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Full text of "The 1990 CIA World Factbook"

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Version of 12-26-91 (revised 1-20-92)
BY: CHARLES B. KRAMER, ESQ.
NY and IL Bars
CompuServe:  72600,2026
  Internet:  72600.2026@compuserve.com
       Tel:  (212) 254-5093


15 October 1991

                   The World Factbook 1991

    Some tags useful for searching the factbook are as follows:

         _@_   the first three characters in each country heading;
                  for example, _@_Afghanistan
                               _@_Albania
                               _@_Algeria
                               _@_American Samoa

         _*_   the first three characters in each section heading;
                  for example, _*_Geography
                               _*_People
                               _*_Government
                               _*_Economy

         _#_   the first three characters in each individual entry;
                  for example, _#_Total area
                               _#_Comparative area
                               _#_Land boundaries
                               _#_Coastline

         _%_   the first three characters in the first line following
                  the end of a country section or an appendix
_%_


                        THE WORLD FACTBOOK 1991


    The World Factbook is produced annually by the Central Intelligence
Agency for the use of United States Government officials, and the style,
format, coverage, and content are designed to meet their specific
requirements.

    Information was provided by the Bureau of the Census, Central
Intelligence Agency, Defense Intelligence Agency, Defense Nuclear Agency,
Department of State, Foreign Broadcast Information Service, Maritime
Administration, National Science Foundation (Polar Information Program),
Navy Operational Intelligence Center, Office of Territorial and
International Affairs, United States Board on Geographic Names,
United States Coast Guard, and others.

    Comments and queries are welcome and may be addressed to:

                       Central Intelligence Agency
                       Attn: Public Affairs
                       Washington, DC 20505
                       (703) 351-2053

*************************************************************************

    US Government officials should obtain copies of The World Factbook
directly from their own organizations or through liaison channels from
the Central Intelligence Agency.  This publication is also available in
microfiche, magnetic tape, or diskettes for microcomputers.

    This publication may be purchased by telephone (VISA or MasterCard)
or mail from:

         Superintendent of Documents
         US Government Printing Office
         Washington, DC 20402-9325
         Tel: (202) 783-3238

    A subscription to this publication may be purchased from:

         National Technical Information Service
         5285 Port Royal Road
         Springfield, VA 22161
         Tel: (703) 487-4630

or:      Document Expediting (DOCEX) Project
         Exchange and Gift Division
         Library of Congress
         Washington, DC 20540
         Tel: (202) 707-9527

    This publication may be purchased in photocopy, microfiche, magnetic
tape, or diskettes for microcomputers from:

         National Technical Information Service
         5285 Port Royal Road
         Springfield, VA 22161
         Tel: (703) 487-4650

    This publication may be purchased in photocopy or microform from:

         Photoduplication Service
         Library of Congress
         Washington, DC 20540
         Tel: (202) 707-5640

*************************************************************************

                     Table of Contents

Notes, Definitions, and Abbreviations

Text (247 nations, dependent areas, and other entities)
    Afghanistan
    Albania
    Algeria
    American Samoa
    Andorra
    Angola
    Anguilla
    Antarctica
    Antigua and Barbuda
    Arctic Ocean
    Argentina
    Aruba
    Ashmore and Cartier Islands
    Atlantic Ocean
    Australia
    Austria

    Bahamas, The
    Bahrain
    Baker Island
    Bangladesh
    Barbados
    Bassas da India
    Belgium
    Belize
    Benin
    Bermuda
    Bhutan
    Bolivia
    Botswana
    Bouvet Island
    Brazil
    British Indian Ocean Territory
    British Virgin Islands
    Brunei
    Bulgaria
    Burkina
    Burma
    Burundi

    Cambodia
    Cameroon
    Canada
    Cape Verde
    Cayman Islands
    Central African Republic
    Chad
    Chile
    China (also see separate Taiwan entry)
    Christmas Island
    Clipperton Island
    Cocos (Keeling) Islands
    Colombia
    Comoros
    Congo
    Cook Islands
    Coral Sea Islands
    Costa Rica
    Cuba
    Cyprus
    Czechoslovakia

    Denmark
    Djibouti
    Dominica
    Dominican Republic

    Ecuador
    Egypt
    El Salvador
    Equatorial Guinea
    Ethiopia
    Europa Island

    Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)
    Faroe Islands
    Fiji
    Finland
    France
    French Guiana
    French Polynesia
    French Southern and Antarctic Lands

    Gabon
    Gambia, The
    Gaza Strip
    Germany
    Ghana
    Gibraltar
    Glorioso Islands
    Greece
    Greenland
    Grenada
    Guadeloupe
    Guam
    Guatemala
    Guernsey
    Guinea
    Guinea-Bissau
    Guyana

    Haiti
    Heard Island and McDonald Islands
    Honduras
    Hong Kong
    Howland Island
    Hungary

    Iceland
    India
    Indian Ocean
    Indonesia
    Iran
    Iraq
    Iraq-Saudi Arabia Neutral Zone
    Ireland
    Israel (also see separate Gaza Strip and West Bank entries)
    Italy
    Ivory Coast

    Jamaica
    Jan Mayen
    Japan
    Jarvis Island
    Jersey
    Johnston Atoll
    Jordan (also see separate West Bank entry)
    Juan de Nova Island

    Kenya
    Kingman Reef
    Kiribati
    Korea, North
    Korea, South
    Kuwait

    Laos
    Lebanon
    Lesotho
    Liberia
    Libya
    Liechtenstein
    Luxembourg

    Macau
    Madagascar
    Malawi
    Malaysia
    Maldives
    Mali
    Malta
    Man, Isle of
    Marshall Islands
    Martinique
    Mauritania
    Mauritius
    Mayotte
    Mexico
    Micronesia, Federated States of
    Midway Islands
    Monaco
    Mongolia
    Montserrat
    Morocco
    Mozambique

    Namibia
    Nauru
    Navassa Island
    Nepal
    Netherlands
    Netherlands Antilles
    New Caledonia
    New Zealand
    Nicaragua
    Niger
    Nigeria
    Niue
    Norfolk Island
    Northern Mariana Islands
    Norway

    Oman

    Pacific Islands, Trust Territory of the
      (Palau)
    Pacific Ocean
    Pakistan
    Palmyra Atoll
    Panama
    Papua New Guinea
    Paracel Islands
    Paraguay
    Peru
    Philippines
    Pitcairn Islands
    Poland
    Portugal
    Puerto Rico

    Qatar

    Reunion
    Romania
    Rwanda

    Saint Helena
    Saint Kitts and Nevis
    Saint Lucia
    Saint Pierre and Miquelon
    Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
    San Marino
    Sao Tome and Principe
    Saudi Arabia
    Senegal
    Seychelles
    Sierra Leone
    Singapore
    Solomon Islands
    Somalia
    South Africa
    South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
    Soviet Union
    Spain
    Spratly Islands
    Sri Lanka
    Sudan
    Suriname
    Svalbard
    Swaziland
    Sweden
    Switzerland
    Syria

    Taiwan entry follows Zimbabwe
    Tanzania
    Thailand
    Togo
    Tokelau
    Tonga
    Trinidad and Tobago
    Tromelin Island
    Tunisia
    Turkey
    Turks and Caicos Islands
    Tuvalu

    Uganda
    United Arab Emirates
    United Kingdom
    United States
    Uruguay

    Vanuatu
    Vatican City
    Venezuela
    Vietnam
    Virgin Islands

    Wake Island
    Wallis and Futuna
    West Bank
    Western Sahara
    Western Samoa
    World

    Yemen
    Yugoslavia

    Zaire
    Zambia
    Zimbabwe

    Taiwan

Appendix A: The United Nations System
Appendix B: International Organization and Group Abbreviations
Appendix C: International Organizations and Groups
Appendix D: Weights and Measures
Appendix E: Cross-Reference List of Geographic Names





             Notes, Definitions, and Abbreviations

There have been some significant changes in this edition. The
Literacy entry now includes rates for males, females, and both
sexes. Appendix C: International Organizations and Groups is new
and includes date established, aim, and list of members. Three maps
of special interest have been added this year--republics of the
Soviet Union, ethnic groups in the Soviet Union, and ethnic groups
in Eastern Europe.

_#_Abbreviations: (see Appendix B for international organizations
and groups)


          avdp.     avoirdupois
          c.i.f.    cost, insurance, and freight
          CY        calendar year
          DWT       deadweight ton
          est.      estimate
          Ex-Im     Export-Import Bank of the United States
          f.o.b.    free on board
          FRG       Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany);
                      used for information dated before 3 October 1990
                      or CY91
          FY        fiscal year
          GDP       gross domestic product
          GDR       German Democratic Republic (East Germany);
                      used for information dated before 3 October 1990
                      or CY91
          GNP       gross national product
          GRT       gross register ton
          km        kilometer
          km2       square kilometer
          kW        kilowatt
          kWh       kilowatt-hour
          m         meter
          NA        not available
          NEGL      negligible
          nm        nautical mile
          NZ        New Zealand
          ODA       official development assistance
          OOF       other official flows
          PDRY      People's Democratic Republic of Yemen [Yemen
                    (Aden) or South Yemen]; used for information
                      dated before 22 May 1990 or CY91

          UAE       United Arab Emirates
          UK        United Kingdom
          US        United States
          USSR      Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Soviet Union)
          YAR       Yemen Arab Republic [Yemen (Sanaa) or North Yemen];
                      used for information dated before 22 May 1990 or
                      CY91


_#_Administrative divisions: The numbers, designatory terms, and
first-order administrative divisions are generally those approved by the
United States Board on Geographic Names (BGN). Changes that have been
reported but not yet acted upon by BGN are noted.


_#_Area: Total area is the sum of all land and water areas delimited
by international boundaries and/or coastlines. Land area is the
aggregate of all surfaces delimited by international boundaries and/or
coastlines, excluding inland water bodies (lakes, reservoirs, rivers).
Comparative areas are based on total area equivalents. Most entities
are compared with the entire US or one of the 50 states. The smaller
entities are compared with Washington, DC (178 km2, 69 miles2) or
The Mall in Washington, DC (0.59 km2, 0.23 miles2, 146 acres).


_#_Birth rate: The average annual number of births during a year
per 1,000 population at midyear. Also known as crude birth rate.


_#_Dates of information: In general, information available as of 1
January 1991 was used in the preparation of this edition. Population
figures are estimates for 1 July 1991, with population growth rates
estimated for mid-1991 through mid-1992. Major political events have
been updated through 30 June 1991. Military age figures are average
annual estimates for 1991-95.


_#_Death rate: The average annual number of deaths during a year
per l,000 population at midyear. Also known as crude death rate.


_#_Diplomatic representation: The US Government has diplomatic
relations with 162 nations. There are only 144 US embassies, since some
nations have US ambassadors accredited to them, but no physical US
mission exists. The US has diplomatic relations with 151 of the 159 UN
members--the exceptions are Angola, Belorussia (Byelorussia;
constituent republic of the Soviet Union), Cambodia, Cuba, Iran, Vietnam,
Ukraine (constituent republic of the Soviet Union) and, obviously, the US
itself. In addition, the US has diplomatic relations with 12 nations that
are not in the UN--Andorra, Federated States of Micronesia, Kiribati,
Marshall Islands, Monaco, Nauru, San Marino, South Korea, Switzerland,
Tonga, Tuvalu, and the Vatican City. North Korea is not in the UN and the
US does not have diplomatic relations with that nation. The US has not
recognized the incorporation of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania into the
Soviet Union and continues to accredit the diplomatic representatives of
their last free governments.


_#_Disputes: This category includes a wide variety of situations
that range from traditional bilateral boundary disputes to unilateral
claims of one sort or another. Every international land boundary
dispute in the "Guide to International Boundaries," a map published
by the Department of State, is included. References to other situations
may also be included that are border- or frontier-relevant, such as
maritime disputes, geopolitical questions, or irredentist issues.
However, inclusion does not necessarily constitute official acceptance
or recognition by the US Government.


_#_Economic aid: This entry refers to bilateral commitments of:

Official Development Assistance (ODA), which is defined as government
grants that (a) are administered with the promotion of economic
development and welfare of LDCs as their main objective and (b) are
concessional in character and contain a grant element of at least 25%;
and

Other Official Flows (OOF) or transactions by the official sector
whose main objective is other than development-motivated or whose
grant element is below the 25% threshold for ODA. OOF transactions
include official export credits (such as Eximbank credits), official
equity and portfolio investment, and debt reorganization by the
official sector that does not meet concessional terms.

Aid is considered to have been committed when agreements are
initialed by the parties involved and constitute a formal declaration
of intent.


_#_Entities: Some of the nations, dependent areas, areas of special
sovereignty, and governments included in this publication are not
independent, and others are not officially recognized by the US
Government. Nation refers to a people politically organized into a
sovereign state with a definite territory. Dependent area refers to a
broad category of political entities that are associated in some way
with a nation. Names used for page headings are usually the short-form
names as approved by the US Board on Geographic Names. The
long-form name is included in the Government section and an entry
of "none" indicates a long-form name does not exist. In some
instances, no short-form name exists--then the long-form name must
serve for all usages.


There are 247 entities in the Factbook that may be categorized as
follows:


NATIONS
157 UN members (there are 159 members in the UN, but only 157 are
      included in The World Factbook because Belorussia
      (Byelorussia) and Ukraine are constituent republics of the Soviet
      Union)
 13 nations that are not members of the UN--Andorra, Federated States of
      Micronesia, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Monaco, Nauru, North Korea,
      San Marino, South Korea, Switzerland, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vatican City


OTHER
  1 Taiwan


DEPENDENT AREAS
  6 Australia--Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Christmas Island,
      Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Coral Sea Islands, Heard Island and
      McDonald Islands, Norfolk Island
  2 Denmark--Faroe Islands, Greenland
 16 France--Bassas da India, Clipperton Island, Europa Island,
      French Guiana, French Polynesia, French Southern and Antarctic
      Lands, Glorioso Islands, Guadeloupe, Juan de Nova Island,
      Martinique, Mayotte, New Caledonia, Reunion, Saint Pierre and
      Miquelon, Tromelin Island, Wallis and Futuna
  2 Netherlands--Aruba, Netherlands Antilles
  3 New Zealand--Cook Islands, Niue, Tokelau
  3 Norway--Bouvet Island, Jan Mayen, Svalbard
  1 Portugal--Macau
 16 United Kingdom--Anguilla, Bermuda, British Indian Ocean Territory,
      British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Falkland Islands,
      Gibraltar, Guernsey, Hong Kong, Isle of Man, Jersey, Montserrat,
      Pitcairn Islands, Saint Helena, South Georgia and the South
      Sandwich Islands, Turks and Caicos Islands
 15 United States--American Samoa, Baker Island, Guam, Howland Island,
      Jarvis Island, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Midway Islands,
      Navassa Island, Northern Mariana Islands, Palmyra Atoll,
      Puerto Rico, Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (Palau),
      Virgin Islands, Wake Island


MISCELLANEOUS
  7 Antarctica, Gaza Strip, Iraq-Saudi Arabia Neutral Zone,
      Paracel Islands, Spratly Islands, West Bank, Western Sahara


OTHER ENTITIES
  4 oceans--Arctic Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean, Pacific Ocean
  1 World
===
247 total


Notes: The US Government has not recognized the incorporation of
Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania into the Soviet Union as constituent
republics during World War II. Those Baltic states are not members of the
UN and are not included in the list of nations. The US Government does
not recognize the four so-called "independent" homelands of
Bophuthatswana, Ciskei, Transkei, and Venda in South Africa.


_#_Gross domestic product (GDP): The value of all goods and
services produced domestically.


_#_Gross national product (GNP): The value of all goods and
services produced domestically, plus income earned abroad, minus
income earned by foreigners from domestic production.


_#_GNP/GDP methodology: In the Economy section, GNP/GDP dollar
estimates for the OECD countries, the USSR, and the East European
countries are derived from purchasing power parity (PPP)
calculations rather than from conversions at official currency exchange
rates. The PPP method normally involves the use of international
dollar price weights, which are applied to the quantities of goods and
services produced in a given economy. In addition to the lack of
reliable data from the majority of countries, the statistician faces
a major difficulty in specifying, identifying, and allowing for the
quality of goods and services. The division of a PPP GNP/GDP estimate
in dollars by the corresponding estimate in the local currency gives
the PPP conversion rate. One thousand dollars will buy the
same market basket of goods in the US as one thousand dollars, converted
to the local currency at the PPP conversion rate, will buy in the other
country. GNP/GDP estimates for the LDCs, on the other hand, are based on
the conversion of GNP/GDP estimates in local currencies to dollars at
the official currency exchange rates. One caution: the proportion of,
say, defense expenditures as a percent of GNP/GDP in local currency
accounts may differ substantially from the proportion when GNP/GDP
accounts are expressed in PPP terms, as, for example, when an observer
estimates the dollar level of Soviet or Japanese military expenditures;
similar problems exist when components are expressed in dollars under
currency exchange rate procedures. Finally, as academic research
moves forward on the PPP method, we hope to convert all GNP/GDP
estimates to this method in future editions of the Factbook.


_#_Growth rate (population): The annual percent change in the
population, resulting from a surplus (or deficit) of births over
deaths and the balance of migrants entering and leaving a country.
The rate may be positive or negative.


_#_Illicit drugs: There are five categories of illicit
drugs--narcotics, stimulants, depressants (sedatives), hallucinogens,
and cannabis. These categories include many drugs legally produced and
prescribed by doctors as well as those illegally produced and sold
outside medical channels.


  Cannabis (Cannabis sativa) is the common hemp plant, provides
hallucinogens with some sedative properties, and includes marijuana (pot,
Acapulco gold, grass, reefer), tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, Marinol),
hashish (hash), and hashish oil (hash oil).


  Coca (Erythroxylon coca) is a bush and the leaves contain the stimulant
cocaine. Coca is not to be confused with cocoa which comes from cacao
seeds and is used in making chocolate, cocoa, and cocoa butter.


  Cocaine is a stimulant derived from the leaves of the coca bush.


  Depressants (sedatives) are drugs that reduce tension and anxiety and
include chloral hydrate, barbiturates (Amytal, Nembutal, Seconal,
phenobarbital), benzodiazepines (Librium, Valium), methaqualone
(Quaalude), glutethimide (Doriden), and others (Equanil, Placidyl,
Valmid).


  Drugs are any chemical substances that effect a physical, mental,
emotional, or behavioral change in an individual.


  Drug abuse is the use of any licit or illicit chemical substance that
results in physical, mental, emotional, or behavioral impairment in an
individual.


  Hallucinogens are drugs that affect sensation, thinking,
self-awareness, and emotion. Hallucinogens include LSD (acid, microdot),
mescaline and peyote (mexc, buttons, cactus), amphetamine variants (PMA,
STP, DOB), phencyclidine (PCP, angel dust, hog), phencyclidine analogues
(PCE, PCPy, TCP), and others (psilocybin, psilocyn).


  Hashish is the resinous exudate of the cannabis or hemp plant
(Cannabis sativa).


  Heroin is a semisynthetic derivative of morphine.


  Marijuana is the dried leaves of the cannabis or hemp plant
(Cannabis sativa).


  Narcotics are drugs that relieve pain, often induce sleep, and refer to
opium, opium derivatives, and synthetic substitutes. Natural narcotics
include opium (paregoric, parepectolin), morphine (MS-Contin, Roxanol),
codeine (Tylenol w/codeine, Empirin w/codeine, Robitussan A-C), and
thebaine. Semisynthetic narcotics include heroin (horse, smack), and
hydromorphone (Dilaudid). Synthetic narcotics include meperidine or
Pethidine (Demerol, Mepergan), methadone (Dolophine, Methadose), and
others (Darvon, Lomotil).


  Opium is the milky exudate of the incised, unripe seedpod of the
opium poppy.


  Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) is the source for many natural and
semisynthetic narcotics.


  Poppy straw concentrate is the alkaloid derived from the mature dried
opium poppy.


  Qat (kat, khat) is a stimulant from the buds or leaves of Catha edulis
that is chewed or drunk as tea.


  Stimulants are drugs that relieve mild depression, increase energy and
activity, and include cocaine (coke, snow, crack), amphetamines (Desoxyn,
Dexedrine), phenmetrazine (Preludin), methylphenidate (Ritalin), and
others (Cylert, Sanorex, Tenuate).


_#_Infant mortality rate: The number of deaths to infants under one
year of age in a given year per l,000 live births occurring in the same
year.


_#_Land use: Human use of the land surface is categorized as
arable land--land cultivated for crops that are replanted after
each harvest (wheat, maize, rice); permanent crops--land
cultivated for crops that are not replanted after each harvest
(citrus, coffee, rubber); meadows and pastures--land permanently
used for herbaceous forage crops; forest and woodland--land under
dense or open stands of trees; and other--any land type not
specifically mentioned above (urban areas, roads, desert). The
percentage figure for irrigated refers to the portion of the entire
amount of land area that is artificially supplied with water.


_#_Leaders: The chief of state is the titular leader of the country
who represents the state at official and ceremonial funcions but is not
involved with the day-to-day activities of the government. The head
of government is the administrative leader who manages the day-to-day
activities of the government. In the UK, the monarch is the chief
of state and the prime minister is the head of government. In the US,
the President is both the chief of state and the head of government.


_#_Life expectancy at birth: The average number of years to be lived
by a group of people all born in the same year, if mortality at each
age remains constant in the future.


_#_Literacy: There are no universal definitions and standards of
literacy. Unless otherwise noted, all rates are based on the most
common definition--the ability to read and write at a specified age.
Detailing the standards that individual countries use to assess the
ability to read and write is beyond the scope of this publication.


_#_Maps: All maps will be available only in the printed version for
the foreseeable future.


_#_Maritime claims: The proximity of neighboring states may prevent
some national claims from being fully extended.


_#_Merchant marine: All ships engaged in the carriage of goods. All
commercial vessels (as opposed to all nonmilitary ships), which
excludes tugs, fishing vessels, offshore oil rigs, etc. Also, a
grouping of merchant ships by nationality or register.

     Captive register--A register of ships maintained by a territory,
possession, or colony primarily or exclusively for the use of ships
owned in the parent country. Also referred to as an offshore register,
the offshore equivalent of an internal register. Ships on a captive
register will fly the same flag as the parent country, or a local
variant of it, but will be subject to the maritime laws and taxation
rules of the offshore territory. Although the nature of a captive
register makes it especially desirable for ships owned in the parent
country, just as in the internal register, the ships may also be owned
abroad. The captive register then acts as a flag of convenience
register, except that it is not the register of an independent state.

     Flag of convenience register--A national register offering
registration to a merchant ship not owned in the flag state. The major
flags of convenience (FOC) attract ships to their register by virtue
of low fees, low or nonexistent taxation of profits, and liberal
manning requirements. True FOC registers are characterized by having
relatively few of the ships registered actually owned in the flag
state. Thus, while virtually any flag can be used for ships under a
given set of circumstances, an FOC register is one where the majority
of the merchant fleet is owned abroad. It is also referred to as an
open register.

     Flag state--The nation in which a ship is registered and which
holds legal jurisdiction over operation of the ship, whether at home
or abroad. Differences in flag state maritime legislation determine
how a ship is manned and taxed and whether a foreign-owned ship may be
placed on the register.

     Internal register--A register of ships maintained as a subset of
a national register. Ships on the internal register fly the national
flag and have that nationality but are subject to a separate set of
maritime rules from those on the main national register. These
differences usually include lower taxation of profits, manning by
foreign nationals, and, usually, ownership outside the flag state
(when it functions as an FOC register). The Norwegian International
Ship Register and Danish International Ship Register are the most
notable examples of an internal register. Both have been instrumental
in stemming flight from the national flag to flags of convenience and in
attracting foreign-owned ships to the Norwegian and Danish flags.

     Merchant ship--A vessel that carries goods against payment of
freight. Commonly used to denote any nonmilitary ship but accurately
restricted to commercial vessels only.

     Register--The record of a ship's ownership and nationality as
listed with the maritime authorities of a country. Also, the
compendium of such individual ships' registrations. Registration of
a ship provides it with a nationality and makes it subject to the laws
of the country in which registered (the flag state) regardless of the
nationality of the ship's ultimate owner.


_#_Money figures: All are expressed in contemporaneous US dollars
unless otherwise indicated.


_#_Net migration rate: The balance between the number of persons
entering and leaving a country during the year per 1,000 persons
(based on midyear population). An excess of persons entering the
country is referred to as net immigration (3.56 migrants/1,000
population); an excess of persons leaving the country as net
emigration (-9.26 migrants/1,000 population).


_#_Population: Figures are estimates from the Bureau of the Census
based on statistics from population censuses, vital registration
systems, or sample surveys pertaining to the recent past, and on
assumptions about future trends.


_#_Total fertility rate: The average number of children that would
be born per woman if all women lived to the end of their childbearing
years and bore children according to a given fertility rate at each age.


_#_Years: All year references are for the calendar year (CY) unless
indicated as fiscal year (FY).


_#_Note: Information for the US and US dependencies was compiled from
material in the public domain and does not represent Intelligence
Community estimates.

The Handbook of Economic Statistics, published annually in
September by the Central Intelligence Agency, contains detailed
economic information for the Organization for Economic Cooperation
and Development (OECD) countries, Eastern Europe, the USSR,
and selected other countries. The Handbook can be obtained wherever
The World Factbook is available.




        THE WORLD FACTBOOK

_@_Afghanistan
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 647,500 km2; land area: 647,500 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than Texas


_#_Land boundaries: 5,826 km total; China 76 km, Iran 936 km,
Pakistan 2,430 km, USSR 2,384 km


_#_Coastline: none--landlocked


_#_Maritime claims: none--landlocked


_#_Disputes: Pashtun question with Pakistan; Baloch question with Iran
and Pakistan; periodic disputes with Iran over Helmand water rights;
insurgency with Iranian and Pakistani involvement; traditional tribal
rivalries


_#_Climate: arid to semiarid; cold winters and hot summers


_#_Terrain: mostly rugged mountains; plains in north and southwest


_#_Natural resources: natural gas, crude oil, coal, copper, talc,
barites, sulphur, lead, zinc, iron ore, salt, precious and
semiprecious stones


_#_Land use: arable land 12%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and
pastures 46%; forest and woodland 3%; other 39%; includes irrigated
NEGL%


_#_Environment: damaging earthquakes occur in Hindu Kush mountains;
soil degradation, desertification, overgrazing, deforestation, pollution


_#_Note: landlocked


_*_People
_#_Population: US Bureau of the Census--16,450,304 (July 1991),
growth rate 5.2% (1991) and excludes 3,750,796 refugees in Pakistan
and 1,607,281 refugees in Iran; note--another report indicates a
July 1990 population of 16,904,904, including 3,271,580 refugees in
Pakistan and 1,277,700 refugees in Iran


_#_Birth rate: 44 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 20 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: 28 migrants/1,000 population (1991);
note--there are flows across the border in both directions, but data are
fragmentary and unreliable


_#_Infant mortality rate: 164 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 44 years male, 43 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 6.3 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--Afghan(s); adjective--Afghan


_#_Ethnic divisions: Pashtun 50%, Tajik 25%, Uzbek 9%, Hazara
12-15%; minor ethnic groups include Chahar Aimaks, Turkmen, Baloch, and
other


_#_Religion: Sunni Muslim 84%, Shia Muslim 15%, other 1%


_#_Language: Pashtu 50%, Afghan Persian (Dari) 35%, Turkic
languages (primarily Uzbek and Turkmen) 11%, 30 minor languages
(primarily Balochi and Pashai) 4%; much bilingualism


_#_Literacy: 29% (male 44%, female 14%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)


_#_Labor force: 4,980,000; agriculture and animal husbandry 67.8%,
industry 10.2%, construction 6.3%, commerce 5.0%, services and other
10.7%, (1980 est.)


_#_Organized labor: some small government-controlled unions


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of Afghanistan


_#_Type: authoritarian


_#_Capital: Kabul


_#_Administrative divisions: 30 provinces (velayat,
singular--velayat); Badakhshan, Badghis, Baghlan, Balkh,
Bamian, Farah, Faryab, Ghazni, Ghowr, Helmand,
Herat, Jowzjan, Kabol, Kandahar, Kapisa, Konar,
Kondoz, Laghman, Lowgar, Nangarhar, Nimruz, Oruzgan,
Paktia, Paktika, Parvan, Samangan, Sar-e Pol,
Takhar, Vardak, Zabol; note--there may be a new province of
Nurestan (Nuristan)


_#_Independence: 19 August 1919 (from UK)


_#_Constitution: adopted 30 November 1987, revised May 1990


_#_Legal system: has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction


_#_National holiday: Anniversary of the Saur Revolution, 27 April
(1978)


_#_Executive branch: president, four vice presidents, prime minister,
deputy prime minister, Council of Ministers (cabinet)


_#_Legislative branch: bicameral National Assembly (Meli Shura)
consists of an upper house or Council of Elders (Sena) and a lower house
or Council of Representatives (Wolosi Jirga)


_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government--President (Mohammad)
NAJIBULLAH (Ahmadzai) (since 30 November 1987); First Vice President
Abdul Wahed SORABI (since 7 January 1991); Prime Minister Fazil Haq
KHALIQYAR (since 21 May 1990)


_#_Political parties and leaders: main party--Hizbi Watan Homeland
Party (formerly known as the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan
or PDPA); there are other, much smaller political parties recognized by
the government


_#_Suffrage: universal, male ages 15-50


_#_Elections:

Senate--last held NA April 1988 (next to be held April 1991);
results--Hizbi Watan was the only party;
seats--(192 total, 128 elected) Hizbi Watan 128;

House of Representatives--last held NA April 1988 (next to be held
April 1993);
results--Hizbi Watan was the only party;
seats--(234 total) Hizbi Watan 184, opposition 50;
note--members may or may not be affiliated with a political party


_#_Communists: Hizbi Watan Homeland Party (formerly the People's
Democratic Party of Afghanistan or PDPA) claims 200,000 members and no
longer considers itself a Communist party


_#_Other political or pressure groups: the military and other branches
of internal security have been rebuilt by the USSR; insurgency continues
throughout the country; widespread antiregime sentiment and opposition on
religious and political grounds


_#_Member of: AsDB, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, IOC, ITU,
LORCS, NAM, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO;
note--Afghanistan was suspended from the OIC in January 1980, but in
March 1989 the self-proclaimed Mujaheddin Government of Afghanistan
was given membership


_#_Diplomatic representation: Minister-Counselor, Charge d'Affaires
Abdul Ghafur JOUSHAN; Chancery at 2341 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington
DC 20008;
telephone (202) 234-3770 or 3771;

US--Charge d'Affaires (vacant); Embassy at Ansari Wat, Wazir
Akbar Khan Mina, Kabul; telephone 62230 through 62235 or 62436;
note--US Embassy in Kabul was closed in January 1989


_#_Flag: three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and green
with the national coat of arms superimposed on the hoist side of the
black and red bands; similar to the flag of Malawi which is shorter and
bears a radiant, rising red sun centered in the black band


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Fundamentally, Afghanistan is an extremely poor,
landlocked country, highly dependent on farming (wheat especially) and
livestock raising (sheep and goats). Economic considerations, however,
have played second fiddle to political and military upheavals, including
the nine-year Soviet military occupation (ended 15 February 1989) and the
continuing bloody civil war. Over the past decade, one-third of the
population has fled the country, with Pakistan sheltering about 3.3
million refugees and Iran about 1.3 million. Another 1 million have
probably moved into and around urban areas within Afghanistan. Large
numbers of bridges, buildings, and factories have been destroyed or
damaged by military action or sabotage. Government claims
to the contrary, gross domestic product almost certainly is
lower than 10 years ago because of the loss of labor and capital
and the disruption of trade and transport.


_#_GDP: $3 billion, per capita $200; real growth rate 0% (1989 est.)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): over 92% (1990 est.)


_#_Unemployment rate: NA%


_#_Budget: revenues $1.2 billion; expenditures $4.3 billion,
including capital expenditures of $306 million (FY91 est.)


_#_Exports: $236 million (f.o.b., FY90);

commodities--natural gas 55%, fruits and nuts 24%, handwoven
carpets, wool, cotton, hides, and pelts;

partners--mostly USSR and Eastern Europe


_#_Imports: $874 million (c.i.f., FY90 est.);

commodities--food and petroleum products;

partners--mostly USSR and Eastern Europe


_#_External debt: $2.3 billion (March 1991 est.)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate 8.1% (FY91 plan); accounts
for about 25% of GDP


_#_Electricity: 480,000 kW capacity; 1,470 million kWh produced,
100 kWh per capita (1989)


_#_Industries: small-scale production of textiles, soap, furniture,
shoes, fertilizer, and cement; handwoven carpets; natural gas, oil, coal,
copper


_#_Agriculture: largely subsistence farming and nomadic animal
husbandry; cash products--wheat, fruits, nuts, karakul pelts, wool,
mutton


_#_Illicit drugs: an illicit producer of opium poppy and cannabis
for the international drug trade; world's second-largest opium producer
(after Burma) and a major source of hashish


_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $322
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $465 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $57 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $4.1 billion


_#_Currency: afghani (plural--afghanis); 1 afghani (Af) = 100 puls


_#_Exchange rates: afghanis (Af) per US$1--586 (March 1991)


_#_Fiscal year: 21 March-20 March


_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 9.6 km (single track) 1.524-meter gauge from Kushka
(USSR) to Towraghondi and 15.0 km from Termez (USSR) to
Kheyrabad transshipment point on south bank of Amu Darya


_#_Highways: 21,000 km total (1984); 2,800 km hard surface, 1,650 km
bituminous-treated gravel and improved earth, 16,550 km unimproved earth
and tracks


_#_Inland waterways: total navigability 1,200 km; chiefly Amu Darya,
which handles steamers up to about 500 metric tons


_#_Pipelines: petroleum, oil, and lubricants pipelines--USSR
to Bagram and USSR to Shindand; natural gas, 180 km


_#_Ports: Shir Khan and Kheyrabad (river ports)


_#_Civil air: 2 TU-154, 2 Boeing 727, 4 Yak-40, assorted smaller
transports


_#_Airports: 40 total, 36 usable; 9 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 10 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
17 with runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: limited telephone, telegraph, and
radiobroadcast services; television introduced in 1980; 31,200
telephones; stations--5 AM, no FM, 1 TV; 1 satellite earth station


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Air and Air Defense Forces, Special
Guard/National Guard, Border Guard Forces, National Police Force
(Sarandoi), Ministry of State Security (WAD), Tribal Militia


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 4,049,092; 2,171,757 fit for
military service; 166,135 reach military age (22) annually


_#_Defense expenditures: $450 million, 15% of GDP (1990)
_%_
_@_Albania
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 28,750 km2; land area: 27,400 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than Maryland


_#_Land boundaries: 768 km total; Greece 282 km, Yugoslavia 486 km


_#_Coastline: 362 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: not specified;

Territorial sea: 12 nm


_#_Disputes: Kosovo question with Yugoslavia; Northern Epirus question
with Greece


_#_Climate: mild temperate; cool, cloudy, wet winters; hot, clear, dry
summers; interior is cooler and wetter


_#_Terrain: mostly mountains and hills; small plains along coast


_#_Natural resources: crude oil, natural gas, coal, chromium,
copper, timber, nickel


_#_Land use: arable land 21%; permanent crops 4%; meadows and
pastures 15%; forest and woodland 38%; other 22%; includes irrigated
1%


_#_Environment: subject to destructive earthquakes; tsunami occur
along southwestern coast; deforestation seems to be slowing


_#_Note: strategic location along Strait of Otranto (links
Adriatic Sea to Ionian Sea and Mediterranean Sea)


_*_People
_#_Population: 3,335,044 (July 1991), growth rate 1.8% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 24 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 50 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 72 years male, 79 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 2.9 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--Albanian(s); adjective--Albanian


_#_Ethnic divisions: Albanian 90%, Greeks 8%, other 2% (Vlachs,
Gypsies, Serbs, and Bulgarians) (1989 est.)


_#_Religion: all mosques and churches were closed in 1967 and
religious observances prohibited; in November 1990 Albania began
allowing private religious practice and was considering the repeal
of the constitutional amendment banning religious activities;
estimates of religious affiliation--Muslim 70%, Greek Orthodox 20%,
Roman Catholic 10%


_#_Language: Albanian (Tosk is official dialect), Greek


_#_Literacy: 72% (male 80%, female 63%) age 9 and over can
read and write (1955)


_#_Labor force: 1,500,000 (1987); agriculture about 60%, industry
and commerce 40% (1986)


_#_Organized labor: Central Council of Albanian Trade Unions, 610,000
members


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of Albania


_#_Type: nascent democracy with strong Communist party influence;
basic law has dropped all references to socialism


_#_Capital: Tirane


_#_Administrative divisions: 26 districts (rrethe, singular--rreth);
Berat, Dibre, Durres, Elbasan, Fier, Gjirokaster, Gramsh,
Kolonje, Korce, Kruje, Kukes, Lezhe, Librazhd, Lushnje,
Mat, Mirdite, Permet, Pogradec, Puke, Sarande, Shkoder,
Skrapar, Tepelene, Tirane, Tropoje, Vlore


_#_Independence: 28 November 1912 (from Ottoman Empire);
People's Socialist Republic of Albania declared 11 January 1946


_#_Constitution: an interim basic law was approved by the People's
Assembly on 29 April 1991; a new constitution is to be drafted for
adoption in four to six months


_#_Legal system: has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction


_#_National holiday: Liberation Day, 29 November (1944)


_#_Executive branch: president, prime minister of the Council of
Ministers, one deputy prime minister of the Council of Ministers


_#_Legislative branch: unicameral People's Assembly (Kuvendi
Popullor)


_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--President of the Republic Ramiz ALIA (since 22
November 1982);

Head of Government--Prime Minister of the interim Council of
Ministers Ylli BUFI (since 5 June 1991);


_#_Political parties and leaders: Albanian Workers Party (AWP),
Ramiz ALIA, first secretary;
Democratic Party (DP), Sali BERISHA, chairman and cofounder with
Gramoz PASHKO;
Albanian Republican Party, Sabri GODO;
Ecology Party, Namik HOTI;
Omonia (Greek minority party), leader NA;
Agrarian Party, leader NA;

note--in December 1990 President ALIA allowed new political parties
to be formed in addition to the AWP for the first time since 1944


_#_Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 18


_#_Elections:

President--last held 30 April 1991 (next to be held spring 1992);
results--President Ramiz ALIA was reelected with token opposition;

People's Assembly--last held 31 March 1991 (next to be held
spring 1992);
results--AWP 68%, DP 25%;
seats--(250 total) preliminary results AWP 168, DP 75, Omonia 5,
Veterans Association 1, other 1;

note--the AWP's votes came mostly from the countryside while the DP
won majorities in the six-largest cities;


_#_Communists: 147,000 party members (November 1986); note--in
March 1991 the Albanian Workers' Party announced that it considered
itself no longer Communist but socialist


_#_Member of: ECE, FAO, IAEA, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO


_#_Diplomatic representation: the Governments of the United States and
Albania agreed to reestablish diplomatic relations to be effective
from 15 March 1991 and to exchange diplomatic missions at the level
of ambassador


_#_Flag: red with a black two-headed eagle in the center below a red
five-pointed star outlined in yellow


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: As the poorest country in Europe, Albania's development
lags behind even the least favored areas of the Yugoslav economy.
For over 40 years, the Stalinist-type economy has operated on the
principles of central planning and state ownership of the means of
production. In recent years Albania has implemented limited economic
reforms to stimulate its lagging economy, provide incentives, and
decentralize decisionmaking. In an effort to expand international
ties, Tirane has reestablished diplomatic relations with the Soviet
Union and the US. The Albanians have also passed legislation allowing
foreign investment. Albania possesses considerable mineral
resources and, until 1990, was largely self-sufficient in food;
several years of drought have hindered agricultural development.
Numerical estimates of Albanian economic activity are subject to an
especially wide margin of error because the government until recently
did not release economic information.


_#_GNP: $4.1 billion, per capita $1,250; real growth rate NA% (1990
est.)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%


_#_Unemployment rate: NA%


_#_Budget: revenues $2.3 billion; expenditures $2.3 billion,
including capital expenditures of NA (1989)


_#_Exports: $378 million (f.o.b., 1987 est.);

commodities--asphalt, bitumen, petroleum products, metals and
metallic ores, electricity, oil, vegetables, fruits, tobacco;

partners--Italy, Yugoslavia, FRG, Greece, Czechoslovakia, Poland,
Romania, Bulgaria, Hungary


_#_Imports: $255 million (f.o.b., 1987 est.);

commodities--machinery, machine tools, iron and steel products,
textiles, chemicals, pharmaceuticals;

partners--Italy, Yugoslavia, FRG, Czechoslovakia, Romania,
Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria, GDR


_#_External debt: $NA


_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA


_#_Electricity: 1,690,000 kW capacity; 5,000 million kWh produced,
1,530 kWh per capita (1990)


_#_Industries: food processing, textiles and clothing, lumber,
oil, cement, chemicals, basic metals, hydropower


_#_Agriculture: arable land per capita among lowest in Europe;
one-half of work force engaged in farming; produces wide range of
temperate-zone crops and livestock; claims self-sufficiency in grain
output


_#_Economic aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA (1988) $5.8 million


_#_Currency: lek (plural--leke); 1 lek (L) = 100 qintars


_#_Exchange rates: leke (L) per US$1--8.00 (noncommercial fixed rate
since 1986), 4.14 (commercial fixed rate since 1987)


_#_Fiscal year: calendar year


_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 543 km total; 509 1.435-meter standard gauge, single
track and 34 km narrow gauge, single track (1990); line connecting
Titograd (Yugoslavia) and Shkoder (Albania) completed August 1986


_#_Highways: 16,700 km total; 6,700 km highway and roads, 10,000 km
forest and agricultural (1990)


_#_Inland waterways: 43 km plus Albanian sections of Lake Scutari,
Lake Ohrid, and Lake Prespa (1990)


_#_Pipelines: crude oil, 145 km; refined products, 55 km; natural gas,
64 km (1988)


_#_Ports: Durres, Sarande, Vlore


_#_Merchant marine: 11 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 52,886
GRT/75,993 DWT


_#_Airports: 12 total, 10 usable; more than 5 with permanent-surface
runways; more than 5 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 5 with runways
1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: stations--17 AM, 1 FM, 9 TV; 246,000 TVs
(1990); 210,000 radios


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Albanian People's Army, Albanian Coastal Defense Command,
Air and Air Defense Force, Frontier Troops, Interior Troops


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 900,723; 743,594 fit for
military service; 33,497 reach military age (19) annually


_#_Defense expenditures: 1.0 billion leks, NA% of GDP (FY90);
note--conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the
official administratively set exchange rate would produce misleading
results
_%_
_@_Algeria
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 2,381,740 km2; land area: 2,381,740 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly less than 3.5 times the size of Texas


_#_Land boundaries: 6,343 km total; Libya 982 km, Mali 1,376 km,
Mauritania 463 km, Morocco 1,559 km, Niger 956 km, Tunisia 965 km,
Western Sahara 42 km


_#_Coastline: 998 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Territorial sea: 12 nm


_#_Disputes: Libya claims about 19,400 km2 in southeastern Algeria


_#_Climate: arid to semiarid; mild, wet winters with hot, dry summers
along coast; drier with cold winters and hot summers on high plateau;
sirocco is a hot, dust/sand-laden wind especially common in summer


_#_Terrain: mostly high plateau and desert; some mountains; narrow,
discontinuous coastal plain


_#_Natural resources: crude oil, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates,
uranium, lead, zinc


_#_Land use: arable land 3%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and
pastures 13%; forest and woodland 2%; other 82%; includes irrigated
NEGL%


_#_Environment: mountainous areas subject to severe earthquakes;
desertification


_#_Note: second-largest country in Africa (after Sudan)


_*_People
_#_Population: 26,022,188 (July 1991), growth rate 2.5% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 32 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 57 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 66 years male, 68 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 4.2 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--Algerian(s); adjective--Algerian


_#_Ethnic divisions: Arab-Berber 99%, European less than
1%


_#_Religion: Sunni Muslim (state religion) 99%, Christian and
Jewish 1%


_#_Language: Arabic (official), French, Berber dialects


_#_Literacy: 50% (male 63%, female 36%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1987)


_#_Labor force: 3,700,000; industry and commerce 40%, agriculture
24%, government 17%, services 10% (1984)


_#_Organized labor: 16-19% of labor force claimed; General Union of
Algerian Workers (UGTA) is the only labor organization and is
subordinate to the National Liberation Front


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Democratic and Popular Republic of Algeria


_#_Type: republic


_#_Capital: Algiers


_#_Administrative divisions: 48 provinces (wilayat, singular--wilaya);
Adrar, Ain Defla, Ain Temouchent, Alger, Annaba, Batna, Bechar,
Bejaia, Biskra, Blida, Bordj Bou Arreridj, Bouira, Boumerdes, Chlef,
Constantine, Djelfa, El Bayadh, El Oued, El Tarf, Ghardaia, Guelma,
Illizi, Jijel, Khenchela, Laghouat, Mascara, Medea, Mila, Mostaganem,
M'sila, Naama, Oran, Ouargla, Oum el Bouaghi, Relizane, Saida, Setif,
Sidi Bel Abbes, Skikda, Souk Ahras, Tamanghasset, Tebessa, Tiaret,
Tindouf, Tipaza, Tissemsilt, Tizi Ouzou, Tlemcen


_#_Independence: 5 July 1962 (from France)


_#_Constitution: 19 November 1976, effective 22 November 1976


_#_Legal system: socialist, based on French and Islamic law; judicial
review of legislative acts in ad hoc Constitutional Council composed of
various public officials, including several Supreme Court justices; has
not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction


_#_National holiday: Anniversary of the Revolution, 1 November (1954)


_#_Executive branch: president, prime minister, Council of Ministers
(cabinet)


_#_Legislative branch: unicameral National People's Assembly
(Al-Majlis Ech-Chaabi Al-Watani)


_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--President Chadli BENDJEDID (since 7 February 1979);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Sid Ahmed GHOZALI (since
6 June 1991)


_#_Political parties and leaders:
National Liberation Front (FLN), Chadli BENDJEDID, president;
Islamic Salvation Front (FIS), Abassi MADANI;
the government established a multiparty system in September 1989 and as
of 31 December 1990 over 30 legal parties existed


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


_#_Elections:

President--last held on 22 December 1988 (next to be held December
1993); results--President BENDJEDID was reelected without opposition;

National People's Assembly--last held on 26 February 1987 (next
were to be held 27 June 1991 but postponed indefinitely because
of civil unrest);
results--FLN was the only party;
seats--(281 total) FLN 281; note--the government held multiparty
elections (municipal and wilaya) in June 1990, the first in Algerian
history; results--FIS 55%, FLN 27.5%, other 17.5%, with 65% of the voters
participating


_#_Communists: 400 (est.); Communist party banned 1962


_#_Member of: ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, AMU, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-19,
G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAPEC, OAS
(observer), OAU, OIC, OPEC, UN, UNAVEM, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO,
UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Abderrahmane BENSID;
Chancery at 2118 Kalorama Road NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone
(202) 328-5300;

US--Ambassador Christopher W. S. ROSS; Embassy at 4 Chemin Cheich
Bachir El-Ibrahimi, Algiers (mailing address is B. P. Box 549,
Alger-Gare, 16000 Algiers); telephone [213] (2) 601-425 or 255, 186;
there is a US Consulate in Oran


_#_Flag: two equal vertical bands of green (hoist side) and white
with a red five-pointed star within a red crescent; the crescent,
star, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam (the state
religion)


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The exploitation of oil and natural gas products forms
the backbone of the economy. Algeria depends on hydrocarbons for nearly
all of its export receipts, about 30% of government revenues, and nearly
25% of GDP. In 1973-74 the sharp increase in oil prices led to a booming
economy and helped to finance an ambitious program of industrialization.
Plunging oil and gas prices, combined with the mismanagement of Algeria's
highly centralized economy, have brought the nation to its most serious
social and economic crisis since independence. The government has
promised far-reaching reforms, including giving public-sector companies
more autonomy, encouraging private-sector activity, boosting gas and
nonhydrocarbon exports, and proposing a major overhaul of the banking
and financial systems, but to date has made little progress.


_#_GDP: $54 billion, per capita $2,130; real growth rate 2.5%
(1990 est.)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 16.6% (1990)


_#_Unemployment rate: 26% (1990 est.)


_#_Budget: revenues $16.7 billion; expenditures $17.3 billion,
including capital expenditures of $6.6 billion (1990 est.)


_#_Exports: $10.2 billion (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities--petroleum and natural gas 98%;

partners--Netherlands, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Italy, France, US


_#_Imports: $9.2 billion (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities--capital goods 29%, consumer goods 30%;

partners--France 25%, Italy 8%, FRG 8%, US 6-7%


_#_External debt: $26.6 billion (December 1990)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate -3% (1989 est.); accounts for
30% of GDP, including petroleum


_#_Electricity: 5,156,000 kW capacity; 14,900 million kWh
produced, 580 kWh per capita (1990)


_#_Industries: petroleum, light industries, natural gas, mining,
electrical, petrochemical, food processing


_#_Agriculture: accounts for 11% of GDP and employs 24% of labor
force; net importer of food--grain, vegetable oil, and sugar; farm
production includes wheat, barley, oats, grapes, olives, citrus, fruits,
sheep,and cattle


_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-85), $1.4
billion; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $8.5 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $1.8 billion;
Communist countries (1970-89), $2.7 billion


_#_Currency: Algerian dinar (plural--dinars); 1 Algerian dinar
(DA) = 100 centimes


_#_Exchange rates: Algerian dinars (DA) per US$1--13.581 (January
1991), 8.958 (1990), 7.6086 (1989), 5.9148 (1988), 4.8497 (1987), 4.7023
(1986), 5.0278 (1985)


_#_Fiscal year: calendar year


_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 4,146 km total; 2,632 km standard gauge (1.435 m),
1,258 km 1.055-meter gauge, 256 km 1.000-meter gauge; 300 km electrified;
215 km double track


_#_Highways: 80,000 km total; 60,000 km concrete or bituminous,
20,000 km gravel, crushed stone, unimproved earth


_#_Pipelines: crude oil, 6,612 km; refined products, 298 km; natural
gas, 2,948 km


_#_Ports: Algiers, Annaba, Arzew, Bejaia, Jijel, Mers el Kebir,
Mostaganem, Oran, Skikda


_#_Merchant marine: 75 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 903,179
GRT/1,063,994 DWT; includes 5 short-sea passenger, 27 cargo, 2 vehicle
carrier, 10 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 5 petroleum, oils, and lubricants
(POL) tanker, 9 liquefied gas, 7 chemical tanker, 9 bulk, 1 specialized
tanker


_#_Civil air: 42 major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 145 total, 134 usable; 53 with permanent-surface runways;
3 with runways over 3,659 m; 30 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 66 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: excellent domestic and international service in
the north, sparse in the south; 693,000 telephones; stations--26 AM, no
FM, 113 TV; 1,550,000 TV sets; 3,500,000 receiver sets; 6 submarine
cables; coaxial cable or radio relay to Italy, France, Spain, Morocco,
and Tunisia; satellite earth stations--1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, 1
Indian Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Intersputnik, 1 ARABSAT, and 15 domestic


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Territorial Air Defense,
National Gendarmerie


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 6,142,818; 3,780,873 fit for
military service; 293,175 reach military age (19) annually


_#_Defense expenditures: $857 million, 1.8% of GDP (1991)
_%_
_@_American Samoa
(territory of the US)
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 199 km2; land area: 199 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than Washington, DC


_#_Land boundaries: none


_#_Coastline: 116 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth);

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm


_#_Climate: tropical marine, moderated by southeast trade winds;
annual rainfall averages 124 inches; rainy season from November to April,
dry season from May to October; little seasonal temperature variation


_#_Terrain: five volcanic islands with rugged peaks and limited
coastal plains, two coral atolls


_#_Natural resources: pumice and pumicite


_#_Land use: arable land 10%; permanent crops 5%; meadows and
pastures 0%; forest and woodland 75%; other 10%


_#_Environment: typhoons common from December to March


_#_Note: Pago Pago has one of the best natural deepwater harbors in
the South Pacific Ocean, sheltered by shape from rough seas and protected
by peripheral mountains from high winds; strategic location about
3,700 km south-southwest of Honolulu in the South Pacific Ocean about
halfway between Hawaii and New Zealand


_*_People
_#_Population: 43,052 (July 1991), growth rate 2.9% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 41 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 4 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: - 8 immigrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 11 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 69 years male, 74 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 5.4 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--American Samoan(s); adjective--American Samoan


_#_Ethnic divisions: Samoan (Polynesian) 90%, Caucasian 2%, Tongan
2%, other 6%


_#_Religion: Christian Congregationalist 50%, Roman Catholic 20%,
Protestant denominations and other 30%


_#_Language: Samoan (closely related to Hawaiian and other Polynesian
languages) and English; most people are bilingual


_#_Literacy: 97% (male 97%, female 97%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1980)


_#_Labor force: 11,145; government 48%, tuna canneries 33%, other
19% (1986 est.)


_#_Organized labor: NA


_#_Note: about 65,000 American Samoans live in the States of
California and Washington and 20,000 in Hawaii


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Territory of American Samoa


_#_Type: unincorporated and unorganized territory of the US


_#_Capital: Pago Pago


_#_Administrative divisions: none (territory of the US)


_#_Independence: none (territory of the US)


_#_Constitution: ratified 1966, in effect 1967


_#_National holiday: Flag Day, 17 April (1900)


_#_Executive branch: President of the US, governor, lieutenant
governor


_#_Legislative branch: bicameral Legislative Assembly (Fono) consists
of an upper house or Senate and a lower house or House of Representatives


_#_Judicial branch: High Court


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--President George BUSH (since 20 January 1989);
Vice President Dan QUAYLE (since 20 January 1989);

Head of Government--Governor Peter Tali COLEMAN (since 20
January 1989);
Lieutenant Governor Galea'i POUMELE (since NA 1989)


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18; indigenous inhabitants are US
nationals, not US citizens


_#_Elections:

Governor--last held 7 November 1988 (next to be held November
1992); results--Peter T. COLEMAN was elected (percent of vote NA);

Senate--last held 7 November 1988 (next to be held November
1992);
results--senators elected by county councils from 12 senate
districts;
seats--(18 total) number of seats by party NA;

House of Representatives--last held NA November 1990 (next to be
held November 1992);
results--representatives popularly elected from 17 house districts;
seats--(21 total, 20 elected and 1 nonvoting delegate from Swain's
Island);

US House of Representatives--last held 19 November 1990 (next
to be held November 1992);
results--Eni R. F. H. FALEOMAVAEGA reelected as a nonvoting delegate


_#_Communists: none


_#_Member of: IOC, SPC


_#_Diplomatic representation: none (territory of the US)


_#_Flag: blue with a white triangle edged in red that is based on the
fly side and extends to the hoist side; a brown and white American bald
eagle flying toward the hoist side is carrying two traditional Samoan
symbols of authority, a staff and a war club


_#_Note: administered by the US Department of Interior, Office of
Territorial and International Affairs; indigenous inhabitants are US
nationals, not citizens of the US


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Economic development is strongly linked to the US, with
which American Samoa does 90% of its foreign trade. Tuna fishing and tuna
processing plants are the backbone of the private-sector economy, with
canned tuna the primary export. The tuna canneries are the second-largest
employer, exceeded only by the government. Other economic activities
include meat canning, handicrafts, dairy farming, and a slowly developing
tourist industry.


_#_GNP: $190 million, per capita $5,210; real growth rate NA% (1985)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.3% (1989)


_#_Unemployment rate: 13.4% (1986)


_#_Budget: revenues $51.2 million; expenditures $59.9 million,
including capital expenditures of $NA million (1990)


_#_Exports: $288 million (f.o.b., 1987);

commodities--canned tuna 93%;

partners--US 99.6%


_#_Imports: $346 million (c.i.f., 1987);

commodities--building materials 18%, food 17%, petroleum
products 14%;

partners--US 72%, Japan 7%, NZ 7%, Australia 5%, other 9%


_#_External debt: $NA


_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%


_#_Electricity: 42,000 kW capacity; 85 million kWh produced,
2,020 kWh per capita (1990)


_#_Industries: tuna canneries (largely dependent on foreign supplies
of raw tuna)


_#_Agriculture: bananas, coconuts, vegetables, taro, breadfruit, yams,
copra, pineapples, papayas


_#_Economic aid: $21,042,650 million in operational funds and
$5,948,931 million in construction funds for capital improvement projects
from the US Department of Interior (1991)


_#_Currency: US currency is used


_#_Exchange rates: US currency is used


_#_Fiscal year: 1 October-30 September


_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: none


_#_Highways: 350 km total; 150 km paved, 200 km unpaved


_#_Ports: Pago Pago, Ta'u


_#_Airports: 4 total, 4 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440 to 3,659 m
(international airport at Tafuna, near Pago Pago); small airstrips on
Ta'u and Ofu


_#_Telecommunications: 6,500 telephones; stations--1 AM, 2 FM, 1 TV;
good telex, telegraph, and facsimile services; 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT
earth station, 1 COMSAT earth station


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of the US
_%_
_@_Andorra
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 450 km2; land area: 450 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly more than 2.5 times the size of
Washington, DC


_#_Land boundaries: 125 km total; France 60 km, Spain 65 km


_#_Coastline: none--landlocked


_#_Maritime claims: none--landlocked


_#_Climate: temperate; snowy, cold winters and cool, dry summers


_#_Terrain: rugged mountains dissected by narrow valleys


_#_Natural resources: hydropower, mineral water, timber,
iron ore, lead


_#_Land use: arable land 2%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and
pastures 56%; forest and woodland 22%; other 20%


_#_Environment: deforestation, overgrazing


_#_Note: landlocked


_*_People
_#_Population: 53,197 (July 1991), growth rate 2.4% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 11 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 4 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: 16 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 7 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 74 years male, 81 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 1.3 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--Andorran(s); adjective--Andorran


_#_Ethnic divisions: Catalan stock; Spanish 61%, Andorran 30%,
French 6%, other 3%


_#_Religion: virtually all Roman Catholic


_#_Language: Catalan (official); many also speak some French and
Castilian


_#_Literacy: NA% (male NA%, female NA%)


_#_Labor force: NA


_#_Organized labor: none


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Principality of Andorra


_#_Type: unique coprincipality under formal sovereignty of president
of France and Spanish bishop of Seo de Urgel, who are represented locally
by officials called verguers


_#_Capital: Andorra la Vella


_#_Administrative divisions: 7 parishes (parroquies,
singular--parroquia); Andorra, Canillo, Encamp, La Massana, Les
Escaldes, Ordino, Sant Julia de Loria


_#_Independence: 1278


_#_Constitution: none; some pareatges and decrees, mostly custom and
usage


_#_Legal system: based on French and Spanish civil codes; no judicial
review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction


_#_National holiday: Mare de Deu de Meritxell, 8 September


_#_Executive branch: two co-princes (president of France, bishop of
Seo de Urgel in Spain), two designated representatives (French veguer,
Episcopal veguer), two permanent delegates (French prefect for the
department of Pyrenees-Orientales, Spanish vicar general for the Seo
de Urgel diocese), president of government, Executive Council


_#_Legislative branch: unicameral General Council of the Valleys
(Consell General de las Valls)


_#_Judicial branch: civil cases--Supreme Court of Andorra at Perpignan
(France) or the Ecclesiastical Court of the bishop of Seo de Urgel
(Spain); criminal cases--Tribunal of the Courts (Tribunal des Cortes)


_#_Leaders:

Chiefs of State--French Co-Prince Francois MITTERRAND (since 21
May 1981), represented by Veguer de Franca Jean Pierre COURTOIS;
Spanish Episcopal Co-Prince Mgr. Joan MARTI y Alanis (since 31
January 1971), represented by Veguer Episcopal Francesc BADIA Batalla;

Head of Government--Oscar RIBAS Reig (since NA January 1990)


_#_Political parties and leaders: political parties not yet legally
recognized; traditionally no political parties but partisans for
particular independent candidates for the General Council on the basis of
competence, personality, and orientation toward Spain or France; various
small pressure groups developed in 1972; first formal political party,
Andorran Democratic Association, was formed in 1976 and reorganized in
1979 as Andorran Democratic Party


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


_#_Elections:

General Council of the Valleys--last held 11 December 1989
(next to be held December 1993);
results--percent of vote NA;
seats--(28 total) number of seats by party NA


_#_Communists: negligible


_#_Member of: CSCE, INTERPOL, IOC


_#_Diplomatic representation: Andorra has no mission in the US;

US--includes Andorra within the Barcelona (Spain) Consular District
and the US Consul General visits Andorra periodically; Consul General
Ruth A. DAVIS; Consulate General at Via Layetana 33, Barcelona 3, Spain
(mailing address APO NY 09286); telephone [34] (3) 319-9550


_#_Flag: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and
red with the national coat of arms centered in the yellow band; the coat
of arms features a quartered shield; similar to the flags of Chad and
Romania which do not have a national coat of arms in the center                
lar to the


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The mainstay of Andorra's economy is tourism. An
estimated 12 million tourists visit annually, attracted by Andorra's
duty-free status and by its summer and winter resorts. Agricultural
production is limited by a scarcity of arable land, and most food has to
be imported. The principal livestock activity is sheep raising.
Manufacturing consists mainly of cigarettes, cigars, and furniture. The
rapid pace of European economic integration is a potential threat to
Andorra's advantages from its duty-free status.


_#_GDP: $727 million, per capita $14,000; real growth rate NA%
(1990 est.)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%


_#_Unemployment rate: none


_#_Budget: revenues $NA; expenditures $NA, including capital
expenditures of $NA


_#_Exports: $0.017 million (f.o.b., 1986);

commodities--electricity;

partners--France, Spain


_#_Imports: $531 million (f.o.b., 1986);

commodities--consumer goods, food;

partners--France, Spain


_#_External debt: $NA


_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%


_#_Electricity: 35,000 kW capacity; 140 million kWh produced,
2,800 kWh per capita (1989)


_#_Industries: tourism (particularly skiing), sheep, timber, tobacco,
smuggling, banking


_#_Agriculture: sheep raising; small quantities of tobacco, rye,
wheat, barley, oats, and some vegetables


_#_Economic aid: none


_#_Currency: French franc (plural--francs) and Spanish peseta
(plural--pesetas); 1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes and 1 Spanish peseta
(Pta) = 100 centimos


_#_Exchange rates: French francs (F) per US$1--5.1307 (January 1991),
5.4453 (1990), 6.3801 (1989), 5.9569 (1988), 6.0107 (1987), 6.9261
(1986), 8.9852 (1985); Spanish pesetas (Ptas) per US$1--95.20 (January
1991), 101.93 (1990), 118.38 (1989), 116.49 (1988), 123.48 (1987), 140.05
(1986), 170.04 (1985)


_#_Fiscal year: calendar year


_*_Communications
_#_Highways: 96 km


_#_Telecommunications: international digital microwave network;
international landline circuits to France and Spain; stations--1 AM, no
FM, no TV; 17,700 telephones


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of France and Spain
_%_
_@_Angola
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 1,246,700 km2; land area: 1,246,700 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly less than twice the size of Texas


_#_Land boundaries: 5,198 km total; Congo 201 km, Namibia 1,376 km,
Zaire 2,511 km, Zambia 1,110 km


_#_Coastline: 1,600 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 20 nm


_#_Disputes: civil war since independence on 11 November 1975;
on 31 May 1991 Angolan President Jose Eduardo dos SANTOS
and Jonas SAVIMBI, leader of the National Union for the Total
Independence of Angola (UNITA), signed a peace treaty that calls for
multiparty elections between September and November 1992, an
internationally monitored cease-fire, and termination of outside
military assistance


_#_Climate: semiarid in south and along coast to Luanda; north has
cool, dry season (May to October) and hot, rainy season (November to
April)


_#_Terrain: narrow coastal plain rises abruptly to vast interior
plateau


_#_Natural resources: petroleum, diamonds, iron ore, phosphates,
copper, feldspar, gold, bauxite, uranium


_#_Land use: arable land 2%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and
pastures 23%; forest and woodland 43%; other 32%


_#_Environment: locally heavy rainfall causes periodic flooding on
plateau; desertification


_#_Note: Cabinda is separated from rest of country by Zaire


_*_People
_#_Population: 8,668,281 (July 1991), growth rate 2.7% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 47 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 20 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: NEGL migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 151 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 42 years male, 46 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 6.7 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--Angolan(s); adjective--Angolan


_#_Ethnic divisions: Ovimbundu 37%, Kimbundu 25%, Bakongo 13%,
Mestico 2%, European 1%, other 22%


_#_Religion: indigenous beliefs 47%, Roman Catholic 38%, Protestant
15% (est.)


_#_Language: Portuguese (official); various Bantu dialects


_#_Literacy: 42% (male 56%, female 28%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)


_#_Labor force: 2,783,000 economically active; agriculture 85%,
industry 15% (1985 est.)


_#_Organized labor: about 450,695 (1980)


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: People's Republic of Angola


_#_Type: in transition from a one-party Marxist state to a multiparty
democracy with a strong presidential system


_#_Capital: Luanda


_#_Administrative divisions: 18 provinces (provincias,
singular--provincia); Bengo, Benguela, Bie, Cabinda, Cuando Cubango,
Cuanza Norte, Cuanza Sul, Cunene, Huambo, Huila, Luanda, Lunda Norte,
Lunda Sul, Malanje, Moxico, Namibe, Uige, Zaire


_#_Independence: 11 November 1975 (from Portugal)


_#_Constitution: 11 November 1975; revised 7 January 1978, 11
August 1980, and 6 March 1991


_#_Legal system: based on Portuguese civil law system and customary
law; recently modified to accommodate multipartyism and increased use of
free markets


_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 11 November (1975)


_#_Executive branch: president, chairman of the Council of Ministers,
Council of Ministers (cabinet)


_#_Legislative branch: unicameral People's Assembly (Assembleia do
Povo)


_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Tribunal da Relacao)


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government--President Jose Eduardo dos
SANTOS (since 21 September 1979)


_#_Political parties and leaders: only one party exists--the
Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola-Labor Party
(MPLA), Jose Eduardo dos SANTOS--although others are expected to
form as legalization of a multiparty system proceeds;
National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) lost to
the MPLA and Cuban military support forces in the immediate
postindependence struggle, but is to receive recognition as a legal party


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


_#_Elections: first nationwide, multiparty elections to be held
between September and November 1992


_#_Member of: ACP, AfDB, CEEAC (observer), ECA, FAO,
FLS, G-77, ICAO, IFAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU,
LORCS, NAM, OAU, SADCC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WTO


_#_Diplomatic representation: none


_#_Flag: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and black with a
centered yellow emblem consisting of a five-pointed star within half a
cogwheel crossed by a machete (in the style of a hammer and sickle)


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Subsistence agriculture provides the main livelihood for
80 to 90% of the population, but accounts for less than 15% of GDP. Oil
production is the most lucrative sector of the economy, contributing
about 50% to GDP. In recent years, however, the impact of fighting an
internal war has severely affected the nonoil economy, and food has to be
imported.  For the long run, Angola has the advantage of rich natural
resources, notably gold, diamonds, and arable land.  To realize its
economic potential Angola not only must secure domestic peace but also
must reform government policies that have led to distortions and
imbalances throughout the economy.


_#_GDP: $7.9 billion, per capita $925; real growth rate 2.0% (1990
est.)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 23.2% (1988)


_#_Unemployment rate: NA%


_#_Budget: revenues $2.6 billion; expenditures $4.4 billion,
including capital expenditures of $963 million (1990 est.)


_#_Exports: $3.8 billion (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities--oil,liquified petroleum gas, diamonds, coffee, sisal,
fish and fish products, timber, cotton;

partners--US, USSR, Cuba, Portugal, Brazil, France


_#_Imports: $1.5 billion (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities--capital equipment (machinery and electrical
equipment), food, vehicles and spare parts, textiles and clothing,
medicines; substantial military deliveries;

partners--US, USSR, Cuba, Portugal, Brazil


_#_External debt: $7.0 billion (1990)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%; accounts for about 60%
of GDP, including petroleum output


_#_Electricity: 506,000 kW capacity; 770 million kWh produced,
90 kWh per capita (1989)


_#_Industries: petroleum, diamonds, mining, fish processing, food
processing, brewing, tobacco, sugar, textiles, cement, basic metal
products


_#_Agriculture: cash crops--coffee, sisal, corn, cotton, sugar,
manioc, tobacco; food crops--cassava, corn, vegetables, plantains,
bananas; livestock production accounts for 20%, fishing 4%, forestry
2% of total agricultural output; disruptions caused by civil war
and marketing deficiencies require food imports


_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $265
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $1,005 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $1.3 billion


_#_Currency: kwanza (plural--kwanza); 1 kwanza (Kz) = 100 lwei


_#_Exchange rates: kwanza (Kz) per US$1--29.62 (fixed rate since 1976)


_#_Fiscal year: calendar year


_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 3,189 km total; 2,879 km 1.067-meter gauge, 310 km
0.600-meter gauge; limited trackage in use because of insurgent attacks;
sections of the Benguela Railroad closed because of insurgency


_#_Highways: 73,828 km total; 8,577 km bituminous-surface treatment,
29,350 km crushed stone, gravel, or improved earth, remainder unimproved
earth


_#_Inland waterways: 1,295 km navigable


_#_Pipelines: crude oil, 179 km


_#_Ports: Luanda, Lobito, Namibe, Cabinda


_#_Merchant marine: 12 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
66,348 GRT/102,825 DWT; includes 11 cargo, 1 petroleum, oils, and
lubricants (POL) tanker


_#_Civil air: 27 major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 315 total, 183 usable; 28 with permanent-surface runways;
1 with runways over 3,659 m; 13 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 58 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: fair system of wire, radio relay, and
troposcatter routes; high frequency used extensively for military/Cuban
links; 40,300 telephones; stations--17 AM, 13 FM, 2 TV; 2 Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT earth stations


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force/Air Defense, People's Defense
Organization and Territorial Troops, Frontier Guard


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 2,080,837; 1,047,500 fit for
military service; 92,430 reach military age (18) annually


_#_Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP
_%_
_@_Anguilla
(dependent territory of the UK)
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 91 km2; land area: 91 km2


_#_Comparative area: about half the size of Washington, DC


_#_Land boundaries: none


_#_Coastline: 61 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 3 nm


_#_Climate: tropical; moderated by northeast trade winds


_#_Terrain: flat and low-lying island of coral and limestone


_#_Natural resources: negligible; salt, fish, lobster


_#_Land use: arable land NA%; permanent crops NA%; meadows and
pastures NA%; forest and woodland NA%; other NA%; mostly rock with sparse
scrub oak, few trees, some commercial salt ponds


_#_Environment: frequent hurricanes, other tropical storms (July
to October)


_#_Note: located 270 km east of Puerto Rico


_*_People
_#_Population: 6,922 (July 1991), growth rate 0.6% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 24 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 9 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: - 10 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 18 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 71 years male, 77 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 3.1 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--Anguillan(s); adjective--Anguillan


_#_Ethnic divisions: mainly of black African descent


_#_Religion: Anglican 40%, Methodist 33%, Seventh-Day Adventist 7%,
Baptist 5%, Roman Catholic 3%, other 12%


_#_Language: English (official)


_#_Literacy: 95% (male 95%, female 95%) age 12 and over can
read and write (1984)


_#_Labor force: 2,780 (1984)


_#_Organized labor: NA


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: none


_#_Type: dependent territory of the UK


_#_Capital: The Valley


_#_Administrative divisions: none (dependent territory of the UK)


_#_Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)


_#_Constitution: 1 April 1982


_#_Legal system: based on English common law


_#_National holiday: Anguilla Day, 30 May


_#_Executive branch: British monarch, governor, chief minister,
Executive Council (cabinet)


_#_Legislative branch: unicameral House of Assembly


_#_Judicial branch: High Court


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor Brian G. J. CANTY (since NA 1989);

Head of Government--Chief Minister Emile GUMBS (since NA March
1984, served previously from February 1977 to May 1980)


_#_Political parties and leaders:
Anguilla National Alliance (ANA), Emile GUMBS;
Anguilla United Party (AUP), Ronald WEBSTER;
Anguilla Democratic Party (ADP), Victor BANKS


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


_#_Elections:

House of Assembly--last held 27 February 1989 (next to
be held February 1994);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(11 total, 7 elected) ANA 3, AUP 2, ADP 1, independent 1


_#_Communists: none


_#_Member of: CARICOM (observer), CDB


_#_Diplomatic representation: none (dependent territory of the UK)


_#_Flag: two horizontal bands of white (top, almost triple width) and
light blue with three orange dolphins in an interlocking circular design
centered in the white band; a new flag may have been in use since
30 May 1990


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Anguilla has few natural resources, and the economy
depends heavily on lobster fishing, offshore banking, tourism, and
remittances from emigrants. In recent years the economy has benefited
from a boom in tourism. Development is planned to improve the
infrastructure, particularly transport and tourist facilities, and
also light industry. Improvement in the economy has reduced
unemployment from 40% in 1984 to about 5% in 1988.


_#_GDP: $23 million, per capita $3,300; real growth rate
8.2% (1988 est.)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.5% (1988 est.)


_#_Unemployment rate: 5.0% (1988 est.)


_#_Budget: revenues $10.4 million; expenditures $11.0 million,
including capital expenditures of $1.1 million (1989 est.)


_#_Exports: $NA;

commodities--lobster and salt;

partners--NA


_#_Imports: $NA;

commodities--NA;

partners --NA


_#_External debt: $NA


_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%


_#_Electricity: 2,000 kW capacity; 6 million kWh produced, 870 kWh
per capita (1990)


_#_Industries: tourism, boat building, salt, fishing (including
lobster)


_#_Agriculture: pigeon peas, corn, sweet potatoes, sheep, goats, pigs,
cattle, poultry


_#_Economic aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral
commitments (1970-89), $38 million


_#_Currency: East Caribbean dollar (plural--dollars); 1 EC dollar
(EC$) = 100 cents


_#_Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1--2.70 (fixed
rate since 1976)


_#_Fiscal year: NA


_*_Communications
_#_Highways: 60 km surfaced


_#_Ports: Road Bay, Blowing Point


_#_Civil air: no major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 3 total, 3 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runways of
1,100 m (Wallblake Airport)


_#_Telecommunications: modern internal telephone system; 890
telephones; stations--3 AM, 1 FM, no TV; radio relay link to island of
Saint Martin


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of the UK
_%_
_@_Antarctica
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: about 14,000,000 km2; land area: about 14,000,000 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly less than 1.5 times the size of the US;
second-smallest continent (after Australia)


_#_Land boundaries: see entry on _#_Disputes


_#_Coastline: 17,968 km


_#_Maritime claims: see entry on _#_Disputes


_#_Disputes: Antarctic Treaty defers claims (see Antarctic Treaty
Summary below); sections (some overlapping) claimed by Argentina,
Australia, Chile, France (Adelie Land), New Zealand (Ross Dependency),
Norway (Queen Maud Land), and UK; Brazil has noted possible Latin claims;
the US and USSR do not recognize the territorial claims of other nations
and have made no claims themselves (but reserve the right to do so); no
formal claims have been made in the sector between 90o west and
150o west


_#_Climate: severe low temperatures vary with latitude, elevation, and
distance from the ocean; East Antarctica colder than West Antarctica
because of its higher elevation; Antarctic Peninsula has most
moderate climate; warmest temperatures occur in January along the coast
and average slightly below freezing


_#_Terrain: about 98% thick continental ice sheet, with average
elevations between 2,000 and 4,000 meters; mountain ranges up to 4,897
meters high; ice-free coastal areas include parts of southern Victoria
Land, Wilkes Land, the Antarctic Peninsula area, and Ross Island on
McMurdo Sound; glaciers form ice shelves along about half of coastline
and floating ice shelves constitute 11% of the area of the continent


_#_Natural resources: none presently exploited; coal and iron ore;
chromium, copper, gold, nickel, platinum, and hydrocarbons have been
found in small uncommercial quantities


_#_Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; pastures 0%;
meadows and forest and woodland 0%; other 100% (ice 98%, barren rock
2%)


_#_Environment: mostly uninhabitable; katabatic (gravity) winds blow
coastward from the high interior; frequent blizzards form near the foot
of the plateau; cyclonic storms form over the ocean and move clockwise
around the coast, as does a circumpolar ocean current; during
summer more solar radiation reaches the surface at the South Pole than
is received at the Equator in an equivalent period; in April 1991 it was
reported that the ozone shield, which protects the Earth's surface from
harmful ultraviolet radiation, had dwindled to its lowest level ever over
Antarctica; subject to active volcanism (Deception Island and isolated
areas of West Antarctica); other seismic activity rare and weak


_#_Note: the coldest, windiest, highest, and driest continent


_*_People
_#_Population: no indigenous inhabitants; staffing of research
stations varies seasonally;

Summer (January) population--4,120; Argentina 207, Australia 268,
Belgium 13, Brazil 80, Chile 256, China NA, Ecuador NA, Finland 16,
France 78, Germany 32, Greenpeace 12, India 60, Italy 210, Japan 59,
South Korea 14, Netherlands 10, NZ 264, Norway 23, Peru 39, Poland NA,
South Africa 79, Spain 43, Sweden 10, UK 116, Uruguay NA, US 1,666,
USSR 565 (1989-90);

Winter (July) population--1,066 total; Argentina 150, Australia
71, Brazil 12, Chile 73, China NA, France 33, Germany 19, Greenpeace 5,
India 21, Japan 38, South Korea 14, NZ 11, Poland NA, South Africa 12,
UK 69, Uruguay NA, US 225, USSR 313 (1989-90);

Year-round stations--42 total; Argentina 6, Australia 3, Brazil 1,
Chile 3, China 2, France 1, Germany 2, Greenpeace 1, India 2, Japan 2,
South Korea 1, NZ 1, Poland 1, South Africa 1, UK 5, Uruguay 1, US 3,
USSR 6 (1990-91);

Summer only stations--34 total; Argentina 1, Australia 3, Chile 5,
Finland 1, Germany 4, India 1, Italy 1, Japan 1, NZ 2, Norway 1,
Peru 1, South Africa 1, Spain 1, Sweden 2, UK 1, US 3, USSR 5 (1989-90)


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: none


_#_Type: The Antarctic Treaty, signed on 1 December 1959 and entered
into force on 23 June 1961, established for at least 30 years a legal
framework for peaceful use, scientific research, and deferral of legal
questions regarding territorial claims. Administration is carried out
through consultative member meetings--the last meeting was held in Madrid
(Spain) in April 1991.


    Consultative (voting) members include seven nations that claim
portions of Antarctica as national territory (some claims overlap) and
nonclaimant nations. The US and other nations have made no claims, but
have reserved the right to claim territory. The US does not recognize the
claims of others. The year in parentheses indicates when an acceding
nation was voted to full consultative (voting) status, while no date
indicates an original 1959 treaty signatory. Claimant nations
are--Argentina, Australia, Chile, France, New Zealand, Norway, and the
UK. Nonclaimant consultative nations are--Belgium, Brazil (1983),
China (1985), Ecuador (1990), Finland (1989), Germany (1981), India
(1983), Italy (1987), Japan, South Korea (1989), Netherlands (1990), Peru
(1989), Poland (1977), South Africa, Spain (1988), Sweden (1988), Uruguay
(1985), the US, and the USSR.


    Acceding (nonvoting) members, with year of accession in parenthesis,
are--Austria (1987), Bulgaria (1978), Canada (1988), Colombia (1988),
Cuba (1984), Czechoslovakia (1962), Denmark (1965), Greece (1987),
Hungary (1984), North Korea (1987), Papua New Guinea (1981), Romania
(1971), and Switzerland (1990).


    Antarctic Treaty Summary:

Article 1--area to be used for peaceful purposes only; military
activity, such as weapons testing, is prohibited, but military personnel
and equipment may be used for peaceful scientific and logistics purposes;

Article 2--freedom of scientific investigation and cooperation
shall continue;

Article 3--free exchange of information and personnel in
cooperation with the UN and other international agencies;

Article 4--does not recognize, dispute, or establish territorial
claims and no new claims shall be asserted while the treaty is in force;

Article 5--prohibits nuclear explosions or disposal of radioactive
wastes;

Article 6--includes under the treaty all land and ice shelves
south of 60o 00%19 south, but that the water areas be covered by
international law;

Article 7--treaty-state observers have free access, including
aerial observation, to any area and may inspect all stations,
installations, and equipment; advance notice of all activities
and the introduction of military personnel must be given;

Article 8--allows for jurisdiction over observers and scientists
by their own states;

Article 9--frequent consultative meetings take place among
member nations;

Article 10--treaty states will discourage activities by any
country in Antarctica that are contrary to the treaty;

Article 11--disputes to be settled peacefully by the parties
concerned or, ultimately, by the ICJ;

Articles 12, 13, 14--deal with upholding, interpreting, and
amending the treaty among involved nations.


    Other agreements: more than 150 recommendations adopted at
treaty consultative meetings and ratified by governments
include--Agreed Measures for the Conservation of Antarctic Fauna and
Flora (1964); Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Seals (1972);
Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources
(1980); a mineral resources agreement was signed in 1988 but was
subsequently rejected by some signatories and is likely to be replaced in
1991 by a comprehensive environmental protection agreement that defers
minerals development for a long period.


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: No economic activity at present except for fishing off
the coast and small-scale tourism, both based abroad.  Exploitation of
mineral resources is unlikely because of technical difficulties, high
costs, and objections by environmentalists.


_*_Communications
_#_Airports: 37 total; 27 usable; none with permanent hard-surface
runways; 2 with runways over 3,659 m; 5 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
4 with runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Ports: none; offshore anchorage only


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: none; Article 7 of the Antarctic Treaty states that advance
notice of all activities and the introduction of military personnel must
be given
_%_
_@_Antigua and Barbuda
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 440 km2; land area: 440 km2; includes Redonda


_#_Comparative area: slightly less than 2.5 times the size of
Washington, DC


_#_Land boundaries: none


_#_Coastline: 153 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm


_#_Climate: tropical marine; little seasonal temperature variation


_#_Terrain: mostly low-lying limestone and coral islands with some
higher volcanic areas


_#_Natural resources: negligible; pleasant climate fosters
tourism


_#_Land use: arable land 18%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and
pastures 7%; forest and woodland 16%; other 59%


_#_Environment: subject to hurricanes and tropical storms (July to
October); insufficient freshwater resources; deeply indented coastline
provides many natural harbors


_#_Note: 420 km east-southeast of Puerto Rico


_*_People
_#_Population: 63,917 (July 1991), growth rate 0.4% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 18 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: - 9 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 22 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 70 years male, 74 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 1.7 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--Antiguan(s); adjective--Antiguan


_#_Ethnic divisions: almost entirely of black African origin; some of
British, Portuguese, Lebanese, and Syrian origin


_#_Religion: Anglican (predominant), other Protestant sects, some
Roman Catholic


_#_Language: English (official), local dialects


_#_Literacy: 89% (male 90%, female 88%) age 15 and over having
completed 5 or more years of schooling (1960)


_#_Labor force: 30,000; commerce and services 82%, agriculture 11%,
industry 7% (1983)


_#_Organized labor: Antigua and Barbuda Public Service Association
(ABPSA), membership 500; Antigua Trades and Labor Union (ATLU), 10,000
members; Antigua Workers Union (AWU), 10,000 members (1986 est.)


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: none


_#_Type: parliamentary democracy


_#_Capital: Saint John's


_#_Administrative divisions: 6 parishes and 2 dependencies*; Barbuda*,
Redonda*, Saint George, Saint John, Saint Mary, Saint Paul, Saint Peter,
Saint Philip


_#_Independence: 1 November 1981 (from UK)


_#_Constitution: 1 November 1981


_#_Legal system: based on English common law


_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 1 November (1981)


_#_Executive branch: British monarch, governor general, prime
minister, deputy prime minister, Cabinet


_#_Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of an upper house
or Senate and a lower house or House of Representatives


_#_Judicial branch: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor General Sir Wilfred Ebenezer JACOBS (since 1
November 1981, previously Governor since 1976);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Vere Cornwall BIRD, Sr. (since
NA 1976)


_#_Political parties and leaders:
Antigua Labor Party (ALP), Vere C. BIRD, Sr., Lester BIRD;
United National Democratic Party (UNDP), Dr. Ivor HEATH


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


_#_Elections:

House of Representatives--last held 9 March 1989 (next to be
held 1994);
results--percentage of vote by party NA;
seats--(17 total) ALP 15, UNDP 1, independent 1


_#_Communists: negligible


_#_Other political or pressure groups: Antigua Caribbean Liberation
Movement (ACLM), a small leftist nationalist group led by Leonard (Tim)
HECTOR; Antigua Trades and Labor Union (ATLU), headed by Noel THOMAS


_#_Member of: ACP, C, CARICOM, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD,
ICAO, ICFTU, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, NAM
(observer), OAS, OECS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, WCL, WHO, WMO


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Edmund Hawkins LAKE;
Chancery at Suite 2H, 3400 International Drive NW, Washington DC 20008;
telephone (202) 362-5211 or 5166, 5122, 5225; there is an Antiguan
Consulate in Miami;

US--the US Ambassador to Barbados is accredited to Antigua and
Barbuda, and in his absence, the Embassy is headed by Charge d'Affaires
Bryant SALTER; Embassy at Queen Elizabeth Highway, Saint John's
(mailing address is FPO Miami 34054); telephone (809) 462-3505 or 3506


_#_Flag: red with an inverted isosceles triangle based on the top edge
of the flag; the triangle contains three horizontal bands of black (top),
light blue, and white with a yellow rising sun in the black band


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The economy is primarily service oriented, with tourism
the most important determinant of economic performance. During the period
1983-89, real GDP expanded at an annual average rate of about 7%.
Tourism's contribution to GDP, as measured by value added tax in hotels
and restaurants, rose from about 14% in 1983 to 16% in 1989, and
stimulated growth in other sectors--particularly in construction,
communications, and public utilities. Antigua and Barbuda is one of the
few areas in the Caribbean experiencing a labor shortage in some sectors
of the economy.


_#_GDP: $350 million, per capita $5,470 (1989); real growth rate 3.0%
(1991 est.)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7% (1990 est.)


_#_Unemployment rate: 5.0% (1988 est.)


_#_Budget: revenues $92.8 million; expenditures $101 million,
including capital expenditures of $NA (1990 est.)


_#_Exports: $33.2 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities--petroleum products 48%, manufactures 23%, food and
live animals 4%, machinery and transport equipment 17%;

partners--OECS 26%, Barbados 15%, Guyana 4%, Trinidad and Tobago
2%, US 0.3%


_#_Imports: $358.2 million (c.i.f., 1990 est.);

commodities--food and live animals, machinery and transport
equipment, manufactures, chemicals, oil;

partners--US 27%, UK 16%, Canada 4%, OECS 3%, other 50%


_#_External debt: $250 million (1990 est.)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate 3% (1989 est.); accounts
for 9% of GDP


_#_Electricity: 52,000 kW capacity; 95 million kWh produced, 1,490 kWh
per capita (1990)


_#_Industries: tourism, construction, light manufacturing (clothing,
alcohol, household appliances)


_#_Agriculture: accounts for 4% of GDP; expanding output of cotton,
fruits, vegetables, and livestock sector; other crops--bananas, coconuts,
cucumbers, mangoes, sugarcane; not self-sufficient in food


_#_Economic aid: US commitments, $10 million (1985-88); Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-88), $45
million


_#_Currency: East Caribbean dollar (plural--dollars); 1 EC dollar
(EC$) = 100 cents


_#_Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1--2.70 (fixed
rate since 1976)


_#_Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March


_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 64 km 0.760-meter narrow gauge and 13 km 0.610-meter
gauge used almost exclusively for handling sugarcane


_#_Highways: 240 km


_#_Ports: Saint John's


_#_Merchant marine: 86 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 319,477
GRT/497,194 DWT; includes 61 cargo, 5 refrigerated cargo, 6 container,
4 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 1 multifunction large load carrier, 3
petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 6 chemical tanker; note--a
flag of convenience registry


_#_Civil air: 10 major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 3 total, 3 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways;
1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 2 with runways less than 1,220 m


_#_Telecommunications: good automatic telephone system; 6,700
telephones; tropospheric scatter links with Saba and Guadeloupe;
stations--4 AM, 2 FM, 2 TV, 2 shortwave; 1 coaxial submarine cable;
1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Royal Antigua and Barbuda Defense Force, Royal Antigua
and Barbuda Police Force (includes the Coast Guard)


_#_Manpower availability: NA


_#_Defense expenditures: $1.4 million, less than 1% of GDP (FY91)
_%_
_@_Arctic Ocean
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 14,056,000 km2; includes Baffin Bay, Barents Sea,
Beaufort Sea, Chukchi Sea, East Siberian Sea, Greenland Sea, Hudson Bay,
Hudson Strait, Kara Sea, Laptev Sea, and other tributary water bodies


_#_Comparative area: slightly more than 1.5 times the size of the US;
smallest of the world's four oceans (after Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean,
and Indian Ocean)


_#_Coastline: 45,389 km


_#_Climate: persistent cold and relatively narrow annual temperature
ranges; winters characterized by continuous darkness, cold and stable
weather conditions, and clear skies; summers characterized by continuous
daylight, damp and foggy weather, and weak cyclones with rain or snow


_#_Terrain: central surface covered by a perennial drifting polar
icepack which averages about 3 meters in thickness, although pressure
ridges may be three times that size; clockwise drift pattern in the
Beaufort Gyral Stream, but nearly straight line movement from the New
Siberian Islands (USSR) to Denmark Strait (between Greenland and
Iceland); the ice pack is surrounded by open seas during the summer, but
more than doubles in size during the winter and extends to the encircling
land masses; the ocean floor is about 50% continental shelf (highest
percentage of any ocean) with the remainder a central basin interrupted
by three submarine ridges (Alpha Cordillera, Nansen Cordillera, and
Lomonsov Ridge); maximum depth is 4,665 meters in the Fram Basin


_#_Natural resources: sand and gravel aggregates, placer deposits,
polymetallic nodules, oil and gas fields, fish, marine mammals (seals,
whales)


_#_Environment: endangered marine species include walruses and whales;
ice islands occasionally break away from northern Ellesmere Island;
icebergs calved from western Greenland and extreme northeastern Canada;
maximum snow cover in March or April about 20 to 50 centimeters over the
frozen ocean and lasts about 10 months; permafrost in islands; virtually
icelocked from October to June; fragile ecosystem slow to change and slow
to recover from disruptions or damage


_#_Note: major chokepoint is the southern Chukchi Sea (northern
access to the Pacific Ocean via the Bering Strait); ships subject to
superstructure icing from October to May; strategic location between
North America and the USSR; shortest marine link between the extremes of
eastern and western USSR; floating research stations operated by the US
and USSR


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Economic activity is limited to the exploitation of
natural resources, including crude oil, natural gas, fishing, and
sealing.


_*_Communications
_#_Ports: Churchill (Canada), Murmansk (USSR), Prudhoe Bay (US)


_#_Telecommunications: no submarine cables


_#_Note: sparse network of air, ocean, river, and land routes; the
Northwest Passage (North America) and Northern Sea Route (Asia) are
important waterways
_%_
_@_Argentina
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 2,766,890 km2; land area: 2,736,690 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly more than four times the size of Texas


_#_Land boundaries: 9,665 km total; Bolivia 832 km, Brazil 1,224 km,
Chile 5,150 km, Paraguay 1,880 km, Uruguay 579 km


_#_Coastline: 4,989 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation;

Territorial sea: 200 nm (overflight and navigation permitted beyond
12 nm)


_#_Disputes: short section of the boundary with Uruguay is in dispute;
short section of the boundary with Chile is indefinite; claims
British-administered Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas); claims
British-administered South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands;
territorial claim in Antarctica


_#_Climate: mostly temperate; arid in southeast; subantarctic in
southwest


_#_Terrain: rich plains of the Pampas in northern half, flat to
rolling plateau of Patagonia in south, rugged Andes along western border


_#_Natural resources: fertile plains of the pampas, lead, zinc,
tin, copper, iron ore, manganese, crude oil, uranium


_#_Land use: arable land 9%; permanent crops 4%; meadows and
pastures 52%; forest and woodland 22%; other 13%; includes irrigated
1%


_#_Environment: Tucuman and Mendoza areas in Andes subject to
earthquakes; pamperos are violent windstorms that can strike Pampas and
northeast; irrigated soil degradation; desertification; air and water
pollution in Buenos Aires


_#_Note: second-largest country in South America (after Brazil);
strategic location relative to sea lanes between South Atlantic and
South Pacific Oceans (Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel, Drake Passage)


_*_People
_#_Population: 32,663,983 (July 1991), growth rate 1.1% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 20 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 9 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: NEGL migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 31 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 68 years male, 74 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 2.7 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--Argentine(s); adjective--Argentine


_#_Ethnic divisions: white 85%; mestizo, Indian, or other nonwhite
groups 15%


_#_Religion: nominally Roman Catholic 90% (less than 20% practicing),
Protestant 2%, Jewish 2%, other 6%


_#_Language: Spanish (official), English, Italian, German, French


_#_Literacy: 95% (male 96%, female 95%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)


_#_Labor force: 10,900,000; agriculture 12%, industry 31%, services
57% (1985 est.)


_#_Organized labor: 3,000,000; 28% of labor force


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Argentine Republic


_#_Type: republic


_#_Capital: Buenos Aires (tentative plans to move to Viedma by
1990 indefinitely postponed)


_#_Administrative divisions: 22 provinces (provincias,
singular--provincia), 1 national territory* (territorio nacional), and 1
district** (distrito); Buenos Aires, Catamarca, Chaco, Chubut, Cordoba,
Corrientes, Distrito Federal**, Entre Rios, Formosa, Jujuy, La Pampa,
La Rioja, Mendoza, Misiones, Neuquen, Rio Negro, Salta, San Juan, San
Luis, Santa Cruz, Santa Fe, Santiago del Estero, Tierra del Fuego,
Antartida e Islas del Atlantico Sur*, Tucuman; note--the national
territory is in the process of becoming a province; the US does not
recognize claims to Antarctica


_#_Independence: 9 July 1816 (from Spain)


_#_Constitution: 1 May 1853


_#_Legal system: mixture of US and West European legal systems; has
not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction


_#_National holiday: Revolution Day, 25 May (1810)


_#_Executive branch: president, vice president, Cabinet


_#_Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress (Congreso Nacional)
consists of an upper chamber or Senate (Senado) and a lower chamber or
Chamber of Deputies (Camara de Diputados)


_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema)


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government--President Carlos Saul
MENEM (since 8 July 1989); Vice President Eduardo DUHALDE (since 8 July
1989)


_#_Political parties and leaders:
Justicialist Party (JP), Carlos Saul MENEM, Peronist umbrella political
organization;
Radical Civic Union (UCR), Raul ALFONSIN, moderately left of center;
Union of the Democratic Center (UCD), Alvaro ALSOGARAY, conservative
party;
Intransigent Party (PI), Dr. Oscar ALENDE, leftist party;
several provincial parties


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


_#_Elections:

President--last held 14 May 1989 (next to be held May 1995);
results--Carlos Saul MENEM was elected;

Chamber of Deputies--last held 14 May 1989 (next to be
held October 1991); results--JP 47%, UCR 30%, UCD 7%, other 16%;
seats--(254 total); JP 122, UCR 93, UCD 11, other 28


_#_Communists: some 70,000 members in various party organizations,
including a small nucleus of activists


_#_Other political or pressure groups: Peronist-dominated labor
movement, General Confederation of Labor (Peronist-leaning umbrella labor
organization), Argentine Industrial Union (manufacturers' association),
Argentine Rural Society (large landowners' association), business
organizations, students, the Roman Catholic Church, the Armed Forces


_#_Member of: AfDB, AG (observer), CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-6, G-11,
G-19, G-24, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD,
IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU,
LAES, LAIA, LORCS, NAM, OAS, PCA, RG, UN, UNAVEM, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIIMOG, UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Ortiz de ROZAS;
Chancery at 1600 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington DC 20009; telephone
(202) 939-6400 through 6403; there are Argentine Consulates General in
Houston, Miami, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, and San Juan
(Puerto Rico), and Consulates in Baltimore, Chicago, and Los Angeles;

US--Ambassador Terence A. TODMAN; Embassy at 4300 Colombia,
1425 Buenos Aires (mailing address is APO Miami 34034);
telephone [54] (1) 774-7611 or 8811, 9911


_#_Flag: three equal horizontal bands of light blue (top), white, and
light blue; centered in the white band is a radiant yellow sun with a
human face known as the Sun of May


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Argentina is rich in natural resources and has a highly
literate population, an export-oriented agricultural sector, and a
diversified industrial base. Nevertheless, following decades of
mismanagement and statist policies, the economy has encountered
major problems in recent years, leading to escalating inflation and
a recession in 1988-90. A widening public-sector deficit and a
multidigit inflation rate have dominated the economy over the past
three years; retail prices rose nearly 5,000% in 1989 and another
1,345% in 1990. Since 1978, Argentina's external debt has nearly doubled
to $60 billion, creating severe debt-servicing difficulties and hurting
the country's creditworthiness with international lenders.


_#_GNP: $82.7 billion, per capita $2,560; real growth rate - 3.5%
(1990 est.)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1,350% (1990)


_#_Unemployment rate: 8.6% (May 1990)


_#_Budget: revenues $12.2 billion; expenditures $17.3 billion,
including capital expenditures of $2.8 billion (1989)


_#_Exports: $12.4 billion (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities--meat, wheat, corn, oilseed, hides, wool;

partners--US 12%, USSR, Italy, Brazil, Japan, Netherlands


_#_Imports: $4.1 billion (c.i.f., 1990);

commodities--machinery and equipment, chemicals, metals, fuels and
lubricants, agricultural products;

partners--US 22%, Brazil, FRG, Bolivia, Japan, Italy, Netherlands


_#_External debt: $60 billion (December 1990)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate 5% (1991 est.); accounts for
30% of GDP


_#_Electricity: 16,749,000 kW capacity; 45,580 million kWh produced,
1,410 kWh per capita (1990)


_#_Industries: food processing, motor vehicles, consumer durables,
textiles, chemicals and petrochemicals, printing, metallurgy, steel


_#_Agriculture: accounts for 15% of GNP (including fishing); produces
abundant food for both domestic consumption and exports; among world's
top five exporters of grain and beef; principal crops--wheat, corn,
sorghum, soybeans, sugar beets; 1987 fish catch estimated at 500,000 tons


_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1.0
billion; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $4.0 billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $718 million


_#_Currency: austral (plural--australes); 1 austral (2) = 100
centavos


_#_Exchange rates: australes (2) per US$1--9,900 (April 1991),
4,707 (1990), 423 (1989), 8.7526 (1988), 2.1443 (1987), 0.9430 (1986),
0.6018 (1985)


_#_Fiscal year: calendar year


_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 34,172 km total (includes 169 km electrified); includes
a mixture of 1.435-meter standard gauge, 1.676-meter broad gauge,
1.000-meter gauge, and 0.750-meter gauge


_#_Highways: 208,350 km total; 47,550 km paved, 39,500 km gravel,
101,000 km improved earth, 20,300 km unimproved earth


_#_Inland waterways: 11,000 km navigable


_#_Pipelines: 4,090 km crude oil; 2,900 km refined products; 9,918 km
natural gas


_#_Ports: Bahia Blanca, Buenos Aires, Necochea, Rio Gallegos, Rosario,
Santa Fe


_#_Merchant marine: 129 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,663,884
GRT/2,689,645 DWT; includes 42 cargo, 7 refrigerated cargo, 6 container,
1 railcar carrier, 47 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker,
4 chemical tanker, 4 liquefied gas, 18 bulk; additionally, 2 naval
tankers and 1 military transport are sometimes used commercially


_#_Civil air: 54 major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 1,763 total, 1,575 usable; 135 with permanent-surface
runways; 1 with runways over 3,659 m; 31 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 336
with runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: extensive modern system; 2,650,000 telephones
(12,000 public telephones); radio relay widely used; stations--171 AM,
no FM, 231 TV, 13 shortwave; 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations;
domestic satellite network has 40 stations


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Argentine Army, Navy of the Argentine Republic, Argentine
Air Force, National Gendarmerie, Argentine Naval Prefecture (Coast Guard
only), National Aeronautical Police Force


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 7,992,140; 6,478,730 fit for
military service; 285,047 reach military age (20) annually


_#_Defense expenditures: $700 million, 1% of GNP (1990)
_%_
_@_Aruba
(part of the Dutch realm)
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 193 km2; land area: 193 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than Washington, DC


_#_Land boundaries: none


_#_Coastline: 68.5 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: 12 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm


_#_Climate: tropical marine; little seasonal temperature variation


_#_Terrain: flat with a few hills; scant vegetation


_#_Natural resources: negligible; white sandy beaches


_#_Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and
pastures 0%; forest and woodland 0%; other 100%


_#_Environment: lies outside the Caribbean hurricane belt


_#_Note: 28 km north of Venezuela


_*_People
_#_Population: 64,052 (July 1991), growth rate 0.6% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 15 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: - 4 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 8 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 72 years male, 80 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 1.8 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--Aruban(s); adjective--Aruban


_#_Ethnic divisions: mixed European/Caribbean Indian 80%


_#_Religion: Roman Catholic 82%, Protestant 8%, also small Hindu,
Muslim, Confucian, and Jewish minority


_#_Language: Dutch (official), Papiamento (a Spanish, Portuguese,
Dutch, English dialect), English (widely spoken), Spanish


_#_Literacy: NA% (male NA%, female NA%)


_#_Labor force: NA, but most employment is in the tourist industry
(1986)


_#_Organized labor: Aruban Workers' Federation (FTA)


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: none


_#_Type: part of the Dutch realm--full autonomy in internal affairs
obtained in 1986 upon separation from the Netherlands Antilles


_#_Capital: Oranjestad


_#_Administrative divisions: none (self-governing part of the
Netherlands)


_#_Independence: none (part of the Dutch realm); note--in 1990 Aruba
requested and received from the Netherlands cancellation of the
agreement to automatically give independence to the island in 1996


_#_Constitution: 1 January 1986


_#_Legal system: based on Dutch civil law system, with some English
common law influence


_#_National holiday: Flag Day, 18 March


_#_Executive branch: Dutch monarch, governor, prime minister, Council
of Ministers (cabinet)


_#_Legislative branch: unicameral legislature (Staten)


_#_Judicial branch: Joint High Court of Justice


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--Queen BEATRIX Wilhelmina Armgard (since 30 April
1980), represented by Governor General Felipe B. TROMP (since 1 January
1986);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Nelson ODUBER (since NA February
1989)


_#_Political parties and leaders:
Electoral Movement Party (MEP), Nelson ODUBER;
Aruban People's Party (AVP), Henny EMAN;
National Democratic Action (ADN), Pedro Charro KELLY;
New Patriotic Party (PPN), Eddy WERLEMEN;
Aruban Patriotic Party (PPA), Leo CHANCE;
Aruban Democratic Party (PDA), Leo BERLINSKI;
Democratic Action '86 (AD'86), Arturo ODUBER;
governing coalition includes the MEP, PPA, and ADN


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


_#_Elections:

Legislature--last held 6 January 1989 (next to be held by January
1993);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(21 total) MEP 10, AVP 8, ADN 1, PPN 1, PPA 1


_#_Member of: ECLAC (associate), INTERPOL, IOC, UNESCO (associate),
WCL, WTO (associate)


_#_Diplomatic representation: none (self-governing part of the
Netherlands)


_#_Flag: blue with two narrow horizontal yellow stripes across the
lower portion and a red, four-pointed star outlined in white in the upper
hoist-side corner


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Tourism is the mainstay of the economy, although
offshore banking and oil refining and storage are also important.
Hotel capacity expanded rapidly between 1985 and 1989 and nearly
doubled in 1990 alone. Unemployment has steadily declined from about
20% in 1986 to about 2% in 1990. The reopening of the local oil
refinery, once a major source of employment and foreign exchange
earnings, promises to give the economy an additional boost.


_#_GDP: $730 million, per capita $11,600; real growth rate 8.8%
(1989 est.)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.8% (1990 est.)


_#_Unemployment rate: 1.6% (1990 est.)


_#_Budget: revenues $145 million; expenditures $185 million, including
capital expenditures of $42 million (1988)


_#_Exports: $131.6 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities--mostly petroleum products;

partners--US 64%, EC


_#_Imports: $496 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities--food, consumer goods, manufactures;

partners--US 8%, EC


_#_External debt: $81 million (1987)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA


_#_Electricity: 310,000 kW capacity; 945 million kWh produced, 15,000
kWh per capita (1990)


_#_Industries: tourism, transshipment facilities, oil refining


_#_Agriculture: poor quality soils and low rainfall limit agricultural
activity to the cultivation of aloes, some livestock, and fishing


_#_Economic aid: Western (non-US) countries ODA and OOF bilateral
commitments (1980-1988), $200 million


_#_Currency: Aruban florin (plural--florins);
1 Aruban florin (Af.) = 100 cents


_#_Exchange rates: Aruban florins (Af.) per US$1--1.7900 (fixed rate
since 1986)


_#_Fiscal year: calendar year


_*_Communications
_#_Ports: Oranjestad, Sint Nicolaas


_#_Airfield: government-owned airport east of Oranjestad


_#_Telecommunications: generally adequate; extensive interisland radio
relay links; 72,168 telephones; stations--4 AM, 4 FM, 1 TV; 1 sea cable
to Sint Maarten


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of the Netherlands
_%_
_@_Ashmore and Cartier Islands
(territory of Australia)
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 5 km2; land area: 5 km2; includes Ashmore Reef (West,
Middle, and East Islets) and Cartier Island


_#_Comparative area: about 8.5 times the size of The Mall in
Washington, DC


_#_Land boundaries: none


_#_Coastline: 74.1 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth) or to depth of exploration;

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 3 nm


_#_Climate: tropical


_#_Terrain: low with sand and coral


_#_Natural resources: fish


_#_Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and
pastures 0%; forest and woodland 0%; other--grass and sand 100%


_#_Environment: surrounded by shoals and reefs; Ashmore Reef National
Nature Reserve established in August 1983


_#_Note: located in extreme eastern Indian Ocean between Australia
and Indonesia 320 km off the northwest coast of Australia


_*_People
_#_Population: no permanent inhabitants; seasonal caretakers


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Territory of Ashmore and Cartier Islands


_#_Type: territory of Australia administered by the Australian
Ministry for Territories and Local Government


_#_Administrative divisions: none (territory of Australia)


_#_Legal system: relevant laws of the Northern Territory of Australia


_#_Note: administered by the Australian Minister for Arts, Sports, the
Environment, Tourism, and Territories Roslyn KELLY


_#_Diplomatic representation: none (territory of Australia)


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: no economic activity


_*_Communications
_#_Ports: none; offshore anchorage only


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of Australia; periodic
visits by the Royal Australian Navy and Royal Australian Air Force
_%_
_@_Atlantic Ocean
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 82,217,000 km2; includes Baltic Sea, Black Sea,
Caribbean Sea, Davis Strait, Denmark Strait, Drake Passage, Gulf of
Mexico, Mediterranean Sea, North Sea, Norwegian Sea, Weddell Sea, and
other tributary water bodies


_#_Comparative area: slightly less than nine times the size of the US;
second-largest of the world's four oceans (after the Pacific Ocean, but
larger than Indian Ocean or Arctic Ocean)


_#_Coastline: 111,866 km


_#_Climate: tropical cyclones (hurricanes) develop off the coast of
Africa near Cape Verde and move westward into the Caribbean Sea;
hurricanes can occur from May to December, but are most frequent from
August to November


_#_Terrain: surface usually covered with sea ice in Labrador Sea,
Denmark Strait, and Baltic Sea from October to June; clockwise warm
water gyre (broad, circular system of currents) in the north Atlantic,
counterclockwise warm water gyre in the south Atlantic; the ocean floor
is dominated by the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, a rugged north-south centerline
for the entire Atlantic basin; maximum depth is 8,605 meters in the
Puerto Rico Trench


_#_Natural resources: oil and gas fields, fish, marine mammals (seals
and whales), sand and gravel aggregates, placer deposits, polymetallic
nodules, precious stones


_#_Environment: endangered marine species include the manatee, seals,
sea lions, turtles, and whales; municipal sludge pollution off eastern
US, southern Brazil, and eastern Argentina; oil pollution in Caribbean
Sea, Gulf of Mexico, Lake Maracaibo, Mediterranean Sea, and North Sea;
industrial waste and municipal sewage pollution in Baltic Sea, North Sea,
and Mediterranean Sea; icebergs common in Davis Strait, Denmark Strait,
and the northwestern Atlantic from February to August and have been
spotted as far south as Bermuda and the Madeira Islands; icebergs from
Antarctica occur in the extreme southern Atlantic


_#_Note: ships subject to superstructure icing in extreme north
Atlantic from October to May and extreme south Atlantic from May to
October; persistent fog can be a hazard to shipping from May to
September; major choke points include the Dardanelles, Strait of
Gibraltar, access to the Panama and Suez Canals; strategic straits
include the Dover Strait, Straits of Florida, Mona Passage, The Sound
(Oresund), and Windward Passage; north Atlantic shipping lanes subject
to icebergs from February to August; the Equator divides the Atlantic
Ocean into the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Economic activity is limited to exploitation of natural
resources, especially fish, dredging aragonite sands (The Bahamas), and
crude oil and natural gas production (Caribbean Sea and North Sea).


_*_Communications
_#_Ports: Alexandria (Egypt), Algiers (Algeria), Antwerp (Belgium),
Barcelona (Spain), Buenos Aires (Argentina), Casablanca (Morocco),
Colon (Panama), Copenhagen (Denmark), Dakar (Senegal), Gdansk (Poland),
Hamburg (Germany), Helsinki (Finland), Las Palmas (Canary Islands, Spain),
Le Havre (France), Saint Petersburg (formerly Leningrad; USSR), Lisbon
(Portugal), London (UK), Marseille (France), Montevideo (Uruguay),
Montreal (Canada), Naples (Italy), New Orleans (US), New York (US), Oran
(Algeria), Oslo (Norway), Piraeus (Greece), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil),
Rotterdam (Netherlands), Stockholm (Sweden)


_#_Telecommunications: numerous submarine cables with most between
continental Europe and the UK, North America and the UK, and in the
Mediterranean; numerous direct links across Atlantic via INTELSAT
satellite network


_#_Note: Kiel Canal and Saint Lawrence Seaway are two important
waterways
_%_
_@_Australia
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 7,686,850 km2; land area: 7,617,930 km2; includes
Macquarie Island


_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than the US


_#_Land boundaries: none


_#_Coastline: 25,760 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation;

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 3 nm


_#_Disputes: territorial claim in Antarctica (Australian Antarctic
Territory)


_#_Climate: generally arid to semiarid; temperate in south and east;
tropical in north


_#_Terrain: mostly low plateau with deserts; fertile plain in
southeast


_#_Natural resources: bauxite, coal, iron ore, copper, tin, silver,
uranium, nickel, tungsten, mineral sands, lead, zinc, diamonds, natural
gas, crude oil


_#_Land use: arable land 6%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and
pastures 58%; forest and woodland 14%; other 22%; includes irrigated
NEGL%


_#_Environment: subject to severe droughts and floods; cyclones along
coast; limited freshwater availability; irrigated soil degradation;
regular, tropical, invigorating, sea breeze known as the doctor occurs
along west coast in summer; desertification


_#_Note: world's smallest continent but sixth-largest country


_*_People
_#_Population: 17,288,044 (July 1991), growth rate 1.5% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 15 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: 7 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 8 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 74 years male, 80 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 1.8 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--Australian(s); adjective--Australian


_#_Ethnic divisions: Caucasian 95%, Asian 4%, Aboriginal and other
1%


_#_Religion: Anglican 26.1%, Roman Catholic 26.0%, other Christian
24.3%


_#_Language: English, native languages


_#_Literacy: 100% (male 100%, female 100%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1980 est.)


_#_Labor force: 7,700,000; finance and services 33.8%, public and
community services 22.3%, wholesale and retail trade 20.1%, manufacturing
and industry 16.2%, agriculture 6.1% (1987)


_#_Organized labor: 42% of labor force (1988)


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Commonwealth of Australia


_#_Type: federal parliamentary state


_#_Capital: Canberra


_#_Administrative divisions: 6 states and 2 territories*; Australian
Capital Territory*, New South Wales, Northern Territory*, Queensland,
South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia


_#_Dependent areas: Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Christmas Island,
Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Coral Sea Islands, Heard Island and McDonald
Islands, Norfolk Island


_#_Independence: 1 January 1901 (federation of UK colonies)


_#_Constitution: 9 July 1900, effective 1 January 1901


_#_Legal system: based on English common law; accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction, with reservations


_#_National holiday: Australia Day (last Monday in January), 29
January 1990


_#_Executive branch: British monarch, governor general, prime
minister, deputy prime minister, Cabinet


_#_Legislative branch: bicameral Federal Parliament consists of an
upper house or Senate and a lower house or House of Representatives


_#_Judicial branch: High Court


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--Queen ELIZABETH II (since February 1952),
represented by Governor General William George HAYDEN (since NA February
1989);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Robert James Lee HAWKE (since
11 March 1983); Deputy Prime Minister Paul KEATING (since 3 April 1990)


_#_Political parties and leaders:

government--Australian Labor Party, Robert James Lee HAWKE;

opposition--Liberal Party, John HEWSON;
National Party, Timothy FISCHER;
Australian Democratic Party, Janet POWELL


_#_Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 18


_#_Elections:

Senate--last held 11 July 1987 (next to be held by July 1993);
results--Labor 43%, Liberal-National 42%, Australian Democrats 8%,
independents 2%;
seats--(76 total) Labor 32, Liberal-National 34, Australian
Democrats 7, independents 3;

House of Representatives--last held 24 March 1990 (next to be
held by November 1993);
results--Labor 39.7%, Liberal-National 43%, Australian Democrats
and independents 11.1%;
seats--(148 total) Labor 78, Liberal-National 69, independent 1


_#_Communists: 4,000 members (est.)


_#_Other political or pressure groups: Australian Democratic Labor
Party (anti-Communist Labor Party splinter group); Peace and Nuclear
Disarmament Action (Nuclear Disarmament Party splinter group)


_#_Member of: AfDB, AG (observer), ANZUS, APEC, AsDB, BIS, C, CCC, CP,
EBRD, ESCAP, FAO, GATT, G-8, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA,
IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM,
ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM (guest), NEA, OECD, PCA, SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIIMOG, UNTAG, UNTSO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Michael J. COOK; Chancery at
1601 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20036; telephone (202)
797-3000; there are Australian Consulates General in Chicago, Honolulu,
Houston, Los Angeles, New York, Pago Pago (American Samoa), and San
Francisco;

US--Ambassador Melvin F. SEMBLER; Moonah Place, Yarralumla,
Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 2600 (mailing address is APO San
Francisco 96404); telephone [61] (6) 270-5000; there are US Consulates
General in Melbourne, Perth, and Sydney, and a Consulate in Brisbane


_#_Flag: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant
and a large seven-pointed star in the lower hoist-side quadrant; the
remaining half is a representation of the Southern Cross constellation in
white with one small five-pointed star and four, larger, seven-pointed
stars


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Australia has a prosperous Western-style capitalist
economy, with a per capita GNP comparable to levels in industrialized
West European countries. Rich in natural resources, Australia is a major
exporter of agricultural products, minerals, metals, and fossil fuels.
Of the top 25 exports, 21 are primary products, so that, as happened
during 1983-84, a downturn in world commodity prices can have a big
impact on the economy. The government is pushing for increased exports
of manufactured goods but competition in international markets will be
severe.


_#_GDP: $255.9 billion, per capita $15,000; real growth rate 2.2%
(1990)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6.9% (December 1990)


_#_Unemployment rate: 9.2% (March 1991)


_#_Budget: revenues $74.2 billion; expenditures $67.9 billion,
including capital expenditures of NA (FY90)


_#_Exports: $39.8 billion (f.o.b., FY90);

commodities--metals, minerals, coal, wool, cereals, meat,
manufacturers;

partners--Japan 26%, US 11%, NZ 6%, South Korea 4%, Singapore 4%,
UK, Taiwan, Hong Kong


_#_Imports: $42.0 billion (f.o.b., FY90);

commodities--manufactured raw materials, capital equipment,
consumer goods;

partners--US 24%, Japan 19%, UK 6%, FRG 7%, NZ 4% (1990)


_#_External debt: $123.7 billion (September 1990)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate - 1.8% (1990); accounts for
32% of GDP


_#_Electricity: 38,000,000 kW capacity; 150,000 million kWh produced,
8,860 kWh per capita (1990)


_#_Industries: mining, industrial and transportation equipment, food
processing, chemicals, steel, motor vehicles


_#_Agriculture: accounts for 5% of GNP and 37% of export revenues;
world's largest exporter of beef and wool, second-largest for mutton,
and among top wheat exporters; major crops--wheat, barley, sugarcane,
fruit; livestock--cattle, sheep, poultry


_#_Economic aid: donor--ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $10.4
billion


_#_Currency: Australian dollar (plural--dollars); 1 Australian dollar
($A) = 100 cents


_#_Exchange rates: Australian dollars ($A) per US$1--1.2834 (January
1991), 1.2799 (1990), 1.2618 (1989), 1.2752 (1988), 1.4267 (1987), 1.4905
(1986), 1.4269 (1985)


_#_Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June


_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 40,478 km total; 7,970 km 1.600-meter gauge, 16,201 km
1.435-meter standard gauge, 16,307 km 1.067-meter gauge; 183 km dual
gauge; 1,130 km electrified; government owned (except for a few hundred
kilometers of privately owned track) (1985)


_#_Highways: 837,872 km total; 243,750 km paved, 228,396 km gravel,
crushed stone, or stabilized soil surface, 365,726 km unimproved earth


_#_Inland waterways: 8,368 km; mainly by small, shallow-draft craft


_#_Pipelines: crude oil, 2,500 km; refined products, 500 km; natural
gas, 5,600 km


_#_Ports: Adelaide, Brisbane, Cairns, Darwin, Devonport, Fremantle,
Geelong, Hobart, Launceston, Mackay, Melbourne, Sydney, Townsville


_#_Merchant marine: 77 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,249,926
GRT/3,391,323 DWT; includes 2 short-sea passenger, 6 cargo, 6 container,
10 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 1 vehicle carrier, 16 petroleum, oils, and
lubricants (POL) tanker, 1 chemical tanker, 4 liquefied gas, 1
combination ore/oil, 30 bulk


_#_Civil air: around 150 major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 747 total, 524 usable; 270 with permanent-surface
runways, 1 with runways over 3,659 m; 17 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
401 with runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: good international and domestic service; 8.7
million telephones; stations--258 AM, 67 FM, 134 TV; submarine cables to
New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, and Indonesia; domestic satellite service;
satellite stations--4 Indian Ocean INTELSAT, 6 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT
earth stations


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Australian Army, Royal Australian Navy, Royal Australian
Air Force


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 4,689,559; 4,090,921 fit for
military service; 135,435 reach military age (17) annually


_#_Defense expenditures: $6.6 billion, 2.2% of GDP (FY90)
_%_
_@_Austria
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 83,850 km2; land area: 82,730 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than Maine


_#_Land boundaries: 2,640 km total; Czechoslovakia 548 km,
Germany 784 km, Hungary 366 km, Italy 430 km, Liechtenstein 37 km,
Switzerland 164 km, Yugoslavia 311 km


_#_Coastline: none--landlocked


_#_Maritime claims: none--landlocked


_#_Climate: temperate; continental, cloudy; cold winters with frequent
rain in lowlands and snow in mountains; cool summers with occasional
showers


_#_Terrain: mostly mountains with Alps in west and south; mostly flat,
with gentle slopes along eastern and northern margins


_#_Natural resources: iron ore, crude oil, timber, magnesite,
aluminum, lead, coal, lignite, copper, hydropower


_#_Land use: arable land 17%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and
pastures 24%; forest and woodland 39%; other 19%; includes irrigated
NEGL%


_#_Environment: because of steep slopes, poor soils, and cold
temperatures, population is concentrated on eastern lowlands


_#_Note: landlocked; strategic location at the crossroads of
central Europe with many easily traversable Alpine passes and valleys;
major river is the Danube


_*_People
_#_Population: 7,665,804 (July 1991), growth rate 0.3% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 12 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 11 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: 2 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 5 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 74 years male, 81 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 1.5 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--Austrian(s); adjective--Austrian


_#_Ethnic divisions: German 99.4%, Croatian 0.3%, Slovene 0.2%,
other 0.1%


_#_Religion: Roman Catholic 85%, Protestant 6%, other 9%


_#_Language: German


_#_Literacy: 99% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1974 est.)


_#_Labor force: 3,470,000 (1989); services 56.4%, industry and crafts
35.4%, agriculture and forestry 8.1%; an estimated 200,000 Austrians are
employed in other European countries; foreign laborers in Austria number
177,840, about 6% of labor force (1988)


_#_Organized labor: 60.1% of work force; the Austrian Trade Union
Federation has 1,644,408 members (1989)


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of Austria


_#_Type: federal republic


_#_Capital: Vienna


_#_Administrative divisions: 9 states (bundeslander,
singular--bundesland); Burgenland, Karnten, Niederosterreich,
Oberosterreich, Salzburg, Steiermark, Tirol, Vorarlberg, Wien


_#_Independence: 12 November 1918 (from Austro-Hungarian Empire)


_#_Constitution: 1920, revised 1929 (reinstated 1945)


_#_Legal system: civil law system with Roman law origin; judicial
review of legislative acts by a Constitutional Court; separate
administrative and civil/penal supreme courts; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction


_#_National holiday: National Day, 26 October (1955)


_#_Executive branch: president, chancellor, vice chancellor, Council
of Ministers (cabinet)


_#_Legislative branch: bicameral Federal Assembly (Bundesversammlung)
consists of an upper council or Federal Council (Bundesrat) and a lower
council or National Council (Nationalrat)


_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Judicial Court (Oberster Gerichtshof) for
civil and criminal cases, Administrative Court (Verwaltungsgerichtshof)
for bureaucratic cases, Constitutional Court (Verfassungsgerichtshof) for
constitutional cases


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--President Kurt WALDHEIM (since 8 July 1986);

Head of Government--Chancellor Franz VRANITZKY (since 16 June
1986); Vice Chancellor Josef RIEGLER (since 19 May 1989)


_#_Political parties and leaders:
Socialist Party of Austria (SPO), Franz VRANITZKY, chairman;
Austrian People's Party (OVP), Josef RIEGLER, chairman;
Freedom Party of Austria (FPO), Jorg HAIDER, chairman;
Communist Party (KPO), Franz MUHRI, chairman;
Green Alternative List (GAL), Andreas WABL, chairman


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 19; compulsory for presidential
elections


_#_Elections:

President--last held 8 June 1986 (next to be held May 1992);
results of Second Ballot--Dr. Kurt WALDHEIM 53.89%, Dr. Kurt STEYRER
46.11%;

National Council--last held 7 October 1990 (next to be
held October 1994);
results--SP0 43%, OVP 32.1%, FPO 16.6%, GAL 4.5%, KPO 0.7%,
other 0.32%;
seats--(183 total) SP0 80, OVP 60, FP0 33, GAL 10


_#_Communists: membership 15,000 est.; activists 7,000-8,000


_#_Other political or pressure groups: Federal Chamber of Commerce and
Industry; Austrian Trade Union Federation (primarily Socialist); three
composite leagues of the Austrian People's Party (OVP) representing
business, labor, and farmers; OVP-oriented League of Austrian
Industrialists; Roman Catholic Church, including its chief lay
organization, Catholic Action


_#_Member of: AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, BIS, CCC, CE, CERN, CSCE,
EBRD, ECE, EFTA, ESA, FAO, G-9, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU,
IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO,
ITU, LORCS, NAM (guest), NEA, OAS (observer), OECD, PCA, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNDOF, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIIMOG, UNTSO, UPU, WCL,
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Friedrich HOESS; Embassy at
2343 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202)
483-4474; there are Austrian Consulates General in Chicago, Los Angeles,
and New York;

US--Ambassador Roy Michael HUFFINGTON; Embassy at Boltzmanngasse
16, A-1091, Vienna (mailing address is APO New York 09108-0001);
telephone [43] (222) 31-55-11; there is a US Consulate General in Salzburg


_#_Flag: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and red


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Austria boasts a prosperous and stable capitalist
economy with a sizable proportion of nationalized industry and extensive
welfare benefits. Thanks to an excellent raw material endowment, a
technically skilled labor force, and strong links to West German
industrial firms, Austria has successfully occupied specialized niches
in European industry and services (tourism, banking) and produces almost
enough food to feed itself with only 8% of the labor force in
agriculture. Improved export prospects from German unification
and the opening of Eastern Europe will also boost the economy during
the next few years. Living standards are roughly comparable with the
large industrial countries of Western Europe. Problems for the l990s
include an aging population, the high level of subsidies, and the
struggle to keep welfare benefits within budget capabilities. Austria,
which has applied for EC membership, is currently involved in EC and
European Free Trade Association negotiations for a European Economic
Area and will have to adapt its economy to achieve freer movement of
goods, services, capital, and labor with the EC.


_#_GDP: $111.0 billion, per capita $14,500; real growth rate 4.5%
(1990)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.3% (1990)


_#_Unemployment: 5.4% (1990)


_#_Budget: revenues $44.1 billion; expenditures $49.6 billion,
including capital expenditures of $NA (1990)


_#_Exports: $40.9 billion (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities--machinery and equipment, iron and steel, lumber,
textiles, paper products, chemicals;

partners--EC 64.8%, EFTA 10.3%, CEMA 7.7%, US 3.2%, Japan 1.5%


_#_Imports: $46.6 billion (c.i.f., 1990);

commodities--petroleum, foodstuffs, machinery and equipment,
vehicles, chemicals, textiles and clothing, pharmaceuticals;

partners--EC 68.4%, EFTA 7%, CEMA 5.7%, Japan 4.6%, US 3.6%


_#_External debt: $11.8 billion (1990 est.)


_#_Industrial production: real growth rate 8.5% (1990); accounts
for 34% of GDP


_#_Electricity: 17,562,000 kW capacity; 49,290 million kWh produced,
6,500 kWh per capita (1989)


_#_Industries: foods, iron and steel, machines, textiles, chemicals,
electrical, paper and pulp, tourism, mining


_#_Agriculture: accounts for 3.2% of GDP (including forestry);
principal crops and animals--grains, fruit, potatoes, sugar beets,
sawn wood, cattle, pigs poultry; 80-90% self-sufficient in food


_#_Economic aid: donor--ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $2.4
billion


_#_Currency: Austrian schilling (plural--schillings); 1 Austrian
schilling (S) = 100 groschen


_#_Exchange rates: Austrian schillings (S) per US$1--10.627 (January
1991), 11.370 (1990), 13.231 (1989), 12.348 (1988), 12.643 (1987), 15.267
(1986), 20.690 (1985)


_#_Fiscal year: calendar year


_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 6,028 km total; 5,388 km government owned and 640 km
privately owned (1.435- and 1.000-meter gauge); 5,403 km 1.435-meter
standard gauge of which 3,051 km is electrified and 1,520 km is double
tracked; 363 km 0.760-meter narrow gauge of which 91 km is electrified


_#_Highways: 95,412 km total; 34,612 are the primary network
(including 1,012 km of autobahn, 10,400 km of federal, and 23,200 km of
provincial roads); of this number, 21,812 km are paved and 12,800 km are
unpaved; in addition, there are 60,800 km of communal roads (mostly
gravel, crushed stone, earth)


_#_Inland waterways: 446 km


_#_Ports: Vienna, Linz (river ports)


_#_Merchant marine: 32 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
150,735 GRT/252,237 DWT; includes 26 cargo, 1 container, 1 chemical
tanker, 4 bulk


_#_Pipelines: 554 km crude oil; 2,611 km natural gas; 171 km refined
products


_#_Civil air: 25 major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 55 total, 54 usable; 20 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 5 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 4 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: highly developed and efficient; 4,014,000
telephones; extensive TV and radiobroadcast systems; stations--6 AM, 21
(545 repeaters) FM, 47 (870 repeaters) TV; satellite stations operating
in INTELSAT 1 Atlantic Ocean earth station and 1 Indian Ocean earth
station and EUTELSAT systems


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Flying Division, Gendarmerie


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 1,957,414; 1,646,179 fit for
military service; 48,038 reach military age (19) annually


_#_Defense expenditures: $1.4 billion, 1% of GDP (1990)
_%_
_@_The Bahamas
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 13,940 km2; land area: 10,070 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than Connecticut


_#_Land boundaries: none


_#_Coastline: 3,542 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation;

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 3 nm


_#_Climate: tropical marine; moderated by warm waters of Gulf Stream


_#_Terrain: long, flat coral formations with some low rounded hills


_#_Natural resources: salt, aragonite, timber


_#_Land use: arable land 1%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and
pastures NEGL%; forest and woodland 32%; other 67%


_#_Environment: subject to hurricanes and other tropical storms
that cause extensive flood damage


_#_Note: strategic location adjacent to US and Cuba; extensive island
chain


_*_People
_#_Population: 252,110 (July 1991), growth rate 1.4% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 19 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 18 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 69 years male, 76 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 2.2 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--Bahamian(s); adjective--Bahamian


_#_Ethnic divisions: black 85%, white 15%


_#_Religion: Baptist 32%, Anglican 20%, Roman Catholic 19%,
Methodist 6%, Church of God 6%, other Protestant 12%, none or unknown
3%, other 2% (1980)


_#_Language: English; some Creole among Haitian immigrants


_#_Literacy: 90% (male 90%, female 89%) age 15 and over but
definition of literacy not available (1963 est.)


_#_Labor force: 132,600; government 30%, hotels and restaurants 25%,
business services 10%, agriculture 5% (1986)


_#_Organized labor: 25% of labor force


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: The Commonwealth of The Bahamas


_#_Type: commonwealth


_#_Capital: Nassau


_#_Administrative divisions: 21 districts; Abaco, Acklins Island,
Andros Island, Berry Islands, Biminis, Cat Island, Cay Lobos, Crooked
Island, Eleuthera, Exuma, Grand Bahama, Harbour Island, Inagua, Long Cay,
Long Island, Mayaguana, New Providence, Ragged Island, Rum Cay, San
Salvador, Spanish Wells


_#_Independence: 10 July 1973 (from UK)


_#_Constitution: 10 July 1973


_#_Legal system: based on English common law


_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 10 July (1973)


_#_Executive branch: British monarch, governor general, prime
minister, deputy prime minister, Cabinet


_#_Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of an upper house
or Senate and a lower house or House of Assembly


_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Acting Governor General Sir Henry TAYLOR (since 26 June
1988);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Sir Lynden Oscar PINDLING (since
16 January 1967)


_#_Political parties and leaders:
Progressive Liberal Party (PLP), Sir Lynden O. PINDLING;
Free National Movement (FNM), Hubert Alexander INGRAHAM


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


_#_Elections:

House of Assembly--last held 19 June 1987 (next to be held
by June 1992);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(49 total) PLP 32, FNM 17


_#_Communists: none known


_#_Other political or pressure groups: Vanguard Nationalist and
Socialist Party (VNSP), a small leftist party headed by Lionel CAREY;
Trade Union Congress (TUC), headed by Arlington MILLER


_#_Member of: ACP, C, CCC, CARICOM, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB,
IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU,
LORCS, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO,
WMO


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Margaret E. McDONALD;
Chancery at Suite 865, 600 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington DC 20037;
telephone (202) 944-3390; there are Bahamian Consulates General in Miami
and New York;

US--Ambassador Chic HECHT; Embassy at Mosmar Building,
Queen Street, Nassau (mailing address is P. O. Box N-8197, Nassau);
telephone (809) 322-1181 or 328-2206


_#_Flag: three equal horizontal bands of aquamarine (top), gold, and
aquamarine with a black equilateral triangle based on the hoist side


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The Bahamas is a stable, middle-income developing nation
whose economy is based primarily on tourism and offshore banking. Tourism
alone provides about 50% of GDP and directly or indirectly employs about
50,000 people or 40% of the local work force. The economy has slackened
in recent years, as the annual increase in the number of tourists slowed.
Nonetheless, the per capita GDP of $9,800 is one of the highest in the
region.


_#_GDP: $2.4 billion, per capita $9,800; real growth rate 2.0%
(1989 est.)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7.1% (1990 est.)


_#_Unemployment: 11.7% (1989)


_#_Budget: revenues $1.03 billion; expenditures $1.1 billion,
including capital expenditures of $275 million (1990)


_#_Exports: $300 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities--pharmaceuticals, cement, rum, crawfish;

partners--US 41%, Norway 30%, Denmark 4%


_#_Imports: $1.23 billion (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities--foodstuffs, manufactured goods, mineral fuels;

partners--US 35%, Nigeria 21%, Japan 13%, Angola 11%


_#_External debt: $1.2 billion (December 1990)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%; accounts for 15% of GDP


_#_Electricity: 368,000 kW capacity; 857 million kWh produced,
3,480 kWh per capita (1990)


_#_Industries: tourism, banking, cement, oil refining and
transshipment, salt production, rum, aragonite, pharmaceuticals, spiral
weld, steel pipe


_#_Agriculture: accounts for less than 5% of GDP; dominated by
small-scale producers; principal products--citrus fruit, vegetables,
poultry; large net importer of food


_#_Illicit drugs: transshipment point for cocaine


_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY85-88), $1.0
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $345 million


_#_Currency: Bahamian dollar (plural--dollars); 1 Bahamian dollar
(B$) = 100 cents


_#_Exchange rates: Bahamian dollar (B$) per US$1--1.00 (fixed rate)


_#_Fiscal year: calendar year


_*_Communications
_#_Highways: 2,400 km total; 1,350 km paved, 1,050 km gravel


_#_Ports: Freeport, Nassau


_#_Merchant marine: 636 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 14,266,066
GRT/23,585,465 DWT; includes 42 passenger, 16 short-sea passenger, 190
cargo, 41 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 23 container, 5 car carrier,
1 railroad carrier, 141 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 8
liquefied gas, 15 combination ore/oil, 33 chemical tanker, 1 specialized
tanker, 112 bulk, 8 combination bulk; note--a flag of convenience
registry


_#_Civil air: 9 major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 59 total, 57 usable; 31 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 3 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 25 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: highly developed; 99,000 telephones in totally
automatic system; tropospheric scatter and submarine cable links to
Florida; stations--3 AM, 2 FM, 1 TV; 3 coaxial submarine cables; 1
Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Royal Bahamas Defense Force (a coast guard element only),
Royal Bahamas Police Force


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 68,020; NA fit for military
service


_#_Defense expenditures: $65 million, 2.7% of GDP (1990)
_%_
_@_Bahrain
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 620 km2; land area: 620 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly less than 3.5 times the size of
Washington, DC


_#_Land boundaries: none


_#_Coastline: 161 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: not specific;

Territorial sea: 3 nm


_#_Disputes: territorial dispute with Qatar over the Hawar Islands


_#_Climate: arid; mild, pleasant winters; very hot, humid summers


_#_Terrain: mostly low desert plain rising gently to low central
escarpment


_#_Natural resources: oil, associated and nonassociated natural gas,
fish


_#_Land use: arable land 2%; permanent crops 2%; meadows and pastures
6%; forest and woodland 0%; other 90%, includes irrigated NEGL%


_#_Environment: subsurface water sources being rapidly depleted
(requires development of desalination facilities); dust storms;
desertification


_#_Note: close to primary Middle Eastern crude oil sources;
strategic location in Persian Gulf through which much of Western
world's crude oil must transit to reach open ocean


_*_People
_#_Population: 536,974 (July 1991), growth rate 3.2% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 27 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 3 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: 7 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 17 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 71 years male, 76 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 4.0 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--Bahraini(s); adjective--Bahraini


_#_Ethnic divisions: Bahraini 63%, Asian 13%, other Arab 10%,
Iranian 8%, other 6%


_#_Religion: Muslim (Shia 70%, Sunni 30%)


_#_Language: Arabic (official); English also widely spoken; Farsi,
Urdu


_#_Literacy: 77% (male 82%, female 69%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)


_#_Labor force: 140,000; 42% of labor force is Bahraini; industry
and commerce 85%, agriculture 5%, services 5%, government 3% (1982)


_#_Organized labor: General Committee for Bahrain Workers exists in
only eight major designated companies


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: State of Bahrain


_#_Type: traditional monarchy


_#_Capital: Manama


_#_Administrative divisions: 12 municipalities (baladiyat,
singular--baladiyah); Al Hadd, Al Manamah,
Al Mintaqah al Gharbiyah, Al Mintaqah al Wusta,
Al Mintaqah ash Shamaliyah, Al Muharraq,
Ar Rifa wa al Mintaqah al Janubiyah, Jidd Hafs,
Madinat Hamad, Madinat Isa, Mintaqat Juzur Hawar,
Sitrah


_#_Independence: 15 August 1971 (from UK)


_#_Constitution: 26 May 1973, effective 6 December 1973


_#_Legal system: based on Islamic law and English common law


_#_National holiday: National Day, 16 December


_#_Executive branch: amir, crown prince and heir apparent, prime
minister, Cabinet


_#_Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly was dissolved
26 August 1975 and legislative powers were assumed by the Cabinet


_#_Judicial branch: High Civil Appeals Court


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--Amir Isa bin Salman Al KHALIFA (since
2 November 1961); Heir Apparent Hamad bin Isa Al KHALIFA (son of Amir;
born 28 January 1950);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Khalifa bin Salman Al KHALIFA,
(since 19 January 1970)


_#_Political parties and pressure groups: political parties
prohibited; several small, clandestine leftist and Shia fundamentalist
groups are active


_#_Suffrage: none


_#_Elections: none


_#_Communists: negligible


_#_Member of: ABEDA, AFESD, AL, AMF, ESCWA, FAO, G-77, GCC, IBRD,
ICAO, IDB, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO (correspondent),
ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO,
WMO


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Ghazi Muhammad AL-QUSAYBI;
Chancery at 3502 International Drive NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone
(202) 342-0741 or 342-0742; there is a Bahraini Consulate General in
New York;

US--Ambassador Dr. Charles W. HOSTLER; Embassy at Building
No. 979, Road No. 3119, Block/Area 331, Manama ZINJ (mailing address is
P. O. 26431, Manama, or FPO New York 09526-6210); telephone [973]
273-300 or 275-126


_#_Flag: red with a white serrated band (eight white points) on the
hoist side


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Petroleum production and processing account for
about 85% of export receipts, 60% of government revenues, and 20% of GDP.
Economic conditions have fluctuated with the changing fortunes of oil
since 1985, including the Gulf crisis of 1990-91.  The liberation of
Kuwait in early 1991 has improved short- to medium-term prospects and
has raised investors' confidence.  Bahrain with its highly developed
communication and transport facilities is home to numerous
multinational firms with business in the Gulf.


_#_GDP: $3.9 billion, per capita $7,500; real growth rate 2.5%
(1990 est.)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.5% (1989)


_#_Unemployment: 8-10% (1989)


_#_Budget: revenues $1.2 billion; expenditures $1.32 billion,
including capital expenditures of $NA (1989)


_#_Exports: $2.7 billion (f.o.b., 1989 est.);

commodities--petroleum 80%, aluminum 7%, other 13%;

partners--UAE, Japan, US, India


_#_Imports: $3.0 billion (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities--nonoil 59%, crude oil 41%;

partners--Saudi Arabia, Japan, US, UK


_#_External debt: $1.1 billion (December 1989 est.)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate 3.8% (1988); accounts for
44% of GDP


_#_Electricity: 1,652,000 kW capacity; 6,000 million kWh produced,
12,080 kWh per capita (1989)


_#_Industries: petroleum processing and refining, aluminum smelting,
offshore banking, ship repairing


_#_Agriculture: including fishing, accounts for less than 2% of GDP;
not self-sufficient in food production; heavily subsidized sector
produces fruit, vegetables, poultry, dairy products, shrimp, and fish;
fish catch 9,000 metric tons in 1987


_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-79), $24
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $35 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $9.8 billion


_#_Currency: Bahraini dinar (plural--dinars); 1 Bahraini dinar
(BD) = 1,000 fils


_#_Exchange rates: Bahraini dinars (BD) per US$1--0.3760 (fixed rate)


_#_Fiscal year: calendar year


_*_Communications
_#_Highways: 200 km bituminous surfaced, including 25 km
bridge-causeway to Saudi Arabia opened in November 1986; NA km
natural surface tracks


_#_Ports: Mina Salman, Manama, Sitrah


_#_Merchant marine: 4 cargo and 2 container (1,000 GRT or over)
totaling 114,733 GRT/155,065 DWT


_#_Pipelines: crude oil, 56 km; refined products, 16 km; natural gas,
32 km


_#_Civil air: 24 major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 3 total, 3 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways; 2
with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: excellent international telecommunications;
adequate domestic services; 98,000 telephones; stations--2 AM, 1 FM,
2 TV; satellite earth stations--1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Indian Ocean
INTELSAT, 1 ARABSAT; tropospheric scatter and microwave to Qatar, UAE,
Saudi Arabia; submarine cable to Qatar and UAE


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense, Police Force


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 187,606; 104,285 fit for
military service


_#_Defense expenditures: $194 million, 6% of GDP (1990)
_%_
_@_Baker Island
(territory of the US)
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 1.4 km2; land area: 1.4 km2


_#_Comparative area: about 2.3 times the size of The Mall in
Washington, DC


_#_Land boundaries: none


_#_Coastline: 4.8 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth);

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm


_#_Climate: equatorial; scant rainfall, constant wind, burning sun


_#_Terrain: low, nearly level coral island surrounded by a narrow
fringing reef


_#_Natural resources: guano (deposits worked until 1891)


_#_Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
0%; forest and woodland 0%; other 100%


_#_Environment: treeless, sparse and scattered vegetation consisting
of grasses, prostrate vines, and low growing shrubs; lacks fresh water;
primarily a nesting, roosting, and foraging habitat for seabirds,
shorebirds, and marine wildlife


_#_Note: remote location 2,575 km southwest of Honolulu in the North
Pacific Ocean, just north of the Equator, about halfway between Hawaii
and Australia


_*_People
_#_Population: uninhabited


_#_Note: American civilians evacuated in 1942 after Japanese air and
naval attacks during World War II; occupied by US military during World
War II, but abandoned after the war; public entry is by special-use
permit only and generally restricted to scientists and educators; a
cemetery and cemetery ruins located near the middle of the west coast


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: none


_#_Type: unincorporated territory of the US administered by the Fish
and Wildlife Service of the US Department of the Interior as part of the
National Wildlife Refuge system


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: no economic activity


_*_Communications
_#_Ports: none; offshore anchorage only, one boat landing area along
the middle of the west coast


_#_Airports: 1 abandoned World War II runway of 1,665 m


_#_Note: there is a day beacon near the middle of the west coast


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of the US; visited annually by
the US Coast Guard
_%_
_@_Bangladesh
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 144,000 km2; land area: 133,910 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than Wisconsin


_#_Land boundaries: 4,246 km total; Burma 193 km, India 4,053 km


_#_Coastline: 580 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 18 nm;

Continental shelf: up to outer limits of continental margin;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm


_#_Disputes: a portion of the boundary with India is in dispute;
water sharing problems with upstream riparian India over the Ganges


_#_Climate: tropical; cool, dry winter (October to March); hot, humid
summer (March to June); cool, rainy monsoon (June to October)


_#_Terrain: mostly flat alluvial plain; hilly in southeast


_#_Natural resources: natural gas, uranium, arable land, timber


_#_Land use: arable land 67%; permanent crops 2%; meadows and
pastures 4%; forest and woodland 16%; other 11%; includes irrigated
14%


_#_Environment: vulnerable to droughts; much of country routinely
flooded during summer monsoon season; overpopulation; deforestation


_#_Note: almost completely surrounded by India


_*_People
_#_Population: 116,601,424 (July 1991), growth rate 2.3% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 36 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 13 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 118 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 54 years male, 52 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 4.7 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--Bangladeshi(s); adjective--Bangladesh


_#_Ethnic divisions: Bengali 98%, Biharis 250,000, and tribals less
than 1 million


_#_Religion: Muslim 83%, Hindu 16%, Buddhist, Christian, and other
less than 1%


_#_Language: Bangla (official), English widely used


_#_Literacy: 35% (male 47%, female 22%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)


_#_Labor force: 35,100,000; agriculture 74%, services 15%, industry
and commerce 11% (FY86); extensive export of labor to Saudi Arabia, UAE,
and Oman (1991)


_#_Organized labor: 3% of labor force belongs to 2,614 registered
unions (1986 est.)


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: People's Republic of Bangladesh


_#_Type: republic


_#_Capital: Dhaka


_#_Administrative divisions: 64 districts (zillagulo,
singular--zilla); Bagerhat, Bandarban, Barguna, Barisal,
Bhola, Bogra, Brahmanbaria, Chandpur, Chapai Nawabganj,
Chattagram, Chuadanga, Comilla, Cox's Bazar, Dhaka,
Dinajpur, Faridpur, Feni, Gaibandha, Gazipur, Gopalganj,
Habiganj, Jaipurhat, Jamalpur, Jessore, Jhalakati, Jhenaidah,
Khagrachari, Khulna, Kishorganj, Kurigram, Kushtia, Laksmipur,
Lalmonirhat, Madaripur, Magura, Manikganj, Meherpur,
Moulavibazar, Munshiganj, Mymensingh, Naogaon, Narail,
Narayanganj, Narsingdi, Nator, Netrakona, Nilphamari,
Noakhali, Pabna, Panchagar, Parbattya Chattagram,
Patuakhali, Pirojpur, Rajbari, Rajshahi, Rangpur,
Satkhira, Shariyatpur, Sherpur, Sirajganj, Sunamganj, Sylhet,
Tangail, Thakurgaon


_#_Independence: 16 December 1971 (from Pakistan; formerly East
Pakistan)


_#_Constitution: 4 November 1972, effective 16 December 1972,
suspended following coup of 24 March 1982, restored 10 November 1986,
amended NA March 1991


_#_Legal system: based on English common law


_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 26 March (1971)


_#_Executive branch: president, prime minister, Cabinet


_#_Legislative branch: unicameral National Parliament (Jatiya Sangsad)


_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--President Abdur Rahman BISWAS (since
8 October 1991)

Head of Government--Prime Minister Khaleda ZIAUR Rahman
(since 20 March 1991)


_#_Political parties and leaders:
Bangladesh Nationalist Party, Khaleda ZIAUR Rahman;
Awami League, Sheikh Hasina WAZED;
Jatiyo Party, Hussain Mohammad ERSHAD;
Jamaat-E-Islami, Ali KHAN;
Bangladesh Communist Party (pro-Soviet), Saifuddin Ahmed MANIK;
National Awami Party (Muzaffar);
Workers Party, leader NA;
Jatiyo Samajtantik Dal (National Socialist Party--SIRAJ), M. A. JALIL;
Ganotantri Party, leader NA;
Islami Oikya Jote, leader NA;
National Democratic Party, leader NA;
Muslim League, Khan A. SABUR;
Democratic League, Khondakar MUSHTAQUE Ahmed;
United People's Party, Kazi ZAFAR Ahmed


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


_#_Elections:

President--last held 8 October 1991 (next to be held by October
1996);
results--Abdur Rahman BISWAS received 52.1% of parliamentary vote

National Parliament--last held 27 February 1991 (next to be held
February 1996); results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(330 total, 300 elected and 30 seats reserved for women)
BNP 168, AL 93, JP 35, JI 20, CBP 5, National Awami Party (Muzaffar) 1,
Workers Party 1, SIRAJ 1, Ganotantri Party 1, Islami Oikya Jote 1,
NDP 1, independents 3


_#_Communists: 5,000 members (1987 est.)


_#_Member of: AsDB, C, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC,
ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OIC, SAARC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIIMOG,
UPU, WHO, WFTU, WIPO, WCL, WMO, WTO


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador A. H. S. Ataul KARIM;
Chancery at 2201 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington DC 20007; telephone
(202) 342-8372 through 8376; there is a Bangladesh Consulate General in
New York;

US--Ambassador William B. MILAM; Embassy at Diplomatic
Enclave, Madani Avenue, Baridhara, Dhaka (mailing address
is G. P. O. Box 323, Dhaka 1212); telephone [880] (2) 884700-22


_#_Flag: green with a large red disk slightly to the hoist side of
center; green is the traditional color of Islam


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Bangladesh is one of the poorest nations in the world.
The economy is based on the output of a narrow range of
agricultural products, such as jute, which is the main cash crop and
major source of export earnings. Bangladesh is hampered by a relative
lack of natural resources, population growth of more than 2% a year,
large-scale unemployment, and a limited infrastructure; furthermore,
it is highly vulnerable to natural disasters. Despite these constraints,
real GDP growth averaged about 3.5% annually during 1985-89. A strong
agricultural performance in FY90 pushed the growth rate up to 5.5%.
Alleviation of poverty remains the cornerstone of the government's
development strategy.


_#_GDP: $20.4 billion, per capita $180; real growth rate 4.0%
(1990 est.)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 10% (FY90 est.)


_#_Unemployment rate: 30% (FY90 est.)


_#_Budget: revenues $2.2 billion; expenditures $3.9 billion, including
capital expenditures of $1.6 billion (FY90)


_#_Exports: $1.5 billion (FY90 est.);

commodities--jute, tea, leather, shrimp, textiles;

partners--US 25%, Western Europe 22%, Middle East 9%, Japan 8%,
Eastern Europe 7%


_#_Imports: $3.6 billion (FY90 est.);

commodities--food, petroleum and other energy, nonfood consumer
goods, semiprocessed goods, and capital equipment;

partners--Western Europe 18%, Japan 14%, Middle East 9%, US 8%


_#_External debt: $10.9 billion (FY90 est.)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate 4.1% (FY90 est.); accounts
for 15% of GDP


_#_Electricity: 1,990,000 kW capacity; 5,700 million kWh produced,
50 kWh per capita (1990)


_#_Industries: jute manufacturing, base metals, food processing,
cotton textiles, tobacco processing, chemicals


_#_Agriculture: accounts for about 40% of GDP, 60% of
employment, and one third of exports; imports 10% of food grain
requirements; world's largest exporter of jute; commercial
products--jute, rice, wheat, tea, sugarcane, potatoes, beef, milk,
poultry; shortages include wheat, vegetable oils and cotton; fish catch
778,000 metric tons in 1986


_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $3.4
billion; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1980-88), $10.6 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $652 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $1.5 billion


_#_Currency: taka (plural--taka); 1 taka (Tk) = 100 paise


_#_Exchange rates: taka (Tk) per US$1--35.790 (January 1991), 34.567
(1990), 32.270 (1989), 31.733 (1988), 30.950 (1987), 30.407 (1986),
27.995 (1985)


_#_Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June


_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 2,892 km total (1986); 1,914 km 1.000 meter gauge,
978 km 1.676 meter broad gauge


_#_Highways: 7,240 km total (1985); 3,840 km paved, 3,400 km unpaved


_#_Inland waterways: 5,150-8,046 km navigable waterways (includes
2,575-3,058 km main cargo routes)


_#_Ports: Chittagong, Chalna


_#_Merchant marine: 47 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
339,081 GRT/500,008 DWT; includes 38 cargo, 2 petroleum, oils, and
lubricants (POL) tanker, 3 refrigerated cargo, 1 roll-on/roll-off, 3 bulk


_#_Pipelines: 1,220 km natural gas


_#_Civil air: 15 major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 16 total, 12 usable; 12 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 4 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 6 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: adequate international radio communications and
landline service; fair domestic wire and microwave service; fair
broadcast service; 241,250 telephones; stations--9 AM, 6 FM, 11 TV;
2 Indian Ocean INTELSAT satellite earth stations


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force; paramilitary forces--Bangladesh
Rifles, Bangladesh Ansars, Armed Police Reserve, Coastal Police


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 28,896,632; 17,154,593 fit for
military service


_#_Defense expenditures: $319 million, 1.5% of GDP (FY91)
_%_
_@_Barbados
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 430 km2; land area: 430 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly less than 2.5 times the size of
Washington, DC


_#_Land boundaries: none


_#_Coastline: 97 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm


_#_Climate: tropical; rainy season (June to October)


_#_Terrain: relatively flat; rises gently to central highland region


_#_Natural resources: crude oil, fishing, natural gas


_#_Land use: arable land 77%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and
pastures 9%; forest and woodland 0%; other 14%


_#_Environment: subject to hurricanes (especially June to October)


_#_Note: easternmost Caribbean island


_*_People
_#_Population: 254,626 (July 1991), growth rate 0.1% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 16 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 9 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: - 6 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 23 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 70 years male, 76 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 1.8 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--Barbadian(s); adjective--Barbadian


_#_Ethnic divisions: African 80%, mixed 16%, European 4%


_#_Religion: Protestant 67% (Anglican 40%, Pentecostal 8%, Methodist
7%, other 12%), Roman Catholic 4%; none 17%, unknown 3%, other 9%
(1980)


_#_Language: English


_#_Literacy: 99% (male 99%, female 99%) age 15 and over having ever
attended school (1970)


_#_Labor force: 112,300; services and government 37%; commerce 22%;
manufacturing and construction 22%; transportation, storage,
communications, and financial institutions 9%; agriculture 8%; utilities
2% (1985 est.)


_#_Organized labor: 32% of labor force


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: none


_#_Type: parliamentary democracy


_#_Capital: Bridgetown


_#_Administrative divisions: 11 parishes; Christ Church, Saint Andrew,
Saint George, Saint James, Saint John, Saint Joseph, Saint Lucy,
Saint Michael, Saint Peter, Saint Philip, Saint Thomas; note--there may
be a new city of Bridgetown


_#_Independence: 30 November 1966 (from UK)


_#_Constitution: 30 November 1966


_#_Legal system: English common law; no judicial review of
legislative acts


_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 30 November (1966)


_#_Executive branch: British monarch, governor general, prime
minister, deputy prime minister, Cabinet


_#_Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of an upper
house or Senate and a lower house or House of Assembly


_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Judicature


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor General Sir Hugh SPRINGER (since 24 February
1984);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Lloyd Erskine SANDIFORD (since
2 June 1987)


_#_Political parties and leaders:
Democratic Labor Party (DLP), Erskine SANDIFORD;
Barbados Labor Party (BLP), Henry FORDE;
National Democratic Party (NDP), Richie HAYNES


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


_#_Elections:

House of Assembly--last held 22 January 1991 (next to be held by
January 1996);
results--DLP 49.8%;
seats--(28 total) DLP 18, BLP 10


_#_Communists: negligible


_#_Other political or pressure groups: Industrial and General Workers
Union, Sir Frank WALCOTT; People's Progressive Movement, Eric SEALY;
Workers' Party of Barbados, Dr. George BELLE


_#_Member of: ACP, C, CARICOM, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB,
IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC,
ISO (correspondent), ITU, LAES, LORCS, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Sir William DOUGLAS; Chancery
at 2144 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 939-9200
through 9202; there is a Barbadian Consulate General in New York and a
Consulate in Los Angeles;

US--Ambassador G. Philip HUGHES; Embassy at Canadian
Imperial Bank of Commerce Building, Broad Street, Bridgetown (mailing
address is P. O. Box 302, Bridgetown or FPO Miami 34054); telephone (809)
436-4950 through 4957


_#_Flag: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and
blue with the head of a black trident centered on the gold band; the
trident head represents independence and a break with the past (the
colonial coat of arms contained a complete trident)


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: A per capita income of $6,500 gives Barbados one of
the highest standards of living of all the small island states of the
eastern Caribbean. Historically, the economy was based on the cultivation
of sugarcane and related activities. In recent years, however, the
economy has diversified into manufacturing and tourism. The tourist
industry is now a major employer of the labor force and a primary source
of foreign exchange. An unemployment rate of 18% remains one of the most
serious economic problems facing the country.


_#_GDP: $1.7 billion, per capita $6,500; real growth rate
3.6% (1989 est.)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6.2% (1989)


_#_Unemployment: 18% (1990)


_#_Budget: revenues $501 million; expenditures $484 million,
including capital expenditures of $113 million (FY91)


_#_Exports: $165 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities--sugar and molasses, chemicals, electrical components,
clothing, rum, machinery and transport equipment;

partners: CARICOM 30%, US 20%, UK 20%


_#_Imports: $701 million (c.i.f., 1990 est.);

commodities--foodstuffs, consumer durables, raw materials,
machinery, crude oil, construction materials, chemicals;

partners--US 35%, CARICOM 13%, UK 12%, Japan 6%, Canada 8%,
Venezuela 4%


_#_External debt: $550 million (June 1990 est.)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate - 1.5% (1989); accounts
for 14 % of GDP


_#_Electricity: 132,000 kW capacity; 494 million kWh produced, 1,880
kWh per capita (1990)


_#_Industries: tourism, sugar, light manufacturing, component assembly
for export


_#_Agriculture: accounts for 10% of GDP; major cash crop is sugarcane;
other crops--vegetables and cotton; not self-sufficient in food


_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $15
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $169 million


_#_Currency: Barbadian dollars (plural--dollars); 1 Barbadian dollar
(Bds$) = 100 cents


_#_Exchange rates: Barbadian dollars (Bds$) per US$1--2.0113 (fixed
rate)


_#_Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March


_*_Communications
_#_Highways: 1,570 km total; 1,475 km paved, 95 km gravel and earth


_#_Ports: Bridgetown


_#_Merchant marine: 2 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,200
GRT/7,338 DWT


_#_Civil air: 2 major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 1 with permanent-surface runways 2,440-3,659 m


_#_Telecommunications: islandwide automatic telephone system with
89,000 telephones; tropospheric scatter link to Trinidad and Saint Lucia;
stations--3 AM, 2 FM, 2 (1 is pay) TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth
station


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Royal Barbados Defense Force, Coast Guard, Royal
Barbados Police Force


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 69,038; 48,455 fit for military
service, no conscription


_#_Defense expenditures: $10 million, 0.7% of GDP (1989)
_%_
_@_Bassas da India
(French possession)
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: undetermined


_#_Comparative area: undetermined


_#_Land boundaries: none


_#_Coastline: 35.2 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm


_#_Disputes: claimed by Madagascar


_#_Climate: tropical


_#_Terrain: a volcanic rock 2.4 m high


_#_Natural resources: none


_#_Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and
pastures 0%; forest and woodland 0%; other (rock) 100%


_#_Environment: surrounded by reefs; subject to periodic cyclones


_#_Note: navigational hazard since it is usually under water during
high tide; located in southern Mozambique Channel about halfway between
Africa and Madagascar


_*_People
_#_Population: uninhabited


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: none


_#_Type: French possession administered by Commissioner of the
Republic Daniel CONSTANTIN, resident in Reunion


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: no economic activity


_*_Communications
_#_Ports: none; offshore anchorage only


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of France
_%_
_@_Belgium
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 30,510 km2; land area: 30,230 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than Maryland


_#_Land boundaries: 1,385 km total; France 620 km, Germany 167 km,
Luxembourg 148 km, Netherlands 450 km


_#_Coastline: 64 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: not specific;

Exclusive fishing zone: equidistant line with neighbors (extends
about 68 km from coast);

Territorial sea: 12 nm


_#_Climate: temperate; mild winters, cool summers; rainy, humid,
cloudy


_#_Terrain: flat coastal plains in northwest, central rolling hills,
rugged mountains of Ardennes Forest in southeast


_#_Natural resources: coal, natural gas


_#_Land use: arable land 24%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and
pastures 20%; forest and woodland 21%; other 34%, includes irrigated
NEGL%


_#_Environment: air and water pollution


_#_Note: majority of West European capitals within 1,000 km of
Brussels; crossroads of Western Europe; Brussels is the seat of the EC


_*_People
_#_Population: 9,921,910 (July 1991), growth rate 0.1% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 12 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 11 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 6 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 74 years male, 81 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 1.6 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--Belgian(s); adjective--Belgian


_#_Ethnic divisions: Fleming 55%, Walloon 33%, mixed or other 12%


_#_Religion: Roman Catholic 75%, remainder Protestant or other


_#_Language: Flemish (Dutch) 56%, French 32%, German 1%; legally
bilingual 11%; divided along ethnic lines


_#_Literacy: 99% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1980 est.)


_#_Labor force: 4,200,000; services 69%, industry 28%, agriculture
3% (1988)


_#_Organized labor: 70% of labor force


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Kingdom of Belgium


_#_Type: constitutional monarchy


_#_Capital: Brussels


_#_Administrative divisions: 9 provinces (French--provinces,
singular--province; Flemish--provincien, singular--provincie);
Antwerpen, Brabant, Hainaut, Liege, Limburg, Luxembourg, Namur,
Oost-Vlaanderen, West-Vlaanderen


_#_Independence: 4 October 1830 (from the Netherlands)


_#_Constitution: 7 February 1831, last revised 8-9 August 1980; the
government is in the process of revising the Constitution, with the aim
of federalizing the Belgian state


_#_Legal system: civil law system influenced by English constitutional
theory; judicial review of legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction, with reservations


_#_National holiday: National Day, 21 July (ascension of King Leopold
to the throne in 1831)


_#_Executive branch: monarch, prime minister, five deputy prime
ministers, Cabinet


_#_Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of an upper
chamber or Senate (Flemish--Senaat, French--Senat) and a lower chamber
or Chamber of Representatives (Flemish--Kamer van
Volksvertegenwoordigers, French--Chambre des Representants)


_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice (Flemish--Hof van
Cassatie, French--Cour de Cassation)


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--King BAUDOUIN I (since 17 July 1951);
Heir Apparent Prince ALBERT of Liege (brother of the King; born 6
June 1934);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Wilfried MARTENS,
(since April 1979, with a 10-month interruption in 1981)


_#_Political parties and leaders:
Flemish Social Christian (CVP), Herman van ROMPUY, president;
Walloon Social Christian (PSC), Gerard DEPREZ, president;
Flemish Socialist (SP), Frank VANDENBROUCKE, president;
Walloon Socialist (PS), Guy SPITAELS, president;
Flemish Liberal (PVV), Guy VERHOFSTADT, president;
Walloon Liberal (PRL), Antoine DUQUESNE, president;
Francophone Democratic Front (FDF), Georges CLERFAYT, president;
Volksunie (VU), Jaak GABRIELS, president;
Communist Party (PCB), Louis van GEYT, president;
Vlaams Blok (VB), Karel DILLEN;
other minor parties


_#_Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 18


_#_Elections:

Senate--last held 13 December 1987 (next to be held by
January 1992);
results--CVP 19.2%, PS 15.7%, SP 14.7%, PVV 11.3%, PRL 9.3%,
VU 8.1%, PSC 7.8%, ECOLO-AGALEV 7.7%, VB 2.0%, VDF 1.3%,
other 1.96%;
seats--(106 total) CVP 22, PS 20, SP 17, PRL 12, PVV 11, PSC 9, VU 8,
ECOLO-AGALEV 5, VB 1, FDF 1;

Chamber of Representatives--last held 13 December 1987
(next to be held by January 1992);
results--CVP 19.45%, PS 15.66%, SP 14.88%, PVV 11.55%, PRL 9.41%,
PSC 8.01%, VU 8.05%, ECOLO-AGALEV 7.05%, VB 1.90%, FDF 1.16%, other
2.88%;
seats--(212 total) CVP 43, PS 40, SP 32, PVV 25, PRL 23,
PSC 19, VU 16, ECOLO-AGALEV 9, FDF 3, VB 2


_#_Communists: under 5,000 members (December 1985 est.)


_#_Other political or pressure groups: Christian and Socialist Trade
Unions; Federation of Belgian Industries; numerous other associations
representing bankers, manufacturers, middle-class artisans, and the legal
and medical professions; various organizations represent the cultural
interests of Flanders and Wallonia; various peace groups such as the
Flemish Action Committee Against Nuclear Weapons and Pax Christi


_#_Member of: ACCT, AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, Benelux, BIS, CCC, CE,
CERN, COCOM, CSCE, EBRD, EC, ECE, EIB, ESA, FAO, G-9, G-10, GATT, IADB,
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO,
INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NATO, NEA, OAS
(observer), OECD, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMOGIP,
UNRWA, UPU, WCL, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Juan CASSIERS; Chancery at
3330 Garfield Street NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 333-6900;
there are Belgian Consulates General in Atlanta, Chicago, Houston, Los
Angeles, and New York;

US--Ambassador Maynard W. GLITMAN; Embassy at 27 Boulevard du
Regent, B-1000 Brussels (mailing address is APO New York 09667-1000);
telephone [32] (2) 513-3830; there is a US Consulate General in Antwerp


_#_Flag: three equal vertical bands of black (hoist side), yellow,
and red; the design was based on the flag of France


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: This small private-enterprise economy has capitalized
on its central geographic location, highly developed transport
network, and diversified industrial and commercial base. Industry is
concentrated mainly in the populous Flemish area in the north, although
the government is encouraging reinvestment in the southern region
of Walloon. With few natural resources Belgium must import essential raw
materials, making its economy closely dependent on the state of world
markets. Over 70% of trade is with other EC countries. During
the period 1988-90 Belgium's economic performance was marked by buoyant
output growth, moderate inflation, and a substantial external surplus.
Real GDP grew by an average of 3.9% in 1988-90. However, the economy
is likely to slow in 1991-92 to below 3% GDP growth.


_#_GDP: $144.8 billion, per capita $14,600; real growth rate 3.3%
(1990)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3% (1991 est.)


_#_Unemployment rate: 8.2% est. (1991 est.)


_#_Budget: revenues $45.0 billion; expenditures $55.3 billion,
including capital expenditures of NA (1989)


_#_Exports: $106 billion (f.o.b., 1990 est.) Belgium-Luxembourg
Economic Union;

commodities--iron and steel, transportation equipment,
tractors, diamonds, petroleum products;

partners--EC 74%, US 5%, Communist countries 2% (1989)


_#_Imports: $108 billion (c.i.f., 1989) Belgium-Luxembourg Economic
Union;

commodities--fuels, grains, chemicals, foodstuffs;

partners--EC 73%, US 4%, oil-exporting less developed countries 4%,
Communist countries 3% (1989)


_#_External debt: $28.8 billion (1990 est.)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate 1.3% (1991 est.); accounts
for almost 30% of GDP


_#_Electricity: 17,325,000 kW capacity; 62,780 million kWh produced,
6,350 kWh per capita (1989)


_#_Industries: engineering and metal products, processed food and
beverages, chemicals, basic metals, textiles, glass, petroleum, coal


_#_Agriculture: accounts for 2% of GDP; emphasis on livestock
production--beef, veal, pork, milk; major crops are sugar beets, fresh
vegetables, fruits, grain, and tobacco; net importer of farm products


_#_Economic aid: donor--ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $5.8
billion


_#_Currency: Belgian franc (plural--francs); 1 Belgian franc (BF) =
100 centimes


_#_Exchange rates: Belgian francs (BF) per US$1--31.102 (January
1991), 33.418 (1990), 39.404 (1989), 36.768 (1988), 37.334 (1987), 44.672
(1986), 59.378 (1985)


_#_Fiscal year: calendar year


_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: Belgian National Railways (SNCB) operates 3,667 km
1.435-meter standard gauge, government owned; 2,563 km double track;
1,978 km electrified; 191 km 1.000-meter gauge, government owned and
operated


_#_Highways: 103,396 km total; 1,317 km limited access, divided
autoroute; 11,717 km national highway; 1,362 km provincial road; about
38,000 km paved and 51,000 km unpaved rural roads


_#_Inland waterways: 2,043 km (1,528 km in regular commercial use)


_#_Ports: Antwerp, Brugge, Gent, Oostende, Zeebrugge


_#_Merchant marine: 69 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,785,066
GRT/2,927,618 DWT; includes 12 cargo, 6 roll-on/roll-off, 6 container, 7
petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 9 liquefied gas, 3
combination ore/oil, 9 chemical tanker, 11 bulk, 6 combination bulk


_#_Pipelines: refined products 1,167 km; crude 161 km; natural gas
3,300 km


_#_Civil air: 47 major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 42 total, 42 usable; 24 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 14 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 3 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: excellent domestic and international telephone
and telegraph facilities; 4,720,000 telephones; stations--8 AM, 19 FM (42
relays), 25 TV (10 relays); 5 submarine cables; satellite earth stations
operating in INTELSAT 3 Atlantic Ocean and EUTELSAT systems


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, National Gendarmerie


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 2,521,178; 2,115,935 fit for
military service; 64,634 reach military age (19) annually


_#_Defense expenditures: $4.8 billion, 2.5% of GDP (1990)
_%_
_@_Belize
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 22,960 km2; land area: 22,800 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than Massachusetts


_#_Land boundaries: 516 km total; Guatemala 266 km, Mexico 250 km


_#_Coastline: 386 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Territorial sea: 3 nm


_#_Disputes: claimed by Guatemala, but boundary negotiations to
resolve dispute are nearing completion


_#_Climate: tropical; very hot and humid; rainy season (May to
February)


_#_Terrain: flat, swampy coastal plain; low mountains in south


_#_Natural resources: arable land potential, timber, fish


_#_Land use: arable land 2%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and
pastures 2%; forest and woodland 44%; other 52%, includes irrigated
NEGL%


_#_Environment: frequent devastating hurricanes (September to
December) and coastal flooding (especially in south); deforestation


_#_Note: national capital moved 80 km inland from Belize City to
Belmopan because of hurricanes; only country in Central America without a
coastline on the North Pacific Ocean


_*_People
_#_Population: 228,069 (July 1991), growth rate 3.6% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 38 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: 4 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 35 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: male 67 years, female 72 years (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 4.7 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--Belizean(s); adjective--Belizean


_#_Ethnic divisions: Creole 39.7%, Mestizo 33.1%, Maya 9.5%, Garifuna
7.6%, East Indian 2.1%, other 8.0%


_#_Religion: Roman Catholic 62%, Protestant 30% (Anglican 12%,
Methodist 6%, Mennonite 4%, Seventh-Day Adventist 3%, Pentecostal 2%,
Jehovah's Witnesses 1%, other 2%), none 2%, unknown 3%, other 3%
(1980)


_#_Language: English (official), Spanish, Maya, Garifuna (Carib)


_#_Literacy: 91% (male 91%, female 91%) age 15 and over having ever
attended school (1970)


_#_Labor force: 51,500; agriculture 30.0%, services 16.0%, government
15.4%, commerce 11.2%, manufacturing 10.3%; shortage of skilled
labor and all types of technical personnel (1985)


_#_Organized labor: 12% of labor force; 7 unions currently active


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: none


_#_Type: parliamentary democracy


_#_Capital: Belmopan


_#_Administrative divisions: 6 districts; Belize, Cayo, Corozal,
Orange Walk, Stann Creek, Toledo


_#_Independence: 21 September 1981 (from UK; formerly British
Honduras)


_#_Constitution: 21 September 1981


_#_Legal system: English law


_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 21 September


_#_Executive branch: British monarch, governor general, prime
minister, deputy prime minister, Cabinet


_#_Legislative branch: bicameral National Assembly consists of an
upper house or Senate and a lower house or House of Representatives


_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor General Dame Elmira Minita GORDON (since 21
September 1981);

Head of Government--Prime Minister George Cadle PRICE (since 4
September 1989)


_#_Political parties and leaders:
People's United Party (PUP), George PRICE, Florencio MARIN, Said MUSA;
United Democratic Party (UDP), Manuel ESQUIVEL, Dean LINDO, Dean BARROW;
Belize Popular Party (BPP), Louis SYLVESTRE


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


_#_Elections:

National Assembly--last held 4 September 1989 (next to be
held September 1994);
results--percent of vote by party NA; seats--(28 total)
PUP 15 seats, UDP 13 seats; note--in January 1990 one
member expelled from UDP joined PUP, making the seat count
16 PUP, UDP 12


_#_Communists: negligible


_#_Other political or pressure groups: Society for the Promotion
of Education and Research (SPEAR) headed by former PUP minister;
United Workers Front


_#_Member of: ACP, C, CARICOM, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, IDA,
IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, (observer), ITU, LORCS,
NAM, OAS, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WMO


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador James V. HYDE; Chancery at
Suite 2J, 3400 International Drive NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone
(202) 363-4505;

US--Ambassador Eugene L. SCASSA; Embassy at Gabourel Lane and
Hutson Street, Belize City (mailing address is P. O. Box 286, Belize
City); telephone [501] 77161 through 77163


_#_Flag: blue with a narrow red stripe along the top and the bottom
edges; centered is a large white disk bearing the coat of arms; the coat
of arms features a shield flanked by two workers in front of a mahogany
tree with the related motto SUB UMBRA FLOREO (I Flourish in the
Shade) on a scroll at the bottom, all encircled by a green garland


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The economy is based primarily on agriculture and
merchandising. Agriculture accounts for more than 30% of GDP and provides
75% of export earnings, while sugar, the chief crop, accounts for almost
40% of hard currency earnings. The US, Belize's main trading partner, is
assisting in efforts to reduce dependency on sugar with an agricultural
diversification program.


_#_GDP: $290 million, per capita $1,320; real growth rate 9% (1990
est.)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.8% (1990 est.)


_#_Unemployment rate: 12% (1988)


_#_Budget: revenues $87.4 million; expenditures $130.5 million,
including capital expenditures of $53.5 million (FY90 est.)


_#_Exports: $108 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities--sugar, clothing, seafood, molasses, citrus, wood and
wood products;

partners--US 47%, UK, Trinidad and Tobago, Canada (1987)


_#_Imports: $204 million (c.i.f., 1990 est.);

commodities--machinery and transportation equipment, food,
manufactured goods, fuels, chemicals, pharmaceuticals;

partners--US 55%, UK, Netherlands Antilles, Mexico (1987)


_#_External debt: $169 million (December 1990)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate 9.7% (1989); accounts for
16% of GDP


_#_Electricity: 34,700 kW capacity; 90 million kWh produced,
410 kWh per capita (1990)


_#_Industries: garment production, citrus concentrates, sugar
refining, rum, beverages, tourism


_#_Agriculture: accounts for 30% of GDP (including fish and forestry);
commercial crops include sugarcane, bananas, coca, citrus fruits;
expanding output of lumber and cultured shrimp; net importer of basic
foods


_#_Illicit drugs: an illicit producer of cannabis for the
international drug trade; eradication program cut marijuana
production from 200 metric tons in 1987 to 66 metric tons in 1989;
transshipment point for cocaine


_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $104
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $199 million


_#_Currency: Belizean dollar (plural--dollars); 1 Belizean dollar
(Bz$) = 100 cents


_#_Exchange rates: Belizean dollars (Bz$) per US$1--2.00 (fixed rate)


_#_Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March


_*_Communications
_#_Highways: 2,710 km total; 500 km paved, 1,600 km gravel, 300 km
improved earth, and 310 km unimproved earth


_#_Inland waterways: 825 km river network used by shallow-draft craft;
seasonally navigable


_#_Ports: Belize City; additional ports for shallow draught craft
include Corozol, Punta Gorda, Big Creek


_#_Civil air: no major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 42 total, 32 usable; 3 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 2,439 m; 2 with runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: 8,650 telephones; above-average system based on
radio relay; stations--6 AM, 5 FM, 1 TV, 1 shortwave; 1 Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT earth station


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: British Forces Belize, Belize Defense Force (including
Army, Navy, Air Force, and Volunteer Guard), Belize National Police


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 53,184; 31,790 fit for military
service; 2,545 reach military age (18) annually


_#_Defense expenditures: $4.8 million, 1.8% of GDP (1990 est.)
_%_
_@_Benin
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 112,620 km2; land area: 110,620 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than Pennsylvania


_#_Land boundaries: 1,989 km total; Burkina 306 km, Niger 266 km,
Nigeria 773 km, Togo 644 km


_#_Coastline: 121 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Territorial sea: 200 nm


_#_Climate: tropical; hot, humid in south; semiarid in north


_#_Terrain: mostly flat to undulating plain; some hills and low
mountains


_#_Natural resources: small offshore oil deposits, limestone,
marble, timber


_#_Land use: arable land 12%; permanent crops 4%; meadows and pastures
4%; forest and woodland 35%; other 45%, includes irrigated NEGL%


_#_Environment: hot, dry, dusty harmattan wind may affect north in
winter; deforestation; desertification


_#_Note: recent droughts have severely affected marginal
agriculture in north; no natural harbors


_*_People
_#_Population: 4,831,823 (July 1991), growth rate 3.3% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 49 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 16 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 119 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 49 years male, 52 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 7.0 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--Beninese (sing., pl.); adjective--Beninese


_#_Ethnic divisions: African 99% (42 ethnic groups, most important
being Fon, Adja, Yoruba, Bariba); Europeans 5,500


_#_Religion: indigenous beliefs 70%, Muslim 15%, Christian 15%


_#_Language: French (official); Fon and Yoruba most common
vernaculars in south; at least six major tribal languages in north


_#_Literacy: 23% (male 32%, female 16%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)


_#_Labor force: 1,900,000 (1987); agriculture 60%, transport,
commerce, and public services 38%, industry less than 2%; 49% of
population of working age (1985)


_#_Organized labor: about 75% of wage earners


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of Benin


_#_Type: dropped Marxism-Leninism December 1989; democratic reforms
adopted February 1990; transition to multiparty system completed 4
April 1991


_#_Capital: Porto-Novo (official), Cotonou (de facto)


_#_Administrative divisions: 6 provinces; Atakora, Atlantique, Borgou,
Mono, Oueme, Zou


_#_Independence: 1 August 1960 (from France; formerly Dahomey)


_#_Constitution: 2 December 1990


_#_Legal system: based on French civil law and customary law; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction


_#_National holiday: National Day, 1 August (1990)


_#_Executive branch: president, cabinet


_#_Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Assemblee
Nationale)


_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government--President Nicephore
SOGLO (since 4 April 1991)


_#_Political parties and leaders: the People's Revolutionary Party
of Benin (PRPB) headed by President Mathieu KEREKOU, chairman of
the Central Committee, was dissolved 30 April 1990;
Alliance of the Democratic Union for the Forces of Progress (UDFP),
Timothee ADANLIN;
Movement for Democracy and Social Progress (MDPS), Jean-Roger AHOYO; and
the Union for Liberty and Development (ULD), Marcellin DEGBE;

Alliance of the National Party for Democracy and Development (PNDD) and
the Democratic Renewal Party (PRD), Pascal Chabi KAO;

Alliance of the Social Democratic Party (PSD) and the National Union
for Solidarity and Progress (UNSP), Bruno AMOUSSOU;

Our Common Cause (NCC), Albert TEVEODJRE;
National Rally for Democracy (RND), Joseph KEKE;

Alliance of the National Movement for Democracy and Development (MNDD);
Movement for Solidarity, Union, and Progress (MSUP);
and Union for Democracy and National Reconstruction (UDRN), Bertin BORNA;

Union for Democracy and National Solidarity (UDS), Mama Amadou N'DIAYE;
Assembly of Liberal Democrats for National Reconstruction (RDL),
Severin ADJOVI;

Alliance of the Alliance for Social Democracy (ASD) and Bloc for
Social Democracy (BSD), Robert DOSSOU;

Alliance of the Alliance for Democracy and Progress (ADP) and
Democratic Union for Social Renewal (UDRS), Bio Gado Seko N'GOYE;
National Union for Democracy and Progress (UNDP), Robert TAGNON;
numerous other small parties


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


_#_Elections:

President--last held 10 and 24 March 1991 (next to be held
March 1996);
results--Nicephore SOGLO 68%, Mathieu KEREKOU 32%;

National Assembly--last held 10 and 24 March 1991 (next to be held
March 1996);
results--NA percent of the vote;
seats--(64 total) UDFP-MDPS-ULD 12, PNDD/PRD 9, PSD/UNSP 8, NCC 7,
RND 7, MNDD/MSUP/UDRN 6, UDS 5, RDL 4, ASD/BSD 3, ADP/UDRS 2, UNDP 1


_#_Communists: Communist Party of Dahomey (PCD) remains active


_#_Member of: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CEAO, ECA, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ,
G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU,
WADB, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Candide AHOUANSOU; Charge
d'Affaires Corneille MEHISSOU; Chancery at 2737 Cathedral Avenue NW,
Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 232-6656;

US--Ambassador Harriet ISOM; Embassy at Rue Caporal Anani Bernard,
Cotonou (mailing address is B. P. 2012, Cotonou); telephone [229]
30-06-50


_#_Flag: two equal horizontal bands of yellow (top) and red with a
vertical green band on the hoist side


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Benin is one of the least developed countries in the
world because of limited natural resources and a poorly developed
infrastructure. Agriculture accounts for almost 40% of GDP, employs
about 60% of the labor force, and generates a major share of foreign
exchange earnings. The industrial sector contributes only about 15% to
GDP and employs 2% of the work force. Persistently low prices in recent
years have limited hard currency earnings from Benin's major exports of
agricultural products and crude oil.


_#_GDP: $2.0 billion, per capita $400; real growth rate 2.6% (1990)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.0% (1990)


_#_Unemployment: NA%


_#_Budget: revenues $194 million; expenditures $390 million, including
capital expenditures of $104 million (1990 est.)


_#_Exports: $250 million (f.o.b., 1989 est.);

commodities--crude oil, cotton, palm products, cocoa;

partners--FRG 36%, France 16%, Spain 14%, Italy 8%, UK 4%


_#_Imports: $442 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities--foodstuffs, beverages, tobacco, petroleum products,
intermediate goods, capital goods, light consumer goods;

partners--France 34%, Netherlands 10%, Japan 7%, Italy 6%, US 4%


_#_External debt: $1.0 billion (December 1990 est.)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate - 0.7% (1988); accounts for
30% of GDP


_#_Electricity: 28,000 kW capacity; 24 million kWh produced,
5 kWh per capita (1989)


_#_Industries: textiles,cigarettes, construction materials,
beverages, food production, petroleum


_#_Agriculture: small farms produce 90% of agricultural output;
production is dominated by food crops--corn, sorghum, cassava, beans,
and rice; cash crops include cotton, palm oil, and peanuts; poultry
and livestock output has not kept up with consumption


_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $46
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $1.1 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $19 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $101 million


_#_Currency: Communaute Financiere Africaine franc
(plural--francs); 1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes


_#_Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF)
per US$1--256.54 (January 1991), 272.26 (1990), 319.01 (1989),
297.85 (1988), 300.54 (1987), 346.30 (1986), 449.26 (1985)


_#_Fiscal year: calendar year


_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 578 km, all 1.000-meter gauge, single track


_#_Highways: 5,050 km total; 920 km paved, 2,600 laterite, 1,530 km
improved earth


_#_Inland waterways: navigable along small sections, important
only locally


_#_Ports: Cotonou


_#_Civil air: 3 major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 6 total, 4 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 2,439 m; 4 with runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: fair system of open wire, submarine cable, and
radio relay; 16,200 telephones; stations--2 AM, 2 FM, 1 TV; 1 Atlantic
Ocean INTELSAT satellite earth station


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: People's Armed Forces (including Army, Navy, Air Force),
National Gendarmerie, People's Militia, Presidential Guard


_#_Manpower availability: eligible 15-49, 2,089,646; of the 991,278
males 15-49, 507,482 are fit for military service; of the 1,098,368
females 15-49, 554,454 are fit for military service; about 57,106 males
and 55,297 females reach military age (18) annually; both sexes are
liable for military service


_#_Defense expenditures: $38 million, 2.3% of GDP (1988)
_%_
_@_Bermuda
(dependent territory of the UK)
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 50 km2; land area: 50 km2


_#_Comparative area: about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC


_#_Land boundaries: none


_#_Coastline: 103 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm


_#_Climate: subtropical; mild, humid; gales, strong winds common in
winter


_#_Terrain: low hills separated by fertile depressions


_#_Natural resources: limestone, pleasant climate fostering tourism


_#_Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
0%; forest and woodland 20%; other 80%


_#_Environment: ample rainfall, but no rivers or freshwater lakes;
consists of about 360 small coral islands


_#_Note: 1,050 km east of North Carolina; some reclaimed land
leased by US Government


_*_People
_#_Population: 58,433 (July 1991), growth rate 1.5% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 15 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: 7 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 12 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 72 years male, 78 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 1.7 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--Bermudian(s); adjective--Bermudian


_#_Ethnic divisions: black 61%, white and other 39%


_#_Religion: Anglican 37%, Roman Catholic 14%, African Methodist
Episcopal (Zion) 10%, Methodist 6%, Seventh-Day Adventist 5%, other
28%


_#_Language: English


_#_Literacy: 98% (male 98%, female 99%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1970)


_#_Labor force: 32,000; clerical 25%, services 22%, laborers 21%,
professional and technical 13%, administrative and managerial 10%,
sales 7%, agriculture and fishing 2% (1984)


_#_Organized labor: 8,573 members (1985); largest union is Bermuda
Industrial Union


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: none


_#_Type: dependent territory of the UK


_#_Capital: Hamilton


_#_Administrative divisions: 9 parishes and 2 municipalities*;
Devonshire, Hamilton, Hamilton*, Paget, Pembroke, Saint George*,
Saint George's, Sandys, Smiths, Southampton, Warwick


_#_Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)


_#_Constitution: 8 June 1968


_#_Legal system: English law


_#_National holiday: Bermuda Day, 22 May


_#_Executive branch: British monarch, governor, deputy governor,
premier, deputy premier, Executive Council (cabinet)


_#_Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of an upper house
or Senate and a lower house or House of Assembly


_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor Sir Desmond LANGLEY (since NA October 1988);

Head of Government--Premier John William David SWAN (since NA
January 1982)


_#_Political parties and leaders:
United Bermuda Party (UBP), John W. D. SWAN;
Progressive Labor Party (PLP), Frederick WADE;
National Liberal Party (NLP), Gilbert DARRELL


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 21


_#_Elections:

House of Assembly--last held 9 February 1989 (next to be
held by February 1994); results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(40 total) UBP 23, PLP 15, NLP 1, other 1


_#_Communists: negligible


_#_Other political or pressure groups: Bermuda Industrial Union (BIU),
headed by Ottiwell SIMMONS


_#_Member of: CARICOM (observer), ICFTU, IOC


_#_Diplomatic representation: as a dependent territory of the UK,
Bermuda's interests in the US are represented by the UK;

US--Consul General L. Ebersole GAINES; Consulate General at
Crown Hill, 16 Middle Road, Devonshire, Hamilton (mailing address is
P. O. Box HM325, Hamilton HMBX, or FPO New York 09560-5300); telephone
(809) 295-1342


_#_Flag: red with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant
and the Bermudian coat of arms (white and blue shield with a red lion
holding a scrolled shield showing the sinking of the ship Sea Venture off
Bermuda in 1609) centered on the outer half of the flag


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Bermuda enjoys one of the highest per capita incomes in
the world, having successfully exploited its location by providing luxury
tourist facilities and financial services. The tourist industry attracts
more than 90% of its business from North America. The industrial sector
is small, and agriculture is severely limited by a lack of suitable land.
About 80% of food needs are imported.


_#_GDP: $1.3 billion, per capita $22,400; real growth rate 2.0% (1989
est.)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.8% (June 1989)


_#_Unemployment: 2.0% (1988)


_#_Budget: revenues $307 million; expenditures $275 million, including
capital expenditures of $31 million (FY90 est.)


_#_Exports: $30 million (f.o.b., FY88);

commodities--semitropical produce, light manufactures;

partners--US 25%, Italy 25%, UK 14%, Canada 5%, other 31%


_#_Imports: $420 million (c.i.f., FY88);

commodities--fuel, foodstuffs, machinery;

partners--US 58%, Netherlands Antilles 9%, UK 8%, Canada 6%, Japan
5%, other 14%


_#_External debt: NA


_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%


_#_Electricity: 154,000 kW capacity; 504 million kWh produced,
8,640 kWh per capita (1990)


_#_Industries: tourism, finance, structural concrete products,
paints, pharmaceuticals, ship repairing


_#_Agriculture: accounts for less than 1% of GDP; most basic foods
must be imported; produces bananas, vegetables, citrus fruits, flowers,
dairy products


_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-81), $34
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $267 million


_#_Currency: Bermudian dollar (plural--dollars); 1 Bermudian dollar
(Bd$) = 100 cents


_#_Exchange rates: Bermudian dollar (Bd$) per US$1--1.0000 (fixed
rate)


_#_Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March


_*_Communications
_#_Highways: 210 km public roads, all paved (about 400 km of private
roads)


_#_Ports: Freeport, Hamilton, Saint George


_#_Merchant marine: 84 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,826,756
GRT/6,932,981 DWT; includes 3 short-sea passenger, 8 cargo, 7
refrigerated cargo, 4 container, 8 roll-on/roll-off, 26 petroleum, oils,
and lubricants (POL) tanker, 11 liquefied gas, 17 bulk; note--a flag of
convenience registry


_#_Civil air: 16 major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 1 with permanent-surface runways 2,440-3,659 m


_#_Telecommunications: modern with fully automatic telephone system;
52,670 telephones; stations--5 AM, 3 FM, 2 TV; 3 submarine cables; 2
Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Bermuda Regiment, Bermuda Police Force, Reserve
Constabulary

_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of the UK
_%_
_@_Bhutan
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 47,000 km2; land area: 47,000 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly more than half the size of Indiana


_#_Land boundaries: 1,075 km total; China 470 km, India 605 km


_#_Coastline: none--landlocked


_#_Maritime claims: none--landlocked


_#_Climate: varies; tropical in southern plains; cool winters and hot
summers in central valleys; severe winters and cool summers in Himalayas


_#_Terrain: mostly mountainous with some fertile valleys and savanna


_#_Natural resources: timber, hydropower, gypsum, calcium carbide,
tourism potential


_#_Land use: arable land 2%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and
pastures 5%; forest and woodland 70%; other 23%


_#_Environment: violent storms coming down from the Himalayas were the
source of the country name which translates as Land of the Thunder Dragon


_#_Note: landlocked; strategic location between China and India;
controls several key Himalayan mountain passes


_*_People
_#_Population: 1,598,216 (July 1991), growth rate 2.0% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 37 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 17 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 135 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 50 years male, 48 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 4.9 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--Bhutanese (sing., pl.); adjective--Bhutanese


_#_Ethnic divisions: Bhote 60%, ethnic Nepalese 25%, indigenous or
migrant tribes 15%


_#_Religion: Lamaistic Buddhism 75%, Indian- and Nepalese-influenced
Hinduism 25%


_#_Language: Bhotes speak various Tibetan dialects--most widely spoken
dialect is Dzongkha (official); Nepalese speak various Nepalese dialects


_#_Literacy: NA% (male NA%, female NA%)


_#_Labor force: NA; agriculture 93%, services 5%, industry and
commerce 2%; massive lack of skilled labor


_#_Organized labor: not permitted


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Kingdom of Bhutan


_#_Type: monarchy; special treaty relationship with India


_#_Capital: Thimphu


_#_Administrative divisions: 18 districts (dzongkhag, singular
and plural); Bumthang, Chhukha, Chirang, Daga, Geylegphug, Ha, Lhuntshi,
Mongar, Paro, Pemagatsel, Punakha, Samchi, Samdrup Jongkhar, Shemgang,
Tashigang, Thimphu, Tongsa, Wangdi Phodrang


_#_Independence: 8 August 1949 (from India)


_#_Constitution: no written constitution or bill of rights


_#_Legal system: based on Indian law and English common law; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction


_#_National holiday: National Day (Ugyen Wangchuck became first
hereditary king), 17 December (1907)


_#_Executive branch: monarch, chairman of the Royal Advisory Council,
Royal Advisory Council (Lodoi Tsokde), chairman of the Council of
Ministers, Council of Ministers (Lhengye Shungtsog)


_#_Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Tshogdu)


_#_Judicial branch: High Court


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government--King Jigme Singye WANGCHUCK
(since 24 July 1972)


_#_Political parties: no legal parties


_#_Suffrage: each family has one vote in village-level elections


_#_Elections: no national elections


_#_Communists: no overt Communist presence


_#_Other political or pressure groups: Buddhist clergy, Indian
merchant community; ethnic Nepalese organizations leading militant
antigovernment campaign


_#_Member of: AsDB, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IMF,
IOC, ITU, NAM, SAARC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO


_#_Diplomatic representation: no formal diplomatic relations, although
informal contact is maintained between the Bhutanese and US Embassies in
New Delhi (India); the Bhutanese mission to the UN in New York has
consular jurisdiction in the US


_#_Flag: divided diagonally from the lower hoist side corner; the
upper triangle is orange and the lower triangle is red; centered along
the dividing line is a large black and white dragon facing away from the
hoist side


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The economy, one of the world's least developed,
is based on agriculture and forestry, which provide the main livelihood
for 90% of the population and account for about 50% of GDP. Rugged
mountains dominate the terrain and make the building of roads and other
infrastructure difficult and expensive. The economy is closely
aligned with that of India through strong trade and monetary links.
Low wages in industry lead most Bhutanese to stay in agriculture.
Most development projects, such as road construction, rely on Indian
migrant labor. Bhutan's hydropower potential and its attraction for
tourists are its most important natural resources.


_#_GDP: $273 million, per capita $199 (1988) real growth rate 4%
(1989 est.)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 9% (1990 est.)


_#_Unemployment: NA


_#_Budget: revenues $99 million; expenditures $128 million, including
capital expenditures of $65 million (FY89 est.)


_#_Exports: $70.9 million (f.o.b., FY89);

commodities--cardamon, gypsum, timber, handicrafts, cement, fruit;

partners--India 93%


_#_Imports: $138.3 million (c.i.f., FY89 est.);

commodities--fuel and lubricants, grain, machinery and parts,
vehicles, fabrics;

partners--India 67%


_#_External debt: $70.1 million (FY89 est.)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate - 12.4% (1988 est.); accounts
for 18% of GDP


_#_Electricity: 353,000 kW capacity; 2,000 million kWh produced,
1,280 kWh per capita (1990)


_#_Industries: cement, wood products, processed fruits, alcoholic
beverages, calcium carbide


_#_Agriculture: accounts for 50% of GDP; based on subsistence farming
and animal husbandry; self-sufficient in food except for foodgrains;
other production--rice, corn, root crops, citrus fruit, dairy, and eggs


_#_Economic aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral
commitments (1970-88), $86.0 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $11
million


_#_Currency: ngultrum (plural--ngultrum); 1 ngultrum (Nu) = 100
chetrum; note--Indian currency is also legal tender


_#_Exchange rates: ngultrum (Nu) per US$1--18.329 (January 1991),
17.504 (1990), 16.226 (1989), 13.917 (1988), 12.962 (1987), 12.611
(1986), 12.369 (1985); note--the Bhutanese ngultrum is at par with the
Indian rupee


_#_Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June


_*_Communications
_#_Highways: 1,304 km total; 418 km surfaced, 515 km improved, 371 km
unimproved earth


_#_Civil air: 1 jet, 2 prop


_#_Airports: 2 total, 2 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 2,439 m; 2 with runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: inadequate; 1,990 telephones (1988); 22,000
radios (1990 est.); 85 TVs (1985); stations--1 AM, 1 FM, no TV (1990)


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Royal Bhutan Army, Palace Guard, Militia


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 398,263; 213,083 fit for
military service; 17,321 reach military age (18) annually


_#_Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP
_%_
_@_Bolivia
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 1,098,580 km2; land area: 1,084,390 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly less than three times the size of
Montana


_#_Land boundaries: 6,743 km total; Argentina 832 km, Brazil 3,400
km, Chile 861 km, Paraguay 750 km, Peru 900 km


_#_Coastline: none--landlocked


_#_Maritime claims: none--landlocked


_#_Disputes: has wanted a sovereign corridor to the South Pacific
Ocean since the Atacama area was lost to Chile in 1884; dispute with
Chile over Rio Lauca water rights


_#_Climate: varies with altitude; humid and tropical to cold and
semiarid


_#_Terrain: high plateau, hills, lowland plains


_#_Natural resources: tin, natural gas, crude oil, zinc, tungsten,
antimony, silver, iron ore, lead, gold, timber


_#_Land use: arable land 3%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and
pastures 25%; forest and woodland 52%; other 20%; includes irrigated
NEGL%


_#_Environment: cold, thin air of high plateau is obstacle to
efficient fuel combustion; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification


_#_Note: landlocked; shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's
highest navigable lake, with Peru


_*_People
_#_Population: 7,156,591 (July 1991), growth rate 2.4% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 34 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 9 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: - 1 migrant/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 83 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 59 years male, 64 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 4.6 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--Bolivian(s); adjective Bolivian


_#_Ethnic divisions: Quechua 30%, Aymara 25%, mixed 25-30%,
European 5-15%


_#_Religion: Roman Catholic 95%; active Protestant minority,
especially Evangelical Methodist


_#_Language: Spanish, Quechua, and Aymara (all official)


_#_Literacy: 78% (male 85%, female 71%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)


_#_Labor force: 1,700,000; agriculture 50%, services and utilities
26%, manufacturing 10%, mining 4%, other 10% (1983)


_#_Organized labor: 150,000-200,000, concentrated in mining, industry,
construction, and transportation; mostly organized under Bolivian
Workers' Central (COB) labor federation


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of Bolivia


_#_Type: republic


_#_Capital: La Paz (seat of government); Sucre (legal capital and seat
of judiciary)


_#_Administrative divisions: 9 departments (departamentos,
singular--departamento); Chuquisaca, Cochabamba, El Beni, La Paz, Oruro,
Pando, Potosi, Santa Cruz, Tarija


_#_Independence: 6 August 1825 (from Spain)


_#_Constitution: 2 February 1967


_#_Legal system: based on Spanish law and Code Napoleon; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction


_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 6 August (1825)


_#_Executive branch: president, vice president, Cabinet


_#_Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress (Congreso Nacional)
consists of an upper chamber or Chamber of Senators (Camara de
Senadores) and a lower chamber or Chamber of Deputies (Camara de
Diputados)


_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema)


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government--President Jaime
PAZ Zamora (since 6 August 1989); Vice President Luis OSSIO Sanjines
(since 6 August 1989)


_#_Political parties and leaders:
Movement of the Revolutionary Left (MIR), Jaime PAZ Zamora;
Nationalist Democratic Action (ADN), Hugo BANZER Suarez;
Nationalist Revolutionary Movement (MNR), Gonzalo SANCHEZ de Lozada;
Christian Democratic Party (PDC), Jorge AGREDO;
Free Bolivia Movement (MBL), led by Antonio ARANIBAR;
United Left (IU), a coalition of leftist parties which includes
Patriotic National Convergency Axis (EJE-P) led by Walter DELGADILLO,
and Bolivian Communist Party (PCB) led by Humberto RAMIREZ;
Conscience of the Fatherland (CONDEPA), Carlos PALENQUE Aviles;
Revolutionary Vanguard-9th of April (VR-9), Carlos SERRATE Reich;
Civic Union Solidarity (UCS), Max FERNANDEZ


_#_Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 18 (married) or 21
(single)


_#_Elections:

President--last held 7 May 1989 (next to be held May 1993);
results--Gonzalo SANCHEZ de Lozada (MNR) 23%, Hugo BANZER Suarez
(ADN) 22%, Jaime PAZ Zamora (MIR) 19%; no candidate received a
majority of the popular vote; Jaime PAZ Zamora (MIR) formed a
coalition with Hugo BANZER (ADN); with ADN support PAZ Zamora
won the congressional runoff election on 4 August and was inaugurated
on 6 August 1989;

Senate--last held 7 May 1989 (next to be held May 1993);
results--percent of vote NA;
seats (27 total) MNR 9, ADN 7, MIR 8, CONDEPA 2, PDC 1;

Chamber of Deputies--last held 7 May 1989 (next to be held May
1993); results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats (130 total) MNR 40, ADN 35, MIR 33, IU 10, CONDEPA 9,
PDC 3


_#_Member of: AG, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD,
ICO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM,
ITU, LAES, LAIA, LORCS, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Jorge CRESPO; Chancery at
3014 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202)
483-4410 through 4412; there are Bolivian Consulates General in Houston,
Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, and San Francisco;

US--Ambassador Robert S. GELBARD; Embassy at Banco Popular del Peru
Building, corner of Calles Mercado y Colon, La Paz (mailing address is
P. O. Box 425, La Paz, or APO Miami 34032); telephone [591] (2)
350251 or 350120


_#_Flag: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), yellow, and green
with the coat of arms centered on the yellow band; similar to the flag of
Ghana, which has a large black five-pointed star centered in the yellow
band


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The Bolivian economy steadily deteriorated between
1980 and 1985 as La Paz financed growing budget deficits by expanding
the money supply and inflation spiraled--peaking at 11,700%. An austere
orthodox economic program adopted by newly elected President Paz
Estenssoro in 1985, however, succeeded in reducing inflation to between
10% and 20% annually since 1987, eventually restarting economic growth.
President Paz Zamora has retained the economic policies of the previous
government, keeping inflation down and continuing the moderate growth
begun under his predecessor. Nevertheless, Bolivia continues to be one of
the poorest countries in Latin America, and it remains vulnerable to
price fluctuations for its limited exports--agricultural products,
minerals, and natural gas. Moreover, for many farmers, who constitute
half of the country's work force, the main cash crop is coca, which is
sold for cocaine processing.


_#_GDP: $4.85 billion, per capita $690; real growth rate 2.7% (1990)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 18% (1990)


_#_Unemployment rate: 21.5% (1990 est.)


_#_Budget: revenues $2.5 billion; expenditures $2.8 billion,
including capital expenditures of $850 million (1990 est.)


_#_Exports: $927 million (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities--metals 45%, natural gas 30%, other 25%
(coffee, soybeans, sugar, cotton, timber);

partners--US 15%, Argentina


_#_Imports: $716 million (c.i.f., 1990);

commodities--food, petroleum, consumer goods, capital goods;

partners--US 22%


_#_External debt: $3.7 billion (December 1990)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate 5% (1990); accounts for
almost 30% of GDP


_#_Electricity: 833,000 kW capacity; 1,763 million kWh produced, 260
kWh per capita (1990)


_#_Industries: mining, smelting, petroleum, food and beverage,
tobacco, handicrafts, clothing; illicit drug industry reportedly produces
significant revenues


_#_Agriculture: accounts for about 20% of GDP (including forestry and
fisheries); principal commodities--coffee, coca, cotton, corn, sugarcane,
rice, potatoes, timber; self-sufficient in food


_#_Illicit drugs: world's second-largest producer of coca
(after Peru) with an estimated 51,900 hectares under cultivation;
government considers all but 12,000 hectares illicit; intermediate
coca products and cocaine exported to or through Colombia and Brazil
to the US and other international drug markets


_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $990
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $1.7 billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $340 million


_#_Currency: boliviano (plural--bolivianos); 1 boliviano ($B) = 100
centavos


_#_Exchange rates: bolivianos ($B) per US$1--3.3732 (December 1990),
3.1727 (1990), 2.6917 (1989), 2.3502 (1988), 2.0549 (1987), 1.9220
(1986), 0.4400 (1985)


_#_Fiscal year: calendar year


_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 3,675 km total; 3,643 km 1.000-meter gauge and 32 km
0.760-meter gauge, all government owned, single track


_#_Highways: 38,836 km total; 1,300 km paved, 6,700 km gravel,
30,836 km improved and unimproved earth


_#_Inland waterways: 10,000 km of commercially navigable waterways


_#_Pipelines: crude oil 1,800 km; refined products 580 km; natural gas
1,495 km


_#_Ports: none; maritime outlets are Arica and Antofagasta in Chile
and Matarani in Peru


_#_Merchant marine: 2 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 14,051
GRT/22,155 DWT


_#_Civil air: 56 major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 807 total, 659 usable; 9 with permanent-surface runways;
1 with runways over 3,659 m; 8 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 120 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: radio relay system being expanded; improved
international services; 144,300 telephones; stations--129 AM, no FM, 43
TV, 68 shortwave; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Bolivian Army, Bolivian Navy (including Marines),
Bolivian Air Force, National Police Force


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 1,679,352; 1,091,368 fit for
military service; 72,979 reach military age (19) annually


_#_Defense expenditures: $162 million, 4% of GNP (1988 est.)
_%_
_@_Botswana
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 600,370 km2; land area: 585,370 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than Texas


_#_Land boundaries: 4,013 km total; Namibia 1,360 km, South Africa
1,840 km, Zimbabwe 813 km


_#_Coastline: none--landlocked


_#_Maritime claims: none--landlocked


_#_Disputes: short section of the boundary with Namibia is indefinite;
quadripoint with Namibia, Zambia, and Zimbabwe is in disagreement


_#_Climate: semiarid; warm winters and hot summers


_#_Terrain: predominately flat to gently rolling tableland; Kalahari
Desert in southwest


_#_Natural resources: diamonds, copper, nickel, salt, soda ash,
potash, coal, iron ore, silver, natural gas


_#_Land use: arable land 2%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
75%; forest and woodland 2%; other 21%; includes irrigated NEGL%


_#_Environment: rains in early 1988 broke six years of drought that
had severely affected the important cattle industry; overgrazing;
desertification


_#_Note: landlocked


_*_People
_#_Population: 1,258,392 (July 1991), growth rate 2.7% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 36 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 9 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 43 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 59 years male, 65 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 4.6 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun and adjective--Motswana (singular), Batswana
(plural)


_#_Ethnic divisions: Batswana 95%; Kalanga, Basarwa, and Kgalagadi
about 4%; white about 1%


_#_Religion: indigenous beliefs 50%, Christian 50%


_#_Language: English (official), Setswana


_#_Literacy: 23% (male 32%, female 16%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)


_#_Labor force: 400,000; 182,200 formal sector employees, most others
are engaged in cattle raising and subsistence agriculture (1988 est.);
19,000 are employed in various mines in South Africa (1988)


_#_Organized labor: 19 trade unions


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of Botswana


_#_Type: parliamentary republic


_#_Capital: Gaborone


_#_Administrative divisions: 10 districts; Central, Chobe, Ghanzi,
Kgalagadi, Kgatleng, Kweneng, Ngamiland, North-East, South-East,
Southern; note--in addition, there may now be 4 town councils named
Francistown, Gaborone, Lobaste, Selebi-Pikwe


_#_Independence: 30 September 1966 (from UK; formerly Bechuanaland)


_#_Constitution: March 1965, effective 30 September 1966


_#_Legal system: based on Roman-Dutch law and local customary law;
judicial review limited to matters of interpretation; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction


_#_National holiday: Botswana Day, 30 September (1966)


_#_Executive branch: president, vice president, Cabinet


_#_Legislative branch: bicameral National Assembly consists of an
upper house or House of Chiefs and a lower house or National Assembly


_#_Judicial branch: High Court, Court of Appeal


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government--President Quett K. J. MASIRE
(since 13 July 1980); Vice President Peter S. MMUSI (since 3 January
1983)


_#_Political parties and leaders:
Botswana Democratic Party (BDP), Quett MASIRE;
Botswana National Front (BNF), Kenneth KOMA;
Botswana People's Party (BPP), Knight MARIPE;
Botswana Independence Party (BIP), Motsamai MPHO


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 21


_#_Elections:

President--last held 7 October 1989 (next to be held October
1994);
results--President Quett K. J. MASIRE was reelected by the National
Assembly;

National Assembly--last held 7 October 1989 (next to be
held October 1994); results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(38 total, 34 elected) BDP 35, BNF 3


_#_Communists: no known Communist organization; Kenneth Koma of BNF
has long history of Communist contacts


_#_Member of: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, FLS, G-77, GATT, IBRD,
ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU,
LORCS, NAM, OAU, SACU, SADCC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO,
WMO


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Botsweletse Kingsley
SEBELE; Chancery at Suite 404, 4301 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington
DC 20008; telephone (202) 244-4990 or 4991;

US--Ambassador David PASSAGE; Embassy at Botswana Road, Gaborone
(mailing address is P. O. Box 90, Gaborone); telephone [267] 353-982
through 353-984


_#_Flag: light blue with a horizontal white-edged black stripe
in the center


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The economy has historically been based on cattle raising
and crops. Agriculture today provides a livelihood for over 80% of the
population, but produces only about 50% of food needs and contributes
a small 3% to GDP. The driving force behind the rapid economic growth of
the 1970s and 1980s has been the mining industry. This sector, mostly on
the strength of diamonds, has gone from generating 25% of GDP in 1980 to
over 50% in 1989. No other sector has experienced such growth, especially
not agriculture, which is plagued by erratic rainfall and poor soils. The
unemployment rate remains a problem at 25%.


_#_GDP: $3.1 billion, per capita $2,500; real growth rate 6.3%
(1990)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 12.0% (1990)


_#_Unemployment rate: 25% (1989)


_#_Budget: revenues $1,719 million; expenditures $1,792 million,
including capital expenditures of $NA (FY92 est.)


_#_Exports: $1.8 billion (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities--diamonds 77%, copper and nickel 12%, meat 4%, cattle,
animal products;

partners--Switzerland, UK, US, SACU (Southern African Customs
Union)


_#_Imports: $1.7 billion (c.i.f., 1990 est.);

commodities--foodstuffs, vehicles and transport equipment,
textiles, petroleum products;

partners--Switzerland, SACU (Southern African Customs Union),
UK, US


_#_External debt: $780 million (December 1990 est.)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate 16.8% (FY86); accounts for
about 57% of GDP, including mining


_#_Electricity: 217,000 kW capacity; 630 million kWh produced,
510 kWh per capita (1989)


_#_Industries: mining of diamonds, copper, nickel, coal, salt, soda
ash, potash; livestock processing


_#_Agriculture: accounts for only 3% of GDP; subsistence
farming predominates; cattle raising supports 50% of the population;
must import large share of food needs


_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $257
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $1.8 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $43 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $29 million


_#_Currency: pula (plural--pula); 1 pula (P) = 100 thebe


_#_Exchange rates: pula (P) per US$1--1.8720 (January 1991), 1.8601
(1990), 2.0125 (1989), 1.8159 (1988), 1.6779 (1987), 1.8678 (1986),
1.8882 (1985)


_#_Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March


_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 712 km 1.0 67-meter gauge


_#_Highways: 11,514 km total; 1,600 km paved; 1,700 km crushed stone
or gravel, 5,177 km improved earth, 3,037 km unimproved earth


_#_Civil air: 6 major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 100 total, 87 usable; 8 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 26 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: the small system is a combination of open-wire
lines, radio relay links, and a few radiocommunication stations; 17,900
telephones; stations--2 AM, 3 FM, no TV; 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth
station


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Botswana Defense Force (including Army and Air Wing),
Botswana National Police


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 260,290; 137,038 fit for
military service; 14,767 reach military age (18) annually


_#_Defense expenditures: $99 million, 8.2% of GNP (1989)
_%_
_@_Bouvet Island
(territory of Norway)
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 58 km2; land area: 58 km2


_#_Comparative area: about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC


_#_Land boundaries: none


_#_Coastline: 29.6 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Territorial sea: 4 nm


_#_Climate: antarctic


_#_Terrain: volcanic; maximum elevation about 800 meters;
coast is mostly inacessible


_#_Natural resources: none


_#_Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
0%; forest and woodland 0%; other 100% (ice)


_#_Environment: covered by glacial ice


_#_Note: located in the South Atlantic Ocean 2,575 km
south-southwest of the Cape of Good Hope, South Africa


_*_People
_#_Population: uninhabited


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: none


_#_Type: territory of Norway


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: no economic activity


_*_Communications
_#_Ports: none; offshore anchorage only


_#_Telecommunications: automatic meteorological station


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of Norway
_%_
_@_Brazil
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 8,511,965 km2; land area: 8,456,510 km2; includes
Arquipelago de Fernando de Noronha, Atol das Rocas, Ilha da Trindade,
Ilhas Martin Vaz, and Penedos de Sao Pedro e Sao Paulo


_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than the US


_#_Land boundaries: 14,691 km total; Argentina 1,224 km, Bolivia
3,400 km, Colombia 1,643 km, French Guiana 673 km, Guyana 1,119 km,
Paraguay 1,290 km, Peru 1,560 km, Suriname 597 km, Uruguay 985 km,
Venezuela 2,200 km


_#_Coastline: 7,491 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation;

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 200 nm


_#_Disputes: short section of the boundary with Paraguay (just west of
Guaira Falls on the Rio Parana) is in dispute; two short
sections of boundary with Uruguay are in dispute (Arroyo de la
Invernada area of the Rio Quarai and the islands at the confluence of
the Rio Quarai and the Uruguay); has noted possible Latin claims in
Antarctica


_#_Climate: mostly tropical, but temperate in south


_#_Terrain: mostly flat to rolling lowlands in north; some plains,
hills, mountains, and narrow coastal belt


_#_Natural resources: iron ore, manganese, bauxite, nickel, uranium,
phosphates, tin, hydropower, gold, platinum, crude oil, timber


_#_Land use: arable land 7%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures
19%; forest and woodland 67%; other 6%; includes irrigated NEGL%


_#_Environment: recurrent droughts in northeast; floods and frost in
south; deforestation in Amazon basin; air and water pollution in Rio de
Janeiro and Sao Paulo


_#_Note: largest country in South America; shares common boundaries
with every South American country except Chile and Ecuador


_*_People
_#_Population: 155,356,073 (July 1991), growth rate 1.8% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 26 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 68 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 62 years male, 68 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 3.1 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--Brazilian(s); adjective--Brazilian


_#_Ethnic divisions: Portuguese, Italian, German, Japanese, black,
Amerindian; white 55%, mixed 38%, black 6%, other 1%


_#_Religion: Roman Catholic (nominal) 90%


_#_Language: Portuguese (official), Spanish, English, French


_#_Literacy: 81% (male 82%, female 80%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)


_#_Labor force: 57,000,000 (1989 est.); services 42%, agriculture
31%, industry 27%


_#_Organized labor: 13,000,000 dues paying members (1989 est.)


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Federative Republic of Brazil


_#_Type: federal republic


_#_Capital: Brasilia


_#_Administrative divisions: 26 states (estados, singular--estado)
and 1 federal district*  (distrito federal); Acre, Alagoas, Amapa,
Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara, Distrito Federal*, Espirito Santo, Goias,
Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Para,
Paraiba, Parana, Pernambuco, Piaui, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do
Norte, Rio Grande do Sul, Rondonia, Roraima, Santa Catarina, Sao
Paulo, Sergipe, Tocantins; note--the former territories of Amapa and
Roraima became states in January 1991


_#_Independence: 7 September 1822 (from Portugal)


_#_Constitution: 5 October 1988


_#_Legal system: based on Latin codes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction


_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 7 September (1822)


_#_Executive branch: president, vice president, Cabinet


_#_Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress (Congresso
Nacional) consists of an upper chamber or Federal Senate (Senado
Federal) and a lower chamber or Chamber of Deputies (Camara dos
Deputados)


_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Federal Tribunal


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government--President Fernando
Affonso COLLOR de Mello (since 15 March 1990); Vice President
Itamar FRANCO (since 15 March 1990)


_#_Political parties and leaders:
National Reconstruction Party (PRN), Daniel TOURINHO, president;
Brazilian Democratic Movement Party (PMDB), Orestes QUERCIA,
president;
Liberal Front Party (PFL), Hugo NAPOLEAO, president;
Workers' Party (PT), Luis Ignacio (Lula) da SILVA, president;
Brazilian Labor Party (PTB), Luiz GONZAGA de Paiva Muniz, president;
Democratic Labor Party (PDT), Leonel BRIZOLA, president;
Democratic Social Party (PDS), Amaral NETTO, president;
Brazilian Social Democracy Party (PSDB), Mario COVAS, president;
Brazilian Communist Party (PCB), Salomao MALINA, secretary general;
Communist Party of Brazil (PCdoB), Joao AMAZONAS, president;
Christian Democratic Party (PDC), Eduardo CAMPOS, president


_#_Suffrage: voluntary at age 16; compulsory between ages 18 and 70;
voluntary at age 70


_#_Elections:

President--last held 15 November 1989, with runoff on 17
December 1989 (next to be held November 1994);
results--Fernando COLLOR de Mello 53%, Luis Inacio da SILVA 47%;
note--first free, direct presidential election since 1960;

Senate--last held 3 October 1990 (next to be held November 1994);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(81 total as of 3 February 1991) PMDB 27, PFL 15, PSDB 10,
PTB 8, PDT 5, other 16;

Chamber of Deputies--last held 3 October 1990 (next to be held
November 1994);
results--PMDB 21%, PFL 17%, PDT 9%, PDS 8%, PRN 7.9%, PTB 7%, PT 7%,
other 23.1%;
seats--(503 total as of 3 February 1991) PMDB 108, PFL 87,
PDT 46, PDS 43, PRN 40, PTB 35, PT 35, other 109;


_#_Communists: about 30,000


_#_Other political or pressure groups: left wing of the Catholic
Church and labor unions allied to leftist Worker's Party are critical of
government's social and economic policies


_#_Member of: AfDB, AG (observer), CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-19,
G-24, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC,
ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO,
ITU, LAES, LAIA, LORCS, NAM (observer), OAS, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNAVEM,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Marcilio Marques MOREIRA;
Chancery at 3006 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone
(202) 745-2700; there are Brazilian Consulates General in Atlanta,
Chicago, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, and New York, and Consulates in
Dallas, Houston, and San Francisco;

US--Ambassador Richard MELTON; Embassy at Avenida das Nocoes,
Lote 3, Brasilia, Distrito Federal (mailing address is APO Miami 34030);
telephone [55] (6) 321-7272; there are US Consulates General in Rio de
Janeiro and Sao Paulo, and Consulates in Porto Alegre and Recife


_#_Flag: green with a large yellow diamond in the center bearing a
blue celestial globe with 23 white five-pointed stars (one for each
state) arranged in the same pattern as the night sky over Brazil; the
globe has a white equatorial band with the motto ORDEM E PROGRESSO
(Order and Progress)


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The economy, with large agrarian, mining, and
manufacturing sectors, entered the 1990s with declining real growth,
runaway inflation, an unserviceable foreign debt of $122 billion, and
a lack of policy direction. In addition, the economy remained highly
regulated, inward-looking, and protected by substantial trade and
investment barriers. Ownership of major industrial and mining facilities
is divided among private interests--including several multinationals--and
the government. Most large agricultural holdings are private, with the
government channeling financing to this sector. Conflicts between large
landholders and landless peasants have produced intermittent violence.
The government is seeking an IMF standby loan despite several failed
agreements over the past decade. Relations with foreign commercial
banks remain strained because of mounting interest arrears on Brazil's
long-term debt. The Collor government, which assumed office in March
1990, is embarked on an ambitious reform program that seeks to
modernize and reinvigorate the economy by stabilizing prices,
deregulating the economy, and opening it to increased foreign
competition. A major long-run strength is Brazil's vast natural
resources.


_#_GDP: $388 billion, per capita $2,540; real growth rate - 4.6%
(1990)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1,795% (December 1990)


_#_Unemployment rate: 4.4% (1990)


_#_Budget: revenues $36.5 billion; expenditures $48.2 billion,
including capital expenditures of $4.6 billion (1988)


_#_Exports: $31.4 billion (1990);

commodities--iron ore, soybean bran, orange juice, footwear,
coffee

partners--EC 29%, US 23%, Latin America 10%, Japan 7% (1989)


_#_Imports: $20.4 billion (1990);

commodities--crude oil, capital goods, chemical products,
foodstuffs, coal;

partners--US 21%, Middle East and Africa 20%, EC 20%, Latin
America 18%, Japan 7% (1989)


_#_External debt: $122 billion (December 1990)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate - 8.9% (1990); accounts
for 35% of GDP


_#_Electricity: 55,773,000 kW capacity; 214,116 million kWh produced,
1,400 kWh per capita (1990)


_#_Industries: textiles and other consumer goods, shoes, chemicals,
cement, lumber, iron ore, steel, motor vehicles and auto parts,
metalworking, capital goods, tin


_#_Agriculture: accounts for 12% of GDP; world's largest producer and
exporter of coffee and orange juice concentrate and second-largest
exporter of soybeans; other products--rice, corn, sugarcane, cocoa, beef;
self-sufficient in food, except for wheat


_#_Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis and coca, mostly for
domestic consumption; government has a modest eradication program
to control cannabis and coca cultivation


_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $2.5
billion; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $9.9 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $284 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $1.3 billion


_#_Currency: cruzeiro (plural--cruzeiros); 1 cruzeiro (Cr$) = 100
centavos


_#_Exchange rates: cruzeiros (Cr$) per US$1--193.189 (January 1991),
68.300 (1990), 2.834 (1989), 0.26238 (1988), 0.03923 (1987), 0.01366
(1986), 0.00620 (1985)


_#_Fiscal year: calendar year


_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 29,694 km total; 25,268 km 1.000-meter gauge, 4,339 km
1.600-meter gauge, 74 km mixed 1.600-1.000-meter gauge,
13 km 0.760-meter gauge; 2,308 km electrified


_#_Highways: 1,448,000 km total; 48,000 km paved, 1,400,000 km gravel
or earth


_#_Inland waterways: 50,000 km navigable


_#_Pipelines: crude oil, 2,000 km; refined products, 3,804 km; natural
gas, 1,095 km


_#_Ports: Belem, Fortaleza, Ilheus, Manaus, Paranagua, Porto
Alegre, Recife, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande, Salvador, Santos


_#_Merchant marine: 263 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,898,838
GRT/9,975,272 DWT; includes 2 passenger-cargo, 59 cargo, 1 refrigerated
cargo, 13 container, 7 roll-on/roll-off, 60 petroleum, oils, and
lubricants (POL) tanker, 15 chemical tanker, 11 liquefied gas, 14
combination ore/oil, 79 bulk, 2 combination bulk; additionally, 2 naval
tanker and 4 military transport are sometimes used commercially


_#_Civil air: 176 major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 3,751 total, 3,078 usable; 401 with permanent-surface
runways; 2 with runways over 3,659 m; 22 with runways 2,240-3,659 m; 533
with runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: good system; extensive radio relay facilities;
9.86 million telephones; stations--1,223 AM, no FM, 112 TV, 151
shortwave; 3 coaxial submarine cables 3 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth
stations with total of 3 antennas; 64 domestic satellite stations


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Brazilian Army, Navy of Brazil (including Marines),
Brazilian Air Force, Federal Police Force


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 40,559,052; 27,364,392 fit for
military service; 1,637,434 reach military age (18) annually


_#_Defense expenditures: $1.1 billion, 2.6% of GDP (1990)
_%_
_@_British Indian Ocean Territory
(dependent territory of the UK)
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 60 km2; land area: 60 km2


_#_Comparative area: about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC


_#_Land boundaries: none


_#_Coastline: 698 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Territorial sea: 3 nm


_#_Disputes: the entire Chagos Archipelago is claimed by Mauritius


_#_Climate: tropical marine; hot, humid, moderated by trade winds


_#_Terrain: flat and low (up to 4 meters in elevation)


_#_Natural resources: coconuts, fish


_#_Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
0%; forest and woodland 0%; other 100%


_#_Environment: archipelago of 2,300 islands


_#_Note: Diego Garcia, largest and southernmost island, occupies
strategic location in central Indian Ocean


_*_People
_#_Population: no permanent civilian population; formerly about 3,000
islanders


_#_Ethnic divisions: civilian inhabitants, known as the Ilois,
evacuated to Mauritius before construction of UK and US defense
facilities


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: British Indian Ocean Territory (no short-form
name); abbreviated BIOT


_#_Type: dependent territory of the UK


_#_Capital: none


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952);

Head of Government--Commissioner and Administrator R. EDIS
(since NA 1988); note--resides in the UK


_#_Diplomatic representation: none (dependent territory
of the UK)


_#_Flag: white with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side
quadrant and six blue wavy horizontal stripes bearing a palm tree and
yellow crown centered on the outer half of the flag


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: All economic activity is concentrated on the largest
island of Diego Garcia, where joint UK-US defense facilities are located.
Construction projects and various services needed to support the military
installations are done by military and contract employees from the UK and
the US. There are no industrial or agricultural activities on the
islands.


_#_Electricity: provided by the US military


_*_Communications
_#_Highways: short stretch of paved road between port and airfield on
Diego Garcia


_#_Ports: Diego Garcia


_#_Airports: 1 with permanent-surface runways over 3,659 m on Diego
Garcia


_#_Telecommunications: minimal facilities; stations (operated by the
US Navy)--1 AM, 1 FM, 1 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of the UK
_%_
_@_British Virgin Islands
(dependent territory of the UK)
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 150 km2; land area: 150 km2


_#_Comparative area: about 0.8 times the size of Washington, DC


_#_Coastline: 80 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 3 nm


_#_Climate: subtropical; humid; temperatures moderated by trade winds


_#_Terrain: coral islands relatively flat; volcanic islands steep,
hilly


_#_Natural resources: negligible


_#_Land use: arable land 20%; permanent crops 7%; meadows and pastures
33%; forest and woodland 7%; other 33%


_#_Environment: subject to hurricanes and tropical storms from July
to October


_#_Note: strong ties to nearby US Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico


_*_People
_#_Population: 12,396 (July 1991), growth rate 1.1% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 19 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: - 3 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 14 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 72 years male, 77 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 2.1 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--British Virgin Islander(s); adjective--British
Virgin Islander


_#_Ethnic divisions: black over 90%, remainder of white and Asian
origin


_#_Religion: Protestant 86% (Methodist 45%, Anglican 21%, Church of
God 7%, Seventh-Day Adventist 5%, Baptist 4%, Jehovah's Witnesses 2%,
other 2%), Roman Catholic 6%, none 2%, other 6% (1981)


_#_Language: English (official)


_#_Literacy: 98% (male 98%, female 98%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1970)


_#_Labor force: 4,911 (1980)


_#_Organized labor: NA% of labor force


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: none


_#_Type: dependent territory of the UK


_#_Capital: Road Town


_#_Administrative divisions: none (dependent territory of the UK)


_#_Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)


_#_Constitution: 1 June 1977


_#_Legal system: English law


_#_National holiday: Territory Day, 1 July


_#_Executive branch: British monarch, governor, chief minister,
Executive Council (cabinet)


_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Council


_#_Judicial branch: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor John Mark Ambrose HERDMAN (since NA 1986);

Head of Government--Chief Minister H. Lavity STOUTT (since NA 1986)


_#_Political parties and leaders:
United Party (UP), Conrad MADURO;
Virgin Islands Party (VIP), H. Lavity STOUTT;
Independent People's Movement (IPM), Cyril B. ROMNEY


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


_#_Elections:

Legislative Council--last held 12 November 1990 (next to be
held by November 1995); results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(9 total) VIP 6, IPM 1, independent 2


_#_Communists: probably none


_#_Member of: CARICOM (observer), CDB, ECLAC (associate), IOC,
OECS (associate), UNESCO (associate)


_#_Diplomatic representation: none (dependent territory of the UK)


_#_Flag: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant
and the Virgin Islander coat of arms centered in the outer half of the
flag; the coat of arms depicts a woman flanked on either side by a
vertical column of six oil lamps above a scroll bearing the Latin word
VIGILATE (Be Watchful)


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The economy is highly dependent on the tourist industry,
which generates about 21% of the national income. In 1985 the government
offered offshore registration to companies wishing to incorporate in
the islands, and, in consequence, incorporation fees generated about $2
million in 1987. Livestock raising is the most significant agricultural
activity. The islands' crops, limited by poor soils, are unable to meet
food requirements.


_#_GDP: $106.7 million, per capita $8,900; real growth rate 2.5%
(1987)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.0% (1987)


_#_Unemployment rate: NEGL%


_#_Budget: revenues $32.8 million; expenditures $32.4 million,
including capital expenditures of $6.3 million (FY90)


_#_Exports: $2.7 million (f.o.b., 1988);

commodities--rum, fresh fish, gravel, sand, fruits, animals;

partners--Virgin Islands (US), Puerto Rico, US


_#_Imports: $11.5 million (c.i.f., 1988);

commodities--building materials, automobiles, foodstuffs,
machinery;

partners--Virgin Islands (US), Puerto Rico, US


_#_External debt: $4.5 million (1985)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate - 4.0% (1985)


_#_Electricity: 10,500 kW capacity; 43 million kWh produced,
3,510 kWh per capita (1990)


_#_Industries: tourism, light industry, construction, rum, concrete
block, offshore financial center


_#_Agriculture: livestock (including poultry), fish, fruit, vegetables


_#_Economic aid: NA


_#_Currency: US currency is used


_#_Exchange rates: US currency is used


_#_Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March


_*_Communications
_#_Highways: 106 km motorable roads (1983)


_#_Ports: Road Town


_#_Airports: 3 total, 3 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways
less than 1,220 m


_#_Telecommunications: 3,000 telephones; worldwide external telephone
service; submarine cable communication links to Bermuda; stations--1 AM,
no FM, 1 TV


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of the UK
_%_
_@_Brunei
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 5,770 km2; land area: 5,270 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than Delaware


_#_Land boundary: 381 km with Malaysia


_#_Coastline: 161 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm


_#_Disputes: may wish to purchase the Malaysian salient that divides
the country


_#_Climate: tropical; hot, humid, rainy


_#_Terrain: flat coastal plain rises to mountains in east; hilly
lowland in west


_#_Natural resources: crude oil, natural gas, timber


_#_Land use: arable land 1%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures
1%; forest and woodland 79%; other 18%; includes irrigated NEGL%


_#_Environment: typhoons, earthquakes, and severe flooding are rare


_#_Note: close to vital sea lanes through South China Sea linking
Indian and Pacific Oceans; two parts physically separated by Malaysia;
almost an enclave of Malaysia


_*_People
_#_Population: 397,777 (July 1991), growth rate 6.3% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 22 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 4 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: 45 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 10 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 74 years male, 77 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 2.9 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--Bruneian(s); adjective--Bruneian


_#_Ethnic divisions: Malay 64%, Chinese 20%, other 16%


_#_Religion: Muslim (official) 63%, Buddhism 14%, Christian 8%,
indigenous beliefs and other 15% (1981)


_#_Language: Malay (official), English, and Chinese


_#_Literacy: 77% (male 85%, female 69%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1981)


_#_Labor force: 89,000 (includes members of the Army); 33% of labor
force is foreign (1988); government 47.5%; production of oil, natural
gas, services, and construction 41.9%; agriculture, forestry, and fishing
3.8% (1986)


_#_Organized labor: 2% of labor force


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Negara Brunei Darussalam


_#_Type: constitutional sultanate


_#_Capital: Bandar Seri Begawan


_#_Administrative divisions: 4 districts (daerah-daerah,
singular--daerah); Belait, Brunei and Muara, Temburong, Tutong


_#_Independence: 1 January 1984 (from UK)


_#_Constitution: 29 September 1959 (some provisions suspended
under a State of Emergency since December 1962, others since
independence on 1 January 1984)


_#_Legal system: based on Islamic law


_#_National holiday: National Day, 23 February (1984)


_#_Executive branch: sultan, prime minister, Council of Cabinet
Ministers


_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Council
(Majlis Masyuarat Megeri)


_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government--Sultan and Prime Minister
Sir Muda HASSANAL BOLKIAH Muizzaddin Waddaulah (since 5 October 1967)


_#_Political parties and leaders:
Brunei United National Party (inactive), Anak HASANUDDIN, chairman;
Brunei National Democratic Party (the first legal political party and now
banned), leader NA


_#_Suffrage: none


_#_Elections:

Legislative Council--last held in March 1962; in 1970
the Council was changed to an appointive body by decree of the sultan
and no elections are planned


_#_Communists: probably none


_#_Member of: APEC, ASEAN, C, ESCAP, ICAO, IDB, IMO, INTERPOL, IOC,
ISO (correspondent), ITU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UPU, WHO, WMO


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Dato Paduka Haji Mohamed SUNI
bin Haji Idris; Chancery at 2600 Virginia Avenue NW, Washington DC 20037;
telephone (202) 342-0159;

US--Ambassador Christopher H. PHILLIPS; Embassy at Third Floor,
Teck Guan Plaza, Jalan Sultan, Bandar Seri Begawan (mailing address
is P. O. Box 2991, Bandar Seri Begawan and Box B, APO San Francisco,
96528); telephone [673] (2) 229-670


_#_Flag: yellow with two diagonal bands of white (top, almost double
width) and black starting from the upper hoist side; the national emblem
in red is superimposed at the center; the emblem includes a
swallow-tailed flag on top of a winged column within an upturned crescent
above a scroll and flanked by two upraised hands


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The economy is a mixture of foreign and domestic
entrepreneurship, government regulation and welfare measures, and
village tradition. It is almost totally supported by exports of
crude oil and natural gas, with revenues from the petroleum sector
accounting for more than 50% of GDP. Per capita GDP of $9,600
is among the highest in the Third World, and substantial income from
overseas investment supplements domestic production. The government
provides for all medical services and subsidizes food and housing.


_#_GDP: $3.3 billion, per capita $9,600; real growth rate
2.7% (1989 est.)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.3% (1989 est.)


_#_Unemployment: 2.5%, shortage of skilled labor (1989 est.)


_#_Budget: revenues $1.2 billion; expenditures $1.4 billion,
including capital expenditures of $230 million (1988 est.)


_#_Exports: $1.9 billion (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities--crude oil, liquefied natural gas, petroleum products;

partners--Japan 60%, Thailand 10%, Singapore 4% (1988)


_#_Imports: $1.2 billion (c.i.f., 1989);

commodities--machinery and transport equipment, manufactured
goods, food, chemicals;

partners--Singapore 36%, UK 26%, Switzerland 7%, US 7%, Japan 6%
(1988)


_#_External debt: none


_#_Industrial production: growth rate 12.9% (1987); accounts for
52.4% of GDP


_#_Electricity: 310,000 kW capacity; 890 million kWh produced,
2,400 kWh per capita (1990)


_#_Industries: petroleum, liquefied natural gas, construction


_#_Agriculture: imports about 80% of its food needs; principal crops
and livestock include rice, cassava, bananas, buffaloes, and pigs


_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-87), $20.6
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-87), $143.7 million


_#_Currency: Bruneian dollar (plural--dollars); 1 Bruneian dollar
(B$) = 100 cents


_#_Exchange rates: Bruneian dollars (B$) per US$1--1.7454 (January
1991), 1.8125 (1990), 1.9503 (1989), 2.0124 (1988), 2.1060 (1987), 2.1774
(1986), 2.2002 (1985); note--the Bruneian dollar is at par with the
Singapore dollar


_#_Fiscal year: calendar year


_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 13 km 0.610-meter narrow-gauge private line


_#_Highways: 1,090 km total; 370 km paved (bituminous treated) and
another 52 km under construction, 720 km gravel or unimproved


_#_Inland waterways: 209 km; navigable by craft drawing less than 1.2
meters


_#_Ports: Kuala Belait, Muara


_#_Merchant marine: 7 liquefied gas carriers (1,000 GRT or over)
totaling 348,476 GRT/340,635 DWT


_#_Pipelines: crude oil, 135 km; refined products, 418 km;
natural gas, 920 km


_#_Civil air: 4 major transport aircraft (3 Boeing 757-200,
1 Boeing 737-200)


_#_Airports: 2 total, 2 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runways; 1
with runway over 3,659 m; 1 with runway 1,406 m


_#_Telecommunications: service throughout country is adequate for
present needs; international service good to adjacent Malaysia;
radiobroadcast coverage good; 33,000 telephones (1987); stations--4
AM/FM, 1 TV; 74,000 radio receivers (1987); satellite earth stations--1
Indian Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Royal Brunei Armed Forces (including Ground Forces,
Flotilla, and Air Wing), Royal Brunei Police


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 110,727; 63,730 fit for
military service; 3,199 reach military age (18) annually


_#_Defense expenditures: $233.1 million, 7.1% of GDP (1988)
_%_
_@_Bulgaria
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 110,910 km2; land area: 110,550 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than Tennessee


_#_Land boundaries: 1,881 km total; Greece 494 km, Romania 608 km,
Turkey 240 km, Yugoslavia 539 km


_#_Coastline: 354 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm


_#_Disputes: Macedonia question with Greece and Yugoslavia


_#_Climate: temperate; cold, damp winters; hot, dry summers


_#_Terrain: mostly mountains with lowlands in north and south


_#_Natural resources: bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, coal, timber,
arable land


_#_Land use: arable land 34%; permanent crops 3%; meadows and pastures
18%; forest and woodland 35%; other 10%; includes irrigated 11%


_#_Environment: subject to earthquakes, landslides; deforestation;
air pollution


_#_Note: strategic location near Turkish Straits; controls key
land routes from Europe to Middle East and Asia


_*_People
_#_Population: 8,910,622 (July 1991), growth rate - 0.2% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 13 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 12 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: - 3 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 13 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 69 years male, 76 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 1.9 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--Bulgarian(s); adjective--Bulgarian


_#_Ethnic divisions: Bulgarian 85.3%, Turk 8.5%, Gypsy 2.6%,
Macedonian 2.5%, Armenian 0.3%, Russian 0.2%, other 0.6%


_#_Religion: Bulgarian Orthodox 85%; Muslim 13%; Jewish 0.8%;
Roman Catholic 0.5%; Uniate Catholic 0.2%; Protestant,
Gregorian-Armenian, and other 0.5%


_#_Language: Bulgarian; secondary languages closely correspond to
ethnic breakdown


_#_Literacy: 93% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1970 est.)


_#_Labor force: 4,300,000; industry 33%, agriculture 20%, other 47%
(1987)


_#_Organized labor: Confederation of Independent Trade Unions of
Bulgaria (KNSB); Edinstvo (Unity) People's Trade Union (splinter
confederation from KNSB); Podkrepa (Support) Labor Confederation,
legally registered in January 1990


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of Bulgaria


_#_Type: emerging democracy, continuing significant Communist party
influence


_#_Capital: Sofia


_#_Administrative divisions: 9 provinces (oblasti, singular--oblast);
Burgas, Grad Sofiya, Khaskovo, Lovech, Mikhaylovgrad, Plovdiv, Razgrad,
Sofiya, Varna


_#_Independence: 22 September 1908 (from Ottoman Empire)


_#_Constitution: 16 May 1971, effective 18 May 1971; a new
constitution is likely to be adopted in 1991


_#_Legal system: based on civil law system, with Soviet law influence;
judicial review of legislative acts in the State Council; has accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction


_#_National holiday: Liberation of Bulgaria from the Ottoman Empire,
3 March (1878)


_#_Executive branch: president, chairman of the Council of Ministers
(premier), three deputy chairmen of the Council of Ministers,
Council of Ministers


_#_Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Narodno
Sobranie)


_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--President Zhelyu ZHELEV (since 1 August 1990);

Head of Government--Chairman of the Council of Ministers
(Premier) Dimitur POPOV (since 19 December 1990);
Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers Aleksandur TOMOV
(since 19 December 1990);
Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers Viktor VULKOV (since
19 December 1990);
Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers Dimitur LUDZHEV
(since 19 December 1990);


_#_Political parties and leaders: government--Bulgarian
Socialist Party (BSP), formerly Bulgarian Communist Party (BCP),
Aleksandur LILOV, chairman;

opposition--Union of Democratic Forces (UDF), Filip DIMITROV,
chairman, consisting of Nikola Petkov Bulgarian Agrarian National
Union, Milan DRENCHEV, secretary of Permanent Board;
Bulgarian Social Democratic Party, Petur DERTLIEV;
Green Party;
Christian Democrats;
Radical Democratic Party;
Rights and Freedoms Movement (pro-Muslim party), Ahmed DOGAN;
Bulgarian Agrarian National Union (BZNS), Viktor VULKOV


_#_Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 18


_#_Elections:

Chairman of the State Council--last held 1 August 1990
(next to be held May 1991);
results--Zhelyo ZHELEV was elected by the National Assembly;

National Assembly--last held 10 and 17 June 1990 (next to be held
in autumn 1991);
results--BSP 48%, UDF 32%;
seats--(400 total) BSP 211, UDF 144, Rights and Freedoms Movement
23, Agrarian Party 16, Nationalist parties 3, independents and other 3


_#_Communists: Bulgarian Socialist Party (BSP), formerly
Bulgarian Communist Party (BCP), 501,793 members


_#_Other political or pressure groups: Ecoglasnost; Podkrepa
(Support) Labor Confederation; Fatherland Union; Bulgarian
Democratic Youth (formerly Communist Youth Union); Confederation
of Independent Trade Unions of Bulgaria (KNSB);
Committee for Defense of National Interests;
Peasant Youth League; National Coalition of Extraparliamentary
Political Forces;
numerous regional, ethnic, and national interest groups with various
agendas


_#_Member of: BIS, CCC, CSCE, ECE, FAO, G-9, IAEA, IBEC,
ICAO, IIB, ILO, IMO, INMARSAT, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, PCA, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Ognyan PISHEV;
Chancery at 1621 22nd Street NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202)
387-7969;

US--Ambassador H. Kenneth HILL; Embassy at 1 Alexander Stamboliski
Boulevard, Sofia (mailing address is APO New York 09213-5740);
telephone [359] (2) 88-48-01 through 05


_#_Flag: three equal horizontal bands of white (top), green, and red;
the national emblem formerly on the hoist side of the white stripe has
been removed--it contained a rampant lion within a wreath of wheat ears
below a red five-pointed star and above a ribbon bearing the dates 681
(first Bulgarian state established) and 1944 (liberation from Nazi
control)


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Growth in the lackluster Bulgarian economy fell to the
2% annual level in the 1980s. By 1990 Sofia's foreign debt had
skyrocketed to over $10 billion--giving a debt service ratio of more
than 40% of hard currency earnings and leading the regime to declare
a moratorium on its hard currency payments. The post-Zhivkov regime
faces major problems of renovating an aging industrial plant;
coping with worsening energy, food, and consumer goods shortages;
keeping abreast of rapidly unfolding technological developments;
investing in additional energy capacity (the portion of electric
power from nuclear energy reached over one-third in 1990); and
motivating workers, in part by giving them a share in the earnings of
their enterprises. A major decree of January 1989 summarized and
extended the government's economic restructuring efforts, which include
a partial decentralization of controls over production decisions and
foreign trade. In October 1990 the Lukanov government proposed an
economic reform program based on a US Chamber of Commerce study. It was
never instituted because of a political stalemate between the BSP and the
UDF. The new Popov government launched a similar reform program in
January 1991, but full implementation has been slowed by continuing
political disputes.


_#_GNP: $47.3 billion, per capita $5,300; real growth rate - 6.0%
(1990)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 100% (1990 est.)


_#_Unemployment rate: 2% (1990 est.)


_#_Budget: revenues $26 billion; expenditures $28 billion,
including capital expenditures of $NA billion (1988)


_#_Exports: $16.0 billion (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities--machinery and equipment 60.5%; agricultural products
14.7%; manufactured consumer goods 10.6%; fuels, minerals, raw materials,
and metals 8.5%; other 5.7%;

partners--Communist countries 82.5% (USSR 61%, GDR 5.5%,
Czechoslovakia 4.9%); developed countries 6.8% (FRG 1.2%, Greece 1.0%);
less developed countries 10.7% (Libya 3.5%, Iraq 2.9%)


_#_Imports: $15.0 billion (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities--fuels, minerals, and raw materials 45.2%; machinery
and equipment 39.8%; manufactured consumer goods 4.6%; agricultural
products 3.8%; other 6.6%;

partners--Communist countries 80.5% (USSR 57.5%, GDR 5.7%),
developed countries 15.1% (FRG 4.8%, Austria 1.6%); less developed
countries 4.4% (Libya 1.0%, Brazil 0.9%)


_#_External debt: $10 billion (1990)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate - 10.7% (1990); accounts for
about 50% of GDP


_#_Electricity: 11,500,000 kW capacity; 45,000 million kWh produced,
5,040 kWh per capita (1990)


_#_Industries: machine and metal building,food processing, chemicals,
textiles, building materials, ferrous and nonferrous metals


_#_Agriculture: accounts for 15% of GNP; climate and soil conditions
support livestock raising and the growing of various grain crops,
oilseeds, vegetables, fruits and tobacco; more than one-third of the
arable land devoted to grain; world's fourth-largest tobacco exporter;
surplus food producer


_#_Economic aid: donor--$1.6 billion in bilateral aid to non-Communist
less developed countries (1956-89)


_#_Currency: lev (plural--leva); 1 lev (Lv) = 100 stotinki


_#_Exchange rates: leva (Lv) per US$1--16.13 (March 1991),
0.7446 (November 1990), 0.84 (1989), 0.82 (1988), 0.90 (1987), 0.95
(1986), 1.03 (1985); note--floating exchange rate since February 1990


_#_Fiscal year: calendar year


_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 4,300 km total, all government owned (1987); 4,055 km
1.435-meter standard gauge, 245 km narrow gauge; 917 km double track;
2,510 km electrified


_#_Highways: 36,908 km total; 33,535 km hard surface (including 242 km
superhighways); 3,373 km earth roads (1987)


_#_Inland waterways: 470 km (1987)


_#_Pipelines: crude, 193 km; refined product, 418 km; natural gas,
1,400 km (1986)


_#_Ports: Burgas, Varna, Varna West; river ports are Ruse, Vidin, and
Lom on the Danube


_#_Merchant marine: 112 ships (1,000 GRT and over) totaling 1,227,817
GRT/1,860,294 DWT; includes 2 short-sea passenger, 33 cargo, 2 container,
1 passenger-cargo training, 6 roll-on/roll-off, 18 petroleum, oils, and
lubricants (POL) tanker, 1 chemical carrier, 2 railcar carrier, 47 bulk;
Bulgaria owns 3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 51,035 DWT operating
under Liberian registry


_#_Civil air: 86 major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 380 total, 380 usable; about 120 with permanent-surface
runways; 20 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 20 with runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: 2.5 million telephones; direct dialing to 36
countries; phone density is 25 phones per 100 persons; 67% of Sofia
households now have a phone (November 1988); stations--21 AM, 16 FM,
and 19 TV, with 1 Soviet TV relay in Sofia; 2.1 million TV sets (1990);
92% of country receives No. 1 television program (May 1990)


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Bulgarian People's Army, Bulgarian Navy, Air and Air
Defense Forces, Frontier Troops, Civil Defense


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 2,183,539; 1,826,992 fit for
military service; 67,836 reach military age (19) annually


_#_Defense expenditures: 1.615 billion leva, NA% of GDP (1990);
note--conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the
current exchange rate would produce misleading results
_%_
_@_Burkina
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 274,200 km2; land area: 273,800 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than Colorado


_#_Land boundaries: 3,192 km total; Benin 306 km, Ghana 548 km,
Ivory Coast 584 km, Mali 1,000 km, Niger 628 km, Togo 126 km


_#_Coastline: none--landlocked


_#_Maritime claims: none--landlocked


_#_Disputes: the disputed international boundary between Burkina and
Mali was submitted to the International Court of Justice (ICJ) in October
1983 and the ICJ issued its final ruling in December 1986, which both
sides agreed to accept; Burkina and Mali are proceeding with boundary
demarcation, including the tripoint with Niger


_#_Climate: tropical; warm, dry winters; hot, wet summers


_#_Terrain: mostly flat to dissected, undulating plains; hills in west
and southeast


_#_Natural resources: manganese, limestone, marble; small deposits
of gold, antimony, copper, nickel, bauxite, lead, phosphates, zinc,
silver


_#_Land use: arable land 10%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and
pastures 37%; forest and woodland 26%; other 27%, includes irrigated
NEGL%


_#_Environment: recent droughts and desertification severely affecting
marginal agricultural activities, population distribution, economy;
overgrazing; deforestation


_#_Note: landlocked


_*_People
_#_Population: 9,359,889 (July 1991), growth rate 3.1% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 50 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 16 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: - 3 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 119 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 52 years male, 53 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 7.1 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--Burkinabe; adjective--Burkinabe


_#_Ethnic divisions: more than 50 tribes; principal tribe is Mossi
(about 2.5 million); other important groups are Gurunsi, Senufo, Lobi,
Bobo, Mande, and Fulani


_#_Religion: indigenous beliefs about 65%, Muslim 25%,
Christian (mainly Roman Catholic) 10%


_#_Language: French (official); tribal languages belong to Sudanic
family, spoken by 90% of the population


_#_Literacy: 18% (male 28%, female 9%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)


_#_Labor force: 3,300,000 residents; 30,000 are wage earners;
agriculture 82%, industry 13%, commerce, services, and government 5%;
20% of male labor force migrates annually to neighboring countries for
seasonal employment (1984); 44% of population of working age (1985)


_#_Organized labor: four principal trade union groups represent less
than 1% of population


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Burkina Faso


_#_Type: military; established by coup on 4 August 1983


_#_Capital: Ouagadougou


_#_Administrative divisions: 30 provinces; Bam, Bazega, Bougouriba,
Boulgou, Boulkiemde, Ganzourgou, Gnagna, Gourma, Houet, Kadiogo,
Kenedougou, Komoe, Kossi, Kouritenga, Mouhoun, Namentenga, Naouri,
Oubritenga, Oudalan, Passore, Poni, Sanguie, Sanmatenga, Seno,
Sissili, Soum, Sourou, Tapoa, Yatenga, Zoundweogo


_#_Independence: 5 August 1960 (from France; formerly Upper Volta)


_#_Constitution: none; constitution of 27 November 1977 was abolished
following coup of 25 November 1980; constitutional referendum scheduled
for June 1991


_#_Legal system: based on French civil law system and customary law


_#_National holiday: Anniversary of the Revolution, 4 August (1983)


_#_Executive branch: chairman of the Popular Front, Council of
Ministers


_#_Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Assemblee
Nationale) was dissolved on 25 November 1980


_#_Judicial branch: Appeals Court


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government--Chairman of the
Popular Front Captain Blaise COMPAORE (since 15 October 1987)


_#_Political parties and leaders: all political parties banned
following November 1980 coup


_#_Suffrage: none


_#_Elections: the National Assembly was dissolved 25 November 1980;
presidential elections are scheduled for 3 November 1991 and legislative
elections for 8 December 1991


_#_Communists: small Communist party front group; some sympathizers


_#_Other political or pressure groups: committees for the defense of
the revolution, watchdog/political action groups throughout the country
in both organizations and communities


_#_Member of: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEAO, ECA, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO,
FZ, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, OIC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WADB, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Paul Desire KABORE;
Chancery at 2340 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008;
telephone (202) 332-5577 or 6895;

US--Ambassador Edward P. BRYNN; Embassy at Avenue Raoul Follerau,
Ouagadougou (mailing address is 01 B. P. 35, Ouagadougou);
telephone [226] 30-67-23 through 25 and [226] 33-34-22


_#_Flag: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green with a
yellow five-pointed star in the center; uses the popular pan-African
colors of Ethiopia


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: One of the poorest countries in the world, Burkina
has a high population density, few natural resources, and relatively
infertile soil. Economic development is hindered by a poor communications
network within a landlocked country. Agriculture provides about 40% of
GDP and is entirely of a subsistence nature. Industry, dominated by
unprofitable government-controlled corporations, accounts for about
15% of GDP.


_#_GDP: $1.75 billion, per capita $205 (1988); real growth rate 3%
(1989)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): - 0.5% (1989)


_#_Unemployment rate: NA%


_#_Budget: revenues $275 million; expenditures $287 million, including
capital expenditures of $NA (1989)


_#_Exports: $262 million (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities--oilseeds, cotton, live animals, gold;

partners--EC 42% (France 30%, other 12%), Taiwan 17%,
Ivory Coast 15% (1985)


_#_Imports: $619 million (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities--grain, dairy products, petroleum, machinery;

partners--EC 37% (France 23%, other 14%), Africa 31%, US 15%
(1985)


_#_External debt: $962 million (December 1990 est.)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate 5.7% (1990est.), accounts for
about 15%
of GDP (1988)


_#_Electricity: 121,000 kW capacity; 320 million kWh produced, 37
kWh per capita (1989)


_#_Industries: cotton lint, beverages, agricultural processing,
soap, cigarettes, textiles, gold


_#_Agriculture: accounts for about 40% of GDP; cash crops--peanuts,
shea nuts, sesame, cotton; food crops--sorghum, millet, corn, rice;
livestock; not self-sufficient in food grains


_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $294
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $2.7 billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $113 million


_#_Currency: Communaute Financiere Africaine franc
(plural--francs); 1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes


_#_Exchange rates: CFA francs (CFAF) per US$1--256.54 (January 1991),
272.26 (1990), 319.01 (1989), 297.85 (1988), 300.54 (1987), 346.30
(1986), 449.26 (1985)


_#_Fiscal year: calendar year


_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 620 km total; 520 km Ouagadougou to Ivory Coast border
and 100 km Ouagadougou to Kaya; all 1.00-meter gauge and single track


_#_Highways: 16,500 km total; 1,300 km paved, 7,400 km improved,
7,800 km unimproved (1985)


_#_Civil air: 2 major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 50 total, 43 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 7 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: all services only fair; radio relay, wire, and
radio communication stations in use; 13,900 telephones; stations--2 AM,
2 FM, 2 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Air Force, National Gendarmerie, National Police


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 1,838,000; 937,304 fit for
military service; no conscription


_#_Defense expenditures: $55 million, 2.7% of GDP (1988)
_%_
_@_Burma
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 678,500 km2; land area: 657,740 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than Texas


_#_Land boundaries: 5,876 km total; Bangladesh 193 km, China 2,185 km,
India 1,463 km, Laos 235 km, Thailand 1,800 km


_#_Coastline: 1,930 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Continental shelf: edge of continental margin or 200 nm;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm


_#_Climate: tropical monsoon; cloudy, rainy, hot, humid summers
(southwest monsoon, June to September); less cloudy, scant rainfall, mild
temperatures, lower humidity during winter (northeast monsoon, December
to April)


_#_Terrain: central lowlands ringed by steep, rugged highlands


_#_Natural resources: crude oil, timber, tin, antimony, zinc, copper,
tungsten, lead, coal, some marble, limestone, precious stones, natural
gas


_#_Land use: arable land 15%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures
1%; forest and woodland 49%; other 34%; includes irrigated 2%


_#_Environment: subject to destructive earthquakes and cyclones;
flooding and landslides common during rainy season (June to September);
deforestation


_#_Note: strategic location near major Indian Ocean shipping lanes


_*_People
_#_Population: 42,112,082 (July 1991), growth rate 2.0% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 32 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 13 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 95 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 53 years male, 56 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 4.1 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--Burmese; adjective--Burmese


_#_Ethnic divisions: Burman 68%, Shan 9%, Karen 7%, Rakhine 4%,
Chinese 3%, Mon 2%, Indian 2%, other 5%


_#_Religion: Buddhist 89%, Christian 4% (Baptist 3%, Roman Catholic
1%), Muslim 4%, animist beliefs 1%, other 2%


_#_Language: Burmese; minority ethnic groups have their own languages


_#_Literacy: 81% (male 89%, female 72%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)


_#_Labor force: 16,036,000; agriculture 65.2%, industry 14.3%, trade
10.1%, government 6.3%, other 4.1% (FY89 est.)


_#_Organized labor: Workers' Asiayone (association), 1,800,000
members; Peasants' Asiayone, 7,600,000 members


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Union of Burma; note--the local official name is
Pyidaungzu Myanma Naingngandaw which has been translated by the US
Government as Union of Myanma and by the Burmese as Union of Myanmar


_#_Type: military regime


_#_Capital: Rangoon (sometimes translated as Yangon)


_#_Administrative divisions: 7 divisions* (yin-mya, singular--yin) and
7 states (pyine-mya, singular--pyine); Chin State, Irrawaddy*, Kachin
State, Karan State, Kayah State, Magwe*, Mandalay*, Mon State, Pegu*,
Rakhine State, Rangoon*, Sagaing*, Shan State, Tenasserim*


_#_Independence: 4 January 1948 (from UK)


_#_Constitution: 3 January 1974 (suspended since 18 September 1988)


_#_Legal system: martial law in effect throughout most of the
country; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction


_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 4 January (1948)


_#_Executive branch: chairman of the State Law and Order Restoration
Council, State Law and Order Restoration Council


_#_Legislative branch: unicameral People's Assembly (Pyithu Hluttaw)
was dissolved after the coup of 18 September 1988


_#_Judicial branch: Council of People's Justices was abolished after
the coup of 18 September 1988


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government--Chairman of the State Law
and Order Restoration Council Gen. SAW MAUNG (since 18 September 1988)


_#_Political parties and leaders:
National Unity Party (NUP; proregime), THA KYAW;
National League for Democracy (NLD), U TIN OO and AUNG SAN SUU KYI;
League for Democracy and Peace, U NU


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


_#_Elections:

People's Assembly--last held 27 May 1990, but Assembly never
convened;
results--NLD 80%;
seats--(485 total) NLD 396, the regime-favored NUP 10, other 79


_#_Communists: several hundred (est.) in Burma Communist Party (BCP)


_#_Other political or pressure groups: Kachin Independence Army (KIA),
United Wa State Army (UWSA), Karen National Union (KNU), several Shan
factions, including the Shan United Army (SUA) (all ethnically-based
insurgent groups)


_#_Member of: AsDB, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA,
IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WMO


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador U MYO AUNG; Chancery at
2300 S Street NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 332-9044 through
9046; there is a Burmese Consulate General in New York;

US--Ambassador (vacant); Deputy Chief of Mission Franklin P.
HUDDLE, Jr.; Embassy at 581 Merchant Street, Rangoon (mailing address
is G. P. O. Box 521, Rangoon or Box B, APO San Francisco 96346);
telephone 82055 or 82181


_#_Flag: red with a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner
bearing, all in white, 14 five-pointed stars encircling a cogwheel
containing a stalk of rice; the 14 stars represent the 14 administrative
divisions


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Burma is a poor Asian country, with a per capita GDP
of about $400. The nation has been unable to achieve any substantial
improvement in export earnings because of falling prices for many
of its major commodity exports. For rice, traditionally the most
important export, the drop in world prices has been accompanied by
shrinking markets and a smaller volume of sales. In 1985 teak replaced
rice as the largest export and continues to hold this position. The
economy is heavily dependent on the agricultural sector, which generates
about half of GDP and provides employment for 66% of the work force.


_#_GDP: $16.8 billion, per capita $408; real growth rate NEGL%
(FY90 est.)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 22.6% (FY89 est.)


_#_Unemployment rate: 9.6% in urban areas (FY89 est.)


_#_Budget: revenues $4.9 billion; expenditures $5.0 billion,
including capital expenditures of $0.7 billion (FY89 est.)


_#_Exports: $228 million (f.o.b., FY89)

commodities--teak, rice, oilseed, metals, rubber, gems;

partners--Southeast Asia, India, China, EC, Africa


_#_Imports: $540 million (c.i.f., FY89)

commodities--machinery, transport equipment, chemicals, food
products;

partners--Japan, EC, China, Southeast Asia


_#_External debt: $5.5 billion (December 1990 est.)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate 2.6% (FY90 est.); accounts
for 10% of GDP


_#_Electricity: 950,000 kW capacity; 2,900 million kWh produced,
70 kWh per capita (1990)


_#_Industries: agricultural processing; textiles and footwear; wood
and wood products; petroleum refining; mining of copper, tin, tungsten,
iron; construction materials; pharmaceuticals; fertilizer


_#_Agriculture: accounts for 51% of GDP (including fish and
forestry); self-sufficient in food; principal crops--paddy rice, corn,
oilseed, sugarcane, pulses; world's largest stand of hardwood trees;
rice and teak account for 55% of export revenues; fish catch of
732,000 metric tons (FY90)


_#_Illicit drugs: world's largest illicit producer of opium poppy
and minor producer of cannabis for the international drug trade; opium
production is on the increase as growers respond to the collapse
of Rangoon's antinarcotic programs


_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $158
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $3.9 billion; Communist countries (1970-88), $424 million


_#_Currency: kyat (plural--kyats); 1 kyat (K) = 100 pyas


_#_Exchange rates: kyats (K) per US$1--6.0476 (January 1991), 6.3386
(1990), 6.7049 (1989), 6.3945 (1988), 6.6535 (1987), 7.3304 (1986),
8.4749 (1985)


_#_Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March


_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 3,991 km total, all government owned; 3,878 km
1.000-meter gauge, 113 km narrow-gauge industrial lines; 362 km double
track


_#_Highways: 27,000 km total; 3,200 km bituminous, 17,700 km improved
earth or gravel, 6,100 km unimproved earth


_#_Inland waterways: 12,800 km; 3,200 km navigable by large commercial
vessels


_#_Pipelines: crude, 1,343 km; natural gas, 330 km


_#_Ports: Rangoon, Moulmein, Bassein


_#_Merchant marine: 60 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 968,226
GRT/1,433,584 DWT; includes 3 passenger-cargo, 19 cargo, 2 refrigerated
cargo, 3 vehicle carrier, 2 container, 3 petroleum, oils, and
lubricants (POL) tanker, 2 chemical, 1 combination ore/oil, 24 bulk,
1 combination bulk


_#_Civil air: 17 major transport aircraft (including 3 helicopters)


_#_Airports: 86 total, 79 usable; 29 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 3 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 37
with runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: meets minimum requirements for local and
intercity service; international service is good; radiobroadcast coverage
is limited to the most populous areas; 53,000 telephones (1986);
stations--2 AM, 1 FM, 1 TV (1985); 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth station


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force


_#_Manpower availability: eligible 15-49, 20,766,975; of the
10,378,743 males 15-49, 5,566,247 are fit for military service; of the
10,388,232 females 15-49, 5,558,007 are fit for military service; 442,200
males and 431,407 females reach military age (18) annually; both sexes
are liable for military service


_#_Defense expenditures: $315.0 million, 3% of GDP (FY88)
_%_
_@_Burundi
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 27,830 km2; land area: 25,650 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than Maryland


_#_Land boundaries: 974 km total; Rwanda 290 km, Tanzania 451 km,
Zaire 233 km


_#_Coastline: none--landlocked


_#_Maritime claims: none--landlocked


_#_Climate: temperate; warm; occasional frost in uplands


_#_Terrain: mostly rolling to hilly highland; some plains


_#_Natural resources: nickel, uranium, rare earth oxide, peat, cobalt,
copper, platinum (not yet exploited), vanadium


_#_Land use: arable land 43%; permanent crops 8%; meadows and pastures
35%; forest and woodland 2%; other 12%; includes irrigated NEGL%


_#_Environment: soil exhaustion; soil erosion; deforestation


_#_Note: landlocked; straddles crest of the Nile-Congo watershed


_*_People
_#_Population: 5,831,233 (July 1991), growth rate 3.2% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 47 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 15 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 109 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 50 years male, 54 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 6.9 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--Burundian(s); adjective--Burundi


_#_Ethnic divisions: Africans--Hutu (Bantu) 85%, Tutsi (Hamitic) 14%,
Twa (Pygmy) 1%; other Africans include about 70,000 refugees, mostly
Rwandans and Zairians; non-Africans include about 3,000 Europeans and
2,000 South Asians


_#_Religion: Christian about 67% (Roman Catholic 62%, Protestant 5%).
indigenous beliefs 32%, Muslim 1%


_#_Language: Kirundi and French (official); Swahili (along Lake
Tanganyika and in the Bujumbura area)


_#_Literacy: 50% (male 61%, female 40%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)


_#_Labor force: 1,900,000 (1983 est.); agriculture 93.0%, government
4.0%, industry and commerce 1.5%, services 1.5; 52% of population of
working age (1985)


_#_Organized labor: sole group is the Union of Burundi Workers (UTB);
by charter, membership is extended to all Burundi workers (informally);
active membership figures NA


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of Burundi


_#_Type: republic


_#_Capital: Bujumbura


_#_Administrative divisions: 15 provinces; Bubanza, Bujumbura, Bururi,
Cankuzo, Cibitoke, Gitega, Karuzi, Kayanza, Kirundo, Makamba, Muramvya,
Muyinga, Ngozi, Rutana, Ruyigi


_#_Independence: 1 July 1962 (from UN trusteeship under Belgian
administration)


_#_Constitution: 20 November 1981; suspended following the coup of
3 September 1987; referendum for a new constitution scheduled for
March 1992


_#_Legal system: based on German and Belgian civil codes and
customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction


_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 1 July (1962)


_#_Executive branch: president; chairman of the Central Committee
of the National Party of Unity and Progress (UPRONA), prime minister


_#_Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Assemblee
Nationale) was dissolved following the coup of 3 September 1987;
at an extraordinary party congress held from 27 to 29 December 1990,
the Central Committee of the National Party of Unity and Progress
(UPRONA) replaced the Military Committee for National Salvation, and
became the supreme governing body during the transition to constitutional
government


_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--President Pierre BUYOYA (since 9 September 1987);

Head of Government Prime Minister Adrien SIBOMANA (since 26
October 1988)


_#_Political parties and leaders: only party--National Party of
Unity and Progress (UPRONA), President Pierre BUYOYA, chairman, and
Nicolas MAYUGI, secretary general


_#_Suffrage: universal adult at age NA


_#_Elections:

National Assembly--dissolved after the coup of 3 September
1987;

note--The National Unity Charter outlining the principles for
constitutional government was adopted by a national referendum on 5
February 1991


_#_Communists: no Communist party


_#_Member of: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEEAC, CEPGL, ECA, FAO, G-77,
GATT, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTERPOL, ITU,
LORCS, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Julien KAVAKURE; Chancery at
Suite 212, 2233 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington DC 20007;
telephone (202) 342-2574;

US--Ambassador Cynthia Shepherd PERRY; Embassy at Avenue du Zaire,
Bujumbura (mailing address is B. P. 1720, Avenue des Etats-Unis,
Bujumbura); telephone 234-54 through 56


_#_Flag: divided by a white diagonal cross into red panels (top and
bottom) and green panels (hoist side and outer side) with a white disk
superimposed at the center bearing three red six-pointed stars outlined
in green arranged in a triangular design (one star above, two stars
below)


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: A landlocked, resource-poor country in an early stage
of economic development, Burundi is predominately agricultural with only
a few basic industries. Its economic health depends on the coffee
crop, which accounts for an average 90% of foreign exchange earnings each
year. The ability to pay for imports therefore continues to rest largely
on the vagaries of the climate and the international coffee market.


_#_GDP: $1.1 billion, per capita $200; real growth rate 1.5% (1989)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 11.7% (1989)


_#_Unemployment rate: NA%


_#_Budget: revenues $158 million; expenditures $204 million,
including capital expenditures of $131 million (1989 est.)


_#_Exports: $81 million (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities--coffee 88%, tea, hides, and skins;

partners--EC 83%, US 5%, Asia 2%


_#_Imports: $197 million (c.i.f., 1989);

commodities--capital goods 31%, petroleum products 15%, foodstuffs,
consumer goods;

partners--EC 57%, Asia 23%, US 3%


_#_External debt: $957 million (December 1990 est.)


_#_Industrial production: real growth rate 5.1% (1986); accounts
for about 10% of GDP


_#_Electricity: 51,000 kW capacity; 105 million kWh produced, 19 kWh
per capita (1989)


_#_Industries: light consumer goods such as blankets, shoes, soap;
assembly of imports; public works construction; food processing


_#_Agriculture: accounts for 60% of GDP; 90% of population dependent
on subsistence farming; marginally self-sufficient in food production;
cash crops--coffee, cotton, tea; food crops--corn, sorghum, sweet
potatoes, bananas, manioc; livestock--meat, milk, hides, and skins


_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $71
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $10.1 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $32 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $175 million


_#_Currency: Burundi franc (plural--francs); 1 Burundi franc
(FBu) = 100 centimes


_#_Exchange rates: Burundi francs (FBu) per US$1--163.29 (January
1991), 171.26 (1990), 158.67 (1989), 140.40 (1988), 123.56 (1987), 114.17
(1986), 120.69 (1985)


_#_Fiscal year: calendar year


_*_Communications
_#_Highways: 5,900 km total; 400 km paved, 2,500 km gravel or
laterite, 3,000 km improved or unimproved earth


_#_Inland waterways: Lake Tanganyika


_#_Ports: Bujumbura (lake port) connects to transportation systems of
Tanzania and Zaire


_#_Civil air: 1 major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 8 total, 7 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; none
with runways 1,220 to 2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: sparse system of wire, radiocommunications, and
low-capacity radio relay links; 8,000 telephones; stations--2 AM, 2 FM, 1
TV; 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth station


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army (includes naval and air units); paramilitary
Gendarmerie


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 1,268,342; 661,888 fit for
military service; 64,538 reach military age (16) annually


_#_Defense expenditures: $33 million, 3.1% of GDP (1988)
_%_
_@_Cambodia
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 181,040 km2; land area: 176,520 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than Oklahoma


_#_Land boundaries: 2,572 km total; Laos 541 km, Thailand 803 km,
Vietnam 1,228 km


_#_Coastline: 443 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 nm;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm


_#_Disputes: offshore islands and three sections of the
boundary with Vietnam are in dispute; maritime boundary with Vietnam
not defined; occupied by Vietnam on 25 December 1978


_#_Climate: tropical; rainy, monsoon season (May to October); dry
season (December to March); little seasonal temperature variation


_#_Terrain: mostly low, flat plains; mountains in southwest and north


_#_Natural resources: timber, gemstones, some iron ore, manganese,
phosphates, hydropower potential


_#_Land use: arable land 16%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures
3%; forest and woodland 76%; other 4%; includes irrigated 1%


_#_Environment: a land of paddies and forests dominated by Mekong
River and Tonle Sap


_#_Note: buffer between Thailand and Vietnam


_*_People
_#_Population: 7,146,386 (July 1991), growth rate 2.2% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 38 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 16 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 125 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 48 years male, 51 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 4.5 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--Cambodian(s); adjective--Cambodian


_#_Ethnic divisions: Khmer 90%, Chinese 5%, other 5%


_#_Religion: Theravada Buddhism 95%, other 5%


_#_Language: Khmer (official), French


_#_Literacy: 35% (male 48%, female 22%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)


_#_Labor force: 2.5-3.0 million; agriculture 80% (1988 est.)


_#_Organized labor: Kampuchea Federation of Trade Unions (FSC); under
government control


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: none


_#_Type: disputed between the National Government of Cambodia (NGC)
led by Prince NORODOM SIHANOUK, and the State of Cambodia (SOC) led by
HENG SAMRIN


_#_Capital: Phnom Penh


_#_Administrative divisions: NGC--18 provinces (khet, singular and
plural) and 1 capital city* (rottatheanei);
Batdambang, Kampong Cham, Kampong Chhnang,
Kampong Spoe, Kampong Thum, Kampot, Kandal, Kaoh Kong,
Kracheh, Mondol Kiri, Phnum Penh*, Pouthisat, Preah
Vihear, Prey Veng, Rotanokiri, Siemreab-Otdar
Meanchey, Stoeng Treng, Svay Rieng, Takev; note--the SOC adds
a province of Banteay Meanchey and an autonomous municipality of
Kampong Saom to the NGC administrative structure


_#_Independence: 9 November 1953 (from France)


_#_Constitution: SOC--27 June 1981


_#_National holidays: NGC--Independence Day, 17 April (1975);
SOC--Liberation Day, 7 January (1979)


_#_Executive branch: NGC--president, prime minister; SOC--chairman
of the Council of State, Council of State, chairman of the Council of
Ministers, Council of Ministers


_#_Legislative branch: NGC--none; SOC--unicameral National Assembly


_#_Judicial branch: NGC--none; SOC--Supreme People's Court


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--NGC--President Prince NORODOM SIHANOUK
(since NA July 1982); SOC--Chairman of the Council of State HENG
SAMRIN (since 27 June 1981)

Head of Government--NGC--Prime Minister SON SANN (since NA July
1982);
SOC--Chairman of the Council of Ministers HUN SEN (since 14 January 1985)


_#_Political parties and leaders: NGC--three resistance groups
including:
Democratic Kampuchea (DK, also known as the Khmer Rouge) under KHIEU
SAMPHAN;
Khmer People's National Liberation Front (KPNLF) under SON SANN;
and National United Front for an Independent, Neutral, Peaceful, and
Cooperative Cambodia (FUNCINPEC) under Prince NORODOM RANNARIDH;
SOC--Kampuchean People's Revolutionary Party (KPRP) led by HENG SAMRIN


_#_Suffrage: NGC--none; SOC--universal at age 18


_#_Elections:

NGC--none;

SOC--National Assembly--last held 1 May 1981; in February 1986 the
Assembly voted to extend its term for five years; results--KPRP is the
only party;
seats--(123 total) KPRP 123


_#_Member of: AsDB, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA,
ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, ITU, LORCS, NAM, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU,
WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO


_#_Diplomatic representation: none


_#_Flag:
NGC--three horizontal bands of blue (top), red (double width), and blue
with a white stylized three-towered temple representing Angkor Wat
centered on the red band;

SOC--two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and blue with a gold
stylized five-towered temple representing Angkor Wat in the center


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Cambodia is a desperately poor country whose economic
development has been stymied by deadly political infighting. The
economy is based on agriculture and related industries.  Over the
past decade Cambodia has been slowly recovering from its near destruction
by war and political upheaval. It still remains, however, one of the
world's poorest countries, with an estimated per capita GDP of about
$130.  The food situation is precarious; during the 1980s famine has
been averted only through international relief. In 1986 the production
level of rice, the staple food crop, was able to meet only 80% of
domestic needs. The biggest success of the nation's recovery program has
been in new rubber plantings and in fishing. Industry, other than rice
processing, is almost nonexistent. Foreign trade is primarily with the
USSR and Vietnam. Statistical data on the economy continues to be sparse
and unreliable. Foreign aid from the USSR and Eastern Europe almost
certainly is being slashed.


_#_GDP: $890 million, per capita $130; real growth rate 0% (1989 est.)


_#_Unemployment rate: NA%


_#_Budget: revenues $NA; expenditures $NA, including capital
expenditures of $NA


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 50% (first half 1990)


_#_Exports: $32 million (f.o.b., 1988);

commodities--natural rubber, rice, pepper, wood;

partners--Vietnam, USSR, Eastern Europe, Japan, India


_#_Imports: $147 million (c.i.f., 1988);

commodities--international food aid; fuels, consumer goods,
machinery;

partners--Vietnam, USSR, Eastern Europe, Japan, India


_#_External debt: $600 million (1989)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%


_#_Electricity: 126,000 kW capacity; 150 million kWh produced,
20 kWh per capita (1990)


_#_Industries: rice milling, fishing, wood and wood products, rubber,
cement, gem mining


_#_Agriculture: mainly subsistence farming except for rubber
plantations; main crops--rice, rubber, corn; food shortages--rice, meat,
vegetables, dairy products, sugar, flour


_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $719
million; Western (non-US) countries (1970-88), $285 million; Communist
countries (1970-89), $1,800 million


_#_Currency: riel (plural--riels); 1 riel (CR) = 100 sen


_#_Exchange rates: riels (CR) per US$1--560 (November 1990), 159.00
(1988), 100.00 (1987), 30.00 (1986), 7.00 (1985)


_#_Fiscal year: calendar year


_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 612 km 1.000-meter gauge, government owned


_#_Highways: 13,351 km total; 2,622 km bituminous; 7,105 km crushed
stone, gravel, or improved earth; 3,624 km unimproved earth; some roads
in disrepair


_#_Inland waterways: 3,700 km navigable all year to craft drawing 0.6
meters; 282 km navigable to craft drawing 1.8 meters


_#_Ports: Kampong Saom, Phnom Penh


_#_Airports: 22 total, 9 usable; 6 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
4 with runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: service barely adequate for government
requirements and virtually nonexistent for general public; international
service limited to Vietnam and other adjacent countries; stations--1 AM,
no FM, 1 TV


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: SOC--Cambodian People's Armed Forces (CPAF); Communist
resistance forces--National Army of Democratic Kampuchea (Khmer Rouge);
non-Communist resistance forces--Armee National Kampuchea Independent
(ANKI) which is sometimes anglicized as National Army of Independent
Cambodia (NAIC) and Khmer People's National Liberation Armed Forces
(KPNLAF)


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 1,869,880; 1,030,356 fit for
military service; 57,288 reach military age (18) annually


_#_Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP
_%_
_@_Cameroon
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 475,440 km2; land area: 469,440 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than California


_#_Land boundaries: 4,591 km total; Central African Republic 797 km,
Chad 1,094 km, Congo 523 km, Equatorial Guinea 189 km, Gabon 298 km,
Nigeria 1,690 km


_#_Coastline: 402 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Territorial sea: 50 nm


_#_Disputes: demarcation of international boundaries in Lake Chad,
the lack of which has led to border incidents in the past, is completed
and awaiting ratification by Cameroon, Chad, Niger, and Nigeria;
Nigerian proposals to reopen maritime boundary negotiations and
redemarcate the entire land boundary have been rejected by Cameroon


_#_Climate: varies with terrain from tropical along coast to semiarid
and hot in north


_#_Terrain: diverse with coastal plain in southwest, dissected plateau
in center, mountains in west, plains in north


_#_Natural resources: crude oil, bauxite, iron ore, timber,
hydropower potential


_#_Land use: arable land 13%; permanent crops 2%; meadows and pastures
18%; forest and woodland 54%; other 13%; includes irrigated NEGL%


_#_Environment: recent volcanic activity with release of poisonous
gases; deforestation; overgrazing; desertification


_#_Note: sometimes referred to as the hinge of Africa


_*_People
_#_Population: 11,390,374 (July 1991), growth rate 2.7% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 41 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 15 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 118 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 49 years male, 53 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 5.6 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--Cameroonian(s); adjective--Cameroonian


_#_Ethnic divisions: over 200 tribes of widely differing background;
Cameroon Highlanders 31%, Equatorial Bantu 19%, Kirdi 11%, Fulani 10%,
Northwestern Bantu 8%, Eastern Nigritic 7%, other African 13%,
non-African less than 1%


_#_Religion: indigenous beliefs 51%, Christian 33%, Muslim 16%


_#_Language: English and French (official), 24 major African language
groups


_#_Literacy: 54% (male 66%, female 43%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)


_#_Labor force: NA; agriculture 74.4%, industry and transport 11.4%,
other services 14.2% (1983); 50% of population of working age (15-64
years) (1985)


_#_Organized labor: under 45% of wage labor force


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of Cameroon


_#_Type: unitary republic; multiparty presidential regime (opposition
parties legalized 1990)


_#_Capital: Yaounde


_#_Administrative divisions: 10 provinces; Adamaoua, Centre, Est,
Extreme-Nord, Littoral, Nord, Nord-Ouest, Ouest, Sud, Sud-Ouest


_#_Independence: 1 January 1960 (from UN trusteeship under
French administration; formerly French Cameroon)


_#_Constitution: 20 May 1972


_#_Legal system: based on French civil law system, with common law
influence; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction


_#_National holiday: National Day, 20 May (1972)


_#_Executive branch: president, Cabinet


_#_Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Assemblee
Nationale)


_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State President Paul BIYA (since 6 November 1982);

Head of Government interim Prime Minister Sadou HAYATOU (since
25 April 1991)


_#_Political parties and leaders: Cameroon People's Democratic
Movement (RDPC), Paul BIYA, president, is government-controlled and was
formerly the only party; 17 parties formed by 1 May 1991


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 21


_#_Elections:

President--last held 24 April 1988 (next to be held April 1993);
results--President Paul BIYA reelected without opposition;

National Assembly--last held 24 April 1988 (next to be
held by the end of 1992);
results--RDPC was the only party;
seats--(180 total) RDPC 180


_#_Communists: no Communist party or significant number of
sympathizers


_#_Other political or pressure groups: NA


_#_Member of: ACCT (associate), ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CCC, CEEAC, ECA,
FAO, FZ, G-19, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC,
ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, OIC, PCA,
UDEAC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Paul PONDI; Chancery at
2349 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC  20008; telephone (202)
265-8790 through 8794;

US--Ambassador Frances D. COOK; Embassy at Rue Nachtigal, Yaounde
(mailing address is B. P. 817, Yaounde); telephone [237] 234014; there is
a US Consulate General in Douala


_#_Flag: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), red, and
yellow with a yellow five-pointed star centered in the red band; uses the
popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Over the past decade the economy has registered a
remarkable performance because of the development of an offshore oil
industry. Real GDP growth annually averaged 10% from 1978 to 1985. In
1986 Cameroon had one of the highest levels of income per capita in
tropical Africa, with oil revenues picking up the slack as growth in
other sectors softened. Because of the sharp drop in oil prices, however,
the economy experienced serious budgetary difficulties and
balance-of-payments disequilibrium. Despite the recent upsurge in oil
prices, Cameroon's economic outlook is troubled. Oil reserves currently
being exploited will be depleted in the early 1990s, so ways must be
found to boost agricultural and industrial exports in the medium term.
The Sixth Cameroon Development Plan (1986-91) stresses balanced
development and designates agriculture as the basis of the country's
economic future.


_#_GDP: $11.5 billion, per capita $1,040; real growth rate 0.7%
(1990 est.)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 8.6% (FY88)


_#_Unemployment rate: 25% (1990 est.)


_#_Budget: revenues $1.7 billion; expenditures $2.2 billion,
including capital expenditures of $NA million (FY89)


_#_Exports: $2.1 billion (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities--petroleum products 56%, coffee, cocoa, timber,
manufactures;

partners--EC (particularly the French) about 50%, US 10%


_#_Imports: $2.1 billion (c.i.f., 1990 est.);

commodities--machines and electrical equipment, transport equipment,
chemical products, consumer goods;

partners--France 41%, Germany 9%, US 4%


_#_External debt: $4.9 billion (December 1989 est.)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate - 6.4% (FY87); accounts
for 30% of GDP


_#_Electricity: 752,000 kW capacity; 2,940 million kWh produced,
270 kWh per capita (1989)


_#_Industries: crude oil products, food processing, light consumer
goods industries textiles, sawmills


_#_Agriculture: the agriculture and forestry sectors provide
employment for the majority of the population, contributing nearly 25%
to GDP and providing a high degree of self-sufficiency in staple foods;
commercial and food crops include coffee, cocoa, timber, cotton, rubber,
bananas, oilseed, grains, livestock, root starches


_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $440
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $4.2 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $29 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $125 million


_#_Currency: Communaute Financiere Africaine franc
(plural--francs); 1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes


_#_Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs
(CFAF) per US$1--256.54 (January 1991), 272.26 (1990), 319.01 (1989),
297.85 (1988), 300.54 (1987), 346.30 (1986), 449.26 (1985)


_#_Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June


_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 1,003 km total; 858 km 1.000-meter gauge, 145 km
0.600-meter gauge


_#_Highways: about 65,000 km total; includes 2,682 km bituminous,
30,000 km unimproved earth, 32,318 km gravel, earth, and improved earth


_#_Inland waterways: 2,090 km; of decreasing importance


_#_Ports: Douala


_#_Merchant marine: 2 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
24,122 GRT/33,509 DWT


_#_Civil air: 5 major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 60 total, 52 usable; 10 with permanent-surface runways;
1 with runways over 3,659 m; 5 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 21 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: good system of open wire, cable, troposcatter,
and radio relay; 26,000 telephones; stations--10 AM, 1 FM, 1 TV; 2
Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy (including Marines), Air Force; paramilitary
Gendarmerie


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 2,628,909; 1,324,899 fit for
military service; 125,421 reach military age (18) annually


_#_Defense expenditures: $219 million, 1.7% of GDP (1990 est.)
_%_
_@_Canada
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 9,976,140 km2; land area: 9,220,970 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than US


_#_Land boundaries: 8,893 km with US (includes 2,477 km with Alaska)


_#_Coastline: 243,791 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation;

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm


_#_Disputes: maritime boundary disputes with France (Saint Pierre and
Miquelon) and US


_#_Climate: varies from temperate in south to subarctic and arctic in
north


_#_Terrain: mostly plains with mountains in west and lowlands in
southeast


_#_Natural resources: nickel, zinc, copper, gold, lead, molybdenum,
potash, silver, fish, timber, wildlife, coal, crude oil, natural gas


_#_Land use: arable land 5%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and
pastures 3%; forest and woodland 35%; other 57%; includes NEGL%
irrigated


_#_Environment: 80% of population concentrated within 160 km of US
border; continuous permafrost in north a serious obstacle to development


_#_Note: second-largest country in world (after USSR); strategic
location between USSR and US via north polar route


_*_People
_#_Population: 26,835,036 (July 1991), growth rate 1.1% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 14 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: 5 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 7 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 74 years male, 81 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 1.7 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--Canadian(s); adjective--Canadian


_#_Ethnic divisions: British Isles origin 40%, French origin 27%,
other European 20%, indigenous Indian and Eskimo 1.5%


_#_Religion: Roman Catholic 46%, United Church 16%, Anglican 10%


_#_Language: English and French (both official)


_#_Literacy: 99% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1981 est.)


_#_Labor force: 13,380,000; services 75%, manufacturing 14%,
agriculture 4%, construction 3%, other 4% (1988)


_#_Organized labor: 30.6% of labor force; 39.6% of nonagricultural
paid workers


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: none


_#_Type: confederation with parliamentary democracy


_#_Capital: Ottawa


_#_Administrative divisions: 10 provinces and 2 territories*; Alberta,
British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland,
Northwest Territories*, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island,
Quebec, Saskatchewan, Yukon Territory*


_#_Independence: 1 July 1867 (from UK)


_#_Constitution: amended British North America Act 1867 patriated to
Canada 17 April 1982; charter of rights and unwritten customs


_#_Legal system: based on English common law, except in Quebec, where
civil law system based on French law prevails; accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction, with reservations


_#_National holiday: Canada Day, 1 July (1867)


_#_Executive branch: British monarch, governor general, prime
minister, deputy prime minister, Cabinet


_#_Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament (Parlement) consists of an
upper house or Senate (Senat) and a lower house or House of Commons
(Chambre des Communes)


_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor General Raymond John HNATSHYN (since 29 January
1990);

Head of Government--Prime Minister (Martin) Brian MULRONEY (since
4 September 1984); Deputy Prime Minister Donald Frank MAZANKOWSKI (since
NA June 1986)


_#_Political parties and leaders:
Progressive Conservative, Brian MULRONEY;
Liberal, Jean CHRETIEN;
New Democratic, Audrey McLAUGHLIN


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


_#_Elections:

House of Commons--last held 21 November 1988 (next to be
held by November 1993);
results--Progressive Conservative 43.0%, Liberal 32%,
New Democratic Party 20%, other 5%;
seats--(295 total) Progressive Conservative 159, Liberal 80, New
Democratic Party 44, independent 12


_#_Communists: 3,000


_#_Member of: ACCT, AfDB, AG (observer), APEC, AsDB,
BIS, C, CCC, CDB, COCOM, CP, CSCE, EBRD, ECE, ECLAC, FAO, G-7, G-8, G-10,
GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF,
IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU,
LORCS, NATO, NEA, OAS, OECD, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNFICYP,
UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIIMOG, UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
WTO


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Derek BURNEY; Chancery at
1746 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20036; telephone (202)
785-1400; there are Canadian Consulates General in Atlanta, Boston,
Buffalo, Chicago, Cleveland, Dallas, Detroit, Los Angeles, Minneapolis,
New York, Philadelphia, San Francisco, and Seattle;

US--Ambassador Edward N. NEY; Embassy at 100 Wellington Street,
K1P 5T1, Ottawa (mailing address is P. O. Box 5000, Ogdensburg, NY
13669-0430); telephone (613) 248-25256, 25106, 25271, and 25170; there
are US Consulates General in Calgary, Halifax, Montreal, Quebec, Toronto,
and Vancouver


_#_Flag: three vertical bands of red (hoist side), white (double
width, square), and red with a red maple leaf centered in the white band


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: As an affluent, high-tech industrial society, Canada
today closely resembles the US in per capita output, market-oriented
economic system, and pattern of production. Since World War II the
impressive growth of the manufacturing, mining, and service sectors has
transformed the nation from a largely rural economy into one primarily
industrial and urban. In the 1980s Canada registered one of the highest
rates of real growth among the OECD nations, averaging about 3.2%. With
its great natural resources, skilled labor force, and modern capital
plant, Canada has excellent economic prospects. In mid-1990, however, the
long-simmering problems between English- and French-speaking areas
became so acute that observers spoke openly of a possible split in the
confederation; foreign investors were becoming edgy.


_#_GDP: $516.7 billion, per capita $19,500; real growth rate 0.9%
(1990)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.8% (1990)


_#_Unemployment rate: 8.1% (1990)


_#_Budget: revenues $105.8 billion; expenditures $131.6 billion,
including capital expenditures of $NA (FY90 est.)


_#_Exports: $126.7 billion (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities--newsprint, wood pulp, timber, grain, crude petroleum,
machinery, natural gas, ferrous and nonferrous ores, motor vehicles
and parts;

partners--US, Japan, UK, FRG, other EC, USSR


_#_Imports: $116.3 billion (c.i.f., 1990);

commodities--processed foods, beverages, crude petroleum,
chemicals, industrial machinery, motor vehicles and parts, durable
consumer goods, electronic computers;

partners--US, Japan, UK, FRG, other EC, Taiwan, South Korea, Mexico


_#_External debt: $247 billion (1987)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate - 2.7% (1990); accounts for 34%
of GDP


_#_Electricity: 105,000,000 kW capacity; 500,000 million kWh produced,
18,840 kWh per capita (1990)


_#_Industries: processed and unprocessed minerals, food products,
wood and paper products, transportation equipment, chemicals, fish
products, petroleum and natural gas


_#_Agriculture: accounts for about 3% of GDP; one of the world's major
producers and exporters of grain (wheat and barley); key source of US
agricultural imports; large forest resources cover 35% of total land
area; commercial fisheries provide annual catch of 1.5 million metric
tons, of which 75% is exported


_#_Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis for the domestic
drug market; use of hydroponics technology permits growers to plant
large quantities of high-quality marijuana indoors


_#_Economic aid: donor--ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $7.2
billion


_#_Currency: Canadian dollar (plural--dollars); 1 Canadian dollar
(Can$) = 100 cents


_#_Exchange rates: Canadian dollars (Can$) per US$1--1.1559
(January 1991), 1.1668 (1990), 1.1840 (1989), 1.2307 (1988), 1.3260
(1987), 1.3895 (1986), 1.3655 (1985)


_#_Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March


_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 93,544 km total; two major transcontinental freight
railway systems--Canadian National (government owned) and Canadian
Pacific Railway; passenger service--VIA (government operated)


_#_Highways: 884,272 km total; 712,936 km surfaced (250,023 km paved),
171,336 km earth


_#_Inland waterways: 3,000 km, including Saint Lawrence Seaway


_#_Pipelines: oil, 23,564 km total crude and refined; natural gas,
74,980 km


_#_Ports: Halifax, Montreal, Quebec, Saint John (New Brunswick),
Saint John's (Newfoundland), Toronto, Vancouver


_#_Merchant marine: 75 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 532,062
GRT/727,118 DWT; includes 1 passenger, 5 short-sea passenger, 2
passenger-cargo, 13 cargo, 2 railcar carrier, 1 refrigerated cargo, 8
roll-on/roll-off, 1 container, 27 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL)
tanker, 6 chemical tanker, 1 specialized tanker, 8 bulk; note--does not
include ships used exclusively in the Great Lakes


_#_Civil air: 636 major transport aircraft; Air Canada is the major
carrier


_#_Airports: 1,397 total, 1,154 usable; 443 with permanent-surface
runways; 4 with runways over 3,659 m; 30 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 328
with runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: excellent service provided by modern media;
18.0 million telephones; stations--900 AM, 29 FM, 53 (1,400 repeaters)
TV; 5 coaxial submarine cables; over 300 earth stations operating in
INTELSAT (including 4 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean) and domestic
systems


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Canadian Armed Forces (including Mobile Command,
Maritime Command, Air Command, Communications Command, Canadian Forces
Europe, Training Commands), Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP)


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 7,243,909; 6,297,520 fit for
military service; 188,996 reach military age (17) annually


_#_Defense expenditures: $11.3 billion, 2% of GDP (FY90)
_%_
_@_Cape Verde
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 4,030 km2; land area: 4,030 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than Rhode Island


_#_Land boundaries: none


_#_Coastline: 965 km


_#_Maritime claims: (measured from claimed archipelagic baselines);

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm


_#_Climate: temperate; warm, dry, summer precipitation very erratic


_#_Terrain: steep, rugged, rocky, volcanic


_#_Natural resources: salt, basalt rock, pozzolana, limestone, kaolin,
fish


_#_Land use: arable land 9%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and
pastures 6%; forest and woodland NEGL%; other 85%; includes irrigated
1%


_#_Environment: subject to prolonged droughts; harmattan wind can
obscure visibility; volcanically and seismically active; deforestation;
overgrazing


_#_Note: strategic location 500 km from African coast near major
north-south sea routes; important communications station; important sea
and air refueling site


_*_People
_#_Population: 386,501 (July 1991), growth rate 3.0% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 48 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 10 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: - 8 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 63 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 60 years male, 63 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 6.6 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--Cape Verdean(s); adjective--Cape Verdean


_#_Ethnic divisions: Creole (mulatto) about 71%, African 28%, European
1%


_#_Religion: Roman Catholicism fused with indigenous beliefs


_#_Language: Portuguese and Crioulo, a blend of Portuguese and West
African words


_#_Literacy: 66% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1989 est.)


_#_Labor force: 102,000 (1985 est.); agriculture (mostly subsistence)
57%, services 29%, industry 14% (1981); 51% of population of working age
(1985)


_#_Organized labor: Trade Unions of Cape Verde Unity Center (UNTC-CS)


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of Cape Verde


_#_Type: republic


_#_Capital: Praia


_#_Administrative divisions: 14 districts (concelhos,
singular--concelho); Boa Vista, Brava, Fogo, Maio, Paul, Praia, Porto
Novo, Ribeira Grande, Sal, Santa Catarina, Santa Cruz, Sao Nicolau,
Sao Vicente, Tarrafal


_#_Independence: 5 July 1975 (from Portugal)


_#_Constitution: 7 September 1980; amended 12 February 1981,
NA December 1988, and 28 September 1990 (legalized opposition parties)


_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 5 July (1975)


_#_Executive branch: president, prime minister, deputy minister,
secretaries of state, Council of Ministers (cabinet)


_#_Legislative branch: unicameral People's National Assembly
(Assembleia Nacional Popular)


_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Tribunal of Justice (Supremo Tribunal de
Justia)


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--President Antonio Mascarenhas MONTEIRO (since
22 March 1991);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Carlos VEIGA (since
13 January 1991)


_#_Political parties and leaders:
Movement for Democracy (MPD), Prime Minister Carlos VEIGA, founder and
chairman;
African Party for Independence of Cape Verde (PAICV), Pedro
Verona Rodrigues PIRES, chairman


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


_#_Elections:

President--last held 17 February 1991 (next to be held
February 1996);
results--Antonio Mascarenhas MONTEIRO (MPD) received 72.6% of vote;

People's National Assembly--last held 13 January 1991 (next
to be held January 1996);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(79 total) MPD 56, PAICV 23; note--this multiparty Assembly
election ended 15 years of single-party rule


_#_Communists: no Communist party


_#_Member of: ACP, AfDB, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA,
IFAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, IOM (observer), ITU, LORCS,
NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WMO


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Luis de Matos Monteiro da
FONSECA; Chancery at 3415 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20007;
telephone (202) 965-6820; there is a Cape Verdean Consulate General in
Boston;

US--Ambassador Francis T. (Terry) McNAMARA; Embassy at Rua Hojl Ya
Yenna 81, Praia (mailing address is C. P. 201, Praia); telephone
[238] 614-363 or 614-253


_#_Flag: two equal horizontal bands of yellow (top) and green with
a vertical red band on the hoist side; in the upper portion of the red
band is a black five-pointed star framed by two corn stalks and a
yellow clam shell; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia;
similar to the flag of Guinea-Bissau which is longer and has an
unadorned black star centered in the red band


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Cape Verde's low per capita GDP reflects a poor natural
resource base, a 17-year drought, and a high birthrate. The economy is
service oriented, with commerce, transport, and public services
accounting for 65% of GDP during the period 1985-88. Although nearly
70% of the population lives in rural areas, agriculture's share of GDP is
only 16%; the fishing sector accounts for 4%. About 90% of food must be
imported. The fishing potential, mostly lobster and tuna, is not fully
exploited. In 1988 fishing represented only 3.5% of GDP. Cape Verde
annually runs a high trade deficit, financed by remittances from
emigrants and foreign aid.


_#_GDP: $262 million, per capita $740; real growth rate 3.2%
(1988 est.)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 8.2% (1988 est.)


_#_Unemployment rate: 25% (1988)


_#_Budget: revenues $98.3 million; expenditures $138.4
million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1988 est.)


_#_Exports: $10.9 million (f.o.b., 1989 est.);

commodities--fish, bananas, salt;

partners--Portugal, Angola, Algeria, France, Italy


_#_Imports: $107.8 million (c.i.f., 1989);

commodities--petroleum, foodstuffs, consumer goods, industrial
products;

partners--Portugal, Netherlands, Spain, France, Brazil, FRG


_#_External debt: $150 million (December 1990 est.)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate 18% (1988 est.); accounts for
7% of GDP


_#_Electricity: 13,000 kW capacity; 15 million kWh produced,
40 kWh per capita (1990)


_#_Industry: fish processing, salt mining, clothing factories, ship
repair, construction materials, food and beverage production


_#_Agriculture: accounts for 16% of GDP; largely subsistence farming;
bananas are the only export crop; other crops--corn, beans, sweet
potatoes, coffee; growth potential of agricultural sector limited by
poor soils and limited rainfall; annual food imports required; fish catch
provides for both domestic consumption and small exports


_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY75-89), $88
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $590 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $12 million;
Communist countries (1970-88), $36 million


_#_Currency: Cape Verdean escudo (plural--escudos); 1 Cape Verdean
escudo (CVEsc) = 100 centavos


_#_Exchange rates: Cape Verdean escudos (CVEsc) per
US$1--64.10 (November 1990), 74.86 (December 1989), 72.01 (1988), 72.5
(1987), 76.56 (1986), 85.38 (1985)


_#_Fiscal year: calendar year


_*_Communications
_#_Ports: Mindelo and Praia


_#_Merchant marine: 7 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 11,708
GRT/19,000 DWT


_#_Civil air: 5 major transport aircraft (4 owned, 1 leased)


_#_Airports: 6 total, 6 usable; 6 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 1 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: interisland radio relay system, high-frequency
radio to mainland Portugal and Guinea-Bissau; 1,740 telephones;
stations--5 AM, 1 FM, 1 TV; 2 coaxial submarine cables; 1 Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT earth station


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: People's Revolutionary Armed Forces (FARP)--Army and
Navy are separate components of FARP; Militia, Security Service


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 70,771; 41,844 fit for military
service


_#_Defense expenditures: $15 million, 11% of GDP (1981)
_%_
_@_Cayman Islands
(dependent territory of the UK)
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 260 km2; land area: 260 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly less than 1.5 times the size of
Washington, DC


_#_Land boundaries: none


_#_Coastline: 160 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 3 nm


_#_Climate: tropical marine; warm, rainy summers (May to October) and
cool, relatively dry winters (November to April)


_#_Terrain: low-lying limestone base surrounded by coral reefs


_#_Natural resources: fish, climate and beaches that foster tourism


_#_Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
8%; forest and woodland 23%; other 69%


_#_Environment: within the Caribbean hurricane belt


_#_Note: important location between Cuba and Central America


_*_People
_#_Population: 27,489 (July 1991), growth rate 4.2% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 13 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: 33 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 10 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 74 years male, 80 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 1.4 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--Caymanian(s); adjective--Caymanian


_#_Ethnic divisions: 40% mixed, 20% white, 20% black, 20% expatriates
of various ethnic groups


_#_Religion: United Church (Presbyterian and Congregational),
Anglican, Baptist, Roman Catholic, Church of God, other Protestant
denominations


_#_Language: English


_#_Literacy: 98% (male 98%, female 98%) age 15 and over having ever
attended school (1970)


_#_Labor force: 8,061; service workers 18.7%, clerical 18.6%,
construction 12.5%, finance and investment 6.7%, directors and business
managers 5.9% (1979)


_#_Organized labor: Global Seaman's Union; Cayman All Trade Union


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: none


_#_Type: dependent territory of the UK


_#_Capital: George Town


_#_Administrative divisions: 8 districts; Creek, Eastern, Midland,
South Town, Spot Bay, Stake Bay, West End, Western


_#_Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)


_#_Legal system: British common law and local statutes


_#_Constitution: 1959, revised 1972


_#_National holiday: Constitution Day (first Monday in July), 1 July
1991


_#_Executive branch: British monarch, governor, Executive Council
(cabinet)


_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Assembly


_#_Judicial branch: Grand Court, Cayman Islands Court of Appeal


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor Alan James SCOTT (since NA 1987);

Head of Government--Governor and President of the Executive Council
Alan James SCOTT (since NA 1987)


_#_Political parties and leaders: no formal political parties


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


_#_Elections:

Legislative Assembly--last held NA November 1988 (next to be held
November 1992); results--percent of vote NA;
seats--(15 total, 12 elected)


_#_Communists: none


_#_Member of: CDB, IOC


_#_Diplomatic representation: as a dependent territory of the UK,
Caymanian interests in the US are represented by the UK;

US--none


_#_Flag: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant
and the Caymanian coat of arms on a white disk centered on the outer half
of the flag; the coat of arms includes a pineapple and turtle above a
shield with three stars (representing the three islands) and a scroll at
the bottom bearing the motto HE HATH FOUNDED IT UPON THE SEAS


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The economy depends heavily on tourism (70% of GDP
and 75% of export earnings) and offshore financial services, with
the tourist industry aimed at the luxury market and catering
mainly to visitors from North America. About 90% of the islands' food and
consumer goods needs must be imported. The Caymanians enjoy one of the
highest standards of living in the region.


_#_GDP: $342 million, per capita $13,670 (1989); real growth
rate 15% (1988)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.2% (1988)


_#_Unemployment rate: NA%


_#_Budget: revenues $76 million; expenditures $56 million,
including capital expenditures of $NA (1988)


_#_Exports: $1.5 million (f.o.b., 1987 est.);

commodities--turtle products, manufactured consumer goods;

partners--mostly US


_#_Imports: $136 million (c.i.f., 1987 est.);

commodities--foodstuffs, manufactured goods;

partners--US, Trinidad and Tobago, UK, Netherlands Antilles, Japan


_#_External debt: $15 million (1986)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%


_#_Electricity: 74,000 kW capacity; 256 million kWh produced,
9,710 kWh per capita (1990)


_#_Industries: tourism, banking, insurance and finance, construction,
building materials, furniture making


_#_Agriculture: minor production of vegetables, fruit, livestock;
turtle farming


_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-87), $26.7
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $35.0 million


_#_Currency: Caymanian dollar (plural--dollars); 1 Caymanian dollar
(CI$) = 100 cents


_#_Exchange rates: Caymanian dollars (CI$) per US$1--1.20 (fixed
rate)


_#_Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March


_*_Communications
_#_Highways: 160 km of main roads


_#_Ports: George Town, Cayman Brac


_#_Merchant marine: 33 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 372,732
GRT/604,395 DWT; includes 1 passenger-cargo, 6 cargo, 7 roll-on/roll-off
cargo, 6 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 1 chemical tanker,
2 specialized tanker, 1 liquefied gas carrier, 9 bulk; note--a flag of
convenience registry


_#_Airports: 3 total; 3 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 2,439 m; 2 with runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: 35,000 telephones; telephone system uses 1
submarine coaxial cable and 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station to
link islands and access international services; stations--2 AM, 1 FM,
no TV


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Royal Cayman Islands Police Force (RCIPF)


_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of the UK
_%_
_@_Central African Republic
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 622,980 km2; land area: 622,980 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than Texas


_#_Land boundaries: 5,203 km total; Cameroon 797 km, Chad 1,197 km,
Congo 467 km, Sudan 1,165 km, Zaire 1,577 km


_#_Coastline: none--landlocked


_#_Maritime claims: none--landlocked


_#_Climate: tropical; hot, dry winters; mild to hot, wet summers


_#_Terrain: vast, flat to rolling, monotonous plateau; scattered hills
in northeast and southwest


_#_Natural resources: diamonds, uranium, timber, gold, oil


_#_Land use: arable land 3%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and
pastures 5%; forest and woodland 64%; other 28%


_#_Environment: hot, dry, dusty harmattan winds affect northern areas;
poaching has diminished reputation as one of last great wildlife refuges;
desertification


_#_Note: landlocked; almost the precise center of Africa


_*_People
_#_Population: 2,952,382 (July 1991), growth rate 2.6% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 44 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 18 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 138 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 45 years male, 49 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 5.6 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--Central African(s); adjective--Central African


_#_Ethnic divisions: about 80 ethnic groups, the majority of which
have related ethnic and linguistic characteristics; Baya 34%, Banda 27%,
Sara 10%, Mandjia 21%, Mboum 4%, M'Baka 4%; 6,500 Europeans, of whom
3,600 are French


_#_Religion: indigenous beliefs 24%, Protestant 25%, Roman Catholic
25%, Muslim 15%, other 11%; animistic beliefs and practices strongly
influence the Christian majority


_#_Language: French (official); Sangho (lingua franca and national
language); Arabic, Hunsa, Swahili


_#_Literacy: 27% (male 33%, female 15%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)


_#_Labor force: 775,413 (1986 est.); agriculture 85%, commerce and
services 9%, industry 3%, government 3%; about 64,000 salaried workers;
55% of population of working age (1985)


_#_Organized labor: 1% of labor force


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Central African Republic (no short-form name);
abbreviated CAR


_#_Type: republic, one-party presidential regime since 1986


_#_Capital: Bangui


_#_Administrative divisions: 14 prefectures (prefectures,
singular--prefecture) and 2 economic prefectures* (prefectures
economiques, singular--prefecture economique); Bamingui-Bangoran,
Basse-Kotto, Gribingui*, Haute-Kotto, Haute-Sangha, Haut-Mbomou,
Kemo-Gribingui, Lobaye, Mbomou, Nana-Mambere, Ombella-Mpoko, Ouaka,
Ouham, Ouham-Pende, Sangha*, Vakaga; note--there may be a new
autonomous commune of Bangui


_#_Independence: 13 August 1960 (from France; formerly Central African
Empire)


_#_Constitution: 21 November 1986


_#_Legal system: based on French law


_#_National holiday: National Day (proclamation of the republic),
1 December (1958)


_#_Executive branch: president, Council of Ministers (cabinet)


_#_Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Assemblee
Nationale) advised by the Economic and Regional Council (Conseil
Economique et Regional); when they sit together this is known
as the Congress (Congres)


_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government--President
Andre-Dieudonne KOLINGBA (since 1 September 1981)


_#_Political parties and leaders: only party--Centrafrican Democrtic
Rally Party (RDC), Andre-Dieudonne KOLINGBA


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 21


_#_Elections:

President--last held 21 November 1986 (next to be held November
1993);
results--President KOLINGBA was reelected without opposition;

National Assembly--last held 31 July 1987 (next to be
held July 1992);
results--RDC is the only party;
seats--(52 total) RDC 52


_#_Communists: small number of Communist sympathizers


_#_Member of: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CCC, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ,
G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL,
IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, UDEAC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Jean-Pierre SOHAHONG-KOMBET;
Chancery at 1618 22nd Street NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202)
483-7800 or 7801;

US--Ambassador Daniel H. SIMPSON; Embassy at Avenue du President
David Dacko, Bangui (mailing address is B. P. 924, Bangui);
telephone 61-02-00 or 61-25-78, 61-43-33


_#_Flag: four equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, green, and
yellow with a vertical red band in center; there is a yellow five-pointed
star on the hoist side of the blue band


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The Central African Republic (CAR) had a per capita
income of roughly $440 in 1990. Subsistence agriculture, including
forestry, is the backbone of the economy, with over 70% of the population
living in the countryside. In 1988 the agricultural sector generated
about 40% of GDP. Agricultural products accounted for about 60% of export
earnings and the diamond industry for 30%. Important constraints to
economic development include the CAR's landlocked position, a poor
transportation infrastructure, and a weak human resource base.
Multilateral and bilateral development assistance plays a major role in
providing capital for new investment.


_#_GDP: $1.3 billion, per capita $440; real growth rate 2.0%
(1990 est.)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): - 4.2% (1988 est.)


_#_Unemployment rate: 30% in Bangui (1988 est.)


_#_Budget: revenues $132 million; current expenditures $305 million,
including capital expenditures of $NA million (1989 est.)


_#_Exports: $148 million (f.o.b., 1989 est.);

commodities--diamonds, cotton, coffee, timber, tobacco;

partners--France, Belgium, Italy, Japan, US


_#_Imports: $239 million (c.i.f., 1989 est.);

commodities--food, textiles, petroleum products, machinery,
electrical equipment, motor vehicles, chemicals, pharmaceuticals,
consumer goods, industrial products;

partners--France, other EC, Japan, Algeria, Yugoslavia


_#_External debt: $671 million (December 1989)


_#_Industrial production: 0.8% (1988); accounts for 12% of GDP


_#_Electricity: 35,000 kW capacity; 84 million kWh produced,
30 kWh per capita (1989)


_#_Industries: diamond mining, sawmills, breweries, textiles,
footwear, assembly of bicycles and motorcycles


_#_Agriculture: accounts for 40% of GDP; self-sufficient in food
production except for grain; commercial crops--cotton, coffee, tobacco,
timber; food crops--manioc, yams, millet, corn, bananas


_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $49
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $1.4 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $6 million;
Communist countries (1970-88), $38 million


_#_Currency: Communaute Financiere Africaine franc
(plural--francs); 1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes


_#_Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF)
per US$1--256.54 (January 1991), 272.26 (1990), 319.01 (1989), 297.85
(1988), 300.54 (1987), 346.30 (1986), 449.26 (1985)


_#_Fiscal year: calendar year


_*_Communications
_#_Highways: 22,000 km total; 458 km bituminous, 10,542 km improved
earth, 11,000 unimproved earth


_#_Inland waterways: 800 km; traditional trade carried on by means of
shallow-draft dugouts; Oubangui is the most important river


_#_Civil air: 2 major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 66 total, 49 usable; 4 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 22 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: fair system; network relies primarily on radio
relay links, with low-capacity, low-powered radiocommunication also used;
6,000 telephones; stations--1 AM, 1 FM, 1 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT
earth station


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Central African Armed Forces, Air Force, National
Gendarmerie, Police Force


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 659,802; 345,049 fit for
military service


_#_Defense expenditures: $23 million, 1.8% of GDP (1989 est.)
_%_
_@_Chad
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 1,284,000 km2; land area: 1,259,200 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly more than three times the size of
California


_#_Land boundaries: 5,968 km total; Cameroon 1,094 km, Central African
Republic 1,197 km, Libya 1,055 km, Niger 1,175 km, Nigeria 87 km, Sudan
1,360 km


_#_Coastline: none--landlocked


_#_Maritime claims: none--landlocked


_#_Disputes: Libya claims and occupies the 100,000 km2 Aozou
Strip in the far north; demarcation of international boundaries in
Lake Chad, the lack of which has led to border incidents in the past,
is completed and awaiting ratification by Cameroon, Chad, Niger, and
Nigeria


_#_Climate: tropical in south, desert in north


_#_Terrain: broad, arid plains in center, desert in north, mountains
in northwest, lowlands in south


_#_Natural resources: crude oil (unexploited but exploration
beginning), uranium, natron, kaolin, fish (Lake Chad)


_#_Land use: arable land 2%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and
pastures 36%; forest and woodland 11%; other 51%; includes irrigated
NEGL%


_#_Environment: hot, dry, dusty harmattan winds occur in north;
drought and desertification adversely affecting south; subject to plagues
of locusts


_#_Note: landlocked; Lake Chad is the most significant water body
in the Sahel


_*_People
_#_Population: 5,122,467 (July 1991), growth rate 2.1% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 42 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 22 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: NEGL migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 134 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 39 years male, 41 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 5.3 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--Chadian(s); adjective--Chadian


_#_Ethnic divisions: some 200 distinct ethnic groups, most of whom are
Muslims (Arabs, Toubou, Hadjerai, Fulbe, Kotoko, Kanembou, Baguirmi,
Boulala, Zaghawa, and Maba) in the north and center and non-Muslims
(Sara, Ngambaye, Mbaye, Goulaye, Moundang, Moussei, Massa) in the south;
some 150,000 nonindigenous, of whom 1,000 are French


_#_Religion: Muslim 44%, Christian 33%, indigenous beliefs, animism
23%


_#_Language: French and Arabic (official); Sara and Sango in south;
more than 100 different languages and dialects are spoken


_#_Literacy: 30% (male 42%, female 18%) age 15 and over can
read and write French or Arabic (1990 est.)


_#_Labor force: NA; agriculture (engaged in unpaid subsistence
farming, herding, and fishing) 85%


_#_Organized labor: about 20% of wage labor force


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of Chad


_#_Type: republic


_#_Capital: N'Djamena


_#_Administrative divisions: 14 prefectures (prefectures,
singular--prefecture); Batha, Biltine, Borkou-Ennedi-Tibesti,
Chari-Baguirmi, Guera, Kanem, Lac, Logone Occidental, Logone Oriental,
Mayo-Kebbi, Moyen-Chari, Ouaddai, Salamat, Tandjile


_#_Independence: 11 August 1960 (from France)


_#_Constitution: 22 December 1989, suspended 3 December 1990;
Provisional National Charter 1 March 1991


_#_Legal system: based on French civil law system and Chadian
customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction


_#_National holiday: NA


_#_Executive branch: president, Council of State (cabinet)


_#_Legislative branch: the National Consultative Council (Conseil
National Consultatif) was disbanded 3 December 1990 and replaced by
the Provisional Council of the Republic; 30 members appointed by
President DEBY on 8 March 1991


_#_Judicial branch: Court of Appeal


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--Col. Idriss DEBY (since 4 December 1990);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Jean LINGUE Bawoyeu
(since 8 March 1991)


_#_Political parties and leaders: Patriotic Salvation Movement (MPS;
former dissident group), Idriss DEBY, chairman; President DEBY has
promised political pluralism, a new constitution, and free elections by
September 1993; numerous dissident groups


_#_Suffrage: universal at age NA


_#_Elections:

President--last held 10 December 1989 (next to be held NA);
results--President Hissein HABRE was elected without opposition;
note--the government of then President HABRE fell on 1 December 1990
and Idriss DEBY seized power on 3 December 1990;

National Consultative Council--last held 8 July 1990;
disbanded 3 December 1990


_#_Communists: no front organizations or underground party; probably a
few Communists and some sympathizers


_#_Other political or pressure groups: NA


_#_Member of: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77,
GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IDB, IFAD, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL,
IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, OIC, UDEAC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Mahamat Ali ADOUM; Chancery
at 2002 R Steet NW, Washington DC 20009; telephone (202) 462-4009;

US--Ambassador Richard W. BOGOSIAN; Embassy at Avenue Felix
Eboue, N'Djamena (mailing address is B. P. 413, N'Djamena); telephone
[235] (51) 62-18, 40-09


_#_Flag: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and
red; similar to the flag of Romania; also similar to the flag of
Andorra which has a national coat of arms featuring a quartered shield
centered in the yellow band; design was based on the flag of France


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The climate, geographic location, and lack of
infrastructure and natural resources potential make Chad one of the most
underdeveloped countries in the world. Its economy is burdened by
the ravages of civil war, conflict with Libya, drought, and food
shortages. In 1986 real GDP returned to its 1977 level, with cotton,
the major cash crop, accounting for 48% of exports. Over 80%
of the work force is employed in subsistence farming and fishing.
Industry is based almost entirely on the processing of agricultural
products, including cotton, sugarcane, and cattle. Chad is highly
dependent on foreign aid, with its economy in trouble and many regions
suffering from shortages. Oil companies are exploring areas north of
Lake Chad and in the Doba basin in the south.


_#_GDP: $1,015 million, per capita $205; real growth rate 0.9% (1989
est.)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): - 4.9% (1989)


_#_Unemployment rate: NA


_#_Budget: revenues $78 million; expenditures $127 million, not
including capital expenditures that are mostly financed by foreign
aid donors (1989 est.)


_#_Exports: $174 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities--cotton 48%, cattle 35%, textiles 5%, fish;

partners--France, Nigeria, Cameroon


_#_Imports: $264 million (c.i.f., 1990 est.);

commodities--machinery and transportation equipment 39%,
industrial goods 20%, petroleum products 13%, foodstuffs 9%;
note--excludes military equipment;

partners--US, France, Nigeria, Cameroon



_#_External debt: $530 million (December 1990 est.)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate 12.9% (1989 est.); accounts for
nearly 15% of GDP


_#_Electricity: 38,000 kW capacity; 70 million kWh produced, 14 kWh
per capita (1989)


_#_Industries: cotton textile mills, slaughterhouses, brewery, natron
(sodium carbonate), soap, cigarettes


_#_Agriculture: accounts for about 45% of GDP; largely subsistence
farming; cotton most important cash crop; food crops include sorghum,
millet, peanuts, rice, potatoes, manioc; livestock--cattle, sheep, goats,
camels; self-sufficient in food in years of adequate rainfall


_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $198
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $1.3 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $28 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $80 million


_#_Currency: Communaute Financiere Africaine franc
(plural--francs); 1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes


_#_Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF)
per US$1--256.54 (January 1991), 272.26 (1990), 319.01 (1989), 297.85
(1988), 300.54 (1987), 346.30 (1986), 449.26 (1985)


_#_Fiscal year: calendar year


_*_Communications
_#_Highways: 31,322 km total; 32 km bituminous; 7,300 km gravel and
laterite; remainder unimproved


_#_Inland waterways: 2,000 km navigable


_#_Civil air: 3 major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 70 total, 54 usable; 4 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 3 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 23 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: fair system of radiocommunication stations for
intercity links; 5,000 telephones; stations--3 AM, 1 FM, limited TV
service; many facilities are inoperative; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth
station


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Patriotic Salvation Force (FPS; Army, Air Force),
paramilitary Gendarmerie, National Police


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 1,188,222; 616,932 fit for
military service; 51,713 reach military age (20) annually


_#_Defense expenditures: $39 million, 4.3% of GDP (1988)
_%_
_@_Chile
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 756,950 km2; land area: 748,800 km2; includes Isla de
Pascua (Easter Island) and Isla Sala y Gomez


_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than twice the size of Montana


_#_Land boundaries: 6,171 km total; Argentina 5,150 km, Bolivia
861 km, Peru 160 km


_#_Coastline: 6,435 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 nm;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm


_#_Disputes: short section of the southern boundary with Argentina is
indefinite; Bolivia has wanted a sovereign corridor to the South
Pacific Ocean since the Atacama area was lost to Chile in 1884;
dispute with Bolivia over Rio Lauca water rights; territorial claim in
Antarctica (Chilean Antarctic Territory) partially overlaps Argentine
claim


_#_Climate: temperate; desert in north; cool and damp in south


_#_Terrain: low coastal mountains; fertile central valley; rugged
Andes in east


_#_Natural resources: copper, timber, iron ore, nitrates, precious
metals, molybdenum


_#_Land use: arable land 7%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and
pastures 16%; forest and woodland 21%; other 56%; includes irrigated
2%


_#_Environment: subject to severe earthquakes, active volcanism,
tsunami; Atacama Desert one of world's driest regions; desertification


_#_Note: strategic location relative to sea lanes between
Atlantic and Pacific Oceans (Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel, Drake
Passage)


_*_People
_#_Population: 13,286,620 (July 1991), growth rate 1.5% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 21 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 18 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 70 years male, 77 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 2.5 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--Chilean(s); adjective--Chilean


_#_Ethnic divisions: European and European-Indian 95%, Indian 3%,
other 2%


_#_Religion: Roman Catholic 89%, Protestant 11%, and small Jewish
population


_#_Language: Spanish


_#_Literacy: 93% (male 94%, female 93%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)


_#_Labor force: 3,840,000; services 38.6% (includes government 12%)
38.6%; industry and commerce 31.3%; agriculture, forestry, and fishing
15.9%; mining 8.7%; construction 4.4% (1985)


_#_Organized labor: 11% of labor force (1990)


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of Chile


_#_Type: republic


_#_Capital: Santiago


_#_Administrative divisions: 13 regions (regiones,
singular--region); Aisen del General Carlos Ibanez del Campo,
Antofagasta, Araucania, Atacama, Bio-Bio, Coquimbo, Libertador
General Bernardo O'Higgins, Los Lagos, Magallanes y de la Antartica
Chilena, Maule, Region Metropolitana, Tarapaca, Valparaiso;
note--the US does not recognize claims to Antarctica


_#_Independence: 18 September 1810 (from Spain)


_#_Constitution: 11 September 1980, effective 11 March 1981;
amended 30 July 1989


_#_Legal system: based on Code of 1857 derived from Spanish law and
subsequent codes influenced by French and Austrian law; judicial review
of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction


_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 18 September (1810)


_#_Executive branch: president, Cabinet


_#_Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress (Congreso
Nacional) consisting of an upper house or Senate (Senado) and a lower
house or Chamber of Deputies (Camara de Diputados)


_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema)


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government--President Patricio
AYLWIN (since 11 March 1990)


_#_Political parties and leaders:
Concertation of Parties for Democracy now consists mainly of six
parties--Christian Democratic Party (PDC), Andres ZALDIVAR;
Party for Democracy (PPD), Erich SCHNAKE;
Radical Party (PR), Mario ASTORGA;
Democratic Socialist Radical Party (PRSD), Jorge IBANEZ;
Social Democratic Party (PSD), Rene ABELIUK; and
Socialist Party, Jorge ARRATE;
National Renovation (RN), Andres ALLAMAND;
Independent Democratic Union (UDI), Joaquin LAVIN;
Communist Party of Chile (PCCh), Volodia TEITELBOIM;
Movement of Revolutionary Left (MIR) is splintered, no single
leader


_#_Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 18


_#_Elections:

President--last held 14 December 1989 (next to be held December
1993 or January 1994);
results--Patricio AYLWIN (PDC) 55.2%, Hernan BUCHI 29.4%, other 15.4%;

Senate--last held 14 December 1989 (next to be held December
1993 or January 1994); seats--(46 total, 38 elected)
Concertation of Parties for Democracy 22 (PDC 13, PPD 5, PR 2, PSD 1,
PRSD 1), RN 6, UDI 2, independents 8;

Chamber of Deputies--last held 14 December 1989 (next to be held
December 1993 or January 1994); seats--(120 total)
Concertation of Parties for Democracy 72 (PDC 38, PPD 17, PR 5, other
12), RN 29, UDI 11, right-wing independents 8


_#_Communists: The PCCh is currently in the process of regaining
legal party status and has less than 60,000 members


_#_Other political or pressure groups: revitalized university student
federations at all major universities dominated by opposition political
groups; labor--United Labor Central (CUT) includes trade unionists from
the country's five-largest labor confederations; Roman Catholic Church


_#_Member of: CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL,
IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, LORCS, OAS, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMOGIP, UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Patricio SILVA Echenique;
Chancery at 1732 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20036; telephone
(202) 785-1746; there are Chilean Consulates General in Chicago, Houston,
Los Angeles, Miami, New York, and San Francisco;

US--Ambassador Charles A. GILLESPIE, Jr.; Embassy at Codina
Building, 1343 Agustinas, Santiago (mailing address is APO Miami 34033);
telephone [56] (2) 710133 or 710190, 710326, 710375


_#_Flag: two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red; there is a
blue square the same height as the white band at the hoist-side end of
the white band; the square bears a white five-pointed star in the center;
design was based on the US flag


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: In 1990 economic growth slowed from an average of 6.2%
for the previous six years to about 1.5% as a result of tight monetary
policy aimed at reducing inflation. Monetary policy was not
successful at slowing price increases until the end of the year,
however, and inflation, stimulated by higher world oil prices,
increased to 27.3% in 1990 from 21.4% in 1989. Copper prices held strong
in 1990, helping to maintain a balance-of-payments surplus and increase
international reserves. Most observers expect that inflationary
pressures have run their course and price increases will slow during
1991, contributing to growth of 4-5%.


_#_GDP: $26 billion, per capita $2,000; real growth rate 2.0% (1990)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 27.3% (1990)


_#_Unemployment rate: 5.6% (1990)


_#_Budget: revenues $6.6 billion; expenditures $7.1 billion,
including capital expenditures of $575 million (1990 est.)


_#_Exports: $8.3 billion (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities--copper 48%, industrial products 33%, molybdenum,
iron ore, wood pulp, fishmeal, fruits;

partners--EC 34%, US 22%, Japan 10%, Brazil 7%


_#_Imports: $7.0 billion (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities--petroleum, wheat, capital goods, spare parts, raw
materials;

partners--EC 23%, US 20%, Japan 10%, Brazil 9%


_#_External debt: $18.4 billion (February 1991)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate 0% (1990);
accounts for 30% of GDP


_#_Electricity: 4,138,000 kW capacity; 17,784 million kWh produced,
1,360 kWh per capita (1990)


_#_Industries: copper, other minerals, foodstuffs, fish processing,
iron and steel, wood and wood products, transport equipment, cement,
textiles


_#_Agriculture: accounts for about 8% of GDP (including fishing and
forestry); major exporter of fruit, fish, and timber products; major
crops--wheat, corn, grapes, beans, sugar beets, potatoes, deciduous
fruit; livestock products--beef, poultry, wool; self-sufficient in most
foods; 1986 fish catch of 5.6 million metric tons net agricultural
importer


_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $521
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $1.4 billion; Communist countries (1970-88), $386 million


_#_Currency: Chilean peso (plural--pesos);
1 Chilean peso (Ch$) = 100 centavos


_#_Exchange rates: Chilean pesos (Ch$) per US$1--337.24 (January
1991), 305.06 (1990), 267.16 (1989), 245.05 (1988), 219.54 (1987), 193.02
(1986), 161.08 (1985)


_#_Fiscal year: calendar year


_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 8,613 km total; 4,257 km 1.676-meter gauge, 135 km
1.435-meter standard gauge, 4,221 km 1.000-meter gauge; electrification,
1,865 km 1.676-meter gauge, 80 km 1.000-meter gauge


_#_Highways: 79,025 km total; 9,913 km paved, 33,140 km gravel,
35,972 km improved and unimproved earth (1984)


_#_Inland waterways: 725 km


_#_Pipelines: crude oil, 755 km; refined products, 785 km;
natural gas, 320 km


_#_Ports: Antofagasta, Iquique, Puerto Montt, Punta Arenas,
Valparaiso, San Antonio, Talcahuano, Arica


_#_Merchant marine: 35 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 485,935
GRT/800,969 DWT; includes 14 cargo, 1 refrigerated cargo, 3
roll-on/roll-off cargo, 2 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 1
chemical tanker, 2 liquefied gas, 3 combination ore/oil, 9 bulk;
note--in addition, 2 naval tanker and 2 military transport are sometimes
used commercially


_#_Civil air: 22 major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 392 total, 353 usable; 50 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 12 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
55 with runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: modern telephone system based on extensive
radio relay facilities; 768,000 telephones; stations--159 AM, no FM,
131 TV, 11 shortwave; satellite stations--2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 3
domestic


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army of the Nation, National Navy (including Naval Air
and Marines), Air Force of the Nation, Carabineros of Chile (National
Police)


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 3,544,962; 2,647,148 fit for
military service; 119,511 reach military age (19) annually


_#_Defense expenditures: $737 million, 3% of GNP (1991 est.)
_%_
_@_China
(also see separate Taiwan entry)
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 9,596,960 km2; land area: 9,326,410 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than the US


_#_Land boundaries: 23,213.34 km total; Afghanistan 76 km, Bhutan
470 km, Burma 2,185 km, Hong Kong 30 km, India 3,380 km, North Korea
1,416 km, Laos 423 km, Macau 0.34 km, Mongolia 4,673 km, Nepal 1,236 km,
Pakistan 523 km, USSR 7,520 km, Vietnam 1,281 km


_#_Coastline: 14,500 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: claim to shallow areas of East China Sea
and Yellow Sea

Territorial sea: 12 nm


_#_Disputes: boundary with India; bilateral negotiations are under
way to resolve disputed sections of the boundary with the USSR; a short
section of the boundary with North Korea is indefinite; sporadic border
clashes with Vietnam; involved in a complex dispute over the Spratly
Islands with Malaysia, Philippines, Taiwan, and Vietnam; maritime
boundary dispute with Vietnam in the Gulf of Tonkin; Paracel Islands
occupied by China, but claimed by Vietnam and Taiwan; claims
Japanese-administered Senkaku-shoto (Senkaku Islands)


_#_Climate: extremely diverse; tropical in south to subarctic in north


_#_Terrain: mostly mountains, high plateaus, deserts in west; plains,
deltas, and hills in east


_#_Natural resources: coal, iron ore, crude oil, mercury, tin,
tungsten, antimony, manganese, molybdenum, vanadium, magnetite, aluminum,
lead, zinc, uranium, world's largest hydropower potential


_#_Land use: arable land 10%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and
pastures 31%; forest and woodland 14%; other 45%; includes irrigated 5%


_#_Environment: frequent typhoons (about five times per year along
southern and eastern coasts), damaging floods, tsunamis, earthquakes;
deforestation; soil erosion; industrial pollution; water pollution;
air pollution; desertification


_#_Note: world's third-largest country (after USSR and Canada)


_*_People
_#_Population: 1,151,486,981 (July 1991), growth rate 1.6% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 22 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 33 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 68 years male, 72 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 2.3 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--Chinese (sing., pl.); adjective--Chinese


_#_Ethnic divisions: Han Chinese 93.3%; Zhuang, Uygur, Hui, Yi,
Tibetan, Miao, Manchu, Mongol, Buyi, Korean, and other nationalities
6.7%


_#_Religion: officially atheist, but traditionally pragmatic and
eclectic; most important elements of religion are Confucianism, Taoism,
and Buddhism; Muslim 2-3%, Christian 1% (est.)


_#_Language: Standard Chinese (Putonghua) or Mandarin (based on the
Beijing dialect); also Yue (Cantonese), Wu (Shanghainese), Minbei
(Fuzhou), Minnan (Hokkien-Taiwanese), Xiang, Gan, Hakka dialects, and
minority languages (see ethnic divisions)


_#_Literacy: 73% (male 84%, female 62%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)


_#_Labor force: 553,000,000; agriculture and forestry 60%, industry
and commerce 25%, construction and mining 5%, social services 5%,
other 5% (1989 est.)


_#_Organized labor: All-China Federation of Trade Unions (ACFTU)
follows the leadership of the Chinese Communist Party; membership over 80
million or about 65% of the urban work force (1985)


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: People's Republic of China; abbreviated PRC


_#_Type: Communist Party-led state


_#_Capital: Beijing


_#_Administrative divisions: 23 provinces (sheng, singular and
plural), 5 autonomous regions* (zizhiqu, singular and plural), and 3
municipalities** (shi, singular and plural); Anhui, Beijing**, Fujian,
Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi*, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan,
Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol*, Ningxia*,
Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanghai**, Shanxi, Sichuan, Tianjin**,
Xinjiang*, Xizang*, Yunnan, Zhejiang; note--China considers Taiwan its
23rd province


_#_Independence: unification under the Qin (Ch'in) Dynasty 221 BC,
Qing (Ch'ing or Manchu) Dynasty replaced by the Republic on 12 February
1912, People's Republic established 1 October 1949


_#_Constitution: 4 December 1982


_#_Legal system: a complex amalgam of custom and statute, largely
criminal law; rudimentary civil code in effect since 1 January 1987; new
legal codes in effect since 1 January 1980; continuing efforts are being
made to improve civil, administrative, criminal, and commercial law


_#_National holiday: National Day, 1 October (1949)


_#_Executive branch: president, vice president, premier, five vice
premiers, State Council


_#_Legislative branch: unicameral National People's Congress (Quanguo
Renmin Daibiao Dahui)


_#_Judicial branch: Supreme People's Court


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government (de facto)--DENG
Xiaoping (since mid-1977);

Chief of State--President YANG Shangkun (since 8 April 1988);
Vice President WANG Zhen (since 8 April 1988);

Head of Government--Premier LI Peng (Acting Premier since
24 November 1987, Premier since 9 April 1988);
Vice Premier YAO Yilin (since 2 July 1979);
Vice Premier TIAN Jiyun (since 20 June 1983);
Vice Premier WU Xueqian (since 12 April 1988);
Vice Premier ZOU Jiahua (since 8 April 1991);
Vice Premier ZHU Rongji (since 8 April 1991)


_#_Political parties and leaders: only party--Chinese Communist Party
(CCP), JIANG Zemin, general secretary of the Central Committee (since
NA June 1989)


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


_#_Elections:

President--last held 8 April 1988 (next to be held March 1993);
YANG Shangkun was nominally elected by the Seventh National People's
Congress;

National People's Congress--last held NA March 1988 (next to
be held March 1993); results--CCP is the only party but there are
also independents;
seats--(2,976 total) CCP and independents 2,976 (indirectly elected
at county or xian level)


_#_Communists: 49,000,000 party members (1990 est.)


_#_Other political or pressure groups: such meaningful opposition as
exists consists of loose coalitions, usually within the party and
government organization, that vary by issue


_#_Member of: AfDB, AsDB, CCC, ESCAP, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO,
ITU, LORCS, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UN Security
Council, UN Trusteeship Council, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador ZHU Qizhen; Chancery at
2300 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008;
telephone (202) 328-2500 through 2502; there are Chinese Consulates
General in Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, and San Francisco;

US--Ambassador James R. LILLEY; Embassy at Xiu Shui Bei Jie 3,
Beijing (mailing address is 100600, PRC Box 50, Beijing or FPO San
Francisco 96655-0001); telephone [86] (1) 532-3831; there are US
Consulates General in Chengdu, Guangzhou, Shanghai, and Shenyang


_#_Flag: red with a large yellow five-pointed star and four smaller
yellow five-pointed stars (arranged in a vertical arc toward the middle
of the flag) in the upper hoist-side corner


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Beginning in late 1978 the Chinese leadership has been
trying to move the economy from the sluggish Soviet-style centrally
planned economy to a more productive and flexible economy with market
elements--but still within the framework of monolithic Communist control.
To this end the authorities have switched to a system of household
responsibility in agriculture in place of the old collectivization,
increased the authority of local officials and plant managers in
industry, permitted a wide variety of small-scale enterprise in services
and light manufacturing, and opened the foreign economic sector to
increased trade and joint ventures. The most gratifying result has been a
strong spurt in production, particularly in agriculture in the early
1980s. Otherwise, the leadership has often experienced in its hybrid
system the worst results of socialism (bureaucracy, lassitude,
corruption) and of capitalism (windfall gains and stepped-up inflation).
Beijing thus has periodically backtracked, retightening central controls
at intervals and thereby undermining the credibility of the reform
process. Popular resistance and changes in central policy have
weakened China's population control program, which is essential to the
nation's long-term economic viability.


_#_GNP: $413 billion (1989 est.), per capita $370 (World Bank est.);
real growth rate 5% (1990)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.1% (1990)


_#_Unemployment rate: 2.6% in urban areas (1990)


_#_Budget: revenues $NA; expenditures $NA, including capital
expenditures of $NA


_#_Exports: $62.1 billion (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities--textiles, garments, telecommunications and recording
equipment, petroleum, minerals;

partners--Hong Kong, US, Japan, USSR, Singapore, FRG (1989)


_#_Imports: $53.4 billion (c.i.f., 1990);

commodities--specialized industrial machinery, chemicals,
manufactured goods, steel, textile yarn, fertilizer;

partners--Hong Kong, Japan, US, FRG, USSR (1989)


_#_External debt: $51 billion (1990 est.)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate 7.6% (1990); accounts
for 45% of GNP


_#_Electricity: 117,580,000 kW capacity; 585,000 million kWh produced,
520 kWh per capita (1990)


_#_Industries: iron, steel, coal, machine building, armaments,
textiles, petroleum, cement, chemical fertilizers, consumer durables,
food processing


_#_Agriculture: accounts for 26% of GNP; among the world's largest
producers of rice, potatoes, sorghum, peanuts, tea, millet, barley,
and pork; commercial crops include cotton, other fibers, and oilseeds;
produces variety of livestock products; basically self-sufficient in
food; fish catch of 8 million metric tons in 1986


_#_Economic aid: donor--to less developed countries (1970-89) $7.0
billion; US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-87), $220.7 million;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87),
$13.5 billion


_#_Currency: yuan (plural--yuan); 1 yuan (3) = 10 jiao


_#_Exchange rates: yuan (3) per US$1--5.31 (April 1991),
4.7832 (1990), 3.7651 (1989), 3.7221 (1988), 3.7221 (1987), 3.4528
(1986), 2.9367 (1985)


_#_Fiscal year: calendar year


_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: total about 54,000 km common carrier lines; 53,400 km
1.435-meter standard gauge;  600 km 1.000-meter gauge;
all single track except 11,200 km double track on standard-gauge lines;
6,500 km electrified; 10,000 km industrial lines
(gauges range from 0.762 to 1.067 meters)


_#_Highways: about 980,000 km all types roads; 162,000 km paved
roads, 617,200 km gravel/improved earth roads, 200,800 km unimproved
natural earth roads and tracks


_#_Inland waterways: 138,600 km; about 109,800 km navigable


_#_Pipelines: crude, 6,500 km; refined products, 1,100 km; natural
gas, 6,200 km


_#_Ports: Dalian, Guangzhou, Huangpu, Qingdao, Qinhuangdao, Shanghai,
Xingang, Zhanjiang, Ningbo, Xiamen, Tanggu, Shantou


_#_Merchant marine: 1,421 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
14,010,317 GRT/21,223,170 DWT; includes 24 passenger, 42 short-sea
passenger, 19 passenger-cargo, 7 cargo/training, 776 cargo, 11
refrigerated cargo, 70 container, 17 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 2
multifunction barge carrier, 181 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL)
tanker, 9 chemical tanker, 250 bulk, 2 liquefied gas, 2 vehicle carrier,
9 combination bulk; note--China beneficially owns an additional 183 ships
(1,000 GRT or over) totaling approximately 5,921,000 DWT that operate
under Maltese and Liberian registry


_#_Airports: 330 total, 330 usable; 260 with permanent-surface
runways; fewer than 10 with runways over 3,500 m; 90 with runways
2,440-3,659 m; 200 with runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: domestic and international services are
increasingly available for private use; unevenly distributed internal
system serves principal cities, industrial centers, and most townships;
11,000,000 telephones (December 1989); stations--274 AM, unknown FM,
202 (2,050 relays) TV; more than 215 million radio receivers; 75 million
TVs; satellite earth stations--4 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Indian Ocean
INTELSAT, 1 INMARSAT, and 55 domestic


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Chinese People's Liberation Army (CPLA), CPLA Navy
(including Marines), CPLA Air Force, Chinese People's Armed Police


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 335,382,062; 187,046,680 fit
for military service; 10,967,622 reach military age (18) annually


_#_Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GNP
_%_
_@_Christmas Island
(territory of Australia)
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 135 km2; land area: 135 km2


_#_Comparative area: about 0.8 times the size of Washington, DC


_#_Land boundaries: none


_#_Coastline: 138.9 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 3 nm


_#_Climate: tropical; heat and humidity moderated by trade winds


_#_Terrain: steep cliffs along coast rise abruptly to central plateau


_#_Natural resources: phosphate


_#_Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
0%; forest and woodland 0%; other 100%


_#_Environment: almost completely surrounded by a reef


_#_Note: located along major sea lanes of Indian Ocean


_*_People
_#_Population: 2,278 (July 1991), growth rate NA% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: NA births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: NA deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: NA migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: NA deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: NA years male, NA years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: NA children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--Christmas Islander(s), adjective--Christmas
Island


_#_Ethnic divisions: Chinese 61%, Malay 25%, European 11%, other 3%;
no indigenous population


_#_Religion: Buddhist 36.1%, Muslim 25.4%, Christian 17.7% (Roman
Catholic 8.2%, Church of England 3.2%, Presbyterian 0.9%, Uniting Church
0.4%, Methodist 0.2%, Baptist 0.1%, and other 4.7%), none 12.7%, unknown
4.6%, other 3.5% (1981)


_#_Language: English


_#_Literacy: NA% (male NA%, female NA%)


_#_Labor force: NA; all workers are employees of the Phosphate Mining
Company of Christmas Island, Ltd.


_#_Organized labor: NA


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Territory of Christmas Island


_#_Type: territory of Australia


_#_Capital: The Settlement


_#_Administrative divisions: none (territory of Australia)


_#_Independence: none (territory of Australia)


_#_Constitution: Christmas Island Act of 1958


_#_Legal system: under the authority of the governor general of
Australia


_#_National holiday: NA


_#_Executive branch: British monarch, governor general of Australia,
administrator, Advisory Council (cabinet)


_#_Legislative branch: none


_#_Judicial branch: none


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952);

Head of Government--Administrator A. D. TAYLOR (since NA)


_#_Communists: none


_#_Member of: none


_#_Diplomatic representation: none (territory of Australia)


_#_Flag: the flag of Australia is used


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Phosphate mining had been the only significant
economic activity, but in December 1987 the Australian Government
closed the mine as no longer economically viable. Plans have been
under way to reopen the mine and also to build a casino and hotel to
develop tourism, with a possible opening date during the first half of
1992.


_#_GDP: $NA, per capita $NA; real growth rate NA%


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%


_#_Unemployment rate: 0%


_#_Budget: revenues $NA; expenditures $NA, including capital
expenditures of $NA


_#_Exports: $NA;

commodities--phosphate;

partners--Australia, NZ


_#_Imports: $NA;

commodities--NA;

partners--NA


_#_External debt: $NA


_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%


_#_Electricity: 11,000 kW capacity; 30 million kWh produced,
13,170 kWh per capita (1990)


_#_Industries: phosphate extraction (near depletion)


_#_Agriculture: NA


_#_Economic aid: none


_#_Currency: Australian dollar (plural--dollars); 1 Australian dollar
($A) = 100 cents


_#_Exchange rates: Australian dollars ($A) per US$1--1.2834 (January
1991), 1.2799 (1990), 1.2618 (1989), 1.2752 (1988), 1.4267 (1987), 1.4905
(1986), 1.4269 (1985)


_#_Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June


_*_Communications
_#_Ports: Flying Fish Cove


_#_Airports: 1 usable with permanent-surface runway 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: 4,000 radios (1982)


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of Australia
_%_
_@_Clipperton Island
(French possession)
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 7 km2


_#_Comparative area: about 12 times the size of The Mall in
Washington, DC


_#_Land boundaries: none


_#_Coastline: 11.1 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm


_#_Disputes: claimed by Mexico


_#_Climate: tropical


_#_Terrain: coral atoll


_#_Natural resources: none


_#_Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
0%; forest and woodland 0%; other (coral) 100%


_#_Environment: reef about 8 km in circumference


_#_Note: located 1,120 km southwest of Mexico in the North Pacific
Ocean; also called Ile de la Passion


_*_People
_#_Population: uninhabited


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: none


_#_Type: French possession administered from French Polynesia
by High Commissioner of the Republic Jean MONTPEZAT; note--may have
become a dependency of French Polynesia


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: only economic activity is a tuna fishing station


_*_Communications
_#_Ports: none; offshore anchorage only


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of France
_%_
_@_Cocos (Keeling) Islands
(territory of Australia)
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 14 km2; land area: 14 km2; main islands are West Island
and Home Island


_#_Comparative area: about 24 times the size of The Mall in
Washington, DC


_#_Land boundaries: none


_#_Coastline: 42.6 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 3 nm


_#_Climate: pleasant, modified by the southeast trade winds for about
nine months of the year; moderate rainfall


_#_Terrain: flat, low-lying coral atolls


_#_Natural resources: fish


_#_Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
0%; forest and woodland 0%; other 100%


_#_Environment: two coral atolls thickly covered with coconut palms
and other vegetation


_#_Note: located 1,070 km southwest of Sumatra (Indonesia) in the
Indian Ocean about halfway between Australia and Sri Lanka


_*_People
_#_Population: 684 (July 1991), growth rate NEGL% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: NA births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: NA deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: NA migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: NA deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: NA years male, NA years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: NA children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--Cocos Islander(s); adjective--Cocos Islander(s)


_#_Ethnic divisions: mostly Europeans on West Island and Cocos Malays
on Home Island


_#_Religion: almost all Sunni Muslims


_#_Language: English


_#_Literacy: NA% (male NA%, female NA%)


_#_Labor force: NA


_#_Organized labor: none


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Territory of Cocos (Keeling) Islands


_#_Type: territory of Australia


_#_Capital: West Island


_#_Administrative divisions: none (territory of Australia)


_#_Independence: none (territory of Australia)


_#_Constitution: Cocos (Keeling) Islands Act of 1955


_#_Legal system: based upon the laws of Australia and local laws


_#_National holiday: NA


_#_Executive branch: British monarch, governor general of Australia,
administrator, chairman of the Islands Council


_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Islands Council


_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952);

Head of Government--Administrator D. LAWRIE (since NA 1989);
Chairman of the Islands Council Parson Bin YAPAT (since NA)


_#_Suffrage: NA


_#_Elections: NA


_#_Member of: none


_#_Diplomatic representation: none (territory of Australia)


_#_Flag: the flag of Australia is used


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Grown throughout the islands, coconuts are the sole cash
crop. Copra and fresh coconuts are the major export earners. Small local
gardens and fishing contribute to the food supply, but additional food
and most other necessities must be imported from Australia.


_#_GDP: $NA, per capita $NA; real growth rate NA%


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%


_#_Unemployment: NA


_#_Budget: revenues $NA; expenditures $NA, including capital
expenditures of $NA


_#_Exports: $NA;

commodities--copra;

partners--Australia


_#_Imports: $NA;

commodities--foodstuffs;

partners--Australia


_#_External debt: $NA


_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%


_#_Electricity: 1,000 kW capacity; 2 million kWh produced, 2,980 kWh
per capita (1990)


_#_Industries: copra products


_#_Agriculture: gardens provide vegetables, bananas, pawpaws, coconuts


_#_Economic aid: none


_#_Currency: Australian dollar (plural--dollars); 1 Australian dollar
($A) = 100 cents


_#_Exchange rates: Australian dollars ($A) per US$1--1.2834 (January
1991), 1.2799 (1990), 1.2618 (1989), 1.2752 (1988), 1.4267 (1987), 1.4905
(1986), 1.4269 (1985)


_#_Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June


_*_Communications
_#_Ports: none; lagoon anchorage only


_#_Airports: 1 airfield with permanent-surface runway, 1,220-2,439 m;
airport on West Island is a link in service between Australia and South
Africa


_#_Telecommunications: 250 radios (1985); linked by telephone,
telex, and facsimile communications via satellite with Australia;
stations--1 AM, no FM, no TV


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of Australia
_%_
_@_Colombia
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 1,138,910 km2; land area: 1,038,700 km2; includes Isla
de Malpelo, Roncador Cay, Serrana Bank, and Serranilla Bank


_#_Comparative area: slightly less than three times the size of
Montana


_#_Land boundaries: 7,408 km total; Brazil 1,643 km, Ecuador 590 km,
Panama 225 km, Peru 2,900, Venezuela 2,050 km


_#_Coastline: 3,208 km total (1,448 km North Pacific Ocean;
1,760 Caribbean Sea)


_#_Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: not specified;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm


_#_Disputes: maritime boundary dispute with Venezuela in the
Gulf of Venezuela; territorial dispute with Nicaragua over Archipelago
de San Andres y Providencia and Quita Sueno Bank


_#_Climate: tropical along coast and eastern plains; cooler in
highlands


_#_Terrain: mixture of flat coastal lowlands, plains in east, central
highlands, some high mountains


_#_Natural resources: crude oil, natural gas, coal, iron ore, nickel,
gold, copper, emeralds


_#_Land use: arable land 4%; permanent crops 2%; meadows and pastures
29%; forest and woodland 49%; other 16%; includes irrigated NEGL%


_#_Environment: highlands subject to volcanic eruptions;
deforestation; soil damage from overuse of pesticides; periodic droughts


_#_Note: only South American country with coastlines on both
North Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea


_*_People
_#_Population: 33,777,550 (July 1991), growth rate 2.1% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 26 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: NEGL migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 37 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 68 years male, 74 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 2.8 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--Colombian(s); adjective--Colombian


_#_Ethnic divisions: mestizo 58%, white 20%, mulatto 14%, black 4%,
mixed black-Indian 3%, Indian 1%


_#_Religion: Roman Catholic 95%


_#_Language: Spanish


_#_Literacy: 87% (male 88%, female 86%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)


_#_Labor force: 11,000,000 (1986); services 53%, agriculture 26%,
industry 21% (1981)


_#_Organized labor: 1,400,000 members (1987), about 12% of labor
force; the Communist-backed Unitary Workers Central or CUT is the largest
labor organization, with about 725,000 members (including all affiliate
unions)


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of Colombia


_#_Type: republic; executive branch dominates government structure


_#_Capital: Bogota


_#_Administrative divisions: 23 departments (departamentos,
singular--departamento), 5 commissariats* (comisarias,
singular--comisaria), and 4 intendancies** (intendencias,
singular--intendencia);
Amazonas*, Antioquia, Arauca**, Atlantico, Bolivar, Boyaca, Caldas,
Caqueta, Casanare**, Cauca, Cesar, Choco, Cordoba, Cundinamarca,
Guainia*, Guaviare*, Huila, La Guajira, Magdalena, Meta, Narino,
Norte de Santander, Putumayo**, Quindio, Risaralda, San Andres y
Providencia**, Santander, Sucre, Tolima, Valle del Cauca, Vaupes*,
Vichada*; note--there may be a new special district (distrito especial)
named Bogota; the Constitution of 5 July 1991 states that the
commissariats and intendancies are to become full departments and a
capital district (distrito capital) of Santa Fe de Bogota is to be
established by 1997


_#_Independence: 20 July 1810 (from Spain)


_#_Constitution: 5 July 1991


_#_Legal system: based on Spanish law; judicial review of legislative
acts in the Supreme Court; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with
reservations


_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 20 July (1810)


_#_Executive branch: president, presidential designate, Cabinet


_#_Legislative branch: bicameral Congress (Congreso) consists of a
nationally elected upper chamber or Senate (Senado) and a regionally
elected lower chamber or Chamber of Representatives (Camara de
Representantes)


_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de
Justica)


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government--President Cesar
GAVIRIA Trujillo (since 7 August 1990)


_#_Political parties and leaders:
Liberal Party (PL), Cesar GAVIRIA Trujillo, president, and
Alfonso LOPEZ Michelsen, party head;
Social Conservative Party (PCS), Misael PASTRANA Borrero;
National Salvation Movement (MSN), Alvaro GOMEZ Hurtado;
Democratic Alliance (AD) is headed by 19th of April Movement (M-19)
leader Antonio NAVARRO Wolf, coalition of small leftist parties and
dissident liberals and conservatives;
Patriotic Union (UP), is a legal political party formed by
Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) and Colombian
Communist Party (PCC), Carlos ROMERO


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


_#_Elections:

President--last held 27 May 1990 (next to be held May 1994);
results--Cesar GAVIRIA Trujillo (Liberal) 47%, Alvaro GOMEZ Hurtado
(National Salvation Movement) 24%, Antonio NAVARRO Wolff (M-19) 13%,
Rodrigo LLOREDA (Conservative) 12%;

Senate--last held 11 March 1990 (next to be held 27 October
1991);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(114 total) Liberal 72, Conservative 40, UP 1, vacant 1;

Chamber of Representatives last held 11 March 1990 (next to be
held 27 October 1991); results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(199 total) Liberal 122, Conservative 68, UP 3, M-19 1, other 5;
note--on 5 July 1991 the new Constitution dissolved Congress and
replaced it with a multiparty 36-member legislative commission until
a new congress, to be elected on 27 October 1991, takes office on 1
December 1991


_#_Communists: 18,000 members (est.), including Communist Party Youth
Organization (JUCO)


_#_Other political or pressure groups: three insurgent groups are
active in Colombia--Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC),
led by Manuel MARULANDA and Alfonso CANO; National Liberation Army (ELN),
led by Manuel PEREZ; and dissidents of the recently demobilized People's
Liberation Army (EPL) led by Francisco CARABALLO


_#_Member of: AG, CDB, CG, ECLAC, FAO, G-3, G-11, G-24, G-77, GATT,
IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO,
INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, LORCS,
NAM, OAS, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO,
UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Jaime GARCIA Parra; Chancery
at 2118 Leroy Place NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 387-8338;
there are Colombian Consulates General in Chicago, Houston, Miami, New
Orleans, New York, San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico), and
Consulates in Atlanta, Boston, Detroit, Ft. Lauderdale, Los Angeles,
San Diego, and Tampa;

US--Ambassador-designate Morris D. BUSBY; Embassy at Calle 38,
No.8-61, Bogota (mailing address is P. O. Box A. A. 3831, Bogota or
APO Miami 34038); telephone [57] (1) 285-1300 or 1688; there is a US
Consulate in Barranquilla


_#_Flag: three horizontal bands of yellow (top, double-width), blue,
and red; similar to the flag of Ecuador which is longer and bears the
Ecuadorian coat of arms superimposed in the center


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Economic development has slowed gradually since 1986, but
growth rates remain high by Latin American standards. Conservative
economic policies have kept inflation and unemployment near 30% and 10%,
respectively. The rapid development of oil, coal, and other
nontraditional industries over the past four years has helped to offset
the decline in coffee prices--Colombia's major export. The collapse of
the International Coffee Agreement in the summer of 1989, a troublesome
rural insurgency, and drug-related violence dampen prospects for future
growth.


_#_GDP: $43.0 billion, per capita $1,300; real growth rate 3.7% (1990
est.)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 32.4% (1990)


_#_Unemployment rate: 10.4% (urban areas 1990) (1990)


_#_Budget: revenues $4.39 billion; current expenditures $3.93
billion, capital expenditures $1.03 billion (1989 est.)


_#_Exports: $6.9 billion (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities--coffee 24%, petroleum, coal, bananas, fresh cut
flowers;

partners--US 36%, EC 21%, Japan 5%, Netherlands 4%, Sweden 3%


_#_Imports: $5.0 billion (c.i.f., 1990);

commodities--industrial equipment, transportation equipment,
foodstuffs, chemicals, paper products;

partners--US 34%, EC 16%, Brazil 4%, Venezuela 3%, Japan 3%


_#_External debt: $16.7 billion (1990)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate 5.0% (1990 est.); accounts
for 25% of GDP


_#_Electricity: 9,435,000 kW capacity; 36,071 million kWh produced,
1,090 kWh per capita (1990)


_#_Industries: textiles, food processing, oil, clothing and footwear,
beverages, chemicals, metal products, cement; mining--gold, coal,
emeralds, iron, nickel, silver, salt


_#_Agriculture: growth rate 4.9% (1990); accounts for 22% of GDP;
crops make up two-thirds and livestock one-third of agricultural output;
climate and soils permit a wide variety of crops, such as coffee,
rice, tobacco, corn, sugarcane, cocoa beans, oilseeds, vegetables;
forest products and shrimp farming are becoming more important


_#_Illicit drugs: major illicit producer of cannabis and coca; key
supplier of marijuana and cocaine to the US and other international drug
markets; drug production and trafficking accounts for an estimated 4%
of GDP and 28% of foreign exchange earnings


_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1.6
billion; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $3.1 billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $399 million


_#_Currency: Colombian peso (plural--pesos);
1 Colombian peso (Col$) = 100 centavos


_#_Exchange rates: Colombian pesos (Col$) per US$1--574.09 (January
1991), 502.24 (1990), 382.57 (1989), 299.17 (1988), 242.61 (1987), 194.26
(1986), 142.31 (1985)


_#_Fiscal year: calendar year


_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 3,386 km; 3,236 km 0.914-meter gauge, single track
(2,611 km in use), 150 km 1.435-meter gauge


_#_Highways: 75,450 km total; 9,350 km paved, 66,100 km earth and
gravel surfaces


_#_Inland waterways: 14,300 km, navigable by river boats


_#_Pipelines: crude oil, 3,585 km; refined products, 1,350 km;
natural gas, 830 km; natural gas liquids, 125 km


_#_Ports: Barranquilla, Buenaventura, Cartagena, Covenas, San Andres,
Santa Marta, Tumaco


_#_Merchant marine: 35 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 330,316
GRT/484,351 DWT; includes 23 cargo, 1 chemical tanker, 3 petroleum, oils,
and lubricants (POL) tanker, 8 bulk; note--2 naval tankers are
sometimes used commercially


_#_Civil air: 106 major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 1,165 total, 1,045 usable; 69 with permanent-surface
runways; 1 with runways over 3,659 m; 8 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
192 with runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: nationwide radio relay system; 1,890,000
telephones; stations--413 AM, no FM, 33 TV, 28 shortwave 2 Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT earth stations with 2 antennas and 11 domestic satellite
stations


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army (Ejercito Nacional), Navy (Armada Nacional),
Air Force (Fuerza Aerea de Colombia), National Police (Policia Nacional)


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 8,998,759; 6,102,745 fit for
military service; 353,122 reach military age (18) annually


_#_Defense expenditures: $892 million, 2.2% of GDP (1990)
_%_
_@_Comoros
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 2,170 km2; land area: 2,170 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly more than 12 times the size of
Washington, DC


_#_Land boundaries: none


_#_Coastline: 340 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm


_#_Disputes: claims French-administered Mayotte


_#_Climate: tropical marine; rainy season (November to May)


_#_Terrain: volcanic islands, interiors vary from steep mountains
to low hills


_#_Natural resources: negligible


_#_Land use: arable land 35%; permanent crops 8%; meadows and
pastures 7%; forest and woodland 16%; other 34%


_#_Environment: soil degradation and erosion; deforestation;
cyclones possible during rainy season


_#_Note: important location at northern end of Mozambique Channel


_*_People
_#_Population: 476,678 (July 1991), growth rate 3.5% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 47 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 12 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 87 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 54 years male, 59 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 7.0 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--Comoran(s); adjective--Comoran


_#_Ethnic divisions: Antalote, Cafre, Makoa, Oimatsaha, Sakalava


_#_Religion: Sunni Muslim 86%, Roman Catholic 14%


_#_Language: Shaafi Islam (a Swahili dialect), Malagasy, French


_#_Literacy: 48% (male 56%, female 40%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1980)


_#_Labor force: 140,000 (1982); agriculture 80%, government 3%; 51% of
population of working age (1985)


_#_Organized labor: NA


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Federal Islamic Republic of the Comoros


_#_Type: independent republic


_#_Capital: Moroni


_#_Administrative divisions: 3 islands; Anjouan, Grande Comore,
Moheli; note--there may also be 4 municipalities named Domoni, Fomboni,
Moroni, and Mutsamudu


_#_Independence: 6 July 1975 (from France)


_#_Constitution: 1 October 1978, amended October 1982 and January 1985


_#_Legal system: French and Muslim law in a new consolidated code


_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 6 July (1975)


_#_Executive branch: president, Council of Ministers (cabinet)


_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Federal Assembly (Assemblee
Federale)


_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government--President Said
Mohamed DJOHAR (since 11 March 1990)


_#_Political parties:
Comoran Union for Progress (Udzima), Said Mohamed DJOHAR, president;
National Union for Democracy (UNDC), Mohamed TAKI


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


_#_Elections:

President--last held 11 March 1990 (next to be held March 1996);
results--Said Mohamed DJOHAR (Udzima) 55%; Mohamed TAKI Abdulkarim
(UNDC) 45%;

Federal Assembly--last held 22 March 1987 (next to be held March
1992);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(42 total) Udzima 42


_#_Member of: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA,
IDB, IFAD, ILO, IMF, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WMO


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Amini Ali MOUMIN; Chancery
(temporary) at the Comoran Permanent Mission to the UN, 336 East 45th
Street, 2nd Floor, New York, NY 10017; telephone (212) 972-8010;

US--Ambassador Kenneth N. PELTIER; Embassy at address NA, Moroni
(mailing address B. P. 1318, Moroni); telephone 73-22-03, 73-29-22


_#_Flag: green with a white crescent placed diagonally (closed side of
the crescent points to the upper hoist-side corner of the flag); there
are four white five-pointed stars placed in a line between the points of
the crescent; the crescent, stars, and color green are traditional
symbols of Islam; the four stars represent the four main islands of the
archipelago--Mwali, Njazidja, Nzwani, and Mayotte (which is a territorial
collectivity of France, but claimed by the Comoros)


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: One of the world's poorest countries, Comoros is made
up of several islands that have poor transportation links, a young and
rapidly increasing population, and few natural resources. The low
educational level of the labor force contributes to a low level of
economic activity, high unemployment, and a heavy dependence on foreign
grants and technical assistance. Agriculture, including fishing and
forestry, is the leading sector of the economy. It contributes about 40%
to GDP, employs 80% of the labor force, and provides most of the exports.
The country is not self-sufficient in food production, and rice, the main
staple, accounts for 90% of imports. During the period 1982-86 the
industrial sector grew at an annual average rate of 5.3%, but its
contribution to GDP was only 5% in 1988. Despite major investment in the
tourist industry, which accounts for about 25% of GDP, growth has
stagnated since 1983. A sluggish growth rate of 1.5% during 1985-90 has
led to large budget deficits, declining incomes, and balance-of-payments
difficulties.


_#_GDP: $245 million, per capita $530; real growth rate 1.5% (1990
est.)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.9% (1989)


_#_Unemployment rate: over 16% (1988 est.)


_#_Budget: revenues $88 million; expenditures $92 million,
including capital expenditures of $13 million (1990 est.)


_#_Exports: $16 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities--vanilla, cloves, perfume oil, copra;

partners--US 53%, France 41%, Africa 4%, FRG 2% (1988)


_#_Imports: $41 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities--rice and other foodstuffs, cement, petroleum products,
consumer goods;

partners--Europe 62% (France 22%, other 40%), Africa 5%, Pakistan,
China (1988)


_#_External debt: $242 million (December 1990)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate 3.4% (1988 est.); accounts
for 5% of GDP


_#_Electricity: 16,000 kW capacity; 24 million kWh produced,
55 kWh per capita (1989)


_#_Industries: perfume distillation, textiles, furniture, jewelry,
construction materials


_#_Agriculture: accounts for 40% of GDP; most of population works in
subsistence agriculture and fishing; plantations produce cash crops for
export--vanilla, cloves, perfume essences, and copra; principal food
crops--coconuts, bananas, cassava; world's leading producer of essence of
ylang-ylang (for perfumes) and second-largest producer of vanilla; large
net food importer


_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY80-89), $10
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $406 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $22 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $18 million


_#_Currency: Comoran franc (plural--francs); 1 Comoran franc
(CF) = 100 centimes


_#_Exchange rates: Comoran francs (CF) per US$1--256.54 (January
1991), 272.26 (1990), 319.01 (1989), 297.85 (1988), 300.54 (1987), 346.30
(1986), 449.26 (1985); note--linked to the French franc at 50 to 1 French
franc


_#_Fiscal year: calendar year


_*_Communications
_#_Highways: 750 km total; about 210 km bituminous, remainder crushed
stone or gravel


_#_Ports: Mutsamudu, Moroni


_#_Civil air: 4 major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 4 total, 4 usable; 4 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 3 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: sparse system of radio relay and high-frequency
radio communication stations for interisland and external communications
to Madagascar and Reunion; over 1,800 telephones; stations--2 AM, 1 FM,
1 TV


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Comoran Defense Force (FCD), Federal Gendarmerie (GFC)


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 101,332; 60,592 fit for
military service


_#_Defense expenditures: $NA, 3% of GDP (1981)
_%_
_@_Congo
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 342,000 km2; land area: 341,500 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than Montana


_#_Land boundaries: 5,504 km total; Angola 201 km, Cameroon 523 km,
Central African Republic 467 km, Gabon 1,903 km, Zaire 2,410 km


_#_Coastline: 169 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Territorial sea: 200 nm


_#_Disputes: long section with Zaire along the Congo River is
indefinite (no division of the river or its islands has been made)


_#_Climate: tropical; rainy season (March to June); dry season (June
to October); constantly high temperatures and humidity; particularly
enervating climate astride the Equator


_#_Terrain: coastal plain, southern basin, central plateau, northern
basin


_#_Natural resources: petroleum, timber, potash, lead, zinc, uranium,
copper, phosphates, natural gas


_#_Land use: arable land 2%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and
pastures 29%; forest and woodland 62%; other 7%


_#_Environment: deforestation; about 70% of the population lives in
Brazzaville, Pointe Noire, or along the railroad between them


_*_People
_#_Population: 2,309,444 (July 1991), growth rate 3.0% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 43 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 13 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 108 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 52 years male, 56 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 5.7 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--Congolese (sing., pl.); adjective--Congolese
or Congo


_#_Ethnic divisions: about 15 ethnic groups divided into some 75
tribes, almost all Bantu; most important ethnic groups are Kongo (48%) in
the south, Sangha (20%) and M'Bochi (12%) in the north, Teke (17%) in the
center; about 8,500 Europeans, mostly French


_#_Religion: Christian 50%, animist 48%, Muslim 2%


_#_Language: French (official); many African languages with Lingala
and Kikongo most widely used


_#_Literacy: 57% (male 70%, female 44%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)


_#_Labor force: 79,100 wage earners; agriculture 75%, commerce,
industry, and government 25%; 51% of population of working age; 40% of
population economically active (1985)


_#_Organized labor: 20% of labor force (1979 est.)


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of the Congo


_#_Type: republic


_#_Capital: Brazzaville


_#_Administrative divisions: 9 regions (regions,
singular--region); Bouenza, Cuvette, Kouilou, Lekoumou, Likouala,
Niari, Plateaux, Pool, Sangha; note--there may be a new capital district
of Brazzaville


_#_Independence: 15 August 1960 (from France; formerly
Congo/Brazzaville)


_#_Constitution: 8 July 1979, currently being modified


_#_Legal system: based on French civil law system and customary law


_#_National holiday: National Day, 15 August (1960)


_#_Executive branch: president, prime minister, Council of Ministers
(cabinet)


_#_Legislative branch: unicameral National People's Assembly
(Assemblee Nationale Populaire)


_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--President Denis SASSOU-NGUESSO (since 8 February
1979);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Brig. Gen. Louis-Sylvain
GOMA (since 9 January 1991)


_#_Political parties and leaders: Congolese Labor Party
(PCT), President Denis SASSOU-NGUESSO, leader; note--multiparty system
legalized, with over 50 parties established


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


_#_Elections:

President--last held 26-31 July 1989 (next to be held July 1994);
results--President SASSOU-NGUESSO unanimously reelected leader of the
PCT by the Party Congress, which automatically made him president;

People's National Assembly--last held 24 September 1989 (next
to be held NA 1994); results--PCT was the only party;
seats--(153 total) single list of candidates nominated by the PCT


_#_Communists: unknown number of Communists and sympathizers


_#_Other political or pressure groups: Union of Congolese Socialist
Youth (UJSC), Congolese Trade Union Congress (CSC), Revolutionary Union
of Congolese Women (URFC), General Union of Congolese Pupils and Students
(UGEEC)


_#_Member of: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CCC, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77,
GATT, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL,
IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, UDEAC, UN, UNAVEM, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU,
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Roger ISSOMBO; Chancery at
4891 Colorado Avenue NW, Washington DC 20011; telephone (202) 726-5500;

US--Ambassador James Daniel PHILLIPS; Embassy at Avenue
Amilcar Cabral, Brazzaville (mailing address is B. P. 1015, Brazzaville,
or Box C, APO New York 09662-0006); telephone (242) 83-20-70 or 83-26-24


_#_Flag: red with the national emblem in the upper hoist-side corner;
the emblem includes a yellow five-pointed star above a crossed hoe and
hammer (like the hammer and sickle design) in yellow, flanked by two
curved green palm branches; uses the popular pan-African colors of
Ethiopia


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Oil has supplanted forestry as the mainstay of the
economy, providing about two-thirds of government revenues and
exports. In the early 1980s rapidly rising oil revenues enabled Congo
to finance large-scale development projects with growth averaging 5%
annually, one of the highest rates in Africa. The world decline in
oil prices, however, has forced the government to launch an austerity
program to cope with declining receipts and mounting foreign debts.


_#_GDP: $2.26 billion, per capita $1,050; real growth rate 0.6%
(1989 est.)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.6% (1989 est.)


_#_Unemployment rate: NA%


_#_Budget: revenues $522 million; expenditures $767 million,
including capital expenditures of $141 million (1989)


_#_Exports: $751 million (f.o.b., 1988);

commodities--crude petroleum 72%, lumber, plywood, coffee, cocoa,
sugar, diamonds;

partners--US, France, other EC


_#_Imports: $564 million (c.i.f., 1988);

commodities--foodstuffs, consumer goods, intermediate manufactures,
capital equipment;

partners--France, Italy, other EC, US, FRG, Spain, Japan, Brazil


_#_External debt: $4.5 billion (December 1988)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate 1.2% (1989); accounts for
33% of GDP, including petroleum


_#_Electricity: 133,000 kW capacity; 300 million kWh produced,
130 kWh per capita (1989)


_#_Industries: crude oil, cement, sawmills, brewery, sugar mill, palm
oil, soap, cigarettes


_#_Agriculture: accounts for 10% of GDP (including fishing and
forestry); cassava accounts for 90% of food output; other crops--rice,
corn, peanuts, vegetables; cash crops include coffee and cocoa; forest
products important export earner; imports over 90% of food needs


_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $60
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $2.2 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $15 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $338 million


_#_Currency: Communaute Financiere Africaine franc
(plural--francs); 1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes


_#_Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF)
per US$1--256.54 (January 1991), 272.26 (1990), 319.01 (1989), 297.85
(1988), 300.54 (1987), 346.30 (1986), 449.26 (1985)


_#_Fiscal year: calendar year


_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 797 km, 1.067-meter gauge, single track (includes 285 km
that are privately owned)


_#_Highways: 12,000 km total; 560 km bituminous surface treated;
850 km gravel, laterite; 5,350 km improved earth; 5,240 km unimproved
roads


_#_Inland waterways: the Congo and Ubangi (Oubangui) Rivers provide
1,120 km of commercially navigable water transport; the rest are used for
local traffic only


_#_Pipelines: crude oil 25 km


_#_Ports: Pointe-Noire (ocean port), Brazzaville (river port)


_#_Civil air: 4 major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 50 total, 45 usable; 5 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 18 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: services adequate for government use; primary
network is composed of radio relay routes and coaxial cables; key centers
are Brazzaville, Pointe-Noire, and Loubomo; 18,100 telephones;
stations--3 AM, 1 FM, 4 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean satellite station


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy (including Marines), Air Force, paramilitary
National People's Militia, National Police


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 509,040; 258,861 fit for
military service; 24,068 reach military age (20) annually


_#_Defense expenditures: $99 million, 4.6% of GDP (1987 est.)
_%_
_@_Cook Islands
(free association with New Zealand)
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 240 km2; land area: 240 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly less than 1.3 times the size of
Washington, DC


_#_Land boundaries: none


_#_Coastline: 120 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: edge of continental margin or minimum of 200
nm;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm


_#_Climate: tropical; moderated by trade winds


_#_Terrain: low coral atolls in north; volcanic, hilly islands in
south


_#_Natural resources: negligible


_#_Land use: arable land 4%; permanent crops 22%; meadows and pastures
0%; forest and woodland 0%; other 74%


_#_Environment: subject to typhoons from November to March


_#_Note: located 4,500 km south of Hawaii in the South Pacific Ocean


_*_People
_#_Population: 17,882 (July 1991), growth rate 0.5% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 22 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: - 10 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 24 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 67 years male, 72 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 3.5 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--Cook Islander(s); adjective--Cook Islander


_#_Ethnic divisions: Polynesian (full blood) 81.3%, Polynesian and
European 7.7%, Polynesian and other 7.7%, European 2.4%, other 0.9%


_#_Religion: Christian, majority of populace members of Cook Islands
Christian Church


_#_Language: English


_#_Literacy: NA% (male NA%, female NA%)


_#_Labor force: 5,810; agriculture 29%, government 27%, services 25%,
industry 15%, and other 4% (1981)


_#_Organized labor: NA


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: none


_#_Type: self-governing in free association with New Zealand; Cook
Islands fully responsible for internal affairs; New Zealand retains
responsibility for external affairs, in consultation with the Cook
Islands


_#_Capital: Avarua


_#_Administrative divisions: none


_#_Independence: became self-governing in free association with
New Zealand on 4 August 1965 and has the right at any time to move to
full independence by unilateral action


_#_Constitution: 4 August 1965


_#_National holiday: NA


_#_Executive branch: British monarch, representative of the UK,
representative of New Zealand, prime minister, deputy prime minister,
Cabinet


_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament; note--the House of
Arikis (chiefs) advises on traditional matters, but has no legislative
powers


_#_Judicial branch: High Court


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952);
Representative of the UK Sir Tangaroa TANGAROA (since NA);
Representative of New Zealand Adrian SINCOCK (since NA);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Geoffrey HENRY
(since NA February 1989); Deputy Prime Minister Inatio AKARURU (since NA
February 1989)


_#_Political parties and leaders:
Cook Islands Party, Geoffrey HENRY;
Democratic Tumu Party, Vincent INGRAM;
Democratic Party, Dr. Vincent Pupuke ROBATI;
Cook Islands Labor Party, Rena JONASSEN;
Cook Islands People's Party, Sadaraka SADARAKA


_#_Suffrage: universal adult at age NA


_#_Elections:

Parliament--last held 19 January 1989 (next to be held by
January 1994); results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(24 total) Cook Islands Party 12, Democratic
Tumu Party 2, opposition coalition (including Democratic Party) 9,
independent 1


_#_Member of: AsDB, ESCAP (associate), FAO, ICAO, IOC, SPC,
SPF, UNESCO, WHO


_#_Diplomatic representation: none (self-governing in free association
with New Zealand)


_#_Flag: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant
and a large circle of 15 white five-pointed stars (one for every island)
centered in the outer half of the flag


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Agriculture provides the economic base. The major export
earners are fruit, copra, and clothing. Manufacturing activities are
limited to a fruit-processing plant and several clothing factories.
Economic development is hindered by the isolation of the islands from
foreign markets and a lack of natural resources and good transportation
links. A large trade deficit is annually made up for by remittances from
emigrants and from foreign aid. Current economic development plans call
for exploiting the tourism potential and expanding the fishing industry.


_#_GDP: $40.0 million, per capita $2,200 (1988 est.); real growth rate
5.3% (1986-88 est.)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 8.0% (1988)


_#_Unemployment rate: NA%


_#_Budget: revenues $33.8 million; expenditures $34.4 million,
including capital expenditures of $NA (1990 est.)


_#_Exports: $4.0 million (f.o.b., 1988);

commodities--copra, fresh and canned fruit, clothing;

partners--NZ 80%, Japan


_#_Imports: $38.7 million (c.i.f., 1988);

commodities--foodstuffs, textiles, fuels, timber;

partners--NZ 49%, Japan, Australia, US


_#_External debt: $NA


_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%


_#_Electricity: 14,000 kW capacity; 21 million kWh produced,
1,170 kWh per capita (1990)


_#_Industries: fruit processing, tourism


_#_Agriculture: export crops--copra, citrus fruits, pineapples,
tomatoes, bananas; subsistence crops--yams, taro


_#_Economic aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral
commitments (1970-89), $128 million


_#_Currency: New Zealand dollar (plural--dollars); 1 New Zealand
dollar (NZ$) = 100 cents


_#_Exchange rates: New Zealand dollars (NZ$) per US$1--1.6798 (January
1991), 1.6750 (1990), 1.6711 (1989), 1.5244 (1988), 1.6886 (1987), 1.9088
(1986), 2.0064 (1985)


_#_Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March


_*_Communications
_#_Highways: 187 km total (1980); 35 km paved, 35 km gravel, 84 km
improved earth, 33 km unimproved earth


_#_Ports: Avatiu


_#_Civil air: no major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 7 total, 6 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 2,439 m; 3 with runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: stations--2 AM, no FM, no TV; 10,000 radio
receivers; 2,052 telephones; 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth station


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of New Zealand
_%_
_@_Coral Sea Islands
(territory of Australia)
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: undetermined; includes numerous small islands and reefs
scattered over a sea area of about 1 million km2, with Willis Islets the
most important


_#_Comparative area: undetermined


_#_Land boundaries: none


_#_Coastline: 3,095 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 3 nm


_#_Climate: tropical


_#_Terrain: sand and coral reefs and islands (or cays)


_#_Natural resources: negligible


_#_Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
0%; forest and woodland 0%; other, mostly grass or scrub cover 100%;
Lihou Reef Reserve and Coringa-Herald Reserve were declared National
Nature Reserves on 3 August 1982


_#_Environment: subject to occasional tropical cyclones; no permanent
fresh water; important nesting area for birds and turtles


_#_Note: the islands are located just off the northeast coast of
Australia in the Coral Sea


_*_People
_#_Population: 3 meteorologists (1991)


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Coral Sea Islands Territory


_#_Type: territory of Australia administered by the Minister for
Arts, Sport, the Environment, Tourism, and Territories Roslyn
KELLY


_#_Flag: the flag of Australia is used


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: no economic activity


_*_Communications
_#_Ports: none; offshore anchorages only


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of Australia; visited regularly
by the Royal Australian Navy; Australia has control over the activities
of visitors
_%_
_@_Costa Rica
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 51,100 km2; land area: 50,660 km2; includes Isla del
Coco


_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than West Virginia


_#_Land boundaries: 639 km total; Nicaragua 309 km, Panama 330 km


_#_Coastline: 1,290 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 nm;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm


_#_Climate: tropical; dry season (December to April); rainy season
(May to November)


_#_Terrain: coastal plains separated by rugged mountains


_#_Natural resources: hydropower potential


_#_Land use: arable land 6%; permanent crops 7%; meadows and pastures
45%; forest and woodland 34%; other 8%; includes irrigated 1%


_#_Environment: subject to occasional earthquakes, hurricanes along
Atlantic coast; frequent flooding of lowlands at onset of rainy season;
active volcanoes; deforestation; soil erosion


_*_People
_#_Population: 3,111,403 (July 1991), growth rate 2.5% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 27 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 4 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: 2 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 15 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 75 years male, 79 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 3.2 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--Costa Rican(s); adjective--Costa Rican


_#_Ethnic divisions: white (including mestizo) 96%, black 2%, Indian
1%, Chinese 1%


_#_Religion: Roman Catholic 95%


_#_Language: Spanish (official), English spoken around Puerto Limon


_#_Literacy: 93% (male 93%, female 93%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)


_#_Labor force: 868,300; industry and commerce 35.1%, government and
services 33%, agriculture 27%, other 4.9% (1985 est.)


_#_Organized labor: 15.1% of labor force


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of Costa Rica


_#_Type: democratic republic


_#_Capital: San Jose


_#_Administrative divisions: 7 provinces (provincias,
singular--provincia); Alajuela, Cartago, Guanacaste, Heredia, Limon,
Puntarenas, San Jose


_#_Independence: 15 September 1821 (from Spain)


_#_Constitution: 9 November 1949


_#_Legal system: based on Spanish civil law system; judicial review of
legislative acts in the Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction


_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 15 September (1821)


_#_Executive branch: president, two vice presidents, Cabinet


_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Assembly (Asamblea
Legislativa)


_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema)


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government--President Rafael Angel
CALDERON Fournier (since 8 May 1990); First Vice President German
SERRANO Pinto (since 8 May 1990); Second Vice President Arnoldo LOPEZ
Echandi (since 8 May 1990)


_#_Political parties and leaders:
National Liberation Party (PLN), Rolando ARAYA Monge;
Social Christian Unity Party (PUSC), Rafael Angel CALDERON Fournier;
Marxist Popular Vanguard Party (PVP), Humberto VARGAS Carbonell;
New Republic Movement (MNR), Sergio Erick ARDON Ramirez;
Progressive Party (PP), Isaac Felipe AZOFEIFA Bolanos;
People's Party of Costa Rica (PPC), Lenin ChACON Vargas;
Radical Democratic Party (PRD), Juan Jose ECHEVERRIA Brealey


_#_Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 18


_#_Elections:

President--last held 4 February 1990 (next to be held February
1994);
results--Rafael Angel CALDERON Fournier 51%, Carlos Manuel
CASTILLO 47%;

Legislative Assembly--last held 4 February 1990 (next to be held
February 1994);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(57 total) PUSC 29, PLN 25, PVP/PPC 1, regional parties 2


_#_Communists: 7,500 members and sympathizers


_#_Other political or pressure groups: Costa Rican Confederation of
Democratic Workers (CCTD; Liberation Party affiliate), Confederated Union
of Workers (CUT; Communist Party affiliate), Authentic Confederation of
Democratic Workers (CATD; Communist Party affiliate), Chamber of Coffee
Growers, National Association for Economic Development (ANFE), Free Costa
Rica Movement (MCRL; rightwing militants), National Association of
Educators (ANDE)


_#_Member of: AG (observer), BCIE, CACM, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB,
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer), LORCS, NAM (observer),
OAS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Gonzalo FACIO Segreda;
Chancery at Suite 211, 1825 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington DC 20009;
telephone (202) 234-2945 through 2947; there are Costa Rican Consulates
General at Albuquerque, Boston, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans,
New York, San Antonio, San Diego, San Francisco, San Juan (Puerto Rico),
and Tampa, and Consulates in Austin, Buffalo, Honolulu, and Raleigh;

US--Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Robert O. HOMME;
Embassy at Pavas Road, San Jose (mailing address is APO Miami 34020);
telephone [506] 20-39-39


_#_Flag: five horizontal bands of blue (top), white, red (double
width), white, and blue with the coat of arms in a white disk on the
hoist side of the red band


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: In 1990 the economy grew at an estimated 3.5%
rate, a decrease from the strong 5.0% gain of the previous year.
Gains in agricultural production (on the strength of good coffee and
banana crops) and in construction, were partially offset by lower
rates of growth for industry. In 1990 consumer prices rose by about 25%
and the trade deficit widened. Unemployment is officially reported at
6%, but much underemployment remains. External debt, on a per
capita basis, is among the world's highest.


_#_GDP: $5.5 billion, per capita $1,810; real growth rate 3.6% (1990)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 25% (1990 est.)


_#_Unemployment rate: 6% (1990)


_#_Budget: revenues $831 million; expenditures $1.08 billion, including
capital expenditures of $NA (1990 est.)


_#_Exports: $1.4 billion (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities--coffee, bananas, textiles, sugar;

partners--US 75%, FRG, Guatemala, Netherlands, UK, Japan


_#_Imports: $1.8 billion (c.i.f., 1990);

commodities--petroleum, machinery, consumer durables, chemicals,
fertilizer, foodstuffs;

partners--US 35%, Japan, Guatemala, FRG


_#_External debt: $4.5 billion (1989)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate 2.3% (1990 est.); accounts for
23% of GDP


_#_Electricity: 927,000 kW capacity; 2,987 million kWh produced,
980 kWh per capita (1990)


_#_Industries: food processing, textiles and clothing, construction
materials, fertilizer, plastic products


_#_Agriculture: accounts for 20-25% of GDP and 70% of exports; cash
commodities--coffee, beef, bananas, sugar; other food crops include corn,
rice, beans, potatoes; normally self-sufficient in food except for
grain; depletion of forest resources resulting in lower timber output


_#_Illicit drugs: illicit production of cannabis on small scattered
plots; transshipment country for cocaine from South America


_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1.4
billion; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $781 million; Communist countries (1971-88), $27 million


_#_Currency: Costa Rican colon (plural--colones);
1 Costa Rican colon (C) = 100 centimos


_#_Exchange rates: Costa Rican colones (C) per US$1--105.82 (January
1991), 91.58 (1990), 81.504 (1989), 75.805 (1988), 62.776 (1987), 55.986
(1986), 50.453 (1985)


_#_Fiscal year: calendar year


_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 950 km total, all 1.067-meter gauge; 260 km electrified


_#_Highways: 15,400 km total; 7,030 km paved, 7,010 km gravel,
1,360 km unimproved earth


_#_Inland waterways: about 730 km, seasonally navigable


_#_Pipelines: refined products, 176 km


_#_Ports: Puerto Limon, Caldera, Golfito, Moin, Puntarenas


_#_Merchant marine: 12 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over)
totaling 2,831 GRT/4,506 DWT


_#_Civil air: 9 major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 173 total, 159 usable; 26 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
11 with runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: very good domestic telephone service; 292,000
telephones; connection into Central American Microwave System;
stations--71 AM, no FM, 18 TV, 13 shortwave; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT
earth station


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Civil Guard, Rural Assistance Guard; note--Constitution
prohibits armed forces


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 807,853; 545,541 fit for
military service; 32,149 reach military age (18) annually


_#_Defense expenditures: $20 million, 0.4% of GDP (1988)
_%_
_@_Cuba
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 110,860 km2; land area: 110,860 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than Pennsylvania


_#_Land boundary: 29.1 km with US Naval Base at Guantanamo;
note--Guantanamo is leased and as such remains part of Cuba


_#_Coastline: 3,735 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm


_#_Disputes: US Naval Base at Guantanamo is leased to US and only
mutual agreement or US abandonment of the area can terminate the lease


_#_Climate: tropical; moderated by trade winds; dry season (November
to April); rainy season (May to October)


_#_Terrain: mostly flat to rolling plains with rugged hills and
mountains in the southeast


_#_Natural resources: cobalt, nickel, iron ore, copper, manganese,
salt, timber, silica


_#_Land use: arable land 23%; permanent crops 6%; meadows and pastures
23%; forest and woodland 17%; other 31%; includes irrigated 10%


_#_Environment: averages one hurricane every other year


_#_Note: largest country in Caribbean; 145 km south of Florida


_*_People
_#_Population: 10,732,037 (July 1991), growth rate 1.0% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 18 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: - 1 migrant/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 12 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 73 years male, 78 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 1.9 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--Cuban(s); adjective--Cuban


_#_Ethnic divisions: mulatto 51%, white 37%, black 11%, Chinese 1%


_#_Religion: 85% nominally Roman Catholic before Castro assumed power


_#_Language: Spanish


_#_Literacy: 94% (male 95%, female 93%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)


_#_Labor force: 3,578,800 in state sector; services and government
30%, industry 22%, agriculture 20%, commerce 11%, construction 10%,
transportation and communications 7% (June 1990); economically active
population 4,620,800 (1988)


_#_Organized labor: Workers Central Union of Cuba (CTC), only labor
federation approved by government; 2,910,000 members; the CTC is an
umbrella organization composed of 17 member unions


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of Cuba


_#_Type: Communist state


_#_Capital: Havana


_#_Administrative divisions: 14 provinces (provincias,
singular--provincia) and 1 special municipality* (municipio especial);
Camaguey, Ciego de Avila, Cienfuegos, Ciudad de La Habana, Granma,
Guantanamo, Holguin, Isla de la Juventud*, La Habana, Las Tunas,
Matanzas, Pinar del Rio, Sancti Spiritus, Santiago de Cuba, Villa
Clara


_#_Independence: 20 May 1902 (from Spain 10 December 1898;
administered by the US from 1898 to 1902)


_#_Constitution: 24 February 1976


_#_Legal system: based on Spanish and American law, with large
elements of Communist legal theory; does not accept compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction


_#_National holiday: Revolution Day, 1 January (1959)


_#_Executive branch: president of the Council of State, first vice
president of the Council of State, Council of State, president of the
Council of Ministers, first vice president of the Council of Ministers,
Council of Ministers


_#_Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly of the People's
Power (Asamblea Nacional del Poder Popular)


_#_Judicial branch: People's Supreme Court


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government--President of the Council of
State and President of the Council of Ministers Fidel CASTRO Ruz
(became Prime Minister in February 1959 and President since 2 December
1976);
First Vice President of the Council of State and First Vice President
of the Council of Ministers Gen. Raul CASTRO Ruz (since 2 December
1976)


_#_Political parties and leaders: only party--Cuban Communist Party
(PCC), Fidel CASTRO Ruz, first secretary


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 16


_#_Elections:

National Assembly of the People's Power--last held NA December
1986 (next to be held December 1991);
results--PCC is the only party;
seats--(510 total) PCC 510 (indirectly elected)


_#_Communists: about 600,000 full and candidate members


_#_Member of: CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBEC,
ICAO, IFAD, IIB, ILO, IMO, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LAES,
LAIA (observer), LORCS, NAM, OAS (excluded from formal participation
since 1962), OPANAL (observer), PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU,
WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO


_#_Diplomatic representation: none; protecting power in the US is
Switzerland--Cuban Interests Section; Counselor Jose Antonio ARBESU
Fraga; 2630 and 2639 16th Street NW, Washington DC 20009; telephone (202)
797-8518 or 8519, 8520, 8609, 8610;

US--protecting power in Cuba is Switzerland--US Interests Section;
Principal Officer Alan H. FLANIGAN; Calzada entre L y M, Vedado Seccion,
Havana (mailing address is USINT, c/o International Purchasing Group,
2052 NW 93rd Avenue, Miami, FL 33172); telephone 329-700


_#_Flag: five equal horizontal bands of blue (top and bottom)
alternating with white; a red equilateral triangle based on the hoist
side bears a white five-pointed star in the center


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The economy, centrally planned and largely state owned,
is highly dependent on the agricultural sector and foreign trade. Sugar
provides about 75% of export revenues and over half is exported to the
USSR. The economy has stagnated since 1985 under policies that have
deemphasized material incentives in the workplace, abolished farmers'
informal produce markets, and raised prices of government-supplied goods
and services. In 1990 the economy probably fell 3%, largely as a result
of declining trade with the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. Recently
the government has been trying to increase trade with Latin America and
China. Cuba has had difficulty servicing its foreign debt since 1982. The
government currently is encouraging foreign investment in tourist
facilities. Other investment priorities include sugar, basic foods, and
nickel. The annual $4 billion Soviet subsidy, a main prop to Cuba's
threadbare economy, is likely to show a substantial decline over the
next few years in view of the USSR's mounting economic problems. Instead
of highly subsidized trade, Cuba will be shifting to trade at market
prices in convertible currencies. In early 1991, the shortages of fuels,
spare parts, and industrial products in general had become so severe as
to amount to a deindustrialization process in the eyes of some observers.


_#_GNP: $20.9 billion, per capita $2,000; real growth rate - 3%
(1990 est.)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%


_#_Unemployment: 6% overall, 10% for women (1989)


_#_Budget: revenues $12.46 billion; expenditures $14.45 billion,
including capital expenditures of $NA (1990 est.)


_#_Exports: $5.4 billion (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities--sugar, nickel, shellfish, citrus, tobacco, coffee;

partners--USSR 67%, GDR 6%, China 4% (1988)


_#_Imports: $8.1 billion (c.i.f., 1989);

commodities--capital goods, industrial raw materials, food,
petroleum;

partners--USSR 71%, other Communist countries 15% (1988)


_#_External debt: $6.8 billion (convertible currency, July 1989)


_#_Industrial production: 3% (1988); accounts for 45% of GDP


_#_Electricity: 3,890,000 kW capacity; 16,267 million kWh produced,
1,530 kWh per capita (1990)


_#_Industries: sugar milling, petroleum refining, food and tobacco
processing, textiles, chemicals, paper and wood products, metals
(particularly nickel), cement, fertilizers, consumer goods, agricultural
machinery


_#_Agriculture: accounts for 11% of GNP (including fishing and
forestry); key commercial crops--sugarcane, tobacco, and citrus fruits;
other products--coffee, rice, potatoes, meat, beans; world's largest
sugar exporter; not self-sufficient in food (excluding sugar)


_#_Economic aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral
commitments (1970-88), $695 million; Communist countries (1970-89),
$18.5 billion


_#_Currency: Cuban peso (plural--pesos); 1 Cuban peso (Cu$) = 100
centavos


_#_Exchange rates: Cuban pesos (Cu$) per US$1--1.0000 (linked to the
US dollar)


_#_Fiscal year: calendar year


_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 14,925 km total; Cuban National Railways operates
5,295 km of 1.435-meter gauge track; 199 km electrified; 9,630 km of
sugar plantation lines of 0.914-1.435-meter gauge


_#_Highways: 26,477 km total; 14,477 km paved, 12,000 km gravel
and earth surfaced (1989 est.)


_#_Inland waterways: 240 km


_#_Ports: Cienfuegos, Havana, Mariel, Matanzas, Santiago de Cuba;
7 secondary, 35 minor


_#_Merchant marine: 87 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
638,462 GRT/925,380 DWT; includes 54 cargo, 9 refrigerated cargo, 2
cargo/training, 12 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 1
chemical tanker, 3 liquefied gas, 6 bulk; note--Cuba beneficially owns
an additional 37 ships (1,000 GRT and over) totaling 512,346 DWT under
the registry of Panama, Cyprus, and Malta


_#_Civil air: 59 major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 205 total, 176 usable; 75 with permanent-surface runways;
3 with runways over 3,659 m; 12 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 25 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: stations--150 AM, 5 FM, 58 TV; 1,530,000 TVs;
2,140,000 radios; 229,000 telephones; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth
station


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Revolutionary Armed Forces (including Ground Forces,
Revolutionary Navy, Air and Air Defense Force), Ministry of Interior
Special Troops, Border Guard Troops, Territorial Militia Troops, Youth
Labor Army, Civil Defense, National Revolutionary Police


_#_Manpower availability: eligible 15-49, 6,087,253; of the 3,054,158
males 15-49, 1,914,080 are fit for military service; of the 3,033,095
females 15-49, 1,896,449 are fit for military service; 89,194 males and
85,968 females reach military age (17) annually


_#_Defense expenditures: $1.2-$1.4 billion, 6% of GNP (1989 est.)
_%_
_@_Cyprus
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 9,250 km2; land area: 9,240 km2


_#_Comparative area: about 0.7 times the size of Connecticut


_#_Land boundaries: none


_#_Coastline: 648 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation;

Territorial sea: 12 nm


_#_Disputes: 1974 hostilities divided the island into two de facto
autonomous areas--a Greek area controlled by the Cypriot Government (60%
of the island's land area) and a Turkish-Cypriot area (35% of the island)
that are separated by a narrow UN buffer zone; in addition, there are two
UK sovereign base areas (about 5% of the island's land area)


_#_Climate: temperate, Mediterranean with hot, dry summers and cool,
wet winters


_#_Terrain: central plain with mountains to north and south


_#_Natural resources: copper, pyrites, asbestos, gypsum, timber, salt,
marble, clay earth pigment


_#_Land use: arable land 40%; permanent crops 7%; meadows and pastures
10%; forest and woodland 18%; other 25%; includes irrigated 10% (most
irrigated lands are in the Turkish-Cypriot area of the island)


_#_Environment: moderate earthquake activity; water resource problems
(no natural reservoir catchments, seasonal disparity in rainfall, and
most potable resources concentrated in the Turkish-Cypriot area)


_*_People
_#_Population: 709,343 (July 1991), growth rate 1.0% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 18 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 8 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 10 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 73 years male, 78 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 2.4 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--Cypriot(s); adjective--Cypriot


_#_Ethnic divisions: Greek 78%; Turkish 18%; other 4%


_#_Religion: Greek Orthodox 78%, Muslim 18%, Maronite, Armenian,
Apostolic, and other 4%


_#_Language: Greek, Turkish, English


_#_Literacy: 90% (male 96%, female 85%) age 10 and over can
read and write (1976)


_#_Labor force: Greek area--246,100; services 42%, industry 33%,
agriculture 22%; Turkish area--NA (1989)


_#_Organized labor: 156,000 (1985 est.)


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of Cyprus


_#_Type: republic; a disaggregation of the two ethnic communities
inhabiting the island began after the outbreak of communal strife in
1963; this separation was further solidified following the Turkish
invasion of the island in July 1974, which gave the Turkish Cypriots de
facto control in the north; Greek Cypriots control the only
internationally recognized government; on 15 November 1983 Turkish
Cypriot President Rauf Denktash declared independence and the formation
of a Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, which has been recognized
only by Turkey; both sides publicly call for the resolution of
intercommunal differences and creation of a new federal system of
government


_#_Capital: Nicosia


_#_Administrative divisions: 6 districts; Famagusta, Kyrenia,
Larnaca, Limassol, Nicosia, Paphos


_#_Independence: 16 August 1960 (from UK)


_#_Constitution: 16 August 1960; negotiations to create the basis for
a new or revised constitution to govern the island and to better
relations between Greek and Turkish Cypriots have been held
intermittently; in 1975 Turkish Cypriots created their own Constitution
and governing bodies within the Turkish Federated State of Cyprus, which
was renamed the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus in 1983; a new
Constitution for the Turkish area passed by referendum in May 1985


_#_Legal system: based on common law, with civil law modifications


_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 1 October


_#_Executive branch: president, Council of Ministers (cabinet);
note--there is a president, prime minister, and Council of Ministers
(cabinet) in the Turkish area


_#_Legislative branch: unicameral House of Representatives (Vouli
Antiprosopon); note--there is a unicameral Assembly of the Republic
(Cumhuriyet Meclisi) in the Turkish area


_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court; note--there is also a Supreme Court
in the Turkish area


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government--President George VASSILIOU
(since February 1988); note--Rauf R. DENKTASH has been president
of the Turkish area since 13 February 1975


_#_Political parties and leaders:
Greek Cypriot--Progressive Party of the Working People (AKEL;
Communist Party), Dimitrios CHRISTOFIAS,
Democratic Rally (DESY), Glafcos CLERIDES;
Democratic Party (DEKO), Spyros KYPRIANOU;
United Democratic Union of the Center (EDEK), Vassos LYSSARIDES;
Socialist Democratic Renewal Movement (ADESOK), Pavlos DINGLIS, chairman;
Liberal Party, Nikos ROLANDIS;

Turkish area--National Unity Party (UBP), Dervis EROGLU;
Communal Liberation Party (TKP), Mustafa AKINCI;
Republican Turkish Party (CTP), Ozker OZGUR;
New Cyprus Party (NKP), Alpay DURDURAN;
New Dawn Party (YDP), Ali Ozkan ALTINISHIK;
Free Democratic Party, Ismet KOTAK; note--CTP, TKP, and YDP joined
in the coalition Democratic Struggle Party (DMP) for the 22 April
1990 legislative election


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


_#_Elections:

President--last held 14 February and 21 February 1988 (next
to be held February 1993);
results--George VASSILIOU 52%, Glafcos CLERIDES 48%;

House of Representatives--last held 8 December 1985 (next to
be held 19 May 1991);
results--DESY 33.56%, DEKO 27.65%, AKEL (Communist) 27.43%, EDEK 11.07%;
seats--(56 total) DESY 19, DEKO 16, AKEL (Communist) 15, EDEK 6;

Turkish Area: President--last held 22 April 1990 (next to be
held April 1995);
results--Rauf R. DENKTASH 66%, Ismail BOZKURT 32.05%;

Turkish Area: Assembly of the Republic--last held 6 May 1990
(next to be held May 1995);
results--UBP (conservative) about 55%, DMP NA%;
seats--(50 total) UBP (conservative) 34, CTP (Communist) 7,
TKP (center-right) 7, New Dawn Party 2


_#_Communists: about 12,000


_#_Other political or pressure groups: United Democratic Youth
Organization (EDON; Communist controlled); Union of Cyprus Farmers (EKA;
Communist controlled); Cyprus Farmers Union (PEK; pro-West); Pan-Cyprian
Labor Federation (PEO; Communist controlled); Confederation of Cypriot
Workers (SEK; pro-West); Federation of Turkish Cypriot Labor Unions
(Turk-Sen); Confederation of Revolutionary Labor Unions (Dev-Is)


_#_Member of: C, CCC, CE, CSCE, EBRD, ECE, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAS (observer), UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Michael E. SHERIFIS;
Chancery at 2211 R Street NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202)
462-5772; there is a Cypriot Consulate General in New York;

US--Ambassador Robert E. LAMB; Embassy at the corner of Therissos
Street and Dositheos Street, Nicosia (mailing address is FPO New York
09530); telephone [357] (2) 4651511


_#_Flag: white with a copper-colored silhouette of the island (the
name Cyprus is derived from the Greek word for copper) above two green
crossed olive branches in the center of the flag; the branches symbolize
the hope for peace and reconciliation between the Greek and Turkish
communities


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: These data are for the area controlled by the Republic of
Cyprus (information on the northern Turkish-Cypriot area is sparse).
The economy is small, diversified, and prosperous. Industry contributes
about 25% to GDP and employs 35% of the labor force, while the service
sector contributes about 55% to GDP and employs 40% of the labor force.
Rapid growth in exports of agricultural and manufactured products
and in tourism have played important roles in the average 6% rise in GDP
in recent years.


_#_GDP: $5.4 billion, per capita $7,960; real growth rate 5.5%
(1990)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.5% (1990)


_#_Unemployment rate: below 2% (1990)


_#_Budget: revenues $1.2 billion; expenditures $1.4 billion, including
capital expenditures of $178 million (1989 est.)


_#_Exports: $770 million (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities--citrus, potatoes, grapes, wine, cement, clothing and
shoes;

partners--UK 23%, Greece 10%, Lebanon 9%, Saudi Arabia 4%


_#_Imports: $2.5 billion (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities--consumer goods, petroleum and lubricants, food and
feed grains, machinery;

partners--France 12%, UK 11%, Japan 11%, Italy 10%


_#_External debt: $2.2 billion (1990)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate 6.5% (1988); accounts for
27% of GDP


_#_Electricity: 620,000 kW capacity; 1,770 million kWh produced,
2,530 kWh per capita (1989)


_#_Industries: food, beverages, textiles, chemicals, metal products,
tourism, wood products


_#_Agriculture: accounts for 7% of GDP and employs 22% of labor force;
major crops--potatoes, vegetables, barley, grapes, olives, and citrus
fruits; vegetables and fruit provide 25% of export revenues


_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $292
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-87), $230 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $62 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $24 million


_#_Currency: Cypriot pound (plural--pounds) and in Turkish area,
Turkish lira (plural--liras); 1 Cypriot pound (5C) = 100 cents and
1 Turkish lira
(TL) = 100 kurus


_#_Exchange rates: Cypriot pounds (5C) per US$1--0.4325 (December
1990), 0.4572 (1990), 0.4933 (1989), 0.4663 (1988), 0.4807 (1987), 0.5167
(1986), 0.6095 (1985); in Turkish area, Turkish liras (TL) per
US$1--2,873.9 (December 1990), 2,608.6 (1990), 2,121.7 (1989), 1,422.3
(1988), 857.2 (1987), 674.5 (1986), 522.0 (1985)


_#_Fiscal year: calendar year


_*_Communications
_#_Highways: 10,780 km total; 5,170 km bituminous surface treated;
5,610 km gravel, crushed stone, and earth


_#_Ports: Famagusta, Kyrenia, Larnaca, Limassol, Paphos


_#_Merchant marine: 1,169 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
19,310,063 GRT/34,338,028 DWT; 10 short-sea passenger, 2 passenger-cargo,
435 cargo, 76 refrigerated cargo, 20 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 48
container, 4 multifunction large load carrier, 111 petroleum, oils, and
lubricants (POL) tanker, 2 specialized tanker, 8 liquefied gas, 17
chemical tanker, 30 combination ore/oil, 360 bulk, 2 vehicle carrier, 44
combination bulk; note--a flag of convenience registry; Cuba owns at
least 25 of these ships, USSR owns 52, and Yugoslavia owns 1


_#_Civil air: 11 major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 13 total, 13 usable; 10 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 7 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
2 with runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: excellent in the area controlled by the Cypriot
Government (Greek area), moderately good in the Turkish-Cypriot
administered area; 210,000 telephones; stations--14 AM, 7 (7 repeaters)
FM, 2 (40 repeaters) TV; tropospheric scatter circuits to Greece and
Turkey; 3 submarine coaxial cables; satellite earth stations--INTELSAT, 1
Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean, and EUTELSAT systems


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Greek area--Greek Cypriot National Guard (GCNG;
includes air and naval elements), Greek Cypriot Police; Turkish
area--Turkish Cypriot Security Force


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 182,426; 125,839 fit for
military service; 5,169 reach military age (18) annually


_#_Defense expenditures: $209 million, 5% of GDP (1990 est.)
_%_
_@_Czechoslovakia
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 127,870 km2; land area: 125,460 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than New York State


_#_Land boundaries: 3,446 km total; Austria 548 km, Germany 815 km,
Hungary 676 km, Poland 1,309 km, USSR 98 km


_#_Coastline: none--landlocked


_#_Maritime claims: none--landlocked


_#_Disputes: Nagymaros Dam dispute with Hungary


_#_Climate: temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters


_#_Terrain: mixture of hills and mountains separated by plains and
basins


_#_Natural resources: coal, timber, lignite, uranium, magnesite,
iron ore, copper, zinc


_#_Land use: arable land 40%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures
13%; forest and woodland 37%; other 9%; includes irrigated 1%


_#_Environment: infrequent earthquakes; acid rain; water pollution;
air pollution


_#_Note: landlocked; strategically located astride some of oldest
and most significant land routes in Europe; Moravian Gate is a
traditional military corridor between the North European Plain and the
Danube in central Europe


_*_People
_#_Population: 15,724,940 (July 1991), growth rate 0.3% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 14 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 11 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: NEGL migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 11 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 69 years male, 77 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 1.9 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--Czechoslovak(s); adjective--Czechoslovak


_#_Ethnic divisions: Czech 62.9%, Slovak 31.8%, Hungarian 3.8%,
Polish 0.5%, German 0.3%, Ukrainian 0.3%, Russian 0.1%, other 0.3%


_#_Religion: Roman Catholic 50%, Protestant 20%, Orthodox 2%,
other 28%


_#_Language: Czech and Slovak (official), Hungarian


_#_Literacy: 99% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1970 est.)


_#_Labor force: 8,200,000 (1987); industry 36.9%, agriculture 12.3%,
construction, communications, and other 50.8% (1982)


_#_Organized labor: Czech and Slovak Confederation of Trade
Unions (CSKOS); new independent trade unions forming


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Czech and Slovak Federal Republic; note--on
23 March 1990 the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic was renamed the
Czechoslovak Federative Republic; Slovak concerns about their
status in the federation prompted the Federal Assembly to approve the
name Czech and Slovak Federative Republic on 20 April 1990; on 23 April
1990 the name was modified to Czech and Slovak Federal Republic


_#_Type: federal republic in transition to a confederative republic


_#_Capital: Prague


_#_Administrative divisions: 2 republics (republiky,
singular--republika); Czech Republic (Ceska Republika),
Slovak Republic (Slovenska Republika)


_#_Independence: 28 October 1918 (from Austro-Hungarian Empire)


_#_Constitution: 11 July 1960; amended in 1968 and 1970; new
Czech, Slovak, and federal constitutions to be drafted in 1991-92


_#_Legal system: civil law system based on Austro-Hungarian codes,
modified by Communist legal theory; no judicial review of legislative
acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; legal code in
process of modification to bring it in line with Conference on
Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE) obligations and to expunge
Marxist-Leninist legal theory


_#_National holiday: National Liberation Day, 9 May (1945) and
Founding of the Republic, 28 October (1918)


_#_Executive branch: president, prime minister, Cabinet


_#_Legislative branch: bicameral Federal Assembly (Federalni
Shromazdeni) consists of an upper house or Chamber of Nations
(Snemovna Narodu) and a lower house or Chamber of the People
(Snemovna Lidu)


_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--President Vaclav HAVEL;
(interim president from 29 December 1989 and president since
5 July 1990);

Head of Government--Premier Marian CALFA (since
10 December 1989);
Deputy Premier Vaclav VALES (since 28 June 1990);
Deputy Premier Jiri DIENSTBIER (since 28 June 1990);
Deputy Premier Jozef MIKLOSKO (since 28 June 1990);
Deputy Premier Pavel RYCHETSKY (since 28 June 1990)


_#_Political parties and leaders:
Civic Forum, Vaclav KLAUS, chairman;
Public Against Violence, Fedor GAL, chairman;
Christian and Democratic Union, Vaclav BENDA;
Christian Democratic Movement, Jan CARNOGURSKY;
Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (KSC), Pavol KANIS, chairman;
KSC toppled from power in November 1989 by massive antiregime
demonstrations, minority role in coalition government since 10 December
1989


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


_#_Elections:

President--last held 5 July 1990 (next to be held July 1992);
results--Vaclav HAVEL elected by the Federal Assembly;

Federal Assembly--last held 8-9 June 1990 (next to be held June
1992);
results--Civic Forum/Public Against Violence coalition 46%, KSC 13.6%;
seats--(300 total) Civic Forum/Public Against Violence coalition 170,
KSC 47, Christian and Democratic Union/Christian Democratic
Movement 40, Czech, Slovak, Moravian, and Hungarian groups 43


_#_Communists: 760,000 party members (September 1990); about
1,000,000 members lost since November 1989


_#_Other political or pressure groups: Czechoslovak Socialist Party,
Czechoslovak People's Party, Czechoslovak Social Democracy, Slovak
Nationalist Party, Slovak Revival Party, Christian Democratic Party;
over 80 registered political groups fielded candidates in the 8-9 June
1990 legislative election


_#_Member of: BIS, CCC, CSCE, ECE, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBEC,
ICAO, IIB, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, PCA, UN,
UNAVEM, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Rita KLIMOVA;
Chancery at 3900 Linnean Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202)
363-6315 or 6316;

US--Ambassador Shirley Temple BLACK; Embassy at Trziste 15,
125 48, Prague 1 (mailing address is AMEM, Box 5630, APO New York
09213-5630); telephone [42] (2) 536641 through 536649


_#_Flag: two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red with a blue
isosceles triangle based on the hoist side


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Czechoslovakia is highly industrialized and has a
well-educated and skilled labor force. Its industry, transport, energy
sources, banking, and most other means of production are state owned. The
country is deficient, however, in energy and in many raw materials.
Moreover, its aging capital plant lags well behind West European
standards. Industry contributes almost 50% to GNP and construction
contributes 10%. About 95% of agricultural land is in collectives or
state farms. The centrally planned economy has been tightly linked in
trade (80%) to the USSR and Eastern Europe. Growth has been sluggish,
averaging less than 2% in the period 1982-89. GNP per capita is the
highest in Eastern Europe. As in the rest of Eastern Europe, the sweeping
political changes of 1989-90 have been disrupting normal channels of
supply and compounding the government's economic problems. Having eased
restrictions on private enterprise in 1990 and having adjusted some key
prices, Czechoslovakia is now implementing a broad two-year program
to make the difficult transition from a command to a market economy.
Inflation and unemployment are beginning to rise, albeit from
comparatively low levels.


_#_GNP: $120.3 billion, per capita $7,700; real growth rate - 2.9%
(1990 est.)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 9% (1990 est.)


_#_Unemployment rate: officially 0.8% (1990)


_#_Budget: revenues $17.1 billion; expenditures $16.8 billion,
including capital expenditures of $1.5 billion (1991)


_#_Exports: $14.4 billion (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities--machinery and equipment 42.7%; fuels, minerals,
and metals 16.4%; agricultural and forestry products 12.5%, other
28.4%;

partners--USSR, GDR, Poland, Hungary, FRG, Yugoslavia, Austria,
Bulgaria, Romania, US


_#_Imports: $14.3 billion (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities--machinery and equipment 38.6%;
fuels, minerals, and metals 24.1%; agricultural and forestry
products 16.4%; other 20.9%;

partners--USSR, GDR, Poland, Hungary, FRG, Yugoslavia, Austria,
Bulgaria, Romania, US


_#_External debt: $7.6 billion, hard currency indebtedness (September
1990)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate - 3.3% (1990 est.); accounts
for almost 50% of GDP


_#_Electricity: 23,000,000 kW capacity; 90,000 million kWh produced,
5,740 kWh per capita (1990)


_#_Industries: iron and steel, machinery and equipment, cement, sheet
glass, motor vehicles, armaments, chemicals, ceramics, wood, paper
products, footwear


_#_Agriculture: accounts for 7% of GNP (includes forestry); largely
self-sufficient in food production; diversified crop and livestock
production, including grains, potatoes, sugar beets, hops, fruit, hogs,
cattle, and poultry; exporter of forest products


_#_Economic aid: donor--$4.2 billion in bilateral aid to non-Communist
less developed countries (1954-89)


_#_Currency: koruna (plural--koruny); 1 koruna (Kc) = 100 haleru


_#_Exchange rates: koruny (Kcs) per US$1--27.65 (January 1991),
17.95 (1990), 15.05 (1989), 14.36 (1988), 13.69 (1987), 14.99 (1986),
17.14 (1985)


_#_Fiscal year: calendar year


_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 13,103 km total; 12,855 km 1.435-meter standard gauge,
102 km 1.520-meter broad gauge, 146 km 0.750- and 0.760-meter narrow
gauge; 2,861 km double track; 3,798 km electrified; government owned
(1988)


_#_Highways: 73,540 km total; including 517 km superhighway (1988)


_#_Inland waterways: 475 km (1988); the Elbe (Labe) is the principal
river


_#_Pipelines: crude oil, 1,448 km; refined products, 1,500 km; natural
gas, 8,100 km


_#_Ports: maritime outlets are in Poland (Gdynia, Gdansk, Szczecin),
Yugoslavia (Rijeka, Koper), Germany (Hamburg, Rostock); principal river
ports are Prague on the Vltava, Decin on the Elbe (Labe),
Komarno on the Danube, Bratislava on the Danube


_#_Merchant marine: 24 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 363,002 GRT/
565,813 DWT; includes 15 cargo, 6 bulk


_#_Civil air: 47 major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 158 total, 158 usable; 40 with permanent-surface
runways; 19 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 37 with runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: 4 million telephones; 25% of households
have a telephone; stations--60 AM, 16 FM, 39 TV (11 Soviet TV
relays); 4.4 million TVs (1990)


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Czechoslovak People's Army, Air and Air Defense Forces,
Civil Defense, Border Guard


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 4,066,419; 3,110,958 fit for
military service; 140,620 reach military age (18) annually


_#_Defense expenditures: 26.9 billion koruny, NA% of GDP (1991);
note--conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the
official administratively set exchange rate would produce misleading
results
_%_
_@_Denmark
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 43,070 km2; land area: 42,370 km2; includes the island
of Bornholm in the Baltic Sea and the rest of metropolitan Denmark, but
excludes the Faroe Islands and Greenland


_#_Comparative area: slightly more than twice the size of
Massachusetts


_#_Land boundaries: 68 km with Germany


_#_Coastline: 3,379 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 4 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation;

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 3 nm


_#_Disputes: Rockall continental shelf dispute involving Iceland,
Ireland, and the UK (Ireland and the UK have signed a boundary agreement
in the Rockall area); Denmark has challenged Norway's maritime claims
between Greenland and Jan Mayen


_#_Climate: temperate; humid and overcast; mild, windy winters and
cool summers


_#_Terrain: low and flat to gently rolling plains


_#_Natural resources: crude oil, natural gas, fish, salt, limestone


_#_Land use: arable land 61%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and
pastures 6%; forest and woodland 12%; other 21%; includes irrigated 9%


_#_Environment: air and water pollution


_#_Note: controls Danish Straits linking Baltic and North Seas


_*_People
_#_Population: 5,132,626 (July 1991), growth rate NEGL% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 12 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 11 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: NEGL migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 6 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 73 years male, 79 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 1.6 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--Dane(s); adjective--Danish


_#_Ethnic divisions: Scandinavian, Eskimo, Faroese, German


_#_Religion: Evangelical Lutheran 91%, other Protestant and Roman
Catholic 2%, other 7% (1988)


_#_Language: Danish, Faroese, Greenlandic (an Eskimo dialect); small
German-speaking minority


_#_Literacy: 99% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1980 est.)


_#_Labor force: 2,581,400; private services 36.4%; government services
30.2%; manufacturing and mining 20%; construction 6.8%; agriculture,
forestry, and fishing 5.9%; electricity/gas/water 0.7% (1990)


_#_Organized labor: 65% of labor force


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Kingdom of Denmark


_#_Type: constitutional monarchy


_#_Capital: Copenhagen


_#_Administrative divisions: metropolitan Denmark--14 counties (amter,
singular--amt) and 1 city* (stad); Arhus, Bornholm, Frederiksborg,
Fyn, Kobenhavn, Nordjylland, Ribe, Ringkobing, Roskilde,
Sonderjylland, Staden Kobenhavn*, Storstrom, Vejle, Vestsjaelland,
Viborg; note--see separate entries for the Faroe Islands and Greenland
which are part of the Danish realm and self-governing administrative
divisions


_#_Independence: became a constitutional monarchy in 1849


_#_Constitution: 5 June 1953


_#_Legal system: civil law system; judicial review of legislative
acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations


_#_National holiday: Birthday of the Queen, 16 April (1940)


_#_Executive branch: monarch, heir apparent, prime minister, Cabinet


_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament (Folketing)


_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--Queen MARGRETHE II (since January 1972);
Heir Apparent Crown Prince FREDERIK, elder son of the Queen (born 26
May 1968);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Poul SCHLUTER (since 10
September 1982)


_#_Political parties and leaders: Social Democratic, Svend AUKEN;
Conservative, Poul SCHLUTER;
Liberal, Uffe ELLEMANN-JENSEN;
Socialist People's, Holger K. NIELSEN;
Progress Party, Pia KJAERSGAARD;
Center Democratic, Mimi Stilling JAKOBSEN;
Radical Liberal, Marianne JELVED;
Christian People's, Flemming KOTOED-SVENDSEN;
Left Socialist, Elizabeth BRUN-OLESEN;
Justice, Poul Gerhard KRISTIANSEN;
Socialist Workers Party, leader NA;
Communist Workers' Party (KAP), leader NA;
Common Course, Preben Moller HANSEN;
Green Party, Inger BORLEHMANN


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 21


_#_Elections:

Parliament--last held 12 December 1990 (next to be held by
December 1994);
results--Social Democratic 37.4%, Conservative 16.0%, Liberal 15.8%,
Socialist People's 8.3%, Progress Party 6.4%, Center Democratic 5.1%,
Radical Liberal 3.5%, Christian People's 2.3%, other 5.2%;
seats--(175 total; includes 2 from Greenland and 2 from the Faroe
Islands) Social Democratic 69, Conservative 30, Liberal 29,
Socialist People's 15, Progress Party 12, Center Democratic 9, Radical
Liberal 7, Christian People's 4


_#_Member of: AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, BIS, CCC, CE, CERN, COCOM,
CSCE, EBRD, EC, ECE, EIB, ESA, FAO, G-9, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NATO, NC, NEA, NIB, OECD,
PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIIMOG,
UNMOGIP, UNTSO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Peter Pedersen DYVIG;
Chancery at 3200 Whitehaven Street NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone
(202) 234-4300; there are Danish Consulates General at Chicago, Houston,
Los Angeles, and New York;

US--Ambassador Keith L. BROWN; Embassy at Dag Hammarskjolds Alle
24, 2100 Copenhagen O (mailing address is APO New York 09170);
telephone [45] (31) 42 31 44


_#_Flag: red with a white cross that extends to the edges of the flag;
the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side and that
design element of the Dannebrog (Danish flag) was subsequently
adopted by the other Nordic countries of Finland, Iceland, Norway, and
Sweden


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: This modern economy features high-tech
agriculture, up-to-date small-scale and corporate industry, extensive
government welfare measures, comfortable living standards, and high
dependence on foreign trade. The Danish economy is likely to maintain
its slow but steady improvement in 1991. GDP grew by 1.3% in 1990
and probably will grow by about 1.25% in 1991; unemployment is running
close to 10%. In 1990 Denmark had the lowest inflation rate in the EC,
a record trade surplus, and the first balance-of-payments surplus in
26 years. As the government prepares for the economic integration of
Europe during 1992, growth, investment, and competitiveness are expected
to improve, reducing unemployment, inflation, and debt.


_#_GDP: $78.0 billion, per capita $15,200; real growth rate 1.3%
(1990)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.7% (1990)


_#_Unemployment rate: 9.5% (1990)


_#_Budget: revenues $62.5 billion; expenditures $60 billion, including
capital expenditures of $NA billion (1989)


_#_Exports: $34.8 billion (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities--meat and meat products, dairy products, transport
equipment, fish, chemicals, industrial machinery;

partners--EC 52.2% (Germany 19.5%, UK 10.9%, France 6.1%), Sweden
12.5%, Norway 5.8%, US 5.0%, Japan 4.3% (1990)


_#_Imports: $31.6 billion (c.i.f., 1990);

commodities--petroleum, machinery and equipment, chemicals, grain
and foodstuffs, textiles, paper;

partners--EC 57% (Germany 25.6%, UK 8.4%), Sweden 12.7%, US 6.7%
(1990)


_#_External debt: $45 billion (1990)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate 2.1% (1989)


_#_Electricity: 11,215,000 kW capacity; 30,910 million kWh produced,
6,030 kWh per capita (1989)


_#_Industries: food processing, machinery and equipment, textiles and
clothing, chemical products, electronics, construction, furniture, and
other wood products


_#_Agriculture: accounts for 5% of GNP and employs 6% of labor force
(includes fishing and forestry); farm products account for nearly 15%
of export revenues; principal products--meat, dairy, grain, potatoes,
rape, sugar beets, fish; self-sufficient in food production


_#_Economic aid: donor--ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89) $5.9 billion


_#_Currency: Danish krone (plural--kroner); 1 Danish krone
(DKr) = 100 ore


_#_Exchange rates: Danish kroner (DKr) per US$1--5.817 (January
(1991), 6.189 (1990), 7.310 (1989), 6.732 (1988), 6.840 (1987), 8.091
(1986), 10.596 (1985)


_#_Fiscal year: calendar year


_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 2,675 km 1.435-meter standard gauge; Danish State
Railways (DSB) operate 2,025 km (1,999 km rail line and 121 km rail ferry
services); 188 km electrified, 730 km double tracked; 650 km of
standard-gauge lines are privately owned and operated


_#_Highways: 66,482 km total; 64,551 km concrete, bitumen, or stone
block; 1,931 km gravel, crushed stone, improved earth


_#_Inland waterways: 417 km


_#_Pipelines: crude oil, 110 km; refined products, 578 km; natural
gas, 700 km


_#_Ports: Alborg, Arhus, Copenhagen, Esbjerg, Fredericia;
numerous secondary and minor ports


_#_Merchant marine: 281 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,888,064
GRT/7,131,949 DWT; includes 13 short-sea passenger, 85 cargo, 15
refrigerated cargo, 35 container, 40 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 1 railcar
carrier, 37 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 14 chemical
tanker, 22 liquefied gas, 4 livestock carrier, 14 bulk, 1 combination
bulk; note--Denmark has created its own internal register, called the
Danish International Ship Register (DIS); DIS ships do not have to
meet Danish manning regulations, and they amount to a flag of convenience
within the Danish register; by the end of 1990, 258 of the Danish-flag
ships belonged to the DIS


_#_Civil air: 69 major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 129 total, 112 usable; 27 with permanent-surface
runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 9 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
7 with runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: excellent telephone, telegraph, and broadcast
services; 4,509,000 telephones; stations--2 AM, 15 (39 repeaters) FM, 27
(25 repeaters) TV; 7 submarine coaxial cables; 1 earth station operating
in INTELSAT, 4 Atlantic Ocean, EUTELSAT, and domestic systems


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Royal Danish Army, Royal Danish Navy, Royal Danish Air
Force


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 1,369,684; 1,179,991 fit for
military service; 36,991 reach military age (20) annually


_#_Defense expenditures: $2.4 billion, 2% of GDP (1990)
_%_
_@_Djibouti
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 22,000 km2; land area: 21,980 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than Massachusetts


_#_Land boundaries: 517 km total; Ethiopia 459 km, Somalia 58 km


_#_Coastline: 314 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm


_#_Disputes: possible claim by Somalia based on unification of ethnic
Somalis


_#_Climate: desert; torrid, dry


_#_Terrain: coastal plain and plateau separated by central mountains


_#_Natural resources: geothermal areas


_#_Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
9%; forest and woodland NEGL%; other 91%


_#_Environment: vast wasteland


_#_Note: strategic location near world's busiest shipping lanes
and close to Arabian oilfields; terminus of rail traffic into Ethiopia


_*_People
_#_Population: 346,311 (July 1991), growth rate 2.6% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 43 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 16 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 117 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 46 years male, 50 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 6.4 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--Djiboutian(s); adjective--Djiboutian


_#_Ethnic divisions: Somali (Issa) 60%, Afar 35%, French, Arab,
Ethiopian, and Italian 5%


_#_Religion: Muslim 94%, Christian 6%


_#_Language: French and Arabic (both official); Somali and Afar widely
used


_#_Literacy: 48% (male 63%, female 34%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)


_#_Labor force: NA, but a small number of semiskilled laborers at
the port and 3,000 railway workers; 52% of population of working age
(1983)


_#_Organized labor: 3,000 railway workers


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of Djibouti


_#_Type: republic


_#_Capital: Djibouti


_#_Administrative divisions: 5 districts (cercles, singular--cercle);
Ali Sabih, Dikhil, Djibouti, Obock, Tadjoura


_#_Independence: 27 June 1977 (from France; formerly French Territory
of the Afars and Issas)


_#_Constitution: partial constitution ratified January 1981 by the
National Assembly


_#_Legal system: based on French civil law system, traditional
practices, and Islamic law


_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 27 June (1977)


_#_Executive branch: president, prime minister, Council of Ministers


_#_Legislative branch: National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale)


_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--President Hassan GOULED Aptidon (since 24 June
1977);

Head of Government--Prime Minister BARKAT Gourad Hamadou (since 30
September 1978)


_#_Political parties and leaders: only party--People's Progress
Assembly (RPP), Hassan GOULED Aptidon


_#_Suffrage: universal adult at age NA


_#_Elections:

President--last held 24 April 1987 (next to be held April 1993);
results--President Hassan GOULED Aptidon was reelected without
opposition;

National Assembly--last held 24 April 1987 (next to be
held April 1992); results--RPP is the only party; seats--(65 total)
RPP 65


_#_Communists: NA


_#_Member of: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AL, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO,
IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IGADD, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU,
LORCS, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNESCO, UNCTAD, UPU, WHO, WMO


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Roble OLHAYE; Chancery
(temporary) at the Djiboutian Permanent Mission to the UN; 866 United
Nations Plaza, Suite 4011, New York, NY 10017; telephone (212) 753-3163;

US--Ambassador Robert S. BARRETT IV; Embassy at Villa Plateau du
Serpent, Boulevard Marechal Joffre, Djibouti (mailing address is B. P.
185, Djibouti); telephone [253] 35-39-95


_#_Flag: two equal horizontal bands of light blue (top) and light
green with a white isosceles triangle based on the hoist side bearing a
red five-pointed star in the center


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The economy is based on service activities connected with
the country's strategic location and status as a free trade zone in
northeast Africa. Djibouti provides services as both a transit port
for the region and an international transshipment and refueling center.
It has few natural resources and little industry. The nation is,
therefore, heavily dependent on foreign assistance to help support its
balance of payments and to finance development projects. An unemployment
rate of over 40% continues to be a major problem. Per capita
consumption dropped an estimated 35% over the last five years with
a population growth rate of 6% (including immigrants and refugees) and a
recession.


_#_GDP: $340 million, $1,030 per capita; real growth rate - 1.0% (1989
est.)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.7% (1989)


_#_Unemployment rate: over 40% (1989)


_#_Budget: revenues $131 million; expenditures $154 million, including
capital expenditures of $25 million (1990 est.)


_#_Exports: $190 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities--hides and skins, coffee (in transit);

partners--Middle East 50%, Africa 43%, Western Europe 7%


_#_Imports: $311 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities--foods, beverages, transport equipment, chemicals,
petroleum products;

partners--EC 36%, Africa 21%, Asia 12%, US 2%


_#_External debt: $355 million (December 1990)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate 0.1% (1989); manufacturing
accounts for 4% of GDP


_#_Electricity: 110,000 kW capacity; 190 million kWh produced,
580 kWh per capita (1989)


_#_Industries: limited to a few small-scale enterprises, such as
dairy products and mineral-water bottling


_#_Agriculture: accounts for only 5% of GDP; scanty rainfall limits
crop production to mostly fruit and vegetables; half of population
pastoral nomads herding goats, sheep, and camels; imports bulk of food
needs


_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY78-89), $39
million; Western (non-US) countries, including ODA and OOF bilateral
commitments (1970-88), $1,035 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89),
$149 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $35 million


_#_Currency: Djiboutian franc (plural--francs); 1 Djiboutian franc
(DF) = 100 centimes


_#_Exchange rates: Djiboutian francs (DF) per US$1--177.721 (fixed
rate since 1973)


_#_Fiscal year: calendar year


_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: the Ethiopian-Djibouti railroad extends for 97 km
through Djibouti


_#_Highways: 2,900 km total; 280 km bituminous surface, 2,620 km
improved or unimproved earth (1982)


_#_Ports: Djibouti


_#_Civil air: 2 major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 13 total, 10 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
4 with runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: fair system of urban facilities in Djibouti and
radio relay stations at outlying places; 7,300 telephones; stations--2
AM, 1 FM, 2 TV; 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth station and 1 ARABSAT;
1 submarine cable to Saudi Arabia


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army (including Navy and Air Force), paramilitary
National Security Force, National Police Force


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 89,519; 52,093 fit for military
service


_#_Defense expenditures: $29.9 million, NA% of GDP (1986)
_%_
_@_Dominica
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 750 km2; land area: 750 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly more than four times the size of
Washington, DC


_#_Land boundaries: none


_#_Coastline: 148 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm


_#_Climate: tropical; moderated by northeast trade winds; heavy
rainfall


_#_Terrain: rugged mountains of volcanic origin


_#_Natural resources: timber


_#_Land use: arable land 9%; permanent crops 13%; meadows and pastures
3%; forest and woodland 41%; other 34%


_#_Environment: flash floods a constant hazard; occasional hurricanes


_#_Note: located 550 km southeast of Puerto Rico in the Caribbean Sea


_*_People
_#_Population: 86,285 (July 1991), growth rate 1.7% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 26 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: - 3 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 13 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 73 years male, 79 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 2.6 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--Dominican(s); adjective--Dominican


_#_Ethnic divisions: mostly black; some Carib indians


_#_Religion: Roman Catholic 77%, Protestant 15% (Methodist 5%,
Pentecostal 3%, Seventh-Day Adventist 3%, Baptist 2%, other 2%),
none 2%, unknown 1%, other 5%


_#_Language: English (official); French patois widely spoken


_#_Literacy: 94% (male 94%, female 94%) age 15 and over having ever
attended school (1970)


_#_Labor force: 25,000; agriculture 40%, industry and commerce 32%,
services 28% (1984)


_#_Organized labor: 25% of labor force


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Commonwealth of Dominica


_#_Type: parliamentary democracy


_#_Capital: Roseau


_#_Administrative divisions: 10 parishes; Saint Andrew, Saint David,
Saint George, Saint John, Saint Joseph, Saint Luke, Saint Mark,
Saint Patrick, Saint Paul, Saint Peter


_#_Independence: 3 November 1978 (from UK)


_#_Constitution: 3 November 1978


_#_Legal system: based on English common law


_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 3 November (1978)


_#_Executive branch: president, prime minister, Cabinet


_#_Legislative branch: unicameral House of Assembly


_#_Judicial branch: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--President Sir Clarence Augustus SEIGNORET (since
19 December 1983);

Head of Government--Prime Minister (Mary) Eugenia CHARLES (since 21
July 1980, elected for a third term 28 May 1990)


_#_Political parties and leaders:
Dominica Freedom Party (DFP), (Mary) Eugenia CHARLES;
Dominica Labor Party (DLP), Michael DOUGLAS;
United Workers Party (UWP), Edison JAMES


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


_#_Elections:

President--last held 20 December 1988 (next to be held December
1993); the president is elected by the House of Assembly;

House of Assembly--last held 28 May 1990 (next to be held May
1995); results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(30 total; 9 appointed senators and 21 elected representatives)
DFP 11, UWP 6, DLP 4


_#_Communists: negligible


_#_Other political or pressure groups: Dominica Liberation Movement
(DLM), a small leftist group


_#_Member of: ACCT, ACP, C, CARICOM, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IBRD,
ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, LORCS, NAM (observer),
OAS, OECS, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WMO


_#_Diplomatic representation: there is no Chancery in the US;

US--no official presence since the Ambassador resides in Bridgetown
(Barbados), but travels frequently to Dominica


_#_Flag: green with a centered cross of three equal bands--the
vertical part is yellow (hoist side), black, and white--the horizontal
part is yellow (top), black, and white; superimposed in the center of the
cross is a red disk bearing a sisserou parrot encircled by 10 green
five-pointed stars edged in yellow; the 10 stars represent the 10
administrative divisions (parishes)


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The economy is dependent on agriculture and thus is
highly vulnerable to climatic conditions. Agriculture accounts for about
30% of GDP and employs 40% of the labor force. Principal products include
bananas, citrus, mangoes, root crops, and coconuts. In 1988 the economy
achieved a 5.6% growth in real GDP on the strength of a boost in
construction, higher agricultural production, and growth of the small
manufacturing sector based on the soap and garment industries. In 1989,
however, Hurricane Hugo wiped out 70% of the banana crop and affected
other economic activity. The tourist industry remains undeveloped because
of a rugged coastline and the lack of an international-class airport.


_#_GDP: $153 million, per capita $1,840; real growth rate - 1.7%
(1989 est.)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6.3% (1989)


_#_Unemployment rate: 10% (1989 est.)


_#_Budget: revenues $48 million; expenditures $85 million,
including capital expenditures of $41 million (FY90)


_#_Exports: $59 million (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities--bananas, coconuts, grapefruit, soap, galvanized
sheets;

partners--UK 72%, Jamaica 10%, OECS 6%, US 3%, other 9%


_#_Imports: $115 million (c.i.f., 1990);

commodities--food, oils and fats, chemicals, fuels and lubricants,
manufactured goods, machinery and equipment;

partners--US 23%, UK 18%, CARICOM 15%, OECS 15%, Japan 5%,
Canada 3%, other 21%


_#_External debt: $73 million (1990 est.)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate 4.5% in manufacturing (1988
est.); accounts for 11% of GDP


_#_Electricity: 7,000 kW capacity; 16 million kWh produced,
190 kWh per capita (1990)


_#_Industries: soap, beverages, tourism, food processing, furniture,
cement blocks, shoes


_#_Agriculture: accounts for 30% of GDP; principal crops--bananas,
citrus, mangoes, root crops, and coconuts; bananas provide the bulk
of export earnings; forestry and fisheries potential not exploited


_#_Economic aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral
commitments (1970-88), $115 million


_#_Currency: East Caribbean dollar (plural--dollars); 1 EC dollar
(EC$) = 100 cents


_#_Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1--2.70
(fixed rate since 1976)


_#_Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June


_*_Communications
_#_Highways: 750 km total; 370 km paved, 380 km gravel and earth


_#_Ports: Roseau, Portsmouth


_#_Civil air: NA


_#_Airports: 2 total, 2 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 2,439 m; 1 with runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: 4,600 telephones in fully automatic network;
VHF and UHF link to Saint Lucia; new SHF links to Martinique and
Guadeloupe; stations--3 AM, 2 FM, 1 cable TV


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Commonwealth of Dominica Police Force


_#_Manpower availability: NA


_#_Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP
_%_
_@_Dominican Republic
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 48,730 km2; land area: 48,380 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly more than twice the size of New
Hampshire


_#_Land boundary 275 km with Haiti


_#_Coastline: 1,288 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Continental shelf: outer edge of continental margin or 200 nm;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 6 nm


_#_Climate: tropical maritime; little seasonal temperature variation


_#_Terrain: rugged highlands and mountains with fertile valleys
interspersed


_#_Natural resources: nickel, bauxite, gold, silver


_#_Land use: arable land 23%; permanent crops 7%; meadows and pastures
43%; forest and woodland 13%; other 14%; includes irrigated 4%


_#_Environment: subject to occasional hurricanes (July to October);
deforestation


_#_Note: shares island of Hispaniola with Haiti (western one-third is
Haiti, eastern two-thirds is the Dominican Republic)


_*_People
_#_Population: 7,384,837 (July 1991), growth rate 2.0% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 27 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: - 1 migrant/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 60 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 65 years male, 69 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 3.1 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--Dominican(s); adjective--Dominican


_#_Ethnic divisions: mixed 73%, white 16%, black 11%


_#_Religion: Roman Catholic 95%


_#_Language: Spanish


_#_Literacy: 83% (male 85%, female 82%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)


_#_Labor force: 2,300,000-2,600,000; agriculture 49%, services 33%,
industry 18% (1986)


_#_Organized labor: 12% of labor force (1989 est.)


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Dominican Republic (no short-form name)


_#_Type: republic


_#_Capital: Santo Domingo


_#_Administrative divisions: 29 provinces (provincias,
singular--provincia) and 1 district* (distrito); Azua, Baoruco, Barahona,
Dajabon, Distrito Nacional*, Duarte, Elias Pina, El Seibo,
Espaillat, Hato Mayor, Independencia, La Altagracia, La Romana, La Vega,
Maria Trinidad Sanchez, Monsenor Nouel, Monte Cristi, Monte Plata,
Pedernales, Peravia, Puerto Plata, Salcedo, Samana, Sanchez
Ramirez, San Cristobal, San Juan, San Pedro De Macoris, Santiago,
Santiago Rodriguez, Valverde


_#_Independence: 27 February 1844 (from Haiti)


_#_Constitution: 28 November 1966


_#_Legal system: based on French civil codes


_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 27 February (1844)


_#_Executive branch: president, vice president, Cabinet


_#_Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress (Congreso Nacional)
consists of an upper chamber or Senate (Senado) and lower chamber or
Chamber of Deputies (Camara de Diputados)


_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema)


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government--President Joaquin BALAGUER
Ricardo (since 16 August 1986, fifth elected term began 16 August 1990);
Vice President Carlos A. MORALES Troncoso (since 16 August 1986)


_#_Political parties and leaders:

Major parties--
Social Christian Reformist Party (PRSC), Joaquin BALAGUER Ricardo;
Dominican Revolutionary Party (PRD), Jose Francisco PENA Gomez;
Dominican Liberation Party (PLD), Juan BOSCH Gavino;
Independent Revolutionary Party (PRI), Jacobo MAJLUTA;

Minor parties--
National Veterans and Civilian Party (PNVC), Juan Rene BEAUCHAMPS Javier;
Liberal Party of the Dominican Republic (PLRD), Andres Van Der HORST;
Democratic Quisqueyan Party (PQD), Elias WESSIN Chavez;
Constitutional Action Party (PAC), Luis ARZENO Rodriguez;
National Progressive Force (FNP), Marino VINICIO Castillo;
Popular Christian Party (PPC), Rogelio DELGADO Bogaert;
Dominican Communist Party (PCD), Narciso ISA Conde;
Anti-Imperialist Patriotic Union (UPA), Ivan RODRIGUEZ;

note--in 1983 several leftist parties, including the PCD, joined to
form the Dominican Leftist Front (FID); however, they still retain
individual party structures


_#_Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 18 or if married; members
of the armed forces and police cannot vote


_#_Elections:

President--last held 16 May 1990 (next to be held May 1994);
results--Joaquin BALAGUER (PRSC) 35.7%, Juan BOSCH Gavino (PLD)
34.4%;

Senate--last held 16 May 1990 (next to be held May 1994);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(30 total) PRSC 16, PLD 12, PRD 2;

Chamber of Deputies--last held 16 May 1990 (next to be
held May 1994);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(120 total) PLD 44, PRSC 41, PRD 33, PRI 2


_#_Communists: an estimated 8,000 to 10,000 members in several legal
and illegal factions; effectiveness limited by ideological differences,
organizational inadequacies, and severe funding shortages


_#_Member of: CARICOM (observer), ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-77, GATT, IADB,
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer), LORCS, NAM (guest),
OAS, OPANAL, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WMO,
WTO


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Carlos A. MORALES Troncoso
(serves concurrently as Vice President); Chancery at
1715 22nd Street NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 332-6280;
there are Dominican Consulates General in Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles,
Mayaguez (Puerto Rico), Miami, New Orleans, New York, Philadelphia, San
Juan (Puerto Rico), and Consulates in Charlotte Amalie (Virgin Islands),
Detroit, Houston, Jacksonville, Minneapolis, Mobile, Ponce (Puerto
Rico), and San Francisco;

US--Ambassador Paul D. TAYLOR; Embassy at the corner of
Calle Cesar Nicolas Penson and Calle Leopoldo Navarro, Santo Domingo
(mailing address is APO Miami 34041-0008); telephone [809] 541-2171


_#_Flag: a centered white cross that extends to the edges, divides the
flag into four rectangles--the top ones are blue (hoist side) and red,
the bottom ones are red (hoist side) and blue; a small coat of arms is at
the center of the cross


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The economy is largely dependent on trade; imported
components average 60% of the value of goods consumed in the domestic
market. Rapid growth of free trade zones has established a significant
expansion of manufacturing for export, especially wearing apparel.
Over the past decade tourism has also increased in importance and is a
major earner of foreign exchange and a source of new jobs. Agriculture
remains a key sector of the economy. The principal commercial crop is
sugarcane, followed by coffee, cotton, cocoa, and tobacco. Domestic
industry is based on the processing of agricultural products, durable
consumer goods, minerals, and chemicals. Unemployment is officially
reported at about 30%, but there is considerable underemployment. An
increasing foreign debt burden and galloping inflation are the economy's
greatest weaknesses.


_#_GDP: $6.68 billion, per capita $940; real growth rate 4.2% (1989)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 70% (1990 est.)


_#_Unemployment rate: 29% (1990 est.)


_#_Budget: revenues $413 million; expenditures $522 million,
including capital expenditures of $218 million (1988)


_#_Exports: $922 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities--sugar, coffee, cocoa, gold, ferronickel;

partners--US 60%, EC 19%, Puerto Rico 8% (1990)


_#_Imports: $1.9 billion (c.i.f., 1990 est.);

commodities--foodstuffs, petroleum, cotton and fabrics, chemicals
and pharmaceuticals;

partners--US 50%


_#_External debt: $4.2 billion (1990 est.)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate 2.3% (1989 est.); accounts
for 18% of GDP


_#_Electricity: 1,445,000 kW capacity; 4,200 million kWh produced,
580 kWh per capita (1990)


_#_Industries: tourism, sugar processing, ferronickel and gold mining,
textiles, cement, tobacco


_#_Agriculture: accounts for 15% of GDP and employs 49% of labor
force; sugarcane most important commercial crop, followed by coffee,
cotton, cocoa, and tobacco; food crops--rice, beans, potatoes, corn,
bananas; animal output--cattle, hogs, dairy products, meat, eggs; not
self-sufficient in food


_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY85-89), $576.5
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $569 million


_#_Currency: Dominican peso (plural--pesos); 1 Dominican peso
(RD$) = 100 centavos


_#_Exchange rates: Dominican pesos per US$1--11.850 (January 1991),
8.290 (1990), 6.3400 (1989), 6.1125 (1988), 3.8448 (1987), 2.9043 (1986),
3.1126 (1985)


_#_Fiscal year: calendar year


_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 1,655 km total in numerous segments; 4 different gauges
from 0.558 m to 1.435 m


_#_Highways: 12,000 km total; 5,800 km paved, 5,600 km gravel and
improved earth, 600 km unimproved


_#_Pipelines: crude oil, 96 km; refined products, 8 km


_#_Ports: Santo Domingo, Haina, San Pedro de Macoris, Puerto Plata


_#_Merchant marine: 4 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 23,326
GRT/38,661 DWT


_#_Civil air: 14 major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 44 total, 30 usable; 14 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 3 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 9 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: relatively efficient domestic system based on
islandwide radio relay network; 190,000 telephones; stations--120 AM, no
FM, 18 TV, 6 shortwave; 1 coaxial submarine cable; 1 Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT earth station


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, National Police


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 1,963,260; 1,241,370 fit for
military service; 81,083 reach military age (18) annually


_#_Defense expenditures: $70 million, 1% of GDP (1990)
_%_
_@_Ecuador
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 283,560 km2; land area: 276,840 km2; includes
Galapagos Islands


_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than Nevada


_#_Land boundaries: 2,010 km total; Colombia 590 km, Peru 1,420 km


_#_Coastline: 2,237 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: claims continental shelf between mainland and
Galapagos Islands;

Territorial sea: 200 nm


_#_Disputes: two sections of the boundary with Peru are in dispute


_#_Climate: tropical along coast becoming cooler inland


_#_Terrain: coastal plain (Costa), inter-Andean central highlands
(Sierra), and flat to rolling eastern jungle (Oriente)


_#_Natural resources: petroleum, fish, timber


_#_Land use: arable land 6%; permanent crops 3%; meadows and pastures
17%; forest and woodland 51%; other 23% ; includes irrigated 2%


_#_Environment: subject to frequent earthquakes, landslides, volcanic
activity; deforestation; desertification; soil erosion; periodic droughts


_#_Note: Cotopaxi in Andes is highest active volcano in world


_*_People
_#_Population: 10,751,648 (July 1991), growth rate 2.3% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 30 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 60 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 64 years male, 68 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 3.7 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--Ecuadorian(s); adjective--Ecuadorian


_#_Ethnic divisions: mestizo (mixed Indian and Spanish) 55%, Indian
25%, Spanish 10%, black 10%


_#_Religion: Roman Catholic 95%


_#_Language: Spanish (official); Indian languages, especially Quechua


_#_Literacy: 86% (male 88%, female 84%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)


_#_Labor force: 2,800,000; agriculture 35%, manufacturing 21%,
commerce 16%, services and other activities 28% (1982)


_#_Organized labor: less than 15% of labor force


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of Ecuador


_#_Type: republic


_#_Capital: Quito


_#_Administrative divisions: 21 provinces (provincias,
singular--provincia); Azuay, Bolivar, Canar, Carchi, Chimborazo,
Cotopaxi, El Oro, Esmeraldas, Galapagos, Guayas, Imbabura, Loja,
Los Rios, Manabi, Morona-Santiago, Napo, Pastaza, Pichincha,
Sucumbios, Tungurahua, Zamora-Chinchipe


_#_Independence: 24 May 1822 (from Spain; Battle of Pichincha)


_#_Constitution: 10 August 1979


_#_Legal system: based on civil law system; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction


_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 10 August (1809, independence
of Quito)


_#_Executive branch: president, vice president, Cabinet


_#_Legislative branch: unicameral National Congress (Congreso
Nacional)


_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema)


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government--President Rodrigo BORJA
Cevallos (since 10 August 1988); Vice President Luis PARODI Valverde
(since 10 August 1988)


_#_Political parties and leaders:

Right to center parties--
Social Christian Party (PSC), former President Leon FEBRES Cordero
Rivadeneira;
Conservative Party (PC), Alberto DAHIK, leader;
Radical Liberal Party (PLR), Blasco Manuel PENAHERRERA Padilla,
director;

Centrist parties--
Concentration of Popular Forces (CFP), Averroes BUCARAM Saxida, director;
Radical Alfarist Front (FRA), Cecilia CALDERON de Castro, leader;
People, Change, and Democracy (PCD), Aquiles RIGAIL Santistevan,
director;
Revolutionary Nationalist Party (PNR), Carlos Julio AROSEMENA Monroy,
leader;

Center-left parties--
Democratic Left (ID), President Rodrigo BORJA Cevallos, leader;
Roldosist Party of Ecuador (PRE), Abdala BUCARAM Ortiz, director;
Popular Democracy (DP), Vladimiro ALVAREZ, president;
Christian Democratic (CD), Julio Cesar TRUJILLO;
Democratic Party (PD), Francisco HUERTA Montalvo, leader;

Far-left parties--
Broad Leftist Front (FADI), Rene MAUGE Mosquera, director;
Socialist Party (PSE), Victor GRANDA Aguilar, secretary general;
Democratic Popular Movement (MPD), Jaime HURTADO Gonzalez, leader;
Ecuadorian National Liberation (LN), Alfredo CASTILLO, president;
Popular Revolutionary Action Party (APRE), Lt. Gen. Frank VARGAS Pazzos,
leader


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18; compulsory for literate persons ages
18-65, optional for other eligible voters


_#_Elections:

President--first round held 31 January 1988 and second round on
8 May 1988 (next first round to be held May 1992 and second round
June 1992);
results--Rodrigo BORJA Cevallos (ID) 54%, Abdala BUCARAM Ortiz
(PRE) 46%;

Chamber of Representatives--last held 17 June 1990
(next to be held June 1992);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(72 total) PSC 16, ID 14, PRE 13, PSE 8, DP 7, CFP 3,
PC 3, PLR 3, FADI 2, FRA 2, MPD 1


_#_Communists: Communist Party of Ecuador (PCE, pro-Moscow), Rene
Mauge Mosquera, secretary general, 5,000 members; Communist Party of
Ecuador/Marxist Leninist (PCMLE, Maoist), 3,000 members; Socialist
Party of Ecuador (PSE, pro-Cuba), 5,000 members (est.); National
Liberation Party (PLN, Communist), 5,000 members (est.)


_#_Member of: AG, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC,
ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ITU,
LAES, LAIA, LORCS, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPEC, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Jaime MONCAYO; Chancery at
2535 15th Street NW, Washington DC 20009; telephone (202) 234-7200;
there are Ecuadorian Consulates General in Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles,
Miami, New Orleans, New York, and San Francisco, and a Consulate in San
Diego;

US--Ambassador Paul C. LAMBERT; Embassy at Avenida Patria
120, on the corner of Avenida 12 de Octubre, Quito (mailing address is
P. O. Box 538, Quito, or APO Miami 34039); telephone [593] (2) 562-890;
there is a US Consulate General in Guayaquil


_#_Flag: three horizontal bands of yellow (top, double width), blue,
and red with the coat of arms superimposed at the center of the flag;
similar to the flag of Colombia which is shorter and does not bear a coat
of arms


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Ecuador has substantial oil resources and rich
agricultural areas.  Growth has been uneven because of natural disasters
(e.g., a major earthquake in 1987), fluctuations in global oil prices,
and government policies designed to curb inflation.  The government has
not taken a supportive attitude toward either domestic or foreign
investment, although its agreement to enter the Andean free trade zone
is an encouraging move.


_#_GDP: $10.6 billion, per capita $1,010; real growth rate 1.5% (1990)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 49.5% (1990)


_#_Unemployment rate: 8.0% (1990)


_#_Budget: revenues $2.2 billion; expenditures $2.2 billion,
including capital expenditures of $375 million (1991)


_#_Exports: $2.7 billion (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities--petroleum 47%, coffee, bananas, cocoa products,
shrimp, fish products;

partners--US 60%, Latin America, Caribbean, EC countries


_#_Imports: $1.7 billion (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities--transport equipment, vehicles, machinery, chemicals;

partners--US 34%, Latin America, Caribbean, EC, Japan


_#_External debt: $11.8 billion (December 1990)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate - 3.8% (1989); accounts for
almost 40% of GDP, including petroleum


_#_Electricity: 1,983,000 kW capacity; 6,011 million kWh produced,
570 kWh per capita (1990)


_#_Industries: petroleum, food processing, textiles, metal works, paper
products, wood products, chemicals, plastics, fishing, timber


_#_Agriculture: accounts for 18% of GDP and 35% of labor force
(including fishing and forestry); leading producer and exporter of
bananas and balsawood; other exports--coffee, cocoa, fish, shrimp; crop
production--rice, potatoes, manioc, plantains, sugarcane; livestock
sector--cattle, sheep, hogs, beef, pork, dairy products; net importer
of foodgrains, dairy products, and sugar


_#_Illicit drugs: relatively small producer of coca following the
successful eradication campaign of 1985-87; significant transit country,
however, for derivatives of coca originating in Colombia, Bolivia, and
Peru


_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $498
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $1.7 billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $64 million


_#_Currency: sucre (plural--sucres); 1 sucre (S/) = 100 centavos


_#_Exchange rates: sucres (S/) per US$1--869.54 (December 1990),
767.75 (1990), 526.35 (1989), 301.61 (1988), 170.46 (1987), 122.78
(1986), 69.56 (1985)


_#_Fiscal year: calendar year


_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 965 km total; all 1.067-meter-gauge single track


_#_Highways: 28,000 km total; 3,600 km paved, 17,400 km gravel and
improved earth, 7,000 km unimproved earth


_#_Inland waterways: 1,500 km


_#_Pipelines: crude oil, 800 km; refined products, 1,358 km


_#_Ports: Guayaquil, Manta, Puerto Bolivar, Esmeraldas


_#_Merchant marine: 47 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 342,411
GRT/495,482 DWT; includes 1 passenger, 8 cargo, 17 refrigerated cargo,
2 container, 1 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 16 petroleum, oils, and lubricants
(POL) tanker, 1 liquefied gas, 1 bulk


_#_Civil air: 44 major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 153 total, 151 usable; 46 with permanent-surface runways;
1 with runways over 3,659 m; 6 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 23 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: domestic facilities generally adequate; 318,000
telephones; stations--272 AM, no FM, 33 TV, 39 shortwave; 1 Atlantic
Ocean INTELSAT earth station


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army (Ejercito Ecuatoriano), Navy (Armada Ecuatoriana),
Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Ecuatoriana), National Police


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 2,716,919; 1,840,296 fit for
military service; 117,113 reach military age (20) annually


_#_Defense expenditures: $176 million, 1.6% of GDP (1990 est.)
_%_
_@_Egypt
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 1,001,450 km2; land area: 995,450 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly more than three times the size of New
Mexico


_#_Land boundaries: 2,689 km total; Gaza Strip 11 km, Israel 255 km,
Libya 1,150 km, Sudan 1,273 km


_#_Coastline: 2,450 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation;

Exclusive economic zone: undefined;

Territorial sea: 12 nm


_#_Disputes: Administrative boundary with Sudan does not coincide
with international boundary


_#_Climate: desert; hot, dry summers with moderate winters


_#_Terrain: vast desert plateau interrupted by Nile valley and delta


_#_Natural resources: crude oil, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates,
manganese, limestone, gypsum, talc, asbestos, lead, zinc


_#_Land use: arable land 3%; permanent crops 2%; meadows and pastures
0%; forest and woodland NEGL%; other 95%; includes irrigated 5%


_#_Environment: Nile is only perennial water source; increasing soil
salinization below Aswan High Dam; hot, driving windstorm called khamsin
occurs in spring; water pollution; desertification


_#_Note: controls Sinai Peninsula, only land bridge between Africa
and remainder of Eastern Hemisphere; controls Suez Canal, shortest sea
link between Indian Ocean and Mediterranean; size and juxtaposition to
Israel establish its major role in Middle Eastern geopolitics


_*_People
_#_Population: 54,451,588 (July 1991), growth rate 2.3% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 33 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 10 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: NEGL migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 82 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 60 years male, 61 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 4.5 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--Egyptian(s); adjective--Egyptian


_#_Ethnic divisions: Eastern Hamitic stock 90%; Greek, Italian,
Syro-Lebanese 10%


_#_Religion: (official estimate) Muslim (mostly Sunni) 94%;
Coptic Christian and other 6%


_#_Language: Arabic (official); English and French widely understood
by educated classes


_#_Literacy: 48% (male 63%, female 34%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)


_#_Labor force: 15,000,000 (1989 est.); government, public sector
enterprises, and armed forces 36%; agriculture 34%; privately owned
service and manufacturing enterprises 20% (1984); shortage of skilled
labor; 2,500,000 Egyptians work abroad, mostly in Iraq and the Gulf Arab
states (1988 est.)


_#_Organized labor: 2,500,000 (est.)


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Arab Republic of Egypt


_#_Type: republic


_#_Capital: Cairo


_#_Administrative divisions: 24 governorates (muhafazat,
singular--muhafazah); Ad Daqahliyah, Al Bahr al Ahmar,
Al Buhayrah, Al Fayyum, Al Gharbiyah, Al Iskandariyah,
Al Ismailiyah, Al Jizah, Al Minufiyah, Al Minya,
Al Qahirah, Al Qalyubiyah, Al Wadi al Jadid, Ash
Sharqiyah, As Suways, Aswan, Asyut, Bani Suwayf, Bur
Said, Dumyat, Janub Sina, Matruh,
Shamal Sina, Suhaj


_#_Independence: 28 February 1922 (from UK); formerly United Arab
Republic


_#_Constitution: 11 September 1971


_#_Legal system: based on English common law, Islamic law, and
Napoleonic codes; judicial review by Supreme Court and Council of State
(oversees validity of administrative decisions); accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction, with reservations


_#_National holiday: Anniversary of the Revolution, 23 July (1952)


_#_Executive branch: president, prime minister, Cabinet


_#_Legislative branch: unicameral People's Assembly (Majlis
al-Chaab); note--there is an Advisory Council (Majlis al-Shura) that
functions in a consultative role


_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Constitutional Court


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--President Mohammed Hosni MUBARAK (was made acting
President on 6 October 1981 upon the assassination of President Sadat and
sworn in as President on 14 October 1981);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Atef Mohammed Najib SEDKY
(since 12 November 1986)


_#_Political parties and leaders: formation of political parties must
be approved by government;
National Democratic Party (NDP), President Mohammed Hosni MUBARAK,
leader, is the dominant party;
legal opposition parties are
Socialist Liberal Party (SLP), Kamal MURAD;
Socialist Labor Party, Ibrahim SHUKRI;
National Progressive Unionist Grouping (NPUG), Khalid MUHYI-AL-DIN;
Umma Party, Ahmad al-SABAHI;
New Wafd Party (NWP), Fuad SIRAJ AL-DIN;
Misr al-Fatah Party (Young Egypt Party), Ali al-Din SALIH;
Democratic Unionist Party, Muhammad Abd al-Mun'im TURK;
The Greens Party, Hasan RAJAB


_#_Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 18


_#_Elections:

President--last held 5 October 1987 (next to be held October
1993); results--President Hosni MUBAREK was reelected;

People's Assembly--last held 29 November 1990 (next to be held
November 1995); results--NDP 78.4%, NPUG 1.4%, independents 18.7%;
seats--(454 total, 444 elected)--including NDP 348,
NPUG 6, independents 83; note--most opposition parties boycotted;

Advisory Council--last held 8 June 1989 (next to be held June
1995);
results--NDP 100%;
seats--(258 total, 172 elected) NDP 172


_#_Communists: about 500 party members


_#_Other political or pressure groups: Islamic groups are illegal, but
the largest one, the Muslim Brotherhood, is tolerated by the government;
trade unions and professional associations are officially sanctioned


_#_Member of: ABEDA, ACC, ACCT (associate), AfDB, AFESD, AG (observer),
AL, AMF, CAEU, CCC, EBRD, ECA, ESCWA, FAO, G-19, G-24, G-77, GATT, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, ICC, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAPEC,
OAS (observer), OAU, OIC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNRWA, UPU,
WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador El Sayed Abdel Raouf EL
REEDY; Chancery at 2310 Decatur Place NW, Washington DC 20008;
telephone (202) 232-5400; there are Egyptian Consulates General in
Chicago, Houston, New York, and San Francisco;

US--Ambassador Frank G. WISNER; Embassy at Lazougi Street,
Garden City, Cairo (mailing address is APO New York 09674-0006);
telephone [20] (2) 355-7371; there is a US Consulate General in
Alexandria


_#_Flag: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black
with the national emblem (a shield superimposed on a golden eagle facing
the hoist side above a scroll bearing the name of the country in Arabic)
centered in the white band; similar to the flag of Yemen which has a
plain white band; also similar to the flag of Syria which has two green
stars and of Iraq which has three green stars (plus an Arabic
inscription) in a horizontal line centered in the white band


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Egypt has one of the largest public sectors of all
the Third World economies, most industrial plants being owned by the
government. Overregulation holds back technical modernization and
foreign investment. Even so, the economy grew rapidly during the late
1970s and early 1980s, but in 1986 the collapse of world oil prices
and an increasingly heavy burden of debt servicing led Egypt to begin
negotiations with the IMF for balance-of-payments support. As part of
the 1987 agreement with the IMF, the government agreed to institute
a reform program to reduce inflation, promote economic growth, and
improve its external position. The reforms have been slow in coming,
however, and the economy has been largely stagnant for the past
three years. The addition of 1 million people every seven months
to Egypt's population exerts enormous pressure on the 5% of the total
land area available for agriculture.


_#_GDP: $37.0 billion, per capita $700; real growth rate 1.0% (1990
est.)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 26% (FY90)


_#_Unemployment rate: 15% (1989 est.)


_#_Budget: revenues $7 billion; expenditures $11.5 billion,
including capital expenditures of $4 billion (FY89 est.)


_#_Exports: $3.8 billion (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities--crude and refined petroleum, cotton yarn, raw cotton,
textiles, metal products, chemicals;

partners--EC, Eastern Europe, US, Japan


_#_Imports: $11.4 billion (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities--machinery and equipment, foods, fertilizers, wood
products, durable consumer goods, capital goods;

partners--EC, US, Japan, Eastern Europe


_#_External debt: $52 billion (December 1990 est.)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate 2-4% (1989 est.); accounts
for 24% of GDP


_#_Electricity: 11,273,000 kW capacity; 42,500 million kWh produced,
780 kWh per capita (1989)


_#_Industries: textiles, food processing, tourism, chemicals,
petroleum, construction, cement, metals


_#_Agriculture: accounts for 20% of GNP and employs more than
one-third of labor force; dependent on irrigation water from the Nile;
world's sixth-largest cotton exporter; other crops produced include rice,
corn, wheat, beans, fruit, vegetables; not self-sufficient in food;
livestock--cattle, water buffalo, sheep, and goats; annual fish catch
about 140,000 metric tons


_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $15.7
billion; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $9.3 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $2.9 billion;
Communist countries (1970-89), $2.4 billion


_#_Currency: Egyptian pound (plural--pounds); 1 Egyptian pound
(5E) = 100 piasters


_#_Exchange rates: Egyptian pounds (5E) per US$1--2.9030 (January
1991), 2.7072 (1990), 2.5171 (1989), 2.2233 (1988), 1.5183 (1987), 1.3503
(1986), 1.3010 (1985)


_#_Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June


_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 5,110 km total; 4,763 km 1,435-meter standard gauge,
347 km 0.750-meter gauge; 951 km double track; 25 km electrified


_#_Highways: 51,925 km total; 17,900 km paved, 2,500 km gravel,
13,500 km improved earth, 18,025 km unimproved earth


_#_Inland waterways: 3,500 km (including the Nile, Lake Nasser,
Alexandria-Cairo Waterway, and numerous smaller canals in the delta);
Suez Canal, 193.5 km long (including approaches), used by oceangoing
vessels drawing up to 16.1 meters of water


_#_Pipelines: crude oil, 1,171 km; refined products, 596 km; natural
gas, 460 km


_#_Ports: Alexandria, Port Said, Suez, Bur Safajah, Damietta


_#_Merchant marine: 144 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,121,534
GRT/1,725,369 DWT; includes 5 passenger, 7 short-sea passenger,
2 passenger-cargo, 85 cargo, 3 refrigerated cargo, 13 roll-on/roll-off
cargo, 14 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 15 bulk


_#_Civil air: 43 major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 91 total, 82 usable; 66 with permanent-surface runways;
2 with runways over 3,659 m; 44 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 22 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: system is large but still inadequate for needs;
principal centers are Alexandria, Cairo, Al Mansurah, Ismailia, and
Tanta; intercity connections by coaxial cable and microwave;
extensive upgrading in progress; 600,000 telephones (est.); stations--25
AM, 5 FM, 47 TV; satellite earth stations--1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, 1
Indian Ocean INTELSAT, 1 INMARSAT, 1 ARABSAT; 4 submarine coaxial
cables; tropospheric scatter to Sudan; radio relay to Libya (may not be
operational); radio relay to Jordan


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense Command


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 13,333,285; 8,665,260 fit for
military service; 584,780 reach military age (20) annually


_#_Defense expenditures: $2.8 billion, 7.3% of GDP (1991)
_%_
_@_El Salvador
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 21,040 km2; land area: 20,720 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than Massachusetts


_#_Land boundaries: 545 km total; Guatemala 203 km, Honduras 342 km


_#_Coastline: 307 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Territorial sea: 200 nm (overflight and navigation permitted beyond
12 nm)


_#_Disputes: dispute with Honduras over several sections of the land
boundary; dispute over Golfo de Fonseca maritime boundary because of
disputed sovereignty of islands


_#_Climate: tropical; rainy season (May to October); dry season
(November to April)


_#_Terrain: mostly mountains with narrow coastal belt and central
plateau


_#_Natural resources: hydropower, geothermal power, crude oil


_#_Land use: arable land 27%; permanent crops 8%; meadows and pastures
29%; forest and woodland 6%; other 30%; includes irrigated 5%


_#_Environment: The Land of Volcanoes; subject to frequent and
sometimes very destructive earthquakes; deforestation; soil erosion;
water pollution


_#_Note: smallest Central American country and only one without a
coastline on Caribbean Sea


_*_People
_#_Population: 5,418,736 (July 1991), growth rate 2.0% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 34 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: - 6 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 47 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 63 years male, 68 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 4.1 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--Salvadoran(s); adjective--Salvadoran


_#_Ethnic divisions: mestizo 89%, Indian 10%, white 1%


_#_Religion: Roman Catholic about 75%, with extensive activity by
Protestant groups throughout the country (more than 1 million
Protestant evangelicals in El Salvador at the end of 1990)


_#_Language: Spanish, Nahua (among some Indians)


_#_Literacy: 73% (male 76%, female 70%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)


_#_Labor force: 1,700,000 (1982 est.); agriculture 40%, commerce 16%,
manufacturing 15%, government 13%, financial services 9%, transportation
6%, other 1%; shortage of skilled labor and a large pool of unskilled
labor, but manpower training programs improving situation (1984 est.)


_#_Organized labor: total labor force 15%; agricultural labor force
10%; urban labor force 7% (1987 est.)


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of El Salvador


_#_Type: republic


_#_Capital: San Salvador


_#_Administrative divisions: 14 departments (departamentos,
singular--departamento); Ahuachapan, Cabanas, Chalatenango,
Cuscatlan, La Libertad, La Paz, La Union, Morazan, San Miguel,
San Salvador, Santa Ana, San Vicente, Sonsonate, Usulutan


_#_Independence: 15 September 1821 (from Spain)


_#_Constitution: 20 December 1983


_#_Legal system: based on civil and Roman law, with traces of common
law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; accepts
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations


_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 15 September (1821)


_#_Executive branch: president, vice president, Council of Ministers
(cabinet)


_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Assembly (Asamblea
Legislativa)


_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema)


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government--President Alfredo CRISTIANI
(since 1 June 1989); Vice President Jose Francisco MERINO (since 1 June
1989)


_#_Political parties and leaders: National Republican Alliance
(ARENA), Armando CALDERON Sol;
Christian Democratic Party (PDC), Fidel CHAVEZ Mena;
National Conciliation Party (PCN), Ciro CRUZ Zepeda;
National Democratic Union (UDN), Mario AGUINADA Carranza;
the Democratic Convergence (CD) is a coalition of three
parties--the Social Democratic Party (PSD), Wilfredo BARILLAS;
the National Revolutionary Movement (MNR), Rene FLORES;
and the Popular Social Christian Movement (MPSC), Ruben ZAMORA;
Authentic Christian Movement (MAC), Julio REY PRENDES;
Democratic Action (AD), Ricardo GONZALEZ Camacho


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


_#_Elections:

President--last held 19 March 1989 (next to be held March 1994);
results--Alfredo CRISTIANI (ARENA) 53.8%, Fidel CHAVEZ Mena (PDC) 36.6%,
other 9.6%;

Legislative Assembly--last held 10 March 1991 (next to be
held March 1994);
results--ARENA 44.3%, PDC 27.96%, CD 12.16%, PCN 8.99%, MAC 3.23%,
UDN 2.68%;
seats--(84 total) ARENA 39, PDC 26, PCN 9, CD 8, UDN 1, MAC 1


_#_Other political or pressure groups:

Leftist revolutionary movement--Farabundo Marti National
Liberation Front (FMLN), leadership body of the insurgency, four
factions--Popular Liberation Forces (FPL), Armed Forces of National
Resistance (FARN), People's Revolutionary Army (ERP), Salvadoran
Communist Party/Armed Forces of Liberation (PCES/FAL), and Central
American Workers' Revolutionary Party (PRTC)/Popular Liberation
Revolutionary Armed Forces (FARLP);

Leftist political parties--National Democratic Union (UDN),
National Revolutionary Movement (MNR), and Popular Social Movement
(MPSC);

FMLN front organizations:

Labor fronts include--National Union of Salvadoran Workers (UNTS),
leftist umbrella front group, leads FMLN front network;
National Federation of Salvadoran Workers (FENASTRAS), best
organized of front groups and controlled by FMLN's National Resistance
(RN); Social Security Institute Workers Union (STISSS), one of the most
militant fronts, is controlled by FMLN'S Armed Forces of National
Resistance (FARN) and RN;
Association of Telecommunications Workers (ASTTEL);
Centralized Union Federation of El Salvador (FUSS);
Treasury Ministry Employees (AGEMHA);

Nonlabor fronts include--Committee of Mothers and Families of Political
Prisoners, Disappeared Persons, and Assassinated of El Salvador
(COMADRES);
Nongovernmental Human Rights Commission (CDHES);
Committee of Dismissed and Unemployed of El Salvador (CODYDES);
General Association of Salvadoran University Students (AGEUS);
National Association of Salvadoran Educators (ANDES-21 DE JUNIO);
Salvadoran Revolutionary Student Front (FERS), associated with the
Popular Forces of Liberation (FPL);
Association of National University Educators (ADUES);
Salvadoran University Students Front (FEUS);
Christian Committee for the Displaced of El Salvador (CRIPDES),
an FPL front;
The Association for Communal Development in El Salvador (PADECOES),
controlled by the People's Revolutionary Army (ERP);
Confederation of Cooperative Associations of El Salvador (COACES);

Labor organizations--Federation of Construction and Transport
Workers Unions (FESINCONSTRANS), independent;
Salvadoran Communal Union (UCS), peasant association;
Unitary Federation of Salvadoran Unions (FUSS), leftist;
National Federation of Salvadoran Workers (FENASTRAS), leftist;
Democratic Workers Central (CTD), moderate;
General Confederation of Workers (CGT), moderate;
National Unity of Salvadoran Workers (UNTS), leftist;
National Union of Workers and Peasants (UNOC),
moderate labor coalition of democratic labor organizations;
United Workers Front (FUT);

Business organizations--National Association of Private Enterprise
(ANEP), conservative;
Productive Alliance (AP), conservative;
National Federation of Salvadoran Small Businessmen (FENAPES),
conservative


_#_Member of: BCIE, CACM, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES,
LORCS, NAM (observer), OAS, OPANAL, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU,
WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Miguel Angel SALAVERRIA;
Chancery at 2308 California Street NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone
(202) 265-3480 through 3482; there are Salvadoran Consulates General in
Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, and San Francisco;

US--Ambassador William G. WALKER; Embassy at 25 Avenida Norte No.
1230, San Salvador (mailing address is APO Miami 34023); telephone [503]
26-7100


_#_Flag: three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and blue
with the national coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of
arms features a round emblem encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE EL
SALVADOR EN LA AMERICA CENTRAL; similar to the flag of Nicaragua which
has a different coat of arms centered in the white band--it features a
triangle encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE NICARAGUA on top and
AMERICA CENTRAL on the bottom; also similar to the flag of Honduras
which has five blue stars arranged in an X pattern centered in the
white band


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The agricultural sector accounts for 25% of GDP, employs
about 40% of the labor force, and contributes about 66% to total exports.
Coffee is the major commercial crop, accounting for 45% of export
earnings. The manufacturing sector, based largely on food and beverage
processing, accounts for 18% of GDP and 15% of employment. Economic
losses because of guerrilla sabotage total more than $2.0 billion
since 1979. The costs of maintaining a large military seriously
constrain the government's efforts to provide essential social services.
Nevertheless, growth in national output last year exceeded growth in
population for the first time since 1987.


_#_GDP: $5.4 billion, per capita $1,030; real growth rate 2.8%
(1990 est.)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 20% (1990)


_#_Unemployment rate: 10% (1989)


_#_Budget: revenues $751 million; expenditures $790 million, including
capital expenditures of $NA (1990 est.)


_#_Exports: $571 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities--coffee 45%, sugar, cotton, shrimp;

partners--US 49%, FRG 24%, Guatemala 7%, Costa Rica 4%, Japan 4%


_#_Imports: $1.2 billion (c.i.f., 1990 est.);

commodities--petroleum products, consumer goods, foodstuffs,
machinery, construction materials, fertilizer;

partners--US 40%, Guatemala 12%, Venezuela 7%, Mexico 7%, FRG 5%,
Japan 4%


_#_External debt: $2.1 billion (December 1990 est.)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate 2.4% (1990); accounts for
22% of GDP


_#_Electricity: 682,000 kW capacity; 1,849 million kWh produced,
350 kWh per capita (1990)


_#_Industries: food processing, textiles, clothing, beverages,
petroleum, tobacco products, chemicals, furniture


_#_Agriculture: accounts for 25% of GDP and 40% of labor force
(including fishing and forestry); coffee most important commercial crop;
other products--sugarcane, corn, rice, beans, oilseeds, beef, dairy
products, shrimp; not self-sufficient in food


_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-90), $2.95
billion; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $455 million


_#_Currency: Salvadoran colon (plural--colones); 1 Salvadoran
colon (C) = 100 centavos


_#_Exchange rates: Salvadoran colones (C) per US$1--8.0 (April
1991, floating rate since mid-1990); 5.0000 (fixed rate 1986 to mid-1990)


_#_Fiscal year: calendar year


_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 602 km 0.914-meter gauge, single track


_#_Highways: 10,000 km total; 1,500 km paved, 4,100 km gravel,
4,400 km improved and unimproved earth


_#_Inland waterways: Rio Lempa partially navigable


_#_Ports: Acajutla, Cutuco


_#_Civil air: 7 major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 116 total, 82 usable; 6 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
5 with runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: nationwide trunk radio relay system; connection
into Central American Microwave System; 116,000 telephones; stations--77
AM, no FM, 5 TV, 2 shortwave; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, National Guard, National Police,
Treasury Police


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 1,220,088; 780,108 fit for
military service; 71,709 reach military age (18) annually


_#_Defense expenditures: $220 million, 3.6% of GDP (1990)
_%_
_@_Equatorial Guinea
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 28,050 km2; land area: 28,050 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than Maryland


_#_Land boundaries: 539 km total; Cameroon 189 km, Gabon 350 km


_#_Coastline: 296 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm


_#_Disputes: maritime boundary dispute with Gabon because of
disputed sovereignty over islands in Corisco Bay


_#_Climate: tropical; always hot, humid


_#_Terrain: coastal plains rise to interior hills; islands are
volcanic


_#_Natural resources: timber, crude oil, small unexploited deposits
of gold, manganese, uranium


_#_Land use: arable land 8%; permanent crops 4%; meadows and pastures
4%; forest and woodland 51%; other 33%


_#_Environment: subject to violent windstorms


_#_Note: insular and continental regions rather widely separated


_*_People
_#_Population: 378,729 (July 1991), growth rate 2.6% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 42 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 16 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 116 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 49 years male, 53 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 5.4 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--Equatorial Guinean(s) or Equatoguinean(s);
adjective--Equatorial Guinean or Equatoguinean


_#_Ethnic divisions: indigenous population of Bioko, primarily Bubi,
some Fernandinos; Rio Muni, primarily Fang; less than 1,000 Europeans,
mostly Spanish


_#_Religion: natives all nominally Christian and predominantly Roman
Catholic; some pagan practices retained


_#_Language: Spanish (official), pidgin English, Fang, Bubi, Ibo


_#_Literacy: 50% (male 64%, female 37%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)


_#_Labor force: 172,000 (1986 est.); agriculture 66%, services 23%,
industry 11% (1980); labor shortages on plantations; 58% of population
of working age (1985)


_#_Organized labor: no formal trade unions


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of Equatorial Guinea


_#_Type: republic


_#_Capital: Malabo


_#_Administrative divisions: 2 provinces (provincias,
singular--provincia); Bioko, Rio Muni; note--there may now be 6 provinces
named Bioko Norte, Bioko Sur, Centro Sur, Kie-Ntem, Litoral, Wele Nzas


_#_Independence: 12 October 1968 (from Spain; formerly Spanish Guinea)


_#_Constitution: 15 August 1982


_#_Legal system: in transition; partly based on Spanish civil law and
tribal custom


_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 12 October (1968)


_#_Executive branch: president, prime minister, deputy prime minister,
Council of Ministers (cabinet)


_#_Legislative branch: unicameral House of Representatives of the
People (Camara de Representantes del Pueblo)


_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Tribunal


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--President Brig. Gen. (Ret.) Teodoro OBIANG NGUEMA
MBASOGO (since 3 August 1979);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Cristino SERICHE BIOKO MALABO
(since 15 August 1982); Deputy Prime Minister Isidoro Eyi MONSUY ANDEME
(since 15 August 1989)


_#_Political parties and leaders: only party--Democratic Party for
Equatorial Guinea (PDGE), Brig. Gen. (Ret.) Teodoro OBIANG NGUEMA
MBASOGO, party leader


_#_Suffrage: universal adult at age NA


_#_Elections:

President--last held 25 June 1989 (next to be held 25 June 1996);
results--President Brig. Gen. (Ret.) Teodoro OBIANG NGUEMA MBASOGO was
reelected without opposition;

Chamber of People's Representatives--last held 10 July 1988 (next
to be held 10 July 1993);
results--PDGE is the only party;
seats--(41 total) PDGE 41


_#_Communists: no significant number


_#_Member of: ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD,
ICAO, IDA, IFAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS (associate),
NAM, OAS (observer), OAU, UDEAC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Damaso OBIANG NDONG; Chancery
at 801 Second Avenue, Suite 1403, New York, NY 10017; telephone (212)
599-1523;

US--Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires William MITHOEFER;
Embassy at Calle de Los Ministros, Malabo (mailing address is P. O.
Box 597, Malabo; telephone [240] (9) 2185, 2406, 2507


_#_Flag: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white, and red
with a blue isosceles triangle based on the hoist side and the coat of
arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms has six yellow
six-pointed stars (representing the mainland and five offshore islands)
above a gray shield bearing a silk-cotton tree and below which is a
scroll with the motto UNIDAD, PAZ, JUSTICIA (Unity, Peace, Justice)


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The economy, destroyed during the regime of former
President Macias Nguema, is now based on agriculture, forestry,
and fishing, which account for about 60% of GNP and nearly all exports.
Subsistence agriculture predominates, with cocoa, coffee, and wood
products providing income, foreign exchange, and government
revenues. There is little industry. Commerce accounts
for about 10% of GNP, and the construction, public works, and service
sectors for about 34%. Undeveloped natural resources include titanium,
iron ore, manganese, uranium, and alluvial gold.  Oil exploration,
taking place under concessions offered to US, French, and Spanish firms,
has been moderately successful, and some revenues from oil exports
will begin rolling in by mid-1991.


_#_GDP: $144 million, per capita $411; real growth rate 2.9% (1988
est.)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.9% (1989 est.)


_#_Unemployment rate: NA%


_#_Budget: revenues $23 million; expenditures $31 million, including
capital expenditures of NA (1988)


_#_Exports: $41 million (f.o.b., 1989 est.);

commodities--coffee, timber, cocoa beans;

partners--Spain 44%, FRG 19%, Italy 12%, Netherlands 11% (1987)


_#_Imports: $57.1 million (c.i.f., 1988);

commodities--petroleum, food, beverages, clothing, machinery;

partners--Spain 34%, Italy 16%, France 14%, Netherlands 8% (1987)


_#_External debt: $195 million (1989)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate - 6.8% (1990 est.); acounts
for about 4% of GDP


_#_Electricity: 23,000 kW capacity; 60 million kWh produced,
170 kWh per capita (1989)


_#_Industries: fishing, sawmilling


_#_Agriculture: cash crops--timber and coffee from Rio Muni, cocoa
from Bioko; food crops--rice, yams, cassava, bananas, oil palm nuts,
manioc, livestock


_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY81-89), $14
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $112 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $55 million


_#_Currency: Communaute Financiere Africaine franc
(plural--francs); 1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes


_#_Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF)
per US$1--256.54 (January 1991), 272.26 (1990), 319.01 (1989), 297.85
(1988), 300.54 (1987), 346.30 (1986), 449.26 (1985)


_#_Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March


_*_Communications
_#_Highways: Rio Muni--1,024 km; Bioko--216 km


_#_Ports: Malabo, Bata


_#_Merchant marine: 2 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 6,413
GRT/6,699 DWT; includes 1 cargo and 1 passenger-cargo


_#_Civil air: 1 major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 4 total, 3 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 1 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: poor system with adequate government services;
international communications from Bata and Malabo to African and European
countries; 2,000 telephones; stations--2 AM, no FM, 1 TV; 1 Indian Ocean
INTELSAT earth station


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, National Guard, National Police


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 79,641; 40,369 fit for military
service


_#_Defense expenditures: $NA, 11% of GNP (FY81 est.)
_%_
_@_Ethiopia
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 1,221,900 km2; land area: 1,101,000 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly less than twice the size of Texas


_#_Land boundaries: 5,141 km total; Djibouti 459 km, Kenya 861 km,
Somalia 1,600 km, Sudan 2,221 km


_#_Coastline: 1,094 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Territorial sea: 12 nm


_#_Disputes: southern half of the boundary with Somalia is a
Provisional Administrative Line; possible claim by Somalia based on
unification of ethnic Somalis; territorial dispute with Somalia over
the Ogaden; separatist movement in Eritrea; antigovernment insurgencies
in Tigray and other areas


_#_Climate: tropical monsoon with wide topographic-induced variation;
some areas prone to extended droughts


_#_Terrain: high plateau with central mountain range divided by Great
Rift Valley


_#_Natural resources: small reserves of gold, platinum, copper, potash


_#_Land use: arable land 12%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures
41%; forest and woodland 24%; other 22%; includes irrigated NEGL%


_#_Environment: geologically active Great Rift Valley susceptible to
earthquakes, volcanic eruptions; deforestation; overgrazing; soil
erosion; desertification; frequent droughts; famine


_#_Note: strategic geopolitical position along world's busiest
shipping lanes and close to Arabian oilfields; major resettlement
project--that was ongoing in rural areas and would have significantly
altered population distribution and settlement patterns over the next
several decades--has been derailed because of ongoing civil wars


_*_People
_#_Population: 53,191,127 (July 1991), growth rate 3.1% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 45 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 15 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: NEGL migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 114 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 50 years male, 53 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 7.0 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--Ethiopian(s); adjective--Ethiopian


_#_Ethnic divisions: Oromo 40%, Amhara and Tigrean 32%, Sidamo 9%,
Shankella 6%, Somali 6%, Afar 4%, Gurage 2%, other 1%


_#_Religion: Muslim 40-45%, Ethiopian Orthodox 35-40%, animist
15-20%, other 5%


_#_Language: Amharic (official), Tigrinya, Orominga, Guaraginga,
Somali, Arabic, English (major foreign language taught in schools)


_#_Literacy: 62% (male NA%, female NA%) age 10 and over can
read and write (1983 est.)


_#_Labor force: 18,000,000; agriculture and animal
husbandry 80%, government and services 12%, industry and construction 8%
(1985)


_#_Organized labor: All Ethiopian Trade Union formed by the government
in January 1977 to represent 273,000 registered trade union members


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia


_#_Type: on 28 May 1991 the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary
Democratic Front (EPRDF) took control in Addis Ababa; on 29 May 1991
Issayas AFEWORKE, secretary general of the Eritrean People's Liberation
Front (EPLF), announced the formation of a provisional government in
Eritrea, in preparation for an eventual referendum on independence
for the province


_#_Capital: Addis Ababa


_#_Administrative divisions: 25 administrative regions (astedader
akababiwach, singular--astedader akababi) and 5
autonomous regions* (rasgez akababiwach, singular--rasgez
akababi); Addis Abeba (Addis Ababa), Arsi, Aseb*,
Asosa, Bale, Borena, Debub Gonder, Debub Shewa, Debub Welo, Dire
Dawa*, Ertra (Eritrea)*, Gambela, Gamo Gofa, Ilubabor, Kefa,
Metekel, Mirab Gojam, Mirab Harerge, Mirab Shewa, Misrak Gojam,
Misrak Harerge, Nazaret, Ogaden*, Omo, Semen Gonder,
Semen Shewa, Semen Welo, Sidamo, Tigray*, Welega


_#_Independence: oldest independent country in Africa and one of the
oldest in the world--at least 2,000 years


_#_Constitution: 12 September 1987


_#_Legal system: complex structure with civil, Islamic, common, and
customary law influences; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction


_#_National holiday: National Revolution Day, 12 September (1974)


_#_Executive branch: president, vice president, Council of State
prime minister, five deputy prime ministers, Council of Ministers


_#_Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Shengo)


_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--Interim President Meles ZENAWI (since 1 June
1991);

Head of Government--Acting Prime Minister Tamrat LAYNE (since 6
June 1991)


_#_Political parties and leaders: only party--Workers' Party of
Ethiopia (WPE)


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


_#_Elections:

President--last held 10 September 1987 (next to be held September
1992);
results--MENGISTU Haile-Mariam elected by the National Assembly, but
resigned and left Ethiopia on 21 May 1991;

National Assembly--last held 14 June 1987 (next to be
held NA);
results--WPE was the only party;
seats--(835 total) WPE 835


_#_Other political or pressure groups: Oromo Liberation Front;
Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Party (EPRP)


_#_Member of: ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-24, G-77,
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IGADD, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO


_#_Diplomatic representation: Counselor, Charge d'Affaires ad
interim GIRMA Amare; Chancery at 2134 Kalorama Road NW, Washington DC
20008; telephone (202) 234-2281 or 2282;

US--Charge d'Affaires Robert G. HOUDEK; Embassy at Entoto Street,
Addis Ababa (mailing address is P.O. Box 1014, Addis Ababa);
telephone [251] (01) 550666


_#_Flag: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), yellow, and red;
Ethiopia is the oldest independent country in Africa and the colors of
her flag were so often adopted by other African countries upon
independence that they became known as the pan-African colors


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Ethiopia is one of the poorest and least developed
countries in Africa. Its economy is based on subsistence agriculture,
which accounts for about 45% of GDP, 90% of exports, and 80% of total
employment; coffee generates 60% of export earnings. The
manufacturing sector is heavily dependent on inputs from the agricultural
sector. Over 90% of large-scale industry, but less then 10% of
agriculture, is state run. Favorable agricultural weather largely
explains the 4.5% growth in output in FY89.


_#_GDP: $6.6 billion, per capita $130, real growth rate - 0.4%
(FY89 est.)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.2% (1989)


_#_Unemployment rate: NA


_#_Budget: revenues $1.8 billion; expenditures $1.7 billion, including
capital expenditures of $842 million (FY88)


_#_Exports: $429 million (f.o.b., FY88);

commodities--coffee 60%, hides;

partners--US, FRG, Djibouti, Japan, PDRY, France, Italy,
Saudi Arabia


_#_Imports: $1.1 billion (c.i.f., FY88);

commodities--food, fuels, capital goods;

partners--USSR, Italy, FRG, Japan, UK, US, France


_#_External debt: $2.6 billion (1988)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate 2.3% (FY89 est.); accounts
for 13% of GDP


_#_Electricity: 330,000 kW capacity; 700 million kWh produced,
14 kWh per capita (1989)


_#_Industries: food processing, beverages, textiles, chemicals,
metals processing, cement


_#_Agriculture: accounts for 45% of GDP and is the most important
sector of the economy even though frequent droughts and poor cultivation
practices keep farm output low; famines not uncommon; export crops of
coffee and oilseeds grown partly on state farms; estimated 50% of
agricultural production at subsistence level; principal crops and
livestock--cereals, pulses, coffee, oilseeds, sugarcane, potatoes and
other vegetables, hides and skins, cattle, sheep, goats


_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $504
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $3.1 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $8 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $2.0 billion


_#_Currency: birr (plural--birr); 1 birr (Br) = 100 cents


_#_Exchange rates: birr (Br) per US$1--2.0700 (fixed rate)


_#_Fiscal year: 8 July-7 July


_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 988 km total; 681 km 1.000-meter gauge; 307 km
0.950-meter gauge (nonoperational)


_#_Highways: 44,300 km total; 3,650 km bituminous, 9,650 km gravel,
3,000 km improved earth, 28,000 km unimproved earth


_#_Ports: Aseb, Mitsiwa


_#_Merchant marine: 13 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 69,398
GRT/89,457 DWT; includes 9 cargo, 1 roll-on/roll off cargo, 1 livestock
carrier, 2 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker


_#_Civil air: 21 major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 153 total, 111 usable; 9 with permanent-surface runways;
2 with runways over 3,659 m; 13 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 49 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: open-wire and radio relay system adequate for
government use; open-wire to Sudan and Djibouti; radio relay to Kenya and
Djibouti; stations--4 AM, no FM, 1 TV; 45,000 TV sets; 3,300,000 radios;
1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense, Police Force


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 11,717,614; 6,072,112 fit for
military service; 609,346 reach military age (18) annually


_#_Defense expenditures: $NA, 8.5% of GDP (1988)
_%_
_@_Europa Island
(French possession)
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 28 km2; land area: 28 km2


_#_Comparative area: about 0.2 times the size of Washington, DC


_#_Land boundaries: none


_#_Coastline: 22.2 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm


_#_Disputes: claimed by Madagascar


_#_Climate: tropical


_#_Terrain: NA


_#_Natural resources: negligible


_#_Land use: arable land NA%; permanent crops NA%; meadows and
pastures NA%; forest and woodland NA%; other NA%; heavily wooded


_#_Environment: wildlife sanctuary


_#_Note: located in the Mozambique Channel 340 km west of Madagascar


_*_People
_#_Population: uninhabited


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: none


_#_Type: French possession administered by Commissioner of
the Republic Daniel CONSTANTIN, resident in Reunion


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: no economic activity


_*_Communications
_#_Airports: 1 with runway 1,220 to 2,439 m


_#_Ports: none; offshore anchorage only


_#_Telecommunications: 1 meteorological station


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of France
_%_
_@_Falkland Islands

(Islas Malvinas)
(dependent territory of the UK)
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 12,170 km2; land area: 12,170 km2; includes the two
main islands of East and West Falkland and about 200 small islands


_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than Connecticut


_#_Land boundaries: none


_#_Coastline: 1,288 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 100 meter depth;

Exclusive fishing zone: 150 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm


_#_Disputes: administered by the UK, claimed by Argentina


_#_Climate: cold marine; strong westerly winds, cloudy, humid; rain
occurs on more than half of days in year; occasional snow all year,
except in January and February, but does not accumulate


_#_Terrain: rocky, hilly, mountainous with some boggy, undulating
plains


_#_Natural resources: fish and wildlife


_#_Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and
pastures 99%; forest and woodland 0%; other 1%


_#_Environment: poor soil fertility and a short growing season


_#_Note: deeply indented coast provides good natural harbors


_*_People
_#_Population: 1,968 (July 1991), growth rate NEGL% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: NA births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: NA deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: NA migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: NA deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: NA years male, NA years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: NA children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--Falkland Islander(s); adjective--Falkland Island


_#_Ethnic divisions: almost totally British


_#_Religion: primarily Anglican, Roman Catholic, and United Free
Church; Evangelist Church, Jehovah's Witnesses, Lutheran, Seventh-Day
Adventist


_#_Language: English


_#_Literacy: NA% (male NA%, female NA%) but compulsory education age
5 to 15 (1988)


_#_Labor force: 1,100 (est.); agriculture, mostly
sheepherding about 95%


_#_Organized labor: Falkland Islands General Employees Union, 400
members


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Colony of the Falkland Islands


_#_Type: dependent territory of the UK


_#_Capital: Stanley


_#_Administrative divisions: none (dependent territory of the UK)


_#_Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)


_#_Constitution: 3 October 1985


_#_Legal system: English common law


_#_National holiday: Liberation Day, 14 June (1982)


_#_Executive branch: British monarch, governor, Executive Council


_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Council


_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952);

Head of Government--Governor William Hugh FULLERTON (since NA
1988)


_#_Political parties: NA


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


_#_Elections:

Legislative Council--last held 11 October 1989 (next to be
held October 1994); results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(10 total, 8 elected) number of seats by party NA


_#_Member of: ICFTU


_#_Diplomatic representation: none (dependent territory of the UK)


_#_Flag: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant
and the Falkland Island coat of arms in a white disk centered on the
outer half of the flag; the coat of arms contains a white ram (sheep
raising is the major economic activity) above the sailing ship Desire
(whose crew discovered the islands) with a scroll at the bottom bearing
the motto DESIRE THE RIGHT


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The economy is based on sheep farming, which directly or
indirectly employs most of the work force. A few dairy herds are kept to
meet domestic consumption of milk and milk products, and crops grown are
primarily those for providing winter fodder. Exports feature shipments
of high-grade wool to the UK and the sale of postage stamps and coins.
Rich stocks of fish in the surrounding waters are not presently exploited
by the islanders. So far efforts to establish a domestic fishing industry
have been unsuccessful. In 1987 the government began selling
fishing licenses to foreign trawlers operating within the Falklands
exclusive fishing zone. These license fees amount to more than $40
million per year and are a primary source of income for the
government. To encourage tourism, the Falkland Islands Development
Corporation has built three lodges for visitors attracted by the
abundant wildlife and trout fishing.


_#_GDP: $NA, per capita $NA; real growth rate NA%


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7.4% (1980-87 average)


_#_Unemployment rate: NA%; labor shortage


_#_Budget: revenues $62.7 million; expenditures $41.8 million,
excluding capital expenditures of $NA (FY90)


_#_Exports: at least $14.7 million;

commodities--wool, hides and skins, and other;

partners--UK, Netherlands, Japan (1987 est.)


_#_Imports: at least $13.9 million;

commodities--food, clothing, fuels, and machinery;

partners--UK, Netherlands Antilles (Curacao), Japan (1987 est.)


_#_External debt: $NA


_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%


_#_Electricity: 9,200 kW capacity; 17 million kWh produced, 8,680 kWh
per capita (1990)


_#_Industries: wool and fish processing


_#_Agriculture: predominantly sheep farming; small dairy herds;
some fodder and vegetable crops


_#_Economic aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral
commitments (1970-88), $109 million


_#_Currency: Falkland pound (plural--pounds); 1 Falkland pound
(5F) = 100 pence


_#_Exchange rates: Falkland pound (5F) per US$1--0.5171 (January
1991), 0.5603 (1990), 0.6099 (1989), 0.5614 (1988), 0.6102 (1987), 0.6817
(1986), 0.7714 (1985); note--the Falkland pound is at par with the
British pound


_#_Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March


_*_Communications
_#_Highways: 510 km total; 30 km paved, 80 km gravel, and 400 km
unimproved earth


_#_Ports: Port Stanley


_#_Civil air: no major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 5 total, 5 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
none with runways 1,220 to 2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: government-operated radiotelephone and private
VHF/CB radio networks provide effective service to almost all points on
both islands; 590 telephones; stations--2 AM, 3 FM, no TV; 1 Atlantic
Ocean INTELSAT earth station with links through London to other countries


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: British Forces Falkland Islands (including Army, Royal
Air Force, Royal Navy, and Royal Marines); Police Force


_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of the UK
_%_
_@_Faroe Islands
(part of the Danish realm)
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 1,400 km2; land area: 1,400 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly less than eight times the size of
Washington, DC


_#_Land boundaries: none


_#_Coastline: 764 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 3 nm


_#_Climate: mild winters, cool summers; usually overcast; foggy, windy


_#_Terrain: rugged, rocky, some low peaks; cliffs along most of coast


_#_Natural resources: fish


_#_Land use: arable land 2%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
0%; forest and woodland 0%; other 98%


_#_Environment: precipitous terrain limits habitation to small coastal
lowlands; archipelago of 18 inhabited islands and a few uninhabited
islets


_#_Note: strategically located along important sea lanes in
northeastern Atlantic about midway between Iceland and Shetland Islands


_*_People
_#_Population: 48,151 (July 1991), growth rate 0.9% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 17 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 8 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 9 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 75 years male, 81 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 2.2 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--Faroese (sing., pl.); adjective--Faroese


_#_Ethnic divisions: homogeneous Scandinavian population


_#_Religion: Evangelical Lutheran


_#_Language: Faroese (derived from Old Norse), Danish


_#_Literacy: NA% (male NA%, female NA%)


_#_Labor force: 17,585; largely engaged in fishing, manufacturing,
transportation, and commerce


_#_Organized labor: NA


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: none


_#_Type: part of the Danish realm; self-governing overseas
administrative division of Denmark


_#_Capital: Torshavn


_#_Administrative divisions: none (self-governing overseas
administrative division of Denmark)


_#_Independence: part of the Danish realm; self-governing overseas
administrative division of Denmark


_#_Constitution: Danish


_#_Legal system: Danish


_#_National holiday: Birthday of the Queen, 16 April (1940)


_#_Executive branch: Danish monarch, high commissioner, prime
minister, deputy prime minister, Cabinet (Landsstyri)


_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament (Logting)


_#_Judicial branch: none


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--Queen MARGRETHE II (since 14 January 1972),
represented by High Commissioner Bent KLINTE (since NA);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Atli P. DAM (since 15
January 1991)


_#_Political parties and leaders:
two-party ruling coalition--Social Democratic Party, Atli P. DAM;
People's Party, Jogvan SUNDSTEIN;

opposition--Cooperation Coalition Party, Pauli ELLEFSEN;
Republican Party, Signer HANSEN;
Progressive and Fishing Industry Party-Christian People's Party
(PFIP-CPP), leader NA; Progress Party, leader NA; Home Rule Party, Hilmar
KASS


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 20


_#_Elections:

Faroese Parliament--last held 17 November 1990 (next to be held
November 1994); results--Social Democratic 27.4%, People's Party 21.9%,
Cooperation Coalition Party 18.9%, Republican Party 14.7%, Home Rule
8.8%, PFIP-CPP 5.9%, other 2.4%;
seats--(32 total) two-party coalition 17 (Social Democratic 10, People's
Party 7), Cooperation Coalition Party 6, Republican Party 4,
Home Rule 3, PFIP-CPP 2;

Danish Parliament--last held on 12 December 1990 (next to be
held by December 1994);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(2 total) Social Democratic 1, People's Party 1; note--the
Faroe Islands elects two representatives to the Danish Parliament


_#_Communists: insignificant number


_#_Member of:


_#_Diplomatic representation: none (self-governing overseas
administrative division of Denmark)


_#_Flag: white with a red cross outlined in blue that extends to the
edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the
hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The Faroese, who have long been enjoying the affluent
living standards of the Danes and other Scandinavians,
now must cope with the decline of the all-important fishing
industry and with an external debt twice the size of annual
income. When the nations of the world extended their fishing
zones to 200 nautical miles in the early 1970s, the Faroese
no longer could continue their traditional long-distance fishing
and subsequently depleted their own nearby fishing areas; one
estimate foresaw a 25% drop in fish catch in 1990 alone. Half the
fishing fleet is for sale, and the 22 fish-processing plants work
at only half capacity. The government no longer can maintain its
high level of spending on roads and tunnels, hospitals, sports
facilities, and other social welfare programs.


_#_GDP: $662 million, per capita $14,000; real growth rate 3%
(1989 est.)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.0% (1988)


_#_Unemployment rate: NA%, but increasing


_#_Budget: revenues $442 million; expenditures $442 million, including
capital expenditures of NA (1989)


_#_Exports: $343 million (f.o.b., 1989 est.);

commodities--fish and fish products 88%, animal feedstuffs,
transport equipment;

partners--Denmark 16%, UK 14%, FRG 13.4%, US 10%, France 9%,
Japan 5%


_#_Imports: $344 million (c.i.f., 1989 est.);

commodities--machinery and transport equipment 30%,
manufactures 16%, food and livestock 15%, chemicals 6%, fuels 4%;

partners: Denmark 44%, Norway 16%, FRG 6%, Sweden 6%, US 3%


_#_External debt: $1.3 billion (1989)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%


_#_Electricity: 80,000 kW capacity; 280 million kWh produced,
5,910 kWh per capita (1989)


_#_Industries: fishing, shipbuilding, handicrafts


_#_Agriculture: accounts for 27% of GDP and employs 27% of labor
force; principal crops--potatoes and vegetables; livestock--sheep; annual
fish catch about 360,000 metric tons


_#_Economic aid: none


_#_Currency: Danish krone (plural--kroner); 1 Danish krone
(DKr) = 100 ore


_#_Exchange rates: Danish kroner (DKr) per US$1--5.817 (January
1991), 6.189 (1990), 7.310 (1989), 6.732 (1988), 6.840 (1987), 8.091
(1986), 10.596 (1985)


_#_Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March


_*_Communications
_#_Highways: 200 km


_#_Ports: Torshavn, Tvoroyri


_#_Merchant marine: 7 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 17,249
GRT/11,887 DWT; includes 1 short-sea passenger, 2 cargo, 2
roll-on/roll-off cargo, 2 refrigerated cargo; note--a subset of the
Danish register


_#_Airports: 1 with permanent surface runway 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: good international communications; fair
domestic facilities; 27,900 telephones; stations--1 AM, 3 (10 repeaters)
FM, 3 (29 repeaters) TV; 3 coaxial submarine cables


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: no organized native military forces; only a small
Police Force is maintained

_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of Denmark
_%_
_@_Fiji
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 18,270 km2; land area: 18,270 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than New Jersey


_#_Land boundaries: none


_#_Coastline: 1,129 km


_#_Maritime claims: (measured from claimed archipelagic baselines)

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation;
rectilinear shelf claim added;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm


_#_Climate: tropical marine; only slight seasonal temperature
variation


_#_Terrain: mostly mountains of volcanic origin


_#_Natural resources: timber, fish, gold, copper; offshore oil
potential


_#_Land use: arable land 8%; permanent crops 5%; meadows and pastures
3%; forest and woodland 65%; other 19%; includes irrigated NEGL%


_#_Environment: subject to hurricanes from November to January;
includes 332 islands of which approximately 110 are inhabited


_#_Note: located 2,500 km north of New Zealand in the South Pacific
Ocean


_*_People
_#_Population: 744,006 (July 1991), growth rate 0.8% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 26 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: - 12 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 19 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 62 years male, 67 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 3.1 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--Fijian(s); adjective--Fijian


_#_Ethnic divisions: Indian 49%, Fijian 46%, European, other Pacific
Islanders, overseas Chinese, and other 5%


_#_Religion: Christian 52% (Methodist 37%, Roman Catholic 9%),
Hindu 38%, Muslim 8%, other 2%; note--Fijians are mainly Christian,
Indians are Hindu, and there is a Muslim minority (1986)


_#_Language: English (official); Fijian; Hindustani


_#_Literacy: 86% (male 90%, female 81%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1985 est.)


_#_Labor force: 235,000; subsistence agriculture 67%, wage earners
18%, salary earners 15% (1987)


_#_Organized labor: about 45,000 employees belong to some 46 trade
unions, which are organized along lines of work and ethnic origin (1983)


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of Fiji


_#_Type: military coup leader Major General Sitiveni Rabuka formally
declared Fiji a republic on 6 October 1987


_#_Capital: Suva


_#_Administrative divisions: 4 divisions and 1 dependency*; Central,
Eastern, Northern, Rotuma*, Western


_#_Independence: 10 October 1970 (from UK)


_#_Constitution: 10 October 1970 (suspended 1 October 1987);
a new Constitution was proposed on 23 September 1988 and promulgated
on 25 July 1990


_#_Legal system: based on British system


_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 10 October (1970)


_#_Executive branch: president, prime minister, Cabinet


_#_Legislative branch: the bicameral Parliament, consisting of an
upper house or Senate and a lower house or House of Representatives,
was dissolved following the coup of 14 May 1987; the Constitution of 23
September 1988 provides for a bicameral Parliament


_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--President Ratu Sir Penaia Kanatabatu GANILAU
(since 5 December 1987);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Ratu Sir Kamisese MARA (since 5
December 1987); Deputy Prime Minister Josefata KAMIKAMICA (since NA
October 1991);
note--Ratu Sir Kamisese MARA served as prime minister from 10 October
1970 until the 5-11 April 1987 election; after a second coup led by
Maj. Gen. Sitiveni RABUKA on 25 September 1987, Ratu Sir Kamisese
MARA was reappointed as prime minister


_#_Political parties and leaders:
Fijian Political Party (primarily Fijian), leader NA;
National Federation (primarily Indian), Siddiq KOYA;
Western United Front (Fijian), Ratu Osea GAVIDI;
Fiji Labor Party, Adi Kuini BAVADRA


_#_Suffrage: none


_#_Elections:

House of Representatives--last held 14 May 1987 (next to be
held July 1992);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(70 total, with ethnic Fijians allocated 37 seats, ethnic
Indians 27 seats, and independents and other 6 seats) number of seats
by party NA


_#_Communists: some


_#_Member of: ACP, AsDB, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA,
IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, PCA,
SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO


_#_Diplomatic representation: Charge d'Affaires Ratu Finau MARA;
Chancery at Suite 240, 2233 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007;
telephone (202) 337-8320; there is a Fijian Consulate in New York;

US--Ambassador Evelyn I. H. TEEGEN; Embassy at 31 Loftus Street,
Suva (mailing address is P. O. Box 218, Suva); telephone [679] 314-466 or
314-069


_#_Flag: light blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side
quadrant and the Fijian shield centered on the outer half of the flag;
the shield depicts a yellow lion above a white field quartered by the
cross of Saint George featuring stalks of sugarcane, a palm tree,
bananas, and a white dove


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Fiji's economy is primarily agricultural, with a large
subsistence sector. Sugar exports are a major source of foreign exchange
and sugar processing accounts for one-third of industrial output.
Industry, including sugar milling, contributes 13% to GDP. Fiji
traditionally had earned considerable sums of hard currency from the
250,000 tourists who visited each year. In 1987, however, after two
military coups, the economy went into decline. GDP dropped by 7.8% in
1987 and by another 2.5% in 1988; political uncertainty created a drop in
tourism, and the worst drought of the century caused sugar production
to fall sharply. In contrast, sugar and tourism turned in strong
performances in 1989, and the economy rebounded vigorously. In 1990
the economy received a setback from cyclone Sina which cut sugar
output by an estimated 21%.


_#_GDP: $1.3 billion, per capita $1,693; real growth rate 3.5%
(1991 est.)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 8.5% (1991 est.)


_#_Unemployment rate: 5.9 (1991 est.)


_#_Budget: revenues $314 million; expenditures $355 million,
including capital expenditures of $81 million (1990 est.)


_#_Exports: $646 million (f.o.b., 1991 est.);

commodities--sugar 40%, gold, clothing, copra, processed fish,
lumber;

partners--EC 31%, Australia 21%, Japan 8%, US 6%


_#_Imports: $840 million (c.i.f., 1991 est.);

commodities--machinery and transport 32%, food 15%, petroleum
products, consumer goods, chemicals;

partners--Australia 30%, NZ 17%, Japan 13%, EC 6%, US 6%


_#_External debt: $428 million (December 1990 est.)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate 8.4% (1991 est.); accounts
for 13% of GDP


_#_Electricity: 215,000 kW capacity; 330 million kWh produced, 430
kWh per capita (1990)


_#_Industries: sugar, tourism, copra, gold, silver, fishing, clothing,
lumber, small cottage industries


_#_Agriculture: accounts for 23% of GDP; principal cash crop is
sugarcane; coconuts, cassava, rice, sweet potatoes, and bananas; small
livestock sector includes cattle, pigs, horses, and goats


_#_Economic aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral
commitments (1980-87), $732 million


_#_Currency: Fijian dollar (plural--dollars); 1 Fijian dollar
(F$) = 100 cents


_#_Exchange rates: Fijian dollars (F$) per US$1--1.4476 (January
1991), 1.4809 (1990), 1.4833 (1989), 1.4303 (1988), 1.2439 (1987), 1.1329
(1986), 1.1536 (1985)


_#_Fiscal year: calendar year


_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 644 km 0.610-meter narrow gauge, belonging to the
government-owned Fiji Sugar Corporation


_#_Highways: 3,300 km total (1984)--390 km paved; 1,200 km
bituminous-surface treatment; 1,290 km gravel, crushed stone, or
stabilized soil surface; 420 unimproved earth


_#_Inland waterways: 203 km; 122 km navigable by motorized craft and
200-metric-ton barges


_#_Ports: Lambasa, Lautoka, Savusavu, Suva


_#_Merchant marine: 6 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 34,214
GRT/37,161 DWT; includes 2 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 2 container,
1 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 1 chemical tanker


_#_Civil air: 1 DC-3 and 1 light aircraft


_#_Airports: 26 total, 24 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 2 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: modern local, interisland, and international
(wire/radio integrated) public and special-purpose telephone, telegraph,
and teleprinter facilities; regional radio center; important COMPAC cable
link between US-Canada and New Zealand-Australia; 53,228 telephones;
stations--7 AM, 1 FM, no TV; 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth station


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Fiji Military Force (FMF; Army, Navy, Police)


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 190,120; 104,861 fit for
military service; 7,879 reach military age (18) annually


_#_Defense expenditures: $25.8 million, 2.5% of GDP (1988)
_%_
_@_Finland
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 337,030 km2; land area: 305,470 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than Montana


_#_Land boundaries: 2,628 km total; Norway 729 km, Sweden 586 km,
USSR 1,313 km


_#_Coastline: 1,126 km excluding islands and coastal indentations


_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 6 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation;

Exclusive fishing zone: 12 nm;

Territorial sea: 4 nm


_#_Climate: cold temperate; potentially subarctic, but comparatively
mild because of moderating influence of the North Atlantic Current,
Baltic Sea, and more than 60,000 lakes


_#_Terrain: mostly low, flat to rolling plains interspersed with lakes
and low hills


_#_Natural resources: timber, copper, zinc, iron ore, silver


_#_Land use: arable land 8%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
NEGL%; forest and woodland 76%; other 16%; includes irrigated NEGL%


_#_Environment: permanently wet ground covers about 30% of land;
population concentrated on small southwestern coastal plain


_#_Note: long boundary with USSR; Helsinki is northernmost national
capital on European continent


_*_People
_#_Population: 4,991,131 (July 1991), growth rate 0.3% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 12 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 10 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: NEGL migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 6 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 71 years male, 80 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 1.7 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--Finn(s); adjective--Finnish


_#_Ethnic divisions: Finn, Swede, Lapp, Gypsy, Tatar


_#_Religion: Evangelical Lutheran 89%, Greek Orthodox 1%,
none 9%, other 1%


_#_Language: Finnish 93.5%, Swedish (both official) 6.3%; small Lapp-
and Russian-speaking minorities


_#_Literacy: 100% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1980 est.)


_#_Labor force: 2,470,000; services 38.2%, mining and manufacturing
22.7%, commerce 14.9%, agriculture, forestry, and fishing 8.8%,
construction 8.0%, transportation and communications 7.2% (1989)


_#_Organized labor: 80% of labor force


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of Finland


_#_Type: republic


_#_Capital: Helsinki


_#_Administrative divisions: 12 provinces (laanit,
singular--laani); Ahvenanmaa, Hame, Keski-Suomi, Kuopio, Kymi,
Lappi, Mikkeli, Oulu, Pohjois-Karjala, Turku ja Pori, Uusimaa, Vaasa


_#_Independence: 6 December 1917 (from Soviet Union)


_#_Constitution: 17 July 1919


_#_Legal system: civil law system based on Swedish law; Supreme Court
may request legislation interpreting or modifying laws; accepts
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations


_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 6 December (1917)


_#_Executive branch: president, prime minister, deputy prime minister,
Council of State (Valtioneuvosto)


_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Eduskunta


_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Korkein Oikeus)


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--President Mauno KOIVISTO (since 27 January 1982);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Esko AHO (since 26 April 1991);
Deputy Prime Minister Ilkka KANERVA (since 26 April 1991)


_#_Political parties and leaders:

government coalition--Center Party, Esko AHO;
National Coalition (Conservative) Party, Ilkka SUOMINEN; and
Swedish People's Party, (Johan) Ole NORRBACK;

other parties--Social Democratic Party, Pertti PAASIO;
Leftist Alliance (Communist) consisting of People's Democratic League and
Democratic Alternative, Claes ANDERSSON;
Green League, Heidi HAUTALA;
Rural Party, Heikki RIIHIJAERVI;
Finnish Christian League, Esko ALMGREN;
Liberal People's Party, Kyosti LALLUKKA


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


_#_Elections:

President--last held 31 January-1 February and 15 February
1988 (next to be held January 1994);
results--Mauno KOIVISTO 48%, Paavo VAYRYNEN 20%, Harri HOLKERI 18%;

Eduskunta--last held 17 March 1991 (next to be held March
1995);
results--Center Party 24.8%, Social Democratic Party 22.1%, National
Coalition (Conservative) Party 19.3%, Leftist Alliance (Communist)
10.1%, Green League 6.8%, Swedish People's Party 5.5%, Rural 4.8%,
Finnish Christian League 3.1%, Liberal People's Party 0.8%;
seats--(200 total) Center Party 55, Social Democratic Party 48,
National Coalition (Conservative) Party 40, Leftist Alliance (Communist)
19, Swedish People's Party 12, Green League 10, Finnish Christian League
8, Rural 7, Liberal People's Party 1


_#_Communists: 28,000 registered members; an additional 45,000 persons
belong to People's Democratic League


_#_Other political or pressure groups:
Finnish Communist Party-Unity, Esko-Juhani TENNILA;
Constitutional Rightist Party;
Finnish Pensioners Party;
Communist Workers Party, Timo LAHDENMAKI


_#_Member of: AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, BIS, CCC, CE, CSCE, EBRD,
ECE, EFTA, ESA (associate), FAO, G-9, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC,
ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC,
IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM (guest), NC, NEA, NIB, OAS
(observer), OECD, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNFICYP,
UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIIMOG, UNMOGIP, UNTSO, UPU, WHO, WIPO,
WMO, WTO


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Jukka VALTASAARI; Chancery at
3216 New Mexico Avenue NW, Washington DC 20016; telephone (202) 363-2430;
there are Finnish Consulates General in Los Angeles and New York,
and Consulates in Chicago and Houston;

US--Ambassador John G. WEINMANN; Embassy at Itainen Puistotie
14A, SF-00140, Helsinki (mailing address is APO New York 09664);
telephone [358] (0) 171931


_#_Flag: white with a blue cross that extends to the edges of the
flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in
the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Finland has a highly industrialized, largely free market
economy, with per capita output nearly three-fourths the US figure.
Its main economic force is the manufacturing sector--principally
the wood, metals, and engineering industries. Trade is important, with
the export of goods representing about 30% of GDP. Except for timber and
several minerals, Finland depends on imported raw materials, energy, and
some components of manufactured goods. Because of the climate,
agricultural development is limited to maintaining self-sufficiency in
basic commodities. The economy, which experienced an average of 4.9%
annual growth between 1987 and 1989, leveled off in 1990 and is now
in a recession facing negative growth in 1991. The clearing account
system between Finland and the Soviet Union in the postwar period--mainly
Soviet oil and gas for Finnish manufactured goods--had kept Finland
isolated from world recessions; the system, however, was dismantled on
1 January 1991 in favor of hard currency trade. As a result, Finland must
increase its competitiveness in certain sectors, for example, textiles,
foodstuffs, paper, and metals, and has already begun to shift trade
westward. Finland, as a member of EFTA, is negotiating a European
Economic Area arrangement with the EC which would allow for free
movement of capital, goods, services, and labor within the organization.


_#_GDP: $77.3 billion, per capita $15,500; real growth rate - 0.1%
(1990)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.0% (1991 est.)


_#_Unemployment rate: 5.7% (1991 est.)


_#_Budget: revenues $35.1 billion; expenditures $33.1 billion,
including capital expenditures of $1.4 billion (1990)


_#_Exports: $23.3 billion (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities--timber, paper and pulp, ships, machinery, clothing and
footwear;

partners--EC 44.0% (UK 12.0%, FRG 10.8%), USSR 14.5%, Sweden 14.3%,
US 6.4%


_#_Imports: $24.4 billion (c.i.f., 1989);

commodities--foodstuffs, petroleum and petroleum products,
chemicals, transport equipment, iron and steel, machinery, textile yarn
and fabrics, fodder grains;

partners--EC 44.5% (FRG 17.3%, UK 6.6%), Sweden 13.6%, USSR 11.5%,
US 6.3%


_#_External debt: $5.3 billion (1989)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate - 3.0% (1991 est.); accounts
for 28% of GDP


_#_Electricity: 13,324,000 kW capacity; 49,330 million kWh produced,
9,940 kWh per capita (1989)


_#_Industries: metal manufacturing and shipbuilding, forestry and wood
processing (pulp, paper), copper refining, foodstuffs, chemicals,
textiles, clothing


_#_Agriculture: accounts for 8% of GNP (including forestry); livestock
production, especially dairy cattle, predominates; forestry is an
important export earner and a secondary occupation for the rural
population; main crops--cereals, sugar beets, potatoes; 85%
self-sufficient, but short of food and fodder grains; annual fish catch
about 160,000 metric tons


_#_Economic aid: donor--ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $2.7
billion


_#_Currency: markka (plural--markkaa); 1 markka (FMk) or
Finmark = 100 pennia


_#_Exchange rates: markkaa (FMk) per US$1--3.6421 (January 1991),
3.8235 (1990), 4.2912 (1989), 4.1828 (1988), 4.3956 (1987), 5.0695
(1986), 6.1979 (1985)


_#_Fiscal year: calendar year


_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 5,924 km total; Finnish State Railways (VR) operate a
total of 5,863 km 1.524-meter gauge, of which 480 km are multiple track
and 1,445 km are electrified


_#_Highways: about 103,000 km total, including 35,000 km paved
(bituminous, concrete, bituminous-treated surface) and 38,000 km unpaved
(stabilized gravel, gravel, earth); additional 30,000 km of private
(state-subsidized) roads


_#_Inland waterways: 6,675 km total (including Saimaa Canal); 3,700 km
suitable for steamers


_#_Pipelines: natural gas, 580 km


_#_Ports: Helsinki, Oulu, Pori, Rauma, Turku; 6 secondary, numerous
minor ports


_#_Merchant marine: 83 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 807,020
GRT/831,774 DWT; includes 3 passenger, 10 short-sea passenger, 16 cargo,
1 refrigerated cargo, 23 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 14 petroleum, oils, and
lubricants (POL) tanker, 6 chemical tanker, 2 liquefied gas, 8 bulk


_#_Civil air: 42 major transport


_#_Airports: 160 total, 157 usable; 57 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 23 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
22 with runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: good service from cable and radio relay
network; 3,140,000 telephones; stations--4 AM, 42 (101 relays) FM, 79
(197 relays) TV; 2 submarine cables; satellite service via Swedish earth
stations; earth stations--2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 1 EUTELSAT


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Frontier Guard (including
Sea Guard)


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 1,313,346; 1,089,217 fit for
military service; 32,866 reach military age (17) annually


_#_Defense expenditures: $1.1 billion, 1.5% of GDP (1989 est.)
_%_
_@_France
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 547,030 km2; land area: 545,630 km2; includes Corsica
and the rest of metropolitan France, but excludes the overseas
administrative divisions


_#_Comparative area: slightly more than twice the size of Colorado


_#_Land boundaries: 2,892.4 km total; Andorra 60 km, Belgium 620 km,
Germany 451 km, Italy 488 km, Luxembourg 73 km, Monaco 4.4 km,
Spain 623 km, Switzerland 573 km


_#_Coastline: 3,427 km (includes Corsica, 644 km)


_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12-24 nm;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm


_#_Disputes: maritime boundary dispute with Canada (Saint Pierre and
Miquelon); Madagascar claims Bassas da India, Europa Island, Glorioso
Islands, Juan de Nova Island, and Tromelin Island; Comoros claims
Mayotte; Mauritius claims Tromelin Island; Seychelles claims Tromelin
Island; Suriname claims part of French Guiana; Mexico claims Clipperton
Island; territorial claim in Antarctica (Adelie Land)


_#_Climate: generally cool winters and mild summers, but mild winters
and hot summers along the Mediterranean


_#_Terrain: mostly flat plains or gently rolling hills in north and
west; remainder is mountainous, especially Pyrenees in south, Alps in
east


_#_Natural resources: coal, iron ore, bauxite, fish, timber, zinc,
potash


_#_Land use: arable land 32%; permanent crops 2%; meadows and pastures
23%; forest and woodland 27%; other 16%; includes irrigated 2%


_#_Environment: most of large urban areas and industrial centers in
Rhone, Garonne, Seine, or Loire River basins; occasional warm tropical
wind known as mistral


_#_Note: largest West European nation


_*_People
_#_Population: 56,595,587 (July 1991), growth rate 0.4% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 14 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 9 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 6 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 74 years male, 82 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 1.8 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--Frenchman(men), Frenchwoman(women);
adjective--French


_#_Ethnic divisions: Celtic and Latin with Teutonic, Slavic, North
African, Indochinese, and Basque minorities


_#_Religion: Roman Catholic 90%, Protestant 2%, Jewish 1%,
Muslim (North African workers) 1%, unaffiliated 6%


_#_Language: French (100% of population); rapidly declining regional
dialects (Provencal, Breton, Alsatian, Corsican, Catalan, Basque,
Flemish)


_#_Literacy: 99% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1980 est.)


_#_Labor force: 24,170,000; services 61.5%, industry 31.3%,
agriculture 7.3% (1987)


_#_Organized labor: 20% of labor force (est.)


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: French Republic


_#_Type: republic


_#_Capital: Paris


_#_Administrative divisions: metropolitan France--22 regions
(regions, singular--region); Alsace, Aquitaine, Auvergne,
Basse-Normandie, Bourgogne, Bretagne, Centre, Champagne-Ardenne, Corse,
Franche-Comte, Haute-Normandie, Ile-de-France, Languedoc-Roussillon,
Limousin, Lorraine, Midi-Pyrenees, Nord-Pas-de-Calais,
Pays de la Loire, Picardie, Poitou-Charentes,
Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur, Rhone-Alpes;

note--the 22 regions are subdivided into 96 departments; see separate
entries for the overseas departments (French Guiana, Guadeloupe,
Martinique, Reunion) and the territorial collectivities (Mayotte,
Saint Pierre and Miquelon)


_#_Dependent areas: Bassas da India, Clipperton Island, Europa Island,
French Polynesia, French Southern and Antarctic Lands, Glorioso Islands,
Juan de Nova Island, New Caledonia, Tromelin Island, Wallis and Futuna;
note--the US does not recognize claims to Antarctica


_#_Independence: unified by Clovis in 486, First Republic proclaimed
in 1792


_#_Constitution: 28 September 1958, amended concerning election of
president in 1962


_#_Legal system: civil law system with indigenous concepts; review of
administrative but not legislative acts


_#_National holiday: Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)


_#_Executive branch: president, prime minister, Council of Ministers
(cabinet)


_#_Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament (Parlement) consists of an
upper house or Senate (Senat) and a lower house or National Assembly
(Assemblee Nationale)


_#_Judicial branch: Court of Cassation (Cour de Cassation)


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--President Francois MITTERRAND (since 21 May
1981);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Edith CRESSON (since 15 May
1991)


_#_Political parties and leaders:
Rally for the Republic (RPR, formerly UDR), Jacques CHIRAC;
Union for French Democracy (UDF, federation of PR, CDS, and RAD),
Valery Giscard d'ESTAING;
Republican Party (PR), Gerard LONGUET;
Center for Social Democrats (CDS), Pierre MEHAIGNERIE;
Radical (RAD), Yves GALLARD;
Socialist Party (PS), Pierre MAUROY;
Left Radical Movement (MRG), Yves COLLIN;
Communist Party (PCF), Georges MARCHAIS;
National Front (FN), Jean-Marie LE PEN


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


_#_Elections:

President--last held 8 May 1988 (next to be held May 1995);
results--Second Ballot Francois MITTERRAND 54%, Jacques CHIRAC 46%;

Senate--last held 24 September 1989 (next to be held September
1992); results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(321 total; 296 metropolitan France, 13 for overseas departments
and territories, and 12 for French nationals abroad) RPR 93,
UDF 143 (PR 53, CDS 65, RAD 25), PS 64, PCF 16, independents 2,
unknown 3;

National Assembly--last held 5 and 12 June 1988 (next to be held
June 1993);
results--Second Ballot PS-MRG 48.7%, RPR 23.1%, UDF 21%, PCF 3.4%,
other 3.8%;
seats--(577 total) PS 275, RPR 132, UDF 90, UDC 40, PCF 25, independents
15


_#_Communists: 700,000 claimed but probably closer to 150,000;
Communist voters, 2.8 million in 1988 election


_#_Other political or pressure groups: Communist-controlled labor
union (Confederation Generale du Travail) nearly 2.4 million
members (claimed); Socialist-leaning labor union (Confederation
Francaise Democratique du Travail or CFDT) about 800,000 members
est.; independent labor union (Force Ouvriere) 1 million members
(est.); independent white-collar union (Confederation Generale
des Cadres) 340,000 members (claimed); National Council of French
Employers (Conseil National du Patronat Francais--CNPF or Patronat)


_#_Member of: ACCT, AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, BDEAC,
BIS, CCC, CDB, CE, CERN, COCOM, CSCE, EBRD, EC, ECA (associate),
ECE, ECLAC, EIB, ESA, ESCAP, FAO, FZ, GATT, G-5, G-7, G-10, IABD, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LORCS,
NATO, NEA, OAS (observer), OECD, PCA, SPC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR,
UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNRWA, UN Security Council, UN Trusteeship Council,
UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WEU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Jacques ANDREANI; Chancery at
4101 Reservoir Road NW, Washington DC 20007; telephone (202) 944-6000;
there are French Consulates General in Boston, Chicago, Detroit, Houston,
Los Angeles, New Orleans, Miami, New York, San Francisco, and San Juan
(Puerto Rico);

US--Ambassador Walter J. P. CURLEY; Embassy at 2 Avenue
Gabriel, 75382 Paris Cedex 08 (mailing address is APO New York 09777);
telephone [33] (1) 42-96-12-02 or 42-61-80-75; there are US Consulates
General in Bordeaux, Lyon, Marseille, and Strasbourg


_#_Flag: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), white, and
red; known as the French Tricouleur (Tricolor); the design and
colors have been the basis for a number of other flags, including those
of Belgium, Chad, Ireland, Ivory Coast, and Luxembourg; the official flag
for all French dependent areas


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: One of the world's most developed economies, France
has substantial agricultural resources and a highly diversified modern
industrial sector. Large tracts of fertile land, the application of
modern technology, and subsidies have combined to make it the leading
agricultural producer in Western Europe. France is largely
self-sufficient in agricultural products and is a major exporter of
wheat and dairy products. The industrial sector generates about
one-quarter of GDP, and the growing services sector has become crucial
to the economy. After sluggish growth during the period 1982-87, the
economy expanded at a rapid 3.8% pace in 1988-89. The economy
slowed down in 1990, with growth of 2.0% expected in 1991.
The economy has had difficulty generating enough jobs for new
entrants into the labor force, resulting in a high unemployment rate,
which probably will rise to around 10% during the slowdown.
The steadily advancing economic integration within the European
Community is a major force affecting the fortunes of the various economic
sectors.


_#_GDP: $873.5 billion, per capita $15,500; real growth rate 2.8%
(1990)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.7% (1990 est.)


_#_Unemployment rate: 9% (1990)


_#_Budget: revenues $207.6 billion; expenditures $224.2 billion,
including capital expenditures of $34 billion (1990 est.)


_#_Exports: $181.2 billion (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities--machinery and transportation equipment, chemicals,
foodstuffs, agricultural products, iron and steel products, textiles and
clothing;

partners--FRG 16%, Italy 12.1%, UK 9.5%, Spain 9.5%,
Netherlands 9.2%, Belgium-Luxembourg 8.9%, US 6.6%, Japan 1.9%,
USSR 1.0% (1989 est.)


_#_Imports: $201.6 billion (c.i.f., 1989);

commodities--crude oil, machinery and equipment, agricultural
products, chemicals, iron and steel products;

partners--FRG 19.4%, Italy 11.6%, Belgium-Luxembourg 9.2%,
Netherlands 8.6%, US 7.6%, Spain 7.4%, UK 7.1%, Japan 4.1%,
USSR 1.4% (1989 est.)


_#_External debt: $59.3 billion (December 1987)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate 3.7% (1989); accounts
for 26% of GDP


_#_Electricity: 109,972,000 kW capacity; 403,570 million kWh produced,
7,210 kWh per capita (1989)


_#_Industries: steel, machinery, chemicals, automobiles, metallurgy,
aircraft, electronics, mining, textiles, food processing, and tourism


_#_Agriculture: accounts for 4% of GNP (including fishing and
forestry); one of the world's top five wheat producers; other principal
products--beef, dairy products, cereals, sugar beets, potatoes, wine
grapes; self-sufficient for most temperate-zone foods; shortages include
fats and oils and tropical produce, but overall net exporter of farm
products; fish catch of 850,000 metric tons ranks among world's top
20 countries and is all used domestically


_#_Economic aid: donor--ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $75.1
billion


_#_Currency: French franc (plural--francs); 1 French franc (F) = 100
centimes


_#_Exchange rates: French francs (F) per US$1--5.8 (May 1991),
5.4453 (1990), 6.3801 (1989), 5.9569 (1988), 6.0107 (1987), 6.9261
(1986), 8.9852 (1985)


_#_Fiscal year: calendar year


_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: French National Railways (SNCF) operates 34,568 km
1.435-meter standard gauge; 11,674 km electrified, 15,132 km double or
multiple track; 2,138 km of various gauges (1.000-meter to 1.440-meter),
privately owned and operated


_#_Highways: 1,551,400 km total; 33,400 km national highway;
347,000 km departmental highway; 421,000 km community roads; 750,000 km
rural roads; 5,401 km of controlled-access divided autoroutes; about
803,000 km paved


_#_Inland waterways: 14,932 km; 6,969 km heavily traveled


_#_Pipelines: crude oil, 3,059 km; refined products, 4,487 km; natural
gas, 24,746 km


_#_Ports: maritime--Bordeaux, Boulogne, Brest, Cherbourg, Dunkerque,
Fos-Sur-Mer, Le Havre, Marseille, Nantes, Rouen, Sete, Toulon;
inland--42


_#_Merchant marine: 133 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,141,276
GRT/5,006,695 DWT; includes 8 short-sea passenger, 15 cargo, 18
container, 2 multifunction large-load carrier, 29 roll-on/roll-off cargo,
34 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 8 chemical tanker,
6 liquefied gas, 2 specialized tanker, 11 bulk; note--France also
maintains a captive register for French-owned ships in the Kerguelen
Islands (French Southern and Antarctic Lands) and French Polynesia


_#_Civil air: 195 (1989 est.)


_#_Airports: 470 total, 460 usable; 246 with permanent-surface
runways; 3 with runways over 3,659 m; 34 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
136 with runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: highly developed system provides satisfactory
telephone, telegraph, radio and TV broadcast services; 39,200,000
telephones; stations--40 AM, 138 (777 relays) FM, 216 (8,902 relays) TV;
25 submarine coaxial cables; communication satellite earth stations
operating in INTELSAT, 3 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean, EUTELSAT,
MARISAT, and domestic systems


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy (including Naval Air), Air Force, National
Gendarmerie


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 14,366,492; 12,077,706 fit for
military service; 395,128 reach military age (18) annually


_#_Defense expenditures: $29.7 billion, 3.6% of GDP (1990)
_%_
_@_French Guiana
(overseas department of France)
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 91,000 km2; land area: 89,150 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than Indiana


_#_Land boundaries: 1,183 km total; Brazil 673 km, Suriname 510 km


_#_Coastline: 378 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm


_#_Disputes: Suriname claims area between Riviere Litani and
Riviere Marouini (both headwaters of the Lawa)


_#_Climate: tropical; hot, humid; little seasonal temperature
variation


_#_Terrain: low-lying coastal plains rising to hills and small
mountains


_#_Natural resources: bauxite, timber, gold (widely scattered),
cinnabar, kaolin, fish


_#_Land use: arable land NEGL%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and
pastures NEGL%; forest and woodland 82%; other 18%


_#_Environment: mostly an unsettled wilderness


_*_People
_#_Population: 101,603 (July 1991), growth rate 3.3% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 28 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: 10 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 18 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 69 years male, 76 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 3.7 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--French Guianese (sing., pl.); adjective--French
Guiana


_#_Ethnic divisions: black or mulatto 66%; Caucasian 12%; East Indian,
Chinese, Amerindian 12%; other 10%


_#_Religion: predominantly Roman Catholic


_#_Language: French


_#_Literacy: 82% (male 81%, female 83%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1982)


_#_Labor force: 23,265; services, government, and commerce 60.6%,
industry 21.2%, agriculture 18.2% (1980)


_#_Organized labor: 7% of labor force


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Department of Guiana


_#_Type: overseas department of France


_#_Capital: Cayenne


_#_Administrative divisions: none (overseas department of France)


_#_Independence: none (overseas department of France)


_#_Constitution: 28 September 1958 (French Constitution)


_#_Legal system: French legal system


_#_National holiday: Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)


_#_Executive branch: French president, commissioner of the republic


_#_Legislative branch: unicameral General Council and a unicameral
Regional Council


_#_Judicial branch: highest local court is the Court of Appeals
based in Martinique with jurisdiction over Martinique, Guadeloupe, and
French Guiana


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--President Francois MITTERRAND (since 21 May
1981);

Head of Government--Commissioner of the Republic Jean-Francois
DI CHIARA (since NA 1990)


_#_Political parties and leaders:
Guianese Socialist Party (PSG), Gerard HOLDER;
Rally for the Republic (RPR), Paulin BRUNE;
Guyanese Democratic Action (ADG), Andre Lecante;
Union for French Democracy (UDF), Claude Ho A CHUCK;
National Front (FN), Guy MALON;
Popular and National Party of Guiana (PNPG), Claude ROBO;
National Anti-Colonist Guianese Party (PANGA), Michel KAPEL


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


_#_Elections:

Regional Council--last held 16 March 1986 (next to be
held NA 1991);
results--PSG 43%, RPR 27.7%, ADG 12.2%, UDF 8.9%, FN 3.7%,
PNPG 1.4%, other 3.1%;
seats--(31 total) PSG 15, RPR 9, ADG 4, UDF 3;

French Senate--last held 24 September 1989 (next to be held
September 1992);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(1 total) PSG 1;

French National Assembly--last held 24 September 1989 (next to be
held September 1992);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(2 total) PSG 1, RPR 1


_#_Communists: Communist party membership negligible


_#_Member of: FZ, WCL, WFTU


_#_Diplomatic representation: as an overseas department of France
the interests of French Guiana are represented in the US by France


_#_Flag: the flag of France is used


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The economy is tied closely to that of France through
subsidies and imports. Besides the French space center at Kourou, fishing
and forestry are the most important economic activities, with exports
of fish and fish products (mostly shrimp) accounting for more than 60%
of total revenue in 1987. The large reserves of tropical hardwoods, not
fully exploited, support an expanding sawmill industry that provides sawn
logs for export. Cultivation of crops--rice, cassava, bananas, and
sugarcane--are limited to the coastal area, where the population is
largely concentrated. French Guiana is heavily dependent on imports
of food and energy. Unemployment is a serious problem, particularly
among younger workers.


_#_GDP: $186 million, per capita $2,240; real growth rate NA% (1985)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.1% (1987)


_#_Unemployment rate: 15% (1987)


_#_Budget: revenues $735 million; expenditures $735 million, including
capital expenditures of NA (1987)


_#_Exports: $54.0 million (f.o.b., 1987);

commodities--shrimp, timber, rum, rosewood essence;

partners--France 31%, US 22%, Japan 10% (1987)


_#_Imports: $394.0 million (c.i.f., 1987);

commodities--food (grains, processed meat), other consumer goods,
producer goods, petroleum;

partners--France 62%, Trinidad and Tobago 9%, US 4%, FRG 3%
(1987)


_#_External debt: $1.2 billion (1988)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%


_#_Electricity: 92,000 kW capacity; 185 million kWh produced,
1,890 kWh per capita (1990)


_#_Industries: construction, shrimp processing, forestry products,
rum, gold mining


_#_Agriculture: some vegetables for local consumption; rice, corn,
manioc, cocoa, bananas, sugar; livestock--cattle, pigs, poultry


_#_Economic aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral
commitments (1970-87), $1.25 billion


_#_Currency: French franc (plural--francs); 1 French franc (F) = 100
centimes


_#_Exchange rates: French francs (F) per US$1--5.1307 (January 1991),
5.4453 (1990), 6.3801 (1989), 5.9569 (1988), 6.0107 (1987), 6.9261
(1986), 8.9852 (1985)


_#_Fiscal year: calendar year


_*_Communications
_#_Highways: 680 km total; 510 km paved, 170 km improved and
unimproved earth


_#_Inland waterways: 460 km, navigable by small oceangoing vessels and
river and coastal steamers; 3,300 km possibly navigable by native craft


_#_Ports: Cayenne


_#_Civil air: no major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 10 total, 10 usable; 5 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 1 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: fair open wire and radio relay system;
18,100 telephones; stations--5 AM, 7 FM, 9 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT earth station


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: French Forces, Gendarmerie


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49 28,650; 18,903 fit for military
service


_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of France
_%_
_@_French Polynesia
(overseas territory of France)
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 3,941 km2; land area: 3,660 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly less than one-third the size of
Connecticut


_#_Land boundaries: none


_#_Coastline: 2,525 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm


_#_Climate: tropical, but moderate


_#_Terrain: mixture of rugged high islands and low islands with reefs


_#_Natural resources: timber, fish, cobalt


_#_Land use: arable land 1%; permanent crops 19%; meadows and
pastures 5%; forest and woodland 31%; other 44%


_#_Environment: occasional cyclonic storm in January; includes five
archipelagoes


_#_Note: Makatea in French Polynesia is one of the three great
phosphate rock islands in the Pacific Ocean--the others are Banaba
(Ocean Island) in Kiribati and Nauru


_*_People
_#_Population: 195,046 (July 1991), growth rate 2.5% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 31 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 22 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 66 years male, 71 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 3.9 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--French Polynesian(s); adjective--French
Polynesian


_#_Ethnic divisions: Polynesian 78%, Chinese 12%, local French 6%,
metropolitan French 4%


_#_Religion: mainly Christian; Protestant 54%, Roman Catholic 30%,
other 16%


_#_Language: French (official), Tahitian


_#_Literacy: 98% (male 98%, female 98%) age 14 and over but definition
of literacy not available (1977)


_#_Labor force: 76,630 employed (1988)


_#_Organized labor: NA


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Territory of French Polynesia


_#_Type: overseas territory of France since 1946


_#_Capital: Papeete


_#_Administrative divisions: none (overseas territory of France);
there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US
Government, but there are 5 archipelagic divisions named
Archipel des Marquises, Archipel des Tuamotu, Archipel des Tubuai, Iles
du Vent, and Iles Sous-le-Vent; note--Clipperton Island is administered
from French Polynesia and may have become a dependency of French
Polynesia


_#_Independence: none (overseas territory of France)


_#_Constitution: 28 September 1958 (French Constitution)


_#_Legal system: based on French system


_#_National holiday: Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)


_#_Executive branch: French president, high commissioner of the
republic, president of the Council of Ministers, vice president of the
Council of Ministers, Council of Ministers


_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Territorial Assembly


_#_Judicial branch: Court of Appeal


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--President Francois MITTERRAND (since
21 May 1981); High Commissioner of the Republic Jean MONTPEZAT
(since NA November 1987);

Head of Government--President of the Council of Ministers
Gaston FLOSSE (since 10 May 1991);
Vice President of the Council of Ministers NA


_#_Political parties and leaders:
People's Rally (Tahoeraa Huiraatira; Gaullist), Gaston FLOSSE;
Polynesian Union Party (Te Tiarama; centrist), Alexandre LEONTIEFF;
New Fatherland Party (Ai'a Api), Emile VERNAUDON;
Polynesian Liberation Front (Tavini Huiraatira), Oscar TEMARU;
other small parties


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


_#_Elections:

Territorial Assembly--last held 17 March 1991 (next to be held
March 1996); results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(41 total) People's Rally (Gaullist) 18, Polynesian Union Party
14, New Fatherland Party 5, other 4;

French Senate--last held 24 September 1989 (next to be held
September 1992); results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(1 total) party NA;

French National Assembly last held 5 and 12 June 1988 (next to be
held June 1993); results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(2 total) People's Rally (Gaullist) 1, New Fatherland Party 1


_#_Member of: FZ, SPC, WMO


_#_Diplomatic representation: as an overseas territory of France,
French Polynesian interests are represented in the US by France


_#_Flag: the flag of France is used


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Since 1962, when France stationed military personnel in
the region, French Polynesia has changed from a subsistence economy to
one in which a high proportion of the work force is either employed by
the military or supports the tourist industry. Tourism accounts for about
20% of GDP and is a primary source of hard currency earnings.


_#_GDP: $1.2 billion, per capita $6,300; real growth rate NA% (1990
est.)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.3% (1989 est.)


_#_Unemployment rate: 8% (1986 est.)


_#_Budget: revenues $614 million; expenditures $957 million, including
capital expenditures of $NA (1988)


_#_Exports: $75 million (f.o.b., 1988);

commodities--coconut products 79%, mother-of-pearl 14%, vanilla,
shark meat;

partners--France 54%, US 17%, Japan 17%


_#_Imports: $806 million (c.i.f., 1988);

commodities--fuels, foodstuffs, equipment;

partners--France 53%, US 11%, Australia 6%, NZ 5%


_#_External debt: $NA


_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%


_#_Electricity: 72,000 kW capacity; 265 million kWh produced,
1,390 kWh per capita (1990)


_#_Industries: tourism, pearls, agricultural processing, handicrafts


_#_Agriculture: coconut and vanilla plantations; vegetables and fruit;
poultry, beef, dairy products


_#_Economic aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral
commitments (1970-88), $3.95 billion


_#_Currency: Comptoirs Francais du Pacifique franc (plural--francs);
1 CFP franc (CFPF) = 100 centimes


_#_Exchange rates: Comptoirs Francais du Pacifique francs (CFPF) per
US$1--93.28 (January 1991), 99.00 (1990), 115.99 (1989), 108.30 (1988),
109.27 (1987), 125.92 (1986), 163.35 (1985); note--linked at the rate of
18.18 to the French franc


_#_Fiscal year: calendar year


_*_Communications
_#_Highways: 600 km (1982)


_#_Ports: Papeete, Bora-bora


_#_Merchant marine: 3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,128
GRT/6,710 DWT; includes 1 passenger-cargo, 1 cargo, 1 refrigerated cargo;
note--a captive subset of the French register


_#_Civil air: about 6 major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 43 total, 41 usable; 23 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 12 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: 33,200 telephones; 84,000 radio receivers;
26,400 TV sets; stations--5 AM, 2 FM, 6 TV; 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT
earth station


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 50,844; NA fit for military
service

_#_Note: defense is responsibility of France
_%_
_@_French Southern and Antarctic Lands
(overseas territory of France)
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 7,781 km2; land area: 7,781 km2; includes Ile
Amsterdam, Ile Saint-Paul, Iles Kerguelen, and Iles Crozet;
excludes Terre Adelie claim of about 500,000 km2 in Antarctica
that is not recognized by the US


_#_Comparative area: slightly less than 1.5 times the size of Delaware


_#_Land boundaries: none


_#_Coastline: 1,232 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm (Iles Kerguelen only);

Territorial sea: 12 nm


_#_Disputes: Terre Adelie claim in Antarctica is not recognized by
the US


_#_Climate: antarctic


_#_Terrain: volcanic


_#_Natural resources: fish, crayfish


_#_Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
0%; forest and woodland 0%; other 100%


_#_Environment: Ile Amsterdam and Ile Saint-Paul are extinct
volcanoes


_#_Note: located in the southern Indian Ocean about equidistant
between Africa, Antarctica, and Australia


_*_People
_#_Population: summer (January 1991)--180, winter (July 1991)--150,
growth rate 0.0% (1991);
note--mostly researchers


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Territory of the French Southern and Antarctic
Lands


_#_Type: overseas territory of France since 1955; governed by High
Administrator Bernard de GOUTTES (since NA May 1990), who is
assisted by a 7-member Consultative Council and a 12-member Scientific
Council


_#_Administrative divisions: none (overseas territory of France);
there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by
the US Government, but there are 3 districts named Ile Crozet, Iles
Kerguelen, and Iles Saint-Paul et Amsterdam; excludes Terre Adelie
claim in Antarctica that is not recognized by the US


_#_Flag: the flag of France is used


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Economic activity is limited to servicing meteorological
and geophysical research stations and French and other fishing fleets.
The fishing catches landed on Iles Kerguelen by foreign ships are
exported to France and Reunion.


_#_Budget: $33.6 million (1990)


_*_Communications
_#_Ports: none; offshore anchorage only


_#_Merchant marine: 12 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
220,392 GRT/350,131 DWT; includes 2 cargo, 3 refrigerated cargo,
2 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 1 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker,
2 liquefied gas, 2 bulk; note--a captive subset of the French register


_#_Telecommunications: NA


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: French Forces (including Army, Navy, Air Force)


_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of France
_%_
_@_Gabon
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 267,670 km2; land area: 257,670 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than Colorado


_#_Land boundaries: 2,551 km total; Cameroon 298 km, Congo 1,903 km,
Equatorial Guinea 350 km


_#_Coastline: 885 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm


_#_Disputes: maritime boundary dispute with Equatorial Guinea
because of disputed sovereignty over islands in Corisco Bay


_#_Climate: tropical; always hot, humid


_#_Terrain: narrow coastal plain; hilly interior; savanna in east and
south


_#_Natural resources: crude oil, manganese, uranium, gold, timber,
iron ore


_#_Land use: arable land 1%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures
18%; forest and woodland 78%; other 2%


_#_Environment: deforestation


_*_People
_#_Population: 1,079,980 (July 1991), growth rate 1.4% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 28 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 14 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 104 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 51 years male, 56 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 4.0 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--Gabonese (sing., pl.); adjective--Gabonese


_#_Ethnic divisions: about 40 Bantu tribes, including four major
tribal groupings (Fang, Eshira, Bapounou, Bateke); about 100,000
expatriate Africans and Europeans, including 27,000 French


_#_Religion: Christian 55-75%, Muslim less than 1%, remainder animist


_#_Language: French (official), Fang, Myene, Bateke, Bapounou/Eschira,
Bandjabi


_#_Literacy: 61% (male 74%, female 48%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)


_#_Labor force: 120,000 salaried; agriculture 65.0%, industry and
commerce 30.0%, services 2.5%, government 2.5%; 58% of population of
working age (1983)


_#_Organized labor: there are 38,000 members of the national trade
union, the Gabonese Trade Union Confederation (COSYGA)


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Gabonese Republic


_#_Type: republic; multiparty presidential regime (opposition parties
legalized 1990)


_#_Capital: Libreville


_#_Administrative divisions: 9 provinces; Estuaire, Haut-Ogooue,
Moyen-Ogooue, Ngounie, Nyanga, Ogooue-Ivindo, Ogooue-Lolo,
Ogooue-Maritime, Woleu-Ntem


_#_Independence: 17 August 1960 (from France)


_#_Constitution: 21 February 1961, revised 15 April 1975


_#_Legal system: based on French civil law system and customary law;
judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Chamber of the
Supreme Court; compulsory ICJ jurisdiction not accepted


_#_National holiday: Renovation Day (Gabonese Democratic Party
established), 12 March (1968)


_#_Executive branch: president, prime minister, Cabinet


_#_Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Assemblee
Nationale)


_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--President El Hadj Omar BONGO (since 2 December
1967);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Casimir OYE-MBA (since 3
May 1990)


_#_Political parties and leaders: Gabonese Democratic Party (PDG,
former sole party), El Hadj Omar BONGO, president;
National Recovery Movement-Lumberjacks (Morena-Bucherons);
Gabonese Party for Progress (PGP);
National Recovery Movement (Morena-Original);
Association for Socialism in Gabon (APSG);
Gabonese Socialist Union (USG);
Circle for Renewal and Progress (CRP);
Union for Democracy and Development (UDD)


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 21


_#_Elections:

President--last held on 9 November 1986 (next to be held
November 1993);
results--President Omar BONGO was reelected without opposition;

National Assembly--last held on 28 October 1990 (next to be
held by February 1992);
results--percent of vote NA;
seats--(120 total, 111 elected) PDG 62, National Recovery
Movement-Lumberjacks (Morena-Bucherons) 19, PGP 18, National Recovery
Movement (Morena-Original) 7, ASPG 6, USG 4, CRP 1, independent 3


_#_Communists: no organized party; probably some Communist
sympathizers


_#_Member of: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CCC, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-24,
G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO,
INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS (associate), NAM,
OAU, OIC, OPEC, UDEAC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO,
WMO, WTO


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador-designate Alexandre
SAMBAT; Chancery at 2034 20th Street NW, Washington DC 20009; telephone
(202) 797-1000;

US--Ambassador Keith L. WAUCHOPE; Embassy at Boulevard de la Mer,
Libreville (mailing address is B. P. 4000, Libreville); telephone 762003
or 762004, 743492


_#_Flag: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), yellow, and blue


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The economy, dependent on timber and manganese until
the early 1970s, is now dominated by the oil sector. During the period
1981-85 oil accounted for about 46% of GDP, 83% of export earnings, and
65% of government revenues on average. The high oil prices of the early
1980s contributed to a substantial increase in per capita income,
stimulated domestic demand, reinforced migration from rural to urban
areas, and raised the level of real wages to among the highest in
Sub-Saharan Africa. The three-year slide of Gabon's economy, which
began with falling oil prices in 1985, was reversed in 1989 because of a
near doubling of oil prices over their 1988 lows. In 1990 the economy
continued to grow, but debt servicing problems are hindering economic
advancement. The agricultural and industrial sectors are relatively
underdeveloped, except for oil.


_#_GDP: $3.3 billion, per capita $3,090; real growth rate 13% (1990
est.)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3% (1989 est.)


_#_Unemployment rate: NA%


_#_Budget: revenues $1.1 billion; expenditures $1.5 billion,
including capital expenditures of $277 million (1990 est.)


_#_Exports: $1.16 billion (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities--crude oil 70%, manganese 11%, wood 12%, uranium 6%;

partners--France 53%, US 22%, FRG, Japan


_#_Imports: $0.78 billion (c.i.f., 1989);

commodities--foodstuffs, chemical products, petroleum products,
construction materials, manufactures, machinery;

partners--France 48%, US 2.6%, FRG, Japan, UK


_#_External debt: $3.4 billion (December 1990 est.)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate - 10% (1988 est.)


_#_Electricity: 310,000 kW capacity; 980 million kWh produced,
920 kWh per capita (1989)


_#_Industries: petroleum, food and beverages, timber, cement
plywood, textiles, mining--manganese, uranium, gold)


_#_Agriculture: accounts for 10% of GDP (including fishing and
forestry); cash crops--cocoa, coffee, palm oil; livestock not developed;
importer of food; small fishing operations provide a catch of about
20,000 metric tons; okoume (a tropical softwood) is the most important
timber product


_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $66
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $1.9 billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $27 million


_#_Currency: Communaute Financiere Africaine franc
(plural--francs); 1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes


_#_Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF)
per US$1--253.32 (December 1990), 171.26 (1990), 319.01 (1989), 297.85
(1988), 300.54 (1987), 346.30 (1986), 449.26 (1985)


_#_Fiscal year: calendar year


_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 649 km 1.437-meter standard-gauge single track
(Transgabonese Railroad)


_#_Highways: 7,500 km total; 560 km paved, 960 km laterite, 5,980 km
earth


_#_Inland waterways: 1,600 km perennially navigable


_#_Pipelines: crude oil, 270 km; refined products, 14 km


_#_Ports: Owendo, Port-Gentil, Libreville


_#_Merchant marine: 2 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 18,563
GRT/25,330 DWT


_#_Civil air: 11 major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 73 total, 61 usable; 10 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 22 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: adequate system of open-wire, radio relay,
tropospheric scatter links and radiocommunication stations; 13,800
telephones; stations--6 AM, 6 FM, 8 TV; satellite earth stations--2
Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 12 domestic satellite


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Presidential Guard, paramilitary
Gendarmerie, National Police


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 266,472; 133,648 fit for
military service; 9,634 reach military age (20) annually


_#_Defense expenditures: $102 million, 3.2% of GDP (1990 est.)
_%_
_@_The Gambia
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 11,300 km2; land area: 10,000 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly more than twice the size of Delaware


_#_Land boundary: 740 km with Senegal


_#_Coastline: 80 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 18 nm;

Continental shelf: not specific;

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm


_#_Disputes: short section of boundary with Senegal is indefinite


_#_Climate: tropical; hot, rainy season (June to November); cooler,
dry season (November to May)


_#_Terrain: flood plain of the Gambia River flanked by some low hills


_#_Natural resources: fish


_#_Land use: arable land 16%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
9%; forest and woodland 20%; other 55%; includes irrigated 3%


_#_Environment: deforestation


_#_Note: almost an enclave of Senegal; smallest country on the
continent of Africa


_*_People
_#_Population: 874,553 (July 1991), growth rate 3.1% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 48 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 17 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 138 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 47 years male, 51 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 6.5 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--Gambian(s); adjective--Gambian


_#_Ethnic divisions: African 99% (Mandinka 42%, Fula 18%, Wolof 16%,
Jola 10%, Serahuli 9%, other 4%); non-Gambian 1%


_#_Religion: Muslim 90%, Christian 9%, indigenous beliefs 1%


_#_Language: English (official); Mandinka, Wolof, Fula, other
indigenous vernaculars


_#_Literacy: 27% (male 39%, female 16%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)


_#_Labor force: 400,000 (1986 est.); agriculture 75.0%, industry,
commerce, and services 18.9%, government 6.1%; 55% population of
working age (1983)


_#_Organized labor: 25-30% of wage labor force


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of The Gambia


_#_Type: republic


_#_Capital: Banjul


_#_Administrative divisions: 5 divisions and 1 city*; Banjul*, Lower
River, MacCarthy Island, North Bank, Upper River, Western


_#_Independence: 18 February 1965 (from UK); The Gambia and Senegal
signed an agreement on 12 December 1981 (effective 1 February 1982)
that called for the creation of a loose confederation to be known as
Senegambia, but the agreement was dissolved on 30 September 1989


_#_Constitution: 24 April 1970


_#_Legal system: based on a composite of English common law,
Koranic law, and customary law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction,
with reservations


_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 18 February (1965)


_#_Executive branch: president, vice president, Cabinet


_#_Legislative branch: unicameral House of Representatives


_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government--President Alhaji Sir Dawda
Kairaba JAWARA (since 24 April 1970); Vice President Bakary Bunja DARBO
(since 12 May 1982)


_#_Political parties and leaders:
People's Progressive Party (PPP), Dawda K. JAWARA, secretary general;
National Convention Party (NCP), Sheriff DIBBA;
Gambian People's Party (GPP), Assan Musa CAMARA;
United Party (UP);
People's Democratic Organization of Independence and Socialism (PDOIS)


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 21


_#_Elections:

President--last held on 11 March 1987 (next to be held March 1992);
results--Sir Dawda JAWARA (PPP) 61.1%, Sherif Mustapha DIBBA (NCP) 25.2%,
Assan Musa CAMARA (GPP) 13.7%;

House of Representatives--last held on 11 March 1987 (next to
be held by March 1992);
results--PPP 56.6%, NCP 27.6%, GPP 14.7%, PDOIS 1%;
seats--(43 total, 36 elected) PPP 31, NCP 5


_#_Communists: no Communist party


_#_Member of: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD,
ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU,
LORCS, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL,
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Ousman A. SALLAH; Chancery at
Suite 720, 1030 15th Street NW, Washington DC 20005;
telephone (202) 842-1356 or 842-1359;

US--Ambassador Arlene RENDER; Embassy at Pipeline Road
(Kairaba Avenue), Fajara, Banjul (mailing address is P. M. B. No. 19,
Banjul); telephone Serrekunda [220] 92856 or 92858, 91970, 91971


_#_Flag: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), blue with white
edges, and green


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The Gambia has no important mineral or other natural
resources and has a limited agricultural base. It is one of the world's
poorest countries with a per capita income of about $230. About 75%
of the population is engaged in crop production and livestock raising,
which contributes 30% to GDP. Small-scale manufacturing
activity--processing peanuts, fish, and hides--accounts for less than
10% of GDP. Tourism is a growing industry. The Gambia imports
one-third of its food, all fuel, and most manufactured goods. Exports
are concentrated on peanut products (about 75% of total value).


_#_GDP: $195 million, per capita $230; real growth rate 6.0% (FY90
est.)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6.0% (FY91)


_#_Unemployment rate: NA%


_#_Budget: revenues $79 million; expenditures $84 million,
including capital expenditures of $21 million (FY90)


_#_Exports: $116 million (f.o.b., FY90);

commodities--peanuts and peanut products, fish, cotton lint, palm
kernels;

partners--Japan 60%, Europe 29%, Africa 5%, US 1% other 5% (1989)


_#_Imports: $147 million (f.o.b., FY90);

commodities--foodstuffs, manufactures, raw materials, fuel,
machinery and transport equipment;

partners--Europe 57%, Asia 25%, USSR/EE 9%, US 6%, other 3%
(1989)


_#_External debt: $336 million (December 1990 est.)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate 6.7%; accounts for 5.8%
of GDP (FY90)


_#_Electricity: 29,000 kW capacity; 64 million kWh produced, 80 kWh
per capita (1989)


_#_Industries: peanut processing, tourism, beverages, agricultural
machinery assembly, woodworking, metalworking, clothing


_#_Agriculture: accounts for 30% of GDP and employs about 75% of the
population; imports one-third of food requirements; major export crop is
peanuts; the principal crops--millet, sorghum, rice, corn, cassava,
palm kernels; livestock--cattle, sheep, and goats; forestry and fishing
resources not fully exploited


_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $93
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $492 million; Communist countries (1970-88), $39 million


_#_Currency: dalasi (plural--dalasi); 1 dalasi (D) = 100 bututs


_#_Exchange rates: dalasi (D) per US$1--7.610 (January 1991),
7.883 (1990), 7.5846 (1989), 6.7086 (1988), 7.0744 (1987),
6.9380 (1986), 3.8939 (1985)


_#_Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June


_*_Communications
_#_Highways: 3,083 km total; 431 km paved, 501 km gravel/laterite,
and 2,151 km unimproved earth


_#_Inland waterways: 400 km


_#_Ports: Banjul


_#_Civil air: 2 major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 1 with permanent-surface runway 2,440-3,659 m


_#_Telecommunications: adequate network of radio relay and wire;
3,500 telephones; stations--3 AM, 2 FM, 1 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT earth station


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy, paramilitary Gendarmerie, National Police


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 188,393; 95,133 fit for
military service


_#_Defense expenditures: $NA, 0.7% of GDP (1988)
_%_
_@_Gaza Strip
_#_Note: The war between Israel and the Arab states in June 1967
ended with Israel in control of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, the
Sinai, and the Golan Heights. As stated in the 1978 Camp David Accords
and reaffirmed by President Reagan's 1 September 1982 peace initiative,
the final status of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, their relationship
with their neighbors, and a peace treaty between Israel and Jordan are to
be negotiated among the concerned parties. Camp David further specifies
that these negotiations will resolve the respective boundaries. Pending
the completion of this process, it is US policy that the final status of
the West Bank and the Gaza Strip has yet to be determined. In the view of
the US, the term West Bank describes all of the area west of the Jordan
under Jordanian administration before the 1967 Arab-Israeli war. With
respect to negotiations envisaged in the framework agreement, however, it
is US policy that a distinction must be made between Jerusalem and the
rest of the West Bank because of the city's special status and
circumstances. Therefore, a negotiated solution for the final status of
Jerusalem could be different in character from that of the rest of the
West Bank.


_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 380km2; land area: 380 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly more than twice the size of Washington,
DC


_#_Land boundaries: 62 km total; Egypt 11 km, Israel 51 km


_#_Coastline: 40 km


_#_Maritime claims: Israeli occupied with status to be determined


_#_Disputes: Israeli occupied with status to be determined


_#_Climate: temperate, mild winters, dry and warm to hot summers


_#_Terrain: flat to rolling, sand and dune covered coastal plain


_#_Natural resources: negligible


_#_Land use: arable land 13%, permanent crops 32%, meadows and
pastures 0%, forest and woodland 0%, other 55%


_#_Environment: desertification


_#_Note: there are 18 Jewish settlements in the Gaza Strip


_*_People
_#_Population: 642,253 (July 1991), growth rate 3.2% (1991);
in addition, there are 2,500 Jewish settlers in the Gaza Strip (1990
est.)


_#_Birth rate: 43 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: - 5 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 41 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 65 years male, 67 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 6.9 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: NA


_#_Ethnic divisions: Palestinian Arab and other 99.8%, Jewish 0.2%


_#_Religion: Muslim (predominantly Sunni) 99%, Christian 0.7%,
Jewish 0.3%


_#_Language: Arabic, Israeli settlers speak Hebrew, English widely
understood


_#_Literacy: NA% (male NA%, female NA%)


_#_Labor force: (excluding Israeli Jewish settlers) small
industry, commerce and business 32.0%, construction 24.4%, service
and other 25.5%, and agriculture 18.1% (1984)


_#_Organized labor: NA


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: none


_#_Note: The Gaza Strip is currently governed by Israeli military
authorities and Israeli civil administration. It is US policy that the
final status of the Gaza Strip will be determined by negotiations among
the concerned parties. These negotiations will determine how this area is
to be governed.


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Nearly half the labor force of the Gaza Strip is
employed across the border by Israeli industrial, construction, and
agricultural enterprises, with worker transfer funds accounting for 46%
of GNP in 1990. The once dominant agricultural sector now contributes
only 13% to GNP, about the same as that of the construction sector, and
industry accounts for 7%. Gaza depends upon Israel for 90% of its
imports and as a market for 80% of its exports. Unrest in the territory
in 1988-91 (intifadah) has raised unemployment and substantially
lowered the incomes of the population. Furthermore, the Persian Gulf
crisis dealt a severe blow to the Gaza Strip in 1990 and on into 1991.
Worker remittances from the Gulf states have plunged, unemployment has
increased, and export revenues have fallen dramatically. The risk of
malnutrition is a real possibility in 1991.


_#_GNP: $270 million, per capita $430; real growth rate - 25%
(1990 est.)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%


_#_Unemployment rate: NA%


_#_Budget: revenues $36.6 million; expenditures $32.0 million,
including capital expenditures of NA (1986)


_#_Exports: $88 million;

commodities--citrus;

partners--Israel, Egypt (1989 est.)


_#_Imports: $260 million;

commodities--food, consumer goods, construction materials;

partners--Israel, Egypt (1989 est.)


_#_External debt: $NA


_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%


_#_Electricity: power supplied by Israel


_#_Industries: generally small family businesses that produce cement,
textiles, soap, olive-wood carvings, and mother-of-pearl souvenirs; the
Israelis have established some small-scale modern industries in an
industrial center


_#_Agriculture: olives, citrus and other fruits, vegetables, beef,
dairy products


_#_Economic aid: none


_#_Currency: new Israeli shekel (plural--shekels);
1 new Israeli shekel (NIS) = 100 new agorot


_#_Exchange rates: new Israeli shekels (NIS) per US$1--2.0120 (January
1991), 2.0162 (1990), 1.9164 (1989), 1.5989 (1988), 1.5946 (1987), 1.4878
(1986), 1.1788
(1985)


_#_Fiscal year: 1 April-March 31


_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: one line, abandoned and in disrepair, but trackage
remains


_#_Highways: small, poorly developed indigenous road network


_#_Ports: facilities for small boats to service Gaza


_#_Airports: 1 with permanent-surface runway less than 1,220 m


_#_Telecommunications: stations--no AM, no FM, no TV


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: NA


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 136,311; NA fit for military
service


_#_Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP
_%_
_@_Germany
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 356,910 km2; land area: 349,520 km2; comprises the
formerly separate Federal Republic of Germany, the German Democratic
Republic, and Berlin following formal unification on 3 October 1990


_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than Montana


_#_Land boundaries: 3,790 km total; Austria 784 km, Belgium 167 km,
Czechoslovakia 815 km, Denmark 68 km, France 451 km, Luxembourg 138 km,
Netherlands 577 km, Poland 456 km, Switzerland 334 km


_#_Coastline: 2,389 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation;

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: North Sea and Schleswig-Holstein coast of
Baltic Sea--3 nm (extends, at one point, to 16 nm in the
Helgolander Bucht); remainder of Baltic Sea--12 nm


_#_Disputes: the boundaries of Germany were set by the Treaty on the
Final Settlement With Respect to Germany signed 12 September 1990 in
Moscow by the Federal Republic of Germany, the German Democratic
Republic, France, the United Kingdom, the United States, and the Soviet
Union; this treaty entered into force on 15 March 1991; a subsequent
treaty between Germany and Poland, reaffirming the German-Polish
boundary, was signed on 14 November 1990 and is set to be ratified in
1991; the US Government is seeking to settle the property claims of US
nationals against the former GDR


_#_Climate: temperate and marine; cool, cloudy, wet winters and
summers; occasional warm, tropical foehn wind; high relative humidity


_#_Terrain: lowlands in north, uplands in center, Bavarian Alps in
south


_#_Natural resources: iron ore, coal, potash, timber, lignite,
uranium, copper, natural gas, salt, nickel


_#_Land use: arable land 34%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and
pastures 16%; forest and woodland 30%; other 19%; includes irrigated 1%


_#_Environment: air and water pollution; ground water, lakes, and
air quality in eastern Germany are especially bad; significant
deforestation in the eastern mountains caused by air pollution and acid
rain


_#_Note: strategic location on North European Plain and along the
entrance to the Baltic Sea


_*_People
_#_Population: 79,548,498 (July 1991), growth rate 0.4% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 11 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 11 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: 4 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 7 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 73 years male, 79 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 1.4 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--German(s); adjective--German


_#_Ethnic divisions: primarily German; small Danish and Slavic
minorities


_#_Religion: Protestant 45%, Roman Catholic 37%, unaffiliated or
other 18%


_#_Language: German


_#_Literacy: 99% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1970 est.)


_#_Labor force: 36,750,000; industry 41%, agriculture 6%, other 53%
(1987)


_#_Organized labor: 47% of labor force (1986 est.)


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Federal Republic of Germany


_#_Type: federal republic


_#_Capital: Berlin; note--the shift from Bonn to Berlin will take
place over a period of years with Bonn retaining many administrative
functions


_#_Administrative divisions: 16 states (lander, singular--land);
Baden-Wurttemberg, Bayern, Berlin, Brandenburg, Bremen, Hamburg,
Hessen, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Niedersachsen, Nordrhein-Westfalen,
Rheinland-Pfalz, Saarland, Sachsen, Sachsen-Anhalt, Schleswig-Holstein,
Thuringen


_#_Independence: 18 January 1871 (German Empire unification); divided
into four zones of occupation (UK, US, USSR, and later, France) in 1945
following World War II; Federal Republic of Germany (FRG or West Germany)
proclaimed 23 May 1949 and included the former UK, US, and French zones;
German Democratic Republic (GDR or East Germany) proclaimed 7 October
1949 and included the former USSR zone; unification of West Germany and
East Germany took place 3 October 1990; all four power rights formally
relinquished 15 March 1991


_#_Constitution: 23 May 1949, provisional constitution known as
Basic Law


_#_Legal system:
civil law system with indigenous concepts; judicial review of
legislative acts in the Federal Constitutional Court; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction


_#_National holiday: 3 October 1990, German Unity Day


_#_Executive branch: president, chancellor, Cabinet


_#_Legislative branch: bicameral parliament (no official name
for the two chambers as a whole) consists of an upper chamber or
Federal Council (Bundesrat) and a lower chamber or Federal Diet
(Bundestag)


_#_Judicial branch:
Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht)


_#_Leaders:
Chief of State--President Dr. Richard von WEIZSACKER
(since 1 July 1984);

Head of Government--Chancellor Dr. Helmut KOHL
(since 4 October 1982)


_#_Political parties and leaders:
Christian Democratic Union (CDU), Helmut KOHL, chairman;
Christian Social Union (CSU), Theo WAIGEL;
Free Democratic Party (FDP), Otto Count LAMBSDORFF, chairman;
Social Democratic Party (SPD), Bjoern ENGHOLM, chairman;
Green Party--Volmer LUDGER, Christine WEISKE, co-chairmen
(after the 2 December 1990 election the East and West German
Green Parties united);
Alliance 90 includes three parties--New Forum, Jens REICH, Sebastian
PFLUGBEIL, spokespersons; Democracy Now, Konrad WEISS, spokesperson;
and Initiative, Peace, and Human Rights Party, Gerd POPPE;
Party of Democratic Socialism (PDS, formerly the East German
Communist Party), Gregor GYSI, chairman;
Republikaner, Franz SCHONHUBER;
National Democratic Party (NPD), Martin MUSSGNUG;
Communist Party (DKP), Herbert MIES


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


_#_Elections:
Federal Diet--last held 2 December 1990 (next to be held
by December 1994); results--CDU 36.7%, SPD 33.5%, FDP 11.0%, CSU 7.1%,
Green Party (West Germany) 3.9%, PDS 2.4%, Republikaner 2.1%,
Alliance 90/Green Party (East Germany) 1.2%, other 2.1%;
seats--(662 total, 656 statutory with special rules to allow for
slight expansion) CDU 268, SPD 239, FDP 79, CSU 51, PDS 17, Alliance
90/Green Party (East Germany) 8; note--special rules for this
election allowed former East German parties to win seats if they
received at least 5% of vote in eastern Germany


_#_Communists:
West--about 40,000 members and supporters;
East--284,000 party members (December 1990)


_#_Other political or pressure groups: expellee, refugee, and veterans
groups


_#_Member of: AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, BDEAC, BIS, CCC, CE, CERN,
COCOM, CSCE, EBRD, EC, ECE, EIB, ESA, FAO, G-5, G-7, G-10, GATT, IADB,
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO,
INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NATO, NEA,
OAS (observer), OECD, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNHCR, UPU,
WEU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO


_#_Diplomatic representation:

Ambassador Jeurgen RUHFUS; Chancery at 4645 Reservoir Road NW,
Washington DC 20007; telephone (202) 298-4000; there are German
Consulates General in Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Detroit, Houston,
Los Angeles, San Francisco, Seattle, and New York, and Consulates
in Miami and New Orleans;

US--Ambassador-designate Robert M. KIMMITT; Embassy at Deichmanns
Avenue, 5300 Bonn 2 (mailing address is APO New York 09080); telephone
[49] (228) 3391; there is a US Branch Office in Berlin and US Consulates
General in Frankfurt, Hamburg, Leipzig, Munich, and Stuttgart


_#_Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and yellow


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The newly unified German economy presents a starkly
contrasting picture. Western Germany has an advanced market economy
and is a leading exporter. It experienced faster-than-projected real
growth largely because of demand in eastern Germany for western German
goods. Western Germany has a highly urbanized and skilled population
which enjoys excellent living standards, abundant leisure time, and
comprehensive social welfare benefits. Western Germany is relatively
poor in natural resources, coal being the most important mineral.
Western Germany's world-class companies manufacture technologically
advanced goods. The region's economy is mature: manufacturing and service
industries account for the dominant share of economic activity, and raw
materials and semimanufactured products constitute a large proportion of
imports. In 1989 manufacturing accounted for 31% of GDP, with other
sectors contributing lesser amounts. In recent years, gross fixed
investment has accounted for about 21% of GDP. In 1990 GDP in the western
region was an estimated $16,300 per capita.

    In contrast, eastern Germany's obsolete command economy, once
dominated by smokestack heavy industries, has been undergoing a
wrenching change to a market economy. Industrial production in early
1991 is down 50% from the same period last year, due largely to the
slump in domestic demand for eastern German-made goods and the ongoing
economic restructuring. The FRG's legal, social welfare, and economic
systems have been extended to the east, but economic
restructuring--privatizing industry, establishing clear property rights,
clarifying responsibility for environmental clean-up, and removing
Communist-era holdovers from management--is proceeding slowly
so far, deterring outside investors. The region is one of the world's
largest producers of low-grade lignite coal, but has few other resources.
The quality of statistics from eastern Germany remains poor; Bonn is
still trying to bring statistics for the region in line with West German
practices.

    The most challenging economic problem of a united Germany is the
reconstruction of eastern Germany's economy--specifically, finding the
right mix of fiscal, regulatory, monetary, and tax policies that
will spur investment in the east without derailing western Germany's
healthy economy or damaging relations with Western partners. The
biggest danger is that soaring unemployment in eastern Germany, which
could climb to the 30 to 40% range, could touch off labor disputes
or renewed mass relocation to western Germany and erode investor
confidence in eastern Germany. Overall economic activity grew an
estimated 4.6% in western Germany in 1990, while dropping roughly 15% in
eastern Germany. Per capita GDP in the eastern region was approximately
$8,700 in 1990.


_#_GDP: $1,157.2 billion, per capita $14,600; real growth rate 1.7%
(1990)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices):
West--3.0% (1989);
East--0.8% (1989)


_#_Unemployment rate:
West--7.1% (1990);
East--1% (1989); 3% (first half, 1990)


_#_Budget:
West--revenues $539 billion; expenditures $563 billion, including
capital expenditures of $11.5 billion (1988);
East--revenues $147.0 billion; expenditures $153.4 billion, including
capital expenditures of $NA (1988)


_#_Exports:

West--$324.3 billion (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities--manufactures 86.6% (including machines and machine
tools, chemicals, motor vehicles, iron and steel products),
agricultural products 4.9%, raw materials 2.3%, fuels 1.3%;

partners--EC 52.7% (France 12%, Netherlands 9%, Italy 9%, UK 9%,
Belgium-Luxembourg 7%), other West Europe 18%, US 10%, Eastern
Europe 4%, OPEC 3% (1987);

East--$32.4 billion (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities--machinery and transport equipment 47%, fuels and
metals 16%, consumer goods 16%, chemical products and building
materials 13%, semimanufactured goods and processed foodstuffs 8%;

partners--USSR, Czechoslovakia, Poland, FRG, Hungary, Bulgaria,
Switzerland, Romania, EC, US (1989)


_#_Imports:

West--$247.7 billion (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities--manufactures 68.5%, agricultural products 12.0%,
fuels 9.7%, raw materials 7.1%;

partners--EC 52.7% (France 12%, Netherlands 11%, Italy 10%, UK 7%,
Belgium-Luxembourg 7%), other West Europe 15%, US 6%, Japan 6%, Eastern
Europe 5%, OPEC 3% (1987);

East--$30.0 billion (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities--fuels and metals 40%, machinery and transport
equipment 29%, chemical products and building materials 9%;

partners--USSR and Eastern Europe 65%, FRG 12.7%, EC 6.0%,
US 0.3% (1989)


_#_External debt:
West--$500 million (June 1988);
East--$20.6 billion (1989)


_#_Industrial production: growth rates, West--3.3% (1988);
East--2.7% (1989 est.)


_#_Electricity: 133,000,000 kW capacity; 580,000 million kWh produced,
7,390 kWh per capita (1990)


_#_Industries:
West--among world's largest producers of iron, steel, coal, cement,
chemicals, machinery, vehicles, machine tools, electronics;
food and beverages;
East--metal fabrication, chemicals, brown coal, shipbuilding, machine
building, food and beverages, textiles, petroleum


_#_Agriculture:
West--accounts for about 2% of GDP (including fishing and forestry);
diversified crop and livestock farming; principal crops and livestock
include potatoes, wheat, barley, sugar beets, fruit, cabbage, cattle,
pigs, poultry; net importer of food; fish catch of 202,000 metric tons
in 1987;
East--accounts for about 10% of GNP (including fishing and forestry);
principal crops--wheat, rye, barley, potatoes, sugar beets, fruit;
livestock products include pork, beef, chicken, milk, hides and skins;
net importer of food; fish catch of 193,600 metric tons in 1987


_#_Economic aid:
West--donor--ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $75.5 billion;
East--donor--$4.0 billion extended bilaterally to non-Communist less
developed countries (1956-88)


_#_Currency: deutsche mark (plural--marks);
1 deutsche mark (DM) = 100 pfennige


_#_Exchange rates: deutsche marks (DM) per US$1--1.5100 (January
1991), 1.6157 (1990), 1.8800 (1989), 1.7562 (1988), 1.7974 (1987), 2.1715
(1986), 2.9440 (1985)


_#_Fiscal year: calendar year


_*_Communications
_#_Railroads:
West--31,443 km total; 27,421 km government owned, 1.435-meter
standard gauge (12,491 km double track, 11,501 km electrified);
4,022 km nongovernment owned, including 3,598 km 1.435-meter standard
gauge (214 km electrified) and 424 km 1.000-meter gauge (186 km
electrified);
East--14,025 km total; 13,750 km 1.435-meter standard gauge,
275 km 1.000-meter or other narrow gauge; 3,830 (est.) km 1.435-meter
double-track standard gauge; 3,475 km overhead electrified (1988)


_#_Highways:
West--466,305 km total; 169,568 km primary, includes 6,435 km
autobahn, 32,460 km national highways (Bundesstrassen), 65,425 km state
highways (Landesstrassen), 65,248 km county roads (Kreisstrassen);
296,737 km of secondary communal roads (Gemeindestrassen);
East--124,604 km total; 47,203 km concrete, asphalt, stone block,
of which 1,855 km are autobahn and limited access roads, 11,326 are trunk
roads, and 34,022 are regional roads; 77,401 municipal roads (1988)


_#_Inland waterways:
West--5,222 km, of which almost 70% are usable by craft of 1,000-metric
ton capacity or larger; major rivers include the Rhine and Elbe; Kiel
Canal is an important connection between the Baltic Sea and North Sea;
East--2,319 km (1988)


_#_Pipelines: crude oil 3,644 km, refined products 3,946 km,
natural gas 97,564 km (1988)


_#_Ports: maritime--Bremerhaven, Brunsbuttel, Cuxhaven, Emden,
Bremen, Hamburg, Kiel, Lubeck, Wilhelmshaven, Rostock, Wismar,
Stralsund, Sassnitz; inland--31 major


_#_Merchant marine: 598 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,029,615
GRT/6,391,875 DWT; includes 3 passenger, 5 short-sea passenger,
315 cargo, 11 refrigerated cargo, 126 container, 1 multifunction
large-load carrier, 33 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 5 railcar carrier,
6 barge carrier, 11 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker,
27 chemical tanker, 21 liquefied gas tanker, 5 combination ore/oil,
14 combination bulk, 15 bulk; note--the German register includes
ships of the former East Germany and West Germany; during 1991 the
fleet is expected to undergo major restructuring as now-surplus
ships are sold off


_#_Civil air: 239 major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 655 total, 647 usable; 312 with permanent-surface
runways; 4 with runways over 3,659 m; 86 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
95 with runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications:
West--highly developed, modern telecommunication service to all parts of
the country; fully adequate in all respects; 41,740,000 telephones;
stations--70 AM, 205 (370 relays) FM, 300 (6,422 relays) TV; 6 submarine
coaxial cables; earth stations operating in INTELSAT (12 Atlantic Ocean,
2 Indian Ocean), EUTELSAT, and domestic systems;

East--3,970,000 telephones; stations--23 AM, 17 FM, 21 TV (15 Soviet TV
relays); 6,181,860 TVs; 6,700,000 radios; at least 1 earth station


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Federal Border Police


_#_Manpower availability:--males 15-49, 20,219,289; 17,557,807 fit for
military service; 415,108 reach military age (18) annually


_#_Defense expenditures: $47.1 billion, 4.7% of GDP (1990)
_%_
_@_Ghana
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 238,540 km2; land area: 230,020 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than Oregon


_#_Land boundaries: 2,093 km total; Burkina 548 km, Ivory Coast
668 km, Togo 877 km


_#_Coastline: 539 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 nm;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm


_#_Climate: tropical; warm and comparatively dry along southeast
coast; hot and humid in southwest; hot and dry in north


_#_Terrain: mostly low plains with dissected plateau in south-central
area


_#_Natural resources: gold, timber, industrial diamonds, bauxite,
manganese, fish, rubber


_#_Land use: arable land 5%; permanent crops 7%; meadows and pastures
15%; forest and woodland 37%; other 36%; includes irrigated NEGL%


_#_Environment: recent drought in north severely affecting marginal
agricultural activities; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; dry,
northeasterly harmattan wind (January to March)


_#_Note: Lake Volta is world's largest artificial lake


_*_People
_#_Population: 15,616,934 (July 1991), growth rate 3.2% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 46 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 13 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: - 1 migrant/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 86 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 53 years male, 56 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 6.3 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--Ghanaian(s); adjective--Ghanaian


_#_Ethnic divisions: black African 99.8% (major tribes--Akan 44%,
Moshi-Dagomba 16%, Ewe 13%, Ga 8%), European and other 0.2%


_#_Religion: indigenous beliefs 38%, Muslim 30%, Christian 24%,
other 8%


_#_Language: English (official); African languages include Akan,
Moshi-Dagomba, Ewe, and Ga


_#_Literacy: 60% (male 70%, female 51%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)


_#_Labor force: 3,700,000; agriculture and fishing 54.7%, industry
18.7%, sales and clerical 15.2%, services, transportation, and
communications 7.7%, professional 3.7%; 48% of population of working age
(1983)


_#_Organized labor: 467,000 (about 13% of labor force)


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of Ghana


_#_Type: military


_#_Capital: Accra


_#_Administrative divisions: 10 regions; Ashanti, Brong-Ahafo,
Central, Eastern, Greater Accra, Northern, Upper East, Upper West, Volta,
Western


_#_Independence: 6 March 1957 (from UK, formerly Gold Coast)


_#_Constitution: 24 September 1979; suspended 31 December 1981


_#_Legal system: based on English common law and customary law;
has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction


_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 6 March (1957)


_#_Executive branch: chairman of the Provisional National Defense
Council (PNDC), PNDC, Cabinet


_#_Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly dissolved after 31
December 1981 coup, and legislative powers were assumed by the
Provisional National Defense Council


_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government--Chairman of the Provisional
National Defense Council Flt. Lt. (Ret.) Jerry John RAWLINGS (since
31 December 1981)


_#_Political parties and leaders: none; political parties outlawed
after 31 December 1981 coup


_#_Suffrage: none


_#_Elections: none


_#_Communists: a small number of Communists and sympathizers


_#_Member of: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-24, G-77, GATT,
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL,
IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIIMOG, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Dr. Joseph ABBEY; Chancery at
2460 16th Street NW, Washington DC 20009; telephone (202) 462-0761;
there is a Ghanaian Consulate General in New York;

US--Ambassador Raymond C. EWING; Embassy at Ring Road East, East of
Danquah Circle, Accra (mailing address is P. O. Box 194, Accra);
telephone [233] (21) 775347 through 775349


_#_Flag: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), yellow, and green
with a large black five-pointed star centered in the gold band; uses the
popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia; similar to the flag of Bolivia
which has a coat of arms centered in the yellow band


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Supported by substantial international assistance, Ghana
has been implementing a steady economic rebuilding program since 1983,
including moves toward privatization and relaxation of government
controls. Heavily dependent on cocoa, gold, and timber exports,
economic growth is threatened by a poor cocoa harvest and higher oil
prices in 1991. Rising inflation--unofficially estimated at 50%--could
undermine Ghana's relationships with multilateral lenders. Civil service
wage increases and the cost of peacekeeping forces sent to Liberia are
boosting government expenditures and undercutting structural adjustment
reforms. Ghana opened a stock exchange in 1990.


_#_GNP: $5.8 billion, per capita $380; real growth rate 2.7% (1990
est.)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 50% (1990 est.)


_#_Unemployment rate: 1.9% (1989)


_#_Budget: revenues $821 million; expenditures $782 million, including
capital expenditures of $151 million (1990 est.)


_#_Exports: $826 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities--cocoa 45%, gold, timber, tuna, bauxite, and aluminum;

partners--US 23%, UK, other EC


_#_Imports: $1.2 billion (c.i.f., 1990 est.);

commodities--petroleum 16%, consumer goods, foods, intermediate
goods, capital equipment;

partners--US 10%, UK, FRG, France, Japan, South Korea, GDR


_#_External debt: $3.1 billion (1990 est.)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate 7.4% in manufacturing (1989);
accounts for almost 1.5% of GDP


_#_Electricity: 1,172,000 kW capacity; 4,110 million kWh produced,
280 kWh per capita (1989)


_#_Industries: mining, lumbering, light manufacturing, fishing,
aluminum, food processing


_#_Agriculture: accounts for more than 50% of GDP (including fishing
and forestry); the major cash crop is cocoa; other principal crops--rice,
coffee, cassava, peanuts, corn, shea nuts, timber; normally
self-sufficient in food


_#_Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis for the international
drug trade


_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $455
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $2.3 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $78 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $106 million


_#_Currency: cedi (plural--cedis); 1 cedi (C) = 100 pesewas


_#_Exchange rates: cedis (C) per US$1--342.91 (November 1990), 270.00
(1989), 202.35 (1988), 153.73 (1987), 89.20 (1986), 54.37 (1985)


_#_Fiscal year: calendar year


_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 953 km, all 1.067-meter gauge; 32 km double track;
railroads undergoing major renovation


_#_Highways: 28,300 km total; 6,000 km concrete or bituminous surface,
22,300 km gravel, laterite, and improved earth surfaces


_#_Inland waterways: Volta, Ankobra, and Tano Rivers provide 155 km of
perennial navigation for launches and lighters; Lake Volta provides
1,125 km of arterial and feeder waterways


_#_Pipelines: none


_#_Ports: Tema, Takoradi


_#_Merchant marine: 4 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
52,016 GRT/66,627 DWT


_#_Civil air: 6 major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 10 total, 9 usable; 5 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 7 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: poor to fair system of open-wire and cable,
radio relay links; 38,000 telephones; stations--6 AM, no FM, 9 TV;
1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Police Force, paramilitary Palace
Guard, National Civil Defense Organization


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 3,538,503; 1,983,493 fit for
military service; 169,698 reach military age (18) annually


_#_Defense expenditures: $23 million, 0.5% of GNP (1988)
_%_
_@_Gibraltar
(dependent territory of the UK)
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 6.5 km2; land area: 6.5 km2


_#_Comparative area: about 11 times the size of The Mall in
Washington, DC


_#_Land boundaries: 1.2 km with Spain


_#_Coastline: 12 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: 3 nm;

Territorial sea: 3 nm


_#_Disputes: source of occasional friction between Spain and the UK


_#_Climate: Mediterranean with mild winters and warm summers


_#_Terrain: a narrow coastal lowland borders The Rock


_#_Natural resources: negligible


_#_Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
0%; forest and woodland 0%; other 100%


_#_Environment: natural freshwater sources are meager so large
water catchments (concrete or natural rock) collect rain water


_#_Note: strategic location on Strait of Gibraltar that links
the North Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea


_*_People
_#_Population: 29,613 (July 1991), growth rate 0.1% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 18 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 8 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: - 9 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 6 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 72 years male, 78 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 2.4 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--Gibraltarian; adjective--Gibraltar


_#_Ethnic divisions: mostly Italian, English, Maltese, Portuguese, and
Spanish descent


_#_Religion: Roman Catholic 74%, Protestant 11% (Church of England 8%,
other 3%), Moslem 8%, Jewish 2%, none or other 5% (1981)


_#_Language: English and Spanish are primary languages; Italian,
Portuguese, and Russian also spoken; English used in the schools and for
official purposes


_#_Literacy: NA% (male NA%, female NA%)


_#_Labor force: about 14,800 (including non-Gibraltar laborers); UK
military establishments and civil government employ nearly 50% of the
labor force


_#_Organized labor: over 6,000


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: none


_#_Type: dependent territory of the UK


_#_Capital: Gibraltar


_#_Administrative divisions: none (dependent territory of the UK)


_#_Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)


_#_Constitution: 30 May 1969


_#_Legal system: English law


_#_National holiday: Commonwealth Day (second Monday of March),
12 March 1990


_#_Executive branch: British monarch, governor, chief minister,
Gibraltar Council, Council of Ministers (cabinet)


_#_Legislative branch: unicameral House of Assembly


_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court, Court of Appeal


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor and Commander in Chief Adm. Sir Derek
REFFELL (since NA 1989);

Head of Government--Chief Minister Joe BOSSANO (since 25 March
1988)


_#_Political parties and leaders:
Socialist Labor Party (SL), Joe BOSSANO;
Gibraltar Labor Party/Association for the Advancement of Civil
Rights (GCL/AACR), Adolfo CANEPA;
Independent Democratic Party, Joe PITALUGA


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18, plus other UK subjects resident six
months or more


_#_Elections:

House of Assembly: last held on 24 March 1988 (next to be held
March 1992);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(18 total, 15 elected) SL 8, GCL/AACR 7


_#_Communists: negligible


_#_Other political or pressure groups: Housewives Association, Chamber
of Commerce, Gibraltar Representatives Organization


_#_Diplomatic representation: none (dependent territory of the UK)


_#_Flag: two horizontal bands of white (top, double-width) and red
with a three-towered red castle in the center of the white band; hanging
from the castle gate is a gold key centered in the red band


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The economy depends heavily on British defense
expenditures, revenue from tourists, fees for services to shipping, and
revenues from banking and finance activities. Because more than 70% of
the economy is in the public sector, changes in government spending have
a major impact on the level of employment. Construction workers are
particularly affected when government expenditures are cut.


_#_GNP: $182 million, per capita $4,600; real growth rate 5% (FY87)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.6% (1988)


_#_Unemployment rate: NA%


_#_Budget: revenues $136 million; expenditures $139 million, including
capital expenditures of NA (FY88)


_#_Exports: $82 million (1988);

commodities--(principally reexports) petroleum 51%, manufactured
goods 41%, other 8%;

partners--UK, Morocco, Portugal, Netherlands, Spain, US, FRG


_#_Imports: $258 million (1988);

commodities--fuels, manufactured goods, and foodstuffs;

partners--UK, Spain, Japan, Netherlands


_#_External debt: $318 million (1987)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%


_#_Electricity: 47,000 kW capacity; 200 million kWh produced,
6,670 kWh per capita (1990)


_#_Industries: tourism, banking and finance, construction, commerce;
support to large UK naval and air bases; transit trade and supply depot
in the port; light manufacturing of tobacco, roasted coffee, ice, mineral
waters, candy, beer, and canned fish


_#_Agriculture: NA


_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $0.8
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $187 million


_#_Currency: Gibraltar pound (plural--pounds);
1 Gibraltar pound (5G) = 100 pence


_#_Exchange rates: Gibraltar pounds (5G) per US$1--0.5171 (January
1991), 0.5603 (1990), 0.6099 (1989), 0.5614 (1988), 0.6102 (1987), 0.6817
(1986), 0.7714 (1985); note--the Gibraltar pound is at par with the
British pound


_#_Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June


_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 1.000-meter-gauge system in dockyard area only


_#_Highways: 50 km, mostly good bitumen and concrete


_#_Ports: Gibraltar


_#_Merchant marine: 30 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,399,594
GRT/2,667,656 DWT; includes 6 cargo, 2 refrigerated cargo, 1 container,
10 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 1 chemical tanker,
1 combination oil/ore, 9 bulk; note--a flag of convenience registry


_#_Civil air: 1 major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 1 with permanent-surface runway 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: adequate international radiocommunication
facilities; automatic telephone system with 14,000 telephones;
stations--1 AM, 6 FM, 4 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: British Army, Royal Navy, Royal Air Force


_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of the UK
_%_
_@_Glorioso Islands
(French possession)
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 5 km2; land area: 5 km2; includes Ile Glorieuse,
Ile du Lys, Verte Rocks, Wreck Rock, and South Rock


_#_Comparative area: about 8.5 times the size of The Mall in
Washington, DC


_#_Land boundaries: none


_#_Coastline: 35.2 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm


_#_Disputes: claimed by Madagascar


_#_Climate: tropical


_#_Terrain: undetermined


_#_Natural resources: guano, coconuts


_#_Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
0%; forest and woodland 0%; other--lush vegetation and coconut palms 100%


_#_Environment: subject to periodic cyclones


_#_Note: located in the Indian Ocean just north of the Mozambique
Channel between Africa and Madagascar


_*_People
_#_Population: uninhabited


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: none


_#_Type: French possession administered by Commissioner of the
Republic Daniel CONSTANTIN, resident in Reunion


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: no economic activity


_*_Communications
_#_Airports: 1 with runway 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Ports: none; offshore anchorage only


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of France
_%_
_@_Greece
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 131,940 km2; land area: 130,800 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than Alabama


_#_Land boundaries: 1,228 km total; Albania 282 km, Bulgaria 494 km,
Turkey 206 km, Yugoslavia 246 km


_#_Coastline: 13,676 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation;

Territorial sea: 6 nm


_#_Disputes: complex maritime and air (but not territorial) disputes
with Turkey in Aegean Sea; Cyprus question; Macedonia question with
Bulgaria and Yugoslavia; Northern Epirus question with Albania


_#_Climate: temperate; mild, wet winters; hot, dry summers


_#_Terrain: mostly mountains with ranges extending into sea as
peninsulas or chains of islands


_#_Natural resources: bauxite, lignite, magnesite, crude oil, marble


_#_Land use: arable land 23%; permanent crops 8%; meadows and pastures
40%; forest and woodland 20%; other 9%; includes irrigated 7%


_#_Environment: subject to severe earthquakes; air pollution;
archipelago of 2,000 islands


_#_Note: strategic location dominating the Aegean Sea and southern
approach to Turkish Straits


_*_People
_#_Population: 10,042,956 (July 1991), growth rate 0.2% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 11 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 9 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 10 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 75 years male, 80 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 1.5 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--Greek(s); adjective--Greek


_#_Ethnic divisions: Greek 98%, other 2%; note--the Greek Government
states there are no ethnic divisions in Greece


_#_Religion: Greek Orthodox 98%, Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%


_#_Language: Greek (official); English and French widely understood


_#_Literacy: 93% (male 98%, female 89%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)


_#_Labor force: 3,860,000; services 43%, agriculture 27%,
manufacturing and mining 20%, construction 7% (1985)


_#_Organized labor: 10-15% of total labor force, 20-25% of urban
labor force


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Hellenic Republic


_#_Type: presidential parliamentary government; monarchy rejected by
referendum 8 December 1974


_#_Capital: Athens


_#_Administrative divisions: 51 departments (nomoi,
singular--nomos); Aitolia kai Akarnania, Akhaia, Argolis,
Arkadhia, Arta, Attiki, Dhodhekanisos, Drama, Evritania,
Evros, Evvoia, Florina, Fokis, Fthiotis, Grevena, Ilia,
Imathia, Ioannina, Iraklion, Kardhitsa, Kastoria, Kavala,
Kefallinia, Kerkira, Khalkidhiki, Khania, Khios, Kikladhes,
Kilkis, Korinthia, Kozani, Lakonia, Larisa, Lasithi,
Lesvos, Levkas, Magnisia, Messinia, Pella, Pieria, Preveza,
Rethimni, Rodhopi, Samos, Serrai, Thesprotia, Thessaloniki,
Trikala, Voiotia, Xanthi, Zakinthos


_#_Independence: 1827 (from the Ottoman Empire)


_#_Constitution: 11 June 1975


_#_Legal system: NA


_#_National holiday: Independence Day (proclamation of the war of
independence), 25 March (1821)


_#_Executive branch: president, prime minister, Cabinet


_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Greek Chamber of Deputies
(Vouli ton Ellinon)


_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--President Constantinos KARAMANLIS (since 5 May
1990);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Constantinos MITSOTAKIS
(since 11 April 1990)


_#_Political parties and leaders:
New Democracy (ND; conservative), Constantinos MITSOTAKIS;
Panhellenic Socialist Movement (PASOK), Andreas PAPANDREOU;
Democratic Renewal (DIANA), Constantine STEFANOPOULOS;
Communist Party (KKE), Aleka PAPARIGA;
Greek Left Party (EAR), Leonidas KYRKOS;
Ecologist-Alternative List, leader NA;
note--KKE and EAR have joined in the Left Alliance, Maria DAMANAKI,
president


_#_Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 18


_#_Elections:

President--last held 4 May 1990 (next to be held May 1995);
results--Constantinos KARAMANLIS was elected by Parliament;


Parliament--last held on 8 April 1990 (next to be held
April 1994);
results--ND 46.89%, PASOK 38.62%, Left Alliance 10.27%, PASOK/Left
Alliance 1.02%, Ecologist-Alternative List 0.77%, DIANA 0.67%,
Muslim independents 0.5%;
seats--(300 total) ND 150, PASOK 123, Left Alliance 19,
PASOK-Left Alliance 4, Muslim independents 2, DIANA 1,
Ecologist-Alternative List 1;
note--one DIANA deputy joined ND in July, giving ND 151 seats; in
November a special electoral court ruled in favor of ND on a
contested seat, giving ND 152 seats and taking one from PASOK (now 122)


_#_Communists: an estimated 60,000 members and sympathizers


_#_Member of: BIS, CCC, CE, CERN, COCOM, CSCE, EBRD, EC, ECE, EIB,
FAO, G-6, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO,
IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS,
NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, OAS (observer), OECD, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Christos ZACHARAKIS; Chancery
at 2221 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202)
667-3168; there are Greek Consulates General in Atlanta, Boston, Chicago,
Los Angeles, New York, and San Francisco, and a Consulate in New Orleans;

US--Ambassador Michael G. SOTIRHOS; Embassy at 91 Vasilissis
Sophias Boulevard, 10160 Athens (mailing address is APO New York
09255-0006); telephone [30] (1) 721-2951 or 721-8401; there is a US
Consulate General in Thessaloniki


_#_Flag: nine equal horizontal stripes of blue (top and bottom)
alternating with white; there is a blue square in the upper hoist-side
corner bearing a white cross; the cross symbolizes Christianity, the
established religion of the country


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Greece has a mixed capitalistic economy with the basic
entrepreneurial system overlaid in 1981-89 by a socialist government
that enlarged the public sector from 55% of GDP in 1981 to about 70%
when Prime Minister Mitsotakis took office. Mitsotakis inherited several
severe economic problems from the preceding socialist and caretaker
governments, which neglected the runaway budget deficit, a ballooning
current account deficit, and accelerating inflation. With only a
two-seat majority in the Chamber of Deputies, Mitsotakis has concentrated
on cutting the public-sector payroll, cautiously expanding the tax base,
and adopting guidelines for privatizing Greece's loss-ridden state-owned
enterprises. Once the political situation is sorted out, Greece will have
to face the challenges posed by the steadily increasing integration of
the European Community, including the progressive lowering of trade and
investment barriers. Tourism continues as a major industry, providing a
vital offset to the sizable commodity trade deficit.


_#_GDP: $76.7 billion, per capita $7,650; real growth rate 0.9%
(1990)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 19.0% (1990)


_#_Unemployment rate: 9.0% (1989)


_#_Budget: revenues $20.9 billion; expenditures $34.1 billion,
including capital expenditures of $NA (1990)


_#_Exports: $9.0 billion (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities--manufactured goods, food and live animals, fuels and
lubricants, raw materials;

partners--FRG 20%, Italy 17%, France 8%, UK 7%, US 6%


_#_Imports: $20.2 billion (c.i.f., 1990);

commodities--machinery and transport equipment, light manufactures,
fuels and lubricants, foodstuffs, chemicals;

partners--FRG 21%, Italy 16%, France 8%, Netherlands 7%, UK 6%


_#_External debt: $18.7 billion (1989)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate - 1.0% (1990 est.); accounts
for 22% of GDP


_#_Electricity: 10,500,000 kW capacity; 36,420 million kWh produced,
3,630 kWh per capita (1989)


_#_Industries: food and tobacco processing, textiles, chemicals, metal
products, tourism, mining, petroleum


_#_Agriculture: including fishing and forestry, accounts for 13% of
GNP and 27% of the labor force; principal products--wheat, corn, barley,
sugar beets, olives, tomatoes, wine, tobacco, potatoes, beef, mutton,
pork, dairy products; self-sufficient in food; fish catch of 135,000
metric tons in 1987


_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-81), $525
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $1.35 billion


_#_Currency: drachma (plural--drachmas); 1 drachma (Dr) = 100 lepta


_#_Exchange rates: drachma (Dr) per US$1--159.87 (January 1991),
158.51 (1990), 162.42 (1989), 141.86 (1988), 135.43 (1987), 139.98
(1986), 138.12 (1985)


_#_Fiscal year: calendar year


_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 2,479 km total; 1,565 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, of
which 36 km electrified and 100 km double track, 892 km 1.000-meter
gauge; 22 km 0.750-meter narrow gauge; all government owned


_#_Highways: 38,938 km total; 16,090 km paved, 13,676 km crushed stone
and gravel, 5,632 km improved earth, 3,540 km unimproved earth


_#_Inland waterways: 80 km; system consists of three coastal canals
and three unconnected rivers


_#_Pipelines: crude oil, 26 km; refined products, 547 km


_#_Ports: Piraeus, Thessaloniki


_#_Merchant marine: 958 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 21,585,048
GRT/39,011,361 DWT; includes 13 passenger, 63 short-sea passenger,
2 passenger-cargo, 152 cargo, 21 container, 17 roll-on/roll-off cargo,
23 refrigerated cargo, 1 vehicle carrier, 185 petroleum, oils, and
lubricants (POL) tanker, 15 chemical tanker, 10 liquefied gas, 25
combination ore/oil, 5 specialized tanker, 407 bulk, 19 combination bulk;
note--ethnic Greeks also own large numbers of ships under the registry of
Liberia, Panama, Cyprus, and Lebanon


_#_Civil air: 35 major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 81 total, 79 usable; 60 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 20 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
22 with runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: adequate, modern networks reach all areas;
4,122,317 telephones; stations--30 AM, 17 (20 repeaters) FM, 39 (560
repeaters) TV; 8 submarine cables; satellite earth stations operating in
INTELSAT (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), EUTELSAT, and MARISAT
systems


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Hellenic Army, Hellenic Navy, Hellenic Air Force


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 2,434,762; 1,870,699 fit for
military service; 72,707 reach military age (21) annually


_#_Defense expenditures: $3.7 billion, 5.5% of GDP (1990)
_%_
_@_Greenland
(part of the Danish realm)
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 2,175,600 km2; land area: 341,700 km2 (ice free)


_#_Comparative area: slightly more than three times the size of Texas


_#_Land boundaries: none


_#_Coastline: 44,087 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 3 nm


_#_Disputes: Denmark has challenged Norway's maritime claims between
Greenland and Jan Mayen


_#_Climate: arctic to subarctic; cool summers, cold winters


_#_Terrain: flat to gradually sloping icecap covers all but a narrow,
mountainous, barren, rocky coast


_#_Natural resources: zinc, lead, iron ore, coal, molybdenum,
cryolite, uranium, fish


_#_Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
1%; forest and woodland NEGL%; other 99%


_#_Environment: sparse population confined to small settlements along
coast; continuous permafrost over northern two-thirds of the island


_#_Note: dominates North Atlantic Ocean between North America and
Europe


_*_People
_#_Population: 56,752 (July 1991), growth rate 1.2% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 20 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 8 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 28 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 63 years male, 69 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 2.2 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--Greenlander(s); adjective--Greenlandic


_#_Ethnic divisions: Greenlander (Eskimos and Greenland-born
Caucasians) 86%, Danish 14%


_#_Religion: Evangelical Lutheran


_#_Language: Eskimo dialects, Danish


_#_Literacy: NA% (male NA%, female NA%)


_#_Labor force: 22,800; largely engaged in fishing, hunting, sheep
breeding


_#_Organized labor: NA


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: none


_#_Type: part of the Danish realm; self-governing overseas
administrative division


_#_Capital: Nuuk (Godthab)


_#_Administrative divisions: 3 municipalities (kommuner,
singular--kommun); Nordgronland, Ostgronland, Vestgronland


_#_Independence: part of the Danish realm; self-governing overseas
administrative division


_#_Constitution: Danish


_#_Legal system: Danish


_#_National holiday: Birthday of the Queen, 16 April (1940)


_#_Executive branch: Danish monarch, high commissioner, home rule
chairman, prime minister, Cabinet (Landsstyre)


_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Landsting


_#_Judicial branch: High Court (Landsret)


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--Queen MARGRETHE II (since 14 January 1972),
represented by High Commissioner Bent KLINTE (since NA);

Head of Government--Home Rule Chairman Lars Emil JOHANSEN
(since 15 March 1991)


_#_Political parties and leaders: two-party ruling
coalition--Siumut (a moderate socialist party that advocates more
distinct Greenlandic identity and greater autonomy from Denmark), Lars
Emil JOHANSEN, chairman; and Inuit Ataqatigiit (IA; a Marxist-Leninist
party that favors complete independence from Denmark rather than home
rule);
Atassut Party (a more conservative party that favors continuing close
relations with Denmark), leader NA;
Polar Party (conservative-Greenland nationalist), leader NA;
Center Party (a new nonsocialist protest party), leader NA


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


_#_Elections:

Landsting--last held on 5 March 1991 (next to be held 5 March
1995);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(27 total) Siumut 11, Atassut Party 8, Inuit Ataqatigiit
5, Center Party 2, Polar Party 1;

Danish Folketing--last held on 12 December 1990 (next to be held by
December 1994); Greenland elects two representatives to the Folketing;
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(2 total) Siumut 1, Atassut 1


_#_Member of: NC


_#_Diplomatic representation: none (self-governing overseas
administrative division of Denmark)


_#_Flag: two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red with a
large disk slightly to the hoist side of center--the top half of the
disk is red, the bottom half is white


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Over the past 25 years, the economy has changed from
one based on subsistence whaling, hunting, and fishing to one dependent
on foreign trade. Fishing is still the most important industry,
accounting for over 75% of exports and about 25% of the
population's income. Maintenance of a social welfare system similar to
Denmark's has given the public sector a dominant role in the economy.
In 1990, the economy became critically dependent on shrimp exports and an
annual subsidy (now about $355 million) from the Danish Government
because cod exports had fallen, the zinc and lead mine closed, and
a large promising platinum and gold mine was not yet operational.
Greenland has signed a contract for its largest construction project,
a power plant to supply the capital. To avoid a decline in the economy,
Denmark has agreed to pay 75% of the costs of running Sondrestrom
Airbase and Kulusuk Airfield as civilian bases after the US withdraws
in 1992.


_#_GNP: $500 million, per capita $9,000; real growth rate 5% (1988)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.4% (1989)


_#_Unemployment rate: 9% (1990 est.)


_#_Budget: revenues $381 million; expenditures $381 million, including
capital expenditures of $36 million (1989)


_#_Exports: $417 million (f.o.b., 1989 est.);

commodities--fish and fish products 78%, metallic ores and
concentrates 19%;

partners--Denmark 74%, FRG 11%, Sweden 6%


_#_Imports: $394 million (c.i.f., 1989 est.);

commodities--manufactured goods 36%, machinery and transport
equipment 26%, food products 13%, petroleum and petroleum products
10%;

partners--Denmark 69%, Norway, FRG, Japan, US, Sweden


_#_External debt: $480 million (1990 est.)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%


_#_Electricity: 84,000 kW capacity; 176 million kWh produced,
3,180 kWh per capita (1989)


_#_Industries: fish processing (mainly shrimp), potential for
platinum and gold mining, handicrafts, shipyards


_#_Agriculture: sector dominated by fishing and sheep raising; crops
limited to forage and small garden vegetables; 1988 fish catch of 133,500
metric tons


_#_Economic aid: none


_#_Currency: Danish krone (plural--kroner); 1 Danish krone (DKr)
= 100 ore


_#_Exchange rates: Danish kroner (DKr) per US$1--5.817 (January 1991),
6.189 (1990), 7.310 (1989), 6.732 (1988), 6.840 (1987), 8.091 (1986),
10.596 (1985)


_#_Fiscal year: calendar year


_*_Communications
_#_Highways: 80 km


_#_Ports: Kangerluarsoruseq (Faeringehavn), Paamiut (Frederikshaab),
Nuuk (Godthaab), Sisimiut (Holsteinsborg), Julianehaab, Maarmorilik,
North Star Bay


_#_Merchant marine: 1 refrigerated cargo (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
1,021 GRT/1,778 DWT; note--operates under the registry of Denmark


_#_Civil air: 2 major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 11 total, 8 usable; 5 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 2 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: adequate domestic and international service
provided by cables and radio relay; 17,900 telephones; stations--5 AM,
7 (35 relays) FM, 4 (9 relays) TV; 2 coaxial submarine cables; 1 Atlantic
Ocean INTELSAT earth station


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is responsibility of Denmark
_%_
_@_Grenada
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 340 km2; land area: 340 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly less than twice the size of Washington,
DC


_#_Land boundaries: none


_#_Coastline: 121 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm


_#_Climate: tropical; tempered by northeast trade winds


_#_Terrain: volcanic in origin with central mountains


_#_Natural resources: timber, tropical fruit, deepwater harbors


_#_Land use: arable land 15%; permanent crops 26%; meadows and
pastures 3%; forest and woodland 9%; other 47%


_#_Environment: lies on edge of hurricane belt; hurricane season
lasts from June to November


_#_Note: islands of the Grenadines group are divided politically
with Saint Vincent and the Grenadines


_*_People
_#_Population: 83,812 (July 1991), growth rate - 0.4% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 35 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: - 32 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 29 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 69 years male, 74 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 4.7 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--Grenadian(s); adjective--Grenadian


_#_Ethnic divisions: mainly of black African descent


_#_Religion: largely Roman Catholic; Anglican; other Protestant sects


_#_Language: English (official); some French patois


_#_Literacy: 98% (male 98%, female 98%) age 15 and over having ever
attended school (1970)


_#_Labor force: 36,000; services 31%, agriculture 24%, construction
8%, manufacturing 5%, other 32% (1985)


_#_Organized labor: 20% of labor force


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: none


_#_Type: parliamentary democracy


_#_Capital: Saint George's


_#_Administrative divisions: 6 parishes and 1 dependency*; Carriacou
and Little Martinique*, Saint Andrew, Saint David, Saint George, Saint
John, Saint Mark, Saint Patrick


_#_Independence: 7 February 1974 (from UK)


_#_Constitution: 19 December 1973


_#_Legal system: based on English common law


_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 7 February (1974)


_#_Executive branch: British monarch, governor general, prime
minister, Ministers of Government (cabinet)


_#_Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of an upper
house or Senate and a lower house or House of Representatives


_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor General Sir Paul SCOON (since 30 September 1978);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Nicholas BRATHWAITE
(since 13 March 1990)


_#_Political parties and leaders:
National Democratic Congress (NDC), Nicholas BRATHWAITE;
Grenada United Labor Party (GULP), Sir Eric GAIRY;
The National Party (TNP), Ben JONES; New National Party (NNP), Keith
MITCHELL;
Maurice Bishop Patriotic Movement (MBPM), Terrence MERRYSHOW;
New Jewel Movement (NJM), Bernard COARD


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


_#_Elections:

House of Representatives--last held on 13 March 1990 (next
to be held by March 1996);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(15 total) NDC 8, GULP 3, TNP 2, NNP 2


_#_Communists: about 450 members of the New Jewel Movement
(pro-Soviet) and the Maurice Bishop Patriotic Movement (pro-Cuban)


_#_Member of: ACP, C, CARICOM, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO,
ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LAES, LORCS,
NAM, OAS, OECS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL,
WHO, WTO


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Denneth MODESTE; Chancery at
1701 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington DC 20009; telephone (202)
265-2561; there is a Grenadian Consulate General in New York;

US--Charge d'Affaires Annette VELER; Embassy at Ross Point Inn,
Saint George's (mailing address is P. O. Box 54, Saint George's);
telephone (809) 444-1173 through 1178


_#_Flag: a rectangle divided diagonally into yellow triangles (top and
bottom) and green triangles (hoist side and outer side) with a red border
around the flag; there are seven yellow five-pointed stars with three
centered in the top red border, three centered in the bottom red border,
and one on a red disk superimposed at the center of the flag; there is
also a symbolic nutmeg pod on the hoist-side triangle (Grenada is the
world's second-largest producer of nutmeg, after Indonesia); the seven
stars represent the seven administrative divisions


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The economy is essentially agricultural and centers on
the traditional production of spices and tropical plants. Agriculture
accounts for about 16% of GDP and 80% of exports and employs 24% of the
labor force. Tourism is the leading foreign exchange earner, followed by
agricultural exports. Manufacturing remains relatively undeveloped, but
is expected to grow, given a more favorable private investment climate
since 1983. Despite an impressive average annual growth rate for the
economy of 5.6% during the period 1986-90, unemployment remains high
at about 25%.


_#_GDP: $200.7 million, per capita $2,390 (1989); real growth rate
5.4% (1990)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7.0% (1990)


_#_Unemployment rate: 25% (1990 est.)


_#_Budget: revenues $54.9 million; expenditures $77.6 million,
including capital expenditures of $16.6 million (1990 est.)


_#_Exports: $27.9 million (f.o.b., 1989 est.);

commodities--nutmeg 36%, cocoa beans 9%, bananas 14%, mace 8%,
textiles 5;

partners--US 12%, UK, FRG, Netherlands, Trinidad and Tobago (1989)


_#_Imports: $115.6 million (c.i.f., 1989 est.);

commodities--food 25%, manufactured goods 22%, machinery 20%,
chemicals 10%, fuel 6% (1989);

partners--US 29%, UK, Trinidad and Tobago, Japan, Canada (1989)


_#_External debt: $90 million (1990 est.)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate 5.8% (1989 est.); accounts
for 6% of GDP


_#_Electricity: 12,500 kW capacity; 26 million kWh produced,
310 kWh per capita (1990)


_#_Industries: food and beverage, textile, light assembly operations,
tourism, construction


_#_Agriculture: accounts for 16% of GDP and 80% of exports; bananas,
cocoa, nutmeg, and mace account for two-thirds of total crop production;
world's second-largest producer and fourth-largest exporter of nutmeg
and mace; small-size farms predominate, growing a variety of citrus
fruits, avocados, root crops, sugarcane, corn, and vegetables


_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY84-89), $60
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $67 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $32 million


_#_Currency: East Caribbean dollar (plural--dollars);
1 EC dollar (EC$) = 100 cents


_#_Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1--2.70 (fixed
rate since 1976)


_#_Fiscal year: calendar year


_*_Communications
_#_Highways: 1,000 km total; 600 km paved, 300 km otherwise improved;
100 km unimproved


_#_Ports: Saint George's


_#_Civil air: no major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 3 total, 3 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
1 with runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: automatic, islandwide telephone system with
5,650 telephones; new SHF links to Trinidad and Tobago and Saint Vincent;
VHF and UHF links to Trinidad and Carriacou; stations--1 AM, no FM, 1 TV


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Royal Grenada Police Force, Coast Guard


_#_Manpower availability: NA


_#_Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP
_%_
_@_Guadeloupe
(overseas department of France)
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 1,780 km2; land area: 1,760 km2


_#_Comparative area: 10 times the size of Washington, DC


_#_Land boundaries: none


_#_Coastline: 306 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm


_#_Climate: subtropical tempered by trade winds; relatively high
humidity


_#_Terrain: Basse-Terre is volcanic in origin with interior
mountains; Grand-Terre is low limestone formation


_#_Natural resources: cultivable land, beaches, and climate that
foster tourism


_#_Land use: arable land 18%; permanent crops 5%; meadows and
pastures 13%; forest and woodland 40%; other 24%; includes irrigated 1%


_#_Environment: subject to hurricanes (June to October); La
Soufriere is an active volcano


_#_Note: located 500 km southeast of Puerto Rico in the Caribbean Sea


_*_People
_#_Population: 344,897 (July 1991), growth rate 0.8% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 20 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: - 5 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 17 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 70 years male, 77 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 2.0 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--Guadeloupian(s); adjective--Guadeloupe


_#_Ethnic divisions: black or mulatto 90%; white 5%; East Indian,
Lebanese, Chinese less than 5%


_#_Religion: Roman Catholic 95%, Hindu and pagan African 5%


_#_Language: French, creole patois


_#_Literacy: 90% (male 90%, female 91%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1982)


_#_Labor force: 120,000; 53.0% services, government, and commerce,
25.8% industry, 21.2% agriculture


_#_Organized labor: 11% of labor force


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Department of Guadeloupe


_#_Type: overseas department of France


_#_Capital: Basse-Terre


_#_Administrative divisions: none (overseas department of France)


_#_Independence: none (overseas department of France)


_#_Constitution: 28 September 1958 (French Constitution)


_#_Legal system: French legal system


_#_National holiday: Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)


_#_Executive branch: government commissioner


_#_Legislative branch: unicameral General Council and unicameral
Regional Council


_#_Judicial branch: Court of Appeal (Cour d'Appel) with jurisdiction
over Guadeloupe, French Guiana, and Martinique


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--President Francois MITTERRAND (since
21 May 1981);

Head of Government--Commissioner of the Republic Jean-Paul PROUST
(since November 1989)


_#_Political parties and leaders:
Rally for the Republic (RPR), Marlene CAPTANT;
Communist Party of Guadeloupe (PCG), Christian Medard CELESTE;
Socialist Party (PSG), Dominique LARIFLA;
Independent Republicans;
Union for French Democracy (UDF);
Union for a New Majority (UNM)


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


_#_Elections:

General Council --last held NA 1986 (next to be held by NA 1992);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(42 total) number of seats by party NA;

Regional Council--last held on 16 March 1986 (next to be held
by 16 March 1992);
results--RPR 33.1%, PS 28.7%, PCG 23.8%, UDF 10.7%, other 3.7%;
seats--(41 total) RPR 15, PS 12, PCG 10, UDF 4;

French Senate--last held on 5 and 12 June 1988 (next to be
held June 1994); Guadeloupe elects two representatives;
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(2 total) PCG 1, PS 1;

French National Assembly--last held on 5 and 12 June 1988
(next to be held June 1994); Guadeloupe elects four representatives;
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(4 total) PS 2 seats, RPR 1 seat, PCG 1 seat


_#_Communists: 3,000 est.


_#_Other political or pressure groups: Popular Union for the
Liberation of Guadeloupe (UPLG); Popular Movement for Independent
Guadeloupe (MPGI); General Union of Guadeloupe Workers (UGTG); General
Federation of Guadeloupe Workers (CGT-G); Christian Movement for
the Liberation of Guadeloupe (KLPG)


_#_Member of: FZ, WCL, WFTU


_#_Diplomatic representation: as an overseas department of France,
the interests of Guadeloupe are represented in the US by France


_#_Flag: the flag of France is used


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The economy depends on agriculture, tourism, light
industry, and services. It is also dependent upon France for large
subsidies and imports. Tourism is a key industry, with most tourists from
the US. In addition, an increasingly large number of cruise ships visit
the islands. The traditionally important sugarcane crop is slowly being
replaced by other crops, such as bananas (which now supply about 50% of
export earnings), eggplant, and flowers. Other vegetables and root crops
are cultivated for local consumption, although Guadeloupe is still
dependent on imported food, which comes mainly from France. Light
industry consists mostly of sugar and rum production. Most manufactured
goods and fuel are imported. Unemployment is especially high among the
young.


_#_GDP: $1.1 billion, per capita $3,300; real growth rate NA% (1987)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.3% (1988)


_#_Unemployment rate: 38% (1987)


_#_Budget: revenues $254 million; expenditures $254 million, including
capital expenditures of NA (1989)


_#_Exports: $153 million (f.o.b., 1988);

commodities--bananas, sugar, rum;

partners--France 68%, Martinique 22% (1987)


_#_Imports: $1.2 billion (c.i.f., 1988);

commodities--vehicles, foodstuffs, clothing and other consumer
goods, construction materials, petroleum products;

partners--France 64%, Italy, FRG, US (1987)


_#_External debt: $NA


_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%


_#_Electricity: 171,500 kW capacity; 441 million kWh produced,
1,290 kWh per capita (1990)


_#_Industries: construction, cement, rum, sugar, tourism


_#_Agriculture: cash crops--bananas and sugarcane; other products
include tropical fruits and vegetables; livestock--cattle, pigs, and
goats; not self-sufficient in food


_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $4
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $7.9 billion


_#_Currency: French franc (plural--francs); 1 French franc (F) = 100
centimes


_#_Exchange rates: French francs (F) per US$1--5.1307 (January 1991),
5.4453 (1990), 6.3801 (1989), 5.9569 (1988), 6.0107 (1987), 6.9261
(1986), 8.9852 (1985)


_#_Fiscal year: calendar year


_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: privately owned, narrow-gauge plantation lines


_#_Highways: 1,940 km total; 1,600 km paved, 340 km gravel and earth


_#_Ports: Pointe-a-Pitre, Basse-Terre


_#_Civil air: 2 major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 9 total, 9 usable, 8 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 1 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: domestic facilities inadequate; 57,300
telephones; interisland radio relay to Antigua and Barbuda, Dominica,
and Martinique; stations--2 AM, 8 FM (30 private stations licensed to
broadcast FM), 9 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT ground station


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: French Forces, Gendarmerie


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 98,069; NA fit for military
service


_#_Note: defense is responsibility of France
_%_
_@_Guam
(territory of the US)
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 541 km2; land area: 541 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly more than three times the size of
Washington, DC


_#_Land boundaries: none


_#_Coastline: 125.5 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth);

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm


_#_Climate: tropical marine; generally warm and humid, moderated by
northeast trade winds; dry season from January to June, rainy season
from July to December; little seasonal temperature variation


_#_Terrain: volcanic origin, surrounded by coral reefs; relatively
flat coraline limestone plateau (source of most fresh water) with steep
coastal cliffs and narrow coastal plains in north, low-rising hills in
center, mountains in south


_#_Natural resources: fishing (largely undeveloped), tourism
(especially from Japan)


_#_Land use: arable land 11%; permanent crops 11%; meadows and
pastures 15%; forest and woodland 18%; other 45%


_#_Environment: frequent squalls during rainy season; subject to
relatively rare, but potentially very destructive typhoons
(especially in August)


_#_Note: largest and southernmost island in the Mariana Islands
archipelago; strategic location in western North Pacific Ocean 5,955 km
west-southwest of Honolulu about three-quarters of the way between Hawaii
and the Philippines


_*_People
_#_Population: 144,928 (July 1991), growth rate 2.8% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 26 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 4 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: 5 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 12 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 70 years male, 75 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 3.0 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--Guamanian(s); adjective--Guamanian


_#_Ethnic divisions: Chamorro 47%, Filipino 25%, Caucasian 10%,
Chinese, Japanese, Korean, and other 18%


_#_Religion: Roman Catholic 98%, other 2%


_#_Language: English and Chamorro, most residents bilingual; Japanese
also widely spoken


_#_Literacy: 96% (male 96%, female 96%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1980)


_#_Labor force: 54,000; government 42%, private 58% (1988)


_#_Organized labor: 13% of labor force


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Territory of Guam


_#_Type: organized, unincorporated territory of the US


_#_Capital: Agana


_#_Administrative divisions: none (territory of the US)


_#_Independence: none (territory of the US)


_#_Constitution: Organic Act of 1 August 1950


_#_Legal system: NA


_#_National holiday: Guam Discovery Day (first Monday in March),
6 March 1989


_#_Executive branch: President of the US, governor,
lieutenant governor, Cabinet


_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Legislature


_#_Judicial branch: Superior Court of Guam (Federal District Court)


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--President George BUSH (since 20 January 1989);

Head of Government--Governor Joseph A. ADA (since NA November
1986); Lieutenant Governor Frank F. BLAS


_#_Political parties and leaders:
Democratic Party (controls the legislature);
Republican Party (party of the Governor)


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18; US citizens, but do not vote in US
presidential elections


_#_Elections:

Governor--last held on 6 November 1990 (next to be held
November 1994);

Legislature--last held on 6 November 1990 (next to be held
November 1992);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(21 total) Democratic 11, Republican 10;

US House of Representatives--last held 6 November
1990 (next to be held November 1992);
Guam elects one nonvoting delegate;
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(1 total) Republican 1


_#_Communists: none


_#_Note: relations between Guam and the US are under the jurisdiction
of the Office of Territorial and International Affairs, US Department of
the Interior


_#_Member of: ESCAP (associate), IOC, SPC


_#_Diplomatic representation: none (territory of the US)


_#_Flag: dark blue with a narrow red border on all four sides;
centered is a red-bordered, pointed, vertical ellipse containing a
beach scene, outrigger canoe with sail, and a palm tree with the word
GUAM superimposed in bold red letters


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The economy is based on US military spending and on
revenues from tourism. Over the past 20 years the tourist industry has
grown rapidly, creating a construction boom for new hotels and the
expansion of older ones. Visitors numbered about 900,000 in 1990. The
small manufacturing sector includes textile and clothing, beverage, food,
and watch production. About 60% of the labor force works for the private
sector and the rest for government. Most food and industrial goods are
imported, with about 75% from the US. In 1990 the unemployment rate was
about 2%, down from 10% in 1983.


_#_GNP: $1.0 billion, per capita $7,000; real growth rate 18%
(1990 est.)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 10% (1990)


_#_Unemployment rate: 2% (1990 est.)


_#_Budget: revenues $300 million; expenditures $290 million,
including capital expenditures of $25 million (1990 est.)


_#_Exports: $39 million (f.o.b., 1983);

commodities--mostly transshipments of refined petroleum products,
construction materials, fish, food and beverage products;

partners--US 25%, other 75%


_#_Imports: $611 million (c.i.f., 1983);

commodities--petroleum and petroleum products, food, manufactured
goods;

partners--US 77%, other 23%


_#_External debt: $NA


_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%


_#_Electricity: 500,000 kW capacity; 2,300 million kWh produced,
16,300 kWh per capita (1990)


_#_Industries: US military, tourism, construction, transshipment,
concrete products, printing and publishing, food processing, textiles


_#_Agriculture: relatively undeveloped with most food imported;
fruits, vegetables, eggs, pork, poultry, beef, copra


_#_Economic aid: NA


_#_Currency: US currency is used


_#_Exchange rates: US currency is used


_#_Fiscal year: 1 October-30 September


_*_Communications
_#_Highways: 674 km all-weather roads


_#_Ports: Apra Harbor


_#_Airports: 5 total, 4 usable; 3 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 3 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
none with runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: 26,317 telephones (1989); stations--3 AM,
3 FM, 3 TV; 2 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT ground stations


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of the US
_%_
_@_Guatemala
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 108,890 km2; land area: 108,430 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than Tennessee


_#_Land boundaries: 1,687 km total; Belize 266 km, El Salvador 203 km,
Honduras 256 km, Mexico 962 km


_#_Coastline: 400 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: not specific;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm


_#_Disputes: claims Belize, but boundary negotiations to resolve the
dispute are underway


_#_Climate: tropical; hot, humid in lowlands; cooler in highlands


_#_Terrain: mostly mountains with narrow coastal plains and rolling
limestone plateau (Peten)


_#_Natural resources: crude oil, nickel, rare woods, fish, chicle


_#_Land use: arable land 12%; permanent crops 4%; meadows and
pastures 12%; forest and woodland 40%; other 32%; includes
irrigated 1%


_#_Environment: numerous volcanoes in mountains, with frequent
violent earthquakes; Caribbean coast subject to hurricanes and other
tropical storms; deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution


_#_Note: no natural harbors on west coast


_*_People
_#_Population: 9,266,018 (July 1991), growth rate 2.5% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 35 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 8 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: - 2 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 58 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 61 years male, 66 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 4.8 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--Guatemalan(s); adjective--Guatemalan


_#_Ethnic divisions: Ladino (mestizo--mixed Indian and European
ancestry) 56%, Indian 44%


_#_Religion: predominantly Roman Catholic; also Protestant,
traditional Mayan


_#_Language: Spanish, but over 40% of the population speaks an Indian
language as a primary tongue (18 Indian dialects, including Quiche,
Cakchiquel, Kekchi)


_#_Literacy: 55% (male 63%, female 47%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)


_#_Labor force: 2,500,000; agriculture 60%, services 13%,
manufacturing 12%, commerce 7%, construction 4%, transport 3%,
utilities 0.8%, mining 0.4% (1985)


_#_Organized labor: 8% of labor force (1988 est.)


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of Guatemala


_#_Type: republic


_#_Capital: Guatemala


_#_Administrative divisions: 22 departments (departamentos,
singular--departamento); Alta Verapaz, Baja Verapaz, Chimaltenango,
Chiquimula, El Progreso, Escuintla, Guatemala, Huehuetenango, Izabal,
Jalapa, Jutiapa, Peten, Quetzaltenango, Quiche, Retalhuleu,
Sacatepequez, San Marcos, Santa Rosa, Solola, Suchitepequez,
Totonicapan, Zacapa


_#_Independence: 15 September 1821 (from Spain)


_#_Constitution: 31 May 1985, effective 14 January 1986


_#_Legal system: civil law system; judicial review of legislative
acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction


_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 15 September (1821)


_#_Executive branch: president, vice president, Council of Ministers
(cabinet)


_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Congress of the Republic
(Congreso de la Republica)


_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de
Justicia)


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government--President Jorge SERRANO
Elias (since 14 January 1991); Vice President Gustavo ESPINA Salguero
(since 14 January 1991)


_#_Political parties and leaders:
National Centrist Union (UCN), Jorge CARPIO Nicolle;
Solidarity Action Movement (MAS), Jorge SERRANO Elias;
Christian Democratic Party (DCG), Alfonso CABRERA Hidalgo;
National Advancement Party (PAN), Alvaro ARZU Irigoyen;
National Liberation Movement (MLN), Mario SANDOVAL Alarcon;
Social Democratic Party (PSD), Mario SOLARZANO Martinez;
Popular Alliance 5 (AP-5), Max ORLANDO Molina;
Revolutionary Party (PR), Carlos CHAVARRIA;
National Authentic Center (CAN), Hector MAYORA Dawe;
Alliance for '90 led by Rios MONTT, consisting of three
parties--Democratic Institutional Party (PID), Oscar RIVAS;
Nationalist United Front (FUN), Gabriel GIRON;
Guatemalan Republican Front (FRG), Berna ROLANDO Mendez


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


_#_Elections:

President--runoff held on 11 January 1991 (next to be held
11 November 1995);
results--Jorge SERRANO Elias (MAS) 68.1%, Jorge CARPIO
Nicolle (UCN) 31.9%;

Congress--last held on 11 November 1990 (next to be held
11 November 1995);
results--UCN 25.6%, MAS 24.3%, DCG 17.5%, PAN 17.3%, MLN 4.8%,
PSD/AP-5 3.6%, PR 2.1%;
seats--(116 total) UCN 41, DCG 28, MAS 18, PAN 12, Alliance for '90
11, MLN 4, PR 1, PSD/AP-5 1


_#_Communists: Guatemalan Labor Party (PGT); main radical left
guerrilla groups--Guerrilla Army of the Poor (EGP), Revolutionary
Organization of the People in Arms (ORPA), Rebel Armed Forces (FAR),
and PGT dissidents


_#_Other political or pressure groups: Federated Chambers of Commerce
and Industry (CACIF), Mutual Support Group (GAM), Unity for Popular and
Labor Action (UASP), Agrarian Owners Group (UNAGRO), Committee for
Campesino Unity (CUC)


_#_Member of: BCIE, CACM, CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL,
IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer), LORCS, OAS, OPANAL, PCA, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Juan Jose CASO Fanjul;
Chancery at 2220 R Street NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202)
745-4952 through 4954;
there are Guatemalan Consulates General in Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles,
Miami, New Orleans, New York, and San Francisco;

US--Ambassador Thomas F. STROOCK; Embassy at 7-01 Avenida de la
Reforma, Zone 10, Guatemala City (mailing address is APO Miami 34024);
telephone [502] (2) 31-15-41


_#_Flag: three equal vertical bands of light blue (hoist side),
white, and light blue with the coat of arms centered in the white
band; the coat of arms includes a green and red quetzal (the national
bird) and a scroll bearing the inscription LIBERTAD 15 DE
SEPTIEMBRE DE 1821 (the original date of independence from Spain)
all superimposed on a pair of crossed rifles and a pair of crossed
swords and framed by a wreath


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The economy is based on agriculture, which accounts for
26% of GDP, employs about 60% of the labor force, and supplies two-thirds
of exports. Manufacturing accounts for about 15% of GDP and 12% of the
labor force. In 1990 the economy grew by 3.5%, the fourth consecutive
year of mild growth. Government economic policies, however, were erratic
in 1990--an election year--and inflation shot up to 60%, the highest
level in modern times.


_#_GDP: $11.1 billion, per capita $1,180; real growth rate 3.5%
(1990 est.)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 60% (1990 est.)


_#_Unemployment rate: 13%, with 30-40% underemployment (1989 est.)


_#_Budget: revenues $1.05 billion; expenditures $1.3 billion,
including capital expenditures of $270 million (1989 est.)


_#_Exports: $1.24 billion (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities--coffee 24%, sugar 9%, bananas 8%, beef 4%;

partners--US 28%, El Salvador, FRG, Costa Rica, Italy


_#_Imports: $1.77 billion (c.i.f., 1990);

commodities--fuel and petroleum products, machinery, grain,
fertilizers, motor vehicles;

partners--US 40%, Mexico, FRG, Japan, El Salvador


_#_External debt: $2.8 billion (December 1990 est.)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate 4.0% (1988); accounts
for 18% of GDP


_#_Electricity: 819,000 kW capacity; 2,594 million kWh produced,
280 kWh per capita (1990)


_#_Industries: sugar, textiles and clothing, furniture, chemicals,
petroleum, metals, rubber, tourism


_#_Agriculture: accounts for 26% of GDP; most important sector of
economy and contributes two-thirds to export earnings; principal
crops--sugarcane, corn, bananas, coffee, beans, cardamom;
livestock--cattle, sheep, pigs, chickens; food importer


_#_Illicit drugs: illicit producer of opium poppy and cannabis for the
international drug trade; the government has engaged in aerial
eradication of opium poppy; transit country for cocaine shipments


_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-90), $1.1
billion; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $7.8 billion


_#_Currency: quetzal (plural--quetzales); 1 quetzal (Q) = 100 centavos


_#_Exchange rates: free market quetzales (Q) per US$1--5.4
(April 1991), 4.4858 (1990), 2.8161 (1989), 2.6196 (1988), 2.500
(1987), 1.875 (1986), 1.000 (1985); note--black-market rate 2.800
(May 1989)


_#_Fiscal year: calendar year


_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 870 km 0.914-meter gauge, single track; 780 km
government owned, 90 km privately owned


_#_Highways: 26,429 km total; 2,868 km paved, 11,421 km gravel,
and 12,140 unimproved


_#_Inland waterways: 260 km navigable year round; additional 730 km
navigable during high-water season


_#_Pipelines: crude oil, 275 km


_#_Ports: Puerto Barrios, Puerto Quetzal, Santo Tomas de Castilla


_#_Merchant marine: 1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
4,129 GRT/6,450 DWT


_#_Civil air: 10 major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 430 total, 381 usable; 11 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 3 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 19 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: fairly modern network centered in Guatemala
[city]; 97,670 telephones; stations--91 AM, no FM, 25 TV, 15 shortwave;
connection into Central American Microwave System; 1 Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT earth station


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 2,097,234; 1,372,623 fit for
military service; 110,949 reach military age (18) annually


_#_Defense expenditures: $113 million, 1% of GDP (1990)
_%_
_@_Guernsey
(British crown dependency)
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 194 km2; land area: 194 km2; includes Alderney,
Guernsey, Herm, Sark, and some other smaller islands


_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than Washington, DC


_#_Land boundaries: none


_#_Coastline: 50 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 3 nm


_#_Climate: temperate with mild winters and cool summers; about 50% of
days are overcast


_#_Terrain: mostly level with low hills in southwest


_#_Natural resources: cropland


_#_Land use: arable land NA%; permanent crops NA%; meadows and
pastures NA%; forest and woodland NA%; other NA%; cultivated about 50%


_#_Environment: large, deepwater harbor at Saint Peter Port


_#_Note: 52 km west of France


_*_People
_#_Population: 57,596 (July 1991), growth rate 0.6% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 12 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 11 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: 5 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 6 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 72 years male, 78 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 1.6 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--Channel Islander(s); adjective--Channel Islander


_#_Ethnic divisions: UK and Norman-French descent


_#_Religion: Anglican, Roman Catholic, Presbyterian, Baptist,
Congregational, Methodist


_#_Language: English, French; Norman-French dialect spoken in country
districts


_#_Literacy: NA% (male NA%, female NA%) but compulsory education
age 5 to 16


_#_Labor force: NA


_#_Organized labor: NA


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Bailiwick of Guernsey


_#_Type: British crown dependency


_#_Capital: Saint Peter Port


_#_Administrative divisions: none (British crown dependency)


_#_Independence: none (British crown dependency)


_#_Constitution: unwritten; partly statutes, partly common law and
practice


_#_Legal system: English law and local statute; justice is
administered by the Royal Court


_#_National holiday: Liberation Day, 9 May (1945)


_#_Executive branch: British monarch, lieutenant governor, bailiff,
deputy bailiff


_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Assembly of the States


_#_Judicial branch: Royal Court


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952);

Head of Government--Lieutenant Governor Lt. Gen. Sir Michael
WILKINS (since 1990); Bailiff Sir Charles FROSSARD (since 1982)


_#_Political parties and leaders: none; all independents


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


_#_Elections:

Assembly of the States--last held NA (next to be held NA);
results--percent of vote NA;
seats--(60 total, 33 elected), all independents


_#_Communists: none


_#_Member of: none


_#_Diplomatic representation: none (British crown dependency)


_#_Flag: white with the red cross of Saint George (patron saint of
England) extending to the edges of the flag


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Tourism is a major source of revenue. Other economic
activity includes financial services, breeding the world-famous
Guernsey cattle, and growing tomatoes and flowers for export.


_#_GDP: $NA, per capita $NA; real growth rate 9% (1987)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7% (1988)


_#_Unemployment rate: NA%


_#_Budget: revenues $208.9 million; expenditures $173.9 million,
including capital expenditures of NA (1988)


_#_Exports: $NA;

commodities--tomatoes, flowers and ferns, sweet peppers, eggplant,
other vegetables;

partners--UK (regarded as internal trade)


_#_Imports: $NA;

commodities--coal, gasoline and oil;

partners--UK (regarded as internal trade)


_#_External debt: $NA


_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%


_#_Electricity: 173,000 kW capacity; 525 million kWh produced,
9,340 kWh per capita (1989)


_#_Industries: tourism, banking


_#_Agriculture: tomatoes, flowers (mostly grown in greenhouses),
sweet peppers, eggplant, other vegetables and fruit; Guernsey cattle


_#_Economic aid: none


_#_Currency: Guernsey pound (plural--pounds);
1 Guernsey (5G) pound = 100 pence


_#_Exchange rates: Guernsey pounds (5G) per US$1--0.5171 (January
1991), 0.5603 (1990), 0.6099 (1989), 0.5614 (1988), 0.6102 (1987), 0.6817
(1986), 0.7714 (1985); note--the Guernsey pound is at par with the
British pound


_#_Fiscal year: calendar year


_*_Communications
_#_Ports: Saint Peter Port, Saint Sampson


_#_Airport: 1 with permanent-surface runway 1,220-2,439 m (La
Villiaze)


_#_Telecommunications: stations--1 AM, no FM, 1 TV; 41,900
telephones; 1 submarine cable


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of the UK
_%_
_@_Guinea
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 245,860 km2; land area: 245,860 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than Oregon


_#_Land boundaries: 3,399 km total; Guinea-Bissau 386 km, Ivory Coast
610 km, Liberia 563 km, Mali 858 km, Senegal 330 km, Sierra Leone 652 km


_#_Coastline: 320 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm


_#_Climate: generally hot and humid; monsoonal-type rainy season
(June to November) with southwesterly winds; dry season (December to
May) with northeasterly harmattan winds


_#_Terrain: generally flat coastal plain, hilly to mountainous
interior


_#_Natural resources: bauxite, iron ore, diamonds, gold, uranium,
hydropower, fish


_#_Land use: arable land 6%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and
pastures 12%; forest and woodland 42%; other 40%; includes irrigated
NEGL%


_#_Environment: hot, dry, dusty harmattan haze may reduce visibility
during dry season; deforestation


_*_People
_#_Population: 7,455,850 (July 1991), growth rate 2.5% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 47 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 21 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 144 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 41 years male, 45 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 6.0 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--Guinean(s); adjective--Guinean


_#_Ethnic divisions: Fulani 35%, Malinke 30%, Soussou 20%, small
indigenous tribes 15%


_#_Religion: Muslim 85%, Christian 8%, indigenous beliefs 7%


_#_Language: French (official); each tribe has its own language


_#_Literacy: 24% (male 35%, female 13%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)


_#_Labor force: 2,400,000 (1983); agriculture 82.0%, industry and
commerce 11.0%, services 5.4%; 88,112 civil servants (1987); 52% of
population of working age (1985)


_#_Organized labor: virtually 100% of wage earners loosely affiliated
with the National Confederation of Guinean Workers


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of Guinea


_#_Type: republic


_#_Capital: Conakry


_#_Administrative divisions: 29 administrative regions (regions
administratives, singular--region administrative); Beyla, Boffa,
Boke, Conakry, Dabola, Dalaba, Dinguiraye, Dubreka, Faranah,
Forecariah, Fria, Gaoual, Gueckedou, Kankan, Kerouane, Kindia,
Kissidougou, Koundara, Kouroussa, Labe, Macenta, Mali, Mamou,
Nzerekore, Pita, Siguiri, Telimele, Tougue, Yomou


_#_Independence: 2 October 1958 (from France; formerly French Guinea)


_#_Constitution: 23 December 1990 (Loi Fundamentale)


_#_Legal system: based on French civil law system, customary law,
and decree; legal codes currently being revised; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction


_#_National holiday: Anniversary of the Second Republic, 3 April
(1984)


_#_Executive branch: president, Transitional Committee for National
Recovery (Comite Transitionale de Redressement National or CTRN)
replaced the Military Committee for National Recovery (Comite
Militaire de Redressement National or CMRN); Council of Ministers
(cabinet)


_#_Legislative branch: People's National Assembly (Assemblee
Nationale Populaire) was dissolved after the 3 April 1984 coup


_#_Judicial branch: Court of Appeal (Cour d'Appel)


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government--Gen. Lansana CONTE (since
5 April 1984)


_#_Political parties and leaders: none; following the 3 April 1984
coup all political activity was banned


_#_Suffrage: none


_#_Elections: none


_#_Communists: no Communist party, although there are some
sympathizers


_#_Member of: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CEAO (observer), ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, FZ,
G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL,
IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador (vacant); Chancery at
2112 Leroy Place NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 483-9420;

US--Ambassador Dane F. SMITH, Jr.; Embassy at 2nd Boulevard and 9th
Avenue, Conakry (mailing address is B. P. 603, Conakry); telephone (224)
44-15-20 through 24


_#_Flag: three equal vertical bands of red (hoist side), yellow, and
green; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia; similar to the
flag of Rwanda which has a large black letter R centered in the
yellow band


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Although possessing many natural resources and
considerable potential for agricultural development, Guinea is one of the
poorest countries in the world. The agricultural sector contributes about
40% to GDP and employs more than 80% of the work force, while industry
accounts for 27% of GDP. Guinea possesses over 25% of theworld's
bauxite reserves; exports of bauxite and alumina accounted for
about 70% of total exports in 1989.


_#_GDP: $2.7 billion, per capita $380; real growth rate 4.4%
(1989 est.)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 28.2% (1989 est.)


_#_Unemployment rate: NA%


_#_Budget: revenues $394 million; expenditures $548 million, including
capital expenditures of $254 million (1989 est.)


_#_Exports: $645 million (f.o.b., 1989 est.);

commodities--alumina, bauxite, diamonds, coffee, pineapples,
bananas, palm kernels;

partners--US 33%, EC 33%, USSR and Eastern Europe 20%, Canada


_#_Imports: $551 million (c.i.f., 1989 est.);

commodities--petroleum products, metals, machinery, transport
equipment, foodstuffs, textiles and other grain;

partners--US 16%, France, Brazil


_#_External debt: $2.6 billion (1990 est.)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%; accounts for 27% of GDP


_#_Electricity: 113,000 kW capacity; 300 million kWh produced,
40 kWh per capita (1989)


_#_Industries: bauxite mining, alumina, gold, diamond mining,
light manufacturing and agricultural processing industries


_#_Agriculture: accounts for 40% of GDP (includes fishing and
forestry); mostly subsistence farming; principal products--rice, coffee,
pineapples, palm kernels, cassava, bananas, sweet potatoes, timber;
livestock--cattle, sheep and goats; not self-sufficient in food grains


_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $227
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-87), $1,075 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $120 million;
Communist countries (1970-88), $446 million


_#_Currency: Guinean franc (plural--francs);
1 Guinean franc (FG) = 100 centimes


_#_Exchange rates: Guinean francs (FG) per US$1--24.39 (1989),
19.23 (1988), 17.54 (1987), 14.29 (1986), NA (1985)


_#_Fiscal year: calendar year


_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 1,045 km; 806 km 1.000-meter gauge, 239 km 1.435-meter
standard gauge


_#_Highways: 30,100 km total; 1,145 km paved, 12,955 km gravel or
laterite (of which barely 4,500 km are currently all-weather roads),
16,000 km unimproved earth (1987)


_#_Inland waterways: 1,295 km navigable by shallow-draft native craft


_#_Ports: Conakry, Kamsar


_#_Civil air: 2 major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 16 total, 16 usable; 5 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
10 with runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: fair system of open-wire lines, small
radiocommunication stations, and new radio relay system; 10,000
telephones; stations--3 AM, 1 FM, 1 TV; 12,000 TV sets; 125,000 radio
receivers; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy (acts primarily as a coast guard), Air Force,
Republican Guard, paramilitary National Gendarmerie, Surete Nationale


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 1,695,832; 853,593 fit for
military service


_#_Defense expenditures: $27 million, 1.2% of GDP (1988)
_%_
_@_Guinea-Bissau
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 36,120 km2; land area: 28,000 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly less than three times the size of
Connecticut


_#_Land boundaries: 724 km total; Guinea 386, Senegal 338 km


_#_Coastline: 350 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm


_#_Disputes: the International Court of Justice (ICJ) has rendered its
decision on the Guinea-Bissau/Senegal maritime boundary (in favor
of Senegal)--that decision has been rejected by Guinea-Bissau


_#_Climate: tropical; generally hot and humid; monsoon-type rainy
season (June to November) with southwesterly winds; dry season (December
to May) with northeasterly harmattan winds


_#_Terrain: mostly low coastal plain rising to savanna in east


_#_Natural resources: unexploited deposits of petroleum, bauxite,
phosphates; fish, timber


_#_Land use: arable land 11%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures
43%; forest and woodland 38%; other 7%


_#_Environment: hot, dry, dusty harmattan haze may reduce visibility
during dry season


_*_People
_#_Population: 1,023,544 (July 1991), growth rate 2.4% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 42 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 18 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 125 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 45 years male, 48 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 5.8 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--Guinea-Bissauan(s); adjective--Guinea-Bissauan


_#_Ethnic divisions: African about 99% (Balanta 30%, Fula 20%, Manjaca
14%, Mandinga 13%, Papel 7%); European and mulatto less than 1%


_#_Religion: indigenous beliefs 65%, Muslim 30%, Christian 5%


_#_Language: Portuguese (official); Criolo and numerous African
languages


_#_Literacy: 36% (male 50%, female 24%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)


_#_Labor force: 403,000 (est.); agriculture 90%, industry, services,
and commerce 5%, government 5%; population of working age 53% (1983)


_#_Organized labor: only one trade union--the National Union of
Workers of Guinea-Bissau (UNTG)


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of Guinea-Bissau


_#_Type: republic; highly centralized one-party regime since September
1974; the African Party for the Independence of Guinea-Bissau and Cape
Verde (PAIGC) held an extraordinary party congress in December 1990 and
established a two-year transition program during which the constitution
will be revised, allowing for multiple political parties and a
presidential election in 1993


_#_Capital: Bissau


_#_Administrative divisions: 9 regions (regioes,
singular--regiao); Bafata, Biombo, Bissau, Bolama, Cacheu, Gabu,
Oio, Quinara, Tombali


_#_Independence: 24 September 1973 (from Portugal; formerly Portuguese
Guinea)


_#_Constitution: 16 May 1984


_#_Legal system: NA


_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 24 September (1973)


_#_Executive branch: president of the Council of State, vice
presidents of the Council of State, Council of State, Council of
Ministers (cabinet)


_#_Legislative branch: unicameral National People's Assembly
(Assembleia Nacional Popular)


_#_Judicial branch: none; there is a Ministry of Justice in the
Council of Ministers


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government--President of the
Council of State Brig. Gen. Joao Bernardo VIEIRA (assumed power 14
November 1980 and elected President of Council of State on 16 May 1984);
First Vice President Col. Iafai CAMARA (since 7 November 1985); Second
Vice President Vasco CABRAL (since 21 June 1989)


_#_Political parties and leaders: only party--African Party for the
Independence of Guinea-Bissau and Cape Verde (PAIGC), President
Joao Bernardo VIEIRA, leader; the party decided to retain the
binational title despite its formal break with Cape Verde


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 15


_#_Elections:

President of Council of State--last held 19 June 1989
(next to be held NA 1993);
results--Brig. Gen. Joao Bernardo VIEIRA was reelected without
opposition by the National People's Assembly;

National People's Assembly--last held 15 June 1989 (next
to be held 15 June 1994);
results--PAIGC is the only party;
seats--(150 total) PAIGC 150, appointed by Regional Councils


_#_Communists: a few Communists, some sympathizers


_#_Member of: ACCT (associate), ACP, AfDB, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77,
IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, IOM (observer), ITU,
LORCS, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU,
WHO, WIPO, WMO


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Alfredo Lopes CABRAL;
Chancery (temporary) at the Guinea-Bissauan Permanent Mission to the UN,
Suite 604, 211 East 43rd Street, New York, NY 10017; telephone (212)
661-3977;

US--Ambassador William L. JACOBSEN, Jr.; Embassy at 17 Avenida
Domingos Ramos, Bissau (mailing address is 1067 Bissau Codex, Bissau,
Guinea-Bissau); telephone [245] 20-1139, 20-1145, 20-1113


_#_Flag: two equal horizontal bands of yellow (top) and green with a
vertical red band on the hoist side; there is a black five-pointed star
centered in the red band; uses the popular pan-African colors of
Ethiopia; similar to the flag of Cape Verde which has the black star
raised above the center of the red band and is framed by two corn stalks
and a yellow clam shell


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Guinea-Bissau ranks among the poorest countries in the
world, with a per capita GDP below $200. Agriculture and fishing are the
main economic activities, with cashew nuts, peanuts, and palm kernels the
primary exports. Exploitation of known mineral deposits is unlikely at
present because of a weak infrastructure and the high cost of
development. The government's four-year plan (1988-91) has targeted
agricultural development as the top priority.


_#_GDP: $154 million, per capita $160; real growth rate 5.0% (1989)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 25% (1990 est.)


_#_Unemployment rate: NA%


_#_Budget: revenues $22.7 million; expenditures $30.8 million,
including capital expenditures of $18.0 million (1989 est.)


_#_Exports: $14.2 million (f.o.b., 1989 est.);

commodities--cashews, fish, peanuts, palm kernels;

partners--Portugal, Senegal, France, The Gambia, Netherlands,
Spain


_#_Imports: $68.9 million (f.o.b., 1989 est.);

commodities--capital equipment, consumer goods, semiprocessed
goods, foods, petroleum;

partners--Portugal, Netherlands, Senegal, USSR, Germany


_#_External debt: $462 million (December 1990 est.)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate - 1.0% (1989 est.); accounts
for 10% of GDP (1989 est.)


_#_Electricity: 22,000 kW capacity; 28 million kWh produced,
30 kWh per capita (1989)


_#_Industries: agricultural processing, beer, soft drinks


_#_Agriculture: accounts for over 50% of GDP, nearly 100% of exports,
and 90% of employment; rice is the staple food; other crops include
corn, beans, cassava, cashew nuts, peanuts, palm kernels, and cotton; not
self-sufficient in food; fishing and forestry potential not fully
exploited


_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $49
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $561 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $41 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $68 million


_#_Currency: Guinea-Bissauan peso (plural--pesos);
1 Guinea-Bissauan peso (PG) = 100 centavos


_#_Exchange rates: Guinea-Bissauan pesos (PG) per US$1--1987.2 (1989),
1363.6 (1988), 851.65 (1987), 238.98 (1986), 173.61 (1985)


_#_Fiscal year: calendar year


_*_Communications
_#_Highways: 3,218 km; 2,698 km bituminous, remainder earth


_#_Inland waterways: scattered stretches are important to coastal
commerce


_#_Ports: Bissau


_#_Civil air: 2 major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 37 total, 18 usable; 5 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
5 with runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: poor system of radio relay, open-wire lines,
and radiocommunications; 3,000 telephones; stations--1 AM, 2 FM, 1 TV; 1
Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: People's Revolutionary Armed Force (FARP; including
Army, Navy, Air Force), paramilitary force


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 222,371; 126,797 fit for
military service


_#_Defense expenditures: $5 million, 3.2% of GDP (1987)
_%_
_@_Guyana
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 214,970 km2; land area: 196,850 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than Idaho


_#_Land boundaries: 2,462 km total; Brazil 1,119 km, Suriname 600 km,
Venezuela 743 km


_#_Coastline: 459 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: outer edge of continental margin or 200 nm;

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm


_#_Disputes: all of the area west of the Essequibo river claimed by
Venezuela; Suriname claims area between New (Upper Courantyne) and
Courantyne/Kutari Rivers (all headwaters of the Courantyne)


_#_Climate: tropical; hot, humid, moderated by northeast trade winds;
two rainy seasons (May to mid-August, mid-November to mid-January)


_#_Terrain: mostly rolling highlands; low coastal plain; savanna in
south


_#_Natural resources: bauxite, gold, diamonds, hardwood timber,
shrimp, fish


_#_Land use: arable land 3%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and
pastures 6%; forest and woodland 83%; other 8%; includes irrigated 1%


_#_Environment: flash floods a constant threat during rainy seasons;
water pollution


_*_People
_#_Population: 749,508 (July 1991), growth rate - 0.4% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 23 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: - 20 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 51 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 61 years male, 68 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 2.6 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--Guyanese (sing., pl.); adjective--Guyanese


_#_Ethnic divisions: East Indian 51%, black and mixed 43%, Amerindian
4%, European and Chinese 2%


_#_Religion: Christian 57%, Hindu 33%, Muslim 9%, other 1%


_#_Language: English, Amerindian dialects


_#_Literacy: 95% (male 98%, female 96%) age 15 and over having ever
attended school (1990 est.)


_#_Labor force: 268,000; industry and commerce 44.5%, agriculture
33.8%, services 21.7%; public-sector employment amounts to 60-80%
of the total labor force (1985)


_#_Organized labor: 34% of labor force


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Co-operative Republic of Guyana


_#_Type: republic


_#_Capital: Georgetown


_#_Administrative divisions: 10 regions; Barima-Waini,
Cuyuni-Mazaruni, Demerara-Mahaica, East Berbice-Corentyne, Essequibo
Islands-West Demerara, Mahaica-Berbice, Pomeroon-Supenaam,
Potaro-Siparuni, Upper Demerara-Berbice, Upper Takutu-Upper Essequibo


_#_Independence: 26 May 1966 (from UK; formerly British Guiana)


_#_Constitution: 6 October 1980


_#_Legal system: based on English common law with certain admixtures
of Roman-Dutch law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction


_#_National holiday: Republic Day, 23 February (1970)


_#_Executive branch: executive president, first vice president,
prime minister, first deputy prime minister, Cabinet


_#_Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly


_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Judicature


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--Executive President Hugh Desmond HOYTE (since 6
August 1985); First Vice President Hamilton GREEN (since 6 August 1985);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Hamilton GREEN (since
NA August 1985)


_#_Political parties and leaders:
People's National Congress (PNC), Hugh Desmond HOYTE;
People's Progressive Party (PPP), Cheddi JAGAN;
Working People's Alliance (WPA), Eusi KWAYANA, Rupert ROOPNARINE, Moses
BHAGWAN;
Democratic Labor Movement (DLM), Paul TENNASSEE;
People's Democratic Movement (PDM), Llewellyn JOHN;
National Democratic Front (NDF), Joseph BACCHUS;
United Force (UF), Marcellus Feilden SINGH;
United Republican Party (URP), Leslie RAMSAMMY;
National Republican Party (NRP), Robert GANGADEEN


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


_#_Elections:

Executive President--last held on 9 December 1985 (next to be
held mid-1991); Hugh Desmond HOYTE was elected president (the
leader of the party with the most votes in the National Assembly
elections);

National Assembly--last held on 9 December 1985 (next to be held
mid-1991);
results--PNC 78%, PPP 16%, UF 4%, WPA 2%;
seats--(65 total, 53 elected) PNC 42, PPP 8, UF 2, WPA 1


_#_Communists: 100 (est.) hardcore within PPP; top echelons of PPP
and PYO (Progressive Youth Organization, militant wing of the PPP)
include many Communists; small but unknown number of orthodox
Marxist-Leninists within PNC, some of whom formerly belonged to the PPP


_#_Other political or pressure groups: Trades Union Congress (TUC);
Guyanese Action for Reform and Democracy (GUARD) includes various labor
groups as well as several of the smaller parties; Guyana Council of
Indian Organizations (GCIO); Civil Liberties Action Committee (CLAC);
the latter two organizations are small and active but not well
organized; Guyanese Action for Reform and Democracy (GUARD) includes
various labor groups, as well as several of the smaller political
parties


_#_Member of: ACP, C, CARICOM, CCC, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB,
IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU,
LAES, LORCS, NAM, OAS, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO,
WMO


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Dr. Cedric Hilburn GRANT;
Chancery at 2490 Tracy Place NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202)
265-6900; there is a Guyanese Consulate General in New York;

US--Ambassador George JONES; Embassy at 31 Main Street,
Georgetown; telephone [592] (02) 54900 through 54909


_#_Flag: green with a red isosceles triangle (based on the hoist side)
superimposed on a long yellow arrowhead; there is a narrow black border
between the red and yellow, and a narrow white border between the yellow
and the green


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: After growing on average at less than 1% a year in
1986-87, GDP dropped by 3% a year in 1988-89. The decline resulted from
bad weather, labor trouble in the canefields, and flooding and equipment
problems in the bauxite industry. Consumer prices rose about 35% in 1988
and by over 100% in 1989, and the current account deficit widened
substantially as sugar and bauxite exports fell. Moreover, electric
power is in short supply and constitutes a major barrier to future gains
in national output. The government, in association with international
financial agencies, seeks to reduce its payment arrears and to raise new
funds. The government's stabilization program--aimed at establishing
realistic exchange rates, reasonable price stability, and a resumption of
growth--requires considerable public administrative abilities and
continued patience by consumers during a long incubation period.


_#_GDP: $287.2 million, per capita $380; real growth rate - 3.3%
(1989)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 105% (1989)


_#_Unemployment rate: 12-15% (1991 est.)


_#_Budget: revenues $65 million; expenditures $129 million, including
capital expenditures of $6 million (1989 est.)


_#_Exports: $234 million (f.o.b., 1991 est.);

commodities--bauxite, sugar, gold, rice, shrimp, molasses, timber,
rum;

partners--UK 31%, US 23%, CARICOM 7%, Canada 6% (1988)


_#_Imports: $319 million (c.i.f., 1991 est.);

commodities--manufactures machinery, food, petroleum;

partners--US 33%, CARICOM 10%, UK 9%, Canada 2% (1989)


_#_External debt: $1.7 billion, including arrears (December 1990 est.)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate - 10.0% (1989 est.); accounts
for more than 20% of GDP


_#_Electricity: 250,000 kW capacity; 635 million kWh produced,
830 kWh per capita (1990)


_#_Industries: bauxite mining, sugar, rice milling, timber, fishing
(shrimp), textiles, gold mining


_#_Agriculture: most important sector, accounting for 27% of GDP and
about 50% of exports; sugar and rice are key crops; development potential
exists for fishing and forestry; not self-sufficient in food, especially
wheat, vegetable oils, and animal products


_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $116
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $244 million; Communist countries 1970-89, $242 million


_#_Currency: Guyanese dollar (plural--dollars);
1 Guyanese dollar (G$) = 100 cents


_#_Exchange rates: Guyanese dollars (G$) per US$1--45.00 (since June
1990), 39.533 (1990), 27.159 (1989), 10.000 (1988), 9.756 (1987), 4.272
(1986), 4.252 (1985)


_#_Fiscal year: calendar year


_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 187 km total, all single track 0.914-meter gauge


_#_Highways: 7,665 km total; 550 km paved, 5,000 km gravel, 1,525 km
earth, 590 km unimproved


_#_Inland waterways: 6,000 km total of navigable waterways; Berbice,
Demerara, and Essequibo Rivers are navigable by oceangoing vessels for
150 km, 100 km, and 80 km, respectively


_#_Ports: Georgetown


_#_Civil air: 5 major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 58 total, 55 usable; 5 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; none with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
14 with runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: fair system with radio relay network; over
27,000 telephones; tropospheric scatter link to Trinidad; stations--4 AM,
3 FM, no TV, 1 shortwave; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Guyana Defense Force (GDF; includes Coast Guard
and Air Corps), Guyana Police Force (GPF), Guyana People's Militia (GPM),
Guyana National Service (GNS)


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 195,142; 148,477 fit for
military service


_#_Defense expenditures: $5.5 million, 6% of GDP (1989 est.)
_%_
_@_Haiti
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 27,750 km2; land area: 27,560 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than Maryland


_#_Land boundary: 275 km with the Dominican Republic


_#_Coastline: 1,771 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Continental shelf: to depth of exploitation;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm


_#_Disputes: claims US-administered Navassa Island


_#_Climate: tropical; semiarid where mountains in east cut off trade
winds


_#_Terrain: mostly rough and mountainous


_#_Natural resources: bauxite


_#_Land use: arable land 20%; permanent crops 13%; meadows and
pastures 18%; forest and woodland 4%; other 45%; includes irrigated 3%


_#_Environment: lies in the middle of the hurricane belt and subject
to severe storms from June to October; occasional flooding and
earthquakes; deforestation; soil erosion


_#_Note: shares island of Hispaniola with Dominican Republic


_*_People
_#_Population: 6,286,511 (July 1991), growth rate 2.3% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 43 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 15 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: - 5 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 106 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 52 years male, 55 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 6.3 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--Haitian(s); adjective--Haitian


_#_Ethnic divisions: black 95%, mulatto and European 5%


_#_Religion: Roman Catholic is the official religion; Roman
Catholic  80% (of which an overwhelming majority also practice Voodoo),
Protestant 16% (Baptist 10%, Pentecostal 4%, Adventist 1%, other 1%),
none 1%, other 3% (1982)


_#_Language: French (official) spoken by only 10% of population; all
speak Creole


_#_Literacy: 53% (male 59%, female 47%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)


_#_Labor force: 2,300,000; agriculture 66%, services 25%, industry 9%;
shortage of skilled labor, unskilled labor abundant (1982)


_#_Organized labor: NA


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of Haiti


_#_Type: republic


_#_Capital: Port-au-Prince


_#_Administrative divisions: 9 departments, (departements,
singular--departement); Artibonite, Centre, Grand'Anse, Nord, Nord-Est,
Nord-Ouest, Ouest, Sud, Sud-Est


_#_Independence: 1 January 1804 (from France)


_#_Constitution: 27 August 1983, suspended February 1986; draft
constitution approved March 1987, suspended June 1988, most articles
reinstated March 1989; March 1987 Constitution fully observed by
government installed on 7 February 1991


_#_Legal system: based on Roman civil law system; accepts compulsory
ICJ jurisdiction


_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 1 January (1804)


_#_Executive branch: president, Council of Ministers (cabinet)


_#_Legislative branch: bicameral National Assembly (Assemblee
Nationale) consisting of an upper house or Senate and a lower house or
House of Deputies


_#_Judicial branch: Court of Appeal (Cour de Cassation)


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--President Jean-Bertrand ARISTIDE (since 7 February
1991);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Rene PREVAL (since
13 February 1991)


_#_Political parties and leaders:
National Front for Change and Democracy (FNCD) led by Jean-Bertrand
ARISTIDE, including Congress of Democratic Movements (CONACOM), Victor
BENOIT; National Konbite Movement (MKN), Volvick Remy JOSEPH;
National Alliance for Democracy and Progress (ANDP), a coalition
consisting of Movement for the Installation of Democracy in Haiti (MIDH),
Marc BAZIN; National Progressive Revolutionary Party (PANPRA), Serge
GILLES; and National Patriotic Movement of November 28 (MNP-28), Dejean
BELIZAIRE;
National Agricultural and Industrial Party (PAIN), Louis DEJOIE;
Movement for National Reconstruction (MRN), Rene THEODORE;
Haitian Christian Democratic Party (PDCH), Sylvio CLAUDE;
Assembly of Progressive National Democrats (RDNP), Leslie MANIGAT;
National Party of Labor (PNT), Thomas DESULME;
Mobilization for National Development (MDN), Hubert DE RONCERAY;
Democratic Movement for the Liberation of Haiti (MODELH), Francois
LATORTUE;
Haitian Social Christian Party (PSCH), Gregoire EUGENE;
Movement for the Organization of the Country (MOP), Gesner COMEAU


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


_#_Elections:

President--last held 16 December 1990 (next election to be held
by December 1995);
results--Rev. Jean-Bertrand ARISTIDE 67.5%, Marc BAZIN 14.2%, Louis
DEJOIE 4.9%;

Senate--last held 16 December 1990, with runoff held 20 January
1991 (next to be held by December 1992);
results--percent of vote NA;
seats--(27) FNCD 13, ANDP 6, PAIN 2, MRN 2, PDCH 1, RDNP 1, PNT 1,
independent 1;

Chamber of Deputies--last held 16 December 1990, with runoff
held 20 January 1991 (next to be held by December 1994);
results--percent of vote NA;
seats--(83) FNCD 27, ANDP 17, PDCH 7, PAIN 6, RDNP 6, MDN 5, PNT 3,
MKN 2, MODELH 2, MRN 1, independent 5, other 2


_#_Communists: United Party of Haitian Communists (PUCH), Rene
THEODORE (roughly 2,000 members)


_#_Other political or pressure groups: Democratic Unity Confederation
(KID), Roman Catholic Church, Confederation of Haitian Workers (CTH),
Federation of Workers Trade Unions (FOS), Autonomous Haitian Workers
(CATH), National Popular Assembly (APN)


_#_Member of: ACCT, CARICOM (observer), CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT,
IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LAES, LORCS, OAS, OPANAL, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador (vacant), Charge
d'Affaires Raymond Alcide JOSEPH; Chancery at 2311 Massachusetts Avenue
NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 332-4090 through 4092; there
are Haitian Consulates General in Boston, Chicago, Miami, New York,
and San Juan (Puerto Rico);

US--Ambassador Alvin P. ADAMS, Jr.; Embassy at Harry Truman
Boulevard, Port-au-Prince (mailing address is P. O. Box 1761,
Port-au-Prince), telephone [509] (1) 20-354 or 20-368, 20-200, 20-612


_#_Flag: two equal horizontal bands of blue (top) and red with a
centered white rectangle bearing the coat of arms which contains a palm
tree flanked by flags and two cannons above a scroll bearing the motto
L'UNION FAIT LA FORCE (Union Makes Strength)


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: About 85% of the population live in abject poverty.
Agriculture is mainly small-scale subsistence farming and employs
two-thirds of the work force. The majority of the population does not
have ready access to safe drinking water, adequate medical care, or
sufficient food. Few social assistance programs exist, and the lack of
employment opportunities remains one of the most critical problems
facing the economy, along with soil erosion and political instability.


_#_GDP: $2.7 billion, per capita $440; real growth rate - 3.0% (1990
est.)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 20% (1990 est.)


_#_Unemployment rate: 25-50% (1990 est.)


_#_Budget: revenues $300 million; expenditures $416 million, including
capital expenditures of $145 million (1990 est.)


_#_Exports: $169 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities--light manufactures 69%, coffee 19%, other agriculture
8%, other 8%;

partners--US 84%, Italy 4%, France 3%, other industrial 6%,
less developed countries 3% (1987)


_#_Imports: $348 million (c.i.f., 1990 est.);

commodities--machines and manufactures 34%, food and beverages 22%,
petroleum products 14%, chemicals 10%, fats and oils 9%;

partners--US 64%, Netherlands Antilles 5%, Japan 5%, France 4%,
Canada 3%, Germany 3% (1987)


_#_External debt: $838 million (December 1990)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate 0.3% (FY88); accounts for
15% of GDP


_#_Electricity: 230,000 kW capacity; 264 million kWh produced,
43 kWh per capita (1990)


_#_Industries: sugar refining, textiles, flour milling, cement
manufacturing, tourism, light assembly industries based on imported parts


_#_Agriculture: accounts for 33% of GDP and employs 66% of work force;
mostly small-scale subsistence farms; commercial crops--coffee, mangoes,
sugarcane and wood; staple crops--rice, corn, sorghum; shortage of
wheat flour


_#_Illicit drugs: transshipment point for cocaine


_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $700
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $682 million


_#_Currency: gourde (plural--gourdes); 1 gourde (G) = 100 centimes


_#_Exchange rates: gourdes (G) per US$1-- 5.0 (fixed rate)


_#_Fiscal year: 1 October-30 September


_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 40 km 0.760-meter narrow gauge, single-track, privately
owned industrial line


_#_Highways: 4,000 km total; 950 km paved, 900 km otherwise improved,
2,150 km unimproved


_#_Inland waterways: negligible; less than 100 km navigable


_#_Ports: Port-au-Prince, Cap-Haitien


_#_Civil air: 4 major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 15 total, 10 usable; 3 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 4 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: domestic facilities barely adequate,
international facilities slightly better; 36,000 telephones;
stations--33 AM, no FM, 4 TV, 2 shortwave; 1 Atlantic Ocean earth station


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army (including Police), Navy, Air Corps


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 1,287,179; 691,926 fit for
military service; 61,265 reach military age (18) annually


_#_Defense expenditures: $34 million, 1.5% of GDP (1988 est.)
_%_
_@_Heard Island and McDonald Islands
(territory of Australia)
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 412 km2; land area: 412 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly less than 2.5 times the size of
Washington, DC


_#_Land boundaries: none


_#_Coastline: 101.9 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 3 nm


_#_Climate: antarctic


_#_Terrain: Heard Island--bleak and mountainous, with an extinct
volcano; McDonald Islands--small and rocky


_#_Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
0%; forest and woodland 0%; other 100%


_#_Environment: primarily used as research stations


_#_Note: located 4,100 km southwest of Australia in the
southern Indian Ocean


_*_People
_#_Population: uninhabited


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Territory of Heard Island and McDonald Islands


_#_Type: territory of Australia administered by the Antarctic Division
of the Department of Science in Canberra (Australia)


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: no economic activity


_*_Communications
_#_Ports: none; offshore anchorage only


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of Australia
_%_
_@_Honduras
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 112,090 km2; land area: 111,890 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than Tennessee


_#_Land boundaries: 1,520 km total; Guatemala 256 km, El Salvador 342
km, Nicaragua 922 km


_#_Coastline: 820 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm


_#_Disputes: dispute with El Salvador over several sections of
the land boundary; dispute over Golfo de Fonseca maritime boundary
because of disputed sovereignty of islands; unresolved maritime boundary
with Nicaragua


_#_Climate: subtropical in lowlands, temperate in mountains


_#_Terrain: mostly mountains in interior, narrow coastal plains


_#_Natural resources: timber, gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc,
iron ore, antimony, coal, fish


_#_Land use: arable land 14%; permanent crops 2%; meadows and pastures
30%; forest and woodland 34%; other 20%; includes irrigated 1%


_#_Environment: subject to frequent, but generally mild, earthquakes;
damaging hurricanes and floods along Caribbean coast; deforestation; soil
erosion


_*_People
_#_Population: 4,949,275 (July 1991), growth rate 2.9% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 38 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: - 2 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 56 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 64 years male, 68 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 5.0 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--Honduran(s); adjective--Honduran


_#_Ethnic divisions: mestizo (mixed Indian and European) 90%, Indian
7%, black 2%, white 1%


_#_Religion: Roman Catholic about 97%; small Protestant minority


_#_Language: Spanish, Indian dialects


_#_Literacy: 73% (male 76%, female 71%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)


_#_Labor force: 1,300,000; agriculture 62%, services 20%,
manufacturing 9%, construction 3%, other 6% (1985)


_#_Organized labor: 40% of urban labor force, 20% of rural work force
(1985)


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of Honduras


_#_Type: republic


_#_Capital: Tegucigalpa


_#_Administrative divisions: 18 departments (departamentos,
singular--departamento); Atlantida, Choluteca, Colon, Comayagua,
Copan, Cortes, El Paraiso, Francisco Morazan, Gracias a Dios,
Intibuca, Islas de la Bahia, La Paz, Lempira, Ocotepeque, Olancho,
Santa Barbara, Valle, Yoro


_#_Independence: 15 September 1821 (from Spain)


_#_Constitution: 11 January 1982, effective 20 January 1982


_#_Legal system: rooted in Roman and Spanish civil law; some influence
of English common law; accepts ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations


_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 15 September (1821)


_#_Executive branch: president, Council of Ministers (cabinet)


_#_Legislative branch: unicameral National Congress (Congreso
Nacional)


_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de
Justica)


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government--Rafael Leonardo CALLEJAS
Romero (since 26 January 1990)


_#_Political parties and leaders:
Liberal Party (PLH)--faction leaders, Carlos FLORES Facusse (leader of
Florista Liberal Movement), Carlos MONTOYA (Azconista subfaction), Ramon
VILLEDA Bermudez and Jorge Arturo REINA (M-Lider faction);
National Party (PNH), Jose Celin DISCUA, party president;
PNH faction leaders--Oswaldo RAMOS Soto and Rafael Leonardo CALLEJAS
(Monarca faction);
National Innovation and Unity Party-Social Democrats (PINU-SD), Enrique
AGUILAR Cerrato Paz;
Christian Democratic Party (PDCH), Jorge ILLESCAS;
Democratic Action (AD), Walter LOPEZ Reyes


_#_Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 18


_#_Elections:

President--last held on 26 November 1989 (next to be held
November 1993);
results--Rafael Leonardo CALLEJAS (PNH) 51%,
Carlos FLORES Facusse (PLH) 43.3%, other 5.7%;

National Congress--last held on 26 November 1989 (next to be held
November 1993);
results--PNH 51%, PLH 43%, PDCH 1.9%, PINU 1.5%, other 2.6%;
seats--(128 total) PNH 71, PLH 55, PINU 2


_#_Communists: up to 1,500; Honduran leftist groups--Communist Party
of Honduras (PCH), Party for the Transformation of Honduras (PTH),
Morazanist Front for the Liberation of Honduras (FMLH), People's
Revolutionary Union/Popular Liberation Movement (URP/MPL), Popular
Revolutionary Forces-Lorenzo Zelaya (FPR/LZ), Socialist Party of Honduras
Central American Workers Revolutionary Party (PASO/PRTC)


_#_Other political or pressure groups: National Association of
Honduran Campesinos (ANACH), Honduran Council of Private Enterprise
(COHEP), Confederation of Honduran Workers (CTH), National Union of
Campesinos (UNC), General Workers Confederation (CGT), United Federation
of Honduran Workers (FUTH), Committee for the Defense of Human Rights in
Honduras (CODEH), Coordinating Committee of Popular Organizations (CCOP)


_#_Member of: BCIE, CACM, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU,
IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES,
LAIA (observer), LORCS, OAS, OPANAL, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Jorge Ramon HERNANDEZ
Alcerro; Chancery at Suite 100, 4301 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington
DC 20008; telephone (202) 966-7700 through 7702; there are Honduran
Consulates General in Chicago, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York,
and San Francisco, and Consulates in Baton Rouge, Boston, Detroit,
Houston, and Jacksonville;

US--Ambassador S. Crescencio ARCOS; Embassy at Avenida La Paz,
Tegucigalpa (mailing address is APO Miami 34022); telephone [504] 32-3120


_#_Flag: three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and blue
with five blue five-pointed stars arranged in an X pattern centered
in the white band; the stars represent the members of the former Federal
Republic of Central America--Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala,
Honduras, and Nicaragua; similar to the flag of El Salvador which
features a round emblem encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE EL
SALVADOR EN LA AMERICA CENTRAL centered in the white band; also
similar to the flag of Nicaragua which features a triangle
encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE NICARAGUA on top and AMERICA
CENTRAL on the bottom, centered in the white band


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Honduras is one of the poorest countries in the Western
Hemisphere. Agriculture, the most important sector of the economy,
accounts for nearly 30% of GDP, employs 62% of the labor force, and
produces two-thirds of exports. Productivity remains low. Industry,
still in its early stages, employs nearly 9% of the labor force,
accounts for 15% of GDP, and generates 20% of exports. The service
sectors, including public administration, account for 50% of GDP and
employ nearly 20% of the labor force.  Basic problems facing the
economy include rapid population growth, high unemployment, sharply
increased inflation, a lack of basic services, a large and inefficient
public sector, and the dependence of the export sector mostly on coffee
and bananas, which are subject to sharp price fluctuations. Despite
government efforts at reform and large-scale foreign assistance, the
economy still is unable to take advantage of its sizable natural
resources.


_#_GDP: $4.9 billion, per capita $960; real growth rate -1.0% (1990)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 35.2% (1990 est.)


_#_Unemployment rate: 15% unemployed, 30-40% underemployed (1989)


_#_Budget: revenues $1.4 billion; expenditures $1.9 billion,
including capital expenditures of $511 million (1990 est.)


_#_Exports: $939 million (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities--bananas, coffee, shrimp, lobster, minerals, lumber;

partners--US 52%, FRG 11%, Japan, Italy, Belgium


_#_Imports: $1.1 billion (c.i.f. 1990);

commodities--machinery and transport equipment, chemical products,
manufactured goods, fuel and oil, foodstuffs;

partners--US 39%, Japan 9%, CACM, Venezuela, Mexico


_#_External debt: $2.8 billion (1990)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate 2.9% (1989); accounts for
15% of GDP


_#_Electricity: 668,000 kW capacity; 2,023 million kWh produced,
380 kWh per capita (1990)


_#_Industries: agricultural processing (sugar and coffee), textiles,
clothing, wood products


_#_Agriculture: most important sector, accounting for nearly 30% of
GDP, over 60% of the labor force, and two-thirds of exports; principal
products include bananas, coffee, timber, beef, citrus fruit, shrimp;
importer of wheat


_#_Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis, cultivated on
small plots and used principally for local consumption; transshipment
point for cocaine


_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1.4
billion; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $1,027 million


_#_Currency: lempira (plural--lempiras); 1 lempira (L) = 100 centavos


_#_Exchange rates: lempiras (L) per US$1--5.30 (fixed rate); 5.70
parallel black-market rate (November 1990)


_#_Fiscal year: calendar year


_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 785 km total; 508 km 1.067-meter gauge, 277 km
0.914-meter gauge


_#_Highways: 8,950 km total; 1,700 km paved, 5,000 km otherwise
improved, 2,250 km unimproved earth


_#_Inland waterways: 465 km navigable by small craft


_#_Ports: Puerto Castilla, Puerto Cortes, San Lorenzo


_#_Merchant marine: 173 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 527,481
GRT/812,095 DWT; includes 2 passenger-cargo, 107 cargo, 12 refrigerated
cargo, 9 container, 1 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 20 petroleum, oils, and
lubricants (POL) tanker, 1 chemical tanker, 2 specialized tanker, 1
vehicle carrier, 18 bulk; note--a flag of convenience registry; the
USSR owns one ship under the Honduran flag


_#_Civil air: 9 major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 175 total, 134 usable; 8 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 4 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 13 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: improved, but still inadequate; connection into
Central American Microwave System; 35,100 telephones; stations--176 AM,
no FM, 28 TV, 7 shortwave; 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy (including Marines), Air Force, Public
Security Forces (FUSEP)


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 1,106,630; 659,520 fit for
military service; 58,953 reach military age (18) annually


_#_Defense expenditures: $82.5 million, 1.9% of GDP (1990 est.)
_%_
_@_Hong Kong
(dependent territory of the UK)
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 1,040 km2; land area: 990 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly less than six times the size of
Washington, DC


_#_Land boundary: 30 km with China


_#_Coastline: 733 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: 3 nm;

Territorial sea: 3 nm


_#_Climate: tropical monsoon; cool and humid in winter, hot and rainy
from spring through summer, warm and sunny in fall


_#_Terrain: hilly to mountainous with steep slopes; lowlands in north


_#_Natural resources: outstanding deepwater harbor, feldspar


_#_Land use: arable land 7%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures
1%; forest and woodland 12%; other 79%; includes irrigated 3%


_#_Environment: more than 200 islands; occasional typhoons


_*_People
_#_Population: 5,855,800 (July 1991), growth rate 0.6% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 13 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: - 2 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 7 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 77 years male, 84 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 1.4 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: adjective--Hong Kong


_#_Ethnic divisions: Chinese 98%, other 2%


_#_Religion: eclectic mixture of local religions 90%, Christian 10%


_#_Language: Chinese (Cantonese), English


_#_Literacy: 77% (male 90%, female 64%) age 15 and over having ever
attended school (1971)


_#_Labor force: 2,800,000 (1990); manufacturing 28.5%, wholesale and
retail trade, restaurants, and hotels 27.9%, services 17.7%,
financing, insurance, and real estate 9.2%, transport and communications
4.5%, construction 2.5%, other 9.7% (1989)


_#_Organized labor: 16% of labor force (1990)


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: none; abbreviated HK


_#_Type: dependent territory of the UK; scheduled to revert to
China in 1997


_#_Capital: Victoria


_#_Administrative divisions: none (dependent territory of the UK)


_#_Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK); the UK
signed an agreement with China on 19 December 1984 to return Hong Kong to
China on 1 July 1997; in the joint declaration, China promises to respect
Hong Kong's existing social and economic systems and lifestyle for 50
years after transition


_#_Constitution: unwritten; partly statutes, partly common law and
practice; new Basic Law approved in March 1990 in preparation for 1997


_#_Legal system: based on English common law


_#_National holiday: Liberation Day, 29 August (1945)


_#_Executive branch: British monarch, governor, chief secretary of the
Executive Council


_#_Legislative branch: Legislative Council


_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952);

Head of Government--Governor Sir David Clive WILSON (since 9
April 1987);
Chief Secretary Sir David Robert FORD (since NA February 1987)


_#_Political parties:
United Democrats of Hong Kong (UDHK), Martin LEE Chu-ming;
Liberal Democratic Federation (LDF), HU Fa-kuang;
Hong Kong Democratic Foundation (HKDF), Patrick SHIU Kin-ying;
Association for Democracy and People's Livelihood (ADPL),
Frederick FUNG Kin-kee;
Meeting Point, Anthony CHEUNG Bing-leung;
Progressive Hong Kong Society (PHKS), Maria TAM Wai-chu


_#_Suffrage: direct election--universal at age 21
as a permanent resident living in the territory of Hong Kong for
the past seven years; indirect election--limited to about 100,000
professionals of electoral college and functional constituencies


_#_Elections:

Legislative Council--indirect elections last held 12 September 1991
and direct elections held 15 September 1991 (next to be held by
September 1995);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(60 total;
21 indirectly elected by functional constituencies, 18 directly elected,
18 appointed by governor, 3 ex officio members) indirect
elections--number of seats by functional constituency NA; direct
elections--UDHK 12, Meeting Point 2, ADPL 1, other 3; note--direct
elections were held for the first time in September 1991


_#_Communists: 5,000 (est.) cadres affiliated with Communist Party
of China


_#_Other political or pressure groups:
Federation of Trade Unions (pro-China), Hong Kong and Kowloon Trade
Union Council (pro-Taiwan), Confederation of Trade Unions (prodemocracy),
Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce, Chinese General Chamber of
Commerce (pro-China), Federation of Hong Kong Industries, Chinese
Manufacturers' Association of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Professional Teachers'
Union, Hong Kong Alliance in Support of the Patriotic Democratic Movement
in China


_#_Member of: AsDB, CCC, ESCAP (associate), GATT, ICFTU,
IMO (associate), IOC, ISO (correspondent), WCL, WMO


_#_Diplomatic representation: as a dependent territory of the UK,
the interests of Hong Kong in the US are represented by the UK;

US--Consul General Richard L. WILLIAMS; Consulate General at
26 Garden Road, Hong Kong (mailing address is Box 30, Hong Kong, or
FPO San Francisco 96659-0002); telephone [852] (5) 845-1598


_#_Flag: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant
with the Hong Kong coat of arms on a white disk centered on the outer
half of the flag; the coat of arms contains a shield (bearing two junks
below a crown) held by a lion (representing the UK) and a dragon
(representing China) with another lion above the shield and a banner
bearing the words HONG KONG below the shield


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Hong Kong has a free market economy with few tariffs
or nontariff barriers. Natural resources are limited, and food and raw
materials must be imported. Manufacturing accounts for about 18% of
GDP, employs 28% of the labor force, and exports about 90% of its
output. Real GDP growth averaged a remarkable 8% in 1987-88, then
slowed to 2.5-3.0% in 1989-90. Unemployment, which has been declining
since the mid-1980s, is now less than 2%. A shortage of labor continues
to put upward pressure on prices and the cost of living. Short-term
prospects remain solid so long as major trading partners continue to be
prosperous. The crackdown in China in 1989-90 casts a long shadow over
the longer term economic outlook.


_#_GDP: $64.0 billion, per capita $11,000; real growth rate 2.5%
(1990)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 9.8% (1990)


_#_Unemployment rate: 1.8% (1990)


_#_Budget: $8.8 billion (FY90)


_#_Exports: $80.3 billion (f.o.b., 1990), including reexports of
$51.2 billion;

commodities--clothing, textile yarn and fabric, footwear,
electrical appliances, watches and clocks, toys;

partners--US 32%, China 19%, FRG 7%, UK 6%, Japan 6% (1989)


_#_Imports: $79.5 billion (c.i.f., 1990);

commodities--foodstuffs, transport equipment, raw materials,
semimanufactures, petroleum;

partners--China 35%, Japan 17%, Taiwan 9%, US 8% (1989)


_#_External debt: $9.5 billion (December 1990 est.)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate 1.7% (1989)


_#_Electricity: 8,485,000 kW capacity; 25,000 million kWh produced,
4,340 kWh per capita (1990)


_#_Industries: textiles, clothing, tourism, electronics, plastics,
toys, watches, clocks


_#_Agriculture: minor role in the economy; rice, vegetables, dairy
products; less than 20% self-sufficient; shortages of rice, wheat, water


_#_Illicit drugs: a hub for Southeast Asian heroin trade;
transshipment and major financial and money-laundering center


_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-87), $152
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $910 million


_#_Currency: Hong Kong dollar (plural--dollars);
1 Hong Kong dollar (HK$) = 100 cents


_#_Exchange rates: Hong Kong dollars (HK$) per US$--7.800 (March
1989), 7.810 (1988), 7.760 (1987), 7.795 (1986), 7.811 (1985);
note--linked to the US dollar at the rate of about 7.8 HK$ per 1 US$
since 1985


_#_Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March


_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 35 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, government owned


_#_Highways: 1,484 km total; 794 km paved, 306 km gravel, crushed
stone, or earth


_#_Ports: Hong Kong


_#_Merchant marine: 134 ships (1,000 GRT or over), totaling 4,690,770
GRT/8,091,177 DWT; includes 1 passenger, 1 short-sea passenger, 16 cargo,
5 refrigerated cargo, 16 container, 1 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 9
petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 2 chemical tanker, 6
combination ore/oil, 6 liquefied gas, 71 bulk; note--a flag of
convenience registry; ships registered in Hong Kong fly the UK flag and
an estimated 500 Hong Kong-owned ships are registered elsewhere


_#_Civil air: 16 major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 2 total; 2 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
none with runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: modern facilities provide excellent domestic
and international services; 3,000,000 telephones; microwave transmission
links and extensive optical fiber transmission network; stations--6 AM,
6 FM, 4 TV; 1 British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) relay station and
1 British Forces Broadcasting Service relay station; 2,500,000 radio
receivers; 1,312,000 TV sets (1,224,000 color TV sets); satellite earth
stations--1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT and 2 Indian Ocean INTELSAT; coaxial
cable to Guangzhou, China; links to 5 international submarine cables
providing access to ASEAN member nations, Japan, Taiwan, Australia,
Middle East, and Western Europe


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Headquarters of British Forces, Royal Navy, Royal
Air Force, Royal Hong Kong Auxiliary Air Force, Gurkha Brigade,
Royal Hong Kong Police Force


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 1,718,112; 1,328,230 fit for
military service; 45,437 reach military age (18) annually


_#_Defense expenditures: $300 million, 0.5% of GDP (1989 est.);
this represents one-fourth of the total cost of defending itself,
the remainder being paid by the UK


_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of the UK
_%_
_@_Howland Island
(territory of the US)
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 1.6 km2; land area: 1.6 km2


_#_Comparative area: about 2.7 times the size of The Mall in
Washington, DC


_#_Land boundaries: none


_#_Coastline: 6.4 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth);

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm


_#_Climate: equatorial; scant rainfall, constant wind, burning sun


_#_Terrain: low-lying, nearly level, sandy, coral island surrounded by
a narrow fringing reef; depressed central area


_#_Natural resources: guano (deposits worked until late 1800s)


_#_Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
0%; forest and woodland 5%; other 95%


_#_Environment: almost totally covered with grasses, prostrate vines,
and low-growing shrubs; small area of trees in the center; lacks fresh
water; primarily a nesting, roosting, and foraging habitat for seabirds,
shorebirds, and marine wildlife; feral cats


_#_Note: remote location 2,575 km southwest of Honolulu in the North
Pacific Ocean, just north of the Equator, about halfway between Hawaii
and Australia


_*_People
_#_Population: uninhabited


_#_Note: American civilians evacuated in 1942 after Japanese air and
naval attacks during World War II; occupied by US military during World
War II, but abandoned after the war; public entry is by special-use
permit only and generally restricted to scientists and educators


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: none


_#_Type: unincorporated territory of the US administered by the Fish
and Wildlife Service of the US Department of the Interior as part of the
National Wildlife Refuge System


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: no economic activity


_*_Communications
_#_Airports: airstrip constructed in 1937 for scheduled refueling
stop on the round-the-world flight of Amelia Earhart and Fred
Noonan--they left Lae, New Guinea, for Howland Island, but were never
seen again; the airstrip is no longer serviceable


_#_Ports: none; offshore anchorage only, one boat landing area along
the middle of the west coast


_#_Note: Earhart Light is a day beacon near the middle of the west
coast that was partially destroyed during World War II, but has since
been rebuilt in memory of famed aviatrix Amelia Earhart


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of the US; visited annually
by the US Coast Guard
_%_
_@_Hungary
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 93,030 km2; land area: 92,340 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than Indiana


_#_Land boundaries: 2,251 km total; Austria 366 km, Czechoslovakia 676
km, Romania 443 km, USSR 135 km, Yugoslavia 631 km


_#_Coastline: none--landlocked


_#_Maritime claims: none--landlocked


_#_Disputes: Nagymaros Dam dispute with Czechoslovakia


_#_Climate: temperate; cold, cloudy, humid winters; warm summers


_#_Terrain: mostly flat to rolling plains


_#_Natural resources: bauxite, coal, natural gas, fertile soils


_#_Land use: arable land 54%; permanent crops 3%; meadows and pastures
14%; forest and woodland 18%; other 11%; includes irrigated 2%


_#_Environment: levees are common along many streams, but flooding
occurs almost every year


_#_Note: landlocked; strategic location astride main land routes
between Western Europe and Balkan Peninsula as well as between USSR and
Mediterranean basin


_*_People
_#_Population: 10,558,001 (July 1991), growth rate - 0.1% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 12 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 13 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 14 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 68 years male, 76 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 1.8 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--Hungarian(s); adjective--Hungarian


_#_Ethnic divisions: Hungarian 96.6%, German 1.6%, Slovak 1.1%,
Southern Slav 0.3%, Romanian 0.2%


_#_Religion: Roman Catholic 67.5%, Calvinist 20.0%, Lutheran 5.0%,
atheist and other 7.5%


_#_Language: Hungarian 98.2%, other 1.8%


_#_Literacy: 99% (male 99%, female 98%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1980)


_#_Labor force: 4,860,000; services, trade, government, and other
43.2%, industry 30.9%, agriculture 18.8%, construction 7.1% (1988)


_#_Organized labor: 96.5% of labor force; Central Council of Hungarian
Trade Unions (SZOT) includes 19 affiliated unions, all controlled by the
government; independent unions legal; may be as many as 12 small
independent unions in operation


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of Hungary


_#_Type: republic


_#_Capital: Budapest


_#_Administrative divisions: 19 counties (megyek, singular--megye)
and 1 capital city* (fovaros); Bacs-Kiskun, Baranya, Bekes,
Borsod-Abauj-Zemplen, Budapest*, Csongrad, Fejer,
Gyor-Moson-Sopron, Hajdu-Bihar, Heves, Jasz-Nagykun-Szolnok,
Komarom-Esztergom, Nograd, Pest, Somogy, Szabolcs-Szatmar-Bereg,
Tolna, Vas, Veszprem, Zala


_#_Independence: 1001, unification by King Stephen I


_#_Constitution: 18 August 1949, effective 20 August 1949, revised
19 April 1972; 18 October 1989 revision ensures legal rights for
individuals and constitutional checks on the authority of the prime
minister and established the principle of parliamentary oversight


_#_Legal system: in process of revision, moving toward rule of law
based on Western model


_#_National holiday: October 23 (1956); commemorates the Hungarian
uprising


_#_Executive branch: president, prime minister


_#_Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly
(Orszaggyules)


_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court, may be restructured as part of
ongoing government overhaul


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--President Arpad GONCZ (since 3 August 1990;
previously interim President from 2 May 1990);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Jozsef ANTALL
(since 23 May 1990)


_#_Political parties and leaders:
Democratic Forum, Jozsef ANTALL, chairman;
Free Democrats, Janos KIS, chairman;
Independent Smallholders, Ferenc Jozsef NAGY, president;
Hungarian Socialist Party (MSP), Gyula HORN, chairman;
Young Democrats, Gabor FODOR, head;
Christian Democrats, Dr. Lazlo SURJAN, president;
note--the Hungarian Socialist (Communist) Workers' Party (MSZMP)
renounced Communism and became the Hungarian Socialist Party (MSP) in
October 1989


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


_#_Elections:

President last held 3 August 1990 (next to be held August 1995);
elected by the National Assembly with a total of 294 votes out of 304;
President GONCZ was elected by the National Assembly as interim President
from 2 May 1990 until elected President;

National Assembly--last held on 25 March 1990 (first round, with
the second round held 8 April 1990);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(394 total) Democratic Forum 165, Free Democrats 92,
Independent Smallholders 43, Hungarian Socialist Party (MSP) 33,
Young Democrats 21, Christian Democrats 21, independent candidates
or jointly sponsored candidates 19


_#_Communists: fewer than 100,000 (December 1989)


_#_Member of: BIS, CCC, CE, CSCE, ECE, FAO, G-9, GATT,
IAEA, IBEC, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFC, IIB, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO,
ITU, LORCS, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIIMOG, UPU, WFTU,
WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador (vacant);
Chancery at 3910 Shoemaker Street NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone
(202) 362-6730; there is a Hungarian Consulate General in New York;

US--Ambassador Charles THOMAS; Embassy at V. Szabadsag
Ter 12, Budapest (mailing address is APO New York 09213); telephone [36]
(1) 112-6450


_#_Flag: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and green


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Agriculture is an important sector, providing sizable
export earnings and meeting domestic food needs. Industry accounts for
about 40% of GNP and 30% of employment. About 40% of Hungary's foreign
trade is with the USSR and Eastern Europe and a third is with the EC.
Low rates of growth reflect the inability of the Soviet-style economy to
modernize capital plant and motivate workers. GNP declined by 1% in 1989
and by an estimated 6% in 1990. Since 1985 external debt has more than
doubled, to over $20 billion. In recent years Hungary has experimented
widely with decentralized and market-oriented enterprises. The newly
democratic government has renounced the Soviet economic growth model and
plans to open the economy to wider market forces and to much closer
economic relations with Western Europe. Prime Minister Antall has
declared his intention to move foward on privatization of state
enterprises, provision for bankruptcy, land reform, and marketization of
international trade, but concerns over acceptable levels of unemployment
and inflation may slow the reform process.


_#_GNP: $60.9 billion, per capita $5,800; real growth rate - 5.7%
(1990 est.)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 30% (1990 est.)


_#_Unemployment rate: 1.7% (1990)


_#_Budget: revenues $18.2 billion; expenditures $18.3 billion,
including capital expenditures of $805 million (1989)


_#_Exports: $10.2 billion (f.o.b. 1989);

commodities--capital goods 33%, foods 25%, consumer goods 16%,
fuels 1.5%, other 24.5%;

partners USSR and Eastern Europe 42%, developed countries 37.4%,
less developed countries 20.6% (1989)


_#_Imports: $10.1 billion (c.i.f., 1989);

commodities--capital goods 15%, fuels 20%, manufactured
consumer goods 12.4%, agriculture 5%, other 47.6%;

partners--USSR and Eastern Europe 34.9%, developed countries 45.5%,
less developed countries 16.6%, US 3%


_#_External debt: $20.7 billion (1989)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate - 7.9% (1990 est.)


_#_Electricity: 7,800,000 kW capacity; 30,400 million kWh produced,
2,870 kWh per capita (1990)


_#_Industries: mining, metallurgy, engineering industries, processed
foods, textiles, chemicals (especially pharmaceuticals)


_#_Agriculture: including forestry, accounts for about 15% of GNP
and 19% of employment; highly diversified crop-livestock farming;
principal crops--wheat, corn, sunflowers, potatoes, sugar beets;
livestock--hogs, cattle, poultry, dairy products; self-sufficient in
food output


_#_Economic aid: donor--$2.0 billion in bilateral aid to non-Communist
less developed countries (1962-89)


_#_Currency: forint (plural--forints); 1 forint (Ft) = 100 filler


_#_Exchange rates: forints (Ft) per US$1--60.95 (December 1990), 63.21
(1990), 59.07 (1989), 50.41 (1988), 46.97 (1987), 45.83 (1986), 50.12
(1985)


_#_Fiscal year: calendar year


_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 7,765 km total; 7,508 km 1.435-meter standard gauge,
222 km narrow gauge (mostly 0.760-meter), 35 km 1.520-meter broad gauge;
1,147 km double track, 2,161 km electrified; all government owned (1988)


_#_Highways: 130,014 km total; 29,715 km national highway
system--26,834 km asphalt and bitumen, 142 km concrete, 51 km stone and
road brick, 2,276 km macadam, 412 km unpaved; 58,495 km country roads
(66% unpaved), and 41,804 km (est.) other roads (70% unpaved) (1988)


_#_Inland waterways: 1,622 km (1988)


_#_Pipelines: crude oil, 1,204 km; refined products, 630 km;
natural gas, 3,895 km (1986)


_#_Ports: Budapest and Dunaujvaros are river ports on the Danube;
maritime outlets are Rostock (Germany), Gdansk (Poland), Gdynia (Poland),
Szczecin (Poland), Galati (Romania), and Braila (Romania)


_#_Merchant marine: 16 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) and 1 bulk
totaling 94,393 GRT/131,946 DWT


_#_Civil air: 28 major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 90 total, 90 usable; 20 with permanent-surface runways;
2 with runways over 3,659 m; 10 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 15 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: telephone density is at 17 per 100 inhabitants;
49% of all phones are in Budapest; 12-15 year wait for a phone; 16,000
telex lines (June 1990); stations--13 AM, 12 FM, 21 TV (8 Soviet
TV relays); 4.2 TVs (1990)


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Ground Forces, Air and Air Defense Forces, Frontier
Guard, Civil Defense


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 2,667,234; 2,130,749 fit for
military service; 88,851 reach military age (18) annually


_#_Defense expenditures: 43.7 billion forints, NA% of GDP (1989);
note--conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the
official administratively set exchange rate would produce misleading
results
_%_
_@_Iceland
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 103,000 km2; land area: 100,250 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than Kentucky


_#_Land boundaries: none


_#_Coastline: 4,988 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: edge of continental margin or 200 nm;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm


_#_Disputes: Rockall continental shelf dispute involving Denmark,
Ireland, and the UK (Ireland and the UK have signed a boundary agreement
in the Rockall area)


_#_Climate: temperate; moderated by North Atlantic Current; mild,
windy winters; damp, cool summers


_#_Terrain: mostly plateau interspersed with mountain peaks,
icefields; coast deeply indented by bays and fiords


_#_Natural resources: fish, hydroelectric and geothermal power,
diatomite


_#_Land use: arable land NEGL%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and
pastures 23%; forest and woodland 1%; other 76%


_#_Environment: subject to earthquakes and volcanic activity


_#_Note: strategic location between Greenland and Europe;
westernmost European country


_*_People
_#_Population: 259,742 (July 1991), growth rate 1.0% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 17 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 7 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 75 years male, 80 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 2.2 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--Icelander(s); adjective--Icelandic


_#_Ethnic divisions: homogeneous mixture of descendants of Norwegians
and Celts


_#_Religion: Evangelical Lutheran 96%, other Protestant and Roman
Catholic 3%, none 1% (1988)


_#_Language: Icelandic


_#_Literacy: 100% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1976 est.)


_#_Labor force: 134,429; commerce, finance, and services 55.4%, other
manufacturing 14.3%., agriculture 5.8%, fish processing 7.9%, fishing
5.0% (1986)


_#_Organized labor: 60% of labor force


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of Iceland


_#_Type: republic


_#_Capital: Reykjavik


_#_Administrative divisions: 23 counties (syslar, singular--sysla)
and 14 independent towns* (kaupstadhir, singular--kaupstadhur); Akranes*,
Akureyri*, Arnessysla, Austur-Bardhastrandarsysla,
Austur-Hunavatnssysla, Austur-Skaftafellssysla,
Borgarfjardharsysla, Dalasysla, Eyjafjardharsysla,
Gullbringusysla, Hafnarfjordhur*, Husavik*, Isafjordhur*,
Keflavik*, Kjosarsysla, Kopavogur*, Myrasysla,
Neskaupstadhur*, Nordhur-Isafjardharsysla, Nordhur-Mulasysla,
Nordhur-Thingeyjarsysla, Olafsfjordhur*, Rangarvallasysla,
Reykjavik*, Saudharkrokur*, Seydhisfjordhur*, Siglufjordhur*,
Skagafjardharsysla, Snaefellsnes-og Hnappadalssysla, Strandasysla,
Sudhur-Mulasysla, Sudhur-Thingeyjarsysla, Vestmannaeyjar*,
Vestur-Bardhastrandarsysla, Vestur-Hunavatnssysla,
Vestur-Isafjardharsysla, Vestur-Skaftafellssysla


_#_Independence: 17 June 1944 (from Denmark)


_#_Constitution: 16 June 1944, effective 17 June 1944


_#_Legal system: civil law system based on Danish law; does not accept
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction


_#_National holiday: Anniversary of the Establishment of the Republic,
17 June (1944)


_#_Executive branch: president, prime minister, Cabinet


_#_Legislative branch: bicameral Althingi with an Upper
House (Efri Deild) and a Lower House (Nedri Deild)


_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Haestirettur)


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--President Vigdis FINNBOGADOTTIR (since 1
August 1980);

Head of Government--Prime Minister David ODDSSON (since
30 April 1991)


_#_Political parties and leaders:
Independence (conservative), David ODDSSON;
Progressive, Steingrimur HERMANNSSON;
Social Democratic, Jon Baldvin HANNIBALSSON;
People's Alliance (left socialist), Olafur Ragnar GRIMSSON;
Citizens Party (conservative nationalist), Julius SOLNES;
Women's List


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 20


_#_Elections:

President--last held on 29 June 1980 (next scheduled for June
1992); results--there were no elections in 1984 and 1988 as President
Vigdis FINNBOGADOTTIR was unopposed;

Althing--last held on 20 April 1991 (next to be held by
April 1995);
results--Independence 38.6%, Progressive 18.9%, Social Democratic 15.5%,
People's Alliance 14.4%, Womens List 8.13%, Liberals 1.2%, other 3.27%
seats--(63 total) Independence 26, Progressive 13, Social Democratic 10,
People's Alliance 9, Womens List 5


_#_Communists: less than 100 (est.), some of whom participate in the
People's Alliance


_#_Member of: BIS, CCC, CE, CSCE, EBRD, ECE, EFTA, FAO, GATT, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC,
ISO (correspondent), ITU, LORCS, NATO, NC, NEA, NIB, OECD, PCA, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Tomas A. TOMASSON; Chancery
at 2022 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202)
265-6653 through 6655; there is an Icelandic Consulate General in New
York;

US--Ambassador Charles E. COBB, Jr.; Embassy at Laufasvegur 21,
Box 40, Reykjavik (mailing address is FPO New York 09571-0001); telephone
[354] (1) 29100


_#_Flag: blue with a red cross outlined in white that extends to the
edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist
side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Iceland's prosperous Scandinavian-type economy is
basically capitalistic, but with extensive welfare measures, low
unemployment, and comparatively even distribution of income. The economy
is heavily dependent on the fishing industry, which provides nearly 75%
of export earnings. In the absence of other natural resources, Iceland's
economy is vulnerable to changing world fish prices. As a result of
climbing fish prices in 1990 and a noninflationary labor agreement,
Iceland is pulling out of a recession, which began in mid-1988 with a
sharp decline in fish prices and an imposition of quotas on fish catches
to conserve stocks. Inflation was down sharply from 20% in 1989
to 8% in 1990.


_#_GDP: $4.2 billion, per capita $16,300; real growth rate 0%
(1990)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7.8% (1990)


_#_Unemployment rate: 1.8% (1990)


_#_Budget: revenues $1.58 billion; expenditures $1.66 billion,
including capital expenditures of $NA million (1990)


_#_Exports: $1.6 billion (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities--fish and fish products, animal products, aluminum,
diatomite;

partners--EC 67.7% (UK 25.3%, FRG 12.7%), US 9.9%,
Japan 6%


_#_Imports: $1.7 billion (c.i.f., 1990);

commodities--machinery and transportation equipment, petroleum,
foodstuffs, textiles;

partners--EC 49.8% (FRG 12.4%, Denmark 8.6%, UK 8.1%), US 14.4%,
Japan 5.6%


_#_External debt: $3 billion (1990)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate - 0.8% (1988 est.); accounts
for 22% of GDP


_#_Electricity: 1,063,000 kW capacity; 5,165 million kWh produced,
20,780 kWh per capita (1989)


_#_Industries: fish processing, aluminum smelting, ferro-silicon
production, hydropower


_#_Agriculture: accounts for about 25% of GDP (including fishing);
fishing is most important economic activity, contributing nearly 75%
to export earnings; principal crops--potatoes and turnips;
livestock--cattle, sheep; self-sufficient in crops; fish catch of
about 1.4 million metric tons in 1989


_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-81), $19.1
million


_#_Currency: krona (plural--kronur);
1 Icelandic krona (IKr) = 100 aurar


_#_Exchange rates: Icelandic kronur (IKr) per US$1--55.216
(January 1991), 58.284 (1990), 57.042 (1989), 43.014 (1988), 38.677
(1987), 41.104 (1986), 41.508 (1985)


_#_Fiscal year: calendar year


_*_Communications
_#_Highways: 12,343 km total; 166 km bitumen and concrete; 1,284 km
bituminous treated and gravel; 10,893 km earth


_#_Ports: Reykjavik, Akureyri, Hafnarfjordhur, Keflavik,
Seydhisfjordhur, Siglufjordhur, Vestmannaeyjar; numerous minor ports


_#_Merchant marine: 16 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 53,409
GRT/73,279 DWT; includes 8 cargo, 2 refrigerated cargo, 1 container,
2 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 1 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker,
1 chemical tanker, 1 bulk


_#_Civil air: 20 major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 99 total, 92 usable; 4 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
14 with runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: adequate domestic service, wire and radio
communication system; 135,000 telephones; stations--10 AM, 17 (43 relays)
FM, 14 (132 relays) TV; 2 submarine cables; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT
earth station


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: no armed forces; State Criminal Police, Coast Guard;
Iceland's defense is provided by the US-manned Icelandic Defense Force
(IDF) headquartered at Keflavik


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 69,644; 62,248 fit for military
service; no conscription or compulsory military service


_#_Defense expenditures: none
_%_
_@_India
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 3,287,590 km2; land area: 2,973,190 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly more than one-third the size of the US


_#_Land boundaries: 14,103 km total; Bangladesh 4,053 km, Bhutan 605
km, Burma 1,463 km, China 3,380, Nepal 1,690 km, Pakistan 2,912 km


_#_Coastline: 7,000 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Continental shelf: edge of continental margin or 200 nm;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm


_#_Disputes: boundaries with Bangladesh, China, and Pakistan; water
sharing problems with downstream riparians, Bangladesh over the Ganges
and Pakistan over the Indus


_#_Climate: varies from tropical monsoon in south to temperate in
north


_#_Terrain: upland plain (Deccan Plateau) in south, flat to rolling
plain along the Ganges, deserts in west, Himalayas in north


_#_Natural resources: coal (fourth-largest reserves in the world),
iron ore, manganese, mica, bauxite, titanium ore, chromite, natural gas,
diamonds, crude oil, limestone


_#_Land use: arable land 55%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures
4%; forest and woodland 23%; other 17%; includes irrigated 13%


_#_Environment: droughts, flash floods, severe thunderstorms common;
deforestation; soil erosion; overgrazing; air and water pollution;
desertification


_#_Note: dominates South Asian subcontinent; near important
Indian Ocean trade routes


_*_People
_#_Population: 866,351,738 (July 1991), growth rate 1.9% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 29 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 10 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 87 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 57 years male, 59 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 3.7 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--Indian(s); adjective--Indian


_#_Ethnic divisions: Indo-Aryan 72%, Dravidian 25%, Mongoloid and
other 3%


_#_Religion: Hindu 82.6%, Muslim 11.4%, Christian 2.4%, Sikh 2.0%,
Buddhist 0.7%, Jains 0.5%, other 0.4%


_#_Language: Hindi, English, and 14 other official languages--Bengali,
Telugu, Marathi, Tamil, Urdu, Gujarati, Malayalam, Kannada, Oriya,
Punjabi, Assamese, Kashmiri, Sindhi, and Sanskrit; 24 languages spoken by
a million or more persons each; numerous other languages and dialects,
for the most part mutually unintelligible; Hindi is the national language
and primary tongue of 30% of the people; English enjoys associate status
but is the most important language for national, political, and
commercial communication; Hindustani, a popular variant of Hindi/Urdu, is
spoken widely throughout northern India


_#_Literacy: 48% (male 62%, female 34%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)


_#_Labor force: 284,400,000; 67% agriculture (FY85)


_#_Organized labor: less than 5% of the labor force


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of India


_#_Type: federal republic


_#_Capital: New Delhi


_#_Administrative divisions: 25 states and 7 union territories*;
Andaman and Nicobar Islands*, Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh,
Assam, Bihar, Chandigarh*, Dadra and Nagar Haveli*,
Daman and Diu*, Delhi*, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana,
Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Karnataka, Kerala,
Lakshadweep*, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya,
Mizoram, Nagaland, Orissa, Pondicherry*, Punjab, Rajasthan,
Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal


_#_Independence: 15 August 1947 (from UK)


_#_Constitution: 26 January 1950


_#_Legal system: based on English common law; limited judicial review
of legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with
reservations


_#_National holiday: Anniversary of the Proclamation of the Republic,
26 January (1950)


_#_Executive branch: president, vice president, prime minister,
Council of Ministers


_#_Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament (Sansad) consists of an
upper house or Council of States (Rajya Sabha) and a lower house or
House of the People (Lok Sabha)


_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--President Ramaswamy Iyer VENKATARAMAN (since 25
July 1987); Vice President Dr. Shankar Dayal SHARMA (since 3 September
1987);

Head of Government--Prime Minister P. V. Narasimha RAO (since
21 June 1991)


_#_Political parties and leaders:
Congress (I) Party, P. V. Narasimha RAO, president;
Bharatiya Janata Party, L. K. ADVANI;
Janata Dal Party, V. P. SINGH;
Communist Party of India/Marxist (CPI/M), E. M. S. NAMBOODIRIPAD;
Communist Party of India (CPI), C. Rajeswara RAO;
Telugu Desam (a regional party in Andhra Pradesh), N. T. Rama RAO;
All-India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazagham (AIADMK; a regional party
in Tamil Nadu), JAYALALITHA;
Samajwadi Janata Party, CHANDRA SHEKHAR;
Shiv Sena, Bal THACKERAY;
Revolutionary Socialist Party (RSP), Tridip CHOWDHURY;
Bahujana Samaj Party (BSP), Kanshi RAM;
Congress (S) Party, leader NA;
Communist Party of India/Marxist-Leninist (CPI/ML), Satyanarayan SINGH;
Dravida Munnetra Kazagham (a regional party in Tamil Nadu),
M. KARUNANIDHI;
Akali Dal factions representing Sikh religious community in the Punjab;
National Conference (NC; a regional party in Jammu and Kashmir), Farooq
ABDULLAH;
Asom Gana Parishad (a regional party in Assam), Prafulla MAHANTA


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


_#_Elections:

People's Assembly--last held 21 May, 12 and 15 June
1991 (next to be held by November 1996);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(545 total), 509 elected--Congress (I) Party 225,
Bharatiya Janata Party 117,
Janata Dal Party 55,
Communist Party of India (Marxist) 35,
Communist Party of India 13,
Telugu Desam 12,
AIADMK 11,
Samajwadi Janata Party 5,
Shiv Sena 4,
RSP 4,
BSP 1,
Congress (S) Party 1, other 26; note--second and third rounds of
voting were delayed because of the assassination of Congress
President Rajiv GANDHI on 21 May 1991


_#_Communists: 466,000 members claimed by CPI, 361,000 members claimed
by CPI/M; Communist extremist groups, about 15,000 members


_#_Other political or pressure groups: various separatist groups
seeking greater communal autonomy; numerous religious or
militant/chauvinistic organizations, including Adam Sena, Anand Marg,
Vishwa Hindu Parishad, and Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh


_#_Member of: AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, C, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-6,
G-19, G-24, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC,
ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS,
NAM, PCA, SAARC, UN, UNAVEM, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIIMOG, UPU,
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Abid HUSSEIN;
Chancery at 2107 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008;
telephone (202) 939-7000; there are Indian Consulates General in
Chicago, New York, and San Francisco;

US--Ambassador William CLARK, Jr.; Embassy at Shanti Path,
Chanakyapuri 110021, New Delhi; telephone [91] (11) 600651; there are US
Consulates General in Bombay, Calcutta, and Madras


_#_Flag: three equal horizontal bands of orange (top), white, and
green with a blue chakra (24-spoked wheel) centered in the white
band; similar to the flag of Niger which has a small orange disk centered
in the white band


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: India's economy is a mixture of traditional
village farming and handicrafts, modern agriculture, old and new branches
of industry, and a multitude of support services. It presents both the
entrepreneurial skills and drives of the capitalist system and
widespread government intervention of the socialist mold. Growth of 4%
to 5% annually in the 1980s has softened the impact of population growth
on unemployment, social tranquility, and the environment. Agricultural
output has continued to expand, reflecting the greater use of modern
farming techniques and improved seed that have helped to make India
self-sufficient in food grains and a net agricultural exporter. However,
tens of millions of villagers, particularly in the south, have not
benefited from the green revolution and live in abject poverty. Industry
has benefited from a partial liberalization of controls. The growth rate
of the service sector has also been strong. India, however, has been
challenged more recently by much lower foreign exchange reserves, higher
inflation, and a large debt service burden.


_#_GNP: $254 billion, per capita $300; real growth rate 4.5% (1990
est.)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 10.0% (1990)


_#_Unemployment rate: 20% (1990 est.)


_#_Budget: revenues $34 billion; expenditures $54 billion, including
capital expenditures of $13.3 billion (FY91)


_#_Exports: $17.0 billion (f.o.b., FY90);

commodities--gems and jewelry, engineering goods, clothing,
textiles, chemicals, tea, coffee, fish products;

partners--EC 25%, US 19%, USSR and Eastern Europe 17%, Japan 10%


_#_Imports: $24.8 billion (c.i.f., FY90);

commodities--petroleum, capital goods, uncut gems and jewelry,
chemicals, iron and steel, edible oils;

partners--EC 33%, Middle East 19%, Japan 10%, US 9%, USSR and
Eastern Europe 8%


_#_External debt: $69.8 billion (1990 est.)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate 8.4% (1990); accounts
for about 25% of GDP


_#_Electricity: 70,000,000 kW capacity; 245,000 million kWh produced,
290 kWh per capita (1990)


_#_Industries: textiles, food processing, steel, machinery,
transportation equipment, cement, jute manufactures, mining, petroleum,
power, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, electronics


_#_Agriculture: accounts for about 30% of GNP and employs 67% of
labor force; self-sufficient in food grains; principal crops--rice,
wheat, oilseeds, cotton, jute, tea, sugarcane, potatoes;
livestock--cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats and poultry; fish catch of
about 3 million metric tons ranks among the world's top 10 fishing
nations


_#_Illicit drugs: licit producer of opium poppy for the
pharmaceutical trade, but some opium is diverted to illicit
international drug markets; major transit country for illicit narcotics
produced in neighboring countries


_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $4.4
billion; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1980-88), $20.1 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $315 million;
USSR (1970-89), $11.6 billion; Eastern Europe (1970-89), $105 million


_#_Currency: Indian rupee (plural--rupees);
1 Indian rupee (Re) = 100 paise


_#_Exchange rates: Indian rupees (Rs) per US$1--18.329 (January
1990), 17.504 (1990), 16.226 (1989), 13.917 (1988), 12.962 (1987), 12.611
(1986), 12.369 (1985)


_#_Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March


_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 61,850 km total (1986); 33,553 km 1.676-meter broad
gauge, 24,051 km 1.000-meter gauge, 4,246 km narrow gauge (0.762 meter
and 0.610 meter); 12,617 km is double track; 6,500 km is electrified


_#_Highways: 1,633,300 km total (1986); 515,300 km secondary and
1,118,000 km gravel, crushed stone, or earth


_#_Inland waterways: 16,180 km; 3,631 km navigable by large vessels


_#_Pipelines: crude oil, 3,497 km; refined products, 1,703 km; natural
gas, 902 km (1989)


_#_Ports: Bombay, Calcutta, Cochin, Kandla, Madras, New Mangalore,
Port Blair (Andaman Islands)


_#_Merchant marine: 308 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 6,087,451
GRT/10,150,460 DWT; includes 1 short-sea passenger, 8 passenger-cargo,
100 cargo, 1 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 8 container, 54 petroleum, oils, and
lubricants (POL) tanker, 10 chemical tanker, 9 combination ore/oil,
115 bulk, 2 combination bulk


_#_Civil air: 93 major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 345 total, 288 usable; 198 with permanent-surface
runways; 2 with runways over 3,659 m; 57 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
88 with runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: poor domestic telephone service, international
radio communications adequate; 4,700,000 telephones; stations--96 AM,
4 FM, 274 TV (government controlled); domestic satellite system for
communications and TV; 3 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth stations; submarine
cables to Malaysia and United Arab Emirates


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Police Force, Border Security
Forces, Coast Guard, Assam Rifles


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 232,793,714; 137,259,444 fit
for military service; about 9,431,908 reach military age (17) annually


_#_Defense expenditures: $9.2 billion, 3.5% of GNP (FY91)
_%_
_@_Indian Ocean
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 73,600,000 km2; Arabian Sea, Bass Strait, Bay of
Bengal, Java Sea, Persian Gulf, Red Sea, Strait of Malacca, Timor Sea,
and other tributary water bodies


_#_Comparative area: slightly less than eight times the size of the
US; third-largest ocean (after the Pacific Ocean and Atlantic Ocean, but
larger than the Arctic Ocean)


_#_Coastline: 66,526 km


_#_Climate: northeast monsoon (December to April), southwest monsoon
(June to October); tropical cyclones occur during May/June and
October/November in the north Indian Ocean and January/February in the
south Indian Ocean


_#_Terrain: surface dominated by counterclockwise gyre (broad,
circular system of currents) in the south Indian Ocean; unique reversal
of surface currents in the north Indian Ocean--low pressure over
southwest Asia from hot, rising, summer air results in the southwest
monsoon and southwest-to-northeast winds and currents, while high
pressure over northern Asia from cold, falling, winter air results in the
northeast monsoon and northeast-to-southwest winds and currents; ocean
floor is dominated by the Mid-Indian Ocean Ridge and subdivided by the
Southeast Indian Ocean Ridge, Southwest Indian Ocean Ridge, and Ninety
East Ridge; maximum depth is 7,258 meters in the Java Trench


_#_Natural resources: oil and gas fields, fish, shrimp, sand and
gravel aggregates, placer deposits, polymetallic nodules


_#_Environment: endangered marine species include the dugong, seals,
turtles, and whales; oil pollution in the Arabian Sea, Persian Gulf, and
Red Sea


_#_Note: major choke points include Bab el Mandeb, Strait of Hormuz,
Strait of Malacca, southern access to the Suez Canal, and the Lombok
Strait; ships subject to superstructure icing in extreme south near
Antarctica from May to October


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The Indian Ocean provides a major transportation highway
for the movement of petroleum products from the Middle East to Europe
and North and South American countries. Fish from the ocean are of
growing economic importance to many of the bordering countries as a
source of both food and exports. Fishing fleets from the USSR, Japan,
Korea, and Taiwan also exploit the Indian Ocean for mostly shrimp and
tuna. Large reserves of hydrocarbons are being tapped in the offshore
areas of Saudi Arabia, Iran, India, and Western Australia. An estimated
40% of the world's offshore oil production comes from the Indian Ocean.
Beach sands rich in heavy minerals and offshore placer deposits are
actively exploited by bordering countries, particularly India, South
Africa, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, and Thailand.


_#_Industries: based on exploitation of natural resources,
particularly marine life, minerals, oil and gas production, fishing, sand
and gravel aggregates, placer deposits


_*_Communications
_#_Ports: Bombay (India), Calcutta (India), Madras (India),
Colombo (Sri Lanka), Durban (South Africa), Fremantle (Australia),
Jakarta (Indonesia), Melbourne (Australia), Richard's Bay (South Africa)


_#_Telecommunications: no submarine cables
_%_
_@_Indonesia
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 1,919,440 km2; land area: 1,826,440 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly less than three times the size of Texas


_#_Land boundaries: 2,602 km total; Malaysia 1,782 km, Papua New
Guinea 820 km


_#_Coastline: 54,716 km


_#_Maritime claims: (measured from claimed archipelagic baselines);

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm


_#_Disputes: sovereignty over Timor Timur (East Timor Province)
disputed with Portugal


_#_Climate: tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands


_#_Terrain: mostly coastal lowlands; larger islands have interior
mountains


_#_Natural resources: crude oil, tin, natural gas liquids, nickel,
timber, bauxite, copper, fertile soils, coal, gold, silver


_#_Land use: arable land 8%; permanent crops 3%; meadows and pastures
7%; forest and woodland 67%; other 15%; includes irrigated 3%


_#_Environment: archipelago of 13,500 islands (6,000 inhabited);
occasional floods, severe droughts, and tsunamis; deforestation


_#_Note: straddles Equator; strategic location astride or along major
sea lanes from Indian Ocean to Pacific Ocean


_*_People
_#_Population: 193,560,494 (July 1991), growth rate 1.8% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 26 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 8 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 73 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 59 years male, 63 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 3.0 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--Indonesian(s); adjective--Indonesian


_#_Ethnic divisions: majority of Malay stock comprising Javanese
45.0%, Sundanese 14.0%, Madurese 7.5%, coastal Malays 7.5%, other
26.0%


_#_Religion: Muslim 87%, Protestant 6%, Roman Catholic 3%,
Hindu 2%, Buddhist 1%, other 1% (1985)


_#_Language: Bahasa Indonesia (modified form of Malay; official);
English and Dutch leading foreign languages; local dialects, the most
widely spoken of which is Javanese


_#_Literacy: 77% (male 84%, female 68%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)


_#_Labor force: 67,000,000; agriculture 55%, manufacturing 10%,
construction 4%, transport and communications 3% (1985 est.)


_#_Organized labor: 3,000,000 members (claimed); about 5% of labor
force


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of Indonesia


_#_Type: republic


_#_Capital: Jakarta


_#_Administrative divisions: 24 provinces (propinsi-propinsi,
singular--propinsi), 2 special regions* (daerah-daerah istimewa,
singular--daerah istimewa), and 1 special capital city district**
(daerah khusus ibukota); Aceh*, Bali, Bengkulu, Irian Jaya, Jakarta
Raya**, Jambi, Jawa Barat, Jawa Tengah, Jawa Timur, Kalimantan Barat,
Kalimantan Selatan, Kalimantan Tengah, Kalimantan Timur, Lampung, Maluku,
Nusa Tenggara Barat, Nusa Tenggara Timur, Riau, Sulawesi Selatan,
Sulawesi Tengah, Sulawesi Tenggara, Sulawesi Utara, Sumatera Barat,
Sumatera Selatan, Sumatera Utara, Timor Timur, Yogyakarta*


_#_Independence: 17 August 1945 (from Netherlands; formerly
Netherlands or Dutch East Indies)


_#_Constitution: August 1945, abrogated by Federal Constitution of
1949 and Provisional Constitution of 1950, restored 5 July 1959


_#_Legal system: based on Roman-Dutch law, substantially modified by
indigenous concepts and by new criminal procedures code; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction


_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 17 August (1945)


_#_Executive branch: president, vice president, Cabinet


_#_Legislative branch: unicameral House of Representatives
(Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat or DPR); note--the People's Consultative
Assembly (Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat or MPR) includes the DPR plus
500 indirectly elected members who meet every five years to elect the
president and vice president and, theoretically, to determine national
policy


_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Mahkamah Agung)


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government--President Gen. (Ret.)
SOEHARTO (since 27 March 1968); Vice President Lt. Gen. (Ret.) SUDHARMONO
(since 11 March 1983)


_#_Political parties and leaders:
GOLKAR (quasi-official party based on functional groups), Lt. Gen. (Ret.)
WAHONO, general chairman;
Indonesia Democracy Party (PDI--federation of former Nationalist and
Christian Parties), SOERYADI, chairman;
Development Unity Party (PPP, federation of former Islamic parties),
Ismail Hasan METAREUM, chairman


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 17 and married persons regardless of age


_#_Elections:

House of Representatives--last held on 23 April 1987
(next to be held 23 April 1992);
results--Golkar 73%, UDP 16%, PDI 11%;
seats--(500 total--400 elected, 100 appointed) Golkar 299, UDP 61, PDI 40


_#_Communists: Communist Party (PKI) was officially banned in March
1966; current strength about 1,000-3,000, with less than 10% engaged in
organized activity; pre-October 1965 hardcore membership about 1.5
million


_#_Member of: APEC, AsDB, ASEAN, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-19, G-77,
GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO,
INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OIC,
OPEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIIMOG, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO,
WMO, WTO


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Abdul Rachman RAMLY;
Chancery at 2020 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20036;
telephone (202) 775-5200; there are Indonesian Consulates General in
Houston, New York, and Los Angeles, and Consulates in Chicago and San
Francisco;

US--Ambassador John C. MONJO; Embassy at Medan Merdeka Selatan 5,
Jakarta (mailing address is APO San Francisco 96356);
telephone [62] (21) 360-360; there are US Consulates in Medan and
Surabaya


_#_Flag: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; similar to
the flag of Monaco which is shorter; also similar to the flag of Poland
which is white (top) and red


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Indonesia is a mixed economy with many socialist
institutions and central planning but with a recent emphasis on
deregulation and private enterprise. Indonesia has extensive natural
wealth yet, with a large and rapidly increasing population, it remains a
poor country. GDP growth in 1985-89 averaged about 4%, somewhat short of
the more than 5% rate needed to absorb the 2.3 million workers annually
entering the labor force. Agriculture, including forestry and fishing, is
an important sector, accounting for 21% of GDP and over 50% of the labor
force. The staple crop is rice. Once the world's largest rice importer,
Indonesia is now nearly self-sufficient. Plantation crops--rubber and
palm oil--and textiles and plywood are being encouraged for both export
and job generation. Industrial output now accounts for 30% of GDP
based on a supply of diverse natural resources, including crude oil,
natural gas, timber, metals, and coal. Of these, the oil sector dominates
the external economy, generating more than 20% of the government's
revenues and 40% of export earnings in 1989. However, the economy's
growth is very dependent on the continuing expansion of nonoil exports.
Japan is Indonesia's most important customer and supplier of aid.


_#_GDP: $94 billion, per capita $490; real growth rate 6.0%
(1990 est.)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 10.8% (1990)


_#_Unemployment rate: 3%; underemployment 44% (1989 est.)


_#_Budget: revenues $17.2 billion; expenditures $23.4 billion,
including capital expenditures of $8.9 billion (FY91)


_#_Exports: $25.7 billion (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities--petroleum and liquefied natural gas 40%, timber 15%,
textiles 7%, rubber 5%, coffee 3%;

partners--Japan 40%, US 14%, Singapore 7%, Europe 16% (1990)


_#_Imports: $21.8 billion (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities--machinery 39%, chemical products 19%, manufactured
goods 16%;

partners--Japan 23%, US 13%, EC, Singapore


_#_External debt: $58.5 billion (1990 est.)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate 11.6% (1989 est.); accounts
for 30% of GDP


_#_Electricity: 11,600,000 kW capacity; 38,000 million kWh produced,
200 kWh per capita (1990)


_#_Industries: petroleum, textiles, mining, cement, chemical
fertilizers, plywood, food, rubber


_#_Agriculture: accounts for 23% of GDP, subsistence food production;
small-holder and plantation production for export; rice, cassava,
peanuts, rubber, cocoa, coffee, oil palm, copra, other tropical products;
products--poultry meat, beef, pork, eggs


_#_Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis for the international
drug trade, but not a major player; government actively eradicating
plantings and prosecuting traffickers


_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $4.4
billion; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $22.8 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $213 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $175 million


_#_Currency: Indonesian rupiah (plural--rupiahs);
1 Indonesian rupiah (Rp) = 100 sen (sen no longer used)


_#_Exchange rates: Indonesian rupiahs (Rp) per US$1--1,907.5 (January
1991), 1,842.8 (1990), 1,770.1 (1989), 1,685.7 (1988), 1,643.8 (1987),
1,282.6 (1986), 1,110.6 (1985)


_#_Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March


_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 6,964 km total; 6,389 km 1.067-meter gauge, 497 km
0.750-meter gauge, 78 km 0.600-meter gauge; 211 km double track; 101 km
electrified; all government owned


_#_Highways: 119,500 km total; 11,812 km state, 34,180 km provincial,
and 73,508 km district roads


_#_Inland waterways: 21,579 km total; Sumatra 5,471 km, Java and
Madura 820 km, Kalimantan 10,460 km, Celebes 241 km, Irian Jaya 4,587 km


_#_Pipelines: crude oil, 2,505 km; refined products, 456 km; natural
gas, 1,703 km (1989)


_#_Ports: Cilacap, Cirebon, Jakarta, Kupang, Palembang, Ujungpandang,
Semarang, Surabaya


_#_Merchant marine: 365 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,647,632
GRT/2,481,432 DWT; includes 5 short-sea passenger, 13 passenger-cargo,
215 cargo, 7 container, 3 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 2 vehicle carrier,
80 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 3 chemical tanker,
5 liquefied gas, 6 specialized tanker, 1 livestock carrier, 25 bulk


_#_Civil air: about 216 commercial transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 470 total, 436 usable; 111 with permanent-surface
runways; 1 with runways over 3,659 m; 12 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
63 with runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: interisland microwave system and HF police net;
domestic service fair, international service good; radiobroadcast
coverage good; 763,000 telephones (1986); stations--618 AM, 38 FM, 9 TV;
satellite earth stations--1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth station and
1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth station; and 1 domestic satellite
communications system


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, National Police


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 50,572,652; 29,893,127 fit for
military service; 2,149,673 reach military age (18) annually


_#_Defense expenditures: $1.4 billion, 1.8% of GNP (1988)
_%_
_@_Iran
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 1,648,000 km2; land area: 1,636,000 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than Alaska


_#_Land boundaries: 5,492 km total; Afghanistan 936 km, Iraq 1,458 km,
Pakistan 909 km, Turkey 499 km, USSR 1,690 km


_#_Coastline: 3,180 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: not specific;

Exclusive fishing zone: 50 nm in the Sea of Oman; continental
shelf limit, continental shelf boundaries, or median lines in the Persian
Gulf;

Territorial sea: 12 nm


_#_Disputes: Iran and Iraq restored diplomatic relations on 14
October 1990 following the end of the war that began on 22 September
1980; progress had been made on the major issues of contention--troop
withdrawal, prisoner-of-war exchanges, demarcation of the border,
freedom of navigation, and sovereignty over the the Shatt al Arab
waterway--but written agreements had yet to be drawn up when frictions
reemerged in March 1991 in the wake of Shia and Kurdish revolts in
Iraq that Baghdad accused Tehran of supporting;
Kurdish question among Iran, Iraq, Syria, Turkey, and the USSR;
occupies three islands in the Persian Gulf claimed by UAE (Jazireh-ye
Abu Musa or Abu Musa, Jazireh-ye Tonb-e Bozorg or
Greater Tunb, and Jazireh-ye Tonb-e Kuchek or Lesser Tunb); periodic
disputes with Afghanistan over Helmand water rights; Boluch question with
Afghanistan and Pakistan


_#_Climate: mostly arid or semiarid, subtropical along Caspian coast


_#_Terrain: rugged, mountainous rim; high, central basin with deserts,
mountains; small, discontinuous plains along both coasts


_#_Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, coal, chromium, copper,
iron ore, lead, manganese, zinc, sulfur


_#_Land use: arable land 8%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and
pastures 27%; forest and woodland 11%; other 54%; includes irrigated 2%


_#_Environment: deforestation; overgrazing; desertification


_*_People
_#_Population: 59,051,082 (July 1991), growth rate 3.6% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 44 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 9 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 66 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 64 years male, 65 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 6.6 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--Iranian(s); adjective--Iranian


_#_Ethnic divisions: Persian 51%, Azerbaijani 25%, Kurd 9%, Gilaki
and Mazandarani 8%, Lur 2%, Baloch 1%, Arab 1%, other 3%


_#_Religion: Shia Muslim 95%, Sunni Muslim 4%, Zoroastrian, Jewish,
Christian, and Bahai 1%


_#_Language: 58% Persian and Persian dialects, 26% Turkic and Turkic
dialects, 9% Kurdish, 2% Luri, 1% Baloch, 1% Arabic, 1% Turkish, 2% other


_#_Literacy: 54% (male 64%, female 43%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)


_#_Labor force: 15,400,000; agriculture 33%, manufacturing 21%;
shortage of skilled labor (1988 est.)


_#_Organized labor: none


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Islamic Republic of Iran


_#_Type: theocratic republic


_#_Capital: Tehran


_#_Administrative divisions: 24 provinces (ostanha,
singular--ostan); Azarbayjan-e Bakhtari,
Azarbayjan-e Khavari, Bakhtaran, Bushehr,
Chahar Mahall va Bakhtiari, Esfahan, Fars,
Gilan, Hamadan, Hormozgan, Ilam, Kerman,
Khorasan, Khuzestan, Kohkiluyeh va Buyer
Ahmadi, Kordestan, Lorestan, Markazi, Mazandaran,
Semnan, Sistan va Baluchestan, Tehran, Yazd, Zanjan


_#_Independence: 1 April 1979, Islamic Republic of Iran proclaimed


_#_Constitution: 2-3 December 1979; revised 1989 to expand powers of
the presidency and eliminate the prime ministership


_#_Legal system: the new Constitution codifies Islamic principles of
government


_#_National holiday: Islamic Republic Day, 1 April (1979)


_#_Executive branch: cleric (faqih), president, Council of Ministers


_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Islamic Consultative Assembly
(Majles-e-Shura-ye-Eslami)


_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court


_#_Leaders:

Cleric and functional Chief of State--Leader of the Islamic
Revolution Ayatollah Ali Hoseini-KHAMENEI (since 4 June 1989);

Head of Government--President Ali Akbar HASHEMI-RAFSANJANI
(since 3 August 1989);


_#_Political parties and leaders: there are at least 14 licensed
parties; the three most important are--Tehran Militant Clergy
Association, Mohammad Reza MAHDAVI-KANI;
Militant Clerics Association, Mehdi MAHDAVI-KARUBI and Mohammad Asqar
MUSAVI-KHOINIHA;
Fedaiyin Islam Organization, Sadeq KHALKHALI


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 15


_#_Elections:

President--last held NA July 1989 (next to be held April 1993);
results--Ali Akbar HASHEMI-RAFSANJANI was elected with only token
opposition;

Islamic Consultative Assembly--last held 8 April 1988 (next
to be held June 1992); results--percent of vote by party
NA;
seats--(270 seats total) number of seats by party NA


_#_Communists: 1,000 to 2,000 est. hardcore; 15,000 to 20,000 est.
sympathizers; crackdown in 1983 crippled the party; trials of captured
leaders began in late 1983 and remain incomplete


_#_Other political or pressure groups: groups that generally
support the Islamic Republic include Hizballah, Hojjatiyeh Society,
Mojahedin of the Islamic Revolution, Muslim Students Following the Line
of the Imam; armed political groups that have been almost completely
repressed by the government include Mojahedin Khalq Organization (MKO),
People's Fedayeen, and Kurdish Democratic Party; the Society for the
Defense of Freedom is a group of liberal nationalists that has been
repressed by the government for accusing it of corruption


_#_Member of: CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-19, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, ICC, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OIC, OPEC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO


_#_Diplomatic representation: none; protecting power in the US is
Algeria--Iranian Interests Section, 2209 Wisconsin Avenue NW,
Washington DC 20007; telephone (202) 965-4990;

US--protecting power in Iran is Switzerland


_#_Flag: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white, and red;
the national emblem (a stylized representation of the word Allah) in red
is
centered
in the white band; Allah Akbar (God is Great) in white Arabic
script is repeated 11 times along the bottom edge of the green band and
11 times along the top edge of the red band


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Since the 1979 revolution, the banks, petroleum industry,
transportation, utilities, and mining have been nationalized, but the
new five-year plan--the first since the revolution--passed in January
1990, calls for the transfer of many government-controlled enterprises
to the private sector. Disruptions from the bitter war with Iraq,
massive corruption, mismanagement, demographic pressures, and ideological
rigidities have kept economic growth at depressed levels. Oil accounts
for over 90% of export revenues. A combination of war damage and low oil
prices brought a 2% drop in GNP in 1988. GNP probably rose slightly in
1989, considerably short of the 3.2% population growth rate in 1989.
Heating oil and gasoline are rationed. Agriculture has suffered from the
war, land reform, and shortages of equipment and materials. The five-year
plan seeks to reinvigorate the economy by increasing the role of the
private sector, boosting nonoil income, and securing foreign loans. The
plan is overly ambitious but probably will generate some short-term
relief.


_#_GNP: $80.0 billion, per capita $1,400; real growth rate 0.5%
(1990 est.)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 30-50% (1989 est.)


_#_Unemployment rate: 30% (1989)


_#_Budget: revenues $63 billion; expenditures $80 billion, including
capital expenditures of $23 billion (FY90 est.)


_#_Exports: $12.3 billion (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities--petroleum 90%, carpets, fruits, nuts, hides;

partners--Japan, Turkey, Italy, Netherlands, Spain, France, FRG


_#_Imports: $11.6 billion (c.i.f., 1989);

commodities--machinery, military supplies, metal works, foodstuffs,
pharmaceuticals, technical services, refined oil products;

partners--FRG, Japan, Turkey, UK, Italy


_#_External debt: $4-5 billion (1989)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%


_#_Electricity: 14,579,000 kW capacity; 40,000 million kWh produced,
740 kWh per capita (1989)


_#_Industries: petroleum, petrochemicals, textiles, cement and other
building materials, food processing (particularly sugar refining and
vegetable oil production), metal fabricating (steel and copper)


_#_Agriculture: principal products--wheat, rice, other grains, sugar
beets, fruits, nuts, cotton, dairy products, wool, caviar; not
self-sufficient in food


_#_Illicit drugs: illicit producer of opium poppy for the domestic and
international drug trade


_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-80), $1.0
billion; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $1.6 billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $976 million;
note--aid fell sharply following the 1979 revolution


_#_Currency: Iranian rial (plural--rials); 1 Iranian rial (IR) =
100 dinars; note--domestic figures are generally referred to in terms of
the toman (plural--tomans), which equals 10 rials


_#_Exchange rates: Iranian rials (IR) per US$1--64.941 (January 1991),
68.096 (1990), 72.015 (1989), 68.683 (1988), 71.460 (1987), 78.760
(1986), 91.052 (1985) at the official rate; black market rate 1,400
(January 1991)


_#_Fiscal year: 21 March-20 March


_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 4,601 km total; 4,509 km 1.432-meter gauge, 92 km
1.676-meter gauge; 730 km under construction from Bafq to Bandar Abbas


_#_Highways: 140,072 km total; 46,866 km gravel and crushed stone;
49,440 km improved earth; 42,566 km bituminous and bituminous-treated
surfaces; 1,200 km (est.) rural road network


_#_Inland waterways: 904 km; the Shatt al Arab is usually navigable by
maritime traffic for about 130 km, but closed since September 1980
because of Iran-Iraq war


_#_Pipelines: crude oil, 5,900 km; refined products, 3,900 km; natural
gas, 3,300 km


_#_Ports: Abadan (largely destroyed in fighting during 1980-88 war),
Bandar Beheshti, Bandar-e Abbas, Bandar-e Bushehr, Bandar-e
Khomeyni, Bandar-e Shahid Rajai, Khorramshahr (largely
destroyed in fighting during 1980-88 war)


_#_Merchant marine: 133 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,634,204
GRT/8,671,769 DWT; includes 36 cargo, 6 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 33
petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 4 chemical tanker, 3
refrigerated cargo, 49 bulk, 2 combination bulk


_#_Civil air: 42 major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 214 total, 186 usable; 80 with permanent-surface runways;
17 with runways over 3,659 m; 16 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 70 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: radio relay extends throughout country; system
centered in Tehran; 2,143,000 telephones; stations--62 AM, 30 FM, 250
TV; satellite earth stations--2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Indian
Ocean INTELSAT; HF and microwave to Turkey, Pakistan, Syria, Kuwait, and
USSR


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Islamic Republic of Iran Ground Forces, Navy, Air
Force, Air Defense, and Revolutionary Guard Corps (includes Basij
militia and own ground, air, and naval forces);
a merger of the Komiteh, Police, and Gendarmerie has produced a new
Security Forces of the Islamic Republic of Iran


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 12,750,593; 7,588,711 fit for
military service; 576,321 reach military age (21) annually


_#_Defense expenditures: $13 billion, 13.3% of GNP (1991 est.)
_%_
_@_Iraq
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 434,920 km2; land area: 433,970 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly more than twice the size of Idaho


_#_Land boundaries: 3,454 km total; Iran 1,458 km, Iraq - Saudi Arabia
Neutral Zone 191 km, Jordan 134 km, Kuwait 240 km, Saudi Arabia 495 km,
Syria 605 km, Turkey 331 km


_#_Coastline: 58 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: not specific;

Territorial sea: 12 nm


_#_Disputes: Iran and Iraq restored diplomatic relations on 14
October 1990 following the end of the war that began on 22 September
1980; progress had been made on the major issues of
contention--troop withdrawal, prisoner-of-war exchanges, demarcation of
the border, freedom of navigation, and sovereignty over the Shatt al Arab
waterway--but written agreements had yet to be drawn up when frictions
reemerged in March 1991 in the wake of Shia and Kurdish revolts in
Iraq that Baghdad accused Tehran of supporting; Kurdish question
among Iran, Iraq, Syria, Turkey, and the USSR; shares Neutral Zone with
Saudi Arabia--in December 1981, Iraq and Saudi Arabia signed a boundary
agreement that divides the zone between them, but the agreement must
be ratified before it becomes effective; Iraqi forces invaded and
occupied Kuwait from 2 August 1990 until 27 February 1991; in April 1991
official Iraqi acceptance of UN Security Council Resolution 687, which
demands that Iraq accept its internationally recognized border with
Kuwait, ended earlier claims to Bubiyan and Warbah Islands or to
all of Kuwait; periodic disputes with upstream riparian Syria over
Euphrates water rights; potential dispute over water development plans by
Turkey for the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers


_#_Climate: desert; mild to cool winters with dry, hot, cloudless
summers


_#_Terrain: mostly broad plains; reedy marshes in southeast; mountains
along borders with Iran and Turkey


_#_Natural resources: crude oil, natural gas, phosphates, sulfur


_#_Land use: arable land 12%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures
9%; forest and woodland 3%; other 75%; includes irrigated 4%


_#_Environment: development of Tigris-Euphrates river systems
contingent upon agreements with upstream riparians (Syria, Turkey); air
and water pollution; soil degradation (salinization) and erosion;
desertification


_*_People
_#_Population: 19,524,718 (July 1991), growth rate 3.9% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 46 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 66 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 66 years male, 68 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 7.2 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--Iraqi(s); adjective--Iraqi


_#_Ethnic divisions: Arab 75-80%, Kurdish 15-20%, Turkoman, Assyrian
or other 5%


_#_Religion: Muslim 97%, (Shia 60-65%, Sunni 32-37%), Christian
or other 3%


_#_Language: Arabic (official), Kurdish (official in Kurdish regions),
Assyrian, Armenian


_#_Literacy: 60% (male 70%, female 49%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)


_#_Labor force: 4,400,000 (1989); services 48%, agriculture 30%,
industry 22%, severe labor shortage; expatriate labor force about
1,600,000 (July 1990)


_#_Organized labor: less than 10% of the labor force


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of Iraq


_#_Type: republic


_#_Capital: Baghdad


_#_Administrative divisions: 18 provinces (muhafazat,
singular--muhafazah); Al Anbar, Al Basrah, Al Muthanna,
Al Qadisiyah, An Najaf, Arbil, As Sulaymaniyah, At
Tamim, Babil, Baghdad, Dahuk, Dhi Qar, Diyala,
Karbala, Maysan, Ninawa, Salah ad Din, Wasit


_#_Independence: 3 October 1932 (from League of Nations mandate under
British administration)


_#_Constitution: 22 September 1968, effective 16 July 1970 (interim
Constitution); new constitution drafted in 1990 but not adopted


_#_Legal system: based on Islamic law in special religious courts,
civil law system elsewhere; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction


_#_National holiday: Anniversary of the Revolution, 17 July (1968)


_#_Executive branch: president, vice president, chairman of the
Revolutionary Command Council, vice chairman of the Revolutionary Command
Council, prime minister, first deputy prime minister, Council of
Ministers


_#_Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Majlis Watani)


_#_Judicial branch: Court of Cassation


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--President Saddam HUSAYN (since 16 July 1979);
Vice President Taha Muhyi al-Din MARUF (since 21 April 1974);
Vice President Taha Yasin RAMADAN (since 23 March 1991);

_#_Head of Government--Prime Minister Sadun HAMMADI (since 27 March
1991); Deputy Prime Minister Tariq AZIZ (since NA 1979);
Deputy Prime Minister Muhammad Hamza al-ZUBAYDI (since 27 March 1991)


_#_Political parties: National Progressive Front is a coalition of the
Arab Bath Socialist Party, Kurdistan Democratic Party, and Kurdistan
Revolutionary Party


_#_Suffrage: universal adult at age 18


_#_Elections:

National Assembly--last held on 1 April 1989 (next to be held NA);
results--Sunni Arabs 53%, Shia Arabs 30%, Kurds 15%, Christians
2% est.; seats--(250 total) number of seats by party NA


_#_Communists: about 1,500 hardcore members


_#_Other political or pressure groups: political parties and activity
severely restricted; possibly some opposition to regime from disaffected
members of the regime, Army officers, and religious and ethnic dissidents


_#_Member of: ABEDA, ACC, AFESD, AL, AMF, CAEU, ESCWA, FAO, G-19,
G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPEC,
PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO


_#_Diplomatic representation: no Iraqi representative in Washington;
Chancery at 1801 P Street NW, Washington DC 20036; telephone (202)
483-7500;

US--no US representative in Baghdad since mid-January 1991;
Embassy in Masbah Quarter (opposite the Foreign Ministry Club), Baghdad
(mailing address is P. O. Box 2447 Alwiyah, Baghdad); telephone [964] (1)
719-6138 or 719-6139, 718-1840, 719-3791


_#_Flag: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black
with three green five-pointed stars in a horizontal line centered in the
white band; the phrase Allahu Akbar (God is Great) in green Arabic
script--Allahu to the right of the middle star and Akbar to the left of
the middle star--was added in January 1991 during the Persian Gulf
crisis; similar to the flag of Syria that has two stars but no script
and the flag of Yemen that has a plain white band; also similar to the
flag of Egypt that has a symbolic eagle centered in the white band


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The Bathist regime engages in extensive central
planning and management of industrial production and foreign trade while
leaving some small-scale industry and services and most agriculture to
private enterprise. The economy has been dominated by the oil sector,
which has provided about 95% of foreign exchange earnings. In the 1980s
financial problems, caused by massive expenditures in the eight-year
war with Iran and damage to oil export facilities by Iran, led the
government to implement austerity measures and to borrow heavily and
later reschedule foreign debt payments. After the end of hostilities in
1988, oil exports gradually increased with the construction of new
pipelines and restoration of damaged facilities. Agricultural development
remained hampered by labor shortages, salinization, and dislocations
caused by previous land reform and collectivization programs. The
industrial sector, although accorded high priority by the government,
also was under financial constraints. Iraq's seizure of Kuwait in August
1990, subsequent international economic embargoes, and military actions
by an international coalition beginning in January 1991 drastically
changed the economic picture. Oil exports were cut to near zero,
and industrial and transportation facilities severely damaged.


_#_GNP: $35 billion, per capita $1,940; real growth rate 5%
(1989 est.)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 30-40% (1989 est.)


_#_Unemployment rate: less than 5% (1989 est.)


_#_Budget: revenues $NA billion; expenditures $35 billion,
including capital expenditures of NA (1989)


_#_Exports: $12.1 billion (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities--crude oil and refined products, fertilizer, sulfur;

partners--US, Brazil, Turkey, Japan, France, Italy, USSR (1989)


_#_Imports: $10.3 billion (c.i.f., 1989);

commodities--manufactures, food;

partners--US, FRG, Turkey, UK, Romania, Japan, France (1989)


_#_External debt: $40 billion (1989 est.), excluding debt to Arab
Gulf states


_#_Industrial production: NA%; manufacturing accounts for 10% of GDP
(1987)


_#_Electricity: 9,902,000 kW capacity; 20,000 million kWh produced,
1,110 kWh per capita (1989)


_#_Industries: petroleum, chemicals, textiles, construction materials,
food processing


_#_Agriculture: accounts for 11% of GNP but 30% of labor
force; principal products--wheat, barley, rice, vegetables, dates, other
fruit, cotton, wool; livestock--cattle, sheep; not self-sufficient in
food output


_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-80), $3
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $627 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1980-90), more than $30
billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $3.9 billion


_#_Currency: Iraqi dinar (plural--dinars); 1 Iraqi dinar (ID) = 1,000
fils


_#_Exchange rates: Iraqi dinars (ID) per US$1--0.3109 (fixed rate
since 1982)


_#_Fiscal year: calendar year


_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 2,962 km total; 2,457 km 1.435-meter standard gauge,
505 km 1.000-meter gauge


_#_Highways: 25,479 km total; 8,290 km paved, 5,534 km improved earth,
11,655 km unimproved earth


_#_Inland waterways: 1,015 km; Shatt al Arab usually navigable by
maritime traffic for about 130 km, but closed since September 1980
because of Iran-Iraq war; Tigris and Euphrates navigable by shallow-draft
steamers (of little importance); Shatt al Basrah canal navigable in
sections by shallow-draft vessels


_#_Ports: Umm Qasr, Khawr az Zubayr, Al Basrah


_#_Merchant marine: 43 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 944,253
GRT/1,691,368 DWT; includes 1 passenger, 1 passenger-cargo, 17 cargo,
1 refrigerated cargo, 3 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 19 petroleum, oils, and
lubricants (POL) tanker, 1 chemical tanker; note--since the 2 August 1990
invasion of Kuwait by Iraqi forces, Iraq has sought to register at least
part of its merchant fleet under convenience flags; none of the Iraqi
flag merchant fleet was trading internationally as of 1 January 1991


_#_Pipelines: crude oil, 4,350 km; 725 km refined products; 1,360 km
natural gas


_#_Civil air: 64 major transport aircraft (including 30 IL-76s
used by the Iraq Air Force)


_#_Airports: 111 total, 102 usable; 73 with permanent-surface runways;
9 with runways over 3,659 m; 52 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 15 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: good network consists of coaxial cables, radio
relay links, and radiocommunication stations; 632,000 telephones;
stations--9 AM, 1 FM, 81 TV; satellite earth stations--1 Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT, 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT, 1 GORIZONT Atlantic Ocean in the
Intersputnik system; coaxial cable and radio relay to Kuwait, Jordan,
Syria, and Turkey


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army and Republican Guard, Navy, Air Force,
Border Guard Force, Internal Security Forces


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 4,270,592; 2,380,439 fit for
military service; 228,277 reach military age (18) annually


_#_Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP
_%_
_@_Iraq - Saudi Arabia Neutral Zone
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 3,520 km2; land area: 3,520 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than Rhode Island


_#_Land boundaries: 389 km total; 191 km Iraq, 198 km Saudi Arabia


_#_Coastline: none--landlocked


_#_Maritime claims: none--landlocked


_#_Climate: harsh, dry desert


_#_Terrain: sandy desert


_#_Natural resources: none


_#_Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
0%; forest and woodland 0%; other (sandy desert) 100%


_#_Environment: harsh, inhospitable


_#_Note: landlocked; located west of quadripoint with Iraq, Kuwait,
and Saudi Arabia


_*_People
_#_Population: uninhabited


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: none


_#_Type: joint administration by Iraq and Saudi Arabia; in December
1981, Iraq and Saudi Arabia signed a boundary agreement that divides
the zone between them, but the agreement must be ratified before it
becomes effective


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: no economic activity


_*_Communications
_#_Highways: none; some secondary roads


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is the joint responsibility of Iraq and Saudi Arabia
_%_
_@_Ireland
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 70,280 km2; land area: 68,890 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than West Virginia


_#_Land boundary: 360 km with UK


_#_Coastline: 1,448 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: no precise definition;

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm


_#_Disputes: Northern Ireland question with the UK; Rockall
continental shelf dispute involving Denmark, Iceland, and the UK (Ireland
and the UK have signed a boundary agreement in the Rockall area)


_#_Climate: temperate maritime; modified by North Atlantic Current;
mild winters, cool summers; consistently humid; overcast about half the
time


_#_Terrain: mostly level to rolling interior plain surrounded by
rugged hills and low mountains; sea cliffs on west coast


_#_Natural resources: zinc, lead, natural gas, crude oil, barite,
copper, gypsum, limestone, dolomite, peat, silver


_#_Land use: arable land 14%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and
pastures 71%; forest and woodland 5%; other 10%


_#_Environment: deforestation


_*_People
_#_Population: 3,489,165 (July 1991), growth rate - 0.3% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 15 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 9 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: - 9 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 6 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 73 years male, 79 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 2.1 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--Irishman(men), Irish (collective pl.);
adjective--Irish


_#_Ethnic divisions: Celtic, with English minority


_#_Religion: Roman Catholic 93%, Anglican 3%, none 1%, unknown 2%,
other 1% (1981)


_#_Language: Irish (Gaelic) and English; English is the language
generally used, with Gaelic spoken in a few areas, mostly along the
western seaboard


_#_Literacy: 98% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1981 est.)


_#_Labor force: 1,293,000; services 57.0%, manufacturing and
construction 26.1%, agriculture, forestry, and fishing 15.0%,
energy and mining 1.9% (1988)


_#_Organized labor: 36% of labor force


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: none


_#_Type: republic


_#_Capital: Dublin


_#_Administrative divisions: 26 counties; Carlow, Cavan, Clare, Cork,
Donegal, Dublin, Galway, Kerry, Kildare, Kilkenny, Laois, Leitrim,
Limerick, Longford, Louth, Mayo, Meath, Monaghan, Offaly, Roscommon,
Sligo, Tipperary, Waterford, Westmeath, Wexford, Wicklow


_#_Independence: 6 December 1921 (from UK)


_#_Constitution: 29 December 1937; adopted 1937


_#_Legal system: based on English common law, substantially modified
by indigenous concepts; judicial review of legislative acts in Supreme
Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction


_#_National holiday: Saint Patrick's Day, 17 March


_#_Executive branch: president, prime minister, deputy prime minister,
Cabinet


_#_Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament (Oireachtas) consists of
an upper house or Senate (Seanad Eireann) and a lower house or House of
Representatives (Dail Eireann)


_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--President Mary Bourke ROBINSON (since 9 November
1990);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Charles J. HAUGHEY (since
12 July 1989, the fourth time elected as Prime Minister)


_#_Political parties and leaders:
Fianna Fail, Charles HAUGHEY;
Labor Party, Richard SPRING;
Fine Gael, John BRUTON;
Communist Party of Ireland, Michael O'RIORDAN;
Workers' Party, Proinsias DEROSSA;
Sinn Fein, Gerry ADAMS;
Progressive Democrats, Desmond O'MALLEY;
note--Prime Minister HAUGHEY heads a coalition consisting of the
Fianna Fail and the Progressive Democrats


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


_#_Elections:

President--last held 9 November 1990 (next to be held November
1997); results--Mary Bourke ROBINSON 52.8%, Brian LENIHAN 47.2%;

Senate--last held on 17 February 1987 (next to be held February
1992);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(60 total, 49 elected) Fianna Fail 30, Fine Gael 16, Labor 3,
Independents 11;

House of Representatives--last held on 12 July 1989 (next to be
held NA June 1994);
results--Fianna Fail 44.0%, Fine Gael 29.4%, Labor Party 9.3%,
Progressive Democrats 5.4%, Workers' Party 4.9%, Sinn Fein 1.1%,
independents 5.9%;
seats--(166 total) Fianna Fail 77, Fine Gael 55, Labor Party 15,
Workers' Party 7, Progressive Democrats 6, independents 6


_#_Communists: under 500


_#_Member of: BIS, CCC, CE, CSCE, EBRD, EC, ECE, EIB, ESA, FAO, GATT,
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NEA, OECD, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP,
UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIIMOG, UNTSO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Padraic N. MACKERNAN;
Chancery at 2234 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone
(202) 462-3939; there are Irish Consulates General in Boston, Chicago,
New York, and San Francisco;

US--Ambassador Richard A. MOORE; Embassy at 42 Elgin Road,
Ballsbridge, Dublin; telephone [353] (1) 688777


_#_Flag: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and
orange; similar to the flag of the Ivory Coast which is shorter and
has the colors reversed--orange (hoist side), white, and green; also
similar to the flag of Italy which is shorter and has colors of green
(hoist side), white, and red


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The economy is small, open, and trade dependent.
Agriculture, once the most important sector, is now dwarfed by industry,
which accounts for 37% of GDP and about 80% of exports and employs 26%
of the labor force. The government has successfully reduced the rate of
inflation from double-digit figures in the late 1970s to 3.3% in
1990. In 1987, after years of deficits, the balance of payments was
brought into the black. Unemployment, however, is a serious problem. A
1990 unemployment rate of 16.6% placed Ireland along with Spain as the
countries with the worst jobless records in Western Europe.


_#_GDP: $33.9 billion, per capita $9,690; real growth rate 4.1%
(1990)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.3% (1990)


_#_Unemployment rate: 16.6% (1990)


_#_Budget: revenues $11.3 billion; expenditures $11.7 billion,
including capital expenditures of $1.6 billion (1990)


_#_Exports: $24.6 billion (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities--chemicals, data processing equipment, industrial
machinery, live animals, animal products;

partners--EC 74% (UK 34%, FRG 11%, France 10%), US 8%


_#_Imports: $20.7 billion (c.i.f., 1990);

commodities--food, animal feed, chemicals, petroleum and petroleum
products, machinery, textiles, clothing;

partners--EC 66% (UK 41%, FRG 9%, France 4%), US 16%


_#_External debt: $16.0 billion (1990)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate 4.7% (1990); accounts for
37% of GDP


_#_Electricity: 4,957,000 kW capacity; 14,480 million kWh produced,
4,080 kWh per capita (1989)


_#_Industries: food products, brewing, textiles, clothing, chemicals,
pharmaceuticals, machinery, transportation equipment, glass and crystal


_#_Agriculture: accounts for 10% of GNP and 15% of the labor force;
principal crops--turnips, barley, potatoes, sugar beets, wheat;
livestock--meat and dairy products; 85% self-sufficient in food; food
shortages include bread grain, fruits, vegetables


_#_Economic aid: donor--ODA commitments (1980-89), $90 million


_#_Currency: Irish pound (plural--pounds); 1 Irish pound (5Ir) =
100 pence


_#_Exchange rates: Irish pounds (5Ir) per US$1--0.5656 (January
1991), 0.6030 (1990), 0.7472 (1989), 0.6553 (1988), 0.6720 (1987), 0.7454
(1986), 0.9384 (1985)


_#_Fiscal year: calendar year


_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: Irish National Railways (CIE) operates 1,947 km
1.602-meter gauge, government owned; 485 km double track; 38 km
electrified


_#_Highways: 92,294 km total; 87,422 km surfaced, 4,872 km gravel or
crushed stone


_#_Inland waterways: limited for commercial traffic


_#_Pipelines: natural gas, 225 km


_#_Ports: Cork, Dublin, Shannon Estuary, Waterford


_#_Merchant marine: 53 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 138,967
GRT/164,628 DWT; includes 4 short-sea passenger, 31 cargo, 2
refrigerated cargo, 3 container, 2 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL)
tanker, 3 specialized tanker, 2 chemical tanker, 6 bulk


_#_Civil air: 23 major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 40 total, 37 usable; 18 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 6 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: small, modern system using cable and radio
relay circuits; 900,000 telephones; stations--45 AM, 16 (29 relays) FM,
18 (68 relays) TV; 5 coaxial submarine cables; 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT
earth stations


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army (including Naval Service and Air Corps), National
Police (GARDA)


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 871,578; 705,642 fit for
military service; 33,175 reach military age (17) annually


_#_Defense expenditures: $458 million, 1.6% of GDP (1990 est.)
_%_
_@_Israel
(also see separate Gaza Strip and West Bank entries)
_#_Note: The Arab territories occupied by Israel since the 1967 war
are not included in the data below. As stated in the 1978 Camp David
Accords and reaffirmed by President Reagan's 1 September 1982 peace
initiative, the final status of the West Bank and Gaza Strip, their
relationship with their neighbors, and a peace treaty between Israel
and Jordan are to be negotiated among the concerned parties. The Camp
David Accords further specify that these negotiations will resolve the
location of the respective boundaries. Pending the completion of this
process, it is US policy that the final status of the West Bank and
Gaza Strip has yet to be determined (see West Bank and Gaza Strip
entries). On 25 April 1982 Israel relinquished control of the Sinai to
Egypt. Statistics for the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights are included in
the Syria entry.


_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 20,770 km2; land area: 20,330 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than New Jersey


_#_Land boundaries: 1,006 km total; Egypt 255 km, Jordan 238 km,
Lebanon 79 km, Syria 76 km, West Bank 307, Gaza Strip 51 km


_#_Coastline: 273 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: to depth of exploitation;

Territorial sea: 6 nm


_#_Disputes: separated from Lebanon, Syria, and the West Bank by the
1949 Armistice Line; differences with Jordan over the location
of the 1949 Armistice Line which separates the two countries;
West Bank and Gaza Strip are Israeli occupied with status
to be determined; Golan Heights is Israeli occupied; Israeli troops in
southern Lebanon since June 1982; water-sharing issues with Jordan


_#_Climate: temperate; hot and dry in desert areas


_#_Terrain: Negev desert in the south; low coastal plain; central
mountains; Jordan Rift Valley


_#_Natural resources: copper, phosphates, bromide, potash, clay, sand,
sulfur, asphalt, manganese, small amounts of natural gas and crude oil


_#_Land use: arable land 17%; permanent crops 5%; meadows and pastures
40%; forest and woodland 6%; other 32%; includes irrigated 11%


_#_Environment: sandstorms may occur during spring and summer; limited
arable land and natural water resources pose serious constraints;
deforestation


_#_Note: there are 175 Jewish settlements in the West Bank, 38 in the
Israeli-occupied Golan Heights, 18 in the Gaza Strip, and 14
Israeli-built Jewish neighborhoods in East Jerusalem


_*_People
_#_Population: 4,477,105 (July 1991), growth rate 1.5% (1991);
includes 90,000 Jewish settlers in the West Bank, 13,000 in the
Israeli-occupied Golan Heights, 2,500 in the Gaza Strip, and 120,000 in
East Jerusalem (1990 est.)


_#_Birth rate: 21 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 9 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 76 years male, 79 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 2.9 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--Israeli(s); adjective--Israeli


_#_Ethnic divisions: Jewish 83%, non-Jewish (mostly Arab) 17%


_#_Religion: Judaism 82%, Islam (mostly Sunni Muslim) 14%,
Christian 2%, Druze and other 2%


_#_Language: Hebrew (official); Arabic used officially for Arab
minority; English most commonly used foreign language


_#_Literacy: 92% (male 95%, female 89%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1983)


_#_Labor force: 1,400,000 (1984 est.); public services 29.3%;
industry, mining, and manufacturing 22.8%; commerce 12.8%; finance and
business 9.5%; transport, storage, and communications 6.8%; construction
and public works 6.5%; personal and other services 5.8%; agriculture,
forestry, and fishing 5.5%; electricity and water 1.0% (1983)


_#_Organized labor: 90% of labor force


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: State of Israel


_#_Type: republic


_#_Capital: Israel proclaimed Jerusalem its capital in 1950, but the
US, like nearly all other countries, maintains its Embassy in Tel Aviv


_#_Administrative divisions: 6 districts (mehozot, singular--mehoz);
Central, Haifa, Jerusalem, Northern, Southern, Tel Aviv


_#_Independence: 14 May 1948 (from League of Nations mandate under
British administration)


_#_Constitution: no formal constitution; some of the functions of a
constitution are filled by the Declaration of Establishment (1948), the
basic laws of the parliament (Knesset), and the Israeli citizenship law


_#_Legal system: mixture of English common law, British Mandate
regulations, and, in personal matters, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim
legal systems; in December 1985 Israel informed the UN Secretariat that
it would no longer accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction


_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 10 May 1989; Israel declared
independence on 14 May 1948, but the Jewish calendar is lunar and the
holiday may occur in April or May


_#_Executive branch: president, prime minister, vice prime minister,
Cabinet


_#_Legislative branch: unicameral parliament (Knesset)


_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--President Chaim HERZOG (since 5 May 1983);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Yitzhak SHAMIR (since 20 October
1986)


_#_Political parties and leaders: Israel currently has a coalition
government comprising eleven parties that hold 66 of the Knesset's
120 seats;

Members of the government--Likud bloc, Prime Minister Yitzhak
SHAMIR;
Sephardic Torah Guardians (SHAS), Minister of Interior Arieh DER'I;
National Religious Party, Minister of Education Zevulun HAMMER;
Agudat Yisrael, Moshe Zeev FELDMAN;
Degel HaTorah, Avraham RAVITZ;
Moriya, Minister of Immigrant Absorption, Yitzhak PERETZ;
Ge'vlat Yisrael, Elizer MIZRAHI;
Party for the Advancement of Zionist Ideology (PAZI), Minister of
Finance Yitzhak MODAI;
Tehiya Party, Minister of Science, Technology, Energy, and Infrastructure
Yuval NE'EMAN;
Tzomet Party, Minister of Agriculture Rafael EITAN;
Unity for Peace and Aliyah, Efrayim GUR;
Moledet Party, Rehavam ZE'EVI;

Opposition parties--Labor Party, Shimon PERES;
Citizens' Rights Movement, Shulamit ALONI;
United Workers' Party (MAPAM), Yair TZABAN;
Center Movement-Shinui, Amnon RUBENSTEIN;
New Israeli Communist Party (MAKI), Meir WILNER;
Progressive List for Peace, Muhammad MI'ARI;
Arab Democratic Party, Abd Al Wahab DARAWSHAH;
Black Panthers, Charlie BITON


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


_#_Elections:

President--last held 23 February 1988 (next to be held February
1994); results--Chaim HERZOG reelected by Knesset;

Knesset--last held 1 November 1988 (next to be held by
November 1992);
seats--(120 total) Labor Party 38, Likud bloc 37, SHAS 5, National
Religious Party 5, Citizens' Rights Movement 5, Agudat Yisrael 4,
PAZI 3, MAKI 3, Tehiya Party 3, MAPAM 3, Tzomet Party 2, Moledet Party 2,
Degel HaTorah 2, Center Movement-Shinui 2, Progressive List for Peace 1,
Arab Democratic Party 1; Black Panthers 1, Moriya 1, Ge'ulat
Yisrael 1, Unity for Peace and Aliyah 1


_#_Communists: Hadash (predominantly Arab but with Jews in its
leadership) has some 1,500 members


_#_Other political or pressure groups: Gush Emunim, Jewish
nationalists advocating Jewish settlement on the West Bank and Gaza
Strip; Peace Now, critical of government's West Bank/Gaza Strip and
Lebanon policies


_#_Member of: AG (observer), CCC, EBRD, FAO, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, OAS (observer), PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Zalman SHOVAL; Chancery at
3514 International Drive NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202)
364-5500; there are Israeli Consulates General in Atlanta, Boston,
Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Philadelphia, and San
Francisco;

US--Ambassador William A. BROWN; Embassy at 71 Hayarkon Street,
Tel Aviv (mailing address is APO New York 09672); telephone [972] (3)
654338; there is a US Consulate General in Jerusalem


_#_Flag: white with a blue hexagram (six-pointed linear star) known as
the Magen David (Shield of David) centered between two equal horizontal
blue bands near the top and bottom edges of the flag


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Israel has a market economy with substantial government
participation. It depends on imports for crude oil, food, grains, raw
materials, and military equipment. Despite limited natural resources,
Israel has developed its agricultural and industrial sectors on an
intensive scale over the past 20 years. Industry accounts for about 23%
of the labor force, agriculture for 5%, and services for most of the
balance. Diamonds, high-technology machinery, and agricultural products
(fruits and vegetables) are the biggest export earners. The balance of
payments has traditionally been negative, but is offset by large transfer
payments and foreign loans. About half of Israel's $18 billion external
government debt is owed to the US, which is its major source for economic
and military aid. To earn needed foreign exchange, Israel must continue
to exploit high-technology niches in the international market, such as
medical scanning equipment. Iraq's invasion of Kuwait on 2 August dealt
a blow to Israel's economy in 1990. Higher world oil prices added an
estimated $300 million to Israel's 1990 oil import bill, and helped
keep the inflation rate at 18% for the year. Regional tensions
and continuing acts of the Palestinian uprising
(intifadah)-related violence contributed to a sharp dropoff in
tourism--a key source of foreign exchange--to the lowest level since the
1973 Arab-Israeli war. In 1991, the influx of up to 400,000 Soviet
immigrants will increase unemployment, intensify the country's
housing crisis, and contribute to a widening budget deficit.


_#_GNP: $46.5 billion, per capita $10,500; real growth rate 3.5%
(1990 est.)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 18% (1990)


_#_Unemployment rate: 9.8% (March 1991)


_#_Budget: revenues $28.7 billion; expenditures $33.0 billion,
including capital expenditures of $NA (FY91)


_#_Exports: $10.7 billion (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities--polished diamonds, citrus and other fruits, textiles
and clothing, processed foods, fertilizer and chemical products, military
hardware, electronics;

partners--US, UK, FRG, France, Belgium, Luxembourg, Italy


_#_Imports: $14.2 billion (c.i.f., 1989 est.);

commodities--military equipment, rough diamonds, oil, chemicals,
machinery, iron and steel, cereals, textiles, vehicles, ships, aircraft;

partners--US, FRG, UK, Switzerland, Italy, Belgium, Luxembourg


_#_External debt: $24.5 billion, of which government debt is
$18 billion (December 1990)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate - 1.5% (1989); accounts
for about 40% of GDP


_#_Electricity: 4,392,000 kW capacity; 17,500 million kWh produced,
4,000 kWh per capita (1989)


_#_Industries: food processing, diamond cutting and polishing,
textiles, clothing, chemicals, metal products, military equipment,
transport equipment, electrical equipment, miscellaneous machinery,
potash mining, high-technology electronics, tourism


_#_Agriculture: accounts for 5% of GNP; largely self-sufficient in
food production, except for bread grains; principal products--citrus and
other fruits, vegetables, cotton; livestock products--beef, dairy, and
poultry


_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-90), $18.2
billion; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $2.5 billion


_#_Currency: new Israeli shekel (plural--shekels);
1 new Israeli shekel (NIS) = 100 new agorot


_#_Exchange rates: new Israeli shekels (NIS) per US$1--2.35
(May 1991), 2.0162 (1990), 1.9164 (1989), 1.5989 (1988), 1.5946
(1987), 1.4878 (1986), 1.1788 (1985)


_#_Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March; changing to calender year basis
starting January 1992


_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 594 km 1.435-meter gauge, single track; diesel operated


_#_Highways: 4,500 km; majority is bituminous surfaced


_#_Pipelines: crude oil, 708 km; refined products, 290 km; natural
gas, 89 km


_#_Ports: Ashdod, Haifa, Elat


_#_Merchant marine: 30 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 516,714
GRT/611,795 DWT; includes 7 cargo, 21 container, 2 refrigerated cargo;
note--Israel also maintains a significant flag of convenience fleet,
which is normally at least as large as the Israeli flag fleet; the
Israeli flag of convenience fleet typically includes all of its POL
tankers


_#_Civil air: 27 major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 51 total, 44 usable; 26 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 6 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
12 with runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: most highly developed in the Middle East
though not the largest; good system of coaxial cable and radio relay;
1,800,000 telephones; stations--11 AM, 24 FM, 54 TV; 2 submarine cables;
satellite earth stations--2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Indian Ocean
INTELSAT


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Israel Defense Forces includes ground, naval, and air
components; historically there have been no separate Israeli military
services


_#_Manpower availability: eligible 15-49, 2,213,808; of the 1,117,733
males 15-49, 920,449 are fit for military service; of the 1,096,075
females 15-49, 899,022 are fit for military service; 44,429 males and
42,249 females reach military age (18) annually; both sexes are liable
for military service; Nahal or Pioneer Fighting Youth, Frontier Guard,
Chen


_#_Defense expenditures: $5.3 billion, 13.9% of GNP (1991);
note--includes an estimated $1.8 billion in US military aid
_%_
_@_Italy
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 301,230 km2; land area: 294,020 km2; includes Sardinia
and Sicily


_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than Arizona


_#_Land boundaries: 1,902.2 km total; Austria 430 km, France 488 km,
San Marino 39 km, Switzerland 740 km, Vatican City 3.2 km, Yugoslavia
202 km


_#_Coastline: 4,996 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation;

Territorial sea: 12 nm


_#_Climate: predominantly Mediterranean; Alpine in far north; hot, dry
in south


_#_Terrain: mostly rugged and mountainous; some plains, coastal
lowlands


_#_Natural resources: mercury, potash, marble, sulfur, dwindling
natural gas and crude oil reserves, fish, coal


_#_Land use: arable land 32%; permanent crops 10%; meadows and
pastures 17%; forest and woodland 22%; other 19%; includes irrigated 10%


_#_Environment: regional risks include landslides, mudflows,
snowslides, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, flooding, pollution; land
sinkage in Venice


_#_Note: strategic location dominating central Mediterranean as
well as southern sea and air approaches to Western Europe


_*_People
_#_Population: 57,772,375 (July 1991), growth rate 0.2% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 11 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 10 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: 1 migrant/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 6 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 75 years male, 82 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 1.4 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--Italian(s); adjective--Italian


_#_Ethnic divisions: primarily Italian but population includes small
clusters of German-, French-, and Slovene-Italians in the north and
Albanian-Italians and Greek-Italians in the south; Sicilians; Sardinians


_#_Religion: nominally Roman Catholic almost 100%


_#_Language: Italian; parts of Trentino-Alto Adige region are
predominantly German speaking; significant French-speaking minority in
Valle d'Aosta region; Slovene-speaking minority in the Trieste-Gorizia
area


_#_Literacy: 97% (male 98%, female 96%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)


_#_Labor force: 23,988,000; services 58%, industry 32.2%,
agriculture 9.8% (1988)


_#_Organized labor: 40-45% of labor force (est.)


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Italian Republic


_#_Type: republic


_#_Capital: Rome


_#_Administrative divisions: 20 regions (regioni, singular--regione);
Abruzzi, Basilicata, Calabria, Campania, Emilia-Romagna, Friuli-Venezia
Giulia, Lazio, Liguria, Lombardia, Marche, Molise, Piemonte, Puglia,
Sardegna, Sicilia, Toscana, Trentino-Alto Adige, Umbria, Valle d'Aosta,
Veneto


_#_Independence: 17 March 1861, Kingdom of Italy proclaimed


_#_Constitution: 1 January 1948


_#_Legal system: based on civil law system, with ecclesiastical law
influence; appeals treated as trials de novo; judicial review under
certain conditions in Constitutional Court; has not accepted compulsory
ICJ jurisdiction


_#_National holiday: Anniversary of the Republic, 2 June (1946)


_#_Executive branch: president, prime minister (president of the
Council of Ministers)


_#_Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament (Parlamento) consists of
an upper chamber or Senate of the Republic (Senato della Repubblica)
and a lower chamber or Chamber of Deputies (Camera dei Deputati)


_#_Judicial branch: Constitutional Court (Corte Costituzionale)


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--President Francesco COSSIGA (since 3 July 1985);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Giulio ANDREOTTI (since 22 July
1989, heads the government for the seventh time); Deputy Prime Minister
Claudio MARTELLI (since 23 July 1989)


_#_Political parties and leaders:
Christian Democratic Party (DC), Arnaldo FORLANI (general secretary),
Ciriaco De MITA (president);
Socialist Party (PSI), Bettino CRAXI (party secretary);
Social Democratic Party (PSDI), Antonio CARIGLIA (party secretary);
Liberal Party (PLI), Renato ALTISSIMO (secretary general);
Democratic Party of the Left (PDS--was Communist Party, or PCI, until
January 1991), Achille OCCHETTO (secretary general);
Italian Social Movement (MSI), Giuseppe (Pino) RAUTI (national
secretary);
Republican Party (PRI), Giorgio La MALFA (political secretary);
Lega Nord, Umberto BOSSI, president;
Italy's 50th postwar government was formed on 13 April 1991,
with Prime Minister ANDREOTTI, a Christian Democrat, presiding over a
four-party coalition consisting of the Christian Democrats, Socialists,
Social Democrats, and Liberals


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18 (except in senatorial elections,
where minimum age is 25)


_#_Elections:

Senate--last held 14-15 June 1987 (next to be held by June 1992);
results--DC 33.9%, PCI 28.3%, PSI 10.7%, other 27.1%;
seats--(320 total, 315 elected) DC 125, PCI 100, PSI 36, other 54;

Chamber of Deputies--last held 14-15 June 1987 (next to be held by
June 1992);
results--DC 34.3%, PCI 26.6%, PSI 14.3%, MSI 5.9%, PRI 3.7%, PSDI 3.0%,
Radicals 2.6%, Greens 2.5%, PLI 2.1%, Proletarian Democrats 1.7%,
other 3.3%;
seats--(630 total) DC 234, PCI 177, PSI 94, MSI 35, PRI 21, PSDI 17,
Radicals 13, Greens 13, PLI 11, Proletarian Democrats 8, other 7


_#_Communists: 1.3 million (1990)


_#_Other political or pressure groups: the Roman Catholic Church;
three major trade union confederations (CGIL--Communist dominated,
CISL--Christian Democratic, and UIL--Social Democratic, Socialist, and
Republican); Italian manufacturers association (Confindustria);
organized farm groups (Confcoltivatori, Confagricoltura)


_#_Member of: AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, BIS, CCC, CE, CERN, COCOM,
CSCE, EBRD, EC, ECE, EIB, ESA, FAO, G-7, G-10, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IEA, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NATO, NEA, OAS (observer),
OECD, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIIMOG, UNMOGIP,
UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Rinaldo PETRIGNANI; Chancery
at 1601 Fuller Street NW, Washington DC 20009; telephone (202) 328-5500;
there are Italian Consulates General in Boston, Chicago, Houston, New
Orleans, Los Angeles, Philadelphia, San Francisco, and Consulates in
Detroit and Newark (New Jersey);

US--Ambassador Peter F. SECCHIA; Embassy at Via Veneto 119/A,
00187-Rome (mailing address is APO New York 09794); telephone [39] (6)
46741; there are US Consulates General in Florence, Genoa, Milan, Naples,
and Palermo (Sicily)


_#_Flag: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and
red; similar to the flag of Ireland which is longer and is green (hoist
side), white, and orange; also similar to the flag of the Ivory Coast
which has the colors reversed--orange (hoist side), white, and green


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Since World War II the economy has changed from one based
on agriculture into a ranking industrial economy, with approximately the
same total and per capita output as France and the UK. The country is
still divided into a developed industrial north, dominated by small
private companies, and an undeveloped agricultural south, dominated by
large public enterprises. Services account for 48% of GDP, industry 34%,
agriculture 4%, and public administration 13%. Most raw materials needed
by industry and over 75% of energy requirements must be imported. The
economic recovery that began in mid-1983 has continued through 1990, with
the economy growing at an annual average rate of 3%. For the 1990s, Italy
faces the problems of refurbishing a tottering communications system,
curbing pollution in major industrial centers, and adjusting to the new
competitive forces accompanying the ongoing economic integration of the
European Community.


_#_GDP: $844.7 billion, per capita $14,600; real growth rate 2.0%
(1990)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6% (1990)


_#_Unemployment rate: 11.0% (1990 est.)


_#_Budget: revenues $355 billion; expenditures $448 billion,
including capital expenditures of $NA (1989)


_#_Exports: $170.4 billion (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities--textiles, wearing apparel, metals, transportation
equipment, chemicals;

partners--EC 57%, US 8%, OPEC 4%


_#_Imports: $182.0 billion (c.i.f., 1990);

commodities--petroleum, industrial machinery, chemicals, metals,
food, agricultural products;

partners--EC 58%, OPEC 6%, US 5%


_#_External debt: NA


_#_Industrial production: growth rate - 0.1% (1990); accounts for
almost 35% of GDP


_#_Electricity: 56,800,000 kW capacity; 225,000 million kWh produced,
3,900 kWh per capita (1990)


_#_Industries: machinery, iron and steel, chemicals, food processing,
textiles, motor vehicles, clothing, footwear, ceramics


_#_Agriculture: accounts for about 4% of GDP and 10% of the
work force; self-sufficient in foods other than meat and dairy products;
principal crops--fruits, vegetables, grapes, potatoes, sugar beets,
soybeans, grain, olives; fish catch of 388,200 metric tons in 1988


_#_Economic aid: donor--ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $25.9
billion


_#_Currency: Italian lira (plural--lire); 1 Italian lira (Lit) = 100
centesimi


_#_Exchange rates: Italian lire (Lit) per US$1--1,134.4 (January
1991), 1,198.1 (1990), 1,372.1 (1989), 1,301.6 (1988), 1,296.1 (1987),
1,490.8 (1986), 1,909.4 (1985)


_#_Fiscal year: calendar year


_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 20,011 km total; 16,066 km 1.435-meter government-owned
standard gauge (8,999 km electrified); 3,945 km privately owned--2,100 km
1.435-meter standard gauge (1,155 km electrified) and 1,845 km
0.950-meter narrow gauge (380 km electrified)


_#_Highways: 294,410 km total; autostrada 5,900 km, state highways
45,170 km, provincial highways 101,680 km, communal highways 141,660 km;
260,500 km concrete, bituminous, or stone block, 26,900 km gravel and
crushed stone,7,010 km earth


_#_Inland waterways: 2,400 km for various types of commercial
traffic, although of limited overall value


_#_Pipelines: crude oil, 1,703 km; refined products, 2,148 km; natural
gas, 19,400 km


_#_Ports: Cagliari (Sardinia), Genoa, La Spezia, Livorno, Naples,
Palermo (Sicily), Taranto, Trieste, Venice


_#_Merchant marine: 575 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 7,462,744
GRT/11,593,730 DWT; includes 11 passenger, 44 short-sea passenger,
103 cargo, 5 refrigerated cargo, 23 container, 67 roll-on/roll-off cargo,
7 vehicle carrier, 1 multifunction large-load carrier, 2 livestock
carrier, 151 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 37 chemical
tanker, 38 liquefied gas, 10 specialized tanker, 14 combination ore/oil,
60 bulk, 2 combination bulk


_#_Civil air: 125 major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 138 total, 135 usable; 90 with permanent-surface runways;
2 with runways over 3,659 m; 36 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 38 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: well engineered, constructed, and operated;
28,000,000 telephones; stations--144 AM, 54 (over 1,800 repeaters) FM,
450 (over 1,300 repeaters) TV; 22 submarine cables; communication
satellite earth stations operating in INTELSAT 3 Atlantic Ocean and 2
Indian Ocean, INMARSAT, and EUTELSAT systems


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Carabinieri


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 14,747,224; 12,877,803 fit for
military service; 418,043 reach military age (18) annually


_#_Defense expenditures: $19.2 billion, 2.2% of GDP (1990)
_%_
_@_Ivory Coast
(also known as Cote d'Ivoire)
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 322,460 km2; land area: 318,000 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than New Mexico


_#_Land boundaries: 3,110 km total; Burkina 584 km, Ghana 668 km,
Guinea 610 km, Liberia 716 km, Mali 532 km


_#_Coastline: 515 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth);

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm


_#_Climate: tropical along coast, semiarid in far north; three
seasons--warm and dry (November to March), hot and dry (March to May),
hot and wet (June to October)


_#_Terrain: mostly flat to undulating plains; mountains in northwest


_#_Natural resources: crude oil, diamonds, manganese, iron ore,
cobalt, bauxite, copper


_#_Land use: arable land 9%; permanent crops 4%; meadows and pastures
9%; forest and woodland 26%; other 52%; includes irrigated NEGL%


_#_Environment: coast has heavy surf and no natural harbors; severe
deforestation


_*_People
_#_Population: 12,977,909 (July 1991), growth rate 3.9% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 48 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 12 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: 4 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 97 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 52 years male, 56 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 6.8 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--Ivorian(s); adjective--Ivorian


_#_Ethnic divisions: over 60 ethnic groups; most important are the
Baoule 23%, Bete 18%, Senoufou 15%, Malinke 11%, and Agni; foreign
Africans, mostly Burkinabe about 2 million; non-Africans about 130,000 to
330,000 (French 30,000 and Lebanese 100,000 to 300,000)


_#_Religion: indigenous 63%, Muslim 25%, Christian 12%,


_#_Language: French (official), over 60 native dialects; Dioula most
widely spoken


_#_Literacy: 54% (male 67%, female 40%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)


_#_Labor force: 5,718,000; over 85% of population engaged in
agriculture, forestry, livestock raising; about 11% of labor force are
wage earners, nearly half in agriculture and the remainder in government,
industry, commerce, and professions; 54% of population of working age
(1985)


_#_Organized labor: 20% of wage labor force


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of the Ivory Coast; note--the local
official name is Republique de Cote d'Ivoire


_#_Type: republic; multiparty presidential regime established 1960


_#_Capital: Abidjan (capital city changed to Yamoussoukro in March
1983 but not recognized by US)


_#_Administrative divisions: 49 departments (departements,
singular--(departement); Abengourou, Abidjan, Aboisso, Adzope,
Agboville, Bangolo, Beoumi, Biankouma, Bondoukou, Bongouanou,
Bouafle, Bouake, Bouna, Boundiali, Dabakala, Daloa, Danane,
Daoukro, Dimbokro, Divo, Duekoue, Ferkessedougou, Gagnoa,
Grand-Lahou, Guiglo, Issia, Katiola, Korhogo, Lakota,
Man, Mankono, Mbahiakro, Odienne, Oume, Sakassou, San-Pedro,
Sassandra, Seguela, Sinfra, Soubre, Tabou, Tanda, Tengrela,
Tiassale, Touba, Toumodi, Vavoua, Yamoussoukro, Zuenoula


_#_Independence: 7 August 1960 (from France)


_#_Constitution: 3 November 1960


_#_Legal system: based on French civil law system and customary law;
judicial review in the Constitutional Chamber of the Supreme Court; has
not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction


_#_National holiday: National Day, 7 December


_#_Executive branch: president, Council of Ministers (cabinet)


_#_Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Assemblee
Nationale)


_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government--President Dr. Felix
HOUPHOUET-BOIGNY (since 27 November 1960); Prime Minister Allassane
OUATTARE (since 7 November 1990)


_#_Political parties and leaders:
Democratic Party of the Ivory Coast (PDCI), Dr. Felix
HOUPHOUET-BOIGNY;
Ivorian Popular Front (FPI), Laurent GBAGBO;
Ivorian Worker's Party (PIT), Francis WODIE;
Ivorian Socialist Party (PSI), Morifere BAMBA;
over 20 smaller parties


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 21


_#_Elections:

President--last held 28 October 1990 (next to be held October
1995);
results--President Felix HOUPHOUET-BOIGNY received 81% of the vote
in his first contested election; he is currently serving his seventh
consecutive five-year term;

National Assembly--last held 25 November 1990 (next to be held
November 1995);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(175 total) PDCI 163, FPI 9, PIT 1, independents 2


_#_Communists: no Communist party; possibly some sympathizers


_#_Member of: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEAO, ECA, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO,
FZ, G-24, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF,
IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WADB, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Charles GOMIS; Chancery at
2424 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202)
797-0300;

US--Ambassador Kenneth L. BROWN; Embassy at 5 Rue Jesse Owens,
Abidjan (mailing address is 01 B. P. 1712, Abidjan); telephone [225]
21-09-79 or 21-46-72


_#_Flag: three equal vertical bands of orange (hoist side), white, and
green; similar to the flag of Ireland which is longer and has the colors
reversed--green (hoist side), white, and orange; also similar to the flag
of Italy which is green (hoist side), white, and red; design was based on
the flag of France


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Ivory Coast is among the world's largest producers
and exporters of coffee, cocoa beans, and palm-kernel oil. Consequently,
the economy is highly sensitive to fluctuations in international prices
for coffee and cocoa and to weather conditions. Despite attempts by the
government to diversify, the economy is still largely dependent on
agriculture and related industries. The agricultural sector accounts for
over one-third of GDP and about 80% of export earnings and employs about
85% of the labor force. A collapse of world cocoa and coffee prices in
1986 threw the economy into a recession, from which the country had not
recovered by 1990.


_#_GDP: $10 billion, per capita $800; real growth rate - 2.9% (1990)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): -0.8% (1990 est.)


_#_Unemployment rate: 14% (1985)


_#_Budget: revenues $2.8 billion (1989 est.); expenditures $4.1
billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1989 est.)


_#_Exports: $2.5 billion (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities--cocoa 30%, coffee 20%, tropical woods 11%, cotton,
bananas, pineapples, palm oil, cotton;

partners--France, FRG, Netherlands, US, Belgium, Spain (1985)


_#_Imports: $1.4 billion (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities--manufactured goods and semifinished products 50%,
consumer goods 40%, raw materials and fuels 10%;

partners--France, other EC, Nigeria, US, Japan (1985)


_#_External debt: $15.0 billion (1990 est.)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate - 6% (1989); accounts for
17% of GDP


_#_Electricity: 1,081,000 kW capacity; 2,440 million kWh produced,
210 kWh per capita (1989)


_#_Industries: foodstuffs, wood processing, oil refinery, automobile
assembly, textiles, fertilizer, beverage


_#_Agriculture: most important sector, contributing one-third to GDP
and 80% to exports; cash crops include coffee, cocoa beans, timber,
bananas, palm kernels, rubber; food crops--corn, rice, manioc, sweet
potatoes; not self-sufficient in bread grain and dairy products


_#_Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis on a small scale for
the international drug trade


_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $356
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $4.9 billion


_#_Currency: Communaute Financiere Africaine franc
(plural--francs); 1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes


_#_Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF)
per US$1--256.54 (January 1991), 272.26 (1990), 319.01 (1989), 297.85
(1988), 300.54 (1987), 346.30 (1986), 449.26 (1985)


_#_Fiscal year: calendar year


_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 660 km (Burkina border to Abidjan, 1.00-meter gauge,
single track, except 25 km Abidjan-Anyama section is double track)


_#_Highways: 46,600 km total; 3,600 km bituminous and
bituminous-treated surface; 32,000 km gravel, crushed stone, laterite,
and improved earth; 11,000 km unimproved


_#_Inland waterways: 980 km navigable rivers, canals, and numerous
coastal lagoons


_#_Ports: Abidjan, San-Pedro


_#_Merchant marine: 7 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 71,945 GRT/
90,684 DWT; includes 5 cargo, 1 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL)
tanker, 1 chemical tanker


_#_Civil air: 12 major transport aircraft, including multinationally
owned Air Afrique fleet


_#_Airports: 48 total, 41 usable; 7 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 3 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 16 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: system above African average; consists of
open-wire lines and radio relay links; 87,700 telephones; stations--3 AM,
17 FM, 11 TV; 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations; 2 coaxial
submarine cables


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, paramilitary Gendarmerie,
Presidential Guard


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 2,981,269; 1,543,412 fit for
military service; 145,693 males reach military age (18) annually


_#_Defense expenditures: $199 million, 2.3% of GDP (1988)
_%_
_@_Jamaica
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 10,990 km2; land area: 10,830 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than Connecticut


_#_Land boundaries: none


_#_Coastline: 1,022 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Territorial sea: 12 nm


_#_Climate: tropical; hot, humid; temperate interior


_#_Terrain: mostly mountains with narrow, discontinuous coastal plain


_#_Natural resources: bauxite, gypsum, limestone


_#_Land use: arable land 19%; permanent crops 6%; meadows and pastures
18%; forest and woodland 28%; other 29%; includes irrigated 3%


_#_Environment: subject to hurricanes (especially July to November);
deforestation; water pollution


_#_Note: strategic location between Cayman Trench and Jamaica
Channel, the main sea lanes for Panama Canal


_*_People
_#_Population: 2,489,353 (July 1991), growth rate 0.9% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 24 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: - 9 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 18 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 72 years male, 76 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 2.6 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--Jamaican(s); adjective--Jamaican


_#_Ethnic divisions: African 76.3%, Afro-European 15.1%, East Indian
and Afro-East Indian 3.0%, white 3.2%, Chinese and Afro-Chinese 1.2%,
other 1.2%


_#_Religion: predominantly Protestant 55.9% (Church of God 18.4%,
Baptist 10%, Anglican 7.1%, Seven-Day Adventist 6.9%, Pentecostal 5.2%,
Methodist 3.1%, United Church 2.7%, other 2.5%), Roman Catholic 5%,
other 39.1%, including some spiritualist cults (1982)


_#_Language: English, Creole


_#_Literacy: 98% (male 98%, female 99%) age 15 and over having ever
attended school (1990 est.)


_#_Labor force: 1,062,100; services 41%, agriculture 22.5%, industry
19%; unemployed 17.5% (1989)


_#_Organized labor: 24% of labor force (1989)


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: none


_#_Type: parliamentary democracy


_#_Capital: Kingston


_#_Administrative divisions: 14 parishes; Clarendon, Hanover,
Kingston, Manchester, Portland, Saint Andrew, Saint Ann, Saint Catherine,
Saint Elizabeth, Saint James, Saint Mary, Saint Thomas, Trelawny,
Westmoreland


_#_Independence: 6 August 1962 (from UK)


_#_Constitution: 6 August 1962


_#_Legal system: based on English common law; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction


_#_National holiday: Independence Day (first Monday in August),
6 August 1990


_#_Executive branch: British monarch, governor general, prime
minister, Cabinet


_#_Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of an upper house
or Senate and a lower house or House of Representatives


_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor General Sir Florizel A. GLASSPOLE (since 2 March
1973);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Michael MANLEY
(since 13 February 1989)


_#_Political parties and leaders:
People's National Party (PNP), Michael MANLEY;
Jamaica Labor Party (JLP), Edward SEAGA;
Workers' Party of Jamaica (WPJ), Trevor MUNROE


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


_#_Elections:

House of Representatives--last held 9 February 1989 (next to be
held by February 1994);
results--PNP 57%, JLP 43%;
seats--(60 total) PNP 45, JLP 15


_#_Communists: Workers' Party of Jamaica (Marxist-Leninist)


_#_Other political or pressure groups:
Rastafarians (black religious/racial cultists, pan-Africanists)


_#_Member of: ACP, C, CARICOM, CCC, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-19, G-77,
GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LAES, LORCS, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Richard BERNAL;
Chancery at Suite 355, 1850 K Street NW, Washington DC 20006; telephone
(202) 452-0660; there are Jamaican Consulates General in Miami and New
York;

US--Ambassador Glen A. HOLDEN; Embassy at 3rd Floor, Jamaica Mutual
Life Center, 2 Oxford Road, Kingston; telephone (809) 929-4850


_#_Flag: diagonal yellow cross divides the flag into four
triangles--green (top and bottom) and black (hoist side and fly side)


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The economy is based on sugar, bauxite, and tourism.
In 1985 it suffered a setback with the closure of some facilities in the
bauxite and alumina industry, a major source of hard currency earnings.
Since 1986 an economic recovery has been under way. In 1987 conditions
began to improve for the bauxite and alumina industry because of
increases in world metal prices. The recovery has also been supported by
growth in the manufacturing and tourism sectors. In September 1988,
Hurricane Gilbert inflicted severe damage on crops and the electric power
system, a sharp but temporary setback to the economy. By October 1989 the
economic recovery from the hurricane was largely complete and real growth
was up about 3% for 1989. In 1990, 3.5% economic growth was led by
mining and tourism.


_#_GDP: $3.9 billion, per capita $1,580; real growth rate 3.5% (1990)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 16.0% (1990)


_#_Unemployment rate: 18.2% (1990)


_#_Budget: revenues $1.0 billion; expenditures $1.1 billion, including
capital expenditures of $197 million (FY90 est.)


_#_Exports: $1.02 billion (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities--bauxite, alumina, sugar, bananas;

partners--US 36%, UK, Canada, Norway, Trinidad and Tobago


_#_Imports: $1.83 billion (c.i.f., 1990);

commodities--petroleum, machinery, food, consumer goods,
construction goods;

partners--US 48%, UK, Venezuela, Canada, Japan, Trinidad and Tobago


_#_External debt: $4.1 billion (1990 est.)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate 3% (1989 est.); accounts
for almost 25% of GDP


_#_Electricity: 1,122,000 kW capacity; 2,508 million kWh produced,
1,030 kWh per capita (1990)


_#_Industries: tourism, bauxite mining, textiles, food processing,
light manufactures


_#_Agriculture: accounts for about 9% of GDP, 22% of work force,
and 17% of exports; commercial crops--sugarcane, bananas, coffee, citrus,
potatoes, and vegetables; livestock and livestock products include
poultry, goats, milk; not self-sufficient in grain, meat, and dairy
products


_#_Illicit drugs: illicit cultivation of cannabis; transshipment point
for ships carrying cocaine and cannabis from central and South America
to North America


_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1.2
billion; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $1.45 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $27 million;
Communist countries (1974-89), $349 million


_#_Currency: Jamaican dollar (plural--dollars);
1 Jamaican dollar (J$) = 100 cents


_#_Exchange rates: Jamaican dollars (J$) per US$1--8.106 (January
1991), 7.184 (1990), 5.7446 (1989), 5.4886 (1988), 5.4867 (1987), 5.4778
(1986), 5.5586 (1985)


_#_Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March


_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 370 km, all 1.435-meter standard gauge, single track


_#_Highways: 18,200 km total; 12,600 km paved, 3,200 km gravel,
2,400 km improved earth


_#_Pipelines: refined products, 10 km


_#_Ports: Kingston, Montego Bay


_#_Merchant marine: 5 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 13,048
GRT/21,412 DWT; includes 1 cargo, 1 container, 1 roll-on/roll-off cargo,
1 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 1 bulk


_#_Civil air: 6 major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 41 total, 25 usable; 14 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 2 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: fully automatic domestic telephone network;
127,000 telephones; stations--10 AM, 17 FM, 8 TV; 2 Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT earth stations; 3 coaxial submarine cables


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Jamaica Defense Force (includes Coast Guard and Air
Wing), Jamaica Constabulary Force


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 628,225; 446,229 fit for
military service; no conscription; 26,442 reach minimum volunteer
age (18) annually


_#_Defense expenditures: $20 million, less than 1% of GDP (FY91)
_%_
_@_Jan Mayen
(territory of Norway)
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 373 km2; land area: 373 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly more than twice the size of
Washington, DC


_#_Land boundaries: none


_#_Coastline: 124.1 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 10 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation;

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 4 nm


_#_Disputes: Denmark has challenged Norway's maritime claims beween
Greenland and Jan Mayen


_#_Climate: arctic maritime with frequent storms and persistent fog


_#_Terrain: volcanic island, partly covered by glaciers; Beerenberg is
the highest peak, with an elevation of 2,277 meters


_#_Natural resources: none


_#_Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
0%; forest and woodland 0%; other 100%


_#_Environment: barren volcanic island with some moss and grass;
volcanic activity resumed in 1970


_#_Note: located north of the Arctic Circle about 590 km
north-northeast of Iceland between the Greenland Sea and the
Norwegian Sea


_*_People
_#_Population: no permanent inhabitants


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: none


_#_Type: territory of Norway


_#_Note: administered by a governor (sysselmann) resident in
Longyearbyen (Svalbard)


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Jan Mayen is a volcanic island with no exploitable
natural resources. Economic activity is limited to providing services
for employees of Norway's radio and meteorological stations located on
the island.


_#_Electricity: 15,000 kW capacity; 40 million kWh produced,
NA kWh per capita (1989)


_*_Communications
_#_Airports: 1 with runway 1,220 to 2,439 m


_#_Ports: none; offshore anchorage only


_#_Telecommunications: radio and meteorological station


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of Norway
_%_
_@_Japan
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 377,835 km2; land area: 374,744 km2; includes Bonin
Islands (Ogasawara-gunto), Daito-shoto, Minami-jima,
Okinotori-shima, Ryukyu Islands (Nansei-shoto), and Volcano Islands
(Kazan-retto)


_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than California


_#_Land boundaries: none


_#_Coastline: 29,751 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm (3 nm in international straits--La Perouse
or Soya, Tsugaru, Osumi, and Eastern and Western channels of the Korea or
Tsushima Strait)


_#_Disputes: Etorofu, Kunashiri, and Shikotan Islands and the
Habomai island group occupied by Soviet Union since 1945, claimed by
Japan; Liancourt Rocks disputed with South Korea; Senkaku-shoto
(Senkaku Islands) claimed by China and Taiwan


_#_Climate: varies from tropical in south to cool temperate in north


_#_Terrain: mostly rugged and mountainous


_#_Natural resources: negligible mineral resources, fish


_#_Land use: arable land 13%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures
1%; forest and woodland 67%; other 18%; includes irrigated 9%


_#_Environment: many dormant and some active volcanoes; about 1,500
seismic occurrences (mostly tremors) every year; subject to tsunamis


_#_Note: strategic location in northeast Asia


_*_People
_#_Population: 124,017,137 (July 1991), growth rate 0.4% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 10 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 4 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 76 years male, 82 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 1.6 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--Japanese (sing., pl.); adjective--Japanese


_#_Ethnic divisions: Japanese 99.4%, other (mostly Korean) 0.6%


_#_Religion: most Japanese observe both Shinto and Buddhist rites
so the percentages add to more than 100%--Shinto 95.8%,
Buddhist 76.3%, Christian 1.4%, other 12% (1985)


_#_Language: Japanese


_#_Literacy: 99% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1970 est.)


_#_Labor force: 63,330,000; trade and services 54%; manufacturing,
mining, and construction 33%; agriculture, forestry, and fishing 7%;
government 3% (1988)


_#_Organized labor: about 29% of employed workers; public service
76.4%, transportation and telecommunications 57.9%, mining 48.7%,
manufacturing 33.7%, services 18.2%, wholesale, retail, and restaurant
9.3%


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: none


_#_Type: constitutional monarchy


_#_Capital: Tokyo


_#_Administrative divisions: 47 prefectures (fuken, singular and
plural); Aichi, Akita, Aomori, Chiba, Ehime, Fukui, Fukuoka, Fukushima,
Gifu, Gumma, Hiroshima, Hokkaido, Hyogo, Ibaraki, Ishikawa, Iwate,
Kagawa, Kagoshima, Kanagawa, Kochi, Kumamoto, Kyoto, Mie, Miyagi,
Miyazaki, Nagano, Nagasaki, Nara, Niigata, Oita, Okayama, Okinawa,
Osaka, Saga, Saitama, Shiga, Shimane, Shizuoka, Tochigi, Tokushima,
Tokyo, Tottori, Toyama, Wakayama, Yamagata, Yamaguchi, Yamanashi


_#_Independence: 660 BC, traditional founding by Emperor Jimmu


_#_Constitution: 3 May 1947


_#_Legal system: civil law system with English-American influence;
judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; accepts
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations


_#_National holiday: Birthday of the Emperor, 23 December (1933)


_#_Executive branch: emperor, prime minister, Cabinet


_#_Legislative branch: bicameral Diet (Kokkai) consists of an upper
house or House of Councillors (Sangi-in) and a lower house or House of
Representatives (Shugi-in)


_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--Emperor AKIHITO (since 7 January 1989);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Kiichi MIYAZAWA (since 5
November 1991)


_#_Political parties and leaders:
Liberal Democratic Party (LDP), Toshiki KAIFU, president; Keizo OBUCHI,
secretary general;
Japan Socialist Party (JSP), T. DOI, chairman;
Democratic Socialist Party (DSP), Keigo OUCHI, chairman;
Japan Communist Party (JCP), K. MIYAMOTO, Presidium chairman;
Komeito (Clean Government Party, CGP), Koshiro ISHIDA, chairman


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 20


_#_Elections:

House of Councillors--last held on 23 July 1989 (next to be held
23 July 1992); results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(252 total, 100 elected) LDP 109, JSP 67, CGP 21, JCP 14,
other 41;

House of Representatives--last held on 18 February 1990
(next to be held by February 1993);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(512 total) LDP 275, JSP 136, CGP 45, JCP 16, DSP 14,
other parties 5, independents 21; note--9 independents are expected
to join the LDP, 5 the JSP


_#_Communists: about 490,000 registered Communist party members


_#_Member of: AfDB, AG (observer), APEC, AsDB, BIS, CCC, COCOM, CP,
EBRD, ESCAP, FAO, G-2, G-5, G-7, G-8, G-10, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LORCS, NEA, OAS (observer),
OECD, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNRWA, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
WTO


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Ryohei MURATA; Chancery at
2520 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202)
939-6700; there are Japanese Consulates General in Agana (Guam),
Anchorage, Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Honolulu, Houston, Kansas City
(Missouri), Los Angeles, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, Seattle,
and Portland (Oregon), and a Consulate in Saipan (Northern Mariana
Islands);

US--Ambassador Michael H. ARMACOST; Embassy at 10-1, Akasaka
1-chome, Minato-ku (107), Tokyo (mailing address is APO San Francisco
96503); telephone [81] (3) 3224-5000; there are US Consulates General
in Naha (Okinawa), Osaka-Kobe, and Sapporo and a Consulate in Fukuoka


_#_Flag: white with a large red disk (representing the sun without
rays) in the center


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Although Japan has few natural resources, since 1971 it
has become the world's third-largest economy, ranking behind only the
US and the USSR. Government-industry cooperation, a strong work ethic,
and a comparatively small defense allocation have helped Japan advance
rapidly, notably in high-technology fields. Industry, the most important
sector of the economy, is heavily dependent on imported raw materials and
fuels. Self-sufficent in rice, Japan must import 50% of its requirements
for other grain and fodder crops. Japan maintains one of the world's
largest fishing fleets and accounts for nearly 15% of the global
catch. Overall economic growth has been spectacular: a 10% average in the
1960s, a 5% average in the 1970s and 1980s. In 1990 strong investment and
consumption spending helped maintain growth at 5.6%. Inflation remains
low at 3.1% despite higher oil prices and rising wages because of a
tight labor market. Japan continues to run a huge trade surplus, $52
billion in 1990, which supports extensive investment in foreign
properties.


_#_GNP: $2,115.2 billion, per capita $17,100; real growth rate 5.6%
(1990)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.1% (1990)


_#_Unemployment rate: 2.1% (1990)


_#_Budget: revenues $499 billion; expenditures $532 billion, including
capital expenditures (public works only) of $52 billion (FY90)


_#_Exports: $286.5 billion (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities--manufactures 97% (including machinery 38%, motor
vehicles 17%, consumer electronics 10%);

partners--US 31%, Southeast Asia 29%, Western Europe 21%, Communist
countries 3%, Middle East 3%


_#_Imports: $234.7 billion (c.i.f., 1990);

commodities--manufactures 50%, fossil fuels 24%, foodstuffs and raw
materials 26%;

partners--Southeast Asia 23%, US 23%, Western Europe 18%,
Middle East 13%, Communist countries 7%


_#_External debt: $NA


_#_Industrial production: growth rate 4.6% (1990 est.); accounts for
30% of GDP (mining and manufacturing)


_#_Electricity: 191,000,000 kW capacity; 790,000 million kWh produced,
6,390 kWh per capita (1989)


_#_Industries: metallurgy, engineering, electrical and electronic,
textiles, chemicals, automobiles, fishing, telecommunications


_#_Agriculture: accounts for only 2% of GNP; highly subsidized and
protected sector, with crop yields among highest in world; principal
crops--rice, sugar beets, vegetables, fruit; animal products include
pork, poultry, dairy and eggs; about 50% self-sufficient in food
production; shortages of wheat, corn, soybeans; world's largest fish
catch of 11.9 million metric tons in 1988


_#_Economic aid: donor--ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $83.2
billion; ODA outlay of $7.9 billion in 1989


_#_Currency: yen (plural--yen); 1 yen (3) = 100 sen


_#_Exchange rates: yen (3) per US$1--133.88 (January 1991), 144.79
(1990), 137.96 (1989), 128.15 (1988), 144.64 (1987), 168.52 (1986),
238.54 (1985)


_#_Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March


_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 27,327 km total; 2,012 km 1.435-meter standard gauge
and 25,315 km predominantly 1.067-meter narrow gauge; 5,724 km
doubletrack and multitrack sections, 9,038 km 1.067-meter narrow-gauge
electrified, 2,012 km 1.435-meter standard-gauge electrified (1987)


_#_Highways: 1,098,900 km total; 718,700 km paved, 380,200 km gravel,
crushed stone, or unpaved; 3,900 km national expressways, 46,544 km
national highways, 43,907 km principal local roads, 86,930 km prefectural
roads, and 917,619 other (1987)


_#_Inland waterways: about 1,770 km; seagoing craft ply all coastal
inland seas


_#_Pipelines: crude oil, 84 km; refined products, 322 km; natural gas,
1,800 km


_#_Ports: Chiba, Muroran, Kitakyushu, Kobe, Tomakomai, Nagoya, Osaka,
Tokyo, Yokkaichi, Yokohama, Kawasaki, Niigata, Fushiki-Toyama, Shimizu,
Himeji, Wakayama-Shimozu, Shimonoseki, Tokuyama-Shimomatsu


_#_Merchant marine: 1,019 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
22,396,958 GRT/34,683,035 DWT; includes 9 passenger, 55 short-sea
passenger, 4 passenger cargo, 95 cargo, 40 container, 33
roll-on/roll-off cargo, 125 refrigerated cargo, 99 vehicle carrier, 231
petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 14 chemical tanker, 41
liquefied gas, 11 combination ore/oil, 3 specialized tanker, 257 bulk, 2
combination bulk; note--Japan also owns a large flag of convenience
fleet, including up to 40% of the total number of ships under Panamanian
flag


_#_Civil air: 360 major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 165 total, 157 usable; 129 with permanent-surface
runways; 2 with runways over 3,659 m; 29 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
56 with runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: excellent domestic and international service;
64,000,000 telephones; stations--318 AM, 58 FM, 12,350 TV (196
major--1 kw or greater); satellite earth stations--4 Pacific Ocean
INTELSAT and 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT; submarine cables to US (via Guam),
Philippines, China, and USSR


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Japan Ground Self-Defense Force (Army), Japan Maritime
Self-Defense Force (Navy), Japan Air Self-Defense Force (Air Force),
Maritime Safety Agency (Coast Guard)


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 32,256,893; 27,771,374 fit for
military service; 992,255 reach military age (18) annually


_#_Defense expenditures: $NA, 1.0% of GNP (1990 est.)
_%_
_@_Jarvis Island
(territory of the US)
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 4.5 km2; land area: 4.5 km2


_#_Comparative area: about 7.5 times the size of The Mall in
Washington, DC


_#_Land boundaries: none


_#_Coastline: 8 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth);

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm


_#_Climate: tropical; scant rainfall, constant wind, burning sun


_#_Terrain: sandy, coral island surrounded by a  narrow fringing reef


_#_Natural resources: guano (deposits worked until late 1800s)


_#_Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
0%; forest and woodland 0%; other 100%


_#_Environment: sparse bunch grass, prostrate vines, and low-growing
shrubs; lacks fresh water; primarily a nesting, roosting, and foraging
habitat for seabirds, shorebirds, and marine wildlife; feral cats


_#_Note: 2,090 km south of Honolulu in the South Pacific Ocean, just
south of the Equator, about halfway between Hawaii and the Cook Islands


_*_People
_#_Population: uninhabited


_#_Note: Millersville settlement on western side of island
occasionally used as a weather station from 1935 until World War II, when
it was abandoned; reoccupied in 1957 during the International Geophysical
Year by scientists who left in 1958; public entry is by special-use
permit only and generally restricted to scientists and educators


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: none (territory of the US)


_#_Type: unincorporated territory of the US administered by the Fish
and Wildlife Service of the US Department of the Interior as part of the
National Wildlife Refuge System


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: no economic activity


_*_Communications
_#_Ports: none; offshore anchorage only--one boat landing area in the
middle of the west coast and another near the southwest corner of the
island


_#_Note: there is a day beacon near the middle of the west coast


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of the US; visited annually
by the US Coast Guard
_%_
_@_Jersey
(British crown dependency)
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 117 km2; land area: 117 km2


_#_Comparative area: about 0.7 times the size of Washington, DC


_#_Land boundaries: none


_#_Coastline: 70 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 3 nm


_#_Climate: temperate; mild winters and cool summers


_#_Terrain: gently rolling plain with low, rugged hills along north
coast


_#_Natural resources: agricultural land


_#_Land use: arable land NA%; permanent crops NA%; meadows and
pastures NA%; forest and woodland NA%; other NA%; about 58% of land under
cultivation


_#_Environment: about 30% of population concentrated in Saint Helier


_#_Note: largest and southernmost of Channel Islands; 27 km
from France


_*_People
_#_Population: 84,331 (July 1991), growth rate 0.8% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 12 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 10 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: 6 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 6 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 72 years male, 78 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 1.3 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--Channel Islander(s); adjective--Channel Islander


_#_Ethnic divisions: UK and Norman-French descent


_#_Religion: Anglican, Roman Catholic, Baptist, Congregational New
Church, Methodist, Presbyterian


_#_Language: English and French (official), with the Norman-French
dialect spoken in country districts


_#_Literacy: NA% (male NA%, female NA%) but compulsory education
age 5 to 16


_#_Labor force: NA


_#_Organized labor: none


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Bailiwick of Jersey


_#_Type: British crown dependency


_#_Capital: Saint Helier


_#_Administrative divisions: none (British crown dependency)


_#_Independence: none (British crown dependency)


_#_Constitution: unwritten; partly statutes, partly common law and
practice


_#_Legal system: English law and local statute


_#_National holiday: Liberation Day, 9 May (1945)


_#_Executive branch: British monarch, lieutenant governor, bailiff


_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Assembly of the States


_#_Judicial branch: Royal Court


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952);

Head of Government--Lieutenant Governor and Commander in Chief
Air Marshal Sir John SUTTON (since NA 1990); Bailiff Peter CRILL (since
NA)


_#_Political parties and leaders: none; all independents


_#_Suffrage: universal adult at age NA


_#_Elections:

Assembly of the States--last held NA (next to be held NA);
results--percent of vote NA;
seats--(56 total, 52 elected) 52 independents


_#_Communists: probably none


_#_Member of: none


_#_Diplomatic representation: none (British crown dependency)


_#_Flag: white with the diagonal red cross of Saint Patrick (patron
saint of Ireland) extending to the corners of the flag


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The economy is based largely on financial services,
agriculture, and tourism. Potatoes, cauliflower, tomatoes, and especially
flowers are important export crops, shipped mostly to the UK. The Jersey
breed of dairy cattle is known worldwide and represents an important
export earner. Milk products go to the UK and other EC countries. In 1986
the finance sector overtook tourism as the main contributor to GDP,
accounting for 40% of the island's output. In recent years the government
has encouraged light industry to locate in Jersey, with the result that
an electronics industry has developed alongside the traditional
manufacturing of knitwear. All raw material and energy requirements are
imported, as well as a large share of Jersey's food needs.


_#_GDP: $NA, per capita $NA; real growth rate 8% (1987 est.)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 8% (1988 est.)


_#_Unemployment rate: NA%


_#_Budget: revenues $308.0 million; expenditures $284.4 million,
including capital expenditures of NA (1985)


_#_Exports: $NA;

commodities--light industrial and electrical goods,
foodstuffs, textiles;

partners--UK


_#_Imports: $NA;

commodities--machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods,
foodstuffs, mineral fuels, chemicals;

partners--UK


_#_External debt: $NA


_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%


_#_Electricity: 50,000 kW standby capacity (1990); power supplied by
France


_#_Industries: tourism, banking and finance, dairy


_#_Agriculture: potatoes, cauliflowers, tomatoes; dairy and cattle
farming


_#_Economic aid: none


_#_Currency: Jersey pound (plural--pounds); 1 Jersey pound (5J) =
100 pence


_#_Exchange rates: Jersey pounds (5J) per US$1--0.5171 (January
1991), 0.5603 (1990), 0.6099 (1989), 0.5614 (1988), 0.6102 (1987), 0.6817
(1986), 0.7714 (1985); the Jersey pound is at par with the British pound


_#_Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March


_*_Communications
_#_Ports: Saint Helier, Gorey, Saint Aubin


_#_Airports: 1 with permanent-surface runway 1,220-2,439 m (Saint
Peter)


_#_Telecommunications: 63,700 telephones; stations--1 AM, no FM, 1
TV; 3 submarine cables


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of the UK
_%_
_@_Johnston Atoll
(territory of the US)
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 2.8 km2; land area: 2.8 km2


_#_Comparative area: about 4.7 times the size of The Mall in
Washington, DC


_#_Land boundaries: none


_#_Coastline: 10 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth);

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm


_#_Climate: tropical, but generally dry; consistent northeast trade
winds with little seasonal temperature variation


_#_Terrain: mostly flat with a maximum elevation of 4 meters


_#_Natural resources: guano (deposits worked until about 1890)


_#_Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
0%; forest and woodland 0%; other 100%


_#_Environment: some low-growing vegetation


_#_Note: strategic location 1,328 km west-southwest of Honolulu in
the North Pacific Ocean, about one-third of the way between Hawaii and
the Marshall Islands; Johnston Island and Sand Island are natural
islands; North Island (Akau) and East Island (Hikina) are manmade islands
formed from coral dredging; closed to the public; former nuclear weapons
test site; site of Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System
(JACADS)


_*_People
_#_Population: 1,325 (December 1990); all US government personnel and
contractors


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: none (territory of the US)


_#_Type: unincorporated territory of the US administered by the US
Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA) and managed cooperatively by DNA and the
Fish and Wildlife Service of the US Department of the Interior as part of
the National Wildlife Refuge system


_#_Diplomatic representation: none (territory of the US)


_#_Flag: the flag of the US is used


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Economic activity is limited to providing services to
US military personnel and contractors located on the island. All
food and manufactured goods must be imported.


_#_Electricity: supplied by the United States Military


_*_Communications
_#_Ports: Johnston Island


_#_Airports: 1 with permanent-surface runway 2,743 m


_#_Telecommunications: excellent system including 60-channel submarine
cable, Autodin/SRT terminal, digital telephone switch, Military
Affiliated Radio System (MARS station), commercial satellite television
system (receive only), and UHF/VHF air-ground radio, marine
VHF/FM Channel 16


_#_Note: US Coast Guard operates a LORAN transmitting station


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of the US
_%_
_@_Jordan
(see separate West Bank entry)
_#_Note: The war between Israel and the Arab states in June 1967 ended
with Israel in control of the West Bank. As stated in the 1978 Camp David
Accords and reaffirmed by President Reagan's 1 September 1982 peace
initiative, the final status of the West Bank and Gaza Strip, their
relationship with their neighbors, and a peace treaty between Israel and
Jordan are to be negotiated among the concerned parties. The Camp David
Accords further specify that these negotiations will resolve the location
of the respective boundaries. Pending the completion of this process, it
is US policy that the final status of the West Bank and Gaza Strip has
yet to be determined.


_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 91,880 km2; land area: 91,540 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than Indiana


_#_Land boundaries: 1,586 km total; Iraq 134 km, Israel 238 km,
Saudi Arabia 742 km, Syria 375 km, West Bank 97 km


_#_Coastline: 26 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Territorial sea: 3 nm


_#_Disputes: differences with Israel over the location of the
1949 Armistice Line which separates the two countries


_#_Climate: mostly arid desert; rainy season in west (November to
April)


_#_Terrain: mostly desert plateau in east, highland area in west;
Great Rift Valley separates East and West Banks of the Jordan River


_#_Natural resources: phosphates, potash, shale oil


_#_Land use: arable land 4%; permanent crops 0.5%; meadows and
pastures 1%; forest and woodland 0.5%; other 94%; includes irrigated 0.5%


_#_Environment: lack of natural water resources; deforestation;
overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification


_*_People
_#_Population: 3,412,553 (July 1991), growth rate 4.2% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 46 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: 1 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 38 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 70 years male, 73 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 7.1 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--Jordanian(s); adjective--Jordanian


_#_Ethnic divisions: Arab 98%, Circassian 1%, Armenian 1%


_#_Religion: Sunni Muslim 92%, Christian 8%


_#_Language: Arabic (official); English widely understood among
upper and middle classes


_#_Literacy: 80% (male 89%, female 70%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)


_#_Labor force: 572,000 (1988); agriculture 20%, manufacturing and
mining 20% (1987 est.)


_#_Organized labor: about 10% of labor force


_#_Note: 1.5-1.7 million Palestinians live on the East Bank (55-60%
of the population), most are Jordanian citizens


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan


_#_Type: constitutional monarchy


_#_Capital: Amman


_#_Administrative divisions: 8 governorates (muhafazat,
singular--muhafazah); Al Balqa, Al Karak, Al Mafraq,
Amman, At Tafilah, Az Zarqa, Irbid, Maan


_#_Independence: 25 May 1946 (from League of Nations mandate under
British administration; formerly Trans-Jordan)


_#_Constitution: 8 January 1952


_#_Legal system: based on Islamic law and French codes; judicial
review of legislative acts in a specially provided High Tribunal; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction


_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 25 May (1946)


_#_Executive branch: monarch, prime minister, deputy prime minister,
Cabinet


_#_Legislative branch: bicameral National Assembly (Majlis al-Umma)
consists of an upper house or House of Notables (Majlis al-Aayan) and a
lower house or House of Deputies (Majlis al-Nuwaab); note--the
House of Deputies was dissolved by King Hussein on 30 July 1988 as
part of Jordanian disengagement from the West Bank and in November 1989
the first parliamentary elections in 22 years were held, with no seats
going to Palestinians on the West Bank


_#_Judicial branch: Court of Cassation


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--King HUSSEIN Ibn Talal I (since 11 August 1952);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Tahir al-MASRI (since 17 June
1991)


_#_Political parties and leaders: none; after the 1989 parliamentary
elections, King Hussein promised to allow the formation of political
parties; a national charter that sets forth the ground rules for
democracy in Jordan--including the creation of political parties--has
been completed but not yet approved


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 20


_#_Elections:

House of Representatives--last held 8 November 1989 (next to be
held November 1993); results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(80 total) Muslim Brotherhood 22, Independent Islamic bloc
10, Democratic bloc (mostly leftist) 15, Liberal bloc (traditionalist)
7, Nationalist bloc (traditionalist) 14, independent 12


_#_Communists: party actively repressed, membership less than 500
(est.)


_#_Member of: ABEDA, ACC, AFESD, AL, AMF, CAEU, CCC, ESCWA, FAO, G-77,
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LORCS, NAM, OIC, UN,
UNAVEM, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNRWA, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Hussein A. HAMMAMI;
Chancery at 3504 International Drive NW, Washington DC 20008;
telephone (202) 966-2664;

US--Ambassador Roger Gram HARRISON; Embassy on Jebel Amman, Amman
(mailing address is P. O. Box 354, Amman, or APO New York 09892);
telephone [962] (6) 644-371


_#_Flag: three equal horizontal bands of black (top), white, and green
with a red isosceles triangle based on the hoist side bearing a small
white seven-pointed star; the seven points on the star represent the
seven fundamental laws of the Koran


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Jordan was a secondary beneficiary of the oil boom of
the late 1970s and early 1980s, when its annual GNP growth averaged
10-12%. Recent years, however, have witnessed a sharp reduction in grant
aid from Arab oil-producing countries and a dropoff in worker
remittances, with national growth averaging 1-2%. Imports--mainly oil,
capital goods, consumer durables, and foodstuffs--have been outstripping
exports by roughly $2 billion annually, the difference being made up by
aid, remittances, and borrowing. In mid-1989, the Jordanian Government
agreed to implement an IMF austerity program designed to tackle the
country's serious economic problems. The program sought to gradually
reduce the government's budget deficit over the next several years and
implement badly needed structural reforms in the economy. In return for
agreeing to the IMF program, Jordan was granted IMF standby loans of over
$100 million. Recognizing that it would be unable to cover its debt
obligations, the government also began debt rescheduling negotiations
with creditors in mid-1989. The onset of the Gulf crisis in August 1990
forced the government to shelve the IMF program and suspend most debt
payments and rescheduling negotiations. Economic prospects for 1991
are especially gloomy, given the unsettled conditions in the Middle
East.


_#_GNP: $4.6 billion, per capita $1,400; real growth rate - 15%
(1990 est.)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 15% (1990 est.)


_#_Unemployment rate: 30% (January 1991 est.)


_#_Budget: revenues $1.05 billion; expenditures $1.6 billion,
including capital expenditures of $NA (1991 est.)


_#_Exports: $0.9 billion (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities--fruits and vegetables, phosphates, fertilizers;

partners--Iraq, Saudi Arabia, India, Kuwait, Japan, China,
Yugoslavia, Indonesia


_#_Imports: $2.1 billion (c.i.f., 1990 est.);

commodities--crude oil, textiles, capital goods, motor vehicles,
foodstuffs;

partners--EC, US, Saudi Arabia, Japan, Turkey, Romania, China,
Taiwan


_#_External debt: $8 billion (December 1990 est.)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate - 15% (1990 est.); accounts
for 20% of GDP


_#_Electricity: 981,000 kW capacity; 3,500 million kWh produced,
1,180 kWh per capita (1989)


_#_Industries: phosphate mining, petroleum refining, cement, potash,
light manufacturing


_#_Agriculture: accounts for only 5% of GDP; principal products are
wheat, barley, citrus fruit, tomatoes, melons, olives; livestock--sheep,
goats, poultry; large net importer of food


_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1.7
billion; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $1.3 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $9.5 billion;
Communist countries (1970-89), $44 million


_#_Currency: Jordanian dinar (plural--dinars);
1 Jordanian dinar (JD) = 1,000 fils


_#_Exchange rates: Jordanian dinars (JD) per US$1--0.6670 (January
1991), 0.6636 (1990), 0.5704 (1989), 0.3709 (1988), 0.3387 (1987), 0.3499
(1986), 0.3940 (1985)


_#_Fiscal year: calendar year


_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 619 km 1.050-meter gauge, single track


_#_Highways: 7,500 km; 5,500 km asphalt, 2,000 km gravel and crushed
stone


_#_Pipelines: crude oil, 209 km


_#_Ports: Al Aqabah


_#_Merchant marine: 2 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 22,870
GRT/38,187 DWT; includes 1 bulk, 1 cargo


_#_Civil air: 19 major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 19 total, 16 usable; 14 with permanent-surface runways;
1 with runways over 3,659 m; 13 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
none with runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: adequate system of radio relay, cable, and
radio; 81,500 telephones; stations--4 AM, 3 FM, 24 TV; satellite earth
stations--1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT, 1 ARABSAT,
1 domestic TV receive-only; coaxial cable and radio relay to Iraq, Saudi
Arabia, and Syria; radio relay to Lebanon is inactive; a microwave
network linking Syria, Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco and Jordan


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Jordan Arab Army, Royal Jordanian Air Force,
Royal Jordanian Coast Guard, Public Security Force


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 778,353; 555,144 fit for
military service; 39,879 reach military age (18) annually


_#_Defense expenditures: $377 million, 12.4% of GNP (1990)
_%_
_@_Juan de Nova Island
(French possession)
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 4.4 km2; land area: 4.4 km2


_#_Comparative area: about 7.5 times the size of The Mall in
Washington, DC


_#_Land boundaries: none


_#_Coastline: 24.1 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm


_#_Disputes: claimed by Madagascar


_#_Climate: tropical


_#_Terrain: undetermined


_#_Natural resources: guano deposits and other fertilizers


_#_Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
0%; forest and woodland 90%; other 10%


_#_Environment: subject to periodic cyclones; wildlife sanctuary


_#_Note: located in the central Mozambique Channel about halfway
between Africa and Madagascar


_*_People
_#_Population: uninhabited


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: none


_#_Type: French possession administered by Commissioner of the
Republic Daniel CONSTANTIN, resident in Reunion


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: no economic activity


_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: short line going to a jetty


_#_Airports: 1 with nonpermanent-surface runway 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Ports: none; offshore anchorage only


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of France
_%_
_@_Kenya
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 582,650 km2; land area: 569,250 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly more than twice the size of Nevada


_#_Land boundaries: 3,477 km total; Ethiopia 861 km, Somalia 682 km,
Sudan 232 km, Tanzania 769 km, Uganda 933 km


_#_Coastline: 536 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm


_#_Disputes: administrative boundary with Sudan does not coincide
with international boundary; possible claim by Somalia based on
unification of ethnic Somalis


_#_Climate: varies from tropical along coast to arid in interior


_#_Terrain: low plains rise to central highlands bisected by Great
Rift Valley; fertile plateau in west


_#_Natural resources: gold, limestone, soda ash, salt barytes,
rubies, fluorspar, garnets, wildlife


_#_Land use: arable land 3%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures
7%; forest and woodland 4%; other 85%; includes irrigated NEGL%


_#_Environment: unique physiography supports abundant and varied
wildlife of scientific and economic value; deforestation; soil erosion;
desertification; glaciers on Mt. Kenya


_#_Note: Kenyan Highlands one of the most successful agricultural
production regions in Africa


_*_People
_#_Population: 25,241,978 (July 1991), growth rate 3.6% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 45 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 8 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 69 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 60 years male, 64 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 6.4 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--Kenyan(s); adjective--Kenyan


_#_Ethnic divisions: Kikuyu 21%, Luhya 14%, Luo 13%, Kalenjin 11%,
Kamba 11%, Kisii 6%, Meru 6%, Asian, European, and Arab 1%


_#_Religion: Protestant 38%, Roman Catholic 28%, indigenous beliefs
26%, Muslim 6%


_#_Language: English and Swahili (official); numerous indigenous
languages


_#_Literacy: 69% (male 80%, female 58%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)


_#_Labor force: 9.2 million (includes unemployed); the total
employed is 1.37 million (14.8% of the labor force); services
54.8%, industry 26.2%, agriculture 19.0% (1989)


_#_Organized labor: 390,000 (est.)


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of Kenya


_#_Type: republic


_#_Capital: Nairobi


_#_Administrative divisions: 7 provinces and 1 area*; Central, Coast,
Eastern, Nairobi Area*, North-Eastern, Nyanza, Rift Valley, Western


_#_Independence: 12 December 1963 (from UK; formerly British East
Africa)


_#_Constitution: 12 December 1963, amended as a republic 1964;
reissued with amendments 1979, 1983, 1986, and 1988


_#_Legal system: based on English common law, tribal law, and Islamic
law; judicial review in High Court; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction,
with reservations; constitutional amendment in 1982 made Kenya a de jure
one-party state


_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 12 December (1963)


_#_Executive branch: president, vice president, Cabinet


_#_Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Bunge)


_#_Judicial branch: Court of Appeal, High Court


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government--President Daniel Teroitich
arap MOI (since 14 October 1978); Vice President George SAITOTI
(since 10 May 1989)


_#_Political parties and leaders: only party--Kenya African National
Union (KANU), Daniel T. arap MOI, president


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


_#_Elections:

President--last held on 21 March 1988 (next to be held
by March 1993);
results--President Daniel T. arap MOI was reelected;

National Assembly--last held on 21 March 1988
(next to be held by March 1993); results--KANU is the only party;
seats--(202 total, 188 elected) KANU 200


_#_Communists: may be a few Communists and sympathizers


_#_Other political or pressure groups: labor unions; exile
opposition--Mwakenya and other groups


_#_Member of: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, EADB, ECA, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IGADD, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL,
IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIIMOG,
UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Denis Daudi AFANDE; Chancery
at 2249 R Street NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 387-6101; there
are Kenyan Consulates General in Los Angeles and New York;

US--Ambassador Smith HEMPSTONE, Jr.; Embassy at the corner of Moi
Avenue and Haile Selassie Avenue, Nairobi (mailing address is P. O. Box
30137, Nairobi or APO New York 09675); telephone [254] (2) 334141; there
is a US Consulate in Mombasa


_#_Flag: three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and green;
the red band is edged in white; a large warrior's shield covering crossed
spears is superimposed at the center


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: A serious underlying economic problem is Kenya's 3.6%
annual population growth rate--one of the highest in the world. In the
meantime, GDP growth in the near term has kept slightly ahead of
population--annually averaging 4.9% in the 1986-90 period. Undependable
weather conditions and a shortage of arable land hamper long-term
growth in agriculture, the leading economic sector.


_#_GDP: $8.5 billion, per capita $360; real growth rate 4% (1990
est.)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 10.9% (1990 est.)


_#_Unemployment rate: NA%, but there is a high level of unemployment
and underemployment


_#_Budget: revenues $2.0 billion; expenditures $2.3 billion, including
capital expenditures of $NA billion (FY89)


_#_Exports: $1.1 billion (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities--tea 25%, coffee 21%, petroleum products 7% (1989);

partners--EC 44%, Africa 25%, Asia 5%, US 5%, Middle East 4% (1988)


_#_Imports: $2.4 billion (c.i.f., 1990 est.);

commodities--machinery and transportation equipment 29%,
petroleum and petroleum products 15%, iron and steel 7%,
raw materials, food and consumer goods (1989 est.);

partners--EC 45%, Asia 11%, Middle East 12%, US 5% (1988)


_#_External debt: $5.8 billion (December 1990 est.)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate 5.4% (1989 est.); accounts
for 17% of GDP


_#_Electricity: 730,000 kW capacity; 2,700 million kWh produced,
110 kWh per capita (1990)


_#_Industries: small-scale consumer goods (plastic, furniture,
batteries, textiles, soap, cigarettes, flour), agricultural processing,
oil refining, cement, tourism


_#_Agriculture: most important sector, accounting for 29% of GDP,
about 80% of the work force, and over 50% of exports; cash
crops--coffee, tea, sisal, pineapple; food products--corn, wheat,
sugarcane, fruit, vegetables, dairy products; food output not keeping
pace with population growth


_#_Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis used mostly for
domestic consumption; widespread cultivation of cannabis and qat on
small plots; transit country for heroin and methaqualone en route
from Southwest Asia to West Africa, Western Europe, and the US


_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $839
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $6.7 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $74 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $83 million


_#_Currency: Kenyan shilling (plural--shillings);
1 Kenyan shilling (KSh) = 100 cents


_#_Exchange rates: Kenyan shillings (KSh) per US$1--24.427 (January
1991), 22.915 (1990), 20.572 (1989), 17.747 (1988), 16.454 (1987), 16.226
(1986), 16.432 (1985)


_#_Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June


_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 2,040 km 1.000-meter gauge


_#_Highways: 64,590 km total; 7,000 km paved, 4,150 km gravel,
remainder improved earth


_#_Inland waterways: part of Lake Victoria system is within boundaries
of Kenya; principal inland port is at Kisumu


_#_Pipelines: refined products, 483 km


_#_Ports: Mombasa, Lamu


_#_Civil air: 14 major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 249 total, 213 usable; 22 with permanent-surface runways;
2 with runways over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 47 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: in top group of African systems; consists of
radio relay links, open-wire lines, and radiocommunication stations;
260,000 telephones; stations--11 AM, 4 FM, 4 TV; satellite earth
stations--1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Indian Ocean INTLESAT


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Kenya Army, Kenya Navy, Air Force, paramilitary General
Service Unit of the Police


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 5,444,247; 3,362,290 fit for
military service; no conscription


_#_Defense expenditures: $100 million, 1.0% of GDP (1989 est.)
_%_
_@_Kingman Reef
(territory of the US)
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 1 km2; land area: 1 km2


_#_Comparative area: about 1.7 times the size of The Mall in
Washington, DC


_#_Land boundaries: none


_#_Coastline: 3 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth);

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm


_#_Climate: tropical, but moderated by prevailing winds


_#_Terrain: low and nearly level with a maximum elevation of about
1 meter


_#_Natural resources: none


_#_Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
0%; forest and woodland 0%; other 100%


_#_Environment: barren coral atoll with deep interior lagoon; wet or
awash most of the time


_#_Note: located 1,600 km south-southwest of Honolulu in the North
Pacific Ocean, about halfway between Hawaii and American Samoa; maximum
elevation of about 1 meter makes this a navigational hazard; closed to
the public


_*_People
_#_Population: uninhabited


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: none


_#_Type: unincorporated territory of the US administered by the
US Navy


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: no economic activity


_*_Communications
_#_Airports: lagoon was used as a halfway station between Hawaii and
American Samoa by Pan American Airways for flying boats in 1937 and 1938


_#_Ports: none; offshore anchorage only


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of the US
_%_
_@_Kiribati
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 717 km2; land area: 717 km2; includes three island
groups--Gilbert Islands, Line Islands, Phoenix Islands


_#_Comparative area: slightly more than four times the size of
Washington, DC


_#_Land boundaries: none


_#_Coastline: 1,143 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm


_#_Climate: tropical; marine, hot and humid, moderated by trade winds


_#_Terrain: mostly low-lying coral atolls surrounded by extensive
reefs


_#_Natural resources: phosphate (production discontinued in 1979)


_#_Land use: arable land NEGL%; permanent crops 51%; meadows and
pastures 0%; forest and woodland 3%; other 46%


_#_Environment: typhoons can occur any time, but usually November to
March; 20 of the 33 islands are inhabited


_#_Note: Banaba (Ocean Island) in Kiribati is one of the three great
phosphate rock islands in the Pacific Ocean--the others are Makatea
in French Polynesia and Nauru


_*_People
_#_Population: 71,137 (July 1991), growth rate 1.6% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 33 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 12 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: - 5 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 63 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 52 years male, 58 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 4.2 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--I-Kiribati (sing., pl.); adjective--I-Kiribati


_#_Ethnic divisions: Micronesian


_#_Religion: Roman Catholic 52.6%, Protestant (Congregational) 40.9%,
Seventh-Day Adventist, Baha'i, Church of God, Mormon 6% (1985)


_#_Language: English (official), Gilbertese


_#_Literacy: NA% (male NA%, female NA%)


_#_Labor force: 7,870 economically active (1985 est.)


_#_Organized labor: Kiribati Trades Union Congress--2,500 members


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of Kiribati; note--pronounced Kiribas


_#_Type: republic


_#_Capital: Tarawa


_#_Administrative divisions: 3 units; Gilbert Islands, Line Islands,
Phoenix Islands; note--a new administrative structure of 6 districts
(Banaba, Central Gilberts, Line Islands, Northern  Gilberts, Southern
Gilberts, Tarawa) may have been changed to 20 island councils (one for
each of the inhabited islands) named Abaiang, Abemama, Aranuka, Arorae,
Banaba, Beru, Butaritari, Kiritimati, Kuria, Maiana, Makin, Marakei,
Nikunau, Nonouti, Onotoa, Tabiteuea, Tabuaeran, Tamana, Tarawa, Teraina


_#_Independence: 12 July 1979 (from UK; formerly Gilbert Islands)


_#_Constitution: 12 July 1979


_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 12 July (1979)


_#_Executive branch: president, vice president, Cabinet


_#_Legislative branch: unicameral House of Assembly (Maneaba Ni
Maungatabu)


_#_Judicial branch: Court of Appeal, High Court


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government--President Ieremia TABAI
(since 12 July 1979); Vice President Teatao TEANNAKI (since 20 July 1979)


_#_Political parties and leaders:
Gilbertese National Party;
Christian Democratic Party, Teburoro TITO, secretary;
essentially not organized on the basis of political parties


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


_#_Elections:

President--last held on 12 May 1987 (next to be held May 1991);
results--Ieremia TABAI 50.1%, Tebruroro TITO 42.7%, Tetao
TEANNAKI 7.2%;

House of Assembly--last held on 19 March l987 (next to be held
May 1991); results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(40 total; 39 elected) percent of seats by party NA


_#_Member of: ACP, AsDB, C, ESCAP (associate), IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU,
IDA, IFC, IMF, INTERPOL, ITU, SPC, SPF, UNESCO, UPU, WHO


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador (vacant) lives in Tarawa
(Kiribati);

US--none


_#_Flag: the upper half is red with a yellow frigate bird flying over
a yellow rising sun and the lower half is blue with three horizontal wavy
white stripes to represent the ocean


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The country has few national resources. Commercially
viable phosphate deposits were exhausted at the time of independence
in 1979. Copra and fish now represent the bulk of production and exports.
The economy has fluctuated widely in recent years. Real GDP declined
about 8% in 1987, as the fish catch fell sharply to only one-fourth the
level of 1986 and copra production was hampered by repeated rains. Output
rebounded strongly in 1988, with real GDP growing by 17%. The upturn in
economic growth came from an increase in copra production and a good fish
catch. Following the strong surge in output in 1988, GNP increased 1%
in 1989 and again in 1990.


_#_GDP: $36.8 million, per capita $525; real growth rate 1.0% (1990
est.)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.0% (1990 est.)


_#_Unemployment rate: 2% (1985); considerable underemployment


_#_Budget: revenues $29.9 million; expenditures $16.3 million,
including capital expenditures of $14.0 million (1990 est.)


_#_Exports: $5.8 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities--fish 55%, copra 42%;

partners--EC 20%, Marshall Islands 12%, US 8%, American
Samoa 4% (1985)


_#_Imports: $26.7 million (c.i.f., 1990 est.);

commodities--foodstuffs, fuel, transportation equipment;

partners--Australia 39%, Japan 21%, NZ 6%, UK 6%, US 3% (1985)


_#_External debt: $2.0 million (December 1989 est.)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate 0.0% (1988 est.); accounts
for less than 4% of GDP


_#_Electricity: 5,000 kW capacity; 13 million kWh produced,
190 kWh per capita (1990)


_#_Industries: fishing, handicrafts


_#_Agriculture: accounts for 30% of GDP (including fishing); copra
and fish contribute about 95% to exports; subsistence farming
predominates; food crops--taro, breadfruit, sweet potatoes, vegetables;
not self-sufficient in food


_#_Economic aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral
commitments (1970-88), $258 million


_#_Currency: Australian dollar (plural--dollars);
1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents


_#_Exchange rates: Australian dollars ($A) per US$1--1.2834 (January
1991), 1.2799 (1990), 1.2618 (1989), 1.2752 (1988), 1.4267 (1987), 1.4905
(1986), 1.4269 (1985)


_#_Fiscal year: NA


_*_Communications
_#_Highways: 640 km of motorable roads


_#_Inland waterways: small network of canals, totaling 5 km, in Line
Islands


_#_Ports: Banaba and Betio (Tarawa)


_#_Civil air: 2 Trislanders; no major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 22 total; 21 usable; 4 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 2,439 m; 5 with runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: 1,400 telephones; stations--1 AM, no FM, no TV;
1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth station


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: no military force maintained; the Police Force carries
out law enforcement functions and paramilitary duties; there are small
police posts on all islands


_#_Manpower availability: NA


_#_Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP
_%_
_@_Korea, North
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 120,540 km2; land area: 120,410 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than Mississippi


_#_Land boundaries: 1,671 km total; China 1,416 km, South Korea 238
km, USSR 17 km


_#_Coastline: 2,495 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm;

Military boundary line: 50 nm in the Sea of Japan and the
exclusive economic zone limit in the Yellow Sea (all foreign vessels and
aircraft without permission are banned)


_#_Disputes: short section of boundary with China is indefinite;
Demarcation Line with South Korea


_#_Climate: temperate with rainfall concentrated in summer


_#_Terrain: mostly hills and mountains separated by deep, narrow
valleys; coastal plains wide in west, discontinuous in east


_#_Natural resources: coal, lead, tungsten, zinc, graphite, magnesite,
iron ore, copper, gold, pyrites, salt, fluorspar, hydropower


_#_Land use: arable land 18%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures
NEGL%; forest and woodland 74%; other 7%; includes irrigated 9%


_#_Environment: mountainous interior is isolated, nearly inaccessible,
and sparsely populated; late spring droughts often followed by severe
flooding


_#_Note: strategic location bordering China, South Korea, and USSR


_*_People
_#_Population: 21,814,656 (July 1991), growth rate 1.9% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 24 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 30 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 66 years male, 72 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 2.5 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--Korean(s); adjective--Korean


_#_Ethnic divisions: racially homogeneous


_#_Religion: Buddhism and Confucianism; religious activities now
almost nonexistent


_#_Language: Korean


_#_Literacy: NA% (male NA%, female NA%)


_#_Labor force: 9,615,000; agricultural 36%, nonagricultural 64%;
shortage of skilled and unskilled labor (mid-1987 est.)


_#_Organized labor: 1,600,000 members; single-trade union system
coordinated by the General Federation of Trade Unions of Korea under the
Central Committee


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Democratic People's Republic of Korea; abbreviated
DPRK


_#_Type: Communist state; dictatorship


_#_Capital: P'yongyang


_#_Administrative divisions: 9 provinces (do, singular and plural) and
3 special cities* (jikhalsi, singular and plural); Chagang-do,
Hamgyong-namdo, Hamgyong-bukto, Hwanghae-namdo, Hwanghae-bukto,
Kaesong-si*, Kangwon-do, Namp'o-si*, P'yongan-bukto,
P'yongan-namdo, P'yongyang-si*, Yanggang-do


_#_Independence: 9 September 1948


_#_Constitution: adopted 1948, revised 27 December 1972


_#_Legal system: based on German civil law system with Japanese
influences and Communist legal theory; no judicial review of legislative
acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction


_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 9 September (1948)


_#_Executive branch: president, two vice presidents, premier, eleven
vice premiers, State Administration Council (cabinet)


_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Supreme People's Assembly (Ch'oego
Inmin Hoeui)


_#_Judicial branch: Central Court


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--President KIM Il-song (since 28 December 1972);
Designated Successor KIM Chong-il (son of President, born 16 February
1942);

Head of Government--Premier YON Hyong-muk (since NA December 1988)


_#_Political parties and leaders: major party--Korean Workers' Party
(KWP), KIM Il-song, general secretary, and his son, KIM Chong-il,
secretary, Central Committee;
Korean Social Democratic Party, YI Kye-paek, chairman;
Chondoist Chongu Party, CHONG Sin-hyok, chairman


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 17


_#_Elections:

President--last held 24 May 1990 (next to be held 1994);
results--President KIM Il-song was reelected without opposition;

Supreme People's Assembly--last held on 24 May 1990 (next
to be held 1994);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(687 total) the KWP approves a single list of candidates
who are elected without opposition; minor parties hold a few seats


_#_Communists: KWP claims membership of about 3 million


_#_Member of: FAO, G-77, IAEA, ICAO, IFAD, IMF (observer), IMO, IOC,
ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU,
WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO


_#_Diplomatic representation: none


_#_Flag: three horizontal bands of blue (top), red (triple width), and
blue; the red band is edged in white; on the hoist side of the red band
is a white disk with a red five-pointed star


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: More than 90% of this command economy is socialized;
agricultural land is collectivized; and state-owned industry produces 95%
of manufactured goods. State control of economic affairs is unusually
tight even for a Communist country because of the small size and
homogeneity of the society and the strict one-man rule of Kim. Economic
growth during the period 1984-90 averaged approximately 3%. Abundant
natural resources and hydropower form the basis of industrial
development. Output of the extractive industries includes coal, iron ore,
magnesite, graphite, copper, zinc, lead, and precious metals.
Manufacturing emphasis is centered on heavy industry, with light industry
lagging far behind. Despite the use of high-yielding seed varieties,
expansion of irrigation, and the heavy use of fertilizers, North Korea
has not yet become self-sufficient in food production. Four consecutive
years of poor harvests, coupled with distribution problems, have led to
chronic food shortages. North Korea remains far behind South Korea in
economic development and living standards.


_#_GNP: $29.7 billion, per capita $1,390; real growth rate 2%
(1990 est.)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%


_#_Unemployment rate: officially none


_#_Budget: revenues $15.6 billion; expenditures $15.6 billion,
including capital expenditures of $NA (1989)


_#_Exports: $1.95 billion (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities--minerals, metallurgical products, agricultural
products, manufactures;

partners--USSR, China, Japan, Hong Kong, FRG, Singapore


_#_Imports: $2.85 billion (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities--petroleum, machinery and equipment, coking coal,
grain;

partners--USSR, Japan, China, Hong Kong, FRG, Singapore


_#_External debt: $7 billion (1991)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%


_#_Electricity: 6,440,000 kW capacity; 40,250 million kWh produced,
1,890 kWh per capita (1990)


_#_Industries: machine building, military products, electric power,
chemicals, mining, metallurgy, textiles, food processing


_#_Agriculture: accounts for about 25% of GNP and 36% of work force;
principal crops--rice, corn, potatoes, soybeans, pulses; livestock and
livestock products--cattle, hogs, pork, eggs; not self-sufficient in
grain; fish catch estimated at 1.7 million metric tons in 1987


_#_Economic aid: Communist countries, $1.4 billion a year in the 1980s


_#_Currency: North Korean won (plural--won);
1 North Korean won (Wn) = 100 chon


_#_Exchange rates: North Korean won (Wn) per US$1--2.2 (March 1991),
2.1 (January 1990), 2.3 (December 1989), 2.13 (December 1988), 0.94
(March 1987), NA (1986), NA (1985)


_#_Fiscal year: calendar year


_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 4,535 km total; 3,870 km 1.435-meter standard gauge,
665 km 0.762-meter narrow gauge; 159 km double track;
3,175 km electrified; government owned (1989)


_#_Highways: about 30,000 km (1989); 98.5% gravel, crushed stone, or
earth surface; 1.5% concrete or bituminous


_#_Inland waterways: 2,253 km; mostly navigable by small craft only


_#_Pipelines: crude oil, 37 km


_#_Ports: Ch'ongjin, Haeju, Hungnam, Namp'o, Wonsan, Songnim,
Najin, Sonbong


_#_Merchant marine: 68 ships (1,000 GRT and over) totaling 465,801
GRT/709,442 DWT; includes 1 passenger, 1 short-sea passenger,
1 passenger-cargo, 58 cargo, 2 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL)
tanker, 4 bulk, 1 combination bulk


_#_Airports: 55 total, 55 usable (est.); about 30 with
permanent-surface runways; fewer than 5 with runways over 3,659 m; 20
with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 30 with runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: stations--18 AM, no FM, 11 TV; 200,000 TV sets;
3,500,000 radio receivers; 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth station


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Korean People's Army (includes of the Army, Navy,
Air Force), Civil Security Forces


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 6,381,859; 3,899,606 fit for
military service; 214,690 reach military age (18) annually


_#_Defense expenditures: $NA, 20-25% of GNP (1991 est.);
note--the officially announced but suspect figure is $1.7 billion,
6% of GNP (1991 est.)
_%_
_@_Korea, South
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 98,480 km2; land area: 98,190 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than Indiana


_#_Land boundary: 238 km with North Korea


_#_Coastline: 2,413 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: not specific

Territorial sea: 12 nm (3 nm in the Korea Strait)


_#_Disputes: Demarcation Line with North Korea; Liancourt Rocks
claimed by Japan


_#_Climate: temperate, with rainfall heavier in summer than winter


_#_Terrain: mostly hills and mountains; wide coastal plains in west
and south


_#_Natural resources: coal, tungsten, graphite, molybdenum, lead,
hydropower


_#_Land use: arable land 21%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures
1%; forest and woodland 67%; other 10%; includes irrigated 12%


_#_Environment: occasional typhoons bring high winds and floods;
earthquakes in southwest; air pollution in large cities


_#_Notes: strategic location along the Korea Strait, Sea of Japan, and
Yellow Sea


_*_People
_#_Population: 43,134,386 (July 1991), growth rate 0.8% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 15 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: - 1 migrant/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 23 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 67 years male, 73 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 1.6 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--Korean(s); adjective--Korean


_#_Ethnic divisions: homogeneous; small Chinese minority
(about 20,000)


_#_Religion: strong Confucian tradition; vigorous Christian minority
(28% of the total population); Buddhism; pervasive folk religion
(Shamanism); Chondokyo (religion of the heavenly way), eclectic religion
with nationalist overtones founded in 19th century, claims about 1.5
million adherents


_#_Language: Korean; English widely taught in high school


_#_Literacy: 96% (male 99%, female 94%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)


_#_Labor force: 16,900,000; 52% services and other; 27% mining and
manufacturing; 21% agriculture, fishing, forestry (1987)


_#_Organized labor: about 10% of nonagricultural labor force in
government-sanctioned unions


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of Korea; abbreviated ROK


_#_Type: republic


_#_Capital: Seoul


_#_Administrative divisions: 9 provinces (do, singular and plural) and
6 special cities* (jikhalsi, singular and plural); Cheju-do,
Cholla-bukto, Cholla-namdo, Ch'ungch'ong-bukto,
Ch'ungch'ong-namdo, Inch'on-jikhalsi*, Kangwon-do,
Kwangju-jikhalsi*, Kyonggi-do, Kyongsang-bukto,
Kyongsang-namdo, Pusan-jikhalsi*, Soul-t'ukpyolsi*,
Taegu-jikhalsi*, Taejon-jikhalsi*


_#_Independence: 15 August 1948


_#_Constitution: 25 February 1988


_#_Legal system: combines elements of continental European civil law
systems, Anglo-American law, and Chinese classical thought; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction


_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 15 August (1948)


_#_Executive branch: president, prime minister, deputy prime minister,
State Council (cabinet)


_#_Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Kuk Hoe)


_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--President ROH Tae Woo (since 25 February 1988);

Head of Government--Prime Minister CHUNG Won Shik (since 24
May 1991); Deputy Prime Minister CHOI Kak Kyu (since 19 February
1991)


_#_Political parties and leaders:

ruling party--Democratic Liberal Party (DLP), ROH Tae Woo,
president, KIM Young Sam, chairman;
note--the DLP resulted from a merger of the Democratic Justice Party
(DJP), Reunification Democratic Party (RDP), and New Democratic
Republican Party (NDRP) on 9 February 1990;

opposition--New Democratic Party (NDP, formerly Party for Peace
and Democracy or PPD), KIM Dae Jung, president; Democratic Party (DP),
YI Ki Taek; several smaller parties


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 20


_#_Elections:

President--last held on 16 December 1987 (next to be held
December 1992);
results--ROH Tae Woo (DJP) 35.9%, KIM Young Sam (RDP) 27.5%,
KIM Dae Jung (PPD) 26.5%, other 10.1%;

National Assembly--last held on 26 April 1988 (next to be held
April 1992);
results--DJP 34%, RDP 24%, PPD 19%, NDRP 15%, other 8%;
seats--(299 total) DJP 125, PPD 70, RDP 59, NDRP 35, other 10;
note--on 9 February 1990 the DJP, RDP, and NDRP merged to form the DLP;
also the PPD became the NDP; as a result the distribution
of seats changed to DLP 218, NDP 70, other 11 (June 1990)


_#_Communists: Communist party activity banned by government


_#_Other political or pressure groups: Korean National Council of
Churches; National Democratic Alliance of Korea; National Council of
College Student Representatives; National Federation of Farmers'
Associations; National Council of Labor Unions; Federation of Korean
Trade Unions; Korean Veterans' Association; Federation of Korean
Industries; Korean Traders Association


_#_Member of: AfDB, APEC, AsDB, CCC, CP, EBRD, ESCAP, FAO, G-77,
GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador HYUN Hong Joo;
Chancery at 2320 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone
(202) 939-5600; there are Korean Consulates General in Agana (Guam),
Anchorage, Atlanta, Chicago, Honolulu, Houston, Los Angeles, New York,
San Francisco, and Seattle;

US--Ambassador Donald P. GREGG; Embassy at 82 Sejong-Ro,
Chongro-ku, Seoul (mailing address is APO San Francisco 96301);
telephone [82] (2) 732-2601 through 2618; there is a US Consulate
in Pusan


_#_Flag: white with a red (top) and blue yin-yang symbol in the
center; there is a different black trigram from the ancient I Ching
(Book of Changes) in each corner of the white field


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The driving force behind the economy's dynamic growth
has been the planned development of an export-oriented economy in a
vigorously entrepreneurial society. Real GNP--which grew by 6.7% in 1989
after an average annual growth of over 12% between 1986-88--grew about
9% in 1990. Labor unrest--which led to substantial wage hikes in
1987-88--was noticeably calmer in 1990, unemployment averaged a low
2.5%, and investment was strong. Inflation rates, however, are beginning
to challenge South Korea's strong economic performance. Consumer prices
rose 8.6%, the highest rate in nine years. Policymakers are concerned
higher prices could lead to a resurgence of labor unrest.


_#_GNP: $238 billion, per capita $5,600; real growth rate 9% (1990
est.)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 8.6% (1990)


_#_Unemployment rate: 2.5% (1990)


_#_Budget: revenues $38 billion; expenditures $38 billion,
including capital expenditures of $NA (1991)


_#_Exports: $65 billion (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities--textiles, clothing, electronic and electrical
equipment, footwear, machinery, steel, automobiles, ships, fish;

partners--US 30%, Japan 19%


_#_Imports: $70 billion (c.i.f., 1990);

commodities--machinery, electronics and electronic equipment, oil,
steel, transport equipment, textiles, organic chemicals, grains;

partners--Japan 27%, US 24% (1990)


_#_External debt: $31.7 billion (1990)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate 8.6% (1990 est.); accounts for
about 45% of GDP


_#_Electricity: 21,000,000 kW capacity; 85,000 million kWh produced,
1,970 kWh per capita (1990)


_#_Industries: textiles, clothing, footwear, food processing,
chemicals, steel, electronics, automobile production, ship building


_#_Agriculture: accounts for 11% of GNP and employs 21% of work force
(including fishing and forestry); principal crops--rice, root crops,
barley, vegetables, fruit; livestock and livestock products--cattle,
hogs, chickens, milk, eggs; self-sufficient in food, except for wheat;
fish catch of 2.9 million metric tons, seventh-largest in world


_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $3.9
billion; non-US countries (1970-89), $3.0 billion


_#_Currency: South Korean won (plural--won);
1 South Korean won (W) = 100 chon (theoretical)


_#_Exchange rates: South Korean won (W) per US$1--718.14 (January
1991), 707.76 (1990), 671.46 (1989), 731.47 (1988), 822.57 (1987), 881.45
(1986), 870.02 (1985)


_#_Fiscal year: calendar year


_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 3,106 km operating in 1983; 3,059 km 1.435-meter
standard gauge, 47 km 0.610-meter narrow gauge, 712 km double track,
418 km electrified; government owned


_#_Highways: 62,936 km total (1982); 13,476 km national highway,
49,460 km provincial and local roads


_#_Inland waterways: 1,609 km; use restricted to small native craft


_#_Pipelines: 455 km refined products


_#_Ports: Pusan, Inchon, Kunsan, Mokpo, Ulsan


_#_Merchant marine: 439 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 7,182,519
GRT/11,906,897 DWT; includes 2 short-sea passenger, 138 cargo, 45
container, 11 refrigerated cargo, 11 vehicle carrier, 48 petroleum, oils,
and lubricants (POL) tanker, 10 chemical tanker, 13 liquefied gas, 7
combination ore/oil, 146 bulk, 7 combination bulk, 1 multifunction
large-load carrier


_#_Civil air: 93 major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 110 total, 102 usable; 60 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 21 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 17 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: adequate domestic and international services;
4,800,000 telephones; stations--79 AM, 46 FM, 256 TV (57 of 1 kW or
greater); satellite earth stations--2 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Indian
Ocean INTELSAT


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy (including Marines), Air Force


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 12,859,511; 8,294,624 fit for
military service; 429,088 reach military age (18) annually


_#_Defense expenditures: $10.4 billion, 4.5% of GNP (1991)
_%_
_@_Kuwait
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 17,820 km2; land area: 17,820 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than New Jersey


_#_Land boundaries: 462 km total; Iraq 240 km, Saudi Arabia 222 km


_#_Coastline: 499 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: not specific;

Territorial sea: 12 nm


_#_Disputes: Iraqi forces invaded and occupied Kuwait from
2 August 1990 until 27 February 1991; in April 1991 official Iraqi
acceptance of UN Security Council Resolution 687, which demands that Iraq
accept its internationally recognized border with Kuwait, ended earlier
claims to Bubiyan and Warbah Islands or to all of Kuwait; ownership
of Qaruh and Umm al Maradim Islands disputed by Saudi Arabia


_#_Climate: dry desert; intensely hot summers; short, cool winters


_#_Terrain: flat to slightly undulating desert plain


_#_Natural resources: petroleum, fish, shrimp, natural gas


_#_Land use: arable land NEGL%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and
pastures 8%; forest and woodland NEGL%; other 92%; includes irrigated
NEGL%


_#_Environment: some of world's largest and most sophisticated
desalination facilities provide most of water; air and water pollution;
desertification


_#_Note: strategic location at head of Persian Gulf


_*_People
_#_Population: 2,204,400 (July 1991), growth rate 3.6% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 29 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 2 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: 10 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 15 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 72 years male, 76 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 3.7 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--Kuwaiti(s); adjective--Kuwaiti


_#_Ethnic divisions: Kuwaiti 27.9%, other Arab 39%, South Asian 9%,
Iranian 4%, other 20.1%


_#_Religion:
Muslim 85% (Shia 30%, Sunni 45%, other 10%), Christian, Hindu, Parsi,
and other 15%


_#_Language: Arabic (official); English widely spoken


_#_Literacy: 74% (male 78%, female 69%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1985)


_#_Labor force: 566,000 (1986); services 45.0%, construction 20.0%,
trade 12.0%, manufacturing 8.6%, finance and real estate 2.6%,
agriculture 1.9%, power and water 1.7%, mining and quarrying 1.4%; 70% of
labor force was non-Kuwaiti


_#_Organized labor: labor unions exist in oil industry and among
government personnel


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: State of Kuwait


_#_Type: nominal constitutional monarchy


_#_Capital: Kuwait


_#_Administrative divisions: 4 governorates (muhafazat,
singular--muhafazah); Al Ahmadi, Al Jahrah, Al Kuwayt,
Hawalli; note--there may be a new governorate of Farwaniyyah


_#_Independence: 19 June 1961 (from UK)


_#_Constitution: 16 November 1962 (some provisions suspended since 29
August 1962)


_#_Legal system: civil law system with Islamic law significant in
personal matters; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction


_#_National holiday: National Day, 25 February


_#_Executive branch: amir, prime minister, deputy prime minister,
Council of Ministers (cabinet)


_#_Legislative branch: National Assembly (Majlis al Umma) dissolved
3 July 1986


_#_Judicial branch: High Court of Appeal


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--Amir Shaykh Jabir al-Ahmad al-Jabir al-SABAH
(since 31 December 1977);

Head of Government--Prime Minister and Crown Prince Sad
al-Abdallah al-Salim al-SABAH (since 8 February 1978); Deputy
Prime Minister Salim al-Sabah al-Salim al-SABAH


_#_Political parties and leaders: none


_#_Suffrage: adult males who resided in Kuwait before 1920 and their
male descendants at age 21; note--out of all citizens, only 8.3% are
eligible to vote and only 3.5% actually vote


_#_Elections:

National Assembly--dissolved 3 July 1986; new elections are
scheduled for October 1992


_#_Communists: insignificant


_#_Other political or pressure groups: large (150,000) Palestinian
community; several small, clandestine leftist and Shia fundamentalist
groups are active; prodemocracy opposition


_#_Member of: ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, BDEAC, CAEU, ESCWA, FAO,
G-77, GATT, GCC, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF,
IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU,
LORCS, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU,
WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Shaykh Saud Nasir al-SABAH;
Chancery at 2940 Tilden Street NW, Washington DC 20008;
telephone (202) 966-0702;

US--Ambassador Edward (Skip) GNEHM; Embassy at Bneid al-Gar
(opposite the Hilton Hotel), Kuwait City (mailing address is P. O. Box 77
Safat, 13001 Safat, Kuwait City); telephone [965] 242-4151 through 4159


_#_Flag: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white, and
red with a black trapezoid based on the hoist side


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Up to the invasion by Iraq in August 1990, the oil
sector had dominated the economy. Kuwait has the third-largest
oil reserves in the world after Saudi Arabia and Iraq. Earnings from
hydrocarbons generated over 90% of both export and government revenues
and contributed about 40% to GDP. Most of the nonoil sector has
traditionally been dependent upon oil-derived government revenues.
Iraq's destruction of Kuwait's oil industry during the Gulf war
has devastated the economy. Iraq destroyed or damaged more than 80%
of Kuwait's 950 operating oil wells, as well as sabotaging key surface
facilities. Western firefighters had brought about 140 of the 600
oil well fires and blowouts under control as of early June 1991.
It could take two to three years to restore Kuwait's oil production to
its prewar level of about 2.0 million barrels per day.


_#_GDP: $19.8 billion, per capita $9,700; real growth rate 3.5%
(1989)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.3% (1989)


_#_Unemployment rate: 0% (1989)


_#_Budget: revenues $7.1 billion; expenditures $10.5 billion,
including capital expenditures of $3.1 billion (FY88)


_#_Exports: $11.5 billion (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities--oil 90%;

partners--Japan, Italy, FRG, US


_#_Imports: $6.3 billion (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities--food, construction materials, vehicles and parts,
clothing;

partners--Japan, US, FRG, UK


_#_External debt: $7.2 billion (December 1989 est.)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate 3% (1988); accounts for
52% of GDP


_#_Electricity: 8,290,000 kW capacity; 10,000 million kWh produced,
5,000 kWh per capita (1989)


_#_Industries: petroleum, petrochemicals, desalination, food
processing, salt, construction


_#_Agriculture: virtually none; dependent on imports for food; about
75% of potable water must be distilled or imported


_#_Economic aid: donor--pledged $18.3 billion in bilateral aid to less
developed countries (1979-89)


_#_Currency: Kuwaiti dinar (plural--dinars);
1 Kuwaiti dinar (KD) = 1,000 fils


_#_Exchange rates: Kuwaiti dinars (KD) per US$1--0.2915 (January
1990), 0.2937 (1989), 0.2790 (1988), 0.2786 (1987), 0.2919 (1986), 0.3007
(1985)


_#_Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June


_*_Communications
_#_Highways: 3,000 km total; 2,500 km bituminous; 500 km earth, sand,
light gravel


_#_Pipelines: crude oil, 877 km; refined products, 40 km; natural gas,
165 km


_#_Ports: Ash Shuaybah, Ash Shuwaykh, Mina al Ahmadi


_#_Merchant marine: 31 ships (1,000 GRT or over), totaling 1,332,159
GRT/2,099,303 DWT; includes 1 cargo, 4 livestock carrier,
20 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 5 liquefied gas, 1 bulk;
note--all Kuwaiti ships greater than 1,000 GRT were outside Kuwaiti
waters at the time of the Iraqi invasion; many of these ships transferred
to the Liberian flag or to the flags of other Persian Gulf states;
Kuwaiti tankers are currently managed from London and Kuwaiti cargo and
container ships are managed from Dubai


_#_Civil air: 19 major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 7 total, 4 usable; 4 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 4 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
none with runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: excellent international, adequate domestic
facilities; 258,000 telephones; stations--3 AM, 2 FM, 3 TV; satellite
earth stations--1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT, and 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT; 1
INMARSAT, 1 ARABSAT; coaxial cable and radio relay to Iraq and Saudi
Arabia


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, National Police Force, National
Guard


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 738,812; 441,611 fit for
military service; 19,452 reach military age (18) annually


_#_Defense expenditures: $1.1 billion, 4.8% of GDP (1990)
_%_
_@_Laos
_*_Geography
_#_Total area:  236,800 km2; land area: 230,800 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than Utah


_#_Land boundaries: 5,083 km total; Burma 235 km, Cambodia 541 km,
China 423 km, Thailand 1,754 km, Vietnam 2,130 km


_#_Coastline: none--landlocked


_#_Maritime claims: none--landlocked


_#_Disputes: boundary dispute with Thailand


_#_Climate: tropical monsoon; rainy season (May to November); dry
season (December to April)


_#_Terrain: mostly rugged mountains; some plains and plateaus


_#_Natural resources: timber, hydropower, gypsum, tin, gold,
gemstones


_#_Land use: arable land 4%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and
pastures 3%; forest and woodland 58%; other 35%; includes irrigated 1%


_#_Environment: deforestation; soil erosion; subject to floods


_#_Note: landlocked


_*_People
_#_Population: 4,113,223 (July 1991), growth rate 2.2% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 37 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 15 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 124 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 49 years male, 52 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 5.0 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--Lao (sing., Lao or Laotian); adjective--Lao
or Laotian


_#_Ethnic divisions: Lao 50%, Phoutheung (Kha) 15%, tribal Thai 20%,
Meo, Hmong, Yao, and other 15%


_#_Religion: Buddhist 85%, animist and other 15%


_#_Language: Lao (official), French, and English


_#_Literacy: 84% (male 92%, female 76%) age 15 to 45 can
read and write (1985 est.)


_#_Labor force: 1-1.5 million; 85-90% in agriculture (est.)


_#_Organized labor: Lao Federation of Trade Unions is subordinate to
the Communist party


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Lao People's Democratic Republic


_#_Type: Communist state


_#_Capital: Vientiane


_#_Administrative divisions: 16 provinces (khoueng, singular and
plural) and 1 municipality* (kampheng nakhon, singular and plural);
Attapu, Bokeo, Bolikhamsai, Champasak, Houaphan, Khammouan, Louang
Namtha, Louangphrabang, Oudomxai, Phongsali, Saravan, Savannakhet,
Sekong, Vientiane, Vientiane*, Xaignabouri, Xiangkhoang


_#_Independence: 19 July 1949 (from France)


_#_Constitution: draft constitution under discussion since 1976


_#_Legal system: based on civil law system; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction


_#_National holiday: National Day (proclamation of the Lao People's
Democratic Republic), 2 December (1975)


_#_Executive branch: president, chairman and four vice chairmen of the
Council of Ministers, Council of Ministers (cabinet)


_#_Legislative branch: Supreme People's Assembly


_#_Judicial branch: People's Supreme Court


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--President KAYSONE PHOMVIHAN (since 15
August 1991);

Head of Government--Chairman of the Council of Ministers General
Gen. KHAMTAI SIPHANDON (since 15 August 1991)


_#_Political parties and leaders:
Lao People's Revolutionary Party (LPRP), KAYSONE PHOMVIHAN, party
chairman;
includes Lao Patriotic Front and Alliance Committee of Patriotic
Neutralist Forces;
other parties moribund


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


_#_Elections:

Supreme People's Assembly--last held on 26 March 1989 (next to be
held NA); results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(79 total) number of seats by party NA


_#_Other political or pressure groups: non-Communist political groups
moribund; most leaders have fled the country


_#_Member of: ACCT (associate), AsDB, CP, ESCAP,
FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, ILO, IMF, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU,
LORCS, NAM, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO


_#_Diplomatic representation: Charge d'Affaires LINTHONG PHETSAVAN;
Chancery at 2222 S Street NW, Washington DC 20008;
telephone (202) 332-6416 or 6417;

US--Charge d'Affaires Charles B. SALMON, Jr.; Embassy at Rue
Bartholonie, Vientiane (mailing address is B. P. 114, Vientiane, or
Box V, APO San Francisco 96346); telephone 2220, 2357, 2384


_#_Flag: three horizontal bands of red (top), blue (double width), and
red with a large white disk centered in the blue band


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: One of the world's poorest nations, Laos has had a
Communist centrally planned economy with government ownership and control
of productive enterprises of any size. Recently, however, the government
has been decentralizing control and encouraging private enterprise.
Laos is a landlocked country with a primitive infrastructure, that is,
it has no railroads, a rudimentary road system, limited external and
internal telecommunications, and electricity available in only a
limited area. Subsistence agriculture is the main occupation,
accounting for over 60% of GDP and providing about 85-90% of
total employment. The predominant crop is rice. For the foreseeable
future the economy will continue to depend for its survival on foreign
aid from the IMF and other international sources; foreign aid from the
USSR and Eastern Europe is being cut sharply.


_#_GDP: $600 million, per capita $150; real growth rate 5% (1990 est.)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 22% (1990 est.)


_#_Unemployment rate: 21% (1989 est.)


_#_Budget: revenues $83 million; expenditures $188.5 million,
including capital expenditures of $94 million (1990 est.)


_#_Exports: $72 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities--electricity, wood products, coffee, tin;

partners--Thailand, Malaysia, Vietnam, USSR, US


_#_Imports: $238 million (c.i.f., 1990 est.);

commodities--food, fuel oil, consumer goods, manufactures;

partners--Thailand, USSR, Japan, France, Vietnam


_#_External debt: $1.1 billion (1990 est.)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate 8% (1989 est.); accounts
for about 20% of GDP


_#_Electricity: 176,000 kW capacity; 1,100 million kWh produced,
270 kWh per capita (1990)


_#_Industries: tin mining, timber, electric power, agricultural
processing, construction


_#_Agriculture: accounts for 60% of GDP and employs most of the
work force; subsistence farming predominates; normally self-sufficient
in non-drought years; principal crops--rice (80% of cultivated land),
sweet potatoes, vegetables, corn, coffee, sugarcane, cotton;
livestock--buffaloes, hogs, cattle, chicken


_#_Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis and opium poppy for the
international drug trade


_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-79), $276
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $546 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $995 million


_#_Currency: new kip (plural--kips); 1 new kip (NK) = 100 at


_#_Exchange rates: new kips (NK) per US$1--695 (April 1991),
700 (September 1990), 576 (1989), 385 (1988), 200 (1987), 108 (1986),
95 (1985)


_#_Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June


_*_Communications
_#_Highways: about 27,527 km total; 1,856 km bituminous or bituminous
treated; 7,451 km gravel, crushed stone, or improved earth; 18,220 km
unimproved earth and often impassable during rainy season mid-May to
mid-September


_#_Inland waterways: about 4,587 km, primarily Mekong and tributaries;
2,897 additional kilometers are sectionally navigable by craft drawing
less than 0.5 m


_#_Pipelines: 136 km, refined products


_#_Ports: none


_#_Airports: 65 total, 51 usable; 9 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
13 with runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: service to general public considered poor;
radio network provides generally erratic service to government users;
7,390 telephones (1986); stations--10 AM, no FM, 1 TV; 1 satellite earth
station


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Lao People's Army (LPA; including naval, aviation, and
militia elements), Air Force, National Police Department


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 991,864; 531,084 fit for
military service; 45,548 reach military age (18) annually;
conscription age NA


_#_Defense expenditures: $NA, 3.8% of GDP (1987)
_%_
_@_Lebanon
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 10,400 km2; land area: 10,230 km2


_#_Comparative area: about 0.8 times the size of Connecticut


_#_Land boundaries: 454 km total; Israel 79 km, Syria 375 km


_#_Coastline: 225 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Territorial sea: 12 nm


_#_Disputes: separated from Israel by the 1949 Armistice Line;
Israeli troops in southern Lebanon since June 1982; Syrian troops in
northern Lebanon since October 1976


_#_Climate: Mediterranean; mild to cool, wet winters with hot, dry
summers


_#_Terrain: narrow coastal plain; Al Biqa (Bekaa Valley)
separates Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon Mountains


_#_Natural resources: limestone, iron ore, salt; water-surplus state
in a water-deficit region


_#_Land use: arable land 21%; permanent crops 9%; meadows and pastures
1%; forest and woodland 8%; other 61%; includes irrigated 7%


_#_Environment: rugged terrain historically helped isolate, protect,
and develop numerous factional groups based on religion, clan, ethnicity;
deforestation; soil erosion; air and water pollution; desertification


_#_Note: Nahr al Litani only major river in Near East
not crossing an international boundary


_*_People
_#_Population: 3,384,626 (July 1991), growth rate 1.4% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 28 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: - 7 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 48 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 66 years male, 71 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 3.6 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--Lebanese (sing., pl.); adjective--Lebanese


_#_Ethnic divisions: Arab 95%, Armenian 4%, other 1%


_#_Religion: Islam 75%, Christian 25%, Judaism NEGL%; 17 legally
recognized sects--4 Orthodox Christian (Armenian Orthodox, Greek
Orthodox, Nestorean, Syriac Orthodox), 7 Uniate Christian (Armenian
Catholic, Caldean, Greek Catholic, Maronite, Protestant, Roman Catholic,
Syrian Catholic), 5 Islam (Alawite or Nusayri, Druze, Ismailite,
Shia, Sunni), and 1 Jewish


_#_Language: Arabic and French (both official); Armenian, English


_#_Literacy: 80% (male 88%, female 73%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)


_#_Labor force: 650,000; industry, commerce, and services 79%,
agriculture 11%, goverment 10% (1985)


_#_Organized labor: 250,000 members (est.)


_*_Government
_#_Note: Between early 1975 and late 1976 Lebanon was torn by civil
war between its Christians--then aided by Syrian troops--and its Muslims
and their Palestinian allies. The cease-fire established in October
1976 between the domestic political groups generally held for about six
years, despite occasional fighting. Syrian troops constituted as the Arab
Deterrent Force by the Arab League have remained in Lebanon. Syria's
move toward supporting the Lebanese Muslims and the Palestinians and
Israel's growing support for Lebanese Christians brought the two sides
into rough equilibrium, but no progress was made toward national
reconciliation or political reforms--the original cause of the war.


    Continuing Israeli concern about the Palestinian presence in
Lebanon led to the Israeli invasion of Lebanon in June 1982. Israeli
forces occupied all of the southern portion of the country and mounted a
summer-long siege of Beirut, which resulted in the evacuation of the
PLO from Beirut in September under the supervision of a multinational
force (MNF) made up of US, French, and Italian troops.


    Within days of the departure of the MNF, Lebanon's newly elected
president, Bashir Gemayel, was assassinated. In the wake of his death,
Christian militiamen massacred hundreds of Palestinian refugees in two
Beirut camps. This prompted the return of the MNF to ease the security
burden on Lebanon's weak Army and security forces. In late March 1984
the last MNF units withdrew.


    Lebanese Parliamentarians met in Taif, Saudi Arabia in late 1989
and concluded a national reconciliation pact that codified a new
power-sharing formula, specifiying a Christian president but giving
Muslims more authority. Rene Muawad was subsequently elected president on
4 November 1989, ending a 13-month period during which Lebanon had no
president and rival Muslim and Christian governments. Muawad was
assassinated 17 days later, on 22 November; on 24 November Ilyas Harawi
was elected to succeed Muawad.


    In October 1990, the chances for ending the 16 year old civil war
and implementing Ta'if were markedly improved when Syrian and Lebanese
forces ousted renegade Christian General Awn from his stronghold in East
Beirut. Awn had defied the legitimate government and established a
separate mini-state within East Beirut after being appointed acting
Prime Minister by outgoing President Gemayel in 1988. Awn and his
supporters feared Ta'if would diminish Christian power in Lebanon
and increase the influence of Syria.


    Since the removal of Awn, the Lebanese Government has reunited the
capital city and implemented a phased plan to disarm the militias
and gradually reestablish authority throughout Lebanon. The army has
deployed from Beirut north along the coast road to Tripoli, southeast
into the Shuf mountains, and south to the vicinity of Sidon. Many
militiamen from Christian and Muslim groups have evacuated Beirut
for their strongholds in the north, south, and east of the country.
Some heavy weapons possessed by the militias have been turned over to
the government, which has begun a plan to integrate some militiamen
into the military and the internal security forces.


    Lebanon and Syria signed a treaty of friendship and cooperation in
May 1991. Lebanon continues to be partially occupied by Syrian troops,
which are deployed in East and West Beirut, its southern suburbs,
the Bekaa Valley, and throughout northern Lebanon.


    Iran also maintains a small contingent of revolutionary guards
in the Bekaa Valley and South Lebanon to support Lebanese Islamic
fundamentalist groups.


    Israel withdrew the bulk of its forces from the south in 1985,
although it still retains troops in a 10-km-deep security zone north
of its border with Lebanon. Israel arms and trains the Army of South
Lebanon (ASL), which also occupies the security zone and is Israel's
first line of defense against attacks on its northern border.


    The following description is based on the present constitutional
and customary practices of the Lebanese system.


_#_Long-form name: Republic of Lebanon; note--may be changed to
Lebanese Republic


_#_Type: republic


_#_Capital: Beirut


_#_Administrative divisions: 5 governorates (muhafazat,
singular--muhafazah); Al Biqa, Al Janub, Ash Shamal,
Bayrut, Jabal Lubnan


_#_Independence: 22 November 1943 (from League of Nations mandate
under French administration)


_#_Constitution: 26 May 1926 (amended)


_#_Legal system: mixture of Ottoman law, canon law, Napoleonic code,
and civil law; no judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction


_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 22 November (1943)


_#_Executive branch: president, prime minister, Cabinet; note--by
custom, the president is a Maronite Christian, the prime minister is a
Sunni Muslim, and the speaker of the legislature is a Shia Muslim


_#_Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Arabic--Majlis
Alnuwab, French--Assemblee Nationale)


_#_Judicial branch: four Courts of Cassation (three courts for civil
and commercial cases and one court for criminal cases)


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--Ilyas HARAWI (since 24 November 1989);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Umar KARAMI (since 20
December 1990)


_#_Political parties and leaders: political party activity is
organized along largely sectarian lines; numerous political groupings
exist, consisting of individual political figures and followers
motivated by religious, clan, and economic considerations; most parties
have well-armed militias, which are still involved in occasional clashes


_#_Suffrage: compulsory for all males at age 21; authorized for women
at age 21 with elementary education


_#_Elections:

National Assembly--elections should be held every four years
but security conditions have prevented elections since May 1972


_#_Communists: the Lebanese Communist Party was legalized in 1970;
members and sympathizers estimated at 2,000-3,000


_#_Member of: ABEDA, ACCT, AFESD, AL, AMF, CCC, ESCWA, FAO, G-24,
G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OIC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNRWA, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Nassib S. LAHOUD;
Chancery at 2560 28th Street NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202)
939-6300; there are Lebanese Consulates General in Detroit, New York, and
Los Angeles;

US--Ambassador Ryan C. CROCKER; Embassy at Antelias, Beirut
(mailing address is P. O. Box 70-840, Beirut, and FPO New York 09530);
telephone [961] 417774 or 415802, 415803, 402200, 403300


_#_Flag: three horizontal bands of red (top), white (double width),
and red with a green and brown cedar tree centered in the white band


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Since 1975 civil war has seriously damaged Lebanon's
economic infrastructure, disrupted economic activity, and all but ended
Lebanon's position as a Middle Eastern entrepot and banking hub.
Following October 1990, however, a tentative peace has enabled the
central government to begin restoring control in Beirut, collect taxes,
and regain access to key port and government facilities. The battered
economy has also been propped up by a financially sound banking system
and resilient small- and medium-scale manufacturers. Family remittances,
foreign financial support to political factions, the narcotics trade, and
international emergency aid are main sources of foreign exchange.
Economic prospects for 1991 have brightened, particularly if the
Syrian-backed government is able to maintain law and order and
reestablish business confidence. Rebuilding war-ravaged Beirut is likely
to provide a major stimulus to the Lebanese economy in 1991.


_#_GDP: $3.3 billion, per capita $1,000; real growth rate - 15%
(1990 est.)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 100% (1990 est.)


_#_Unemployment rate: 35% (1990 est.)


_#_Budget: revenues $120 million; expenditures $1.0 billion, including
capital expenditures of $NA (1990 est.)


_#_Exports: $1.0 billion (f.o.b., 1989 est.);

commodities--agricultural products, chemicals, textiles, precious
and semiprecious metals and jewelry, metals and metal products;

partners--Saudi Arabia 16%, Switzerland 8%, Jordan 6%, Kuwait 6%,
US 5%


_#_Imports: $1.9 billion (c.i.f., 1989 est.);

commodities--NA;

partners--Italy 14%, France 12%, US 6%, Turkey 5%, Saudi Arabia 3%


_#_External debt: $900 million (1990 est.)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%


_#_Electricity: 1,381,000 kW capacity; 3,870 million kWh produced,
1,170 kWh per capita (1989)


_#_Industries: banking, food processing, textiles, cement, oil
refining, chemicals, jewelry, some metal fabricating


_#_Agriculture: accounts for about one-third of GDP; principal
products--citrus fruits, vegetables, potatoes, olives, tobacco, hemp
(hashish), sheep, and goats; not self-sufficient in grain


_#_Illicit drugs: illicit producer of opium poppy and cannabis for the
international drug trade; opium poppy production in Al Biqa
is increasing; hashish production is shipped to Western Europe, Israel,
and the Middle East


_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $356
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $608 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $962 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $9 million


_#_Currency: Lebanese pound (plural--pounds);
1 Lebanese pound (5L) = 100 piasters


_#_Exchange rates: Lebanese pounds (5L) per US$1--974.22 (January
1991), 695.09 (1990), 496.69 (1989), 409.23 (1988), 224.60 (1987), 38.37
(1986), 16.42 (1985)


_#_Fiscal year: calendar year


_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 378 km total; 296 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, 82 km
1.050-meter gauge; all single track; system almost entirely inoperable


_#_Highways: 7,370 km total; 6,270 km paved, 450 km gravel and crushed
stone, 650 km improved earth


_#_Pipelines: crude oil, 72 km (none in operation)


_#_Ports: Beirut, Tripoli, Ras Silata, Juniyah, Sidon,
Az Zahrani, Tyre, Shikka; northern ports are occupied by Syrian
forces and southern ports are occupied or partially quarantined by
Israeli forces


_#_Merchant marine: 60 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 257,220
GRT/379,691 DWT; includes 39 cargo, 1 refrigerated cargo, 2 vehicle
carrier, 2 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 1 container, 8 livestock carrier, 1
petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 1 chemical tanker,
1 specialized tanker, 3 bulk, 1 combination bulk


_#_Civil air: 15 major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 9 total, 8 usable; 6 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 3 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
2 with runways 1,220-2,439 m; none under the direct control of the
Lebanese Government


_#_Telecommunications: rebuilding program disrupted; had fair system
of radio relay, cable; 325,000 telephones; stations--5 AM, 3 FM, 15 TV;
1 inactive Indian Ocean INTELSAT satellite earth station; 3 submarine
coaxial cables; radio relay to Jordan and Syria, inoperable


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army (includes Navy and Air Force)


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 725,974; 449,912 fit for
military service


_#_Defense expenditures: $168 million, 7.3% of GDP (1991)
_%_
_@_Lesotho
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 30,350 km2; land area: 30,350 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than Maryland


_#_Land boundary: 909 km with South Africa


_#_Coastline: none--landlocked


_#_Maritime claims: none--landlocked


_#_Climate: temperate; cool to cold, dry winters; hot, wet summers


_#_Terrain: mostly highland with some plateaus, hills, and mountains


_#_Natural resources: some diamonds and other minerals, water,
agricultural and grazing land


_#_Land use: arable land 10%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and
pastures 66%; forest and woodland 0%; other 24%


_#_Environment: population pressure forcing settlement in marginal
areas results in overgrazing, severe soil erosion, soil exhaustion;
desertification


_#_Note: landlocked; surrounded by South Africa; Highlands Water
Project will control, store, and redirect water to South Africa


_*_People
_#_Population: 1,801,174 (July 1991), growth rate 2.6% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 36 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 10 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 78 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 59 years male, 63 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 4.8 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--Mosotho (sing.), Basotho (pl.);
adjective--Basotho


_#_Ethnic divisions: Sotho 99.7%; Europeans 1,600, Asians 800


_#_Religion: Christian 80%, rest indigenous beliefs


_#_Language: Sesotho (southern Sotho) and English (official); also
Zulu and Xhosa


_#_Literacy: 59% (male 44%, female 68%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1966)


_#_Labor force: 689,000 economically active; 86.2% of resident
population engaged in subsistence agriculture; roughly 60% of active
male labor force works in South Africa


_#_Organized labor: there are two trade union federations; the
government favors formation of a single, umbrella trade union
confederation


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Kingdom of Lesotho


_#_Type: constitutional monarchy


_#_Capital: Maseru


_#_Administrative divisions: 10 districts; Berea, Butha-Buthe, Leribe,
Mafeteng, Maseru, Mohales Hoek, Mokhotlong, Qachas Nek, Quthing,
Thaba-Tseka


_#_Independence: 4 October 1966 (from UK; formerly Basutoland)


_#_Constitution: 4 October 1966, suspended January 1970


_#_Legal system: based on English common law and Roman-Dutch law;
judicial review of legislative acts in High Court and Court of Appeal;
has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction


_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 4 October (1966)


_#_Executive branch: monarch, chairman of the Military Council,
Military Council, Council of Ministers (cabinet)


_#_Legislative branch: none--the bicameral Parliament was dissolved
following the military coup in January 1986; note--a National Constituent
Assembly convened in June 1990 to rewrite the constitution and debate
issues of national importance, but it has no legislative authority


_#_Judicial branch: High Court, Court of Appeal


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--King LETSIE III (since 12 November 1990 following
dismissal of his father, exiled King MOSHOESHOE II, by Maj. Gen.
LEKHANYA);

Head of Government--Chairman of the Military Council Col.
Elias Phisoana RAMAEMA (since 30 April 1991)


_#_Political parties and leaders:
Basotho National Party (BNP), Matete MAJARA (interim leader);
Basutoland Congress Party (BCP), Ntsu MOKHEHLE;
National Independent Party (NIP), A. C. MANYELI;
Marematlou Freedom Party (MFP), S. H. MAPHELEBA;
United Democratic Party, Charles MOFELI;
Communist Party of Lesotho (CPL), Jacob KENYA


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 21


_#_Elections:

National Assembly--dissolved following the military coup in
January 1986; military has pledged elections will take place in June 1992


_#_Communists: small Lesotho Communist Party


_#_Member of: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO,
ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS,
NAM, OAU, SACU, SADCC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL,
WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador W. T. VAN TONDER; Chancery at
2511 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202)
797-5 534;

US--Ambassador Leonard H.O. SPEARMAN, Jr.; Embassy at address NA,
Maseru (mailing address is P. O. Box 333, Maseru 100); telephone [266]
312666


_#_Flag: divided diagonally from the lower hoist side corner; the
upper half is white bearing the brown silhouette of a large shield with
crossed spear and club; the lower half is a diagonal blue band with a
green triangle in the corner


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Small, landlocked, and mountainous, Lesotho has no
important natural resources other than water. Its economy is based on
agriculture, light manufacturing, and remittances from laborers employed
in South Africa ($153 million in 1989). The great majority of households
gain their livelihoods from subsistence farming and migrant labor.
Manufacturing depends largely on farm products to support the milling,
canning, leather, and jute industries; other industries include textile,
clothing, and light engineering. Industry's share of GDP rose from
6% in 1982 to 15% in 1989. Political and economic instability in South
Africa raise uncertainties for Lesotho's economy, especially with respect
to migrant worker remittances--over one-third of GDP.


_#_GDP: $420 million, per capita $240; real growth rate 4.0% (1990
est.)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 15% (1990 est.)


_#_Unemployment rate: 23% (1988)


_#_Budget: revenues $280 million; expenditures $288 million, including
capital expenditures of $NA (FY92 est.)


_#_Exports: $66 million (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities--wool, mohair, wheat, cattle, peas, beans, corn, hides,
skins, baskets;

partners--South Africa 53%, EC 30%, North and South America 13%
(1989)


_#_Imports: $499 million (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities--mainly corn, building materials, clothing, vehicles,
machinery, medicines, petroleum, oil, and lubricants;

partners--South Africa 95%, EC 2% (1989)


_#_External debt: $370 million (December 1990 est.)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate 7.8% (1989 est.); accounts
for 15% of GDP


_#_Electricity: power supplied by South Africa


_#_Industries: food, beverages, textiles, handicrafts, tourism


_#_Agriculture: accounts for 18% of GDP and employs 60-70% of
all households; exceedingly primitive, mostly subsistence farming and
livestock; principal crops are corn, wheat, pulses, sorghum, barley


_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $268
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $754 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $4 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $14 million


_#_Currency: loti (plural--maloti); 1 loti (L) = 100 lisente


_#_Exchange rates: maloti (M) per US$1--2.5625 (January 1991),
2.5863 (1990), 2.6166 (1989), 2.2611 (1988), 2.0350 (1987), 2.2685
(1986), 2.1911 (1985); note--the Basotho loti is at par with the South
African rand


_#_Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March


_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 1.6 km; owned, operated, and included in the statistics
of South Africa


_#_Highways: 5,167 km total; 508 km paved; 1,585 km crushed stone,
gravel, or stabilized soil; 946 km improved earth, 2,128 km unimproved
earth


_#_Civil air: 2 major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 28 total, 28 usable; 3 with permanent surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
2 with runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: rudimentary system consisting of a few land
lines, a small radio relay system, and minor radiocommunication stations;
5,920 telephones; stations--2 AM, 2 FM, 1 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT
earth station


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Royal Lesotho Defense Force (RLDF; includes Army, Air
Wing), Royal Lesotho Mounted Police


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 394,829; 212,967 fit for
military service


_#_Defense expenditures: $55 million, 8.6% of GDP (1990 est.)
_%_
_@_Liberia
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 111,370 km2; land area: 96,320 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than Tennessee


_#_Land boundaries: 1,585 km total; Guinea 563 km, Ivory Coast 716 km,
Sierra Leone 306 km


_#_Coastline: 579 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation;

Territorial sea: 200 nm


_#_Climate: tropical; hot, humid; dry winters with hot days and cool
to cold nights; wet, cloudy summers with frequent heavy showers


_#_Terrain: mostly flat to rolling coastal plains rising to rolling
plateau and low mountains in northeast


_#_Natural resources: iron ore, timber, diamonds, gold


_#_Land use: arable land 1%; permanent crops 3%; meadows and pastures
2%; forest and woodland 39%; other 55%; includes irrigated NEGL%


_#_Environment: West Africa's largest tropical rain forest, subject to
deforestation


_*_People
_#_Population: 2,730,446 (July 1991), growth rate 3.4% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 45 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 13 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: 2 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 124 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 54 years male, 59 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 6.5 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--Liberian(s); adjective--Liberian


_#_Ethnic divisions: indigenous African tribes, including Kpelle,
Bassa, Gio, Kru, Grebo, Mano, Krahn, Gola, Gbandi, Loma, Kissi, Vai, and
Bella 95%; descendants of repatriated slaves known as Americo-Liberians
5%


_#_Religion: traditional 70%, Muslim 20%, Christian 10%


_#_Language: English (official); more than 20 local languages of the
Niger-Congo language group; English used by about 20%


_#_Literacy: 40% (male 50%, female 29%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)


_#_Labor force: 510,000, including 220,000 in the monetary economy;
agriculture 70.5%, services 10.8%, industry and commerce 4.5%, other
14.2%; non-African foreigners hold about 95% of the top-level management
and engineering jobs; 52% of population of working age


_#_Organized labor: 2% of labor force


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of Liberia


_#_Type: republic


_#_Capital: Monrovia


_#_Administrative divisions: 13 counties; Bomi, Bong, Grand Bassa,
Grand Cape Mount, Grand Jide, Grand Kru, Lofa, Margibi, Maryland,
Montserrado, Nimba, Rivercess, Sino


_#_Independence: 26 July 1847


_#_Constitution: 6 January 1986


_#_Legal system: dual system of statutory law based on Anglo-American
common law for the modern sector and customary law based on unwritten
tribal practices for indigenous sector


_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 26 July (1847)


_#_Executive branch: president, vice president, Cabinet


_#_Legislative branch: bicameral National Assembly consists of an
upper house or Senate and a lower house or House of Representatives


_#_Judicial branch: People's Supreme Court


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government--interim President Dr.
Amos SAWYER (since 15 November 1990); interim Vice President Ronald DIGGS
(since 15 November 1990); note--this is an interim government appointed
by the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) that will be
replaced after elections are held under a West African-brokered
peace plan; rival rebel factions led by Prince Y. JOHNSON and Charles
TAYLOR are challenging the Sawyer government's legitimacy while
observing a tenuous cease fire; the former president, Gen. Dr. Samuel
Kanyon DOE, was ousted and killed on 9 September 1990 in a coup led by
Prince Y. JOHNSON


_#_Political parties and leaders:
National Democratic Party of Liberia (NDPL), Augustus CAINE, chairman;
Liberian Action Party (LAP), Emmanuel KOROMAH, chairman;
Unity Party (UP), Carlos SMITH, chairman;
United People's Party (UPP), Gabriel Baccus MATTHEWS, chairman


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


_#_Elections:

President--last held on 15 October 1985 (next to be held NA);
results--Gen. Dr. Samuel Kanyon DOE (NDPL) 50.9%, Jackson DOE (LAP)
26.4%, other 22.7%; note--President Doe was killed by rebel forces
on 9 September 1990;

Senate--last held on 15 October 1985 (next to be held NA);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(26 total) NDPL 21, LAP 3, UP 1, LUP 1;

House of Representatives--last held on 15 October 1985 (next
to be held NA); results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(64 total) NDPL 51, LAP 8, UP 3, LUP 2


_#_Member of: ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU,
LORCS, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Eugenia A.
WORDSWORTH-STEVENSON; Chancery at 5201 16th Street NW, Washington DC
20011; telephone (202) 723-0437 through 0440; there is a Liberian
Consulate General in New York;

US--Ambassador Peter J. de VOS; Embassy at 111 United Nations
Drive, Monrovia (mailing address is P. O. Box 98, Monrovia, or APO New
York 09155); telephone [231] 222991 through 222994


_#_Flag: 11 equal horizontal stripes of red (top and bottom)
alternating with white; there is a white five-pointed star on a blue
square in the upper hoist-side corner; the design was based on the US
flag


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Civil war during 1990 destroyed much of Liberia's
economy, especially the infrastructure in and around Monrovia. Expatriate
businessmen fled the country, taking capital and expertise with them.
Many will not return. Richly endowed with water, mineral resources,
forests, and a climate favorable to agriculture, Liberia had been a
producer and exporter of basic products, while local manufacturing,
mainly foreign owned, had been small in scope. Political instability
threatens prospects for economic reconstruction and repatriation of
some 750,000 Liberian refugees who fled to neighboring countries.


_#_GDP: $988 million, per capita $400; real growth rate 1.5% (1988)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 12% (1989)


_#_Unemployment rate: 43% urban (1988)


_#_Budget: revenues $242.1 million; expenditures $435.4 million,
including capital expenditures of $29.5 million (1989)


_#_Exports: $505 million (f.o.b., 1989 est.);

commodities--iron ore 61%, rubber 20%, timber 11%, coffee;

partners--US, EC, Netherlands


_#_Imports: $394 million (c.i.f., 1989 est.);

commodities--rice, mineral fuels, chemicals, machinery,
transportation equipment, other foodstuffs;

partners--US, EC, Japan, China, Netherlands, ECOWAS


_#_External debt: $1.6 billion (December 1990 est.)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate 1.5% in manufacturing (1987);
accounts for 22% of GDP


_#_Electricity: 400,000 kW capacity; 730 million kWh produced,
290 kWh per capita (1989)


_#_Industries: rubber processing, food processing, construction
materials, furniture, palm oil processing, mining (iron ore, diamonds)


_#_Agriculture: accounts for about 40% of GDP (including fishing and
forestry); principal products--rubber, timber, coffee, cocoa, rice,
cassava, palm oil, sugarcane, bananas, sheep, and goats; not
self-sufficient in food, imports 25% of rice consumption


_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $665
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $853 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $25 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $77 million


_#_Currency: Liberian dollar (plural--dollars);
1 Liberian dollar (L$) = 100 cents


_#_Exchange rates: Liberian dollars (L$) per US$1--1.00 (fixed rate
since 1940); unofficial parallel exchange rate of L$2.5 = US$1, January
1989


_#_Fiscal year: calendar year


_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 480 km total; 328 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, 152 km
1.067-meter narrow gauge; all lines single track; rail systems owned and
operated by foreign steel and financial interests in conjunction with
Liberian Government


_#_Highways: 10,087 km total; 603 km bituminous treated, 2,848 km
all weather, 4,313 km dry weather; there are also 2,323 km of private,
laterite-surfaced roads open to public use, owned by rubber and timber
companies


_#_Ports: Monrovia, Buchanan, Greenville, Harper (or Cape Palmas)


_#_Merchant marine: 1,563 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
53,053,254 DWT/94,597,871 DWT; includes 18 passenger, 1 short-sea
passenger, 156 cargo, 47 refrigerated cargo, 15 roll-on/roll-off cargo,
67 vehicle carrier, 74 container, 5 barge carrier, 450 petroleum, oils,
and lubricants (POL) tanker, 104 chemical, 60 combination ore/oil, 44
liquefied gas, 6 specialized tanker, 485 bulk, 1 multifunction large-load
carrier, 30 combination bulk; note--a flag of convenience registry; all
ships are foreign owned; the top four owning flags are US 19%, Japan 17%,
Hong Kong 12%, and Norway 10%; China owns at least 28 ships, Bulgaria
owns 3, and Poland owns 1


_#_Civil air: 3 major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 75 total, 58 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 4 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: telephone and telegraph service via radio relay
network; main center is Monrovia; 8,500 telephones; stations--3 AM, 4 FM,
5 TV; 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Armed Forces of Liberia (includes Army, Navy, Air Force),
Coast Guard, National Police Force


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 648,636; 346,349 fit for
military service; no conscription


_#_Defense expenditures: $NA, 2.4% of GDP (1987)
_%_
_@_Libya
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 1,759,540 km2; land area: 1,759,540 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than Alaska


_#_Land boundaries: 4,383 km total; Algeria 982 km, Chad 1,055 km,
Egypt 1,150 km, Niger 354 km, Sudan 383 km, Tunisia 459 km


_#_Coastline: 1,770 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Territorial sea: 12 nm;

Gulf of Sidra closing line: 32o 30%19 N


_#_Disputes: claims and occupies the 100,000 km2 Aozou Strip in
northern Chad; maritime boundary dispute with Tunisia; Libya claims about
19,400 km2 in northern Niger; Libya claims about 19,400 km2 in
southeastern Algeria


_#_Climate: Mediterranean along coast; dry, extreme desert interior


_#_Terrain: mostly barren, flat to undulating plains, plateaus,
depressions


_#_Natural resources: crude oil, natural gas, gypsum


_#_Land use: arable land 1%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
8%; forest and woodland 0%; other 91%; includes irrigated NEGL%


_#_Environment: hot, dry, dust-laden ghibli is a southern wind lasting
one to four days in spring and fall; desertification; sparse natural
surface-water resources


_#_Note: the Great Manmade River Project, the largest water
development scheme in the world, is being built to bring water from large
aquifers under the Sahara to coastal cities


_*_People
_#_Population: 4,350,742 (July 1991), growth rate 3.0% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 36 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 62 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 66 years male, 71 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 5.1 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun--Libyan(s); adjective-