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Full text of "The 1990 CIA World Factbook"

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The Project Gutenberg Edition of THE WORLD FACTBOOK 1992:    January 1, 1993

This edition, as are all Project Gutenberg Editions, is Plain Vanilla ASCII,
meaning there are no characters other than what you would see on paper, thus
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trailing spaces are not present.  Leading spaces have been preserved in fact
sections for readability.

Mail subject headers can be searched with leading :'s. . .such as:

:Afghanistan Geography
:Afghanistan People
:Afghanistan Government
:Afghanistan Government
:Afghanistan Economy
:Afghanistan Economy
:Afghanistan Communications
:Afghanistan Defense Forces

To find the beginning of any country, search for :country
To find internal information, search for :country section, as above.


THE WORLD FACTBOOK 1992


:Afghanistan Geography

Total area:
    647,500 km2
Land area:
    647,500 km2
Comparative area:
    slightly smaller than Texas
Land boundaries:
    5,529 km total; China 76 km, Iran 936 km, Pakistan 2,430 km, Tajikistan
    1,206 km, Turkmenistan 744 km, Uzbekistan 137 km
Coastline:
    none - landlocked
Maritime claims:
    none - landlocked
Disputes:
    Pashtunistan issue over the North-West Frontier Province with Pakistan;
    periodic disputes with Iran over Helmand water rights; Pakistan, Saudi
    Arabia, and Iran continue to support clients in country; power struggles
    among various groups for control of Kabul, regional rivalries among emerging
    warlords, and traditional tribal disputes continue
Climate:
    arid to semiarid; cold winters and hot summers
Terrain:
    mostly rugged mountains; plains in north and southwest
Natural resources:
    natural gas, crude oil, coal, copper, talc, barites, sulphur, lead, zinc,
    iron ore, salt, precious and semiprecious stones
Land use:
    arable land 12%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and pastures 46%; forest and
    woodland 3%; other 39%; includes irrigated NEGL%
Environment:
    damaging earthquakes occur in Hindu Kush mountains; soil degradation,
    desertification, overgrazing, deforestation, pollution
Note:
    landlocked

:Afghanistan People

Population:
    US Bureau of the Census - 16,095,664 (July 1992), growth rate 2.4% (1992)
    and excludes 3,750,796 refugees in Pakistan and 1,607,281 refugees in Iran;
    note - another report indicates a July 1990 population of 16,904,904,
    including 3,271,580 refugees in Pakistan and 1,277,700 refugees in Iran
Birth rate:
    44 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
    20 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
    0 migrants/1,000 population (1992); note - there are flows across the border
    in both directions, but data are fragmentary and unreliable
Infant mortality rate:
    162 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
    45 years male, 43 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
    6.4 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
    noun - Afghan(s); adjective - Afghan
Ethnic divisions:
    Pashtun 38%, Tajik 25%, Uzbek 6%, Hazara 19%; minor ethnic groups include
    Chahar Aimaks, Turkmen, Baloch, and others
Religions:
    Sunni Muslim 84%, Shi`a Muslim 15%, other 1%
Languages:
    Pashtu 35%, Afghan Persian (Dari) 50%, Turkic languages (primarily Uzbek and
    Turkmen) 11%, 30 minor languages (primarily Balochi and Pashai) 4%; much
    bilingualism
Literacy:
    29% (male 44%, female 14%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
    4,980,000; agriculture and animal husbandry 67.8%, industry 10.2%,
    construction 6.3%, commerce 5.0%, services and other 10.7%, (1980 est.)
Organized labor:
    some small government-controlled unions existed under the former regime but
    probably now have disbanded

:Afghanistan Government

Long-form name:
    Islamic State of Afghanistan
Type:
    transitional
Capital:
    Kabul
Administrative divisions:
    30 provinces (velayat, singular - velayat); Badakhshan, Badghis, Baghlan,
    Balkh, Bamian, Farah, Faryab, Ghazni, Ghowr, Helmand, Herat, Jowzjan, Kabol,
    Kandahar, Kapisa, Konar, Kondoz, Laghman, Lowgar, Nangarhar, Nimruz,
    Oruzgan, Paktia, Paktika, Parvan, Samangan, Sar-e Pol, Takhar, Vardak,
    Zabol; note - there may be a new province of Nurestan (Nuristan)
Independence:
    19 August 1919 (from UK)
Constitution:
    the old Communist-era constitution probably will be replaced with an Islamic
    constitution
Legal system:
    a new legal system has not been adopted but the transitional government has
    declared it will follow Islamic law (Shari`a)
National holiday:
    28 April, Victory of the Muslim Nation; 4 May, Remembrance Day for Martyrs
    and Disabled; 19 August, Independence Day
Executive branch:
    a 51-member transitional council headed by Sibghatullah MOJADDEDI rules
    Kabul; this body is to turn over power to a leadership council, which will
    function as the government and organize elections; Burhanuddin RABBANI will
    serve as interim President
Legislative branch:
    previous bicameral legislature has been abolished
Judicial branch:
    an interim Chief Justice of the Supreme Court has been appointed, but a new
    court system has not yet been organized
Leaders:
  Chief of State and Head of Government:
    Interim President Burhanuddin RABBANI; First Vice President Abdul Wahed
    SORABI (since 7 January 1991); Prime Minister Fazil Haq KHALIQYAR (since 21
    May 1990)
Political parties and leaders:
    the former resistance parties represent the only current political
    organizations and include Jamiat-i-Islami (Islamic Society), Burhanuddin
    RABBANI; Hizbi Islami-Gulbuddin (Islamic Party), Gulbuddin Hikmatyar
    Faction; Hizbi Islami-Khalis (Islamic Party) Yunis Khalis Faction;
    Ittihad-i-Islami Barai Azadi Afghanistan (Islamic Union for the Liberation
    of Afghanistan), Abdul Rasul SAYYAF; Harakat-Inqilab-i-Islami (Islamic
    Revolutionary Movement), Mohammad Nabi MOHAMMADI; Jabha-i-Najat-i-Milli
    Afghanistan (Afghanistan National Liberation Front), Sibghatullah MOJADDEDI;
    Mahaz-i-Milli-Islami (National Islamic Front), Sayed Ahamad GAILANI;
    Jonbesh-i-Milli Islami (National Islamic Movement), Ahmad Shah MASOOD and
    Rashid DOSTAM; Hizbi Wahdat (Islamic Unity Party), and a number of minor
    resistance parties; the former ruling Watan Party has been disbanded
Suffrage:
    undetermined; previously universal, male ages 15-50
Elections:
    the transition government has promised elections in October 1992
Communists:
    the former ruling Watan (Homeland) Party has been disbanded

:Afghanistan Government

Other political or pressure groups:
    the former resistance commanders are the major power brokers in the
    countryside; shuras (councils) of commanders are now administering most
    cities outside Kabul; ulema (religious scholars); tribal elders
Member of:
    Has previously been a member of AsDB, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD,
    ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OIC,
    UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO; note - the new
    government has not yet announced whether it will continue to be a member of
    these bodies; the former resistance government in exile (Afghan Interim
    Government) was given membership in the OIC in 1989
Diplomatic representation:
    previous Minister-Counselor, Charge d'Affaires Abdul Ghafur JOUSHAN;
    Chancery at 2341 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008; telephone (202)
    234-3770 or 3771; a new representative has not yet been named
  US:
    Charge d'Affaires (vacant); Embassy at Ansari Wat, Wazir Akbar Khan Mina,
    Kabul; telephone 62230 through 62235 or 62436; note - US Embassy in Kabul
    was closed in January 1989
Flag:
    a new flag of unknown description reportedly has been adopted; previous flag
    consisted of three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and green,
    with the national coat of arms superimposed on the hoist side of the black
    and red bands; similar to the flag of Malawi, which is shorter and bears a
    radiant, rising red sun centered in the black band

:Afghanistan Economy

Overview:
    Fundamentally, Afghanistan is an extremely poor, landlocked country, highly
    dependent on farming (wheat especially) and livestock raising (sheep and
    goats). Economic considerations, however, have played second fiddle to
    political and military upheavals during more than 13 years of war, including
    the nearly 10-year Soviet military occupation (which ended 15 February
    1989). Over the past decade, one-third of the population fled the country,
    with Pakistan sheltering more than 3 million refugees and Iran about 1.3
    million. Another 1 million probably moved into and around urban areas within
    Afghanistan. Although reliable data are unavailable, gross domestic product
    is lower than 12 years ago because of the loss of labor and capital and the
    disruption of trade and transport.
GDP:
    exchange rate conversion - $3 billion, per capita $200; real growth rate 0%
    (1989 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    over 90% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
    NA%
Budget:
    revenues NA; expenditures NA, including capital expenditures of NA
Exports:
    $236 million (f.o.b., FY91 est.)
  commodities:
    natural gas 55%, fruits and nuts 24%, handwoven carpets, wool, cotton,
    hides, and pelts
  partners:
    mostly former USSR
Imports:
    $874 million (c.i.f., FY91 est.)
  commodities:
    food and petroleum products
  partners:
    mostly former USSR
External debt:
    $2.3 billion (March 1991 est.)
Industrial production:
    growth rate 2.3% (FY91 est.); accounts for about 25% of GDP
Electricity:
    480,000 kW capacity; 1,450 million kWh produced, 90 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
    small-scale production of textiles, soap, furniture, shoes, fertilizer, and
    cement; handwoven carpets; natural gas, oil, coal, copper
Agriculture:
    largely subsistence farming and nomadic animal husbandry; cash products -
    wheat, fruits, nuts, karakul pelts, wool, mutton
Illicit drugs:
    an illicit producer of opium poppy and cannabis for the international drug
    trade; world's second-largest opium producer (after Burma) and a major
    source of hashish
Economic aid:
    US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $380 million; Western (non-US)
    countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $510 million; OPEC
    bilateral aid (1979-89), $57 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $4.1
    billion; net official Western disbursements (1985-89), $270 million
Currency:
    afghani (plural - afghanis); 1 afghani (Af) = 100 puls

:Afghanistan Economy

Exchange rates:
    afghanis (Af) per US$1 - 550 (May 1992, free market exchange rate), 900
    (free market exchange rate as of November 1991), 850 (1991), 700 (1989-90),
    220 (1988-89); note - these rates reflect the bazaar rates rather than the
    official exchange rates
Fiscal year:
    21 March - 20 March

:Afghanistan Communications

Railroads:
    9.6 km (single track) 1.524-meter gauge from Kushka (Turkmenistan) to
    Towraghondi and 15.0 km from Termez (Uzbekistan) to Kheyrabad transshipment
    point on south bank of Amu Darya
Highways:
    21,000 km total (1984); 2,800 km hard surface, 1,650 km bituminous-treated
    gravel and improved earth, 16,550 km unimproved earth and tracks
Inland waterways:
    total navigability 1,200 km; chiefly Amu Darya, which handles steamers up to
    about 500 metric tons
Pipelines:
    petroleum products - former USSR to Bagram and former USSR to Shindand;
    natural gas 180 km
Ports:
    Shir Khan and Kheyrabad (river ports)
Civil air:
    2 Tu-154, 2 Boeing 727, 4 Yak-40, assorted smaller transports
Airports:
    41 total, 37 usable; 9 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways
    over 3,659 m; 10 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 18 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
    limited telephone, telegraph, and radiobroadcast services; television
    introduced in 1980; 31,200 telephones; broadcast stations - 5 AM, no FM, 1
    TV; 1 satellite earth station

:Afghanistan Defense Forces

Branches:
    the military currently is being reorganized by the new government and does
    not yet exist on a national scale; some elements of the former Army, Air and
    Air Defense Forces, National Guard, Border Guard Forces, National Police
    Force (Sarandoi), and Tribal Militias remain intact and are supporting the
    new government; the government has asked all military personnel to return to
    their stations; a large number of former resistance groups also field
    irregular military forces; the Ministry of State Security (WAD) has been
    disbanded
Manpower availability:
    males 15-49, 3,989,232; 2,139,771 fit for military service; 150,572 reach
    military age (22) annually
Defense expenditures:
    the new government has not yet adopted a defense budget

:Albania Geography

Total area:
    28,750 km2
Land area:
    27,400 km2
Comparative area:
    slightly larger than Maryland
Land boundaries:
    720 km total; Greece 282 km, Macedonia 151 km, Serbia and Montenegro 287 km
    (114 km with Serbia, 173 km with Montenegro)
Coastline:
    362 km
Maritime claims:
  Continental shelf:
    not specified
  Territorial sea:
    12 nm
Disputes:
    Kosovo question with Serbia and Montenegro; Northern Epirus question with
    Greece
Climate:
    mild temperate; cool, cloudy, wet winters; hot, clear, dry summers; interior
    is cooler and wetter
Terrain:
    mostly mountains and hills; small plains along coast
Natural resources:
    crude oil, natural gas, coal, chromium, copper, timber, nickel
Land use:
    arable land 21%; permanent crops 4%; meadows and pastures 15%; forest and
    woodland 38%; other 22%; includes irrigated 1%
Environment:
    subject to destructive earthquakes; tsunami occur along southwestern coast
Note:
    strategic location along Strait of Otranto (links Adriatic Sea to Ionian Sea
    and Mediterranean Sea)

:Albania People

Population:
    3,285,224 (July 1992), growth rate 1.1% (1992)
Birth rate:
    23 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
    5 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
    --6 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
    27 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
    71 years male, 78 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
    2.8 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
    noun - Albanian(s); adjective - Albanian
Ethnic divisions:
    Albanian 90%, Greeks 8%, other 2% (Vlachs, Gypsies, Serbs, and Bulgarians)
    (1989 est.)
Religions:
    all mosques and churches were closed in 1967 and religious observances
    prohibited; in November 1990, Albania began allowing private religious
    practice; estimates of religious affiliation - Muslim 70%, Greek Orthodox
    20%, Roman Catholic 10%
Languages:
    Albanian (Tosk is official dialect), Greek
Literacy:
    72% (male 80%, female 63%) age 9 and over can read and write (1955)
Labor force:
    1,500,000 (1987); agriculture about 60%, industry and commerce 40% (1986)
Organized labor:
    Independent Trade Union Federation of Albania; Confederation of Trade Unions

:Albania Government

Long-form name:
    Republic of Albania
Type:
    nascent democracy
Capital:
    Tirane
Administrative divisions:
    26 districts (rrethe, singular - rreth); Berat, Dibre, Durres, Elbasan,
    Fier, Gjirokaster, Gramsh, Kolonje, Kore, Kruje, Kukes, Lezhe, Librazhd,
    Lushnje, Mat, Mirdite, Permet, Pogradec, Puke, Sarande, Shkoder, Skrapar,
    Tepelene, Tirane, Tropoje, Vlore
Independence:
    28 November 1912 (from Ottoman Empire); People's Socialist Republic of
    Albania declared 11 January 1946
Constitution:
    an interim basic law was approved by the People's Assembly on 29 April 1991;
    a new constitution is to be drafted for adoption in 1992
Legal system:
    has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
    Liberation Day, 29 November (1944)
Executive branch:
    president, prime minister of the Council of Ministers, two deputy prime
    ministers of the Council of Ministers
Legislative branch:
    unicameral People's Assembly (Kuvendi Popullor)
Judicial branch:
    Supreme Court
Leaders:
  Chief of State:
    President of the Republic Sali BERISHA (since 9 April 1992)
  Head of Government:
    Prime Minister of the Council of Ministers Aleksander MEKSI (since 10 April
    1992)
Political parties and leaders:
    there are at least 18 political parties; most prominent are the Albanian
    Socialist Party (ASP), Fatos NANO, first secretary; Democratic Party (DP),
    Eduard SELAMI, chairman; Albanian Republican Party (RP), Sabri GODO; Omonia
    (Greek minority party), leader NA (ran in 1992 election as Unity for Human
    Rights Party (UHP)); Social Democratic Party (SDP), Skender GJINUSHI; note -
    in December 1990 then President ALIA allowed new political parties to be
    formed in addition to the then AWP for the first time since 1944
Suffrage:
    universal and compulsory at age 18
Elections:
  People's Assembly:
    last held 22 March 1992; results - DP 62.29%, ASP 25.57%, SDP 4.33%, RP
    3.15%, UHP 2.92%, other 1.74%; seats - (140 total) DP 92, ASP 38, SDP 7, RP
    1, UHP 2
Member of:
    CSCE, EBRD, ECE, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, IMF, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, OIC,
    UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO
Diplomatic representation:
    Minister-Counselor, Charge d'Affaires ad interim (30 April 1991) Sazan Hyda
    BEJO; chancery (temporary) at 320 East 79th Street, New York, NY 10021;
    telephone (212) 249-2059
  US:
    Ambassador (vacant); Embassy at Rruga Labinoti 103, room 2921, Tirane
    (mailing address is APO AE 09624); telephone 355-42-32875; FAX 355-42-32222

:Albania Government

Flag:
    red with a black two-headed eagle in the center

:Albania Economy

Overview:
    The Albanian economy, already providing the lowest standard of living in
    Europe, contracted sharply in 1991, with most industries producing at only a
    fraction of past levels and an unemployment rate estimated at 40%. For over
    40 years, the Stalinist-type economy has operated on the principle of
    central planning and state ownership of the means of production. Albania
    began fitful economic reforms during 1991, including the liberalization of
    prices and trade, the privatization of shops and transport, and land reform.
    These reform measures were crippled, however, by the widespread civil
    disorder that accompanied the collapse of the Communist state. Following
    their overwhelming victory in the 22 March 1991 elections, the new
    Democratic government announced a program of shock therapy to stabilize the
    economy and establish a market economy. In an effort to expand international
    ties, Tirane has reestablished diplomatic relations with the former Soviet
    Union and the US and has joined the IMF and World Bank. The Albanians have
    also passed legislation allowing foreign investment. Albania possesses
    considerable mineral resources and, until 1990, was largely self-sufficient
    in food; however, the breakup of cooperative farms in 1991 and general
    economic decline forced Albania to rely on foreign aid to maintain adequate
    supplies. Available statistics on Albanian economic activity are rudimentary
    and subject to an especially wide margin of error.
GNP:
    purchasing power equivalent - $2.7 billion, per capita $820; real growth
    rate --35% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    100% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
    40% (1992 est.)
Budget:
    revenues $1.1 billion; expenditures $1.4 billion, including capital
    expenditures of $70 million (1991 est.)
Exports:
    $80 million (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
  commodities:
    asphalt, petroleum products, metals and metallic ores, electricity, crude
    oil, vegetables, fruits, tobacco
  partners:
    Italy, Yugoslavia, Germany, Greece, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Romania,
    Bulgaria, Hungary
Imports:
    $147 million (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
  commodities:
    machinery, machine tools, iron and steel products, textiles, chemicals,
    pharmaceuticals
  partners:
    Italy, Yugoslavia, Germany, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Poland, Hungary,
    Bulgaria
External debt:
    $500 million (1991 est.)
Industrial production:
    growth rate --55% (1991 est.)
Electricity:
    1,690,000 kW capacity; 5,000 million kWh produced, 1,530 kWh per capita
    (1990)
Industries:
    food processing, textiles and clothing, lumber, oil, cement, chemicals,
    basic metals, hydropower

:Albania Economy

Agriculture:
    arable land per capita among lowest in Europe; over 60% of arable land now
    in private hands; one-half of work force engaged in farming; wide range of
    temperate-zone crops and livestock; severe dislocations suffered in 1991
Economic aid:
    $190 million humanitarian aid, $94 million in loans/guarantees/credits
Currency:
    lek (plural - leke); 1 lek (L) = 100 qintars
Exchange rates:
    leke (L) per US$1 - 50 (January 1992), 25 (September 1991)
Fiscal year:
    calendar year

:Albania Communications

Railroads:
    543 km total; 509 1.435-meter standard gauge, single track and 34 km narrow
    gauge, single track (1990); line connecting Titograd (Serbia and Montenegro)
    and Shkoder (Albania) completed August 1986
Highways:
    16,700 km total; 6,700 km highways, 10,000 km forest and agricultural cart
    roads (1990)
Inland waterways:
    43 km plus Albanian sections of Lake Scutari, Lake Ohrid, and Lake Prespa
    (1990)
Pipelines:
    crude oil 145 km; petroleum products 55 km; natural gas 64 km (1988)
Ports:
    Durres, Sarande, Vlore
Merchant marine:
    11 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 52,886 GRT/76,449 DWT
Airports:
    12 total, 10 usable; more than 5 with permanent-surface runways; more than 5
    with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 5 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
    inadequate service; 15,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 13 AM, 1 TV;
    514,000 radios, 255,000 TVs (1987 est.)

:Albania Defense Forces

Branches:
    Army, Coastal Defense Command, Air and Air Defense Forces, Interior Ministry
    Troops, Border Troops
Manpower availability:
    males 15-49, 886,032; 731,072 fit for military service; 33,028 reach
    military age (19) annually
Defense expenditures:
    exchange rate conversion - 1.0 billion leks, NA% of GNP (FY90); note -
    conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the current
    exchange rate could produce misleading results

:Algeria Geography

Total area:
    2,381,740 km2
Land area:
    2,381,740 km2
Comparative area:
    slightly less than 3.5 times the size of Texas
Land boundaries:
    6,343 km total; Libya 982 km, Mali 1,376 km, Mauritania 463 km, Morocco
    1,559 km, Niger 956 km, Tunisia 965 km, Western Sahara 42 km
Coastline:
    998 km
Maritime claims:
  Territorial sea:
    12 nm
Disputes:
    Libya claims about 19,400 km2 in southeastern Algeria; land boundary
    disputes with Tunisia under discussion
Climate:
    arid to semiarid; mild, wet winters with hot, dry summers along coast; drier
    with cold winters and hot summers on high plateau; sirocco is a hot,
    dust/sand-laden wind especially common in summer
Terrain:
    mostly high plateau and desert; some mountains; narrow, discontinuous
    coastal plain
Natural resources:
    crude oil, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, uranium, lead, zinc
Land use:
    arable land 3%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and pastures 13%; forest and
    woodland 2%; other 82%; includes irrigated NEGL%
Environment:
    mountainous areas subject to severe earthquakes; desertification
Note:
    second-largest country in Africa (after Sudan)

:Algeria People

Population:
    26,666,921 (July 1992), growth rate 2.5% (1992)
Birth rate:
    31 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
    7 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
    0 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
    56 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
    66 years male, 68 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
    4.1 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
    noun - Algerian(s); adjective - Algerian
Ethnic divisions:
    Arab-Berber 99%, European less than 1%
Religions:
    Sunni Muslim (state religion) 99%, Christian and Jewish 1%
Languages:
    Arabic (official), French, Berber dialects
Literacy:
    50% (male 63%, female 36%) age 15 and over can read and write (1987)
Labor force:
    3,700,000; industry and commerce 40%, agriculture 24%, government 17%,
    services 10% (1984)
Organized labor:
    16-19% of labor force claimed; General Union of Algerian Workers (UGTA) is
    the only labor organization and is subordinate to the National Liberation
    Front

:Algeria Government

Long-form name:
    Democratic and Popular Republic of Algeria
Type:
    republic
Capital:
    Algiers
Administrative divisions:
    48 provinces (wilayast, singular - wilaya); Adrar, Ain Defla, Ain
    Temouchent, Alger, Annaba, Batna, Bechar, Bejaia, Biskra, Blida, Bordj Bou
    Arreridj, Bouira, Boumerdes, Chlef, Constantine, Djelfa, El Bayadh, El Oued,
    El Tarf, Ghardaia, Guelma, Illizi, Jijel, Khenchela, Laghouat, Mascara,
    Medea, Mila, Mostaganem, M'Sila, Naama, Oran, Ouargla, Oum el Bouaghi,
    Relizane, Saida, Setif, Sidi Bel Abbes, Skikda, Souk Ahras, Tamanghasset,
    Tebessa, Tiaret, Tindouf, Tipaza, Tissemsilt, Tizi Ouzou, Tlemcen
Independence:
    5 July 1962 (from France)
Constitution:
    19 November 1976, effective 22 November 1976; revised February 1989
Legal system:
    socialist, based on French and Islamic law; judicial review of legislative
    acts in ad hoc Constitutional Council composed of various public officials,
    including several Supreme Court justices; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
    jurisdiction
National holiday:
    Anniversary of the Revolution, 1 November (1954)
Executive branch:
    president, prime minister, Council of Ministers (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
    unicameral National People's Assembly (Al-Majlis Ech-Chaabi Al-Watani)
Judicial branch:
    Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)
Leaders:
  Chief of State:
    President Mohamed BOUDIAF; assassinated 29 June 1992
  Head of Government:
    Interim Prime Minister Sid Ahmed GHOZALI (since 6 June 1991)
Political parties and leaders:
    National Liberation Front (FLN); Socialist Forces Front (FFS), Hocine Ait
    AHMED, Secretary General; the government established a multiparty system in
    September 1989, and, as of 31 December 1990, over 30 legal parties existed
Suffrage:
    universal at age 18
Elections:
  National People's Assembly:
    first round held on 26 December 1991 (second round canceled by the military
    after President BENJEDID resigned 11 January 1992); results - percent of
    vote by party NA; seats - (281 total); the fundamentalist FIS won 188 of the
    231 seats contested in the first round; note - elections (municipal and
    wilaya) were held in June 1990, the first in Algerian history; results - FIS
    55%, FLN 27.5%, other 17.5%, with 65% of the voters participating
  President:
    next election to be held December 1993
Communists:
    400 (est.); Communist party banned 1962
Member of:
    ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, AMU, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-15, G-24, G-77, IAEA,
    IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL,
    IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAPEC, OAS (observer), OAU, OIC, OPEC, UN,
    UNAVEM, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

:Algeria Government

Diplomatic representation:
    Ambassador Abderrahmane BENSID; Chancery at 2118 Kalorama Road NW,
    Washington, DC 20008; telephone (202) 265-2800
  US:
    Ambassador Mary Ann CASEY; Embassy at 4 Chemin Cheich Bachir El-Ibrahimi,
    Algiers (mailing address is B. P. Box 549, Alger-Gare, 16000 Algiers);
    telephone [213] (2) 601-425 or 255, 186; FAX [213] (2) 603979; there is a US
    Consulate in Oran
Flag:
    two equal vertical bands of green (hoist side) and white with a red
    five-pointed star within a red crescent; the crescent, star, and color green
    are traditional symbols of Islam (the state religion)

:Algeria Economy

Overview:
    The oil and natural gas sector forms the backbone of the economy. Algeria
    depends on hydrocarbons for nearly all of its export receipts, about 30% of
    government revenues, and nearly 25% of GDP. In 1973-74 the sharp increase in
    oil prices led to a booming economy and helped to finance an ambitious
    program of industrialization. Plunging oil and gas prices, combined with the
    mismanagement of Algeria's highly centralized economy, has brought the
    nation to its most serious social and economic crisis since independence in
    1988. The government has promised far-reaching reforms, including
    privatization of some public- sector companies, encouraging private-sector
    activity, boosting gas and nonhydrocarbon exports, and proposing a major
    overhaul of the banking and financial systems, but to date it has made only
    limited progress.
GDP:
    exchange rate conversion - $54 billion, per capita $2,130; real growth rate
    2.5% (1990 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    30% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
    30% (1991 est.)
Budget:
    revenues $16.7 billion; expenditures $17.3 billion, including capital
    expenditures of $6.6 billion (1990 est.)
Exports:
    $11.7 billion (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
  commodities:
    petroleum and natural gas 97%
  partners:
    Netherlands, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Italy, France, US
Imports:
    $9 billion (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
  commodities:
    capital goods 29%, consumer goods 30%
  partners:
    France 25%, Italy 8%, FRG 8%, US 6-7%
External debt:
    $26.4 billion
Industrial production:
    growth rate --3% (1989 est.); accounts for 30% of GDP, including petroleum
Electricity:
    6,380,000 kW capacity; 16,700 million kWh produced, 640 kWh per capita
    (1991)
Industries:
    petroleum, light industries, natural gas, mining, electrical, petrochemical,
    food processing
Agriculture:
    accounts for 11% of GDP and employs 24% of labor force; net importer of food
    - grain, vegetable oil, and sugar; farm production includes wheat, barley,
    oats, grapes, olives, citrus, fruits, sheep, and cattle
Economic aid:
    US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-85), $1.4 billion; Western (non-US)
    countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $925 million; OPEC
    bilateral aid (1979-89), $1.8 billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $2.7
    billion; net official disbursements (1985-89), --$375 million
Currency:
    Algerian dinar (plural - dinars); 1 Algerian dinar (DA) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
    Algerian dinars (DA) per US$1 - 21.862 (January 1992), 18.473 (1991), 8.958
    (1990), 7.6086 (1989), 5.9148 (1988), 4.8497 (1987)

:Algeria Economy

Fiscal year:
    calendar year

:Algeria Communications

Railroads:
    4,060 km total; 2,616 km standard gauge (1.435 m), 1,188 km 1.055-meter
    gauge, 256 km 1.000-meter gauge; 300 km electrified; 215 km double track
Highways:
    80,000 km total; 60,000 km concrete or bituminous, 20,000 km gravel, crushed
    stone, unimproved earth
Pipelines:
    crude oil 6,612 km; petroleum products 298 km; natural gas 2,948 km
Ports:
    Algiers, Annaba, Arzew, Bejaia, Djendjene, Ghazaouet, Jijel, Mers el Kebir,
    Mostaganem, Oran, Skikda
Merchant marine:
    75 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 903,179 GRT/1,064,246 DWT; includes 5
    short-sea passenger, 27 cargo, 12 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 5 petroleum
    tanker, 9 liquefied gas, 7 chemical tanker, 9 bulk, 1 specialized tanker
Civil air:
    42 major transport aircraft
Airports:
    141 total, 124 usable; 53 with permanent-surface runways; 2 with runways
    over 3,659 m; 32 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 65 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
    excellent domestic and international service in the north, sparse in the
    south; 822,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 26 AM, no FM, 18 TV;
    1,600,000 TV sets; 5,200,000 radios; 5 submarine cables; radio relay to
    Italy, France, Spain, Morocco, and Tunisia; coaxial cable to Morocco and
    Tunisia; satellite earth stations - 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Indian
    Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Intersputnik, l ARABSAT, and 15 domestic

:Algeria Defense Forces

Branches:
    National Popular Army, Navy, Air Force, Territorial Air Defense, National
    Gendarmerie
Manpower availability:
    males 15-49, 6,386,157; 3,928,029 fit for military service; 283,068 reach
    military age (19) annually
Defense expenditures:
    exchange rate conversion - $867 million, approximately 1.8% of GDP (1992)

:American Samoa Geography

Total area:
    199 km2
Land area:
    199 km2; includes Rose Island and Swains Island
Comparative area:
    slightly larger than Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
    none
Coastline:
    116 km
Maritime claims:
  Contiguous zone:
    12 nm
  Continental shelf:
    200 m (depth)
  Exclusive economic zone:
    200 nm
  Territorial sea:
    12 nm
Disputes:
    none
Climate:
    tropical marine, moderated by southeast trade winds; annual rainfall
    averages 124 inches; rainy season from November to April, dry season from
    May to October; little seasonal temperature variation
Terrain:
    five volcanic islands with rugged peaks and limited coastal plains, two
    coral atolls
Natural resources:
    pumice and pumicite
Land use:
    arable land 10%; permanent crops 5%; meadows and pastures 0%; forest and
    woodland 75%; other 10%
Environment:
    typhoons common from December to March
Note:
    Pago Pago has one of the best natural deepwater harbors in the South Pacific
    Ocean, sheltered by shape from rough seas and protected by peripheral
    mountains from high winds; strategic location about 3,700 km south-southwest
    of Honolulu in the South Pacific Ocean about halfway between Hawaii and New
    Zealand

:American Samoa People

Population:
    51,115 (July 1992), growth rate 3.9% (1992); about 65,000 American Samoans
    live in the states of California and Washington and 20,000 in Hawaii
Birth rate:
    37 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
    4 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
    6 immigrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
    19 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
    71 years male, 75 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
    4.5 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
    noun - American Samoan(s); adjective - American Samoan; US, noncitizen
    nationals
Ethnic divisions:
    Samoan (Polynesian) 90%, Caucasian 2%, Tongan 2%, other 6%
Religions:
    Christian Congregationalist 50%, Roman Catholic 20%, Protestant
    denominations and other 30%
Languages:
    Samoan (closely related to Hawaiian and other Polynesian languages) and
    English; most people are bilingual
Literacy:
    97% (male 97%, female 97%) age 15 and over can read and write (1980)
Labor force:
    14,400 (1990); government 48%, tuna canneries 33%, other 19% (1986 est.)
Organized labor:
    NA

:American Samoa Government

Long-form name:
    Territory of American Samoa
Type:
    unincorporated and unorganized territory of the US;
    administered by the US Department of Interior, Office of Territorial and
    International Affairs; indigenous inhabitants are US nationals, not citizens
    of the US
Capital:
    Pago Pago
Administrative divisions:
    none (territory of the US)
Independence:
    none (territory of the US)
Constitution:
    ratified 1966, in effect 1967; note - a comprehensive revision is awaiting
    ratification by the US Congress (1992)
National holiday:
    Territorial Flag Day, 17 April (1900)
Executive branch:
    popularly elected governor and lieutenant governor
Legislative branch:
    bicameral Legislative Assembly (Fono) consists of an upper house or Senate
    and a lower house or House of Representatives
Judicial branch:
    High Court, district courts, and village courts
Leaders:
  Chief of State:
    President George BUSH (since 20 January 1989); Vice President Dan QUAYLE
    (since 20 January 1989)
  Head of Government:
    Governor Peter Tali COLEMAN (since 20 January 1989); Lieutenant Governor
    Galea'i POUMELE (since NA 1989)
Suffrage:
    universal at age 18; indigenous inhabitants are US nationals, not US
    citizens
Elections:
  Governor:
    last held 7 November 1988 (next to be held November 1992); results - Peter
    T. COLEMAN was elected (percent of vote NA)
  House of Representatives:
    last held November 1990 (next to be held November 1992); results -
    representatives popularly elected from 17 house districts; seats - (21
    total, 20 elected, and 1 nonvoting delegate from Swain's Island)
  Senate:
    last held 7 November 1988 (next to be held November 1992); results -
    senators elected by county councils from 12 senate districts; seats - (18
    total) number of seats by party NA
  US House of Representatives:
    last held 19 November 1990 (next to be held November 1992); results - Eni R.
    F. H. FALEOMAVAEGA reelected as a nonvoting delegate
Member of:
    ESCAP, IOC, SPC
Diplomatic representation:
    none (territory of the US)
Flag:
    blue with a white triangle edged in red that is based on the fly side and
    extends to the hoist side; a brown and white American bald eagle flying
    toward the hoist side is carrying two traditional Samoan symbols of
    authority, a staff and a war club

:American Samoa Economy

Overview:
    Economic development is strongly linked to the US, with which American Samoa
    does nearly 90% of its foreign trade. Tuna fishing and tuna processing
    plants are the backbone of the private-sector economy, with canned tuna the
    primary export. The tuna canneries and the government are by far the two
    largest employers. Other economic activities include a slowly developing
    tourist industry.
GNP:
    purchasing power equivalent - $128 million, per capita $2,500; real growth
    rate NA% (1990)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    4.3% (1989)
Unemployment rate:
    12% (1991)
Budget:
    revenues $126,394,000 (consisting of $46,441,000 local revenue and
    $79,953,000 grant revenue); including capital expenditures of $NA million
    (1990)
Exports:
    $307 million (f.o.b., 1989)
  commodities:
    canned tuna 93%
  partners:
    US 99.6%
Imports:
    $377.9 million (c.i.f., 1989)
  commodities:
    materials for canneries 56%, food 8%, petroleum 7%, machinery and parts 6%
  partners:
    US 72%, Japan 7%, NZ 7%, Australia 5%, other 9%
External debt:
    $NA
Industrial production:
    growth rate NA%
Electricity:
    42,000 kW capacity; 85 million kWh produced, 2,020 kWh per capita (1990)
Industries:
    tuna canneries (largely dependent on foreign supplies of raw tuna), meat
    canning, handicrafts
Agriculture:
    bananas, coconuts, vegetables, taro, breadfruit, yams, copra, pineapples,
    papayas, dairy farming
Economic aid:
    $21,042,650 in operational funds and $5,948,931 in construction funds for
    capital improvement projects from the US Department of Interior (1991)
Currency:
    US currency is used
Exchange rates:
    US currency is used
Fiscal year:
    1 October - 30 September

:American Samoa Communications

Railroads:
    none
Highways:
    350 km total; 150 km paved, 200 km unpaved
Ports:
    Pago Pago, Ta'u
Airports:
    4 total, 4 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over
    3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440 to 3,659 m (international airport at Tafuna,
    near Pago Pago); small airstrips on Ta'u and Ofu
Telecommunications:
    6,500 telephones; broadcast stations - 1 AM, 2 FM, 1 TV; good telex,
    telegraph, and facsimile services; 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth station, 1
    COMSAT earth station

:American Samoa Defense Forces

Note:
    defense is the responsibility of the US

:Andorra Geography

Total area:
    450 km2
Land area:
    450 km2
Comparative area:
    slightly more than 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
    125 km total; France 60 km, Spain 65 km
Coastline:
    none - landlocked
Maritime claims:
    none - landlocked
Disputes:
    none
Climate:
    temperate; snowy, cold winters and cool, dry summers
Terrain:
    rugged mountains dissected by narrow valleys
Natural resources:
    hydropower, mineral water, timber, iron ore, lead
Land use:
    arable land 2%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 56%; forest and
    woodland 22%; other 20%
Environment:
    deforestation, overgrazing
Note:
    landlocked

:Andorra People

Population:
    54,428 (July 1992), growth rate 2.2% (1992)
Birth rate:
    11 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
    4 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
    15 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
    7 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
    74 years male, 81 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
    1.3 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
    noun - Andorran(s); adjective - Andorran
Ethnic divisions:
    Catalan stock; Spanish 61%, Andorran 30%, French 6%, other 3%
Religions:
    virtually all Roman Catholic
Languages:
    Catalan (official); many also speak some French and Castilian
Literacy:
    NA% (male NA%, female NA%)
Labor force:
    NA
Organized labor:
    none

:Andorra Government

Long-form name:
    Principality of Andorra
Type:
    unique coprincipality under formal sovereignty of president of France and
    Spanish bishop of Seo de Urgel, who are represented locally by officials
    called veguers
Capital:
    Andorra la Vella
Administrative divisions:
    7 parishes (parroquies, singular - parroquia); Andorra, Canillo, Encamp, La
    Massana, Les Escaldes, Ordino, Sant Julia de Loria
Independence:
    1278
Constitution:
    none; some pareatges and decrees, mostly custom and usage
Legal system:
    based on French and Spanish civil codes; no judicial review of legislative
    acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
    Mare de Deu de Meritxell, 8 September
Executive branch:
    two co-princes (president of France, bishop of Seo de Urgel in Spain), two
    designated representatives (French veguer, Episcopal veguer), two permanent
    delegates (French prefect for the department of Pyrenees-Orientales, Spanish
    vicar general for the Seo de Urgel diocese), president of government,
    Executive Council
Legislative branch:
    unicameral General Council of the Valleys (Consell General de las Valls)
Judicial branch:
    civil cases - Supreme Court of Andorra at Perpignan (France) or the
    Ecclesiastical Court of the bishop of Seo de Urgel (Spain); criminal cases -
    Tribunal of the Courts (Tribunal des Cortes)
Leaders:
  Chiefs of State:
    French Co-Prince Francois MITTERRAND (since 21 May 1981), represented by
    Veguer de Franca Jean Pierre COURTOIS; Spanish Episcopal Co-Prince Mgr. Joan
    MARTI y Alanis (since 31 January 1971), represented by Veguer Episcopal
    Francesc BADIA Batalla
  Head of Government:
    Oscar RIBAS Reig (since January 1990)
Political parties and leaders:
    political parties not yet legally recognized; traditionally no political
    parties but partisans for particular independent candidates for the General
    Council on the basis of competence, personality, and orientation toward
    Spain or France; various small pressure groups developed in 1972; first
    formal political party, Andorran Democratic Association, was formed in 1976
    and reorganized in 1979 as Andorran Democratic Party
Suffrage:
    universal at age 18
Elections:
  General Council of the Valleys:
    last held 11 December 1989 (next to be held December 1993); results -
    percent of vote by party NA; seats - (28 total) number of seats by party NA
Member of:
    INTERPOL, IOC
Diplomatic representation:
    Andorra has no mission in the US

:Andorra Government

  US:
    includes Andorra within the Barcelona (Spain) Consular District, and the US
    Consul General visits Andorra periodically; Consul General Carolee HEILEMAN;
    Consulate General at Via Layetana 33, 08003 Barcelona (mailing address APO
    AE 09646); telephone [34] (3) 319-9550
Flag:
    three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red with the
    national coat of arms centered in the yellow band; the coat of arms features
    a quartered shield; similar to the flags of Chad and Romania that do not
    have a national coat of arms in the center

:Andorra Economy

Overview:
    The mainstay of Andorra's economy is tourism. An estimated 13 million
    tourists visit annually, attracted by Andorra's duty-free status and by its
    summer and winter resorts. Agricultural production is limited by a scarcity
    of arable land, and most food has to be imported. The principal livestock
    activity is sheep raising. Manufacturing consists mainly of cigarettes,
    cigars, and furniture. The rapid pace of European economic integration is a
    potential threat to Andorra's advantages from its duty-free status.
GDP:
    purchasing power equivalent - $727 million, per capita $14,000; real growth
    rate NA% (1990 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    NA%
Unemployment rate:
    none
Budget:
    revenues $NA; expenditures $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports:
    $0.017 million (f.o.b., 1986)
  commodities:
    electricity
  partners:
    France, Spain
Imports:
    $531 million (f.o.b., 1986)
  commodities:
    consumer goods, food
  partners:
    France, Spain
External debt:
    $NA
Industrial production:
    growth rate NA%
Electricity:
    35,000 kW capacity; 140 million kWh produced, 2,800 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
    tourism (particularly skiing), sheep, timber, tobacco, banking
Agriculture:
    sheep raising; small quantities of tobacco, rye, wheat, barley, oats, and
    some vegetables
Economic aid:
    none
Currency:
    French franc (plural - francs) and Spanish peseta (plural - pesetas); 1
    French franc (F) = 100 centimes and 1 Spanish peseta (Pta) = 100 centimos
Exchange rates:
    French francs (F) per US$1 - 5.3801 January (1992), 5.6421 (1991), 5.4453
    (1990), 6.3801 (1989), 5.9569 (1988), 6.0107 (1987); Spanish pesetas (Ptas)
    per US$1 - 100.02 (January 1992), 103.91 (1991), 101.93 (1990), 118.38
    (1989), 116.49 (1988), 123.48 (1987)
Fiscal year:
    calendar year

:Andorra Communications

Highways:
    96 km
Telecommunications:
    international digital microwave network; international landline circuits to
    France and Spain; broadcast stations - 1 AM, no FM, no TV; 17,700 telephones

:Andorra Defense Forces

Note:
    defense is the responsibility of France and Spain

:Angola Geography

Total area:
    1,246,700 km2
Land area:
    1,246,700 km2
Comparative area:
    slightly less than twice the size of Texas
Land boundaries:
    5,198 km total; Congo 201 km, Namibia 1,376 km, Zaire 2,511 km, Zambia 1,110
    km
Coastline:
    1,600 km
Maritime claims:
  Exclusive fishing zone:
    200 nm
  Territorial sea:
    20 nm
Disputes:
    civil war since independence on 11 November 1975; on 31 May 1991 Angolan
    President Jose Eduardo dos SANTOS and Jonas SAVIMBI, leader of the National
    Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA), signed a peace treaty
    that calls for multiparty elections in late September 1992, an
    internationally monitored cease-fire, and termination of outside military
    assistance
Climate:
    semiarid in south and along coast to Luanda; north has cool, dry season (May
    to October) and hot, rainy season (November to April)
Terrain:
    narrow coastal plain rises abruptly to vast interior plateau
Natural resources:
    petroleum, diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, copper, feldspar, gold, bauxite,
    uranium
Land use:
    arable land 2%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and pastures 23%; forest and
    woodland 43%; other 32%
Environment:
    locally heavy rainfall causes periodic flooding on plateau; desertification
Note:
    Cabinda is separated from rest of country by Zaire

:Angola People

Population:
    8,902,076 (July 1992), growth rate 2.7% (1992)
Birth rate:
    46 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
    19 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
    NEGL migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
    152 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
    43 years male, 47 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
    6.6 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
    noun - Angolan(s); adjective - Angolan
Ethnic divisions:
    Ovimbundu 37%, Kimbundu 25%, Bakongo 13%, Mestico 2%,European 1%, other 22%
Religions:
    indigenous beliefs 47%, Roman Catholic 38%, Protestant 15% (est.)
Languages:
    Portuguese (official); various Bantu dialects
Literacy:
    42% (male 56%, female 28%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
    2,783,000 economically active; agriculture 85%, industry 15% (1985 est.)
Organized labor:
    about 450,695 (1980)

:Angola Government

Long-form name:
    People's Republic of Angola
Type:
    in transition from a one-party Marxist state to a multiparty democracy with
    a strong presidential system
Capital:
    Luanda
Administrative divisions:
    18 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Bengo, Benguela, Bie,
    Cabinda, Cuando Cubango, Cuanza Norte, Cuanza Sul, Cunene, Huambo, Huila,
    Luanda, Lunda Norte, Lunda Sul, Malanje, Moxico, Namibe, Uige, Zaire
Independence:
    11 November 1975 (from Portugal)
Constitution:
    11 November 1975; revised 7 January 1978, 11 August 1980, and 6 March 1991
Legal system:
    based on Portuguese civil law system and customary law; recently modified to
    accommodate multipartyism and increased use of free markets
National holiday:
    Independence Day, 11 November (1975)
Executive branch:
    president, prime minister, chairman of the Council of Ministers, Council of
    Ministers (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
    unicameral People's Assembly (Assembleia do Povo)
Judicial branch:
    Supreme Court (Tribunal da Relacaao)
Leaders:
  Chief of State:
    President Jose Eduardo dos SANTOS (since 21 September 1979)
  Head of Government:
    Prime Minister Fernando Jose Franca VAN DUNEM (since 21 July 1991)
Political parties and leaders:
    the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola - Labor Party (MPLA), led
    by Jose Eduardo dos SANTOS, is the ruling party that has been in power in
    Angola's one-party system since 1975. The National Union for the Total
    Independence of Angola (UNITA), led by Jonas SAVIMBI, has been in insurgency
    since 1975, but as a result of the peace accords is now a legally recognized
    political party. Some 30 other political parties now exist in Angola, but
    few of them are viable and only a couple have met the requirements to become
    legally recognized.
Suffrage:
    universal at age 18
Elections:
    first nationwide, multiparty elections to be held between September and
    November 1992
Member of:
    ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEEAC (observer), ECA, FAO, FLS, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IFAD,
    ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, SADCC, UN,
    UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
    none; note - US Liaison Office (USLO) established after Peace Accords in May
    1991 as a precursor to establishing an embassy after election in 1992;
    address - Luanda (USLO), BPA Building, llth floor, telephone [244] (2)
    39-02-42; FAX [244] (2) 39-05-15
Flag:
    two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and black with a centered yellow
    emblem consisting of a five-pointed star within half a cogwheel crossed by a
    machete (in the style of a hammer and sickle)

:Angola Economy

Overview:
    Subsistence agriculture provides the main livelihood for 80-90% of the
    population, but accounts for less than 15% of GDP. Oil production is vital
    to the economy, contributing about 60% to GDP. In recent years, a bitter
    internal war has severely affected the nonoil economy, and food has to be
    imported. For the long run, Angola has the advantage of rich natural
    resources in addition to oil, notably gold, diamonds, and arable land. To
    realize its economic potential Angola not only must secure domestic peace
    but also must reform government policies that have led to distortions and
    imbalances throughout the economy.
GDP:
    exchange rate conversion - $8.3 billion, per capita $950; real growth rate
    1.7% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    6.1% (1990 est.)
Unemployment rate:
    NA%
Budget:
    revenues $2.6 billion; expenditures $4.4 billion, including capital
    expenditures of $963 million (1990 est.)
Exports:
    $3.9 billion (f.o.b., 1990 est.)
  commodities:
    oil, liquefied petroleum gas, diamonds, coffee, sisal, fish and fish
    products, timber, cotton
  partners:
    US, USSR, Cuba, Portugal, Brazil, France
Imports:
    $1.5 billion (f.o.b., 1990 est.)
  commodities:
    capital equipment (machinery and electrical equipment), food, vehicles and
    spare parts, textiles and clothing, medicines; substantial military
    deliveries
  partners:
    US, USSR, Cuba, Portugal, Brazil
External debt:
    $7.0 billion (1990)
Industrial production:
    growth rate NA%; accounts for about 60% of GDP, including petroleum output
Electricity:
    510,000 kW capacity; 770 million kWh produced, 90 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
    petroleum, diamonds, mining, fish processing, food processing, brewing,
    tobacco, sugar, textiles, cement, basic metal products
Agriculture:
    cash crops - coffee, sisal, corn, cotton, sugar, manioc, tobacco; food crops
    - cassava, corn, vegetables, plantains, bananas; livestock production
    accounts for 20%, fishing 4%, forestry 2% of total agricultural output;
    disruptions caused by civil war and marketing deficiencies require food
    imports
Economic aid:
    US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $265 million; Western (non-US)
    countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $1,105 million;
    Communist countries (1970-89), $1.3 billion; net official disbursements
    (1985-89), $750 million
Currency:
    kwanza (plural - kwanza); 1 kwanza (Kz) = 100 lwei
Exchange rates:
    kwanza (Kz) per US$1 - 180.0

:Angola Economy

Fiscal year:
    calendar year

:Angola Communications

Railroads:
    3,189 km total; 2,879 km 1.067-meter gauge, 310 km 0.600-meter gauge;
    limited trackage in use because of landmines still in place from the civil
    war; majority of the Benguela Railroad also closed because of civil war
Highways:
    73,828 km total; 8,577 km bituminous-surface treatment, 29,350 km crushed
    stone, gravel, or improved earth, remainder unimproved earth
Inland waterways:
    1,295 km navigable
Pipelines:
    crude oil 179 km
Ports:
    Luanda, Lobito, Namibe, Cabinda
Merchant marine:
    12 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 66,348 GRT/102,825 DWT; includes 11
    cargo, 1 petroleum tanker
Civil air:
    28 major transport aircraft
Airports:
    309 total, 177 usable; 30 with permanent-surface runways; 2 with runways
    over 3,659 m; 15 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 54 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
    limited system of wire, radio relay, and troposcatter routes; high frequency
    radio used extensively for military links; 40,300 telephones; broadcast
    stations - 17 AM, 13 FM, 6 TV; 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations

:Angola Defense Forces

Branches:
    Army, Navy, Air Force/Air Defense, People's Defense Organization and
    Territorial Troops, Frontier Guard
Manpower availability:
    males 15-49, 2,129,877; 1,072,323 fit for military service; 89,585 reach
    military age (18) annually
Defense expenditures:
    exchange rate conversion - $NA, NA% of GDP

:Anguilla Geography

Total area:
    91 km2
Land area:
    91 km2
Comparative area:
    about half the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
    none
Coastline:
    61 km
Maritime claims:
  Exclusive fishing zone:
    200 nm
  Territorial sea:
    3 nm
Disputes:
    none
Climate:
    tropical; moderated by northeast trade winds
Terrain:
    flat and low-lying island of coral and limestone
Natural resources:
    negligible; salt, fish, lobster
Land use:
    arable land NA%; permanent crops NA%; meadows and pastures NA%; forest and
    woodland NA%; other NA%; mostly rock with sparse scrub oak, few trees, some
    commercial salt ponds
Environment:
    frequent hurricanes, other tropical storms (July to October)
Note:
    located 270 km east of Puerto Rico

:Anguilla People

Population:
    6,963 (July 1992), growth rate 0.6% (1992)
Birth rate:
    24 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
    8 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
    --10 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
    18 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
    71 years male, 77 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
    3.1 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
    noun - Anguillan(s); adjective - Anguillan
Ethnic divisions:
    mainly of black African descent
Religions:
    Anglican 40%, Methodist 33%, Seventh-Day Adventist 7%, Baptist 5%, Roman
    Catholic 3%, other 12%
Languages:
    English (official)
Literacy:
    95% (male 95%, female 95%) age 12 and over can read and write (1984)
Labor force:
    2,780 (1984)
Organized labor:
    NA

:Anguilla Government

Long-form name:
    none
Type:
    dependent territory of the UK
Capital:
    The Valley
Administrative divisions:
    none (dependent territory of the UK)
Independence:
    none (dependent territory of the UK)
Constitution:
    1 April 1982
Legal system:
    based on English common law
National holiday:
    Anguilla Day, 30 May
Executive branch:
    British monarch, governor, chief minister, Executive Council (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
    unicameral House of Assembly
Judicial branch:
    High Court
Leaders:
  Chief of State:
    Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor Brian G.
    J. CANTY (since NA 1989)
  Head of Government:
    Chief Minister Emile GUMBS (since March 1984, served previously from
    February 1977 to May 1980)
Political parties and leaders:
    Anguilla National Alliance (ANA), Emile GUMBS; Anguilla United Party (AUP),
    Hubert HUGHES; Anguilla Democratic Party (ADP), Victor BANKS
Suffrage:
    universal at age 18
Elections:
  House of Assembly:
    last held 27 February 1989 (next to be held February 1994); results -
    percent of vote by party NA; seats - (11 total, 7 elected) ANA 3, AUP 2, ADP
    1, independent 1
Member of:
    CARICOM (observer), CDB
Diplomatic representation:
    none (dependent territory of the UK)
Flag:
    two horizontal bands of white (top, almost triple width) and light blue with
    three orange dolphins in an interlocking circular design centered in the
    white band; a new flag may have been in use since 30 May 1990

:Anguilla Economy

Overview:
    Anguilla has few natural resources, and the economy depends heavily on
    lobster fishing, offshore banking, tourism, and remittances from emigrants.
    In recent years the economy has benefited from a boom in tourism.
    Development plans center around the improvement of the infrastructure,
    particularly transport and tourist facilities, and also light industry.
GDP:
    exchange rate conversion - $23 million, per capita $3,300; real growth rate
    8.2% (1988 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    4.5% (1988 est.)
Unemployment rate:
    5.0% (1988 est.)
Budget:
    revenues $13.8 million; expenditures $15.2 million, including capital
    expenditures of $2.4 million (1992 est.)
Exports:
    $NA
  commodities:
    lobster and salt
  partners:
    NA
Imports:
    $NA
  commodities:
    NA
  partners:
    NA
External debt:
    $NA
Industrial production:
    growth rate NA%
Electricity:
    2,000 kW capacity; 6 million kWh produced, 867 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
    tourism, boat building, salt, fishing (including lobster)
Agriculture:
    pigeon peas, corn, sweet potatoes, sheep, goats, pigs, cattle, poultry
Economic aid:
    Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $38
    million
Currency:
    East Caribbean dollar (plural - dollars); 1 EC dollar (EC$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
    East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1 - 2.70 (fixed rate since 1976)
Fiscal year:
    NA

:Anguilla Communications

Highways:
    60 km surfaced
Ports:
    Road Bay, Blowing Point
Civil air:
    no major transport aircraft
Airports:
    3 total, 3 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runways of 1,100 m (Wallblake
    Airport)
Telecommunications:
    modern internal telephone system; 890 telephones; broadcast stations - 3 AM,
    1 FM, no TV; radio relay link to island of Saint Martin

:Anguilla Defense Forces

Note:
    defense is the responsibility of the UK

:Antarctica Geography

Total area:
    14,000,000 km2 (est.)
Land area:
    about 14,000,000 km2
Comparative area:
    slightly less than 1.5 times the size of the US; second-smallest continent
    (after Australia)
Land boundaries:
    none, but see entry on Disputes
Coastline:
    17,968 km
Maritime claims:
    none, but see entry on Disputes
Disputes:
    Antarctic Treaty defers claims (see Antarctic Treaty Summary below);
    sections (some overlapping) claimed by Argentina, Australia, Chile, France
    (Adelie Land), New Zealand (Ross Dependency), Norway (Queen Maud Land), and
    UK; the US and Russia do not recognize the territorial claims of other
    nations and have made no claims themselves (but reserve the right to do so);
    no formal claims have been made in the sector between 90. west and 150.
    west, where, because of floating ice, Antarctica is unapproachable from the
    sea
Climate:
    severe low temperatures vary with latitude, elevation, and distance from the
    ocean; East Antarctica is colder than West Antarctica because of its higher
    elevation; Antarctic Peninsula has the most moderate climate; higher
    temperatures occur in January along the coast and average slightly below
    freezing
Terrain:
    about 98% thick continental ice sheet and 2% barren rock, with average
    elevations between 2,000 and 4,000 meters; mountain ranges up to 4,897
    meters high; ice-free coastal areas include parts of southern Victoria Land,
    Wilkes Land, the Antarctic Peninsula area, and Ross Island on McMurdo Sound;
    glaciers form ice shelves along about half of the coastline, and floating
    ice shelves constitute 11% of the area of the continent
Natural resources:
    none presently exploited; iron, chromium, copper, gold, nickel, platinum,
    and other minerals, and coal and hydrocarbons have been found in small,
    uncommercial quantities
Land use:
    no arable land and no plant growth; ice 98%, barren rock 2%
Environment:
    mostly uninhabitable; katabatic (gravity-driven) winds blow coastward from
    the high interior; frequent blizzards form near the foot of the plateau; a
    circumpolar ocean current flows clockwise along the coast as do cyclonic
    storms that form over the ocean; during summer more solar radiation reaches
    the surface at the South Pole than is received at the Equator in an
    equivalent period; in October 1991 it was reported that the ozone shield,
    which protects the Earth's surface from harmful ultraviolet radiation, had
    dwindled to its lowest level ever over Antarctica; active volcanism on
    Deception Island and isolated areas of West Antarctica; other seismic
    activity rare and weak
Note:
    the coldest, windiest, highest, and driest continent

:Antarctica People

Population:
    no indigenous inhabitants; staffing of research stations varies seasonally
Population:
  Summer (January) population:
    4,115; Argentina 207, Australia 268, Belgium 13, Brazil 80, Chile 256, China
    NA, Ecuador NA, Finland 11, France 78, Germany 32, Greenpeace 12, India 60,
    Italy 210, Japan 59, South Korea 14, Netherlands 10, New Zealand 264, Norway
    23, Peru 39, Poland NA, South Africa 79, Spain 43, Sweden 10, UK 116,
    Uruguay NA, US 1,666, Russia 565 (1989-90)
  Summer only stations:
    over 40; Argentina 7, Australia 3, Chile 5, Germany 3, India 1, Italy 1,
    Japan 4, New Zealand 2, Norway 1, Peru 1, South Africa 1, Spain 1, Sweden 2,
    UK 1, US numerous, Russia 5 (1989-90); note - the disintegration of the
    former Soviet Union has placed the status and future of its Antarctic
    facilities in doubt. Stations may be subject to closings at any time because
    of ongoing economic difficulties.
  Winter (July) population:
    1,066 total; Argentina 150, Australia 71, Brazil 12, Chile 73, China NA,
    France 33, Germany 19, Greenpeace 5, India 1, Japan 38, South Korea 14, NZ
    11, Poland NA, South Africa 12, UK 69, Uruguay NA, US 225, Russia 313
    (1989-90)
  Year-round stations:
    43 total; Argentina 6, Australia 3, Brazil 1, Chile 3, China 2, Finland 1,
    France 1, Germany 1, India 1, Japan 2, South Korea 1, NZ 1, Poland 1, South
    Africa 3, UK 5, Uruguay 1, US 3, Russia 6 (1990-91)

:Antarctica Government

Long-form name:
    none
Type:
  Antarctic Treaty Summary: Article 1:
    area to be used for peaceful purposes only; military activity, such as
    weapons testing, is prohibited, but military personnel and equipment may be
    used for scientific research or any other peaceful purposes
  Article 2:
    freedom of scientific investigation and cooperation shall continue
  Article 3:
    free exchange of information and personnel in cooperation with the UN and
    other international agencies
  Article 4:
    does not recognize, dispute, or establish territorial claims and no new
    claims shall be asserted while the treaty is in force
  Article 5:
    prohibits nuclear explosions or disposal of radioactive wastes
  Article 6:
    includes under the treaty all land and ice shelves south of 60. 00' south
  Article 7:
    treaty-state observers have free access, including aerial observation, to
    any area and may inspect all stations, installations, and equipment; advance
    notice of all activities and of the introduction of military personnel must
    be given
  Article 8:
    allows for jurisdiction over observers and scientists by their own states
  Article 9:
    frequent consultative meetings take place among member nations
  Article 10:
    treaty states will discourage activities by any country in Antarctica that
    are contrary to the treaty
  Article 11:
    disputes to be settled peacefully by the parties concerned or, ultimately,
    by the ICJ
  Article 12, 13, 14:
    deal with upholding, interpreting, and amending the treaty among involved
    nations
  Other agreements:
    more than 170 recommendations adopted at treaty consultative meetings and
    ratified by governments include - Agreed Measures for the Conservation of
    Antarctic Fauna and Flora (1964); Convention for the Conservation of
    Antarctic Seals (1972); Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine
    Living Resources (1980); a mineral resources agreement was signed in 1988
    but was subsequently rejected; in 1991 the Protocol on Environmental
    Protection to the Antarctic Treaty was signed and awaits ratification; this
    agreement provides for the protection of the Antarctic environment through
    five specific annexes on marine pollution, fauna, and flora, environmental
    impact assessments, waste management, and protected areas; it also prohibits
    all activities relating to mineral resources except scientific research

:Antarctica Economy

Overview:
    No economic activity at present except for fishing off the coast and
    small-scale tourism, both based abroad.

:Antarctica Communications

Ports:
    none; offshore anchorage only at most coastal stations
Airports:
    41 airport facilities at different locations operated by 14 national
    governments party to the Treaty; one additional air facility operated by
    commercial (nongovernmental) tourist organization; helicopter pads at 28 of
    these locations; runways at 9 locations are gravel, sea ice, glacier ice, or
    compacted snow surface suitable for wheeled fixed-wing aircraft; no paved
    runways; 16 locations have snow-surface skiways limited to use by
    ski-equipped planes - 9 runways/skiways 1,000 to 3,000 m, 4 runways/skiways
    less than 1,000 m, 5 runways/skiways greater than 3,000 m, and 7 of
    unspecified or variable length; airports generally subject to severe
    restrictions and limitations resulting from extreme seasonal and geographic
    conditions

:Antarctica Defense Forces

Note:
    none; Article 7 of the Antarctic Treaty states that advance notice of all
    military activities and the introduction of military personnel must be given

:Antigua and Barbuda Geography

Total area:
    440 km2
Land area:
    440 km2; includes Redonda
Comparative area:
    slightly less than 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
    none
Coastline:
    153 km
Maritime claims:
  Contiguous zone:
    24 nm
  Exclusive economic zone:
    200 nm
  Territorial sea:
    12 nm
Disputes:
    none
Climate:
    tropical marine; little seasonal temperature variation
Terrain:
    mostly low-lying limestone and coral islands with some higher volcanic areas
Natural resources:
    negligible; pleasant climate fosters tourism
Land use:
    arable land 18%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 7%; forest and
    woodland 16%; other 59%
Environment:
    subject to hurricanes and tropical storms (July to October); insufficient
    freshwater resources; deeply indented coastline provides many natural
    harbors
Note:
    420 km east-southeast of Puerto Rico

:Antigua and Barbuda People

Population:
    64,110 (July 1992), growth rate 0.4% (1992)
Birth rate:
    18 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
    6 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
    --8 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
    20 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
    71 years male, 75 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
    1.7 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
    noun - Antiguan(s), Barbudan(s); adjective - Antiguan, Barbudan
Ethnic divisions:
    almost entirely of black African origin; some of British, Portuguese,
    Lebanese, and Syrian origin
Religions:
    Anglican (predominant), other Protestant sects, some Roman Catholic
Languages:
    English (official), local dialects
Literacy:
    89% (male 90%, female 88%) age 15 and over having completed 5 or more years
    of schooling (1960)
Labor force:
    30,000; commerce and services 82%, agriculture 11%, industry 7% (1983)
Organized labor:
    Antigua and Barbuda Public Service Association (ABPSA), membership 500;
    Antigua Trades and Labor Union (ATLU), 10,000 members; Antigua Workers Union
    (AWU), 10,000 members (1986 est.)

:Antigua and Barbuda Government

Long-form name:
    none
Type:
    parliamentary democracy
Capital:
    Saint John's
Administrative divisions:
    6 parishes and 2 dependencies*; Barbuda*, Redonda*, Saint George, Saint
    John, Saint Mary, Saint Paul, Saint Peter, Saint Philip
Independence:
    1 November 1981 (from UK)
Constitution:
    1 November 1981
Legal system:
    based on English common law
National holiday:
    Independence Day, 1 November (1981)
Executive branch:
    British monarch, governor general, prime minister, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
    bicameral Parliament consists of an upper house or Senate and a lower house
    or House of Representatives
Judicial branch:
    Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court
Leaders:
  Chief of State:
    Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General
    Sir Wilfred Ebenezer JACOBS (since 1 November 1981, previously Governor
    since 1976)
  Head of Government:
    Prime Minister Vere Cornwall BIRD, Sr. (since NA 1976); Deputy Prime
    Minister (vacant)
Political parties and leaders:
    Antigua Labor Party (ALP), Vere C. BIRD, Sr., Lester BIRD; United
    Progressive Party (UPP), Baldwin SPENCER
Suffrage:
    universal at age 18
Elections:
  House of Representatives:
    last held 9 March 1989 (next to be held NA 1994); results - percent of vote
    by party NA; seats - (17 total) ALP 15, UPP 1, independent 1
Other political or pressure groups:
    United Progressive Party (UPP), a coalition of three opposition political
    parties - the United National Democratic Party (UNDP), the Antigua Caribbean
    Liberation Movement (ACLM), and the Progressive Labor Movement (PLM), the
    UPP is led by Baldwin SPENCER; Antigua Trades and Labor Union (ATLU), headed
    by Noel THOMAS
Member of:
    ACP, C, CARICOM, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IFAD, IFC,
    ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, NAM (observer), OAS, OECS, OPANAL, UN,
    UNCTAD, UNESCO, WCL, WHO, WMO
Diplomatic representation:
    Ambassador Patrick Albert LEWIS; Chancery at Suite 2H, 3400 International
    Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008; telephone (202) 362-5211 or 5166, 5122,
    5225; there is an Antiguan Consulate in Miami

:Antigua and Barbuda Government

  US:
    the US Ambassador to Barbados is accredited to Antigua and Barbuda, and, in
    his absence, the Embassy is headed by Charge d'Affaires Bryant SALTER;
    Embassy at Queen Elizabeth Highway, Saint John's (mailing address is FPO AA
    34054); telephone (809) 462-3505 or 3506; FAX (809) 462-3516
Flag:
    red with an inverted isosceles triangle based on the top edge of the flag;
    the triangle contains three horizontal bands of black (top), light blue, and
    white with a yellow rising sun in the black band

:Antigua and Barbuda Economy

Overview:
    The economy is primarily service oriented, with tourism the most important
    determinant of economic performance. During the period 1987-90, real GDP
    expanded at an annual average rate of about 6%. Tourism makes a direct
    contribution to GDP of about 13% and also affects growth in other sectors -
    particularly in construction, communications, and public utilities. Although
    Antigua and Barbuda is one of the few areas in the Caribbean experiencing a
    labor shortage in some sectors of the economy, it was hurt in 1991 by a
    downturn in tourism caused by the Persian Gulf war and the US recession.
GDP:
    exchange rate conversion - $418 million, per capita $6,500 (1989); real
    growth rate 4.2% (1990 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    7% (1990 est.)
Unemployment rate:
    5.0% (1988 est.)
Budget:
    revenues $92.8 million; expenditures $101 million, including capital
    expenditures of $NA (1990 est.)
Exports:
    $33.2 million (f.o.b., 1990)
  commodities:
    petroleum products 48%, manufactures 23%, food and live animals 4%,
    machinery and transport equipment 17%
  partners:
    OECS 26%, Barbados 15%, Guyana 4%, Trinidad and Tobago 2%, US 0.3%
Imports:
    $325.9 million (c.i.f., 1990)
  commodities:
    food and live animals, machinery and transport equipment, manufactures,
    chemicals, oil
  partners:
    US 27%, UK 16%, Canada 4%, OECS 3%, other 50%
External debt:
    $250 million (1990 est.)
Industrial production:
    growth rate 3% (1989 est.); accounts for 3% of GDP
Electricity:
    52,100 kW capacity; 95 million kWh produced, 1,482 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
    tourism, construction, light manufacturing (clothing, alcohol, household
    appliances)
Agriculture:
    accounts for 4% of GDP; expanding output of cotton, fruits, vegetables, and
    livestock; other crops - bananas, coconuts, cucumbers, mangoes, sugarcane;
    not self-sufficient in food
Economic aid:
    US commitments, $10 million (1985-88); Western (non-US) countries, ODA and
    OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $50 million
Currency:
    East Caribbean dollar (plural - dollars); 1 EC dollar (EC$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
    East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1 - 2.70 (fixed rate since 1976)
Fiscal year:
    1 April - 31 March

:Antigua and Barbuda Communications

Railroads:
    64 km 0.760-meter narrow gauge and 13 km 0.610-meter gauge used almost
    exclusively for handling sugarcane
Highways:
    240 km
Ports:
    Saint John's
Merchant marine:
    105 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 364,891 GRT/552,475 DWT; includes 71
    cargo, 3 refrigerated cargo, 12 container, 3 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 1
    multifunction large load carrier, 1 oil tanker, 12 chemical tanker, 2 bulk;
    note - a flag of convenience registry
Civil air:
    11 major transport aircraft
Airports:
    3 total, 3 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runways
    2,440-3,659 m; 2 with runways less than 1,220 m
Telecommunications:
    good automatic telephone system; 6,700 telephones; tropospheric scatter
    links with Saba and Guadeloupe; broadcast stations - 4 AM, 2 FM, 2 TV, 2
    shortwave; 1 coaxial submarine cable; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth
    station

:Antigua and Barbuda Defense Forces

Branches:
    Royal Antigua and Barbuda Defense Force, Royal Antigua and Barbuda Police
    Force (including the Coast Guard)
Manpower availability:
    NA
Defense expenditures:
    exchange rate conversion - $1.4 million, 1% of GDP (FY91)

:Arctic Ocean Geography

Total area:
    14,056,000 km2
Land area:
    14,056,000 km2; includes Baffin Bay, Barents Sea, Beaufort Sea, Chukchi Sea,
    East Siberian Sea, Greenland Sea, Hudson Bay, Hudson Strait, Kara Sea,
    Laptev Sea, and other tributary water bodies
Comparative area:
    slightly more than 1.5 times the size of the US; smallest of the world's
    four oceans (after Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, and Indian Ocean)
Coastline:
    45,389 km
Disputes:
    some maritime disputes (see littoral states)
Climate:
    persistent cold and relatively narrow annual temperature ranges; winters
    characterized by continuous darkness, cold and stable weather conditions,
    and clear skies; summers characterized by continuous daylight, damp and
    foggy weather, and weak cyclones with rain or snow
Terrain:
    central surface covered by a perennial drifting polar icepack that averages
    about 3 meters in thickness, although pressure ridges may be three times
    that size; clockwise drift pattern in the Beaufort Gyral Stream, but nearly
    straight line movement from the New Siberian Islands (Russia) to Denmark
    Strait (between Greenland and Iceland); the ice pack is surrounded by open
    seas during the summer, but more than doubles in size during the winter and
    extends to the encircling land masses; the ocean floor is about 50%
    continental shelf (highest percentage of any ocean) with the remainder a
    central basin interrupted by three submarine ridges (Alpha Cordillera,
    Nansen Cordillera, and Lomonsov Ridge); maximum depth is 4,665 meters in the
    Fram Basin
Natural resources:
    sand and gravel aggregates, placer deposits, polymetallic nodules, oil and
    gas fields, fish, marine mammals (seals, whales)
Environment:
    endangered marine species include walruses and whales; ice islands
    occasionally break away from northern Ellesmere Island; icebergs calved from
    glaciers in western Greenland and extreme northeastern Canada; maximum snow
    cover in March or April about 20 to 50 centimeters over the frozen ocean and
    lasts about 10 months; permafrost in islands; virtually icelocked from
    October to June; fragile ecosystem slow to change and slow to recover from
    disruptions or damage
Note:
    major chokepoint is the southern Chukchi Sea (northern access to the Pacific
    Ocean via the Bering Strait); ships subject to superstructure icing from
    October to May; strategic location between North America and Russia;
    shortest marine link between the extremes of eastern and western Russia,
    floating research stations operated by the US and Russia

:Arctic Ocean Economy

Overview:
    Economic activity is limited to the exploitation of natural resources,
    including crude oil, natural gas, fish, and seals.

:Arctic Ocean Communications

Ports:
    Churchill (Canada), Murmansk (Russia), Prudhoe Bay (US)
Telecommunications:
    no submarine cables
Note:
    sparse network of air, ocean, river, and land routes; the Northwest Passage
    (North America) and Northern Sea Route (Asia) are important seasonal
    waterways

:Argentina Geography

Total area:
    2,766,890 km2
Land area:
    2,736,690 km2
Comparative area:
    slightly more than four times the size of Texas
Land boundaries:
    9,665 km total; Bolivia 832 km, Brazil 1,224 km, Chile 5,150 km, Paraguay
    1,880 km, Uruguay 579 km
Coastline:
    4,989 km
Maritime claims:
  Continental shelf:
    200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation
  Exclusive economic zone:
    nm limits unknown
  Territorial sea:
    12 nm (overflight and navigation permitted beyond 12 nm)
Disputes:
    short section of the boundary with Uruguay is in dispute; short section of
    the boundary with Chile is indefinite; claims British-administered Falkland
    Islands (Islas Malvinas); claims British- administered South Georgia and the
    South Sandwich Islands; territorial claim in Antarctica
Climate:
    mostly temperate; arid in southeast; subantarctic in southwest
Terrain:
    rich plains of the Pampas in northern half, flat to rolling plateau of
    Patagonia in south, rugged Andes along western border
Natural resources:
    fertile plains of the pampas, lead, zinc, tin, copper, iron ore, manganese,
    crude oil, uranium
Land use:
    arable land 9%; permanent crops 4%; meadows and pastures 52%; forest and
    woodland 22%; other 13%; includes irrigated 1%
Environment:
    Tucuman and Mendoza areas in Andes subject to earthquakes; pamperos are
    violent windstorms that can strike Pampas and northeast; irrigated soil
    degradation; desertification; air and water pollution in Buenos Aires
Note:
    second-largest country in South America (after Brazil); strategic location
    relative to sea lanes between South Atlantic and South Pacific Oceans
    (Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel, Drake Passage)

:Argentina People

Population:
    32,901,234 (July 1992), growth rate 1.1% (1992)
Birth rate:
    20 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
    9 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
    NEGL migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
    34 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
    67 years male, 74 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
    2.8 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
    noun - Argentine(s); adjective - Argentine
Ethnic divisions:
    white 85%; mestizo, Indian, or other nonwhite groups 15%
Religions:
    nominally Roman Catholic 90% (less than 20% practicing), Protestant 2%,
    Jewish 2%, other 6%
Languages:
    Spanish (official), English, Italian, German, French
Literacy:
    95% (male 96%, female 95%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
    10,900,000; agriculture 12%, industry 31%, services 57% (1985 est.)
Organized labor:
    3,000,000; 28% of labor force

:Argentina Government

Long-form name:
    Argentine Republic
Type:
    republic
Capital:
    Buenos Aires
Administrative divisions:
    23 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia), and 1 district**
    (distrito); Buenos Aires, Catamarca, Chaco, Chubut, Cordoba, Corrientes,
    Distrito Federal**, Entre Rios, Formosa, Jujuy, La Pampa, La Rioja, Mendoza,
    Misiones, Neuquen, Rio Negro, Salta, San Juan, San Luis, Santa Cruz, Santa
    Fe, Santiago del Estero, Tierra del Fuego, Tucuman; note - the national
    territory is in the process of becoming a province; the US does not
    recognize claims to Antarctica
Independence:
    9 July 1816 (from Spain)
Constitution:
    1 May 1853
Legal system:
    mixture of US and West European legal systems; has not accepted compulsory
    ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
    Revolution Day, 25 May (1810)
Executive branch:
    president, vice president, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
    bicameral National Congress (Congreso Nacional) consists of an upper chamber
    or Senate (Senado) and a lower chamber or Chamber of Deputies (Camara de
    Diputados)
Judicial branch:
    Supreme Court (Corte Suprema)
Leaders:
  Chief of State and Head of Government:
    President Carlos Saul MENEM (since 8 July 1989); Vice President (position
    vacant)
Political parties and leaders:
    Justicialist Party (JP), Carlos Saul MENEM, Peronist umbrella political
    organization; Radical Civic Union (UCR), Mario LOSADA, moderately left of
    center; Union of the Democratic Center (UCD), Jorge AGUADO, conservative
    party; Intransigent Party (PI), Dr. Oscar ALENDE, leftist party; several
    provincial parties
Suffrage:
    universal at age 18
Elections:
  Chamber of Deputies:
    last held in three phases during late 1991 for half of 254 seats, total
    current breakdown of seats - JP 122, UCR 85, UCD 10, other 37
  President:
    last held 14 May 1989 (next to be held NA May 1995); results - Carlos Saul
    MENEM was elected
  Senate:
    last held May 1989, but provincial elections in late 1991 set the stage for
    indirect elections by provincial senators for one-third of 46 seats in the
    national senate in May 1992; total current breakdown of seats - JP 27, UCR
    14, others 5
Communists:
    some 70,000 members in various party organizations, including a small
    nucleus of activists

:Argentina Government

Other political or pressure groups:
    Peronist-dominated labor movement, General Confederation of Labor
    (Peronist-leaning umbrella labor organization), Argentine Industrial Union
    (manufacturers' association), Argentine Rural Society (large landowners'
    association), business organizations, students, the Roman Catholic Church,
    the Armed Forces
Member of:
    AfDB, AG (observer), CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-6, G-11, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77,
    GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO,
    INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, LORCS,
    MERCOSUR, OAS, PCA, RG, UN, UNAVEM, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIIMOG,
    UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
    Ambassador Carlos ORTIZ DE ROZAS; Chancery at 1600 New Hampshire Avenue NW,
    Washington, DC 20009; telephone (202) 939-6400 through 6403; there are
    Argentine Consulates General in Houston, Miami, New Orleans, New York, San
    Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico), and Consulates in Baltimore, Chicago,
    and Los Angeles
  US:
    Ambassador Terence A. TODMAN; Embassy at 4300 Colombia, 1425 Buenos Aires
    (mailing address is APO AA 34034); telephone [54] (1) 774- 7611 or 8811,
    9911; Telex 18156 AMEMBAR
Flag:
    three equal horizontal bands of light blue (top), white, and light blue;
    centered in the white band is a radiant yellow sun with a human face known
    as the Sun of May

:Argentina Economy

Overview:
    Argentina is rich in natural resources and has a highly literate population,
    an export-oriented agricultural sector, and a diversified industrial base.
    Nevertheless, following decades of mismanagement and statist policies, the
    economy has encountered major problems in recent years, leading to
    escalating inflation and a recession during 1988-90. Since 1978, Argentina's
    external debt has nearly doubled to $58 billion, creating severe debt
    servicing difficulties and hurting the country's creditworthiness with
    international lenders. Elected in 1989, President Menem has implemented a
    comprehensive economic restructuring program that shows signs of reversing
    Argentina's economic decline and putting it on a path of stable, sustainable
    growth.
GDP:
    exchange rate conversion - $101.2 billion, per capita $3,100; real growth
    rate 5.5% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    83.8% (1991)
Unemployment rate:
    6.4% (October 1991)
Budget:
    revenues $13.6 billion; expenditures $16.6 billion, including capital
    expenditures of $2.5 billion (1991)
Exports:
    $12 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
  commodities:
    meat, wheat, corn, oilseed, hides, wool
  partners:
    US 12%, USSR, Italy, Brazil, Japan, Netherlands
Imports:
    $8 billion (c.i.f., 1991)
  commodities:
    machinery and equipment, chemicals, metals, fuels and lubricants,
    agricultural products
  partners:
    US 22%, Brazil, FRG, Bolivia, Japan, Italy, Netherlands
External debt:
    $61 billion (January 1992)
Industrial production:
    growth rate 20% (1991 est.); accounts for 30% of GDP
Electricity:
    17,059,000 kW capacity; 47,357 million kWh produced, 1,450 kWh per capita
    (1991)
Industries:
    food processing, motor vehicles, consumer durables, textiles, chemicals and
    petrochemicals, printing, metallurgy, steel
Agriculture:
    accounts for 15% of GNP (including fishing); produces abundant food for both
    domestic consumption and exports; among world's top five exporters of grain
    and beef; principal crops - wheat, corn, sorghum, soybeans, sugar beets
Illicit drugs:
    increasing use as a transshipment country for cocaine headed for the US and
    Europe
Economic aid:
    US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1.0 billion; Western (non-US)
    countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $4.4 billion;
    Communist countries (1970-89), $718 million
Currency:
    peso (plural - pesos); 1 pesos = 100 centavos

:Argentina Economy

Exchange rates:
    pesos per US$1 - 0.99076 (Feburary 1992), 0.95355 (1991), 0.48759 (1990),
    0.04233 (1989), 0.00088 (1988), 0.00021 (1987)
Fiscal year:
    calendar year

:Argentina Communications

Railroads:
    34,172 km total (includes 209 km electrified); includes a mixture of
    1.435-meter standard gauge, 1.676-meter broad gauge, 1.000-meter narrow
    gauge, and 0.750-meter narrow gauge
Highways:
    208,350 km total; 47,550 km paved, 39,500 km gravel, 101,000 km improved
    earth, 20,300 km unimproved earth
Inland waterways:
    11,000 km navigable
Pipelines:
    crude oil 4,090 km; petroleum products 2,900 km; natural gas 9,918 km
Ports:
    Bahia Blanca, Buenos Aires, Necochea, Rio Gallegos, Rosario, Santa Fe
Merchant marine:
    98 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,235,385 GRT/1,952,307 DWT; includes
    35 cargo, 6 refrigerated cargo, 6 container, 1 railcar carrier, 33 oil
    tanker, 4 chemical tanker, 3 liquefied gas, 10 bulk; in addition, 2 naval
    tankers and 1 military transport are sometimes used commercially
Civil air:
    56 major transport aircraft
Airports:
    1,702 total, 1,473 usable; 137 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with
    runways over 3,659 m; 31 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 326 with runways
    1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
    extensive modern system; 2,650,000 telephones (12,000 public telephones);
    microwave widely used; broadcast stations - 171 AM, no FM, 231 TV, 13
    shortwave; 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations; domestic satellite
    network has 40 earth stations

:Argentina Defense Forces

Branches:
    Argentine Army, Navy of the Argentine Republic, Argentine Air Force,
    National Gendarmerie, Argentine Naval Prefecture (Coast Guard only),
    National Aeronautical Police Force
Manpower availability:
    males 15-49, 8,101,856; 6,568,885 fit for military service; 276,457 reach
    military age (20) annually
Defense expenditures:
    exchange rate conversion - $700 million, 1.5% of GDP (1991)

:Armenia Geography

Total area:
    29,800 km2
Land area:
    28,400 km2
Comparative area:
    slightly larger than Maryland
Land boundaries:
    1,254 km total; Azerbaijan (east) 566 km, Azerbaijan (south) 221 km, Georgia
    164 km, Iran 35 km, Turkey 268 km
Coastline:
    none - landlocked
Maritime claims:
    none - landlocked
Disputes:
    violent and longstanding dispute with Azerbaijan over ethnically Armenian
    exclave of Nagorno-Karabakh; some irredentism by Armenians living in
    southern Georgia; traditional demands on former Armenian lands in Turkey
    have greatly subsided
Climate:
    continental, hot, and subject to drought
Terrain:
    high Armenian Plateau with mountain; little forest land; fast flowing
    rivers; good soil in Aras River valley
Natural resources:
    small deposits of gold, copper, molybdenum, zinc, alumina
Land use:
    10% arable land; NA% permanent crops; NA% meadows and pastures; NA% forest
    and woodland; NA% other; NA% irrigated
Environment:
    pollution of Razdan and Aras Rivers; air pollution in Yerevan

:Armenia People

Population:
    3,415,566 (July 1992), growth rate 0.8% (1992)
Birth rate:
    22 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
    7 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
    --7 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
    35 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
    68 years male, 74 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
    2.7 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
    noun - Armenian(s); adjective - Armenian
Ethnic divisions:
    Armenian 93.3%, Russian 1.5%, Kurd 1.7%, other 3.5%
Religions:
    Armenian Orthodox 94%
Languages:
    Armenian 93%, Russian 2%, other 5%
Literacy:
    NA% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can read and write (NA)
Labor force:
    1,630,000; industry and construction 42%, agriculture and forestry 18%,
    other 40%(1990)
Organized labor:
    NA

:Armenia Government

Long-form name:
    Republic of Armenia
Type:
    republic
Capital:
    Yerevan
Administrative divisions:
    none - all rayons are under direct republic jurisdiction
Independence:
    Armenian Republic formed 29 November 1920 and became part of the Soviet
    Union on 30 December 1922; on 23 September 1991, Armenia renamed itself the
    Republic of Armenia
Constitution:
    adopted NA April 1978, effective NA
Legal system:
    based on civil law system
National holiday:
    NA
Executive branch:
    President, Council of Ministers, prime minister
Legislative branch:
    unicameral body - Supreme Soviet
Judicial branch:
    Supreme Court
Leaders:
  Chief of State:
    President Levon Akopovich TER-PETROSYAN (since 16 October 1991), Vice
    President Gagik ARUTYUNYAN (since 16 October 1991)
  Head of Government:
    Prime Minister Gagik ARUTYUNYAN (since November 1991), First Deputy Prime
    Minister Grant BAGRATYAN (since NA September 1990); Supreme Soviet Chairman
    - Babken ARARKTSYAN
Political parties and leaders:
    Armenian National Movement, Husik LAZARYAN, chairman; National
    Self-Determination Association, Pakvyr HAYRIKIAN, chairman; National
    Democratic Union, Vazgen MANUKYAN, chairman; Democratic Liberal Party,
    Ramkavar AZATAKAN, chairman; Dashnatktsutyan Party, Rouben MIRZAKHANIN;
    Chairman of Parliamentary opposition - Mekhak GABRIYELYAN
Suffrage:
    universal at age 18
Elections:
  President:
    last held 16 October 1990 (next to be held NA); results - elected by the
    Supreme Soviet, Levon Akopovich TER-PETROSYAN 86%; radical nationalists
    about 7%
  Supreme Soviet:
    last held 20 May 1990 (next to be held NA); results - percent of vote by
    party NA; seats - (259 total); number of seats by party NA
Other political or pressure groups:
    NA
Member of:
    CSCE, NACC, UN, UNCTAD
Diplomatic representation:
    Charge d'Affaires ad interim, Aleksandr ARZOUMANIAN
  US:
    Ambassador (vacant); Steven R. MANN, Charge d'Affaires; Embassy at Hotel
    Hrazdan (telephone 8-011-7-8852-53-53-32); (mailing address is APO AE
    09862); telephone 8-011-7-885-215-1122 (voice and FAX); 8-011-7-885-215-1144
    (voice)

:Armenia Government

Flag:
    NA

:Armenia Economy

Overview:
    Armenia under the old centrally planned Soviet system had built up textile,
    machine-building, and other industries and had become a key supplier to
    sister republics. In turn, Armenia had depended on supplies of raw materials
    and energy from the other republics. Most of these supplies enter the
    republic by rail through Azerbaijan (85%) and Georgia (15%). The economy has
    been severely hurt by ethnic strife with Azerbaijan over control of the
    Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast, a mostly Armenian-populated enclave
    within the national boundaries of Azerbaijan. In addition to outright
    warfare, the strife has included interdiction of Armenian imports on the
    Azerbaijani railroads and expensive airlifts of supplies to beleagured
    Armenians in Nagorno-Karabakh. An earthquake in December 1988 destroyed
    about one-tenth of industrial capacity and housing, the repair of which has
    not been possible because the supply of funds and real resources has been
    disrupted by the reorganization and subsequent dismantling of the central
    USSR administrative apparatus. Among facilities made unserviceable by the
    earthquake are the Yerevan nuclear power plant, which had supplied 40% of
    Armenia's needs for electric power and a plant that produced one-quarter of
    the output of elevators in the former USSR. Armenia has some deposits of
    nonferrous metal ores (bauxite, copper, zinc, and molybdenum) that are
    largely unexploited. For the mid-term, Armenia's economic prospects seem
    particularly bleak because of ethnic strife and the unusually high
    dependence on outside areas, themselves in a chaotic state of
    transformation.
GDP:
    $NA, per capita $NA; real growth rate --10% (1991)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    91%
Unemployment rate:
    NA%
Budget:
    revenues $NA; expenditures $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports:
    $176 million (f.o.b., 1990)
  commodities:
    machinery and transport equipment, ferrous and nonferrous metals, and
    chemicals (1991)
  partners:
    NA
Imports:
    $1.5 billion (c.i.f., 1990)
  commodities:
    machinery, energy, consumer goods (1991)
  partners:
    NA
External debt:
    $650 million (December 1991 est.)
Industrial production:
    growth rate --9.6% (1991)
Electricity:
    NA kW capacity; 10,433 million kWh produced, about 3,000 kWh per capita
    (1990)
Industries:
    diverse, including (in percent of output of former USSR) metalcutting
    machine tools (6.7%), forging-pressing machines (4.7%), electric motors
    (8.7%), tires (2.1%), knitted wear (5.6%), hosiery (2.3%), shoes (2.2%),
    silk fabric (5.3%), washing machines (2.0%); also chemicals, trucks,
    watches, instruments, and microelectronics

:Armenia Economy

Agriculture:
    only 10% of land area is arable; employs 18% of labor force; citrus, cotton,
    and dairy farming; vineyards near Yerevan are famous for brandy and other
    liqueurs
Illicit drugs:
    illicit producer of cannabis mostly for domestic consumption; used as a
    transshipment point for illicit drugs to Western Europe
Economic aid:
    NA
Currency:
    as of May 1992, retaining ruble as currency
Exchange rates:
    NA
Fiscal year:
    calendar year

:Armenia Communications

Railroads:
    840 km all 1.000-meter gauge (includes NA km electrified); does not include
    industrial lines (1990)
Highways:
    11,300 km total (1990); 10,500 km hard surfaced, 800 km earth
Inland waterways:
    NA km perennially navigable
Pipelines:
    NA
Ports:
    none - landlocked
Merchant marine:
  none:
    landlocked
Civil air:
    none
Airports:
    NA total, NA usable; NA with permanent-surface runways; NA with runways over
    3,659 m; NA with runways 2,440-3,659 m; NA with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
    Armenia has about 260,000 telephones, of which about 110,000 are in Yerevan;
    average telephone density is 8 per 100 persons; international connections to
    other former republics of the USSR are by landline or microwave and to other
    countries by satellite and by leased connection through the Moscow
    international gateway switch; broadcast stations - 100% of population
    receives Armenian and Russian TV programs; satellite earth station -
    INTELSAT

:Armenia Defense Forces

Branches:
    Republic Security Forces (internal and border troops), National Guard; CIS
    Forces (Ground and Air Defense)
Manpower availability:
    males 15-49, NA; NA fit for military service; NA reach military age (18)
    annually
Defense expenditures:
    $NA, NA% of GDP

:Aruba Geography

Total area:
    193 km2
Land area:
    193 km2
Comparative area:
    slightly larger than Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
    none
Coastline:
    68.5 km
Maritime claims:
  Exclusive fishing zone:
    12 nm
  Territorial sea:
    12 nm
Disputes:
    none
Climate:
    tropical marine; little seasonal temperature variation
Terrain:
    flat with a few hills; scant vegetation
Natural resources:
    negligible; white sandy beaches
Land use:
    arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 0%; forest and
    woodland 0%; other 100%
Environment:
    lies outside the Caribbean hurricane belt
Note:
    28 km north of Venezuela

:Aruba People

Population:
    64,692 (July 1992), growth rate 0.7% (1992)
Birth rate:
    16 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
    6 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
    --3 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
    9 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
    73 years male, 80 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
    1.8 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
    noun - Aruban(s); adjective - Aruban
Ethnic divisions:
    mixed European/Caribbean Indian 80%
Religions:
    Roman Catholic 82%, Protestant 8%, also small Hindu, Muslim, Confucian, and
    Jewish minority
Languages:
    Dutch (official), Papiamento (a Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch, English
    dialect), English (widely spoken), Spanish
Literacy:
    NA% (male NA%, female NA%)
Labor force:
    NA, but most employment is in the tourist industry (1986)
Organized labor:
    Aruban Workers' Federation (FTA)

:Aruba Government

Long-form name:
    none
Type:
    part of the Dutch realm - full autonomy in internal affairs obtained in 1986
    upon separation from the Netherlands Antilles
Capital:
    Oranjestad
Administrative divisions:
    none (self-governing part of the Netherlands)
Independence:
    none (part of the Dutch realm); note - in 1990, Aruba requested and received
    from the Netherlands cancellation of the agreement to automatically give
    independence to the island in 1996
Constitution:
    1 January 1986
Legal system:
    based on Dutch civil law system, with some English common law influence
National holiday:
    Flag Day, 18 March
Executive branch:
    Dutch monarch, governor, prime minister, Council of Ministers (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
    unicameral legislature (Staten)
Judicial branch:
    Joint High Court of Justice
Leaders:
  Chief of State:
    Queen BEATRIX Wilhelmina Armgard (since 30 April 1980), represented by
    Governor General Felipe B. TROMP (since 1 January 1986)
  Head of Government:
    Prime Minister Nelson ODUBER (since NA February 1989)
Political parties and leaders:
    Electoral Movement Party (MEP), Nelson ODUBER; Aruban People's Party (AVP),
    Henny EMAN; National Democratic Action (ADN), Pedro Charro KELLY; New
    Patriotic Party (PPN), Eddy WERLEMEN; Aruban Patriotic Party (PPA), Benny
    NISBET; Aruban Democratic Party (PDA), Leo BERLINSKI; Democratic Action '86
    (AD '86), Arturo ODUBER; Organization for Aruban Liberty (OHA), Glenbert
    CROES; governing coalition includes the MEP, PPA, and ADN
Suffrage:
    universal at age 18
Elections:
  Legislature:
    last held 6 January 1989 (next to be held by NA January 1993); results -
    percent of vote by party NA; seats - (21 total) MEP 10, AVP 8, ADN 1, PPN 1,
    PPA 1
Member of:
    ECLAC (associate), INTERPOL, IOC, UNESCO (associate), WCL, WTO (associate)
Diplomatic representation:
    none (self-governing part of the Netherlands)
Flag:
    blue with two narrow horizontal yellow stripes across the lower portion and
    a red, four-pointed star outlined in white in the upper hoist-side corner

:Aruba Economy

Overview:
    Tourism is the mainstay of the economy, although offshore banking and oil
    refining and storage are also important. Hotel capacity expanded rapidly
    between 1985 and 1989 and nearly doubled in 1990 alone. Unemployment has
    steadily declined from about 20% in 1986 to about 3% in 1991. The reopening
    of the local oil refinery, once a major source of employment and foreign
    exchange earnings, promises to give the economy an additional boost.
GDP:
    exchange rate conversion - $854 million, per capita $13,600; real growth
    rate l0% (1990 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    8% (1990 est.)
Unemployment rate:
    3% (1991 est.)
Budget:
    revenues $145 million; expenditures $185 million, including capital
    expenditures of $42 million (1988)
Exports:
    $134.4 million (f.o.b., 1990)
  commodities:
    mostly petroleum products
  partners:
    US 64%, EC
Imports:
    $488 million (f.o.b., 1990)
  commodities:
    food, consumer goods, manufactures
  partners:
    US 8%, EC
External debt:
    $81 million (1987)
Industrial production:
    growth rate NA
Electricity:
    310,000 kW capacity; 945 million kWh produced, 15,000 kWh per capita (1990)
Industries:
    tourism, transshipment facilities, oil refining
Agriculture:
    poor quality soils and low rainfall limit agricultural activity to the
    cultivation of aloes, some livestock, and fishing
Economic aid:
    Western (non-US) countries ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1980-89), $220
    million
Currency:
    Aruban florin (plural - florins); 1 Aruban florin (Af.) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
    Aruban florins (Af.) per US$1 - 1.7900 (fixed rate since 1986)
Fiscal year:
    calendar year

:Aruba Communications

Highways:
    Aruba has a system of all-weather highways
Ports:
    Oranjestad, Sint Nicolaas
Civil air:
    Air Aruba has a fleet of 3 intermediate-range Boeing aircraft
Airports:
    government-owned airport east of Oranjestad accepts transatlantic flights
Telecommunications:
    generally adequate; extensive interisland radio relay links; 72,168
    telephones; broadcast stations - 4 AM, 4 FM, 1 TV; 1 sea cable to Sint
    Maarten

:Aruba Defense Forces

Note:
    defense is the responsibility of the Netherlands

:Ashmore and Cartier Islands Geography

Total area:
    5 km2
Land area:
    5 km2; includes Ashmore Reef (West, Middle, and East Islets) and Cartier
    Island
Comparative area:
    about 8.5 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
    none
Coastline:
    74.1 km
Maritime claims:
  Contiguous zone:
    12 nm
  Continental shelf:
    200 m (depth) or to depth of exploration
  Exclusive fishing zone:
    200 nm
  Territorial sea:
    3 nm
Disputes:
    none
Climate:
    tropical
Terrain:
    low with sand and coral
Natural resources:
    fish
Land use:
    arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 0%; forest and
    woodland 0%; other - grass and sand 100%
Environment:
    surrounded by shoals and reefs; Ashmore Reef National Nature Reserve
    established in August 1983
Note:
    located in extreme eastern Indian Ocean between Australia and Indonesia, 320
    km off the northwest coast of Australia

:Ashmore and Cartier Islands People

Population:
    no permanent inhabitants; seasonal caretakers

:Ashmore and Cartier Islands Government

Long-form name:
    Territory of Ashmore and Cartier Islands
Type:
    territory of Australia administered by the Australian Minister for Arts,
    Sports, the Environment, Tourism, and Territories - Roslyn KELLY
Capital:
    none; administered from Canberra, Australia
Administrative divisions:
    none (territory of Australia)
Legal system:
    relevant laws of the Northern Territory of Australia
Diplomatic representation:
    none (territory of Australia)

:Ashmore and Cartier Islands Economy

Overview:
    no economic activity

:Ashmore and Cartier Islands Communications

Ports:
    none; offshore anchorage only

:Ashmore and Cartier Islands Defense Forces

Note:
    defense is the responsibility of Australia; periodic visits by the Royal
    Australian Navy and Royal Australian Air Force

:Atlantic Ocean Geography

Total area:
    82,217,000 km2
Land area:
    82,217,000 km2; includes Baltic Sea, Black Sea, Caribbean Sea, Davis Strait,
    Denmark Strait, Drake Passage, Gulf of Mexico, Mediterranean Sea, North Sea,
    Norwegian Sea, Weddell Sea, and other tributary water bodies
Comparative area:
    slightly less than nine times the size of the US; second-largest of the
    world's four oceans (after the Pacific Ocean, but larger than Indian Ocean
    or Arctic Ocean)
Coastline:
    111,866 km
Disputes:
    some maritime disputes (see littoral states)
Climate:
    tropical cyclones (hurricanes) develop off the coast of Africa near Cape
    Verde and move westward into the Caribbean Sea; hurricanes can occur from
    May to December, but are most frequent from August to November
Terrain:
    surface usually covered with sea ice in Labrador Sea, Denmark Strait, and
    Baltic Sea from October to June; clockwise warm water gyre (broad, circular
    system of currents) in the north Atlantic, counterclockwise warm water gyre
    in the south Atlantic; the ocean floor is dominated by the Mid-Atlantic
    Ridge, a rugged north-south centerline for the entire Atlantic basin;
    maximum depth is 8,605 meters in the Puerto Rico Trench
Natural resources:
    oil and gas fields, fish, marine mammals (seals and whales), sand and gravel
    aggregates, placer deposits, polymetallic nodules, precious stones
Environment:
    endangered marine species include the manatee, seals, sea lions, turtles,
    and whales; municipal sludge pollution off eastern US, southern Brazil, and
    eastern Argentina; oil pollution in Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, Lake
    Maracaibo, Mediterranean Sea, and North Sea; industrial waste and municipal
    sewage pollution in Baltic Sea, North Sea, and Mediterranean Sea; icebergs
    common in Davis Strait, Denmark Strait, and the northwestern Atlantic from
    February to August and have been spotted as far south as Bermuda and the
    Madeira Islands; icebergs from Antarctica occur in the extreme southern
    Atlantic
Note:
    ships subject to superstructure icing in extreme north Atlantic from October
    to May and extreme south Atlantic from May to October; persistent fog can be
    a hazard to shipping from May to September; major choke points include the
    Dardanelles, Strait of Gibraltar, access to the Panama and Suez Canals;
    strategic straits include the Dover Strait, Straits of Florida, Mona
    Passage, The Sound (Oresund), and Windward Passage; north Atlantic shipping
    lanes subject to icebergs from February to August; the Equator divides the
    Atlantic Ocean into the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean
    Kiel Canal and Saint Lawrence Seaway are two important waterways

:Atlantic Ocean Economy

Overview:
    Economic activity is limited to exploitation of natural resources,
    especially fish, dredging aragonite sands (The Bahamas), and crude oil and
    natural gas production (Caribbean Sea and North Sea).

:Atlantic Ocean Communications

Ports:
    Alexandria (Egypt), Algiers (Algeria), Antwerp (Belgium), Barcelona (Spain),
    Buenos Aires (Argentina), Casablanca (Morocco), Colon (Panama), Copenhagen
    (Denmark), Dakar (Senegal), Gdansk (Poland), Hamburg (Germany), Helsinki
    (Finland), Las Palmas (Canary Islands, Spain), Le Havre (France), Lisbon
    (Portugal), London (UK), Marseille (France), Montevideo (Uruguay), Montreal
    (Canada), Naples (Italy), New Orleans (US), New York (US), Oran (Algeria),
    Oslo (Norway), Piraeus (Greece), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), Rotterdam
    (Netherlands), Saint Petersburg (formerly Leningrad; Russia), Stockholm
    (Sweden)
Telecommunications:
    numerous submarine cables with most between continental Europe and the UK,
    North America and the UK, and in the Mediterranean; numerous direct links
    across Atlantic via INTELSAT satellite network

:Australia Geography

Total area:
    7,686,850 km2
Land area:
    7,617,930 km2; includes Macquarie Island
Comparative area:
    slightly smaller than the US
Land boundaries:
    none
Coastline:
    25,760 km
Maritime claims:
  Contiguous zone:
    12 nm
  Continental shelf:
    200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation
  Exclusive fishing zone:
    200 nm
  Territorial sea:
    12 nm
Disputes:
    territorial claim in Antarctica (Australian Antarctic Territory)
Climate:
    generally arid to semiarid; temperate in south and east; tropical in north
Terrain:
    mostly low plateau with deserts; fertile plain in southeast
Natural resources:
    bauxite, coal, iron ore, copper, tin, silver, uranium, nickel, tungsten,
    mineral sands, lead, zinc, diamonds, natural gas, crude oil
Land use:
    arable land 6%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and pastures 58%; forest and
    woodland 14%; other 22%; includes irrigated NEGL%
Environment:
    subject to severe droughts and floods; cyclones along coast; limited
    freshwater availability; irrigated soil degradation; regular, tropical,
    invigorating, sea breeze known as the doctor occurs along west coast in
    summer; desertification
Note:
    world's smallest continent but sixth-largest country

:Australia People

Population:
    17,576,354 (July 1992), growth rate 1.4% (1992)
Birth rate:
    15 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
    7 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
    7 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
    8 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
    74 years male, 80 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
    1.8 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
    noun - Australian(s); adjective - Australian
Ethnic divisions:
    Caucasian 95%, Asian 4%, Aboriginal and other 1%
Religions:
    Anglican 26.1%, Roman Catholic 26.0%, other Christian 24.3%
Languages:
    English, native languages
Literacy:
    100% (male 100%, female 100%) age 15 and over can read and write (1980 est.)
Labor force:
    8,630,000 (September 1991); finance and services 33.8%, public and community
    services 22.3%, wholesale and retail trade 20.1%, manufacturing and industry
    16.2%, agriculture 6.1% (1987)
Organized labor:
    40% of labor force (November 1991)

:Australia Government

Long-form name:
    Commonwealth of Australia
Type:
    federal parliamentary state
Capital:
    Canberra
Administrative divisions:
    6 states and 2 territories*; Australian Capital Territory*, New South Wales,
    Northern Territory*, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria,
    Western Australia
Independence:
    1 January 1901 (federation of UK colonies)
Constitution:
    9 July 1900, effective 1 January 1901
Dependent areas:
    Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands,
    Coral Sea Islands, Heard Island and McDonald Islands, Norfolk Island
Legal system:
    based on English common law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with
    reservations
National holiday:
    Australia Day, 26 January
Executive branch:
    British monarch, governor general, prime minister, deputy prime minister,
    Cabinet
Legislative branch:
    bicameral Federal Parliament consists of an upper house or Senate and a
    lower house or House of Representatives
Judicial branch:
    High Court
Leaders:
  Chief of State:
    Queen ELIZABETH II (since February 1952), represented by Governor General
    William George HAYDEN (since 16 February 1989)
  Head of Government:
    Prime Minister Paul John KEATING (since 20 December 1991); Deputy Prime
    Minister Brian HOWE (since 4 June 1991)
Political parties and leaders:
  government:
    Australian Labor Party, Paul John KEATING
  opposition:
    Liberal Party, John HEWSON; National Party, Timothy FISCHER; Australian
    Democratic Party, John COULTER
Suffrage:
    universal and compulsory at age 18
Elections:
  House of Representatives:
    last held 24 March 1990 (next to be held by NA November 1993); results -
    Labor 39.7%, Liberal-National 43%, Australian Democrats and independents
    11.1%; seats - (148 total) Labor 78, Liberal-National 69, independent 1
  Senate:
    last held 11 July 1987 (next to be held by NA July 1993); results - Labor
    43%, Liberal-National 42%, Australian Democrats 8%, independents 2%; seats -
    (76 total) Labor 32, Liberal-National 34, Australian Democrats 7,
    independents 3
Communists:
    4,000 members (est.)

:Australia Government

Other political or pressure groups:
    Australian Democratic Labor Party (anti-Communist Labor Party splinter
    group); Peace and Nuclear Disarmament Action (Nuclear Disarmament Party
    splinter group)
Member of:
    AfDB, AG (observer), ANZUS, APEC, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, C, CCC, COCOM,
    CP, EBRD, ESCAP, FAO, GATT, G-8, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IEA,
    IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU,
    LORCS, MTCR, NAM (guest), NEA, NSG, OECD, PCA, SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
    UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIIMOG, UNTAG, UNTSO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation:
    Ambassador Michael J. COOK; Chancery at 1601 Massachusetts Avenue NW,
    Washington, DC 20036; telephone (202) 797-3000; there are Australian
    Consulates General in Chicago, Honolulu, Houston, Los Angeles, New York,
    Pago Pago (American Samoa), and San Francisco
  US:
    Ambassador Melvin F. SEMBLER; Moonah Place, Yarralumla, Canberra, Australian
    Capital Territory 2600 (mailing address is APO AP 96549); telephone [61] (6)
    270-5000; FAX [61] (6) 270-5970; there are US Consulates General in
    Melbourne, Perth, and Sydney, and a Consulate in Brisbane
Flag:
    blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and a large
    seven-pointed star in the lower hoist-side quadrant; the remaining half is a
    representation of the Southern Cross constellation in white with one small
    five-pointed star and four, larger, seven-pointed stars

:Australia Economy

Overview:
    Australia has a prosperous Western-style capitalist economy, with a per
    capita GDP comparable to levels in industrialized West European countries.
    Rich in natural resources, Australia is a major exporter of agricultural
    products, minerals, metals, and fossil fuels. Of the top 25 exports, 21 are
    primary products, so that, as happened during 1983-84, a downturn in world
    commodity prices can have a big impact on the economy. The government is
    pushing for increased exports of manufactured goods, but competition in
    international markets continues to be severe.
GDP:
    purchasing power equivalent - $280.8 billion, per capita $16,200; real
    growth rate --0.6% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    3.3% (September 1991)
Unemployment rate:
    10.5% (November 1991)
Budget:
    revenues $76.9 billion; expenditures $75.4 billion, including capital
    expenditures of NA (FY91)
Exports:
    $41.7 billion (f.o.b., FY91)
  commodities:
    metals, minerals, coal, wool, cereals, meat, manufacturers
  partners:
    Japan 26%, US 11%, NZ 6%, South Korea 4%, Singapore 4%, UK, Taiwan, Hong
    Kong
Imports:
    $37.8 billion (f.o.b., FY91)
  commodities:
    manufactured raw materials, capital equipment, consumer goods
  partners:
    US 24%, Japan 19%, UK 6%, FRG 7%, NZ 4% (1990)
External debt:
    $130.4 billion (June 1991)
Industrial production:
    growth rate --0.9% (1991); accounts for 32% of GDP
Electricity:
    40,000,000 kW capacity; 155,000 million kWh produced, 8,960 kWh per capita
    (1991)
Industries:
    mining, industrial and transportation equipment, food processing, chemicals,
    steel, motor vehicles
Agriculture:
    accounts for 5% of GNP and 37% of export revenues; world's largest exporter
    of beef and wool, second-largest for mutton, and among top wheat exporters;
    major crops - wheat, barley, sugarcane, fruit; livestock - cattle, sheep,
    poultry
Illicit drugs:
    Tasmania is one of the world's major suppliers of licit opiate products;
    government maintains strict controls over areas of opium poppy cultivation
    and output of poppy straw concentrate
Economic aid:
    donor - ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $10.4 billion
Currency:
    Australian dollar (plural - dollars); 1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
    Australian dollars ($A) per US$1 - 1.3360 (January 1992), 1.2836 (1991),
    1.2618 (1989), 1.2752 (1988), 1.4267 (1987)

:Australia Economy

Fiscal year:
    1 July - 30 June

:Australia Communications

Railroads:
    40,478 km total; 7,970 km 1.600-meter gauge, 16,201 km 1.435-meter standard
    gauge, 16,307 km 1.067-meter gauge; 183 km dual gauge; 1,130 km electrified;
    government owned (except for a few hundred kilometers of privately owned
    track) (1985)
Highways:
    837,872 km total; 243,750 km paved, 228,396 km gravel, crushed stone, or
    stabilized soil surface, 365,726 km unimproved earth
Inland waterways:
    8,368 km; mainly by small, shallow-draft craft
Pipelines:
    crude oil 2,500 km; petroleum products 500 km; natural gas 5,600 km
Ports:
    Adelaide, Brisbane, Cairns, Darwin, Devonport, Fremantle, Geelong, Hobart,
    Launceston, Mackay, Melbourne, Sydney, Townsville
Merchant marine:
    85 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,324,803 GRT/3,504,385 DWT; includes
    2 short-sea passenger, 8 cargo, 8 container, 11 roll-on/roll-off, 1 vehicle
    carrier, 17 petroleum tanker, 2 chemical tanker, 4 liquefied gas, 1
    combination ore/oil, 30 bulk, 1 combination bulk
Civil air:
    about 150 major transport aircraft
Airports:
    481 total, 440 usable; 237 with permanent-surface runways, 1 with runway
    over 3,659 m; 20 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 268 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
    good international and domestic service; 8.7 million telephones; broadcast
    stations - 258 AM, 67 FM, 134 TV; submarine cables to New Zealand, Papua New
    Guinea, and Indonesia; domestic satellite service; satellite stations - 4
    Indian Ocean INTELSAT, 6 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth stations

:Australia Defense Forces

Branches:
    Australian Army, Royal Australian Navy, Royal Australian Air Force
Manpower availability:
    males 15-49, 4,769,005; 4,153,060 fit for military service; 138,117 reach
    military age (17) annually
Defense expenditures:
    exchange rate conversion - $7.5 billion, 2.4% of GDP (FY92 budget)

:Austria Geography

Total area:
    83,850 km2
Land area:
    82,730 km2
Comparative area:
    slightly smaller than Maine
Land boundaries:
    2,591 km total; Czechoslovakia 548 km, Germany 784 km, Hungary 366 km, Italy
    430 km, Liechtenstein 37 km, Slovenia 262 km, Switzerland 164 km
Coastline:
    none - landlocked
Maritime claims:
    none - landlocked
Disputes:
    none
Climate:
    temperate; continental, cloudy; cold winters with frequent rain in lowlands
    and snow in mountains; cool summers with occasional showers
Terrain:
    mostly mountains with Alps in west and south; mostly flat, with gentle
    slopes along eastern and northern margins
Natural resources:
    iron ore, crude oil, timber, magnesite, aluminum, lead, coal, lignite,
    copper, hydropower
Land use:
    arable land 17%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures 24%; forest and
    woodland 39%; other 19%; includes irrigated NEGL%
Environment:
    because of steep slopes, poor soils, and cold temperatures, population is
    concentrated on eastern lowlands
Note:
    landlocked; strategic location at the crossroads of central Europe with many
    easily traversable Alpine passes and valleys; major river is the Danube

:Austria People

Population:
    7,867,541 (July 1992), growth rate 0.7% (1992)
Birth rate:
    12 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
    11 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
    5 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
    8 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
    73 years male, 80 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
    1.5 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
    noun - Austrian(s); adjective - Austrian
Ethnic divisions:
    German 99.4%, Croatian 0.3%, Slovene 0.2%, other 0.1%
Religions:
    Roman Catholic 85%, Protestant 6%, other 9%
Languages:
    German
Literacy:
    99% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can read and write (1974 est.)
Labor force:
    3,470,000 (1989); services 56.4%, industry and crafts 35.4%, agriculture and
    forestry 8.1%; an estimated 200,000 Austrians are employed in other European
    countries; foreign laborers in Austria number 177,840, about 6% of labor
    force (1988)
Organized labor:
    60.1% of work force; the Austrian Trade Union Federation has 1,644,408
    members (1989)

:Austria Government

Long-form name:
    Republic of Austria
Type:
    federal republic
Capital:
    Vienna
Administrative divisions:
    9 states (bundeslander, singular - bundesland); Burgenland, Karnten,
    Niederosterreich, Oberosterreich, Salzburg, Steiermark, Tirol, Vorarlberg,
    Wien
Independence:
    12 November 1918 (from Austro-Hungarian Empire)
Constitution:
    1920; revised 1929 (reinstated 1945)
Legal system:
    civil law system with Roman law origin; judicial review of legislative acts
    by a Constitutional Court; separate administrative and civil/penal supreme
    courts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
    National Day, 26 October (1955)
Executive branch:
    president, chancellor, vice chancellor, Council of Ministers (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
    bicameral Federal Assembly (Bundesversammlung) consists of an upper council
    or Federal Council (Bundesrat) and a lower council or National Council
    (Nationalrat)
Judicial branch:
    Supreme Judicial Court (Oberster Gerichtshof) for civil and criminal cases,
    Administrative Court (Verwaltungsgerichtshof) for bureaucratic cases,
    Constitutional Court (Verfassungsgerichtshof) for constitutional cases
Leaders:
  Chief of State:
    President Thomas KLESTIL (since 8 July 1992)
  Head of Government:
    Chancellor Franz VRANITZKY (since 16 June 1986); Vice Chancellor Erhard
    BUSEK (since 2 July 1991)
Political parties and leaders:
    Social Democratic Party of Austria (SPO), Franz VRANITZKY, chairman;
    Austrian People's Party (OVP), Erhard BUSEK, chairman; Freedom Party of
    Austria (FPO), Jorg HAIDER, chairman; Communist Party (KPO), Walter
    SILBERMAYER, chairman; Green Alternative List (GAL), Johannes VOGGENHUBER,
    chairman
Suffrage:
    universal at age 19; compulsory for presidential elections
Elections:
  National Council:
    last held 7 October 1990 (next to be held October 1994); results - SPO 43%,
    OVP 32.1%, FPO 16.6%, GAL 4.5%, KPO 0.7%, other 0.32%; seats - (183 total)
    SPO 80, OVP 60, FPO 33, GAL 10
  President:
    last held 24 May 1992 (next to be held 1996); results of Second Ballot -
    Thomas KLESTIL 57%, Rudolf STREICHER 43%
Communists:
    membership 15,000 est.; activists 7,000-8,000

:Austria Government

Other political or pressure groups:
    Federal Chamber of Commerce and Industry; Austrian Trade Union Federation
    (primarily Socialist); three composite leagues of the Austrian People's
    Party (OVP) representing business, labor, and farmers; OVP-oriented League
    of Austrian Industrialists; Roman Catholic Church, including its chief lay
    organization, Catholic Action
Member of:
    AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, CCC, CE, CERN, COCOM, CSCE,
    EBRD, ECE, EFTA, ESA, FAO, G-9, GATT, HG, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC,
    ICFTU, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM,
    ISO, ITU, LORCS, MTRC, NAM (guest), NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, PCA, UN,
    UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNDOF, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIIMOG, UNTSO, UPU, WCL,
    WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation:
    Ambassador Friedrich HOESS; Embassy at 3524 International Court NW,
    Washington, DC 20008; telephone (202) 895-6700; there are Austrian
    Consulates General in Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York
  US:
    Ambassador Roy Michael HUFFINGTON; Embassy at Boltzmanngasse 16, A-1091,
    Vienna (mailing address is APO AE 09108-0001); telephone [43] (1) 31-55-11;
    FAX [43] (1) 310-0682; there is a US Consulate General in Salzburg
Flag:
    three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and red

:Austria Economy

Overview:
    Austria boasts a prosperous and stable capitalist economy with a sizable
    proportion of nationalized industry and extensive welfare benefits. Thanks
    to an excellent raw material endowment, a technically skilled labor force,
    and strong links to German industrial firms, Austria occupies specialized
    niches in European industry and services (tourism, banking) and produces
    almost enough food to feed itself with only 8% of the labor force in
    agriculture. Improved export prospects resulting from German unification and
    the opening of Eastern Europe, boosted the economy during 1990 and to a
    lesser extent in 1991. GDP growth slowed from 4.9% in 1990 to 3% in 1991 -
    mainly due to the weaker world economy - and is expected to drop to around
    2% in 1992. Inflation is forecasted at about 4%, while unemployment probably
    will increase moderately through 1992 before declining in 1993. Living
    standards are comparable with the large industrial countries of Western
    Europe. Problems for the l990s include an aging population, the high level
    of subsidies, and the struggle to keep welfare benefits within budget
    capabilities. Austria, which has applied for EC membership, was involved in
    EC and European Free Trade Association negotiations for a European Economic
    Area and will have to adapt its economy to achieve freer interchange of
    goods, services, capital, and labor within the EC.
GDP:
    purchasing power equivalent - $164.1 billion, per capita $20,985; real
    growth rate 3% (1991)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    3.3% (1991, annual rate)
Unemployment rate:
    5.8% (1991)
Budget:
    revenues $47.7 billion; expenditures $53.0 billion, including capital
    expenditures of $NA (1990)
Exports:
    $40 billion (1991)
  commodities:
    machinery and equipment, iron and steel, lumber, textiles, paper products,
    chemicals
  partners:
    EC 65.8%, (Germany 39%), EFTA 9.1%, Eastern Europe/former USSR 9.0%, Japan
    1.7%, US 2.8%
Imports:
    $50.2 billion (1991)
  commodities:
    petroleum, foodstuffs, machinery and equipment, vehicles, chemicals,
    textiles and clothing, pharmaceuticals
  partners:
    EC 67.8% (Germany is 43.0%), EFTA 6.9%, Eastern Europe/former USSR 6.0%,
    Japan 4.8%, US 3.9%
External debt:
    $11.8 billion (1990 est.)
Industrial production:
    2.0% (1991)
Electricity:
    17,600,000 kW capacity; 49,500 million kWh produced, 6,500 kWh per capita
    (1991)
Industries:
    foods, iron and steel, machines, textiles, chemicals, electrical, paper and
    pulp, tourism, mining

:Austria Economy

Agriculture:
    accounts for 3.2% of GDP (including forestry); principal crops and animals -
    grains, fruit, potatoes, sugar beets, sawn wood, cattle, pigs, poultry;
    80-90% self-sufficient in food
Economic aid:
    donor - ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $2.4 billion
Currency:
    Austrian schilling (plural - schillings); 1 Austrian schilling (S) = 100
    groschen
Exchange rates:
    Austrian schillings (S) per US$1 - 11.068 (January 1992), 11.676 (1991),
    11.370 (1990), 13.231 (1989), 12.348 (1988), 12.643 (1987)
Fiscal year:
    calendar year

:Austria Communications

Railroads:
    6,028 km total; 5,388 km government owned and 640 km privately owned (1.435-
    and 1.000-meter gauge); 5,403 km 1.435-meter standard gauge of which 3,051
    km is electrified and 1,520 km is double tracked; 363 km 0.760-meter narrow
    gauge of which 91 km is electrified
Highways:
    95,412 km total; 34,612 km are the primary network (including 1,012 km of
    autobahn, 10,400 km of federal, and 23,200 km of provincial roads); of this
    number, 21,812 km are paved and 12,800 km are unpaved; in addition, there
    are 60,800 km of communal roads (mostly gravel, crushed stone, earth)
Inland waterways:
    446 km
Pipelines:
    crude oil 554 km; natural gas 2,611 km; petroleum products 171 km
Ports:
    Vienna, Linz (river ports)
Merchant marine:
    31 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 130,966 GRT/219,130 DWT; includes 26
    cargo, 1 container, 4 bulk
Civil air:
    25 major transport aircraft
Airports:
    55 total, 55 usable; 20 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways
    over 3,659 m; 6 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 4 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
    highly developed and efficient; 4,014,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 6
    AM, 21 (545 repeaters) FM, 47 (870 repeaters) TV; satellite ground stations
    for Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, Indian Ocean INTELSAT, and EUTELSAT systems

:Austria Defense Forces

Branches:
    Army, Flying Division, Gendarmerie
Manpower availability:
    males 15-49, 2,011,895; 1,693,244 fit for military service; 51,788 reach
    military age (19) annually
Defense expenditures:
    exchange rate conversion - $1.8 billion, 1% of GDP (1991)

:Azerbaijan Geography

Total area:
    86,600 km2
Land area:
    86,100 km2; includes the Nakhichevan' Autonomous Republic and the
    Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast; region's autonomy was abolished by
    Azerbaijan Supreme Soviet on 26 November 1991
Comparative area:
    slightly larger than Maine
Land boundaries:
    2,013 km total; Armenia (west) 566 km, Armenia (southwest) 221 km, Georgia
    322 km, Iran (south) 432 km, Iran (southwest) 179 km, Russia 284 km, Turkey
    9 km
Coastline:
    none - landlocked
Maritime claims:
    NA
  Exclusive fishing zone:
    NA nm; Azerbaijani claims in Caspian Sea unknown; 10 nm fishing zone
    provided for in 1940 treaty regarding trade and navigation between Soviet
    Union and Iran
Disputes:
    violent and longstanding dispute with Armenia over status of
    Nagorno-Karabakh, lesser dispute concerns Nakhichevan'; some Azeris desire
    absorption of and/or unification with the ethnically Azeri portion of Iran;
    minor irredentist disputes along Georgia border
Climate:
    dry, semiarid steppe; subject to drought
Terrain:
    large, flat Kura Lowland (much of it below sea level) with Great Caucasus
    Mountains to the north, Karabakh Upland in west; Baku lies on Aspheson
    Peninsula that juts into Caspian Sea
Natural resources:
    petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, nonferrous metals, alumina
Land use:
    NA% arable land; NA% permanent crops; NA% meadows and pastures; NA% forest
    and woodland; NA% other; includes 70% of cultivated land irrigated (1.2
    million hectares)
Environment:
    local scientists consider Apsheron Peninsula, including Baku and Sumgait,
    and the Caspian Sea to be "most ecologically devastated area in the world"
    because of severe air and water pollution
Note:
    landlocked; major polluters are oil, gas, and chemical industries

:Azerbaijan People

Population:
    7,450,787 (July 1992), growth rate 1.6% (1992)
Birth rate:
    26 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
    7 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
    --3 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
    45 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
    65 years male, 73 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
    2.9 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
    noun - Azerbaijani(s); adjective - Azerbaijani
Ethnic divisions:
    Azeri 82.7%, Russian 5.6%, Armenian 5.6%, Daghestanis 3.2%, other 2.9%; note
    - Armenian share may be less than 5.6% because many Armenians have fled the
    ethnic violence since 1989 census
Religions:
    Moslem 87%, Russian Orthodox 5.6%, Armenian Orthodox 5.6%, other 1.8%
Languages:
    Azeri 82%, Russian 7%, Armenian 5%, other 6%
Literacy:
    NA% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can read and write (1992 est.)
Labor force:
    2,789,000; agriculture and forestry 32%, industry and construction 26%,
    other 42% (1990)
Organized labor:
    NA (1992)

:Azerbaijan Government

Long-form name:
    Azerbaijani Republic; short-form name: Azerbaijan
Type:
    republic
Capital:
    Baku (Baky)
Administrative divisions:
    1 autonomous republic (avtomnaya respublika), Nakhichevan' (administrative
    center at Nakhichevan'); note - all rayons except for the exclave of
    Nakhichevan' are under direct republic jurisdiction;1 autonomous oblast,
    Nagorno-Karabakh (officially abolished by Azerbaijani Supreme Soviet on 26
    November 1991) has declared itself Nagorno-Karabakh Republic
Independence:
    28 May 1918; on 28 April 1920, Azerbaijan became the Soviet Socialist
    Republic of Azerbaijan; on 30 April 1992 it became the Azerbaijani Republic;
    independence declared 30 August 1991
Constitution:
    adopted NA April 1978
Legal system:
    based on civil law system
National holiday:
    NA
Executive branch:
    president, Council of Ministers
Legislative branch:
    National Parliament (Milli Majlis) was formed on the basis of the National
    Council (Milli Shura)
Judicial branch:
    Supreme Court
Leaders:
  Chief of State:
    President-elect Ebulfez ELCIBEY (since 7 June 1992)
  Head of Government:
    Prime Minister Rahim GUSEYNOV (since 14 May 1992)
Political parties and leaders:
    NA
Suffrage:
    universal at age 18
Elections:
  National Parliament:
    last held NA September 1990 (next expected to be held late 1992); results -
    seats - (360 total) Communists 280, Democratic Bloc 45 (grouping of
    opposition parties), other 15, vacant 20; note - these figures are
    approximate
  President:
    held 8 September 1991 (next to be held 7 June 1992); results - Ebulfez
    ELCIBEY (6,390 unofficial)
Other political or pressure groups:
    Self-proclaimed Armenian Nagorno-Karabakh Republic
Member of:
    CIS, CSCE, IMF, OIC, UN, UNCTAD
Diplomatic representation:
    NA
  US:
    Ambassador (vacant); Robert MILES, Charge d'Affaires; Embassy at Hotel
    Intourist (telephone 8-011-7-8922-91-79-56) plus 8 hours; (mailing address
    is APO New York is 09862); telephone NA

:Azerbaijan Government

Flag:
    three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), red, and green; a crescent and
    eight-pointed star in white are centered in red band

:Azerbaijan Economy

Overview:
    Azerbaijan is less developed industrially than either Armenia or Georgia,
    the other Transcaucasian states. It resembles the Central Asian states in
    its majority Muslim population, high structural unemployment, and low
    standard of living. The economy's most prominent products are cotton, oil,
    and gas. Production from the Caspian oil and gas field has been in decline
    for several years. With foreign assistance, the oil industry might generate
    the funds needed to spur industrial development. However, civil unrest,
    marked by armed conflict in the Nagorno-Karabakh region between Muslim
    Azeris and Christian Armenians, makes foreign investors wary. Azerbaijan
    accounts for 1.5% to 2% of the capital stock and output of the former Soviet
    Union. Although immediate economic prospects are not favorable because of
    civil strife, lack of economic reform, political disputes about new economic
    arrangements, and the skittishness of foreign investors, Azerbaijan's
    economic performance was the best of all former Soviet republics in 1991
    largely because of its reliance on domestic resources for industrial output.
GDP:
    $NA, per capita $NA; real growth rate --0.7% (1991)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    87% (1991)
Unemployment rate:
    NA%
Budget:
    revenues $NA; expenditures $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA (1992)
Exports:
    $780 million (f.o.b., 1991)
  commodities:
    oil and gas, chemicals, oilfield equipment, textiles, cotton (1991)
  partners:
    mostly CIS countries
Imports:
    $2.2 billion (c.i.f., 1990)
  commodities:
    machinery and parts, consumer durables, foodstuffs, textiles (1991)
External debt:
    $1.3 billion (1991 est.)
Industrial production:
    growth rate 3.8% (1991)
Electricity:
    6,025,000 kW capacity; 23,300 million kWh produced, 3,280 kWh per capita
    (1991)
Industries:
    petroleum and natural gas, petroleum products, oilfield equipment; steel,
    iron ore, cement; chemicals and petrochemicals; textiles
Agriculture:
    cotton, grain, rice, grapes, fruit, vegetables, tea, tobacco; cattle, pigs,
    sheep and goats
Illicit drugs:
    illicit producer of cannabis and opium; mostly for domestic consumption;
    status of government eradication programs unknown; used as transshipment
    points for illicit drugs to Western Europe
Economic aid:
    NA
Currency:
    as of May 1992, retaining ruble as currency
Exchange rates:
    NA
Fiscal year:
    calendar year

:Azerbaijan Communications

Railroads:
    2,090 km (includes NA km electrified); does not include industrial lines
    (1990)
Highways:
    36,700 km total (1990); 31,800 km hard surfaced; 4,900 km earth
Inland waterways:
    NA km perennially navigable
Pipelines:
    NA
Ports:
    inland - Baku (Baky)
Merchant marine:
    none - landlocked
Civil air:
    none
Airports:
    NA
Telecommunications:
    quality of local telephone service is poor; connections to other former USSR
    republics by landline or microwave and to countries beyond the former USSR
    via the Moscow international gateway switch; Azeri and Russian TV broadcasts
    are received; Turkish and Iranian TV broadcasts are received from INTELSAT
    through a TV receive-only earth station

:Azerbaijan Defense Forces

Branches:
    Republic Security Forces (internal and border troops), National Guard; CIS
    Forces (Ground, Navy, Air, Air Defense)
Manpower availability:
    males 15-49, NA; NA fit for military service; NA reach military age (18)
    annually
Defense expenditures:
    $NA million, NA% of GDP

:The Bahamas Geography

Total area:
    13,940 km2
Land area:
    10,070 km2
Comparative area:
    slightly larger than Connecticut
Land boundaries:
    none
Coastline:
    3,542 km
Maritime claims:
  Continental shelf:
    200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation
  Exclusive fishing zone:
    200 nm
  Territorial sea:
    3 nm
Disputes:
    none
Climate:
    tropical marine; moderated by warm waters of Gulf Stream
Terrain:
    long, flat coral formations with some low rounded hills
Natural resources:
    salt, aragonite, timber
Land use:
    arable land 1%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and pastures NEGL%; forest
    and woodland 32%; other 67%
Environment:
    subject to hurricanes and other tropical storms that cause extensive flood
    damage
Note:
    strategic location adjacent to US and Cuba; extensive island chain

:The Bahamas People

Population:
    255,811 (July 1992), growth rate 1.4% (1992)
Birth rate:
    19 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
    5 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
    0 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
    19 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
    69 years male, 76 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
    2.2 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
    noun--Bahamian(s); adjective--Bahamian
Ethnic divisions:
    black 85%, white 15%
Religions:
    Baptist 32%, Anglican 20%, Roman Catholic 19%, Methodist 6%, Church of God
    6%, other Protestant 12%, none or unknown 3%, other 2% (1980)
Languages:
    English; some Creole among Haitian immigrants
Literacy:
    90% (male 90%, female 89%) age 15 and over but definition of literacy not
    available (1963 est.)
Labor force:
    127,400; government 30%, hotels and restaurants 25%, business services
    10%, agriculture 5% (1989)
Organized labor:
    25% of labor force

:The Bahamas Government

Long-form name:
    The Commonwealth of The Bahamas
Type:
    commonwealth
Capital:
    Nassau
Administrative divisions:
    21 districts; Abaco, Acklins Island, Andros Island, Berry Islands,
    Biminis, Cat Island, Cay Lobos, Crooked Island, Eleuthera, Exuma, Grand
    Bahama, Harbour Island, Inagua, Long Cay, Long Island, Mayaguana,
    New Providence, Ragged Island, Rum Cay, San Salvador,
    Spanish Wells
Independence:
    10 July 1973 (from UK)
Constitution:
    10 July 1973
Legal system:
    based on English common law
National holiday:
    National Day, 10 July (1973)
Executive branch:
    British monarch, governor general, prime minister, deputy prime
    minister, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
    bicameral Parliament consists of an upper house or Senate and a lower
    house or House of Assembly
Judicial branch:
    Supreme Court
Leaders:
  Chief of State:
    Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by
    Acting Governor General Sir Clifford DARLING (since 2 January 1992)
  Head of Government:
    Prime Minister Sir Lynden Oscar PINDLING (since 16 January 1967)
Political parties and leaders:
    Progressive Liberal Party (PLP), Sir Lynden O. PINDLING; Free National
    Movement (FNM), Hubert Alexander INGRAHAM
Suffrage:
    universal at age 18
Elections:
  House of Assembly:
    last held 19 June 1987 (next to be held by NA June 1992);
    results--percent of vote by party NA; seats--(49 total) PLP 32, FNM 17
    *** No entry for this item ***
Other political or pressure groups:
    Vanguard Nationalist and Socialist Party (VNSP), a small leftist party
    headed
    by Lionel CAREY; Trade Union Congress (TUC), headed by Arlington MILLER
Member of:
    ACP, C, CCC, CARICOM, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO,
    ICFTU, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM,
    OAS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO
Diplomatic representation:
    Ambassador Margaret E. McDONALD; Chancery at 2220 Massachusetts
    Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008; telephone (202) 319-2660; there are
    Bahamian Consulates General in Miami and New York;

:The Bahamas Government

  US:
    Ambassador Chic HECHT; Embassy at Mosmar Building, Queen Street, Nassau
    (mailing address is P. O. Box N-8197, Nassau); telephone (809) 322-1181 or
    328-2206; FAX (809) 328-7838
Diplomatic representation:
    *** No entry for this item ***
Flag:
    three equal horizontal bands of aquamarine (top), gold, and aquamarine with
    a black equilateral triangle based on the hoist side

:The Bahamas Economy

Overview:
    The Bahamas is a stable, middle-income developing nation whose economy is
    based primarily on tourism and offshore banking. Tourism alone provides
    about 50% of GDP and directly or indirectly employs about 50,000 people or
    40% of the local work force. The economy has slackened in recent years, as
    the annual increase in the number of tourists slowed. Nonetheless, the per
    capita GDP of $9,900 is one of the highest in the region.
GDP:
    purchasing power equivalent--$2.5 billion, per capita $9,900; real growth
    rate 1.0% (1990 est.)
    *** No entry for this item ***
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    7.3% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
    16.0% (1991)
Budget:
    revenues $627.5 million; expenditures $727.5 million, including capital
    expenditures of $100 million (1992, projected)
    *** No entry for this item ***
Exports:
    $306 million (f.o.b., 1991 est.);
  commodities:
    pharmaceuticals, cement, rum, crawfish;
  partners:
    US 41%, Norway 30%, Denmark 4%
Imports:
    $1.14 billion (c.i.f., 1991 est.);
  commodities:
    foodstuffs, manufactured goods, mineral fuels;
  partners:
    US 35%, Nigeria 21%, Japan 13%, Angola 11%
External debt:
    $1.2 billion (December 1990)
Industrial production:
    growth rate 3% (1990); accounts for 15% of GDP
Electricity:
    368,000 kw capacity; 857 million kWh produced 3,339 kWh per capita
    (1991)
Industries:
    tourism, banking, cement, oil refining and transshipment, salt production,
    rum, aragonite, pharmaceuticals, spiral welded steel pipe
    *** No entry for this item ***
Agriculture:
    accounts for less than 5% of GDP; dominated by small-scale producers;
    principal products--citrus fruit, vegetables, poultry; large net importer of
    food
    *** No entry for this item ***
Illicit drugs:
    transshipment point for cocaine
Economic aid:
    US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY85-89), $1.0 million; Western
    (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $345
    million
Currency:
    Bahamian dollar (plural--dollars); 1 Bahamian dollar (B$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
    Bahamian dollar (B$) per US$1--1.00 (fixed rate)
Fiscal year:
    calendar year

:The Bahamas Communications

Highways:
    2,400 km total; 1,350 km paved, 1,050 km gravel
Ports:
    Freeport, Nassau
Merchant marine:
    778 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 18,129,173 GRT/30,002,421 DWT;
    includes 48 passenger, 19 short-sea passenger, 152 cargo, 37
    roll-on/roll-off cargo, 42 container, 6 vehicle carrier, 1 railcar carrier,
    172 petroleum tanker, 9 liquefied gas, 16 combination ore/oil, 47 chemical
    tanker, 1 specialized tanker, 143 bulk, 7 combination bulk, 78 refrigerated
    cargo;
    note--a flag of convenience registry
    *** No entry for this item ***
Civil air:
    11 major transport aircraft
Airports:
    59 total, 54 usable; 30 with permanent-surface runways; none with
    runways over 3,659 m; 3 with runways 2,440-3, 659 m; 26 with runways
    1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
    highly developed; 99,000 telephones in totally automatic system;
    tropospheric scatter and submarine cable links to Florida; broadcast
    stations--3 AM, 2 FM, 1 TV; 3 coaxial submarine cables; 1 Atlantic Ocean
    INTELSAT earth station
    *** No entry for this item ***

:The Bahamas Defense Forces

Branches:
    Royal Bahamas Defense Force (Coast Guard only), Royal Bahamas Police
Branches:
    Force
Manpower availability:
    males 15-49, 68,020; NA fit for military service
Defense expenditures:
    exchange rate conversion--$65 million, 2.7% of GDP (1990)

:Bahrain Geography

Total area:
    620 km2
Land area:
    620 km2
Comparative area:
    slightly less than 3.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
    none
Coastline:
    161 km
Maritime claims:
  Continental shelf:
    not specific
  Territorial sea:
    3 nm
Disputes:
    territorial dispute with Qatar over the Hawar Islands; maritime boundary
    with Qatar
Climate:
    arid; mild, pleasant winters; very hot, humid summers
Terrain:
    mostly low desert plain rising gently to low central escarpment
Natural resources:
    oil, associated and nonassociated natural gas, fish
Land use:
    arable land 2%; permanent crops 2%; meadows and pastures 6%; forest and
    woodland 0%; other 90%, includes irrigated NEGL%
Environment:
    subsurface water sources being rapidly depleted (requires development of
    desalination facilities); dust storms; desertification
Note:
    close to primary Middle Eastern crude oil sources; strategic location in
    Persian Gulf through which much of Western world's crude oil must transit to
    reach open ocean

:Bahrain People

Population:
    551,513 (July 1992), growth rate 3.1% (1992)
Birth rate:
    27 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
    4 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
    7 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
    21 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
    70 years male, 75 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
    4.0 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
    noun - Bahraini(s); adjective - Bahraini
Ethnic divisions:
    Bahraini 63%, Asian 13%, other Arab 10%, Iranian 8%, other 6%
Religions:
    Muslim (Shi`a 70%, Sunni 30%)
Languages:
    Arabic (official); English also widely spoken; Farsi, Urdu
Literacy:
    77% (male 82%, female 69%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
    140,000; 42% of labor force is Bahraini; industry and commerce 85%,
    agriculture 5%, services 5%, government 3% (1982)
Organized labor:
    General Committee for Bahrain Workers exists in only eight major designated
    companies

:Bahrain Government

Long-form name:
    State of Bahrain
Type:
    traditional monarchy
Capital:
    Manama
Administrative divisions:
    12 districts (manatiq, singular - mintaqah); Al Hadd, Al Manamah, Al
    Mintaqah al Gharbiyah, Al Mintaqah al Wusta, Al Mintaqah ash Shamaliyah, Al
    Muharraq, Ar Rifa`wa al Mintaqah al Janubiyah, Jidd Hafs, Madinat Hamad,
    Madinat `Isa, Mintaqat Juzur Hawar, Sitrah
Independence:
    15 August 1971 (from UK)
Constitution:
    26 May 1973, effective 6 December 1973
Legal system:
    based on Islamic law and English common law
National holiday:
    Independence Day, 16 December
Executive branch:
    amir, crown prince and heir apparent, prime minister, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
    unicameral National Assembly was dissolved 26 August 1975 and legislative
    powers were assumed by the Cabinet
Judicial branch:
    High Civil Appeals Court
Leaders:
  Chief of State:
    Amir `ISA bin Salman Al Khalifa (since 2 November 1961); Heir Apparent HAMAD
    bin `Isa Al Khalifa (son of Amir; born 28 January 1950)
  Head of Government:
    Prime Minister KHALIFA bin Salman Al Khalifa (since 19 January 1970)
Political parties and leaders:
    political parties prohibited; several small, clandestine leftist and Islamic
    fundamentalist groups are active
Suffrage:
    none
Elections:
    none
Member of:
    ABEDA, AFESD, AL, AMF, ESCWA, FAO, G-77, GCC, IBRD, ICAO, IDB, ILO, IMF,
    IMO, INMARSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAPEC,
    OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO
Diplomatic representation:
    Ambassador `Abd al-Rahman Faris Al KHALIFA; Chancery at 3502 International
    Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008; telephone (202) 342-0741 or 342-0742; there
    is a Bahraini Consulate General in New York
  US:
    Ambassador Dr. Charles W. HOSTLER; Embassy at Road No. 3119 (next to Alahli
    Sports Club), Zinj; (mailing address is P. O. 26431, Manama, or FPO AE
    09834-6210); telephone [973] 273-300; FAX (973) 272-594
Flag:
    red with a white serrated band (eight white points) on the hoist side

:Bahrain Economy

Overview:
    Petroleum production and processing account for about 80% of export
    receipts, 60% of government revenues, and 31% of GDP. Economic conditions
    have fluctuated with the changing fortunes of oil since 1985, for example,
    the Gulf crisis of 1990-91. The liberation of Kuwait in early 1991 has
    improved short- to medium-term prospects and has raised investors'
    confidence. Bahrain with its highly developed communication and transport
    facilities is home to numerous multinational firms with business in the
    Gulf. A large share of exports is petroleum products made from imported
    crude.
GDP:
    exchange rate conversion - $4.0 billion, per capita $7,500 (1990); real
    growth rate 6.7% (1988)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    1.5% (1989)
Unemployment rate:
    8-10% (1989)
Budget:
    revenues $1.2 billion; expenditures $1.32 billion, including capital
    expenditures of $NA (1989)
Exports:
    $3.7 billion (f.o.b., 1990 est.)
  commodities:
    petroleum and petroleum products 80%, aluminum 7%, other 13%
  partners:
    UAE 18%, Japan 12%, India 11%, US 6%
Imports:
    $3.7 billion (f.o.b., 1989)
  commodities:
    nonoil 59%, crude oil 41%
  partners:
    Saudi Arabia 41%, US 23%, Japan 8%, UK 8%
External debt:
    $1.1 billion (December 1989 est.)
Industrial production:
    growth rate 3.8% (1988); accounts for 44% of GDP
Electricity:
    3,600,000 kW capacity; 10,500 million kWh produced, 21,000 kWh per capita
    (1991)
Industries:
    petroleum processing and refining, aluminum smelting, offshore banking, ship
    repairing
Agriculture:
    including fishing, accounts for less than 2% of GDP; not self-sufficient in
    food production; heavily subsidized sector produces fruit, vegetables,
    poultry, dairy products, shrimp, and fish; fish catch 9,000 metric tons in
    1987
Economic aid:
    US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-79), $24 million; Western (non-US)
    countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $45 million; OPEC
    bilateral aid (1979-89), $9.8 billion
Currency:
    Bahraini dinar (plural - dinars); 1 Bahraini dinar (BD) = 1,000 fils
Exchange rates:
    Bahraini dinars (BD) per US$1 - 0.3760 (fixed rate)
Fiscal year:
    calendar year

:Bahrain Communications

Highways:
    200 km bituminous surfaced, including 25 km bridge-causeway to Saudi Arabia
    opened in November 1986; NA km natural surface tracks
Pipelines:
    crude oil 56 km; petroleum products 16 km; natural gas 32 km
Ports:
    Mina' Salman, Manama, Sitrah
Merchant marine:
    9 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 186,367 GRT/249,441 DWT; includes 5
    cargo, 2 container, 1 liquefied gas, 1 bulk
Civil air:
    27 major transport aircraft
Airports:
    3 total, 3 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways; 2 with runways over
    3,659 m; 1 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
    excellent international telecommunications; good domestic services; 98,000
    telephones; broadcast stations - 2 AM, 3 FM, 2 TV; satellite earth stations
    - 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT, 1 ARABSAT;
    tropospheric scatter to Qatar, UAE, and microwave to Saudi Arabia; submarine
    cable to Qatar, UAE, and Saudi Arabia

:Bahrain Defense Forces

Branches:
    Army, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense, Police Force
Manpower availability:
    males 15-49, 190,937; 105,857 fit for military service
Defense expenditures:
    exchange rate conversion - $194 million, 6% of GDP (1990)

:Baker Island Geography

Total area:
    1.4 km2
Land area:
    1.4 km2
Comparative area:
    about 2.3 times the size of the Mall in Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
    none
Coastline:
    4.8 km
Maritime claims:
  Contiguous zone:
    12 nm
  Continental shelf:
    200 m (depth)
  Exclusive economic zone:
    200 nm
  Territorial sea:
    12 nm
Disputes:
    none
Climate:
    equatorial; scant rainfall, constant wind, burning sun
Terrain:
    low, nearly level coral island surrounded by a narrow fringing reef
Natural resources:
    guano (deposits worked until 1891)
Land use:
    arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 0%; forest and
    woodland 0%; other 100%
Environment:
    treeless, sparse and scattered vegetation consisting of grasses, prostrate
    vines, and low growing shrubs; lacks fresh water; primarily a nesting,
    roosting, and foraging habitat for seabirds, shorebirds, and marine wildlife
Note:
    remote location 2,575 km southwest of Honolulu in the North Pacific Ocean,
    just north of the Equator, about halfway between Hawaii and Australia

:Baker Island People

Population:
    uninhabited; American civilians evacuated in 1942 after Japanese air and
    naval attacks during World War II; occupied by US military during World War
    II, but abandoned after the war; public entry is by special-use permit only
    and generally restricted to scientists and educators

:Baker Island Government

Long-form name:
    none
Type:
    unincorporated territory of the US administered by the Fish and Wildlife
    Service of the US Department of the Interior as part of the National
    Wildlife Refuge system
Capital:
    none; administered from Washington, DC

:Baker Island Economy

Overview:
    no economic activity

:Baker Island Communications

Ports:
    none; offshore anchorage only, one boat landing area along the middle of the
    west coast
Airports:
    1 abandoned World War II runway of 1,665 m
Telecommunications:
    there is a day beacon near the middle of the west coast

:Baker Island Defense Forces

Note:
    defense is the responsibility of the US; visited annually by the US Coast
    Guard

:Bangladesh Geography

Total area:
    144,000 km2
Land area:
    133,910 km2
Comparative area:
    slightly smaller than Wisconsin
Land boundaries:
    4,246 km total; Burma 193 km, India 4,053 km
Coastline:
    580 km
Maritime claims:
  Contiguous zone:
    18 nm
  Continental shelf:
    up to outer limits of continental margin
  Exclusive economic zone:
    200 nm
  Territorial sea:
    12 nm
Disputes:
    a portion of the boundary with India is in dispute; water sharing problems
    with upstream riparian India over the Ganges
Climate:
    tropical; cool, dry winter (October to March); hot, humid summer (March to
    June); cool, rainy monsoon (June to October)
Terrain:
    mostly flat alluvial plain; hilly in southeast
Natural resources:
    natural gas, uranium, arable land, timber
Land use:
    arable land 67%; permanent crops 2%; meadows and pastures 4%; forest and
    woodland 16%; other 11%; includes irrigated 14%
Environment:
    vulnerable to droughts; much of country routinely flooded during summer
    monsoon season; overpopulation; deforestation
Note:
    almost completely surrounded by India

:Bangladesh People

Population:
    119,411,711 (July 1992), growth rate 2.4% (1992)
Birth rate:
    36 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
    12 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
    0 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
    112 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
    55 years male, 54 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
    4.6 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
    noun - Bangladeshi(s); adjective - Bangladesh
Ethnic divisions:
    Bengali 98%, Biharis 250,000, and tribals less than 1 million
Religions:
    Muslim 83%, Hindu 16%, Buddhist, Christian, and other less than 1%
Languages:
    Bangla (official), English widely used
Literacy:
    35% (male 47%, female 22%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
    35,100,000; agriculture 74%, services 15%, industry and commerce 11% (FY86);
    extensive export of labor to Saudi Arabia, UAE, and Oman (1991)
Organized labor:
    3% of labor force belongs to 2,614 registered unions (1986 est.)

:Bangladesh Government

Long-form name:
    People's Republic of Bangladesh
Type:
    republic
Capital:
    Dhaka
Administrative divisions:
    64 districts (zillagulo, singular - zilla); Bagerhat, Bandarban, Barguna,
    Barisal, Bhola, Bogra, Brahmanbaria, Chandpur, Chapai Nawabganj, Chattagram,
    Chuadanga, Comilla, Cox's Bazar, Dhaka, Dinajpur, Faridpur, Feni, Gaibandha,
    Gazipur, Gopalganj, Habiganj, Jaipurhat, Jamalpur, Jessore, Jhalakati,
    Jhenaidah, Khagrachari, Khulna, Kishorganj, Kurigram, Kushtia, Laksmipur,
    Lalmonirhat, Madaripur, Magura, Manikganj, Meherpur, Moulavibazar,
    Munshiganj, Mymensingh, Naogaon, Narail, Narayanganj, Narsingdi, Nator,
    Netrakona, Nilphamari, Noakhali, Pabna, Panchagar, Parbattya Chattagram,
    Patuakhali, Pirojpur, Rajbari, Rajshahi, Rangpur, Satkhira, Shariyatpur,
    Sherpur, Sirajganj, Sunamganj, Sylhet, Tangail, Thakurgaon
Independence:
    16 December 1971 (from Pakistan; formerly East Pakistan)
Constitution:
    4 November 1972, effective 16 December 1972, suspended following coup of 24
    March 1982, restored 10 November 1986, amended NA March 1991
Legal system:
    based on English common law
National holiday:
    Independence Day, 26 March (1971)
Executive branch:
    president, prime minister, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
    unicameral National Parliament (Jatiya Sangsad)
Judicial branch:
    Supreme Court
Leaders:
  Chief of State:
    President Abdur Rahman BISWAS (since 8 October 1991)
  Head of Government:
    Prime Minister Khaleda ZIAUR Rahman (since 20 March 1991)
Political parties and leaders:
    Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP), Khaleda ZIAUR Rahman; Awami League (AL),
    Sheikh Hasina WAZED; Jatiyo Party (JP), Hussain Mohammad ERSHAD;
    Jamaat-E-Islami (JI), Ali KHAN; Bangladesh Communist Party (BCP), Saifuddin
    Ahmed MANIK; National Awami Party (Muzaffar); Workers Party, leader NA;
    Jatiyo Samajtantik Dal (National Socialist Party - SIRAJ), M. A. JALIL;
    Ganotantri Party, leader NA; Islami Oikya Jote, leader NA; National
    Democratic Party (NDP), leader NA; Muslim League, Khan A. SABUR; Democratic
    League, Khondakar MUSHTAQUE Ahmed; United People's Party, Kazi ZAFAR Ahmed
Suffrage:
    universal at age 18
Elections:
  National Parliament:
    last held 27 February 1991 (next to be held NA February 1996); results -
    percent of vote by party NA; seats - (330 total, 300 elected and 30 seats
    reserved for women) BNP 168, AL 93, JP 35, JI 20, CBP 5, National Awami
    Party (Muzaffar) 1, Workers Party 1, SIRAJ 1, Ganotantri Party 1, Islami
    Oikya Jote 1, NDP 1, independents 3
  President:
    last held 8 October 1991 (next to be held by NA October 1996); results -
    Abdur Rahman BISWAS received 52.1% of parliamentary vote

:Bangladesh Government

Communists:
    5,000 members (1987 est.)
Member of:
    AsDB, C, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IDB,
    IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS,
    NAM, OIC, SAARC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIIMOG, UPU, WHO, WFTU, WIPO,
    WCL, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
    Ambassador Abul AHSAN; Chancery at 2201 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC
    20007; telephone (202) 342-8372 through 8376; there is a Bangladesh
    Consulate General in New York
  US:
    Ambassador William B. MILAM; Embassy at Diplomatic Enclave, Madani Avenue,
    Baridhara, Dhaka (mailing address is G. P. O. Box 323, Dhaka 1212);
    telephone [880] (2) 884700-22; FAX [880] (2) 883648
Flag:
    green with a large red disk slightly to the hoist side of center; green is
    the traditional color of Islam

:Bangladesh Economy

Overview:
    Bangladesh is one of the poorest nations in the world. The economy is based
    on the output of a narrow range of agricultural products, such as jute,
    which is the main cash crop and major source of export earnings, and rice.
    Bangladesh is hampered by a relative lack of natural resources, population
    growth of more than 2% a year, large-scale unemployment, and a limited
    infrastructure; furthermore, it is highly vulnerable to natural disasters.
    Despite these constraints, real GDP growth averaged about 3.5% annually
    during 1985-89. A strong agricultural performance in FY90 pushed the growth
    rate up to 6.2%, and FY91 saw further, though smaller, increases in output.
    Alleviation of poverty remains the cornerstone of the government's
    development strategy.
GDP:
    exchange rate conversion - $23.1 billion, per capita $200; real growth rate
    3.2% (FY91)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    8.9% (FY91 est.)
Unemployment rate:
    30%, including underemployment (FY90 est.)
Budget:
    revenues $2.24 billion; expenditures $3.7 billion (FY91)
Exports:
    $1.7 billion (FY91 est.)
  commodities:
    garments, jute and jute goods, leather, shrimp
  partners:
    US 32%, Italy 8.1%, UK 6.2% (FY90)
Imports:
    $3.5 billion (FY91 est.)
  commodities:
    capital goods, petroleum, food, textiles
  partners:
    Japan 9.2%, India 6.2%, Singapore 5.9%, US 5.7%
External debt:
    $11.1 billion (FY91 est.)
Industrial production:
    growth rate 1% (FY91 est.); accounts for 10% of GDP
Electricity:
    1,990,000 kW capacity; 5,700 million kWh produced, 50 kWh per capita (1990)
Industries:
    jute manufacturing, cotton textiles, food processing, steel, fertilizer
Agriculture:
    accounts for about 40% of GDP, 70% of employment, and one-third of exports;
    imports 10% of food grain requirements; world's largest exporter of jute;
    commercial products - jute, rice, wheat, tea, sugarcane, potatoes, beef,
    milk, poultry; shortages include wheat, vegetable oils and cotton; fish
    catch 778,000 metric tons in 1986
Economic aid:
    US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $3.4 billion; Western (non-US)
    countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1980-89), $11.65 million; OPEC
    bilateral aid (1979-89), $6.52 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $1.5
    billion
Currency:
    taka (plural - taka); 1 taka (Tk) = 100 paise
Exchange rates:
    taka (Tk) per US$1 - 38.800 (January 1992), 36.596 (1991), 34.569 (1990),
    32.270 (1989), 31.733 (1988), 30.950 (1987)
Fiscal year:
    1 July - 30 June

:Bangladesh Communications

Railroads:
    2,892 km total (1986); 1,914 km 1.000 meter gauge, 978 km 1.676 meter broad
    gauge
Highways:
    7,240 km total (1985); 3,840 km paved, 3,400 km unpaved
Inland waterways:
    5,150-8,046 km navigable waterways (includes 2,575-3,058 km main cargo
    routes)
Pipelines:
    natural gas 1,220 km
Ports:
    Chittagong, Chalna
Merchant marine:
    44 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 328,382 GRT/479,985 DWT; includes 36
    cargo, 2 petroleum tanker, 3 refrigerated cargo, 3 bulk
Civil air:
    15 major transport aircraft
Airports:
    16 total, 12 usable; 12 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways
    over 3,659 m; 4 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 6 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
    adequate international radio communications and landline service; fair
    domestic wire and microwave service; fair broadcast service; 241,250
    telephones; broadcast stations - 9 AM, 6 FM, 11 TV; 2 Indian Ocean INTELSAT
    satellite earth stations

:Bangladesh Defense Forces

Branches:
    Army, Navy, Air Force; paramilitary forces - Bangladesh Rifles, Bangladesh
    Ansars, Armed Police Reserve, Coastal Police
Manpower availability:
    males 15-49, 29,891,224; 17,745,343 fit for military service
Defense expenditures:
    exchange rate conversion - $339 million, 1.5% of GDP (FY92 budget)

:Barbados Geography

Total area:
    430 km2
Land area:
    430 km2
Comparative area:
    slightly less than 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
    none
Coastline:
    97 km
Maritime claims:
  Exclusive economic zone:
    200 nm
  Territorial sea:
    12 nm
Disputes:
    none
Climate:
    tropical; rainy season (June to October)
Terrain:
    relatively flat; rises gently to central highland region
Natural resources:
    crude oil, fishing, natural gas
Land use:
    arable land 77%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 9%; forest and
    woodland 0%; other 14%
Environment:
    subject to hurricanes (especially June to October)
Note:
    easternmost Caribbean island

:Barbados People

Population:
    254,934 (July 1992), growth rate 0.1% (1992)
Birth rate:
    16 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
    9 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
    --6 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
    22 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
    70 years male, 76 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
    1.8 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
    noun - Barbadian(s); adjective - Barbadian
Ethnic divisions:
    African 80%, mixed 16%, European 4%
Religions:
    Protestant 67% (Anglican 40%, Pentecostal 8%, Methodist 7%, other 12%),
    Roman Catholic 4%; none 17%, unknown 3%, other 9% (1980)
Languages:
    English
Literacy:
    99% (male 99%, female 99%) age 15 and over having ever attended school
    (1970)
Labor force:
    120,900 (1991); services and government 37%; commerce 22%; manufacturing and
    construction 22%; transportation, storage, communications, and financial
    institutions 9%; agriculture 8%; utilities 2% (1985 est.)
Organized labor:
    32% of labor force

:Barbados Government

Long-form name:
    none
Type:
    parliamentary democracy
Capital:
    Bridgetown
Administrative divisions:
    11 parishes; Christ Church, Saint Andrew, Saint George, Saint James, Saint
    John, Saint Joseph, Saint Lucy, Saint Michael, Saint Peter, Saint Philip,
    Saint Thomas; note - there may be a new city of Bridgetown
Independence:
    30 November 1966 (from UK)
Constitution:
    30 November 1966
Legal system:
    English common law; no judicial review of legislative acts
National holiday:
    Independence Day, 30 November (1966)
Executive branch:
    British monarch, governor general, prime minister, deputy prime minister,
    Cabinet
Legislative branch:
    bicameral Parliament consists of an upper house or Senate and a lower house
    or House of Assembly
Judicial branch:
    Supreme Court of Judicature
Leaders:
  Chief of State:
    Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General
    Dame Nita BARROW (since 6 June 1990)
  Head of Government:
    Prime Minister Lloyd Erskine SANDIFORD (since 2 June 1987)
Political parties and leaders:
    Democratic Labor Party (DLP), Erskine SANDIFORD; Barbados Labor Party (BLP),
    Henry FORDE; National Democratic Party (NDP), Richie HAYNES
Suffrage:
    universal at age 18
Elections:
  House of Assembly:
    last held 22 January 1991 (next to be held by January 1996); results - DLP
    49.8%; seats - (28 total) DLP 18, BLP 10
Other political or pressure groups:
    Industrial and General Workers Union, Sir Frank WALCOTT; People's
    Progressive Movement, Eric SEALY; Workers' Party of Barbados, Dr. George
    BELLE
Member of:
    ACP, C, CARICOM, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IFAD,
    IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LAES,
    LORCS, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO
Diplomatic representation:
    Ambassador Dr. Rudi WEBSTER; Chancery at 2144 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington,
    DC 20008; telephone (202) 939-9200 through 9202; there is a Barbadian
    Consulate General in New York and a Consulate in Los Angeles
  US:
    Ambassador G. Philip HUGHES; Embassy at Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce
    Building, Broad Street, Bridgetown (mailing address is P. O. Box 302, Box B,
    FPO AA 34054); telephone (809) 436-4950 through 4957; FAX (809) 429-5246

:Barbados Government

Flag:
    three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and blue with the
    head of a black trident centered on the gold band; the trident head
    represents independence and a break with the past (the colonial coat of arms
    contained a complete trident)

:Barbados Economy

Overview:
    A per capita income of $6,500 gives Barbados one of the highest standards of
    living of all the small island states of the eastern Caribbean.
    Historically, the economy was based on the cultivation of sugarcane and
    related activities. In recent years, however, the economy has diversified
    into manufacturing and tourism. The tourist industry is now a major employer
    of the labor force and a primary source of foreign exchange. The economy
    slowed in 1990-91, however, and Bridgetown's declining hard currency
    reserves and inability to finance its deficits have caused it to adopt an
    austere economic reform program.
GDP:
    purchasing power equivalent - $1.7 billion, per capita $6,500; real growth
    rate--3.1% (1990)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    3.4% (1990)
Unemployment rate:
    18% (1991)
Budget:
    revenues $514 million; expenditures $615 million (FY91-92)
Exports:
    $210.6 million (f.o.b., 1990)
  commodities:
    sugar and molasses, chemicals, electrical components, clothing, rum,
    machinery and transport equipment
  partners:
    CARICOM 30%, US 20%, UK 20%
Imports:
    $704 million (c.i.f., 1990)
  commodities:
    foodstuffs, consumer durables, raw materials, machinery, crude oil,
    construction materials, chemicals
  partners:
    US 35%, CARICOM 13%, UK 12%, Japan 6%, Canada 8%, Venezuela 4%
External debt:
    $539.9 million (1990)
Industrial production:
    growth rate--2.7% (1990); accounts for 14% of GDP
Electricity:
    152,100 kW capacity; 539 million kWh produced, 2,117 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
    tourism, sugar, light manufacturing, component assembly for export
Agriculture:
    accounts for 10% of GDP; major cash crop is sugarcane; other crops -
    vegetables and cotton; not self-sufficient in food
Economic aid:
    US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $15 million; Western (non-US)
    countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $171 million
Currency:
    Barbadian dollars (plural - dollars); 1 Barbadian dollar (Bds$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
    Barbadian dollars (Bds$) per US$1 - 2.0113 (fixed rate)
Fiscal year:
    1 April - 31 March

:Barbados Communications

Highways:
    1,570 km total; 1,475 km paved, 95 km gravel and earth
Ports:
    Bridgetown
Merchant marine:
    2 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,200 GRT/7,338 DWT
Civil air:
    no major transport aircraft
Airports:
    1 with permanent-surface runways 2,440-3,659 m
Telecommunications:
    islandwide automatic telephone system with 89,000 telephones; tropospheric
    scatter link to Trinidad and Saint Lucia; broadcast stations - 3 AM, 2 FM, 2
    (1 is pay) TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

:Barbados Defense Forces

Branches:
    Royal Barbados Defense Force, Coast Guard, Royal Barbados Police Force
Manpower availability:
    males 15-49, 69,678; 48,803 fit for military service, no conscription
Defense expenditures:
    exchange rate conversion - $10 million, 0.7% of GDP (1989)

:Bassas da India Geography

Total area:
    NA
Land area:
    undetermined
Comparative area:
    undetermined
Land boundaries:
    none
Coastline:
    35.2 km
Maritime claims:
  Contiguous zone:
    12 nm
  Continental shelf:
    200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation
  Exclusive economic zone:
    200 nm
  Territorial sea:
    12 nm
Disputes:
    claimed by Madagascar
Climate:
    tropical
Terrain:
    a volcanic rock 2.4 m high
Natural resources:
    none
Land use:
    arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 0%; forest and
    woodland 0%; other (rock) 100%
Environment:
    surrounded by reefs; subject to periodic cyclones
Note:
    navigational hazard since it is usually under water during high tide;
    located in southern Mozambique Channel about halfway between Africa and
    Madagascar

:Bassas da India People

Population:
    uninhabited

:Bassas da India Government

Long-form name:
    none
Type:
    French possession administered by Commissioner of the Republic Jacques
    DEWATRE (since July 1991), resident in Reunion
Capital:
    none; administered by France from Reunion

:Bassas da India Economy

Overview:
    no economic activity

:Bassas da India Communications

Ports:
    none; offshore anchorage only

:Bassas da India Defense Forces

Note:
    defense is the responsibility of France

:Belarus Geography

Total area:
    207,600 km2
Land area:
    207,600 km2
Comparative area:
    slightly smaller than Kansas
Land boundaries:
    3,098 km total; Latvia 141 km, Lithuania 502 km, Poland 605 km, Russia 959
    km, Ukraine 891 km
Coastline:
    none - landlocked
Maritime claims:
    none - landlocked
Disputes:
    none
Climate:
    mild and moist; transitional between continental and maritime
Terrain:
    generally flat and contains much marshland
Natural resources:
    forest land and peat deposits
Land use:
    arable land NA%; permanent crops NA%; meadows and pastures NA%; forest and
    woodland NA%; other NA%; includes irrigated NA%
Environment:
    southern part of Belarus
    highly contaminated with fallout from 1986 nuclear reactor accident at
    Chernobyl'
Note:
    landlocked

:Belarus People

Population:
    10,373,881 (July 1992), growth rate 0.5% (1992)
Birth rate:
    15 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
    11 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
    1 migrant/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
    20 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
    66 years male, 76 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
    2.1 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
    noun - Belarusian(s); adjective - Belarusian
Ethnic divisions:
    Byelorussian 77.9%, Russian 13.2%, Poles 4.1%, Ukrainian 2.9%, Jews 1.1%,
    other 0.8%
Religions:
    Russian Orthodox NA%, unknown NA%, none NA%, other NA%
Languages:
    Byelorussian NA%, Russian NA%, other NA%
Literacy:
    NA% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can read and write
Labor force:
    5,418,000; industry and construction 42%, agriculture and forestry 20%,
    other 38% (1990)
Organized labor:
    NA

:Belarus Government

Long-form name:
    Republic of Belarus
Type:
    republic
Capital:
    Mensk
Administrative divisions:
    6 oblasts (oblastey, singular - oblast'); Brest, Gomel', Grodno, Minsk,
    Mogilev, Vitebsk; note - all oblasts have the same name as their
    administrative center
Independence:
    1 January 1919 Belorussian Republic; 30 December 1922 joined with the USSR;
    25 August 1991 redeclared independence
Constitution:
    adopted April 1978
Legal system:
    based on civil law system
National holiday:
    24 August (1991)
Executive branch:
    NA
Legislative branch:
    unicameral with 360 seats
Judicial branch:
    NA
Leaders:
  Chief of State:
    Chairman of the Supreme Soviet Stanislav S. SHUSHKEVICH (since NA 1991)
  Head of Government:
    Prime Minister Vyacheslav F. KEBICH (since NA April 1990), First Deputy
    Prime Minister Mikhail MYASNIKOVICH (since early 1991)
Political parties and leaders:
    Belarusian Popular Front, Zenon POZNYAK, chairman; United Democratic Party,
    Stanislav GUSAK, co-chairman; Social Democratic Gramada, Mikhail TKACHEV,
    chairman; Belarus Workers Union, Mikhail SOBOL, Chairman
Suffrage:
    universal at age 18
Elections:
  President:
    NA
  Supreme Soviet:
    last held 4 March 1990 (next to be held NA); results - percent of vote by
    party NA; seats - (360 total) number of seats by party NA; note - 50 seats
    are for public bodies
Communists:
    NA
Other political or pressure groups:
    NA
Member of:
    CE, CIS, CSCE, ECE, IAEA, ILO, INMARSAT, IOC, ITU, NACC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD,
    UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO
Diplomatic representation:
    Ambassador Martynov; Chancery at NA NW, Washington, DC 200__; telephone NA
  US:
    Ambassador (vacant); David SWARTZ, Charge d'Affaires; Embassy at Hotel
    Belarus (telephone 8-011-7-0172-69-08-02) plus 7 hours; (mailing address is
    APO New York is 09862); telephone NA
Flag:
    white, red, and white

:Belarus Economy

Overview:
    In many ways Belarus resembles the three Baltic states, for example, in its
    industrial competence, its higher-than-average standard of living, and its
    critical dependence on the other former Soviet states for fuels and raw
    materials. Belarus ranks fourth in gross output among the former Soviet
    republics, producing 4% of the total GDP and employing 4% of the labor
    force. Once a mainly agricultural area, it now supplies important producer
    and consumer goods - sometimes as the sole producer - to the other states.
    The soil in Belarus is not as fertile as the black earth of Ukraine, but by
    emphasizing favorable crops and livestock (especially pigs and chickens),
    Belarus has become a net exporter to the other republics of meat, milk,
    eggs, flour, and potatoes. Belarus produces only small amounts of oil and
    gas and receives most of its fuel from Russia through the Druzhba oil
    pipeline and the Northern Lights gas pipeline. These pipelines transit
    Belarus enroute to Eastern Europe. Belarus produces petrochemicals,
    plastics, synthetic fibers (nearly 30% of former Soviet output), and
    fertilizer (20% of former Soviet output). Raw material resources are limited
    to potash and peat deposits. The peat (more than one-third of the total for
    the former Soviet Union) is used in domestic heating as boiler fuel for
    electric power stations and in the production of chemicals. The potash
    supports fertilizer production.
GDP:
    NA - $NA, per capita $NA; real growth rate --2% (1991)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    81% (1991)
Unemployment rate:
    NA%
Budget:
    revenues $NA million; expenditures $NA million, including capital
    expenditures of $NA million
Exports:
    $4.3 billion (f.o.b., 1990)
  commodities:
    machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, foodstuffs
  partners:
    NA
Imports:
    $5.6 billion (c.i.f., 1990)
  commodities:
    machinery, chemicals, textiles
  partners:
    NA
External debt:
    $2.6 billion (end of 1991)
Industrial production:
    growth rate --1.5% (1991)
Electricity:
    7,500,000 kW capacity; 38,700 million kWh produced, 3,770 kWh per capita
    (1991)

:Belarus Economy

Industries:
    employ about 27% of labor force and produce a wide variety of products
    essential to the other states; products include (in percent share of total
    output of former Soviet Union): tractors(12%); metal-cutting machine tools
    (11%); off-highway dump trucksup to 110-metric- ton load capacity (100%);
    wheel-type earthmovers for construction and mining (100%); eight-
    wheel-drive, high-flotation trucks with cargo capacity of 25 metric tons for
    use in tundra and roadless areas (100%); equipment for animal husbandry and
    livestock feeding (25%); motorcycles (21.3%); television sets (11%);
    chemical fibers (28%); fertilizer (18%); linen fabric (11%); wool fabric
    (7%); radios; refrigerators; and other consumer goods
Agriculture:
    accounts for 5.7% of total agricultural output of former Soviet Union;
    employs 29% of the labor force; in 1988 produced the following (in percent
    of total Soviet production): grain (3.6%), potatoes (12.2%), vegetables
    (3.0%), meat (6.0%), milk (7.0%); net exporter of meat, milk, eggs, flour,
    and potatoes
Illicit drugs:
    illicit producer of opium mostly for the domestic market; transshipment
    point for illicit drugs to Western Europe
Economic aid:
    NA
Currency:
    as of May 1992, retaining ruble as currency
Exchange rates:
    NA
Fiscal year:
    calendar year

:Belarus Communications

Railroads:
    5,570 km (includes NA km electrified); does not include industrial lines
    (1990)
Highways:
    98,200 km total (1990); 66,100 km hard surfaced, 32,100 km earth
Inland waterways:
    NA km
Pipelines:
    NA
Ports:
    none - landlocked
Merchant marine:
    none - landlocked
Civil air:
    NA major transport aircraft
Airports:
    NA
Telecommunications:
    telephone network has 1.7 million lines, 15% of which are switched
    automatically; Minsk has 450,000 lines; telephone density is approximately
    17 per 100 persons; as of 31 January 1990, 721,000 applications from
    households for telephones were still unsatisfied; international connections
    to other former Soviet republics are by landline or microwave and to other
    countries by leased connection through the Moscow international gateway
    switch

:Belarus Defense Forces

Branches:
    Republic Security Forces (internal and border troops); CIS Forces (Ground,
    Air, Air Defense, Strategic Rocket)
Manpower availability:
    males 15-49, NA; NA fit for military service; NA reach military age (18)
    annually
Defense expenditures:
    $NA, NA% of GDP

:Belgium Geography

Total area:
    30,510 km2
Land area:
    30,230 km2
Comparative area:
    slightly larger than Maryland
Land boundaries:
    1,385 km total; France 620 km, Germany 167 km, Luxembourg 148 km,
    Netherlands 450 km
Coastline:
    64 km
Maritime claims:
  Continental shelf:
    not specific
  Exclusive fishing zone:
    equidistant line with neighbors (extends about 68 km from coast)
  Territorial sea:
    12 nm
Disputes:
    none
Climate:
    temperate; mild winters, cool summers; rainy, humid, cloudy
Terrain:
    flat coastal plains in northwest, central rolling hills, rugged mountains of
    Ardennes Forest in southeast
Natural resources:
    coal, natural gas
Land use:
    arable land 24%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures 20%; forest and
    woodland 21%; other 34%, includes irrigated NEGL%
Environment:
    air and water pollution
Note:
    majority of West European capitals within 1,000 km of Brussels; crossroads
    of Western Europe; Brussels is the seat of the EC

:Belgium People

Population:
    10,016,623 (July 1992), growth rate 0.3% (1992)
Birth rate:
    12 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
    10 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
    1 migrant/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
    8 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
    73 years male, 80 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
    1.6 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
    noun - Belgian(s); adjective - Belgian
Ethnic divisions:
    Fleming 55%, Walloon 33%, mixed or other 12%
Religions:
    Roman Catholic 75%, remainder Protestant or other
Languages:
    Flemish (Dutch) 56%, French 32%, German 1%; legally bilingual 11%; divided
    along ethnic lines
Literacy:
    99% (male 99%, female 99%) age 15 and over can read and write (1980 est.)
Labor force:
    4,126,000; services 63.6%, industry 28%, construction 6.1%, agriculture 2.3%
    (1988)
Organized labor:
    70% of labor force

:Belgium Government

Long-form name:
    Kingdom of Belgium
Type:
    constitutional monarchy
Capital:
    Brussels
Administrative divisions:
    9 provinces (French - provinces, singular - province; Flemish - provincien,
    singular - provincie); Antwerpen, Brabant, Hainaut, Liege, Limburg,
    Luxembourg, Namur, Oost-Vlaanderen, West-Vlaanderen
Independence:
    4 October 1830 (from the Netherlands)
Constitution:
    7 February 1831, last revised 8-9 August 1980; the government is in the
    process of revising the Constitution with the aim of federalizing the
    Belgian state
Legal system:
    civil law system influenced by English constitutional theory; judicial
    review of legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with
    reservations
National holiday:
    National Day, 21 July (ascension of King Leopold to the throne in 1831)
Executive branch:
    monarch, prime minister, three deputy prime ministers, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
    bicameral Parliament consists of an upper chamber or Senate (Flemish -
    Senaat, French - Senat) and a lower chamber or Chamber of Representatives
    (Flemish - Kamer van Volksvertegenwoordigers, French - Chambre des
    Representants)
Judicial branch:
    Supreme Court of Justice (Flemish - Hof van Cassatie, French - Cour de
    Cassation)
Leaders:
  Chief of State:
    King BAUDOUIN I (since 17 July 1951); Heir Apparent Prince ALBERT of Liege
    (brother of the King; born 6 June 1934)
  Head of Government:
    Prime Minister Jean-Luc DEHAENE (since 6 March 1992)
Political parties and leaders:
    Flemish Social Christian (CVP), Herman van ROMPUY, president; Walloon Social
    Christian (PSC) , Gerard DEPREZ, president; Flemish Socialist (SP), Frank
    VANDENBROUCKE, president; Walloon Socialist (PS), NA; Flemish Liberal (PVV),
    Guy VERHOF STADT, president; Walloon Liberal (PRL), Antoine DUQUESNE,
    president; Francophone Democratic Front (FDF), Georges CLERFAYT, president;
    Volksunie (VU), Jaak GABRIELS, president; Communist Party (PCB), Louis van
    GEYT, president; Vlaams Blok (VB), Karel DILLEN, chairman; ROSSEM, Jean
    Pierre VAN ROSSEM; National Front (FN), Werner van STEEN; Live Differently
    (AGALEV), Leo COX; Ecologist (ECOLO), NA; other minor parties
Suffrage:
    universal and compulsory at age 18
Elections:
  Chamber of Representatives:
    last held 24 November 1991 (next to be held by November 1996); results -
    percent of vote by party NA; seats - (212 total) number of seats by party NA
  Senate:
    last held 24 November 1991 (next to be held by November 1996); results -
    percent of vote by party NA; seats - (106 total) number of seats by party NA

:Belgium Government

Other political or pressure groups:
    Christian and Socialist Trade Unions; Federation of Belgian Industries;
    numerous other associations representing bankers, manufacturers,
    middle-class artisans, and the legal and medical professions; various
    organizations represent the cultural interests of Flanders and Wallonia;
    various peace groups such as the Flemish Action Committee Against Nuclear
    Weapons and Pax Christi
Member of:
    ACCT, AfDB, AG, AsDB, Benelux, BIS, CCC, CE, CERN, COCOM, CSCE, EBRD, EC,
    ECE, EIB, ESA, FAO, G-9, G-10, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU,
    IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM,
    ISO, ITU, LORCS, MTCR, NACC, NATO, NEA, OAS (observer), OECD, PCA, UN,
    UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMOGIP, UNRWA, UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WEU, WHO,
    WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation:
    Ambassador Juan CASSIERS; Chancery at 3330 Garfield Street NW, Washington,
    DC 20008; telephone (202) 333-6900; there are Belgian Consulates General in
    Atlanta, Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York
  US:
    Ambassador Bruce S. GELB; Embassy at 27 Boulevard du Regent, B-1000 Brussels
    (mailing address is APO AE 09724); telephone [32] (2) 513-3830; FAX [32] (2)
    511-2725; there is a US Consulate General in Antwerp
Flag:
    three equal vertical bands of black (hoist side), yellow, and red; the
    design was based on the flag of France

:Belgium Economy

Overview:
    This small private enterprise economy has capitalized on its central
    geographic location, highly developed transport network, and diversified
    industrial and commercial base. Industry is concentrated mainly in the
    populous Flemish area in the north, although the government is encouraging
    reinvestment in the southern region of Walloon. With few natural resources
    Belgium must import essential raw materials, making its economy closely
    dependent on the state of world markets. Over 70% of trade is with other EC
    countries. During the period 1988-90, Belgium's economic performance was
    marked by 4% average growth, moderate inflation, and a substantial external
    surplus. Growth fell to 1.4% in 1991.
GDP:
    purchasing power equivalent - $171.8 billion, per capita $17,300; real
    growth rate 1.4% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    3.2% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
    9.4% est. (1991 est.)
Budget:
    revenues $45.0 billion; expenditures $55.3 billion, including capital
    expenditures of NA (1989)
Exports:
    $118 billion (f.o.b., 1990) Belgium-Luxembourg Economic Union
  commodities:
    iron and steel, transportation equipment, tractors, diamonds, petroleum
    products
  partners:
    EC 74%, US 5%, former Communist countries 2% (1989)
Imports:
    $120 billion (c.i.f., 1990) Belgium-Luxembourg Economic Union
  commodities:
    fuels, grains, chemicals, foodstuffs
  partners:
    EC 73%, US 4%, oil-exporting less developed countries 4%, former Communist
    countries 3% (1989)
External debt:
    $28.8 billion (1990 est.)
Industrial production:
    growth rate 1.2% (1991 est.); accounts for almost 30% of GDP
Electricity:
    17,400,000 kW capacity; 67,100 million kWh produced, 6,767 kWh per capita
    (1991)
Industries:
    engineering and metal products, processed food and beverages, chemicals,
    basic metals, textiles, glass, petroleum, coal
Agriculture:
    accounts for 2.3% of GDP; emphasis on livestock production - beef, veal,
    pork, milk; major crops are sugar beets, fresh vegetables, fruits, grain,
    and tobacco; net importer of farm products
Economic aid:
    donor - ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $5.8 billion
Currency:
    Belgian franc (plural - francs); 1 Belgian franc (BF) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
    Belgian francs (BF) per US$1 - 32.462 (January 1992), 34.148 (1991), 33.418
    (1990), 39.404 (1989), 36.768 (1988), 37.334 (1987)
Fiscal year:
    calendar year

:Belgium Communications

Railroads:
    Belgian National Railways (SNCB) operates 3,667 km 1.435-meter standard
    gauge, government owned; 2,563 km double track; 1,978 km electrified; 191 km
    1.000-meter gauge, government owned and operated
Highways:
    103,396 km total; 1,317 km limited access, divided autoroute; 11,717 km
    national highway; 1,362 km provincial road; about 38,000 km paved and 51,000
    km unpaved rural roads
Inland waterways:
    2,043 km (1,528 km in regular commercial use)
Pipelines:
    petroleum products 1,167 km; crude oil 161 km; natural gas 3,300 km
Ports:
    Antwerp, Brugge, Gent, Oostende, Zeebrugge
Merchant marine:
    23 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 62,979 GRT/88,738 DWT; includes 10
    cargo, 4 petroleum tanker, 1 liquefied gas, 5 chemical tanker, 1 bulk, 2
    refrigerated cargo
Civil air:
    47 major transport aircraft
Airports:
    42 total, 42 usable; 24 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways
    over 3,659 m; 14 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 3 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
    highly developed, technologically advanced, and completely automated
    domestic and international telephone and telegraph facilities; extensive
    cable network; limited radio relay network; 4,720,000 telephones; broadcast
    stations - 3 AM, 39 FM, 32 TV; 5 submarine cables; 2 satellite earth
    stations - Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and EUTELSAT systems; nationwide mobile
    phone system

:Belgium Defense Forces

Branches:
    Army, Navy, Air Force, National Gendarmerie
Manpower availability:
    males 15-49, 2,550,088; 2,133,483 fit for military service; 66,249 reach
    military age (19) annually
Defense expenditures:
    exchange rate conversion - $4.2 billion, 2.7% of GDP (1991)

:Belize Geography

Total area:
    22,960 km2
Land area:
    22,800 km2
Comparative area:
    slightly larger than Massachusetts
Land boundaries:
    516 km total; Guatemala 266 km, Mexico 250 km
Coastline:
    386 km
Maritime claims:
  Territorial sea:
    12 nm in the north and 3 nm in the south; note - from the mouth of the
    Sarstoon River to Ranguana Caye, Belize's territorial sea is 3 miles;
    according to Belize's Maritime Areas Act, 1992, the purpose of this
    limitation is to provide a framework for the negotiation of a definitive
    agreement on territorial differences with the Republic of Guatemala''
Disputes:
    claimed by Guatemala, but boundary negotiations to resolve the dispute have
    begun
Climate:
    tropical; very hot and humid; rainy season (May to February)
Terrain:
    flat, swampy coastal plain; low mountains in south
Natural resources:
    arable land potential, timber, fish
Land use:
    arable land 2%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and pastures 2%; forest and
    woodland 44%; other 52%, includes irrigated NEGL%
Environment:
    frequent devastating hurricanes (September to December) and coastal flooding
    (especially in south); deforestation
Note:
    national capital moved 80 km inland from Belize City to Belmopan because of
    hurricanes; only country in Central America without a coastline on the North
    Pacific Ocean

:Belize People

Population:
    229,143 (July 1992), growth rate 3.0% (1992)
Birth rate:
    31 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
    5 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
    4 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
    30 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
    67 years male, 73 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
    3.8 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
    noun - Belizean(s); adjective - Belizean
Ethnic divisions:
    Creole 39.7%, Mestizo 33.1%, Maya 9.5%, Garifuna 7.6%, East Indian 2.1%,
    other 8.0%
Religions:
    Roman Catholic 62%, Protestant 30% (Anglican 12%, Methodist 6%, Mennonite
    4%, Seventh-Day Adventist 3%, Pentecostal 2%, Jehovah's Witnesses 1%, other
    2%), none 2%, unknown 3%, other 3% (1980)
Languages:
    English (official), Spanish, Maya, Garifuna (Carib)
Literacy:
    91% (male 91%, female 91%) age 15 and over having ever attended school
    (1970)
Labor force:
    51,500; agriculture 30.0%, services 16.0%, government 15.4%, commerce 11.2%,
    manufacturing 10.3%; shortage of skilled labor and all types of technical
    personnel (1985)
Organized labor:
    12% of labor force; 7 unions currently active

:Belize Government

Long-form name:
    none
Type:
    parliamentary democracy
Capital:
    Belmopan
Administrative divisions:
    6 districts; Belize, Cayo, Corozal, Orange Walk, Stann Creek, Toledo
Independence:
    21 September 1981 (from UK; formerly British Honduras)
Constitution:
    21 September 1981
Legal system:
    English law
National holiday:
    Independence Day, 21 September
Executive branch:
    British monarch, governor general, prime minister, deputy prime minister,
    Cabinet
Legislative branch:
    bicameral National Assembly consists of an upper house or Senate and a lower
    house or House of Representatives
Judicial branch:
    Supreme Court
Leaders:
  Chief of State:
    Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General
    Dame Elmira Minita GORDON (since 21 September 1981)
  Head of Government:
    Prime Minister George Cadle PRICE (since 4 September 1989)
Political parties and leaders:
    People's United Party (PUP), George PRICE, Florencio MARIN, Said MUSA;
    United Democratic Party (UDP), Manuel ESQUIVEL, Dean LINDO, Dean BARROW;
    Belize Popular Party (BPP), Louis SYLVESTRE
Suffrage:
    universal at age 18
Elections:
  National Assembly:
    last held 4 September 1989 (next to be held September 1994); results -
    percent of vote by party NA; seats - (28 total) PUP 15, UDP 13; note - in
    January 1990 one member expelled from UDP joined PUP, making the seat count
    PUP 16, UDP 12
Other political or pressure groups:
    Society for the Promotion of Education and Research (SPEAR) headed by former
    PUP minister; United Workers Front
Member of:
    ACP, C, CARICOM, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICO, IDA, IFAD, IFC,
    ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAS, UN,
    UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WMO
Diplomatic representation:
    Ambassador James V. HYDE; Chancery at 2535 Massachusetts Avenue NW,
    Washington, DC 20008; telephone (202) 332-9636
  US:
    Ambassador Eugene L. SCASSA; Embassy at Gabourel Lane and Hutson Street,
    Belize City (mailing address is P. O. Box 286, Belize City); telephone [501]
    (2) 77161; FAX [501] (2) 30802
Flag:
    on a scroll at the bottom, all encircled by a green garland

:Belize Government

    blue with a narrow red stripe along the top and the bottom edges; centered
    is a large white disk bearing the coat of arms; the coat of arms features a
    shield flanked by two workers in front of a mahogany tree with the related
    motto RA FLOREO (I Flourish in the Shade)

:Belize Economy

Overview:
    The economy is based primarily on agriculture, agro-based industry, and
    merchandising, with tourism and construction assuming increasing importance.
    Agriculture accounts for about 30% of GDP and provides 75% of export
    earnings, while sugar, the chief crop, accounts for almost 40% of hard
    currency earnings. The US, Belize's main trading partner, is assisting in
    efforts to reduce dependency on sugar with an agricultural diversification
    program.
GDP:
    exchange rate conversion - $373 million, per capita $1,635; real growth rate
    10% (1990 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    3.5% (1990 est.)
Unemployment rate:
    12% (1988)
Budget:
    revenues $126.8 million; expenditures $123.1 million, including capital
    expenditures of $44.8 million (FY91 est.)
Exports:
    $134 million (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
  commodities:
    sugar, clothing, seafood, molasses, citrus, wood and wood products
  partners:
    US 47%, UK, Trinidad and Tobago, Canada (1987)
Imports:
    $194 million (c.i.f., 1991 est.)
  commodities:
    machinery and transportation equipment, food, manufactured goods, fuels,
    chemicals, pharmaceuticals
  partners:
    US 56%, UK, Netherlands Antilles, Mexico (1991)
External debt:
    $142 million (December 1991)
Industrial production:
    growth rate 9.7% (1989); accounts for 16% of GDP
Electricity:
    34,532 kW capacity; 90 million kWh produced, 395 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
    garment production, citrus concentrates, sugar refining, rum, beverages,
    tourism
Agriculture:
    accounts for 30% of GDP (including fish and forestry); commercial crops
    include sugarcane, bananas, coca, citrus fruits; expanding output of lumber
    and cultured shrimp; net importer of basic foods
Illicit drugs:
    an illicit producer of cannabis for the international drug trade;
    eradication program cut marijuana production from 200 metric tons in 1987 to
    about 50 metric tons in 1991; transshipment point for cocaine
Economic aid:
    US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $104 million; Western (non-US)
    countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $215 million
Currency:
    Belizean dollar (plural - dollars); 1 Belizean dollar (Bz$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
    Belizean dollars (Bz$) per US$1 - 2.00 (fixed rate)
Fiscal year:
    1 April - 31 March

:Belize Communications

Highways:
    2,710 km total; 500 km paved, 1,600 km gravel, 300 km improved earth, and
    310 km unimproved earth
Inland waterways:
    825 km river network used by shallow-draft craft; seasonally navigable
Ports:
    Belize City; additional ports for shallow draught craft include Corozol,
    Punta Gorda, Big Creek
Merchant marine:
    2 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,127 GRT/5,885 DWT
Civil air:
    2 major transport aircraft
Airports:
    44 total, 34 usable; 3 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways
    over 2,439 m; 2 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
    8,650 telephones; above-average system based on radio relay; broadcast
    stations - 6 AM, 5 FM, 1 TV, 1 shortwave; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth
    station

:Belize Defense Forces

Branches:
    British Forces Belize, Belize Defense Force (including Army, Navy, Air
    Force, and Volunteer Guard)
Manpower availability:
    males 15-49, 55,333; 33,040 fit for military service; 2,509 reach military
    age (18) annually
Defense expenditures:
    exchange rate conversion - $4.8 million, 1.8% of GDP (FY91)

:Benin Geography

Total area:
    112,620 km2
Land area:
    110,620 km2
Comparative area:
    slightly smaller than Pennsylvania
Land boundaries:
    1,989 km total; Burkina 306 km, Niger 266 km, Nigeria 773 km, Togo 644 km
Coastline:
    121 km
Maritime claims:
  Territorial sea:
    200 nm
Disputes:
    none
Climate:
    tropical; hot, humid in south; semiarid in north
Terrain:
    mostly flat to undulating plain; some hills and low mountains
Natural resources:
    small offshore oil deposits, limestone, marble, timber
Land use:
    arable land 12%; permanent crops 4%; meadows and pastures 4%; forest and
    woodland 35%; other 45%, includes irrigated NEGL%
Environment:
    hot, dry, dusty harmattan wind may affect north in winter; deforestation;
    desertification
Note:
    recent droughts have severely affected marginal agriculture in north; no
    natural harbors

:Benin People

Population:
    4,997,599 (July 1992), growth rate 3.3% (1992)
Birth rate:
    49 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
    15 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
    0 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
    115 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
    49 years male, 53 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
    6.9 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
    noun - Beninese (singular and plural); adjective - Beninese
Ethnic divisions:
    African 99% (42 ethnic groups, most important being Fon, Adja, Yoruba,
    Bariba); Europeans 5,500
Religions:
    indigenous beliefs 70%, Muslim 15%, Christian 15%
Languages:
    French (official); Fon and Yoruba most common vernaculars in south; at least
    six major tribal languages in north
Literacy:
    23% (male 32%, female 16%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
    1,900,000 (1987); agriculture 60%, transport, commerce, and public services
    38%, industry less than 2%; 49% of population of working age (1985)
Organized labor:
    about 75% of wage earners

:Benin Government

Long-form name:
    Republic of Benin
Type:
    republic under multiparty democratic rule; dropped Marxism-Leninism December
    1989; democratic reforms adopted February 1990; transition to multiparty
    system completed 4 April 1991
Capital:
    Porto-Novo
Administrative divisions:
    6 provinces; Atakora, Atlantique, Borgou, Mono, Oueme, Zou
Independence:
    1 August 1960 (from France; formerly Dahomey)
Constitution:
    2 December 1990
Legal system:
    based on French civil law and customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
    jurisdiction
National holiday:
    National Day, 1 August (1990)
Executive branch:
    president, cabinet
Legislative branch:
    unicameral National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale)
Judicial branch:
    Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)
Leaders:
  Chief of State and Head of Government:
    President Nicephore SOGLO (since 4 April 1991)
Political parties and leaders:
    Alliance of the Democratic Union for the Forces of Progress (UDFP), Timothee
    ADANLIN; Movement for Democracy and Social Progress (MDPS), Jean-Roger
    AHOYO; and the Union for Liberty and Development (ULD), Marcellin DEGBE;
    Alliance of the National Party for Democracy and Development (PNDD) and the
    Democratic Renewal Party (PRD), Pascal Chabi KAO; Alliance of the Social
    Democratic Party (PSD) and the National Union for Solidarity and Progress
    (UNSP), Bruno AMOUSSOU; Our Common Cause (NCC), Albert TEVOEDJRE; National
    Rally for Democracy (RND), Joseph KEKE; Alliance of the National Movement
    for Democracy and Development (MNDD), Bertin BORNA; Movement for Solidarity,
    Union, and Progress (MSUP), Adebo ADENIYI; and Union for Democracy and
    National Reconstruction (UDRN), Azaria FAKOREDE; Union for Democracy and
    National Solidarity (UDS), Mama Amadou N'DIAYE; Assembly of Liberal
    Democrats for National Reconstruction (RDL), Severin ADJOVI; Alliance of the
    Alliance for Social Democracy (ASD), Robert DOSSOU, and Bloc for Social
    Democracy (BSD), Michel MAGNIDE; Alliance of the Alliance for Democracy and
    Progress (ADP), Akindes ADEKPEDJOU, and Democratic Union for Social Renewal
    (UDRS), Bio Gado Seko N'GOYE; National Union for Democracy and Progress
    (UNDP), Robert TAGNON; numerous other small parties
Suffrage:
    universal at age 18
Elections:
  National Assembly:
    last held 10 and 24 March 1991; results - percent of vote by party NA; seats
    - (64 total) UDFP-MDPS-ULD 12, PNDD/PRD 9, PSD/UNSP 8, NCC 7, RND 7,
    MNDD/MSUP/UDRN 6, UDS 5, RDL 4, ASD/BSD 3, ADP/UDRS 2, UNDP 1
  President:
    last held 10 and 24 March 1991; results - Nicephore SOGLO 68%, Mathieu
    KEREKOU 32%
Communists:
    Communist Party of Dahomey (PCD) remains active

:Benin Government

Member of:
    ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CEAO, ECA, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, GATT, IBRD,
    ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU,
    LORCS, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WADB, WCL, WHO, WIPO,
    WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
    Ambassador Candide AHOUANSOU; Chancery at 2737 Cathedral Avenue NW,
    Washington, DC 20008; telephone (202) 232-6656
  US:
    Ambassador Harriet W. ISOM; Embassy at Rue Caporal Anani Bernard, Cotonou
    (mailing address is B. P. 2012, Cotonou); telephone [229] 30-06-50,
    30-05-13, 30-17-92; FAX [229] 30-14-39 and 30-19-74
Flag:
    two equal horizontal bands of yellow (top) and red with a vertical green
    band on the hoist side

:Benin Economy

Overview:
    Benin is one of the least developed countries in the world because of
    limited natural resources and a poorly developed infrastructure. Agriculture
    accounts for about 35% of GDP, employs about 60% of the labor force, and
    generates a major share of foreign exchange earnings. The industrial sector
    contributes only about 15% to GDP and employs 2% of the work force. Low
    prices in recent years have kept down hard currency earnings from Benin's
    major exports of agricultural products and crude oil.
GDP:
    exchange rate conversion - $2.0 billion, per capita $410; real growth rate
    3% (1991)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    3.0% (1990)
Unemployment rate:
    NA%
Budget:
    revenues $194 million; expenditures $390 million, including capital
    expenditures of $104 million (1990 est.)
Exports:
    $263.3 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.)
  commodities:
    crude oil, cotton, palm products, cocoa
  partners:
    FRG 36%, France 16%, Spain 14%, Italy 8%, UK 4%
Imports:
    $428 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.)
  commodities:
    foodstuffs, beverages, tobacco, petroleum products, intermediate goods,
    capital goods, light consumer goods
  partners:
    France 34%, Netherlands 10%, Japan 7%, Italy 6%, US 4%
External debt:
    $1.0 billion (December 1990 est.)
Industrial production:
    growth rate --0.7% (1988); accounts for 15% of GDP
Electricity:
    30,000 kW capacity; 25 million kWh produced, 5 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
    textiles, cigarettes, construction materials, beverages, food production,
    petroleum
Agriculture:
    small farms produce 90% of agricultural output; production is dominated by
    food crops - corn, sorghum, cassava, beans, and rice; cash crops include
    cotton, palm oil, and peanuts; poultry and livestock output has not kept up
    with consumption
Economic aid:
    US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $46 million; Western (non-US)
    countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $1,300 million; OPEC
    bilateral aid (1979-89), $19 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $101
    million
Currency:
    Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (plural - francs); 1 CFA franc (CFAF)
    = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
    Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 269.01 (January
    1992), 282.11 (1991), 272.26 (1990), 319.01 (1989), 297.85 (1988), 300.54
    (1987)
Fiscal year:
    calendar year

:Benin Communications

Railroads:
    578 km, all 1.000-meter gauge, single track
Highways:
    5,050 km total; 920 km paved, 2,600 laterite, 1,530 km improved earth
Inland waterways:
    navigable along small sections, important only locally
Ports:
    Cotonou
Civil air:
    no major transport aircraft
Airports:
    6 total, 5 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over
    2,439 m; 4 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
    fair system of open wire, submarine cable, and radio relay; broadcast
    stations - 2 AM, 2 FM, 2 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

:Benin Defense Forces

Branches:
    Armed Forces (including Army, Navy, Air Force), National Gendarmerie
Manpower availability:
    eligible 15-49, 2,165,515; of the 1,031,738 males 15-49, 528,366 are fit for
    military service; of the 1,133,777 females 15-49, 572,603 are fit for
    military service; about 55,697 males and 53,786 females reach military age
    (18) annually; both sexes are liable for military service
Defense expenditures:
    exchange rate conversion - $29 million, 1.7% of GDP (1988 est.)

:Bermuda Geography

Total area:
    50 km2
Land area:
    50 km2
Comparative area:
    about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
    none
Coastline:
    103 km
Maritime claims:
  Exclusive fishing zone:
    200 nm
  Territorial sea:
    12 nm
Climate:
    subtropical; mild, humid; gales, strong winds common in winter
Terrain:
    low hills separated by fertile depressions
Natural resources:
    limestone, pleasant climate fostering tourism
Land use:
    arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 0%; forest and
    woodland 20%; other 80%
Environment:
    ample rainfall, but no rivers or freshwater lakes; consists of about 360
    small coral islands
Note:
    1,050 km east of North Carolina; some reclaimed land leased by US Government

:Bermuda People

Population:
    60,213 (July 1992), growth rate 0.8% (1992)
Birth rate:
    15 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
    7 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
    NEGL migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
    13 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
    73 years male, 77 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
    1.8 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
    noun - Bermudian(s); adjective - Bermudian
Ethnic divisions:
    black 61%, white and other 39%
Religions:
    Anglican 37%, Roman Catholic 14%, African Methodist Episcopal (Zion) 10%,
    Methodist 6%, Seventh-Day Adventist 5%, other 28%
Languages:
    English
Literacy:
    98% (male 98%, female 99%) age 15 and over can read and write (1970)
Labor force:
    32,000; clerical 25%, services 22%, laborers 21%, professional and technical
    13%, administrative and managerial 10%, sales 7%, agriculture and fishing 2%
    (1984)
Organized labor:
    8,573 members (1985); largest union is Bermuda Industrial Union

:Bermuda Government

Long-form name:
    none
Type:
    dependent territory of the UK
Capital:
    Hamilton
Administrative divisions:
    9 parishes and 2 municipalities*; Devonshire, Hamilton, Hamilton*, Paget,
    Pembroke, Saint George*, Saint George's, Sandys, Smiths, Southampton,
    Warwick
Independence:
    none (dependent territory of the UK)
Constitution:
    8 June 1968
Legal system:
    English law
National holiday:
    Bermuda Day, 22 May
Executive branch:
    British monarch, governor, deputy governor, premier, deputy premier,
    Executive Council (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
    bicameral Parliament consists of an upper house or Senate and a lower house
    or House of Assembly
Judicial branch:
    Supreme Court
Leaders:
  Chief of State:
    Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor Lord
    David WADDINGTON
  Head of Government:
    Premier John William David SWAN (since January 1982)
Political parties and leaders:
    United Bermuda Party (UBP), John W. D. SWAN; Progressive Labor Party (PLP),
    Frederick WADE; National Liberal Party (NLP), Gilbert DARRELL
Suffrage:
    universal at age 21
Elections:
  House of Assembly:
    last held 9 February 1989 (next to be held by February 1994); results -
    percent of vote by party NA; seats - (40 total) UBP 23, PLP 15, NLP 1, other
    1
Other political or pressure groups:
    Bermuda Industrial Union (BIU), headed by Ottiwell SIMMONS
Member of:
    CARICOM (observer), CCC, ICFTU, IOC
Diplomatic representation:
    as a dependent territory of the UK, Bermuda's interests in the US are
    represented by the UK
  US:
    Consul General L. Ebersole GAINES; Consulate General at Crown Hill, 16
    Middle Road, Devonshire, Hamilton (mailing address is P. O. Box HM325,
    Hamilton HMBX; PSC 1002, FPO AE 09727-1002); telephone (809) 295-1342; FAX
    (809) 295-1592
Flag:
    red with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the
    Bermudian coat of arms (white and blue shield with a red lion holding a
    scrolled shield showing the sinking of the ship Sea Venture off Bermuda in
    1609) centered on the outer half of the flag

:Bermuda Economy

Overview:
    Bermuda enjoys one of the highest per capita incomes in the world, having
    successfully exploited its location by providing luxury tourist facilities
    and financial services. The tourist industry attracts more than 90% of its
    business from North America. The industrial sector is small, and agriculture
    is severely limited by a lack of suitable land. About 80% of food needs are
    imported.
GDP:
    purchasing power equivalent - $1.3 billion, per capita $22,400; real growth
    rate 2.0% (1989 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    5.8% (June 1989, annual rate)
Unemployment rate:
    2.0% (1988)
Budget:
    revenues $361.6 million; expenditures $396.1 million, including capital
    expenditures of $74.1 million (FY91 est.)
Exports:
    $30 million (f.o.b., FY88)
  commodities:
    semitropical produce, light manufactures
  partners:
    US 25%, Italy 25%, UK 14%, Canada 5%, other 31%
Imports:
    $420 million (c.i.f., FY88)
  commodities:
    fuel, foodstuffs, machinery
  partners:
    US 58%, Netherlands Antilles 9%, UK 8%, Canada 6%, Japan 5%, other 14%
External debt:
    NA
Industrial production:
    growth rate NA%
Electricity:
    154,000 kW capacity; 504 million kWh produced, 8,625 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
    tourism, finance, structural concrete products, paints, pharmaceuticals,
    ship repairing
Agriculture:
    accounts for less than 1% of GDP; most basic foods must be imported;
    produces bananas, vegetables, citrus fruits, flowers, dairy products
Economic aid:
    US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-81), $34 million; Western (non-US)
    countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $277 million
Currency:
    Bermudian dollar (plural - dollars); 1 Bermudian dollar (Bd$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
    Bermudian dollar (Bd$) per US$1 - 1.0000 (fixed rate)
Fiscal year:
    1 April - 31 March

:Bermuda Communications

Highways:
    210 km public roads, all paved (about 400 km of private roads)
Ports:
    Freeport, Hamilton, Saint George
Merchant marine:
    73 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,511,972 GRT/6,093,321 DWT; includes
    4 cargo, 5 refrigerated cargo, 4 container, 7 roll-on/roll-off, 23 petroleum
    tanker, 12 liquefied gas, 18 bulk; note - a flag of convenience registry
Civil air:
    16 major transport aircraft
Airports:
    1 with permanent-surface runways 2,440-3,659 m
Telecommunications:
    modern with fully automatic telephone system; 52,670 telephones; broadcast
    stations - 5 AM, 3 FM, 2 TV; 3 submarine cables; 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT
    earth stations

:Bermuda Defense Forces

Branches:
    Bermuda Regiment, Bermuda Police Force, Bermuda Reserve Constabulary
Note:
    defense is the responsibility of the UK

:Bhutan Geography

Total area:
    47,000 km2
Land area:
    47,000 km2
Comparative area:
    slightly more than half the size of Indiana
Land boundaries:
    1,075 km; China 470 km, India 605 km
Coastline:
    none - landlocked
Maritime claims:
    none - landlocked
Disputes:
    none
Climate:
    varies; tropical in southern plains; cool winters and hot summers in central
    valleys; severe winters and cool summers in Himalayas
Terrain:
    mostly mountainous with some fertile valleys and savanna
Natural resources:
    timber, hydropower, gypsum, calcium carbide, tourism potential
Land use:
    arable land 2%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and pastures 5%; forest and
    woodland 70%; other 23%
Environment:
    violent storms coming down from the Himalayas were the source of the country
    name which translates as Land of the Thunder Dragon
Note:
    landlocked; strategic location between China and India; controls several key
    Himalayan mountain passes

:Bhutan People

Population:
    1,660,167 (July 1992), growth rate 2.3% (1992)
Birth rate:
    40 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
    17 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
    0 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
    126 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
    50 years male, 49 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
    5.5 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
    noun - Bhutanese (singular and plural); adjective - Bhutanese
Ethnic divisions:
    Bhote 60%, ethnic Nepalese 25%, indigenous or migrant tribes 15%
Religions:
    Lamaistic Buddhism 75%, Indian- and Nepalese-influenced Hinduism 25%
Languages:
    Bhotes speak various Tibetan dialects - most widely spoken dialect is
    Dzongkha (official); Nepalese speak various Nepalese dialects
Literacy:
    NA% (male NA%, female NA%)
Labor force:
    NA; agriculture 93%, services 5%, industry and commerce 2%; massive lack of
    skilled labor
Organized labor:
    not permitted

:Bhutan Government

Long-form name:
    Kingdom of Bhutan
Type:
    monarchy; special treaty relationship with India
Capital:
    Thimphu
Administrative divisions:
    18 districts (dzongkhag, singular and plural); Bumthang, Chhukha, Chirang,
    Daga, Geylegphug, Ha, Lhuntshi, Mongar, Paro, Pemagatsel, Punakha, Samchi,
    Samdrup Jongkhar, Shemgang, Tashigang, Thimphu, Tongsa, Wangdi Phodrang
Independence:
    8 August 1949 (from India)
Constitution:
    no written constitution or bill of rights
Legal system:
    based on Indian law and English common law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
    jurisdiction
National holiday:
    National Day (Ugyen Wangchuck became first hereditary king), 17 December
    (1907)
Executive branch:
    monarch, chairman of the Royal Advisory Council, Royal Advisory Council
    (Lodoi Tsokde), chairman of the Council of Ministers, Council of Ministers
    (Lhengye Shungtsog)
Legislative branch:
    unicameral National Assembly (Tshogdu)
Judicial branch:
    High Court
Leaders:
  Chief of State and Head of Government:
    King Jigme Singye WANGCHUCK (since 24 July 1972)
Political parties and leaders:
    no legal parties
Suffrage:
    each family has one vote in village-level elections
Elections:
    no national elections
Communists:
    no overt Communist presence
Other political or pressure groups:
    Buddhist clergy, Indian merchant community; ethnic Nepalese organizations
    leading militant antigovernment campaign
Member of:
    AsDB, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IMF, IOC, ITU, NAM,
    SAARC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO
Diplomatic representation:
    no formal diplomatic relations, although informal contact is maintained
    between the Bhutanese and US Embassies in New Delhi (India); the Bhutanese
    mission to the UN in New York has consular jurisdiction in the US
Flag:
    divided diagonally from the lower hoist side corner; the upper triangle is
    orange and the lower triangle is red; centered along the dividing line is a
    large black and white dragon facing away from the hoist side

:Bhutan Economy

Overview:
    The economy, one of the world's least developed, is based on agriculture and
    forestry, which provide the main livelihood for 90% of the population and
    account for about 50% of GDP. Rugged mountains dominate the terrain and make
    the building of roads and other infrastructure difficult and expensive. The
    economy is closely aligned with that of India through strong trade and
    monetary links. Low wages in industry lead most Bhutanese to stay in
    agriculture. Most development projects, such as road construction, rely on
    Indian migrant labor. Bhutan's hydropower potential and its attraction for
    tourists are its most important natural resources.
GDP:
    exchange rate conversion - $320 million, per capita $200; real growth rate
    3.1% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    12% (FY90)
Unemployment rate:
    NA
Budget:
    revenues $112 million; expenditures $121 million, including capital
    expenditures of $58 million (FY91 est.)
Exports:
    $74 million (f.o.b., FY91)
  commodities:
    cardamon, gypsum, timber, handicrafts, cement, fruit
  partners:
    India 93%
Imports:
    $106.4 million (c.i.f., FY91 est.)
  commodities:
    fuel and lubricants, grain, machinery and parts, vehicles, fabrics
  partners:
    India 67%
External debt:
    $80 million (FY91 est.)
Industrial production:
    growth rate NA; accounts for 18% of GDP
Electricity:
    353,000 kW capacity; 2,000 million kWh produced, 1,280 kWh per capita (1990)
Industries:
    cement, wood products, processed fruits, alcoholic beverages, calcium
    carbide
Agriculture:
    accounts for 50% of GDP; based on subsistence farming and animal husbandry;
    self-sufficient in food except for foodgrains; other production - rice,
    corn, root crops, citrus fruit, dairy, and eggs
Economic aid:
    Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89),
    $115 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $11 million
Currency:
    ngultrum (plural - ngultrum); 1 ngultrum (Nu) = 100 chetrum; note - Indian
    currency is also legal tender
Exchange rates:
    ngultrum (Nu) per US$1 - 25.927 (January 1992), 22.742 (1991), 17.504
    (1990), 16.226 (1989), 13.917 (1988), 12.962 (1987); note - the Bhutanese
    ngultrum is at par with the Indian rupee
Fiscal year:
    1 July - 30 June

:Bhutan Communications

Highways:
    1,304 km total; 418 km surfaced, 515 km improved, 371 km unimproved earth
Civil air:
    1 jet, 2 prop
Airports:
    2 total, 2 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over
    2,439 m; 2 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
    inadequate; 1,990 telephones (1988); 22,000 radios (1990 est.); 85 TVs
    (1985); broadcast stations - 1 AM, 1 FM, no TV (1990)

:Bhutan Defense Forces

Branches:
    Royal Bhutan Army, Palace Guard, Militia
Manpower availability:
    males 15-49, 406,360; 217,348 fit for military service; 17,316 reach
    military age (18) annually
Defense expenditures:
    exchange rate conversion - $NA, NA% of GDP

:Bolivia Geography

Total area:
    1,098,580 km2
Land area:
    1,084,390 km2
Comparative area:
    slightly less than three times the size of Montana
Land boundaries:
    6,743 km; Argentina 832 km, Brazil 3,400 km, Chile 861 km, Paraguay 750 km,
    Peru 900 km
Coastline:
    none - landlocked
Maritime claims:
    none - landlocked
Disputes:
    has wanted a sovereign corridor to the South Pacific Ocean since the Atacama
    area was lost to Chile in 1884; dispute with Chile over Rio Lauca water
    rights
Climate:
    varies with altitude; humid and tropical to cold and semiarid
Terrain:
    rugged Andes Mountains with a highland plateau (Altiplano), hills, lowland
    plains of the Amazon basin
Natural resources:
    tin, natural gas, crude oil, zinc, tungsten, antimony, silver, iron ore,
    lead, gold, timber
Land use:
    arable land 3%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and pastures 25%; forest and
    woodland 52%; other 20%; includes irrigated NEGL%
Environment:
    cold, thin air of high plateau is obstacle to efficient fuel combustion;
    overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification
Note:
    landlocked; shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest navigable lake,
    with Peru

:Bolivia People

Population:
    7,323,048 (July 1992), growth rate 2.3% (1992)
Birth rate:
    33 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
    9 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
    --1 migrant/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
    82 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
    59 years male, 64 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
    4.5 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
    noun - Bolivian(s); adjective - Bolivian
Ethnic divisions:
    Quechua 30%, Aymara 25%, mixed 25-30%, European 5-15%
Religions:
    Roman Catholic 95%; active Protestant minority, especially Evangelical
    Methodist
Languages:
    Spanish, Quechua, and Aymara (all official)
Literacy:
    78% (male 85%, female 71%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
    1,700,000; agriculture 50%, services and utilities 26%, manufacturing 10%,
    mining 4%, other 10% (1983)
Organized labor:
    150,000-200,000, concentrated in mining, industry, construction, and
    transportation; mostly organized under Bolivian Workers' Central (COB) labor
    federation

:Bolivia Government

Long-form name:
    Republic of Bolivia
Type:
    republic
Capital:
    La Paz (seat of government); Sucre (legal capital and seat of judiciary)
Administrative divisions:
    9 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Chuquisaca,
    Cochabamba, Beni, La Paz, Oruro, Pando, Potosi, Santa Cruz, Tarija
Independence:
    6 August 1825 (from Spain)
Constitution:
    2 February 1967
Legal system:
    based on Spanish law and Code Napoleon; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
    jurisdiction
National holiday:
    Independence Day, 6 August (1825)
Executive branch:
    president, vice president, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
    bicameral National Congress (Congreso Nacional) consists of an upper chamber
    or Chamber of Senators (Camara de Senadores) and a lower chamber or Chamber
    of Deputies (Camara de Diputados)
Judicial branch:
    Supreme Court (Corte Suprema)
Leaders:
  Chief of State and Head of Government:
    President Jaime PAZ Zamora (since 6 August 1989); Vice President Luis OSSIO
    Sanjines (since 6 August 1989)
Political parties and leaders:
    Movement of the Revolutionary Left (MIR), Jaime PAZ Zamora; Nationalist
    Democratic Action (ADN), Hugo BANZER Suarez; Nationalist Revolutionary
    Movement (MNR), Gonzalo SANCHEZ de Lozada; Civic Solidarity Union (UCS), Max
    FERNANDEZ Rojas; Conscience of the Fatherland (CONDEPA), Carlos PALENQUE
    Aviles; Christian Democratic Party (PDC), Jorge AGREDO; Free Bolivia
    Movement (MBL), led by Antonio ARANIBAR; United Left (IU), a coalition of
    leftist parties that includes Patriotic National Convergency Axis (EJE-P)
    led by Walter DELGADILLO, and Bolivian Communist Party (PCB) led by Humberto
    RAMIREZ; Revolutionary Vanguard - 9th of April (VR-9), Carlos SERRATE Reich
Suffrage:
    universal and compulsory at age 18 (married) or 21 (single)
Elections:
  Chamber of Deputies:
    last held 7 May 1989 (next to be held May 1993); results - percent of vote
    by party NA; note - legislative and presidential candidates run on a unified
    slate, so vote percentages are the same as in section on presidential
    election results; seats - (130 total) MNR 40, ADN 35, MIR 33, IU 10, CONDEPA
    9, PDC 3
  Chamber of Senators:
    last held 7 May 1989 (next to be held May 1993); results - percent of vote
    by party NA; note - legislative and presidential candidates run on a unified
    slate, so vote percentages are the same as in section on presidential
    election results; seats - (27 total) MNR 9, ADN 7, MIR 8, CONDEPA 2, PDC 1

:Bolivia Government

  President:
    last held 7 May 1989 (next to be held May 1993); results - Gonzalo SANCHEZ
    de Lozada (MNR) 23%, Hugo BANZER Suarez (ADN) 22%, Jaime PAZ Zamora (MIR)
    19%; no candidate received a majority of the popular vote; Jaime PAZ Zamora
    (MIR) formed a coalition with Hugo BANZER (ADN); with ADN support PAZ Zamora
    won the congressional runoff election on 4 August and was inaugurated on 6
    August 1989
Member of:
    AG, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF,
    IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES, LAIA, LORCS, NAM, OAS, OPANAL,
    PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
    Ambassador Jorge CRESPO; Chancery at 3014 Massachusetts Avenue NW,
    Washington, DC 20008; telephone (202) 483-4410 through 4412; there are
    Bolivian Consulates General in Los Angeles, Miami, New York, and San
    Francisco
  US:
    Ambassador Charles R. BOWERS; Embassy at Banco Popular del Peru Building,
    corner of Calles Mercado y Colon, La Paz (mailing address is P. O. Box 425,
    La Paz, or APO AA 34032); telephone [591] (2) 350251 or 350120; FAX [591]
    (2) 359875
Flag:
    three equal horizontal bands of red (top), yellow, and green with the coat
    of arms centered on the yellow band; similar to the flag of Ghana, which has
    a large black five-pointed star centered in the yellow band

:Bolivia Economy

Overview:
    The Bolivian economy steadily deteriorated between 1980 and 1985 as La Paz
    financed growing budget deficits by expanding the money supply, and
    inflation spiraled - peaking at 11,700%. An austere orthodox economic
    program adopted by then President Paz Estenssoro in 1985, however, succeeded
    in reducing inflation to between 10% and 20% annually since 1987, eventually
    restarting economic growth. Since August 1989, President Paz Zamora has
    retained the economic policies of the previous government, keeping inflation
    down and continuing moderate growth. Nevertheless, Bolivia continues to be
    one of the poorest countries in Latin America, with widespread poverty and
    unemployment, and it remains vulnerable to price fluctuations for its
    limited exports - agricultural products, minerals, and natural gas.
    Moreover, for many farmers, who constitute half of the country's work force,
    the main cash crop is coca, which is sold for cocaine processing.
GDP:
    exchange rate conversion - $4.6 billion, per capita $630; real growth rate
    4% (1991)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    15% (1991)
Unemployment rate:
    7% (1991 est.)
Budget:
    revenues $900 million; expenditures $825 million, including capital
    expenditures of $300 million (1991 est.)
Exports:
    $970 million (f.o.b., 1991)
  commodities:
    metals 45%, natural gas 25%, other 30% (coffee, soybeans, sugar, cotton,
    timber)
  partners:
    US 15%, Argentina
Imports:
    $760 million (c.i.f., 1991)
  commodities:
    food, petroleum, consumer goods, capital goods
  partners:
    US 22%
External debt:
    $3.3 billion (December 1991)
Industrial production:
    growth rate 6% (1991); accounts for almost 30% of GDP
Electricity:
    849,000 kW capacity; 1,798 million kWh produced, 251 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
    mining, smelting, petroleum, food and beverage, tobacco, handicrafts,
    clothing; illicit drug industry reportedly produces significant revenues
Agriculture:
    accounts for about 20% of GDP (including forestry and fisheries); principal
    commodities - coffee, coca, cotton, corn, sugarcane, rice, potatoes, timber;
    self-sufficient in food
Illicit drugs:
    world's second-largest producer of coca (after Peru) with an estimated
    47,900 hectares under cultivation; voluntary and forced eradication program
    unable to prevent production from rising to 78,400 metric tons in 1991 from
    74,700 tons in 1989; government considers all but 12,000 hectares illicit;
    intermediate coca products and cocaine exported to or through Colombia and
    Brazil to the US and other international drug markets

:Bolivia Economy

Economic aid:
    US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $990 million; Western (non-US)
    countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $2,025 million;
    Communist countries (1970-89), $340 million
Currency:
    boliviano (plural - bolivianos); 1 boliviano ($B) = 100 centavos
Exchange rates:
    bolivianos ($B) per US$1 - 3.7534 (January 1992), 3.5806 (1991), 3.1727
    (1990), 2.6917 (1989), 2.3502 (1988), 2.0549 (1987)
Fiscal year:
    calendar year

:Bolivia Communications

Railroads:
    3,684 km total, all narrow gauge; 3,652 km 1.000-meter gauge and 32 km
    0.760-meter gauge, all government owned, single track
Highways:
    38,836 km total; 1,300 km paved, 6,700 km gravel, 30,836 km improved and
    unimproved earth
Inland waterways:
    10,000 km of commercially navigable waterways
Pipelines:
    crude oil 1,800 km; petroleum products 580 km; natural gas 1,495 km
Ports:
    none; maritime outlets are Arica and Antofagasta in Chile, Matarani and Ilo
    in Peru
Merchant marine:
    2 cargo and 1 container ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 16,951 GRT/26,320
    DWT
Civil air:
    56 major transport aircraft
Airports:
    1,105 total, 943 usable; 9 with permanent-surface runways; 2 with runways
    over 3,659 m; 7 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 146 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
    radio relay system being expanded; improved international services; 144,300
    telephones; broadcast stations - 129 AM, no FM, 43 TV, 68 shortwave; 1
    Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

:Bolivia Defense Forces

Branches:
    Army, Navy (including Marines), Air Force, National Police Force
Manpower availability:
    males 15-49, 1,727,101; 1,122,224 fit for military service; 72,977 reach
    military age (18) annually
Defense expenditures:
    exchange rate conversion - $80 million, 1.6% of GDP (1990 est).

:Bosnia and Herzegovina Geography

Total area:
    51,233 km2
Land area:
    51,233 km2
Comparative area:
    slightly larger than Tennessee
Land boundaries:
    1,369 km; Croatia (northwest) 751 km, Croatia (south) 91 km, Serbia and
    Montenegro 527 km
Coastline:
    20 km
Maritime claims:
  Contiguous zone:
    NA nm
  Continental shelf:
    20-meter depth
  Exclusive economic zone:
    12 nm
  Exclusive fishing zone:
    12 nm
  Territorial sea:
    12 nm
Disputes:
    Serbia and Croatia seek to cantonize Bosnia and Herzegovina; Muslim majority
    being forced from many areas
Climate:
    hot summers and cold winters; areas of high elevation have short, cool
    summers and long, severe winters; mild, rainy winters along coast
Terrain:
    mountains and valleys
Natural resources:
    coal, iron, bauxite, manganese, timber, wood products, copper, chromium,
    lead, zinc
Land use:
    20% arable land; 2% permanent crops; 25% meadows and pastures; 36% forest
    and woodland; 16% other; includes 1% irrigated
Environment:
    air pollution from metallurgical plants; water scarce; sites for disposing
    of urban waste are limited; subject to frequent and destructive earthquakes
Note:
    Controls large percentage of important land routes from Western Europe to
    Aegean Sea and Turkish Straits

:Bosnia and Herzegovina People

Population:
    4,364,000 (July 1991), growth rate 0.5% (1991)
Birth rate:
    14.5 births/1,000 population (1991)
Death rate:
    6.5 deaths/1,000 population (1991)
Net migration rate:
    NA migrants/1,000 population (1991)
Infant mortality rate:
    15.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)
Life expectancy at birth:
    68 years male, 73 years female (1980-82)
Total fertility rate:
    NA children born/woman (1991)
Nationality:
    noun - Muslim, Serb, Croat (s); adjective - Muslim, Serbian, Croatian
Ethnic divisions:
    Muslim 44%, Serb 33%, Croat 17%
Religions:
    Slavic Muslim 40%, Orthodox 31%, Catholic 15%, Protestant 4%
Languages:
    Serbo-Croatian 99%
Literacy:
    85.5% (male 94.5%, female 76.7%) age 10 and over can read and write (1981
    est.)
Labor force:
    1,026,254; 2% agriculture, industry, mining 45% (1991 est.)
Organized labor:
    NA

:Bosnia and Herzegovina Government

Long-form name:
    none
Type:
    emerging democracy
Capital:
    Sarajevo
Administrative divisions:
    NA
Independence:
    December 1918; April 1992 from Yugoslavia
Constitution:
    NA
Legal system:
    based on civil law system
National holiday:
    NA
Executive branch:
    president, prime minister, deputy prime minister
Legislative branch:
    NA
Judicial branch:
    NA
Leaders:
  Chief of State:
    President Alija IZETBEGOVIC (since December 1990), Vice President NA
  Head of Government:
    Prime Minister Jore PELIVAN (since January 1991), Deputy Prime Minister
    Muhamed CENGIC and Rusmir MAHMUTCEHAJIC (since January 1991)
Political parties and leaders:
    Party of Democratic Action, Alija IZETBEGOVIC; Croatian Democratic Union,
    Mate BOBAN; Serbian Democratic Party, Radovah KARADZIC; Muslim Bosnian
    Organization, Muhamed Zulfikar PASIC; Socialist Democratic Party, Nijaz
    DURAKOVIC
Suffrage:
    at age 16 if employed; universal at age 18
Elections:
    NA
Other political or pressure groups:
    NA
Member of:
    CSCE
Diplomatic representation:
    NA
Flag:
    NA

:Bosnia and Herzegovina Economy

Overview:
    Bosnia and Herzegovina ranked next to Macedonia as the poorest component in
    the old Yugoslav federation. Although agriculture has been almost all in
    private hands, farms have been small and inefficient, and the republic
    traditionally has been a net importer of food. Industry has been greatly
    overstaffed, one reflection of the rigidities of Communist central planning
    and management. Tito had pushed the development of military industries in
    the republic with the result that Bosnia hosted a large share of
    Yugoslavia's defense plants. As of April 1992, the newly independent
    republic was being torn apart by bitter interethnic warfare that has caused
    production to plummet, unemployment and inflation to soar, and human misery
    to multiply. The survival of the republic as a political and economic unit
    is in doubt. Both Serbia and Croatia have imposed various economic blockades
    and may permanently take over large areas populated by fellow ethnic groups.
    These areas contain most of the industry. If a much smaller core Muslim
    state survives, it will share many Third World problems of poverty,
    technological backwardness, and dependence on historically soft foreign
    markets for its primary products. In these circumstances, other Muslim
    countries might offer assistance.
GDP:
    $14 billion; real growth rate --37% (1991)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    80% per month (1991)
Unemployment rate:
    28% (February 1992 est.)
Budget:
    revenues $NA million; expenditures $NA million, including capital
    expenditures of $NA million (19__)
Exports:
    $2,054 million (1990)
  commodities:
    manufactured goods (31%), machinery and transport equipment (20.8%), raw
    materials (18%), miscellaneous manufactured articles (17.3%), chemicals
    (9.4%), fuel and lubricants (1.4%), food and live animals (1.2%)
  partners:
    principally the other former Yugoslav republics
Imports:
    $1,891 million (1990)
  commodities:
    fuels and lubricants (32%), machinery and transport equipment (23.3%), other
    manufactures (21.3%), chemicals (10%), raw materials (6.7%), food and live
    animals (5.5%), beverages and tobacco (1.9%)
  partners:
    principally the other former Yugoslav republics
External debt:
    NA
Industrial production:
    sharply down because of interethnic and interrepublic warfare (1991-92)
Electricity:
    14,400 million kW capacity; NA million kWh produced, 3,303 kWh per capita
    (1991)
Industries:
    steel production, mining (coal, iron ore, lead, zinc, manganese, and
    bauxite), manufacturing (vehicle assembly, textiles, tobacco products,
    wooden furniture, 40% of former Yugoslavia's armaments including tank and
    aircraft assembly, domestic appliances), oil refining

:Bosnia and Herzegovina Economy

Agriculture:
    accounted for 8.6% of national income in 1989; regularly produces less than
    50% of food needs; the foothills of northern Bosnia support orchards,
    vineyards, livestock, and some wheat and corn; long winters and heavy
    precipitation leach soil fertility reducing agricultural output in the
    mountains; farms are mostly privately held, small, and not very productive
Illicit drugs:
    NA
Economic aid:
    US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-87), $NA billion; Western (non-US)
    countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-86), $NA million;
    Communist countries (1971-86), $NA million
Currency:
    none; note - Croatian dinar used in ethnic Croat areas, Yugoslav dinar used
    in all other areas
Exchange rates:
    NA
Fiscal year:
    calendar year

:Bosnia and Herzegovina Communications

Railroads:
    NA km all 1.000-meter gauge (includes NA km electrified)
Highways:
    21,168 km total (1991); 11,436 km paved, 8,146 km gravel, 1,586 km earth
Inland waterways:
    NA km perennially navigable
Pipelines:
    crude oil 174 km, petroleum products NA km, natural gas NA km
Ports:
    maritime - none; inland - Bosanski Brod
Merchant marine:
    NA ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling NA GRT/NA DWT; includes NA cargo, NA
    container, NA liquefied gas, NA petroleum tanker
Civil air:
    NA major transport aircraft
Airports:
    2 main, NA usable; NA with permanent-surface runways; NA with runways over
    3,659 m; NA with runways 2,440-3,659 m; NA with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
    Bosnia's telephone and telegraph network is in need of modernization and
    expansion, many urban areas being below average compared with services in
    other former Yugoslav republics; 727,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 9
    AM, 2 FM, 6 (0 repeaters) TV; 840,000 radios; 1,012,094 TVs; NA submarine
    coaxial cables; satellite ground stations - none

:Bosnia and Herzegovina Defense Forces

Branches:
    Territorial Defense Force
Manpower availability:
    males 15-49, NA; NA fit for military service; 39,000 reach military age (18)
    annually
Defense expenditures:
    $NA, NA% of GDP

:Botswana Geography

Total area:
    600,370 km2
Land area:
    585, 370 km2
Comparative area:
    slightly smaller than Texas
Land boundaries:
    4,013 km; Namibia 1,360 km, South Africa 1,840 km, Zimbabwe 813 km
Coastline:
    none - landlocked
Maritime claims:
    none - landlocked
Disputes:
    none
Climate:
    semiarid; warm winters and hot summers
Terrain:
    predominately flat to gently rolling tableland; Kalahari Desert in southwest
Natural resources:
    diamonds, copper, nickel, salt, soda, ash, potash, coal, iron ore, silver,
    natural gas
Land use:
    urable land 2%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 75%; forest and
    woodland 2%; other 21%; includes irrigated NEGL%
Environment:
    rains in early 1988 broke six years of drought that had severely affected
    the important cattle industry; overgazing; desertification
Note:
    landlocked

:Botswana People

Population:
    1,292,210 (July 1992), growth rate 2.6% (1992)
Birth rate:
    35 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
    8 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
    0 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
    42 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
    59 years male, 65 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
    4.4 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
    noun and ajective - Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)
Ethnic divisions:
    Batswana 95%; Kalanga, Basarwa, and Kgalagadi about 4%; white about 1%
Religions:
    indigenous beliefs 50%, Christian 50%
Languages:
    English (official), Setswana
Literacy:
    23% (male 32%, female 16%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
    400,000; 198,500 formal sector employees, most others are engaged in cattle
    raising and subsistence agriculture (1990 est.); 14,600 are employed in
    various mines in South Africa (1990)
Organized labor:
    19 trade unions

:Botswana Government

Long-form name:
    Republic of Botswana
Type:
    parliamentary republic
Capital:
    Gaborone
Administrative divisions:
    10 districts: Central, Chobe, Ghanzi, Kgalagadi, Kgatleng, Kweneng,
    Ngamiland, North-East, South-East, Southern; note - in addition, there may
    now be 4 town councils named Francistown, Gaborone, Lobaste Selebi-Pikwe
Independence:
    30 September 1966 (from UK; formerly Bechuanaland)
Constitution:
    March 1965, effective 30 September 1966
Legal system:
    based on Roman-Dutch law and local customary law; judicial review limited to
    matters of interpretation; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
    Independence Day, 30 September (1966)
Executive branch:
    president, vice president, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
    bicameral National Assembly consists of an upper house or House of Chiefs
    and a lower house or National Assembly
Judicial branch:
    High Court, Court of Appeal
Leaders:
  Chief of State and Head of Government:
    President Quett K. J. MASIRE (since 13 July 1980); Vice President Peter S.
    MMUSI (since 3 January 1983)
Political parties and leaders:
    Botswana Democratic Party (BDP), Quett MASIRE; Botswana National Front
    (BNF), Kenneth KOMA; Boswana People's Party (BPP), Knight MARIPE; Botswana
    Independence Party (BIP), Motsamai MPHO
Suffrage:
    universal at age 21
Elections:
  National Assembly:
    last held 7 October 1989 (next to be held October 1994); results - percent
    of vote by party NA; seats - (38 total, 34 elected) BDP 35, BNF 3
  President:
    last held 7 October 1989 (next to be held October 1994); results - President
    Quett K. J. MASIRE was reelected by the National Assembly
Communists:
    no known Communist organization; Kenneth KOMA of BNF has long history of
    Communist contacts
Member of:
    ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, FLS, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD,
    IFC, ILO, IMF, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, SACU, SADCC, UN, UNCTAD,
    UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WMO
Diplomatic representation:
    Ambassador Botsweletse Kingsley SEBELE; Chancery at Suite 7M, 3400
    International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008; telephone (202) 244-4990 or
    4991
  US:
    Ambassador Davie PASSAGE; Embassy at Gaborone (mailing address is P. O. Box
    90, Gaborone); telephone [267] 353-982; FAX [267] 356-947
Flag:
    light blue with a horizontal white-edged black stripe in the center

:Botswana Economy

Overview:
    The economy has historically been based on cattle raising and crops.
    Agriculture today provides a livelihood for more than 80% of the population,
    but produces only about 50% of food needs. The driving force behind the
    rapid economic growth of the 1970s and 1980s has been the mining industry.
    This sector, mostly on the strength of diamonds, has gone from generating
    25% of GDP in 1980 to over 50% in 1989. No other sector has experienced such
    growth, especially not agriculture, which is plagued by erratic rainfall and
    poor soils. The unemployment rate remains a problem at 25%. Although diamond
    production remained level in FY91, substantial gains in coal output and
    manufacturing helped boost the economy
GDP:
    purchasing power equivalent - $3.6 billion, per capita $2,800; real growth
    rate 6.3% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    12.6% (1991)
Unemployment rate:
    25% (1989)
Budget:
    revenues $1,935 million; expenditures $1,885 million, including capital
    expenditures of $658 million (FY93)
Exports:
    $1.8 billion (f.o.b. 1990)
  commodities:
    diamonds 80%, copper and nickel 9%, meat 4%, cattle, animal products
  partners:
    Switzerland, UK, SACU (Southern African Customs Union)
Imports:
    $1.6 billion (c.i.f., 1990 est.)
  commodities:
    foodstuffs, vehicles and transport equipment, textiles, petroleum products
  partners:
    Switzerland, SACU (Southern African Customs Union), UK, US
External debt:
    $780 million (December 1990 est.)
Industrial production:
    growth rate 16.8% (FY86); accounts for about 57% of GDP, including mining
Electricity:
    220,000 kW capacity; 630 million kWh produced 858 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
    mining of diamonds, copper, nickel, coal, salt, soda ash, potash; livestock
    processing
Agriculture:
    accounts for only 3% of DGP; subsistence farming predominates; cattle
    raising supports 50% of the population; must import large share of food
    needs
Economic aid:
    US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $257 million; Western (non-US)
    countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $1,875 million; OPEC
    bilateral aid (1979-89), $43 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $29
    million
Currency:
    pula (plural - pula); 1 pula (P) = 100 thebe
Exchange rates:
    pula (P) per US$1 - 2.1683 (March 1992), 2.0173 (1991), 1.8601 (1990),
    2.0125 (1989), 1.8159 (1988), 1.6779 (1987)
Fiscal year:
    1 April - 31 March

:Botswana Communications

Railroads:
    712 km 1.067-meter gauge
Highways:
    11,514 km total; 1,600 km paved; 1,700 km crushed stone or gravel, 5,177 km
    improved earth, 3,037 km unimproved earth
Civil air:
    5 major transport aircraft
Airports:
    100 total, 87 unable; 8 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways
    over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 27 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
    the small system is a combination of open-wire lines, radio relay links, and
    a few radio-communications stations; 26,000 telephones; broadcast stations -
    7 AM, 13 FM, no TV; 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth station

:Botswana Defense Forces

Branches:
    Botswana Defense Force (including Army and Air Wing); Botswana National
    Police
Manpower availability:
    males 15-49, 271,511; 142,947 fit for military service; 14,473 reach
    military age (18) annually
Defense expenditures:
    exchange rate conversion - $136.4 million, 4.4% of GDP (FY92)

:Bouvet Island Geography

Total area:
    58 km2
Land area:
    58 km2
Comparative area:
    about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
    none
Coastline:
    29.6 km
Maritime claims:
  Territorial sea:
    4 nm
Disputes:
    none
Climate:
    antarctic
Terrain:
    volcanic; maximum elevation about 800 meters; coast is mostly inacessible
Natural resources:
    none
Land use:
    arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 0%; forest and
    woodland 0%; other 100% (ice)
Environment:
    covered by glacial ice
Note:
    located in the South Atlantic Ocean 2,575 km south-southwest of the Cape of
    Good Hope, South Africa

:Bouvet Island People

Population:
    uninhabited

:Bouvet Island Government

Long-form name:
    none
Type:
    territory of Norway
Capital:
    none; administered from Oslo, Norway

:Bouvet Island Economy

Overview:
    no economic activity

:Bouvet Island Communications

Ports:
    none; offshore anchorage only
Telecommunications:
    automatic meteorological station

:Bouvet Island Defense Forces

Note:
    defense is the responsibility of Norway

:Brazil Geography

Total area:
    8,511,965 km2
Land area:
    8,456,510 km2; includes Arquipelago de Fernando de Noronha, Atol das Rocas,
    Ilha da Trindade, Ilhas Martin Vaz, and Penedos de Sao Pedro e Sao Paulo
Comparative area:
    slightly smaller than the US
Land boundaries:
    14,691 km; Argentina 1,224 km, Bolivia 3,400 km, Colombia 1,643 km, French
    Guiana 673 km, Guyana 1,119 km, Paraguay 1,290 km, Peru 1,560 km, Suriname
    597 km, Uruguay 985 km, Venezuela 2,200 km
Coastline:
    7,491 km
Maritime claims:
  Continental shelf:
    200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation
  Exclusive fishing zone:
    200 nm
  Territorial sea:
    200 nm
Disputes:
    short section of the boundary with Paraguay (just west of Guaira Falls on
    the Rio Parana) is in dispute; two short sections of boundary with Uruguay
    are in dispute (Arroyo de la Invernada area of the Rio Quarai and the
    islands at the confluence of the Rio Quarai and the Uruguay)
Climate:
    mostly tropical, but temperate in south
Terrain:
    mostly flat to rolling lowlands in north; some plains, hills, mountains, and
    narrow coastal belt
Natural resources:
    iron ore, manganese, bauxite, nickel, uranium, phosphates, tin, hydropower,
    gold, platinum, crude oil, timber
Land use:
    arable land 7%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures 19%; forest and
    woodland 67%; other 6%; includes irrigated NEGL%
Environment:
    recurrent droughts in northeast; floods and frost in south; deforestation in
    Amazon basin; air and water pollution in Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo
Note:
    largest country in South America; shares common boundaries with every South
    American country except Chile and Ecuador

:Brazil People

Population:
    158,202,019 (July 1992), growth rate 1.8% (1992)
Birth rate:
    25 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
    7 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
    0 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
    67 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
    62 years male, 69 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
    3.0 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
    noun - Brazilian(s); adjective - Brazilian
Ethnic divisions:
    Portuguese, Italian, German, Japanese, black, Amerindian; white 55%, mixed
    38%, black 6%, other 1%
Religions:
    Roman Catholic (nominal) 90%
Languages:
    Portuguese (official), Spanish, English, French
Literacy:
    81% (male 82%, female 80%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
    57,000,000 (1989 est.); services 42%, agriculture 31%, industry 27%
Organized labor:
    13,000,000 dues paying members (1989 est.)

:Brazil Government

Long-form name:
    Federative Republic of Brazil
Type:
    federal republic
Capital:
    Brasilia
Administrative divisions:
    26 states (estados, singular - estado) and 1 federal district* (distrito
    federal); Acre, Alagoas, Amapa, Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara, Distrito Federal*,
    Espirito Santo, Goias, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas
    Gerais, Para, Paraiba, Parana, Pernambuco, Piaui, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande
    do Norte, Rio Grande do Sul, Rondonia, Roraima, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo,
    Sergipe, Tocantins; note - the former territories of Amapa and Roraima
    became states in January 1991
Independence:
    7 September 1822 (from Portugal)
Constitution:
    5 October 1988
Legal system:
    based on Latin codes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
    Independence Day, 7 September (1822)
Executive branch:
    president, vice president, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
    bicameral National Congress (Congresso Nacional) consists of an upper
    chamber or Federal Senate (Senado Federal) and a lower chamber or Chamber of
    Deputies (Camara dos Deputados)
Judicial branch:
    Supreme Federal Tribunal
Leaders:
  Chief of State and Head of Government:
    President Fernando Affonso COLLOR de Mello (since 15 March 1990); Vice
    President Itamar FRANCO (since 15 March 1990)
Political parties and leaders:
    National Reconstruction Party (PRN), Daniel TOURINHO, president; Brazilian
    Democratic Movement Party (PMDB), Orestes QUERCIA, president; Liberal Front
    Party (PFL), Hugo NAPOLEAO, president; Workers' Party (PT), Luis Ignacio
    (Lula) da SILVA, president; Brazilian Labor Party (PTB), Luiz GONZAGA de
    Paiva Muniz, president; Democratic Labor Party (PDT), Leonel BRIZOLA,
    president; Democratic Social Party (PPS), Paulo MALUF, president; Brazilian
    Social Democracy Party (PSDB), Tasso JEREISSATI, president; Popular
    Socialist Party (PPS), Roberto FREIRE, president; Communist Party of Brazil
    (PCdoB), Joao AMAZONAS, secretary general; Christian Democratic Party (PDC),
    Siqueira CAMPOS, president
Suffrage:
    voluntary at age 16; compulsory between ages 18 and 70; voluntary at age 70
Elections:
  Chamber of Deputies:
    last held 3 October 1990 (next to be held November 1994); results - PMDB
    21%, PFL 17%, PDT 9%, PDS 8%, PRN 7.9%, PTB 7%, PT 7%, other 23.1%; seats -
    (503 total as of 3 February 1991) PMDB 108, PFL 87, PDT 46, PDS 43, PRN 40,
    PTB 35, PT 35, other 109
  Federal Senate:
    last held 3 October 1990 (next to be held November 1994); results - percent
    of vote by party NA; seats - (81 total as of 3 February 1991) PMDB 27, PFL
    15, PSDB 10, PTB 8, PDT 5, other 16

:Brazil Government

  President:
    last held 15 November 1989, with runoff on 17 December 1989 (next to be held
    November 1994); results - Fernando COLLOR de Mello 53%, Luis Inacio da SILVA
    47%; note - first free, direct presidential election since 1960
Communists:
    less than 30,000
Other political or pressure groups:
    left wing of the Catholic Church and labor unions allied to leftist Worker's
    Party are critical of government's social and economic policies
Member of:
    AfDB, AG (observer), CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, GATT,
    IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT,
    INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, LORCS,
    MERCOSUR, NAM (observer), OAS, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNAVEM, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
    UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WFTU, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
    Ambassador Rubens RICUPERO; Chancery at 3006 Massachusetts Avenue NW,
    Washington, DC 20008; telephone (202) 745-2700; there are Brazilian
    Consulates General in Chicago, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, and New
    York, and Consulates in Dallas, Houston, and San Francisco
  US:
    Ambassador Richard MELTON; Embassy at Avenida das Nacoes, Lote 3, Brasilia,
    Distrito Federal (mailing address is APO AA 34030); telephone [55] (61)
    321-7272; FAX [55] (61) 225-9136; there are US Consulates General in Rio de
    Janeiro and Sao Paulo, and Consulates in PortoAlegre and Recife
Flag:
    green with a large yellow diamond in the center bearing a blue celestial
    globe with 23 white five-pointed stars (one for each state) arranged in the
    same pattern as the night sky over Brazil; the globe has a white equatorial
    band with the motto ORDEM E PROGRESSO (Order and Progress)

:Brazil Economy

Overview:
    The economy, with large agrarian, mining, and manufacturing sectors, entered
    the 1990s with declining real growth, runaway inflation, an unserviceable
    foreign debt of $122 billion, and a lack of policy direction. In addition,
    the economy remained highly regulated, inward-looking, and protected by
    substantial trade and investment barriers. Ownership of major industrial and
    mining facilities is divided among private interests - including several
    multinationals - and the government. Most large agricultural holdings are
    private, with the government channeling financing to this sector. Conflicts
    between large landholders and landless peasants have produced intermittent
    violence. The Collor government, which assumed office in March 1990, is
    embarked on an ambitious reform program that seeks to modernize and
    reinvigorate the economy by stabilizing prices, deregulating the economy,
    and opening it to increased foreign competition. The government in December
    1991 signed a letter of intent with the IMF for a 20-month standby loan.
    Having reached an agreement on the repayment of interest arrears accumulated
    during 1989 and 1990, Brazilian officials and commercial bankers are engaged
    in talks on the reduction of medium- and long-term debt and debt service
    payments and on the elimination of remaining interest arrears. A major
    long-run strength is Brazil's vast natural resources.
GDP:
    exchange rate conversion - $358 billion, per capita $2,300; real growth rate
    1.2% (1991)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    478.5% (December 1991, annual rate)
Unemployment rate:
    4.3% (1991)
Budget:
    revenues $164.3 billion; expenditures $170.6 billion, including capital
    expenditures of $32.9 billion (1990)
Exports:
    $31.6 billion (1991)
  commodities:
    iron ore, soybean bran, orange juice, footwear, coffee
  partners:
    EC 31%, US 24%, Latin America 11%, Japan 8% (1990)
Imports:
    $21.0 billion (1991)
  commodities:
    crude oil, capital goods, chemical products, foodstuffs, coal
  partners:
    Middle East and Africa 22%, US 21%, EC 21%, Latin America 18%, Japan 6%
    (1990)
External debt:
    $118 billion (December 1991)
Industrial production:
    growth rate--0.5% (1991); accounts for 39% of GDP
Electricity:
    58,500,000 kW capacity; 229,824 million kWh produced, 1,479 kWh per capita
    (1991)
Industries:
    textiles and other consumer goods, shoes, chemicals, cement, lumber, iron
    ore, steel, motor vehicles and auto parts, metalworking, capital goods, tin
Agriculture:
    world's largest producer and exporter of coffee and orange juice concentrate
    and second- largest exporter of soybeans; other products - rice, corn,
    sugarcane, cocoa, beef; self-sufficient in food, except for wheat

:Brazil Economy

Illicit drugs:
    illicit producer of cannabis and coca, mostly for domestic consumption;
    government has a modest eradication program to control cannabis and coca
    cultivation; important transshipment country for Bolivian and Colombian
    cocaine headed for the US and Europe
Economic aid:
    US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $2.5 billion; Western (non-US)
    countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $10.2 million; OPEC
    bilateral aid (1979-89), $284 million; former Communist countries (1970-89),
    $1.3 billion
Currency:
    cruzeiro (plural - cruzeiros); 1 cruzeiro (Cr$) = 100 centavos
Exchange rates:
    cruzeiros (Cr$) per US$1 - 1,197.38 (January 1992), 406.61 (1991), 68.300
    (1990), 2.834 (1989), 0.26238 (1988), 0.03923 (1987)
Fiscal year:
    calendar year

:Brazil Communications

Railroads:
    28,828 km total; 24,864 km 1.000-meter gauge, 3,877 km 1.600-meter gauge, 74
    km mixed 1.600-1.000-meter gauge, 13 km 0.760-meter gauge; 2,360 km
    electrified
Highways:
    1,448,000 km total; 48,000 km paved, 1,400,000 km gravel or earth
Inland waterways:
    50,000 km navigable
Pipelines:
    crude oil 2,000 km; petroleum products 3,804 km; natural gas 1,095 km
Ports:
    Belem, Fortaleza, Ilheus, Manaus, Paranagua, Porto Alegre, Recife, Rio de
    Janeiro, Rio Grande, Salvador, Santos
Merchant marine:
    245 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,693,500 GRT/9,623,918 DWT; includes
    3 passenger-cargo, 49 cargo, 1 refrigerated cargo, 13 container, 9
    roll-on/roll-off, 57 petroleum tanker, 15 chemical tanker, 11 liquefied gas,
    14 combination ore/oil, 71 bulk, 2 combination bulk; in addition, 2 naval
    tankers and 4 military transport are sometimes used commercially
Civil air:
    198 major transport aircraft
Airports:
    3,563 total, 2,911 usable; 420 with permanent-surface runways; 2 with
    runways over 3,659 m; 22 with runways 2,240-3,659 m; 550 with runways
    1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
    good system; extensive radio relay facilities; 9.86 million telephones;
    broadcast stations - 1,223 AM, no FM, 112 TV, 151 shortwave; 3 coaxial
    submarine cables, 3 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations and 64 domestic
    satellite earth stations

:Brazil Defense Forces

Branches:
    Brazilian Army, Navy of Brazil (including Marines), Brazilian Air Force,
    Military Police (paramilitary)
Manpower availability:
    males 15-49, 41,515,103; 27,987,257 fit for military service; 1,644,571
    reach military age (18) annually
Defense expenditures:
    exchange rate conversion - $1.1 billion, 0.3% of GDP (1990)

:British Indian Ocean Territory Geography

Total area:
    60 km2
Land area:
    60 km2; includes the island of Diego Garcia
Comparative area:
    about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
    none
Coastline:
    698 km
Maritime claims:
  Territorial sea:
    UK announced establishment of 200-nm fishery zone in August 1991
Disputes:
    the entire Chagos Archipelago is claimed by Mauritius
Climate:
    tropical marine; hot, humid, moderated by trade winds
Terrain:
    flat and low (up to 4 meters in elevation)
Natural resources:
    coconuts, fish
Land use:
    arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 0%; forest and
    woodland 0%; other 100%
Environment:
    archipelago of 2,300 islands
Note:
    Diego Garcia, largest and southernmost island, occupies strategic location
    in central Indian Ocean; island is site of joint US-UK military facility

:British Indian Ocean Territory People

Population:
    no permanent civilian population; formerly about 3,000 islanders
Ethnic divisions:
    civilian inhabitants, known as the Ilois, evacuated to Mauritius before
    construction of UK and US defense facilities

:British Indian Ocean Territory Government

Long-form name:
    British Indian Ocean Territory (no short-form name); abbreviated BIOT
Type:
    dependent territory of the UK
Capital:
    none
Leaders:
  Chief of State:
    Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952)
  Head of Government:
    Commissioner Mr. T. G. HARRIS; Administrator Mr. R. G. WELLS (since NA
    1991); note - both reside in the UK
Diplomatic representation:
    none (dependent territory of UK)
Flag:
    white with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and six blue
    wavy horizontal stripes bearing a palm tree and yellow crown centered on the
    outer half of the flag

:British Indian Ocean Territory Economy

Overview:
    All economic activity is concentrated on the largest island of Diego Garcia,
    where joint UK-US defense facilities are located. Construction projects and
    various services needed to support the military installations are done by
    military and contract employees from the UK and the US. There are no
    industrial or agricultural activities on the islands.
Electricity:
    provided by the US military

:British Indian Ocean Territory Communications

Highways:
    short stretch of paved road between port and airfield on Diego Garcia
Ports:
    Diego Garcia
Airports:
    1 with permanent-surface runways over 3,659 m on Diego Garcia
Telecommunications:
    minimal facilities; broadcast stations (operated by US Navy) - 1 AM, 1 FM, 1
    TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

:British Indian Ocean Territory Defense Forces

Note:
    defense is the responsibility of the UK

:British Virgin Islands Geography

Total area:
    150 km2
Land area:
    150 km2; includes the island of Anegada
Comparative area:
    about 0.8 times the size of Washington, DC
Coastline:
    80 km
Maritime claims:
  Exclusive fishing zone:
    200 nm
  Territorial sea:
    3 nm
Disputes:
    none
Climate:
    subtropical; humid; temperatures moderated by trade winds
Terrain:
    coral islands relatively flat; volcanic islands steep, hilly
Natural resources:
    negligible
Land use:
    arable land 20%; permanent crops 7%; meadows and pastures 33%; forest and
    woodland 7%; other 33%
Environment:
    subject to hurricanes and tropical storms from July to October
Note:
    strong ties to nearby US Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico

:British Virgin Islands People

Population:
    12,555 (July 1992), growth rate 1.2% (1992)
Birth rate:
    20 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
    6 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
    --2 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
    20 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
    71 years male, 75 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
    2.3 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
    noun - British Virgin Islander(s); adjective - British Virgin Islander
Ethnic divisions:
    over 90% black, remainder of white and Asian origin
Religions:
    Protestant 86% (Methodist 45%, Anglican 21%, Church of God 7%, Seventh-Day
    Adventist 5%, Baptist 4%, Jehovah's Witnesses 2%, other 2%), Roman Catholic
    6%, none 2%, other 6% (1981)
Languages:
    English (official)
Literacy:
    98% (male 98%, female 98%) age 15 and over can read and write (1970)
Labor force:
    4,911 (1980)
Organized labor:
    NA% of labor force

:British Virgin Islands Government

Long-form name:
    none
Type:
    dependent territory of the UK
Capital:
    Road Town
Administrative divisions:
    none (dependent territory of the UK)
Independence:
    none (dependent territory of the UK)
Constitution:
    1 June 1977
Legal system:
    English law
National holiday:
    Territory Day, 1 July
Executive branch:
    British monarch, governor, chief minister, Executive Council (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
    unicameral Legislative Council
Judicial branch:
    Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court
Leaders:
  Chief of State:
    Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor P. A.
    PENFOLD (since NA 1991)
  Head of Government:
    Chief Minister H. Lavity STOUTT (since NA 1986)
Political parties and leaders:
    United Party (UP), Conrad MADURO; Virgin Islands Party (VIP), H. Lavity
    STOUTT; Independent Progressive Movement (IPM), Cyril B. ROMNEY
Suffrage:
    universal at age 18
Elections:
  Legislative Council:
    last held 12 November 1990 (next to be held by November 1995); results -
    percent of vote by party NA; seats - (9 total) VIP 6, IPM 1, independents 2
Member of:
    CARICOM (associate), CDB, ECLAC (associate), IOC, OECS, UNESCO (associate)
Diplomatic representation:
    none (dependent territory of UK)
Flag:
    blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the Virgin
    Islander coat of arms centered in the outer half of the flag; the coat of
    arms depicts a woman flanked on either side by a vertical column of six oil
    lamps above a scroll bearing the Latin word
    VIGILATE (Be Watchful)

:British Virgin Islands Economy

Overview:
    The economy, one of the most prosperous in the Caribbean area, is highly
    dependent on the tourist industry, which generates about 21% of the national
    income. In 1985 the government offered offshore registration to companies
    wishing to incorporate in the islands, and, in consequence, incorporation
    fees generated about $2 million in 1987. Livestock raising is the most
    significant agricultural activity. The islands' crops, limited by poor
    soils, are unable to meet food requirements.
GDP:
    purchasing power equivalent - $130 million, per capita $10,600; real growth
    rate 6.3% (1990)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    2.5% (1990 est.)
Unemployment rate:
    NEGL%
Budget:
    revenues $51 million; expenditures $88 million, including capital
    expenditures of $38 million (1991)
Exports:
    $2.7 million (f.o.b., 1988)
  commodities:
    rum, fresh fish, gravel, sand, fruits, animals
  partners:
    Virgin Islands (US), Puerto Rico, US
Imports:
    $11.5 million (c.i.f., 1988)
  commodities:
    building materials, automobiles, foodstuffs, machinery
  partners:
    Virgin Islands (US), Puerto Rico, US
External debt:
    $4.5 million (1985)
Industrial production:
    growth rate--4.0% (1985)
Electricity:
    10,500 kW capacity; 43 million kWh produced, 3,510 kWh per capita (1990)
Industries:
    tourism, light industry, construction, rum, concrete block, offshore
    financial center
Agriculture:
    livestock (including poultry), fish, fruit, vegetables
Economic aid:
    NA
Currency:
    US currency is used
Exchange rates:
    US currency is used
Fiscal year:
    1 April - 31 March

:British Virgin Islands Communications

Highways:
    106 km motorable roads (1983)
Ports:
    Road Town
Airports:
    3 total, 3 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways less than 1,220 m
Telecommunications:
    3,000 telephones; worldwide external telephone service; submarine cable
    communication links to Bermuda; broadcast stations - 1 AM, no FM, 1 TV

:British Virgin Islands Defense Forces

Note:
    defense is the responsibility of the UK

:Brunei Geography

Total area:
    5,770 km2
Land area:
    5,270 km2
Comparative area:
    slightly larger than Delaware
Land boundaries:
    381 km; Malysia 381 km
Coastline:
    161 km
Maritime claims:
  Exclusive fishing zone:
    200 nm
  Territorial sea:
    12 nm
Disputes:
    may wish to purchase the Malaysian salient that divides the country; all of
    the Spratly Islands are claimed by China, Taiwan, and Vietnam; parts of them
    are claimed by Malaysia and the Philippines; in 1984, Brunei established an
    exclusive fishing zone that encompasses Louisa Reef, but has not publicly
    claimed the island
Climate:
    tropical; hot, humid, rainy
Terrain:
    flat coastal plain rises to mountains in east; hilly lowland in west
Natural resources:
    crude oil, natural gas, timber
Land use:
    arable land 1%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures 1%; forest and
    woodland 79%; other 18%; includes irrigated NEGL%
Environment:
    typhoons, earthquakes, and severe flooding are rare
Note:
    close to vital sea lanes through South China Sea linking Indian and Pacific
    Oceans; two parts physically separated by Malaysia; almost an enclave of
    Malaysia

:Brunei People

Population:
    269,319 (July 1992), growth rate 2.9% (1992)
Birth rate:
    27 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
    5 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
    7 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
    26 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
    69 years male, 73 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
    3.5 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
    noun - Bruneian(s); adjective - Bruneian
Ethnic divisions:
    Malay 64%, Chinese 20%, other 16%
Religions:
    Muslim (official) 63%, Buddhism 14%, Christian 8%, indigenous beliefs and
    other 15% (1981)
Languages:
    Malay (official), English, and Chinese
Literacy:
    77% (male 85%, female 69%) age 15 and over can read and write (1981)
Labor force:
    89,000 (includes members of the Army); 33% of labor force is foreign (1988);
    government 47.5%; production of oil, natural gas, services, and construction
    41.9%; agriculture, forestry, and fishing 3.8% (1986)
Organized labor:
    2% of labor force

:Brunei Government

Long-form name:
    Negara Brunei Darussalam
Type:
    constitutional sultanate
Capital:
    Bandar Seri Begawan
Administrative divisions:
    4 districts (daerah-daerah, singular - daerah); Belait, Brunei and Muara,
    Temburong, Tutong
Independence:
    1 January 1984 (from UK)
Constitution:
    29 September 1959 (some provisions suspended under a State of Emergency
    since December 1962, others since independence on 1 January 1984)
Legal system:
    based on Islamic law
National holiday:
    23 February (1984)
Executive branch:
    sultan, prime minister, Council of Cabinet Ministers
Legislative branch:
    unicameral Legislative Council (Majlis Masyuarat Megeri)
Judicial branch:
    Supreme Court
Leaders:
  Chief of State and Head of Government:
    Sultan and Prime Minister His Majesty Paduka Seri Baginda Sultan Haji
    HASSANAL Bolkiah Mu`izzaddin Waddaulah (since 5 October 1967)
Political parties and leaders:
    Brunei United National Party (inactive), Anak HASANUDDIN, chairman; Brunei
    National Democratic Party (the first legal political party and now banned),
    leader NA
Suffrage:
    none
Elections:
  Legislative Council:
    last held in March 1962; in 1970 the Council was changed to an appointive
    body by decree of the sultan and no elections are planned
Member of:
    APEC, ASEAN, C, ESCAP, G-77, ICAO, IDB, IMO, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO
    (correspondent), ITU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UPU, WHO, WMO
Diplomatic representation:
    Ambassador Mohamed KASSIM bin Haji Mohamed Daud; Chancery at 2600 Virginia
    Avenue NW, Suite 3000, Washington, DC 20037; telephone (202) 342-0159
  US:
    Ambassador (vacant); Embassy at Third Floor, Teck Guan Plaza, Jalan Sultan,
    American Embassy Box B, APO AP 96440; telephone [673] (2) 229-670; FAX [673]
    (2) 225-293
Flag:
    yellow with two diagonal bands of white (top, almost double width) and black
    starting from the upper hoist side; the national emblem in red is
    superimposed at the center; the emblem includes a swallow-tailed flag on top
    of a winged column within an upturned crescent above a scroll and flanked by
    two upraised hands

:Brunei Economy

Overview:
    The economy is a mixture of foreign and domestic entrepreneurship,
    government regulation and welfare measures, and village tradition. It is
    almost totally supported by exports of crude oil and natural gas, with
    revenues from the petroleum sector accounting for more than 50% of GDP. Per
    capita GDP of $8,800 is among the highest in the Third World, and
    substantial income from overseas investment supplements domestic production.
    The government provides for all medical services and subsidizes food and
    housing.
GDP:
    exchange rate conversion - $3.5 billion, per capita $8,800; real growth rate
    1% (1990 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    1.3% (1989)
Unemployment rate:
    3.7%, shortage of skilled labor (1989)
Budget:
    revenues $1.3 billion; expenditures $1.5 billion, including capital
    expenditures of $255 million (1989 est.)
Exports:
    $2.2 billion (f.o.b., 1990 est.)
  commodities:
    crude oil, liquefied natural gas, petroleum products
  partners:
    Japan 53%, UK 12%, South Korea 9%, Thailand 7%, Singapore 5% (1990)
Imports:
    $1.7 billion (c.i.f., 1990 est.)
  commodities:
    machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, food, chemicals
  partners:
    Singapore 35%, UK 26%, Switzerland 9%, US 9%, Japan 5% (1990)
External debt:
    none
Industrial production:
    growth rate 12.9% (1987); accounts for 52.4% of GDP
Electricity:
    310,000 kW capacity; 890 million kWh produced, 2,400 kWh per capita (1990)
Industries:
    petroleum, petroleum refining, liquefied natural gas, construction
Agriculture:
    imports about 80% of its food needs; principal crops and livestock include
    rice, cassava, bananas, buffaloes, and pigs
Economic aid:
    US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-87), $20.6 million; Western (non-US)
    countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $153 million
Currency:
    Bruneian dollar (plural - dollars); 1 Bruneian dollar (B$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
    Bruneian dollars (B$) per US$1 - 1.7454 (January 1991), 1.8125 (1990),
    1.9503 (1989), 2.0124 (1988), 2.1060 (1987), 2.1774 (1986); note - the
    Bruneian dollar is at par with the Singapore dollar
Fiscal year:
    calendar year

:Brunei Communications

Railroads:
    13 km 0.610-meter narrow-gauge private line
Highways:
    1,090 km total; 370 km paved (bituminous treated) and another 52 km under
    construction, 720 km gravel or unimproved
Inland waterways:
    209 km; navigable by craft drawing less than 1.2 meters
Pipelines:
    crude oil 135 km; petroleum products 418 km; natural gas 920 km
Ports:
    Kuala Belait, Muara
Merchant marine:
    7 liquefied gas carriers (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 348,476 GRT/340,635
    DWT
Civil air:
    4 major transport aircraft (3 Boeing 757-200, 1 Boeing 737-200)
Airports:
    2 total, 2 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runway over
    3,659 m; 1 with runway 1,406 m
Telecommunications:
    service throughout country is adequate for present needs; international
    service good to adjacent Malaysia; radiobroadcast coverage good; 33,000
    telephones (1987); broadcast stations - 4 AM/FM, 1 TV; 74,000 radio
    receivers (1987); satellite earth stations - 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT and 1
    Pacific Ocean INTELSAT

:Brunei Defense Forces

Branches:
    Ground Forces, Navy, Air Force, and Royal Brunei Police
Manpower availability:
    males 15-49, 75,330; 43,969 fit for military service; 2,595 reach military
    age (18) annually
Defense expenditures:
    exchange rate conversion - $233.1 million, 7.1% of GDP (1988)

:Bulgaria Geography

Total area:
    110,910 km2
Land area:
    110,550 km2
Comparative area:
    slightly larger than Tennessee
Land boundaries:
    1,881 km; Greece 494 km, Macedonia 148 km, Romania 608 km, Serbia and
    Montenegro 318 km, Turkey 240 km
Coastline:
    354 km
Maritime claims:
  Contiguous zone:
    24 nm
  Exclusive economic zone:
    200 nm
  Territorial sea:
    12 nm
Disputes:
    Macedonia question with Greece and Macedonia
Climate:
    temperate; cold, damp winters; hot, dry summers
Terrain:
    mostly mountains with lowlands in north and south
Natural resources:
    bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, coal, timber, arable land
Land use:
    arable land 34%; permanent crops 3%; meadows and pastures 18%; forest and
    woodland 35%; other 10%; includes irrigated 11%
Environment:
    subject to earthquakes, landslides; deforestation; air pollution
Note:
    strategic location near Turkish Straits; controls key land routes from
    Europe to Middle East and Asia

:Bulgaria People

Population:
    8,869,161 (July 1992), growth rate --0.5% (1992)
Birth rate:
    12 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
    12 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
    --5 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
    13 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
    69 years male, 76 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
    1.7 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
    noun - Bulgarian(s); adjective - Bulgarian
Ethnic divisions:
    Bulgarian 85.3%, Turk 8.5%, Gypsy 2.6%, Macedonian 2.5%, Armenian 0.3%,
    Russian 0.2%, other 0.6%
Religions:
    Bulgarian Orthodox 85%; Muslim 13%; Jewish 0.8%; Roman Catholic 0.5%; Uniate
    Catholic 0.2%; Protestant, Gregorian-Armenian, and other 0.5%
Languages:
    Bulgarian; secondary languages closely correspond to ethnic breakdown
Literacy:
    93% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can read and write (1970 est.)
Labor force:
    4,300,000; industry 33%, agriculture 20%, other 47% (1987)
Organized labor:
    Confederation of Independent Trade Unions of Bulgaria (KNSB); Edinstvo
    (Unity) People's Trade Union (splinter confederation from KNSB); Podkrepa
    (Support) Labor Confederation, legally registered in January 1990

:Bulgaria Government

Long-form name:
    Republic of Bulgaria
Type:
    emerging democracy, diminishing Communist Party influence
Capital:
    Sofia
Administrative divisions:
    9 provinces (oblasti, singular - oblast); Burgas, Grad Sofiya, Khaskovo,
    Lovech, Mikhaylovgrad, Plovdiv, Razgrad, Sofiya, Varna
Independence:
    22 September 1908 (from Ottoman Empire)
Constitution:
    adopted 12 July 1991
Legal system:
    based on civil law system, with Soviet law influence; has accepted
    compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
    3 March (1878)
Executive branch:
    president, chairman of the Council of Ministers (premier), two deputy
    chairmen of the Council of Ministers, Council of Ministers
Legislative branch:
    unicameral National Assembly (Narodno Sobranie)
Judicial branch:
    Supreme Court; Constitutional Court
Leaders:
  Chief of State:
    President Zhelyu ZHELEV (since 1 August 1990)
  Head of Government:
    Chairman of the Council of Ministers (Premier) Filip DIMITROV (since 8
    November 1991); Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers (Deputy Prime
    Minister) Stoyan GANEV (since 8 November 1991); Deputy Chairman of the
    Council of Ministers Nikolay VASILEV (since 8 November 1991)
Political parties and leaders:
  government:
    Union of Democratic Forces (UDF), Filip DIMITROV, chairman, consisting of
    United Democratic Center, Democratic Party, Radical Democratic Party,
    Christian Democratic Union, Alternative Social Liberal Party, Republican
    Party, Civic Initiative Movement, Union of the Repressed, and about a dozen
    other groups; Movement for Rights and Freedoms (pro-Muslim party) (MRF),
    Ahmed DOGAN, chairman, supports UDF but not officially in coalition with it
  opposition:
    Bulgarian Socialist Party (BSP), formerly Bulgarian Communist Party (BCP),
    Zhan VIDENOV, chairman
Suffrage:
    universalandcompulsoryatage 18
Elections:
  National Assembly:
    last held 13 October 1991; results - BSP 33%, UDF 34%, MRF 7.5%; seats -
    (240 total) BSP 106, UDF 110, Movement for Rights and Freedoms 24
  President:
    last held 12 January 1992; second round held 19 January 1992; results -
    Zhelyu ZHELEV was elected by popular vote
Communists:
    Bulgarian Socialist Party (BSP), formerly Bulgarian Communist Party (BCP),
    501,793 members; several small Communist parties

:Bulgaria Government

Other political or pressure groups:
    Ecoglasnost; Podkrepa (Support) Labor Confederation; Fatherland Union;
    Bulgarian Democratic Youth (formerly Communist Youth Union); Confederation
    of Independent Trade Unions of Bulgaria (KNSB); Nationwide Committee for
    Defense of National Interests; Peasant Youth League; Bulgarian Agrarian
    National Union - United (BZNS); Bulgarian Democratic Center; "Nikola Petkov"
    Bulgarian Agrarian National Union; Internal Macedonian Revolutionary
    Organization - Union of Macedonian Societies (IMRO-UMS); numerous regional,
    ethnic, and national interest groups with various agendas
Member of:
    BIS, CCC, CE, CSCE, EBRD, ECE, FAO, G-9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IIB, ILO,
    IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NACC, NSG, PCA, UN, UNCTAD,
    UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO
Diplomatic representation:
    Ambassador Ognyan PISHEV; Chancery at 1621 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC
    20008; telephone (202) 387-7969
  US:
    Ambassador Hugh Kenneth HILL; Embassy at 1 Alexander Stamboliski Boulevard,
    Sofia (mailing address is APO AE 09213-5740); telephone [359] (2) 88-48-01
    through 05; Embassy has no FAX machine
Flag:
    three equal horizontal bands of white (top), green, and red; the national
    emblem formerly on the hoist side of the white stripe has been removed - it
    contained a rampant lion within a wreath of wheat ears below a red
    five-pointed star and above a ribbon bearing the dates 681 (first Bulgarian
    state established) and 1944 (liberation from Nazi control)

:Bulgaria Economy

Overview:
    Growth in the lackluster Bulgarian economy fell to the 2% annual level in
    the 1980s. By 1990, Sofia's foreign debt had skyrocketed to over $10 billion
    - giving a debt-service ratio of more than 40% of hard currency earnings and
    leading the regime to declare a moratorium on its hard currency payments.
    The post-Communist government faces major problems of renovating an aging
    industrial plant; coping with worsening energy, food, and consumer goods
    shortages; keeping abreast of rapidly unfolding technological developments;
    investing in additional energy capacity (the portion of electric power from
    nuclear energy reached over one-third in 1990); and motivating workers, in
    part by giving them a share in the earnings of their enterprises. Bulgaria's
    new government, led by Prime Minister Filip Dimitrov, is strongly committed
    to economic reform. The previous government, even though dominated by former
    Communists, had taken the first steps toward dismantling the central
    planning system, bringing the economy back into balance, and reducing
    inflationary pressures. The program produced some encouraging early results,
    including eased restrictions on foreign investment, increased support from
    international financial institutions, and liberalized currency trading.
    Small entrepreneurs have begun to emerge and some privatization of small
    enterprises has taken place. The government has passed bills to privatize
    large state-owned enterprises and reform the banking system. Negotiations on
    an association agreement with the EC began in late 1991.
GNP:
    purchasing power equivalent - $36.4 billion, per capita $4,100; real growth
    rate --22% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    420% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
    10% (1991 est.)
Budget:
    revenues NA; expenditures NA, including capital expenditures of $NA billion
    (1991)
Exports:
    $8.4 billion (f.o.b., 1990)
  commodities:
    machinery and equipment 55.3%; agricultural products 15.0%; manufactured
    consumer goods 10.0%; fuels, minerals, raw materials, and metals 18.4%;
    other 1.3% (1990)
  partners:
    former CMEA countries 70.6% (USSR 56.2%, Czechoslovakia 3.9%, Poland 2.5%);
    developed countries 13.6% (Germany 2.1%, Greece 1.2%); less developed
    countries 13.1% (Libya 5.8%, Iran 0.5%) (1990)
Imports:
    $9.6 billion (f.o.b., 1990)
  commodities:
    fuels, minerals, and raw materials 43.7%; machinery and equipment 45.2%;
    manufactured consumer goods 6.7%; agricultural products 3.8%; other 0.6%
  partners:
    former CMEA countries 70.9% (former USSR 52.7%, Poland 4.1%); developed
    countries 20.2% (Germany 5.0%, Austria 2.1%); less developed countries 7.2%
    (Libya 2.0%, Iran 0.7%)
External debt:
    $11.2 billion (1991)
Industrial production:
    growth rate --14.7% (1990); accounts for about 37% of GNP (1990)
Electricity:
    11,500,000 kW capacity; 45,000 million kWh produced, 5,040 kWh per capita
    (1990)

:Bulgaria Economy

Industries:
    machine building and metal working, food processing, chemicals, textiles,
    building materials, ferrous and nonferrous metals
Agriculture:
    accounts for 22% of GNP (1990); climate and soil conditions support
    livestock raising and the growing of various grain crops, oilseeds,
    vegetables, fruits, and tobacco; more than one-third of the arable land
    devoted to grain; world's fourth-largest tobacco exporter; surplus food
    producer
Illicit drugs:
    transshipment point for southwest Asian heroin transiting the Balkan route
Economic aid:
    donor - $1.6 billion in bilateral aid to non-Communist less developed
    countries (1956-89)
Currency:
    lev (plural - leva); 1 lev (Lv) = 100 stotinki
Exchange rates:
    leva (Lv) per US$1 - 17.18 (1 January 1992), 16.13 (March 1991), 0.7446
    (November 1990), 0.84 (1989), 0.82 (1988), 0.90 (1987); note - floating
    exchange rate since February 1991
Fiscal year:
    calendar year

:Bulgaria Communications

Railroads:
    4,300 km total, all government owned (1987); 4,055 km 1.435-meter standard
    gauge, 245 km narrow gauge; 917 km double track; 2,510 km electrified
Highways:
    36,908 km total; 33,535 km hard surface (including 242 km superhighways);
    3,373 km earth roads (1987)
Inland waterways:
    470 km (1987)
Pipelines:
    crude oil 193 km; petroleum products 418 km; natural gas 1,400 km (1986)
Ports:
    Burgas, Varna, Varna West; river ports are Ruse, Vidin, and Lom on the
    Danube
Merchant marine:
    110 ships (1,000 GRT and over) totaling 1,234,657 GRT/1,847,759 DWT;
    includes 2 short-sea passenger, 30 cargo, 2 container, 1 passenger-cargo
    training, 6 roll-on/roll-off, 15 petroleum tanker, 4 chemical carrier, 2
    railcar carrier, 48 bulk; Bulgaria owns 1 ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
    8,717 DWT operating under Liberian registry
Civil air:
    86 major transport aircraft
Airports:
    380 total, 380 usable; about 120 with permanent-surface runways; 20 with
    runways 2,440-3,659 m; 20 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
    extensive radio relay; 2.5 million telephones; direct dialing to 36
    countries; phone density is 25 phones per 100 persons; 67% of Sofia
    households now have a phone (November 1988); broadcast stations - 20 AM, 15
    FM, and 29 TV, with 1 Soviet TV repeater in Sofia; 2.1 million TV sets
    (1990); 92% of country receives No. 1 television program (May 1990); 1
    satellite ground station using Intersputnik; INTELSAT is used through a
    Greek earth station

:Bulgaria Defense Forces

Branches:
    Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, Frontier Troops, Internal Troops
Manpower availability:
    males 15-49, 2,181,421; 1,823,678 fit for military service; 65,942 reach
    military age (19) annually
Defense expenditures:
    exchange rate conversion - 4.413 billion leva, 4.4% of GNP (1991); note -
    conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the current
    exchange rate could produce misleading results

:Burkina Geography

Total area:
    274,200 km2
Land area:
    273,800 km2
Comparative area:
    slightly larger than Colorado
Land boundaries:
    3,192 km; Benin 306 km, Ghana 548 km, Ivory Coast 584 km, Mali 1,000 km,
    Niger 628 km, Togo 126 km
Coastline:
    none - landlocked
Maritime claims:
    none - landlocked
Disputes:
    the disputed international boundary between Burkina and Mali was submitted
    to the International Court of Justice (ICJ) in October 1983 and the ICJ
    issued its final ruling in December 1986, which both sides agreed to accept;
    Burkina and Mali are proceeding with boundary demarcation, including the
    tripoint with Niger
Climate:
    tropical; warm, dry winters; hot, wet summers
Terrain:
    mostly flat to dissected, undulating plains; hills in west and southeast
Natural resources:
    manganese, limestone, marble; small deposits of gold, antimony, copper,
    nickel, bauxite, lead, phosphates, zinc, silver
Land use:
    arable land 10%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and pastures 37%; forest and
    woodland 26%; other 27%, includes irrigated NEGL%
Environment:
    recent droughts and desertification severely affecting marginal agricultural
    activities, population distribution, economy; overgrazing; deforestation
Note:
    landlocked

:Burkina People

Population:
    9,653,672 (July 1992), growth rate 3.1% (1992)
Birth rate:
    49 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
    16 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
    --2 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
    117 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
    52 years male, 53 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
    7.1 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
    noun - Burkinabe (singular and plural); adjective - Burkinabe
Ethnic divisions:
    more than 50 tribes; principal tribe is Mossi (about 2.5 million); other
    important groups are Gurunsi, Senufo, Lobi, Bobo, Mande, and Fulani
Religions:
    indigenous beliefs about 65%, Muslim 25%, Christian (mainly Roman Catholic)
    10%
Languages:
    French (official); tribal languages belong to Sudanic family, spoken by 90%
    of the population
Literacy:
    18% (male 28%, female 9%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
    3,300,000 residents; 30,000 are wage earners; agriculture 82%, industry 13%,
    commerce, services, and government 5%; 20% of male labor force migrates
    annually to neighboring countries for seasonal employment (1984); 44% of
    population of working age (1985)
Organized labor:
    four principal trade union groups represent less than 1% of population

:Burkina Government

Long-form name:
    Burkina Faso
Type:
    military; established by coup on 4 August 1983
Capital:
    Ouagadougou
Administrative divisions:
    30 provinces; Bam, Bazega, Bougouriba, Boulgou, Boulkiemde, Ganzourgou,
    Gnagna, Gourma, Houet, Kadiogo, Kenedougou, Komoe, Kossi, Kouritenga,
    Mouhoun, Namentenga, Naouri, Oubritenga, Oudalan, Passore, Poni, Sanguie,
    Sanmatenga, Seno, Sissili, Soum, Sourou, Tapoa, Yatenga, Zoundweogo
Independence:
    5 August 1960 (from France; formerly Upper Volta)
Constitution:
    June 1991
Legal system:
    based on French civil law system and customary law
National holiday:
    Anniversary of the Revolution, 4 August (1983)
Executive branch:
    President, Council of Ministers
Legislative branch:
    unicameral National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale) was dissolved on 25
    November 1980
Judicial branch:
    Appeals Court
Leaders:
  Chief of State and Head of Government:
    President Captain Blaise COMPAORE (since 15 October 1987)
Political parties and leaders:
    Organization for Popular Democracy (ODP/MT), ruling party; Coordination of
    Democratic Forces (CFD), composed of opposition parties
Suffrage:
    none
Elections:
    the National Assembly was dissolved 25 November 1980; presidential election
    held December 1991 and legislative election scheduled for 24 May 1992
Communists:
    small Communist party front group; some sympathizers
Other political or pressure groups:
    committees for the defense of the revolution, watchdog/political action
    groups throughout the country in both organizations and communities
Member of:
    ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEAO, ECA, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, GATT, IBRD,
    ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC,
    ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, OIC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WADB, WCL,
    WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
    Ambassador Paul Desire KABORE; Chancery at 2340 Massachusetts Avenue NW,
    Washington, DC 20008; telephone (202) 332-5577 or 6895
  US:
    Ambassador Edward P. BYRNN; Embassy at Avenue Raoul Follerau, Ouagadougou
    (mailing address is 01 B. P. 35, Ouagadougou); telephone [226] 30-67- 23
    through 25 and [226] 33-34-22; FAX [226] 31-23-68
Flag:
    two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green with a yellow five-pointed
    star in the center; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

:Burkina Economy

Overview:
    One of the poorest countries in the world, Burkina has a high population
    density, few natural resources, and relatively infertile soil. Economic
    development is hindered by a poor communications network within a landlocked
    country. Agriculture provides about 40% of GDP and is entirely of a
    subsistence nature. Industry, dominated by unprofitable
    government-controlled corporations, accounts for about 15% of GDP.
GDP:
    exchange rate conversion - $2.9 billion, per capita $320 (1988); real growth
    rate 1.3% (1990 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    --0.5% (1989)
Unemployment rate:
    NA%
Budget:
    revenues $275 million; expenditures $287 million, including capital
    expenditures of $NA (1989)
Exports:
    $262 million (f.o.b., 1989)
  commodities:
    oilseeds, cotton, live animals, gold
  partners:
    EC 42% (France 30%, other 12%), Taiwan 17%, Ivory Coast 15% (1985)
Imports:
    $619 million (f.o.b., 1989)
  commodities:
    grain, dairy products, petroleum, machinery
  partners:
    EC 37% (France 23%, other 14%), Africa 31%, US 15% (1985)
External debt:
    $962 million (December 1990 est.)
Industrial production:
    growth rate 5.7% (1990 est.), accounts for about 15% of GDP (1988)
Electricity:
    120,000 kW capacity; 320 million kWh produced, 40 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
    cotton lint, beverages, agricultural processing, soap, cigarettes, textiles,
    gold
Agriculture:
    accounts for about 40% of GDP; cash crops - peanuts, shea nuts, sesame,
    cotton; food crops - sorghum, millet, corn, rice; livestock; not
    self-sufficient in food grains
Economic aid:
    US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $294 million; Western (non-US)
    countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $2.9 billion;
    Communist countries (1970-89), $113 million
Currency:
    Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (plural - francs); 1 CFA franc (CFAF)
    = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
    CFA francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 269.01 (January 1992), 282.11 (1991), 272.26
    (1990), 319.01 (1989), 297.85 (1988), 300.54 (1987)
Fiscal year:
    calendar year

:Burkina Communications

Railroads:
    620 km total; 520 km Ouagadougou to Ivory Coast border and 100 km
    Ouagadougou to Kaya; all 1.00-meter gauge and single track
Highways:
    16,500 km total; 1,300 km paved, 7,400 km improved, 7,800 km unimproved
    (1985)
Civil air:
    2 major transport aircraft
Airports:
    48 total, 38 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways
    over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 8 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
    all services only fair; radio relay, wire, and radio communication stations
    in use; broadcast stations - 2 AM, 1 FM, 2 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT
    earth station

:Burkina Defense Forces

Branches:
    Army, Air Force, National Gendarmerie, National Police, Peoples' Militia
Manpower availability:
    males 15-49, 1,904,647; 971,954 fit for military service; no conscription
Defense expenditures:
    exchange rate conversion - $55 million, 2.7% of GDP (1988 est.)

:Burma Geography

Total area:
    678,500 km2
Land area:
    657,740 km2
Comparative area:
    slightly smaller than Texas
Land boundaries:
    5,876 km; Bangladesh 193 km, China 2,185 km, India 1,463 km, Laos 235 km,
    Thailand 1,800 km
Coastline:
    1,930 km
Maritime claims:
  Contiguous zone:
    24 nm
  Continental shelf:
    edge of continental margin or 200 nm
  Exclusive economic zone:
    200 nm
  Territorial sea:
    12 nm
Disputes:
    none
Climate:
    tropical monsoon; cloudy, rainy, hot, humid summers (southwest monsoon, June
    to September); less cloudy, scant rainfall, mild temperatures, lower
    humidity during winter (northeast monsoon, December to April)
Terrain:
    central lowlands ringed by steep, rugged highlands
Natural resources:
    crude oil, timber, tin, antimony, zinc, copper, tungsten, lead, coal, some
    marble, limestone, precious stones, natural gas
Land use:
    arable land 15%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures 1%; forest and
    woodland 49%; other 34%; includes irrigated 2%
Environment:
    subject to destructive earthquakes and cyclones; flooding and landslides
    common during rainy season (June to September); deforestation
Note:
    strategic location near major Indian Ocean shipping lanes

:Burma People

Population:
    42,642,418 (July 1992), growth rate 1.9% (1992)
Birth rate:
    29 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
    10 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
    0 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
    68 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
    57 years male, 61 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
    3.8 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
    noun - Burmese (singular and plural); adjective - Burmese
Ethnic divisions:
    Burman 68%, Shan 9%, Karen 7%, Rakhine 4%, Chinese 3%, Mon 2%, Indian 2%,
    other 5%
Religions:
    Buddhist 89%, Christian 4% (Baptist 3%, Roman Catholic 1%), Muslim 4%,
    animist beliefs 1%, other 2%
Languages:
    Burmese; minority ethnic groups have their own languages
Literacy:
    81% (male 89%, female 72%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
    16,036,000; agriculture 65.2%, industry 14.3%, trade 10.1%, government 6.3%,
    other 4.1% (FY89 est.)
Organized labor:
    Workers' Asiayone (association), 1,800,000 members; Peasants' Asiayone,
    7,600,000 members

:Burma Government

Long-form name:
    Union of Burma; note - the local official name is Pyidaungzu Myanma
    Naingngandaw, which has been translated by the US Government as Union of
    Myanma and by the Burmese as Union of Myanmar
Type:
    military regime
Capital:
    Rangoon (sometimes translated as Yangon)
Administrative divisions:
    7 divisions* (yin-mya, singular - yin) and 7 states (pyine-mya, singular -
    pyine); Chin State, Irrawaddy*, Kachin State, Karan State, Kayah State,
    Magwe*, Mandalay*, Mon State, Pegu*, Rakhine State, Rangoon*, Sagaing*, Shan
    State, Tenasserim*
Independence:
    4 January 1948 (from UK)
Constitution:
    3 January 1974 (suspended since 18 September 1988)
Legal system:
    martial law in effect throughout most of the country; has not accepted
    compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
    Independence Day, 4 January (1948)
Executive branch:
    chairman of the State Law and Order Restoration Council, State Law and Order
    Restoration Council
Legislative branch:
    unicameral People's Assembly (Pyithu Hluttaw) was dissolved after the coup
    of 18 September 1988
Judicial branch:
    Council of People's Justices was abolished after the coup of 18 September
    1988
Leaders:
  Chief of State and Head of Government:
    Chairman of the State Law and Order Restoration Council Gen. THAN SHWE
    (since 23 April 1992)
Political parties and leaders:
    National Unity Party (NUP; proregime), THA KYAW; National League for
    Democracy (NLD), U AUNG SHWE; National Coalition of Union of Burma (NCGUB),
    SEIN WIN - consists of individuals legitimately elected but not recognized
    by military regime; fled to border area and joined with insurgents in
    December 1990 to form a parallel government
Suffrage:
    universal at age 18
Elections:
  People's Assembly:
    last held 27 May 1990, but Assembly never convened; results - NLD 80%; seats
    - (485 total) NLD 396, the regime-favored NUP 10, other 79
Communists:
    several hundred (est.) in Burma Communist Party (BCP)
Other political or pressure groups:
    Kachin Independence Army (KIA), United Wa State Army (UWSA), Karen National
    Union (KNU) , several Shan factions, including the Shan United Army (SUA)
    (all ethnically based insurgent groups)
Member of:
    AsDB, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO,
    IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO

:Burma Government

Diplomatic representation:
    Ambassador U THAUNG; Chancery at 2300 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008;
    telephone (202) 332-9044 through 9046; there is a Burmese Consulate General
    in New York
  US:
    Ambassador (vacant); Deputy Chief of Mission, Charge d'Affaires Franklin P.
    HUDDLE, Jr.; Embassy at 581 Merchant Street, Rangoon (mailing address is GPO
    Box 521, AMEMB Box B, APO AP 96546); telephone [95] (1) 82055, 82181; FAX
    [95] (1) 80409
Flag:
    red with a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner bearing, all in
    white, 14 five-pointed stars encircling a cogwheel containing a stalk of
    rice; the 14 stars represent the 14 administrative divisions

:Burma Economy

Overview:
    Burma is a poor Asian country, with a per capita GDP of about $500. The
    nation has been unable to achieve any substantial improvement in export
    earnings because of falling prices for many of its major commodity exports.
    For rice, traditionally the most important export, the drop in world prices
    has been accompanied by shrinking markets and a smaller volume of sales. In
    1985 teak replaced rice as the largest export and continues to hold this
    position. The economy is heavily dependent on the agricultural sector, which
    generates about 40% of GDP and provides employment for 65% of the work
    force. Burma has been largely isolated from international economic forces
    and has been trying to encourage foreign investment, so far with little
    success.
GDP:
    exchange rate conversion - $22.2 billion, per capita $530; real growth rate
    5.6% (1991)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    40% (1991)
Unemployment rate:
    9.6% in urban areas (FY89 est.)
Budget:
    revenues $7.2 billion; expenditures $9.3 billion, including capital
    expenditures of $6 billion (1991)
Exports:
    $568 million
  commodities:
    teak, rice, oilseed, metals, rubber, gems
  partners:
    Southeast Asia, India, Japan, China, EC, Africa
Imports:
    $1.16 billion
  commodities:
    machinery, transport equipment, chemicals, food products
  partners:
    Japan, EC, China, Southeast Asia
External debt:
    $4.2 billion (1991)
Industrial production:
    growth rate 2.6% (FY90 est.); accounts for 10% of GDP
Electricity:
    950,000 kW capacity; 2,900 million kWh produced, 70 kWh per capita (1990)
Industries:
    agricultural processing; textiles and footwear; wood and wood products;
    petroleum refining; mining of copper, tin, tungsten, iron; construction
    materials; pharmaceuticals; fertilizer
Agriculture:
    accounts for 40% of GDP (including fish and forestry); self-sufficient in
    food; principal crops - paddy rice, corn, oilseed, sugarcane, pulses;
    world's largest stand of hardwood trees; rice and teak account for 55% of
    export revenues; fish catch of 740,000 metric tons (FY90)
Illicit drugs:
    world's largest illicit producer of opium poppy and minor producer of
    cannabis for the international drug trade; opium production is on the
    increase as growers respond to the collapse of Rangoon's antinarcotic
    programs
Economic aid:
    US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $158 million; Western (non-US)
    countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $3.9 billion;
    Communist countries (1970-89), $424 million

:Burma Economy

Currency:
    kyat (plural - kyats); 1 kyat (K) = 100 pyas
Exchange rates:
    kyats (K) per US$1 - 6.0963 (January 1992), 6.2837 (1991), 6.3386 (1990),
    6.7049 (1989), 6.46 (1988), 6.6535 (1987)
Fiscal year:
    1 April - 31 March

:Burma Communications

Railroads:
    3,991 km total, all government owned; 3,878 km 1.000-meter gauge, 113 km
    narrow-gauge industrial lines; 362 km double track
Highways:
    27,000 km total; 3,200 km bituminous, 17,700 km improved earth or gravel,
    6,100 km unimproved earth
Inland waterways:
    12,800 km; 3,200 km navigable by large commercial vessels
Pipelines:
    crude oil 1,343 km; natural gas 330 km
Ports:
    Rangoon, Moulmein, Bassein
Merchant marine:
    71 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,036,018 GRT/1,514,121 DWT; includes
    3 passenger-cargo, 19 cargo, 5 refrigerated cargo, 3 vehicle carrier, 3
    container, 2 petroleum tanker, 6 chemical, 1 combination ore/oil, 27 bulk, 1
    combination bulk, 1 roll-on/roll-off
Civil air:
    17 major transport aircraft (including 3 helicopters)
Airports:
    85 total, 82 usable; 27 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways
    over 3,659 m; 3 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 38 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
    meets minimum requirements for local and intercity service; international
    service is good; 53,000 telephones (1986); radiobroadcast coverage is
    limited to the most populous areas; broadcast stations - 2 AM, 1 FM, 1 TV
    (1985); 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth station

:Burma Defense Forces

Branches:
    Army, Navy, Air Force
Manpower availability:
    eligible 15-49, 21,447,878; of the 10,745,530 males 15-49, 5,759,840 are fit
    for military service; of the 10,702,348 females 15-49, 5,721,868 are fit for
    military service; 424,474 males and 410,579 females reach military age (18)
    annually; both sexes are liable for military service
Defense expenditures:
    exchange rate conversion - $1.28 billion, FY(91-92)

:Burundi Geography

Total area:
    27,830 km2
Land area:
    25,650 km2
Comparative area:
    slightly larger than Maryland
Land boundaries:
    974 km; Rwanda 290 km, Tanzania 451 km, Zaire 233 km
Coastline:
    none - landlocked
Maritime claims:
    none - landlocked
Disputes:
    none
Climate:
    temperate; warm; occasional frost in uplands
Terrain:
    mostly rolling to hilly highland; some plains
Natural resources:
    nickel, uranium, rare earth oxide, peat, cobalt, copper, platinum (not yet
    exploited), vanadium
Land use:
    arable land 43%; permanent crops 8%; meadows and pastures 35%; forest and
    woodland 2%; other 12%; includes irrigated NEGL%
Environment:
    soil exhaustion; soil erosion; deforestation
Note:
    landlocked; straddles crest of the Nile-Congo watershed

:Burundi People

Population:
    6,022,341 (July 1992), growth rate 3.2% (1992)
Birth rate:
    46 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
    14 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
    0 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
    106 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
    51 years male, 55 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
    6.8 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
    noun - Burundian(s); adjective - Burundi
Ethnic divisions:
    Africans - Hutu (Bantu) 85%, Tutsi (Hamitic) 14%, Twa (Pygmy) 1%; other
    Africans include about 70,000 refugees, mostly Rwandans and Zairians;
    non-Africans include about 3,000 Europeans and 2,000 South Asians
Religions:
    Christian about 67% (Roman Catholic 62%, Protestant 5%), indigenous beliefs
    32%, Muslim 1%
Languages:
    Kirundi and French (official); Swahili (along Lake Tanganyika and in the
    Bujumbura area)
Literacy:
    50% (male 61%, female 40%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
    1,900,000 (1983 est.); agriculture 93.0%, government 4.0%, industry and
    commerce 1.5%, services 1.5%; 52% of population of working age (1985)
Organized labor:
    sole group is the Union of Burundi Workers (UTB); by charter, membership is
    extended to all Burundi workers (informally); active membership figures NA

:Burundi Government

Long-form name:
    Republic of Burundi
Type:
    republic
Capital:
    Bujumbura
Administrative divisions:
    15 provinces; Bubanza, Bujumbura, Bururi, Cankuzo, Cibitoke, Gitega, Karuzi,
    Kayanza, Kirundo, Makamba, Muramvya, Muyinga, Ngozi, Rutana, Ruyigi
Independence:
    1 July 1962 (from UN trusteeship under Belgian administration)
Constitution:
    20 November 1981; suspended following the coup of 3 September 1987; a
    constitutional committee was charged with drafting a new constitution
    created in February 1991; a referendum on the new constitution scheduled for
    March 1992
Legal system:
    based on German and Belgian civil codes and customary law; has not accepted
    compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
    Independence Day, 1 July (1962)
Executive branch:
    president; chairman of the Central Committee of the National Party of Unity
    and Progress (UPRONA), prime minister
Legislative branch:
    unicameral National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale) was dissolved following
    the coup of 3 September 1987; at an extraordinary party congress held from
    27 to 29 December 1990, the Central Committee of the National Party of Unity
    and Progress (UPRONA) replaced the Military Committee for National
    Salvation, and became the supreme governing body during the transition to
    constitutional government
Judicial branch:
    Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)
Leaders:
  Chief of State:
    Major Pierre BUYOYA, President (since 9 September 1987)
  Head of Government:
    Prime Minister Adrien SIBOMANA (since 26 October 1988)
Political parties and leaders:
    only party - National Party of Unity and Progress (UPRONA), Nicolas MAYUGI,
    secretary general; note - although Burundi is still officially a one-party
    state, at least four political parties were formed in 1991 in anticipation
    of proposed constitutional reform in 1992 - Burundi Democratic Front
    (FRODEBU), Organization of the People of Burundi (RPB), Socialist Party of
    Burundi (PSB), Movement for Peace and Democracy (MPD) - the Party for the
    Liberation of the Hutu People (PALIPEHUTU), formed in exile in the early
    1980s, is an ethnically based political party dedicated to majority rule;
    the government has long accused PALIPEHUTU of practicing devisive ethnic
    politics and fomenting violence against the state. PALIPEHUTU's exclusivist
    charter makes it an unlikely candidate for legalization under the new
    constitution that will require party membership open to all ethnic groups
Suffrage:
    universal adult at age NA
Elections:
  National Assembly:
    dissolved after the coup of 3 September 1987; note - The National Unity
    Charter outlining the principles for constitutional government was adopted
    by a national referendum on 5 February 1991

:Burundi Government

Member of:
    ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEEAC, CEPGL, ECA, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, IDA,
    IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTERPOL, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
    UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
    Ambassador Julien KAVAKURE; Chancery at Suite 212, 2233 Wisconsin Avenue NW,
    Washington, DC 20007; telephone (202) 342-2574
  US:
    Ambassador Cynthia Shepherd PERRY; B. P. 1720, Avenue des Etats-Unis,
    Bujumbura; telephone [257] (222) 454; FAX [257] (222) 926
Flag:
    divided by a white diagonal cross into red panels (top and bottom) and green
    panels (hoist side and outer side) with a white disk superimposed at the
    center bearing three red six-pointed stars outlined in green arranged in a
    triangular design (one star above, two stars below)

:Burundi Economy

Overview:
    A landlocked, resource-poor country in an early stage of economic
    development, Burundi is predominately agricultural with only a few basic
    industries. Its economic health depends on the coffee crop, which accounts
    for an average 90% of foreign exchange earnings each year. The ability to
    pay for imports therefore continues to rest largely on the vagaries of the
    climate and the international coffee market. As part of its economic reform
    agenda, launched in February 1991 with IMF and World Bank support, Burundi
    is trying to diversify its export agriculture capability and attract foreign
    investment in industry. Several state-owned coffee companies were privatized
    via public auction in September 1991.
GDP:
    exchange rate conversion - $1.13 billion, per capita $200; real growth rate
    3.4% (1990 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    7.1% (1990 est.)
Unemployment rate:
    NA%
Budget:
    revenues $158 million; expenditures $204 million, including capital
    expenditures of $131 million (1989 est.)
Exports:
    $74.7 million (f.o.b., 1990)
  commodities:
    coffee 88%, tea, hides, and skins
  partners:
    EC 83%, US 5%, Asia 2%
Imports:
    $234.6 million (c.i.f., 1990)
  commodities:
    capital goods 31%, petroleum products 15%, foodstuffs, consumer goods
  partners:
    EC 57%, Asia 23%, US 3%
External debt:
    $1.0 billion (1990 est.)
Industrial production:
    real growth rate 5.1% (1986); accounts for about 10% of GDP
Electricity:
    55,000 kW capacity; 105 million kWh produced, 20 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
    light consumer goods such as blankets, shoes, soap; assembly of imports;
    public works construction; food processing
Agriculture:
    accounts for 60% of GDP; 90% of population dependent on subsistence farming;
    marginally self-sufficient in food production; cash crops - coffee, cotton,
    tea; food crops - corn, sorghum, sweet potatoes, bananas, manioc; livestock
    - meat, milk, hides, and skins
Economic aid:
    US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $71 million; Western (non-US)
    countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $10.2 billion; OPEC
    bilateral aid (1979-89), $32 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $175
    million
Currency:
    Burundi franc (plural - francs); 1 Burundi franc (FBu) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
    Burundi francs (FBu) per US$1 - 193.72 (January 1992), 181.51 (1991), 171.26
    (1990), 158.67 (1989), 140.40 (1988), 123. 56 (1987)
Fiscal year:
    calendar year

:Burundi Communications

Highways:
    5,900 km total; 400 km paved, 2,500 km gravel or laterite, 3,000 km improved
    or unimproved earth
Inland waterways:
    Lake Tanganyika
Ports:
    Bujumbura (lake port) connects to transportation systems of Tanzania and
    Zaire
Civil air:
    no major transport aircraft
Airports:
    6 total, 6 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over
    3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; none with runways 1,220 to 2,439 m
Telecommunications:
    sparse system of wire, radiocommunications, and low-capacity radio relay
    links; 8,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 2 AM, 2 FM, 1 TV; 1 Indian
    Ocean INTELSAT earth station

:Burundi Defense Forces

Branches:
    Army (includes naval and air units); paramilitary Gendarmerie
Manpower availability:
    males 15-49, 1,306,611; 681,050 fit for military service; 59,676 reach
    military age (16) annually
Defense expenditures:
    exchange rate conversion - $28 million, 3.7% of GDP (1989)

:Cambodia Geography

Total area:
    181,040 km2
Land area:
    176,520 km2
Comparative area:
    slightly smaller than Oklahoma
Land boundaries:
    2,572 km; Laos 541 km, Thailand 803 km, Vietnam 1,228 km
Coastline:
    443 km
Maritime claims:
  Contiguous zone:
    24 nm
  Continental shelf:
    200 nm
  Exclusive economic zone:
    200 nm
  Territorial sea:
    12 nm
Disputes:
    offshore islands and three sections of the boundary with Vietnam are in
    dispute; maritime boundary with Vietnam not defined
Climate:
    tropical; rainy, monsoon season (May to October); dry season (December to
    March); little seasonal temperature variation
Terrain:
    mostly low, flat plains; mountains in southwest and north
Natural resources:
    timber, gemstones, some iron ore, manganese, phosphates, hydropower
    potential
Land use:
    arable land 16%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures 3%; forest and
    woodland 76%; other 4%; includes irrigated 1%
Environment:
    a land of paddies and forests dominated by Mekong River and Tonle Sap
Note:
    buffer between Thailand and Vietnam

:Cambodia People

Population:
    7,295,706 (July 1992), growth rate 2.1% (1992)
Birth rate:
    37 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
    15 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
    0 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
    121 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
    48 years male, 51 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
    4.4 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
    noun - Cambodian(s); adjective - Cambodian
Ethnic divisions:
    Khmer 90%, Chinese 5%, other 5%
Religions:
    Theravada Buddhism 95%, other 5%
Languages:
    Khmer (official), French
Literacy:
    35% (male 48%, female 22%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
    2.5-3.0 million; agriculture 80% (1988 est.)
Organized labor:
    Kampuchea Federation of Trade Unions (FSC); under government control

:Cambodia Government

Long-form name:
    none
Type:
    currently administered by the Supreme National Council (SNC), a body set up
    under United Nations' auspices, in preparation for an internationally
    supervised election in 1993 and including representatives from each of the
    country's four political factions
Capital:
    Phnom Penh
Administrative divisions:
    19 provinces (khet, singular and plural) and 2 autonomous cities* Banteay
    Meanchey, Batdambang, Kampong Cham, Kampong Chhnang, Kampong Saom City*,
    Kampong Spoe, Kampong Thum, Kampot, Kandal, Kaoh Kong, Kracheh, Mondol Kiri,
    Phnom Phen City*, Pouthisat, Preah Vihear, Prey Veng, Rotanokiri,
    Siemreab-Otdar Meanchey, Stoeng Treng, Svay Rieng, Takev
Independence:
    8 November 1949 (from France)
Constitution:
    a new constitution will be drafted after the national election in 1993
National holiday:
    NGC - Independence Day, 17 April (1975); SOC - Liberation Day, 7 January
    (1979)
Executive branch:
    a twelve-member Supreme National Council (SNC), chaired by Prince NORODOM
    SIHANOUK, composed of representatives from each of the four political
    factions; faction names and delegation leaders are: State of Cambodia (SOC)
    - HUN SEN; Democratic Kampuchea (DK or Khmer Rouge) - KHIEU SAMPHAN; Khmer
    People's National Liberation Front (KPNLF) - SON SANN; National United Front
    for an Independent, Peaceful, Neutral, and Cooperative Cambodia (FUNCINPEC)
    - Prince NORODOM RANARIDDH
Legislative branch:
    pending a national election in 1993, the incumbent SOC faction's National
    Assembly is the only functioning national legislative body
Judicial branch:
    pending a national election in 1993, the incumbent SOC faction's Supreme
    People's Court is the only functioning national judicial body
Leaders:
  Chief of State:
    SNC - Chairman Prince NORODOM SIHANOUK, under United Nations's supervision
  Head of Government:
    NGC - vacant, formerly held by SON SANN (since July 1982); will be
    determined following the national election in 1993; SOC - Chairman of the
    Council of Ministers HUN SEN (since 14 January 1985)
Political parties and leaders:
    Democratic Kampuchea (DK, also known as the Khmer Rouge) under KHIEU
    SAMPHAN; Cambodian Pracheachon Party or Cambodian People's Party (CPP) (name
    changed and HENG SAMRIN replaced in October 1991) under CHEA SIM; Khmer
    People's National Liberation Front (KPNLF) under SON SANN; National United
    Front for an Independent, Neutral, Peaceful, and Cooperative Cambodia
    (FUNCINPEC) under Prince NORODOM RANNARIDH
Suffrage:
    universal at age 18
Elections:
    UN-supervised election for a 120-member constituent assembly based on
    proportional representation within each province will be held nine months
    after UN-organized voter registration is complete; the election is not
    anticipated before April 1993; the assembly will draft and approve a
    constitution and then transform itself into a legislature that will create a
    new Cambodian Government

:Cambodia Government

Member of:
    AsDB, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL,
    ITU, LORCS, NAM, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
    the Supreme National Council (SNC) represents Cambodia in international
    organizations - it filled UN seat in September 1991
  US:
    Charles TWINNING is the US representative to Cambodia
Flag:
    SNC - blue background with white map of Cambodia in middle; SOC - two equal
    horizontal bands of red (top) and blue with a gold stylized five-towered
    temple representing Angkor Wat in the center

:Cambodia Economy

Overview:
    Cambodia is a desperately poor country whose economic development has been
    stymied by deadly political infighting. The economy is based on agriculture
    and related industries. Over the past decade Cambodia has been slowly
    recovering from its near destruction by war and political upheaval. The food
    situation remains precarious; during the 1980s famine was averted only
    through international relief. In 1986 the production level of rice, the
    staple food crop, was able to meet only 80% of domestic needs. The biggest
    success of the nation's recovery program has been in new rubber plantings
    and in fishing. Industry, other than rice processing, is almost nonexistent.
    Foreign trade has been primarily with the former USSR and Vietnam, and both
    trade and foreign aid are being adversely affected by the breakup of the
    USSR. Statistical data on the economy continue to be sparse and unreliable.
    Foreign aid from the former USSR and Eastern Europe has virtually stopped.
GDP:
    exchange rate conversion - $930 million, per capita $130; real growth rate
    NA (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    53% (1990 est.)
Unemployment rate:
    NA%
Budget:
    revenues $178 million expenditures $NA, including capital expenditures of
    $NA (1991)
Exports:
    $32 million (f.o.b., 1988)
  commodities:
    natural rubber, rice, pepper, wood
  partners:
    Vietnam, USSR, Eastern Europe, Japan, India
Imports:
    $147 million (c.i.f., 1988)
  commodities:
    international food aid; fuels, consumer goods, machinery
  partners:
    Vietnam, USSR, Eastern Europe, Japan, India
External debt:
    $600 million (1989)
Industrial production:
    growth rate NA%
Electricity:
    140,000 kW capacity; 200 million kWh produced, 30 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
    rice milling, fishing, wood and wood products, rubber, cement, gem mining
Agriculture:
    mainly subsistence farming except for rubber plantations; main crops - rice,
    rubber, corn; food shortages - rice, meat, vegetables, dairy products,
    sugar, flour
Economic aid:
    US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $725 million; Western (non-US
    countries) (1970-89), $300 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $1.8
    billion
Currency:
    riel (plural - riels); 1 riel (CR) = 100 sen
Exchange rates:
    riels (CR) per US$1 - 714 (May 1992), 500 (December 1991), 560 (1990),
    159.00 (1988), 100.00 (1987)
Fiscal year:
    calendar year

:Cambodia Communications

Railroads:
    612 km 1.000-meter gauge, government owned
Highways:
    13,351 km total; 2,622 km bituminous; 7,105 km crushed stone, gravel, or
    improved earth; 3,624 km unimproved earth; some roads in disrepair
Inland waterways:
    3,700 km navigable all year to craft drawing 0.6 meters; 282 km navigable to
    craft drawing 1.8 meters
Ports:
    Kampong Saom, Phnom Penh
Airports:
    16 total, 8 usable; 5 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over
    3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 4 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
    service barely adequate for government requirements and virtually
    nonexistent for general public; international service limited to Vietnam and
    other adjacent countries; broadcast stations - 1 AM, no FM, 1 TV

:Cambodia Defense Forces

Branches:
    SOC - Cambodian People's Armed Forces (CPAF); Communist resistance forces -
    National Army of Democratic Kampuchea (Khmer Rouge); non-Communist
    resistance forces - Armee National Kampuchea Independent (ANKI), which is
    sometimes anglicized as National Army of Independent Cambodia (NAIC), and
    Khmer People's National Liberation Armed Forces (KPNLAF) - under the Paris
    peace agreement of October 1991, all four factions are to observe a
    cease-fire and prepare for UN-supervised cantonment, disarmament, and 70%
    demobilization before the election, with the fate of the remaining 30% to be
    determined by the newly elected government - the United Nations Transitional
    Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC) will verify the cease-fire and disarm the
    combatants
Manpower availability:
    males 15-49, 1,877,339; 1,032,102 fit for military service; 61,807 reach
    military age (18) annually
Defense expenditures:
    exchange rate conversion - $NA, NA% of GDP

:Cameroon Geography

Total area:
    475,440 km2
Land area:
    469,440 km2
Comparative area:
    slightly larger than California
Land boundaries:
    4,591 km; Central African Republic 797 km, Chad 1,094 km, Congo 523 km,
    Equatorial Guinea 189 km, Gabon 298 km, Nigeria 1,690 km
Coastline:
    402 km
Maritime claims:
  Territorial sea:
    50 nm
Disputes:
    demarcation of international boundaries in Lake Chad, the lack of which has
    led to border incidents in the past, is completed and awaiting ratification
    by Cameroon, Chad, Niger, and Nigeria; boundary commission created with
    Nigeria to discuss unresolved land and maritime boundaries - has not yet
    convened
Climate:
    varies with terrain from tropical along coast to semiarid and hot in north
Terrain:
    diverse, with coastal plain in southwest, dissected plateau in center,
    mountains in west, plains in north
Natural resources:
    crude oil, bauxite, iron ore, timber, hydropower potential
Land use:
    arable land 13%; permanent crops 2%; meadows and pastures 18%; forest and
    woodland 54%; other 13%; includes irrigated NEGL%
Environment:
    recent volcanic activity with release of poisonous gases; deforestation;
    overgrazing; desertification
Note:
    sometimes referred to as the hinge of Africa

:Cameroon People

Population:
    12,658,439 (July 1992), growth rate 3.3% (1992)
Birth rate:
    44 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
    11 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
    0 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
    81 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
    55 years male, 60 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
    6.4 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
    noun - Cameroonian(s); adjective - Cameroonian
Ethnic divisions:
    over 200 tribes of widely differing background; Cameroon Highlanders 31%,
    Equatorial Bantu 19%, Kirdi 11%, Fulani 10%, Northwestern Bantu 8%, Eastern
    Nigritic 7%, other African 13%, non-African less than 1%
Religions:
    indigenous beliefs 51%, Christian 33%, Muslim 16%
Languages:
    English and French (official), 24 major African language groups
Literacy:
    54% (male 66%, female 43%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
    NA; agriculture 74.4%, industry and transport 11.4%, other services 14.2%
    (1983); 50% of population of working age (15-64 years) (1985)
Organized labor:
    under 45% of wage labor force

:Cameroon Government

Long-form name:
    Republic of Cameroon
Type:
    unitary republic; multiparty presidential regime (opposition parties
    legalized 1990)
Capital:
    Yaounde
Administrative divisions:
    10 provinces; Adamaoua, Centre, Est, Extreme-Nord, Littoral, Nord,
    Nord-Ouest, Ouest, Sud, Sud-Ouest
Independence:
    1 January 1960 (from UN trusteeship under French administration; formerly
    French Cameroon)
Constitution:
    20 May 1972
Legal system:
    based on French civil law system, with common law influence; has not
    accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
    National Day, 20 May (1972)
Executive branch:
    president, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
    unicameral National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale)
Judicial branch:
    Supreme Court
Leaders:
  Chief of State:
    President Paul BIYA (since 6 November 1982)
  Head of Government:
    interim Prime Minister Sadou HAYATOU (since 25 April 1991)
Political parties and leaders:
    Cameroon People's Democratic Movement (RDPC), Paul BIYA, president, is
    government-controlled and was formerly the only party; numerous small
    parties formed since opposition parties were legalized in 1990
Suffrage:
    universal at age 20
Elections:
  National Assembly:
    next to be held 1 March 1992
  President:
    last held 24 April 1988 (next to be held April 1993); results - President
    Paul BIYA reelected without opposition
Other political or pressure groups:
    NA
Member of:
    ACCT (associate), ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CCC, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-19, G-77,
    GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT,
    INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, OIC, PCA, UDEAC, UN, UNCTAD,
    UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
    Ambassador Paul PONDI; Chancery at 2349 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington,
    DC 20008; telephone (202) 265-8790 through 8794
  US:
    Ambassador Frances D. COOK; Embassy at Rue Nachtigal, Yaounde (mailing
    address is B. P. 817, Yaounde); telephone [237] 234014; FAX [237] 230753;
    there is a US Consulate General in Douala

:Cameroon Government

Flag:
    three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), red, and yellow with a
    yellow five-pointed star centered in the red band; uses the popular
    pan-African colors of Ethiopia

:Cameroon Economy

Overview:
    Because of its offshore oil resources, Cameroon has one of the highest
    incomes per capita in tropical Africa. Still, it faces many of the serious
    problems facing other underdeveloped countries, such as political
    instability, a top-heavy civil service, and a generally unfavorable climate
    for business enterprise. The development of the oil sector led rapid
    economic growth between 1970 and 1985. Growth came to an abrupt halt in 1986
    precipitated by steep declines in the prices of major exports: coffee,
    cocoa, and petroleum. Export earnings were cut by almost one-third, and
    inefficiencies in fiscal management were exposed. In 1990-92, with support
    from the IMF and World Bank, the government has begun to introduce reforms
    designed to spur business investment, increase efficiency in agriculture,
    and recapitalize the nation's banks. Nationwide strikes organized by
    opposition parties in 1991, however, undermined these efforts.
GDP:
    exchange rate conversion - $11.5 billion, per capita $1,040; real growth
    rate 0.7% (1990 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    8.6% (FY88)
Unemployment rate:
    25% (1990 est.)
Budget:
    revenues $1.2 billion; expenditures $1.8 billion, including capital
    expenditures of $NA million (FY89)
Exports:
    $2.1 billion (f.o.b., 1990 est.)
  commodities:
    petroleum products 56%, coffee, cocoa, timber, manufactures
  partners:
    EC (particularly France) about 50%, US 10%
Imports:
    $2.1 billion (c.i.f., 1990 est.)
  commodities:
    machines and electrical equipment, transport equipment, chemical products,
    consumer goods
  partners:
    France 41%, Germany 9%, US 4%
External debt:
    $4.9 billion (December 1989 est.)
Industrial production:
    growth rate - 6.4% (FY87); accounts for 30% of GDP
Electricity:
    755,000 kW capacity; 2,940 million kWh produced, 270 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
    crude oil products, food processing, light consumer goods, textiles,
    sawmills
Agriculture:
    the agriculture and forestry sectors provide employment for the majority of
    the population, contributing nearly 25% to GDP and providing a high degree
    of self-sufficiency in staple foods; commercial and food crops include
    coffee, cocoa, timber, cotton, rubber, bananas, oilseed, grains, livestock,
    root starches
Economic aid:
    US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $440 million; Western (non-US)
    countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $4.5 billion; OPEC
    bilateral aid (1979-89), $29 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $125
    million

:Cameroon Economy

Currency:
    Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (plural - francs); 1 CFA franc (CFAF)
    = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
    Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 269.01 (January
    1992), 282.11 (1991), 272.26 (1990), 319.01 (1989), 297.85 (1988), 300.54
    (1987)
Fiscal year:
    1 July - 30 June

:Cameroon Communications

Railroads:
    1,003 km total; 858 km 1.000-meter gauge, 145 km 0.600-meter gauge
Highways:
    about 65,000 km total; includes 2,682 km paved, 32,318 km gravel and
    improved earth, and 30,000 km of unimproved earth
Inland waterways:
    2,090 km; of decreasing importance
Ports:
    Douala
Merchant marine:
    2 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 24,122 GRT/33,509 DWT
Civil air:
    5 major transport aircraft
Airports:
    56 total, 50 usable; 10 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runways over
    3,659 m; 5 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 21 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
    good system of open wire, cable, troposcatter, and radio relay; 26,000
    telephones; broadcast stations - 11 AM, 11 FM, 1 TV; 2 Atlantic Ocean
    INTELSAT earth stations

:Cameroon Defense Forces

Branches:
    Army, Navy (including naval infantry), Air Force; National Gendarmerie,
    Presidential Guards
Manpower availability:
    males 15-49, 2,753,059; 1,385,706 fit for military service; 120,011 reach
    military age (18) annually
Defense expenditures:
    exchange rate conversion - $219 million, 1.7% of GDP (1990 est.)

:Canada Geography

Total area:
    9,976,140 km2
Land area:
    9,220,970 km2
Comparative area:
    slightly larger than US
Land boundaries:
    8,893 km with US (includes 2,477 km with Alaska)
Coastline:
    243,791 km
Maritime claims:
  Continental shelf:
    200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation
  Exclusive fishing zone:
    200 nm
  Territorial sea:
    12 nm
Disputes:
    maritime boundary disputes with the US
Climate:
    varies from temperate in south to subarctic and arctic in north
Terrain:
    mostly plains with mountains in west and lowlands in southeast
Natural resources:
    nickel, zinc, copper, gold, lead, molybdenum, potash, silver, fish, timber,
    wildlife, coal, crude oil, natural gas
Land use:
    arable land 5%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and pastures 3%; forest and
    woodland 35%; other 57%; includes NEGL% irrigated
Environment:
    80% of population concentrated within 160 km of US border; continuous
    permafrost in north a serious obstacle to development
Note:
    second-largest country in world (after Russia); strategic location between
    Russia and US via north polar route

:Canada People

Population:
    27,351,509 (July 1992), growth rate 1.3% (1992)
Birth rate:
    14 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
    7 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
    6 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
    7 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
    74 years male, 81 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
    1.8 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
    noun - Canadian(s); adjective - Canadian
Ethnic divisions:
    British Isles origin 40%, French origin 27%, other European 20%, indigenous
    Indian and Eskimo 1.5%
Religions:
    Roman Catholic 46%, United Church 16%, Anglican 10%
Languages:
    English and French (both official)
Literacy:
    99% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can read and write (1981 est.)
Labor force:
    13,380,000; services 75%, manufacturing 14%, agriculture 4%, construction
    3%, other 4% (1988)
Organized labor:
    30.6% of labor force; 39.6% of nonagricultural paid workers

:Canada Government

Long-form name:
    none
Type:
    confederation with parliamentary democracy
Capital:
    Ottawa
Administrative divisions:
    10 provinces and 2 territories*; Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New
    Brunswick, Newfoundland, Northwest Territories*, Nova Scotia, Ontario,
    Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Saskatchewan, Yukon Territory*
Independence:
    1 July 1867 (from UK)
Constitution:
    amended British North America Act 1867 patriated to Canada 17 April 1982;
    charter of rights and unwritten customs
Legal system:
    based on English common law, except in Quebec, where civil law system based
    on French law prevails; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with
    reservations
National holiday:
    Canada Day, 1 July (1867)
Executive branch:
    British monarch, governor general, prime minister, deputy prime minister,
    Cabinet
Legislative branch:
    bicameral Parliament (Parlement) consists of an upper house or Senate
    (Senat) and a lower house or House of Commons (Chambre des Communes)
Judicial branch:
    Supreme Court
Leaders:
  Chief of State:
    Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General
    Raymond John HNATSHYN (since 29 January 1990)
  Head of Government:
    Prime Minister (Martin) Brian MULRONEY (since 4 September 1984); Deputy
    Prime Minister Donald Frank MAZANKOWSKI (since June 1986)
Political parties and leaders:
    Progressive Conservative Party, Brian MULRONEY; Liberal Party, Jean
    CHRETIEN; New Democratic Party, Audrey McLAUGHLIN
Suffrage:
    universal at age 18
Elections:
  House of Commons:
    last held 21 November 1988 (next to be held by November 1993); results -
    Progressive Conservative Party 43.0%, Liberal Party 32%, New Democratic
    Party 20%, other 5%; seats - (295 total) Progressive Conservative Party 159,
    Liberal Party 80, New Democratic Party 44, independents 12
Communists:
    3,000
Member of:
    ACCT, AfDB, AG (observer), APEC, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, C, CCC, CDB,
    COCOM, CP, CSCE, EBRD, ECE, ECLAC, FAO, G-7, G-8, G-10, GATT, IADB, IAEA,
    IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT,
    INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS, MTCR, NACC, NATO, NEA, NSG,
    OAS, OECD, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIIMOG,
    UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

:Canada Government

Diplomatic representation:
    Ambassador Derek BURNEY; Chancery at 501 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington,
    DC 20001; telephone (202) 682-1740; there are Canadian Consulates General in
    Atlanta, Boston, Buffalo, Chicago, Cleveland, Dallas, Detroit, Los Angeles,
    Minneapolis, New York, Philadelphia, San Francisco, and Seattle
  US:
    Ambassador Peter TEELEY; Embassy at 100 Wellington Street, K1P 5T1, Ottawa
    (mailing address is P. O. Box 5000, Ogdensburg, NY 13669-0430); telephone
    (613) 238-5335 or (613) 238-4470; FAX (613) 238-5720; there are US
    Consulates General in Calgary, Halifax, Montreal, Quebec, Toronto, and
    Vancouver
Flag:
    three vertical bands of red (hoist side), white (double width, square), and
    red with a red maple leaf centered in the white band

:Canada Economy

Overview:
    As an affluent, high-tech industrial society, Canada today closely resembles
    the US in per capita output, market-oriented economic system, and pattern of
    production. Since World War II the impressive growth of the manufacturing,
    mining, and service sectors has transformed the nation from a largely rural
    economy into one primarily industrial and urban. In the 1980s, Canada
    registered one of the highest rates of real growth among the OECD nations,
    averaging about 3.2%. With its great natural resources, skilled labor force,
    and modern capital plant, Canada has excellent economic prospects. However,
    the continuing constitutional impasse between English- and French-speaking
    areas has observers discussing a possible split in the confederation;
    foreign investors are becoming edgy.
GDP:
    purchasing power equivalent - $521.5 billion, per capita $19,400; real
    growth rate -1.1% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    4.2% (November 1991, annual rate)
Unemployment rate:
    10.3% (November 1991)
Budget:
    revenues $111.8 billion; expenditures $138.3 billion, including capital
    expenditures of $NA (FY90 est.)
Exports:
    $124.0 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
  commodities:
    newsprint, wood pulp, timber, crude petroleum, machinery, natural gas,
    aluminum, motor vehicles and parts; telecommunications equipment
  partners:
    US, Japan, UK, Germany, South Korea, Netherlands, China
Imports:
    $118 billion (c.i.f., 1991)
  commodities:
    crude petroleum, chemicals, motor vehicles and parts, durable consumer
    goods, electronic computers; telecommunications equipment and parts
  partners:
    US, Japan, UK, Germany, France, Mexico, Taiwan, South Korea
External debt:
    $247 billion (1987)
Industrial production:
    growth rate -3.8% (August 1991); accounts for 34% of GDP
Electricity:
    106,464,000 kW capacity; 479,600 million kWh produced, 17,872 kWh per capita
    (1991)
Industries:
    processed and unprocessed minerals, food products, wood and paper products,
    transportation equipment, chemicals, fish products, petroleum and natural
    gas
Agriculture:
    accounts for about 3% of GDP; one of the world's major producers and
    exporters of grain (wheat and barley); key source of US agricultural
    imports; large forest resources cover 35% of total land area; commercial
    fisheries provide annual catch of 1.5 million metric tons, of which 75% is
    exported
Illicit drugs:
    illicit producer of cannabis for the domestic drug market; use of
    hydroponics technology permits growers to plant large quantities of
    high-quality marijuana indoors; growing role as a transit point for heroin
    and cocaine entering the US market

:Canada Economy

Economic aid:
    donor - ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $7.2 billion
Currency:
    Canadian dollar (plural - dollars); 1 Canadian dollar (Can$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
    Canadian dollars (Can$) per US$1 - 1.1565 (January 1992), 1.1457 (1991),
    1.1668 (1990), 1.1840 (1989), 1.2307 (1988), 1.3260 (1987)
Fiscal year:
    1 April - 31 March

:Canada Communications

Railroads:
    93,544 km total; two major transcontinental freight railway systems -
    Canadian National (government owned) and Canadian Pacific Railway; passenger
    service - VIA (government operated)
Highways:
    884,272 km total; 712,936 km surfaced (250,023 km paved), 171,336 km earth
Inland waterways:
    3,000 km, including Saint Lawrence Seaway
Pipelines:
    crude and refined oil 23,564 km; natural gas 74,980 km
Ports:
    Halifax, Montreal, Quebec, Saint John (New Brunswick), Saint John's
    (Newfoundland), Toronto, Vancouver
Merchant marine:
    70 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 500,904 GRT/727,118 DWT; includes 1
    passenger, 3 short-sea passenger, 2 passenger-cargo, 10 cargo, 2 railcar
    carrier, 1 refrigerated cargo, 8 roll-on/roll-off, 1 container, 28 petroleum
    tanker, 5 chemical tanker, 1 specialized tanker, 8 bulk; note - does not
    include ships used exclusively in the Great Lakes
Civil air:
    636 major transport aircraft; Air Canada is the major carrier
Airports:
    1,416 total, 1,168 usable; 455 with permanent-surface runways; 4 with
    runways over 3,659 m; 30 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 338 with runways
    1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
    excellent service provided by modern media; 18.0 million telephones;
    broadcast stations - 900 AM, 29 FM, 53 (1,400 repeaters) TV; 5 coaxial
    submarine cables; over 300 earth stations operating in INTELSAT (including 4
    Atlantic Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean) and domestic systems

:Canada Defense Forces

Branches:
    Canadian Armed Forces (including Mobile Command, Maritime Command, Air
    Command, Communications Command, Canadian Forces Europe, Training Commands),
    Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP)
Manpower availability:
    males 15-49, 7,366,675; 6,387,459 fit for military service; 190,752 reach
    military age (17) annually
Defense expenditures:
    exchange rate conversion - $11.4 billion, 1.7% of GDP (FY91); $10.5 billion,
    NA% of GDP (FY 92)

:Cape Verde Geography

Total area:
    4,030 km2
Land area:
    4,030 km2
Comparative area:
    slightly larger than Rhode Island
Land boundaries:
    none
Coastline:
    965 km
Maritime claims:
    (measured from claimed archipelagic baselines)
  Exclusive economic zone:
    200 nm
  Territorial sea:
    12 nm
Disputes:
    none
Climate:
    temperate; warm, dry, summer; precipitation very erratic
Terrain:
    steep, rugged, rocky, volcanic
Natural resources:
    salt, basalt rock, pozzolana, limestone, kaolin, fish
Land use:
    arable land 9%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and pastures 6%; forest and
    woodland NEGL%; other 85%; includes irrigated 1%
Environment:
    subject to prolonged droughts; harmattan wind can obscure visibility;
    volcanically and seismically active; deforestation; overgrazing
Note:
    strategic location 500 km from African coast near major north-south sea
    routes; important communications station; important sea and air refueling
    site

:Cape Verde People

Population:
    398,276 (July 1992), growth rate 3.0% (1992)
Birth rate:
    48 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
    10 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
    - 8 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
    61 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
    60 years male, 64 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
    6.5 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
    noun - Cape Verdean(s); adjective - Cape Verdean
Ethnic divisions:
    Creole (mulatto) about 71%, African 28%, European 1%
Religions:
    Roman Catholicism fused with indigenous beliefs
Languages:
    Portuguese and Crioulo, a blend of Portuguese and West African words
Literacy:
    66% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can read and write (1989 est.)
Labor force:
    102,000 (1985 est.); agriculture (mostly subsistence) 57%, services 29%,
    industry 14% (1981); 51% of population of working age (1985)
Organized labor:
    Trade Unions of Cape Verde Unity Center (UNTC-CS)

:Cape Verde Government

Long-form name:
    Republic of Cape Verde
Type:
    republic
Capital:
    Praia
Administrative divisions:
    14 districts (concelhos, singular - concelho); Boa Vista, Brava, Fogo, Maio,
    Paul, Praia, Porto Novo, Ribeira Grande, Sal, Santa Catarina, Santa Cruz,
    Sao Nicolau, Sao Vicente, Tarrafal
Independence:
    5 July 1975 (from Portugal)
Constitution:
    7 September 1980; amended 12 February 1981, December 1988, and 28 September
    1990 (legalized opposition parties)
National holiday:
    Independence Day, 5 July (1975)
Executive branch:
    president, prime minister, deputy minister, secretaries of state, Council of
    Ministers (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
    unicameral People's National Assembly (Assembleia Nacional Popular)
Judicial branch:
    Supreme Tribunal of Justice (Supremo Tribunal de Justia)
Leaders:
  Chief of State:
    President Antonio Monteiro MASCARENHAS (since 22 March 1991)
  Head of Government:
    Prime Minister Carlos VEIGA (since 13 January 1991)
Political parties and leaders:
    Movement for Democracy (MPD), Prime Minister Carlos VEIGA, founder and
    chairman; African Party for Independence of Cape Verde (PAICV), Pedro Verona
    Rodrigues PIRES, chairman
Suffrage:
    universal at age 18
Elections:
  People's National Assembly:
    last held 13 January 1991 (next to be held January 1996); results - percent
    of vote by party NA; seats - (79 total) MPD 56, PAICV 23; note - this
    multiparty Assembly election ended 15 years of single-party rule
  President:
    last held 17 February 1991 (next to be held February 1996); results -
    Antonio Monteiro MASCARENHAS (MPD) received 72.6% of vote
Member of:
    ACP, AfDB, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, ILO, IMF, IMO,
    INTERPOL, IOM (observer), ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
    UPU, WCL, WHO, WMO
Diplomatic representation:
    Ambassador Carlos Alberto Santos SILVA; Chancery at 3415 Massachusetts
    Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007; telephone (202) 965-6820; there is a Cape
    Verdean Consulate General in Boston
  US:
    Ambassador Francis T. (Terry) McNAMARA; Embassy at Rua Hoji Ya Henda Yenna
    81, Praia (mailing address is C. P. 201, Praia); telephone [238] 61-43-63 or
    61-42-53; FAX [238] 61-13-55

:Cape Verde Government

Flag:
    two equal horizontal bands of yellow (top) and green with a vertical red
    band on the hoist side; in the upper portion of the red band is a black
    five-pointed star framed by two corn stalks and a yellow clam shell; uses
    the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia; similar to the flag of
    Guinea-Bissau, which is longer and has an unadorned black star centered in
    the red band

:Cape Verde Economy

Overview:
    Cape Verde's low per capita GDP reflects a poor natural resource base, a
    17-year drought, and a high birthrate. The economy is service oriented, with
    commerce, transport, and public services accounting for 65% of GDP during
    the period 1985-88. Although nearly 70% of the population lives in rural
    areas, agriculture's share of GDP is only 16%; the fishing sector accounts
    for 4%. About 90% of food must be imported. The fishing potential, mostly
    lobster and tuna, is not fully exploited. In 1988 fishing represented only
    3.5% of GDP. Cape Verde annually runs a high trade deficit, financed by
    remittances from emigrants and foreign aid. Economic reforms launched by the
    new democratic government in February 1991 are aimed at developing the
    private sector and attracting foreign investment to diversify the economy.
GDP:
    exchange rate conversion - $310 million, per capita $800; real growth rate
    4% (1990 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    10% (1990 est.)
Unemployment rate:
    25% (1988)
Budget:
    revenues $98.3 million; expenditures $138.4 million, including capital
    expenditures of $NA (1988 est.)
Exports:
    $10.9 million (f.o.b., 1989 est.)
  commodities:
    fish, bananas, salt
  partners:
    Portugal 40%, Algeria 31%, Angola, Netherlands (1990 est.)
Imports:
    $107.8 million (c.i.f., 1989)
  commodities:
    petroleum, foodstuffs, consumer goods, industrial products
  partners:
    Sweden 33%, Spain 11%, Germany 5%, Portugal 3%, France 3%, Netherlands, US
    (1990 est.)
External debt:
    $150 million (December 1990 est.)
Industrial production:
    growth rate 18% (1988 est.); accounts for 7% of GDP
Electricity:
    15,000 kW capacity; 15 million kWh produced, 40 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
    fish processing, salt mining, clothing factories, ship repair, construction
    materials, food and beverage production
Agriculture:
    accounts for 16% of GDP; largely subsistence farming; bananas are the only
    export crop; other crops - corn, beans, sweet potatoes, coffee; growth
    potential of agricultural sector limited by poor soils and limited rainfall;
    annual food imports required; fish catch provides for both domestic
    consumption and small exports
Economic aid:
    US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY75-89), $88 million; Western (non-US)
    countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $537 million; OPEC
    bilateral aid (1979-89), $12 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $36
    million
Currency:
    Cape Verdean escudo (plural - escudos); 1 Cape Verdean escudo (CVEsc) = 100
    centavos

:Cape Verde Economy

Exchange rates:
    Cape Verdean escudos (CVEsc) per US$1 - 71.28 (March 1992), 71.41 (1991),
    64.10 (November 1990), 74.86 (December 1989), 72.01 (1988), 72.5 (1987)
Fiscal year:
    calendar year

:Cape Verde Communications

Ports:
    Mindelo, Praia
Merchant marine:
    7 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 11,717 GRT/19,000 DWT
Civil air:
    3 major transport aircraft
Airports:
    6 total, 6 usable; 6 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over
    3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 2 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
    interisland radio relay system, high-frequency radio to Senegal and
    Guinea-Bissau; over 1,700 telephones; broadcast stations - 1 AM, 6 FM, 1 TV;
    2 coaxial submarine cables; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

:Cape Verde Defense Forces

Branches:
    People's Revolutionary Armed Forces (FARP) - Army and Navy are separate
    components of FARP; Security Service
Manpower availability:
    males 15-49, 72,916; 43,010 fit for military service
Defense expenditures:
    exchange rate conversion - $NA, NA% of GDP

:Cayman Islands Geography

Total area:
    260 km2
Land area:
    260 km2
Comparative area:
    slightly less than 1.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
    none
Coastline:
    160 km
Maritime claims:
  Exclusive fishing zone:
    200 nm
  Territorial sea:
    3 nm
Disputes:
    none
Climate:
    tropical marine; warm, rainy summers (May to October) and cool, relatively
    dry winters (November to April)
Terrain:
    low-lying limestone base surrounded by coral reefs
Natural resources:
    fish, climate and beaches that foster tourism
Land use:
    arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 8%; forest and
    woodland 23%; other 69%
Environment:
    within the Caribbean hurricane belt
Note:
    important location between Cuba and Central America

:Cayman Islands People

Population:
    29,139 (July 1992), growth rate 4.4% (1992)
Birth rate:
    16 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
    5 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
    33 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
    8 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
    75 years male, 79 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
    1.5 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
    noun - Caymanian(s); adjective - Caymanian
Ethnic divisions:
    40% mixed, 20% white, 20% black, 20% expatriates of various ethnic groups
Religions:
    United Church (Presbyterian and Congregational), Anglican, Baptist, Roman
    Catholic, Church of God, other Protestant denominations
Languages:
    English
Literacy:
    98% (male 98%, female 98%) age 15 and over having ever attended school
    (1970)
Labor force:
    8,061; service workers 18.7%, clerical 18.6%, construction 12.5%, finance
    and investment 6.7%, directors and business managers 5.9% (1979)
Organized labor:
    Global Seaman's Union; Cayman All Trade Union

:Cayman Islands Government

Long-form name:
    none
Type:
    dependent territory of the UK
Capital:
    George Town
Administrative divisions:
    8 districts; Creek, Eastern, Midland, South Town, Spot Bay, Stake Bay, West
    End, Western
Independence:
    none (dependent territory of the UK)
Constitution:
    1959, revised 1972
Legal system:
    British common law and local statutes
National holiday:
    Constitution Day (first Monday in July)
Executive branch:
    British monarch, governor, Executive Council (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
    unicameral Legislative Assembly
Judicial branch:
    Grand Court, Cayman Islands Court of Appeal
Leaders:
  Chief of State:
    Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor Michael
    GORE (since May 1992)
  Head of Government:
    Governor and President of the Executive Council Alan James SCOTT (since NA
    1987)
Political parties and leaders:
    no formal political parties
Suffrage:
    universal at age 18
Elections:
  Legislative Assembly:
    last held November 1988 (next to be held November 1992); results - percent
    of vote by party NA; seats - (15 total, 12 elected)
Member of:
    CARICOM (observer), CDB, IOC
Diplomatic representation:
    as a dependent territory of the UK, Caymanian interests in the US are
    represented by the UK
  US:
    none
Flag:
    blue, with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the
    Caymanian coat of arms on a white disk centered on the outer half of the
    flag; the coat of arms includes a pineapple and turtle above a shield with
    three stars (representing the three islands) and a scroll at the bottom
    bearing the motto HE HATH FOUNDED IT UPON THE SEAS
    HE HATH FOUNDED IT UPON THE SEAS

:Cayman Islands Economy

Overview:
    The economy depends heavily on tourism (70% of GDP and 75% of export
    earnings) and offshore financial services, with the tourist industry aimed
    at the luxury market and catering mainly to visitors from North America.
    About 90% of the islands' food and consumer goods needs must be imported.
    The Caymanians enjoy one of the highest standards of living in the region.
GDP:
    exchange rate conversion - $384 million, per capita $14,500 (1989); real
    growth rate 8% (1990)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    8% (1990 est.)
Unemployment rate:
    NA%
Budget:
    revenues $83.6 million; expenditures $98.9 million, including capital
    expenditures of $13.6 million (1990)
Exports:
    $1.5 million (f.o.b., 1987 est.)
  commodities:
    turtle products, manufactured consumer goods
  partners:
    mostly US
Imports:
    $136 million (c.i.f., 1987 est.)
  commodities:
    foodstuffs, manufactured goods
  partners:
    US, Trinidad and Tobago, UK, Netherlands Antilles, Japan
External debt:
    $15 million (1986)
Industrial production:
    growth rate NA%
Electricity:
    74,000 kW capacity; 256 million kWh produced, 9,313 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
    tourism, banking, insurance and finance, construction, building materials,
    furniture making
Agriculture:
    minor production of vegetables, fruit, livestock; turtle farming
Economic aid:
    US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $26.7 million; Western (non-US)
    countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $35 million
Currency:
    Caymanian dollar (plural - dollars); 1 Caymanian dollar (CI$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
    Caymanian dollars (CI$) per US$1 - 1.20 (fixed rate)
Fiscal year:
    1 April - 31 March

:Cayman Islands Communications

Highways:
    160 km of main roads
Ports:
    George Town, Cayman Brac
Merchant marine:
    32 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 364,174 GRT/560,241 DWT; includes 1
    passenger-cargo, 7 cargo, 8 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 6 petroleum tanker, 1
    chemical tanker, 1 specialized tanker, 1 liquefied gas carrier, 5 bulk, 2
    combination bulk; note - a flag of convenience registry
Civil air:
    2 major transport aircraft
Airports:
    3 total; 3 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over
    2,439 m; 2 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
    35,000 telephones; telephone system uses 1 submarine coaxial cable and 1
    Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station to link islands and access
    international services; broadcast stations - 2 AM, 1 FM, no TV

:Cayman Islands Defense Forces

Branches:
    Royal Cayman Islands Police Force (RCIPF)
Note:
    defense is the responsibility of the UK

:Central African Republic Geography

Total area:
    622,980 km2
Land area:
    622,980 km2
Comparative area:
    slightly smaller than Texas
Land boundaries:
    5,203 km; Cameroon 797 km, Chad 1,197 km, Congo 467 km, Sudan 1,165 km,
    Zaire 1,577 km
Coastline:
    none - landlocked
Maritime claims:
    none - landlocked
Disputes:
    none
Climate:
    tropical; hot, dry winters; mild to hot, wet summers
Terrain:
    vast, flat to rolling, monotonous plateau; scattered hills in northeast and
    southwest
Natural resources:
    diamonds, uranium, timber, gold, oil
Land use:
    arable land 3%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and pastures 5%; forest and
    woodland 64%; other 28%
Environment:
    hot, dry, dusty harmattan winds affect northern areas; poaching has
    diminished reputation as one of last great wildlife refuges; desertification
Note:
    landlocked; almost the precise center of Africa

:Central African Republic People

Population:
    3,029,080 (July 1992), growth rate 2.6% (1992)
Birth rate:
    43 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
    18 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
    0 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
    135 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
    46 years male, 49 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
    5.5 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
    noun - Central African(s); adjective - Central African
Ethnic divisions:
    about 80 ethnic groups, the majority of which have related ethnic and
    linguistic characteristics; Baya 34%, Banda 27%, Sara 10%, Mandjia 21%,
    Mboum 4%, M'Baka 4%; 6,500 Europeans, of whom 3,600 are French
Religions:
    indigenous beliefs 24%, Protestant 25%, Roman Catholic 25%, Muslim 15%,
    other 11%; animistic beliefs and practices strongly influence the Christian
    majority
Languages:
    French (official); Sangho (lingua franca and national language); Arabic,
    Hunsa, Swahili
Literacy:
    27% (male 33%, female 15%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
    775,413 (1986 est.); agriculture 85%, commerce and services 9%, industry 3%,
    government 3%; about 64,000 salaried workers; 55% of population of working
    age (1985)
Organized labor:
    1% of labor force

:Central African Republic Government

Long-form name:
    Central African Republic (no short-form name); abbreviated CAR
Type:
    republic, one-party presidential regime since 1986
Capital:
    Bangui
Administrative divisions:
    14 prefectures (prefectures, singular - prefecture), 2 economic prefectures*
    (prefectures economiques, singular - prefecture economique), and 1
    commune**; Bamingui-Bangoran, Bangui** Basse-Kotto, Gribingui*, Haute-Kotto,
    Haute-Sangha, Haut-Mbomou, Kemo-Gribingui, Lobaye, Mbomou, Nana-Mambere,
    Ombella-Mpoko, Ouaka, Ouham, Ouham-Pende, Sangha*, Vakaga
Independence:
    13 August 1960 (from France; formerly Central African Empire)
Constitution:
    21 November 1986
Legal system:
    based on French law
National holiday:
    National Day (proclamation of the republic), 1 December (1958)
Executive branch:
    president, prime minister, Council of Ministers (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
    unicameral National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale) advised by the Economic
    and Regional Council (Conseil Economique et Regional); when they sit
    together this is known as the Congress (Congres)
Judicial branch:
    Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)
Leaders:
  Chief of State::
    President Andre-Dieudonne KOLINGBA (since 1 September 1981)
  Head of Government::
    Prime Minister Edouard FRANCK (since 15 March 1991)
Political parties and leaders:
    Centrafrican Democratic Rally Party (RDC), Andre-Dieudonne KOLINGBA; note -
    as part of political reforms leading to a democratic system announced in
    April 1991, 18 opposition parties have been legalized
Suffrage:
    universal at age 21
Elections:
  National Assembly:
    last held 31 July 1987 (next to be held by end of 1992); results - RDC is
    the only party; seats - (52 total) RDC 52
  President:
    last held 21 November 1986 (next to be held by end of 1992); results -
    President KOLINGBA was reelected without opposition
Communists:
    small number of Communist sympathizers
Member of:
    ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CCC, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO,
    ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU,
    UDEAC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO
Diplomatic representation:
    Ambassador Jean-Pierre SOHAHONG-KOMBET; Chancery at 1618 22nd Street NW,
    Washington, DC 20008; telephone (202) 483-7800 or 7801
  US:
    Ambassador Daniel H. SIMPSON; Embassy at Avenue du President David Dacko,
    Bangui (mailing address is B. P. 924, Bangui); telephone 61-02-00, 61-25-78,
    or 61-43-33; FAX [190] (236) 61-44-94

:Central African Republic Government

Flag:
    four equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, green, and yellow with a
    vertical red band in center; there is a yellow five-pointed star on the
    hoist side of the blue band

:Central African Republic Economy

Overview:
    Subsistence agriculture, including forestry, is the backbone of the CAR
    economy, with more than 70% of the population living in the countryside. In
    1988 the agricultural sector generated about 40% of GDP. Agricultural
    products accounted for about 60% of export earnings and the diamond industry
    for 30%. The country's 1991 budget deficit was US $70 million and in 1992 is
    expected to be about the same. Important constraints to economic development
    include the CAR's landlocked position, a poor transportation system, and a
    weak human resource base. Multilateral and bilateral development assistance,
    particularly from France, plays a major role in providing capital for new
    investment.
GDP:
    exchange rate conversion - $1.3 billion, per capita $440; real growth rate -
    3.0% (1990 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    -3.0% (1990 est.)
Unemployment rate:
    30% in Bangui (1988 est.)
Budget:
    revenues $121 million; expenditures $193 million, including capital
    expenditures of $NA million (1991 est.)
Exports:
    $151.3 million (1990 est.)
  commodities:
    diamonds, cotton, coffee, timber, tobacco
  partners:
    France, Belgium, Italy, Japan, US
Imports:
    $214.5 million (1990 est.)
  commodities:
    food, textiles, petroleum products, machinery, electrical equipment, motor
    vehicles, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, consumer goods, industrial products
  partners:
    France, other EC countries, Japan, Algeria, Yugoslavia
External debt:
    $700 million (1990 est.)
Industrial production:
    0.8% (1988); accounts for 12% of GDP
Electricity:
    40,000 kW capacity; 95 million kWh produced, 30 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
    diamond mining, sawmills, breweries, textiles, footwear, assembly of
    bicycles and motorcycles
Agriculture:
    accounts for 40% of GDP; self-sufficient in food production except for
    grain; commercial crops - cotton, coffee, tobacco, timber; food crops -
    manioc, yams, millet, corn, bananas
Economic aid:
    US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $49 million; Western (non-US)
    countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $1.5 billion; OPEC
    bilateral aid (1979-89), $6 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $38
    million
Currency:
    Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (plural - francs); 1 CFA franc (CFAF)
    = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
    Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 269.01 (January
    1992), 282.11 (1991), 272.26 (1990), 319.01 (1989), 297.85 (1988), 300.54
    (1987)

:Central African Republic Economy

Fiscal year:
    calendar year

:Central African Republic Communications

Highways:
    22,000 km total; 458 km bituminous, 10,542 km improved earth, 11,000
    unimproved earth
Inland waterways:
    800 km; traditional trade carried on by means of shallow-draft dugouts;
    Oubangui is the most important river
Civil air:
    2 major transport aircraft
Airports:
    66 total, 52 usable; 4 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways
    over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 22 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
    fair system; network relies primarily on radio relay links, with
    low-capacity, low-powered radiocommunication also used; broadcast stations -
    1 AM, 1 FM, 1 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

:Central African Republic Defense Forces

Branches:
    Central African Army (including Republican Guard), Air Force, National
    Gendarmerie, Police Force
Manpower availability:
    males 15-49, 677,889; 354,489 fit for military service
Defense expenditures:
    exchange rate conversion - $23 million, 1.8% of GDP (1989 est.)

:Chad Geography

Total area:
    1,284,000 km2
Land area:
    1,259,200 km2
Comparative area:
    slightly more than three times the size of California
Land boundaries:
    5,968 km; Cameroon 1,094 km, Central African Republic 1,197 km, Libya 1,055
    km, Niger 1,175 km, Nigeria 87 km, Sudan 1,360 km
Coastline:
    none - landlocked
Maritime claims:
    none - landlocked
Disputes:
    Libya claims and occupies the 100,000 km2 Aozou Strip in the far north;
    demarcation of international boundaries in Lake Chad, the lack of which has
    led to border incidents in the past, is completed and awaiting ratification
    by Cameroon, Chad, Niger, and Nigeria
Climate:
    tropical in south, desert in north
Terrain:
    broad, arid plains in center, desert in north, mountains in northwest,
    lowlands in south
Natural resources:
    crude oil (unexploited but exploration under way), uranium, natron, kaolin,
    fish (Lake Chad)
Land use:
    arable land 2%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and pastures 36%; forest and
    woodland 11%; other 51%; includes irrigated NEGL%
Environment:
    hot, dry, dusty harmattan winds occur in north; drought and desertification
    adversely affecting south; subject to plagues of locusts
Note:
    landlocked; Lake Chad is the most significant water body in the Sahel

:Chad People

Population:
    5,238,908 (July 1992), growth rate 2.1% (1992)
Birth rate:
    42 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
    21 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
    0 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
    136 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
    39 years male, 41 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
    5.3 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
    noun - Chadian(s); adjective - Chadian
Ethnic divisions:
    some 200 distinct ethnic groups, most of whom are Muslims (Arabs, Toubou,
    Hadjerai, Fulbe, Kotoko, Kanembou, Baguirmi, Boulala, Zaghawa, and Maba) in
    the north and center and non-Muslims (Sara, Ngambaye, Mbaye, Goulaye,
    Moundang, Moussei, Massa) in the south; some 150,000 nonindigenous, of whom
    1,000 are French
Religions:
    Muslim 44%, Christian 33%, indigenous beliefs, animism 23%
Languages:
    French and Arabic (official); Sara and Sango in south; more than 100
    different languages and dialects are spoken
Literacy:
    30% (male 42%, female 18%) age 15 and over can read and write French or
    Arabic (1990 est.)
Labor force:
    NA; agriculture (engaged in unpaid subsistence farming, herding, and
    fishing) 85%
Organized labor:
    about 20% of wage labor force

:Chad Government

Long-form name:
    Republic of Chad
Type:
    republic
Capital:
    N'Djamena
Administrative divisions:
    14 prefectures (prefectures, singular - prefecture); Batha, Biltine,
    Borkou-Ennedi-Tibesti, Chari-Baguirmi, Guera, Kanem, Lac, Logone Occidental,
    Logone Oriental, Mayo-Kebbi, Moyen-Chari, Ouaddai, Salamat, Tandjile
Independence:
    11 August 1960 (from France)
Constitution:
    22 December 1989, suspended 3 December 1990; Provisional National Charter 1
    March 1991
Legal system:
    based on French civil law system and Chadian customary law; has not accepted
    compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
    11 August
Executive branch:
    president, Council of State (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
    the National Consultative Council (Conseil National Consultatif) was
    disbanded 3 December 1990 and replaced by the Provisional Council of the
    Republic; 30 members appointed by President DEBY on 8 March 1991
Judicial branch:
    Court of Appeal
Leaders:
  Chief of State:
    Col. Idriss DEBY (since 4 December 1990)
  Head of Government:
    Prime Minister Jean ALINGUE Bawoyeu (since 8 March 1991)
Political parties and leaders:
    Patriotic Salvation Movement (MPS; former dissident group), Idriss DEBY,
    chairman; President DEBY has promised political pluralism, a new
    constitution, and free elections by September 1993; numerous dissident
    groups; national conference to be held in 1992
Suffrage:
    universal at age NA
Elections:
  National Consultative Council:
    last held 8 July 1990; disbanded 3 December 1990
  President:
    last held 10 December 1989 (next to be held NA); results - President Hissein
    HABRE was elected without opposition; note - the government of then
    President HABRE fell on 1 December 1990, and Idriss DEBY seized power on 3
    December 1990; national conference scheduled for mid-1992 and election to
    follow in 1993
Communists:
    no front organizations or underground party; probably a few Communists and
    some sympathizers
Other political or pressure groups:
    NA
Member of:
    ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU,
    IDA, IDB, IFAD, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU,
    OIC, UDEAC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

:Chad Government

Diplomatic representation:
    Ambassador ACHEIKH ibn Oumar; Chancery at 2002 R Street NW, Washington, DC
    20009; telephone (202) 462-4009
  US:
    Ambassador Richard W. BOGOSIAN; Embassy at Avenue Felix Eboue, N'Djamena
    (mailing address is B. P. 413, N'Djamena); telephone [235] (51) 62-18,
    40-09, or 51-62-11; FAX [235] 51-33-72
Flag:
    three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; similar to
    the flag of Romania; also similar to the flag of Andorra, which has a
    national coat of arms featuring a quartered shield centered in the yellow
    band; design was based on the flag of France

:Chad Economy

Overview:
    The climate, geographic location, and lack of infrastructure and natural
    resources potential make Chad one of the most underdeveloped countries in
    the world. Its economy is burdened by the ravages of civil war, conflict
    with Libya, drought, and food shortages. In 1986 real GDP returned to its
    1977 level, with cotton, the major cash crop, accounting for 48% of exports.
    Over 80% of the work force is employed in subsistence farming and fishing.
    Industry is based almost entirely on the processing of agricultural
    products, including cotton, sugarcane, and cattle. Chad is highly dependent
    on foreign aid, with its economy in trouble and many regions suffering from
    shortages. Oil companies are exploring areas north of Lake Chad and in the
    Doba basin in the south. Since coming to power in December 1990, the Deby
    government has experienced a year of economic chaos.
GDP:
    exchange rate conversion - $1.0 billion, per capita $205; real growth rate
    0.9% (1989 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    --4.9% (1989)
Unemployment rate:
    NA
Budget:
    entirely funded by outside donors
Exports:
    $174 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.)
  commodities:
    cotton 48%, cattle 35%, textiles 5%, fish
  partners:
    France, Nigeria, Cameroon
Imports:
    $264 million (c.i.f., 1990 est.)
  commodities:
    machinery and transportation equipment 39%, industrial goods 20%, petroleum
    products 13%, foodstuffs 9%; note - excludes military equipment
  partners:
    US, France, Nigeria, Cameroon
External debt:
    $530 million (December 1990 est.)
Industrial production:
    growth rate 12.9% (1989 est.); accounts for nearly 15% of GDP
Electricity:
    40,000 kW capacity; 70 million kWh produced, 15 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
    cotton textile mills, slaughterhouses, brewery, natron (sodium carbonate),
    soap, cigarettes
Agriculture:
    accounts for about 45% of GDP; largely subsistence farming; cotton most
    important cash crop; food crops include sorghum, millet, peanuts, rice,
    potatoes, manioc; livestock - cattle, sheep, goats, camels; self-sufficient
    in food in years of adequate rainfall
Economic aid:
    US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $198 million; Western (non-US)
    countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $1.5 billion; OPEC
    bilateral aid (1979-89), $28 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $80
    million
Currency:
    Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (plural - francs); 1 CFA franc (CFAF)
    = 100 centimes

:Chad Economy

Exchange rates:
    Communaute Financiere Africaine Francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 269.01 (January
    1992), 282.11 (1991), 272.26 (1990), 319.01 (1989), 297.85 (1988), 300.54
    (1987)
Fiscal year:
    calendar year

:Chad Communications

Highways:
    31,322 km total; 32 km bituminous; 7,300 km gravel and laterite; remainder
    unimproved earth
Inland waterways:
    2,000 km navigable
Civil air:
    3 major transport aircraft
Airports:
    71 total, 55 usable; 4 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways
    over 3,659 m; 4 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 25 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
    fair system of radiocommunication stations for intercity links; broadcast
    stations - 6 AM, 1 FM, limited TV service; many facilities are inoperative;
    1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

:Chad Defense Forces

Branches:
    Army (includes Ground Forces, Air Force, and Gendarmerie), National Police,
    Republican Guard
Manpower availability:
    males 15-49, 1,217,728; 632,833 fit for military service; 50,966 reach
    military age (20) annually
Defense expenditures:
    exchange rate conversion - $39 million, 4.3% of GDP (1988)

:Chile Geography

Total area:
    756,950 km2
Land area:
    748,800 km2; includes Isla de Pascua (Easter Island) and Isla Sala y Gomez
Comparative area:
    slightly smaller than twice the size of Montana
Land boundaries:
    6,171 km; Argentina 5,150 km, Bolivia 861 km, Peru 160 km
Coastline:
    6,435 km
Maritime claims:
  Contiguous zone:
    24 nm
  Continental shelf:
    200 nm
  Exclusive economic zone:
    200 nm
  Territorial sea:
    12 nm
Disputes:
    short section of the southern boundary with Argentina is indefinite; Bolivia
    has wanted a sovereign corridor to the South Pacific Ocean since the Atacama
    area was lost to Chile in 1884; dispute with Bolivia over Rio Lauca water
    rights; territorial claim in Antarctica (Chilean Antarctic Territory)
    partially overlaps Argentine claim
Climate:
    temperate; desert in north; cool and damp in south
Terrain:
    low coastal mountains; fertile central valley; rugged Andes in east
Natural resources:
    copper, timber, iron ore, nitrates, precious metals, molybdenum
Land use:
    arable land 7%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and pastures 16%; forest and
    woodland 21%; other 56%; includes irrigated 2%
Environment:
    subject to severe earthquakes, active volcanism, tsunami; Atacama Desert one
    of world's driest regions; desertification
Note:
    strategic location relative to sea lanes between Atlantic and Pacific Oceans
    (Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel, Drake Passage)

:Chile People

Population:
    13,528,945 (July 1992), growth rate 1.6% (1992)
Birth rate:
    21 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
    6 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
    0 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
    17 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
    71 years male, 77 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
    2.5 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
    noun - Chilean(s); adjective - Chilean
Ethnic divisions:
    European and European-Indian 95%, Indian 3%, other 2%
Religions:
    Roman Catholic 89%, Protestant 11%, and small Jewish population
Languages:
    Spanish
Literacy:
    93% (male 94%, female 93%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
    4,728,000; services 38.3% (includes government 12%); industry and commerce
    33.8%; agriculture, forestry, and fishing 19.2%; mining 2.3%; construction
    6.4% (1990)
Organized labor:
    13% of labor force (1990)

:Chile Government

Long-form name:
    Republic of Chile
Type:
    republic
Capital:
    Santiago
Administrative divisions:
    13 regions (regiones, singular - region); Aisen del General Carlos Ibanez
    del Campo, Antofagasta, Araucania, Atacama, Bio-Bio, Coquimbo, Libertador
    General Bernardo O'Higgins, Los Lagos, Magallanes y de la Antartica Chilena,
    Maule, Region Metropolitana, Tarapaca, Valparaiso; note - the US does not
    recognize claims to Antarctica
Independence:
    18 September 1810 (from Spain)
Constitution:
    11 September 1980, effective 11 March 1981; amended 30 July 1989
Legal system:
    based on Code of 1857 derived from Spanish law and subsequent codes
    influenced by French and Austrian law; judicial review of legislative acts
    in the Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
    Independence Day, 18 September (1810)
Executive branch:
    president, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
    bicameral National Congress (Congreso Nacional) consisting of an upper house
    or Senate (Senado) and a lower house or Chamber of Deputies (Camara de
    Diputados)
Judicial branch:
    Supreme Court (Corte Suprema)
Leaders:
  Chief of State and Head of Government:
    President Patricio AYLWIN Azocar (since 11 March 1990)
Political parties and leaders:
    Concertation of Parties for Democracy now consists mainly of five parties -
    Christian Democratic Party (PDC), Eduardo FREI Ruiz-Tagle; Party for
    Democracy (PPD), Erich SCHNAKE; Radical Party (PR), Carlos GONZALEZ Marquez;
    Social Democratic Party (PSP), Roberto MUNOZ Barros; Socialist Party (PS),
    Ricardo NUNEZ; National Renovation (RN), Andres ALLAMAND; Independent
    Democratic Union (UDI), Julio DITTBORN; Center-Center Union (UCC), Francisco
    Juner ERRAZURIZA; Communist Party of Chile (PCCh), Volodia TEITELBOIM;
    Movement of Revolutionary Left (MIR) is splintered, no single leader
Suffrage:
    universal and compulsory at age 18
Elections:
  Chamber of Deputies:
    last held 14 December 1989 (next to be held December 1993 or January 1994);
    results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (120 total) Concertation of
    Parties for Democracy 72 (PDC 38, PPD 17, PR 5, other 12), RN 29, UDI 11,
    right-wing independents 8
  President:
    last held 14 December 1989 (next to be held December 1993 or January 1994);
    results - Patricio AYLWIN (PDC) 55.2%, Hernan BUCHI 29.4%, other 15.4%
  Senate:
    last held 14 December 1989 (next to be held December 1993 or January 1994);
    results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (46 total, 38 elected)
    Concertation of Parties for Democracy 22 (PDC 13, PPD 5, PR 2, PSD 1, PRSD
    1), RN 6, UDI 2, independents 8

:Chile Government

Communists:
    The PCCh has legal party status and has less than 60,000 members
Other political or pressure groups:
    revitalized university student federations at all major universities
    dominated by opposition political groups; labor - United Labor Central (CUT)
    includes trade unionists from the country's five largest labor
    confederations; Roman Catholic Church
Member of:
    CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD,
    IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES,
    LAIA, LORCS, OAS, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMOGIP,
    UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WFTV, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
    Ambassador Patricio SILVA Echenique; Chancery at 1732 Massachusetts Avenue
    NW, Washington, DC 20036; telephone (202) 785-1746; there are Chilean
    Consulates General in Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Philadelphia,
    and San Francisco
  US:
    Ambassador Curtis KAMMAN; Embassy at Codina Building, 1343 Agustinas,
    Santiago (mailing address is APO AA 34033); telephone [56] (2) 671-0133; FAX
    [56] (2) 699-1141
Flag:
    two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red; there is a blue square
    the same height as the white band at the hoist-side end of the white band;
    the square bears a white five-pointed star in the center; design was based
    on the US flag

:Chile Economy

Overview:
    The government of President Aylwin, which took power in 1990, has opted to
    retain the orthodox economic policies of Pinochet, although the share of
    spending for social welfare has risen slightly. In 1991 growth in GDP
    recovered to 5.5% (led by consumer spending) after only 2.1% growth in 1990.
    The tight monetary policy of 1990 helped cut the rate of inflation from
    27.3% in 1990 to 18.7% in 1991. Despite a 12% drop in copper prices, the
    trade surplus rose in 1991, and international reserves increased.
    Inflationary pressures are not expected to ease much in 1992, and economic
    growth is likely to approach 7%.
GDP:
    exchange rate conversion - $30.5 billion, per capita $2,300; real growth
    rate 5.5% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    18.7% (1991)
Unemployment rate:
    6.5% (1991)
Budget:
    revenues $7.6 billion; expenditures $8.3 billion, including capital
    expenditures of $772 million (1991 est.)
Exports:
    $8.9 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
  commodities:
    copper 50%, other metals and minerals 7%, wood products 6.5%, fish and
    fishmeal 9%, fruits 5% (1989)
  partners:
    EC 36%, US 18%, Japan 14%, Brazil 6% (1989)
Imports:
    $7.4 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
  commodities:
    petroleum, wheat, capital goods, spare parts, raw materials
  partners:
    EC 20%, US 20%, Japan 11%, Brazil 10% (1989)
External debt:
    $16.2 billion (October 1991)
Industrial production:
    growth rate 5.9% (1991 est.); accounts for 36% of GDP
Electricity:
    5,502,800 kW capacity; 21,470 million kWh produced, 1,616 kWh per capita
    (1991)
Industries:
    copper, other minerals, foodstuffs, fish processing, iron and steel, wood
    and wood products, transport equipment, cement, textiles
Agriculture:
    accounts for about 9% of GDP (including fishing and forestry); major
    exporter of fruit, fish, and timber products; major crops - wheat, corn,
    grapes, beans, sugar beets, potatoes, deciduous fruit; livestock products -
    beef, poultry, wool; self-sufficient in most foods; 1989 fish catch of 6.1
    million metric tons; net agricultural importer
Economic aid:
    US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $521 million; Western (non-US)
    countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $1.6 billion;
    Communist countries (1970-89), $386 million
Currency:
    Chilean peso (plural - pesos); 1 Chilean peso (Ch$) = 100 centavos
Exchange rates:
    Chilean pesos (Ch$) per US$1 - 368.66 (January 1992), 349.37 (1991), 305.06
    (1990), 267.16 (1989), 245.05 (1988), 219.54 (1987)

:Chile Economy

Fiscal year:
    calendar year

:Chile Communications

Railroads:
    7,766 km total; 3,974 km 1.676-meter gauge, 150 km 1.435-meter standard
    gauge, 3,642 km 1.000-meter gauge; electrification, 1,865 km 1.676-meter
    gauge, 80 km 1.000-meter gauge
Highways:
    79,025 km total; 9,913 km paved, 33,140 km gravel, 35,972 km improved and
    unimproved earth (1984)
Inland waterways:
    725 km
Pipelines:
    crude oil 755 km; petroleum products 785 km; natural gas 320 km
Ports:
    Antofagasta, Iquique, Puerto Montt, Punta Arenas, Valparaiso, San Antonio,
    Talcahuano, Arica
Merchant marine:
    33 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 468,873 GRT/780,932 DWT; includes 11
    cargo, 1 refrigerated cargo, 3 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 2 petroleum tanker, 1
    chemical tanker, 3 liquefied gas, 3 combination ore/oil, 9 bulk; note - in
    addition, 2 naval tanker and 2 military transport are sometimes used
    commercially
Civil air:
    29 major transport aircraft
Airports:
    390 total, 349 usable; 48 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways
    over 3,659 m; 12 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 58 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
    modern telephone system based on extensive microwave relay facilities;
    768,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 159 AM, no FM, 131 TV, 11
    shortwave; satellite ground stations - 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 3
    domestic

:Chile Defense Forces

Branches:
    Army of the Nation, National Navy (including Naval Air, Coast Guard, and
    Marines), Air Force of the Nation, Carabineros of Chile (National Police),
    Investigative Police
Manpower availability:
    males 15-49, 3,600,654; 2,685,924 fit for military service; 118,480 reach
    military age (19) annually
Defense expenditures:
    exchange rate conversion - $1 billion, 3.4% of GDP (1991 est.)

:China Geography

Total area:
    9,596,960 km2
Land area:
    9,326,410 km2
Comparative area:
    slightly larger than the US
Land boundaries:
    22,143.34 km; Afghanistan 76 km, Bhutan 470 km, Burma 2,185 km, Hong Kong 30
    km, India 3,380 km, Kazakhstan 1,533 km, North Korea 1,416 km, Kyrgyzstan
    858 km, Laos 423 km, Macau 0.34 km, Mongolia 4,673 km, Nepal 1,236 km,
    Pakistan 523 km, Russia (northeast) 3,605 km, Russia (northwest) 40 km,
    Tajikistan 414 km, Vietnam 1,281 km
Coastline:
    14,500 km
Maritime claims:
  Continental shelf:
    claim to shallow areas of East China Sea and Yellow Sea
  Territorial sea:
    12 nm
Disputes:
    boundary with India; bilateral negotiations are under way to resolve
    disputed sections of the boundary with Russia; boundary with Tajikistan
    under dispute: a short section of the boundary with North Korea is
    indefinite; involved in a complex dispute over the Spratly Islands with
    Malaysia, Philippines, Taiwan, Vietnam, and possibly Brunei; maritime
    boundary dispute with Vietnam in the Gulf of Tonkin; Paracel Islands
    occupied by China, but claimed by Vietnam and Taiwan; claims
    Japanese-administered Senkaku-shoto, as does Taiwan, (Senkaku Islands/Diaoyu
    Tai)
Climate:
    extremely diverse; tropical in south to subarctic in north
Terrain:
    mostly mountains, high plateaus, deserts in west; plains, deltas, and hills
    in east
Natural resources:
    coal, iron ore, crude oil, mercury, tin, tungsten, antimony, manganese,
    molybdenum, vanadium, magnetite, aluminum, lead, zinc, uranium, world's
    largest hydropower potential
Land use:
    arable land 10%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and pastures 31%; forest and
    woodland 14%; other 45%; includes irrigated 5%
Environment:
    frequent typhoons (about five times per year along southern and eastern
    coasts), damaging floods, tsunamis, earthquakes; deforestation; soil
    erosion; industrial pollution; water pollution; air pollution;
    desertification
Note:
    world's third-largest country (after Russia and Canada)

:China People

Population:
    1,169,619,601 (July 1992), growth rate 1.6% (1992)
Birth rate:
    22 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
    7 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
    0 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
    32 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
    69 years male, 72 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
    2.3 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
    noun - Chinese (singular and plural); adjective - Chinese
Ethnic divisions:
    Han Chinese 93.3%; Zhuang, Uygur, Hui, Yi, Tibetan, Miao, Manchu, Mongol,
    Buyi, Korean, and other nationalities 6.7%
Religions:
    officially atheist, but traditionally pragmatic and eclectic; most important
    elements of religion are Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism; Muslim 2-3%,
    Christian 1% (est.)
Languages:
    Standard Chinese (Putonghua) or Mandarin (based on the Beijing dialect);
    also Yue (Cantonese), Wu (Shanghainese), Minbei (Fuzhou), Minnan
    (Hokkien-Taiwanese), Xiang, Gan, Hakka dialects, and minority languages (see
    ethnic divisions)
Literacy:
    73% (male 84%, female 62%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
    567,400,000; agriculture and forestry 60%, industry and commerce 25%,
    construction and mining 5%, social services 5%, other 5% (1990 est.)
Organized labor:
    All-China Federation of Trade Unions (ACFTU) follows the leadership of the
    Chinese Communist Party; membership over 80 million or about 65% of the
    urban work force (1985)

:China Government

Long-form name:
    People's Republic of China; abbreviated PRC
Type:
    Communist Party - led state
Capital:
    Beijing
Administrative divisions:
    23 provinces (sheng, singular and plural), 5 autonomous regions* (zizhiqu,
    singular and plural), and 3 municipalities** (shi, singular and plural);
    Anhui, Beijing Shi**, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi*, Guizhou, Hainan,
    Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning,
    Nei Mongol*, Ningxia*, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanghai Shi**, Shanxi,
    Sichuan, Tianjin Shi**, Xinjiang*, Xizang*, Yunnan, Zhejiang; note - China
    considers Taiwan its 23rd province
Independence:
    unification under the Qin (Ch'in) Dynasty 221 BC, Qing (Ch'ing) Dynasty
    replaced by the Republic on 12 February 1912, People's Republic established
    1 October 1949
Constitution:
    most recent promulgated 4 December 1982
Legal system:
    a complex amalgam of custom and statute, largely criminal law; rudimentary
    civil code in effect since 1 January 1987; new legal codes in effect since 1
    January 1980; continuing efforts are being made to improve civil,
    administrative, criminal, and commercial law
National holiday:
    National Day, 1 October (1949)
Executive branch:
    president, vice president, premier, five vice premiers, State Council
Legislative branch:
    unicameral National People's Congress (Quanguo Renmin Daibiao Dahui)
Judicial branch:
    Supreme People's Court
Leaders:
  Chief of State:
    President YANG Shangkun (since 8 April 1988); Vice President WANG Zhen
    (since 8 April 1988)
  Chief of State and Head of Government (de facto):
    DENG Xiaoping (since mid-1977)
  Head of Government:
    Premier LI Peng (Acting Premier since 24 November 1987, Premier since 9
    April 1988); Vice Premier YAO Yilin (since 2 July 1979); Vice Premier TIAN
    Jiyun (since 20 June 1983); Vice Premier WU Xueqian (since 12 April 1988);
    Vice Premier ZOU Jiahua (since 8 April 1991); Vice Premier ZHU Rongji (since
    8 April 1991)
Political parties and leaders:
    - Chinese Communist Party (CCP), JIANG Zemin, general secretary of the
    Central Committee (since 24 June 1989); also, eight registered small parties
    controlled by CCP
Suffrage:
    universal at age 18
Elections:
  National People's Congress:
    last held March 1988 (next to be held March 1993); results - CCP is the only
    party but there are also independents; seats - (2,976 total) CCP and
    independents 2,976 (indirectly elected at county or xian level)
  President:
    last held 8 April 1988 (next to be held March 1993); results - YANG Shangkun
    was nominally elected by the Seventh National People's Congress

:China Government

Communists:
    49,000,000 party members (1990 est.)
Other political or pressure groups:
    such meaningful opposition as exists consists of loose coalitions, usually
    within the party and government organization, that vary by issue
Member of:
    AfDB, APEC, AsDB, CCC, ESCAP, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO,
    IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, PCA, UN,
    UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UN Security Council, UNTSO, UN Trusteeship
    Council, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
    Ambassador ZHU Qizhen; Chancery at 2300 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington,
    DC 20008; telephone (202) 328-2500 through 2502; there are Chinese
    Consulates General in Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, and San
    Francisco
  US:
    Ambassador J. Stapleton ROY; Embassy at Xiu Shui Bei Jie 3, Beijing (mailing
    address is 100600, PSC 461, Box 50, Beijing or FPO AP 96521-0002); telephone
    [86] (1) 532-3831; FAX [86] (1) 532-3178; there are US Consulates General in
    Chengdu, Guangzhou, Shanghai, and Shenyang
Flag:
    red with a large yellow five-pointed star and four smaller yellow
    five-pointed stars (arranged in a vertical arc toward the middle of the
    flag) in the upper hoist-side corner

:China Economy

Overview:
    Beginning in late 1978 the Chinese leadership has been trying to move the
    economy from the sluggish Soviet-style centrally planned economy to a more
    productive and flexible economy with market elements, but still within the
    framework of monolithic Communist control. To this end the authorities have
    switched to a system of household responsibility in agriculture in place of
    the old collectivization, increased the authority of local officials and
    plant managers in industry, permitted a wide variety of small-scale
    enterprise in services and light manufacturing, and opened the foreign
    economic sector to increased trade and joint ventures. The most gratifying
    result has been a strong spurt in production, particularly in agriculture in
    the early 1980s. Industry also has posted major gains, especially in coastal
    areas near Hong Kong and opposite Taiwan, where foreign investment and
    modern production methods have helped spur production of both domestic and
    export goods. Aggregate output has more than doubled since 1978. On the
    darker side, the leadership has often experienced in its hybrid system the
    worst results of socialism (bureaucracy, lassitude, corruption) and of
    capitalism (windfall gains and stepped-up inflation). Beijing thus has
    periodically backtracked, retightening central controls at intervals and
    thereby lessening the credibility of the reform process. In 1991 output rose
    substantially, particularly in the favored coastal areas. Popular
    resistance, changes in central policy, and loss of authority by rural cadres
    have weakened China's population control program, which is essential to the
    nation's long-term economic viability.
GNP:
    $NA, per capita $NA; real growth rate 6% (1991)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    2.1% (1991)
Unemployment rate:
    4.0% in urban areas (1991)
Budget:
    deficit $9.5 billion (1990)
Exports:
    $71.9 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
  commodities:
    textiles, garments, telecommunications and recording equipment, petroleum,
    minerals
  partners:
    Hong Kong, Japan, US, USSR, Singapore (1990)
Imports:
    $63.8 billion (c.i.f., 1991)
  commodities:
    specialized industrial machinery, chemicals, manufactured goods, steel,
    textile yarn, fertilizer
  partners:
    Hong Kong, Japan, US, Germany, Taiwan (1990)
External debt:
    $51 billion (1990 est.)
Industrial production:
    growth rate 14.0% (1991); accounts for 45% of GNP
Electricity:
    138,000,000 kW capacity (1990); 670,000 million kWh produced (1991), 582 kWh
    per capita (1991)
Industries:
    iron, steel, coal, machine building, armaments, textiles, petroleum, cement,
    chemical fertilizers, consumer durables, food processing

:China Economy

Agriculture:
    accounts for 26% of GNP; among the world's largest producers of rice,
    potatoes, sorghum, peanuts, tea, millet, barley, and pork; commercial crops
    include cotton, other fibers, and oilseeds; produces variety of livestock
    products; basically self-sufficient in food; fish catch of 8 million metric
    tons in 1986
Illicit drugs:
    transshipment point for heroin produced in the Golden Triangle
Economic aid:
    donor - to less developed countries (1970-89) $7.0 billion; US commitments,
    including Ex-Im (FY70-87), $220.7 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA
    and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $13.5 billion
Currency:
    yuan (plural - yuan); 1 yuan (Y) = 10 jiao
Exchange rates:
    yuan (Y) per US$1 - 5.4481 (January 1992), 5.3234 (1991), 4.7832 (1990),
    3.7651 (1989), 3.7221 (1988), 3.7221 (1987)
Fiscal year:
    calendar year

:China Communications

Railroads:
    total about 54,000 km common carrier lines; 53,400 km 1.435-meter standard
    gauge; 600 km 1.000-meter gauge; of these 11,200 km are double track
    standard-gauge lines; 6,900 km electrified (1990); 10,000 km dedicated
    industrial lines (gauges range from 0.762 to 1.067 meters)
Highways:
    about 1,029,000 km (1990) all types roads; 170,000 km (est.) paved roads,
    648,000 km (est.) gravel/improved earth roads, 211,000 km (est.) unimproved
    earth roads and tracks
Inland waterways:
    138,600 km; about 109,800 km navigable
Pipelines:
    crude oil 9,700 km (1990); petroleum products 1,100 km; natural gas 6,200 km
Ports:
    Dalian, Guangzhou, Huangpu, Qingdao, Qinhuangdao, Shanghai, Xingang,
    Zhanjiang, Ningbo, Xiamen, Tanggu, Shantou
Merchant marine:
    1,454 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 13,887,312 GRT/20,916,127 DWT;
    includes 25 passenger, 42 short-sea passenger, 18 passenger-cargo, 6
    cargo/training, 801 cargo, 10 refrigerated cargo, 77 container, 19
    roll-on/roll-off cargo, 1 multifunction/barge carrier, 177 petroleum tanker,
    10 chemical tanker, 254 bulk, 3 liquefied gas, 1 vehicle carrier, 9
    combination bulk, 1 barge carrier; note - China beneficially owns an
    additional 194 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling approximately 7,077,089
    DWT that operate under Panamanian, British, Hong Kong, Maltese, Liberian,
    Vanuatu, Cyprus, and Saint Vincent registry
Civil air:
    284 major transport aircraft (1988 est.)
Airports:
    330 total, 330 usable; 260 with permanent-surface runways; fewer than 10
    with runways over 3,500 m; 90 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 200 with runways
    1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
    domestic and international services are increasingly available for private
    use; unevenly distributed internal system serves principal cities,
    industrial centers, and most townships; 11,000,000 telephones (December
    1989); broadcast stations - 274 AM, unknown FM, 202 (2,050 repeaters) TV;
    more than 215 million radio receivers; 75 million TVs; satellite earth
    stations - 4 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT, 1 INMARSAT,
    and 55 domestic

:China Defense Forces

Branches:
    People's Liberation Army (PLA), PLA Navy (including Marines), PLA Air Force,
    People's Armed Police
Manpower availability:
    males 15-49, 339,554,712; 188,995,620 fit for military service; 11,691,967
    reach military age (18) annually
Defense expenditures:
    exchange rate conversion - $12-15 billion, NA of GNP (1991 est.)

:Christmas Island Geography

Total area:
    135 km2
Land area:
    135 km2
Comparative area:
    about 0.8 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
    none
Coastline:
    138.9 km
Maritime claims:
  Contiguous zone:
    12 nm
  Exclusive fishing zone:
    200 nm
  Territorial sea:
    3 nm
Disputes:
    none
Climate:
    tropical; heat and humidity moderated by trade winds
Terrain:
    steep cliffs along coast rise abruptly to central plateau
Natural resources:
    phosphate
Land use:
    arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 0%; forest and
    woodland 0%; other 100%
Environment:
    almost completely surrounded by a reef
Note:
    located along major sea lanes of Indian Ocean

:Christmas Island People

Population:
    929 (July 1992), growth rate NA% (1992)
Birth rate:
    NA births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
    NA deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
    NA migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
    NA deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
    NA years male, NA years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
    NA children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
    noun - Christmas Islander(s); adjective - Christmas Island
Ethnic divisions:
    Chinese 61%, Malay 25%, European 11%, other 3%; no indigenous population
Religions:
    Buddhist 36.1%, Muslim 25.4%, Christian 17.7% (Roman Catholic 8.2%, Church
    of England 3.2%, Presbyterian 0.9%, Uniting Church 0.4%, Methodist 0.2%,
    Baptist 0.1%, and other 4.7%), none 12.7%, unknown 4.6%, other 3.5% (1981)
Languages:
    English
Literacy:
    NA% (male NA%, female NA%)
Labor force:
    NA; all workers are employees of the Phosphate Mining Company of Christmas
    Island, Ltd.
Organized labor:
    NA

:Christmas Island Government

Long-form name:
    Territory of Christmas Island
Type:
    territory of Australia
Capital:
    The Settlement
Administrative divisions:
    none (territory of Australia)
Independence:
    none (territory of Australia)
Constitution:
    Christmas Island Act of 1958
Legal system:
    under the authority of the governor general of Australia
National holiday:
    NA
Executive branch:
    British monarch, governor general of Australia, administrator, Advisory
    Council (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
    none
Judicial branch:
    none
Leaders:
  Chief of State:
    Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952)
  Head of Government:
    Administrator W. A. MCKENZIE (since NA)
Member of:
    none
Diplomatic representation:
    none (territory of Australia)
Flag:
    the flag of Australia is used

:Christmas Island Economy

Overview:
    Phosphate mining had been the only significant economic activity, but in
    December 1987 the Australian Government closed the mine as no longer
    economically viable. Plans have been under way to reopen the mine and also
    to build a casino and hotel to develop tourism, with a possible opening date
    during the first half of 1992.
GDP:
    NA - $NA, per capita $NA; real growth rate NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    NA%
Unemployment rate:
    NA%
Budget:
    revenues $NA; expenditures $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports:
    $NA
  commodities:
    phosphate
  partners:
    Australia, NZ
Imports:
    $NA
  commodities:
    NA
  partners:
    NA
External debt:
    $NA
Industrial production:
    growth rate NA%
Electricity:
    11,000 kW capacity; 30 million kWh produced, 13,170 kWh per capita (1990)
Industries:
    phosphate extraction (near depletion)
Agriculture:
    NA
Economic aid:
    none
Currency:
    Australian dollar (plural - dollars); 1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
    Australian dollars ($A) per US$1 - 1.3360 (January 1992), 1.2836 (1991),
    1.2799 (1990), 1.2618 (1989), 1.2752 (1988), 1.4267 (1987)
Fiscal year:
    1 July - 30 June

:Christmas Island Communications

Ports:
    Flying Fish Cove
Airports:
    1 usable with permanent-surface runway 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
    4,000 radios (1982)

:Christmas Island Defense Forces

Note:
    defense is the responsibility of Australia

:Clipperton Island Geography

Total area:
    7 km2
Land area:
    7 km2
Comparative area:
    about 12 times the size of the Mall in Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
    none
Coastline:
    11.1 km
Maritime claims:
  Exclusive economic zone:
    200 nm
  Territorial sea:
    12 nm
Disputes:
    claimed by Mexico
Climate:
    tropical
Terrain:
    coral atoll
Natural resources:
    none
Land use:
    arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 0%; forest and
    woodland 0%; other (coral) 100%
Environment:
    reef about 8 km in circumference
Note:
    located 1,120 km southwest of Mexico in the North Pacific Ocean; also called
    Ile de la Passion

:Clipperton Island People

Population:
    uninhabited

:Clipperton Island Government

Long-form name:
    none
Type:
    French possession administered by France from French Polynesia by High
    Commissioner of the Republic Jean MONTPEZAT
Capital:
    none; administered by France from French Polynesia

:Clipperton Island Economy

Overview:
    The only economic activity is a tuna fishing station.

:Clipperton Island Communications

Ports:
    none; offshore anchorage only

:Clipperton Island Defense Forces

Note:
    defense is the responsibility of France

:Cocos Islands Geography

Total area:
    14 km2
Land area:
    14 km2; main islands are West Island and Home Island
Comparative area:
    about 24 times the size of the Mall in Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
    none
Coastline:
    2.6 km
Maritime claims:
  Exclusive fishing zone:
    200 nm
  Territorial sea:
    3 nm
Disputes:
    none
Climate:
    pleasant, modified by the southeasttrade wind for about nine months of the
    year; moderate rain fall
Terrain:
    flat, low-lying coral atolls
Natural resources:
    fish
Land use:
    arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 0%; forest and
    woodland 0%; other 100%
Environment:
    two coral atolls thickly covered with coconut palms and other vegetation
Note:
    located 1,070 km southwest of Sumatra (Indonesia) in the Indian Ocean about
    halfway between Australia and Sri Lanka

:Cocos Islands People

Population:
    597 (July 1992), growth rate - 0.5% (1992)
Birth rate:
    NA births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
    NA deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
    NA migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
    NA deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
    NA years male, NA years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
    NA children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
    noun - Cocos Islander(s); adjective - Cocos Islander
Ethnic divisions:
    mostly Europeans on West Island and Cocos Malays on Home Island
Religions:
    almost all Sunni Muslims
Languages:
    English
Literacy:
    NA% (male NA%, female NA%)
Labor force:
    NA
Organized labor:
    none

:Cocos Islands Government

Long-form name:
    Territory of Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Type:
    territory of Australia
Capital:
    West Island
Administrative divisions:
    none (territory of Australia)
Independence:
    none (territory of Australia)
Constitution:
    Cocos (Keeling) Islands Act of 1955
Legal system:
    based upon the laws of Australia and local laws
National holiday:
    NA
Executive branch:
    British monarch, governor general of Australia, administrator, chairman of
    the Islands Council
Legislative branch:
    unicameral Islands Council
Judicial branch:
    Supreme Court
Leaders:
  Chief of State:
    Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952)
  Head of Government:
    Administrator B. CUNNINGHAM (since NA); Chairman of the Islands Council Haji
    Wahin bin BYNIE (since NA)
Suffrage:
    NA
Elections:
    NA
Member of:
    none
Diplomatic representation:
    none (territory of Australia)
Flag:
    the flag of Australia is used

:Cocos Islands Economy

Overview:
    Grown throughout the islands, coconuts are the sole cash crop. Copra and
    fresh coconuts are the major export earners. Small local gardens and fishing
    contribute to the food supply, but additional food and most other
    necessities must be imported from Australia.
GDP:
    $NA, per capita $NA; real growth rate NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    NA%
Budget:
    revenues $NA; expenditures $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports:
    $NA
  commodities:
    copra
  partners:
    Australia
Imports:
    $NA
  commodities:
    foodstuffs
  partners:
    Australia
External debt:
    $NA
Industrial production:
    growth rate NA%
Electricity:
    1,000 kW capacity; 2 million kWh produced, 2,980 kWh per capita (1990)
Industries:
    copra products
Agriculture:
    gardens provide vegetables, bananas, pawpaws, coconuts
Economic aid:
    none
Currency:
    Australian dollar (plural - dollars); 1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
    Australian dollars ($A) per US$1 - 1.3360 (January 1992), 1.2836 (1991),
    1.2799 (1990), 1.2618 (1989), 1.2752 (1988), 1.4267 (1987)
Fiscal year:
    1 July - 30 June

:Cocos Islands Communications

Ports:
    none; lagoon anchorage only
Airports:
    1 airfield with permanent-surface runway, 1,220-2,439 m; airport on West
    Island is a link in service between Australia and South Africa
Telecommunications:
    250 radios (1985); linked by telephone, telex, and facsimile communications
    via satellite with Australia; broadcast stations - 1 AM, no FM, no TV

:Cocos Islands Defense Forces

Note:
    defense is the responsibility of Australia

:Colombia Geography

Total area:
    1,138,910 km2
Land area:
    1,038,700 km2; includes Isla de Malpelo, Roncador Cay, Serrana Bank, and
    Serranilla Bank
Comparative area:
    slightly less than three times the size of Montana
Land boundaries:
    7,408 km; Brazil 1,643 km, Ecuador 590 km, Panama 225 km, Peru 2,900,
    Venezuela 2,050 km
Coastline:
    3,208 km; Caribbean Sea 1,760 km, North Pacific Ocean 1,448 km
Maritime claims:
  Continental shelf:
    not specified
  Exclusive economic zone:
    200 nm
  Territorial sea:
    12 nm
Disputes:
    maritime boundary dispute with Venezuela in the Gulf of Venezuela;
    territorial dispute with Nicaragua over Archipelago de San Andres y
    Providencia and Quita Sueno Bank
Climate:
    tropical along coast and eastern plains; cooler in highlands
Terrain:
    flat coastal lowlands, central highlands, high Andes mountains, eastern
    lowland plains
Natural resources:
    crude oil, natural gas, coal, iron ore, nickel, gold, copper, emeralds
Land use:
    arable land 4%; permanent crops 2%; meadows and pastures 29%; forest and
    woodland 49%; other 16%; includes irrigated NEGL%
Environment:
    highlands subject to volcanic eruptions; deforestation; soil damage from
    overuse of pesticides; periodic droughts
Note:
    only South American country with coastlines on both North Pacific Ocean and
    Caribbean Sea

:Colombia People

Population:
    34,296,941 (July 1992), growth rate 1.9% (1992)
Birth rate:
    24 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
    5 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
    NEGL migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
    31 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
    69 years male, 74 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
    2.6 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
    noun - Colombian(s); adjective - Colombian
Ethnic divisions:
    mestizo 58%, white 20%, mulatto 14%, black 4%, mixed black-Indian 3%, Indian
    1%
Religions:
    Roman Catholic 95%
Languages:
    Spanish
Literacy:
    87% (male 88%, female 86%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
    12,000,000 (1990); services 46%, agriculture 30%, industry 24% (1990)
Organized labor:
    984,000 members (1989), about 8.2% of labor force; the Communist-backed
    Unitary Workers Central or CUT is the largest labor organization, with about
    725,000 members (including all affiliate unions)

:Colombia Government

Long-form name:
    Republic of Colombia
Type:
    republic; executive branch dominates government structure
Capital:
    Bogota
Administrative divisions:
    23 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento), 5 commissariats*
    (comisarias, singular - comisaria), and 4 intendancies** (intendencias,
    singular - intendencia); Amazonas*, Antioquia, Arauca**, Atlantico, Bolivar,
    Boyaca, Caldas, Caqueta, Casanare**, Cauca, Cesar, Choco, Cordoba,
    Cundinamarca, Guainia*, Guaviare*, Huila, La Guajira, Magdalena, Meta,
    Narino, Norte de Santander, Putumayo**, Quindio, Risaralda, San Andres y
    Providencia**, Santander, Sucre, Tolima, Valle del Cauca, Vaupes*, Vichada*;
    note - there may be a new special district (distrito especial) named Bogota;
    the Constitution of 5 July 1991 states that the commissariats and
    intendancies are to become full departments and a capital district (distrito
    capital) of Santa Fe de Bogota is to be established by 1997
Independence:
    20 July 1810 (from Spain)
Constitution:
    5 July 1991
Legal system:
    based on Spanish law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme
    Court; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
National holiday:
    Independence Day, 20 July (1810)
Executive branch:
    president, presidential designate, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
    bicameral Congress (Congreso) consists of a nationally elected upper chamber
    or Senate (Senado) and a nationally elected lower chamber or House of
    Representatives (Camara de Representantes)
Judicial branch:
    Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justica)
Leaders:
  Chief of State and Head of Government:
    President Cesar GAVIRIA Trujillo (since 7 August 1990)
Political parties and leaders:
    Liberal Party (PL), Cesar GAVIRIA Trujillo, president; Social Conservative
    Party (PCS), Misael PASTRANA Borrero; National Salvation Movement (MSN),
    Alvaro GOMEZ Hurtado; Democratic Alliance M-19 (AD/M-19) is headed by 19th
    of April Movement (M-19) leader Antonio NAVARRO Wolf, coalition of small
    leftist parties and dissident liberals and conservatives; Patriotic Union
    (UP) is a legal political party formed by Revolutionary Armed Forces of
    Colombia (FARC) and Colombian Communist Party (PCC), Carlos ROMERO
Suffrage:
    universal at age 18
Elections:
  President:
    last held 27 May 1990 (next to be held May 1994); results - Cesar GAVIRIA
    Trujillo (Liberal) 47%, Alvaro GOMEZ Hurtado (National Salvation Movement)
    24%, Antonio NAVARRO Wolff (M-19) 13%, Rodrigo LLOREDA (Conservative) 12%
  Senate:
    last held 27 October 1991 (next to be held March 1994); results - percent of
    vote by party NA; seats - (102 total) Liberal 58, Conservative 22, AD/M-19
    9, MSN 5, UP 1, others 7

:Colombia Government

  House of Representatives:
    last held 27 October 1991 (next to be held March 1994); results - percent of
    vote by party NA; seats - (161 total) Liberal 87, Conservative 31, AD/M-19
    13, MSN 10, UP 3, other 17
Communists:
    18,000 members (est.), including Communist Party Youth Organization (JUCO)
Other political or pressure groups:
    three insurgent groups are active in Colombia - Revolutionary Armed Forces
    of Colombia (FARC), led by Manuel MARULANDA and Alfonso CANO; National
    Liberation Army (ELN), led by Manuel PEREZ; and dissidents of the recently
    demobilized People's Liberation Army (EPL) led by Francisco CARABALLO
Member of:
    AG, CDB, CG, ECLAC, FAO, G-3, G-11, G-24, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD,
    ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT,
    INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, LORCS, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, PCA, RG,
    UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
    Ambassador Jaime GARCIA Parra; Chancery at 2118 Leroy Place NW, Washington,
    DC 20008; telephone (202) 387-8338; there are Colombian Consulates General
    in Chicago, Houston, Miami, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, and San
    Juan (Puerto Rico), and Consulates in Atlanta, Boston, Detroit, Los Angeles,
    and Tampa
  US:
    Ambassador Morris D. BUSBY; Embassy at Calle 38, No. 8-61, Bogota (mailing
    address is P. O. Box A. A. 3831, Bogota or APO AA 34038); telephone [57] (1)
    285-1300 or 1688; FAX [571] 288-5687; there is a US Consulate in
    Barranquilla
Flag:
    three horizontal bands of yellow (top, double-width), blue, and red; similar
    to the flag of Ecuador, which is longer and bears the Ecuadorian coat of
    arms superimposed in the center

:Colombia Economy

Overview:
    Economic development has slowed gradually since 1986, but growth rates
    remain high by Latin American standards. Conservative economic policies have
    kept inflation and unemployment near 30% and 10%, respectively. The rapid
    development of oil, coal, and other nontraditional industries over the past
    four years has helped to offset the decline in coffee prices - Colombia's
    major export. The collapse of the International Coffee Agreement in the
    summer of 1989, a troublesome rural insurgency, and drug-related violence
    have dampened growth, but significant economic reforms are likely to
    facilitate a resurgent economy in the medium term. These reforms center on
    fiscal restraint, trade liberalization, and privatization of state utilities
    and commercial banks.
GDP:
    exchange rate conversion - $45 billion, per capita $1,300; real growth rate
    3.7% (1990 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    26.8% (1991)
Unemployment rate:
    10.5% (1991)
Budget:
    revenues $4.39 billion; current expenditures $3.93 billion, capital
    expenditures $1.03 billion (1989 est.)
Exports:
    $7.5 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
  commodities:
    petroleum (19%), coffee, coal, bananas, fresh cut flowers
  partners:
    US 40%, EC 21%, Japan 5%, Netherlands 4%, Sweden 3%
Imports:
    $6.1 billion (c.i.f., 1991)
  commodities:
    industrial equipment, transportation equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals, paper
    products
  partners:
    US 36%, EC 16%, Brazil 4%, Venezuela 3%, Japan 3%
External debt:
    $17.0 billion (1991)
Industrial production:
    growth rate 1% (1991 est.); accounts for 21% of GDP
Electricity:
    9,624,000 kW capacity; 38,856 million kWh produced, 1,150 kWh per capita
    (1991)
Industries:
    textiles, food processing, oil, clothing and footwear, beverages, chemicals,
    metal products, cement; mining - gold, coal, emeralds, iron, nickel, silver,
    salt
Agriculture:
    growth rate 3% (1991 est.) accounts for 22% of GDP; crops make up two-thirds
    and livestock one-third of agricultural output; climate and soils permit a
    wide variety of crops, such as coffee, rice, tobacco, corn, sugarcane, cocoa
    beans, oilseeds, vegetables; forest products and shrimp farming are becoming
    more important
Illicit drugs:
    illicit producer of cannabis, coca, and opium; about 37,500 hectares of coca
    under cultivation; major supplier of cocaine to the US and other
    international drug markets

:Colombia Economy

Economic aid:
    US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1.6 billion; Western (non-US)
    countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $3.3 billion,
    Communist countries (1970-89), $399 million
Currency:
    Colombian peso (plural - pesos); 1 Colombian peso (Col$) = 100 centavos
Exchange rates:
    Colombian pesos (Col$) per US$1 - 711.88 (January 1992), 633.08 (1991),
    550.00 (1990), 435.00 (1989), 336.00 (1988), 242.61 (1987)
Fiscal year:
    calendar year

:Colombia Communications

Railroads:
    3,386 km; 3,236 km 0.914-meter gauge, single track (2,611 km in use), 150 km
    1. 435-meter gauge
Highways:
    75,450 km total; 9,350 km paved, 66,100 km earth and gravel surfaces
Inland waterways:
    14,300 km, navigable by river boats
Pipelines:
    crude oil 3,585 km; petroleum products 1,350 km; natural gas 830 km; natural
    gas liquids 125 km
Ports:
    Barranquilla, Buenaventura, Cartagena, Covenas, San Andres, Santa Marta,
    Tumaco
Merchant marine:
    31 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 289,794 GRT/443,369 DWT; includes 9
    cargo, 1 chemical tanker, 3 petroleum tanker, 8 bulk, 10 container; note -
    in addition, 2 naval tankers are sometimes used commercially
Civil air:
    83 major transport aircraft
Airports:
    1,167 total, 1,023 usable; 70 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runways
    over 3,659 m; 8 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 191 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
    nationwide radio relay system; 1,890,000 telephones; broadcast stations -
    413 AM, no FM, 33 TV, 28 shortwave; 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations
    and 11 domestic satellite earth stations

:Colombia Defense Forces

Branches:
    Army (Ejercito Nacional), Navy (Armada Nacional, including Marines), Air
    Force (Fuerza Aerea de Colombia), National Police (Policia Nacional)
Manpower availability:
    males 15-49, 9,214,691; 6,240,601 fit for military service; 353,691 reach
    military age (18) annually
Defense expenditures:
    exchange rate conversion - $624 million, 1.4% of GDP (1991)

:Comoros Geography

Total area:
    2,170 km2
Land area:
    2,170 km2
Comparative area:
    slightly more than 12 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
    none
Coastline:
    340 km
Maritime claims:
  Exclusive economic zone:
    200 nm
  Territorial sea:
    12 nm
Disputes:
    claims French-administered Mayotte
Climate:
    tropical marine; rainy season (November to May)
Terrain:
    volcanic islands, interiors vary from steep mountains to low hills
Natural resources:
    negligible
Land use:
    arable land 35%; permanent crops 8%; meadows and pastures 7%; forest and
    woodland 16%; other 34%
Environment:
    soil degradation and erosion; deforestation; cyclones possible during rainy
    season
Note:
    important location at northern end of Mozambique Channel

:Comoros People

Population:
    493,853 (July 1992), growth rate 3.5% (1992)
Birth rate:
    47 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
    12 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
    0 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
    84 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
    55 years male, 59 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
    6.9 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
    noun - Comoran(s); adjective - Comoran
Ethnic divisions:
    Antalote, Cafre, Makoa, Oimatsaha, Sakalava
Religions:
    Sunni Muslim 86%, Roman Catholic 14%
Languages:
    official languages are Arabic and French but majority of population speak
    Comoran, a blend of Swahili and Arabic
Literacy:
    48% (male 56%, female 40%) age 15 and over can read and write (1980)
Labor force:
    140,000 (1982); agriculture 80%, government 3%; 51% of population of working
    age (1985)
Organized labor:
    NA

:Comoros Government

Long-form name:
    Federal Islamic Republic of the Comoros
Type:
    independent republic
Capital:
    Moroni
Administrative divisions:
    three islands; Njazidja, Nzwani, and Mwali, formerly Grand Comore, Anjouan,
    and Moheli respectively; note - there are also four municipalities named
    Domoni, Fomboni, Moroni, and Mutsamudu
Independence:
    31 December 1975 (from France)
Constitution:
    1 October 1978, amended October 1982 and January 1985
Legal system:
    French and Muslim law in a new consolidated code
National holiday:
    Independence Day, 6 July (1975)
Executive branch:
    president, Council of Ministers (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
    unicameral Federal Assembly (Assemblee Federale)
Judicial branch:
    Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)
Leaders:
  Chief of State and Head of Government:
    President Said Mohamed DJOHAR (since 11 March 1990); coordinator of National
    Unity Government (de facto prime minister) - Mohamed Taki ABDULKARIM (1
    January 1992)
Suffrage:
    universal at age 18
Elections:
  Federal Assembly:
    last held 22 March 1987 (next to be held March 1992); results - percent of
    vote by party NA; seats - (42 total) Udzima 42
  President:
    last held 11 March 1990 (next to be held March 1996); results - Said Mohamed
    DJOHAR (Udzima) 55%, Mohamed TAKI Abdulkarim (UNDC) 45%
Member of:
    ACCT, ACP, AfDB, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, ILO, IMF,
    ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WMO
Diplomatic representation:
    Ambassador Amini Ali MOUMIN; Chancery (temporary) at the Comoran Permanent
    Mission to the UN, 336 East 45th Street, 2nd Floor, New York, NY 10017;
    telephone (212) 972-8010
  US:
    Ambassador Kenneth N. PELTIER; Embassy at address NA, Moroni (mailing
    address B. P. 1318, Moroni); telephone 73-22-03, 73-29-22
Flag:
    green with a white crescent placed diagonally (closed side of the crescent
    points to the upper hoist-side corner of the flag); there are four white
    five-pointed stars placed in a line between the points of the crescent; the
    crescent, stars, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam; the four
    stars represent the four main islands of the archipelago - Mwali, Njazidja,
    Nzwani, and Mayotte (which is a territorial collectivity of France, but
    claimed by the Comoros)

:Comoros Economy

Overview:
    One of the world's poorest countries, Comoros is made up of several islands
    that have poor transportation links, a young and rapidly increasing
    population, and few natural resources. The low educational level of the
    labor force contributes to a low level of economic activity, high
    unemployment, and a heavy dependence on foreign grants and technical
    assistance. Agriculture, including fishing, hunting, and forestry, is the
    leading sector of the economy. It contributes about 34% to GDP, employs 80%
    of the labor force, and provides most of the exports. The country is not
    self-sufficient in food production, and rice, the main staple, accounts for
    90% of imports. During the period 1982-86 the industrial sector grew at an
    annual average rate of 5.3%, but its contribution to GDP was only 5% in
    1988. Despite major investment in the tourist industry, which accounts for
    about 25% of GDP, growth has stagnated since 1983. A sluggish growth rate of
    1.5% during 1985-90 has led to large budget deficits, declining incomes, and
    balance-of-payments difficulties. Preliminary estimates for 1991 show a
    moderate increase in the growth rate based on increased exports, tourism,
    and government investment outlays.
GDP:
    exchange rate conversion - $260 million, per capita $540; real growth rate
    2.7% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    4.0% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
    over 16% (1988 est.)
Budget:
    revenues $88 million; expenditures $92 million, including capital
    expenditures of $13 million (1990 est.)
Exports:
    $16 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.)
  commodities:
    vanilla, cloves, perfume oil, copra, ylang-ylang
  partners:
    US 53%, France 41%, Africa 4%, FRG 2% (1988)
Imports:
    $41 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.)
  commodities:
    rice and other foodstuffs, cement, petroleum products, consumer goods
  partners:
    Europe 62% (France 22%), Africa 5%, Pakistan, China (1988)
External debt:
    $196 million (1991 est.)
Industrial production:
    growth rate 3.4% (1988 est.); accounts for 5% of GDP
Electricity:
    16,000 kW capacity; 25 million kWh produced, 50 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
    perfume distillation, textiles, furniture, jewelry, construction materials,
    soft drinks
Agriculture:
    accounts for 34% of GDP; most of population works in subsistence agriculture
    and fishing; plantations produce cash crops for export - vanilla, cloves,
    perfume essences, and copra; principal food crops - coconuts, bananas,
    cassava; world's leading producer of essence of ylang-ylang (for perfumes)
    and second-largest producer of vanilla; large net food importer

:Comoros Economy

Economic aid:
    US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY80-89), $10 million; Western (non-US)
    countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $435 million; OPEC
    bilateral aid (1979-89), $22 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $18
    million
Currency:
    Comoran franc (plural - francs); 1 Comoran franc (CF) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
    Comoran francs (CF) per US$1 - 269.01 (January 1992), 282.11 (1991), 272.26
    (1990), 319.01 (1989), 297.85 (1988), 300.54 (1987); note - linked to the
    French franc at 50 to 1 French franc
Fiscal year:
    calendar year

:Comoros Communications

Highways:
    750 km total; about 210 km bituminous, remainder crushed stone or gravel
Ports:
    Mutsamudu, Moroni
Civil air:
    1 major transport aircraft
Airports:
    4 total, 4 usable; 4 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over
    3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 3 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
    sparse system of radio relay and high-frequency radio communication stations
    for interisland and external communications to Madagascar and Reunion; over
    1,800 telephones; broadcast stations - 2 AM, 1 FM, no TV

:Comoros Defense Forces

Branches:
    Comoran Security Forces (FCS), Federal Gendarmerie (GFC)
Manpower availability:
    males 15-49, 105,022; 62,808 fit for military service
Defense expenditures:
    $NA, NA of GDP

:Congo Geography

Total area:
    342,000 km2
Land area:
    341,500 km2
Comparative area:
    slightly smaller than Montana
Land boundaries:
    5,504 km; Angola 201 km, Cameroon 523 km, Central African Republic 467 km,
    Gabon 1,903 km, Zaire 2,410 km
Coastline:
    169 km
Maritime claims:
  Territorial sea:
    200 nm
Disputes:
    long section with Zaire along the Congo River is indefinite (no division of
    the river or its islands has been made)
Climate:
    tropical; rainy season (March to June); dry season (June to October);
    constantly high temperatures and humidity; particularly enervating climate
    astride the Equator
Terrain:
    coastal plain, southern basin, central plateau, northern basin
Natural resources:
    petroleum, timber, potash, lead, zinc, uranium, copper, phosphates, natural
    gas
Land use:
    arable land 2%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and pastures 29%; forest and
    woodland 62%; other 7%
Environment:
    deforestation; about 70% of the population lives in Brazzaville, Pointe
    Noire, or along the railroad between them

:Congo People

Population:
    2,376,687 (July 1992), growth rate 2.9% (1992)
Birth rate:
    42 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
    13 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
    0 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
    109 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
    53 years male, 56 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
    5.7 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
    noun - Congolese (singular and plural); adjective - Congolese or Congo
Ethnic divisions:
    about 15 ethnic groups divided into some 75 tribes, almost all Bantu; most
    important ethnic groups are Kongo (48%) in the south, Sangha (20%) and
    M'Bochi (12%) in the north, Teke (17%) in the center; about 8,500 Europeans,
    mostly French
Religions:
    Christian 50%, animist 48%, Muslim 2%
Languages:
    French (official); many African languages with Lingala and Kikongo most
    widely used
Literacy:
    57% (male 70%, female 44%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
    79,100 wage earners; agriculture 75%, commerce, industry, and government
    25%; 51% of population of working age; 40% of population economically active
    (1985)
Organized labor:
    20% of labor force (1979 est.)

:Congo Government

Long-form name:
    Republic of the Congo
Type:
    republic
Capital:
    Brazzaville
Administrative divisions:
    9 regions (regions, singular - region) and 1 commune*; Bouenza,
    Brazzaville*, Cuvette, Kouilou, Lekoumou, Likouala, Niari, Plateaux, Pool,
    Sangha
Independence:
    15 August 1960 (from France; formerly Congo/Brazzaville)
Constitution:
    8 July 1979, currently being modified
Legal system:
    based on French civil law system and customary law
National holiday:
    Congolese National Day, 15 August (1960)
Executive branch:
    president, prime minister, Council of Ministers (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
    a transitional National Assembly
Judicial branch:
    Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)
Leaders:
  Chief of State:
    President Denis SASSOU-NGUESSO (since 8 February 1979); stripped of most
    powers by National Conference in May 1991
  Head of Government:
    Prime Minister Andre MILONGO (since May 1991)
Political parties and leaders:
    Congolese Labor Party (PCT), President Denis SASSOU-NGUESSO, leader; note -
    multiparty system legalized, with over 50 parties established
Suffrage:
    universal at age 18
Elections:
  National Assembly:
    transitional body selected by National Conference in May 1991; election for
    new legislative body to be held spring 1992
  President:
    last held 26-31 July 1989 (next to be held June 1992); results - President
    SASSOU-NGUESSO unanimously reelected leader of the PCT by the Party
    Congress, which automatically made him president
Communists:
    small number of Communists and sympathizers
Other political or pressure groups:
    Union of Congolese Socialist Youth (UJSC), Congolese Trade Union Congress
    (CSC), Revolutionary Union of Congolese Women (URFC), General Union of
    Congolese Pupils and Students (UGEEC)
Member of:
    ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CCC, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO,
    IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM,
    OAU, UDEAC, UN, UNAVEM, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
    WTO
Diplomatic representation:
    Ambassador Roger ISSOMBO; Chancery at 4891 Colorado Avenue NW, Washington,
    DC 20011; telephone (202) 726-5500

:Congo Government

  US:
    Ambassador James Daniel PHILLIPS; Embassy at Avenue Amilcar Cabral,
    Brazzaville (mailing address is B. P. 1015, Brazzaville, or Box C, APO AE
    09828); telephone (242) 83-20-70; FAX [242] 83-63-38
Flag:
    red, divided diagonally from the lower hoist side by a yellow band; the
    upper triangle (hoist side) is green and the lower triangle is red; uses the
    popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

:Congo Economy

Overview:
    Congo's economy is a mixture of village agriculture and handicrafts, a
    beginning industrial sector based largely on oil, supporting services, and a
    government characterized by budget problems and overstaffing. A reform
    program, supported by the IMF and World Bank, ran into difficulties in
    1990-91 because of problems in changing to a democratic political regime and
    a heavy debt-servicing burden. Oil has supplanted forestry as the mainstay
    of the economy, providing about two-thirds of government revenues and
    exports. In the early 1980s rapidly rising oil revenues enabled Congo to
    finance large-scale development projects with growth averaging 5% annually,
    one of the highest rates in Africa. During the period 1987-91, however,
    growth has slowed to an average of roughly 1.5% annually, only half the
    population growth rate.
GDP:
    exchange rate conversion - $2.4 billion, per capita $1,070; real growth rate
    0.5% (1990 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    4.6% (1989 est.)
Unemployment rate:
    NA%
Budget:
    revenues $522 million; expenditures $767 million, including capital
    expenditures of $141 million (1989)
Exports:
    $751 million (f.o.b., 1988)
  commodities:
    crude petroleum 72%, lumber, plywood, coffee, cocoa, sugar, diamonds
  partners:
    US, France, other EC
Imports:
    $564 million (c.i.f., 1988)
  commodities:
    foodstuffs, consumer goods, intermediate manufactures, capital equipment
  partners:
    France, Italy, other EC, US, FRG, Spain, Japan, Brazil
External debt:
    $4.5 billion (December 1988)
Industrial production:
    growth rate 1.2% (1989); accounts for 33% of GDP, including petroleum
Electricity:
    140,000 kW capacity; 315 million kWh produced, 135 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
    crude oil, cement, sawmills, brewery, sugar mill, palm oil, soap, cigarettes
Agriculture:
    accounts for 10% of GDP (including fishing and forestry); cassava accounts
    for 90% of food output; other crops - rice, corn, peanuts, vegetables; cash
    crops include coffee and cocoa; forest products important export earner;
    imports over 90% of food needs
Economic aid:
    US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $60 million; Western (non-US)
    countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $2.3 billion; OPEC
    bilateral aid (1979-89), $15 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $338
    million
Currency:
    Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (plural - francs); 1 CFA franc (CFAF)
    = 100 centimes

:Congo Economy

Exchange rates:
    Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 269.01 (January
    1992), 282.11 (1991), 272.26 (1990), 319.01 (1989), 297.85 (1988), 300.54
    (1987)
Fiscal year:
    calendar year

:Congo Communications

Railroads:
    797 km, 1.067-meter gauge, single track (includes 285 km that are privately
    owned)
Highways:
    11,960 km total; 560 km paved; 850 km gravel and laterite; 5,350 km improved
    earth; 5,200 km unimproved earth
Inland waterways:
    the Congo and Ubangi (Oubangui) Rivers provide 1,120 km of commercially
    navigable water transport; the rest are used for local traffic only
Pipelines:
    crude oil 25 km
Ports:
    Pointe-Noire (ocean port), Brazzaville (river port)
Civil air:
    4 major transport aircraft
Airports:
    46 total, 42 usable; 6 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways
    over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 17 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
    services adequate for government use; primary network is composed of radio
    relay routes and coaxial cables; key centers are Brazzaville, Pointe-Noire,
    and Loubomo; 18,100 telephones; broadcast stations - 4 AM, 1 FM, 4 TV; 1
    Atlantic Ocean satellite earth station

:Congo Defense Forces

Branches:
    Army, Navy (including Naval Infantry), Air Force, National Police
Manpower availability:
    males 15-49, 526,058; 267,393 fit for military service; 23,884 reach
    military age (20) annually
Defense expenditures:
    exchange rate conversion - $100 million, 4.6% of GDP (1987 est.)

:Cook Islands Geography

Total area:
    240 km2
Land area:
    240 km2
Comparative area:
    slightly less than 1.3 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
    none
Coastline:
    120 km
Maritime claims:
  Continental shelf:
    edge of continental margin or minimum of 200 nm
  Exclusive economic zone:
    200 nm
  Territorial sea:
    12 nm
Disputes:
    none
Climate:
    tropical; moderated by trade winds
Terrain:
    low coral atolls in north; volcanic, hilly islands in south
Natural resources:
    negligible
Land use:
    arable land 4%; permanent crops 22%; meadows and pastures 0%; forest and
    woodland 0%; other 74%
Environment:
    subject to typhoons from November to March
Note:
    located 4,500 km south of Hawaii in the South Pacific Ocean

:Cook Islands People

Population:
    17,977 (July 1992), growth rate 0.5% (1992)
Birth rate:
    22 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
    6 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
    -10 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
    25 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
    69 years male, 73 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
    3.0 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
    noun - Cook Islander(s); adjective - Cook Islander
Ethnic divisions:
    Polynesian (full blood) 81.3%, Polynesian and European 7.7%, Polynesian and
    other 7.7%, European 2.4%, other 0.9%
Religions:
    Christian, majority of populace members of Cook Islands Christian Church
Languages:
    English (official); Maori
Literacy:
    NA% (male NA%, female NA%)
Labor force:
    5,810; agriculture 29%, government 27%, services 25%, industry 15%, and
    other 4% (1981)
Organized labor:
    NA

:Cook Islands Government

Long-form name:
    none
Type:
    self-governing in free association with New Zealand; Cook Islands fully
    responsible for internal affairs; New Zealand retains responsibility for
    external affairs, in consultation with the Cook Islands
Capital:
    Avarua
Administrative divisions:
    none
Independence:
    became self-governing in free association with New Zealand on 4 August 1965
    and has the right at any time to move to full independence by unilateral
    action
Constitution:
    4 August 1965
National holiday:
    Constitution Day, 4 August
Executive branch:
    British monarch, representative of the UK, representative of New Zealand,
    prime minister, deputy prime minister, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
    unicameral Parliament; note - the House of Arikis (chiefs) advises on
    traditional matters, but has no legislative powers
Judicial branch:
    High Court
Leaders:
  Chief of State:
    Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); Representative of the UK Sir
    Tangaroa TANGAROA (since NA); Representative of New Zealand Adrian SINCOCK
    (since NA)
  Head of Government:
    Prime Minister Geoffrey HENRY (since 1 February 1989); Deputy Prime Minister
    Inatio AKARURU (since February 1989)
Political parties and leaders:
    Cook Islands Party, Geoffrey HENRY; Democratic Tumu Party, Vincent INGRAM;
    Democratic Party, Terepai MAOATE; Cook Islands Labor Party, Rena JONASSEN;
    Cook Islands People's Party, Sadaraka SADARAKA
Suffrage:
    universal adult at age NA
Elections:
  Parliament:
    last held 19 January 1989 (next to be held by January 1994); results -
    percent of vote by party NA; seats - (24 total) Cook Islands Party 12,
    Democratic Tumu Party 2, opposition coalition (including Democratic Party)
    9, independent 1
Member of:
    AsDB, ESCAP (associate), FAO, ICAO, IOC, SPC, SPF, UNESCO, WHO
Diplomatic representation:
    none (self-governing in free association with New Zealand)
Flag:
    blue, with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and a large
    circle of 15 white five-pointed stars (one for every island) centered in the
    outer half of the flag

:Cook Islands Economy

Overview:
    Agriculture provides the economic base. The major export earners are fruit,
    copra, and clothing. Manufacturing activities are limited to a
    fruit-processing plant and several clothing factories. Economic development
    is hindered by the isolation of the islands from foreign markets and a lack
    of natural resources and good transportation links. A large trade deficit is
    annually made up for by remittances from emigrants and from foreign aid.
    Current economic development plans call for exploiting the tourism potential
    and expanding the fishing industry.
GDP:
    exchange rate conversion - $40.0 million, per capita $2,200 (1988 est.);
    real growth rate 5.3% (1986-88 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    8.0% (1988)
Unemployment rate:
    NA%
Budget:
    revenues $33.8 million; expenditures $34.4 million, including capital
    expenditures of $NA (1990 est.)
Exports:
    $4.0 million (f.o.b., 1988)
  commodities:
    copra, fresh and canned fruit, clothing
  partners:
    NZ 80%, Japan
Imports:
    $38.7 million (c.i.f., 1988)
  commodities:
    foodstuffs, textiles, fuels, timber
  partners:
    NZ 49%, Japan, Australia, US
External debt:
    $NA
Industrial production:
    growth rate NA%
Electricity:
    14,000 kW capacity; 21 million kWh produced, 1,170 kWh per capita (1990)
Industries:
    fruit processing, tourism
Agriculture:
    export crops - copra, citrus fruits, pineapples, tomatoes, bananas;
    subsistence crops - yams, taro
Economic aid:
    Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89),
    $128 million
Currency:
    New Zealand dollar (plural - dollars); 1 New Zealand dollar (NZ$) = 100
    cents
Exchange rates:
    New Zealand dollars (NZ$) per US$1 - 1.8502 (January 1992), 1.7266 (1991),
    1.6750 (1990), 1.6711 (1989), 1.5244 (1988), 1.6886 (1987)
Fiscal year:
    1 April - 31 March

:Cook Islands Communications

Highways:
    187 km total (1980); 35 km paved, 35 km gravel, 84 km improved earth, 33 km
    unimproved earth
Ports:
    Avatiu
Merchant marine:
    1 cargo ship (1,000 or over) totaling 1,464 GRT/2,181 DWT
Civil air:
    no major transport aircraft
Airports:
    6 total, 6 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over
    2,439 m; 4 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
    broadcast stations - 2 AM, no FM, no TV; 10,000 radio receivers; 2,052
    telephones; 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth station

:Cook Islands Defense Forces

Note:
    defense is the responsibility of New Zealand

:Coral Sea Islands Geography

Total area:
    less than 3 km2
Land area:
    less than 3 km2; includes numerous small islands and reefs scattered over a
    sea area of about 1 million km2, with Willis Islets the most important
Comparative area:
    undetermined
Land boundaries:
    none
Coastline:
    3,095 km
Maritime claims:
  Exclusive fishing zone:
    200 nm
  Territorial sea:
    3 nm
Disputes:
    none
Climate:
    tropical
Terrain:
    sand and coral reefs and islands (or cays)
Natural resources:
    negligible
Land use:
    arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 0%; forest and
    woodland 0%; other, mostly grass or scrub cover 100%; Lihou Reef Reserve and
    Coringa-Herald Reserve were declared National Nature Reserves on 3 August
    1982
Environment:
    subject to occasional tropical cyclones; no permanent fresh water; important
    nesting area for birds and turtles
Note:
    the islands are located just off the northeast coast of Australia in the
    Coral Sea

:Coral Sea Islands People

Population:
    3 meteorologists (1992)

:Coral Sea Islands Government

Long-form name:
    Coral Sea Islands Territory
Type:
    territory of Australia administered by the Minister for Arts, Sport, the
    Environment, Tourism, and Territories Roslyn KELLY
Capital:
    none; administered from Canberra, Australia
Flag:
    the flag of Australia is used

:Coral Sea Islands Economy

Overview:
    no economic activity

:Coral Sea Islands Communications

Ports:
    none; offshore anchorages only

:Coral Sea Islands Defense Forces

Note:
    defense is the responsibility of Australia; visited regularly by the Royal
    Australian Navy; Australia has control over the activities of visitors

:Costa Rica Geography

Total area:
    51,100 km2
Land area:
    50,660 km2; includes Isla del Coco
Comparative area:
    slightly smaller than West Virginia
Land boundaries:
    639 km; Nicaragua 309 km, Panama 330 km
Coastline:
    1,290 km
Maritime claims:
  Continental shelf:
    200 nm
  Exclusive economic zone:
    200 nm
  Territorial sea:
    12 nm
Disputes:
    none
Climate:
    tropical; dry season (December to April); rainy season (May to November)
Terrain:
    coastal plains separated by rugged mountains
Natural resources:
    hydropower potential
Land use:
    arable land 6%; permanent crops 7%; meadows and pastures 45%; forest and
    woodland 34%; other 8%; includes irrigated 1%
Environment:
    subject to occasional earthquakes, hurricanes along Atlantic coast; frequent
    flooding of lowlands at onset of rainy season; active volcanoes;
    deforestation; soil erosion

:Costa Rica People

Population:
    3,187,085 (July 1992), growth rate 2.4% (1992)
Birth rate:
    27 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
    4 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
    1 migrant/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
    12 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
    75 years male, 79 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
    3.2 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
    noun - Costa Rican(s); adjective - Costa Rican
Ethnic divisions:
    white (including mestizo) 96%, black 2%, Indian 1%, Chinese 1%
Religions:
    Roman Catholic 95%
Languages:
    Spanish (official), English spoken around Puerto Limon
Literacy:
    93% (male 93%, female 93%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
    868,300; industry and commerce 35.1%, government and services 33%,
    agriculture 27%, other 4.9% (1985 est.)
Organized labor:
    15.1% of labor force

:Costa Rica Government

Long-form name:
    Republic of Costa Rica
Type:
    democratic republic
Capital:
    San Jose
Administrative divisions:
    7 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Alajuela, Cartago,
    Guanacaste, Heredia, Limon, Puntarenas, San Jose
Independence:
    15 September 1821 (from Spain)
Constitution:
    9 November 1949
Legal system:
    based on Spanish civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts in
    the Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
    Independence Day, 15 September (1821)
Executive branch:
    president, two vice presidents, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
    unicameral Legislative Assembly (Asamblea Legislativa)
Judicial branch:
    Supreme Court (Corte Suprema)
Leaders:
  Chief of State and Head of Government:
    President Rafael Angel CALDERON Fournier (since 8 May 1990); First Vice
    President German SERRANO Pinto (since 8 May 1990); Second Vice President
    Arnoldo LOPEZ Echandi (since 8 May 1990)
Political parties and leaders:
    National Liberation Party (PLN), Carlos Manuel CASTILLO Morales; Social
    Christian Unity Party (PUSC), Rafael Angel CALDERON Fournier; Marxist
    Popular Vanguard Party (PVP), Humberto VARGAS Carbonell; New Republic
    Movement (MNR), Sergio Erick ARDON Ramirez; Progressive Party (PP), Isaac
    Felipe AZOFEIFA Bolanos; People's Party of Costa Rica (PPC), Lenin CHACON
    Vargas; Radical Democratic Party (PRD), Juan Jose ECHEVERRIA Brealey
Suffrage:
    universal and compulsory at age 18
Elections:
  Legislative Assembly:
    last held 4 February 1990 (next to be held February 1994); results - percent
    of vote by party NA; seats - (57 total) PUSC 29, PLN 25, PVP/PPC 1, regional
    parties 2
  President:
    last held 4 February 1990 (next to be held February 1994); results - Rafael
    Angel CALDERON Fournier 51%, Carlos Manuel CASTILLO 47%
Communists:
    7,500 members and sympathizers
Other political or pressure groups:
    Costa Rican Confederation of Democratic Workers (CCTD; Liberation Party
    affiliate), Confederated Union of Workers (CUT; Communist Party affiliate),
    Authentic Confederation of Democratic Workers (CATD; Communist Party
    affiliate), Chamber of Coffee Growers, National Association for Economic
    Development (ANFE), Free Costa Rica Movement (MCRL; rightwing militants),
    National Association of Educators (ANDE)

:Costa Rica Government

Member of:
    AG (observer), BCIE, CACM, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU,
    IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES,
    LORCS, NAM (observer), OAS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL,
    WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO
Diplomatic representation:
    Ambassador Gonzalo FACIO Segreda; Chancery at Suite 211, 1825 Connecticut
    Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009; telephone (202) 234-2945 through 2947;
    there are Costa Rican Consulates General at Albuquerque, Houston, Los
    Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, San Diego, San Francisco, and San
    Juan (Puerto Rico), and a Consulate in Buffalo
  US:
    Ambassador Luis GUINOT, Jr.; Embassy at Pavas Road, San Jose (mailing
    address is APO AA 34020); telephone [506] 20-39-39 FAX (506) 20-2305
Flag:
    five horizontal bands of blue (top), white, red (double width), white, and
    blue, with the coat of arms in a white disk on the hoist side of the red
    band

:Costa Rica Economy

Overview:
    In 1991 the economy grew at an estimated 2.5%, down somewhat from the 3.6%
    gain of 1990 and below the strong 5.5% gain of 1989. Increases in
    agricultural production (on the strength of good coffee and banana crops)
    and in construction have been offset by lower rates of growth for industry.
    In 1991 consumer prices rose by 27%, about the same as in 1990. The trade
    deficit of $270 million was substantially below the 1990 deficit of $677
    million. Unemployment is officially reported at 4.6%, but much
    underemployment remains. External debt, on a per capita basis, is among the
    world's highest.
GDP:
    exchange rate conversion - $5.9 billion, per capita $1,900; real growth rate
    2.5% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    27% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
    4.6% (1991)
Budget:
    revenues $831 million; expenditures $1.08 billion, including capital
    expenditures of $NA (1990 est.)
Exports:
    $1.5 billion (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
  commodities:
    coffee, bananas, textiles, sugar
  partners:
    US 75%, Germany, Guatemala, Netherlands, UK, Japan
Imports:
    $1.8 billion (c.i.f., 1991 est.)
  commodities:
    petroleum, machinery, consumer durables, chemicals, fertilizer, foodstuffs
  partners:
    US 40%, Japan, Guatemala, Germany
External debt:
    $4.5 billion (1990)
Industrial production:
    growth rate 2.3% (1990 est.); accounts for 23% of GDP
Electricity:
    927,000 kW capacity; 3,408 million kWh produced, 1,095 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
    food processing, textiles and clothing, construction materials, fertilizer,
    plastic products
Agriculture:
    accounts for 20-25% of GDP and 70% of exports; cash commodities - coffee,
    beef, bananas, sugar; other food crops include corn, rice, beans, potatoes;
    normally self-sufficient in food except for grain; depletion of forest
    resources resulting in lower timber output
Illicit drugs:
    illicit production of cannabis on small scattered plots; transshipment
    country for cocaine from South America
Economic aid:
    US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1.4 billion; Western (non-US)
    countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $935 million;
    Communist countries (1971-89), $27 million
Currency:
    Costa Rican colon (plural - colones); 1 Costa Rican colon (C) = 100 centimos
Exchange rates:
    Costa Rican colones (C) per US$1 - 136.35 (January 1992), 122.43 (1991),
    91.58 (1990), 81.504 (1989), 75.805 (1988), 62.776 (1987)

:Costa Rica Economy

Fiscal year:
    calendar year

:Costa Rica Communications

Railroads:
    950 km total, all 1.067-meter gauge; 260 km electrified
Highways:
    15,400 km total; 7,030 km paved, 7,010 km gravel, 1,360 km unimproved earth
Inland waterways:
    about 730 km, seasonally navigable
Pipelines:
    petroleum products 176 km
Ports:
    Puerto Limon, Caldera, Golfito, Moin, Puntarenas
Merchant marine:
    1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,878 GRT/4,506 DWT
Civil air:
    11 major transport aircraft
Airports:
    164 total, 149 usable; 28 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways
    over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 10 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
    very good domestic telephone service; 292,000 telephones; connection into
    Central American Microwave System; broadcast stations - 71 AM, no FM, 18 TV,
    13 shortwave; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

:Costa Rica Defense Forces

Branches:
    Civil Guard, Rural Assistance Guard; note - Constitution prohibits armed
    forces
Manpower availability:
    males 15-49, 829,576; 559,575 fit for military service; 31,828 reach
    military age (18) annually
Defense expenditures:
    exchange rate conversion - $22 million, 0.5% of GDP (1989)

:Croatia Geography

Total area:
    56,538 km2
Land area:
    56,410 km2
Comparative area:
    slightly smaller than West Virginia
Land boundaries:
    1,843 km; Bosnia and Hercegovina (east) 751 km, Bosnia and Hercegovina
    (southeast) 91 km, Hungary 292 km, Serbia and Montenegro 254 km, Slovenia
    455 km
Coastline:
    5,790 km; mainland 1,778 km, islands 4,012 km
Maritime claims:
  Contiguous zone:
    NA nm
  Continental shelf:
    200-meter depth or to depth of exploitation
  Exclusive economic zone:
    12 nm
  Exclusive fishing zone:
    12 nm
  Territorial sea:
    12 nm
Disputes:
    Serbian enclaves in eastern Slavonia and along the western Bosnia and
    Hercegovinian border; dispute with Slovenia over fishing rights in Adriatic
Climate:
    Mediterranean and continental; continental climate predominant with hot
    summers and cold winters; mild winters, dry summers along coast
Terrain:
    geographically diverse; flat plains along Hungarian border, low mountains
    and highlands near Adriatic coast, coastline, and islands
Natural resources:
    oil, some coal, bauxite, low-grade iron ore, calcium, natural asphalt,
    silica, mica, clays, salt, fruit, livestock
Land use:
    32% arable land; 20% permanent crops; 18% meadows and pastures; 15% forest
    and woodland; 9% other; includes 5% irrigated
Environment:
    air pollution from metallurgical plants; damaged forest; coastal pollution
    from industrial and domestic waste; subject to frequent and destructive
    earthquakes
Note:
    controls most land routes from Western Europe to Aegean Sea and Turkish
    Straits

:Croatia People

Population:
    4,784,000 (July 1991), growth rate 0.39% (for the period 1981-91)
Birth rate:
    12.2 births/1,000 population (1991)
Death rate:
    11.3 deaths/1,000 population (1991)
Net migration rate:
    NA migrants/1,000 population (1991)
Infant mortality rate:
    10 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)
Life expectancy at birth:
    67 years male, 74 years female (1980-82)
Total fertility rate:
    NA children born/woman (1991)
Nationality:
    noun - Croat(s); adjective - Croatian
Ethnic divisions:
    Croat 78%, Serb 12%, Muslims 0.9%, Hungarian 0.5%, Slovenian 0.5%, others
    7.8%
Religions:
    Catholic 76.5%, Orthodox 11.1%, Slavic Muslim 1.2%, Protestant 1.4%, others
    and unknown 11%
Languages:
    Serbo-Croatian 96%
Literacy:
    96.5% (male 98.6%, female 94.5%) age 10 and over can read and write (1991
    census)
Labor force:
    1,509,489; industry and mining 37%, agriculture 4%, government NA%, other
Organized labor:
    NA

:Croatia Government

Long-form name:
    None
Type:
    parliamentary democracy
Capital:
    Zagreb
Administrative divisions:
    102 districts (opcine, singular - opcina)
Independence:
    June 1991 from Yugoslavia
Constitution:
    promulgated on 22 December 1990
Legal system:
    based on civil law system; judicial/no judicial review of legislative acts;
    does/does not accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
    30 May, Statehood Day (1990)
Executive branch:
    president, prime minister
Legislative branch:
    bicameral
Judicial branch:
    Supreme Court, Constitutional Court
Leaders:
  Chief of State:
    President Franjo TUDJMAN (since April 1990), Vice President NA (since NA)
  Head of Government:
    Prime Minister Franjo GREGURIC (since August 1991), Deputy Prime Minister
    Mila RAMLJAK (since NA )
Political parties and leaders:
    Christian Democratic Union, TUDJMAN; Croatian Democratic Union (HDZ),
    Stjepan Mesic; Croatian National Party, Savka DABCEVIC-KUCAR; Croatian
    Christian Democratic Party (HKDS), Ivan CESAR; Croatian Party of Rights,
    Dobroslav Paraga; Croatian Social Liberal Party (HSLS), Drazen BUDISA
Suffrage:
    at age 16 if employed, universal at age 18
Elections:
  Parliament:
    last held May 1990 (next to be held NA); results - HDZ won 205 seats; seats
    - 349 (total)
  President:
    NA
Other political or pressure groups:
    NA
Member of:
    CSCE
Diplomatic representation:
    Ambassador Dr. Franc Vinko GOLEM, Office of Republic of Croatia, 256
    Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20036; telephone (202) 543-5586
  US:
    Ambassador NA; Embassy at NA (mailing address is APO New York is 09862);
    telephone NA
Flag:
    red, white, and blue with Croatian coat of arms (red and white checkered)

:Croatia Economy

Overview:
    Before the political disintegration of Yugoslavia, the republic of Croatia
    stood next to Slovenia as the most prosperous and industrialized area, with
    a per capita output roughly comparable to that of Portugal and perhaps
    one-third above the Yugoslav average. Serbia and the Serb-dominated army of
    the old Yugoslavia, however, have seized Croatian territory, and the
    overriding determinant of Croatia's long-term economic prospects will be the
    final border settlement. Under the most favorable circumstances, Croatia
    will retain the Dalmatian coast with its major tourist attractions and
    Slavonia with its oilfields and rich agricultural land. Even so, Croatia
    would face monumental problems stemming from: the legacy of longtime
    Communist mismanagement of the economy; large foreign debt; damage during
    the fighting to bridges, factories, powerlines, buildings, and houses; and
    the disruption of economic ties to Serbia and the other former Yugoslav
    republics. At the minimum, extensive Western aid and investment, especially
    in the tourist and oil industries, would seem necessary to salvage a
    desperate economic situation. However, peace and political stability must
    come first.
GDP:
    NA - $26.3 billion, per capita $5,600; real growth rate -25% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    14.3% (March 1992)
Unemployment rate:
    20% (December 1991)
Budget:
    revenues $NA million; expenditures $NA million, including capital
    expenditures of $NA million
Exports:
    $2.9 billion (1990)
  commodities:
    machinery and transport equipment (30%), other manufacturers (37%),
    chemicals (11%), food and live animals (9%), raw materials (6.5%), fuels and
    lubricants (5%)
  partners:
    principally the other former Yugoslav republics
Imports:
    $4.4 billion (1990)
  commodities:
    machinery and transport equipment (21%), fuels and lubricants (19%), food
    and live animals (16%), chemicals (14%), manufactured goods (13%),
    miscellaneous manufactured articles (9%), raw materials (6.5%), beverages
    and tobacco (1%)
  partners:
    principally other former Yugoslav republics
External debt:
    $2.6 billion (may assume some part of foreign debt of former Yugoslavia)
Industrial production:
    declined as much as 11% in 1990 and probably another 29% in 1991
Electricity:
    3,570,000 kW capacity; 8,830 million kWh produced, 1,855 kWh per capita
    1991)
Industries:
    chemicals and plastics, machine tools, fabricated metal, electronics, pig
    iron and rolled steel products, aluminum reduction, paper, wood products
    (including furniture), building materials (including cement), textiles,
    shipbuilding, petroleum and petroleum refining, food processing and
    beverages

:Croatia Economy

Agriculture:
    Croatia normally produces a food surplus; most agricultural land in private
    hands and concentrated in Croat-majority districts in Slavonia and Istria;
    much of Slavonia's land has been put out of production by fighting; wheat,
    corn, sugar beets, sunflowers, alfalfa, and clover are main crops in
    Slavonia; central Croatian highlands are less fertile but support cereal
    production, orchards, vineyards, livestock breeding, and dairy farming;
    coastal areas and offshore islands grow olives, citrus fruits, and
    vegetables
Economic aid:
    NA
Currency:
    Croatian dinar(s)
Exchange rates:
    Croatian dinar per US $1 - 60.00 (April 1992)
Fiscal year:
    calendar year

:Croatia Communications

Railroads:
    2,698 km (34.5% electrified)
Highways:
    32,071 km total (1990); 23,305 km paved, 8,439 km gravel, 327 km earth
Inland waterways:
    785 km perennially navigable
Pipelines:
    crude oil 670 km, petroleum products 20 km, natural gas 310 km
Ports:
    maritime - Rijeka, Split, Kardeljevo (Ploce); inland - Vukovar, Osijek,
    Sisak, Vinkovci
Merchant marine:
    11 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 60,802 GRT/65,560 DWT; includes 1
    cargo, 3 roll-on/roll-off, 5 passenger ferries, 2 bulk carriers; note - also
    controlled by Croatian shipowners are 196 ships (1,000 GRT or over) under
    flags of convenience - primarily Malta and St. Vincent - totaling 2,593,429
    GRT/4,101,119 DWT; includes 91 general cargo, 7 roll-on/ roll-off, 6
    refrigerated cargo, 13 container ships, 3 multifunction large load carriers,
    52 bulk carriers, 3 passenger ships, 11 petroleum tankers, 4 chemical
    tankers, 6 service vessels
Civil air:
    NA major transport aircraft
Airports:
    8 total, NA usable; NA with permanent-surface runways; NA with runways over
    3,659 m; 7 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; NA with runways 1,220-2,439 m; 1 with
    runways 900 m
Telecommunications:
    350,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 14 AM, 8 FM, 12 (2 repeaters) TV;
    1,100,000 radios; 1,027,000 TVs; NA submarine coaxial cables; satellite
    ground stations - none

:Croatia Defense Forces

Branches:
    Ground Forces, Naval Forces, Air and Air Defense Forces, Frontier Guard,
    Home Guard, Civil Defense
Manpower availability:
    males 15-49, 1,188,576; NA fit for military service; 42,664 reach military
    age (18) annually
Defense expenditures:
    $NA, NA% of GDP

:Cuba Geography

Total area:
    110,860 km2
Land area:
    110,860 km2
Comparative area:
    slightly smaller than Pennsylvania
Land boundaries:
    29.1 km; US Naval Base at Guantanamo 29.1 km
  note:
    Guantanamo is leased and as such remains part of Cuba
Coastline:
    3,735 km
Maritime claims:
  Exclusive economic zone:
    200 nm
  Territorial sea:
    12 nm
Disputes:
    US Naval Base at Guantanamo is leased to US and only mutual agreement or US
    abandonment of the area can terminate the lease
Climate:
    tropical; moderated by trade winds; dry season (November to April); rainy
    season (May to October)
Terrain:
    mostly flat to rolling plains with rugged hills and mountains in the
    southeast
Natural resources:
    cobalt, nickel, iron ore, copper, manganese, salt, timber, silica
Land use:
    arable land 23%; permanent crops 6%; meadows and pastures 23%; forest and
    woodland 17%; other 31%; includes irrigated 10%
Environment:
    averages one hurricane every other year
Note:
    largest country in Caribbean; 145 km south of Florida

:Cuba People

Population:
    10,846,821 (July 1992), growth rate 1.0% (1992)
Birth rate:
    17 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
    6 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
    -1 migrant/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
    11 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
    74 years male, 79 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
    1.8 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
    noun - Cuban(s); adjective - Cuban
Ethnic divisions:
    mulatto 51%, white 37%, black 11%, Chinese 1%
Religions:
    85% nominally Roman Catholic before Castro assumed power
Languages:
    Spanish
Literacy:
    94% (male 95%, female 93%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
    3,578,800 in state sector; services and government 30%, industry 22%,
    agriculture 20%, commerce 11%, construction 10%, transportation and
    communications 7% (June 1990); economically active population 4,620,800
    (1988)
Organized labor:
    Workers Central Union of Cuba (CTC), only labor federation approved by
    government; 2,910,000 members; the CTC is an umbrella organization composed
    of 17 member unions

:Cuba Government

Long-form name:
    Republic of Cuba
Type:
    Communist state
Capital:
    Havana
Administrative divisions:
    14 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia) and 1 special municipality*
    (municipio especial); Camaguey, Ciego de Avila, Cienfuegos, Ciudad de La
    Habana, Granma, Guantanamo, Holguin, Isla de la Juventud*, La Habana, Las
    Tunas, Matanzas, Pinar del Rio, Sancti Spiritus, Santiago de Cuba, Villa
    Clara
Independence:
    20 May 1902 (from Spain 10 December 1898); administered by the US from 1898
    to 1902
Constitution:
    24 February 1976
Legal system:
    based on Spanish and American law, with large elements of Communist legal
    theory; does not accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
    Rebellion Day, 26 July (1953)
Executive branch:
    president of the Council of State, first vice president of the Council of
    State, Council of State, president of the Council of Ministers, first vice
    president of the Council of Ministers, Council of Ministers
Legislative branch:
    unicameral National Assembly of the People's Power (Asamblea Nacional del
    Poder Popular)
Judicial branch:
    People's Supreme Court (Tribunal Supremo Popular)
Leaders:
  Chief of State and Head of Government:
    President of the Council of State and President of the Council of Ministers
    Fidel CASTRO Ruz (became Prime Minister in February 1959 and President since
    2 December 1976); First Vice President of the Council of State and First
    Vice President of the Council of Ministers Gen. Raul CASTRO Ruz (since 2
    December 1976)
Political parties and leaders:
    only party - Cuban Communist Party (PCC), Fidel CASTRO Ruz, first secretary
Suffrage:
    universal at age 16
Elections:
  National Assembly of the People's Power:
    last held December 1986 (next to be held before December 1992); results -
    PCC is the only party; seats - (510 total) indirectly elected
Communists:
    about 600,000 full and candidate members
Member of:
    CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBEC, ICAO, IFAD, ILO, IMO, INTERPOL,
    IOC, ISO, ITU, LAES, LORCS, NAM, OAS (excluded from formal participation
    since 1962), PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
    WTO
Diplomatic representation:
    none; protecting power in the US is Switzerland - Cuban Interests Section;
    position vacant since March 1992; 2630 and 2639 16th Street NW, Washington,
    DC 20009; telephone (202) 797-8518 or 8519, 8520, 8609, 8610

:Cuba Government

  US:
    protecting power in Cuba is Switzerland - US Interests Section, Swiss
    Embassy; Principal Officer Alan H. FLANIGAN; Calzada entre L Y M, Vedado
    Seccion, Havana (mailing address is USINT, Swiss Embassy, Havana, Calzada
    Entre L Y M, Vedado); telephone 32-0051, 32-0543
Flag:
    five equal horizontal bands of blue (top and bottom) alternating with white;
    a red equilateral triangle based on the hoist side bears a white
    five-pointed star in the center

:Cuba Economy

Overview:
    The economy, centrally planned and largely state owned, is highly dependent
    on the agricultural sector and foreign trade. Sugar provided about
    two-thirds of export revenues in 1991, and over half was exported to the
    former Soviet republics. The economy has stagnated since 1985 under policies
    that have deemphasized material incentives in the workplace, abolished
    farmers' informal produce markets, and raised prices of government-supplied
    goods and services. In 1990 the economy probably fell 5% largely as a result
    of declining trade with the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. Recently
    the government has been trying to increase trade with Latin America and
    China. Cuba has had difficulty servicing its foreign debt since 1982. The
    government currently is encouraging foreign investment in tourist facilities
    and in industrial plants idled by falling imports from the former Soviet
    Union. Other investment priorities include sugar, basic foods, and nickel.
    The annual Soviet subsidy dropped from $4 billion in 1990 to about $1
    billion in 1991 because of a lower price paid for Cuban sugar and a sharp
    decline in Soviet exports to Cuba. The former Soviet republics have
    indicated they will no longer extend aid to Cuba beginning in 1992. Instead
    of highly subsidized trade, Cuba has been shifting to trade at market prices
    in convertible currencies. Because of increasingly severe shortages of
    fuels, industrial raw materials, and spare parts, aggregate output dropped
    by one-fifth in 1991.
GNP:
    $17 billion, per capita $1,580; real growth rate -20% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    NA%
Budget:
    revenues $12.46 billion; expenditures $14.45 billion, including capital
    expenditures of $NA (1990 est.)
Exports:
    $3.6 billion (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
  commodities:
    sugar, nickel, medical products, shellfish, citrus, tobacco, coffee
  partners:
    former USSR 63%, China 6%, Canada 4%, Japan 4% (1991 est.)
Imports:
    $3.7 billion (c.i.f., 1991 est.)
  commodities:
    petroleum, capital goods, industrial raw materials, food
  partners:
    former USSR 47%, Spain 8%, China 6%, Argentina 5%, Italy 4%, Mexico 3% (1991
    est.)
External debt:
    $6.8 billion (convertible currency, July 1989)
Industrial production:
    growth rate 0%; accounts for 45% of GDP (1989)
Electricity:
    3,889,000 kW capacity; 16,272 million kWh produced, 1,516 kWh per capita
    (1991)
Industries:
    sugar milling, petroleum refining, food and tobacco processing, textiles,
    chemicals, paper and wood products, metals (particularly nickel), cement,
    fertilizers, consumer goods, agricultural machinery
Agriculture:
    accounts for 11% of GNP (including fishing and forestry); key commercial
    crops - sugarcane, tobacco, and citrus fruits; other products - coffee,
    rice, potatoes, meat, beans; world's largest sugar exporter; not
    self-sufficient in food (excluding sugar)

:Cuba Economy

Economic aid:
    Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89),
    $710 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $18.5 billion
Currency:
    Cuban peso (plural - pesos); 1 Cuban peso (Cu$) = 100 centavos
Exchange rates:
    Cuban pesos (Cu$) per US$1 - 1.0000 (linked to the US dollar)
Fiscal year:
    calendar year

:Cuba Communications

Railroads:
    12,947 km total; Cuban National Railways operates 5,053 km of 1.435-meter
    gauge track; 151.7 km electrified; 7,742 km of sugar plantation lines of
    0.914-m and 1.435-m gauge
Highways:
    26,477 km total; 14,477 km paved, 12,000 km gravel and earth surfaced (1989
    est.)
Inland waterways:
    240 km
Ports:
    Cienfuegos, Havana, Mariel, Matanzas, Santiago de Cuba; 7 secondary, 35
    minor
Merchant marine:
    77 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 537,464 GRT/755,824 DWT; includes 46
    cargo, 10 refrigerated cargo, 1 cargo/training, 11 petroleum tanker, 1
    chemical tanker, 4 liquefied gas, 4 bulk; note - Cuba beneficially owns an
    additional 45 ships (1,000 GRT and over) totaling 574,047 DWT under the
    registry of Panama, Cyprus, and Malta
Civil air:
    88 major transport aircraft
Airports:
    189 total, 167 usable; 73 with permanent-surface runways; 3 with runways
    over 3,659 m; 12 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 18 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
    broadcast stations - 150 AM, 5 FM, 58 TV; 1,530,000 TVs; 2,140,000 radios;
    229,000 telephones; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

:Cuba Defense Forces

Branches:
    Revolutionary Armed Forces (including Ground Forces, Revolutionary Navy
    (MGR), Air and Air Defense Force[DAAFR]), Ministry of Interior and Ministry
    of Defense Special Troops, Border Guard Troops, Territorial Militia Troops,
    Youth Labor Army, Civil Defense, National Revolutionary Police
Manpower availability:
    eligible 15-49, 6,130,641; of the 3,076,276 males 15-49, 1,925,648 are fit
    for military service; of the 3,054,365 females 15-49, 1,907,281 are fit for
    military service; 97,973 males and 94,514 females reach military age (17)
    annually
Defense expenditures:
    exchange rate conversion - $1.2-1.4 billion, 6% of GNP (1989 est.)

:Cyprus Geography

Total area:
    9,250 km2
Land area:
    9,240 km2
Comparative area:
    about 0.7 times the size of Connecticut
Land boundaries:
    none
Coastline:
    648 km
Maritime claims:
  Continental shelf:
    200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation
  Territorial sea:
    12 nm
Disputes:
    1974 hostilities divided the island into two de facto autonomous areas - a
    Greek area controlled by the Cypriot Government (60% of the island's land
    area) and a Turkish-Cypriot area (35% of the island) that are separated by a
    narrow UN buffer zone; in addition, there are two UK sovereign base areas
    (about 5% of the island's land area)
Climate:
    temperate, Mediterranean with hot, dry summers and cool, wet winters
Terrain:
    central plain with mountains to north and south
Natural resources:
    copper, pyrites, asbestos, gypsum, timber, salt, marble, clay earth pigment
Land use:
    arable land 40%; permanent crops 7%; meadows and pastures 10%; forest and
    woodland 18%; other 25%; includes irrigated 10% (most irrigated lands are in
    the Turkish-Cypriot area of the island)
Environment:
    moderate earthquake activity; water resource problems (no natural reservoir
    catchments, seasonal disparity in rainfall, and most potable resources
    concentrated in the Turkish-Cypriot area)

:Cyprus People

Population:
    716,492 (July 1992), growth rate 1.0% (1992)
Birth rate:
    18 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
    8 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
    0 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
    10 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
    74 years male, 78 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
    2.4 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
    noun - Cypriot(s); adjective - Cypriot
Ethnic divisions:
    Greek 78%; Turkish 18%; other 4%
Religions:
    Greek Orthodox 78%, Muslim 18%, Maronite, Armenian, Apostolic, and other 4%
Languages:
    Greek, Turkish, English
Literacy:
    90% (male 96%, female 85%) age 10 and over can read and write (1976)
Labor force:
    Greek area - 278,000; services 45%, industry 35%, agriculture 14%; Turkish
    area - 71,500 (1990); services 21%, industry 30%, agriculture 27%
Organized labor:
    156,000 (1985 est.)

:Cyprus Government

Long-form name:
    Republic of Cyprus
Type:
    republic; a disaggregation of the two ethnic communities inhabiting the
    island began after the outbreak of communal strife in 1963; this separation
    was further solidified following the Turkish invasion of the island in July
    1974, which gave the Turkish Cypriots de facto control in the north; Greek
    Cypriots control the only internationally recognized government; on 15
    November 1983 Turkish Cypriot President Rauf DENKTASH declared independence
    and the formation of a Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC), which has
    been recognized only by Turkey; both sides publicly call for the resolution
    of intercommunal differences and creation of a new federal system of
    government
Capital:
    Nicosia
Administrative divisions:
    6 districts; Famagusta, Kyrenia, Larnaca, Limassol, Nicosia, Paphos
Independence:
    16 August 1960 (from UK)
Constitution:
    16 August 1960; negotiations to create the basis for a new or revised
    constitution to govern the island and to better relations between Greek and
    Turkish Cypriots have been held intermittently; in 1975 Turkish Cypriots
    created their own Constitution and governing bodies within the Turkish
    Federated State of Cyprus, which was renamed the Turkish Republic of
    Northern Cyprus in 1983; a new Constitution for the Turkish area passed by
    referendum in May 1985
Legal system:
    based on common law, with civil law modifications
National holiday:
    Independence Day, 1 October (15 November is celebrated as Independence Day
    in the Turkish area)
Executive branch:
    president, Council of Ministers (cabinet); note - there is a president,
    prime minister, and Council of Ministers (cabinet) in the Turkish area
Legislative branch:
    unicameral House of Representatives (Vouli Antiprosopon); note - there is a
    unicameral Assembly of the Republic (Cumhuriyet Meclisi) in the Turkish area
Judicial branch:
    Supreme Court; note - there is also a Supreme Court in the Turkish area
Leaders:
  Chief of State and Head of Government:
    President George VASSILIOU (since February 1988); note - Rauf R. DENKTASH
    has been president of the Turkish area since 13 February 1975
Political parties and leaders:
  Greek Cypriot:
    Progressive Party of the Working People (AKEL; Communist Party), Dimitrios
    CHRISTOFIAS; Democratic Rally (DESY), Glafkos KLERIDES; Democratic Party
    (DEKO), Spyros KYPRIANOU; United Democratic Union of the Center (EDEK),
    Vassos LYSSARIDES; Socialist Democratic Renewal Movement (ADESOK), Mikhalis
    PAPAPETROU; Liberal Party, Nikos ROLANDIS

:Cyprus Government

  Turkish area:
    National Unity Party (UBP), Dervis EROGLU; Communal Liberation Party (TKP),
    Mustafa AKINCI; Republican Turkish Party (CTP), Ozker OZGUR; New Cyprus
    Party (YKP), Alpay DURDURAN; Social Democratic Party (SDP), Ergun VEHBI; New
    Birth Party (YDP), Ali Ozkan ALTINISHIK; Free Democratic Party (HDP), Ismet
    KOTAK; note - CTP, TKP, and YDP joined in the coalition Democratic Struggle
    Party (DMP) for the 22 April 1990 legislative election; the CTP and TKP
    boycotted the byelection of 13 October 1991, which was for 12 seats; the DMP
    was dissolved after the 1990 election; National Justice Party (MAP), Zorlu
    TORE; United Sovereignty Party, Arif Salih KIRDAG
Suffrage:
    universal at age 18
Elections:
  President:
    last held 14 February and 21 February 1988 (next to be held February 1993);
    results - George VASSILIOU 52%, Glafkos KLERIDES 48%
  House of Representatives:
    last held 19 May 1991; results - DESY 35.8%, AKEL (Communist) 30.6, DEKO
    19.5%, EDEK 10. 9%; others 3.2% seats - (56 total) DESY 20, AKEL (Communist)
    18, DEKO 11, EDEK 7
  Turkish Area: President:
    last held 22 April 1990 (next to be held April 1995); results - Rauf R.
    DENKTASH 66%, Ismail BOZKURT 32.05%
  Turkish Area: Assembly of the Republic:
    last held 6 May 1990 (next to be held May 1995); results - UBP
    (conservative) 54.4%, DMP 44.4% YKP .9%; seats - (50 total) UBP
    (conservative) 45, SDP 1, HDP 2, YDP 2; note - by-election of 13 October
    1991 was for 12 seats
Communists:
    about 12,000
Other political or pressure groups:
    United Democratic Youth Organization (EDON; Communist controlled); Union of
    Cyprus Farmers (EKA; Communist controlled); Cyprus Farmers Union (PEK;
    pro-West); Pan-Cyprian Labor Federation (PEO; Communist controlled) ;
    Confederation of Cypriot Workers (SEK; pro-West); Federation of Turkish
    Cypriot Labor Unions (Turk-Sen); Confederation of Revolutionary Labor Unions
    (Dev-Is)
Member of:
    C, CCC, CE, CSCE, EBRD, ECE, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU,
    IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM,
    OAS (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
    WTO; note - the Turkish-Cypriot administered area of Cyprus has observer
    status in the OIC
Diplomatic representation:
    Ambassador Michael E. SHERIFIS; Chancery at 2211 R Street NW, Washington, DC
    20008; telephone (202) 462-5772
  US:
    Ambassador Robert E. LAMB; Embassy at the corner of Therissos Street and
    Dositheos Street, Nicosia (mailing address is APO AE 09836); telephone [357]
    (2) 465151; FAX [357] (2) 459-571
Flag:
    white with a copper-colored silhouette of the island (the name Cyprus is
    derived from the Greek word for copper) above two green crossed olive
    branches in the center of the flag; the branches symbolize the hope for
    peace and reconciliation between the Greek and Turkish communities; note -
    the Turkish cypriot flag has a horizontal red stripe at the top and bottom
    with a red crescent and red star on a white field

:Cyprus Economy

Overview:
    The Greek Cypriot economy is small, diversified, and prosperous. Industry
    contributes 24% to GDP and employs 35% of the labor force, while the service
    sector contributes 44% to GDP and employs 45% of the labor force. Rapid
    growth in exports of agricultural and manufactured products and in tourism
    have played important roles in the average 6.4% rise in GDP between 1985 and
    1990. In mid-1991, the World Bank "graduated" Cyprus off its list of
    developing countries. In contrast to the bright picture in the south, the
    Turkish Cypriot economy has less than half the per capita GDP and suffered a
    series of reverses in 1991. Crippled by the effects of the Gulf war, the
    collapse of the fruit-to-electronics conglomerate, Polly Peck, Ltd., and a
    drought, the Turkish area in late 1991 asked for a multibillion-dollar grant
    from Turkey to help ease the burden of the economic crisis. Turkey normally
    underwrites a substantial portion of the TRNC economy.
GDP:
    purchasing power equivalent - Greek area: $5.5 billion, per capita $9,600;
    real growth rate 6.0%; Turkish area: $600 million, per capita $4,000; real
    growth rate 5.9% (1990)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    Greek area: 4.5%; Turkish area: 69.4% (1990)
Unemployment rate:
    Greek area: 1.8%; Turkish area: 1.2% (1990)
Budget:
    revenues $1.2 billion; expenditures $2.0 billion, including capital
    expenditures of $250 million (1991)
Exports:
    $847 million (f.o.b., 1990)
  commodities:
    citrus, potatoes, grapes, wine, cement, clothing and shoes
  partners:
    UK 23%, Greece 10%, Lebanon 10%, Germany 5%
Imports:
    $2.3 billion (f.o.b., 1990)
  commodities:
    consumer goods, petroleum and lubricants, food and feed grains, machinery
  partners:
    UK 13%, Japan 12%, Italy 10%, Germany 9.1%
External debt:
    $2.8 billion (1990)
Industrial production:
    growth rate 5.6% (1990); accounts for 24% of GDP
Electricity:
    620,000 kW capacity; 1,770 million kWh produced, 2,530 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
    food, beverages, textiles, chemicals, metal products, tourism, wood products
Agriculture:
    accounts for 7% of GDP and employs 14% of labor force in the south; major
    crops - potatoes, vegetables, barley, grapes, olives, and citrus fruits;
    vegetables and fruit provide 25% of export revenues
Economic aid:
    US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $292 million; Western (non-US)
    countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $250 million; OPEC
    bilateral aid (1979-89), $62 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $24
    million
Currency:
    Cypriot pound (plural - pounds) and in Turkish area, Turkish lira (plural -
    liras); 1 Cypriot pound (#C) = 100 cents and 1 Turkish lira (TL) = 100 kurus

:Cyprus Economy

Exchange rates:
    Cypriot pounds (#C) per US$1 - 0.4683 (March 1992), 0.4615 (1991), 0.4572
    (1990), 0.4933 (1989), 0.4663 (1988), 0.4807 (1987); in Turkish area,
    Turkish liras (TL) per US$1 - 6,098.4 (March 1992), 4,173.9 (1991), 2,608.6
    (1990), 2,121.7 (1989), 1,422.3 (1988), 857.2 (1987)
Fiscal year:
    calendar year

:Cyprus Communications

Highways:
    10,780 km total; 5,170 km paved; 5,610 km gravel, crushed stone, and earth
Ports:
    Famagusta, Kyrenia, Larnaca, Limassol, Paphos
Merchant marine:
    1,228 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 20,053,213 GRT/35,647,964 DWT;
    includes 8 short-sea passenger, 2 passenger-cargo, 440 cargo, 83
    refrigerated cargo, 22 roll-on/roll-off, 52 container, 5 multifunction large
    load carrier, 107 petroleum tanker, 3 specialized tanker, 3 liquefied gas,
    20 chemical tanker, 32 combination ore/oil, 394 bulk, 3 vehicle carrier, 49
    combination bulk, 2 railcar carrier, 2 passenger, 1 passenger cargo; note -
    a flag of convenience registry; Cuba owns at least 30 of these ships,
    republics of the former USSR own 58, Latvia also has 5 ships, Yugoslavia
    owns 1, and Romania 3
Civil air:
    11 major transport aircraft (Greek Cypriots); 2 (Turkish Cypriots)
Airports:
    14 total, 14 usable; 12 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways
    over 3,659 m; 7 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 3 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
    excellent in both the area controlled by the Cypriot Government (Greek
    area), and in the Turkish-Cypriot administered area; 210,000 telephones;
    largely open-wire and radio relay; broadcast stations - 11 AM, 8 FM, 1 (34
    repeaters) TV in Greek sector and 2 AM, 6 FM and 1 TV in Turkish sector;
    international service by tropospheric scatter, 3 submarine cables, and
    satellite earth stations - 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Indian Ocean
    INTELSAT and EUTELSAT earth stations

:Cyprus Defense Forces

Branches:
    Greek area - Greek Cypriot National Guard (GCNG; including air and naval
    elements), Greek Cypriot Police; Turkish area - Turkish Cypriot Security
    Force
Manpower availability:
    males 15-49, 183,899; 126,664 fit for military service; 5,030 reach military
    age (18) annually
Defense expenditures:
    exchange rate conversion - $209 million, 5% of GDP (1990 est.)

:Czechoslovakia Geography

Total area:
    127,870 km2
Land area:
    125,460 km2
Comparative area:
    slightly larger than New York State
Land boundaries:
    3,438 km; Austria 548 km, Germany 815 km, Hungary 676 km, Poland 1,309 km,
    Ukraine 90 km
Coastline:
    none - landlocked
Maritime claims:
    none - landlocked
Disputes:
    Gabcikovo Nagymaros Dam dispute with Hungary
Climate:
    temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters
Terrain:
    mixture of hills and mountains separated by plains and basins
Natural resources:
    hard coal, timber, lignite, uranium, magnesite, iron ore, copper, zinc
Land use:
    arable land 37%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures 13%; forest and
    woodland 36%; other 13%; includes irrigated 1%
Environment:
    infrequent earthquakes; acid rain; water pollution; air pollution
Note:
    landlocked; strategically located astride some of oldest and most
    significant land routes in Europe; Moravian Gate is a traditional military
    corridor between the North European Plain and the Danube in central Europe

:Czechoslovakia People

Population:
    15,725,680 (July 1992), growth rate 0.2% (1992)
Birth rate:
    13 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
    11 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
    NEGL migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
    11 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
    68 years male, 76 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
    1.9 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
    noun - Czechoslovak(s); adjective - Czechoslovak
Ethnic divisions:
    Czech 62.9%, Slovak 31.8%, Hungarian 3.8%, Polish 0.5%, German 0.3%,
    Ukrainian 0.3%, Russian 0.1%, other 0.3%
Religions:
    Roman Catholic 50%, Protestant 20%, Orthodox 2%, other 28%
Languages:
    Czech and Slovak (official), Hungarian
Literacy:
    99% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can read and write (1970 est.)
Labor force:
    8,200,000 (1987); industry 36.9%, agriculture 12.3%, construction,
    communications, and other 50.8% (1982)
Organized labor:
    Czech and Slovak Confederation of Trade Unions (CSKOS); several new
    independent trade unions established

:Czechoslovakia Government

Long-form name:
    Czech and Slovak Federal Republic
Type:
    federal republic in transition
Capital:
    Prague
Administrative divisions:
    2 republics (republiky, singular - republika); Czech Republic (Ceska
    Republika), Slovak Republic (Slovenska Republika); note - 11 regions (kraj,
    singular); Severocesky, Zapadocesky, Jihocesky, Vychodocesky, Praha,
    Severomoravsky, Jihomoravsky, Bratislava, Zapadoslovensky, Stredoslovensky,
    Vychodoslovensky
Independence:
    28 October 1918 (from Austro-Hungarian Empire)
Constitution:
    11 July 1960; amended in 1968 and 1970; new Czech, Slovak, and federal
    constitutions to be drafted in 1992
Legal system:
    civil law system based on Austro-Hungarian codes, modified by Communist
    legal theory; constitutional court currently being established; has not
    accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; legal code in process of modification
    to bring it in line with Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe
    (CSCE) obligations and to expunge Marxist-Leninist legal theory
National holiday:
    National Liberation Day, 9 May (1945) and Founding of the Republic, 28
    October (1918)
Executive branch:
    president, prime minister, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
    bicameral Federal Assembly (Federalni Shromazdeni) consists of an upper
    house or Chamber of Nations (Snemovna Narodu) and a lower house or Chamber
    of the People (Snemovna Lidu)
Judicial branch:
    Supreme Court
Leaders:
  Chief of State:
    President Vaclav HAVEL; (interim president from 29 December 1989 and
    president since 5 July 1990)
  Head of Government:
    Prime Minister Marian CALFA (since 10 December 1989); Deputy Prime Minister
    Vaclav KLAUS (since 3 October 1991); Deputy Prime Minister Jiri DIENSTBIER
    (since 28 June 1990); Deputy Prime Minister Jozef MIKLOSKO (since 28 June
    1990); Deputy Prime Minister Pavel RYCHETSKY (since 28 June 1990); Deputy
    Prime Minister Pavel HOFFMAN (since 3 October 1991); note - generally,
    "prime minister" is used at the federal level, "premier" at the republic
    level; Czech Premier - Petr PITHART; Slovak Premier - Jan CARNOGVRSKY

:Czechoslovakia Government

Political parties and leaders:
    note - there are very few federation-wide parties; party affiliation is
    indicted as Czech (C) or Slovak (S); Civic Democratic Party, Vaclav KLAUS,
    chairman, (C/S); Civic Movement, Jiri DIENSTBIER, chairman, (C); Civic
    Democratic Alliance, Jan KALVODA, chairman; Christian Democratic Union
    Public Against Violence, Martin PORUBJAK, chairman, (S); Christian
    Democratic Party, Vaclav BENDA, (C); Christian Democratic Movement, Jan
    CARNOGURSKY,(S); Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia, Juri SVOBODA,
    chairman; Movement for a Democratic Slovakia, Vladimir MECIAR, chairman -
    removed from power in November 1989 by massive antiregime demonstrations;
    Czechoslovak Social Democracy, Jiri HORAK, chairman, (C); Czechoslovak
    Socialist Party, Ladislav DVORAK, chairman, (C)(S); Movement for
    Self-Governing Democracy Society for Moravia and Silesia, Jan KRYCER,
    chairman, (C); Party of the Democratic Left, Peter WEISS, chairman
    (Slovakia's renamed Communists) (S); Slovak National Party, Jozef PROKES,
    chairman, (S); Democratic Party, Jan HOLCIK, chairman, (S); Coexistence,
    (C)(S)
Suffrage:
    universal at age 18
Elections:
  Federal Assembly:
    last held 8-9 June 1990 (next to be held 5-6 June 1992); results - Civic
    Forum/Public Against Violence coalition 46%, KSC 13.6%; seats - (300 total)
    Civic Forum/Public Against Violence coalition 170, KSC 47, Christian and
    Democratic Union/Christian Democratic Movement 40, Czech, Slovak, Moravian,
    and Hungarian groups 43
  President:
    last held 5 July 1990 (next to be held 3 July 1992); results - Vaclav HAVEL
    elected by the Federal Assembly
Communists:
    760,000 party members (September 1990); about 1,000,000 members lost since
    November 1989
Other political or pressure groups:
    Czechoslovak Socialist Party, Czechoslovak People's Party, Czechoslovak
    Social Democracy, Slovak Nationalist Party, Slovak Revival Party, Christian
    Democratic Party; over 80 registered political groups fielded candidates in
    the 8-9 June 1990 legislative election
Member of:
    BIS, CCC, CE, CSCE, EC (associate) ECE, FAO, GATT, HG, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
    IFCTU, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NACC, NSG, PCA, UN,
    UNAVEM, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, ZC
Diplomatic representation:
    Ambassador Rita KLIMOVA; Chancery at 3900 Linnean Avenue NW, Washington, DC
    20008; telephone (202) 363-6315 or 6316
  US:
    Ambassador Shirley Temple BLACK; Embassy at Trziste 15, 125 48, Prague 1
    (mailing address is Unit 25402; APO AE 09213-5630); telephone [42] (2)
    536-641/6; FAX [42] (2) 532-457
Flag:
    two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red with a blue isosceles
    triangle based on the hoist side

:Czechoslovakia Economy

Overview:
    Czechoslovakia is highly industrialized by East European standards and has a
    well-educated and skilled labor force. GDP per capita has been the highest
    in Eastern Europe. Annual GDP growth slowed to less than 1 percent during
    the 1985-90 period. The country is deficient in energy and in many raw
    materials. Moreover, its aging capital plant lags well behind West European
    standards. In January 1991, Prague launched a sweeping program to convert
    its almost entirely state-owned and controlled economy to a market system.
    The koruna now enjoys almost full internal convertibility and over 90% of
    prices are set by the market. The government is planning to privatize all
    small businesses and roughly two-thirds of large enterprises by the end of
    1993. New private-sector activity is also expanding. Agriculture - 95%
    socialized - is to be privatized by the end of 1992. Reform has taken its
    toll on the economy: inflation was roughly 50% in 1991, unemployment was
    nearly 70%, and GDP dropped an estimated 15%. In 1992 the government is
    anticipating inflation of 10-15%, unemployment of 11-12%, and a drop in GDP
    of up to 8%. As of mid-1992, the nation appears to be splitting in two -
    into the industrial Czech area and the more agarian Slovak area.
GDP:
    purchasing power equivalent - $108.9 billion, per capita $6,900; real growth
    rate -15% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    52% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
    officially 6.7% (1991 est.)
Budget:
    revenues $4.5 billion; expenditures $4.5 billion, including capital
    expenditures of $200 million (1992)
Exports:
    $12.0 billion (f.o.b., 1990)
  commodities:
    machinery and equipment 39.2%; fuels, minerals, and metals 8.1%;
    agricultural and forestry products 6.2%, other 46.5%
  partners:
    USSR, Germany, Poland, Austria, Hungary, Yugoslavia, Italy, France, US, UK
Imports:
    $13.3 billion (f.o.b., 1990)
  commodities:
    machinery and equipment 37.3%; fuels, minerals, and metals 22.6%;
    agricultural and forestry products 7.0%; other 33.1%
  partners:
    USSR, Germany, Austria, Poland, Switzerland, Hungary, Yugoslavia, UK, Italy
External debt:
    $9.1 billion, hard currency indebtedness (December 1991)
Industrial production:
    growth rate -22% (1991 est.); accounts for almost 60% of GNP
Electricity:
    23,000,000 kW capacity; 90,000 million kWh produced, 5,740 kWh per capita
    (1990)
Industries:
    iron and steel, machinery and equipment, cement, sheet glass, motor
    vehicles, armaments, chemicals, ceramics, wood, paper products, footwear
Agriculture:
    accounts for 9% of GDP (includes forestry); largely self-sufficient in food
    production; diversified crop and livestock production, including grains,
    potatoes, sugar beets, hops, fruit, hogs, cattle, and poultry; exporter of
    forest products

:Czechoslovakia Economy

Illicit drugs:
    transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and emerging as a
    transshipment point for Latin American cocaine E
Economic aid:
    donor - $4.2 billion in bilateral aid to non-Communist less developed
    countries (1954-89)
Currency:
    koruna (plural - koruny); 1 koruna (Kc) = 100 haleru
Exchange rates:
    koruny (Kcs) per US$1 - 28.36 (January 1992), 29.53 (1991), 17.95 (1990),
    15.05 (1989), 14.36 (1988), 13.69 (1987)
Fiscal year:
    calendar year

:Czechoslovakia Communications

Railroads:
    13,103 km total; 12,855 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, 102 km 1.520-meter
    broad gauge, 146 km 0.750- and 0.760-meter narrow gauge; 2,861 km double
    track; 3,798 km electrified; government owned (1988)
Highways:
    73,540 km total; including 517 km superhighway (1988)
Inland waterways:
    475 km (1988); the Elbe (Labe) is the principal river
Pipelines:
    crude oil 1,448 km; petroleum products 1,500 km; natural gas 8,100 km
Ports:
    maritime outlets are in Poland (Gdynia, Gdansk, Szczecin), Croatia (Rijeka),
    Slovenia (Koper), Germany (Hamburg, Rostock); principal river ports are
    Prague on the Vltava, Decin on the Elbe (Labe), Komarno on the Danube,
    Bratislava on the Danube
Merchant marine:
    22 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 290,185 GRT/437,291 DWT; includes 13
    cargo, 9 bulk
Civil air:
    47 major transport aircraft
Airports:
    158 total, 158 usable; 40 with permanent-surface runways; 19 with runways
    2,440-3,659 m; 37 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
    inadequate circuit capacity; 4 million telephones; Radrel backbone of
    network; 25% of households have a telephone; broadcast stations - 32 AM, 15
    FM, 41 TV (11 Soviet TV repeaters); 4.4 million TVs (1990); 1 satellite
    earth station using INTELSAT and Intersputnik

:Czechoslovakia Defense Forces

Branches:
    Army, Air and Air Defense Forces, Civil Defense, Border Guard
Manpower availability:
    males 15-49, 4,110,628; 3,142,457 fit for military service; 142,239 reach
    military age (18) annually
Defense expenditures:
    exchange rate conversion - 28 billion koruny, NA% of GNP (1991); note -
    conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the current
    exchange rate would produce misleading results

:Denmark Geography

Total area:
    43,070 km2
Land area:
    42,370 km2; includes the island of Bornholm in the Baltic Sea and the rest
    of metropolitan Denmark, but excludes the Faroe Islands and Greenland
Comparative area:
    slightly more than twice the size of Massachusetts
Land boundaries:
    68 km; Germany 68 km
Coastline:
    3,379 km
Maritime claims:
  Contiguous zone:
    4 nm
  Continental shelf:
    200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation
  Exclusive fishing zone:
    200 nm
  Territorial sea:
    3 nm
Disputes:
    Rockall continental shelf dispute involving Iceland, Ireland, and the UK
    (Ireland and the UK have signed a boundary agreement in the Rockall area);
    Denmark has challenged Norway's maritime claims between Greenland and Jan
    Mayen
Climate:
    temperate; humid and overcast; mild, windy winters and cool summers
Terrain:
    low and flat to gently rolling plains
Natural resources:
    crude oil, natural gas, fish, salt, limestone
Land use:
    arable land 61%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and pastures 6%; forest and
    woodland 12%; other 21%; includes irrigated 9%
Environment:
    air and water pollution
Note:
    controls Danish Straits linking Baltic and North Seas

:Denmark People

Population:
    5,163,955 (July 1992), growth rate 0.2% (1992)
Birth rate:
    13 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
    12 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
    1 migrant/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
    7 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
    72 years male, 78 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
    1.7 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
    noun - Dane(s); adjective - Danish
Ethnic divisions:
    Scandinavian, Eskimo, Faroese, German
Religions:
    Evangelical Lutheran 91%, other Protestant and Roman Catholic 2%, other 7%
    (1988)
Languages:
    Danish, Faroese, Greenlandic (an Eskimo dialect); small German-speaking
    minority
Literacy:
    99% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can read and write (1980 est.)
Labor force:
    2,581,400; private services 36.4%; government services 30.2%; manufacturing
    and mining 20%; construction 6.8%; agriculture, forestry, and fishing 5.9%;
    electricity/gas/water 0.7% (1990)
Organized labor:
    65% of labor force

:Denmark Government

Long-form name:
    Kingdom of Denmark
Type:
    constitutional monarchy
Capital:
    Copenhagen
Administrative divisions:
    metropolitan Denmark - 14 counties (amter, singular - amt) and 1 city*
    (stad); Arhus, Bornholm, Frederiksborg, Fyn, Kbenhavn, Nordjylland, Ribe,
    Ringkbing, Roskilde, Snderjylland, Staden Kbenhavn*, Storstrm, Vejle,
    Vestsjaelland, Viborg; note - see separate entries for the Faroe Islands and
    Greenland, which are part of the Danish realm and self-governing
    administrative divisions
Independence:
    became a constitutional monarchy in 1849
Constitution:
    5 June 1953
Legal system:
    civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts; accepts compulsory
    ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
National holiday:
    Birthday of the Queen, 16 April (1940)
Executive branch:
    monarch, heir apparent, prime minister, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
    unicameral parliament (Folketing)
Judicial branch:
    Supreme Court
Leaders:
  Chief of State:
    Queen MARGRETHE II (since January 1972); Heir Apparent Crown Prince
    FREDERIK, elder son of the Queen (born 26 May 1968)
  Head of Government:
    Prime Minister Poul SCHLUTER (since 10 September 1982)
Political parties and leaders:
    Social Democratic Party, Paul Nyrup RASMUSSEN; Conservative Party, Poul
    SCHLUTER; Liberal Party, Uffe ELLEMANN-JENSEN; Socialist People's Party,
    Holger K. NIELSEN; Progress Party, Pia KJAERSGAARD; Center Democratic Party,
    Mimi Stilling JAKOBSEN; Radical Liberal Party, Marianne JELVED; Christian
    People's Party, Jam SJURSEN; Left Socialist Party, Elizabeth BRUN-OLESEN;
    Justice Party, Poul Gerhard KRISTIANSEN; Socialist Workers Party, leader NA;
    Communist Workers' Party (KAP), leader NA; Common Course, Preben Meller
    HANSEN; Green Party, Inger BORLEHMANN
Suffrage:
    universal at age 21
Elections:
  Parliament:
    last held 12 December 1990 (next to be held by December 1994); results -
    Social Democratic Party 37.4%, Conservative Party 16.0%, Liberal 15.8%,
    Socialist People's Party 8.3%, Progress Party 6.4%, Center Democratic Party
    5.1%, Radical Liberal Party 3.5%, Christian People's Party 2.3%, other 5.2%;
    seats - (179 total; includes 2 from Greenland and 2 from the Faroe Islands)
    Social Democratic 69, Conservative 30, Liberal 29, Socialist People's 15,
    Progress Party 12, Center Democratic 9, Radical Liberal 7, Christian
    People's 4

:Denmark Government

Member of:
    AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, CCC, CE, CERN, COCOM, CSCE,
    EBRD, EC, ECE, EIB, ESA, FAO, G-9, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU,
    IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM,
    ISO, ITU, LORCS, MTCR, NACC, NATO, NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OECD, PCA, UN, UNCTAD,
    UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIIMOG, UNMOGIP, UNTSO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WM,
    ZC
Diplomatic representation:
    Ambassador Peter Pedersen DYVIG; Chancery at 3200 Whitehaven Street NW,
    Washington, DC 20008; telephone (202) 234-4300; there are Danish Consulates
    General in Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York
  US:
    Ambassador Richard B. STONE; Embassy at Dag Hammarskjolds Alle 24, 2100
    Copenhagen O (mailing address is APO AE 09716); telephone [45] (31)
    42-31-44; FAX [45] (35) 43-0223
Flag:
    red with a white cross that extends to the edges of the flag; the vertical
    part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side, and that design element of
    the (Danish flag) was subsequently adopted by the other Nordic countries of
    Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden

:Denmark Economy

Overview:
    This modern economy features high-tech agriculture, up-to-date small-scale
    and corporate industry, extensive government welfare measures, comfortable
    living standards, and high dependence on foreign trade. Denmark probably
    will continue its successful economic recovery in 1992 with tight fiscal and
    monetary policies and export- oriented growth. Prime Minister Schluter's
    main priorities are to maintain a current account surplus in order to pay
    off extensive external debt and to continue to freeze public-sector
    expenditures in order to reduce the budget deficit. The rate of growth by
    1993 - boosted by increased investment and domestic demand - may be
    sufficient to start to cut Denmark's high unemployment rate, which is
    expected to remain at about 11% in 1992. Low inflation, low wage increases,
    and the current account surplus put Denmark in a good competitive position
    for the EC's anticipated single market, although Denmark must cut its VAT
    and income taxes.
GDP:
    purchasing power equivalent - $91.1 billion, per capita $17,700; real growth
    rate 2.0% (1991)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    2.4% (1991)
Unemployment rate:
    10.6% (1991)
Budget:
    revenues $44.1 billion; expenditures $50 billion, including capital
    expenditures of $NA billion (1991 est.)
Exports:
    $37.8 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
  commodities:
    meat and meat products, dairy products, transport equipment (shipbuilding),
    fish, chemicals, industrial machinery
  partners:
    EC 54.2% (Germany 22.5%, UK 10.3%, France 5.9%), Sweden 11.5%, Norway 5.8%,
    US 5.0%, Japan 3.6% (1991)
Imports:
    $31.6 billion (c.i.f., 1991)
  commodities:
    petroleum, machinery and equipment, chemicals, grain and foodstuffs,
    textiles, paper
  partners:
    EC 52.8% (Germany 22.5%, UK 8.1%), Sweden 10.8%, US 6.3% (1991)
External debt:
    $45 billion (1991)
Industrial production:
    growth rate 0% (1991 est.)
Electricity:
    11,215,000 kW capacity; 31,000 million kWh produced, 6,030 kWh per capita
    (1991)
Industries:
    food processing, machinery and equipment, textiles and clothing, chemical
    products, electronics, construction, furniture, and other wood products
Agriculture:
    accounts for 4.5% of GDP and employs 6% of labor force (includes fishing and
    forestry); farm products account for nearly 15% of export revenues;
    principal products - meat, dairy, grain, potatoes, rape, sugar beets, fish;
    self-sufficient in food production
Economic aid:
    donor - ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89) $5.9 billion
Currency:
    Danish krone (plural - kroner); 1 Danish krone (DKr) = 100 re

:Denmark Economy

Exchange rates:
    Danish kroner (DKr) per US$1 - 6.116 (January 1992), 6.396 (1991), 6.189
    (1990), 7.310 (1989), 6.732 (1988), 6.840 (1987)
Fiscal year:
    calendar year

:Denmark Communications

Railroads:
    2,675 km 1.435-meter standard gauge; Danish State Railways (DSB) operate
    2,120 km (1,999 km rail line and 121 km rail ferry services); 188 km
    electrified, 730 km double tracked; 650 km of standard- gauge lines are
    privately owned and operated
Highways:
    66,482 km total; 64,551 km concrete, bitumen, or stone block; 1,931 km
    gravel, crushed stone, improved earth
Inland waterways:
    417 km
Pipelines:
    crude oil 110 km; petroleum products 578 km; natural gas 700 km
Ports:
    Alborg, Arhus, Copenhagen, Esbjerg, Fredericia; numerous secondary and minor
    ports
Merchant marine:
    317 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,367,063 GRT/7,921,891 DWT; includes
    13 short-sea passenger, 94 cargo, 21 refrigerated cargo, 38 container, 39
    roll-on/roll-off, 1 railcar carrier, 42 petroleum tanker, 14 chemical
    tanker, 33 liquefied gas, 4 livestock carrier, 17 bulk, 1 combination bulk;
    note - Denmark has created its own internal register, called the Danish
    International Ship register (DIS); DIS ships do not have to meet Danish
    manning regulations, and they amount to a flag of convenience within the
    Danish register; by the end of 1990, 258 of the Danish-flag ships belonged
    to the DIS
Civil air:
    69 major transport aircraft
Airports:
    121 total, 108 usable; 27 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways
    over 3,659 m; 9 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 6 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
    excellent telephone, telegraph, and broadcast services; 4,509,000
    telephones; buried and submarine cables and radio relay support trunk
    network; broadcast stations - 3 AM, 2 FM, 50 TV; 19 submarine coaxial
    cables; 7 earth stations operating in INTELSAT, EUTELSAT, and INMARSAT

:Denmark Defense Forces

Branches:
    Royal Danish Army, Royal Danish Navy, Royal Danish Air Force, Home Guard
Manpower availability:
    males 15-49, 1,372,878; 1,181,857 fit for military service; 38,221 reach
    military age (20) annually
Defense expenditures:
    exchange rate conversion - $2.5 billion, 2% of GDP (1991)

:Djibouti Geography

Total area:
    22,000 km2
Land area:
    21,980 km2
Comparative area:
    slightly larger than Massachusetts
Land boundaries:
    517 km; Ethiopia 459 km, Somalia 58 km
Coastline:
    314 km
Maritime claims:
  Contiguous zone:
    24 nm
  Exclusive economic zone:
    200 nm
  Territorial sea:
    12 nm
Disputes:
    possible claim by Somalia based on unification of ethnic Somalis
Climate:
    desert; torrid, dry
Terrain:
    coastal plain and plateau separated by central mountains
Natural resources:
    geothermal areas
Land use:
    arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 9%; forest and
    woodland NEGL%; other 91%
Environment:
    vast wasteland
Note:
    strategic location near world's busiest shipping lanes and close to Arabian
    oilfields; terminus of rail traffic into Ethiopia

:Djibouti People

Population:
    390,906 (July 1992), growth rate 2.7% (1992)
Birth rate:
    43 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
    16 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
    0 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
    115 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
    47 years male, 50 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
    6.3 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
    noun - Djiboutian(s); adjective - Djiboutian
Ethnic divisions:
    Somali 60%, Afar 35%, French, Arab, Ethiopian, and Italian 5%
Religions:
    Muslim 94%, Christian 6%
Languages:
    French and Arabic (both official); Somali and Afar widely used
Literacy:
    48% (male 63%, female 34%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
Labor force:
    NA, but a small number of semiskilled laborers at the port and 3,000 railway
    workers; 52% of population of working age (1983)
Organized labor:
    3,000 railway workers, General Union of Djiboutian Workers (UGTD),
    government affiliated; some smaller unions

:Djibouti Government

Long-form name:
    Republic of Djibouti
Type:
    republic
Capital:
    Djibouti
Administrative divisions:
    5 districts (cercles, singular - cercle); `Ali Sabih, Dikhil, Djibouti,
    Obock, Tadjoura
Independence:
    27 June 1977 (from France; formerly French Territory of the Afars and Issas)
Constitution:
    partial constitution ratified January 1981 by the National Assembly
Legal system:
    based on French civil law system, traditional practices, and Islamic law
National holiday:
    Independence Day, 27 June (1977)
Executive branch:
    president, prime minister, Council of Ministers
Legislative branch:
    National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale)
Judicial branch:
    Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)
Leaders:
  Chief of State:
    President Hassan GOULED Aptidon (since 24 June 1977)
  Head of Government:
    Prime Minister BARKAT Gourad Hamadou (since 30 September 1978)
Political parties and leaders:
    only party - People's Progress Assembly (RPP), Hassan GOULED Aptidon
Suffrage:
    universal adult at age NA
Elections:
  National Assembly:
    last held 24 April 1987 (next scheduled for May 1992 but post- poned);
    results - RPP is the only party; seats - (65 total) RPP 65
  President:
    last held 24 April 1987 (next to be held April 1993); results - President
    Hassan GOULED Aptidon was reelected without opposition
Other political or pressure groups:
    Front for the Restoration of Unity and Democracy and affiliates
Member of:
    ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AL, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC,
    IGADD, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNESCO,
    UNCTAD, UPU, WHO, WMO
Diplomatic representation:
    Ambassador Roble OLHAYE; Chancery at Suite 515, 1156 15th Street NW,
    Washington, DC 20005; telephone (202) 331-0270
  US:
    Ambassador Charles R. BAQUET III; Embassy at Villa Plateau du Serpent,
    Boulevard Marechal Joffre, Djibouti (mailing address is B. P. 185,
    Djibouti); telephone [253] 35-39-95; FAX [253] 35-39-40
Flag:
    two equal horizontal bands of light blue (top) and light green with a white
    isosceles triangle based on the hoist side bearing a red five-pointed star
    in the center

:Djibouti Economy

Overview:
    The economy is based on service activities connected with the country's
    strategic location and status as a free trade zone in northeast Africa.
    Djibouti provides services as both a transit port for the region and an
    international transshipment and refueling center. It has few natural
    resources and little industry. The nation is, therefore, heavily dependent
    on foreign assistance to help support its balance of payments and to finance
    development projects. An unemployment rate of over 30% continues to be a
    major problem. Per capita consumption dropped an estimated 35% over the last
    five years because of recession and a high population growth rate (including
    immigrants and refugees).
GDP:
    exchange rate conversion - $340 million, $1,000 per capita; real growth rate
    -1.0% (1989 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    3.7% (1989)
Unemployment rate:
    over 30% (1989)
Budget:
    revenues $131 million; expenditures $154 million, including capital
    expenditures of $25 million (1990 est.)
Exports:
    $190 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.)
  commodities:
    hides and skins, coffee (in transit)
  partners:
    Middle East 50%, Africa 43%, Western Europe 7%
Imports:
    $311 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.)
  commodities:
    foods, beverages, transport equipment, chemicals, petroleum products
  partners:
    EC 36%, Africa 21%, Asia 12%, US 2%
External debt:
    $355 million (December 1990)
Industrial production:
    growth rate 0.1% (1989); manufacturing accounts for 4% of GDP
Electricity:
    115,000 kW capacity; 200 million kWh produced, 580 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
    limited to a few small-scale enterprises, such as dairy products and
    mineral-water bottling
Agriculture:
    accounts for only 5% of GDP; scanty rainfall limits crop production to
    mostly fruit and vegetables; half of population pastoral nomads herding
    goats, sheep, and camels; imports bulk of food needs
Economic aid:
    US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY78-89), $39 million; Western (non-US)
    countries, including ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $1.1
    billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $149 million; Communist countries
    (1970-89), $35 million
Currency:
    Djiboutian franc (plural - francs); 1 Djiboutian franc (DF) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
    Djiboutian francs (DF) per US$1 - 177.721 (fixed rate since 1973)
Fiscal year:
    calendar year

:Djibouti Communications

Railroads:
    the Ethiopian-Djibouti railroad extends for 97 km through Djibouti
Highways:
    2,900 km total; 280 km paved; 2,620 km improved or unimproved earth (1982)
Ports:
    Djibouti
Civil air:
    1 major transport aircraft
Airports:
    13 total, 11 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways
    over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 5 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
    fair system of urban facilities in Djibouti and radio relay stations at
    outlying places; broadcast stations - 2 AM, 1 FM, 1 TV; 1 Indian Ocean
    INTELSAT earth station and 1 ARABSAT; 1 submarine cable to Saudi Arabia

:Djibouti Defense Forces

Branches:
    Djibouti National Army (including Navy and Air Force), National Security
    Force (Force Nationale de Securite), National Police Force
Manpower availability:
    males 15-49, 96,150; 56,077 fit for military service
Defense expenditures:
    exchange rate conversion - $29.9 million, NA% of GDP (1986)

:Dominica Geography

Total area:
    750 km2
Land area:
    750 km2
Comparative area:
    slightly more than four times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
    none
Coastline:
    148 km
Maritime claims:
  Contiguous zone:
    24 nm
  Exclusive economic zone:
    200 nm
  Territorial sea:
    12 nm
Disputes:
    none
Climate:
    tropical; moderated by northeast trade winds; heavy rainfall
Terrain:
    rugged mountains of volcanic origin
Natural resources:
    timber
Land use:
    arable land 9%; permanent crops 13%; meadows and pastures 3%; forest and
    woodland 41%; other 34%
Environment:
    flash floods a constant hazard; occasional hurricanes
Note:
    located 550 km southeast of Puerto Rico in the Caribbean Sea

:Dominica People

Population:
    87,035 (July 1992), growth rate 1.6% (1992)
Birth rate:
    24 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
    5 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
    -3 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
    11 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
    74 years male, 79 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
    2.4 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
    noun - Dominican(s); adjective - Dominican
Ethnic divisions:
    mostly black; some Carib Indians
Religions:
    Roman Catholic 77%, Protestant 15% (Methodist 5%, Pentecostal 3%,
    Seventh-Day Adventist 3%, Baptist 2%, other 2%), none 2%, unknown 1%, other
    5%
Languages:
    English (official); French patois widely spoken
Literacy:
    94% (male 94%, female 94%) age 15 and over having ever attended school
    (1970)
Labor force:
    25,000; agriculture 40%, industry and commerce 32%, services 28% (1984)
Organized labor:
    25% of labor force

:Dominica Government

Long-form name:
    Commonwealth of Dominica
Type:
    parliamentary democracy
Capital:
    Roseau
Administrative divisions:
    10 parishes; Saint Andrew, Saint David, Saint George, Saint John, Saint
    Joseph, Saint Luke, Saint Mark, Saint Patrick, Saint Paul, Saint Peter
Independence:
    3 November 1978 (from UK)
Constitution:
    3 November 1978
Legal system:
    based on English common law
National holiday:
    Independence Day, 3 November (1978)
Executive branch:
    president, prime minister, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
    unicameral House of Assembly
Judicial branch:
    Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court
Leaders:
  Chief of State:
    President Sir Clarence Augustus SEIGNORET (since 19 December 1983)
  Head of Government:
    Prime Minister (Mary) Eugenia CHARLES (since 21 July 1980, elected for a
    third term 28 May 1990)
Political parties and leaders:
    Dominica Freedom Party (DFP), (Mary) Eugenia CHARLES; Dominica Labor Party
    (DLP), Pierre CHARLES; United Workers Party (UWP), Edison JAMES
Suffrage:
    universal at age 18
Elections:
  House of Assembly:
    last held 28 May 1990 (next to be held May 1995); results - percent of vote
    by party NA; seats - (30 total; 9 appointed senators and 21 elected
    representatives) DFP 11, UWP 6, DLP 4
  President:
    last held 20 December 1988 (next to be held December 1993); results -
    President Sir Clarence Augustus SEIGNORET was reelected by the House of
    Assembly
Other political or pressure groups:
    Dominica Liberation Movement (DLM), a small leftist group
Member of:
    ACCT, ACP, C, CARICOM, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC,
    ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, LORCS, NAM (observer), OAS, OECS, UN, UNCTAD,
    UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WMO
Diplomatic representation:
    there is no Chancery in the US
  US:
    no official presence since the Ambassador resides in Bridgetown (Barbados),
    but travels frequently to Dominica

:Dominica Government

Flag:
    green with a centered cross of three equal bands - the vertical part is
    yellow (hoist side), black, and white - the horizontal part is yellow (top),
    black, and white; superimposed in the center of the cross is a red disk
    bearing a sisserou parrot encircled by 10 green five-pointed stars edged in
    yellow; the 10 stars represent the 10 administrative divisions (parishes)

:Dominica Economy

Overview:
    The economy is dependent on agriculture and thus is highly vulnerable to
    climatic conditions. Agriculture accounts for about 30% of GDP and employs
    40% of the labor force. Principal products include bananas, citrus, mangoes,
    root crops, and coconuts. In 1990, GDP grew by 7%, bouncing back from the
    1.6% decline of 1989. The tourist industry remains undeveloped because of a
    rugged coastline and the lack of an international airport.
GDP:
    purchasing power equivalent - $170 million, per capita $2,000; real growth
    rate 7.0% (1990 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    4.7% (1990)
Unemployment rate:
    10% (1989 est.)
Budget:
    revenues $48 million; expenditures $85 million, including capital
    expenditures of $41 million (FY90)
Exports:
    $59.9 million (f.o.b., 1990)
  commodities:
    bananas, coconuts, grapefruit, soap, galvanized sheets
  partners:
    UK 72%, Jamaica 10%, OECS 6%, US 3%, other 9%
Imports:
    $103.9 million (c.i.f., 1990)
  commodities:
    food, oils and fats, chemicals, fuels and lubricants, manufactured goods,
    machinery and equipment
  partners:
    US 23%, UK 18%, CARICOM 15%, OECS 15%, Japan 5%, Canada 3%, other 21%
External debt:
    $73 million (1990 est.)
Industrial production:
    growth rate 4.5% in manufacturing (1988 est.); accounts for 11% of GDP
Electricity:
    7,000 kW capacity; 16 million kWh produced, 185 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
    soap, beverages, tourism, food processing, furniture, cement blocks, shoes
Agriculture:
    accounts for 30% of GDP; principal crops - bananas, citrus, mangoes, root
    crops, and coconuts; bananas provide the bulk of export earnings; forestry
    and fisheries potential not exploited
Economic aid:
    Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89),
    $120 million
Currency:
    East Caribbean dollar (plural - dollars); 1 EC dollar (EC$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
    East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1 - 2.70 (fixed rate since 1976)
Fiscal year:
    1 July - 30 June

:Dominica Communications

Highways:
    750 km total; 370 km paved, 380 km gravel and earth
Ports:
    Roseau, Portsmouth
Civil air:
    NA
Airports:
    2 total, 2 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over
    2,439 m; 1 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
    4,600 telephones in fully automatic network; VHF and UHF link to Saint
    Lucia; new SHF links to Martinique and Guadeloupe; broadcast stations - 3
    AM, 2 FM, 1 cable TV

:Dominica Defense Forces

Branches:
    Commonwealth of Dominica Police Force (including Coast Guard)
Manpower availability:
    NA
Defense expenditures:
    exchange rate conversion - $NA, NA% of GDP

:Dominican Republic Geography

Total area:
    48,730 km2
Land area:
    48,380 km2
Comparative area:
    slightly more than twice the size of New Hampshire
Land boundaries:
    275 km; Haiti 275 km
Coastline:
    1,288 km
Maritime claims:
  Contiguous zone:
    24 nm
  Continental shelf:
    outer edge of continental margin or 200 nm
  Exclusive economic zone:
    200 nm
  Territorial sea:
    6 nm
Disputes:
    none
Climate:
    tropical maritime; little seasonal temperature variation
Terrain:
    rugged highlands and mountains with fertile valleys interspersed
Natural resources:
    nickel, bauxite, gold, silver
Land use:
    arable land 23%; permanent crops 7%; meadows and pastures 43%; forest and
    woodland 13%; other 14%; includes irrigated 4%
Environment:
    subject to occasional hurricanes (July to October); deforestation
Note:
    shares island of Hispaniola with Haiti (western one-third is Haiti, eastern
    two-thirds is the Dominican Republic)

:Dominican Republic People

Population:
    7,515,892 (July 1992), growth rate 1.9% (1992)
Birth rate:
    26 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
    7 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
    -1 migrant/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
    56 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
    66 years male, 70 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
    3.0 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
    noun - Dominican(s); adjective - Dominican
Ethnic divisions:
    mixed 73%, white 16%, black 11%
Religions:
    Roman Catholic 95%
Languages:
    Spanish
Literacy:
    83% (male 85%, female 82%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
    2,300,000 to 2,600,000; agriculture 49%, services 33%, industry 18% (1986)
Organized labor:
    12% of labor force (1989 est.)

:Dominican Republic Government

Long-form name:
    Dominican Republic (no short-form name)
Type:
    republic
Capital:
    Santo Domingo
Administrative divisions:
    29 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia) and 1 district* (distrito);
    Azua, Baoruco, Barahona, Dajabon, Distrito Nacional*, Duarte, Elias Pina, El
    Seibo, Espaillat, Hato Mayor, Independencia, La Altagracia, La Romana, La
    Vega, Maria Trinidad Sanchez, Monsenor Nouel, Monte Cristi, Monte Plata,
    Pedernales, Peravia, Puerto Plata, Salcedo, Samana, Sanchez Ramirez, San
    Cristobal, San Juan, San Pedro De Macoris, Santiago, Santiago Rodriguez,
    Valverde
Independence:
    27 February 1844 (from Haiti)
Constitution:
    28 November 1966
Legal system:
    based on French civil codes
National holiday:
    Independence Day, 27 February (1844)
Executive branch:
    president, vice president, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
    bicameral National Congress (Congreso Nacional) consists of an upper chamber
    or Senate (Senado) and lower chamber or Chamber of Deputies (Camara de
    Diputados)
Judicial branch:
    Supreme Court (Corte Suprema)
Leaders:
  Chief of State and Head of Government:
    President Joaquin BALAGUER Ricardo (since 16 August 1986, fifth elected term
    began 16 August 1990); Vice President Carlos A. MORALES Troncoso (since 16
    August 1986)
Political parties and leaders:
  Major parties:
    Social Christian Reformist Party (PRSC), Joaquin BALAGUER Ricardo; Dominican
    Revolutionary Party (PRD), Jose Franciso PENA Gomez; Dominican Liberation
    Party (PLD), Juan BOSCH Gavino; Independent Revolutionary Party (PRI),
    Jacobo MAJLUTA
  Minor parties:
    National Veterans and Civilian Party (PNVC), Juan Rene BEAUCHAMPS Javier;
    Liberal Party of the Dominican Republic (PLRD), Andres Van Der HORST;
    Democratic Quisqueyan Party (PQD), Elias WESSIN Chavez; National Progressive
    Force (FNP), Marino VINICIO Castillo; Popular Christian Party (PPC), Rogelio
    DELGADO Bogaert; Dominican Communist Party (PCD) Narciso ISA Conde;
    Dominican Workers' Party (PTD), Ivan RODRIGUEZ; Anti-Imperialist Patriotic
    Union (UPA), Ignacio RODRIGUEZ Chiappini
  Note:
    in 1983 several leftist parties, including the PCD, joined to form the
    Dominican Leftist Front (FID); however, they still retain individual party
    structures
Suffrage:
    universal and compulsory at age 18 or if married; members of the armed
    forces and police cannot vote

:Dominican Republic Government

Elections:
  Chamber of Deputies:
    last held 16 May 1990 (next to be held May 1994); results - percent of vote
    by party NA; seats - (120 total) PLD 44, PRSC 41, PRD 33, PRI 2
  President:
    last held 16 May 1990 (next to be held May 1994); results - Joaquin BALAGUER
    (PRSC) 35.7%, Juan BOSCH Gavino (PLD) 34.4%
  Senate:
    last held 16 May 1990 (next to be held May 1994); results - percent of vote
    by party NA; seats - (30 total) PRSC 16, PLD 12, PRD 2
Communists:
    an estimated 8,000 to 10,000 members in several legal and illegal factions;
    effectiveness limited by ideological differences, organizational
    inadequacies, and severe funding shortages
Member of:
    ACP, CARICOM (observer), ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD,
    ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM,
    ITU, LAES, LORCS, NAM (guest), OAS, OPANAL, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
    UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
    Ambassador Jose del Carmen ARIZA Gomez; Chancery at 1715 22nd Street NW,
    Washington, DC 20008; telephone (202) 332-6280; there are Dominican
    Consulates General in Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, Mayaguez (Puerto Rico),
    Miami, New Orleans, New York, Philadelphia, San Juan (Puerto Rico), and
    Consulates in Charlotte Amalie (Virgin Islands), Detroit, Houston,
    Jacksonville, Minneapolis, Mobile, Ponce (Puerto Rico), and San Francisco
  US:
    Ambassador Robert S. PASTORINO; Embassy at the corner of Calle Cesar Nicolas
    Penson and Calle Leopoldo Navarro, Santo Domingo (mailing address is APO AA
    34041-0008); telephone (809) 5412171
Flag:
    a centered white cross that extends to the edges, divides the flag into four
    rectangles - the top ones are blue (hoist side) and red, the bottom ones are
    red (hoist side) and blue; a small coat of arms is at the center of the
    cross

:Dominican Republic Economy

Overview:
    The economy is largely dependent on trade; imported components average 60%
    of the value of goods consumed in the domestic market. Rapid growth of free
    trade zones has established a significant expansion of manufacturing for
    export, especially wearing apparel. Over the past decade, tourism has also
    increased in importance and is a major earner of foreign exchange and a
    source of new jobs. Agriculture remains a key sector of the economy. The
    principal commercial crop is sugarcane, followed by coffee, cotton, cocoa,
    and tobacco. Domestic industry is based on the processing of agricultural
    products, durable consumer goods, minerals, and chemicals. Unemployment is
    officially reported at about 30%, but there is considerable underemployment.
    A fiscal austerity program has brought inflation under control, but in 1991
    the economy contracted for a second straight year.
GDP:
    exchange rate conversion - $7 billion, per capita $950; real growth rate -2%
    (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    9% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
    30% (1991 est.)
Budget:
    revenues NA; expenditures $1.1 billion, including capital expenditures of NA
    (1992 est.)
Exports:
    $775 million (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
  commodities:
    sugar, coffee, cocoa, gold, ferronickel
  partners:
    US 60%, EC 19%, Puerto Rico 8% (1990)
Imports:
    $1.8 billion (c.i.f., 1991 est.)
  commodities:
    foodstuffs, petroleum, cotton and fabrics, chemicals and pharmaceuticals
  partners:
    US 50%
External debt:
    $4.7 billion (1991 est.)
Industrial production:
    growth rate NA; accounts for 20% of GDP
Electricity:
    2,133,000 kW capacity; 4,410 million kWh produced, 597 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
    tourism, sugar processing, ferronickel and gold mining, textiles, cement,
    tobacco
Agriculture:
    accounts for 15% of GDP and employs 49% of labor force; sugarcane is the
    most important commercial crop, followed by coffee, cotton, cocoa, and
    tobacco; food crops - rice, beans, potatoes, corn, bananas; animal output -
    cattle, hogs, dairy products, meat, eggs; not self-sufficient in food
Economic aid:
    US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY85-89), $575 million; Western (non-US)
    countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $655 million
Currency:
    Dominican peso (plural - pesos); 1 Dominican peso (RD$) = 100 centavos
Exchange rates:
    Dominican pesos (RD$) per US$1 - 12.609 (January 1992), 12.692 (1991), 8.525
    (1990), 6.340 (1989), 6.113 (1988), 3.845 (1987)
Fiscal year:
    calendar year

:Dominican Republic Communications

Railroads:
    1,655 km total in numerous segments; 4 different gauges from 0.558 m to
    1.435 m
Highways:
    12,000 km total; 5,800 km paved, 5,600 km gravel and improved earth, 600 km
    unimproved
Pipelines:
    crude oil 96 km; petroleum products 8 km
Ports:
    Santo Domingo, Haina, San Pedro de Macoris, Puerto Plata
Merchant marine:
    1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,587 GRT/1,165 DWT
Civil air:
    23 major transport aircraft
Airports:
    36 total, 30 usable; 12 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways
    over 3,659 m; 3 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 9 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
    relatively efficient domestic system based on islandwide microwave relay
    network; 190,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 120 AM, no FM, 18 TV, 6
    shortwave; 1 coaxial submarine cable; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth
    station

:Dominican Republic Defense Forces

Branches:
    Army, Navy, Air Force, National Police
Manpower availability:
    males 15-49, 2,013,294; 1,271,772 fit for military service; 80,117 reach
    military age (18) annually
Defense expenditures:
    exchange rate conversion - $70 million, 1% of GDP (1990)

:Ecuador Geography

Total area:
    283,560 km2
Land area:
    276,840 km2; includes Galapagos Islands
Comparative area:
    slightly smaller than Nevada
Land boundaries:
    2,010 km; Colombia 590 km, Peru 1,420 km
Coastline:
    2,237 km
Maritime claims:
  Continental shelf:
    claims continental shelf between mainland and Galapagos Islands
  Territorial sea:
    200 nm
Disputes:
    three sections of the boundary with Peru are in dispute
Climate:
    tropical along coast becoming cooler inland
Terrain:
    coastal plain (Costa), inter-Andean central highlands (Sierra), and flat to
    rolling eastern jungle (Oriente)
Natural resources:
    petroleum, fish, timber
Land use:
    arable land 6%; permanent crops 3%; meadows and pastures 17%; forest and
    woodland 51%; other 23%; includes irrigated 2%
Environment:
    subject to frequent earthquakes, landslides, volcanic activity;
    deforestation; desertification; soil erosion; periodic droughts
Note:
    Cotopaxi in Andes is highest active volcano in world

:Ecuador People

Population:
    10,933,143 (July 1992), growth rate 2.2% (1992)
Birth rate:
    28 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
    6 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
    0 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
    42 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
    67 years male, 72 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
    3.5 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
    noun - Ecuadorian(s); adjective - Ecuadorian
Ethnic divisions:
    mestizo (mixed Indian and Spanish) 55%, Indian 25%, Spanish 10%, black 10%
Religions:
    Roman Catholic 95%
Languages:
    Spanish (official); Indian languages, especially Quechua
Literacy:
    86% (male 88%, female 84%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
    2,800,000; agriculture 35%, manufacturing 21%, commerce 16%, services and
    other activities 28% (1982)
Organized labor:
    less than 15% of labor force

:Ecuador Government

Long-form name:
    Republic of Ecuador
Type:
    republic
Capital:
    Quito
Administrative divisions:
    21 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Azuay, Bolivar, Canar,
    Carchi, Chimborazo, Cotopaxi, El Oro, Esmeraldas, Galapagos, Guayas,
    Imbabura, Loja, Los Rios, Manabi, Morona-Santiago, Napo, Pastaza, Pichincha,
    Sucumbios, Tungurahua, Zamora-Chinchipe
Independence:
    24 May 1822 (from Spain; Battle of Pichincha)
Constitution:
    10 August 1979
Legal system:
    based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
    Independence Day, 10 August (1809, independence of Quito)
Executive branch:
    president, vice president, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
    unicameral National Congress (Congreso Nacional)
Judicial branch:
    Supreme Court (Corte Suprema)
Leaders:
  Chief of State and Head of Government:
    President Rodrigo BORJA Cevallos (since 10 August 1988); Vice President Luis
    PARODI Valverde (since 10 August 1988)
Suffrage:
    universal at age 18; compulsory for literate persons ages 18-65, optional
    for other eligible voters
Elections:
  National Congress:
    last held 17 June 1990 (next to be held 17 May 1992); results - percent of
    vote by party NA; seats - (72 total) PSC 16, ID 14, PRE 13, PSE 8, DP 7, CFP
    3, PC 3, PLR 3, FADI 2, FRA 2, MPD 1
  President:
    runoff election held 5 July 1992; results - Sixto DURAN elected as president
    and Alberto DAHIK elected as vice president
Communists:
    Communist Party of Ecuador (PCE, pro-Moscow), Rene Mauge MOSQUERA, secretary
    general, 5,000 members; Communist Party of Ecuador/Marxist-Leninist (PCMLE,
    Maoist), 3,000 members; Socialist Party of Ecuador (PSE, pro-Cuba), 5,000
    members (est.); National Liberation Party (PLN, Communist), less than 5,000
    members (est.)
Member of:
    AG, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD,
    IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES, LAIA, LORCS,
    NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPEC, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU,
    WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
    Ambassador Jaime MONCAYO; Chancery at 2535 15th Street NW, Washington, DC
    20009; telephone (202) 234-7200; there are Ecuadorian Consulates General in
    Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, and San
    Francisco, and a Consulate in San Diego

:Ecuador Government

  US:
    Ambassador vacant; Embassy at Avenida 12 de Octubre y Avenida Patria; Quito
    (mailing address is P. O. Box 538, Quito, or APO AA 34039); telephone [593]
    (2) 562-890; FAX [593] (2) 502-052; there is a US Consulate General in
    Guayaquil
Flag:
    three horizontal bands of yellow (top, double width), blue, and red with the
    coat of arms superimposed at the center of the flag; similar to the flag of
    Colombia that is shorter and does not bear a coat of arms

:Ecuador Economy

Overview:
    Ecuador has substantial oil resources and rich agricultural areas. Growth
    has been uneven because of natural disasters (for example, a major
    earthquake in 1987), fluctuations in global oil prices, and government
    policies designed to curb inflation. The government has not taken a
    supportive attitude toward either domestic or foreign investment, although
    its agreement to enter the Andean free trade zone is an encouraging move. As
    1991 ended, Ecuador received a standby IMF loan of $105 million, which will
    permit the country to proceed with the rescheduling of Paris Club debt.
GDP:
    exchange rate conversion - $11.5 billion, per capita $1,070; real growth
    rate 2.5% (1991)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    49% (1991)
Unemployment rate:
    8.0% (1990)
Budget:
    revenues $2.2 billion; expenditures $2.2 billion, including capital
    expenditures of $375 million (1991)
Exports:
    $2.9 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
  commodities:
    petroleum 47%, coffee, bananas, cocoa products, shrimp, fish products
  partners:
    US 60%, Latin America, Caribbean, EC countries
Imports:
    $1.95 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
  commodities:
    transport equipment, vehicles, machinery, chemicals
  partners:
    US 34%, Latin America, Caribbean, EC, Japan
External debt:
    $12.4 billion (December 1991)
Industrial production:
    growth rate -3.8% (1989); accounts for almost 40% of GDP, including
    petroleum
Electricity:
    2,344,000 kW capacity; 6,430 million kWh produced, 598 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
    petroleum, food processing, textiles, metal works, paper products, wood
    products, chemicals, plastics, fishing, timber
Agriculture:
    accounts for 18% of GDP and 35% of labor force (including fishing and
    forestry); leading producer and exporter of bananas and balsawood; other
    exports - coffee, cocoa, fish, shrimp; crop production - rice, potatoes,
    manioc, plantains, sugarcane; livestock sector - cattle, sheep, hogs, beef,
    pork, dairy products; net importer of foodgrains, dairy products, and sugar
Illicit drugs:
    minor illicit producer of coca following the successful eradication campaign
    of 1985-87; significant transit country, however, for derivatives of coca
    originating in Colombia, Bolivia, and Peru
Economic aid:
    US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $498 million; Western (non-US)
    countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $2.15 billion;
    Communist countries (1970-89), $64 million
Currency:
    sucre (plural - sucres); 1 sucre (S/) = 100 centavos

:Ecuador Economy

Exchange rates:
    sucres (S/) per US$1 - 1,046.25 (1991), 869.54 (December 1990), 767.75
    (1990), 526.35 (1989), 301.61 (1988), 170.46 (1987)
Fiscal year:
    calendar year

:Ecuador Communications

Railroads:
    965 km total; all 1.067-meter-gauge single track
Highways:
    28,000 km total; 3,600 km paved, 17,400 km gravel and improved earth, 7,000
    km unimproved earth
Inland waterways:
    1,500 km
Pipelines:
    crude oil 800 km; petroleum products 1,358 km
Ports:
    Guayaquil, Manta, Puerto Bolivar, Esmeraldas
Merchant marine:
    46 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 337,999 GRT/491,996 DWT; includes 2
    passenger, 4 cargo, 17 refrigerated cargo, 4 container, 1 roll-on/roll-off,
    15 petroleum tanker, 1 liquefied gas, 2 bulk
Civil air:
    23 major transport aircraft
Airports:
    143 total, 142 usable; 43 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runway over
    3,659 m; 6 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 23 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
    domestic facilities generally adequate; 318,000 telephones; broadcast
    stations - 272 AM, no FM, 33 TV, 39 shortwave; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT
    earth station

:Ecuador Defense Forces

Branches:
    Army (Ejercito Ecuatoriano), Navy (Armada Ecuatoriana), Air Force (Fuerza
    Aerea Ecuatoriana), National Police
Manpower availability:
    males 15-49, 2,804,260; 1,898,401 fit for military service; 115,139 reach
    military age (20) annually
Defense expenditures:
    exchange rate conversion - $NA, NA% of GDP

:Egypt Geography

Total area:
    1,001,450 km2
Land area:
    995,450 km2
Comparative area:
    slightly more than three times the size of New Mexico
Land boundaries:
    2,689 km; Gaza Strip 11 km, Israel 255 km, Libya 1,150 km, Sudan 1,273 km
Coastline:
    2,450 km
Maritime claims:
  Contiguous zone:
    24 nm
  Continental shelf:
    200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation
  Exclusive economic zone:
    undefined
  Territorial sea:
    12 nm
Disputes:
    Administrative boundary with Sudan does not coincide with international
    boundary
Climate:
    desert; hot, dry summers with moderate winters
Terrain:
    vast desert plateau interrupted by Nile valley and delta
Natural resources:
    crude oil, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, manganese, limestone, gypsum,
    talc, asbestos, lead, zinc
Land use:
    arable land 3%; permanent crops 2%; meadows and pastures 0%; forest and
    woodland NEGL%; other 95%; includes irrigated 5%
Environment:
    Nile is only perennial water source; increasing soil salinization below
    Aswan High Dam; hot, driving windstorm called khamsin occurs in spring;
    water pollution; desertification
Note:
    controls Sinai Peninsula, only land bridge between Africa and remainder of
    Eastern Hemisphere; controls Suez Canal, shortest sea link between Indian
    Ocean and Mediterranean; size and juxtaposition to Israel establish its
    major role in Middle Eastern geopolitics

:Egypt People

Population:
    56,368,950 (July 1992), growth rate 2.3% (1992)
Birth rate:
    33 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
    9 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
    NEGL migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
    80 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
    58 years male, 62 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
    4.4 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
    noun - Egyptian(s); adjective - Egyptian
Ethnic divisions:
    Eastern Hamitic stock 90%; Greek, Italian, Syro-Lebanese 10%
Religions:
    (official estimate) Muslim (mostly Sunni) 94%; Coptic Christian and other 6%
Languages:
    Arabic (official); English and French widely understood by educated classes
Literacy:
    48% (male 63%, female 34%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
    15,000,000 (1989 est.); government, public sector enterprises, and armed
    forces 36%; agriculture 34%; privately owned service and manufacturing
    enterprises 20% (1984); shortage of skilled labor; 2,500,000 Egyptians work
    abroad, mostly in Iraq and the Gulf Arab states (1988 est.)
Organized labor:
    2,500,000 (est.)

:Egypt Government

Long-form name:
    Arab Republic of Egypt
Type:
    republic
Capital:
    Cairo
Administrative divisions:
    26 governorates (muhafazah, singular - muhafazah); Ad Daqahliyah, Al Bahr al
    Ahmar, Al Buchayrah, Al Fayyum, Al Gharbiyah, Al Iskandariyah, Al
    Isma`iliyah, Al Jizah, Al Minufiyah, Al Minya, Al Qahirah, Al Qalyubiyah, Al
    Wadi al Jadid, Ash Sharqiyah, As Suways, Aswan, Asyu`t, Bani Suwayf, Bur
    Sa`id, Dumyat, Janub Sina, Kafr ash Shaykh, Matruh, Qina, Shamal Sina, Suhaj
Independence:
    28 February 1922 (from UK); formerly United Arab Republic
Constitution:
    11 September 1971
Legal system:
    based on English common law, Islamic law, and Napoleonic codes; judicial
    review by Supreme Court and Council of State (oversees validity of
    administrative decisions); accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with
    reservations
National holiday:
    Anniversary of the Revolution, 23 July (1952)
Executive branch:
    president, prime minister, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
    unicameral People's Assembly (Majlis al-Cha'b); note - there is an Advisory
    Council (Majlis al-Shura) that functions in a consultative role
Judicial branch:
    Supreme Constitutional Court
Leaders:
  Chief of State:
    President Mohammed Hosni MUBARAK (was made acting President on 6 October
    1981 upon the assassination of President SADAT and sworn in as President on
    14 October 1981)
  Head of Government:
    Prime Minister Atef Mohammed Najib SEDKY (since 12 November 1986)
Political parties and leaders:
    formation of political parties must be approved by government; National
    Democratic Party (NDP), President Mohammed Hosni MUBARAK, leader, is the
    dominant party; legal opposition parties are Socialist Liberal Party (SLP),
    Kamal MURAD; Socialist Labor Party, Ibrahim SHUKRI; National Progressive
    Unionist Grouping (NPUG), Khalid MUHYI-AL-DIN; Umma Party, Ahmad al-SABAHI;
    New Wafd Party (NWP), Fu'd SIRAJ AL-DIN; Misr al-Fatah Party (Young Egypt
    Party), Ali al-Din SALIH; The Greens Party, Hasan RAJAB; Nasserist Arab
    Democratic Party, Dia' AL-DIN DAWOUD
Suffrage:
    universal and compulsory at age 18
Elections:
  Advisory Council:
    last held 8 June 1989 (next to be held June 1995); results - NDP 100%; seats
    - (258 total, 172 elected) NDP 172
  People's Assembly:
    last held 29 November 1990 (next to be held November 1995); results - NDP
    78.4%, NPUG 1.4%, independents 18.7%; seats - (437 total, 444 elected) -
    including NDP 348, NPUG 6, independents 83; note - most opposition parties
    boycotted

:Egypt Government

  President:
    last held 5 October 1987 (next to be held October 1993); results - President
    Hosni MUBARAK was reelected
Communists:
    about 500 party members
Other political or pressure groups:
    Islamic groups are illegal, but the largest one, the Muslim Brotherhood, is
    tolerated by the government; trade unions and professional associations are
    officially sanctioned
Member of:
    ACC, ACCT (associate), AfDB, AFESD, AG (observer), AL, AMF, CAEU, CCC, EBRD,
    ECA, ESCWA, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, IDA,
    IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM
    (observer), ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAPEC, OAS (observer), OAU, OIC, PCA, UN,
    UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNRWA, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
    Ambassador El Sayed Abdel Raouf EL REEDY; Chancery at 2310 Decatur Place NW,
    Washington, DC 20008; telephone (202) 232-5400; there are Egyptian
    Consulates General in Chicago, Houston, New York, and San Francisco
  US:
    Ambassador Robert PELLETREAU; Embassy at Lazougi Street, Garden City, Cairo
    (mailing address is APO AE 09839); telephone [20] (2) 355-7371; FAX [20] (2)
    355-7375; there is a US Consulate General in Alexandria
Flag:
    three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black with the
    national emblem (a shield superimposed on a golden eagle facing the hoist
    side above a scroll bearing the name of the country in Arabic) centered in
    the white band; similar to the flag of Yemen, which has a plain white band;
    also similar to the flag of Syria that has two green stars and to the flag
    of Iraq, which has three green stars (plus an Arabic inscription) in a
    horizontal line centered in the white band

:Egypt Economy

Overview:
    Egypt has one of the largest public sectors of all the Third World
    economies, most industrial plants being owned by the government.
    Overregulation holds back technical modernization and foreign investment.
    Even so, the economy grew rapidly during the late 1970s and early 1980s, but
    in 1986 the collapse of world oil prices and an increasingly heavy burden of
    debt servicing led Egypt to begin negotiations with the IMF for
    balance-of-payments support. As part of the 1987 agreement with the IMF, the
    government agreed to institute a reform program to reduce inflation, promote
    economic growth, and improve its external position. The reforms have been
    slow in coming, however, and the economy has been largely stagnant for the
    past four years. The addition of 1 million people every seven months to
    Egypt's population exerts enormous pressure on the 5% of the total land area
    available for agriculture.
GDP:
    exchange rate conversion - $39.2 billion, per capita $720; real growth rate
    2% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    17% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
    15% (1991 est.)
Budget:
    revenues $9.4 billion; expenditures $15.9 billion, including capital
    expenditures of $6 billion (FY90 est.)
Exports:
    $4.5 billion (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
  commodities:
    crude oil and petroleum products, cotton yarn, raw cotton, textiles, metal
    products, chemicals
  partners:
    EC, Eastern Europe, US, Japan
Imports:
    $11.7 billion (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
  commodities:
    machinery and equipment, foods, fertilizers, wood products, durable consumer
    goods, capital goods
  partners:
    EC, US, Japan, Eastern Europe
External debt:
    $38 billion (December 1991 est.)
Industrial production:
    growth rate 7.3% (FY89 est.); accounts for 18% of GDP
Electricity:
    13,500,000 kW capacity; 45,000 million kWh produced, 820 kWh per capita
    (1991)
Industries:
    textiles, food processing, tourism, chemicals, petroleum, construction,
    cement, metals
Agriculture:
    accounts for 20% of GDP and employs more than one-third of labor force;
    dependent on irrigation water from the Nile; world's sixth-largest cotton
    exporter; other crops produced include rice, corn, wheat, beans, fruit,
    vegetables; not self-sufficient in food; livestock - cattle, water buffalo,
    sheep, and goats; annual fish catch about 140,000 metric tons
Economic aid:
    US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $15.7 billion; Western (non-US)
    countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-88), $10.1 billion; OPEC
    bilateral aid (1979-89), $2.9 billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $2.4
    billion

:Egypt Economy

Currency:
    Egyptian pound (plural - pounds); 1 Egyptian pound (#E) = 100 piasters
Exchange rates:
    Egyptian pounds (#E) per US$1 - 3.3310 (January 1992), 2.7072 (1990), 2.5171
    (1989), 2.2233 (1988), 1.5183 (1987)
Fiscal year:
    1 July - 30 June

:Egypt Communications

Railroads:
    5,110 km total; 4,763 km 1,435-meter standard gauge, 347 km 0.750-meter
    gauge; 951 km double track; 25 km electrified
Highways:
    51,925 km total; 17,900 km paved, 2,500 km gravel, 13,500 km improved earth,
    18,025 km unimproved earth
Inland waterways:
    3,500 km (including the Nile, Lake Nasser, Alexandria-Cairo Waterway, and
    numerous smaller canals in the delta); Suez Canal, 193.5 km long (including
    approaches), used by oceangoing vessels drawing up to 16.1 meters of water
Pipelines:
    crude oil 1,171 km; petroleum products 596 km; natural gas 460 km
Ports:
    Alexandria, Port Said, Suez, Bur Safajah, Damietta
Merchant marine:
    150 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,019,182 GRT/1,499,880 DWT; includes
    11 passenger, 5 short-sea passenger, 2 passenger-cargo, 86 cargo, 3
    refrigerated cargo, 15 roll-on/roll-off, 12 petroleum tanker, 15 bulk, 1
    container
Civil air:
    50 major transport aircraft
Airports:
    92 total, 82 usable; 66 with permanent-surface runways; 2 with runways over
    3,659 m; 44 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 24 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
    system is large but still inadequate for needs; principal centers are
    Alexandria, Cairo, Al Mansurah, Ismailia, Suez and Tanta; intercity
    connections by coaxial cable and microwave; extensive upgrading in progress;
    600,000 telephones (est.); broadcast stations - 39 AM, 6 FM, 41 TV;
    satellite earth stations - 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Indian Ocean
    INTELSAT, 1 INMARSAT, 1 ARABSAT; 5 submarine coaxial cables; tropospheric
    scatter to Sudan; radio relay to Libya, Israel, and Jordan

:Egypt Defense Forces

Branches:
    Army, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense Command
Manpower availability:
    males 15-49, 13,911,006; 9,044,425 fit for military service; 563,321 reach
    military age (20) annually
Defense expenditures:
    exchange rate conversion - $2.5 billion, 6.4% of GDP (1991)

:El Salvador Geography

Total area:
    21,040 km2
Land area:
    20,720 km2
Comparative area:
    slightly smaller than Massachusetts
Land boundaries:
    545 km; Guatemala 203 km, Honduras 342 km
Coastline:
    307 km
Maritime claims:
  Territorial sea:
    200 nm (overflight and navigation permitted beyond 12 nm)
Disputes:
    dispute with Honduras over several sections of the land boundary; dispute
    over Golfo de Fonseca maritime boundary because of disputed sovereignty of
    islands
Climate:
    tropical; rainy season (May to October); dry season (November to April)
Terrain:
    mostly mountains with narrow coastal belt and central plateau
Natural resources:
    hydropower, geothermal power, crude oil
Land use:
    arable land 27%; permanent crops 8%; meadows and pastures 29%; forest and
    woodland 6%; other 30%; includes irrigated 5%
Environment:
    The Land of Volcanoes; subject to frequent and sometimes very destructive
    earthquakes; deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution
Note:
    smallest Central American country and only one without a coastline on
    Caribbean Sea

:El Salvador People

Population:
    5,574,279 (July 1992), growth rate 2.2% (1992)
Birth rate:
    33 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
    5 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
    - 6 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
    26 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
    68 years male, 75 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
    4.0 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
    noun - Salvadoran(s); adjective - Salvadoran
Ethnic divisions:
    mestizo 89%, Indian 10%, white 1%
Religions:
    Roman Catholic about 75%, with extensive activity by Protestant groups
    throughout the country (more than 1 million Protestant evangelicals in El
    Salvador at the end of 1990)
Languages:
    Spanish, Nahua (among some Indians)
Literacy:
    73% (male 76%, female 70%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
    1,700,000 (1982 est.); agriculture 40%, commerce 16%, manufacturing 15%,
    government 13%, financial services 9%, transportation 6%, other 1%; shortage
    of skilled labor and a large pool of unskilled labor, but manpower training
    programs improving situation (1984 est.)
Organized labor:
    total labor force 15%; agricultural labor force 10%; urban labor force 7%
    (1987 est.)

:El Salvador Government

Long-form name:
    Republic of El Salvador
Type:
    republic
Capital:
    San Salvador
Administrative divisions:
    14 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Ahuachapan,
    Cabanas, Chalatenango, Cuscatlan, La Libertad, La Paz, La Union, Morazan,
    San Miguel, San Salvador, Santa Ana, San Vicente, Sonsonate, Usulutan
Independence:
    15 September 1821 (from Spain)
Constitution:
    20 December 1983
Legal system:
    based on civil and Roman law, with traces of common law; judicial review of
    legislative acts in the Supreme Court; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction,
    with reservations
National holiday:
    Independence Day, 15 September (1821)
Executive branch:
    president, vice president, Council of Ministers (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
    unicameral Legislative Assembly (Asamblea Legislativa)
Judicial branch:
    Supreme Court (Corte Suprema)
Leaders:
  Chief of State and Head of Government:
    President Alfredo CRISTIANI Buchard (since 1 June 1989); Vice President Jose
    Francisco MERINO (since 1 June 1989)
Political parties and leaders:
    National Republican Alliance (ARENA), Armando CALDERON Sol; Christian
    Democratic Party (PDC), Fidel CHAVEZ Mena; National Conciliation Party
    (PCN), Ciro CRUZ Zepeda; National Democratic Union (UDN), Mario AGUINADA
    Carranza; the Democratic Convergence (CD) is a coalition of three parties -
    the Social Democratic Party (PSD), Wilfredo BARILLAS; the National
    Revolutionary Movement (MNR), Victor VALLE; and the Popular Social Christian
    Movement (MPSC), Ruben ZAMORA; Authentic Christian Movement (MAC), Julio REY
    PRENDES; Democratic Action (AD), Ricardo GONZALEZ Camacho
Suffrage:
    universal at age 18
Elections:
  Legislative Assembly:
    last held 10 March 1991 (next to be held March 1994); results - ARENA 44.3%,
    PDC 27.96%, CD 12.16%, PCN 8.99%, MAC 3.23%, UDN 2.68%; seats - (84 total)
    ARENA 39, PDC 26, PCN 9, CD 8, UDN 1, MAC 1
  President:
    last held 19 March 1989 (next to be held March 1994); results - Alfredo
    CRISTIANI (ARENA) 53.8%, Fidel CHAVEZ Mena (PDC) 36.6%, other 9.6%
Other political or pressure groups:
  Business organizations:
    National Association of Private Enterprise (ANEP), conservative; Productive
    Alliance (AP), conservative; National Federation of Salvadoran Small
    Businessmen (FENAPES), conservative

:El Salvador Government

  FMLN front organizations:
    Labor fronts include - National Union of Salvadoran Workers (UNTS), leftist
    umbrella front group, leads FMLN front network; National Federation of
    Salvadoran Workers (FENASTRAS), best organized of front groups and
    controlled by FMLN's National Resistance (RN); Social Security Institute
    Workers Union (STISSS), one of the most militant fronts, is controlled by
    FMLN's Armed Forces of National Resistance (FARN) and RN; Association of
    Telecommunications Workers (ASTTEL); Centralized Union Federation of El
    Salvador (FUSS); Treasury Ministry Employees (AGEMHA); Nonlabor fronts
    include - Committee of Mothers and Families of Political Prisoners,
    Disappeared Persons, and Assassinated of El Salvador (COMADRES);
    Nongovernmental Human Rights Commission (CDHES); Committee of Dismissed and
    Unemployed of El Salvador (CODYDES); General Association of Salvadoran
    University Students (AGEUS); National Association of Salvadoran Educators
    (ANDES-21 DE JUNIO); Salvadoran Revolutionary Student Front (FERS),
    associated with the Popular Forces of Liberation (FPL); Association of
    National University Educators (ADUES); Salvadoran University Students Front
    (FEUS); Christian Committee for the Displaced of El Salvador (CRIPDES), an
    FPL front; The Association for Communal Development in El Salvador
    (PADECOES), controlled by the People's Revolutionary Army (ERP);
    Confederation of Cooperative Associations of El Salvador (COACES)
Other political or pressure groups:
  Labor organizations:
    Federation of Construction and Transport Workers Unions (FESINCONSTRANS),
    independent; Salvadoran Communal Union (UCS), peasant association; Unitary
    Federation of Salvadoran Unions (FUSS), leftist; National Federation of
    Salvadoran Workers (FENASTRAS), leftist; Democratic Workers Central (CTD),
    moderate; General Confederation of Workers (CGT), moderate; National Unity
    of Salvadoran Workers (UNTS), leftist; National Union of Workers and
    Peasants (UNOC), moderate labor coalition of democratic labor organizations;
    United Workers Front (FUT)
  Leftist political parties:
    National Democratic Union (UDN), National Revolutionary Movement (MNR), and
    Popular Social Movement (MPSC)
  Leftist revolutionary movement:
    Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front (FMLN), leadership body of the
    insurgency, five factions - Popular Liberation Forces (FPL), Armed Forces of
    National Resistance (FARN), People's Revolutionary Army (ERP), Salvadoran
    Communist Party/Armed Forces of Liberation (PCES/FAL), and Central American
    Workers' Revolutionary Party (PRTC)/Popular Liberation Revolutionary Armed
    Forces (FARLP)
Member of:
    BCIE, CACM, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC,
    ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES, LORCS, NAM (observer), OAS,
    OPANAL, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO
Diplomatic representation:
    Ambassador Miguel Angel SALAVERRIA; Chancery at 2308 California Street NW,
    Washington, DC 20008; telephone (202) 265-9671 through 3482; there are
    Salvadoran Consulates General in Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans,
    New York, and San Francisco
  US:
    Ambassador William G. WALKER; Embassy at 25 Avenida Norte No. 1230, San
    Salvador (mailing address is APO AA 34023); telephone [503] 26-7100; FAX
    [503] (26) 5839

:El Salvador Government

Flag:
    three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and blue with the
    national coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms features
    a round emblem encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE EL SALVADOR EN LA AMERICA
    CENTRAL; similar to the flag of Nicaragua, which has a different coat of
    arms centered in the white band - it features a triangle encircled by the
    words REPUBLICA DE NICARAGUA on top and AMERICA CENTRAL on the bottom; also
    similar to the flag of Honduras, which has five blue stars arranged in an X
    pattern centered in the white band

:El Salvador Economy

Overview:
    The agricultural sector accounts for 25% of GDP, employs about 40% of the
    labor force, and contributes about 66% to total exports. Coffee is the major
    commercial crop, accounting for 45% of export earnings. The manufacturing
    sector, based largely on food and beverage processing, accounts for 18% of
    GDP and 15% of employment. Economic losses because of guerrilla sabotage
    total more than $2 billion since 1979. The costs of maintaining a large
    military seriously constrain the government's efforts to provide essential
    social services. Nevertheless, growth in national output during the period
    1990-91 exceeded growth in population for the first time since 1987.
GDP:
    exchange rate conversion - $5.5 billion, per capita $1,010; real growth rate
    3% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    19% (1990)
Unemployment rate:
    10% (1989)
Budget:
    revenues $751 million; expenditures $790 million, including capital
    expenditures of $NA (1990 est.)
Exports:
    $580 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.)
  commodities:
    coffee 45%, sugar, cotton, shrimp
  partners:
    US 49%, Germany 24%, Guatemala 7%, Costa Rica 4%, Japan 4%
Imports:
    $1.2 billion (c.i.f., 1990 est.)
  commodities:
    petroleum products, consumer goods, foodstuffs, machinery, construction
    materials, fertilizer
  partners:
    US 40%, Guatemala 12%, Venezuela 7%, Mexico 7%, Germany 5%, Japan 4%
External debt:
    $2.0 billion (December 1990 est.)
Industrial production:
    growth rate 2.4% (1990); accounts for 22% of GDP
Electricity:
    682,000 kW capacity; 1,927 million kWh produced, 356 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
    food processing, textiles, clothing, beverages, petroleum, tobacco products,
    chemicals, furniture
Agriculture:
    accounts for 25% of GDP and 40% of labor force (including fishing and
    forestry); coffee most important commercial crop; other products -
    sugarcane, corn, rice, beans, oilseeds, beef, dairy products, shrimp; not
    self-sufficient in food
Illicit drugs:
    transshipment point for cocaine
Economic aid:
    US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-90), $2.95 billion; Western (non-US)
    countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $525 million
Currency:
    Salvadoran colon (plural - colones); 1 Salvadoran colon (C) = 100 centavos
Exchange rates:
    Salvadoran colones (C) per US$1 - 8.1 (January 1992), floating rate since
    mid-1990); 5.0000 (fixed rate 1986 to mid-1990)
Fiscal year:
    calendar year

:El Salvador Communications

Railroads:
    602 km 0.914-meter gauge, single track
Highways:
    10,000 km total; 1,500 km paved, 4,100 km gravel, 4,400 km improved and
    unimproved earth
Inland waterways:
    Rio Lempa partially navigable
Ports:
    Acajutla, Cutuco
Civil air:
    7 major transport aircraft
Airports:
    107 total, 77 usable; 5 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways
    over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 4 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
    nationwide trunk radio relay system; connection into Central American
    Microwave System; 116,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 77 AM, no FM, 5
    TV, 2 shortwave; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

:El Salvador Defense Forces

Branches:
    Army, Navy, Air Force, National Guard, National Police, Treasury Police
Manpower availability:
    males 15-49, 1,265,149; 809,419 fit for military service; 68,445 reach
    military age (18) annually
Defense expenditures:
    exchange rate conversion - $220 million, 3.6% of GDP (1991)

:Equatorial Guinea Geography

Total area:
    28,050 km2
Land area:
    28,050 km2
Comparative area:
    slightly larger than Maryland
Land boundaries:
    539 km; Cameroon 189 km, Gabon 350 km
Coastline:
    296 km
Maritime claims:
  Exclusive economic zone:
    200 nm
  Territorial sea:
    12 nm
Disputes:
    maritime boundary dispute with Gabon because of disputed sovereignty over
    islands in Corisco Bay
Climate:
    tropical; always hot, humid
Terrain:
    coastal plains rise to interior hills; islands are volcanic
Natural resources:
    timber, crude oil, small unexploited deposits of gold, manganese, uranium
Land use:
    arable land 8%; permanent crops 4%; meadows and pastures 4%; forest and
    woodland 51%; other 33%
Environment:
    subject to violent windstorms
Note:
    insular and continental regions rather widely separated

:Equatorial Guinea People

Population:
    388,799 (July 1992), growth rate 2.6% (1992)
Birth rate:
    42 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
    15 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
    0 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
    107 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
    49 years male, 53 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
    5.4 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
    noun - Equatorial Guinean(s) or Equatoguinean(s); adjective - Equatorial
    Guinean or Equatoguinean
Ethnic divisions:
    indigenous population of Bioko, primarily Bubi, some Fernandinos; Rio Muni,
    primarily Fang; less than 1,000 Europeans, mostly Spanish
Religions:
    natives all nominally Christian and predominantly Roman Catholic; some pagan
    practices retained
Languages:
    Spanish (official), pidgin English, Fang, Bubi, Ibo
Literacy:
    50% (male 64%, female 37%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
    172,000 (1986 est.); agriculture 66%, services 23%, industry 11% (1980);
    labor shortages on plantations; 58% of population of working age (1985)
Organized labor:
    no formal trade unions

:Equatorial Guinea Government

Long-form name:
    Republic of Equatorial Guinea
Type:
    republic in transition to multiparty democracy
Capital:
    Malabo
Administrative divisions:
    7 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Annobon, Bioko Norte, Bioko
    Sur, Centro Sur, Kie-Ntem, Litoral, Wele-Nzas
Independence:
    12 October 1968 (from Spain; formerly Spanish Guinea)
Constitution:
    new constitution 17 November 1991
Legal system:
    partly based on Spanish civil law and tribal custom
National holiday:
    Independence Day, 12 October (1968)
Executive branch:
    president, prime minister, deputy prime minister, Council of Ministers
    (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
    unicameral House of Representatives of the People (Camara de Representantes
    del Pueblo)
Judicial branch:
    Supreme Tribunal
Leaders:
  Chief of State:
    President Brig. Gen. (Ret.) Teodoro OBIANG NGUEMA MBASOGO (since 3 August
    1979)
  Head of Government:
    Prime Minister Cristino SERICHE BIOKO MALABO (since 15 August 1982); Deputy
    Prime Minister Isidoro Eyi MONSUY ANDEME (since 15 August 1989)
Political parties and leaders:
    only party - Democratic Party for Equatorial Guinea (PDGE), Brig. Gen.
    (Ret.) Teodoro OBIANG NGUEMA MBASOGO, party leader; multipartyism legalized
    in new constitution of November 1991, promulgated January 1992
Suffrage:
    universal adult at age NA
Elections:
  Chamber of People's Representatives:
    last held 10 July 1988 (next to be held 10 July 1993); results - PDGE is the
    only party; seats - (41 total) PDGE 41
  President:
    last held 25 June 1989 (next to be held 25 June 1996); results - President
    Brig. Gen. (Ret.) Teodoro OBIANG NGUEMA MBASOGO was reelected without
    opposition
Member of:
    ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, ILO,
    IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS (associate), NAM, OAS (observer), OAU,
    UDEAC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO
Diplomatic representation:
    Ambassador Damaso OBIANG NDONG; Chancery (temporary) 57 Magnolia Avenue,
    Mount Vernon, NY 10553; telephone (914) 667-9664
  US:
    Ambassador John E. BENNETT; Embassy at Calle de Los Ministros, Malabo
    (mailing address is P.O. Box 597, Malabo); telephone [240] (9) 2185, 2406,
    2507; FAX [240] (9) 2164

:Equatorial Guinea Government

Flag:
    three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white, and red with a blue
    isosceles triangle based on the hoist side and the coat of arms centered in
    the white band; the coat of arms has six yellow six-pointed stars
    (representing the mainland and five offshore islands) above a gray shield
    bearing a silk-cotton tree and below which is a scroll with the motto
    UNIDAD, PAZ, JUSTICIA (Unity, Peace, Justice)

:Equatorial Guinea Economy

Overview:
    The economy, destroyed during the regime of former President Macias NGUEMA,
    is now based on agriculture, forestry, and fishing, which account for about
    half of GDP and nearly all exports. Subsistence agriculture predominates,
    with cocoa, coffee, and wood products providing income, foreign exchange,
    and government revenues. There is little industry. Commerce accounts for
    about 8% of GDP and the construction, public works, and service sectors for
    about 38%. Undeveloped natural resources include titanium, iron ore,
    manganese, uranium, and alluvial gold. Oil exploration, taking place under
    concessions offered to US, French, and Spanish firms, has been moderately
    successful.
GDP:
    exchange rate conversion - $156 million, per capita $400; real growth rate
    1.6% (1988 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    3.6% (1990 est.)
Unemployment rate:
    NA%
Budget:
    revenues $27 million; expenditures $29 million, including capital
    expenditures of NA (1990 est.)
Exports:
    $37 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.)
  commodities:
    coffee, timber, cocoa beans
  partners:
    Spain 38.2%, Italy 12.2%, Netherlands 11.4%, FRG 6.9%, Nigeria 12.4 (1988)
Imports:
    $68.3 million (c.i.f., 1990)
  commodities:
    petroleum, food, beverages, clothing, machinery
  partners:
    France 25.9%, Spain 21.0%, Italy 16%, US 12.8%, Netherlands 8%, Germany
    3.1%, Gabon 2.9%, Nigeria 1.8 (1988)
External debt:
    $213 million (1990)
Industrial production:
    growth rate - 6.8% (1990 est.)
Electricity:
    23,000 kW capacity; 60 million kWh produced, 160 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
    fishing, sawmilling
Agriculture:
    cash crops - timber and coffee from Rio Muni, cocoa from Bioko; food crops -
    rice, yams, cassava, bananas, oil palm nuts, manioc, livestock
Illicit drugs:
    transshipment point for illicit drugs from Central and Southwest Asia to
    Western Europe
Economic aid:
    US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY81-89), $14 million; Western (non-US)
    countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89) $130 million;
    Communist countries (1970-89), $55 million
Currency:
    Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (plural - francs); 1 CFA franc (CFAF)
    = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
    Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 269.01 (January
    1992), 282.11 (1991), 272.26 (1990), 319.01 (1989), 297.85 (1988), 300.54
    (1987)

:Equatorial Guinea Economy

Fiscal year:
    1 April - 31 March

:Equatorial Guinea Communications

Highways:
    Rio Muni - 2,460 km; Bioko - 300 km
Ports:
    Malabo, Bata
Merchant marine:
    2 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 6,413 GRT/6,699 DWT; includes 1 cargo
    and 1 passenger-cargo
Civil air:
    1 major transport aircraft
Airports:
    3 total, 3 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over
    3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 1 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
    poor system with adequate government services; international communications
    from Bata and Malabo to African and European countries; 2,000 telephones;
    broadcast stations - 2 AM, no FM, 1 TV; 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth
    station

:Equatorial Guinea Defense Forces

Branches:
    Army, Navy, Air Force, National Guard, National Police
Manpower availability:
    males 15-49, 81,850; 41,528 fit for military service
Defense expenditures:
    exchange rate conversion - $NA, NA% of GNP

:Estonia Geography

Total area:
    45,100 km2
Land area:
    43,200 km2; (includes 1,520 islands in the Baltic Sea)
Comparative area:
    slightly larger than New Hampshire and Vermont combined
Land boundaries:
    557 km; Latvia 267 km, Russia 290 km
Coastline:
    1,393 km
Maritime claims:
  Contiguous zone:
    NA nm
  Continental shelf:
    NA meter depth
  Exclusive economic zone:
    NA nm
  Exclusive fishing zone:
    NA nm
  Territorial sea:
    NA nm
Disputes:
    international small border strips along the northern (Narva) and southern
    (Petseri) sections of eastern border with Russia ceded to Russia in 1945 by
    the Estonian SSR
Climate:
    maritime, wet, moderate winters
Terrain:
    marshy, lowlands
Natural resources:
    shale oil, peat, phosphorite, amber
Land use:
    22% arable land; NA% permanent crops; 11% meadows and pastures; 31% forest
    and woodland; 21% other; includes NA% irrigated; 15% swamps and lakes
Environment:
    coastal waters largely polluted

:Estonia People

Population:
    1,607,349 (July 1992), growth rate 0.7% (1992)
Birth rate:
    16 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
    12 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
    3 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
    25 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
    65 years male, 74 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
    2.3 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
    noun - Estonian(s); adjective - Estonian
Ethnic divisions:
    Estonian 61.5%, Russian 30.3%, Ukrainian 3.17%, Byelorussian 1.8%, Finn
    1.1%, other 2.13% (1989)
Religions:
    Lutheran is primary denomination
Languages:
    Estonian NA% (official), Latvian NA%, Lithuanian NA%, Russian NA%, other NA%
Literacy:
    NA% (male NA%, female NA%)
Labor force:
    796,000; industry and construction 42%, agriculture and forestry 13%, other
    45% (1990)
Organized labor:
    NA

:Estonia Government

Long-form name:
    Republic of Estonia
Type:
    republic
Capital:
    Tallinn
Administrative divisions:
    none - all districts are under direct republic jurisdiction
Independence:
    8 November 1917; occupied by Germany in March 1918 and restored to power in
    November 1918; annexed by USSR 6 August 1940; declared independence 20
    August 1991 and regained independence from USSR 6 September 1991
Constitution:
    currently rewriting constitution, but readopted the constitution of 1938
Legal system:
    based on civil law system; no judicial review of legislative acts
National holiday:
    Independence Day, 24 February (1918)
Executive branch:
    prime minister
Legislative branch:
    unicameral Supreme Council
Judicial branch:
    Supreme Court
Leaders:
  Chief of State:
    Chairman, Supreme Council Arnold R'UTEL (since April 1983)
  Head of Government:
    Prime Minister Tiit VAHI (since January 1992)
Political parties and leaders:
    Popular Front of Estonia (Rahvarinne), NA chairman; Estonian Christian
    Democratic Party, Aivar KALA, chairman; Estonian Christian Democratic Union,
    Illar HALLASTE, chairman; Estonian Heritage Society (EMS), Trivimi VELLISTE,
    chairman; Estonian National Independence Party (ERSP), Lagle PAREK,
    chairman; Estonian Social Democratic Party, Marju LAURISTIN, chairman;
    Estonian Green Party, Tonu OJA; Independent Estonian Communist Party, Vaino
    VALJAS; People's Centrist Party, Edgar SAVISAAR, chairman
Suffrage:
    universal at age 18
Elections:
  Congress of Estonia:
    last held March 1990 (next to be held NA); note - Congress of Estonia is a
    quasi-governmental structure; results - percent of vote by party NA; seats -
    (495 total) number of seats by party NA
  President:
    last held NA 1990; (next to be held NA); results - NA
  Supreme Council:
    last held 18 March 1990; (next to be held NA); results - percent of vote by
    party NA; seats - (105 total) number of seats by party NA
Other political or pressure groups:
    NA
Member of:
    CSCE, IAEA, ICFTU, NACC, UN, UNCTAD
Diplomatic representation:
    Ambassador Ernst JAAKSON, Legation of Estonia, Office of Consulate General,
    9 Rockefeller Plaza, Suite 1421, New York, NY 10020; telephone (212)
    247-1450

:Estonia Government

  US:
    Ambassador Robert C. FRASURE; Embassy at Kentmanni 20, Tallin EE 0001;
    telephone 011-[358] (49) 303-182 (cellular); FAX [358] (49) 306-817
    (cellular); note - dialing to Baltics still requires use of an international
    operator unless you use the cellular phone lines
Flag:
    pre-1940 flag restored by Supreme Soviet in May 1990; flag is three equal
    horizontal bands of blue, black, and white

:Estonia Economy

Overview:
    Starting in July 1991, under a new law on private ownership, small
    enterprises, such as retail shops and restaurants, were sold to private
    owners. The auctioning of large-scale enterprises is now in progress with
    the proceeds being held in escrow until the prior ownership (that is,
    Estonian or the Commonwealth of Independent States) can be established.
    Estonia ranks first in per capita consumption among the former Soviet
    republics. Agriculture is well developed, especially meat production, and
    provides a surplus for export. Only about one-fifth of the work force is in
    agriculture. The major share of the work force engages in manufacturing both
    capital and consumer goods based on raw materials and intermediate products
    from the other former Soviet republics. These manufactures are of high
    quality by ex-Soviet standards and are exported to the other republics.
    Estonia's mineral resources are limited to major deposits of shale oil (60%
    of old Soviet total) and phosphorites (400 million tons). Estonia has a
    large, relatively modern port and produces more than half of its own energy
    needs at highly polluting shale oil power plants. Like the other 14
    successor republics, Estonia is suffering through a difficult transitional
    period - between a collapsed command economic structure and a
    still-to-be-built market structure. It has advantages in the transition, not
    having suffered so long under the Soviet yoke and having better chances of
    developing profitable ties to the Nordic and West European countries.
GDP:
    $NA billion, per capita $NA; real growth rate -11% (1992)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    approximately 200% (1991)
Unemployment rate:
    NA%
Budget:
    revenues $NA million; expenditures $NA million, including capital
    expenditures of $NA million
Exports:
    $186 million (f.o.b., 1990)
  commodities:
    machinery 30%, food 17%, chemicals 11%, electric power 9%
  partners:
    Russia 50%, other former Soviet republics 30%, Ukraine 15%, West 5%
Imports:
    $1.2 billion (c.i.f., 1990)
  commodities:
    machinery 45%, oil 13%, chemicals 12%
  partners:
    NA
External debt:
    $650 million (end of 1991)
Industrial production:
    growth rate -9% (1991)
Electricity:
    3,305,000 kW capacity; 17,200 million kWh produced, 10,865 kWh per capita
    (1990)
Industries:
    accounts for 30% of labor force; oil shale, shipbuilding, phosphates,
    electric motors, excavators, cement, furniture, clothing, textiles, paper,
    shoes, apparel
Agriculture:
    employs 20% of work force; very efficient; net exports of meat, fish, dairy
    products, and potatoes; imports feedgrains for livestock; fruits and
    vegetables

:Estonia Economy

Illicit drugs:
    transshipment point for illicit drugs from Central and Southwest Asia to
    Western Europe
Economic aid:
    US commitments, including Ex-Im (1992), $10 million; Western (non-US)
    countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-86), $NA million;
    Communist countries (1971-86), $NA million
Currency:
    kroon; to be introduced in 1992
Exchange rates:
    NA
Fiscal year:
    calendar year

:Estonia Communications

Railroads:
    1,030 km (includes NA km electrified); does not include industrial lines
    (1990)
Highways:
    30,300 km total (1990); 29,200 km hard surfaced; 1,100 km earth
Inland waterways:
    500 km perennially navigable
Pipelines:
    crude oil NA km, refined products NA km, natural gas NA km
Ports:
    maritime - Tallinn, Parnu; inland - Narva
Merchant marine:
    65 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 386,634 GRT/516,866 DWT; includes 51
    cargo, 6 roll-on/roll-off, 2 short-sea passenger, 6 bulk
Civil air:
    NA major transport aircraft
Airports:
    NA total, NA usable; NA with permanent-surface runways; NA with runways over
    3,659 m; NA with runways 2,440-3,659 m; NA with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
    telephone diversity - NA; broadcast stations - 3 TV (provide Estonian
    programs as well as Moscow Ostenkino's first and second programs);
    international traffic is carried to the other former USSR republics by
    landline or microwave and to other countries by leased connection to the
    Moscow international gateway switch, by the Finnish cellular net, and by an
    old copper submarine cable to Finland

:Estonia Defense Forces

Branches:
    Republic Security Forces (internal and border troops), National Guard;
    Russian Forces (Ground, Navy, Air, Air Defense, and Border Guard)
Manpower availability:
    males 15-49, total mobilized force projected 120,000-130,000; NA fit for
    military service; between 10,000-12,000 reach military age (18) annually
Defense expenditures:
    $NA, NA% of GDP

:Ethiopia Geography

Total area:
    1,221,900 km2
Land area:
    1,101,000 km2
Comparative area:
    slightly less than twice the size of Texas
Land boundaries:
    5,141 km; Djibouti 459 km, Kenya 861 km, Somalia 1,600 km, Sudan 2,221 km
Coastline:
    1,094 km
Maritime claims:
  Territorial sea:
    12 nm
Disputes:
    southern half of the boundary with Somalia is a Provisional Administrative
    Line; possible claim by Somalia based on unification of ethnic Somalis;
    territorial dispute with Somalia over the Ogaden; independence referendum in
    Eritrea scheduled for April 1992
Climate:
    tropical monsoon with wide topographic-induced variation; some areas prone
    to extended droughts
Terrain:
    high plateau with central mountain range divided by Great Rift Valley
Natural resources:
    small reserves of gold, platinum, copper, potash
Land use:
    arable land 12%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures 41%; forest and
    woodland 24%; other 22%; includes irrigated NEGL%
Environment:
    geologically active Great Rift Valley susceptible to earthquakes, volcanic
    eruptions; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification;
    frequent droughts; famine
Note:
    strategic geopolitical position along world's busiest shipping lanes and
    close to Arabian oilfields

:Ethiopia People

Population:
    54,270,464 (July 1992), growth rate 3.2% (1992)
Birth rate:
    45 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
    14 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
    2 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
    112 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
    50 years male, 53 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
    6.9 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
    noun - Ethiopian(s); adjective - Ethiopian
Ethnic divisions:
    Oromo 40%, Amhara and Tigrean 32%, Sidamo 9%, Shankella 6%, Somali 6%, Afar
    4%, Gurage 2%, other 1%
Religions:
    Muslim 40-45%, Ethiopian Orthodox 35-40%, animist 15-20%, other 5%
Languages:
    Amharic (official), Tigrinya, Orominga, Guaraginga, Somali, Arabic, English
    (major foreign language taught in schools)
Literacy:
    62% (male NA%, female NA%) age 10 and over can read and write (1983 est.)
Labor force:
    18,000,000; agriculture and animal husbandry 80%, government and services
    12%, industry and construction 8% (1985)
Organized labor:
    All Ethiopian Trade Union formed by the government in January 1977 to
    represent 273,000 registered trade union members; was dissolved when the TGE
    came to power; labor code of 1975 is being redrafted

:Ethiopia Government

Long-form name:
    none
Type:
    on 28 May 1991 the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF)
    toppled the authoritarian government of MENGISTU Haile-Mariam and took
    control in Addis Ababa; the Transitional Government of Ethiopia (TGE),
    announced as a two-year transitional period; on 29 May 1991, Issayas
    AFEWORKE, secretary general of the Eritrean People's Liberation Front
    (EPLF), announced the formation of the Provisional Government in Eritrea
    (PGE), in preparation for an eventual referendum on independence for the
    province
Capital:
    Addis Ababa
Administrative divisions:
    14 administrative regions (astedader akababiwach, singular - astedader
    akababi) and 1 autonomous region* (rasgez akababi); Addis Ababa (Addis
    Ababa), Afar, Agew, Amhara, Benishangul, Ertra (Eritrea)*, Gambela,
    Gurage-Hadiya-Wolayta, Harer, Kefa, Omo, Oromo, Sidamo, Somali, Tigray
Independence:
    oldest independent country in Africa and one of the oldest in the world - at
    least 2,000 years
Constitution:
    to be redrafted by 1993
Legal system:
    NA
National holiday:
    National Revolution Day 12 September (1974)
Executive branch:
    president, prime minister, Council of Ministers
Legislative branch:
    Council of Representatives
Judicial branch:
    Supreme Court
Leaders:
  Chief of State:
    Interim President Meles ZENAWI (since 1 June 1991); transitional government
  Head of Government:
    Acting Prime Minister Tamirat LAYNE (since 6 June 1991)
Political parties and leaders:
    NA
Suffrage:
    universal at age 18
Elections:
  Council of Representatives:
    last held 14 June 1987 (next to be held after new constitution drafted)
  President:
    last held 10 September 1987; next election planned after new constitution
    drafted; results - MENGISTU Haile-Mariam elected by the now defunct National
    Assembly, but resigned and left Ethiopia on 21 May 1991
Other political or pressure groups:
    Oromo Liberation Front (OLF); Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Party (EPRP);
    numerous small, ethnic-based groups have formed since Mengistu's resignation
Member of:
    ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC,
    IGADD, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU,
    UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
    Counselor, Charge d'Affaires ad interim Girma AMARE; Chancery at 2134
    Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008; telephone (202) 234-2281 or 2282

:Ethiopia Government

  US:
    Charge d'Affaires Marc A. BAAS; Embassy at Entoto Street, Addis Ababa
    (mailing address is P. O. Box 1014, Addis Ababa); telephone [251] (01)
    550666; FAX [251] (1) 551-166
Flag:
    three equal horizontal bands of green (top), yellow, and red; Ethiopia is
    the oldest independent country in Africa, and the colors of her flag were so
    often adopted by other African countries upon independence that they became
    known as the pan-African colors

:Ethiopia Economy

Overview:
    Ethiopia is one of the poorest and least developed countries in Africa. Its
    economy is based on subsistence agriculture, which accounts for about 45% of
    GDP, 90% of exports, and 80% of total employment; coffee generates 60% of
    export earnings. The manufacturing sector is heavily dependent on inputs
    from the agricultural sector. Over 90% of large-scale industry, but less
    than 10% of agriculture, is state run; the government is considering selling
    off a portion of state-owned plants. Favorable agricultural weather largely
    explains the 4.5% growth in output in FY89, whereas drought and
    deteriorating internal security conditions prevented growth in FY90. In 1991
    the lack of law and order, particularly in the south, interfered with
    economic development and growth.
GDP:
    exchange rate conversion - $6.6 billion, per capita $130, real growth rate-
    0.4% (FY90 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    5.2% (1989)
Unemployment rate:
    NA
Budget:
    revenues $1.8 billion; expenditures $1.7 billion, including capital
    expenditures of $842 million (FY88)
Exports:
    $429 million (f.o.b., FY88)
  commodities:
    coffee 60%, hides
  partners:
    US, FRG, Djibouti, Japan, PDRY, France, Italy, Saudi Arabia
Imports:
    $1.1 billion (c.i.f., FY88)
  commodities:
    food, fuels, capital goods
  partners:
    USSR, Italy, FRG, Japan, UK, US, France
External debt:
    $2.6 billion (1988)
Industrial production:
    growth rate 2.3% (FY89 est.); accounts for 13% of GDP
Electricity:
    330,000 kW capacity; 650 million kWh produced, 10 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
    food processing, beverages, textiles, chemicals, metals processing, cement
Agriculture:
    accounts for 45% of GDP and is the most important sector of the economy even
    though frequent droughts and poor cultivation practices keep farm output
    low; famines not uncommon; export crops of coffee and oilseeds grown partly
    on state farms; estimated 50% of agricultural production at subsistence
    level; principal crops and livestock - cereals, pulses, coffee, oilseeds,
    sugarcane, potatoes and other vegetables, hides and skins, cattle, sheep,
    goats
Economic aid:
    US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $504 million; Western (non-US)
    countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $3.4 billion; OPEC
    bilateral aid (1979-89), $8 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $2.0
    billion
Currency:
    birr (plural - birr); 1 birr (Br) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
    birr (Br) per US$1 - 2.0700 (fixed rate)

:Ethiopia Economy

Fiscal year:
    8 July - 7 July

:Ethiopia Communications

Railroads:
    988 km total; 681 km 1.000-meter gauge; 307 km 0.950-meter gauge
    (nonoperational)
Highways:
    44,300 km total; 3,650 km paved, 9,650 km gravel, 3,000 km improved earth,
    28,000 km unimproved earth
Ports:
    Aseb, Mitsiwa
Merchant marine:
    12 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 62,627 GRT/88,909 DWT; includes 8
    cargo, 1 roll-on/roll off, 1 livestock carrier, 2 petroleum tanker
Civil air:
    25 major transport aircraft
Airports:
    123 total, 86 usable; 9 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runways over
    3,659 m; 13 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 38 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
    open-wire and radio relay system adequate for government use; open-wire to
    Sudan and Djibouti; radio relay to Kenya and Djibouti; broadcast stations -
    4 AM, no FM, 1 TV; 100,000 TV sets; 9,000,000 radios; 1 Atlantic Ocean
    INTELSAT earth station

:Ethiopia Defense Forces

Branches:
    Army, Navy, Air Force, Police Force
Manpower availability:
    males 15-49, 12,015,589; 6,230,680 fit for military service; 572,982 reach
    military age (18) annually
Defense expenditures:
    exchange rate conversion - $760 million, 12.8% of GDP (1989)

:Europa Island Geography

Total area:
    28 km2
Land area:
    28 km2
Comparative area:
    about 0.2 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
    none
Coastline:
    22.2 km
Maritime claims:
  Exclusive economic zone:
    200 nm
  Territorial sea:
    12 nm
Disputes:
    claimed by Madagascar
Climate:
    tropical
Terrain:
    NA
Natural resources:
    negligible
Land use:
    arable land NA%; permanent crops NA%; meadows and pastures NA%; forest and
    woodland NA%; other NA%; heavily wooded
Environment:
    wildlife sanctuary
Note:
    located in the Mozambique Channel 340 km west of Madagascar

:Europa Island People

Population:
    uninhabited

:Europa Island Government

Long-form name:
    none
Type:
    French possession administered by Commissioner of the Republic Jacques
    DEWATRE (as of July 1991); resident in Reunion
Capital:
    none; administered by France from Reunion

:Europa Island Economy

Overview:
    no economic activity

:Europa Island Communications

Ports:
    none; offshore anchorage only
Airports:
    1 with runways 1,220 to 2,439 m
Telecommunications:
    1 meteorological station

:Europa Island Defense Forces

Note:
    defense is the responsibility of France

:Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) Geography

Total area:
    12,170 km2
Land area:
    12,170 km2; includes the two main islands of East and West Falkland and
    about 200 small islands
Comparative area:
    slightly smaller than Connecticut
Land boundaries:
    none
Coastline:
    1,288 km
Maritime claims:
  Continental shelf:
    100 meter depth
  Exclusive fishing zone:
    150 nm
  Territorial sea:
    12 nm
Disputes:
    administered by the UK, claimed by Argentina
Climate:
    cold marine; strong westerly winds, cloudy, humid; rain occurs on more than
    half of days in year; occasional snow all year, except in January and
    February, but does not accumulate
Terrain:
    rocky, hilly, mountainous with some boggy, undulating plains
Natural resources:
    fish and wildlife
Land use:
    arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 99%; forest and
    woodland 0%; other 1%
Environment:
    poor soil fertility and a short growing season
Note:
    deeply indented coast provides good natural harbors

:Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) People

Population:
    1,900 (July 1992), growth rate 0.2% (1992)
Birth rate:
    NA births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
    NA deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
    NA migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
    NA deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
    NA years male, NA years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
    NA children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
    noun - Falkland Islander(s); adjective - Falkland Island
Ethnic divisions:
    almost totally British
Religions:
    primarily Anglican, Roman Catholic, and United Free Church; Evangelist
    Church, Jehovah's Witnesses, Lutheran, Seventh-Day Adventist
Languages:
    English
Literacy:
    NA% (male NA%, female NA%) but compulsory education age 5 to 15 (1988)
Labor force:
    1,100 (est.); agriculture, mostly sheepherding about 95%
Organized labor:
    Falkland Islands General Employees Union, 400 members

:Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) Government

Long-form name:
    Colony of the Falkland Islands
Type:
    dependent territory of the UK
Capital:
    Stanley
Administrative divisions:
    none (dependent territory of the UK)
Independence:
    none (dependent territory of the UK)
Constitution:
    3 October 1985
Legal system:
    English common law
National holiday:
    Liberation Day, 14 June (1982)
Executive branch:
    British monarch, governor, Executive Council
Legislative branch:
    unicameral Legislative Council
Judicial branch:
    Supreme Court
Leaders:
  Chief of State:
    Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952)
  Head of Government:
    Governor William Hugh FULLERTON (since NA 1988)
Suffrage:
    universal at age 18
Elections:
  Legislative Council:
    last held 11 October 1989 (next to be held October 1994); results - percent
    of vote by party NA; seats - (10 total, 8 elected) number of seats by party
    NA
Member of:
    ICFTU
Diplomatic representation:
    none (dependent territory of the UK)
Flag:
    blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the
    Falkland Island coat of arms in a white disk centered on the outer half of
    the flag; the coat of arms contains a white ram (sheep raising is the major
    economic activity) above the sailing ship Desire (whose crew discovered the
    islands) with a scroll at the bottom bearing the motto DESIRE THE RIGHT

:Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) Economy

Overview:
    The economy is based on sheep farming, which directly or indirectly employs
    most of the work force. A few dairy herds are kept to meet domestic
    consumption of milk and milk products, and crops grown are primarily those
    for providing winter fodder. Exports feature shipments of high-grade wool to
    the UK and the sale of postage stamps and coins. Rich stocks of fish in the
    surrounding waters are not presently exploited by the islanders. So far,
    efforts to establish a domestic fishing industry have been unsuccessful. In
    1987 the government began selling fishing licenses to foreign trawlers
    operating within the Falklands exclusive fishing zone. These license fees
    amount to more than $40 million per year and are a primary source of income
    for the government. To encourage tourism, the Falkland Islands Development
    Corporation has built three lodges for visitors attracted by the abundant
    wildlife and trout fishing.
GDP:
    $NA, per capita $NA; real growth rate NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    7.4% (1980-87 average)
Unemployment rate:
    NA%; labor shortage
Budget:
    revenues $62.7 million; expenditures $41.8 million, excluding capital
    expenditures of $NA (FY90)
Exports:
    at least $14.7 million
  commodities:
    wool, hides and skins, and other
  partners:
    UK, Netherlands, Japan (1987 est.)
Imports:
    at least $13.9 million
  commodities:
    food, clothing, fuels, and machinery
  partners:
    UK, Netherlands Antilles (Curacao), Japan (1987 est.)
External debt:
    $NA
Industrial production:
    growth rate NA%
Electricity:
    9,200 kW capacity; 17 million kWh produced, 8,638 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
    wool and fish processing
Agriculture:
    predominantly sheep farming; small dairy herds; some fodder and vegetable
    crops
Economic aid:
    Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89),
    $277 million
Currency:
    Falkland pound (plural - pounds); 1 Falkland pound (#F) = 100 pence
Exchange rates:
    Falkland pound (#F) per US$1 - 0.5519 (January 1992), 0.5652 (1991), 0.5604
    (1990), 0.6099 (1989), 0.5614 (1988), 0.6102 (1987); note - the Falkland
    pound is at par with the British pound
Fiscal year:
    1 April - 31 March

:Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) Communications

Highways:
    510 km total; 30 km paved, 80 km gravel, and 400 km unimproved earth
Ports:
    Port Stanley
Civil air:
    no major transport aircraft
Airports:
    5 total, 5 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over
    3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; none with runways 1,220 to 2,439 m
Telecommunications:
    government-operated radiotelephone and private VHF/CB radio networks provide
    effective service to almost all points on both islands; 590 telephones;
    broadcast stations - 2 AM, 3 FM, no TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth
    station with links through London to other countries

:Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) Defense Forces

Branches:
    British Forces Falkland Islands (including Army, Royal Air Force, Royal
    Navy, and Royal Marines); Police Force
Note:
    defense is the responsibility of the UK

:Faroe Islands Geography

Total area:
    1,400 km2
Land area:
    1,400 km2
Comparative area:
    slightly less than eight times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
    none
Coastline:
    764 km
Maritime claims:
  Exclusive fishing zone:
    200 nm
  Territorial sea:
    3 nm
Disputes:
    none
Climate:
    mild winters, cool summers; usually overcast; foggy, windy
Terrain:
    rugged, rocky, some low peaks; cliffs along most of coast
Natural resources:
    fish
Land use:
    arable land 2%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 0%; forest and
    woodland 0%; other 98%
Environment:
    precipitous terrain limits habitation to small coastal lowlands; archipelago
    of 18 inhabited islands and a few uninhabited islets
Note:
    strategically located along important sea lanes in northeastern Atlantic
    about midway between Iceland and Shetland Islands

:Faroe Islands People

Population:
    48,588 (July 1992), growth rate 0.9% (1992)
Birth rate:
    17 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
    8 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
    0 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
    7 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
    75 years male, 81 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
    2.2 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
    noun - Faroese (singular and plural); adjective - Faroese
Ethnic divisions:
    homogeneous Scandinavian population
Religions:
    Evangelical Lutheran
Languages:
    Faroese (derived from Old Norse), Danish
Literacy:
    NA% (male NA%, female NA%)
Labor force:
    17,585; largely engaged in fishing, manufacturing, transportation, and
    commerce
Organized labor:
    NA

:Faroe Islands Government

Long-form name:
    none
Type:
    part of the Danish realm; self-governing overseas administrative division of
    Denmark
Capital:
    Torshavn
Administrative divisions:
    none (self-governing overseas administrative division of Denmark)
Independence:
    part of the Danish realm; self-governing overseas administrative division of
    Denmark
Constitution:
    Danish
Legal system:
    Danish
National holiday:
    Birthday of the Queen, 16 April (1940)
Executive branch:
    Danish monarch, high commissioner, prime minister, deputy prime minister,
    Cabinet (Landsstyri)
Legislative branch:
    unicameral Parliament (Lgting)
Judicial branch:
    none
Leaders:
  Chief of State:
    Queen MARGRETHE II (since 14 January 1972), represented by High Commissioner
    Bent KLINTE (since NA)
  Head of Government:
    Prime Minister Atli P. DAM (since 15 January 1991)
Political parties and leaders:
  opposition:
    Cooperation Coalition Party, Pauli ELLEFSEN; Republican Party, Signer
    HANSEN; Progressive and Fishing Industry Party-Christian People's Party
    (PFIP-CPP), leader NA; Progress Party, leader NA; Home Rule Party, Hilmar
    KASS
  two-party ruling coalition:
    Social Democratic Party, Atli P. DAM; People's Party, Jogvan SUND- STEIN
Suffrage:
    universal at age 20
Elections:
  Danish Parliament:
    last held on 12 December 1990 (next to be held by December 1994); results -
    percent of vote by party NA; seats - (2 total) Social Democratic 1, People's
    Party 1; note - the Faroe Islands elects two representatives to the Danish
    Parliament
  Faroese Parliament:
    last held 17 November 1990 (next to be held November 1994); results - Social
    Democratic 27.4%, People's Party 21.9%, Cooperation Coalition Party 18.9%,
    Republican Party 14.7%, Home Rule 8.8%, PFIP-CPP 5.9%, other 2.4%; seats -
    (32 total) two-party coalition 17 (Social Democratic 10, People's Party 7),
    Cooperation Coalition Party 6, Republican Party 4, Home Rule 3, PFIP-CPP 2
Diplomatic representation:
    none (self-governing overseas administrative division of Denmark)
Flag:
    white with a red cross outlined in blue that extends to the edges of the
    flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the
    style of the DANNEBROG (Danish flag)

:Faroe Islands Economy

Overview:
    The Faroese, who have long been enjoying the affluent living standards of
    the Danes and other Scandinavians, now must cope with the decline of the
    all-important fishing industry and with an external debt twice the size of
    annual income. When the nations of the world extended their fishing zones to
    200 nautical miles in the early 1970s, the Faroese no longer could continue
    their traditional long-distance fishing and subsequently depleted their own
    nearby fishing areas. The government's tight controls on fish stocks and its
    austerity measures have caused a recession, and subsidy cuts will force
    further reductions in the fishing industry, which has already been plagued
    with bankrupcies. An annual Danish subsidy of $140 million continues to
    provide roughly one-third of the islands' budget revenues.
GDP:
    purchasing power equivalent - $662 million, per capita $14,000; real growth
    rate 3% (1989 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    2.0% (1988)
Unemployment rate:
    5-6% (1991 est.)
Budget:
    revenues $425 million; expenditures $480 million, including capital
    expenditures of NA (1991 est.)
Exports:
    $386 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.)
  commodities:
    fish and fish products 88%, animal feedstuffs, transport equipment (1989)
  partners:
    Denmark 20%, Germany 18.3%, UK 14.2%, France 11.2%, Spain 7.9%, US 4.5%
Imports:
    $322 million (c.i.f., 1990 est.)
  commodities:
    machinery and transport equipment 24.4%, manufactures 24%, food and
    livestock 19%, fuels 12%, chemicals 6.5%
  partners:
    Denmark 43.8%, Norway 19.8%, Sweden 4.9%, Germany 4.2%, US 1.3%
External debt:
    $1.3 billion (1989)
Industrial production:
    growth rate NA%
Electricity:
    80,000 kW capacity; 280 million kWh produced, 5,910 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
    fishing, shipbuilding, handicrafts
Agriculture:
    accounts for 27% of GDP and employs 27% of labor force; principal crops -
    potatoes and vegetables; livestock - sheep; annual fish catch about 360,000
    metric tons
Economic aid:
    none
Currency:
    Danish krone (plural - kroner); 1 Danish krone (DKr) = 100 ore
Exchange rates:
    Danish kroner (DKr) per US$1 - 6.116 (January 1992), 6.396 (1991), 6.189
    (1990), 7.310 (1989), 6.732 (1988), 6.840 (1987)
Fiscal year:
    1 April - 31 March

:Faroe Islands Communications

Highways:
    200 km
Ports:
    Torshavn, Tvoroyri
Merchant marine:
    10 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 22,015 GRT/24,007 DWT; includes 1
    short-sea passenger, 5 cargo, 2 roll-on/roll-off, 2 refrigerated cargo; note
    - a subset of the Danish register
Airports:
    1 with permanent surface runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
    good international communications; fair domestic facilities; 27,900
    telephones; broadcast stations - 1 AM, 3 (10 repeaters) FM, 3 (29 repeaters)
    TV; 3 coaxial submarine cables

:Faroe Islands Defense Forces

Branches:
    no organized native military forces; only a small Police Force is maintained
Note:
    defense is the responsibility of Denmark

:Fiji Geography

Total area:
    18,270 km2
Land area:
    18,270 km2
Comparative area:
    slightly smaller than New Jersey
Land boundaries:
    none
Coastline:
    1,129 km
Maritime claims:
    (measured from claimed archipelagic baselines)
  Continental shelf:
    200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation; rectilinear shelf claim added
  Exclusive economic zone:
    200 nm
  Territorial sea:
    12 nm
Disputes:
    none
Climate:
    tropical marine; only slight seasonal temperature variation
Terrain:
    mostly mountains of volcanic origin
Natural resources:
    timber, fish, gold, copper; offshore oil potential
Land use:
    arable land 8%; permanent crops 5%; meadows and pastures 3%; forest and
    woodland 65%; other 19%; includes irrigated NEGL%
Environment:
    subject to hurricanes from November to January; includes 332 islands of
    which approximately 110 are inhabited
Note:
    located 2,500 km north of New Zealand in the South Pacific Ocean

:Fiji People

Population:
    749,946 (July 1992), growth rate 0.9% (1992)
Birth rate:
    25 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
    7 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
    -10 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
    19 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
    62 years male, 67 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
    3.0 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
    noun - Fijian(s); adjective - Fijian
Ethnic divisions:
    Indian 49%, Fijian 46%, European, other Pacific Islanders, overseas Chinese,
    and other 5%
Religions:
    Christian 52% (Methodist 37%, Roman Catholic 9%), Hindu 38%, Muslim 8%,
    other 2%; note - Fijians are mainly Christian, Indians are Hindu, and there
    is a Muslim minority (1986)
Languages:
    English (official); Fijian; Hindustani
Literacy:
    86% (male 90%, female 81%) age 15 and over can read and write (1985 est.)
Labor force:
    235,000; subsistence agriculture 67%, wage earners 18%, salary earners 15%
    (1987)
Organized labor:
    about 45,000 employees belong to some 46 trade unions, which are organized
    along lines of work and ethnic origin (1983)

:Fiji Government

Long-form name:
    Republic of Fiji
Type:
    military coup leader Maj. Gen. Sitiveni RABUKA formally declared Fiji a
    republic on 6 October 1987
Capital:
    Suva
Administrative divisions:
    4 divisions and 1 dependency*; Central, Eastern, Northern, Rotuma*, Western
Independence:
    10 October 1970 (from UK)
Constitution:
    10 October 1970 (suspended 1 October 1987); a new Constitution was proposed
    on 23 September 1988 and promulgated on 25 July 1990
Legal system:
    based on British system
National holiday:
    Independence Day, 10 October (1970)
Executive branch:
    president, prime minister, Cabinet Great Councils of Chiefs (highest ranking
    members of the traditional chiefly system)
Legislative branch:
    the bicameral Parliament, consisting of an upper house or Senate and a lower
    house or House of Representatives, was dissolved following the coup of 14
    May 1987; the Constitution of 23 September 1988 provides for a bicameral
    Parliament
Judicial branch:
    Supreme Court
Leaders:
  Chief of State:
    President Ratu Sir Penaia Kanatabatu GANILAU (since 5 December 1987)
  Head of Government:
    Prime Minister Ratu Sir Kamisese MARA (since 5 December 1987); Deputy Prime
    Minister Josefata KAMIKAMICA (since October 1991); note - Ratu Sir Kamisese
    MARA served as prime minister from 10 October 1970 until the 5-11 April 1987
    election; after a second coup led by Maj. Gen. Sitiveni RABUKA on 25
    September 1987, Ratu Sir Kamisese MARA was reappointed as prime minister
Political parties and leaders:
    Fijian Political Party (primarily Fijian), leader Maj. Gen. Sitivini RABUKA;
    National Federation Party (NFP; primarily Indian), Siddiq KOYA; Christian
    Fijian Nationalist Party (CFNP), Sakeasi BUTADROKA; Fiji Labor Party (FLP),
    Jokapeci KOROI; All National Congress (ANC), Apisai TORA; General Voters
    Party (GVP), Max OLSSON; Fiji Conservative Party (FCP), Isireli VUIBAU;
    Conservative Party of Fiji (CPF), Jolale ULUDOLE and Viliame SAVU; Fiji
    Indian Liberal Party, Swami MAHARAJ; Fiji Indian Congress Party, Ishwari
    BAJPAI; Fiji Independent Labor (Muslim), leader NA; Four Corners Party,
    David TULVANUAVOU
Suffrage:
    none
Elections:
  House of Representatives:
    last held 14 May 1987 (next to be held 23-29 May 1992); results - percent of
    vote by party NA; seats - (70 total, with ethnic Fijians allocated 37 seats,
    ethnic Indians 27 seats, and independents and other 6 seats) number of seats
    by party NA
Member of:
    ACP, AsDB, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO,
    IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, PCA, SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD,
    UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

:Fiji Government

Diplomatic representation:
    Ambassador Pita Kewa NACUVA; Chancery at Suite 240, 2233 Wisconsin Avenue
    NW, Washington, DC 20007; telephone (202) 337-8320; there is a Fijian
    Consulate in New York
  US:
    Ambassador Evelyn I. H. TEEGEN; Embassy at 31 Loftus Street, Suva (mailing
    address is P. O. Box 218, Suva); telephone [679] 314-466; FAX [679] 300-081
Flag:
    light blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the
    Fijian shield centered on the outer half of the flag; the shield depicts a
    yellow lion above a white field quartered by the cross of Saint George
    featuring stalks of sugarcane, a palm tree, bananas, and a white dove

:Fiji Economy

Overview:
    Fiji's economy is primarily agricultural, with a large subsistence sector.
    Sugar exports are a major source of foreign exchange, and sugar processing
    accounts for one-third of industrial output. Industry, including sugar
    milling, contributes 13% to GDP. Fiji traditionally had earned considerable
    sums of hard currency from the 250,000 tourists who visited each year. In
    1987, however, after two military coups, the economy went into decline. GDP
    dropped by 7.8% in 1987 and by another 2.5% in 1988; political uncertainty
    created a drop in tourism, and the worst drought of the century caused sugar
    production to fall sharply. In contrast, sugar and tourism turned in strong
    performances in 1989, and the economy rebounded vigorously. In 1990 the
    economy received a setback from cyclone Sina, which cut sugar output by an
    estimated 21%.
GDP:
    exchange rate conversion - $1.3 billion, per capita $1,700; real growth rate
    3.5% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    7.0% (1991)
Unemployment rate:
    5.9% (1991 est.)
Budget:
    revenues $413 million; expenditures $464 million, including capital
    expenditures of NA (1992 est.)
Exports:
    $646 million (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
  commodities:
    sugar 40%, gold, clothing, copra, processed fish, lumber
  partners:
    EC 31%, Australia 21%, Japan 8%, US 6%
Imports:
    $840 million (c.i.f., 1991 est.)
  commodities:
    machinery and transport equipment 32%, food 15%, petroleum products,
    consumer goods, chemicals
  partners:
    Australia 30%, NZ 17%, Japan 13%, EC 6%, US 6%
External debt:
    $428 million (December 1990 est.)
Industrial production:
    growth rate 8.4% (1991 est.); accounts for 13% of GDP
Electricity:
    215,000 kW capacity; 330 million kWh produced, 430 kWh per capita (1990)
Industries:
    sugar, tourism, copra, gold, silver, fishing, clothing, lumber, small
    cottage industries
Agriculture:
    accounts for 23% of GDP; principal cash crop is sugarcane; coconuts,
    cassava, rice, sweet potatoes, and bananas; small livestock sector includes
    cattle, pigs, horses, and goats
Economic aid:
    Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1980-89),
    $815 million
Currency:
    Fijian dollar (plural - dollars); 1 Fijian dollar (F$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
    Fijian dollars (F$) per US$1 - 1.4855 (January 1992), 1.4756 (1991), 1.4809
    (1990), 1.4833 (1989), 1.4303 (1988), 1.2439 (1987)
Fiscal year:
    calendar year

:Fiji Communications

Railroads:
    644 km 0.610-meter narrow gauge, belonging to the government-owned Fiji
    Sugar Corporation
Highways:
    3,300 km total (1984) - 1,590 km paved; 1,290 km gravel, crushed stone, or
    stabilized soil surface; 420 unimproved earth
Inland waterways:
    203 km; 122 km navigable by motorized craft and 200-metric-ton barges
Ports:
    Lambasa, Lautoka, Savusavu, Suva
Merchant marine:
    7 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 40,072 GRT/47,187 DWT; includes 2
    roll-on/roll-off, 2 container, 1 petroleum tanker, 1 chemical tanker, 1
    cargo
Civil air:
    1 DC-3 and 1 light aircraft
Airports:
    25 total, 22 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways
    over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 2 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
    modern local, interisland, and international (wire/radio integrated) public
    and special-purpose telephone, telegraph, and teleprinter facilities;
    regional radio center; important COMPAC cable link between US-Canada and New
    Zealand-Australia; 53,228 telephones; broadcast stations - 7 AM, 1 FM, no
    TV; 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth station

:Fiji Defense Forces

Branches:
    Fiji Military Force (FMF; including a naval division, Police)
Manpower availability:
    males 15-49, 192,056; 105,898 fit for military service; 7,564 reach military
    age (18) annually
Defense expenditures:
    exchange rate conversion - $22.4 million, 1.7% of GDP (FY 91)

:Finland Geography

Total area:
    337,030 km2
Land area:
    305,470 km2
Comparative area:
    slightly smaller than Montana
Land boundaries:
    2,628 km; Norway 729 km, Sweden 586 km, Russia 1,313 km
Coastline:
    1,126 km; excludes islands and coastal indentations
Maritime claims:
  Contiguous zone:
    6 nm
  Continental shelf:
    200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation
  Exclusive fishing zone:
    12 nm
  Territorial sea:
    4 nm
Disputes:
    none
Climate:
    cold temperate; potentially subarctic, but comparatively mild because of
    moderating influence of the North Atlantic Current, Baltic Sea, and more
    than 60,000 lakes
Terrain:
    mostly low, flat to rolling plains interspersed with lakes and low hills
Natural resources:
    timber, copper, zinc, iron ore, silver
Land use:
    arable land 8%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures NEGL%; forest and
    woodland 76%; other 16%; includes irrigated NEGL%
Environment:
    permanently wet ground covers about 30% of land; population concentrated on
    small southwestern coastal plain
Note:
    long boundary with Russia; Helsinki is northernmost national capital on
    European continent

:Finland People

Population:
    5,004,273 (July 1992), growth rate 0.3% (1992)
Birth rate:
    12 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
    10 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
    NEGL migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
    6 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
    72 years male, 80 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
    1.7 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
    noun - Finn(s); adjective - Finnish
Ethnic divisions:
    Finn, Swede, Lapp, Gypsy, Tatar
Religions:
    Evangelical Lutheran 89%, Greek Orthodox 1%, none 9%, other 1%
Languages:
    Finnish 93.5%, Swedish (both official) 6.3%; small Lapp- and
    Russian-speaking minorities
Literacy:
    100% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can read and write (1980 est.)
Labor force:
    2,533,000; public services 30.4%; industry 20.9%; commerce 15.0%; finance,
    insurance, and business services 10.2%; agriculture and forestry 8.6%;
    transport and communications 7.7%; construction 7.2%
Organized labor:
    80% of labor force

:Finland Government

Long-form name:
    Republic of Finland
Type:
    republic
Capital:
    Helsinki
Administrative divisions:
    12 provinces (laanit, singular - laani); Ahvenanmaa, Hame, Keski-Suomi,
    Kuopio, Kymi, Lappi, Mikkeli, Oulu, Pohjois-Karjala, Turku ja Pori, Uusimaa,
    Vaasa
Independence:
    6 December 1917 (from Soviet Union)
Constitution:
    17 July 1919
Legal system:
    civil law system based on Swedish law; Supreme Court may request legislation
    interpreting or modifying laws; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with
    reservations
National holiday:
    Independence Day, 6 December (1917)
Executive branch:
    president, prime minister, deputy prime minister, Council of State
    (Valtioneuvosto)
Legislative branch:
    unicameral Parliament (Eduskunta)
Judicial branch:
    Supreme Court (Korkein Oikeus)
Leaders:
  Chief of State:
    President Mauno KOIVISTO (since 27 January 1982)
  Head of Government:
    Prime Minister Esko AHO (since 26 April 1991); Deputy Prime Minister Ilkka
    KANERVA (since 26 April 1991)
Suffrage:
    universal at age 18
Elections:
  Parliament:
    last held 17 March 1991 (next to be held March 1995); results - Center Party
    24.8%, Social Democratic Party 22.1%, National Coalition (Conservative)
    Party 19.3%, Leftist Alliance (Communist) 10.1%, Green League 6.8%, Swedish
    People's Party 5.5%, Rural 4.8%, Finnish Christian League 3.1%, Liberal
    People's Party 0.8%; seats - (200 total) Center Party 55, Social Democratic
    Party 48, National Coalition (Conservative) Party 40, Leftist Alliance
    (Communist) 19, Swedish People's Party 12, Green League 10, Finnish
    Christian League 8, Rural 7, Liberal People's Party 1
  President:
    last held 31 January - 1 February and 15 February 1988 (next to be held
    January 1994); results - Mauno KOIVISTO 48%, Paavo VAYRYNEN 20%, Harri
    HOLKERI 18%
Communists:
    28,000 registered members; an additional 45,000 persons belong to People's
    Democratic League
Other political or pressure groups:
    Finnish Communist Party-Unity, Yrjo HAKANEN; Constitutional Rightist Party;
    Finnish Pensioners Party; Communist Workers Party, Timo LAHDENMAKI

:Finland Government

Member of:
    AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, CCC, CE, CERN, CSCE, EBRD,
    ECE, EFTA, ESA (associate), FAO, G-9, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC,
    ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM
    (observer), ISO, ITU, LORCS, MTCR, NAM (guest), NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OAS
    (observer), OECD, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO,
    UNIFIL, UNIIMOG, UNMOGIP, UNTSO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation:
    Ambassador Jukka VALTASAARI; Chancery at 3216 New Mexico Avenue NW,
    Washington, DC 20016; telephone (202) 363-2430; there are Finnish Consulates
    General in Los Angeles and New York, and Consulates in Chicago and Houston
  US:
    Ambassador John H. KELLY (as of December 1991); Embassy at Itainen Puistotie
    14A, SF-00140, Helsinki (mailing address is APO AE 09723); telephone [358]
    (0) 171931; FAX [358] (0) 174681
Flag:
    white with a blue cross that extends to the edges of the flag; the vertical
    part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the DANNEBROG
    (Danish flag)

:Finland Economy

Overview:
    Finland has a highly industrialized, largely free market economy, with per
    capita output nearly three-fourths the US figure. Its main economic force is
    the manufacturing sector - principally the wood, metals, and engineering
    industries. Trade is important, with the export of goods representing about
    30% of GDP. Except for timber and several minerals, Finland depends on
    imported raw materials, energy, and some components of manufactured goods.
    Because of the climate, agricultural development is limited to maintaining
    self-sufficiency in basic commodities. The economy, which experienced an
    average of 4.9% annual growth between 1987 and 1989, sank into a deep
    recession in 1991 as growth contracted by 6.2%. The recession - which is
    expected to bottom out in late 1992 - has been caused by economic
    overheating, depressed foreign markets, and the dismantling of the barter
    system between Finland and the former Soviet Union in which Soviet oil and
    gas had been exchanged for Finnish manufactured goods. The Finnish
    Government has proposed efforts to increase industrial competitiveness and
    efficiency by an increase in exports to Western markets, cuts in public
    expenditures, partial privatization of state enterprises, and foreign
    investment and exchange liberalization. Helsinki tied the markkaa to the
    EC's European Currency Unit to promote stability but was forced to devalue
    the markkaa by about 12% in November 1991. The devaluation should improve
    industrial competitiveness and business confidence in 1992. Finland, as a
    member of EFTA, negotiated a European Economic Area arrangement with the EC
    that allows for free movement of capital, goods, services, and labor within
    the organization as of January 1993. Finland applied for full EC membership
    in March 1992.
GDP:
    purchasing power equivalent - $80.6 billion, per capita $16,200; real growth
    rate - 6.2% (1991)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    2.9% (1991)
Unemployment rate:
    7.6% (1991)
Budget:
    revenues $35.8 billion; expenditures $41.5 billion, including capital
    expenditures of NA billion (1991)
Exports:
    $22.9 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
  commodities:
    timber, paper and pulp, ships, machinery, clothing and footwear
  partners:
    EC 50.25%, Germany 15.5%, UK 10.4%, EFTA 20.7%, Sweden 14%, US 6.1%, Japan
    1.5%, USSR/EE 6.71% (1991)
Imports:
    $21.6 billion (c.i.f., 1991)
  commodities:
    foodstuffs, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, transport
    equipment, iron and steel, machinery, textile yarn and fabrics, fodder
    grains
  partners:
    EC 45.9% (Germany 16.9%), UK 7.7%, EFTA 19.9%, Sweden 12.3%, US 6.9%, Japan
    6%, USSR/EE 10.7%
External debt:
    $5.3 billion (1989)
Industrial production:
    growth rate - 8.6% (1991 est.)
Electricity:
    13,324,000 kW capacity; 49,330 million kWh produced, 9,857 kWh per capita
    (1991)

:Finland Economy

Industries:
    metal products, shipbuilding, forestry and wood processing (pulp, paper),
    copper refining, foodstuffs, chemicals, textiles, clothing
Agriculture:
    accounts for 8% of GDP (including forestry); livestock production,
    especially dairy cattle, predominates; forestry is an important export
    earner and a secondary occupation for the rural population; main crops -
    cereals, sugar beets, potatoes; 85% self-sufficient, but short of foodgrains
    and fodder grains; annual fish catch about 160,000 metric tons
Economic aid:
    donor - ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $2.7 billion
Currency:
    markka (plural - markkaa); 1 markka (FMk) or Finmark = 100 pennia
Exchange rates:
    markkaa (FMk) per US$1 - 4.2967 (January 1992), 4.0440 (1991), 3.8235
    (1990), 4.2912 (1989), 4.1828 (1988), 4.3956 (1987)
Fiscal year:
    calendar year

:Finland Communications

Railroads:
    5,924 km total; Finnish State Railways (VR) operate a total of 5,863 km
    1.524-meter gauge, of which 480 km are multiple track and 1,445 km are
    electrified
Highways:
    about 103,000 km total, including 35,000 km paved (bituminous, concrete,
    bituminous-treated surface) and 38,000 km unpaved (stabilized gravel,
    gravel, earth); additional 30,000 km of private (state-subsidized) roads
Inland waterways:
    6,675 km total (including Saimaa Canal); 3,700 km suitable for steamers
Pipelines:
    natural gas 580 km
Ports:
    Helsinki, Oulu, Pori, Rauma, Turku; 6 secondary, numerous minor ports
Merchant marine:
    80 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 794,094 GRT/732,585 DWT; includes 1
    passenger, 9 short-sea passenger, 16 cargo, 1 refrigerated cargo, 26
    roll-on/roll-off, 12 petroleum tanker, 6 chemical tanker, 2 liquefied gas, 7
    bulk
Civil air:
    42 major transport
Airports:
    159 total, 156 usable; 58 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways
    over 3,659 m; 23 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 22 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
    good service from cable and radio relay network; 3,140,000 telephones;
    broadcast stations - 6 AM, 105 FM, 235 TV; 1 submarine cable; INTELSAT
    satellite transmission service via Swedish earth station and a receive-only
    INTELSAT earth station near Helsinki

:Finland Defense Forces

Branches:
    Army, Navy, Air Force, Frontier Guard (including Coast Guard)
Manpower availability:
    males 15-49, 1,314,305; 1,087,286 fit for military service; 33,053 reach
    military age (17) annually
Defense expenditures:
    exchange rate conversion - $1.8 billion, 1.6% of GDP (1989 est.)

:France Geography

Total area:
    547,030 km2
Land area:
    545,630 km2; includes Corsica and the rest of metropolitan France, but
    excludes the overseas administrative divisions
Comparative area:
    slightly more than twice the size of Colorado
Land boundaries:
    2,892.4 km; Andorra 60 km, Belgium 620 km, Germany 451 km, Italy 488 km,
    Luxembourg 73 km, Monaco 4.4 km, Spain 623 km, Switzerland 573 km
Coastline:
    3,427 km; mainland 2,783 km, Corsica 644 km
Maritime claims:
  Contiguous zone:
    12-24 nm
  Exclusive economic zone:
    200 nm
  Territorial sea:
    12 nm
Disputes:
    Madagascar claims Bassas da India, Europa Island, Glorioso Islands, Juan de
    Nova Island, and Tromelin Island; Comoros claims Mayotte; Mauritius claims
    Tromelin Island; Seychelles claims Tromelin Island; Suriname claims part of
    French Guiana; Mexico claims Clipperton Island; territorial claim in
    Antarctica (Adelie Land)
Climate:
    generally cool winters and mild summers, but mild winters and hot summers
    along the Mediterranean
Terrain:
    mostly flat plains or gently rolling hills in north and west; remainder is
    mountainous, especially Pyrenees in south, Alps in east
Natural resources:
    coal, iron ore, bauxite, fish, timber, zinc, potash
Land use:
    arable land 32%; permanent crops 2%; meadows and pastures 23%; forest and
    woodland 27%; other 16%; includes irrigated 2%
Environment:
    most of large urban areas and industrial centers in Rhone, Garonne, Seine,
    or Loire River basins; occasional warm tropical wind known as mistral
Note:
    largest West European nation

:France People

Population:
    57,287,258 (July 1992), growth rate 0.5% (1992)
Birth rate:
    13 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
    9 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
    1 migrant/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
    7 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
    74 years male, 82 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
    1.8 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
    noun - Frenchman(men), Frenchwoman(women); adjective - French
Ethnic divisions:
    Celtic and Latin with Teutonic, Slavic, North African, Indochinese, and
    Basque minorities
Religions:
    Roman Catholic 90%, Protestant 2%, Jewish 1%, Muslim (North African workers)
    1%, unaffiliated 6%
Languages:
    French (100% of population); rapidly declining regional dialects (Provencal,
    Breton, Alsatian, Corsican, Catalan, Basque, Flemish)
Literacy:
    99% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can read and write (1980 est.)
Labor force:
    24,170,000; services 61.5%, industry 31.3%, agriculture 7.3% (1987)
Organized labor:
    20% of labor force (est.)

:France Government

Long-form name:
    French Republic
Type:
    republic
Capital:
    Paris
Administrative divisions:
    metropolitan France - 22 regions (regions, singular - region); Alsace,
    Aquitaine, Auvergne, Basse-Normandie, Bourgogne, Bretagne, Centre,
    Champagne-Ardenne, Corse, Franche-Comte, Haute-Normandie, Ile-de-France,
    Languedoc-Roussillon, Limousin, Lorraine, Midi-Pyrenees, Nord-Pas-de-Calais,
    Pays de la Loire, Picardie, Poitou-Charentes, Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur,
    Rhone-Alpes; note - the 22 regions are subdivided into 96 departments; see
    separate entries for the overseas departments (French Guiana, Guadeloupe,
    Martinique, Reunion) and the territorial collectivities (Mayotte, Saint
    Pierre and Miquelon)
Independence:
    unified by Clovis in 486, First Republic proclaimed in 1792
Constitution:
    28 September 1958, amended concerning election of president in 1962
Dependent areas:
    Bassas da India, Clipperton Island, Europa Island, French Polynesia, French
    Southern and Antarctic Lands, Glorioso Islands, Juan de Nova Island, New
    Caledonia, Tromelin Island, Wallis and Futuna
  note:
    the US does not recognize claims to Antarctica
Legal system:
    civil law system with indigenous concepts; review of administrative but not
    legislative acts
National holiday:
    Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)
Executive branch:
    president, prime minister, Council of Ministers (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
    bicameral Parliament (Parlement) consists of an upper house or Senate
    (Senat) and a lower house or National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale)
Judicial branch:
    Constitutional Court (Cour Constitutionnelle)
Leaders:
  Chief of State:
    President Francois MITTERRAND (since 21 May 1981)
  Head of Government:
    Prime Minister Pierre BEREGOVOY (since 2 April 1992)
Political parties and leaders:
    Rally for the Republic (RPR, formerly UDR), Jacques CHIRAC; Union for French
    Democracy (UDF, federation of PR, CDS, and RAD), Valery Giscard d'ESTAING;
    Republican Party (PR), Gerard LONGUET; Center for Social Democrats (CDS),
    Pierre MEHAIGNERIE; Radical (RAD), Yves GALLAND; Socialist Party (PS),
    Laurent FABIUS; Left Radical Movement (MRG), Emile ZUCCARELLI; Communist
    Party (PCF), Georges MARCHAIS; National Front (FN), Jean-Marie LE PEN
Suffrage:
    universal at age 18
Elections:
  National Assembly:
    last held 5 and 12 June 1988 (next to be held June 1993); results - Second
    Ballot PS-MRG 48. 7%, RPR 23.1%, UDF 21%, PCF 3.4%, other 3.8%; seats - (577
    total) PS 272, RPR 127, UDF 91, UDC 40, PCF 26, independents 21

:France Government

  President:
    last held 8 May 1988 (next to be held May 1995); results - Second Ballot
    Francois MITTERRAND 54%, Jacques CHIRAC 46%
Elections:
  Senate:
    last held 24 September 1989 (next to be held September 1992); results -
    percent of vote by party NA; seats - (321 total; 296 metropolitan France, 13
    for overseas departments and territories, and 12 for French nationals
    abroad) RPR 91, UDF 143 (PR 52, CDS 68, RAD 23), PS 66, PCF 16, independents
    2, unknown 3
Communists:
    700,000 claimed but probably closer to 150,000; Communist voters, 2.8
    million in 1988 election
Other political or pressure groups:
    Communist-controlled labor union (Confederation Generale du Travail) nearly
    2.4 million members (claimed); Socialist-leaning labor union (Confederation
    Francaise Democratique du Travail or CFDT) about 800,000 members est.;
    independent labor union (Force Ouvriere) 1 million members (est.);
    independent white-collar union (Confederation Generale des Cadres) 340,000
    members (claimed); National Council of French Employers (Conseil National du
    Patronat Francais - CNPF or Patronat)
Member of:
    ACCT, AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, Australia Group, BDEAC, BIS, CCC, CDB, CE,
    CERN, COCOM, CSCE, EBRD, EC, ECE, ECLAC, EIB, ESA, ESCAP, FAO, FZ, GATT,
    G-5, G-7, G-10, IABD, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO,
    IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU,
    LORCS, MTCR, NACC, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, PCA, SPC, UN,
    UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNRWA, UN Security Council, UN
    Trusteeship Council, UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WEU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
    Ambassador Jacques ANDREANI; Chancery at 4101 Reservoir Road NW, Washington,
    DC 20007; telephone (202) 944-6000; there are French Consulates General in
    Boston, Chicago, Detroit, Houston, Los Angeles, New Orleans, Miami, New
    York, San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico)
  US:
    Ambassador Walter J. P. CURLEY; Embassy at 2 Avenue Gabriel, 75382 Paris
    Cedex 08, Unit 21551 (mailing address is APO AE 09777); telephone [33] (1)
    42-96-12-02 or 42-61-80-75; FAX [33] (1) 42-66-97-83; there are US
    Consulates General in Bordeaux, Marseille, and Strasbourg
Flag:
    three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), white, and red; known as
    the French Tricouleur (Tricolor); the design and colors have been the basis
    for a number of other flags, including those of Belgium, Chad, Ireland,
    Ivory Coast, and Luxembourg; the official flag for all French dependent
    areas

:France Economy

Overview:
    One of the world's most developed economies, France has substantial
    agricultural resources and a highly diversified modern industrial sector.
    Large tracts of fertile land, the application of modern technology, and
    subsidies have combined to make it the leading agricultural producer in
    Western Europe. France is largely self-sufficient in agricultural products
    and is a major exporter of wheat and dairy products. The industrial sector
    generates about one-quarter of GDP, and the growing services sector has
    become crucial to the economy. After expanding at a rapid 3.8% pace during
    the period 1988-89, the economy slowed down in 1990, with growth of 1.5% in
    1990 and 1.4% in 1991; growth in 1992 is expected to be about 2%. The
    economy has had difficulty generating enough jobs for new entrants into the
    labor force, resulting in a high unemployment rate, which rose to almost 10%
    in 1991. The steadily advancing economic integration within the European
    Community is a major force affecting the fortunes of the various economic
    sectors.
GDP:
    purchasing power equivalent - $1,033.7 billion, per capita $18,300; real
    growth rate 1.4% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    3.3% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
    9.8% (end 1991)
Budget:
    revenues $229.8 billion; expenditures $246.4 billion, including capital
    expenditures of $36 billion (1992 budget)
Exports:
    $209.5 billion (f.o.b., 1990)
  commodities:
    machinery and transportation equipment, chemicals, foodstuffs, agricultural
    products, iron and steel products, textiles and clothing
  partners:
    FRG 17.3%, Italy 11.4%, UK 9.2%, Spain 10.3%, Netherlands 9.0%,
    Belgium-Luxembourg 9.4%, US 6.1%, Japan 1.9%, former USSR 0.7% (1989 est.)
Imports:
    $232.5 billion (c.i.f., 1990)
  commodities:
    crude oil, machinery and equipment, agricultural products, chemicals, iron
    and steel products
  partners:
    FRG 18.9%, Italy 11.6%, Belgium-Luxembourg 8.8%, Netherlands 8.6%, US 8.0%,
    Spain 7.9%, UK 7.2%, Japan 4.0%, former USSR 1.4% (1989 est.)
External debt:
    $59.3 billion (December 1987)
Industrial production:
    growth rate 1.2% (1990); accounts for 26% of GDP
Electricity:
    109,972,000 kW capacity; 399,318 million kWh produced, 7,200 kWh per capita
    (1991)
Industries:
    steel, machinery, chemicals, automobiles, metallurgy, aircraft, electronics,
    mining, textiles, food processing, and tourism
Agriculture:
    accounts for 4% of GDP (including fishing and forestry); one of the world's
    top five wheat producers; other principal products - beef, dairy products,
    cereals, sugar beets, potatoes, wine grapes; self-sufficient for most
    temperate-zone foods; shortages include fats and oils and tropical produce,
    but overall net exporter of farm products; fish catch of 850,000 metric tons
    ranks among world's top 20 countries and is all used domestically

:France Economy

Economic aid:
    donor - ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $75.1 billion
Currency:
    French franc (plural - francs); 1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
    French francs (F) per US$1 - 5.3801 (January 1992), 5.6421 (1991), 5.4453
    (1990), 6.3801 (1989), 5.9569 (1988), 6.0107 (1987)
Fiscal year:
    calendar year

:France Communications

Railroads:
    French National Railways (SNCF) operates 34,568 km 1.435-meter standard
    gauge; 11,674 km electrified, 15,132 km double or multiple track; 2,138 km
    of various gauges (1.000-meter to 1.440-meter), privately owned and operated
Highways:
    1,551,400 km total; 33,400 km national highway; 347,000 km departmental
    highway; 421,000 km community roads; 750,000 km rural roads; 5,401 km of
    controlled-access divided autoroutes; about 803,000 km paved
Inland waterways:
    14,932 km; 6,969 km heavily traveled
Pipelines:
    crude oil 3,059 km; petroleum products 4,487 km; natural gas 24,746 km
Ports:
    maritime - Bordeaux, Boulogne, Brest, Cherbourg, Dunkerque, Fos-Sur-Mer, Le
    Havre, Marseille, Nantes, Rouen, Sete, Toulon; inland - 42
Merchant marine:
    128 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,222,539 GRT/5,117,091 DWT; includes
    6 short-sea passenger, 11 cargo, 18 container, 1 multifunction large-load
    carrier, 30 roll-on/roll-off, 34 petroleum tanker, 8 chemical tanker, 6
    liquefied gas, 2 specialized tanker, 11 bulk, 1 refrigerated cargo; note -
    France also maintains a captive register for French-owned ships in the
    Kerguelen Islands (French Southern and Antarctic Lands) and French Polynesia
Civil air:
    195 major transport aircraft (1989 est.)
Airports:
    472 total, 460 usable; 251 with permanent-surface runways; 3 with runways
    over 3,659 m; 36 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 136 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
    highly developed; extensive cable and radio relay networks; large-scale
    introduction of optical-fiber systems; satellite systems for domestic
    traffic; 39,200,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 41 AM, 800 (mostly
    repeaters) FM, 846 (mostly repeaters) TV; 24 submarine coaxial cables; 2
    INTELSAT earth stations (with total of 5 antennas - 2 for the Indian Ocean
    INTELSAT and 3 for the Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT); HF radio communications
    with more than 20 countries; INMARSAT service; EUTELSAT TV service

:France Defense Forces

Branches:
    Army, Navy (including Naval Air), Air Force, National Gendarmerie
Manpower availability:
    males 15-49, 14,599,636; 12,225,969 fit for military service; 411,211 reach
    military age (18) annually
Defense expenditures:
    exchange rate conversion - $33.1 billion, 3.4% of GDP (1991)

:French Guiana Geography

Total area:
    91,000 km2
Land area:
    89,150 km2
Comparative area:
    slightly smaller than Indiana
Land boundaries:
    1,183 km; Brazil 673 km, Suriname 510 km
Coastline:
    378 km
Maritime claims:
  Exclusive economic zone:
    200 nm
  Territorial sea:
    12 nm
Disputes:
    Suriname claims area between Riviere Litani and Riviere Marouini (both
    headwaters of the Lawa)
Climate:
    tropical; hot, humid; little seasonal temperature variation
Terrain:
    low-lying coastal plains rising to hills and small mountains
Natural resources:
    bauxite, timber, gold (widely scattered), cinnabar, kaolin, fish
Land use:
    arable land NEGL%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and pastures NEGL%; forest
    and woodland 82%; other 18%
Environment:
    mostly an unsettled wilderness

:French Guiana People

Population:
    127,505 (July 1992), growth rate 4.6% (1992)
Birth rate:
    27 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
    5 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
    24 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
    17 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
    71 years male, 78 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
    3.6 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
    noun - French Guianese (singular and plural); adjective - French Guianese;
    note - they are a colony/department; they hold French passports
Ethnic divisions:
    black or mulatto 66%; Caucasian 12%; East Indian, Chinese, Amerindian 12%;
    other 10%
Religions:
    predominantly Roman Catholic
Languages:
    French
Literacy:
    82% (male 81%, female 83%) age 15 and over can read and write (1982)
Labor force:
    23,265; services, government, and commerce 60.6%, industry 21.2%,
    agriculture 18.2% (1980)
Organized labor:
    7% of labor force

:French Guiana Government

Long-form name:
    Department of Guiana
Type:
    overseas department of France
Capital:
    Cayenne
Administrative divisions:
    none (overseas department of France)
Independence:
    none (overseas department of France)
Constitution:
    28 September 1958 (French Constitution)
Legal system:
    French legal system
National holiday:
    Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)
Executive branch:
    French president, commissioner of the republic
Legislative branch:
    unicameral General Council and a unicameral Regional Council
Judicial branch:
    highest local court is the Court of Appeals based in Martinique with
    jurisdiction over Martinique, Guadeloupe, and French Guiana
Leaders:
  Chief of State:
    President Francois MITTERRAND (since 21 May 1981)
  Head of Government:
    Commissioner of the Republic Jean-Francois DICHIARA (since NA 1990)
Political parties and leaders:
    Guianese Socialist Party (PSG), Gerard HOLDER; Rally for the Republic (RPR),
    Paulin BRUNE; Guianese Democratic Action (ADG), Andre LECANTE; Union for
    French Democracy (UDF), Claude Ho A CHUCK; National Front (FN), Guy MALON;
    Popular and National Party of Guiana (PNPG), Claude ROBO; National
    Anti-Colonist Guianese Party (PANGA), Michel KAPEL
Suffrage:
    universal at age 18
Elections:
  French National Assembly:
    last held 24 September 1989 (next to be held September 1992); results -
    percent of vote by party NA; seats - (2 total) PSG 1, RPR 1
  French Senate:
    last held 24 September 1989 (next to be held September 1992); results -
    percent of vote by party NA; seats - (1 total) PSG 1
  Regional Council:
    last held 16 March 1986 (next to be held NA 1991); results - PSG 43%, RPR
    27.7%, ADG 12.2%, UDF 8. 9%, FN 3.7%, PNPG 1.4%, other 3.1%; seats - (31
    total) PSG 15, RPR 9, ADG 4, UDF 3
Member of:
    FZ, WCL, WFTU
Diplomatic representation:
    as an overseas department of France, the interests of French Guiana are
    represented in the US by France
Flag:
    the flag of France is used

:French Guiana Economy

Overview:
    The economy is tied closely to that of France through subsidies and imports.
    Besides the French space center at Kourou, fishing and forestry are the most
    important economic activities, with exports of fish and fish products
    (mostly shrimp) accounting for more than 60% of total revenue in 1987. The
    large reserves of tropical hardwoods, not fully exploited, support an
    expanding sawmill industry that provides sawn logs for export. Cultivation
    of crops - rice, cassava, bananas, and sugarcane - are limited to the
    coastal area, where the population is largely concentrated. French Guiana is
    heavily dependent on imports of food and energy. Unemployment is a serious
    problem, particularly among younger workers.
GDP:
    exchange rate conversion - $186 million, per capita $2,240; real growth rate
    NA% (1985)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    4.1% (1987)
Unemployment rate:
    15% (1987)
Budget:
    revenues $735 million; expenditures $735 million, including capital
    expenditures of NA (1987)
Exports:
    $54.0 million (f.o.b., 1987)
  commodities:
    shrimp, timber, rum, rosewood essence
  partners:
    France 31%, US 22%, Japan 10% (1987)
Imports:
    $394.0 million (c.i.f., 1987)
  commodities:
    food (grains, processed meat), other consumer goods, producer goods,
    petroleum
  partners:
    France 62%, Trinidad and Tobago 9%, US 4%, FRG 3% (1987)
External debt:
    $1.2 billion (1988)
Industrial production:
    growth rate NA%
Electricity:
    92,000 kW capacity; 185 million kWh produced, 1,821 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
    construction, shrimp processing, forestry products, rum, gold mining
Agriculture:
    some vegetables for local consumption; rice, corn, manioc, cocoa, bananas,
    sugar; livestock - cattle, pigs, poultry
Economic aid:
    Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89),
    $1.51 billion
Currency:
    French franc (plural - francs); 1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
    French francs (F) per US$1 - 5.3801 (January 1992), 5.6421 (1991), 5.4453
    (1990), 6.3801 (1989), 5.9569 (1988), 6.0107 (1987)
Fiscal year:
    calendar year

:French Guiana Communications

Highways:
    680 km total; 510 km paved, 170 km improved and unimproved earth
Inland waterways:
    460 km, navigable by small oceangoing vessels and river and coastal
    steamers; 3,300 km navigable by native craft
Ports:
    Cayenne
Civil air:
    no major transport aircraft
Airports:
    10 total, 10 usable; 4 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways
    over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 1 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
    fair open-wire and radio relay system; 18,100 telephones; broadcast stations
    - 5 AM, 7 FM, 9 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

:French Guiana Defense Forces

Branches:
    French Forces, Gendarmerie
Manpower availability:
    males 15-49 37,467; 24,534 fit for military service
Note:
    defense is the responsibility of France

:French Polynesia Geography

Total area:
    3,941 km2
Land area:
    3,660 km2
Comparative area:
    slightly less than one-third the size of Connecticut
Land boundaries:
    none
Coastline:
    2,525 km
Maritime claims:
  Exclusive economic zone:
    200 nm
  Territorial sea:
    12 nm
Disputes:
    none
Climate:
    tropical, but moderate
Terrain:
    mixture of rugged high islands and low islands with reefs
Natural resources:
    timber, fish, cobalt
Land use:
    arable land 1%; permanent crops 19%; meadows and pastures 5%; forest and
    woodland 31%; other 44%
Environment:
    occasional cyclonic storm in January; includes five archipelagoes
Note:
    Makatea in French Polynesia is one of the three great phosphate rock islands
    in the Pacific Ocean - the others are Banaba (Ocean Island) in Kiribati and
    Nauru

:French Polynesia People

Population:
    205,620 (July 1992), growth rate 2.3% (1992)
Birth rate:
    28 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
    5 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
    0 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
    15 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
    68 years male, 73 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
    3.3 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
    noun - French Polynesian(s); adjective - French Polynesian
Ethnic divisions:
    Polynesian 78%, Chinese 12%, local French 6%, metropolitan French 4%
Religions:
    mainly Christian; Protestant 54%, Roman Catholic 30%, other 16%
Languages:
    French and Tahitian (both official)
Literacy:
    98% (male 98%, female 98%) age 14 and over but definition of literacy not
    available (1977)
Labor force:
    76,630 employed (1988)
Organized labor:
    NA

:French Polynesia Government

Long-form name:
    Territory of French Polynesia
Type:
    overseas territory of France since 1946
Capital:
    Papeete
Administrative divisions:
    none (overseas territory of France); there are no first-order administrative
    divisions as defined by the US Government, but there are 5 archipelagic
    divisions named Archipel des Marquises, Archipel des Tuamotu, Archipel des
    Tubuai, Iles du Vent, and Iles Sous-le-Vent; note - Clipperton Island is
    administered by France from French Polynesia
Independence:
    none (overseas territory of France)
Constitution:
    28 September 1958 (French Constitution)
Legal system:
    based on French system
National holiday:
    Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)
Executive branch:
    French president, high commissioner of the republic, president of the
    Council of Ministers, vice president of the Council of Ministers, Council of
    Ministers
Legislative branch:
    unicameral Territorial Assembly
Judicial branch:
    Court of Appeal
Leaders:
  Chief of State:
    President Francois MITTERRAND (since 21 May 1981); High Commissioner of the
    Republic Jean MONTPEZAT (since November 1987)
  Head of Government:
    President of the Council of Ministers Gaston FLOSSE (since 10 May 1991);
    Vice President of the Council of Ministers Joel BUILLARD (since 12 September
    1991)
Political parties and leaders:
    People's Rally (Tahoeraa Huiraatira; Gaullist), Gaston FLOSSE; Polynesian
    Union Party (Te Tiarama; centrist), Alexandre LEONTIEFF; New Fatherland
    Party (Ai'a Api), Emile VERNAUDON; Polynesian Liberation Front (Tavini
    Huiraatira), Oscar TEMARU; other small parties
Suffrage:
    universal at age 18
Elections:
    National Assembly last held 5 and 12 June 1988 (next to be held June 1993);
    results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (2 total) People's Rally
    (Gaullist) 1, New Fatherland Party 1
  French Senate:
    last held 24 September 1989 (next to be held September 1992); results -
    percent of vote by party NA; seats - (1 total) party NA
  Territorial Assembly:
    last held 17 March 1991 (next to be held March 1996); results - percent of
    vote by party NA; seats - (41 total) People's Rally (Gaullist) 18,
    Polynesian Union Party 14, New Fatherland Party 5, other 4
Member of:
    FZ, ICFTU, SPC, WMO
Diplomatic representation:
    as an overseas territory of France, French Polynesian interests are
    represented in the US by France

:French Polynesia Government

Flag:
    the flag of France is used

:French Polynesia Economy

Overview:
    Since 1962, when France stationed military personnel in the region, French
    Polynesia has changed from a subsistence economy to one in which a high
    proportion of the work force is either employed by the military or supports
    the tourist industry. Tourism accounts for about 20% of GDP and is a primary
    source of hard currency earnings.
GDP:
    exchange rate conversion - $1.2 billion, per capita $6,000; real growth rate
    NA% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    2.9% (1989)
Unemployment rate:
    14.9% (1988 est.)
Budget:
    revenues $614 million; expenditures $957 million, including capital
    expenditures of $NA (1988)
Exports:
    $88.9 million (f.o.b., 1989)
  commodities:
    coconut products 79%, mother-of-pearl 14%, vanilla, shark meat
  partners:
    France 54%, US 17%, Japan 17%
Imports:
    $765 million (c.i.f., 1989)
  commodities:
    fuels, foodstuffs, equipment
  partners:
    France 53%, US 11%, Australia 6%, NZ 5%
External debt:
    $NA
Industrial production:
    growth rate NA%
Electricity:
    72,000 kW capacity; 265 million kWh produced, 1,390 kWh per capita (1990)
Industries:
    tourism, pearls, agricultural processing, handicrafts
Agriculture:
    coconut and vanilla plantations; vegetables and fruit; poultry, beef, dairy
    products
Economic aid:
    Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-88),
    $3.95 billion
Currency:
    Comptoirs Francais du Pacifique franc (plural - francs); 1 CFP franc (CFPF)
    = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
    Comptoirs Francais du Pacifique francs (CFPF) per US$1 - 97.81 (January
    1992), 102.57 (1991), 99.00 (1990), 115.99 (1989), 108.30 (1988), 109.27
    (1987); note - linked at the rate of 18.18 to the French franc
Fiscal year:
    calendar year

:French Polynesia Communications

Highways:
    600 km (1982)
Ports:
    Papeete, Bora-bora
Merchant marine:
    3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,128 GRT/6,710 DWT; includes 2
    passenger-cargo, 1 refrigerated cargo; note - a captive subset of the French
    register
Civil air:
    about 6 major transport aircraft
Airports:
    43 total, 41 usable; 23 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways
    over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 12 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
    33,200 telephones; 84,000 radio receivers; 26,400 TV sets; broadcast
    stations - 5 AM, 2 FM, 6 TV; 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth station

:French Polynesia Defense Forces

Branches:
    French forces (including Army, Navy, Air Force), Gendarmerie
Manpower availability:
    males 15-49, 50,844; NA fit for military service
Note:
    defense is responsibility of France

:French Southern and Antarctic Lands Geography

Total area:
    7,781 km2
Land area:
    7,781 km2; includes Ile Amsterdam, Ile Saint-Paul, Iles Kerguelen, and Iles
    Crozet; excludes Terre Adelie claim of about 500,000 km2 in Antarctica that
    is not recognized by the US
Comparative area:
    slightly less than 1.5 times the size of Delaware
Land boundaries:
    none
Coastline:
    1,232 km
Maritime claims:
  Exclusive economic zone:
    200 nm (Iles Kerguelen only)
  Territorial sea:
    12 nm
Disputes:
    Terre Adelie claim in Antarctica is not recognized by the US
Climate:
    antarctic
Terrain:
    volcanic
Natural resources:
    fish, crayfish
Land use:
    arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 0%; forest and
    woodland 0%; other 100%
Environment:
    Ile Amsterdam and Ile Saint-Paul are extinct volcanoes
Note:
    located in the southern Indian Ocean about equidistant between Africa,
    Antarctica, and Australia

:French Southern and Antarctic Lands People

Population:
    summer (January 1991) - 200, winter (July 1992) - 150, growth rate 0.0%
    (1992); note - mostly researchers

:French Southern and Antarctic Lands Government

Long-form name:
    Territory of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands
Type:
    overseas territory of France since 1955; governed by High Administrator
    Bernard de GOUTTES (since May 1990), who is assisted by a 7-member
    Consultative Council and a 12-member Scientific Council
Capital:
    none; administered from Paris, France
Administrative divisions:
    none (overseas territory of France); there are no first-order administrative
    divisions as defined by the US Government, but there are 3 districts named
    Ile Crozet, Iles Kerguelen, and Iles Saint-Paul et Amsterdam; excludes Terre
    Adelie claim in Antarctica that is not recognized by the US
Flag:
    the flag of France is used

:French Southern and Antarctic Lands Economy

Overview:
    Economic activity is limited to servicing meteorological and geophysical
    research stations and French and other fishing fleets. The fishing catches
    landed on Iles Kerguelen by foreign ships are exported to France and
    Reunion.
Budget:
    $33.6 million (1990)

:French Southern and Antarctic Lands Communications

Ports:
    none; offshore anchorage only
Merchant marine:
    12 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 192,752 GRT/334,400 DWT; includes 1
    cargo, 3 refrigerated cargo, 2 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 2 petroleum tanker, 1
    liquefied gas, 2 bulk, 1 multifunction large load carrier; note - a captive
    subset of the French register
Telecommunications:
    NA

:French Southern and Antarctic Lands Defense Forces

Branches:
    French Forces (including Army, Navy, Air Force)
Note:
    defense is the responsibility of France

:Gabon Geography

Total area:
    267,670 km2
Land area:
    257,670 km2
Comparative area:
    slightly smaller than Colorado
Land boundaries:
    2,551 km; Cameroon 298 km, Congo 1,903 km, Equatorial Guinea 350 km
Coastline:
    885 km
Maritime claims:
  Contiguous zone:
    24 nm
  Exclusive economic zone:
    200 nm
  Territorial sea:
    12 nm
Disputes:
    maritime boundary dispute with Equatorial Guinea because of disputed
    sovereignty over islands in Corisco Bay
Climate:
    tropical; always hot, humid
Terrain:
    narrow coastal plain; hilly interior; savanna in east and south
Natural resources:
    crude oil, manganese, uranium, gold, timber, iron ore
Land use:
    arable land 1%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures 18%; forest and
    woodland 78%; other 2%
Environment:
    deforestation

:Gabon People

Population:
    1,106,355 (July 1992), growth rate 1.5% (1992)
Birth rate:
    29 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
    14 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
    0 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
    100 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
    51 years male, 56 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
    4.1 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
    noun - Gabonese (singular and plural); adjective - Gabonese
Ethnic divisions:
    about 40 Bantu tribes, including four major tribal groupings (Fang, Eshira,
    Bapounou, Bateke); about 100,000 expatriate Africans and Europeans,
    including 27,000 French
Religions:
    Christian 55-75%, Muslim less than 1%, remainder animist
Languages:
    French (official), Fang, Myene, Bateke, Bapounou/Eschira, Bandjabi
Literacy:
    61% (male 74%, female 48%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
    120,000 salaried; agriculture 65.0%, industry and commerce 30.0%, services
    2.5%, government 2.5%; 58% of population of working age (1983)
Organized labor:
    there are 38,000 members of the national trade union, the Gabonese Trade
    Union Confederation (COSYGA)

:Gabon Government

Long-form name:
    Gabonese Republic
Type:
    republic; multiparty presidential regime (opposition parties legalized 1990)
Capital:
    Libreville
Administrative divisions:
    9 provinces; Estuaire, Haut-Ogooue, Moyen-Ogooue, Ngounie, Nyanga,
    Ogooue-Ivindo, Ogooue-Lolo, Ogooue-Maritime, Woleu-Ntem
Independence:
    17 August 1960 (from France)
Constitution:
    21 February 1961, revised 15 April 1975
Legal system:
    based on French civil law system and customary law; judicial review of
    legislative acts in Constitutional Chamber of the Supreme Court; compulsory
    ICJ jurisdiction not accepted
National holiday:
    Renovation Day (Gabonese Democratic Party established), 12 March (1968)
Executive branch:
    president, prime minister, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
    unicameral National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale)
Judicial branch:
    Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)
Leaders:
  Chief of State:
    President El Hadj Omar BONGO (since 2 December 1967)
  Head of Government:
    Prime Minister Casimir OYE-MBA (since 3 May 1990)
Political parties and leaders:
    Gabonese Democratic Party (PDG, former sole party), El Hadj Omar BONGO,
    president; National Recovery Movement - Lumberjacks (Morena-Bucherons);
    Gabonese Party for Progress (PGP); National Recovery Movement
    (Morena-Original); Association for Socialism in Gabon (APSG); Gabonese
    Socialist Union (USG); Circle for Renewal and Progress (CRP); Union for
    Democracy and Development (UDD)
Suffrage:
    universal at age 21
Elections:
  National Assembly:
    last held on 28 October 1990 (next to be held by NA); results - percent of
    vote NA; seats - (120 total, 111 elected) PDG 62, National Recovery Movement
    - Lumberjacks (Morena-Bucherons) 19, PGP 18, National Recovery Movement
    (Morena-Original) 7, APSG 6, USG 4, CRP 1, independents 3
  President:
    last held on 9 November 1986 (next to be held December 1993); results -
    President Omar BONGO was reelected without opposition
Member of:
    ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CCC, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-24, G-77, GATT, IAEA,
    IBRD, ICAO, ICC, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT,
    INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS (associate), NAM, OAU, OIC, OPEC, UDEAC, UN,
    UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
    Ambassador-designate Alexandre SAMBAT; Chancery at 2034 20th Street NW,
    Washington, DC 20009; telephone (202) 797-1000

:Gabon Government

  US:
    Ambassador Keith L. WAUCHOPE; Embassy at Boulevard de la Mer, Libreville
    (mailing address is B. P. 4000, Libreville); telephone (241) 762003/4, or
    743492
Flag:
    three equal horizontal bands of green (top), yellow, and blue

:Gabon Economy

Overview:
    The economy, dependent on timber and manganese until the early 1970s, is now
    dominated by the oil sector. During the period 1981-85, oil accounted for
    about 46% of GDP, 83% of export earnings, and 65% of government revenues on
    average. The high oil prices of the early 1980s contributed to a substantial
    increase in per capita income, stimulated domestic demand, reinforced
    migration from rural to urban areas, and raised the level of real wages to
    among the highest in Sub-Saharan Africa. The three-year slide of Gabon's
    economy, which began with falling oil prices in 1985, was reversed in 1989
    because of a near doubling of oil prices over their 1988 lows. In 1990 the
    economy posted strong growth despite serious strikes, but debt servicing
    problems are hindering economic advancement. The agricultural and industrial
    sectors are relatively underdeveloped, except for oil.
GDP:
    exchange rate conversion - $3.3 billion, per capita $3,090; real growth rate
    13% (1990 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    3% (1989 est.)
Unemployment rate:
    NA%
Budget:
    revenues $1.1 billion; expenditures $1.5 billion, including capital
    expenditures of $277 million (1990 est.)
Exports:
    $1.16 billion (f.o.b., 1989)
  commodities:
    crude oil 70%, manganese 11%, wood 12%, uranium 6%
  partners:
    France 53%, US 22%, FRG, Japan
Imports:
    $0.78 billion (c.i.f., 1989)
  commodities:
    foodstuffs, chemical products, petroleum products, construction materials,
    manufactures, machinery
  partners:
    France 48%, US 2.6%, FRG, Japan, UK
External debt:
    $3.4 billion (December 1990 est.)
Industrial production:
    growth rate -10% (1988 est.)
Electricity:
    315,000 kW capacity; 995 million kWh produced, 920 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
    petroleum, food and beverages, timber, cement, plywood, textiles, mining -
    manganese, uranium, gold
Agriculture:
    accounts for 10% of GDP (including fishing and forestry); cash crops -
    cocoa, coffee, palm oil; livestock not developed; importer of food; small
    fishing operations provide a catch of about 20,000 metric tons; okoume (a
    tropical softwood) is the most important timber product
Economic aid:
    US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $66 million; Western (non-US)
    countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $2,225 million;
    Communist countries (1970-89), $27 million
Currency:
    Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (plural - francs); 1 CFA franc (CFAF)
    = 100 centimes

:Gabon Economy

Exchange rates:
    Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 269.01 (January
    1992), 282.11 (1991), 272.26 (1990), 319.01 (1989), 297.85 (1988), 300.54
    (1987)
Fiscal year:
    calendar year

:Gabon Communications

Railroads:
    649 km 1.437-meter standard-gauge single track (Transgabonese Railroad)
Highways:
    7,500 km total; 560 km paved, 960 km laterite, 5,980 km earth
Inland waterways:
    1,600 km perennially navigable
Pipelines:
    crude oil 270 km; petroleum products 14 km
Ports:
    Owendo, Port-Gentil, Libreville
Merchant marine:
    2 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 18,563 GRT/25,330 DWT
Civil air:
    15 major transport aircraft
Airports:
    70 total, 59 usable; 10 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways
    over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 22 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
    adequate system of cable, radio relay, tropospheric scatter links and
    radiocommunication stations; 15,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 6 AM, 6
    FM, 3 (5 repeaters) TV; satellite earth stations - 3 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT
    and 12 domestic satellite

:Gabon Defense Forces

Branches:
    Army, Navy, Air Force, Presidential Guard, National Gendarmerie, National
    Police
Manpower availability:
    males 15-49, 267,580; 134,665 fit for military service; 9,262 reach military
    age (20) annually
Defense expenditures:
    exchange rate conversion - $102 million, 3.2% of GDP (1990 est.)

:The Gambia Geography

Total area:
    11,300 km2
Land area:
    10,000 km2
Comparative area:
    slightly more than twice the size of Delaware
Land boundaries:
    740 km; Senegal 740 km
Coastline:
    80 km
Maritime claims:
  Contiguous zone:
    18 nm
  Continental shelf:
    not specific
  Exclusive fishing zone:
    200 nm
  Territorial sea:
    12 nm
Disputes:
    short section of boundary with Senegal is indefinite
Climate:
    tropical; hot, rainy season (June to November); cooler, dry season (November
    to May)
Terrain:
    flood plain of the Gambia River flanked by some low hills
Natural resources:
    fish
Land use:
    arable land 16%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 9%; forest and
    woodland 20%; other 55%; includes irrigated 3%
Environment:
    deforestation
Note:
    almost an enclave of Senegal; smallest country on the continent of Africa

:The Gambia People

Population:
    902,089 (July 1992), growth rate 3.1% (1992)
Birth rate:
    47 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
    17 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
    0 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
    129 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
    47 years male, 51 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
    6.4 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
    noun - Gambian(s); adjective - Gambian
Ethnic divisions:
    African 99% (Mandinka 42%, Fula 18%, Wolof 16%, Jola 10%, Serahuli 9%, other
    4%); non-Gambian 1%
Religions:
    Muslim 90%, Christian 9%, indigenous beliefs 1%
Languages:
    English (official); Mandinka, Wolof, Fula, other indigenous vernaculars
Literacy:
    27% (male 39%, female 16%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
    400,000 (1986 est.); agriculture 75.0%, industry, commerce, and services
    18.9%, government 6.1%; 55% population of working age (1983)
Organized labor:
    25-30% of wage labor force

:The Gambia Government

Long-form name:
    Republic of The Gambia
Type:
    republic under multiparty democratic rule
Capital:
    Banjul
Administrative divisions:
    5 divisions and 1 city*; Banjul*, Lower River, MacCarthy Island, North Bank,
    Upper River, Western
Independence:
    18 February 1965 (from UK); The Gambia and Senegal signed an agreement on 12
    December 1981 (effective 1 February 1982) that called for the creation of a
    loose confederation to be known as Senegambia, but the agreement was
    dissolved on 30 September 1989
Constitution:
    24 April 1970
Legal system:
    based on a composite of English common law, Koranic law, and customary law;
    accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
National holiday:
    Independence Day, 18 February (1965)
Executive branch:
    president, vice president, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
    unicameral House of Representatives
Judicial branch:
    Supreme Court
Leaders:
  Chief of State and Head of Government:
    President Alhaji Sir Dawda Kairaba JAWARA (since 24 April 1970); Vice
    President Bakary Bunja DARBO (since 12 May 1982)
Political parties and leaders:
    People's Progressive Party (PPP), Dawda K. JAWARA, secretary general;
    National Convention Party (NCP), Sheriff DIBBA; Gambian People's Party
    (GPP), Hassan Musa CAMARA; United Party (UP), leader NA; People's Democratic
    Organization of Independence and Socialism (PDOIS), leader NA; People's
    Democratic Party (PDP), Jabel SALLAH
Suffrage:
    universal at age 21
Elections:
  House of Representatives:
    last held on 11 March 1987 (next to be held by March 1992); results - PPP
    56.6%, NCP 27.6%, GPP 14.7%, PDOIS 1%; seats - (43 total, 36 elected) PPP
    31, NCP 5
  President:
    last held on 11 March 1987 (next to be held March 1992); results - Sir Dawda
    JAWARA (PPP) 61.1%, Sherif Mustapha DIBBA (NCP) 25.2%, Assan Musa CAMARA
    (GPP) 13.7%
Member of:
    ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA,
    IDB, IFAD, IFC, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN,
    UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
    Ambassador Ousman A. SALLAH; Chancery at Suite 720, 1030 15th Street NW,
    Washington, DC 20005; telephone (202) 842-1356 or 842-1359
  US:
    Ambassador Arlene RENDER; Embassy at Pipeline Road (Kairaba Avenue), Fajara,
    Banjul (mailing address is P. M. B. No. 19, Banjul); telephone Serrekunda
    [220] 92856 or 92858, 91970, 91971

:The Gambia Government

Flag:
    three equal horizontal bands of red (top), blue with white edges, and green

:The Gambia Economy

Overview:
    The Gambia has no important mineral or other natural resources and has a
    limited agricultural base. It is one of the world's poorest countries with a
    per capita income of about $230. About 75% of the population is engaged in
    crop production and livestock raising, which contribute 30% to GDP.
    Small-scale manufacturing activity - processing peanuts, fish, and hides -
    accounts for less than 10% of GDP. Tourism is a growing industry. The Gambia
    imports one-third of its food, all fuel, and most manufactured goods.
    Exports are concentrated on peanut products (about 75% of total value).
GDP:
    exchange rate conversion - $207 million, per capita $235; real growth rate
    3% (FY91 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    6.0% (FY91)
Unemployment rate:
    NA%
Budget:
    revenues $79 million; expenditures $84 million, including capital
    expenditures of $21 million (FY90)
Exports:
    $116 million (f.o.b., FY90)
  commodities:
    peanuts and peanut products, fish, cotton lint, palm kernels
  partners:
    Japan 60%, Europe 29%, Africa 5%, US 1, other 5% (1989)
Imports:
    $147 million (f.o.b., FY90)
  commodities:
    foodstuffs, manufactures, raw materials, fuel, machinery and transport
    equipment
  partners:
    Europe 57%, Asia 25%, USSR/EE 9%, US 6%, other 3% (1989)
External debt:
    $336 million (December 1990 est.)
Industrial production:
    growth rate 6.7%; accounts for 5.8% of GDP (FY90)
Electricity:
    30,000 kW capacity; 65 million kWh produced, 75 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
    peanut processing, tourism, beverages, agricultural machinery assembly,
    woodworking, metalworking, clothing
Agriculture:
    accounts for 30% of GDP and employs about 75% of the population; imports
    one-third of food requirements; major export crop is peanuts; the other
    principal crops - millet, sorghum, rice, corn, cassava, palm kernels;
    livestock - cattle, sheep, and goats; forestry and fishing resources not
    fully exploited
Economic aid:
    US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $93 million; Western (non-US)
    countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $535 million;
    Communist countries (1970-89), $39 million
Currency:
    dalasi (plural - dalasi); 1 dalasi (D) = 100 bututs
Exchange rates:
    dalasi (D) per US$1 - 8.790 (March 1992), 8.803 (1991), 7.883 (1990), 7.5846
    (1989), 6.7086 (1988), 7.0744 (1987)
Fiscal year:
    1 July - 30 June

:The Gambia Communications

Highways:
    3,083 km total; 431 km paved, 501 km gravel/laterite, and 2,151 km
    unimproved earth
Inland waterways:
    400 km
Ports:
    Banjul
Civil air:
    4 major transport aircraft
Airports:
    1 with permanent-surface runway 2,440-3,659 m
Telecommunications:
    adequate network of radio relay and wire; 3,500 telephones; broadcast
    stations - 3 AM, 2 FM; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

:The Gambia Defense Forces

Branches:
    Army, Navy, National Gendarmerie, National Police
Manpower availability:
    males 15-49, 194,480; 98,271 fit for military service
Defense expenditures:
    exchange rate conversion - more than $1 million, 0.7% of GDP (1989)
\

:Gaza Strip Geography

Total area:
    380 km2
Land area:
    380 km2
Comparative area:
    slightly more than twice the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
    62 km; Egypt 11 km, Israel 51 km
Coastline:
    40 km
Maritime claims:
    Israeli occupied with status to be determined
Disputes:
    Israeli occupied with status to be determined
Climate:
    temperate, mild winters, dry and warm to hot summers
Terrain:
    flat to rolling, sand- and dune- covered coastal plain
Natural resources:
    negligible
Land use:
    arable land 13%, permanent crops 32%, meadows and pastures 0%, forest and
    woodland 0%, other 55%
Environment:
    desertification
Note:
    The war between Israel and the Arab states in June 1967 ended with Israel in
    control of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, the Sinai, and the Golan
    Heights. As stated in the 1978 Camp David accords and reaffirmed by
    President Bush's post - Gulf crisis peace initiative, the final status of
    the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, their relationship with their neighbors,
    and a peace treaty be-tween Israel and Jordan are to be negotiated among the
    concerned parties. Camp David further specifies that these negotiations will
    resolve the respective boundaries. Pending the completion of this process,
    it is US policy that the final status of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip
    has yet to be determined. In the US view, the term West Bank describes all
    of the area west of the Jordan River under Jordanian administration before
    the 1967 Arab-Israeli war. With respect to negotiations envisaged in the
    framework agreement, however, it is US policy that a distinction must be
    made between Jerusalem and the rest of the West Bank because of the city's
    special status and circumstances. Therefore, a negotiated solution for the
    final status of Jerusalem could be different in character from that of the
    rest of the West Bank.
    The Gaza Strip is currently governed by Israeli military authorities and
    Israeli civil administration; it is US policy that the final status of the
    Gaza Strip will be determined by negotiations among the concerned parties;
    these negotiations will determine how this area is to be governed.
    There are 18 Jewish settlements in the Gaza Strip.

:Gaza Strip People

Population:
    681,026 (July 1992), growth rate 3.6% (1992); in addition, there are 4,000
    Jewish settlers in the Gaza Strip (1992 est.)
Birth rate:
    46 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
    6 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
    - 4 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
    41 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
    66 years male, 68 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
    6.9 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
    NA
Ethnic divisions:
    Palestinian Arab and other 99.8%, Jewish 0.2%
Religions:
    Muslim (predominantly Sunni) 99%, Christian 0.7%, Jewish 0.3%
Languages:
    Arabic, Israeli settlers speak Hebrew; English widely understood
Literacy:
    NA% (male NA%, female NA%)
Labor force:
    (excluding Israeli Jewish settlers) small industry, commerce and business
    32.0%, construction 24.4%, service and other 25.5%, and agriculture 18.1%
    (1984)
Organized labor:
    NA

:Gaza Strip Government

Long-form name:
    none

:Gaza Strip Economy

Overview:
    In 1990 roughly 40% of Gaza Strip workers were employed across the border by
    Israeli industrial, construction, and agricultural enterprises, with worker
    remittances accounting for about one-third of GNP. The construction,
    agricultural, and industrial sectors account for about 15%, 12%, and 8% of
    GNP, respectively. Gaza depends upon Israel for some 90% of its external
    trade. Unrest in the territory in 1988-92 (intifadah) has raised
    unemployment and substantially lowered the standard of living of Gazans. The
    Persian Gulf crisis and its aftershocks also have dealt severe blows to Gaza
    since August 1990. Worker remittances from the Gulf states have plunged,
    unemployment has increased, and exports have fallen dramatically. The area's
    economic outlook remains bleak.
GNP:
    exchange rate conversion - $380 million, per capita $590; real growth rate -
    30% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    9% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
    20% (1990 est.)
Budget:
    revenues $33.8 million; expenditures $33.3 million, including capital
    expenditures of $NA (FY88)
Exports:
    $30 million (f.o.b., 1989)
  commodities:
    citrus
  partners:
    Israel, Egypt
Imports:
    $255 million (c.i.f., 1989)
  commodities:
    food, consumer goods, construction materials
  partners:
    Israel, Egypt
External debt:
    $NA
Industrial production:
    growth rate 10% (1989); accounts for about 8% of GNP
Electricity:
    power supplied by Israel
Industries:
    generally small family businesses that produce textiles, soap, olive-wood
    carvings, and mother-of-pearl souvenirs; the Israelis have established some
    small-scale modern industries in an industrial center
Agriculture:
    accounts for about 12% of GNP; olives, citrus and other fruits, vegetables,
    beef, dairy products
Economic aid:
    NA
Currency:
    new Israeli shekel (plural - shekels); 1 new Israeli shekel (NIS) = 100 new
    agorot
Exchange rates:
    new Israeli shekels (NIS) per US$1 - 2.2984 (January 1992), 2.2792 (1991),
    2.0162 (1990), 1.9164 (1989), 1.5989 (1988), 1.5946 (1987)
Fiscal year:
    previously 1 April - 31 March; FY91 was 1 April - 3l December, and since 1
    January 1992 the fiscal year has conformed to the calendar year

:Gaza Strip Communications

Railroads:
    one line, abandoned and in disrepair, some trackage remains
Highways:
    small, poorly developed indigenous road network
Ports:
    facilities for small boats to service the city of Gaza
Airports:
    1 with permanent-surface runway less than 1,220 m
Telecommunications:
    broadcast stations - no AM, no FM, no TV

:Gaza Strip Defense Forces

Branches:
    NA
Manpower availability:
    males 15-49, 136,311; NA fit for military service
Defense expenditures:
    exchange rate conversion - $NA, NA% of GDP

:Georgia Geography

Total area:
    69,700 km2
Land area:
    69,700 km2
Comparative area:
    slightly larger than South Carolina
Land boundaries:
    1,461 km; Armenia 164 km, Azerbaijan 322 km, Russia 723 km, Turkey 252 km
Coastline:
    310 km
Maritime claims:
  Contiguous zone:
    NA nm
  Continental Shelf:
    NA meter depth
  Exclusive economic zone:
    NA nm
  Exclusive fishing zone:
    NA nm
  Territorial sea:
    NA nm, Georgian claims unknown; 12 nm in 1973 USSR-Turkish Protocol
    concerning the sea boundary between the two states in the Black Sea
Disputes:
    none
Climate:
    warm and pleasant; Mediterranean-like on Black Sea coast
Terrain:
    largely mountainous with Great Caucasus Mountains in the north and Lesser
    Caucasus Mountains in the south; Colchis lowland opens to the Black Sea in
    the west; Kura River Basin in the east; good soils in river valley flood
    plains, foothills of Colchis lowland
Natural resources:
    forest lands, hydropower, manganese deposits, iron ores, copper, minor coal
    and oil deposits; coastal climate and soils allow for important tea and
    citrus growth
Land use:
    NA% arable land; NA% permanent crops; NA% meadows and pastures; NA% forest
    and woodland; NA% other; includes 200,000 hectares irrigated
Environment:
    air pollution, particularly in Rustavi; heavy pollution of Kura River, Black
    Sea

:Georgia People

Population:
    5,570,978 (July 1992), growth rate 0.8% (1992)
Birth rate:
    17 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
    9 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
    1 migrant/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
    34 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
    67 years male, 75 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
    2.2 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
    noun - Georgian(s); adjective - Georgian
Ethnic divisions:
    Georgian 68.8%, Armenian 9.0%, Russian Azari 5.1%, Ossetian 3.2%, Abkhaz
    1.7%, other 4.8%
Religions:
    Russian Orthodox 10%, Georgian Orthodox 65%, Armenian Orthodox 8%, Muslim
    11%, unknown 6%
Languages:
    Georgian (official language) 71%, Russian 9%, other 20% - Armenian 7%,
    Azerbaijani 6%
Literacy:
    NA% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can read and write
Labor force:
    2,834,000; agriculture 29.1% (1988), government NA%, industry 17.8%, other
    53.1%
Organized labor:
    NA

:Georgia Government

Long-form name:
    Republic of Georgia
Type:
    republic
Capital:
    T'bilisi (Tbilisi)
Administrative divisions:
    2 autonomous republics (avtomnoy respubliki, singular - avtom respublika);
    Abkhazia (Sukhumi), Ajaria (Batumi); note - the administrative centers of
    the autonomous republics are included in parentheses; there are no oblasts -
    the rayons around T'bilisi are under direct republic jurisdiction; also
    included is the South Ossetia Autonomous Oblast
Independence:
    9 April 1991 (from Soviet Union); formerly Georgian Soviet Socialist
    Republic
Constitution:
    adopted NA, effective NA
Legal system:
    NA
National holiday:
    Independence Day, 9 April 1991
Executive branch:
    State Council, chairman of State Council, Council of Ministers, prime
    minister
Legislative branch:
    unicameral Supreme Soviet
Judicial branch:
    Supreme Court
Leaders:
  Chief of State:
    Chairman of State Council Eduard SHEVARDNADZE (since March 1992)
  Head of Government:
    Acting Prime Minister Tengiz SIGUA (since January 1992); First Deputy Prime
    Minister Otar KVILITAYA (since January 1992); First Deputy Prime Minister
    Tengiz KITOVANI (since March 1992)
Political parties and leaders:
    All-Georgian Merab Kostava Society, Vazha ADAMIA, chairman; All-Georgian
    Tradionalists' Union, Akakiy ASATIANI, chairman; Georgian National Front -
    Radical Union, Ruslan GONGADZE, chairman; Social-Democratic Party, Guram
    MUCHAIDZE, chairman; All-Georgian Rustaveli Society, Akakiy BAKRADZE,
    chairman; Georgian Monarchists' Party, Teymur JORJOLIANI, chairman; Georgian
    Popular Front, Nodar NATADZE, chairman; National Democratic Party, Georgiy
    CHANTURIA, chairman; National Independence Party, Irakliy TSERETELI,
    chairman; Charter 1991 Party, Tedo PAATASHVILI, chairman; Democratic Georgia
    Party, Georgiy SHENGELAYA, Chairman
Suffrage:
    universal at age 18
Elections:
  Georgian Parliament:
    last held November 1990; results - 7-party coalition Round Table - Free
    Georgia 62%, other 38%; seats - (250) Round Table - Free Georgia 155, other
    95
  President:
    Zviad GAMSAKHURDIYA, 87% of vote
Other political or pressure groups:
    NA
Member of:
    CSCE, IMF, World Bank

:Georgia Government

Diplomatic representation:
    Ambassador NA, Chancery at NA NW, Washington, DC 200__; telephone (202) NA
  US:
    Ambassador NA; Embassy at NA (mailing address is APO New York 09862)
Flag:
    maroon field with small rectangle in upper left corner; rectangle divided
    horizontally with black on top, white below

:Georgia Economy

Overview:
    Among the former Soviet republics, Georgia is noted for its Black Sea
    tourist industry, its large output of citrus fruits and tea, and the amazing
    diversity of an industrial sector that accounted, however, for less than 2%
    of the USSR's output. Another salient characteristic of the economy has been
    a flourishing private sector (compared with the other republics). Almost 30%
    of the labor force is employed in agriculture and 18% in industry. Mineral
    resources consist of manganese and copper, and, to a lesser extent,
    molybdenum, arsenic, tungsten, and mercury. Except for very small quantities
    of domestic oil, gas, and coal, fuel must be imported from neighboring
    republics. Oil and its products are delivered by pipeline from Azerbaijan to
    the port of Batumi for export and local refining. Gas is supplied in
    pipelines from Krasnodar and Stavropol'. Georgia is nearly self-sufficient
    in electric power, thanks to abundant hydropower stations as well as some
    thermal power stations. The dismantling of central economic controls is
    being delayed by political factionalism, marked by armed struggles between
    the elected government and the opposition, and industrial output seems to
    have fallen more steeply in Georgia in 1991 than in any other of the former
    Soviet republics. To prevent further economic decline, Georgia must
    establish domestic peace and must maintain economic ties to the other former
    Soviet republics while developing new links to the West.
GDP:
    purchasing power equivalent - $NA; per capita $NA; real growth rate - 23%
    (1991)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    approximately 90% (1991)
Unemployment rate:
    NA%
Budget:
    revenues $NA; expenditures $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
    million (1991)
Exports:
    $176 million (f.o.b., 1990)
  commodities:
    citrus fruits, tea, other agricultural products; diverse types of machinery;
    ferrous and nonferrous metals; textiles
  partners:
    NA
Imports:
    $1.5 billion (c.i.f., 1990)
  commodities:
    machinery and parts, fuel, transport equipment, textiles
  partners:
    NA
External debt:
    $650 million (1991 est.)
Industrial production:
    growth rate - 19% (1991)
Electricity:
    4,575,000 kW capacity; 15,300 million kWh produced, about 2,600 kWh per
    capita (1991)
Industries:
    Heavy industrial products include raw steel, rolled steel, cement, lumber;
    machine tools, foundry equipment, electric mining locomotives, tower cranes,
    electric welding equipment, machinery for food preparation, meat packing,
    dairy, and fishing industries; air-conditioning electric motors up to 100 kW
    in size, electric motors for cranes, magnetic starters for motors; devices
    for control of industrial processes; trucks, tractors, and other farm
    machinery; light industrial products, including cloth, hosiery, and shoes

:Georgia Economy

Agriculture:
    accounted for 97% of former USSR citrus fruits and 93% of former USSR tea;
    berries and grapes; sugar; vegetables, grains, and potatoes; cattle, pigs,
    sheep, goats, and poultry
Illicit drugs:
    illicit producers of cannabis and opium; mostly for domestic consumption;
    status of government eradication programs unknown; used as transshipment
    points for illicit drugs to Western Europe
Economic aid:
    US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-87), $NA billion; Western (non-US)
    countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-86), $NA million;
    Communist countries (1971-86), $NA million
Currency:
    as of May 1992, retaining ruble as currency
Exchange rates:
    NA
Fiscal year:
    calendar year

:Georgia Communications

Railroads:
    1,570 km, does not include industrial lines (1990)
Highways:
    33,900 km total; 29,500 km hard surfaced, 4,400 km earth (1990)
Inland waterways:
    NA km perennially navigable
Pipelines:
    crude oil NA km, refined products NA km, natural gas NA km
Ports:
    maritime - Batumi, Poti; inland - NA
Merchant marine:
    54 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 715,802 GRT/1,108,068 DWT; includes 16
    bulk cargo, 34 oil tanker, 2 chemical tanker, and 2 specialized liquid
    carrier
Civil air:
    NA major transport aircraft
Airports:
    NA total, NA usable; NA with permanent-surface runways; NA with runways over
    3,659 m; NA with runways 2,440-3,659 m; NA with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
    poor telephone service; 339,000 unsatisfied applications for telephones (31
    January 1992); international links via landline to CIS members and Turkey;
    low capacity satellite earth station and leased international connections
    via the Moscow international gateway switch

:Georgia Defense Forces

Branches:
    Republic Security Forces (internal and border troops), National Guard; CIS
    Forces (Ground, Navy, Air, and Air Defense)
Manpower availability:
    males 15-49, NA fit for military service; NA reach military age (18)
    annually
Defense expenditures:
    $NA, NA% of GNP

:Germany Geography

Total area:
    356,910 km2
Land area:
    349,520 km2; comprises the formerly separate Federal Republic of Germany,
    the German Democratic Republic, and Berlin following formal unification on 3
    October 1990
Comparative area:
    slightly smaller than Montana
Land boundaries:
    3,790 km; Austria 784 km, Belgium 167 km, Czechoslovakia 815 km, Denmark 68
    km, France 451 km, Luxembourg 138 km, Netherlands 577 km, Poland 456 km,
    Switzerland 334 km
Coastline:
    2,389 km
Maritime claims:
  Continental shelf:
    200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation
  Exclusive fishing zone:
    200 nm
  Territorial sea:
    North Sea and Schleswig-Holstein coast of Baltic Sea - 3 nm (extends, at one
    point, to 16 nm in the Helgolander Bucht); remainder of Baltic Sea - 12 nm
Disputes:
    the boundaries of Germany were set by the Treaty on the Final Settlement
    With Respect to Germany signed 12 September 1990 in Moscow by the Federal
    Republic of Germany, the German Democratic Republic, France, the United
    Kingdom, the United States, and the Soviet Union; this Treaty entered into
    force on 15 March 1991; a subsequent Treaty between Germany and Poland,
    reaffirming the German-Polish boundary, was signed on 14 November 1990 and
    took effect on 16 January 1992
Climate:
    temperate and marine; cool, cloudy, wet winters and summers; occasional
    warm, tropical foehn wind; high relative humidity
Terrain:
    lowlands in north, uplands in center, Bavarian Alps in south
Natural resources:
    iron ore, coal, potash, timber, lignite, uranium, copper, natural gas, salt,
    nickel
Land use:
    arable land 34%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures 16%; forest and
    woodland 30%; other 19%; includes irrigated 1%
Environment:
    air and water pollution; groundwater, lakes, and air quality in eastern
    Germany are especially bad; significant deforestation in the eastern
    mountains caused by air pollution and acid rain
Note:
    strategic location on North European Plain and along the entrance to the
    Baltic Sea

:Germany People

Population:
    80,387,283 (July 1992), growth rate 0.5% (1992)
Birth rate:
    11 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
    11 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
    5 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
    7 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
    73 years male, 79 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
    1.4 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
    noun - German(s); adjective - German
Ethnic divisions:
    primarily German; small Danish and Slavic minorities
Religions:
    Protestant 45%, Roman Catholic 37%, unaffiliated or other 18%
Languages:
    German
Literacy:
    99% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can read and write (1970 est.)
Labor force:
    36,750,000; industry 41%, agriculture 6%, other 53% (1987)
Organized labor:
    47% of labor force (1986 est.)

:Germany Government

Long-form name:
    Federal Republic of Germany
Type:
    federal republic
Capital:
    Berlin; note - the shift from Bonn to Berlin will take place over a period
    of years with Bonn retaining many administrative functions and several
    ministries
Administrative divisions:
    16 states (lander, singular - land); Baden-Wurttemberg, Bayern, Berlin,
    Brandenburg, Bremen, Hamburg, Hessen, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Niedersachsen,
    Nordrhein-Westfalen, Rheinland-Pfalz, Saarland, Sachsen, Sachsen-Anhalt,
    Schleswig-Holstein, Thuringen
Independence:
    18 January 1871 (German Empire unification); divided into four zones of
    occupation (UK, US, USSR, and later, France) in 1945 following World War II;
    Federal Republic of Germany (FRG or West Germany) proclaimed 23 May 1949 and
    included the former UK, US, and French zones; German Democratic Republic
    (GDR or East Germany) proclaimed 7 October 1949 and included the former USSR
    zone; unification of West Germany and East Germany took place 3 October
    1990; all four power rights formally relinquished 15 March 1991
Constitution:
    23 May 1949, provisional constitution known as Basic Law
Legal system:
    civil law system with indigenous concepts; judicial review of legislative
    acts in the Federal Constitutional Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
    jurisdiction
National holiday:
    German Unity Day, 3 October (1990)
Executive branch:
    president, chancellor, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
    bicameral parliament (no official name for the two chambers as a whole)
    consists of an upper chamber or Federal Council (Bundesrat) and a lower
    chamber or Federal Diet (Bundestag)
Judicial branch:
    Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht)
Leaders:
  Chief of State:
    President Dr. Richard von WEIZSACKER (since 1 July 1984)
  Head of Government:
    Chancellor Dr. Helmut KOHL (since 4 October 1982)
    *** No entry for this item ***
Political parties and leaders:
    Christian Democratic Union (CDU), Helmut KOHL, chairman; Christian Social
    Union (CSU), Theo WAIGEL; Free Democratic Party (FDP), Otto Count
    LAMBSDORFF, chairman; Social Democratic Party (SPD), Bjoern ENGHOLM, -
    chairman; - Green - Party - Ludger VOLMER, Christine WEISKE, co-chairmen
    (after the 2 December 1990 election the East and West German Green Parties
    united); Alliance 90 united to form one party in September 1991, Petra
    MORAWE, chairwoman; Republikaner, Franz SCHOENHUBER; National Democratic
    Party (NPD), Walter BACHMANN; Communist Party (DKP), Rolf PRIEMER
Suffrage:
    universal at age 18

:Germany Government

Elections:
  Federal Diet:
    last held 2 December 1990 (next to be held October 1994); results - CDU
    36.7%, SPD 33.5%, FDP 11.0%, CSU 7.1%, Green Party (West Germany) 3.9%, PDS
    2.4%, Republikaner 2.1%, Alliance 90/Green Party (East Germany) 1.2%, other
    2.1%; seats - (662 total, 656 statutory with special rules to allow for
    slight expansion) CDU 268, SPD 239, FDP 79, CSU 51, PDS 17, Alliance
    90/Green Party (East Germany) 8; note - special rules for this election
    allowed former East German parties to win seats if they received at least 5%
    of vote in eastern Germany
    *** No entry for this item ***
Communists:
    West - about 40,000 members and supporters; East - about 200,000 party
    members (December 1991)
Other political or pressure groups:
    expellee, refugee, and veterans groups
Member of:
    AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, BDEAC, BIS, CCC, CE, CERN, COCOM, CSCE, EBRD, EC,
    ECE, EIB, ESA, FAO, G-5, G-7, G-10, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC,
    ICFTU, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL,
    IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NATO, NEA, OAS (observer), OECD, PCA, UN, UNCTAD,
    UNESCO, UNIDO, UNHCR, UPU, WEU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
    Ambassador Dr. Immo STABREIT will become Ambassador in late summer/early
    fall 1992; Chancery at 4645 Reservoir Road NW, Washington, DC 20007;
    telephone (202) 298-4000; there are German Consulates General in Atlanta,
    Boston, Chicago, Detroit, Houston, Los Angeles, San Francisco, Seattle, and
    New York, and Consulates in Miami and New Orleans
  US:
    Ambassador Robert M. KIMMITT; Embassy at Deichmanns Avenue, 5300 Bonn 2
    (mailing address is APO AE 09080); telephone [49] (228) 3391; there is a US
    Branch Office in Berlin and US Consulates General in Frankfurt, Hamburg,
    Leipzig, Munich, and Stuttgart
Flag:
    three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and yellow

:Germany Economy

Overview:
    The Federal Republic of Germany is making substantial progress in
    integrating and modernizing eastern Germany, but at a heavy economic cost.
    Western Germany's growth in 1991 slowed to 3.1% - the lowest rate since 1987
    - because of slack world growth and higher interest rates and taxes required
    by the unification process. While western Germany's economy was in recession
    in the last half of 1991, eastern Germany's economy bottomed out after a
    nearly two-year freefall and shows signs of recovery, particularly in the
    construction, transportation, and service sectors. Eastern Germany could
    begin a fragile recovery later, concentrated in 1992 in construction,
    transportation, and services. The two regions remain vastly different,
    however, despite eastern Germany's progress. Western Germany has an advanced
    market economy and is a world leader in exports. It has a highly urbanized
    and skilled population that enjoys excellent living standards, abundant
    leisure time, and comprehensive social welfare benefits. Western Germany is
    relatively poor in natural resources, coal being the most important mineral.
    Western Germany's world-class companies manufacture technologically advanced
    goods. The region's economy is mature: services and manufacturing account
    for the dominant share of economic activity, and raw materials and
    semimanufactured goods constitute a large portion of imports. In recent
    years, manufacturing has accounted for about 31% of GDP, with other sectors
    contributing lesser amounts. Gross fixed investment in 1990 accounted for
    about 21% of GDP. In 1991, GDP in the western region was an estimated
    $19,200 per capita. In contrast, eastern Germany's economy is shedding the
    obsolete heavy industries that dominated the economy during the Communist
    era. Eastern Germany's share of all-German GDP is only about 7%, and eastern
    productivity is just 30% that of the west. The privatization agency for
    eastern Germany, the Treuhand, is rapidly selling many of the 11,500 firms
    under its control. The pace of private investment is starting to pick up,
    but questions about property rights and environmental liabilities remain.
    Eastern Germany has one of the world's largest reserves of low-grade lignite
    coal but little else in the way of mineral resources. The quality of
    statistics from eastern Germany is improving, yet many gaps remain; the
    federal government began producing all-German data for select economic
    statistics at the start of 1992. The most challenging economic problem is
    promoting eastern Germany's economic reconstruction - specifically, finding
    the right mix of fiscal, monetary, regulatory, and tax policies that will
    spur investment in eastern Germany - without destabilizing western Germany's
    economy or damaging relations with West European partners. The biggest
    danger is that excessive wage settlements and heavy federal borrowing could
    fuel inflation and prompt the German Central Bank, the Bundesbank, to keep a
    tight monetary policy to choke off a wage-price spiral. Meanwhile, the FRG
    has been providing billions of dollars to help the former Soviet republics
    and the reformist economies of Eastern Europe.
GDP:
    purchasing power equivalent - Federal Republic of Germany: $1,331.4 billion,
    per capita $16,700; real growth rate 0.7%; western Germany: $1,235.8
    billion, per capita $19,200; real growth rate 3.1%; eastern Germany $95.6
    billion, per capita $5,870; real growth rate - 30% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    West - 3.5% (1991); East - NA%
Unemployment rate:
    West - 6.3% (1991); East - 11% (1991)
Budget:
    West (federal, state, local) - revenues $684 billion; expenditures $704
    billion, including capital expenditures $NA (1990), East - NA
Exports:
    West - $324.3 billion (f.o.b., 1989)

:Germany Economy

  commodities:
    manufactures 86.6% (including machines and machine tools, chemicals, motor
    vehicles, iron and steel products), agricultural products 4.9%, raw
    materials 2.3%, fuels 1.3%
Exports:
  partners:
    EC 53.3% (France 12.7%, Netherlands 8.3%, Italy 9.1%, UK 8.3%,
    Belgium-Luxembourg 7.3%), other Western Europe 15.9%, US 7.1%, Eastern
    Europe 4.1%, OPEC 2.7% (1990)
Imports:
    West - $346.5 billion (f.o.b., 1989)
  commodities:
    manufactures 68.5%, agricultural products 12.0%, fuels 9.7%, raw materials
    7.1%
  partners:
    EC 51.7% (France 11.7%, Netherlands 10.1%, Italy 9.3%, UK 6.7%,
    Belgium-Luxembourg 7.2%), other Western Europe 13.4%, US 6.6%, Eastern
    Europe 3.8%, OPEC 2.5% (1990)
External debt:
    West - $500 million (June 1988); East - $20.6 billion (1989)
Industrial production:
    growth rates, West - 5.4% (1990); East - 30% (1991 est.)
Electricity:
    133,000,000 kW capacity; 580,000 million kWh produced, 7,390 kWh per capita
    (1991)
Industries:
    West - among world's largest producers of iron, steel, coal, cement,
    chemicals, machinery, vehicles, machine tools, electronics; food and
    beverages; East - metal fabrication, chemicals, brown coal, shipbuilding,
    machine building, food and beverages, textiles, petroleum refining
Agriculture:
    West - accounts for about 2% of GDP (including fishing and forestry);
    diversified crop and livestock farming; principal crops and livestock
    include potatoes, wheat, barley, sugar beets, fruit, cabbage, cattle, pigs,
    poultry; net importer of food; fish catch of 202,000 metric tons in 1987;
    East - accounts for about 10% of GDP (including fishing and forestry);
    principal crops - wheat, rye, barley, potatoes, sugar beets, fruit;
    livestock products include pork, beef, chicken, milk, hides and skins; net
    importer of food; fish catch of 193,600 metric tons in 1987
Economic aid:
    West - donor - ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $75.5 billion; East -
    donor - $4.0 billion extended bilaterally to non-Communist less developed
    countries (1956-89)
Currency:
    deutsche mark (plural - deutsche marks); 1 deutsche mark (DM) = 100 pfennige
Exchange rates:
    deutsche marks (DM) per US$1 - 1.6611 (March 1992), 1.6595 (1991), 1.6157
    (1990), 1.8800 (1989), 1.7562 (1988), 1.7974 (1987)
Fiscal year:
    calendar year

:Germany Communications

Railroads:
    West - 31,443 km total; 27,421 km government owned, 1.435-meter standard
    gauge (12,491 km double track, 11,501 km electrified); 4,022 km
    nongovernment owned, including 3,598 km 1.435-meter standard gauge (214 km
    electrified) and 424 km 1.000-meter gauge (186 km electrified); East -
    14,025 km total; 13,750 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, 275 km 1.000-meter or
    other narrow gauge; 3,830 (est.) km 1.435-meter standard gauge double-track;
    3,475 km overhead electrified (1988)
Highways:
    West - 466,305 km total; 169,568 km primary, includes 6,435 km autobahn,
    32,460 km national highways (Bundesstrassen), 65,425 km state highways
    (Landesstrassen), 65,248 km county roads (Kreisstrassen); 296,737 km of
    secondary communal roads (Gemeindestrassen); East - 124,604 km total; 47,203
    km concrete, asphalt, stone block, of which 1,855 km are autobahn and
    limited access roads, 11,326 are trunk roads, and 34,022 are regional roads;
    77,401 municipal roads (1988)
Inland waterways:
    West - 5,222 km, of which almost 70% are usable by craft of 1,000-metric ton
    capacity or larger; major rivers include the Rhine and Elbe; Kiel Canal is
    an important connection between the Baltic Sea and North Sea; East - 2,319
    km (1988)
Pipelines:
    crude oil 3,644 km; petroleum products 3,946 km; natural gas 97,564 km
    (1988)
Ports:
    maritime - Bremerhaven, Brunsbuttel, Cuxhaven, Emden, Bremen, Hamburg, Kiel,
    Lubeck, Wilhelmshaven, Rostock, Wismar, Stralsund, Sassnitz; inland - 31
    major
Merchant marine:
    607 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,210,060 GRT/6,626,333 DWT; includes
    3 passenger, 5 short-sea passenger, 324 cargo, 10 refrigerated cargo, 135
    container, 31 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 5 railcar carrier, 6 barge carrier, 11
    oil tanker, 21 chemical tanker, 22 liquefied gas tanker, 5 combination
    ore/oil, 14 combination bulk, 15 bulk; note - the German register includes
    ships of the former East and West Germany; during 1991 the fleet underwent
    major restructuring as surplus ships were sold off
Civil air:
    239 major transport aircraft
Airports:
    462 total, 455 usable; 242 with permanent-surface runways; 4 with runways
    over 3,659 m; 40 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 55 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
    West - highly developed, modern telecommunication service to all parts of
    the country; fully adequate in all respects; 40,300,000 telephones;
    intensively developed, highly redundant cable and radio relay networks, all
    completely automatic; broadcast stations - 80 AM, 470 FM, 225 (6,000
    repeaters) TV; 6 submarine coaxial cables; satellite earth stations - 12
    Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT antennas, 2 Indian Ocean INTELSAT antennas,
    EUTELSAT, and domestic systems; 2 HF radiocommunication centers;
    tropospheric links East - badly needs modernization; 3,970,000 telephones;
    broadcast stations - 23 AM, 17 FM, 21 TV (15 Soviet TV repeaters); 6,181,860
    TVs; 6,700,000 radios; 1 satellite earth station operating in INTELSAT and
    Intersputnik systems

:Germany Defense Forces

Branches:
    Army, Navy, Air Force, Federal Border Police
Manpower availability:
    males 15-49, 20,300,359; 17,612,677 fit for military service; 414,330 reach
    military age (18) annually
Defense expenditures:
    exchange rate conversion - $39.5 billion, 2.5% of GDP (1991)

:Ghana Geography

Total area:
    238,540 km2
Land area:
    230,020 km2
Comparative area:
    slightly smaller than Oregon
Land boundaries:
    2,093 km; Burkina 548 km, Ivory Coast 668 km, Togo 877 km
Coastline:
    539 km
Maritime claims:
  Contiguous zone:
    24 nm
  Continental shelf:
    200 nm
  Exclusive economic zone:
    200 nm
  Territorial sea:
    12 nm
Disputes:
    none
Climate:
    tropical; warm and comparatively dry along southeast coast; hot and humid in
    southwest; hot and dry in north
Terrain:
    mostly low plains with dissected plateau in south-central area
Natural resources:
    gold, timber, industrial diamonds, bauxite, manganese, fish, rubber
Land use:
    arable land 5%; permanent crops 7%; meadows and pastures 15%; forest and
    woodland 37%; other 36%; includes irrigated NEGL%
Environment:
    recent drought in north severely affecting marginal agricultural activities;
    deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; dry, northeasterly harmattan wind
    (January to March)
Note:
    Lake Volta is the world's largest artificial lake

:Ghana People

Population:
    16,185,351 (July 1992), growth rate 3.1% (1992)
Birth rate:
    45 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
    13 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
    - 1 migrant/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
    86 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
    53 years male, 57 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
    6.3 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
    noun - Ghanaian(s); adjective - Ghanaian
Ethnic divisions:
    black African 99.8% (major tribes - Akan 44%, Moshi-Dagomba 16%, Ewe 13%, Ga
    8%), European and other 0.2%
Religions:
    indigenous beliefs 38%, Muslim 30%, Christian 24%, other 8%
Languages:
    English (official); African languages include Akan, Moshi-Dagomba, Ewe, and
    Ga
Literacy:
    60% (male 70%, female 51%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
    3,700,000; agriculture and fishing 54.7%, industry 18.7%, sales and clerical
    15.2%, services, transportation, and communications 7.7%, professional 3.7%;
    48% of population of working age (1983)
Organized labor:
    467,000 (about 13% of labor force)

:Ghana Government

Long-form name:
    Republic of Ghana
Type:
    military
Capital:
    Accra
Administrative divisions:
    10 regions; Ashanti, Brong-Ahafo, Central, Eastern, Greater Accra, Northern,
    Upper East, Upper West, Volta, Western
Independence:
    6 March 1957 (from UK, formerly Gold Coast)
Constitution:
    24 September 1979; suspended 31 December 1981
Legal system:
    based on English common law and customary law; has not accepted compulsory
    ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
    Independence Day, 6 March (1957)
Executive branch:
    chairman of the Provisional National Defense Council (PNDC), PNDC, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
    unicameral National Assembly dissolved after 31 December 1981 coup, and
    legislative powers were assumed by the Provisional National Defense Council
Judicial branch:
    Supreme Court
Leaders:
  Chief of State and Head of Government:
    Chairman of the Provisional National Defense Council Flt. Lt. (Ret.) Jerry
    John RAWLINGS (since 31 December 1981)
Political parties and leaders:
    none; political parties outlawed after 31 December 1981 coup
Suffrage:
    none
Elections:
    no national elections; district assembly elections held in 1988-89
Member of:
    ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-24, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
    IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO,
    ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIIMOG, UPU, WCL,
    WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
    Ambassador Dr. Joseph ABBEY; Chancery at 3512 International Drive NW,
    Washington, DC 20008; telephone (202) 686-4520; there is a Ghanaian
    Consulate General in New York
  US:
    Ambassador Raymond C. EWING; Embassy at Ring Road East, East of Danquah
    Circle, Accra (mailing address is P. O. Box 194, Accra); telephone [233]
    (21) 775348, 775349
Flag:
    three equal horizontal bands of red (top), yellow, and green with a large
    black five-pointed star centered in the gold band; uses the popular
    pan-African colors of Ethiopia; similar to the flag of Bolivia, which has a
    coat of arms centered in the yellow band

:Ghana Economy

Overview:
    Supported by substantial international assistance, Ghana has been
    implementing a steady economic rebuilding program since 1983, including
    moves toward privatization and relaxation of government controls. Heavily
    dependent on cocoa, gold, and timber exports, economic growth so far has not
    spread substantially to other areas of the economy. The costs of sending
    peacekeeping forces to Liberia and preparing for the transition to a
    democratic government have been boosting government expenditures and
    undercutting structural adjustment reforms. Ghana opened a stock exchange in
    1990. Much of the economic improvement in 1991 was caused by favorable
    weather (following a severe drought the previous year) that led to plentiful
    harvests in Ghana's agriculturally based economy.
GDP:
    $6.2 billion; per capita $400; real growth rate 5% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    10% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
    10% (1991)
Budget:
    revenues $821 million; expenditures $782 million, including capital
    expenditures of $151 million (1990 est.)
Exports:
    $843 million (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
  commodities:
    cocoa 45%, gold, timber, tuna, bauxite, and aluminum
  partners:
    US 23%, UK, other EC
Imports:
    $1.2 billion (c.i.f., 1991 est.)
  commodities:
    petroleum 16%, consumer goods, foods, intermediate goods, capital equipment
  partners:
    US 10%, UK, FRG, France, Japan, South Korea, GDR
External debt:
    $3.1 billion (1990 est.)
Industrial production:
    growth rate 7.4% in manufacturing (1989); accounts for almost 1.5% of GDP
Electricity:
    1,180,000 kW capacity; 4,140 million kWh produced, 265 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
    mining, lumbering, light manufacturing, fishing, aluminum, food processing
Agriculture:
    accounts for more than 50% of GDP (including fishing and forestry); the
    major cash crop is cocoa; other principal crops - rice, coffee, cassava,
    peanuts, corn, shea nuts, timber; normally self-sufficient in food
Illicit drugs:
    illicit producer of cannabis for the international drug trade
Economic aid:
    US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $455 million; Western (non-US)
    countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $2.6 billion; OPEC
    bilateral aid (1979-89), $78 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $106
    million
Currency:
    cedi (plural - cedis); 1 cedi (C) = 100 pesewas
Fiscal year:
    calendar year

:Ghana Communications

Railroads:
    953 km, all 1.067-meter gauge; 32 km double track; railroads undergoing
    major renovation
Highways:
    32,250 km total; 6,084 km concrete or bituminous surface, 26,166 km gravel,
    laterite, and improved earth surfaces
Inland waterways:
    Volta, Ankobra, and Tano Rivers provide 168 km of perennial navigation for
    launches and lighters; Lake Volta provides 1,125 km of arterial and feeder
    waterways
Pipelines:
    none
Ports:
    Tema, Takoradi
Merchant marine:
    5 cargo and 1 refrigerated cargo (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 53,435
    GRT/69,167 DWT
Civil air:
    8 major transport aircraft
Airports:
    10 total, 9 usable; 5 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over
    3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 7 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
    poor to fair system handled primarily by microwave links; 42,300 telephones;
    broadcast stations - 4 AM, 1 FM, 4 (8 translators) TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean
    INTELSAT earth station

:Ghana Defense Forces

Branches:
    Army, Navy, Air Force, National Police Force, National Civil Defense
Manpower availability:
    males 15-49, 3,661,558; 2,049,842 fit for military service; 170,742 reach
    military age (18) annually
Defense expenditures:
    exchange rate conversion - $30 million, less than 1% of GNP (1989 est.)

:Gibraltar Geography

Total area:
    6.5 km2
Land area:
    6.5 km2
Comparative area:
    about 11 times the size of the Mall in Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
    1.2 km; Spain 1.2 km
Coastline:
    12 km
Maritime claims:
  Exclusive fishing zone:
    3 nm
  Territorial sea:
    3 nm
Disputes:
    source of occasional friction between Spain and the UK
Climate:
    Mediterranean with mild winters and warm summers
Terrain:
    a narrow coastal lowland borders The Rock
Natural resources:
    negligible
Land use:
    arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 0%; forest and
    woodland 0%; other 100%
Environment:
    natural freshwater sources are meager, so large water catchments (concrete
    or natural rock) collect rain water
Note:
    strategic location on Strait of Gibraltar that links the North Atlantic
    Ocean and Mediterranean Sea

:Gibraltar People

Population:
    29,651 (July 1992), growth rate 0.1% (1992)
Birth rate:
    18 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
    8 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
    - 9 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
    6 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
    72 years male, 79 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
    2.5 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
    noun - Gibraltarian(s); adjective - Gibraltar
Ethnic divisions:
    mostly Italian, English, Maltese, Portuguese, and Spanish descent
Religions:
    Roman Catholic 74%, Protestant 11% (Church of England 8%, other 3%), Moslem
    8%, Jewish 2%, none or other 5% (1981)
Languages:
    English and Spanish are primary languages; Italian, Portuguese, and Russian
    also spoken; English used in the schools and for official purposes
Literacy:
    NA% (male NA%, female NA%)
Labor force:
    about 14,800 (including non-Gibraltar laborers); UK military establishments
    and civil government employ nearly 50% of the labor force
Organized labor:
    over 6,000

:Gibraltar Government

Long-form name:
    none
Digraph:
    f Assembly *** last held on 24 March 1988 (next to be held March 1992);
    results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (18 total, 15 elected) SL 8,
    GCL/AACR 7
Type:
    dependent territory of the UK
Capital:
    Gibraltar
Administrative divisions:
    none (dependent territory of the UK)
Independence:
    none (dependent territory of the UK)
Constitution:
    30 May 1969
Legal system:
    English law
National holiday:
    Commonwealth Day (second Monday of March)
Executive branch:
    British monarch, governor, chief minister, Gibraltar Council, Council of
    Ministers (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
    unicameral House of Assembly
Judicial branch:
    Supreme Court, Court of Appeal
Leaders:
  Chief of State:
    Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor and
    Commander in Chief Adm. Sir Derek REFFELL (since NA 1989)
  Head of Government:
    Chief Minister Joe BOSSANO (since 25 March 1988)
Political parties and leaders:
    Socialist Labor Party (SL), Joe BOSSANO; Gibraltar Labor Party/Association
    for the Advancement of Civil Rights (GCL/AACR), leader NA; Gibraltar Social
    Democrats, Peter CARUANA; Gibraltar National Party, Joe GARCIA
Suffrage:
    universal at age 18, plus other UK subjects resident six months or more
Elections:
  House of Assembly:
    last held on 24 March 1988 (next to be held March 1992); results - percent
    of vote by party NA; seats - (18 total, 15 elected) SL 8, GCL/AACR 7
Other political or pressure groups:
    Housewives Association, Chamber of Commerce, Gibraltar Representatives
    Organization
Diplomatic representation:
    none (dependent territory of the UK)
Flag:
    two horizontal bands of white (top, double width) and red with a
    three-towered red castle in the center of the white band; hanging from the
    castle gate is a gold key centered in the red band

:Gibraltar Economy

Overview:
    The economy depends heavily on British defense expenditures, revenue from
    tourists, fees for services to shipping, and revenues from banking and
    finance activities. Because more than 70% of the economy is in the public
    sector, changes in government spending have a major impact on the level of
    employment. Construction workers are particularly affected when government
    expenditures are cut.
GNP:
    exchange rate conversion - $182 million, per capita $4,600; real growth rate
    5% (FY87)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    3.6% (1988)
Unemployment rate:
    NA%
Budget:
    revenues $136 million; expenditures $139 million, including capital
    expenditures of NA (FY88)
Exports:
    $82 million (f.o.b., 1988)
  commodities:
    (principally reexports) petroleum 51%, manufactured goods 41%, other 8%
  partners:
    UK, Morocco, Portugal, Netherlands, Spain, US, FRG
Imports:
    $258 million (c.i.f., 1988)
  commodities:
    fuels, manufactured goods, and foodstuffs
  partners:
    UK, Spain, Japan, Netherlands
External debt:
    $318 million (1987)
Industrial production:
    growth rate NA%
Electricity:
    47,000 kW capacity; 200 million kWh produced, 6,670 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
    tourism, banking and finance, construction, commerce; support to large UK
    naval and air bases; transit trade and supply depot in the port; light
    manufacturing of tobacco, roasted coffee, ice, mineral waters, candy, beer,
    and canned fish
Agriculture:
    none
Economic aid:
    US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $0.8 million; Western (non-US)
    countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $188 million
Currency:
    Gibraltar pound (plural - pounds); 1 Gibraltar pound (#G) = 100 pence
Exchange rates:
    Gibraltar pounds (#G) per US$1 - 0.5799 (March 1992), 0.5652 (1991), 0.5603
    (1990), 0.6099 (1989), 0.5614 (1988), 0.6102 (1987); note - the Gibraltar
    pound is at par with the British pound
Fiscal year:
    1 July - 30 June

:Gibraltar Communications

Railroads:
    1.000-meter-gauge system in dockyard area only
Highways:
    50 km, mostly good bitumen and concrete
Pipelines:
    none
Ports:
    Gibraltar
Merchant marine:
    21 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 795,356 GRT/1,490,737 DWT; includes 5
    cargo, 2 refrigerated cargo, 1 container, 6 petroleum tanker, 1 chemical
    tanker, 6 bulk; note - a flag of convenience registry
Civil air:
    1 major transport aircraft
Airports:
    1 with permanent-surface runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
    adequate, automatic domestic system and adequate international
    radiocommunication and microwave facilities; 9,400 telephones; broadcast
    stations - 1 AM, 6 FM, 4 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

:Gibraltar Defense Forces

Branches:
    British Army, Royal Navy, Royal Air Force
Note:
    defense is the responsibility of the UK

:Glorioso Islands Geography

Total area:
    5 km2
Land area:
    5 km2; includes Ile Glorieuse, Ile du Lys, Verte Rocks, Wreck Rock, and
    South Rock
Comparative area:
    about 8.5 times the size of the Mall in Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
    none
Coastline:
    35.2 km
Maritime claims:
  Contiguous zone:
    12 nm
  Exclusive economic zone:
    200 nm
  Territorial sea:
    12 nm
Disputes:
    claimed by Madagascar
Climate:
    tropical
Terrain:
    undetermined
Natural resources:
    guano, coconuts
Land use:
    arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 0%; forest and
    woodland 0%; other - lush vegetation and coconut palms 100%
Environment:
    subject to periodic cyclones
Note:
    located in the Indian Ocean just north of the Mozambique Channel between
    Africa and Madagascar

:Glorioso Islands People

Population:
    uninhabited

:Glorioso Islands Government

Long-form name:
    none
Type:
    French possession administered by Commissioner of the Republic Jacques
    DEWATRE, resident in Reunion
Capital:
    none; administered by France from Reunion

:Glorioso Islands Economy

Overview:
    no economic activity

:Glorioso Islands Communications

Ports:
    none; offshore anchorage only
Airports:
    1 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

:Glorioso Islands Defense Forces

Note:
    defense is the responsibility of France

:Greece Geography

Total area:
    131,940 km2
Land area:
    130,800 km2
Comparative area:
    slightly smaller than Alabama
Land boundaries:
    1,210 km; Albania 282 km, Bulgaria 494 km, Turkey 206 km, Macedonia 228 km
Coastline:
    13,676 km
Maritime claims:
  Continental shelf:
    200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation
  Territorial sea:
    6 nm, but Greece has threatened to claim 12 nm
Disputes:
    air, continental shelf, and territorial water disputes with Turkey in Aegean
    Sea; Cyprus question
Climate:
    temperate; mild, wet winters; hot, dry summers
Terrain:
    mostly mountains with ranges extending into sea as peninsulas or chains of
    islands
Natural resources:
    bauxite, lignite, magnesite, crude oil, marble
Land use:
    arable land 23%; permanent crops 8%; meadows and pastures 40%; forest and
    woodland 20%; other 9%; includes irrigated 7%
Environment:
    subject to severe earthquakes; air pollution; archipelago of 2,000 islands
Note:
    strategic location dominating the Aegean Sea and southern approach to
    Turkish Straits

:Greece People

Population:
    10,064,250 (July 1992), growth rate 0.2% (1992)
Birth rate:
    11 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
    9 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
    0 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
    10 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
    75 years male, 81 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
    1.5 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
    noun - Greek(s); adjective - Greek
Ethnic divisions:
    Greek 98%, other 2%; note - the Greek Government states there are no ethnic
    divisions in Greece
Religions:
    Greek Orthodox 98%, Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%
Languages:
    Greek (official); English and French widely understood
Literacy:
    93% (male 98%, female 89%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
    3,657,000; services 44%, agriculture 27%, manufacturing and mining 20%,
    construction 6% (1988)
Organized labor:
    10-15% of total labor force, 20-25% of urban labor force

:Greece Government

Long-form name:
    Hellenic Republic
Type:
    presidential parliamentary government; monarchy rejected by referendum 8
    December 1974
Capital:
    Athens
Administrative divisions:
    52 departments (nomoi, singular - nomos); Aitolia kai Akarnania, Akhaia,
    Argolis, Arkadhia, Arta, Attiki, Dhodhekanisos, Dhrama, Evritania, Evros,
    Evvoia, Florina, Fokis, Fthiotis, Grevena, Ilia, Imathia, Ioannina,
    Iraklion, Kardhitsa, Kastoria, Kavala, Kefallinia, Kerkira, Khalkidhiki,
    Khania, Khios, Kikladhes, Kilkis, Korinthia, Kozani, Lakonia, Larisa,
    Lasithi, Lesvos, Levkas, Magnisia, Messinia, Pella, Pieria, Piraievs,
    Preveza, Rethimni, Rodhopi, Samos, Serrai, Thesprotia, Thessaloniki,
    Trikala, Voiotia, Xanthi, Zakinthos, autonomous region: Agios Oros (Mt.
    Athos)
Independence:
    1829 (from the Ottoman Empire)
Constitution:
    11 June 1975
Legal system:
    based on codified Roman law; judiciary divided into civil, criminal, and
    administrative courts
National holiday:
    Independence Day (proclamation of the war of independence), 25 March (1821)
Executive branch:
    president, prime minister, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
    unicameral Greek Chamber of Deputies (Vouli ton Ellinon)
Judicial branch:
    Supreme Court
Leaders:
  Chief of State:
    President Konstantinos KARAMANLIS (since 5 May 1990); -
  Head of Government:
    Prime Minister Konstantinos MITSOTAKIS (since 11 April 1990)
Political parties and leaders:
    New Democracy (ND; conservative), Konstantinos MITSOTAKIS; Panhellenic
    Socialist Movement (PASOK), Andreas PAPANDREOU; Left Alliance, Maria
    DAMANAKI; Democratic Renewal (DEANA), Konstantinos STEFANOPOULOS; Communist
    Party (KKE), Aleka PAPARIGA; Ecologist-Alternative List, leader rotates
Suffrage:
    universal and compulsory at age 18
Elections:
  Chamber of Deputies:
    last held 8 April 1990 (next to be held April 1994); results - ND 46.89%,
    PASOK 38.62%, Left Alliance 10.27%, PASOK/Left Alliance 1.02%,
    Ecologist-Alternative List 0.77%, DEANA 0.67%, Muslim independents 0.5%;
    seats - (300 total) ND 150, PASOK 123, Left Alliance 19, PASOK-Left Alliance
    4, Muslim independents 2, DEANA 1, Ecologist-Alternative List 1; note - one
    DEANA deputy joined ND in July, giving ND 151 seats; in November, a special
    electoral court ruled in favor of ND on a contested seat, at PASOK'S
    expense; PASOK and the Left Alliance divided their four joint mandates
    evenly, and the seven KKE deputies split off from the Left Alliance; new
    configuration: ND 152, PASOK 124, Left Alliance 14, KKE 7, others unchanged
  President:
    last held 4 May 1990 (next to be held May 1995); results - Konstantinos
    KARAMANLIS was elected by Parliament

:Greece Government

Communists:
    an estimated 60,000 members and sympathizers
Member of:
    AG, BIS, CCC, CE, CERN, COCOM, CSCE, EBRD, EC, ECE, EIB, FAO, G-6, GATT,
    IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT,
    INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NACC, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA,
    NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WHO,
    WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation:
    Ambassador Christos ZACHARAKIS; Chancery at 2221 Massachusetts Avenue NW,
    Washington, DC 20008; telephone (202) 939-5800; there are Greek Consulates
    General in Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, New York, and San
    Francisco, and a Consulate in New Orleans
  US:
    Ambassador Michael G. SOTIRHOS; Embassy at 91 Vasilissis Sophias Boulevard,
    10160 Athens (mailing address is APO AE 09842; telephone [30] (1) 721-2951
    or 721-8401; there is a US Consulate General in Thessaloniki
Flag:
    nine equal horizontal stripes of blue alternating with white; there is a
    blue square in the upper hoist-side corner bearing a white cross; the cross
    symbolizes Greek Orthodoxy, the established religion of the country

:Greece Economy

Overview:
    Greece has a mixed capitalistic economy with the basic entrepreneurial
    system overlaid in 1981-89 by a socialist government that enlarged the
    public sector from 55% of GDP in 1981 to about 70% when Prime Minister
    Mitsotakis took office. Tourism continues as a major industry, and
    agriculture - although handicapped by geographic limitations and fragmented,
    small farms - is self-sufficient except for meat, dairy products, and animal
    feedstuffs. The Mitsotakis government inherited several severe economic
    problems from the preceding socialist and caretaker administrations, which
    had neglected the runaway budget deficit, a ballooning current account
    deficit, and accelerating inflation. In early 1991, the government secured a
    $2.5 billion assistance package from the EC under the strictest terms yet
    imposed on a member country, as the EC finally ran out of patience with
    Greece's failure to put its financial affairs in order. Over the next three
    years, Athens must bring inflation down to 7%, cut the current account
    deficit and central government borrowing as a percentage of GDP, slash
    public-sector employment by 10%, curb public-sector pay raises, and broaden
    the tax base.
GDP:
    purchasing power equivalent - $77.6 billion, per capita $7,730; real growth
    rate 1.0% (1991)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    17.8% (1991)
Unemployment rate:
    8.6% (1991)
Budget:
    revenues $24.0 billion; expenditures $33.0 billion, including capital
    expenditures of $3.3 billion (1991)
Exports:
    $6.4 billion (f.o.b., 1990)
  commodities:
    manufactured goods 48%, food and beverages 22%, fuels and lubricants 6%
  partners:
    Germany 22%, Italy 17%, France 10%, UK 7%, US 6%
Imports:
    $18.7 billion (c.i.f., 1990)
  commodities:
    consumer goods 33%, machinery 17%, foodstuffs 12%, fuels and lubricants 8%
  partners:
    Germany 21%, Italy 15%, Netherlands 11%, France 8%, UK 5%
External debt:
    $25.5 billion (1990)
Industrial production:
    growth rate - 2.4% (1990); accounts for 22% of GDP
Electricity:
    10,500,000 kW capacity; 36,420 million kWh produced, 3,630 kWh per capita
    (1991)
Industries:
    food and tobacco processing, textiles, chemicals, metal products, tourism,
    mining, petroleum
Agriculture:
    including fishing and forestry, accounts for 17% of GDP and 27% of the labor
    force; principal products - wheat, corn, barley, sugar beets, olives,
    tomatoes, wine, tobacco, potatoes; self-sufficient in food except meat,
    dairy products, and animal feedstuffs; fish catch of 115,000 metric tons in
    1988
Economic aid:
    US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-81), $525 million; Western (non-US)
    countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $1,390 million

:Greece Economy

Currency:
    drachma (plural - drachmas); 1 drachma (Dr) = 100 lepta
Exchange rates:
    drachma (Dr) per US$1 - 182.33 (January 1992), 182.27 (1991), 158.51 (1990),
    162.42 (1989), 141.86 (1988), 135.43 (1987)
Fiscal year:
    calendar year

:Greece Communications

Railroads:
    2,479 km total; 1,565 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, of which 36 km
    electrified and 100 km double track, 892 km 1.000-meter gauge; 22 km
    0.750-meter narrow gauge; all government owned
Highways:
    38,938 km total; 16,090 km paved, 13,676 km crushed stone and gravel, 5,632
    km improved earth, 3,540 km unimproved earth
Inland waterways:
    80 km; system consists of three coastal canals and three unconnected rivers
Pipelines:
    crude oil 26 km; petroleum products 547 km
Ports:
    Piraievs, Thessaloniki
Merchant marine:
    977 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 23,450,910 GRT/42,934,863 DWT;
    includes 15 passenger, 66 short-sea passenger, 2 passenger-cargo, 136 cargo,
    24 container, 15 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 18 refrigerated cargo, 1 vehicle
    carrier, 196 petroleum tanker, 18 chemical tanker, 9 liquefied gas, 37
    combination ore/oil, 3 specialized tanker, 417 bulk, 19 combination bulk, 1
    livestock carrier; note - ethnic Greeks also own large numbers of ships
    under the registry of Liberia, Panama, Cyprus, Malta, and The Bahamas
Civil air:
    39 major transport aircraft
Airports:
    77 total, 77 usable; 77 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways
    over 3,659 m; 19 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 23 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
    adequate, modern networks reach all areas; 4,080,000 telephones; microwave
    carries most traffic; extensive open-wire network; submarine cables to
    off-shore islands; broadcast stations - 29 AM, 17 (20 repeaters) FM, 361 TV;
    tropospheric links, 8 submarine cables; 1 satellite earth station operating
    in INTELSAT (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean antenna), and EUTELSAT
    systems

:Greece Defense Forces

Branches:
    Hellenic Army, Hellenic Navy, Hellenic Air Force, Police
Manpower availability:
    males 15-49, 2,453,756; 1,883,152 fit for military service; 73,913 reach
    military age (21) annually
Defense expenditures:
    exchange rate conversion - $3.8 billion, 5.6% of GDP (1991)

:Greenland Geography

Total area:
    2,175,600 km2
Land area:
    341,700 km2 (ice free)
Comparative area:
    slightly more than three times the size of Texas
Land boundaries:
    none
Coastline:
    44,087 km
Maritime claims:
  Exclusive fishing zone:
    200 nm
  Territorial sea:
    3 nm
Disputes:
    Denmark has challenged Norway's maritime claims between Greenland and Jan
    Mayen
Climate:
    arctic to subarctic; cool summers, cold winters
Terrain:
    flat to gradually sloping icecap covers all but a narrow, mountainous,
    barren, rocky coast
Natural resources:
    zinc, lead, iron ore, coal, molybdenum, cryolite, uranium, fish
Land use:
    arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 1%; forest and
    woodland NEGL%; other 99%
Environment:
    sparse population confined to small settlements along coast; continuous
    permafrost over northern two-thirds of the island
Note:
    dominates North Atlantic Ocean between North America and Europe

:Greenland People

Population:
    57,407 (July 1992), growth rate 1.1% (1992)
Birth rate:
    19 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
    8 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
    0 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
    27 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
    63 years male, 69 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
    2.2 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
    noun - Greenlander(s); adjective - Greenlandic
Ethnic divisions:
    Greenlander (Eskimos and Greenland-born Caucasians) 86%, Danish 14%
Religions:
    Evangelical Lutheran
Languages:
    Eskimo dialects, Danish
Literacy:
    NA% (male NA%, female NA%)
Labor force:
    22,800; largely engaged in fishing, hunting, sheep breeding
Organized labor:
    NA

:Greenland Government

Long-form name:
    none
Type:
    part of the Danish realm; self-governing overseas administrative division
Capital:
    Nuuk (Godthab)
Administrative divisions:
    3 municipalities (kommuner, - singular - kommun); - Nordgronland,
    Ostgrnland, Vestgronland
Independence:
    part of the Danish realm; self-governing overseas administrative division
Constitution:
    Danish
Legal system:
    Danish
National holiday:
    Birthday of the Queen, 16 April (1940)
Executive branch:
    Danish monarch, high commissioner, home rule chairman, prime minister,
    Cabinet (Landsstyre)
Legislative branch:
    unicameral Parliament (Landsting)
Judicial branch:
    High Court (Landsret)
Leaders:
  Chief of State:
    Queen MARGRETHE II (since 14 January 1972), represented by High Commissioner
    Bent KLINTE (since NA)
  Head of Government:
    Home Rule Chairman Lars Emil JOHANSEN (since 15 March 1991)
Political parties and leaders:
    two-party ruling coalition - Siumut (a moderate socialist party that
    advocates more distinct Greenlandic identity and greater autonomy from
    Denmark), Lars Emil JOHANSEN, chairman; - Inuit - Ataqatigiit - (IA; - a -
    Marxist-Leninist party that favors complete independence from Denmark rather
    than home rule), leader NA; Atassut Party (a more conservative party that
    favors continuing close relations with Denmark), leader NA; Polar Party
    (conservative-Greenland nationalist), leader NA; Center Party (a new
    nonsocialist protest party), leader NA
Suffrage:
    universal at age 18
Elections:
  Danish Folketing:
    last held on 12 December 1990 (next to be held by December 1994); Greenland
    elects two representatives to the Folketing; results - percent of vote by
    party NA; seats - (2 total) Siumut 1, Atassut 1
  Landsting:
    last held on 5 March 1991 (next to be held 5 March 1995); results - percent
    of vote by party NA; seats - (27 total) Siumut 11, Atassut Party 8, Inuit
    Ataqatigiit 5, Center Party 2, Polar Party 1
Member of:
    NC
Diplomatic representation:
    none (self-governing overseas administrative division of Denmark)
Flag:
    two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red with a large disk slightly
    to the hoist side of center - the top half of the disk is red, the bottom
    half is white

:Greenland Economy

Overview:
    Over the past 25 years, the economy has changed from one based on
    subsistence whaling, hunting, and fishing to one dependent on foreign trade.
    Fishing is still the most important industry, accounting for over 75% of
    exports and about 25% of the population's income. Maintenance of a social
    welfare system similar to Denmark's has given the public sector a dominant
    role in the economy. In 1990, the economy became critically dependent on
    shrimp exports and on an annual subsidy (now about $500 million) from the
    Danish Government because cod exports dropped off and commercial mineral
    production stopped. As of 1992, the government also has taken control of the
    health sector from Denmark. The new Home Rule government installed in March
    1991 has decided to end much of the central control of the economy and to
    open it wider to competitive forces.
GNP:
    purchasing power equivalent - $500 million, per capita $9,000; real growth
    rate 5% (1988)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    l.6% (1991)
Unemployment rate:
    9% (1990 est.)
Budget:
    revenues $381 million; expenditures $381 million, including capital
    expenditures of $36 million (1989)
Exports:
    $435 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.)
  commodities:
    fish and fish products 83%, metallic ores and concentrates 13%
  partners:
    Denmark 79%, Benelux 9%, Germany 5%
Imports:
    $420 million (c.i.f., 1990 est.)
  commodities:
    manufactured goods 28%, machinery and transport equipment 24%, food and live
    animals 12.4%, petroleum and petroleum products 12%
  partners:
    Denmark 65%, Norway 8.8%, US 4.6%, Germany 3.8%, Japan 3.8%, Sweden 2.4%
External debt:
    $480 million (1990 est.)
Industrial production:
    growth rate NA%
Electricity:
    84,000 kW capacity; 176 million kWh produced, 3,180 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
    fish processing (mainly shrimp), potential for platinum and gold mining,
    handicrafts, shipyards
Agriculture:
    sector dominated by fishing and sheep raising; crops limited to forage and
    small garden vegetables; 1988 fish catch of 133,500 metric tons
Economic aid:
    none
Currency:
    Danish krone (plural - kroner); 1 Danish krone (DKr) = 100 re
Exchange rates:
    Danish kroner (DKr) per US$1 - 6.447 (March 1992), 6.396 (1991), 6.189
    (1990), 7.310 (1989), 6.732 (1988), 6.840 (1987)
Fiscal year:
    calendar year

:Greenland Communications

Highways:
    80 km
Ports:
    Kangerluarsoruseq (Faeringehavn), Paamiut (Frederikshaab), Nuuk (Godthaab),
    Sisimiut (Holsteinsborg), Julianehaab, Maarmorilik, North Star Bay
Merchant marine:
    1 refrigerated cargo (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,021 GRT/1,778 DWT; note
    - operates under the registry of Denmark
Civil air:
    2 major transport aircraft
Airports:
    11 total, 8 usable; 5 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over
    3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 2 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
    adequate domestic and international service provided by cables and
    microwave; 17,900 telephones; broadcast stations - 5 AM, 7 (35 repeaters)
    FM, 4 (9 repeaters) TV; 2 coaxial submarine cables; 1 Atlantic Ocean
    INTELSAT earth station

:Greenland Defense Forces

Note:
    defense is responsibility of Denmark

:Grenada Geography

Total area:
    340 km2
Land area:
    340 km2
Comparative area:
    slightly less than twice the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
    none
Coastline:
    121 km
Maritime claims:
  Exclusive economic zone:
    200 nm
  Territorial sea:
    12 nm
Disputes:
    none
Climate:
    tropical; tempered by northeast trade winds
Terrain:
    volcanic in origin with central mountains
Natural resources:
    timber, tropical fruit, deepwater harbors
Land use:
    arable land 15%; permanent crops 26%; meadows and pastures 3%; forest and
    woodland 9%; other 47%
Environment:
    lies on edge of hurricane belt; hurricane season lasts from June to November
Note:
    islands of the Grenadines group are divided politically with Saint Vincent
    and the Grenadines

:Grenada People

Population:
    83,556 (July 1992), growth rate - 0.3% (1992)
Birth rate:
    34 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
    7 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
    - 30 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
    28 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
    69 years male, 74 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
    4.6 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
    noun - Grenadian(s); adjective - Grenadian
Ethnic divisions:
    mainly of black African descent
Religions:
    largely Roman Catholic; Anglican; other Protestant sects
Languages:
    English (official); some French patois
Literacy:
    98% (male 98%, female 98%) age 15 and over having ever attended school
    (1970)
Labor force:
    36,000; services 31%, agriculture 24%, construction 8%, manufacturing 5%,
    other 32% (1985)
Organized labor:
    20% of labor force

:Grenada Government

Long-form name:
    none
Type:
    parliamentary democracy
Capital:
    Saint George's
Administrative divisions:
    6 parishes and 1 dependency*; Carriacou and Little Martinique*, Saint
    Andrew, Saint David, Saint George, Saint John, Saint Mark, Saint Patrick
Independence:
    7 February 1974 (from UK)
Constitution:
    19 December 1973
Legal system:
    based on English common law
National holiday:
    Independence Day, 7 February (1974)
Executive branch:
    British monarch, governor general, prime minister, Ministers of Government
    (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
    bicameral Parliament consists of an upper house or Senate and a lower house
    or House of Representatives
Judicial branch:
    Supreme Court
Leaders:
  Chief of State:
    Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General
    Sir Paul SCOON (since 30 September 1978)
  Head of Government:
    Prime Minister Nicholas BRATHWAITE (since 13 March 1990)
Political parties and leaders:
    National Democratic Congress (NDC), Nicholas BRATHWAITE; Grenada United
    Labor Party (GULP), Sir Eric GAIRY; The National Party (TNP), Ben JONES; New
    National Party (NNP), Keith MITCHELL; Maurice Bishop Patriotic Movement
    (MBPM), Terrence MARRYSHOW; New Jewel Movement (NJM), Bernard COARD
Suffrage:
    universal at age 18
Elections:
  House of Representatives:
    last held on 13 March 1990 (next to be held by NA March 1996); results -
    percent of vote by party NA; seats - (15 total) NDC 8, GULP 3, TNP 2, NNP 2
Member of:
    ACP, C, CARICOM, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC,
    ILO, IMF, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LAES, LORCS, NAM, OAS, OECS, OPANAL, UN,
    UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
    Ambassador Denneth MODESTE; Chancery at 1701 New Hampshire Avenue NW,
    Washington, DC 20009; telephone (202) 265-2561; there is a Grenadian
    Consulate General in New York
  US:
    Charge d'Affaires Annette VELER; Embassy at Ross Point Inn, Saint George's
    (mailing address is P. O. Box 54, Saint George's); telephone (809) 444-1173
    through 1178

:Grenada Government

Flag:
    a rectangle divided diagonally into yellow triangles (top and bottom) and
    green triangles (hoist side and outer side) with a red border around the
    flag; there are seven yellow five-pointed stars with three centered in the
    top red border, three centered in the bottom red border, and one on a red
    disk superimposed at the center of the flag; there is also a symbolic nutmeg
    pod on the hoist-side triangle (Grenada is the world's second-largest
    producer of nutmeg, after Indonesia); the seven stars represent the seven
    administrative divisions

:Grenada Economy

Overview:
    The economy is essentially agricultural and centers on the traditional
    production of spices and tropical plants. Agriculture accounts for about 16%
    of GDP and 80% of exports and employs 24% of the labor force. Tourism is the
    leading foreign exchange earner, followed by agricultural exports.
    Manufacturing remains relatively undeveloped, but is expected to grow, given
    a more favorable private investment climate since 1983. Despite an
    impressive average annual growth rate for the economy of 5.5% during the
    period 1986-91, unemployment remains high at about 25%.
GDP:
    purchasing power equivalent - $238 million, per capita $2,800 (1989); real
    growth rate 5.2% (1990 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    7.0% (1990)
Unemployment rate:
    25% (1990 est.)
Budget:
    revenues $54.9 million; expenditures $77.6 million, including capital
    expenditures of $16.6 million (1990 est.)
Exports:
    $26.0 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.)
  commodities:
    nutmeg 36%, cocoa beans 9%, bananas 14%, mace 8%, textiles 5%
  partners:
    US 12%, UK, FRG, Netherlands, Trinidad and Tobago (1989)
Imports:
    $105.0 million (f.o.b., 1989 est.)
  commodities:
    food 25%, manufactured goods 22%, machinery 20%, chemicals 10%, fuel 6%
    (1989)
  partners:
    US 29%, UK, Trinidad and Tobago, Japan, Canada (1989)
External debt:
    $90 million (1990 est.)
Industrial production:
    growth rate 5.8% (1989 est.); accounts for 6% of GDP
Electricity:
    12,500 kW capacity; 26 million kWh produced, 310 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
    food and beverage, textile, light assembly operations, tourism, construction
Agriculture:
    accounts for 16% of GDP and 80% of exports; bananas, cocoa, nutmeg, and mace
    account for two-thirds of total crop production; world's second-largest
    producer and fourth-largest exporter of nutmeg and mace; small-size farms
    predominate, growing a variety of citrus fruits, avocados, root crops,
    sugarcane, corn, and vegetables
Economic aid:
    US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY84-89), $60 million; Western (non-US)
    countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $70 million;
    Communist countries (1970-89), $32 million
Currency:
    East Caribbean dollar (plural - dollars); 1 EC dollar (EC$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
    East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1 - 2.70 (fixed rate since 1976)
Fiscal year:
    calendar year

:Grenada Communications

Highways:
    1,000 km total; 600 km paved, 300 km otherwise improved; 100 km unimproved
Ports:
    Saint George's
Civil air:
    no major transport aircraft
Airports:
    3 total, 3 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over
    3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 1 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
    automatic, islandwide telephone system with 5,650 telephones; new SHF radio
    links to Trinidad and Tobago and Saint Vincent; VHF and UHF radio links to
    Trinidad and Carriacou; broadcast stations - 1 AM, no FM, 1 TV

:Grenada Defense Forces

Branches:
    Royal Grenada Police Force, Coast Guard
Manpower availability:
    NA
Defense expenditures:
    $NA, NA% of GDP

:Guadeloupe Geography

Total area:
    1,780 km2
Land area:
    1,760 km2
Comparative area:
    10 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
    none
Coastline:
    306 km
Maritime claims:
  Continental shelf:
    200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation
  Exclusive economic zone:
    200 nm
  Territorial sea:
    12 nm
Disputes:
    none
Climate:
    subtropical tempered by trade winds; relatively high humidity
Terrain:
    Basse-Terre is volcanic in origin with interior mountains; Grand-Terre is
    low limestone formation
Natural resources:
    cultivable land, beaches, and climate that foster tourism
Land use:
    arable land 18%; permanent crops 5%; meadows and pastures 13%; forest and
    woodland 40%; other 24%; includes irrigated 1%
Environment:
    subject to hurricanes (June to October); La Soufriere is an active volcano
Note:
    located 500 km southeast of Puerto Rico in the Caribbean Sea

:Guadeloupe People

Population:
    409,132 (July 1992), growth rate 2.1% (1992)
Birth rate:
    19 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
    6 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
    8 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
    10 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
    74 years male, 80 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
    2.0 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
    noun - Guadeloupian(s); adjective - Guadeloupe
Ethnic divisions:
    black or mulatto 90%; white 5%; East Indian, Lebanese, Chinese less than 5%
Religions:
    Roman Catholic 95%, Hindu and pagan African 5%
Languages:
    French, creole patois
Literacy:
    90% (male 90%, female 91%) age 15 and over can read and write (1982)
Labor force:
    120,000; 53.0% services, government, and commerce, 25.8% industry, 21.2%
    agriculture
Organized labor:
    11% of labor force

:Guadeloupe Government

Long-form name:
    Department of Guadeloupe
Type:
    overseas department of France
Capital:
    Basse-Terre
Administrative divisions:
    none (overseas department of France)
Independence:
    none (overseas department of France)
Constitution:
    28 September 1958 (French Constitution)
Legal system:
    French legal system
National holiday:
    Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)
Executive branch:
    government commissioner
Legislative branch:
    unicameral General Council and unicameral Regional Council
Judicial branch:
    Court of Appeal (Cour d'Appel) with jurisdiction over Guadeloupe, French
    Guiana, and Martinique
Leaders:
  Chief of State:
    President Francois MITTERRAND (since 21 May 1981)
  Head of Government:
    Commissioner of the Republic Jean-Paul PROUST (since November 1989)
Political parties and leaders:
    Rally for the Republic (RPR), Marlene CAPTANT; Communist Party of Guadeloupe
    (PCG), Christian Medard CELESTE; Socialist Party (PSG), Dominique LARIFLA;
    Popular Union for the Liberation of Guadeloupe (UPLG); Independent
    Republicans; Union for French Democracy (UDF); Union for a New Majority
    (UNM)
Suffrage:
    universal at age 18
Elections:
  French National Assembly:
    last held on 5 and 12 June 1988 (next to be held June 1994); Guadeloupe
    elects four representatives; results - percent of vote by party NA; seats -
    (4 total) PS 2 seats, RPR 1 seat, PCG 1 seat
  French Senate:
    last held on 5 and 12 June 1988 (next to be held June 1994); Guadeloupe
    elects two representatives; results - percent of vote by party NA; seats -
    (2 total) PCG 1, PS 1
  General Council:
    last held NA 1986 (next to be held by NA 1992); results - percent of vote by
    party NA; seats - (42 total) number of seats by party NA
  Regional Council:
    last held on 16 March 1992 (next to be held by 16 March 1998); results - RPR
    33.1%, PSG 28.7%, PCG 23.8%, UDF 10.7%, other 3.7%; seats - (41 total) RPR
    15, PSG 12, PCG 10, UDF 4
Communists:
    3,000 est.
Other political or pressure groups:
    Popular Union for the Liberation of Guadeloupe (UPLG); Popular Movement for
    Independent Guadeloupe (MPGI); General Union of Guadeloupe Workers (UGTG);
    General Federation of Guadeloupe Workers (CGT-G); Christian Movement for the
    Liberation of Guadeloupe (KLPG)

:Guadeloupe Government

Member of:
    FZ, WCL
Diplomatic representation:
    as an overseas department of France, the interests of Guadeloupe are
    represented in the US by France
Flag:
    the flag of France is used

:Guadeloupe Economy

Overview:
    The economy depends on agriculture, tourism, light industry, and services.
    It is also dependent upon France for large subsidies and imports. Tourism is
    a key industry, with most tourists from the US. In addition, an increasingly
    large number of cruise ships visit the islands. The traditionally important
    sugarcane crop is slowly being replaced by other crops, such as bananas
    (which now supply about 50% of export earnings), eggplant, and flowers.
    Other vegetables and root crops are cultivated for local consumption,
    although Guadeloupe is still dependent on imported food, which comes mainly
    from France. Light industry consists mostly of sugar and rum production.
    Most manufactured goods and fuel are imported. Unemployment is especially
    high among the young.
GDP:
    exchange rate conversion - $1.1 billion, per capita $3,300; real growth rate
    NA% (1987)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    2.3% (1988)
Unemployment rate:
    38% (1987)
Budget:
    revenues $254 million; expenditures $254 million, including capital
    expenditures of NA (1989)
Exports:
    $153 million (f.o.b., 1988)
  commodities:
    bananas, sugar, rum
  partners:
    France 68%, Martinique 22% (1987)
Imports:
    $1.2 billion (c.i.f., 1988)
  commodities:
    vehicles, foodstuffs, clothing and other consumer goods, construction
    materials, petroleum products
  partners:
    France 64%, Italy, FRG, US (1987)
External debt:
    $NA
Industrial production:
    growth rate NA%
Electricity:
    171,500 kW capacity; 441 million kWh produced, 1,279 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
    construction, cement, rum, sugar, tourism
Agriculture:
    cash crops - bananas and sugarcane; other products include tropical fruits
    and vegetables; livestock - cattle, pigs, and goats; not self-sufficient in
    food
Economic aid:
    US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $4 million; Western (non-US)
    countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $8.235 billion
Currency:
    French franc (plural - francs); 1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
    French francs (F) per US$1 - 5.6397 (March 1992), 5.6421 (1991), 5.4453
    (1990), 6.3801 (1989), 5.9569 (1988), 6.0107 (1987)
Fiscal year:
    calendar year

:Guadeloupe Communications

Railroads:
    privately owned, narrow-gauge plantation lines
Highways:
    1,940 km total; 1,600 km paved, 340 km gravel and earth
Ports:
    Pointe-a-Pitre, Basse-Terre
Civil air:
    2 major transport aircraft
Airports:
    9 total, 9 usable, 8 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over
    3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 1 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
    domestic facilities inadequate; 57,300 telephones; interisland radio relay
    to Antigua and Barbuda, Dominica, and Martinique; broadcast stations - 2 AM,
    8 FM (30 private stations licensed to broadcast FM), 9 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean
    INTELSAT ground station

:Guadeloupe Defense Forces

Branches:
    French Forces, Gendarmerie
Manpower availability:
    males 15-49, 98,069; NA fit for military service
Note:
    defense is responsibility of France

:Guam Geography

Total area:
    541.3 km2
Land area:
    541.3 km2
Comparative area:
    slightly more than three times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
    none
Coastline:
    125.5 km
Maritime claims:
  Contiguous zone:
    12 nm
  Continental shelf:
    200 m (depth)
  Exclusive economic zone:
    200 nm
  Territorial sea:
    12 nm
Disputes:
    none
Climate:
    tropical marine; generally warm and humid, moderated by northeast trade
    winds; dry season from January to June, rainy season from July to December;
    little seasonal temperature variation
Terrain:
    volcanic origin, surrounded by coral reefs; relatively flat coraline
    limestone plateau (source of most fresh water) with steep coastal cliffs and
    narrow coastal plains in north, low-rising hills in center, mountains in
    south
Natural resources:
    fishing (largely undeveloped), tourism (especially from Japan)
Land use:
    arable land 11%; permanent crops 11%; meadows and pastures 15%; forest and
    woodland 18%; other 45%
Environment:
    frequent squalls during rainy season; subject to relatively rare, but
    potentially very destructive typhoons (especially in August)
Note:
    largest and southernmost island in the Mariana Islands archipelago;
    strategic location in western North Pacific Ocean 5,955 km west-southwest of
    Honolulu about three-quarters of the way between Hawaii and the Philippines

:Guam People

Population:
    142,271 (July 1992), growth rate 2.6% (1992)
Birth rate:
    27 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
    4 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
    3 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
    15 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
    72 years male, 76 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
    2.5 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
    noun - Guamanian(s); adjective - Guamanian; note - Guamanians are US
    citizens
Ethnic divisions:
    Chamorro 47%, Filipino 25%, Caucasian 10%, Chinese, Japanese, Korean, and
    other 18%
Religions:
    Roman Catholic 98%, other 2%
Languages:
    English and Chamorro, most residents bilingual; Japanese also widely spoken
Literacy:
    96% (male 96%, female 96%) age 15 and over can read and write (1980)
Labor force:
    46,930; federal and territorial government 40%, private 60% (trade 18%,
    services 15.6%, construction 13.8%, other 12.6%) (1990)
Organized labor:
    13% of labor force

:Guam Government

Long-form name:
    Territory of Guam
Type:
    organized, unincorporated territory of the US; policy relations between Guam
    and the US are under the jurisdiction of the Office of Territorial and
    International Affairs, US Department of the Interior
Capital:
    Agana
Administrative divisions:
    none (territory of the US)
Independence:
    none (territory of the US)
Constitution:
    Organic Act of 1 August 1950
Legal system:
    NA
National holiday:
    Guam Discovery Day (first Monday in March), Liberation Day (July 21), US
    Government holidays
Executive branch:
    President of the US, governor, lieutenant governor, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
    unicameral Legislature
Judicial branch:
    Federal District Court of Guam, Territorial Superior Court of Guam
Leaders:
  Chief of State:
    President George BUSH (since 20 January 1989)
  Head of Government:
    Governor Joseph A. ADA (since November 1986); Lieutenant Governor Frank F.
    BLAS
Political parties and leaders:
    Democratic Party (controls the legislature); Republican Party (party of the
    Governor)
Suffrage:
    universal at age 18; US citizens, but do not vote in US presidential
    elections
Elections:
  Governor:
    last held on 6 November 1990 (next to be held November 1994); results -
    Joseph F. ADA reelected
  Legislature:
    last held on 6 November 1990 (next to be held November 1992); a byelection
    was held in April 1991 to replace a deceased legislator, results - percent
    of vote by party NA; seats - (21 total) Democratic 11, Republican 10
  US House of Representatives:
    last held 6 November 1990 (next to be held 3 November 1992); Guam elects one
    nonvoting delegate; results - Ben BLAZ was elected as the nonacting
    delegate; seats - (1 total) Republican 1
Member of:
    ESCAP (associate), IOC, SPC
Diplomatic representation:
    none (territory of the US)
Flag:
    territorial flag is dark blue with a narrow red border on all four sides;
    centered is a red-bordered, pointed, vertical ellipse containing a beach
    scene, outrigger canoe with sail, and a palm tree with the word GUAM
    superimposed in bold red letters; US flag is the national flag

:Guam Economy

Overview:
    The economy is based on US military spending and on revenues from tourism.
    Over the past 20 years the tourist industry has grown rapidly, creating a
    construction boom for new hotels and the expansion of older ones. Visitors
    numbered about 900,000 in 1990. The small manufacturing sector includes
    textiles and clothing, beverage, food, and watch production. About 60% of
    the labor force works for the private sector and the rest for government.
    Most food and industrial goods are imported, with about 75% from the US. In
    1991 the unemployment rate was about 4.1%.
GNP:
    purchasing power equivalent - $2.0 billion, per capita $14,000; real growth
    rate NA% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    12.6% (1991)
Unemployment rate:
    4.1% (1991 est.)
Budget:
    revenues $525 million; expenditures $395 million, including capital
    expenditures of $NA.
Exports:
    $34 million (f.o.b., 1984)
  commodities:
    mostly transshipments of refined petroleum products, construction materials,
    fish, food and beverage products
  partners:
    US 25%, Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands 63%, other 12%
Imports:
    $493 million (c.i.f., 1984)
  commodities:
    petroleum and petroleum products, food, manufactured goods
  partners:
    US 23%, Japan 19%, other 58%
External debt:
    $NA
Industrial production:
    growth rate NA%
Electricity:
    500,000 kW capacity; 2,300 million kWh produced, 16,300 kWh per capita
    (1990)
Industries:
    US military, tourism, construction, transshipment services, concrete
    products, printing and publishing, food processing, textiles
Agriculture:
    relatively undeveloped with most food imported; fruits, vegetables, eggs,
    pork, poultry, beef, copra
Economic aid:
    although Guam receives no foreign aid, it does receive large transfer
    payments from the general revenues of the US Federal Treasury into which
    Guamanians pay no income or excise taxes; under the provisions of a special
    law of Congress, the Guamanian Treasury, rather than the US Treasury,
    receives federal income taxes paid by military and civilian Federal
    employees stationed in Guam
Currency:
    US currency is used
Exchange rates:
    US currency is used
Fiscal year:
    1 October - 30 September

:Guam Communications

Highways:
    674 km all-weather roads
Ports:
    Apra Harbor
Airports:
    5 total, 4 usable; 3 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over
    3,659 m; 3 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; none with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
    26,317 telephones (1989); broadcast stations - 3 AM, 3 FM, 3 TV; 2 Pacific
    Ocean INTELSAT ground stations

:Guam Defense Forces

Note:
    defense is the responsibility of the US

:Guatemala Geography

Total area:
    108,890 km2
Land area:
    108,430 km2
Comparative area:
    slightly smaller than Tennessee
Land boundaries:
    1,687 km; Belize 266 km, El Salvador 203 km, Honduras 256 km, Mexico 962 km
Coastline:
    400 km
Maritime claims:
  Continental shelf:
    not specific
  Exclusive economic zone:
    200 nm
  Territorial sea:
    12 nm
Disputes:
    claims Belize, but boundary negotiations to resolve the dispute have begun
Climate:
    tropical; hot, humid in lowlands; cooler in highlands
Terrain:
    mostly mountains with narrow coastal plains and rolling limestone plateau
    (Peten)
Natural resources:
    crude oil, nickel, rare woods, fish, chicle
Land use:
    arable land 12%; permanent crops 4%; meadows and pastures 12%; forest and
    woodland 40%; other 32%; includes irrigated 1%
Environment:
    numerous volcanoes in mountains, with frequent violent earthquakes;
    Caribbean coast subject to hurricanes and other tropical storms;
    deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution
Note:
    no natural harbors on west coast

:Guatemala People

Population:
    9,784,275 (July 1992), growth rate 2.4% (1992)
Birth rate:
    34 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
    8 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
    -2 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
    56 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
    61 years male, 66 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
    4.6 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
    noun - Guatemalan(s); adjective - Guatemalan
Ethnic divisions:
    Ladino (mestizo - mixed Indian and European ancestry) 56%, Indian 44%
Religions:
    predominantly Roman Catholic; also Protestant, traditional Mayan
Languages:
    Spanish, but over 40% of the population speaks an Indian language as a
    primary tongue (18 Indian dialects, including Quiche, Cakchiquel, Kekchi)
Literacy:
    55% (male 63%, female 47%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
    2,500,000; agriculture 60%, services 13%, manufacturing 12%, commerce 7%,
    construction 4%, transport 3%, utilities 0.8%, mining 0.4% (1985)
Organized labor:
    8% of labor force (1988 est.)

:Guatemala Government

Long-form name:
    Republic of Guatemala
Type:
    republic
Capital:
    Guatemala
Administrative divisions:
    22 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Alta Verapaz, Baja
    Verapaz, Chimaltenango, Chiquimula, El Progreso, Escuintla, Guatemala,
    Huehuetenango, Izabal, Jalapa, Jutiapa, Peten, Quetzaltenango, Quiche,
    Retalhuleu, Sacatepequez, San Marcos, Santa Rosa, Solola, Suchitepequez,
    Totonicapan, Zacapa
Independence:
    15 September 1821 (from Spain)
Constitution:
    31 May 1985, effective 14 January 1986
Legal system:
    civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted
    compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
    Independence Day, 15 September (1821)
Executive branch:
    president, vice president, Council of Ministers (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
    unicameral Congress of the Republic (Congreso de la Republica)
Judicial branch:
    Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justicia)
Leaders:
  Chief of State and Head of Government:
    President Jorge SERRANO Elias (since 14 January 1991); Vice President
    Gustavo ESPINA Salguero (since 14 January 1991)
Political parties and leaders:
    National Centrist Union (UCN), Jorge CARPIO Nicolle; Solidarity Action
    Movement (MAS), Jorge SERRANO Elias; Christian Democratic Party (DCG),
    Alfonso CABRERA Hidalgo; National Advancement Party (PAN), Alvaro ARZU
    Irigoyen; National Liberation Movement (MLN), Mario SANDOVAL Alarcon; Social
    Democratic Party (PSD), Mario SOLARZANO Martinez; Popular Alliance 5 (AP-5),
    Max ORLANDO Molina; Revolutionary Party (PR), Carlos CHAVARRIA; National
    Authentic Center (CAN), Hector MAYORA Dawe; Democratic Institutional Party
    (PID), Oscar RIVAS; Nationalist United Front (FUN), Gabriel GIRON;
    Guatemalan Republican Front (FRG), Efrain RIOS Montt
Suffrage:
    universal at age 18
Elections:
  Congress:
    last held on 11 November 1990 (next to be held 11 November 1995); results -
    UCN 25.6%, MAS 24.3%, DCG 17. 5%, PAN 17.3%, MLN 4.8%, PSD/AP-5 3.6%, PR
    2.1%; seats - (116 total) UCN 38, DCG 27, MAS 18, PAN 12, Pro - Rios Montt
    10, MLN 4, PR 1, PSD/AP-5 1, independent 5
  President:
    runoff held on 11 January 1991 (next to be held 11 November 1995); results -
    Jorge SERRANO Elias (MAS) 68.1%, Jorge CARPIO Nicolle (UCN) 31.9%
Communists:
    Guatemalan Labor Party (PGT); main radical left guerrilla groups - Guerrilla
    Army of the Poor (EGP), Revolutionary Organization of the People in Arms
    (ORPA), Rebel Armed Forces (FAR), and PGT dissidents

:Guatemala Government

Other political or pressure groups:
    Federated Chambers of Commerce and Industry (CACIF), Mutual Support Group
    (GAM), Unity for Popular and Labor Action (UASP), Agrarian Owners Group
    (UNAGRO), Committee for Campesino Unity (CUC)
Member of:
    BCIE, CACM, CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-24, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
    ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ITU,
    LAES, LAIA, LORCS, OAS, OPANAL, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL,
    WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO
Diplomatic representation:
    Ambassador Juan Jose CASO-FANJUL; Chancery at 2220 R Street NW, Washington,
    DC 20008; telephone (202) 745-4952 through 4954; there are Guatemalan
    Consulates General in Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New
    York, and San Francisco
  US:
    Ambassador Thomas F. STROOCK; Embassy at 7-01 Avenida de la Reforma, Zone
    10, Guatemala City (mailing address is APO AA 34024); telephone [502] (2)
    31-15-41
Flag:
    three equal vertical bands of light blue (hoist side), white, and light blue
    with the coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms includes
    a green and red quetzal (the national bird) and a scroll bearing the
    inscription LIBERTAD 15 DE SEPTIEMBRE DE 1821 (the original date of
    independence from Spain) all superimposed on a pair of crossed rifles and a
    pair of crossed swords and framed by a wreath

:Guatemala Economy

Overview:
    The economy is based on family and corporate agriculture, which accounts for
    26% of GDP, employs about 60% of the labor force, and supplies two-thirds of
    exports. Manufacturing, predominantly in private hands, accounts for about
    18% of GDP and 12% of the labor force. In both 1990 and 1991, the economy
    grew by 3%, the fourth and fifth consecutive years of mild growth. Inflation
    at 40% in 1990-91 was more than double the 1987-89 level.
GDP:
    exchange rate conversion - $11.7 billion, per capita $1,260; real growth
    rate 3% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    40% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
    6.7%, with 30-40% underemployment (1989 est.)
Budget:
    revenues $1.05 billion; expenditures $1.3 billion, including capital
    expenditures of $270 million (1989 est.)
Exports:
    $1.16 billion (f.o.b., 1990)
  commodities:
    coffee 26%, sugar 13%, bananas 7%, beef 2%
  partners:
    US 39%, El Salvador, Costa Rica, Germany, Honduras
Imports:
    $1.66 billion (c.i.f., 1990)
  commodities:
    fuel and petroleum products, machinery, grain, fertilizers, motor vehicles
  partners:
    US 40%, Mexico, Venezuela, Japan, Germany
External debt:
    $2.6 billion (December 1990 est.)
Industrial production:
    growth rate NA; accounts for 18% of GDP
Electricity:
    802,600 kW capacity; 2,461 million kWh produced, 266 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
    sugar, textiles and clothing, furniture, chemicals, petroleum, metals,
    rubber, tourism
Agriculture:
    accounts for 26% of GDP; most important sector of economy and contributes
    two-thirds of export earnings; principal crops - sugarcane, corn, bananas,
    coffee, beans, cardamom; livestock - cattle, sheep, pigs, chickens; food
    importer
Illicit drugs:
    illicit producer of opium poppy and cannabis for the international drug
    trade; the government has an active eradication program for cannabis and
    opium poppy; transit country for cocaine shipments
Economic aid:
    US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-90), $1.1 billion; Western (non-US)
    countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $7.92 billion
Currency:
    quetzal (plural - quetzales); 1 quetzal (Q) = 100 centavos
Exchange rates:
    free market quetzales (Q) per US$1 - 5.0854 (January 1992), 5.0289 (1991),
    2.8161 (1989), 2.6196 (1988), 2.500 (1987); note - black-market rate 2.800
    (May 1989)
Fiscal year:
    calendar year

:Guatemala Communications

Railroads:
    884 km 0.914-meter gauge, single track; 782 km government owned, 102 km
    privately owned
Highways:
    26,429 km total; 2,868 km paved, 11,421 km gravel, and 12,140 unimproved
Inland waterways:
    260 km navigable year round; additional 730 km navigable during high-water
    season
Pipelines:
    crude oil 275 km
Ports:
    Puerto Barrios, Puerto Quetzal, Santo Tomas de Castilla
Merchant marine:
    1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,129 GRT/6,450 DWT
Civil air:
    8 major transport aircraft
Airports:
    448 total, 400 usable; 11 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways
    over 3,659 m; 3 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 19 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
    fairly modern network centered in Guatemala [city]; 97,670 telephones;
    broadcast stations - 91 AM, no FM, 25 TV, 15 shortwave; connection into
    Central American Microwave System; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

:Guatemala Defense Forces

Branches:
    Army, Navy, Air Force
Manpower availability:
    males 15-49, 2,169,073; 1,420,116 fit for military service; 107,239 reach
    military age (18) annually
Defense expenditures:
    exchange rate conversion - $113 million, 1% of GDP (1990)

:Guernsey Geography

Total area:
    194 km2
Land area:
    194 km2; includes Alderney, Guernsey, Herm, Sark, and some other smaller
    islands
Comparative area:
    slightly larger than Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
    none
Coastline:
    50 km
Maritime claims:
  Exclusive fishing zone:
    200 nm
  Territorial sea:
    3 nm
Disputes:
    none
Climate:
    temperate with mild winters and cool summers; about 50% of days are overcast
Terrain:
    mostly level with low hills in southwest
Natural resources:
    cropland
Land use:
    arable land NA%; permanent crops NA%; meadows and pastures NA%; forest and
    woodland NA%; other NA%; cultivated about 50%
Environment:
    large, deepwater harbor at Saint Peter Port
Note:
    52 km west of France

:Guernsey People

Population:
    57,949 (July 1992), growth rate 0.6% (1992)
Birth rate:
    12 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
    11 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
    5 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
    6 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
    72 years male, 78 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
    1.6 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
    noun - Channel Islander(s); adjective - Channel Islander
Ethnic divisions:
    UK and Norman-French descent
Religions:
    Anglican, Roman Catholic, Presbyterian, Baptist, Congregational, Methodist
Languages:
    English, French; Norman-French dialect spoken in country districts
Literacy:
    NA% (male NA%, female NA%) but compulsory education age 5 to 16
Labor force:
    NA
Organized labor:
    NA

:Guernsey Government

Long-form name:
    Bailiwick of Guernsey
Type:
    British crown dependency
Capital:
    Saint Peter Port
Administrative divisions:
    none (British crown dependency)
Independence:
    none (British crown dependency)
Constitution:
    unwritten; partly statutes, partly common law and practice
Legal system:
    English law and local statute; justice is administered by the Royal Court
National holiday:
    Liberation Day, 9 May (1945)
Executive branch:
    British monarch, lieutenant governor, bailiff, deputy bailiff
Legislative branch:
    unicameral Assembly of the States
Judicial branch:
    Royal Court
Leaders:
  Chief of State:
    Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952)
  Head of Government:
    Lieutenant Governor Lt. Gen. Sir Michael WILKINS (since NA 1990); Bailiff
    Mr. Graham Martyn DOREY (since February 1992)
Political parties and leaders:
    none; all independents
Suffrage:
    universal at age 18
Elections:
  Assembly of the States:
    last held NA (next to be held NA); results - no percent of vote by party
    since all are independents; seats - (60 total, 33 elected), all independents
Member of:
    none
Diplomatic representation:
    none (British crown dependency)
Flag:
    white with the red cross of Saint George (patron saint of England) extending
    to the edges of the flag

:Guernsey Economy

Overview:
    Tourism is a major source of revenue. Other economic activity includes
    financial services, breeding the world-famous Guernsey cattle, and growing
    tomatoes and flowers for export.
GDP:
    $NA, per capita $NA; real growth rate 9% (1987)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    7% (1988)
Unemployment rate:
    NA%
Budget:
    revenues $208.9 million; expenditures $173.9 million, including capital
    expenditures of NA (1988)
Exports:
    $NA
  commodities:
    tomatoes, flowers and ferns, sweet peppers, eggplant, other vegetables
  partners:
    UK (regarded as internal trade)
Imports:
    $NA
  commodities:
    coal, gasoline, and oil
  partners:
    UK (regarded as internal trade)
External debt:
    $NA
Industrial production:
    growth rate NA%
Electricity:
    173,000 kW capacity; 525 million kWh produced, 9,340 kWh per capita (1989)
Industries:
    tourism, banking
Agriculture:
    tomatoes, flowers (mostly grown in greenhouses), sweet peppers, eggplant,
    other vegetables and fruit; Guernsey cattle
Economic aid:
    none
Currency:
    Guernsey pound (plural - pounds); 1 Guernsey (#G) pound = 100 pence
Exchange rates:
    Guernsey pounds (#G) per US$1 - 0.5799 (March 1992), 0.5652 (1991), 0.5603
    (1990), 0.6099 (1989), 0.5614 (1988), 0.6102 (1987); note - the Guernsey
    pound is at par with the British pound
Fiscal year:
    calendar year

:Guernsey Communications

Ports:
    Saint Peter Port, Saint Sampson
Telecommunications:
    broadcast stations - 1 AM, no FM, 1 TV; 41,900 telephones; 1 submarine cable

:Guernsey Defense Forces

Note:
    defense is the responsibility of the UK

:Guinea Geography

Total area:
    245,860 km2
Land area:
    245,860 km2
Comparative area:
    slightly smaller than Oregon
Land boundaries:
    3,399 km; Guinea-Bissau 386 km, Ivory Coast 610 km, Liberia 563 km, Mali 858
    km, Senegal 330 km, Sierra Leone 652 km
Coastline:
    320 km
Maritime claims:
  Exclusive economic zone:
    200 nm
  Territorial sea:
    12 nm
Disputes:
    none
Climate:
    generally hot and humid; monsoonal-type rainy season (June to November) with
    southwesterly winds; dry season (December to May) with northeasterly
    harmattan winds
Terrain:
    generally flat coastal plain, hilly to mountainous interior
Natural resources:
    bauxite, iron ore, diamonds, gold, uranium, hydropower, fish
Land use:
    arable land 6%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and pastures 12%; forest and
    woodland 42%; other 40%; includes irrigated NEGL%
Environment:
    hot, dry, dusty harmattan haze may reduce visibility during dry season;
    deforestation

:Guinea People

Population:
    7,783,926 (July 1992), growth rate - 1.5% (1992)
Birth rate:
    46 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
    21 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
    -40 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
    143 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
    41 years male, 45 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
    6.0 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
    noun - Guinean(s); adjective - Guinean
Ethnic divisions:
    Fulani 35%, Malinke 30%, Soussou 20%, small indigenous tribes 15%
Religions:
    Muslim 85%, Christian 8%, indigenous beliefs 7%
Languages:
    French (official); each tribe has its own language
Literacy:
    24% (male 35%, female 13%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
    2,400,000 (1983); agriculture 82.0%, industry and commerce 11.0%, services
    5.4%; 88,112 civil servants (1987); 52% of population of working age (1985)
Organized labor:
    virtually 100% of wage earners loosely affiliated with the National
    Confederation of Guinean Workers

:Guinea Government

Long-form name:
    Republic of Guinea
Type:
    republic
Capital:
    Conakry
Administrative divisions:
    33 administrative regions (regions administratives, singular - region
    administrative); Beyla, Boffa, Boke, Conakry, Coyah, Dabola, Dalaba,
    Dinguiraye, Faranah, Forecariah, Fria, Gaoual, Gueckedou, Kankan, Kerouane,
    Kindia, Kissidougou, Koubia, Koundara, Kouroussa, Labe, Lelouma, Lola,
    Macenta, Mali, Mamou, Mandiana, Nzerekore, Pita, Siguiri, Telimele, Tougue,
    Yomou
Independence:
    2 October 1958 (from France; formerly French Guinea)
Constitution:
    23 December 1990 (Loi Fundamentale)
Legal system:
    based on French civil law system, customary law, and decree; legal codes
    currently being revised; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
    Anniversary of the Second Republic, 3 April (1984)
Executive branch:
    president, Transitional Committee for National Recovery (Comite
    Transitionale de Redressement National or CTRN) replaced the Military
    Committee for National Recovery (Comite Militaire de Redressement National
    or CMRN); Council of Ministers (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
    People's National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale Populaire) was dissolved
    after the 3 April 1984 coup; note: framework for a new National Assembly
    established in December 1991 (will have 114 seats)
Judicial branch:
    Court of Appeal (Cour d'Appel)
Leaders:
  Chief of State and Head of Government:
    Gen. Lansana CONTE (since 5 April 1984)
Political parties and leaders:
    none; following the 3 April 1984 coup, all political activity was banned
Suffrage:
    none
Elections:
    none
Member of:
    ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CEAO, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB,
    IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU,
    LORCS, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
    WTO
Diplomatic representation:
    Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires ad interim Ansoumane CAMARA; Chancery
    at 2112 Leroy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008; telephone (202) 483-9420
  US:
    Ambassador Dane F. SMITH, Jr.; Embassy at 2nd Boulevard and 9th Avenue,
    Conakry (mailing address is B. P. 603, Conakry); telephone (224) 44-15-20
    through 24
Flag:
    three equal vertical bands of red (hoist side), yellow, and green; uses the
    popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia; similar to the flag of Rwanda, which
    has a large black letter R centered in the yellow band

:Guinea Economy

Overview:
    Although possessing many natural resources and considerable potential for
    agricultural development, Guinea is one of the poorest countries in the
    world. The agricultural sector contributes about 40% to GDP and employs more
    than 80% of the work force, while industry accounts for 27% of GDP. Guinea
    possesses over 25% of the world's bauxite reserves; exports of bauxite and
    alumina accounted for about 70% of total exports in 1989.
GDP:
    exchange rate conversion - $3.0 billion, per capita $410; real growth rate
    4.3% (1990 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    19.6% (1990 est.)
Unemployment rate:
    NA%
Budget:
    revenues $449 million; expenditures $708 million, including capital
    expenditures of $361 million (1990 est.)
Exports:
    $788 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.)
  commodities:
    alumina, bauxite, diamonds, coffee, pineapples, bananas, palm kernels
  partners:
    US 33%, EC 33%, USSR and Eastern Europe 20%, Canada
Imports:
    $692 million (c.i.f., 1990 est.)
  commodities:
    petroleum products, metals, machinery, transport equipment, foodstuffs,
    textiles, and other grain
  partners:
    US 16%, France, Brazil
External debt:
    $2.6 billion (1990 est.)
Industrial production:
    growth rate NA%; accounts for 27% of GDP
Electricity:
    113,000 kW capacity; 300 million kWh produced, 40 kWh per capita (1989)
Industries:
    bauxite mining, alumina, gold, diamond mining, light manufacturing and
    agricultural processing industries
Agriculture:
    accounts for 40% of GDP (includes fishing and forestry); mostly subsistence
    farming; principal products - rice, coffee, pineapples, palm kernels,
    cassava, bananas, sweet potatoes, timber; livestock - cattle, sheep and
    goats; not self-sufficient in food grains
Economic aid:
    US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $227 million; Western (non-US)
    countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $1,465 million; OPEC
    bilateral aid (1979-89), $120 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $446
    million
Currency:
    Guinean franc (plural - francs); 1 Guinean franc (FG) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
    Guinean francs (FG) per US$1 - 675 (1990), 618 (1989), 515 (1988), 440
    (1987), 383 (1986)
Fiscal year:
    calendar year

:Guinea Communications

Railroads:
    1,045 km; 806 km 1.000-meter gauge, 239 km 1.435-meter standard gauge
Highways:
    30,100 km total; 1,145 km paved, 12,955 km gravel or laterite (of which
    barely 4,500 km are currently all-weather roads), 16,000 km unimproved earth
    (1987)
Inland waterways:
    1,295 km navigable by shallow-draft native craft
Ports:
    Conakry, Kamsar
Civil air:
    10 major transport aircraft
Airports:
    15 total, 15 usable; 4 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways
    over 3,659 m; 3 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 10 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
    poor to fair system of open-wire lines, small radiocommunication stations,
    and new radio relay system; 15,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 3 AM 1
    FM, 1 TV; 65,000 TV sets; 200,000 radio receivers; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT
    earth station

:Guinea Defense Forces

Branches:
    Army, Navy (acts primarily as a coast guard), Air Force, Republican Guard,
    paramilitary National Gendarmerie, National Police Force
Manpower availability:
    males 15-49, 1,759,811; 888,968 fit for military service (1989)
Defense expenditures:
    exchange rate conversion - $29 million, 1.2% of GDP (1988)

:Guinea-Bissau Geography

Total area:
    36,120 km2
Land area:
    28,000 km2
Comparative area:
    slightly less than three times the size of Connecticut
Land boundaries:
    724 km; Guinea 386, Senegal 338 km
Coastline:
    350 km
Maritime claims:
  Exclusive economic zone:
    200 nm
  Territorial sea:
    12 nm
Disputes:
    the International Court of Justice (ICJ) on 12 November 1991 rendered its
    decision on the Guinea-Bissau/Senegal maritime boundary in favor of Senegal
Climate:
    tropical; generally hot and humid; monsoon-type rainy season (June to
    November) with southwesterly winds; dry season (December to May) with
    northeasterly harmattan winds
Terrain:
    mostly low coastal plain rising to savanna in east
Natural resources:
    unexploited deposits of petroleum, bauxite, phosphates; fish, timber
Land use:
    arable land 11%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures 43%; forest and
    woodland 38%; other 7%
Environment:
    hot, dry, dusty harmattan haze may reduce visibility during dry season

:Guinea-Bissau People

Population:
    1,047,137 (July 1992), growth rate 2.4% (1992)
Birth rate:
    42 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
    18 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
    0 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
    124 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
    45 years male, 48 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
    5.7 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
    noun - Guinea-Bissauan(s); adjective - Guinea-Bissauan
Ethnic divisions:
    African about 99% (Balanta 30%, Fula 20%, Manjaca 14%, Mandinga 13%, Papel
    7%); European and mulatto less than 1%
Religions:
    indigenous beliefs 65%, Muslim 30%, Christian 5%
Languages:
    Portuguese (official); Criolo and numerous African languages
Literacy:
    36% (male 50%, female 24%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
    403,000 (est.); agriculture 90%, industry, services, and commerce 5%,
    government 5%; population of working age 53% (1983)
Organized labor:
    only one trade union - the National Union of Workers of Guinea-Bissau (UNTG)

:Guinea-Bissau Government

Long-form name:
    Republic of Guinea-Bissau
Type:
    republic; highly centralized multiparty since mid-1991; the African Party
    for the Independence of Guinea-Bissau and Cape Verde (PAIGC) held an
    extraordinary party congress in December 1990 and established a two-year
    transition program during which the constitution will be revised, allowing
    for multiple political parties and a presidential election in 1993
Capital:
    Bissau
Administrative divisions:
    9 regions (regioes, singular - regiao); Bafata, Biombo, Bissau, Bolama,
    Cacheu, Gabu, Oio, Quinara, Tombali
Independence:
    10 September 1974 (from Portugal; formerly Portuguese Guinea)
Constitution:
    16 May 1984
Legal system:
    NA
National holiday:
    Independence Day, 10 September (1974)
Executive branch:
    president of the Council of State, vice presidents of the Council of State,
    Council of State, Council of Ministers (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
    unicameral National People's Assembly (Assembleia Nacional Popular)
Judicial branch:
    none; there is a Ministry of Justice in the Council of Ministers
Leaders:
  Chief of State and Head of Government:
    President of the Council of State Brig. Gen. Joao Bernardo VIEIRA (assumed
    power 14 November 1980 and elected President of Council of State on 16 May
    1984)
Political parties and leaders:
    3 parties - African Party for the Independence of Guinea-Bissau and Cape
    Verde (PAIGC), President Joao Bernardo VIEIRA, leader; PAIGC is still the
    major party and controls all aspects of the Government, but 2 opposition
    parties registered in late 1991; Democratic Social Front (FDS), Rafael
    BARBOSA, leader; Bafata Movement, Domingos Fernandes GARNER, leader;
    Democratic Front, Aristides MENEZES, leader; other parties forming
Suffrage:
    universal at age 15
Elections:
  National People's Assembly:
    last held 15 June 1989 (next to be held 15 June 1994); results - PAIGC is
    the only party; seats - (150 total) PAIGC 150, appointed by Regional
    Councils
  President of Council of State:
    last held 19 June 1989 (next to be held NA 1993); results - Brig. Gen. Joao
    Bernardo VIEIRA was reelected without opposition by the National People's
    Assembly
Member of:
    ACCT (associate), ACP, AfDB, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB,
    IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, IOM (observer), ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN,
    UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO
Diplomatic representation:
    Ambassador Alfredo Lopes CABRAL; Chancery at 918 16th Street NW, Mezzanine
    Suite, Washington, DC 20006; telephone (202) 872-4222,

:Guinea-Bissau Government

  US:
    Ambassador William L. JACOBSEN, Jr.; Embassy at 17 Avenida Domingos Ramos,
    Bissau (mailing address is 1067 Bissau Codex, Bissau, Guinea-Bissau);
    telephone [245] 20-1139, 20-1145, 20-1113
Flag:
    two equal horizontal bands of yellow (top) and green with a vertical red
    band on the hoist side; there is a black five-pointed star centered in the
    red band; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia; similar to the
    flag of Cape Verde, which has the black star raised above the center of the
    red band and is framed by two corn stalks and a yellow clam shell

:Guinea-Bissau Economy

Overview:
    Guinea-Bissau ranks among the poorest countries in the world, with a per
    capita GDP below $200. Agriculture and fishing are the main economic
    activities. Cashew nuts, peanuts, and palm kernels are the primary exports.
    Exploitation of known mineral deposits is unlikely at present because of a
    weak infrastructure and the high cost of development. The government's
    four-year plan (1988-91) has targeted agricultural development as the top
    priority.
GDP:
    exchange rate conversion - $162 million, per capita $160; real growth rate
    5.0% (1989)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    25% (1990 est.)
Unemployment rate:
    NA%
Budget:
    revenues $22.7 million; expenditures $30.8 million, including capital
    expenditures of $18.0 million (1989 est.)
Exports:
    $14.2 million (f.o.b., 1989 est.)
  commodities:
    cashews, fish, peanuts, palm kernels
  partners:
    Portugal, Senegal, France, The Gambia, Netherlands, Spain
Imports:
    $68.9 million (f.o.b., 1989 est.)
  commodities:
    capital equipment, consumer goods, semiprocessed goods, foods, petroleum
  partners:
    Portugal, Netherlands, Senegal, USSR, Germany
External debt:
    $462 million (December 1990 est.)
Industrial production:
    growth rate - 1.0% (1989 est.); accounts for 10% of GDP (1989 est.)
Electricity:
    22,000 kW capacity; 30 million kWh produced, 30 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
    agricultural processing, beer, soft drinks
Agriculture:
    accounts for over 50% of GDP, nearly 100% of exports, and 90% of employment;
    rice is the staple food; other crops include corn, beans, cassava, cashew
    nuts, peanuts, palm kernels, and cotton; not self-sufficient in food;
    fishing and forestry potential not fully exploited
Economic aid:
    US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $49 million; Western (non-US)
    countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $615 million; OPEC
    bilateral aid (1979-89), $41 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $68
    million
Currency:
    Guinea-Bissauan peso (plural - pesos); 1 Guinea-Bissauan peso (PG) = 100
    centavos
Exchange rates:
    Guinea-Bissauan pesos (PG) per US$1 - 1987.2 (1989), 1363.6 (1988), 851.65
    (1987), 238.98 (1986)
Fiscal year:
    calendar year

:Guinea-Bissau Communications

Highways:
    3,218 km; 2,698 km bituminous, remainder earth
Inland waterways:
    scattered stretches are important to coastal commerce
Ports:
    Bissau
Civil air:
    2 major transport aircraft
Airports:
    34 total, 15 usable; 4 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways
    over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 5 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
    poor system of radio relay, open-wire lines, and radiocommunications; 3,000
    telephones; broadcast stations - 2 AM, 3 FM, 1 TV

:Guinea-Bissau Defense Forces

Branches:
    People's Revolutionary Armed Force (FARP; including Army, Navy, Air Force),
    paramilitary force
Manpower availability:
    males 15-49, 228,856; 130,580 fit for military service
Defense expenditures:
    exchange rate conversion - $9.3 million, 5-6% of GDP (1987)

:Guyana Geography

Total area:
    214,970 km2
Land area:
    196,850 km2
Comparative area:
    slightly smaller than Idaho
Land boundaries:
    2,462 km; Brazil 1,119 km, Suriname 600 km, Venezuela 743 km
Coastline:
    459 km
Maritime claims:
  Continental shelf:
    outer edge of continental margin or 200 nm
  Exclusive fishing zone:
    200 nm
  Territorial sea:
    12 nm
Disputes:
    all of the area west of the Essequibo River claimed by Venezuela; Suriname
    claims area between New (Upper Courantyne) and Courantyne/Kutari Rivers (all
    headwaters of the Courantyne)
Climate:
    tropical; hot, humid, moderated by northeast trade winds; two rainy seasons
    (May to mid-August, mid-November to mid-January)
Terrain:
    mostly rolling highlands; low coastal plain; savanna in south
Natural resources:
    bauxite, gold, diamonds, hardwood timber, shrimp, fish
Land use:
    arable land 3%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and pastures 6%; forest and
    woodland 83%; other 8%; includes irrigated 1%
Environment:
    flash floods a constant threat during rainy seasons; water pollution

:Guyana People

Population:
    739,431 (July 1992), growth rate - 0.6% (1992)
Birth rate:
    21 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
    7 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
    -20 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
    50 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
    61 years male, 68 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
    2.4 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
    noun - Guyanese (singular and plural); adjective - Guyanese
Ethnic divisions:
    East Indian 51%, black and mixed 43%, Amerindian 4%, European and Chinese 2%
Religions:
    Christian 57%, Hindu 33%, Muslim 9%, other 1%
Languages:
    English, Amerindian dialects
Literacy:
    95% (male 98%, female 96%) age 15 and over having ever attended school (1990
    est.)
Labor force:
    268,000; industry and commerce 44.5%, agriculture 33.8%, services 21.7%;
    public-sector employment amounts to 60-80% of the total labor force (1985)
Organized labor:
    34% of labor force

:Guyana Government

Long-form name:
    Co-operative Republic of Guyana
Type:
    republic
Capital:
    Georgetown
Administrative divisions:
    10 regions; Barima-Waini, Cuyuni-Mazaruni, Demerara-Mahaica, East
    Berbice-Corentyne, Essequibo Islands-West Demerara, Mahaica-Berbice,
    Pomeroon-Supenaam, Potaro-Siparuni, Upper Demerara-Berbice, Upper
    Takutu-Upper Essequibo
Independence:
    26 May 1966 (from UK; formerly British Guiana)
Constitution:
    6 October 1980
Legal system:
    based on English common law with certain admixtures of Roman-Dutch law; has
    not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
    Republic Day, 23 February (1970)
Executive branch:
    executive president, first vice president, prime minister, first deputy
    prime minister, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
    unicameral National Assembly
Judicial branch:
    Supreme Court of Judicature
Leaders:
  Chief of State:
    Executive President Hugh Desmond HOYTE (since 6 August 1985); First Vice
    President Hamilton GREEN (since 6 August 1985)
  Head of Government:
    Prime Minister Hamilton GREEN (since NA August 1985)
Political parties and leaders:
    People's National Congress (PNC), Hugh Desmond HOYTE; People's Progressive
    Party (PPP), Cheddi JAGAN; Working People's Alliance (WPA), Eusi KWAYANA,
    Rupert ROOPNARINE; Democratic Labor Movement (DLM), Paul TENNASSEE; People's
    Democratic Movement (PDM), Llewellyn JOHN; National Democratic Front (NDF),
    Joseph BACCHUS; United Force (UF), Manzoor NADIR; United Republican Party
    (URP), Leslie RAMSAMMY; National Republican Party (NRP), Robert GANGADEEN;
    Guyanese Labor Party (GLP), Nanda GOPAUL
Suffrage:
    universal at age 18
Elections:
  Executive President:
    last held on 9 December 1985 (next to be held 1992); results - Hugh Desmond
    HOYTE was elected president since he was leader of the party with the most
    votes in the National Assembly elections
  National Assembly:
    last held on 9 December 1985 (next to be held mid-1992); results - PNC 78%,
    PPP 16%, UF 4%, WPA 2%; seats - (65 total, 53 elected) PNC 42, PPP 8, UF 2,
    WPA 1
Other political or pressure groups:
    Trades Union Congress (TUC); Guyana Council of Indian Organizations (GCIO);
    Civil Liberties Action Committee (CLAC); the latter two organizations are
    small and active but not well organized; Guyanese Action for Reform and
    Democracy (GUARD) includes various labor groups, as well as several of the
    smaller political parties

:Guyana Government

Member of:
    ACP, C, CARICOM, CCC, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU,
    IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LAES, LORCS, NAM, OAS,
    UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WMO
Diplomatic representation:
    Ambassador Dr. Cedric Hilburn GRANT; Chancery at 2490 Tracy Place NW,
    Washington, DC 20008; telephone (202) 265-6900; there is a Guyanese
    Consulate General in New York
  US:
    Ambassador George JONES; Embassy at 99-100 Young and Duke Streets,
    Georgetown; telephone [592] (2) 54900 through 54909
Flag:
    green with a red isosceles triangle (based on the hoist side) superimposed
    on a long yellow arrowhead; there is a narrow black border between the red
    and yellow, and a narrow white border between the yellow and the green

:Guyana Economy

Overview:
    Guyana is one of the world's poorest countries with a per capita income less
    than one-fifth the South American average. After growing on average at less
    than 1% a year in 1986-87, GDP dropped by 5% a year in 1988-90. The decline
    resulted from bad weather, labor trouble in the canefields, and flooding and
    equipment problems in the bauxite industry. Consumer prices rose about 100%
    in 1989 and 75% in 1990, and the current account deficit widened
    substantially as sugar and bauxite exports fell. Moreover, electric power is
    in short supply and constitutes a major barrier to future gains in national
    output. The government, in association with international financial
    agencies, seeks to reduce its payment arrears and to raise new funds. The
    government's stabilization program - aimed at establishing realistic
    exchange rates, reasonable price stability, and a resumption of growth -
    requires considerable public administrative abilities and continued patience
    by consumers during a long incubation period. In 1991, buoyed by a recovery
    in mining and agriculture, the economy posted 6% growth, according to
    official figures. A large volume of illegal and quasi- legal economic
    activity is not captured in estimates of the country's total output.
GDP:
    exchange rate conversion - $250 million, per capita $300; real growth rate
    6% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    75% (1990)
Unemployment rate:
    12-15% (1990 est.)
Budget:
    revenues $126 million; expenditures $250 million (1990 est.)
Exports:
    $189 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.)
  commodities:
    bauxite, sugar, gold, rice, shrimp, molasses, timber, rum
  partners:
    UK 31%, US 23%, CARICOM 7%, Canada 6% (1988)
Imports:
    $246 million (c.i.f., 1991)
  commodities:
    manufactures, machinery, food, petroleum
  partners:
    US 33%, CARICOM 10%, UK 9%, Canada 2% (1989)
External debt:
    $2.0 billion, including arrears (1990)
Industrial production:
    growth rate - 12.0% (1990 est.); accounts for about 11% of GDP
Electricity:
    252,500 kW capacity; 647 million kWh produced, 863 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
    bauxite mining, sugar, rice milling, timber, fishing (shrimp), textiles,
    gold mining
Agriculture:
    most important sector, accounting for 24% of GDP and about half of exports;
    sugar and rice are key crops; development potential exists for fishing and
    forestry; not self-sufficient in food, especially wheat, vegetable oils, and
    animal products
Economic aid:
    US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $116 million; Western (non-US)
    countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $325 million;
    Communist countries 1970-89, $242 million
Currency:
    Guyanese dollar (plural - dollars); 1 Guyanese dollar (G$) = 100 cents

:Guyana Economy

Exchange rates:
    Guyanese dollars (G$) per US$1 - 124.1 (March 1992) 111.8 (1991), 39.533
    (1990), 27.159 (1989), 10.000 (1988), 9.756 (1987)
Fiscal year:
    calendar year

:Guyana Communications

Railroads:
    187 km total, all single track 0.914-meter gauge
Highways:
    7,665 km total; 550 km paved, 5,000 km gravel, 1,525 km earth, 590 km
    unimproved
Inland waterways:
    6,000 km total of navigable waterways; Berbice, Demerara, and Essequibo
    Rivers are navigable by oceangoing vessels for 150 km, 100 km, and 80 km,
    respectively
Ports:
    Georgetown
Civil air:
    3 major transport aircraft
Airports:
    54 total, 49 usable; 5 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways
    over 3,659 m; none with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 13 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
    fair system with radio relay network; over 27,000 telephones; tropospheric
    scatter link to Trinidad; broadcast stations - 4 AM, 3 FM, no TV, 1
    shortwave; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

:Guyana Defense Forces

Branches:
    Guyana Defense Force (GDF; includes Coast Guard and Air Corps), Guyana
    Police Force (GPF), Guyana People's Militia (GPM), Guyana National Service
    (GNS)
Manpower availability:
    males 15-49, 196,066; 149,045 fit for military service
Defense expenditures:
    exchange rate conversion - $5.5 million, 6% of GDP (1989 est.)

:Haiti Geography

Total area:
    27,750 km2
Land area:
    27,560 km2
Comparative area:
    slightly larger than Maryland
Land boundaries:
    275 km; Dominican Republic 275 km
Coastline:
    1,771 km
Maritime claims:
  Contiguous zone:
    24 nm
  Continental shelf:
    to depth of exploitation
  Exclusive economic zone:
    200 nm
  Territorial sea:
    12 nm
Disputes:
    claims US-administered Navassa Island
Climate:
    tropical; semiarid where mountains in east cut off trade winds
Terrain:
    mostly rough and mountainous
Natural resources:
    bauxite
Land use:
    arable land 20%; permanent crops 13%; meadows and pastures 18%; forest and
    woodland 4%; other 45%; includes irrigated 3%
Environment:
    lies in the middle of the hurricane belt and subject to severe storms from
    June to October; occasional flooding and earthquakes; deforestation; soil
    erosion
Note:
    shares island of Hispaniola with Dominican Republic

:Haiti People

Population:
    6,431,977 (July 1992), growth rate 2.3% (1992)
Birth rate:
    42 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
    15 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
    -5 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
    104 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
    53 years male, 55 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
    6.2 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
    noun - Haitian(s); adjective - Haitian
Ethnic divisions:
    black 95%, mulatto and European 5%
Religions:
    Roman Catholic is the official religion; Roman Catholic 80% (of which an
    overwhelming majority also practice Voodoo), Protestant 16% (Baptist 10%,
    Pentecostal 4%, Adventist 1%, other 1%), none 1%, other 3% (1982)
Languages:
    French (official) spoken by only 10% of population; all speak Creole
Literacy:
    53% (male 59%, female 47%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
    2,300,000; agriculture 66%, services 25%, industry 9%; shortage of skilled
    labor, unskilled labor abundant (1982)
Organized labor:
    NA

:Haiti Government

Long-form name:
    Republic of Haiti
Type:
    republic
Capital:
    Port-au-Prince
Administrative divisions:
    9 departments, (departements, singular - departement); Artibonite, Centre,
    Grand'Anse, Nord, Nord-Est, Nord-Ouest, Ouest, Sud, Sud-Est
Independence:
    1 January 1804 (from France)
Constitution:
    27 August 1983, suspended February 1986; draft constitution approved March
    1987, suspended June 1988, most articles reinstated March 1989; October
    1991, government claims to be observing the Constitution
Legal system:
    based on Roman civil law system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
    Independence Day, 1 January (1804)
Executive branch:
    president, Council of Ministers (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
    bicameral National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale) consisting of an upper
    house or Senate and a lower house or Chamber of Deputies
Judicial branch:
    Court of Appeal (Cour de Cassation)
Leaders:
  Chief of State:
    President Jean-Bertrand ARISTIDE (since 7 February 1991), ousted in a coup
    in September 1991, but still recognized by international community as Chief
    of State; President Joseph NERETTE installed by military on 7 October 1991
  Head of Government:
    de facto Prime Minister Marc BAZIN (since June 1992)
Political parties and leaders:
    National Front for Change and Democracy (FNCD) led by Jean-Bertrand
    ARISTIDE, including Congress of Democratic Movements (CONACOM), Victor
    BENOIT; National Konbite Movement (MKN), Volvick Remy JOSEPH; National
    Alliance for Democracy and Progress (ANDP), a coalition - that broke up
    following elections - consisting of Movement for the Installation of
    Democracy in Haiti (MIDH), Marc BAZIN; National Progressive Revolutionary
    Party (PANPRA), Serge GILLES; and National Patriotic Movement of November 28
    (MNP-28), Dejean BELIZAIRE; National Agricultural and Industrial Party
    (PAIN), Louis DEJOIE; Movement for National Reconstruction (MRN), Rene
    THEODORE; Haitian Christian Democratic Party (PDCH), Joseph DOUZE; Assembly
    of Progressive National Democrats (RDNP), Leslie MANIGAT; National Party of
    Labor (PNT), Thomas DESULME; Mobilization for National Development (MDN),
    Hubert DE RONCERAY; Democratic Movement for the Liberation of Haiti
    (MODELH), Francois LATORTUE; Haitian Social Christian Party (PSCH), Gregoire
    EUGENE; Movement for the Organization of the Country (MOP), Gesner COMEAU
Suffrage:
    universal at age 18
Elections:
  Chamber of Deputies:
    last held 16 December 1990, with runoff held 20 January 1991 (next to be
    held by December 1994); results - percent of vote NA; seats - (83 total)
    FNCD 27, ANDP 17, PDCH 7, PAIN 6, RDNP 6, MDN 5, PNT 3, MKN 2, MODELH 2, MRN
    1, independents 5, other 2

:Haiti Government

  President:
    last held 16 December 1990 (next election to be held by December 1995);
    results - Rev. Jean-Bertrand ARISTIDE 67.5%, Marc BAZIN 14.2%, Louis DEJOIE
    4.9%
Elections:
  Senate:
    last held 16 December 1990, with runoff held 20 January 1991 (next to be
    held December 1992); results - percent of vote NA; seats - (27 total) FNCD
    13, ANDP 6, PAIN 2, MRN 2, PDCH 1, RDNP 1, PNT 1, independent 1
Communists:
    United Party of Haitian Communists (PUCH), Rene THEODORE (roughly 2,000
    members)
Other political or pressure groups:
    Democratic Unity Confederation (KID), Roman Catholic Church, Confederation
    of Haitian Workers (CTH), Federation of Workers Trade Unions (FOS),
    Autonomous Haitian Workers (CATH), National Popular Assembly (APN)
Member of:
    ACCT, CARICOM (observer), CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD,
    ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LAES,
    LORCS, OAS, OPANAL, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO,
    WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
    Ambassador Jean CASIMIR; Chancery at 2311 Massachusetts Avenue NW,
    Washington, DC 20008; telephone (202) 332-4090 through 4092; there are
    Haitian Consulates General in Boston, Chicago, Miami, New York, and San Juan
    (Puerto Rico)
  US:
    Ambassador Alvin P. ADAMS, Jr.; Embassy at Harry Truman Boulevard,
    Port-au-Prince (mailing address is P. O. Box 1761, Port-au-Prince),
    telephone [509] 22-0354 or 22-0368, 22-0200, 22-0612
Flag:
    two equal horizontal bands of blue (top) and red with a centered white
    rectangle bearing the coat of arms, which contains a palm tree flanked by
    flags and two cannons above a scroll bearing the motto L'UNION FAIT LA FORCE
    (Union Makes Strength)

:Haiti Economy

Overview:
    About 75% of the population live in abject poverty. Agriculture is mainly
    small-scale subsistence farming and employs nearly three-fourths of the work
    force. The majority of the population does not have ready access to safe
    drinking water, adequate medical care, or sufficient food. Few social
    assistance programs exist, and the lack of employment opportunities remains
    one of the most critical problems facing the economy, along with soil
    erosion and political instability. Trade sanctions applied by the
    Organization of American States in response to the September 1991 coup
    against President Aristide have further damaged the economy.
GDP:
    exchange rate conversion - $2.7 billion, per capita $440; real growth rate -
    3.0% (1990 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    20% (1990 est.)
Unemployment rate:
    25-50% (1990 est.)
Budget:
    revenues $300 million; expenditures $416 million, including capital
    expenditures of $145 million (1990 est.)
Exports:
    $169 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.)
  commodities:
    light manufactures 65%, coffee 19%, other agriculture 8%, other 8%
  partners:
    US 84%, Italy 4%, France 3%, other industrial countries 6%, less developed
    countries 3% (1987)
Imports:
    $348 million (c.i.f., 1990 est.)
  commodities:
    machines and manufactures 34%, food and beverages 22%, petroleum products
    14%, chemicals 10%, fats and oils 9%
  partners:
    US 64%, Netherlands Antilles 5%, Japan 5%, France 4%, Canada 3%, Germany 3%
    (1987)
External debt:
    $838 million (December 1990)
Industrial production:
    growth rate 0.3% (FY88); accounts for 15% of GDP
Electricity:
    217,000 kW capacity; 468 million kWh produced, 74 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
    sugar refining, textiles, flour milling, cement manufacturing, tourism,
    light assembly industries based on imported parts
Agriculture:
    accounts for 28% of GDP and employs 74% of work force; mostly small-scale
    subsistence farms; commercial crops - coffee, mangoes, sugarcane and wood;
    staple crops - rice, corn, sorghum; shortage of wheat flour
Illicit drugs:
    transshipment point for cocaine
Economic aid:
    US commitments, including Ex-Im (1970-89), $700 million; Western (non-US)
    countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $770 million
Currency:
    gourde (plural - gourdes); 1 gourde (G) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
    gourdes (G) per US$1 - 5.0 (fixed rate)
Fiscal year:
    1 October - 30 September

:Haiti Communications

Railroads:
    40 km 0.760-meter narrow gauge, single-track, privately owned industrial
    line
Highways:
    4,000 km total; 950 km paved, 900 km otherwise improved, 2,150 km unimproved
Inland waterways:
    negligible; less than 100 km navigable
Ports:
    Port-au-Prince, Cap-Haitien
Civil air:
    12 major transport aircraft
Airports:
    13 total, 10 usable; 3 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways
    over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 3 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
    domestic facilities barely adequate, international facilities slightly
    better; 36,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 33 AM, no FM, 4 TV, 2
    shortwave; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

:Haiti Defense Forces

Branches:
    Army (including Police), Navy, Air Force
Manpower availability:
    males 15-49, 1,313,044; 706,221 fit for military service; 59,060 reach
    military age (18) annually
Defense expenditures:
    exchange rate conversion - $34 million, 1.5% of GDP (1988 est.)

:Heard Island and McDonald Islands Geography

Total area:
    412 km2
Land area:
    412 km2
Comparative area:
    slightly less than 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
    none
Coastline:
    101.9 km
Maritime claims:
  Exclusive fishing zone:
    200 nm
  Territorial sea:
    3 nm
Disputes:
    none
Climate:
    antarctic
Terrain:
    Heard Island - bleak and mountainous, with an extinct volcano; McDonald
    Islands - small and rocky
Land use:
    arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 0%; forest and
    woodland 0%; other 100%
Environment:
    primarily used as research stations
Note:
    located 4,100 km southwest of Australia in the southern Indian Ocean

:Heard Island and McDonald Islands People

Population:
    uninhabited

:Heard Island and McDonald Islands Government

Long-form name:
    Territory of Heard Island and McDonald Islands
Type:
    territory of Australia administered by the Antarctic Division of the
    Department of Science in Canberra (Australia)
Capital:
    none; administered from Canberra, Australia

:Heard Island and McDonald Islands Economy

Overview:
    no economic activity

:Heard Island and McDonald Islands Communications

Ports:
    none; offshore anchorage only

:Heard Island and McDonald Islands Defense Forces

Note:
    defense is the responsibility of Australia

:Holy See (Vatican City) Geography

Total area:
    0.438 km2
Land area:
    0.438 km2
Comparative area:
    about 0.7 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
    3.2 km; Italy 3.2 km
Coastline:
    none - landlocked
Maritime claims:
    none - landlocked
Disputes:
    none
Climate:
    temperate; mild, rainy winters (September to mid-May) with hot, dry summers
    (May to September)
Terrain:
    low hill
Natural resources:
    none
Land use:
    arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 0%; forest and
    woodland 0%; other 100%
Environment:
    urban
Note:
    landlocked; enclave of Rome, Italy; world's smallest state; outside the
    Vatican City, 13 buildings in Rome and Castel Gandolfo (the pope's summer
    residence) enjoy extraterritorial rights

:Holy See (Vatican City) People

Population:
    802 (July 1992), growth rate 1.2% (1992)
Nationality:
    no noun or adjectival forms
Ethnic divisions:
    primarily Italians but also Swiss and other nationalities
Religions:
    Roman Catholic
Languages:
    Italian, Latin, and various other languages
Literacy:
    100% (male NA%, female NA%)
Labor force:
    high dignitaries, priests, nuns, guards, and 3,000 lay workers who live
    outside the Vatican
Organized labor:
    Association of Vatican Lay Workers, 1,800 members (1987)

:Holy See (Vatican City) Government

Long-form name:
    State of the Vatican City; note - the Vatican City is the physical seat of
    the Holy See, which is the central government of the Roman Catholic Church
Type:
    monarchical-sacerdotal state
Capital:
    Vatican City
Independence:
    11 February 1929 (from Italy)
Constitution:
    Apostolic Constitution of 1967 (effective 1 March 1968)
National holiday:
    Installation Day of the Pope (John Paul II), 22 October (1978); note - Pope
    John Paul II was elected on 16 October 1978
Executive branch:
    pope
Legislative branch:
    unicameral Pontifical Commission
Judicial branch:
    none; normally handled by Italy
Leaders:
  Chief of State:
    Pope JOHN PAUL II (Karol WOJTYA; since 16 October 1978)
  Head of Government:
    Secretary of State Archbishop Angelo SODANO
Political parties and leaders:
    none
Suffrage:
    limited to cardinals less than 80 years old
Elections:
  Pope:
    last held 16 October 1978 (next to be held after the death of the current
    pope); results - Karol WOJTYA was elected for life by the College of
    Cardinals
Other political or pressure groups:
    none (exclusive of influence exercised by church officers)
Member of:
    CSCE, IAEA, ICFTU, IMF (observer), INTELSAT, IOM (observer), ITU, OAS
    (observer), UN (observer), UNCTAD, UNHCR, UPU, WIPO, WTO (observer)
Diplomatic representation:
    Apostolic Pro-Nuncio Archbishop Agostino CACCIAVILLAN; 3339 Massachusetts
    Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008; telephone (202) 333-7121
  US:
    Ambassador Thomas P. MELADY; Embassy at Villino Pacelli, Via Aurelia 294,
    00165 Rome (mailing address is APO AE 09624); telephone [396] 639-0558
Flag:
    two vertical bands of yellow (hoist side) and white with the crossed keys of
    Saint Peter and the papal tiara centered in the white band

:Holy See (Vatican City) Economy

Overview:
    This unique, noncommercial economy is supported financially by contributions
    (known as Peter's Pence) from Roman Catholics throughout the world, the sale
    of postage stamps and tourist mementos, fees for admission to museums, and
    the sale of publications. The incomes and living standards of lay workers
    are comparable to, or somewhat better than, those of counterparts who work
    in the city of Rome.
Budget:
    revenues $92 million; expenditures $178 million, including capital
    expenditures of $NA (1992)
Electricity:
    5,000 kW standby capacity (1990); power supplied by Italy
Industries:
    printing and production of a small amount of mosaics and staff uniforms;
    worldwide banking and financial activities
Currency:
    Vatican lira (plural - lire); 1 Vatican lira (VLit) = 100 centesimi
Exchange rates:
    Vatican lire (VLit) per US$1 - 1,248.4 (March 1992), 1,240.6 (1991), 1,198.1
    (1990), 1,372.1 (1989), 1,301.6 (1988), 1,296.1 (1987); note - the Vatican
    lira is at par with the Italian lira which circulates freely
Fiscal year:
    calendar year

:Holy See (Vatican City) Communications

Railroads:
    850 m, 750 mm gauge (links with Italian network near the Rome station of
    Saint Peter's)
Highways:
    none; all city streets
Telecommunications:
    broadcast stations - 3 AM, 4 FM, no TV; 2,000-line automatic telephone
    exchange; no communications satellite systems

:Holy See (Vatican City) Defense Forces

Note:
    defense is the responsibility of Italy; Swiss Papal Guards are posted at
    entrances to the Vatican City

:Honduras Geography

Total area:
    112,090 km2
Land area:
    111,890 km2
Comparative area:
    slightly larger than Tennessee
Land boundaries:
    1,520 km; Guatemala 256 km, El Salvador 342 km, Nicaragua 922 km
Coastline:
    820 km
Maritime claims:
  Contiguous zone:
    24 nm
  Continental shelf:
    200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation
  Exclusive economic zone:
    200 nm
  Territorial sea:
    12 nm
Disputes:
    dispute with El Salvador over several sections of the land boundary; dispute
    over Golfo de Fonseca maritime boundary because of disputed sovereignty of
    islands; unresolved maritime boundary with Nicaragua
Climate:
    subtropical in lowlands, temperate in mountains
Terrain:
    mostly mountains in interior, narrow coastal plains
Natural resources:
    timber, gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, iron ore, antimony, coal, fish
Land use:
    arable land 14%; permanent crops 2%; meadows and pastures 30%; forest and
    woodland 34%; other 20%; includes irrigated 1%
Environment:
    subject to frequent, but generally mild, earthquakes; damaging hurricanes
    and floods along Caribbean coast; deforestation; soil erosion

:Honduras People

Population:
    5,092,776 (July 1992), growth rate 2.8% (1992)
Birth rate:
    37 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
    7 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
    -2 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
    54 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
    65 years male, 68 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
    4.8 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
    noun - Honduran(s); adjective - Honduran
Ethnic divisions:
    mestizo (mixed Indian and European) 90%, Indian 7%, black 2%, white 1%
Religions:
    Roman Catholic about 97%; small Protestant minority
Languages:
    Spanish, Indian dialects
Literacy:
    73% (male 76%, female 71%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
    1,300,000; agriculture 62%, services 20%, manufacturing 9%, construction 3%,
    other 6% (1985)
Organized labor:
    40% of urban labor force, 20% of rural work force (1985)

:Honduras Government

Long-form name:
    Republic of Honduras
Type:
    republic
Capital:
    Tegucigalpa
Administrative divisions:
    18 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Atlantida,
    Choluteca, Colon, Comayagua, Copan, Cortes, El Paraiso, Francisco Morazan,
    Gracias a Dios, Intibuca, Islas de la Bahia, La Paz, Lempira, Ocotepeque,
    Olancho, Santa Barbara, Valle, Yoro
Independence:
    15 September 1821 (from Spain)
Constitution:
    11 January 1982, effective 20 January 1982
Legal system:
    rooted in Roman and Spanish civil law; some influence of English common law;
    accepts ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
National holiday:
    Independence Day, 15 September (1821)
Executive branch:
    president, Council of Ministers (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
    unicameral National Congress (Congreso Nacional)
Judicial branch:
    Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justica)
Leaders:
  Chief of State and Head of Government:
    President Rafael Leonardo CALLEJAS Romero (since 26 January 1990)
Political parties and leaders:
    Liberal Party (PLH) - faction leaders, Carlos FLORES Facusse (leader of
    Florista Liberal Movement), Carlos MONTOYA (Azconista subfaction), Ramon
    VILLEDA Bermudez and Jorge Arturo REINA (M-Lider faction); National Party
    (PNH), Jose Celin DISCUA, party president; PNH faction leaders - Oswaldo
    RAMOS Soto and Rafael Leonardo CALLEJAS Romero (Monarca faction); National
    Innovation and Unity Party - Social Democrats (PINU-SD), Enrique AGUILAR
    Cerrato Paz; Christian Democratic Party (PDCH), Jorge ILLESCAS; Democratic
    Action (AD), Walter LOPEZ Reyes
Suffrage:
    universal and compulsory at age 18
Elections:
  National Congress:
    last held on 26 November 1989 (next to be held November 1993); results - PNH
    51%, PLH 43%, PDCH 1.9%, PINU-SD 1.5%, other 2.6%; seats - (128 total) PNH
    71, PLH 55, PINU-SD 2
  President:
    last held on 26 November 1989 (next to be held November 1993); results -
    Rafael Leonardo CALLEJAS (PNH) 51%, Carlos FLORES Facusse (PLH) 43.3%, other
    5.7%
Other political or pressure groups:
    National Association of Honduran Campesinos (ANACH), Honduran Council of
    Private Enterprise (COHEP), Confederation of Honduran Workers (CTH),
    National Union of Campesinos (UNC), General Workers Confederation (CGT),
    United Federation of Honduran Workers (FUTH), Committee for the Defense of
    Human Rights in Honduras (CODEH), Coordinating Committee of Popular
    Organizations (CCOP)

:Honduras Government

Member of:
    BCIE, CACM, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO,
    IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES, LAIA, LORCS, OAS, OPANAL,
    PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO
Diplomatic representation:
    Ambassador Jorge Ramon HERNANDEZ Alcerro; Chancery at 3007 Tilden Street NW,
    Washington, DC 20008; telephone (202) 966-7702; there are Honduran
    Consulates General in Chicago, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York,
    and San Francisco, and Consulates in Baton Rouge, Boston, Detroit, Houston,
    and Jacksonville
  US:
    Ambassador S. Crescencio ARCOS; Embassy at Avenida La Paz, Tegucigalpa
    (mailing address is APO AA 34022); telephone [504] 32-3120
Flag:
    three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and blue with five blue
    five-pointed stars arranged in an X pattern centered in the white band; the
    stars represent the members of the former Federal Republic of Central
    America - Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua;
    similar to the flag of El Salvador, which features a round emblem encircled
    by the words REPUBLICA DE EL SALVADOR EN LA AMERICA CENTRAL centered in the
    white band; also similar to the flag of Nicaragua, which features a triangle
    encircled by the word REPUBLICA DE NICARAGUA on top and AMERICA CENTRAL on
    the bottom, centered in the white band

:Honduras Economy

Overview:
    Honduras is one of the poorest countries in the Western Hemisphere.
    Agriculture, the most important sector of the economy, accounts for more
    than 25% of GDP, employs 62% of the labor force, and produces two-thirds of
    exports. Productivity remains low. Industry, still in its early stages,
    employs nearly 9% of the labor force, accounts for 15% of GDP, and generates
    20% of exports. The service sectors, including public administration,
    account for 50% of GDP and employ nearly 20% of the labor force. Basic
    problems facing the economy include rapid population growth, high
    unemployment, sharply increased inflation, a lack of basic services, a large
    and inefficient public sector, and the dependence of the export sector
    mostly on coffee and bananas, which are subject to sharp price fluctuations.
    Despite government efforts at reform and large-scale foreign assistance, the
    economy still is unable to take advantage of its sizable natural resources.
GDP:
    exchange rate conversion - $5.2 billion, per capita $1,050; real growth rate
    - 0.3% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    26% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
    15% unemployed, 30-40% underemployed (1989)
Budget:
    revenues $1.4 billion; expenditures $1.9 billion, including capital
    expenditures of $511 million (1990 est.)
Exports:
    $1.0 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
  commodities:
    bananas, coffee, shrimp, lobster, minerals, lumber
  partners:
    US 52%, Germany 11%, Japan, Italy, Belgium
Imports:
    $1.3 billion (c.i.f. 1991)
  commodities:
    machinery and transport equipment, chemical products, manufactured goods,
    fuel and oil, foodstuffs
  partners:
    US 39%, Japan 9%, CACM, Venezuela, Mexico
External debt:
    $2.8 billion (1990)
Industrial production:
    growth rate 2.9% (1989); accounts for 15% of GDP
Electricity:
    575,000 kW capacity; 1,850 million kWh produced, 374 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
    agricultural processing (sugar and coffee), textiles, clothing, wood
    products
Agriculture:
    most important sector, accounting for more than 25% of GDP, over 60% of the
    labor force, and two-thirds of exports; principal products include bananas,
    coffee, timber, beef, citrus fruit, shrimp; importer of wheat
Illicit drugs:
    illicit producer of cannabis, cultivated on small plots and used principally
    for local consumption; transshipment point for cocaine
Economic aid:
    US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1.4 billion; Western (non-US)
    countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $1.1 billion
Currency:
    lempira (plural - lempiras); 1 lempira (L) = 100 centavos

:Honduras Economy

Exchange rates:
    lempiras (L) per US$1 - 5.4 (fixed rate); 5.70 parallel black-market rate
    (November 1990)
Fiscal year:
    calendar year

:Honduras Communications

Railroads:
    785 km total; 508 km 1.067-meter gauge, 277 km 0.914-meter gauge
Highways:
    8,950 km total; 1,700 km paved, 5,000 km otherwise improved, 2,250 km
    unimproved earth
Inland waterways:
    465 km navigable by small craft
Ports:
    Puerto Castilla, Puerto Cortes, San Lorenzo
Merchant marine:
    201 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 629,134 GRT/939,289 DWT; includes 2
    passenger-cargo, 127 cargo, 17 refrigerated - cargo, - 7 - container, - 2 -
    roll-on/roll-off cargo, 19 petroleum tanker, 2 chemical tanker, 3
    specialized tanker, 1 vehicle carrier, 18 bulk, 2 passenger, 1 short-sea
    passenger; note - a flag of convenience registry; Republics of the former
    USSR own 10 ships under the Honduran flag
Civil air:
    6 major transport aircraft
Airports:
    171 total, 133 usable; 8 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways
    over 3,659 m; 4 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 12 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
    improved, but still inadequate; connection into Central American Microwave
    System; 35,100 telephones; broadcast stations - 176 AM, no FM, 28 TV, 7
    shortwave; 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations

:Honduras Defense Forces

Branches:
    Army, Navy (including Marines), Air Force, Public Security Forces (FUSEP)
Manpower availability:
    males 15-49, 1,148,376; 684,375 fit for military service; 57,028 reach
    military age (18) annually
Defense expenditures:
    exchange rate conversion - $43.4 million, about 1% of GDP (1992 est.)

:Hong Kong Geography

Total area:
    1,040 km2
Land area:
    990 km2
Comparative area:
    slightly less than six times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
    30 km; China 30 km
Coastline:
    733 km
Maritime claims:
  Exclusive fishing zone:
    3 nm
  Territorial sea:
    3 nm
Disputes:
    none
Climate:
    tropical monsoon; cool and humid in winter, hot and rainy from spring
    through summer, warm and sunny in fall
Terrain:
    hilly to mountainous with steep slopes; lowlands in north
Natural resources:
    outstanding deepwater harbor, feldspar
Land use:
    arable land 7%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures 1%; forest and
    woodland 12%; other 79%; includes irrigated 3%
Environment:
    more than 200 islands; occasional typhoons

:Hong Kong People

Population:
    5,889,095 (July 1992), growth rate 0.6% (1992)
Birth rate:
    13 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
    5 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
    - 2 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
    7 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
    76 years male, 83 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
    1.4 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
    adjective - Hong Kong
Ethnic divisions:
    Chinese 98%, other 2%
Religions:
    eclectic mixture of local religions 90%, Christian 10%
Languages:
    Chinese (Cantonese), English
Literacy:
    77% (male 90%, female 64%) age 15 and over having ever attended school
    (1971)
Labor force:
    2,800,000 (1990); manufacturing 28.5%, wholesale and retail trade,
    restaurants, and hotels 27.9%, services 17.7%, financing, insurance, and
    real estate 9.2%, transport and communications 4.5%, construction 2.5%,
    other 9.7% (1989)
Organized labor:
    16% of labor force (1990)

:Hong Kong Government

Long-form name:
    none; abbreviated HK
Type:
    dependent territory of the UK; scheduled to revert to China in 1997
Capital:
    Victoria
Administrative divisions:
    none (dependent territory of the UK)
Independence:
    none (dependent territory of the UK); the UK signed an agreement with China
    on 19 December 1984 to return Hong Kong to China on 1 July 1997; in the
    joint declaration, China promises to respect Hong Kong's existing social and
    economic systems and lifestyle for 50 years after transition
Constitution:
    unwritten; partly statutes, partly common law and practice; new Basic Law
    approved in March 1990 in preparation for 1997
Legal system:
    based on English common law
National holiday:
    Liberation Day, 29 August (1945)
Executive branch:
    British monarch, governor, chief secretary of the Executive Council
Legislative branch:
    Legislative Council
Judicial branch:
    Supreme Court
Leaders:
  Chief of State:
    Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952)
  Head of Government:
    Governor-designate Chris PATTEN (since July 1992); Chief Secretary Sir David
    Robert FORD (since February 1987)
Suffrage:
    direct election - universal at age 21 as a permanent resident living in the
    territory of Hong Kong for the past seven years; indirect election - limited
    to about 100,000 professionals of electoral college and functional
    constituencies
Elections:
  Legislative Council:
    indirect elections last held 12 September 1991 and direct elections were
    held 15 September 1991 (next to be held for the first time in September
    1995); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (60 total; 21
    indirectly elected by functional constituencies, 18 directly elected, 18
    appointed by governor, 3 ex officio members); indirect elections - number of
    seats by functional constituency NA; direct elections - UDHK 12, Meeting
    Point 3, ADPL 1, other 2
Communists:
    5,000 (est.) cadres affiliated with Communist Party of China
Other political or pressure groups:
    Federation of Trade Unions (pro-China), Hong Kong and Kowloon Trade Union
    Council (pro-Taiwan), Confederation of Trade Unions (prodemocracy), Hong
    Kong General Chamber of Commerce, Chinese General Chamber of Commerce
    (pro-China), Federation of Hong Kong Industries, Chinese Manufacturers'
    Association of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Professional Teachers' Union, Hong Kong
    Alliance in Support of the Patriotic Democratic Movement in China
Member of:
    APEC, AsDB, CCC, ESCAP (associate), GATT, ICFTU, IMO (associate), IOC, ISO
    (correspondent), WCL, WMO

:Hong Kong Government

Diplomatic representation:
    as a dependent territory of the UK, the interests of Hong Kong in the US are
    represented by the UK
  US:
    Consul General Richard L. WILLIAMS; Consulate General at 26 Garden Road,
    Hong Kong (mailing address is Box 30, Hong Kong, or FPO AP 96522-0002);
    telephone [852] 239-011
Flag:
    blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant with the Hong
    Kong coat of arms on a white disk centered on the outer half of the flag;
    the coat of arms contains a shield (bearing two junks below a crown) held by
    a lion (representing the UK) and a dragon (representing China) with another
    lion above the shield and a banner bearing the words HONG KONG below the
    shield

:Hong Kong Economy

Overview:
    Hong Kong has a bustling free market economy with few tariffs or nontariff
    barriers. Natural resources are limited, and food and raw materials must be
    imported. Manufacturing accounts for about 18% of GDP, employs 28% of the
    labor force, and exports about 90% of its output. Real GDP growth averaged a
    remarkable 8% in 1987-88, then slowed to 2.5-3.0% in 1989-90. Unemployment,
    which has been declining since the mid-1980s, is now about 2%. A shortage of
    labor continues to put upward pressure on prices and the cost of living.
    Short-term prospects remain solid so long as major trading partners continue
    to be reasonably prosperous. The crackdown in China in 1989-91 casts a
    shadow over the longer term economic outlook.
GDP:
    exchange rate conversion - $80.9 billion, per capita $13,800; real growth
    rate 3.8% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    12.0% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
    2.0% (1991 est.)
Budget:
    $8.8 billion (FY90)
Exports:
    $82.0 billion (f.o.b., 1990), including reexports of $53.1 billion
  commodities:
    clothing, textiles, yarn and fabric, footwear, electrical appliances,
    watches and clocks, toys
  partners:
    China 25%, US 24%, Germany 7%, Japan 6%, UK 2%, (1990)
Imports:
    $82.4 billion (c.i.f., 1990)
  commodities:
    foodstuffs, transport equipment, raw materials, semimanufactures, petroleum
  partners:
    China 37%, Japan 16%, Taiwan 9%, US 8% (1990)
External debt:
    $9.5 billion (December 1990 est.)
Industrial production:
    growth rate 4% 1991 (est)
Electricity:
    8,600,000 kW capacity; 25,637 million kWh produced, 4,378 kWh per capita
    (1991)
Industries:
    textiles, clothing, tourism, electronics, plastics, toys, watches, clocks
Agriculture:
    minor role in the economy; rice, vegetables, dairy products; less than 20%
    self-sufficient; shortages of rice, wheat, water
Illicit drugs:
    a hub for Southeast Asian heroin trade; transshipment and major financial
    and money-laundering center
Economic aid:
    US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-87), $152 million; Western (non-US)
    countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $923 million
Currency:
    Hong Kong dollar (plural - dollars); 1 Hong Kong dollar (HK$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
    Hong Kong dollars (HK$) per US$ - 7.800 (1991), 7.790 (1990), 7.800 (1989),
    7.810 (1988), 7.760 (1987); note - linked to the US dollar at the rate of
    about 7.8 HK$ per 1 US$ since 1985
Fiscal year:
    1 April - 31 March

:Hong Kong Communications

Railroads:
    35 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, government owned
Highways:
    1,484 km total; 794 km paved, 306 km gravel, crushed stone, or earth
Ports:
    Hong Kong
Merchant marine:
    142 ships (1,000 GRT or over), totaling 5,035,223 GRT/8,598,134 DWT;
    includes 1 passenger, 1 short-sea passenger, 15 cargo, 5 refrigerated cargo,
    26 container, 13 petroleum tanker, 1 chemical tanker, 6 combination ore/oil,
    5 liquefied gas, 68 bulk, 1 combination bulk; note - a flag of convenience
    registry; ships registered in Hong Kong fly the UK flag, and an estimated
    500 Hong Kong - owned ships are registered elsewhere
Civil air:
    16 major transport aircraft
Airports:
    2 total; 2 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over
    3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; none with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
    modern facilities provide excellent domestic and international services;
    3,000,000 telephones; microwave transmission links and extensive optical
    fiber transmission network; broadcast stations - 6 AM, 6 FM, 4 TV; 1 British
    Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) repeater station and 1 British Forces
    Broadcasting Service repeater station; 2,500,000 radio receivers; 1,312,000
    TV sets (1,224,000 color TV sets); satellite earth stations - 1 Pacific
    Ocean INTELSAT and 2 Indian Ocean INTELSAT; coaxial cable to Guangzhou,
    China; links to 5 international submarine cables providing access to ASEAN
    member nations, Japan, Taiwan, Australia, Middle East, and Western Europe

:Hong Kong Defense Forces

Branches:
    Headquarters of British Forces, Royal Navy, Royal Air Force, Royal Hong Kong
    Auxiliary Air Force, Royal Hong Kong Police Force
Manpower availability:
    males 15-49, 1,732,360; 1,334,923 fit for military service; 46,285 reach
    military age (18) annually
Defense expenditures:
    exchange rate conversion - $300 million, 0.5% of GDP (1989 est.); this
    represents one-fourth of the total cost of defending itself, the remainder
    being paid by the UK
Note:
    defense is the responsibility of the UK

:Howland Island Geography

Total area:
    1.6 km2
Land area:
    1.6 km2
Comparative area:
    about 2.7 times the size of the Mall in Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
    none
Coastline:
    6.4 km
Maritime claims:
  Contiguous zone:
    12 nm
  Continental shelf:
    200 m (depth)
  Exclusive economic zone:
    200 nm
  Territorial sea:
    12 nm
Disputes:
    none
Climate:
    equatorial; scant rainfall, constant wind, burning sun
Terrain:
    low-lying, nearly level, sandy, coral island surrounded by a narrow fringing
    reef; depressed central area
Natural resources:
    guano (deposits worked until late 1800s)
Land use:
    arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 0%; forest and
    woodland 5%; other 95%
Environment:
    almost totally covered with grasses, prostrate vines, and low-growing
    shrubs; small area of trees in the center; lacks fresh water; primarily a
    nesting, roosting, and foraging habitat for seabirds, shorebirds, and marine
    wildlife; feral cats
Note:
    remote location 2,575 km southwest of Honolulu in the North Pacific Ocean,
    just north of the Equator, about halfway between Hawaii and Australia

:Howland Island People

Population:
    uninhabited
Population:
  note:
    American civilians evacuated in 1942 after Japanese air and naval attacks
    during World War II; occupied by US military during World War II, but
    abandoned after the war; public entry is by special-use permit only and
    generally restricted to scientists and educators

:Howland Island Government

Long-form name:
    none
Type:
    unincorporated territory of the US administered by the Fish and Wildlife
    Service of the US Department of the Interior as part of the National
    Wildlife Refuge System
Capital:
    none; administered from Washington, DC

:Howland Island Economy

Overview:
    no economic activity

:Howland Island Communications

Ports:
    none; offshore anchorage only, one boat landing area along the middle of the
    west coast
Airports:
    airstrip constructed in 1937 for scheduled refueling stop on the
    round-the-world flight of Amelia Earhart and Fred Noonan - they left Lae,
    New Guinea, for Howland Island, but were never seen again; the airstrip is
    no longer serviceable
Note:
    Earhart Light is a day beacon near the middle of the west coast that was
    partially destroyed during World War II, but has since been rebuilt in
    memory of famed aviatrix Amelia Earhart

:Howland Island Defense Forces

Note:
    defense is the responsibility of the US; visited annually by the US Coast
    Guard

:Hungary Geography

Total area:
    93,030 km2
Land area:
    92,340 km2
Comparative area:
    slightly smaller than Indiana
Land boundaries:
    2,113 km; Austria 366 km, Slovenia 82 km, Czechoslovakia 676 km, Romania 443
    km, Croatia 292 km, Serbia and Montenegro 151 km, Ukraine 103 km
Coastline:
    none - landlocked
Maritime claims:
    none - landlocked
Disputes:
    Gabcikovo Dam dispute with Czechoslovakia
Climate:
    temperate; cold, cloudy, humid winters; warm summers
Terrain:
    mostly flat to rolling plains
Natural resources:
    bauxite, coal, natural gas, fertile soils
Land use:
    arable land 54%; permanent crops 3%; meadows and pastures 14%; forest and
    woodland 18%; other 11%; includes irrigated 2%
Environment:
    levees are common along many streams, but flooding occurs almost every year
Note:
    landlocked; strategic location astride main land routes between Western
    Europe and Balkan Peninsula as well as between Ukraine and Mediterranean
    basin

:Hungary People

Population:
    10,333,327 (July 1992), growth rate - 0.1% (1992)
Birth rate:
    12 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
    13 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
    0 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
    14 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
    66 years male, 75 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
    1.8 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
    noun - Hungarian(s); adjective - Hungarian
Ethnic divisions:
    Hungarian 96.6%, Gypsy 5.8%, German 1.6%, Slovak 1.1%, Southern Slav 0.3%,
    Romanian 0.2%
Religions:
    Roman Catholic 67.5%, Calvinist 20.0%, Lutheran 5.0%, atheist and other 7.5%
Languages:
    Hungarian 98.2%, other 1.8%
Literacy:
    99% (male 99%, female 98%) age 15 and over can read and write (1980)
Labor force:
    5.4 million; services, trade, government, and other 43.2%, industry 30.9%,
    agriculture 18.8%, construction 7.1% (1991)
Organized labor:
    45-55% of labor force; Central Council of Hungarian Trade Unions (SZOT)
    includes 19 affiliated unions, all controlled by the government; independent
    unions legal; may be as many as 12 small independent unions in operation

:Hungary Government

Long-form name:
    Republic of Hungary
Type:
    republic
Capital:
    Budapest
Administrative divisions:
    19 counties (megyek, singular - megye) and 1 capital city* (fovaros);
    Bacs-Kiskun, Baranya, Bekes, Borsod-Abauj-Zemplen, Budapest*, Csongrad,
    Fejer, Gyor-Moson-Sopron, Hajdu-Bihar, Heves, Jasz-Nagykun-Szolnok,
    Komarom-Esztergom, Nograd, Pest, Somogy, Szabolcs-Szatmar-Bereg, Tolna, Vas,
    Veszprem, Zala
Independence:
    1001, unification by King Stephen I
Constitution:
    18 August 1949, effective 20 August 1949, revised 19 April 1972; 18 October
    1989 revision ensured legal rights for individuals and constitutional checks
    on the authority of the prime minister and also established the principle of
    parliamentary oversight
Legal system:
    in process of revision, moving toward rule of law based on Western model
National holiday:
    October 23 (1956); commemorates the Hungarian uprising
Executive branch:
    president, prime minister
Legislative branch:
    unicameral National Assembly (Orszaggyules)
Judicial branch:
    Supreme Court, may be restructured as part of ongoing government overhaul
Leaders:
  Chief of State:
    President Arpad GONCZ (since 3 August 1990; previously interim President
    from 2 May 1990)
  Head of Government:
    Prime Minister Jozsef ANTALL (since 23 May 1990)
Political parties and leaders:
    Democratic Forum, Jozsef ANTALL, chairman; Dr. Lajos FUR, acting president;
    Free Democrats, Peter TOLGYESSY, chairman; Independent Smallholders, Jozsef
    TORGYAN, president; Hungarian Socialist Party (MSP), Gyula HORN, chairman;
    Young Democrats, Gabor FODOR, head; Christian Democrats, Dr. Lazlo SURJAN,
    president; note - the Hungarian Socialist (Communist) Workers' Party (MSZMP)
    renounced Communism and became the Hungarian Socialist Party (MSP) in
    October 1989; there is still a small (fringe) MSZMP
Suffrage:
    universal at age 18
Elections:
  President:
    last held 3 August 1990 (next to be held August 1994); results - President
    GONCZ elected by popular vote; note - President GONCZ was elected by the
    National Assembly with a total of 294 votes out of 304 as interim President
    from 2 May 1990 until elected President
  National Assembly:
    last held on 25 March 1990 (first round, with the second round held 8 April
    1990); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (386 total) Democratic
    Forum 162, Free Democrats 90, Independent Smallholders 45, Hungarian
    Socialist Party (MSP) 33, Young Democrats 22, Christian Democrats 21,
    independents or jointly sponsored candidates 13
Communists:
    fewer than 100,000 (December 1989)

:Hungary Government

Member of:
    BIS, CCC, CE, CSCE, ECE, FAO, G-9, GATT, HG, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFC,
    ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LORCS, NACC, NSG,
    PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIIMOG, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation:
    Ambassador Pal TAR; Chancery at 3910 Shoemaker Street NW, Washington, DC
    20008; telephone (202) 362-6730; there is a Hungarian Consulate General in
    New York
  US:
    Ambassador Charles THOMAS; Embassy at V. Szabadsag Ter 12, Budapest (mailing
    address is APO AE 09213-5270); telephone [36] (1) 112-6450; FAX 132-8934
Flag:
    three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and green

:Hungary Economy

Overview:
    Hungary is in the midst of a difficult transition between a command and a
    market economy. Agriculture is an important sector, providing sizable export
    earnings and meeting domestic food needs. Industry accounts for about 40% of
    GDP and 30% of employment. Hungary claims that less than 20% of foreign
    trade is now with former CEMA countries, while about 70% is with OECD
    members. Hungary's economic reform programs during the Communist era gave it
    a head start in creating a market economy and attracting foreign investment.
    In 1990, Hungary received half of all foreign investment in Eastern Europe
    and in 1991 received the largest single share. The growing private sector
    accounts for one-quarter to one-third of national output according to
    unofficial estimates. Privatization of state enterprises is progressing,
    although excessive redtape, bureaucratic oversight, and uncertainties about
    pricing have slowed the process. Escalating unemployment and high rates of
    inflation may impede efforts to speed up privatization and budget reform,
    while Hungary's heavy foreign debt will make the government reluctant to
    introduce full convertability of the forint before 1993.
GDP:
    purchasing power equivalent - $60.1 billion, per capita $5,700; real growth
    rate - 7% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    34% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
    8.0% (1991)
Budget:
    revenues $12.7 billion; expenditures $13.6 billion (1992 planned)
Exports:
    $10.2 billion (f.o.b. 1991)
  commodities:
    capital goods 25.9%, foods 23%, consumer goods 16.5%, fuels 2.4%, other
    32.2%
  partners:
    USSR and Eastern Europe 31.9%, EC 32.2%, EFTA 12% (1990)
Imports:
    $11.7 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
  commodities:
    capital goods 31.6%, fuels 13.8%, manufactured consumer goods 14.6%,
    agriculture 6%, other 34.0%
  partners:
    USSR and Eastern Europe 34%, EC 31%, EFTA 15.4%
External debt:
    $22.7 billion (January 1991)
Industrial production:
    growth rate - 20% (1991 est.)
Electricity:
    6,967,000 kW capacity; 28,376 million kWh produced, 2,750 kWh per capita
    (1990)
Industries:
    mining, metallurgy, engineering industries, processed foods, textiles,
    chemicals (especially pharmaceuticals), trucks, buses
Agriculture:
    including forestry, accounts for about 15% of GDP and 19% of employment;
    highly diversified crop-livestock farming; principal crops - wheat, corn,
    sunflowers, potatoes, sugar beets; livestock - hogs, cattle, poultry, dairy
    products; self-sufficient in food output
Illicit drugs:
    transshipment point for Southeast Asia heroin transiting the Balkan route

:Hungary Economy

Economic aid:
    recipient - $9.1 billion in assistance from OECD countries (from 1st quarter
    1990 to end of 2nd quarter 1991)
Currency:
    forint (plural - forints); 1 forint (Ft) = 100 filler
Fiscal year:
    calendar year

:Hungary Communications

Railroads:
    7,765 km total; 7,508 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, 222 km narrow gauge
    (mostly 0.760-meter), 35 km 1.520-meter broad gauge; 1,147 km double track,
    2,161 km electrified; all government owned (1991)
Highways:
    130,014 km total; 29,715 km national highway system - 26,834 km asphalt, 142
    km concrete, 51 km stone and road brick, 2,276 km macadam, 412 km unpaved;
    58,495 km country roads (66% unpaved), and 41,804 km (est.) other roads (70%
    unpaved) (1988)
Inland waterways:
    1,622 km (1988)
Pipelines:
    crude oil 1,204 km; petroleum products 630 km; natural gas 3,895 km (1986)
Ports:
    Budapest and Dunaujvaros are river ports on the Danube; maritime outlets are
    Rostock (Germany), Gdansk (Poland), Gdynia (Poland), Szczecin (Poland),
    Galati (Romania), and Braila (Romania)
Merchant marine:
    14 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) and 1 bulk totaling 85,489 GRT/119,520
    DWT
Civil air:
    28 major transport aircraft
Airports:
    90 total, 90 usable; 20 with permanent-surface runways; 2 with runways over
    3,659 m; 10 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 15 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
    automatic telephone network based on radio relay system; 1.9 million phones;
    telephone density is at 17 per 100 inhabitants; 49% of all phones are in
    Budapest; 12-15 year wait for a phone; 16,000 telex lines (June 1990);
    broadcast stations - 32 AM, 15 FM, 41 TV (8 Soviet TV repeaters); 4.2
    million TVs (1990); 1 satellite ground station using INTELSAT and
    Intersputnik

:Hungary Defense Forces

Branches:
    Ground Forces, Air and Air Defense Forces, Border Guard, Territorial Defense
Manpower availability:
    males 15-49, 2,619,277; 2,092,867 fit for military service; 87,469 reach
    military age (18) annually
Defense expenditures:
    exchange rate conversion - 60.8 billion forints, 1.7% of GNP (1992 est.);
    note - conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the current
    exchange rate would produce misleading results

:Iceland Geography

Total area:
    103,000 km2
Land area:
    100,250 km2
Comparative area:
    slightly smaller than Kentucky
Land boundaries:
    none
Coastline:
    4,988 km
Maritime claims:
  Continental shelf:
    edge of continental margin or 200 nm
  Exclusive economic zone:
    200 nm
  Territorial sea:
    12 nm
Disputes:
    Rockall continental shelf dispute involving Denmark, Ireland, and the UK
    (Ireland and the UK have signed a boundary agreement in the Rockall area)
Climate:
    temperate; moderated by North Atlantic Current; mild, windy winters; damp,
    cool summers
Terrain:
    mostly plateau interspersed with mountain peaks, icefields; coast deeply
    indented by bays and fiords
Natural resources:
    fish, hydroelectric and geothermal power, diatomite
Land use:
    arable land NEGL%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 23%; forest and
    woodland 1%; other 76%
Environment:
    subject to earthquakes and volcanic activity
Note:
    strategic location between Greenland and Europe; westernmost European
    country

:Iceland People

Population:
    259,012 (July 1992), growth rate 0.9% (1992)
Birth rate:
    18 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
    7 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
    -2 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
    4 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
    76 years male, 81 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
    2.2 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
    noun - Icelander(s); adjective - Icelandic
Ethnic divisions:
    homogeneous mixture of descendants of Norwegians and Celts
Religions:
    Evangelical Lutheran 96%, other Protestant and Roman Catholic 3%, none 1%
    (1988)
Languages:
    Icelandic
Literacy:
    100% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can read and write (1976 est.)
Labor force:
    134,429; commerce, finance, and services 55.4%, other manufacturing 14.3%.,
    agriculture 5.8%, fish processing 7.9%, fishing 5.0% (1986)
Organized labor:
    60% of labor force

:Iceland Government

Long-form name:
    Republic of Iceland
Type:
    republic
Capital:
    Reykjavik
Administrative divisions:
    23 counties (syslar, singular - sysla) and 14 independent towns*
    (kaupstadhir, singular - kaupstadhur); Akranes*, Akureyri*, Arnessysla,
    Austur-Bardhastrandarsysla, Austur-Hunavatnssysla, Austur-Skaftafellssysla,
    Borgarfjardharsysla, Dalasysla, Eyjafjardharsysla, Gullbringusysla,
    Hafnarfjordhur*, Husavik*, Isafjordhur*, Keflavik*, Kjosarsysla, Kopavogur*,
    Myrasysla, Neskaupstadhur*, Nordhur-Isafjardharsysla, Nordhur-Mulasys-la,
    Nordhur-Thingeyjarsysla, Olafsfjordhur*, Rangarvallasysla, Reykjavik*,
    Saudharkrokur*, Seydhisfjordhur*, Siglufjordhur*, Skagafjardharsysla,
    Snaefellsnes-og Hnappadalssysla, Strandasysla, Sudhur-Mulasysla,
    Sudhur-Thingeyjarsysla, Vesttmannaeyjar*, Vestur-Bardhastrandarsysla,
    Vestur-Hunavatnssysla, Vestur-Isafjardharsysla, Vestur-Skaftafellssysla
Independence:
    17 June 1944 (from Denmark)
Constitution:
    16 June 1944, effective 17 June 1944
Legal system:
    civil law system based on Danish law; does not accept compulsory ICJ
    jurisdiction
National holiday:
    Anniversary of the Establishment of the Republic, 17 June (1944)
Executive branch:
    president, prime minister, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
    unicameral Parliament (Althing)
Judicial branch:
    Supreme Court (Haestirettur)
Leaders:
  Chief of State:
    President Vigdis FINNBOGADOTTIR (since 1 August 1980)
  Head of Government:
    Prime Minister David ODDSSON (since 30 April 1991)
Political parties and leaders:
    Independence Party (conservative), David ODDSSON; Progressive Party,
    Steingrimur HERMANNSSON; Social Democratic Party, Jon Baldvin HANNIBALSSON;
    People's Alliance (left socialist), Olafur Ragnar GRIMSSON; Citizens Party
    (conservative nationalist), Julius SOLNES; Women's List
Suffrage:
    universal at age 20
Elections:
  President:
    last held on 29 June 1980 (next scheduled for June 1992); results - there
    were no elections in 1984 and 1988 as President Vigdis FINNBOGADOTTIR was
    unopposed
  Althing:
    last held on 20 April 1991 (next to be held by April 1995); results -
    Independence Party 38.6%, Progressive Party 18.9%, Social Democratic Party
    15.5%, People's Alliance 14.4%, Womens List 8.13%, Liberals 1.2%, other
    3.27% seats - (63 total) Independence 26, Progressive 13, Social Democratic
    10, People's Alliance 9, Womens List 5

:Iceland Government

Member of:
    BIS, CCC, CE, CSCE, EBRD, ECE, EFTA, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC,
    ICFTU, IDA, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO
    (correspondent), ITU, LORCS, NACC, NATO, NC, NEA, NIB, OECD, PCA, UN,
    UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO
Diplomatic representation:
    Ambassador Tomas A. TOMASSON; Chancery at 2022 Connecticut Avenue NW,
    Washington, DC 20008; telephone (202) 265-6653 through 6655; there is an
    Icelandic Consulate General in New York
  US:
    Ambassador Charles E. COBB, Jr.; Embassy at Laufasvegur 21, Box 40,
    Reykjavik (mailing address is FPO AE 09728-0340); telephone [354] (1) 29100
Flag:
    blue with a red cross outlined in white that extends to the edges of the
    flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the
    style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)

:Iceland Economy

Overview:
    Iceland's prosperous Scandinavian-type economy is basically capitalistic,
    but with extensive welfare measures, low unemployment, and comparatively
    even distribution of income. The economy is heavily dependent on the fishing
    industry, which provides nearly 75% of export earnings. In the absence of
    other natural resources, Iceland's economy is vulnerable to changing world
    fish prices. The economic improvements resulting from climbing fish prices
    in 1990 and a noninflationary labor agreement probably will be reversed by
    tighter fish quotas and a delay in the construction of an aluminum smelting
    plant. The conservative government's economic priorities include reducing
    the budget and current account deficits, containing inflation, revising
    agricultural and fishing policies, diversifying the economy, and tying the
    krona to the EC's European currency unit in 1993. The fishing industries -
    notably the shrimp industry - are experiencing a series of bankruptcies and
    mergers. Inflation has continued to drop sharply from 20% in 1989 to about
    7.5% in 1991 and possibly 3% in 1992, while unemployment is expected to
    increase to 2.5%. GDP is expected to contract by nearly 4% in 1992.
GDP:
    purchasing power equivalent - $4.2 billion, per capita $16,200; real growth
    rate 0.3% (1991)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    7.5% (1991)
Unemployment rate:
    1.8% (1991)
Budget:
    revenues $1.7 billion; expenditures $1.9 billion, including capital
    expenditures of $NA million (1991 est.)
Exports:
    $1.6 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
  commodities:
    fish and fish products, animal products, aluminum, diatomite
  partners:
    EC 67.7% (UK 25.3%, FRG 12.7%), US 9.9%, Japan 6% (1990)
Imports:
    $1.7 billion (c.i.f., 1991)
  commodities:
    machinery and transportation equipment, petroleum, foodstuffs, textiles
  partners:
    EC 49.8% (FRG 12.4%, Denmark 8.6%, UK 8.1%), US 14.4%, Japan 5.6% (1990)
External debt:
    $3 billion (1990)
Industrial production:
    growth rate 1.75% (1991 est.)
Electricity:
    1,063,000 kW capacity; 5,165 million kWh produced, 20,780 kWh per capita
    (1991)
Industries:
    fish processing, aluminum smelting, ferro-silicon production, hydropower
Agriculture:
    accounts for about 25% of GDP (including fishing); fishing is most important
    economic activity, contributing nearly 75% to export earnings; principal
    crops - potatoes and turnips; livestock - cattle, sheep; self-sufficient in
    crops; fish catch of about 1.4 million metric tons in 1989
Economic aid:
    US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-81), $19.1 million
Currency:
    krona (plural - kronur); 1 Icelandic krona (IKr) = 100 aurar

:Iceland Economy

Exchange rates:
    Icelandic kronur (IKr) per US$1 - 57.277 (January 1992), 58.996 (1991),
    58.284 (1990), 57.042 (1989), 43.014 (1988), 38.677 (1987)
Fiscal year:
    calendar year

:Iceland Communications

Highways:
    12,343 km total; 166 km bitumen and concrete; 1,284 km bituminous treated
    and gravel; 10,893 km earth
Ports:
    Reykjavik, Akureyri, Hafnarfjordhur, Keflavik, Seydhisfjordhur,
    Siglufjordhur, Vestmannaeyjar
Merchant marine:
    12 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 37,969 GRT/57,060 DWT; includes 5
    cargo, 3 refrigerated cargo, 2 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 1 petroleum tanker, 1
    chemical tanker
Civil air:
    20 major transport aircraft
Airports:
    94 total, 89 usable; 4 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways
    over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 12 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
    adequate domestic service; coaxial and fiber-optical cables and radio relay
    for trunk network; 135,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 19 AM, 30 (43
    repeaters) FM, 13 (132 repeaters) TV; 2 submarine cables; 1 Atlantic Ocean
    INTELSAT earth station carries majority of international traffic

:Iceland Defense Forces

Branches:
    no armed forces; Police, Coast Guard; Iceland's defense is provided by the
    US-manned Icelandic Defense Force (IDF) headquartered at Keflavik
Manpower availability:
    males 15-49, 69,072; 61,556 fit for military service; no conscription or
    compulsory military service
Defense expenditures:
    none

:India Geography

Total area:
    3,287,590 km2
Land area:
    2,973,190 km2
Comparative area:
    slightly more than one-third the size of the US
Land boundaries:
    14,103 km; Bangladesh 4,053 km, Bhutan 605 km, Burma 1,463 km, China 3,380,
    Nepal 1,690 km, Pakistan 2,912 km
Coastline:
    7,000 km
Maritime claims:
  Contiguous zone:
    24 nm
  Continental shelf:
    edge of continental margin or 200 nm
  Exclusive economic zone:
    200 nm
  Territorial sea:
    12 nm
Disputes:
    boundaries with Bangladesh, China, and Pakistan; water sharing problems with
    downstream riparians, Bangladesh over the Ganges and Pakistan over the Indus
Climate:
    varies from tropical monsoon in south to temperate in north
Terrain:
    upland plain (Deccan Plateau) in south, flat to rolling plain along the
    Ganges, deserts in west, Himalayas in north
Natural resources:
    coal (fourth-largest reserves in the world), iron ore, manganese, mica,
    bauxite, titanium ore, chromite, natural gas, diamonds, crude oil, limestone
Land use:
    arable land 55%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures 4%; forest and
    woodland 23%; other 17%; includes irrigated 13%
Environment:
    droughts, flash floods, severe thunderstorms common; deforestation; soil
    erosion; overgrazing; air and water pollution; desertification
Note:
    dominates South Asian subcontinent; near important Indian Ocean trade routes

:India People

Population:
    886,362,180 (July 1992), growth rate 1.9% (1992)
Birth rate:
    30 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
    11 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
    0 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
    81 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
    57 years male, 58 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
    3.7 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
    noun - Indian(s); adjective - Indian
Ethnic divisions:
    Indo-Aryan 72%, Dravidian 25%, Mongoloid and other 3%
Religions:
    Hindu 82.6%, Muslim 11.4%, Christian 2.4%, Sikh 2.0%, Buddhist 0.7%, Jains
    0.5%, other 0.4%
Languages:
    Hindi, English, and 14 other official languages - Bengali, Telugu, Marathi,
    Tamil, Urdu, Gujarati, Malayalam, Kannada, Oriya, Punjabi, Assamese,
    Kashmiri, Sindhi, and Sanskrit; 24 languages spoken by a million or more
    persons each; numerous other languages and dialects, for the most part
    mutually unintelligible; Hindi is the national language and primary tongue
    of 30% of the people; English enjoys associate status but is the most
    important language for national, political, and commercial communication;
    Hindustani, a popular variant of Hindi/Urdu, is spoken widely throughout
    northern India
Literacy:
    48% (male 62%, female 34%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
    284,400,000; 67% agriculture (FY85)
Organized labor:
    less than 5% of the labor force

:India Government

Long-form name:
    Republic of India
Type:
    federal republic
Capital:
    New Delhi
Administrative divisions:
    25 states and 7 union territories*; Andaman and Nicobar Islands*, Andhra
    Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chandigarh*, Dadra and Nagar
    Haveli*, Daman and Diu*, Delhi*, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh,
    Jammu and Kashmir, Karnataka, Kerala, Lakshadweep*, Madhya Pradesh,
    Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Orissa, Pondicherry*,
    Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal
Independence:
    15 August 1947 (from UK)
Constitution:
    26 January 1950
Legal system:
    based on English common law; limited judicial review of legislative acts;
    accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
National holiday:
    Anniversary of the Proclamation of the Republic, 26 January (1950)
Executive branch:
    president, vice president, prime minister, Council of Ministers
Legislative branch:
    bicameral Parliament (Sansad) consists of an upper house or Council of
    States (Rajya Sabha) and a lower house or People's Assembly (Lok Sabha)
Judicial branch:
    Supreme Court
Leaders:
  Chief of State:
    President Ramaswamy Iyer VENKATARAMAN (since 25 July 1987); Vice President
    Dr. Shankar Dayal SHARMA (since 3 September 1987)
  Head of Government:
    Prime Minister P. V. Narasimha RAO (since 21 June 1991)
Political parties and leaders:
    Congress (I) Party, P. V. Narasimha RAO, president; Bharatiya Janata Party,
    L. K. ADVANI; Janata Dal Party, V. P. SINGH; Communist Party of
    India/Marxist (CPI/M), Harkishan Singh SURJEET; Communist Party of India
    (CPI), C. Rajeswara RAO; Telugu Desam (a regional party in Andhra Pradesh),
    N. T. Rama RAO; All-India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazagham (AIADMK; a regional
    party in Tamil Nadu), JAYALALITHA; Samajwadi Janata Party, CHANDRA SHEKHAR;
    Shiv Sena, Bal THACKERAY; Revolutionary Socialist Party (RSP), Tridip
    CHOWDHURY; Bahujana Samaj Party (BSP), Kanshi RAM; Congress (S) Party,
    leader NA; Communist Party of India/Marxist-Leninist (CPI/ML), Satyanarayan
    SINGH; Dravida Munnetra Kazagham (a regional party in Tamil Nadu), M.
    KARUNANIDHI; Akali Dal factions representing Sikh religious community in the
    Punjab; National Conference (NC; a regional party in Jammu and Kashmir),
    Farooq ABDULLAH; Asom Gana Parishad (a regional party in Assam), Prafulla
    MAHANTA
Suffrage:
    universal at age 18

:India Government

Elections:
  People's Assembly:
    last held 21 May, 12 and 15 June 1991 (next to be held by November 1996);
    results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (545 total), 520 elected -
    Congress (I) Party 231, Bharatiya Janata Party 119, Janata Dal Party 59,
    CPI/M 35, CPI 14, Telugu Desam 13, AIADMK 11, Samajwadi Janata Party 5, Shiv
    Sena 4, RSP 4, BSP 1, Congress (S) Party 1, other 23; note - second and
    third rounds of voting were delayed because of the assassination of Congress
    President Rajiv GANDHI on 21 May 1991
Communists:
    466,000 members claimed by CPI, 361,000 members claimed by CPI/M; Communist
    extremist groups, about 15,000 members
Other political or pressure groups:
    various separatist groups seeking greater communal and/or regional autonomy;
    numerous religious or militant/chauvinistic organizations, including Adam
    Sena, Ananda Marg, Vishwa Hindu Parishad, and Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh
Member of:
    AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, C, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-6, G-15, G-19, G-24,
    G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO,
    INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, PCA, SAARC, UN,
    UNAVEM, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIIMOG, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
    Ambassador Abid HUSSEIN; Chancery at 2107 Massachusetts Avenue NW,
    Washington, DC 20008; telephone (202) 939-7000; there are Indian Consulates
    General in Chicago, New York, and San Francisco
  US:
    Ambassador William CLARK, Jr.; Embassy at Shanti Path, Chanakyapuri 110021,
    New Delhi; telephone [91] (11) 600651; FAX [91] (11) 687-2028, 687-2391;
    there are US Consulates General in Bombay, Calcutta, and Madras
Flag:
    three equal horizontal bands of orange (top), white, and green with a blue
    chakra (24-spoked wheel) centered in the white band; similar to the flag of
    Niger, which has a small orange disk centered in the white band

:India Economy

Overview:
    India's economy is a mixture of traditional village farming and handicrafts,
    modern agriculture, old and new branches of industry, and a multitude of
    support services. It presents both the entrepreneurial skills and drives of
    the capitalist system and widespread government intervention of the
    socialist mold. Growth of 4-5% annually in the 1980s has softened the impact
    of population growth on unemployment, social tranquility, and the
    environment. Agricultural output has continued to expand, reflecting the
    greater use of modern farming techniques and improved seed that have helped
    to make India self-sufficient in food grains and a net agricultural
    exporter. However, tens of millions of villagers, particularly in the south,
    have not benefited from the green revolution and live in abject poverty, and
    great numbers of urban residents lack the basic essentials of life. Industry
    has benefited from a partial liberalization of controls. The growth rate of
    the service sector has also been strong. India, however, has been challenged
    more recently by much lower foreign exchange reserves, higher inflation, and
    a large debt service burden.
GDP:
    exchange rate conversion - $328 billion, per capita $380; real growth rate
    2.5% (FY92 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    12.0% (1991)
Unemployment rate:
    20% (1991 est.)
Budget:
    revenues $38.5 billion; expenditures $53.4 billion, including capital
    expenditures of $11.1 billion (FY92)
Exports:
    $20.2 billion (f.o.b., FY91)
  commodities:
    gems and jewelry, engineering goods, clothing, textiles, chemicals, tea,
    coffee, fish products
  partners:
    EC 25%, US 16%, USSR and Eastern Europe 19%, Japan 10% (1989)
Imports:
    $25.2 billion (c.i.f., FY91)
  commodities:
    petroleum products, capital goods, uncut gems, gems, jewelry, chemicals,
    iron and steel, edible oils
  partners:
    EC 33%, Middle East 19%, US 12%, Japan 8%, USSR and Eastern Europe 8% (1989)
External debt:
    $72.0 billion (1991 est.)
Industrial production:
    growth rate 8.4% (1990); accounts for about 25% of GDP
Electricity:
    80,000,000 kW capacity; 290,000 million kWh produced, 330 kWh per capita
    (1991)
Industries:
    textiles, food processing, steel, machinery, transportation equipment,
    cement, jute manufactures, mining, petroleum, power, chemicals,
    pharmaceuticals, electronics
Agriculture:
    accounts for about 30% of GDP and employs 67% of labor force;
    self-sufficient in food grains; principal crops - rice, wheat, oilseeds,
    cotton, jute, tea, sugarcane, potatoes; livestock - cattle, buffaloes,
    sheep, goats and poultry; fish catch of about 3 million metric tons ranks
    India among the world's top 10 fishing nations

:India Economy

Illicit drugs:
    licit producer of opium poppy for the pharmaceutical trade, but some opium
    is diverted to illicit international drug markets; major transit country for
    illicit narcotics produced in neighboring countries; illicit producer of
    hashish
Economic aid:
    US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $4.4 billion; Western (non-US)
    countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1980-89), $31.7 billion; OPEC
    bilateral aid (1979-89), $315 million; USSR (1970-89), $11.6 billion;
    Eastern Europe (1970-89), $105 million
Currency:
    Indian rupee (plural - rupees); 1 Indian rupee (Re) = 100 paise
Exchange rates:
    Indian rupees (Rs) per US$1 - 25.917 (January 1992), 22.742 (1991), 17.504
    (1990), 16.226 (1989), 13.917 (1988), 12.962 (1987)
Fiscal year:
    1 April - 31 March

:India Communications

Railroads:
    61,850 km total (1986); 33,553 km 1.676-meter broad gauge, 24,051 km
    1.000-meter gauge, 4,246 km narrow gauge (0.762 meter and 0.610 meter);
    12,617 km is double track; 6,500 km is electrified
Highways:
    1,970,000 km total (1989); 960,000 km surfaced and 1,010,000 km gravel,
    crushed stone, or earth
Inland waterways:
    16,180 km; 3,631 km navigable by large vessels
Pipelines:
    crude oil 3,497 km; petroleum products 1,703 km; natural gas 902 km (1989)
Ports:
    Bombay, Calcutta, Cochin, Kandla, Madras, New Mangalore, Port Blair (Andaman
    Islands)
Merchant marine:
    299 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,991,278 GRT/9,935,463 DWT; includes
    1 short-sea passenger, 7 passenger-cargo, 91 cargo, 1 roll-on/roll-off, 8
    container, 54 oil tanker, 10 chemical tanker, 8 combination ore/oil, 111
    bulk, 2 combination bulk, 6 liquefied gas
Civil air:
    93 major transport aircraft
Airports:
    341 total, 288 usable; 203 with permanent-surface runways; 2 with runways
    over 3,659 m; 59 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 87 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
    poor domestic telephone service, international radio communications
    adequate; 4,700,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 96 AM, 4 FM, 274 TV
    (government controlled); domestic satellite system for communications and
    TV; 3 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth stations; submarine cables to Malaysia and
    United Arab Emirates

:India Defense Forces

Branches:
    Army, Navy, Air Force, Security or Paramilitary Forces, Border Security
    Force, Coast Guard, Assam Rifles
Manpower availability:
    males 15-49, 237,803,153; 140,140,736 fit for military service; about
    9,474,290 reach military age (17) annually
Defense expenditures:
    exchange rate conversion - $NA, NA% of GNP (FY91)

:Indian Ocean Geography

Total area:
    73,600,000 km2
Land area:
    73,600,000 km2; Arabian Sea, Bass Strait, Bay of Bengal, Java Sea, Persian
    Gulf, Red Sea, Strait of Malacca, Timor Sea, and other tributary water
    bodies
Comparative area:
    slightly less than eight times the size of the US; third-largest ocean
    (after the Pacific Ocean and Atlantic Ocean, but larger than the Arctic
    Ocean)
Coastline:
    66,526 km
Disputes:
    some maritime disputes (see littoral states)
Climate:
    northeast monsoon (December to April), southwest monsoon (June to October);
    tropical cyclones occur during May/June and October/November in the north
    Indian Ocean and January/February in the south Indian Ocean
Terrain:
    surface dominated by counterclockwise gyre (broad, circular system of
    currents) in the south Indian Ocean; unique reversal of surface currents in
    the north Indian Ocean - low pressure over southwest Asia from hot, rising,
    summer air results in the southwest monsoon and southwest-to-northeast winds
    and currents, while high pressure over northern Asia from cold, falling,
    winter air results in the northeast monsoon and northeast-to-southwest winds
    and currents; ocean floor is dominated by the Mid-Indian Ocean Ridge and
    subdivided by the Southeast Indian Ocean Ridge, Southwest Indian Ocean
    Ridge, and Ninety East Ridge; maximum depth is 7,258 meters in the Java
    Trench
Natural resources:
    oil and gas fields, fish, shrimp, sand and gravel aggregates, placer
    deposits, polymetallic nodules
Environment:
    endangered marine species include the dugong, seals, turtles, and whales;
    oil pollution in the Arabian Sea, Persian Gulf, and Red Sea
Note:
    major chokepoints include Bab el Mandeb, Strait of Hormuz, Strait of
    Malacca, southern access to the Suez Canal, and the Lombok Strait; ships
    subject to superstructure icing in extreme south near Antarctica from May to
    October

:Indian Ocean Economy

Overview:
    The Indian Ocean provides a major highway for the movement of petroleum
    products from the Middle East to Europe and North and South American
    countries. Fish from the ocean are of growing economic importance to many of
    the bordering countries as a source of both food and exports. Fishing fleets
    from Russia, Japan, Korea, and Taiwan also exploit the Indian Ocean, mainly
    for shrimp and tuna. Large reserves of hydrocarbons are being tapped in the
    offshore areas of Saudi Arabia, Iran, India, and Western Australia. An
    estimated 40% of the world's offshore oil production comes from the Indian
    Ocean. Beach sands rich in heavy minerals and offshore placer deposits are
    actively exploited by bordering countries, particularly India, South Africa,
    Indonesia, Sri Lanka, and Thailand.
Industries:
    based on exploitation of natural resources, particularly marine life,
    minerals, oil and gas production, fishing, sand and gravel aggregates,
    placer deposits

:Indian Ocean Communications

Ports:
    Bombay (India), Calcutta (India), Madras (India), Colombo (Sri Lanka),
    Durban (South Africa), Fremantle (Australia), Jakarta (Indonesia), Melbourne
    (Australia), Richard's Bay (South Africa)
Telecommunications:
    submarine cables from India to United Arab Emirates and Malaysia

:Indonesia Geography

Total area:
    1,919,440 km2
Land area:
    1,826,440 km2
Comparative area:
    slightly less than three times the size of Texas
Land boundaries:
    2,602 km; Malaysia 1,782 km, Papua New Guinea 820 km
Coastline:
    54,716 km
Maritime claims:
    (measured from claimed archipelagic baselines)
  Exclusive economic zone:
    200 nm
  Territorial sea:
    12 nm
Disputes:
    sovereignty over Timor Timur (East Timor Province) disputed with Portugal
Climate:
    tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands
Terrain:
    mostly coastal lowlands; larger islands have interior mountains
Natural resources:
    crude oil, tin, natural gas liquids, nickel, timber, bauxite, copper,
    fertile soils, coal, gold, silver
Land use:
    arable land 8%; permanent crops 3%; meadows and pastures 7%; forest and
    woodland 67%; other 15%; includes irrigated 3%
Environment:
    archipelago of 13,500 islands (6,000 inhabited); occasional floods, severe
    droughts, and tsunamis; deforestation
Note:
    straddles Equator; strategic location astride or along major sea lanes from
    Indian Ocean to Pacific Ocean

:Indonesia People

Population:
    195,683,531 (July 1992), growth rate 1.7% (1992)
Birth rate:
    25 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
    8 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
    0 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
    70 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
    59 years male, 64 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
    2.8 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
    noun - Indonesian(s); adjective - Indonesian
Ethnic divisions:
    majority of Malay stock comprising Javanese 45.0%, Sundanese 14.0%, Madurese
    7.5%, coastal Malays 7.5%, other 26.0%
Religions:
    Muslim 87%, Protestant 6%, Roman Catholic 3%, Hindu 2%, Buddhist 1%, other
    1% (1985)
Languages:
    Bahasa Indonesia (modified form of Malay; official); English and Dutch
    leading foreign languages; local dialects, the most widely spoken of which
    is Javanese
Literacy:
    77% (male 84%, female 68%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
    67,000,000; agriculture 55%, manufacturing 10%, construction 4%, transport
    and communications 3% (1985 est.)
Organized labor:
    3,000,000 members (claimed); about 5% of labor force

:Indonesia Government

Long-form name:
    Republic of Indonesia
Type:
    republic
Capital:
    Jakarta
Administrative divisions:
    24 provinces (propinsi-propinsi, singular - propinsi), 2 special regions*
    (daerah-daerah istimewa, singular - daerah istimewa), and 1 special capital
    city district** (daerah khusus ibukota); Aceh*, Bali, Bengkulu, Irian Jaya,
    Jakarta Raya**, Jambi, Jawa Barat, Jawa Tengah, Jawa Timur, Kalimantan
    Barat, Kalimantan Selatan, Kalimantan Tengah, Kalimantan Timur, Lampung,
    Maluku, Nusa Tenggara Barat, Nusa Tenggara Timur, Riau, Sulawesi Selatan,
    Sulawesi Tengah, Sulawesi Tenggara, Sulawesi Utara, Sumatera Barat, Sumatera
    Selatan, Sumatera Utara, Timor Timur, Yogyakarta*
Independence:
    17 August 1945 (proclaimed independence; on 27 December 1949, Indonesia
    became legally independent from the Netherlands)
Constitution:
    August 1945, abrogated by Federal Constitution of 1949 and Provisional
    Constitution of 1950, restored 5 July 1959
Legal system:
    based on Roman-Dutch law, substantially modified by indigenous concepts and
    by new criminal procedures code; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
    jurisdiction
National holiday:
    Independence Day, 17 August (1945)
Executive branch:
    president, vice president, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
    unicameral House of Representatives (Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat or DPR); note -
    the People's Consultative Assembly (Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat or MPR)
    includes the DPR plus 500 indirectly elected members who meet every five
    years to elect the president and vice president and, theoretically, to
    determine national policy
Judicial branch:
    Supreme Court (Mahkamah Agung)
Leaders:
  Chief of State and Head of Government:
    President Gen. (Ret.) SOEHARTO (since 27 March 1968); Vice President Lt.
    Gen. (Ret.) SUDHARMONO (since 11 March 1988)
Political parties and leaders:
    GOLKAR (quasi-official party based on functional groups), Lt. Gen. (Ret.)
    WAHONO, general chairman; Indonesia Democracy Party (PDI - federation of
    former Nationalist and Christian Parties), SOERYADI, chairman; Development
    Unity Party (PPP, federation of former Islamic parties), Ismail Hasan
    METAREUM, chairman
Suffrage:
    universal at age 17 and married persons regardless of age
Elections:
  House of Representatives:
    last held on 23 April 1987 (next to be held 8 June 1992); results - Golkar
    73%, UDP 16%, PDI 11%; seats - (500 total - 400 elected, 100 appointed)
    Golkar 299, UDP 61, PDI 40
Communists:
    Communist Party (PKI) was officially banned in March 1966; current strength
    about 1,000-3,000, with less than 10% engaged in organized activity;
    pre-October 1965 hardcore membership about 1.5 million

:Indonesia Government

Member of:
    APEC, AsDB, ASEAN, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD,
    ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT,
    INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OIC, OPEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
    UNIIMOG, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
    Ambassador Abdul Rachman RAMLY; Chancery at 2020 Massachusetts Avenue NW,
    Washington, DC 20036; telephone (202) 775-5200; there are Indonesian
    Consulates General in Houston, New York, and Los Angeles, and Consulates in
    Chicago and San Francisco
  US:
    Ambassador John C. MONJO; Embassy at Medan Merdeka Selatan 5, Jakarta
    (mailing address is APO AP 96520); telephone [62] (21) 360-360; FAX [62]
    (21) 360-644; there are US Consulates in Medan and Surabaya
Flag:
    two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; similar to the flag of
    Monaco, which is shorter; also similar to the flag of Poland, which is white
    (top) and red

:Indonesia Economy

Overview:
    Indonesia is a mixed economy with many socialist institutions and central
    planning but with a recent emphasis on deregulation and private enterprise.
    Indonesia has extensive natural wealth, yet, with a large and rapidly
    increasing population, it remains a poor country. GDP growth in 1985-91
    averaged about 6%, quite impressive, but not sufficient to both slash
    underemployment and absorb the 2.3 million workers annually entering the
    labor force. Agriculture, including forestry and fishing, is an important
    sector, accounting for 23% of GDP and over 50% of the labor force. The
    staple crop is rice. Once the world's largest rice importer, Indonesia is
    now nearly self-sufficient. Plantation crops - rubber and palm oil - and
    textiles and plywood are being encouraged for both export and job
    generation. Industrial output now accounts for 30% of GDP and is based on a
    supply of diverse natural resources, including crude oil, natural gas,
    timber, metals, and coal. Of these, the oil sector dominates the external
    economy, generating more than 20% of the government's revenues and 40% of
    export earnings in 1989. However, the economy's growth is highly dependent
    on the continuing expansion of nonoil exports. Japan is Indonesia's most
    important customer and supplier of aid. In 1991, rapid growth in the money
    supply prompted Jakarta to implement a tight monetary policy, forcing the
    private sector to go to foreign banks for investment financing. Real
    interest rates remained above 10%, off-shore commercial debt grew, and real
    GDP growth dropped slightly from the 7% of 1990.
GDP:
    exchange rate conversion - $122 billion, per capita $630; real growth rate
    6.0% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    10% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
    3%; underemployment 45% (1991 est.)
Budget:
    revenues $17.2 billion; expenditures $23.4 billion, including capital
    expenditures of $8.9 billion (FY91)
Exports:
    $25.7 billion (f.o.b., 1990)
  commodities:
    petroleum and liquefied natural gas 40%, timber 15%, textiles 7%, rubber 5%,
    coffee 3%
  partners:
    Japan 40%, US 14%, Singapore 7%, Europe 16% (1990)
Imports:
    $21.8 billion (f.o.b., 1990)
  commodities:
    machinery 39%, chemical products 19%, manufactured goods 16%
  partners:
    Japan 23%, US 13%, EC, Singapore
External debt:
    $58.5 billion (1990 est.)
Industrial production:
    growth rate 11.6% (1989 est.); accounts for 30% of GDP
Electricity:
    11,600,000 kW capacity; 38,000 million kWh produced, 200 kWh per capita
    (1990)
Industries:
    petroleum, textiles, mining, cement, chemical fertilizers, plywood, food,
    rubber

:Indonesia Economy

Agriculture:
    accounts for 23% of GDP; subsistence food production; small-holder and
    plantation production for export; main products are rice, cassava, peanuts,
    rubber, cocoa, coffee, palm oil, copra, other tropical products, poultry,
    beef, pork, eggs
Illicit drugs:
    illicit producer of cannabis for the international drug trade, but not a
    major player; government actively eradicating plantings and prosecuting
    traffickers
Economic aid:
    US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $4.4 billion; Western (non-US)
    countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $25.9 billion; OPEC
    bilateral aid (1979-89), $213 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $175
    million
Currency:
    Indonesian rupiah (plural - rupiahs); 1 Indonesian rupiah (Rp) = 100 sen
    (sen no longer used)
Exchange rates:
    Indonesian rupiahs (Rp) per US$1 - 1,998.2 (January 1992), 1,950.3 (1991),
    1,842.8 (1990), 1,770.1 (1989), 1,685.7 (1988), 1,643.8 (1987)
Fiscal year:
    1 April - 31 March

:Indonesia Communications

Railroads:
    6,964 km total; 6,389 km 1.067-meter gauge, 497 km 0.750-meter gauge, 78 km
    0.600-meter gauge; 211 km double track; 101 km electrified; all government
    owned
Highways:
    119,500 km total; 11,812 km state, 34,180 km provincial, and 73,508 km
    district roads
Inland waterways:
    21,579 km total; Sumatra 5,471 km, Java and Madura 820 km, Kalimantan 10,460
    km, Celebes 241 km, Irian Jaya 4,587 km
Pipelines:
    crude oil 2,505 km; petroleum products 456 km; natural gas 1,703 km (1989)
Ports:
    Cilacap, Cirebon, Jakarta, Kupang, Palembang, Ujungpandang, Semarang,
    Surabaya
Merchant marine:
    387 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,698,946 GRT/2,560,414 DWT; includes
    5 short-sea passenger, 13 passenger-cargo, 231 cargo, 8 container, 3
    roll-on/roll-off cargo, 3 vehicle carrier, 79 petroleum tanker, 5 chemical
    tanker, 6 liquefied gas, 7 specialized tanker, 1 livestock carrier, 25 bulk,
    1 passenger
Civil air:
    about 216 commercial transport aircraft
Airports:
    437 total, 410 usable; 114 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runways
    over 3,659 m; 12 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 64 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
    interisland microwave system and HF police net; domestic service fair,
    international service good; radiobroadcast coverage good; 763,000 telephones
    (1986); broadcast stations - 618 AM, 38 FM, 9 TV; satellite earth stations -
    1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth station and 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth
    station; and 1 domestic satellite communications system

:Indonesia Defense Forces

Branches:
    Army, Navy, Air Force, National Police
Manpower availability:
    males 15-49, 51,906,415; 30,668,815 fit for military service; 2,095,698
    reach military age (18) annually
Defense expenditures:
    exchange rate conversion - $1.7 billion, 2% of GNP (FY91)

:Iran Geography

Total area:
    1,648,000 km2
Land area:
    1,636,000 km2
Comparative area:
    slightly larger than Alaska
Land boundaries:
    5,440 km; Afghanistan 936 km, Armenia 35 km, Azerbaijan (north) 432 km,
    Azerbaijan (northwest) 179 km, Iraq 1,458 km, Pakistan 909 km, Turkey 499
    km, Turkmenistan 992 km
Coastline:
    2,440 km
  note:
    Iran also borders the Caspian Sea (740 km)
Maritime claims:
  Continental shelf:
    not specific
  Exclusive fishing zone:
    50 nm in the Sea of Oman; continental shelf limit, continental shelf
    boundaries, or median lines in the Persian Gulf
  Territorial sea:
    12 nm
Disputes:
    Iran and Iraq restored diplomatic relations in 1990 but are still trying to
    work out written agreements settling outstanding disputes from their
    eight-year war concerning border demarcation, prisoners-of-war, and freedom
    of navigation and sovereignty over the Shatt-al-Arab waterway; Iran occupies
    two islands in the Persian Gulf claimed by the UAE: Tunb as Sughra (Arabic),
    Jazireh-ye Tonb-e Kuchek (Persian) or Lesser Tunb, and Tunb al Kubra
    (Arabic), Jazireh-ye Tonb-e Bozorg (Persian) or Greater Tunb; it jointly
    administers with the UAE an island in the Persian Gulf claimed by the UAE,
    Abu Musa (Arabic) or Jazireh-ye Abu Musa (Persian)
Climate:
    mostly arid or semiarid, subtropical along Caspian coast
Terrain:
    rugged, mountainous rim; high, central basin with deserts, mountains; small,
    discontinuous plains along both coasts
Natural resources:
    petroleum, natural gas, coal, chromium, copper, iron ore, lead, manganese,
    zinc, sulfur
Land use:
    arable land 8%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and pastures 27%; forest and
    woodland 11%; other 54%; includes irrigated 2%
Environment:
    deforestation; overgrazing; desertification

:Iran People

Population:
    61,183,138 (July 1992), growth rate 3.5% (1992)
Birth rate:
    44 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
    8 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
    0 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
    64 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
    64 years male, 66 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
    6.5 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
    noun - Iranian(s); adjective - Iranian
Ethnic divisions:
    Persian 51%, Azerbaijani 25%, Kurd 9%, Gilaki and Mazandarani 8%, Lur 2%,
    Baloch 1%, Arab 1%, other 3%
Religions:
    Shi`a Muslim 95%, Sunni Muslim 4%, Zoroastrian, Jewish, Christian, and
    Baha'i 1%
Languages:
    58% Persian and Persian dialects, 26% Turkic and Turkic dialects, 9%
    Kurdish, 2% Luri, 1% Baloch, 1% Arabic, 1% Turkish, 2% other
Literacy:
    54% (male 64%, female 43%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
    15,400,000; agriculture 33%, manufacturing 21%; shortage of skilled labor
    (1988 est.)
Organized labor:
    none

:Iran Government

Long-form name:
    Islamic Republic of Iran
Type:
    theocratic republic
Capital:
    Tehran
Administrative divisions:
    24 provinces (ostanha, singular - ostan); Azarbayjan-e Bakhtari,
    Azarbayjan-e Khavari, Bakhtaran, Bushehr, Chahar Machall va Bakhtiari,
    Ecsfahan, Fars, Gilan, Hamadan, Hormozgan, Ilam, Kerman, Khorasan,
    Khuzestan, Kohkiluyeh va Buyer Achmadi, Kordestan, Lorestan, Markazi,
    Mazandaran, Semnan, Sistan va Baluchestan, Tehran, Yazd, Zanjan
Independence:
    1 April 1979, Islamic Republic of Iran proclaimed
Constitution:
    2-3 December 1979; revised 1989 to expand powers of the presidency and
    eliminate the prime ministership
Legal system:
    the Constitution codifies Islamic principles of government
National holiday:
    Islamic Republic Day, 1 April (1979)
Executive branch:
    cleric (faqih), president, Council of Ministers
Legislative branch:
    unicameral Islamic Consultative Assembly (Majles-e-Shura-ye-Eslami)
Judicial branch:
    Supreme Court
Leaders:
  Cleric and functional Chief of State:
    Leader of the Islamic Revolution Ayatollah Ali HOSEINI-KHAMENEI (since 4
    June 1989)
  Head of Government:
    President Ali Akbar HASHEMI-RAFSANJANI (since 3 August 1989)
Political parties and leaders:
    there are at least 18 licensed parties; the three most important are -
    Tehran Militant Clergy Association, Mohammad Reza MAHDAVI-KANI; Militant
    Clerics Association, Mehdi MAHDAVI-KARUBI and Mohammad Asqar
    MUSAVI-KHOINIHA; Fedaiyin Islam Organization, Sadeq KHALKHALI
Suffrage:
    universal at age 15
Elections:
  President:
    last held July 1989 (next to be held April 1993); results - Ali Akbar
    HASHEMI-RAFSANJANI was elected with only token opposition
  Islamic Consultative Assembly:
    last held 8 April 1992 (next to be held April 1996); results - percent of
    vote by party NA; seats - (270 seats total) number of seats by party NA
Communists:
    1,000 to 2,000 est. hardcore; 15,000 to 20,000 est. sympathizers; crackdown
    in 1983 crippled the party; trials of captured leaders began in late 1983
Other political or pressure groups:
    groups that generally support the Islamic Republic include Hizballah,
    Hojjatiyeh Society, Mojahedin of the Islamic Revolution, Muslim Students
    Following the Line of the Imam; armed political groups that have been almost
    completely repressed by the government include Mojahedin-e Khalq
    Organization (MEK), People's Fedayeen, Kurdish Democratic Party; the Society
    for the Defense of Freedom

:Iran Government

Member of:
    CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-19, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, IDA, IDB,
    IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU,
    LORCS, NAM, OIC, OPEC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU,
    WHO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
    none; protecting power in the US is Pakistan - Iranian Interests Section,
    2315 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008; telephone (202) 939-6200
  US:
    protecting power in Iran is Switzerland
Flag:
    three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white, and red; the national
    emblem (a stylized representation of the word Allah) in red is centered in
    the white band; Allah Alkbar (God is Great) in white Arabic script is
    repeated 11 times along the bottom edge of the green band and 11 times along
    the top edge of the red band

:Iran Economy

Overview:
    Iran's economy is a mixture of central planning, state ownership of oil and
    other large enterprises, village agriculture, and small-scale private
    trading and service ventures. After a decade of economic decline, Iran's GNP
    grew roughly 4% in FY90 and 10% in FY91. An oil windfall in 1990 combined
    with a substantial increase in imports contributed to Iran's recent economic
    growth. Iran has also begun implementing a number of economic reforms to
    reduce government intervention (including subsidies) and has allocated
    substantial resources to development projects in the hope of stimulating the
    economy. Nevertheless, lower oil revenues in 1991 - oil accounts for more
    than 90% of export revenues and provides roughly 65% of the financing for
    the five-year economic development plan - and dramatic increases in external
    debt are threatening development plans and could prompt Iran to cut imports,
    thus limiting economic growth in the medium term.
GNP:
    exchange rate conversion - $90 billion, per capita $1,500; real growth rate
    10% (FY91 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    18% (FY91 est.)
Unemployment rate:
    30% (1989)
Budget:
    revenues $63 billion; expenditures $80 billion, including capital
    expenditures of $23 billion (FY90 est.)
Exports:
    $17.8 billion (f.o.b., 1990)
  commodities:
    petroleum 90%, carpets, fruits, nuts, hides
  partners:
    Japan, Italy, France, Netherlands, Belgium/Luxembourg, Spain, and Germany
Imports:
    $15.9 billion (c.i.f., 1990)
  commodities:
    machinery, military supplies, metal works, foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals,
    technical services, refined oil products
  partners:
    Germany, Japan, Italy, UK, France
External debt:
    $10 billion (1990 est.)
Industrial production:
    growth rate NA%
Electricity:
    14,579,000 kW capacity; 40,000 million kWh produced, 740 kWh per capita
    (1989)
Industries:
    petroleum, petrochemicals, textiles, cement and other building materials,
    food processing (particularly sugar refining and vegetable oil production),
    metal fabricating (steel and copper)
Agriculture:
    principal products - wheat, rice, other grains, sugar beets, fruits, nuts,
    cotton, dairy products, wool, caviar; not self-sufficient in food
Illicit drugs:
    illicit producer of opium poppy for the domestic and international drug
    trade
Economic aid:
    US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-80), $1.0 billion; Western (non-US)
    countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $1.675 billion;
    Communist countries (1970-89), $976 million; note - aid fell sharply
    following the 1979 revolution

:Iran Economy

Currency:
    Iranian rial (plural - rials); 1 Iranian rial (IR) = 100 dinars; note -
    domestic figures are generally referred to in terms of the toman (plural -
    tomans), which equals 10 rials
Exchange rates:
    Iranian rials (IR) per US$1 - 65.515 (January 1992), 67.505 (1991), 68.096
    (1990), 72.015 (1989), 68.683 (1988), 71.460 (1987); note - black-market
    rate 1,400 (January 1991)
Fiscal year:
    21 March - 20 March

:Iran Communications

Railroads:
    4,850 km total; 4,760 km 1.432-meter gauge, 92 km 1.676-meter gauge; 480 km
    under construction from Bafq to Bandar Abbas, rail construction from Bafq to
    Sirjan has been completed and is operational
Highways:
    140,072 km total; 42,694 km paved surfaces; 46,866 km gravel and crushed
    stone; 49,440 km improved earth; 1,200 km (est.) rural road network
Inland waterways:
    904 km; the Shatt-al-Arab is usually navigable by maritime traffic for about
    130 km, but closed since September 1980 because of Iran-Iraq war
Pipelines:
    crude oil 5,900 km; petroleum products 3,900 km; natural gas 4,550 km
Ports:
    Abadan (largely destroyed in fighting during 1980-88 war), Bandar Beheshti,
    Bandar-e Abbas, Bandar-e Bushehr, Bandar-e Khomeyni, Bandar-e Shahid Raja,
    Khorramshahr (largely destroyed in fighting during 1980-88 war)
Merchant marine:
    134 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,466,395 GRT/8,329,760 DWT; includes
    38 cargo, 6 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 32 oil tanker, 4 chemical tanker, 3
    refrigerated cargo, 47 bulk, 2 combination bulk, 1 liquefied gas
Civil air:
    48 major transport aircraft
Airports:
    214 total, 188 usable; 81 with permanent-surface runways; 16 with runways
    over 3,659 m; 16 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 71 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
    radio relay extends throughout country; system centered in Tehran; 2,143,000
    telephones; broadcast stations - 77 AM, 3 FM, 28 TV; satellite earth
    stations - 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT; HF radio
    and radio relay to Turkey, Pakistan, Syria, Kuwait, Tajikistan, and
    Uzbekistan

:Iran Defense Forces

Branches:
    Islamic Republic of Iran Ground Forces, Navy, Air Force, and Revolutionary
    Guard Corps (includes Basij militia and own ground, air, and naval forces);
    Law Enforcement Forces
Manpower availability:
    males 15-49, 13,267,810; 7,895,591 fit for military service; 552,408 reach
    military age (21) annually
Defense expenditures:
    exchange rate conversion - $13 billion, 14-15% of GNP (1991 est.)

:Iraq Geography

Total area:
    436,245 km2
Land area:
    435,292 km2 (est.)
Comparative area:
    slightly more than twice the size of Idaho
Land boundaries:
    3,576 km; Iran 1,458 km, Jordan 134 km, Kuwait 240 km, Saudi Arabia 808 km,
    Syria 605 km, Turkey 331 km
Coastline:
    58 km
Maritime claims:
  Continental shelf:
    not specific
  Territorial sea:
    12 nm
Disputes:
    Iran and Iraq restored diplomatic relations in 1990 but are still trying to
    work out written agreements settling outstanding disputes from their
    eight-year war concerning border demarcation, prisoners-of-war, and freedom
    of navigation and sovereignty over the Shatt-al-Arab waterway; in April 1991
    official Iraqi acceptance of UN Security Council Resolution 687, which
    demands that Iraq accept the inviolability of the boundary set forth in its
    1963 agreement with Kuwait, ending earlier claims to Bubiyan and Warbah
    Islands or to all of Kuwait; a United Nations Boundary Demarcation
    Commission is demarcating the Iraq-Kuwait boundary persuant to Resolution
    687, and, on 17 June 1992, the UN Security Council reaffirmed the finality
    of the Boundary Demarcation Commission's decisions; periodic disputes with
    upstream riparian Syria over Euphrates water rights; potential dispute over
    water development plans by Turkey for the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers
Climate:
    mostly desert; mild to cool winters with dry, hot, cloudless summers;
    northernmost regions along Iranian and Turkish borders experience cold
    winters with occasionally heavy snows
Terrain:
    mostly broad plains; reedy marshes in southeast; mountains along borders
    with Iran and Turkey
Natural resources:
    crude oil, natural gas, phosphates, sulfur
Land use:
    arable land 12%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures 9%; forest and
    woodland 3%; other 75%; includes irrigated 4%
Environment:
    development of Tigris-Euphrates Rivers system contingent upon agreements
    with upstream riparians (Syria, Turkey); air and water pollution; soil
    degradation (salinization) and erosion; desertification

:Iraq People

Population:
    18,445,847 (July 1992), growth rate 3.7% (1992)
Birth rate:
    45 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
    9 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
    NEGL migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
    84 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
    62 years male, 64 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
    7.0 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
    noun - Iraqi(s); adjective - Iraqi
Ethnic divisions:
    Arab 75-80%, Kurdish 15-20%, Turkoman, Assyrian or other 5%
Religions:
    Muslim 97%, (Shi`a 60-65%, Sunni 32-37%), Christian or other 3%
Languages:
    Arabic (official), Kurdish (official in Kurdish regions), Assyrian, Armenian
Literacy:
    60% (male 70%, female 49%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
    4,400,000 (1989); services 48%, agriculture 30%, industry 22%, severe labor
    shortage; expatriate labor force about 1,600,000 (July 1990)
Organized labor:
    less than 10% of the labor force

:Iraq Government

Long-form name:
    Republic of Iraq
Type:
    republic
Capital:
    Baghdad
Administrative divisions:
    18 provinces (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah); Al Anbar, Al Basrah, Al
    Muthanna, Al Qadisiyah, An Najaf, Arbil, As Sulaymaniyah, At Ta'im, Babil,
    Baghdad, Dahuk, Dhi Qar, Diyala, Karbala, Maysan, Ninawa, Salah ad Din,
    Wasit
Independence:
    3 October 1932 (from League of Nations mandate under British administration)
Constitution:
    22 September 1968, effective 16 July 1970 (interim Constitution); new
    constitution drafted in 1990 but not adopted
Legal system:
    based on Islamic law in special religious courts, civil law system
    elsewhere; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
    Anniversary of the Revolution, 17 July (1968)
Executive branch:
    president, vice president, chairman of the Revolutionary Command Council,
    vice chairman of the Revolutionary Command Council, prime minister, first
    deputy prime minister, Council of Ministers
Legislative branch:
    unicameral National Assembly (Majlis al-Watani)
Judicial branch:
    Court of Cassation
Leaders:
  Chief of State:
    President SADDAM Husayn (since 16 July 1979); Vice President Taha Muhyi
    al-Din MA'RUF (since 21 April 1974); Vice President Taha Yasin RAMADAN
    (since 23 March 1991)
  Head of Government:
    Prime Minister Muhammad Hamza al-ZUBAYDI (since 13 September 1991); Deputy
    Prime Minister Tariq `AZIZ (since NA 1979)
Suffrage:
    universal adult at age 18
Elections:
  National Assembly:
    last held on 1 April 1989 (next to be held NA); results - Sunni Arabs 53%,
    Shi`a Arabs 30%, Kurds 15%, Christians 2% est.; seats - (250 total) number
    of seats by party NA
Other political or pressure groups:
    political parties and activity severely restricted; possibly some opposition
    to regime from disaffected members of the regime, Army officers, and Shi`a
    religious and Kurdish ethnic dissidents
Member of:
    ABEDA, ACC, AFESD, AL, AMF, CAEU, CCC, ESCWA, FAO, G-19, G-77, IAEA, IBRD,
    ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC,
    ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPEC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU,
    WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
    Iraq has an Interest Section in the Algerian Embassy in Washington, DC;
    Chancery at 1801 P Street NW, Washington, DC 20036; telephone (202) 483-7500

:Iraq Government

  US:
    no US representative in Baghdad since mid-January 1991; Embassy in Masbah
    Quarter (opposite the Foreign Ministry Club), Baghdad (mailing address is P.
    O. Box 2447 Alwiyah, Baghdad); telephone [964] (1) 719-6138 or 719-6139,
    718-1840, 719-3791
Flag:
    three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black with three green
    five-pointed stars in a horizontal line centered in the white band; the
    phrase Allahu Akbar (God is Great) in green Arabic script - Allahu to the
    right of the middle star and Akbar to the left of the middle star - was
    added in January 1991 during the Persian Gulf crisis; similar to the flag of
    Syria that has two stars but no script and the flag of Yemen that has a
    plain white band; also similar to the flag of Egypt that has a symbolic
    eagle centered in the white band

:Iraq Economy

Overview:
    The Ba`thist regime engages in extensive central planning and management of
    industrial production and foreign trade while leaving some small-scale
    industry and services and most agriculture to private enterprise. The
    economy has been dominated by the oil sector, which has provided about 95%
    of foreign exchange earnings. In the 1980s financial problems, caused by
    massive expenditures in the eight-year war with Iran and damage to oil
    export facilities by Iran, led the government to implement austerity
    measures and to borrow heavily and later reschedule foreign debt payments.
    After the end of hostilities in 1988, oil exports gradually increased with
    the construction of new pipelines and restoration of damaged facilities.
    Agricultural development remained hampered by labor shortages, salinization,
    and dislocations caused by previous land reform and collectivization
    programs. The industrial sector, although accorded high priority by the
    government, also was under financial constraints. Iraq's seizure of Kuwait
    in August 1990, subsequent international economic embargoes, and military
    actions by an international coalition beginning in January 1991 drastically
    changed the economic picture. Oil exports were cut to near zero, and
    industrial and transportation facilities were severely damaged. Throughout
    1991, the UN's economic embargo worked to reduce exports and imports and to
    increase prices for most goods. The government's policy to allocate goods to
    key supporters of the regime exacerbated shortages.
GNP:
    $35 billion, per capita $1,940; real growth rate 10% (1989 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    45% (1989)
Unemployment rate:
    less than 5% (1989 est.)
Budget:
    revenues $NA billion; expenditures $NA billion, including capital
    expenditures of NA (1989)
Exports:
    $10.4 billion (f.o.b., 1990)
  commodities:
    crude oil and refined products, fertilizer, sulfur
  partners:
    US, Brazil, Turkey, Japan, Netherlands, Spain (1990)
Imports:
    $6.6 billion (c.i.f., 1990)
  commodities:
    manufactures, food
  partners:
    FRG, US, Turkey, France, UK (1990)
External debt:
    $45 billion (1989 est.), excluding debt of about $35 billion owed to Arab
    Gulf states
Industrial production:
    NA%; manufacturing accounts for 10% of GNP (1989)
Electricity:
    3,800,000 kW available out of 9,902,000 kw capacity due to Gulf war; 7,700
    million kWh produced, 430 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
    petroleum production and refining, chemicals, textiles, construction
    materials, food processing
Agriculture:
    accounts for 11% of GNP but 30% of labor force; principal products - wheat,
    barley, rice, vegetables, dates, other fruit, cotton, wool; livestock -
    cattle, sheep; not self-sufficient in food output

:Iraq Economy

Economic aid:
    US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-80), $3 million; Western (non-US)
    countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $647 million;
    Communist countries (1970-89), $3.9 billion
Currency:
    Iraqi dinar (plural - dinars); 1 Iraqi dinar (ID) = 1,000 fils
Exchange rates:
    Iraqi dinars (ID) per US$1 - 3.1 (fixed official rate since 1982);
    black-market rate (December 1991) US$1 = 12 Iraqi dinars
Fiscal year:
    calendar year

:Iraq Communications

Railroads:
    2,457 km 1.435-meter standard gauge
Highways:
    34,700 km total; 17,500 km paved, 5,500 km improved earth, 11,700 km
    unimproved earth
Inland waterways:
    1,015 km; Shatt-al-Arab usually navigable by maritime traffic for about 130
    km, but closed since September 1980 because of Iran-Iraq war; Tigris and
    Euphrates Rivers have navigable sections for shallow-draft watercraft;
    Shatt-al-Basrah canal was navigable by shallow-draft craft before closing in
    1991 because of the Persian Gulf war
Pipelines:
    crude oil 4,350 km; petroleum products 725 km; natural gas 1,360 km
Ports:
    Umm Qasr, Khawr az Zubayr, Al Basrah (closed since 1980)
Merchant marine:
    42 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 936,665 GRT/1,683,212 DWT; includes 1
    passenger, 1 passenger-cargo, 16 cargo, 1 refrigerated cargo, 3
    roll-on/roll-off cargo, 19 petroleum tanker, 1 chemical tanker; note - since
    the 2 August 1990 invasion of Kuwait by Iraqi forces, Iraq has sought to
    register at least part of its merchant fleet under convenience flags; none
    of the Iraqi flag merchant fleet was trading internationally as of 1 January
    1992
Civil air:
    34 major transport aircraft (including 7 grounded in Iran; excluding 12
    IL-76s and 7 Kuwait Airlines)
Airports:
    113 total, 98 usable; 73 with permanent-surface runways; 8 with runways over
    3,659 m; 52 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 12 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
    reconstitution of damaged telecommunication infrastructure began after
    Desert Storm; the network consists of coaxial cables and microwave links;
    632,000 telephones; the network is operational; broadcast stations - 16 AM,
    1 FM, 13 TV; satellite earth stations - 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Indian
    Ocean INTELSAT, 1 GORIZONT Atlantic Ocean in the Intersputnik system and 1
    ARABSAT; coaxial cable and microwave to Jordan, Kuwait, Syria, and Turkey

:Iraq Defense Forces

Branches:
    Army and Republican Guard, Navy, Air Force, Border Guard Force, Internal
    Security Forces
Manpower availability:
    males 15-49, 4,042,374; 2,272,578 fit for military service; 213,788 reach
    military age (18) annually
Defense expenditures:
    exchange rate conversion - $NA, NA% of GNP

:Ireland Geography

Total area:
    70,280 km2
Land area:
    68,890 km2
Comparative area:
    slightly larger than West Virginia
Land boundaries:
    360 km; UK 360 km
Coastline:
    1,448 km
Maritime claims:
  Continental shelf:
    no precise definition
  Exclusive fishing zone:
    200 nm
  Territorial sea:
    12 nm
Disputes:
    Northern Ireland question with the UK; Rockall continental shelf dispute
    involving Denmark, Iceland, and the UK (Ireland and the UK have signed a
    boundary agreement in the Rockall area)
Climate:
    temperate maritime; modified by North Atlantic Current; mild winters, cool
    summers; consistently humid; overcast about half the time
Terrain:
    mostly level to rolling interior plain surrounded by rugged hills and low
    mountains; sea cliffs on west coast
Natural resources:
    zinc, lead, natural gas, crude oil, barite, copper, gypsum, limestone,
    dolomite, peat, silver
Land use:
    arable land 14%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and pastures 71%; forest and
    woodland 5%; other 10%
Environment:
    deforestation

:Ireland People

Population:
    3,521,207 (July 1992), growth rate 0.2% (1992)
Birth rate:
    15 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
    9 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
    -4 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
    8 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
    72 years male, 78 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
    2.0 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
    noun - Irishman(men), Irish (collective pl.); adjective - Irish
Ethnic divisions:
    Celtic, with English minority
Religions:
    Roman Catholic 93%, Anglican 3%, none 1%, unknown 2%, other 1% (1981)
Languages:
    Irish (Gaelic) and English; English is the language generally used, with
    Gaelic spoken in a few areas, mostly along the western seaboard
Literacy:
    98% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can read and write (1981)
Labor force:
    1,333,000; services 57.0%, manufacturing and construction 26.1%,
    agriculture, forestry, and fishing 15.0%, energy and mining 1.9% (1991)
Organized labor:
    58% of labor force (1991)

:Ireland Government

Long-form name:
    none
Type:
    republic
Capital:
    Dublin
Administrative divisions:
    26 counties; Carlow, Cavan, Clare, Cork, Donegal, Dublin, Galway, Kerry,
    Kildare, Kilkenny, Laois, Leitrim, Limerick, Longford, Louth, Mayo, Meath,
    Monaghan, Offaly, Roscommon, Sligo, Tipperary, Waterford, Westmeath,
    Wexford, Wicklow
Independence:
    6 December 1921 (from UK)
Constitution:
    29 December 1937; adopted 1937
Legal system:
    based on English common law, substantially modified by indigenous concepts;
    judicial review of legislative acts in Supreme Court; has not accepted
    compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
    Saint Patrick's Day, 17 March
Executive branch:
    president, prime minister, deputy prime minister, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
    bicameral Parliament (Oireachtas) consists of an upper house or Senate
    (Seanad Eireann) and a lower house or House of Representatives (Dail
    Eireann)
Judicial branch:
    Supreme Court
Leaders:
  Chief of State:
    President Mary Bourke ROBINSON (since 9 November 1990)
  Head of Government:
    Prime Minister Albert REYNOLDS (since 11 February 1992)
Political parties and leaders:
    Fianna Fail, Albert REYNOLDS; Labor Party, Richard SPRING; Fine Gael, John
    BRUTON; Communist Party of Ireland, Michael O'RIORDAN; Workers' Party
    (vacant); Sinn Fein, Gerry ADAMS; Progressive Democrats, Desmond O'MALLEY;
    note - Prime Minister REYNOLDS heads a coalition consisting of the Fianna
    Fail and the Progressive Democrats
Suffrage:
    universal at age 18
Elections:
  President:
    last held 9 November 1990 (next to be held November 1997); results - Mary
    Bourke ROBINSON 52.8%, Brian LENIHAN 47.2%
  Senate:
    last held on 17 February 1987 (next to be held February 1992); results -
    percent of vote by party NA; seats - (60 total, 49 elected) Fianna Fail 30,
    Fine Gael 16, Labor 3, independents 11
  House of Representatives:
    last held on 12 July 1989 (next to be held June 1994); results - Fianna Fail
    44.0%, Fine Gael 29.4%, Labor Party 9.3%, Progressive Democrats 5.4%,
    Workers' Party 4.9%, Sinn Fein 1.1%, independents 5.9%; seats - (166 total)
    Fianna Fail 77, Fine Gael 55, Labor Party 15, Workers' Party 7, Progressive
    Democrats 6, independents 6
Communists:
    under 500

:Ireland Government

Member of:
    AG, BIS, CCC, CE, CSCE, EBRD, EC, ECE, EIB, ESA, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD,
    ICAO, ICC, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO,
    ITU, LORCS, NEA, NSG, OECD, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNIDO, UNIFIL,
    UNIIMOG, UNTSO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, ZC
Diplomatic representation:
    Ambassador Dermot GALLAGHER; Chancery at 2234 Massachusetts Avenue NW,
    Washington, DC 20008; telephone (202) 462-3939; there are Irish Consulates
    General in Boston, Chicago, New York, and San Francisco
  US:
    Ambassador Richard A. MOORE; Embassy at 42 Elgin Road, Ballsbridge, Dublin;
    telephone [353] (1) 688777; FAX [353] (1) 689-946
Flag:
    three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and orange; similar
    to the flag of the Ivory Coast, which is shorter and has the colors reversed
    - orange (hoist side), white, and green; also similar to the flag of Italy,
    which is shorter and has colors of green (hoist side), white, and red

:Ireland Economy

Overview:
    The economy is small, open, and trade dependent. Agriculture, once the most
    important sector, is now dwarfed by industry, which accounts for 37% of GDP
    and about 80% of exports and employs 26% of the labor force. The government
    has successfully reduced the rate of inflation from double-digit figures in
    the late 1970s to 3.8% in 1991. In 1987, after years of deficits, the
    balance of payments was brought into the black. Unemployment, however,
    remains a serious problem. A 1991 unemployment rate of 20.4% placed Ireland
    along with Spain as the countries with the worst jobless records in Western
    Europe.
GDP:
    purchasing power equivalent - $39.2 billion, per capita $11,200; real growth
    rate 1.3% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    3.8% (1991)
Unemployment rate:
    20.4% (1991)
Budget:
    revenues $11.4 billion; expenditures $12.6 billion, including capital
    expenditures of $1.6 billion (1992 est.)
Exports:
    $27.8 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
  commodities:
    chemicals, data processing equipment, industrial machinery, live animals,
    animal products
  partners:
    EC 74% (UK 34%, Germany 11%, France 10%), US 8%
Imports:
    $24.5 billion (c.i.f., 1991)
  commodities:
    food, animal feed, chemicals, petroleum and petroleum products, machinery,
    textiles, clothing
  partners:
    EC 66% (UK 41%, Germany 9%, France 4%), US 14%
External debt:
    $14.8 billion (1990)
Industrial production:
    growth rate 3.0% (1991); accounts for 37% of GDP
Electricity:
    4,957,000 kW capacity; 14,480 million kWh produced, 4,080 kWh per capita
    (1991)
Industries:
    food products, brewing, textiles, clothing, chemicals, pharmaceuticals,
    machinery, transportation equipment, glass and crystal
Agriculture:
    accounts for 11% of GDP and 15% of the labor force; principal crops -
    turnips, barley, potatoes, sugar beets, wheat; livestock - meat and dairy
    products; 85% self-sufficient in food; food shortages include bread grain,
    fruits, vegetables
Economic aid:
    donor - ODA commitments (1980-89), $90 million
Currency:
    Irish pound (plural - pounds); 1 Irish pound (#Ir) = 100 pence
Exchange rates:
    Irish pounds (#Ir) per US$1 - 0.6227 (March 1992), 0.6190 (1991), 0.6030
    (1990), 0.7472 (1989), 0.6553 (1988), 0.6720 (1987)
Fiscal year:
    calendar year

:Ireland Communications

Railroads:
    Irish National Railways (CIE) operates 1,947 km 1.602-meter gauge,
    government owned; 485 km double track; 38 km electrified
Highways:
    92,294 km total; 87,422 km paved, 4,872 km gravel or crushed stone
Inland waterways:
    limited for commercial traffic
Pipelines:
    natural gas 225 km
Ports:
    Cork, Dublin, Shannon Estuary, Waterford
Merchant marine:
    55 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 146,081 GRT/177,058 DWT; includes 4
    short-sea passenger, 32 cargo, 2 refrigerated cargo, 3 container, 3
    petroleum tanker, 3 specialized tanker, 2 chemical tanker, 6 bulk
Civil air:
    23 major transport aircraft
Airports:
    36 total, 35 usable; 17 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways
    over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 6 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
    small, modern system using cable and digital microwave circuits; 900,000
    telephones; broadcast stations - 9 AM, 45 FM, 86 TV; 2 coaxial submarine
    cables; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

:Ireland Defense Forces

Branches:
    Army (including Naval Service and Air Corps), National Police (GARDA)
Manpower availability:
    males 15-49, 894,421; 724,262 fit for military service; 34,182 reach
    military age (17) annually
Defense expenditures:
    exchange rate conversion - $566 million, 1-2% of GDP (1992 est.)

:Israel Header

Note:
    The Arab territories occupied by Israel since the 1967 war are not included
    in the data below. As stated in the 1978 Camp David Accords and reaffirmed
    by President Bush's post-Gulf crisis peace initiative, the final status of
    the West Bank and Gaza Strip, their relationship with their neighbors, and a
    peace treaty between Israel and Jordan are to be negotiated among the
    concerned parties. The Camp David Accords further specify that these
    negotiations will resolve the location of the respective boundaries. Pending
    the completion of this process, it is US policy that the final status of the
    West Bank and Gaza Strip has yet to be determined (see West Bank and Gaza
    Strip entries). On 25 April 1982 Israel relinquished control of the Sinai to
    Egypt. Statistics for the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights are included in the
    Syria entry.

:Israel Geography

Total area:
    20,770 km2
Land area:
    20,330 km2
Comparative area:
    slightly larger than New Jersey
Land boundaries:
    1,006 km; Egypt 255 km, Jordan 238 km, Lebanon 79 km, Syria 76 km, West Bank
    307, Gaza Strip 51 km
Coastline:
    273 km
Maritime claims:
  Continental shelf:
    to depth of exploitation
  Territorial sea:
    6 nm
Disputes:
    separated from Lebanon, Syria, and the West Bank by the 1949 Armistice Line;
    differences with Jordan over the location of the 1949 Armistice Line that
    separates the two countries; West Bank and Gaza Strip are Israeli occupied
    with status to be determined; Golan Heights is Israeli occupied; Israeli
    troops in southern Lebanon since June 1982; water-sharing issues with Jordan
Climate:
    temperate; hot and dry in desert areas
Terrain:
    Negev desert in the south; low coastal plain; central mountains; Jordan Rift
    Valley
Natural resources:
    copper, phosphates, bromide, potash, clay, sand, sulfur, asphalt, manganese,
    small amounts of natural gas and crude oil
Land use:
    arable land 17%; permanent crops 5%; meadows and pastures 40%; forest and
    woodland 6%; other 32%; includes irrigated 11%
Environment:
    sandstorms may occur during spring and summer; limited arable land and
    natural water resources pose serious constraints; deforestation
Note:
    there are 175 Jewish settlements in the West Bank, 38 in the
    Israeli-occupied Golan Heights, 18 in the Gaza Strip, and 14 Israeli-built
    Jewish neighborhoods in East Jerusalem

:Israel People

Population:
    4,748,059 (July 1992), growth rate 4.0% (1992); includes 95,000 Jewish
    settlers in the West Bank, 14,000 in the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights,
    4,000 in the Gaza Strip, and 132,000 in East Jerusalem (1992 est.)
Birth rate:
    21 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
    6 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
    26 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
    9 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
    76 years male, 80 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
    2.9 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
    noun - Israeli(s); adjective - Israeli
Ethnic divisions:
    Jewish 83%, non-Jewish (mostly Arab) 17%
Religions:
    Judaism 82%, Islam (mostly Sunni Muslim) 14%, Christian 2%, Druze and other
    2%
Languages:
    Hebrew (official); Arabic used officially for Arab minority; English most
    commonly used foreign language
Literacy:
    92% (male 95%, female 89%) age 15 and over can read and write (1983)
Labor force:
    1,400,000 (1984 est.); public services 29.3%; industry, mining, and
    manufacturing 22.8%; commerce 12.8%; finance and business 9.5%; transport,
    storage, and communications 6.8%; construction and public works 6.5%;
    personal and other services 5.8%; agriculture, forestry, and fishing 5.5%;
    electricity and water 1.0% (1983)
Organized labor:
    90% of labor force

:Israel Government

Long-form name:
    State of Israel
Type:
    republic
Capital:
    Israel proclaimed Jerusalem its capital in 1950, but the US, like nearly all
    other countries, maintains its Embassy in Tel Aviv
Administrative divisions:
    6 districts (mehozot, singular - mehoz); Central, Haifa, Jerusalem,
    Northern, Southern, Tel Aviv
Independence:
    14 May 1948 (from League of Nations mandate under British administration)
Constitution:
    no formal constitution; some of the functions of a constitution are filled
    by the Declaration of Establishment (1948), the basic laws of the parliament
    (Knesset), and the Israeli citizenship law
Legal system:
    mixture of English common law, British Mandate regulations, and, in personal
    matters, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim legal systems; in December 1985,
    Israel informed the UN Secretariat that it would no longer accept compulsory
    ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
    Independence Day; Israel declared independence on 14 May 1948, but the
    Jewish calendar is lunar and the holiday may occur in April or May
Executive branch:
    president, prime minister, vice prime minister, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
    unicameral parliament (Knesset)
Judicial branch:
    Supreme Court
Leaders:
  Chief of State:
    President Chaim HERZOG (since 5 May 1983)
  Head of Government:
    Prime Minister Yitzhak SHAMIR (since 20 October 1986)
Political parties and leaders:
    Israel currently has a coalition government comprising 12 parties that hold
    66 of the Knesset's 120 seats; currently in state of flux; election held 23
    June 1992
  Members of the government:
    Likud bloc, Prime Minister Yitzhak SHAMIR; Sephardic Torah Guardians (SHAS),
    Minister of Interior Arieh DER'I; National Religious Party, Minister of
    Education Shulamit ALONI; Agudat Israel, Avraham SHAPIRA; Degel HaTorah,
    Avraham RAVITZ; Moriya, Minister of Immigrant Absorption, Yair TZABAN;
    Ge'ulat Israel, Eliezer MIZRAHI; New Liberal Party, Minister of Finance,
    Avraham SHOCHAT; Tehiya Party, Minister of Science Technology, Yuval NEEMAN;
    Tzomet Party Unity for Peace and Aliyah, Rafael EITAN; Moledet Party,
    Rehavam ZEEVI
  Opposition parties:
    Labor Party, Shimon PERES; Citizens' Rights Movement, Shulamit ALONI; United
    Workers' Party (MAPAM), Yair TZABAN; Center Movement-Shinui, Amnon
    RUBENSTEIN; New Israeli Communist Party (MAKI), Meir WILNER; Progressive
    List for Peace, Muhammad MI'ARI; Arab Democratic Party, `Abd Al Wahab
    DARAWSHAH; Black Panthers, Charlie BITON
Suffrage:
    universal at age 18

:Israel Government

Elections:
  President:
    last held 23 February 1988 (next to be held February 1994); results - Chaim
    HERZOG reelected by Knesset
  Knesset:
    last held June 1992 (next to be held by NA; results - percent of vote by
    party NA; seats - (120 total) Labor Party 44, Likud bloc 12, SHAS 6,
    National Religious Party 6, Meretz 12, Agudat Yisrael 4, PAZI 3, MAKI 3,
    Tehiya Party 3, Tzomet Party 8, Moledet Party 3, Degel HaTorah 4, Center
    Movement Progressive List for Peace 1, Arab Democratic Party 2; Black
    Panthers 1, Moriya 1, Ge'ulat Yisrael 1, Unity for Peace and Aliyah 1
Communists:
    Hadash (predominantly Arab but with Jews in its leadership) has some 1,500
    members
Other political or pressure groups:
    Gush Emunim, Jewish nationalists advocating Jewish settlement on the West
    Bank and Gaza Strip; Peace Now, critical of government's West Bank/Gaza
    Strip and Lebanon policies
Member of:
    AG (observer), CCC, EBRD, FAO, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU,
    IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO,
    ITU, OAS (observer), PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO,
    WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
    Ambassador Zalman SHOVAL; Chancery at 3514 International Drive NW,
    Washington, DC 20008; telephone (202) 364-5500; there are Israeli Consulates
    General in Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York,
    Philadelphia, and San Francisco
  US:
    Ambassador William HARROP; Embassy at 71 Hayarkon Street, Tel Aviv (mailing
    address is APO AE 09830; telephone [972] (3) 654338; FAX [972] (3) 663449;
    there is a US Consulate General in Jerusalem
Flag:
    white with a blue hexagram (six-pointed linear star) known as the Magen
    David (Shield of David) centered between two equal horizontal blue bands
    near the top and bottom edges of the flag

:Israel Economy

Overview:
    Israel has a market economy with substantial government participation. It
    depends on imports of crude oil, grains, raw materials, and military
    equipment. Despite limited natural resources, Israel has intensively
    developed its agricultural and industrial sectors over the past 20 years.
    Industry employs about 20% of Israeli workers, agriculture 5%, and services
    most of the rest. Diamonds, high-technology equipment, and agricultural
    products (fruits and vegetables) are leading exports. Israel usually posts
    balance-of-payments deficits, which are covered by large transfer payments
    from abroad and by foreign loans. Roughly half of the government's $17
    billion external debt is owed to the United States, which is its major
    source of economic and military aid. To earn needed foreign exchange, Israel
    has been targeting high-technology niches in international markets, such as
    medical scanning equipment. Iraq's invasion of Kuwait in August 1990 dealt a
    blow to Israel's economy. Higher world oil prices added an estimated $300
    million to the oil import bill that year and helped keep annual inflation at
    18%. Regional tension and the continuing Palestinian uprising (intifadah)
    have contributed to a sharp drop in tourism - a key foreign exchange earner
    - to the lowest level since the 1973 Arab-Israeli war. The influx of Jewish
    immigrants from the former USSR, which topped 330,000 during the period
    1990-91, will increase unemployment, intensify housing problems, widen the
    government budget deficit, and fuel inflation.
GDP:
    purchasing power equivalent - $54.6 billion, per capita $12,000; real growth
    rate 5% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    18% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
    11% (1991 est.)
Budget:
    revenues $41.7 billion; expenditures $47.6 billion, including capital
    expenditures of $NA (FY92)
Exports:
    $12.1 billion (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
  commodities:
    polished diamonds, citrus and other fruits, textiles and clothing, processed
    foods, fertilizer and chemical products, military hardware, electronics
  partners:
    US, EC, Japan, Hong Kong, Switzerland
Imports:
    $18.1 billion (c.i.f., 1991 est.)
  commodities:
    military equipment, rough diamonds, oil, chemicals, machinery, iron and
    steel, cereals, textiles, vehicles, ships, aircraft
  partners:
    US, EC, Switzerland, Japan, South Africa, Canada, Hong Kong
External debt:
    $24 billion, of which government debt is $17 billion (December 1991 est.)
Industrial production:
    growth rate - 7% (1991 est.); accounts for about 20% of GDP
Electricity:
    5,300,000 kWh capacity; 21,000 million kWh produced, 4,800 kWh per capita
    (1991)
Industries:
    food processing, diamond cutting and polishing, textiles, clothing,
    chemicals, metal products, military equipment, transport equipment,
    electrical equipment, miscellaneous machinery, potash mining,
    high-technology electronics, tourism

:Israel Economy

Agriculture:
    accounts for about 3% of GDP; largely self-sufficient in food production,
    except for grains; principal products - citrus and other fruits, vegetables,
    cotton; livestock products - beef, dairy, and poultry
Economic aid:
    US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-90), $18.2 billion; Western (non-US)
    countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $2.8 billion
Currency:
    new Israeli shekel (plural - shekels); 1 new Israeli shekel (NIS) = 100 new
    agorot
Exchange rates:
    new Israeli shekels (NIS) per US$1 - 2.4019 (March 1992), 2.2791 (1991),
    2.0162 (1990), 1.9164 (1989), 1.5989 (1988), 1.5946 (1987)
Fiscal year:
    previously 1 April - 31 March; FY91 was 1 April - 31 December, and since 1
    January 1992 the fiscal year has conformed to the calendar year

:Israel Communications

Railroads:
    600 km 1.435-meter gauge, single track; diesel operated
Highways:
    4,750 km; majority is bituminous surfaced
Pipelines:
    crude oil 708 km; petroleum products 290 km; natural gas 89 km
Ports:
    Ashdod, Haifa
Merchant marine:
    34 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 629,966 GRT/721,106 DWT; includes 8
    cargo, 23 container, 2 refrigerated cargo, 1 roll-on/roll-off; note - Israel
    also maintains a significant flag of convenience fleet, which is normally at
    least as large as the Israeli flag fleet; the Israeli flag of convenience
    fleet typically includes all of its petroleum tankers
Civil air:
    32 major transport aircraft
Airports:
    51 total, 44 usable; 26 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways
    over 3,659 m; 6 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 11 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
    most highly developed in the Middle East although not the largest; good
    system of coaxial cable and radio relay; 1,800,000 telephones; broadcast
    stations - 14 AM, 21 FM, 20 TV; 3 submarine cables; satellite earth stations
    - 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT

:Israel Defense Forces

Branches:
    Israel Defense Forces, including ground, naval, and air components;
    historically, there have been no separate Israeli military services
Manpower availability:
    eligible 15-49, 2,357,195; of the 1,189,275 males 15-49, 977,332 are fit for
    military service; of the 1,167,920 females 15-49, 955,928 are fit for
    military service; 44,624 males and 42,705 females reach military age (18)
    annually; both sexes are liable for military service; Nahal or Pioneer
    Fighting Youth, Frontier Guard, Chen
Defense expenditures:
    $7.5 billion, 12.1% of GNP (1992 budget); note - does not include pay for
    reserve soldiers and other defense-related categories; actual outlays would
    therefore be higher

:Italy Geography

Total area:
    301,230 km2
Land area:
    294, 020 km2; includes Sardinia and Sicily
Comparative area:
    slightly larger than Arizona
Land boundaries:
    1,899.2 km; Austria 430 km, France 488 km, San Marino 39 km, Slovenia 199
    km, Switzerland 740 km, Vatican City 3.2 km
Coastline:
    4,996 km
Maritime claims:
  Continental shelf:
    200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation
  Territorial sea:
    12 nm
Disputes:
    none
Climate:
    predominantly Mediterranean; Alpine in far north; hot, dry in south
Terrain:
    mostly rugged and mountainous; some plains, coastal lowlands
Natural resources:
    mercury, potash, marble, sulfur, dwindling natural gas and crude oil
    reserves, fish, coal
Land use:
    arable land 32%; permanent crops 10%; meadows and pastures 17%; forest and
    woodland 22%; other 19%; includes irrigated 10%
Environment:
    regional risks include land-slides, mudflows, snowslides, earthquakes,
    volcanic eruptions, flooding, pollution; land sinkage in Venice
Note:
    strategic location dominating central Mediterranean as well as southern sea
    and air approaches to Western Europe

:Italy People

Population:
    57,904,628 (July 1992), growth rate 0.2% (1992)
Birth rate:
    10 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
    10 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
    1 migrant/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
    8 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
    74 years male, 81 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
    1.4 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
    noun - Italian(s); adjective - Italian
Ethnic divisions:
    primarily Italian but population includes small clusters of German-,
    French-, and Slovene-Italians in the north and Albanian-Italians and
    Greek-Italians in the south; Sicilians; Sardinians
Religions:
    virtually 100% Roman Catholic
Languages:
    Italian; parts of Trentino-Alto Adige region are predominantly German
    speaking; small French-speaking minority in Valle d'Aosta region;
    Slovene-speaking minority in the Trieste-Gorizia area
Literacy:
    97% (male 98%, female 96%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
    23,988,000; services 58%, industry 32.2%, agriculture 9.8% (1988)
Organized labor:
    40-45% of labor force (est.)

:Italy Government

Long-form name:
    Italian Republic
Type:
    republic
Capital:
    Rome
Administrative divisions:
    20 regions (regioni, singular - regione); Abruzzi, Basilicata, Calabria,
    Campania, Emilia-Romagna, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Lazio, Liguria, Lombardia,
    Marche, Molise, Piemonte, Puglia, Sardegna, Sicilia, Toscana, Trentino-Alto
    Adige, Umbria, Valle d'Aosta, Veneto
Independence:
    17 March 1861, Kingdom of Italy proclaimed
Constitution:
    1 January 1948
Legal system:
    based on civil law system, with ecclesiastical law influence; appeals
    treated as trials de novo; judicial review under certain conditions in
    Constitutional Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
    Anniversary of the Republic, 2 June (1946)
Executive branch:
    president, prime minister (president of the Council of Ministers)
Legislative branch:
    bicameral Parliament (Parlamento) consists of an upper chamber or Senate of
    the Republic (Senato della Repubblica) and a lower chamber or Chamber of
    Deputies (Camera dei Deputati)
Judicial branch:
    Constitutional Court (Corte Costituzionale)
Leaders:
  Chief of State:
    President Oscar Luigi SCALFARO (since 28 May 1992)
  Head of Government:
    Prime Minister Guiliano AMATO (since 28 June 1992); Deputy Prime Minister
Political parties and leaders:
    Christian Democratic Party (DC), Arnaldo FORLANI (general secretary),
    Ciriaco De MITA (president); Socialist Party (PSI), Bettino CRAXI (party
    secretary); Social Democratic Party (PSDI), Carlo VIZZINI (party secretary);
    Liberal Party (PLI), Renato ALTISSIMO (secretary general); Democratic Party
    of the Left (PDS - was Communist Party, or PCI, until January 1991), Achille
    OCCHETTO (secretary general); Italian Social Movement (MSI), Gianfranco FINI
    (national secretary); Republican Party (PRI), Giorgio La MALFA (political
    secretary); Lega Nord (Northern League), Umberto BOSSI, president
Suffrage:
    universal at age 18 (except in senatorial elections, where minimum age is
    25)
Elections:
  Senate:
    last held 5-6 April 1992 (next to be held by April 1997); results - DC
    33.9%, PCI 28.3%, PSI 10.7%, other 27.1%; seats - (326 total, 315 elected)
    DC 107, PDS 64, PSI 49, Leagues 25, other 70
  Chamber of Deputies:
    last held 5-6 April 1992 (next to be held April 1997); results - DC 29.7%,
    PDS 26.6%, PSI 13.6%, Leagues 8.7%, Communist Renewal 5.6%, MSI 5.4%, PRI
    4.4%, PLI 2.8%, PSDI 2.7%, other 11%

:Italy Government

Other political or pressure groups:
    the Roman Catholic Church; three major trade union confederations (CGIL -
    Communist dominated, CISL - Christian Democratic, and UIL - Social
    Democratic, Socialist, and Republican); Italian manufacturers association
    (Confindustria); organized farm groups (Confcoltivatori, Confagricoltura)
Member of:
    AfDB, AG (observer), Australia Group, AsDB, BIS, CCC, CDB (nonregional
    member), CE, CERN, COCOM, CSCE, EBRD, EC, ECE, EIB, ESA, FAO, G-7, G-10,
    GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IEA, IFC, ILO, IMF,
    IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS, MTCR, NACC,
    NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, PCA, MTCR, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR,
    UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIIMOG, UNMOGIP, UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO,
    ZC
Diplomatic representation:
    Ambassador Boris BIANCHERI CHIAPPORI; Chancery at 1601 Fuller Street NW,
    Washington, DC 20009; telephone (202) 328-5500; there are Italian Consulates
    General in Boston, Chicago, Houston, New Orleans, Los Angeles, Philadelphia,
    San Francisco, and Consulates in Detroit and Newark (New Jersey)
  US:
    Ambassador Peter F. SECCHIA; Embassy at Via Veneto 119/A, 00187, Rome
    (mailing address is APO AE 09624); telephone [39] (6) 46741, FAX [39] (6)
    467-2356; there are US Consulates General in Florence, Genoa, Milan, Naples,
    and Palermo (Sicily)
Flag:
    three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and red; similar to
    the flag of Ireland, which is longer and is green (hoist side), white, and
    orange; also similar to the flag of the Ivory Coast, which has the colors
    reversed - orange (hoist side), white, and green

:Italy Economy

Overview:
    Since World War II the economy has changed from one based on agriculture
    into a ranking industrial economy, with approximately the same total and per
    capita output as France and the UK. The country is still divided into a
    developed industrial north, dominated by small private companies, and an
    undeveloped agricultural south, dominated by large public enterprises.
    Services account for 48% of GDP, industry about 35%, agriculture 4%, and
    public administration 13%. Most raw materials needed by industry and over
    75% of energy requirements must be imported. After growing at an annual
    average rate of 3% during the period 1983-90, growth slowed to about 1% in
    1991. For the 1990s, Italy faces the problems of refurbishing a tottering
    communications system, curbing pollution in major industrial centers, and
    adjusting to the new competitive forces accompanying the ongoing economic
    integration of the European Community.
GDP:
    purchasing power equivalent - $965.0 billion, per capita $16,700; real
    growth rate 1.0% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    6.5% (1991)
Unemployment rate:
    11.0% (1991 est.)
Budget:
    revenues $431 billion; expenditures $565 billion, including capital
    expenditures of $48 billion (1991)
Exports:
    $209 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
  commodities:
    textiles, wearing apparel, metals, transportation equipment, chemicals
  partners:
    EC 58.5%, US 8%, OPEC 4%
Imports:
    $222 billion (c.i.f., 1991)
  commodities:
    petroleum, industrial machinery, chemicals, metals, food, agricultural
    products
  partners:
    EC 58%, OPEC 7%, US 5%
External debt:
    NA
Industrial production:
    growth rate - 2.0% (1991); accounts for almost 35% of GDP
Electricity:
    57,500,000 kW capacity; 235,000 million kWh produced, 4,072 kWh per capita
    (1991)
Industries:
    machinery, iron and steel, chemicals, food processing, textiles, motor
    vehicles, clothing, footwear, ceramics
Agriculture:
    accounts for about 4% of GDP and 10% of the work force; self-sufficient in
    foods other than meat and dairy products; principal crops - fruits,
    vegetables, grapes, potatoes, sugar beets, soybeans, grain, olives; fish
    catch of 388,200 metric tons in 1988
Economic aid:
    donor - ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $25.9 billion
Currency:
    Italian lira (plural - lire); 1 Italian lira (Lit) = 100 centesimi
Exchange rates:
    Italian lire (Lit) per US$1 - 1,248.4 (March 1992), 1,240.6 (January 1991),
    1,198.1 (1990), 1,372.1 (1989), 1,301.6 (1988), 1,296.1 (1987)

:Italy Economy

Fiscal year:
    calendar year

:Italy Communications

Railroads:
    20,011 km total; 16,066 km 1.435-meter government-owned standard gauge
    (8,999 km electrified); 3,945 km privately owned - 2,100 km 1.435-meter
    standard gauge (1,155 km electrified) and 1,845 km 0.950-meter narrow gauge
    (380 km electrified)
Highways:
    294,410 km total; autostrada (expressway) 5,900 km, state highways 45,170
    km, provincial highways 101,680 km, communal highways 141,660 km; 260,500 km
    paved, 26,900 km gravel and crushed stone, 7,010 km earth
Inland waterways:
    2,400 km for various types of commercial traffic, although of limited
    overall value
Pipelines:
    crude oil 1,703 km; petroleum products 2,148 km; natural gas 19,400 km
Ports:
    Cagliari (Sardinia), Genoa, La Spezia, Livorno, Naples, Palermo (Sicily),
    Taranto, Trieste, Venice
Merchant marine:
    546 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 7,004,462 GRT/10,265,132 DWT;
    includes 17 passenger, 39 short-sea passenger, 94 cargo, 4 refrigerated
    cargo, 24 container, 66 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 9 vehicle carrier, 1
    multifunction large-load carrier, 1 livestock carrier, 142 petroleum tanker,
    33 chemical tanker, 39 liquefied gas, 10 specialized tanker, 10 combination
    ore/oil, 55 bulk, 2 combination bulk
Civil air:
    125 major transport aircraft
Airports:
    137 total, 134 usable; 91 with permanent-surface runways; 2 with runways
    over 3,659 m; 36 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 39 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
    modern, well-developed, fast; 25,600,000 telephones; fully automated
    telephone, telex, and data services; high-capacity cable and radio relay
    trunks; very good broadcast service by stations - 135 AM, 28 (1,840
    repeaters) FM, 83 (1,000 repeaters) TV; international service by 21
    submarine cables; 3 satellite earth stations operating in INTELSAT with 3
    Atlantic Ocean antennas and 2 Indian Ocean antennas; also participates in
    INMARSAT and EUTELSAT systems

:Italy Defense Forces

Branches:
    Army, Navy, Air Force, Carabinieri
Manpower availability:
    males 15-49, 14,864,191; 12,980,362 fit for military service; 441,768 reach
    military age (18) annually
Defense expenditures:
    exchange rate conversion - $22.7 billion, 2.2% of GDP (1991)

:Ivory Coast Geography

Total area:
    322,460 km2
Land area:
    318,000 km2
Comparative area:
    slightly larger than New Mexico
Land boundaries:
    3,110 km; Burkina 584 km, Ghana 668 km, Guinea 610 km, Liberia 716 km, Mali
    532 km
Coastline:
    515 km
Maritime claims:
  Continental shelf:
    200 m (depth)
  Exclusive economic zone:
    200 nm
  Territorial sea:
    12 nm
Disputes:
    none
Climate:
    tropical along coast, semiarid in far north; three seasons - warm and dry
    (November to March), hot and dry (March to May), hot and wet (June to
    October)
Terrain:
    mostly flat to undulating plains; mountains in northwest
Natural resources:
    crude oil, diamonds, manganese, iron ore, cobalt, bauxite, copper
Land use:
    arable land 9%; permanent crops 4%; meadows and pastures 9%; forest and
    woodland 26%; other 52%; includes irrigated NEGL%
Environment:
    coast has heavy surf and no natural harbors; severe deforestation

:Ivory Coast People

Population:
    13,497,153 (July 1992), growth rate 3.9% (1992)
Birth rate:
    47 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
    12 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
    3 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
    94 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
    53 years male, 57 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
    6.8 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
    noun - Ivorian(s); adjective - Ivorian
Ethnic divisions:
    over 60 ethnic groups; most important are the Baoule 23%, Bete 18%, Senoufou
    15%, Malinke 11%, and Agni; foreign Africans, mostly Burkinabe about 2
    million; non-Africans about 130,000 to 330,000 (French 30,000 and Lebanese
    100,000 to 300,000)
Religions:
    indigenous 63%, Muslim 25%, Christian 12%,
Languages:
    French (official), over 60 native dialects; Dioula most widely spoken
Literacy:
    54% (male 67%, female 40%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
    5,718,000; over 85% of population engaged in agriculture, forestry,
    livestock raising; about 11% of labor force are wage earners, nearly half in
    agriculture and the remainder in government, industry, commerce, and
    professions; 54% of population of working age (1985)
Organized labor:
    20% of wage labor force

:Ivory Coast Government

Long-form name:
    Republic of the Ivory Coast; note - the local official name is Republique de
    Cote d'Ivoire
Type:
    republic; multiparty presidential regime established 1960
Capital:
    Yamoussoukro (although Yamoussoukro has been the capital since 1983, Adibjan
    remains the administrative center; foreign governments, including the United
    States, maintain presence in Abidjan)
Administrative divisions:
    49 departments (departements, singular - (departement); Abengourou, Abidjan,
    Aboisso, Adzope, Agboville, Bangolo, Beoumi, Biankouma, Bondoukou,
    Bongouanou, Bouafle, Bouake, Bouna, Boundiali, Dabakala, Daloa, Danane,
    Daoukro, Dimbokro, Divo, Duekoue, Ferkessedougou, Gagnoa, Grand-Lahou,
    Guiglo, Issia, Katiola, Korhogo, Lakota, Man, Mankono, Mbahiakro, Odienne,
    Oume, Sakassou, San-Pedro, Sassandra, Seguela, Sinfra, Soubre, Tabou, Tanda,
    Tingrela, Tiassale, Touba, Toumodi, Vavoua, Yamoussoukro, Zuenoula
Independence:
    7 August 1960 (from France)
Constitution:
    3 November 1960
Legal system:
    based on French civil law system and customary law; judicial review in the
    Constitutional Chamber of the Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
    jurisdiction
National holiday:
    National Day, 7 December
Executive branch:
    president, Council of Ministers (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
    unicameral National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale)
Judicial branch:
    Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)
Leaders:
  Chief of State and Head of Government:
    President Dr. Felix HOUPHOUET-BOIGNY (since 27 November 1960); Prime
    Minister Alassane OUATTARA (since 7 November 1990)
Political parties and leaders:
    Democratic Party of the Ivory Coast (PDCI), Dr. Felix HOUPHOUET-BOIGNY;
    Ivorian Popular Front (FPI), Laurent GBAGBO; Ivorian Worker's Party (PIT),
    Francis WODIE; Ivorian Socialist Party (PSI), Morifere BAMBA; over 20
    smaller parties
Suffrage:
    universal at age 21
Elections:
  President:
    last held 28 October 1990 (next to be held October 1995); results -
    President Felix HOUPHOUET-BOIGNY received 81% of the vote in his first
    contested election; he is currently serving his seventh consecutive
    five-year term
  National Assembly:
    last held 25 November 1990 (next to be held November 1995); results -
    percent of vote by party NA; seats - (175 total) PDCI 163, FPI 9, PIT 1,
    independents 2
Member of:
    ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEAO, ECA, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-24, G-77, GATT,
    IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL,
    IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WADB, WCL,
    WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

:Ivory Coast Government

Diplomatic representation:
    Ambassador Charles GOMIS; Chancery at 2424 Massachusetts Avenue NW,
    Washington, DC 20008; telephone (202) 797-0300
  US:
    Ambassador Kenneth L. BROWN; Embassy at 5 Rue Jesse Owens, Abidjan (mailing
    address is 01 B. P. 1712, Abidjan); telephone [225] 21-09-79 or 21-46-72,
    FAX [225] 22-32-59
Flag:
    three equal vertical bands of orange (hoist side), white, and green; similar
    to the flag of Ireland, which is longer and has the colors reversed - green
    (hoist side), white, and orange; also similar to the flag of Italy, which is
    green (hoist side), white, and red; design was based on the flag of France

:Ivory Coast Economy

Overview:
    Ivory Coast is among the world's largest producers and exporters of coffee,
    cocoa beans, and palm-kernel oil. Consequently, the economy is highly
    sensitive to fluctuations in international prices for coffee and cocoa and
    to weather conditions. Despite attempts by the government to diversify, the
    economy is still largely dependent on agriculture and related industries.
    The agricultural sector accounts for over one-third of GDP and about 80% of
    export earnings and employs about 85% of the labor force. A collapse of
    world cocoa and coffee prices in 1986 threw the economy into a recession,
    from which the country had not recovered by 1990. Continuing poor prices for
    commodity exports, an overvalued exchange rate, a bloated public-sector wage
    bill, and a large foreign debt hindered economic recovery in 1991.
GDP:
    exchange rate conversion - $10 billion, per capita $800; real growth rate
    -2.9% (1990)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    -0.8% (1990 est.)
Unemployment rate:
    14% (1985)
Budget:
    revenues $2.8 billion (1989 est.); expenditures $4.1 billion, including
    capital expenditures of $NA (1989 est.)
Exports:
    $2.5 billion (f.o.b., 1989)
  commodities:
    cocoa 30%, coffee 20%, tropical woods 11%, cotton, bananas, pineapples, palm
    oil, cotton
  partners:
    France, FRG, Netherlands, US, Belgium, Spain (1985)
Imports:
    $1.4 billion (f.o.b., 1989)
  commodities:
    manufactured goods and semifinished products 50%, consumer goods 40%, raw
    materials and fuels 10%
  partners:
    France, other EC, Nigeria, US, Japan (1985)
External debt:
    $15.0 billion (1990 est.)
Industrial production:
    growth rate - 6% (1989); accounts for 17% of GDP
Electricity:
    1,210,000 kW capacity; 2,680 million kWh produced, 210 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
    foodstuffs, wood processing, oil refinery, automobile assembly, textiles,
    fertilizer, beverage
Agriculture:
    most important sector, contributing one-third to GDP and 80% to exports;
    cash crops include coffee, cocoa beans, timber, bananas, palm kernels,
    rubber; food crops - corn, rice, manioc, sweet potatoes; not self-sufficient
    in bread grain and dairy products
Illicit drugs:
    illicit producer of cannabis on a small scale for the international drug
    trade
Economic aid:
    US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $356 million; Western (non-US)
    countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-88), $5.2 billion
Currency:
    Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (plural - francs); 1 CFA franc (CFAF)
    = 100 centimes

:Ivory Coast Economy

Exchange rates:
    Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 269.01 (January
    1992), 282.11 (1991), 272.26 (1990), 319.01 (1989), 297.85 (1988), 300.54
    (1987), 346.30 (1986)
Fiscal year:
    calendar year

:Ivory Coast Communications

Railroads:
    660 km (Burkina border to Abidjan, 1.00-meter gauge, single track, except 25
    km Abidjan-Anyama section is double track)
Highways:
    46,600 km total; 3,600 km paved; 32,000 km gravel, crushed stone, laterite,
    and improved earth; 11,000 km unimproved
Inland waterways:
    980 km navigable rivers, canals, and numerous coastal lagoons
Ports:
    Abidjan, San-Pedro
Merchant marine:
    7 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 70,957 GRT/ 91,782 DWT; includes 5
    cargo, 1 petroleum tanker, 1 chemical tanker
Civil air:
    14 major transport aircraft, including multinationally owned Air Afrique
    fleet
Airports:
    45 total, 39 usable; 7 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways
    over 3,659 m; 3 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 15 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
    well-developed by African standards but operating well below capacity;
    consists of open-wire lines and radio relay links; 87,700 telephones;
    broadcast stations - 3 AM, 17 FM, 13 TV, 1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean
    INTELSAT earth station; 2 coaxial submarine cables

:Ivory Coast Defense Forces

Branches:
    Army, Navy, Air Force, paramilitary Gendarmerie, Republican Guard, Military
    Fire Group
Manpower availability:
    males 15-49, 3,083,765; 1,597,108 fit for military service; 141,259 males
    reach military age (18) annually
Defense expenditures:
    exchange rate conversion - $200 million, 2.3% of GDP (1988)

:Jamaica Geography

Total area:
    10,990 km2
Land area:
    10,830 km2
Comparative area:
    slightly smaller than Connecticut
Land boundaries:
    none
Coastline:
    1,022 km
Maritime claims:
  Territorial sea:
    12 nm
Disputes:
    none
Climate:
    tropical; hot, humid; temperate interior
Terrain:
    mostly mountains with narrow, discontinuous coastal plain
Natural resources:
    bauxite, gypsum, limestone
Land use:
    arable land 19%; permanent crops 6%; meadows and pastures 18%; forest and
    woodland 28%; other 29%; includes irrigated 3%
Environment:
    subject to hurricanes (especially July to November); deforestation; water
    pollution
Note:
    strategic location between Cayman Trench and Jamaica Channel, the main sea
    lanes for Panama Canal

:Jamaica People

Population:
    2,506,701 (July 1992), growth rate 0.9% (1992)
Birth rate:
    23 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
    6 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
    -8 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
    18 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
    72 years male, 76 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
    2.5 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
    noun - Jamaican(s); adjective - Jamaican
Ethnic divisions:
    African 76.3%, Afro-European 15.1%, East Indian and Afro-East Indian 3.0%,
    white 3.2%, Chinese and Afro-Chinese 1.2%, other 1.2%
Religions:
    predominantly Protestant 55.9% (Church of God 18.4%, Baptist 10%, Anglican
    7.1%, Seventh-Day Adventist 6.9%, Pentecostal 5.2%, Methodist 3.1%, United
    Church 2.7%, other 2.5%), Roman Catholic 5%, other 39.1%, including some
    spiritualist cults (1982)
Languages:
    English, Creole
Literacy:
    98% (male 98%, female 99%) age 15 and over having ever attended school (1990
    est.)
Labor force:
    1,062,100; services 41%, agriculture 22.5%, industry 19%; unemployed 17.5%
    (1989)
Organized labor:
    24% of labor force (1989)

:Jamaica Government

Long-form name:
    none
Type:
    parliamentary democracy
Capital:
    Kingston
Administrative divisions:
    14 parishes; Clarendon, Hanover, Kingston, Manchester, Portland, Saint
    Andrew, Saint Ann, Saint Catherine, Saint Elizabeth, Saint James, Saint
    Mary, Saint Thomas, Trelawny, Westmoreland
Independence:
    6 August 1962 (from UK)
Constitution:
    6 August 1962
Legal system:
    based on English common law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
    Independence Day (first Monday in August)
Executive branch:
    British monarch, governor general, prime minister, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
    bicameral Parliament consists of an upper house or Senate and a lower house
    or House of Representatives
Judicial branch:
    Supreme Court
Leaders:
  Chief of State:
    Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General
    Howard COOKE (since 1 August 1991)
  Head of Government:
    Prime Minister P. J. Patterson (since 30 March 1992)
Political parties and leaders:
    People's National Party (PNP) P. J. Patterson; Jamaica Labor Party (JLP),
    Edward SEAGA
Suffrage:
    universal at age 18
Elections:
  House of Representatives:
    last held 9 February 1989 (next to be held by February 1994); results - PNP
    57%, JLP 43%; seats - (60 total) PNP 45, JLP 15
Other political or pressure groups:
    Rastafarians (black religious/racial cultists, pan-Africanists)
Member of:
    ACP, C, CARICOM, CCC, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-77, GATT, G-15, IADB,
    IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC,
    ISO, ITU, LAES, LORCS, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU,
    WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
    Ambassador Richard BERNAL; Chancery at Suite 355, 1850 K Street NW,
    Washington, DC 20006; telephone (202) 452-0660; there are Jamaican
    Consulates General in Miami and New York
  US:
    Ambassador Glen A. HOLDEN; Embassy at 3rd Floor, Jamaica Mutual Life Center,
    2 Oxford Road, Kingston; telephone (809) 929-4850 through 4859, FAX (809)
    926-6743
Flag:
    diagonal yellow cross divides the flag into four triangles - green (top and
    bottom) and black (hoist side and fly side)

:Jamaica Economy

Overview:
    The economy is based on sugar, bauxite, and tourism. In 1985 it suffered a
    setback with the closure of some facilities in the bauxite and alumina
    industry, a major source of hard currency earnings. Since 1986 an economic
    recovery has been under way. In 1987 conditions began to improve for the
    bauxite and alumina industry because of increases in world metal prices. The
    recovery has also been supported by growth in the manufacturing and tourism
    sectors. In September 1988, Hurricane Gilbert inflicted severe damage on
    crops and the electric power system, a sharp but temporary setback to the
    economy. By October 1989 the economic recovery from the hurricane was
    largely complete, and real growth was up about 3% for 1989. In 1991,
    however, growth dropped to 1.0% as a result of the US recession, lower world
    bauxite prices, and monetary instability.
GDP:
    exchange rate conversion - $3.6 billion, per capita $1,400; real growth rate
    1.0% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    80% (1991 projected)
Unemployment rate:
    15.1% (1991)
Budget:
    revenues $600 million; expenditures $736 million (FY91 est.)
Exports:
    $1.2 billion (f.o.b., 1991, projected)
  commodities:
    bauxite, alumina, sugar, bananas
  partners:
    US 36%, UK, Canada, Norway, Trinidad and Tobago
Imports:
    $1.8 billion (c.i.f., 1991 projected)
  commodities:
    petroleum, machinery, food, consumer goods, construction goods
  partners:
    US 48%, UK, Venezuela, Canada, Japan, Trinidad and Tobago
External debt:
    $3.8 billion (1991 est.)
Industrial production:
    growth rate - 2.0% (1990); accounts for almost 25% of GDP
Electricity:
    1,122,000 kW capacity; 2,520 million kWh produced, 1,012 kWh per capita
    (1991)
Industries:
    tourism, bauxite mining, textiles, food processing, light manufactures
Agriculture:
    accounts for about 9% of GDP, 22% of work force, and 17% of exports;
    commercial crops - sugarcane, bananas, coffee, citrus, potatoes, and
    vegetables; live-stock and livestock products include poultry, goats, milk;
    not self-sufficient in grain, meat, and dairy products
Illicit drugs:
    illicit cultivation of cannabis; transshipment point for cocaine from
    Central and South America to North America; government has an active
    cannabis eradication program
Economic aid:
    US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1.2 billion; other countries,
    ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $1.6 billion
Currency:
    Jamaican dollar (plural - dollars); 1 Jamaican dollar (J$) = 100 cents

:Jamaica Economy

Exchange rates:
    Jamaican dollars (J$) per US$1 - 21.946 (January 1992), 12.116 (1991), 7.184
    (1990), 5.7446 (1989), 5.4886 (1988), 5.4867 (1987), 5.4778 (1986)
Fiscal year:
    1 April - 31 March

:Jamaica Communications

Railroads:
    294 km, all 1.435-meter standard gauge, single track
Highways:
    18,200 km total; 12,600 km paved, 3,200 km gravel, 2,400 km improved earth
Pipelines:
    petroleum products 10 km
Ports:
    Kingston, Montego Bay
Merchant marine:
    4 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 9,619 GRT/16,302 DWT; includes 1
    roll-on/roll-off cargo, 1 petroleum tanker, 2 bulk
Civil air:
    8 major transport aircraft
Airports:
    36 total, 23 usable; 13 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways
    over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 1 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
    fully automatic domestic telephone network; 127,000 telephones; broadcast
    stations - 10 AM, 17 FM, 8 TV; 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations; 3
    coaxial submarine cables

:Jamaica Defense Forces

Branches:
    Jamaica Defense Force (including Coast Guard and Air Wing), Jamaica
    Constabulary Force
Manpower availability:
    males 15-49, 640,058; 454,131 fit for military service; no conscription;
    26,785 reach minimum volunteer age (18) annually
Defense expenditures:
    exchange rate conversion - $20 million, less than 1% of GDP (FY91)

:Jan Mayen Geography

Total area:
    373 km2
Land area:
    373 km2
Comparative area:
    slightly more than twice the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
    none
Coastline:
    124.1 km
Maritime claims:
  Contiguous zone:
    10 nm
  Continental shelf:
    200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation
  Exclusive fishing zone:
    200 nm
  Territorial sea:
    4 nm
Disputes:
    Denmark has challenged Norway's maritime claims beween Greenland and Jan
    Mayen
Climate:
    arctic maritime with frequent storms and persistent fog
Terrain:
    volcanic island, partly covered by glaciers; Beerenberg is the highest peak,
    with an elevation of 2,277 meters
Natural resources:
    none
Land use:
    arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 0%; forest and
    woodland 0%; other 100%
Environment:
    barren volcanic island with some moss and grass; volcanic activity resumed
    in 1970
Note:
    located north of the Arctic Circle about 590 km north-northeast of Iceland
    between the Greenland Sea and the Norwegian Sea

:Jan Mayen People

Population:
    no permanent inhabitants

:Jan Mayen Government

Long-form name:
    none
Type:
    territory of Norway
Capital:
    none; administered from Oslo, Norway, through a governor (sysselmann)
    resident in Longyearbyen (Svalbard)

:Jan Mayen Economy

Overview:
    Jan Mayen is a volcanic island with no exploitable natural resources.
    Economic activity is limited to providing services for employees of Norway's
    radio and meteorological stations located on the island.
Electricity:
    15,000 kW capacity; 40 million kWh produced, NA kWh per capita (1989)

:Jan Mayen Communications

Ports:
    none; offshore anchorage only
Airports:
    1 with runways 1,220 to 2,439 m
Telecommunications:
    radio and meteorological station

:Jan Mayen Defense Forces

Note:
    defense is the responsibility of Norway

:Japan Geography

Total area:
    377,835 km2
Land area:
    374,744 km2; includes Bonin Islands (Ogasawara-gunto), Daito-shoto,
    Minami-jima, Okinotori-shima, Ryukyu Islands (Nansei-shoto), and Volcano
    Islands (Kazan-retto)
Comparative area:
    slightly smaller than California
Land boundaries:
    none
Coastline:
    29,751 km
Maritime claims:
  Exclusive fishing zone:
    200 nm
  Territorial sea:
    12 nm (3 nm in international straits - La Perouse or Soya, Tsugaru, Osumi,
    and Eastern and Western channels of the Korea or Tsushima Strait)
Disputes:
    Etorofu, Kunashiri, and Shikotan Islands and the Habomai island group
    occupied by the Soviet Union in 1945, now administered by Russia, claimed by
    Japan; Liancourt Rocks disputed with South Korea; Senkaku-shoto (Senkaku
    Islands) claimed by China and Taiwan
Climate:
    varies from tropical in south to cool temperate in north
Terrain:
    mostly rugged and mountainous
Natural resources:
    negligible mineral resources, fish
Land use:
    arable land 13%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures 1%; forest and
    woodland 67%; other 18%; includes irrigated 9%
Environment:
    many dormant and some active volcanoes; about 1,500 seismic occurrences
    (mostly tremors) every year; subject to tsunamis
Note:
    strategic location in northeast Asia

:Japan People

Population:
    124,460,481 (July 1992), growth rate 0.4% (1992)
Birth rate:
    10 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
    7 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
    0 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
    4 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
    77 years male, 82 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
    1.6 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
    noun - Japanese (singular and plural); adjective - Japanese
Ethnic divisions:
    Japanese 99.4%, other (mostly Korean) 0.6%
Religions:
    most Japanese observe both Shinto and Buddhist rites so the percentages add
    to more than 100% - Shinto 95.8%, Buddhist 76.3%, Christian 1.4%, other 12%
    (1985)
Languages:
    Japanese
Literacy:
    99% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can read and write (1970 est.)
Labor force:
    63,330,000; trade and services 54%; manufacturing, mining, and construction
    33%; agriculture, forestry, and fishing 7%; government 3% (1988)
Organized labor:
    about 29% of employed workers; public service 76.4%, transportation and
    telecommunications 57.9%, mining 48.7%, manufacturing 33.7%, services 18.2%,
    wholesale, retail, and restaurant 9.3%

:Japan Government

Long-form name:
    none
Type:
    constitutional monarchy
Capital:
    Tokyo
Administrative divisions:
    47 prefectures; Aichi, Akita, Aomori, Chiba, Ehime, Fukui, Fukuoka,
    Fukushima, Gifu, Gumma, Hiroshima, Hokkaido, Hyogo, Ibaraki, Ishikawa,
    Iwate, Kagawa, Kagoshima, Kanagawa, Kochi, Kumamoto, Kyoto, Mie, Miyagi,
    Miyazaki, Nagano, Nagasaki, Nara, Niigata, Oita, Okayama, Okinawa, Osaka,
    Saga, Saitama, Shiga, Shimane, Shizuoka, Tochigi, Tokushima, Tokyo, Tottori,
    Toyama, Wakayama, Yamagata, Yamaguchi, Yamanashi
Independence:
    660 BC, traditional founding by Emperor Jimmu
Constitution:
    3 May 1947
Legal system:
    civil law system with English-American influence; judicial review of
    legislative acts in the Supreme Court; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction,
    with reservations
National holiday:
    Birthday of the Emperor, 23 December (1933)
Executive branch:
    Emperor, prime minister, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
    bicameral Diet (Kokkai) consists of an upper house or House of Councillors
    (Sangi-in) and a lower house or House of Representatives (Shugi-in)
Judicial branch:
    Supreme Court
Leaders:
  Chief of State:
    Emperor AKIHITO (since 7 January 1989)
  Head of Government:
    Prime Minister Kiichi MIYAZAWA (since 5 November 1991)
Po