the dollar in February; inflation picked up rapidly.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $453 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  -4.6% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $12,000 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: 6% industry: 28% services: 66%
(2001 est.)

Population below poverty line:  37% (2001 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  4% (2001 est.)

Labor force:  15 million (1999)

Labor force - by occupation:  agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services NA%

Unemployment rate:  25% (yearend 2001)

Budget:  revenues: $44 billion expenditures: $48 billion, including
capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)

Industries:  food processing, motor vehicles, consumer durables, textiles,
chemicals and petrochemicals, printing, metallurgy, steel

Industrial production growth rate:  1% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production:  82.802 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 51.81% hydro: 40.67%
other: 0.29% (2000) nuclear: 7.23%

Electricity - consumption:  80.806 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  3.7 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports:  7.5 billion kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products:  sunflower seeds, lemons, soybeans, grapes,
corn, tobacco, peanuts, tea, wheat; livestock

Exports:  $26.5 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Exports - commodities:  edible oils, fuels and energy, cereals, feed,
motor vehicles

Exports - partners:  Brazil 26.5%, US 11.8%, Chile 10.6%, Spain 3.5%
(2000)

Imports:  $23.8 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Imports - commodities:  machinery and equipment, motor vehicles,
chemicals, metal manufactures, plastics

Imports - partners:  Brazil 25.1%, US 18.7%, Germany 5%, China 4.6% (2000)

Debt - external:  $155 billion (2001 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:  $10 billion (2001 est.)

Currency:  Argentine peso (ARS)

Currency code:  ARS

Exchange rates:  Argentine pesos per US dollar - 1.33325 (January 2002),
1.000 (1997-2001); note - fixed rate pegged to the US dollar was abandoned
in January 2002; peso now floats

Fiscal year:  calendar year

Communications Argentina

Telephones - main lines in use:  7.5 million (1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  3 million (December 1999)

Telephone system:  general assessment: by opening the telecommunications
market to competition and foreign investment with the "Telecommunications
Liberalization Plan of 1998", Argentina encouraged the growth of modern
telecommunication technology; fiber-optic cable trunk lines are being
installed between all major cities; the major networks are entirely
digital and the availability of telephone service is being improved;
however, telephone density is presently minimal, and making telephone
service universally available will take some time domestic: microwave
radio relay, fiber-optic cable, and a domestic satellite system with 40
earth stations serve the trunk network; more than 110,000 pay telephones
are installed and mobile telephone use is rapidly expanding international:
Unisur submarine cables; two international gateways near Buenos Aires
(1999)

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 260 (including 10 inactive stations),
FM NA (probably more than 1,000, mostly unlicensed), shortwave 6 (1998)

Radios:  24.3 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:  42 (plus 444 repeaters) (1997)

Televisions:  7.95 million (1997)

Internet country code:  .ar

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  33 (2000)

Internet users:  3.88 million (2001)

Transportation Argentina

Railways:  total: 33,744 km (167 km electrified) broad gauge: 20,594 km
1.676-m gauge (141 km electrified) standard gauge: 2,739 km 1.435-m gauge
(26 km electrified) narrow gauge: 10,154 km 1.000-m gauge; 257 km 0.750-m
gauge (2000 est.)

Highways:  total: 215,434 km paved: 63,553 km (including 734 km of
expressways) unpaved: 151,881 km (1998 est.)

Waterways:  10,950 km

Pipelines:  crude oil 4,090 km; petroleum products 2,900 km; natural
gas 9,918 km

Ports and harbors:  Bahia Blanca, Buenos Aires, Comodoro Rivadavia,
Concepcion del Uruguay, La Plata, Mar del Plata, Necochea, Rio Gallegos,
Rosario, Santa Fe, Ushuaia

Merchant marine:  total: 24 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 147,505
GRT/222,500 DWT ships by type: cargo 9, petroleum tanker 10, railcar
carrier 1, refrigerated cargo 2, roll on/roll off 1, short-sea passenger
1, includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of
convenience: United Arab Emirates 1, Uruguay 1 (2002 est.)

Airports:  1,369 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 144 over 3,047 m: 4 2,438 to
3,047 m: 26 1,524 to 2,437 m: 60 914 to 1,523 m: 45 under 914 m: 9 (2001)

Airports - with unpaved runways:   2 1,524 to 2,437 m: Military Argentina

Military branches:  Argentine Army, Navy of the Argentine Republic
(includes naval aviation and Marines), Coast Guard, Argentine Air Force,
National Gendarmerie, National Aeronautical Police Force

Military manpower - military age:  20 years of age (2002 est.)

Military manpower - availability:  males age 15-49: 9,521,633 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:  males age 15-49: 7,721,219
(2002 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:  males: 335,085
(2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:  $4.3 billion (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:  1.3% (FY00)

Transnational Issues Argentina

Disputes - international:  claims UK-administered Falkland Islands
(Islas Malvinas); claims UK-administered South Georgia and the South
Sandwich Islands; territorial claim in Antarctica partially overlaps
British and Chilean claims

Illicit drugs:  used as a transshipment country for cocaine headed for
Europe and the US; increasing use as a money-laundering center; domestic
consumption of drugs in urban centers is increasing

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002



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Australia

Introduction

Australia

Background:  Australia became a commonwealth of the British Empire
in 1901. It was able to take advantage of its natural resources to
rapidly develop its agricultural and manufacturing industries and to
make a major contribution to the British effort in World Wars I and II.
Long-term concerns include pollution, particularly depletion of the ozone
layer, and management and conservation of coastal areas, especially the
Great Barrier Reef. A referendum to change Australia's status, from a
commonwealth headed by the British monarch to an independent republic,
was defeated in 1999.

Geography Australia

Location:  Oceania, continent between the Indian Ocean and the South
Pacific Ocean

Geographic coordinates:  27 00 S, 133 00 E

Map references:  Oceania

Area:  total: 7,686,850 sq km water: 68,920 sq km note: includes Lord
Howe Island and Macquarie Island land: 7,617,930 sq km

Area - comparative:  slightly smaller than the US contiguous 48 states

Land boundaries:  0 km

Coastline:  25,760 km

Maritime claims:   12 NM exclusive economic zone: Climate:  generally
arid to semiarid; temperate in south and east; tropical in north

Terrain:  mostly low plateau with deserts; fertile plain in southeast

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Lake Eyre -15 m highest point: Mount
Kosciuszko 2,229 m

Natural resources:  bauxite, coal, iron ore, copper, tin, silver,
uranium, nickel, tungsten, mineral sands, lead, zinc, diamonds, natural
gas, petroleum

Land use:  arable land: 7% permanent crops: 0% other: 93% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  24,000 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:  cyclones along the coast; severe droughts; forest fires

Environment - current issues:  soil erosion from overgrazing, industrial
development, urbanization, and poor farming practices; soil salinity
rising due to the use of poor quality water; desertification; clearing for
agricultural purposes threatens the natural habitat of many unique animal
and plant species; the Great Barrier Reef off the northeast coast, the
largest coral reef in the world, is threatened by increased shipping and
its popularity as a tourist site; limited natural fresh water resources

Environment - international agreements:  party to: Antarctic-Environmental
Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic
Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea,
Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94,
Wetlands, Whaling signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography - note:  world's smallest continent but sixth-largest country;
population concentrated along the eastern and southeastern coasts;
regular, tropical, invigorating, sea breeze known as "the Doctor" occurs
along the west coast in the summer

People Australia

Population:  19,546,792 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:  0-14 years: 20.4% (male 2,046,052; female 1,949,725)
15-64 years: 67% (male 6,610,840; female 6,480,354) 65 years and over:
12.6% (male 1,078,506; female 1,381,315) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  0.96% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  12.71 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  7.25 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  4.12 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female 65 years and over:
0.78 male(s)/female total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  4.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:  total population: 80 years female: 83 years
(2002 est.)  male: 77.15 years

Total fertility rate:  1.77 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  0.15% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  14,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  100 (1999 est.)

Nationality:  noun: Australian(s) adjective: Australian

Ethnic groups:  Caucasian 92%, Asian 7%, aboriginal and other 1%

Religions:  Anglican 26.1%, Roman Catholic 26%, other Christian 24.3%,
non-Christian 11%, other 12.6%

Languages:  English, native languages

Literacy:  definition: age 15 and over can read and write total
population: 100% male: 100% female: 100% (1980 est.)

Government Australia

Country name:  conventional long form: Commonwealth of Australia
conventional short form: Australia

Government type:  democratic, federal-state system recognizing the
British monarch as sovereign

Capital:  Canberra

Administrative divisions:  6 states and 2 territories*; Australian
Capital Territory*, New South Wales, Northern Territory*, Queensland,
South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia

Dependent areas:  Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Christmas Island, Cocos
(Keeling) Islands, Coral Sea Islands, Heard Island and McDonald Islands,
Norfolk Island

Independence:  1 January 1901 (federation of UK colonies)

National holiday:  Australia Day, 26 January (1788)

Constitution:  9 July 1900, effective 1 January 1901

Legal system:  based on English common law; accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage:  18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February
1952), represented by Governor General Rt. Rev. Dr. Peter HOLLINGWORTH
(since 29 June 2001) head of government: Prime Minister John Winston
HOWARD (since 11 March 1996); Deputy Prime Minister John ANDERSON
(since 20 July 1999) cabinet: Cabinet Parliament nominates, from among
its members, a list of candidates to serve as government ministers;
from this list, the governor general makes the final selections for the
Cabinet elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general
appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader
of the majority party or leader of a majority coalition is usually
appointed prime minister by the governor general for a three-year term
note: government coalition - Liberal Party and National Party

Legislative branch:  bicameral Federal Parliament consists of the Senate
(76 seats - 12 from each of the six states and two from each of the two
mainland territories; one-half of the members elected every three years
by popular vote to serve six-year terms) and the House of Representatives
(150 seats - this is up from 148 seats in 2001 election; members elected
by popular vote on the basis of preferential representation to serve
three-year terms; no state can have fewer than five representatives)
elections: Senate - last held 10 November 2001 (next to be held by
November 2004); House of Representatives - last held 10 November 2001
(next to be held by November 2004) election results: Senate - percent
of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - Liberal Party-National Party
coalition 35, Australian Labor Party 28, Australian Democrats 8, Green
Party 2, One Nation Party 1, Country Labor Party 1, independent 1; House
of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party -
Liberal Party-National Party coalition 82, Australian Labor Party 65,
independent and other 3

Judicial branch:  High Court (the chief justice and six other justices
are appointed by the governor general)

Political parties and leaders:  Australian Democrats [Natasha
STOTT-DESPOJA]; Australian Labor Party [Simon CREAN]; Country Labor Party
[leader NA]; Green Party [Bob BROWN]; Liberal Party [John Winston HOWARD];
National Party [John ANDERSON]; One Nation Party [leader NA]

Political pressure groups and leaders:  Australian Democratic Labor Party
(anti-Communist Labor Party splinter group); Australian Monarchist League
[leader NA]; Australian Republican Movement [leader NA]

International organization participation:  ANZUS, APEC, ARF (dialogue
partner), AsDB, ASEAN (dialogue partner), Australia Group, BIS, C, CCC,
CP, EBRD, ESCAP, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD,
IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM (guest),
NEA, NSG, OECD, OPCW, PCA, Sparteca, SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR,
UNMEE, UNTAET, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:   Ambassador Michael J. THAWLEY
consulate(s) general:  FAX: [1] (202) 797-3168 telephone: [1] (202)
797-3000 chancery: 1601 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036

Diplomatic representation from the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
J. Thomas SCHIEFFER embassy: Moonah Place, Yarralumla, Canberra,
Australian Capital Territory 2600 mailing address:  consulate(s) general:
Melbourne, Perth, Sydney

Flag description:  blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side
quadrant and a large seven-pointed star in the lower hoist-side quadrant;
the remaining half is a representation of the Southern Cross constellation
in white with one small five-pointed star and four, larger, seven-pointed
stars

Economy Australia

Economy - overview:  Australia has a prosperous Western-style capitalist
economy, with a per capita GDP on par with the four dominant West European
economies. The Australian economy has been resilient in the face of
the global economic downturn in 2001 chalking up 2.3% GDP growth, as
the domestic economy is offsetting the external slump and business and
consumer confidence remains robust. Canberra's emphasis on reforms is
a key factor behind the economy's strength, and Australia is expected
to outperform its trading partners in 2002, with GDP growth projected
to be 3% or better. Australia probably will experience some weakness in
mid-2002 as its business cycle tends to lag the US by about six months,
and larger problems could emerge if Australia's trade position worsens.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $465.9 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  2.3% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $24,000 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: 3% industry: 25% services: 72%
(2000 est.)

Population below poverty line:  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: 2%
highest 10%: 25.4% (1994)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:  35.2 (1994)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  4.3% (2001 est.)

Labor force:  9.2 million (December 2001)

Labor force - by occupation:  services 73%, industry 22%, agriculture 5%
(1997 est.)

Unemployment rate:  6.7% (2001)

Budget:  revenues: $86.8 billion expenditures: $84.1 billion, including
capital expenditures of $NA (FY00/01 est.)

Industries:  mining, industrial and transportation equipment, food
processing, chemicals, steel

Industrial production growth rate:  0.4% (2001 est.)

Electricity - production:  202.676 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 89.79% hydro: 8.47%
other: 1.74% (2000) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:  188.489 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  0 kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports:  0 kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products:  wheat, barley, sugarcane, fruits; cattle,
sheep, poultry

Exports:  $68.8 billion (2001 est.)

Exports - commodities:  coal, gold, meat, wool, alumina, iron ore, wheat,
machinery and transport equipment

Exports - partners:  Japan 19%, US 9%, South Korea 7%, China 6%, New
Zealand 5.8%, Singapore 4% (2001 est.)

Imports:  $70.2 billion (2001 est.)

Imports - commodities:  machinery and transport equipment, computers
and office machines, telecommunication equipment and parts; crude oil
and petroleum products

Imports - partners:  US 20%, Japan 13%, China 7.7%, UK 6%, Germany 5%,
South Korea 4%, NZ 4%, Malaysia 3.6% (2001 est.)

Debt - external:  $168.7 billion (2001 est.)

Economic aid - donor:  ODA, $894 million (FY99/00)

Currency:  Australian dollar (AUD)

Currency code:  AUD

Exchange rates:  Australian dollars per US dollar - 1.9354 (January 2002),
1.9320 (2001), 1.7173 (2000), 1.5497 (1999), 1.5888 (1998), 1.3439 (1997)

Fiscal year:  1 July - 30 June

Communications Australia

Telephones - main lines in use:  10.05 million (2000)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  8.6 million (2000)

Telephone system:  general assessment: excellent domestic and
international service domestic: domestic satellite system; much use
of radiotelephone in areas of low population density; rapid growth of
mobile cellular telephones international: submarine cables to New Zealand,
Papua New Guinea, and Indonesia; satellite earth stations - 10 Intelsat
(4 Indian Ocean and 6 Pacific Ocean), 2 Inmarsat (Indian and Pacific
Ocean regions) (1998)

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 262, FM 345, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios:  25.5 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:  104 (1997)

Televisions:  10.15 million (1997)

Internet country code:  .au

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  603 (2001)

Internet users:  10.06 million (2001)

Transportation Australia

Railways:  total: 33,819 km (2,540 km electrified) broad gauge: 3,719
km 1.600-m gauge narrow gauge: 14,506 km 1.067-m gauge standard gauge:
15,422 km 1.435-m gauge dual gauge: 172 km NA gauges (1999 est.)

Highways:  total: 913,000 km paved: 353,331 km (including 1,363 km of
expressways) unpaved: 559,669 km (1996)

Waterways:  8,368 km (mainly used by small, shallow-draft craft)

Pipelines:  crude oil 2,500 km; petroleum products 500 km; natural gas
5,600 km

Ports and harbors:  Adelaide, Brisbane, Cairns, Darwin, Devonport
(Tasmania), Fremantle, Geelong, Hobart (Tasmania), Launceston (Tasmania),
Mackay, Melbourne, Sydney, Townsville

Merchant marine:  total: 55 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,469,362
GRT/1,869,262 DWT ships by type: bulk 26, cargo 5, chemical tanker 4,
container 1, liquefied gas 4, passenger 2, petroleum tanker 7, roll
on/roll off 6, includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag
of convenience: France 2, United Kingdom 2, United States 14 (2002 est.)

Airports:  421 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:   11 1,524 to 2,437 m: Airports - with
unpaved runways:  total: 139 1,524 to 2,437 m: 16 914 to 1,523 m: 111
under 914 m: 12 (2001)

Military Australia

Military branches:  Royal Australian Army, Royal Australian Navy, Royal
Australian Air Force

Military manpower - military age:  17 years of age (2002 est.)

Military manpower - availability:  males age 15-49: 5,013,406 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:  males age 15-49: 4,321,387
(2002 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:  males: 142,686
(2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:  $9.3 billion (FY01/02 est.)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:  2% (FY01/02)

Transnational Issues Australia

Disputes - international:  Australia-East Timor-Indonesia are working
to resolve maritime boundary and sharing of seabed resources in "Timor
Gap"; Australia asserts a territorial claim to Antarctica and to its
continental shelf

Illicit drugs:  Tasmania is one of the world's major suppliers of licit
opiate products; government maintains strict controls over areas of
opium poppy cultivation and output of poppy straw concentrate

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002



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Ashmore and Cartier Islands

Introduction

Ashmore and Cartier Islands

Background:  These uninhabited islands came under Australian authority in
1931; formal administration began two years later. Ashmore Reef supports
a rich and diverse avian and marine habitat; in 1983 it became a National
Nature Reserve. Cartier Island, a former bombing range, is now a marine
reserve.

Geography Ashmore and Cartier Islands

Location:  Southeastern Asia, islands in the Indian Ocean, northwest
of Australia

Geographic coordinates:  12 14 S, 123 05 E

Map references:  Southeast Asia

Area:  total: 5 sq km note: includes Ashmore Reef (West, Middle, and
East Islets) and Cartier Island water: 0 sq km land: 5 sq km

Area - comparative:  about eight times the size of The Mall in Washington,
DC

Land boundaries:  0 km

Coastline:  74.1 km

Maritime claims:  contiguous zone: 12 NM continental shelf: 200-m depth
or to the depth of exploitation territorial sea: 12 NM exclusive fishing
zone: 200 NM

Climate:  tropical

Terrain:  low with sand and coral

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m highest point:
unnamed location 3 m

Natural resources:  fish

Land use:  arable land: 0% permanent crops: 0% other: 100% (all grass
and sand) (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  0 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:  surrounded by shoals and reefs that can pose maritime
hazards

Environment - current issues:  NA

Geography - note:  Ashmore Reef National Nature Reserve established in
August 1983

People Ashmore and Cartier Islands

Population:  no indigenous inhabitants note: Indonesian fishermen are
allowed access to the lagoon and fresh waster at Ashmore Reef's West
Island

Population growth rate:  NA

People - note:  the landing of illegal immigrants from Indonesia's Rote
Island has become an ongoing problem

Government Ashmore and Cartier Islands

Country name:  conventional long form: Territory of Ashmore and Cartier
Islands conventional short form: Ashmore and Cartier Islands

Dependency status:  territory of Australia; administered by the Australian
Department of Transport and Regional Services

Legal system:  the laws of the Commonwealth of Australia and the laws
of the Northern Territory of Australia, where applicable, apply

Diplomatic representation in the US:  none (territory of Australia)

Diplomatic representation from the US:  none (territory of Australia)

Flag description:  the flag of Australia is used

Economy Ashmore and Cartier Islands

Economy - overview:  no economic activity

Transportation Ashmore and Cartier Islands

Waterways:  none

Ports and harbors:  none; offshore anchorage only

Military Ashmore and Cartier Islands

Military - note:  defense is the responsibility of Australia; periodic
visits by the Royal Australian Navy and Royal Australian Air Force

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002



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Austria

Introduction

Austria

Background:  Once the center of power for the large Austro-Hungarian
Empire, Austria was reduced to a small republic after its defeat in
World War I. Following annexation by Nazi Germany in 1938 and subsequent
occupation by the victorious Allies in 1945, Austria's status remained
unclear for a decade. A State Treaty signed in 1955 ended the occupation,
recognized Austria's independence, and forbade unification with
Germany. A constitutional law of that same year declared the country's
"perpetual neutrality" as a condition for Soviet military withdrawal. This
neutrality, once ingrained as part of the Austrian cultural identity,
has been called into question since the Soviet collapse of 1991 and
Austria's entry into the European Union in 1995. A prosperous country,
Austria entered the European Monetary Union in 1999.

Geography Austria

Location:  Central Europe, north of Italy and Slovenia

Geographic coordinates:  47 20 N, 13 20 E

Map references:  Europe

Area:  total: 83,858 sq km water: 1,120 sq km land: 82,738 sq km

Area - comparative:  slightly smaller than Maine

Land boundaries:  total: 2,562 km border countries: Czech Republic 362
km, Germany 784 km, Hungary 366 km, Italy 430 km, Liechtenstein 35 km,
Slovakia 91 km, Slovenia 330 km, Switzerland 164 km

Coastline:  0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:  none (landlocked)

Climate:  temperate; continental, cloudy; cold winters with frequent rain
in lowlands and snow in mountains; cool summers with occasional showers

Terrain:  in the west and south mostly mountains (Alps); along the
eastern and northern margins mostly flat or gently sloping

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Neusiedler See 115 m highest point:
Grossglockner 3,798 m

Natural resources:  iron ore, oil, timber, magnesite, lead, coal, lignite,
copper, hydropower

Land use:  arable land: 17% permanent crops: 1% other: 82% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  457 sq km (2000 est.)

Natural hazards:  landslides; avalanches; earthquakes

Environment - current issues:  some forest degradation caused by air
and soil pollution; soil pollution results from the use of agricultural
chemicals; air pollution results from emissions by coal- and oil-fired
power stations and industrial plants and from trucks transiting Austria
between northern and southern Europe

Environment - international agreements:  party to: Air Pollution, Air
Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur
94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species,
Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear
Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83,
Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling signed, but not ratified: Air
Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol,
Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography - note:  landlocked; strategic location at the crossroads of
central Europe with many easily traversable Alpine passes and valleys;
major river is the Danube; population is concentrated on eastern lowlands
because of steep slopes, poor soils, and low temperatures elsewhere

People Austria

Population:  8,169,929 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:  0-14 years: 16.4% (male 686,205; female 652,840) 15-64
years: 68.2% (male 2,814,866; female 2,756,777) 65 years and over: 15.4%
(male 484,313; female 774,928) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  0.23% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  9.58 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  9.73 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  2.45 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female 65 years and over:
0.62 male(s)/female total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  4.39 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   81.31 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  1.4 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  0.1% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  843 (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  8 (2001 est.)

Nationality:  noun: Austrian(s) adjective: Austrian

Ethnic groups:  German 88%, non-nationals 9.3% (includes Croatians,
Slovenes, Hungarians, Czechs, Slovaks, Roma), naturalized 2% (includes
those who have lived in Austria at least three generations)

Religions:  Roman Catholic 78%, Protestant 5%, Muslim and other 17%

Languages:  German

Literacy:  definition: age 15 and over can read and write total
population: 98% male: NA% female: NA%

Government Austria

Country name:   Republic of Austria conventional short form:  Oesterreich

Government type:  federal republic

Capital:  Vienna

Administrative divisions:  9 states (Bundeslaender, singular -
Bundesland); Burgenland, Kaernten, Niederoesterreich, Oberoesterreich,
Salzburg, Steiermark, Tirol, Vorarlberg, Wien

Independence:  1156 (from Bavaria)

National holiday:  National Day, 26 October (1955); note - commemorates
the State Treaty restoring national sovereignty and the end of occupation
and the passage of the law on permanent neutrality

Constitution:  1920; revised 1929 (reinstated 1 May 1945)

Legal system:  civil law system with Roman law origin; judicial review
of legislative acts by the Constitutional Court; separate administrative
and civil/penal supreme courts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:  18 years of age; universal; compulsory for presidential
elections

Executive branch:  chief of state: President Thomas KLESTIL (since 8 July
1992) head of government: Chancellor Wolfgang SCHUESSEL (OeVP)(since
4 February 2000); Vice Chancellor Susanne RIESS-PASSER (FPOe) (since
4 February 2000) cabinet: Council of Ministers chosen by the president
on the advice of the chancellor elections: president elected by direct
popular vote for a six-year term; presidential election last held 19 April
1998 (next to be held in the spring of 2004); chancellor traditionally
chosen by the president from the plurality party in the National Council;
in the case of the current coalition, the chancellor was chosen from
another party after the plurality party failed to form a government;
vice chancellor chosen by the president on the advice of the chancellor
note: government coalition - OeVP and FPOe election results: Thomas
KLESTIL reelected president; percent of vote - Thomas KLESTIL 63%,
Gertraud KNOLL 14%, Heide SCHMIDT 11%, Richard LUGNER 10%, Karl NOWAK 2%

Legislative branch:  bicameral Federal Assembly or Bundesversammlung
consists of Federal Council or Bundesrat (64 members; members represent
each of the states on the basis of population, but with each state having
at least three representatives; members serve a four- or six-year term)
and the National Council or Nationalrat (183 seats; members elected
by direct popular vote to serve four-year terms) election results:
National Council - percent of vote by party - SPOe 33.2%, OeVP 26.9%,
FPOe 26.9%, Greens 7.4%; seats by party - SPOe 65, OeVP 52, FPOe 52,
Greens 14 elections: National Council - last held 3 October 1999 (next
to be held in the fall of 2003)

Judicial branch:  Supreme Judicial Court or Oberster Gerichtshof;
Administrative Court or Verwaltungsgerichtshof; Constitutional Court
or Verfassungsgerichtshof

Political parties and leaders:  Austrian People's Party or OeVP [Wolfgang
SCHUESSEL]; Freedom Party of Austria or FPOe [Susanne RIESS-PASSER];
Social Democratic Party of Austria or SPOe [Alfred GUSENBAUER]; The
Greens Alternative or GA [Alexander VAN DER BELLEN]

Political pressure groups and leaders:  Austrian Trade Union Federation
(primarily Socialist) or OeGB; Federal Economic Chamber; OeVP-oriented
League of Austrian Industrialists or VOeI; Roman Catholic Church,
including its chief lay organization, Catholic Action; three composite
leagues of the Austrian People's Party or OeVP representing business,
labor, and farmers

International organization participation:  AfDB, AsDB, Australia Group,
BIS, BSEC (observer), CCC, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EIB, EMU,
ESA, EU, FAO, G- 9, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA,
IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO,
NAM (guest), NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN,
UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNMEE,
UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOGIP, UNMOT, UNOMIG, UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WEU (observer),
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador Peter
MOSER chancery: 3524 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008-3035
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York FAX: [1] (202)
895-6750 telephone: [1] (202) 895-6700

Diplomatic representation from the US:   Ambassador William Lee LYONS
BROWN, Jr.  embassy:  address telephone: [43] (1) 31339-0 FAX: [43]
(1) 3100682

Flag description:  three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white,
and red

Economy Austria

Economy - overview:  Austria, with its well-developed market economy
and high standard of living, is closely tied to other EU economies,
especially Germany's.  Membership in the EU has drawn an influx of foreign
investors attracted by Austria's access to the single European market
and proximity to EU aspirant economies. Slowing growth in Germany and
elsewhere in the world slowed the economy to only 1.2% growth in 2001;
the economy is expected to do little better in 2002. To meet increased
competition from both EU and Central European countries, Austria will
need to emphasize knowledge-based sectors of the economy, continue to
deregulate the service sector, and lower its tax burden.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $220 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  1.2% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $27,000 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: 2% industry: 29% services: 69%
(2001)

Population below poverty line:  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: 4.4%
highest 10%: 19.3% (1992)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:  23.1 (1987)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  2.6% (2001)

Labor force:  4.3 million (2001)

Labor force - by occupation:  services 67%, industry and crafts 29%,
agriculture and forestry 4% (2001 est.)

Unemployment rate:  4.8% (2001)

Budget:  revenues: $53 billion expenditures: $54 billion, including
capital expenditures of $NA (2001 est.)

Industries:  construction, machinery, vehicles and parts, food, chemicals,
lumber and wood processing, paper and paperboard, communications
equipment, tourism

Industrial production growth rate:  3.8% (2001 est.)

Electricity - production:  60.285 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 28.46% hydro: 68.64%
other: 2.9% (2000) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:  54.764 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  15.11 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports:  13.809 billion kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products:  grains, potatoes, sugar beets, wine, fruit;
dairy products, cattle, pigs, poultry; lumber

Exports:  $70 billion (f.o.b., 2001) (2000 est.)

Exports - commodities:  machinery and equipment, motor vehicles and
parts, paper and paperboard, metal goods, chemicals, iron and steel;
textiles, foodstuffs

Exports - partners:  EU 63% (Germany 35%, Italy 9%, France 5%),
Switzerland 5%, US 5%, Hungary 4% (2000)

Imports:  $73 billion (c.i.f., 2001)

Imports - commodities:  machinery and equipment, motor vehicles,
chemicals, metal goods, oil and oil products; foodstuffs

Imports - partners:  EU 68% (Germany 42%, Italy 7%, France 5%), US 6%,
Switzerland 3%, Hungary 2% (2000)

Debt - external:  $12.1 billion (2001 est.)

Economic aid - donor:  ODA, $410 million (2000)

Currency:  euro (EUR); Austrian schilling (ATS) note: on 1 January 1999,
the European Monetary Union introduced the euro as a common currency to
be used by the financial institutions of member countries; on 1 January
2002, the euro became the sole currency for everyday transactions within
the member countries

Currency code:  EUR; ATS

Exchange rates:  euros per US dollar - 1.1324 (January 2002), 1.1175
(2001), 1.0854 (2000), 0.9386 (1999); Austrian schillings per US dollar -
11.86 (January 1999), 12.91 (1999), 12.379 (1998), 12.204 (1997)

Fiscal year:  calendar year

Communications Austria

Telephones - main lines in use:  4 million (consisting of 3,600,000 analog
main lines plus 400,000 Integrated Services Digital Network connections);
in addition, there are 100,000 Asymmetric Digital Services lines (2001)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  6 million (2001)

Telephone system:  general assessment: highly developed and efficient
domestic: there are 48 main lines for every 100 persons; the fiber optic
net is very extensive; all telephone applications and Internet services
are available international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat
(1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) and 1 Eutelsat; in addition,
there are about 600 VSAT (very small aperture terminals) (2002)

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 2, FM 160 (plus several hundred repeaters),
shortwave 1 (2001)

Radios:  6.08 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:  45 (plus more than 1,000 repeaters) (2001)

Televisions:  4.25 million (1997)

Internet country code:  .at

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  37 (2000)

Internet users:  3 million (2000)

Transportation Austria

Railways:  total: 6,095.2 km (3,643.3 km electrified) standard gauge:
5,564.2 km 1.435-m gauge (3,521.2 km electrified) narrow gauge: 33.9
km 1.000-m gauge (28.1 km electrified); 497.1 km 0.760-m gauge (94 km
electrified) (2001 est.)

Highways:  total: 133,361 km paved: 133,361 km (including 1,613 km of
expressways) unpaved: 0 km (1998)

Waterways:  358 km (1999)

Pipelines:  crude oil 777 km; natural gas 840 km (1999)

Ports and harbors:  Linz, Vienna, Enns, Krems

Merchant marine:  total: 10 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 46,563
GRT/59,278 DWT ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 6, combination bulk 1,
container 2 (2002 est.)

Airports:  55 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 24 over 3,047 m: 1 2,438 to 3,047
m: 5 914 to 1,523 m: 3 under 914 m: 14 (2001) 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

Airports - with unpaved runways:  total: 31 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 914 to
1,523 m: 3 under 914 m: 27 (2001)

Heliports:  1 (2001)

Military Austria

Military branches:  Land Forces (KdoLdSK), Air Forces (KdoLuSK)

Military manpower - military age:  19 years of age (2002 est.)

Military manpower - availability:  males age 15-49: 2,092,623 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:  males age 15-49: 1,728,191
(2002 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:  males: 50,580
(2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:  $1,497,100,000 (FY01/02)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:  0.8% (FY01/02)

Transnational Issues Austria

Disputes - international:  minor disputes with Czech Republic and Slovenia
continue over nuclear power plants and post-World War II treatment of
German-speaking minorities

Illicit drugs:  transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and South
American cocaine destined for Western Europe

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002



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Anguilla

Introduction

Anguilla

Background:  Colonized by English settlers from Saint Kitts in 1650,
Anguilla was administered by Great Britain until the early 19th century,
when the island - against the wishes of the inhabitants - was incorporated
into a single British dependency along with Saint Kitts and Nevis. Several
attempts at separation failed. In 1971, two years after a revolt,
Anguilla was finally allowed to secede; this arrangement was formally
recognized in 1980 with Anguilla becoming a separate British dependency.

Geography Anguilla

Location:  Caribbean, island in the Caribbean Sea, east of Puerto Rico

Geographic coordinates:  18 15 N, 63 10 W

Map references:  Central America and the Caribbean

Area:  total: 102 sq km water: 0 sq km land: 102 sq km

Area - comparative:  about half the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:  0 km

Coastline:  61 km

Maritime claims:  exclusive fishing zone: 200 NM territorial sea: 3 NM

Climate:  tropical; moderated by northeast trade winds

Terrain:  flat and low-lying island of coral and limestone

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m highest point:
Crocus Hill 65 m

Natural resources:  salt, fish, lobster

Land use:  arable land: 0% permanent crops: 0% other: 100% (mostly rock
with sparse scrub oak, few trees, some commercial salt ponds) (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  NA sq km

Natural hazards:  frequent hurricanes and other tropical storms (July
to October)

Environment - current issues:  supplies of potable water sometimes cannot
meet increasing demand largely because of poor distribution system

Geography - note:  the most northerly of the Leeward Islands in the
Lesser Antilles

People Anguilla

Population:  12,446 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:  0-14 years: 25% (male 1,575; female 1,529) 15-64 years:
68.1% (male 4,356; female 4,124) 65 years and over: 6.9% (male 383;
female 479) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  2.44% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  14.94 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  5.54 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  15.02 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.03
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female 65 years and over:
0.8 male(s)/female total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  23.68 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   79.5 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  1.77 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  NA

Nationality:  noun: Anguillan(s) adjective: Anguillan

Ethnic groups:  black (predominant), mulatto, white

Religions:  Anglican 40%, Methodist 33%, Seventh-Day Adventist 7%,
Baptist 5%, Roman Catholic 3%, other 12%

Languages:  English (official)

Literacy:  definition: age 12 and over can read and write total
population: 95% male: 95% female: 95% (1984 est.)

Government Anguilla

Country name:  conventional long form: none conventional short form:
Anguilla

Dependency status:  overseas territory of the UK

Government type:  NA

Capital:  The Valley

Administrative divisions:  none (overseas territory of the UK)

Independence:  none (overseas territory of the UK)

National holiday:  Anguilla Day, 30 May

Constitution:  Anguilla Constitutional Order 1 April 1982; amended 1990

Legal system:  based on English common law

Suffrage:  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February
1952); represented by Governor Peter JOHNSTONE (since NA February 2000)
elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor appointed by the
monarch; chief minister appointed by the governor from among the members
of the House of Assembly head of government: Chief Minister Osbourne
FLEMING (since 3 March 2000) cabinet: Executive Council appointed by
the governor from among the elected members of the House of Assembly

Legislative branch:  unicameral House of Assembly (11 seats total, 7
elected by direct popular vote, 2 ex officio members, and 2 appointed;
members serve five-year terms) elections: last held 3 March 2000 (next
to be held NA June 2005) election results: percent of vote by party -
NA%; seats by party - UF 4, AUM 2, independent 1

Judicial branch:  High Court (judge provided by Eastern Caribbean
Supreme Court)

Political parties and leaders:  Anguilla United Movement or AUM [Hubert
HUGHES]; The United Front or UF [Osbourne FLEMMING, Victor BANKS],
a coalition of the Anguilla Democratic Party or ADP and the Anguilla
National Alliance or ANA

Political pressure groups and leaders:  NA

International organization participation:  Caricom (associate), CDB,
Interpol (subbureau), OECS (associate), ECLAC (associate)

Diplomatic representation in the US:  none (overseas territory of the UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US:  none (overseas territory of
the UK)

Flag description:  blue, with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side
quadrant and the Anguillan coat of arms centered in the outer half of the
flag; the coat of arms depicts three orange dolphins in an interlocking
circular design on a white background with blue wavy water below

Economy Anguilla

Economy - overview:  Anguilla has few natural resources, and the economy
depends heavily on luxury tourism, offshore banking, lobster fishing,
and remittances from emigrants. Increased activity in the tourism
industry, which has spurred the growth of the construction sector, has
contributed to economic growth. Anguillan officials have put substantial
effort into developing the offshore financial sector, which is small,
but growing. In the medium term, prospects for the economy will depend
largely on the tourism sector and, therefore, on revived income growth
in the industrialized nations as well as on favorable weather conditions.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $104 million (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  0% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $8,600 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: 4% industry: 18% services: 78%
(1997 est.)

Population below poverty line:  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  2.3% (2001 est.)

Labor force:  6,735 (1999)

Labor force - by occupation:  commerce 36%, services 29%,
construction 18%, transportation and utilities 10%, manufacturing 3%,
agriculture/fishing/forestry/mining 4%

Unemployment rate:  8% (1999)

Budget:  revenues: $20.4 million expenditures: $23.3 million, including
capital expenditures of $3.8 million (1997 est.)

Industries:  tourism, boat building, offshore financial services

Industrial production growth rate:  3.1% (1997 est.)

Electricity - production:  45.85 million kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: NA% hydro: NA% other:
NA% nuclear: NA%

Electricity - consumption:  42.6 million kWh

Agriculture - products:  small quantities of tobacco, vegetables;
cattle raising

Exports:  $2.6 million (1999)

Exports - commodities:  lobster, fish, livestock, salt, concrete blocks,
rum

Exports - partners:  UK, US, Puerto Rico

Imports:  $80.9 million (1999)

Imports - commodities:  fuels, foodstuffs, manufactures, chemicals,
textiles

Imports - partners:  US, Puerto Rico, UK

Debt - external:  $8.8 million (1998)

Economic aid - recipient:  $3.5 million (1995)

Currency:  East Caribbean dollar (XCD)

Currency code:  XCD

Exchange rates:  East Caribbean dollars per US dollar - 2.7000 (fixed
rate since 1976)

Fiscal year:  1 April - 31 March

Communications Anguilla

Telephones - main lines in use:  4,974 (2000)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  1,629 (2000)

Telephone system:  general assessment: NA domestic: modern internal
telephone system international: microwave radio relay to island of Saint
Martin (Guadeloupe and Netherlands Antilles)

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 5, FM 6, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios:  3,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:  1 (1997)

Televisions:  1,000 (1997)

Internet country code:  .ai

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  16 (2000)

Internet users:  919 (2000)

Transportation Anguilla

Railways:  0 km

Highways:  total: 105 km paved: 65 km unpaved: 40 km (1998 est.)

Waterways:  none

Ports and harbors:  Blowing Point, Road Bay

Merchant marine:  none (2002 est.)

Airports:  3 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2001)

Airports - with unpaved runways:  total: 2 under 914 m: 2 (2001)

Military Anguilla

Military - note:  defense is the responsibility of the UK

Transnational Issues Anguilla

Disputes - international:  none

Illicit drugs:  transshipment point for South American narcotics destined
for the US and Europe

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002



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Antarctica

Introduction

Antarctica

Background:  Speculation over the existence of a "southern land" was
not confirmed until the early 1820s when British and American commercial
operators and British and Russian national expeditions began exploring
the Antarctic Peninsula region and other areas south of the Antarctic
Circle. Not until 1840 was it established that Antarctica was indeed a
continent and not just a group of islands. Several exploration "firsts"
were achieved in the early 20th century. Following World War II, there was
an upsurge in scientific research on the continent. A number of countries
have set up year-round research stations on Antarctica. Seven have made
territorial claims, but no other country recognizes these claims. In
order to form a legal framework for the activities of nations on the
continent, an Antarctic Treaty was negotiated that neither denies nor
gives recognition to existing territorial claims; signed in 1959, it
entered into force in 1961.

Geography Antarctica

Location:  continent mostly south of the Antarctic Circle

Geographic coordinates:  90 00 S, 0 00 E

Map references:  Antarctic Region

Area:  total: 14 million sq km note: fifth-largest continent, following
Asia, Africa, North America, and South America, but larger than Australia
and the subcontinent of Europe land: 14 million sq km (280,000 sq km
ice-free, 13.72 million sq km ice-covered) (est.)

Area - comparative:  slightly less than 1.5 times the size of the US

Land boundaries:  0 km note: see entry on International disputes

Coastline:  17,968 km

Maritime claims:  none; 20 of 27 Antarctic consultative nations have made
no claims to Antarctic territory (although Russia and the US have reserved
the right to do so) and do not recognize the claims of the other nations;
also see the Disputes - international entry

Climate:  severe low temperatures vary with latitude, elevation, and
distance from the ocean; East Antarctica is colder than West Antarctica
because of its higher elevation; Antarctic Peninsula has the most moderate
climate; higher temperatures occur in January along the coast and average
slightly below freezing

Terrain:  about 98% thick continental ice sheet and 2% barren rock, with
average elevations between 2,000 and 4,000 meters; mountain ranges up to
nearly 5,000 meters; ice-free coastal areas include parts of southern
Victoria Land, Wilkes Land, the Antarctic Peninsula area, and parts of
Ross Island on McMurdo Sound; glaciers form ice shelves along about half
of the coastline, and floating ice shelves constitute 11% of the area
of the continent

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Bentley Subglacial Trench -2,555 m
highest point: Vinson Massif 4,897 m note: the lowest known land point
in Antarctica is hidden in the Bentley Subglacial Trench; at its surface
is the deepest ice yet discovered and the world's lowest elevation not
under seawater

Natural resources:  iron ore, chromium, copper, gold, nickel, platinum
and other minerals, and coal and hydrocarbons have been found in small
uncommercial quantities; none presently exploited; krill, finfish,
and crab have been taken by commercial fisheries

Land use:  arable land: 0% permanent crops: 0% other: 100% (ice 98%,
barren rock 2%) (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  0 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:  katabatic (gravity-driven) winds blow coastward from
the high interior; frequent blizzards form near the foot of the plateau;
cyclonic storms form over the ocean and move clockwise along the coast;
volcanism on Deception Island and isolated areas of West Antarctica; other
seismic activity rare and weak; large icebergs may calve from ice shelf

Environment - current issues:  in 1998, NASA satellite data showed
that the antarctic ozone hole was the largest on record, covering 27
million square kilometers; researchers in 1997 found that increased
ultraviolet light coming through the hole damages the DNA of icefish,
an antarctic fish lacking hemoglobin; ozone depletion earlier was shown
to harm one-celled antarctic marine plants; in 2002, significant areas
of ice shelves disintegrated in response to regional warming

Geography - note:  the coldest, windiest, highest (on average), and driest
continent; during summer, more solar radiation reaches the surface at
the South Pole than is received at the Equator in an equivalent period;
mostly uninhabitable

People Antarctica

Population:  no indigenous inhabitants, but there are seasonally staffed
research stations note: approximately 27 nations, all signatory to
the Antarctic Treaty, send personnel to perform seasonal (summer) and
year-round research on the continent and in its surrounding oceans; the
population of persons doing and supporting science on the continent and
its nearby islands south of 60 degrees south latitude (the region covered
by the Antarctic Treaty) varies from approximately 4,000 in summer to
1,000 in winter; in addition, approximately 1,000 personnel including
ship's crew and scientists doing onboard research are present in the
waters of the treaty region; summer (January) population - 3,687 total;
Argentina 302, Australia 201, Belgium 13, Brazil 80, Bulgaria 16, Chile
352, China 70, Finland 11, France 100, Germany 51, India 60, Italy 106,
Japan 136, South Korea 14, Netherlands 10, NZ 60, Norway 40, Peru 28,
Poland 70, Russia 254, South Africa 80, Spain 43, Sweden 20, UK 192,
US 1,378 (1998-99); winter (July) population - 964 total; Argentina 165,
Australia 75, Brazil 12, Chile 129, China 33, France 33, Germany 9, India
25, Japan 40, South Korea 14, NZ 10, Poland 20, Russia 102, South Africa
10, UK 39, US 248 (1998-99); year-round stations - 42 total; Argentina 6,
Australia 4, Brazil 1, Chile 4, China 2, Finland 1, France 1, Germany 1,
India 1, Italy 1, Japan 1, South Korea 1, NZ 1, Norway 1, Poland 1, Russia
6, South Africa 1, Spain 1, Ukraine 1, UK 2, US 3, Uruguay 1 (1998-99);
summer-only stations - 32 total; Argentina 3, Australia 4, Bulgaria 1,
Chile 7, Germany 1, India 1, Japan 3, NZ 1, Peru 1, Russia 3, Sweden 2,
UK 5 (1998-99); in addition, during the austral summer some nations have
numerous occupied locations such as tent camps, summer-long temporary
facilities, and mobile traverses in support of research (July 2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  NA

Government Antarctica

Country name:  conventional long form: none conventional short form:
Antarctica

Government type:  Antarctic Treaty Summary - the Antarctic Treaty,
signed on 1 December 1959 and entered into force on 23 June 1961,
establishes the legal framework for the management of Antarctica. The
24th Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting was held in Russia in
July 2001. At the end of 2001, there were 45 treaty member nations:
27 consultative and 18 non-consultative. Consultative (voting) members
include the seven nations that claim portions of Antarctica as national
territory (some claims overlap) and 20 nonclaimant nations. The US and
Russia have reserved the right to make claims. The US does not recognize
the claims of others. Antarctica is administered through meetings of the
consultative member nations. Decisions from these meetings are carried out
by these member nations (within their areas) in accordance with their own
national laws. The year in parentheses indicates when an acceding nation
was voted to full consultative (voting) status, while no date indicates
the country was an original 1959 treaty signatory. Claimant nations are
- Argentina, Australia, Chile, France, New Zealand, Norway, and the UK.
Nonclaimant consultative nations are - Belgium, Brazil (1983), Bulgaria
(1998) China (1985), Ecuador (1990), Finland (1989), Germany (1981), India
(1983), Italy (1987), Japan, South Korea (1989), Netherlands (1990),
Peru (1989), Poland (1977), Russia, South Africa, Spain (1988), Sweden
(1988), Uruguay (1985), and the US. Non-consultative (nonvoting) members,
with year of accession in parentheses, are - Austria (1987), Canada
(1988), Colombia (1989), Cuba (1984), Czech Republic (1993), Denmark
(1965), Estonia (2001), Greece (1987), Guatemala (1991), Hungary (1984),
North Korea (1987), Papua New Guinea (1981), Romania (1971), Slovakia
(1993), Switzerland (1990), Turkey (1995), Ukraine (1992), and Venezuela
(1999). Article 1 - area to be used for peaceful purposes only; military
activity, such as weapons testing, is prohibited, but military personnel
and equipment may be used for scientific research or any other peaceful
purpose; Article 2 - freedom of scientific investigation and cooperation
shall continue; Article 3 - free exchange of information and personnel,
cooperation with the UN and other international agencies; Article 4 -
does not recognize, dispute, or establish territorial claims and no
new claims shall be asserted while the treaty is in force; Article 5 -
prohibits nuclear explosions or disposal of radioactive wastes; Article 6
- includes under the treaty all land and ice shelves south of 60 degrees
00 minutes south and reserves high seas rights; Article 7 - treaty-state
observers have free access, including aerial observation, to any area and
may inspect all stations, installations, and equipment; advance notice
of all expeditions and of the introduction of military personnel must be
given; Article 8 - allows for jurisdiction over observers and scientists
by their own states; Article 9 - frequent consultative meetings take
place among member nations; Article 10 - treaty states will discourage
activities by any country in Antarctica that are contrary to the treaty;
Article 11 - disputes to be settled peacefully by the parties concerned
or, ultimately, by the ICJ; Articles 12, 13, 14 - deal with upholding,
interpreting, and amending the treaty among involved nations. Other
agreements - some 200 recommendations adopted at treaty consultative
meetings and ratified by governments include - Agreed Measures for Fauna
and Flora (1964) which were later incorporated into the Environmental
Protocol; Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Seals (1972);
Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources
(1980); a mineral resources agreement was signed in 1988 but remains
unratified; the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic
Treaty was signed 4 October 1991 and entered into force 14 January 1998;
this agreement provides for the protection of the Antarctic environment
through five specific annexes: 1) marine pollution, 2) fauna and flora,
3) environmental impact assessments, 4) waste management, and 5) protected
area management; it prohibits all activities relating to mineral resources
except scientific research.

Legal system:  Antarctica is administered through meetings of the
consultative member nations.  Decisions from these meetings are carried
out by these member nations (within their areas) in accordance with their
own national laws. US law, including certain criminal offenses by or
against US nationals, such as murder, may apply extra-territorially. Some
US laws directly apply to Antarctica. For example, the Antarctic
Conservation Act, 16 U.S.C. section 2401 et seq., provides civil and
criminal penalties for the following activities, unless authorized
by regulation of statute:  plants and animals; entry into specially
protected areas; the discharge or disposal of pollutants; and the
importation into the US of certain items from Antarctica. Violation
of the Antarctic Conservation Act carries penalties of up to $10,000
in fines and one year in prison. The National Science Foundation and
Department of Justice share enforcement responsibilities. Public Law
95-541, the US Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978, as amended in 1996,
requires expeditions from the US to Antarctica to notify, in advance,
the Office of Oceans and Polar Affairs, Room 5801, Department of State,
Washington, DC 20520, which reports such plans to other nations as
required by the Antarctic Treaty. For more information, contact Permit
Office, Office of Polar Programs, National Science Foundation, Arlington,
Virginia 22230; telephone: Economy Antarctica

Economy - overview:  Fishing off the coast and tourism, both based abroad,
account for the limited economic activity. Antarctic fisheries in 2000-01
(1 July-30 June) reported landing 112,934 metric tons. Unregulated fishing
probably landed more fish than the regulated fishery, and allegedly
illegal fishing in antarctic waters in 1998 resulted in the seizure (by
France and Australia) of at least eight fishing ships. The Convention
on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources determines the
recommended catch limits for marine species. A total of 12,248 tourists
visited in the 2000-01 antarctic summer, down from the 14,762 who visited
the previous year. Nearly all of them were passengers on 21 commercial
(nongovernmental) ships and several yachts that made trips during the
summer. Most tourist trips lasted approximately two weeks.

Communications Antarctica

Telephones - main lines in use:  0 note: information for US bases only
(2001)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  NA; Iridium system in use

Telephone system:   local systems at some research stations domestic:
Radio broadcast stations:  AM NA, FM 2, shortwave 1 note: information
for US bases only (2002)

Radios:  NA

Television broadcast stations:  1 (cable system with six channels;
American Forces Antarctic Network-McMurdo) note: information for US
bases only (2002)

Televisions:  several hundred at McMurdo Station (US) note: information
for US bases only (2001)

Internet country code:  .aq

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  NA

Transportation Antarctica

Ports and harbors:  there are no developed ports and harbors in
Antarctica; most coastal stations have offshore anchorages, and
supplies are transferred from ship to shore by small boats, barges,
and helicopters; a few stations have a basic wharf facility; US coastal
stations include McMurdo (77 51 S, 166 40 E), Palmer (64 43 S, 64 03 W);
government use only except by permit (see Permit Office under "Legal
System"); all ships at port are subject to inspection in accordance with
Article 7, Antarctic Treaty; offshore anchorage is sparse and intermittent

Airports:  30 (2001) note: 27 stations, operated by 16 national
governments party to the Antarctic Treaty, have aircraft landing
facilities for either helicopters and/or fixed-wing aircraft; commercial
enterprises operate two additional aircraft landing facilities; helicopter
pads are available at 27 stations; runways at 15 locations are gravel,
sea-ice, blue-ice, or compacted snow suitable for landing wheeled,
fixed-wing aircraft; of these, 1 is greater than 3 km in length, 6 are
between 2 km and 3 km in length, 3 are between 1 km and 2 km in length,
3 are less than 1 km in length, and 2 are of unknown length; snow
surface skiways, limited to use by ski-equipped, fixed-wing aircraft,
are available at another 15 locations; of these, 4 are greater than 3 km
in length, 3 are between 2 km and 3 km in length, 2 are between 1 km and 2
km in length, 2 are less than 1 km in length, and 4 are of unknown length;
aircraft landing facilities generally subject to severe restrictions and
limitations resulting from extreme seasonal and geographic conditions;
aircraft landing facilities do not meet ICAO standards; advance approval
from the respective governmental or nongovernmental operating organization
required for landing; landed aircraft are subject to inspection in
accordance with Article 7, Antarctic Treaty

Airports - with unpaved runways:  total: 19 over 3,047 m: 6 2,438 to
3,047 m: 3 914 to 1,523 m: 4 under 914 m: 5 (2001) 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

Heliports:  27 stations have helicopter landing facilities (helipads)
(2001)

Military Antarctica

Military - note:  the Antarctic Treaty prohibits any measures of
a military nature, such as the establishment of military bases and
fortifications, the carrying out of military maneuvers, or the testing of
any type of weapon; it permits the use of military personnel or equipment
for scientific research or for any other peaceful purposes

Transnational Issues Antarctica

Disputes - international:  Antarctic Treaty freezes claims (see Antarctic
Treaty Summary in Government type entry); sections (some overlapping)
claimed by Argentina, Australia, Chile, France, NZ, Norway, and UK;
the US and most other states do not recognize the territorial claims
of other states and have made no claims themselves (the US and Russia
reserve the right to do so); no claims have been made in the sector
between 90 degrees west and 150 degrees west; several states with land
claims in Antarctica have expressed their intention to submit data to
the UN Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf to extend their
continental shelf claims to adjoining undersea ridges

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002



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Bahrain

Introduction

Bahrain

Background:  Bahrain's small size and central location among Persian Gulf
countries require it to play a delicate balancing act in foreign affairs
among its larger neighbors. Possessing minimal oil reserves, Bahrain has
turned to petroleum processing and refining, and has transformed itself
into an international banking center. The new amir is pushing economic
and political reforms, and has worked to improve relations with the Shi'a
community. In February 2001, Bahraini voters approved a referendum on
the National Action Charter - the centerpiece of the amir's political
liberalization program.

Geography Bahrain

Location:  Middle East, archipelago in the Persian Gulf, east of Saudi
Arabia

Geographic coordinates:  26 00 N, 50 33 E

Map references:  Middle East

Area:  total: 665 sq km water: 0 sq km land: 665 sq km

Area - comparative:  3.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:  0 km

Coastline:  161 km

Maritime claims:  contiguous zone: 24 NM territorial sea: 12 NM
continental shelf: extending to boundaries to be determined

Climate:  arid; mild, pleasant winters; very hot, humid summers

Terrain:  mostly low desert plain rising gently to low central escarpment

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m highest point:
Jabal ad Dukhan 122 m

Natural resources:  oil, associated and nonassociated natural gas,
fish, pearls

Land use:  arable land: 5% permanent crops: 4% other: 91% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  50 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:  periodic droughts; dust storms

Environment - current issues:  desertification resulting from the
degradation of limited arable land, periods of drought, and dust
storms; coastal degradation (damage to coastlines, coral reefs, and sea
vegetation) resulting from oil spills and other discharges from large
tankers, oil refineries, and distribution stations; lack of freshwater
resources, groundwater and seawater are the only sources for all water
needs

Environment - international agreements:  party to: Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone
Layer Protection, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Geography - note:
close to primary Middle Eastern petroleum sources; strategic location
in Persian Gulf, which much of Western world's petroleum must transit
to reach open ocean

People Bahrain

Population:  656,397 note: includes 228,424 non-nationals (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:  0-14 years: 29.2% (male 97,022; female 94,605) 15-64
years: 67.7% (male 261,919; female 182,727) 65 years and over: 3.1%
(male 10,230; female 9,894) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  1.67% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  19.53 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  3.95 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  1.09 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.03
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.43 male(s)/female 65 years and over:
1.03 male(s)/female total population: 1.29 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  19.18 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   75.96 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  2.75 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  0.15% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  NA

Nationality:  noun: Bahraini(s) adjective: Bahraini

Ethnic groups:  Bahraini 63%, Asian 19%, other Arab 10%, Iranian 8%

Religions:  Shi'a Muslim 70%, Sunni Muslim 30%

Languages:  Arabic, English, Farsi, Urdu

Literacy:  definition: age 15 and over can read and write total
population: 88.5% male: 91.6% female: 84.2% (2002 est.)

Government Bahrain

Country name:   Kingdom of Bahrain conventional short form:  Mamlakat
al Bahrayn

Government type:  constitutional hereditary monarchy

Capital:  Manama

Administrative divisions:  12 municipalities (manatiq, singular -
mintaqah); Al Hadd, Al Manamah, Al Mintaqah al Gharbiyah, Al Mintaqah al
Wusta, Al Mintaqah ash Shamaliyah, Al Muharraq, Ar Rifa' wa al Mintaqah
al Janubiyah, Jidd Hafs, Madinat Hamad, Madinat 'Isa, Juzur Hawar,
Sitrah note: all municipalities administered from Manama

Independence:  15 August 1971 (from UK)

National holiday:  National Day, 16 December (1971); note - 15 August
1971 is the date of independence from the UK, 16 December 1971 is the
date of independence from British protection

Constitution:  adopted late December 2000; Bahrani voters approved
on 13-14 February 2001 a referendum on legislative changes (revised
constitution calls for a partially elected legislature, a constitutional
monarchy, and an independent judiciary)

Legal system:  based on Islamic law and English common law

Suffrage:  none

Executive branch:  chief of state: King HAMAD bin Isa Al Khalifa
(since 6 March 1999); Heir Apparent Crown Prince SALMAN bin Hamad
(son of the monarch, born 21 October 1969) head of government: Prime
Minister KHALIFA bin Salman Al Khalifa (since NA 1971) cabinet: Cabinet
appointed by the monarch elections: none; the monarchy is hereditary;
prime minister appointed by the monarch

Legislative branch:  unicameral National Assembly was dissolved
26 August 1975 and legislative powers were assumed by the Cabinet;
appointed Advisory Council established 16 December 1992; the National
Action Charter created a bicameral legislature on 23 December 2000;
approved by referendum of 14 February 2001

Judicial branch:  High Civil Appeals Court

Political parties and leaders:  political parties prohibited but
politically oriented nongovernment organizations are allowed

Political pressure groups and leaders:  Shi'a activists fomented unrest
sporadically in 1994-97, demanding the return of an elected National
Assembly and an end to unemployment; several small, clandestine leftist
and Islamic fundamentalist groups are active

International organization participation:  ABEDA, AFESD, AL, AMF, CCC,
ESCWA, FAO, G-77, GCC, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDB, IFC, IFRCS, IHO,
ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OAPEC, OIC,
OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
Khalifa bin Ali bin Rashid AL KHALIFA chancery: 3502 International Drive
NW, Washington, DC 20008 FAX: [1] (202) 362-2192 consulate(s) general:
New York telephone: [1] (202) 342-0741

Diplomatic representation from the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
Ronald E. NEUMANN embassy: Building #979, Road 3119 (next to Al-Ahli
Sports Club), Block 321, Zinj District, Manama mailing address: American
Embassy Manama, PSC 451, FPO AE 09834-5100;
 American Embassy, Box 26431, Manama telephone:
Flag description:  red with a white serrated band (eight white points)
on the hoist side

Economy Bahrain

Economy - overview:  In Bahrain, petroleum production and refining
account for about 60% of export receipts, 60% of government revenues,
and 30% of GDP. With its highly developed communication and transport
facilities, Bahrain is home to numerous multinational firms with business
in the Gulf.  Bahrain is dependent on Saudi Arabia for oil revenue granted
as aid. A large share of exports consists of petroleum products made from
refining imported crude. Construction proceeds on several major industrial
projects. Unemployment, especially among the young, and the depletion of
oil and underground water resources are major long-term economic problems.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $8.4 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  4% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $13,000 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: 1% industry: 35% services: 64%
(2001 est.)

Population below poverty line:  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  1.5% (2001 est.)

Labor force:  295,000 (1998 est.)  note: 44% of the population in the
15-64 age group is non-national (July 1998 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:  industry, commerce, and service 79%,
government 20%, agriculture 1% (1997 est.)

Unemployment rate:  15% (1998 est.)

Budget:  revenues: $1.8 billion expenditures: $2.2 billion, including
capital expenditures of $700 million (2002 est.)

Industries:  petroleum processing and refining, aluminum smelting,
offshore banking, ship repairing; tourism

Industrial production growth rate:  2% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production:  5.765 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 100% hydro: 0% other: 0%
(2000) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:  5,361.45 million kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  0 kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports:  0 kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products:  fruit, vegetables; poultry, dairy products;
shrimp, fish

Exports:  $5.5 billion (f.o.b., 2001)

Exports - commodities:  petroleum and petroleum products, aluminum,
textiles

Exports - partners:  India 8.4%, US 3.9%, Saudi Arabia 3.4%, Japan 2.8%,
South Korea 2.1% (2000)

Imports:  $4.5 billion (f.o.b., 2001)

Imports - commodities:  crude oil, machinery, chemicals

Imports - partners:  Saudi Arabia 28.7%, US 12.5%, UK 6.6%, France 6%,
Japan 4% (2000)

Debt - external:  $2.8 billion (2000)

Economic aid - recipient:  $48.4 million (1995)

Currency:  Bahraini dinar (BHD)

Currency code:  BHD

Exchange rates:  Bahraini dinars per US dollar - 0.3760 (fixed rate
pegged to the US dollar)

Fiscal year:  calendar year

Communications Bahrain

Telephones - main lines in use:  152,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  58,543 (1997)

Telephone system:  general assessment: modern system domestic: modern
fiber-optic integrated services; digital network with rapidly growing
use of mobile cellular telephones international: tropospheric scatter to
Qatar and UAE; microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia; submarine cable
to Qatar, UAE, and Saudi Arabia; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat
(1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) and 1 Arabsat (1997)

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 2, FM 3, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios:  338,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:  4 (1997)

Televisions:  275,000 (1997)

Internet country code:  .bh

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  1 (2000)

Internet users:  105,000 (2001)

Transportation Bahrain

Railways:  0 km

Highways:  3,164 km paved: 2,433 km unpaved: 731 km note: a paved causeway
links Bahrain and Saudi Arabia

Waterways:  none

Pipelines:  crude oil 56 km; petroleum products 16 km; natural gas 32 km

Ports and harbors:  Manama, Mina' Salman, Sitrah

Merchant marine:  total: 8 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 270,784
GRT/384,561 DWT ships by type: bulk 2, cargo 4, container 2, includes
a foreign-owned ship registered here as a flag of convenience: Kuwait 1
(2002 est.)

Airports:  4 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 3 over 3,047 m: 2 (2001)

Airports - with unpaved runways:  total: 1 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2001)

Heliports:  1 (2001)

Military Bahrain

Military branches:  Bahrain Defense Forces (BDF) comprising Ground Force
(includes Air Defense), Navy, Air Force, Coast Guard, Police Force,
Amiri Guards, National Guard

Military manpower - military age:  15 years of age (2002 est.)

Military manpower - availability:  males age 15-49: 222,572 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:  males age 15-49: 121,955
(2002 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:  males: 5,926
(2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:  $526.2 million (FY01)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:  6.7% (FY01)

Transnational Issues Bahrain

Disputes - international:  none

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002



========================================================================


Barbados

Introduction

Barbados

Background:  The island was uninhabited when first settled by the
British in 1627. Its economy remained heavily dependent on sugar, rum,
and molasses production through most of the 20th century. In the 1990s,
tourism and manufacturing surpassed the sugar industry in economic
importance.

Geography Barbados

Location:  Caribbean, island between the Caribbean Sea and the North
Atlantic Ocean, northeast of Venezuela

Geographic coordinates:  13 10 N, 59 32 W

Map references:  Central America and the Caribbean

Area:  total: 431 sq km water: 0 sq km land: 431 sq km

Area - comparative:  2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:  0 km

Coastline:  97 km

Maritime claims:  exclusive economic zone: 200 NM territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate:  tropical; rainy season (June to October)

Terrain:  relatively flat; rises gently to central highland region

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point:
Mount Hillaby 336 m

Natural resources:  petroleum, fish, natural gas

Land use:  arable land: 37% permanent crops: 2% other: 61% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  10 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:  infrequent hurricanes; periodic landslides

Environment - current issues:  pollution of coastal waters from waste
disposal by ships; soil erosion; illegal solid waste disposal threatens
contamination of aquifers

Environment - international agreements:  party to: Climate Change,
Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species,
Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection,
Ship Pollution signed, but not ratified: Geography - note:  easternmost
Caribbean island

People Barbados

Population:  276,607 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:  0-14 years: 21.4% (male 29,888; female 29,338) 15-64
years: 69.8% (male 94,214; female 98,811) 65 years and over: 8.8%
(male 9,378; female 14,978) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  0.46% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  13.32 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  8.38 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  -0.31 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.01 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.02
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female 65 years and over:
0.63 male(s)/female total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  11.71 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   76.12 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  1.64 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  1.17% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  1,800 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  130 (1999 est.)

Nationality:  noun: Barbadian(s) or Bajan (colloquial) adjective:
Barbadian or Bajan (colloquial)

Ethnic groups:  black 90%, white 4%, Asian and mixed 6%

Religions:  Protestant 67% (Anglican 40%, Pentecostal 8%, Methodist 7%,
other 12%), Roman Catholic 4%, none 17%, other 12%

Languages:  English

Literacy:   age 15 and over has ever attended school total population:
Government Barbados

Country name:  conventional long form: none conventional short form:
Barbados

Government type:  parliamentary democracy; independent sovereign state
within the Commonwealth

Capital:  Bridgetown

Administrative divisions:  11 parishes; Christ Church, Saint Andrew,
Saint George, Saint James, Saint John, Saint Joseph, Saint Lucy, Saint
Michael, Saint Peter, Saint Philip, Saint Thomas; note - the city of
Bridgetown may be given parish status

Independence:  30 November 1966 (from UK)

National holiday:  Independence Day, 30 November (1966)

Constitution:  30 November 1966

Legal system:  English common law; no judicial review of legislative acts

Suffrage:  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February
1952), represented by Governor General Sir Clifford Straughn HUSBANDS
(since 1 June 1996) head of government: Prime Minister Owen Seymour ARTHUR
(since 6 September 1994); Deputy Prime Minister Billie MILLER (since 6
September 1994) cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the
advice of the prime minister elections: none; the monarch is hereditary;
governor general appointed by the monarch; prime minister appointed by
the governor general

Legislative branch:  bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate
(21-member body appointed by the governor general) and the House of
Assembly (28 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to serve
five-year terms) elections:  2004) election results: House of Assembly -
percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - BLP 26, DLP 2

Judicial branch:  Supreme Court of Judicature (judges are appointed by
the Service Commissions for the Judicial and Legal Services)

Political parties and leaders:  Barbados Labor Party or BLP [Owen ARTHUR];
Democratic Labor Party or DLP [Clyde MASCOLL]; National Democratic Party
or NDP [Richard HAYNES]

Political pressure groups and leaders:  Barbados Workers Union
[Leroy TROTMAN]; Clement Payne Labor Union [David COMMISSIONG];
People's Progressive Movement [Eric SEALY]; Worker's Party of Barbados
[Dr. George BELLE]

International organization participation:  ACP, C, Caricom, CCC, CDB,
ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, LAES, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador Michael
Ian KING consulate(s): Los Angeles consulate(s) general: Miami and New
York FAX: [1] (202) 332-7467 telephone: [1] (202) 939-9200 chancery:
2144 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

Diplomatic representation from the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
(vacant); Charge d'Affaires Marcia BERNICHT embassy: Canadian Imperial
Bank of Commerce Building, Broad Street, Bridgetown; (courier) ALICO
Building-Cheapside, Bridgetown mailing
 P. O. Box 302, Bridgetown; CMR 1014, APO AA 34055 telephone:
Flag description:  three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side),
gold, and blue with the head of a black trident centered on the gold
band; the trident head represents independence and a break with the past
(the colonial coat of arms contained a complete trident)

Economy Barbados

Economy - overview:  Historically, the Barbadian economy had been
dependent on sugarcane cultivation and related activities, but production
in recent years has diversified into manufacturing and tourism. Offshore
finance and information services are important foreign exchange earners,
and there is also a light manufacturing sector. The government continues
its efforts to reduce unemployment, encourage direct foreign investment,
and privatize remaining state-owned enterprises. The economy contracted
in 2001 due to slowdowns in tourism and consumer spending. Growth will
remain anemic in 2002 with a recovery likely near the end of the year.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $4 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  -2% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $14,500 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: 6% industry: 16% services: 78%
(2000 est.)

Population below poverty line:  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  3.5% (2001 est.)

Labor force:  128,500 (2001 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:  services 75%, industry 15%, agriculture 10%
(1996 est.)

Unemployment rate:  10% (2001 est.)

Budget:  revenues: $847 million (including grants) expenditures: $886
million, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)

Industries:  tourism, sugar, light manufacturing, component assembly
for export

Industrial production growth rate:  -3.2% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production:  740 million kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 100% hydro: 0% other: 0%
(2000) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:  688.2 million kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  0 kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports:  0 kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products:  sugarcane, vegetables, cotton

Exports:  $272 million (2000)

Exports - commodities:  sugar and molasses, rum, other foods and
beverages, chemicals, electrical components, clothing

Exports - partners:  Caribbean Community 43.2%, US 15.3%, UK 13.2% (2000)

Imports:  $1.16 billion (2000)

Imports - commodities:  consumer goods, machinery, foodstuffs,
construction materials, chemicals, fuel, electrical components

Imports - partners:  US 40.8%, Caribbean Community 19.8%, UK 8.1%,
Japan 5.2%, Canada 4.2% (2000)

Debt - external:  $425 million (2000 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:  $9.1 million (1995)

Currency:  Barbadian dollar (BBD)

Currency code:  BBD

Exchange rates:  Barbadian dollars per US dollar - 2.0000 (fixed rate
pegged to the US dollar)

Fiscal year:  1 April - 31 March

Communications Barbados

Telephones - main lines in use:  108,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  8,013 (1997)

Telephone system:  general assessment: NA domestic: island-wide automatic
telephone system international: satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat
(Atlantic Ocean); tropospheric scatter to Trinidad and Saint Lucia

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 2, FM 3, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios:  237,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:  1 (plus two cable channels) (1997)

Televisions:  76,000 (1997)

Internet country code:  .bb

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  19 (2000)

Internet users:  6,000 (2000)

Transportation Barbados

Railways:  0 km

Highways:  total: 1,650 km paved: 1,628 km unpaved: 22 km (1998)

Waterways:  none

Ports and harbors:  Bridgetown, Speightstown (Port Charles Marina)

Merchant marine:  total: 41 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 629,987
GRT/1,073,991 DWT note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered
here as a flag of convenience: Australia 1, Bahamas, The 1, Canada 4,
Germany 1, Greece 2, Hong Kong 7, Norway 7, United Kingdom 18 (2002 est.)
ships by type: Airports:  1 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 1 over 3,047 m: 1 (2001)

Military Barbados

Military branches:  Royal Barbados Defense Force (including Ground Forces
and Coast Guard), Royal Barbados Police Force

Military manpower - availability:  males age 15-49: 78,132 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:  males age 15-49: 53,532
(2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:  $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:  NA%

Transnational Issues Barbados

Disputes - international:  none

Illicit drugs:  one of many Caribbean transshipment points for narcotics
bound for Europe and the US

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002



========================================================================


Botswana

Introduction

Botswana

Background:  Formerly the British protectorate of Bechuanaland, Botswana
adopted its new name upon independence in 1966. The economy, one of the
most robust on the continent, is dominated by diamond mining.

Geography Botswana

Location:  Southern Africa, north of South Africa

Geographic coordinates:  22 00 S, 24 00 E

Map references:  Africa

Area:  total: 600,370 sq km water: 15,000 sq km land: 585,370 sq km

Area - comparative:  slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries:  total: 4,013 km border countries: Namibia 1,360 km,
South Africa 1,840 km, Zimbabwe 813 km

Coastline:  0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:  none (landlocked)

Climate:  semiarid; warm winters and hot summers

Terrain:  predominantly flat to gently rolling tableland; Kalahari Desert
in southwest

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: junction of the Limpopo and Shashe
Rivers 513 m highest point: Tsodilo Hills 1,489 m

Natural resources:  diamonds, copper, nickel, salt, soda ash, potash,
coal, iron ore, silver

Land use:  arable land: 1% permanent crops: 0% other: 99% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  10 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:  periodic droughts; seasonal August winds blow from
the west, carrying sand and dust across the country, which can obscure
visibility

Environment - current issues:  overgrazing; desertification; limited
fresh water resources

Environment - international agreements:  party to: Biodiversity, Climate
Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of
the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands signed,
but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:  landlocked; population concentrated in eastern part
of the country

People Botswana

Population:  1,591,232 note: estimates for this country explicitly take
into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result
in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower
population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population
by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:  0-14 years: 40% (male 319,988; female 316,961) 15-64
years: 55.8% (male 428,638; female 458,777) 65 years and over: 4.2%
(male 26,965; female 39,903) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  0.18% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  28.04 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  26.26 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.01
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female 65 years and over:
0.68 male(s)/female total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  64.72 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   35.43 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  3.6 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  35.8% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  290,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  24,000 (1999 est.)

Nationality:  noun: Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural) adjective:
Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)

Ethnic groups:  Tswana (or Setswana) 79%, Kalanga 11%, Basarwa 3%, other,
including Kgalagadi and white 7%

Religions:  indigenous beliefs 85%, Christian 15%

Languages:  English (official), Setswana

Literacy:  definition: age 15 and over can read and write total
population: 69.8% male: 80.5% female: 59.9% (1995 est.)

Government Botswana

Country name:   Republic of Botswana conventional short form: Government
type:  parliamentary republic

Capital:  Gaborone

Administrative divisions:  10 districts and four town councils*; Central,
Chobe, Francistown*, Gaborone*, Ghanzi, Kgalagadi, Kgatleng, Kweneng,
Lobatse*, Ngamiland, North-East, Selebi-Pikwe*, South-East, Southern

Independence:  30 September 1966 (from UK)

National holiday:  Independence Day (Botswana Day), 30 September (1966)

Constitution:  March 1965, effective 30 September 1966

Legal system:  based on Roman-Dutch law and local customary law; judicial
review limited to matters of interpretation; has not accepted compulsory
ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:  chief of state: President Festus MOGAE (since 1 April
1998) and Vice President Seretse Ian KHAMA (since 13 July 1998); note -
the president is both the chief of state and head of government head of
government:  Ian KHAMA (since 13 July 1998); note - the president is both
the chief of state and head of government cabinet: Cabinet appointed by
the president elections: president elected by the National Assembly for
a five-year term; election last held 16 October 1999 (next to be held
NA October 2004); vice president appointed by the president election
results: Legislative branch:  bicameral Parliament consists of the House
of Chiefs (a largely advisory 15-member body consisting of the chiefs of
the eight principal tribes, four elected subchiefs, and three members
selected by the other 12 members) and the National Assembly (44 seats,
40 members are directly elected by popular vote and 4 are appointed by
the majority party; members serve five-year terms) elections: National
Assembly elections last held 16 October 1999 (next to be held NA October
2004) election results: percent of vote by party - BDP 54.3%, BNF 24.7%,
other 21%; seats by party - BDP 33, BNF 6, other 1

Judicial branch:  High Court; Court of Appeal; Magistrates' Courts
(one in each district)

Political parties and leaders:  Botswana Democratic Party or BDP [Festus
MOGAE]; Botswana National Front or BNF [Otswoletse MOUPO]; Botswana
Congress Party or BCP [Otiandisa KOOSQLEDSE]; Botswana Alliance Movement
or BAM [Ephraim Lepetu SETSHWAELO] note: a number of minor parties joined
forces in 1999 to form the BAM but did not capture any parliamentary
seats; the BAM parties are: the United Action Party [Ephraim Lepetu
SETSHWAELO], the Independence Freedom Party or IFP [Motsamai MPHO],
and the Botswana Progressive Union [D. K. KWELE]

Political pressure groups and leaders:  NA

International organization participation:  ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO,
G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol,
IOC, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAU, OPCW, SACU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador Kgosi
SEEPAPITSO IV chancery: 1531-1533 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington,
DC 20036 FAX: [1] (202) 244-4164 telephone: [1] (202) 244-4990

Diplomatic representation from the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
John E. LANGE embassy: address NA, Gaborone
 [267] 353982 FAX:
Flag description:  light blue with a horizontal white-edged black stripe
in the center

Economy Botswana

Economy - overview:  Botswana has maintained one of the world's highest
growth rates since independence in 1966. Through fiscal discipline and
sound management, Botswana has transformed itself from one of the poorest
countries in the world to a middle-income country with a per capita GDP of
$7,800 in 2001. Two major investment services rank Botswana as the best
credit risk in Africa. Diamond mining has fueled much of expansion and
currently accounts for more than one-third of GDP and for four-fifths
of export earnings. Tourism, subsistence farming, and cattle raising
are other key sectors. On the downside, the government must deal with
high rates of unemployment and poverty. Unemployment officially is 21%,
but unofficial estimates place it closer to 40%. HIV/AIDS infection
rates are the highest in the world and threaten Botswana's impressive
economic gains.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $12.4 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  4.7% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $7,800 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: 4% industry: 44% (including
36% mining) services: 52% (2000 est.)

Population below poverty line:  47% (2000 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  6.6% (2001 est.)

Labor force:  264,000 formal sector employees (2000)

Labor force - by occupation:  NA

Unemployment rate:  40% (official rate is 21%) (2001 est.)

Budget:  revenues: $2.3 billion expenditures: $2.4 billion, including
capital expenditures of $NA (FY01/02)

Industries:  diamonds, copper, nickel, salt, soda ash, potash; livestock
processing; textiles

Industrial production growth rate:  2.4% (2001 est.)

Electricity - production:  500 million kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 100% hydro: 0% other: 0%
(2000) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:  1.451 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  0 kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports:  986 million kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products:  livestock, sorghum, maize, millet, beans,
sunflowers, groundnuts

Exports:  $2.5 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)

Exports - commodities:  diamonds 80%, copper, nickel, soda ash, meat,
textiles (2001)

Exports - partners:  EFTA 85%, Southern African Customs Union (SACU)
10%, Zimbabwe 2% (1999)

Imports:  $2.1 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)

Imports - commodities:  foodstuffs, machinery, electrical goods, transport
equipment, textiles, fuel and petroleum products, wood and paper products,
metal and metal products (2000)

Imports - partners:  Southern African Customs Union (SACU) 77%, EFTA 9%,
Zimbabwe 4% (1999)

Debt - external:  $325 million (2001)

Economic aid - recipient:  $73 million (1995)

Currency:  pula (BWP)

Currency code:  BWP

Exchange rates:  pulas per US dollar - 6.8353 (January 2002), 5.8412
(2001), 5.1018 (2000), 4.6244 (1999), 4.2259 (1998), 3.6508 (1997)

Fiscal year:  1 April - 31 March

Communications Botswana

Telephones - main lines in use:  150,000 (2000)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  200,000 (2000)

Telephone system:  general assessment: the system is expanding with
the growth of mobile cellular service and participation in regional
development domestic:  radiotelephone communication stations; mobile
cellular service is growing fast international: two international
exchanges; digital microwave radio relay links to Namibia, Zambia,
Zimbabwe, and South Africa; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat
(Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 8, FM 13, shortwave 4 (2001)

Radios:  252,720 (2000)

Television broadcast stations:  1 (2001)

Televisions:  31,000 (1997)

Internet country code:  .bw

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  11 (2001)

Internet users:  33,000 (2001)

Transportation Botswana

Railways:  total: 888 km narrow gauge: 888 km 1.067-m gauge (2000 est.)

Highways:  total: 10,217 km paved: 5,620 km unpaved: 4,597 km (1999)

Waterways:  none

Ports and harbors:  none

Airports:  92 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 11 2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 1,524 to
2,437 m: 8 914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2001)

Airports - with unpaved runways:  total: 81 1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 914 to
1,523 m: 56 under 914 m: 22 (2001)

Military Botswana

Military branches:  Botswana Defense Force (including Army and Air Wing),
Botswana National Police

Military manpower - military age:  18 years of age (2002 est.)

Military manpower - availability:  males age 15-49: 384,888 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:  males age 15-49: 202,685
(2002 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:  males: 19,479
(2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:  $135 million (FY01/02)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:  3.5% (FY01/02)

Transnational Issues Botswana

Disputes - international:  none

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002



========================================================================


Bermuda

Introduction

Bermuda

Background:  Bermuda was first settled in 1609 by shipwrecked English
colonists headed for Virginia. Tourism to the island to escape North
American winters first developed in Victorian times. Tourism continues
to be important to the island's economy, although international business
has overtaken it in recent years. Bermuda has developed into a highly
successful offshore financial center. A referendum on independence was
soundly defeated in 1995.

Geography Bermuda

Location:  North America, group of islands in the North Atlantic Ocean,
east of North Carolina (US)

Geographic coordinates:  32 20 N, 64 45 W

Map references:  North America

Area:  total: 53.3 sq km water: 0 sq km land: 53.3 sq km

Area - comparative:  about one-third the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:  0 km

Coastline:  103 km

Maritime claims:  exclusive fishing zone: 200 NM territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate:  subtropical; mild, humid; gales, strong winds common in winter

Terrain:  low hills separated by fertile depressions

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point:
Town Hill 76 m

Natural resources:  limestone, pleasant climate fostering tourism

Land use:  arable land: 6% permanent crops: 0% other: 94% (55% developed,
45% rural/open space) (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  NA sq km

Natural hazards:  hurricanes (June to November)

Environment - current issues:  asbestos disposal; water pollution;
preservation of open space; sustainable development

Geography - note:  consists of about 138 coral islands and islets with
ample rainfall, but no rivers or freshwater lakes; some land, reclaimed
and otherwise, was leased by US Government from 1941 to 1995

People Bermuda

Population:  63,960 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:  0-14 years: 19.2% (male 6,058; female 6,225) 15-64 years:
69.4% (male 21,950; female 22,442) 65 years and over: 11.4% (male 3,163;
female 4,122) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  0.69% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  11.82 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  7.49 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  2.61 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 0.94 male(s)/female under 15 years: 0.97
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female 65 years and over:
0.77 male(s)/female total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  9.28 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   79.27 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  1.81 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  NA

Nationality:  noun: Bermudian(s) adjective: Bermudian

Ethnic groups:  black 58%, white 36%, other 6%

Religions:  non-Anglican Protestant 39%, Anglican 27%, Roman Catholic 15%,
other 19%

Languages:  English (official), Portuguese

Literacy:  definition: age 15 and over can read and write total
population: 98% male: 98% female: 99% (1970 est.)

Government Bermuda

Country name:   Bermuda former: Dependency status:  overseas territory
of the UK

Government type:  parliamentary British overseas territory with internal
self-government

Capital:  Hamilton

Administrative divisions:  9 parishes and 2 municipalities*; Devonshire,
Hamilton, Hamilton*, Paget, Pembroke, Saint George*, Saint George's,
Sandys, Smith's, Southampton, Warwick

Independence:  none (overseas territory of the UK)

National holiday:  Bermuda Day, 24 May

Constitution:  8 June 1968, amended 1989

Legal system:  English law

Suffrage:  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February
1952), represented by Governor Sir John VEREKER (since NA April 2002)
head of government:  by the premier, appointed by the governor elections:
none; the monarch is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch;
governor invites the leader of largest party in Parliament to form a
government as premier

Legislative branch:  bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (an
11-member body appointed by the governor, the premier, and the opposition)
and the House of Assembly (40 seats; members are elected by popular
vote to serve five-year terms) elections: last general election held
9 November 1998 (next to be held NA November 2003) election results:
percent of vote by party - PLP 54%, UBP 44%, NLP 1%, independents 1%;
seats by party - PLP 26, UBP 14

Judicial branch:  Supreme Court; Court of Appeal; Magistrate Courts

Political parties and leaders:  National Liberal Party or NLP [Dessaline
WALDRON]; Progressive Labor Party or PLP [Jennifer SMITH]; United Bermuda
Party or UBP [Dr. Grant GIBBONS]

Political pressure groups and leaders:  Bermuda Employer's Union
[Eddie SAINTS]; Bermuda Industrial Union or BIU [Derrick BURGESS];
Bermuda Public Services Association or BPSA [leader NA]; Bermuda Union
of Teachers [Michael CHARLES]

International organization participation:  Caricom (observer), CCC,
ICFTU, Interpol (subbureau), IOC

Diplomatic representation in the US:  none (overseas territory of the UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US:  chief of mission: Acting Consul
General Karen EMMERSON consulate(s)
 Crown Hill, 16 Middle Road, Devonshire DVQ3 mailing address:  Department
 of State, 5300 Hamilton Place, Washington, DC 20520-5300
telephone: [1] (441) 295-1342 FAX: [1] (441) 295-1592, [1] (441) 296-9233

Flag description:  red, with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side
quadrant and the Bermudian coat of arms (white and green shield with a
red lion holding a scrolled shield showing the sinking of the ship Sea
Venture off Bermuda in 1609) centered on the outer half of the flag

Economy Bermuda

Economy - overview:  Bermuda enjoys one of the highest per capita
incomes in the world, with its economy primarily based on providing
financial services for international business and luxury facilities for
tourists. The effects of 11 September 2001 have had both positive and
negative ramifications for Bermuda. On the positive side, a number of
new reinsurance companies have located on the island, contributing to
the expansion of an already robust international business sector. On
the negative side, Bermuda's already weakening tourism industry - which
derives over 80% of its visitors from the US - has been further hit as
American tourists have chosen not to travel. Most capital equipment
and food must be imported, with the US serving as the primary source
of goods, followed by the UK. Bermuda's industrial sector is small,
although construction continues to be important. Agriculture is limited,
only 6% of the land being arable.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $2.2 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  2.9% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $34,800 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: 1% industry: 10% services: 89%
(1995 est.)

Population below poverty line:  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  3% (July 2001)

Labor force:  37,472 (2000)

Labor force - by occupation:  clerical 22%, services 20%, laborers 17%,
professional and technical 17%, administrative and managerial 13%,
sales 8%, agriculture and fishing 3% (2000 est.)

Unemployment rate:  4.5% (1993)

Budget:  revenues: $609.5 million expenditures: $574.6 million, including
capital expenditures of $54.8 million (FY00/01)

Industries:  tourism, international business, light manufacturing

Industrial production growth rate:  NA%

Electricity - production:  595 million kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 100% hydro: 0% other: 0%
(2000) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:  553.35 million kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  0 kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports:  0 kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products:  bananas, vegetables, citrus, flowers; dairy
products

Exports:  $51 million (2000)

Exports - commodities:  reexports of pharmaceuticals

Exports - partners:  EU excluding UK 77.9%, US 9.8%, UK 6.9% (1999)

Imports:  $719 million (2000)

Imports - commodities:  machinery and transport equipment, construction
materials, chemicals, food and live animals

Imports - partners:  EU excluding UK 35.4%, US 17.8%, UK 15.4%, Russia
14.6% (1999)

Debt - external:  $145 million (FY99/00)

Economic aid - recipient:  $NA

Currency:  Bermudian dollar (BMD)

Currency code:  BMD

Exchange rates:  Bermudian dollar per US dollar - 1.0000 (fixed rate
pegged to the US dollar)

Fiscal year:  1 April - 31 March

Communications Bermuda

Telephones - main lines in use:  52,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  7,980 (1996)

Telephone system:  general assessment: NA domestic: modern, fully
automatic telephone system international: 3 submarine cables; satellite
earth stations - 3 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 5, FM 3, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios:  82,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:  3 (1997)

Televisions:  66,000 (1997)

Internet country code:  .bm

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  20 (2000)

Internet users:  25,000 (2000)

Transportation Bermuda

Railways:  0 km

Highways:  total: 450 km paved: NA note: public roads - 209 km; private
roads - 241 km (2002) unpaved: NA

Waterways:  none

Ports and harbors:  Hamilton, Saint George's, Dockyard

Merchant marine:  total: 102 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,485,450
GRT/8,782,869 DWT note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered
here as a flag of convenience: Croatia 5, Denmark 2, Germany 1, Greece 1,
Hong Kong 9, Indonesia 1, Norway 2, Sweden 11, United Kingdom 52, United
States 13 (2002 est.)  ships by type: bulk 28, cargo 4, container 16,
liquefied gas 6, passenger 3, petroleum tanker 17, refrigerated cargo 16,
roll on/roll off 9, short-sea passenger 3

Airports:  1 (2002)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 1 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2960 m)
(2002)

Military Bermuda

Military branches:  no regular indigenous military forces; Bermuda
Regiment, Bermuda Police Force, Bermuda Reserve Constabulary

Military expenditures - dollar figure:  $4,027,970 (January 2002)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:  0.11% (FY00/01)

Military - note:  defense is the responsibility of the UK

Transnational Issues Bermuda

Disputes - international:  none

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002



========================================================================


Belgium

Introduction

Belgium

Background:  Belgium became independent from the Netherlands in 1830
and was occupied by Germany during World Wars I and II. It has prospered
in the past half century as a modern, technologically advanced European
state and member of NATO and the EU. Tensions between the Dutch-speaking
Flemings of the north and the French-speaking Walloons of the south have
led in recent years to constitutional amendments granting these regions
formal recognition and autonomy.

Geography Belgium

Location:  Western Europe, bordering the North Sea, between France and
the Netherlands

Geographic coordinates:  50 50 N, 4 00 E

Map references:  Europe

Area:  total: 30,510 sq km land: 30,230 sq km water: 280 sq km

Area - comparative:  about the size of Maryland

Land boundaries:  total: 1,385 km border countries: France 620 km,
Germany 167 km, Luxembourg 148 km, Netherlands 450 km

Coastline:  66 km

Maritime claims:  continental shelf: median line with neighbors
territorial sea: 12 NM exclusive fishing zone: median line with neighbors
(extends about 68 km from coast)

Climate:  temperate; mild winters, cool summers; rainy, humid, cloudy

Terrain:  flat coastal plains in northwest, central rolling hills,
rugged mountains of Ardennes Forest in southeast

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: North Sea 0 m highest point: Signal
de Botrange 694 m

Natural resources:  coal, natural gas

Land use:  arable land: 25% permanent crops: 0% note: includes Luxembourg
(1998 est.)  other: 75%

Irrigated land:  40 sq km (includes Luxembourg) (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:  flooding is a threat in areas of reclaimed coastal land,
protected from the sea by concrete dikes

Environment - current issues:  the environment is exposed to intense
pressures from human activities:  breeding and crop cultivation; air
and water pollution also have repercussions for neighboring countries;
uncertainties regarding federal and regional responsibilities (now
resolved) have slowed progress in tackling environmental challenges

Environment - international agreements:  party to: Air Pollution,
Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air
Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85,
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources,
Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous
Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation,
Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical
Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Air
Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography - note:  crossroads of Western Europe; majority of West
European capitals within 1,000 km of Brussels, the seat of both the
European Union and NATO

People Belgium

Population:  10,274,595 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:  0-14 years: 17.3% (male 911,729; female 871,470) 15-64
years: 65.6% (male 3,395,885; female 3,341,536) 65 years and over: 17.1%
(male 716,673; female 1,037,302) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  0.15% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  10.58 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  10.08 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  0.97 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female 65 years and over:
0.69 male(s)/female total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  4.64 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   81.62 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  1.61 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  0.15% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  7,700 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  less than 100 (1999 est.)

Nationality:  noun: Belgian(s) adjective: Belgian

Ethnic groups:  Fleming 58%, Walloon 31%, mixed or other 11%

Religions:  Roman Catholic 75%, Protestant or other 25%

Languages:  Dutch 60%, French 40%, German less than 1%, legally bilingual
(Dutch and French)

Literacy:  definition: age 15 and over can read and write total
population: 98% male: NA% female: NA%

Government Belgium

Country name:   Kingdom of Belgium conventional short form:
Belgique/Koninkrijk Belgie

Government type:  federal parliamentary democracy under a constitutional
monarch

Capital:  Brussels

Administrative divisions:  10 provinces (French: provinces, singular
- province; Dutch: provincien, singular - provincie) and 1 region*
(French: region; Dutch: gewest); Antwerpen, Brabant Wallon, Brussels*
(Bruxelles), Hainaut, Liege, Limburg, Luxembourg, Namur, Oost-Vlaanderen,
Vlaams-Brabant, West-Vlaanderen

Independence:  4 October 1830 a provisional government declared
independence from the Netherlands; 21 July 1831 the ascension of King
Leopold I to the throne

National holiday:  Independence Day, 21 July (1831)

Constitution:  7 February 1831, last revised 14 July 1993; parliament
approved a constitutional package creating a federal state

Legal system:  civil law system influenced by English constitutional
theory; judicial review of legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage:  18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:  chief of state: King ALBERT II (since 9 August 1993);
Heir Apparent Prince PHILIPPE, son of the monarch head of government:
Prime Minister Guy VERHOFSTADT (since 13 July 1999) cabinet: Council of
Ministers appointed by the monarch and approved by Parliament elections:
none; the monarchy is hereditary; prime minister appointed by the monarch
and then approved by Parliament note: government coalition - VLD, PRL,
PS, SP, AGALEV, and ECOLO

Legislative branch:  bicameral Parliament consists of a Senate or Senaat
in Dutch, Senat in French (71 seats; 40 members are directly elected by
popular vote, 31 are indirectly elected; members serve four-year terms)
and a Chamber of Deputies or Kamer van Volksvertegenwoordigers in Dutch,
Chambre des Representants in French (150 seats; members are directly
elected by popular vote on the basis of proportional representation to
serve four-year terms) elections: Senate and Chamber of Deputies - last
held 13 June 1999 (next to be held in NA 2003) note: as a result of the
1993 constitutional revision that furthered devolution into a federal
state, there are now three levels of government (federal, regional, and
linguistic community) with a complex division of responsibilities; this
reality leaves six governments each with its own legislative assembly;
for other acronyms of the listed parties see the Political parties and
leaders entry election results: Senate - percent of vote by party -
VLD 15.4%, CVP 14.7%, PRL 10.6%, PS 9.7%, VB 9.4%, SP 8.9%, ECOLO 7.4%,
AGALEV 7.1%, PSC 6.0%, VU 5.1%; seats by party - VLD 11, CVP 10, PS 10,
PRL 9, VB 6, SP 6, ECOLO 6, AGALEV 5, PSC 5, VU 3; Chamber of Deputies -
percent of vote by party - VLD 14.3%, CVP 14.1%, PS 10.2%, PRL 10.1%,
VB 9.9%, SP 9.5%, ECOLO 7.4%, AGALEV 7.0%, PSC 5.9%, VU 5.6%; seats by
party - VLD 23, CVP 22, PS 19, PRL 18, VB 15, SP 14, ECOLO 11, PSC 10,
AGALEV 9, VU 8, FN 1

Judicial branch:  Supreme Court of Justice or Hof van Cassatie (in Dutch)
or Cour de Cassation (in French) (judges are appointed for life by the
monarch, although selected by the Government)

Political parties and leaders:  AGALEV (Flemish Greens) [Jos GEYSELS];
Christian Democrats and Flemish or CD & V [Stefaan DE CLERCK,
president]; note - used to be the Flemish Christian Democrats or CVP;
ECOLO (Francophone Greens) [no president; led by three person federal
secretariat]; Flemish Liberal Democrats or VLD [Karel DE GUCHT,
president]; Francophone Christian Democrats or PSC (Social Christian
Party) [Joelle MILQUET, president]; Francophone Liberal Reformation Party
or PRL [Daniel DUCARME, president]; Francophone Socialist Party or PS
[Elio DI RUPO, president]; National Front or FN [Daniel FERET]; New
Flemish Alliance or NVA [Geert BOURGEOIS]; note - split from Volksunie
or VB; Social Progressive Alternative Party or SP.A [Patrick JANSSENS,
president]; note - was Flemish Socialist Party or SP; Spirit [Annemie
VAN DE CASTEELE]; note - split from Volksunie or VU; Vlaams Blok or VB
[Frank VANHECKE]; other minor parties

Political pressure groups and leaders:  Christian and Socialist Trade
Unions; Federation of Belgian Industries; numerous other associations
representing bankers, manufacturers, middle-class artisans, and the legal
and medical professions; various organizations represent the cultural
interests of Flanders and Wallonia; various peace groups such as Pax
Christi and groups representing immigrants

International organization participation:  ACCT, AfDB, AsDB, Australia
Group, Benelux, BIS, CCC, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU,
FAO, G- 9, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA,
IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU,
MINURSO, MONUC, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA,
UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIK, UNMOGIP, UNMOP, UNRWA, UNTSO,
UPU, WADB (nonregional), WCL, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
Alexis REYN chancery: 3330 Garfield Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York FAX:
[1] (202) 333-3079 telephone: [1] (202) 333-6900

Diplomatic representation from the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
Stephen Franklin BRAUER embassy: 27 Boulevard du Regent, B-1000 Brussels
mailing address: PSC 82, Box 002, APO AE 09710 telephone: [32] (2)
508-2111 FAX: [32] (2) 511-2725

Flag description:  three equal vertical bands of black (hoist side),
yellow, and red; the design was based on the flag of France

Economy Belgium

Economy - overview:  This modern private enterprise economy has
capitalized on its central geographic location, highly developed transport
network, and diversified industrial and commercial base. Industry is
concentrated mainly in the populous Flemish area in the north. With few
natural resources, Belgium must import substantial quantities of raw
materials and export a large volume of manufactures, making its economy
unusually dependent on the state of world markets. About three-quarters of
its trade is with other EU countries. Belgium's public debt is expected
to fall to about 100% of GDP in 2002, and the government has succeeded
in balancing its budget. Belgium, together with 11 of its EU partners,
began circulating euro currency in January 2002.  Economic growth in
2001 dropped sharply due to the global economic slowdown. Prospects for
2002 depend largely on recovery in the EU and the US.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $267.7 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  1.1% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $26,100 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: 1.4% industry: 24% services:
74.6% (2000)

Population below poverty line:  4%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: 3.7%
highest 10%: 20.2% (1992)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:  25 (1992)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  2.4% (2001 est.)

Labor force:  4.44 million (2001)

Labor force - by occupation:  services 73%, industry 25%, agriculture 2%
(1999 est.)

Unemployment rate:  6.8% (2001 est.)

Budget:  revenues: $113.44 billion expenditures: $106 billion, including
capital expenditures of $7.17 billion (2000)

Industries:  engineering and metal products, motor vehicle assembly,
processed food and beverages, chemicals, basic metals, textiles, glass,
petroleum, coal

Industrial production growth rate:  4.5% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production:  79.348 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 40.31% hydro: 0.57%
other: 1.46% (2000) nuclear: 57.66%

Electricity - consumption:  78.13 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  7.309 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports:  11.645 billion kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products:  sugar beets, fresh vegetables, fruits, grain,
tobacco; beef, veal, pork, milk

Exports:  $160.3 billion (f.o.b., 2001)

Exports - commodities:  machinery and equipment, chemicals, diamonds,
metals and metal products

Exports - partners:  EU 74% (France 18%, Germany 17%, Netherlands 13%,
UK 10%), US 6% (2000)

Imports:  $154 billion (f.o.b., 2001)

Imports - commodities:  machinery and equipment, chemicals, metals and
metal products

Imports - partners:  EU 68% (Germany 17%, Netherlands 17%, France 13%,
UK 9%) (2000)

Debt - external:  $28.3 billion (1999 est.)

Economic aid - donor:  ODA, $764 million (1997)

Currency:  euro (EUR); Belgian franc (BEF) note: on 1 January 1999, the
European Monetary Union introduced the euro as a common currency to be
used by financial institutions of member countries; on 1 January 2002,
the euro became the sole currency for everyday transactions within the
member countries

Currency code:  EUR; BEF

Exchange rates:  euros per US dollar - 1.1324 (January 2002), 1.1175
(2001), 1.0854 (2000), 0.9386 (1999); Belgian francs per US dollar -
34.77 (January 1999), 36.229 (1998), 35.774 (1997)

Fiscal year:  calendar year

Communications Belgium

Telephones - main lines in use:  4.769 million (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  974,494 (1997)

Telephone system:  general assessment: highly developed, technologically
advanced, and completely automated domestic and international telephone
and telegraph facilities domestic: nationwide cellular telephone
system; extensive cable network; limited microwave radio relay network
international: 5 submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat
(Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Eutelsat

Radio broadcast stations:  FM 79, AM 7, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios:  8.075 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:  25 (plus 10 repeaters) (1997)

Televisions:  4.72 million (1997)

Internet country code:  .be

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  61 (2000)

Internet users:  2.807 million (2001)

Transportation Belgium

Railways:  total: 3,422 km standard gauge: 3,422 km 1.435-m gauge (2,517
km electrified; 2,563 km double-tracked) (2001)

Highways:  total: 145,774 km paved: 116,182 km (including 1,674 km of
expressways) unpaved: 29,592 km (1999)

Waterways:  1,570 km (route length in regular commercial use) (2001)

Pipelines:  crude oil 161 km; petroleum products 1,167 km; natural gas
3,300 km

Ports and harbors:  Antwerp (one of the world's busiest ports), Brugge,
Gent, Hasselt, Liege, Mons, Namur, Oostende, Zeebrugge

Merchant marine:  total: 20 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 31,362
GRT/54,058 DWT ships by type: cargo 6, chemical tanker 9, petroleum
tanker 5, includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag
of convenience: Finland 1, Netherlands 3 (2002 est.)

Airports:  42 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 24 over 3,047 m: 6 2,438 to 3,047
m: 8 914 to 1,523 m: 1 under 914 m: 6 (2001) 1,524 to 2,437 m: 3

Airports - with unpaved runways:  total: 18 914 to 1,523 m: 2 under 914 m:
16 (2001)

Heliports:  1 (2001)

Military Belgium

Military branches:  Army, Navy, Air Components, National Gendarmerie

Military manpower - military age:  19 years of age (2002 est.)

Military manpower - availability:  males age 15-49: 2,508,557 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:  males age 15-49: 2,070,016
(2002 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:  males: 63,247
(2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:  $3,076,500,000 (FY01/02)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:  1.4% (FY01/02)

Transnational Issues Belgium

Disputes - international:  none

Illicit drugs:  growing producer of synthetic drugs; transit point
for US-bound ecstasy; source of precursor chemicals for South American
cocaine processors; transshipment point for cocaine, heroin, hashish,
and marijuana entering Western Europe

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002



========================================================================


Bahamas, The

Introduction

Bahamas, The

Background:  Since attaining independence from the UK in 1973, The
Bahamas have prospered through tourism and international banking and
investment management. Because of its geography, the country is a major
transshipment point for illegal drugs, particularly shipments to the US,
and its territory is used for smuggling illegal migrants into the US.

Geography Bahamas, The

Location:  Caribbean, chain of islands in the North Atlantic Ocean,
southeast of Florida

Geographic coordinates:  24 15 N, 76 00 W

Map references:  Central America and the Caribbean

Area:  total: 13,940 sq km water: 3,870 sq km land: 10,070 sq km

Area - comparative:  slightly smaller than Connecticut

Land boundaries:  0 km

Coastline:  3,542 km

Maritime claims:  exclusive economic zone: 200 NM territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate:  tropical marine; moderated by warm waters of Gulf Stream

Terrain:  long, flat coral formations with some low rounded hills

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point:
Mount Alvernia, on Cat Island 63 m

Natural resources:  salt, aragonite, timber, arable land

Land use:  arable land: 1% permanent crops: 0% other: 99% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  NA sq km

Natural hazards:  hurricanes and other tropical storms cause extensive
flood and wind damage

Environment - current issues:  coral reef decay; solid waste disposal

Environment - international agreements:  party to: Biodiversity, Climate
Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone
Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands signed, but not ratified:
none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:  strategic location adjacent to US and Cuba; extensive
island chain of which 30 are inhabited

People Bahamas, The

Population:  300,529 note: estimates for this country explicitly take
into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result
in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower
population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population
by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:  0-14 years: 29% (male 43,964; female 43,250) 15-64 years:
64.7% (male 95,508; female 98,859) 65 years and over: 6.3% (male 7,948;
female 11,000) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  0.86% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  18.69 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  7.49 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  -2.63 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.02
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female 65 years and over:
0.72 male(s)/female total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  17.08 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   73.49 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  2.28 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  4.13% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  6,900 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  500 (1999 est.)

Nationality:  noun: Bahamian(s) adjective: Bahamian

Ethnic groups:  black 85%, white 12%, Asian and Hispanic 3%

Religions:  Baptist 32%, Anglican 20%, Roman Catholic 19%, Methodist 6%,
Church of God 6%, other Protestant 12%, none or unknown 3%, other 2%

Languages:  English, Creole (among Haitian immigrants)

Literacy:  definition: age 15 and over can read and write total
population: 98.2% male: 98.5% female: 98% (1995 est.)

Government Bahamas, The

Country name:  conventional long form: Commonwealth of The Bahamas
conventional short form: The Bahamas

Government type:  constitutional parliamentary democracy

Capital:  Nassau

Administrative divisions:  21 districts; Acklins and Crooked Islands,
Bimini, Cat Island, Exuma, Freeport, Fresh Creek, Governor's Harbour,
Green Turtle Cay, Harbour Island, High Rock, Inagua, Kemps Bay, Long
Island, Marsh Harbour, Mayaguana, New Providence, Nichollstown and Berry
Islands, Ragged Island, Rock Sound, Sandy Point, San Salvador and Rum Cay

Independence:  10 July 1973 (from UK)

National holiday:  Independence Day, 10 July (1973)

Constitution:  10 July 1973

Legal system:  based on English common law

Suffrage:  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February
1952), represented by Governor General Ivy DUMONT (since NA May 2002)
head of government:  Cynthia PRATT (since 7 May 2002) cabinet: Cabinet
appointed by the governor general on the prime minister's recommendation
elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed
by the monarch; prime minister and deputy prime minister appointed by
the governor general

Legislative branch:  bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate
(16-member body appointed by the governor general upon the advice
of the prime minister and the opposition leader for five-year terms)
and the House of Assembly (40 seats; members elected by direct popular
vote to serve five-year terms) elections: last held NA March 2002 (next
to be held by March 2007) election results: percent of vote by party -
PLP 50.8%, FNM 41.1%, independents 5.2%; seats by party - PLP 29, FNM 7,
independents 4

Judicial branch:  Supreme Court; Court of Appeal; magistrates courts

Political parties and leaders:  Free National Movement or FNM
[leader-designate Tommy TURNQUEST]; Progressive Liberal Party or PLP
[Perry CHRISTIE]

Political pressure groups and leaders:  NA

International organization participation:  ACP, C, Caricom, CCC, CDB,
ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF,
IMO, Interpol, IOC, ITU, LAES, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW (signatory), UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador Joshua
SEARS consulate(s) general: Miami and
 [1] (202) 319-2660 chancery:
Diplomatic representation from the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
J. Richard BLANKENSHIP embassy: Queen Street, Nassau mailing address:
local or express mail address: P. O. Box N-8197, Nassau; stateside
address: American Embassy Nassau, P. O.  Box 599009, Miami, FL 33159-9009;
pouch address: Nassau, Department of State,
 [1] (242) 322-1181, 328-2206 FAX:
Flag description:  three equal horizontal bands of aquamarine (top), gold,
and aquamarine, with a black equilateral triangle based on the hoist side

Economy Bahamas, The

Economy - overview:  The Bahamas is a stable, developing nation with
an economy heavily dependent on tourism and offshore banking. Tourism
alone accounts for more than 60% of GDP and directly or indirectly
employs almost half of the archipelago's labor force. Steady growth in
tourism receipts and a boom in construction of new hotels, resorts, and
residences have led to solid GDP growth in recent years. Manufacturing
and agriculture together contribute approximately a tenth of GDP
and show little growth, despite government incentives aimed at those
sectors. Overall growth prospects in the short run rest heavily on
the fortunes of the tourism sector, which depends on growth in the US,
the source of the majority of tourist visitors.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $5 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  3.5% (2001)

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $16,800 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: 3% industry: 7% services: 90%
(1999 est.)

Population below poverty line:  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  1.5% (2001 est.)

Labor force:  156,000 (1999)

Labor force - by occupation:  tourism 40%, other services 50%, industry
5%, agriculture 5% (1995 est.)

Unemployment rate:  6.9% (2001 est.)

Budget:  revenues: $918.5 million expenditures: $956.5 million, including
capital expenditures of $106.7 million (FY99/00)

Industries:  tourism, banking, cement, oil refining and transshipment,
salt, rum, aragonite, pharmaceuticals, spiral-welded steel pipe

Industrial production growth rate:  NA%

Electricity - production:  1.54 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 100% hydro: 0% other: 0%
(2000) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:  1.432 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  0 kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports:  0 kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products:  citrus, vegetables; poultry

Exports:  $535.8 million (2000)

Exports - commodities:  fish and crawfish; rum, salt, chemicals; fruit
and vegetables (1999)

Exports - partners:  US 28.2%, France 16.5%, Germany 14.1%, UK 12.4%
(2000)

Imports:  $1.88 billion (2000)

Imports - commodities:  machinery and transport equipment, manufactures,
chemicals, mineral fuels; food and live animals (1999)

Imports - partners:  US 31.6%, South Korea 18.2%, Italy 17.4%, Japan 5.8%
(2000)

Debt - external:  $381.9 million (2000)

Economic aid - recipient:  $9.8 million (1995)

Currency:  Bahamian dollar (BSD)

Currency code:  BSD

Exchange rates:  Bahamian dollars per US dollar - 1.000 (fixed rate
pegged to the dollar)

Fiscal year:  1 July - 30 June

Communications Bahamas, The

Telephones - main lines in use:  96,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  6,152 (1997)

Telephone system:  general assessment: modern facilities domestic:
totally automatic system; highly developed international: tropospheric
scatter and submarine cable to Florida; 3 coaxial submarine cables;
satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (1997)

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 3, FM 4, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios:  215,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:  1 (1997)

Televisions:  67,000 (1997)

Internet country code:  .bs

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  19 (2000)

Internet users:  13,100 (2001)

Transportation Bahamas, The

Railways:  0 km

Highways:  total: 2,693 km paved: 1,546 km unpaved: 1,147 km (1997)

Waterways:  none

Ports and harbors:  Freeport, Matthew Town, Nassau

Merchant marine:  total: 1,076 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
31,309,187 GRT/45,859,485 DWT ships by type: bulk 159, cargo 246, chemical
tanker 41, combination bulk 13, combination ore/oil 22, container 80,
liquefied gas 28, livestock carrier 2, multi-functional large-load carrier
8, passenger 88, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 178, railcar carrier
1, refrigerated cargo 120, roll on/roll off 49, short-sea passenger 16,
specialized tanker 2, vehicle carrier 22 note: includes some foreign-owned
ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Angola 1, Argentina
1, Australia 4, Belgium 18, Bermuda 1, Canada 5, Chile 1, China 3,
Croatia 2, Cuba 3, Cyprus 2, Denmark 27, Ecuador 1, Estonia 2, Finland
9, France 15, Germany 26, Greece 173, Hong Kong 6, India 2, Indonesia 2,
Ireland 1, Israel 3, Italy 9, Jamaica 1, Japan 32, Kenya 3, Malaysia 10,
Malta 2, Monaco 67, Netherlands 32, New Zealand 2, Norway 237, Panama 2,
Philippines 3, Poland 13, Reunion 1, Russia 6, Saudi Arabia 9, Singapore
13, Slovenia 1, South Korea 2, Spain 7, Sweden 12, Switzerland 8, Thailand
1, Trinidad and Tobago 2, Turkey 2, Ukraine 2, United Arab Emirates 10,
United Kingdom 107, United States 159, Uruguay 1 (2002 est.)

Airports:  67 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 32 over 3,047 m: 3 2,438 to 3,047
m: 4 914 to 1,523 m: 10 under 914 m: 3 (2001) 1,524 to 2,437 m: 12

Airports - with unpaved runways:  total: 35 1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 914 to
1,523 m: 9 under 914 m: 23 (2001)

Heliports:  1 (2001)

Military Bahamas, The

Military branches:  Royal Bahamas Defense Force (Coast Guard only),
Royal Bahamas Police Force

Military expenditures - dollar figure:  $20 million (FY95/96)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:  0.7% (FY99)

Transnational Issues Bahamas, The

Disputes - international:  none

Illicit drugs:  transshipment point for cocaine and marijuana bound for
US and Europe; banking industry vulnerable to money laundering

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002



========================================================================


Bangladesh

Introduction

Bangladesh

Background:  Bangladesh came into existence in 1971 when Bengali East
Pakistan seceded from its union with West Pakistan. About a third of this
extremely poor country floods annually during the monsoon rainy season,
hampering economic development.

Geography Bangladesh

Location:  Southern Asia, bordering the Bay of Bengal, between Burma
and India

Geographic coordinates:  24 00 N, 90 00 E

Map references:  Asia

Area:  total: 144,000 sq km land: 133,910 sq km water: 10,090 sq km

Area - comparative:  slightly smaller than Iowa

Land boundaries:  total: 4,246 km border countries: Burma 193 km, India
4,053 km

Coastline:  580 km

Maritime claims:  contiguous zone: 18 NM territorial sea: 12 NM
continental shelf: up to the outer limits of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

Climate:  tropical; mild winter (October to March); hot, humid summer
(March to June); humid, warm rainy monsoon (June to October)

Terrain:  mostly flat alluvial plain; hilly in southeast

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m highest point:
Keokradong 1,230 m

Natural resources:  natural gas, arable land, timber, coal

Land use:  arable land: 61% permanent crops: 3% other: 36% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  38,440 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:  droughts, cyclones; much of the country routinely
inundated during the summer monsoon season

Environment - current issues:  many people are landless and forced to
live on and cultivate flood-prone land; water-borne diseases prevalent
in surface water; water pollution, especially of fishing areas, results
from the use of commercial pesticides; ground water contaminated by
naturally occurring arsenic; intermittent water shortages because of
falling water tables in the northern and central parts of the country;
soil degradation and erosion; deforestation; severe overpopulation

Environment - international agreements:  party to: Biodiversity, Climate
Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea,
Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands signed, but not
ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:  most of the country is situated on deltas of large
rivers flowing from the Himalayas: the Ganges unites with the Jamuna
(main channel of the Brahmaputra) and later joins the Meghna to eventually
empty into the Bay of Bengal

People Bangladesh

Population:  133,376,684 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:   33.8% (male 23,069,242; female 21,995,457) 15-64 years:
(male 2,444,314; female 2,069,816) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  1.59% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  25.12 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  8.47 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  -0.75 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 65 years and over:
1.18 male(s)/female total population: 1.05 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  68.05 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   60.74 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  2.72 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  0.02% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  13,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  1,000 (1999 est.)

Nationality:  noun: Bangladeshi(s) adjective: Bangladeshi

Ethnic groups:  Bengali 98%, tribal groups, non-Bengali Muslims (1998)

Religions:  Muslim 83%, Hindu 16%, other 1% (1998)

Languages:  Bangla (official, also known as Bengali), English

Literacy:  definition: age 15 and over can read and write total
population: 56% male: 63% female: 49% (2000 est.)

Government Bangladesh

Country name:  conventional long form: People's Republic of Bangladesh
conventional short form: Bangladesh former: East Pakistan

Government type:  parliamentary democracy

Capital:  Dhaka

Administrative divisions:  5 divisions; Barisal, Chittagong, Dhaka,
Khulna, Rajshahi; note - there may be one additional division named Sylhet

Independence:  16 December 1971 (from West Pakistan); note - 26 March
1971 is the date of independence from West Pakistan, 16 December 1971
is known as Victory Day and commemorates the official creation of the
state of Bangladesh

National holiday:  Independence Day, 26 March (1971); note - 26 March
1971 is the date of independence from West Pakistan, 16 December 1971
is Victory Day and commemorates the official creation of the state
of Bangladesh

Constitution:  4 November 1972, effective 16 December 1972, suspended
following coup of 24 March 1982, restored 10 November 1986, amended
many times

Legal system:  based on English common law

Suffrage:  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:  chief of state: President A. Q. M. Badruddoza CHOWDHURY
(since 12 November 2001); note - the president's duties are normally
ceremonial, but with the 13th amendment to the constitution ("Caretaker
Government Amendment"), the president's role becomes significant at times
when Parliament is dissolved and a caretaker government is installed -
at presidential direction - to supervise the elections head of government:
selected by the prime minister and appointed by the president elections:
last held 1 October 2001 (next to be held by NA October 2006); following
legislative elections, the leader of the party that wins the most seats
is usually appointed prime minister by the president election results:
percent of National Parliament vote - NA%

Legislative branch:  unicameral National Parliament or Jatiya Sangsad;
300 seats elected by popular vote from single territorial constituencies
(the constitutional amendment reserving 30 seats for women over and
above the 300 regular parliament seats expired in May 2001); members
serve five-year terms elections: last held 1 October 2001 (next to be
held before October 2006) election results: percent of vote by party -
BNP and alliance partners 46%, AL 42%; seats by party - BNP 201, AL 62,
JI 18, JP (Ershad faction) 14, IOJ 2, JP (Naziur) 1, other 4; note -
the election of October 2001 brought a majority BNP government aligned
with three other smaller parties - Jamaat-i-Islami, Islami Oikya Jote,
and Jatiya Party (Naziur)

Judicial branch:  Supreme Court (the chief justices and other judges
are appointed by the president)

Political parties and leaders:  Awami League or AL [Sheikh HASINA];
Bangladesh Communist Party or BCP [Saifuddin Ahmed MANIK]; Bangladesh
Nationalist Party or BNP [Khaleda ZIA, chairperson]; Islami Oikya Jote
or IOJ [Mufti Fazlul Haq AMINI]; Jamaat-E-Islami or JI [Motiur Rahman
NIZAMI]; Jatiya Party or JP (Ershad faction) [Hussain Mohammad ERSHAD];
Jatiya Party (Manzur faction) [[Naziur Rahman MANZUR]

Political pressure groups and leaders:  NA

International organization participation:  AsDB, C, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO,
G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, MONUC, NAM,
OIC, OPCW, SAARC, UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM,
UNMEE, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOP, UNMOT, UNOMIG, UNTAET, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU,
WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:   Ambassador Ahmad Tariq KARIM
consulate(s) general:  244-0183 chancery: 3510 International Drive NW,
Washington, DC 20008

Diplomatic representation from the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
Mary Ann PETERS embassy: Madani Avenue,
 G. P. O. Box 323, Dhaka 1000 telephone:
Flag description:  green with a large red disk slightly to the hoist
side of center; the red sun of freedom represents the blood shed to
achieve independence; the green field symbolizes the lush countryside,
and secondarily, the traditional color of Islam

Economy Bangladesh

Economy - overview:  Despite sustained domestic and international efforts
to improve economic and demographic prospects, Bangladesh remains a
poor, overpopulated, and ill-governed nation. Although more than half
of GDP is generated through the service sector, nearly two-thirds of
Bangladeshis are employed in the agriculture sector, with rice as the
single most important product. Major impediments to growth include
frequent cyclones and floods, inefficient state-owned enterprises,
inadequate port facilities, a rapidly growing labor force that cannot be
absorbed by agriculture, delays in exploiting energy resources (natural
gas), insufficient power supplies, and slow implementation of economic
reforms. Economic reform is stalled in many instances by political
infighting and corruption at all levels of government. Progress also has
been blocked by opposition from the bureaucracy, public sector unions,
and other vested interest groups. The newly-elected BNP government,
led by Prime Minister Khaleda ZIA, has the parliamentary strength to
push through needed reforms, but the party's level of political will to
do so remains undetermined.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $230 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  5.6% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $1,750 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: 30% industry: 18% services:
52% (2000 est.)

Population below poverty line:  35.6% (FY95/96 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: 3.9%
highest 10%: 28.6% (1995-96 est.)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:  33.6 (1995-96)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  5.8% (2000 est.)

Labor force:  64.1 million (1998) note: extensive export of labor
to Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, UAE, Oman, Qatar, and Malaysia; workers'
remittances estimated at $1.71 billion in 1998-99

Labor force - by occupation:  agriculture 63%, services 26%, industry 11%
(FY95/96)

Unemployment rate:  35% (2001 est.)

Budget:  revenues: $4.9 billion expenditures: $6.8 billion, including
capital expenditures of $NA (FY99/00 est.)

Industries:  cotton textiles, jute, garments, tea processing, paper
newsprint, cement, chemical fertilizer, light engineering, sugar

Industrial production growth rate:  6.2% (2001 est.)

Electricity - production:  13.493 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 92.45% hydro: 7.55%
other: 0% (2000) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:  12.548 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  0 kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports:  0 kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products:  rice, jute, tea, wheat, sugarcane, potatoes,
tobacco, pulses, oilseeds, spices, fruit; beef, milk, poultry

Exports:  $6.6 billion (2001)

Exports - commodities:  garments, jute and jute goods, leather, frozen
fish and seafood

Exports - partners:  US 31.8%, Germany 10.9%, UK 7.9%, France 5.2%,
Netherlands 5.2%, Italy 4.42% (2000)

Imports:  $8.7 billion (2001)

Imports - commodities:  machinery and equipment, chemicals, iron and
steel, textiles, raw cotton, food, crude oil and petroleum products,
cement

Imports - partners:  India 10.5%, EU 9.5%, Japan 9.5%, Singapore 8.5%,
China 7.4% (2000)

Debt - external:  $17 billion (2000)

Economic aid - recipient:  $1.575 billion (2000 est.)

Currency:  taka (BDT)

Currency code:  BDT

Exchange rates:  taka per US dollar - 57.756 (January 2002), 55.807
(2001), 52.142 (2000), 49.085 (1999), 46.906 (1998), 43.892 (1997)

Fiscal year:  1 July - 30 June

Communications Bangladesh

Telephones - main lines in use:  500,000 (2000)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  283,000 (2000)

Telephone system:   totally inadequate for a modern country domestic:
UHF microwave radio relay links, and some fiber-optic cable in cities
international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Indian Ocean);
international radiotelephone communications and landline service to
neighboring countries (2000)

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 12, FM 12, shortwave 2 (1999)

Radios:  6.15 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:  15 (1999)

Televisions:  770,000 (1997)

Internet country code:  .bd

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  10 (2000)

Internet users:  30,000 (2000)

Transportation Bangladesh

Railways:  total: 2,745 km broad gauge: 923 km 1.676-m gauge narrow gauge:
1,822 km 1.000-m gauge (2000 est.)

Highways:  total: 201,182 km paved: 19,112 km unpaved: 182,070 km (1997)

Waterways:  up to 8,046 km depending on season note: includes 3,058 km
main cargo routes

Pipelines:  natural gas 1,250 km

Ports and harbors:  Chittagong, Dhaka, Mongla Port, Narayanganj (2001)

Merchant marine:  total: 34 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 269,932
GRT/379,271 DWT ships by type: bulk 2, cargo 26, container 3, petroleum
tanker 2, refrigerated cargo 1, includes s foreign-owned ship registered
here as a flag of convenience: Singapore 5 (2002 est.)

Airports:  18 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 15 over 3,047 m: 1 2,438 to 3,047
m: 4 1,524 to 2,437 m: 4 914 to 1,523 m: 1 under 914 m: 5 (2001)

Airports - with unpaved runways:  total: 3 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 under
914 m: 2 (2001)

Military Bangladesh

Military branches:  Army, Navy, Air Force, Coast Guard, paramilitary
forces (includes Bangladesh Rifles, Bangladesh Ansars, Village Defense
Parties, Armed Police Battalions, National Cadet Corps)

Military manpower - availability:  males age 15-49: 37,303,372 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:  males age 15-49: 22,139,736
(2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:  $559 million (FY96/97)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:  1.8% (FY96/97)

Transnational Issues Bangladesh

Disputes - international:  only a small portion of the boundary with India
remains undelimited; discussions to demarcate the boundary, exchange
162 miniscule enclaves, and allocate divided villages remain stalled;
skirmishes, illegal border trafficking, and violence along the border
continue; Bangladesh has protested India's attempts to fence off high
traffic sections of the porous boundary; Burmese attempts to construct
a dam on the border stream in 2001 prompted an armed response halting
construction; Burmese Muslim refugees migrate into Bangladesh straining
meager resources

Illicit drugs:  transit country for illegal drugs produced in neighboring
countries

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002



========================================================================


Belize

Introduction

Belize

Background:  Territorial disputes between the UK and Guatemala delayed the
independence of Belize (formerly British Honduras) until 1981. Guatemala
refused to recognize the new nation until 1992. Tourism has become the
mainstay of the economy. The country remains plagued by high unemployment,
growing involvement in the South American drug trade, and increased
urban crime.

Geography Belize

Location:  Middle America, bordering the Caribbean Sea, between Guatemala
and Mexico

Geographic coordinates:  17 15 N, 88 45 W

Map references:  Central America and the Caribbean

Area:  total: 22,966 sq km water: 160 sq km land: 22,806 sq km

Area - comparative:  slightly smaller than Massachusetts

Land boundaries:  total: 516 km border countries: Guatemala 266 km,
Mexico 250 km

Coastline:  386 km

Maritime claims:  exclusive economic zone: 200 NM territorial sea: 12 NM
in the north, 3 NM in the south; note - from the mouth of the Sarstoon
River to Ranguana Cay, Belize's territorial sea is 3 NM; according to
Belize's Maritime Areas Act, 1992, the purpose of this limitation is
to provide a framework for the negotiation of a definitive agreement on
territorial differences with Guatemala

Climate:  tropical; very hot and humid; rainy season (May to November);
dry season (February to May)

Terrain:  flat, swampy coastal plain; low mountains in south

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m highest point:
Victoria Peak 1,160 m

Natural resources:  arable land potential, timber, fish, hydropower

Land use:  arable land: 3% permanent crops: 1% other: 96% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  30 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:  frequent, devastating hurricanes (June to November)
and coastal flooding (especially in south)

Environment - current issues:  deforestation; water pollution from sewage,
industrial effluents, agricultural runoff; solid and sewage waste disposal

Environment - international agreements:  party to: Biodiversity, Climate
Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of
the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands signed, but
not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:  only country in Central America without a coastline
on the North Pacific Ocean

People Belize

Population:  262,999 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:  0-14 years: 41.6% (male 55,716; female 53,581) 15-64
years: 54.9% (male 73,068; female 71,368) 65 years and over: 3.5%
(male 4,511; female 4,755) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  2.65% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  31.08 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  4.6 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female 65 years and over:
0.95 male(s)/female total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  24.31 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   73.87 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  3.96 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  2.01% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  2,400 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  170 (1999 est.)

Nationality:  noun: Belizean(s) adjective: Belizean

Ethnic groups:  mestizo 48.7%, Creole 24.9%, Maya 10.6%, Garifuna 6.1%,
other 9.7%

Religions:  Roman Catholic 49.6%, Protestant 27% (Anglican 5.3%, Methodist
3.5%, Mennonite 4.1%, Seventh-Day Adventist 5.2%, Pentecostal 7.4%,
Jehovah's Witnesses 1.5%), none 9.4%, other 14% (2000)

Languages:  English (official), Spanish, Mayan, Garifuna (Carib), Creole

Literacy:  definition: age 15 and over can read and write total
population: 70.3% male: 70.3% female: 70.3% (1991 est.)  note: other
sources list the literacy rate as high as 75%

Government Belize

Country name:   Belize former: Government type:  parliamentary democracy

Capital:  Belmopan

Administrative divisions:  6 districts; Belize, Cayo, Corozal, Orange
Walk, Stann Creek, Toledo

Independence:  21 September 1981 (from UK)

National holiday:  Independence Day, 21 September (1981)

Constitution:  21 September 1981

Legal system:  English law

Suffrage:  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February
1952), represented by Governor General Sir Colville YOUNG, Sr. (since
17 November 1993) head of government: Prime Minister Said Wilbert MUSA
(since 27 August 1998); Deputy Prime Minister John BRICENO (since 1
September 1998) cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the
advice of the prime minister elections: none; the monarch is hereditary;
governor general appointed by the monarch; governor general appoints
the member of the House of Representatives who is leader of the majority
party to be prime minister

Legislative branch:  bicameral National Assembly consists of the Senate
(12 members appointed by the governor general - six on the advice of the
prime minister, three on the advice of the leader of the opposition, and
one each on the advice of the Belize Council of Churches and Evangelical
Association of Churches, the Belize Chamber of Commerce and Industry
and the Belize Better Business Bureau, and the National Trade Union
Congress and the Civil Society Steering Committee; members are appointed
for five-year terms) and the House of Representatives (29 seats; members
are elected by direct popular vote to serve five-year terms) elections:
House of Representatives - last held 27 August 1998 (next to be held by
NA August 2003) election results: percent of vote by party - PUP 59.2%,
UDP 40.8%; seats by party - PUP 26, UDP 3

Judicial branch:  Supreme Court (the chief justice is appointed by the
governor general on the advice of the prime minister)

Political parties and leaders:  People's United Party or PUP [Said MUSA];
United Democratic Party or UDP [Dean BARROW, party leader; Douglas SINGH,
party chairman]

Political pressure groups and leaders:  Society for the Promotion of
Education and Research or SPEAR [Diane HAYLOCK]; United Worker's Front

International organization participation:  ACP, C, Caricom, CDB, ECLAC,
FAO, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO,
IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador Lisa
M. SHOMAN consulate(s) general: Los
 [1] (202) 332-9636 chancery:
Diplomatic representation from the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
Russell F. FREEMAN embassy: 29 Gabourel Lane and Hutson Street, Belize
City mailing address: P. O. Box 286, Unit 7401, APO AA 34025 telephone:
[501] (2) 77161 FAX: [501] (2) 30802

Flag description:  blue with a narrow red stripe along the top and the
bottom edges; centered is a large white disk bearing the coat of arms;
the coat of arms features a shield flanked by two workers in front of
a mahogany tree with the related motto SUB UMBRA FLOREO (I Flourish in
the Shade) on a scroll at the bottom, all encircled by a green garland

Economy Belize

Economy - overview:  The small, essentially private enterprise economy is
based primarily on agriculture, agro-based industry, and merchandising,
with tourism and construction assuming greater importance. Sugar,
the chief crop, accounts for nearly half of exports, while the banana
industry is the country's largest employer. The government's expansionary
monetary and fiscal policies, initiated in September 1998, led to GDP
growth of 6.4% in 1999 and 10.5% in 2000. Growth decelerated in 2001 to
3% due to the global slowdown and severe hurricane damage to agriculture,
fishing, and tourism. Major concerns continue to be the rapidly expanding
trade deficit and foreign debt. A key short-term objective remains the
reduction of poverty with the help of international donors.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $830 million (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  3% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $3,250 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: 18% industry: 24% services:
58% (2001 est.)

Population below poverty line:  33% (1999 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  1.7% (2001 est.)

Labor force:  90,000 note: shortage of skilled labor and all types of
technical personnel (1997 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:  agriculture 27%, industry 18%, services 55%
(2001 est.)

Unemployment rate:  11.5% (2000)

Budget:  revenues: $186 million expenditures: $253 million, including
capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)

Industries:  garment production, food processing, tourism, construction

Industrial production growth rate:  4.6% (1999)

Electricity - production:  192 million kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 58.33% hydro: 41.67%
other: 0% (2000) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:  178.56 million kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  0 kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports:  0 kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products:  bananas, coca, citrus, sugarcane; lumber; fish,
cultured shrimp

Exports:  $239.6 million (f.o.b., 2001 est.)

Exports - commodities:  sugar, bananas, citrus, clothing, fish products,
molasses, wood

Exports - partners:  EU 45% (UK 33%), US 42%, Caricom 6%, Canada 1% (1999)

Imports:  $505 million (c.i.f., 2001 est.)

Imports - commodities:  machinery and transportation equipment,
manufactured goods; food, beverages, tobacco; fuels, chemicals,
pharmaceuticals

Imports - partners:  US 51%, Mexico 12%, Central America 5%, UK 4% (1999)

Debt - external:  $500 million (2000 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:  $NA

Currency:  Belizean dollar (BZD)

Currency code:  BZD

Exchange rates:  Belizean dollars per US dollar - 2.0000 (fixed rate
pegged to the US dollar)

Fiscal year:  1 April - 31 March

Communications Belize

Telephones - main lines in use:  31,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  3,023 (1997)

Telephone system:  general assessment: above-average system domestic:
trunk network depends primarily on microwave radio relay international:
satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 1, FM 12, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios:  133,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:  2 (1997)

Televisions:  41,000 (1997)

Internet country code:  .bz

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  2 (2000)

Internet users:  15,000 (2000)

Transportation Belize

Railways:  0 km

Highways:  total: 2,880 km paved: 490 km unpaved: 2,390 km (1998 est.)

Waterways:  825 km (river network used by shallow-draft craft; seasonally
navigable)

Ports and harbors:  Belize City, Big Creek, Corozol, Punta Gorda

Merchant marine:  total: 315 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,240,551
GRT/1,761,168 DWT ships by type: bulk 26, cargo 204, chemical tanker 6,
combination ore/oil 1, container 12, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker
39, refrigerated cargo 15, roll on/roll off 8, short-sea passenger 1,
specialized tanker 1, vehicle carrier 1 note: includes some foreign-owned
ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Albania 2, Belgium 3,
British Virgin Islands 6, Cambodia 1, China 38, Cyprus 1, Ecuador 1,
Egypt 1, Equatorial Guinea 1, Eritrea 1, Estonia 7, Germany 3, Greece
4, Grenada 1, Honduras 1, Hong Kong 20, Indonesia 6, Italy 2, Japan 4,
Jordan 1, Lebanon 1, Liberia 5, Malaysia 3, Malta 2, Man, Isle of 1,
Marshall Islands 13, Mexico 1, Netherlands 1, Nigeria 1, Panama 12,
Philippines 4, Portugal 1, Romania 1, Russia 3, Saint Vincent and the
Grenadines 3, Saudi Arabia 1, Singapore 22, South Korea 10, Spain 4,
Switzerland 1, Taiwan 1, Thailand 6, Tunisia 1, Turkey 1, Ukraine 3,
United Arab Emirates 9, United Kingdom 2, United States 4, Virgin Islands
(UK) 6, Yemen 1 (2002 est.)

Airports:  44 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 4 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 914 to
1,523 m: 1 under 914 m: 2 (2001)

Airports - with unpaved runways:  total: 40 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 914 to
1,523 m: 10 under 914 m: 29 (2001)

Military Belize

Military branches:  Belize Defense Force (includes Army, Maritime Wing,
Air Wing, and Volunteer Guard)

Military manpower - military age:  18 years of age (2002 est.)

Military manpower - availability:  males age 15-49: 64,909 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:  males age 15-49: 38,472
(2002 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:  males: 2,847
(2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:  $7.7 million (FY00/01)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:  1.87% (FY00/01)

Transnational Issues Belize

Disputes - international:  the "Line of Adjacency" established in 2000
as an agreed limit to check squatters settling in Belize, remains in
place while the Organization of American States (OAS) assists states to
resolve Guatemalan territorial claims in Belize and Guatemalan maritime
access to the Caribbean Sea; Honduras claims the Sapodilla Cays off the
coast of Belize

Illicit drugs:  major transshipment point for cocaine; small-scale
illicit producer of cannabis for the international drug trade; minor
money-laundering center

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002



========================================================================


Bosnia and Herzegovina

Introduction

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Background:  Bosnia and Herzegovina's declaration of sovereignty
in October 1991, was followed by a declaration of independence from
the former Yugoslavia on 3 March 1992 after a referendum boycotted
by ethnic Serbs. The Bosnian Serbs - supported by neighboring Serbia
and Montenegro - responded with armed resistance aimed at partitioning
the republic along ethnic lines and joining Serb-held areas to form a
"greater Serbia." In March 1994, Bosniaks and Croats reduced the number
of warring factions from three to two by signing an agreement creating a
joint Bosniak/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. On 21 November
1995, in Dayton, Ohio, the warring parties signed a peace agreement
that brought to a halt the three years of interethnic civil strife (the
final agreement was signed in Paris on 14 December 1995). The Dayton
Agreement retained Bosnia and Herzegovina's international boundaries and
created a joint multi-ethnic and democratic government. This national
government was charged with conducting foreign, economic, and fiscal
policy.  Also recognized was a second tier of government comprised of two
entities roughly equal in size: the Bosniak/Croat Federation of Bosnia and
Herzegovina and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska (RS). The Federation
and RS governments were charged with overseeing internal functions. In
1995-96, a NATO-led international peacekeeping force (IFOR) of 60,000
troops served in Bosnia to implement and monitor the military aspects of
the agreement. IFOR was succeeded by a smaller, NATO-led Stabilization
Force (SFOR) whose mission is to deter renewed hostilities. SFOR remains
in place at the January 2002 level of approximately 18,000 troops,
though further reductions may take place later in the year.

Geography Bosnia and Herzegovina

Location:  Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Croatia

Geographic coordinates:  44 00 N, 18 00 E

Map references:  Europe

Area:  total: 51,129 sq km water: 0 sq km land: 51,129 sq km

Area - comparative:  slightly smaller than West Virginia

Land boundaries:  total: 1,459 km border countries: Croatia 932 km,
Yugoslavia 527 km

Coastline:  20 km

Maritime claims:  NA

Climate:  hot summers and cold winters; areas of high elevation have
short, cool summers and long, severe winters; mild, rainy winters
along coast

Terrain:  mountains and valleys

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m highest point:
Maglic 2,386 m

Natural resources:  coal, iron, bauxite, manganese, forests, copper,
chromium, lead, zinc, hydropower

Land use:  arable land: 10% permanent crops: 3% other: 87% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  20 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:  destructive earthquakes

Environment - current issues:  air pollution from metallurgical plants;
sites for disposing of urban waste are limited; water shortages and
destruction of infrastructure because of the 1992-95 civil strife

Environment - international agreements:  party to: Air Pollution, Climate
Change, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation,
Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands signed, but not
ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:  within Bosnia and Herzegovina's recognized borders,
the country is divided into a joint Bosniak/Croat Federation (about 51% of
the territory) and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska or RS (about 49%
of the territory); the region called Herzegovina is contiguous to Croatia
and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Montenegro), and traditionally
has been settled by an ethnic Croat majority in the west and an ethnic
Serb majority in the east

People Bosnia and Herzegovina

Population:  3,964,388 note: all data dealing with population are subject
to considerable error because of the dislocations caused by military
action and ethnic cleansing (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:  0-14 years: 19.8% (male 403,391; female 382,037) 15-64
years: 70.6% (male 1,432,559; female 1,366,224) 65 years and over: 9.6%
(male 161,659; female 218,518) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  0.76% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  12.76 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  8.1 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  2.97 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.06
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 65 years and over:
0.74 male(s)/female total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  23.53 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   74.93 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  1.71 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  0.04% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  less than 100 (1999 est.)

Nationality:  noun: Bosnian(s) adjective: Bosnian

Ethnic groups:  Serb 31%, Bosniak 44%, Croat 17%, Yugoslav 5.5%, other
2.5% (1991) note:  with the religious term Muslim - an adherent of Islam

Religions:  Muslim 40%, Orthodox 31%, Roman Catholic 15%, Protestant 4%,
other 10%

Languages:  Croatian, Serbian, Bosnian

Literacy:  definition: NA total population: NA% male: NA% female: NA%

Government Bosnia and Herzegovina

Country name:  conventional long form: none conventional short form:
Bosnia and Herzegovina local long form: none local short form: Bosna
i Hercegovina

Government type:  emerging federal democratic republic

Capital:  Sarajevo

Administrative divisions:  there are two first-order administrative
divisions and one internationally supervised district* - Brcko district
(Brcko Distrikt)*, the Bosniak/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina
(Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina) and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika
Srpska; note - Brcko district is in northeastern Bosnia and is an
administrative unit under the sovereignty of Bosnia and Herzegovina;
it is not part of either Republika Srpska or the Federation of Bosnia
and Herzegovina; the district remains under international supervision

Independence:  1 March 1992 (from Yugoslavia; referendum for independence
was completed 1 March 1992; independence was declared 3 March 1992)

National holiday:  National Day, 25 November (1943)

Constitution:  the Dayton Agreement, signed 14 December 1995, included
a new constitution now in force; note - each of the entities also has
its own constitution

Legal system:  based on civil law system

Suffrage:  16 years of age, if employed; 18 years of age, universal

Executive branch:  chief of state: Chairman of the Presidency Beriz BELKIC
(chairman since 14 February 2002, presidency member since 30 March 2001 -
Bosniak); other members of the three-member rotating (every eight months)
presidency:  30 March 2001 - Croat) elections: the three members of the
presidency (one Bosniak, one Croat, one Serb) are elected by popular vote
for a four-year term; the member with the most votes becomes the chairman
unless he or she was the incumbent chairman at the time of the election,
but the chairmanship rotates every eight months; election last held 12-13
September 1998 (next to be held NA October 2002); the chairman of the
Council of Ministers is appointed by the presidency and confirmed by the
National House of Representatives head of government: Chairman of the
Council of Ministers Dragan MIKEREVIC (since 15 March 2002), position
rotates every eight months cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by
the council chairman; approved by the National House of Representatives
election results: percent of vote - Zivko RADISIC with 52% of the Serb
vote was elected chairman of the collective presidency for the first eight
months; Ante JELAVIC with 52% of the Croat vote followed RADISIC in the
rotation; Alija IZETBEGOVIC with 87% of the Bosniak vote won the highest
number of votes in the election but was ineligible to serve a second
term until RADISIC and JELAVIC had each served a first term as Chairman
of the Presidency; IZETBEGOVIC retired from the presidency 14 October
2000 and was replaced first temporarily by Halid GENJAC and subsequently
by Beriz BELKIC; Ante JELAVIC was replaced by Jozo KRIZANOVIC in March
2001 when the High Representative barred him from public office note:
(since 1 January 2002); Vice President Karlo FILIPOVIC (since 1 January
2002); note - president and vice president rotate every year; President
of the Republika Srpska: Mirko SAROVIC (since 11 November 2000); Vice
President of the Republika Srpska: Dragan CAVIZ (since NA)

Legislative branch:  bicameral Parliamentary Assembly or Skupstina
consists of the National House of Representatives or Predstavnicki
Dom (42 seats - 14 Serb, 14 Croat, and 14 Bosniak; members elected by
popular vote to serve four-year terms) and the House of Peoples or Dom
Naroda (15 seats - 5 Bosniak, 5 Croat, 5 Serb; members elected by the
Bosniak/Croat Federation's House of Representatives and the Republika
Srpska's National Assembly to serve four-year terms); note - Bosnia's
election law specifies four-year terms for the state and first-order
administrative division entity legislatures; officials elected in 2000
and previously were elected to two-year terms on the presumption that a
permanent law would be in place before 2002 election results: National
House of Representatives - percent of vote by party/coalition - SDP
22%, SDA 20%, SDS 15%, HDZ-BiH 12%, SBH 12%, PDP 5%, NHI 2%, BPS 2%,
DPS 2%, SNS 2% SNSD-DSP 2%, DNZ 2%, SPRS 2%; seats by party/coalition
- SDP 9, SDA 8, SDS 6, HDZ-BiH 5, SBH 5, PDP 2, NHI 1, BPS 1, DPS 1,
SNS 1, SNSD-DSP 1, DNZ 1, SPRS 1; House of Peoples - percent of vote by
party/coalition - NA%; seats by party/coalition - NA elections: National
House of Representatives - elections last held 11 November 2000 (next to
be held in NA October 2002); House of Peoples - last constituted after the
11 November 2000 elections (next to be constituted in the fall of 2002)
note: the Bosniak/Croat Federation has a bicameral legislature that
consists of a House of Representatives (140 seats; members elected by
popular vote to serve four-year terms); elections last held 11 November
2000 (next to be held NA October 2002); percent of vote by party - NA%;
seats by party/coalition - SDA 38, SDP 37, HDZ-BiH 25, SBH 21, DNZ 3,
NHI 2, BPS 2, DPS 2, BOSS 2, GDS 1, RP 1, HSS 1, LDS 1, Pensioners'
Party of FBiH 1, SNSD-DSP 1, HKDU 1, HSP 1; and a House of Peoples
(74 seats - 30 Bosniak, 30 Croat, and 14 others); last constituted
November 2000; the Republika Srpska has a National Assembly (83 seats;
members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms); elections last
held 11 November 2000 (next to be held in the fall of 2002); percent of
vote by party - NA%; seats by party/coalition - SDS 31, PDP 11, SNSD
11, SDA 6, DSP 4, SDP 4, SPRS 4, SBH 4, DNS 3, SNS 2, NHI 1, DSRS 1,
Pensioners' Party 1; Bosnia's election law specifies four-year terms for
the state and first-order administrative division entity legislatures;
officials elected in 2000 and prior were elected to two-year terms on
the presumption that a permanent law would be in place before 2002

Judicial branch:  BiH Constitutional Court (consists of nine members:
four members are selected by the Bosniak/Croat Federation's House of
Representatives, two members by the Republika Srpska's National Assembly,
and three non-Bosnian members by the president of the European Court
of Human Rights) note:  cases related to state-level law and appellate
jurisdiction over cases initiated in the entities; the entities each have
a Supreme Court; each entity also has a number of lower courts; there are
10 cantonal courts in the Federation, plus a number of municipal courts;
the Republika Srpska has five municipal courts

Political parties and leaders:  Bosnian Party or BOSS [Mirnes AJANOVIC];
Bosnian Patriotic Party or BPS [Sefer HALILOVIC]; Civic Democratic
Party of BiH or GDS [Ibrahim SPAHIC]; Croat Christian Democratic Union
or HKDU BiH [Ante PASALIC]; Croatian Democratic Union of BiH or HDZ-BiH
[Ante JELAVIC; note - not recognized by the international community];
Croatian Party of Rights of BiH or HSP-BiH [Zdravko HRSTIC]; Croatian
Peasants Party of BiH or HSS-BiH [Ilija SIMIC]; Democratic National
Alliance or DNS [Dragan KOSTIC]; Democratic Party of Pensioners or DPS
[Alojz KNEZOVIC]; Democratic Party of RS or DSRS [Dragomir DUMIC];
Democratic Peoples Union or DNZ [Fikret ABDIC]; Democratic Socialist
Party or DSP [Nebojsa RADMANOVIC]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDS
[Rasim KADIC]; New Croatian Initiative or NHI [Kresimir ZUBAK]; Party
for Bosnia and Herzegovina or SBH [Safet HALILOVIC]; Party of Democratic
Action or SDA [Sulejman TIHIC]; Party of Democratic Progress or PDP
[Mladen IVANIC]; Party of Independent Social Democrats or SNSD [Milorad
DODIK]; Pensioners' Party of FBiH [Husein VOJNIKOVIC]; Pensioners' Party
of SR [Stojan BOGOSAVAC]; People's Party-Working for Progress or NS-RZB
[Mladen IVANKOVIC]; Republican Party of BiH or RP [Stjepan KLJUIC];
Serb Democratic Party or SDS [Dragan KALINIC]; Serb National Alliance
(Serb People's Alliance) or SNS [Branislav LULIC]; Social Democratic
Party of BIH or SDP-BiH [Zlatko LAGUMDZIJA]; Socialist Party of Republika
Srpska or SPRS [Zivko RADISIC]

Political pressure groups and leaders:  NA

International organization participation:  BIS, CE (guest), CEI, EBRD,
ECE, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO,
Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, NAM (guest), OAS (observer),
OIC (observer), OPCW, OSCE, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMEE, UPU, WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador Igor
DAVIDOVIC chancery: 2109 E Street NW,
 [1] (202) 337-1500 consulate(s) general:
Diplomatic representation from the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
Clifford J. BOND embassy: Alipasina 43, 71000 Sarajevo mailing address:
use street address telephone: [387] (33) 445-700 FAX: [387] (33) 659-722
branch office(s): Banja Luka, Mostar

Flag description:  a wide medium blue vertical band on the fly side with
a yellow isosceles triangle abutting the band and the top of the flag;
the remainder of the flag is medium blue with seven full five-pointed
white stars and two half stars top and bottom along the hypotenuse of
the triangle

Government - note:  The Dayton Agreement, signed in Paris on 14 December
1995, retained Bosnia and Herzegovina's exterior border and created a
joint multi-ethnic and democratic government. This national government -
based on proportional representation similar to that which existed in the
former socialist regime - is charged with conducting foreign, economic,
and fiscal policy. The Dayton Agreement also recognized a second tier of
government, comprised of two entities - a joint Bosniak/Croat Federation
of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Bosnian Serb Republika Srpska (RS)
- each presiding over roughly one-half the territory. The Federation
and RS governments are charged with overseeing internal functions. The
Bosniak/Croat Federation is further divided into 10 cantons. The Dayton
Agreement established the Office of the High Representative (OHR) to
oversee the implementation of the civilian aspects of the agreement. About
250 international and 450 local staff members are employed by the OHR.

Economy Bosnia and Herzegovina

Economy - overview:  Bosnia and Herzegovina ranked next to The Former
Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia as the poorest republic in the old
Yugoslav federation.  Although agriculture is almost all in private
hands, farms are small and inefficient, and the republic traditionally
is a net importer of food. Industry has been greatly overstaffed,
one reflection of the socialist economic structure of Yugoslavia. TITO
had pushed the development of military industries in the republic with
the result that Bosnia hosted a large share of Yugoslavia's defense
plants. The bitter interethnic warfare in Bosnia caused production
to plummet by 80% from 1990 to 1995, unemployment to soar, and human
misery to multiply. With an uneasy peace in place, output recovered
in 1996-99 at high percentage rates from a low base; but output growth
slowed in 2000 and 2001. GDP remains far below the 1990 level. Economic
data are of limited use because, although both entities issue figures,
national-level statistics are limited. Moreover, official data do not
capture the large share of activity that occurs on the black market. The
marka - the national currency introduced in 1998 - is now pegged to the
euro, and the Central Bank of Bosnia and Herzegovina has dramatically
increased its reserve holdings. Implementation of privatization, however,
has been slow, and local entities only reluctantly support national-level
institutions. Banking reform accelerated in 2001 as all the communist-era
payments bureaus were shut down. The country receives substantial amounts
of reconstruction assistance and humanitarian aid from the international
community but will have to prepare for an era of declining assistance.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $7 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  6% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $1,800 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: 16% industry: 28% services:
56% (1998 est.)

Population below poverty line:  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  5% (2001 est.)

Labor force:  1.026 million

Labor force - by occupation:  agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services NA%

Unemployment rate:  40% (2001 est.)

Budget:  revenues: $1.9 billion expenditures: $2.2 billion, including
capital expenditures of $NA (1999 est.)

Industries:  steel, coal, iron ore, lead, zinc, manganese, bauxite,
vehicle assembly, textiles, tobacco products, wooden furniture, tank
and aircraft assembly, domestic appliances, oil refining

Industrial production growth rate:  9% (2001 est.)

Electricity - production:  2.615 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 37.67% hydro: 62.33%
other: 0% (2000) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:  2.577 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  205 million kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports:  350 million kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products:  wheat, corn, fruits, vegetables; livestock

Exports:  $1.1 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)

Exports - commodities:  miscellaneous manufactures, crude materials

Exports - partners:  Croatia, Switzerland, Italy, Germany

Imports:  $3.1 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)

Imports - commodities:  machinery and transport equipment, industrial
products, foodstuffs

Imports - partners:  Croatia, Slovenia, Germany, Italy

Debt - external:  $2.8 billion (2001)

Economic aid - recipient:  $650 million (2001 est.)

Currency:  marka (BAM)

Currency code:  BAM

Exchange rates:  marka per US dollar - 2.161 (October 2001), 2.124
(2000), 1.837 (1999), 1.760 (1998), 1.734 (1997)

Fiscal year:  calendar year

Communications Bosnia and Herzegovina

Telephones - main lines in use:  303,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  9,000 (1997)

Telephone system:  general assessment: telephone and telegraph network
needs modernization and expansion; many urban areas are below average
as contrasted with
 NA international:
Radio broadcast stations:  AM 8, FM 16, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios:  940,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:  33 (plus 277 repeaters) (September 1995)

Televisions:  NA

Internet country code:  .ba

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  3 (2000)

Internet users:  3,500 (2000)

Transportation Bosnia and Herzegovina

Railways:  total: 1,021 km (795 km electrified; operating as diesel or
steam until grids are repaired) standard gauge: 1,021 km 1.435-m gauge;
note - many segments still need repair and/or reconstruction because of
war damage (2000 est.)

Highways:  total: 21,846 km paved: 14,020 km note: road system is in
need of maintenance and repair (2001) unpaved: 7,826 km

Waterways:  NA km; large sections of the Sava blocked by downed bridges,
silt, and debris

Pipelines:  crude oil 174 km; natural gas 90 km (1992)

Ports and harbors:  Bosanska Gradiska, Bosanski Brod, Bosanski Samac,
and Brcko (all inland waterway ports on the Sava), Orasje

Merchant marine:  none (2002 est.)

Airports:  27 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 8 2,438 to 3,047 m: 4 1,524 to
2,437 m: 1 under 914 m: 3 (2001)

Airports - with unpaved runways:  total: 19 under 914 m: 11 (2001)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 7

Heliports:  5 (2001)

Military Bosnia and Herzegovina

Military branches:  VF Army (the air and air defense forces are
subordinate commands within the Army), VRS Army (the air and air defense
forces are subordinate commands within the Army)

Military manpower - military age:  19 years of age (2002 est.)

Military manpower - availability:  males age 15-49: 1,131,537 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:  males age 15-49: 898,117
(2002 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:  males: 29,757
(2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:  $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:  NA%

Transnational Issues Bosnia and Herzegovina

Disputes - international:  Bosnia and Herzegovina and Yugoslavia have
delimited about half of their boundary, but several segments, particularly
along the meandering Drina River, remain in dispute; discussions continue
with Croatia on the disputed boundary in the Una River near Kostajnica,
Hrvatska Dubica, and Zeljava; protests Croatian claim to the tip of the
Klek Peninsula and several islands near Neum

Illicit drugs:  minor transit point for marijuana and opiate trafficking
routes to Western Europe

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002



========================================================================


Bolivia

Introduction

Bolivia

Background:  Bolivia, named after independence fighter Simon BOLIVAR,
broke away from Spanish rule in 1825; much of its subsequent history has
consisted of a series of nearly 200 coups and counter-coups. Comparatively
democratic civilian rule was established in the 1980s, but leaders have
faced difficult problems of deep-seated poverty, social unrest, and
drug production. Current goals include attracting foreign investment,
strengthening the educational system, continuing the privatization
program, and waging an anticorruption campaign.

Geography Bolivia

Location:  Central South America, southwest of Brazil

Geographic coordinates:  17 00 S, 65 00 W

Map references:  South America

Area:  total: 1,098,580 sq km water: 14,190 sq km land: 1,084,390 sq km

Area - comparative:  slightly less than three times the size of Montana

Land boundaries:  total: 6,743 km border countries: Argentina 832 km,
Brazil 3,400 km, Chile 861 km, Paraguay 750 km, Peru 900 km

Coastline:  0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:  none (landlocked)

Climate:  varies with altitude; humid and tropical to cold and semiarid

Terrain:  rugged Andes Mountains with a highland plateau (Altiplano),
hills, lowland plains of the Amazon Basin

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Rio Paraguay 90 m highest point:
Nevado Sajama 6,542 m

Natural resources:  tin, natural gas, petroleum, zinc, tungsten, antimony,
silver, iron, lead, gold, timber, hydropower

Land use:  arable land: 2% permanent crops: 0% other: 98% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  1,280 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:  flooding in the northeast (March-April)

Environment - current issues:  the clearing of land for agricultural
purposes and the international demand for tropical timber are contributing
to deforestation; soil erosion from overgrazing and poor cultivation
methods (including slash-and-burn agriculture); desertification; loss of
biodiversity; industrial pollution of water supplies used for drinking
and irrigation

Environment - international agreements:  party to: Biodiversity, Climate
Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ship
Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands signed,
but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Marine Dumping, Marine
Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection

Geography - note:  landlocked; shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's
highest navigable lake (elevation 3,805 m), with Peru

People Bolivia

Population:  8,445,134 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:  0-14 years: 37.8% (male 1,626,596; female 1,565,124)
15-64 years: 57.7% (male 2,383,852; female 2,491,823) 65 years and over:
4.5% (male 169,583; female 208,156) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  1.69% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  26.41 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  8.05 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  -1.42 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female 65 years and over:
0.82 male(s)/female total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  57.52 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   67.1 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  3.37 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  0.1% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  4,200 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  380 (1999 est.)

Nationality:  noun: Bolivian(s) adjective: Bolivian

Ethnic groups:  Quechua 30%, mestizo (mixed white and Amerindian ancestry)
30%, Aymara 25%, white 15%

Religions:  Roman Catholic 95%, Protestant (Evangelical Methodist)

Languages:  Spanish (official), Quechua (official), Aymara (official)

Literacy:  definition: age 15 and over can read and write total
population: 83.1% male: 90.5% female: 76% (1995 est.)

Government Bolivia

Country name:   Republic of Bolivia conventional short form: Government
type:  republic

Capital:  La Paz (seat of government); Sucre (legal capital and seat
of judiciary)

Administrative divisions:  9 departments (departamentos, singular -
departamento); Chuquisaca, Cochabamba, Beni, La Paz, Oruro, Pando,
Potosi, Santa Cruz, Tarija

Independence:  6 August 1825 (from Spain)

National holiday:  Independence Day, 6 August (1825)

Constitution:  2 February 1967; revised in August 1994

Legal system:  based on Spanish law and Napoleonic Code; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:  18 years of age, universal and compulsory (married); 21 years
of age, universal and compulsory (single)

Executive branch:  chief of state: President Jorge Fernando QUIROGA
Ramirez (since 7 August 2001); Vice President NA; note - the president is
both the chief of state and head of government note: Vice President Jorge
Fernando QUIROGA Ramirez assumed the presidency upon the resignation in
August 2001 of former President Hugo BANZER Suarez for health reasons head
of government:  President NA; note - the president is both the chief of
state and head of government note: Vice President Jorge Fernando QUIROGA
Ramirez assumed the presidency upon the resignation in August 2001
of former President Hugo BANZER Suarez for health reasons elections:
president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular
vote for five-year terms; election last held 1 June 1997 (next to be
held 30 June 2002) election results:  (ADN) 22%; Jaime PAZ Zamora (MIR)
17%, Juan Carlos DURAN (MNR) 18%, Ivo KULJIS (UCS) 16%, Remedios LOZA
(CONDEPA) 17%; no candidate received a majority of the popular vote;
Hugo BANZER Suarez won a congressional runoff election on 5 August
1997 after forming a "megacoalition" with MIR, UCS, CONDEPA, NFR, and
former Christian Democratic Party (PDC); resigned 7 August 2001 and
was succeeded by Vice President Jorge Fernando QUIROGA Ramirez who is
serving out BANZER's term; QUIROGA will step down in August 2002 when the
new president is chosen by Congress, a result of no candidate winning
a majority in the 30 June 2002 election cabinet: Legislative branch:
bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional consists of Chamber of
Senators or Camara de Senadores (27 seats; members are directly elected
by popular vote to serve five-year terms) and Chamber of Deputies or
Camara de Diputados (130 seats; members are directly elected by popular
vote to serve five-year terms; note - some members are drawn from party
lists, thus not directly elected) election results: Chamber of Senators -
percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - ADN 11, MIR 7, MNR 4,
CONDEPA 3, UCS 2; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA%;
seats by party - MNR 26, MIR 24, ADN 20, UCS 20, CONDEPA 19, NFR 11, MBL
5, IU 4, FSB 1 elections: Chamber of Senators and Chamber of Deputies -
last held 1 June 1997 (next to be held NA June 2002)

Judicial branch:  Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (judges appointed
for 10-year terms by National Congress); District Courts (one in each
department); provincial and local courts (to try minor cases)

Political parties and leaders:  Bolivian Socialist Falange or FSB
[Otto RICHTER]; Civic Solidarity Union or UCS [Johnny FERNANDEZ];
Conscience of the Fatherland or CONDEPA [Remedios LOZA Alvarado]; Free
Bolivia Movement or MBL [Franz BARRIOS]; Movement of the Revolutionary
Left or MIR [Jaime PAZ Zamora]; Nationalist Democratic Action or ADN
[Jorge Fernando QUIROGA Ramirez]; Nationalist Revolutionary Movement or
MNR [Gonzalo SANCHEZ DE LOZADA]; New Republican Force or NFR [Manfred
REYES-VILLA]; United Left or IU [Marcos DOMIC] note: the ADN, MIR,
and UCS comprise the ruling coalition

Political pressure groups and leaders:  Cocalero Groups; indigenous
organizations; labor unions; Sole Confederation of Campesino Workers of
Bolivia or CSUTCB [Felipe QUISPE]

International organization participation:  CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB,
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol,
IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate),
MONUC, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNIDO, UNTAET, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
Marlene FERNANDEZ del Granado FAX: [1] (202) 328-3712 consulate(s)
general: Miami, New York, and San Francisco telephone: [1] (202) 483-4410
chancery: 3014 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

Diplomatic representation from the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
V. Manuel ROCHA embassy: Avenida Arce 2780, San Jorge, La Paz mailing
address: P. O. Box 425, La Paz; APO AA 34032 telephone: [591] 243-3812
FAX: [591] (2) 433854

Flag description:  three equal horizontal bands of red (top), yellow,
and green with the coat of arms centered on the yellow band; similar to
the flag of Ghana, which has a large black five-pointed star centered
in the yellow band

Economy Bolivia

Economy - overview:  Bolivia, long one of the poorest and least
developed Latin American countries, has made considerable progress
toward the development of a market-oriented economy. Successes under
President SANCHEZ DE LOZADA (1993-97) included the signing of a free
trade agreement with Mexico and becoming an associate member of the
Southern Cone Common Market (Mercosur), as well as the privatization of
the state airline, telephone company, railroad, electric power company,
and oil company. Growth slowed in 1999, in part due to tight government
budget policies, which limited needed appropriations for anti-poverty
programs, and the fallout from the Asian financial crisis. In 2000, major
civil disturbances in April, and again in September and October, held
down overall growth to 2.5%. Bolivia's GDP failed to grow in 2001 due to
the global slowdown and laggard domestic activity. Growth is expected to
pick up in 2002, but the fiscal deficit and debt burden will remain high.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $21.4 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  0% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $2,600 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: 14% industry: 31% services:
55% (2000 est.)

Population below poverty line:  70% (1999 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: 0.5%
highest 10%: 45.7% (1997)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:  58.9 (1997)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  2% (2001 est.)

Labor force:  2.5 million

Labor force - by occupation:  agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services NA%

Unemployment rate:  7.6% (2000) note: widespread underemployment

Budget:  revenues: $4 billion expenditures: $4 billion, including capital
expenditures of $NA (2002 est.)

Industries:  mining, smelting, petroleum, food and beverages, tobacco,
handicrafts, clothing

Industrial production growth rate:  3.9% (1998)

Electricity - production:  3.87 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 48.37% hydro: 50.13%
other: 1.5% (2000) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:  3.605 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  5 million kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports:  11 million kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products:  soybeans, coffee, coca, cotton, corn, sugarcane,
rice, potatoes; timber

Exports:  $1.2 billion (2001 est.)

Exports - commodities:  soybeans, natural gas, zinc, gold, wood

Exports - partners:  US 32%, Colombia 18%, UK 15%, Brazil 15%, Peru 6%
(2000)

Imports:  $1.5 billion (2001 est.)

Imports - commodities:  capital goods, raw materials and
semi-manufactures, chemicals, petroleum, food

Imports - partners:  US 24%, Argentina 17%, Brazil 15%, Chile 9%, Peru 5
(2000)

Debt - external:  $5.8 billion (2001 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:  $588 million (1997)

Currency:  boliviano (BOB)

Currency code:  BOB

Exchange rates:  bolivianos per US dollar - 6.8613 (January 2002), 6.6069
(2001), 6.1835 (2000), 5.8124 (1999), 5.5101 (1998), 5.2543 (1997)

Fiscal year:  calendar year

Communications Bolivia

Telephones - main lines in use:  327,600 (1996)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  116,000 (1997)

Telephone system:  general assessment: new subscribers face bureaucratic
difficulties; most telephones are concentrated in La Paz and other cities;
mobile cellular telephone use expanding rapidly domestic: primary trunk
system, which is being expanded, employs digital microwave radio relay;
some areas are served by fiber-optic cable; mobile cellular systems
are being expanded international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat
(Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 171, FM 73, shortwave 77 (1999)

Radios:  5.25 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:  48 (1997)

Televisions:  900,000 (1997)

Internet country code:  .bo

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  9 (2000)

Internet users:  78,000 (2000)

Transportation Bolivia

Railways:  total: 3,691 km narrow gauge: 3,652 km 1.000-m gauge; 39 km
0.760-m gauge (13 km electrified) (1995 est.)

Highways:   2,500 km (including 30 km of expressways) unpaved: Waterways:
10,000 km (commercially navigable)

Pipelines:  crude oil 1,800 km; petroleum products 580 km; natural gas
1,495 km

Ports and harbors:  Puerto Aguirre (on the Paraguay/Parana waterway,
at the Bolivia/Brazil border); also, Bolivia has free port privileges
in maritime ports in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Paraguay

Merchant marine:  total: 36 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 196,399
GRT/320,137 DWT ships by type: bulk 3, cargo 15, chemical tanker 2,
container 1, petroleum tanker 13, roll on/roll off 2 note: includes some
foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of Belize 2, China 2,
Cuba 1, Cyprus 1, Egypt 1, Honduras 1, Latvia 2, Liberia 2, Panama 1,
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1, Saudi Arabia 1, Singapore 1, South
Korea 3, Switzerland 1, Ukraine 1, United Arab Emirates 5, United States 1
(2002 est.)

Airports:  1,109 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 13 over 3,047 m: 4 2,438 to 3,047
m: 3 1,524 to 2,437 m: 4 914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2001)

Airports - with unpaved runways:   4 1,524 to 2,437 m: Military Bolivia

Military branches:  Army (Ejercito Boliviano), Navy (Fuerza Naval,
includes Marines), Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Boliviana), National Police
Force (Policia Nacional de Bolivia)

Military manpower - military age:  19 years of age (2002 est.)

Military manpower - availability:  males age 15-49: 2,062,321 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:  males age 15-49: 1,343,755
(2002 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:  males: 90,120
(2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:  $147 million (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:  1.8% (FY99)

Transnational Issues Bolivia

Disputes - international:  continues to demand a sovereign corridor to
the South Pacific Ocean since the Atacama region was lost to Chile in 1884

Illicit drugs:  world's third-largest cultivator of coca (after Colombia
and Peru) with an estimated 19,900 hectares under cultivation in July
2001, stable from July 2000 levels; intermediate coca products and cocaine
exported to or through Colombia, Brazil, Argentina, and Chile to the US
and other international drug markets; eradication and alternative crop
programs under the QUIROGA administration has kept pace with farmers'
attempts to increase cultivation after significant reductions in 1998
and 1999

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002



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Burma

Introduction

Burma

Background:  Despite multiparty elections in 1990 that resulted in the
main opposition party winning a decisive victory, the ruling military
junta refused to hand over power. Key opposition leader and Nobel Peace
Prize recipient AUNG SAN SUU KYI, under house arrest from 1989 to 1995,
was again placed under house detention in September 2000; her supporters
are routinely harassed or jailed.

Geography Burma

Location:  Southeastern Asia, bordering the Andaman Sea and the Bay of
Bengal, between Bangladesh and Thailand

Geographic coordinates:  22 00 N, 98 00 E

Map references:  Southeast Asia

Area:  total: 678,500 sq km land: 657,740 sq km water: 20,760 sq km

Area - comparative:  slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries:  total: 5,876 km border countries: Bangladesh 193 km,
China 2,185 km, India 1,463 km, Laos 235 km, Thailand 1,800 km

Coastline:  1,930 km

Maritime claims:  contiguous zone: 24 NM territorial sea: 12 NM
continental shelf: 200 NM or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

Climate:  tropical monsoon; cloudy, rainy, hot, humid summers
(southwest monsoon, June to September); less cloudy, scant rainfall,
mild temperatures, lower humidity during winter (northeast monsoon,
December to April)

Terrain:  central lowlands ringed by steep, rugged highlands

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Andaman Sea 0 m highest point:
Hkakabo Razi 5,881 m

Natural resources:  petroleum, timber, tin, antimony, zinc, copper,
tungsten, lead, coal, some marble, limestone, precious stones, natural
gas, hydropower

Land use:  arable land: 14% permanent crops: 1% other: 85% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  15,920 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:  destructive earthquakes and cyclones; flooding and
landslides common during rainy season (June to September); periodic
droughts

Environment - current issues:  deforestation; industrial pollution of air,
soil, and water; inadequate sanitation and water treatment contribute
to disease

Environment - international agreements:  party to: Biodiversity, Climate
Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test
Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical
Timber 94 signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:  strategic location near major Indian Ocean shipping
lanes

People Burma

Population:  42,238,224 note: estimates for this country explicitly take
into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result
in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower
population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population
by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:   28.6% (male 6,158,039; female 5,905,314) 15-64 years:
(male 905,476; female 1,130,881) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  0.56% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  19.65 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  12.25 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  -1.83 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female 65 years and over:
0.8 male(s)/female total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  72.11 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   57.07 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  2.23 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  1.99% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  530,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  48,000 (1999 est.)

Nationality:  noun: Burmese (singular and plural) adjective: Burmese

Ethnic groups:  Burman 68%, Shan 9%, Karen 7%, Rakhine 4%, Chinese 3%,
Indian 2%, Mon 2%, other 5%

Religions:  Buddhist 89%, Christian 4% (Baptist 3%, Roman Catholic 1%),
Muslim 4%, animist 1%, other 2%

Languages:  Burmese, minority ethnic groups have their own languages

Literacy:   age 15 and over can read and write total population:
statistics; estimates of functional literacy are likely closer to 30%
(1999 est.)

Government Burma

Country name:  conventional long form: Union of Burma conventional
short form: Burma local short form: Myanma Naingngandaw local long
form: Pyidaungzu Myanma Naingngandaw (translated by the US Government
as Union of Myanma and by the Burmese as Union of Myanmar) former:
Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma note: since 1989 the military
authorities in Burma have promoted the name Myanmar as a conventional
name for their state; this decision was not approved by any sitting
legislature in Burma, and the US Government did not adopt the name,
which is a derivative of the Burmese short-form name Myanma Naingngandaw

Government type:  military regime

Capital:  Rangoon (regime refers to the capital as Yangon)

Administrative divisions:  7 divisions* (yin-mya, singular - yin) and
7 states (pyine-mya, singular - pyine); Chin State, Ayeyarwady*, Bago*,
Kachin State, Kayin State, Kayah State, Magway*, Mandalay*, Mon State,
Rakhine State, Sagaing*, Shan State, Tanintharyi*, Yangon*

Independence:  4 January 1948 (from UK)

National holiday:  Independence Day, 4 January (1948)

Constitution:  3 January 1974 (suspended since 18 September 1988);
national convention started on 9 January 1993 to draft a new constitution;
progress has since been stalled

Legal system:  has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:  chief of state: Prime Minister and Chairman of
the State Peace and Development Council Sr. Gen. THAN SHWE (since 23
April 1992); note - the prime minister is both the chief of state and
head of government head of government: Prime Minister and Chairman of
the State Peace and Development Council Sr. Gen. THAN SHWE (since 23
April 1992); note - the prime minister is both the chief of state and
head of government cabinet: State Peace and Development Council (SPDC);
military junta, so named 15 November 1997, which initially assumed power
18 September 1988 under the name State Law and Order Restoration Council;
the SPDC oversees the cabinet elections: none; the prime minister assumed
power upon resignation of the former prime minister

Legislative branch:  unicameral People's Assembly or Pyithu Hluttaw
(485 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 27 May 1990, but Assembly never convened election
results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - NLD 392,
SNLD 23, NUP 10, other 60

Judicial branch:  remnants of the British-era legal system are in place,
but there is no guarantee of a fair public trial; the judiciary is not
independent of the executive

Political parties and leaders:  National League for Democracy or NLD
[AUNG SHWE, chairman, AUNG SAN SUU KYI, general secretary]; National
Unity Party or NUP (proregime) [THA KYAW]; Shan Nationalities League
for Democracy or SNLD [U KHUN TUN OO]; Union Solidarity and Development
Association or USDA (proregime, a social and political organization)
[THAN AUNG, general secretary]; and other smaller parties

Political pressure groups and leaders:  All Burma Student Democratic Front
or ABSDF; Kachin Independence Army or KIA; Karen National Union or KNU;
National Coalition Government of the Union of Burma or NCGUB [Dr. SEIN
WIN] consists of individuals legitimately elected to the People's Assembly
but not recognized by the military regime (the group fled to a border
area and joined with insurgents in December 1990 to form a parallel
government); several Shan factions; United Wa State Army or UWSA

International organization participation:  ARF, AsDB, ASEAN, CCC, CP,
ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO,
IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OPCW (signatory), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador U
LINN MYAING consulate(s) general: New
 [1] (202) 332-9044 chancery:
Diplomatic representation from the US:   Permanent Charge d'Affaires
Priscilla A. CLAPP embassy:  96546 telephone: [95] (1) 282055, 282182 FAX:
[95] (1) 280409

Flag description:  red with a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side
corner bearing, all in white, 14 five-pointed stars encircling a cogwheel
containing a stalk of rice; the 14 stars represent the 14 administrative
divisions

Economy Burma

Economy - overview:  Burma is a resource-rich country that suffers from
abject rural poverty. The military regime took steps in the early 1990s to
liberalize the economy after decades of failure under the "Burmese Way to
Socialism", but those efforts have since stalled. Burma has been unable
to achieve monetary or fiscal stability, resulting in an economy that
suffers from serious macroeconomic imbalances - including an official
exchange rate that overvalues the Burmese kyat by more than 100 times
the market rate. In addition, most overseas development assistance
ceased after the junta suppressed the democracy movement in 1988 and
subsequently ignored the results of the 1990 election. Burma is data
poor, and official statistics are often dated and inaccurate. Published
estimates of Burma's foreign trade are greatly understated because of
the size of the black market and border trade - often estimated to be
one to two times the official economy.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $63 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  2.3% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $1,500 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: 42% industry: 17% services:
41% (2000 est.)

Population below poverty line:  25% (2000 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: 2.8%
highest 10%: 32.4% (1998)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  20% (2001 est.)

Labor force:  23.7 million (1999 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:  agriculture 65%, industry 10%, services 25%
(1999 est.)

Unemployment rate:  5.1% (2001 est.)

Budget:  revenues: $7.9 billion expenditures: $12.2 billion, including
capital expenditures of $5.7 billion (FY96/97)

Industries:  agricultural processing; knit and woven apparel; wood and
wood products; copper, tin, tungsten, iron; construction materials;
pharmaceuticals; fertilizer

Industrial production growth rate:  NA%

Electricity - production:  4.766 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 83.3% hydro: 16.7%
other: 0% (2000) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:  4.432 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  0 kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports:  0 kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products:  rice, pulses, beans, sesame, groundnuts,
sugarcane; hardwood; fish and fish products

Exports:  $1.8 billion (f.o.b., 2001)

Exports - commodities:  apparel 55%, foodstuffs 18%, wood products 13%,
precious stones 2% (2000)

Exports - partners:  US 27%, India 16%, China 7%, Japan 6%, Singapore
6% (2000 est.)  note:  as narcotics, teak, and gems - or the largely
unrecorded border trade with China and Thailand

Imports:  $2.2 billion (f.o.b., 2001)

Imports - commodities:  machinery, transport equipment, construction
materials, food products, textile fabrics, petroleum products

Imports - partners:  China 26%, Singapore 23%, South Korea 15%, Japan 10%,
Taiwan 10% (2000 est.)

Debt - external:  $6 billion (FY99/00 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:  $99 million (FY98/99)

Currency:  kyat (MMK)

Currency code:  MMK

Exchange rates:  kyats per US dollar - official rate - 6.8581 (January
2002), 6.7489 (2001), 6.5167 (2000), 6.2858 (1999), 6.3432 (1998),
6.2418 (1997); kyats per US dollar - black market exchange rate - 435
(yearend 2000)

Fiscal year:  1 April - 31 March

Communications Burma

Telephones - main lines in use:  250,000 (2000)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  8,492 (1997)

Telephone system:  general assessment: meets minimum requirements for
local and intercity service for business and government; international
service is good domestic: NA international: satellite earth station -
1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 2, FM 3, shortwave 3 (1998)

Radios:  4.2 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:  2 (1998)

Televisions:  320,000 (2000)

Internet country code:  .mm

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  1 note: as of September 2000, Internet
connections were legal only for the government, tourist offices, and a
few large businesses (2000)

Internet users:  500 (2000)

Transportation Burma

Railways:  total: 3,991 km narrow gauge: 3,991 km 1.000-m gauge
(2000 est.)

Highways:  total: 28,200 km paved: 3,440 km unpaved: 24,760 km (1996)

Waterways:  12,800 km note: 3,200 km navigable by large commercial vessels

Pipelines:  crude oil 1,343 km; natural gas 330 km

Ports and harbors:  Bassein, Bhamo, Chauk, Mandalay, Moulmein, Myitkyina,
Rangoon, Akyab (Sittwe), Tavoy

Merchant marine:  total: 35 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 382,386
GRT/582,084 DWT note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here
as a flag of convenience: Germany 5, Japan 4 (2002 est.)  ships by type:
bulk 9, cargo 21, container 1, passenger/cargo 3, petroleum tanker 1

Airports:  80 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 8 over 3,047 m: 2 2,438 to 3,047 m:
2 914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2001) 1,524 to 2,437 m: 4

Airports - with unpaved runways:   2 1,524 to 2,437 m: Heliports:  2
(2001)

Military Burma

Military branches:  Army, Navy, Air Force

Military manpower - military age:  18 years of age (2002 est.)

Military manpower - availability:  males age 15-49: 12,211,144 note:
both sexes liable for military service (2002 est.)  females age 15-49:
12,223,069

Military manpower - fit for military service:  males age 15-49: 6,502,013
females age 15-49: 6,491,732 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:  males: 486,432
females: 470,667 (2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:  $39 million (FY97/98)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:  2.1% (FY97/98)

Transnational Issues Burma

Disputes - international:  despite renewed border committee talks,
significant differences remain with Thailand over boundary alignment
and the handling of ethnic guerrilla rebels, refugees, smuggling, and
drug trafficking in cross-border region; Burmese attempts to construct a
dam on border stream with Bangladesh in 2001 prompted an armed response
halting construction; Burmese Muslim migration into Bangladesh strains
Bangladesh's meager resources

Illicit drugs:  world's largest producer of illicit opium, surpassing
Afghanistan (potential production in 2001 - 865 metric tons, down 21%
due to drought, and to a lesser extent, eradication; cultivation in 2002
- 105,000 hectares, a 3% decline from 2000); surrender of drug warlord
KHUN SA's Mong Tai Army in January 1996 was hailed by Rangoon as a major
counternarcotics success, but lack of government will and ability to take
on major narcotrafficking groups and lack of serious commitment against
money laundering continues to hinder the overall antidrug effort; major
source of methamphetamine and heroin for regional consumption

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002



========================================================================


Benin

Introduction

Benin

Background:  Dahomey gained its independence from France in 1960; the
name was changed to Benin in 1975. From 1974 to 1989 the country was a
socialist state; free elections were reestablished in 1991.

Geography Benin

Location:  Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between
Nigeria and Togo

Geographic coordinates:  9 30 N, 2 15 E

Map references:  Africa

Area:  total: 112,620 sq km water: 2,000 sq km land: 110,620 sq km

Area - comparative:  slightly smaller than Pennsylvania

Land boundaries:  total: 1,989 km border countries: Burkina Faso 306 km,
Niger 266 km, Nigeria 773 km, Togo 644 km

Coastline:  121 km

Maritime claims:  territorial sea: 200 NM

Climate:  tropical; hot, humid in south; semiarid in north

Terrain:  mostly flat to undulating plain; some hills and low mountains

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point:
Mont Sokbaro 658 m

Natural resources:  small offshore oil deposits, limestone, marble, timber

Land use:  arable land: 15% permanent crops: 1% other: 84% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  120 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:  hot, dry, dusty harmattan wind may affect north from
December to March

Environment - current issues:  inadequate supplies of potable water;
poaching threatens wildlife populations; deforestation; desertification

Environment - international agreements:  party to: Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental
Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone
Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands signed, but not ratified:
none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:  sandbanks create difficult access to a coast with no
natural harbors, river mouths, or islands

People Benin

Population:  6,787,625 note: estimates for this country explicitly take
into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result
in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower
population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population
by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:  0-14 years: 47.2% (male 1,616,138; female 1,585,463)
15-64 years: 50.5% (male 1,665,439; female 1,764,966) 65 years and over:
2.3% (male 65,877; female 89,742) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  2.91% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  43.66 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  14.52 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.02
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female 65 years and over:
0.73 male(s)/female total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  88.52 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   50.61 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  6.14 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  4.1% (2002)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  160,000 (2002)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  37,000 (2002)

Nationality:  noun: Beninese (singular and plural) adjective: Beninese

Ethnic groups:  African 99% (42 ethnic groups, most important being Fon,
Adja, Yoruba, Bariba), Europeans 5,500

Religions:  indigenous beliefs 50%, Christian 30%, Muslim 20%

Languages:  French (official), Fon and Yoruba (most common vernaculars
in south), tribal languages (at least six major ones in north)

Literacy:  definition: age 15 and over can read and write total
population: 37.5% male: 52.2% female: 23.6% (2000)

Government Benin

Country name:  conventional long form: Republic of Benin conventional
short form: Benin local short form: Benin former: Dahomey local long form:
Republique du Benin

Government type:  republic under multiparty democratic rule; dropped
Marxism-Leninism December 1989; democratic reforms adopted February 1990;
transition to multiparty system completed 4 April 1991

Capital:  Porto-Novo is the official capital; Cotonou is the seat of
government

Administrative divisions:  12 provinces; Alibori, Atakora, Atlantique,
Borgou, Collines, Couffo, Donga, Littoral, Mono, Oueme, Plateau, Zou

Independence:  1 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday:  National Day, 1 August (1960)

Constitution:  December 1990

Legal system:  based on French civil law and customary law; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:  chief of state: President Mathieu KEREKOU (since 4
April 1996); note - the president is both the chief of state and head
of government head of government: President Mathieu KEREKOU (since 4
April 1996); note - the president is both the chief of state and head
of government cabinet:  reelected by popular vote for a five-year term;
runoff election held 22 March 2001 (next to be held NA March 2006) note:
the four top-ranking contenders following the first-round presidential
elections were:  27.1%, Adrien HOUNGBEDJI (National Assembly Speaker)
12.6%, and Bruno AMOUSSOU (Minister of State) 8.6%; the second-round
balloting, originally scheduled for 18 March 2001, was postponed four days
because both SOGOLO and HOUNGBEDJI withdrew alleging electoral fraud; this
left KEREKOU to run against his own Minister of State, AMOUSSOU, in what
was termed a "friendly match" election results: Mathieu KEREKOU reelected
president; percent of vote - Mathieu KEREKOU 84.1%, Bruno AMOUSSOU 15.9%

Legislative branch:  unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale
(83 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to serve four-year
terms) election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party -
RB 27, PRD 11, FARD-ALAFIA 10, PSD 9, MADEP 6, E'toile 4, Alliance IPD
4, Car-DUNYA 3, MERCI 2, other 7 elections: last held 30 March 1999
(next to be held NA March 2003)

Judicial branch:  Constitutional Court or Cour Constitutionnelle;
Supreme Court or Cour Supreme; High Court of Justice

Political parties and leaders:  African Movement for Democracy and
Progress or MADEP [Sefou FAGBOHOUN]; Alliance for Democracy and Progress
or ADP [Sylvain Adekpedjou AKINDES]; Alliance of the Social Democratic
Party or PSD and the National Union for Solidarity and Progress or
UNSP [Bruno AMOUSSOU]; Cameleon Alliance or AC [leader NA]; Car-DUNYA
[Saka SALEY]; Communist Party of Benin or PCB [Pascal FANTONDJI, first
secretary]; Democratic Renewal Party or PRD [Adrien HOUNGBEDJI]; Front
for Renewal and Development or FARD-ALAFIA [Jerome Sakia KINA]; Impulse
for Progress and Democracy or IPD [Bertin BORNA]; Liberal Democrats'
Rally for National Reconstruction-Vivoten or RDL-Vivoten [Severin ADJOVI];
Movement for Citizens' Commitment and Awakening or MERCI [Severin ADJOVI];
New Generation for the Republic or NGR [Paul DOSSOU]; Our Common Cause
or NCC [Francois Odjo TANKPINON]; Party Democratique du Benin or PDB
[Col. Soule DANKORO]; Rally for Democracy and Pan-Africanism or RDP
[Dominique HOYMINOU, Dr. Giles Auguste MINONTIN]; Renaissance Party du
Benin or RB [Nicephore SOGLO]; The Star Alliance (Alliance E'toile) [Sacca
LAFIA]; Union for National Democracy and Solidarity or UDS [Adamou N'Diaye
MAMA] note: the Coalition of Democratic Forces, [Gatien HOUNGBEDJI],
an alliance of parties and organizations supporting President KEREKOU

Political pressure groups and leaders:  NA

International organization participation:  ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS,
Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD,
IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (subscriber), ITU,
MIPONUH, MONUC, NAM, OAU, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMEE,
UNMIK, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
Cyrille Segbe OGUIN FAX: [1] (202) 265-1996 telephone: [1] (202) 232-6656
chancery: 2124 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008

Diplomatic representation from the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
Pamela E. BRIDGEWATER embassy: Rue Caporal
 B. P. 2012, Cotonou telephone:
Flag description:  two equal horizontal bands of yellow (top) and red
with a vertical green band on the hoist side

Economy Benin

Economy - overview:  The economy of Benin remains underdeveloped and
dependent on subsistence agriculture, cotton production, and regional
trade. Growth in real output averaged a stable 5% in the past five years,
but rapid population rise offset much of this increase. Inflation has
subsided over the past several years. In order to raise growth still
further, Benin plans to attract more foreign investment, place more
emphasis on tourism, facilitate the development of new food processing
systems and agricultural products, and encourage new information and
communication technology. The 2001 privatization policy should continue
in telecommunications, water, electricity, and agriculture in spite of
initial government reluctance. The Paris Club and bilateral creditors
have eased the external debt situation.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $6.8 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  5.4% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $1,040 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: 36% industry: 14% services:
50% (2001 est.)

Population below poverty line:  37% (2001 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  3% (2001 est.)

Labor force:  NA

Unemployment rate:  NA%

Budget:  revenues: $377.4 million expenditures: $561.8 million, including
capital expenditures of $NA (2001)

Industries:  textiles, food processing, chemical production, construction
materials (2001)

Industrial production growth rate:  8.3% (2001 est.)

Electricity - production:  240 million kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 16.67% hydro: 83.33%
other: 0% (2000) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:  523.2 million kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  0 kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports:  300 million kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products:  cotton, corn, cassava (tapioca), yams, beans,
palm oil, peanuts, livestock (2001)

Exports:  $35.3 million (f.o.b., 2000)

Exports - commodities:  cotton, crude oil, palm products, cocoa

Exports - partners:  Brazil, France, Indonesia, Thailand, Morocco,
Portugal, Cote d'Ivoire (2001)

Imports:  $437.6 million (c.i.f., 2000)

Imports - commodities:  foodstuffs, capital goods, petroleum products

Imports - partners:  France, US, China, Cote d'Ivoire, Netherlands,
Japan (2001)

Debt - external:  $1.18 billion (2000)

Economic aid - recipient:  $342.6 million (2000)

Currency:  Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XOF); note - responsible
authority is the Central Bank of the West African States

Currency code:  XOF

Exchange rates:  Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US
dollar - 742.79 (January 2002), 733.04 (2001), 711.98 (2000), 615.70
(1999), 589.95 (1998), 583.67 (1997); note - from 1 January 1999, the
XOF is pegged to the euro at a rate of 655.957 XOF per euro

Fiscal year:  calendar year

Communications Benin

Telephones - main lines in use:  51,000 (2000)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  55,500 (2000)

Telephone system:  general assessment: NA domestic: fair system of open
wire, microwave radio relay, and cellular connections international:
satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); submarine cable

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 2, FM 9, shortwave 4 (2000)

Radios:  660,000 (2000)

Television broadcast stations:  1 (2001)

Televisions:  66,000 (2000)

Internet country code:  .bj

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  4 (2002)

Internet users:  50,000 (2002)

Transportation Benin

Railways:  total: 578 km narrow gauge: 578 km 1.000-m gauge (2000 est.)

Highways:   1,357 km (including 10 km of expressways) unpaved: Waterways:
streams navigable along small sections, important only locally

Ports and harbors:  Cotonou, Porto-Novo

Merchant marine:  none (2002 est.)

Airports:  5 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 1 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2001)

Airports - with unpaved runways:  total: 4 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 1,524 to
2,437 m: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2001)

Military Benin

Military branches:  Armed Forces (including Army, Navy, Air Force),
National Gendarmerie

Military manpower - military age:  18 years of age (2002 est.)

Military manpower - availability:  males age 15-49: 1,509,760 note:
both sexes are liable for military service (2002 est.)  females age
15-49: 1,536,036

Military manpower - fit for military service:  males age 15-49: 771,373
females age 15-49: 778,730 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:  males: 71,278
females: 70,088 (2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:  $27 million (FY96)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:  1.2% (FY96)

Transnational Issues Benin

Disputes - international:  Benin and Niger have refered to the ICJ the
dispute over l'Ete and 14 smaller disputed islands in the Niger River,
which has never been delimited; with Nigeria, several villages are in
dispute along the Okpara River and only 35 km of the 436 km boundary
are demarcated; the Benin-Niger-Nigeria tripoint remains undemarcated;
Benin accuses Togo of moving boundary markers and stationing troops in
its territory; two villages are in dispute with Burkina Faso

Illicit drugs:  transshipment point for narcotics associated with Nigerian
trafficking organizations and most commonly destined for Western Europe
and the US

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002



========================================================================


Belarus

Introduction

Belarus

Background:  After seven decades as a constituent republic of the
USSR, Belarus attained its independence in 1991. It has retained closer
political and economic ties to Russia than any of the other former Soviet
republics.  Belarus and Russia signed a treaty on a two-state union on
8 December 1999 envisioning greater political and economic integration;
Belarus has agreed on the framework for implementation of the accord.

Geography Belarus

Location:  Eastern Europe, east of Poland

Geographic coordinates:  53 00 N, 28 00 E

Map references:  Europe

Area:  total: 207,600 sq km water: 0 sq km land: 207,600 sq km

Area - comparative:  slightly smaller than Kansas

Land boundaries:  total: 2,900 km border countries: Latvia 141 km,
Lithuania 502 km, Poland 407 km, Russia 959 km, Ukraine 891 km

Coastline:  0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:  none (landlocked)

Climate:  cold winters, cool and moist summers; transitional between
continental and maritime

Terrain:  generally flat and contains much marshland

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Nyoman River 90 m highest point:
Dzyarzhynskaya Hara 346 m

Natural resources:  forests, peat deposits, small quantities of oil and
natural gas, granite, dolomitic limestone, marl, chalk, sand, gravel, clay

Land use:  arable land: 30% permanent crops: 1% other: 69% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  1,150 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:  NA

Environment - current issues:  soil pollution from pesticide use; southern
part of the country contaminated with fallout from 1986 nuclear reactor
accident at Chornobyl' in northern Ukraine

Environment - international agreements:  party to: Air Pollution, Air
Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Biodiversity, Climate
Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification,
Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Geography - note:  landlocked; glacial scouring accounts for the
flatness of Belarusian terrain and for its 11,000 lakes; the country is
geologically well endowed with extensive deposits of granite, dolomitic
limestone, marl, chalk, sand, gravel, and clay

People Belarus

Population:  10,335,382 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:  0-14 years: 17.3% (male 914,579; female 876,346) 15-64
years: 68.6% (male 3,443,859; female 3,643,628) 65 years and over: 14.1%
(male 482,624; female 974,346) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  -0.14% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  9.86 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  13.99 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  2.78 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female 65 years and over:
0.5 male(s)/female total population: 0.88 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  14.12 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   74.56 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  1.31 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  0.28% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  14,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  400 (1999 est.)

Nationality:  noun: Belarusian(s) adjective: Belarusian

Ethnic groups:  Belarusian 81.2%, Russian 11.4%, Polish, Ukrainian,
and other 7.4%

Religions:  Eastern Orthodox 80%, other (including Roman Catholic,
Protestant, Jewish, and Muslim) 20% (1997 est.)

Languages:  Belarusian, Russian, other

Literacy:  definition: age 15 and over can read and write total
population: 98% male: 99% female: 97% (1989 est.)

Government Belarus

Country name:   Republic of Belarus conventional short form:  Socialist
Republic local long form: Respublika Byelarus'

Government type:  republic

Capital:  Minsk

Administrative divisions:  6 voblastsi (singular - voblasts') and one
municipality* (harady, singular - horad); Brestskaya (Brest), Homyel'skaya
(Homyel'), Horad Minsk*, Hrodzyenskaya (Hrodna), Mahilyowskaya (Mahilyow),
Minskaya, Vitsyebskaya (Vitsyebsk); note - when using a place name with
the adjectival ending 'skaya' the word voblasts' should be added to the
place name note: Independence:  25 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday:  Independence Day, 3 July (1944); note - 3 July 1944
was the date Minsk was liberated from German troops, 25 August 1991 was
the date of independence from the Soviet Union

Constitution:  30 March 1994; revised by national referendum of 24
November 1996 giving the presidency greatly expanded powers and became
effective 27 November 1996

Legal system:  based on civil law system

Suffrage:  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:  chief of state: President Aleksandr LUKASHENKO (since
20 July 1994) head of government: Prime Minister Gennadiy NOVITSKIY
(since 1 October 2001); Deputy Prime Ministers Andrei KOBYAKOV (since 13
March 2000), Aleksandr POPKOV (since 10 November 1998), Sergei SIDORSKY
(since NA September 2001), Vladimir DRAZHIN (since NA September 2001)
cabinet:  president; percent of vote - Aleksandr LUKASHENKO 75.6%,
Vladimir GONCHARIK 15.4% elections: president elected by popular vote for
a five-year term; first election took place 23 June and 10 July 1994;
according to the 1994 constitution, the next election should have been
held in 1999, however LUKASHENKO extended his term to 2001 via a November
1996 referendum; new election held 9 September 2001 (next election to
be held by September 2006); prime minister and deputy prime ministers
appointed by the president

Legislative branch:  bicameral Parliament or Natsionalnoye Sobranie
consists of the Council of the Republic or Soviet Respubliki (64 seats;
56 members elected by regional councils and 8 members appointed by the
president, all for 4-year terms) and the Chamber of Representatives or
Palata Pretsaviteley (110 seats; members elected by universal adult
suffrage to serve 4-year terms) election results: party affiliation
data unavailable; under present political conditions party designations
are meaningless elections: Judicial branch:  Supreme Court (judges
are appointed by the president); Constitutional Court (half of the
judges appointed by the president and half appointed by the Chamber
of Representatives)

Political parties and leaders:  Agrarian Party or AP [Semyon SHARETSKY,
chairman]; Belarusian Communist Party or KPB [Viktor CHIKIN, chairman];
Belarusian Ecological Green Party (merger of Belarusian Ecological
Party and Green Party of Belarus) [leader NA]; Belarusian Patriotic
Movement (Belarusian Patriotic Party) or BPR [Anatoliy BARANKEVICH,
chairman]; Belarusian Popular Front or BNF [Vintsuk VYACHORKA]; Belarusian
Social-Democrat Party or SDBP [Nikolay STATKEVICH, chairman]; Belarusian
Social-Democratic Party or Hromada [Stanislav SHUSHKEVICH, chairman];
Belarusian Socialist Party [Vyacheslav KUZNETSOV]; Civic Accord Bloc
(United Civic Party) or CAB [Stanislav BOGDANKEVICH, chairman]; Liberal
Democratic Party or LDPB [Sergei GAYDUKEVICH, chairman]; Party of
Communists Belarusian or PKB [Sergei KALYAKIN, chairman]; Republican
Party of Labor and Justice or RPPS [Anatoliy NETYLKIN, chairman];
Social-Democrat Party of Popular Accord or PPA [Leanid SECHKA]; Women's
Party or "Nadezhda" [Valentina POLEVIKOVA, chairperson]

Political pressure groups and leaders:  NA

International organization participation:  CCC, CEI, CIS, EAPC, EBRD,
ECE, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM
(observer), ISO, ITU, NAM, NSG, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador Valeriy
V. TSEPAKLO chancery: 1619 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
consulate(s) general: New York FAX: [1] (202) 986-1805 telephone: [1]
(202) 986-1604

Diplomatic representation from the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
Michael KOZAK embassy: 46 Starovilenskaya
 use embassy street address telephone:
Flag description:  red horizontal band (top) and green horizontal band
one-half the width of the red band; a white vertical stripe on the hoist
side bears the Belarusian national ornament in red

Economy Belarus

Economy - overview:  Belarus has seen little structural reform since
1995, when President LUKASHENKO launched the country on the path of
"market socialism." In keeping with this policy, LUKASHENKO reimposed
administrative controls over prices and currency exchange rates and
expanded the state's right to intervene in the management of private
enterprise. In addition to the burdens imposed by high inflation and
persistent trade deficits, businesses have been subject to pressure on
the part of central and local governments, e.g., arbitrary changes in
regulations, numerous rigorous inspections, retroactive application of
new business regulations, and arrests of "disruptive" businessmen and
factory owners. Close relations with Russia, possibly leading to reunion,
color the pattern of economic developments. For the time being, Belarus
remains self-isolated from the West and its open-market economies.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $84.8 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  4.1% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $8,200 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: 13% industry: 42% services:
45% (2000)

Population below poverty line:  22% (1995 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: 5.1%
highest 10%: 20% (1998)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:  21.7 (1998)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  46.1% (2001 est.)

Labor force:  4.8 million (2000)

Labor force - by occupation:  industry and construction NA%, agriculture
and forestry NA%, services NA%

Unemployment rate:  2.1% officially registered unemployed (December 2000);
large number of underemployed workers

Budget:  revenues: $4 billion expenditures: $4.1 billion, including
capital expenditures of $180 million (1997 est.)

Industries:  metal-cutting machine tools, tractors, trucks, earthmovers,
motorcycles, television sets, chemical fibers, fertilizer, textiles,
radios, refrigerators

Industrial production growth rate:  5.4% (2001 est.)

Electricity - production:  24.66 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 99.51% hydro: 0.08%
other: 0.41% (2000) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:  26.78 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  300 million kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports:  4.15 billion kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products:  grain, potatoes, vegetables, sugar beets, flax;
beef, milk

Exports:  $7.5 billion (f.o.b., 2001)

Exports - commodities:  machinery and equipment, mineral products,
chemicals, textiles, foodstuffs, metals

Exports - partners:  Russia 51%, Ukraine 8%, Poland 4%, Germany 3% (2000)

Imports:  $8.1 billion (f.o.b., 2001)

Imports - commodities:  mineral products, machinery and equipment,
chemicals, foodstuffs, metals

Imports - partners:  Russia 65%, Germany 7%, Poland 3% (2000)

Debt - external:  $770 million (2001 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:  $194.3 million (1995)

Currency:  Belarusian ruble (BYB/BYR)

Currency code:  BYB/BYR

Exchange rates:  Belarusian rubles per US dollar - 1,590 (yearend 2001),
1,531.000 (November 2001), 876.750 (2000), 248.795 (1999), 46.127
(1998), 26.020 (1997); note - on 1 January 2000, the national currency
was redenominated at one new ruble to 2,000 old rubles

Fiscal year:  calendar year

Communications Belarus

Telephones - main lines in use:  2.313 million (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  8,167 (1997)

Telephone system:  general assessment: the Ministry of Telecommunications
controls all telecommunications through its carrier (a joint stock
company) Beltelcom which is a monopoly domestic: local - Minsk has a
digital metropolitan network and a cellular NMT-450 network; waiting
lists for telephones are long; local service outside Minsk is neglected
and poor; intercity - Belarus has a partly developed fiber-optic backbone
system presently serving at least 13 major cities (1998); Belarus's fiber
optics form synchronous digital hierarchy rings through other countries'
systems; an inadequate analog system remains operational international:
Belarus is a member of the Trans-European Line (TEL), Trans-Asia-Europe
(TAE) fiber-optic line, and has access to the Trans-Siberia Line (TSL);
three fiber-optic segments provide connectivity to Latvia, Poland, Russia,
and Ukraine; worldwide service is available to Belarus through this
infrastructure; additional analog lines to Russia; Intelsat, Eutelsat,
and Intersputnik earth stations

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 28, FM 37, shortwave 11 (1998)

Radios:  3.02 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:  47 (plus 27 repeaters) (1995)

Televisions:  2.52 million (1997)

Internet country code:  .by

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  23 (2002)

Internet users:  180,000 (2001)

Transportation Belarus

Railways:  total: 5,523 km broad gauge: 5,523 km 1.520-m gauge (875 km
electrified) (2000 est.)

Highways:  total: 98,200 km paved: 66,100 km (includes some all-weather
gravel-surfaced roads) unpaved: 32,100 km (these roads are made of
unstabilized earth and are difficult to negotiate in wet weather) (1990)

Waterways:  NA km; note - Belarus has extensive and widely used canal
and river systems

Pipelines:  crude oil 1,470 km; refined products 1,100 km; natural gas
1,980 km (1992)

Ports and harbors:  Mazyr

Airports:  136 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 33 over 3,047 m: 2 2,438 to 3,047
m: 19 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 under 914 m: 11 (2001)

Airports - with unpaved runways:  total: 103 over 3,047 m: 3 2,438 to
3,047 m: 10 1,524 to 2,437 m: 11 914 to 1,523 m: 14 under 914 m: 65 (2001)

Military Belarus

Military branches:  Army, Air Force (including air defense), Interior
Ministry Troops, Border Guards

Military manpower - military age:  18 years of age (2002 est.)

Military manpower - availability:  males age 15-49: 2,744,267 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:  males age 15-49: 2,149,873
(2002 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:  males: 86,396
(2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:  $156 million (FY98)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:  1% (FY01)

Transnational Issues Belarus

Disputes - international:  boundary demarcation with Latvia and Lithuania
is pending European Union funding

Illicit drugs:  limited cultivation of opium poppy and cannabis, mostly
for the domestic market; transshipment point for illicit drugs to and
via Russia, and to the Baltics and Western Europe

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002



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Solomon Islands

Introduction

Solomon Islands

Background:  The UK established a protectorate over the Solomon Islands
in the 1890s. Some of the most bitter fighting of World War II occurred
on these islands.  Self-government was achieved in 1976 and independence
two years later. Ethnic violence, government malfeasance, and endemic
crime have undermined stability and civil society.

Geography Solomon Islands

Location:  Oceania, group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean, east
of Papua New Guinea

Geographic coordinates:  8 00 S, 159 00 E

Map references:  Oceania

Area:  total: 28,450 sq km water: 910 sq km land: 27,540 sq km

Area - comparative:  slightly smaller than Maryland

Land boundaries:  0 km

Coastline:  5,313 km

Maritime claims:  measured from claimed archipelagic baselines territorial
sea: 12 NM exclusive economic zone: 200 NM continental shelf: 200 NM

Climate:  tropical monsoon; few extremes of temperature and weather

Terrain:  mostly rugged mountains with some low coral atolls

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m highest point:
Mount Makarakomburu 2,447 m

Natural resources:  fish, forests, gold, bauxite, phosphates, lead,
zinc, nickel

Land use:  arable land: 1% permanent crops: 1% other: 98% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  NA sq km

Natural hazards:  typhoons, but rarely destructive; geologically active
region with frequent earth tremors; volcanic activity

Environment - current issues:  deforestation; soil erosion; many of the
surrounding coral reefs are dead or dying

Environment - international agreements:  party to: Biodiversity, Climate
Change, Desertification, Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea,
Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection,
Whaling signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography - note:  strategic location on sea routes between the South
Pacific Ocean, the Solomon Sea, and the Coral Sea

People Solomon Islands

Population:  494,786 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:  0-14 years: 43.4% (male 109,339; female 105,170) 15-64
years: 53.5% (male 134,125; female 130,804) 65 years and over: 3.1%
(male 7,467; female 7,881) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  2.91% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  33.26 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  4.19 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female 65 years and over:
0.95 male(s)/female total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  23.68 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   74.39 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  4.5 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  NA

Nationality:  noun: Solomon Islander(s) adjective: Solomon Islander

Ethnic groups:  Melanesian 93%, Polynesian 4%, Micronesian 1.5%, European
0.8%, Chinese 0.3%, other 0.4%

Religions:  Anglican 45%, Roman Catholic 18%, United
(Methodist/Presbyterian) 12%, Baptist 9%, Seventh-Day Adventist 7%,
other Protestant 5%, indigenous beliefs 4%

Languages:  Melanesian pidgin in much of the country is lingua franca;
English is official but spoken by only 1%-2% of the population note:
120 indigenous languages

Literacy:  definition: NA total population: NA% male: NA% female: NA%

Government Solomon Islands

Country name:  conventional long form: none conventional short form:
Solomon Islands former: British Solomon Islands

Government type:  parliamentary democracy tending toward anarchy

Capital:  Honiara

Administrative divisions:  9 provinces and 1 capital territory*; Central,
Choiseul (Lauru), Guadalcanal, Honiara*, Isabel, Makira, Malaita,
Rennell/Bellona, Temotu, Western

Independence:  7 July 1978 (from UK)

National holiday:  Independence Day, 7 July (1978)

Constitution:  7 July 1978

Legal system:  English common law, which is widely disregarded

Suffrage:  21 years of age; universal

Executive branch:  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February
1952), represented by Governor General Sir John LAPLI (since NA 1999)
elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by
the monarch on the advice of Parliament for up to five years; following
legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of
a majority coalition is usually elected prime minister by Parliament;
deputy prime minister appointed by the governor general on the advice
of the prime minister from among the members of Parliament cabinet:
Cabinet consists of 20 members appointed by the governor general on the
advice of the prime minister from among the members of Parliament head
of government:  Minister Snyder RINI (since 17 December 2001)

Legislative branch:  unicameral National Parliament (50 seats; members
elected from single-member constituencies by popular vote to serve
four-year terms) election results: percent of vote by party - PAP 40%,
SIACC 40%, PPP 20%; seats by party - PAP 16, SIACC 13, PPP 2, SILP 1,
independents 18 elections: last held 5 December 2001 (next to be held
by December 2005)

Judicial branch:  Court of Appeal

Political parties and leaders:  Association of Independents [Snyder RINI];
People's Alliance Party or PAP [Allan KEMAKEZA]; People's Progressive
Party or PPP [Mannaseh Damukana SOGAVARE]; Solomon Islands Alliance
for Change Coalition or SIACC [Bartholomew ULUFA'ALU]; Solomon Islands
Labor Party or SILP [Joses TUHANUKU] note: in general, Solomon Islands
politics is characterized by fluid coalitions

Political pressure groups and leaders:  NA

International organization participation:  ACP, AsDB, C, ESCAP, FAO,
G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IOC, ITU,
Sparteca, SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
(vacant); Charge d'Affaires Jeremiah MANELE
 800 Second Avenue, Suite 400L, New York, NY 10017 telephone:
Diplomatic representation from the US:  the US does not have an embassy
in Solomon Islands (embassy closed July 1993); the ambassador to Papua
New Guinea is accredited to the Solomon Islands

Flag description:  divided diagonally by a thin yellow stripe from
the lower hoist-side corner; the upper triangle (hoist side) is blue
with five white five-pointed stars arranged in an X pattern; the lower
triangle is green

Economy Solomon Islands

Economy - overview:  The bulk of the population depends on agriculture,
fishing, and forestry for at least part of their livelihood. Most
manufactured goods and petroleum products must be imported. The islands
are rich in undeveloped mineral resources such as lead, zinc, nickel,
and gold.  However, severe ethnic violence, the closing of key business
enterprises, and an empty government treasury have led to serious
economic disarray, indeed near collapse. Tanker deliveries of crucial
fuel supplies (including those for electrical generation) have become
sporadic due to the government's inability to pay and attacks against
ships. Telecommunications are threatened by the nonpayment of bills and
by the lack of technical and maintenance staff many of whom have left
the country.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $800 million (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  -10% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $1,700 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: 42% industry: 11% services:
47% (2000 est.)

Population below poverty line:  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  7.9% (2001 est.)

Labor force:  26,842

Labor force - by occupation:  agriculture 75%, industry 5%, services 20%
(2000 est.)

Unemployment rate:  NA%

Budget:  revenues: $38 million (2001) expenditures: $NA, including
capital expenditures of $NA

Industries:  fish (tuna), mining, timber

Industrial production growth rate:  NA%

Electricity - production:  32 million kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 100% hydro: 0% other: 0%
(2000) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:  29.76 million kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  0 kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports:  0 kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products:  cocoa, beans, coconuts, palm kernels, rice,
potatoes, vegetables, fruit; cattle, pigs; timber; fish

Exports:  $165 million (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Exports - commodities:  timber, fish, copra, palm oil, cocoa

Exports - partners:  Japan 22%, China 15%, Philippines 13%, South Korea
12%, UK 12%, Thailand 5% (2000)

Imports:  $152 million (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Imports - commodities:  plant and equipment, manufactured goods, food
and live animals, fuels, chemicals

Imports - partners:  Australia 27%, Singapore 25%, NZ 5.5%, Japan 5.3%,
US 5.1% (2000)

Debt - external:  $137 million (2001 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:  $28 million mainly from Japan, Australia,
China, and NZ (2001 est.)

Currency:  Solomon Islands dollar (SBD)

Currency code:  SBD

Exchange rates:  Solomon Islands dollars per US dollar - 5.3728 (December
2001), 5.0889 (2000), 4.8381 (1999), 4.8156 (1998), 3.7169 (1997)

Fiscal year:  calendar year

Communications Solomon Islands

Telephones - main lines in use:  8,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  658 (1997)

Telephone system:  general assessment: NA domestic: NA international:
satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 3, FM 0, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios:  57,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:  0 (1997)

Televisions:  3,000 (1997)

Internet country code:  .sb

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  1 (2000)

Internet users:  3,000 (2000)

Transportation Solomon Islands

Railways:  0 km

Highways:  total: 1,360 km paved: 34 km unpaved: 1,326 km (includes
about 800 km of private plantation roads) (1996 est.)

Waterways:  none

Ports and harbors:  Aola Bay, Honiara, Lofung, Noro, Viru Harbor, Yandina

Merchant marine:  none (2002 est.)

Airports:  31 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 2 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 914 to
1,523 m: 1 (2001)

Airports - with unpaved runways:  total: 29 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 914 to
1,523 m: 9 under 914 m: 19 (2001)

Military Solomon Islands

Military branches:  no regular military forces; Solomon Islands National
Reconnaissance and Surveillance Force; Royal Solomon Islands Police (RSIP)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:  $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:  NA%

Transnational Issues Solomon Islands

Disputes - international:  none

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002



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Navassa Island

Introduction

Navassa Island

Background:  This uninhabited island was claimed by the US in 1857 for
its guano, and mining took place between 1865 and 1898. The lighthouse,
built in 1917, was shut down in 1996 and administration of Navassa Island
transferred from the Coast Guard to the Department of the Interior. A 1998
scientific expedition to the island described it as a unique preserve
of Caribbean biodiversity; the following year it became a National
Wildlife Refuge.

Geography Navassa Island

Location:  Caribbean, island in the Caribbean Sea, about one-fourth of
the way from Haiti to Jamaica

Geographic coordinates:  18 25 N, 75 02 W

Map references:  Central America and the Caribbean

Area:  total: 5.2 sq km water: 0 sq km land: 5.2 sq km

Area - comparative:  about nine times the size of The Mall in Washington,
DC

Land boundaries:  0 km

Coastline:  8 km

Maritime claims:  exclusive economic zone: 200 NM territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate:  marine, tropical

Terrain:  raised coral and limestone plateau, flat to undulating; ringed
by vertical white cliffs (9 to 15 m high)

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m highest point:
unnamed location on southwest side 77 m

Natural resources:  guano

Land use:  arable land: 0% permanent crops: 0% other: 100% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  0 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:  NA

Environment - current issues:  NA

Geography - note:  strategic location 160 km south of the US Naval Base
at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba; mostly exposed rock, but enough grassland to
support goat herds; dense stands of fig-like trees, scattered cactus

People Navassa Island

Population:  uninhabited note: transient Haitian fishermen and others
camp on the island (July 2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  NA

Government Navassa Island

Country name:  conventional long form: none conventional short form:
Navassa Island

Dependency status:  unincorporated territory of the US; administered
from Washington, DC, by the Fish and Wildlife Service, US Department
of the Interior; in September 1996, the Coast Guard ceased operations
and maintenance of Navassa Island Light, a 46-meter-tall lighthouse on
the southern side of the island; there has also been a private claim
advanced against the island

Legal system:  the laws of the US, where applicable, apply

Flag description:  the flag of the US is used

Economy Navassa Island

Economy - overview:  no economic activity

Transportation Navassa Island

Waterways:  none

Ports and harbors:  none; offshore anchorage only

Military Navassa Island

Military - note:  defense is the responsibility of the US

Transnational Issues Navassa Island

Disputes - international:  claimed by Haiti

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002



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Brazil

Introduction

Brazil

Background:  Following three centuries under the rule of Portugal,
Brazil became an independent nation in 1822. By far the largest and most
populous country in South America, Brazil has overcome more than half
a century of military intervention in the governance of the country to
pursue industrial and agricultural growth and development of the interior.
Exploiting vast natural resources and a large labor pool, Brazil became
South America's leading economic power by the 1970s. Highly unequal
income distribution remains a pressing problem.

Geography Brazil

Location:  Eastern South America, bordering the Atlantic Ocean

Geographic coordinates:  10 00 S, 55 00 W

Map references:  South America

Area:  total: 8,511,965 sq km land: 8,456,510 sq km note: includes
Arquipelago de Fernando de Noronha, Atol das Rocas, Ilha da Trindade,
Ilhas Martin Vaz, and Penedos de Sao Pedro e Sao Paulo water: 55,455 sq km

Area - comparative:  slightly smaller than the US

Land boundaries:  total: 14,691 km border countries: Argentina 1,224 km,
Bolivia 3,400 km, Colombia 1,643 km, French Guiana 673 km, Guyana 1,119
km, Paraguay 1,290 km, Peru 1,560 km, Suriname 597 km, Uruguay 985 km,
Venezuela 2,200 km

Coastline:  7,491 km

Maritime claims:  contiguous zone: 24 NM territorial sea: 12 NM
continental shelf: 200 NM or to edge of the continental margin exclusive
economic zone: 200 NM

Climate:  mostly tropical, but temperate in south

Terrain:  mostly flat to rolling lowlands in north; some plains, hills,
mountains, and narrow coastal belt

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point:
Pico da Neblina 3,014 m

Natural resources:  bauxite, gold, iron ore, manganese, nickel,
phosphates, platinum, tin, uranium, petroleum, hydropower, timber

Land use:  arable land: 6% permanent crops: 2% other: 92% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  26,560 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:  recurring droughts in northeast; floods and occasional
frost in south

Environment - current issues:  deforestation in Amazon Basin destroys the
habitat and endangers a multitude of plant and animal species indigenous
to the area; there is a lucrative illegal wildlife trade; air and water
pollution in Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, and several other large cities;
land degradation and water pollution caused by improper mining activities;
wetland degradation; severe oil spills

Environment - international agreements:  party to: Antarctic-Environmental
Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic
Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea,
Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling signed, but
not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography - note:  largest country in South America; shares common
boundaries with every South American country except Chile and Ecuador

People Brazil

Population:  176,029,560 note: Brazil took an intercensal count in
August 1996 which reported a population of 157,079,573; that figure
was about 5% lower than projections by the US Census Bureau, which
is close to the implied underenumeration of 4.6% for the 1991 census;
estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of
excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy,
higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth
rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than
would otherwise be expected (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:   28% (male 25,140,954; female 24,199,276) 15-64 years:
(male 3,992,017; female 5,863,234) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  0.87% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  18.08 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  9.32 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  -0.03 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female 65 years and over:
0.68 male(s)/female total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  35.87 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   67.91 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  2.05 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  0.57% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  540,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  18,000 (1999 est.)

Nationality:  noun: Brazilian(s) adjective: Brazilian

Ethnic groups:  white (includes Portuguese, German, Italian, Spanish,
Polish) 55%, mixed white and black 38%, black 6%, other (includes
Japanese, Arab, Amerindian) 1%

Religions:  Roman Catholic (nominal) 80%

Languages:  Portuguese (official), Spanish, English, French

Literacy:  definition: age 15 and over can read and write total
population: 83.3% male: 83.3% female: 83.2% (1995 est.)

Government Brazil

Country name:  conventional long form: Federative Republic of Brazil
conventional short form: Brazil local short form: Brasil local long form:
Republica Federativa do Brasil

Government type:  federative republic

Capital:  Brasilia

Administrative divisions:  26 states (estados, singular - estado) and 1
federal district* (distrito federal); Acre, Alagoas, Amapa, Amazonas,
Bahia, Ceara, Distrito Federal*, Espirito Santo, Goias, Maranhao,
Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Para, Paraiba, Parana,
Pernambuco, Piaui, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Norte, Rio Grande do Sul,
Rondonia, Roraima, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo, Sergipe, Tocantins

Independence:  7 September 1822 (from Portugal)

National holiday:  Independence Day, 7 September (1822)

Constitution:  5 October 1988

Legal system:  based on Roman codes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction

Suffrage:  voluntary between 16 and 18 years of age and over 70;
compulsory over 18 and under 70 years of age

Executive branch:  chief of state: President Fernando Henrique CARDOSO
(since 1 January 1995); Vice President Marco MACIEL (since 1 January
1995); note - the president is both the chief of state and head
of government election results: Fernando Henrique CARDOSO reelected
president; percent of vote - 53% elections: president and vice president
elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year terms; election
last held 4 October 1998 (next to be held 6 October 2002) cabinet:
Cabinet appointed by the president head of government: President Fernando
Henrique CARDOSO (since 1 January 1995); Vice President Marco MACIEL
(since 1 January 1995); note - the president is both the chief of state
and head of government

Legislative branch:  bicameral National Congress or Congresso Nacional
consists of the Federal Senate or Senado Federal (81 seats; three
members from each state or federal district elected according to the
principle of majority to serve eight-year terms; one-third elected after
a four-year period, two-thirds elected after the next four-year period)
and the Chamber of Deputies or Camara dos Deputados (513 seats; members
are elected by proportional representation to serve four-year terms)
election results:  PFL 20, PSDB 16, PT 7, PPB 5, PSB 3, PDT 2, PPS 1;
Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party -
PFL 106, PSDB 99, PMDB 82, PPB 60, PT 58, PTB 31, PDT 25, PSB 19, PL
12, PCdoB 7, other 14 note:  PSDB 13, PT 7, PDT 5, PSB 4, PTB 4, PPB 2,
PPS 2, PL 1, independent 1; Chamber of Deputies - seats by party (as of
January 2002) - PFL 96, PSDB 93, PMDB 90, PT 59, PPB 49, PTB 33, PL 24,
PDT 17, PSB 16, PPS 13, PCdoB 10, other 13 elections: Federal Senate -
last held 4 October 1998 for one-third of the Senate (next to be held
6 October 2002 for two-thirds of the Senate); Chamber of Deputies -
last held 4 October 1998 (next to be held 6 October 2002)

Judicial branch:  Supreme Federal Tribunal (11 ministers are appointed by
the president and confirmed by the Senate); Higher Tribunal of Justice;
Regional Federal Tribunals (judges are appointed for life)

Political parties and leaders:  Brazilian Democratic Movement Party
or PMDB [Michel TEMER, president]; Brazilian Labor Party or PTB [Jose
Carlos MARTINEZ, president]; Brazilian Social Democracy Party or PSDB
[Senator Jose ANIBAL, president]; Brazilian Socialist Party or PSB [Miguel
ARRAES, president]; Brazilian Progressive Party or PPB [Paulo Salim
MALUF]; Communist Party of Brazil or PCdoB [Renato RABELLO, chairman];
Democratic Labor Party or PDT [Leonel BRIZOLA, president]; Liberal Front
Party or PFL [Jorge BORNHAUSEN, president]; Liberal Party or PL [Deputy
Valdemar COSTA Neto, president]; Popular Socialist Party or PPS [Senator
Roberto FREIRE, president]; Worker's Party or PT [Jose DIRCEU, president]

Political pressure groups and leaders:  left wing of the Catholic Church,
Landless Worker's Movement, and labor unions allied to leftist Worker's
Party are critical of government's social and economic policies

International organization participation:  AfDB, BIS, CCC, ECLAC, FAO,
G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA,
IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO,
ITU, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA,
RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMOP, UNMOVIC, UNTAET,
UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
Rubens Antonio BARBOSA FAX: [1] (202) 238-2827 consulate(s) general:
Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, and San Francisco
chancery: 3006 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone:
[1] (202) 238-2700

Diplomatic representation from the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
Donna J. HRINAK embassy: Avenida das Nacoes, Quadra 801, Lote 3, Distrito
Federal Cep 70403-900, Brasilia mailing
 [55] (061) 321-7272 FAX:  consulate(s): Recife

Flag description:  green with a large yellow diamond in the center
bearing a blue celestial globe with 27 white five-pointed stars (one
for each state and the Federal District) arranged in the same pattern
as the night sky over Brazil; the globe has a white equatorial band with
the motto ORDEM E PROGRESSO (Order and Progress)

Economy Brazil

Economy - overview:  Possessing large and well-developed agricultural,
mining, manufacturing, and service sectors, Brazil's economy outweighs
that of all other South American countries and is expanding its presence
in world markets.  The maintenance of large current account deficits via
capital account surpluses became problematic as investors became more risk
averse to emerging market exposure as a consequence of the Asian financial
crisis in 1997 and the Russian bond default in August 1998. After crafting
a fiscal adjustment program and pledging progress on structural reform,
Brazil received a $41.5 billion IMF-led international support program in
November 1998. In January 1999, the Brazilian Central Bank announced that
the real would no longer be pegged to the US dollar. This devaluation
helped moderate the downturn in economic growth in 1999 that investors
had expressed concerns about over the summer of 1998, and the country
posted moderate GDP growth. Economic growth slowed considerably in 2001
- to less than 2% - because of a slowdown in major markets and the
hiking of interest rates by the Central Bank to combat inflationary
pressures. Investor confidence was strong at yearend 2001, in part
because of the strong recovery in the trade balance.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $1.34 trillion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  1.9% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $7,400 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: 9% industry: 32% services: 59%
(2000 est.)

Population below poverty line:  22% (1998 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: 1%
highest 10%: 46.7% (1997)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:  59.1 (1997)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  7.7% (2001)

Labor force:  79 million (1999 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:  services 53%, agriculture 23%, industry 24%

Unemployment rate:  6.4% (2001 est.)

Budget:  revenues: $100.6 billion expenditures: $91.6 billion, including
capital expenditures of $NA (2000)

Industries:  textiles, shoes, chemicals, cement, lumber, iron ore, tin,
steel, aircraft, motor vehicles and parts, other machinery and equipment

Industrial production growth rate:  1% (2001 est.)

Electricity - production:  342.302 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 5.85% other: 3.74%
(2000) hydro: 88.97% nuclear: 1.44%

Electricity - consumption:  360.641 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  0 kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports:  42.3 billion kWh note: supplied by Paraguay (2000)

Agriculture - products:  coffee, soybeans, wheat, rice, corn, sugarcane,
cocoa, citrus; beef

Exports:  $57.8 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)

Exports - commodities:  manufactures, iron ore, soybeans, footwear,
coffee, autos

Exports - partners:  US 24.4%, Argentina 11.2%, Germany 8.7%, Japan 5.5%,
Italy 3.9%, Netherlands (2001)

Imports:  $57.7 billion (f.o.b., 2001)

Imports - commodities:  machinery and equipment, chemical products, oil,
electricity, autos and auto parts

Imports - partners:  US 23.2%, Argentina 11.2%, Germany 8.7%, Japan 5.5%,
Italy 3.9% (2001)

Debt - external:  $251 billion (2001)

Economic aid - recipient:  NA

Currency:  real (BRL)

Currency code:  BRL

Exchange rates:  reals per US dollar - 2.378 (January 2002), 2.358
(2001), 1.830 (2000), 1.815 (1999), 1.161 (1998), 1.078 (1997) note: from
October 1994 through 14 January 1999, the official rate was determined
by a managed float; since 15 January 1999, the official rate floats
independently with respect to the US dollar

Fiscal year:  calendar year

Communications Brazil

Telephones - main lines in use:  17.039 million (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  4.4 million (1997)

Telephone system:  general assessment: good working system domestic:
extensive microwave radio relay system and a domestic satellite system
with 64 earth stations international: 3 coaxial submarine cables;
satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Inmarsat
(Atlantic Ocean region east), connected by microwave relay system to
Mercosur Brazilsat B3 satellite earth station

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 1,365, FM 296, shortwave 161 (of which 91
are collocated with AM stations) (1999)

Radios:  71 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:  138 (1997)

Televisions:  36.5 million (1997)

Internet country code:  .br

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  50 (2000)

Internet users:  11.94 million (2001)

Transportation Brazil

Railways:  total: broad gauge: 5,679 km 1.600-m gauge (1,199 km
electrified) narrow gauge: 24,666 km 1.000-m gauge (930 km electrified)
dual gauge: 336 km 1.000-m and 1.600-m gauges (three rails) standard
gauge: 194 km 1.440-m gauge note: in addition to the interurban routes
itemized above, Brazil has 247.8 km of suburban railway consisting of
170.8 km of 1.600-m gauge (75 km electrified) and 77 km of 1.000-m gauge
(1999 est.)

Highways:  total: 1.98 million km paved: 184,140 km unpaved: 1,795,860 km
(1996)

Waterways:  50,000 km

Pipelines:  crude oil 2,980 km; petroleum products 4,762 km; natural
gas 4,246 km (1998)

Ports and harbors:  Belem, Fortaleza, Ilheus, Imbituba, Manaus,
Paranagua, Porto Alegre, Recife, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande, Salvador,
Santos, Vitoria

Merchant marine:  total: 165 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,662,570
GRT/5,875,933 DWT note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here
as a flag of convenience: Chile 2, Germany 6, Greece 1, Monaco 1 (2002
est.)  ships by type: bulk 32, cargo 25, chemical tanker 5, combination
ore/oil 9, container 12, liquefied gas 11, multi-functional large-load
carrier 1, passenger/cargo 5, petroleum tanker 54, roll on/roll off 10,
short-sea passenger 1

Airports:  3,365 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 627 over 3,047 m: 6 2,438 to 3,047
m: 21 1,524 to 2,437 m: 153 914 to 1,523 m: 407 under 914 m: 40 (2001)

Airports - with unpaved runways:   1,316 under 914 m: Military Brazil

Military branches:  Brazilian Army, Brazilian Navy (includes naval air
and marines), Brazilian Air Force, Federal Police (paramilitary)

Military manpower - military age:  18 years of age (2002 est.)

Military manpower - availability:  males age 15-49: 48,859,610 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:  males age 15-49: 32,743,504
(2002 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:  males: 1,762,740
(2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:  $13.408 billion (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:  1.9% (FY99)

Transnational Issues Brazil

Disputes - international:  uncontested dispute with Uruguay over islands
in the Rio Quarai (Rio Cuareim) and the Arroio Invernada (Arroyo de
la Invernada)

Illicit drugs:  illicit producer of cannabis; minor coca cultivation
in the Amazon region, used for domestic consumption; government
has a large-scale eradication program to control cannabis; important
transshipment country for Colombian and Peruvian cocaine headed for the
US and Europe; also used by traffickers as a way station for narcotics
air transshipments between Peru and Colombia; upsurge in drug-related
violence and weapons smuggling; important market for Colombian, Bolivian,
and Peruvian cocaine

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002



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Bassas da India

Introduction

Bassas da India

Background:  This atoll is a volcanic rock surrounded by reefs and is
awash at high tide. A French possession since 1897, it was placed under
the administration of a commissioner residing in Reunion in 1968.

Geography Bassas da India

Location:  Southern Africa, islands in the southern Mozambique Channel,
about one-half of the way from Madagascar to Mozambique

Geographic coordinates:  21 30 S, 39 50 E

Map references:  Africa

Area:  total: 0.2 sq km water: 0 sq km land: 0.2 sq km

Area - comparative:  about one-third the size of The Mall in Washington,
DC

Land boundaries:  0 km

Coastline:  35.2 km

Maritime claims:  exclusive economic zone: 200 NM territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate:  tropical

Terrain:  volcanic rock

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m highest point:
unnamed location 2.4 m

Natural resources:  none

Land use:  arable land: 0% permanent crops: 0% other: 100% (all rock)
(1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  0 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:  maritime hazard since it is usually under water during
high tide and surrounded by reefs; subject to periodic cyclones

Environment - current issues:  NA

Geography - note:  the islands emerge from a circular reef that sits
atop a long-extinct, submerged volcano

People Bassas da India

Population:  uninhabited (July 2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  NA

Government Bassas da India

Country name:  conventional long form: none conventional short form:
Bassas da India

Dependency status:  possession of France; administered by a high
commissioner of the Republic, resident in Reunion

Legal system:  the laws of France, where applicable, apply

Flag description:  the flag of France is used

Economy Bassas da India

Economy - overview:  no economic activity

Transportation Bassas da India

Waterways:  none

Ports and harbors:  none; offshore anchorage only

Military Bassas da India

Military - note:  defense is the responsibility of France

Transnational Issues Bassas da India

Disputes - international:  claimed by Madagascar

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002



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Bhutan

Introduction

Bhutan

Background:  In 1865, Britain and Bhutan signed the Treaty of Sinchulu,
under which Bhutan would receive an annual subsidy in exchange for ceding
some border land.  Under British influence, a monarchy was set up in 1907;
three years later, a treaty was signed whereby the British agreed not to
interfere in Bhutanese internal affairs and Bhutan allowed Britain to
direct its foreign affairs. This role was assumed by independent India
after 1947. Two years later, a formal Indo-Bhutanese accord returned the
areas of Bhutan annexed by the British, formalized the annual subsidies
the country received, and defined India's responsibilities in defense
and foreign relations. A refugee issue of some 100,000 Bhutanese in
Nepal remains unresolved; 90% of the refugees are housed in seven United
Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) camps. Maoist
Assamese separatists from India, who have established themselves in the
southeast portion of Bhutan, have drawn Indian cross-border incursions.

Geography Bhutan

Location:  Southern Asia, between China and India

Geographic coordinates:  27 30 N, 90 30 E

Map references:  Asia

Area:  total: 47,000 sq km water: 0 sq km land: 47,000 sq km

Area - comparative:  about half the size of Indiana

Land boundaries:  total: 1,075 km border countries: China 470 km, India
605 km

Coastline:  0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:  none (landlocked)

Climate:  varies; tropical in southern plains; cool winters and hot
summers in central valleys; severe winters and cool summers in Himalayas

Terrain:  mostly mountainous with some fertile valleys and savanna

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Drangme Chhu 97 m highest point:
Kula Kangri 7,553 m

Natural resources:  timber, hydropower, gypsum, calcium carbide

Land use:  arable land: 3% permanent crops: 0% other: 97% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  400 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:  violent storms from the Himalayas are the source
of the country's name which translates as Land of the Thunder Dragon;
frequent landslides during the rainy season

Environment - current issues:  soil erosion; limited access to potable
water

Environment - international agreements:  party to: Biodiversity, Climate
Change, Nuclear Test Ban signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Geography - note:  landlocked; strategic location between China and India;
controls several key Himalayan mountain passes

People Bhutan

Population:  2,094,176 note: other estimates range as low as 810,000
(July 2002 est.)

Age structure:  0-14 years: 39.8% (male 431,883; female 401,386) 15-64
years: 56.2% (male 606,184; female 571,310) 65 years and over: 4%
(male 42,193; female 41,220) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  2.15% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  35.26 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  13.74 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.08
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female 65 years and over:
1.02 male(s)/female total population: 1.07 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  106.79 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   52.83 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  5 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  less than 0.01% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  less than 100 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  NA

Nationality:  noun: Bhutanese (singular and plural) adjective: Bhutanese

Ethnic groups:  Bhote 50%, ethnic Nepalese 35% (includes Lhotsampas--one
of several Nepalese ethnic groups), indigenous or migrant tribes 15%

Religions:  Lamaistic Buddhist 75%, Indian- and Nepalese-influenced
Hinduism 25%

Languages:  Dzongkha (official), Bhotes speak various Tibetan dialects,
Nepalese speak various Nepalese dialects

Literacy:  definition: age 15 and over can read and write total
population: 42.2% male: 56.2% female: 28.1% (1995 est.)

Government Bhutan

Country name:  conventional long form: Kingdom of Bhutan conventional
short form: Bhutan

Government type:  monarchy; special treaty relationship with India

Capital:  Thimphu

Administrative divisions:  18 districts (dzongkhag, singular and plural);
Bumthang, Chhukha, Chirang, Dagana, Geylegphug, Ha, Lhuntshi, Mongar,
Paro, Pemagatsel, Punakha, Samchi, Samdrup Jongkhar, Shemgang, Tashigang,
Thimphu, Tongsa, Wangdi Phodrang note: there may be two new districts
named Gasa and Yangtse

Independence:  8 August 1949 (from India)

National holiday:  National Day (Ugyen WANGCHUCK became first hereditary
king), 17 December (1907)

Constitution:  no written constitution or bill of rights; note - Bhutan
uses 1953 Royal decree for the Constitution of the National Assembly;
on 7 July 1998, a Royal edict was ratified giving the National Assembly
additional powers

Legal system:  based on Indian law and English common law; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:  each family has one vote in village-level elections

Executive branch:  chief of state: King Jigme Singye WANGCHUCK (since
24 July 1972) elections: none; the monarch is hereditary, but democratic
reforms in July 1998 grant the National Assembly authority to remove the
monarch with two-thirds vote head of government: Chairman of the Council
of Ministers Lyonpo Khandu WANGCHUK (since 8 August 2001) cabinet:
Council of Ministers (Lhengye Shungtsog) nominated by the monarch,
approved by the National Assembly; members serve fixed, five-year terms;
note - there is also a Royal Advisory Council (Lodoi Tsokde), members
nominated by the monarch

Legislative branch:  unicameral National Assembly or Tshogdu (150 seats;
105 elected from village constituencies, 10 represent religious bodies,
and 35 are designated by the monarch to represent government and other
secular interests; members serve three-year terms) elections: last held NA
(next to be held NA) election results: NA

Judicial branch:  Supreme Court of Appeal (the monarch); High Court
(judges appointed by the monarch)

Political parties and leaders:  no legal parties

Political pressure groups and leaders:  Buddhist clergy; ethnic Nepalese
organizations leading militant antigovernment campaign; Indian merchant
community; United Front for Democracy (exiled)

International organization participation:  AsDB, CP, ESCAP, FAO,
G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IMF, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, NAM, OPCW
(signatory), SAARC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WTrO
(observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US:  none; note - Bhutan has a Permanent
Mission to the UN; address: 2 United Nations Plaza, 27th Floor, New York,
NY 10017; telephone [1] (212) 826-1919; the Bhutanese mission to the UN
has consular jurisdiction in the US consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:  the US and Bhutan have no formal
diplomatic relations, although informal contact is maintained between
the Bhutanese and US Embassy in New Delhi (India)

Flag description:  divided diagonally from the lower hoist side corner;
the upper triangle is yellow and the lower triangle is orange; centered
along the dividing line is a large black and white dragon facing away
from the hoist side

Economy Bhutan

Economy - overview:  The economy, one of the world's smallest and
least developed, is based on agriculture and forestry, providing
the main livelihood for more than 90% of the population. Agriculture
consists largely of subsistence farming and animal husbandry. Rugged
mountains dominate the terrain and make the building of roads and other
infrastructure difficult and expensive. The economy is closely aligned
with India's through strong trade and monetary links. The industrial
sector is technologically backward, with most production of the cottage
industry type. Most development projects, such as road construction, rely
on Indian migrant labor. Bhutan's hydropower potential and its attraction
for tourists are key resources. The Bhutanese Government has made some
progress in expanding the nation's productive base and improving social
welfare. Model education, social, and environment programs in Bhutan are
underway with support from multilateral development organizations. Each
economic program takes into account the government's desire to protect
the country's environment and cultural traditions. Detailed controls
and uncertain policies in areas like industrial licensing, trade, labor,
and finance continue to hamper foreign investment.  Major hydroelectric
projects will lead expansion of GDP in 2002 by an estimated 6%.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $2.5 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  6% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $1,200 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: 45% industry: 20% services:
35% (2001 est.)

Population below poverty line:  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  7% (2000 est.)

Labor force:  NA note: massive lack of skilled labor

Labor force - by occupation:  agriculture 93%, services 5%, industry
and commerce 2%

Unemployment rate:  NA%

Budget:  revenues: $146 million expenditures: $152 million, including
capital expenditures of $NA (FY95/96 est.)  note: the government of
India finances nearly three-fifths of Bhutan's budget expenditures

Industries:  cement, wood products, processed fruits, alcoholic beverages,
calcium carbide

Industrial production growth rate:  9.3% (1996 est.)

Electricity - production:  1.876 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 0.05% hydro: 99.95%
other: 0% (2000) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:  380.68 million kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  1.385 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports:  21 million kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products:  rice, corn, root crops, citrus, foodgrains;
dairy products, eggs

Exports:  $154 million (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Exports - commodities:  electricity (to India), cardamom, gypsum, timber,
handicrafts, cement, fruit, precious stones, spices

Exports - partners:  India 94%, Bangladesh

Imports:  $196 million (c.i.f., 2000 est.)

Imports - commodities:  fuel and lubricants, grain, machinery and parts,
vehicles, fabrics, rice

Imports - partners:  India 77%, Japan, UK, Germany, US

Debt - external:  $245 million (1998)

Economic aid - recipient:  substantial aid from India and other nations

Currency:  ngultrum (BTN); Indian rupee (INR)

Currency code:  BTN; INR

Exchange rates:  ngultrum per US dollar - 48.336 (January 2002), 47.186
(2001), 44.942 (2000), 43.055 (1999), 41.259 (1998), 36.313 (1997);
note - the Bhutanese ngultrum is at par with the Indian rupee which is
also legal tender

Fiscal year:  1 July - 30 June

Communications Bhutan

Telephones - main lines in use:  6,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  NA

Telephone system:  general assessment: NA domestic: domestic telephone
service is very poor with few telephones in use international:
international telephone and telegraph service is by landline through
India; a satellite earth station was planned (1990)

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 0, FM 1, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios:  37,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:  0 (1997)

Televisions:  11,000 (1997)

Internet country code:  .bt

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  NA

Internet users:  500 (2000)

Transportation Bhutan

Railways:  0 km

Highways:  total: 3,285 km paved: 1,994 km unpaved: 1,291 km (1996)

Waterways:  none

Ports and harbors:  none

Airports:  2 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 1 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2001)

Airports - with unpaved runways:  total: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2001)

Military Bhutan

Military branches:  Royal Bhutan Army, Royal Bodyguard, National Militia,
Royal Bhutan Police, Forest Guards

Military manpower - military age:  18 years of age (2002 est.)

Military manpower - availability:  males age 15-49: 517,470 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:  males age 15-49: 276,303
(2002 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:  males: 21,167
(2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:  $9.3 million (FY01)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:  1.9% (FY01)

Transnational Issues Bhutan

Disputes - international:  approximately 100,000 Bhutanese refugees living
in Nepal, 90% of whom reside in seven UN Office of the High Commissioner
for Refugees camps, place decades-long strains on Nepal

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002



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Bulgaria

Introduction

Bulgaria

Background:  The Bulgars, a Central Asian Turkic tribe, merged with
the local Slavic inhabitants in the late 7th century to form the first
Bulgarian state. In succeeding centuries, Bulgaria struggled with the
Byzantine Empire to assert its place in the Balkans, but by the end of
the 14th century the country was overrun by the Ottoman Turks.  Bulgaria
regained its independence in 1878, but having fought on the losing side
in both World Wars, it fell within the Soviet sphere of influence and
became a People's Republic in 1946.  Communist domination ended in 1990,
when Bulgaria held its first multiparty election since World War II and
began the contentious process of moving toward political democracy and
a market economy while combating inflation, unemployment, corruption,
and crime.  Today, reforms and democratization keep Bulgaria on a path
toward eventual integration into NATO and the EU - with which it began
accession negotiations in 2000.

Geography Bulgaria

Location:  Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Romania
and Turkey

Geographic coordinates:  43 00 N, 25 00 E

Map references:  Europe

Area:  total: 110,910 sq km water: 360 sq km land: 110,550 sq km

Area - comparative:  slightly larger than Tennessee

Land boundaries:  total: 1,808 km border countries: Greece 494 km, The
Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 148 km, Romania 608 km, Yugoslavia
318 km, Turkey 240 km

Coastline:  354 km

Maritime claims:   200 NM territorial sea: Climate:  temperate; cold,
damp winters; hot, dry summers

Terrain:  mostly mountains with lowlands in north and southeast

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Black Sea 0 m highest point: Musala
2,925 m

Natural resources:  bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, coal, timber, arable land

Land use:  arable land: 39% permanent crops: 2% other: 59% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  8,000 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:  earthquakes, landslides

Environment - current issues:  air pollution from industrial
emissions; rivers polluted from raw sewage, heavy metals, detergents;
deforestation; forest damage from air pollution and resulting acid
rain; soil contamination from heavy metals from metallurgical plants
and industrial wastes

Environment - international agreements:  party to: Air Pollution, Air
Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants,
Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds,
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources,
Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification,
Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law
of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Geography - note:  strategic location
near Turkish Straits; controls key land routes from Europe to Middle
East and Asia

People Bulgaria

Population:  7,621,337 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:  0-14 years: 14.6% (male 572,961; female 543,004) 15-64
years: 68.5% (male 2,569,199; female 2,648,461) 65 years and over: 16.9%
(male 540,109; female 747,603) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  -1.11% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  8.05 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  14.42 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  -4.74 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.06
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female 65 years and over:
0.72 male(s)/female total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  14.18 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   75.22 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  1.13 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  0.01% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  346 (2000)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  less than 100 (1999 est.)

Nationality:  noun: Bulgarian(s) adjective: Bulgarian

Ethnic groups:  Bulgarian 83.6%, Turk 9.5%, Roma 4.6%, other 2.3%
(including Macedonian, Armenian, Tatar, Circassian) (1998)

Religions:  Bulgarian Orthodox 83.8%, Muslim 12.1%, Roman Catholic 1.7%,
Jewish 0.8%, Protestant, Gregorian-Armenian, and other 1.6% (1998)

Languages:  Bulgarian, secondary languages closely correspond to ethnic
breakdown

Literacy:  definition: age 15 and over can read and write total
population: 98% male: 99% female: 98% (1999)

Government Bulgaria

Country name:   Republic of Bulgaria conventional short form: Government
type:  parliamentary democracy

Capital:  Sofia

Administrative divisions:  28 provinces (oblasti, singular - oblast);
Blagoevgrad, Burgas, Dobrich, Gabrovo, Khaskovo, Kurdzhali, Kyustendil,
Lovech, Montana, Pazardzhik, Pernik, Pleven, Plovdiv, Razgrad, Ruse,
Shumen, Silistra, Sliven, Smolyan, Sofiya, Sofiya-Grad, Stara Zagora,
Turgovishte, Varna, Veliko Turnovo, Vidin, Vratsa, Yambol

Independence:  3 March 1878 (from Ottoman Empire)

National holiday:  Liberation Day, 3 March (1878)

Constitution:  adopted 12 July 1991

Legal system:  civil law and criminal law based on Roman law; accepts
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:  chief of state: President Georgi PARVANOV (since 22
January 2002); Vice President Angel MARIN (since 22 January 2002) head of
government: Chairman of the Council of Ministers (Prime Minister) Simeon
SAXE-COBURG-GOTHA (since 24 July 2001); Deputy Prime Ministers Nikolay
VASILEV (since 24 July 2001), Kostadin PASKALEV (since 24 July 2001),
and Lidiya SHULEVA (since 24 July 2001) cabinet: Council of Ministers
elected by the National Assembly elections: president and vice president
elected on the same ticket by popular vote for five-year terms; election
last held 11 November and 18 November 2001 (next to be held NA 2006);
chairman of the Council of Ministers (prime minister) nominated by
the president; deputy prime ministers nominated by the prime minister
election results:  54.13%, Petar STOYANOV 45.87%

Legislative branch:  unicameral National Assembly or Narodno Sobranie
(240 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 17 June 2001 (next to be held NA June 2005)
election results: percent of vote by party - NMS2 42.74%, UHdDF 18.18%,
CFB 17.15%, MRF 7.45%; seats by party - NMS2 120, UHdDF 51, CFB 48,
MRF 21; note - seating as of February 2002 - NMS2 115, UHdDF 51, CFB 48,
MRF 21, independents 5

Judicial branch:  Supreme Administrative Court; Supreme Court of
Cassation; Constitutional Court (12 justices appointed or elected for
nine-year terms); Supreme Judicial Council (consists of the chairmen
of the two Supreme Courts, the Chief Prosecutor, and 22 other members;
responsible for appointing the justices, prosecutors, and investigating
magistrates in the justice system; members of the Supreme Judicial Council
elected for five-year terms, 11 elected by the National Assembly and 11
by bodies of the judiciary)

Political parties and leaders:  Bulgarian Radical Union [Evgeniy
BAKURDZHIEV]; Bulgarian Socialist Party or BSP [Sergei STANISHEV];
Coalition for Bulgaria or CFB (bloc led by BSP, includes Ecoglasnost
Political Club and Bulgarian Agrarian National Union) [leader NA];
Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization or VMRO [Krasimir
KARAKACHNOV]; Movement for Rights and Freedoms or MRF [Ahmed DOGAN];
National Movement for Simeon II or NMS2 [Simeon SAXE-COBURG-GOTHA]; New
Civic Party for Bulgaria [Bogomil BONEV]; People's Union or PU (includes
Bulgarian Agrarian National Union and Democratic Party) [Anastasiya
MOZER]; St. George's Day [Lyuben DILOV, Jr.]; Union of Democratic Forces
or UHdDF [Ekaterina MIKHAYLOVA]; Union of Free Democrats or UFD [Stefan
SOFIYANSKI]; United Democratic Forces (consisting of UHdDF and People's
Union) [Ekaterina MIKHAYLOVA]

Political pressure groups and leaders:  agrarian movement; Bulgarian
Democratic Center; Confederation of Independent Trade Unions of Bulgaria
or CITUB; Democratic Alliance for the Republic or DAR; New Union for
Democracy or NUD; Podkrepa Labor Confederation; numerous regional,
ethnic, and national interest groups with various agendas

International organization participation:  ACCT, Australia Group, BIS,
BSEC, CCC, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, G- 9,
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS, IHO (pending member), ILO,
IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM (guest), NSG, OAS (observer),
OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNIDO, UNMEE, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOP, UPU, WCL, WEU (associate partner),
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:   Ambassador-designate Elena
POPTODOROVA consulate(s):  1621 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

Diplomatic representation from the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
Richard M. MILES embassy: 1 Suborna Street, Sofia mailing address:
American Embassy Sofia, Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-5740
telephone: [359] (2) 937-5100 FAX: [359] (2) 981-89-77

Flag description:  three equal horizontal bands of white (top), green,
and red; the national emblem formerly on the hoist side of the white
stripe has been removed - it contained a rampant lion within a wreath
of wheat ears below a red five-pointed star and above a ribbon bearing
the dates 681 (first Bulgarian state established) and 1944 (liberation
from Nazi control)

Economy Bulgaria

Economy - overview:  Bulgaria, a former communist country striving to
enter the European Union, has experienced macroeconomic stability and
positive growth rates since a major economic downturn in 1996 led to the
fall of the then socialist government. The current government, elected in
2001, has pledged to maintain the fundamental economic policy objectives
of its predecessor, i.e., retaining the Currency Board, practicing sound
financial policies, accelerating privatization, and pursuing structural
reforms. A $300 million stand-by agreement negotiated with the IMF at
the end of 2001 will help the government maintain economic stability as
it seeks to overcome high rates of poverty and unemployment.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $48 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  4% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $6,200 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: 14.5% industry: 27.8% services:
57.7% (2000)

Population below poverty line:  35% (2000 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: 4.5%
highest 10%: 22.8% (1997)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:  34.1 (1997)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  7.5% (2001 est.)

Labor force:  3.83 million (2000 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:  agriculture 26%, industry 31%, services 43%
(1998 est.)

Unemployment rate:  17.5% (2001 est.)

Budget:  revenues: $5.57 billion expenditures: $5.68 billion, including
capital expenditures of $NA (2001 est.)

Industries:  electricity, gas and water; food, beverages and tobacco;
machinery and equipment, base metals, chemical products, coke, refined
petroleum, nuclear fuel

Industrial production growth rate:  2% (2001 est.)

Electricity - production:  38.84 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 47.9% hydro: 7.54%
other: 0.1% (2000) nuclear: 44.46%

Electricity - consumption:  34.42 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  3.2 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports:  1.5 billion kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products:  vegetables, fruits, tobacco, livestock, wine,
wheat, barley, sunflowers, sugar beets

Exports:  $4.6 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)

Exports - commodities:  clothing, footwear, iron and steel, machinery
and equipment, fuels

Exports - partners:  Italy 14%, Turkey 10%, Germany 9%, Greece 8%,
Yugoslavia 8% (2000)

Imports:  $6.2 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)

Imports - commodities:  fuels, minerals, and raw materials; machinery
and equipment; metals and ores; chemicals and plastics; food, textiles

Imports - partners:  Russia 24%, Germany 14%, Italy 8%, Greece 5%,
France 5% (2000)

Debt - external:  $10.2 billion (2001 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:  $1 billion (1999 est.)

Currency:  lev (BGL)

Currency code:  BGL

Exchange rates:  leva per US dollar - 2.2147 (January 2002), 2.1847
(2001), 2.1233 (2000), 1.8364 (1999), 1,760.36 (1998), 1,681.88 (1997)
note: on 5 July 1999, the lev was redenominated; the post-5 July 1999
lev is equal to 1,000 of the pre-5 July 1999 lev

Fiscal year:  calendar year

Communications Bulgaria

Telephones - main lines in use:  3,186,731 (2001)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  1.054 million (2001)

Telephone system:  general assessment: extensive but antiquated domestic:
more than two-thirds of the lines are residential; telephone service is
available in most villages; a fairly modern digital cable trunk line
now connects switching centers in most of the regions, the others are
connected by digital microwave radio relay international: direct dialing
to 58 countries; satellite earth stations - 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic
Ocean region); 2 Intelsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions)

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 31, FM 63, shortwave 2 (2001)

Radios:  4.51 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:  39 (plus 1,242 repeaters) (2001)

Televisions:  3.31 million (1997)

Internet country code:  .bg

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  200 (2001)

Internet users:  585,000 (2001)

Transportation Bulgaria

Railways:  total: 4,294 km standard gauge: 4,049 km 1.435-m gauge (2,710
km electrified) narrow gauge: 245 km 0.760-m gauge (2002)

Highways:  total: 37,288 km paved: 33,786 km (including 324 km of
expressways) unpaved: 3,502 km (2001)

Waterways:  470 km (1987)

Pipelines:  petroleum products 525 km; natural gas 1,500 km (1999)

Ports and harbors:  Burgas, Lom, Nesebur, Ruse, Varna, Vidin

Merchant marine:  total: 77 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 881,758
GRT/1,312,833 DWT ships by type: bulk 43, cargo 15, chemical tanker 4,
container 2, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 4, railcar carrier
2, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 3, short-sea passenger 1,
specialized tanker 1 (2002 est.)

Airports:  215 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 129 over 3,047 m: 1 2,438 to
3,047 m: 19 914 to 1,523 m: 1 under 914 m: 93 (2001) 1,524 to 2,437 m: 15

Airports - with unpaved runways:  total: 86 1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 914 to
1,523 m: 10 under 914 m: 74 (2001)

Heliports:  1 (2001)

Military Bulgaria

Military branches:  Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces (subordinate
to Ministry of Defense), Internal Forces (subordinate to Ministry of
Interior), Civil Defense Forces (subordinate to the president)

Military manpower - military age:  19 years of age (2002 est.)

Military manpower - availability:  males age 15-49: 1,873,052 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:  males age 15-49: 1,566,816
(2002 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:  males: 56,104
(2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:  $356 million (FY02)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:  2.7% (FY02)

Transnational Issues Bulgaria

Disputes - international:  because of a shift in the Danube course since
the last correction of the boundary in 1920, a joint Bulgarian-Romanian
team will recommend sovereignty changes to several islands and redefine
the boundary

Illicit drugs:  major European transshipment point for Southwest Asian
heroin and, to a lesser degree, South American cocaine for the European
market; limited producer of precursor chemicals

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002



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Bouvet Island

Introduction

Bouvet Island

Background:  This uninhabited volcanic island is almost entirely covered
by glaciers and is difficult to approach. It was discovered in 1739 by a
French naval officer after whom the island was named. No claim was made
until 1825 when the British flag was raised. In 1928, the UK waived its
claim in favor of Norway, which had occupied the island the previous
year. In 1971, Bouvet Island and the adjacent territorial waters were
designated a nature reserve. Since 1977, Norway has run an automated
meteorological station on the island.

Geography Bouvet Island

Location:  Southern Africa, island in the South Atlantic Ocean,
south-southwest of the Cape of Good Hope (South Africa)

Geographic coordinates:  54 26 S, 3 24 E

Map references:  Antarctic Region

Area:  total: 58.5 sq km water: 0 sq km land: 58.5 sq km

Area - comparative:  about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:  0 km

Coastline:  29.6 km

Maritime claims:  territorial sea: 4 NM

Climate:  antarctic

Terrain:  volcanic; coast is mostly inaccessible

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: South Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point:
Olav Peak 935 m

Natural resources:  none

Land use:  arable land: 0% permanent crops: 0% other: 100% (93% ice)
(1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  0 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:  NA

Environment - current issues:  NA

Geography - note:  covered by glacial ice; declared a nature reserve

People Bouvet Island

Population:  uninhabited (July 2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  NA

Government Bouvet Island

Country name:  conventional long form: none conventional short form:
Bouvet Island

Dependency status:  territory of Norway; administered by the Polar
Department of the Ministry of Justice and Police from Oslo

Legal system:  the laws of Norway, where applicable, apply

Flag description:  the flag of Norway is used

Economy Bouvet Island

Economy - overview:  no economic activity; declared a nature reserve

Communications Bouvet Island

Internet country code:  .bv

Communications - note:  automatic meteorological station

Transportation Bouvet Island

Waterways:  none

Ports and harbors:  none; offshore anchorage only

Military Bouvet Island

Military - note:  defense is the responsibility of Norway

Transnational Issues Bouvet Island

Disputes - international:  none

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002



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Brunei

Introduction

Brunei

Background:  The Sultanate of Brunei's heyday occurred between the
15th and 17th centuries, when its control extended over coastal areas
of northwest Borneo and the southern Philippines. Brunei subsequently
entered a period of decline brought on by internal strife over royal
succession, colonial expansion of European powers, and piracy. In 1888,
Brunei became a British protectorate; independence was achieved in 1984.
Brunei benefits from extensive petroleum and natural gas fields, the
source of one of the highest per capita GDPs in the less developed
countries. The same family has now ruled Brunei for over six centuries.

Geography Brunei

Location:  Southeastern Asia, bordering the South China Sea and Malaysia

Geographic coordinates:  4 30 N, 114 40 E

Map references:  Southeast Asia

Area:  total: 5,770 sq km water: 500 sq km land: 5,270 sq km

Area - comparative:  slightly smaller than Delaware

Land boundaries:  total: 381 km border countries: Malaysia 381 km

Coastline:  161 km

Maritime claims:  exclusive economic zone: 200 NM or to median line
territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate:  tropical; hot, humid, rainy

Terrain:  flat coastal plain rises to mountains in east; hilly lowland
in west

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: South China Sea 0 m highest point:
Bukit Pagon 1,850 m

Natural resources:  petroleum, natural gas, timber

Land use:  arable land: 1% permanent crops: 1% other: 98% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  10 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:  typhoons, earthquakes, and severe flooding are very rare

Environment - current issues:  seasonal smoke/haze resulting from forest
fires in Indonesia

Environment - international agreements:  party to: Endangered Species,
Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution signed, but not
ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:  close to vital sea lanes through South China Sea
linking Indian and Pacific Oceans; two parts physically separated by
Malaysia; almost an enclave of Malaysia

People Brunei

Population:  350,898 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:  0-14 years: 30.2% (male 54,038; female 51,833) 15-64
years: 67% (male 125,051; female 110,257) 65 years and over: 2.8%
(male 4,609; female 5,110) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  2.06% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  20.06 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  3.38 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  3.91 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.13 male(s)/female 65 years and over:
0.9 male(s)/female total population: 1.1 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  13.95 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   76.56 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  2.4 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  0.2% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  less than 100 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  NA

Nationality:  noun: Bruneian(s) adjective: Bruneian

Ethnic groups:  Malay 67%, Chinese 15%, indigenous 6%, other 12%

Religions:  Muslim (official) 67%, Buddhist 13%, Christian 10%, indigenous
beliefs and other 10%

Languages:  Malay (official), English, Chinese

Literacy:  definition: age 15 and over can read and write total
population: 88.2% male: 92.6% female: 83.4% (1995 est.)

Government Brunei

Country name:  conventional long form: Negara Brunei Darussalam
conventional short form: Brunei

Government type:  constitutional sultanate

Capital:  Bandar Seri Begawan

Administrative divisions:  4 districts (daerah-daerah, singular - daerah);
Belait, Brunei and Muara, Temburong, Tutong

Independence:  1 January 1984 (from UK)

National holiday:  National Day, 23 February (1984); note - 1 January
1984 was the date of independence from the UK, 23 February 1984 was the
date of independence from British protection

Constitution:  29 September 1959 (some provisions suspended under a
State of Emergency since December 1962, others since independence on 1
January 1984)

Legal system:  based on English common law; for Muslims, Islamic Shari'a
law supersedes civil law in a number of areas

Suffrage:  none

Executive branch:  chief of state: Sultan and Prime Minister Sir
HASSANAL Bolkiah (since 5 October 1967); note - the monarch is both
the chief of state and head of government head of government: Sultan
and Prime Minister Sir HASSANAL Bolkiah (since 5 October 1967); note -
the monarch is both the chief of state and head of government cabinet:
Council of Cabinet Ministers appointed and presided over by the monarch;
deals with executive matters; note - there is also a Religious Council
(members appointed by the monarch) that advises on religious matters,
a Privy Council (members appointed by the monarch) that deals with
constitutional matters, and the Council of Succession (members appointed
by the monarch) that determines the succession to the throne if the
need arises elections: Legislative branch:  unicameral Legislative
Council or Majlis Masyuarat Megeri (a privy council that serves only in
a consultative capacity; NA seats; members
 last held in March 1962 note:  monarch; an elected Legislative Council
 is being considered as part of
constitutional reform, but elections are unlikely for several years

Judicial branch:  Supreme Court (chief justice and judges are sworn in
by the monarch for three-year terms)

Political parties and leaders:  Brunei Solidarity National Party or
PPKB in Malay [Haji Mohd HATTA bin Haji Zainal Abidin, president]; the
PPKB is the only legal political party in Brunei; it was registered in
1985, but became largely inactive after 1988, it was revived in 1995
and again in 1998; it has less than 200 registered party members; other
parties include Brunei People's Party or PRB (banned in 1962) and Brunei
National Democratic Party (registered in May 1965, deregistered by the
Brunei Government in 1988)

Political pressure groups and leaders:  NA

International organization participation:  APEC, ARF, ASEAN, C, CCC,
ESCAP, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDB, IFRCS, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC,
ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UPU, WHO, WIPO,
WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
PUTEH ibni Mohammad Alam FAX: [1] (202) 885-0560 telephone: [1] (202)
237-1838 chancery: 3520 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008

Diplomatic representation from the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
Sylvia Gaye STANFIELD embassy: Third Floor, Teck Guan Plaza, Jalan
Sultan, Bandar Seri Begawan mailing address: PSC 470 (BSB), FPO AP 96507
telephone: [673] (2) 229670 FAX: [673] (2) 225293

Flag description:  yellow with two diagonal bands of white (top,
almost double width) and black starting from the upper hoist side;
the national emblem in red is superimposed at the center; the emblem
includes a swallow-tailed flag on top of a winged column within an
upturned crescent above a scroll and flanked by two upraised hands

Economy Brunei

Economy - overview:  This small, wealthy economy is a mixture of foreign
and domestic entrepreneurship, government regulation, welfare measures,
and village tradition.  Crude oil and natural gas production account for
nearly half of GDP. Per capita GDP is far above most other Third World
countries, and substantial income from overseas investment supplements
income from domestic production. The government provides for all medical
services and subsidizes rice and housing. Brunei's leaders are concerned
that steadily increased integration in the world economy will undermine
internal social cohesion although it became a more prominent player by
serving as chairman for the 2000 APEC (Asian Pacific Economic Cooperation)
forum. Plans for the future include upgrading the labor force, reducing
unemployment, strengthening the banking and tourist sectors, and, in
general, further widening the economic base beyond oil and gas.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $6.2 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  3% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $18,000 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: 5% industry: 45% services: 50%
(2001 est.)

Population below poverty line:  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  1% (1999 est.)

Labor force:  143,400 (1999 est.); note - includes foreign workers and
military personnel note: temporary residents make up 41% of labor force
(1991)

Labor force - by occupation:  government 48%, production of oil, natural
gas, services, and construction 42%, agriculture, forestry, and fishing
10% (1999 est.)

Unemployment rate:  10% (2001 est.)

Budget:  revenues: $2.5 billion expenditures: $2.6 billion, including
capital expenditures of $1.35 billion (1997 est.)

Industries:  petroleum, petroleum refining, liquefied natural gas,
construction

Industrial production growth rate:  4% (1997 est.)

Electricity - production:  2.22 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 100% hydro: 0% other: 0%
(2000) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:  2.065 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  0 kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports:  0 kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products:  rice, vegetables, fruits, chickens, water buffalo

Exports:  $3 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Exports - commodities:  crude oil, natural gas, refined products

Exports - partners:  Japan 42%, US 17%, South Korea 14%, Thailand 3%
(1999)

Imports:  $1.4 billion (c.i.f., 2000 est.)

Imports - commodities:  machinery and transport equipment, manufactured
goods, food, chemicals

Imports - partners:  Singapore 34%, UK 15%, Malaysia 15%, US 5% (1999)

Debt - external:  $0

Economic aid - recipient:  $4.3 million (1995)

Currency:  Bruneian dollar (BND)

Currency code:  BND

Exchange rates:  Bruneian dollars per US dollar - 1.8388 (January 2002),
1.8917 (2001), 1.7240 (2000), 1.6950 (1999), 1.6736 (1998), 1.4848
(1997); note - the Bruneian dollar is at par with the Singapore dollar

Fiscal year:  calendar year

Communications Brunei

Telephones - main lines in use:  79,000 (1996)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  43,524 (1996)

Telephone system:  general assessment: service throughout country
is excellent; international service good to Europe, US, and East Asia
domestic: every service available international: satellite earth stations
- 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean); digital submarine
cable links to Malaysia, Singapore, and Philippines (2001)

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 3, FM 10, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios:  329,000 (1998)

Television broadcast stations:  2 (1997)

Televisions:  201,900 (1998)

Internet country code:  .bn

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  2 (2000)

Internet users:  28,000 (2001)

Transportation Brunei

Railways:  total: 13 km (private line) narrow gauge: 13 km 0.610-m gauge
(2001 est.)

Highways:  total: 1,712 km paved: 1,284 km unpaved: 428 km (1996)

Waterways:  209 km; navigable by craft drawing less than 1.2 m

Pipelines:  crude oil 135 km; petroleum products 418 km; natural gas
920 km

Ports and harbors:  Bandar Seri Begawan, Kuala Belait, Muara, Seria,
Tutong

Merchant marine:  total: 7 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 348,476
GRT/340,635 DWT ships by type: liquefied gas 7 note: includes some
foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: United
Kingdom 7 (2002 est.)

Airports:  2 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 1 over 3,047 m: 1 (2001)

Airports - with unpaved runways:  total: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2001)

Heliports:  3 (2001)

Military Brunei

Military branches:  Land Forces, Navy, Air Force, Royal Brunei Police

Military manpower - military age:  18 years of age (2002 est.)

Military manpower - availability:  males age 15-49: 108,921 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:  males age 15-49: 62,864
(2002 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:  males: 3,005
(2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:  $343 million (FY98)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:  5.1% (FY98)

Transnational Issues Brunei

Disputes - international:  Brunei established an exclusive economic
fishing zone encompassing Louisa Reef in southern Spratly Islands in 1984,
but makes no public territorial claim to the offshore reefs

Illicit drugs:  drug trafficking and illegally importing controlled
substances are serious offenses in Brunei and carry a mandatory death
penalty

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002



========================================================================


Burundi

Introduction

Burundi

Background:  Burundi's first democratically elected president was
assassinated in October 1993 after only four months in office. Since
then, some 200,000 Burundians have perished in widespread, often
intense ethnic violence between Hutu and Tutsi factions. Hundreds
of thousands have been internally displaced or have become refugees
in neighboring countries. Burundian troops, seeking to secure their
borders, intervened in the conflict in the Democratic Republic of the
Congo in 1998. More recently, many of these troops have been redeployed
back to Burundi to deal with periodic upsurges in rebel activity. A new
transitional government, inaugurated on 1 November 2001, was to be the
first step towards holding national elections in three years. However,
the unwillingness of the Hutu rebels to enact a cease fire with Bujumbura
continues to obstruct prospects for a sustainable peace.

Geography Burundi

Location:  Central Africa, east of Democratic Republic of the Congo

Geographic coordinates:  3 30 S, 30 00 E

Map references:  Africa

Area:  total: 27,830 sq km water: 2,180 sq km land: 25,650 sq km

Area - comparative:  slightly smaller than Maryland

Land boundaries:  total: 974 km border countries: Democratic Republic
of the Congo 233 km, Rwanda 290 km, Tanzania 451 km

Coastline:  0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:  none (landlocked)

Climate:  equatorial; high plateau with considerable altitude variation
(772 m to 2,670 m above sea level); average annual temperature varies with
altitude from 23 to 17 degrees centigrade but is generally moderate as
the average altitude is about 1,700 m; average annual rainfall is about
150 cm; wet seasons from February to May and September to November,
and dry seasons from June to August and December to January

Terrain:  hilly and mountainous, dropping to a plateau in east, some
plains

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Lake Tanganyika 772 m highest point:
Mount Heha 2,670 m

Natural resources:  nickel, uranium, rare earth oxides, peat, cobalt,
copper, platinum (not yet exploited), vanadium, arable land, hydropower

Land use:  arable land: 30% permanent crops: 13% other: 57% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  740 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:  flooding, landslides, drought

Environment - current issues:  soil erosion as a result of overgrazing
and the expansion of agriculture into marginal lands; deforestation
(little forested land remains because of uncontrolled cutting of trees
for fuel); habitat loss threatens wildlife populations

Environment - international agreements:  party to: Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification,
Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection signed,
but not ratified: Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban

Geography - note:  landlocked; straddles crest of the Nile-Congo
watershed; the Kagera, which drains into Lake Victoria, is the most
remote headstream of the White Nile

People Burundi

Population:  6,373,002 note: estimates for this country explicitly take
into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result
in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower
population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population
by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:  0-14 years: 46.5% (male 1,497,865; female 1,466,455)
15-64 years: 50.7% (male 1,592,253; female 1,640,254) 65 years and over:
2.8% (male 71,915; female 104,260) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  2.36% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  39.87 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  16.3 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.02
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female 65 years and over:
0.69 male(s)/female total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  69.97 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   46.83 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  6.07 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  11.32% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  360,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  39,000 (1999 est.)

Nationality:  noun: Burundian(s) adjective: Burundi

Ethnic groups:  Hutu (Bantu) 85%, Tutsi (Hamitic) 14%, Twa (Pygmy) 1%,
Europeans 3,000, South Asians 2,000

Religions:  Christian 67% (Roman Catholic 62%, Protestant 5%), indigenous
beliefs 23%, Muslim 10%

Languages:  Kirundi (official), French (official), Swahili (along Lake
Tanganyika and in the Bujumbura area)

Literacy:  definition: age 15 and over can read and write total
population: 35.3% male: 49.3% female: 22.5% (1995 est.)

Government Burundi

Country name:   Republic of Burundi conventional short form:  former:
Urundi

Government type:  republic

Capital:  Bujumbura

Administrative divisions:  16 provinces; Bubanza, Bujumbura, Bururi,
Cankuzo, Cibitoke, Gitega, Karuzi, Kayanza, Kirundo, Makamba, Muramvya,
Muyinga, Mwaro, Ngozi, Rutana, Ruyigi

Independence:  1 July 1962 (from UN trusteeship under Belgian
administration)

National holiday:  Independence Day, 1 July (1962)

Constitution:  13 March 1992; provided for establishment of a plural
political system; supplanted on 6 June 1998 by a Transitional Constitution
which enlarged the National Assembly and created two vice presidents

Legal system:  based on German and Belgian civil codes and customary law;
has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:  NA years of age; universal adult

Executive branch:  chief of state: President Pierre BUYOYA (a Tutsi,
was sworn in as president of a transition government on 1 November 2001;
he is scheduled to hold office for 18 months before transferring power
to his vice president, a Hutu); Vice President Domitien NDAYIZEYE (since
1 November 2001) head of government: President Pierre BUYOYA (a Tutsi,
was sworn in as president of a transition government on 1 November 2001;
he is scheduled to hold office for 18 months before transferring power
to his vice president, a Hutu); Vice President Domitien NDAYIZEYE (since
1 November 2001) cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by president
elections: NA; current president assumed power following a coup on 25
July 1996 in which former President NTIBANTUNGANYA was overthrown

Legislative branch:  bicameral, consists of a National Assembly or
Assemblee Nationale (expanded from 121 to approximately 140 seats under
the transitional government inaugurated 1 November 2001; members are
elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) and a Senate (54 seats;
term length is undefined, the current senators will likely serve out the
three-year transition period) elections: last held 29 June 1993 (next
was scheduled to be held in 1998, but were suspended by presidential
decree in 1996; elections are planned to follow the completion of the
three-year transitional government) election results: percent of vote
by party - FRODEBU 71.04%, UPRONA 21.4%, other 7.56%; seats by party -
FRODEBU 65, UPRONA 16, civilians 27, other parties 13

Judicial branch:  Supreme Court or Cour Supreme; Constitutional Court;
Courts of Appeal (there are three in separate locations); Tribunals of
First Instance (17 at the province level and 123 small local tribunals)

Political parties and leaders:  the two national, mainstream, governing
parties are: Unity for National Progress or UPRONA [Luc RUKINGAMA,
president]; Burundi Democratic Front or FRODEBU [Jean MINANI, president]
note: a multiparty system was introduced after 1998, included are:
Burundi African Alliance for the Salvation or ABASA [Terrence NSANZE];
Rally for Democracy and Economic and Social Development or RADDES [Joseph
NZENZIMANA]; Party for National Redress or PARENA [Jean-Baptiste BAGAZA];
People's Reconciliation Party or PRP [Mathias HITIMANA]

Political pressure groups and leaders:  Loosely organized Hutu and
Tutsi militias, often affiliated with Hutu and Tutsi extremist parties
or subordinate to government security forces

International organization participation:  ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEEAC,
CEPGL, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF,
Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador Thomas
NDIKUMANA chancery: Suite 212, 2233 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington,
DC 20007 FAX: [1] (202) 342-2578 telephone: [1] (202) 342-2574

Diplomatic representation from the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
Mary Carlin YATES embassy: Avenue des
 B. P. 1720, Bujumbura telephone:
Flag description:  divided by a white diagonal cross into red panels (top
and bottom) and green panels (hoist side and outer side) with a white disk
superimposed at the center bearing three red six-pointed stars outlined
in green arranged in a triangular design (one star above, two stars below)

Economy Burundi

Economy - overview:  Burundi is a landlocked, resource-poor country with
an underdeveloped manufacturing sector. The economy is predominantly
agricultural with roughly 90% of the population dependent on subsistence
agriculture. Its economic health depends on the coffee crop, which
accounts for 80% of foreign exchange earnings. The ability to pay for
imports therefore rests largely on the vagaries of the climate and
the international coffee market. Since October 1993 the nation has
suffered from massive ethnic-based violence which has resulted in the
death of more than 200,000 persons and the displacement of about 800,000
others. Only one in four children go to school, and more than one in ten
adults has HIV/AIDS. Foods, medicines, and electricity remain in short
supply. Doubts regarding the sustainability of peace continue to impede
development. A Geneva donors' conference in November 2001 brought $800
million in pledges, and an IMF-staff-monitored program could lead to a
further agreement in 2002.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $3.7 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  1.4% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $600 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: 50% industry: 18% services:
32% (2001 est.)

Population below poverty line:  70% (2001 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: 3.4%
highest 10%: 26.6% (1992)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:  33.3 (1992)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  14% (2001 est.)

Labor force:  1.9 million

Labor force - by occupation:  NA

Unemployment rate:  NA%

Budget:  revenues: $125 million expenditures: $176 million, including
capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)

Industries:  light consumer goods such as blankets, shoes, soap; assembly
of imported components; public works construction; food processing

Industrial production growth rate:  6.3% (1999 est.)

Electricity - production:  148 million kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 0.68% other: 0% (2000)
hydro: 99.32% nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:  166.64 million kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  0 kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports:  29 million kWh note: supplied by the Democratic
Republic of the Congo (2000)

Agriculture - products:  coffee, cotton, tea, corn, sorghum, sweet
potatoes, bananas, manioc (tapioca); beef, milk, hides

Exports:  $24 million (f.o.b., 2001 est.)

Exports - commodities:  coffee, tea, sugar, cotton, hides

Exports - partners:  EU 52.5%, US 11.5%, Kenya 11.5%, Switzerland 4.9%
(2000 est.)

Imports:  $125 million (f.o.b., 2001 est.)

Imports - commodities:  capital goods, petroleum products, foodstuffs

Imports - partners:  EU 37.6%, Tanzania 10.3%, Zambia 4.3%, India 3.4%,
China 3.4% (2000 est.)

Debt - external:  $1.12 billion (2001 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:  $74 million (1999)

Currency:  Burundi franc (BIF)

Currency code:  BIF

Exchange rates:  Burundi francs per US dollar - 865.14 (January 2002),
830.35 (2001), 720.67 (2000), 563.56 (1999), 477.77 (1998), 352.35 (1997)

Fiscal year:  calendar year

Communications Burundi

Telephones - main lines in use:  20,000 (2000)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  16,300 (2000)

Telephone system:  general assessment: primitive system domestic: sparse
system of open wire, radiotelephone communications, and low-capacity
microwave radio relay international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat
(Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 0, FM 4, shortwave 1 (2001)

Radios:  440,000 (2001)

Television broadcast stations:  1 (2001)

Televisions:  25,000 (1997)

Internet country code:  .bi

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  1 (2000)

Internet users:  2,000 (2000)

Transportation Burundi

Railways:  0 km

Highways:  total: 14,480 km paved: 1,028 km unpaved: 13,452 km (1996)

Waterways:  Lake Tanganyika

Ports and harbors:  Bujumbura

Airports:  7 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 1 over 3,047 m: 1 (2001)

Airports - with unpaved runways:  total: 6 914 to 1,523 m: 3 under 914 m:
3 (2001)

Military Burundi

Military branches:  Army (including naval and air units), Gendarmerie

Military manpower - military age:  16 years of age (2002 est.)

Military manpower - availability:  males age 15-49: 1,439,032 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:  males age 15-49: 752,584
(2002 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:  males: 79,360
(2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:  $36.9 million (FY01)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:  5.3% (FY01)

Transnational Issues Burundi

Disputes - international:  Tutsi, Hutu, and other conflicting ethnic
groups, political rebels, and various government forces continue fighting
in Great Lakes region, transcending the boundaries of Burundi, Democratic
Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, and Uganda

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002



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Canada

Introduction

Canada

Background:  A land of vast distances and rich natural resources,
Canada became a self-governing dominion in 1867 while retaining ties
to the British crown. Economically and technologically the nation has
developed in parallel with the US, its neighbor to the south across an
unfortified border. Its paramount political problem continues to be
the relationship of the province of Quebec, with its French-speaking
residents and unique culture, to the remainder of the country.

Geography Canada

Location:  Northern North America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean
on the east, North Pacific Ocean on the west, and the Arctic Ocean on
the north, north of the conterminous US

Geographic coordinates:  60 00 N, 95 00 W

Map references:  North America

Area:  total: 9,976,140 sq km land: 9,220,970 sq km water: 755,170 sq km

Area - comparative:  slightly larger than the US

Land boundaries:  total: 8,893 km border countries: US 8,893 km (includes
2,477 km with Alaska)

Coastline:  243,791 km

Maritime claims:  contiguous zone: 24 NM territorial sea: 12 NM
continental shelf: 200 NM or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

Climate:  varies from temperate in south to subarctic and arctic in north

Terrain:  mostly plains with mountains in west and lowlands in southeast

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point:
Mount Logan 5,959 m

Natural resources:  iron ore, nickel, zinc, copper, gold, lead,
molybdenum, potash, silver, fish, timber, wildlife, coal, petroleum,
natural gas, hydropower

Land use:  arable land: 5% permanent crops: 0% other: 95% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  7,200 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:  continuous permafrost in north is a serious obstacle
to development; cyclonic storms form east of the Rocky Mountains, a
result of the mixing of air masses from the Arctic, Pacific, and North
American interior, and produce most of the country's rain and snow east
of the mountains

Environment - current issues:  air pollution and resulting acid
rain severely affecting lakes and damaging forests; metal smelting,
coal-burning utilities, and vehicle emissions impacting on agricultural
and forest productivity; ocean waters becoming contaminated due to
agricultural, industrial, mining, and forestry activities

Environment - international agreements:  party to: Air Pollution, Air
Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants,
Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Antarctic-Marine
Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental
Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone
Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber
94, Wetlands signed, but not ratified:  Protocol, Climate Change-Kyoto
Protocol, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation

Geography - note:  second-largest country in world (after Russia);
strategic location between Russia and US via north polar route;
approximately 85% of the population is concentrated within 300 km of
the US/Canada border

People Canada

Population:  31,902,268 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:  0-14 years: 18.7% (male 3,059,023; female 2,910,203) 15-64
years: 68.4% (male 10,975,701; female 10,857,869) 65 years and over: 12.9%
(male 1,743,654; female 2,355,818) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  0.96% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  11.09 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  7.54 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  6.07 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female 65 years and over:
0.74 male(s)/female total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  4.95 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   83.25 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  1.6 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  0.3% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  49,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  400 (1999 est.)

Nationality:  noun: Canadian(s) adjective: Canadian

Ethnic groups:  British Isles origin 28%, French origin 23%, other
European 15%, Amerindian 2%, other, mostly Asian, African, Arab 6%,
mixed background 26%

Religions:  Roman Catholic 46%, Protestant 36%, other 18% note: based
on the 1991 census

Languages:  English 59.3% (official), French 23.2% (official), other 17.5%

Literacy:  definition: age 15 and over can read and write total
population: 97% (1986 est.)  male: NA% female: NA%

Government Canada

Country name:  conventional long form: none conventional short form:
Canada

Government type:  confederation with parliamentary democracy

Capital:  Ottawa

Administrative divisions:  10 provinces and 3 territories*; Alberta,
British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador,
Northwest Territories*, Nova Scotia, Nunavut*, Ontario, Prince Edward
Island, Quebec, Saskatchewan, Yukon Territory*

Independence:  1 July 1867 (from UK)

National holiday:  Canada Day, 1 July (1867)

Constitution:  17 April 1982 (Constitution Act); originally, the machinery
of the government was set up in the British North America Act of 1867;
charter of rights and unwritten customs

Legal system:  based on English common law, except in Quebec, where
civil law system based on French law prevails; accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage:  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February
1952), represented by Governor General Adrienne CLARKSON (since 7
October 1999) elections:  monarch on the advice of the prime minister
for a five-year term; following legislative elections, the leader of the
majority party in the House of Commons is automatically designated by
the governor general to become prime minister head of government: Prime
Minister Jean CHRETIEN (since 4 November 1993); Deputy Prime Minister
John MANLEY (since NA January 2002) cabinet: Federal Ministry chosen
by the prime minister from among the members of his own party sitting
in Parliament

Legislative branch:  bicameral Parliament or Parlement consists of the
Senate or Senat (members appointed by the governor general with the
advice of the prime minister and serve until reaching 75 years of age ;
its normal limit is 104 senators) and the House of Commons or Chambre
des Communes (301 seats; members elected by direct, popular vote to serve
five-year terms) elections: House of Commons - last held 27 November 2000
(next to be held by 2005) election results: House of Commons - percent
of vote by party - Liberal Party 41%, Conservative Alliance 26%, Bloc
Quebecois 11%, New Democratic Party 9%, Progressive Conservative Party
12%; seats by party - Liberal Party 172, Conservative Alliance 66, Bloc
Quebecois 38, New Democratic Party 13, Progressive Conservative Party 12;
note - percent of vote by party as of January 2002 - Liberal Party 51%,
Canadian Alliance 10%, Bloc Quebecois 10%, New Democratic Party 9%,
Progressive Conservative Party 18%; seats by party - Liberal Party
172, Canadian Alliance 66, Bloc Quebecois 38, New Democratic Party 13,
Progressive Conservative Party 12

Judicial branch:  Supreme Court of Canada (judges are appointed by the
prime minister through the governor general); Federal Court of Canada;
Federal Court of Appeal; Provincial Courts (these are named variously
Court of Appeal, Court of Queens Bench, Superior Court, Supreme Court,
and Court of Justice)

Political parties and leaders:  Bloc Quebecois [Gilles DUCEPPE]; Canadian
Alliance [Stephen HARPER]; Liberal Party [Jean CHRETIEN]; New Democratic
Party [Alexa McDONOUGH]; Progressive Conservative Party [Joe CLARK]

Political pressure groups and leaders:  NA

International organization participation:  ACCT, AfDB, APEC, ARF (dialogue
partner), AsDB, ASEAN (dialogue partner), Australia Group, BIS, C, CCC,
CDB, CE (observer), EAPC, EBRD, ECE, ECLAC, ESA (cooperating state),
FAO, G- 7, G- 8, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA,
IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU,
MINURCA, MIPONUH, MONUC, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS, OECD, OPCW,
OSCE, PCA, UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNMEE,
UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOP, UNMOVIC, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO,
WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador Michael
F. KERGIN chancery: 501 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20001 FAX:
[1] (202) 682-7726 telephone: [1] (202) 682-1740 consulate(s) general:
Atlanta, Boston, Buffalo, Chicago, Dallas, Detroit, Los Angeles,
Minneapolis, New York, and Seattle consulate(s): Miami, Princeton,
San Francisco, and San Jose

Diplomatic representation from the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
Paul CELLUCCI embassy: 490 Sussex Drive, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 1G8 mailing
address: P. O. Box 5000, Ogdensburg, NY 13669-0430 telephone: [1] (613)
238-5335, 4470 FAX: [1] (613) 238-5720 consulate(s) general: Calgary,
Halifax, Montreal, Quebec, Toronto, and Vancouver

Flag description:  three vertical bands of red (hoist side), white (double
width, square), and red with a red maple leaf centered in the white band

Economy Canada

Economy - overview:  As an affluent, high-tech industrial society,
Canada today closely resembles the US in its market-oriented economic
system, pattern of production, and high living standards. Since World
War II, the impressive growth of the manufacturing, mining, and service
sectors has transformed the nation from a largely rural economy into
one primarily industrial and urban. The 1989 US-Canada Free Trade
Agreement (FTA) and 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
(which includes Mexico) touched off a dramatic increase in trade and
economic integration with the US. As a result of the close cross-border
relationship, the economic downturn in the United States in 2001
had a negative impact on the Canadian economy. Real growth averaged
nearly 3% during 1993-2000, but declined in 2001. Unemployment is up,
with contraction in the manufacturing and natural resource sectors.
Nevertheless, with its great natural resources, skilled labor force,
and modern capital plant Canada enjoys solid economic prospects. Two
shadows loom, the first being the continuing constitutional impasse
between English- and French-speaking areas, which has been raising the
possibility of a split in the federation. Another long-term concern is the
flow south to the US of professionals lured by higher pay, lower taxes,
and the immense high-tech infrastructure.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $875 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  1.9% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $27,700 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: 2% industry: 29% services: 69%
(2001 est.)

Population below poverty line:  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: 2.8%
highest 10%: 23.8% (1994)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:  31.5 (1994)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  2.8% (2001 est.)

Labor force:  16.4 million (2001 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:  services 74%, manufacturing 15%,
construction 5%, agriculture 3%, other 3% (2000)

Unemployment rate:  7.2% (2001 est.)

Budget:  revenues: $178.6 billion expenditures: $161.4 billion, including
capital expenditures of $NA (FY00/01 est.)

Industries:  transportation equipment, chemicals, processed and
unprocessed minerals, food products; wood and paper products; fish
products, petroleum and natural gas

Industrial production growth rate:  0.5% (2001 est.)

Electricity - production:  576.218 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 25.3% hydro: 61.22%
other: 1.56% (2000) nuclear: 11.92%

Electricity - consumption:  499.766 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  48.802 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports:  12.685 billion kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products:  wheat, barley, oilseed, tobacco, fruits,
vegetables; dairy products; forest products; fish

Exports:  $273.8 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)

Exports - commodities:  motor vehicles and parts, industrial machinery,
aircraft, telecommunications equipment; chemicals, plastics, fertilizers;
wood pulp, timber, crude petroleum, natural gas, electricity, aluminum

Exports - partners:  US 86%, Japan 3%, UK, Germany, South Korea,
Netherlands, China (1999)

Imports:  $238.3 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)

Imports - commodities:  machinery and equipment, motor vehicles and parts,
crude oil, chemicals, electricity, durable consumer goods

Imports - partners:  US 74%, EU 9%, Japan 3% (2000)

Debt - external:  $1.9 billion (2000)

Economic aid - donor:  ODA, $1.3 billion (1999)

Currency:  Canadian dollar (CAD)

Currency code:  CAD

Exchange rates:  Canadian dollars per US dollar - 1.6003 (January 2002),
1.5488 (2001), 1.4851 (2000), 1.4857 (1999), 1.4835 (1998), 1.3846 (1997)

Fiscal year:  1 April - 31 March

Communications Canada

Telephones - main lines in use:  18.5 million (1999)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  4.207 million (1997)

Telephone system:  general assessment: excellent service provided by
modern technology domestic: domestic satellite system with about 300
earth stations international: 5 coaxial submarine cables; satellite
earth stations - 5 Intelsat (4 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean)
and 2 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region)

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 535, FM 53, shortwave 6 (1998)

Radios:  32.3 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:  80 (plus many repeaters) (1997)

Televisions:  21.5 million (1997)

Internet country code:  .ca

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  760 (2000 est.)

Internet users:  14.44 million (2001)

Transportation Canada

Railways:  total: 36,114 km standard gauge: 36,114 km 1.435-m gauge
(156 km electrified) note: Canada has two major transcontinental freight
railway systems: Canadian National (privatized November 1995) and Canadian
Pacific Railway; passenger service is provided by the government-operated
firm VIA, which has no trackage of its own (2000 est.)

Highways:  total: 901,902 km paved: 318,371 km (including 16,571 km of
expressways) unpaved: 583,531 km (1999)

Waterways:  3,000 km (including Saint Lawrence Seaway)

Pipelines:  crude and refined oil 23,564 km; natural gas 74,980 km

Ports and harbors:  Becancour (Quebec), Churchill, Halifax, Hamilton,
Montreal, New Westminster, Prince Rupert, Quebec, Saint John (New
Brunswick), St. John's (Newfoundland), Sept Isles, Sydney, Trois-Rivieres,
Thunder Bay, Toronto, Vancouver, Windsor

Merchant marine:  total: 122 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,797,240
GRT/2,680,223 DWT ships by type: barge carrier 1, bulk 66, cargo 13,
chemical tanker 5, combination bulk 2, passenger 2, passenger/cargo 1,
petroleum tanker 18, railcar carrier 2, roll on/roll off 8, short-sea
passenger 3, specialized tanker 1 note: includes some foreign-owned
ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Germany 3, Monaco 16,
United Kingdom 1, United States 1 (2002 est.)

Airports:  1,419 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 519 over 3,047 m: 18 2,438 to 3,047
m: 16 914 to 1,523 m: 244 under 914 m: 90 (2001) 1,524 to 2,437 m: 151

Airports - with unpaved runways:  total: 900 1,524 to 2,437 m: 74 914
to 1,523 m: 364 under 914 m: 462 (2001)

Heliports:  18 (2001)

Military Canada

Military branches:  Canadian Armed Forces (comprising Land Forces Command,
Maritime Command, Air Command, Communications Command, Training Command)

Military manpower - military age:  17 years of age (2002 est.)

Military manpower - availability:  males age 15-49: 8,361,475 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:  males age 15-49: 7,139,068
(2002 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:  males: 217,516
(2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:  $7,860,500,000 (FY01/02)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:  1.1% (FY01/02)

Transnational Issues Canada

Disputes - international:  maritime boundary disputes with the US (Dixon
Entrance, Beaufort Sea, Strait of Juan de Fuca, Machias Seal Island)

Illicit drugs:  illicit producer of cannabis for the domestic drug market;
use of hydroponics technology permits growers to plant large quantities
of high-quality marijuana indoors; transit point for heroin and cocaine
entering the US market

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002



========================================================================


Cambodia

Introduction

Cambodia

Background:  Following a five-year struggle, Communist Khmer Rouge
forces captured Phnom Penh in 1975 and ordered the evacuation of all
cities and towns; over 1 million displaced people died from execution
or enforced hardships. A 1978 Vietnamese invasion drove the Khmer Rouge
into the countryside and touched off 13 years of fighting. UN-sponsored
elections in 1993 helped restore some semblance of normalcy, as did the
rapid diminishment of the Khmer Rouge in the mid-1990s. A coalition
government, formed after national elections in 1998, brought renewed
political stability and the surrender of remaining Khmer Rouge forces.

Geography Cambodia

Location:  Southeastern Asia, bordering the Gulf of Thailand, between
Thailand, Vietnam, and Laos

Geographic coordinates:  13 00 N, 105 00 E

Map references:  Southeast Asia

Area:  total: 181,040 sq km land: 176,520 sq km water: 4,520 sq km

Area - comparative:  slightly smaller than Oklahoma

Land boundaries:  total: 2,572 km border countries: Laos 541 km, Thailand
803 km, Vietnam 1,228 km

Coastline:  443 km

Maritime claims:  contiguous zone: 24 NM territorial sea: 12 NM
continental shelf: 200 NM exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

Climate:  tropical; rainy, monsoon season (May to November); dry season
(December to April); little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain:  mostly low, flat plains; mountains in southwest and north

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Gulf of Thailand 0 m highest point:
Phnum Aoral 1,810 m

Natural resources:  timber, gemstones, some iron ore, manganese,
phosphates, hydropower potential

Land use:  arable land: 21% permanent crops: 1% other: 78% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  2,700 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:  monsoonal rains (June to November); flooding;
occasional droughts

Environment - current issues:  illegal logging activities throughout the
country and strip mining for gems in the western region along the border
with Thailand have resulted in habitat loss and declining biodiversity (in
particular, destruction of mangrove swamps threatens natural fisheries);
soil erosion; in rural areas, a majority of the population does not have
access to potable water; toxic waste delivery from Taiwan sparked unrest
in Kampong Saom (Sihanoukville) in December 1998

Environment - international agreements:  party to: Biodiversity, Climate
Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life
Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 94,
Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping

Geography - note:  a land of paddies and forests dominated by the Mekong
River and Tonle Sap

People Cambodia

Population:  12,775,324 note: estimates for this country explicitly take
into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result
in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower
population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population
by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:  0-14 years: 40.7% (male 2,646,883; female 2,550,015)
15-64 years: 55.8% (male 3,373,692; female 3,758,736) 65 years and over:
3.5% (male 182,149; female 263,849) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  2.24% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  32.93 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  10.51 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.69
male(s)/female total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  64 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   59.5 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  4.66 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  4.04% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  220,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  14,000 (1999 est.)

Nationality:  noun: Cambodian(s) adjective: Cambodian

Ethnic groups:  Khmer 90%, Vietnamese 5%, Chinese 1%, other 4%

Religions:  Theravada Buddhist 95%, other 5%

Languages:  Khmer (official) 95%, French, English

Literacy:  definition: age 15 and over can read and write total
population: 35% male: 48% female: 22% (1990 est.)

Government Cambodia

Country name:   Kingdom of Cambodia conventional short form:  Kampuchea
former: Khmer Republic, Kampuchea Republic

Government type:  multiparty democracy under a constitutional monarchy
established in September 1993

Capital:  Phnom Penh

Administrative divisions:  20 provinces (khett, singular and plural)
and 4 municipalities* (krong, singular and plural); Banteay Mean Cheay,
Batdambang, Kampong Cham, Kampong Chhnang, Kampong Spoe, Kampong Thum,
Kampot, Kandal, Kaoh Kong, Keb*, Kracheh, Mondol Kiri, Otdar Mean Cheay,
Pailin*, Phnum Penh*, Pouthisat, Preah Seihanu* (Sihanoukville), Preah
Vihear, Prey Veng, Rotanah Kiri, Siem Reab, Stoeng Treng, Svay Rieng,
Takev

Independence:  9 November 1953 (from France)

National holiday:  Independence Day, 9 November (1953)

Constitution:  promulgated 21 September 1993

Legal system:  primarily a civil law mixture of French-influenced codes
from the United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC)
period, royal decrees, and acts of the legislature, with influences
of customary law and remnants of communist legal theory; increasing
influence of common law in recent years

Suffrage:  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:  chief of state: King Norodom SIHANOUK (reinstated
24 September 1993) head of government: Prime Minister HUN SEN (since 30
November 1998) and Deputy Prime Ministers SAR KHENG (since NA) and TOL
LAH (since NA) cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the monarch
elections: none; the monarch is chosen by a Royal Throne Council;
prime minister appointed by the monarch after a vote of confidence by
the National Assembly

Legislative branch:  bicameral consists of the National Assembly (122
seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) and the
Senate (61 seats; two members appointed by the monarch, two elected by
the National Assembly, and 57 elected by "functional constituencies";
members serve five-year terms) elections: National Assembly - last held
26 July 1998 (next to be held NA July 2003); Senate - last held 2 March
1999 (next to be held NA 2004) election results: National Assembly -
percent of vote by party - CPP 41%, FUNCINPEC 32%, SRP 14%, other 13%;
seats by party - CPP 64, FUNCINPEC 43, SRP 15; Senate - percent of vote
by party - NA%; seats by party - CPP 31, FUNCINPEC 21, SRP 7, other 2

Judicial branch:  Supreme Council of the Magistracy (provided for in
the constitution and formed in December 1997); Supreme Court (and lower
courts) exercises judicial authority

Political parties and leaders:  Buddhist Liberal Party or BLP [IENG
MOULY]; Cambodian Pracheachon Party or Cambodian People's Party or CPP
[CHEA SIM]; Khmer Citizen Party or KCP [NGUON SOEUR]; National United
Front for an Independent, Neutral, Peaceful, and Cooperative Cambodia or
FUNCINPEC [Prince NORODOM RANARIDDH]; Sam Rangsi Party or SRP (formerly
Khmer Nation Party or KNP) [SAM RANGSI]

Political pressure groups and leaders:  NA

International organization participation:  ACCT, ARF, AsDB, ASEAN, CCC,
CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO (subscriber), ITU,
NAM, OPCW (signatory), PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US:   [1] (202) 726-8381 telephone:
Diplomatic representation from the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
Kent M. WIEDEMANN embassy: 16-18 Mongkol
 Box P, APO AP 96546 telephone:
Flag description:  three horizontal bands of blue (top), red (double
width), and blue with a white three-towered temple representing Angkor
Wat outlined in black in the center of the red band

Economy Cambodia

Economy - overview:  Cambodia's economy slowed dramatically in 1997-98
due to the regional economic crisis, civil violence, and political
infighting. Foreign investment and tourism fell off. In 1999, the first
full year of peace in 30 years, progress was made on economic reforms and
growth resumed at 5%. GDP growth for 2000 had been projected to reach
5.5%, but the worst flooding in 70 years severely damaged agricultural
crops, and high oil prices hurt industrial production, and growth for the
year is estimated at only 4%. In 2001, severe floods damaged an estimated
15% of the area devoted to rice. Tourism now is Cambodia's fastest growing
industry, with arrivals up 34% in 2000 and up another 40% in 2001 before
the September 11 terrorist attacks in the US. The long-term development
of the economy after decades of war remains a daunting challenge. The
population lacks education and productive skills, particularly in the
poverty-ridden countryside, which suffers from an almost total lack of
basic infrastructure. Fear of renewed political instability and corruption
within the government discourage foreign investment and delay foreign
aid. On the brighter side, the government is addressing these issues
with assistance from bilateral and multilateral donors.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $18.7 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  5.3% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $1,500 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: 50% industry: 15% services:
35% (2000 est.)

Population below poverty line:  36% (1997 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: 2.9%
highest 10%: 33.8% (1997)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:  40.4 (1997)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  1.6% (2000 est.)

Labor force:  6 million (1998 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:  agriculture 80% (2001 est.)

Unemployment rate:  2.8% (1999 est.)

Budget:  revenues: $363 million expenditures: $532 million, including
capital expenditures of $225 million (2000 est.)

Industries:  tourism, garments, rice milling, fishing, wood and wood
products, rubber, cement, gem mining, textiles

Industrial production growth rate:  NA%

Electricity - production:  132 million kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 62.12% hydro: 37.88%
other: 0% (2000) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:  122.76 million kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  0 kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports:  0 kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products:  rice, rubber, corn, vegetables

Exports:  $1.05 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Exports - commodities:  timber, garments, rubber, rice, fish

Exports - partners:  US 46.4%, Vietnam 26.1%, Germany 5.6%, Singapore
5.0%, UK 3.9% (2000)

Imports:  $1.4 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Imports - commodities:  petroleum products, cigarettes, gold, construction
materials, machinery, motor vehicles

Imports - partners:  Singapore 22.5%, Thailand 19.8%, Hong Kong 15.6%,
China 4.9%, Vietnam 4.9% (2000)

Debt - external:  $829 million (1999 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:  $548 million pledged in grants and concessional
loans for 2001 by international donors

Currency:  riel (KHR)

Currency code:  KHR

Exchange rates:  riels per US dollar - 3,895.0 (January 2002), 3,918.5
(2001), 3,840.8 (2000), 3,807.8 (1999), 3,744.4 (1998), 2,946.3 (1997)

Fiscal year:  calendar year

Communications Cambodia

Telephones - main lines in use:  21,800 (mid-1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  80,000 (2000)

Telephone system:  general assessment: adequate landline and/or cellular
service in Phnom Penh and other provincial cities; rural areas have little
telephone service domestic: NA international: adequate but expensive
landline and cellular service available to all countries from Phnom Penh
and major provincial cities; satellite earth station - 1 Intersputnik
(Indian Ocean region)

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 7, FM 3, shortwave 3 (1999)

Radios:  1.34 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:  5 (1999)

Televisions:  94,000 (1997)

Internet country code:  .kh

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  2 (2000)

Internet users:  6,000 (2001)

Transportation Cambodia

Railways:  total: 603 km narrow gauge: 603 km 1.000-m gauge (2001 est.)

Highways:  total: 35,769 km paved: 4,165 km unpaved: 31,604 km (1997)

Waterways:  3,700 km note: navigable all year to craft drawing 0.6 m or
less; 282 km navigable to craft drawing as much as 1.8 m

Ports and harbors:  Kampong Saom (Sihanoukville), Kampot, Krong Kaoh Kong,
Phnom Penh

Merchant marine:  total: 404 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,889,404
GRT/2,740,232 DWT ships by type: bulk 37, cargo 312, chemical tanker 2,
combination bulk 5, container 7, liquefied gas 1, livestock carrier 2,
multi-functional large-load carrier 1, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum
tanker 15, refrigerated cargo 10, roll on/roll off 9, short-sea passenger
2 note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of
convenience: Aruba 1, Belize 8, British Virgin Islands 1, Bulgaria 3,
China 21, Cyprus 15, Denmark 1, Egypt 7, Estonia 1, Georgia 1, Germany
1, Greece 12, Honduras 5, Hong Kong 12, Iceland 1, Indonesia 2, Iran 1,
Ireland 1, Italy 1, Japan 5, Jordan 1, Latvia 2, Lebanon 5, Liberia 5,
Lithuania 1, Malta 1, Netherlands 1, Norway 2, Panama 7, Romania 4,
Russia 67, Saint Kitts and Nevis 10, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 4,
Singapore 15, South Korea 24, Syria 13, Thailand 1, Turkey 22, Ukraine
13, United Arab Emirates 2, United Kingdom 1, United States 5, Vietnam 2,
Virgin Islands (UK) 1 (2002 est.)

Airports:  20 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 5 2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 1,524 to
2,437 m: 2 914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2001)

Airports - with unpaved runways:  total: 15 under 914 m: 1 (2001) 1,524
to 2,437 m: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 13

Heliports:  2 (2001)

Military Cambodia

Military branches:  Royal Cambodian Armed Forces (RCAF): Army, Navy,
Air Force

Military manpower - military age:  18 years of age (2002 est.)

Military manpower - availability:  males age 15-49: 2,990,790 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:  males age 15-49: 1,673,713
(2002 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:  males: 162,643
(2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:  $112 million (FY01 est.)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:  3% (FY01 est.)

Transnational Issues Cambodia

Disputes - international:  demarcation of boundaries with Cambodia,
Thailand, and Vietnam is nearing completion; accuses Thailand of moving
or destroying boundary markers and encroachment, of not respecting
its claims, and of sealing off access to the Preah Vihear temple ruin
awarded to Cambodia by the ICJ in 1962; accuses Vietnam of territorial
encroachments and initiating armed border incidents in seven provinces,
despite substantial demarcation efforts to date; disputes several offshore
islands with Vietnam, which prevents delimitation of a maritime boundary

Illicit drugs:  possible money laundering; narcotics-related corruption
reportedly involving some in the government, military, and police;
possible small-scale opium, heroin, and amphetamine production; large
producer of cannabis for the international market

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002



========================================================================


Chad

Introduction

Chad

Background:  Chad, part of France's African holdings until 1960, endured
three decades of ethnic warfare as well as invasions by Libya before
a semblance of peace was finally restored in 1990. The government
eventually suppressed or came to terms with most political-military
groups, settled a territorial dispute with Libya on terms favorable to
Chad, drafted a democratic constitution, and held multiparty presidential
and National Assembly elections in 1996 and 1997 respectively. In 1998
a new rebellion broke out in northern Chad, which continued to escalate
throughout 2000. A peace agreement, signed in January 2002 between the
government and the rebels, provides for the demobilization of the rebels
and their reintegration into the political system. Despite movement
toward democratic reform, power remains in the hands of a northern
ethnic oligarchy.

Geography Chad

Location:  Central Africa, south of Libya

Geographic coordinates:  15 00 N, 19 00 E

Map references:  Africa

Area:  total: 1.284 million sq km water: 24,800 sq km land: 1,259,200
sq km

Area - comparative:  slightly more than three times the size of California

Land boundaries:  total: 5,968 km border countries: Cameroon 1,094 km,
Central African Republic 1,197 km, Libya 1,055 km, Niger 1,175 km,
Nigeria 87 km, Sudan 1,360 km

Coastline:  0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:  none (landlocked)

Climate:  tropical in south, desert in north

Terrain:  broad, arid plains in center, desert in north, mountains in
northwest, lowlands in south

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Djourab Depression 160 m highest point:
Emi Koussi 3,415 m

Natural resources:  petroleum (unexploited but exploration under way),
uranium, natron, kaolin, fish (Lake Chad)

Land use:  arable land: 3% permanent crops: 0% other: 97% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  200 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:  hot, dry, dusty harmattan winds occur in north;
periodic droughts; locust plagues

Environment - current issues:  inadequate supplies of potable water;
improper waste disposal in rural areas contributes to soil and water
pollution; desertification

Environment - international agreements:  party to: Biodiversity, Climate
Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone
Layer Protection, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea,
Marine Dumping

Geography - note:  landlocked; Lake Chad is the most significant water
body in the Sahel

People Chad

Population:  8,997,237 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:  0-14 years: 47.8% (male 2,162,732; female 2,135,354)
15-64 years: 49.4% (male 2,108,134; female 2,340,189) 65 years and over:
2.8% (male 103,683; female 147,145) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  3.27% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  47.74 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  15.06 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.01
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.7
male(s)/female total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  93.46 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   53.4 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  6.5 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  5%-7% (2001)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  300,000 (2001)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  14,000 (confirmed AIDS cases, actual number far
higher but difficult to estimate) (2001)

Nationality:  noun: Chadian(s) adjective: Chadian

Ethnic groups:  200 distinct groups; in the north and center: Arabs,
Gorane (Toubou, Daza, Kreda), Zaghawa, Kanembou, Ouaddai, Baguirmi,
Hadjerai, Fulbe, Kotoko, Hausa, Boulala, and Maba, most of whom are
Muslim; in the south:  are Christian or animist; about 1,000 French
citizens live in Chad

Religions:  Muslim 51%, Christian 35%, animist 7%, other 7%

Languages:  French (official), Arabic (official), Sara (in south),
more than 120 different languages and dialects

Literacy:  definition: age 15 and over can read and write French or
Arabic total population: 40% male: 49% female: 31% (1998)

Government Chad

Country name:  conventional long form: Republic of Chad conventional short
form: Chad local long form: Republique du Tchad local short form: Tchad

Government type:  republic

Capital:  N'Djamena

Administrative divisions:  14 prefectures (prefectures, singular -
prefecture); Batha, Biltine, Borkou-Ennedi-Tibesti, Chari-Baguirmi, Guera,
Kanem, Lac, Logone Occidental, Logone Oriental, Mayo-Kebbi, Moyen-Chari,
Ouaddai, Salamat, Tandjile note: instead of 14 prefectures, there may be
a new administrative structure of 28 departments (departments, singular -
department), and 1 city*; Assongha, Baguirmi, Bahr El Gazal, Bahr Koh,
Batha Oriental, Batha Occidental, Biltine, Borkou, Dababa, Ennedi, Guera,
Hadjer Lamis, Kabia, Kanem, Lac, Lac Iro, Logone Occidental, Logone
Oriental, Mandoul, Mayo-Boneye, Mayo-Dallah, Monts de Lam, N'djamena*,
Ouaddai, Salamat, Sila, Tandjile Oriental, Tandjile Occidental, Tibesti

Independence:  11 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday:  Independence Day, 11 August (1960)

Constitution:  passed by referendum 31 March 1996

Legal system:  based on French civil law system and Chadian customary law;
has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:  chief of state: President Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY (since
4 December 1990) head of government: Prime Minister Nagoum YAMASSOUM
(since 13 December 1999) cabinet: Council of State, members appointed
by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister election
results: Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY reelected president; percent of vote -
Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY 63%, Ngarlegy YORONGAR 16%, Saleh KEBZABO 7% note:
government coalition - MPS, UNDR, and URD elections: president elected by
popular vote to serve five-year term; if no candidate receives at least
50% of the total vote, the two candidates receiving the most votes must
stand for a second round of voting; last held 20 May 2001 (next to be
held NA 2006); prime minister appointed by the president

Legislative branch:  bicameral according to constitution, consists of a
National Assembly (155 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve
four-year terms) and a Senate (not yet created and size unspecified,
members to serve six-year terms, one-third of membership renewable
every two years) election results: percent of vote by party - NA%;
seats by party - MPS 110, RDP 12, FAR 9, RNDP 5, URD 5, UNDR 3, others
11 elections: National Assembly - last held 25 April 2002 (next to be
held in NA April 2006)

Judicial branch:  Supreme Court; Court of Appeal; Criminal Courts;
Magistrate Courts

Political parties and leaders:  Federation Action for the Republic or
FAR [Ngarlejy YORONGAR]; National Rally for Development and Progress or
RNDP [Mamadou BISSO]; National Union for Development and Renewal or UNDR
[Saleh KEBZABO]; National Union for Renewal and Democracy or UNRD [leader
NA]; Party for Liberty and Democracy or PLD [Ibni Oumar Mahamat SALEH];
Patriotic Salvation Movement or MPS [Mahamat Saleh AHMAT, chairman]
(originally in opposition but now the party in power and the party of the
president); Rally for Democracy and Progress or RDP [Lal Mahamat CHOUA];
Union for Democracy and the Republic or UDR [Jean Bawoyeu ALINGUE]; Union
for Renewal and Democracy or URD [Gen.  Wadal Abdelkader KAMOUGUE]; Viva
Rally for Development and Progress or Viva RNDP [Delwa Kassire COUMAKOYE]

Political pressure groups and leaders:  NA

International organization participation:  ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CEEAC,
CEMAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC,
IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, OPCW (signatory),
UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
Hassaballah Abdelhadi Ahmat SOUBIANE chancery: 2002 R Street NW,
Washington, DC 20009 FAX: [1] (202) 265-1937 telephone: [1] (202) 462-4009

Diplomatic representation from the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
Christopher E. GOLDTHWAIT embassy: Avenue
 B. P. 413, N'Djamena telephone:
Flag description:  three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side),
yellow, and red; similar to the flag of Romania; also similar to the
flags of Andorra and Moldova, both of which have a national coat of arms
centered in the yellow band; design was based on the flag of France

Economy Chad

Economy - overview:  Chad's primarily agricultural economy will be boosted
by major oilfield and pipeline projects that began in 2000. Over 80% of
Chad's population relies on subsistence farming and stock raising for
their livelihood.  Cotton, cattle, and gum arabic provide the bulk of
Chad's export earnings, but Chad will begin to export oil in 2004. Chad's
economy has long been handicapped by its land-locked position, high energy
costs, and a history of instability. Chad relies on foreign assistance and
foreign capital for most public and private sector investment projects. A
consortium led by two US companies is investing $3.7 billion to develop
oil reserves estimated at 1 billion barrels in southern Chad.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $8.9 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  8% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $1,030 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: 38% industry: 13% services:
49% (2001 est.)

Population below poverty line:  80% (2001 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  3% (2000 est.)

Labor force:  NA

Labor force - by occupation:  agriculture more than 80% (subsistence
farming, herding, and fishing)

Unemployment rate:  NA%

Budget:  revenues: $198 million expenditures: $218 million, including
capital expenditures of $146 million (1998 est.)

Industries:  cotton textiles, meatpacking, beer brewing, natron (sodium
carbonate), soap, cigarettes, construction materials

Industrial production growth rate:  5% (1995)

Electricity - production:  92 million kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 100% hydro: 0% other: 0%
(2000) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:  85.56 million kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  0 kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports:  0 kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products:  cotton, sorghum, millet, peanuts, rice, potatoes,
manioc (tapioca); cattle, sheep, goats, camels

Exports:  $172 million (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Exports - commodities:  cotton, cattle, gum arabic

Exports - partners:  Portugal 38%, Germany 12%, Thailand, Costa Rica,
South Africa, France, Nigeria (2001)

Imports:  $223 million (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Imports - commodities:  machinery and transportation equipment, industrial
goods, petroleum products, foodstuffs, textiles

Imports - partners:  France 40%, Cameroon 13%, Nigeria 12%, India 5%
(1999)

Debt - external:  $1.1 billion (2000 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:  $238.3 million (1995); note - $125 million
committed by Taiwan (August 1997); $30 million committed by African
Development Bank

Currency:  Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XAF); note - responsible
authority is the Bank of the Central African States

Currency code:  XAF

Exchange rates:  Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XAF) per US
dollar - 742.79 (January 2002), 733.04 (2001), 711.98 (2000), 615.70
(1999), 589.95 (1998), 583.67 (1997); note - from 1 January 1999, the
XAF is pegged to the euro at a rate of 655.957 XAF per euro

Fiscal year:  calendar year

Communications Chad

Telephones - main lines in use:  10,260 (2000)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  20,000 (2002)

Telephone system:  general assessment: primitive system domestic:
fair system of radiotelephone communication stations international:
satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 2, FM 3, shortwave 5 (1998)

Radios:  1.67 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:  1 (1997)

Televisions:  10,000 (1997)

Internet country code:  .td

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  1 (2000)

Internet users:  1,000 (2000)

Transportation Chad

Railways:  0 km

Highways:  total: 33,400 km paved: 450 km note: probably no more than
8,000 km of the total receive maintenance, the remainder being desert
tracks (2000) unpaved: 32,950 km

Waterways:  2,000 km

Ports and harbors:  none

Airports:  49 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 7 over 3,047 m: 2 2,438 to 3,047 m:
3 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 under 914 m: 1 (2001)

Airports - with unpaved runways:  total: 42 1,524 to 2,437 m: 12 914 to
1,523 m: 20 under 914 m: 10 (2001)

Military Chad

Military branches:  Armed Forces (including National Army, Air Force,
and Gendarmerie), Rapid Intervention Force, National and Nomadic Guard
(GNNT), Presidential Security Guard, Police

Military manpower - military age:  20 years of age (2002 est.)

Military manpower - availability:  males age 15-49: 1,881,769 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:  males age 15-49: 985,094
(2002 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:  males: 82,003
(2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:  $31 million (FY01)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:  1.9% (FY01)

Transnational Issues Chad

Disputes - international:  Lake Chad Commission urges signatories
Cameroon, Chad, Niger, and Nigeria to ratify delimitation treaty over
lake region, the site of continuing armed clashes; Nigeria requests and
Chad rejects redemarcation of boundary, which lacks clear demarcation in
sections and has caused several cross-border incidents; Chadian rebels
from Aozou reside in Libya

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002



========================================================================


Sri Lanka

Introduction Sri Lanka

Background:  Occupied by the Portuguese in the 16th century and the
Dutch in the 17th century, the island was ceded to the British in
1802. As Ceylon it became independent in 1948; its name was changed
in 1972. Tensions between the Sinhalese majority and Tamil separatists
erupted in violence in the mid-1980s. Tens of thousands have died in an
ethnic war that continues to fester.

Geography Sri Lanka

Location:  Southern Asia, island in the Indian Ocean, south of India

Geographic coordinates:  7 00 N, 81 00 E

Map references:  Asia

Area:  total: 65,610 sq km water: 870 sq km land: 64,740 sq km

Area - comparative:  slightly larger than West Virginia

Land boundaries:  0 km

Coastline:  1,340 km

Maritime claims:   12 NM exclusive economic zone: Climate:  tropical
monsoon; northeast monsoon (December to March); southwest monsoon (June
to October)

Terrain:  mostly low, flat to rolling plain; mountains in south-central
interior

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m highest point:
Pidurutalagala 2,524 m

Natural resources:  limestone, graphite, mineral sands, gems, phosphates,
clay, hydropower

Land use:  arable land: 13% permanent crops: 16% other: 71% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  6,510 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:  occasional cyclones and tornadoes

Environment - current issues:  deforestation; soil erosion; wildlife
populations threatened by poaching and urbanization; coastal degradation
from mining activities and increased pollution; freshwater resources
being polluted by industrial wastes and sewage runoff; waste disposal;
air pollution in Colombo

Environment - international agreements:  party to: Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental
Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone
Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands signed, but not ratified:
Marine Life Conservation

Geography - note:  strategic location near major Indian Ocean sea lanes

People Sri Lanka

Population:  19,576,783 note: since the outbreak of hostilities between
the government and armed Tamil separatists in the mid-1980s, several
hundred thousand Tamil civilians have fled the island; as of mid-1999,
approximately 66,000 were housed in 133 refugee camps in south India,
another 40,000 lived outside the Indian camps, and more than 200,000
Tamils have sought refuge in the West (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:  0-14 years: 25.6% (male 2,559,246; female 2,446,393)
15-64 years: 67.7% (male 6,446,320; female 6,802,515) 65 years and over:
6.7% (male 628,398; female 693,911) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  0.85% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  16.36 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  6.45 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  -1.39 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female 65 years and over:
0.91 male(s)/female total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  15.65 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   75 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  1.93 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  0.07% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  7,500 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  490 (1999 est.)

Nationality:  noun: Sri Lankan(s) adjective: Sri Lankan

Ethnic groups:  Sinhalese 74%, Tamil 18%, Moor 7%, Burgher, Malay,
and Vedda 1%

Religions:  Buddhist 70%, Hindu 15%, Christian 8%, Muslim 7% (1999)

Languages:  Sinhala (official and national language) 74%, Tamil (national
language) 18%, other 8% note: English is commonly used in government
and is spoken competently by about 10% of the population

Literacy:  definition: age 15 and over can read and write total
population: 90.2% male: 93.4% female: 87.2% (1995 est.)

Government Sri Lanka

Country name:  conventional long form: Democratic Socialist Republic of
Sri Lanka conventional short form: Sri Lanka former: Serendib, Ceylon

Government type:  republic

Capital:  Colombo; note - Sri Jayewardenepura Kotte is the legislative
capital

Administrative divisions:  8 provinces; Central, North Central, North
Eastern, North Western, Sabaragamuwa, Southern, Uva, Western; note -
North Eastern province may have been divided in two - Northern and Eastern

Independence:  4 February 1948 (from UK)

National holiday:  Independence Day, 4 February (1948)

Constitution:  adopted 16 August 1978

Legal system:  a highly complex mixture of English common law,
Roman-Dutch, Muslim, Sinhalese, and customary law; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:  chief of state: President Chandrika Bandaranaike
KUMARATUNGA (since 12 November 1994); note - Ranil WICKREMASINGHE (since
9 December 2001) is the prime minister; in Sri Lanka the president is
considered both the chief of state and head of government, in contrast to
the more common practice of dividing the roles between the president and
the prime minister when both offices exist head of government: President
Chandrika Bandaranaike KUMARATUNGA (since 12 November 1994); note -
Ranil WICKREMASINGHE (since 9 December 2001) is the prime minister; in
Sri Lanka the president is considered both the chief of state and head
of government, in contrast to the more common practice of dividing the
roles between the president and the prime minister when both offices
exist cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president in consultation with
the prime minister elections: president elected by popular vote for
a six-year term; election last held 21 December 1999 (next to be held
NA December 2005) election results: Chandrika Bandaranaike KUMARATUNGA
reelected president; percent of vote - Chandrika Bandaranaike KUMARATUNGA
(PA) 51%, Ranil WICKREMASINGHE (UNP) 42%, other 7%

Legislative branch:  unicameral Parliament (225 seats; members elected by
popular vote on the basis of a modified proportional representation system
by district to serve six-year terms) elections: last held 7 December 2001
(next to be held NA December 2007) election results: percent of vote by
party or electoral alliance - UNP, SLMC and CWC 46.8%, PA and EPDP 38%,
JVP 9.1%, Tamil National Alliance 3.89%, PLOTE 0.19%; seats by party
or electoral alliance - UNP, SLMC and CWC 114, PA and EPDP 79, JVP 16,
Tamil National Alliance 15, PLOTE 1

Judicial branch:  Supreme Court; Court of Appeals; judges for both courts
are appointed by the president

Political parties and leaders:  All Ceylon Tamil Congress or ACTC
[KUMARGURUPARAM]; Ceylon Workers Congress or CWC [Arumugam THONDAMAN];
Communist Party or CP [D. GUNASEKERA]; Democratic United National (Lalith)
Front or DUNLF [Shrimani ATULATHMUDALI]; Eelam People's Democratic Party
or EPDP [Douglas DEVANANDA]; Eelam People's Revolutionary Liberation
Front or EPRLF [Suresh PREMACHANDRAN]; Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna or
JVP [Tilvan SILVA]; National Unity Alliance or NUA [Ferial ASHRAFF];
People's Alliance or PA [Chandrika Bandaranaike KUMARATUNGA]; People's
Liberation Organization of Tamil Eelam or PLOTE [leader NA]; Sihala
Urumaya or SU [Tilak KARUNARATNE]; Sri Lanka Freedom Party or SLFP
[Chandrika Bandaranaike KUMARATUNGA]; Sri Lanka Muslim Congress or SLMC
[Rauff HAKEEM]; Sri Lanka Progressive Front or SLPF [P. Nelson PERERA];
Tamil Eelam Liberation Organization or TELO [SABARATNAM]; Tamil National
Alliance or TNA [Nadarajah RAVIRAJ]; Tamil United Liberation Front or TULF
[R. SAMPATHAN]; United National Party or UNP [Ranil WICKREMASINGHE];
Upcountry People's Front or UPF [P.  CHANDRASEKARAN]; several ethnic
Tamil and Muslim parties, represented in either Parliament or provincial
councils

Political pressure groups and leaders:  Buddhist clergy; labor
unions; Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam or LTTE [Velupillai
PRABHAKARAN](insurgent group fighting for a separate state); radical
chauvinist Sinhalese groups such as the National Movement Against
Terrorism; Sinhalese Buddhist lay groups

International organization participation:  AsDB, C, CCC, CP, ESCAP,
FAO, G-15, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD,
IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAS
(observer), OPCW, PCA, SAARC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNU, UPU, WCL,
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
Warnasena RASAPUTRAM consulate(s): New York
 [1] (202) 232-7181 telephone:  Washington, DC 20008

Diplomatic representation from the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
E. Ashley WILLS embassy: 210 Galle Road, Colombo 3 mailing address:
P. O. Box 106, Colombo telephone: [94] (1) 448007 FAX: [94] (1) 437345

Flag description:  yellow with two panels; the smaller hoist-side panel
has two equal vertical bands of green (hoist side) and orange; the other
panel is a large dark red rectangle with a yellow lion holding a sword,
and there is a yellow bo leaf in each corner; the yellow field appears
as a border around the entire flag and extends between the two panels

Economy Sri Lanka

Economy - overview:  In 1977, Colombo abandoned statist economic policies
and its import substitution trade policy for market-oriented policies
and export-oriented trade. Sri Lanka's most dynamic sectors now are food
processing, textiles and apparel, food and beverages, telecommunications,
and insurance and banking. By 1996 plantation crops made up only 20% of
exports (compared with 93% in 1970), while textiles and garments accounted
for 63%. GDP grew at an average annual rate of 5.5% throughout the 1990s
until a drought and a deteriorating security situation lowered growth
to 3.8% in 1996. The economy rebounded in 1997-2000 with average growth
of 5.3%. But 2001 saw the first contraction in the country's history,
due to a combination of power shortages, severe budgetary problems,
the global slowdown, and continuing civil strife.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $62.7 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  -1% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $3,250 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: 21% industry: 27% services:
52% (2000)

Population below poverty line:  22% (1997 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: 3.5%
highest 10%: 28% (1995)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:  34.4 (1995)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  14.2% (2001 est.)

Labor force:  6.6 million (1998)

Labor force - by occupation:  services 45%, agriculture 38%, industry 17%
(1998 est.)

Unemployment rate:  7.7% (2001)

Budget:  revenues: $2.8 billion expenditures: $4.1 billion, including
capital expenditures of $NA (2001 est.)

Industries:  rubber processing, tea, coconuts, and other agricultural
commodities; clothing, cement, petroleum refining, textiles, tobacco

Industrial production growth rate:  1.4% (2001)

Electricity - production:  6.619 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 31.86% hydro: 68.14%
other: 0% (2000) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:  6.156 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  0 kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports:  0 kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products:  rice, sugarcane, grains, pulses, oilseed,
spices, tea, rubber, coconuts; milk, eggs, hides, beef

Exports:  $4.9 billion (f.o.b., 2001)

Exports - commodities:  textiles and apparel 15%, tea, diamonds, coconut
products, petroleum products

Exports - partners:  US 39%, UK 13%, Middle East 8%, Germany 4%, Japan 4%
(2000)

Imports:  $6 billion (f.o.b., 2001)

Imports - commodities:  machinery and equipment, textiles, petroleum,
foodstuffs

Imports - partners:  Japan 9%, India 8%, Hong Kong 7%, Singapore 7%,
South Korea 5% (2000)

Debt - external:  $9.9 billion (2000)

Economic aid - recipient:  $577 million (1998)

Currency:  Sri Lankan rupee (LKR)

Currency code:  LKR

Exchange rates:  Sri Lankan rupees per US dollar - 93.383 (January 2002),
89.383 (2001), 77.005 (2000), 70.635 (1999), 64.450 (1998), 58.995 (1997)

Fiscal year:  calendar year

Communications Sri Lanka

Telephones - main lines in use:  494,509 (1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  228,604 (1999)

Telephone system:  general assessment: very inadequate domestic service,
particularly in rural areas; likely improvement with privatization of
national telephone company and encouragement to private investment; good
international service (1999) domestic: national trunk network consists
mostly of digital microwave radio relay; fiber-optic links now in use
in Colombo area and two fixed wireless local loops have been installed;
competition is strong in mobile cellular systems; telephone density
remains low at 2.6 main lines per 100 persons (1999) international:
submarine cables to Indonesia and Djibouti; satellite earth stations -
2 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) (1999)

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 26, FM 45, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios:  3.85 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:  21 (1997)

Televisions:  1.53 million (1997)

Internet country code:  .lk

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  5 (2000)

Internet users:  121,500 (2001)

Transportation Sri Lanka

Railways:  total: 1,463 km broad gauge: 1,404 km 1.676-m gauge narrow
gauge: 59 km 0.762-m gauge (2001)

Highways:  total: 11,285 km paved: 10,721 km unpaved: 564 km (1998 est.)

Waterways:  430 km (navigable by shallow-draft craft)

Pipelines:  crude oil and petroleum products 62 km (1987)

Ports and harbors:  Colombo, Galle, Jaffna, Trincomalee

Merchant marine:  total: 18 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 137,321
GRT/233,367 DWT ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 15, container 1, petroleum
tanker 1, includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag
of convenience: Germany 9, Hong Kong 1, United Arab Emirates 1 (2002 est.)

Airports:  15 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 14 over 3,047 m: 1 1,524 to 2,437
m: 7 914 to 1,523 m: 6 (2001)

Airports - with unpaved runways:  total: 1 under 914 m: 1 (2001)

Military Sri Lanka

Military branches:  Army, Navy, Air Force, Police Force

Military manpower - military age:  18 years of age (2002 est.)

Military manpower - availability:  males age 15-49: 5,347,153 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:  males age 15-49: 4,148,825
(2002 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:  males: 193,522
(2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:  $719 million (FY98)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:  4.2% (FY98)

Transnational Issues Sri Lanka

Disputes - international:  none

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002



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Congo, Republic of the

Introduction

Congo, Republic of the

Background:  Upon independence in 1960, the former French region of
Middle Congo became the Republic of the Congo. A quarter century of
experimentation with Marxism was abandoned in 1990 and a democratically
elected government installed in 1992. A brief civil war in 1997 restored
former Marxist President SASSOU-NGUESSO.

Geography Congo, Republic of the

Location:  Western Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between
Angola and Gabon

Geographic coordinates:  1 00 S, 15 00 E

Map references:  Africa

Area:  total: 342,000 sq km water: 500 sq km land: 341,500 sq km

Area - comparative:  slightly smaller than Montana

Land boundaries:  total: 5,504 km border countries: Angola 201 km,
Cameroon 523 km, Central African Republic 467 km, Democratic Republic
of the Congo 2,410 km, Gabon 1,903 km

Coastline:  169 km

Maritime claims:  territorial sea: 200 NM

Climate:  tropical; rainy season (March to June); dry season (June
to October); constantly high temperatures and humidity; particularly
enervating climate astride the Equator

Terrain:  coastal plain, southern basin, central plateau, northern basin

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point:
Mount Berongou 903 m

Natural resources:  petroleum, timber, potash, lead, zinc, uranium,
copper, phosphates, natural gas, hydropower

Land use:  arable land: 1% permanent crops: 0% other: 99% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  10 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:  seasonal flooding

Environment - current issues:  air pollution from vehicle emissions;
water pollution from the dumping of raw sewage; tap water is not potable;
deforestation

Environment - international agreements:  party to: Biodiversity, Climate
Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Ozone Layer Protection,
Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands signed, but not ratified:
Law of the Sea

Geography - note:  about 70% of the population lives in Brazzaville,
Pointe-Noire, or along the railroad between them

People Congo, Republic of the

Population:  2,958,448 note: estimates for this country explicitly take
into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result
in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower
population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population
by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:  0-14 years: 42.4% (male 630,985; female 622,024) 15-64
years: 54.3% (male 783,238; female 823,882) 65 years and over: 3.3%
(male 39,369; female 58,950) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  2.18% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  37.91 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  16.1 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.01
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female 65 years and over:
0.67 male(s)/female total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  97.91 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   51.24 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  4.94 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  6.43% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  86,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  8,600 (1999 est.)

Nationality:  noun: Congolese (singular and plural) adjective: Congolese
or Congo

Ethnic groups:  Kongo 48%, Sangha 20%, M'Bochi 12%, Teke 17%, Europeans
and other 3% note:  may be half that in 1998, following the widespread
destruction of foreign businesses in 1997

Religions:  Christian 50%, animist 48%, Muslim 2%

Languages:  French (official), Lingala and Monokutuba (lingua franca
trade languages), many local languages and dialects (of which Kikongo
has the most users)

Literacy:  definition: age 15 and over can read and write total
population: 74.9% male: 83.1% female: 67.2% (1995 est.)

Government Congo, Republic of the

Country name:   Republic of the Congo conventional short form:
Congo/Brazzaville, Congo local long form: Republique du Congo

Government type:  republic

Capital:  Brazzaville

Administrative divisions:  9 regions (regions, singular - region) and 1
commune*; Bouenza, Brazzaville*, Cuvette, Kouilou, Lekoumou, Likouala,
Niari, Plateaux, Pool, Sangha

Independence:  15 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday:  Independence Day, 15 August (1960)

Constitution:  constitution approved by referendum in January 2002

Legal system:  based on French civil law system and customary law

Suffrage:  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:  chief of state: President Denis SASSOU-NGUESSO (since
25 October 1997, following the civil war in which he toppled elected
president Pascal LISSOUBA); note - the president is both the chief of
state and head of government elections: president elected by popular vote
for a seven-year term (eligible for a second seven-year term); election
last held 10 March 2002 (next to be held NA 2009) head of government:
civil war in which he toppled elected president Pascal LISSOUBA); note -
the president is both the chief of state and head of government cabinet:
SASSOU-NGUESSO reelected president; percent of vote - Denis SASSOU-NGUESSO
89.4%, Joseph Kignoumbi Kia MBOUNGOU 2.7%

Legislative branch:  unicameral National Transitional Council (75 seats,
members elected by reconciliation forum of 1,420 delegates in January
1998); note - the National Transitional Council will be replaced by a
bicameral Parliament, with a National Assembly and Senate, following
elections in 2002 elections: National Transitional Council - last held
NA January 1998 (next to be held in 2002); note - at that election
the National Transitional Council is to be replaced by a bicameral
legislature election results: National Transitional Council - percent
of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - NA

Judicial branch:  Supreme Court or Cour Supreme

Political parties and leaders:  the most important of the many parties are
the Democratic and Patriotic Forces or FDP (an alliance of Convention for
Alternative Democracy, Congolese Labor Party or PCT, Liberal Republican
Party, National Union for Democracy and Progress, Patriotic Union
for the National Reconstruction, and Union for the National Renewal)
[Denis SASSOU-NGUESSO, president]; Congolese Movement for Democracy and
Integral Development or MCDDI [Michel MAMPOUYA]; Pan-African Union for
Social Development or UPADS [Martin MBERI]; Rally for Democracy and
Social Progress or RDPS [Jean-Pierre Thystere TCHICAYA, president];
Rally for Democracy and the Republic or RDR [Raymond Damasge NGOLLO];
Union for Democracy and Republic [leader NA]; Union of Democratic Forces
or UFD [Sebastian EBAO]

Political pressure groups and leaders:  Congolese Trade Union Congress
or CSC; General Union of Congolese Pupils and Students or UGEEC;
Revolutionary Union of Congolese Women or URFC; Union of Congolese
Socialist Youth or UJSC

International organization participation:  ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CCC,
CEEAC, CEMAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC,
IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, NAM, OAU, OPCW (signatory),
UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador Serge
MOMBOULI FAX: [1] (202) 726-1860 telephone: [1] (202) 726-5500 chancery:
4891 Colorado Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20011

Diplomatic representation from the US:   NA mailing address:  is
temporarily collocated with the US Embassy in the Democratic Republic
of the Congo (US Embassy Kinshasa, 310 Avenue des Aviateurs, Kinshasa)

Flag description:  divided diagonally from the lower hoist side by a
yellow band; the upper triangle (hoist side) is green and the lower
triangle is red; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

Economy Congo, Republic of the

Economy - overview:  The economy is a mixture of village agriculture and
handicrafts, an industrial sector based largely on oil, support services,
and a government characterized by budget problems and overstaffing. Oil
has supplanted forestry as the mainstay of the economy, providing a
major share of government revenues and exports. In the early 1980s,
rapidly rising oil revenues enabled the government to finance large-scale
development projects with GDP growth averaging 5% annually, one of the
highest rates in Africa. The government has mortgaged a substantial
portion of its oil earnings, contributing to a shortage of revenues. The
12 January 1994 devaluation of Franc Zone currencies by 50% resulted
in inflation of 61% in 1994, but inflation has subsided since. Economic
reform efforts continued with the support of international organizations,
notably the World Bank and the IMF. The reform program came to a
halt in June 1997 when civil war erupted. Denis SASSOU-NGUESSO, who
returned to power when the war ended in October 1997, publicly expressed
interest in moving forward on economic reforms and privatization and
in renewing cooperation with international financial institutions.
However, economic progress was badly hurt by slumping oil prices and
the resumption of armed conflict in December 1998, which worsened the
republic's budget deficit. Given a fragile peace, agreements with the IMF
and the World Bank, and general international support for reconstruction
and development, prospects for structural reform and 4% growth in 2002-03
appear strong.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $2.5 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  4.2% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $900 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: 10% industry: 48% services:
42% (2001 est.)

Population below poverty line:  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  3% (2001 est.)

Labor force:  NA

Unemployment rate:  NA%

Budget:  revenues: $870 million expenditures: $970 million, including
capital expenditures of $NA (1997 est.)

Industries:  petroleum extraction, cement, lumber, brewing, sugar,
palm oil, soap, flour, cigarettes

Industrial production growth rate:  NA%

Electricity - production:  302 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 0.66% hydro: 99.34%
other: 0% (1999) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:  406.9 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports:  0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports:  126 million kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products:  cassava (tapioca), sugar, rice, corn, peanuts,
vegetables, coffee, cocoa; forest products

Exports:  $2.6 billion (f.o.b., 2001)

Exports - commodities:  petroleum 90%, lumber, plywood, sugar, cocoa,
coffee, diamonds

Exports - partners:  US 20.9%, South Korea 15.5%, China 6.7%, Germany 3.2%
(2000)

Imports:  $725 million (f.o.b., 2001)

Imports - commodities:  petroleum products, capital equipment,
construction materials, foodstuffs

Imports - partners:  France 20.5%, US 9.8%, Italy 7.5%, Belgium 3.8%
(2000)

Debt - external:  $5 billion (1999 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:  $159.1 million (1995)

Currency:  Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XAF); note - responsible
authority is the Bank of the Central African States

Currency code:  XAF

Exchange rates:  Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XAF) per US
dollar - 742.79 (January 2002), 733.04 (2001), 711.98 (2000), 615.70
(1999), 589.95 (1998), 583.67 (1997); note - from 1 January 1999, the
XAF is pegged to the euro at a rate of 655.957 XAF per euro

Fiscal year:  calendar year

Communications Congo, Republic of the

Telephones - main lines in use:  22,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  250,000 (2001)

Telephone system:  general assessment: services barely adequate
for government use; key exchanges are in Brazzaville, Pointe-Noire,
and Loubomo; intercity lines frequently out-of-order domestic: primary
network consists of microwave radio relay and coaxial cable international:
satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 1, FM 5, shortwave 3 (2001)

Radios:  341,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:  1 (2002)

Televisions:  33,000 (1997)

Internet country code:  .cg

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  1 (2000)

Internet users:  500 (2000)

Transportation Congo, Republic of the

Railways:  total: 894 km narrow gauge: 894 km 1.067-m gauge (2000 est.)

Highways:  total: 12,800 km paved: 1,242 km unpaved: 11,558 km (1996)

Waterways:  1,120 km note: the Congo and Ubangi (Oubangui) rivers provide
1,120 km of commercially navigable water transport; other rivers are
used for local traffic only

Pipelines:  crude oil 25 km

Ports and harbors:  Brazzaville, Impfondo, Ouesso, Oyo, Pointe-Noire

Airports:  33 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 4 over 3,047 m: 1 1,524 to 2,437 m:
3 (2001)

Airports - with unpaved runways:  total: 29 1,524 to 2,437 m: 7 914 to
1,523 m: 10 under 914 m: 12 (2001)

Military Congo, Republic of the

Military branches:  Army, Air Force, Navy, Gendarmerie, National Police

Military manpower - military age:  20 years of age (2002 est.)

Military manpower - availability:  males age 15-49: 702,048 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:  males age 15-49: 356,388
(2002 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:  males: 32,350
(2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:  $84 million (FY01)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:  2.8% (FY01)

Transnational Issues Congo, Republic of the

Disputes - international:  most of the Congo River boundary with the
Democratic Republic of the Congo is indefinite (no agreement has been
reached on the division of the river or its islands, except in the
Stanley Pool/Pool Malebo area)

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002



========================================================================


Congo, Democratic Republic of the

Introduction

Congo, Democratic Republic of the

Background:  Since 1997 the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DROC;
formerly called Zaire) has been rent by ethnic strife and civil war,
touched off by a massive inflow in 1994 of refugees from the fighting
in Rwanda and Burundi.  The government of former president MOBUTU Sese
Seko was toppled by a rebellion led by Laurent KABILA in May 1997;
his regime was subsequently challenged by a Rwanda- and Uganda-backed
rebellion in August 1998. Troops from Zimbabwe, Angola, Namibia, Chad,
and Sudan intervened to support the Kinshasa regime. A cease-fire was
signed on 10 July 1999 by the DROC, Zimbabwe, Angola, Uganda, Namibia,
Rwanda, and Congolese armed rebel groups RCD-G and MLC, but sporadic
fighting continued. KABILA was assassinated on 16 January 2001 and his
son Joseph KABILA was named head of state on 26 January 2001. Despite
taking a radically different approach than his father, the new president
has been equally unsuccessful in ending the war.

Geography Congo, Democratic Republic of the

Location:  Central Africa, northeast of Angola

Geographic coordinates:  0 00 N, 25 00 E

Map references:  Africa

Area:  total: 2,345,410 sq km water: 77,810 sq km land: 2,267,600 sq km

Area - comparative:  slightly less than one-fourth the size of the US

Land boundaries:  total: 10,744 km border countries: Angola 2,511 km (of
which 225 km is the boundary of Angola's discontiguous Cabinda Province),
Burundi 233 km, Central African Republic 1,577 km, Republic of the Congo
2,410 km, Rwanda 217 km, Sudan 628 km, Tanzania 473 km, Uganda 765 km,
Zambia 1,930 km

Coastline:  37 km

Maritime claims:  exclusive economic zone: boundaries with neighbors
territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate:  tropical; hot and humid in equatorial river basin; cooler and
drier in southern highlands; cooler and wetter in eastern highlands;
north of Equator - wet season April to October, dry season December to
February; south of Equator - wet season November to March, dry season
April to October

Terrain:  vast central basin is a low-lying plateau; mountains in east

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point:
Pic Marguerite on Mont Ngaliema (Mount Stanley) 5,110 m

Natural resources:  cobalt, copper, cadmium, petroleum, industrial and
gem diamonds, gold, silver, zinc, manganese, tin, germanium, uranium,
radium, bauxite, iron ore, coal, hydropower, timber

Land use:  arable land: 3% permanent crops: 1% other: 96% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  110 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:  periodic droughts in south; Congo River floods
(seasonal); in the east, in the Great Rift Valley, there are active
volcanoes

Environment - current issues:  poaching threatens wildlife populations;
water pollution; deforestation; refugees responsible for significant
deforestation, soil erosion, and wildlife poaching; mining of minerals
(coltan - a mineral used in creating capacitors, diamonds, and gold)
causing environmental damage

Environment - international agreements:  party to: Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes,
Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection,
Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands signed, but not ratified:
Environmental Modification

Geography - note:  straddles Equator; has very narrow strip of land that
controls the lower Congo River and is only outlet to South Atlantic Ocean;
dense tropical rain forest in central river basin and eastern highlands

People Congo, Democratic Republic of the

Population:  55,225,478 note: estimates for this country explicitly take
into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result
in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower
population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population
by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:   48.2% (male 13,369,493; female 13,256,174) 15-64 years:
(male 581,568; female 813,944) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  2.79% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  45.55 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  14.93 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  -2.75 migrant(s)/1,000 population note: one million
refugees fled into Zaire (now called the Democratic Republic of the Congo
or DROC) in 1994 as a result of the ethnic fighting in Rwanda; fighting
in the DROC between rebels and government forces in October 1996 caused
875,000 refugees to return to Rwanda in late 1996 and early 1997 and
additional refugees have returned in subsequent years; fighting between
the Congolese government and Uganda- and Rwanda-backed Congolese rebels
spawned a regional war in DROC in August 1998, which left 1.8 million
Congolese displaced in DROC and caused 300,000 Congolese refugees to
flee to surrounding countries (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.01
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female 65 years and over:
0.71 male(s)/female total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  98.05 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   51.13 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  6.77 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  5.07% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  1.1 million (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  95,000 (1999 est.)

Nationality:  noun: Congolese (singular and plural) adjective: Congolese
or Congo

Ethnic groups:  over 200 African ethnic groups of which the majority
are Bantu; the four largest tribes - Mongo, Luba, Kongo (all Bantu),
and the Mangbetu-Azande (Hamitic) make up about 45% of the population

Religions:  Roman Catholic 50%, Protestant 20%, Kimbanguist 10%, Muslim
10%, other syncretic sects and indigenous beliefs 10%

Languages:  French (official), Lingala (a lingua franca trade language),
Kingwana (a dialect of Kiswahili or Swahili), Kikongo, Tshiluba

Literacy:  definition: age 15 and over can read and write French, Lingala,
Kingwana, or Tshiluba total population: 77.3% male: 86.6% female: 67.7%
(1995 est.)

Government Congo, Democratic Republic of the

Country name:  conventional long form: Democratic Republic of the Congo
conventional short form: none local short form: none former: Congo
Free State, Belgian Congo, Congo/Leopoldville, Congo/Kinshasa, Zaire
local long form: Government type:  dictatorship; presumably undergoing
a transition to representative government

Capital:  Kinshasa

Administrative divisions:  10 provinces (provinces, singular - province)
and one city* (ville); Bandundu, Bas-Congo, Equateur, Kasai-Occidental,
Kasai-Oriental, Katanga, Kinshasa*, Maniema, Nord-Kivu, Orientale,
Sud-Kivu

Independence:  30 June 1960 (from Belgium)

National holiday:  Independence Day, 30 June (1960)

Constitution:  24 June 1967, amended August 1974, revised 15 February
1978, amended April 1990; transitional constitution promulgated in
April 1994; in November 1998, a draft constitution was approved by
former President Laurent KABILA but it was not ratified by a national
referendum; one outcome of the ongoing inter-Congolese dialogue is to
be a new constitution

Legal system:  based on Belgian civil law system and tribal law; has
not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:  18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:  chief of state: President Joseph KABILA (since
26 January 2001); note - following the assassination of his father,
Laurent Desire KABILA, on 16 January 2001, Joseph KABILA succeeded
to the presidency; the president is both the chief of state and
head of government head of government:  assassination of his father,
Laurent Desire KABILA, on 16 January 2001, Joseph KABILA succeeded to
the presidency; the president is both the chief of state and head of
government cabinet: National Executive Council, appointed by the president
elections: before Laurent Desire KABILA seized power on 16 May 1997, the
president was elected by popular vote for a seven-year term; election last
held 29 July 1984 (next was scheduled to be held in May 1997); formerly,
there was also a prime minister who was elected by the High Council
of the Republic; note - elections were not held in 1991 as called for
by the constitution note:  November 1965 until forced into exile on 16
May 1997 when his government was overthrown militarily by Laurent Desire
KABILA; KABILA immediately assumed governing authority and pledged to hold
elections by April 1999, but, in December 1998, announced that elections
would be postponed until all foreign military forces attempting to topple
the government had withdrawn from the country; KABILA was assassinated in
January 2001 and was succeeded by his son Joseph KABILA election results:
results of the last election were: MOBUTU Sese Seko Kuku Ngbendu wa Za
Banga reelected president in 1984 without opposition

Legislative branch:  a 300-member Transitional Constituent Assembly
established in August 2000 elections: NA; members of the Transitional
Constituent Assembly were appointed by former President Laurent Desire
KABILA

Judicial branch:  Supreme Court or Cour Supreme

Political parties and leaders:  Democratic Social Christian Party or
PDSC [Andre BO-BOLIKO]; Forces for Renovation for Union and Solidarity
or FONUS [Joseph OLENGHANKOY]; National Congolese Lumumbist Movement or
MNC [Francois LUMUMBA]; Popular Movement of the Revolution or MPR [three
factions: MPR-Fait Prive (Catherine NZUZI wa Mbombo); MPR/Vunduawe (Felix
VUNDUAWE); MPR/Mananga (MANANGA Dintoka Mpholo)]; Unified Lumumbast Party
or PALU [Antoine GIZENGA]; Union for Democracy and Social Progress or UDPS
[Etienne TSHISEKEDI wa Mulumba]; Union of Federalists and Independent
Republicans or UFERI [two factions: UFERI (Lokambo OMOKOKO); UFERI/OR
(Adolph Kishwe MAYA)]

Political pressure groups and leaders:  NA

International organization participation:  ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC,
CEEAC, CEPGL, ECA, FAO, G-19, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU,
ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM,
ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OAU, OPCW (signatory), PCA, SADC, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
Faida MITIFU FAX: [1] (202) 234-2609 telephone: [1] (202) 234-7690,
7691 chancery: 1800 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009

Diplomatic representation from the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
Aubrey HOOKS embassy: 310 Avenue des
 Unit 31550, APO AE 09828 telephone:
Flag description:  light blue with a large yellow five-pointed star in
the center and a columnar arrangement of six small yellow five-pointed
stars along the hoist side

Economy Congo, Democratic Republic of the

Economy - overview:  The economy of the Democratic Republic of the
Congo - a nation endowed with vast potential wealth - has declined
drastically since the mid-1980s.  The war, which began in August 1998,
has dramatically reduced national output and government revenue and has
increased external debt. Foreign businesses have curtailed operations due
to uncertainty about the outcome of the conflict, lack of infrastructure,
and the difficult operating environment. The war has intensified the
impact of such basic problems as an uncertain legal framework, corruption,
raging inflation, and lack of openness in government economic policy
and financial operations. A number of IMF and World Bank missions have
met with the government to help it develop a coherent economic plan,
and President KABILA has begun implementing reforms.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $32 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  -4% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $590 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: 54% industry: 9% services: 37%
(1999 est.)

Population below poverty line:  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  358% (2001 est.)

Labor force:  14.51 million (1993 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:  agriculture 65%, industry 16%, services 19%
(1991 est.)

Unemployment rate:  NA%

Budget:  revenues: $269 million expenditures: $244 million, including
capital expenditures of $24 million (1996 est.)

Industries:  mining (diamonds, copper, zinc), mineral processing,
consumer products (including textiles, footwear, cigarettes, processed
foods and beverages), cement

Industrial production growth rate:  NA%

Electricity - production:  5.268 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 2.05% hydro: 97.95%
other: 0% (1999) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:  4.55 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports:  404 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports:  55 million kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products:  coffee, sugar, palm oil, rubber, tea, quinine,
cassava (tapioca), palm oil, bananas, root crops, corn, fruits; wood
products

Exports:  $750 million (f.o.b., 2001 est.)

Exports - commodities:  diamonds, copper, coffee, cobalt, crude oil

Exports - partners:  Benelux 62%, US 18%, South Africa, Finland, Italy
(1999)

Imports:  $1.024 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)

Imports - commodities:  foodstuffs, mining and other machinery, transport
equipment, fuels

Imports - partners:  South Africa 28%, Benelux 14%, Nigeria 9%, Kenya 7%,
China (1999)

Debt - external:  $12.9 billion (2000 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:  $195.3 million (1995)

Currency:  Congolese franc (CDF)

Currency code:  CDF

Exchange rates:  Congolese francs per US dollar - 305 (January 2002),
21.82 (2000), 4.02 (1999), 1.61 (1998), 1.31 (1997) note: on 30 June
1998 the Congolese franc was introduced, replacing the new zaire

Fiscal year:  calendar year

Communications Congo, Democratic Republic of the

Telephones - main lines in use:  21,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  15,000 (2000)

Telephone system:  general assessment: poor domestic: barely adequate wire
and microwave radio relay service in and between urban areas; domestic
satellite system with 14 earth stations international: satellite earth
station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 3, FM 11, shortwave 2 (2001)

Radios:  18.03 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:  4 (2001)

Televisions:  6.478 million (1997)

Internet country code:  .cd

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  2 (2000)

Internet users:  1,500 (1999)

Transportation Congo, Democratic Republic of the

Railways:  total: 5,138 km narrow gauge: 3,987 km 1.067-m gauge (858
km electrified); 125 km 1.000-m gauge; 1,026 km 0.600-m gauge note:
severely reduced route-distance in use because of damage to facilities
by civil strife (2000 est.)

Highways:  total: 157,000 km (including 30 km of expressways)(1996)
paved: NA km unpaved: NA km

Waterways:  15,000 km (including the Congo and its tributaries, and
unconnected lakes)

Pipelines:  petroleum products 390 km

Ports and harbors:  Banana, Boma, Bukavu, Bumba, Goma, Kalemie, Kindu,
Kinshasa, Kisangani, Matadi, Mbandaka

Merchant marine:  none (2002 est.)

Airports:  232 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 24 over 3,047 m: 4 2,438 to 3,047
m: 3 914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2001) 1,524 to 2,437 m: 15

Airports - with unpaved runways:  total: 208 1,524 to 2,437 m: 20 914
to 1,523 m: 96 under 914 m: 92 (2001)

Heliports:  1 (2001)

Military Congo, Democratic Republic of the

Military branches:  Army, Navy, Air Force, Special Security Battalion

Military manpower - availability:  males age 15-49: 11,996,175 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:  males age 15-49: 6,110,595
(2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:  $250 million (FY97)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:  4.6% (FY97)

Transnational Issues Congo, Democratic Republic of the

Disputes - international:  Democratic Republic of the Congo is in the grip
of a civil war that has drawn in military forces from neighboring states,
with Uganda and Rwanda supporting the rebel movements that occupy much
of the eastern portion of the state; Tutsi, Hutu, and other conflicting
ethnic groups, political rebels, and various government forces continue
fighting in Great Lakes region, transcending the boundaries of Burundi,
Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, and Uganda; most of the Congo
River boundary with the Republic of the Congo is indefinite (no agreement
has been reached on the division of the river or its islands, except in
the Pool Malebo/Stanley Pool area)

Illicit drugs:  illicit producer of cannabis, mostly for domestic
consumption

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002



========================================================================


China

Introduction

China

Background:  For centuries China stood as a leading civilization,
outpacing the rest of the world in the arts and sciences. But in the
19th and early 20th centuries, China was beset by civil unrest, major
famines, military defeats, and foreign occupation. After World War II,
the Communists under MAO Zedong established a dictatorship that, while
ensuring China's sovereignty, imposed strict controls over everyday
life and cost the lives of tens of millions of people. After 1978, his
successor DENG Xiaoping gradually introduced market-oriented reforms
and decentralized economic decision making, and output quadrupled by
2000. Political controls remain tight even while economic controls
continue to be relaxed.

Geography China

Location:  Eastern Asia, bordering the East China Sea, Korea Bay, Yellow
Sea, and South China Sea, between North Korea and Vietnam

Geographic coordinates:  35 00 N, 105 00 E

Map references:  Asia

Area:  total: 9,596,960 sq km land: 9,326,410 sq km water: 270,550 sq km

Area - comparative:  slightly smaller than the US

Land boundaries:  total: 22,147.34 km border countries: Afghanistan
76 km, Bhutan 470 km, Burma 2,185 km, Hong Kong 30 km, India 3,380 km,
Kazakhstan 1,533 km, North Korea 1,416 km, Kyrgyzstan 858 km, Laos 423
km, Macau 0.34 km, Mongolia 4,677 km, Nepal 1,236 km, Pakistan 523 km,
Russia (northeast) 3,605 km, Russia (northwest) 40 km, Tajikistan 414 km,
Vietnam 1,281 km

Coastline:  14,500 km

Maritime claims:   200 NM continental shelf: Climate:  extremely diverse;
tropical in south to subarctic in north

Terrain:  mostly mountains, high plateaus, deserts in west; plains,
deltas, and hills in east

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Turpan Pendi -154 m highest point:
Mount Everest 8,850 m (1999 est.)

Natural resources:  coal, iron ore, petroleum, natural gas, mercury,
tin, tungsten, antimony, manganese, molybdenum, vanadium, magnetite,
aluminum, lead, zinc, uranium, hydropower potential (world's largest)

Land use:  arable land: 13% permanent crops: 1% other: 86% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  525,800 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:  frequent typhoons (about five per year along southern
and eastern coasts); damaging floods; tsunamis; earthquakes; droughts;
land subsidence

Environment - current issues:  air pollution (greenhouse gases, sulfur
dioxide particulates) from reliance on coal, produces acid rain; water
shortages, particularly in the north; water pollution from untreated
wastes; deforestation; estimated loss of one-fifth of agricultural land
since 1949 to soil erosion and economic development; desertification;
trade in endangered species

Environment - international agreements:  party to: Antarctic-Environmental
Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification,
Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping,
Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber
83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling signed, but not ratified:
Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography - note:  world's fourth-largest country (after Russia, Canada,
and US); Mount Everest on the border with Nepal, is the world's tallest
peak

People China

Population:  1,284,303,705 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:   24.3% (male 163,821,081; female 148,855,387) 15-64 years:
(male 43,834,528; female 49,382,568) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  0.87% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  15.85 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  6.77 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  -0.38 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.09 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.1
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female 65 years and over:
0.89 male(s)/female total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  27.25 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   73.86 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  1.82 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  less than 0.2% (2000-01 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  1.25 million (January 2001)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  17,000 (1999 est.)

Nationality:  noun: Chinese (singular and plural) adjective: Chinese

Ethnic groups:  Han Chinese 91.9%, Zhuang, Uygur, Hui, Yi, Tibetan,
Miao, Manchu, Mongol, Buyi, Korean, and other nationalities 8.1%

Religions:  Daoist (Taoist), Buddhist, Muslim 1%-2%, Christian 3%-4%
note: officially atheist (2002 est.)

Languages:  Standard Chinese or Mandarin (Putonghua, based on the Beijing
dialect), Yue (Cantonese), Wu (Shanghaiese), Minbei (Fuzhou), Minnan
(Hokkien-Taiwanese), Xiang, Gan, Hakka dialects, minority languages
(see Ethnic groups entry)

Literacy:  definition: age 15 and over can read and write total
population: 81.5% male: 89.9% female: 72.7% (1995 est.)

Government China

Country name:  conventional long form: People's Republic of China
conventional short
 PRC local long form:
Government type:  Communist state

Capital:  Beijing

Administrative divisions:  23 provinces (sheng, singular and plural), 5
autonomous regions* (zizhiqu, singular and plural), and 4 municipalities**
(shi, singular and plural); Anhui, Beijing**, Chongqing**, Fujian, Gansu,
Guangdong, Guangxi*, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei,
Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol*, Ningxia*, Qinghai,
Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanghai**, Shanxi, Sichuan, Tianjin**, Xinjiang*,
Xizang* (Tibet), Yunnan, Zhejiang; note - China considers Taiwan its 23rd
province; see separate entries for the special administrative regions
of Hong Kong and Macau

Independence:  221 BC (unification under the Qin or Ch'in Dynasty 221
BC; Qing or Ch'ing Dynasty replaced by the Republic on 12 February 1912;
People's Republic established 1 October 1949)

National holiday:  Anniversary of the Founding of the People's Republic
of China, 1 October (1949)

Constitution:  most recent promulgation 4 December 1982

Legal system:  a complex amalgam of custom and statute, largely criminal
law; rudimentary civil code in effect since 1 January 1987; new legal
codes in effect since 1 January 1980; continuing efforts are being made
to improve civil, administrative, criminal, and commercial law

Suffrage:  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:  chief of state: President JIANG Zemin (since 27 March
1993) and Vice President HU Jintao (since 16 March 1998) elections:
president and vice president elected by the National People's Congress
for five-year terms; elections last held 16-18 March 1998 (next to be
held NA March 2003); premier nominated by the president, confirmed by
the National People's Congress head of government: Premier ZHU Rongji
(since 18 March 1998); Vice Premiers QIAN Qichen (since 29 March 1993),
LI Lanqing (29 March 1993), WU Bangguo (since 17 March 1995), and WEN
Jiabao (since 18 March 1998) cabinet: State Council appointed by the
National People's Congress (NPC) election results: JIANG Zemin reelected
president by the Ninth National People's Congress with a total of 2,882
votes (36 delegates voted against him, 29 abstained, and 32 did not
vote); HU Jintao elected vice president by the Ninth National People's
Congress with a total of 2,841 votes (67 delegates voted against him,
39 abstained, and 32 did not vote)

Legislative branch:  unicameral National People's Congress or Quanguo
Renmin Daibiao Dahui (2,979 seats; members elected by municipal, regional,
and provincial people's congresses to serve five-year terms) elections:
last held NA December 1997-NA February 1998 (next to be held late 2002-NA
March 2003) election results: percent of vote - NA%; seats - NA

Judicial branch:  Supreme People's Court (judges appointed by the National
People's Congress); Local Peoples Courts (comprise higher, intermediate
and local courts); Special Peoples Courts (primarily military, maritime,
and railway transport courts)

Political parties and leaders:  Chinese Communist Party or CCP [JIANG
Zemin, General Secretary of the Central Committee]; eight registered
small parties controlled by CCP

Political pressure groups and leaders:  no substantial political
opposition groups exist, although the government has identified the
Falungong sect and the China Democracy Party as potential rivals

International organization participation:  AfDB, APEC, ARF (dialogue
partner), AsDB, ASEAN (dialogue partner), BIS, CCC, CDB, ESCAP, FAO,
G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF,
IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LAIA (observer), MINURSO,
MONUC, NAM (observer), OPCW, PCA, UN, UN Security Council, UNAMSIL,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNMEE, UNMIBH, UNMOVIC,
UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador YANG
Jiechi consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York,
and San Francisco FAX: [1] (202) 328-2582 telephone: [1] (202) 328-2500
chancery: 2300 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

Diplomatic representation from the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
Clark T. RANDT, Jr.  embassy: Xiu Shui Bei Jie 3, 100600 Beijing
mailing address: PSC 461, Box 50, FPO AP 96521-0002 telephone: [86]
(10) 6532-3431 FAX: [86] (10) 6532-6422 consulate(s) general: Chengdu,
Guangzhou, Shanghai, Shenyang

Flag description:  red with a large yellow five-pointed star and four
smaller yellow five-pointed stars (arranged in a vertical arc toward
the middle of the flag) in the upper hoist-side corner

Economy China

Economy - overview:  In late 1978 the Chinese leadership began moving the
economy from a sluggish Soviet-style centrally planned economy to a more
market-oriented system. Whereas the system operates within a political
framework of strict Communist control, the economic influence of non-state
organizations and individual citizens has been steadily increasing.
The authorities have switched to a system of household and village
responsibility in agriculture in place of the old collectivization,
increased the authority of local officials and plant managers in industry,
permitted a wide variety of small-scale enterprise in services and
light manufacturing, and opened the economy to increased foreign trade
and investment. The result has been a quadrupling of GDP since 1978. In
2001, with its 1.27 billion people but a GDP of just $4,300 per capita,
China stood as the second largest economy in the world after the US
(measured on a purchasing power parity basis). Agriculture and industry
have posted major gains, especially in coastal areas near Hong Kong
and opposite Taiwan, where foreign investment has helped spur output of
both domestic and export goods. On the darker side, the leadership has
often experienced in its hybrid system the worst results of socialism
(bureaucracy and lassitude) and of capitalism (windfall gains and
growing income disparities). Beijing thus has periodically backtracked,
retightening central controls at intervals. The government has struggled
to (a) collect revenues due from provinces, businesses, and individuals;
(b) reduce corruption and other economic crimes; and (c) keep afloat
the large state-owned enterprises many of which had been shielded from
competition by subsidies and had been losing the ability to pay full
wages and pensions. From 80 to 120 million surplus rural workers are
adrift between the villages and the cities, many subsisting through
part-time low-paying jobs. Popular resistance, changes in central policy,
and loss of authority by rural cadres have weakened China's population
control program, which is essential to maintaining long-term growth in
living standards.  Another long-term threat to continued rapid economic
growth is the deterioration in the environment, notably air pollution,
soil erosion, and the steady fall of the water table especially in the
north. China continues to lose arable land because of erosion and economic
development. Beijing will intensify efforts to stimulate growth through
spending on infrastructure - such as water control and power grids -
and poverty relief and through rural tax reform aimed at eliminating
arbitrary local levies on farmers. Access to the World Trade Organization
strengthens China's ability to maintain sturdy growth rates, and at
the same time puts additional pressure on the hybrid system of strong
political controls and growing market influences. Although Beijing has
claimed 7%-8% annual growth in recent years, many observers believe the
rate, while strong, is more like 5%.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $5.56 trillion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  7.3% (official estimate) (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $4,300 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: 17.7% industry: 49.3% services:
33% (2001 est.)

Population below poverty line:  10% (2001 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: 2.4%
highest 10%: 30.4% (1998)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:  40 (2001)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  0.8% (2001 est.)

Labor force:  706 million (2000 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:  agriculture 50%, industry 23%, services 27%
(2001 est.)

Unemployment rate:  urban unemployment roughly 10%; substantial
unemployment and underemployment in rural areas (2001 est.)

Budget:  revenues: $161.8 billion expenditures: $191.8 billion, including
capital expenditures of $NA (2000)

Industries:  iron and steel, coal, machine building, armaments, textiles
and apparel, petroleum, cement, chemical fertilizers, footwear, toys,
food processing, automobiles, consumer electronics, telecommunications

Industrial production growth rate:  9.9% (2001 est.)

Electricity - production:  1.308 trillion kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 81.83% hydro: 16.83%
other: 0.12% (2000) nuclear: 1.22%

Electricity - consumption:  1.206 trillion kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  10.25 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports:  400 million kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products:  rice, wheat, potatoes, sorghum, peanuts, tea,
millet, barley, cotton, oilseed; pork; fish

Exports:  $262.1 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)

Exports - commodities:  machinery and equipment; textiles and clothing,
footwear, toys and sporting goods; mineral fuels

Exports - partners:  US 21%, Hong Kong 18%, Japan 17%, South Korea,
Germany, Netherlands, UK, Singapore, Taiwan (2000)

Imports:  $236.2 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)

Imports - commodities:  machinery and equipment, mineral fuels, plastics,
iron and steel, chemicals

Imports - partners:  Japan 18%, Taiwan 11%, South Korea 10%, US 10%
Germany, Hong Kong, Russia, Malaysia (2000)

Debt - external:  $167 billion (2001 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:  $NA

Currency:  yuan (CNY)

Currency code:  CNY

Exchange rates:  yuan per US dollar - 8.2767 (January 2002), 8.2771
(2001), 8.2785 (2000), 8.2783 (1999), 8.2790 (1998), 8.2898 (1997)

Fiscal year:  calendar year

Communications China

Telephones - main lines in use:  135 million (2000)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  65 million (January 2001)

Telephone system:  general assessment: domestic and international
services are increasingly available for private use; unevenly distributed
domestic system serves principal cities, industrial centers, and many
towns domestic:  have been installed; a domestic satellite system with
55 earth stations is in place international: satellite earth stations -
5 Intelsat (4 Pacific Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), 1 Intersputnik (Indian
Ocean region) and 1 Inmarsat (Pacific and Indian Ocean regions); several
international fiber-optic links to Japan, South Korea, Hong Kong, Russia,
and Germany (2000)

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 369, FM 259, shortwave 45 (1998)

Radios:  417 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:  3,240 (of which 209 are operated by China
Central Television, 31 are provincial TV stations and nearly 3,000 are
local city stations) (1997)

Televisions:  400 million (1997)

Internet country code:  .cn

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  3 (2000)

Internet users:  26.5 million (2001)

Transportation China

Railways:  total: 67,524 km (including 5,400 km of provincial "local"
rails) standard gauge: 63,924 km 1.435-m gauge (13,362 km electrified;
20,250 km double-track) narrow gauge: 3,600 km 0.750-m and 1.000-m gauge
local industrial lines (1999 est.)

Highways:  total: 1.4 million km paved: 271,300 km (with at least 16,000
km of expressways) unpaved: 1,128,700 km (1999)

Waterways:  110,000 km (1999)

Pipelines:  crude oil 9,070 km; petroleum products 560 km; natural gas
9,383 km (1998)

Ports and harbors:  Dalian, Fuzhou, Guangzhou, Haikou, Huangpu,
Lianyungang, Nanjing, Nantong, Ningbo, Qingdao, Qinhuangdao, Shanghai,
Shantou, Shenzhen, Tianjin, Wenzhou, Xiamen, Xingang, Yantai, Zhanjiang
(2001)

Merchant marine:  total: 1,764 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
16,915,047 GRT/25,366,296 DWT ships by type: barge carrier 2, bulk 328,
cargo 822, chemical tanker 25, combination bulk 10, combination ore/oil 1,
container 134, liquefied gas 26, multi-functional large-load carrier 6,
passenger 7, passenger/cargo 45, petroleum tanker 263, refrigerated cargo
26, roll on/roll off 23, short-sea passenger 42, specialized tanker 3,
vehicle carrier 1 note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered
here as a flag of convenience: Croatia 1, Germany 1, Hong Kong 16, Japan
2, Panama 2, South Korea 1, Spain 1, Taiwan 9, Tanzania 1, Turkey 1
(2002 est.)

Airports:  489 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:   88 1,524 to 2,437 m: Airports - with
unpaved runways:  total: 165 over 3,047 m: 1 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 1,524
to 2,437 m: 29 914 to 1,523 m: 56 under 914 m: 78 (2001)

Military China

Military branches:  People's Liberation Army (PLA): comprises ground
forces, Navy (including naval infantry and naval aviation), Air Force,
and II Artillery Corps (strategic missile force), People's Armed Police
Force (internal security troops, nominally a state security body but
included by the Chinese as part of the "armed forces" and considered to
be an adjunct to the PLA), militia

Military manpower - military age:  18 years of age (2002 est.)

Military manpower - availability:  males age 15-49: 370,087,489
(2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:  males age 15-49:
203,003,036 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:  males: 10,089,458
(2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:  $20.048 billion (2002); note -
this is the officially announced figure, but actual defense spending
more likely ranges from $45 billion to $65 billion for 2002

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:  1.6% (2002); note - this is the
officially announced figure, but actual defense spending is more likely
between 3.5% to 5.0% of GDP for 2002

Transnational Issues China

Disputes - international:  in 2000, China joined ASEAN discussions towards
creating a South China Sea "code of conduct" - a non-legally binding,
confidence-building measure; much of the rugged, militarized boundary
with India is in dispute, but talks to resolve the least contested middle
sector resumed in 2001; ongoing talks with Tajikistan have failed to
resolve the longstanding dispute over the indefinite boundary; Kazakhstan
is working rapidly with China to delimit its large open borders to
control population migration, illegal activities, and trade; 2001 Treaty
of Good Neighborliness, Friendship, and Cooperation commits Russia and
China to seek peaceable unanimity over disputed alluvial islands at the
confluence of the Amur and Ussuri rivers and a small island on the Argun;
involved in a complex dispute over the Spratly Islands with Malaysia,
Philippines, Taiwan, Vietnam, and possibly Brunei; maritime boundary
agreement with Vietnam in the Gulf of Tonkin awaits ratification; Paracel
Islands occupied by China, but claimed by Vietnam and Taiwan; claims
Japanese-administered Senkaku-shoto (Senkaku Islands/Diaoyu Tai), as
does Taiwan; demarcation of the land boundary with Vietnam has commenced,
but details of the alignment have not been made public; 33-km section of
boundary with North Korea in the Paektu-san (mountain) area is indefinite

Illicit drugs:  major transshipment point for heroin produced in the
Golden Triangle; growing domestic drug abuse problem; source country
for chemical precursors and methamphetamine

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002



========================================================================


Chile

Introduction

Chile

Background:  A three-year-old Marxist government was overthrown in 1973 by
a dictatorial military regime led by Augusto PINOCHET, who ruled until a
freely elected president was installed in 1990. Sound economic policies,
first implemented by the PINOCHET dictatorship, led to unprecedented
growth in 1991-97 and have helped secure the country's commitment to
democratic and representative government.

Geography Chile

Location:  Southern South America, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean
and South Pacific Ocean, between Argentina and Peru

Geographic coordinates:  30 00 S, 71 00 W

Map references:  South America

Area:  total: 756,950 sq km land: 748,800 sq km note: includes Easter
Island (Isla de Pascua) and Isla Sala y Gomez water: 8,150 sq km

Area - comparative:  slightly smaller than twice the size of Montana

Land boundaries:  total: 6,171 km border countries: Argentina 5,150 km,
Bolivia 861 km, Peru 160 km

Coastline:  6,435 km

Maritime claims:  contiguous zone: 24 NM territorial sea: 12 NM
continental shelf: 200/350 NM exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

Climate:  temperate; desert in north; Mediterranean in central region;
cool and damp in south

Terrain:  low coastal mountains; fertile central valley; rugged Andes
in east

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m highest point:
Nevado Ojos del Salado 6,880 m

Natural resources:  copper, timber, iron ore, nitrates, precious metals,
molybdenum, hydropower

Land use:  arable land: 3% permanent crops: 0% other: 97% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  18,000 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:  severe earthquakes; active volcanism; tsunamis

Environment - current issues:  widespread deforestation and mining
threaten natural resources; air pollution from industrial and vehicle
emissions; water pollution from raw sewage

Environment - international agreements:  party to: Antarctic-Environmental
Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic
Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea,
Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Nuclear Test Ban

Geography - note:  strategic location relative to sea lanes between
Atlantic and Pacific Oceans (Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel, Drake
Passage); Atacama Desert is one of world's driest regions

People Chile

Population:  15,498,930 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:  0-14 years: 26.9% (male 2,127,696; female 2,033,201)
15-64 years: 65.6% (male 5,070,476; female 5,103,490) 65 years and over:
7.5% (male 482,846; female 681,221) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  1.09% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  16.46 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  5.59 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female 65 years and over:
0.71 male(s)/female total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  9.12 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   79.62 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  2.13 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  0.19% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  15,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  1,000 (1999 est.)

Nationality:  noun: Chilean(s) adjective: Chilean

Ethnic groups:  white and white-Amerindian 95%, Amerindian 3%, other 2%

Religions:  Roman Catholic 89%, Protestant 11%, Jewish NEGL%

Languages:  Spanish

Literacy:  definition: age 15 and over can read and write total
population: 95.2% male: 95.4% female: 95% (1995 est.)

Government Chile

Country name:   Republic of Chile conventional short form: Government
type:  republic

Capital:  Santiago

Administrative divisions:  13 regions (regiones, singular - region);
Aisen del General Carlos Ibanez del Campo, Antofagasta, Araucania,
Atacama, Bio-Bio, Coquimbo, Libertador General Bernardo O'Higgins, Los
Lagos, Magallanes y de la Antartica Chilena, Maule, Region Metropolitana
(Santiago), Tarapaca, Valparaiso note: the US does not recognize claims
to Antarctica

Independence:  18 September 1810 (from Spain)

National holiday:  Independence Day, 18 September (1810)

Constitution:  11 September 1980, effective 11 March 1981, amended 30
July 1989, 1993, and 1997

Legal system:  based on Code of 1857 derived from Spanish law and
subsequent codes influenced by French and Austrian law; judicial review
of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory
ICJ jurisdiction note: Chile is in the process of completely overhauling
its criminal justice system; a new, US-style adversarial system is being
gradually implemented throughout the country

Suffrage:  18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:  chief of state: President Ricardo LAGOS Escobar (since
11 March 2000); note - the president is both the chief of state and
head of government head of government: President Ricardo LAGOS Escobar
(since 11 March 2000); note - the president is both the chief of state
and head of government cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
election results: Ricardo LAGOS Escobar elected president; percent of
vote - Ricardo LAGOS Escobar 51.32%, Joaquin LAVIN 48.68% elections:
president elected by popular vote for a six-year term; election last
held 12 December 1999, with runoff election held 16 January 2000 (next
to be held NA December 2005)

Legislative branch:  bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional
consists of the Senate or Senado (49 seats, 38 elected by popular vote,
9 designated members, and 2 former presidents who serve six-year terms
and are senators for life); elected members serve eight-year terms
(one-half elected every four years) and the Chamber of Deputies or
Camara de Diputados (120 seats; members are elected by popular vote to
serve four-year terms) election results:  PS 5, PPD 3), UDI 9, RN 7,
independents 2; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA;
seats by party - CPD 63 (PDC 24, PPD 21, PS 11, PRSD 6,), UDI 35, RN 22,
independent 1 elections: Senate - last held 16 December 2001 (next to be
held NA December 2005); Chamber of Deputies - last held 16 December 2001
(next to be held NA December 2005)

Judicial branch:  Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (judges are appointed
by the president and ratified by the Senate from lists of candidates
provided by the court itself; the president of the Supreme Court is
elected by the 21-member court); Constitutional Tribunal

Political parties and leaders:  Center-Center Union Party or UCCP
[Francisco Javier ERRAZURIZ]; Christian Democratic Party or PDC [Patricia
ALYWIN]; Coalition of Parties for Democracy ("Concertacion") or CPD
- including PDC, PS, PPD, PRSD; Independent Democratic Union or UDI
[Pablo LONGUEIRA]; National Renewal or RN [Alberto CARDEMIL]; Party for
Democracy or PPD [Guido GIRARDI]; Radical Social Democratic Party or PRSD
[Anselmo SULE]; Socialist Party or PS [Ricardo NUNEZ]

Political pressure groups and leaders:  revitalized university student
federations at all major universities; Roman Catholic Church; United
Labor Central or CUT includes trade unionists from the country's five
largest labor confederations

International organization participation:  APEC, CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-15,
G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur
(associate), NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR,
UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMIBH, UNMOGIP, UNTAET, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
Andres BIANCHI chancery: 1732 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington,
DC 20036 consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami,
New York, Philadelphia, San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico) FAX:
[1] (202) 887-5579 telephone: [1] (202) 785-1746

Diplomatic representation from the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
(vacant); Charge d'Affaires Philip S.  GOLDBERG embassy: Avenida Andres
Bello 2800, Las Condes, Santiago mailing address: APO AA 34033 telephone:
[56] (2) 232-2600 FAX: [56] (2) 330-3710

Flag description:  two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red;
there is a blue square the same height as the white band at the hoist-side
end of the white band; the square bears a white five-pointed star in
the center; design was based on the US flag

Economy Chile

Economy - overview:  Chile has a market-oriented economy characterized
by a high level of foreign trade. During the early 1990s, Chile's
reputation as a role model for economic reform was strengthened when
the democratic government of Patricio AYLWIN - which took over from
the military in 1990 - deepened the economic reform initiated by the
military government.  Growth in real GDP averaged 8% during 1991-97,
but fell to half that level in 1998 because of tight monetary policies
implemented to keep the current account deficit in check and because
of lower export earnings - the latter a product of the global financial
crisis. A severe drought exacerbated the recession in 1999, reducing crop
yields and causing hydroelectric shortfalls and electricity rationing,
and Chile experienced negative economic growth for the first time in more
than 15 years. Despite the effects of the recession, Chile maintained
its reputation for strong financial institutions and sound policy that
have given it the strongest sovereign bond rating in South America. By
the end of 1999, exports and economic activity had begun to recover,
and growth rebounded to 5.4% in 2000. Unemployment remains stubbornly
high, however, putting pressure on President LAGOS to improve living
standards. The Argentine financial meltdown has put pressure on the
Chilean peso and is slowing the country's economic growth.  Meanwhile,
Chile and the US are conducting negotiations for a free trade agreement.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $153 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  3.1% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $10,000 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: 8% industry: 38% services: 54%
(2000)

Population below poverty line:  22% (1998 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: 1.2%
highest 10%: 41.3% (1998)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:  57.5 (1996)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  3.5% (2001 est.)

Labor force:  5.9 million (2000 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:  agriculture 14%, industry 27%, services 59%
(1997 est.)

Unemployment rate:  10.1% (2001)

Budget:  revenues: $17 billion expenditures: $17 billion, including
capital expenditures of $NA (2001 est.)

Industries:  copper, other minerals, foodstuffs, fish processing, iron
and steel, wood and wood products, transport equipment, cement, textiles

Industrial production growth rate:  2.5% (2001 est.)

Electricity - production:  39.577 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 51.17% hydro: 46.36%
other: 2.47% (2000) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:  37.897 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  0 kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports:  1.09 billion kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products:  wheat, corn, grapes, beans, sugar beets,
potatoes, fruit; beef, poultry, wool; fish; timber

Exports:  $18.5 billion (f.o.b., 2001)

Exports - commodities:  copper, fish, fruits, paper and pulp, chemicals

Exports - partners:  US 17%, Japan 14%, UK 6%, Brazil 5%, China 5% (2000)

Imports:  $18 billion (f.o.b., 2001)

Imports - commodities:  consumer goods, chemicals, motor vehicles, fuels,
electrical machinery, heavy industrial machinery, food

Imports - partners:  US 19%, Argentina 16%, Brazil 7%, China 6%, Japan 4%
(2000)

Debt - external:  $39.6 billion (2001)

Economic aid - recipient:  ODA, $40 million (2001 est.)

Currency:  Chilean peso (CLP)

Currency code:  CLP

Exchange rates:  Chilean pesos per US dollar - 651.90 (January 2002),
618.70 (2001), 535.47 (2000), 508.78 (1999), 460.29 (1998), 419.30 (1997)

Fiscal year:  calendar year

Communications Chile

Telephones - main lines in use:  2.603 million (1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  944,225 (1998)

Telephone system:  general assessment: modern system based on extensive
microwave radio relay facilities domestic: extensive microwave radio relay
links; domestic satellite system with 3 earth stations international:
satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 180 (eight inactive), FM 64, shortwave 17
(one inactive) (1998)

Radios:  5.18 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:  63 (plus 121 repeaters) (1997)

Televisions:  3.15 million (1997)

Internet country code:  .cl

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  7 (2000)

Internet users:  1.75 million (2001)

Transportation Chile

Railways:  total: 6,702 km broad gauge: 2,831 km 1.676-m gauge (1,317
km electrified) narrow gauge: 117 km 1.067-m gauge (28 km electrified);
3,754 km 1.000-m gauge (37 km electrified) (2000 est.)

Highways:  total: 79,800 km paved: 11,012 km unpaved: 68,788 km (1996)

Waterways:  725 km

Pipelines:  crude oil 755 km; petroleum products 785 km; natural gas
320 km

Ports and harbors:  Antofagasta, Arica, Chanaral, Coquimbo, Iquique,
Puerto Montt, Punta Arenas, San Antonio, San Vicente, Talcahuano,
Valparaiso

Merchant marine:  total: 47 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 669,670
GRT/931,647 DWT ships by type: bulk 11, cargo 4, chemical tanker 10,
container 5, liquefied gas 2, passenger 3, petroleum tanker 4, roll
on/roll off 5, vehicle carrier 3, includes a foreign-owned ship registered
here as a flag of convenience: Netherlands 1 (2002 est.)

Airports:  363 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 70 over 3,047 m: 6 2,438 to 3,047
m: 6 1,524 to 2,437 m: 20 914 to 1,523 m: 22 under 914 m: 16 (2001)

Airports - with unpaved runways:  total: 293 over 3,047 m: 1 2,438 to
3,047 m: 4 1,524 to 2,437 m: 11 914 to 1,523 m: 60 under 914 m: 217 (2001)

Military Chile

Military branches:  Army of the Nation, National Navy (including
naval air, coast guard, and marines), Air Force of the Nation, Chilean
Carabineros (National Police), Investigations Police

Military manpower - military age:  19 years of age (2002 est.)

Military manpower - availability:  males age 15-49: 4,104,197 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:  males age 15-49: 3,034,912
(2002 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:  males: 136,830
(2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:  $2.5 billion (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:  3.1% (FY99)

Transnational Issues Chile

Disputes - international:  Bolivia continues to demand a sovereign
corridor to the South Pacific Ocean since the Atacama region was lost
to Chile in 1884; territorial claim in Antarctica (Chilean Antarctic
Territory) partially overlaps Argentine and British claims; dispute with
Peru over the economic zone delimited by the maritime boundary

Illicit drugs:  a growing transshipment country for cocaine destined for
the US and Europe; economic prosperity has made Chile more attractive to
traffickers seeking to launder drug profits; imported precursors passed
on to Bolivia; domestic cocaine consumption is rising

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002



========================================================================


Cayman Islands

Introduction

Cayman Islands

Background:  The Cayman Islands were colonized from Jamaica by the British
during the 18th and 19th centuries. Administered by Jamaica from 1863,
they remained a British dependency after 1962 when the former became
independent.

Geography Cayman Islands

Location:  Caribbean, island group in Caribbean Sea, nearly one-half of
the way from Cuba to Honduras

Geographic coordinates:  19 30 N, 80 30 W

Map references:  Central America and the Caribbean

Area:  total: 262 sq km water: 0 sq km land: 262 sq km

Area - comparative:  1.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:  0 km

Coastline:  160 km

Maritime claims:  exclusive fishing zone: 200 NM territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate:  tropical marine; warm, rainy summers (May to October) and cool,
relatively dry winters (November to April)

Terrain:  low-lying limestone base surrounded by coral reefs

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m highest point:
The Bluff 43 m

Natural resources:  fish, climate and beaches that foster tourism

Land use:  arable land: 0% permanent crops: 0% other: 100% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  NA sq km

Natural hazards:  hurricanes (July to November)

Environment - current issues:  no natural fresh water resources; drinking
water supplies must be met by rainwater catchments

Geography - note:  important location between Cuba and Central America

People Cayman Islands

Population:  36,273 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:  0-14 years: 22% (male 3,836; female 4,156) 15-64 years:
69.7% (male 12,335; female 12,929) 65 years and over: 8.3% (male 1,399;
female 1,618) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  2.03% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  13.45 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  5.24 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  12.08 migrant(s)/1,000 population note: major
destination for Cubans trying to migrate to the US (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 0.86 male(s)/female under 15 years: 0.92
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female 65 years and over:
0.86 male(s)/female total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  9.89 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   81.59 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  2.03 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  NA

Nationality:  noun: Caymanian(s) adjective: Caymanian

Ethnic groups:  mixed 40%, white 20%, black 20%, expatriates of various
ethnic groups 20%

Religions:  United Church (Presbyterian and Congregational), Anglican,
Baptist, Church of God, other Protestant, Roman Catholic

Languages:  English

Literacy:   age 15 and over has ever attended school total population:
Government Cayman Islands

Country name:  conventional long form: none conventional short form:
Cayman Islands

Dependency status:  overseas territory of the UK

Government type:  British crown colony

Capital:  George Town

Administrative divisions:  8 districts; Creek, Eastern, Midland, South
Town, Spot Bay, Stake Bay, West End, Western

Independence:  none (overseas territory of the UK)

National holiday:  Constitution Day, first Monday in July

Constitution:  1959, revised 1972 and 1992

Legal system:  British common law and local statutes

Suffrage:  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February
1952); Governor Bruce DINWIDDY (since 29 May 2002) elections: none;
the monarch is hereditary; the governor is appointed by the monarch head
of government:  (three members appointed by the governor, four members
elected by the Legislative Assembly)

Legislative branch:  unicameral Legislative Assembly (18 seats, three
appointed members from the Executive Council and 15 elected by popular
vote; members serve four-year terms) elections: last held 8 November 2000
(next to be held NA November 2004) election results: percent of vote -
NA%; seats - NA

Judicial branch:  Summary Court; Grand Court; Cayman Islands Court
of Appeal

Political parties and leaders:  there are no formal political parties but
the following loose groupings act as political organizations; National
Team [leader NA]; Democratic Alliance [leader NA]; Team Cayman [leader
NA]; United Democratic Party [leader NA]

Political pressure groups and leaders:  NA

International organization participation:  Caricom (observer), CDB,
Interpol (subbureau), IOC, UNESCO (associate)

Diplomatic representation in the US:  none (overseas territory of the UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US:  none (overseas territory of
the UK)

Flag description:  blue, with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side
quadrant and the Caymanian coat of arms on a white disk centered on the
outer half of the flag; the coat of arms includes a pineapple and turtle
above a shield with three stars (representing the three islands) and a
scroll at the bottom bearing the motto HE HATH FOUNDED IT UPON THE SEAS

Economy Cayman Islands

Economy - overview:  With no direct taxation, the islands are a thriving
offshore financial center.  More than 40,000 companies were registered
in the Cayman Islands as of 1998, including almost 600 banks and trust
companies; banking assets exceed $500 billion. A stock exchange was
opened in 1997.  Tourism is also a mainstay, accounting for about 70%
of GDP and 75% of foreign currency earnings. The tourist industry is
aimed at the luxury market and caters mainly to visitors from North
America.  Total tourist arrivals exceeded 1.2 million in 1997, with
600,000 from the US. About 90% of the islands' food and consumer goods
must be imported. The Caymanians enjoy one of the highest outputs per
capita and one of the highest standards of living in the world.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $1.18 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  4.5% (2000)

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $30,000 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: 1.4% industry: 3.2% services:
95.4% (1994 est.)

Population below poverty line:  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  2.3% (2000)

Labor force:  19,820 (1995)

Labor force - by occupation:  agriculture 1.4%, industry 12.6%, services
86% (1995)

Unemployment rate:  4.1% (1997)

Budget:  revenues: $265.2 million expenditures: $248.9 million, including
capital expenditures of $NA (1997)

Industries:  tourism, banking, insurance and finance, construction,
construction materials, furniture

Industrial production growth rate:  NA%

Electricity - production:  355 million kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 100% hydro: 0% other: 0%
(2000) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:  330.15 million kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  0 kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports:  0 kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products:  vegetables, fruit; livestock, turtle farming

Exports:  $1.2 million (1999)

Exports - commodities:  turtle products, manufactured consumer goods

Exports - partners:  mostly US

Imports:  $457.4 million (1999)

Imports - commodities:  foodstuffs, manufactured goods

Imports - partners:  US, Trinidad and Tobago, UK, Netherlands Antilles,
Japan

Debt - external:  $70 million (1996)

Economic aid - recipient:  $NA

Currency:  Caymanian dollar (KYD)

Currency code:  KYD

Exchange rates:  Caymanian dollars per US dollar - 0.82 (29 October 2001),
0.83 (3 November 1995), 0.85 (22 November 1993)

Fiscal year:  1 April - 31 March

Communications Cayman Islands

Telephones - main lines in use:  19,000 (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  2,534 (1995)

Telephone system:  general assessment: NA domestic: NA international: 1
submarine coaxial cable; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic
Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 1, FM 5, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios:  36,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:  1 with cable system

Televisions:  7,000 (1997)

Internet country code:  .ky

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  16 (2000)

Internet users:  NA

Transportation Cayman Islands

Railways:  0 km

Highways:  total: 406 km paved: 304 km unpaved: 102 km

Waterways:  none

Ports and harbors:  Cayman Brac, George Town

Merchant marine:  total: 121 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,034,181
GRT/3,191,597 DWT ships by type: bulk 24, cargo 4, chemical tanker
34, container 1, liquefied gas 1, petroleum tanker 14, refrigerated
cargo 40, roll on/roll off 2, specialized tanker 1 note: includes some
foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Bahrain 2,
China 1, Germany 4, Greece 27, Hong Kong 3, Italy 2, Japan 1, Norway 14,
Sweden 13, United Kingdom 15, United States 35 (2002 est.)

Airports:  3 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 2 1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (2001)

Airports - with unpaved runways:  total: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2001)

Military Cayman Islands

Military branches:  no regular indigenous military forces; Royal Cayman
Islands Police Force (RCIPF)

Military - note:  defense is the responsibility of the UK

Transnational Issues Cayman Islands

Disputes - international:  none

Illicit drugs:  vulnerable to drug money laundering and drug transshipment
to the US and Europe

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002



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Cocos (Keeling) Islands

Introduction Cocos (Keeling) Islands

Background:  There are 27 coral islands in the group. Captain William
Keeling discovered the islands in 1609, but they remained uninhabited
until the 19th century. Annexed by the UK in 1857, they were transferred
to the Australian Government in 1955. The population on the two inhabited
islands generally is split between the ethnic Europeans on West Island
and the ethnic Malays on Home Island.

Geography Cocos (Keeling) Islands

Location:  Southeastern Asia, group of islands in the Indian Ocean,
south of Indonesia, about halfway from Australia to Sri Lanka

Geographic coordinates:  12 30 S, 96 50 E

Map references:  Southeast Asia

Area:  total: 14 sq km note: includes the two main islands of West Island
and Home Island water: 0 sq km land: 14 sq km

Area - comparative:  about 24 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

Land boundaries:  0 km

Coastline:  26 km

Maritime claims:  exclusive fishing zone: 200 NM territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate:  tropical with high humidity, moderated by the southeast trade
winds for about nine months of the year

Terrain:  flat, low-lying coral atolls

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m highest point:
unnamed location 5 m

Natural resources:  fish

Land use:  arable land: 0% permanent crops: 0% other: 100% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  NA sq km

Natural hazards:  cyclone season is October to April

Environment - current issues:  fresh water resources are limited to
rainwater accumulations in natural underground reservoirs

Geography - note:  islands are thickly covered with coconut palms and
other vegetation

People Cocos (Keeling) Islands

Population:  632 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:  0-14 years: NA% 15-64 years: NA% 65 years and over: NA%

Population growth rate:  -0.22% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  NA births/1,000 population

Death rate:  NA deaths/1,000 population

Net migration rate:  NA migrant(s)/1,000 population

Infant mortality rate:  NA deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:  total population: NA years male: NA years
female: NA years

Total fertility rate:  NA children born/woman

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  NA

Nationality:  noun: Cocos Islander(s) adjective: Cocos Islander

Ethnic groups:  Europeans, Cocos Malays

Religions:  Sunni Muslim 80%, other 20% (2002 est.)

Languages:  Malay (Cocos dialect), English

Government Cocos (Keeling) Islands

Country name:  conventional long form: Territory of Cocos (Keeling)
Islands conventional short form: Cocos (Keeling) Islands

Dependency status:  territory of Australia; administered from Canberra
by the Australian Department of Transport and Regional Services

Government type:  NA

Capital:  West Island

Administrative divisions:  none (territory of Australia)

Independence:  none (territory of Australia)

National holiday:  NA

Constitution:  Cocos (Keeling) Islands Act of 1955

Legal system:  based upon the laws of Australia and local laws

Suffrage:  NA

Executive branch:  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February
1952), represented by the Australian governor general elections: none;
the monarch is hereditary; administrator appointed by the governor general
of Australia and represents the monarch and Australia head of government:
Administrator (nonresident) William Leonard TAYLOR (since 4 February 1999)
cabinet: NA

Legislative branch:  unicameral Cocos (Keeling) Islands Shire Council
(7 seats)

Judicial branch:  Supreme Court; Magistrate's Court

Political parties and leaders:  none

Political pressure groups and leaders:  none

International organization participation:  none

Diplomatic representation in the US:  none (territory of Australia)

Diplomatic representation from the US:  none (territory of Australia)

Flag description:  the flag of Australia is used

Economy Cocos (Keeling) Islands

Economy - overview:  Grown throughout the islands, coconuts are the sole
cash crop. Small local gardens and fishing contribute to the food supply,
but additional food and most other necessities must be imported from
Australia. There is a small tourist industry.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $NA

GDP - real growth rate:  NA%

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $NA

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: NA% industry: NA% services: NA%

Population below poverty line:  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  NA%

Labor force:  NA

Labor force - by occupation:  the Cocos Islands Cooperative Society
Ltd. employs construction workers, stevedores, and lighterage workers;
tourism employs others

Unemployment rate:  60% (2000 est.)

Budget:  revenues: $NA expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures
of $NA

Industries:  copra products and tourism

Industrial production growth rate:  NA%

Electricity - production:  NA kWh

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: NA% hydro: NA% other:
NA% nuclear: NA%

Electricity - consumption:  NA kWh

Agriculture - products:  vegetables, bananas, pawpaws, coconuts

Exports:  $NA

Exports - commodities:  copra

Exports - partners:  Australia

Imports:  $NA

Imports - commodities:  foodstuffs

Imports - partners:  Australia

Debt - external:  $NA

Economic aid - recipient:  $NA

Currency:  Australian dollar (AUD)

Currency code:  AUD

Exchange rates:  Australian dollars per US dollar - 1.9354 (January 2002),
1.9320 (2001), 1.7173 (2000), 1.5497 (1999), 1.5888 (1998), 1.3439 (1997)

Fiscal year:  1 July - 30 June

Communications Cocos (Keeling) Islands

Telephones - main lines in use:  287 (1992)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  NA

Telephone system:  general assessment: connected within Australia's
telecommunication system domestic: NA international: telephone, telex,
and facsimile communications with Australia and elsewhere via satellite;
1 satellite earth station of NA type (2002)

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 1, FM 0, shortwave 0 (2000)

Radios:  300 (1992)

Television broadcast stations:  NA

Televisions:  NA

Internet country code:  .cc

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  2 (2000)

Internet users:  NA

Transportation Cocos (Keeling) Islands

Railways:  0 km

Highways:  total: 15 km (2001) paved: NA km unpaved: NA km

Waterways:  none

Ports and harbors:  none; lagoon anchorage only

Merchant marine:  none (2002 est.)

Airports:  1 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 1 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2001)

Military Cocos (Keeling) Islands

Military - note:  defense is the responsibility of Australia; the
territory does have a five-person police force

Transnational Issues Cocos (Keeling) Islands

Disputes - international:  none

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002



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Cameroon

Introduction

Cameroon

Background:  The former French Cameroon and part of British Cameroon
merged in 1961 to form the present country. Cameroon has generally
enjoyed stability, which has permitted the development of agriculture,
roads, and railways, as well as a petroleum industry. Despite movement
toward democratic reform, political power remains firmly in the hands
of an ethnic oligarchy.

Geography Cameroon

Location:  Western Africa, bordering the Bight of Biafra, between
Equatorial Guinea and Nigeria

Geographic coordinates:  6 00 N, 12 00 E

Map references:  Africa

Area:  total: 475,440 sq km water: 6,000 sq km land: 469,440 sq km

Area - comparative:  slightly larger than California

Land boundaries:  total: 4,591 km border countries: Central African
Republic 797 km, Chad 1,094 km, Republic of the Congo 523 km, Equatorial
Guinea 189 km, Gabon 298 km, Nigeria 1,690 km

Coastline:  402 km

Maritime claims:  territorial sea: 50 NM

Climate:  varies with terrain, from tropical along coast to semiarid
and hot in north

Terrain:  diverse, with coastal plain in southwest, dissected plateau
in center, mountains in west, plains in north

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point:
Fako (on Cameroon Mountain) 4,095 m

Natural resources:  petroleum, bauxite, iron ore, timber, hydropower

Land use:  arable land: 13% permanent crops: 3% other: 84% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  330 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:  volcanic activity with periodic releases of poisonous
gases from Lake Nyos and Lake Monoun volcanoes

Environment - current issues:  water-borne diseases are prevalent;
deforestation; overgrazing; desertification; poaching; overfishing

Environment - international agreements:  party to: Biodiversity, Climate
Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of
the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94
signed, but not ratified: Nuclear Test Ban

Geography - note:  sometimes referred to as the hinge of Africa;
throughout the country there are areas of thermal springs and indications
of current or prior volcanic activity; Mount Cameroon, the highest
mountain in Sub-Saharan west Africa, is an active volcano

People Cameroon

Population:  16,184,748 note: estimates for this country explicitly take
into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result
in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower
population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population
by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:  0-14 years: 42.1% (male 3,443,505; female 3,367,571)
15-64 years: 54.5% (male 4,431,524; female 4,392,155) 65 years and over:
3.4% (male 253,242; female 296,751) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  2.36% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  35.66 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  12.08 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  NA migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.02
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female 65 years and over:
0.85 male(s)/female total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  68.79 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   55.23 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  4.72 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  7.73% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  540,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  52,000 (1999 est.)

Nationality:  noun: Cameroonian(s) adjective: Cameroonian

Ethnic groups:  Cameroon Highlanders 31%, Equatorial Bantu 19%, Kirdi 11%,
Fulani 10%, Northwestern Bantu 8%, Eastern Nigritic 7%, other African 13%,
non-African less than 1%

Religions:  indigenous beliefs 40%, Christian 40%, Muslim 20%

Languages:  24 major African language groups, English (official), French
(official)

Literacy:  definition: age 15 and over can read and write total
population: 63.4% male: 75% female: 52.1% (1995 est.)

Government Cameroon

Country name:   Republic of Cameroon conventional short form: Government
type:  unitary republic; multiparty presidential regime (opposition
parties legalized in 1990) note: preponderance of power remains with
the president

Capital:  Yaounde

Administrative divisions:  10 provinces; Adamaoua, Centre, Est,
Extreme-Nord, Littoral, Nord, Nord-Ouest, Ouest, Sud, Sud-Ouest

Independence:  1 January 1960 (from French-administered UN trusteeship)

National holiday:  Republic Day (National Day), 20 May (1972)

Constitution:  20 May 1972 approved by referendum; 2 June 1972 formally
adopted; revised January 1996

Legal system:  based on French civil law system, with common law
influence; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:  20 years of age; universal

Executive branch:   President Paul BIYA (since 6 November 1982) elections:
held 12 October 1997 (next to be held NA October 2004); prime minister
appointed by the president head of government: Prime Minister Peter
Mafany MUSONGE (since 19 September 1996) cabinet: Cabinet appointed by
the president from proposals submitted by the prime minister election
results: President Paul BIYA reelected; percent of vote - Paul BIYA 92.6%;
note - supporters of the opposition candidates boycotted the elections,
making a comparison of vote shares relatively meaningless

Legislative branch:  unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale
(180 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to serve five-year
terms; note - the president can either lengthen or shorten the term of
the legislature) elections: last held 17 May 1997 (next to be held NA
2002) election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party
- RDCP 109, SDF 43, UNDP 13, UDC 5, UPC-K 1, MDR 1, MLDC 1; note -
results from seven contested seats were canceled by the Supreme Court,
further elections on 3 August 1997 gave these seats to the RDCP note:
the constitution calls for an upper chamber for the legislature, to be
called a Senate, but it has yet to be established

Judicial branch:  Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the president);
High Court of Justice (consists of nine judges and 6 substitute judges,
elected by the National Assembly)

Political parties and leaders:  Cameroonian Democratic Union or UDC
[Adamou NDAM NJOYA]; Democratic Rally of the Cameroon People or RDCP
[Paul BIYA]; Movement for the Defense of the Republic or MDR [Dakole
DAISSALA]; Movement for the Liberation and Development of Cameroon or
MLDC [leader Marcel YONDO]; Movement for the Youth of Cameroon or MYC
[Dieudonne TINA]; National Union for Democracy and Progress or UNDP
[Maigari BELLO BOUBA, chairman]; Social Democratic Front or SDF [John FRU
NDI]; Union of Cameroonian Populations or UPC [Augustin Frederic KODOCK]

Political pressure groups and leaders:  Southern Cameroon National Council
[Frederick Ebong ALOBWEDE]; Human Rights Defense Group [Albert MUKONG,
president]

International organization participation:  ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, C,
CCC, CEEAC, CEMAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-19, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC,
ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol,
IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, MONUC, NAM, OAU, OIC, OPCW, PCA, UN,
UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMIK,
UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador Jerome
MENDOUGA chancery: 2349 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 FAX:
[1] (202) 387-3826 telephone: [1] (202) 265-8790

Diplomatic representation from the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
George McDade STAPLES embassy: Rue Nachtigal, Yaounde mailing address:
P. O. Box 817, Yaounde; pouch: American Embassy, Department of State,
Washington, DC 20521-2520 telephone: [237] 23-40-14, 22-17-94 FAX:
[237] 23-07-53 branch office(s): Douala

Flag description:  three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side),
red, and yellow with a yellow five-pointed star centered in the red band;
uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

Economy Cameroon

Economy - overview:  Because of its oil resources and favorable
agricultural conditions, Cameroon has one of the best-endowed primary
commodity economies in sub-Saharan Africa. Still, it faces many of
the serious problems facing other underdeveloped countries, such
as a top-heavy civil service and a generally unfavorable climate
for business enterprise. Since 1990, the government has embarked
on various IMF and World Bank programs designed to spur business
investment, increase efficiency in agriculture, improve trade, and
recapitalize the nation's banks. In June 2000, the government completed
an IMF-sponsored, three-year structural adjustment program; however, the
IMF is pressing for more reforms, including increased budget transparency
and privatization. International oil and cocoa prices have considerable
impact on the economy.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $26.4 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  4.9% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $1,700 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: 44% industry: 20% services:
36% (2000 est.)

Population below poverty line:  48% (2000 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  2% (2000 est.)

Labor force:  NA

Labor force - by occupation:  agriculture 70%, industry and commerce 13%,
other 17%

Unemployment rate:  30% (2001 est.)

Budget:  revenues: $2.2 billion expenditures: $2.1 billion, including
capital expenditures of $NA (FY00/01 est.)

Industries:  petroleum production and refining, food processing, light
consumer goods, textiles, lumber

Industrial production growth rate:  4.2% (1999 est.)

Electricity - production:  3.623 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 2.57% hydro: 97.43%
other: 0% (2000) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:  3.369 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  0 kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports:  0 kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products:  coffee, cocoa, cotton, rubber, bananas, oilseed,
grains, root starches; livestock; timber

Exports:  $2.1 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Exports - commodities:  crude oil and petroleum products, lumber, cocoa
beans, aluminum, coffee, cotton

Exports - partners:  Italy 24%, France 18%, Netherlands 10% (2000 est.)

Imports:  $1.5 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Imports - commodities:  machinery, electrical equipment, transport
equipment, fuel, food

Imports - partners:  France 29%, Germany 7%, US 6%, Japan 6% (2000 est.)

Debt - external:  $10.9 billion (2000 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:  on 23 January 2001, the Paris Club agreed
to reduce Cameroon's debt of $1.3 billion by $900 million; total debt
relief now amounts to $1.26 billion

Currency:  Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XAF); note - responsible
authority is the Bank of the Central African States

Currency code:  XAF

Exchange rates:  Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XAF) per US
dollar - 742.79 (January 2002), 733.04 (2001), 711.98 (2000), 615.70
(1999), 589.95 (1998), 583.67 (1997); note - from 1 January 1999, the
XAF is pegged to the euro at a rate of 655.957 XAF per euro

Fiscal year:  1 July - 30 June

Communications Cameroon

Telephones - main lines in use:  95,000 (2001)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  300,000 (2002)

Telephone system:   available only to business and government domestic:
satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 11, FM 8, shortwave 3 (1998)

Radios:  2.27 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:  1 (1998)

Televisions:  450,000 (1997)

Internet country code:  .cm

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  29 (2002)

Internet users:  20,000 (2000) note: in 2000, Cameroon also had 112
cyber-cafes

Transportation Cameroon

Railways:  total: 1,104 km narrow gauge: 1,104 km 1.000-m gauge
(1995 est.)

Highways:  total: 34,300 km paved: 4,288 km unpaved: 30,012 km (1995)

Waterways:  2,090 km (of decreasing importance)

Ports and harbors:  Bonaberi, Douala, Garoua, Kribi, Tiko

Airports:  49 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 11 over 3,047 m: 2 2,438 to 3,047
m: 4 1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 914 to 1,523 m: 1 under 914 m: 1 (2001)

Airports - with unpaved runways:  total: 38 1,524 to 2,437 m: 7 914 to
1,523 m: 21 under 914 m: 10 (2001)

Military Cameroon

Military branches:  Army, Navy (includes naval infantry), Air Force,
National Gendarmerie, Presidential Guard

Military manpower - military age:  18 years of age (2002 est.)

Military manpower - availability:  males age 15-49: 3,872,965 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:  males age 15-49: 1,959,357
(2002 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:  males: 174,308
(2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:  $118.6 million (FY00/01)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:  1.4% (FY98/99)

Transnational Issues Cameroon

Disputes - international:  oral arguments on the land and maritime
boundary disputes between Cameroon and Nigeria were presented to the ICJ;
disputes center around Bakasi Peninsula, where armed clashes continue,
Bouram Island on Lake Chad, and the maritime boundary and economic zone
dispute in the Gulf of Guinea, which also involves Equatorial Guinea;
Lake Chad Basin Commission urges signatories Cameroon, Chad, Niger,
and Nigeria to ratify delimitation treaty over lake region, the site of
continuing armed clashes

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002



========================================================================


Comoros

Introduction

Comoros

Background:  Unstable Comoros has endured 19 coups or attempted coups
since gaining independence from France in 1975. In 1997, the islands of
Anjouan and Moheli declared their independence from Comoros. In 1999,
military chief Col. AZALI seized power. He has pledged to resolve the
secessionist crisis through a confederal arrangement named the 2000
Fomboni Accord. In December 2001, voters approved a new constitution
and presidential elections took place in the spring of 2002.

Geography Comoros

Location:  Southern Africa, group of islands in the Mozambique Channel,
about two-thirds of the way between northern Madagascar and northern
Mozambique

Geographic coordinates:  12 10 S, 44 15 E

Map references:  Africa

Area:  total: 2,170 sq km water: 0 sq km land: 2,170 sq km

Area - comparative:  slightly more than 12 times the size of Washington,
DC

Land boundaries:  0 km

Coastline:  340 km

Maritime claims:  exclusive economic zone: 200 NM territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate:  tropical marine; rainy season (November to May)

Terrain:  volcanic islands, interiors vary from steep mountains to
low hills

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m highest point:
Le Kartala 2,360 m

Natural resources:  NEGL

Land use:  arable land: 35% permanent crops: 18% other: 47% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  NA sq km

Natural hazards:  cyclones possible during rainy season (December to
April); Le Kartala on Grand Comore is an active volcano

Environment - current issues:  soil degradation and erosion results from
crop cultivation on slopes without proper terracing; deforestation

Environment - international agreements:  party to: Biodiversity, Climate
Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of
the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands signed, but
not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:  important location at northern end of Mozambique
Channel

People Comoros

Population:  614,382 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:  0-14 years: 42.9% (male 132,013; female 131,282) 15-64
years: 54.2% (male 164,245; female 168,793) 65 years and over: 2.9%
(male 8,588; female 9,461) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  2.99% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  39.01 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  9.1 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  NEGL migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.01
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female 65 years and over:
0.91 male(s)/female total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  81.79 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   63.09 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  5.26 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  0.12% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  NA

Nationality:  noun: Comoran(s) adjective: Comoran

Ethnic groups:  Antalote, Cafre, Makoa, Oimatsaha, Sakalava

Religions:  Sunni Muslim 98%, Roman Catholic 2%

Languages:  Arabic (official), French (official), Shikomoro (a blend of
Swahili and Arabic)

Literacy:  definition: age 15 and over can read and write total
population: 57.3% male: 64.2% female: 50.4% (1995 est.)

Government Comoros

Country name:  conventional long form: Federal Islamic Republic of the
Comoros conventional short form: Comoros local short form: Comores local
long form: Republique Federale Islamique des Comores

Government type:  independent republic

Capital:  Moroni

Administrative divisions:  3 islands; Grande Comore (Njazidja), Anjouan
(Nzwani), and Moheli (Mwali); note - there are also four municipalities
named Domoni, Fomboni, Moroni, and Moutsamoudou

Independence:  6 July 1975 (from France)

National holiday:  Independence Day, 6 July (1975)

Constitution:  23 December 2001 note: a Transitional National Unity
Government (GUNT) was formed on 20 January 2002 following the passing of
the new constitution; the GUNT governed until the presidential elections
on 14 April 2002

Legal system:  French and Muslim law in a new consolidated code

Suffrage:  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:  chief of state: President AZALI Assoumani (since 26
May 2002); note - AZALI Assoumani became president on 6 May 1999 after
a bloodless coup on 30 April 1999; on 16 January 2002, President AZALI
resigned his position to run in the 14 April 2002 presidential elections;
during that time, Prime Minister Hamada Madi BOLERO served as interim
president election results: President AZALI Assoumani elected president
with 75% of the vote elections: president elected by popular vote for
a five-year term; election last held 14 April 2002 (next to be held NA
April 2007); prime minister appointed by the president head of government:
Prime Minister Hamada Madi BOLERO (since NA November 2000); note - on
16 January 2002, President AZALI resigned his position to run in the
14 April 2002 presidential elections; Prime Minister Hamada Madi BOLERO
was appointed interim president and Djaffar SALIM interim deputy prime
minister cabinet: Legislative branch:  bicameral legislature consists
of the Senate (15 seats - five from each island); members selected by
regional councils for six-year terms) and a Federal Assembly or Assemblee
Federale (42 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year
terms); note - the Federal Assembly was dissolved following the coup of 30
April 1999 elections: Federal Assembly - last held 1 and 8 December 1996
(next to be held NA) note:  the Federal Assembly (two from each island)
are permitted to be in the opposition, but if no party accomplishes
that, the second most successful party will be in the opposition; in the
elections of December 1996 the FNJ appeared to qualify as opposition
election results: Federal Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA%;
seats by party - RND 39, FNJ 3, independent 1

Judicial branch:  Supreme Court or Cour Supremes (two members appointed
by the president, two members elected by the Federal Assembly, one
elected by the Council of each island, and others are former presidents
of the republic)

Political parties and leaders:  Front National pour la Justice or FNJ
(Islamic party in opposition) [Ahmed Abdallah MOHAMED, Ahmed ABOUBACAR,
Soidiki M'BAPANOZA]; Rassemblement National pour le Development or RND
(party of the government) [Ali Bazi SELIM]

Political pressure groups and leaders:  NA

International organization participation:  ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AL,
CCC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS
(associate), ILO, IMF, IMO, InOC, Interpol, IOC, ISO (subscriber), ITU,
NAM, OAU, OIC, OPCW (signatory), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO,
WMO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:  chief of mission:
Ambassador-designate Ahmed DJABIR (ambassador to the US and Canada and
permanent representative to the UN) telephone: [1] (212)
 [1] (212) 983-4712 and 715-0699 chancery:  Republic of the Comoros to
 the United Nations, 420 East 50th Street,
New York, NY 10022

Diplomatic representation from the US:  the US does not have an embassy
in Comoros; the ambassador to Mauritius is accredited to Comoros

Flag description:  four equal horizontal bands of yellow (top), white,
red, and blue with a green isosceles triangle based on the hoist;
centered within the triangle is a white crescent with the convex side
facing the hoist and four white, five-pointed stars placed vertically in
a line between the points of the crescent; the horizontal bands and the
four stars represent the four main islands of the archipelago - Mwali,
Njazidja, Nzwani, and Mayotte (a territorial collectivity of France, but
claimed by Comoros); the crescent, stars, and color green are traditional
symbols of Islam

Economy Comoros

Economy - overview:  One of the world's poorest countries, Comoros is made
up of three islands that have inadequate transportation links, a young
and rapidly increasing population, and few natural resources. The low
educational level of the labor force contributes to a subsistence level
of economic activity, high unemployment, and a heavy dependence on foreign
grants and technical assistance. Agriculture, including fishing, hunting,
and forestry, contributes 40% to GDP, employs 80% of the labor force, and
provides most of the exports. The country is not self-sufficient in food
production; rice, the main staple, accounts for the bulk of imports. The
government is struggling to upgrade education and technical training,
to privatize commercial and industrial enterprises, to improve health
services, to diversify exports, to promote tourism, and to reduce the
high population growth rate. Increased foreign support is essential if
the goal of 4% annual GDP growth is to be met. Remittances from 150,000
Comorans abroad help supplement GDP.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $424 million (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  1% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $710 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: 40% industry: 4% services: 56%
(2001 est.)

Population below poverty line:  60% (2001 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  3.5% (2001 est.)

Labor force:  144,500 (1996 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:  agriculture 80%

Unemployment rate:  20% (1996 est.)

Budget:  revenues: $27.6 million expenditures: $NA, including capital
expenditures of $NA (2001 est.)

Industries:  tourism, perfume distillation

Industrial production growth rate:  -2% (1999 est.)

Electricity - production:  19 million kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 89.47% hydro: 10.53%
other: 0% (2000) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:  17.67 million kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  0 kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports:  0 kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products:  vanilla, cloves, perfume essences, copra,
coconuts, bananas, cassava (tapioca)

Exports:  $35.3 million (f.o.b., 2001 est.)

Exports - commodities:  vanilla, ylang-ylang, cloves, perfume oil, copra

Exports - partners:  France 46%, US 18%, Singapore 18%, Germany 9% (1999)

Imports:  $44.9 million (f.o.b., 2001 est.)

Imports - commodities:  rice and other foodstuffs, consumer goods;
petroleum products, cement, transport equipment

Imports - partners:  France 34%, South Africa 14%, Kenya 7%, Pakistan 4%
(1999)

Debt - external:  $225 million (yearend 2000 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:  $10 million (2001 est.)

Currency:  Comoran franc (KMF)

Currency code:  KMF

Exchange rates:  Comoran francs per US dollar - 557.09 (January 2002),
549.78 (2001), 533.98 (2000), 461.77 (1999), 442.46 (1998), 437.75 (1997)
note: prior to January 1999, the official rate was pegged to the French
franc at 75 Comoran francs per French franc; since 1 January 1999,
the Comoran franc is pegged to the euro at a rate of 491.9677 Comoran
francs per euro

Fiscal year:  calendar year

Communications Comoros

Telephones - main lines in use:  7,000 (2000)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  NA

Telephone system:  general assessment: sparse system of microwave
radio relay and HF radiotelephone communication stations domestic: HF
radiotelephone communications and microwave radio relay international:
HF radiotelephone communications to Madagascar and Reunion

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 1, FM 4, shortwave 1 (2001)

Radios:  90,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:  NA

Televisions:  1,000 (1997)

Internet country code:  .km

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  1 (2000)

Internet users:  1,500 (2001)

Transportation Comoros

Railways:  0 km

Highways:  total: 880 km paved: 673 km unpaved: 207 km (1996)

Waterways:  none

Ports and harbors:  Fomboni, Moroni, Moutsamoudou

Merchant marine:  total: 6 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 139,779
GRT/205,369 DWT ships by type: cargo 6 note: includes some foreign-owned
ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Malta 1, Pakistan 1,
Turkey 1 (2002 est.)

Airports:  4 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 4 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 914 to
1,523 m: 3 (2001)

Military Comoros

Military branches:  Comoran Security Force

Military manpower - availability:  males age 15-49: 145,509 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:  males age 15-49: 86,455
(2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:  $6 million (FY01)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:  3% (FY01)

Transnational Issues Comoros

Disputes - international:  claims French-administered Mayotte; the island
of Anjouan (Nzwani) has moved to secede from Comoros again after recent
military coup

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002



========================================================================


Colombia

Introduction

Colombia

Background:  Colombia was one of the three countries that emerged from
the collapse of Gran Colombia in 1830 (the others being Ecuador and
Venezuela). A 40-year insurgent campaign to overthrow the Colombian
Government escalated during the 1990s, undergirded in part by funds
from the drug trade.  Although the violence is deadly and large swaths
of the countryside are under guerrilla influence, the movement lacks
the military strength or popular support necessary to overthrow the
government.  An anti-insurgent army of paramilitaries has grown to be
several thousand strong in recent years, challenging the insurgents for
control of territory and illicit industries such as the drug trade and
the government's ability to exert its dominion over rural areas. While
Bogota continues to try to negotiate a settlement, neighboring countries
worry about the violence spilling over their borders.

Geography Colombia

Location:  Northern South America, bordering the Caribbean Sea, between
Panama and Venezuela, and bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between
Ecuador and Panama

Geographic coordinates:  4 00 N, 72 00 W

Map references:  South America

Area:  total: 1,138,910 sq km land: 1,038,700 sq km note: includes
Isla de Malpelo, Roncador Cay, Serrana Bank, and Serranilla Bank water:
100,210 sq km

Area - comparative:  slightly less than three times the size of Montana

Land boundaries:  total: 6,004 km border countries: Brazil 1,643 km,
Ecuador 590 km, Panama 225 km, Peru 1,496 km (est.), Venezuela 2,050 km

Coastline:  3,208 km (Caribbean Sea 1,760 km, North Pacific Ocean
1,448 km)

Maritime claims:  continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of
exploitation territorial sea: 12 NM exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

Climate:  tropical along coast and eastern plains; cooler in highlands

Terrain:  flat coastal lowlands, central highlands, high Andes Mountains,
eastern lowland plains

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m highest point:
Pico Cristobal Colon 5,775 m note: nearby Pico Simon Bolivar also has
the same elevation

Natural resources:  petroleum, natural gas, coal, iron ore, nickel,
gold, copper, emeralds, hydropower

Land use:  arable land: 2% other: 96% (1998 est.)  permanent crops: 2%

Irrigated land:  8,500 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:  highlands subject to volcanic eruptions; occasional
earthquakes; periodic droughts

Environment - current issues:  deforestation; soil and water quality
damage from overuse of pesticides; air pollution, especially in Bogota,
from vehicle emissions

Environment - international agreements:  party to: Antarctic
Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol,
Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life
Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands signed, but not ratified:
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping

Geography - note:  only South American country with coastlines on both
North Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea

People Colombia

Population:  41,008,227 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:   31.6% (male 6,552,961; female 6,399,666) 15-64 years:
(male 886,921; female 1,098,961) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  1.6% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  21.99 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  5.66 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  -0.32 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.02
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female 65 years and over:
0.81 male(s)/female total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  23.21 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   74.83 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  2.64 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  0.31% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  71,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  1,700 (1999 est.)

Nationality:  noun: Colombian(s) adjective: Colombian

Ethnic groups:  mestizo 58%, white 20%, mulatto 14%, black 4%, mixed
black-Amerindian 3%, Amerindian 1%

Religions:  Roman Catholic 90%

Languages:  Spanish

Literacy:  definition: age 15 and over can read and write total
population: 91.3% male: 91.2% female: 91.4% (1995 est.)

Government Colombia

Country name:   Republic of Colombia conventional short form: Government
type:  republic; executive branch dominates government structure

Capital:  Bogota

Administrative divisions:  32 departments (departamentos, singular -
departamento) and 1 capital district* (distrito capital); Amazonas,
Antioquia, Arauca, Atlantico, Distrito Capital de Bogota*, Bolivar,
Boyaca, Caldas, Caqueta, Casanare, Cauca, Cesar, Choco, Cordoba,
Cundinamarca, Guainia, Guaviare, Huila, La Guajira, Magdalena, Meta,
Narino, Norte de Santander, Putumayo, Quindio, Risaralda, San Andres y
Providencia, Santander, Sucre, Tolima, Valle del Cauca, Vaupes, Vichada

Independence:  20 July 1810 (from Spain)

National holiday:  Independence Day, 20 July (1810)

Constitution:  5 July 1991

Legal system:  based on Spanish law; a new criminal code modeled after
US procedures was enacted in 1992-93; judicial review of executive and
legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage:  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:  chief of state: President Andres PASTRANA (since
7 August 1998); Vice President Gustavo BELL Lemus (since 7 August
1998); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of
government head of government:  BELL Lemus (since 7 August 1998);
note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Cabinet consists of a coalition of the two dominant parties -
the PL and PSC - and independents elections:  election last held 26
May 2002 (next to be held NA May 2006) election results: on 26 May
2002, President-elect Alvaro URIBE Velez received 53% of the vote;
Vice President-elect Francisco SANTOS was elected on the same ticket;
they will take office in August 2002

Legislative branch:  bicameral Congress or Congreso consists of the
Senate or Senado (102 seats; members are elected by popular vote to
serve four-year terms) and the House of Representatives or Camara de
Representantes (166 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve
four-year terms) elections:  of Representatives - last held 10 March
2002 (next to be held NA March 2006) election results: Senate - percent
of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - PL 28, PSC 13, independents
and smaller parties (many aligned with conservatives) 61; House of
Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PL 54,
PSC 21, independents and other parties 91

Judicial branch:  four, coequal, supreme judicial organs; Supreme Court
of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justical (highest court of criminal law;
judges are selected from the nominees of the Higher Council of Justice
for eight-year terms); Council of State (highest court of administrative
law, judges are selected from the nominees of the Higher Council of
Justice for eight-year terms); Constitutional Court (guards integrity
and supremacy of the constitution, rules on constitutionality of laws,
amendments to the constitution, and international treaties); Higher
Council of Justice (administers and disciplines the civilian judiciary;
members of the disciplinary chamber resolve jurisdictional conflicts
arising between other courts; members are elected by three sister courts
and Congress for eight-year terms)

Political parties and leaders:  Conservative Party or PSC [Carlos HOLGUIN
Sardi]; Liberal Party or PL [Horatio SERPA Uribe]; Patriotic Union or
UP is a legal political party formed by Revolutionary Armed Forces of
Colombia or FARC and Colombian Communist Party or PCC [Jaime CAICEDO];
19 of April Movement or M-19 [Antonio NAVARRO Wolff] note: Colombia has
about 60 formally recognized political parties, most of which do not
have a presence in either house of Congress

Political pressure groups and leaders:  two largest insurgent groups
active in Colombia - Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia or FARC and
National Liberation Army or ELN; largest anti-insurgent paramilitary
group is United Self-Defense Groups of Colombia or AUC

International organization participation:  BCIE, CAN, Caricom (observer),
CCC, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-3, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC,
ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol,
IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN,
UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNU, UPU,
WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
Luis Alberto MORENO Mejia chancery: 2118 Leroy Place NW, Washington,
DC 20008 consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles,
Miami, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, San Juan (Puerto Rico),
and Washington, DC consulate(s): Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Anne W. PATTERSON embassy: Calle 22D-BIS,
numbers 47-51, Apartado Aereo 3831 mailing address: Carrera 45 #22D-45,
Bogota, D.C., APO AA 34038 telephone: [57] (1) 315-0811 FAX: [57]
(1) 315-2197

Flag description:  three horizontal bands of yellow (top, double-width),
blue, and red; similar to the flag of Ecuador, which is longer and bears
the Ecuadorian coat of arms superimposed in the center

Economy Colombia

Economy - overview:  Colombia's economy suffered from weak domestic
demand, austere government budgets, and a difficult security situation. A
new president takes office in 2002 and will face economic challenges
ranging from pension reform to reduction of unemployment. Two of
Colombia's leading exports, oil and coffee, face an uncertain future; new
exploration is needed to offset declining oil production, while coffee
harvests and prices are depressed. Problems in public security are a
concern for Colombian business leaders, who are calling for progress in
the government's peace negotiations with insurgent groups. Colombia is
looking for continued support from the international community to boost
economic and peace prospects.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $255 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  1.5% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $6,300 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: 19% industry: 26% services:
55% (2001 est.)

Population below poverty line:  55% (2001)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: 1%
highest 10%: 44% (1999)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:  57.1 (1996)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  7.6% (2001)

Labor force:  18.3 million (1999 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:  services 46%, agriculture 30%, industry 24%
(1990)

Unemployment rate:  17% (2001 est.)

Budget:  revenues: $24 billion expenditures: $25.6 billion, including
capital expenditures of $NA (2001 est.)

Industries:  textiles, food processing, oil, clothing and footwear,
beverages, chemicals, cement; gold, coal, emeralds

Industrial production growth rate:  4% (2001 est.)

Electricity - production:  43.342 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 25.93% hydro: 73.09%
other: 0.98% (2000) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:  40.348 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  37 million kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports:  77 million kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products:  coffee, cut flowers, bananas, rice, tobacco,
corn, sugarcane, cocoa beans, oilseed, vegetables; forest products; shrimp

Exports:  $12.3 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)

Exports - commodities:  petroleum, coffee, coal, apparel, bananas,
cut flowers

Exports - partners:  US 43%, Andean Community of Nations 22%, EU 14%,
(2001 est.)

Imports:  $12.7 billion (c.i.f., 2001 est.)

Imports - commodities:  industrial equipment, transportation equipment,
consumer goods, chemicals, paper products, fuels, electricity

Imports - partners:  US 35%, EU 16%, Andean Community of Nations 15%,
Japan 5% (2001 est.)

Debt - external:  $39 billion (2001 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:  $NA

Currency:  Colombian peso (COP)

Currency code:  COP

Exchange rates:  Colombian pesos per US dollar - 2,275.89 (January 2002),
2,299.63 (2001), 2,087.90 (2000), 1,756.23 (1999), 1,426.04 (1998),
1,140.96 (1997)

Fiscal year:  calendar year

Communications Colombia

Telephones - main lines in use:  5,433,565 (December 1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  1,800,229 (December 1998)

Telephone system:  general assessment: modern system in many respects
domestic: nationwide microwave radio relay system; domestic satellite
system with 41 earth stations; fiber-optic network linking 50 cities
international: satellite earth stations - 6 Intelsat, 1 Inmarsat;
3 fully digitalized international switching centers; 8 submarine cables

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 454, FM 34, shortwave 27 (1999)

Radios:  21 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:  60 (includes seven low-power stations)
(1997)

Televisions:  4.59 million (1997)

Internet country code:  .co

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  18 (2000)

Internet users:  878,000 (2001)

Transportation Colombia

Railways:  total: 3,304 km standard gauge: 150 km 1.435-m gauge (connects
Cerrejon coal mines to maritime port at Bahia de Portete) narrow gauge:
3,154 km 0.914-m gauge (major sections not in use) (2000 est.)

Highways:  total: 110,000 km paved: 26,000 km unpaved: 84,000 km (2000)

Waterways:  18,140 km (navigable by river boats) (April 1996)

Pipelines:  crude oil 3,585 km; petroleum products 1,350 km; natural
gas 830 km; natural gas liquids 125 km

Ports and harbors:  Bahia de Portete, Barranquilla, Buenaventura,
Cartagena, Leticia, Puerto Bolivar, San Andres, Santa Marta, Tumaco, Turbo

Merchant marine:  total: 11 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 32,438
GRT/43,126 DWT
 bulk 5, cargo 3, container 1, petroleum tanker 2 note:  Germany 1
 (2002 est.)

Airports:  1,066 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 93 over 3,047 m: 2 2,438 to 3,047
m: 9 914 to 1,523 m: 36 under 914 m: 9 (2001) 1,524 to 2,437 m: 37

Airports - with unpaved runways:  total: 973 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 1,524
to 2,437 m: 58 under 914 m: 602 (2001) 914 to 1,523 m: 312

Heliports:  1 (2001)

Military Colombia

Military branches:  Army (Ejercito Nacional), Navy (Armada Nacional,
including Marines and Coast Guard), Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Colombiana),
National Police (Policia Nacional)

Military manpower - military age:  18 years of age (2002 est.)

Military manpower - availability:  males age 15-49: 10,946,932 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:  males age 15-49: 7,308,703
(2002 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:  males: 379,295
(2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:  $3.3 billion (FY01)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:  3.4% (FY01)

Transnational Issues Colombia

Disputes - international:  Nicaragua filed a claim against Honduras in
1999 and against Colombia in 2001 at the ICJ over disputed maritime
boundary involving 50,000 sq km in the Caribbean Sea, including the
Archipelago de San Andres y Providencia and Quita Sueno Bank; maritime
boundary dispute with Venezuela in the Gulf of Venezuela; Colombian drug
activities penetrate Peruvian border area

Illicit drugs:  illicit producer of coca, opium poppies, and cannabis;
world's leading coca cultivator (cultivation of coca in 2000 - 136,200
hectares, an 11% increase over 1999); potential production of opium
since 1995 has remained relatively stable at 66 metric tons; potential
production of heroin has averaged 6.5 metric tons; the world's largest
processor of coca derivatives into cocaine; supplier of about 90%
of the cocaine to the US and the great majority of cocaine to other
international drug markets, and an important supplier of heroin to the
US market; active aerial eradication program

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002



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Northern Mariana Islands

Introduction

Northern Mariana Islands

Background:  Under US administration as part of the UN Trust Territory of
the Pacific, the people of the Northern Mariana Islands decided in the
1970s not to seek independence but instead to forge closer links with
the US.  Negotiations for territorial status began in 1972. A covenant
to establish a commonwealth in political union with the US was approved
in 1975. A new government and constitution went into effect in 1978.

Geography Northern Mariana Islands

Location:  Oceania, islands in the North Pacific Ocean, about
three-quarters of the way from Hawaii to the Philippines

Geographic coordinates:  15 12 N, 145 45 E

Map references:  Oceania

Area:  total: 477 sq km note: includes 14 islands including Saipan,
Rota, and Tinian water: 0 sq km land: 477 sq km

Area - comparative:  2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:  0 km

Coastline:  1,482 km

Maritime claims:  exclusive economic zone: 200 NM territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate:  tropical marine; moderated by northeast trade winds, little
seasonal temperature variation; dry season December to June, rainy season
July to October

Terrain:  southern islands are limestone with level terraces and fringing
coral reefs; northern islands are volcanic

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m highest point:
unnamed location on Agrihan 965 m

Natural resources:  arable land, fish

Land use:  arable land: 15% permanent crops: 7% other: 78% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  NA sq km

Natural hazards:  active volcanoes on Pagan and Agrihan; typhoons
(especially August to November)

Environment - current issues:  contamination of groundwater on Saipan
may contribute to disease; clean-up of landfill; protection of endangered
species conflicts with development

Geography - note:  strategic location in the North Pacific Ocean

People Northern Mariana Islands

Population:  77,311 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:  0-14 years: 23.4% (male 9,208; female 8,902) 15-64 years:
74.8% (male 27,041; female 30,781) 65 years and over: 1.8% (male 690;
female 689) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  3.49% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  20.29 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  2.42 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  17.02 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.03
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.88 male(s)/female 65 years and over:
1 male(s)/female total population: 0.92 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  5.61 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   79.23 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  1.76 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  NA

Nationality:  noun: NA adjective: NA

Ethnic groups:  Chamorro, Carolinians and other Micronesians, Caucasian,
Japanese, Chinese, Filipino, Korean

Religions:  Christian (Roman Catholic majority, although traditional
beliefs and taboos may still be found)

Languages:  English, Chamorro, Carolinian note: 86% of population speaks
a language other than English at home

Literacy:  definition: age 15 and over can read and write total
population: 97% male: 97% female: 96% (1980 est.)

Government Northern Mariana Islands

Country name:  conventional long form: Commonwealth of the Northern
Mariana Islands conventional short form: Northern Mariana Islands former:
Mariana Islands District (Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands)

Dependency status:  commonwealth in political union with the US;
federal funds to the Commonwealth administered by the US Department of
the Interior, Office of Insular Affairs

Government type:  commonwealth; self-governing with locally elected
governor, lieutenant governor, and legislature

Capital:  Saipan

Administrative divisions:  none (commonwealth in political union with
the US); there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by
the US Government, but there are four municipalities at the second order;
Northern Islands, Rota, Saipan, Tinian

Independence:  none (commonwealth in political union with the US)

National holiday:  Commonwealth Day, 8 January (1978)

Constitution:  Covenant Agreement effective 4 November 1986 and the
Constitution of the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands effective
1 January 1978

Legal system:  based on US system, except for customs, wages, immigration
laws, and taxation

Suffrage:  18 years of age; universal; indigenous inhabitants are US
citizens but do not vote in US presidential elections

Executive branch:  chief of state: President George W. BUSH of the US
(since 20 January 2001); Vice President Richard B. CHENEY (since 20
January 2001) head of government: Governor Juan N. BABOUTA (since NA
January 2002) and Lieutenant Governor Diego T. BENEVENTE (since NA
January 2002) cabinet:  for four-year terms; governor and lieutenant
governor elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year terms;
election last held NA November 2001 (next to be held NA November 2005)
election results:  Juan N. BABOUTA (Republican Party) 49%

Legislative branch:  + bicameral Legislature consists of the Senate (9
seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year staggered
terms) and the House of Representatives (18 seats; members are elected by
popular vote to serve two-year terms) election results: Senate - percent
of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - Republican Party 4, Democratic
Party 3, Reform Party 1, independent 1; House of Representatives -
percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - Republican Party 16,
Democratic Party 1, Covenant Party 1 note: the Northern Mariana Islands
does not have a nonvoting delegate in the US Congress; instead, it has
an elected official or "resident representative" located in Washington,
DC; seats by party - Republican Party 1 (Pedro A. TENORIO) elections:
Senate - last held 5 November 2001 (next to be held NA November 2003);
House of Representatives - last held 5 November 2001 (next to be held
NA November 2003)

Judicial branch:  Commonwealth Supreme Court; Superior Court; Federal
District Court

Political parties and leaders:  Democratic Party [Dr. Carlos S. CAMACHO];
Republican Party [Benigno R. FITIAL]

Political pressure groups and leaders:  NA

International organization participation:  ESCAP (associate), Interpol
(subbureau), SPC

Flag description:  blue, with a white, five-pointed star superimposed
on the gray silhouette of a latte stone (a traditional foundation stone
used in building) in the center, surrounded by a wreath

Economy Northern Mariana Islands

Economy - overview:  The economy benefits substantially from financial
assistance from the US. The rate of funding has declined as locally
generated government revenues have grown. The key tourist industry
employs about 50% of the work force and accounts for roughly one-fourth of
GDP. Japanese tourists predominate. Annual tourist entries have exceeded
one-half million in recent years, but financial difficulties in Japan
have caused a temporary slowdown. The agricultural sector is made up of
cattle ranches and small farms producing coconuts, breadfruit, tomatoes,
and melons. Garment production is by far the most important industry
with employment of 17,500 mostly Chinese workers and sizable shipments
to the US under duty and quota exemptions.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $900 million (2000 est.)  note: GDP
numbers reflect US spending

GDP - real growth rate:  NA%

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $12,500 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: NA% industry: NA% services: NA%

Population below poverty line:  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  1.2% (1997 est.)

Labor force:  6,006 total indigenous labor force; 2,699 unemployed;
28,717 foreign workers (1995)

Labor force - by occupation:  NA

Unemployment rate:  NA%

Budget:  revenues: $193 million expenditures: $223 million, including
capital expenditures of NA (FY 2001/02 est.)

Industries:  tourism, construction, garments, handicrafts

Industrial production growth rate:  NA%

Electricity - production:  NA kWh

Electricity - consumption:  NA kWh

Agriculture - products:  coconuts, fruits, vegetables; cattle

Exports:  $NA

Exports - commodities:  garments

Exports - partners:  US

Imports:  $NA

Imports - commodities:  food, construction equipment and materials,
petroleum products

Imports - partners:  US, Japan

Debt - external:  $NA

Economic aid - recipient:  extensive funding from US

Currency:  US dollar (USD)

Currency code:  USD

Exchange rates:  the US dollar is used

Fiscal year:  1 October - 30 September

Communications Northern Mariana Islands

Telephones - main lines in use:  21,000 (1996)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  1,200 (1995)

Telephone system:  general assessment: NA domestic: NA international:
satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 2, FM 3, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios:  NA

Television broadcast stations:  1 (on Saipan and one station planned
for Rota; in addition, two cable services on Saipan provide varied
programming from satellite networks) (1997)

Televisions:  NA

Internet country code:  .mp

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  1 (2001)

Internet users:  NA

Transportation Northern Mariana Islands

Railways:  0 km

Highways:  total: 362 km paved: NA km unpaved: NA km (1991)

Waterways:  none

Ports and harbors:  Saipan, Tinian

Merchant marine:  none (2002 est.)

Airports:  6 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 3 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 1,524 to
2,437 m: 2 (2001)

Airports - with unpaved runways:  total: 3 under 914 m: 2 (2001) 2,438
to 3,047 m: 1

Heliports:  1 (2001)

Military Northern Mariana Islands

Military - note:  defense is the responsibility of the US

Transnational Issues Northern Mariana Islands

Disputes - international:  none

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002



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Coral Sea Islands

Introduction Coral Sea Islands

Background:  Scattered over some 1 million square kilometers of ocean, the
Coral Sea Islands were declared a territory of Australia in 1969. They
are uninhabited except for a small meteorological staff on Willis
Island. Automated weather stations, beacons, and a lighthouse occupy
many other islands and reefs.

Geography Coral Sea Islands

Location:  Oceania, islands in the Coral Sea, northeast of Australia

Geographic coordinates:  18 00 S, 152 00 E

Map references:  Oceania

Area:  total: less than 3 sq km note: includes numerous small islands
and reefs scattered over a sea area of about 780,000 sq km, with the
Willis Islets the most important water: 0 sq km land: less than 3 sq km

Area - comparative:  NA

Land boundaries:  0 km

Coastline:  3,095 km

Maritime claims:  exclusive fishing zone: 200 NM territorial sea: 3 NM

Climate:  tropical

Terrain:  sand and coral reefs and islands (or cays)

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m highest point:
unnamed location on Cato Island 6 m

Natural resources:  NEGL

Land use:  arable land: 0% permanent crops: 0% other: 100% (mostly grass
or scrub cover) (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  0 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:  occasional tropical cyclones

Environment - current issues:  no permanent fresh water resources

Geography - note:  important nesting area for birds and turtles

People Coral Sea Islands

Population:  no indigenous inhabitants note: there is a staff of three
to four at the meteorological station (July 2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  NA

Government Coral Sea Islands

Country name:  conventional long form: Coral Sea Islands Territory
conventional short form: Coral Sea Islands

Dependency status:  territory of Australia; administered from Canberra
by the Department of the Environment, Sport, and Territories

Legal system:  the laws of Australia, where applicable, apply

Executive branch:  administered from Canberra by the Department of the
Environment, Sport, and Territories

Diplomatic representation in the US:  none (territory of Australia)

Diplomatic representation from the US:  none (territory of Australia)

Flag description:  the flag of Australia is used

Economy Coral Sea Islands

Economy - overview:  no economic activity

Communications Coral Sea Islands

Communications - note:  there are automatic weather stations on many of
the isles and reefs relaying data to the mainland

Transportation Coral Sea Islands

Waterways:  none

Ports and harbors:  none; offshore anchorage only

Military Coral Sea Islands

Military - note:  defense is the responsibility of Australia; visited
regularly by the Royal Australian Navy; Australia has control over the
activities of visitors

Transnational Issues Coral Sea Islands

Disputes - international:  none

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002



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Costa Rica

Introduction Costa Rica

Background:  Costa Rica is a Central American success story: since the
late 19th century, only two brief periods of violence have marred its
democratic development. Although still a largely agricultural country,
it has expanded its economy to include strong technology and tourism
sectors. The standard of living is relatively high. Land ownership
is widespread.

Geography Costa Rica

Location:  Middle America, bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the
North Pacific Ocean, between Nicaragua and Panama

Geographic coordinates:  10 00 N, 84 00 W

Map references:  Central America and the Caribbean

Area:   440 sq km land: Area - comparative:  slightly smaller than
West Virginia

Land boundaries:  total: 639 km border countries: Nicaragua 309 km,
Panama 330 km

Coastline:  1,290 km

Maritime claims:  exclusive economic zone: 200 NM territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate:  tropical and subtropical; dry season (December to April);
rainy season (May to November); cooler in highlands

Terrain:  coastal plains separated by rugged mountains

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m highest point:
Cerro Chirripo 3,810 m

Natural resources:  hydropower

Land use:  arable land: 4% permanent crops: 6% other: 90% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  1,260 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:  occasional earthquakes, hurricanes along Atlantic coast;
frequent flooding of lowlands at onset of rainy season and landslides;
active volcanoes

Environment - current issues:  deforestation and land use change, largely
a result of the clearing of land for cattle ranching and agriculture;
soil erosion; coastal marine pollution; fisheries protection; solid
waste management; air pollution

Environment - international agreements:  party to: Biodiversity, Climate
Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification,
Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban,
Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands, Whaling signed, but not ratified:
Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Marine Life Conservation

Geography - note:  four volcanoes, two of them active, rise near the
capital of San Jose in the center of the country; one of the volcanoes,
Irazu, erupted destructively in 1963-65

People Costa Rica

Population:  3,834,934 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:  0-14 years: 30.8% (male 603,270; female 575,766) 15-64
years: 63.9% (male 1,239,618; female 1,211,641) 65 years and over: 5.3%
(male 95,182; female 109,457) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  1.61% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  19.83 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  4.31 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  0.52 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female 65 years and over:
0.87 male(s)/female total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  10.87 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   78.89 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  2.42 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  0.54% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  12,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  750 (1999 est.)

Nationality:  noun: Costa Rican(s) adjective: Costa Rican

Ethnic groups:  white (including mestizo) 94%, black 3%, Amerindian 1%,
Chinese 1%, other 1%

Religions:  Roman Catholic 76.3%, Evangelical 13.7%, other Protestant
0.7%, Jehovah's Witnesses 1.3%, other 4.8%, none 3.2%

Languages:  Spanish (official), English spoken around Puerto Limon

Literacy:  definition: age 15 and over can read and write total
population: 95.5% male: 95.5% female: 95.5% (1999 est.)

Government Costa Rica

Country name:   Republic of Costa Rica conventional short form:
Costa Rica

Government type:  democratic republic

Capital:  San Jose

Administrative divisions:  7 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia);
Alajuela, Cartago, Guanacaste, Heredia, Limon, Puntarenas, San Jose

Independence:  15 September 1821 (from Spain)

National holiday:  Independence Day, 15 September (1821)

Constitution:  7 November 1949

Legal system:  based on Spanish civil law system; judicial review of
legislative acts in the Supreme Court; has accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction

Suffrage:  18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:  chief of state: President Abel PACHECO (since 8 May
2002); First Vice President Lineth SABORIO (since NA May 2002); Second
Vice President Luis FISHMAN (since NA May 2002); note - the president
is both the chief of state and head of government head of government:
President Abel PACHECO (since 8 May 2002); First Vice President Lineth
SABORIO (since NA May 2002); Second Vice President Luis FISHMAN (since
NA May 2002); note - the president is both the chief of state and head
of government cabinet:  elected on the same ticket by popular vote for
four-year terms; election last held 3 February 2002; run-off election
held 7 April 2002 (next to be held NA February 2006) election results:
Abel PACHECO elected president; percent of vote - Abel PACHECO (PUSC)
58%; Rolando ARAYA (PLN) 42%

Legislative branch:  unicameral Legislative Assembly or Asamblea
Legislativa (57 seats; members are elected by direct, popular vote to
serve four-year terms) elections: last held 3 February 2002 (next to be
held 3 February 2006) election results: percent of vote by party - NA;
seats by party - PUSC 19, PLN 17, PAC 14, PML 6, PRC 1

Judicial branch:  Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (22 justices are elected
for eight-year terms by the Legislative Assembly)

Political parties and leaders:  Agricultural Labor Action or PALA [Carlos
Alberto SOLIS Blanco]; Citizen Action Party or PAC [Otton SOLIS]; Costa
Rican Renovation Party or PRC [Justo OROZCO]; Democratic Force Party or
PFD [Jose M. NUNEZ]; Libertarian Movement Party or PML [Otto GUEVARA
Guth]; National Christian Alliance Party or ANC [Alejandro MADRIGAL];
National Independent Party or PNI [Jorge GONZALEZ Marten]; National
Integration Party or PIN [Walter MUNOZ Cespedes]; National Liberation
Party or PLN [Sonia PICADO]; Social Christian Unity Party or PUSC [Luis
Manuel CHACON] note: mainly a two-party system - PUSC and PLN - until
the 3 February 2002 election in which the PAC captured a significant
percentage, forcing a run-off in April 2002

Political pressure groups and leaders:  Authentic Confederation of
Democratic Workers or CATD (Communist Party affiliate); Chamber of
Coffee Growers; Confederated Union of Workers or CUT (Communist Party
affiliate); Costa Rican Confederation of Democratic Workers or CCTD
(Liberation Party affiliate); Federation of Public Service Workers or
FTSP; National Association for Economic Development or ANFE; National
Association of Educators or ANDE; Rerum Novarum or CTRN (PLN affiliate)
[Gilbert Brown]

International organization participation:  BCIE, CACM, ECLAC, FAO, G-77,
IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF,
IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer), NAM (observer),
OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNU, UPU, WCL,
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
Jaime DAREMBLUM Rosenstein chancery: 2114 S Street NW, Washington, DC
20008 consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Denver, Houston,
Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, Phoenix, San Antonio, San
Francisco, St. Paul, and Tampa consulate(s): Diplomatic representation
from the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador John J. DANILOVICH embassy:
Calle 120
 APO AA 34020 telephone:
Flag description:  five horizontal bands of blue (top), white, red
(double width), white, and blue, with the coat of arms in a white disk
on the hoist side of the red band

Economy Costa Rica

Economy - overview:  Costa Rica's basically stable economy depends
on tourism, agriculture, and electronics exports. Poverty has been
substantially reduced over the past 15 years, and a strong social safety
net has been put into place. Foreign investors remain attracted by the
country's political stability and high education levels, and tourism
continues to bring in foreign exchange. However, traditional export
sectors have not kept pace. Low coffee prices and an overabundance of
bananas have hurt the agricultural sector. The government continues to
grapple with its large deficit and massive internal debt and with the need
to modernize the state-owned electricity and telecommunications sector.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $31.9 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  0.3% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $8,500 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: 11% industry: 37% services:
52% (2000)

Population below poverty line:  20.6% (1999 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: 1.7%
highest 10%: 34.6% (2001)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:  45.9 (1997)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  12.1% (2001 est.)

Labor force:  1.9 million (1999)

Labor force - by occupation:  agriculture 20%, industry 22%, services 58%
(1999 est.)

Unemployment rate:  5.2% (2000 est.)

Budget:  revenues: $1.91 billion expenditures: $2.35 billion, including
capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)

Industries:  microprocessors, food processing, textiles and clothing,
construction materials, fertilizer, plastic products

Industrial production growth rate:  -2.1% (2001 est.)

Electricity - production:  6.887 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 1.15% hydro: 82.56%
other: 16.29% (2000) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:  5.895 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  532 million kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports:  22 million kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products:  coffee, pineapples, bananas, sugar, corn, rice,
beans, potatoes; beef; timber

Exports:  $5 billion (2001)

Exports - commodities:  coffee, bananas, sugar; pineapples; textiles,
electronic components, medical equipment

Exports - partners:  US 51.8%, EU 20%, Central America 10.6%, Puerto
Rico 2.8%, Mexico 1.7% (2000)

Imports:  $6.5 billion (2001)

Imports - commodities:  raw materials, consumer goods, capital equipment,
petroleum

Imports - partners:  US 53.2%, EU 10.3%, Mexico 6.2%, Venezuela 5.3%,
Central America 4.9% (2000)

Debt - external:  $4.6 billion (2001 est.)

Currency:  Costa Rican colon (CRC)

Currency code:  CRC

Exchange rates:  Costa Rican colones per US dollar - 343.08 (January
2002), 328.87 (2001), 308.19 (2000), 285.68 (1999), 257.23 (1998), 232.60
(1997)

Fiscal year:  calendar year

Communications Costa Rica

Telephones - main lines in use:  450,000 (1998) note: 584,000 installed
in 1997, but only about 450,000 were in use in 1998

Telephones - mobile cellular:  143,000 (2000)

Telephone system:   very good domestic telephone service domestic:
and coaxial cable link rural areas; Internet service is available
international: connected to Central American Microwave System; satellite
earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); two submarine cables (1999)

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 50, FM 43, shortwave 19 (1998)

Radios:  980,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:  6 (plus 11 repeaters) (1997)

Televisions:  525,000 (1997)

Internet country code:  .cr

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  3 (of which only one is legal) (2000)

Internet users:  250,000 (2001)

Transportation Costa Rica

Railways:  total: 950 km narrow gauge: 950 km 1.067-m gauge (260 km
electrified) (2000 est.)

Highways:  total: 37,273 km paved: 7,827 km unpaved: 29,446 km (1998 est.)

Waterways:  730 km (seasonally navigable)

Pipelines:  petroleum products 176 km

Ports and harbors:  Caldera, Golfito, Moin, Puerto Limon, Puerto Quepos,
Puntarenas

Merchant marine:   1 ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,716 GRT/NA DWT
ships by type: Airports:  152 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 29 2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 1,524 to
2,437 m: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 19 under 914 m: 7 (2001)

Airports - with unpaved runways:  total: 123 914 to 1,523 m: 28 under
914 m: 95 (2001)

Military Costa Rica

Military branches:  no regular indigenous military forces; Air Section,
Ministry of Public Forces (Fuerza Publica)

Military manpower - military age:  18 years of age (2002 est.)

Military manpower - availability:  males age 15-49: 1,058,283 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:  males age 15-49: 707,927
(2002 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:  males: 39,411
(2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:  $69 million (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:  1.6% (FY99)

Transnational Issues Costa Rica

Disputes - international:  legal dispute over navigational rights of
Rio San Juan on border with Nicaragua

Illicit drugs:  transshipment country for cocaine and heroin from South
America; illicit production of cannabis on small, scattered plots;
domestic cocaine consumption is rising, particularly crack cocaine

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002



========================================================================


Central African Republic

Introduction

Central African Republic

Background:  The former French colony of Ubangi-Shari became the Central
African Republic upon independence in 1960. After three tumultuous decades
of misrule - mostly by military governments - a civilian government was
installed in 1993.

Geography Central African Republic

Location:  Central Africa, north of Democratic Republic of the Congo

Geographic coordinates:  7 00 N, 21 00 E

Map references:  Africa

Area:  total: 622,984 sq km water: 0 sq km land: 622,984 sq km

Area - comparative:  slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries:  total: 5,203 km border countries: Cameroon 797 km,
Chad 1,197 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 1,577 km, Republic of
the Congo 467 km, Sudan 1,165 km

Coastline:  0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:  none (landlocked)

Climate:  tropical; hot, dry winters; mild to hot, wet summers

Terrain:  vast, flat to rolling, monotonous plateau; scattered hills in
northeast and southwest

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Oubangui River 335 m highest point:
Mont Ngaoui 1,420 m

Natural resources:  diamonds, uranium, timber, gold, oil, hydropower

Land use:  arable land: 3% permanent crops: 0% other: 97% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  NA sq km

Natural hazards:  hot, dry, dusty harmattan winds affect northern areas;
floods are common

Environment - current issues:  tap water is not potable; poaching has
diminished its reputation as one of the last great wildlife refuges;
desertification; deforestation

Environment - international agreements:  party to: Biodiversity, Climate
Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection, Tropical Timber 94 signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Geography - note:  landlocked; almost the precise center of Africa

People Central African Republic

Population:  3,642,739 note: estimates for this country explicitly take
into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result
in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower
population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population
by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:  0-14 years: 43% (male 788,417; female 776,721) 15-64
years: 53.2% (male 951,908; female 986,947) 65 years and over: 3.8%
(male 60,395; female 78,351) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  1.8% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  36.6 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  18.62 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.02
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female 65 years and over:
0.77 male(s)/female total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  103.81 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   45.13 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  4.77 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  13.84% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  240,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  23,000 (1999 est.)

Nationality:  noun: Central African(s) adjective: Central African

Ethnic groups:  Baya 33%, Banda 27%, Mandjia 13%, Sara 10%, Mboum 7%,
M'Baka 4%, Yakoma 4%, other 2%

Religions:  indigenous beliefs 35%, Protestant 25%, Roman Catholic 25%,
Muslim 15% note: animistic beliefs and practices strongly influence the
Christian majority

Languages:  French (official), Sangho (lingua franca and national
language), tribal languages

Literacy:  definition: age 15 and over can read and write total
population: 60% male: 68.5% female: 52.4% (1995 est.)

Government Central African Republic

Country name:   Central African Republic conventional short form:  local
long form: Republique Centrafricaine abbreviation: CAR

Government type:  republic

Capital:  Bangui

Administrative divisions:  14 prefectures (prefectures, singular -
prefecture), 2 economic prefectures* (prefectures economiques, singular -
prefecture economique), and 1 commune**; Bamingui-Bangoran, Bangui**,
Basse-Kotto, Gribingui*, Haute-Kotto, Haute-Sangha, Haut-Mbomou,
Kemo-Gribingui, Lobaye, Mbomou, Nana-Mambere, Ombella-Mpoko, Ouaka,
Ouham, Ouham-Pende, Sangha*, Vakaga

Independence:  13 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday:  Republic Day, 1 December (1958)

Constitution:  passed by referendum 29 December 1994; adopted 7 January
1995

Legal system:  based on French law

Suffrage:  21 years of age; universal

Executive branch:  chief of state: President Ange-Felix PATASSE (since 22
October 1993) head of government: Prime Minister Martin ZIGUELE (since 1
April 2001) cabinet: Council of Ministers elections: president elected by
popular vote for a six-year term; election last held 19 September 1999
(next to be held NA September 2005); prime minister appointed by the
president election results: Ange-Felix PATASSE reelected president;
percent of vote - Ange-Felix PATASSE 51.63%, Andre KOLINGBA 19.38%,
David DACKO 11.15%

Legislative branch:  unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale
(109 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms;
note - there were 85 seats in the National Assembly before the 1998
election) elections:  election results: percent of vote by party - MLPC
43%, RDC 18%, MDD 9%, FPP 6%, PSD 5%, ADP 4%, PUN 3%, FODEM 2%, PLD 2%,
UPR 1%, FC 1%, independents 6%; seats by party - MLPC 47, RDC 20, MDD 8,
FPP 7, PSD 6, ADP 5, PUN 3, FODEM 2, PLD 2, UPR 1, FC 1, independents 7

Judicial branch:  Supreme Court or Cour Supreme; Constitutional Court
(3 judges appointed by the president, 3 by the president of the National
Assembly, and 3 by fellow judges); Court of Appeal; Criminal Courts;
Inferior Courts

Political parties and leaders:  Alliance for Democracy and Progress or ADP
[Jacques MBOLIEDAS]; Central African Democratic Assembly or RDC [Andre
KOLINGBA]; Civic Forum or FC [Gen. Timothee MALENDOMA]; Democratic Forum
for Modernity or FODEM [Charles MASSI]; Liberal Democratic Party or PLD
[Nestor KOMBO-NAGUEMON]; Movement for Democracy and Development or MDD
[David DACKO]; Movement for the Liberation of the Central African People
or MLPC [the party of the president, Ange-Felix PATASSE]; Patriotic Front
for Progress or FPP [Abel GOUMBA]; People's Union for the Republic or UPR
[Pierre Sammy MAKFOY]; National Unity Party or PUN [Jean-Paul NGOUPANDE];
Social Democratic Party or PSD [Enoch LAKOUE]

Political pressure groups and leaders:  NA

International organization participation:  ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CCC,
CEEAC, CEMAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA,
IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC (observer),
OPCW (signatory), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
Emmanuel TOUABOY FAX: [1] (202) 332-9893 telephone: [1] (202) 483-7800
chancery: 1618 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

Diplomatic representation from the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
Mattie R. SHARPLESS embassy: Avenue David Dacko, Bangui mailing address:
B. P. 924, Bangui telephone: [236] 61 02 00 FAX: [236] 61 44 94

Flag description:  four equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white,
green, and yellow with a vertical red band in center; there is a yellow
five-pointed star on the hoist side of the blue band

Economy Central African Republic

Economy - overview:  Subsistence agriculture, together with forestry,
remains the backbone of the economy of the Central African Republic
(CAR), with more than 70% of the population living in outlying areas. The
agricultural sector generates half of GDP. Timber has accounted for
about 16% of export earnings and the diamond industry for 54%. Important
constraints to economic development include the CAR's landlocked position,
a poor transportation system, a largely unskilled work force, and a
legacy of misdirected macroeconomic policies. The 50% devaluation of
the currencies of 14 Francophone African nations on 12 January 1994 had
mixed effects on the CAR's economy. Diamond, timber, coffee, and cotton
exports increased, leading an estimated rise of GDP of 7% in 1994 and
nearly 5% in 1995. Military rebellions and social unrest in 1996 were
accompanied by widespread destruction of property and a drop in GDP of
2%. The IMF approved an Extended Structure Adjustment Facility in 1998
and the World Bank extended further credits in 1999 and approved a $10
million loan in early 2001. As of January 2002, many civil servants
were owed as much as 16 months pay during the PATASSE administration,
as well as 14 months pay from the KOLINGBA administration.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $4.6 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  1.8% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $1,300 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: 55% industry: 20% services:
25% (2001 est.)

Population below poverty line:  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: 0.7%
highest 10%: 47.7% (1993)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:  61.3 (1993)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  3.6% (2001 est.)

Labor force:  NA

Unemployment rate:  8% (23% for Bangui) (2001 est.)

Budget:  revenues: $NA expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures
of $NA

Industries:  diamond mining, sawmills, breweries, textiles, footwear,
assembly of bicycles and motorcycles

Industrial production growth rate:  3.9% (2001)

Electricity - production:  104 million kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 20.19% hydro: 79.81%
other: 0% (2000) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:  96.72 million kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  0 kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports:  0 kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products:  cotton, coffee, tobacco, manioc (tapioca),
yams, millet, corn, bananas; timber

Exports:  $166 million (f.o.b., 2000)

Exports - commodities:  diamonds, timber, cotton, coffee, tobacco

Exports - partners:  Benelux 64%, Cote d'Ivoire, Spain, China, Egypt,
France (1999)

Imports:  $154 million (f.o.b., 2000)

Imports - commodities:  food, textiles, petroleum products, machinery,
electrical equipment, motor vehicles, chemicals, pharmaceuticals,
consumer goods, industrial products

Imports - partners:  France 35%, Cameroon 13%, Benelux, Cote d'Ivoire,
Germany, Japan (1999)

Debt - external:  $881.4 million (2000 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:  $172.2 million (1995); note - traditional
budget subsidies from France

Currency:  Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XAF); note - responsible
authority is the Bank of the Central African States

Currency code:  XAF

Exchange rates:  Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XAF) per US
dollar - 742.79 (January 2002), 733.04 (2001), 711.98 (2000), 615.70
(1999), 589.95 (1998), 583.67 (1997); note - from 1 January 1999, the
XAF is pegged to the euro at a rate of 655.957 XAF per euro

Fiscal year:  calendar year

Communications Central African Republic

Telephones - main lines in use:  10,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  570 (1997)

Telephone system:  general assessment: fair system domestic: network
consists principally of microwave radio relay and low-capacity,
low-powered radiotelephone communication international: satellite earth
station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 0, FM 4, shortwave 1 (2001)

Radios:  283,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:  1 (2001)

Televisions:  18,000 (1997)

Internet country code:  .cf

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  1 (2000)

Internet users:  1,500 (2001)

Transportation Central African Republic

Railways:  0 km

Highways:  total: 23,810 km paved: 429 km unpaved: 23,381 km (2000)

Waterways:  900 km note: traditional trade carried on by means of
shallow-draft dugouts; Oubangui is the most important river, navigable
all year to craft drawing 0.6 m or less; 282 km navigable to craft
drawing as much as 1.8 m

Ports and harbors:  Bangui, Nola, Salo, Nzinga

Airports:  51 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 3 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 1,524 to
2,437 m: 2 (2001)

Airports - with unpaved runways:  total: 48 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 1,524
to 2,437 m: 9 914 to 1,523 m: 23 under 914 m: 15 (2001)

Military Central African Republic

Military branches:  Central African Armed Forces (FACA) (including
Republican Guard, Ground Forces, Naval Forces, and Air Force),
Presidential Security Guard, Gendarmerie, National Police

Military manpower - availability:  males age 15-49: 845,182 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:  males age 15-49: 442,220
(2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:  $29 million (FY96)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:  2.2% (FY96)

Transnational Issues Central African Republic

Disputes - international:  none

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002



========================================================================


Cuba

Introduction

Cuba

Background:  Fidel CASTRO led a rebel army to victory in 1959; his iron
rule has held the country together since. Cuba's Communist revolution,
with Soviet support, was exported throughout Latin America and Africa
during the 1960s, 70s, and 80s. The country is now slowly recovering
from a severe economic recession in 1990, following the withdrawal of
former Soviet subsidies, worth $4 billion to $6 billion annually. Havana
portrays its difficulties as the result of the US embargo in place
since 1961. Illicit migration to the US - using homemade rafts, alien
smugglers, or falsified visas - is a continuing problem. Some 3,000
Cubans attempted the crossing of the Straits of Florida in 2001; the US
Coast Guard interdicted only about 25% of these.

Geography Cuba

Location:  Caribbean, island between the Caribbean Sea and the North
Atlantic Ocean, 150 km south of Key West, Florida

Geographic coordinates:  21 30 N, 80 00 W

Map references:  Central America and the Caribbean

Area:  total: 110,860 sq km water: 0 sq km land: 110,860 sq km

Area - comparative:  slightly smaller than Pennsylvania

Land boundaries:   US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay 29 km note: Coastline:
3,735 km

Maritime claims:  exclusive economic zone: 200 NM territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate:  tropical; moderated by trade winds; dry season (November to
April); rainy season (May to October)

Terrain:  mostly flat to rolling plains, with rugged hills and mountains
in the southeast

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m highest point:
Pico Turquino 2,005 m

Natural resources:  cobalt, nickel, iron ore, copper, manganese, salt,
timber, silica, petroleum, arable land

Land use:  arable land: 33% other: 59% (1998 est.)  permanent crops: 8%

Irrigated land:  870 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:  the east coast is subject to hurricanes from August
to October (in general, the country averages about one hurricane every
other year); droughts are common

Environment - current issues:  air and water pollution; biodiversity
loss; deforestation

Environment - international agreements:  party to: Antarctic Treaty,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species,
Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine
Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands signed, but
not ratified: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Climate Change-Kyoto
Protocol, Marine Life Conservation

Geography - note:  largest country in Caribbean and westernmost island
of the Greater Antilles

People Cuba

Population:  11,224,321 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:  0-14 years: 20.6% (male 1,188,125; female 1,125,743)
15-64 years: 69.3% (male 3,902,162; female 3,880,531) 65 years and over:
10.1% (male 520,849; female 606,911) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  0.35% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  12.08 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  7.35 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  -1.21 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.06
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female 65 years and over:
0.86 male(s)/female total population: 1 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  7.27 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   79.15 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  1.6 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  0.03% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  2,800 (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  120 (1999 est.)

Nationality:  noun: Cuban(s) adjective: Cuban

Ethnic groups:  mulatto 51%, white 37%, black 11%, Chinese 1%

Religions:  nominally 85% Roman Catholic prior to CASTRO assuming power;
Protestants, Jehovah's Witnesses, Jews, and Santeria are also represented

Languages:  Spanish

Literacy:  definition: age 15 and over can read and write male: 96.2%
female: 95.3% (1995 est.)  total population: 95.7%

People - note:  illicit migration is a continuing problem; Cubans
attempt to depart the island and enter the US using homemade rafts, alien
smugglers, direct flights, or falsified visas; some 3,000 Cubans took to
the Straits of Florida in 2001; the US Coast Guard interdicted about 25%
of these migrants; Cubans also use non-maritime routes to enter the US;
some 2,400 Cubans arrived overland via the southwest border and direct
flights to Miami in 2000

Government Cuba

Country name:  conventional long form: Republic of Cuba conventional
short form: Cuba local short form: Cuba local long form: Republica de Cuba

Government type:  Communist state

Capital:  Havana

Administrative divisions:  14 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia)
and 1 special municipality* (municipio especial); Camaguey, Ciego de
Avila, Cienfuegos, Ciudad de La Habana, Granma, Guantanamo, Holguin,
Isla de la Juventud*, La Habana, Las Tunas, Matanzas, Pinar del Rio,
Sancti Spiritus, Santiago de Cuba, Villa Clara

Independence:  20 May 1902 (from Spain 10 December 1898; administered
by the US from 1898 to 1902)

National holiday:  Independence Day, 10 December (1898); note - 10
December 1898 is the date of independence from Spain, 20 May 1902 is
the date of independence from US administration

Constitution:  24 February 1976, amended July 1992

Legal system:  based on Spanish and American law, with large elements
of Communist legal theory; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:  16 years of age; universal

Executive branch:  chief of state: President of the Council of State and
President of the Council of Ministers Fidel CASTRO Ruz (prime minister
from February 1959 until 24 February 1976 when office was abolished;
president since 2 December 1976); First Vice President of the Council
of State and First Vice President of the Council of Ministers Gen.
Raul CASTRO Ruz (since 2 December 1976); note - the president is both
the chief of state and head of government elections: president and
vice president elected by the National Assembly; election last held 24
February 1998 (next to be held in 2003) election results: Fidel CASTRO
Ruz elected president; percent of legislative vote - 100%; Raul CASTRO
Ruz elected vice president; percent of legislative vote - 100% cabinet:
Council of Ministers proposed by the president of the Council of State,
appointed by the National Assembly; note - there is also a Council
of State whose members are elected by the National Assembly head of
government: President of the Council of State and President of the Council
of Ministers Fidel CASTRO Ruz (prime minister from February 1959 until 24
February 1976 when office was abolished; president since 2 December 1976);
First Vice President of the Council of State and First Vice President of
the Council of Ministers Gen. Raul CASTRO Ruz (since 2 December 1976);
note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

Legislative branch:  unicameral National Assembly of People's Power or
Asemblea Nacional del Poder Popular (601 seats, elected directly from
slates approved by special candidacy commissions; members serve five-year
terms) elections:  percent of vote - PCC 94.39%; seats - PCC 601

Judicial branch:  People's Supreme Court or Tribunal Supremo Popular
(president, vice president, and other judges are elected by the National
Assembly)

Political parties and leaders:  only party - Cuban Communist Party or PCC
[Fidel CASTRO Ruz, first secretary]

Political pressure groups and leaders:  NA

International organization participation:  CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-77,
IAEA, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IFAD, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMO, Interpol, IOC,
IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, NAM, OAS (excluded from formal
participation since 1962), OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU,
WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:  none; note - Cuba has an Interests
Section in the Swiss Embassy, headed by Principal Officer Dagoberto
RODRIGUEZ Barrera (since August 2001); address: Cuban Interests Section,
Swiss Embassy, 2630 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009; telephone:
[1] (202) 797-8518

Diplomatic representation from the US:  none; note - the US has an
Interests Section in the Swiss Embassy, headed by Principal Officer
Vicki HUDDLESTON; address: USINT, Swiss Embassy, Calzada between L and
M Streets, Vedado Seccion, Havana; telephone:  protecting power in Cuba
is Switzerland

Flag description:  five equal horizontal bands of blue (top and bottom)
alternating with white; a red equilateral triangle based on the hoist
side bears a white, five-pointed star in the center; design influenced
by the US flag

Economy Cuba

Economy - overview:  The government continues to balance the need for
economic loosening against a concern for firm political control. It has
undertaken limited reforms in recent years to stem excess liquidity,
increase enterprise efficiency, and alleviate serious shortages of
food, consumer goods, and services, but is unlikely to implement
extensive changes. A major feature of the economy is the dichotomy
between relatively efficient export enclaves and inefficient domestic
sectors. The average Cuban's standard of living remains at a lower level
than before the severe economic depression of the early 1990s, which
was caused by the loss of Soviet aid and domestic inefficiencies. High
oil prices, recessions in key export markets, and damage from Hurricane
Michelle hampered growth in 2001. Cuba paid high prices for oil imports
in the face of slumping prices in the key sugar and nickel industries
and suffered a slowdown in tourist arrivals following September 11. The
government subsequently depreciated the peso by approximately 30% and
now aims for 3% growth in 2002.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $25.5 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  3% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $2,300 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: 7.6% industry: 34.5% services:
57.9% (2000 est.)

Population below poverty line:  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  0.5% (2001 est.)

Labor force:  4.3 million (2000 est.)  note: state sector 78%, non-state
sector 22% (1999)

Labor force - by occupation:  agriculture 24%, industry 25%, services 51%
(1999)

Unemployment rate:  4.1% (2001 est.)

Budget:  revenues: $14.9 billion expenditures: $15.6 billion, including
capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)

Industries:  sugar, petroleum, tobacco, chemicals, construction, services,
nickel, steel, cement, agricultural machinery, biotechnology

Industrial production growth rate:  2.4% (2001 est.)

Electricity - production:  14.87 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 94.63% hydro: 0.4%
other: 4.97% (2000) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:  13.829 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  0 kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports:  0 kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products:  sugar, tobacco, citrus, coffee, rice, potatoes,
beans; livestock

Exports:  $1.7 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)

Exports - commodities:  sugar, nickel, tobacco, fish, medical products,
citrus, coffee

Exports - partners:  Russia 18%, Canada 16%, Netherlands 12% (2000)

Imports:  $4.9 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)

Imports - commodities:  petroleum, food, machinery, chemicals,
semifinished goods, transport equipment, consumer goods

Imports - partners:  Spain 16%, Venezuela 13%, Italy 8% (2000)

Debt - external:  $11 billion (convertible currency, 2000 est.); another
$15 billion -$20 billion owed to Russia (2001)

Economic aid - recipient:  $68.2 million (1997 est.)

Currency:  Cuban peso (CUP)

Currency code:  CUP

Exchange rates:  Cuban pesos per US dollar - 1.0000 (nonconvertible,
official rate, for international transactions, pegged to the US dollar);
convertible peso sold for domestic use at a rate of 1.00 US dollar per
27 pesos by the Government of Cuba (January 2002)

Fiscal year:  calendar year

Communications Cuba

Telephones - main lines in use:  473,031 (2000)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  2,994 (1997)

Telephone system:  general assessment: NA domestic: principal
trunk system, end to end of country, is coaxial cable; fiber-optic
distribution in Havana and on Isla de la Juventud; 2 microwave radio
relay installations (one is old, US-built; the other newer, built during
the period of Soviet support); both analog and digital mobile cellular
service established international: Radio broadcast stations:  AM 169,
FM 55, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios:  3.9 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:  58 (1997)

Televisions:  2.64 million (1997)

Internet country code:  .cu

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  5 (2001)

Internet users:  60,000 (2001)

Transportation Cuba

Railways:  total: 4,807 km standard gauge: 4,807 km 1.435-m gauge, in
public use (147 km electrified) note: in addition to the 4,807 km of
standard-gauge track in public use, 7,162 km of track is in private use
by sugar plantations; about 90% of the private use track is standard
gauge and the rest is narrow gauge (2000 est.)

Highways:  total: 60,858 km paved: 29,820 km (including 638 km of
expressway) unpaved: 31,038 km (1997)

Waterways:  240 km

Ports and harbors:  Cienfuegos, Havana, Manzanillo, Mariel, Matanzas,
Nuevitas, Santiago de Cuba

Merchant marine:  total: 14 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 44,187
GRT/63,416 DWT ships by type: bulk 3, cargo 6, liquefied gas 1, petroleum
tanker 1, refrigerated cargo 3 (2002 est.)

Airports:  172 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 78 over 3,047 m: 7 2,438 to 3,047
m: 8 1,524 to 2,437 m: 20 914 to 1,523 m: 7 under 914 m: 36 (2001)

Airports - with unpaved runways:  total: 94 914 to 1,523 m: 31 under
914 m: 63 (2001)

Military Cuba

Military branches:  Revolutionary Armed Forces (FAR) including Ground
Forces, Revolutionary Navy (MGR), Air and Air Defense Force (DAAFAR),
Territorial Militia Troops (MTT), and Youth Labor Army (EJT); note -
the Border Guard Troops (TGF) are controlled by the Interior Ministry

Military manpower - military age:  17 years of age (2002 est.)

Military manpower - availability:  males age 15-49: 3,102,312 females
age 15-49: 3,036,549 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:  males age 15-49: 1,915,586
females age 15-49: 1,869,867 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:  males: 86,632
females: 79,562 (2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:  $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:  roughly 4% (FY95 est.)

Military - note:  Moscow, for decades the key military supporter and
supplier of Cuba, cut off almost all military aid by 1993

Transnational Issues Cuba

Disputes - international:  US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay is leased to
US and only mutual agreement or US abandonment of the area can terminate
the lease

Illicit drugs:  territorial waters and air space serve as transshipment
zone for cocaine and heroin bound for the US and Europe; established
the death penalty for certain drug-related crimes in 1999

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002



========================================================================


Cape Verde

Introduction Cape Verde

Background:  The uninhabited islands were discovered and colonized by
the Portuguese in the 15th century; they subsequently became a trading
center for African slaves and later an important coaling and resupply
stop for whaling and transatlantic shipping. Most Cape Verdeans have both
African and Portuguese antecedents. Independence was achieved in 1975.

Geography Cape Verde

Location:  Western Africa, group of islands in the North Atlantic Ocean,
west of Senegal

Geographic coordinates:  16 00 N, 24 00 W

Map references:  Political Map of the World

Area:  total: 4,033 sq km water: 0 sq km land: 4,033 sq km

Area - comparative:  slightly larger than Rhode Island

Land boundaries:  0 km

Coastline:  965 km

Maritime claims:  measured from claimed archipelagic baselines territorial
sea: 12 NM exclusive economic zone: 200 NM contiguous zone: 24 NM

Climate:  temperate; warm, dry summer; precipitation meager and very
erratic

Terrain:  steep, rugged, rocky, volcanic

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point:
Mt. Fogo 2,829 m (a volcano on Fogo Island)

Natural resources:  salt, basalt rock, limestone, kaolin, fish

Land use:  arable land: 10% permanent crops: 0% other: 90% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  30 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:  prolonged droughts; seasonal harmattan wind produces
obscuring dust; volcanically and seismically active

Environment - current issues:  soil erosion; demand for wood used as
fuel has resulted in deforestation; desertification; environmental damage
has threatened several species of birds and reptiles; illegal beach sand
extraction; overfishing

Environment - international agreements:  party to: Biodiversity, Climate
Change, Desertification, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes,
Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection signed, but not
ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:  strategic location 500 km from west coast of Africa
near major north-south sea routes; important communications station;
important sea and air refueling site

People Cape Verde

Population:  408,760 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:  0-14 years: 41.9% (male 86,466; female 84,918) 15-64
years: 51.5% (male 100,684; female 109,841) 65 years and over: 6.6%
(male 10,363; female 16,488) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  0.85% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  27.81 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  7.01 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  -12.26 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.02
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female 65 years and over:
0.63 male(s)/female total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  51.86 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   72.91 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  3.91 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  0.04% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  775 (2001)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  225 (as of 2001)

Nationality:  noun: Cape Verdean(s) adjective: Cape Verdean

Ethnic groups:  Creole (mulatto) 71%, African 28%, European 1%

Religions:  Roman Catholic (infused with indigenous beliefs); Protestant
(mostly Church of the Nazarene)

Languages:  Portuguese, Crioulo (a blend of Portuguese and West African
words)

Literacy:  definition: age 15 and over can read and write total
population: 71.6% male: 81.4% female: 63.8% (1995 est.)

Government Cape Verde

Country name:   Republic of Cape Verde conventional short form:
Cabo Verde

Government type:  republic

Capital:  Praia

Administrative divisions:  17 districts (concelhos, singular - concelho);
Boa Vista, Brava, Calheta, Maio, Mosteiros, Paul, Praia, Porto Novo,
Ribeira Grande, Sal, Santa Catarina, Santa Cruz, Sao Domingos, Sao
Nicolau, Sao Filipe, Sao Vicente, Tarrafal

Independence:  5 July 1975 (from Portugal)

National holiday:  Independence Day, 5 July (1975)

Constitution:  new constitution came into force 25 September 1992;
underwent a major revision on 23 November 1995, substantially increasing
the powers of the president, and a further revision in 1999, to create
the position of national ombudsman (Provedor de Justica)

Legal system:  derived from the legal system of Portugal

Suffrage:  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:  chief of state: President Pedro PIRES (since 22 March
2001) head of government: Prime Minister Jose Maria Pereira NEVES (since 1
February 2001) cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on
the recommendation of the prime minister elections: president elected by
popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 11 and 25 February
2001 (next to be held NA February 2006); prime minister nominated by
the National Assembly and appointed by the president election results:
49.43%, Carlos VIEGA (MPD) 49.42%; note - the election was won by only
twelve votes

Legislative branch:  unicameral National Assembly or Assembleia Nacional
(72 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 14 January 2001 (next to be held NA December 2005)
election results:  seats by party - PAICV 40, MPD 30, ADM 2

Judicial branch:  Supreme Tribunal of Justice or Supremo Tribunal
de Justia

Political parties and leaders:  African Party for Independence of Cape
Verde or PAICV [Jose Maria Pereira NEVES, chairman]; Democratic Alliance
for Change or ADM [Dr. Eurico MONTEIRO] (a coalition of PCD, PTS, and
UCID); Democratic Christian Party or PDC [Manuel RODRIGUES, chairman];
Democratic Renovation Party or PRD [Jacinto SANTOS, president]; Movement
for Democracy or MPD [Agostinho LOPES, president]; Party for Democratic
Convergence or PCD [Dr. Eurico MONTEIRO, president]; Party of Work and
Solidarity or PTS [Anibal MEDINA, president]; Social Democratic Party
or PSD [Joao ALEM, president]

Political pressure groups and leaders:  NA

International organization participation:  ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA,
ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IOM (observer), ITU, NAM, OAU,
OPCW (signatory), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO
(observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador Jose
BRITO consulate(s) general: Boston FAX: [1] (202) 965-1207 telephone:
[1] (202) 965-6820 chancery: 3415 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington,
DC 20007

Diplomatic representation from the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
Michael D. METELITS embassy: Rua Abilio Macedo 81, Praia mailing address:
C. P. 201, Praia telephone: [238] 61 56 16 FAX: [238] 61 13 55

Flag description:  three horizontal bands of light blue (top, double
width), white (with a horizontal red stripe in the middle third), and
light blue; a circle of 10 yellow five-pointed stars is centered on
the hoist end of the red stripe and extends into the upper and lower
blue bands

Economy Cape Verde

Economy - overview:  Cape Verde suffers from a poor natural resource base,
including serious water shortages exacerbated by cycles of long-term
drought. The economy is service-oriented, with commerce, transport,
and public services accounting for 70% of GDP. Although nearly 70% of
the population lives in rural areas, the share of agriculture in GDP
in 2001 was only 11%, of which fishing accounts for 1.5%. About 82% of
food must be imported. The fishing potential, mostly lobster and tuna,
is not fully exploited. Cape Verde annually runs a high trade deficit,
financed by foreign aid and remittances from emigrants; remittances
supplement GDP by more than 20%. Economic reforms, launched by the new
democratic government in 1991, are aimed at developing the private sector
and attracting foreign investment to diversify the economy. Prospects
for 2002 depend heavily on the maintenance of aid flows, remittances,
and the momentum of the government's development program.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $600 million (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  3% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $1,500 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: 11% industry: 17% services:
72% (2001)

Population below poverty line:  30% (2000)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  3% (2001)

Labor force:  NA

Unemployment rate:  21% (2000 est.)

Budget:  revenues: $112 million expenditures: $198 million, including
capital expenditures of $NA (2000)

Industries:  food and beverages, fish processing, shoes and garments,
salt mining, ship repair

Industrial production growth rate:  NA%

Electricity - production:  41 million kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 100% hydro: 0% other: 0%
(2000) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:  38.13 million kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  0 kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports:  0 kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products:  bananas, corn, beans, sweet potatoes, sugarcane,
coffee, peanuts; fish

Exports:  $27.3 million (f.o.b., 2001 est.)

Exports - commodities:  fuel, shoes, garments, fish, hides

Exports - partners:  Portugal 45%, UK 20%, Germany 20%, Guinea-Bissau 5%
(1999)

Imports:  $218 million (f.o.b., 2001 est.)

Imports - commodities:  foodstuffs, industrial products, transport
equipment, fuels

Imports - partners:  Portugal 52%, Germany 7%, France 4%, UK 3% (1999)

Debt - external:  $301 million (2000)

Economic aid - recipient:  $136 million (1999)

Currency:  Cape Verdean escudo (CVE)

Currency code:  CVE

Exchange rates:  Cape Verdean escudos per US dollar - 123.556 (January
2002), 115.877 (2000), 102.700 (1999), 98.158 (1998), 93.177 (1997)

Fiscal year:  calendar year

Communications Cape Verde

Telephones - main lines in use:  60,935 (2002)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  28,119 (2002)

Telephone system:  general assessment: effective system, being improved
domestic: interisland microwave radio relay system with both analog
and digital exchanges; work is in progress on a submarine fiber-optic
cable system which is scheduled for completion in 2003 international: 2
coaxial submarine cables; HF radiotelephone to Senegal and Guinea-Bissau;
satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 0, FM 11 (and 14 repeaters), shortwave 0
(1998)

Radios:  100,000 (2002 est.)

Television broadcast stations:  3 (2002)

Televisions:  15,000 (2002 est.)

Internet country code:  .cv

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  1 (2000)

Internet users:  8,000 (2001)

Transportation Cape Verde

Railways:  0 km

Highways:  total: 1,100 km paved: 858 km unpaved: 242 km (1996)

Waterways:  none

Ports and harbors:  Mindelo, Praia, Tarrafal

Merchant marine:  total: 4 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,395
GRT/6,614 DWT ships by type: cargo 3, chemical tanker 1 note: includes
a foreign-owned ship registered here as a flag of convenience: United
Kingdom 1 (2002 est.)

Airports:  9 note: 3 airports are reported to be nonoperational (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 3 over 3,047 m: 1 914 to 1,523 m:
2 (2001)

Airports - with unpaved runways:  total: 3 914 to 1,523 m: 3 (2001)

Military Cape Verde

Military branches:  Army, Coast Guard

Military manpower - availability:  males age 15-49: 92,486 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:  males age 15-49: 52,215
(2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:  $9.3 million (FY01)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:  1.6% (FY01)

Transnational Issues Cape Verde

Disputes - international:  none

Illicit drugs:  used as a transshipment point for illicit drugs moving
from Latin America and Asia destined for Western Europe

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002



========================================================================


Cook Islands

Introduction Cook Islands

Background:  Named after Captain Cook, who sighted them in 1770, the
islands became a British protectorate in 1888. By 1900, administrative
control was transferred to New Zealand; in 1965 residents chose
self-government in free association with New Zealand. The emigration of
skilled workers to New Zealand and government deficits are continuing
problems.

Geography Cook Islands

Location:  Oceania, group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean, about
one-half of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand

Geographic coordinates:  21 14 S, 159 46 W

Map references:  Oceania

Area:  total: 240 sq km water: 0 sq km land: 240 sq km

Area - comparative:  1.3 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:  0 km

Coastline:  120 km

Maritime claims:  continental shelf: 200 NM or to the edge of the
continental margin territorial sea: 12 NM exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

Climate:  tropical; moderated by trade winds

Terrain:  low coral atolls in north; volcanic, hilly islands in south

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m highest point:
Te Manga 652 m

Natural resources:  NEGL

Land use:  arable land: 17% permanent crops: 13% other: 70% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  NA sq km

Natural hazards:  typhoons (November to March)

Environment - current issues:  NA

Environment - international agreements:  party to: Biodiversity, Climate
Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Law of the Sea
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:  the northern Cook Islands are seven low-lying,
sparsely populated, coral atolls; the southern Cook Islands consist of
eight elevated, fertile, volcanic isles where most of the populace lives

People Cook Islands

Population:  20,811 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:  0-14 years: NA% 15-64 years: NA% 65 years and over: NA%

Population growth rate:  NA% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  NA births/1,000 population

Death rate:  NA deaths/1,000 population

Sex ratio:  NA

Infant mortality rate:  NA deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:  total population: NA years male: NA years
female: NA years

Total fertility rate:  NA children born/woman

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  NA

Nationality:  noun: Cook Islander(s) adjective: Cook Islander

Ethnic groups:  Polynesian (full blood) 81.3%, Polynesian and European
7.7%, Polynesian and non-European 7.7%, European 2.4%, other 0.9%

Religions:  Christian (majority of populace are members of the Cook
Islands Christian Church)

Languages:  English (official), Maori

Literacy:  definition: NA total population: 95% male: NA% female: NA%

Government Cook Islands

Country name:   Cook Islands former: Dependency status:  self-governing
in free association with New Zealand; Cook Islands is fully responsible
for internal affairs; New Zealand retains responsibility for external
affairs and defense, in consultation with the Cook Islands

Government type:  self-governing parliamentary democracy

Capital:  Avarua

Administrative divisions:  none

Independence:  none (became self-governing in free association with New
Zealand on 4 August 1965 and has the right at any time to move to full
independence by unilateral action)

National holiday:  Constitution Day, first Monday in August (1965)

Constitution:  4 August 1965

Legal system:  based on New Zealand law and English common law

Suffrage:  NA years of age; universal adult

Executive branch:  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February
1952), represented by Frederick GOODWIN (since NA); New Zealand High
Commissioner Kurt MEYER (since NA), representative of New Zealand note:
on 12 February 2002, Prime Minister Terepai MAOATE was ousted following
a vote of no-confidence; a four-party coalition is the third government
since 1999 elections:  monarch; the New Zealand high commissioner
is appointed by the New Zealand Government; following legislative
elections, the leader of the party that wins the most seats usually
becomes prime minister head of government:  Minister Sir Geoffrey HENRY
(since 12 February 2002) cabinet: Cabinet chosen by the prime minister;
collectively responsible to Parliament

Legislative branch:  unicameral Parliament (25 seats; members elected by
popular vote to serve five-year terms) elections: last held NA June 1999
(next to be held by NA 2004) note: the House of Ariki (chiefs) advises
on traditional matters and maintains considerable influence, but has
no legislative powers election results: percent of vote by party - NA%;
seats by party - CIP 12, DAP 12, NAP 1

Judicial branch:  High Court

Political parties and leaders:  Cook Islands People's Party or CIP
[Geoffrey HENRY]; Democratic Alliance Party or DAP [Terepai MAOATE];
New Alliance Party or NAP [Norman GEORGE]

Political pressure groups and leaders:  NA

International organization participation:  ACP, AsDB, ESCAP (associate),
FAO, ICAO, ICFTU, IFAD, IFRCS (associate), IOC, OPCW, Sparteca, SPC,
SPF, UNESCO, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation in the US:  none (self-governing in free
association with New Zealand)

Diplomatic representation from the US:  none (self-governing in free
association with New Zealand)

Flag description:  blue, with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side
quadrant and a large circle of 15 white five-pointed stars (one for
every island) centered in the outer half of the flag

Economy Cook Islands

Economy - overview:  Like many other South Pacific island nations,
the Cook Islands' economic development is hindered by the isolation of
the country from foreign markets, the limited size of domestic markets,
lack of natural resources, periodic devastation from natural disasters,
and inadequate infrastructure. Agriculture provides the economic base with
major exports made up of copra and citrus fruit. Manufacturing activities
are limited to fruit processing, clothing, and handicrafts. Trade
deficits are offset by remittances from emigrants and by foreign aid,
overwhelmingly from New Zealand. In the 1980s and 1990s, the country lived
beyond its means, maintaining a bloated public service and accumulating
a large foreign debt. Subsequent reforms, including the sale of state
assets, the strengthening of economic management, the encouragement of
tourism, and a debt restructuring agreement, have rekindled investment
and growth.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $105 million (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  NA%

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $5,000 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: 17% industry: 7.8% services:
75.2% (2000 est.)

Population below poverty line:  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  3.2% (2000 est.)

Labor force:  8,000 (1996)

Labor force - by occupation:  agriculture 29%, industry 15%, services 56%
note: shortage of skilled labor (1995)

Unemployment rate:  13% (1996)

Budget:  revenues: $28 million expenditures: $27 million, including
capital expenditures of $3.3 million (FY00/01 est.)

Industries:  fruit processing, tourism, fishing

Industrial production growth rate:  NA%

Electricity - production:  24 million kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 100% hydro: 0% other: 0%
(2000) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:  22.32 million kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  0 kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports:  0 kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products:  copra, citrus, pineapples, tomatoes, beans,
pawpaws, bananas, yams, taro, coffee; pigs, poultry

Exports:  $9.1 million (f.o.b., 2000)

Exports - commodities:  copra, papayas, fresh and canned citrus fruit,
coffee; fish; pearls and pearl shells; clothing

Exports - partners:  Australia 34%, Japan 27%, New Zealand 25%, US 8%
(2000)

Imports:  $50.7 million (c.i.f., 2000)

Imports - commodities:  foodstuffs, textiles, fuels, timber, capital goods

Imports - partners:  NZ 61%, Fiji 19%, US 9%, Australia 6%, Japan 2%
(2000)

Debt - external:  $141 million (1996 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:  $13.1 million (1995); note - New Zealand
continues to furnish the greater part

Currency:  New Zealand dollar (NZD)

Currency code:  NZD

Exchange rates:  New Zealand dollars per US dollar - 2.3535 (January
2002), 2.3776 (2001), 2.1863 (2000), 1.8886 (1999), 1.8632 (1998), 1.5083
(1997)

Fiscal year:  1 April - 31 March

Communications Cook Islands

Telephones - main lines in use:  5,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  0 (1994)

Telephone system:  general assessment: NA domestic: the individual
islands are connected by a combination of satellite earth stations,
microwave systems, and VHF and HF radiotelephone; within the islands,
service is provided by small exchanges connected to subscribers by open
wire, cable, and fiber-optic cable international: satellite earth station
- 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 1, FM 2, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios:  14,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:  2 (plus eight low-power repeaters) (1997)

Televisions:  4,000 (1997)

Internet country code:  .ck

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  3 (2000)

Internet users:  NA

Transportation Cook Islands

Railways:  0 km

Highways:  total: 320 km (1992) paved: NA unpaved: NA

Waterways:  none

Ports and harbors:  Avarua, Avatiu

Airports:  7 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 1 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2001)

Airports - with unpaved runways:  total: 6 1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 914 to
1,523 m: 3 (2001)

Military Cook Islands

Military - note:  defense is the responsibility of New Zealand, in
consultation with the Cook Islands and at its request

Transnational Issues Cook Islands

Disputes - international:  none

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002



========================================================================


Cyprus

Introduction

Cyprus

Background:  Independence from the UK was approved in 1960 with
constitutional guarantees by the Greek Cypriot majority to the Turkish
Cypriot minority. In 1974, a Greek-sponsored attempt to seize the
government was met by military intervention from Turkey, which soon
controlled almost 40% of the island. In 1983, the Turkish-held area
declared itself the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus", but it is
recognized only by Turkey.  UN-led talks on the status of Cyprus resumed
in December 1999 to prepare the ground for meaningful negotiations
leading to a comprehensive settlement.

Geography Cyprus

Location:  Middle East, island in the Mediterranean Sea, south of Turkey

Geographic coordinates:  35 00 N, 33 00 E

Map references:  Middle East

Area:  total: 9,250 sq km (of which 3,355 sq km are in the Turkish
Cypriot area) water: 10 sq km land: 9,240 sq km

Area - comparative:  about 0.6 times the size of Connecticut

Land boundaries:  0 km

Coastline:  648 km

Maritime claims:  continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of
exploitation territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate:  temperate; Mediterranean with hot, dry summers and cool winters

Terrain:  central plain with mountains to north and south; scattered
but significant plains along southern coast

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m highest point:
Olympus 1,951 m

Natural resources:  copper, pyrites, asbestos, gypsum, timber, salt,
marble, clay earth pigment

Land use:  arable land: 10% permanent crops: 5% other: 85% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  400 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:  moderate earthquake activity; droughts

Environment - current issues:  water resource problems (no natural
reservoir catchments, seasonal disparity in rainfall, sea water intrusion
to island's largest aquifer, increased salination in the north); water
pollution from sewage and industrial wastes; coastal degradation; loss
of wildlife habitats from urbanization

Environment - international agreements:  party to: Air Pollution,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol,
Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous
Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution signed, but not ratified: Geography - note:
the third largest island in the Mediterranean Sea (after Sicily and
Sardinia)

People Cyprus

Population:  767,314 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:  0-14 years: 22.4% (male 87,981; female 84,168) 15-64
years: 66.6% (male 258,414; female 252,778) 65 years and over: 11%
(male 36,607; female 47,366) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  0.57% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  12.91 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  7.63 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  0.43 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female 65 years and over:
0.77 male(s)/female total population: 1 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  7.71 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   79.5 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  1.9 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  0.1% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  400 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  NA

Nationality:  noun: Cypriot(s) adjective: Cypriot

Ethnic groups:  Greek 85.2%, Turkish 11.6%, other 3.2% (2000)

Religions:  Greek Orthodox 78%, Muslim 18%, Maronite, Armenian Apostolic,
and other 4%

Languages:  Greek, Turkish, English

Literacy:  definition: age 15 and over can read and write total
population: 97% male: 98.7% female: 95% (1999)

Government Cyprus

Country name:   Republic of Cyprus conventional short form:  Republic
of Northern Cyprus" (TRNC)

Government type:  republic note: a disaggregation of the two ethnic
communities inhabiting the island began following the outbreak of communal
strife in 1963; this separation was further solidified after the Turkish
intervention in July 1974 after a Greek junta-based coup attempt gave the
Turkish Cypriots de facto control in the north; Greek Cypriots control the
only internationally recognized government; on 15 November 1983 Turkish
Cypriot "President" Rauf DENKTASH declared independence and the formation
of a "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" (TRNC), recognized only by
Turkey; both sides publicly support a settlement based on a federation
(Greek Cypriot position) or confederation (Turkish Cypriot position)

Capital:  Nicosia

Administrative divisions:  6 districts; Famagusta, Kyrenia, Larnaca,
Limassol, Nicosia, Paphos; note - Turkish Cypriot area's administrative
divisions include Kyrenia, all but a small part of Famagusta, and small
parts of Lefkosa (Nicosia) and Larnaca

Independence:  16 August 1960 (from UK); note - Turkish Cypriot area
proclaimed self-rule on 13 February 1975

National holiday:  Independence Day, 1 October (1960); note - Turkish
Cypriot area celebrates 15 November (1983) as Independence Day

Constitution:  16 August 1960; negotiations to create the basis for a
new or revised constitution to govern the island and to better relations
between Greek and Turkish Cypriots have been held intermittently; in 1975
Turkish Cypriots created their own constitution and governing bodies
within the "Turkish Federated State of Cyprus," which was renamed the
"Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" in 1983; a new constitution for
the Turkish Cypriot area passed by referendum on 5 May 1985

Legal system:  based on common law, with civil law modifications

Suffrage:  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:  chief of state: President Glafcos CLERIDES (since
28 February 1993); note - the president is both the chief of state
and head of government; post of vice president is currently vacant;
under the 1960 constitution, the post is reserved for a Turkish Cypriot
head of government: President Glafcos CLERIDES (since 28 February 1993);
note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government;
post of vice president is currently vacant; under the 1960 constitution,
the post is reserved for a Turkish Cypriot cabinet: Council of Ministers
appointed jointly by the president and vice president elections: president
elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 15
February 1998 (next to be held NA February 2003) note: Rauf R. DENKTASH
has been "president" of the Turkish Cypriot area since 13 February 1975
("president" elected by popular vote for a five-year term); elections
last held 15 April 2000 (next to be held NA April 2005); results -
Rauf R. DENKTASH reelected president after the other contender withdrew;
Dervis EROGLU has been "prime minister" of the Turkish Cypriot area since
16 August 1996; there is a Council of Ministers (cabinet) in the Turkish
Cypriot area election results: Glafcos CLERIDES reelected president;
percent of vote - Glafcos CLERIDES 50.8%, George IAKOVOU 49.2%

Legislative branch:  unicameral - Greek Cypriot area: House of
Representatives or Vouli Antiprosopon (80 seats; 56 assigned to the
Greek Cypriots, 24 to Turkish Cypriots; note - only those assigned
to Greek Cypriots are filled; members are elected by popular vote to
serve five-year terms); Turkish Cypriot area: Assembly of the Republic
or Cumhuriyet Meclisi (50 seats; members are elected by popular vote
to serve five-year terms) election results: Greek Cypriot area: House
of Representatives - percent of vote by party - AKEL 34.71%, DISY 34%,
DIKO 14.84%, KISOS 6.51%, others 9.94%; seats by party - AKEL (Communist)
20, DISY 19, DIKO 9, KISOS 4, others 4; Turkish Cypriot area: Assembly of
the Republic - percent of vote by party - UBP 40.3%, DP 22.6%, TKP 15.4%,
CTP 13.4%, UDP 4.6%, YBH 2.5%, BP 1.2%; seats by party - UBP 24, DP 13,
TKP 7, CTP 6 elections: Greek Cypriot area: last held 27 May 2001 (next
to be held NA May 2006); Turkish Cypriot area: last held 6 December 1998
(next to be held NA December 2003)

Judicial branch:  Supreme Court (judges are appointed jointly by the
president and vice president) note: there is also a Supreme Court in
the Turkish Cypriot area

Political parties and leaders:  Greek Cypriot area: Democratic Party
or DIKO [Tassos PAPADOPOULOS]; Democratic Rally or DISY [Nikos
ANASTASIADHIS]; Eurodemocratic Renewal Movement or KEA [Antonis
PASCHALIDES]; Fighting Democratic Movement or ADIK [Dinos MIKHAILIDIS];
Green Party of Cyprus [George PERDIKIS]; New Horizons [Nikolaus KOUTSOU];
Restorative Party of the Working People or AKEL (Communist Party)
[Dimitrios CHRISTOFIAS]; Social Democrats Movement or KISOS (formerly
United Democratic Union of Cyprus or EDEK) [Yiannakis OMIROU]; United
Democrats Movement or EDE [George VASSILIOU]; Turkish Cypriot area:
Communal Liberation Party or TKP [Huseyin ANGOLEMLI]; Democratic Party
or DP [Salih COSAR]; National Birth Party or UDP [Enver EMIN]; National
Unity Party or UBP [Dervis EROGLU]; Our Party or BP [Okyay SADIKOGLU];
Patriotic Unity Movement or YBH [Izzet IZCAN]; Republican Turkish Party
or CTP [Mehmet ALI TALAT]

Political pressure groups and leaders:  Confederation of Cypriot Workers
or SEK (pro-West); Confederation of Revolutionary Labor Unions or Dev-Is;
Federation of Turkish Cypriot Labor Unions or Turk-Sen; Pan-Cyprian
Labor Federation or PEO (Communist controlled)

International organization participation:  Australia Group, C, CCC,
CE, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU,
IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS (associate), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC,
IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM, NSG, OAS (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:   Ambassador Erato KOZAKOU-MARCOULLIS
chancery:  representative of the Turkish Cypriot area in the US is Osman
ERTUG; office at 1667 K Street NW, Washington, DC; telephone [1] (202)
887-6198 consulate(s) general: New York telephone: [1] (202) 462-5772

Diplomatic representation from the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
Donald K. BANDLER embassy: corner of Metochiou and Ploutarchou Streets,
Engomi, 2407 Nicosia mailing address:  (22) 780944

Flag description:  white with a copper-colored silhouette of the island
(the name Cyprus is derived from the Greek word for copper) above two
green crossed olive branches in the center of the flag; the branches
symbolize the hope for peace and reconciliation between the Greek and
Turkish communities note:  bottom between which is a red crescent and
red star on a white field

Economy Cyprus

Economy - overview:  Economic affairs are affected by the division
of the country. The Greek Cypriot economy is prosperous but highly
susceptible to external shocks. Erratic growth rates in the 1990s
reflect the economy's vulnerability to swings in tourist arrivals,
caused by political instability in the region and fluctuations in
economic conditions in Western Europe.  Economic policy is focused on
meeting the criteria for admission to the EU. As in the Turkish sector,
water shortages are a perennial problem; a few desalination plants
are now online. The Turkish Cypriot economy has less than one-half the
per capita GDP of the south. Because it is recognized only by Turkey,
it has had much difficulty arranging foreign financing, and foreign
firms have hesitated to invest there. It remains heavily dependent on
agriculture and government service, which together employ about half of
the work force. To compensate for the economy's weakness, Turkey provides
substantial direct and indirect aid to tourism, education, industry, etc.

GDP:  Greek Cypriot area: purchasing power parity - $9.1 billion (2001
est.); Turkish Cypriot area: purchasing power parity - $1.1 billion
(2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  Greek Cypriot area: 2.6% (2001 est.); Turkish
Cypriot area: 0.8% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita:  Greek Cypriot area: purchasing power parity - $15,000
(2001 est.); Turkish Cypriot area: purchasing power parity - $7,000
(2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  Greek Cypriot area: agriculture 4.6%,
industry 19.9%, services 75.5% (2001); Turkish Cypriot area: agriculture
8.3%, industry 20.7%, services 71.0% (2000)

Population below poverty line:  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  Greek Cypriot area: 1.9% (2001 est.);
Turkish Cypriot area: 53.2% (2000 est.)

Labor force:  Greek Cypriot area: 291,000; Turkish Cypriot area: 86,300
(2000)

Labor force - by occupation:  Greek Cypriot area: services 73%, industry
22%, agriculture 5% (2000); Turkish Cypriot area: services 56.4%,
industry 22.8%, agriculture 20.8% (1998)

Unemployment rate:  Greek Cypriot area: 3% (2001 est.); Turkish Cypriot
area: 5.6% (1999 est.)

Budget:  revenues: Greek Cypriot area - $2.4 billion (2001 est.); Turkish
Cypriot area - $294 million (2000 est.)  expenditures: Greek Cypriot
area - $3.7 billion, including capital expenditures of $539 million
(2001 est.); Turkish Cypriot area - $495 million, including capital
expenditures of $60 million (2000 est.)

Industries:  food, beverages, textiles, chemicals, metal products,
tourism, wood products

Industrial production growth rate:  Greek Cypriot area: 2.2% (1999);
Turkish Cypriot area: -0.3% (1999)

Electricity - production:  3.13 billion kWh (1999); Turkish Cypriot area:
NA kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 100% other: 0% (2000)
nuclear: 0% hydro: 0%

Electricity - consumption:  2.911 billion kWh (1999); Turkish Cypriot
area: NA kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  0 kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports:  0 kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products:  potatoes, citrus, vegetables, barley, grapes,
olives, vegetables

Exports:  Greek Cypriot area: $851 million (f.o.b., 2001 est.); Turkish
Cypriot area: $50.7 million (f.o.b., 2000)

Exports - commodities:  Greek Cypriot area: citrus, potatoes, grapes,
wine, cement, clothing and shoes; Turkish Cypriot area: citrus, potatoes,
textiles

Exports - partners:  Greek Cypriot area: EU 36% (UK 17%, Greece 8%),
Russia 8%, Syria 7%, Lebanon 5%, US 2% (2000); Turkish Cypriot area:
Turkey 51%, UK 31%, other EU 16.5% (1999)

Imports:  Greek Cypriot area: $3.5 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.); Turkish
Cypriot area: $424.9 million (f.o.b., 2000)

Imports - commodities:  Greek Cypriot area: consumer goods, petroleum
and lubricants, food and feed grains, machinery; Turkish Cypriot area:
food, minerals, chemicals, machinery

Imports - partners:  Greek Cypriot area: EU 52% (UK 11%, Italy 9%, Greece
9%, Germany 7%), US 10% (2000); Turkish Cypriot area: Turkey 59%, UK 13%,
other EU 13% (1999)

Debt - external:  Greek Cypriot area: $NA; Turkish Cypriot area: $NA

Economic aid - recipient:  Greek Cypriot area - $17 million (1998);
Turkish Cypriot area - $700 million from Turkey in grants and loans
(1990-97) which are usually forgiven

Currency:  Greek Cypriot area: Cypriot pound (CYP); Turkish Cypriot area:
Turkish lira (TRL)

Currency code:  CYP; TRL

Exchange rates:  Cypriot pounds per US dollar - 0.6518 (January 2002),
0.6427 (2001), 0.6208 (2000), 0.5423 (1999), 0.5170 (1998), 0.5135 (1997);
Turkish liras per US dollar - 1,370,629 (January 2002), 1,223,140 (2001),
625,219 (2000), 418,783 (1999), 260,724 (1998), 151,865 (1997)

Fiscal year:  calendar year

Communications Cyprus

Telephones - main lines in use:  Greek Cypriot area: 405,000 (1998);
Turkish Cypriot area: 83,162 (1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  Greek Cypriot area: 68,000 (1998);
Turkish Cypriot area: 70,000 (1999)

Telephone system:  general assessment: excellent in both the Greek Cypriot
and Turkish Cypriot areas domestic: open wire, fiber-optic cable, and
microwave radio relay international: tropospheric scatter; 3 coaxial and
5 fiber-optic submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat
(1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean), 2 Eutelsat, 2 Intersputnik,
and 1 Arabsat

Radio broadcast stations:   AM 7, FM 60, shortwave 1 (1998); Turkish
Cypriot area: Radios:  Greek Cypriot area: 310,000 (1997); Turkish
Cypriot area: 56,450 (1994)

Television broadcast stations:  Greek Cypriot area: 4 (plus 225 low-power
repeaters) (September 1995); Turkish Cypriot area: 4 (plus 5 repeaters)
(September 1995)

Televisions:  Greek Cypriot area: 248,000 (1997); Turkish Cypriot area:
52,300 (1994)

Internet country code:  .cy

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  6 (2000)

Internet users:  120,000 (2001)

Transportation Cyprus

Railways:  0 km

Highways:   10,663 km (1998 est.); Turkish Cypriot area:   Greek Cypriot
area: Waterways:  none

Ports and harbors:  Famagusta, Kyrenia, Larnaca, Limassol, Paphos,
Vasilikos

Merchant marine:  total: 1,254 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
22,802,712 GRT/36,337,768 DWT note: includes some foreign-owned
ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Austria 12, Belgium 2,
Bulgaria 2, Canada 3, Chile 2, China 16, Croatia 2, Cuba 11, Finland 1,
Germany 229, Greece 607, Guam 1, Hong Kong 6, India 6, Iran 1, Ireland 1,
Israel 5, Italy 1, Japan 26, Latvia 14, Lebanon 1, Lithuania 2, Mexico 1,
Monaco 10, Netherlands 30, Norway 23, Panama 1, Philippines 2, Poland 19,
Portugal 2, Russia 57, Singapore 2, Slovenia 2, South Korea 4, Spain
7, Sudan 2, Sweden 6, Switzerland 4, Turkey 1, Ukraine 1, United Arab
Emirates 13, United Kingdom 6, United States 4, Vietnam 1 (2002 est.)
ships by type: barge carrier 2, bulk 438, cargo 378, chemical tanker 24,
combination bulk 31, combination ore/oil 2, container 133, liquefied gas
4, passenger 7, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 131, refrigerated
cargo 46, roll on/roll off 41, short-sea passenger 10, specialized tanker
3, vehicle carrier 3

Airports:  15 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 12 2,438 to 3,047 m: 7 1,524 to
2,437 m: 1 under 914 m: 1 (2001) 914 to 1,523 m: 3

Airports - with unpaved runways:  total: 3 914 to 1,523 m: 1 under 914 m:
2 (2001)

Heliports:  7 (2001)

Military Cyprus

Military branches:  Greek area: Greek Cypriot National Guard (GCNG;
including air and naval elements), Greek Cypriot Police Turkish area:
Turkish Cypriot Security Force (GKK)

Military manpower - military age:  18 years of age (2002 est.)

Military manpower - availability:  males age 15-49: 200,071 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:  males age 15-49: 137,322
(2002 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:  males: 6,616
(2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:  $370 million (FY00)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:  4.2% (FY00)

Transnational Issues Cyprus

Disputes - international:  reunification talks - the first since 1974
hostilities divided the island into two de facto autonomous areas, a
Greek Cypriot area controlled by the internationally recognized Cypriot
Government (59% of the island's land area) and a Turkish-Cypriot area
(37% of the island), that are separated by a UN buffer zone (4% of the
island) - have recommenced; there are two UK sovereign base areas mostly
within the Greek-Cypriot portion of the island

Illicit drugs:  minor transit point for heroin and hashish via air routes
and container traffic to Europe, especially from Lebanon and Turkey;
some cocaine transits as well

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002



========================================================================


Denmark

Introduction

Denmark

Background:  Once the seat of Viking raiders and later a major north
European power, Denmark has evolved into a modern, prosperous nation that
is participating in the general political and economic integration of
Europe. However, the country has opted out of European Union's Maastricht
Treaty, the European monetary system (EMU), and issues concerning certain
internal affairs.

Geography Denmark

Location:  Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and the North Sea,
on a peninsula north of Germany (Jutland); also includes two major islands
(Sjaelland and Fyn)

Geographic coordinates:  56 00 N, 10 00 E

Map references:  Europe

Area:  total: 43,094 sq km water: 700 sq km note: includes the island
of Bornholm in the Baltic Sea and the rest of metropolitan Denmark
(the Jutland Peninsula, and the major islands of Sjaelland and Fyn),
but excludes the Faroe Islands and Greenland land: 42,394 sq km

Area - comparative:  slightly less than twice the size of Massachusetts

Land boundaries:  total: 68 km border countries: Germany 68 km

Coastline:  7,314 km

Maritime claims:  continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of
exploitation exclusive economic zone: 200 NM territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate:  temperate; humid and overcast; mild, windy winters and cool
summers

Terrain:  low and flat to gently rolling plains

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Lammefjord -7 m highest point: Yding
Skovhoej 173 m

Natural resources:  petroleum, natural gas, fish, salt, limestone, stone,
gravel and sand

Land use:  arable land: 56% permanent crops: 0% other: 44% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  4,760 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:  flooding is a threat in some areas of the country (e.g.,
parts of Jutland, along the southern coast of the island of Lolland)
that are protected from the sea by a system of dikes

Environment - current issues:  air pollution, principally from vehicle
and power plant emissions; nitrogen and phosphorus pollution of the
North Sea; drinking and surface water becoming polluted from animal
wastes and pesticides

Environment - international agreements:  party to: Air Pollution, Air
Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants,
Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile
Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species,
Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Marine Life
Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling signed, but
not ratified: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Law of the Sea

Geography - note:  controls Danish Straits (Skagerrak and Kattegat)
linking Baltic and North Seas; about one-quarter of the population lives
in greater Copenhagen

People Denmark

Population:  5,368,854 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:  0-14 years: 18.7% (male 514,589; female 488,121) 15-64
years: 66.4% (male 1,806,722; female 1,760,149) 65 years and over: 14.9%
(male 334,599; female 464,674) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  0.29% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  11.74 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  10.81 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  2.01 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female 65 years and over:
0.72 male(s)/female total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  4.97 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   79.67 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  1.73 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  0.17% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  4,300 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  less than 100 (1999 est.)

Nationality:  noun: Dane(s) adjective: Danish

Ethnic groups:  Scandinavian, Inuit, Faroese, German, Turkish, Iranian,
Somali

Religions:  Evangelical Lutheran 95%, other Protestant and Roman Catholic
3%, Muslim 2%

Languages:  Danish, Faroese, Greenlandic (an Inuit dialect), German
(small minority) note: English is the predominant second language

Literacy:  definition: age 15 and over can read and write total
population: 100% male: NA% female: NA%

Government Denmark

Country name:   Kingdom of Denmark conventional short form: Government
type:  constitutional monarchy

Capital:  Copenhagen

Administrative divisions:  metropolitan Denmark - 14 counties (amter,
singular - amt) and 2 kommunes*; Arhus, Bornholm, Fredericksberg*,
Frederiksborg, Fyn, Kobenhavn, Kobenhavns*, Nordjylland, Ribe, Ringkobing,
Roskilde, Sonderjylland, Storstrom, Vejle, Vestsjalland, Viborg note:
see separate entries for the Faroe Islands and Greenland, which are part
of the Kingdom of Denmark and are self-governing overseas administrative
divisions

Independence:  first organized as a unified state in 10th century;
in 1849 became a constitutional monarchy

National holiday:  none designated; Constitution Day, 5 June is generally
viewed as the National Day

Constitution:  1849 was the original constitution; there was a major
overhaul 5 June 1953, allowing for a unicameral legislature and a female
chief of state

Legal system:  civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts;
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage:  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:  chief of state: Queen MARGRETHE II (since 14 January
1972); Heir Apparent Crown Prince FREDERIK, elder son of the monarch (born
26 May 1968) head of government: Prime Minister Anders Fogh RASMUSSEN
(since 27 November 2001) cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister
and approved by Parliament elections: none; the monarch is hereditary;
following legislative elections, the leader of the party that wins the
most seats is usually appointed prime minister by the monarch

Legislative branch:  unicameral Parliament or Folketing (179 seats,
including 2 from Greenland and 2 from the Faroe Islands; members are
elected by popular vote on the basis of proportional representation to
serve four-year terms) elections:  results: percent of vote by party -
NA%; seats by party - Liberal Party 56, Social Democrats 52, Danish
People's Party 22, Conservative Party 16, Socialist People's Party 12,
Social Liberal Party 9, Christian People's Party 4, Unity List 4; note
- does not include the 2 seats from Greenland and the 2 seats from the
Faroe Islands

Judicial branch:  Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the monarch
for life)

Political parties and leaders:  Center Democratic Party [Mimi JAKOBSEN];
Christian People's Party [Jann SJURSEN]; Conservative Party (sometimes
known as Conservative People's Party) [Bendt BENDTSEN]; Danish People's
Party [Pia KJAERSGAARD]; Liberal Party [Anders Fogh RASMUSSEN]; Social
Democratic Party [Poul Nyrup RASMUSSEN]; Social Liberal Party (sometimes
called the Radical Left) [Marianne JELVED, leader; Johannes LEBECH,
chairman]; Socialist People's Party [Holger K. NIELSEN]; Red-Green Unity
List (bloc includes Left Socialist Party, Communist Party of Denmark,
Socialist Workers' Party) [collective leadership]

Political pressure groups and leaders:  NA

International organization participation:  AfDB, AsDB, Australia Group,
BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EIB, ESA, EU, FAO, G- 9,
IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MONUC, NATO, NC, NEA,
NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMEE, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOGIP, UNMOP, UNMOT,
UNOMIG, UNTAET, UNTSO, UPU, WEU (observer), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador Ulrik
Andreas FEDERSPIEL consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, and New
York FAX: [1] (202) 328-1470 telephone: [1] (202) 234-4300 chancery:
3200 Whitehaven Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

Diplomatic representation from the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
Stuart BERNSTEIN embassy: Dag Hammarskjolds
 PSC 73, APO AE 09716 telephone:
Flag description:  red with a white cross that extends to the edges of
the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side,
and that design element of the Dannebrog (Danish flag) was subsequently
adopted by the other Nordic countries of Finland, Iceland, Norway,
and Sweden

Economy Denmark

Economy - overview:  This thoroughly modern market economy features
high-tech agriculture, up-to-date small-scale and corporate industry,
extensive government welfare measures, comfortable living standards,
a stable currency, and high dependence on foreign trade. Denmark is
a net exporter of food and energy and has a comfortable balance of
payments surplus. The government has been successful in meeting, and
even exceeding, the economic convergence criteria for participating in
the third phase (a common European currency) of the European Monetary
Union (EMU), but Denmark, in a September 2000 referendum, reconfirmed
its decision not to join the 11 other EU members in the euro. Even so,
the Danish currency remains pegged to the euro.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $149.8 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  1.1% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $28,000 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: 3% industry: 22% services: 75%
(2001 est.)

Population below poverty line:  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: 2%
highest 10%: 24% (2000 est.)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:  24.7 (1992)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  2.4% (2001 est.)

Labor force:  2.856 million (2000 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:  services 79%, industry 17%, agriculture 4%
(2000 est.)

Unemployment rate:  5.3% (2000)

Budget:  revenues: $52.9 billion expenditures: $51.3 billion, including
capital expenditures of $500 million (2001 est.)

Industries:  food processing, machinery and equipment, textiles and
clothing, chemical products, electronics, construction, furniture,
and other wood products, shipbuilding, windmills

Industrial production growth rate:  1% (2001 est.)

Electricity - production:  35.792 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 83.86% hydro: 0.08%
other: 16.06% (2000) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:  33.925 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  7.679 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports:  8.318 billion kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products:  barley, wheat, potatoes, sugar beets; pork,
dairy products; fish

Exports:  $52.4 billion (f.o.b., 2001)

Exports - commodities:  machinery and instruments, meat and meat products,
dairy products, fish, chemicals, furniture, ships, windmills

Exports - partners:  EU 65.9% (Germany 19.1%, Sweden 12.9%, UK 9.8%,
France 5.0%, Netherlands 5.0%), US 5.9%, Norway 5.5% (2000)

Imports:  $44.1 billion (f.o.b., 2001)

Imports - commodities:  machinery and equipment, raw materials and
semimanufactures for industry, chemicals, grain and foodstuffs,
consumer goods

Imports - partners:  EU 69.7% (Germany 21.1%, Sweden 12.3%, UK 8.6%,
Netherlands 7.5%, France 5.2%, Italy 4.4%), US 4.1% (2000)

Debt - external:  $21.7 billion (2000)

Economic aid - donor:  ODA, $1.63 billion (1999)

Currency:  Danish krone (DKK)

Currency code:  DKK

Exchange rates:  Danish kroner per US dollar - 8.418 (January 2002),
8.323 (2001), 8.083 (2000), 6.976 (1999), 6.701 (1998), 6.604 (1997);
note - the Danes rejected the euro in a 28 September 2000 referendum

Fiscal year:  calendar year

Communications Denmark

Telephones - main lines in use:  4.785 million (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  1,444,016 (1997)

Telephone system:   excellent telephone and telegraph services domestic:
network, 4 cellular mobile communications systems international: 18
submarine fiber-optic cables linking Denmark with Norway, Sweden, Russia,
Poland, Germany, Netherlands, UK, Faroe Islands, Iceland, and Canada;
satellite earth stations - 6 Intelsat, 10 Eutelsat, 1 Orion, 1 Inmarsat
(Blaavand-Atlantic-East); note - the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland,
Iceland, Norway, and Sweden) share the Danish earth station and the Eik,
Norway, station for worldwide Inmarsat access (1997)

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 2, FM 355, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios:  6.02 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:  26 (plus 51 repeaters) (1998)

Televisions:  3.121 million (1997)

Internet country code:  .dk

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  13 (2000)

Internet users:  2.93 million (2001)

Transportation Denmark

Railways:   2,859 km (508 km privately owned and operated) standard gauge:
(1998 est.)

Highways:  total: 71,474 km paved: 71,474 km (including 880 km of
expressways) unpaved: 0 km (1999)

Waterways:  417 km

Pipelines:  crude oil 110 km; petroleum products 578 km; natural gas
700 km

Ports and harbors:  Abenra, Alborg, Arhus, Copenhagen, Esbjerg,
Fredericia, Kolding, Odense, Roenne (Bornholm), Vejle

Merchant marine:  total: 301 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 6,258,959
GRT/8,143,520 DWT note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered
here as a flag of convenience: Germany 1, Greenland 1, Indonesia 1,
Netherlands 1, Norway 9, United Kingdom 1 (2002 est.)  ships by type:
bulk 8, cargo 105, chemical tanker 26, container 72, liquefied gas 20,
livestock carrier 5, petroleum tanker 25, railcar carrier 1, refrigerated
cargo 13, roll on/roll off 16, short-sea passenger 7, specialized tanker 3

Airports:  116 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 28 over 3,047 m: 2 2,438 to 3,047
m: 7 1,524 to 2,437 m: 4 914 to 1,523 m: 12 under 914 m: 3 (2001)

Airports - with unpaved runways:  total: 88 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 914 to
1,523 m: 7 under 914 m: 80 (2001)

Military Denmark

Military branches:  Royal Danish Army, Royal Danish Navy, Royal Danish
Air Force, Home Guard

Military manpower - military age:  18 years of age (2002 est.)

Military manpower - availability:  males age 15-49: 1,287,168 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:  males age 15-49: 1,099,900
(2002 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:  males: 29,212
(2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:  $2.47 billion (FY99/00)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:  1.4% (FY99/00)

Transnational Issues Denmark

Disputes - international:  Rockall continental shelf dispute involving
Denmark, Iceland, and the UK (Ireland and the UK have signed a boundary
agreement in the Rockall area); dispute with Iceland over the Faroe
Islands' fisheries median line boundary within 200 NM; disputes with
Iceland, the UK, and Ireland over the Faroe Islands continental shelf
boundary outside 200 NM; Faroese are considering proposals for full
independence

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002



========================================================================


Djibouti

Introduction

Djibouti

Background:  The French Territory of the Afars and the Issas became
Djibouti in 1977. A peace accord in 1994 ended a three-year uprising by
Afars rebels.

Geography Djibouti

Location:  Eastern Africa, bordering the Gulf of Aden and the Red Sea,
between Eritrea and Somalia

Geographic coordinates:  11 30 N, 43 00 E

Map references:  Africa

Area:  total: 23,000 sq km water: 20 sq km land: 22,980 sq km

Area - comparative:  slightly smaller than Massachusetts

Land boundaries:  total: 516 km border countries: Eritrea 109 km,
Ethiopia 349 km, Somalia 58 km

Coastline:  314 km

Maritime claims:   200 NM territorial sea: Climate:  desert; torrid, dry

Terrain:  coastal plain and plateau separated by central mountains

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Lac Assal -155 m highest point:
Moussa Ali 2,028 m

Natural resources:  geothermal areas

Land use:  arable land: 0% permanent crops: 0% other: 100% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  10 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:  earthquakes; droughts; occasional cyclonic disturbances
from the Indian Ocean bring heavy rains and flash floods

Environment - current issues:  inadequate supplies of potable water;
desertification; endangered species

Environment - international agreements:  party to: Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea,
Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution signed, but not ratified: none
of the selected agreements

Geography - note:  strategic location near world's busiest shipping lanes
and close to Arabian oilfields; terminus of rail traffic into Ethiopia;
mostly wasteland; Lac Assal (Lake Assal) is the lowest point in Africa

People Djibouti

Population:  472,810 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:  0-14 years: 42.6% (male 100,903; female 100,420) 15-64
years: 54.5% (male 135,409; female 122,209) 65 years and over: 2.9%
(male 7,220; female 6,649) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  2.59% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  40.33 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  14.43 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.11 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 1.09 male(s)/female
total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  99.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   53.52 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  5.64 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  11.75% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  37,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  4,400 (2002 est.)

Nationality:  noun: Djiboutian(s) adjective: Djiboutian

Ethnic groups:  Somali 60%, Afar 35%, French, Arab, Ethiopian, and
Italian 5%

Religions:  Muslim 94%, Christian 6%

Languages:  French (official), Arabic (official), Somali, Afar

Literacy:  definition: age 15 and over can read and write total
population: 46.2% male: 60.3% female: 32.7% (1995 est.)

Government Djibouti

Country name:   Republic of Djibouti conventional short form:  Somaliland

Government type:  republic

Capital:  Djibouti

Administrative divisions:  5 districts (cercles, singular - cercle);
'Ali Sabih, Dikhil, Djibouti, Obock, Tadjoura

Independence:  27 June 1977 (from France)

National holiday:  Independence Day, 27 June (1977)

Constitution:  multiparty constitution approved by referendum 4 September
1992

Legal system:  based on French civil law system, traditional practices,
and Islamic law

Suffrage:  18 years of age; universal adult

Executive branch:  chief of state: President Ismail Omar GUELLEH (since
8 May 1999) head of government: Prime Minister DILEITA Mohamed Dileita
(since 4 March 2001)
 Council of Ministers responsible to the president elections:  9 April
 1999 (next to be held December 2002); prime minister appointed
by the president election results: Ismail Omar GUELLEH elected president;
percent of vote - Ismail Omar GUELLEH 74.4%, IDRIS Moussa Ahmed 25.6%

Legislative branch:  unicameral Chamber of Deputies or Chambre des
Deputes (65 seats; members elected by popular vote for five-year terms)
elections: last held 19 December 1997 (next to be held NA December 2002)
election results:  party) dominated the election

Judicial branch:  Supreme Court or Cour Supreme

Political parties and leaders:  Democratic National Party or PND [ADEN
Robleh Awaleh]; Democratic Renewal Party or PRD [Abdillahi HAMARITEH];
Front pour la Restauration de l'Unite Democratique or FRUD [Ali Mohamed
DAOUD]; People's Progress Assembly or RPP (governing party) [Ismail
Omar GUELLEH]

Political pressure groups and leaders:  Movement for Unity and Democracy
or MUD

International organization participation:  ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AL,
AMF, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, OPCW (signatory),
UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador ROBLE
Olhaye Oudine FAX: [1] (202) 331-0302 telephone: [1] (202) 331-0270
chancery: Suite 515, 1156 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20005

Diplomatic representation from the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
Donald YAMAMOTO embassy: Plateau du Serpent, Boulevard Marechal Joffre,
Djibouti mailing address: B. P. 185, Djibouti telephone: [253] 35 39 95
FAX: [253] 35 39 40

Flag description:  two equal horizontal bands of light blue (top) and
light green with a white isosceles triangle based on the hoist side
bearing a red five-pointed star in the center

Economy Djibouti

Economy - overview:  The economy is based on service activities connected
with the country's strategic location and status as a free trade zone in
northeast Africa.  Two-thirds of the inhabitants live in the capital
city, the remainder being mostly nomadic herders. Scanty rainfall
limits crop production to fruits and vegetables, and most food must
be imported. Djibouti provides services as both a transit port for the
region and an international transshipment and refueling center. It has
few natural resources and little industry. The nation is, therefore,
heavily dependent on foreign assistance to help support its balance of
payments and to finance development projects. An unemployment rate of 50%
continues to be a major problem. Inflation is not a concern, however,
because of the fixed tie of the franc to the US dollar. Per capita
consumption dropped an estimated 35% over the last seven years because
of recession, civil war, and a high population growth rate (including
immigrants and refugees). Faced with a multitude of economic difficulties,
the government has fallen in arrears on long-term external debt and has
been struggling to meet the stipulations of foreign aid donors. Another
factor limiting growth is the negative impact on port activity now that
Ethiopia has more trade route options.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $586 million (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  0% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $1,400 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: 3% industry: 10% services: 87%
(2001 est.)

Population below poverty line:  50% (2001 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  2% (2001 est.)

Labor force:  282,000

Labor force - by occupation:  NA%

Unemployment rate:  50% (2000 est.)

Budget:  revenues: $135 million expenditures: $182 million, including
capital expenditures of $NA (1999 est.)

Industries:  construction, agricultural processing

Industrial production growth rate:  3% (1996 est.)

Electricity - production:  180 million kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 100% hydro: 0% other: 0%
(2000) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:  167.4 million kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  0 kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports:  0 kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products:  fruits, vegetables; goats, sheep, camels

Exports:  $260 million (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Exports - commodities:  reexports, hides and skins, coffee (in transit)

Exports - partners:  Somalia 53%, Yemen 23%, Ethiopia 5% (1998)

Imports:  $440 million (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Imports - commodities:  foods, beverages, transport equipment, chemicals,
petroleum products

Imports - partners:  France 13%, Ethiopia 12%, Italy 9%, Saudi Arabia 6%,
UK 6% (1998)

Debt - external:  $366 million (2002 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:  $36 million (2001)

Currency:  Djiboutian franc (DJF)

Currency code:  DJF

Exchange rates:  Djiboutian francs per US dollar - 177.721 (fixed rate
since 1973)

Fiscal year:  calendar year

Communications Djibouti

Telephones - main lines in use:  10,000 (2002)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  NA (2002)

Telephone system:  general assessment: telephone facilities in the city
of Djibouti are adequate as are the microwave radio relay connections
to outlying areas
 microwave radio relay network international:  Singapore; satellite
 earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) and 1
Arabsat; Medarabtel regional microwave radio relay telephone network

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 1, FM 2, shortwave 0 (2001)

Radios:  52,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:  1 (2002)

Televisions:  28,000 (1997)

Internet country code:  .dj

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  1 (2000)

Internet users:  1,400 (2000)

Transportation Djibouti

Railways:  total: 100 km (Djibouti segment of the Addis Ababa-Djibouti
railroad) narrow gauge: 100 km 1.000-m gauge note: Djibouti and Ethiopia
plan to revitalize the century-old railroad that links their capitals
by 2003 (2001 est.)

Highways:  total: 2,890 km paved: 364 km unpaved: 2,526 km (1996)

Waterways:  none

Ports and harbors:  Djibouti

Airports:  12 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 2 over 3,047 m: 1 2,438 to 3,047 m:
1 (2001)

Airports - with unpaved runways:  total: 10 1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 914 to
1,523 m: 5 under 914 m: 3 (2001)

Military Djibouti

Military branches:  Djibouti National Army (including Navy and Air Force)

Military manpower - availability:  males age 15-49: 110,221 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:  males age 15-49: 64,940
(2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:  $26.5 million (FY01)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:  4.4% (FY01)

Transnational Issues Djibouti

Disputes - international:  Djibouti maintains economic ties and border
accords with "Somaliland" leadership while politically supporting the
Somali Transitional National Government in Mogadishu

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002



========================================================================


Dominica

Introduction

Dominica

Background:  Dominica was the last of the Caribbean islands to be
colonized by Europeans, due chiefly to the fierce resistance of the
native Caribs. France ceded possession to Great Britain in 1763, which
made the island a colony in 1805. In 1980, two years after independence,
Dominica's fortunes improved when a corrupt and tyrannical administration
was replaced by that of Mary Eugenia CHARLES, the first female prime
minister in the Caribbean, who remained in office for 15 years.

Geography Dominica

Location:  Caribbean, island between the Caribbean Sea and the North
Atlantic Ocean, about one-half of the way from Puerto Rico to Trinidad
and Tobago

Geographic coordinates:  15 25 N, 61 20 W

Map references:  Central America and the Caribbean

Area:  total: 754 sq km water: 0 sq km land: 754 sq km

Area - comparative:  slightly more than four times the size of Washington,
DC

Land boundaries:  0 km

Coastline:  148 km

Maritime claims:   12 NM exclusive economic zone: Climate:  tropical;
moderated by northeast trade winds; heavy rainfall

Terrain:  rugged mountains of volcanic origin

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m highest point:
Morne Diablatins 1,447 m

Natural resources:  timber, hydropower, arable land

Land use:  arable land: 4% permanent crops: 16% other: 80% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  NA sq km

Natural hazards:  flash floods are a constant threat; destructive
hurricanes can be expected during the late summer months

Environment - current issues:  NA

Environment - international agreements:  party to: Biodiversity, Climate
Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification,
Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
Whaling signed, but not ratified: Geography - note:  known as "The Nature
Island of the Caribbean" due to its spectacular, lush, and varied flora
and fauna, which are protected by an extensive natural park system;
the most mountainous of the Lesser Antilles, its volcanic peaks are
cones of lava craters and include Boiling Lake, the second-largest,
thermally active lake in the world

People Dominica

Population:  70,158 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:  0-14 years: 28.3% (male 10,052; female 9,800) 15-64 years:
63.8% (male 23,011; female 21,782) 65 years and over: 7.9% (male 2,245;
female 3,268) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  -0.81% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  17.3 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  7.11 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  -18.26 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.03
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female 65 years and over:
0.69 male(s)/female total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  15.94 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   76.88 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  2.01 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  NA

Nationality:  noun: Dominican(s) adjective: Dominican

Ethnic groups:  black, mixed black and European, European, Syrian,
Carib Amerindian

Religions:  Roman Catholic 77%, Protestant 15% (Methodist 5%, Pentecostal
3%, Seventh-Day Adventist 3%, Baptist 2%, other 2%), none 2%, other 6%

Languages:  English (official), French patois

Literacy:   age 15 and over has ever attended school total population:
Government Dominica

Country name:  conventional long form: Commonwealth of Dominica
conventional short form: Dominica

Government type:  parliamentary democracy; republic within the
Commonwealth

Capital:  Roseau

Administrative divisions:  10 parishes; Saint Andrew, Saint David, Saint
George, Saint John, Saint Joseph, Saint Luke, Saint Mark, Saint Patrick,
Saint Paul, Saint Peter

Independence:  3 November 1978 (from UK)

National holiday:  Independence Day, 3 November (1978)

Constitution:  3 November 1978

Legal system:  based on English common law

Suffrage:  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:  chief of state: President Vernon Lordon SHAW (since 6
October 1998) elections: president elected by the House of Assembly for
a five-year term; election last held 6 October 1998 (next to be held
NA October 2003); prime minister appointed by the president election
results: Vernon Lordon SHAW elected president; percent of legislative
vote - NA% cabinet:  head of government: Prime Minister Pierre CHARLES
(since 1 October 2000); note - assumed post after death of Prime Minister
Roosevelt DOUGLAS

Legislative branch:  unicameral House of Assembly (30 seats, 9 appointed
senators, 21 elected by popular vote; members serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 31 January 2000 (next to be held by NA 2005) election
results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party -DLP 10, UWP 9,
DFP 2

Judicial branch:  Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court, consisting of the
Court of Appeal and the High Court (located in Saint Lucia; one of the
six judges must reside in Dominica and preside over the Court of Summary
Jurisdiction)

Political parties and leaders:  Dominica Freedom Party or DFP [Charles
SAVARIN]; Dominica Labor Party or DLP [Pierre CHARLES]; United Workers
Party or UWP [Edison JAMES]

Political pressure groups and leaders:  Dominica Liberation Movement or
DLM (a small leftist party)

International organization participation:  ACCT, ACP, C, Caricom, CDB,
ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF,
IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO (subscriber), ITU, NAM (observer), OAS, OECS,
OPANAL, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
Nicholas J. O. LIVERPOOL (resident in Dominica) chancery: 3216 New Mexico
Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20016 telephone: [1] (202) 364-6781 consulate(s)
general: New York FAX: [1] (202) 364-6791

Diplomatic representation from the US:  the US does not have an embassy in
Dominica; US interests are served by the embassy in Bridgetown, Barbados

Flag description:  green, with a centered cross of three equal bands
- the vertical part is yellow (hoist side), black, and white and the
horizontal part is yellow (top), black, and white; superimposed in the
center of the cross is a red disk bearing a sisserou parrot encircled
by 10 green, five-pointed stars edged in yellow; the 10 stars represent
the 10 administrative divisions (parishes)

Economy Dominica

Economy - overview:  The Dominican economy depends on agriculture,
primarily bananas, and remains highly vulnerable to climatic
conditions. Hurricane Luis devastated the country's banana crop in
1995 after tropical storms wiped out a quarter of the 1994 crop. The
subsequent recovery has been fueled by increases in construction, soap
production, and tourist arrivals. Development of the tourism industry
remains difficult however, because of the rugged coastline, lack of
beaches, and the absence of an international airport. Economic growth is
sluggish, and unemployment is greater than 20%. The government has been
attempting to develop an offshore financial sector in order to diversify
the island's production base.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $262 million (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  -3.2% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $3,700 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: 18% industry: 23% services:
59% (2001 est.)

Population below poverty line:  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  1% (2001 est.)

Labor force:  25,000

Labor force - by occupation:  agriculture 40%, industry and commerce 32%,
services 28%

Unemployment rate:  23% (2000 est.)

Budget:  revenues: $72 million expenditures: $79.9 million, including
capital expenditures of $11.5 million (FY97/98)

Industries:  soap, coconut oil, tourism, copra, furniture, cement
blocks, shoes

Industrial production growth rate:  -10% (1997 est.)

Electricity - production:  67 million kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 47.76% hydro: 52.24%
other: 0% (2000) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:  62.31 million kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  0 kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports:  0 kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products:  bananas, citrus, mangoes, root crops, coconuts,
cocoa; forest and fishery potential not exploited

Exports:  $49 million (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Exports - commodities:  bananas, soap, bay oil, vegetables, grapefruit,
oranges

Exports - partners:  Caricom countries 47%, UK 36%, US 7% (1996 est.)

Imports:  $132 million (c.i.f., 2000 est.)

Imports - commodities:  manufactured goods, machinery and equipment,
food, chemicals

Imports - partners:  US 41%, Caricom countries 25%, UK 13%, Netherlands,
Canada (1996 est.)

Debt - external:  $150 million (2000)

Economic aid - recipient:  $24.4 million (1995)

Currency:  East Caribbean dollar (XCD)

Currency code:  XCD

Exchange rates:  East Caribbean dollars per US dollar - 2.7000 (fixed
rate since 1976)

Fiscal year:  1 July - 30 June

Communications Dominica

Telephones - main lines in use:  19,000 (1996)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  461 (1996)

Telephone system:   fully automatic network international:  Guadeloupe;
VHF and UHF radiotelephone links to Saint Lucia

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 3, FM 10, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios:  46,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:  0 (however, there is one cable television
company) (1997)

Televisions:  6,000 (1997)

Internet country code:  .dm

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  16 (2000)

Internet users:  2,000 (2000)

Transportation Dominica

Railways:  0 km

Highways:  total: 780 km paved: 390 km unpaved: 390 km (2001)

Waterways:  none

Ports and harbors:  Portsmouth, Roseau

Merchant marine:  none (2002 est.)

Airports:  2 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 2 914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2001)

Military Dominica

Military branches:  Commonwealth of Dominica Police Force (including
Special Service Unit, Coast Guard)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:  $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:  NA%

Transnational Issues Dominica

Disputes - international:  none

Illicit drugs:  transshipment point for narcotics bound for the US
and Europe; minor cannabis producer; banking industry is vulnerable to
money laundering

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002



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Jarvis Island

Introduction

Jarvis Island

Background:  First discovered by the British in 1821, the uninhabited
island was annexed by the US in 1858, but abandoned in 1879 after tons
of guano had been removed. The UK annexed the island in 1889, but never
carried out plans for further exploitation. The US occupied and reclaimed
the island in 1935. Abandoned after World War II, the island is currently
a National Wildlife Refuge administered by the US Department of the
Interior; a day beacon is situated near the middle of the west coast.

Geography Jarvis Island

Location:  Oceania, island in the South Pacific Ocean, about half way
between Hawaii and the Cook Islands

Geographic coordinates:  0 22 S, 160 03 W

Map references:  Oceania

Area:  total: 4.5 sq km water: 0 sq km land: 4.5 sq km

Area - comparative:  about eight times the size of The Mall in Washington,
DC

Land boundaries:  0 km

Coastline:  8 km

Maritime claims:  exclusive economic zone: 200 NM territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate:  tropical; scant rainfall, constant wind, burning sun

Terrain:  sandy, coral island surrounded by a narrow fringing reef

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m highest point:
unnamed location 7 m

Natural resources:  guano (deposits worked until late 1800s), terrestrial
and aquatic wildlife

Land use:  arable land: 0% permanent crops: 0% other: 100% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  0 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:  the narrow fringing reef surrounding the island poses
a maritime hazard

Environment - current issues:  no natural fresh water resources

Geography - note:  sparse bunch grass, prostrate vines, and low-growing
shrubs; primarily a nesting, roosting, and foraging habitat for seabirds,
shorebirds, and marine wildlife

People Jarvis Island

Population:  uninhabited note: Millersville settlement on western side of
island occasionally used as a weather station from 1935 until World War
II, when it was abandoned; reoccupied in 1957 during the International
Geophysical Year by scientists who left in 1958; public entry is by
special-use permit from US Fish and Wildlife Service only and generally
restricted to scientists and educators; visited annually by US Fish and
Wildlife Service (July 2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  NA

Government Jarvis Island

Country name:  conventional long form: none conventional short form:
Jarvis Island

Dependency status:  unincorporated territory of the US; administered from
Washington, DC, by the Fish and Wildlife Service of the US Department
of the Interior as part of the National Wildlife Refuge system

Legal system:  the laws of the US, where applicable, apply

Flag description:  the flag of the US is used

Economy Jarvis Island

Economy - overview:  no economic activity

Transportation Jarvis Island

Waterways:  none

Ports and harbors:  none; offshore anchorage only; note - there is one
small boat landing area in the middle of the west coast and another near
the southwest corner of the island

Transportation - note:  there is a day beacon near the middle of the
west coast

Military Jarvis Island

Military - note:  defense is the responsibility of the US; visited
annually by the US Coast Guard

Transnational Issues Jarvis Island

Disputes - international:  none

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002



========================================================================


Dominican Republic

Introduction

Dominican Republic

Background:  A legacy of unsettled, mostly nonrepresentative, rule for
much of the 20th century was brought to an end in 1996 when free and
open elections ushered in a new government.

Geography Dominican Republic

Location:  Caribbean, eastern two-thirds of the island of Hispaniola,
between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, east of Haiti

Geographic coordinates:  19 00 N, 70 40 W

Map references:  Central America and the Caribbean

Area:  total: 48,730 sq km land: 48,380 sq km water: 350 sq km

Area - comparative:  slightly more than twice the size of New Hampshire

Land boundaries:  total: 360 km border countries: Haiti 360 km

Coastline:  1,288 km

Maritime claims:  contiguous zone: 24 NM territorial sea: 6 NM continental
shelf: 200 NM or to the edge of the continental margin exclusive economic
zone: 200 NM

Climate:  tropical maritime; little seasonal temperature variation;
seasonal variation in rainfall

Terrain:  rugged highlands and mountains with fertile valleys interspersed

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Lago Enriquillo -46 m highest point:
Pico Duarte 3,175 m

Natural resources:  nickel, bauxite, gold, silver

Land use:  arable land: 21% permanent crops: 10% other: 69% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  2,590 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:  lies in the middle of the hurricane belt and subject to
severe storms from June to October; occasional flooding; periodic droughts

Environment - current issues:  water shortages; soil eroding into the
sea damages coral reefs; deforestation; Hurricane Georges damage

Environment - international agreements:  party to: Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes,
Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Geography - note:  shares island of Hispaniola with Haiti (eastern
two-thirds is the Dominican Republic, western one-third is Haiti)

People Dominican Republic

Population:  8,721,594 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:  0-14 years: 33.7% (male 1,503,344; female 1,439,157)
15-64 years: 61.3% (male 2,720,308; female 2,621,539) 65 years and over:
5% (male 206,556; female 230,690) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  1.61% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  24.4 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  4.68 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  -3.59 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 65 years and over:
0.9 male(s)/female total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  33.41 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   75.91 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  2.94 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  2.8% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  130,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  4,900 (1999 est.)

Nationality:  noun: Dominican(s) adjective: Dominican

Ethnic groups:  white 16%, black 11%, mixed 73%

Religions:  Roman Catholic 95%

Languages:  Spanish

Literacy:  definition: age 15 and over can read and write total
population: 82.1% male: 82% female: 82.2% (1995 est.)

Government Dominican Republic

Country name:   Dominican Republic conventional short form: Government
type:  representative democracy

Capital:  Santo Domingo

Administrative divisions:  29 provinces (provincias, singular -
provincia) and 1 district* (distrito); Azua, Baoruco, Barahona, Dajabon,
Distrito Nacional*, Duarte, Elias Pina, El Seibo, Espaillat, Hato Mayor,
Independencia, La Altagracia, La Romana, La Vega, Maria Trinidad Sanchez,
Monsenor Nouel, Monte Cristi, Monte Plata, Pedernales, Peravia, Puerto
Plata, Salcedo, Samana, Sanchez Ramirez, San Cristobal, San Juan, San
Pedro de Macoris, Santiago, Santiago Rodriguez, Valverde

Independence:  27 February 1844 (from Haiti)

National holiday:  Independence Day, 27 February (1844)

Constitution:  28 November 1966

Legal system:  based on French civil codes

Suffrage:  18 years of age, universal and compulsory; married persons
regardless of age note: members of the armed forces and police cannot vote

Executive branch:  chief of state: President Rafael Hipolito MEJIA
Dominguez (since 16 August 2000); Vice President Milagros ORTIZ-BOSCH
(since 16 August 2000); note - the president is both the chief of state
and head of government head of government: President Rafael Hipolito MEJIA
Dominguez (since 16 August 2000); Vice President Milagros ORTIZ-BOSCH
(since 16 August 2000); note - the president is both the chief of state
and head of government cabinet:  elected on the same ticket by popular
vote for four-year terms; election last held 16 May 2000 (next to be
held NA May 2004) election results:  Rafael Hipolito MEJIA Dominguez
(PRD) 49.87%, Danilo MEDINA (PLD) 24.95%, Joaquin BALAGUER (PRSC) 24.6%

Legislative branch:  bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional
consists of the Senate or Senado (30 seats; members are elected by popular
vote to serve four-year terms) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camara
de Diputados (149 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve
four-year terms) elections:  Deputies - last held 16 May 1998 (next to
be held NA May 2002) election results: Senate - percent of vote by party
- NA%; seats by party - PRD 24, PLD 3, PRSC 3; Chamber of Deputies -
percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - PRD 83, PLD 49, PRSC 17

Judicial branch:  Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (judges are elected by
a Council made up of members of the legislative and executive branches
with the president presiding)

Political parties and leaders:  Dominican Liberation Party or PLD [Leonel
FERNANDEZ Reyna]; Dominican Revolutionary Party or PRD [Hatuey DE CAMPS];
Social Christian Reformist Party or PRSC [Joaquin BALAGUER Ricardo]

Political pressure groups and leaders:  Collective of Popular
Organizations or COP

International organization participation:  ACP, Caricom (observer), ECLAC,
FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (subscriber), ITU, LAES, LAIA
(observer), NAM (observer), OAS, OPANAL, OPCW (signatory), PCA, RG, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIK, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador Hugo
GUILIANI Cury consulate(s): Houston, Jacksonville, Mobile, and Ponce
(Puerto Rico) consulate(s) general:  Philadelphia, San Francisco, and
San Juan (Puerto Rico) FAX: [1] (202) 265-8057 telephone: [1] (202)
332-6280 chancery: 1715 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

Diplomatic representation from the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
Hans H. HERTELL embassy: corner of Calle Cesar Nicolas Penson and Calle
Leopoldo Navarro, Santo Domingo mailing
 [1] (809) 221-7121 FAX:
Flag description:  a centered white cross that extends to the edges
divides the flag into four rectangles - the top ones are blue (hoist side)
and red, and the bottom ones are red (hoist side) and blue; a small coat
of arms is at the center of the cross

Economy Dominican Republic

Economy - overview:  The Dominican economy experienced dramatic growth
over the last decade, even though the economy was hit hard by Hurricane
Georges in 1998.  Although the country has long been viewed primarily as
an exporter of sugar, coffee, and tobacco, in recent years the service
sector has overtaken agriculture as the economy's largest employer,
due to growth in tourism and free trade zones. The country suffers from
marked income inequality; the poorest half of the population receives
less than one-fifth of GNP, while the richest 10% enjoy 40% of national
income. A US $500 million foreign bond issue in September 2001 will
contribute to increased public investment spending.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $50 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  1.5% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $5,800 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: 11.1% industry: 34.1% services:
54.8% (2000)

Population below poverty line:  25% (1999 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: 1.6%
highest 10%: 39.6% (1989)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:  47.4 (1998)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  5% (2001 est.)

Labor force:  2.3 million - 2.6 million

Labor force - by occupation:  services and government 58.7%, industry
24.3%, agriculture 17% (1998 est.)

Unemployment rate:  15% (2001 est.)

Budget:  revenues: $2.9 billion expenditures: $3.2 billion, including
capital expenditures of $1.1 billion (2001 est.)

Industries:  tourism, sugar processing, ferronickel and gold mining,
textiles, cement, tobacco

Industrial production growth rate:  2% (2001 est.)

Electricity - production:  9.475 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 87.21% hydro: 12.53%
other: 0.26% (2000) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:  8,812.029 million kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  0 kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports:  0 kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products:  sugarcane, coffee, cotton, cocoa, tobacco, rice,
beans, potatoes, corn, bananas; cattle, pigs, dairy products, beef, eggs

Exports:  $5.5 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)

Exports - commodities:  ferronickel, sugar, gold, silver, coffee, cocoa,
tobacco, meats, consumer goods

Exports - partners:  US 87.3%, Netherlands 1.1%, Canada 0.7%, France 0.7%
(2000 est.)

Imports:  $8.7 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)

Imports - commodities:  foodstuffs, petroleum, cotton and fabrics,
chemicals and pharmaceuticals

Imports - partners:  US 60.5%, Japan 10.4%, Mexico 4.7%, Venezuela 3%
(2000 est.)

Debt - external:  $5.4 billion (2001 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:  $239.6 million (1995)

Currency:  Dominican peso (DOP)

Currency code:  DOP

Exchange rates:  Dominican pesos per US dollar - 17.310 (January 2002),
16.952 (2001), 16.415 (2000), 16.033 (1999), 15.267 (1998), 14.265 (1997)

Fiscal year:  calendar year

Communications Dominican Republic

Telephones - main lines in use:  709,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  130,149 (1997)

Telephone system:  general assessment: NA domestic: relatively efficient
system based on islandwide microwave radio relay network international: 1
coaxial submarine cable; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic
Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 120, FM 56, shortwave 4 (1998)

Radios:  1.44 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:  25 (1997)

Televisions:  770,000 (1997)

Internet country code:  .do

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  24 (2000)

Internet users:  25,000 (1999)

Transportation Dominican Republic

Railways:  total: 757 km standard gauge: 375 km 1.435-m gauge (Central
Romana Railroad) miscellaneous gauge: 240 km operated by sugar companies
in various gauges (0.558-m, 0.762-m, 1.067-m gauges) (2000 est.)
narrow gauge: 142 km 0.762-m gauge (Dominican Republic Government Railway)

Highways:  total: 12,600 km paved: 6,224 km unpaved: 6,376 km (1996)

Waterways:  none

Pipelines:  crude oil 96 km; petroleum products 8 km

Ports and harbors:  Barahona, La Romana, Manzanillo, Puerto Plata,
San Pedro de Macoris, Santo Domingo

Merchant marine:  total: 1 ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,587
GRT/1,165 DWT ships by type: cargo 1 (2002 est.)

Airports:  29 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 13 over 3,047 m: 3 2,438 to 3,047
m: 2 1,524 to 2,437 m: 4 914 to 1,523 m: 3 under 914 m: 1 (2001)

Airports - with unpaved runways:  total: 16 1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 914 to
1,523 m: 4 under 914 m: 10 (2001)

Military Dominican Republic

Military branches:  Army, Navy, Air Force, National Police

Military manpower - military age:  18 years of age (2002 est.)

Military manpower - availability:  males age 15-49: 2,323,088 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:  males age 15-49: 1,455,887
(2002 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:  males: 87,404
(2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:  $180 million (FY98)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:  1.1% (FY98)

Transnational Issues Dominican Republic

Disputes - international:  none

Illicit drugs:  transshipment point for South American drugs destined
for the US and Europe; has become a transshipment point for ecstasy from
the Netherlands and Belgium destined for US and Canada

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002



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Ecuador

Introduction

Ecuador

Background:  The "Republic of the Equator" was one of three countries
that emerged from the collapse of Gran Colombia in 1830 (the others
being Colombia and Venezuela).  Between 1904 and 1942, Ecuador lost
territories in a series of conflicts with its neighbors. A border war
with Peru that flared in 1995 was resolved in 1999.

Geography Ecuador

Location:  Western South America, bordering the Pacific Ocean at the
Equator, between Colombia and Peru

Geographic coordinates:  2 00 S, 77 30 W

Map references:  South America

Area:  total: 283,560 sq km note: includes Galapagos Islands water:
6,720 sq km land: 276,840 sq km

Area - comparative:  slightly smaller than Nevada

Land boundaries:  total: 2,010 km border countries: Colombia 590 km,
Peru 1,420 km

Coastline:  2,237 km

Maritime claims:  continental shelf: claims continental shelf between
mainland and Galapagos Islands territorial sea: 200 NM

Climate:  tropical along coast, becoming cooler inland at higher
elevations; tropical in Amazonian jungle lowlands

Terrain:  coastal plain (costa), inter-Andean central highlands (sierra),
and flat to rolling eastern jungle (oriente)

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m highest point:
Chimborazo 6,267 m

Natural resources:  petroleum, fish, timber, hydropower

Land use:  arable land: 6% permanent crops: 5% other: 89% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  8,650 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:  frequent earthquakes, landslides, volcanic activity;
floods; periodic droughts

Environment - current issues:  deforestation; soil erosion;
desertification; water pollution; pollution from oil production wastes
in ecologically sensitive areas of the Galapagos Islands

Environment - international agreements:  party to: Antarctic-Environmental
Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate
Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous
Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical
Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: none
of the selected agreements

Geography - note:  Cotopaxi in Andes is highest active volcano in world

People Ecuador

Population:  13,447,494 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:  0-14 years: 35.4% (male 2,415,764; female 2,337,095)
15-64 years: 60.2% (male 4,007,495; female 4,090,957) 65 years and over:
4.4% (male 276,482; female 319,701) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  1.96% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  25.47 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  5.36 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  -0.53 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.03
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female 65 years and over:
0.86 male(s)/female total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  33.02 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   74.57 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  3.05 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  0.3% (2001)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  20,000 (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  232 (2001)

Nationality:  noun: Ecuadorian(s) adjective: Ecuadorian

Ethnic groups:  mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 65%, Amerindian 25%,
Spanish and others 7%, black 3%

Religions:  Roman Catholic 95%

Languages:  Spanish (official), Amerindian languages (especially Quechua)

Literacy:  definition: age 15 and over can read and write total
population: 90.1% male: 92% female: 88.2% (1995 est.)

Government Ecuador

Country name:   Republic of Ecuador conventional short form: Government
type:  republic

Capital:  Quito

Administrative divisions:  22 provinces (provincias, singular -
provincia); Azuay, Bolivar, Canar, Carchi, Chimborazo, Cotopaxi, El
Oro, Esmeraldas, Galapagos, Guayas, Imbabura, Loja, Los Rios, Manabi,
Morona-Santiago, Napo, Orellana, Pastaza, Pichincha, Sucumbios,
Tungurahua, Zamora-Chinchipe

Independence:  24 May 1822 (from Spain)

National holiday:  Independence Day (independence of Quito), 10 August
(1809)

Constitution:  10 August 1998

Legal system:  based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory
ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:  18 years of age; universal, compulsory for literate persons
ages 18-65, optional for other eligible voters

Executive branch:  chief of state: President Gustavo NOBOA Bejarano
(since 22 January 2000) selected president following coup that deposed
President Jamil MAHUAD; Vice President Pedro PINTO Rubianes (since 28
January 2000) elected by National Congress from a slate of candidates
submitted by President NOBOA; note - the president is both the chief
of state and head of government elections: formerly, the president
and vice president were elected on the same ticket by popular vote for
four-year term (no reelection); election last held 31 May 1998; runoff
election held 12 July 1998 (next to be held 20 October 2002) head of
government: President Gustavo NOBOA Bejarano (since 22 January 2000)
selected president following coup that deposed President Jamil MAHUAD;
Vice President Pedro PINTO Rubianes (since 28 January 2000) elected by
National Congress from a slate of candidates submitted by President
NOBOA; note - the president is both the chief of state and head of
government cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president election results:
results of the last election prior to the coup were: Jamil MAHUAD elected
president; percent of vote - 51% note: a military-indigenous coup toppled
democratically-elected President Jamil MAHAUD on 21 January 2000; the
military quickly handed power over to Vice President Gustavo NOBOA on
22 January 2000; National Congress then elected a new vice president
from a slate of candidates submitted by NOBOA; the new administration
is scheduled to complete the remainder of MAHAUD's term, due to expire
in January 2003

Legislative branch:  unicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional
(123 seats; 20 members are popularly elected at-large nationally to
serve four-year terms; 103 members are popularly elected by province
to serve four-year terms) elections: last held 31 May 1998 (next to be
held 20 October 2002) election results: percent of vote by party - NA%;
seats by party - DP 32, PSC 27, PRE 24, ID 18, P-NP 9, FRA 5, PCE 3,
MPD 2, CFP 1; note - defections by members of National Congress are
commonplace, resulting in frequent changes in the numbers of seats held
by the various parties

Judicial branch:  Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (new justices are
elected by the full Supreme Court)

Political parties and leaders:  Concentration of Popular Forces or CFP
[Averroes BUCARAM]; Democratic Left or ID [Rodrigo BORJA Cevallos];
Ecuadorian Conservative Party or PCE [Jacinto JIJON Y CAMANO]; Independent
National Movement or MIN [Eliseo AZUERO]; Pachakutik-New Country or P-NP
[Miguel LLUCO]; Popular Democracy or DP [Dr. Juan Manuel FUERTES]; Popular
Democratic Movement or MPD [Gustavo TERAN Acosta]; Radical Alfarista Front
or FRA [Fabian ALARCON, director]; Roldosist Party or PRE [Abdala BUCARAM
Ortiz, director]; Social Christian Party or PSC [Pascual DEL CIOPPO]

Political pressure groups and leaders:  Confederation of Indigenous
Nationalities of Ecuador or CONAIE [Leonidas IZA, president]; Coordinator
of Social Movements or CMS [F. Napoleon SANTOS]; Federation of Indigenous
Evangelists of Ecuador or FEINE [Marco MURILLO, president]; National
Federation of Indigenous Afro-Ecuatorianos and Peasants or FENOCIN
[Pedro DE LA CRUZ, president]; Popular Front or FP [Luis VILLACIS]

International organization participation:  CAN, CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-77,
IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO,
ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, NAM, OAS,
OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:   Ambassador Ivonne A-BAKI
consulate(s) general:  Philadelphia, and San Francisco FAX: [1] (202)
667-3482 telephone: [1] (202) 234-7200 chancery: 2535 15th Street NW,
Washington, DC 20009

Diplomatic representation from the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
(vacant); Charge d'Affaires Larry L.  PALMER embassy: Avenida 12 de
Octubre y Avenida Patria, Quito mailing address: APO AA 34039 telephone:
[593] (2) 256-2890 FAX: [593] (2) 502-052 consulate(s) general: Guayaquil

Flag description:  three horizontal bands of yellow (top, double width),
blue, and red with the coat of arms superimposed at the center of the
flag; similar to the flag of Colombia which is shorter and does not bear
a coat of arms

Economy Ecuador

Economy - overview:  Ecuador has substantial oil resources and rich
agricultural areas. Because the country exports primary products such
as oil, bananas, and shrimp, fluctuations in world market prices can
have a substantial domestic impact. Ecuador joined the World Trade
Organization in 1996, but has failed to comply with many of its accession
commitments. The aftermath of El Nino and depressed oil market of 1997-98
drove Ecuador's economy into a free-fall in 1999. The beginning of 1999
saw the banking sector collapse, which helped precipitate an unprecedented
default on external loans later that year. Continued economic instability
drove a 70% depreciation of the currency throughout 1999, which forced
a desperate government to "dollarize" the currency regime in 2000. The
move stabilized the currency, but did not stave off the ouster of the
government. Gustavo NOBOA, who assumed the presidency in January 2000,
has managed to pass substantial economic reforms and mend relations
with international financial institutions. Ecuador completed its first
standby agreement since 1986 when the IMF Board approved a 10 December
2001 disbursement of $96 million, the final installment of a $300 million
standby credit agreement.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $39.6 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  4.3% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $3,000 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: 11% industry: 25% services:
64% (2000 est.)

Population below poverty line:  70% (2001 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: 2.2%
highest 10%: 33.8% (1995)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:  43.7 (1995)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  22% (2001 est.)

Labor force:  3.7 million (urban)

Labor force - by occupation:  agriculture 30%, industry 25%, services 45%
(2001 est.)

Unemployment rate:  14%; note - widespread underemployment (2001 est.)

Budget:  revenues: $5.6 billion expenditures: planned $5.6 billion,
including capital expenditures of $NA (2001 est.)

Industries:  petroleum, food processing, textiles, metal work, paper
products, wood products, chemicals, plastics, fishing, lumber

Industrial production growth rate:  5.1% (2001 est.)

Electricity - production:  10.395 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 25.01% hydro: 74.99%
other: 0% (2000) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:  9.667 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  0 kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports:  0 kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products:  bananas, coffee, cocoa, rice, potatoes, manioc
(tapioca), plantains, sugarcane; cattle, sheep, pigs, beef, pork, dairy
products; balsa wood; fish, shrimp

Exports:  $4.8 billion (2001 est.)

Exports - commodities:  petroleum, bananas, shrimp, coffee, cocoa,
cut flowers, fish

Exports - partners:  US 38%, Peru 6%, Chile 5%, Colombia 5%, Italy 3%
(2000)

Imports:  $4.8 billion (2001 est.)

Imports - commodities:  machinery and equipment, chemicals, raw materials,
fuels; consumer goods

Imports - partners:  US 25%, Colombia 13%, Japan 8%, Venezuela 8%,
Brazil 4% (2000)

Debt - external:  $14 billion (2001)

Economic aid - recipient:  $120 million (2001)

Currency:  US dollar (USD)

Currency code:  USD

Exchange rates:  sucres per US dollar - 25,000.0 (January 2002), 25,000.0
(2001), 24,988.4 (2000), 11,786.8 (1999), 5,446.6 (1998), 3,988.3 (1997)
note: on 13 March 2000, the National Congress approved a new exchange
system whereby the US dollar was adopted as the main legal tender in
Ecuador for all purposes; on 20 March 2000, the Central Bank of Ecuador
started to exchange sucres for US dollars at a fixed rate of 25,000 sucres
per US dollar; since 30 April 2000, all transactions are denominated in
US dollars

Fiscal year:  calendar year

Communications Ecuador

Telephones - main lines in use:  1,115,272 (1999)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  384,000 (1999)

Telephone system:   generally elementary but being expanded domestic:
earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 392, FM 35, shortwave 29 (2001)

Radios:  5 million (2001)

Television broadcast stations:  7 (plus 14 repeaters) (2001)

Televisions:  2.5 million (2001)

Internet country code:  .ec

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  31 (2001)

Internet users:  180,000 (2001)

Transportation Ecuador

Railways:  total: 965 km narrow gauge: 965 km 1.067-m gauge (2000 est.)

Highways:  total: 43,197 km paved: 8,165 km unpaved: 35,032 km (2001)

Waterways:  1,500 km

Pipelines:  crude oil 800 km; petroleum products 1,358 km

Ports and harbors:  Esmeraldas, Guayaquil, La Libertad, Manta, Puerto
Bolivar, San Lorenzo

Merchant marine:  total: 33 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 239,876
GRT/393,680 DWT note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here
as a flag of convenience: Chile 1, Greece 1 (2002 est.)  ships by type:
cargo 2, chemical tanker 3, liquefied gas 1, passenger 3, petroleum
tanker 23, specialized tanker 1

Airports:  205 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 61 over 3,047 m: 2 2,438 to 3,047
m: 5 914 to 1,523 m: 17 under 914 m: 19 (2001) 1,524 to 2,437 m: 18

Airports - with unpaved runways:  total: 144 914 to 1,523 m: 31 under
914 m: 113 (2001)

Heliports:  1 (2001)

Military Ecuador

Military branches:  Army, Navy (including Marines), Air Force, National
Police

Military manpower - military age:  20 years of age (2002 est.)

Military manpower - availability:  males age 15-49: 3,468,678 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:  males age 15-49: 2,337,944
(2002 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:  males: 132,978
(2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:  $720 million (FY98)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:  3.4% (FY98)

Transnational Issues Ecuador

Disputes - international:  none

Illicit drugs:  significant transit country for cocaine originating in
Colombia and Peru; importer of precursor chemicals used in production
of illicit narcotics; important money-laundering hub; increased activity
on the northern frontier by trafficking groups and Colombian insurgents

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002



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Egypt

Introduction

Egypt

Background:  Nominally independent from the UK in 1922, Egypt acquired
full sovereignty following World War II. The completion of the Aswan High
Dam in 1971 and the resultant Lake Nasser have altered the time-honored
place of the Nile river in the agriculture and ecology of Egypt. A
rapidly growing population (the largest in the Arab world), limited arable
land, and dependence on the Nile all continue to overtax resources and
stress society. The government has struggled to ready the economy for
the new millennium through economic reform and massive investment in
communications and physical infrastructure.

Geography Egypt

Location:  Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between
Libya and the Gaza Strip

Geographic coordinates:  27 00 N, 30 00 E

Map references:  Africa

Area:  total: 1,001,450 sq km land: 995,450 sq km water: 6,000 sq km

Area - comparative:  slightly more than three times the size of New Mexico

Land boundaries:  total: 2,665 km border countries: Gaza Strip 11 km,
Israel 266 km, Libya 1,115 km, Sudan 1,273 km

Coastline:  2,450 km

Maritime claims:  contiguous zone: 24 NM territorial sea: 12 NM
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation exclusive
economic zone: 200 NM

Climate:  desert; hot, dry summers with moderate winters

Terrain:  vast desert plateau interrupted by Nile valley and delta

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Qattara Depression -133 m highest
point: Mount Catherine 2,629 m

Natural resources:  petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates,
manganese, limestone, gypsum, talc, asbestos, lead, zinc

Land use:  arable land: 3% permanent crops: 0% other: 97% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  33,000 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:  periodic droughts; frequent earthquakes, flash floods,
landslides; hot, driving windstorm called khamsin occurs in spring;
dust storms, sandstorms

Environment - current issues:  agricultural land being lost to
urbanization and windblown sands; increasing soil salination below Aswan
High Dam; desertification; oil pollution threatening coral reefs, beaches,
and marine habitats; other water pollution from agricultural pesticides,
raw sewage, and industrial effluents; very limited natural fresh water
resources away from the Nile which is the only perennial water source;
rapid growth in population overstraining the Nile and natural resources

Environment - international agreements:  party to: Biodiversity, Climate
Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification,
Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban,
Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical
Timber 94, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Geography - note:  controls
Sinai Peninsula, only land bridge between Africa and remainder of Eastern
Hemisphere; controls Suez Canal, shortest sea link between Indian Ocean
and Mediterranean Sea; size, and juxtaposition to Israel, establish
its major role in Middle Eastern geopolitics; dependence on upstream
neighbors; dominance of Nile basin issues; prone to influxes of refugees

People Egypt

Population:  70,712,345 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:   33.96% (male 12,292,185; female 11,721,469) 15-64 years:
(male 1,191,091; female 1,541,459) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  1.66% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  24.41 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  7.58 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  -0.24 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female 65 years and over:
0.77 male(s)/female total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  58.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   66.24 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  2.99 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  0.02% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  NA

Nationality:  noun: Egyptian(s) adjective: Egyptian

Ethnic groups:  Eastern Hamitic stock (Egyptians, Bedouins, and Berbers)
99%, Greek, Nubian, Armenian, other European (primarily Italian and
French) 1%

Religions:  Muslim (mostly Sunni) 94%, Coptic Christian and other 6%

Languages:  Arabic (official), English and French widely understood by
educated classes

Literacy:  definition: age 15 and over can read and write total
population: 51.4% male: 63.6% female: 38.8% (1995 est.)

Government Egypt

Country name:   Arab Republic of Egypt conventional short form:  local
long form: Jumhuriyat Misr al-Arabiyah

Government type:  republic

Capital:  Cairo

Administrative divisions:  26 governorates (muhafazat, singular -
muhafazah); Ad Daqahliyah, Al Bahr al Ahmar, Al Buhayrah, Al Fayyum,
Al Gharbiyah, Al Iskandariyah, Al Isma'iliyah, Al Jizah, Al Minufiyah,
Al Minya, Al Qahirah, Al Qalyubiyah, Al Wadi al Jadid, Ash Sharqiyah,
As Suways, Aswan, Asyut, Bani Suwayf, Bur Sa'id, Dumyat, Janub Sina',
Kafr ash Shaykh, Matruh, Qina, Shamal Sina', Suhaj

Independence:  28 February 1922 (from UK)

National holiday:  Revolution Day, 23 July (1952)

Constitution:  11 September 1971

Legal system:  based on English common law, Islamic law, and Napoleonic
codes; judicial review by Supreme Court and Council of State (oversees
validity of administrative decisions); accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage:  18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:  chief of state: President Mohammed Hosni MUBARAK (since
14 October 1981) head of government: Prime Minister Atef Mohammed ABEID
(since 5
 Cabinet appointed by the president elections:  nomination must then be
 validated by a national, popular referendum;
national referendum last held 26 September 1999 (next to be held
NA October 2005); prime minister appointed by the president election
results: national referendum validated President MUBARAK's nomination
by the People's Assembly to a fourth term

Legislative branch:  bicameral system consists of the People's Assembly or
Majlis al-Sha'b (454 seats; 444 elected by popular vote, 10 appointed by
the president; members serve five-year terms) and the Advisory Council
or Majlis al-Shura - which functions only in a consultative role (264
seats; 176 elected by popular vote, 88 appointed by the president; members
serve NA-year terms) elections: People's Assembly - three-phase voting -
last held 19 October, 29 October, 8 November 2000 (next to be held NA
November 2005); Advisory Council - last held 7 June 1995 (next to be
held NA) election results:  opposition 4%; seats by party - NDP 398,
NWP 7, Tagammu 6, Nasserists 2, LSP 1, independents 38, undecided 2;
Advisory Council - percent of vote by party - NDP 99%, independents 1%;
seats by party - NA

Judicial branch:  Supreme Constitutional Court

Political parties and leaders:  Nasserist Arab Democratic Party
or Nasserists [Dia' al-din DAWUD]; National Democratic Party or NDP
[President Mohammed Hosni MUBARAK] - governing party; National Progressive
Unionist Grouping or Tagammu [Khalid MUHI AL-DIN]; New Wafd Party or
NWP [No'man GOMA]; Socialist Liberal Party or LSP [leader NA] note:
formation of political parties must be approved by the government

Political pressure groups and leaders:  despite a constitutional
ban against religious-based parties, the technically illegal Muslim
Brotherhood constitutes MUBARAK's potentially most significant
political opposition; MUBARAK tolerated limited political activity by
the Brotherhood for his first two terms, but moved more aggressively
since then to block its influence; civic society groups are sanctioned,
but constrained in practical terms; trade unions and professional
associations are officially sanctioned

International organization participation:  ABEDA, ACC, ACCT, AfDB,
AFESD, AL, AMF, BSEC (observer), CAEU, CCC, EBRD, ECA, ESCWA, FAO,
G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD,
IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO,
MONUC, NAM, OAPEC, OAS (observer), OAU, OIC, OSCE (partner), PCA, UN,
UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOP, UNOMIG,
UNRWA, UNTAET, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
M. Nabil FAHMY chancery: 3521 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, New York, and San Francisco FAX:
[1] (202) 244-4319 telephone: [1] (202) 895-5440

Diplomatic representation from the US:   Ambassador C. David WELCH
(since 3 Aug. 2001) embassy:  APO AE 09839-4900 telephone: [20] (2)
797-3300 FAX: [20] (2) 797-3200

Flag description:  three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and
black with the national emblem (a shield superimposed on a golden eagle
facing the hoist side above a scroll bearing the name of the country in
Arabic) centered in the white band; similar to the flag of Yemen, which
has a plain white band; also similar to the flag of Syria, which has two
green stars, and to the flag of Iraq, which has three green stars (plus
an Arabic inscription) in a horizontal line centered in the white band

Economy Egypt

Economy - overview:  Egypt improved its macroeconomic performance
throughout most of the last decade by following IMF advice on fiscal,
monetary, and structural reform policies. As a result, Cairo managed
to tame inflation, slash budget deficits, and attract more foreign
investment. In the past three years, however, the pace of reform has
slackened, and excessive spending on national infrastructure projects
has widened budget deficits again. Lower foreign exchange earnings since
1998 resulted in pressure on the Egyptian pound and periodic dollar
shortages. Monetary pressures have increased since 11 September 2001
because of declines in tourism, Suez canal tolls, and exports, and Cairo
has devalued the pound several times in the past year.  The development
of a gas export market is a major bright spot for future growth prospects.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $258 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  2.5% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $3,700 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: 14% industry: 30% services:
56% (2001)

Population below poverty line:  22.9% (FY95/96 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: 4.4%
highest 10%: 25% (1995)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:  28.9 (1995)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  2.3% (2001)

Labor force:  20.6 million (2001 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:  agriculture 29%, industry 22%, services 49%
(2000 est.)

Unemployment rate:  12% (2001 est.)

Budget:  revenues: $21.5 billion expenditures: $26.2 billion, including
capital expenditures of $5.9 billion (2001)

Industries:  textiles, food processing, tourism, chemicals, hydrocarbons,
construction, cement, metals

Industrial production growth rate:  1.8% (2001 est.)

Electricity - production:  69.592 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 77.1% hydro: 22.9%
other: 0% (2000) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:  64.721 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  0 kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports:  0 kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products:  cotton, rice, corn, wheat, beans, fruits,
vegetables; cattle, water buffalo, sheep, goats

Exports:  $7.1 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)

Exports - commodities:  crude oil and petroleum products, cotton,
textiles, metal products, chemicals

Exports - partners:  EU 43% (Italy 18%, Germany 4%, UK 3.2%), US 15%,
Middle East 11%, Asian countries 9%, (2000)

Imports:  $164 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)

Imports - commodities:  machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals,
wood products, fuels

Imports - partners:  EU 36% (Germany 8%, Italy 8%, France 6%), US 18%,
Asian countries 13%, , Middle East 6% (2000)

Debt - external:  $29 billion (2001 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:  ODA, $2.25 billion (1999)

Currency:  Egyptian pound (EGP)

Currency code:  EGP

Exchange rates:  Egyptian pounds per US dollar - market rate - 4.5000
(January 2002), 4.4900 (2001), 3.6900 (2000), 3.4050 (1999), 3.3880
(1998), 3.3880 (1997)

Fiscal year:  1 July - 30 June

Communications Egypt

Telephones - main lines in use:  3,971,500 (December 1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  380,000 (1999)

Telephone system:  general assessment: large system; underwent extensive
upgrading during 1990s and is reasonably modern; Internet access and
cellular service are available domestic: principal centers at Alexandria,
Cairo, Al Mansurah, Ismailia, Suez, and Tanta are connected by coaxial
cable and microwave radio relay international: satellite earth stations -
2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean), 1 Arabsat, and 1 Inmarsat;
5 coaxial submarine cables; tropospheric scatter to Sudan; microwave
radio relay to Israel; a participant in Medarabtel and a signatory to
Project Oxygen (a global submarine fiber-optic cable system)

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 42 (plus 15 repeaters), FM 14, shortwave 3
(1999)

Radios:  20.5 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:  98 (September 1995)

Televisions:  7.7 million (1997)

Internet country code:  .eg

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  50 (2000)

Internet users:  560,000 (2001)

Transportation Egypt

Railways:  total: 4,955 km standard gauge: 4,955 km 1,435-m gauge (42
km electrified; 1,560 km double-track) (2000 est.)

Highways:  total: 64,000 km paved: 50,000 km unpaved: 14,000 km (1996)

Waterways:  3,500 km note: including the Nile, Lake Nasser,
Alexandria-Cairo Waterway, and numerous smaller canals in the delta;
Suez Canal (193.5 km including approaches), used by oceangoing vessels
drawing up to 16.1 m of water

Pipelines:  crude oil 1,171 km; petroleum products 596 km; natural gas
460 km

Ports and harbors:  Alexandria, Al Ghardaqah, Aswan, Asyut, Bur Safajah,
Damietta, Marsa Matruh, Port Said, Suez

Merchant marine:  total: 175 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,331,186
GRT/1,987,964 DWT ships by type: bulk 23, cargo 58, container 2, liquefied
gas 1, passenger 61, petroleum tanker 14, roll on/roll off 13, short-sea
passenger 3 note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here
as a flag of convenience:, Denmark 1, Germany 1, Greece 6, Lebanon 3,
Monaco 1, Ukraine 1 (2002 est.)

Airports:  92 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 72 over 3,047 m: 13 2,438 to
3,047 m: 37 914 to 1,523 m: 2 under 914 m: 3 (2001) 1,524 to 2,437 m: 17

Airports - with unpaved runways:  total: 20 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 1,524
to 2,437 m: 2 under 914 m: 10 (2001) 914 to 1,523 m: 7

Heliports:  2 (2001)

Military Egypt

Military branches:  Army, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense Command

Military manpower - military age:  20 years of age (2002 est.)

Military manpower - availability:  males age 15-49: 19,030,030 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:  males age 15-49: 12,320,902
(2002 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:  males: 712,983
(2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:  $4.04 billion (FY99/00)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:  4.1% (FY99/00)

Transnational Issues Egypt

Disputes - international:  Egypt and Sudan each claim to administer
triangular areas which extend north and south of the 1899 Treaty boundary
along the 22nd Parallel (in the north, the "Hala'ib Triangle", is the
largest with 20,580 sq km); in 2001, the two states agreed to discuss an
"area of integration" and withdraw military forces in the overlapping
areas

Illicit drugs:  transit point for Southwest Asian and Southeast Asian
heroin and opium moving to Europe, Africa, and the US; transit stop for
Nigerian couriers

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002



========================================================================


Ireland

Introduction

Ireland

Background:  A failed 1916 Easter Monday Rebellion touched off several
years of guerrilla warfare that in 1921 resulted in independence from
the UK for the 26 southern counties; the six northern counties (Ulster)
remained part of Great Britain. In 1948 Ireland withdrew from the
British Commonwealth; it joined the European Community in 1973. Irish
governments have sought the peaceful unification of Ireland and have
cooperated with Britain against terrorist groups. A peace settlement
for Northern Ireland, known as the Good Friday Agreement and approved
in 1998, is currently being implemented.

Geography Ireland

Location:  Western Europe, occupying five-sixths of the island of Ireland
in the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Great Britain

Geographic coordinates:  53 00 N, 8 00 W

Map references:  Europe

Area:  total: 70,280 sq km water: 1,390 sq km land: 68,890 sq km

Area - comparative:  slightly larger than West Virginia

Land boundaries:  total: 360 km border countries: UK 360 km

Coastline:  1,448 km

Maritime claims:  exclusive fishing zone: 200 NM territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate:  temperate maritime; modified by North Atlantic Current; mild
winters, cool summers; consistently humid; overcast about half the time

Terrain:  mostly level to rolling interior plain surrounded by rugged
hills and low mountains; sea cliffs on west coast

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point:
Carrauntoohil 1,041 m

Natural resources:  zinc, lead, natural gas, barite, copper, gypsum,
limestone, dolomite, peat, silver

Land use:  arable land: 20% permanent crops: 0% other: 80% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  NA sq km

Natural hazards:  NA

Environment - current issues:  water pollution, especially of lakes,
from agricultural runoff

Environment - international agreements:  party to: Air Pollution,
Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Desertification, Environmental Modification, Hazardous
Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94,
Wetlands, Whaling signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent
Organic Pollutants, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Endangered Species,
Marine Life Conservation

Geography - note:  strategic location on major air and sea routes between
North America and northern Europe; over 40% of the population resides
within 97 km of Dublin

People Ireland

Population:  3,883,159 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:  0-14 years: 21.3% (male 425,366; female 403,268) 15-64
years: 67.3% (male 1,307,469; female 1,305,038) 65 years and over: 11.4%
(male 191,927; female 250,091) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  1.07% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  14.62 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  8.01 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  4.12 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.77
male(s)/female total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  5.43 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   80.12 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  1.9 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  0.1% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  2,200 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  less than 100 (1999 est.)

Nationality:  noun: Irishman(men), Irishwoman(women), Irish (collective
plural) adjective: Irish

Ethnic groups:  Celtic, English

Religions:  Roman Catholic 91.6%, Church of Ireland 2.5%, other 5.9%
(1998)

Languages:  English is the language generally used, Irish (Gaelic)
spoken mainly in areas located along the western seaboard

Literacy:  definition: age 15 and over can read and write total
population: 98% (1981 est.)  male: NA% female: NA%

Government Ireland

Country name:  conventional long form: none conventional short form:
Ireland

Government type:  republic

Capital:  Dublin

Administrative divisions:  26 counties; Carlow, Cavan, Clare, Cork,
Donegal, Dublin, Galway, Kerry, Kildare, Kilkenny, Laois, Leitrim,
Limerick, Longford, Louth, Mayo, Meath, Monaghan, Offaly, Roscommon,
Sligo, Tipperary, Waterford, Westmeath, Wexford, Wicklow

Independence:  6 December 1921 (from UK by treaty)

National holiday:  Saint Patrick's Day, 17 March

Constitution:  29 December 1937; adopted 1 July 1937 by plebiscite

Legal system:  based on English common law, substantially modified by
indigenous concepts; judicial review of legislative acts in Supreme Court;
has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:  chief of state: President Mary MCALEESE (since 11
November 1997) head of
 Prime Minister Bertie AHERN (since 26 June 1997) cabinet:  prime minister
 and approval of the House of Representatives elections:  held 31 October
 1997 (next to be held NA November 2004); prime minister
nominated by the House of Representatives and appointed by the president
note: government coalition - Fianna Fail and the Progressive Democrats
election results: Mary MCALEESE elected president; percent of vote -
Mary MCALEESE 44.8%, Mary BANOTTI 29.6%

Legislative branch:  bicameral Parliament or Oireachtas consists of the
Senate or Seanad Eireann (60 seats - 49 elected by the universities and
from candidates put forward by five vocational panels, 11 are nominated
by the prime minister; members serve five-year terms) and the House of
Representatives or Dail Eireann (166 seats; members are elected by popular
vote on the basis of proportional representation to serve five-year terms)
election results:  Fine Gael 16, Labor Party 4, Progressive Democrats
4, others 7; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA%;
seats by party - Fianna Fail 80, Fine Gael 31, Labor Party 21, Progressive
Democrats 8, Green Party 6, Sinn Fein 5, others 15 elections: Senate -
last held NA August 1997 (next to be held NA August 2002); House of
Representatives - last held 17 May 2002 (next to be held NA May 2007)

Judicial branch:  Supreme Court (judges appointed by the president on
the advice of the prime minister and cabinet)

Political parties and leaders:  Fianna Fail [Bertie AHERN]; Fine Gael
[Michael NOONAN]; Green Party [Trevor SARGENT]; Labor Party [Ruairi
QUINN]; Progressive Democrats [Mary HARNEY]; Sinn Fein [Gerry ADAMS];
Socialist Party [Joe HIGGINS]; The Workers' Party [Tom FRENCH]

Political pressure groups and leaders:  NA

International organization participation:  Australia Group, BIS, CCC,
CE, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC,
ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC,
IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, MINURSO, MONUC, NAM (guest), NEA, NSG, OAS
(observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UN Security Council (temporary),
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNMEE,
UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOP, UNTAET, UNTSO, UPU, WEU (observer), WHO, WIPO,
WMO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador Sean
O'HUIGINN chancery: 2234 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, New York, and San Francisco FAX:
[1] (202) 232-5993 telephone: [1] (202) 462-3939

Diplomatic representation from the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
Richard J. EGAN embassy: 42 Elgin Road, Ballsbridge, Dublin 4 mailing
address: use embassy street address telephone: [353] (1) 668-7122/668-8777
FAX: [353] (1) 668-9946

Flag description:  three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side),
white, and orange; similar to the flag of Cote d'Ivoire, which is shorter
and has the colors reversed - orange (hoist side), white, and green;
also similar to the flag of Italy, which is shorter and has colors of
green (hoist side), white, and red

Economy Ireland

Economy - overview:  Ireland is a small, modern, trade-dependent economy
with growth averaging a robust 9% in 1995-2001. Agriculture, once the
most important sector, is now dwarfed by industry, which accounts
for 38% of GDP, about 80% of exports, and employs 28% of the labor
force. Although exports remain the primary engine for Ireland's robust
growth, the economy is also benefiting from a rise in consumer spending
and recovery in both construction and business investment. Over the past
decade, the Irish government has implemented a series of national economic
programs designed to curb inflation, reduce government spending, increase
labor force skills, and promote foreign investment.  Ireland joined in
launching the euro currency system in January 1999 along with 10 other
EU nations. The economy felt the impact of the global economic slowdown
in 2001, particularly in the high-tech export sector; the growth rate was
cut by nearly half. Growth in 2002 is expected to fall in the 3%-5% range.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $104.7 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  5.6% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $27,300 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: 4% industry: 38% services: 58%
(2000)

Population below poverty line:  10% (1997 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: 2%
highest 10%: 27.3% (1997)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:  35.9 (1987)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  4.9% (2001)

Labor force:  1.8 million (2001)

Labor force - by occupation:  services 64%, industry 28%, agriculture 8%
(2000 est.)

Unemployment rate:  4.3% (2001)

Budget:  revenues: $34 billion expenditures: $27 billion, including
capital expenditures of $NA (2001)

Industries:  food products, brewing, textiles, clothing; chemicals,
pharmaceuticals, machinery, transportation equipment, glass and crystal;
software

Industrial production growth rate:  6.5% (2001 est.)

Electricity - production:  22.285 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 94.86% hydro: 3.77%
other: 1.37% (2000) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:  20.823 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  71 million kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports:  169 million kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products:  turnips, barley, potatoes, sugar beets, wheat;
beef, dairy products

Exports:  $75.9 billion (f.o.b., 2001)

Exports - commodities:  machinery and equipment, computers, chemicals,
pharmaceuticals; live animals, animal products

Exports - partners:  EU 63% (UK 20%, Germany 11%, France 8%, Netherlands
6%, Belgium 5%), US 20% (2000)

Imports:  $49.5 billion (f.o.b., 2001)

Imports - commodities:  data processing equipment, other machinery and
equipment, chemicals; petroleum and petroleum products, textiles, clothing

Imports - partners:  EU 61% (UK 33%, Germany 6%, France 5%, Netherlands
4%), US 16%, Japan 4% (2000)

Debt - external:  $11 billion (1998)

Economic aid - donor:  ODA, $283 million (2001)

Currency:  euro (EUR); Irish pound (IEP) note: on 1 January 1999, the
European Monetary Union introduced the euro as a common currency to be
used by financial institutions of member countries; on 1 January 2002,
the euro became the sole currency for everyday transactions within the
member countries

Currency code:  EUR; IEP

Exchange rates:  euros per US dollar - 1.1324 (January 2002), 1.1175
(2001), 1.0854 (2000), 0.9386 (1999); Irish pounds per US dollar - 0.7014
(1998), 0.6588 (1997)

Fiscal year:  calendar year

Communications Ireland

Telephones - main lines in use:  1.59 million (2001)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  2 million (2001)

Telephone system:  general assessment: modern digital system using cable
and microwave radio relay domestic: microwave radio relay international:
satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 9, FM 106, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios:  2.55 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:  4 (many low-power repeaters) (2001)

Televisions:  1.82 million (2001)

Internet country code:  .ie

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  22 (2000)

Internet users:  1.25 million (2001)

Transportation Ireland

Railways:  total: 3,314 km broad gauge: 1,949 km 1.600-m gauge (38 km
electrified; 485 km double-tracked) narrow gauge: 1,365 km 0.914-m gauge
(operated by the Irish Peat Board to transport peat to power stations
and briqueting plants) (2001)

Highways:  total: 92,500 km paved: 87,043 km (including 115 km of
expressways) unpaved: 5,457 km (1999 est.)

Waterways:  700 km (limited facilities for commercial traffic) (1998)

Pipelines:  natural gas 7,592 km (transmission 1,158 km; distribution
6,434 km) (2000)

Ports and harbors:  Arklow, Cork, Drogheda, Dublin, Foynes, Galway,
Limerick, New Ross, Waterford

Merchant marine:  total: 26 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 110,741
GRT/127,342 DWT note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here
as a flag of convenience: Germany 2 (2002 est.)  ships by type: bulk 4,
cargo 20, container 1, short-sea passenger 1

Airports:  41 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 17 over 3,047 m: 1 2,438 to 3,047
m: 1 1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 914 to 1,523 m: 5 under 914 m: 7 (2001)

Airports - with unpaved runways:  total: 24 914 to 1,523 m: 2 under 914 m:
22 (2001)

Military Ireland

Military branches:  Army (including Naval Service and Air Corps),
National Police (Garda Siochana)

Military manpower - military age:  17 years of age (2002 est.)

Military manpower - availability:  males age 15-49: 1,013,739 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:  males age 15-49: 816,744
(2002 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:  males: 32,287
(2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:  $700 million (FY00/01)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:  0.9% (FY00/01)

Transnational Issues Ireland

Disputes - international:  disputes with Iceland, Denmark, and the UK
over the Faroe Islands continental shelf boundary outside 200 NM

Illicit drugs:  transshipment point for and consumer of hashish from
North Africa to the UK and Netherlands and of European-produced synthetic
drugs; minor transshipment point for heroin and cocaine destined for
Western Europe

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002



========================================================================


Equatorial Guinea

Introduction

Equatorial Guinea

Background:  Composed of a mainland portion and five inhabited islands,
Equatorial Guinea, which gained independence in 1968 after 190 years
of Spanish rule, has been ruled by President OBIANG NGUEM MBASOGO since
he seized power in a coup in 1979. Although nominally a constitutional
democracy since 1991, the 1996 presidential and 1999 legislative elections
were widely seen as being flawed.

Geography Equatorial Guinea

Location:  Western Africa, bordering the Bight of Biafra, between Cameroon
and Gabon

Geographic coordinates:  2 00 N, 10 00 E

Map references:  Africa

Area:  total: 28,051 sq km water: 0 sq km land: 28,051 sq km

Area - comparative:  slightly smaller than Maryland

Land boundaries:  total: 539 km border countries: Cameroon 189 km,
Gabon 350 km

Coastline:  296 km

Maritime claims:  exclusive economic zone: 200 NM territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate:  tropical; always hot, humid

Terrain:  coastal plains rise to interior hills; islands are volcanic

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point:
Pico Basile 3,008 m

Natural resources:  oil, petroleum, timber, small unexploited deposits
of gold, manganese, uranium

Land use:  arable land: 5% permanent crops: 3% other: 92% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  NA sq km

Natural hazards:  violent windstorms, flash floods

Environment - current issues:  tap water is not potable; deforestation

Environment - international agreements:  party to: Biodiversity, Climate
Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Law of the Sea, Ship Pollution signed, but not ratified: none
of the selected agreements

Geography - note:  insular and continental regions rather widely separated

People Equatorial Guinea

Population:  498,144 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:  0-14 years: 42.4% (male 106,061; female 105,071) 15-64
years: 53.8% (male 128,489; female 139,732) 65 years and over: 3.8%
(male 8,385; female 10,406) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  2.45% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  37.33 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  12.83 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  NEGL migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.01
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female 65 years and over:
0.81 male(s)/female total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  90.96 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   56.5 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  4.81 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  0.51% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  1,100 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  120 (1999 est.)

Nationality:  noun: Equatorial Guinean(s) or Equatoguinean(s) adjective:
Equatorial Guinean or Equatoguinean

Ethnic groups:  Bioko (primarily Bubi, some Fernandinos), Rio Muni
(primarily Fang), Europeans less than 1,000, mostly Spanish

Religions:  nominally Christian and predominantly Roman Catholic,
pagan practices

Languages:  Spanish (official), French (official), pidgin English, Fang,
Bubi, Ibo

Literacy:  definition: age 15 and over can read and write total
population: 78.5% male: 89.6% female: 68.1% (1995 est.)

Government Equatorial Guinea

Country name:  conventional long form: Republic of Equatorial Guinea
conventional short form: Equatorial Guinea local short form: Guinea
Ecuatorial local long form: Republica de Guinea Ecuatorial former:
Spanish Guinea

Government type:  republic

Capital:  Malabo

Administrative divisions:  7 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia);
Annobon, Bioko Norte, Bioko Sur, Centro Sur, Kie-Ntem, Litoral, Wele-Nzas

Independence:  12 October 1968 (from Spain)

National holiday:  Independence Day, 12 October (1968)

Constitution:  approved by national referendum 17 November 1991; amended
January 1995

Legal system:  partly based on Spanish civil law and tribal custom

Suffrage:  18 years of age; universal adult

Executive branch:  chief of state: President Brig. Gen. (Ret.) Teodoro
OBIANG NGUEMA MBASOGO (since 3 August 1979 when he seized power in
a military coup) elections: president elected by popular vote for a
seven-year term; election last held 25 February 1996 (next to be held
NA February 2003); prime minister and deputy prime ministers appointed
by the president election results: President Teodoro OBIANG NGUEMA
MBASOGO reelected with 98% of the popular vote in elections marred
by widespread fraud cabinet:  Prime Minister Candido Muatetema RIVAS
(since 26 February 2001); First Deputy Prime Minister Miguel OYONO NDONG
(since NA January 1998); Deputy Prime Minister Demetrio Elo NDONG NZE FUMU
(since NA January 1998)

Legislative branch:  unicameral House of People's Representatives or
Camara de Representantes del Pueblo (80 seats; members directly elected by
popular vote to serve five-year terms) elections: last held 7 March 1999
(next to be held NA March 2004) election results: percent of vote by party
- PDGE 80%, UP 6%, CPDS 5%; seats by party - PDGE 75, UP 4 and CPDS 1
note: opposition parties have refused to take up their seats in the House
to protest widespread irregularities in the 1999 legislative elections

Judicial branch:  Supreme Tribunal

Political parties and leaders:  Convergence Party for Social Democracy
or CPDS [Placido MIKO Abogo]; Democratic Party for Equatorial Guinea or
PDGE (ruling party) [Teodoro OBIANG NGUEMA MBASOGO]; Party for Progress
of Equatorial Guinea or PPGE [Severo MOTO]; Popular Action of Equatorial
Guinea or APGE [Miguel Esono EMAN]; Popular Union or UP [Andres Moises Bda
ADA]; Progressive Democratic Alliance or ADP [Victorino Bolekia BONAY];
Union of Independent Democrats of UDI [Daniel OYONO]

Political pressure groups and leaders:  NA

International organization participation:  ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC,
CEEAC, CEMAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC,
IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAS (observer), OAU,
OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WToO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador Teodoro
BIYOGO NSUE chancery: 2020 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009 FAX:
[1] (202) 528-5252 telephone: [1] (202) 518-5700

Diplomatic representation from the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
George McDade STAPLES; note - the US does not have an embassy in
Equatorial Guinea (embassy closed September 1995); the US ambassador to
Cameroon is accredited to Equatorial Guinea; the US State Department is
considering opening a Consulate Agency in Malabo

Flag description:  three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white,
and red with a blue isosceles triangle based on the hoist side and the
coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms has six yellow
six-pointed stars (representing the mainland and five offshore islands)
above a gray shield bearing a silk-cotton tree and below which is a
scroll with the motto UNIDAD, PAZ, JUSTICIA (Unity, Peace, Justice)

Economy Equatorial Guinea

Economy - overview:  The discovery and exploitation of large oil reserves
have contributed to dramatic economic growth in recent years. Forestry,
farming, and fishing are also major components of GDP. Subsistence
farming predominates.  Although pre-independence Equatorial Guinea
counted on cocoa production for hard currency earnings, the neglect
of the rural economy under successive regimes has diminished potential
for agriculture-led growth (the government has stated its intention to
reinvest some oil revenue into agriculture). A number of aid programs
sponsored by the World Bank and the IMF have been cut off since
1993 because of corruption and mismanagement. No longer eligible for
concessional financing because of large oil revenues, the government
has been unsuccessfully trying to agree on a "shadow" fiscal management
program with the World Bank and IMF.  Businesses, for the most part,
are owned by government officials and their family members. Undeveloped
natural resources include titanium, iron ore, manganese, uranium, and
alluvial gold. Boosts in production and higher world oil prices stimulated
growth in 2002, with oil accounting for 90% of increased exports.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $1.04 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  6% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $2,100 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: 20% industry: 60% services:
20% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line:  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  6% (2001 est.)

Labor force:  NA

Unemployment rate:  30% (1998 est.)

Budget:  revenues: $200 million expenditures: $158 million, including
capital expenditures of $NA (2001 est.)

Industries:  petroleum, fishing, sawmilling, natural gas

Industrial production growth rate:  7.4% (1994 est.)

Electricity - production:  22 million kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 90.91% hydro: 9.09%
other: 0% (2000) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:  20.46 million kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  0 kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports:  0 kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products:  coffee, cocoa, rice, yams, cassava (tapioca),
bananas, palm oil nuts; livestock; timber

Exports:  $2.1 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)

Exports - commodities:  petroleum, timber, cocoa

Exports - partners:  China 24%, Japan 7%, US 7%, South Korea 5% (1999)

Imports:  $736 million (f.o.b., 2001)

Imports - commodities:  petroleum sector equipment, manufactured goods
and equipment

Imports - partners:  US 60%, France 12%, Spain 8%, Italy 6% (1999)

Debt - external:  $225 million (2000 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:  $33.8 million (1995)

Currency:  Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XAF); note - responsible
authority is the Bank of the Central African States

Currency code:  XAF

Exchange rates:  Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XAF) per US
dollar - 742.79 (January 2002), 733.04 (2001), 711.98 (2000), 615.70
(1999), 589.95 (1998), 583.67 (1997); note - from 1 January 1999, the
XAF is pegged to the euro at a rate of 655.957 XAF per euro

Fiscal year:  1 January - 31 December

Communications Equatorial Guinea

Telephones - main lines in use:  4,000 (1996)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  NA

Telephone system:  general assessment: poor system with adequate
government services domestic: NA international: international
communications from Bata and Malabo to African and European countries;
satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 0, FM 3, shortwave 5 (2002)

Radios:  180,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:  1 (2002)

Televisions:  4,000 (1997)

Internet country code:  .gq

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  1 (2000)

Internet users:  600 (2000)

Transportation Equatorial Guinea

Railways:  total: 0 km

Highways:  total: 2,880 km paved: 0 km unpaved: 2,880 km (1996)

Waterways:  none

Ports and harbors:  Bata, Luba, Malabo

Merchant marine:  total: 6 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
14,413 GRT/16,251 DWT ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 3, passenger 1,
passenger/cargo 1 (2002 est.)

Airports:  3 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 2 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 1,524 to
2,437 m: 1 (2001)

Airports - with unpaved runways:  total: 1 under 914 m: 1 (2001)

Military Equatorial Guinea

Military branches:  Army, Navy, Air Force, Rapid Intervention Force,
National Police

Military manpower - availability:  males age 15-49: 112,664 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:  males age 15-49: 57,194
(2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:  $27.5 million (FY01)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:  2.5% (FY01)

Transnational Issues Equatorial Guinea

Disputes - international:  tripartite maritime boundary and economic
zone dispute with Cameroon and Nigeria is currently before the ICJ;
maritime boundary dispute with Gabon because of disputed sovereignty
over islands in Corisco Bay

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002



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Estonia

Introduction

Estonia

Background:  After centuries of Danish, Swedish, German, and Russian
rule, Estonia attained independence in 1918. Forcibly incorporated into
the USSR in 1940, it regained its freedom in 1991 with the collapse of
the Soviet Union. Since the last Russian troops left in 1994, Estonia
has been free to promote economic and political ties with Western Europe.

Geography Estonia

Location:  Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and Gulf of Finland,
between Latvia and Russia

Geographic coordinates:  59 00 N, 26 00 E

Map references:  Europe

Area:   includes 1,520 islands in the Baltic Sea water: Area -
comparative:  slightly smaller than New Hampshire and Vermont combined

Land boundaries:  total: 633 km border countries: Latvia 339 km, Russia
294 km

Coastline:  3,794 km

Maritime claims:  exclusive economic zone: limits fixed in coordination
with neighboring states territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate:  maritime, wet, moderate winters, cool summers

Terrain:  marshy, lowlands; flat in the north, hilly in the south

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m highest point: Suur
Munamagi 318 m

Natural resources:  oil shale, peat, phosphorite, clay, limestone, sand,
dolomite, arable land, sea mud

Land use:  arable land: 27% permanent crops: 0% other: 73% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  40 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:  sometimes flooding occurs in the spring

Environment - current issues:  air polluted with sulfur dioxide from
oil-shale burning power plants in northeast; however, the amount of
pollutants emitted to the air have fallen steadily, the emissions of
2000 were 4.6 times smaller than in 1980; the amount of unpurified
wastewater discharged to water bodies fell 20 times in 2000 compared to
1980; in connection with the start-up of new water purification plants,
the pollution load of wastewater decreased; Estonia has more than 1,400
natural and manmade lakes, the smaller of which in agricultural areas
need to be monitored; coastal seawater is polluted in certain locations

Environment - international agreements:  party to: Air Pollution,
Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air
Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ship Pollution,
Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Climate
Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography - note:  the mainland terrain is flat, boggy, and partly wooded;
offshore lie more than 1,500 islands

People Estonia

Population:  1,415,681 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:  0-14 years: 16.4% (male 118,603; female 114,102) 15-64
years: 68.5% (male 466,882; female 502,343) 65 years and over: 15.1%
(male 70,085; female 143,666) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  -0.52% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  8.96 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  13.44 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  -0.73 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female 65 years and over:
0.49 male(s)/female total population: 0.86 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  12.32 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   76.31 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  1.24 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  0.04% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  less than 500 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  less than 100 (1999 est.)

Nationality:  noun: Estonian(s) adjective: Estonian

Ethnic groups:  Estonian 65.3%, Russian 28.1%, Ukrainian 2.5%, Belarusian
1.5%, Finn 1%, other 1.6% (1998)

Religions:  Evangelical Lutheran, Russian Orthodox, Estonian Orthodox,
Baptist, Methodist, Seventh-Day Adventist, Roman Catholic, Pentecostal,
Word of Life, Jewish

Languages:  Estonian (official), Russian, Ukrainian, Finnish, other

Literacy:  definition: age 15 and over can read and write total
population: 100% male: 100% female: 100% (1998 est.)

Government Estonia

Country name:   Republic of Estonia conventional short form:  local long
form: Eesti Vabariik

Government type:  parliamentary republic

Capital:  Tallinn

Administrative divisions:  15 counties (maakonnad, singular - maakond):
Harjumaa (Tallinn), Hiiumaa (Kardla), Ida-Virumaa (Johvi), Jarvamaa
(Paide), Jogevamaa (Jogeva), Laanemaa (Haapsalu), Laane-Virumaa
(Rakvere), Parnumaa (Parnu), Polvamaa (Polva), Raplamaa (Rapla),
Saaremaa (Kuressaare), Tartumaa (Tartu), Valgamaa (Valga), Viljandimaa
(Viljandi), Vorumaa (Voru) note: counties have the administrative center
name following in parentheses

Independence:  regained on 20 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday:  Independence Day, 24 February (1918); note - 24
February 1918 was the date of independence from Soviet Russia, 20 August
1991 was the date of reindependence from the Soviet Union

Constitution:  adopted 28 June 1992

Legal system:  based on civil law system; no judicial review of
legislative acts

Suffrage:  18 years of age; universal for all Estonian citizens

Executive branch:  chief of state: President Arnold RUUTEL (since 8
October 2001) head of government: Prime Minister Siim KALLAS (since
28 January 2002) cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime
minister, approved by Parliament election results: Arnold RUUTEL
elected president on 21 September 2001 by a 367-member electoral
assembly that convened following Parliament's failure in August to
elect then-President MERI's successor; on the second ballot of voting,
RUUTEL received 188 votes to Parliament Speaker Toomas SAVI's 155;
the remaining 24 ballots were either left blank or invalid elections:
president elected by Parliament for a five-year term; if he or she does
not secure two-thirds of the votes after three rounds of balloting in
the Parliament, then an electoral assembly (made up of Parliament plus
members of local governments) elects the president, choosing between the
two candidates with the largest percentage of votes; election last held
21 September 2001 (next to be held in the fall of 2006); prime minister
nominated by the president and approved by Parliament

Legislative branch:  unicameral Parliament or Riigikogu (101 seats;
members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) election
results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - Center Party 28,
Union of Pro Patria (Fatherland League) 18, Reform Party 18, Moderates 17,
Country People's Party (Agrarians) 7, Coalition Party 7, UPPE 6 elections:
last held 7 March 1999 (next to be held NA March 2003)

Judicial branch:  National Court (chairman appointed by Parliament
for life)

Political parties and leaders:  Coalition Party [Mart SIIMANN, chairman];
Estonian Center Party or K [Edgar SAVISAAR, chairman]; Estonian Christian
People's Party [Aldo VINKEL]; Estonian Democratic Party [Jean LAAS];
Estonian Independence Party [Vello LEITO]; Estonian People's Union
[Villu REILJAN]; note - includes Estonian Country People's Party and
two small parties; Estonian Reform Party [Siim KALLAS]; Estonian Social
Democratic Labor Party [Tiit TOOMSALU]; Estonian United People's Party or
UPPE [Viktor ANDREJEV]; Estonian Unity Party [Igor PISSAREV]; Moderates
[Andres TARAND]; New Estonia Party [Ulo NUGIS]; Pro Patria Union [Mart
LAAR, chairman]; Republican Party [Kristian-Olari LEPING]; Res Publica
[Rein TAAGEPERA]; Russian Baltic Party [Sergei IVANOV]; Russian Party
in Estonia [Nikolai MASPANOV] note: Country People's Party, formerly
under Estonian Rural People's Union, has probably dissolved

Political pressure groups and leaders:  NA

International organization participation:  BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE, EAPC,
EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS,
IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO (correspondent),
ITU, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNTSO, UPU,
WEU (associate partner), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador Sven
JURGENSON FAX: [1] (202) 588-0108
 [1] (202) 588-0101 chancery:
Diplomatic representation from the US:   Ambassador Joseph M. DeTHOMAS
(designate) embassy:  telephone: [372] 668-8100 FAX: [372] 668-8134

Flag description:  pre-1940 flag restored by Supreme Soviet in May 1990 -
three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), black, and white

Economy Estonia

Economy - overview:  Estonia, as a new member of the World Trade
Organization, is steadily moving toward a modern market economy with
increasing ties to the West, including the pegging of its currency to the
euro. A major goal is accession to the EU, possibly by 2004. The state of
the economy is greatly influenced by developments in Finland and Sweden,
two major trading partners.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $14.3 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  4.7% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $10,000 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: 6% industry: 28% services: 66%
(2000)

Population below poverty line:  25% of households (2000)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: 3%
highest 10%: 29.8% (1998)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:  37 (1999)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  5.8% (2001)

Labor force:  608,600 (2001 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:  industry 20%, agriculture 11%, services 69%
(1999 est.)

Unemployment rate:  12.4% (2001)

Budget:  revenues: $1.89 billion expenditures: $1.89 billion, including
capital expenditures of $NA (2002 est.)

Industries:  engineering, electronics, wood and wood products, textile;
services; transit, information technology, telecommunications

Industrial production growth rate:  5% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production:  7.056 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 99.77% hydro: 0.06%
other: 0.17% (2000) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:  5.362 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  1.2 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports:  0 kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products:  potatoes, vegetables; livestock and dairy
products; fish

Exports:  $3.4 billion (f.o.b., 2001)

Exports - commodities:  machinery and equipment 24%, wood products 20%,
textiles 17%, food products 9%, metals, chemical products (1999)

Exports - partners:  Finland 27.6%, Sweden 11%, Russia 8%, Latvia 7%,
Germany 6%, US 2.0% (1999) (2001)

Imports:  $4.1 billion (f.o.b., 2001)

Imports - commodities:  machinery and equipment 38.5%, chemical products
11.2%, textiles 9.5%, foodstuffs 8.6%, metals 8.1% (2000)

Imports - partners:  Finland 27%, Russia 10%, Germany 10%, Sweden 8%
(2001)

Debt - external:  $0 (2001 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:  $108 million (2000)

Currency:  Estonian kroon (EEK)

Currency code:  EEK

Exchange rates:  krooni per US dollar - 17.518 (January 2002), 17.538
(2001), 16.969 (2000), 14.678 (1999), 14.075 (1998), 13.882 (1997); note -
the kroon is tied to the euro at a fixed rate of 15.65 krooni per euro

Fiscal year:  calendar year

Communications Estonia

Telephones - main lines in use:  501,691 (2000)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  711,000 (yearend 2001)

Telephone system:  general assessment: foreign investment in the form of
joint business ventures greatly improved telephone service; substantial
fiber-optic cable systems carry telephone, TV, and radio traffic in
the digital mode; internet services are available throughout most of
the country - only about 11,000 subscriber requests were unfilled by
September 2000 domestic: a wide range of high quality voice, data, and
internet services is available throughout the country international:
fiber-optic cables to Finland, Sweden, Latvia, and Russia provide
worldwide packet-switched service; two international switches are located
in Tallinn (2001)

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 0, FM 98, shortwave 0 (2001)

Radios:  1.01 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:  3 (2001)

Televisions:  605,000 (1997)

Internet country code:  .ee

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  38 (2001)

Internet users:  540,000 (2001)

Transportation Estonia

Railways:  total: 968 km common carrier lines only; does not include
dedicated industrial lines broad gauge: 968 km 1.520-m gauge (132 km
electrified) (2001)

Highways:  total: 30,300 km paved: 29,200 km (including 75 km
of expressways); note - these roads are said to be hard-surfaced,
and include, in addition to conventionally paved roads, some that are
surfaced with gravel or other coarse aggregate, making them trafficable
in all weather unpaved: Waterways:  320 km (perennially navigable) (2002)

Pipelines:  natural gas 2,000 km (2002)

Ports and harbors:  Haapsalu, Kunda, Muuga, Paldiski, Parnu, Tallinn

Merchant marine:   37 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 245,958
GRT/193,042 DWT note:  Liberia 1 (2002 est.)  ships by type: bulk 2,
cargo 13, container 5, petroleum tanker 2, roll on/roll off 9, short-sea
passenger 6

Airports:  32 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 8 2,438 to 3,047 m: 7 under 914 m:
1 (2001)

Airports - with unpaved runways:  total: 24 over 3,047 m: 1 2,438 to
3,047 m: 5 1,524 to 2,437 m: 7 914 to 1,523 m: 5 under 914 m: 6 (2001)

Military Estonia

Military branches:  Estonia Defense Forces (including Ground Forces,
Navy, Air Force), Republic Security Forces (internal and border troops),
Volunteer Defense League (Kaitseliit), Maritime Border Guard, Coast Guard
note: Border Guards and Ministry of Internal Affairs become part of the
Estonian Defense Forces in wartime; the Coast Guard is subordinate to
the Ministry of Defense in peacetime and the Estonian Navy in wartime

Military manpower - military age:  18 years of age (2002 est.)

Military manpower - availability:  males age 15-49: 359,902 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:  males age 15-49: 282,716
(2002 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:  males: 11,164
(2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:  $155 million (2002 est.)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:  2% (2002 est.)

Transnational Issues Estonia

Disputes - international:  Russia continues to reject signing and
ratifying the joint December 1996 technical border agreement with Estonia

Illicit drugs:  transshipment point for opiates and cannabis from
Southwest Asia and the Caucasus via Russia, cocaine from Latin America
to Western Europe and Scandinavia, and synthetic drugs from Western
Europe to Scandinavia; increasing domestic drug abuse problem; possible
precursor manufacturing and/or trafficking

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002



========================================================================


Eritrea

Introduction

Eritrea

Background:  Eritrea was awarded to Ethiopia in 1952 as part of a
federation. Ethiopia's annexation of Eritrea as a province 10 years
later sparked a 30-year struggle for independence that ended in 1991
with Eritrean rebels defeating governmental forces; independence was
overwhelmingly approved in a 1993 referendum. A two and a half year
border war with Ethiopia that erupted in 1998 ended under UN auspices on
12 December 2000.  Eritrea currently hosts a UN peacekeeping operation
that will monitor the border region until an international commission
determines and demarcates the boundary between the two countries.

Geography Eritrea

Location:  Eastern Africa, bordering the Red Sea, between Djibouti
and Sudan

Geographic coordinates:  15 00 N, 39 00 E

Map references:  Africa

Area:  total: 121,320 sq km water: 0 sq km land: 121,320 sq km

Area - comparative:  slightly larger than Pennsylvania

Land boundaries:  total: 1,626 km border countries: Djibouti 109 km,
Ethiopia 912 km, Sudan 605 km

Coastline:  2,234 km total; mainland on Red Sea 1,151 km, islands in
Red Sea 1,083 km

Maritime claims:  territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate:  hot, dry desert strip along Red Sea coast; cooler and wetter
in the central highlands (up to 61 cm of rainfall annually); semiarid
in western hills and lowlands; rainfall heaviest during June-September
except in coastal desert

Terrain:  dominated by extension of Ethiopian north-south trending
highlands, descending on the east to a coastal desert plain, on the
northwest to hilly terrain and on the southwest to flat-to-rolling plains

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: near Kulul within the Denakil
depression -75 m highest point: Soira 3,018 m

Natural resources:  gold, potash, zinc, copper, salt, possibly oil and
natural gas, fish

Land use:  arable land: 4% permanent crops: 0% other: 96% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  220 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:  frequent droughts; locust swarms

Environment - current issues:  deforestation; desertification; soil
erosion; overgrazing; loss of infrastructure from civil warfare

Environment - international agreements:  party to: Biodiversity, Climate
Change, Desertification, Endangered Species signed, but not ratified:
none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:  strategic geopolitical position along world's busiest
shipping lanes; Eritrea retained the entire coastline of Ethiopia along
the Red Sea upon de jure independence from Ethiopia on 24 May 1993

People Eritrea

Population:  4,465,651 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:  0-14 years: 42.9% (male 958,564; female 955,625) 15-64
years: 53.9% (male 1,192,454; female 1,213,313) 65 years and over: 3.2%
(male 73,017; female 72,678) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  3.8% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  42.25 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  11.82 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  7.61 migrant(s)/1,000 population note: UNHCR began
repatriating about 150,000 Eritrean refugees from Sudan in 2001 following
the restoration of diplomatic relations between the two countries in 2000
(2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 1 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  73.62 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   59.13 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  5.8 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  2.87% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  NA

Nationality:  noun: Eritrean(s) adjective: Eritrean

Ethnic groups:  ethnic Tigrinya 50%, Tigre and Kunama 40%, Afar 4%, Saho
(Red Sea coast dwellers) 3%, other 3%

Religions:  Muslim, Coptic Christian, Roman Catholic, Protestant

Languages:  Afar, Amharic, Arabic, Tigre and Kunama, Tigrinya, other
Cushitic languages

Literacy:  definition: NA total population: 25% male: NA% female: NA%

Government Eritrea

Country name:   State of Eritrea conventional short form:  in Ethiopia
local short form: Ertra

Government type:  transitional government note: following a successful
referendum on independence for the Autonomous Region of Eritrea on 23-25
April 1993, a National Assembly, composed entirely of the People's Front
for Democracy and Justice or PFDJ, was established as a transitional
legislature; a Constitutional Commission was also established to draft
a constitution; Afworki ISAIAS was elected president by the transitional
legislature; the constitution, ratified in May 1997, did not enter into
effect, pending parliamentary and presidential elections; parliamentary
elections had been scheduled to take place in December 2001, but were
postponed; currently the sole legal party is the People's Front for
Democracy and Justice (PFDJ), though a draft political parties law is
under consideration

Capital:  Asmara (formerly Asmera)

Administrative divisions:  6 regions (regions, singular - region);
Central, Anelba, Southern Red Sea, Northern Red Sea, Southern, Gash-Barka

Independence:  24 May 1993 (from Ethiopia)

National holiday:  Independence Day, 24 May (1993)

Constitution:  the transitional constitution, decreed on 19 May 1993,
was replaced by a new constitution adopted on 23 May 1997, but not
yet implemented

Legal system:  primary basis is the Ethiopian legal code of 1957, with
revisions; new civil, commercial, and penal codes have not yet been
promulgated; also relies on customary and post-independence-enacted laws
and, for civil cases involving Muslims, Sharia law

Suffrage:  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:  chief of state: President Afworki ISAIAS (since 8
June 1993); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of
government and is head of the State Council and National Assembly head of
government:  both the chief of state and head of government and is head
of the State Council and National Assembly cabinet: State Council is
the collective executive authority; members appointed by the president
elections:  (next election date uncertain as the National Assembly
did not hold a presidential election in December 2001 as anticipated)
election results:  ISAIAS Afworki 95%

Legislative branch:  unicameral National Assembly (150 seats; term
limits not established) elections: in May 1997, following the adoption
of the new constitution, 75 members of the PFDJ Central Committee
(the old Central Committee of the EPLF), 60 members of the 527-member
Constituent Assembly which had been established in 1997 to discuss and
ratify the new constitution, and 15 representatives of Eritreans living
abroad were formed into a Transitional National Assembly to serve as
the country's legislative body until countrywide elections to a National
Assembly were held; although only 75 of 150 members of the Transitional
National Assembly were elected, the constitution stipulates that once
past the transition stage, all members of the National Assembly will
be elected by secret ballot of all eligible voters; National Assembly
elections scheduled for December 2001 were postponed indefinately

Judicial branch:  High court, regional, subregional, and village courts;
also have military and special courts

Political parties and leaders:  People's Front for Democracy and Justice
or PFDJ, the only party recognized by the government [Afworki ISAIAS];
note - a National Assembly committee drafted a law on political parties
in January 2001, but the full National Assembly had not yet debated or
voted on it as of December 2001

Political pressure groups and leaders:  Eritrean Islamic Jihad or EIJ;
Eritrean Liberation Front or ELF [ABDULLAH Muhammed]; Eritrean Liberation
Front-Revolutionary Council or ELF-RC [Ahmed NASSER]; Eritrean Liberation
Front-United Organization or ELF-UO [Mohammed Said NAWD]; Eritrean Public
Forum or EPF [ARADOM Iyob]

International organization participation:  ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, FAO,
IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS (associate), IGAD, ILO, IMF,
IMO, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO

Diplomatic representation in the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador GIRMA
Asmerom telephone: [1] (202) 319-1991 FAX: [1] (202) 319-1304 chancery:
1708 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009

Diplomatic representation from the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
Donald J. McCONNELL embassy: Franklin D. Roosevelt Street, Asmara mailing
address: P. O. Box 211, Asmara telephone: [291] (1) 120004 FAX: [291]
(1) 127584

Flag description:  red isosceles triangle (based on the hoist side)
dividing the flag into two right triangles; the upper triangle is green,
the lower one is blue; a gold wreath encircling a gold olive branch is
centered on the hoist side of the red triangle

Economy Eritrea

Economy - overview:  Since independence from Ethiopia on 24 May 1993,
Eritrea has faced the economic problems of a small, desperately poor
country. Like the economies of many African nations, the economy is
largely based on subsistence agriculture, with 80% of the population
involved in farming and herding. The Ethiopian-Eritrea war in 1998-2000
severely hurt Eritrea's economy. GDP growth in 1999 fell to less than 1%,
and GDP decreased by 8.2% in 2000. The May 2000 Ethiopian offensive into
northern Eritrea caused some $600 million in property damage and loss,
including losses of $225 million in livestock and 55,000 homes. The attack
prevented planting of crops in Eritrea's most productive region, causing
food production to drop by 62%. Even during the war, Eritrea developed
its transportation infrastructure, asphalting new roads, improving its
ports, and repairing war damaged roads and bridges. Eritrea's economic
future remains mixed. The cessation of Ethiopian trade, which mainly used
Eritrean ports before the war, leaves Eritrea with a large economic hole
to fill. Eritrea's economic future depends upon its ability to master
fundamental social problems like illiteracy, unemployment, and low skills,
and to convert the diaspora's money and expertise into economic growth.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $3.2 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  7% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $740 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: 17% industry: 29% services:
54% (2001 est.)

Population below poverty line:  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  15% (2001 est.)

Labor force:  NA

Labor force - by occupation:  agriculture 80%, industry and services 20%

Unemployment rate:  NA%

Budget:  revenues: $206.4 million expenditures: $615.7 million, including
capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)

Industries:  food processing, beverages, clothing and textiles

Industrial production growth rate:  NA%

Electricity - production:  210 million kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 100% hydro: 0% other: 0%
(2000) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:  195.3 million kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  0 kWh NA kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports:  0 kWh NA kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products:  sorghum, lentils, vegetables, corn, cotton,
tobacco, coffee, sisal; livestock, goats; fish

Exports:  $34.8 million (f.o.b., 2000)

Exports - commodities:  livestock, sorghum, textiles, food, small
manufactures

Exports - partners:  Sudan 27.2%, Ethiopia 26.5%, Japan 13.2%, UAE 7.3%,
Italy 5.3% (1998)

Imports:  $470.5 million (c.i.f., 2000)

Imports - commodities:  machinery, petroleum products, food, manufactured
goods

Imports - partners:  Italy 17.4%, UAE 16.2%, Germany 5.7%, UK 4.5%,
Korea 4.4% (1998)

Debt - external:  $281 million (2000 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:  $77 million (1999)

Currency:  nakfa (ERN)

Currency code:  ERN

Exchange rates:  nakfa (ERN) per US dollar - 9.5 (January 2000), 7.6
(January 1999), 7.2 (March 1998 est.)

Fiscal year:  calendar year

Communications Eritrea

Telephones - main lines in use:  30,000 (2001)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  NA; note - mobile cellular service was
introduced in May 2001

Telephone system:  general assessment: inadequate domestic: very
inadequate; most telephones are in Asmara; government is seeking
international tenders to improve the system (2002) international: NA;
note - international connections exist

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 2, FM NA, shortwave 2 (2000)

Radios:  345,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:  1 (2000)

Televisions:  1,000 (1997)

Internet country code:  .er

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  5 (2001)

Internet users:  12,000 (2001)

Transportation Eritrea

Railways:  total: 317 km narrow gauge: 317 km 0.950-m gauge note: links
Ak'ordat and Asmara with the port of Massawa; nonoperational since 1978
except for about a 5 km stretch that was reopened in Massawa in 1994;
rehabilitation of the remainder and of the rolling stock is under way
(2001 est.)

Highways:  total: 3,850 km paved: 810 km unpaved: 3,040 km (2000)

Waterways:  none

Ports and harbors:  Assab (Aseb), Massawa (Mits'iwa)

Merchant marine:  total: 6 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 19,100
GRT/23,399 DWT ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 2, liquefied gas 1, petroleum
tanker 1, roll on/roll off 1 (2002 est.)

Airports:  21 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 4 over 3,047 m: 2 2,438 to 3,047 m:
2 (2001)

Airports - with unpaved runways:  total: 17 over 3,047 m: 1 2,438 to
3,047 m: 2 1,524 to 2,437 m: 5 914 to 1,523 m: 7 under 914 m: 2 (2001)

Military Eritrea

Military branches:  Army, Navy, Air Force

Military expenditures - dollar figure:  $138.3 million (FY01)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:  19.8% (FY01)

Transnational Issues Eritrea

Disputes - international:  Eritrea and Ethiopia have expressed general
approval of the April 2002 arbitration commission ruling re-delimiting
the boundary, the focus of their 1998-2000 war; United Nations Mission
in Ethiopia and Eritrea (UNMEE) will monitor activities within the 25-km
wide temporary security zone in Eritrea until demarcation and de-mining
are complete; Yemen has asserted traditional fishing rights to islands
ceded to Eritrea in ICJ ruling

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002



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El Salvador

Introduction El Salvador

Background:  El Salvador achieved independence from Spain in 1821 and
from the Central American Federation in 1839. A 12-year civil war,
which cost about 75,000 lives, was brought to a close in 1992 when the
government and leftist rebels signed a treaty that provided for military
and political reforms.

Geography El Salvador

Location:  Middle America, bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between
Guatemala and Honduras

Geographic coordinates:  13 50 N, 88 55 W

Map references:  Central America and the Caribbean

Area:  total: 21,040 sq km water: 320 sq km land: 20,720 sq km

Area - comparative:  slightly smaller than Massachusetts

Land boundaries:  total: 545 km border countries: Guatemala 203 km,
Honduras 342 km

Coastline:  307 km

Maritime claims:  territorial sea: 200 NM

Climate:  tropical; rainy season (May to October); dry season (November
to April); tropical on coast; temperate in uplands

Terrain:  mostly mountains with narrow coastal belt and central plateau

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m highest point:
Cerro El Pital 2,730 m

Natural resources:  hydropower, geothermal power, petroleum, arable land

Land use:  arable land: 27% permanent crops: 12% other: 61% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  360 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:  known as the Land of Volcanoes; frequent and sometimes
very destructive earthquakes and volcanic activity; extremely susceptible
to hurricanes

Environment - current issues:  deforestation; soil erosion; water
pollution; contamination of soils from disposal of toxic wastes

Environment - international agreements:  party to: Biodiversity, Climate
Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection,
Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Geography - note:  smallest Central American country and only one without
a coastline on Caribbean Sea

People El Salvador

Population:  6,353,681 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:  0-14 years: 37.4% (male 1,211,156; female 1,162,317)
15-64 years: 57.5% (male 1,735,744; female 1,922,395) 65 years and over:
5.1% (male 144,864; female 177,205) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  1.83% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  28.3 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  6.1 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  -3.88 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.82
male(s)/female total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  27.58 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   74.11 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  3.29 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  0.6% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  25,000 (2000 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  1,300 (1999 est.)

Nationality:  noun: Salvadoran(s) adjective: Salvadoran

Ethnic groups:  mestizo 90%, Amerindian 1%, white 9%

Religions:  Roman Catholic 83% note: there is extensive activity by
Protestant groups throughout the country; by the end of 1992, there were
an estimated 1 million Protestant evangelicals in El Salvador

Languages:  Spanish, Nahua (among some Amerindians)

Literacy:  definition: age 10 and over can read and write total
population: 71.5% male: 73.5% female: 69.8% (1995 est.)

Government El Salvador

Country name:   Republic of El Salvador conventional short form:
El Salvador

Government type:  republic

Capital:  San Salvador

Administrative divisions:  14 departments (departamentos, singular -
departamento); Ahuachapan, Cabanas, Chalatenango, Cuscatlan, La Libertad,
La Paz, La Union, Morazan, San Miguel, San Salvador, Santa Ana, San
Vicente, Sonsonate, Usulutan

Independence:  15 September 1821 (from Spain)

National holiday:  Independence Day, 15 September (1821)

Constitution:  23 December 1983

Legal system:  based on civil and Roman law, with traces of common
law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; accepts
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage:  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:  chief of state: President Francisco FLORES Perez
(since 1 June 1999); Vice President Carlos QUINTANILLA Schmidt (since 1
June 1999); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of
government head of government: President Francisco FLORES Perez (since 1
June 1999); Vice President Carlos QUINTANILLA Schmidt (since 1 June 1999);
note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet:  vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for
five-year terms; election last held 7 March 1999 (next to be held NA
March 2004) election results: Francisco FLORES Perez elected president;
percent of vote - Francisco FLORES (ARENA) 52%, Facundo GUARDADO (FMLN)
29%, Ruben ZAMORA (CD) 7.5%, other (no individual above 3%) 11.5%

Legislative branch:  unicameral Legislative Assembly or Asamblea
Legislativa (84 seats; members are elected by direct, popular vote to
serve three-year terms) elections: last held 12 March 2000 (next to
be held NA March 2003) election results: percent of vote by party -
ARENA 36.1%, FMLN 35.14%, PCN 8.76%, PDC 7.08%, CD 5.32%, PAN 3.75%,
USC 1.47%, PLD 1.29%; seats by party - ARENA 28, FMLN 31, PCN 14, PDC 5,
CD 3, PAN 1, independent 2

Judicial branch:  Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (judges are selected
by the Legislative Assembly)

Political parties and leaders:  Christian Democratic Party or PDC [Rene
AGUILUZ]; Democratic Convergence or CD (includes PSD, MNR, MPSC) [Ruben
ZAMORA, secretary general]; Democratic Party or PD [Jorge MELENDEZ];
Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front or FMLN [Fabio CASTILLO];
Liberal Democratic Party or PLD [Kirio Waldo SALGADO, president];
National Action Party or PAN [Gustavo Rogelio SALINAS, secretary general];
National Conciliation Party or PCN [Ciro CRUZ Zepeda, president]; National
Republican Alliance or ARENA [Walter ARAUJO]; Social Christian Union or
USC (formed by the merger of Christian Social Renewal Party or PRSC and
Unity Movement or MU) [Abraham RODRIGUEZ, president]

Political pressure groups and leaders:  labor organizations - Electrical
Industry Union of El Salvador or SIES; Federation of the Construction
Industry, Similar Transport and other activities, or FESINCONTRANS;
National Confederation of Salvadoran Workers or CNTS; National Union
of Salvadoran Workers or UNTS; Port Industry Union of El Salvador
or SIPES; Salvadoran Union of Ex-Petrolleros and Peasant Workers or
USEPOC; Salvadoran Workers Central or CTS; Workers Union of Electrical
Corporation or STCEL; business organizations - National Association of
Small Enterprise or ANEP; Salvadoran Assembly Industry Association or
ASIC; Salvadoran Industrial Association or ASI

International organization participation:  BCIE, CACM, ECLAC, FAO, G-77,
IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF,
IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer),
MINURSO, NAM (observer), OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador Rene
Antonio LEON Rodriguez consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Dallas,
Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, and San Francisco telephone: [1]
(202) 265-9671 chancery: 2308 California Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

Diplomatic representation from the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
Rose M. LIKINS embassy: Final Boulevard Santa Elenal, Antiguo Cuscatlan,
La Libertad, San Salvador mailing address: Flag description:  three equal
horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and blue with the national coat of
arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms features a round emblem
encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE EL SALVADOR EN LA AMERICA CENTRAL;
similar to the flag of Nicaragua, which has a different coat of arms
centered in the white band - it features a triangle encircled by the
words REPUBLICA DE NICARAGUA on top and AMERICA CENTRAL on the bottom;
also similar to the flag of Honduras, which has five blue stars arranged
in an X pattern centered in the white band

Economy El Salvador

Economy - overview:  El Salvador is a struggling Central American
economy which has been suffering from a weak tax collection system,
factory closings, the aftermaths of Hurricane Mitch of 1998 and the
devastating earthquakes of early 2001, and weak world coffee prices. On
the bright side, in recent years inflation has fallen to single digit
levels, and total exports have grown substantially. The trade deficit
has been offset by remittances (an estimated $1.6 billion in 2000) from
Salvadorans living abroad and by external aid. As of 1 January 2001,
the US dollar was made legal tender alongside the colon. Growth in 2002
will depend largely on the speed of recovery in the US.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $28.4 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  1.4% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $4,600 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: 10% industry: 30% services:
60% (2000)

Population below poverty line:  48% (1999 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: 1.4%
highest 10%: 39.3% (2001)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:  50.8 (1997)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  3.8% (2001 est.)

Labor force:  2.35 million (1999)

Labor force - by occupation:  agriculture 30%, industry 15%, services 55%
(1999 est.)

Unemployment rate:  10% (2001 est.)

Budget:  revenues: $2.1 billion expenditures: $2.5 billion, including
capital expenditures of $NA (2001 est.)

Industries:  food processing, beverages, petroleum, chemicals, fertilizer,
textiles, furniture, light metals

Industrial production growth rate:  3% (2001 est.)

Electricity - production:  3.69 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 42.3% hydro: 35.5%
other: 22.2% (2000) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:  4.07 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  112 million kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports:  750 million kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products:  coffee, sugar, corn, rice, beans, oilseed,
cotton, sorghum; shrimp; beef, dairy products

Exports:  $2.9 billion (2001)

Exports - commodities:  offshore assembly exports, coffee, sugar, shrimp,
textiles, chemicals, electricity

Exports - partners:  US 65%, Guatemala 11%, Honduras 8%, EU 5% (2000)

Imports:  $5 billion (2001)

Imports - commodities:  raw materials, consumer goods, capital goods,
fuels, foodstuffs, petroleum, electricity

Imports - partners:  US 50%, Guatemala 10%, EU 7%, Mexico 5%, (2000)

Debt - external:  $4.9 billion (2001 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:  total $252 million; $57 million from US
(1999 est.)

Currency:  Salvadoran colon (SVC); US dollar (USD)

Currency code:  SVC; USD

Exchange rates:  Salvadoran colones per US dollar - 8.750 (fixed since
January 2001), 8.755 (fixed rate since 1993) note: since January 2001
the US dollar has also become legal tender; the exchange rate has been
fixed at 8.75 colones per US dollar

Fiscal year:  calendar year

Communications El Salvador

Telephones - main lines in use:  380,000 (1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  40,163 (1997)

Telephone system:  general assessment: NA domestic: nationwide microwave
radio relay system international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat
(Atlantic Ocean); connected to Central American Microwave System

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 61 (plus 24 repeaters), FM 30, shortwave 0
(1998)

Radios:  2.75 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:  5 (1997)

Televisions:  600,000 (1990)

Internet country code:  .sv

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  4 (2000)

Internet users:  40,000 (2000)

Transportation El Salvador

Railways:  total: 562 km narrow gauge: 562 km 0.914-m gauge note:
length of operational route is reduced to 283 km by disuse and lack of
maintenance (2001 est.)

Highways:  total: 10,029 km paved: 1,986 km (including 327 km of
expressways) unpaved: 8,043 km (1997)

Waterways:  Rio Lempa partially navigable

Ports and harbors:  Acajutla, Puerto Cutuco, La Libertad, La Union,
Puerto El Triunfo

Merchant marine:  none (2002 est.)

Airports:  83 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 4 over 3,047 m: 1 1,524 to 2,437 m:
1 914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2001)

Airports - with unpaved runways:  total: 79 914 to 1,523 m: 17 under
914 m: 62 (2001)

Heliports:  1 (2001)

Military El Salvador

Military branches:  Army, Navy (FNES), Air Force

Military manpower - military age:  18 years of age (2002 est.)

Military manpower - availability:  males age 15-49: 1,500,712 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:  males age 15-49: 951,715
(2002 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:  males: 68,103
(2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:  $112 million (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:  0.7% (FY99)

Transnational Issues El Salvador

Disputes - international:  El Salvador claims tiny Conejo Island off
Honduras in the Golfo de Fonseca; many of the "bolsones" (disputed
areas) along the El Salvador-Honduras boundary remain undemarcated
despite ICJ adjudication in 1992; with respect to the maritime boundary
in the Golfo de Fonseca, the ICJ referred to the line determined by the
1900 Honduras-Nicaragua Mixed Boundary Commission and advised that some
tripartite resolution among El Salvador, Honduras, and Nicaragua likely
would be required

Illicit drugs:  transshipment point for cocaine; small amounts of
marijuana produced for local consumption; domestic cocaine abuse on
the rise

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002



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Ethiopia

Introduction

Ethiopia

Background:  Unique among African countries, the ancient Ethiopian
monarchy maintained its freedom from colonial rule, one exception being
the Italian occupation of 1936-41. In 1974 a military junta, the Derg,
deposed Emperor Haile SELASSIE (who had ruled since 1930) and established
a socialist state. Torn by bloody coups, uprisings, wide-scale drought,
and massive refugee problems, the regime was finally toppled by a
coalition of rebel forces, the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic
Front (EPRDF), in 1991. A constitution was adopted in 1994 and Ethiopia's
first multiparty elections were held in 1995. A two and a half year
border war with Eritrea ended with a peace treaty on 12 December 2000.

Geography Ethiopia

Location:  Eastern Africa, west of Somalia

Geographic coordinates:  8 00 N, 38 00 E

Map references:  Africa

Area:  total: 1,127,127 sq km water: 7,444 sq km land: 1,119,683 sq km

Area - comparative:  slightly less than twice the size of Texas

Land boundaries:  total: 5,328 km border countries: Djibouti 349 km,
Eritrea 912 km, Kenya 861 km, Somalia 1,600 km, Sudan 1,606 km

Coastline:  0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:  none (landlocked)

Climate:  tropical monsoon with wide topographic-induced variation

Terrain:  high plateau with central mountain range divided by Great
Rift Valley

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Denakil Depression -125 m highest
point: Ras Dejen 4,620 m

Natural resources:  small reserves of gold, platinum, copper, potash,
natural gas, hydropower

Land use:  arable land: 10% permanent crops: 1% other: 89% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  1,900 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:  geologically active Great Rift Valley susceptible to
earthquakes, volcanic eruptions; frequent droughts

Environment - current issues:  deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion;
desertification; water shortages in some areas from water-intensive
farming and poor management

Environment - international agreements:  party to: Biodiversity, Climate
Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone
Layer Protection signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification,
Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban

Geography - note:  landlocked - entire coastline along the Red Sea was
lost with the de jure independence of Eritrea on 24 May 1993; the Blue
Nile, the chief headstream of the Nile, rises in T'ana Hayk (Lake Tana)
in northwest Ethiopia

People Ethiopia

Population:  67,673,031 note: estimates for this country explicitly take
into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result
in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower
population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population
by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:   47.2% (male 16,098,191; female 15,879,065) 15-64 years:
854,023; female 1,034,829) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  2.64% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  44.31 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  18.04 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  0.11 migrant(s)/1,000 population note: repatriation
of Ethiopians who fled to Sudan for refuge from war and famine in earlier
years is expected to continue for several years; some Sudanese and Somali
refugees, who fled to Ethiopia from the fighting or famine in their own
countries, continue to return to their homes (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.01
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female 65 years and over:
0.83 male(s)/female total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  98.63 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   45.09 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  6.94 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  10.63% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  3 million (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  280,000 (1999 est.)

Nationality:  noun: Ethiopian(s) adjective: Ethiopian

Ethnic groups:  Oromo 40%, Amhara and Tigre 32%, Sidamo 9%, Shankella 6%,
Somali 6%, Afar 4%, Gurage 2%, other 1%

Religions:  Muslim 45%-50%, Ethiopian Orthodox 35%-40%, animist 12%,
other 3%-8%

Languages:  Amharic, Tigrinya, Oromigna, Guaragigna, Somali, Arabic,
other local languages, English (major foreign language taught in schools)

Literacy:  definition: age 15 and over can read and write total
population: 35.5% male: 45.5% female: 25.3% (1995 est.)

Government Ethiopia

Country name:  conventional long form: Federal Democratic Republic
of Ethiopia
 Ityop'iya former:  Demokrasiyawi Ripeblik abbreviation: FDRE

Government type:  federal republic

Capital:  Addis Ababa

Administrative divisions:  9 ethnically-based states (kililoch, singular -
kilil) and 2 self-governing administrations* (astedaderoch, singular -
astedader); Adis Abeba* (Addis Ababa), Afar, Amara, Binshangul Gumuz,
Dire Dawa*, Gambela Hizboch, Hareri Hizb, Oromiya, Sumale (Somali),
Tigray, YeDebub Biheroch Bihereseboch na Hizboch (Southern Nations,
Nationalities, and Peoples Region)

Independence:  oldest independent country in Africa and one of the oldest
in the world - at least 2,000 years

National holiday:  National Day (defeat of MENGISTU regime), 28 May (1991)

Constitution:  ratified December 1994; effective 22 August 1995

Legal system:  currently transitional mix of national and regional courts

Suffrage:  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:  chief of state: President GIRMA Woldegiorgis (since
8 October 2001) head
 Prime Minister MELES Zenawi (since NA August 1995) cabinet:  ministers
 are selected by the prime minister and approved by the House
of People's Representatives elections: president elected by the House
of People's Representatives for a six-year term; election last held 8
October 2001 (next to be held NA October 2007); prime minister designated
by the party in power following legislative elections election results:
People's Representatives - 100%

Legislative branch:  bicameral Parliament consists of the House
of Federation or upper chamber (108 seats; members are chosen by
state assemblies to serve five-year terms) and the House of People's
Representatives or lower chamber (548 seats; members are directly elected
by popular vote from single-member districts to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 14 May 2000 (next to be held NA May 2005) note:
irregularities and violence at a number of polling stations necessitated
the rescheduling of voting in certain constituencies; voting postponed
in Somali regional state because of severe drought election results:
percent of vote - NA%; seats - OPDO 177, ANDM 134, TPLF 38, WGGPDO 27,
EPRDF 19, SPDO 18, GNDM 15, KSPDO 10, ANDP 8, GPRDF 7, SOPDM 7, BGPDUF 6,
BMPDO 5, KAT 4, other regional political groupings 22, independents 8;
note - 43 seats unconfirmed

Judicial branch:  Federal Supreme Court (the president and vice president
of the Federal Supreme Court are recommended by the prime minister
and appointed by the House of People's Representatives; for other
federal judges, the prime minister submits to the House of People's
Representatives for appointment candidates selected by the Federal
Judicial Administrative Council)

Political parties and leaders:  Afar National Democratic Party or
ANDP [leader NA]; All-Amhara People's Organization or AAPO [HAILU
Shawel]; Amhara National Democratic Movement or ANDM [ADDISU Legesse];
Bench Madji People's Democratic Organization or BMPDO [leader NA];
Benishangul Gumuz People's Democratic Unity Front or BGPDUF [leader NA];
Ethiopian Democratic Party or EDP [ADMASSU Gebeyehu]; Ethiopian People's
Revolutionary Democratic Front or EPRDF [MELES Zenawi] (an alliance of
ANDM, OPDO, SEPDF, and TPLF); Gedeyo People's Revolutionary Democratic
Fund or GPRDF [leader NA]; Gurage Nationalities' Democratic Movement
orGNDM [leader NA]; Kafa Shaka People's Democratic Organization or KSPDO
[leader NA]; Kembata, Alabaa and Tembaro or KAT [leader NA]; Oromo
Liberation Front or OLF [DAOUD Ibsa Gudina]; Oromo National Congress
or ONC [MERERA Gudina]; Oromo People's Democratic Organization or OPDO
[JUNEDI Sado]; Sidamo People's Democratic Organization or SPDO [leader
NA]; South Ethiopia People's Democratic Front or SEPDF [KASSU Yilala];
South Omo People's Democratic Movement or SOPDM [leader NA]; Tigrayan
People's Liberation Front or TPLF [MELES Zenawi]; Walayta, Gamo, Gofa,
Dawro, and Konta People's Democratic Organization or WGGPDO [leader NA];
dozens of small parties

Political pressure groups and leaders:  Council of Alternative Forces
for Peace and Democracy in Ethiopia or CAFPDE [BEYANE Petros]; Southern
Ethiopia People's Democratic Coalition or SEPDC [BEYANE Petros]

International organization participation:  ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, FAO,
G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO,
IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, NAM, OAU, OPCW, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNU, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
(observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
KASSAHUN Ayele chancery: 3506 International Drive NW, Washington, DC
20008 FAX: [1] (202) 686-9551 telephone: [1] (202) 364-1200

Diplomatic representation from the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
Tibor P. NAGY, Jr.  embassy: Entoto Street,
 P. O. Box 1014, Addis Ababa telephone:
Flag description:  three equal horizontal bands of green (top), yellow,
and red with a yellow pentagram and single yellow rays emanating from
the angles between the points on a light blue disk centered on the three
bands; Ethiopia is the oldest independent country in Africa, and the three
main colors of her flag were so often adopted by other African countries
upon independence that they became known as the pan-African colors

Economy Ethiopia

Economy - overview:  Ethiopia's poverty-stricken economy is based on
agriculture, which accounts for half of GDP, 85% of exports, and 80% of
total employment. The agricultural sector suffers from frequent drought
and poor cultivation practices, and as many as 4.6 million people need
food assistance annually. Coffee is critical to the Ethiopian economy with
exports of some $260 million in 2000. Other important exports include
qat, live animals, hides, and gold. The war with Eritrea in 1999-2000
and recurrent drought have buffeted the economy, in particular coffee
production. In November 2001 Ethiopia qualified for debt relief from the
Highly Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) initiative. Under Ethiopia's land
tenure system, the government owns all land and provides long-term leases
to the tenants; the system continues to hamper growth in the industrial
sector as entrepreneurs are unable to use land as collateral for loans.
Despite this limitation, strong growth is expected to continue in the
near term as good rainfall, the cessation of hostilities, and renewed
foreign aid and debt relief push the economy forward.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $46 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  7.3% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $700 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: 52.3% industry: 11.1% services:
36.6% (2000 est.)

Population below poverty line:  64% (1996)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: 3%
highest 10%: 33.7% (1995)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:  40 (1995)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  6.8% (2001 est.)

Labor force:  NA

Labor force - by occupation:  agriculture and animal husbandry 80%,
government and services 12%, industry and construction 8% (1985)

Unemployment rate:  NA%

Budget:  revenues: $1.8 billion expenditures: $1.9 billion, including
capital expenditures of $600 million (2002 est.)

Industries:  food processing, beverages, textiles, chemicals, metals
processing, cement

Industrial production growth rate:  6.7% (2001 est.)

Electricity - production:  1.63 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 1.84% hydro: 98.16%
other: 0% (2000) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:  1.516 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  0 kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports:  0 kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products:  cereals, pulses, coffee, oilseed, sugarcane,
potatoes, qat; hides, cattle, sheep, goats

Exports:  $442 million (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Exports - commodities:  coffee, qat, gold, leather products, oilseeds

Exports - partners:  Germany 18%, Japan 11%, Djibouti 11%, Saudi Arabia 8%
(2000 est.)

Imports:  $1.54 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)

Imports - commodities:  food and live animals, petroleum and petroleum
products, chemicals, machinery, motor vehicles, cereals, textiles

Imports - partners:  Saudi Arabia 25%, US 9%, Italy 7%, Russia 4%
(2000 est.)

Debt - external:  $5.3 billion (2001 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:  $308 million (FY00/01)

Currency:  birr (ETB)

Currency code:  ETB

Exchange rates:  birr per US dollar (end of period) - 8.455 (December
2001), 8.3140 (December 2000), 8.3140 (2000), 8.1340 (1999), 7.5030
(1998), 6.8640 (1997) note: since 24 October 2001 exchange rates are
determined on a daily basis via interbank transactions regulated by the
Central Bank

Fiscal year:  8 July - 7 July

Communications Ethiopia

Telephones - main lines in use:  231,900 (2000)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  17,800 (2000)

Telephone system:  general assessment: open wire and microwave radio
relay system; adequate for government use domestic: open wire; microwave
radio relay; radio communication in the HF, VHF, and UHF frequencies;
two domestic satellites provide the national trunk service international:
open wire to Sudan and Djibouti; microwave radio relay to Kenya and
Djibouti; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and
2 Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 8, FM 0, shortwave 1 (2001)

Radios:  15.2 million (2002)

Television broadcast stations:  1 plus 24 repeaters (2002)

Televisions:  682,000 (2002)

Internet country code:  .et

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  1 (2002)

Internet users:  20,000 (2002)

Transportation Ethiopia

Railways:  total: 681 km (Ethiopian segment of the Addis Ababa-Djibouti
railroad) narrow gauge: 681 km 1.000-m gauge note: in 1998, Djibouti
and Ethiopia announced plans to revitalize the century-old railroad that
links their capitals and since then Ethiopia has expended considerable
effort to repair and maintain the lines; in 2001, Ethiopia and Sudan
agreed to build a line from Ethiopia to Port Sudan (2000 est.)

Highways:  total: 24,145 km paved: 3,290 km unpaved: 20,855 km (1998)

Waterways:  none

Ports and harbors:  none; Ethiopia is landlocked and was by agreement
with Eritrea using the ports of Assab and Massawa; since the border
dispute with Eritrea flared, Ethiopia has used the port of Djibouti for
nearly all of its imports

Merchant marine:  total: 9 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 81,933
GRT/101,287 DWT ships by type: cargo 5, container 1, petroleum tanker 1,
roll on/roll off 2 (2002 est.)

Airports:  86 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 14 over 3,047 m: 3 2,438 to 3,047
m: 5 1,524 to 2,437 m: 5 914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2001)

Airports - with unpaved runways:  total: 72 over 3,047 m: 2 2,438 to
3,047 m: 4 1,524 to 2,437 m: 11 914 to 1,523 m: 33 under 914 m: 22 (2001)

Military Ethiopia

Military branches:  Ethiopian National Defense Force (Ground Forces,
Air Force, militia, police) note: Ethiopia is landlocked and has no navy;
following the secession of Eritrea, Ethiopian naval facilities remained
in Eritrean possession

Military manpower - military age:  18 years of age (2002 est.)

Military manpower - availability:  males age 15-49: 14,925,883 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:  males age 15-49: 7,790,977
(2002 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:  males: 703,625
(2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:  $800 million (FY00)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:  12.6% (FY00)

Transnational Issues Ethiopia

Disputes - international:  most of the southern half of the boundary
with Somalia in the Ogaden region is a provisional administrative line;
in the Ogaden, regional states have established a variety of conflicting
relationships with the Somali Transitional National Government in
Mogadishu, feuding factions in Puntland region, and the economically
stabile break-away "Somaliland" region; Ethiopia agreeed in 2002 to
demarcate its entire boundary with Sudan; Eritrea and Ethiopia have
expressed general approval of the April 2002 arbitration commission
ruling re-delimiting the boundary, the focus of their 1998-2000 war;
United Nations Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea (UNMEE) will monitor
activities within the 25-km wide temporary security zone in Eritrea
until demarcation and de-mining are complete

Illicit drugs:  transit hub for heroin originating in Southwest and
Southeast Asia and destined for Europe and North America as well as
cocaine destined for markets in southern Africa; cultivates qat (khat)
for local use and regional export, principally to Djibouti and Somalia
(legal in all three countries)

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002



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Europa Island

Introduction

Europa Island

Background:  A French possession since 1897, the island is heavily wooded;
it is the site of a small military garrison that staffs a weather station.

Geography Europa Island

Location:  Southern Africa, island in the Mozambique Channel, about
one-half of the way from southern Madagascar to southern Mozambique

Geographic coordinates:  22 20 S, 40 22 E

Map references:  Africa

Area:  total: 28 sq km water: 0 sq km land: 28 sq km

Area - comparative:  about 0.16 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:  0 km

Coastline:  22.2 km

Maritime claims:  exclusive economic zone: 200 NM territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate:  tropical

Terrain:  low and flat

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m highest point:
unnamed location 24 m

Natural resources:  NEGL

Land use:  arable land: 0% permanent crops: 0% other: 100% (forests and
woodlands) (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  0 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:  NA

Environment - current issues:  NA

Geography - note:  wildlife sanctuary

People Europa Island

Population:  no indigenous inhabitants note: there is a small French
military garrison (July 2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  NA

Government Europa Island

Country name:  conventional long form: none conventional short form:
Europa Island local short form: Ile Europa local long form: none

Dependency status:  possession of France; administered by a high
commissioner of the Republic, resident in Reunion

Legal system:  the laws of France, where applicable, apply

Flag description:  the flag of France is used

Economy Europa Island

Economy - overview:  no economic activity

Communications Europa Island

Communications - note:  1 meteorological station

Transportation Europa Island

Waterways:  none

Ports and harbors:  none; offshore anchorage only

Airports:  1 (2001)

Airports - with unpaved runways:  total: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2001)

Military Europa Island

Military - note:  defense is the responsibility of France

Transnational Issues Europa Island

Disputes - international:  claimed by Madagascar

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002



========================================================================


Czech Republic

Introduction Czech Republic

Background:  After World War II, Czechoslovakia fell within the Soviet
sphere of influence. In 1968, an invasion by Warsaw Pact troops ended
the efforts of the country's leaders to liberalize party rule and create
"socialism with a human face." Anti-Soviet demonstrations the following
year ushered in a period of harsh repression. With the collapse of
Soviet authority in 1989, Czechoslovakia regained its freedom through a
peaceful "Velvet Revolution." On 1 January 1993, the country underwent a
"velvet divorce" into its two national components, the Czech Republic
and Slovakia. Now a member of NATO, the Czech Republic has moved toward
integration in world markets, a development that poses both opportunities
and risks.

Geography Czech Republic

Location:  Central Europe, southeast of Germany

Geographic coordinates:  49 45 N, 15 30 E

Map references:  Europe

Area:  total: 78,866 sq km water: 1,590 sq km land: 77,276 sq km

Area - comparative:  slightly smaller than South Carolina

Land boundaries:  total: 1,881 km border countries: Austria 362 km,
Germany 646 km, Poland 658 km, Slovakia 215 km

Coastline:  0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:  none (landlocked)

Climate:  temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters

Terrain:  Bohemia in the west consists of rolling plains, hills, and
plateaus surrounded by low mountains; Moravia in the east consists of
very hilly country

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Elbe River 115 m highest point:
Snezka 1,602 m

Natural resources:  hard coal, soft coal, kaolin, clay, graphite, timber

Land use:  arable land: 40% permanent crops: 3% other: 57% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  240 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:  flooding

Environment - current issues:  air and water pollution in areas of
northwest Bohemia and in northern Moravia around Ostrava present health
risks; acid rain damaging forests

Environment - international agreements:  party to: Air Pollution,
Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air
Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic
Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol,
Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous
Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent
Organic Pollutants, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol

Geography - note:  landlocked; strategically located astride some of
oldest and most significant land routes in Europe; Moravian Gate is a
traditional military corridor between the North European Plain and the
Danube in central Europe

People Czech Republic

Population:  10,256,760 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:  0-14 years: 15.7% (male 828,273; female 786,617) 15-64
years: 70.3% (male 3,605,766; female 3,603,058) 65 years and over: 14%
(male 551,852; female 881,194) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  -0.07% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  9.08 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  10.76 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  0.96 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.63
male(s)/female total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  5.46 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   78.65 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  1.18 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  0.04% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  2,200 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  less than 100 (1999 est.)

Nationality:  noun: Czech(s) adjective: Czech

Ethnic groups:  Czech 81.2%, Moravian 13.2%, Slovak 3.1%, Polish 0.6%,
German 0.5%, Silesian 0.4%, Roma 0.3%, Hungarian 0.2%, other 0.5% (1991)

Religions:  atheist 39.8%, Roman Catholic 39.2%, Protestant 4.6%,
Orthodox 3%, other 13.4%

Languages:  Czech

Literacy:  definition: NA total population: 99.9% (1999 est.)  male:
NA% female: NA%

Government Czech Republic

Country name:   Czech Republic conventional short form:  Ceska Republika

Government type:  parliamentary democracy

Capital:  Prague

Administrative divisions:  13 regions (kraje, singular - kraj) and
1 capital city* (hlavni mesto); Jihocesky Kraj, Jihomoravsky Kraj,
Karlovarsky Kraj, Kralovehradecky Kraj, Liberecky Kraj, Moravskoslezsky
Kraj, Olomoucky Kraj, Pardubicky Kraj, Plzensky Kraj, Praha*, Stredocesky
Kraj, Ustecky Kraj, Vysocina, Zlinsky Kraj

Independence:  1 January 1993 (Czechoslovakia split into the Czech
Republic and Slovakia)

National holiday:  Czech Founding Day, 28 October (1918)

Constitution:  ratified 16 December 1992; effective 1 January 1993

Legal system:  civil law system based on Austro-Hungarian codes; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; legal code modified to bring it
in line with Organization on Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE)
obligations and to expunge Marxist-Leninist legal theory

Suffrage:  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:  chief of state: President Vaclav HAVEL (since 2
February 1993) head of government: Prime Minister Milos ZEMAN (since 17
July 1998); Deputy Prime Ministers Vladimir SPIDLA (since 22 July 1998),
Pavel RYCHETSKY (since 22 July 1998), Jan KAVAN (since 8 December 1999)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of
the prime minister elections:  held 20 January 1998 (next to be held
NA January 2003); prime minister appointed by the president election
results: Vaclav HAVEL reelected president; Vaclav HAVEL received 47 of
81 votes in the Senate and 99 out of 200 votes in the Chamber of Deputies
(second round of voting)

Legislative branch:  bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of
the Senate or Senat (81 seats; members are elected by popular vote to
serve six-year terms; one-third elected every two years) and the Chamber
of Deputies or Poslanecka Snemovna (200 seats; members are elected by
popular vote to serve four-year terms) elections: Senate - last held
12 and 19 November 2000 (next to be held NA November 2002); Chamber of
Deputies - last held 19-20 June 1998 (next to be held by NA June 2002)
election results:  22, CSSD 15, ODA 7, US 4, KSCM 3, independents 2;
Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - CSSD 32.3%, ODS 27.7%,
KSCM 11%, KDU-CSL 9.0%, US 8.6%; seats by party - CSSD 74, ODS 63,
KSCM 24, KDU-CSL 20, US 18, CSNS 1

Judicial branch:  Supreme Court; Constitutional Court; chairman and
deputy chairmen are appointed by the president for a 10-year term

Political parties and leaders:  Christian and Democratic
Union-Czechoslovak People's Party or KDU-CSL [Cyril SVOBODA, chairman];
Civic Democratic Alliance or ODA [Michael ZANTOVSKY, chairman]; Civic
Democratic Party or ODS [Vaclav KLAUS, chairman]; Communist Party of
Bohemia and Moravia or KSCM [Miroslav GREBENICEK, chairman]; Communist
Party of Czechoslovakia or KSC [Miroslav STEPAN, chairman]; Czech National
Social Party of CSNS [Jan SULA, chairman]; Czech Social Democratic Party
or CSSD [Milos ZEMAN, chairman]; Democratic Union or DEU [Ratibor MAJZLIK,
chairman]; Freedom Union or US [Hana MARVANOVA, chairman]; Quad Coalition
[Karel KUHNL, chairman] (includes KDU-CSL, US, ODA, DEU); Republicans
of Miroslav SLADEK or RMS [Miroslav SLADEK, chairman]

Political pressure groups and leaders:  Czech-Moravian Confederation of
Trade Unions [Richard FALBR]

International organization participation:  ACCT (observer), Australia
Group, BIS, CCC, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO,
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO,
Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MONUC, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer),
OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMEE,
UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOP, UNMOT, UNOMIG, UPU, WCL, WEU (associate), WFTU,
WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:   Ambassador Martin PALOUS
consulate(s) general:  363-6315 chancery: 3900 Spring of Freedom Street
NW, Washington, DC 20008

Diplomatic representation from the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
Craig R. STAPLETON embassy: Trziste 15,
 use embassy street address telephone:
Flag description:  two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red
with a blue isosceles triangle based on the hoist side (identical to
the flag of the former Czechoslovakia)

Economy Czech Republic

Economy - overview:  Basically one of the most stable and prosperous of
the post-Communist states, the Czech Republic has been recovering from
recession since mid-1999. Growth in 2000-01 was led by exports to the
EU, especially Germany, and foreign investment, while domestic demand is
reviving.  Uncomfortably high fiscal and current account deficits could
be future problems. Unemployment is gradually declining as job creation
continues in the rebounding economy; inflation is up to 4.7% but still
moderate. The EU put the Czech Republic just behind Poland and Hungary in
preparations for accession, which will give further impetus and direction
to structural reform. Moves to complete banking, telecommunications, and
energy privatization will add to foreign investment, while intensified
restructuring among large enterprises and banks and improvements in the
financial sector should strengthen output growth.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $147.9 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  3.4% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $14,400 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: 5% industry: 41% services: 54%
(2000)

Population below poverty line:  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: 4.3%
highest 10%: 22.4% (1996)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:  26 (1996)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  4.7% (2001 est.)

Labor force:  5.203 million (1999 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:  agriculture 5%, industry 40%, services 55%
(2000 est.)

Unemployment rate:  8.5% (2001 est.)

Budget:  revenues: $16.7 billion expenditures: $18 billion, including
capital expenditures of $NA (2001 est.)

Industries:  metallurgy, machinery and equipment, motor vehicles, glass,
armaments

Industrial production growth rate:  7.2% (2001)

Electricity - production:  69.589 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 77.75% hydro: 2.5%
other: 1.2% (2000) nuclear: 18.55%

Electricity - consumption:  54.701 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  18.74 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports:  8.725 billion kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products:  wheat, potatoes, sugar beets, hops, fruit;
pigs, poultry

Exports:  $32.7 billion (f.o.b., 2000)

Exports - commodities:  machinery and transport equipment 44%,
intermediate manufactures 25%, chemicals 7%, raw materials and fuel 7%
(2000)

Exports - partners:  Germany 40.4%, Slovakia 7.7%, Austria 6.0%, Poland
5.4%, UK 4.3% (2000)

Imports:  $37.4 billion (f.o.b., 2000)

Imports - commodities:  machinery and transport equipment 40%,
intermediate manufactures 21%, raw materials and fuels 13%, chemicals 11%
(2000)

Imports - partners:  Germany 26.7%, Russia 6.4%, Slovakia 6.0%, Italy
5.2%, Austria 4.9% (2000)

Debt - external:  $24.6 billion (2001)

Economic aid - recipient:  $NA

Currency:  Czech koruna (CZK)

Currency code:  CZK

Exchange rates:  koruny per US dollar - 36.325 (January 2002), 38.035
(2001), 38.598 (2000), 34.569 (1999), 32.281 (1998), 31.698 (1997)

Fiscal year:  calendar year

Communications Czech Republic

Telephones - main lines in use:  3.869 million (2000)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  4.346 million (2000)

Telephone system:  general assessment: privatization and modernization
of the Czech telecommunication system got a late start but is advancing
steadily; growth in the use of mobile cellular telephones is particularly
vigorous domestic: 86% of exchanges now digital; existing copper
subscriber systems now being enhanced with Asymmetric Digital Subscriber
Line (ADSL) equipment to accommodate Internet and other digital signals;
trunk systems include fiber-optic cable and microwave radio relay
international:  regions), 1 Intelsat, 1 Eutelsat, 1 Inmarsat, 1 Globalstar

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 31, FM 304, shortwave 17 (2000)

Radios:  3,159,134 (December 2000)

Television broadcast stations:  150 (plus 1,434 repeaters) (2000)

Televisions:  3,405,834 (December 2000)

Internet country code:  .cz

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  more than 300 (2000)

Internet users:  1.1 million (2001)

Transportation Czech Republic

Railways:  total: 9,444 km standard gauge: 9,350 km 1.435-m gauge (2,843
km electrified; 1,929 km double-track) narrow gauge: 94 km 0.760-m gauge
(2000 est.)

Highways:  total: 55,432 km paved: 55,432 km (including 499 km of
expressways) unpaved: 0 km (2000)

Waterways:  303 km note: (the Labe (Elbe) is the principal river) (2000)

Pipelines:  natural gas 3,550 km (2000)

Ports and harbors:  Decin, Prague, Usti nad Labem

Airports:  121 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 44 over 3,047 m: 2 2,438 to 3,047
m: 10 914 to 1,523 m: 2 under 914 m: 17 (2001) 1,524 to 2,437 m: 13

Airports - with unpaved runways:  total: 77 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 914 to
1,523 m: 28 under 914 m: 48 (2001)

Heliports:  1 (2001)

Military Czech Republic

Military branches:  Army, Air and Air Defense Forces, Territorial
Defense Force

Military manpower - military age:  18 years of age (2002 est.)

Military manpower - availability:  males age 15-49: 2,637,128 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:  males age 15-49: 2,012,779
(2002 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:  males: 69,393
(2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:  $1,190,200,000 (FY01)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:  2.1% (FY01)

Transnational Issues Czech Republic

Disputes - international:  Liechtenstein's royal family claims restitution
for 1,600 sq km of land in the Czech Republic confiscated in 1918;
individual Sudeten German claims for restitution of property confiscated
in connection with their expulsion after World War II; Austria has minor
dispute with Czech Republic over the Temelin nuclear power plant and
post-World War II treatment of German-speaking minorities

Illicit drugs:  transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and minor
transit point for Latin American cocaine to Western Europe; producer of
synthetic drugs for local and regional markets

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002



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French Guiana

Introduction

French Guiana

Background:  First settled by the French in 1604, French Guiana was the
site of notorious penal settlements until 1951. The European Space Agency
launches its communication satellites from Kourou.

Geography French Guiana

Location:  Northern South America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean,
between Brazil and Suriname

Geographic coordinates:  4 00 N, 53 00 W

Map references:  South America

Area:  total: 91,000 sq km water: 1,850 sq km land: 89,150 sq km

Area - comparative:  slightly smaller than Indiana

Land boundaries:  total: 1,183 km border countries: Brazil 673 km,
Suriname 510 km

Coastline:  378 km

Maritime claims:  exclusive economic zone: 200 NM territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate:  tropical; hot, humid; little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain:  low-lying coastal plains rising to hills and small mountains

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point:
Bellevue de l'Inini 851 m

Natural resources:  bauxite, timber, gold (widely scattered), cinnabar,
kaolin, fish

Land use:  arable land: NEGL permanent crops: 0% other: 100% (90% forest,
10% other) (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  20 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:  high frequency of heavy showers and severe
thunderstorms; flooding

Environment - current issues:  NA

Geography - note:  mostly an unsettled wilderness; the only
non-independent portion of the South American continent

People French Guiana

Population:  182,333 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:  0-14 years: 30.2% (male 28,140; female 26,876) 15-64
years: 64.2% (male 63,183; female 53,902) 65 years and over: 5.6%
(male 5,192; female 5,040) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  2.57% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  21.66 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  4.78 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  8.78 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.17 male(s)/female 65 years and over:
1.03 male(s)/female total population: 1.13 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  13.22 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   79.99 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  3.13 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  NA

Nationality:  noun: French Guianese (singular and plural) adjective:
French Guianese

Ethnic groups:  black or mulatto 66%, white 12%, East Indian, Chinese,
Amerindian 12%, other 10%

Religions:  Roman Catholic

Languages:  French

Literacy:  definition: age 15 and over can read and write total
population: 83% male: 84% female: 82% (1982 est.)

Government French Guiana

Country name:   Department of Guiana conventional short form: Dependency
status:  overseas department of France

Government type:  NA

Capital:  Cayenne

Administrative divisions:  none (overseas department of France)

Independence:  none (overseas department of France)

National holiday:  Bastille Day, 14 July (1789)

Constitution:  28 September 1958 (French Constitution)

Legal system:  French legal system

Suffrage:  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:  chief of state: President Jacques CHIRAC of France
(since 17 May 1995), represented by Prefect Henri MASSE (since NA
July 1999) elections:  appointed by the French president on the
advice of the French Ministry of Interior; presidents of the General
and Regional Councils are appointed by the members of those councils
head of government: President of the General Council Joseph HO-TEN-YOU
(since NA March 2001); President of the Regional Council Antoine KARAM
(since 22 March 1992) cabinet: NA

Legislative branch:  unicameral General Council or Conseil General (19
seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve six-year terms)
and a unicameral Regional Council or Conseil Regional (31 seats;
members are elected by popular vote to serve six-year terms) elections:
General Council - last held NA March 2000 (next to be held NA 2006);
Regional Council - last held 15 March 1998 (next to be held NA 2004)
election results:  various left-wing parties 5, independents 7, other 2;
Regional Council - percent of vote by party - PS 28.28%, various left
parties 22.56%, RPR 15.91%, independents 8.6%, Walwari Committee 6%;
seats by party - PS 11, various left parties 9, RPR 6, independents 3,
Walwari Committee 2 note: one seat was elected to the French Senate on
27 September 1998 (next to be held NA September 2007); results - percent
of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - NA; 2 seats were elected to the
French National Assembly on 9 June-16 June 2002 (next to be held NA 2007);
results - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - NA

Judicial branch:  Court of Appeals or Cour d'Appel (highest local court
based in Martinique with jurisdiction over Martinique, Guadeloupe,
and French Guiana)

Political parties and leaders:  Guyanese Democratic Action or ADG [Andre
LECANTE]; Guyanese Socialist Party or PSG [Marie-Claude VERDAN]; Guyana
Democratic Forces or FDG [Georges OTHILY]; Popular National Guyanese Party
or PNPG [Jose DORCY]; Rally for the Republic or RPR [Roland HO-WEN-SZE];
Socialist Party or PS [Pierre RIBARDIERE]; Walwari Committee [Christine
TAUBIRA-DELANON]

Political pressure groups and leaders:  NA

International organization participation:  FZ, WCL, WFTU

Diplomatic representation in the US:  none (overseas department of France)

Diplomatic representation from the US:  none (overseas department
of France)

Flag description:  the flag of France is used

Economy French Guiana

Economy - overview:  The economy is tied closely to the French economy
through subsidies and imports.  Besides the French space center at Kourou,
fishing and forestry are the most important economic activities. Forest
and woodland cover 90% of the country. The large reserves of tropical
hardwoods, not fully exploited, support an expanding sawmill industry
that provides sawn logs for export. Cultivation of crops is limited to
the coastal area, where the population is largely concentrated; rice
and manioc are the major crops. French Guiana is heavily dependent
on imports of food and energy. Unemployment is a serious problem,
particularly among younger workers.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $1 billion (1998 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  NA%

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $6,000 (1998 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: NA% industry: NA% services: NA%

Population below poverty line:  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  2.5% (1992)

Labor force:  58,800 (1997)

Labor force - by occupation:  services, government, and commerce 60.6%,
industry 21.2%, agriculture 18.2% (1980)

Unemployment rate:  21.4% (1998)

Budget:  revenues: $225 million expenditures: $390 million, including
capital expenditures of $105 million (1996)

Industries:  construction, shrimp processing, forestry products, rum,
gold mining

Industrial production growth rate:  NA%

Electricity - production:  450 million kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 100% hydro: 0% other: 0%
(2000) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:  418.5 million kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  0 kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports:  0 kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products:  corn, rice, manioc (tapioca), sugar, cocoa,
vegetables, bananas; cattle, pigs, poultry

Exports:  $155 million (f.o.b., 1997)

Exports - commodities:  shrimp, timber, gold, rum, rosewood essence,
clothing

Exports - partners:  France 62%, Switzerland 7%, US 2% (1997)

Imports:  $625 million (c.i.f., 1997)

Imports - commodities:  food (grains, processed meat), machinery and
transport equipment, fuels and chemicals

Imports - partners:  France 52%, US 14%, Trinidad and Tobago 6% (1997)

Debt - external:  $1.2 billion (1988)

Economic aid - recipient:  $NA

Currency:  euro (EUR); French franc (FRF)

Currency code:  EUR; FRF

Exchange rates:  Euros per US dollar - 1.1324 (January 2002), 1.1175
(2001), 1.0854 (2000), 0.9386 (1999); French francs per US dollar -
5.8995 (1998), 5.8367 (1997)

Fiscal year:  calendar year

Communications French Guiana

Telephones - main lines in use:  47,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  NA

Telephone system:  general assessment: NA domestic: fair open wire and
microwave radio relay system international: satellite earth station -
1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 2, FM 14 (including 6 repeaters), shortwave
6 (including 5 repeaters) (1998)

Radios:  104,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:  3 (plus eight low-power repeaters) (1997)

Televisions:  30,000 (1997)

Internet country code:  .gf

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  2 (2000)

Internet users:  2,000 (2000)

Transportation French Guiana

Railways:  0 km

Highways:  total: 1,817 km paved: 817 km unpaved: 1,000 km (1998)

Waterways:  3,300 km navigable by native craft note: 460 km navigable
by small oceangoing vessels and coastal and river steamers

Ports and harbors:  Cayenne, Degrad des Cannes, Saint-Laurent du Maroni

Merchant marine:  none (2002 est.)

Airports:  11 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 4 over 3,047 m: 1 914 to 1,523 m:
2 under 914 m: 1 (2001)

Airports - with unpaved runways:  total: 7 914 to 1,523 m: 2 under 914 m:
5 (2001)

Military French Guiana

Military branches:  no regular indigenous military forces; French Forces,
Gendarmerie

Military manpower - availability:  males age 15-49: 50,504 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:  males age 15-49: 32,720
(2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:  $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:  NA%

Military - note:  defense is the responsibility of France

Transnational Issues French Guiana

Disputes - international:  Suriname claims area between Riviere Litani
and Riviere Marouini (both headwaters of the Lawa)

Illicit drugs:  small amount of marijuana grown for local consumption;
minor transshipment point to Europe

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002



========================================================================


Finland

Introduction

Finland

Background:  Ruled by Sweden from the 12th to the 19th centuries and by
Russia from 1809, Finland finally won its independence in 1917. During
World War II, it was able to successfully defend its freedom and fend off
invasions by the Soviet Union and Germany. In the subsequent half century,
the Finns have made a remarkable transformation from a farm/forest economy
to a diversified modern industrial economy; per capita income is now
on par with Western Europe. As a member of the European Union, Finland
was the only Nordic state to join the euro system at its initiation in
January 1999.

Geography Finland

Location:  Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia,
and Gulf of Finland, between Sweden and Russia

Geographic coordinates:  64 00 N, 26 00 E

Map references:  Europe

Area:  total: 337,030 sq km water: 31,560 sq km land: 305,470 sq km

Area - comparative:  slightly smaller than Montana

Land boundaries:  total: 2,628 km border countries: Norway 729 km,
Sweden 586 km, Russia 1,313 km

Coastline:  1,126 km (excludes islands and coastal indentations)

Maritime claims:  continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of
exploitation exclusive fishing zone: 12 NM; extends to continental shelf
boundary with Sweden territorial sea: 12 NM (in the Gulf of Finland -
3 NM)

Climate:  cold temperate; potentially subarctic, but comparatively mild
because of moderating influence of the North Atlantic Current, Baltic Sea,
and more than 60,000 lakes

Terrain:  mostly low, flat to rolling plains interspersed with lakes
and low hills

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m highest point: Halti
1,328 m

Natural resources:  timber, copper, zinc, iron ore, silver

Land use:  arable land: 7% permanent crops: 0% other: 93% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  640 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:  NA

Environment - current issues:  air pollution from manufacturing and power
plants contributing to acid rain; water pollution from industrial wastes,
agricultural chemicals; habitat loss threatens wildlife populations

Environment - international agreements:  party to: Air Pollution, Air
Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur
94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental
Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species,
Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine
Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94,
Wetlands, Whaling signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent
Organic Pollutants, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography - note:  long boundary with Russia; Helsinki is northernmost
national capital on European continent; population concentrated on small
southwestern coastal plain

People Finland

Population:  5,183,545 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:  0-14 years: 17.9% (male 471,920; female 454,082) 15-64
years: 66.9% (male 1,752,493; female 1,717,544) 65 years and over: 15.2%
(male 306,216; female 481,290) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  0.14% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  10.6 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  9.78 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  0.62 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female 65 years and over:
0.64 male(s)/female total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  3.76 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   81.52 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  1.7 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  0.05% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  1,100 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  less than 100 (1999 est.)

Nationality:  noun: Finn(s) adjective: Finnish

Ethnic groups:  Finn 93%, Swede 6%, Sami 0.11%, Roma 0.12%, Tatar 0.02%

Religions:  Evangelical Lutheran 89%, Russian Orthodox 1%, none 9%,
other 1%

Languages:  Finnish 93.4% (official), Swedish 5.9% (official), small Lapp-
and Russian-speaking minorities

Literacy:  definition: age 15 and over can read and write total
population: 100% (1980 est.)  male: NA% female: NA%

Government Finland

Country name:   Republic of Finland conventional short form: Government
type:  republic

Capital:  Helsinki

Administrative divisions:  6 provinces (laanit, singular - laani);
Aland, Etela-Suomen Laani, Ita-Suomen Laani, Lansi-Suomen Laani, Lappi,
Oulun Laani

Independence:  6 December 1917 (from Russia)

National holiday:  Independence Day, 6 December (1917)

Constitution:  17 July 1919

Legal system:  civil law system based on Swedish law; Supreme Court may
request legislation interpreting or modifying laws; accepts compulsory
ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage:  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:  chief of state: President Tarja HALONEN (since 1
March 2000) head of government: Prime Minister Paavo LIPPONEN (since 13
April 1995) and Deputy Prime Minister Ville ITALA (since 31 August 2001)
cabinet: Council of State or Valtioneuvosto appointed by the president,
responsible to Parliament elections: president elected by popular vote for
a six-year term; election last held 6 February 2000 (next to be held NA
February 2006); prime minister and deputy prime minister appointed from
the majority party by the president after parliamentary elections note:
Union and Democratic Alternative), SFP, and Green League election results:
51.6%, Esko AHO (Kesk) 48.4%

Legislative branch:  unicameral Parliament or Eduskunta (200 seats;
members are elected by popular vote on a proportional basis to serve
four-year terms) election results: percent of vote by party - SDP 22.9%,
Kesk 22.5%, Kok 21.0%, Leftist Alliance (Communist) 10.9%, SFP 5.1%,
Green League 7.2%, SKL 4.2%; seats by party - SDP 51, Kesk 48, Kok 46,
Leftist Alliance (Communist) 20, SFP 11, Green League 11, SKL 10, other
3 elections: last held 21 March 1999 (next to be held NA March 2003)

Judicial branch:  Supreme Court or Korkein Oikeus (judges appointed by
the president)

Political parties and leaders:  Center Party or Kesk [Esko AHO]; Finnish
Christian Democratic Party or SKL [C. P. Bjarne KALLIS]; Green League
[Osmo SOININVAARA]; Leftist Alliance (Communist) composed of People's
Democratic League and Democratic Alternative [Suvi-Anne SIIMES]; National
Coalition (conservative) Party or Kok [Ville ITALA]; Social Democratic
Party or SDP [Paavo LIPPONEN]; Swedish People's Party or SFP [Jan-Erik
ENESTAM]; True Finns [Timo SOINI]

International organization participation:  AfDB, AsDB, Australia Group,
BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, G-
9, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM (guest), NC, NEA,
NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIKOM, UNMEE, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOGIP,
UNMOP, UNMOVIC, UNTSO, UPU, WEU (observer), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:   Ambassador Jukka Robert VALTASAARI
consulate(s) general:  298-5800 chancery: 3301 Massachusetts Avenue NW,
Washington, DC 20008

Diplomatic representation from the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
Bonnie McELVEEN-HUNTER embassy: Itainen Puistotie 14B, FIN-00140,
Helsinki mailing address: APO AE 09723 telephone: [358] (9) 171931 FAX:
[358] (9) 174681

Flag description:  white with a blue cross extending to the edges of
the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side
in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)

Economy Finland

Economy - overview:  Finland has a highly industrialized, largely
free-market economy, with per capita output roughly that of the UK,
France, Germany, and Italy. Its key economic sector is manufacturing
- principally the wood, metals, engineering, telecommunications,
and electronics industries. Trade is important, with exports equaling
almost one-third of GDP. Except for timber and several minerals, Finland
depends on imports of raw materials, energy, and some components for
manufactured goods.  Because of the climate, agricultural development
is limited to maintaining self-sufficiency in basic products. Forestry,
an important export earner, provides a secondary occupation for the
rural population. Rapidly increasing integration with Western Europe -
Finland was one of the 11 countries joining the euro monetary system
(EMU) on 1 January 1999 - will dominate the economic picture over the
next several years. Growth in 2001 was held back by the global slowdown
and will likely be anemic again in 2002.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $133.5 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  0.6% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $25,800 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: 3% industry: 28% services: 69%
(2000)

Population below poverty line:  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: 4.2%
highest 10%: 21.6% (1991)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:  25.6 (1991)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  2.6% (2001 est.)

Labor force:  2.6 million (2000 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:  public services 32%, industry 22%, commerce
14%, finance, insurance, and business services 10%, agriculture and
forestry 8%, transport and communications 8%, construction 6%

Unemployment rate:  9.4% (2001 est.)

Budget:  revenues: $36.1 billion expenditures: $31 billion, including
capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)

Industries:  metal products, electronics, shipbuilding, pulp and paper,
copper refining, foodstuffs, chemicals, textiles, clothing

Industrial production growth rate:  5.1% (2001)

Electricity - production:  75.356 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 40.86% hydro: 19.22%
other: 11.6% (2000) nuclear: 28.32%

Electricity - consumption:  81.961 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  326 million kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports:  12.206 billion kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products:  barley, wheat, sugar beets, potatoes; dairy
cattle; fish

Exports:  $40.1 billion (f.o.b., 2001)

Exports - commodities:  machinery and equipment, chemicals, metals;
timber, paper, pulp

Exports - partners:  Germany 12.5%, Sweden 9.3%, UK 9.1%, US 7.4%,
France 5.2%, Italy 4.4% (2000)

Imports:  $31.2 billion (f.o.b., 2001)

Imports - commodities:  foodstuffs, petroleum and petroleum products,
chemicals, transport equipment, iron and steel, machinery, textile yarn
and fabrics, grains

Imports - partners:  Germany 14.2%, Sweden 10.3%, Russia 9.4%, US 7.1%,
UK 6.4%, Japan 5.3% (2000)

Debt - external:  $30 billion (December 1993)

Economic aid - donor:  ODA, $379 million (1997)

Currency:  markka (FIM); euro (EUR) note: on 1 January 1999, the
European Monetary Union introduced the euro as a common currency to be
used by financial institutions of member countries; on 1 January 2002,
the euro became the sole currency for everyday transactions within the
member countries

Currency code:  FIM; EUR

Exchange rates:  euros per US dollar - 1.1324 (January 2002), 1.1175
(2001), 1.0854 (2000), 0.9386 (1999); markkaa per US dollar - 5.3441
(1998), 5.1914 (1997)

Fiscal year:  calendar year

Communications Finland

Telephones - main lines in use:  2.861 million (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  2,162,574 (1997)

Telephone system:  general assessment: modern system with excellent
service domestic: cable, microwave radio relay, and an extensive cellular
net provide domestic needs international: 1 submarine cable; satellite
earth stations - access to Intelsat transmission service via a Swedish
satellite earth station, 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions);
note - Finland shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic
countries (Denmark, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden)

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 2, FM 186, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios:  7.7 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:  130 (plus 385 repeaters) (1995)

Televisions:  3.2 million (1997)

Internet country code:  .fi

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  23 (2000)

Internet users:  2.27 million (2000)

Transportation Finland

Railways:  total: 5,865 km broad gauge: 5,865 km 1.524-m gauge (2,234
km electrified; 480 km double- or multiple-track) (2000 est.)

Highways:  total: 77,831 km paved: 49,789 km (including 444 km of
expressways) unpaved: 28,042 km (1999)

Waterways:  6,675 km note: includes Saimaa Canal; 3,700 km suitable for
large ships

Pipelines:  natural gas 580 km

Ports and harbors:  Hamina, Helsinki, Kokkola, Kotka, Loviisa, Oulu,
Pori, Rauma, Turku, Uusikaupunki, Varkaus

Merchant marine:  total: 98 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,172,404
GRT/1,144,139 DWT ships by type: bulk 9, cargo 26, chemical tanker 5,
passenger 1, petroleum tanker 11, roll on/roll off 36, short-sea passenger
10 note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of
convenience: Airports:  160 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 73 over 3,047 m: 3 2,438 to 3,047
m: 26 1,524 to 2,437 m: 10 914 to 1,523 m: 22 under 914 m: 12 (2001)

Airports - with unpaved runways:  total: 87 914 to 1,523 m: 5 under 914 m:
82 (2001)

Military Finland

Military branches:  Army, Navy, Air Force, Frontier Guard (including
Sea Guard)

Military manpower - military age:  17 years of age (2002 est.)

Military manpower - availability:  males age 15-49: 1,240,762 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:  males age 15-49: 1,024,379
(2002 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:  males: 33,883
(2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:  $1.8 billion (FY98/99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:  2% (FY98/99)

Transnational Issues Finland

Disputes - international:  none

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002



========================================================================


Fiji

Introduction

Fiji

Background:  Fiji became independent in 1970, after nearly a century as
a British colony.  Democratic rule was interrupted by two military coups
in 1987, caused by concern over a government perceived as dominated by
the Indian community (descendants of contract laborers brought to the
islands by the British in the 19th century). A 1990 constitution favored
native Melanesian control of Fiji, but led to heavy Indian emigration;
the population loss resulted in economic difficulties, but ensured that
Melanesians became the majority. Amendments enacted in 1997 made the
constitution more equitable. Free and peaceful elections in 1999 resulted
in a government led by an Indo-Fijian, but a coup in May of 2000 ushered
in a prolonged period of political turmoil. Parliamentary elections held
in August 2001 provided Fiji with a democratically elected government
and gave a mandate to the government of Prime Minister Laisenia QARASE.

Geography Fiji

Location:  Oceania, island group in the South Pacific Ocean, about
two-thirds of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand

Geographic coordinates:  18 00 S, 175 00 E

Map references:  Oceania

Area:  total: 18,270 sq km water: 0 sq km land: 18,270 sq km

Area - comparative:  slightly smaller than New Jersey

Land boundaries:  0 km

Coastline:  1,129 km

Maritime claims:  measured from claimed archipelagic baselines territorial
sea: 12 NM exclusive economic zone: 200 NM continental shelf: 200-m
depth or to the depth of exploitation; rectilinear shelf claim added

Climate:  tropical marine; only slight seasonal temperature variation

Terrain:  mostly mountains of volcanic origin

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m highest point:
Tomanivi 1,324 m

Natural resources:  timber, fish, gold, copper, offshore oil potential,
hydropower

Land use:  arable land: 11% permanent crops: 5% other: 84% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  30 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:  cyclonic storms can occur from November to January

Environment - current issues:  deforestation; soil erosion

Environment - international agreements:  party to: Biodiversity, Climate
Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban,
Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94 signed,
but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:  includes 332 islands of which approximately 110
are inhabited

People Fiji

Population:  856,346 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:  0-14 years: 32.5% (male 141,757; female 136,198) 15-64
years: 63.8% (male 273,658; female 273,100) 65 years and over: 3.7%
(male 14,648; female 16,985) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  1.41% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  23.2 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  5.72 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  -3.35 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.86
male(s)/female total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  13.72 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   71.11 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  2.83 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  0.07% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  85 (2000 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  NA

Nationality:  noun: Fijian(s) adjective: Fijian

Ethnic groups:  Fijian 51% (predominantly Melanesian with a Polynesian
admixture), Indian 44%, European, other Pacific Islanders, overseas
Chinese, and other 5% (1998 est.)

Religions:  Christian 52% (Methodist 37%, Roman Catholic 9%), Hindu 38%,
Muslim 8%, other 2% note: Fijians are mainly Christian, Indians are Hindu,
and there is a Muslim minority (1986)

Languages:  English (official), Fijian, Hindustani

Literacy:  definition: age 15 and over can read and write total
population: 92.5% male: 90% female: 95% (1999 est.)

Government Fiji

Country name:  conventional long form: Republic of the Fiji Islands
conventional short form: Fiji

Government type:  republic note: military coup leader Maj. Gen. Sitiveni
RABUKA formally declared Fiji a republic on 6 October 1987

Capital:  Suva

Administrative divisions:  4 divisions and 1 dependency*; Central,
Eastern, Northern, Rotuma*, Western

Independence:  10 October 1970 (from UK)

National holiday:  Independence Day, second Monday of October (1970)

Constitution:  promulgated on 25 July 1990 and amended on 25 July
1997 to allow nonethnic Fijians greater say in government and to make
multiparty government mandatory; entered into force 28 July 1998; note -
the May 1999 election was the first test of the amended constitution
and introduced open voting - not racially prescribed - for the first
time at the national level

Legal system:  based on British system

Suffrage:  21 years of age; universal

Executive branch:  chief of state: President Ratu Josefa ILOILOVATU
Uluivuda (since NA 2000); Vice President Jope SENILOLI (since NA 2000)
head of government: Prime Minister Laisenia QARASE (since 10 September
2000); Deputy Prime Minister Ratu Epeli NAILATIKAU (since NA 2000)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister from among the
members of Parliament and is responsible to Parliament; note - there
is also a Presidential Council that advises the president on matters of
national importance and a Great Council of Chiefs which consists of the
highest ranking members of the traditional chiefly system elections:
president elected by the Great Council of Chiefs for a five-year term;
prime minister appointed by the president election results: Ratu Josefa
ILOILOVATU Uluivuda elected president by the Great Council of Chiefs;
percent of vote - NA%

Legislative branch:  bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (34
seats; 24 appointed by the Great Council of Chiefs, nine appointed
by the president, and one appointed by the council of Rotuma) and the
House of Representatives (71 seats; 23 reserved for ethnic Fijians, 19
reserved for ethnic Indians, three reserved for other ethnic groups,
one reserved for the council of Rotuma constituency encompassing
the whole of Fiji, and 25 open seats; members serve five-year terms)
elections: House of Representatives - last held 25 August, 2 September,
19 September 2001 (next to be held NA September 2006) election results:
House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - FLP 34.8%, SDL 26%,
NFP 10.1%, MV 9.9%, independents 2.7%, other 16.5%; seats by party -
SDL 32, FLP 27, MV 6, NFP 1, independents 2, other 3

Judicial branch:  Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the president);
Court of Appeal; High Court; Magistrates' Courts

Political parties and leaders:  Bai Kei Viti Party or BKV [Ratu Tevita
MOMOEDONU]; Christian Democrat Alliance or VLV [leader NA]; Conservative
Alliance Party/Matanitu Vanua or MV [Ratu Rakuita VAKALALABURE]; Dodonu
Ni Taukei Party or DNT [leader NA]; Fiji Labor Party or FLP [Mahendra
CHAUDRHRY]; Fijian Association Party of FAP [Adi Kuini SPEED]; Fijian
Political Party or SVT (primarily Fijian) [Felipe BOLE]; General Voters
Party or GHP [leader NA]; Girmit Heritage Party or GHP [leader NA];
Justice and Freedom Party or AIM [leader NA]; Lio 'On Famor Rotuma
Party or LFR [leader NA]; National Federation Party or NFP (primarily
Indian) [Attar SINGH]; Nationalist Vanua Tako Lavo Party or NVTLP
[Samisoni BOLATAGICI]; New Labor Unity Party or NLUP [Tupeni BABA];
Party of National Unity or PANU [leader NA]; Party of the Truth or POTT
[leader NA]; United Fiji Party/Sogosogo Duavata ni Lewenivanua or SDL
[Laisenia QARASE]; United General Party or UGP [Mick BEDDOES]

Political pressure groups and leaders:  NA

International organization participation:  ACP, AsDB, C, CCC, CP, ESCAP,
FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO,
IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO (subscriber), ITU, OPCW, PCA, Sparteca,
SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIKOM, UNMIBH, UNMIK,
UNTAET, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:   [1] (202) 337-1996 telephone:
Washington, DC 20007

Diplomatic representation from the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
(vacant); Charge d'Affaires Ronald K.  McMULLEN embassy: 31 Loftus Street,
Suva mailing address: P. O. Box 218, Suva telephone: [679] 314466 FAX:
[679] 300081

Flag description:  light blue with the flag of the UK in the upper
hoist-side quadrant and the Fijian shield centered on the outer half of
the flag; the shield depicts a yellow lion above a white field quartered
by the cross of Saint George featuring stalks of sugarcane, a palm tree,
bananas, and a white dove

Economy Fiji

Economy - overview:  Fiji, endowed with forest, mineral, and fish
resources, is one of the most developed of the Pacific island economies,
though still with a large subsistence sector. Sugar exports and a growing
tourist industry - with 300,000 to 400,000 tourists annually - are the
major sources of foreign exchange. Sugar processing makes up one-third
of industrial activity. Long-term problems include low investment and
uncertain property rights. The political turmoil in Fiji has had a severe
impact with the economy shrinking by 2.8% in 2000 and growing by only 1%
in 2001. The Fiji Visitor's Bureau expects visitor arrivals to reach
pre-coup levels during 2002. The government's ability to manage its
budget - which is expected to run a net deficit of 6% in 2002 - will
depend upon a return of political stability and investor confidence.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $4.4 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  1% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $5,200 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: 17% industry: 25% services:
58% (2000 est.)

Population below poverty line:  25.5% (1990-91)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  3% (2000 est.)

Labor force:  137,000 (1999)

Labor force - by occupation:  agriculture, including subsistence
agriculture 70% (2001 est.)

Unemployment rate:  7.6% (1999)

Budget:  revenues: $427.9 million expenditures: $531.4 million, including
capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)

Industries:  tourism, sugar, clothing, copra, gold, silver, lumber,
small cottage industries

Industrial production growth rate:  NA%

Electricity - production:  515 million kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 18.06% hydro: 81.94%
other: 0% (2000) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:  478.95 million kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  0 kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports:  0 kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products:  sugarcane, coconuts, cassava (tapioca), rice,
sweet potatoes, bananas; cattle, pigs, horses, goats; fish

Exports:  $572 million (f.o.b., 2000)

Exports - commodities:  sugar, garments, gold, timber, fish, molasses,
coconut oil

Exports - partners:  Australia 24.9%, US 20.8%, UK 14.4%, Japan 5.1%,
other Pacific island countries 5.0%, NZ 3.6% (2000)

Imports:  $833 million (c.i.f., 2000)

Imports - commodities:  manufactured goods, machinery and transport
equipment, petroleum products, food, chemicals

Imports - partners:  Australia 46.2%, NZ 13.1%, Singapore 6.6%, Japan
4.5%, Hong Kong 3.8%, US 3.2%, Taiwan 3.0% (2000)

Debt - external:  $162.7 million (1999)

Economic aid - recipient:  $40.3 million (1995)

Currency:  Fijian dollar (FJD)

Currency code:  FJD

Exchange rates:  Fijian dollars per US dollar - 2.2934 (January 2002),
2.2766 (2001), 2.1286 (2000), 1.9696 (1999), 1.9868 (1998), 1.4437 (1997)

Fiscal year:  calendar year

Communications Fiji

Telephones - main lines in use:  80,901 (1999)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  5,200 (1997)

Telephone system:  general assessment: modern local, interisland,
and international (wire/radio integrated) public and special-purpose
telephone, telegraph, and teleprinter facilities; regional radio
communications center domestic:  as well as between NZ and Australia;
satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 13, FM 40, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios:  541,476 (1999)

Television broadcast stations:  NA

Televisions:  88,110 (1999)

Internet country code:  .fj

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  2 (2000)

Internet users:  7,500 (2000)

Transportation Fiji

Railways:  total: 597 km narrow gauge: 597 km 0.610-m gauge note:
belongs to the government-owned Fiji Sugar Corporation (1995)

Highways:  total: 3,440 km paved: 1,692 km unpaved: 1,748 km (1996)

Waterways:  203 km note: 122 km navigable by motorized craft and
200-metric-ton barges

Ports and harbors:  Lambasa, Lautoka, Levuka, Malau, Savusavu, Suva, Vuda

Merchant marine:  total: 6 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 11,870
GRT/14,787 DWT ships by type: chemical tanker 2, passenger 1, petroleum
tanker 1, roll on/roll off 1, specialized tanker 1, includes some
foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Australia 1,
Singapore 4 (2002 est.)

Airports:  27 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 3 over 3,047 m: 1 1,524 to 2,437 m:
1 914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2001)

Airports - with unpaved runways:  total: 24 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 914 to
1,523 m: 5 under 914 m: 18 (2001)

Military Fiji

Military branches:  Republic of Fiji Military Forces (RFMF), includes
ground forces, naval division

Military manpower - military age:  18 years of age (2002 est.)

Military manpower - availability:  males age 15-49: 231,649 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:  males age 15-49: 127,384
(2002 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:  males: 9,471
(2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:  $35 million (FY00)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:  2.2% (FY00)

Transnational Issues Fiji

Disputes - international:  none

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002



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Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)

Introduction

Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)

Background:  Although first sighted by an English navigator in 1592,
the first landing (English) did not occur until almost a century later
in 1690, and the first settlement (French) was not established until
1764. The colony was turned over to Spain two years later and the
islands have since been the subject of a territorial dispute, first
between Britain and Spain, then between Britain and Argentina. The UK
asserted its claim to the islands by establishing a naval garrison there
in 1833. Argentina invaded the islands on 2 April 1982. The British
responded with an expeditionary force that landed seven weeks later and
after fierce fighting forced Argentine surrender on 14 June 1982.

Geography Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)

Location:  Southern South America, islands in the South Atlantic Ocean,
east of southern Argentina

Geographic coordinates:  51 45 S, 59 00 W

Map references:  South America

Area:  total: 12,173 sq km note: includes the two main islands of East
and West Falkland and about 200 small islands water: 0 sq km land:
12,173 sq km

Area - comparative:  slightly smaller than Connecticut

Land boundaries:  0 km

Coastline:  1,288 km

Maritime claims:   200 NM territorial sea: Climate:  cold marine;
strong westerly winds, cloudy, humid; rain occurs on more than half of
days in year; occasional snow all year, except in January and February,
but does not accumulate

Terrain:  rocky, hilly, mountainous with some boggy, undulating plains

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point:
Mount Usborne 705 m

Natural resources:  fish, wildlife

Land use:  arable land: 0% permanent crops: 0% other: 100% (99% permanent
pastures, 1% other) (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  NA sq km

Natural hazards:  strong winds persist throughout the year

Environment - current issues:  overfishing by unlicensed vessels is a
problem; reindeer were introduced to the islands in 2001 for commercial
reasons; this is the only commercial reindeer herd in the world unaffected
by the Chornobyl disaster

Geography - note:  deeply indented coast provides good natural harbors;
short growing season

People Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)

Population:  2,967 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:  0-14 years: NA% 15-64 years: NA% 65 years and over: NA%

Population growth rate:  2.44% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  NA births/1,000 population

Death rate:  NA deaths/1,000 population

Net migration rate:  NA migrant(s)/1,000 population

Infant mortality rate:  NA deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:  total population: NA years male: NA years
female: NA years

Total fertility rate:  NA children born/woman

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  NA

Nationality:  noun: Falkland Islander(s) adjective: Falkland Island

Ethnic groups:  British

Religions:  primarily Anglican, Roman Catholic, United Free Church,
Evangelist Church, Jehovah's Witnesses, Lutheran, Seventh-Day Adventist

Languages:  English

Government Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)

Country name:  conventional long form: none conventional short form:
Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)

Dependency status:  overseas territory of the UK; also claimed by
Argentina

Government type:  NA

Capital:  Stanley

Administrative divisions:  none (overseas territory of the UK; also
claimed by Argentina)

Independence:  none (overseas territory of the UK; also claimed by
Argentina)

National holiday:  Liberation Day, 14 June (1982)

Constitution:  3 October 1985; amended 1997 and 1998

Legal system:  English common law

Suffrage:  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:   Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952) elections:
head of government: Governor Donald LAMONT (since NA May 1999); note -
Howard PEARCE was elected governor on 24 January 2002, but will not
take office until October 2002; Chief Executive A. M. GURR (since NA);
Financial Secretary D. F. HOWATT (since NA) cabinet: Executive Council;
three members elected by the Legislative Council, two ex officio members
(chief executive and the financial secretary), and the governor

Legislative branch:  unicameral Legislative Council (10 seats - 2 ex
officio, 8 elected by popular vote, members serve four-year terms);
presided over by the governor elections: last held 22 November 2001
(next to be held NA November 2005) election results: percent of vote -
NA%; seats - independents 8; note - 71% voter turnout

Judicial branch:  Supreme Court (chief justice is a nonresident);
Magistrates Court (senior magistrate presides over civil and criminal
divisions); Court of Summary Jurisdiction

Political parties and leaders:  none; all independents

Political pressure groups and leaders:  none

International organization participation:  ICFTU

Diplomatic representation in the US:  none (overseas territory of the UK;
also claimed by Argentina)

Diplomatic representation from the US:  none (overseas territory of the
UK; also claimed by Argentina)

Flag description:  blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side
quadrant and the Falkland Island coat of arms in a white disk centered
on the outer half of the flag; the coat of arms contains a white ram
(sheep raising is the major economic activity) above the sailing ship
Desire (whose crew discovered the islands) with a scroll at the bottom
bearing the motto DESIRE THE RIGHT

Economy Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)

Economy - overview:  The economy was formerly based on agriculture,
mainly sheep farming, but today fishing contributes the bulk of economic
activity. In 1987 the government began selling fishing licenses to foreign
trawlers operating within the Falklands exclusive fishing zone. These
license fees total more than $40 million per year, which goes to support
the island's health, education, and welfare system. Squid accounts for
75% of the fish taken. Dairy farming supports domestic consumption;
crops furnish winter fodder. Exports feature shipments of high-grade
wool to the UK and the sale of postage stamps and coins. The islands
are now self-financing except for defense. The British Geological
Survey announced a 200-mile oil exploration zone around the islands in
1993, and early seismic surveys suggest substantial reserves capable of
producing 500,000 barrels per day; to date no exploitable site has been
identified. An agreement between Argentina and the UK in 1995 seeks to
defuse licensing and sovereignty conflicts that would dampen foreign
interest in exploiting potential oil reserves. Tourism is increasing
rapidly, with about 30,000 visitors in 2001. The second largest source
of income is interest paid on money the government has in the bank.
The British military presence also provides a sizeable economic boost.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $52 million (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  1% (FY95/96 est.)

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $19,000 (FY95/96 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: NA% industry: NA% services: NA%

Population below poverty line:  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  3.6% (1998)

Labor force:  1,100 (est.)

Labor force - by occupation:  agriculture 95% (mostly sheepherding
and fishing)

Unemployment rate:  full employment; labor shortage

Budget:  revenues: $66.2 million expenditures: $67.9 million, including
capital expenditures of $23.2 million (FY98/99 est.)

Industries:  wool and fish processing; sale of stamps and coins; tourism

Industrial production growth rate:  NA%

Electricity - production:  12 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 100% hydro: 0% other: 0%
(1999) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:  11.2 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports:  0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports:  0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products:  fodder and vegetable crops; sheep, dairy products

Exports:  $7.6 million (1995)

Exports - commodities:  wool, hides, meat

Exports - partners:  UK, Japan, Chile, NZ

Imports:  $24.7 million (1995)

Imports - commodities:  fuel, food and drink, building materials, clothing

Imports - partners:  UK, Japan, Chile, NZ

Debt - external:  $NA

Economic aid - recipient:  none

Currency:  Falkland pound (FKP)

Currency code:  FKP

Exchange rates:  Falkland pounds per US dollar - 0.6981 (January 2002),
0.6944 (2001), 0.6596 (2000), 0.6180 (1999), 0.6037 (1998), 0.6106
(1997); note - the Falkland pound is at par with the British pound

Fiscal year:  1 April - 31 March

Communications Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)

Telephones - main lines in use:  NA

Telephones - mobile cellular:  NA

Telephone system:  general assessment: NA domestic: government-operated
radiotelephone and private VHF/CB radiotelephone networks provide
effective service to almost all points on both islands international:
satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) with links through
London to other countries

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 1, FM 7, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios:  1,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:  2 (operated by the British Forces
Broadcasting Service) note: cable television is available in Stanley
(2002)

Televisions:  1,000 (1997)

Internet country code:  .fk

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  2 (2000)

Internet users:  NA; however one-half of all households are reported to
have internet access (2002)

Transportation Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)

Railways:  0 km

Highways:  total: 550 km paved: at least 50 km unpaved: NA (2002)

Waterways:  none

Ports and harbors:  Stanley

Merchant marine:  none (2002 est.)

Airports:  5 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 2 2 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 under
914 m: 1 1 (2001)

Airports - with unpaved runways:  total: 3 3 under 914 m: 3 (2001)

Military Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)

Military branches:  British Forces Falkland Islands no regular indigenous
military forces; (includes Army, Royal Air Force, and Royal Navy),
Police Force

Military expenditures - dollar figure:  $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:  NA%

Military - note:  defense is the responsibility of the UK

Transnational Issues Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)

Disputes - international:  claimed by Argentina

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002



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Micronesia, Federated States of

Introduction

Micronesia, Federated States of

Background:  In 1979 the Federated States of Micronesia, a UN Trust
Territory under US administration, adopted a constitution. In 1986
independence was attained under a Compact of Free Association with the
US. Present concerns include large-scale unemployment, overfishing,
and overdependence on US aid.

Geography Micronesia, Federated States of

Location:  Oceania, island group in the North Pacific Ocean, about
three-quarters of the way from Hawaii to Indonesia

Geographic coordinates:  6 55 N, 158 15 E

Map references:  Oceania

Area:  total: 702 sq km note: includes Pohnpei (Ponape), Truk (Chuuk)
Islands, Yap Islands, and Kosrae water: 0 sq km land: 702 sq km

Area - comparative:  four times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:  0 km

Coastline:  6,112 km

Maritime claims:  exclusive economic zone: 200 NM territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate:  tropical; heavy year-round rainfall, especially in the eastern
islands; located on southern edge of the typhoon belt with occasionally
severe damage

Terrain:  islands vary geologically from high mountainous islands to low,
coral atolls; volcanic outcroppings on Pohnpei, Kosrae, and Truk

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m highest point:
Dolohmwar (Totolom) 791 m

Natural resources:  forests, marine products, deep-seabed minerals

Land use:  arable land: 6% permanent crops: 46% other: 48% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  NA sq km

Natural hazards:  typhoons (June to December)

Environment - current issues:  overfishing, climate change, pollution

Environment - international agreements:  party to: Biodiversity, Climate
Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes,
Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection signed, but not ratified: none
of the selected agreements

Geography - note:  four major island groups totaling 607 islands

People Micronesia, Federated States of

Population:  135,869 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:  0-14 years: NA% 15-64 years: NA% 65 years and over: NA%

Population growth rate:  NA% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  NA births/1,000 population

Death rate:  NA deaths/1,000 population

Sex ratio:  NA

Infant mortality rate:  NA deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birt