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Full text of "The 1990 CIA World Factbook"

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October, 1993  [Etext #87]

The World Factbook, US CIA, 1993 Edition

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*The Project Gutenberg Edition of the 1993 CIA World Factbook*



Central Intelligence Agency

The World Factbook 1993

Notes, Definitions, and Abbreviations
A
Afghanistan
Albania
Algeria
American Samoa
Andorra
Angola
Anguilla
Antarctica
Antigua and Barbuda
Arctic Ocean
Argentina
Armenia
Aruba
Ashmore and Cartier Islands
Atlantic Ocean
Australia
Austria
Azerbaijan

B
Bahamas, The
Bahrain
Baker Island
Bangladesh
Barbados
Bassas da India
Belarus
Belgium
Belize
Benin
Bermuda
Bhutan
Bolivia
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Botswana
Bouvet Island
Brazil
British Indian Ocean Territory
British Virgin Islands
Brunei
Bulgaria
Burkina
Burma
Burundi

C
Cambodia
Cameroon
Canada
Cape Verde
Cayman Islands
Central African Republic
Chad
Chile
China (also see separate Taiwan entry)
Christmas Island
Clipperton Island
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Colombia
Comoros
Congo
Cook Islands
Coral Sea Islands
Costa Rica
Cote d'Ivoire
Croatia
Cuba
Cyprus
Czech Republic

D
Denmark
Djibouti
Dominica
Dominican Republic

E
Ecuador
Egypt
El Salvador
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Estonia
Ethiopia
Europa Island

F
Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)
Faroe Islands
Fiji
Finland
France
French Guiana
French Polynesia
French Southern and Antarctic Lands

G
Gabon
Gambia, The
Gaza Strip
Georgia
Germany
Ghana
Gibraltar
Glorioso Islands
Greece
Greenland
Grenada
Guadeloupe
Guam
Guatemala
Guernsey
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Guyana

H
Haiti
Heard Island and McDonald Islands
Holy See (Vatican City)
Honduras
Hong Kong
Howland Island
Hungary

I
Iceland
India
Indian Ocean
Indonesia
Iran
Iraq
Ireland
Israel (also see separate Gaza Strip and West Bank
entries)
Italy

J
Jamaica
Jan Mayen
Japan
Jarvis Island
Jersey
Johnston Atoll
Jordan (also see separate West Bank entry)
Juan de Nova Island

K
Kazakhstan
Kenya
Kingman Reef
Kiribati
Korea, North
Korea, South
Kuwait
Kyrgyzstan

L
Laos
Latvia
Lebanon
Lesotho
Liberia
Libya
Liechtenstein
Lithuania
Luxembourg

M
Macau
Macedonia
Madagascar
Malawi
Malaysia
Maldives
Mali
Malta
Man, Isle of
Marshall Islands
Martinique
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mayotte
Mexico
Micronesia, Federated States of
Midway Islands
Moldova
Monaco
Mongolia
Montserrat
Morocco
Mozambique

N
Namibia
Nauru
Navassa Island
Nepal
Netherlands
Netherlands Antilles
New Caledonia
New Zealand
Nicaragua
Niger
Nigeria
Niue
Norfolk Island
Northern Mariana Islands
Norway

O
Oman

P
Pacific Islands (Palau), Trust Territory of the
Pacific Ocean 2
Pakistan
Palmyra Atoll
Panama
Papua New Guinea
Paracel Islands
Paraguay
Peru
Philippines
Pitcairn Islands
Poland
Portugal
Puerto Rico

Q
Qatar

R
Reunion
Romania
Russia
Rwanda

S
Saint Helena
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Saint Lucia
Saint Pierre and Miquelon
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
San Marino
Sao Tome and Principe
Saudi Arabia
Senegal
Serbia and Montenegro
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Singapore
Slovakia
Slovenia
Solomon Islands
Somalia
South Africa
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
Spain
Spratly Islands
Sri Lanka
Sudan
Suriname
Svalbard
Swaziland
Sweden
Switzerland
Syria

T
Taiwan entry follows Zimbabwe
Tajikistan
Tanzania
Thailand
Togo
Tokelau
Tonga
Trinidad and Tobago
Tromelin Island
Tunisia
Turkey
Turkmenistan
Turks and Caicos Islands
Tuvalu

U
Uganda
Ukraine
United Arab Emirates
United Kingdom
United States
Uruguay
Uzbekistan

V
Vanuatu
Venezuela
Vietnam
Virgin Islands

W
Wake Island
Wallis and Futuna
West Bank
Western Sahara
Western Samoa
World

Y
Yemen

Z
Zaire
Zambia
Zimbabwe
Taiwan

Appendixes
A: The United Nations System
B: Abbreviations for International Organizations and Groups
C: International Organizations and Groups
D: Weights and Measures
E: Cross-Reference List of Geographic Names

Reference Maps
The World
North America
Central America and the
Caribbean
South America
Europe
Ethnic Groups in Eastern
Europe
Middle East
Africa
Asia
Commonwealth of Independent States--
European States
Commonwealth of Independent States--Central Asian States
Southeast Asia
Oceania
Arctic Region
Antarctic Region
Standard Time Zones of the World

There have been some significant changes in this edition. Czechoslovakia has
been superseded by the Czech Republic and Slovakia. Eritrea gained independence
from Ethiopia. The name of the Ivory Coast has been changed to Cote d'Ivoire and
the Vatican City became the Holy See. New entries include Location, Map
references, Abbreviation (often substituted for the country name), and Digraph
(two-letter country code). Names is a new entry which includes long and short
forms of both conventional and local names of countries as well as any former
names. Most diacritical marks have been omitted. The electronic files used to
produce the Factbook have been restructured into a database. As a result, the
formats of some entries in this edition have been changed. Additional changes
will occur in the 1994 Factbook. Irrigated land is a new entry with the data
separate from the Land use entry. The Disputes entry is now International
disputes. The GNP/GDP entry was renamed National Product and the per capita and
real growth rate data placed in separate entries. Similar changes were made in
the Population and Diplomatic Representation entries.

Abbreviations: (see Appendix B for international organizations and groups)

avdp.
avoirdupois

c.i.f.
cost, insurance, and freight

CY
calendar year

DWT
deadweight ton

est.
estimate

Ex-Im
Export-Import Bank of the United States

f.o.b.
free on board

FRG
Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany); used for information dated before 3
October 1990 or CY91

FY
fiscal year

GDP
gross domestic product

GDR
German Democratic Republic (East Germany); used for information dated before 3
October 1990 or CY91

GNP
gross national product

GRT
gross register ton

GWP
gross world product

km
kilometer

km2
square kilometer

kW
kilowatt

kWh
kilowatt hour

m
meter

NA
not available

NEGL
negligible

nm
nautical mile

NZ
New Zealand

ODA
official development assistance

OOF
other official flows

PDRY
People's Democratic Republic of Yemen [Yemen (Aden) or South Yemen]; used for
information dated before 22 May 1990 or CY91

UAE
United Arab Emirates

UK
United Kingdom

US
United States

USSR
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Soviet Union); used for information dated
before 25 December 1991

YAR
Yemen Arab Republic [Yemen (Sanaa) or North Yemen]; used
for information dated before 22 May 1990 or CY91

Administrative divisions: The numbers, designatory terms, and first-order
administrative divisions are generally those approved by the US Board on
Geographic Names (BGN). Changes that have been reported but not yet acted on by
BGN are noted.

Area: Total area is the sum of all land and water areas delimited by
international boundaries and/or coastlines. Land area is the aggregate of all
surfaces delimited by international boundaries and/or coastlines, excluding
inland water bodies (lakes, reservoirs, rivers). Comparative areas are based on
total area equivalents. Most entities are compared with the entire US or one of
the 50 states. The smaller entities are compared with Washington, DC (178 km2,
69 miles 2) or The Mall in Washington, DC (0.59 km2, 0.23 miles 2,146 acres).

Birth rate: The average annual number of births during a year per 1,000
population at midyear; also known as crude birth rate.

Dates of information: In general, information available as of 1 January 1993 was
used in the preparation of this edition. Population figures are estimates for 1
July 1993, with population growth rates estimated for calendar year 1993. Major
political events have been updated through June 1993.

Death rate: The average annual number of deaths during a year per l,000
population at midyear; also known as crude death rate.

Digraphs: The digraph is a two-letter "country code'' that precisely identifies
every entity without overlap, duplication, or omission. AF, for example, is the
digraph for Afghanistan. It is a standardized geopolitical data element
promulgated in the Federal Information Processing Standards Publication (FIPS)
10-3 by the National Bureau of Standards (US Department of Commerce) and
maintained by the Office of the Geographer (US Department of State). The digraph
is used to eliminate confusion and incompatibility in the collection,
processing, and dissemination of area-specific data and is particularly useful
for interchanging data between databases.

Diplomatic representation: The US Government has diplomatic relations with 180
nations. The US has diplomatic relations with 174 of the 182 UN members
(excluding the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia whose status in the UN
is unclear)--the exceptions are Angola, Bhutan, Cuba, Iran, Iraq, Macedonia,
North Korea, and Vietnam. In addition, the US has diplomatic relations with 7
nations that are not in the UN-Andorra, Holy See, Kiribati, Nauru, Switzerland,
Tonga, and Tuvalu.

Economic aid: This entry refers to bilateral commitments of official development
assistance (ODA), which is defined as government grants that are administered
with the promotion of economic development and welfare of LDCs as their main
objective and are concessional in character and contain a grant element of at
least 25%, and other official flows (OOF) or transactions by the official sector
whose main objective is other than development motivated or whose grant element
is below the 25% threshold for ODA. OOF transactions include official export
credits (such as Ex-Im Bank credits), official equity and portfolio investment,
and debt reorganization by the official sector that does not meet concessional
terms. Aid is considered to have been committed when agreements are initialed by
the parties involved and constitute a formal declaration of intent.

Entities: Some of the nations, dependent areas, areas of special sovereignty,
and governments included in this publication are not independent, and others are
not officially recognized by the US Government. "Nation'' refers to a people
politically organized into a sovereign state with a definite territory.
"Dependent area" refers to a broad category of political entities that are
associated in some way with a nation. Names used for page headings are usually
the short-form names as approved by the US Board on Geographic Names. There are
266 entities in The World Factbook that may be categorized as follows:

NATIONS

182
UN members (excluding the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia whose status
in the UN is unclear)

8
nations that are not members of the UN--Andorra, Holy See, Kiribati, Nauru,
Serbia and Montenegro, Switzerland, Tonga, Tuvalu

OTHER

1
Taiwan

DEPENDENT AREAS

6
Australia--Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling)
Islands, Coral Sea Islands, Heard Island and McDonald Islands, Norfolk Island

2
Denmark--Faroe Islands, Greenland

16
France--Bassas da India, Clipperton Island, Europa Island, French Guiana, French
Polynesia, French Southern and Antarctic Lands, Glorioso Islands, Guadeloupe,
Juan de Nova Island, Martinique, Mayotte, New Caledonia, Reunion, Saint Pierre
and Miquelon, Tromelin Island, Wallis and Futuna

2
Netherlands--Aruba, Netherlands Antilles

3
New Zealand--Cook Islands, Niue, Tokelau

3
Norway--Bouvet Island, Jan Mayen, Svalbard

1
Portugal--Macau

16
United Kingdom--Anguilla, Bermuda, British Indian Ocean Territory, British
Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Falkland Islands, Gibraltar, Guernsey, Hong
Kong, Jersey, Isle of Man, Montserrat, Pitcairn Islands, Saint Helena, South
Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Turks and Caicos Islands

15
United States--American Samoa, Baker Island, Guam, Howland Island, Jarvis
Island, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Midway Islands, Navassa Island, Northern
Mariana Islands, Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (Palau), Palmyra Atoll,
Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, Wake Island

MISCELLANEOUS

6
Antarctica, Gaza Strip, Paracel Islands, Spratly Islands, West Bank, Western
Sahara

OTHER ENTITIES

4
oceans--Arctic Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean, Pacific Ocean

1
World

266
total

note: The US Government does not recognize the four so-called independent
homelands of Bophuthatswana, Ciskei, Transkei, and Venda in South Africa.
Exchange rate: The value of a nation's monetary unit at a given date or over a
given period of time, as expressed in units of local currency per US dollar and
as determined by international market forces or official fiat.

Gross domestic product (GDP): The value of all goods and services produced
domestically in a given year.

Gross national product (GNP): The value of all goods and services produced
domestically in a given year, plus income earned abroad, minus income earned by
foreigners from domestic production.

Gross world product (GWP): The aggregate value of all goods and services
produced worldwide in a given year.

GNP/GDP methodology: In the "Economy'' section, GNP/GDP dollar estimates for the
OECD countries, the former Soviet republics, and the East European countries are
derived from purchasing power parity (PPP) calculations rather than from
conversions at official currency exchange rates. The PPP method normally
involves the use of international dollar price weights, which are applied to the
quantities of goods and services produced in a given economy. In addition to the
lack of reliable data from the majority of countries, the statistician faces a
major difficulty in specifying, identifying, and allowing for the quality of
goods and services. The division of a PPP GNP/GDP estimate in dollars by the
corresponding estimate in the local currency gives the PPP conversion rate. One
thousand dollars will buy the same market basket of goods in the US as one
thousand dollars--converted to the local currency at the PPP conversion rate--
will buy in the other country. GNP/GDP estimates for the LDCs, on the other
hand, are based on the conversion of GNP/GDP estimates in local currencies to
dollars at the official currency exchange rates. Because currency exchange rates
depend on a variety of international and domestic financial forces that often
have little relation to domestic output, use of these rates is less satisfactory
for calculating GNP/GDP than the PPP method. Furthermore, exchange rates may
suddenly go up or down by 10% or more because of market forces or official fiat
whereas real output has remained unchanged. One additional caution: the
proportion of, say, defense expenditures as a percent of GNP/GDP in local
currency accounts may differ substantially from the proportion when GNP/GDP
accounts are expressed in PPP terms, as, for example, when an observer estimates
the dollar level of Russian or Japanese military expenditures; similar problems
exist when components are expressed in dollars under currency exchange rate
procedures. Finally, as academic research moves forward on the PPP method, we
hope to convert all GNP/GDP estimates to this method in future editions of The
World Factbook.

Growth rate (population): The annual percent change in the population, resulting
from a surplus (or deficit) of births over deaths and the balance of migrants
entering and leaving a country. The rate may be positive or negative.

Illicit drugs: There are five categories of illicit drugs--narcotics,
stimulants, depressants (sedatives), hallucinogens, and cannabis. These
categories include many drugs legally produced and prescribed by doctors as well
as those illegally produced and sold outside medical channels.

Cannabis (Cannabis sativa) is the common hemp plant, which provides
hallucinogens with some sedative properties, and includes marijuana (pot,
Acapulco gold, grass, reefer), tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, Marinol), hashish
(hash), and hashish oil (hash oil).

Coca (Erythroxylon coca) is a bush, and the leaves contain the stimulant
cocaine. Coca is not to be confused with cocoa, which comes from cacao seeds and
is used in making chocolate, cocoa, and cocoa butter.

Cocaine is a stimulant derived from the leaves of the coca bush.

Depressants (sedatives) are drugs that reduce tension and anxiety and include
chloral hydrate, barbiturates (Amytal, Nembutal, Seconal, phenobarbital),
benzodiazepines (Librium, Valium), methaqualone (Quaalude), glutethimide
(Doriden), and others (Equanil, Placidyl, Valmid).

Drugs are any chemical substances that effect a physical, mental, emotional, or
behavioral change in an individual.

Drug abuse is the use of any licit or illicit chemical substance that results in
physical,
mental, emotional, or behavioral impairment in an individual.

Hallucinogens are drugs that affect sensation, thinking, self-awareness, and
emotion. Hallucinogens include LSD (acid, microdot), mescaline and peyote (mexc,
buttons, cactus), amphetamine variants (PMA, STP, DOB), phencyclidine (PCP,
angel dust, hog), phencyclidine analogues (PCE, PCPy, TCP), and others
(psilocybin, psilocyn).

Hashish is the resinous exudate of the cannabis or hemp plant (Cannabis sativa).

Heroin is a semisynthetic derivative of morphine.

Marijuana is the dried leaves of the cannabis or hemp plant (Cannabis sativa).

Narcotics are drugs that relieve pain, often induce sleep, and refer to opium,
opium derivatives, and synthetic substitutes. Natural narcotics include opium
(paregoric, parepectolin), morphine (MS-Contin, Roxanol), codeine (Tylenol
w/codeine, Empirin w/codeine, Robitussan AC), and thebaine. Semisynthetic
narcotics include heroin (horse, smack), and hydromorphone (Dilaudid). Synthetic
narcotics include meperidine or Pethidine (Demerol, Mepergan), methadone
(Dolophine, Methadose), and others (Darvon, Lomotil).

Opium is the milky exudate of the incised, unripe seedpod of the opium poppy.

Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) is the source for many natural and
semisynthetic narcotics.

Poppy straw concentrate is the alkaloid derived from the mature dried opium
poppy.

Qat (kat, khat) is a stimulant from the buds or leaves of Catha edulis that is
chewed or drunk as tea.

Stimulants are drugs that relieve mild depression, increase energy and activity,
and include cocaine (coke, snow, crack), amphetamines (Desoxyn, Dexedrine),
phenmetrazine (Preludin), methylphenidate (Ritalin), and others (Cylert,
Sanorex, Tenuate).

Infant mortality rate: The number of deaths to infants under one year old in a
given year per l,000 live births occurring in the same year.

International disputes: This category includes a wide variety of situations that
range from traditional bilateral boundary disputes to unilateral claims of one
sort or another. Information regarding disputes over international boundaries
and maritime boundaries has been reviewed by the Department of State. References
to other situations may also be included that are border or frontier relevant,
such as resource disputes, geopolitical questions, or irredentist issues.
However, inclusion does not necessarily constitute official acceptance or
recognition by the US Government.

Irrigated land: The figure refers to the number of km 2 that is artifically
supplied with water.

Land use: Human use of the land surface is categorized as arable land--land
cultivated for crops that are replanted after each harvest (wheat, maize, rice);
permanent crops--land cultivated for crops that are not replanted after each
harvest (citrus, coffee, rubber); meadows and pastures--land permanently used
for herbaceous forage crops; forest and woodland land--under dense or open
stands of trees; and other--any land type not specifically mentioned above
(urban areas, roads, desert).

Leaders: The chief of state is the titular leader of the country who represents
the state at official and ceremonial funcions but is not involved with the day-
to-day activities of the government. The head of government is the
administrative leader who manages the day-to-day activities of the government.
In the UK, the monarch is the chief of state, and the Prime Minister is the head
of government. In the US, the President is both the chief of state and the head
of government.

Life expectancy at birth: The average number of years to be lived by a group of
people all born in the same year, if mortality at each age remains constant in
the future.

Literacy: There are no universal definitions and standards of literacy. Unless
otherwise noted, all rates are based on the most common definition--the ability
to read and write at a specified age. Detailing the standards that individual
countries use to assess the ability to read and write is beyond the scope of
this publication.

Maps: All maps will be available only in the printed version of The World
Factbook for the foreseeable future.

Maritime claims: The proximity of neighboring states may prevent some national
claims from being extended the full distance.

Merchant marine: All ships engaged in the carriage of goods. All commercial
vessels (as opposed to all nonmilitary ships), which excludes tugs, fishing
vessels, offshore oil rigs, etc.; also, a grouping of merchant ships by
nationality or register.

Captive register--A register of ships maintained by a territory, possession, or
colony primarily or exclusively for the use of ships owned in the parent
country; also referred to as an offshore register, the offshore equivalent of an
internal register. Ships on a captive register will fly the same flag as the
parent country, or a local variant of it, but will be subject to the maritime
laws and taxation rules of the offshore territory. Although the nature of a
captive register makes it especially desirable for ships owned in the parent
country, just as in the internal register, the ships may also be owned abroad.
The captive register then acts as a flag of convenience register, except that it
is not the register of an independent state.

Flag of convenience register--A national register offering registration to a
merchant ship not owned in the flag state. The major flags of convenience (FOC)
attract ships to their register by virtue of low fees, low or nonexistent
taxation of profits, and liberal manning requirements. True FOC registers are
characterized by having relatively few of the ships registered actually owned in
the flag state. Thus, while virtually any flag can be used for ships under a
given set of circumstances, an FOC register is one where the majority of the
merchant fleet is owned abroad. It is also referred to as an open register.

Flag state--The nation in which a ship is registered and which holds legal
jurisdiction over operation of the ship, whether at home or abroad. Differences
in flag state maritime legislation determine how a ship is manned and taxed and
whether a foreign-owned ship may be placed on the register.

Internal register--A register of ships maintained as a subset of a national
register. Ships on the internal register fly the national flag and have that
nationality but are subject to a separate set of maritime rules from those on
the main national register. These differences usually include lower taxation of
profits, manning by foreign nationals, and, usually, ownership outside the flag
state (when it functions as an FOC register). The Norwegian International Ship
Register and Danish International Ship Register are the most notable examples of
an internal register. Both have been instrumental in stemming flight from the
national flag to flags of convenience and in attracting foreignowned ships to
the Norwegian and Danish flags.

Merchant ship--A vessel that carries goods against payment of freight; commonly
used to denote any nonmilitary ship but accurately restricted to commercial
vessels only.

Register--The record of a ship's ownership and nationality as listed with the
maritime authorities of a country; also, the compendium of such individual
ships' registrations. Registration of a ship provides it with a nationality and
makes it subject to the laws of the country in which registered (the flag state)
regardless of the nationality of the ship's ultimate owner.

Money figures: All are expressed in contemporaneous US dollars unless otherwise
indicated.

National product: The total output of goods and services in a country in a given
year. See Gross domestic product (GDP), Gross national product (GNP), and
GNP/GDP methodology.

Net migration rate: The balance between the number of persons entering and
leaving a country during the year per 1,000 persons (based on midyear
population). An excess of persons entering the country is referred to as net
immigration (3.56 migrants/1,000 population); an excess of persons leaving the
country as net emigration (-9.26 migrants/1,000 population).

Population: Figures are estimates from the Bureau of the Census based on
statistics from population censuses, vital registration systems, or sample
surveys pertaining to the recent past, and on assumptions about future trends.

Total fertility rate: The average number of children that would be born per
woman if all women lived to the end of their childbearing years and bore
children according to a given fertility rate at each age.

Years: All year references are for the calendar year (CY) unless indicated as
fiscal year (FY).

***

THE WORLD FACTBOOK 1993

*Afghanistan, Geography

Location:
  South Asia, between Iran and Pakistan
Map references:
  Asia, Middle East, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
 total area:
  647,500 km2
 land area:
  647,500 km2
 comparative area:
  slightly smaller than Texas
Land boundaries:
  total 5,529 km, China 76 km, Iran 936 km, Pakistan 2,430 km, Tajikistan
  1,206 km, Turkmenistan 744 km, Uzbekistan 137 km
Coastline:
  0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
  none; landlocked
International disputes:
  periodic disputes with Iran over Helmand water rights; Iran supports clients
  in country, private Pakistani and Saudi sources may also be active; power
  struggles among various groups for control of Kabul, regional rivalries
  among emerging warlords, traditional tribal disputes continue; support to
  Islamic fighters in Tajikistan's civil war; border dispute with Pakistan
  (Durand Line)
Climate:
  arid to semiarid; cold winters and hot summers
Terrain:
  mostly rugged mountains; plains in north and southwest
Natural resources:
  natural gas, petroleum, coal, copper, talc, barites, sulphur, lead, zinc,
  iron ore, salt, precious and semiprecious stones
Land use:
 arable land:
  12%
 permanent crops:
  0%
 meadows and pastures:
  46%
 forest and woodland:
  3%
 other:
  39%
Irrigated land:
  26,600 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
  damaging earthquakes occur in Hindu Kush mountains; soil degradation,
  desertification, overgrazing, deforestation, pollution, flooding
Note:
  landlocked

*Afghanistan, People

Population:
  16,494,145 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
  2.45% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
  43.83 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
  19.33 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
  158.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
 total population:
  44.41 years
 male:
  45.09 years
 female:
  43.71 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
  6.34 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
 noun:
  Afghan(s)
 adjective:
  Afghan
Ethnic divisions:
  Pashtun 38%, Tajik 25%, Uzbek 6%, Hazara 19%, minor ethnic groups (Chahar
  Aimaks, Turkmen, Baloch, and others)
Religions:
  Sunni Muslim 84%, Shi'a Muslim 15%, other 1%
Languages:
  Pashtu 35%, Afghan Persian (Dari) 50%, Turkic languages (primarily Uzbek and
  Turkmen) 11%, 30 minor languages (primarily Balochi and Pashai) 4%, much
  bilingualism
Literacy:
  age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
 total population:
  29%
 male:
  44%
 female:
  14%
Labor force:
  4.98 million
 by occupation:
  agriculture and animal husbandry 67.8%, industry 10.2%, construction 6.3%,
  commerce 5.0%, services and other 10.7% (1980 est.)

*Afghanistan, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  Islamic State of Afghanistan
 conventional short form:
  Afghanistan
 former:
  Republic of Afghanistan
Digraph:
  AF
Type:
  transitional government
Capital:
  Kabul
Administrative divisions:
  30 provinces (velayat, singular - velayat); Badakhshan, Badghis, Baghlan,
  Balkh, Bamian, Farah, Faryab, Ghazni, Ghowr, Helmand, Herat, Jowzjan, Kabol,
  Kandahar, Kapisa, Konar, Kondoz, Laghman, Lowgar, Nangarhar, Nimruz,
  Oruzgan, Paktia, Paktika, Parvan, Samangan, Sar-e Pol, Takhar, Vardak, Zabol
 note:
  there may be a new province of Nurestan (Nuristan)
Independence:
  19 August 1919 (from UK)
Constitution:
  the old Communist-era constitution has been suspended; a new Islamic
  constitution has yet to be ratified
Legal system:
  a new legal system has not been adopted but the transitional government has
  declared it will follow Islamic law (Shari'a)
National holiday:
  Victory of the Muslim Nation, 28 April; Remembrance Day for Martyrs and
  Disabled, 4 May; Independence Day, 19 August
Political parties and leaders:
  current political organizations include Jamiat-i-Islami (Islamic Society),
  Burhanuddin RABBANI, Ahmad Shah MASOOD; Hizbi Islami-Gulbuddin (Islamic
  Party), Gulbuddin HIKMATYAR faction; Hizbi Islami-Khalis (Islamic Party)
  Yunis KHALIS faction; Ittihad-i-Islami Barai Azadi Afghanistan (Islamic
  Union for the Liberation of Afghanistan), Abdul Rasul SAYYAF;
  Harakat-Inqilab-i-Islami (Islamic Revolutionary Movement), Mohammad Nabi
  MOHAMMADI; Jabha-i-Najat-i-Milli Afghanistan (Afghanistan National
  Liberation Front), Sibghatullah MOJADDEDI; Mahaz-i-Milli-Islami (National
  Islamic Front), Sayed Ahamad GAILANI; Hizbi Wahdat (Islamic Unity Party),
  Abdul Ali MAZARI; Harakat-i-Islami (Islamic Movement), Mohammed Asif
  MOHSENI; a new northern organization consisting of resistance and former
  regional figures is Jonbesh-i-Milli Islami (National Islamic Movement),
  Rashid DOSTUM
 note:
  the former ruling Watan Party has been disbanded
Other political or pressure groups:
  the former resistance commanders are the major power brokers in the
  countryside; shuras (councils) of commanders are now administering most
  cities outside Kabul; ulema (religious scholars); tribal elders
Suffrage:
  undetermined; previously universal, male ages 15-50
Elections:
 President:   last held NA December 1992 (next to be held NA December 1994); results -
  Burhanuddin RABBANI was elected to a two-year term by a national shura

*Afghanistan, Government

Executive branch:
  president, prime minister; Afghan leaders are still in the process of
  choosing a cabinet (May 1993)
Legislative branch:
  a unicameral parliament consisting of 205 members was chosen by the shura in
  January 1993; non-functioning as of June 1993
Judicial branch:
  an interim Chief Justice of the Supreme Court has been appointed, but a new
  court system has not yet been organized
Leaders:
 Chief of State:
  President Burhanuddin RABBANI (since 2 January 1993); First Vice President
  Mohammad NABI Mohammadi (since NA); First Vice President Mohammad SHAH Fazli
  (since NA)
 Head of Government:
  Prime Minister-designate Gulbaddin HIKMATYAR (since NA); Deputy Prime
  Minister Sulayman GAILANI (since NA); Deputy Prime Minister Din MOHAMMAD
  (since NA); Deputy Prime Minister Ahmad SHAH Ahmadzai (since NA)
Member of:
  AsDB (has previously been a member of), CP, ECO, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA,
  IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM,
  OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission:
  (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Abdul RAHIM
 chancery:
  2341 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
 telephone:
  (202) 234-3770 or 3771
US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission:
  (vacant)
 embassy:
  Ansari Wat, Wazir Akbar Khan Mina, Kabul
 mailing address:
  use embassy street address
 telephone:
  62230 through 62235 or 62436
 note:
  US Embassy in Kabul was closed in January 1989
Flag:
  a new flag of unknown description reportedly has been adopted; previous flag
  consisted of three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and green,
  with the national coat of arms superimposed on the hoist side of the black
  and red bands; similar to the flag of Malawi, which is shorter and bears a
  radiant, rising red sun centered in the black band

*Afghanistan, Economy

Overview:
  Fundamentally, Afghanistan is an extremely poor, landlocked country, highly
  dependent on farming (wheat especially) and livestock raising (sheep and
  goats). Economic considerations have played second fiddle to political and
  military upheavals during more than 13 years of war, including the nearly
  10-year Soviet military occupation (which ended 15 February 1989). Over the
  past decade, one-third of the population fled the country, with Pakistan
  sheltering more than 3 million refugees and Iran about 1.3 million. Another
  1 million probably moved into and around urban areas within Afghanistan.
  Although reliable data are unavailable, gross domestic product is lower than
  12 years ago because of the loss of labor and capital and the disruption of
  trade and transport.
National product:
  GDP - exchange rate conversion - $3 billion (1989 est.)
National product real growth rate:
  NA%
National product per capita:
  $200 (1989 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  over 90% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
  NA%
Budget:
  revenues $NA; expenditures $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports:
  $236 million (f.o.b., FY91 est.)
 commodities:
  natural gas 55%, fruits and nuts 24%, handwoven carpets, wool, cotton,
  hides, and pelts
 partners:
  former USSR, Pakistan
Imports:
  $874 million (c.i.f., FY91 est.)
 commodities:
  food and petroleum products
 partners:
  former USSR, Pakistan
External debt:
  $2.3 billion (March 1991 est.)
Industrial production:
  growth rate 2.3% (FY91 est.); accounts for about 25% of GDP
Electricity:
  480,000 kW capacity; 1,000 million kWh produced, 60 kWh per capita (1992)
Industries:
  small-scale production of textiles, soap, furniture, shoes, fertilizer, and
  cement; handwoven carpets; natural gas, oil, coal, copper
Agriculture:
  largely subsistence farming and nomadic animal husbandry; cash products -
  wheat, fruits, nuts, karakul pelts, wool, mutton
Illicit drugs:
  an illicit producer of opium poppy and cannabis for the international drug
  trade; world's second-largest opium producer (after Burma) and a major
  source of hashish
Economic aid:   US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $380 million; Western (non-US)
  countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $510 million; OPEC
  bilateral aid (1979-89), $57 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $4.1
  billion; net official Western disbursements (1985-89), $270 million

*Afghanistan, Economy

Currency:
  1 afghani (AF) = 100 puls
Exchange rates:
  afghanis (Af) per US$1 - 1,019 (March 1993), 900 (November 1991), 850
  (1991), 700 (1989-90), 220 (1988-89); note - these rates reflect the free
  market exchange rates rather than the official exchange rates
Fiscal year:
  21 March - 20 March

*Afghanistan, Communications

Railroads:
  9.6 km (single track) 1.524-meter gauge from Kushka (Turkmenistan) to
  Towraghondi and 15.0 km from Termez (Uzbekistan) to Kheyrabad transshipment
  point on south bank of Amu Darya
Highways:
  21,000 km total (1984); 2,800 km hard surface, 1,650 km bituminous-treated
  gravel and improved earth, 16,550 km unimproved earth and tracks
Inland waterways:
  total navigability 1,200 km; chiefly Amu Darya, which handles vessels up to
  about 500 metric tons
Pipelines:
  petroleum products - Uzbekistan to Bagram and Turkmenistan to Shindand;
  natural gas 180 km
Ports:
  Shir Khan and Kheyrabad (river ports)
Airports:
 total:
  41
 usable:
  36
 with permanent-surface runways:
  9
 with runways over 3,659 m:
  0
 with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
  11
 with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
  16
Telecommunications:
  limited telephone, telegraph, and radiobroadcast services; television
  introduced in 1980; 31,200 telephones; broadcast stations - 5 AM, no FM, 1
  TV; 1 satellite earth station

*Afghanistan, Defense Forces

Branches:
  the military still does not yet exist on a national scale; some elements of
  the former Army, Air and Air Defense Forces, National Guard, Border Guard
  Forces, National Police Force (Sarandoi), and tribal militias remain intact
Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49 4,094,481; fit for military service 2,196,136; reach
  military age (22) annually 153,333 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
  the new government has not yet adopted a defense budget

*Albania, Geography

Location:
  Southeastern Europe, on the Balkan Peninsula between Serbia and Montenegro
  and Greece
Map references:
  Africa, Ethnic Groups in Eastern Europe, Europe, Standard Time Zones of the
  World
Area:
 total area:
  28,750 km2
 land area:
  27,400 km2
 comparative area:
  slightly larger than Maryland
Land boundaries:
  total 720 km, Greece 282 km, Macedonia 151 km, Serbia and Montenegro 287 km
  (114 km with Serbia, 173 km with Montenegro)
Coastline:
  362 km
Maritime claims:
 continental shelf:
  not specified
 territorial sea:
  12 nm
International disputes:
  Kosovo question with Serbia and Montenegro; Northern Epirus question with
  Greece
Climate:
  mild temperate; cool, cloudy, wet winters; hot, clear, dry summers; interior
  is cooler and wetter
Terrain:
  mostly mountains and hills; small plains along coast
Natural resources:
  petroleum, natural gas, coal, chromium, copper, timber, nickel
Land use:
 arable land:
  21%
 permanent crops:
  4%
 meadows and pastures:   15%
 forest and woodland:
  38%
 other:
  22%
Irrigated land:
  4,230 km2 (1989)
Environment:
  subject to destructive earthquakes; tsunami occur along southwestern coast
Note:
  strategic location along Strait of Otranto (links Adriatic Sea to Ionian Sea
  and Mediterranean Sea)

*Albania, People

Population:
  3,333,839 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
  1.21% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
  23.24 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
  5.45 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
  -5.67 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
  31.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
 total population:
  73 years
 male:
  70.01 years
 female:
  76.21 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
  2.85 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
 noun:
  Albanian(s)
 adjective:
  Albanian
Ethnic divisions:
  Albanian 90%, Greeks 8%, other 2% (Vlachs, Gypsies, Serbs, and Bulgarians)
  (1989 est.)
Religions:
  Muslim 70%, Greek Orthodox 20%, Roman Catholic 10%
 note:
  all mosques and churches were closed in 1967 and religious observances
  prohibited; in November 1990, Albania began allowing private religious
  practice
Languages:
  Albanian (Tosk is the official dialect), Greek
Literacy:
  age 9 and over can read and write (1955)
 total population:
  72%
 male:
  80%
 female:
  63%
Labor force:
  1.5 million (1987)
 by occupation:
  agriculture 60%, industry and commerce 40% (1986)

*Albania, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  Republic of Albania
 conventional short form:
  Albania
 local long form:
  Republika e Shqiperise
 local short form:
  Shqiperia
 former:
  People's Socialist Republic of Albania
Digraph:
  AL
Type:
  nascent democracy
Capital:
  Tirane
Administrative divisions:
  26 districts (rrethe, singular - rreth); Berat, Dibre, Durres, Elbasan,
  Fier, Gjirokaster, Gramsh, Kolonje, Korce, Kruje, Kukes, Lezhe, Librazhd,
  Lushnje, Mat, Mirdite, Permet, Pogradec, Puke, Sarande, Shkoder, Skrapar,
  Tepelene, Tirane, Tropoje, Vlore
Independence:
  28 November 1912 (from Ottoman Empire)
Constitution:
  an interim basic law was approved by the People's Assembly on 29 April 1991;
  a new constitution was to be drafted for adoption in 1992, but is still in
  process
Legal system:
  has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
  Liberation Day, 29 November (1944)
Political parties and leaders:
  there are at least 18 political parties; most prominent are the Albanian
  Socialist Party (ASP; formerly the Albania Workers Party), Fatos NANO, first
  secretary; Democratic Party (DP), Eduard SELAMI, chairman; Albanian
  Republican Party (RP), Sabri GODO; Omonia (Greek minority party), leader NA
  (ran in 1992 election as Unity for Human Rights Party (UHP)); Social
  Democratic Party (SDP), Skender GJINUSHI; Democratic Alliance Party (DAP),
  Spartak NGJELA, chairman
Suffrage:
  18 years of age, universal and compulsory
Elections:
 People's Assembly:
  last held 22 March 1992; results - DP 62.29%, ASP 25.57%, SDP 4.33%, RP
  3.15%, UHP 2.92%, other 1.74%; seats - (140 total) DP 92, ASP 38, SDP 7, RP
  1, UHP 2
Executive branch:
  president, prime minister of the Council of Ministers, two deputy prime
  ministers of the Council of Ministers
Legislative branch:
  unicameral People's Assembly (Kuvendi Popullor)
Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court
Leaders:
 Chief of State:
  President of the Republic Sali BERISHA (since 9 April 1992)

*Albania, Government

 Head of Government:
  Prime Minister of the Council of Ministers Aleksander Gabriel MEKSI (since
  10 April 1992)
Member of:
  BSEC, CSCE, EBRD, ECE, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IMF, INTERPOL,
  IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LORCS, NACC, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
  UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador Roland BIMO
 chancery:
  1511 K Street, NW, Washington, DC
 telephone:
  (202) 223-4942
 FAX:
  (202) 223-4950
US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador William E. RYERSON
 embassy:
  Rruga Labinoti 103, room 2921, Tirane
 mailing address:
  PSC 59, Box 100 (A), APO AE 09624
 telephone:
  355-42-32875, 33520
 FAX:
  355-42-32222
Flag:
  red with a black two-headed eagle in the center

*Albania, Economy

Overview:
  The Albanian economy, already providing the lowest standard of living in
  Europe, contracted sharply in 1991, with most industries producing at only a
  fraction of past levels and an unemployment rate estimated at 40%. For over
  40 years, the Stalinist-type economy operated on the principle of central
  planning and state ownership of the means of production. Fitful economic
  reforms begun during 1991, including the liberalization of prices and trade,
  the privatization of shops and transport, and land reform, were crippled by
  widespread civil disorder. Following its overwhelming victory in the 22
  March 1992 elections, the new Democratic government announced a program of
  shock therapy to stabilize the economy and establish a market economy. In an
  effort to expand international ties, Tirane has reestablished diplomatic
  relations with the major republics of the former Soviet Union and the US and
  has joined the IMF and the World Bank. The Albanians have also passed
  legislation allowing foreign investment, but not foreign ownership of real
  estate. Albania possesses considerable mineral resources and, until 1990,
  was largely self-sufficient in food; however, the breakup of cooperative
  farms in 1991 and general economic decline forced Albania to rely on foreign
  aid to maintain adequate supplies. In 1992 the government tightened
  budgetary contols leading to another drop in domestic output. The
  agricultural sector is steadily gaining from the privatization process. Low
  domestic output is supplemented by remittances from the 200,000 Albanians
  working abroad.
National product:
  GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $2.5 billion (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate:
  -10% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
  $760 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  210% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
  40% (1992 est.)
Budget:
  revenues $1.1 billion; expenditures $1.4 billion, including capital
  expenditures of $70 million (1991 est.)
Exports:
  $45 million (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
 commodities:
  asphalt, metals and metallic ores, electricity, crude oil, vegetables,
  fruits, tobacco
 partners:
  Italy, Macedonia, Germany, Greece, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Romania,
  Bulgaria, Hungary
Imports:
  $120 million (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
 commodities:
  machinery, consumer goods, grains
 partners:
  Italy, Macedonia, Germany, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Poland, Hungary,
  Bulgaria, Greece
External debt:
  $500 million (1992 est.)
Industrial production:
  growth rate -55% (1991 est.)
Electricity:   1,690,000 kW capacity; 5,000 million kWh produced, 1,520 kWh per capita
  (1992)

*Albania, Economy

Industries:
  food processing, textiles and clothing, lumber, oil, cement, chemicals,
  mining, basic metals, hydropower
Agriculture:
  arable land per capita among lowest in Europe; over 60% of arable land now
  in private hands; one-half of work force engaged in farming; wide range of
  temperate-zone crops and livestock
Illicit drugs:
  transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin transiting the Balkan route
Economic aid:
  recipient - $190 million humanitarian aid, $94 million in
  loans/guarantees/credits
Currency:
  1 lek (L) = 100 qintars
Exchange rates:
  leke (L) per US$1 - 97 (January 1993), 50 (January 1992), 25 (September
  1991)
Fiscal year:
  calendar year

*Albania, Communications

Railroads:
  543 km total; 509 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, single track and 34 km
  narrow gauge, single track (1990); line connecting Titograd (Serbia and
  Montenegro) and Shkoder (Albania) completed August 1986
Highways:
  16,700 km total; 6,700 km highways, 10,000 km forest and agricultural cart
  roads (1990)
Inland waterways:
  43 km plus Albanian sections of Lake Scutari, Lake Ohrid, and Lake Prespa
  (1990)
Pipelines:
  crude oil 145 km; petroleum products 55 km; natural gas 64 km (1991)
Ports:
  Durres, Sarande, Vlore
Merchant marine:
  11 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 52,967 GRT/76,887 DWT
Airports:
 total:
  12
 usable:
  10
 with permanent-surface runways:
  3
 with runways over 3,659 m:
  0  with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
  6
 with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
  4
Telecommunications:
  inadequate service; 15,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 13 AM, 1 TV;
  514,000 radios, 255,000 TVs (1987 est.)

*Albania, Defense Forces

Branches:
  Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, Interior Ministry Troops
Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49 896,613; fit for military service 739,359; reach military
  age (19) annually 32,740 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
  215 million leke, NA% of GNP (1993 est.); note - conversion of defense
  expenditures into US dollars using the current exchange rate could produce
  misleading results

*Algeria, Geography

Location:
  Northern Africa, along the Mediterranean Sea, between Morocco and Tunisia
Map references:
  Africa, Europe
Area:
 total area:
  2,381,740 km2
 land area:
  2,381,740 km2
 comparative area:
  slightly less than 3.5 times the size of Texas
Land boundaries:
  total 6,343 km, Libya 982 km, Mali 1,376 km, Mauritania 463 km, Morocco
  1,559 km, Niger 956 km, Tunisia 965 km, Western Sahara 42 km
Coastline:
  998 km
Maritime claims:
 territorial sea:
  12 nm
International disputes:
  Libya claims part of southeastern Algeria; land boundary disputes with
  Tunisia under discussion
Climate:
  arid to semiarid; mild, wet winters with hot, dry summers along coast; drier
  with cold winters and hot summers on high plateau; sirocco is a hot,
  dust/sand-laden wind especially common in summer
Terrain:
  mostly high plateau and desert; some mountains; narrow, discontinuous
  coastal plain
Natural resources:   petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, uranium, lead, zinc
Land use:
 arable land:
  3%
 permanent crops:
  0%
 meadows and pastures:
  13%
 forest and woodland:
  2%
 other:
  82%
Irrigated land:
  3,360 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
  mountainous areas subject to severe earthquakes; desertification
Note:
  second-largest country in Africa (after Sudan)

*Algeria, People

Population:
  27,256,252 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
  2.34% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
  30.38 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
  6.41 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
  -0.53 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
  54 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
 total population:
  67.35 years
 male:
  66.32 years
 female:
  68.41 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
  3.96 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
 noun:
  Algerian(s)
 adjective:
  Algerian
Ethnic divisions:
  Arab-Berber 99%, European less than 1%
Religions:
  Sunni Muslim (state religion) 99%, Christian and Jewish 1%
Languages:
  Arabic (official), French, Berber dialects
Literacy:
  age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
 total population:   57%
 male:
  70%
 female:
  46%
Labor force:
  6.2 million (1992 est.)
 by occupation:
  government 29.5%, agriculture 22%, construction and public works 16.2%,
  industry 13.6%, commerce and services 13.5%, transportation and
  communication 5.2% (1989)

*Algeria, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  Democratic and Popular Republic of Algeria
 conventional short form:
  Algeria
 local long form:
  Al Jumhuriyah al Jaza'iriyah ad Dimuqratiyah ash Shabiyah
 local short form:
  Al Jaza'ir
Digraph:
  AG
Type:
  republic
Capital:
  Algiers
Administrative divisions:
  48 provinces (wilayast, singular - wilaya); Adrar, Ain Defla, Ain
  Temouchent, Alger, Annaba, Batna, Bechar, Bejaia, Biskra, Blida, Bordj Bou
  Arreridj, Bouira, Boumerdes, Chlef, Constantine, Djelfa, El Bayadh, El Oued,
  El Tarf, Ghardaia, Guelma, Illizi, Jijel, Khenchela, Laghouat, Mascara,
  Medea, Mila, Mostaganem, M'Sila, Naama, Oran, Ouargla, Oum el Bouaghi,
  Relizane, Saida, Setif, Sidi Bel Abbes, Skikda, Souk Ahras, Tamanghasset,
  Tebessa, Tiaret, Tindouf, Tipaza, Tissemsilt, Tizi Ouzou, Tlemcen
Independence:
  5 July 1962 (from France)
Constitution:
  19 November 1976, effective 22 November 1976; revised February 1989
Legal system:
  socialist, based on French and Islamic law; judicial review of legislative
  acts in ad hoc Constitutional Council composed of various public officials,
  including several Supreme Court justices; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
  jurisdiction
National holiday:
  Anniversary of the Revolution, 1 November (1954)
Political parties and leaders:
  Islamic Salvation Front (FIS), Ali BELHADJ, Dr. Abassi MADANI, Abdelkader
  HACHANI (all under arrest), Rabeh KEBIR; National Liberation Front (FLN),
  Abdelhamid MEHRI, Secretary General; Socialist Forces Front (FFS), Hocine
  Ait AHMED, Secretary General
 note:   the government established a multiparty system in September 1989 and, as of
  31 December 1990, over 30 legal parties existed
Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal
Elections:
 National People's Assembly:
  first round held on 26 December 1991 (second round canceled by the military
  after President BENDJEDID resigned 11 January 1992); results - percent of
  vote by party NA; seats - (281 total); the fundamentalist FIS won 188 of the
  231 seats contested in the first round; note - elections (municipal and
  wilaya) were held in June 1990, the first in Algerian history; results - FIS
  55%, FLN 27.5%, other 17.5%, with 65% of the voters participating
 President of the High State Committee:
  next election to be held December 1993
Executive branch:
  President of the High State Committee, prime minister, Council of Ministers
  (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
  unicameral National People's Assembly (Al-Majlis Ech-Chaabi Al-Watani)

*Algeria, Government

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)
Leaders:
 Chief of State:
  High State Committee President Ali KAFI (since 2 July 1992)
 Head of Government:
  Prime Minister Belaid ABDESSELAM (since 8 July 1992)
Member of:
  ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, AMU, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77,
  IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT,
  INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAPEC, OAS (observer), OAU, OIC, OPEC,
  UN, UNAVEM II, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNTAC, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO,
  WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador Mohamed ZARHOUNI
 chancery:
  2118 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008
 telephone:
  (202) 265-2800
US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador Mary Ann CASEY
 embassy:
  4 Chemin Cheikh Bachir El-Ibrahimi, Algiers
 mailing address:
  B. P. Box 549, Alger-Gare, 16000 Algiers
 telephone:
  [213] (2) 601-425 or 255, 186
 FAX:
  [213] (2) 603979
 consulate:   Oran
Flag:
  two equal vertical bands of green (hoist side) and white with a red
  five-pointed star within a red crescent; the crescent, star, and color green
  are traditional symbols of Islam (the state religion)

*Algeria, Economy

Overview:
  The oil and natural gas sector forms the backbone of the economy,
  hydrocarbons accounting for nearly all export receipts, about 30% of
  government revenues, and nearly 25% of GDP. In 1973-74 the sharp increase in
  oil prices led to a booming economy and helped to finance an ambitious
  program of industrialization. Plunging oil and gas prices, combined with the
  mismanagement of Algeria's highly centralized economy, has brought the
  nation to its most serious social and economic crisis since full
  independence in 1988. The current government has put reform, including
  privatization of some public sector companies and an overhaul of the banking
  and financial system, on hold, but has continued efforts to admit private
  enterprise to the hydrocarbon industry.
National product:
  GDP - exchange rate conversion - $42 billion (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate:
  2.8% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
  $1,570 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  55% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
  35% (1992 est.)
Budget:
  revenues $14.4 billion; expenditures $14.6 billion, including capital
  expenditures of $3.5 billion (1992 est.)
Exports:
  $11.6 billion (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
 commodities:
  petroleum and natural gas 97%
 partners:
  Italy, France, US, Germany, Spain
Imports:
  $8.2 billion (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
 commodities:
  capital goods 39.7%, food and beverages 21.7%, consumer goods 11.8% (1990)
 partners:
  France, Italy, Germany, US, Spain
External debt:
  $26 billion (1992 est.)
Industrial production:
  growth rate NA%
Electricity:
  6,380,000 kW capacity; 16,834 million kWh produced, 630 kWh per capita
  (1992)
Industries:
  petroleum, light industries, natural gas, mining, electrical, petrochemical,
  food processing
Agriculture:
  accounts for 10.8% of GDP (1991) and employs 22% of labor force; products-
  wheat, barley, oats, grapes, olives, citrus, fruits, sheep, cattle; net
  importer of food - grain, vegetable oil, sugar
Economic aid:
  US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-85), $1.4 billion; Western (non-US)
  countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $925 million; OPEC
  bilateral aid (1979-89), $1.8 billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $2.7
  billion; net official disbursements (1985-89), -$375 million
Currency:
  1 Algerian dinar (DA) = 100 centimes

*Algeria, Economy

Exchange rates:
  Algerian dinars (DA) per US$1 - 22.787 (January 1993), 21.836 (1992), 18.473
  (1991), 8.958 (1990), 7.6086 (1989), 5.9148 (1988)
Fiscal year:
  calendar year

*Algeria, Communications

Railroads:
  4,060 km total; 2,616 km standard gauge (1.435 m), 1,188 km 1.055-meter
  gauge, 256 km 1.000-meter gauge; 300 km electrified; 215 km double track
Highways:
  90,031 km total; 58,868 km concrete or bituminous, 31,163 km gravel, crushed
  stone, unimproved earth (1990)
Pipelines:
  crude oil 6,612 km; petroleum products 298 km; natural gas 2,948 km
Ports:
  Algiers, Annaba, Arzew, Bejaia, Djendjene, Ghazaouet, Jijel, Mers el Kebir,
  Mostaganem, Oran, Skikda
Merchant marine:
  75 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 903,179 GRT/1,064,211 DWT; includes 5
  short-sea passenger, 27 cargo, 12 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 5 oil tanker, 9
  liquefied gas, 7 chemical tanker, 9 bulk, 1 specialized tanker
Airports:
 total:
  141
 usable:
  124
 with permanent-surface runways:
  53
 with runways over 3,659 m:
  2
 with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
  32
 with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
  65
Telecommunications:   excellent domestic and international service in the north, sparse in the
  south; 822,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 26 AM, no FM, 18 TV;
  1,600,000 TV sets; 5,200,000 radios; 5 submarine cables; microwave radio
  relay to Italy, France, Spain, Morocco, and Tunisia; coaxial cable to
  Morocco and Tunisia; satellite earth stations - 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, 1
  Indian Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Intersputnik, l ARABSAT, and 12 domestic; 20
  additional satellite earth stations are planned

*Algeria, Defense Forces

Branches:
  National Popular Army, Navy, Air Force, Territorial Air Defense
Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49 6,610,342; fit for military service 4,063,261; reach
  military age (19) annually 291,685 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
  exchange rate conversion - $1.36 billion, 2.5% of GDP (1993 est.)

*American Samoa, Header

Affiliation:
  (territory of the US)

*American Samoa, Geography

Location:
  in the South Pacific Ocean, 3,700 km south-southwest of Honolulu, about
  halfway between Hawaii and New Zealand
Map references:
  Oceania
Area:
 total area:
  199 km2
 land area:
  199 km2
 comparative area:
  slightly larger than Washington, DC
 note:
  includes Rose Island and Swains Island
Land boundaries:
  0 km
Coastline:
  116 km
Maritime claims:
 contiguous zone:
  24 nm
 continental shelf:
  200 m or depth of exploitation
 exclusive economic zone:
  200 nm
 territorial sea:
  12 nm
International disputes:
  none
Climate:
  tropical marine, moderated by southeast trade winds; annual rainfall
  averages 124 inches; rainy season from November to April, dry season from
  May to October; little seasonal temperature variation
Terrain:
  five volcanic islands with rugged peaks and limited coastal plains, two
  coral atolls (Rose Island, Swains Island)
Natural resources:
  pumice, pumicite
Land use:
 arable land:
  10%
 permanent crops:
  5%
 meadows and pastures:
  0%
 forest and woodland:
  75%
 other:
  10%
Irrigated land:
  NA km2
Environment:
  typhoons common from December to March
Note:
  Pago Pago has one of the best natural deepwater harbors in the South Pacific
  Ocean, sheltered by shape from rough seas and protected by peripheral
  mountains from high winds; strategic location in the South Pacific Ocean

*American Samoa, People

Population:
  53,139 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
  3.9% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
  37 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
  4 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
  6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
  19 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
 total population:
  73 years
 male:
  71 years
 female:
  75 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
  4.41 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
 noun:
  American Samoan(s)
 adjective:
  American Samoan
Ethnic divisions:
  Samoan (Polynesian) 89%, Caucasian 2%, Tongan 4%, other 5%
Religions:
  Christian Congregationalist 50%, Roman Catholic 20%, Protestant
  denominations and other 30%
Languages:
  Samoan (closely related to Hawaiian and other Polynesian languages),
  English; most people are bilingual
Literacy:
  age 15 and over can read and write (1980)
 total population:
  97%
 male:
  97%
 female:
  97%
Labor force:
  14,400 (1990)
 by occupation:
  government 33%, tuna canneries 34%, other 33% (1990)

*American Samoa, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  Territory of American Samoa
 conventional short form:
  American Samoa
Abbreviation:
  AS
Digraph:
  AQ
Type:
  unincorporated and unorganized territory of the US; administered by the US
  Department of Interior, Office of Territorial and International Affairs
Capital:
  Pago Pago
Administrative divisions:
  none (territory of the US)
Independence:
  none (territory of the US)
Constitution:
  ratified 1966, in effect 1967
Legal system:
  NA
National holiday:
  Territorial Flag Day, 17 April (1900)
Political parties and leaders:
  NA
Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal
Elections:
 Governor:
  last held 3 November 1992 (next to be held NA November 1996); results - A.
  P. LUTALI was elected (percent of vote NA)
 House of Representatives:
  last held 3 November 1992 (next to be held NA November 1994); results -
  representatives popularly elected from 17 house districts; seats - (21
  total, 20 elected, and 1 nonvoting delegate from Swains Island)
 Senate:
  last held 3 November 1992 (next to be held NA November 1996); results -
  senators elected by village chiefs from 12 senate districts; seats - (18
  total) number of seats by party NA
 US House of Representatives:
  last held 3 November 1992 (next to be held NA November 1994); results - Eni
  R. F. H. FALEOMAVAEGA reelected as delegate
Executive branch:
  popularly elected governor and lieutenant governor
Legislative branch:
  bicameral Legislative Assembly (Fono) consists of an upper house or Senate
  (appointed by county village chiefs) and a lower house or House of
  Representatives (elected)
Judicial branch:
  High Court
Leaders:
 Chief of State:
  President William Jefferson CLINTON (since 20 January 1993); Vice President
  Albert GORE, Jr. (since 20 January 1993)
 Head of Government:
  Governor A. P. LUTALI (since 3 January 1993); Lieutenant Governor Tauese P.
  SUNIA (since 3 January 1993)

*American Samoa, Government

Member of:
  ESCAP (associate), INTERPOL (subbureau), IOC, SPC
Diplomatic representation in US:
  none (territory of the US)
Flag:
  blue with a white triangle edged in red that is based on the fly side and
  extends to the hoist side; a brown and white American bald eagle flying
  toward the hoist side is carrying two traditional Samoan symbols of
  authority, a staff and a war club

*American Samoa, Economy

Overview:
  Economic activity is strongly linked to the US, with which American Samoa
  does 80-90% of its foreign trade. Tuna fishing and tuna processing plants
  are the backbone of the private sector, with canned tuna the primary export.
  The tuna canneries and the government are by far the two largest employers.
  Other economic activities include a slowly developing tourist industry.
  Transfers from the US government add substantially to American Samoa's
  economic well-being.
National product:
  GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $128 million (1991)
National product real growth rate:
  NA%
National product per capita:
  $2,600 (1991)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  7% (1990)
Unemployment rate:
  12% (1991)
Budget:
  revenues $97,000,000 (includes $43,000,000 in local revenue and $54,000,000
  in grant revenue); including capital expenditures of $NA (FY91)
Exports:
  $306 million (f.o.b., 1989)
 commodities:
  canned tuna 93%
 partners:
  US 99.6%
Imports:
  $360.3 million (c.i.f., 1989)
 commodities:
  materials for canneries 56%, food 8%, petroleum products 7%, machinery and
  parts 6%
 partners:
  US 62%, Japan 9%, NZ 7%, Australia 11%, Fiji 4%, other 7%
External debt:
  $NA
Industrial production:
  growth rate NA%
Electricity:
  42,000 kW capacity; 100 million kWh produced, 2,020 kWh per capita (1990)
Industries:
  tuna canneries (largely dependent on foreign fishing vessels), meat canning,
  handicrafts
Agriculture:
  bananas, coconuts, vegetables, taro, breadfruit, yams, copra, pineapples,
  papayas, dairy farming
Economic aid:
  $21,042,650 in operational funds and $1,227,000 in construction funds for
  capital improvement projects from the US Department of Interior (1991)
Currency:
  US currency is used
Fiscal year:
  1 October - 30 September

*American Samoa, Communications

Railroads:   none
Highways:
  350 km total; 150 km paved, 200 km unpaved
Ports:
  Pago Pago, Ta'u, Ofu, Auasi, Aanu'u (new construction), Faleosao
Airports:
 total:
  3
 usable:
  3
 with permanent-surface runways:
  3
 with runways over 3,659 m:
  0
 with runways 2,440 to 3,659 m :
  1 (international airport at Tafuna)
 with runways 1,200 to 2,439 m:
  0
 note:
  small airstrips on Fituita and Ofu
Telecommunications:
  8,399 telephones; broadcast stations - 1 AM, 1 FM, 1 TV; good telex,
  telegraph, and facsimile services; 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth station, 1
  COMSAT earth station

*American Samoa, Defense Forces

Note:
  defense is the responsibility of the US

*Andorra, Geography

Location:
  Western Europe, between France and Spain
Map references:
  Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
 total area:
  450 km2
 land area:
  450 km2
 comparative area:
  slightly more than 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
  total 125 km, France 60 km, Spain 65 km
Coastline:
  0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
  none; landlocked
International disputes:
  none
Climate:   temperate; snowy, cold winters and cool, dry summers
Terrain:
  rugged mountains dissected by narrow valleys
Natural resources:
  hydropower, mineral water, timber, iron ore, lead
Land use:
 arable land:
  2%
 permanent crops:
  0%
 meadows and pastures:
  56%
 forest and woodland:
  22%
 other:
  20%
Irrigated land:
  NA km2
Environment:
  deforestation, overgrazing
Note:
  landlocked

*Andorra, People

Population:
  61,962 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
  3.27% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
  13.78 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
  6.99 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
  25.92 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
  8.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
 total population:
  78.22 years
 male:
  75.35 years
 female:
  81.34 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
  1.73 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
 noun:
  Andorran(s)
 adjective:
  Andorran
Ethnic divisions:
  Spanish 61%, Andorran 30%, French 6%, other 3%
Religions:   Roman Catholic (predominant)
Languages:
  Catalan (official), French, Castilian
Literacy:
 total population:
  NA%
 male:
  NA%
 female:
  NA%
Labor force:
  NA

*Andorra, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  Principality of Andorra
 conventional short form:
  Andorra
 local long form:
  Principat d'Andorra
 local short form:
  Andorra
Digraph:
  AN
Type:
  parliamentary coprincipality under formal sovereignty of president of France
  and Spanish bishop of Seo de Urgel, who are represented locally by officials
  called veguers; to be changed to a parliamentary form of government
Capital:
  Andorra la Vella
Administrative divisions:
  7 parishes (parroquies, singular - parroquia); Andorra, Canillo, Encamp, La
  Massana, Les Escaldes, Ordino, Sant Julia de Loria
Independence:
  1278
Constitution:
  Andorra's first written constitution was drafted in 1991; adopted 14 March
  1993; to take effect within 15 days
Legal system:
  based on French and Spanish civil codes; no judicial review of legislative
  acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
  Mare de Deu de Meritxell, 8 September
Political parties and leaders:
  political parties not yet legally recognized; traditionally no political
  parties but partisans for particular independent candidates for the General
  Council on the basis of competence, personality, and orientation toward
  Spain or France; various small pressure groups developed in 1972; first
  formal political party, Andorran Democratic Association, was formed in 1976
  and reorganized in 1979 as Andorran Democratic Party
Suffrage:
  18 years of age, universal
Elections:
 General Council of the Valleys:
  last held 12 April 1992 (next to be held April 1996); results - percent of
  vote by party NA; seats - (28 total) number of seats by party NA
Executive branch:
  two co-princes (president of France, bishop of Seo de Urgel in Spain), two
  designated representatives (French veguer, Episcopal veguer), two permanent
  delegates (French prefect for the department of Pyrenees-Orientales, Spanish
  vicar general for the Seo de Urgel diocese), president of government,
  Executive Council
Legislative branch:
  unicameral General Council of the Valleys (Consell General de las Valls)
Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court of Andorra at Perpignan (France) for civil cases, the
  Ecclesiastical Court of the bishop of Seo de Urgel (Spain) for civil cases,
  Tribunal of the Courts (Tribunal des Cortes) for criminal cases

*Andorra, Government

Leaders:
 Chiefs of State:
  French Co-Prince Francois MITTERRAND (since 21 May 1981), represented by
  Veguer de Franca Jean Pierre COURTOIS (since NA); Spanish Episcopal
  Co-Prince Mgr. Juan MARTI Alanis (since 31 January 1971), represented by
  Veguer Episcopal Francesc BADIA Bata
 Head of Government:
  Executive Council President Oscar RIBAS Reig (since 10 Decmber 1989)
Member of:
  INTERPOL, IOC
Diplomatic representation in US:
  Andorra has no mission in the US
US diplomatic representation:
  Andorra is included within the Barcelona (Spain) Consular District, and the
  US Consul General visits Andorra periodically
Flag:
  three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red with the
  national coat of arms centered in the yellow band; the coat of arms features
  a quartered shield; similar to the flags of Chad and Romania that do not
  have a national coat of arms in the center

*Andorra, Economy

Overview:
  The mainstay of Andorra's economy is tourism. An estimated 13 million
  tourists visit annually, attracted by Andorra's duty-free status and by its
  summer and winter resorts. The banking sector, with its "tax haven" status,
  also contributes significantly to the economy. Agricultural production is
  limited by a scarcity of arable land, and most food has to be imported. The
  principal livestock activity is sheep raising. Manufacturing consists mainly
  of cigarettes, cigars, and furniture. Although it is a member of the EC
  customs union, it is unclear what effect the European Single Market will
  have on the advantages Andorra obtains from its duty-free status.
National product:
  GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $760 million (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate:
  NA% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
  $14,000 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  NA%
Unemployment rate:
  0%
Budget:
  revenues $119.4 million; expenditures $190 million, including capital
  expenditures of $NA (1990)
Exports:
  $23 million (f.o.b., 1989)
 commodities:
  electricity, tobacco products, furniture
 partners:
  France, Spain
Imports:
  $888.7 million (f.o.b., 1989)
 commodities:
  consumer goods, food
 partners:
  France, Spain
External debt:
  $NA
Industrial production:
  growth rate NA%
Electricity:
  35,000 kW capacity; 140 million kWh produced, 2,570 kWh per capita (1992)
Industries:
  tourism (particularly skiing), sheep, timber, tobacco, banking
Agriculture:
  sheep raising; small quantities of tobacco, rye, wheat, barley, oats, and
  some vegetables
Economic aid:
  none
Currency:
  the French and Spanish currencies are used
Exchange rates:
  French francs (F) per US$1 - 5.4812 (January 1993), 5.2938 (1992), 5.6421
  (1991), 5.4453 (1990), 6.3801 (1989), 5.9569 (1988); Spanish pesetas (Ptas)
  per US$1 - 114.59 (January 1993), 102.38 (1992), 103.91 (1991), 101.93
  (1990), 118.38 (1989), 116.49 (1988)
Fiscal year:
  calendar year

*Andorra, Communications

Highways:
  96 km
Telecommunications:
  international digital microwave network; international landline circuits to
  France and Spain; broadcast stations - 1 AM, no FM, no TV; 17,700 telephones

*Andorra, Defense Forces

Note:
  defense is the responsibility of France and Spain

*Angola, Geography

Location:
  Southern Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean between Namibia and
  Zaire
Map references:
  Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
 total area:
  1,246,700 km2
 land area:
  1,246,700 km2
 comparative area:
  slightly less than twice the size of Texas
Land boundaries:
  total 5,198 km, Congo 201 km, Namibia 1,376 km, Zaire 2,511 km, Zambia 1,110
  km
Coastline:
  1,600 km
Maritime claims:
 exclusive fishing zone:
  200 nm
 territorial sea:
  20 nm
International disputes:
  civil war since independence on 11 November 1975; a ceasefire held from 31
  May 1991 until October 1992, when the insurgent National Union for the Total
  Independence of Angola refused to accept its defeat in internationally
  monitored elections; fighting has since resumed across the countryside
Climate:
  semiarid in south and along coast to Luanda; north has cool, dry season (May
  to October) and hot, rainy season (November to April)
Terrain:
  narrow coastal plain rises abruptly to vast interior plateau
Natural resources:
  petroleum, diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, copper, feldspar, gold, bauxite,
  uranium
Land use:
 arable land:
  2%
 permanent crops:
  0%
 meadows and pastures:
  23%
 forest and woodland:   43%
 other:
  32%
Irrigated land:
  NA km2
Environment:
  locally heavy rainfall causes periodic flooding on plateau; desertification
Note:
  Cabinda is separated from rest of country by Zaire

*Angola, People

Population:
  9,545,235 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
  2.67% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
  45.8 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
  18.96 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
  -0.15 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
  148.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
 total population:
  45.26 years
 male:
  43.26 years
 female:
  47.35 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
  6.54 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
 noun:
  Angolan(s)
 adjective:
  Angolan
Ethnic divisions:
  Ovimbundu 37%, Kimbundu 25%, Bakongo 13%, Mestico 2%, European 1%, other 22%
Religions:
  indigenous beliefs 47%, Roman Catholic 38%, Protestant 15% (est.)
Languages:
  Portuguese (official), Bantu dialects
Literacy:
  age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
 total population:
  42%
 male:
  56%
 female:
  28%
Labor force:
  2.783 million economically active
 by occupation:
  agriculture 85%, industry 15% (1985 est.)

*Angola, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  Republic of Angola
 conventional short form:
  Angola
 local long form:
  Republic de Angola
 local short form:
  Angola
 former:
  People's Republic of Angola
Digraph:
  AO
Type:
  transitional government nominally a multiparty democracy with a strong
  presidential system
Capital:
  Luanda
Administrative divisions:
  18 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Bengo, Benguela, Bie,
  Cabinda, Cuando Cubango, Cuanza Norte, Cuanza Sul, Cunene, Huambo, Huila,
  Luanda, Lunda Norte, Lunda Sul, Malanje, Moxico, Namibe, Uige, Zaire
Independence:
  11 November 1975 (from Portugal)
Constitution:
  11 November 1975; revised 7 January 1978, 11 August 1980, and 6 March 1991
Legal system:
  based on Portuguese civil law system and customary law; recently modified to
  accommodate political pluralism and increased use of free markets
National holiday:
  Independence Day, 11 November (1975)
Political parties and leaders:
  Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA), led by Jose EDUARDO
  DOS SANTOS, is the ruling party and has been in power since 1975; National
  Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA), led by Jonas SAVIMBI,
  remains a legal party despite its returned to armed resistance to the
  government; five minor parties have small numbers of seats in the National
  Assembly
Other political or pressure groups:
  Cabindan State Liberation Front (FLEC), NZZIA Tiago, leader
 note:
  FLEC is waging a small-scale, highly factionalized, armed struggle for the
  independence of Cabinda Province
Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal
Elections:
  first nationwide, multiparty elections were held in late September 1992 with
  disputed results; further elections are being discussed
Executive branch:   president, prime minister, Council of Ministers (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
  unicameral National Assembly (Assembleia Nacional)
Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court (Tribunal da Relacrao)
Leaders:
 Chief of State:
  President Jose Eduardo dos SANTOS (since 21 September 1979)
 Head of Government:
  Prime Minister Marcolino Jose Carlos MOCO (since 2 December 1992)

*Angola, Government

Member of:
  ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEEAC (observer), ECA, FAO, FLS, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA,
  IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ITU, LORCS, NAM,
  OAU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
  none
 representation:
  Jose PATRICIO, Permanent Observer to the Organization of American States
 address:
  Permanent Observer to the Organization of American States, 1899 L Street,
  NW, 5th floor, Washington, DC 20038
 telephone:
  (202) 785-1156
 FAX:
  (202) 785-1258
US diplomatic representation:
 director:
  Edmund DE JARNETTE
 liaison office:
  Rua Major Kanhangolo, Nes 132/138, Luanda
 mailing address:
  CP6484, Luanda, Angola (mail international); USLO Luanda, Department of
  State, Washington, D.C. 20521-2550 (pouch)
 telephone:
  [244] (2) 34-54-81
 FAX:
  [244] (2) 39-05-15
 note:
  the US maintains a liaison office in Luanda accredited to the Joint
  Political Military Commission that oversees implementation of the Angola
  Peace Accords; this office does not perform any commercial or consular
  services; the US does not maintain diplomatic relations with the Government
  of the Republic of Angola
Flag:
  two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and black with a centered yellow
  emblem consisting of a five-pointed star within half a cogwheel crossed by a
  machete (in the style of a hammer and sickle)

*Angola, Economy

Overview:
  Subsistence agriculture provides the main livelihood for 80-90% of the
  population, but accounts for less than 15% of GDP. Oil production is vital
  to the economy, contributing about 60% to GDP. Bitter internal fighting
  continues to severely affect the nonoil economy, and food needs to be
  imported. For the long run, Angola has the advantage of rich natural
  resources in addition to oil, notably gold, diamonds, and arable land. To
  realize its economic potential Angola not only must secure domestic peace
  but also must reform government policies that have led to distortions and
  imbalances throughout the economy.
National product:
  GDP - exchange rate conversion - $5.1 billion (1991 est.)
National product real growth rate:
  1.7% (1991 est.)
National product per capita:
  $950 (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  1,000% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
  NA%
Budget:
  revenues $2.1 billion; expenditures $3.6 billion, including capital
  expenditures of $963 million (1991 est.)
Exports:
  $3.7 billion (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
 commodities:
  oil, liquefied petroleum gas, diamonds, coffee, sisal, fish and fish
  products, timber, cotton
 partners:
  US, France, Germany, Netherlands, Brazil
Imports:
  $1.5 billion (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
 commodities:
  capital equipment (machinery and electrical equipment), food, vehicles and
  spare parts, textiles and clothing, medicines; substantial military
  deliveries
 partners:
  Portugal, Brazil, US, France, Spain
External debt:
  $8 billion (1991)
Industrial production:
  growth rate NA%; accounts for about 60% of GDP, including petroleum output
Electricity:
  510,000 kW capacity; 800 million kWh produced, 84 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
  petroleum; mining diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, feldspar, bauxite,
  uranium, and gold;, fish processing; food processing; brewing; tobacco;
  sugar; textiles; cement; basic metal products
Agriculture:
  cash crops - coffee, sisal, corn, cotton, sugar cane, manioc, tobacco; food
  crops - cassava, corn, vegetables, plantains, bananas; livestock production
  accounts for 20%, fishing 4%, forestry 2% of total agricultural output;
  disruptions caused by civil war and marketing deficiencies require food
  imports
Economic aid:   US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $265 million; Western (non-US)
  countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $1,105 million;
  Communist countries (1970-89), $1.3 billion; net official disbursements
  (1985-89), $750 million

*Angola, Economy

Currency:
  1 kwanza (Kz) = 100 kwei
Exchange rates:
  kwanza (Kz) per US$1 -4,000 (black market rate was 17,000 on 30 April 1993)
Fiscal year:
  calendar year

*Angola, Communications

Railroads:
  3,189 km total; 2,879 km 1.067-meter gauge, 310 km 0.600-meter gauge;
  limited trackage in use because of landmines still in place from the civil
  war; majority of the Benguela Railroad also closed because of civil war
Highways:
  73,828 km total; 8,577 km bituminous-surface treatment, 29,350 km crushed
  stone, gravel, or improved earth, remainder unimproved earth
Inland waterways:
  1,295 km navigable
Pipelines:
  crude oil 179 km
Ports:
  Luanda, Lobito, Namibe, Cabinda
Merchant marine:
  12 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 66,348 GRT/102,825 DWT; includes 11
  cargo, 1 oil tanker
Airports:
 total:
  302
 usable:
  173
 with permanent-surface runways:
  32
 with runways over 3,659 m:
  2
 with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
  17
 with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
  57
Telecommunications:
  limited system of wire, microwave radio relay, and troposcatter routes; high
  frequency radio used extensively for military links; 40,300 telephones;
  broadcast stations - 17 AM, 13 FM, 6 TV; 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth
  stations

*Angola, Defense Forces

Branches:
  Army, Navy, Air Force/Air Defense, People's Defense Organization and
  Territorial Troops, Frontier Guard
Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49 2,204,155; fit for military service 1,109,292; reach
  military age (18) annually 94,919 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
  exchange rate conversion - $NA, NA% of GDP

*Anguilla, Header

Affiliation:
  (dependent territory of the UK)

*Anguilla, Geography

Location:
  in the eastern Caribbean Sea, about 270 km east of Puerto Rico
Map references:
  Central America and the Caribbean
Area:
 total area:
  91 km2
 land area:
  91 km2
 comparative area:
  about half the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
  0 km
Coastline:
  61 km
Maritime claims:
 exclusive fishing zone:
  200 nm
 territorial sea:
  3 nm
International disputes:
  none
Climate:
  tropical; moderated by northeast trade winds
Terrain:
  flat and low-lying island of coral and limestone
Natural resources:
  negligible; salt, fish, lobster
Land use:
 arable land:
  NA%
 permanent crops:
  NA%
 meadows and pastures:
  NA%
 forest and woodland:
  NA%
 other:
  NA% (mostly rock with sparse scrub oak, few trees, some commercial salt
  ponds)
Irrigated land:
  NA km2
Environment:
  frequent hurricanes, other tropical storms (July to October)

*Anguilla, People

Population:
  7,006 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
  0.64% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
  24.26 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
  8.28 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
  -9.56 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
  17.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
 total population:
  73.89 years
 male:
  71.1 years
 female:
  76.7 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
  3.09 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
 noun:
  Anguillan(s)
 adjective:
  Anguillan
Ethnic divisions:
  black African
Religions:
  Anglican 40%, Methodist 33%, Seventh-Day Adventist 7%, Baptist 5%, Roman
  Catholic 3%, other 12%
Languages:
  English (official)
Literacy:
  age 12 and over can read and write (1984)
 total population:
  95%
 male:
  95%
 female:   95%
Labor force:
  2,780 (1984)
 by occupation:
  NA

*Anguilla, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  none
 conventional short form:
  Anguilla
Digraph:
  AV
Type:
  dependent territory of the UK
Capital:
  The Valley
Administrative divisions:
  none (dependent territory of the UK)
Independence:
  none (dependent territory of the UK)
Constitution:
  1 April 1982
Legal system:
  based on English common law
National holiday:
  Anguilla Day, 30 May
Political parties and leaders:
  Anguilla National Alliance (ANA), Emile GUMBS; Anguilla United Party (AUP),
  Hubert HUGHES; Anguilla Democratic Party (ADP), Victor BANKS
Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal
Elections:
 House of Assembly:
  last held 27 February 1989 (next to be held February 1994); results -
  percent of vote by party NA; seats - (11 total, 7 elected) ANA 3, AUP 2, ADP
  1, independent 1
Executive branch:
  British monarch, governor, chief minister, Executive Council (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
  unicameral House of Assembly
Judicial branch:
  High Court
Leaders:
 Chief of State:
  Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor Alan W.
  SHARE (since August 1992)
 Head of Government:
  Chief Minister Emile GUMBS (since NA March 1984, served previously from
  February 1977 to May 1980)
Member of:
  CARICOM (observer), CDB
Diplomatic representation in US:
  none (dependent territory of the UK)
Flag:
  two horizontal bands of white (top, almost triple width) and light blue with
  three orange dolphins in an interlocking circular design centered in the
  white band; a new flag may have been in use since 30 May 1990

*Anguilla, Economy

Overview:
  Anguilla has few natural resources, and the economy depends heavily on
  lobster fishing, offshore banking, tourism, and remittances from emigrants.
  In recent years the economy has benefited from a boom in tourism.
  Development plans center around the improvement of the infrastructure,
  particularly transport and tourist facilities, and also light industry.
National product:
  GDP - exchange rate conversion - $47.4 million (1991 est.)
National product real growth rate:
  6.5% (1991 est.)
National product per capita:
  $6,800 (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  4.6% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
  5% (1988 est.)
Budget:
  revenues $13.8 million; expenditures $15.2 million, including capital
  expenditures of $2.4 million (1992 est.)
Exports:
  $1.4 million (f.o.b., 1987)
 commodities:
  lobster and salt
 partners:
  NA
Imports:
  $10.3 million (f.o.b., 1987)
 commodities:
  NA
 partners:
  NA
External debt:
  $NA
Industrial production:
  growth rate NA%
Electricity:
  2,000 kW capacity; 6 million kWh produced, 862 kWh per capita (1992)
Industries:
  tourism, boat building, salt
Agriculture:
  pigeon peas, corn, sweet potatoes, sheep, goats, pigs, cattle, poultry,
  fishing (including lobster)
Economic aid:
  Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $38
  million
Currency:
  1 EC dollar (EC$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
  East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1 - 2.70 (fixed rate since 1976)
Fiscal year:
  NA

*Anguilla, Communications

Highways:
  60 km surfaced
Ports:
  Road Bay, Blowing Point
Airports:
 total:
  3
 usable:
  2
 with permanent-surface runways:
  1 (1,000 m at Wallblake Airport)
 with runways over 3,659 m:
  0
 with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
  0
 with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
  0
Telecommunications:
  modern internal telephone system; 890 telephones; broadcast stations - 3 AM,
  1 FM, no TV; radio relay microwave link to island of Saint Martin

*Anguilla, Defense Forces

Note:
  defense is the responsibility of the UK

*Antarctica, Geography

Location:
  continent mostly south of the Antarctic Circle
Map references:
  Antarctic Region
Area:
 total area:
  14 million km2 (est.)
 land area:
  14 million km2 (est.)
 comparative area:
  slightly less than 1.5 times the size of the US
 note:
  second-smallest continent (after Australia)
Land boundaries:
  none, but see entry on International disputes
Coastline:
  17,968 km
Maritime claims:
  none, but see entry on International Disputes
International disputes:
  Antarctic Treaty defers claims (see Antarctic Treaty Summary below);
  sections (some overlapping) claimed by Argentina, Australia, Chile, France
  (Adelie Land), New Zealand (Ross Dependency), Norway (Queen Maud Land), and
  UK; the US and most other nations do not recognize the territorial claims of
  other nations and have made no claims themselves (the US and Russia reserve
  the right to do so); no formal claims have been made in the sector between
  90 degrees west and 150 degrees west, where, because of floating ice,
  Antarctica is unapproachable from the sea
Climate:
  severe low temperatures vary with latitude, elevation, and distance from the
  ocean; East Antarctica is colder than West Antarctica because of its higher
  elevation; Antarctic Peninsula has the most moderate climate; higher
  temperatures occur in January along the coast and average slightly below
  freezing
Terrain:
  about 98% thick continental ice sheet and 2% barren rock, with average
  elevations between 2,000 and 4,000 meters; mountain ranges up to 4,897
  meters high; ice-free coastal areas include parts of southern Victoria Land,
  Wilkes Land, the Antarctic Peninsula area, and parts of Ross Island on
  McMurdo Sound; glaciers form ice shelves along about half of the coastline,
  and floating ice shelves constitute 11% of the area of the continent
Natural resources:
  none presently exploited; iron ore, chromium, copper, gold, nickel, platinum
  and other minerals, and coal and hydrocarbons have been found in small,
  uncommercial quantities
Land use:
 arable land:
  0%
 permanent crops:
  0%
 meadows and pastures:
  0%
 forest and woodland:
  0%
 other:
  100% (ice 98%, barren rock 2%)
Irrigated land:
  0 km2

*Antarctica, Geography

Environment:
  mostly uninhabitable; katabatic (gravity-driven) winds blow coastward from
  the high interior; frequent blizzards form near the foot of the plateau; a
  circumpolar ocean current flows clockwise along the coast as do cyclonic
  storms that form over the ocean; during summer more solar radiation reaches
  the surface at the South Pole than is received at the Equator in an
  equivalent period; in October 1991 it was reported that the ozone shield,
  which protects the Earth's surface from harmful ultraviolet radiation, had
  dwindled to the lowest level ever recorded over Antarctica; active volcanism
  on Deception Island and isolated areas of West Antarctica; other seismic
  activity rare and weak
Note:
  the coldest, windiest, highest, and driest continent

*Antarctica, People

Population:
  no indigenous inhabitants; note - there are seasonally staffed research
  stations
 Summer (January) population:
  over 4,115 total; Argentina 207, Australia 268, Belgium 13, Brazil 80, Chile
  256, China NA, Ecuador NA, Finland 11, France 78, Germany 32, Greenpeace 12,
  India 60, Italy 210, Japan 59, South Korea 14, Netherlands 10, NZ 264,
  Norway 23, Peru 39, Poland NA, South Africa 79, Spain 43, Sweden 10, UK 116,
  Uruguay NA, US 1,666, former USSR 565 (1989-90)
 Winter (July) population:
  over 1,046 total; Argentina 150, Australia 71, Brazil 12, Chile 73, China
  NA, France 33, Germany 19, Greenpeace 5, India 1, Japan 38, South Korea 14,
  NZ 11, Poland NA, South Africa 12, UK 69, Uruguay NA, US 225, former USSR
  313 (1989-90)
 Year-round stations:
  42 total; Argentina 6, Australia 3, Brazil 1, Chile 3, China 2, Finland 1,
  France 1, Germany 1, India 1, Japan 2, South Korea 1, NZ 1, Poland 1, South
  Africa 3, UK 5, Uruguay 1, US 3, former USSR 6 (1990-91)
 Summer only stations:
   over 38 total; Argentina 7, Australia 3, Chile 5, Germany 3, India 1,
  Italy 1, Japan 4, NZ 2, Norway 1, Peru 1, South Africa 1, Spain 1, Sweden 2,
  UK 1, US numerous, former USSR 5 (1989-90); note - the disintegration of the
  former USSR has placed the status and future of its Antarctic facilities in
  doubt; stations may be subject to closings at any time because of ongoing
  economic difficulties

*Antarctica, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  none
 conventional short form:
  Antarctica
Digraph:
  AY
Type:
 Antarctic Treaty Summary:
  The Antarctic Treaty, signed on 1 December 1959 and entered into force on 23
  June 1961, establishes the legal framework for the management of Antarctica.
  Administration is carried out through consultative member meetings--the 17th
  Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting was in Venice in November 1992.
  Currently, there are 41 treaty member nations: 26 consultative and 15
  acceding. Consultative (voting) members include the seven nations that claim
  portions of Antarctica as national territory (some claims overlap) and 19
  nonclaimant nations. The US and some other nations that have made no claims
  have reserved the right to do so. The US does not recognize the claims of
  others. The year in parentheses indicates when an acceding nation was voted
  to full consultative (voting) status, while no date indicates the country
  was an original 1959 treaty signatory. Claimant nations are--Argentina,
  Australia, Chile, France, New Zealand, Norway, and the UK. Nonclaimant
  consultative nations are--Belgium, Brazil (1983), China (1985), Ecuador
  (1990), Finland (1989), Germany (1981), India (1983), Italy (1987), Japan,
  South Korea (1989), Netherlands (1990), Peru (1989), Poland (1977), South
  Africa, Spain (1988), Sweden (1988), Uruguay (1985), the US, and Russia.
  Acceding (nonvoting) members, with year of accession in parentheses,
  are--Austria (1987), Bulgaria (1978), Canada (1988), Colombia (1988), Cuba
  (1984), Czechoslovakia (1962), Denmark (1965), Greece (1987), Guatemala
  (1991), Hungary (1984), North Korea (1987), Papua New Guinea (1981), Romania
  (1971), Switzerland (1990), and Ukraine (1992).
 Article 1:
  area to be used for peaceful purposes only; military activity, such as
  weapons testing, is prohibited, but military personnel and equipment may be
  used for scientific research or any other peaceful purpose
 Article 2:
  freedom of scientific investigation and cooperation shall continue
 Article 3:
  free exchange of information and personnel in cooperation with the UN and
  other international agencies
 Article 4:
  does not recognize, dispute, or establish territorial claims and no new
  claims shall be asserted while the treaty is in force
 Article 5:
  prohibits nuclear explosions or disposal of radioactive wastes
 Article 6:
  includes under the treaty all land and ice shelves south of 60 degrees 00
  minutes south
 Article 7:
  treaty-state observers have free access, including aerial observation, to
  any area and may inspect all stations, installations, and equipment; advance
  notice of all activities and of the introduction of military personnel must
  be given
 Article 8:
  allows for jurisdiction over observers and scientists by their own states
 Article 9:
  frequent consultative meetings take place among member nations

*Antarctica, Government

 Article 10:
  treaty states will discourage activities by any country in Antarctica that
  are contrary to the treaty
 Article 11:
  disputes to be settled peacefully by the parties concerned or, ultimately,
  by the ICJ
 Article 12, 13, 14:
  deal with upholding, interpreting, and amending the treaty among involved
  nations
 Other agreements:
  more than 170 recommendations adopted at treaty consultative meetings and
  ratified by governments include - Agreed Measures for the Conservation of
  Antarctic Fauna and Flora (1964); Convention for the Conservation of
  Antarctic Seals (1972); Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine
  Living Resources (1980); a mineral resources agreement was signed in 1988
  but was subsequently rejected; in 1991 the Protocol on Environmental
  Protection to the Antarctic Treaty was signed and awaits ratification; this
  agreement provides for the protection of the Antarctic environment through
  five specific annexes on marine pollution, fauna, and flora, environmental
  impact assessments, waste management, and protected areas; it also prohibits
  all activities relating to mineral resources except scientific research;
  four parties have ratified Protocol as of June 1993
Legal system:
  US law, including certain criminal offenses by or against US nationals, such
  as murder, may apply to areas not under jurisdiction of other countries.
  Some US laws directly apply to Antarctica. For example, the Antarctic
  Conservation Act, 16 U.S.C. section 2401 et seq., provides civil and
  criminal penalties for the following activities, unless authorized by
  regulation of statute: The taking of native mammals or birds; the
  introduction of nonindigenous plants and animals; entry into specially
  protected or scientific areas; the discharge or disposal of pollutants; and
  the importation into the US of certain items from Antarctica. Violation of
  the Antarctic Conservation Act carries penalties of up to $10,000 in fines
  and 1 year in prison. The Departments of Treasury, Commerce, Transportation,
  and Interior share enforcement responsibilities. Public Law 95-541, the US
  Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978, requires expeditions from the US to
  Antarctica to notify, in advance, the Office of Oceans and Polar Affairs,
  Room 5801, Department of State, Washington, DC 20520, which reports such
  plans to other nations as required by the Antarctic Treaty. For more
  information contact Permit Office, Office of Polar Programs, National
  Science Foundation, Washington, DC 20550.

*Antarctica, Economy

Overview:
  No economic activity at present except for fishing off the coast and
  small-scale tourism, both based abroad.

*Antarctica, Communications

Ports:
  none; offshore anchorage only at most coastal stations
Airports:
  42 landing facilities at different locations operated by 15 national
  governments party to the Treaty; one additional air facility operated by
  commercial (nongovernmental) tourist organization; helicopter pads at 28 of
  these locations; runways at 10 locations are gravel, sea ice, glacier ice,
  or compacted snow surface suitable for wheeled fixed-wing aircraft; no paved
  runways; 16 locations have snow-surface skiways limited to use by
  ski-equipped planes--11 runways/skiways 1,000 to 3,000 m, 3 runways/skiways
  less than 1,000 m, 5 runways/skiways greater than 3,000 m, and 7 of
  unspecified or variable length; airports generally subject to severe
  restrictions and limitations resulting from extreme seasonal and geographic
  conditions; airports do not meet ICAO standards; advance approval from
  governments required for landing

*Antarctica, Defense Forces

Note:
  the Antarctic Treaty prohibits any measures of a military nature, such as
  the establishment of military bases and fortifications, the carrying out of
  military maneuvers, or the testing of any type of weapon; it permits the use
  of military personnel or equipment for scientific research or for any other
  peaceful purposes

*Antigua and Barbuda, Geography

Location:
  in the eastern Caribbean Sea, about 420 km east-southeast of Puerto Rico
Map references:
  Central America and the Caribbean, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
 total area:
  440 km2
 land area:
  440 km2
 comparative area:
  slightly less than 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC
 note:
  includes Redonda
Land boundaries:
  0 km
Coastline:
  153 km
Maritime claims:
 contiguous zone:
  24 nm
 exclusive economic zone:
  200 nm
 territorial sea:
  12 nm
International disputes:
  none
Climate:
  tropical marine; little seasonal temperature variation
Terrain:
  mostly low-lying limestone and coral islands with some higher volcanic areas
Natural resources:
  negligible; pleasant climate fosters tourism
Land use:
 arable land:
  18%  permanent crops:
  0%
 meadows and pastures:
  7%
 forest and woodland:
  16%
 other:
  59%
Irrigated land:
  NA km2
Environment:
  subject to hurricanes and tropical storms (July to October); insufficient
  freshwater resources; deeply indented coastline provides many natural
  harbors

*Antigua and Barbuda, People

Population:
  64,406 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
  0.51% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
  17.51 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
  5.5 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
  -6.96 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
  19.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
 total population:
  72.83 years
 male:
  70.81 years
 female:
  74.95 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
  1.67 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
 noun:
  Antiguan(s), Barbudan(s)
 adjective:
  Antiguan, Barbudan
Ethnic divisions:
  black African, British, Portuguese, Lebanese, Syrian
Religions:
  Anglican (predominant), other Protestant sects, some Roman Catholic
Languages:
  English (official), local dialects
Literacy:
  age 15 and over having completed 5 or more years of schooling (1960)
 total population:
  89%
 male:   90%
 female:
  88%
Labor force:
  30,000
 by occupation:
  commerce and services 82%, agriculture 11%, industry 7% (1983)

*Antigua and Barbuda, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  none
 conventional short form:
  Antigua and Barbuda
Digraph:
  AC
Type:
  parliamentary democracy
Capital:
  Saint John's
Administrative divisions:
  6 parishes and 2 dependencies*; Barbuda*, Redonda*, Saint George, Saint,   John, Saint Mary, Saint
Paul, Saint Peter, Saint Philip
Independence:
  1 November 1981 (from UK)
Constitution:
  1 November 1981
Legal system:
  based on English common law
National holiday:
  Independence Day, 1 November (1981)
Political parties and leaders:
  Antigua Labor Party (ALP), Vere Cornwall BIRD, Sr., Lester BIRD; United
  Progressive Party (UPP), Baldwin SPENCER
Other political or pressure groups:
  United Progressive Party (UPP), headed by Baldwin SPENCER, a coalition of
  three opposition political parties - the United National Democratic Party
  (UNDP); the Antigua Caribbean Liberation Movement (ACLM); and the
  Progressive Labor Movement (PLM); Antigua Trades and Labor Union (ATLU),
  headed by Noel THOMAS
Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal
Elections:
 House of Representatives:
  last held 9 March 1989 (next to be held NA 1994); results - percent of vote
  by party NA; seats - (17 total) ALP 15, UPP 1, independent 1
Executive branch:
  British monarch, governor general, prime minister, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
  bicameral Parliament consists of an upper house or Senate and a lower house
  or House of Representatives
Judicial branch:
  Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court
Leaders:
 Chief of State:
  Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General
  Sir Wilfred Ebenezer JACOBS (since 1 November 1981, previously Governor
  since 1976)
 Head of Government:
  Prime Minister Vere Cornwall BIRD, Sr. (since NA 1976); Deputy Prime
  Minister Lester BIRD (since NA)
Member of:
  ACP, C, CARICOM, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IFAD, IFC,
  ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, NAM (observer), OAS, OECS, OPANAL, UN,
  UNCTAD, UNESCO, WCL, WHO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador Patrick Albert LEWIS

*Antigua and Barbuda, Government

 chancery:
  Suite 2H, 3400 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
 telephone:
  (202) 362-5211 or 5166, 5122, 5225
 consulate:
  Miami
US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission:
  the US Ambassador to Barbados is accredited to Antigua and Barbuda, and, in
  his absence, the Embassy is headed by Charge d'Affaires Bryant J. SALTER
 embassy:
  Queen Elizabeth Highway, Saint John's
 mailing address:
  FPO AA 34054-0001
 telephone:
  (809) 462-3505 or 3506
 FAX:
  (809) 462-3516
Flag:
  red with an inverted isosceles triangle based on the top edge of the flag;
  the triangle contains three horizontal bands of black (top), light blue, and
  white with a yellow rising sun in the black band

*Antigua and Barbuda, Economy

Overview:
  The economy is primarily service oriented, with tourism the most important
  determinant of economic performance. During the period 1987-90, real GDP
  expanded at an annual average rate of about 6%. Tourism makes a direct
  contribution to GDP of about 13% and also affects growth in other sectors -
  particularly in construction, communications, and public utilities. Although
  Antigua and Barbuda is one of the few areas in the Caribbean experiencing a
  labor shortage in some sectors of the economy, it has been hurt in 1991-92
  by a downturn in tourism caused by the Persian Gulf war and the US
  recession.
National product:
  GDP - exchange rate conversion - $424 million (1991 est.)
National product real growth rate:
  1.4% (1991 est.)
National product per capita:
  $6,600 (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  6.5% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
  5% (1988 est.)
Budget:
  revenues $105 million; expenditures $161 million, including capital
  expenditures of $56 million (1992)
Exports:
  $32 million (f.o.b., 1991)
 commodities:
  petroleum products 48%, manufactures 23%, food and live animals 4%,
  machinery and transport equipment 17%
 partners:
  OECS 26%, Barbados 15%, Guyana 4%, Trinidad and Tobago 2%, US 0.3%
Imports:
  $317.5 million (c.i.f., 1991)
 commodities:
  food and live animals, machinery and transport equipment, manufactures,
  chemicals, oil
 partners:
  US 27%, UK 16%, Canada 4%, OECS 3%, other 50%
External debt:
  $250 million (1990 est.)
Industrial production:
  growth rate 3% (1989 est.); accounts for 5% of GDP
Electricity:
  52,100 kW capacity; 95 million kWh produced, 1,482 kWh per capita (1992)
Industries:
  tourism, construction, light manufacturing (clothing, alcohol, household
  appliances)
Agriculture:
  accounts for 4% of GDP; expanding output of cotton, fruits, vegetables, and
  livestock; other crops - bananas, coconuts, cucumbers, mangoes, sugarcane;
  not self-sufficient in food
Economic aid:
  US commitments, $10 million (1985-88); Western (non-US) countries, ODA and
  OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $50 million
Currency:
  1 EC dollar (EC$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
  East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1 - 2.70 (fixed rate since 1976)
Fiscal year:
  1 April - 31 March

*Antigua and Barbuda, Communications

Railroads:   64 km 0.760-meter narrow gauge and 13 km 0.610-meter gauge used almost
  exclusively for handling sugarcane
Highways:
  240 km
Ports:
  Saint John's
Merchant marine:
  149 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 529,202 GRT/778,506 DWT; includes 96
  cargo, 3 refrigerated cargo, 21 container, 5 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 1
  multifunction large-load carrier, 2 oil tanker, 19 chemical tanker, 2 bulk;
  note - a flag of convenience registry
Airports:
 total:
  3
 usable:
  3
 with permanent-surface runways:
  2
 with runways 3,659 m:
  0
 with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
  1
 with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
  0
Telecommunications:
  good automatic telephone system; 6,700 telephones; tropospheric scatter
  links with Saba and Guadeloupe; broadcast stations - 4 AM, 2 FM, 2 TV, 2
  shortwave; 1 coaxial submarine cable; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth
  station

*Antigua and Barbuda, Defense Forces

Branches:
  Royal Antigua and Barbuda Defense Force, Royal Antigua and Barbuda Police
  Force (including the Coast Guard)
Manpower availability:
  NA
Defense expenditures:
  exchange rate conversion - $1.4 million, 1% of GDP (FY90/91)

*Arctic Ocean, Geography

Location:
  body of water mostly north of the Arctic Circle
Map references:
  Arctic Region, Asia, North America, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
 total area:
  14.056 million km2
 comparative area:
  slightly more than 1.5 times the size of the US; smallest of the world's
  four oceans (after Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, and Indian Ocean)
 note:
  includes Baffin Bay, Barents Sea, Beaufort Sea, Chukchi Sea, East Siberian
  Sea, Greenland Sea, Hudson Bay, Hudson Strait, Kara Sea, Laptev Sea, and
  other tributary water bodies
Coastline:
  45,389 km
International disputes:
  some maritime disputes (see littoral states); Svalbard is the focus of a
  maritime boundary dispute between Norway and Russia
Climate:
  polar climate characterized by persistent cold and relatively narrow annual
  temperature ranges; winters characterized by continuous darkness, cold and
  stable weather conditions, and clear skies; summers characterized by
  continuous daylight, damp and foggy weather, and weak cyclones with rain or
  snow
Terrain:
  central surface covered by a perennial drifting polar icepack that averages
  about 3 meters in thickness, although pressure ridges may be three times
  that size; clockwise drift pattern in the Beaufort Gyral Stream, but nearly
  straight line movement from the New Siberian Islands (Russia) to Denmark
  Strait (between Greenland and Iceland); the ice pack is surrounded by open
  seas during the summer, but more than doubles in size during the winter and
  extends to the encircling land masses; the ocean floor is about 50%
  continental shelf (highest percentage of any ocean) with the remainder a
  central basin interrupted by three submarine ridges (Alpha Cordillera,
  Nansen Cordillera, and Lomonsov Ridge); maximum depth is 4,665 meters in the
  Fram Basin
Natural resources:
  sand and gravel aggregates, placer deposits, polymetallic nodules, oil and
  gas fields, fish, marine mammals (seals and whales)
Environment:
  endangered marine species include walruses and whales; ice islands
  occasionally break away from northern Ellesmere Island; icebergs calved from
  glaciers in western Greenland and extreme northeastern Canada; maximum snow
  cover in March or April about 20 to 50 centimeters over the frozen ocean and
  lasts about 10 months; permafrost in islands; virtually icelocked from
  October to June; fragile ecosystem slow to change and slow to recover from
  disruptions or damage
Note:
  major chokepoint is the southern Chukchi Sea (northern access to the Pacific
  Ocean via the Bering Strait); ships subject to superstructure icing from
  October to May; strategic location between North America and Russia;
  shortest marine link between the extremes of eastern and western Russia,
  floating research stations operated by the US and Russia

*Arctic Ocean, Government

Digraph:
  XQ

*Arctic Ocean, Economy

Overview:
  Economic activity is limited to the exploitation of natural resources,
  including petroleum, natural gas, fish, and seals.

*Arctic Ocean, Communications

Ports:
  Churchill (Canada), Murmansk (Russia), Prudhoe Bay (US)
Telecommunications:
  no submarine cables
Note:
  sparse network of air, ocean, river, and land routes; the Northwest Passage
  (North America) and Northern Sea Route (Eurasia) are important seasonal
  waterways

*Argentina, Geography

Location:
  Eastern South America, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean between Chile and
  Uruguay
Map references:
  South America, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
 total area:
  2,766,890 km2
 land area:
  2,736,690 km2
 comparative area:
  slightly less than three-tenths the size of the US
Land boundaries:
  total 9,665 km, Bolivia 832 km, Brazil 1,224 km, Chile 5,150 km, Paraguay
  1,880 km, Uruguay 579 km
Coastline:
  4,989 km
Maritime claims:
 contiguous zone:
  24 nm
 continental shelf:
  200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation
 exclusive economic zone:
  not specified
 territorial sea:
  200 nm; overflight and navigation permitted beyond 12 nm
International disputes:
  short section of the boundary with Uruguay is in dispute; short section of
  the boundary with Chile is indefinite; claims British-administered Falkland
  Islands (Islas Malvinas); claims British-administered South Georgia and the
  South Sandwich Islands; territorial claim in Antarctica
Climate:
  mostly temperate; arid in southeast; subantarctic in southwest
Terrain:
  rich plains of the Pampas in northern half, flat to rolling plateau of
  Patagonia in south, rugged Andes along western border
Natural resources:
  fertile plains of the pampas, lead, zinc, tin, copper, iron ore, manganese,
  petroleum, uranium
Land use:
 arable land:
  9%
 permanent crops:
  4%
 meadows and pastures:
  52%
 forest and woodland:
  22%
 other:
  13%
Irrigated land:
  17,600 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
  Tucuman and Mendoza areas in Andes subject to earthquakes; pamperos are
  violent windstorms that can strike Pampas and northeast; irrigated soil
  degradation; desertification; air and water pollution in Buenos Aires

*Argentina, Geography

Note:
  second-largest country in South America (after Brazil); strategic location
  relative to sea lanes between South Atlantic and South Pacific Oceans
  (Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel, Drake Passage)

*Argentina, People

Population:
  33,533,256 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
  1.13% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
  19.75 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
  8.64 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
  0.22 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
  30 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
 total population:
  71.19 years
 male:
  67.91 years
 female:
  74.65 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
  2.72 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
 noun:
  Argentine(s)
 adjective:
  Argentine
Ethnic divisions:
  white 85%, mestizo, Indian, or other nonwhite groups 15%
Religions:
  nominally Roman Catholic 90% (less than 20% practicing), Protestant 2%,
  Jewish 2%, other 6%
Languages:
  Spanish (official), English, Italian, German, French
Literacy:
  age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
 total population:
  95%
 male:
  96%
 female:
  95%
Labor force:
  10.9 million
 by occupation:
  agriculture 12%, industry 31%, services 57% (1985 est.)

*Argentina, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  Argentine Republic
 conventional short form:
  Argentina
 local long form:
  Republica Argentina
 local short form:
  Argentina
Digraph:
  AR
Type:
  republic
Capital:
  Buenos Aires
Administrative divisions:
  23 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia), and 1 federal district*,   (distrito federal);
Buenos Aires, Catamarca, Chaco, Chubut, Cordoba,
  Corrientes, Distrito Federal*, Entre Rios, Formosa, Jujuy, La Pampa, La,   Rioja, Mendoza,
Misiones, Neuquen, Rio Negro, Salta, San Juan, San Luis,
  Santa Cruz, Santa Fe, Santiago del Estero, Tierra del Fuego (Territorio
  Nacional de la Tierra del Fuego, Antartida e Islas del Atlantico Sur),
  Tucuman
 note:
  the national territory is in the process of becoming a province; the US does
  not recognize claims to Antarctica
Independence:   9 July 1816 (from Spain)
Constitution:
  1 May 1853
Legal system:
  mixture of US and West European legal systems; has not accepted compulsory
  ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
  Revolution Day, 25 May (1810)
Political parties and leaders:
  Justicialist Party (JP), Carlos Saul MENEM, Peronist umbrella political
  organization; Radical Civic Union (UCR), Mario LOSADA, moderately
  left-of-center party; Union of the Democratic Center (UCD), Jorge AGUADO,
  conservative party; Intransigent Party (PI), Dr. Oscar ALENDE, leftist
  party; Dignity and Independence Political Party (MODIN), Aldo RICO,
  right-wing party; several provincial parties
Other political or pressure groups:
  Peronist-dominated labor movement; General Confederation of Labor (CGT;
  Peronist-leaning umbrella labor organization); Argentine Industrial Union
  (manufacturers' association); Argentine Rural Society (large landowners'
  association); business organizations; students; the Roman Catholic Church;
  the Armed Forces
Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal
Elections:
 Chamber of Deputies:
  last held in three phases during late 1991 for half of 254 seats; seats (254
  total) - JP 122, UCR 85, UCD 10, other 37 (1993)
 President:
  last held 14 May 1989 (next to be held NA May 1995); results - Carlos Saul
  MENEM was elected

*Argentina, Government

 Senate:
  last held May 1989, but provincial elections in late 1991 set the stage for
  indirect elections by provincial senators for one-third of 46 seats in the
  national senate in May 1992; seats (46 total) - JP 27, UCR 14, others 5
Executive branch:
  president, vice president, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
  bicameral National Congress (Congreso Nacional) consists of an upper chamber
  or Senate (Senado) and a lower chamber or Chamber of Deputies (Camara de
  Diputados)
Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court (Corte Suprema)
Leaders:
 Chief of State and Head of Government:
  President Carlos Saul MENEM (since 8 July 1989); Vice President (position
  vacant)
Member of:
  AG (observer), Australian Group, CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-6, G-11, G-15, G-19,
  G-24, AfDB, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC,
  ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA,
  LORCS, MERCOSUR, MINURSO, OAS, PCA, RG, UN, UNAVEM II, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
  UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNOMOZ, UNPROFOR, UNTAC, UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO,
  WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador Carlos ORTIZ DE ROZAS
 chancery:
  1600 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
 telephone:
  (202) 939-6400 through 6403
 consulates general:
  Houston, Miami, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto
  Rico)
 consulates:
  Baltimore, Chicago, and Los Angeles
US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador James CHEEK (since 28 May 1993)
 embassy:
  4300 Colombia, 1425 Buenos Aires
 mailing address:
  APO AA 34034
 telephone:
  [54] (1) 774-7611 or 8811, 9911
 FAX:
  [54] (1) 775-4205
Flag:
  three equal horizontal bands of light blue (top), white, and light blue;
  centered in the white band is a radiant yellow sun with a human face known
  as the Sun of May

*Argentina, Economy

Overview:
  Argentina is rich in natural resources and has a highly literate population,
  an export-oriented agricultural sector, and a diversified industrial base.
  Nevertheless, following decades of mismanagement and statist policies, the
  economy in the late 1980s was plagued with huge external debts and recurring
  bouts of hyperinflation. Elected in 1989, in the depths of recession,
  President MENEM has implemented a comprehensive economic restructuring
  program that shows signs of putting Argentina on a path of stable,
  sustainable growth. Argentina's currency has traded at par with the US
  dollar since April 1991, and inflation has fallen to its lowest level in 20
  years. Argentines have responded to the relative price stability by
  repatriating flight capital and investing in domestic industry. Much remains
  to be done in the 1990s in dismantling the old statist barriers to growth
  and in solidifying the recent economic gains.
National product:
  GDP - exchange rate conversion - $112 billion (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate:
  7% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
  $3,400 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  17.7% (1992)
Unemployment rate:
  6.9% (1992)
Budget:
  revenues $33.1 billion; expenditures $35.8 billion, including capital
  expenditures of $3.5 billion (1992)
Exports:
  $12.3 billion (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
 commodities:
  meat, wheat, corn, oilseed, hides, wool
 partners:
  US 12%, Brazil, Italy, Japan, Netherlands
Imports:
  $14.0 billion (c.i.f., 1992 est.)
 commodities:
  machinery and equipment, chemicals, metals, fuels and lubricants,
  agricultural products
 partners:
  US 22%, Brazil, Germany, Bolivia, Japan, Italy, Netherlands
External debt:
  $54 billion (June 1992)
Industrial production:
  growth rate 10% (1992 est.); accounts for 26% of GDP
Electricity:
  17,911,000 kW capacity; 51,305 million kWh produced, 1,559 kWh per capita
  (1992)
Industries:
  food processing, motor vehicles, consumer durables, textiles, chemicals and
  petrochemicals, printing, metallurgy, steel
Agriculture:
  accounts for 8% of GDP (including fishing); produces abundant food for both
  domestic consumption and exports; among world's top five exporters of grain
  and beef; principal crops - wheat, corn, sorghum, soybeans, sugar beets
Illicit drugs:
  increasing use as a transshipment country for cocaine headed for the US and
  Europe

*Argentina, Economy

Economic aid:
  US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1.0 billion; Western (non-US)
  countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $4.4 billion;
  Communist countries (1970-89), $718 million
Currency:
  1 peso = 100 centavos
Exchange rates:
  pesos per US$1 - 0.99000 (January1993), 0.99064 (1992), 0.95355 (1991),
  0.48759 (1990), 0.04233 (1989), 0.00088 (1988)
Fiscal year:
  calendar year

*Argentina, Communications

Railroads:
  34,172 km total (includes 209 km electrified); includes a mixture of
  1.435-meter standard gauge, 1.676-meter broad gauge, 1.000-meter narrow
  gauge, and 0.750-meter narrow gauge
Highways:
  208,350 km total; 47,550 km paved, 39,500 km gravel, 101,000 km improved
  earth, 20,300 km unimproved earth
Inland waterways:
  11,000 km navigable
Pipelines:
  crude oil 4,090 km; petroleum products 2,900 km; natural gas 9,918 km
Ports:
  Bahia Blanca, Buenos Aires, Comodoro Rivadavia, La Plata, Rosario, Santa Fe
Merchant marine:
  60 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,695,420 GRT/1,073,904 DWT; includes
  30 cargo, 5 refrigerated cargo, 4 container, 1 railcar carrier, 14 oil
  tanker, 1 chemical tanker, 4 bulk, 1 roll-on/roll-off
Airports:
 total:
  1,700
 usable:
  1,451
 with permanet-surface runways:
  137
 with runways over 3,659 m:
  1
 with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
  31
 with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
  326
Telecommunications:
  extensive modern system; 2,650,000 telephones (12,000 public telephones);
  microwave widely used; broadcast stations - 171 AM, no FM, 231 TV, 13
  shortwave; 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations; domestic satellite
  network has 40 earth stations

*Argentina, Defense Forces

Branches:
  Argentine Army, Navy of the Argentine Republic, Argentine Air Force,
  National Gendarmerie, Argentine Naval Prefecture (Coast Guard only),
  National Aeronautical Police Force
Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49 8,267,316; fit for military service 6,702,303; reach
  military age (20) annually 284,641 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
  exchange rate conversion - $NA, NA% of GDP

*Armenia, Geography

Location:
  Southeastern Europe, between Turkey and Azerbaijan
Map references:
  Africa, Asia, Commonwealth of Independent States - European States, Middle
  East, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
 total area:
  29,800 km2
 land area:
  28,400 km2
 comparative area:
  slightly larger than Maryland
Land boundaries:
  total 1,254 km, Azerbaijan (east) 566 km, Azerbaijan (south) 221 km, Georgia
  164 km, Iran 35 km, Turkey 268 km
Coastline:
  0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
  none; landlocked
International disputes:
  violent and longstanding dispute with Azerbaijan over ethnically Armenian
  exclave of Nagorno-Karabakh; some irredentism by Armenians living in
  southern Georgia; traditional demands on former Armenian lands in Turkey
  have greatly subsided
Climate:
  continental, hot, and subject to drought
Terrain:
  high Armenian Plateau with mountains; little forest land; fast flowing
  rivers; good soil in Aras River valley
Natural resources:
  small deposits of gold, copper, molybdenum, zinc, alumina
Land use:
 arable land:
  29%
 permanent crops:
  0%
 meadows and pastures:
  15%
 forest and woodland:
  0%
 other:
  56%
Irrigated land:
  3,050 km2 (1990)
Environment:
  pollution of Razdan and Aras Rivers; air pollution in Yerevan; energy
  blockade has led to deforestation as citizens scavenge for firewood, use of
  Lake Sevan water for hydropower has lowered lake level, threatened fish
  population
Note:
  landlocked

*Armenia, People

Population:
  3,481,207 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
  1.23% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
  25.79 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
  6.77 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
  -6.76 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
  28.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
 total population:
  71.77 years
 male:
  68.36 years
 female:
  75.36 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
  3.31 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
 noun:
  Armenian(s)
 adjective:
  Armenian
Ethnic divisions:
  Armenian 93%, Azeri 3%, Russian 2%, other 2%
Religions:
  Armenian Orthodox 94%
Languages:
  Armenian 96%, Russian 2%, other 2%
Literacy:
  age 9-49 can read and write (1970)
 total population:
  100%
 male:
  100%
 female:
  100%
Labor force:
  1.63 million
 by occupation:
  industry and construction 42%, agriculture and forestry 18%, other 40%
  (1990)

*Armenia, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  Republic of Armenia
 conventional short form:
  Armenia
 local long form:
  Hayastani Hanrapetut'yun
 local short form:   Hayastan
 former:
  Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic; Armenian Republic
Digraph:
  AM
Type:
  republic
Capital:
  Yerevan
Administrative divisions:
  none (all rayons are under direct republic jurisdiction)
Independence:
  23 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)
Constitution:
  adopted NA April 1978; post-Soviet constitution not yet adopted
Legal system:
  based on civil law system
National holiday:
  NA
Political parties and leaders:
  Armenian National Movement, Husik LAZARYAN, chairman; National Democratic
  Union; National Self-Determination Association; Armenian Democratic Liberal
  Organization, Ramkavar AZATAKAN, chairman; Dashnatktsutyan Party (Armenian
  Revolutionary Federation, ARF), Rouben MIRZAKHANIN; Chairman of
  Parliamentary opposition - Mekhak GABRIYELYAN; Christian Democratic Union;
  Constitutional Rights Union; Republican Party
Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal
Elections:
 President:
  last held 16 October 1991 (next to be held NA); results - Levon Akopovich
  TER-PETROSYAN 86%; radical nationalists about 7%; note - Levon TER-PETROSYAN
  was elected Chairman of the Armenian Supreme Soviet 4 August 1990
 Supreme Soviet:
  last held 20 May 1990 (next to be held NA); results - percent of vote by
  party NA; seats - (240 total) non-aligned 149, Armenian National Movement
  52, Armenian Democratic Liberal Organization 14, Dashnatktsutyan 12,
  National Democratic Union 9, Christian Democratic Union 1, Constitutional
  Rights Union 1, National Self-Determination Association 1, Republican Party
  1
Executive branch:
  president, council of ministers, prime minister
Legislative branch:
  unicameral Supreme Soviet
Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court
Leaders:
 Chief of State:
  President Levon Akopovich TER-PETROSYAN (since 16 October 1991), Vice
  President Gagik ARUTYUNYAN (since 16 October 1991)

*Armenia, Government

 Head of Government:   Prime Minister Hrant BAGRATYAN (since NA February 1993); Supreme Soviet
  Chairman Babken ARARKTSYAN (since NA 1990)
Member of:
  BSEC, CIS, CSCE, EBRD, IBRD, ICAO, IMF, NACC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
  UPU, WHO
Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador Rouben SHUGARIAN
 chancery:
  122 C Street NW, Suite 360, Washington, DC 20001
 telephone:
  (202) 628-5766
US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador Designate Harry GILMORE
 embassy:
  18 Gen Bagramian, Yerevan
 mailing address:
  use embassy street address
 telephone:
  (7) (885) 215-1122, 215-1144
 FAX:
  (7) (885) 215-1122
Flag:
  three equal horizontal bands of red (top), blue, and gold

*Armenia, Economy

Overview:
  Armenia under the old centrally planned Soviet system had built up textile,
  machine-building, and other industries and had become a key supplier to
  sister republics. In turn, Armenia had depended on supplies of raw materials
  and energy from the other republics. Most of these supplies enter the
  republic by rail through Azerbaijan (85%) and Georgia (15%). The economy has
  been severely hurt by ethnic strife with Azerbaijan over control of the
  Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast, a mostly Armenian-populated enclave
  within the national boundaries of Azerbaijan. In addition to outright
  warfare, the strife has included interdiction of Armenian imports on the
  Azerbaijani railroads and expensive airlifts of supplies to beleaguered
  Armenians in Nagorno-Karabakh. An earthquake in December 1988 destroyed
  about one-tenth of industrial capacity and housing, the repair of which has
  not been possible because the supply of funds and real resources has been
  disrupted by the reorganization and subsequent dismantling of the central
  USSR administrative apparatus. Among facilities made unserviceable by the
  earthquake are the Yerevan nuclear power plant, which had supplied 40% of
  Armenia's needs for electric power and a plant that produced one-quarter of
  the output of elevators in the former USSR. Armenia has some deposits of
  nonferrous metal ores (bauxite, copper, zinc, and molybdenum) that are
  largely unexploited. For the mid-term, Armenia's economic prospects seem
  particularly bleak because of ethnic strife and the unusually high
  dependence on outside areas, themselves in a chaotic state of
  transformation. The dramatic drop in output in 1992 is attributable largely
  to the cumulative impact of the blockade; of particular importance was the
  shutting off in the summer of 1992 of rail and road links to Russia through
  Georgia due to civil strife in the latter republic.
National product:
  GDP $NA
National product real growth rate:
  -34% (1992)
National product per capita:
  $NA
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  20% per month (first quarter 1993)
Unemployment rate:
  2% of officially registered unemployed but large numbers of underemployed
Budget:
  revenues $NA; expenditures $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports:
  $30 million to outside the successor states of the former USSR (f.o.b.,
  1992)
 commodities:
  machinery and transport equipment, light industrial products, processed food
  items (1991)
 partners:
  NA
Imports:
  $300 million from outside the successor statees of the former USSR (c.i.f.,
  1992)
 commodities:
  machinery, energy, consumer goods (1991)
 partners:
  NA
External debt:
  $650 million (December 1991 est.)
Industrial production:
  growth rate -50% (1992 est.)

*Armenia, Economy

Electricity:
  2,875,000 kW capacity; 9,000 million kWh produced, 2,585 kWh per capita
  (1992)
Industries:
  diverse, including (in percent of output of former USSR) metalcutting
  machine tools (5.5%), forging-pressing machines (1.9%), electric motors
  (9%), tires (1.5%), knitted wear (4.4%), hosiery (3.0%), shoes (2.2%), silk
  fabric (0.8%), washing machines (2.0%), chemicals, trucks, watches,
  instruments, and microelectronics (1990)
Agriculture:
  accounts for about 20% of GDP; only 29% of land area is arable; employs 18%
  of labor force; citrus, cotton, and dairy farming; vineyards near Yerevan
  are famous for brandy and other liqueurs
Illicit drugs:
  illicit producer of cannabis mostly for domestic consumption; used as a
  transshipment point for illicit drugs to Western Europe
Economic aid:
  wheat from US, Turkey
Currency:   retaining Russian ruble as currency (January 1993)
Exchange rates:
  rubles per US$1 - 415 (24 December 1992) but subject to wide fluctuations
Fiscal year:
  calendar year

*Armenia, Communications

Railroads:
  840 km; does not include industrial lines (1990)
Highways:
  11,300 km total; 10,500 km hard surfaced, 800 km earth (1990)
Inland waterways:
  NA km
Pipelines:
  natural gas 900 km (1991)
Ports:
  none; landlocked
Airports:
 total:
  12
 useable:
  10
 with permanent-surface runways:
  6
 with runways over 3,659 m:
  1
 with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
  4
 with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
  3
Telecommunications:
  progress on installation of fiber optic cable and construction of facilities
  for mobile cellular phone service remains in the negotiation phase for joint
  venture agreement; Armenia has about 260,000 telephones, of which about
  110,000 are in Yerevan; average telephone density is 8 per 100 persons;
  international connections to other former republics of the USSR are by
  landline or microwave and to other countries by satellite and by leased
  connection through the Moscow international gateway switch; broadcast
  stations - 100% of population receives Armenian and Russian TV programs;
  satellite earth station - INTELSAT

*Armenia, Defense Forces

Branches:
  Army, Air Force, National Guard, Security Forces (internal and border
  troops)
Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49 848,223; fit for military service 681,058; reach military
  age (18) annually 28,101 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
  250 million rubles, NA% of GDP (1992 est.); note - conversion of the
  military budget into US dollars using the current exchange rate could
  produce misleading results

*Aruba, Header

Affiliation:
  (part of the Dutch realm)

*Aruba, Geography

Location:
  in the southern Caribbean Sea, 28 km north of Venezuela and 125 km east of
  Colombia
Map references:
  Central America and the Caribbean
Area:
 total area:
  193 km2
 land area:
  193 km2
 comparative area:
  slightly larger than Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
  0 km
Coastline:
  68.5 km
Maritime claims:
 exclusive fishing zone:
  12 nm
 territorial sea:
  12 nm
International disputes:
  none
Climate:
  tropical marine; little seasonal temperature variation
Terrain:
  flat with a few hills; scant vegetation
Natural resources:
  negligible; white sandy beaches
Land use:
 arable land:
  0%
 permanent crops:
  0%
 meadows and pastures:
  0%
 forest and woodland:
  0%
 other:
  100%
Irrigated land:
  NA km2
Environment:
  lies outside the Caribbean hurricane belt

*Aruba, People

Population:
  65,117 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
  0.66% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
  15.33 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
  6.05 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
  -2.72 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
  8.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
 total population:
  76.3 years
 male:
  72.65 years
 female:
  80.13 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
  1.83 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
 noun:
  Aruban(s)
 adjective:
  Aruban
Ethnic divisions:
  mixed European/Caribbean Indian 80%
Religions:
  Roman Catholic 82%, Protestant 8%, Hindu, Muslim, Confucian, Jewish
Languages:
  Dutch (official), Papiamento (a Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch, English
  dialect), English (widely spoken), Spanish
Literacy:
 total population:
  NA%
 male:
  NA%
 female:
  NA%
Labor force:
  NA
 by occupation:
  most employment is in the tourist industry (1986)

*Aruba, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  none
 conventional short form:
  Aruba
Digraph:
  AA
Type:
  part of the Dutch realm; full autonomy in internal affairs obtained in 1986
  upon separation from the Netherlands Antilles
Capital:
  Oranjestad
Administrative divisions:
  none (self-governing part of the Netherlands)
Independence:
  none (part of the Dutch realm; in 1990, Aruba requested and received from
  the Netherlands cancellation of the agreement to automatically give
  independence to the island in 1996)
Constitution:
  1 January 1986
Legal system:
  based on Dutch civil law system, with some English common law influence
National holiday:
  Flag Day, 18 March
Political parties and leaders:
  Electoral Movement Party (MEP), Nelson ODUBER; Aruban People's Party (AVP),
  Henny EMAN; National Democratic Action (ADN), Pedro Charro KELLY; New
  Patriotic Party (PPN), Eddy WERLEMEN; Aruban Patriotic Party (PPA), Benny
  NISBET; Aruban Democratic Party (PDA), Leo BERLINSKI; Democratic Action '86
  (AD '86), Arturo ODUBER; Organization for Aruban Liberty (OLA), Glenbert
  CROES
 note:
  governing coalition includes the MEP, PPA, and ADN
Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal
Elections:
 Legislature:
  last held 8 January 1993 (next to be held by NA January 1997); results -
  percent of vote by party NA; seats - (21 total) MEP 9, AVP 8, ADN 1, PPA 1,
  OLA 1, other 1
Executive branch:
  Dutch monarch, governor, prime minister, Council of Ministers (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
  unicameral legislature (Staten)
Judicial branch:
  Joint High Court of Justice
Leaders:
 Chief of State:
  Queen BEATRIX Wilhelmina Armgard (since 30 April 1980), represented by
  Governor General Olindo KOOLMAN (since NA)
 Head of Government:
  Prime Minister Nelson ODUBER (since NA February 1989)
Member of:
  ECLAC (associate), INTERPOL, IOC, UNESCO (associate), WCL, WTO (associate)
Diplomatic representation in US:
  none (self-governing part of the Netherlands)
Flag:
  blue with two narrow horizontal yellow stripes across the lower portion and
  a red, four-pointed star outlined in white in the upper hoist-side corner

*Aruba, Economy

Overview:
  Tourism is the mainstay of the economy, although offshore banking and oil
  refining and storage are also important. Hotel capacity expanded rapidly
  between 1985 and 1989 and nearly doubled in 1990 alone. Unemployment has
  steadily declined from about 20% in 1986 to about 3% in 1991. The reopening
  of the local oil refinery, once a major source of employment and foreign
  exchange earnings, promises to give the economy an additional boost.
National product:
  GDP - exchange rate conversion - $900 million (1991 est.)
National product real growth rate:
  6% (1991 est.)
National product per capita:
  $14,000 (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  5.6% (1991)
Unemployment rate:
  3% (1991 est.)
Budget:
  revenues $145 million; expenditures $185 million, including capital
  expenditures of $42 million (1988)
Exports:
  $902.4 million, including oil re-exports (f.o.b., 1991)
 commodities:
  mostly petroleum products
 partners:
  US 64%, EC
Imports:
  $1,311.3 million, including oil for processing and re-export (f.o.b., 1991)
 commodities:
  food, consumer goods, manufactures, petroleum products
 partners:
  US 8%, EC
External debt:
  $81 million (1987)
Industrial production:
  growth rate NA%
Electricity:
  310,000 kW capacity; 945 million kWh produced, 14,610 kWh per capita (1992)
Industries:
  tourism, transshipment facilities, oil refining
Agriculture:
  poor quality soils and low rainfall limit agricultural activity to the
  cultivation of aloes, some livestock, and fishing
Illicit drugs:
  drug money laundering center
Economic aid:
  Western (non-US) countries ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1980-89), $220
  million
Currency:
  1 Aruban florin (Af.) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
  Aruban florins (Af.) per US$1 - 1.7900 (fixed rate since 1986)
Fiscal year:
  calendar year

*Aruba, Communications

Highways:
  NA km all-weather highways
Ports:
  Oranjestad, Sint Nicolaas
Airports:
 total:
  2
 usable:
  2
 with permanent-surface runways:
  2
 with runways over 3,659 m:
  0
 with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
  1
 with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
  0
 note:
  government-owned airport east of Oranjestad accepts transatlantic flights
Telecommunications:
  generally adequate; extensive interisland microwave radio relay links;
  72,168 telephones; broadcast stations - 4 AM, 4 FM, 1 TV; 1 submarine cable
  to Sint Maarten

*Aruba, Defense Forces

Note:
  defense is the responsibility of the Netherlands

*Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Header

Affiliation:
  (territory of Australia)

*Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Geography

Location:
  in the Indian Ocean, 320 km off the northwest coast of Australia, between
  Australia and Indonesia
Map references:
  Oceania, Southeast Asia
Area:
 total area:
  5 km2
 land area:
  5 km2
 comparative area:
  about 8.5 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC
 note:
  includes Ashmore Reef (West, Middle, and East Islets) and Cartier Island
Land boundaries:
  0 km
Coastline:
  74.1 km
Maritime claims:
 contiguous zone:
  12 nm
 continental shelf:
  200 m (depth) or to depth of exploration
 exclusive fishing zone:
  200 nm
 territorial sea:
  3 nm
International disputes:
  none
Climate:
  tropical
Terrain:
  low with sand and coral
Natural resources:
  fish
Land use:
 arable land:
  0%
 permanent crops:
  0%
 meadows and pastures:
  0%
 forest and woodland:
  0%
 other:
  100% (all grass and sand)
Irrigated land:
  0 km2
Environment:
  surrounded by shoals and reefs; Ashmore Reef National Nature Reserve
  established in August 1983

*Ashmore and Cartier Islands, People

Population:
  no indigenous inhabitants; note - there are only seasonal caretakers

*Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  Territory of Ashmore and Cartier Islands
 conventional short form:
  Ashmore and Cartier Islands
Digraph:
  AT
Type:
  territory of Australia administered by the Australian Ministry for Arts,
  Sports, the Environment, Tourism, and Territories
Capital:
  none; administered from Canberra, Australia
Administrative divisions:
  none (territory of Australia)
Independence:
  none (territory of Australia)
Legal system:
  relevant laws of the Northern Territory of Australia
Diplomatic representation in US:
  none (territory of Australia)
US diplomatic representation:
  none (territory of Australia)

*Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Economy

Overview:
  no economic activity

*Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Communications

Ports:
  none; offshore anchorage only

*Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Defense Forces

Note:
  defense is the responsibility of Australia; periodic visits by the Royal
  Australian Navy and Royal Australian Air Force

*Atlantic Ocean, Geography

Location:
  body of water between the Western Hemisphere and Europe/Africa
Map references:   Africa, Antarctic Region, Arctic Region, Central America and the Caribbean,
  Europe, North America, South America, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
 total area:
  82.217 million km2
 comparative area:
  slightly less than nine times the size of the US; second-largest of the
  world's four oceans (after the Pacific Ocean, but larger than Indian Ocean
  or Arctic Ocean)
 note:
  includes Baltic Sea, Black Sea, Caribbean Sea, Davis Strait, Denmark Strait,
  Drake Passage, Gulf of Mexico, Mediterranean Sea, North Sea, Norwegian Sea,
  Weddell Sea, and other tributary water bodies
Coastline:
  111,866 km
International disputes:
  some maritime disputes (see littoral states)
Climate:
  tropical cyclones (hurricanes) develop off the coast of Africa near Cape
  Verde and move westward into the Caribbean Sea; hurricanes can occur from
  May to December, but are most frequent from August to November
Terrain:
  surface usually covered with sea ice in Labrador Sea, Denmark Strait, and
  Baltic Sea from October to June; clockwise warm water gyre (broad, circular
  system of currents) in the north Atlantic, counterclockwise warm water gyre
  in the south Atlantic; the ocean floor is dominated by the Mid-Atlantic
  Ridge, a rugged north-south centerline for the entire Atlantic basin;
  maximum depth is 8,605 meters in the Puerto Rico Trench
Natural resources:
  oil and gas fields, fish, marine mammals (seals and whales), sand and gravel
  aggregates, placer deposits, polymetallic nodules, precious stones
Environment:
  endangered marine species include the manatee, seals, sea lions, turtles,
  and whales; municipal sludge pollution off eastern US, southern Brazil, and
  eastern Argentina; oil pollution in Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, Lake
  Maracaibo, Mediterranean Sea, and North Sea; industrial waste and municipal
  sewage pollution in Baltic Sea, North Sea, and Mediterranean Sea; icebergs
  common in Davis Strait, Denmark Strait, and the northwestern Atlantic from
  February to August and have been spotted as far south as Bermuda and the
  Madeira Islands; icebergs from Antarctica occur in the extreme southern
  Atlantic
Note:
  ships subject to superstructure icing in extreme north Atlantic from October
  to May and extreme south Atlantic from May to October; persistent fog can be
  a hazard to shipping from May to September; major choke points include the
  Dardanelles, Strait of Gibraltar, access to the Panama and Suez Canals;
  strategic straits include the Dover Strait, Straits of Florida, Mona
  Passage, The Sound (Oresund), and Windward Passage; north Atlantic shipping
  lanes subject to icebergs from February to August; the Equator divides the
  Atlantic Ocean into the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean

*Atlantic Ocean, Government

Digraph:   ZH

*Atlantic Ocean, Economy

Overview:
  Economic activity is limited to exploitation of natural resources,
  especially fish, dredging aragonite sands (The Bahamas), and crude oil and
  natural gas production (Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, and North Sea).

*Atlantic Ocean, Communications

Ports:
  Alexandria (Egypt), Algiers (Algeria), Antwerp (Belgium), Barcelona (Spain),
  Buenos Aires (Argentina), Casablanca (Morocco), Colon (Panama), Copenhagen
  (Denmark), Dakar (Senegal), Gdansk (Poland), Hamburg (Germany), Helsinki
  (Finland), Las Palmas (Canary Islands, Spain), Le Havre (France), Lisbon
  (Portugal), London (UK), Marseille (France), Montevideo (Uruguay), Montreal
  (Canada), Naples (Italy), New Orleans (US), New York (US), Oran (Algeria),
  Oslo (Norway), Piraeus (Greece), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), Rotterdam
  (Netherlands), Saint Petersburg (formerly Leningrad; Russia), Stockholm
  (Sweden)
Telecommunications:
  numerous submarine cables with most between continental Europe and the UK,
  North America and the UK, and in the Mediterranean; numerous direct links
  across Atlantic via INTELSAT satellite network
Note:
  Kiel Canal and Saint Lawrence Seaway are two important waterways

*Australia, Geography

Location:
  Oceania, between Indonesia and New Zealand
Map references:
  Southeast Asia, Oceania, Antarctic Region, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
 total area:
  7,686,850 km2
 land area:
  7,617,930 km2
 comparative area:
  slightly smaller than the US
 note:
  includes Macquarie Island
Land boundaries:
  0 km
Coastline:
  25,760 km
Maritime claims:
 contiguous zone:
  12 nm
 continental shelf:
  200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation
 exclusive fishing zone:
  200 nm
 territorial sea:
  12 nm
International disputes:
  territorial claim in Antarctica (Australian Antarctic Territory)
Climate:
  generally arid to semiarid; temperate in south and east; tropical in north
Terrain:
  mostly low plateau with deserts; fertile plain in southeast
Natural resources:
  bauxite, coal, iron ore, copper, tin, silver, uranium, nickel, tungsten,
  mineral sands, lead, zinc, diamonds, natural gas, petroleum
Land use:
 arable land:
  6%
 permanent crops:
  0%
 meadows and pastures:
  58%
 forest and woodland:
  14%
 other:
  22%
Irrigated land:
  18,800 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
  subject to severe droughts and floods; cyclones along coast; limited
  freshwater availability; irrigated soil degradation; regular, tropical,
  invigorating, sea breeze known as "the Doctor" occurs along west coast in
  summer; desertification
Note:
  world's smallest continent but sixth-largest country

*Australia, People

Population:
  17,827,204 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
  1.41% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
  14.43 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
  7.38 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
  7.01 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
  7.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
 total population:
  77.36 years
 male:   74.24 years
 female:
  80.63 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
  1.83 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
 noun:
  Australian(s)
 adjective:
  Australian
Ethnic divisions:
  Caucasian 95%, Asian 4%, Aboriginal and other 1%
Religions:
  Anglican 26.1%, Roman Catholic 26%, other Christian 24.3%
Languages:
  English, native languages
Literacy:
  age 15 and over can read and write (1980)
 total population:
  100%
 male:
  100%
 female:
  100%
Labor force:
  8.63 million (September 1991)
 by occupation:
  finance and services 33.8%, public and community services 22.3%, wholesale
  and retail trade 20.1%, manufacturing and industry 16.2%, agriculture 6.1%
  (1987)

*Australia, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  Commonwealth of Australia
 conventional short form:
  Australia
Digraph:
  AS
Type:
  federal parliamentary state
Capital:
  Canberra
Administrative divisions:
  6 states and 2 territories*; Australian Capital Territory*, New South Wales,,   Northern
Territory*, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria,,   Western Australia
Dependent areas:
  Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands,
  Coral Sea Islands, Heard Island and McDonald Islands, Norfolk Island
Independence:
  1 January 1901 (federation of UK colonies)
Constitution:   9 July 1900, effective 1 January 1901
Legal system:
  based on English common law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with
  reservations
National holiday:
  Australia Day, 26 January
Political parties and leaders:
 government:
  Australian Labor Party, Paul John KEATING
 opposition:
  Liberal Party, John HEWSON; National Party, Timothy FISCHER; Australian
  Democratic Party, John COULTER
Other political or pressure groups:
  Australian Democratic Labor Party (anti-Communist Labor Party splinter
  group); Peace and Nuclear Disarmament Action (Nuclear Disarmament Party
  splinter group)
Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Elections:
 House of Representatives:
  last held 13 March 1993 (next to be held by NA May 1996); results - percent
  of vote by party NA; seats - (147 total) Labor 80, Liberal-National 65,
  independent 2
 Senate:
  last held 13 March 1993 (next to be held by NA May 1999); results - percent
  of vote by party NA; seats - (76 total) Liberal-National 36, Labor 30,
  Australian Democrats 7, Greens 2, independents 1
Executive branch:
  British monarch, governor general, prime minister, deputy prime minister,
  Cabinet
Legislative branch:
  bicameral Federal Parliament consists of an upper house or Senate and a
  lower house or House of Representatives
Judicial branch:
  High Court

*Australia, Government

Leaders:
 Chief of State:
  Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General
  William George HAYDEN (since 16 February 1989)
 Head of Government:
  Prime Minister Paul John KEATING (since 20 December 1991); Deputy Prime
  Minister Brian HOWE (since 4 June 1991)
Member of:
  AfDB, AG (observer), ANZUS, APEC, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, C, CCC, COCOM,
  CP, EBRD, ESCAP, FAO, GATT, G-8, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IEA,
  IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU,
  LORCS, MINURSO, MTCR, NAM (guest), NEA, NSG, OECD, PCA, SPARTECA, SPC, SPF,
  UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNOSOM, UNTAC, UNTSO, UPU, WFTU, WHO,
  WIPO, WMO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission:   Ambassador Michael J. COOK
 chancery:
  1601 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
 telephone:
  (202) 797-3000
 consulates general:
  Chicago, Honolulu, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, Pago Pago (American
  Samoa), and San Francisco
US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission:
  (vacant)
 embassy:
  Moonah Place, Yarralumla, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 2600
 mailing address:
  APO AP 96549
 telephone:
  [61] (6) 270-5000
 FAX:
  [61] (6) 270-5970
 consulates general:
  Melbourne, Perth, and Sydney
 consulate:
  Brisbane
Flag:
  blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and a large
  seven-pointed star in the lower hoist-side quadrant; the remaining half is a
  representation of the Southern Cross constellation in white with one small
  five-pointed star and four, larger, seven-pointed stars

*Australia, Economy

Overview:
  Australia has a prosperous Western-style capitalist economy, with a per
  capita GDP comparable to levels in industrialized West European countries.
  Rich in natural resources, Australia is a major exporter of agricultural
  products, minerals, metals, and fossil fuels. Of the top 25 exports, 21 are
  primary products, so that, as happened during 1983-84, a downturn in world
  commodity prices can have a big impact on the economy. The government is
  pushing for increased exports of manufactured goods, but competition in
  international markets continues to be severe.
National product:
  GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $293.5 billion (1992)
National product real growth rate:
  2.5% (1992)
National product per capita:
  $16,700 (1992)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  0.8% (September 1992)
Unemployment rate:
  11.3% (December 1992)
Budget:
  revenues $68.5 billion; expenditures $78.0 billion, including capital
  expenditures of $NA (FY93)
Exports:   $41.7 billion (f.o.b., FY91)
 commodities:
  coal, gold, meat, wool, alumina, wheat, machinery and transport equipment
 partners:
  Japan 26%, US 11%, NZ 6%, South Korea 4%, Singapore 4%, UK, Taiwan, Hong
  Kong
Imports:
  $37.8 billion (f.o.b., FY91)
 commodities:
  machinery and transport equipment, computers and office machines, crude oil
  and petroleum products
 partners:
  US 24%, Japan 19%, UK 6%, FRG 7%, NZ 4% (1990)
External debt:
  $130.4 billion (June 1991)
Industrial production:
  growth rate NA%; accounts for 32% of GDP
Electricity:
  40,000,000 kW capacity; 150,000 million kWh produced, 8,475 kWh per capita
  (1992)
Industries:
  mining, industrial and transportation equipment, food processing, chemicals,
  steel
Agriculture:
  accounts for 5% of GDP and 37% of export revenues; world's largest exporter
  of beef and wool, second-largest for mutton, and among top wheat exporters;
  major crops - wheat, barley, sugarcane, fruit; livestock - cattle, sheep,
  poultry
Illicit drugs:
  Tasmania is one of the world's major suppliers of licit opiate products;
  government maintains strict controls over areas of opium poppy cultivation
  and output of poppy straw concentrate
Economic aid:
  donor - ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $10.4 billion
Currency:
  1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents

*Australia, Economy

Exchange rates:
  Australian dollars ($A) per US$1 - 1.4837 (January 1993), 1.3600 (1992),
  1.2836 (1991), 1.2799 (1990), 1.2618 (1989), 1.2752 (1988)
Fiscal year:
  1 July - 30 June

*Australia, Communications

Railroads:
  40,478 km total; 7,970 km 1.600-meter gauge, 16,201 km 1.435-meter standard
  gauge, 16,307 km 1.067-meter gauge; 183 km dual gauge; 1,130 km electrified;
  government owned (except for a few hundred kilometers of privately owned
  track) (1985)
Highways:
  837,872 km total; 243,750 km paved, 228,396 km gravel, crushed stone, or
  stabilized soil surface, 365,726 km unimproved earth
Inland waterways:
  8,368 km; mainly by small, shallow-draft craft
Pipelines:
  crude oil 2,500 km; petroleum products 500 km; natural gas 5,600 km
Ports:
  Adelaide, Brisbane, Cairns, Darwin, Devonport, Fremantle, Geelong, Hobart,
  Launceston, Mackay, Melbourne, Sydney, Townsville
Merchant marine:
  82 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,347,271 GRT/3,534,926 DWT; includes
  2 short-sea passenger, 8 cargo, 7 container, 8 roll-on/roll-off, 1 vehicle
  carrier, 17 oil tanker, 3 chemical tanker, 4 liquefied gas, 30 bulk, 2
  combination bulk
Airports:
 total:
  481
 usable:
  439
 with permanent-surface runways:
  243
 with runways over 3,659 m:
  1
 with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
  20
 with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
  268
Telecommunications:
  good international and domestic service; 8.7 million telephones; broadcast
  stations - 258 AM, 67 FM, 134 TV; submarine cables to New Zealand, Papua New
  Guinea, and Indonesia; domestic satellite service; satellite stations - 4
  Indian Ocean INTELSAT, 6 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth stations

*Australia, Defense Forces

Branches:
  Australian Army, Royal Australian Navy, Royal Australian Air Force
Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49 4,830,068; fit for military service 4,198,622; reach
  military age (17) annually 135,591 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
  exchange rate conversion - $7.1 billion, 2.4% of GDP (FY92/93)

*Austria, Geography

Location:
  Central Europe, between Germany and Hungary
Map references:
  Africa, Arctic Region, Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
 total area:   83,850 km2
 land area:
  82,730 km2
 comparative area:
  slightly smaller than Maine
Land boundaries:
  total 2,496 km, Czech Republic 362 km, Germany 784 km, Hungary 366 km, Italy
  430 km, Liechtenstein 37 km, Slovakia 91 km, Slovenia 262 km, Switzerland
  164 km
Coastline:
  0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
  none; landlocked
International disputes:
  none
Climate:
  temperate; continental, cloudy; cold winters with frequent rain in lowlands
  and snow in mountains; cool summers with occasional showers
Terrain:
  in the west and south mostly mountains (Alps); along the eastern and
  northern margins mostly flat or gently sloping
Natural resources:
  iron ore, petroleum, timber, magnesite, aluminum, lead, coal, lignite,
  copper, hydropower
Land use:
 arable land:
  17%
 permanent crops:
  1%
 meadows and pastures:
  24%
 forest and woodland:
  39%
 other:
  19%
Irrigated land:
  40 km2 (1989)
Environment:
  population is concentrated on eastern lowlands because of steep slopes, poor
  soils, and low temperatures elsewhere
Note:
  landlocked; strategic location at the crossroads of central Europe with many
  easily traversable Alpine passes and valleys; major river is the Danube

*Austria, People

Population:
  7,915,145 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
  0.55% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
  11.54 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
  10.42 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
  4.42 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
  7.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
 total population:
  76.4 years
 male:
  73.18 years
 female:
  79.8 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
  1.47 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
 noun:
  Austrian(s)
 adjective:
  Austrian
Ethnic divisions:
  German 99.4%, Croatian 0.3%, Slovene 0.2%, other 0.1%
Religions:
  Roman Catholic 85%, Protestant 6%, other 9%
Languages:
  German
Literacy:
  age 15 and over can read and write (1974)
 total population:
  99%
 male:
  NA%
 female:
  NA%
Labor force:
  3.47 million (1989)
 by occupation:
  services 56.4%, industry and crafts 35.4%, agriculture and forestry 8.1%
 note:
  an estimated 200,000 Austrians are employed in other European countries;
  foreign laborers in Austria number 177,840, about 6% of labor force (1988)

*Austria, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  Republic of Austria
 conventional short form:
  Austria
 local long form:
  Republik Oesterreich
 local short form:
  Oesterreich
Digraph:
  AU
Type:   federal republic
Capital:
  Vienna
Administrative divisions:
  9 states (bundeslander, singular - bundesland); Burgenland, Karnten,
  Niederosterreich, Oberosterreich, Salzburg, Steiermark, Tirol, Vorarlberg,
  Wien
Independence:
  12 November 1918 (from Austro-Hungarian Empire)
Constitution:
  1920; revised 1929 (reinstated 1945)
Legal system:
  civil law system with Roman law origin; judicial review of legislative acts
  by a Constitutional Court; separate administrative and civil/penal supreme
  courts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
  National Day, 26 October (1955)
Political parties and leaders:
  Social Democratic Party of Austria (SPO), Franz VRANITZKY, chairman;
  Austrian People's Party (OVP), Erhard BUSEK, chairman; Freedom Party of
  Austria (FPO), Jorg HAIDER, chairman; Communist Party (KPO), Walter
  SILBERMAYER, chairman; Green Alternative List (GAL), Johannes VOGGENHUBER,
  chairman
Other political or pressure groups:
  Federal Chamber of Commerce and Industry; Austrian Trade Union Federation
  (primarily Socialist); three composite leagues of the Austrian People's
  Party (OVP) representing business, labor, and farmers; OVP-oriented League
  of Austrian Industrialists; Roman Catholic Church, including its chief lay
  organization, Catholic Action
Suffrage:
  19 years of age, universal; compulsory for presidential elections
Elections:
 President:
  last held 24 May 1992 (next to be held 1996); results of second ballot -
  Thomas KLESTIL 57%, Rudolf STREICHER 43%
 National Council:
  last held 7 October 1990 (next to be held October 1994); results - SPO 43%,
  OVP 32.1%, FPO 16.6%, GAL 4.5%, KPO 0.7%, other 0.32%; seats - (183 total)
  SPO 80, OVP 60, FPO 33, GAL 10
Executive branch:
  president, chancellor, vice chancellor, Council of Ministers (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
  bicameral Federal Assembly (Bundesversammlung) consists of an upper council
  or Federal Council (Bundesrat) and a lower council or National Council
  (Nationalrat)

*Austria, Government

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Judicial Court (Oberster Gerichtshof) for civil and criminal cases,
  Administrative Court (Verwaltungsgerichtshof) for bureaucratic cases,
  Constitutional Court (Verfassungsgerichtshof) for constitutional cases
Leaders:
 Chief of State:   President Thomas KLESTIL (since 8 July 1992)
 Head of Government:
  Chancellor Franz VRANITZKY (since 16 June 1986); Vice Chancellor Erhard
  BUSEK (since 2 July 1991)
Member of:
  AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, CCC, CE, CEI, CERN, COCOM
  (cooperating country), CSCE, EBRD, ECE, EFTA, ESA, FAO, G-9, GATT, IADB,
  IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT,
  INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS, MINURSO, MTCR, NAM (guest), NEA, NSG,
  OAS (observer), OECD, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNDOF, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO,
  UNIKOM, UNOSOM, UNTAC, UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador Friedrich HOESS
 chancery:
  3524 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008-3035
 telephone:
  (202) 895-6700
 FAX:
  (202) 895-6750
 consulates general:
  Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York
US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador Roy Michael HUFFINGTON
 chancery:
  Boltzmanngasse 16, A-1091, Unit 27937, Vienna
 mailing address:
  APO AE 09222
 telephone:
  [43] (1) 31-339
 FAX:
  [43] (1) 310-0682
 consulate general:
  Salzburg
Flag:
  three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and red

*Austria, Economy

Overview:
  Austria boasts a prosperous and stable socialist market economy with a
  sizable proportion of nationalized industry and extensive welfare benefits.
  Thanks to an excellent raw material endowment, a technically skilled labor
  force, and strong links to German industrial firms, Austria occupies
  specialized niches in European industry and services (tourism, banking) and
  produces almost enough food to feed itself with only 8% of the labor force
  in agriculture. Increased export sales resulting from German unification,
  continued to boost Austria's economy through 1991. However, Germany's
  economic difficulties in 1992 slowed Austria's GDP growth to 2% from the 3%
  of 1991. Austria's economy, moreover, is not expected to grow by more than
  1% in 1993, and inflation is forecast to remain about 4%. Unemployment will
  likely remain at current levels at least until 1994. Living standards in
  Austria are comparable with the large industrial countries of Western
  Europe. Problems for the l990s include an aging population, the high level
  of subsidies, and the struggle to keep welfare benefits within budgetary
  capabilities. The continued opening of Eastern European markets, however,
  will increase demand for Austrian exports. Austria, a member of the European
  Free Trade Association (EFTA), in 1992 ratified the European Economic Area
  Treaty, which will extend European Community rules on the free movement of
  people, goods, capital and services to the EFTA countries, and Austrians
  plan to hold a national referendum within the next two years to vote on EC
  membership.
National product:
  GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $141.3 billion (1992)
National product real growth rate:
  1.8% (1992)
National product per capita:
  $18,000 (1992)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  4% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
  6.4% (1992 est.)
Budget:
  revenues $47.8 billion; expenditures $53.0 billion, including capital
  expenditures of $NA (1992 est.)
Exports:
  $43.5 billion (1992 est.)
 commodities:
  machinery and equipment, iron and steel, lumber, textiles, paper products,
  chemicals
 partners:
  EC 65.8% (Germany 39%), EFTA 9.1%, Eastern Europe/former USSR 9.0%, Japan
  1.7%, US 2.8% (1991)
Imports:
  $50.7 billion (1992 est.)
 commodities:
  petroleum, foodstuffs, machinery and equipment, vehicles, chemicals,
  textiles and clothing, pharmaceuticals
 partners:
  EC 67.8% (Germany 43.0%), EFTA 6.9%, Eastern Europe/former USSR 6.0%, Japan
  4.8%, US 3.9% (1991)
External debt:
  $11.8 billion (1990 est.)
Industrial production:
  growth rate 2.0% (1991)
Electricity:
  17,600,000 kW capacity; 49,500 million kWh produced, 6,300 kWh per capita
  (1992)

*Austria, Economy

Industries:
  foods, iron and steel, machines, textiles, chemicals, electrical, paper and
  pulp, tourism, mining, motor vehicles
Agriculture:
  accounts for 3.2% of GDP (including forestry); principal crops and animals -
  grains, fruit, potatoes, sugar beets, sawn wood, cattle, pigs, poultry;
  80-90% self-sufficient in food
Illicit drugs:
  transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin transiting the Balkan route
Economic aid:
  donor - ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $2.4 billion
Currency:
  1 Austrian schilling (S) = 100 groschen
Exchange rates:
  Austrian schillings (S) per US$1 - 11.363 (January 1993), 10.989 (1992),
  11.676 (1991), 11.370 (1990), 13.231 (1989), 12.348 (1988)
Fiscal year:
  calendar year

*Austria, Communications

Railroads:
  5,749 km total; 5,652 km government owned and 97 km privately owned (0.760-,
  1.435- and 1.000-meter gauge); 5,394 km 1.435-meter standard gauge of which
  3,154 km is electrified and 1,520 km is double tracked; 339 km 0.760-meter
  narrow gauge of which 84 km is electrified
Highways:
  95,412 km total; 34,612 km are the primary network (including 1,012 km of
  autobahn, 10,400 km of federal, and 23,200 km of provincial roads); of this
  number, 21,812 km are paved and 12,800 km are unpaved; in addition, there
  are 60,800 km of communal roads (mostly gravel, crushed stone, earth)
Inland waterways:
  446 km
Pipelines:
  crude oil 554 km; natural gas 2,611 km; petroleum products 171 km
Ports:
  Vienna, Linz (Danube river ports)
Merchant marine:
  29 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 154,159 GRT/256,765 DWT; includes 23
  cargo, 1 refrigerated cargo, 1 oil tanker, 1 chemical tanker, 3 bulk
Airports:
 total:
  55
 usable:
  55
 with permanent-surface runways:
  20
 with runways over 3,659 m:
  0
 with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
  6
 with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
  4
Telecommunications:
  highly developed and efficient; 4,014,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 6
  AM, 21 (545 repeaters) FM, 47 (870 repeaters) TV; satellite ground stations
  for Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, Indian Ocean INTELSAT, and EUTELSAT systems

*Austria, Defense Forces

Branches:
  Army (including Flying Division)
Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49 2,016,464; fit for military service 1,694,140; reach
  military age (19) annually 50,259 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
  exchange rate conversion - $1.7 billion, 0.9% of GDP (1993 est.)

*Azerbaijan, Geography

Location:
  Southeastern Europe, between Armenia and Turkmenistan, bordering the Caspian
  Sea
Map references:
  Africa, Asia, Commonwealth of Independent States - Central Asian States,
  Commonwealth of Independent States - European States, Middle East, Standard
  Time Zones of the World
Area:
 total area:
  86,600 km2
 land area:
  86,100 km2
 comparative area:
  slightly larger than Maine
 note:
  includes the Nakhichevan' Autonomous Republic and the Nagorno-Karabakh
  Autonomous Oblast; region's autonomy was abolished by Azerbaijan Supreme
  Soviet on 26 November 1991
Land boundaries:
  total 2,013 km, Armenia (west) 566 km, Armenia (southwest) 221 km, Georgia
  322 km, Iran (south) 432 km, Iran (southwest) 179 km, Russia 284 km, Turkey
  9 km
Coastline:
  0 km (landlocked)
 note:
  Azerbaijan does border the Caspian Sea (800 km, est.)
Maritime claims:
  NA
 note:
  Azerbaijani claims in Caspian Sea unknown; 10 nm fishing zone provided for
  in 1940 treaty regarding trade and navigation between Soviet Union and Iran
International disputes:
  violent and longstanding dispute with Armenia over status of
  Nagorno-Karabakh, lesser dispute concerns Nakhichevan; some Azerbaijanis
  desire absorption of and/or unification with the ethnically Azeri portion of
  Iran; minor irredentist disputes along Georgia border
Climate:
  dry, semiarid steppe; subject to drought
Terrain:
  large, flat Kura-Aras Lowland (much of it below sea level) with Great
  Caucasus Mountains to the north, Karabakh Upland in west; Baku lies on
  Aspheson Peninsula that juts into Caspian Sea
Natural resources:
  petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, nonferrous metals, alumina
Land use:
 arable land:
  18%
 permanent crops:
  0%
 meadows and pastures:
  25%
 forest and woodland:
  0%
 other:
  57%
Irrigated land:
  14,010 km2 (1990)

*Azerbaijan, Geography

Environment:
  local scientists consider Apsheron Peninsula, including Baku and Sumgait,
  and the Caspian Sea to be "most ecologically devastated area in the world"
  because of severe air and water pollution
Note:
  landlocked

*Azerbaijan, People

Population:
  7,573,435 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
  1.5% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
  24.09 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
  6.61 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
  -2.45 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
  35.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
 total population:
  70.6 years
 male:
  66.77 years
 female:
  74.63 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
  2.76 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
 noun:
  Azerbaijani(s)
 adjective:   Azerbaijani
Ethnic divisions:
  Azeri 82.7%, Russian 5.6%, Armenian 5.6%, Daghestanis 3.2%, other 2.9%, note
  - Armenian share may be less than 5.6% because many Armenians have fled the
  ethnic violence since 1989 census
Religions:
  Moslem 87%, Russian Orthodox 5.6%, Armenian Orthodox 5.6%, other 1.8%
Languages:
  Azeri 82%, Russian 7%, Armenian 5%, other 6%
Literacy:
  age 9-49 can read and write (1970)
 total population:
  100%
 male:
  100%
 female:
  100%
Labor force:
  2.789 million
 by occupation:
  agriculture and forestry 32%, industry and construction 26%, other 42%
  (1990)

*Azerbaijan, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  Republic of Azerbaijan
 conventional short form:
  Azerbaijan
 local long form:
  Azarbaijchan Respublikasy
 local short form:
  none
 former:
  Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic
Digraph:
  AJ
Type:
  republic
Capital:
  Baku (Baky)
Administrative divisions:
  1 autonomous republic (avtomnaya respublika); Nakhichevan (administrative
  center at Nakhichevan)
 note:
  all rayons except for the exclave of Nakhichevan are under direct republic
  jurisdiction; 1 autonomous oblast, Nagorno-Karabakh (officially abolished by
  Azerbaijani Supreme Soviet on 26 November 1991) has declared itself
  Nagorno-Karabakh Republic
Independence:
  30 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)
Constitution:
  adopted NA April 1978; writing a new constitution mid-1993
Legal system:
  based on civil law system
National holiday:
  NA
Political parties and leaders:
  New Azerbaijan Party, ALIYEV; Musavat Party (Azerbaijan Popular Front -
  APF), Isa GAMBAROV; National Independence Party (main opposition party),
  Etibar MAMEDOV; Social Democratic Party (SDP), Zardusht Ali ZADE; Party of
  Revolutionary Revival (successor to the Communist Party), Sayad Afes OGLV,
  general secretary; Party of Independent Azerbaijan, SOVLEYMANOV
Other political or pressure groups:
  self-proclaimed Armenian Nagorno-Karabakh Republic
Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal
Elections:
 President:
  last held 8 June 1992 (next to be held NA); results - Abdulfaz Ali ELCHIBEY,
  won 60% of vote
 National Council:
  last held 30 September and 14 October 1990 for the Supreme Soviet (next
  expected to be held late 1993 for the National Council); seats for Supreme
  Soviet - (360 total) Communists 280, Democratic Bloc 45 (grouping of
  opposition parties), other 15, vacant 20; note - on 19 May 1992 the Supreme
  Soviet was disbanded in favor of a Popular Front-dominated National Council;
  seats - (50 total) 25 Popular Front, 25 opposition elements
Executive branch:
  president, council of ministers
Legislative branch:
  National Parliament (National Assembly or Milli Mejlis)

*Azerbaijan, Government

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court
Leaders:
 Chief of State:
  President Ebulfez ELCHIBEY (since 7 June 1992)
 Head of Government:
  Prime Minister Penah HUSEYNOV (since 29 April 1993; resigned 7 June 1993;
  likely replacement - E'tibar MAMEDOV); National Parliament Chairman Isa
  GAMBAROV (since 19 May 1992; resigned 13 June 1993; likely replacement
  Geydar ALIYEV)
Member of:
  BSEC, CSCE, EBRD, ECO, ESCAP, IBRD, IDB, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, ITU, NACC, OIC,
  UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO
Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador Hafiz PASHAYEV
 chancery:
  1615 L Street NW, Washington, DC 20036
 telephone:
  NA
US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission:   Ambassador Richard MILES
 embassy:
  Hotel Intourist, Baku
 mailing address:
  APO AE 09862
 telephone:
  7-8922-91-79-56
Flag:
  three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), red, and green; a crescent and
  eight-pointed star in white are centered in red band

*Azerbaijan, Economy

Overview:
  Azerbaijan is less developed industrially than either Armenia or Georgia,
  the other Transcaucasian states. It resembles the Central Asian states in
  its majority Muslim population, high structural unemployment, and low
  standard of living. The economy's most prominent products are cotton, oil,
  and gas. Production from the Caspian oil and gas field has been in decline
  for several years. With foreign assistance, the oil industry might generate
  the funds needed to spur industrial development. However, civil unrest,
  marked by armed conflict in the Nagorno-Karabakh region between Muslim
  Azeris and Christian Armenians, makes foreign investors wary. Azerbaijan
  accounted for 1.5% to 2% of the capital stock and output of the former
  Soviet Union. Azerbaijan shares all the formidable problems of the ex-Soviet
  republics in making the transition from a command to a market economy, but
  its considerable energy resources brighten its propects somewhat. Old
  economic ties and structures have yet to be replaced. A particularly galling
  constraint on economic revival is the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict, said to
  consume 25% of Azerbaijan's economic resources.
National product:
  GDP $NA
National product real growth rate:
  -25% (1992)
National product per capita:
  $NA
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  20% per month (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
  0.2% includes officially registered unemployed; also large numbers of
  underemployed workers
Budget:
  revenues $NA; expenditures $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA (1992)
Exports:
  $821 million to outside the successor states of the former USSR (f.o.b.,
  1992 est.)
 commodities:
  oil and gas, chemicals, oilfield equipment, textiles, cotton (1991)
 partners:
  mostly CIS and European countries
Imports:
  $300 million from outside the successor states of the former USSR (c.i.f.,
  1992 est.)
 commodities:   machinery and parts, consumer durables, foodstuffs, textiles (1991)
 partners:
  European countries
External debt:
  $1.3 billion (1991 est.)
Industrial production:
  growth rate -27% (1992)
Electricity:
  6,025,000 kW capacity; 22,300 million kWh produced, 2,990 kWh per capita
  (1992)
Industries:
  petroleum and natural gas, petroleum products, oilfield equipment; steel,
  iron ore, cement; chemicals and petrochemicals; textiles
Agriculture:
  cotton, grain, rice, grapes, fruit, vegetables, tea, tobacco; cattle, pigs,
  sheep and goats

*Azerbaijan, Economy

Illicit drugs:
  illicit producer of cannabis and opium; mostly for CIS consumption; limited
  government eradication program; used as transshipment points for illicit
  drugs to Western Europe
Economic aid:
  wheat from Turkey
Currency:
  1 manat (abbreviation NA) = 10 Russian rubles; ruble still used
Exchange rates:
  NA
Fiscal year:
  calendar year

*Azerbaijan, Communications

Railroads:
  2,090 km; does not include industrial lines (1990)
Highways:
  36,700 km total (1990); 31,800 km hard surfaced; 4,900 km earth
Pipelines:
  crude oil 1,130 km, petroleum products 630 km, natural gas 1,240 km
Ports:
  inland - Baku (Baky)
Airports:
 total:
  65
 useable:
  33
 with permanent-surface runways:
  26
 with runways over 3,659 m:
  0
 with runways 2,440-3,659 m:   8
 with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
  23
Telecommunications:
  domestic telephone service is of poor quality and inadequate; 644,000
  domestic telephone lines (density - 9 lines per 100 persons (1991)), 202,000
  persons waiting for telephone installations (January 1991); connections to
  other former USSR republics by cable and microwave and to other countries
  via the Moscow international gateway switch; INTELSAT earth station
  installed in late 1992 in Baku with Turkish financial assistance with access
  to 200 countries through Turkey; domestic and Russian TV programs are
  received locally and Turkish and Iranian TV is received from an INTELSAT
  satellite through a receive-only earth station

*Azerbaijan, Defense Forces

Branches:
  Army, Air Force, Navy, National Guard, Security Forces (internal and border
  troops)
Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49 1,842,917; fit for military service 1,497,640; reach
  military age (18) annually 66,928 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
  2,848 million rubles, NA% of GDP (1992 est.); note - conversion of the
  military budget into US dollars using the current exchange rate could
  produce misleading results

*The Bahamas, Geography

Location:
  in the western North Atlantic Ocean, southeast of Florida and northwest of
  Cuba
Map references:
  Central America and the Caribbean, North America, Standard Time Zones of the
  World
Area:
 total area:
  13,940 km2
 land area:
  10,070 km2
 comparative area:
  slightly larger than Connecticut
Land boundaries:
  0 km
Coastline:
  3,542 km
Maritime claims:
 continental shelf:
  200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation
 exclusive fishing zone:
  200 nm
 territorial sea:   3 nm
International disputes:
  none
Climate:
  tropical marine; moderated by warm waters of Gulf Stream
Terrain:
  long, flat coral formations with some low rounded hills
Natural resources:
  salt, aragonite, timber
Land use:
 arable land:
  1%
 permanent crops:
  0%
 meadows and pastures:
  0%
 forest and woodland:
  32%
 other:
  67%
Irrigated land:
  NA km2
Environment:
  subject to hurricanes and other tropical storms that cause extensive flood
  damage
Note:
  strategic location adjacent to US and Cuba; extensive island chain

*The Bahamas, People

Population:
  268,726 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
  1.62% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
  18.97 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
  5.15 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
  2.42 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
  31.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
 total population:
  72.02 years
 male:
  68.19 years
 female:
  75.96 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
  1.9 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
 noun:
  Bahamian(s)  adjective:
  Bahamian
Ethnic divisions:
  black 85%, white 15%
Religions:
  Baptist 32%, Anglican 20%, Roman Catholic 19%, Methodist 6%, Church of God
  6%, other Protestant 12%, none or unknown 3%, other 2%
Languages:
  English, Creole, among Haitian immigrants
Literacy:
  age 15 and over but definition of literacy not available (1963)
 total population:
  90%
 male:
  90%
 female:
  89%
Labor force:
  127,400
 by occupation:
  government 30%, hotels and restaurants 25%, business services 10%,
  agriculture 5% (1989)

*The Bahamas, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  The Commonwealth of The Bahamas
 conventional short form:
  The Bahamas
Digraph:
  BF
Type:
  commonwealth
Capital:
  Nassau
Administrative divisions:
  21 districts; Acklins and Crooked Islands, Bimini, Cat Island, Exuma,
  Freeport, Fresh Creek, Governor's Harbour, Green Turtle Cay, Harbour Island,
  High Rock, Inagua, Kemps Bay, Long Island, Marsh Harbour, Mayaguana, New
  Providence, Nichollstown and Berry Islands, Ragged Island, Rock Sound, Sandy
  Point, San Salvador and Rum Cay
Independence:
  10 July 1973 (from UK)
Constitution:
  10 July 1973
Legal system:
  based on English common law
National holiday:
  National Day, 10 July (1973)
Political parties and leaders:
  Progressive Liberal Party (PLP), Sir Lynden O. PINDLING; Free National
  Movement (FNM), Hubert Alexander INGRAHAM; Vanguard Nationalist and
  Socialist Party (VNPS), Lionel CAREY, chairman; People's Democratic Force
  (PDF), Fred MITCHELL
Other political or pressure groups:
  Vanguard Nationalist and Socialist Party (VNSP), a small leftist party
  headed by Lionel CAREY; Trade Union Congress (TUC), headed by Arlington
  MILLER
Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal
Elections:
 House of Assembly:
  last held 19 August 1992 (next to be held by August 1997); results - percent
  of vote by party NA; seats - (49 total) FNM 32, PLP 17
Executive branch:
  British monarch, governor general, prime minister, deputy prime minister,
  Cabinet
Legislative branch:
  bicameral Parliament consists of an appointed upper house or Senate and a
  directly elected lower house or House of Assembly
Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court
Leaders:
 Chief of State:
  Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General
  Sir Clifford DARLING (since 2 January 1992)
 Head of Government:
  Prime Minister Hubert INGRAHAM (since 19 August 1992)
Member of:
  ACP, C, CCC, CARICOM, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IFC,
  ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, UN,
  UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

*The Bahamas, Government

Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador Timothy Baswell DONALDSON
 chancery:
  2220 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
 telephone:
  (202) 319-2660
 consulates general:
  Miami and New York
US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador Chic HECHT
 embassy:
  Mosmar Building, Queen Street, Nassau
 mailing address:
  P. O. Box N-8197, Nassau
 telephone:
  (809) 322-1181 or 328-2206
 FAX:
  (809) 328-7838
Flag:
  three equal horizontal bands of aquamarine (top), gold, and aquamarine with
  a black equilateral triangle based on the hoist side

*The Bahamas, Economy

Overview:
  The Bahamas is a stable, middle-income, developing nation whose economy is
  based primarily on tourism and offshore banking. Tourism alone provides
  about 50% of GDP and directly or indirectly employs about 50,000 people or
  40% of the local work force. The economy has slackened in recent years, as
  the annual increase in the number of tourists slowed. Nonetheless, per
  capita GDP is one of the highest in the region.
National product:
  GDP - exchange rate conversion - $2.6 billion (1991 est.)
National product real growth rate:
  3% (1991)
National product per capita:
  $10,200 (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  7.2% (1991)
Unemployment rate:
  16% (1991 est.)
Budget:
  revenues $627.5 million; expenditures $727.5 million, including capital
  expenditures of $100 million (1992 est.)
Exports:
  $306 million (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
 commodities:
  pharmaceuticals, cement, rum, crawfish
 partners:
  US 41%, Norway 30%, Denmark 4%
Imports:
  $1.14 billion (c.i.f., 1991 est.)
 commodities:
  foodstuffs, manufactured goods, mineral fuels, crude oil
 partners:
  US 35%, Nigeria 21%, Japan 13%, Angola 11%
External debt:
  $1.2 billion (December 1990)
Industrial production:
  growth rate 3% (1990); accounts for 15% of GDP
Electricity:
  424,000 kW capacity; 929 million kWh produced, 3,599 kWh per capita (1992)
Industries:
  tourism, banking, cement, oil refining and transshipment, salt production,
  rum, aragonite, pharmaceuticals, spiral welded steel pipe
Agriculture:
  accounts for 5% of GDP; dominated by small-scale producers; principal
  products-citrus fruit, vegetables, poultry; large net importer of food
Illicit drugs:
  transshipment point for cocaine
Economic aid:
  US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY85-89), $1.0 million; Western (non-US)
  countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $345 million
Currency:   1 Bahamian dollar (B$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
  Bahamian dollar (B$) per US$1-1.00 (fixed rate)
Fiscal year:
  calendar year

*The Bahamas, Communications

Highways:
  2,400 km total; 1,350 km paved, 1,050 km gravel
Ports:
  Freeport, Nassau
Merchant marine:
  853 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 20,136,078 GRT/33,119,750 DWT;
  includes 53 passenger, 18 short-sea passenger, 159 cargo, 40
  roll-on/roll-off cargo, 48 container, 6 vehicle carrier, 181 oil tanker, 14
  liquefied gas, 22 combination ore/oil, 43 chemical tanker, 1 specialized
  tanker, 159 bulk, 7 combination bulk, 102 refrigerated cargo; note-a flag of
  convenience registry
Airports:
 total:
  60
 usable:
  55
 with permanent-surface runways:
  31
 with runways over 3,659 m:
  0
 with runways 2,440-3, 659 m:
  3
 with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
  26
Telecommunications:
  highly developed; 99,000 telephones in totally automatic system;
  tropospheric scatter and submarine cable links to Florida; broadcast
  stations-3 AM, 2 FM, 1 TV; 3 coaxial submarine cables; 1 Atlantic Ocean
  INTELSAT earth station

*The Bahamas, Defense Forces

Branches:
  Royal Bahamas Defense Force (Coast Guard only), Royal Bahamas Police Force
Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49 68,020; fit for military service NA (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
  exchange rate conversion-$65 million, 2.7% of GDP (1990)

*Bahrain, Geography

Location:   Middle East, in the central Persian Gulf, between Saudi Arabia and Qatar
Map references:
  Africa, Middle East, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
 total area:
  620 km2
 land area:
  620 km2
 comparative area:
  slightly less than 3.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
  0 km
Coastline:
  161 km
Maritime claims:
 contiguous zone:
  24 nm
 continental shelf:
  not specified
 territorial sea:
  12 nm
International disputes:
  territorial dispute with Qatar over the Hawar Islands; maritime boundary
  with Qatar
Climate:
  arid; mild, pleasant winters; very hot, humid summers
Terrain:
  mostly low desert plain rising gently to low central escarpment
Natural resources:
  oil, associated and nonassociated natural gas, fish
Land use:
 arable land:
  2%
 permanent crops:
  2%
 meadows and pastures:
  6%
 forest and woodland:
  0%
 other:
  90%
Irrigated land:
  10 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
  subsurface water sources being rapidly depleted (requires development of
  desalination facilities); dust storms; desertification
Note:
  close to primary Middle Eastern petroleum sources; strategic location in
  Persian Gulf through which much of Western world's petroleum must transit to
  reach open ocean

*Bahrain, People

Population:   568,471 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
  3.01% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
  26.89 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
  3.87 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
  7.04 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
  20.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
 total population:
  73.12 years
 male:
  70.72 years
 female:
  75.63 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
  3.99 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
 noun:
  Bahraini(s)
 adjective:
  Bahraini
Ethnic divisions:
  Bahraini 63%, Asian 13%, other Arab 10%, Iranian 8%, other 6%
Religions:
  Shi'a Muslim 70%, Sunni Muslim 30%
Languages:
  Arabic, English, Farsi, Urdu
Literacy:
  age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
 total population:
  77%
 male:
  82%
 female:
  69%
Labor force:
  140,000
 by occupation:
  industry and commerce 85%, agriculture 5%, services 5%, government 3% (1982)
 note:
  42% of labor force is Bahraini

*Bahrain, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  State of Bahrain
 conventional short form:
  Bahrain
 local long form:   Dawlat al Bahrayn
 local short form:
  Al Bahrayn
Digraph:
  BA
Type:
  traditional monarchy
Capital:
  Manama
Administrative divisions:
  12 districts (manatiq, singular - mintaqah); Al Hadd, Al Manamah, Al
  Mintaqah al Gharbiyah, Al Mintaqah al Wusta, Al Mintaqah ash Shamaliyah, Al
  Muharraq, Ar Rifa'wa al Mintaqah al Janubiyah, Jidd Hafs, Madinat Hamad,
  Madinat 'Isa, Mintaqat Juzur Hawar, Sitrah
Independence:
  15 August 1971 (from UK)
Constitution:
  26 May 1973, effective 6 December 1973
Legal system:
  based on Islamic law and English common law
National holiday:
  Independence Day, 16 December
Political parties and leaders:
  political parties prohibited; several small, clandestine leftist and Islamic
  fundamentalist groups are active
Suffrage:
  none
Elections:
  none
Executive branch:
  amir, crown prince and heir apparent, prime minister, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
  unicameral National Assembly was dissolved 26 August 1975 and legislative
  powers were assumed by the Cabinet; appointed Advisory Council established
  16 December 1992
Judicial branch:
  High Civil Appeals Court
Leaders:
 Chief of State:
  Amir 'ISA bin Salman Al Khalifa (since 2 November 1961); Heir Apparent HAMAD
  bin 'Isa Al Khalifa (son of Amir; born 28 January 1950)
 Head of Government:
  Prime Minister KHALIFA bin Salman Al Khalifa (since 19 January 1970)
Member of:
  ABEDA, AFESD, AL, AMF, ESCWA, FAO, G-77, GCC, IBRD, ICAO, IDB, ILO, IMF,
  IMO, INMARSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAPEC,
  OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador 'Abd al-Rahman Faris Al KHALIFA
 chancery:
  3502 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008

*Bahrain, Government

 telephone:
  (202) 342-0741 or 342-0742
 consulate general:
  New York
US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador Dr. Charles W. HOSTLER
 embassy:
  Road No. 3119 (next to Alahli Sports Club), Zinj District, Manama
 mailing address:
  P. O. 26431, Manama, or FPO AE 09834-6210
 telephone:
  [973] 273-300
 FAX:
  (973) 272-594
Flag:
  red with a white serrated band (eight white points) on the hoist side

*Bahrain, Economy

Overview:
  Petroleum production and processing account for about 80% of export
  receipts, 60% of government revenues, and 31% of GDP. Economic conditions
  have fluctuated with the changing fortunes of oil since 1985, for example,
  during the Gulf crisis of 1990-91. Bahrain with its highly developed
  communication and transport facilities is home to numerous multinational
  firms with business in the Gulf. A large share of exports consists of
  petroleum products made from imported crude.
National product:
  GDP - exchange rate conversion - $4.3 billion (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate:
  3% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
  $7,800 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  2% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
  8%-10% (1989)
Budget:
  revenues $1.2 billion; expenditures $1.32 billion, including capital
  expenditures of $NA (1989)
Exports:
  $3.5 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
 commodities:
  petroleum and petroleum products 80%, aluminum 7%
 partners:
  Japan 13%, UAE 12%, India 10%, Pakistan 8%
Imports:
  $3.7 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
 commodities:
  nonoil 59%, crude oil 41%
 partners:
  Saudi Arabia 41%, US 14%, UK 7%, Japan 5%
External debt:
  $1.8 billion (1991 est.)
Industrial production:
  growth rate 3.8% (1988); accounts for 44% of GDP
Electricity:
  1,600,000 kW capacity; 4,700 million kWh produced, 8,500 kWh per capita
  (1992 est.)
Industries:
  petroleum processing and refining, aluminum smelting, offshore banking, ship
  repairing
Agriculture:
  including fishing, accounts for less than 2% of GDP; not self-sufficient in
  food production; heavily subsidized sector produces fruit, vegetables,
  poultry, dairy products, shrimp, fish; fish catch 9,000 metric tons in 1987
Economic aid:
  US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-79), $24 million; Western (non-US)
  countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $45 million; OPEC
  bilateral aid (1979-89), $9.8 billion
Currency:
  1 Bahraini dinar (BD) = 1,000 fils
Exchange rates:
  Bahraini dinars (BD) per US$1 - 0.3760 (fixed rate)
Fiscal year:
  calendar year

*Bahrain, Communications

Highways:
  200 km bituminous surfaced, including 25 km bridge-causeway to Saudi Arabia
  opened in November 1986; NA km natural surface tracks
Pipelines:
  crude oil 56 km; petroleum products 16 km; natural gas 32 km
Ports:
  Mina' Salman, Manama, Sitrah
Merchant marine:
  9 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 186,331 GRT/249,490 DWT; includes 5
  cargo, 2 container, 1 liquefied gas, 1 bulk
Airports:
 total:
  3
 usable:
  3
 with permanent-surface runways:
  2
 with runways over 3,659 m:
  2
 with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
  0
 with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
  1
Telecommunications:
  modern system; good domestic services; 98,000 telephones (1 for every 6
  persons); excellent international connections; tropospheric scatter to
  Qatar, UAE; microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia; submarine cable to Qatar,
  UAE, and Saudi Arabia; satellite earth stations - 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT,
  1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT, 1 ARABSAT; broadcast stations - 2 AM, 3 FM, 2 TV

*Bahrain, Defense Forces

Branches:
  Army, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense, Police Force
Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49 194,770; fit for military service 107,696; reach military
  age (15) annually 5,043 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
  exchange rate conversion - $245 million, 6% of GDP (1990)

*Baker Island, Header

Affiliation:
  (territory of the US)

*Baker Island, Geography

Location:
  in the North Pacific Ocean, just north of the Equator, 2,575 km southwest of
  Honolulu, about halfway between Hawaii and Australia
Map references:
  Oceania
Area:
 total area:
  1.4 km2
 land area:
  1.4 km2
 comparative area:
  about 2.3 times the size of the Mall in Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
  0 km
Coastline:
  4.8 km
Maritime claims:
 contiguous zone:
  12 nm
 continental shelf:
  200 m or depth of exploitation
 exclusive economic zone:
  200 nm
 territorial sea:
  12 nm
International disputes:
  none
Climate:
  equatorial; scant rainfall, constant wind, burning sun
Terrain:   low, nearly level coral island surrounded by a narrow fringing reef
Natural resources:
  guano (deposits worked until 1891)
Land use:
 arable land:
  0%
 permanent crops:
  0%
 meadows and pastures:
  0%
 forest and woodland:
  0%
 other:
  100%
Irrigated land:
  0 km2
Environment:
  treeless, sparse, and scattered vegetation consisting of grasses, prostrate
  vines, and low growing shrubs; lacks fresh water; primarily a nesting,
  roosting, and foraging habitat for seabirds, shorebirds, and marine wildlife

*Baker Island, People

Population:
  uninhabited; note - American civilians evacuated in 1942 after Japanese air
  and naval attacks during World War II; occupied by US military during World
  War II, but abandoned after the war; public entry is by special-use permit
  only and generally restricted to scientists and educators; a cemetery and
  cemetery ruinsare located near the middle of the west coast

*Baker Island, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  none
 conventional short form:
  Baker Island
Digraph:
  FQ
Type:
  unincorporated territory of the US administered by the Fish and Wildlife
  Service of the US Department of the Interior as part of the National
  Wildlife Refuge system
Capital:
  none; administered from Washington, DC

*Baker Island, Economy

Overview:
  no economic activity

*Baker Island, Communications

Ports:
  none; offshore anchorage only, one boat landing area along the middle of the
  west coast
Airports:
  1 abandoned World War II runway of 1,665 m
Note:
  there is a day beacon near the middle of the west coast

*Baker Island, Defense Forces

  defense is the responsibility of the US; visited annually by the US Coast
  Guard

*Bangladesh, Geography

Location:
  South Asia, at the head of the Bay of Bengal, almost completely surrounded
  by India
Map references:
  Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
 total area:
  144,000 km2
 land area:
  133,910 km2
 comparative area:
  slightly smaller than Wisconsin
Land boundaries:
  total 4,246 km, Burma 193 km, India 4,053 km
Coastline:
  580 km
Maritime claims:
 contiguous zone:
  18 nm
 continental shelf:
  up to outer limits of continental margin
 exclusive economic zone:
  200 nm
 territorial sea:
  12 nm
International disputes:
  a portion of the boundary with India is in dispute; water-sharing problems
  with upstream riparian India over the Ganges
Climate:
  tropical; cool, dry winter (October to March); hot, humid summer (March to
  June); cool, rainy monsoon (June to October)
Terrain:   mostly flat alluvial plain; hilly in southeast
Natural resources:
  natural gas, arable land, timber
Land use:
 arable land:
  67%
 permanent crops:
  2%
 meadows and pastures:
  4%
 forest and woodland:
  16%
 other:
  11%
Irrigated land:
  27,380 km2 (1989)
Environment:
  vulnerable to droughts; much of country routinely flooded during summer
  monsoon season; overpopulation; deforestation

*Bangladesh, People

Population:
  122,254,849 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
  2.35% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
  35.41 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
  11.94 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
  109.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
 total population:
  54.7 years
 male:
  55 years
 female:
  54.38 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
  4.55 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
 noun:
  Bangladeshi(s)
 adjective:
  Bangladesh
Ethnic divisions:
  Bengali 98%, Biharis 250,000, tribals less than 1 million
Religions:
  Muslim 83%, Hindu 16%, Buddhist, Christian, other
Languages:
  Bangla (official), English
Literacy:
  age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
 total population:
  35%
 male:
  47%
 female:
  22%
Labor force:
  35.1 million
 by occupation:
  agriculture 74%, services 15%, industry and commerce 11% (FY86)
 note:
  extensive export of labor to Saudi Arabia, UAE, and Oman (1991)

*Bangladesh, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  People's Republic of Bangladesh
 conventional short form:
  Bangladesh
 former:
  East Pakistan
Digraph:
  BG
Type:
  republic
Capital:
  Dhaka
Administrative divisions:
  64 districts (zillagulo, singular - zilla); Bagerhat, Bandarban, Barguna,
  Barisal, Bhola, Bogra, Brahmanbaria, Chandpur, Chapai Nawabganj, Chattagram,
  Chuadanga, Comilla, Cox's Bazar, Dhaka, Dinajpur, Faridpur, Feni, Gaibandha,
  Gazipur, Gopalganj, Habiganj, Jaipurhat, Jamalpur, Jessore, Jhalakati,
  Jhenaidah, Khagrachari, Khulna, Kishorganj, Kurigram, Kushtia, Laksmipur,
  Lalmonirhat, Madaripur, Magura, Manikganj, Meherpur, Moulavibazar,
  Munshiganj, Mymensingh, Naogaon, Narail, Narayanganj, Narsingdi, Nator,
  Netrakona, Nilphamari, Noakhali, Pabna, Panchagar, Parbattya Chattagram,
  Patuakhali, Pirojpur, Rajbari, Rajshahi, Rangpur, Satkhira, Shariyatpur,
  Sherpur, Sirajganj, Sunamganj, Sylhet, Tangail, Thakurgaon
Independence:
  16 December 1971 (from Pakistan)
Constitution:
  4 November 1972, effective 16 December 1972, suspended following coup of 24
  March 1982, restored 10 November 1986, amended NA March 1991
Legal system:
  based on English common law
National holiday:
  Independence Day, 26 March (1971)
Political parties and leaders:
  Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP), Khaleda ZIAur Rahman; Awami League (AL),
  Sheikh Hasina WAJED; Jatiyo Party (JP), Hussain Mohammad ERSHAD (in jail);
  Jamaat-E-Islami (JI), Ali KHAN; Bangladesh Communist Party (BCP), Saifuddin
  Ahmed MANIK; National Awami Party (Muzaffar); Workers Party, leader NA;
  Jatiyo Samajtantik Dal (JSD), Serajul ALAM KHAN; Ganotantri Party, leader
  NA; Islami Oikya Jote, leader NA; National Democratic Party (NDP), leader
  NA; Muslim League, Khan A. SABUR; Democratic League, Khondakar MUSHTAQUE
  Ahmed; Democratic League, Khondakar MUSHTAQUE Ahmed; United People's Party,
  Kazi ZAFAR Ahmed
Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal
Elections:
 National Parliament:
  last held 27 February 1991 (next to be held NA February 1996); results -
  percent of vote by party NA; seats - (330 total, 300 elected and 30 seats
  reserved for women) BNP 168, AL 93, JP 35, JI 20, BCP 5, National Awami
  Party (Muzaffar) 1, Workers Party 1, JSD 1, Ganotantri Party 1, Islami Oikya
  Jote 1, NDP 1, independents 3
 President:
  last held 8 October 1991 (next to be held by NA October 1996); results -
  Abdur Rahman BISWAS received 52.1% of parliamentary vote
Executive branch:
  president, prime minister, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
  unicameral National Parliament (Jatiya Sangsad)

*Bangladesh, Government

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court
Leaders:
 Chief of State:
  President Abdur Rahman BISWAS (since 8 October 1991)
 Head of Government:
  Prime Minister Khaleda ZIAur Rahman (since 20 March 1991)
Member of:
  AsDB, C, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IDB,
  IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS,
  MINURSO, NAM, OIC, SAARC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNOMOZ, UNOSOM,
  UNTAC, UNPROFOR, UPU, WHO, WFTU, WIPO, WCL, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador Abul AHSAN
 chancery:
  2201 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007
 telephone:
  (202) 342-8372 through 8376
 consulate general:
  New York
US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador William B. MILAM
 embassy:
  Diplomatic Enclave, Madani Avenue, Baridhara, Dhaka
 mailing address:
  G. P. O. Box 323, Dhaka 1212
 telephone:   [880] (2) 884700-22
 FAX:
  [880] (2) 883648
Flag:
  green with a large red disk slightly to the hoist side of center; green is
  the traditional color of Islam

*Bangladesh, Economy

Overview:
  Bangladesh is one of the world's poorest, most densely populated, and least
  developed nations. Its economy is overwhelmingly agricultural. Major
  impediments to growth include frequent cyclones and floods, government
  interference with the economy, a rapidly growing labor force that cannot be
  absorbed by agriculture, a low level of industrialization, failure to fully
  exploit energy resources (natural gas), and inefficient and inadequate power
  supplies. An excellent rice crop and expansion of the export garment
  industry helped growth in FY91/92. Policy reforms intended to reduce
  government regulation of private industry and promote public-sector
  efficiency have been announced but are being implemented only slowly.
National product:
  GDP - exchange rate conversion - $23.8 billion (FY92)
National product real growth rate:
  3.8% (FY92)
National product per capita:
  $200 (FY92)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  5.09% (FY92)
Unemployment rate:
  NA%
Budget:
  revenues $2.5 billion; expenditures $3.7 billion, including capital
  expenditures of $NA (FY92)
Exports:
  $2.0 billion (FY92)
 commodities:
  garments, jute and jute goods, leather, shrimp
 partners:
  US 28%, Western Europe 39% (FY91)
Imports:
  $3.4 billion (FY91/92)
 commodities:
  capital goods, petroleum, food, textiles
 partners:
  Japan 10.0%, Western Europe 17%, US 5.0% (FY91)
External debt:
  $11.8 billion (FY92 est.)
Industrial production:
  growth rate 4.0% (FY92 est.); accounts for less than 10% of GDP
Electricity:
  2,400,000 kW capacity; 9,000 million kWh produced, 75 kWh per capita (1992)
Industries:
  jute manufacturing, cotton textiles, food processing, steel, fertilizer
Agriculture:   accounts for about 40% of GDP, 60% of employment, and one-fifth of exports;
  imports 10% of food grain requirements; world's largest exporter of jute;
  commercial products - jute, rice, wheat, tea, sugarcane, potatoes, beef,
  milk, poultry; shortages include wheat, vegetable oils, cotton; fish catch
  778,000 metric tons in 1986
Illicit drugs:
  transit country for illegal drugs produced in neighboring countries
Economic aid:
  US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $3.4 billion; Western (non-US)
  countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1980-89), $11.65 million; OPEC
  bilateral aid (1979-89), $6.52 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $1.5
  billion
Currency:
  1 taka (Tk) = 100 paise

*Bangladesh, Economy

Exchange rates:
  taka (Tk) per US$1 - 39.000 (January 1993), 38.951 (1992), 36.596 (1991),
  34.569 (1990), 32.270 (1989), 31.733 (1988)
Fiscal year:
  1 July - 30 June

*Bangladesh, Communications

Railroads:
  2,892 km total (1986); 1,914 km 1.000 meter gauge, 978 km 1.676 meter broad
  gauge
Highways:
  7,240 km total (1985); 3,840 km paved, 3,400 km unpaved
Inland waterways:
  5,150-8,046 km navigable waterways (includes 2,575-3,058 km main cargo
  routes)
Pipelines:
  natural gas 1,220 km
Ports:
  Chittagong, Chalna
Merchant marine:
  42 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 314,228 GRT/461,607 DWT; includes 34
  cargo, 2 oil tanker, 3 refrigerated cargo, 3 bulk
Airports:
 total:
  16
 usable:
  12
 with permanent-surface runways:
  12
 with runways over 3,659 m:
  0
 with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
  4
 with runways 1,220-2,439 m:   6
Telecommunications:
  adequate international radio communications and landline service; fair
  domestic wire and microwave service; fair broadcast service; 241,250
  telephones; broadcast stations - 9 AM, 6 FM, 11 TV; 2 Indian Ocean INTELSAT
  satellite earth stations

*Bangladesh, Defense Forces

Branches:
  Army, Navy, Air Force
 paramilitary forces:
  Bangladesh Rifles, Bangladesh Ansars, Armed Police Reserve, Defense Parties,
  National Cadet Corps
Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49 30,909,597; fit for military service 18,348,702 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
  exchange rate conversion - $355 million, 1.5% of GDP (FY92/93)

*Barbados, Geography

Location:
  in the extreme eastern Caribbean Sea, about 375 km northeast of Venezuela
Map references:
  Central America and the Caribbean, South America, Standard Time Zones of the
  World
Area:
 total area:
  430 km2
 land area:
  430 km2
 comparative area:
  slightly less than 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
  0 km
Coastline:
  97 km
Maritime claims:
 exclusive economic zone:
  200 nm
 territorial sea:
  12 nm
International disputes:
  none
Climate:
  tropical; rainy season (June to October)
Terrain:
  relatively flat; rises gently to central highland region
Natural resources:
  petroleum, fishing, natural gas
Land use:
 arable land:   77%
 permanent crops:
  0%
 meadows and pastures:
  9%
 forest and woodland:
  0%
 other:
  14%
Irrigated land:
  NA km2
Environment:
  subject to hurricanes (especially June to October)
Note:
  easternmost Caribbean island

*Barbados, People

Population:
  255,338 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
  0.18% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
  15.78 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
  8.53 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
  -5.49 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
  21.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
 total population:
  73.49 years
 male:
  70.75 years
 female:
  76.46 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
  1.77 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
 noun:
  Barbadian(s)
 adjective:
  Barbadian
Ethnic divisions:
  African 80%, mixed 16%, European 4%
Religions:
  Protestant 67% (Anglican 40%, Pentecostal 8%, Methodist 7%, other 12%),
  Roman Catholic 4%, none 17%, unknown 3%, other 9% (1980)
Languages:
  English
Literacy:
  age 15 and over having ever attended school (1970)
 total population:   99%
 male:
  99%
 female:
  99%
Labor force:
  120,900 (1991)
 by occupation:
  services and government 37%, commerce 22%, manufacturing and construction
  22%, transportation, storage, communications, and financial institutions 9%,
  agriculture 8%, utilities 2% (1985 est.)

*Barbados, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  none
 conventional short form:
  Barbados
Digraph:
  BB
Type:
  parliamentary democracy
Capital:
  Bridgetown
Administrative divisions:
  11 parishes; Christ Church, Saint Andrew, Saint George, Saint James, Saint
  John, Saint Joseph, Saint Lucy, Saint Michael, Saint Peter, Saint Philip,
  Saint Thomas
 note:
  the new city of Bridgetown may be given parish status
Independence:
  30 November 1966 (from UK)
Constitution:
  30 November 1966
Legal system:
  English common law; no judicial review of legislative acts
National holiday:
  Independence Day, 30 November (1966)
Political parties and leaders:
  Democratic Labor Party (DLP), Erskine SANDIFORD; Barbados Labor Party (BLP),
  Henry FORDE; National Democratic Party (NDP), Richie HAYNES
Other political or pressure groups:
  Barbados Workers Union, Leroy TROTMAN; People's Progressive Movement, Eric
  SEALY; Workers' Party of Barbados, Dr. George BELLE; Clement Payne Labor
  Union, David COMMISSIONG
Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal
Elections:
 House of Assembly:
  last held 22 January 1991 (next to be held by January 1996); results - DLP
  49.8%; seats - (28 total) DLP 18, BLP 10
Executive branch:
  British monarch, governor general, prime minister, deputy prime minister,
  Cabinet
Legislative branch:
  bicameral Parliament consists of an upper house or Senate and a lower house
  or House of Assembly
Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court of Judicature
Leaders:
 Chief of State:
  Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General
  Dame Nita BARROW (since 6 June 1990)
 Head of Government:
  Prime Minister Lloyd Erskine SANDIFORD (since 2 June 1987)
Member of:
  ACP, C, CARICOM, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IFAD,
  IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LAES,
  LORCS, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador Dr. Rudi WEBSTER

*Barbados, Government

 chancery:
  2144 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
 telephone:
  (202) 939-9200 through 9202
 consulate general:
  New York
 consulate:
  Los Angeles
US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador G. Philip HUGHES
 embassy:
  Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce Building, Broad Street, Bridgetown
 mailing address:
  P. O. Box 302, Box B, FPO AA 34054
 telephone:
  (809) 436-4950 through 4957
 FAX:
  (809) 429-5246
Flag:
  three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and blue with the
  head of a black trident centered on the gold band; the trident head
  represents independence and a break with the past (the colonial coat of arms
  contained a complete trident)

*Barbados, Economy

Overview:
  A per capita income of $7,000 gives Barbados one of the highest standards of
  living of all the small island states of the eastern Caribbean.
  Historically, the economy was based on the cultivation of sugarcane and
  related activities. In recent years, however, the economy has diversified
  into manufacturing and tourism. The tourist industry is now a major employer
  of the labor force and a primary source of foreign exchange. The economy
  slowed in 1990-91, however, and Bridgetown's declining hard currency
  reserves and inability to finance its deficits have caused it to adopt an
  austere economic reform program.
National product:
  GDP - exchange rate conversion - $1.8 billion ( 1991)
National product real growth rate:
  -4% (1991)
National product per capita:
  $7,000 (1991)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  8.1% (1991)
Unemployment rate:
  23% (1992)
Budget:
  revenues $547 million; expenditures $620 million (FY92-93), including
  capital expenditures of $60 million
Exports:
  $205.8 million (f.o.b., 1991)
 commodities:
  sugar and molasses, chemicals, electrical components, clothing, rum,
  machinery and transport equipment
 partners:
  CARICOM 31%, US 16%, UK 13%
Imports:
  $697 million (c.i.f., 1991)
 commodities:
  foodstuffs, consumer durables, raw materials, machinery, crude oil,
  construction materials, chemicals
 partners:
  US 34%, CARICOM 16%, UK 11%, Canada 6%
External debt:
  $750 million (1991 est.)
Industrial production:
  growth rate -1.3% (1991); accounts for 10% of GDP
Electricity:
  152,100 kW capacity; 540 million kWh produced, 2,118 kWh per capita (1992)
Industries:
  tourism, sugar, light manufacturing, component assembly for export,
  petroleum
Agriculture:
  accounts for 8% of GDP; major cash crop is sugarcane; other crops -
  vegetables, cotton; not self-sufficient in food
Economic aid:
  US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $15 million; Western (non-US)
  countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $171 million
Currency:
  1 Barbadian dollar (Bds$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
  Barbadian dollars (Bds$) per US$1 - 2.0113 (fixed rate)
Fiscal year:
  1 April - 31 March

*Barbados, Communications

Highways:
  1,570 km total; 1,475 km paved, 95 km gravel and earth
Ports:
  Bridgetown
Merchant marine:
  3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 48,710 GRT79,263 DWT; includes 1 cargo,
  2 oil tanker
Airports:
 total:
  1
 usable:
  1
 with permanent-surface runways:
  1
 with runways over 3,659 m:
  0
 with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
  1
 with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
  0
Telecommunications:
  islandwide automatic telephone system with 89,000 telephones; tropospheric
  scatter link to Trinidad and Saint Lucia; broadcast stations - 3 AM, 2 FM, 2
  (1 is pay) TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

*Barbados, Defense Forces

Branches:
  Royal Barbados Defense Force, including the Ground Forces and Coast Guard,
  Royal Barbados Police Force
Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49 70,254; fit for military service 49,096 (1993 est.); no
  conscription
Defense expenditures:
  exchange rate conversion - $10 million, 0.7% of GDP (1989)

*Bassas da India, Header

Affiliation:
  (possession of France)

*Bassas da India, Geography

Location:
  Southern Africa, in the southern Mozambique Channel about halfway between
  Madagascar and Mozambique
Map references:
  Africa
Area:
 total area:
  NA km2
 land area:
  NA km2
 comparative area:
  NA
Land boundaries:
  0 km
Coastline:
  35.2 km
Maritime claims:
 contiguous zone:
  24 nm
 continental shelf:
  200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation
 exclusive economic zone:
  200 nm
 territorial sea:
  12 nm
International disputes:
  claimed by Madagascar
Climate:
  tropical
Terrain:
  a volcanic rock 2.4 meters high
Natural resources:
  none
Land use:
 arable land:
  0%
 permanent crops:
  0%
 meadows and pastures:
  0%
 forest and woodland:
  0%
 other:
  100% (all rock)
Irrigated land:
  0 km2
Environment:
  surrounded by reefs; subject to periodic cyclones
Note:
  navigational hazard since it is usually under water during high tide

*Bassas da India, People

Population:
  uninhabited

*Bassas da India, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  none
 conventional short form:
  Bassas da India
Digraph:
  BS
Type:
  French possession administered by Commissioner of the Republic Jacques
  DEWATRE (since July 1991), resident in Reunion
Capital:
  none; administered by France from Reunion
Independence:
  none (possession of France)

*Bassas da India, Economy

Overview:
  no economic activity

*Bassas da India, Communications

Ports:
  none; offshore anchorage only

*Bassas da India, Defense Forces

Note:
  defense is the responsibility of France

*Belarus, Geography

Location:
  Eastern Europe, between Poland and Russia
Map references:
  Asia, Commonwealth of Independent States - European States, Europe, Standard
  Time Zones of the World
Area:
 total area:
  207,600 km2
 land area:
  207,600 km2
 comparative area:
  slightly smaller than Kansas
Land boundaries:   total 3,098 km, Latvia 141 km, Lithuania 502 km, Poland 605 km, Russia 959
  km, Ukraine 891 km
Coastline:
  0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
  none; landlocked
International disputes:
  none
Climate:
  mild and moist; transitional between continental and maritime
Terrain:
  generally flat and contains much marshland
Natural resources:
  forest land, peat deposits
Land use:
 arable land:
  29%
 permanent crops:
  0%
 meadows and pastures:
  15%
 forest and woodland:
  0%
 other:
  56%
Irrigated land:
  1,490 km2 (1990)
Environment:
  southern part of Belarus highly contaminated with fallout from 1986 nuclear
  reactor accident at Chornobyl'
Note:
  landlocked

*Belarus, People

Population:
  10,370,269 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
  0.34% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
  13.28 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
  11.1 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
  1.26 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
  19.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
 total population:
  70.73 years
 male:
  66.04 years
 female:
  75.66 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
  1.89 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
 noun:
  Belarusian(s)
 adjective:
  Belarusian
Ethnic divisions:
  Belarusian 77.9%, Russian 13.2%, Polish 4.1%, Ukrainian 2.9%, other 1.9%
Religions:
  Eastern Orthodox NA%, other NA%
Languages:
  Byelorussian, Russian, other
Literacy:
  age 9-49 can read and write (1970)
 total population:
  100%
 male:
  100%
 female:
  100%
Labor force:
  5.418 million
 by occupation:
  industry and construction 42%, agriculture and forestry 20%, other 38%
  (1990)

*Belarus, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  Republic of Belarus
 conventional short form:
  Belarus
 local long form:
  Respublika Belarus
 local short form:
  none
 former:
  Belorussian (Byelorussian) Soviet Socialist Republic
Digraph:
  BO
Type:
  republic
Capital:
  Minsk
Administrative divisions:
  6 oblasts (voblastsi, singular - voblasts') and one municipality* (harady,,   singular - horad);
Brestskaya, Homyel'skaya, Minsk*, Hrodzyenskaya,,   Mahilyowskaya, Minskaya, Vitsyebskaya
 note:
  each voblasts' has the same name as its administrative center
Independence:
  25 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)
Constitution:
  adopted NA April 1978
Legal system:
  based on civil law system
National holiday:
  24 August (1991)
Political parties and leaders:
  Belarusian Popular Front (BPF), Zenon PAZNYAK, chairman; United Democratic
  Party of Belarus (UDPB), Aleksandr DOBROVOLSKIY, chairman; Social Democratic
  Party of Belarus (SDBP), Mikhail TKACHEV, chairman; Belarus Workers Union,
  Mikhail SOBOL, Chairman; Belarus Peasants Party; Party of People's Unity,
  Gennadiy KARPENKO; Communist Party of Belarus
Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal
Elections:
 Supreme Soviet:
  last held 4 April 1990 (next to be held NA); results - Communists 87%; seats
  - (360 total) number of seats by party NA; note - 50 seats are for public
  bodies; the Communist Party obtained an overwhelming majority
Executive branch:
  chairman of the Supreme Soviet, chairman of the Council of Ministers; note -
  Belarus has approved a directly elected presidency but so far no elections
  have been scheduled
Legislative branch:
  unicameral Supreme Soviet
Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court
Leaders:
 Chief of State:
  Chairman of the Supreme Soviet Stanislav S. SHUSHKEVICH (since 18 September
  1991)
 Head of Government:
  Prime Minister Vyacheslav F. KEBICH (since NA April 1990), First Deputy
  Prime Minister Mikhail MYASNIKOVICH (since NA 1991)

*Belarus, Government

Member of:
  CBSS (observer), CIS, CSCE, ECE, IAEA, IBRD, ILO, IMF, INMARSAT, IOC, ITU,
  NACC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador Designate Sergey Nikolayevich MARTYNOV
 chancery:
  1511 K Street NW, Suite 619, Washington, DC 20036
 telephone:
  (202) 638-2954
US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador David H. SWARTZ
 embassy:
  Starovilenskaya #46, Minsk
 mailing address:
  APO AE 09862  telephone:
  7-0172-34-65-37
Flag:
  three horizontal bands of white (top), red, and white

*Belarus, Economy

Overview:
  In many ways Belarus resembles the three Baltic states, for example, in its
  industrial competence, its higher-than-average standard of living, and its
  critical dependence on the other former Soviet states for fuels and raw
  materials. Belarus ranks fourth in gross output among the former Soviet
  republics, having produced 4% of the total GDP and employing 4% of the labor
  force in the old USSR. Once a mainly agricultural area, it now supplies
  important producer and consumer goods - sometimes as the sole producer - to
  the other states. Belarus had a significant share of the machine-building
  capacity of the former USSR. It is especially noted for production of
  tractors, large trucks, machine tools, and automation equipment. The soil in
  Belarus is not as fertile as the black earth of Ukraine, but by emphasizing
  favorable crops and livestock (especially pigs and chickens), Belarus has
  become a net exporter to the other former republics of meat, milk, eggs,
  flour, and potatoes. Belarus produces only small amounts of oil and gas and
  receives most of its fuel from Russia through the Druzhba oil pipeline and
  the Northern Lights gas pipeline. These pipelines transit Belarus en route
  to Eastern Europe. Belarus produces petrochemicals, plastics, synthetic
  fibers (nearly 30% of former Soviet output), and fertilizer (20% of former
  Soviet output). Raw material resources are limited to potash and peat
  deposits. The peat (more than one-third of the total for the former Soviet
  Union) is used in domestic heating, as boiler fuel for electric power
  stations, and in the production of chemicals. The potash supports fertilizer
  production. In 1992 GDP fell an estimated 13%, largely because the country
  is highly dependent on the ailing Russian economy for raw materials and
  parts.
National product:
  GDP $NA
National product real growth rate:
  -13% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
  $NA
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  30% per month (first quarter 1993)
Unemployment rate:
  0.5% of officially registered unemployed; large numbers of underemployed
  workers
Budget:
  revenues $NA; expenditures $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports:
  $1.1 billion to outside of the successor states of the former USSR (f.o.b.,
  1992)
 commodities:
  machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, foodstuffs
 partners:
  NA
Imports:   $751 million from outside the successor states of the former USSR (c.i.f.,
  1992)
 commodities:
  machinery, chemicals, textiles
 partners:
  NA
External debt:
  $2.6 billion (end of 1991)
Industrial production:
  growth rate -9.6%; accounts for about 50% of GDP (1992)

*Belarus, Economy

Electricity:
  8,025,000 kW capacity; 37,600 million kWh produced, 3,626 kWh per capita
  (1992)
Industries:
  employ about 27% of labor force and produce a wide variety of products
  essential to the other states; products include (in percent share of total
  output of former Soviet Union): tractors (12%); metal-cutting machine tools
  (11%); off-highway dump trucks up to 110-metric-ton load capacity (100%);
  wheel-type earthmovers for construction and mining (100%); eight-
  wheel-drive, high-flotation trucks with cargo capacity of 25 metric tons for
  use in tundra and roadless areas (100%); equipment for animal husbandry and
  livestock feeding (25%); motorcycles (21.3%); television sets (11%);
  chemical fibers (28%); fertilizer (18%); linen fabric (11%); wool fabric
  (7%); radios; refrigerators; and other consumer goods
Agriculture:
  accounts for almost 25% of GDP and 5.7% of total agricultural output of
  former Soviet Union; employs 20% of the labor force; in 1988 produced the
  following (in percent of total Soviet production): grain (3.6%), potatoes
  (12.2%), vegetables (3.0%), meat (6.0%), milk (7.0%); net exporter of meat,
  milk, eggs, flour, potatoes
Illicit drugs:
  illicit producer of opium and cannabis; mostly for the domestic market;
  transshipment point for illicit drugs to Western Europe
Economic aid:
  NA
Currency:
  1 rubel (abbreviation NA) = 10 Russian rubles
 note:
  the rubel circulates with the Russian ruble; certain purchase are made only
  with rubels; government has established a different, and varying, exchange
  rate for trade between Belarus and Russia
Exchange rates:
  NA
Fiscal year:
  calendar year

*Belarus, Communications

Railroads:   5,570 km; does not include industrial lines (1990)
Highways:
  98,200 km total; 66,100 km hard surfaced, 32,100 km earth (1990)
Inland waterways:
  NA km
Pipelines:
  crude oil 1,470 km, refined products 1,100 km, natural gas 1,980 km (1992)
Ports:
  none; landlocked
Merchant marine:
  claims 5% of former Soviet fleet
Airports:
 total:
  124
 useable:
  55
 with permanent-surface runways:
  31
 with runways over 3,659 m:
  1
 with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
  28
 with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
  20
Telecommunications:
  construction of NMT-450 analog cellular network proceeding in Minsk, in
  addition to installation of some 300 km of fiber optic cable in the city
  network; telephone network has 1.7 million lines, 15% of which are switched
  automatically; Minsk has 450,000 lines; telephone density is approximately
  17 per 100 persons; as of 1 December 1991, 721,000 applications from
  households for telephones were still unsatisfied; international connections
  to other former Soviet republics are by landline or microwave and to other
  countries by leased connection through the Moscow international gateway
  switch; Belarus has not constructed ground stations for international
  telecommunications via satellite to date

*Belarus, Defense Forces

Branches:
  Army, Air Forces, Air Defense Forces, Security Forces (internal and border
  troops)
Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49 2,491,039; fit for military service 1,964,577; reach
  military age (18) annually 71,875 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
  56.5 billion rubles, NA% of GDP (1993 est.); note - conversion of the
  military budget into US dollars using the current exchange rate could
  produce misleading results

*Belgium, Geography

Location:   Western Europe, bordering on the North Sea, between France and the
  Netherlands
Map references:
  Arctic Region, Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
 total area:
  30,510 km2
 land area:
  30,230 km2
 comparative area:
  slightly larger than Maryland
Land boundaries:
  total 1,385 km, France 620 km, Germany 167 km, Luxembourg 148 km,
  Netherlands 450 km
Coastline:
  64 km
Maritime claims:
 continental shelf:
  equidistant line with neighbors
 exclusive fishing zone:
  equidistant line with neighbors (extends about 68 km from coast)
 territorial sea:
  12 nm
International disputes:
  none
Climate:
  temperate; mild winters, cool summers; rainy, humid, cloudy
Terrain:
  flat coastal plains in northwest, central rolling hills, rugged mountains of
  Ardennes Forest in southeast
Natural resources:
  coal, natural gas
Land use:
 arable land:
  24%
 permanent crops:
  1%
 meadows and pastures:
  20%
 forest and woodland:
  21%
 other:
  34%
Irrigated land:
  10 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
  air and water pollution
Note:
  crossroads of Western Europe; majority of West European capitals within
  1,000 km of Brussels which is the seat of the EC

*Belgium, People

Population:   10,040,939 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
  0.23% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
  11.94 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
  10.32 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
  0.7 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
  7.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
 total population:
  76.72 years
 male:
  73.41 years
 female:
  80.21 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
  1.62 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
 noun:
  Belgian(s)
 adjective:
  Belgian
Ethnic divisions:
  Fleming 55%, Walloon 33%, mixed or other 12%
Religions:
  Roman Catholic 75%, Protestant or other 25%
Languages:
  Flemish (Dutch) 56%, French 32%, German 1%, legally bilingual 11% divided
  along ethnic lines
Literacy:
  age 15 and over can read and write (1980)
 total population:
  99%
 male:
  NA%
 female:
  NA%
Labor force:
  4.126 million
 by occupation:
  services 63.6%, industry 28%, construction 6.1%, agriculture 2.3% (1988)

*Belgium, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  Kingdom of Belgium
 conventional short form:
  Belgium
 local long form:
  Royaume de Belgique  local short form:
  Belgique
Digraph:
  BE
Type:
  constitutional monarchy
Capital:
  Brussels
Administrative divisions:
  9 provinces (French: provinces, singular - province; Flemish: provincien,
  singular - provincie); Antwerpen, Brabant, Hainaut, Liege, Limburg,
  Luxembourg, Namur, Oost-Vlaanderen, West-Vlaanderen
Independence:
  4 October 1830 (from the Netherlands)
Constitution:
  7 February 1831, last revised 8-9 August 1980; the government is in the
  process of revising the Constitution with the aim of federalizing the
  Belgian state
Legal system:
  civil law system influenced by English constitutional theory; judicial
  review of legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with
  reservations
National holiday:
  National Day, 21 July (ascension of King Leopold to the throne in 1831)
Political parties and leaders:
  Flemish Social Christian (CVP), Herman VAN ROMPUY, president; Walloon Social
  Christian (PSC) , Melchior WATHELET, president; Flemish Socialist (SP),
  Frank VANDENBROUCKE, president; Walloon Socialist (PS), Guy SPITAELS;
  Flemish Liberals and Democrats (VLD), Guy VERHOFSTADT, president; Walloon
  Liberal (PRL), Antoine DUQUESNE, president; Francophone Democratic Front
  (FDF), Georges CLERFAYT, president; Volksunie (VU), Jaak GABRIELS,
  president; Communist Party (PCB), Louis VAN GEYT, president; Vlaams Blok
  (VB), Karel VAN DILLEN, chairman; ROSSEM, Jean Pierre VAN ROSSEM; National
  Front (FN), Werner van STEEN; Live Differently (AGALEV; Flemish Green
  party), Leo COX; Ecologist (ECOLO; Francophone Green party), NA; other minor
  parties
Other political or pressure groups:
  Christian and Socialist Trade Unions; Federation of Belgian Industries;
  numerous other associations representing bankers, manufacturers,
  middle-class artisans, and the legal and medical professions; various
  organizations represent the cultural interests of Flanders and Wallonia;
  various peace groups such as the Flemish Action Committee Against Nuclear
  Weapons and Pax Christi
Suffrage:
  18 years of age, universal and compulsory
Elections:
 Senate:
  last held 24 November 1991 (next to be held by November 1996); results -
  percent of vote by party NA; seats - (184 total; of which 106 are directly
  elected) CVP 20, SP 14, PVV (now VLD) 13, VU 5, AGALEV 5, VB 5, ROSSEN 1, PS
  18, PRL 9, PSC 9, ECOLO 6, FDF 1

*Belgium, Government

 Chamber of Representatives:
  last held 24 November 1991 (next to be held by November 1996); results - CVP
  16.7%, PS 13.6%, SP 12.0%, PVV (now VLD) 11.9%, PRL 8.2%, PSC 7.8%, VB 6.6%,
  VU 5.9%, ECOLO 5.1%, AGALEV 4.9%, FDF 2.6%, ROSSEM 3.2%, FN 1.5%; seats -
  (212 total) CVP 39, PS 35, SP 28, PVV (now VLD) 26, PRL 20, PSC 18, FB 12,
  VU 10, ECOLO 10, AGALEV 7, FDF 3, ROSSEM 3, FN 1
Executive branch:
  monarch, prime minister, three deputy prime ministers, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
  bicameral Parliament consists of an upper chamber or Senate (Flemish -
  Senaat, French - Senat) and a lower chamber or Chamber of Representatives
  (Flemish - Kamer van Volksvertegenwoordigers, French - Chambre des
  Representants)
Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court of Justice (Flemish - Hof van Cassatie, French - Cour de
  Cassation)
Leaders:
 Chief of State:
  King BAUDOUIN I (since 17 July 1951); Heir Apparent Prince ALBERT of Liege
  (brother of the King; born 6 June 1934)
 Head of Government:
  Prime Minister Jean-Luc DEHAENE (since 6 March 1992)
Member of:
  AG (observer), ACCT, AfDB, AsDB, Australian Group, Benelux, BIS, CCC, CE,
  CERN, COCOM, CSCE, EBRD, EC, ECE, EIB, ESA, FAO, G-9, G-10, GATT, IADB,
  IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT,
  INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS, MTCR, NACC, NATO, NEA, NSG,
  OAS (observer), OECD, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMOGIP,
  UNOSOM, UNPROFOR, UNRWA, UNTAC, UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO,
  ZC
Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador Juan CASSIERS
 chancery:
  3330 Garfield Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
 telephone:
  (202) 333-6900
 FAX:
  (202) 333-3079
 consulates general:
  Atlanta, Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York
US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador Bruce S. GELB
 embassy:
  27 Boulevard du Regent, Brussels
 mailing address:
  B-1000 Brussels, PSC 82, Box 002, APO AE 09724
 telephone:
  [32] (2) 513-3830
 FAX:
  [32] (2) 511-2725
Flag:
  three equal vertical bands of black (hoist side), yellow, and red; the
  design was based on the flag of France

*Belgium, Economy

Overview:
  This small private enterprise economy has capitalized on its central
  geographic location, highly developed transport network, and diversified
  industrial and commercial base. Industry is concentrated mainly in the
  populous Flemish area in the north, although the government is encouraging
  reinvestment in the southern region of Walloon. With few natural resources
  Belgium must import essential raw materials, making its economy closely
  dependent on the state of world markets. Over 70% of trade is with other EC
  countries. The economy grew at a strong 4% pace during the period 1988-90,
  but economic growth slowed to a 1% pace in 1991-92. The economy is expected
  to turn in another sluggish 1% performance in 1993. Belgium's public debt
  remains high at 120% of GDP and the government is trying to control its
  expenditures to bring the figure more into line with other industrialized
  countries.
National product:
  GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $177.9 billion (1992)
National product real growth rate:
  0.8% (1992)
National product per capita:
  $17,800 (1992)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  2.6% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
  9.8% (end 1992)
Budget:
  revenues $97.8 billion; expenditures $109.3 billion, including capital
  expenditures of $NA (1989)
Exports:
  $118 billion (f.o.b., 1991) Belgium-Luxembourg Economic Union
 commodities:
  iron and steel, transportation equipment, tractors, diamonds, petroleum
  products
 partners:
  EC 75.5%, US 3.7%, former Communist countries 1.4% (1991)
Imports:
  $121 billion (c.i.f., 1991) Belgium-Luxembourg Economic Union
 commodities:
  fuels, grains, chemicals, foodstuffs
 partners:
  EC 73%, US 4.8%, oil-exporting less developed countries 4%, former Communist
  countries 1.8% (1991)
External debt:
  $31.3 billion (1992 est.)
Industrial production:
  growth rate 1.6% (1992 est.)
Electricity:
  17,500,000 kW capacity; 68,000 million kWh produced, 6,790 kWh per capita
  (1992)
Industries:
  engineering and metal products, motor vehicle assembly, processed food and
  beverages, chemicals, basic metals, textiles, glass, petroleum, coal
Agriculture:   accounts for 2.3% of GDP; emphasis on livestock production - beef, veal,
  pork, milk; major crops are sugar beets, fresh vegetables, fruits, grain,
  tobacco; net importer of farm products
Illicit drugs:
  source of precursor chemicals for South American cocaine processors;
  increasingly important gateway country for cocaine entering the European
  market

*Belgium, Economy

Economic aid:
  donor - ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $5.8 billion
Currency:
  1 Belgian franc (BF) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
  Belgian francs (BF) per US$1 - 33.256 (January 1993), 32.150 (1992), 34.148
  (1991), 33.418 (1990), 39.404 (1989), 36.768 (1988)
Fiscal year:
  calendar year

*Belgium, Communications

Railroads:
  Belgian National Railways (SNCB) operates 3,568 km 1.435-meter standard
  gauge, government owned; 2,563 km double track; 2,207 km electrified
Highways:
  103,396 km total; 1,317 km limited access, divided autoroute; 11,717 km
  national highway; 1,362 km provincial road; about 38,000 km paved and 51,000
  km unpaved rural roads
Inland waterways:
  2,043 km (1,528 km in regular commercial use)
Pipelines:
  petroleum products 1,167 km; crude oil 161 km; natural gas 3,300 km
Ports:
  Antwerp, Brugge, Gent, Oostende, Zeebrugge
Merchant marine:
  23 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 96,949 GRT/133,658 DWT; includes 10
  cargo, 5 oil tanker, 2 liquefied gas, 5 chemical tanker, 1 bulk
Airports:
 total:
  42
 usable:
  42
 with permanent-surface runways:
  24
 with runways over 3,659 m:
  0
 with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
  14
 with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
  3
Telecommunications:   highly developed, technologically advanced, and completely automated
  domestic and international telephone and telegraph facilities; extensive
  cable network; limited microwave radio relay network; 4,720,000 telephones;
  broadcast stations - 3 AM, 39 FM, 32 TV; 5 submarine cables; 2 satellite
  earth stations - Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and EUTELSAT systems; nationwide
  mobile phone system

*Belgium, Defense Forces

Branches:
  Army, Navy, Air Force, National Gendarmerie
Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49 2,556,189; fit for military service 2,133,051; reach
  military age (19) annually 63,532 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
  exchange rate conversion - $4 billion, 2% of GDP (1992)

*Belize, Geography

Location:
  Central America, bordering the Caribbean Sea between Guatemala and Mexico
Map references:
  Central America and the Caribbean, North America, Standard Time Zones of the
  World
Area:
 total area:
  22,960 km2
 land area:
  22,800 km2
 comparative area:
  slightly larger than Massachusetts
Land boundaries:
  total 516 km, Guatemala 266 km, Mexico 250 km
Coastline:
  386 km
Maritime claims:
 territorial sea:
  12 nm in the north, 3 nm in the south
 note:
  from the mouth of the Sarstoon River to Ranguana Caye, Belize's territorial
  sea is 3 miles; according to Belize's Maritime Areas Act, 1992, the purpose
  of this limitation is to provide a framework for
  the negotiation of a definitive agreement on territorial differences with
  Guatemala
International disputes:
  border with Guatemala in dispute; negotiations to resolve the dispute have
  begun
Climate:
  tropical; very hot and humid; rainy season (May to February)
Terrain:
  flat, swampy coastal plain; low mountains in south
Natural resources:   arable land potential, timber, fish
Land use:
 arable land:
  2%
 permanent crops:
  0%
 meadows and pastures:
  2%
 forest and woodland:
  44%
 other:
  52%
Irrigated land:
  20 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
  frequent devastating hurricanes (September to December) and coastal flooding
  (especially in south); deforestation
Note:
  national capital moved 80 km inland from Belize City to Belmopan because of
  hurricanes; only country in Central America without a coastline on the North
  Pacific Ocean

*Belize, People

Population:
  203,957 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
  2.42% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
  35.75 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
  6.15 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
  -5.44 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
  36.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
 total population:
  67.85 years
 male:
  65.91 years
 female:
  69.88 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
  4.53 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
 noun:
  Belizean(s)
 adjective:
  Belizean
Ethnic divisions:
  Mestizo 44%, Creole 30%, Maya 11%, Garifuna 7%, other 8%
Religions:
  Roman Catholic 62%, Protestant 30% (Anglican 12%, Methodist 6%, Mennonite
  4%, Seventh-Day Adventist 3%, Pentecostal 2%, Jehovah's Witnesses 1%, other
  2%), none 2%, other 6% (1980)
Languages:
  English (official), Spanish, Maya, Garifuna (Carib)
Literacy:
  age 15 and over having ever attended school (1970)
 total population:
  91%
 male:
  91%
 female:
  91%
Labor force:
  51,500
 by occupation:
  agriculture 30%, services 16%, government 15.4%, commerce 11.2%,
  manufacturing 10.3%
 note:
  shortage of skilled labor and all types of technical personnel (1985)

*Belize, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  none
 conventional short form:
  Belize
 former:
  British Honduras
Digraph:
  BH
Type:
  parliamentary democracy
Capital:
  Belmopan
Administrative divisions:
  6 districts; Belize, Cayo, Corozal, Orange Walk, Stann Creek, Toledo
Independence:
  21 September 1981 (from UK)
Constitution:
  21 September 1981
Legal system:
  English law
National holiday:
  Independence Day, 21 September
Political parties and leaders:
  People's United Party (PUP), George PRICE, Florencio MARIN, Said MUSA;
  United Democratic Party (UDP), Manuel ESQUIVEL, Dean LINDO, Dean BARROW;
  National Alliance for Belizean Rights, leader NA
Other political or pressure groups:
  Society for the Promotion of Education and Research (SPEAR), Assad SHOMAN;
  United Workers Front, leader NA
Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal
Elections:
 National Assembly:
  last held 4 September 1989 (next to be held September 1994); results -
  percent of vote by party NA; seats - (28 total) PUP 15, UDP 13; note - in
  January 1990 one member expelled from UDP joined PUP, making the seat count
  PUP 16, UDP 12
Executive branch:
  British monarch, governor general, prime minister, deputy prime minister,
  Cabinet
Legislative branch:
  bicameral National Assembly consists of an upper house or Senate and a lower
  house or House of Representatives
Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court
Leaders:
 Chief of State:
  Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General
  Dame Minita Elmira GORDON (since 21 September 1981)
 Head of Government:
  Prime Minister George Cadle PRICE (since 4 September 1989)
Member of:
  ACP, C, CARICOM, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC,
  ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAS, UN,
  UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador James V. HYDE

*Belize, Government

 chancery:
  2535 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
 telephone:
  (202) 332-9636
US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador Eugene L. SCASSA
 embassy:
  Gabourel Lane and Hutson Street, Belize City
 mailing address:
  P. O. Box 286, Belize City
 telephone:
  [501] (2) 77161 through 77163
 FAX:
  [501] (2) 30802
Flag:
  blue with a narrow red stripe along the top and the bottom edges; centered
  is a large white disk bearing the coat of arms; the coat of arms features a
  shield flanked by two workers in front of a mahogany tree with the related
  motto SUB UMBRA FLOREO (I Flourish in the Shade) on a scroll at the bottom,
  all encircled by a green garland

*Belize, Economy

Overview:
  The economy is based primarily on agriculture, agro-based industry, and
  merchandising, with tourism and construction assuming increasing importance.
  Agriculture accounts for about 30% of GDP and provides 75% of export
  earnings, while sugar, the chief crop, accounts for almost 40% of hard
  currency earnings. The US, Belize's main trading partner, is assisting in
  efforts to reduce dependency on sugar with an agricultural diversification
  program.
National product:
  GDP - exchange rate conversion - $373 million (1990 est.)
National product real growth rate:
  10% (1990)
National product per capita:
  $1,635 (1990 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  5.5% (1991)
Unemployment rate:
  12% (1991 est.)
Budget:
  revenues $126.8 million; expenditures $123.1 million, including capital
  expenditures of $44.8 million (FY91 est.)
Exports:
  $95.6 million (f.o.b., 1991)
 commodities:
  sugar, citrus, clothing, bananas, fish products, molasses
 partners:
  US 49%, UK, EC, Mexico (1991)
Imports:
  $194 million (c.i.f., 1991 est.)
 commodities:
  machinery and transportation equipment, food, manufactured goods, fuels,
  chemicals, pharmaceuticals
 partners:
  US 60%, UK, EC, Mexico (1991)
External debt:
  $143.7 million (1991)
Industrial production:
  growth rate 3.7% (1990); accounts for 12% of GDP
Electricity:
  34,532 kW capacity; 90 million kWh produced, 393 kWh per capita (1992)
Industries:
  garment production, citrus concentrates, sugar refining, rum, beverages,
  tourism
Agriculture:
  accounts for 22% of GDP (including fish and forestry); commercial crops
  include sugarcane, bananas, coca, citrus fruits; expanding output of lumber
  and cultured shrimp; net importer of basic foods
Illicit drugs:
  an illicit producer of cannabis for the international drug trade;
  eradication program cut marijuana production from 200 metric tons in 1987 to
  about 50 metric tons in 1991; transshipment point for cocaine
Economic aid:
  US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $104 million; Western (non-US)
  countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $215 million
Currency:
  1 Belizean dollar (Bz$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
  Belizean dollars (Bz$) per US$1 - 2.00 (fixed rate)

*Belize, Economy

Fiscal year:
  1 April - 31 March

*Belize, Communications

Highways:
  2,710 km total; 500 km paved, 1,600 km gravel, 300 km improved earth, and
  310 km unimproved earth
Inland waterways:
  825 km river network used by shallow-draft craft; seasonally navigable
Ports:
  Belize City; additional ports for shallow draught craft include Corozol,
  Punta Gorda, Big Creek
Merchant marine:
  4 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 9,768 GRT/12,721 DWT; includes 3 cargo,
  1 roll-on/roll-off
Airports:
 total:
  42
 usable:
  32
 with permanent-surface runways:
  3
 with runways over 3,659 m:
  0
 with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
  1
 with runways 1,229-2,439 mr:
  2
Telecommunications:
  8,650 telephones; above-average system based on microwave radio relay;
  broadcast stations - 6 AM, 5 FM, 1 TV, 1 shortwave; 1 Atlantic Ocean
  INTELSAT earth station

*Belize, Defense Forces

Branches:
  British Forces Belize, Belize Defense Force (including Army, Navy, Air
  Force, and Volunteer Guard), Belize National Police
Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49 47,135; fit for military service 28,070; reach military age
  (18) annually 2,066 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:   exchange rate conversion - $5.4 million, 2% of GDP (1992)

*Benin, Geography

Location:
  Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean between Nigeria and Togo
Map references:
  Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
 total area:
  112,620 km2
 land area:
  110,620 km2
 comparative area:
  slightly smaller than Pennsylvania
Land boundaries:
  total 1,989 km, Burkina 306 km, Niger 266 km, Nigeria 773 km, Togo 644 km
Coastline:
  121 km
Maritime claims:
 territorial sea:
  200 nm
International disputes:
  none
Climate:
  tropical; hot, humid in south; semiarid in north
Terrain:
  mostly flat to undulating plain; some hills and low mountains
Natural resources:
  small offshore oil deposits, limestone, marble, timber
Land use:
 arable land:
  12%
 permanent crops:
  4%
 meadows and pastures:
  4%
 forest and woodland:
  35%
 other:
  45%
Irrigated land:
  60 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
  hot, dry, dusty harmattan wind may affect north in winter; deforestation;
  desertification
Note:
  recent droughts have severely affected marginal agriculture in north; no
  natural harbors

*Benin, People

Population:
  5,166,735 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
  3.33% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
  48.09 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
  14.8 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
  112.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
 total population:
  51.31 years
 male:
  49.51 years
 female:
  53.16 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
  6.86 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
 noun:
  Beninese (singular and plural)
 adjective:
  Beninese
Ethnic divisions:
  African 99% (42 ethnic groups, most important being Fon, Adja, Yoruba,
  Bariba), Europeans 5,500
Religions:
  indigenous beliefs 70%, Muslim 15%, Christian 15%
Languages:
  French (official), Fon and Yoruba (most common vernaculars in south), tribal
  languages (at least six major ones in north)
Literacy:
  age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
 total population:
  23%
 male:
  32%
 female:
  16%
Labor force:
  1.9 million (1987)
 by occupation:
  agriculture 60%, transport, commerce, and public services 38%, industry less
  than 2%
 note:
  49% of population of working age (1985)

*Benin, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:   Republic of Benin
 conventional short form:
  Benin
 local long form:
  Republique Populaire du Benin
 local short form:
  Benin
 former:
  Dahomey
Digraph:
  BN
Type:
  republic under multiparty democratic rule dropped Marxism-Leninism December
  1989; democratic reforms adopted February 1990; transition to multiparty
  system completed 4 April 1991
Capital:
  Porto-Novo
Administrative divisions:
  6 provinces; Atakora, Atlantique, Borgou, Mono, Oueme, Zou
Independence:
  1 August 1960 (from France)
Constitution:
  2 December 1990
Legal system:
  based on French civil law and customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
  jurisdiction
National holiday:
  National Day, 1 August (1990)
Political parties and leaders:
  Alliance of the Democratic Union for the Forces of Progress (UDFP), Timothee
  ADANLIN; Movement for Democracy and Social Progress (MDPS), Jean-Roger
  AHOYO; Union for Liberty and Development (ULD), Marcellin DEGBE; Alliance of
  the National Party for Democracy and Development (PNDD) and the Democratic
  Renewal Party (PRD), Pascal Chabi KAO; Alliance of the Social Democratic
  Party (PSD) and the National Union for Solidarity and Progress (UNSP), Bruno
  AMOUSSOU; Our Common Cause (NCC), Albert TEVOEDJRE; National Rally for
  Democracy (RND), Joseph KEKE; Alliance of the National Movement for
  Democracy and Development (MNDD), leader NA; Movement for Solidarity, Union,
  and Progress (MSUP), Adebo ADENIYI; Union for Democracy and National
  Reconstruction (UDRN), Azaria FAKOREDE; Union for Democracy and National
  Solidarity (UDS), Mama Amadou N'DIAYE; Assembly of Liberal Democrats for
  National Reconstruction (RDL), Severin ADJOVI; Alliance of the Alliance for
  Social Democracy (ASD), Robert DOSSOU; Bloc for Social Democracy (BSD),
  Michel MAGNIDE; Alliance of the Alliance for Democracy and Progress (ADP),
  Akindes ADEKPEDJOU; Democratic Union for Social Renewal (UDRS), Bio Gado
  Seko N'GOYE; National Union for Democracy and Progress (UNDP), Robert
  TAGNON; Party for Progress and Democracy, Theophile NATA; numerous other
  small parties
Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal
Elections:
 National Assembly:
  last held 10 and 24 March 1991; results - percent of vote by party NA; seats
  - (64 total) UDFP-MDPS-ULD 12, PNDD/PRD 9, PSD/UNSP 8, NCC 7, RND 7,
  MNDD/MSUP/UDRN 6, UDS 5, RDL 4, ASD/BSD 3, ADP/UDRS 2, UNDP 1

*Benin, Government

 President:
  last held 10 and 24 March 1991; results - Nicephore SOGLO 68%, Mathieu
  KEREKOU 32%
Executive branch:
  president, cabinet
Legislative branch:
  unicameral National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale)
Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)
Leaders:
 Chief of State and Head of Government:
  President Nicephore SOGLO (since 4 April 1991)
Member of:
  ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CEAO, ECA, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, GATT, IBRD,
  ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU,
  LORCS, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WADB, WCL, WHO, WIPO,
  WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador Candide AHOUANSOU
 chancery:
  2737 Cathedral Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
 telephone:
  (202) 232-6656
US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador Ruth A. DAVIS
 embassy:
  Rue Caporal Anani Bernard, Cotonou
 mailing address:
  B. P. 2012, Cotonou
 telephone:
  [229] 30-06-50, 30-05-13, 30-17-92
 FAX:
  [229] 30-14-39 and 30-19-74
Flag:
  two equal horizontal bands of yellow (top) and red with a vertical green
  band on the hoist side

*Benin, Economy

Overview:
  Benin is one of the least developed countries in the world because of
  limited natural resources and a poorly developed infrastructure. Agriculture
  accounts for about 35% of GDP, employs about 60% of the labor force, and
  generates a major share of foreign exchange earnings. The industrial sector
  contributes only about 15% to GDP and employs 2% of the work force. Low
  prices in recent years have kept down hard currency earnings from Benin's
  major exports of agricultural products and crude oil.
National product:   GDP - exchange rate conversion - $2 billion (1991)
National product real growth rate:
  3% (1991)
National product per capita:
  $410 (1991)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  3.4% (1990)
Unemployment rate:
  NA%
Budget:
  revenues $194 million; expenditures $390 million, including capital
  expenditures of $104 million (1990 est.)
Exports:
  $263.3 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.)
 commodities:
  crude oil, cotton, palm products, cocoa
 partners:
  FRG 36%, France 16%, Spain 14%, Italy 8%, UK 4%
Imports:
  $428 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.)
 commodities:
  foodstuffs, beverages, tobacco, petroleum products, intermediate goods,
  capital goods, light consumer goods
 partners:
  France 34%, Netherlands 10%, Japan 7%, Italy 6%, US 4%
External debt:
  $1 billion (December 1990 est.)
Industrial production:
  growth rate -0.7% (1988); accounts for 15% of GDP
Electricity:
  30,000 kW capacity; 25 million kWh produced, 5 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
  textiles, cigarettes, construction materials, beverages, food production,
  petroleum
Agriculture:
  accounts for 35% of GDP; small farms produce 90% of agricultural output;
  production is dominated by food crops - corn, sorghum, cassava, beans, rice;
  cash crops include cotton, palm oil, peanuts; poultry and livestock output
  has not kept up with consumption
Economic aid:
  US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $46 million; Western (non-US)
  countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $1,300 million; OPEC
  bilateral aid (1979-89), $19 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $101
  million
Currency:
  1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
  Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 274.06 (January
  1993), 264.69 (1992), 282.11 (1991), 272.26 (1990), 319.01 (1989), 297.85
  (1988)

*Benin, Economy

Fiscal year:   calendar year

*Benin, Communications

Railroads:
  578 km, all 1.000-meter gauge, single track
Highways:
  5,050 km total; 920 km paved, 2,600 laterite, 1,530 km improved earth
Inland waterways:
  navigable along small sections, important only locally
Ports:
  Cotonou
Airports:
 total:
  7
 usable:
  5
 with permanent-surface runways:
  1
 with runways over 3,659 m:
  0
 with runways 2,439-3,659 m:
  1
 with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
  2
Telecommunications:
  fair system of open wire, submarine cable, and radio relay microwave;
  broadcast stations - 2 AM, 2 FM, 2 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth
  station

*Benin, Defense Forces

Branches:
  Armed Forces (including Army, Navy, Air Force), National Gendarmerie
Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49 1,075,053; females age 15-49 1,170,693; males fit for
  military service 550,645; females fit for military service 591,506; males
  reach military age (18) annually 56,872; females reach military age (18)
  annually 55,141 (1993 est.); both sexes are liable for military service
Defense expenditures:
  exchange rate conversion - $29 million, 1.7% of GDP (1988 est.)

*Bermuda, Header

Affiliation:
  (dependent territory of the UK)

*Bermuda, Geography

Location:
  in the western North Atlantic Ocean, 1,050 km east of North Carolina
Map references:
  North America
Area:
 total area:
  50 km2
 land area:
  50 km2
 comparative area:
  about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
  0 km
Coastline:
  103 km
Maritime claims:
 exclusive fishing zone:
  200 nm
 territorial sea:
  12 nm
International disputes:
  none
Climate:
  subtropical; mild, humid; gales, strong winds common in winter
Terrain:
  low hills separated by fertile depressions
Natural resources:
  limestone, pleasant climate fostering tourism
Land use:
 arable land:
  0%
 permanent crops:
  0%
 meadows and pastures:
  0%
 forest and woodland:
  20%
 other:
  80%
Irrigated land:
  NA km2
Environment:
  ample rainfall, but no rivers or freshwater lakes; consists of about 360
  small coral islands
Note:
  some reclaimed land leased by US Government

*Bermuda, People

Population:
  60,686 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
  0.78% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
  15.21 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
  7.3 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
  -0.13 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
  13.16 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
 total population:
  75.03 years
 male:
  73.36 years
 female:
  76.97 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
  1.82 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
 noun:
  Bermudian(s)
 adjective:
  Bermudian
Ethnic divisions:
  black 61%, white and other 39%
Religions:
  Anglican 37%, Roman Catholic 14%, African Methodist Episcopal (Zion) 10%,
  Methodist 6%, Seventh-Day Adventist 5%, other 28%
Languages:
  English
Literacy:
  age 15 and over can read and write (1970)
 total population:
  98%
 male:
  98%
 female:
  99%
Labor force:
  32,000
 by occupation:
  clerical 25%, services 22%, laborers 21%, professional and technical 13%,
  administrative and managerial 10%, sales 7%, agriculture and fishing 2%
  (1984)

*Bermuda, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  none
 conventional short form:
  Bermuda
Digraph:
  BD
Type:   dependent territory of the UK
Capital:
  Hamilton
Administrative divisions:
  9 parishes and 2 municipalities*; Devonshire, Hamilton, Hamilton*, Paget,,   Pembroke, Saint
George*, Saint Georges, Sandys, Smiths, Southampton, Warwick, Independence:
  none (dependent territory of the UK)
Constitution:
  8 June 1968
Legal system:
  English law
National holiday:
  Bermuda Day, 22 May
Political parties and leaders:
  United Bermuda Party (UBP), John W. D. SWAN; Progressive Labor Party (PLP),
  Frederick WADE; National Liberal Party (NLP), Gilbert DARRELL
Other political or pressure groups:
  Bermuda Industrial Union (BIU), Ottiwell SIMMONS
Suffrage:
  21 years of age; universal
Elections:
 House of Assembly:
  last held 9 February 1989 (next to be held by February 1994); results -
  percent of vote by party NA; seats - (40 total) UBP 23, PLP 15, NLP 1, other
  1
Executive branch:
  British monarch, governor, deputy governor, premier, deputy premier,
  Executive Council (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
  bicameral Parliament consists of an upper house or Senate and a lower house
  or House of Assembly
Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court
Leaders:
 Chief of State:
  Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor Lord
  David WADDINGTON (since NA)
 Head of Government:
  Premier John William David SWAN (since NA January 1982)
Member of:
  CARICOM (observer), CCC, ICFTU, INTERPOL (subbureau), IOC
Diplomatic representation in US:
  as a dependent territory of the UK, Bermuda's interests in the US are
  represented by the UK
US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission:
  Consul General L. Ebersole GAINES
 consulate general:
  Crown Hill, 16 Middle Road, Devonshire, Hamilton

*Bermuda, Government

 mailing address:   P. O. Box HM325, Hamilton HMBX; PSC 1002, FPO AE 09727-1002
 telephone:
  (809) 295-1342
 FAX:
  (809) 295-1592
Flag:
  red with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the
  Bermudian coat of arms (white and blue shield with a red lion holding a
  scrolled shield showing the sinking of the ship Sea Venture off Bermuda in
  1609) centered on the outer half of the flag

*Bermuda, Economy

Overview:
  Bermuda enjoys one of the highest per capita incomes in the world, having
  successfully exploited its location by providing luxury tourist facilities
  and financial services. The tourist industry attracts more than 90% of its
  business from North America. The industrial sector is small, and agriculture
  is severely limited by a lack of suitable land. About 80% of food needs are
  imported.
National product:
  GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $1.3 billion (1991)
National product real growth rate:
  -1.5% (1991)
National product per capita:
  $22,000 (1991)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  4.4% (1991)
Unemployment rate:
  6% (1991)
Budget:
  revenues $327.5 million; expenditures $308.9 million, including capital
  expenditures of $35.4 million (FY91 est.)
Exports:
  $50 million (f.o.b., FY89)
 commodities:
  semitropical produce, light manufactures, re-exports of pharmaceuticals
 partners:
  US 55%, UK 32%, Canada 11%, other 2%
Imports:
  527.2 million (f.o.b., FY89)
 commodities:
  fuel, foodstuffs, machinery
 partners:
  US 60%, UK 8%, Venezuela 7%, Canada 5%, Japan 5%, other 15%
External debt:
  $NA
Industrial production:
  growth rate NA%
Electricity:
  154,000 kW capacity; 504 million kWh produced, 8,370 kWh per capita (1992)
Industries:
  tourism, finance, structural concrete products, paints, pharmaceuticals,
  ship repairing
Agriculture:
  accounts for less than 1% of GDP; most basic foods must be imported;
  produces bananas, vegetables, citrus fruits, flowers, dairy products
Economic aid:
  US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-81), $34 million; Western (non-US)
  countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $277 million
Currency:
  1 Bermudian dollar (Bd$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
  Bermudian dollar (Bd$) per US$1 - 1.0000 (fixed rate)
Fiscal year:
  1 April - 31 March

*Bermuda, Communications

Highways:
  210 km public roads, all paved (about 400 km of private roads)
Ports:
  Freeport, Hamilton, Saint George
Merchant marine:
  72 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,451.099 GRT/5,937,636 DWT; includes
  5 cargo, 5 refrigerated cargo, 5 container, 7 roll-on/roll-off, 21 oil
  tanker, 13 liquefied gas, 16 bulk; note - a flag of convenience registry
Airports:
 total:
  1
 usable:
  1
 with permanent-surface runways:
  1
 with runways over 3,659 m:
  0
 with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
  1
 with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
  0
Telecommunications:
  modern with fully automatic telephone system; 52,670 telephones; broadcast
  stations - 5 AM, 3 FM, 2 TV; 3 submarine cables; 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT
  earth stations

*Bermuda, Defense Forces

Branches:
  Bermuda Regiment, Bermuda Police Force, Bermuda Reserve Constabulary
Note:
  defense is the responsibility of the UK

*Bhutan, Geography

Location:
  South Asia, in the Himalayas, between China and India
Map references:
  Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
 total area:
  47,000 km2
 land area:
  47,000 km2
 comparative area:
  slightly more than half the size of Indiana
Land boundaries:
  total 1,075 km, China 470 km, India 605 km
Coastline:
  0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
  none; landlocked
International disputes:
  none
Climate:
  varies; tropical in southern plains; cool winters and hot summers in central
  valleys; severe winters and cool summers in Himalayas
Terrain:
  mostly mountainous with some fertile valleys and savanna
Natural resources:
  timber, hydropower, gypsum, calcium carbide, tourism potential
Land use:
 arable land:
  2%
 permanent crops:
  0%
 meadows and pastures:
  5%
 forest and woodland:
  70%
 other:
  23%
Irrigated land:
  340 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
  violent storms coming down from the Himalayas were the source of the country
  name which translates as Land of the Thunder Dragon
Note:
  landlocked; strategic location between China and India; controls several key
  Himalayan mountain passes

*Bhutan, People

Population:
  700,000 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
  2.33% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
  39.59 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
  16.26 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
  123.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
 total population:
  50.17 years
 male:
  50.74 years
 female:
  49.58 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
  5.45 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
 noun:
  Bhutanese (singular and plural)
 adjective:
  Bhutanese
Ethnic divisions:
  Bhote 50%, ethnic Nepalese 35%, indigenous or migrant tribes 15%
Religions:
  Lamaistic Buddhism 75%, Indian- and Nepalese-influenced Hinduism 25%
Languages:
  Dzongkha (official), Bhotes speak various Tibetan dialects; Nepalese speak
  various Nepalese dialects
Literacy:
 total population:
  NA%
 male:
  NA%
 female:
  NA%
Labor force:
  NA
 by occupation:
  agriculture 93%, services 5%, industry and commerce 2%
 note:
  massive lack of skilled labor

*Bhutan, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  Kingdom of Bhutan
 conventional short form:
  Bhutan
Digraph:
  BT
Type:
  monarchy; special treaty relationship with India
Capital:
  Thimphu
Administrative divisions:
  18 districts (dzongkhag, singular and plural); Bumthang, Chhukha, Chirang,
  Daga, Geylegphug, Ha, Lhuntshi, Mongar, Paro, Pemagatsel, Punakha, Samchi,
  Samdrup Jongkhar, Shemgang, Tashigang, Thimphu, Tongsa, Wangdi Phodrang
Independence:
  8 August 1949 (from India)
Constitution:
  no written constitution or bill of rights
Legal system:
  based on Indian law and English common law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
  jurisdiction
National holiday:
  National Day, 17 December (1907) (Ugyen Wangchuck became first hereditary
  king)
Political parties and leaders:
  no legal parties
Other political or pressure groups:
  Buddhist clergy; Indian merchant community; ethnic Nepalese organizations
  leading militant antigovernment campaign
Suffrage:
  each family has one vote in village-level elections
Elections:
  no national elections
Executive branch:
  monarch, chairman of the Royal Advisory Council, Royal Advisory Council
  (Lodoi Tsokde), chairman of the Council of Ministers, Council of Ministers
  (Lhengye Shungtsog)
Legislative branch:
  unicameral National Assembly (Tshogdu)
Judicial branch:
  High Court
Leaders:
 Chief of State and Head of Government:
  King Jigme Singye WANGCHUCK (since 24 July 1972)
Member of:
  AsDB, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IMF, INTELSAT, IOC, ITU,
  NAM, SAARC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO
Diplomatic representation in US:
  no formal diplomatic relations; the Bhutanese mission to the UN in New York
  has consular jurisdiction in the US
US diplomatic representation:
  no formal diplomatic relations, although informal contact is maintained
  between the Bhutanese and US Embassies in New Delhi (India)
Flag:
  divided diagonally from the lower hoist side corner; the upper triangle is
  orange and the lower triangle is red; centered along the dividing line is a
  large black and white dragon facing away from the hoist side

*Bhutan, Economy

Overview:
  The economy, one of the world's least developed, is based on agriculture and
  forestry, which provide the main livelihood for 90% of the population and
  account for about 50% of GDP. Rugged mountains dominate the terrain and make
  the building of roads and other infrastructure difficult and expensive. The
  economy is closely aligned with that of India through strong trade and
  monetary links. The industrial sector is small and technologically backward,
  with most production of the cottage industry type. Most development
  projects, such as road construction, rely on Indian migrant labor. Bhutan's
  hydropower potential and its attraction for tourists are its most important
  natural resources; however, the government limits the number of tourists to
  3,000/year to minimize foreign influence.
National product:
  GDP - exchange rate conversion - $320 million (1991 est.)
National product real growth rate:
  3.1% (1991 est.)
National product per capita:
  $200 (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  10% (FY91 est.)
Unemployment rate:
  NA%
Budget:
  revenues $112 million; expenditures $121 million, including capital
  expenditures of $58 million (FY91 est.)
Exports:
  $74 million (f.o.b., FY91 est.)
 commodities:
  cardamon, gypsum, timber, handicrafts, cement, fruit, electricity (to India)
 partners:
  India 90%
Imports:
  $106.4 million (c.i.f., FY91 est.)
 commodities:
  fuel and lubricants, grain, machinery and parts, vehicles, fabrics
 partners:
  India 83%
External debt:
  $120 million (June 91)
Industrial production:
  growth rate NA%; accounts for 18% of GDP; primarily cottage industry and
  home based handicrafts
Electricity:
  336,000 kW capacity; 1,542.2 million kWh produced, 2,203 kWh per capita
  (25.8% is exported to India, leaving only 1,633 kWh per capita) (1990-91)
Industries:
  cement, wood products, processed fruits, alcoholic beverages, calcium
  carbide
Agriculture:
  accounts for 45% of GDP; based on subsistence farming and animal husbandry;
  self-sufficient in food except for foodgrains; other production - rice,
  corn, root crops, citrus fruit, dairy products, eggs
Economic aid:
  Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89),
  $115 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $11 million
Currency:
  1 ngultrum (Nu) = 100 chetrum; note - Indian currency is also legal tender

*Bhutan, Economy

Exchange rates:
  ngultrum (Nu) per US$1 - 26.156 (January 1993), 25.918 (1992), 22.742
  (1991), 17.504 (1990), 16.226 (1989), 13.917 (1988); note - the Bhutanese
  ngultrum is at par with the Indian rupee
Fiscal year:
  1 July - 30 June

*Bhutan, Communications

Highways:
  2,165 km total; 1,703 km surfaced
Airports:
 total:
  2
 usable:
  2
 with permanent-surface runways:
  1
 with runways over 3,659 m:
  0
 with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
  0
 with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
  2
Telecommunications:
  domestic telephone service is very poor with very few telephones in use;
  international telephone and telegraph service is by land line through India;
  a satellite earth station was planned (1990); broadcast stations - 1 AM, 1
  FM, no TV (1990)

*Bhutan, Defense Forces

Branches:
  Royal Bhutan Army, Palace Guard, Militia
Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49 415,315; fit for military service 222,027; reach military
  age (18) annually 17,344 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
  exchange rate conversion - $NA, NA% of GDP

*Bolivia, Geography

Location:
  Central South America, between Brazil and Chile
Map references:
  South America, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
 total area:   1,098,580 km2
 land area:
  1,084,390 km2
 comparative area:
  slightly less than three times the size of Montana
Land boundaries:
  total 6,743 km, Argentina 832 km, Brazil 3,400 km, Chile 861 km, Paraguay
  750 km, Peru 900 km
Coastline:
  0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
  none; landlocked
International disputes:
  has wanted a sovereign corridor to the South Pacific Ocean since the Atacama
  area was lost to Chile in 1884; dispute with Chile over Rio Lauca water
  rights
Climate:
  varies with altitude; humid and tropical to cold and semiarid
Terrain:
  rugged Andes Mountains with a highland plateau (Altiplano), hills, lowland
  plains of the Amazon basin
Natural resources:
  tin, natural gas, petroleum, zinc, tungsten, antimony, silver, iron ore,
  lead, gold, timber
Land use:
 arable land:
  3%
 permanent crops:
  0%
 meadows and pastures:
  25%
 forest and woodland:
  52%
 other:
  20%
Irrigated land:
  1,650 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
  cold, thin air of high plateau is obstacle to efficient fuel combustion;
  overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification
Note:
  landlocked; shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest navigable lake,
  with Peru

*Bolivia, People

Population:
  7,544,099 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
  2.31% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
  32.83 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
  8.63 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
  -1.06 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
  76.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
 total population:
  62.77 years
 male:
  60.34 years
 female:
  65.33 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
  4.31 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
 noun:
  Bolivian(s)
 adjective:
  Bolivian
Ethnic divisions:
  Quechua 30%, Aymara 25%, mixed 25-30%, European 5-15%
Religions:
  Roman Catholic 95%, Protestant (Evangelical Methodist)
Languages:
  Spanish (official), Quechua (official), Aymara (official)
Literacy:
  age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
 total population:
  78%
 male:
  85%
 female:
  71%
Labor force:
  1.7 million
 by occupation:
  agriculture 50%, services and utilities 26%, manufacturing 10%, mining 4%,
  other 10% (1983)

*Bolivia, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  Republic of Bolivia
 conventional short form:
  Bolivia
 local long form:
  Republica de Bolivia
 local short form:
  Bolivia
Digraph:
  BL
Type:
  republic
Capital:   La Paz (seat of government); Sucre (legal capital and seat of judiciary)
Administrative divisions:
  9 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Chuquisaca,
  Cochabamba, Beni, La Paz, Oruro, Pando, Potosi, Santa Cruz, Tarija
Independence:
  6 August 1825 (from Spain)
Constitution:
  2 February 1967
Legal system:
  based on Spanish law and Code Napoleon; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
  jurisdiction
National holiday:
  Independence Day, 6 August (1825)
Political parties and leaders:
  Movement of the Revolutionary Left (MIR), Jaime PAZ Zamora; Nationalist
  Democratic Action (ADN), Hugo BANZER Suarez; Nationalist Revolutionary
  Movement (MNR), Gonzalo SANCHEZ de Lozada; Civic Solidarity Union (UCS), Max
  FERNANDEZ Rojas; Conscience of the Fatherland (CONDEPA), Carlos PALENQUE
  Aviles; Christian Democratic Party (PDC), Jorge AGREDO; Free Bolivia
  Movement (MBL), Antonio ARANIBAR; United Left (IU), a coalition of leftist
  parties that includes Patriotic National Convergency Axis (EJE-P), Walter
  DELGADILLO and Bolivian Communist Party (PCB), Humberto RAMIREZ;
  Revolutionary Vanguard - 9th of April (VR-9), Carlos SERRATE Reich
Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal and compulsory (married) 21 years of age;
  universal and compulsory (single)
Elections:
 Chamber of Deputies:
  last held 7 May 1989 (next to be held 6 June 1993); results - percent of
  vote by party NA; note - legislative and presidential candidates run on a
  unified slate, so vote percentages are the same as in section on
  presidential election results; seats - (130 total) MNR 40, ADN 35, MIR 33,
  IU 10, CONDEPA 9, PDC 3
 Chamber of Senators:
  last held 7 May 1989 (next to be held 6 June 1993); results - percent of
  vote by party NA; note - legislative and presidential candidates run on a
  unified slate, so vote percentages are the same as in section on
  presidential election results; seats - (27 total) MNR 9, ADN 7, MIR 8,
  CONDEPA 2, PDC 1

*Bolivia, Government

 President:
  last held 7 May 1989 (next to be held 6 June 1993); results - Gonzalo
  SANCHEZ de Lozada (MNR) 23%, Hugo BANZER Suarez (ADN) 22%, Jaime PAZ Zamora
  (MIR) 19%; no candidate received a majority of the popular vote; Jaime PAZ
  Zamora (MIR) formed a coalition with Hugo BANZER (ADN); with ADN support,
  PAZ Zamora won the congressional runoff election on 4 August and was
  inaugurated on 6 August 1989
Executive branch:
  president, vice president, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
  bicameral National Congress (Congreso Nacional) consists of an upper chamber
  or Chamber of Senators (Camara de Senadores) and a lower chamber or Chamber
  of Deputies (Camara de Diputados)
Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court (Corte Suprema)
Leaders:
 Chief of State and Head of Government:
  President Jaime PAZ Zamora (since 6 August 1989); Vice President Luis OSSIO
  Sanjines (since 6 August 1989)
Member of:
  AG, ECLAC, FAO, GATT, G-11, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC,
  ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES, LAIA, LORCS, NAM,
  OAS, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WMO,
  WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador Jorge CRESPO
 chancery:
  3014 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
 telephone:
  (202) 483-4410 through 4412
 consulates general:
  Los Angeles, Miami, New York, and San Francisco
US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador Charles R. BOWERS
 embassy:
  Banco Popular del Peru Building, corner of Calles Mercado y Colon, La Paz
 mailing address:
  P. O. Box 425, La Paz, or APO AA 34032
 telephone:
  [591] (2) 350251 or 350120
 FAX:
  [591] (2) 359875
Flag:
  three equal horizontal bands of red (top), yellow, and green with the coat
  of arms centered on the yellow band; similar to the flag of Ghana, which has
  a large black five-pointed star centered in the yellow band

*Bolivia, Economy

Overview:
  With its long history of semifeudalistic social controls, dependence on
  volatile prices for its mineral exports, and bouts of hyperinflation,
  Bolivia has remained one of the poorest and least developed Latin American
  countries. Since August 1989, President PAZ Zamora, despite his Marxist
  origins, has maintained a moderate policy of repressing domestic terrorism,
  containing inflation, and achieving annual GDP growth of 3 to 4%. For many
  farmers, who constitute half of the country's work force, the main cash crop
  is coca, which is sold for cocaine processing.
National product:
  GDP - exchange rate conversion - $4.9 billion (1992)
National product real growth rate:
  3.8% (1992)
National product per capita:
  $670 (1992)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  10.5% (December 1992)
Unemployment rate:
  5% (1992)
Budget:
  revenues $1.5 billion; expenditures $1.57 billion, including capital
  expenditures of $627 million (1993 est.)
Exports:
  $609 million (f.o.b., 1992)
 commodities:
  metals 46%, hydrocarbons 21%, other 33% (coffee, soybeans, sugar, cotton,
  timber)
 partners:
  US 15%, Argentina
Imports:
  1.185 billion (c.i.f., 1992)
 commodities:
  food, petroleum, consumer goods, capital goods
 partners:
  US 22%
External debt:
  $3.7 billion (December 1992)
Industrial production:
  growth rate 7% (1992); accounts for almost 32% of GDP
Electricity:
  865,000 kW capacity; 1,834 million kWh produced, 250 kWh per capita (1992)
Industries:
  mining, smelting, petroleum, food and beverage, tobacco, handicrafts,
  clothing; illicit drug industry reportedly produces 15% of its revenues
Agriculture:
  accounts for about 21% of GDP (including forestry and fisheries); principal
  commodities - coffee, coca, cotton, corn, sugarcane, rice, potatoes, timber;
  self-sufficient in food
Illicit drugs:
  world's second-largest producer of coca (after Peru) with an estimated
  47,900 hectares under cultivation; voluntary and forced eradication program
  unable to prevent production from rising to 82,000 metric tons in 1992 from
  74,700 tons in 1989; government considers all but 12,000 hectares illicit;
  intermediate coca products and cocaine exported to or through Colombia and
  Brazil to the US and other international drug markets
Economic aid:
  US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $990 million; Western (non-US)
  countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $2,025 million;
  Communist countries (1970-89), $340 million

*Bolivia, Economy

Currency:
  1 boliviano ($B) = 100 centavos
Exchange rates:
  bolivianos ($B) per US$1 - 3.9437 (August 1992), 3.85 (1992), 3.5806 (1991),
  3.1727 (1990), 2.6917 (1989), 2.3502 (1988), 2.0549 (1987)
Fiscal year:
  calendar year

*Bolivia, Communications

Railroads:
  3,684 km total, all narrow gauge; 3,652 km 1.000-meter gauge and 32 km
  0.760-meter gauge, all government owned, single track
Highways:
  38,836 km total; 1,300 km paved, 6,700 km gravel, 30,836 km improved and
  unimproved earth
Inland waterways:
  10,000 km of commercially navigable waterways
Pipelines:
  crude oil 1,800 km; petroleum products 580 km; natural gas 1,495 km
Ports:
  none; maritime outlets are Arica and Antofagasta in Chile, Matarani and Ilo
  in Peru
Merchant marine:
  2 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 14,051 GRT/22,155 DWT
Airports:
 total:
  1,225
 usable:
  1,043
 with permanent-surface runways:
  9
 with runways over 3,659 m:
  2
 with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
  7
 with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
  161
Telecommunications:
  microwave radio relay system being expanded; improved international
  services; 144,300 telephones; broadcast stations - 129 AM, no FM, 43 TV, 68
  shortwave; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

*Bolivia, Defense Forces

Branches:
  Army (Ejercito Boliviano), Navy includes Marines (Fuerza Navala), Air Force
  (Fuerza Aereo de Bolivia), National Police Force (Boliviano Policia
  Nacional)
Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49 1,786,137; fit for military service 1,162,160; reach
  military age (19) annually 78,125 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
  exchange rate conversion - $80 million, 1.6% of GDP (1990 est.)

*Bosnia and Herzegovina, Header

Note:
  Bosnia and Herzegovina is suffering from interethnic civil strife which
  began in March 1992 after the Bosnian Government held a referendum on
  independence. Bosnia's Serbs - supported by neighboring Serbia - responded
  with armed resistance aimed at partitioning the republic along ethnic lines
  and joining Serb held areas to a "greater Serbia". Since the onset of the
  conflict, which has driven approximately half of the pre-war population of
  4.4 million from their homes, both the Bosnian Serbs and the Bosnian Croats
  have asserted control of more than three-quarters of the territory formerly
  under the control of the Bosnian Government. The UN and the EC are
  continuing to try to mediate a plan for peace.

*Bosnia and Herzegovina, Geography

Location:
  Southeastern Europe, on the Balkan Peninsula, between Croatia and Serbia and
  Montenegro
Map references:
  Africa, Arctic Region, Ethnic Groups in Eastern Europe, Europe, Standard
  Time Zones of the World
Area:
 total area:
  51,233 km2
 land area:
  51,233 km2
 comparative area:
  slightly larger than Tennessee
Land boundaries:
  total 1,369 km, Croatia (northwest) 751 km, Croatia (south) 91 km, Serbia
  and Montenegro 527 km (312 km with Serbia; 215 km with Montenegro)
Coastline:
  20 km
Maritime claims:
 continental shelf:
  200 m depth
 exclusive economic zone:
  12 nm
 exclusive fishing zone:
  12 nm
 territorial sea:
  12 nm
International disputes:
  Serbia and Montenegro and Croatia seek to cantonize Bosnia and Herzegovina;
  Muslim majority being forced from many areas
Climate:
  hot summers and cold winters; areas of high elevation have short, cool
  summers and long, severe winters; mild, rainy winters along coast
Terrain:
  mountains and valleys
Natural resources:
  coal, iron, bauxite, manganese, timber, wood products, copper, chromium,
  lead, zinc
Land use:
 arable land:   20%
 permanent crops:
  2%
 meadows and pastures:
  25%
 forest and woodland:
  36%
 other:
  17%
Irrigated land:
  NA km2
Environment:
  air pollution from metallurgical plants; water scarce; sites for disposing
  of urban waste are limited; subject to frequent and destructive earthquakes

*Bosnia and Herzegovina, People

Population:
  4,618,804 (July 1993 est.)
 note:
  all data dealing with population is subject to considerable error because of
  the dislocations caused by military action and ethnic cleansing
Population growth rate:
  0.72% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
  13.54 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
  6.38 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
  13.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
 total population:
  74.8 years
 male:
  72.11 years
 female:
  77.67 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
  1.62 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
 noun:
  Bosnian(s), Herzegovinian(s)
 adjective:
  Bosnian, Herzegovinian
Ethnic divisions:
  Muslim 44%, Serb 31%, Croat 17%, other 8%
Religions:
  Muslim 40%, Orthodox 31%, Catholic 15%, Protestant 4%, other 10%
Languages:
  Serbo-Croatian 99%
Literacy:
 total population:   NA%
 male:
  NA%
 female:
  NA%
Labor force:
  1,026,254
 by occupation:
  agriculture 2%, industry, mining 45% (1991 est.)

*Bosnia and Herzegovina, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina
 conventional short form:
  Bosnia and Herzegovina
 local long form:
  Republika Bosna i Hercegovina
 local short form:
  Bosna i Hercegovina
Digraph:
  BK
Type:
  emerging democracy
Capital:
  Sarajevo
Administrative divisions:
  109 districts (opcine, singular - opcina) Banovici, Banja Luka, Bihac,
  Bijeljina, Bileca, Bosanska Dubica, Bosanska Graaiskia, Bosanska Krupa,
  Bosanski Brod, Bosanski Novi, Bosanski Petrovac, Bosanski Samac, Bosansko
  Grahovo, Bratunac, Brcko, Breza, Bugojno, Busovaca, Cazin, Cajilice,
  Capljina, Celinac, Citluk, Derventa, Duboj, Donji Vakuf, Foca, Fojnica,
  Gacko, Glamoc, Gorazde Gornji Vakuf, Gracanica, Gradacac, Grude, Han Pijesak
  Jablanica, Jajce, Kakanj, Kalesija, Kalinovik, Kiseljak, Kladanj, Kljuc,
  Konjic, Kotor Varos, Kresevo, Kupres, Laktasi, Listica, Livno, Lopare,
  Lukavac, Ljubinje, Ljubuski, Maglaj, Modrica, Mostar, Mrkonjic Grad, Neum,
  Nevesinje, Odzak, Olovo, Orasje, Posusje, Prijedor, Prnjavor, Prozor,
  (Pucarevo) Novi Travnik, Rogatica, Rudo, Sanski Most, Sarajevo-Centar,
  Sarajevo-Hadzici, Sarajevo-Ilidza, Sarajevo-Ilijas, Sarajevo-Novi Grad,
  Sarajevo-Novo, Sarajevo-Pale, Sarajevo-Stari Grad, Sarajevo-Trnovo,
  Sarajevo-Vogosca, Skender Vakuf, Sokolac, Srbac, Srebrenica, Srebrenik,
  Stoloc, Sekovici, Sipovo, Teslic, Tesanj, (Titov Drvar) Drvar, Duvno,
  Travnik, Trebinje, Tuzla, Ugljevik, Vare, Velika Kladusa, Visoko, Visegrad,
  Vitez Vlasenica, Zavidovici, Zenica, Zvornik, Zepce, Zivinice
 note:
  currently under negotiation with the assistance of international mediators
Independence:
  NA April 1992 (from Yugoslavia)
Constitution:
  NA
Legal system:
  based on civil law system
National holiday:   NA
Political parties and leaders:
  Party of Democratic Action (SDA), Mirsad CEMAN; Croatian Democratic Union of
  Bosnia and Herzegovina (HDZ BiH), Mate BOBAN; Serbian Democratic Party of
  Bosnia and Herzegovina (SDS BiH), Radovan KARADZIC, president;
  Muslim-Bosnian Organization (MBO), Adil ZULFIKARPASIC, president; Democratic
  Party of Socialists (DSS), Nijaz DURAKOVIC, president; Party of Democratic
  Changes, leader NA; Serbian Movement for Renewal (SPO), Milan TRIVUNCIC;
  Alliance of Reform Forces of Yugoslavia for Bosnia and Herzegovina (SRSJ
  BiH), Dr. Nenad KECMANOVIC, president; Democratic League of Greens (DSZ),
  Drazen PETROVIC; Liberal Party (LS), Rasim KADIC, president
Other political or pressure groups:
  NA
Suffrage:
  16 years of age, if employed; 18 years of age, universal

*Bosnia and Herzegovina, Government

Elections:
 Chamber of Municipalities:
  last held November-December 1990 (next to be held NA); seats - (110 total)
  SDA 43, SDS BiH 38, HDZ BiH 23, Party of Democratic Changes 4, DSS 1, SPO 1
 Chamber of Citizens:
  last held NA 1990 (next to be held NA); seats - (130 total) SDA 43, SDS BiH
  34, HDZ BiH 21, Party of Democratic Changes 15, SRSJ BiH 12, MBO 2, DSS 1,
  DSZ 1, LS 1
Executive branch:
  collective presidency, prime minister, deputy prime ministers, cabinet
Legislative branch:
  bicameral National Assembly consists of an upper house or Chamber of
  Municipalities (Vijece Opeina) and a lower house or Chamber of Citizens
  (Vijece Gradanstvo)
Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court, Constitutional Court
Leaders:
 Chief of State:
  President Alija IZETBEGOVIC (since NA December 1990), other members of the
  collective presidency: Ejup GANIC (since NA), Miro LASIC (since NA December
  1992), Mirko PEJANOVIC (since NA), Tatjana LJUJIC-MIJATOVIC (since NA
  December 1992), Fikret ABDIC
 Head of Government:
  Prime Minister Mile AKMADZIC (since NA October 1992); Deputy Prime Minister
  Zlatko LAGUMDZIJA (since NA); Deputy Prime Minister Miodrag SIMOVIC (since
  NA); Deputy Prime Minister Hadzo EFENDIC (since NA)
Member of:
  CEI, CSCE, ECE, UN, UNCTAD, WHO
Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission:
  NA
 chancery:
  NA
 telephone:
  NA
US diplomatic representation:   the US maintains full diplomatic relations with Bosnia and
Herzegovina but
  has not yet established an embassy in Serajevo
Flag:
  white with a large blue shield; the shield contains white Roman crosses with
  a white diagonal band running from the upper hoist corner to the lower fly
  side

*Bosnia and Herzegovina, Economy

Overview:
  Bosnia and Herzegovina ranked next to Macedonia as the poorest republic in
  the old Yugoslav federation. Although agriculture has been almost all in
  private hands, farms have been small and inefficient, and the republic
  traditionally has been a net importer of food. Industry has been greatly
  overstaffed, one reflection of the rigidities of Communist central planning
  and management. Tito had pushed the development of military industries in
  the republic with the result that Bosnia hosted a large share of
  Yugoslavia's defense plants. As of March 1993, Bosnia and Herzegovina was
  being torn apart by the continued bitter interethnic warfare that has caused
  production to plummet, unemployment and inflation to soar, and human misery
  to multiply. No reliable economic statistics for 1992 are available,
  although output clearly fell below the already depressed 1991 level.
National product:
  GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $14 billion (1991 est.)
National product real growth rate:
  -37% (1991 est.)
National product per capita:
  $3,200 (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  80% per month (1991)
Unemployment rate:
  28% (February 1992 est.)
Budget:
  revenues $NA; expenditures $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports:
  $2,054 million (1990)
 commodities:
  manufactured goods 31%, machinery and transport equipment 20.8%, raw
  materials 18%, miscellaneous manufactured articles 17.3%, chemicals 9.4%,
  fuel and lubricants 1.4%, food and live animals 1.2%
 partners:
  principally the other former Yugoslav republics
Imports:
  $1,891 million (1990)
 commodities:
  fuels and lubricants 32%, machinery and transport equipment 23.3%, other
  manufactures 21.3%, chemicals 10%, raw materials 6.7%, food and live animals
  5.5%, beverages and tobacco 1.9%
 partners:
  principally the other former Yugoslav republics
External debt:
  $NA
Industrial production:
  growth rate NA%, but production is sharply down because of interethnic and
  interrepublic warfare (1991-92)
Electricity:
  3,800,000 kW capacity; 7,500 million kWh produced, 1,700 kWh per capita
  (1992)
Industries:
  steel production, mining (coal, iron ore, lead, zinc, manganese, and
  bauxite), manufacturing (vehicle assembly, textiles, tobacco products,
  wooden furniture, 40% of former Yugoslavia's armaments including tank and
  aircraft assembly, domestic appliances), oil refining

*Bosnia and Herzegovina, Economy

Agriculture:
  accounted for 9.0% of GDP in 1989; regularly produces less than 50% of food
  needs; the foothills of northern Bosnia support orchards, vineyards,
  livestock, and some wheat and corn; long winters and heavy precipitation
  leach soil fertility reducing agricultural output in the mountains; farms
  are mostly privately held, small, and not very productive
Illicit drugs:
  NA
Economic aid:
  $NA
Currency:
  Croatian dinar used in ethnic Croat areas, "Yugoslav" dinar used in all
  other areas
Exchange rates:
  NA
Fiscal year:
  calendar year

*Bosnia and Herzegovina, Communications

Railroads:
  NA km
Highways:
  21,168 km total (1991); 11,436 km paved, 8,146 km gravel, 1,586 km earth;
  note - highways now disrupted
Inland waterways:
  NA km
Pipelines:
  crude oil 174 km, natural gas 90 km (1992); note - pipelines now disrupted
Ports:
  coastal - none; inland - Bosanski Brod on the Sava River
Airports:
 total:
  27
 useable:
  22
 with permanent-surface runways:
  8
 with runways over 3659:
  0  with runways 2440-3659 m:
  4
 with runways 1220-2439 m:
  5
Telecommunications:
  telephone and telegraph network is in need of modernization and expansion,
  many urban areas being below average compared with services in other former
  Yugoslav republics; 727,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 9 AM, 2 FM, 6
  TV; 840,000 radios; 1,012,094 TVs; NA submarine coaxial cables; satellite
  ground stations - none

*Bosnia and Herzegovina, Defense Forces

Branches:
  Army
Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49 1,283,576; fit for military service 1,045,512; reach
  military age (19) annually 37,827 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
  $NA, NA% of GDP

*Botswana, Geography

Location:
  Southern Africa, north of South Africa
Map references:
  Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
 total area:
  600,370 km2
 land area:
  585,370 km2
 comparative area:
  slightly smaller than Texas
Land boundaries:
  total 4,013 km, Namibia 1,360 km, South Africa 1,840 km, Zimbabwe 813 km
Coastline:
  0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
  none; landlocked
International disputes:
  short section of boundary with Namibia is indefinite; disputed island with
  Namibia in the Chobe River; quadripoint with Namibia, Zambia, and Zimbabwe
  is in disagreement; recent dispute with Namibia over uninhabited Sidudu
  Island in Linyanti River
Climate:
  semiarid; warm winters and hot summers
Terrain:
  predominately flat to gently rolling tableland; Kalahari Desert in southwest
Natural resources:
  diamonds, copper, nickel, salt, soda ash, potash, coal, iron ore, silver
Land use:  arable land:
  2%
 permanent crops:
  0%
 meadows and pastures:
  75%
 forest and woodland:
  2%
 other:
  21%
Irrigated land:
  20 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
  overgrazing, desertification
Note:
  landlocked

*Botswana, People

Population:
  1,325,920 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
  2.53% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
  33.39 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
  8.05 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
  40.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
 total population:
  62.54 years
 male:
  59.52 years
 female:
  65.65 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
  4.25 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
 noun:
  Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)
 adjective:
  Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)
Ethnic divisions:
  Batswana 95%, Kalanga, Basarwa, and Kgalagadi 4%, white 1%
Religions:
  indigenous beliefs 50%, Christian 50%
Languages:
  English (official), Setswana
Literacy:
  age 15 and over able to read and write simple sentences (1990)
 total population:   72%
 male:
  67%
 female:
  74%
Labor force:
  400,000
 by occupation:
  198,500 formal sector employees, most others are engaged in cattle raising
  and subsistence agriculture (1990 est.); 14,600 are employed in various
  mines in South Africa (1990)

*Botswana, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  Republic of Botswana
 conventional short form:
  Botswana
 former:
  Bechuanaland
Digraph:
  BC
Type:
  parliamentary republic
Capital:
  Gaborone
Administrative divisions:
  10 districts; Central, Chobe, Ghanzi, Kgalagadi, Kgatleng, Kweneng,
  Ngamiland, North-East, South-East, Southern; in addition, there are 4 town
  councils - Francistown, Gaborone, Lobaste, Selebi-Phikwe
Independence:
  30 September 1966 (from UK)
Constitution:
  March 1965, effective 30 September 1966
Legal system:
  based on Roman-Dutch law and local customary law; judicial review limited to
  matters of interpretation; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
  Independence Day, 30 September (1966)
Political parties and leaders:
  Botswana Democratic Party (BDP), Sir Ketumile MASIRE; Botswana National
  Front (BNF), Kenneth KOMA; Boswana People's Party (BPP), Knight MARIPE;
  Botswana Independence Party (BIP), Motsamai MPHO
Suffrage:
  21 years of age; universal
Elections:
 National Assembly:
  last held 7 October 1989 (next to be held October 1994); results - percent
  of vote by party NA; seats - (38 total, 34 elected) BDP 35, BNF 3
 President:
  last held 7 October 1989 (next to be held October 1994); results - President
  Sir Ketumile MASIRE was reelected by the National Assembly
Executive branch:   president, vice president, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
  bicameral National Assembly consists of an upper house or House of Chiefs
  and a lower house or National Assembly
Judicial branch:
  High Court, Court of Appeal
Leaders:
 Chief of State and Head of Government:
  President Sir Ketunile MASIRE (since 13 July 1980); Vice President Festus
  MOGAE (since 9 March 1992 )
Member of:
  ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, FLS, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD,
  IFC, ILO, IMF, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, SACU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD,
  UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOMOZ, UPU, WCL, WHO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador Botsweletse Kingsley SEBELE
 chancery:
  Suite 7M, 3400 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008

*Botswana, Government

 telephone:
  (202) 244-4990 or 4991
US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador David PASSAGE
 embassy:
  address NA, Gaborone
 mailing address:
  P. O. Box 90, Gaborone
 telephone:
  [267] 353-982
 FAX:
  [267] 356-947
Flag:
  light blue with a horizontal white-edged black stripe in the center

*Botswana, Economy

Overview:
  The economy has historically been based on cattle raising and crops.
  Agriculture today provides a livelihood for more than 80% of the population,
  but produces only about 50% of food needs. The driving force behind the
  rapid economic growth of the 1970s and 1980s has been the mining industry.
  This sector, mostly on the strength of diamonds, has gone from generating
  25% of GDP in 1980 to 50% in 1991. No other sector has experienced such
  growth, especially not agriculture, which is plagued by erratic rainfall and
  poor soils. The unemployment rate remains a problem at 25%. Although diamond
  production was down slightly in 1992, substantial gains in coal output and
  manufacturing helped boost the economy
National product:   GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $3.6 billion (FY92 est.)
National product real growth rate:
  5.8% (FY92 est.)
National product per capita:
  $2,450 (FY92 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  16.5% (December 1992)
Unemployment rate:
  25% (1989)
Budget:
  revenues $1.7 billion; expenditures $1.99 billion, including capital
  expenditures of $652 million (FY94)
Exports:
  $1.6 billion (f.o.b. 1991)
 commodities:
  diamonds 78%, copper and nickel 8%, meat 4%
 partners:
  Switzerland, UK, SACU (Southern African Customs Union)
Imports:
  $1.7 billion (c.i.f., 1991)
 commodities:
  foodstuffs, vehicles and transport equipment, textiles, petroleum products
 partners:
  Switzerland, SACU (Southern African Customs Union), UK, US
External debt:
  $344 million (December 1991)
Industrial production:
  growth rate 6.9% (1991); accounts for about 53% of GDP, including mining
Electricity:
  220,000 kW capacity; 1,123 million kWh produced, 846 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
  mining of diamonds, copper, nickel, coal, salt, soda ash, potash; livestock
  processing
Agriculture:
  accounts for only 5% of GDP; subsistence farming predominates; cattle
  raising supports 50% of the population; must import up to of 80% of food
  needs
Economic aid:
  US aid, $13 million (1992); US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $257
  million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
  (1970-89), $1,875 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $43 million;
  Communist countries (1970-89), $29 million; in 1992: Norway (largest donor)
  $16 million, Sweden $15.5 million, Germany $3.6 million, EC/Lome-IV $3-6
  million in grants, $28.7 million in long-term projects
Currency:
  1 pula (P) = 100 thebe

*Botswana, Economy

Exchange rates:
  pula (P) per US$1 - 2.31 (February 1993), 2.1327 (1992), 2.0173 (1991),
  1.8601 (1990), 2.0125 (1989), 1.8159 (1988)
Fiscal year:
  1 April - 31 March

*Botswana, Communications

Railroads:
  712 km 1.067-meter gauge
Highways:
  11,514 km total; 1,600 km paved; 1,700 km crushed stone or gravel, 5,177 km
  improved earth, 3,037 km unimproved earth
Airports:
 total:
  100
 usable:
  87
 with permanent-surface runways:
  8
 with runways over 3,659 m:
  0
 with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
  1
 with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
  29
Telecommunications:
  the small system is a combination of open-wire lines, microwave radio relay
  links, and a few radio-communications stations; 26,000 telephones; broadcast
  stations - 7 AM, 13 FM, no TV; 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth station

*Botswana, Defense Forces

Branches:
  Botswana Defense Force (including Army and Air Wing), Botswana National
  Police
Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49 282,885; fit for military service 148,895; reach military
  age (18) annually 14,868 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
  exchange rate conversion - $196 million, 4.9% of GDP (FY93/94)

*Bouvet Island, Header

Affiliation:
  (territory of Norway)

*Bouvet Island, Geography

Location:
  in the south Atlantic Ocean, 2,575 km south-southwest of the Cape of Good
  Hope (South Africa)
Map references:   Antarctic Region
Area:
 total area:
  58 km2
 land area:
  58 km2
 comparative area:
  about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
  0 km
Coastline:
  29.6 km
Maritime claims:
 territorial sea:
  4 nm
International disputes:
  none
Climate:
  antarctic
Terrain:
  volcanic; maximum elevation about 800 meters; coast is mostly inaccessible
Natural resources:
  none
Land use:
 arable land:
  0%
 permanent crops:
  0%
 meadows and pastures:
  0%
 forest and woodland:
  0%
 other:
  100% (all ice)
Irrigated land:
  0 km2
Environment:
  covered by glacial ice
Note:
  located in the South Atlantic Ocean

*Bouvet Island, People

Population:
  uninhabited

*Bouvet Island, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  none
 conventional short form:   Bouvet Island
Digraph:
  BV
Type:
  territory of Norway
Capital:
  none; administered from Oslo, Norway
Independence:
  none (territory of Norway)

*Bouvet Island, Economy

Overview:
  no economic activity

*Bouvet Island, Communications

Ports:
  none; offshore anchorage only
Telecommunications:
  automatic meteorological station

*Bouvet Island, Defense Forces

Note:
  defense is the responsibility of Norway

*Brazil, Geography

Location:
  Eastern South America, bordering the Atlantic Ocean
Map references:
  South America, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
 total area:
  8,511,965 km2
 land area:
  8,456,510 km2
 comparative area:
  slightly smaller than the US
 note:
  includes Arquipelago de Fernando de Noronha, Atol das Rocas, Ilha da
  Trindade, Ilhas Martin Vaz, and Penedos de Sao Pedro e Sao Paulo
Land boundaries:
  total 14,691 km, Argentina 1,224 km, Bolivia 3,400 km, Colombia 1,643 km,
  French Guiana 673 km, Guyana 1,119 km, Paraguay 1,290 km, Peru 1,560 km,
  Suriname 597 km, Uruguay 985 km, Venezuela 2,200 km
Coastline:   7,491 km
Maritime claims:
 contiguous zone:
  24 nm
 continental shelf:
  200 m depth or to depth of exploitation
 exclusive economic zone:
  200 nm
 territorial sea:
  12 nm
International disputes:
  short section of the boundary with Paraguay (just west of Guaira Falls on
  the Rio Parana) is in dispute; two short sections of boundary with Uruguay
  are in dispute - Arrio Invernada (Arroyo de la Invernada) area of the Rio
  Quarai (Rio Cuareim) and the islands at the confluence of the Rio Quarai
  (Rio Cuareim) and the Uruguay
Climate:
  mostly tropical, but temperate in south
Terrain:
  mostly flat to rolling lowlands in north; some plains, hills, mountains, and
  narrow coastal belt
Natural resources:
  iron ore, manganese, bauxite, nickel, uranium, phosphates, tin, hydropower,
  gold, platinum, petroleum, timber
Land use:
 arable land:
  7%
 permanent crops:
  1%
 meadows and pastures:
  19%
 forest and woodland:
  67%
 other:
  6%
Irrigated land:
  27,000 km2 (1989 est.)

*Brazil, Geography

Environment:
  recurrent droughts in northeast; floods and frost in south; deforestation in
  Amazon basin; air and water pollution in Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, and
  several other large cities
Note:
  largest country in South America; shares common boundaries with every South
  American country except Chile and Ecuador

*Brazil, People

Population:
  156,664,223 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
  1.35% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
  21.77 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
  8.3 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
  61.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
 total population:
  62.7 years
 male:
  58.28 years
 female:
  67.33 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
  2.49 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
 noun:
  Brazilian(s)
 adjective:
  Brazilian
Ethnic divisions:
  Portuguese, Italian, German, Japanese, Amerindian, black 6%, white 55%,
  mixed 38%, other 1%
Religions:
  Roman Catholic (nominal) 90%
Languages:
  Portuguese (official), Spanish, English, French
Literacy:
  age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
 total population:
  81%
 male:
  82%
 female:
  80%
Labor force:
  57 million (1989 est.)
 by occupation:
  services 42%, agriculture 31%, industry 27%

*Brazil, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  Federative Republic of Brazil
 conventional short form:
  Brazil
 local long form:
  Republica Federativa do Brasil
 local short form:   Brasil
Digraph:
  BR
Type:
  federal republic
Capital:
  Brasilia
Administrative divisions:
  26 states (estados, singular - estado) and 1 federal district* (distrito,   federal); Acre,
Alagoas, Amapa, Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara, Distrito Federal*,,   Espirito Santo, Goias, Maranhao, Mato
Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas
  Gerais, Para, Paraiba, Parana, Pernambuco, Piaui, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande
  do Norte, Rio Grande do Sul, Rondonia, Roraima, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo,
  Sergipe, Tocantins
Independence:
  7 September 1822 (from Portugal)
Constitution:
  5 October 1988
Legal system:
  based on Roman codes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
  Independence Day, 7 September (1822)
Political parties and leaders:
  National Reconstruction Party (PRN), Daniel TOURINHO, president; Brazilian
  Democratic Movement Party (PMDB), Roberto ROLLEMBERG, president; Liberal
  Front Party (PFL), Jose Mucio MONTEIRO, president; Workers' Party (PT), Luis
  Ignacio (Lula) da SILVA, president; Brazilian Labor Party (PTB), Luiz
  GONZAGA de Paiva Muniz, president; Democratic Labor Party (PDT), Leonel
  BRIZOLA, president; Democratic Social Party (PPS), Paulo MALUF, president;
  Brazilian Social Democracy Party (PSDB), Tasso JEREISSATI, president;
  Popular Socialist Party (PPS), Roberto FREIRE, president; Communist Party of
  Brazil (PCdoB), Joao AMAZONAS, secretary general; Christian Democratic Party
  (PDC), Siqueira CAMPOS, president
Other political or pressure groups:
  left wing of the Catholic Church and labor unions allied to leftist Worker's
  Party are critical of government's social and economic policies
Suffrage:
  voluntary between 16 and 18 years of age and over 70; compulsory over 18 and
  under 70 years of age
Elections:
 Chamber of Deputies:
  last held 3 October 1990 (next to be held November 1994); results - PMDB
  21%, PFL 17%, PDT 9%, PDS 8%, PRN 7.9%, PTB 7%, PT 7%, other 23.1%; seats -
  (503 total as of 3 February 1991) PMDB 108, PFL 87, PDT 46, PDS 43, PRN 40,
  PTB 35, PT 35, other 109
 Federal Senate:
  last held 3 October 1990 (next to be held November 1994); results - percent
  of vote by party NA; seats - (81 total as of 3 February 1991) PMDB 27, PFL
  15, PSDB 10, PTB 8, PDT 5, other 16

*Brazil, Government

 President:
  last held 15 November 1989, with runoff on 17 December 1989 (next to be held
  November 1994); results - Fernando COLLOR de Mello 53%, Luis Inacio da SILVA
  47%; note - first free, direct presidential election since 1960
Executive branch:
  president, vice president, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
  bicameral National Congress (Congresso Nacional) consists of an upper
  chamber or Federal Senate (Senado Federal) and a lower chamber or Chamber of
  Deputies (Camara dos Deputados)
Judicial branch:
  Supreme Federal Tribunal
Leaders:
 Chief of State and Head of Government:
  President Itamar FRANCO (since 29 December 1992)
Member of:
  AfDB, AG (observer), CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, GATT,
  IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT,
  INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, LORCS,
  MERCOSUR, NAM (observer), OAS, ONUSAL, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNAVEM II,
  UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNOMOZ, UNPROFOR, UPU, WCL, WHO, WFTU, WIPO,
  WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador Rubens RICUPERO
 chancery:
  3006 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
 telephone:
  (202) 745-2700
 consulates general:
  Chicago, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, and New York
 consulates:
  Dallas, Houston, and San Francisco
US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador Richard MELTON
 embassy:
  Avenida das Nacoes, Lote 3, Brasilia, Distrito Federal
 mailing address:
  APO AA 34030
 telephone:
  [55] (61) 321-7272
 FAX:
  [55] (61) 225-9136
 consulates general:
  Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo
 consulates:
  Porto Alegre, Recife
Flag:
  green with a large yellow diamond in the center bearing a blue celestial
  globe with 23 white five-pointed stars (one for each state) arranged in the
  same pattern as the night sky over Brazil; the globe has a white equatorial
  band with the motto ORDEM E PROGRESSO (Order and Progress)

*Brazil, Economy

Overview:
  The economy, with large agrarian, mining, and manufacturing sectors, entered
  the 1990s with declining real growth, runaway inflation, an unserviceable
  foreign debt of $122 billion, and a lack of policy direction. In addition,
  the economy remained highly regulated, inward-looking, and protected by
  substantial trade and investment barriers. Ownership of major industrial and
  mining facilities is divided among private interests - including several
  multinationals - and the government. Most large agricultural holdings are
  private, with the government channeling financing to this sector. Conflicts
  between large landholders and landless peasants have produced intermittent
  violence. The COLLOR government, which assumed office in March 1990,
  launched an ambitious reform program that sought to modernize and
  reinvigorate the economy by stabilizing prices, deregulating the economy,
  and opening it to increased foreign competition. The government also
  obtained an IMF standby loan in January 1992 and reached agreements with
  commercial bankers on the repayment of interest arrears and on the reduction
  of debt and debt service payments. Galloping inflation - the rate doubled in
  1992 - continues to undermine economic stability. Itamar FRANCO, who assumed
  the presidency following President COLLOR'S resignation in December 1992,
  has promised to support the basic premises of COLLOR'S reform program but
  has yet to define clearly his economic policies. Brazil's natural resources
  remain a major, long-term economic strength.
National product:
  GDP - exchange rate conversion - $369 billion (1992)
National product real growth rate:
  -0.2% (1992)
National product per capita:
  $2,350 (1992)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  1,174% (1992)
Unemployment rate:
  5.9% (1992)
Budget:
  revenues $164.3 billion; expenditures $170.6 billion, including capital
  expenditures of $32.9 billion (1990)
Exports:
  $35.0 billion (1992)
 commodities:
  iron ore, soybean bran, orange juice, footwear, coffee, motor vehicle parts
 partners:
  EC 32.3%, US 20.3%, Latin America 11.6%, Japan 9% (1991)
Imports:
  $20.0 billion (1992)
 commodities:
  crude oil, capital goods, chemical products, foodstuffs, coal
 partners:
  Middle East 12.4%, US 23.5%, EC 21.8%, Latin America 18.8%, Japan 6% (1991)
External debt:
  $123.3 billion (December 1992)
Industrial production:
  growth rate -3.8% (1992); accounts for 39% of GDP
Electricity:
  63,765,000 kW capacity; 242,184 million kWh produced, 1,531 kWh per capita
  (1992)
Industries:
  textiles and other consumer goods, shoes, chemicals, cement, lumber, iron
  ore, steel, motor vehicles and auto parts, metalworking, capital goods, tin

*Brazil, Economy

Agriculture:
  accounts for 11% of GDP; world's largest producer and exporter of coffee and
  orange juice concentrate and second- largest exporter of soybeans; other
  products - rice, corn, sugarcane, cocoa, beef; self-sufficient in food,
  except for wheat
Illicit drugs:
  illicit producer of cannabis and coca, mostly for domestic consumption;
  government has a modest eradication program to control cannabis and coca
  cultivation; important transshipment country for Bolivian and Colombian
  cocaine headed for the US and Europe
Economic aid:
  US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $2.5 billion; Western (non-US)
  countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $10.2 million; OPEC
  bilateral aid (1979-89), $284 million; former Communist countries (1970-89),
  $1.3 billion
Currency:
  1 cruzeiro (Cr$) = 100 centavos
Exchange rates:
  cruzeiros (Cr$) per US$1 - 13,827.06 (January 1993), 4,506.45 (1992), 406.61
  (1991), 68.300 (1990), 2.834 (1989), 0.26238 (1988)
Fiscal year:
  calendar year

*Brazil, Communications

Railroads:
  28,828 km total; 24,864 km 1.000-meter gauge, 3,877 km 1.600-meter gauge, 74
  km mixed 1.600-1.000-meter gauge, 13 km 0.760-meter gauge; 2,360 km
  electrified
Highways:
  1,448,000 km total; 48,000 km paved, 1,400,000 km gravel or earth
Inland waterways:
  50,000 km navigable
Pipelines:
  crude oil 2,000 km; petroleum products 3,804 km; natural gas 1,095 km
Ports:
  Belem, Fortaleza, Ilheus, Manaus, Paranagua, Porto Alegre, Recife, Rio de
  Janeiro, Rio Grande, Salvador, Santos
Merchant marine:
  232 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,335,234 GRT/8,986,734 DWT; includes
  5 passenger-cargo, 42 cargo, 1 refrigerated cargo, 10 container, 11
  roll-on/roll-off, 58 oil tanker, 15 chemical tanker, 12 combination ore/oil,
  65 bulk, 2 combination bulk, 11 vehicle carrier; in addition, 1 naval tanker
  is sometimes used commercially
Airports:
 total:
  3,613
 usable:   3,031
 with permanent-surface runways:
  431
 with runways over 3,659 m:
  2
 with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
  22
 with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
  584
Telecommunications:
  good system; extensive microwave radio relay facilities; 9.86 million
  telephones; broadcast stations - 1,223 AM, no FM, 112 TV, 151 shortwave; 3
  coaxial submarine cables, 3 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations and 64
  domestic satellite earth stations

*Brazil, Defense Forces

Branches:
  Brazilian Army, Navy of Brazil (including Marines), Brazilian Air Force,
  Military Police (paramilitary)
Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49 42,623,934; fit for military service 28,721,849; reach
  military age (18) annually 1,655,918 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
  exchange rate conversion - $1.1 billion, 3% of GDP (1990)

*British Indian Ocean Territory, Header

Affiliation:
  (dependent territory of the UK)

*British Indian Ocean Territory, Geography

Location:
  in the Indian Ocean, south of India about halfway between Africa and
  Indonesia
Map references:
  Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
 total area:
  60 km2
 land area:
  60 km2
 comparative area:
  about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC
 note:
  includes the island of Diego Garcia
Land boundaries:
  0 km
Coastline:   698 km
Maritime claims:
 exclusive fishing zone:
  200 nm
 territorial sea:
  3 nm
International disputes:
  the entire Chagos Archipelago is claimed by Mauritius
Climate:
  tropical marine; hot, humid, moderated by trade winds
Terrain:
  flat and low (up to 4 meters in elevation)
Natural resources:
  coconuts, fish
Land use:
 arable land:
  0%
 permanent crops:
  0%
 meadows and pastures:
  0%
 forest and woodland:
  0%
 other:
  100%
Irrigated land:
  0 km2
Environment:
  archipelago of 2,300 islands
Note:
  Diego Garcia, largest and southernmost island, occupies strategic location
  in central Indian Ocean; island is site of joint US-UK military facility

*British Indian Ocean Territory, People

Population:
  no indigenous inhabitants
 note:
  there are UK-US military personnel; civilian inhabitants, known as the
  Ilois, evacuated to Mauritius before construction of UK-US military
  facilities

*British Indian Ocean Territory, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  British Indian Ocean Territory
 conventional short form:
  none
Abbreviation:
  BIOT
Digraph:   IO
Type:
  dependent territory of the UK
Capital:
  none
Independence:
  none (dependent territory of the UK)
Leaders:
 Chief of State:
  Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952)
 Head of Government:
  Commissioner Mr. T. G. HARRIS (since NA); Administrator Mr. R. G. WELLS
  (since NA 1991); note - both reside in the UK
Diplomatic representation in US:
  none (dependent territory of UK)
Flag:
  white with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and six blue
  wavy horizontal stripes bearing a palm tree and yellow crown centered on the
  outer half of the flag

*British Indian Ocean Territory, Economy

Overview:
  All economic activity is concentrated on the largest island of Diego Garcia,
  where joint UK-US defense facilities are located. Construction projects and
  various services needed to support the military installations are done by
  military and contract employees from the UK, Mauritius, the Philippines, and
  the US. There are no industrial or agricultural activities on the islands.
Electricity:
  provided by the US military

*British Indian Ocean Territory, Communications

Highways:
  short stretch of paved road between port and airfield on Diego Garcia
Ports:
  Diego Garcia
Airports:
 total:
  1
 usable:
  1
 with permanent-surface runways:
  1
 with runways over 3,659 m:
  1 on Diego Garcia
 with runways 2,439-3,659 m:
  0
 with runways 1,229-2,439 m:
  0
Telecommunications:
  minimal facilities; broadcast stations (operated by US Navy) - 1 AM, 1 FM, 1
  TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

*British Indian Ocean Territory, Defense Forces

Note:
  defense is the responsibility of the UK

*British Virgin Islands, Header

Affiliation:
  (dependent territory of the UK)

*British Virgin Islands, Geography

Location:
  in the eastern Caribbean Sea, about 110 km east of Puerto Rico
Map references:
  Central America and the Caribbean
Area:
 total area:
  150 km2
 land area:
  150 km2
 comparative area:
  about 0.8 times the size of Washington, DC
 note:
  includes the island of Anegada
Land boundaries:
  0 km
Coastline:
  80 km
Maritime claims:
 exclusive fishing zone:
  200 nm
 territorial sea:
  3 nm
International disputes:
  none
Climate:
  subtropical; humid; temperatures moderated by trade winds
Terrain:
  coral islands relatively flat; volcanic islands steep, hilly
Natural resources:
  negligible
Land use:
 arable land:
  20%
 permanent crops:
  7%
 meadows and pastures:   33%
 forest and woodland:
  7%
 other:
  33%
Irrigated land:
  NA km2
Environment:
  subject to hurricanes and tropical storms from July to October
Note:
  strong ties to nearby US Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico

*British Virgin Islands, People

Population:
  12,707 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
  1.22% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
  20.37 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
  6.11 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
  -2.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
  19.68 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
 total population:
  72.62 years
 male:
  70.77 years
 female:
  74.6 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
  2.28 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
 noun:
  British Virgin Islander(s)
 adjective:
  British Virgin Islander
Ethnic divisions:
  black 90%, white, Asian
Religions:
  Protestant 86% (Methodist 45%, Anglican 21%, Church of God 7%, Seventh-Day
  Adventist 5%, Baptist 4%, Jehovah's Witnesses 2%, other 2%), Roman Catholic
  6%, none 2%, other 6% (1981)
Languages:
  English (official)
Literacy:
  age 15 and over can read and write (1970)
 total population:
  98%
 male:
  98%  female:
  98%
Labor force:
  4,911 (1980)
 by occupation:
  NA

*British Virgin Islands, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  none
 conventional short form:
  British Virgin Islands
Abbreviation:
  BVI
Digraph:
  VI
Type:
  dependent territory of the UK
Capital:
  Road Town
Administrative divisions:
  none (dependent territory of the UK)
Independence:
  none (dependent territory of the UK)
Constitution:
  1 June 1977
Legal system:
  English law
National holiday:
  Territory Day, 1 July
Political parties and leaders:
  United Party (UP), Conrad MADURO; Virgin Islands Party (VIP), H. Lavity
  STOUTT; Independent Progressive Movement (IPM), Cyril B. ROMNEY
Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal
Elections:
 Legislative Council:
  last held 12 November 1990 (next to be held by November 1995); results -
  percent of vote by party NA; seats - (9 total) VIP 6, IPM 1, independents 2
Executive branch:
  British monarch, governor, chief minister, Executive Council (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
  unicameral Legislative Council
Judicial branch:
  Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court
Leaders:
 Chief of State:
  Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor Peter
  Alfred PENFOLD (since NA 1991)
 Head of Government:
  Chief Minister H. Lavity STOUTT (since NA 1986)
Member of:   CARICOM (associate), CDB, ECLAC (associate), IOC, OECS (associate), UNESCO
  (associate)
Diplomatic representation in US:
  none (dependent territory of UK)
Flag:
  blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the Virgin
  Islander coat of arms centered in the outer half of the flag; the coat of
  arms depicts a woman flanked on either side by a vertical column of six oil
  lamps above a scroll bearing the Latin word VIGILATE (Be Watchful)

*British Virgin Islands, Economy

Overview:
  The economy, one of the most prosperous in the Caribbean area, is highly
  dependent on the tourist industry, which generates about 21% of the national
  income. In 1985 the government offered offshore registration to companies
  wishing to incorporate in the islands, and, in consequence, incorporation
  fees generated about $2 million in 1987. The economy slowed in 1991 because
  of the poor performances of the tourist sector and tight commercial bank
  credit. Livestock raising is the most significant agricultural activity. The
  islands' crops, limited by poor soils, are unable to meet food requirements.
National product:
  GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $133 million (1991)
National product real growth rate:
  2% (1991)
National product per capita:
  $10,600 (1991)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  2.5% (1990 est.)
Unemployment rate:
  NEGL% (1992)
Budget:
  revenues $51 million; expenditures $88 million, including capital
  expenditures of $38 million (1991)
Exports:
  $2.7 million (f.o.b., 1988)
 commodities:
  rum, fresh fish, gravel, sand, fruits, animals
 partners:
  Virgin Islands (US), Puerto Rico, US
Imports:
  $11.5 million (c.i.f., 1988)
 commodities:
  building materials, automobiles, foodstuffs, machinery
 partners:
  Virgin Islands (US), Puerto Rico, US
External debt:
  $4.5 million (1985)
Industrial production:
  growth rate 4.0% (1985)
Electricity:
  10,500 kW capacity; 43 million kWh produced, 3,510 kWh per capita (1990)
Industries:
  tourism, light industry, construction, rum, concrete block, offshore
  financial center
Agriculture:
  livestock (including poultry), fish, fruit, vegetables
Economic aid:
  NA
Currency:
  US currency is used
Exchange rates:
  US currency is used
Fiscal year:
  1 April - 31 March

*British Virgin Islands, Communications

Highways:
  106 km motorable roads (1983)
Ports:
  Road Town
Airports:
 total:
  3
 usable:
  3
 with permanent-surface runways:
  2
 with runways over 3,659 m:
  0
 with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
  0
 with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
  0
Telecommunications:
  3,000 telephones; worldwide external telephone service; submarine cable
  communication links to Bermuda; broadcast stations - 1 AM, no FM, 1 TV

*British Virgin Islands, Defense Forces

Note:
  defense is the responsibility of the UK

*Brunei, Geography

Location:
  Southeast Asia, on the northern coast of Borneo almost completely surrounded
  by Malaysia
Map references:
  Asia, Oceania, Southeast Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
 total area:
  5,770 km2  land area:
  5,270 km2
 comparative area:
  slightly larger than Delaware
Land boundaries:
  total 381 km, Malysia 381 km
Coastline:
  161 km
Maritime claims:
 exclusive fishing zone:
  200 nm
 territorial sea:
  12 nm
International disputes:
  may wish to purchase the Malaysian salient that divides the country; all of
  the Spratly Islands are claimed by China, Taiwan, and Vietnam; parts of them
  are claimed by Malaysia and the Philippines; in 1984, Brunei established an
  exclusive fishing zone that encompasses Louisa Reef, but has not publicly
  claimed the island
Climate:
  tropical; hot, humid, rainy
Terrain:
  flat coastal plain rises to mountains in east; hilly lowland in west
Natural resources:
  petroleum, natural gas, timber
Land use:
 arable land:
  1%
 permanent crops:
  1%
 meadows and pastures:
  1%
 forest and woodland:
  79%
 other:
  18%
Irrigated land:
  10 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
  typhoons, earthquakes, and severe flooding are rare
Note:
  close to vital sea lanes through South China Sea linking Indian and Pacific
  Oceans; two parts physically separated by Malaysia; almost an enclave of
  Malaysia

*Brunei, People

Population:
  276,984 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
  2.77% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
  26.55 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:   5.02 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
  6.15 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
  25.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
 total population:
  70.94 years
 male:
  69.27 years
 female:
  72.65 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
  3.45 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
 noun:
  Bruneian(s)
 adjective:
  Bruneian
Ethnic divisions:
  Malay 64%, Chinese 20%, other 16%
Religions:
  Muslim (official) 63%, Buddhism 14%, Christian 8%, indigenous beliefs and
  other 15% (1981)
Languages:
  Malay (official), English, Chinese
Literacy:
  age 15 and over can read and write (1981)
 total population:
  77%
 male:
  85%
 female:
  69%
Labor force:
  89,000 (includes members of the Army)
 by occupation:
  government 47.5%, production of oil, natural gas, services, and construction
  41.9%, agriculture, forestry, and fishing 3.8% (1986)
 note:
  33% of labor force is foreign (1988)

*Brunei, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  Negara Brunei Darussalam
 conventional short form:
  Brunei
Digraph:
  BX
Type:
  constitutional sultanate
Capital:   Bandar Seri Begawan
Administrative divisions:
  4 districts (daerah-daerah, singular - daerah); Belait, Brunei and Muara,
  Temburong, Tutong
Independence:
  1 January 1984 (from UK)
Constitution:
  29 September 1959 (some provisions suspended under a State of Emergency
  since December 1962, others since independence on 1 January 1984)
Legal system:
  based on Islamic law
National holiday:
  23 February (1984)
Political parties and leaders:
  Brunei United National Party (inactive), Anak HASANUDDIN, chairman; Brunei
  National Democratic Party (the first legal political party and now banned),
  leader NA
Suffrage:
  none
Elections:
 Legislative Council:
  last held in March 1962; in 1970 the Council was changed to an appointive
  body by decree of the sultan and no elections are planned
Executive branch:
  sultan, prime minister, Council of Cabinet Ministers
Legislative branch:
  unicameral Legislative Council (Majlis Masyuarat Megeri)
Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court
Leaders:
 Chief of State and Head of Government:
  Sultan and Prime Minister His Majesty Paduka Seri Baginda Sultan Haji
  HASSANAL Bolkiah Mu'izzaddin Waddaulah (since 5 October 1967)
Member of:
  APEC, ASEAN, C, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, ICAO, IDB, IMO, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO
  (correspondent), ITU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UPU, WHO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador Mohamed KASSIM bin Haji Mohamed Daud
 chancery:
  2600 Virginia Avenue NW, Suite 3000, Washington, DC 20037
 telephone:
  (202) 342-0159
US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador Donald Burnham ENSENAT
 embassy:
  Third Floor, Teck Guan Plaza, Jalan Sultan, Bandar Seri Begawan

*Brunei, Government

 mailing address:
  American Embassy Box B, APO AP 96440
 telephone:   [673] (2) 229-670
 FAX:
  [673] (2) 225-293
Flag:
  yellow with two diagonal bands of white (top, almost double width) and black
  starting from the upper hoist side; the national emblem in red is
  superimposed at the center; the emblem includes a swallow-tailed flag on top
  of a winged column within an upturned crescent above a scroll and flanked by
  two upraised hands

*Brunei, Economy

Overview:
  The economy is a mixture of foreign and domestic entrepreneurship,
  government regulation and welfare measures, and village tradition. It is
  almost totally supported by exports of crude oil and natural gas, with
  revenues from the petroleum sector accounting for more than 50% of GDP. Per
  capita GDP of $8,800 is among the highest in the Third World, and
  substantial income from overseas investment supplements domestic production.
  The government provides for all medical services and subsidizes food and
  housing.
National product:
  GDP - exchange rate conversion - $3.5 billion (1990 est.)
National product real growth rate:
  1% (1990 est.)
National product per capita:
  $8,800 (1990 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  1.3% (1989)
Unemployment rate:
  3.7% (1989)
Budget:
  revenues $1.3 billion; expenditures $1.5 billion, including capital
  expenditures of $255 million (1989 est.)
Exports:
  $2.2 billion (f.o.b., 1990 est.)
 commodities:
  crude oil, liquefied natural gas, petroleum products
 partners:
  Japan 53%, UK 12%, South Korea 9%, Thailand 7%, Singapore 5% (1990)
Imports:
  $1.7 billion (c.i.f., 1990 est.)
 commodities:
  machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, food, chemicals
 partners:
  Singapore 35%, UK 26%, Switzerland 9%, US 9%, Japan 5% (1990)
External debt:
  $0
Industrial production:
  growth rate 12.9% (1987); accounts for 52.4% of GDP
Electricity:
  310,000 kW capacity; 890 million kWh produced, 3,300 kWh per capita (1990)
Industries:
  petroleum, petroleum refining, liquefied natural gas, construction
Agriculture:
  imports about 80% of its food needs; principal crops and livestock include
  rice, cassava, bananas, buffaloes, and pigs
Economic aid:
  US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-87), $20.6 million; Western (non-US)
  countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $153 million
Currency:
  1 Bruneian dollar (B$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
  Bruneian dollars (B$) per US$1 - 1.6531 (January 1993), 1.6290 (1992),
  1.7276 (1991), 1.8125 (1990), 1.9503 (1989), 2.0124 (1988); note - the
  Bruneian dollar is at par with the Singapore dollar
Fiscal year:
  calendar year

*Brunei, Communications

Railroads:
  13 km 0.610-meter narrow-gauge private line
Highways:
  1,090 km total; 370 km paved (bituminous treated) and another 52 km under
  construction, 720 km gravel or unimproved
Inland waterways:
  209 km; navigable by craft drawing less than 1.2 meters
Pipelines:
  crude oil 135 km; petroleum products 418 km; natural gas 920 km
Ports:
  Kuala Belait, Muara
Merchant marine:
  7 liquefied gas carriers (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 348,476 GRT/340,635
  DWT
Airports:
 total:
  2
 usable:
  2
 with permanent-surface runways:
  1
 with runway over 3,659 m:
  1
 with runway 2,440-3,659 m:
  0
 with runway 1,220-2,439 m:
  1
Telecommunications:
  service throughout country is adequate for present needs; international
  service good to adjacent Malaysia; radiobroadcast coverage good; 33,000
  telephones (1987); broadcast stations - 4 AM/FM, 1 TV; 74,000 radio
  receivers (1987); satellite earth stations - 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT and 1
  Pacific Ocean INTELSAT

*Brunei, Defense Forces

Branches:
  Ground Force, Navy, Air Force, Royal Brunei Police
Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49 77,407; fit for military service 45,112; reach military age
  (18) annually 2,676 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
  exchange rate conversion - $300 million, 9% of GDP (1990)

*Bulgaria, Geography

Location:
  Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Romania and Turkey
Map references:
  Africa, Arctic Region, Ethnic Groups in Eastern Europe, Europe, Middle East,
  Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
 total area:
  110,910 km2
 land area:
  110,550 km2
 comparative area:
  slightly larger than Tennessee
Land boundaries:
  total 1,808 km, Greece 494 km, Macedonia 148 km, Romania 608 km, Serbia and
  Montenegro 318 km (all with Serbia), Turkey 240 km
Coastline:
  354 km
Maritime claims:
 contiguous zone:
  24 nm
 exclusive economic zone:
  200 nm
 territorial sea:
  12 nm
International disputes:
  Macedonia question with Greece and Macedonia
Climate:
  temperate; cold, damp winters; hot, dry summers
Terrain:
  mostly mountains with lowlands in north and south
Natural resources:
  bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, coal, timber, arable land
Land use:
 arable land:
  34%
 permanent crops:
  3%
 meadows and pastures:
  18%
 forest and woodland:
  35%
 other:
  10%
Irrigated land:
  10 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
  subject to earthquakes, landslides; deforestation; air pollution
Note:
  strategic location near Turkish Straits; controls key land routes from
  Europe to Middle East and Asia

*Bulgaria, People

Population:
  8,831,168 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
  -0.39% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
  11.69 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
  11.54 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
  -4.05 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
  12.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
 total population:
  72.82 years
 male:
  69.55 years
 female:
  76.26 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
  1.71 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
 noun:
  Bulgarian(s)
 adjective:
  Bulgarian
Ethnic divisions:
  Bulgarian 85.3%, Turk 8.5%, Gypsy 2.6%, Macedonian 2.5%, Armenian 0.3%,
  Russian 0.2%, other 0.6%
Religions:
  Bulgarian Orthodox 85%, Muslim 13%, Jewish 0.8%, Roman Catholic 0.5%, Uniate
  Catholic 0.2%, Protestant, Gregorian-Armenian, and other 0.5%
Languages:
  Bulgarian; secondary languages closely correspond to ethnic breakdown
Literacy:
  age 15 and over can read and write (1970)
 total population:
  93%
 male:
  NA%
 female:
  NA%
Labor force:
  4.3 million  by occupation:
  industry 33%, agriculture 20%, other 47% (1987)

*Bulgaria, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  Republic of Bulgaria
 conventional short form:
  Bulgaria
Digraph:
  BU
Type:
  emerging democracy
Capital:
  Sofia
Administrative divisions:
  9 provinces (oblasti, singular - oblast); Burgas, Grad Sofiya, Khaskovo,
  Lovech, Mikhaylovgrad, Plovdiv, Razgrad, Sofiya, Varna
Independence:
  22 September 1908 (from Ottoman Empire)
Constitution:
  adopted 12 July 1991
Legal system:
  based on civil law system, with Soviet law influence; has accepted
  compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
  3 March (1878)
Political parties and leaders:
  Union of Democratic Forces (UDF), Filip DIMITROV, chairman, an alliance of
  approximately 20 pro-Democratic parties including United Democratic Center,
  Democratic Party, Radical Democratic Party, Christian Democratic Union,
  Alternative Social Liberal Party, Republican Party, Civic Initiative
  Movement, Union of the Repressed, and about a dozen other groups; Movement
  for Rights and Freedoms (ethnic Turkish party) (MRF), Ahmed DOGAN, chairman;
  Bulgarian Socialist Party (BSP), Zhan VIDENOV, chairman
Other political or pressure groups:
  Ecoglasnost; Podkrepa (Support) Labor Confederation; Fatherland Union;
  Bulgarian Democratic Youth (formerly Communist Youth Union); Confederation
  of Independent Trade Unions of Bulgaria (KNSB); Nationwide Committee for
  Defense of National Interests; Peasant Youth League; Bulgarian Agrarian
  National Union - United (BZNS); Bulgarian Democratic Center; "Nikola Petkov"
  Bulgarian Agrarian National Union; Internal Macedonian Revolutionary
  Organization - Union of Macedonian Societies (IMRO-UMS); numerous regional,
  ethnic, and national interest groups with various agendas
Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Elections:
 President:
  last held January 1992; results - Zhelyu ZHELEV was elected by popular vote
 National Assembly:
  last held 13 October 1991; results - UDF 34%, BSP 33%, MRF 7.5%; seats -
  (240 total) UDF 110, BSP 106, Movement for Rights and Freedoms 24
Executive branch:   president, chairman of the Council of Ministers (prime minister), three
  deputy chairmen of the Council of Ministers, Council of Ministers
Legislative branch:
  unicameral National Assembly (Narodno Sobranie)
Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court, Constitutional Court
Leaders:
 Chief of State:
  President Zhelyu Mitev ZHELEV (since 1 August 1990); Vice President Blaga
  Nikolova DIMITROVA (since NA)

*Bulgaria, Government

 Head of Government:
  Chairman of the Council of Ministers (Prime Minister) Lyuben Borisov BEROV
  (since 30 December 1992); Deputy Chairmen of the Council of Ministers
  (Deputy Prime Ministers) Valentin KARABASHEV, Neycho NEEV, and Evgeniy
  MATINCHEV (since 30 December 1992)
Member of:
  BIS, BSEC, CCC, CE, CSCE, EBRD, ECE, FAO, G-9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IFC,
  ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LORCS,
  NACC, NAM (guest), NSG, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNTAC, UPU, WHO,
  WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador Ognyan Raytchev PISHEV
 chancery:
  1621 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
 telephone:
  (202) 387-7969
 FAX:
  (202) 234-7973
US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador Hugh Kenneth HILL
 embassy:
  1 Alexander Stamboliski Boulevard, Sofia, Unit 25402
 mailing address:
  APO AE 09213-5740
 telephone:
  [359] (2) 88-48-01 through 05
 FAX:
  [359] (2) 80-19-77
Flag:
  three equal horizontal bands of white (top), green, and red; the national
  emblem formerly on the hoist side of the white stripe has been removed - it
  contained a rampant lion within a wreath of wheat ears below a red
  five-pointed star and above a ribbon bearing the dates 681 (first Bulgarian
  state established) and 1944 (liberation from Nazi control)

*Bulgaria, Economy

Overview:
  Growth in the lackluster Bulgarian economy fell to the 2% annual level in
  the 1980s. By 1990, Sofia's foreign debt had skyrocketed to over $10 billion
  - giving a debt-service ratio of more than 40% of hard currency earnings and
  leading the regime to declare a moratorium on its hard currency payments.
  The post-Communist government faces major problems of renovating an aging
  industrial plant; keeping abreast of rapidly unfolding technological
  developments; investing in additional energy capacity (the portion of
  electric power from nuclear energy reached over one-third in 1990); and
  motivating workers, in part by giving them a share in the earnings of their
  enterprises. Political bickering in Sofia and the collapse of the DIMITROV
  government in October 1992 have slowed the economic reform process. New
  Prime Minister BEROV, however, has pledged to continue the reforms initiated
  by the previous government. He has promised to continue cooperation with the
  World Bank and IMF, advance negotiations on rescheduling commercial debt,
  and push ahead with privatization. BEROV's government - whose main
  parliamentary supporters are the former Communist Bulgarian Socialist Party
  (BSP) - nonetheless appears likely to pursue more interventionist tactics in
  overcoming the country's economic problems.
National product:
  GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $34.1 billion (1992)
National product real growth rate:
  -7.7% (1992)
National product per capita:
  $3,800 (1992)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  80% (1992)
Unemployment rate:
  15% (1992)
Budget:
  revenues $8 billion; expenditures $5 billion, including capital expenditures
  of $NA (1991 est.)
Exports:
  $3.5 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
 commodities:
  machinery and equipment 30.6%; agricultural products 24%; manufactured
  consumer goods 22.2%; fuels, minerals, raw materials, and metals 10.5%;
  other 12.7% (1991)
 partners:
  former CEMA countries 57.7% (USSR 48.6%, Poland 2.1%, Czechoslovakia 0.9%);
  developed countries 26.3% (Germany 4.8%, Greece 2.2%); less developed
  countries 15.9% (Libya 2.1%, Iran 0.7%) (1991)
Imports:
  $2.8 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
 commodities:
  fuels, minerals, and raw materials 58.7%; machinery and equipment 15.8%;
  manufactured consumer goods 4.4%; agricultural products 15.2%; other 5.9%
 partners:
  former CEMA countries 51.0% (former USSR 43.2%, Poland 3.7%); developed
  countries 32.8% (Germany 7.0%, Austria 4.7%); less developed countries 16.2%
  (Iran 2.8%, Libya 2.5%)
External debt:
  $12 billion (1991)
Industrial production:
  growth rate -21% (1992 est.); accounts for about 37% of GDP (1990)
Electricity:   11,500,000 kW capacity; 45,000 million kWh produced, 5,070 kWh per capita
  (1992)

*Bulgaria, Economy

Industries:
  machine building and metal working, food processing, chemicals, textiles,
  building materials, ferrous and nonferrous metals
Agriculture:
  accounts for 22% of GDP (1990); climate and soil conditions support
  livestock raising and the growing of various grain crops, oilseeds,
  vegetables, fruits, and tobacco; more than one-third of the arable land
  devoted to grain; world's fourth-largest tobacco exporter; surplus food
  producer
Illicit drugs:
  transshipment point for southwest Asian heroin transiting the Balkan route
Economic aid:
  donor - $1.6 billion in bilateral aid to non-Communist less developed
  countries (1956-89)
Currency:
  1 lev (Lv) = 100 stotinki
Exchange rates:
  leva (Lv) per US$1 - 24.56 (January 1993),17.18 (January 1992), 16.13 (March
  1991), 0.7446 (November 1990), 0.84 (1989), 0.82 (1988), 0.90 (1987); note -
  floating exchange rate since February 1991
Fiscal year:
  calendar year

*Bulgaria, Communications

Railroads:
  4,300 km total, all government owned (1987); 4,055 km 1.435-meter standard
  gauge, 245 km narrow gauge; 917 km double track; 2,640 km electrified
Highways:
  36,908 km total; 33,535 km hard surface (including 242 km superhighways);
  3,373 km earth roads (1987)
Inland waterways:
  470 km (1987)
Pipelines:
  crude oil 193 km; petroleum products 525 km; natural gas 1,400 km (1992)
Ports:
  coastal - Burgas, Varna, Varna West; inland - Ruse, Vidin, and Lom on the
  Danube
Merchant marine:
  112 ships (1,000 GRT and over) totaling 1,262,320 GRT/1,887,729 DWT;
  includes 2 short-sea passenger, 30 cargo, 2 container, 1 passenger-cargo
  training, 6 roll-on/roll-off, 15 oil tanker, 4 chemical carrier, 2 railcar
  carrier, 50 bulk; Bulgaria owns 1 ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 8,717
  DWT operating under Liberian registry
Airports:
 total:
  380  usable:
  380
 with permanent-surface runways:
  120
 with runways over 3659 m:
  0
 with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
  20
 with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
  20
Telecommunications:
  extensive but antiquated transmission system of coaxial cable and mirowave
  radio relay; 2.6 million telephones; direct dialing to 36 countries; phone
  density is 29 phones per 100 persons (1992); almost two-thirds of the lines
  are residential; 67% of Sofia households have phones (November 1988);
  telephone service is available in most villages; broadcast stations - 20 AM,
  15 FM, and 29 TV, with 1 Soviet TV repeater in Sofia; 2.1 million TV sets
  (1990); 92% of country receives No. 1 television program (May 1990); 1
  satellite ground station using Intersputnik; INTELSAT is used through a
  Greek earth station

*Bulgaria, Defense Forces

Branches:
  Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, Frontier Troops, Internal Troops
Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49 2,178,136; fit for military service 1,819,901; reach
  military age (19) annually 69,495 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
  5.77 billion leva, NA% of GDP (1993 est.); note - conversion of defense
  expenditures into US dollars using the current exchange rate could produce
  misleading results

*Burkina, Geography

Location:
  Western Africa, between Ghana and Mali
Map references:
  Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
 total area:
  274,200 km2
 land area:
  273,800 km2
 comparative area:
  slightly larger than Colorado
Land boundaries:
  total 3,192 km, Benin 306 km, Ghana 548 km, Cote d'Ivoire 584 km, Mali 1,000
  km, Niger 628 km, Togo 126 km
Coastline:
  0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:   none; landlocked
International disputes:
  the disputed international boundary between Burkina and Mali was submitted
  to the International Court of Justice (ICJ) in October 1983 and the ICJ
  issued its final ruling in December 1986, which both sides agreed to accept;
  Burkina and Mali are proceeding with boundary demarcation, including the
  tripoint with Niger
Climate:
  tropical; warm, dry winters; hot, wet summers
Terrain:
  mostly flat to dissected, undulating plains; hills in west and southeast
Natural resources:
  manganese, limestone, marble; small deposits of gold, antimony, copper,
  nickel, bauxite, lead, phosphates, zinc, silver
Land use:
 arable land:
  10%
 permanent crops:
  0%
 meadows and pastures:
  37%
 forest and woodland:
  26%
 other:
  27%
Irrigated land:
  160 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
  recent droughts and desertification severely affecting marginal agricultural
  activities, population distribution, economy; overgrazing; deforestation
Note:
  landlocked

*Burkina, People

Population:
  9,852,529 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
  2.83% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
  48.8 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
  18.19 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
  -2.28 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
  119.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
 total population:
  47.47 years
 male:
  46.66 years
 female:
  48.3 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
  7 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
 noun:
  Burkinabe (singular and plural)
 adjective:
  Burkinabe
Ethnic divisions:
  Mossi (about 2.5 million), Gurunsi, Senufo, Lobi, Bobo, Mande, Fulani
Religions:
  indigenous beliefs 65%, Muslim 25%, Christian (mainly Roman Catholic) 10%
Languages:
  French (official), tribal languages belong to Sudanic family, spoken by 90%
  of the population
Literacy:
  age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
 total population:
  18%
 male:
  28%
 female:
  9%
Labor force:
  3.3 million residents; 30,000 are wage earners
 by occupation:
  agriculture 82%, industry 13%, commerce, services, and government 5%
 note:
  20% of male labor force migrates annually to neighboring countries for
  seasonal employment (1984); 44% of population of working age (1985)

*Burkina, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  Burkina Faso
 conventional short form:
  Burkina
 former:
  Upper Volta
Digraph:
  UV
Type:
  parliamentary
Capital:
  Ouagadougou
Administrative divisions:
  30 provinces; Bam, Bazega, Bougouriba, Boulgou, Boulkiemde, Ganzourgou,
  Gnagna, Gourma, Houet, Kadiogo, Kenedougou, Komoe, Kossi, Kouritenga,
  Mouhoun, Namentenga, Naouri, Oubritenga, Oudalan, Passore, Poni, Sanguie,
  Sanmatenga, Seno, Sissili, Soum, Sourou, Tapoa, Yatenga, Zoundweogo
Independence:
  5 August 1960 (from France)
Constitution:
  June 1991
Legal system:
  based on French civil law system and customary law
National holiday:
  Anniversary of the Revolution, 4 August (1983)
Political parties and leaders:
  Organization for People's Democracy-Labor Movement (ODP-MT), ruling party,
  Marc Christian Roch KABORE; National Convention of Progressive
  Patriots-Social Democratic Party (CNPP-PSD), Pierre TAPSOBA; African
  Democratic Assembly (RDA), Gerard Kango OUEDRAOGO; Alliance for Democracy
  and Federation (ADF), Herman YAMEOGO
Other political or pressure groups:
  committees for the defense of the revolution; watchdog/political action
  groups throughout the country in both organizations and communities
Suffrage:
  none
Elections:
 President:
  last held December 1991
 Assembly of People's Deputies:
  last held 24 May 1992 (next to be held NA); results - percent of vote by
  party NA; seats - (107 total), ODP-MT 78, CNPP-PSD 12, RDA 6, ADF 4, other 7
Executive branch:
  president, Council of Ministers
Legislative branch:
  Assembly of People's Deputies
 note:
  the current law also provides for a second consultative chamber, which had
  not been formally constituted as of 1 July 1992
Judicial branch:
  Appeals Court
Leaders:
 Chief of State and Head of Government:
  President Captain Blaise COMPAORE (since 15 October 1987)

*Burkina, Government

Member of:
  ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEAO, ECA, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, GATT, IBRD,
  ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC,
  ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, OIC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WADB, WCL,
  WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission:
  (vacant)
 chancery:
  2340 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
 telephone:
  (202) 332-5577 or 6895
US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador Edward P. BYRNN
 embassy:
  Avenue Raoul Follerau, Ouagadougou
 mailing address:   01 B. P. 35, Ouagadougou
 telephone:
  [226] 30-67- 23 through 25
 FAX:
  [226] 31-23-68
Flag:
  two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green with a yellow five-pointed
  star in the center; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

*Burkina, Economy

Overview:
  One of the poorest countries in the world, Burkina has a high population
  density, few natural resources, and relatively infertile soil. Economic
  development is hindered by a poor communications network within a landlocked
  country. Agriculture provides about 40% of GDP and is entirely of a
  subsistence nature. Industry, dominated by unprofitable
  government-controlled corporations, accounts for about 15% of GDP.
National product:
  GDP - exchange rate conversion - $3.3 billion (1991)
National product real growth rate:
  1.3% (1990 est.)
National product per capita:
  $350 (1991)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  -1% (1990)
Unemployment rate:
  NA%
Budget:
  revenues $495 million; expenditures $786 million, including capital
  expenditures of $NA (1991)
Exports:
  $304.8 million (f.o.b., 1990)
 commodities:
  cotton, gold, animal products
 partners:
  EC 45%, Taiwan 15%, Cote d'Ivoire 15% (1987)
Imports:
  $593 million (f.o.b., 1990)
 commodities:
  machinery, food products, petroleum
 partners:
  EC 51%, Africa 25%, US 6% (1987)
External debt:
  $865 million (December 1991 est.)
Industrial production:
  growth rate 5.7% (1990 est.), accounts for about 23% of GDP (1989)
Electricity:
  120,000 kW capacity; 320 million kWh produced, 40 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
  cotton lint, beverages, agricultural processing, soap, cigarettes, textiles,
  gold mining and extraction
Agriculture:
  accounts for about 30% of GDP; cash crops - peanuts, shea nuts, sesame,
  cotton; food crops - sorghum, millet, corn, rice; livestock; not
  self-sufficient in food grains
Economic aid:
  US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $294 million; Western (non-US)
  countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $2.9 billion;
  Communist countries (1970-89), $113 million
Currency:
  1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
  CFA francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 274.06 (January 1993), 264.69 (1992), 282.11
  (1991), 272.26 (1990), 319.01 (1989), 297.85 (1988)
Fiscal year:
  calendar year

*Burkina, Communications

Railroads:
  620 km total; 520 km Ouagadougou to Cote d'Ivoire border and 100 km
  Ouagadougou to Kaya; all 1.00-meter gauge and single track
Highways:
  16,500 km total; 1,300 km paved, 7,400 km improved, 7,800 km unimproved
  (1985)
Airports:
 total:
  48
 usable:
  38
 with permanent-surface runways:
  2
 with runways over 3,659 m:
  0
 with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
  2
 with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
  8
Telecommunications:
  all services only fair; microwave radio relay, wire, and radio communication
  stations in use; broadcast stations - 2 AM, 1 FM, 2 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean
  INTELSAT earth station

*Burkina, Defense Forces

Branches:
  Army, Air Force, National Gendarmerie, National Police, People's Militia
Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49 1,947,935; fit for military service 995,532 (1993 est.); no
  conscription
Defense expenditures:
  exchange rate conversion - $NA, NA% of GDP

*Burma, Geography

Location:
  Southeast Asia, bordering the Bay of Bengal, between Bangladesh and Thailand
Map references:
  Asia, Southeast Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
 total area:
  678,500 km2
 land area:
  657,740 km2
 comparative area:
  slightly smaller than Texas
Land boundaries:
  total 5,876 km, Bangladesh 193 km, China 2,185 km, India 1,463 km, Laos 235
  km, Thailand 1,800 km
Coastline:
  1,930 km
Maritime claims:
 contiguous zone:
  24 nm
 continental shelf:
  200 nm or to the edge of continental margin
 exclusive economic zone:
  200 nm
 territorial sea:
  12 nm
International disputes:
  none
Climate:
  tropical monsoon; cloudy, rainy, hot, humid summers (southwest monsoon, June
  to September); less cloudy, scant rainfall, mild temperatures, lower
  humidity during winter (northeast monsoon, December to April)
Terrain:
  central lowlands ringed by steep, rugged highlands
Natural resources:
  petroleum, timber, tin, antimony, zinc, copper, tungsten, lead, coal, some
  marble, limestone, precious stones, natural gas
Land use:
 arable land:
  15%
 permanent crops:
  1%
 meadows and pastures:
  1%
 forest and woodland:
  49%
 other:
  34%
Irrigated land:
  10,180 km2 (1989)
Environment:
  subject to destructive earthquakes and cyclones; flooding and landslides
  common during rainy season (June to September); deforestation
Note:
  strategic location near major Indian Ocean shipping lanes

*Burma, People

Population:
  43,455,953 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
  1.88% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
  28.88 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
  10.05 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
  65.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
 total population:
  59.5 years
 male:
  57.5 years
 female:
  61.63 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
  3.7 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
 noun:
  Burmese (singular and plural)
 adjective:
  Burmese
Ethnic divisions:
  Burman 68%, Shan 9%, Karen 7%, Rakhine 4%, Chinese 3%, Mon 2%, Indian 2%,
  other 5%
Religions:
  Buddhist 89%, Christian 4% (Baptist 3%, Roman Catholic 1%), Muslim 4%,
  animist beliefs 1%, other 2%
Languages:
  Burmese; minority ethnic groups have their own languages
Literacy:
  age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
 total population:
  81%
 male:
  89%
 female:
  72%
Labor force:
  16.007 million (1992)
 by occupation:
  agriculture 65.2%, industry 14.3%, trade 10.1%, government 6.3%, other 4.1%
  (FY89 est.)

*Burma, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  Union of Burma
 conventional short form:
  Burma
 local long form:
  Pyidaungzu Myanma Naingngandaw (translated by the US Government as Union of
  Myanma and by the Burmese as Union of Myanmar)
 local short form:
  Myanma Naingngandaw
 former:
  Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma
Digraph:
  BM
Type:
  military regime
Capital:
  Rangoon (sometimes translated as Yangon)
Administrative divisions:
  7 divisions* (yin-mya, singular - yin) and 7 states (pyine-mya, singular -,   pyine); Chin State,
Irrawaddy*, Kachin State, Karan State, Kayah State,,   Magwe*, Mandalay*, Mon State, Pegu*, Rakhine,
State, Rangoon*, Sagaing*, Shan,   State, Tenasserim*, Independence:
  4 January 1948 (from UK)
Constitution:
  3 January 1974 (suspended since 18 September 1988); National Convention
  started on 9 January 1993 to draft chapter headings for a new constitution
Legal system:
  has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
  Independence Day, 4 January (1948)
Political parties and leaders:
  National Unity Party (NUP; proregime), THA KYAW; National League for
  Democracy (NLD), U AUNG SHWE; National Coalition of Union of Burma (NCGUB),
  SEIN WIN (which consists of individuals legitimately elected to parliament,
  but not recognized by military regime) fled to border area and joined with
  insurgents in December 1990 to form a parallel government
Other political or pressure groups:
  Kachin Independence Army (KIA); United Wa State Army (UWSA); Karen National
  Union (KNU - the only non-drug group); several Shan factions, including the
  Mong Tai Army (MTA)
Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal
Elections:
 People's Assembly:
  last held 27 May 1990, but Assembly never convened; results - NLD 80%; seats
  - (485 total) NLD 396, the regime-favored NUP 10, other 79
Executive branch:
  chairman of the State Law and Order Restoration Council, State Law and Order
  Restoration Council
Legislative branch:
  unicameral People's Assembly (Pyithu Hluttaw) was dissolved after the coup
  of 18 September 1988
Judicial branch:   none; Council of People's Justices was abolished after the coup of 18
  September 1988

*Burma, Government

Leaders:
 Chief of State and Head of Government:
  Chairman of the State Law and Order Restoration Council Gen. THAN SHWE
  (since 23 April 1992)
Member of:
  AsDB, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC,
  ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU,
  WHO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador U THAUNG
 chancery:
  2300 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
 telephone:
  (202) 332-9044 through 9046
 consulate general:
  New York
US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission:
  (vacant); Deputy Chief of Mission, Charge d'Affaires Franklin P. HUDDLE, Jr.
 embassy:
  581 Merchant Street, Rangoon
 mailing address:
  GPO Box 521, AMEMB Box B, APO AP 96546
 telephone:
  [95] (1) 82055, 82181
 FAX:
  [95] (1) 80409
Flag:
  red with a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner bearing, all in
  white, 14 five-pointed stars encircling a cogwheel containing a stalk of
  rice; the 14 stars represent the 14 administrative divisions

*Burma, Economy

Overview:
  Burma is a poor Asian country, with a per capita GDP of about $660. The
  nation has been unable to achieve any substantial improvement in export
  earnings because of falling prices for many of its major commodity exports.
  For rice, traditionally the most important export, the drop in world prices
  has been accompanied by shrinking markets and a smaller volume of sales. In
  1985 teak replaced rice as the largest export and continues to hold this
  position. The economy is heavily dependent on the agricultural sector, which
  generates about 40% of GDP and provides employment for 65% of the work
  force. Burma has been largely isolated from international economic forces
  and has been trying to encourage foreign investment, so far with little
  success.
National product:
  GDP - exchange rate conversion - $28 billion (1992)
National product real growth rate:
  1.3% (1992)
National product per capita:
  $660 (1992)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  50% (1992)
Unemployment rate:
  9.6% (FY89 est.) in urban areas
Budget:
  revenues $8.1 billion; expenditures $11.6 billion, including capital
  expenditures of $NA (1992)
Exports:
  $535.1 million (FY92)
 commodities:
  teak, rice, oilseed, metals, rubber, gems
 partners:
  China, India, Thailand, Singapore
Imports:
  $907.0 million (FY92)
 commodities:
  machinery, transport equipment, chemicals, food products
 partners:
  Japan, China, Singapore
External debt:
  $4 billion (1992)
Industrial production:
  growth rate 2.6% (FY90 est.); accounts for 10% of GDP
Electricity:
  1,100,000 kW capacity; 2,800 million kWh produced, 65 kWh per capita (1992)
Industries:
  agricultural processing; textiles and footwear; wood and wood products;
  petroleum refining; mining of copper, tin, tungsten, iron; construction
  materials; pharmaceuticals; fertilizer
Agriculture:
  accounts for 40% of GDP (including fish and forestry); self-sufficient in
  food; principal crops - paddy rice, corn, oilseed, sugarcane, pulses;
  world's largest stand of hardwood trees; rice and teak account for 55% of
  export revenues
Illicit drugs:
  world's largest illicit producer of opium poppy and minor producer of
  cannabis for the international drug trade; opium production has nearly
  doubled since the collapse of Rangoon's antinarcotic programs

*Burma, Economy

Economic aid:
  US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $158 million; Western (non-US)
  countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $3.9 billion;
  Communist countries (1970-89), $424 million
Currency:
  1 kyat (K) = 100 pyas
Exchange rates:   kyats (K) per US$1 - 6.0963 (January 1992), 6.2837 (1991), 6.3386 (1990),
  6.7049 (1989), 6.46 (1988), 6.6535 (1987); unofficial - 105
Fiscal year:
  1 April - 31 March

*Burma, Communications

Railroads:
  3,991 km total, all government owned; 3,878 km 1.000-meter gauge, 113 km
  narrow-gauge industrial lines; 362 km double track
Highways:
  27,000 km total; 3,200 km bituminous, 17,700 km improved earth or gravel,
  6,100 km unimproved earth
Inland waterways:
  12,800 km; 3,200 km navigable by large commercial vessels
Pipelines:
  crude oil 1,343 km; natural gas 330 km
Ports:
  Rangoon, Moulmein, Bassein
Merchant marine:
  62 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 940,264 GRT/1,315,156 DWT; includes 3
  passenger-cargo, 18 cargo, 5 refrigerated cargo, 4 vehicle carrier, 2
  container, 2 oil tanker, 3 chemical, 1 combination ore/oil, 23 bulk, 1
  combination bulk
Airports:
 total:
  83
 usable:
  78
 with permanent-surface runways:
  26
 with runways over 3,659 m:
  0
 with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
  3
 with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
  38
Telecommunications:
  meets minimum requirements for local and intercity service for business and
  government; international service is good; 53,000 telephones (1986);
  radiobroadcast coverage is limited to the most populous areas; broadcast
  stations - 2 AM, 1 FM, 1 TV (1985); 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth station

*Burma, Defense Forces

Branches:
  Army, Navy, Air Force
Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49 11,004,419; females age 15-49 10,945,899; males fit for
  military service 5,894,514; females fit for military service 5,847,958;
  males reach military age (18) annually 435,030; females reach military age
  (18) annually 420,487 (1993 est.); both sexes are liable for military
  service
Defense expenditures:
  exchange rate conversion - $NA, NA% of GDP (1992)

*Burundi, Geography

Location:
  Central Africa, between Tanzania and Zaire
Map references:
  Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
 total area:
  27,830 km2
 land area:
  25,650 km2
 comparative area:
  slightly larger than Maryland
Land boundaries:
  total 974 km, Rwanda 290 km, Tanzania 451 km, Zaire 233 km
Coastline:
  0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
  none; landlocked
International disputes:
  none
Climate:
  temperate; warm; occasional frost in uplands
Terrain:
  mostly rolling to hilly highland; some plains
Natural resources:
  nickel, uranium, rare earth oxide, peat, cobalt, copper, platinum (not yet
  exploited), vanadium
Land use:
 arable land:
  43%
 permanent crops:
  8%
 meadows and pastures:
  35%
 forest and woodland:
  2%
 other:
  12%
Irrigated land:
  720 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
  soil exhaustion; soil erosion; deforestation
Note:
  landlocked; straddles crest of the Nile-Congo watershed

*Burundi, People

Population:
  5,985,308 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
  2.34% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
  44.69 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
  21.25 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
  115.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
 total population:
  40.75 years
 male:
  38.79 years
 female:
  42.76 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
  6.76 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
 noun:
  Burundian(s)
 adjective:
  Burundi
Ethnic divisions:
 Africans:
  Hutu (Bantu) 85%, Tutsi (Hamitic) 14%, Twa (Pygmy) 1% (other Africans
  include about 70,000 refugees, mostly Rwandans and Zairians)
 non-Africans:
  Europeans 3,000, South Asians 2,000
Religions:
  Christian 67% (Roman Catholic 62%, Protestant 5%), indigenous beliefs 32%,
  Muslim 1%
Languages:
  Kirundi (official), French (official), Swahili (along Lake Tanganyika and in
  the Bujumbura area)
Literacy:
  age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
 total population:
  50%
 male:
  61%
 female:
  40%
Labor force:
  1.9 million (1983 est.)
 by occupation:
  agriculture 93.0%, government 4.0%, industry and commerce 1.5%, services
  1.5%
 note:
  52% of population of working age (1985)

*Burundi, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  Republic of Burundi
 conventional short form:
  Burundi
 local long form:
  Republika y'u Burundi
 local short form:
  Burundi
Digraph:
  BY
Type:
  republic
Capital:
  Bujumbura
Administrative divisions:
  15 provinces; Bubanza, Bujumbura, Bururi, Cankuzo, Cibitoke, Gitega, Karuzi,
  Kayanza, Kirundo, Makamba, Muramvya, Muyinga, Ngozi, Rutana, Ruyigi
Independence:
  1 July 1962 (from UN trusteeship under Belgian administration)
Constitution:
  13 March 1992 draft provides for establishment of plural political system
Legal system:
  based on German and Belgian civil codes and customary law; has not accepted
  compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
  Independence Day, 1 July (1962)
Political parties and leaders:
  only party - National Party of Unity and Progress (UPRONA), Nicolas MAYUGI,
  secretary general;
 note:
  although Burundi is still officially a one-party state, at least four
  political parties were formed in 1991 and set the precedent for
  constitutional reform in 1992 - Burundi Democratic Front (FRODEBU),
  Organization of the People of Burundi (RPB), Socialist Party of Burundi
  (PSB), Royalist Parliamentary Party (PRP) - the most significant opposition
  party is FRODEBU, led by Melchior NDADAYE; the Party for the Liberation of
  the Hutu People (PALIPEHUTU), formed in exile in the early 1980s, is an
  ethnically based political party dedicated to majority rule; the government
  has long accused PALIPEHUTU of practicing devisive ethnic politics and
  fomenting violence against the state; PALIPEHUTU's exclusivist charter makes
  it an unlikely candidate for legalization under the new constitution that
  will require party membership open to all ethnic groups
Suffrage:
  universal adult at age NA
Elections:
 National Assembly:
  note - The National Unity Charter outlining the principles for
  constitutional government was adopted by a national referendum on 5 February
  1991; new elections to the National Assembly are to take place 29 June 1993;
  presidential elections are to take place 1 June 1993
Executive branch:
  president; chairman of the Central Committee of the National Party of Unity
  and Progress (UPRONA), prime minister

*Burundi, Government

Legislative branch:
  unicameral National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale) was dissolved following
  the coup of 3 September 1987; at an extraordinary party congress held from
  27 to 29 December 1990, the Central Committee of the National Party of Unity
  and Progress (UPRONA) replaced the Military Committee for National
  Salvation, and became the supreme governing body during the transition to
  constitutional government
Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)
Leaders:
 Chief of State:
  President Major Pierre BUYOYA (since 9 September 1987)
 Head of Government:
  Prime Minister Adrien SIBOMANA (since 26 October 1988)
Member of:
  ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEEAC, CEPGL, ECA, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, IDA,
  IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTERPOL, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
  UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador Julien KAVAKURE
 chancery:
  Suite 212, 2233 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007
 telephone:
  (202) 342-2574
US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador Cynthia Shepherd PERRY
 embassy:
  Avenue des Etats-Unis, Bujumbura
 mailing address:
  B. P. 1720, Bujumbura
 telephone:
  [257] (223) 454
 FAX:
  [257] (222) 926
Flag:
  divided by a white diagonal cross into red panels (top and bottom) and green
  panels (hoist side and outer side) with a white disk superimposed at the
  center bearing three red six-pointed stars outlined in green arranged in a
  triangular design (one star above, two stars below)

*Burundi, Economy

Overview:
  A landlocked, resource-poor country in an early stage of economic
  development, Burundi is predominately agricultural with only a few basic
  industries. Its economic health depends on the coffee crop, which accounts
  for an average 90% of foreign exchange earnings each year. The ability to
  pay for imports therefore continues to rest largely on the vagaries of the
  climate and the international coffee market. As part of its economic reform
  agenda, launched in February 1991 with IMF and World Bank support, Burundi
  is trying to diversify its agricultural exports and attract foreign
  investment in industry. Several state-owned coffee companies were privatized
  via public auction in September 1991.
National product:
  GDP - exchange rate conversion - $1.23 billion (1991 est.)
National product real growth rate:
  5% (1991 est.)
National product per capita:
  $205 (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  9% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
  NA%
Budget:
  revenues $318 million; expenditures $326 million, including capital
  expenditures of $150 million (1991 est.)
Exports:
  $91.7 million (f.o.b., 1991)
 commodities:
  coffee 81%, tea, hides, and skins
 partners:
  EC 83%, US 5%, Asia 2%
Imports:
  $246 million (c.i.f., 1991)
 commodities:
  capital goods 31%, petroleum products 15%, foodstuffs, consumer goods
 partners:
  EC 57%, Asia 23%, US 3%
External debt:
  $1 billion (1990 est.)
Industrial production:
  real growth rate 11.0% (1991 est.); accounts for about 5% of GDP
Electricity:
  55,000 kW capacity; 105 million kWh produced, 20 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
  light consumer goods such as blankets, shoes, soap; assembly of imports;
  public works construction; food processing
Agriculture:
  accounts for 60% of GDP; 90% of population dependent on subsistence farming;
  marginally self-sufficient in food production; cash crops - coffee, cotton,
  tea; food crops - corn, sorghum, sweet potatoes, bananas, manioc; livestock
  - meat, milk, hides and skins
Economic aid:
  US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $71 million; Western (non-US)
  countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $10.2 billion; OPEC
  bilateral aid (1979-89), $32 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $175
  million
Currency:
  1 Burundi franc (FBu) = 100 centimes

*Burundi, Economy

Exchange rates:
  Burundi francs (FBu) per US$1 - 235.75 (January 1993), 208.30 (1992), 181.51
  (1991), 171.26 (1990), 158.67 (1989), 140.40 (1988)
Fiscal year:
  calendar year

*Burundi, Communications

Highways:
  5,900 km total; 400 km paved, 2,500 km gravel or laterite, 3,000 km improved
  or unimproved earth
Inland waterways:
  Lake Tanganyika
Ports:
  Bujumbura (lake port) connects to transportation systems of Tanzania and
  Zaire
Airports:
 total:
  5
 usable:
  4
 with permanent-surface runways:
  1
 with runways over 3,659 m:
  0
 with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
  1
 with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
  4
Telecommunications:
  sparse system of wire, radiocommunications, and low-capacity microwave radio
  relay links; 8,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 2 AM, 2 FM, 1 TV; 1
  Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth station

*Burundi, Defense Forces

Branches:
  Army (includes naval and air units), paramilitary Gendarmerie
Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49 1,283,308; fit for military service 670,381; reach military
  age (16) annually 62,700 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
  exchange rate conversion - $28 million, 3.7% of GDP (1989)

*Cambodia, Geography

Location:
  Southeast Asia, bordering the Gulf of Thailand, between Thailand and Vietnam
Map references:   Asia, Southeast Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
 total area:
  181,040 km2
 land area:
  176,520 km2
 comparative area:
  slightly smaller than Oklahoma
Land boundaries:
  total 2,572 km, Laos 541 km, Thailand 803 km, Vietnam 1,228 km
Coastline:
  443 km
Maritime claims:
 contiguous zone:
  24 nm
 continental shelf:
  200 nm
 exclusive economic zone:
  200 nm
 territorial sea:
  12 nm
International disputes:
  offshore islands and three sections of the boundary with Vietnam are in
  dispute; maritime boundary with Vietnam not defined
Climate:
  tropical; rainy, monsoon season (May to October); dry season (December to
  March); little seasonal temperature variation
Terrain:
  mostly low, flat plains; mountains in southwest and north
Natural resources:
  timber, gemstones, some iron ore, manganese, phosphates, hydropower
  potential
Land use:
 arable land:
  16%
 permanent crops:
  1%
 meadows and pastures:
  3%
 forest and woodland:
  76%
 other:
  4%
Irrigated land:
  920 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
  a land of paddies and forests dominated by Mekong River and Tonle Sap
Note:
  buffer between Thailand and Vietnam

*Cambodia, People

Population:
  9,898,900 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
  4.41% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
  45.52 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
  16.57 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
  15.15 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
  111.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
 total population:
  49.06 years
 male:
  47.6 years
 female:
  50.6 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
  5.81 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
 noun:
  Cambodian(s)
 adjective:
  Cambodian
Ethnic divisions:
  Khmer 90%, Vietnamese 5%, Chinese 1%, other 4%
Religions:
  Theravada Buddhism 95%, other 5%
Languages:
  Khmer (official), French
Literacy:
  age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
 total population:
  35%
 male:
  48%
 female:
  22%
Labor force:
  2,500,000 to 3,000,000
 by occupation:
  agriculture 80% (1988 est.)

*Cambodia, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  none
 conventional short form:
  Cambodia
Digraph:
  CB
Type:
  transitional government currently administered by the Supreme National
  Council (SNC), a body set up under United Nations' auspices, in preparation
  for an internationally supervised election in 1993 and including
  representatives from each of the country's four political factions
Capital:
  Phnom Penh
Administrative divisions:
  20 provinces (khet, singular and plural); Banteay Meanchey, Batdambang,
  Kampong Cham, Kampong Chhnang, Kampong Spoe, Kampong Thum, Kampot, Kandal,
  Kaoh Kong, Kracheh, Mondol Kiri, Phnum Penh, Pouthisat, Preah Vihear, Prey
  Veng, Rotanokiri, Siemreab-Otdar Meanchey, Stoeng Treng, Svay Rieng, Takev
Independence:
  9 November 1949 (from France)
Constitution:
  a new constitution will be drafted after the national election in 1993
Legal system:
  NA
National holiday:
 NGC:
  Independence Day, 17 April (1975)
 SOC:
  Liberation Day, 7 January (1979)
Political parties and leaders:
  Democratic Kampuchea (DK, also known as the Khmer Rouge) under KHIEU
  SAMPHAN; Cambodian Pracheachon Party or Cambodian People's Party (CPP) under
  CHEA SIM; Khmer People's National Liberation Front (KPNLF) under SON SANN;
  National United Front for an Independent, Neutral, Peaceful, and Cooperative
  Cambodia (FUNCINPEC) under Prince NORODOM RANARIDDH; Liberal Democratic
  Party (LDP) under SAK SUTSAKHAN
Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal
Elections:
  UN-supervised election for a 120-member constituent assembly based on
  proportional representation within each province is scheduled for 23-27 May
  1993; the assembly will draft and approve a constitution and then transform
  itself into a legislature that will create a new Cambodian Government
Executive branch:
  a 12 member Supreme National Council (SNC), chaired by Prince NORODOM
  SIHANOUK, composed of representatives from each of the four political
  factions; faction names and delegation leaders are: State of Cambodia (SOC)
  - HUN SEN; Democratic Kampuchea (DK or Khmer Rouge) - KHIEU SAMPHAN; Khmer
  People's National Liberation Front (KPNLF) - SON SANN; National United Front
  for an Independent, Peaceful, Neutral, and Cooperative Cambodia (FUNCINPEC)
  - Prince NORODOM RANARIDDH
Legislative branch:
  pending a national election in 1993, the incumbent SOC faction's unicameral
  National Assembly is the only functioning national legislative body
Judicial branch:
  Supreme People's Court pending a national election in 1993, the incumbent
  SOC faction's Supreme People's Court is the only functioning national
  judicial body

*Cambodia, Government

Leaders:  Chief of State:
  SNC - Chairman Prince NORODOM SIHANOUK, under UN supervision
 Head of Government:
  NGC - vacant, but will be determined following the national election in
  1993; SOC - Chairman of the Council of Ministers HUN SEN (since 14 January
  1985)
Member of:
  AsDB, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, ILO, IMF, IMO,
  INTERPOL, ITU, LORCS, NAM, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
  the Supreme National Council (SNC) represents Cambodia in international
  organizations
US diplomatic representation:
 US representative:
  Charles TWINNING
 mission:
  27 EO Street 240, Phnom Penh
 mailing address:
  Box P, APO AP 96546
 telephone:
  (855) 23-26436 or (855) 23-26438
 FAX:
  (855) 23-26437
Flag:
  SNC - blue background with white map of Cambodia in middle; SOC - two equal
  horizontal bands of red (top) and blue with a gold stylized five-towered
  temple representing Angkor Wat in the center

*Cambodia, Economy

Overview:
  Cambodia remains a desperately poor country whose economic recovery is held
  hostage to continued political unrest and factional hostilities. The
  country's immediate economic challenge is an acute financial crisis that is
  undermining monetary stability and preventing disbursement of foreign
  development assistance. Cambodia is still recovering from an abrupt shift in
  1990 to free-market economic mechanisms and a cutoff in aid from former
  Soviet bloc countries; these changes have severely impacted on public sector
  revenues and performance. The country's infrastructure of roads, bridges,
  and power plants has been severely degraded, now having only 40-50% of
  prewar capacity. The economy remains essentially rural, with 90% of the
  population living in the countryside and dependent mainly on subsistence
  agriculture. Statistical data on the economy continue to be sparse and
  unreliable.
National product:
  GDP - exchange rate conversion - $2 billion (1991 est.)
National product real growth rate:
  NA%
National product per capita:
  $280 (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  250-300% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
  NA%
Budget:
  revenues $120 million; expenditures $NA, including capital expenditures of
  $NA (1992 est.)
Exports:
  $59 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.)
 commodities:
  natural rubber, rice, pepper, wood
 partners:
  Vietnam, USSR, Eastern Europe, Japan, India
Imports:
  $170 million (c.i.f., 1990 est.)
 commodities:
  international food aid; fuels, consumer goods, machinery
 partners:
  Vietnam, USSR, Eastern Europe, Japan, India
External debt:
  $717 million (1990)
Industrial production:
  growth rate NA%
Electricity:
  35,000 kW capacity; 70 million kWh produced, 9 kWh per capita (1990)
Industries:
  rice milling, fishing, wood and wood products, rubber, cement, gem mining
Agriculture:
  mainly subsistence farming except for rubber plantations; main crops - rice,
  rubber, corn; food shortages - rice, meat, vegetables, dairy products,
  sugar, flour
Economic aid:
  US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $725 million; Western (non-US
  countries) (1970-89), $300 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $1.8
  billion
Currency:
  1 riel (CR) = 100 sen

*Cambodia, Economy

Exchange rates:
  riels (CR) per US$1 - 2,800 (September 1992), 500 (December 1991), 560
  (1990), 159.00 (1988), 100.00 (1987)
Fiscal year:
  calendar year

*Cambodia, Communications

Railroads:
  612 km 1.000-meter gauge, government owned
Highways:
  13,351 km total; 2,622 km bituminous; 7,105 km crushed stone, gravel, or
  improved earth; 3,624 km unimproved earth; some roads in disrepair
Inland waterways:
  3,700 km navigable all year to craft drawing 0.6 meters; 282 km navigable to
  craft drawing 1.8 meters
Ports:
  Kampong Saom, Phnom Penh
Airports:
 total:
  15
 usable:
  9
 with permanent-surface runways:
  5
 with runways over 3,659 m:
  0
 with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
  2
 with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
  4
Telecommunications:
  service barely adequate for government requirements and virtually
  nonexistent for general public; international service limited to Vietnam and
  other adjacent countries; broadcast stations - 1 AM, no FM, 1 TV

*Cambodia, Defense Forces

Branches:
 SOC:
  Cambodian People's Armed Forces (CPAF)
 Communist resistance forces:
  National Army of Democratic Kampuchea (Khmer Rouge)
 non-Communist resistance forces:
  Armee National Kampuchea Independent (ANKI) which is sometimes anglicized as
  National Army of Independent Cambodia (NAIC), Khmer People's National
  Liberation Armed Forces (KPNLAF)
Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49 1,883,679; fit for military service 1,033,168; reach
  military age (18) annually 74,585 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
  exchange rate conversion - $NA, NA% of GDP

*Cameroon, Geography

Location:
  Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean between Equatorial Guinea
  and Nigeria
Map references:
  Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
 total area:
  475,440 km2
 land area:
  469,440 km2
 comparative area:
  slightly larger than California
Land boundaries:   total 4,591 km, Central African Republic 797 km, Chad 1,094 km, Congo 523
  km, Equatorial Guinea 189 km, Gabon 298 km, Nigeria 1,690 km
Coastline:
  402 km
Maritime claims:
 territorial sea:
  50 nm
International disputes:
  demarcation of international boundaries in Lake Chad, the lack of which has
  led to border incidents in the past, is completed and awaiting ratification
  by Cameroon, Chad, Niger, and Nigeria; boundary commission, created with
  Nigeria to discuss unresolved land and maritime boundaries, has not yet
  convened
Climate:
  varies with terrain from tropical along coast to semiarid and hot in north
Terrain:
  diverse, with coastal plain in southwest, dissected plateau in center,
  mountains in west, plains in north
Natural resources:
  petroleum, bauxite, iron ore, timber, hydropower potential
Land use:
 arable land:
  13%
 permanent crops:
  2%
 meadows and pastures:
  18%
 forest and woodland:
  54%
 other:
  13%
Irrigated land:
  280 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
  recent volcanic activity with release of poisonous gases; deforestation;
  overgrazing; desertification
Note:
  sometimes referred to as the hinge of Africa

*Cameroon, People

Population:
  12,755,873 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
  2.9% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
  40.66 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
  11.63 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
  78.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:  total population:
  56.66 years
 male:
  54.65 years
 female:
  58.74 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
  5.88 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
 noun:
  Cameroonian(s)
 adjective:
  Cameroonian
Ethnic divisions:
  Cameroon Highlanders 31%, Equatorial Bantu 19%, Kirdi 11%, Fulani 10%,
  Northwestern Bantu 8%, Eastern Nigritic 7%, other African 13%, non-African
  less than 1%
Religions:
  indigenous beliefs 51%, Christian 33%, Muslim 16%
Languages:
  24 major African language groups, English (official), French (official)
Literacy:
  age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
 total population:
  54%
 male:
  66%
 female:
  43%
Labor force:
  NA
 by occupation:
  agriculture 74.4%, industry and transport 11.4%, other services 14.2% (1983)
 note:
  50% of population of working age (15-64 years) (1985)

*Cameroon, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  Republic of Cameroon
 conventional short form:
  Cameroon
 former:
  French Cameroon
Digraph:
  CM
Type:
  unitary republic; multiparty presidential regime (opposition parties
  legalized 1990)
Capital:
  Yaounde
Administrative divisions:
  10 provinces; Adamaoua, Centre, Est, Extreme-Nord, Littoral, Nord,
  Nord-Ouest, Ouest, Sud, Sud-Ouest
Independence:
  1 January 1960 (from UN trusteeship under French administration)
Constitution:
  20 May 1972
Legal system:
  based on French civil law system, with common law influence; has not
  accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
  National Day, 20 May (1972)
Political parties and leaders:
  Cameroon People's Democratic Movement (CPDM), Paul BIYA, president, is
  government-controlled and was formerly the only party, but opposition
  parties were legalized in 1990
 major opposition parties:
  National Union for Democracy and Progress (UNDP)
 major oppositon parties:
  Social Democratic Front (SDF)
 major opposition parties:
  Cameroonian Democratic Union (UDC); Union of Cameroonian Populations (UPC)
Other political or pressure groups:
  NA
Suffrage:
  20 years of age; universal
Elections:
 National Assembly:
  last held 1 March 1992 (next scheduled for March 1997); results - (180
  seats) CPDM 88, UNDP 68, UPC 18, MDR 6
 President:
  last held 11 October 1992; results - President Paul BIYA reelected with
  about 40% of the vote amid widespread allegations of fraud; SDF candidate
  John FRU NDI got 36% of the vote; UNDP candidate Bello Bouba MAIGARI got 19%
  of the vote
Executive branch:
  president, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
  unicameral National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale)
Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court
Leaders:
 Chief of State:
  President Paul BIYA (since 6 November 1982)

*Cameroon, Government

 Head of Government:
  Prime Minister Simon ACHIDI ACHU (since 9 April 1992)
Member of:
  ACCT (associate), ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CCC, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-19, G-77,
  GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT,
  INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, OIC, PCA, UDEAC, UN, UNCTAD,
  UNESCO, UNIDO, UNTAC, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission:   Ambassador Paul PONDI
 chancery:
  2349 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
 telephone:
  (202) 265-8790 through 8794
US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador Harriet ISOM
 embassy:
  Rue Nachtigal, Yaounde
 mailing address:
  B. P. 817, Yaounde
 telephone:
  [237] 234-014
 FAX:
  [237] 230-753
 consulate:
  Douala
Flag:
  three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), red, and yellow with a
  yellow five-pointed star centered in the red band; uses the popular
  pan-African colors of Ethiopia

*Cameroon, Economy

Overview:
  Because of its offshore oil resources, Cameroon has one of the highest
  incomes per capita in tropical Africa. Still, it faces many of the serious
  problems facing other underdeveloped countries, such as political
  instability, a top-heavy civil service, and a generally unfavorable climate
  for business enterprise. The development of the oil sector led rapid
  economic growth between 1970 and 1985. Growth came to an abrupt halt in 1986
  precipitated by steep declines in the prices of major exports: coffee,
  cocoa, and petroleum. Export earnings were cut by almost one-third, and
  inefficiencies in fiscal management were exposed. In 1990-92, with support
  from the IMF and World Bank, the government has begun to introduce reforms
  designed to spur business investment, increase efficiency in agriculture,
  and recapitalize the nation's banks. Nationwide strikes organized by
  opposition parties in 1991, however, undermined these efforts.
National product:
  GDP - exchange rate conversion - $11.5 billion (1990 est.)
National product real growth rate:
  3% (1990 est.)
National product per capita:
  $1,040 (1990 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  3% (1990 est.)
Unemployment rate:
  25% (1990 est.)
Budget:
  revenues $1.7 billion; expenditures $2.4 billion, including capital
  expenditures of $422 million (FY90 est.)
Exports:
  $1.8 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
 commodities:
  petroleum products 51%, coffee, beans, cocoa, aluminum products, timber
 partners:
  EC (particularly France) about 50%, US, African countries
Imports:
  $1.2 billion (c.i.f., 1991)
 commodities:
  machines and electrical equipment, food, consumer goods, transport equipment
 partners:
  EC about 60%, France 41%, Germany 9%, African countries, Japan, US 4%
External debt:
  $6 billion (1991)
Industrial production:
  growth rate 6.4% (FY87); accounts for 30% of GDP
Electricity:
  755,000 kW capacity; 2,190 million kWh produced, 190 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
  petroleum production and refining, food processing, light consumer goods,
  textiles, sawmills
Agriculture:
  the agriculture and forestry sectors provide employment for the majority of
  the population, contributing nearly 25% to GDP and providing a high degree
  of self-sufficiency in staple foods; commercial and food crops include
  coffee, cocoa, timber, cotton, rubber, bananas, oilseed, grains, livestock,
  root starches
Economic aid:
  US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-90), $479 million; Western (non-US)
  countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-90), $4.75 billion; OPEC
  bilateral aid (1979-89), $29 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $125
  million

*Cameroon, Economy

Currency:
  1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
  Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 274.06 (January
  1993), 264.69 (1992), 282.11 (1991), 272.26 (1990), 319.01 (1989), 297.85
  (1988)
Fiscal year:
  1 July - 30 June

*Cameroon, Communications

Railroads:
  1,003 km total; 858 km 1.000-meter gauge, 145 km 0.600-meter gauge
Highways:
  about 65,000 km total; includes 2,682 km paved, 32,318 km gravel and
  improved earth, and 30,000 km of unimproved earth
Inland waterways:
  2,090 km; of decreasing importance
Ports:   Douala
Merchant marine:
  2 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 24,122 GRT/33,509 DWT
Airports:
 total:
  59
 usable:
  51
 with permanent-surface runways:
  11
 with runways over 3,659 m:
  0
 with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
  6
 with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
  51
Telecommunications:
  good system of open wire, cable, troposcatter, and microwave radio relay;
  26,000 telephones, 2 telephones per 1,000 persons, available only to
  business and government; broadcast stations - 11 AM, 11 FM, 1 TV; 2 Atlantic
  Ocean INTELSAT earth stations

*Cameroon, Defense Forces

Branches:
  Army, Navy (including Naval Infantry), Air Force, National Gendarmerie,
  Presidential Guard
Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49 2,844,280; fit for military service 1,432,563; reach
  military age (18) annually 125,453 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
  exchange rate conversion - $219 million, less than 2% of GDP (1990 est.)

*Canada, Geography

Location:
  Northern North America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean and North Pacific
  Ocean north of the US
Map references:
  Arctic Region, North America, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
 total area:
  9,976,140 km2
 land area:
  9,220,970 km2
 comparative area:
  slightly larger than US
Land boundaries:
  total 8,893 km, US 8,893 km (includes 2,477 km with Alaska)
Coastline:
  243,791 km
Maritime claims:  continental shelf:
  200 m depth or to depth of exploitation
 exclusive fishing zone:
  200 nm
 territorial sea:
  12 nm
International disputes:
  maritime boundary disputes with the US; Saint Pierre and Miquelon is focus
  of maritime boundary dispute between Canada and France
Climate:
  varies from temperate in south to subarctic and arctic in north
Terrain:
  mostly plains with mountains in west and lowlands in southeast
Natural resources:
  nickel, zinc, copper, gold, lead, molybdenum, potash, silver, fish, timber,
  wildlife, coal, petroleum, natural gas
Land use:
 arable land:
  5%
 permanent crops:
  0%
 meadows and pastures:
  3%
 forest and woodland:
  35%
 other:
  57%
Irrigated land:
  8,400 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
  80% of population concentrated within 160 km of US border; continuous
  permafrost in north a serious obstacle to development
Note:
  second-largest country in world (after Russia); strategic location between
  Russia and US via north polar route

*Canada, People

Population:
  27,769,993 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
  1.28% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
  14.48 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
  7.35 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
  5.68 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
  7 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
 total population:
  77.98 years
 male:   74.54 years
 female:
  81.6 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
  1.84 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
 noun:
  Canadian(s)
 adjective:
  Canadian
Ethnic divisions:
  British Isles origin 40%, French origin 27%, other European 20%, indigenous
  Indian and Eskimo 1.5%
Religions:
  Roman Catholic 46%, United Church 16%, Anglican 10%, other 28%
Languages:
  English (official), French (official)
Literacy:
  age 15 and over can read and write (1981)
 total population:
  99%
 male:
  NA%
 female:
  NA%
Labor force:
  13.38 million
 by occupation:
  services 75%, manufacturing 14%, agriculture 4%, construction 3%, other 4%
  (1988)

*Canada, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  none
 conventional short form:
  Canada
Digraph:
  CA
Type:
  confederation with parliamentary democracy
Capital:
  Ottawa
Administrative divisions:
  10 provinces and 2 territories*; Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New,   Brunswick,
Newfoundland, Northwest Territories*, Nova Scotia, Ontario,,   Prince Edward Island, Quebec,
Saskatchewan, Yukon Territory*, Independence:
  1 July 1867 (from UK)
Constitution:
  amended British North America Act 1867 patriated to Canada 17 April 1982;
  charter of rights and unwritten customs
Legal system:   based on English common law, except in Quebec, where civil law system based
  on French law prevails; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with
  reservations
National holiday:
  Canada Day, 1 July (1867)
Political parties and leaders:
  Progressive Conservative Party, Brian MULRONEY; Liberal Party, Jean
  CHRETIEN; New Democratic Party, Audrey McLAUGHLIN; Reform Party, Preston
  MANNING; Bloc Quebecois, Lucien BOUCHARD
Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal
Elections:
 House of Commons:
  last held 21 November 1988 (next to be held by November 1993); results -
  Progressive Conservative Party 43%, Liberal Party 32%, New Democratic Party
  20%, other 5%; seats - (295 total) Progressive Conservative Party 159,
  Liberal Party 80, New Democratic Party 44, Bloc Quebecois 9, independents 3
Executive branch:
  British monarch, governor general, prime minister, deputy prime minister,
  Cabinet
Legislative branch:
  bicameral Parliament (Parlement) consists of an upper house or Senate
  (Senat) and a lower house or House of Commons (Chambre des Communes)
Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court
Leaders:
 Chief of State:
  Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General
  Raymond John HNATYSHYN (since 29 January 1990)
 Head of Government:
  Prime Minister Kim CAMBELL was chosen to replace Brian MULRONEY on 13 June
  1993

*Canada, Government

Member of:
  ACCT, AfDB, AG (observer), APEC, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, C, CCC, CDB
  (non-regional), COCOM, CP, CSCE, EBRD, ECE, ECLAC, ESA (cooperating state),
  FAO, G-7, G-8, G-10, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IEA,
  IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU,
  LORCS, MINURSO, MTCR, NACC, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS, OECD, ONUSAL,
  PCA, UN, UNAVEM II, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM,
  UNOMOZ, UNOSOM, UNPROFOR, UNTAC, UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WMO, WIPO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador John DE CHASTELAIN
 chancery:
  501 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20001
 telephone:
  (202) 682-1740
 FAX:
  (202) 682-7726
 consulates general:
  Atlanta, Boston, Buffalo, Chicago, Cleveland, Dallas, Detroit, Los Angeles,
  Minneapolis, New York, Philadelphia, San Francisco, and Seattle
US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador-designate Governor James J. BLANCHARD
 embassy:
  100 Wellington Street, K1P 5T1, Ottawa
 mailing address:
  P. O. Box 5000, Ogdensburg, NY 13669-0430
 telephone:
  (613) 238-5335 or (613) 238-4470
 FAX:
  (613) 238-5720
 consulates general:
  Calgary, Halifax, Montreal, Quebec, Toronto, and Vancouver
Flag:
  three vertical bands of red (hoist side), white (double width, square), and
  red with a red maple leaf centered in the white band

*Canada, Economy

Overview:
  As an affluent, high-tech industrial society, Canada today closely resembles
  the US in per capita output, market-oriented economic system, and pattern of
  production. Since World War II the impressive growth of the manufacturing,
  mining, and service sectors has transformed the nation from a largely rural
  economy into one primarily industrial and urban. In the 1980s, Canada
  registered one of the highest rates of real growth among the OECD nations,
  averaging about 3.2%. With its great natural resources, skilled labor force,
  and modern capital plant, Canada has excellent economic prospects. However,
  the continuing constitutional impasse between English- and French-speaking
  areas has observers discussing a possible split in the confederation; foregn
  investors have become edgy.
National product:
  GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $537.1 billion (1992)
National product real growth rate:
  0.9% (1992)
National product per capita:
  $19,600 (1992)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  1.5% (1992)
Unemployment rate:
  11.5% (December 1992)
Budget:
  revenues $111.8 billion; expenditures $138.3 billion, including capital
  expenditures of $NA (FY90 est.)
Exports:
  $124.0 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
 commodities:
  newsprint, wood pulp, timber, crude petroleum, machinery, natural gas,
  aluminum, motor vehicles and parts; telecommunications equipment
 partners:
  US, Japan, UK, Germany, South Korea, Netherlands, China
Imports:
  $118 billion (c.i.f., 1991)
 commodities:
  crude oil, chemicals, motor vehicles and parts, durable consumer goods,
  electronic computers; telecommunications equipment and parts
 partners:
  US, Japan, UK, Germany, France, Mexico, Taiwan, South Korea
External debt:
  $247 billion (1987)
Industrial production:
  growth rate 1% (1992); accounts for 34% of GDP
Electricity:
  109,340,000 kW capacity; 493,000 million kWh produced, 17,900 kWh per capita
  (1992)
Industries:
  processed and unprocessed minerals, food products, wood and paper products,
  transportation equipment, chemicals, fish products, petroleum and natural
  gas
Agriculture:
  accounts for about 3% of GDP; one of the world's major producers and
  exporters of grain (wheat and barley); key source of US agricultural
  imports; large forest resources cover 35% of total land area; commercial
  fisheries provide annual catch of 1.5 million metric tons, of which 75% is
  exported

*Canada, Economy

Illicit drugs:
  illicit producer of cannabis for the domestic drug market; use of
  hydroponics technology permits growers to plant large quantities of
  high-quality marijuana indoors; growing role as a transit point for heroin
  and cocaine entering the US market
Economic aid:
  donor - ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $7.2 billion
Currency:
  1 Canadian dollar (Can$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
  Canadian dollars (Can$) per US$1 - 1.2776 (January 1993), 1.2087 (1992),
  1.1457 (1991), 1.1668 (1990), 1.1840 (1989), 1.2307 (1988)
Fiscal year:
  1 April - 31 March

*Canada, Communications

Railroads:
  146,444 km total; two major transcontinental freight railway systems -
  Canadian National (government owned) and Canadian Pacific Railway; passenger
  service - VIA (government operated); 158 km is electrified
Highways:
  884,272 km total; 712,936 km surfaced (250,023 km paved), 171,336 km earth
Inland waterways:
  3,000 km, including Saint Lawrence Seaway
Pipelines:
  crude and refined oil 23,564 km; natural gas 74,980 km
Ports:
  Halifax, Montreal, Quebec, Saint John (New Brunswick), Saint John's
  (Newfoundland), Toronto, Vancouver
Merchant marine:
  63 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 454,582 GRT/646,329 DWT; includes 1
  passenger, 3 short-sea passenger, 2 passenger-cargo, 8 cargo, 2 railcar
  carrier, 1 refrigerated cargo, 7 roll-on/roll-off, 1 container, 24 oil
  tanker, 4 chemical tanker, 1 specialized tanker, 9 bulk; note - does not
  include ships used exclusively in the Great Lakes
Airports:
 total:
  1,420
 useable:
  1,142
 with permanent-surface runways:
  457
 with runways over 3,659 m:
  4
 with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
  30
 with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
  330
Telecommunications:
  excellent service provided by modern media; 18.0 million telephones;
  broadcast stations - 900 AM, 29 FM, 53 (1,400 repeaters) TV; 5 coaxial
  submarine cables; over 300 earth stations operating in INTELSAT (including 4
  Atlantic Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean) and domestic systems

*Canada, Defense Forces

Branches:
  Canadian Armed Forces (including Land Forces Command, Maritime Command, Air
  Command, Communications Command, Training Command), Royal Canadian Mounted
  Police (RCMP)
Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49 7,444,767; fit for military service 6,440,927; reach
  military age (17) annually 191,884 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
  exchange rate conversion - $11.3 billion, 2% of GDP (FY92/93)

*Cape Verde, Geography

Location:
  in the southeastern North Atlantic Ocean, 500 km west of Senegal in Western
  Africa
Map references:
  Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
 total area:
  4,030 km2
 land area:
  4,030 km2  comparative area:
  slightly larger than Rhode Island
Land boundaries:
  0 km
Coastline:
  965 km
Maritime claims:
  measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
 exclusive economic zone:
  200 nm
 territorial sea:
  12 nm
International disputes:
  none
Climate:
  temperate; warm, dry, summer; precipitation very erratic
Terrain:
  steep, rugged, rocky, volcanic
Natural resources:
  salt, basalt rock, pozzolana, limestone, kaolin, fish
Land use:
 arable land:
  9%
 permanent crops:
  0%
 meadows and pastures:
  6%
 forest and woodland:
  0%
 other:
  85%
Irrigated land:
  20 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
  subject to prolonged droughts; harmattan wind can obscure visibility;
  volcanically and seismically active; deforestation; overgrazing
Note:
  strategic location 500 km from west coast of Africa near major north-south
  sea routes; important communications station; important sea and air
  refueling site

*Cape Verde, People

Population:
  410,535 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
  3.03% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
  47.02 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
  9.43 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
  -7.31 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:   59.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
 total population:
  62.18 years
 male:
  60.3 years
 female:
  64.15 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
  6.41 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
 noun:
  Cape Verdean(s)
 adjective:
  Cape Verdean
Ethnic divisions:
  Creole (mulatto) 71%, African 28%, European 1%
Religions:
  Roman Catholicism fused with indigenous beliefs
Languages:
  Portuguese, Crioulo, a blend of Portuguese and West African words
Literacy:
  age 15 and over can read and write (1989)
 total population:
  66%
 male:
  NA
 female:
  NA
Labor force:
  102,000 (1985 est.)
 by occupation:
  agriculture (mostly subsistence) 57%, services 29%, industry 14% (1981)
 note:
  51% of population of working age (1985)

*Cape Verde, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  Republic of Cape Verde
 conventional short form:
  Cape Verde
 local long form:
  Republica de Cabo Verde
 local short form:
  Cabo Verde
Digraph:
  CV
Type:
  republic
Capital:
  Praia
Administrative divisions:   14 districts (concelhos, singular - concelho); Boa Vista, Brava, Fogo,
Maio,
  Paul, Praia, Porto Novo, Ribeira Grande, Sal, Santa Catarina, Santa Cruz,
  Sao Nicolau, Sao Vicente, Tarrafal
Independence:
  5 July 1975 (from Portugal)
Constitution:
  7 September 1980; amended 12 February 1981, December 1988, and 28 September
  1990 (legalized opposition parties)
Legal system:
  NA
National holiday:
  Independence Day, 5 July (1975)
Political parties and leaders:
  Movement for Democracy (MPD), Prime Minister Carlos VEIGA, founder and
  chairman; African Party for Independence of Cape Verde (PAICV), Pedro Verona
  Rodrigues PIRES, chairman
Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal
Elections:
 People's National Assembly:
  last held 13 January 1991 (next to be held January 1996); results - percent
  of vote by party NA; seats - (79 total) MPD 56, PAICV 23; note - this
  multiparty Assembly election ended 15 years of single-party rule
 President:
  last held 17 February 1991 (next to be held February 1996); results -
  Antonio Monteiro MASCARENHAS (MPD) received 72.6% of vote
Executive branch:
  president, prime minister, deputy minister, secretaries of state, Council of
  Ministers (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
  unicameral People's National Assembly (Assembleia Nacional Popular)
Judicial branch:
  Supreme Tribunal of Justice (Supremo Tribunal de Justia)
Leaders:
 Chief of State:
  President Antonio Monteiro MASCARENHAS (since 22 March 1991)
 Head of Government:
  Prime Minister Carlos Alberto Wahnon de Carvalho VEIGA (since 13 January
  1991)

*Cape Verde, Government

Member of:
  ACP, AfDB, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF,
  IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOM (observer), ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, UN (Cape
  Verde assumed a nonpermanent seat on the Security Council on 1 January
  1992), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOMOZ, UPU, WCL, WHO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador Carlos Alberto Santos SILVA
 chancery:
  3415 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007
 telephone:
  (202) 965-6820  consulate general:
  Boston
US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador Joseph SEGARS
 embassy:
  Rua Hoji Ya Henda 81, Praia
 mailing address:
  C. P. 201, Praia
 telephone:
  [238] 61-56-16 or 61-56-17
 FAX:
  [238] 61-13-55
Flag:
  a new flag of unknown description reportedly has been adopted; previous flag
  consisted of two equal horizontal bands of yellow (top) and green with a
  vertical red band on the hoist side; in the upper portion of the red band is
  a black five-pointed star framed by two corn stalks and a yellow clam shell;
  uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia; similar to the flag of
  Guinea-Bissau, which is longer and has an unadorned black star centered in
  the red band

*Cape Verde, Economy

Overview:
  Cape Verde's low per capita GDP reflects a poor natural resource base, a
  serious, long-term drought, and a high birthrate. The economy is service
  oriented, with commerce, transport, and public services accounting for 60%
  of GDP. Although nearly 70% of the population lives in rural areas,
  agriculture's share of GDP is only 16%; the fishing sector accounts for 4%.
  About 90% of food must be imported. The fishing potential, mostly lobster
  and tuna, is not fully exploited. In 1988 fishing represented only 3.5% of
  GDP. Cape Verde annually runs a high trade deficit, financed by remittances
  from emigrants and foreign aid. Economic reforms launched by the new
  democratic government in February 1991 are aimed at developing the private
  sector and attracting foreign investment to diversify the economy.
National product:
  GDP - exchange rate conversion - $310 million (1990 est.)
National product real growth rate:
  4% (1990 est.)
National product per capita:
  $800 (1990 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  8.7% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
  25% (1988)
Budget:
  revenues $104 million; expenditures $133 million, including capital
  expenditures of $72 million (1991 est.)
Exports:
  $5.7 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.)
 commodities:
  fish, bananas, hides and skins
 partners:   Portugal 40%, Algeria 31%, Angola, Netherlands (1990 est.)
Imports:
  $120 million (c.i.f., 1990 est.)
 commodities:
  foodstuffs, consumer goods, industrial products, transport equipment
 partners:
  Sweden 33%, Spain 11%, Germany 5%, Portugal 3%, France 3%, Netherlands, US
  (1990 est.)
External debt:
  $156 million (1991)
Industrial production:
  growth rate 18% (1988 est.); accounts for 4% of GDP
Electricity:
  15,000 kW capacity; 15 million kWh produced, 40 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
  fish processing, salt mining, clothing factories, ship repair, construction
  materials, food and beverage production
Agriculture:
  accounts for 20% of GDP (including fishing); largely subsistence farming;
  bananas are the only export crop; other crops - corn, beans, sweet potatoes,
  coffee; growth potential of agricultural sector limited by poor soils and
  scanty rainfall; annual food imports required; fish catch provides for both
  domestic consumption and small exports
Economic aid:
  US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY75-90), $93 million; Western (non-US)
  countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-90), $586 million; OPEC
  bilateral aid (1979-89), $12 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $36
  million

*Cape Verde, Economy

Currency:
  1 Cape Verdean escudo (CVEsc) = 100 centavos
Exchange rates:
  Cape Verdean escudos (CVEsc) per US$1 - 75.47 (January 1993), 73.10 (1992),
  71.41 (1991), 64.10 (November 1990), 74.86 (December 1989), 72.01 (1988)
Fiscal year:
  calendar year

*Cape Verde, Communications

Ports:
  Mindelo, Praia
Merchant marine:
  7 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 11,717 GRT/19,000 DWT
Airports:
 total:
  6
 usable:
  6
 with permanent-surface runways:
  6  with runways over 3,659 m:
  0
 with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
  1
 with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
  2
Telecommunications:
  interisland microwave radio relay system, high-frequency radio to Senegal
  and Guinea-Bissau; over 1,700 telephones; broadcast stations - 1 AM, 6 FM, 1
  TV; 2 coaxial submarine cables; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

*Cape Verde, Defense Forces

Branches:
  People's Revolutionary Armed Forces (FARP) (including Army and Navy),
  Security Service
Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49 75,431; fit for military service 44,358 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
  exchange rate conversion - $NA, NA% of GDP

*Cayman Islands, Header

Affiliation:
  (dependent territory of the UK)

*Cayman Islands, Geography

Location:
  in the northwestern Caribbean Sea, nearly halfway between Cuba and Honduras
Map references:
  Central America and the Caribbean
Area:
 total area:
  260 km2
 land area:
  260 km2
 comparative area:
  slightly less than 1.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
  0 km
Coastline:
  160 km
Maritime claims:
 exclusive fishing zone:
  200 nm
 territorial sea:
  3 nm
International disputes:
  none
Climate:
  tropical marine; warm, rainy summers (May to October) and cool, relatively
  dry winters (November to April)
Terrain:
  low-lying limestone base surrounded by coral reefs
Natural resources:
  fish, climate and beaches that foster tourism
Land use:
 arable land:
  0%
 permanent crops:
  0%
 meadows and pastures:
  8%
 forest and woodland:
  23%
 other:
  69%
Irrigated land:
  NA km2
Environment:
  within the Caribbean hurricane belt
Note:
  important location between Cuba and Central America

*Cayman Islands, People

Population:
  30,440 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
  4.35% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
  15.32 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
  4.98 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
  33.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
  8.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
 total population:
  77.1 years
 male:
  75.37 years
 female:
  78.81 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
  1.48 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
 noun:
  Caymanian(s)
 adjective:
  Caymanian
Ethnic divisions:   mixed 40%, white 20%, black 20%, expatriates of various ethnic groups 20%
Religions:
  United Church (Presbyterian and Congregational), Anglican, Baptist, Roman
  Catholic, Church of God, other Protestant denominations
Languages:
  English
Literacy:
  age 15 and over having ever attended school (1970)
 total population:
  98%
 male:
  98%
 female:
  98%
Labor force:
  8,061
 by occupation:
  service workers 18.7%, clerical 18.6%, construction 12.5%, finance and
  investment 6.7%, directors and business managers 5.9% (1979)

*Cayman Islands, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  none
 conventional short form:
  Cayman Islands
Digraph:
  CJ
Type:
  dependent territory of the UK
Capital:
  George Town
Administrative divisions:
  8 districts; Creek, Eastern, Midland, South Town, Spot Bay, Stake Bay, West
  End, Western
Independence:
  none (dependent territory of the UK)
Constitution:
  1959, revised 1972
Legal system:
  British common law and local statutes
National holiday:
  Constitution Day (first Monday in July)
Political parties and leaders:
  no formal political parties
Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal
Elections:
 Legislative Assembly:
  last held November 1992 (next to be held November 1996); results - percent
  of vote by party NA; seats - (15 total, 12 elected)
Executive branch:
  British monarch, governor, Executive Council (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
  unicameral Legislative Assembly
Judicial branch:
  Grand Court, Cayman Islands Court of Appeal
Leaders:
 Chief of State:
  Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952)
 Head of Government:
  Governor and President of the Executive Council Michael GORE (since NA May
  1992)
Member of:
  CARICOM (observer), CDB, INTERPOL (subbureau), IOC
Diplomatic representation in US:
  as a dependent territory of the UK, Caymanian interests in the US are
  represented by the UK
Flag:
  blue, with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the
  Caymanian coat of arms on a white disk centered on the outer half of the
  flag; the coat of arms includes a pineapple and turtle above a shield with
  three stars (representing the three islands) and a scroll at the bottom
  bearing the motto HE HATH FOUNDED IT UPON THE SEAS

*Cayman Islands, Economy

Overview:
  The economy depends heavily on tourism (70% of GDP and 75% of export
  earnings) and offshore financial services, with the tourist industry aimed
  at the luxury market and catering mainly to visitors from North America.
  About 90% of the islands' food and consumer goods needs must be imported.
  The Caymanians enjoy one of the highest standards of living in the region.
National product:
  GDP - exchange rate conversion - $670 million (1991 est.)
National product real growth rate:
  4.4% (1991)
National product per capita:
  $23,000 (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  8% (1990 est.)
Unemployment rate:
  7% (1992)
Budget:
  revenues $141.5 million; expenditures $160.7 million, including capital
  expenditures of $NA (1991)
Exports:
  $1.5 million (f.o.b., 1987 est.)
 commodities:
  turtle products, manufactured consumer goods
 partners:
  mostly US
Imports:
  $136 million (c.i.f., 1987 est.)
 commodities:
  foodstuffs, manufactured goods
 partners:   US, Trinidad and Tobago, UK, Netherlands Antilles, Japan
External debt:
  $15 million (1986)
Industrial production:
  growth rate NA%
Electricity:
  74,000 kW capacity; 256 million kWh produced, 8,780 kWh per capita (1992)
Industries:
  tourism, banking, insurance and finance, construction, building materials,
  furniture making
Agriculture:
  minor production of vegetables, fruit, livestock; turtle farming
Economic aid:
  US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $26.7 million; Western (non-US)
  countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $35 million
Currency:
  1 Caymanian dollar (CI$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
  Caymanian dollars (CI$) per US$1 - 1.20 (fixed rate)
Fiscal year:
  1 April - 31 March

*Cayman Islands, Communications

Highways:
  160 km of main roads
Ports:
  George Town, Cayman Brac
Merchant marine:
  29 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 307,738 GRT/468,659 DWT; includes 1
  passenger-cargo, 8 cargo, 8 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 3 oil tanker, 2 chemical
  tanker, 1 liquefied gas carrier, 4 bulk, 2 combination bulk; note - a flag
  of convenience registry
Airports:
 total:
  3
 usable:
  3
 with permanent-surface runways:
  2
 with runways over 3,659 m:
  0
 with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
  0
 with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
  2
Telecommunications:
  35,000 telephones; telephone system uses 1 submarine coaxial cable and 1
  Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station to link islands and access
  international services; broadcast stations - 2 AM, 1 FM, no TV

*Cayman Islands, Defense Forces

Branches:
  Royal Cayman Islands Police Force (RCIPF)
Note:
  defense is the responsibility of the UK

*Central African Republic, Geography

Location:
  Central Africa, between Chad and Zaire
Map references:
  Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
 total area:
  622,980 km2
 land area:
  622,980 km2
 comparative area:
  slightly smaller than Texas
Land boundaries:
  total 5,203 km, Cameroon 797 km, Chad 1,197 km, Congo 467 km, Sudan 1,165
  km, Zaire 1,577 km
Coastline:
  0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
  none; landlocked
International disputes:
  none
Climate:
  tropical; hot, dry winters; mild to hot, wet summers
Terrain:
  vast, flat to rolling, monotonous plateau; scattered hills in northeast and
  southwest
Natural resources:
  diamonds, uranium, timber, gold, oil
Land use:
 arable land:
  3%
 permanent crops:
  0%
 meadows and pastures:
  5%
 forest and woodland:
  64%
 other:
  28%
Irrigated land:
  NA km2
Environment:
  hot, dry, dusty harmattan winds affect northern areas; poaching has
  diminished reputation as one of last great wildlife refuges; desertification
Note:
  landlocked; almost the precise center of Africa

*Central African Republic, People

Population:
  3,073,979 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
  2.23% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
  42.77 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
  20.49 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
  138.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
 total population:
  42.94 years
 male:
  41.46 years
 female:
  44.45 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
  5.47 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
 noun:
  Central African(s)
 adjective:
  Central African
Ethnic divisions:
  Baya 34%, Banda 27%, Sara 10%, Mandjia 21%, Mboum 4%, M'Baka 4%, Europeans
  6,500 (including 3,600 French)
Religions:
  indigenous beliefs 24%, Protestant 25%, Roman Catholic 25%, Muslim 15%,
  other 11%
 note:
  animistic beliefs and practices strongly influence the Christian majority
Languages:
  French (official), Sangho (lingua franca and national language), Arabic,
  Hunsa, Swahili
Literacy:
  age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
 total population:
  27%
 male:
  33%
 female:
  15%
Labor force:
  775,413 (1986 est.)
 by occupation:
  agriculture 85%, commerce and services 9%, industry 3%, government 3%
 note:
  about 64,000 salaried workers; 55% of population of working age (1985)

*Central African Republic, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  Central African Republic
 conventional short form:
  none
 local long form:
  Republique Centrafricaine
 local short form:
  none
 former:
  Central African Empire
Abbreviation:
  CAR
Digraph:
  CT
Type:
  republic; one-party presidential regime since 1986
Capital:
  Bangui
Administrative divisions:
  14 prefectures (prefectures, singular - prefecture), 2 economic prefectures*,   (prefectures
economiques, singular - prefecture economique), and 1
  commune**; Bamingui-Bangoran, Bangui** Basse-Kotto, Gribingui*, Haute-Kotto,,   Haute-Sangha,
Haut-Mbomou, Kemo-Gribingui, Lobaye, Mbomou, Nana-Mambere,
  Ombella-Mpoko, Ouaka, Ouham, Ouham-Pende, Sangha*, Vakaga, Independence:
  13 August 1960 (from France)
Constitution:
  21 November 1986
Legal system:
  based on French law
National holiday:
  National Day, 1 December (1958) (proclamation of the republic)
Political parties and leaders:
  Central African Democratic Party (RDC), the government party, Laurent
  GOMINA-PAMPALI; Council of Moderates Coalition includes; Union of the People
  for Economic and Social Development (UPDS), Katossy SIMANI; Liberal
  Republican Party (PARELI), Augustin M'BOE; Central African Socialist
  Movement (MSCA), Michel BENGUE; Concerted Democratic Forces (CFD), a
  coalition of 13 parties, including; Alliance for Democracy and Progress
  (ADP), Francois PEHOUA; Central African Republican party (PRC), Ruth
  ROLLAND; Social Democratic Party (PSD), Enoch DERANT-LAKOUE; Civic Forum
  (FC), Gen. Timothee MALENDOMA; Liberal Democratic Party (PLD), Nestor
  KOMBOT-NAGUEMON
Suffrage:
  21 years of age; universal
Elections:
 President:
  last held 25 October 1992; widespread irregularities at some polls led to
  dismissal of results by Supreme Court; elections are rescheduled for 17
  October 1993
 National Assembly:   last held 25 October 1992; widespread irregularities at some polls led to
  dismissal of results by Supreme Court; elections are rescheduled for 17
  October 1993
Executive branch:
  president, prime minister, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

*Central African Republic, Government

Legislative branch:
  unicameral National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale) advised by the Economic
  and Regional Council (Conseil Economique et Regional); when they sit
  together this is known as the Congress (Congres)
Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)
Leaders:
 Chief of State:
  President Andre-Dieudonne KOLINGBA (since 1 September 1981)
 Head of Government:
  Prime Minister Enoch DERANT-LAKOUE (since 2 March 1993)
Member of:
  ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CCC, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO,
  ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM,
  OAU, UDEAC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador Jean-Pierre SOHAHONG-KOMBET
 chancery:
  1618 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
 telephone:
  (202) 483-7800 or 7801
US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador Robert E. GRIBBIN
 embassy:
  Avenue David Dacko, Bangui
 mailing address:
  B. P. 924, Bangui
 telephone:
  [236] 61-02-00, 61-25-78, 61-43-33, 61-02-10
 FAX:
  [236] 61-44-94
Flag:
  four equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, green, and yellow with a
  vertical red band in center; there is a yellow five-pointed star on the
  hoist side of the blue band

*Central African Republic, Economy

Overview:
  Subsistence agriculture, including forestry, is the backbone of the CAR
  economy, with more than 70% of the population living in the countryside. In
  1988 the agricultural sector generated about 40% of GDP. Agricultural
  products accounted for about 60% of export earnings and the diamond industry
  for 30%. Important constraints to economic development include the CAR's
  landlocked position, a poor transportation system, and a weak human resource
  base. Multilateral and bilateral development assistance, particularly from
  France, plays a major role in providing capital for new investment.
National product:
  GDP - exchange rate conversion - $1.3 billion (1990 est.)
National product real growth rate:
  -3% (1990 est.)
National product per capita:
  $440 (1990 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  -3% (1990 est.)
Unemployment rate:
  30% (1988 est.) in Bangui
Budget:
  revenues $175 million; expenditures $312 million, including capital
  expenditures of $122 million (1991 est.)
Exports:
  $138 million (1991 est.)
 commodities:
  diamonds, cotton, coffee, timber, tobacco
 partners:
  France, Belgium, Italy, Japan, US
Imports:
  $205 million (1991 est.)
 commodities:
  food, textiles, petroleum products, machinery, electrical equipment, motor
  vehicles, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, consumer goods, industrial products
 partners:
  France, other EC countries, Japan, Algeria
External debt:
  $859 million (1991)
Industrial production:
  growth rate 4% (1990 est.); accounts for 14% of GDP
Electricity:
  40,000 kW capacity; 95 million kWh produced, 30 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
  diamond mining, sawmills, breweries, textiles, footwear, assembly of
  bicycles and motorcycles
Agriculture:
  accounts for 40% of GDP; self-sufficient in food production except for
  grain; commercial crops - cotton, coffee, tobacco, timber; food crops -
  manioc, yams, millet, corn, bananas
Economic aid:
  US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-90), $52 million; Western (non-US)
  countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-90), $1.6 billion; OPEC
  bilateral aid (1979-89), $6 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $38
  million
Currency:
  1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
  Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 274.06 (January
  1993), 264.69 (1992), 282.11 (1991), 272.26 (1990), 319.01 (1989), 297.85
  (1988)

*Central African Republic, Economy

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

*Central African Republic, Communications

Highways:
  22,000 km total; 458 km bituminous, 10,542 km improved earth, 11,000
  unimproved earth
Inland waterways:
  800 km; traditional trade carried on by means of shallow-draft dugouts;
  Oubangui is the most important river
Airports:
 total:
  66
 usable:
  51
 with permanent-surface runways:
  3
 with runways over 3,659 m:
  0
 with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
  2
 with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
  20
Telecommunications:
  fair system; network relies primarily on radio relay links, with
  low-capacity, low-powered radiocommunication also used; broadcast stations -
  1 AM, 1 FM, 1 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

*Central African Republic, Defense Forces

Branches:
  Central African Army (including Republican Guard), Air Force, National
  Gendarmerie, Police Force
Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49 685,575; fit for military service 358,836 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
  exchange rate conversion - $23 million, 1.8% of GDP (1989 est.)

*Chad, Geography

Location:
  Central Africa, between the Central African Republic and Libya
Map references:
  Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:  total area:
  1.284 million km2
 land area:
  1,259,200 km2
 comparative area:
  slightly more than three times the size of California
Land boundaries:
  total 5,968 km, Cameroon 1,094 km, Central African Republic 1,197 km, Libya
  1,055 km, Niger 1,175 km, Nigeria 87 km, Sudan 1,360 km
Coastline:
  0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
  none; landlocked
International disputes:
  Libya claims and occupies the 100,000 km2 Aozou Strip in the far north;
  demarcation of international boundaries in Lake Chad, the lack of which has
  led to border incidents in the past, is completed and awaiting ratification
  by Cameroon, Chad, Niger, and Nigeria
Climate:
  tropical in south, desert in north
Terrain:
  broad, arid plains in center, desert in north, mountains in northwest,
  lowlands in south
Natural resources:
  petroleum (unexploited but exploration under way), uranium, natron, kaolin,
  fish (Lake Chad)
Land use:
 arable land:
  2%
 permanent crops:
  0%
 meadows and pastures:
  36%
 forest and woodland:
  11%
 other:
  51%
Irrigated land:
  100 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
  hot, dry, dusty harmattan winds occur in north; drought and desertification
  adversely affecting south; subject to plagues of locusts
Note:
  landlocked; Lake Chad is the most significant water body in the Sahel

*Chad, People

Population:
  5,350,971 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
  2.13% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
  42.21 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:   20.93 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
  134 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
 total population:
  40.41 years
 male:
  39.36 years
 female:
  41.5 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
  5.33 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
 noun:
  Chadian(s)
 adjective:
  Chadian
Ethnic divisions:
 north and center:
  Muslims (Arabs, Toubou, Hadjerai, Fulbe, Kotoko, Kanembou, Baguirmi,
  Boulala, Zaghawa, and Maba)
 south:
  non-Muslims (Sara, Ngambaye, Mbaye, Goulaye, Moundang, Moussei, Massa)
  nonindigenous 150,000, of whom 1,000 are French
Religions:
  Muslim 44%, Christian 33%, indigenous beliefs, animism 23%
Languages:
  French (official), Arabic (official), Sara (in south), Sango (in south),
  more than 100 different languages and dialects are spoken
Literacy:
  age 15 and over can read and write French or Arabic (1990)
 total population:
  30%
 male:
  42%
 female:
  18%
Labor force:
  NA
 by occupation:
  agriculture 85% (engaged in unpaid subsistence farming, herding, and
  fishing)

*Chad, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  Republic of Chad
 conventional short form:
  Chad
 local long form:
  Republique du Tchad  local short form:
  Tchad
Digraph:
  CD
Type:
  republic
Capital:
  N'Djamena
Administrative divisions:
  14 prefectures (prefectures, singular - prefecture); Batha, Biltine,
  Borkou-Ennedi-Tibesti, Chari-Baguirmi, Guera, Kanem, Lac, Logone Occidental,
  Logone Oriental, Mayo-Kebbi, Moyen-Chari, Ouaddai, Salamat, Tandjile
Independence:
  11 August 1960 (from France)
Constitution:
  22 December 1989, suspended 3 December 1990; Provisional National Charter 1
  March 1991; national conference drafting new constitution to submit to
  referendum January 1993
Legal system:
  based on French civil law system and Chadian customary law; has not accepted
  compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
  11 August
Political parties and leaders:
  Patriotic Salvation Movement (MPS; former dissident group), Idriss DEBY,
  chairman
 note:
  President DEBY has promised political pluralism, a new constitution, and
  free elections by September 1993; numerous dissident groups; 26 opposition
  political parties
Other political or pressure groups:
  NA
Suffrage:
  universal at age NA
Elections:
 National Consultative Council:
  last held 8 July 1990; disbanded 3 December 1990
 President:
  last held 10 December 1989 (next to be held NA); results - President Hissein
  HABRE was elected without opposition; note - the government of then
  President HABRE fell on 1 December 1990, and Idriss DEBY seized power on 3
  December 1990; national conference opened 15 January 1993; election to
  follow by end of year
Executive branch:
  president, Council of State (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
  unicameral National Consultative Council (Conseil National Consultatif) was
  disbanded 3 December 1990 and replaced by the Provisional Council of the
  Republic, with 30 members appointed by President DEBY on 8 March 1991
Judicial branch:
  Court of Appeal

*Chad, Government

Leaders:
 Chief of State:
  Col. Idriss DEBY (since 4 December 1990)
 Head of Government:
  Prime Minister Joseph YODOYMAN (since NA August 1992)
Member of:
  ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU,
  IDA, IDB, IFAD, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU,
  OIC, UDEAC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador Kombaria Loumaye MEKONYO
 chancery:
  2002 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
 telephone:
  (202) 462-4009
US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador Richard W. BOGOSIAN
 embassy:
  Avenue Felix Eboue, N'Djamena
 mailing address:
  B. P. 413, N'Djamena
 telephone:
  [235] (51) 62-18, 40-09, or 51-62-11
 FAX:
  [235] 51-33-72
Flag:
  three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; similar to
  the flag of Romania; also similar to the flag of Andorra, which has a
  national coat of arms featuring a quartered shield centered in the yellow
  band; design was based on the flag of France

*Chad, Economy

Overview:
  The climate, geographic location, and lack of infrastructure and natural
  resources make Chad one of the most underdeveloped countries in the world.
  Its economy is burdened by the ravages of civil war, conflict with Libya,
  drought, and food shortages. In 1986 real GDP returned to its 1977 level,
  with cotton, the major cash crop, accounting for 48% of exports. Over 80% of
  the work force is employed in subsistence farming and fishing. Industry is
  based almost entirely on the processing of agricultural products, including
  cotton, sugarcane, and cattle. Chad is highly dependent on foreign aid, with
  its economy in trouble and many regions suffering from shortages. Oil
  companies are exploring areas north of Lake Chad and in the Doba basin in
  the south. Good crop weather led to 8.4% growth in 1991.
National product:
  GDP - exchange rate conversion - $1.1 billion (1991 est.)
National product real growth rate:
  8.4% (1991 est.)
National product per capita:
  $215 (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):   2%-3% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
  NA%
Budget:
  revenues $115 million; expenditures $412 million, including capital
  expenditures of $218 million (1991 est.)
Exports:
  $193.9 million (f.o.b., 1991)
 commodities:
  cotton 48%, cattle 35%, textiles 5%, fish
 partners:
  France, Nigeria, Cameroon
Imports:
  $294.1 million (f.o.b., 1991)
 commodities:
  machinery and transportation equipment 39%, industrial goods 20%, petroleum
  products 13%, foodstuffs 9%; note - excludes military equipment
 partners:
  US, France, Nigeria, Cameroon
External debt:
  $492 million (December 1990 est.)
Industrial production:
  growth rate 12.9% (1989 est.); accounts for nearly 15% of GDP
Electricity:
  40,000 kW capacity; 70 million kWh produced, 15 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
  cotton textile mills, slaughterhouses, brewery, natron (sodium carbonate),
  soap, cigarettes
Agriculture:
  accounts for about 45% of GDP; largely subsistence farming; cotton most
  important cash crop; food crops include sorghum, millet, peanuts, rice,
  potatoes, manioc; livestock - cattle, sheep, goats, camels; self-sufficient
  in food in years of adequate rainfall
Economic aid:
  US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $198 million; Western (non-US)
  countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $1.5 billion; OPEC
  bilateral aid (1979-89), $28 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $80
  million
Currency:
  1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes

*Chad, Economy

Exchange rates:
  Communaute Financiere Africaine Francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 274.06 (January
  1993), 264.69 (1992), 282.11 (1991), 272.26 (1990), 319.01 (1989), 297.85
  (1988)
Fiscal year:
  calendar year

*Chad, Communications

Highways:
  31,322 km total; 32 km bituminous; 7,300 km gravel and laterite; remainder
  unimproved earth
Inland waterways:
  2,000 km navigable
Airports:
 total:
  69
 usable:
  55
 with permanent-surface runways:
  5
 with runways over 3,659 m:
  0
 with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
  4
 with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
  24
Telecommunications:
  fair system of radiocommunication stations for intercity links; broadcast
  stations - 6 AM, 1 FM, limited TV service; many facilities are inoperative;
  1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

*Chad, Defense Forces

Branches:
  Army (includes Ground Forces, Air Force, and Gendarmerie), Republican Guard
Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49 1,246,617; fit for military service 647,908; reach military
  age (20) annually 52,870 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
  exchange rate conversion - $58 million, 5.6% of GDP (1989)

*Chile, Geography

Location:
  Western South America, bordering the South Pacific Ocean between Argentina
  and Peru
Map references:
  South America, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
 total area:
  756,950 km2
 land area:
  748,800 km2
 comparative area:
  slightly smaller than twice the size of Montana
 note:
  includes Isla de Pascua (Easter Island) and Isla Sala y Gomez
Land boundaries:
  total 6,171 km, Argentina 5,150 km, Bolivia 861 km, Peru 160 km
Coastline:   6,435 km
Maritime claims:
 contiguous zone:
  24 nm
 continental shelf:
  200 nm
 exclusive economic zone:
  200 nm
 territorial sea:
  12 nm
International disputes:
  short section of the southern boundary with Argentina is indefinite; Bolivia
  has wanted a sovereign corridor to the South Pacific Ocean since the Atacama
  area was lost to Chile in 1884; dispute with Bolivia over Rio Lauca water
  rights; territorial claim in Antarctica (Chilean Antarctic Territory)
  partially overlaps Argentine and British claims
Climate:
  temperate; desert in north; cool and damp in south
Terrain:
  low coastal mountains; fertile central valley; rugged Andes in east
Natural resources:
  copper, timber, iron ore, nitrates, precious metals, molybdenum
Land use:
 arable land:
  7%
 permanent crops:
  0%
 meadows and pastures:
  16%
 forest and woodland:
  21%
 other:
  56%
Irrigated land:
  12,650 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
  subject to severe earthquakes, active volcanism, tsunami; Atacama Desert one
  of world's driest regions; desertification
Note:
  strategic location relative to sea lanes between Atlantic and Pacific Oceans
  (Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel, Drake Passage)

*Chile, People

Population:
  13,739,759 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
  1.54% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
  20.9 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
  5.55 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
  15.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
 total population:
  74.15 years
 male:
  71.16 years
 female:
  77.29 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
  2.51 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
 noun:
  Chilean(s)
 adjective:
  Chilean
Ethnic divisions:
  European and European-Indian 95%, Indian 3%, other 2%
Religions:
  Roman Catholic 89%, Protestant 11%, Jewish
Languages:
  Spanish
Literacy:
  age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
 total population:
  93%
 male:
  94%
 female:
  93%
Labor force:
  4.728 million
 by occupation:
  services 38.3% (includes government 12%), industry and commerce 33.8%,
  agriculture, forestry, and fishing 19.2%, mining 2.3%, construction 6.4%
  (1990)

*Chile, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  Republic of Chile
 conventional short form:
  Chile
 local long form:
  Republica de Chile
 local short form:
  Chile
Digraph:
  CI
Type:
  republic
Capital:
  Santiago
Administrative divisions:
  13 regions (regiones, singular - region); Aisen del General Carlos Ibanez
  del Campo, Antofagasta, Araucania, Atacama, Bio-Bio, Coquimbo, Libertador
  General Bernardo O'Higgins, Los Lagos, Magallanes y de la Antartica Chilena,
  Maule, Region Metropolitana, Tarapaca, Valparaiso
 note:
  the US does not recognize claims to Antarctica
Independence:
  18 September 1810 (from Spain)
Constitution:
  11 September 1980, effective 11 March 1981; amended 30 July 1989
Legal system:
  based on Code of 1857 derived from Spanish law and subsequent codes
  influenced by French and Austrian law; judicial review of legislative acts
  in the Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
  Independence Day, 18 September (1810)
Political parties and leaders:
  Concertation of Parties for Democracy consists mainly of four parties: PDC,
  PPD, PR, PS; Christian Democratic Party (PDC), Eduardo FREI Ruiz-Tagle;
  Party for Democracy (PPD), Sergio BITAR; Radical Party (PR), Carlos GONZALEZ
  Marquez; Sociaistl Party (PS), German CORREA; Independent Democratic Union
  (UDI), Jovino NOVOA; National Renovation (RN), Andree ALLAMAND;
  Center-Center Union (UCC), Francisco Juner ERRAZURIZ; Communist Party of
  Chile (PCCh), Volodia TEITELBOIM; Allende Leftist Democratic Movement
  (MIDA), Mario PALESTRO
Other political or pressure groups:
  revitalized university student federations at all major universities
  dominated by opposition political groups; labor - United Labor Central (CUT)
  includes trade unionists from the country's five largest labor
  confederations; Roman Catholic Church
Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Elections:
 Chamber of Deputies:
  last held 14 December 1989 (next to be held December 1993); results -
  percent of vote by party NA; seats - (120 total) Concertation of Parties for
  Democracy 71 (PDC 38, PPD 17, PR 5, other 11), RN 29, UDI 11, right-wing
  independents 9
 President:
  last held 14 December 1989 (next to be held December 1993); results -
  Patricio AYLWIN (PDC) 55.2%, Hernan BUCHI 29.4%, other 15.4%

*Chile, Government

 Senate:
  last held 14 December 1989 (next to be held December 1993); results -
  percent of vote by party NA; seats - (46 total, 38 elected) Concertation of
  Parties for Democracy 22 (PDC 13, PPD 5, PR 2, PSD 1, PRSD 1), RN 6, UDI 2,
  right-wing independents 8
Executive branch:
  president, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
  bicameral National Congress (Congreso Nacional) consisting of an upper house
  or Senate (Senado) and a lower house or Chamber of Deputies (Camara de
  Diputados)
Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court (Corte Suprema)
Leaders:
 Chief of State and Head of Government:
  President Patricio AYLWIN Azocar (since 11 March 1990)
Member of:
  CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD,
  IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES,
  LAIA, LORCS, OAS, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIKOM,
  UNMOGIP, UNTAC, UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador Patricio SILVA Echenique
 chancery:
  1732 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
 telephone:
  (202) 785-1746
 consulates general:
  Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Philadelphia, and San Francisco
US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador Curtis W. KAMMAN
 embassy:
  Codina Building, 1343 Agustinas, Santiago
 mailing address:
  APO AA 34033
 telephone:
  [56] (2) 671-0133
 FAX:
  [56] (2) 699-1141
Flag:
  two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red; there is a blue square
  the same height as the white band at the hoist-side end of the white band;
  the square bears a white five-pointed star in the center; design was based
  on the US flag

*Chile, Economy

Overview:
  The government of President AYLWIN, which took power in 1990, retained the
  economic policies of PINOCHET, although the share of spending for social
  welfare has risen steadily. In 1991 growth in GDP recovered to 6% (led by
  consumer spending) after only 2% growth in 1990. The pace accelerated in
  1992 as the result of strong investment and export growth, and GDP rose
  10.4%. Nonetheless, inflation fell further, to 12.7%, compared with 27.3% in
  1990 and 18.7% in 1991. The buoyant economy spurred a 25% growth in imports,
  and the trade surplus fell in 1992, although international reserves
  increased. Inflationary pressures are not expected to ease much in 1993, and
  economic growth is likely to approach 7%.
National product:
  GDP - exchange rate conversion - $34.7 billion (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate:   10.4% (1992)
National product per capita:
  $2,550 (1992)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  12.7% (1992)
Unemployment rate:
  4.9% (1992)
Budget:
  revenues $10.9 billion; expenditures $10.9 billion, including capital
  expenditures of $1.2 billion (1993)
Exports:
  $10 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
 commodities:
  copper 41%, other metals and minerals 8.7%, wood products 7.1%, fish and
  fishmeal 9.8%, fruits 8.4% (1991)
 partners:
  EC 32%, US 18%, Japan 18%, Brazil 5% (1991)
Imports:
  $9.2 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
 commodities:
  capital goods 25.2%, spare parts 24.8%, raw materials 15.4%, petroleum 10%,
  foodstuffs 5.7%
 partners:
  US 21%, EC 18%, Brazil 9%, Japan 8% (1991)
External debt:
  $16.9 billion (year end 1991)
Industrial production:
  growth rate 14.56% (1992); accounts for 34% of GDP
Electricity:
  5,769,000 kW capacity; 22,010 million kWh produced, 1,630 kWh per capita
  (1992)
Industries:
  copper, other minerals, foodstuffs, fish processing, iron and steel, wood
  and wood products, transport equipment, cement, textiles
Agriculture:
  accounts for about 9% of GDP (including fishing and forestry); major
  exporter of fruit, fish, and timber products; major crops - wheat, corn,
  grapes, beans, sugar beets, potatoes, deciduous fruit; livestock products -
  beef, poultry, wool; self-sufficient in most foods; 1991 fish catch of 6.6
  million metric tons; net agricultural importer
Economic aid:
  US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $521 million; Western (non-US)
  countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $1.6 billion;
  Communist countries (1970-89), $386 million

*Chile, Economy

Currency:
  1 Chilean peso (Ch$) = 100 centavos
Exchange rates:
  Chilean pesos (Ch$) per US$1 - 384.04 (January 1993), 362.59 (1992), 349.37
  (1991), 305.06 (1990), 267.16 (1989), 245.05 (1988)
Fiscal year:
  calendar year

*Chile, Communications

Railroads:
  7,766 km total; 3,974 km 1.676-meter gauge, 150 km 1.435-meter standard
  gauge, 3,642 km 1.000-meter gauge; 1,865 km 1.676-meter gauge and 80 km
  1.000-meter gauge electrified
Highways:
  79,025 km total; 9,913 km paved, 33,140 km gravel, 35,972 km improved and
  unimproved earth (1984)
Inland waterways:
  725 km
Pipelines:
  crude oil 755 km; petroleum products 785 km; natural gas 320 km
Ports:
  Antofagasta, Iquique, Puerto Montt, Punta Arenas, Valparaiso, San Antonio,
  Talcahuano, Arica
Merchant marine:
  31 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 445,330 GRT/756,018 DWT; includes 8
  cargo, 1 refrigerated cargo, 3 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 2 oil tanker, 3
  chemical tanker, 3 liquefied gas tanker, 3 combination ore/oil, 8 bulk; note
  - in addition, 1 naval tanker and 1 military transport are sometimes used
  commercially
Airports:
 total:
  396
 usable:
  351
 with permanent-surface runways:
  48
 with runways over 3,659 m:
  0
 with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
  13
 with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
  57
Telecommunications:
  modern telephone system based on extensive microwave radio relay facilities;
  768,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 159 AM, no FM, 131 TV, 11
  shortwave; satellite ground stations - 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 3
  domestic

*Chile, Defense Forces

Branches:
  Army of the Nation, National Navy (including Naval Air, Coast Guard, and
  Marines), Air Force of the Nation, Carabineros of Chile (National Police),
  Investigative Police
Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49 3.653 million; fit for military service 2,722,479; reach
  military age (19) annually 119,434 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:   exchange rate conversion - $1 billion, 3.4% of GDP (1991 est.)

*China, Header

Affiliation:
  (also see separate Taiwan entry)

*China, Geography

Location:
  East Asia, between India and Mongolia
Map references:
  Asia, Southeast Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
 total area:
  9,596,960 km2
 land area:
  9,326,410 km2
 comparative area:
  slightly larger than the US
Land boundaries:
  total 22,143.34 km, Afghanistan 76 km, Bhutan 470 km, Burma 2,185 km, Hong
  Kong 30 km, India 3,380 km, Kazakhstan 1,533 km, North Korea 1,416 km,
  Kyrgyzstan 858 km, Laos 423 km, Macau 0.34 km, Mongolia 4,673 km, Nepal
  1,236 km, Pakistan 523 km, Russia (northeast) 3,605 km, Russia (northwest)
  40 km, Tajikistan 414 km, Vietnam 1,281 km
Coastline:
  14,500 km
Maritime claims:
 continental shelf:
  claim to shallow areas of East China Sea and Yellow Sea
 territorial sea:
  12 nm
International disputes:
  boundary with India; bilateral negotiations are under way to resolve
  disputed sections of the boundary with Russia; boundary with Tajikistan
  under dispute; a short section of the boundary with North Korea is
  indefinite; involved in a complex dispute over the Spratly Islands with
  Malaysia, Philippines, Taiwan, Vietnam, and possibly Brunei; maritime
  boundary dispute with Vietnam in the Gulf of Tonkin; Paracel Islands
  occupied by China, but claimed by Vietnam and Taiwan; claims
  Japanese-administered Senkaku-shoto, as does Taiwan, (Senkaku Islands/Diaoyu
  Tai)
Climate:
  extremely diverse; tropical in south to subarctic in north
Terrain:
  mostly mountains, high plateaus, deserts in west; plains, deltas, and hills
  in east
Natural resources:
  coal, iron ore, petroleum, mercury, tin, tungsten, antimony, manganese,
  molybdenum, vanadium, magnetite, aluminum, lead, zinc, uranium, world's
  largest hydropower potential
Land use:
 arable land:
  10%
 permanent crops:
  0%
 meadows and pastures:
  31%
 forest and woodland:
  14%
 other:
  45%
Irrigated land:
  478,220 km2 (1991 - Chinese statistic)

*China, Geography

Environment:
  frequent typhoons (about five times per year along southern and eastern
  coasts), damaging floods, tsunamis, earthquakes; deforestation; soil
  erosion; industrial pollution; water pollution; air pollution;
  desertification
Note:
  world's third-largest country (after Russia and Canada)

*China, People

Population:
  1,177,584,537 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
  1.1% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
  18.29 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
  7.34 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
  52.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
 total population:
  67.74 years
 male:
  66.78 years
 female:
  68.8 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
  1.85 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
 noun:
  Chinese (singular and plural)
 adjective:
  Chinese
Ethnic divisions:
  Han Chinese 91.9%, Zhuang, Uygur, Hui, Yi, Tibetan, Miao, Manchu, Mongol,
  Buyi, Korean, and other nationalities 8.1%
Religions:
  Daoism (Taoism), Buddhism, Muslim 2-3%, Christian 1% (est.)
 note:
  officially atheist, but traditionally pragmatic and eclectic
Languages:
  Standard Chinese (Putonghua) or Mandarin (based on the Beijing dialect), Yue
  (Cantonese), Wu (Shanghainese), Minbei (Fuzhou), Minnan (Hokkien-Taiwanese),
  Xiang, Gan, Hakka dialects, minority languages (see Ethnic divisions entry)
Literacy:
  age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
 total population:
  73%
 male:
  84%
 female:
  62%
Labor force:
  567.4 million
 by occupation:
  agriculture and forestry 60%, industry and commerce 25%, construction and
  mining 5%, social services 5%, other 5% (1990 est.)

*China, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  People's Republic of China
 conventional short form:
  China
 local long form:
  Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo
 local short form:
  Zhong Guo
Abbreviation:
  PRC
Digraph:
  CH
Type:
  Communist state
Capital:
  Beijing
Administrative divisions:
  23 provinces (sheng, singular and plural), 5 autonomous regions* (zizhiqu,,   singular and
plural), and 3 municipalities** (shi, singular and plural);,   Anhui, Beijing Shi**, Fujian, Gansu,,
Guangdong, Guangxi*, Guizhou, Hainan,,   Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi,
Jilin, Liaoning,
  Nei Mongol*, Ningxia*, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanghai Shi**, Shanxi,,   Sichuan, Tianjin
Shi**, Xinjiang*, Xizang* (Tibet), Yunnan, Zhejiang,  note:
  China considers Taiwan its 23rd province
Independence:   221 BC (unification under the Qin or Ch'in Dynasty 221 BC; Qing or Ch'ing
  Dynasty replaced by the Republic on 12 February 1912; People's Republic
  established 1 October 1949)
Constitution:
  most recent promulgated 4 December 1982
Legal system:
  a complex amalgam of custom and statute, largely criminal law; rudimentary
  civil code in effect since 1 January 1987; new legal codes in effect since 1
  January 1980; continuing efforts are being made to improve civil,
  administrative, criminal, and commercial law
National holiday:
  National Day, 1 October (1949)
Political parties and leaders:
  Chinese Communist Party (CCP), JIANG Zemin, general secretary of the Central
  Committee (since 24 June 1989); eight registered small parties controlled by
  CCP
Other political or pressure groups:
  such meaningful opposition as exists consists of loose coalitions, usually
  within the party and government organization, that vary by issue
Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal
Elections:
 National People's Congress:
  last held March 1993 (next to be held March 1998); results - CCP is the only
  party but there are also independents; seats - (2,977 total) (elected at
  county or xian level)
 President:
  last held 27 March 1993 (next to be held NA 1998); results - JIANG Zemin was
  nominally elected by the Eighth National People's Congress
Executive branch:
  president, vice president, premier, four vice premiers, State Council

*China, Government

Legislative branch:
  unicameral National People's Congress (Quanguo Renmin Daibiao Dahui)
Judicial branch:
  Supreme People's Court
Leaders:
 Chief of State:
  President JIANG Zemin (since 27 March 1993); Vice President RONG Yiren
  (since 27 March 1993)
 Chief of State and Head of Government (de facto):
  DENG Xiaoping (since NA 1977)
 Head of Government:
  Premier LI Peng (Acting Premier since 24 November 1987, Premier since 9
  April 1988) Vice Premier ZHU Rongji (since 8 April 1991); Vice Premier ZOU
  Jiahua (since 8 April 1991); Vice Premier QIAN Qichen (since 29 March 1993);
  Vice Premier LI Lanqing (29 March 1993)
Member of:
  AfDB, APEC, AsDB, CCC, ESCAP, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO,
  IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, MINURSO, NAM
  (observer), PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UN Security
  Council, UNTAC, UNTSO, UN Trusteeship Council, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador LI Daoyu
 chancery:
  2300 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
 telephone:
  (202) 328-2500 through 2502
 consulates general:
  Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, and San Francisco
US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador J. Stapleton ROY
 embassy:
  Xiu Shui Bei Jie 3, Beijing
 mailing address:
  100600, PSC 461, Box 50, Beijing or FPO AP 96521-0002
 telephone:
  [86] (1) 532-3831
 FAX:
  [86] (1) 532-3178
 consulates general:
  Chengdu, Guangzhou, Shanghai, Shenyang
Flag:
  red with a large yellow five-pointed star and four smaller yellow
  five-pointed stars (arranged in a vertical arc toward the middle of the
  flag) in the upper hoist-side corner

*China, Economy

Overview:
  Beginning in late 1978 the Chinese leadership has been trying to move the
  economy from the sluggish Soviet-style centrally planned economy to a more
  productive and flexible economy with market elements, but still within the
  framework of monolithic Communist control. To this end the authorities have
  switched to a system of household responsibility in agriculture in place of
  the old collectivization, increased the authority of local officials and
  plant managers in industry, permitted a wide variety of small-scale
  enterprise in services and light manufacturing, and opened the foreign
  economic sector to increased trade and joint ventures. The most gratifying
  result has been a strong spurt in production, particularly in agriculture in
  the early 1980s. Industry also has posted major gains, especially in coastal
  areas near Hong Kong and opposite Taiwan, where foreign investment and
  modern production methods have helped spur production of both domestic and
  export goods. Aggregate output has more than doubled since 1978. On the
  darker side, the leadership has often experienced in its hybrid system the
  worst results of socialism (bureaucracy, lassitude, corruption) and of
  capitalism (windfall gains and stepped-up inflation). Beijing thus has
  periodically backtracked, retightening central controls at intervals and
  thereby lessening the credibility of the reform process. In 1991, and again
  in 1992, output rose substantially, particularly in the favored coastal
  areas. Popular resistance, changes in central policy, and loss of authority
  by rural cadres have weakened China's population control program, which is
  essential to the nation's long-term economic viability.
National product:   GNP $NA
National product real growth rate:
  12.8% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
  $NA
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  5.4% (1992)
Unemployment rate:
  2.3% in urban areas (1992)
Budget:
  deficit $16.3 billion (1992)
Exports:
  $85.0 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
 commodities:
  textiles, garments, telecommunications and recording equipment, petroleum,
  minerals
 partners:
  Hong Kong and Macau, Japan, US, Germany, South Korea, Russia (1992)
Imports:
  $80.6 billion (c.i.f., 1992)
 commodities:
  specialized industrial machinery, chemicals, manufactured goods, steel,
  textile yarn, fertilizer
 partners:
  Hong Kong and Macau, Japan, US, Taiwan, Germany, Russia (1992)
External debt:
  $69.3 billion (1992)
Industrial production:
  growth rate 20.8% (1992)
Electricity:
  158,690,000 kW capacity; 740,000 million kWh produced, 630 kWh per capita
  (1992)

*China, Economy

Industries:
  iron and steel, coal, machine building, armaments, textiles, petroleum,
  cement, chemical fertilizers, consumer durables, food processing
Agriculture:
  accounts for 26% of GNP; among the world's largest producers of rice,
  potatoes, sorghum, peanuts, tea, millet, barley, and pork; commercial crops
  include cotton, other fibers, and oilseeds; produces variety of livestock
  products; basically self-sufficient in food; fish catch of 13.35 million
  metric tons (including fresh water and pond raised) (1991)
Illicit drugs:
  illicit producer of opium in at least 18 provinces and administrative
  regions; bulk of production is in Yunnan Province; transshipment point for
  heroin produced in the Golden Triangle
Economic aid:
  donor - to less developed countries (1970-89) $7.0 billion; US commitments,
  including Ex-Im (FY70-87), $220.7 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA
  and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $13.5 billion
Currency:
  1 yuan (Y) = 10 jiao
Exchange rates:
  yuan (Y) per US$1 - 5.7640 (January 1993), 5.5146 (1992), 5.3234 (1991),
  4.7832 (1990), 3.7651 (1989), 3.7221 (1988)
Fiscal year:
  calendar year

*China, Communications

Railroads:
  total about 64,000 km; 54,000 km of common carrier lines, of which 53,400 km
  are 1.435-meter gauge (standard) and 600 km are 1.000-meter gauge (narrow);
  11,200 km of standard gauge common carrier route are double tracked and
  6,900 km are electrified (1990); an additional 10,000 km of varying gauges
  (0.762 to 1.067-meter) are dedicated industrial lines
Highways:
  about 1,029,000 km (1990) total; 170,000 km (est.) paved roads, 648,000 km
  (est.) gravel/improved earth roads, 211,000 km (est.) unimproved earth roads
  and tracks
Inland waterways:
  138,600 km; about 109,800 km navigable
Pipelines:
  crude oil 9,700 km (1990); petroleum products 1,100 km; natural gas 6,200 km
Ports:
  Dalian, Guangzhou, Huangpu, Qingdao, Qinhuangdao, Shanghai, Xingang,
  Zhanjiang, Ningbo, Xiamen, Tanggu, Shantou
Merchant marine:
  1,478 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 14,029,320 GRT/21,120,522 DWT;
  includes 25 passenger, 42 short-sea passenger, 18 passenger-cargo, 6
  cargo/training, 811 cargo, 11 refrigerated cargo, 81 container, 18
  roll-on/roll-off cargo, 1 multifunction/barge carrier, 177 oil tanker, 11
  chemical tanker, 263 bulk, 3 liquefied gas, 1 vehicle carrier, 9 combination
  bulk, 1 barge carrier; note - China beneficially owns an additional 227
  ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling approximately 6,187,117 DWT that operate
  under Panamanian, British, Hong Kong, Maltese, Liberian, Vanuatu, Cypriot,
  Saint Vincent, Bahamian, and Romanian registry
Airports:
 total:
  330
 usable:
  330
 with permanent-surface runways:
  260
 with runways over 3,500 m:
  fewer than 10
 with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
  90
 with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
  200
Telecommunications:
  domestic and international services are increasingly available for private
  use; unevenly distributed internal system serves principal cities,
  industrial centers, and most townships; 11,000,000 telephones (December
  1989); broadcast stations - 274 AM, unknown FM, 202 (2,050 repeaters) TV;
  more than 215 million radio receivers; 75 million TVs; satellite earth
  stations - 4 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT, 1 INMARSAT,
  and 55 domestic

*China, Defense Forces

Branches:
  People's Liberation Army (PLA), PLA Navy (including Marines), PLA Air Force
Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49 343,361,925; fit for military service 190,665,512; reach
  military age (18) annually 10,844,047 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
  exchange rate conversion - $NA, NA% of GNP

*Christmas Island, Header

Affiliation:
  (territory of Australia)

*Christmas Island, Geography

Location:
  in the Indian Ocean, between Australia and Indonesia
Map references:
  Southeast Asia
Area:
 total area:
  135 km2
 land area:
  135 km2
 comparative area:
  about 0.8 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
  0 km
Coastline:
  138.9 km
Maritime claims:
 contiguous zone:
  12 nm
 exclusive fishing zone:
  200 nm
 territorial sea:
  3 nm
International disputes:
  none
Climate:
  tropical; heat and humidity moderated by trade winds
Terrain:
  steep cliffs along coast rise abruptly to central plateau
Natural resources:
  phosphate
Land use:
 arable land:
  0%
 permanent crops:
  0%
 meadows and pastures:
  0%
 forest and woodland:
  0%
 other:
  100%
Irrigated land:
  NA km2
Environment:
  almost completely surrounded by a reef
Note:
  located along major sea lanes of Indian Ocean

*Christmas Island, People

Population:
  1,685 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
  -2.44% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
  NA births/1,000 population
Death rate:
  NA deaths/1,000 population
Net migration rate:
  NA migrant(s)/1,000 population
Infant mortality rate:
  NA deaths/1,000 live births
Life expectancy at birth:
 total population:
  NA years
 male:
  NA years
 female:
  NA years
Total fertility rate:
  NA children born/woman
Nationality:
 noun:
  Christmas Islander(s)
 adjective:
  Christmas Island
Ethnic divisions:
  Chinese 61%, Malay 25%, European 11%, other 3%, no indigenous population
Religions:
  Buddhist 36.1%, Muslim 25.4%, Christian 17.7% (Roman Catholic 8.2%, Church
  of England 3.2%, Presbyterian 0.9%, Uniting Church 0.4%, Methodist 0.2%,
  Baptist 0.1%, and other 4.7%), none 12.7%, unknown 4.6%, other 3.5% (1981)
Languages:
  English
Literacy:
 total population:
  NA%
 male:
  NA%
 female:
  NA%
Labor force:
  NA
 by occupation:
  all workers are employees of the Phosphate Mining Company of Christmas
  Island, Ltd.

*Christmas Island, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  Territory of Christmas Island
 conventional short form:
  Christmas Island
Digraph:
  KT
Type:
  territory of Australia
Capital:
  The Settlement
Administrative divisions:
  none (territory of Australia)
Independence:
  none (territory of Australia)
Constitution:
  Christmas Island Act of 1958
Legal system:
  under the authority of the governor general of Australia
National holiday:
  NA
Political parties and leaders:
  none
Executive branch:
  British monarch, governor general of Australia, administrator, Advisory
  Council (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
  none
Judicial branch:
  none
Leaders:
 Chief of State:
  Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952)
 Head of Government:
  Administrator M. J. GRIMES (since NA)
Member of:
  none
Diplomatic representation in US:
  none (territory of Australia)
US diplomatic representation:
  none (territory of Australia)
Flag:
  the flag of Australia is used

*Christmas Island, Economy

Overview:
  Phosphate mining had been the only significant economic activity, but in
  December 1987 the Australian Government closed the mine as no longer
  economically viable. Plans have been under way to reopen the mine and also
  to build a casino and hotel to develop tourism, with a possible opening date
  during the first half of 1992.
National product:
  GDP $NA
National product real growth rate:
  NA%
National product per capita:
  $NA
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  NA%
Unemployment rate:
  NA%
Budget:
  revenues $NA; expenditures $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports:
  $NA
 commodities:
  phosphate
 partners:
  Australia, NZ
Imports:
  $NA
 commodities:
  consumer goods
 partners:
  principally Australia
External debt:
  $NA
Industrial production:
  growth rate NA%
Electricity:
  11,000 kW capacity; 30 million kWh produced, 17,800 kWh per capita (1990)
Industries:
  phosphate extraction (near depletion)
Agriculture:
  NA
Economic aid:
  none
Currency:
  1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
  Australian dollars ($A) per US$1 - 1.4837 (January 1993), 1.3600 (1992),
  1.2836 (1991), 1.2799 (1990), 1.2618 (1989), 1.2752 (1988)
Fiscal year:
  1 July - 30 June

*Christmas Island, Communications

Highways:
  adequate road system
Ports:
  Flying Fish Cove
Airports:
 total:
  1
 useable:
  1
 with permanent-surface runways:
  1
 with runways over 3,659 m:
  0
 with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
  0
 with runways 1,220-2,439:
  1
Telecommunications:
  4,000 radios (1982); broadcasting stations - 1 AM, 1 TV

*Christmas Island, Defense Forces

Note:
  defense is the responsibility of Australia

*Clipperton Island, Header

Affiliation:
  (possession of France)

*Clipperton Island, Geography

Location:
  in the North Pacific Ocean, 1,120 km southwest of Mexico
Map references:
  World
Area:
 total area:
  7 km2
 land area:
  7 km2
 comparative area:
  about 12 times the size of the Mall in Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
  0 km
Coastline:
  11.1 km
Maritime claims:
 exclusive economic zone:
  200 nm
 territorial sea:
  12 nm
International disputes:
  claimed by Mexico
Climate:
  tropical
Terrain:
  coral atoll
Natural resources:
  none
Land use:
 arable land:
  0%
 permanent crops:
  0%
 meadows and pastures:
  0%
 forest and woodland:
  0%
 other:
  100% (all coral)
Irrigated land:
  0 km2
Environment:
  reef about 8 km in circumference

*Clipperton Island, People

Population:
  uninhabited

*Clipperton Island, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  none
 conventional short form:
  Clipperton Island
 local long form:
  none
 local short form:
  Ile Clipperton
 former:
  sometimes called Ile de la Passion
Digraph:   IP
Type:
  French possession administered by France from French Polynesia by High
  Commissioner of the Republic
Capital:
  none; administered by France from French Polynesia
Independence:
  none (possession of France)

*Clipperton Island, Economy

Overview:
  The only economic activity is a tuna fishing station.

*Clipperton Island, Communications

Ports:
  none; offshore anchorage only

*Clipperton Island, Defense Forces

Note:
  defense is the responsibility of France

*Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Header

Affiliation:
  (territory of Australia)

*Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Geography

Location:
  in the Indian Ocean, 1,070 km southwest of Indonesia, about halfway between
  Australia and Sri Lanka
Map references:
  Southeast Asia
Area:
 total area:
  14 km2
 land area:
  14 km2
 comparative area:
  about 24 times the size of the Mall in Washington, DC
 note:
  includes the two main islands of West Island and Home Island
Land boundaries:   0 km
Coastline:
  2.6 km
Maritime claims:
 exclusive fishing zone:
  200 nm
 territorial sea:
  3 nm
International disputes:
  none
Climate:
  pleasant, modified by the southeast trade wind for about nine months of the
  year; moderate rain fall
Terrain:
  flat, low-lying coral atolls
Natural resources:
  fish
Land use:
 arable land:
  0%
 permanent crops:
  0%
 meadows and pastures:
  0%
 forest and woodland:
  0%
 other:
  100%
Irrigated land:
  NA km2
Environment:
  two coral atolls thickly covered with coconut palms and other vegetation

*Cocos (Keeling) Islands, People

Population:
  593 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
  -0.53% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
  NA births/1,000 population
Death rate:
  NA deaths/1,000 population
Net migration rate:
  NA migrant(s)/1,000 population
Infant mortality rate:
  NA deaths/1,000 live births
Life expectancy at birth:
 total population:
  NA years
 male:
  NA years
 female:
  NA years
Total fertility rate:
  NA children born/women
Nationality:
 noun:
  Cocos Islander(s)
 adjective:
  Cocos Islander
Ethnic divisions:
 West Island:
  Europeans
 Home Island:
  Cocos Malays
Religions:
  Sunni Muslims
Languages:
  English
Literacy:
 total population:
  NA%
 male:
  NA%
 female:
  NA%
Labor force:
  NA

*Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  Territory of Cocos (Keeling) Islands
 conventional short form:
  Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Digraph:
  CK
Type:
  territory of Australia
Capital:
  West Island
Administrative divisions:
  none (territory of Australia)
Independence:
  none (territory of Australia)
Constitution:
  Cocos (Keeling) Islands Act of 1955
Legal system:
  based upon the laws of Australia and local laws
National holiday:
  NA
Political parties and leaders:
  NA
Suffrage:
  NA
Elections:   NA
Executive branch:
  British monarch, governor general of Australia, administrator, chairman of
  the Islands Council
Legislative branch:
  unicameral Islands Council
Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court
Leaders:
 Chief of State:
  Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952)
 Head of Government:
  Administrator B. CUNNINGHAM (since NA); Chairman of the Islands Council Haji
  WAHIN bin Bynie (since NA)
Member of:
  none
Diplomatic representation in US:
  none (territory of Australia)
US diplomatic representation:
  none (territory of Australia)
Flag:
  the flag of Australia is used

*Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Economy

Overview:
  Grown throughout the islands, coconuts are the sole cash crop. Copra and
  fresh coconuts are the major export earners. Small local gardens and fishing
  contribute to the food supply, but additional food and most other
  necessities must be imported from Australia.
National product:
  GDP $NA
National product real growth rate:
  NA%
National product per capita:
  $NA
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  NA%
Budget:
  revenues $NA; expenditures $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports:
  $NA
 commodities:
  copra
 partners:
  Australia
Imports:
  $NA
 commodities:
  foodstuffs
 partners:
  Australia
External debt:
  $NA
Industrial production:
  growth rate NA%
Electricity:
  1,000 kW capacity; 2 million kWh produced, 2,980 kWh per capita (1990)
Industries:
  copra products
Agriculture:
  gardens provide vegetables, bananas, pawpaws, coconuts
Economic aid:
  none
Currency:
  1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
  Australian dollars ($A) per US$1 - 1.4837 (January 1993), 1.3600 (1992),
  1.2836 (1991), 1.2799 (1990), 1.2618 (1989), 1.2752 (1988)
Fiscal year:
  1 July - 30 June

*Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Communications

Ports:
  none; lagoon anchorage only
Airports:
 total:
  1
 useable:
  1
 with permanent-surface runways:
  1
 with runways over 3,659 m:
  0
 with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
  0
 with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
  1
Telecommunications:
  250 radios (1985); linked by telephone, telex, and facsimile communications
  via satellite with Australia; broadcast stations - 1 AM, no FM, no TV

*Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Defense Forces

Note:
  defense is the responsibility of Australia

*Colombia, Geography

Location:
  Northern South America, between Panama and Venezuela
Map references:
  Central America and the Caribbean, South America, Standard Time Zones of the
  World
Area:
 total area:
  1,138,910 km2
 land area:
  1,038,700 km2
 comparative area:
  slightly less than three times the size of Montana
 note:
  includes Isla de Malpelo, Roncador Cay, Serrana Bank, and Serranilla Bank
Land boundaries:
  total 7,408 km, Brazil 1,643 km, Ecuador 590 km, Panama 225 km, Peru 2,900
  km, Venezuela 2,050 km
Coastline:
  3,208 km (Caribbean Sea 1,760 km, North Pacific Ocean 1,448 km)
Maritime claims:
 continental shelf:
  not specified
 exclusive economic zone:
  200 nm
 territorial sea:
  12 nm
International disputes:
  maritime boundary dispute with Venezuela in the Gulf of Venezuela;
  territorial dispute with Nicaragua over Archipelago de San Andres y
  Providencia and Quita Sueno Bank
Climate:
  tropical along coast and eastern plains; cooler in highlands
Terrain:
  flat coastal lowlands, central highlands, high Andes mountains, eastern
  lowland plains
Natural resources:
  petroleum, natural gas, coal, iron ore, nickel, gold, copper, emeralds
Land use:
 arable land:
  4%
 permanent crops:
  2%
 meadows and pastures:
  29%
 forest and woodland:
  49%
 other:
  16%
Irrigated land:
  5,150 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
  highlands subject to volcanic eruptions; deforestation; soil damage from
  overuse of pesticides; periodic droughts
Note:
  only South American country with coastlines on both North Pacific Ocean and
  Caribbean Sea

*Colombia, People

Population:
  34,942,767 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
  1.83% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
  23.4 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
  4.82 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
  -0.25 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
  29.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
 total population:
  71.72 years
 male:
  68.99 years
 female:
  74.53 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
  2.54 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
 noun:
  Colombian(s)
 adjective:
  Colombian
Ethnic divisions:
  mestizo 58%, white 20%, mulatto 14%, black 4%, mixed black-Indian 3%, Indian
  1%
Religions:
  Roman Catholic 95%
Languages:
  Spanish
Literacy:
  age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
 total population:
  87%
 male:
  88%
 female:
  86%
Labor force:
  12 million (1990)
 by occupation:
  services 46%, agriculture 30%, industry 24% (1990)

*Colombia, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  Republic of Colombia
 conventional short form:
  Colombia  local long form:
  Republica de Colombia
 local short form:
  Colombia
Digraph:
  CO
Type:
  republic; executive branch dominates government structure
Capital:
  Bogota
Administrative divisions:
  23 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento), 5 commissariats*,   (comisarias, singular
- comisaria), 4 intendancies** (intendencias, singular,   - intendencia), and 1 special district***,
(distrito especial); Amazonas*,,   Antioquia, Arauca**, Atlantico, Bogota***, Bolivar, Boyaca,,
Caldas, Caqueta,
  Casanare**, Cauca, Cesar, Choco, Cordoba, Cundinamarca, Guainia*, Guaviare*,,   Huila, La Guajira,
Magdalena, Meta, Narino, Norte de Santander, Putumayo**,,   Quindio, Risaralda, San Andres y
Providencia**, Santander, Sucre, Tolima,,   Valle del Cauca, Vaupes*, Vichada*,  note:
  the Constitution of 5 July 1991 states that the commissariats and
  intendancies are to become full departments and a capital district (distrito
  capital) of Santa Fe de Bogota is to be established by 1997
Independence:
  20 July 1810 (from Spain)
Constitution:
  5 July 1991
Legal system:
  based on Spanish law; judicial review of executive and legislative acts;
  accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
National holiday:
  Independence Day, 20 July (1810)
Political parties and leaders:
  Liberal Party (PL), Cesar GAVIRIA Trujillo, president; Social Conservative
  Party (PCS), Misael PASTRANA Borrero; National Salvation Movement (MSN),
  Alvaro GOMEZ Hurtado; Democratic Alliance M-19 (AD/M-19) is headed by 19th
  of April Movement (M-19) leader Antonio NAVARRO Wolf, coalition of small
  leftist parties and dissident liberals and conservatives; Patriotic Union
  (UP) is a legal political party formed by Revolutionary Armed Forces of
  Colombia (FARC) and Colombian Communist Party (PCC), Carlos ROMERO
Other political or pressure groups:
  three insurgent groups are active in Colombia - Revolutionary Armed Forces
  of Colombia (FARC), Manuel MARULANDA and Alfonso CANO; National Liberation
  Army (ELN), Manuel PEREZ; and dissidents of the recently demobilized
  People's Liberation Army (EPL), Francisco CARABALLO
Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Elections:
 President:
  last held 27 May 1990 (next to be held May 1994); results - Cesar GAVIRIA
  Trujillo (Liberal) 47%, Alvaro GOMEZ Hurtado (National Salvation Movement)
  24%, Antonio NAVARRO Wolff (M-19) 13%, Rodrigo LLOREDA (Conservative) 12%

*Colombia, Government

 Senate:
  last held 27 October 1991 (next to be held March 1994); results - percent of
  vote by party NA; seats - (102 total) Liberal 58, Conservative 22, AD/M-19
  9, MSN 5, UP 1, other 7
 House of Representatives:
  last held 27 October 1991 (next to be held March 1994); results - percent of
  vote by party NA; seats - (161 total) Liberal 87, Conservative 31, AD/M-19
  13, MSN 10, UP 3, other 17
Executive branch:
  president, presidential designate, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
  bicameral Congress (Congreso) consists of a nationally elected upper chamber
  or Senate (Senado) and a nationally elected lower chamber or House of
  Representatives (Camara de Representantes)
Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justical), Constitutional Court,
  Council of State
Leaders:
 Chief of State and Head of Government:
  President Cesar GAVIRIA Trujillo (since 7 August 1990)
Member of:
  AG, CDB, CG, ECLAC, FAO, G-3, G-11, G-24, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD,
  ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT,
  INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, LORCS, NAM, OAS, ONUSAL, OPANAL,
  PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNPROFOR, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO,
  WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador Jaime GARCIA Parra
 chancery:
  2118 Leroy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
 telephone:
  (202) 387-8338
 consulates general:
  Chicago, Houston, Miami, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, and San Juan
  (Puerto Rico)
 consulates:
  Atlanta, Boston, Detroit, Los Angeles, and Tampa
US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador Morris D. BUSBY
 embassy:
  Calle 38, No. 8-61, Bogota
 mailing address:
  P. O. Box A. A. 3831, Bogota or APO AA 34038
 telephone:
  [57] (1) 285-1300 or 1688
 FAX:
  [57] (1) 288-5687
 consulate:
  Barranquilla
Flag:
  three horizontal bands of yellow (top, double-width), blue, and red; similar
  to the flag of Ecuador, which is longer and bears the Ecuadorian coat of
  arms superimposed in the center

*Colombia, Economy

Overview:
  Economic development has slowed gradually since 1986, but growth rates
  remain high by Latin American standards. Conservative economic policies have
  kept inflation and unemployment near 30% and 10%, respectively. The rapid
  development of oil, coal, and other nontraditional industries in recent
  years has helped to offset the decline in coffee prices - Colombia's major
  export. The collapse of the International Coffee Agreement in the summer of
  1989, a troublesome rural insurgency, energy rationing, and drug-related
  violence have dampened growth. The level of violence, in Bogota in
  particular, surged to higher levels in the first quarter of 1993, further
  delaying the economic resurgence expected from government reforms. These
  reforms center on fiscal restraint, trade and investment liberalization,
  financial and labor reform, and privatization of state utilities and
  commercial banks.
National product:
  GDP - exchange rate conversion - $51 billion (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate:
  3.3% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
  $1,500 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  25% (1992)
Unemployment rate:
  10% (1992)
Budget:
  revenues $5.0 billion; current expenditures $5.1 billion, capital
  expenditures $964 million (1991 est.)
Exports:
  $7.4 billion (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
 commodities:
  petroleum, coffee, coal, bananas, fresh cut flowers
 partners:
  US 44%, EC 21%, Japan 5%, Netherlands 4%, Sweden 3% (1991)
Imports:
  $5.5 billion (c.i.f., 1992 est.)
 commodities:
  industrial equipment, transportation equipment, consumer goods, chemicals,
  paper products
 partners:
  US 36%, EC 16%, Brazil 4%, Venezuela 3%, Japan 3% (1991)
External debt:
  $17 billion (1992)
Industrial production:
  growth rate -0.5% (1991); accounts for 20% of GDP
Electricity:
  10,193,000 kW capacity; 36,000 million kWh produced, 1,050 kWh per capita
  (1992)
Industries:
  textiles, food processing, oil, clothing and footwear, beverages, chemicals,
  metal products, cement; mining - gold, coal, emeralds, iron, nickel, silver,
  salt
Agriculture:
  growth rate 3% (1991 est.) accounts for 22% of GDP; crops make up two-thirds
  and livestock one-third of agricultural output; climate and soils permit a
  wide variety of crops, such as coffee, rice, tobacco, corn, sugarcane, cocoa
  beans, oilseeds, vegetables; forest products and shrimp farming are becoming
  more important

*Colombia, Economy

Illicit drugs:
  illicit producer of cannabis, coca, and opium; about 37,500 hectares of coca
  under cultivation; the world's largest processor of coca derivatives into
  cocaine; supplier of cocaine to the US and other international drug markets
Economic aid:
  US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1.6 billion; Western (non-US)
  countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $3.3 billion,
  Communist countries (1970-89), $399 million
Currency:
  1 Colombian peso (Col$) = 100 centavos
Exchange rates:
  Colombian pesos (Col$) per US$1 - 820.08 (January 1993), 759.28 (1992),
  633.05 (1991), 502.26 (1990), 382.57 (1989), 299.17 (1988)
Fiscal year:
  calendar year

*Colombia, Communications

Railroads:
  3,386 km; 3,236 km 0.914-meter gauge, single track (2,611 km in use), 150 km
  1.435-meter gauge
Highways:
  75,450 km total; 9,350 km paved, 66,100 km earth and gravel surfaces
Inland waterways:
  14,300 km, navigable by river boats
Pipelines:
  crude oil 3,585 km; petroleum products 1,350 km; natural gas 830 km; natural
  gas liquids 125 km
Ports:
  Barranquilla, Buenaventura, Cartagena, Covenas, San Andres, Santa Marta,
  Tumaco
Merchant marine:
  27 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 227,719 GRT/356,665 DWT; includes 9
  cargo, 3 oil tanker, 8 bulk, 7 container
Airports:
 total:
  1,233
 usable:
  1,059
 with permanent-surface:
  69
 with runways over 3,659 m:
  1  with runways 2,440-2,459 m:
  9
 with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
  200
Telecommunications:
  nationwide radio relay system; 1,890,000 telephones; broadcast stations -
  413 AM, no FM, 33 TV, 28 shortwave; 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations
  and 11 domestic satellite earth stations

*Colombia, Defense Forces

Branches:
  Army (Ejercito Nacional), Navy (Armada Nacional, including Marines), Air
  Force (Fuerza Aerea Colombiana), National Police (Policia Nacional)
Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49 9,428,358; fit for military service 6,375,944; reach
  military age (18) annually 356,993 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
  exchange rate conversion - $630 million, 1.3% of GDP (1993 est.)

*Comoros, Geography

Location:
  in the extreme northern Mozambique Channel, about two-thirds of the way
  between northern Madagascar and northern Mozambique
Map references:
  Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
 total area:
  2,170 km2
 land area:
  2,170 km2
 comparative area:
  slightly more than 12 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
  0 km
Coastline:
  340 km
Maritime claims:
 exclusive economic zone:
  200 nm
 territorial sea:
  12 nm
International disputes:
  claims French-administered Mayotte
Climate:
  tropical marine; rainy season (November to May)
Terrain:
  volcanic islands, interiors vary from steep mountains to low hills
Natural resources:
  negligible
Land use:  arable land:
  35%
 permanent crops:
  8%
 meadows and pastures:
  7%
 forest and woodland:
  16%
 other:
  34%
Irrigated land:
  NA km2
Environment:
  soil degradation and erosion; deforestation; cyclones possible during rainy
  season
Note:
  important location at northern end of Mozambique Channel

*Comoros, People

Population:
  511,651 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
  3.54% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
  46.75 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
  11.31 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
  81.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
 total population:
  57.35 years
 male:
  55.23 years
 female:
  59.55 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
  6.86 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
 noun:
  Comoran(s)
 adjective:
  Comoran
Ethnic divisions:
  Antalote, Cafre, Makoa, Oimatsaha, Sakalava
Religions:
  Sunni Muslim 86%, Roman Catholic 14%
Languages:
  Arabic (official), French (official), Comoran (a blend of Swahili and
  Arabic)
Literacy:   age 15 and over can read and write (1980)
 total population:
  48%
 male:
  56%
 female:
  40%
Labor force:
  140,000 (1982)
 by occupation:
  agriculture 80%, government 3%
 note:
  51% of population of working age (1985)

*Comoros, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  Federal Islamic Republic of the Comoros
 conventional short form:
  Comoros
 local long form:
  Republique Federale Islamique des Comores
 local short form:
  Comores
Digraph:
  CN
Type:
  independent republic
Capital:
  Moroni
Administrative divisions:
  three islands; Njazidja (Grand Comore), Nzwani (Anjouan), and Mwali (Moheli)
 note:
  there are also four municipalities named Domoni, Fomboni, Moroni, and
  Mutsamudu
Independence:
  6 July 1975 (from France)
Constitution:
  7 June 1992
Legal system:
  French and Muslim law in a new consolidated code
National holiday:
  Independence Day, 6 July (1975)
Political parties and leaders:
  over 20 political parties are currently active, the most important of which
  are; Comoran Union for Progress (UDZIMA), Omar TAMOU; Islands' Fraternity
  and Unity Party (CHUMA), Said Ali KEMAL; Comoran Party for Democracy and
  Progress (PCDP), Ali MROUDJAE; Realizing Freedom's Capability (UWEZO),
  Mouazair ABDALLAH; Democratic Front of the Comoros (FDR), Moustapha CHELKH;
  Dialogue Proposition Action (DPA/MWANGAZA), Said MCHAWGAMA; Rally for Change
  and Democracy (RACHADE), Hassan HACHIM; Union for Democracy and
  Decentralization (UNDC), Mohamed Taki Halidi IBRAHAM; Maecha Bora, leader
  NA; MDP/NGDC (expansion NA), leader NA; Comoran Popular Front (FPC), Mohamed
  HASSANALI, Mohamed El Arif OUKACHA, Abdou MOUSTAKIM (Secretary General)
Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal
Elections:
 Federal Assembly:
  last held November-December 1992 (next to be held NA March 1997); results -
  percent of vote by party NA; seats - (42 total) UNDC 7, CHUMA 3, ADP 2,
  MDP/NGDC 5, FDC 2, MAECHA BORA 2, FPC 2, RACHADE 1, UWEZO 1, MWANGAZA 1, 16
  other seats to smaller parties
 President:
  last held 11 March 1990 (next to be held March 1996); results - Said Mohamed
  DJOHAR (UDZIMA) 55%, Mohamed TAKI Abdulkarim (UNDC) 45%
Executive branch:
  president, Council of Ministers (cabinet), prime minister
Legislative branch:
  unicameral Federal Assembly (Assemblee Federale)
Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

*Comoros, Government

Leaders:
 Chief of State and Head of Government:
  President Said Mohamed DJOHAR (since 11 March 1990); Prime Minister Ibrahim
  HALIDI (since 1 January 1992)
Member of:
  ACCT, ACP, AfDB, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO,
  IMF, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador Amini Ali MOUMIN
 chancery:
  (temporary) at the Comoran Permanent Mission to the UN, 336 East 45th
  Street, 2nd Floor, New York, NY 10017
 telephone:
  (212) 972-8010
US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador Kenneth N. PELTIER
 embassy:
  address NA, Moroni
 mailing address:
  B. P. 1318, Moroni
 telephone:
  [269] 73-22-03, 73-29-22
 FAX:
  no service available at this time
Flag:
  green with a white crescent placed diagonally (closed side of the crescent
  points to the upper hoist-side corner of the flag); there are four white
  five-pointed stars placed in a line between the points of the crescent; the
  crescent, stars, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam; the four
  stars represent the four main islands of the archipelago - Mwali, Njazidja,
  Nzwani, and Mayotte (which is a territorial collectivity of France, but
  claimed by the Comoros)

*Comoros, Economy

Overview:
  One of the world's poorest countries, Comoros is made up of several islands
  that have poor transportation links, a young and rapidly increasing
  population, and few natural resources. The low educational level of the
  labor force contributes to a low level of economic activity, high
  unemployment, and a heavy dependence on foreign grants and technical
  assistance. Agriculture, including fishing, hunting, and forestry, is the
  leading sector of the economy. It contributes 40% to GDP, employs 80% of the
  labor force, and provides most of the exports. The country is not
  self-sufficient in food production, and rice, the main staple, accounts for
  90% of imports. During the period 1982-86 the industrial sector grew at an
  annual average rate of 5.3%, but its contribution to GDP was only 5% in
  1988. Despite major investment in the tourist industry, which accounts for
  about 25% of GDP, growth has stagnated since 1983. A sluggish growth rate of
  1.5% during 1985-90 has led to large budget deficits, declining incomes, and
  balance-of-payments difficulties. Preliminary estimates for FY92 show a
  moderate increase in the growth rate based on increased exports, tourism,
  and government investment outlays.
National product:
  GDP - exchange rate conversion - $260 million (1991 est.)
National product real growth rate:
  2.7% (1991 est.)
National product per capita:
  $540 (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  4% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
  over 16% (1988 est.)
Budget:
  revenues $96 million; expenditures $88 million, including capital
  expenditures of $33 million (1991 est.)
Exports:
  $16 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.)
 commodities:
  vanilla, cloves, perfume oil, copra, ylang-ylang
 partners:
  US 53%, France 41%, Africa 4%, FRG 2% (1988)
Imports:
  $41 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.)
 commodities:
  rice and other foodstuffs, cement, petroleum products, consumer goods
 partners:
  Europe 62% (France 22%), Africa 5%, Pakistan, China (1988)
External debt:
  $196 million (1991 est.)
Industrial production:
  growth rate -6.5% (1989 est.); accounts for 10% of GDP
Electricity:
  16,000 kW capacity; 25 million kWh produced, 50 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:   perfume distillation, textiles, furniture, jewelry, construction materials,
  soft drinks
Agriculture:
  accounts for 40% of GDP; most of population works in subsistence agriculture
  and fishing; plantations produce cash crops for export - vanilla, cloves,
  perfume essences, copra; principal food crops - coconuts, bananas, cassava;
  world's leading producer of essence of ylang-ylang (for perfumes) and
  second-largest producer of vanilla; large net food importer

*Comoros, Economy

Economic aid:
  US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY80-89), $10 million; Western (non-US)
  countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $435 million; OPEC
  bilateral aid (1979-89), $22 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $18
  million
Currency:
  1 Comoran franc (CF) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
  Comoran francs (CF) per US$1 - 274.06 (January 1993), 264.69 (1992), 282.11
  (1991), 272.26 (1990), 319.01 (1989), 297.85 (1988)); note - linked to the
  French franc at 50 to 1 French franc
Fiscal year:
  calendar year

*Comoros, Communications

Highways:
  750 km total; about 210 km bituminous, remainder crushed stone or gravel
Ports:
  Mutsamudu, Moroni
Airports:
 total:
  4
 usable:
  4
 with permanent-surface runways:
  4
 with runways over 3,659 m:
  0
 with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
  1
 with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
  3
Telecommunications:
  sparse system of radio relay and high-frequency radio communication stations
  for interisland and external communications to Madagascar and Reunion; over
  1,800 telephones; broadcast stations - 2 AM, 1 FM, no TV

*Comoros, Defense Forces

Branches:
  Comoran Defense Force (FDC)
Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49 108,867; fit for military service 65,106 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
  $NA, NA% of GDP

*Congo, Geography

Location:
  Western Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean between Gabon and Zaire
Map references:
  Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
 total area:
  342,000 km2
 land area:
  341,500 km2
 comparative area:
  slightly smaller than Montana
Land boundaries:
  total 5,504 km, Angola 201 km, Cameroon 523 km, Central African Republic 467
  km, Gabon 1,903 km, Zaire 2,410 km
Coastline:
  169 km
Maritime claims:
 territorial sea:
  200 nm
International disputes:
  long section with Zaire along the Congo River is indefinite (no division of
  the river or its islands has been made)
Climate:
  tropical; rainy season (March to June); dry season (June to October);
  constantly high temperatures and humidity; particularly enervating climate
  astride the Equator
Terrain:
  coastal plain, southern basin, central plateau, northern basin
Natural resources:
  petroleum, timber, potash, lead, zinc, uranium, copper, phosphates, natural
  gas
Land use:
 arable land:
  2%
 permanent crops:
  0%
 meadows and pastures:
  29%
 forest and woodland:
  62%
 other:
  7%
Irrigated land:
  40 km2 (1989)
Environment:
  deforestation; about 70% of the population lives in Brazzaville, Pointe
  Noire, or along the railroad between them

*Congo, People

Population:
  2,388,667 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
  2.44% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
  40.68 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
  16.28 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
  112.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
 total population:
  48.04 years
 male:
  46.3 years
 female:
  49.84 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
  5.38 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
 noun:
  Congolese (singular and plural)
 adjective:
  Congolese or Congo
Ethnic divisions:
 south:
  Kongo 48%
 north:
  Sangha 20%, M'Bochi 12%
 center:
  Teke 17%, Europeans 8,500 (mostly French)
Religions:
  Christian 50%, animist 48%, Muslim 2%
Languages:
  French (official), African languages (Lingala and Kikongo are the most
  widely used)
Literacy:
  age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
 total population:
  57%
 male:
  70%
 female:
  44%
Labor force:
  79,100 wage earners
 by occupation:
  agriculture 75%, commerce, industry, and government 25%
 note:
  51% of population of working age; 40% of population economically active
  (1985)

*Congo, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  Republic of the Congo
 conventional short form:
  Congo
 local long form:
  Republique Populaire du Congo
 local short form:
  Congo
 former:
  Congo/Brazzaville
Digraph:
  CF
Type:
  republic
Capital:
  Brazzaville
Administrative divisions:
  9 regions (regions, singular - region) and 1 commune*; Bouenza,,   Brazzaville*, Cuvette,
Kouilou,, Lekoumou, Likouala, Niari, Plateaux, Pool,
  Sangha
Independence:
  15 August 1960 (from France)
Constitution:
  8 July 1979, currently being modified
Legal system:
  based on French civil law system and customary law
National holiday:
  Congolese National Day, 15 August (1960)
Political parties and leaders:
  Congolese Labor Party (PCT), headed by former president Denis
  SASSOU-NGUESSO; Union for Democratic Renewal (URD) - a coalition of
  opposition parties; Panafrican Union for Social Development (UPADS)
Other political or pressure groups:
  Union of Congolese Socialist Youth (UJSC); Congolese Trade Union Congress
  (CSC); Revolutionary Union of Congolese Women (URFC); General Union of
  Congolese Pupils and Students (UGEEC)
Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal
Elections:
 President:
  last held 2-16 August 1992 (next to be held August 1997); results -
  President Pascal LISSOUBA won with 61% of the vote
 National Assembly:
  last held 24 June-19 July 1992; results - (125 total) UPADS 39, MCDDI (part
  of URD coalition) 29, PCT 19; more than a dozen smaller parties split the
  remaining 38 seats
 note:
  National Assembly dissolved in November 1992; next election to be held May
  1993
Executive branch:
  president, prime minister, Council of Ministers (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
  unicameral National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale) was dissolved on NA
  November 1992
Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

*Congo, Government

Leaders:
 Chief of State:
  President Pascal LISSOUBA (since August 1992)
 Head of Government:
  Prime Minister Claude Antoine DA COSTA (since December 1992)
Member of:
  ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CCC, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO,
  IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM,
  OAU, UDEAC, UN, UNAVEM II, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNTAC, UPU, WFTU, WHO,
  WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador Roger ISSOMBO
 chancery:
  4891 Colorado Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20011
 telephone:
  (202) 726-5500
US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador James Daniel PHILLIPS
 embassy:
  Avenue Amilcar Cabral, Brazzaville
 mailing address:
  B. P. 1015, Brazzaville, or Box C, APO AE 09828
 telephone:
  (242) 83-20-70
 FAX:
  [242] 83-63-38
Flag:
  red, divided diagonally from the lower hoist side by a yellow band; the
  upper triangle (hoist side) is green and the lower triangle is red; uses the
  popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

*Congo, Economy

Overview:
  Congo's economy is a mixture of village agriculture and handicrafts, a
  beginning industrial sector based largely on oil, supporting services, and a
  government characterized by budget problems and overstaffing. A reform
  program, supported by the IMF and World Bank, ran into difficulties in
  1990-91 because of problems in changing to a democratic political regime and
  a heavy debt-servicing burden. Oil has supplanted forestry as the mainstay
  of the economy, providing about two-thirds of government revenues and
  exports. In the early 1980s rapidly rising oil revenues enabled Congo to
  finance large-scale development projects with growth averaging 5% annually,
  one of the highest rates in Africa. During the period 1987-91, however,
  growth has slowed to an average of roughly 1.5% annually, only half the
  population growth rate. The new government, responding to pressure from
  businessmen and the electorate, has promised to reduce the bureaucracy and
  government regulation but little has been accomplished as of early 1993.
National product:
  GDP - exchange rate conversion - $2.5 billion (1991 est.)
National product real growth rate:
  0.6% (1991 est.)
National product per capita:
  $1,070 (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  -0.6% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
  NA%
Budget:
  revenues $765 million; expenditures $952 million, including capital
  expenditures of $65 million (1990)
Exports:
  $1.1 billion (f.o.b., 1990)
 commodities:
  crude oil 72%, lumber, plywood, coffee, cocoa, sugar, diamonds
 partners:
  US, France, other EC countries
Imports:
  $704 million (c.i.f., 1990)
 commodities:
  foodstuffs, consumer goods, intermediate manufactures, capital equipment
 partners:
  France, Italy, other EC countries, US, Germany, Spain, Japan, Brazil
External debt:
  $4.1 billion (1991)
Industrial production:
  growth rate 1.2% (1989); accounts for 33% of GDP; includes petroleum
Electricity:
  140,000 kW capacity; 315 million kWh produced, 135 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
  petroleum, cement, lumbering, brewing, sugar milling, palm oil, soap,
  cigarette
Agriculture:
  accounts for 13% of GDP (including fishing and forestry); cassava accounts
  for 90% of food output; other crops - rice, corn, peanuts, vegetables; cash
  crops include coffee and cocoa; forest products important export earner;
  imports over 90% of food needs
Economic aid:
  US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-90), $63 million; Western (non-US)
  countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-90), $2.5 billion; OPEC
  bilateral aid (1979-89), $15 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $338
  million

*Congo, Economy

Currency:
  1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
  Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 274.06 (January
  1993), 264.69 (1992), 282.11 (1991), 272.26 (1990), 319.01 (1989), 297.85
  (1988)
Fiscal year:
  calendar year

*Congo, Communications

Railroads:
  797 km, 1.067-meter gauge, single track (includes 285 km that are privately
  owned)
Highways:
  11,960 km total; 560 km paved; 850 km gravel and laterite; 5,350 km improved
  earth; 5,200 km unimproved earth
Inland waterways:
  the Congo and Ubangi (Oubangui) Rivers provide 1,120 km of commercially
  navigable water transport; the rest are used for local traffic only
Pipelines:
  crude oil 25 km
Ports:
  Pointe-Noire (ocean port), Brazzaville (river port)
Airports:
 total:
  44
 usable:
  41
 with permanent-surface runways:
  5
 with runways over 3,659 m:
  0
 with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
  1
 with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
  16
Telecommunications:
  services adequate for government use; primary network is composed of radio
  relay routes and coaxial cables; key centers are Brazzaville, Pointe-Noire,
  and Loubomo; 18,100 telephones; broadcast stations - 4 AM, 1 FM, 4 TV; 1
  Atlantic Ocean satellite earth station

*Congo, Defense Forces

Branches:
  Army, Navy (including Marines), Air Force, National Police
Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49 534,802; fit for military service 272,051; reach military
  age (20) annually 24,190 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
  exchange rate conversion - $NA, NA% of GDP

*Cook Islands, Header

Affiliation:
  (free association with New Zealand)

*Cook Islands, Geography

Location:
  Oceania, 4,500 km south of Hawaii in the South Pacific Ocean, about halfway
  between Hawaii and New Zealand
Map references:
  Oceania
Area:
 total area:
  240 km2
 land area:
  240 km2
 comparative area:
  slightly less than 1.3 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
  0 km
Coastline:
  120 km
Maritime claims:
 continental shelf:
  200 nm or the edge of continental margin
 exclusive economic zone:
  200 nm
 territorial sea:
  12 nm
International disputes:
  none
Climate:
  tropical; moderated by trade winds
Terrain:
  low coral atolls in north; volcanic, hilly islands in south
Natural resources:
  negligible
Land use:
 arable land:
  4%
 permanent crops:
  22%
 meadows and pastures:
  0%
 forest and woodland:   0%
 other:
  74%
Irrigated land:
  NA km2
Environment:
  subject to typhoons from November to March

*Cook Islands, People

Population:
  18,903 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
  1.18% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
  23.4 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
  5.2 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
  -6.45 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
  24.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
 total population:
  71.14 years
 male:
  69.2 years
 female:
  73.1 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
  3.32 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
 noun:
  Cook Islander(s)
 adjective:
  Cook Islander
Ethnic divisions:
  Polynesian (full blood) 81.3%, Polynesian and European 7.7%, Polynesian and
  other 7.7%, European 2.4%, other 0.9%
Religions:
  Christian (majority of populace members of Cook Islands Christian Church)
Languages:
  English (official), Maori
Literacy:
 total population:
  NA%
 male:
  NA%
 female:
  NA%
Labor force:
  5,810
 by occupation:
  agriculture 29%, government 27%, services 25%, industry 15%, other 4% (1981)

*Cook Islands, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  none
 conventional short form:
  Cook Islands
Digraph:
  CW
Type:
  self-governing parliamentary government in free association with New
  Zealand; Cook Islands is fully responsible for internal affairs; New Zealand
  retains responsibility for external affairs, in consultation with the Cook
  Islands
Capital:
  Avarua
Administrative divisions:
  none
Independence:
  none (became self-governing in free association with New Zealand on 4 August
  1965 and has the right at any time to move to full independence by
  unilateral action)
Constitution:
  4 August 1965
Legal system:
  NA
National holiday:
  Constitution Day, 4 August
Political parties and leaders:
  Cook Islands Party, Geoffrey HENRY; Democratic Tumu Party, Vincent INGRAM;
  Democratic Party, Terepai MAOATE; Cook Islands Labor Party, Rena JONASSEN;
  Cook Islands People's Party, Sadaraka SADARAKA
Suffrage:
  universal adult at age NA
Elections:
 Parliament:
  last held 19 January 1989 (next to be held by January 1994); results -
  percent of vote by party NA; seats - (24 total) Cook Islands Party 12,
  Democratic Tumu Party 2, opposition coalition (including Democratic Party)
  9, independent 1
Executive branch:
  British monarch, representative of the UK, representative of New Zealand,
  prime minister, deputy prime minister, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
  unicameral Parliament; note - the House of Arikis (chiefs) advises on
  traditional matters, but has no legislative powers
Judicial branch:
  High Court
Leaders:
 Chief of State:
  Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); Representative of the UK Sir
  Tangaroa TANGAROA (since NA); Representative of New Zealand Adrian SINCOCK
  (since NA)  Head of Government:
  Prime Minister Geoffrey HENRY (since 1 February 1989); Deputy Prime Minister
  Inatio AKARURU (since NA February 1989)
Member of:
  AsDB, ESCAP (associate), ICAO, IOC, SPARTECA, SPC, SPF, UNESCO, WHO
Diplomatic representation in US:
  none (self-governing in free association with New Zealand)

*Cook Islands, Government

US diplomatic representation:
  none (self-governing in free association with New Zealand)
Flag:
  blue, with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and a large
  circle of 15 white five-pointed stars (one for every island) centered in the
  outer half of the flag

*Cook Islands, Economy

Overview:
  Agriculture provides the economic base. The major export earners are fruit,
  copra, and clothing. Manufacturing activities are limited to a
  fruit-processing plant and several clothing factories. Economic development
  is hindered by the isolation of the islands from foreign markets and a lack
  of natural resources and good transportation links. A large trade deficit is
  annually made up for by remittances from emigrants and from foreign aid.
  Current economic development plans call for exploiting the tourism potential
  and expanding the fishing industry.
National product:
  GDP - exchange rate conversion - $40 million (1988 est.)
National product real growth rate:
  5.3% (1986-88 est.)
National product per capita:
  $2,200 (1988 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  8% (1988)
Unemployment rate:
  NA%
Budget:
  revenues $33.8 million; expenditures $34.4 million, including capital
  expenditures of $NA (1990 est.)
Exports:
  $4.0 million (f.o.b., 1988)
 commodities:
  copra, fresh and canned fruit, clothing
 partners:
  NZ 80%, Japan
Imports:
  $38.7 million (c.i.f., 1988)
 commodities:
  foodstuffs, textiles, fuels, timber
 partners:   NZ 49%, Japan, Australia, US
External debt:
  $NA
Industrial production:
  growth rate NA%
Electricity:
  14,000 kW capacity; 21 million kWh produced, 1,170 kWh per capita (1990)
Industries:
  fruit processing, tourism
Agriculture:
  export crops - copra, citrus fruits, pineapples, tomatoes, bananas;
  subsistence crops - yams, taro
Economic aid:
  Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89),
  $128 million
Currency:
  1 New Zealand dollar (NZ$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
  New Zealand dollars (NZ$) per US$1 - 1.9490 (January 1993), 1.8584 (1992),
  1.7266 (1991), 1.6750 (1990), 1.6711 (1989), 1.5244 (1988)
Fiscal year:
  1 April - 31 March

*Cook Islands, Communications

Highways:
  187 km total (1980); 35 km paved, 35 km gravel, 84 km improved earth, 33 km
  unimproved earth
Ports:
  Avatiu
Merchant marine:
  1 cargo ship (1,000 or over) totaling 1,464 GRT/2,181 DWT
Airports:
 total:
  7
 usable:
  7
 with permanent-surface runways:
  1
 with runways over 3,659 m:
  0
 with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
  0
 with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
  5
Telecommunications:
  broadcast stations - 1 AM, 1 FM, 1 TV; 11,000 radio receivers; 17,000 TV
  receivers (1989); 2,052 telephones; 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth station

*Cook Islands, Defense Forces

Note:   defense is the responsibility of New Zealand

*Coral Sea Islands, Header

Affiliation:
  (territory of Australia)

*Coral Sea Islands, Geography

Location:
  Oceania, just off the northeast coast of Australia in the Coral Sea
Map references:
  Oceania
Area:
 total area:
  less than 3 km2
 land area:
  less than 3 km2
 comparative area:
  NA
 note:
  includes numerous small islands and reefs scattered over a sea area of about
  1 million km2, with Willis Islets the most important
Land boundaries:
  0 km
Coastline:
  3,095 km
Maritime claims:
 exclusive fishing zone:
  200 nm
 territorial sea:
  3 nm
International disputes:
  none
Climate:
  tropical
Terrain:
  sand and coral reefs and islands (or cays)
Natural resources:
  negligible
Land use:
 arable land:
  0%
 permanent crops:
  0%
 meadows and pastures:
  0%
 forest and woodland:
  0%
 other:
  100% (mostly grass or scrub cover)
Irrigated land:   0 km2
Environment:
  subject to occasional tropical cyclones; no permanent fresh water; important
  nesting area for birds and turtles

*Coral Sea Islands, People

Population:
  no indigenous inhabitants; note - there are 3 meteorologists

*Coral Sea Islands, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  Coral Sea Islands Territory
 conventional short form:
  Coral Sea Islands
Digraph:
  CR
Type:
  territory of Australia administered by the Ministry for Arts, Sport, the
  Environment, Tourism, and Territories
Capital:
  none; administered from Canberra, Australia
Independence:
  none (territory of Australia)
Flag:
  the flag of Australia is used

*Coral Sea Islands, Economy

Overview:
  no economic activity

*Coral Sea Islands, Communications

Ports:
  none; offshore anchorages only

*Coral Sea Islands, Defense Forces

Note:
  defense is the responsibility of Australia; visited regularly by the Royal
  Australian Navy; Australia has control over the activities of visitors

*Costa Rica, Geography

Location:
  Central America, between Nicaragua and Panama
Map references:
  Central America and the Caribbean, South America
Area:
 total area:
  51,100 km2
 land area:
  50,660 km2
 comparative area:
  slightly smaller than West Virginia
 note:
  includes Isla del Coco
Land boundaries:
  total 639 km, Nicaragua 309 km, Panama 330 km
Coastline:
  1,290 km
Maritime claims:
 continental shelf:
  200 nm
 exclusive economic zone:
  200 nm
 territorial sea:
  12 nm
International disputes:
  none
Climate:
  tropical; dry season (December to April); rainy season (May to November)
Terrain:
  coastal plains separated by rugged mountains
Natural resources:
  hydropower potential
Land use:
 arable land:
  6%
 permanent crops:
  7%
 meadows and pastures:
  45%
 forest and woodland:
  34%
 other:
  8%
Irrigated land:
  1,180 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
  subject to occasional earthquakes, hurricanes along Atlantic coast; frequent
  flooding of lowlands at onset of rainy season; active volcanoes;
  deforestation; soil erosion

*Costa Rica, People

Population:
  3,264,776 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
  2.38% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
  26.07 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
  3.57 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
  1.26 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
  11.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
 total population:
  77.49 years
 male:
  75.56 years
 female:
  79.52 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
  3.11 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
 noun:
  Costa Rican(s)
 adjective:
  Costa Rican
Ethnic divisions:
  white (including mestizo) 96%, black 2%, Indian 1%, Chinese 1%
Religions:
  Roman Catholic 95%
Languages:
  Spanish (official), English; spoken around Puerto Limon
Literacy:
  age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
 total population:
  93%
 male:
  93%
 female:
  93%
Labor force:
  868,300
 by occupation:
  industry and commerce 35.1%, government and services 33%, agriculture 27%,
  other 4.9% (1985 est.)

*Costa Rica, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  Republic of Costa Rica
 conventional short form:
  Costa Rica  local long form:
  Republica de Costa Rica
 local short form:
  Costa Rica
Digraph:
  CS
Type:
  democratic republic
Capital:
  San Jose
Administrative divisions:
  7 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Alajuela, Cartago,
  Guanacaste, Heredia, Limon, Puntarenas, San Jose
Independence:
  15 September 1821 (from Spain)
Constitution:
  9 November 1949
Legal system:
  based on Spanish civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts in
  the Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
  Independence Day, 15 September (1821)
Political parties and leaders:
  National Liberation Party (PLN), Carlos Manuel CASTILLO Morales; Social
  Christian Unity Party (PUSC), Rafael Angel CALDERON Fournier; Marxist
  Popular Vanguard Party (PVP), Humberto VARGAS Carbonell; New Republic
  Movement (MNR), Sergio Erick ARDON Ramirez; Progressive Party (PP), Isaac
  Felipe AZOFEIFA Bolanos; People's Party of Costa Rica (PPC), Lenin CHACON
  Vargas; Radical Democratic Party (PRD), Juan Jose ECHEVERRIA Brealey
Other political or pressure groups:
  Costa Rican Confederation of Democratic Workers (CCTD; Liberation Party
  affiliate); Confederated Union of Workers (CUT; Communist Party affiliate);
  Authentic Confederation of Democratic Workers (CATD; Communist Party
  affiliate); Chamber of Coffee Growers; National Association for Economic
  Development (ANFE); Free Costa Rica Movement (MCRL; rightwing militants);
  National Association of Educators (ANDE)
Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Elections:
 Legislative Assembly:
  last held 4 February 1990 (next to be held February 1994); results - percent
  of vote by party NA; seats - (57 total) PUSC 29, PLN 25, PVP/PPC 1, regional
  parties 2
 President:
  last held 4 February 1990 (next to be held February 1994); results - Rafael
  Angel CALDERON Fournier 51%, Carlos Manuel CASTILLO 47%
Executive branch:
  president, two vice presidents, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
  unicameral Legislative Assembly (Asamblea Legislativa)
Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court (Corte Suprema)

*Costa Rica, Government

Leaders:
 Chief of State and Head of Government:
  President Rafael Angel CALDERON Fournier (since 8 May 1990); First Vice
  President German SERRANO Pinto (since 8 May 1990); Second Vice President
  Arnoldo LOPEZ Echandi (since 8 May 1990)
Member of:
  AG (observer), BCIE, CACM, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
  ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ITU,
  LAES, LAIA (observer), LORCS, NAM (observer), OAS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD,
  UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador Gonzalo FACIO Segreda
 chancery:
  Suite 211, 1825 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
 telephone:
  (202) 234-2945 through 2947
 consulates general:
  Albuquerque, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, San Diego,
  San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico)
 consulate:
  Buffalo
US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador Luis GUINOT, Jr.
 embassy:
  Pavas Road, San Jose
 mailing address:
  APO AA 34020
 telephone:
  [506] 20-39-39
 FAX:
  (506) 20-2305
Flag:
  five horizontal bands of blue (top), white, red (double width), white, and
  blue, with the coat of arms in a white disk on the hoist side of the red
  band

*Costa Rica, Economy

Overview:
  In 1992 the economy grew at an estimated 5.4%, up from the 2.5% gain of 1991
  and the gain of 1990. Increases in agricultural production (on the strength
  of good coffee and banana crops) and in nontraditional exports are
  responsible for much of the growth. In 1992 consumer prices rose by 17%,
  below the 27% of 1991. The trade deficit of $100 million was substantially
  below the 1991 deficit of $270 million. Unemployment is officially reported
  at 4.0%, but much underemployment remains. External debt, on a per capita
  basis, is among the world's highest.
National product:
  GDP - exchange rate conversion - $6.4 billion (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate:
  5.4% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
  $2,000 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  17% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
  4% (1992)
Budget:
  revenues $1.1 billion; expenditures $1.34 billion, including capital
  expenditures of $110 million (1991 est.)
Exports:
  $1.7 billion (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
 commodities:
  coffee, bananas, textiles, sugar
 partners:
  US 75%, Germany, Guatemala, Netherlands, UK, Japan
Imports:
  $1.8 billion (c.i.f., 1992 est.)
 commodities:
  raw materials, consumer goods, capital equipment, petroleum
 partners:
  US 45%, Japan, Guatemala, Germany
External debt:
  $3.2 billion (1991)
Industrial production:
  growth rate 1.0% (1991); accounts for 19% of GDP
Electricity:
  927,000 kW capacity; 3,612 million kWh produced, 1,130 kWh per capita (1992)
Industries:
  food processing, textiles and clothing, construction materials, fertilizer,
  plastic products
Agriculture:
  accounts for 17% of GDP and 70% of exports; cash commodities - coffee, beef,
  bananas, sugar; other food crops include corn, rice, beans, potatoes;
  normally self-sufficient in food except for grain; depletion of forest
  resources resulting in lower timber output
Illicit drugs:
  illicit production of cannabis on small scattered plots; transshipment
  country for cocaine from South America
Economic aid:
  US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1.4 billion; Western (non-US)
  countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $935 million;
  Communist countries (1971-89), $27 million
Currency:
  1 Costa Rican colon (C) = 100 centimos

*Costa Rica, Economy

Exchange rates:
  Costa Rican colones (C) per US$1 - 137.72 (January 1993), 134.51 (1992),
  122.43 (1991), 91.58 (1990), 81.504 (1989), 75.805 (1988)
Fiscal year:
  calendar year

*Costa Rica, Communications

Railroads:
  950 km total, all 1.067-meter gauge; 260 km electrified
Highways:
  15,400 km total; 7,030 km paved, 7,010 km gravel, 1,360 km unimproved earth
Inland waterways:
  about 730 km, seasonally navigable
Pipelines:
  petroleum products 176 km
Ports:
  Puerto Limon, Caldera, Golfito, Moin, Puntarenas
Merchant marine:
  1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,878 GRT/4,506 DWT
Airports:
 total:
  162
 usable:
  144
 with permanent-surface runways:
  28
 with runways over 3,659 m:
  0
 with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
  2
 with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
  8
Telecommunications:
  very good domestic telephone service; 292,000 telephones; connection into
  Central American Microwave System; broadcast stations - 71 AM, no FM, 18 TV,
  13 shortwave; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

*Costa Rica, Defense Forces

Branches:
  Civil Guard, Rural Assistance Guard
 note:
  constitution prohibits armed forces
Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49 851,713; fit for military service 573,854; reach military
  age (18) annually 31,987 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
  exchange rate conversion - $22 million, 0.5% of GDP (1989)

*Cote d'Ivoire, Header

Affiliation:
  (also known as Ivory Coast)

*Cote d'Ivoire, Geography

Location:
  Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean between Ghana and Liberia
Map references:
  Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
 total area:
  322,460 km2
 land area:
  318,000 km2
 comparative area:
  slightly larger than New Mexico
Land boundaries:
  total 3,110 km, Burkina 584 km, Ghana 668 km, Guinea 610 km, Liberia 716 km,
  Mali 532 km
Coastline:
  515 km
Maritime claims:
 continental shelf:
  200 m depth
 exclusive economic zone:
  200 nm
 territorial sea:
  12 nm
International disputes:
  none
Climate:
  tropical along coast, semiarid in far north; three seasons - warm and dry
  (November to March), hot and dry (March to May), hot and wet (June to
  October)
Terrain:
  mostly flat to undulating plains; mountains in northwest
Natural resources:
  petroleum, diamonds, manganese, iron ore, cobalt, bauxite, copper
Land use:
 arable land:
  9%
 permanent crops:
  4%
 meadows and pastures:
  9%
 forest and woodland:
  26%
 other:
  52%
Irrigated land:
  620 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
  coast has heavy surf and no natural harbors; severe deforestation

*Cote d'Ivoire, People

Population:   13,808,447 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
  3.5% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
  46.88 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
  15.07 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
  3.15 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
  97 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
 total population:
  48.97 years
 male:
  46.98 years
 female:
  51.03 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
  6.73 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
 noun:
  Ivorian(s)
 adjective:
  Ivorian
Ethnic divisions:
  Baoule 23%, Bete 18%, Senoufou 15%, Malinke 11%, Agni, foreign Africans
  (mostly Burkinabe about 2 million), non-Africans 130,000 to 330,000 (French
  30,000 and Lebanese 100,000 to 300,000)
Religions:
  indigenous 63%, Muslim 25%, Christian 12%
Languages:
  French (official), 60 native dialects Dioula is the most widely spoken
Literacy:
  age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
 total population:
  54%
 male:
  67%
 female:
  40%
Labor force:
  5.718 million
 by occupation:
  over 85% of population engaged in agriculture, forestry, livestock raising;
  about 11% of labor force are wage earners, nearly half in agriculture and
  the remainder in government, industry, commerce, and professions
 note:
  54% of population of working age (1985)

*Cote d'Ivoire, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:   Republic of Cote d'Ivoire
 conventional short form:
  Cote d'Ivoire
 local long form:
  Republique de Cote d'Ivoire
 local short form:
  Cote d'Ivoire
 former:
  Ivory Coast
Digraph:
  IV
Type:
  republic multiparty presidential regime established 1960
Capital:
  Yamoussoukro
 note:
  although Yamoussoukro has been the capital since 1983, Adibjan remains the
  administrative center; foreign governments, including the United States,
  maintain presence in Abidjan
Administrative divisions:
  49 departments (departements, singular - (departement); Abengourou, Abidjan,
  Aboisso, Adzope, Agboville, Bangolo, Beoumi, Biankouma, Bondoukou,
  Bongouanou, Bouafle, Bouake, Bouna, Boundiali, Dabakala, Daloa, Danane,
  Daoukro, Dimbokro, Divo, Duekoue, Ferkessedougou, Gagnoa, Grand-Lahou,
  Guiglo, Issia, Katiola, Korhogo, Lakota, Man, Mankono, Mbahiakro, Odienne,
  Oume, Sakassou, San-Pedro, Sassandra, Seguela, Sinfra, Soubre, Tabou, Tanda,
  Tingrela, Tiassale, Touba, Toumodi, Vavoua, Yamoussoukro, Zuenoula
Independence:
  7 August 1960 (from France)
Constitution:
  3 November 1960
Legal system:
  based on French civil law system and customary law; judicial review in the
  Constitutional Chamber of the Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
  jurisdiction
National holiday:
  National Day, 7 December
Political parties and leaders:
  Democratic Party of the Cote d'Ivoire (PDCI), Dr. Felix HOUPHOUET-BOIGNY;
  Ivorian Popular Front (FPI), Laurent GBAGBO; Ivorian Worker's Party (PIT),
  Francis WODIE; Ivorian Socialist Party (PSI), Morifere BAMBA; over 20
  smaller parties
Suffrage:
  21 years of age; universal
Elections:
 President:
  last held 28 October 1990 (next to be held October 1995); results -
  President Felix HOUPHOUET-BOIGNY received 81% of the vote in his first
  contested election; he is currently serving his seventh consecutive
  five-year term
 National Assembly:
  last held 25 November 1990 (next to be held November 1995); results -
  percent of vote by party NA; seats - (175 total) PDCI 163, FPI 9, PIT 1,
  independents 2
Executive branch:
  president, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

*Cote d'Ivoire, Government

Legislative branch:
  unicameral National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale)
Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)
Leaders:
 Chief of State:
  President Dr. Felix HOUPHOUET-BOIGNY (since 27 November 1960)
 Head of Government:
  Prime Minister Alassane OUATTARA (since 7 November 1990)
Member of:
  ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEAO, ECA, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-24, G-77, GATT,
  IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL,
  IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WADB, WCL,
  WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador Charles GOMIS
 chancery:
  2424 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
 telephone:
  (202) 797-0300
US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador Hume A. HORAN
 embassy:
  5 Rue Jesse Owens, Abidjan
 mailing address:
  01 B. P. 1712, Abidjan
 telephone:
  [225] 21-09-79 or 21-46-72
 FAX:
  [225] 22-32-59
Flag:
  three equal vertical bands of orange (hoist side), white, and green; similar
  to the flag of Ireland, which is longer and has the colors reversed - green
  (hoist side), white, and orange; also similar to the flag of Italy, which is
  green (hoist side), white, and red; design was based on the flag of France

*Cote d'Ivoire, Economy

Overview:
  Cote d'Ivoire is among the world's largest producers and exporters of
  coffee, cocoa beans, and palm-kernel oil. Consequently, the economy is
  highly sensitive to fluctuations in international prices for coffee and
  cocoa and to weather conditions. Despite attempts by the government to
  diversify, the economy is still largely dependent on agriculture and related
  industries. The agricultural sector accounts for over one-third of GDP and
  about 80% of export earnings and employs about 85% of the labor force. A
  collapse of world cocoa and coffee prices in 1986 threw the economy into a
  recession, from which the country had not recovered by 1990. Continuing low
  prices for commodity exports, an overvalued exchange rate, a bloated
  public-sector wage bill, and a large foreign debt hindered economic recovery
  in 1991. The government, which has sponsored various economic reform
  programs, especially in agriculture, projected an increase of 1.6% in GNP in
  1992.
National product:
  GDP - exchange rate conversion - $10 billion (1991)
National product real growth rate:
  -0.6% (1991)
National product per capita:
  $800 (1991)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  1% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
  14% (1985)
Budget:
  revenues $2.3 billion; expenditures $3.6 billion, including capital
  expenditures of $274 million (1990 est.)
Exports:
  $2.8 billion (f.o.b., 1990)
 commodities:
  cocoa 30%, coffee 20%, tropical woods 11%, petroleum, cotton, bananas,
  pineapples, palm oil, cotton
 partners:
  France, FRG, Netherlands, US, Belgium, Spain (1985)
Imports:
  $1.6 billion (f.o.b., 1990)
 commodities:
  food, capital goods, consumer goods, fuel
 partners:
  France 29%, other EC 29%, Nigeria 16%, US 4%, Japan 3% (1989)
External debt:
  $15 billion (1990 est.)
Industrial production:
  growth rate 6% (1990); accounts for 11% of GDP
Electricity:
  1,210,000 kW capacity; 1,970 million kWh produced, 150 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
  foodstuffs, wood processing, oil refinery, automobile assembly, textiles,
  fertilizer, beverage
Agriculture:
  most important sector, contributing one-third to GDP and 80% to exports;
  cash crops include coffee, cocoa beans, timber, bananas, palm kernels,
  rubber; food crops - corn, rice, manioc, sweet potatoes; not self-sufficient
  in bread grain and dairy products
Illicit drugs:
  illicit producer of cannabis; mostly for local consumption; some
  international drug trade; transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin to
  Europe

*Cote d'Ivoire, Economy

Economic aid:   US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $356 million; Western (non-US)
  countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-88), $5.2 billion
Currency:
  1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
  Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 274.06 (January
  1993), 264.69 (1992), 282.11 (1991), 272.26 (1990), 319.01 (1989), 297.85
  (1988)
Fiscal year:
  calendar year

*Cote d'Ivoire, Communications

Railroads:
  660 km (Burkina border to Abidjan, 1.00-meter gauge, single track, except 25
  km Abidjan-Anyama section is double track)
Highways:
  46,600 km total; 3,600 km paved; 32,000 km gravel, crushed stone, laterite,
  and improved earth; 11,000 km unimproved
Inland waterways:
  980 km navigable rivers, canals, and numerous coastal lagoons
Ports:
  Abidjan, San-Pedro
Merchant marine:
  7 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 71,945 GRT/ 90,684 DWT; includes 1 oil
  tanker, 1 chemical tanker, 3 container, 2 roll-on/roll-off
Airports:
 total:
  42
 usable:
  37
 with permanent-surface runways:
  7
 with runways over 3,659 m:
  0
 with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
  3
 with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
  15
Telecommunications:
  well-developed by African standards but operating well below capacity;
  consists of open-wire lines and radio relay microwave links; 87,700
  telephones; broadcast stations - 3 AM, 17 FM, 13 TV, 1 Atlantic Ocean and 1
  Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth station; 2 coaxial submarine cables

*Cote d'Ivoire, Defense Forces

Branches:
  Army, Navy, Air Force, paramilitary Gendarmerie, Republican Guard, Military
  Fire Group
Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49 3,131,016; fit for military service 1,624,401; reach
  military age (18) annually 145,827 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
  exchange rate conversion - $200 million, 2.3% of GDP (1988)

*Croatia, Geography

Location:
  Southeastern Europe, on the Balkan Peninsula, bordering the Adriatic Sea,
  between Slovenia and Bosnia and Herzegovina
Map references:
  Africa, Ethnic Groups in Eastern Europe, Europe, Standard Time Zones of the
  World
Area:
 total area:
  56,538 km2
 land area:
  56,410 km2
 comparative area:
  slightly smaller than West Virginia
Land boundaries:
  total 1,843 km, Bosnia and Herzegovina (east) 751 km, Bosnia and Herzegovina
  (southeast) 91 km, Hungary 292 km, Serbia and Montenegro 254 km (239 km with
  Serbia; 15 km with Montenego), Slovenia 455 km
Coastline:
  5,790 km (mainland 1,778 km, islands 4,012 km)
Maritime claims:
 continental shelf:
  200 m depth or to depth of exploitation
 exclusive economic zone:
  12 nm
 exclusive fishing zone:
  12 nm
 territorial sea:
  12 nm
International disputes:
  Serbian enclaves in eastern Croatia and along the western Bosnia and
  Herzegovinian border; dispute with Slovenia over fishing rights in Adriatic
Climate:
  Mediterranean and continental; continental climate predominant with hot
  summers and cold winters; mild winters, dry summers along coast
Terrain:
  geographically diverse; flat plains along Hungarian border, low mountains
  and highlands near Adriatic coast, coastline, and islands
Natural resources:
  oil, some coal, bauxite, low-grade iron ore, calcium, natural asphalt,
  silica, mica, clays, salt
Land use:
 arable land:
  32%
 permanent crops:
  20%
 meadows and pastures:
  18%
 forest and woodland:   15%
 other:
  15%
Irrigated land:
  NA km2
Environment:
  air pollution from metallurgical plants; damaged forest; coastal pollution
  from industrial and domestic waste; subject to frequent and destructive
  earthquakes

*Croatia, Geography

Note:
  controls most land routes from Western Europe to Aegean Sea and Turkish
  Straits

*Croatia, People

Population:
  4,694,398 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
  0.07% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
  11.38 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
  10.73 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
  9 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
 total population:
  73.19 years
 male:
  69.7 years
 female:
  76.89 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
  1.66 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
 noun:
  Croat(s)
 adjective:
  Croatian
Ethnic divisions:
  Croat 78%, Serb 12%, Muslim 0.9%, Hungarian 0.5%, Slovenian 0.5%, others
  8.1%
Religions:
  Catholic 76.5%, Orthodox 11.1%, Slavic Muslim 1.2%, Protestant 1.4%, others
  and unknown 9.8%
Languages:
  Serbo-Croatian 96%, other 4%
Literacy:
 total population:
  NA%
 male:
  NA%
 female:
  NA%
Labor force:
  1,509,489
 by occupation:
  industry and mining 37%, agriculture 16% (1981 est.), government NA%, other

*Croatia, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  Republic of Croatia
 conventional short form:
  Croatia
 local long form:
  Republika Hrvatska
 local short form:
  Hrvatska
Digraph:
  HR
Type:
  parliamentary democracy
Capital:
  Zagreb
Administrative divisions:
  100 districts (opcine, singular - opcina) Beli Manastir, Biograd (Biograd Na
  Moru), Bielovar, Bjelovar, Brac, Buje, Buzet, Cabar, Cakovec, Cazma, Cres
  Losinj, Crikvenica, Daruvar, Delnice, Djakovo (Dakovo), Donja Stubica, Donji
  Lapac, Dordevac, Drnis, Dubrovnik, Duga Resa, Dugo Selo, Dvor, Garesnica,
  Glina, Gospic, Gracac, Grubisno Polje, Hvar, Imotski, Ivanec, Ivanic-Grad,
  Jastrebarsko, Karlovac, Klanjec, Knin, Koprivnica, Korcula, Kostajnica,
  Krapina, Krizevci, Krk, Kutina, Labin, Lastovo, Ludbreg, Makarska, Metkovic,
  Nova Gradiska, Novi Marof, Novska, Obrovac, Ogulin, Omis, Opatija,
  Orahovica, Osijek, Otocac, Ozalj, Pag, Pazin, Petrinja, Ploce (Kardeljevo),
  Podravska Slatina, Porec, Pregrada, Pukrac, Pula, Rab, Rijeka, Rovinj,
  Samobor (part of Zagreb), Senj, Sesvete, Sibenik, Sinj, Sisak, Slavonska
  Pozega, Slavonski Brod, Slunj, Split (Solin, Kastela), Titova Korenica,
  Trogir, Valpovo, Varazdin, Vinkovci, Virovitica, Vukovar, Vis, Vojnic,
  Vrborsko, Vrbovec, Vrgin-Most, Vrgorac, Zabok, Zadar, Zagreb (Grad Zagreb),
  Zelina (Sveti Ivan Zelina), Zlatar Bistrica, Zupanja
Independence:
  NA June 1991 (from Yugoslavia)
Constitution:
  adopted on 2 December 1991
Legal system:
  based on civil law system
National holiday:
  Statehood Day, 30 May (1990)
Political parties and leaders:   Croatian Democratic Union (HDZ), Stjepan MESIC, chairman of the
executive
  council; Croatian People's Party (HNS), Savka DABCEVIC-KUCAR, president;
  Croatian Christian Democratic Party (HKDS), Ivan CESAR, president; Croatian
  Party of Rights, Dobroslav PARAGA; Croatian Social Liberal Party (HSLS),
  Drazen BUDISA, president; Croatian Peasant Party (HSS), leader NA; Istrian
  Democratic Assembly (IDS), leader NA; Social-Democratic Party (SDP), leader
  NA; Croatian National Party (PNS), leader NA
Other political or pressure groups:
  NA
Suffrage:
  16 years of age, if employed; 18 years of age, universal
Elections:
 President:
  last held 4 August 1992 (next to be held NA); Franjo TUDJMAN reelected with
  about 56% of the vote; Dobroslav PARAGA 5%
 House of Parishes:
  last held 7 February 1993 (next to be held NA February 1997); seats - (68
  total; 63 elected, 5 presidentially appointed) HDZ 37, HSLS 16, HSS 5, IDS
  3, SDP 1, PNS 1

*Croatia, Government

 Chamber of Deputies:
  last held NA August 1992 (next to be held NA August 1996); seats - (138
  total) 87 HDZ
Executive branch:
  president, prime minister, deputy prime ministers, cabinet
Legislative branch:
  bicameral Parliament consists of an upper house or House of Parishes
  (Zupanije Dom) and a lower house or Chamber of Deputies (Predstavnicke Dom)
Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court, Constitutional Court
Leaders:
 Chief of State:
  President Franjo TUDJMAN (since 30 May 1990)
 Head of Government:
  Prime Minister Nikica VALENTIC (since NA April 1993); Deputy Prime Ministers
  Mate GRANIC, Vladimir SEKS, Borislav SKEGRO (since NA)
Member of:
  CEI, CSCE, ECE, ICAO, IMO, IOM (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU,
  WHO
Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador Peter A. SARCEVIC
 chancery:
  2356 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20036
 telephone:
  (202) 543-5586
US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission:
  (vacant)
 embassy:
  Andrije Hebranga 2, Zagreb
 mailing address:   AMEMB Unit 25402, APO AE 09213-5080
 telephone:
  [38] (41) 444-800
 FAX:
  [38] (41) 440-235
Flag:
  red, white, and blue horizontal bands with Croatian coat of arms (red and
  white checkered)

*Croatia, Economy

Overview:
  Before the dissolution of Yugoslavia, the republic of Croatia, after
  Slovenia, was the most prosperous and industrialized area, with a per capita
  output roughly comparable to that of Portugal and perhaps one-third above
  the Yugoslav average. Croatian Serb Nationalists control approximately one
  third of the Croatian territory, and one of the overriding determinants of
  Croatia's long-term political and economic prospects will be the resolution
  of this territorial dispute. Croatia faces monumental problems stemming
  from: the legacy of longtime Communist mismanagement of the economy; large
  foreign debt; damage during the fighting to bridges, factories, powerlines,
  buildings, and houses; the large refugee population, both Croatian and
  Bosnian; and the disruption of economic ties to Serbia and the other former
  Yugoslav republics, as well as within its own territory. At the minimum,
  extensive Western aid and investment, especially in the tourist and oil
  industries, would seem necessary to salvage a desperate economic situation.
  However, peace and political stability must come first. As of June 1993,
  fighting continues among Croats, Serbs, and Muslims, and national boundaries
  and final political arrangements are still in doubt.
National product:
  GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $26.3 billion (1991 est.)
National product real growth rate:
  -25% (1991 est.)
National product per capita:
  $5,600 (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  50% (monthly rate, December 1992)
Unemployment rate:
  20% (December 1991 est.)
Budget:
  revenues $NA; expenditures $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports:
  $2.9 billion (1990)
 commodities:
  machinery and transport equipment 30%, other manufacturers 37%, chemicals
  11%, food and live animals 9%, raw materials 6.5%, fuels and lubricants 5%
 partners:
  principally the other former Yugoslav republics
Imports:
  $4.4 billion (1990)
 commodities:
  machinery and transport equipment 21%, fuels and lubricants 19%, food and
  live animals 16%, chemicals 14%, manufactured goods 13%, miscellaneous
  manufactured articles 9%, raw materials 6.5%, beverages and tobacco 1%
 partners:
  principally other former Yugoslav republics
External debt:
  $2.6 billion (will assume some part of foreign debt of former Yugoslavia)
Industrial production:
  growth rate -29% (1991 est.)
Electricity:
  3,570,000 kW capacity; 11,500 million kWh produced, 2,400 kWh per capita
  (1992)
Industries:
  chemicals and plastics, machine tools, fabricated metal, electronics, pig
  iron and rolled steel products, aluminum reduction, paper, wood products
  (including furniture), building materials (including cement), textiles,
  shipbuilding, petroleum and petroleum refining, food processing and
  beverages

*Croatia, Economy

Agriculture:
  Croatia normally produces a food surplus; most agricultural land in private
  hands and concentrated in Croat-majority districts in Slavonia and Istria;
  much of Slavonia's land has been put out of production by fighting; wheat,
  corn, sugar beets, sunflowers, alfalfa, and clover are main crops in
  Slavonia; central Croatian highlands are less fertile but support cereal
  production, orchards, vineyards, livestock breeding, and dairy farming;
  coastal areas and offshore islands grow olives, citrus fruits, and
  vegetables
Economic aid:
  $NA
Currency:
  1 Croatian dinar (CD) = 100 paras
Exchange rates:
  Croatian dinar per US $1 - 60.00 (April 1992)
Fiscal year:
  calendar year

*Croatia, Communications

Railroads:
  2,592 km of standard guage (1.435 m) of which 864 km are electrified (1992);
  note - disrupted by territorial dispute
Highways:
  32,071 km total; 23,305 km paved, 8,439 km gravel, 327 km earth (1990); note
  - key highways note disrupted because of territorial dispute
Inland waterways:
  785 km perennially navigable
Pipelines:
  crude oil 670 km, petroleum products 20 km, natural gas 310 km (1992); note
  - now disrupted because of territorial dispute
Ports:
  coastal - Rijeka, Split, Kardeljevo (Ploce); inland - Vukovar, Osijek,
  Sisak, Vinkovci
Merchant marine:
  18 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 77,074 GRT/93,052 DWT; includes 4
  cargo, 1 roll-on/roll-off, 10 passenger ferries, 2 bulk, 1 oil tanker; note
  - also controlled by Croatian shipowners are 198 ships (1,000 GRT or over)
  under flags of convenience - primarily Malta and St. Vincent - totaling
  2,602,678 GRT/4,070,852 DWT; includes 89 cargo, 9 roll-on/ roll-off, 6
  refrigerated cargo, 14 container, 3 multifunction large load carriers, 51
  bulk, 5 passenger, 11 oil tanker, 4 chemical tanker, 6 service vessel
Airports:
 total:
  75
 usable:
  72
 with permanent-surface runways:
  15
 with runways over 3,659 m:
  0
 with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
  10
 with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
  5
Telecommunications:
  350,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 14 AM, 8 FM, 12 (2 repeaters) TV;
  1,100,000 radios; 1,027,000 TVs; NA submarine coaxial cables; satellite
  ground stations - none

*Croatia, Defense Forces

Branches:
  Ground Forces, Naval Forces, Air and Air Defense Forces
Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49 1,177,029; fit for military service 943,259; reach military
  age (19) annually 32,873 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
  337-393 billion Croatian dinars, NA% of GDP (1993 est.); note - conversion
  of defense expenditures into US dollars using the current exchange rate
  could produce misleading results

*Cuba, Geography

Location:
  in the northern Caribbean Sea, 145 km south of Key West (Florida)
Map references:
  Central America and the Caribbean, North America, Standard Time Zones of the
  World
Area:
 total area:
  110,860 km2
 land area:
  110,860 km2
 comparative area:
  slightly smaller than Pennsylvania
Land boundaries:
  total 29 km, US Naval Base at Guantanamo 29 km
 note:
  Guantanamo is leased and as such remains part of Cuba
Coastline:
  3,735 km
Maritime claims:
 exclusive economic zone:
  200 nm
 territorial sea:
  12 nm
International disputes:
  US Naval Base at Guantanamo is leased to US and only mutual agreement or US
  abandonment of the area can terminate the lease
Climate:
  tropical; moderated by trade winds; dry season (November to April); rainy
  season (May to October)
Terrain:
  mostly flat to rolling plains with rugged hills and mountains in the
  southeast
Natural resources:
  cobalt, nickel, iron ore, copper, manganese, salt, timber, silica, petroleum
Land use:
 arable land:
  23%
 permanent crops:
  6%
 meadows and pastures:
  23%
 forest and woodland:
  17%
 other:
  31%
Irrigated land:
  8,960 km2 (1989)
Environment:
  averages one hurricane every other year
Note:
  largest country in Caribbean

*Cuba, People

Population:
  10,957,088 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
  1% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
  17.08 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
  6.5 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
  -0.63 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
  10.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
 total population:
  76.72 years
 male:
  74.59 years
 female:
  78.99 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
  1.83 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
 noun:
  Cuban(s)
 adjective:
  Cuban
Ethnic divisions:
  mulatto 51%, white 37%, black 11%, Chinese 1%
Religions:
  nominally Roman Catholic 85% prior to Castro assuming power
Languages:
  Spanish
Literacy:
  age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
 total population:
  94%
 male:
  95%
 female:
  93%
Labor force:
  4,620,800 economically active population (1988); 3,578,800 in state sector
 by occupation:
  services and government 30%, industry 22%, agriculture 20%, commerce 11%,
  construction 10%, transportation and communications 7% (June 1990)

*Cuba, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  Republic of Cuba
 conventional short form:
  Cuba
 local long form:
  Republica de Cuba
 local short form:
  Cuba
Digraph:
  CU
Type:
  Communist state
Capital:
  Havana
Administrative divisions:
  14 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia) and 1 special municipality*,   (municipio
especial); Camaguey, Ciego de Avila, Cienfuegos, Ciudad de La
  Habana, Granma, Guantanamo, Holguin, Isla de la Juventud*, La Habana, Las,   Tunas, Matanzas,
Pinar del Rio, Sancti Spiritus, Santiago de Cuba, Villa
  Clara
Independence:
  20 May 1902 (from Spain 10 December 1898; administered by the US from 1898
  to 1902)
Constitution:
  24 February 1976
Legal system:
  based on Spanish and American law, with large elements of Communist legal
  theory; does not accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
  Rebellion Day, 26 July (1953)
Political parties and leaders:
  only party - Cuban Communist Party (PCC), Fidel CASTRO Ruz, first secretary
Suffrage:
  16 years of age; universal
Elections:
 National Assembly of People's Power:
  last held December 1986 (next to be held February 1993); results - PCC is
  the only party; seats - (510 total; after the February election, the
  National Assembly will have 590 seats) indirectly elected from slates
  approved by special candidacy commissions
Executive branch:
  president of the Council of State, first vice president of the Council of
  State, Council of State, president of the Council of Ministers, first vice
  president of the Council of Ministers, Executive Committee of the Council of
  Ministers, Council of Ministers
Legislative branch:
  unicameral National Assembly of the People's Power (Asamblea Nacional del
  Poder Popular)
Judicial branch:
  People's Supreme Court (Tribunal Supremo Popular)
Leaders:
 Chief of State and Head of Government:
  President of the Council of State and President of the Council of Ministers
  Fidel CASTRO Ruz (Prime Minister from February 1959 until 24 February 1976
  when office was abolished; President since 2 December 1976); First Vice
  President of the Council of State and First Vice President of the Council of
  Ministers Gen. Raul CASTRO Ruz (since 2 December 1976)

*Cuba, Government

Member of:
  CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, ICAO, IFAD, ILO, IMO, INMARSAT, INTERPOL,
  IOC, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer), LORCS, NAM, OAS (excluded from formal
  participation since 1962), PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU,
  WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission:
  Principal Officer Alfonso FRAGA Perez (since August 1992)
 chancery:
  2630 and 2639 16th Street NW, US Interests Section, Swiss Embassy,
  Washington, DC 20009  telephone:
  (202) 797-8518 or 8519, 8520, 8609, 8610
US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission:
  Principal Officer Alan H. FLANIGAN
 US Interests Section:
  USINT, Swiss Embassy, Calzada entre L Y M, Vedado Seccion, Havana
 mailing address:
  USINT, Swiss Embassy, Calzada Entre L Y M, Vedado, Havava
 telephone:
  32-0051, 32-0543
 FAX:
  no service available at this time
 note:
  protecting power in Cuba is Switzerland - US Interests Section, Swiss
  Embassy
Flag:
  five equal horizontal bands of blue (top and bottom) alternating with white;
  a red equilateral triangle based on the hoist side bears a white
  five-pointed star in the center

*Cuba, Economy

Overview:
  Since Castro's takeover of Cuba in 1959, the economy has been run in the
  Soviet style of government ownership of substantially all the means of
  production and government planning of all but the smallest details of
  economic activity. Thus, Cuba, like the former Warsaw Pact nations, has
  remained in the backwater of economic modernization. The economy contracted
  by about one-third between 1989 and 1992 as it absorbed the loss of $4
  billion of annual economic aid from the former Soviet Union and much smaller
  amounts from Eastern Europe. The government implemented numerous energy
  conservation measures and import substitution schemes to cope with a large
  decline in imports. To reduce fuel consumption, Havana has cut back bus
  service and imported approximately 1 million bicycles from China,
  domesticated nearly 200,000 oxen to replace tractors, and halted a large
  amount of industrial production. The government has prioritized domestic
  food production and promoted herbal medicines since 1990 to compensate for
  lower imports. Havana also has been shifting its trade away from the former
  Soviet republics and Eastern Europe toward the industrialized countries of
  Latin America and the OECD.
National product:
  GNP - exchange rate conversion - $14.9 billion (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate:
  -15% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
  $1,370 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  NA%
Unemployment rate:
  NA%
Budget:
  revenues $12.46 billion; expenditures $14.45 billion, including capital
  expenditures of $NA (1990 est.)
Exports:
  $2.1 billion (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
 commodities:
  sugar, nickel, shellfish, tobacco, medical products, citrus, coffee
 partners:
  Russia 30%, Canada 10%, China 9%, Japan 6%, Spain 4% (1992 est.)
Imports:
  $2.2 billion (c.i.f., 1992 est.)
 commodities:
  petroleum, food, machinery, chemicals
 partners:
  Russia 10%, China 9%, Spain 9%, Mexico 5%, Italy 5%, Canada 4%, France 4%
  (1992 est.)
External debt:
  $6.8 billion (convertible currency, July 1989)
Industrial production:
  NA
Electricity:
  3,889,000 kW capacity; 16,248 million kWh produced, 1,500 kWh per capita
  (1992)
Industries:
  sugar milling and refining, petroleum refining, food and tobacco processing,
  textiles, chemicals, paper and wood products, metals (particularly nickel),
  cement, fertilizers, consumer goods, agricultural machinery

*Cuba, Economy

Agriculture:
  accounts for 11% of GNP (including fishing and forestry); key commercial
  crops - sugarcane, tobacco, and citrus fruits; other products - coffee,
  rice, potatoes, meat, beans; world's largest sugar exporter; not
  self-sufficient in food (excluding sugar); sector hurt by growing shortages
  of fuels and parts
Economic aid:
  Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89),
  $710 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $18.5 billion
Currency:
  1 Cuban peso (Cu$) = 100 centavos
Exchange rates:
  Cuban pesos (Cu$) per US$1 - 1.0000 (linked to the US dollar)
Fiscal year:
  calendar year

*Cuba, Communications

Railroads:
  12,947 km total; Cuban National Railways operates 5,053 km of 1.435-meter
  gauge track; 151.7 km electrified; 7,742 km of sugar plantation lines of
  0.914-m and 1.435-m gauge
Highways:
  26,477 km total; 14,477 km paved, 12,000 km gravel and earth surfaced (1989
  est.)
Inland waterways:
  240 km
Ports:
  Cienfuegos, Havana, Mariel, Matanzas, Santiago de Cuba; 7 secondary, 35
  minor
Merchant marine:
  73 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 511,522 GRT/720,270 DWT; includes 42
  cargo, 10 refrigerated cargo, 1 cargo/training, 11 oil tanker, 1 chemical
  tanker, 4 liquefied gas, 4 bulk; note - Cuba beneficially owns an additional
  38 ships (1,000 GRT and over) totaling 529,090 DWT under the registry of
  Panama, Cyprus, and Malta
Airports:
 total:
  186
 usable:
  166
 with permanent-surface runways:
  73
 with runways over 3,659 m:
  3
 with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
  12
 with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
  19
Telecommunications:
  broadcast stations - 150 AM, 5 FM, 58 TV; 1,530,000 TVs; 2,140,000 radios;
  229,000 telephones; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

*Cuba, Defense Forces

Branches:
  Revolutionary Armed Forces (FAR) - including Ground Forces, Revolutionary
  Navy (MGR), Air and Air Defense Force (DAAFAR), Ministry of the Armed Forces
  Special Troops, Border Guard Troops, Territorial Militia Troops (MTT), Youth
  Labor Army (EJT)
Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49 3,087,255; females age 15-49 3,064,663; males fit for
  military service 1,929,698; females fit for military service 1,910,733;
  males reach military age (17) annually 90,409; females reach military age
  (17) annually 87,274 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
  exchange rate conversion - $1.2-1.4 billion; 10% of GNP in 1990 plan was for
  defense and internal security
Note:
  the breakup of the Soviet Union, the key military supporter and supplier of
  Cuba, has resulted in substantially less outside help for Cuba's defense
  forces

*Cyprus, Geography

Location:
  in the eastern Mediterreanean Sea, 97 km west of Syria and 64 km west of
  Turkey
Map references:
  Africa, Middle East, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
 total area:
  9,250 km2
 land area:
  9,240 km2
 comparative area:
  about 0.7 times the size of Connecticut
Land boundaries:
  0 km
Coastline:
  648 km
Maritime claims:
 continental shelf:
  200 m depth or to depth of exploitation
 territorial sea:
  12 nm
International disputes:
  1974 hostilities divided the island into two de facto autonomous areas, a
  Greek area controlled by the Cypriot Government (60% of the island's land
  area) and a Turkish-Cypriot area (35% of the island) that are separated by a
  narrow UN buffer zone; in addition, there are two UK sovereign base areas
  (about 5% of the island's land area)
Climate:
  temperate, Mediterranean with hot, dry summers and cool, wet winters
Terrain:
  central plain with mountains to north and south
Natural resources:
  copper, pyrites, asbestos, gypsum, timber, salt, marble, clay earth pigment
Land use:
 arable land:
  40%
 permanent crops:
  7%
 meadows and pastures:
  10%
 forest and woodland:
  18%
 other:
  25%
Irrigated land:
  350 km2 (1989)
Environment:
  moderate earthquake activity; water resource problems (no natural reservoir
  catchments, seasonal disparity in rainfall, and most potable resources
  concentrated in the Turkish-Cypriot area)

*Cyprus, People

Population:
  723,371 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:   0.94% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
  17.14 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
  7.74 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
  9.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
 total population:
  75.98 years
 male:
  73.75 years
 female:
  78.31 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
  2.34 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
 noun:
  Cypriot(s)
 adjective:
  Cypriot
Ethnic divisions:
  Greek 78%, Turkish 18%, other 4%
Religions:
  Greek Orthodox 78%, Muslim 18%, Maronite, Armenian, Apostolic, and other 4%
Languages:
  Greek, Turkish, English
Literacy:
  age 15 and over can read and write (1987)
 total population:
  94%
 male:
  98%
 female:
  91%
Labor force:
 Greek area:
  282,000
 by occupation:
  services 57%, industry 29%, agriculture 14% (1991)
 Turkish area:
  72,000
 by occupation:
  services 57%, industry 22%, agriculture 21% (1991)

*Cyprus, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  Republic of Cyprus
 conventional short form:
  Cyprus
Digraph:
  CY
Type:
  republic
 note:
  a disaggregation of the two ethnic communities inhabiting the island began
  after the outbreak of communal strife in 1963; this separation was further
  solidified following the Turkish invasion of the island in July 1974, which
  gave the Turkish Cypriots de facto control in the north; Greek Cypriots
  control the only internationally recognized government; on 15 November 1983
  Turkish Cypriot President Rauf DENKTASH declared independence and the
  formation of a "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" (TRNC), which has been
  recognized only by Turkey; both sides publicly call for the resolution of
  intercommunal differences and creation of a new federal system of government
Capital:
  Nicosia
Administrative divisions:
  6 districts; Famagusta, Kyrenia, Larnaca, Limassol, Nicosia, Paphos
Independence:
  16 August 1960 (from UK)
Constitution:
  16 August 1960; negotiations to create the basis for a new or revised
  constitution to govern the island and to better relations between Greek and
  Turkish Cypriots have been held intermittently; in 1975 Turkish Cypriots
  created their own Constitution and governing bodies within the "Turkish
  Federated State of Cyprus," which was renamed the "Turkish Republic of
  Northern Cyprus" in 1983; a new Constitution for the Turkish area passed by
  referendum in May 1985
Legal system:
  based on common law, with civil law modifications
National holiday:
  Independence Day, 1 October (15 November is celebrated as Independence Day
  in the Turkish area)
Political parties and leaders:
 Greek Cypriot:
  Progressive Party of the Working People (AKEL; Communist Party), Dimitrios
  CHRISTOFIAS; Democratic Rally (DISY), Glafkos CLERIDES; Democratic Party
  (DIKO), Spyros KYPRIANOU; United Democratic Union of the Center (EDEK),
  Vassos LYSSARIDIS; Socialist Democratic Renewal Movement (ADISOK), Mikhalis
  PAPAPETROU; Liberal Party, Nikos ROLANDIS; Free Democrats, George VASSILIOU
 Turkish area:
  National Unity Party (UBP), Dervis EROGLU; Communal Liberation Party (TKP),
  Mustafa AKINCI; Republican Turkish Party (CTP), Ozker OZGUR; New Cyprus
  Party (YKP), Alpay DURDURAN; Social Democratic Party (SDP), Ergun VEHBI; New
  Birth Party (YDP), Ali Ozkan ALTINISHIK; Free Democratic Party (HDP), Ismet
  KOTAK; Nationalist Justice Party (MAP), Zorlu TORE; United Sovereignty
  Party, Arif Salih KIRDAG; Democratic Party (DP), Hakki ATUN; Fatherland
  Party (VP), Orhan UCOK; CTP, TKP, and YDP joined in the coalition Democratic
  Struggle Party (DMP) for the 22 April 1990 legislative election; the CTP and
  TKP boycotted the byelection of 13 October 1991, in which 12 seats were at
  stake; the DMP was dissolved after the 1990 election

*Cyprus, Government

Other political or pressure groups:
  United Democratic Youth Organization (EDON; Communist controlled); Union of
  Cyprus Farmers (EKA; Communist controlled); Cyprus Farmers Union (PEK;
  pro-West); Pan-Cyprian Labor Federation (PEO; Communist controlled);
  Confederation of Cypriot Workers (SEK; pro-West); Federation of Turkish
  Cypriot Labor Unions (Turk-Sen); Confederation of Revolutionary Labor Unions
  (Dev-Is)
Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal
Elections:
 President:
  last held 14 February 1993 (next to be held February 1998); results -
  Glafkos CLERIDES 50.3%, George VASSILIOU 49.7%
 House of Representatives:
  last held 19 May 1991; results - DISY 35.8%, AKEL (Communist) 30.6%, DIKO
  19.5%, EDEK 10. 9%; others 3.2%; seats - (56 total) DISY 20, AKEL
  (Communist) 18, DIKO 11, EDEK 7
 Turkish Area: President:
  last held 22 April 1990 (next to be held April 1995); results - Rauf R.
  DENKTASH 66%, Ismail BOZKURT 32.05%
 Turkish Area: Assembly of the Republic:
  last held 6 May 1990 (next to be held May 1995); results - UBP
  (conservative) 54.4%, DMP 44.4% YKP 0.9%; seats - (50 total) UBP
  (conservative) 45, SDP 1, HDP 2, YDP 2; note - by-election of 13 October
  1991 was for 12 seats; DP delegates broke away from the UBP and formed their
  own party after the last election; seats as of July 1992 UBP 34, SPD 1, HDP
  1, YDP 2, DP 10, independents 2
Executive branch:
  president, Council of Ministers (cabinet); note - there is a president,
  prime minister, and Council of Ministers (cabinet) in the Turkish area
Legislative branch:
  unicameral House of Representatives (Vouli Antiprosopon); note - there is a
  unicameral Assembly of the Republic (Cumhuriyet Meclisi) in the Turkish area
Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court; note - there is also a Supreme Court in the Turkish area
Leaders:
 Chief of State and Head of Government:
  President Glafkos CLERIDES (since 28 February 1993)
 note:
  Rauf R. DENKTASH has been president of the Turkish area since 13 February
  1975; Dervish EROGLU has been prime minister of the Turkish area since 20
  July 1985
Member of:
  C, CCC, CE, CSCE, EBRD, ECE, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU,
  IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO,
  ITU, NAM, OAS (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO,
  WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador Michael E. SHERIFIS
 chancery:
  2211 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
 telephone:
  (202) 462-5772
 consulate general:
  New York  note:
  Representative of the Turkish area in the US is Namik KORMAN, office at 1667
  K Street, NW, Washington DC, telephone (202) 887-6198

*Cyprus, Government

US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador Robert E. LAMB
 embassy:
  corner of Therissos Street and Dositheos Street, Nicosia
 mailing address:
  APO AE 09836
 telephone:
  [357] (2) 465151
 FAX:
  [357] (2) 459-571
Flag:
  white with a copper-colored silhouette of the island (the name Cyprus is
  derived from the Greek word for copper) above two green crossed olive
  branches in the center of the flag; the branches symbolize the hope for
  peace and reconciliation between the Greek and Turkish communities
 note:
  the Turkish cypriot flag has a horizontal red stripe at the top and bottom
  with a red crescent and red star on a white field

*Cyprus, Economy

Overview:
  The Greek Cypriot economy is small, diversified, and prosperous. Industry
  contributes 16.5% to GDP and employs 29% of the labor force, while the
  service sector contributes 62% to GDP and employs 57% of the labor force.
  Rapid growth in exports of agricultural and manufactured products and in
  tourism have played important roles in the average 6.8% rise in GDP between
  1986 and 1990. This progress was temporarily checked in 1991, because of the
  adverse effects of the Gulf War on tourism. Nevertheless in mid-1991, the
  World Bank "graduated" Cyprus off its list of developing countries. In
  contrast to the bright picture in the south, the Turkish Cypriot economy has
  less than half the per capita GDP and suffered a series of reverses in 1991.
  Crippled by the effects of the Gulf war, the collapse of the
  fruit-to-electronics conglomerate, Polly Peck, Ltd., and a drought, the
  Turkish area in late 1991 asked for a multibillion-dollar grant from Turkey
  to help ease the burden of the economic crisis. In addition, the Turkish
  government extended a $100 million loan in November 1992 to be used for
  economic development projects in 1993. Turkey normally underwrites a
  substantial portion of the Turkish Cypriot economy.
National product:
 Greek area:
  GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $6.3 billion (1992)
 Turkish area:
  GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $600 million (1990)
National product real growth rate:  Greek area:
  6.5% (1992)
 Turkish area:
  5.9% (1990)
National product per capita:
 Greek area:
  $11,000 (1992)
 Turkish area:
  $4,000 (1990)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
 Greek area:
  5.1% (1991)
 Turkish area:
  69.4% (1990)
Unemployment rate:
 Greek area:
  2.4% (1991)
 Turkish area:
  1.5% (1991)
Budget:
  revenues $1.7 billion; expenditures $2.2 billion, including capital
  expenditures of $350 million (1993)
Exports:
  $875 million (f.o.b., 1991)
 commodities:
  citrus, potatoes, grapes, wine, cement, clothing and shoes
 partners:
  UK 23%, Greece 10%, Lebanon 10%, Germany 5%
Imports:
  $2.4 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
 commodities:
  consumer goods, petroleum and lubricants, food and feed grains, machinery
 partners:
  UK 13%, Japan 12%, Italy 10%, Germany 9.1%

*Cyprus, Economy

External debt:
  $1.9 billion (1991)
Industrial production:
  growth rate 0.4% (1991); accounts for 16.5% of GDP
Electricity:
  620,000 kW capacity; 1,770 million kWh produced, 2,530 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
  food, beverages, textiles, chemicals, metal products, tourism, wood products
Agriculture:
  contributes 6% to GDP and employs 14% of labor force in the south; major
  crops - potatoes, vegetables, barley, grapes, olives, citrus fruits;
  vegetables and fruit provide 25% of export revenues
Illicit drugs:
  transit point for heroin via air routes and container traffic to Europe,
  especially from Lebanon and Turkey
Economic aid:
  US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $292 million; Western (non-US)
  countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $250 million; OPEC
  bilateral aid (1979-89), $62 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $24
  million
Currency:
  1 Cypriot pound (#C) = 100 cents; 1 Turkish lira (TL) = 100 kurus
Exchange rates:
  NA
Fiscal year:
  calendar year

*Cyprus, Communications

Highways:
  10,780 km total; 5,170 km paved; 5,610 km gravel, crushed stone, and earth
Ports:
  Famagusta, Kyrenia, Larnaca, Limassol, Paphos
Merchant marine:
  1,299 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 21,045,037 GRT/37,119,933 DWT;
  includes 10 short-sea passenger, 1 passenger-cargo, 463 cargo, 77
  refrigerated cargo, 24 roll-on/roll-off, 70 container, 4 multifunction large
  load carrier, 110 oil tanker, 3 specialized tanker, 3 liquefied gas, 26
  chemical tanker, 32 combination ore/oil, 422 bulk, 3 vehicle carrier, 48
  combination bulk, 1 railcar carrier, 2 passenger; note - a flag of
  convenience registry; Cuba owns 27 of these ships, Russia owns 36, Latvia
  also has 7 ships, Croatia owns 2, and Romania 5
Airports:
 total:
  13
 usable:
  13
 with permanent-surface runways:
  10
 with runways over 3,659 m:
  0
 with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
  7
 with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
  1
Telecommunications:
  excellent in both the area controlled by the Cypriot Government (Greek
  area), and in the Turkish-Cypriot administered area; 210,000 telephones;
  largely open-wire and microwave radio relay; broadcast stations - 11 AM, 8
  FM, 1 (34 repeaters) TV in Greek sector and 2 AM, 6 FM and 1 TV in Turkish
  sector; international service by tropospheric scatter, 3 submarine cables,
  and satellite earth stations - 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Indian Ocean
  INTELSAT and EUTELSAT earth stations

*Cyprus, Defense Forces

Branches:
 Greek area:
  Greek Cypriot National Guard (GCNG; including air and naval elements), Greek
  Cypriot Police
 Turkish area:
  Turkish Cypriot Security Force
Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49 185,371; fit for military service 127,536; reach military
  age (18) annually 5,085 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
  exchange rate conversion - $209 million, 5% of GDP (1990 est.)

*Czech Republic, Geography

Location:
  Eastern Europe, between Germany and Slovakia
Map references:
  Ethnic Groups in Eastern Europe, Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
 total area:
  78,703 km2
 land area:
  78,645 km2
 comparative area:
  slightly smaller than South Carolina
Land boundaries:
  total 1,880 km, Austria 362 km, Germany 646 km, Poland 658 km, Slovakia 214
  km
Coastline:
  0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
  none; landlocked
International disputes:
  Liechtenstein claims 620 square miles of Czech territory confiscated from
  its royal family in 1918; the Czech Republic insists that restitution does
  not go back before February 1948, when the Communists seized power;
  unresolved property dispute issues with Slovakia over redistribution of
  Czech and Slovak Federal Republic's property; establishment of international
  border between Czech Republic and Slovakia
Climate:
  temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters
Terrain:
  two main regions: Bohemia in the west, consisting of rolling plains, hills,
  and plateaus surrounded by low mountains; and Moravia in the east,
  consisting of very hilly country
Natural resources:
  hard coal, kaolin, clay, graphite
Land use:
 arable land:
  NA%
 permanent crops:
  NA%
 meadows and pastures:
  NA%
 forest and woodland:
  NA%
 other:   NA%
Irrigated land:
  NA km2
Environment:
  NA
Note:
  landlocked; strategically located astride some of oldest and most
  significant land routes in Europe; Moravian Gate is a traditional military
  corridor between the North European Plain and the Danube in central Europe

*Czech Republic, People

Population:
  10,389,256 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
  0.16% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
  13 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
  11.44 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
  9.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
 total population:
  72.64 years
 male:
  68.9 years
 female:
  76.58 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
  1.85 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
 noun:
  Czech(s)
 adjective:
  Czech
Ethnic divisions:
  Czech 94.4%, Slovak 3%, Polish 0.6%, German 0.5%, Gypsy 0.3%, Hungarian
  0.2%, other 1%
Religions:
  atheist 39.8%, Roman Catholic 39.2%, Protestant 4.6%, Orthodox 3%, other
  13.4%
Languages:
  Czech, Slovak
Literacy:
 total population:
  NA%
 male:
  NA%
 female:
  NA%
Labor force:   5.389 million
 by occupation:
  industry 37.9%, agriculture 8.1%, construction 8.8%, communications and
  other 45.2% (1990)

*Czech Republic, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  Czech Republic
 conventional short form:
  none
 local long form:
  Ceska Republika
 local short form:
  Cechy
Digraph:
  EZ
Type:
  parliamentary democracy
Capital:
  Prague
Administrative divisions:
  7 regions (kraje, kraj - singular); Severocesky, Zapadocesky, Jihocesky,
  Vychodocesky, Praha, Severomoravsky, Jihomoravsky
Independence:
  1 January 1993 (from Czechoslovakia)
Constitution:
  ratified 16 December 1992; effective 1 January 1993
Legal system:
  civil law system based on Austro-Hungarian codes; has not accepted
  compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; legal code modified to bring it in line with
  Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE) obligations and to
  expunge Marxist-Leninist legal theory
National holiday:
  NA
Political parties and leaders:
  Civic Democratic Party, Vaclav KLAUS, chairman; Christian Democratic Union,
  leader NA; Civic Democratic Alliance, Jan KALVODA, chairman; Christian
  Democratic Party, Vaclav BENDA, chairman; Czech People's Party, Josef LUX;
  Czechoslovak Social Democracy, Milos ZEMAN, chairman; Left Bloc, leader NA;
  Republican Party, Miroslav SLADEK, chairman; Movement for Self-Governing
  Democracy for Moravia and Silesia, Jan STRYCER, chairman; Liberal Social
  Union, leader NA; Assembly for the Republic, leader NA
Other political or pressure groups:
  Czech Democratic Left Movement; Civic Movement
Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal
Elections:
 President:
  last held 26 January 1993 (next to be held NA January 1998); results -
  Vaclav HAVEL elected by the National Council
 Senate:
  elections not yet held; seats (81 total)
 Chamber of Deputies:
  last held 5-6 June 1992 (next to be held NA 1996); results - percent of vote
  by party NA; seats - (200 total) Civic Democratic Party/Christian Democratic
  Party 76, Left Bloc 35, Czechoslovak Social Democracy 16, Liberal Social
  Union 16, Christian Democratic Union/Czech People's Party 15, Assembly for
  the Republic/Republican Party 14, Civic Democratic Alliance 14, Movement for
  Self-Governing Democracy for Moravia and Silesia 14
Executive branch:
  president, prime minister, Cabinet

*Czech Republic, Government

Legislative branch:
  bicameral National Council (Narodni rada) will consist of an upper house or
  Senate (which has not yet been established) and a lower house or Chamber of
  Deputies
Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court, Constitutional Court
Leaders:
 Chief of State:
  President Vaclav HAVEL (since 26 January 1993)
 Head of Government:
  Prime Minister Vaclav KLAUS (since NA June 1992); Deputy Prime Ministers
  Ivan KOCARNIK, Josef LUX, Jan KALVODA (since NA June 1992)
Member of:
  BIS, CCC, CE, CEI, CERN, CSCE, EBRD, ECE, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA,
  IFC, IFCTU, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM
  (observer), ISO, ITU, LORCS, NACC, NAM (guest), NSG, PCA, UN (as of 8
  January 1993), UNAVEM II, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOSOM, UNPROFOR, UPU, WHO,
  WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador Michael ZANTOVSKY
 chancery:
  3900 Spring of Freedom Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
 telephone:
  (202) 363-6315 or 6316
US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador Adrian A. BASORA
 embassy:
  Trziste 15, 125 48, Prague 1
 mailing address:
  Unit 25402; APO AE 09213-5630
 telephone:
  [42] (2) 536-641/6
 FAX:
  [42] (2) 532-457
Flag:
  two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red with a blue isosceles
  triangle based on the hoist side

*Czech Republic, Economy

Overview:
  The dissolution of Czechoslovakia into two independent nation states - the
  Czech Republic and Slovakia - on 1 January 1993 has complicated the task of
  moving toward a more open and decentralized economy. The old Czechoslovakia,
  even though highly industrialized by East European standards, suffered from
  an aging capital plant, lagging technology, and a deficiency in energy and
  many raw materials. In January 1991, approximately one year after the end of
  communist control of Eastern Europe, theCzech and Slovak Federal Republic
  launched a sweeping program to convert its almost entirely state-owned and
  controlled economy to a market system. In 1991-92 these measures resulted in
  privatization of some medium- and small-scale economic activity and the
  setting of more than 90% of prices by the market - but at a cost in
  inflation, unemployment, and lower output. For Czechoslovakia as a whole
  inflation in 1991 was roughly 50% and output fell 15%. In 1992, in the Czech
  lands, inflation dropped to an estimated 12.5% and GDP was down a more
  moderate 5%. For 1993 the government of the Czech Republic anticipates
  inflation of 15-20% and a rise in unemployment to perhaps 12% as some
  large-scale enterprises go into bankruptcy; GDP may drop as much as 3%,
  mainly because of the disruption of trade links with Slovakia. Although the
  governments of the Czech Republic and Slovakia had envisaged retaining the
  koruna as a common currency, at least in the short term, the two countries
  ended the currency union in February 1993.
National product:
  GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $75.3 billion (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate:
  -5% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
  $7,300 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  12.5% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
  3.1% (1992 est.)
Budget:
  revenues $NA; expenditures $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports:
  $8.2 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
 commodities:
  manufactured goods, machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, fuels,
  minerals, and metals
 partners:
  Slovakia, Germany, Poland, Austria, Hungary, Italy, France, US, UK, CIS
  republics
Imports:
  $8.9 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
 commodities:
  machinery and transport equipment, fuels and lubricants, manfactured goods,
  raw materials, chemicals, agricultural products
 partners:
  Slovakia, CIS republics, Germany Austria, Poland, Switzerland, Hungary, UK,
  Italy
External debt:
  $3.8 billion hard currency indebtedness (December 1992)
Industrial production:
  growth rate -4% (November 1992 over November 1991); accounts for over 60% of
  GDP
Electricity:
  16,500,000 kW capacity; 62,200 million kWh produced, 6,030 kWh per capita
  (1992)

*Czech Republic, Economy

Industries:
  fuels, ferrous metallurgy, machinery and equipment, coal, motor vehicles,
  glass, armaments
Agriculture:
  largely self-sufficient in food production; diversified crop and livestock
  production, including grains, potatoes, sugar beets, hops, fruit, hogs,
  cattle, and poultry; exporter of forest products
Illicit drugs:
  the former Czechoslovakia was a transshipment point for Southwest Asian
  heroin and was emerging as a transshipment point for Latin American cocaine
  (1992)
Economic aid:
  the former Czechoslovakia was a donor - $4.2 billion in bilateral aid to
  non-Communist less developed countries (1954-89)
Currency:
  1 koruna (Kc) = 100 haleru
Exchange rates:
  koruny (Kcs) per US$1 - 28.59 (December 1992), 28.26 (1992), 29.53 (1991),
  17.95 (1990), 15.05 (1989), 14.36 (1988), 13.69 (1987)
Fiscal year:
  calendar year

*Czech Republic, Communications

Railroads:
  9,434 km total (1988)
Highways:
  55,890 km total (1988)
Inland waterways:
  NA km; the Elbe (Labe) is the principal river
Pipelines:
  natural gas 5,400 km
Ports:
  coastal outlets are in Poland (Gdynia, Gdansk, Szczecin), Croatia (Rijeka),
  Slovenia (Koper), Germany (Hamburg, Rostock); principal river ports are
  Prague on the Vltava, Decin on the Elbe (Labe)
Merchant marine:
  the former Czechoslovakia had 22 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 290,185
  GRT/437,291 DWT; includes 13 cargo, 9 bulk; may be shared with Slovakia
Airports:
 total:
  75
 usable:
  75
 with permanent-surface runways:   8
 with runways over 3,659 m:
  0
 with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
  2
 with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
  4
Telecommunications:
  NA

*Czech Republic, Defense Forces

Branches:
  Army, Air and Air Defense Forces, Civil Defense, Railroad Units
Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49 2,736,657; fit for military service 2,083,555; reach
  military age (18) annually 95,335 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
  23 billion koruny, NA% of GNP (1993 est.); note - conversion of defense
  expenditures into US dollars using the current exchange rate could produce
  misleading results

*Denmark, Geography

Location:
  Northwestern Europe, bordering the North Sea on a peninsula north of Germany
Map references:
  Arctic Region, Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
 total area:
  43,070 km2
 land area:
  42,370 km2
 comparative area:
  slightly more than twice the size of Massachusetts
 note:
  includes the island of Bornholm in the Baltic Sea and the rest of
  metropolitan Denmark, but excludes the Faroe Islands and Greenland
Land boundaries:
  total 68 km, Germany 68 km
Coastline:
  3,379 km
Maritime claims:
 contiguous zone:
  4 nm
 continental shelf:
  200 m depth or to depth of exploitation
 exclusive fishing zone:
  200 nm
 territorial sea:
  3 nm
International disputes:   Rockall continental shelf dispute involving Iceland, Ireland, and the UK
  (Ireland and the UK have signed a boundary agreement in the Rockall area);
  dispute between Denmark and Norway over maritime boundary in Arctic Ocean
  between Greenland and Jan Mayen is before the International Court of Justice
Climate:
  temperate; humid and overcast; mild, windy winters and cool summers
Terrain:
  low and flat to gently rolling plains
Natural resources:
  petroleum, natural gas, fish, salt, limestone
Land use:
 arable land:
  61%
 permanent crops:
  0%
 meadows and pastures:
  6%
 forest and woodland:
  12%
 other:
  21%
Irrigated land:
  4,300 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
  air and water pollution
Note:
  controls Danish Straits linking Baltic and North Seas

*Denmark, People

Population:
  5,175,922 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
  0.23% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
  12.5 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
  11.42 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
  1.24 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
  7.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
 total population:
  75.51 years
 male:
  72.63 years
 female:
  78.56 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
  1.68 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
 noun:
  Dane(s)  adjective:
  Danish
Ethnic divisions:
  Scandinavian, Eskimo, Faroese, German
Religions:
  Evangelical Lutheran 91%, other Protestant and Roman Catholic 2%, other 7%
  (1988)
Languages:
  Danish, Faroese, Greenlandic (an Eskimo dialect), German (small minority)
Literacy:
  age 15 and over can read and write (1980)
 total population:
  99%
 male:
  NA%
 female:
  NA%
Labor force:
  2,553,900
 by occupation:
  private services 37.1%, government services 30.4%, manufacturing and mining
  20%, construction 6.3%, agriculture, forestry, and fishing 5.6%,
  electricity/gas/water 0.6% (1991)

*Denmark, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  Kingdom of Denmark
 conventional short form:
  Denmark
 local long form:
  Kongeriget Danmark
 local short form:
  Danmark
Digraph:
  DA
Type:
  constitutional monarchy
Capital:
  Copenhagen
Administrative divisions:
  metropolitan Denmark - 14 counties (amter, singular - amt) and 1 city*,   (stad); Arhus, Bornholm,
Frederiksborg, Fyn, Kbenhavn, Nordjylland, Ribe,
  Ringkbing, Roskilde, Snderjylland, Staden Kbenhavn*, Storstrm, Vejle,,   Vestsjaelland, Viborg
 note:
  see separate entries for the Faroe Islands and Greenland, which are part of
  the Danish realm and self-governing administrative divisions
Independence:
  1849 (became a constitutional monarchy)
Constitution:
  5 June 1953
Legal system:   civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts; accepts compulsory
  ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
National holiday:
  Birthday of the Queen, 16 April (1940)
Political parties and leaders:
  Social Democratic Party, Poul Nyrup RASMUSSEN; Conservative Party, Poul
  SCHLUETER; Liberal Party, Uffe ELLEMANN-JENSEN; Socialist People's Party,
  Holger K. NIELSEN; Progress Party, Pia KJAERSGAARD; Center Democratic Party,
  Mimi Stilling JAKOBSEN; Radical Liberal Party, Marianne JELVED; Christian
  People's Party, Jann SJURSEN; Common Course, Preben Moller HANSEN; Danish
  Workers' Party
Suffrage:
  21 years of age; universal
Elections:
 Parliament:
  last held 12 December 1990 (next to be held by December 1994); results -
  Social Democratic Party 37.4%, Conservative Party 16.0%, Liberal 15.8%,
  Socialist People's Party 8.3%, Progress Party 6.4%, Center Democratic Party
  5.1%, Radical Liberal Party 3.5%, Christian People's Party 2.3%, other 5.2%;
  seats - (179 total; includes 2 from Greenland and 2 from the Faroe Islands)
  Social Democratic 69, Conservative 30, Liberal 29, Socialist People's 15,
  Progress Party 12, Center Democratic 9, Radical Liberal 7, Christian
  People's 4
Executive branch:
  monarch, heir apparent, prime minister, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
  unicameral parliament (Folketing)
Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court

*Denmark, Government

Leaders:
 Chief of State:
  Queen MARGRETHE II (since NA January 1972); Heir Apparent Crown Prince
  FREDERIK, elder son of the Queen (born 26 May 1968)
 Head of Government:
  Prime Minister Poul Nyrup RASMUSSEN (since NA January 1993)
Member of:
  AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE, CERN, COCOM,
  CSCE, EBRD, EC, ECE, EIB, ESA, FAO, G-9, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC,
  ICFTU, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL,
  IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS, MTCR, NACC, NATO, NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OECD, PCA,
  UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMOGIP, UNPROFOR, UNTSO,
  UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador Peter Pedersen DYVIG
 chancery:
  3200 Whitehaven Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
 telephone:
  (202) 234-4300
 FAX:
  (202) 328-1470  consulates general:
  Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York
US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador Richard B. STONE
 embassy:
  Dag Hammarskjolds Alle 24, 2100 Copenhagen O
 mailing address:
  APO AE 09716
 telephone:
  [45] (31) 42-31-44
 FAX:
  [45] (35) 43-0223
Flag:
  red with a white cross that extends to the edges of the flag; the vertical
  part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side, and that design element of
  the DANNEBROG (Danish flag) was subsequently adopted by the other Nordic
  countries of Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden

*Denmark, Economy

Overview:
  This modern economy features high-tech agriculture, up-to-date small-scale
  and corporate industry, extensive government welfare measures, comfortable
  living standards, and high dependence on foreign trade. Denmark's new
  center-left coalition government will concentrate on reducing the persistent
  high unemployment rate and the budget deficit as well as following the
  previous government's policies of maintaining low inflation and a current
  account surplus. In the face of recent international market pressure on the
  Danish krone, the coalition has also vowed to maintain a stable currency.
  The coalition hopes to lower marginal income taxes while maintaining overall
  tax revenues; boost industrial competitiveness through labor market and tax
  reforms and increased research and development funds; and improve welfare
  services for the neediest while cutting paperwork and delays. Prime Minister
  RASMUSSEN's reforms will focus on adapting Denmark to EC's economic and
  monetary union (EMU) criteria by 1999, although Copenhagen won from the EC
  the right to opt out of the EMU if a national referendum rejects it. Denmark
  is, in fact, one of the few EC countries likely to fit into the EMU on time.
  Denmark is weathering the current worldwide slump better than many West
  European countries. As the EC's single market (formally established on 1
  January 1993) gets underway, Danish economic growth is expected to pickup to
  around 2% in 1993. Expected Danish approval of the Maastricht treaty on EC
  political and economic union in May 1993 would almost certainly reverse the
  drop in investment, further boosting growth. The current account surplus
  remains strong as limitations on wage increases and low inflation - expected
  to be around 1% in 1993 - improve export competitiveness. Although
  unemployment is high, it remains stable compared to most European countries.
National product:
  GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $94.2 billion (1992)
National product real growth rate:
  1% (1992)
National product per capita:
  $18,200 (1992)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):   1.5% (1992)
Unemployment rate:
  11.4% (1992)
Budget:
  revenues $48.8 billion; expenditures $55.3 billion, including capital
  expenditures of $NA (1992)
Exports:
  $37.3 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
 commodities:
  meat and meat products, dairy products, transport equipment (shipbuilding),
  fish, chemicals, industrial machinery
 partners:
  EC 54.3% (Germany 23.6%, UK 10.1%, France 5.7%), Sweden 10.5%, Norway 5.8%,
  US 4.9%, Japan 3.6% (1992)
Imports:
  $30.3 billion (c.i.f., 1992)
 commodities:
  petroleum, machinery and equipment, chemicals, grain and foodstuffs,
  textiles, paper
 partners:
  EC 53.4% (Germany 23.1%, UK 8.2%, France 5.6%), Sweden 10.8%, Norway 5.4%,
  US 5.7%, Japan 4.1% (1992)
External debt:
  $40 billion (1992 est.)
Industrial production:
  growth rate 1.9% (1992)

*Denmark, Economy

Electricity:
  11,215,000 kW capacity; 34,170 million kWh produced, 6,610 kWh per capita
  (1992)
Industries:
  food processing, machinery and equipment, textiles and clothing, chemical
  products, electronics, construction, furniture, and other wood products,
  shipbuilding
Agriculture:
  accounts for 4% of GDP and employs 5.6% of labor force (includes fishing and
  forestry); farm products account for nearly 15% of export revenues;
  principal products - meat, dairy, grain, potatoes, rape, sugar beets, fish;
  self-sufficient in food production
Economic aid:
  donor - ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89) $5.9 billion
Currency:
  1 Danish krone (DKr) = 100 re
Exchange rates:
  Danish kroner (DKr) per US$1 - 6.236 (January 1993), 6.036 (1992), 6.396
  (1991), 6.189 (1990), 7.310 (1989), 6.732 (1988)
Fiscal year:
  calendar year

*Denmark, Communications

Railroads:
  2,770 km; Danish State Railways (DSB) operate 2,120 km (1,999 km rail line
  and 121 km rail ferry services); 188 km electrified, 730 km double tracked;
  650 km of standard-gauge lines are privately owned and operated
Highways:
  66,482 km total; 64,551 km concrete, bitumen, or stone block; 1,931 km
  gravel, crushed stone, improved earth
Inland waterways:
  417 km
Pipelines:
  crude oil 110 km; petroleum products 578 km; natural gas 700 km
Ports:
  Alborg, Arhus, Copenhagen, Esbjerg, Fredericia; numerous secondary and minor
  ports
Merchant marine:
  328 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,043,277 GRT/7,230,634 DWT; includes
  13 short-sea passenger, 102 cargo, 19 refrigerated cargo, 47 container, 37
  roll-on/roll-off, 1 railcar carrier, 33 oil tanker, 18 chemical tanker, 36
  liquefied gas, 4 livestock carrier, 17 bulk, 1 combination bulk; note -
  Denmark has created its own internal register, called the Danish
  International Ship register (DIS); DIS ships do not have to meet Danish
  manning regulations, and they amount to a flag of convenience within the
  Danish register; by the end of 1990, 258 of the Danish-flag ships belonged
  to the DIS
Airports:
 total:
  118
 usable:
  109
 with permanent-surface runways:
  28
 with runways over 3,659 m:
  0
 with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
  9
 with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
  7
Telecommunications:
  excellent telephone, telegraph, and broadcast services; 4,509,000
  telephones; buried and submarine cables and microwave radio relay support
  trunk network; broadcast stations - 3 AM, 2 FM, 50 TV; 19 submarine coaxial
  cables; 7 earth stations operating in INTELSAT, EUTELSAT, and INMARSAT

*Denmark, Defense Forces

Branches:
  Royal Danish Army, Royal Danish Navy, Royal Danish Air Force, Home Guard
Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49 1,368,211; fit for military service 1,176,559; reach
  military age (20) annually 37,248 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
  exchange rate conversion - $2.8 billion, 2% of GDP (1992)

*Djibouti, Geography

Location:
  Eastern Africa, at the entrance to the Red Sea between Ethiopia and Somalia
Map references:
  Africa, Middle East, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
 total area:
  22,000 km2
 land area:
  21,980 km2
 comparative area:
  slightly larger than Massachusetts
Land boundaries:
  total 508 km, Erithea 113 km, Ethiopia 337 km, Somalia 58 km
Coastline:
  314 km
Maritime claims:
 contiguous zone:
  24 nm
 exclusive economic zone:
  200 nm
 territorial sea:
  12 nm
International disputes:
  possible claim by Somalia based on unification of ethnic Somalis
Climate:
  desert; torrid, dry
Terrain:
  coastal plain and plateau separated by central mountains
Natural resources:
  geothermal areas
Land use:
 arable land:
  0%
 permanent crops:
  0%
 meadows and pastures:
  9%
 forest and woodland:
  0%
 other:
  91%
Irrigated land:
  NA km2
Environment:
  vast wasteland
Note:
  strategic location near world's busiest shipping lanes and close to Arabian
  oilfields; terminus of rail traffic into Ethiopia

*Djibouti, People

Population:
  401,579 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
  2.7% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
  43.05 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
  16.06 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
  113.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
 total population:
  48.78 years
 male:
  47.01 years
 female:
  50.59 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
  6.27 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
 noun:
  Djiboutian(s)
 adjective:
  Djiboutian
Ethnic divisions:
  Somali 60%, Afar 35%, French, Arab, Ethiopian, and Italian 5%
Religions:
  Muslim 94%, Christian 6%
Languages:
  French (official), Arabic (official), Somali, Afar
Literacy:
  age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
 total population:
  48%
 male:
  63%
 female:
  34%
Labor force:
  NA
 by occupation:
  a small number of semiskilled laborers at the port and 3,000 railway workers
 note:
  52% of population of working age (1983)

*Djibouti, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  Republic of Djibouti
 conventional short form:   Djibouti
 former:
  French Territory of the Afars and Issas French Somaliland
Digraph:
  DJ
Type:
  republic
Capital:
  Djibouti
Administrative divisions:
  5 districts (cercles, singular - cercle); `Ali Sabih, Dikhil, Djibouti,
  Obock, Tadjoura
Independence:
  27 June 1977 (from France)
Constitution:
  multiparty constitution approved in referendum September 1992
Legal system:
  based on French civil law system, traditional practices, and Islamic law
National holiday:
  Independence Day, 27 June (1977)
Political parties and leaders:
 ruling party:
  People's Progress Assembly (RPP), Hassan GOULED Aptidon
 other parties:
  Democratic Renewal Party (PRD), Mohamed Jama ELABE; Democratic National
  Party (PND), ADEN Robleh Awaleh
Other political or pressure groups:
  Front for the Restoration of Unity and Democracy (FRUD) and affiliates;
  Movement for Unity and Democracy (MUD)
Suffrage:
  universal adult at age NA
Elections:
 National Assembly:
  last held 18 December 1992; results - RPP is the only party; seats - (65
  total) RPP 65
 President:
  last held 24 April 1987 (next to be held April 1993); results - President
  Hassan GOULED Aptidon was reelected without opposition
Executive branch:
  president, prime minister, Council of Ministers
Legislative branch:
  unicameral Chamber of Deputies (Chambre des Deputes)
Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)
Leaders:
 Chief of State:
  President HASSAN GOULED Aptidon (since 24 June 1977)
 Head of Government:
  Prime Minister BARKAT Gourad Hamadou (since 30 September 1978)
Member of:
  ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AL, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC,
  IGADD, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNESCO,
  UNCTAD, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WMO

*Djibouti, Government

Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador Roble OLHAYE
 chancery:
  Suite 515, 1156 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20005
 telephone:
  (202) 331-0270
US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador Charles R. BAQUET III
 embassy:
  Plateau du Serpent, Boulevard Marechal Joffre, Djibouti
 mailing address:
  B. P. 185, Djibouti
 telephone:
  [253] 35-39-95
 FAX:
  [253] 35-39-40
Flag:
  two equal horizontal bands of light blue (top) and light green with a white
  isosceles triangle based on the hoist side bearing a red five-pointed star
  in the center

*Djibouti, Economy

Overview:
  The economy is based on service activities connected with the country's
  strategic location and status as a free trade zone in northeast Africa.
  Djibouti provides services as both a transit port for the region and an
  international transshipment and refueling center. It has few natural
  resources and little industry. The nation is, therefore, heavily dependent
  on foreign assistance to help support its balance of payments and to finance
  development projects. An unemployment rate of over 30% continues to be a
  major problem. Per capita consumption dropped an estimated 35% over the last
  five years because of recession and a high population growth rate (including
  immigrants and refugees).
National product:
  GDP - exchange rate conversion - $358 million (1990 est.)
National product real growth rate:
  1.2% (1990 est.)
National product per capita:
  $1,030 (1990 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  7.7% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
  over 30% (1989)
Budget:
  revenues $170 million; expenditures $203 million, including capital
  expenditures of $70 million (1991 est.)
Exports:
  $186 million (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
 commodities:   hides and skins, coffee (in transit)
 partners:
  Africa 50%, Middle East 40%, Western Europe 9%
Imports:
  $360 million (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
 commodities:
  foods, beverages, transport equipment, chemicals, petroleum products
 partners:
  Western Europe 54%, Middle East 20%, Asia 19%
External debt:
  $355 million (December 1990)
Industrial production:
  growth rate 10.0% (1990); manufacturing accounts for 11% of GDP
Electricity:
  115,000 kW capacity; 200 million kWh produced, 580 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
  limited to a few small-scale enterprises, such as dairy products and
  mineral-water bottling
Agriculture:
  accounts for only 3% of GDP; scanty rainfall limits crop production to
  mostly fruit and vegetables; half of population pastoral nomads herding
  goats, sheep, and camels; imports bulk of food needs
Economic aid:
  US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY78-89), $39 million; Western (non-US)
  countries, including ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $1.1
  billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $149 million; Communist countries
  (1970-89), $35 million
Currency:
  1 Djiboutian franc (DF) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
  Djiboutian francs (DF) per US$1 - 177.721 (fixed rate since 1973)

*Djibouti, Economy

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

*Djibouti, Communications

Railroads:
  the Ethiopian-Djibouti railroad extends for 97 km through Djibouti
Highways:
  2,900 km total; 280 km paved; 2,620 km improved or unimproved earth (1982)
Ports:
  Djibouti
Merchant marine:
  1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,369 GRT/3,030 DWT
Airports:
 total:
  13
 usable:
  11  with permanent-surface runways:
  2
 with runways over 3,659 m:
  0
 with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
  2
 with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
  5
Telecommunications:
  telephone facilities in the city of Djibouti are adequate as are the
  microwave radio relay connections to outlying areas of the country;
  international connections via submarine cable to Saudi Arabia and by
  satellite to other countries; one ground station each for Indian Ocean
  INTELSAT and ARABSAT; broadcast stations - 2 AM, 2 FM, 1 TV

*Djibouti, Defense Forces

Branches:
  Djibouti National Army (including Navy and Air Force), National Security
  Force (Force Nationale de Securite), National Police Force
Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49 97,943; fit for military service 57,187 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
  exchange rate conversion - $26 million, NA% of GDP (1989)

*Dominica, Geography

Location:
  in the eastern Caribbean, about halfway between Puerto Rico and Trinidad and
  Tobago
Map references:
  Central America and the Caribbean, South America, Standard Time Zones of the
  World
Area:
 total area:
  750 km2
 land area:
  750 km2
 comparative area:
  slightly more than four times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
  0 km
Coastline:
  148 km
Maritime claims:
 contiguous zone:
  24 nm
 exclusive economic zone:
  200 nm
 territorial sea:
  12 nm
International disputes:   none
Climate:
  tropical; moderated by northeast trade winds; heavy rainfall
Terrain:
  rugged mountains of volcanic origin
Natural resources:
  timber
Land use:
 arable land:
  9%
 permanent crops:
  13%
 meadows and pastures:
  3%
 forest and woodland:
  41%
 other:
  34%
Irrigated land:
  NA km2
Environment:
  flash floods a constant hazard; occasional hurricanes

*Dominica, People

Population:
  86,547 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
  1.31% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
  20.82 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
  5.06 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
  -2.63 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
  10.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
 total population:
  76.72 years
 male:
  73.89 years
 female:
  79.71 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
  2.03 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
 noun:
  Dominican(s)
 adjective:
  Dominican
Ethnic divisions:
  black, Carib Indians
Religions:   Roman Catholic 77%, Protestant 15% (Methodist 5%, Pentecostal 3%,
  Seventh-Day Adventist 3%, Baptist 2%, other 2%), none 2%, unknown 1%, other
  5%
Languages:
  English (official), French patois
Literacy:
  age 15 and over having ever attended school (1970)
 total population:
  94%
 male:
  94%
 female:
  94%
Labor force:
  25,000
 by occupation:
  agriculture 40%, industry and commerce 32%, services 28% (1984)

*Dominica, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  Commonwealth of Dominica
 conventional short form:
  Dominica
Digraph:
  DO
Type:
  parliamentary democracy
Capital:
  Roseau
Administrative divisions:
  10 parishes; Saint Andrew, Saint David, Saint George, Saint John, Saint
  Joseph, Saint Luke, Saint Mark, Saint Patrick, Saint Paul, Saint Peter
Independence:
  3 November 1978 (from UK)
Constitution:
  3 November 1978
Legal system:
  based on English common law
National holiday:
  Independence Day, 3 November (1978)
Political parties and leaders:
  Dominica Freedom Party (DFP), (Mary) Eugenia CHARLES; Dominica Labor Party
  (DLP), Rosie DOUGLAS; United Workers Party (UWP), Edison JAMES
Other political or pressure groups:
  Dominica Liberation Movement (DLM), a small leftist group
Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal
Elections:
 House of Assembly:
  last held 28 May 1990 (next to be held May 1995); results - percent of vote
  by party NA; seats - (30 total; 9 appointed senators and 21 elected
  representatives) DFP 11, UWP 6, DLP 4
 President:
  last held 20 December 1988 (next to be held December 1993); results -
  President Sir Clarence Augustus SEIGNORET was reelected by the House of
  Assembly
Executive branch:
  president, prime minister, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
  unicameral House of Assembly
Judicial branch:
  Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court
Leaders:
 Chief of State:
  President Sir Clarence Augustus SEIGNORET (since 19 December 1983)
 Head of Government:
  Prime Minister (Mary) Eugenia CHARLES (since 21 July 1980, elected for a
  third term 28 May 1990)
Member of:
  ACCT, ACP, C, CARICOM, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC,
  ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, LORCS, NAM (observer), OAS, OECS, OPANAL, UN,
  UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
  there is no chancery in the US
US diplomatic representation:
  no official presence since the Ambassador resides in Bridgetown (Barbados),
  but travels frequently to Dominica

*Dominica, Government

Flag:
  green with a centered cross of three equal bands - the vertical part is
  yellow (hoist side), black, and white - the horizontal part is yellow (top),
  black, and white; superimposed in the center of the cross is a red disk
  bearing a sisserou parrot encircled by 10 green five-pointed stars edged in
  yellow; the 10 stars represent the 10 administrative divisions (parishes)

*Dominica, Economy

Overview:
  The economy is dependent on agriculture and thus is highly vulnerable to
  climatic conditions. Agriculture accounts for about 30% of GDP and employs
  40% of the labor force. Principal products include bananas, citrus, mangoes,
  root crops, and coconuts. In 1991, GDP grew by 2.1%. The tourist industry
  remains undeveloped because of a rugged coastline and the lack of an
  international airport.
National product:
  GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $174 million (1991 est.)
National product real growth rate:
  2.1% (1991 est.)
National product per capita:
  $2,100 (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  4.5% (1991)
Unemployment rate:
  15% (1991)
Budget:
  revenues $70 million; expenditures $84 million, including capital
  expenditures of $26 million (FY91 est.)
Exports:
  $66.0 million (c.i.f., 1991)
 commodities:
  bananas, soap, bay oil, vegetables, grapefruit, oranges
 partners:
  UK 50%, CARICOM countries, US, Italy
Imports:
  $110.0 million (c.i.f., 1991)
 commodities:
  manufactured goods, machinery and equipment, food, chemicals
 partners:
  US 27%, CARICOM, UK, Canada
External debt:
  $87 million (1991)
Industrial production:
  growth rate 4.5% in manufacturing (1988 est.); accounts for 18% of GDP
Electricity:
  7,000 kW capacity; 16 million kWh produced, 185 kWh per capita (1992)
Industries:
  soap, coconut oil, tourism, copra, furniture, cement blocks, shoes
Agriculture:
  accounts for 26% of GDP; principal crops - bananas, citrus, mangoes, root
  crops, coconuts; bananas provide the bulk of export earnings; forestry and
  fisheries potential not exploited
Economic aid:
  Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89),
  $120 million
Currency:
  1 EC dollar (EC$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
  East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1 - 2.70 (fixed rate since 1976)
Fiscal year:
  1 July - 30 June

*Dominica, Communications

Highways:
  750 km total; 370 km paved, 380 km gravel and earth
Ports:
  Roseau, Portsmouth
Airports:
 total:
  2
 usable:
  2
 with permanent-surface runways:
  2
 with runways over 3,659 m:
  0  with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
  0
 with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
  1
Telecommunications:
  4,600 telephones in fully automatic network; VHF and UHF link to Saint
  Lucia; new SHF links to Martinique and Guadeloupe; broadcast stations - 3
  AM, 2 FM, 1 cable TV

*Dominica, Defense Forces

Branches:
  Commonwealth of Dominica Police Force
Manpower availability:
  NA
Defense expenditures:
  exchange rate conversion - $NA, NA% of GDP

*Dominican Republic, Geography

Location:
  in the northern Caribbean Sea, about halfway between Cuba and Puerto Rico
Map references:
  Central America and the Caribbean, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
 total area:
  48,730 km2
 land area:
  48,380 km2
 comparative area:
  slightly more than twice the size of New Hampshire
Land boundaries:
  total 275 km, Haiti 275 km
Coastline:
  1,288 km
Maritime claims:
 contiguous zone:
  24 nm
 continental shelf:
  200 nm or the outer edge of continental margin
 exclusive economic zone:
  200 nm
 territorial sea:
  6 nm
International disputes:
  none
Climate:
  tropical maritime; little seasonal temperature variation
Terrain:
  rugged highlands and mountains with fertile valleys interspersed
Natural resources:
  nickel, bauxite, gold, silver
Land use:
 arable land:
  23%
 permanent crops:
  7%
 meadows and pastures:
  43%
 forest and woodland:
  13%
 other:
  14%
Irrigated land:
  2,250 km2 (1989)
Environment:
  subject to occasional hurricanes (July to October); deforestation
Note:
  shares island of Hispaniola with Haiti (western one-third is Haiti, eastern
  two-thirds is the Dominican Republic)

*Dominican Republic, People

Population:
  7,683,940 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
  1.86% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
  25.68 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
  6.38 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
  -0.68 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
  53.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
 total population:
  67.98 years
 male:
  65.87 years
 female:
  70.21 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
  2.89 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
 noun:
  Dominican(s)
 adjective:
  Dominican
Ethnic divisions:
  mixed 73%, white 16%, black 11%
Religions:
  Roman Catholic 95%
Languages:
  Spanish
Literacy:   age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
 total population:
  83%
 male:
  85%
 female:
  82%
Labor force:
  2,300,000 to 2,600,000
 by occupation:
  agriculture 49%, services 33%, industry 18% (1986)

*Dominican Republic, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  Dominican Republic
 conventional short form:
  none
 local long form:
  Republica Dominicana
 local short form:
  none
Digraph:
  DR
Type:
  republic
Capital:
  Santo Domingo
Administrative divisions:
  29 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia) and 1 district* (distrito);,   Azua, Baoruco,
Barahona, Dajabon, Distrito Nacional*, Duarte, Elias Pina, El,   Seibo, Espaillat, Hato Mayor,
Independencia, La Altagracia, La Romana, La
  Vega, Maria Trinidad Sanchez, Monsenor Nouel, Monte Cristi, Monte Plata,
  Pedernales, Peravia, Puerto Plata, Salcedo, Samana, Sanchez Ramirez, San
  Cristobal, San Juan, San Pedro De Macoris, Santiago, Santiago Rodriguez,
  Valverde
Independence:
  27 February 1844 (from Haiti)
Constitution:
  28 November 1966
Legal system:
  based on French civil codes
National holiday:
  Independence Day, 27 February (1844)
Political parties and leaders:
 Major parties:
  Social Christian Reformist Party (PRSC), Joaquin BALAGUER Ricardo; Dominican
  Liberation Party (PLD), Juan BOSCH Gavino; Dominican Revolutionary Party
  (PRD), Jose Franciso PENA Gomez; Independent Revolutionary Party (PRI),
  Jacobo MAJLUTA
 Minor parties:
  National Veterans and Civilian Party (PNVC), Juan Rene BEAUCHAMPS Javier;
  Liberal Party of the Dominican Republic (PLRD), Andres Van Der HORST;
  Democratic Quisqueyan Party (PQD), Elias WESSIN Chavez; National Progressive
  Force (FNP), Marino VINICIO Castillo; Popular Christian Party (PPC), Rogelio
  DELGADO Bogaert; Dominican Communist Party (PCD), Narciso ISA Conde;
  Dominican Workers' Party (PTD), Ivan RODRIGUEZ; Anti-Imperialist Patriotic
  Union (UPA), Ignacio RODRIGUEZ Chiappini; Alliance for Democracy Party
  (APD), Maximilano Rabelais PUIG Miller, Nelsida MARMOLEJOS, Vicente BENGOA
 note:
  in 1983 several leftist parties, including the PCD, joined to form the
  Dominican Leftist Front (FID); however, they still retain individual party
  structures
Other political or pressure groups:
  Collective of Popular Organzations (COP), leader NA
Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal and compulsory or married persons regardless of
  age
 note:
  members of the armed forces and police cannot vote

*Dominican Republic, Government

Elections:
 Chamber of Deputies:
  last held 16 May 1990 (next to be held May 1994); results - percent of vote
  by party NA; seats - (120 total) PLD 44, PRSC 41, PRD 33, PRI 2
 President:
  last held 16 May 1990 (next to be held May 1994); results - Joaquin BALAGUER
  (PRSC) 35.7%, Juan BOSCH Gavino (PLD) 34.4%
 Senate:
  last held 16 May 1990 (next to be held May 1994); results - percent of vote
  by party NA; seats - (30 total) PRSC 16, PLD 12, PRD 2
Executive branch:
  president, vice president, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
  bicameral National Congress (Congreso Nacional) consists of an upper chamber
  or Senate (Senado) and lower chamber or Chamber of Deputies (Camara de
  Diputados)
Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court (Corte Suprema)
Leaders:
 Chief of State and Head of Government:
  President Joaquin BALAGUER Ricardo (since 16 August 1986, fifth elected term
  began 16 August 1990); Vice President Carlos A. MORALES Troncoso (since 16
  August 1986)
Member of:
  ACP, CARICOM (observer), ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD,
  ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM,
  ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer), LORCS, NAM (guest), OAS, OPANAL, PCA, UN,
  UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador Jose del Carmen ARIZA Gomez
 chancery:
  1715 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
 telephone:   (202) 332-6280
 consulates general:
  Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, Mayaguez (Puerto Rico), Miami, New Orleans,
  New York, Philadelphia, San Juan (Puerto Rico)
 consulates:
  Charlotte Amalie (Virgin Islands), Detroit, Houston, Jacksonville,
  Minneapolis, Mobile, Ponce (Puerto Rico), and San Francisco
US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador Robert S. PASTORINO
 embassy:
  corner of Calle Cesar Nicolas Penson and Calle Leopoldo Navarro, Santo
  Domingo
 mailing address:
  APO AA 34041-0008
 telephone:
  (809) 541-2171 and 541-8100
 FAX:
  (809) 686-7437
Flag:
  a centered white cross that extends to the edges, divides the flag into four
  rectangles - the top ones are blue (hoist side) and red, the bottom ones are
  red (hoist side) and blue; a small coat of arms is at the center of the
  cross

*Dominican Republic, Economy

Overview:
  The economy is largely dependent on trade; imported components average 60%
  of the value of goods consumed in the domestic market. Rapid growth of free
  trade zones has established a significant expansion of manufacturing for
  export, especially wearing apparel. Over the past decade, tourism has also
  increased in importance and is a major earner of foreign exchange and a
  source of new jobs. Agriculture remains a key sector of the economy. The
  principal commercial crop is sugarcane, followed by coffee, cotton, cocoa,
  and tobacco. Domestic industry is based on the processing of agricultural
  products, oil refining, minerals, and chemicals. Unemployment is officially
  reported at about 30%, but there is considerable underemployment.
National product:
  GDP - exchange rate conversion - $8.4 billion (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate:
  5% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
  $1,120 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  6% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
  30% (1992 est.)
Budget:
  revenues $1.4 billion; expenditures $1.8 billion, including capital
  expenditures of $NA (1993 est.)
Exports:
  $600 million (f.o.b., 1992)
 commodities:   ferronickel, sugar, gold, coffee, cocoa
 partners:
  US 60%, EC 19%, Puerto Rico 8% (1990)
Imports:
  $2 billion (c.i.f., 1992 est.)
 commodities:
  foodstuffs, petroleum, cotton and fabrics, chemicals and pharmaceuticals
 partners:
  US 50%
External debt:
  $4.7 billion (1992 est.)
Industrial production:
  growth rate -1.5% (1991); accounts for 20% of GDP
Electricity:
  2,283,000 kW capacity; 5,000 million kWh produced, 660 kWh per capita (1992)
Industries:
  tourism, sugar processing, ferronickel and gold mining, textiles, cement,
  tobacco
Agriculture:
  accounts for 15% of GDP and employs 49% of labor force; sugarcane is the
  most important commercial crop, followed by coffee, cotton, cocoa, and
  tobacco; food crops - rice, beans, potatoes, corn, bananas; animal output -
  cattle, hogs, dairy products, meat, eggs; not self-sufficient in food
Illicit drugs:
  transshipment point for South American drugs destined for the US
Economic aid:
  US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY85-89), $575 million; Western (non-US)
  countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $655 million
Currency:
  1 Dominican peso (RD$) = 100 centavos

*Dominican Republic, Economy

Exchange rates:
  Dominican pesos (RD$) per US$1 - 12.7 (1992), 12.692 (1991), 8.525 (1990),
  6.340 (1989), 6.113 (1988)
Fiscal year:
  calendar year

*Dominican Republic, Communications

Railroads:
  1,655 km total in numerous segments; 4 different gauges from 0.558 m to
  1.435 m
Highways:
  12,000 km total; 5,800 km paved, 5,600 km gravel and improved earth, 600 km
  unimproved
Pipelines:
  crude oil 96 km; petroleum products 8 km
Ports:
  Santo Domingo, Haina, San Pedro de Macoris, Puerto Plata
Merchant marine:   1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,587 GRT/1,165 DWT
Airports:
 total:
  36
 usable:
  30
 with permanent-surface runways:
  12
 with runways over 3,659 m:
  0
 with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
  4
 with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
  8
Telecommunications:
  relatively efficient domestic system based on islandwide microwave relay
  network; 190,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 120 AM, no FM, 18 TV, 6
  shortwave; 1 coaxial submarine cable; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth
  station

*Dominican Republic, Defense Forces

Branches:
  Army, Navy, Air Force, National Police
Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49 2,064,244; fit for military service 1,302,644; reach
  military age (18) annually 80,991 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
  exchange rate conversion - $110 million, 0.7% of GDP (1993 est.)

*Ecuador, Geography

Location:
  Western South America, bordering the Pacific Ocean at the Equator between
  Colombia and Peru
Map references:
  South America, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
 total area:
  283,560 km2
 land area:
  276,840 km2
 comparative area:
  slightly smaller than Nevada
 note:
  includes Galapagos Islands
Land boundaries:
  total 2,010 km, Colombia 590 km, Peru 1,420 km
Coastline:
  2,237 km
Maritime claims:
 continental shelf:   claims continental shelf between mainland and Galapagos Islands
 territorial sea:
  200 nm
International disputes:
  three sections of the boundary with Peru are in dispute
Climate:
  tropical along coast becoming cooler inland
Terrain:
  coastal plain (Costa), inter-Andean central highlands (Sierra), and flat to
  rolling eastern jungle (Oriente)
Natural resources:
  petroleum, fish, timber
Land use:
 arable land:
  6%
 permanent crops:
  3%
 meadows and pastures:
  17%
 forest and woodland:
  51%
 other:
  23%
Irrigated land:
  5,500 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
  subject to frequent earthquakes, landslides, volcanic activity;
  deforestation; desertification; soil erosion; periodic droughts
Note:
  Cotopaxi in Andes is highest active volcano in world

*Ecuador, People

Population:
  10,461,072 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
  2.07% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
  26.54 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
  5.8 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
  40.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
 total population:
  69.61 years
 male:
  67.09 years
 female:
  72.25 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
  3.19 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
 noun:
  Ecuadorian(s)
 adjective:
  Ecuadorian
Ethnic divisions:
  mestizo (mixed Indian and Spanish) 55%, Indian 25%, Spanish 10%, black 10%
Religions:
  Roman Catholic 95%
Languages:
  Spanish (official), Indian languages (especially Quechua)
Literacy:
  age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
 total population:
  86%
 male:
  88%
 female:
  84%
Labor force:
  2.8 million
 by occupation:
  agriculture 35%, manufacturing 21%, commerce 16%, services and other
  activities 28% (1982)

*Ecuador, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  Republic of Ecuador
 conventional short form:
  Ecuador
 local long form:
  Republica del Ecuador
 local short form:
  Ecuador
Digraph:
  EC
Type:
  republic
Capital:
  Quito
Administrative divisions:
  21 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Azuay, Bolivar, Canar,
  Carchi, Chimborazo, Cotopaxi, El Oro, Esmeraldas, Galapagos, Guayas,
  Imbabura, Loja, Los Rios, Manabi, Morona-Santiago, Napo, Pastaza, Pichincha,
  Sucumbios, Tungurahua, Zamora-Chinchipe
Independence:
  24 May 1822 (from Spain)
Constitution:
  10 August 1979
Legal system:
  based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:   Independence Day, 10 August (1809) (independence of Quito)
Political parties and leaders:
 Center-Right parties:
  Social Christian Party (PSC), Jaime NEBOT Saadi, president; Republican Unity
  Party (PUR), President Sixto DURAN-BALLEN, leader; Conservative Party (CE),
  Vice President Alberto DAHIK, president
 Center-Left parties:
  Democratic Left (ID), Andres VALLEJO Arcos, Rodrigo BORJA Cevallos, leaders;
  Popular Democracy (DP), Jamil MANUAD Witt, president; Ecuadorian Radical
  Liberal Party (PLRE), Carlos Luis PLAZA Aray, director; Radical Alfarista
  Front (FRA), Jaime ASPIAZU Seminario, director
 Populist parties:
  Roldista Party (PRE), Abdala BUCARAM Ortiz, director; Concentration of
  Popular Forces (CFP), Rafael SANTELICES, director; Popular Revolutionary
  Action (APRE), Frank VARGAS Passos, leader; Assad Bucaram Party (PAB),
  Avicena BUCARAM, leader; People, Change, and Democracy (PCD), Raul AULESTIA,
  director
 Far-Left parties:
  Popular Democratic Movement (MPD), Jorge Fausto MORENO, director; Ecuadorian
  Socialist Party (PSE), Leon ROLDOS, leader; Broad Leftist Front (FADI), Jose
  Xavier GARAYCOA, president; Ecuadorian National Liberation (LN), Alfredo
  CASTILLO, director
 Communists:
  Communist Party of Ecuador (PCE, pro-North Korea), Rene Leon Mague
  MOSWUERRA, secretary general (5,00 members); Communist Party of
  Ecuador/Marxist-Leninist (PCMLE, Maoist), leader NA (3,000 members)
Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal, compulsory for literate persons ages 18-65,
  optional for other eligible voters

*Ecuador, Government

Elections:
 President:
  runoff election held 5 July 1992 (next to be held NA 1996); results - Sixto
  DURAN-BALLEN elected as president and Alberto DAHIK elected as vice
  president
 National Congress:
  last held 17 May 1992 (next to be held NA May 1994); results - percent of
  vote by party NA; seats - (77 total) PSC 20, PRE 15, PUR 12, ID 7, PC 6, DP
  5, PSE 3, MPD 3, PLRE 2, CFP 2, FRA 1, APRE 1
Executive branch:
  president, vice president, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
  unicameral National Congress (Congreso Nacional)
Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court (Corte Suprema)
Leaders:
 Chief of State and Head of Government:
  President Sixto DURAN-BALLEN (since 10 August 1992); Vice President Alberto
  DAHIK (since 10 August 1992)
Member of:
  AG, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD,
  IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES, LAIA, LORCS,
  NAM, OAS, ONUSAL, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL,
  WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador Edgar TERAN
 chancery:
  2535 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
 telephone:
  (202) 234-7200
 consulates general:
  Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, and San
  Francisco
 consulate:
  San Diego
US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission:
  (vacant); Charge d'Affaires James F. MACK
 embassy:
  Avenida 12 de Octubre y Avenida Patria, Quito
 mailing address:
  P. O. Box 538, Quito, or APO AA 34039-3420
 telephone:
  [593] (2) 562-890
 FAX:
  [593] (2) 502-052
 consulate general:
  Guayaquil
Flag:
  three horizontal bands of yellow (top, double width), blue, and red with the
  coat of arms superimposed at the center of the flag; similar to the flag of
  Colombia that is shorter and does not bear a coat of arms

*Ecuador, Economy

Overview:
  Ecuador has substantial oil resources and rich agricultural areas. Growth
  has been uneven because of natural disasters, fluctuations in global oil
  prices, and government policies designed to curb inflation. Banana exports,
  second only to oil, have suffered as a result of EC import quotas and banana
  blight. The new President Sixto DURAN-BALLEN, has a much more favorable
  attitude toward foreign investment than did his predecessor. Ecuador has
  implemented trade agreements with Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Venezuela and
  has applied for GATT membership. At the end of 1991, Ecuador received a
  standby IMF loan of $105 million, which will permit the country to proceed
  with the rescheduling of Paris Club debt. In September 1992, the government
  launched a new, macroeconomic program that gives more play to market forces;
  as of March 1993, the program seemed to be paying off.
National product:
  GDP - exchange rate conversion - $11.8 billion (1992)
National product real growth rate:
  3% (1992)
National product per capita:
  $1,100 (1992)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):   70% (1992)
Unemployment rate:
  8% (1992)
Budget:
  revenues $1.9 billion; expenditures $1.9 billion, including capital
  expenditures of $NA (1992)
Exports:
  $3.0 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
 commodities:
  petroleum 42%, bananas, shrimp, cocoa, coffee
 partners:
  US 53.4%, Latin America, Caribbean, EC countries
Imports:
  $2.4 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
 commodities:
  transport equipment, vehicles, machinery, chemicals
 partners:
  US 32.7%, Latin America, Caribbean, EC countries, Japan
External debt:
  $12.7 billion (1992)
Industrial production:
  growth rate 3.9% (1991); accounts for almost 40% of GDP, including petroleum
Electricity:
  2,921,000 kW capacity; 7,676 million kWh produced, 700 kWh per capita (1992)
Industries:
  petroleum, food processing, textiles, metal works, paper products, wood
  products, chemicals, plastics, fishing, timber
Agriculture:
  accounts for 18% of GDP and 35% of labor force (including fishing and
  forestry); leading producer and exporter of bananas and balsawood; other
  exports - coffee, cocoa, fish, shrimp; crop production - rice, potatoes,
  manioc, plantains, sugarcane; livestock sector - cattle, sheep, hogs, beef,
  pork, dairy products; net importer of foodgrains, dairy products, and sugar
Illicit drugs:
  minor illicit producer of coca following the successful eradication campaign
  of 1985-87; significant transit country, however, for derivatives of coca
  originating in Colombia, Bolivia, and Peru; importer of precursor chemicals
  used in production of illicit narcotics; important money-laundering hub

*Ecuador, Economy

Economic aid:
  US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $498 million; Western (non-US)
  countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $2.15 billion;
  Communist countries (1970-89), $64 million
Currency:
  1 sucre (S/) = 100 centavos
Exchange rates:
  sucres (S/) per US$1 - 1,453.8 (August 1992), 1,046.25 (1991), 869.54
  (December 1990), 767.75 (1990), 526.35 (1989), 301.61 (1988)
Fiscal year:
  calendar year

*Ecuador, Communications

Railroads:
  965 km total; all 1.067-meter-gauge single track
Highways:
  28,000 km total; 3,600 km paved, 17,400 km gravel and improved earth, 7,000
  km unimproved earth
Inland waterways:
  1,500 km
Pipelines:
  crude oil 800 km; petroleum products 1,358 km
Ports:
  Guayaquil, Manta, Puerto Bolivar, Esmeraldas
Merchant marine:
  45 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 333,380 GRT/483,862 DWT; includes 2
  passenger, 4 cargo, 17 refrigerated cargo, 4 container, 1 roll-on/roll-off,
  15 oil tanker, 1 liquefied gas, 1 bulk
Airports:
 total:
  174
 usable:
  173
 with permanent-surface runways:
  52
 with runway over 3,659 m:
  1
 with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
  6
 with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
  21
Telecommunications:
  domestic facilities generally adequate; 318,000 telephones; broadcast
  stations - 272 AM, no FM, 33 TV, 39 shortwave; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT
  earth station

*Ecuador, Defense Forces

Branches:
  Army (Ejercito Ecuatoriano), Navy (Armada Ecuatoriana), Air Force (Fuerza
  Aerea Ecuatoriana), National Police
Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49 2,655,520; fit for military service 1,798,122; reach
  military age (20) annually 109,413 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
  exchange rate conversion - $NA, NA% of GDP

*Egypt, Geography

Location:
  Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea, between
  Sudan and Libya
Map references:
  Africa, Middle East, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
 total area:
  1,001,450 km2
 land area:
  995,450 km2
 comparative area:
  slightly more than three times the size of New Mexico
Land boundaries:
  total 2,689 km, Gaza Strip 11 km, Israel 255 km, Libya 1,150 km, Sudan 1,273
  km
Coastline:
  2,450 km
Maritime claims:
 contiguous zone:
  24 nm
 continental shelf:
  200 m depth or to depth of exploitation
 exclusive economic zone:
  not specified
 territorial sea:
  12 nm
International disputes:
  administrative boundary with Sudan does not coincide with international
  boundary creating the "Hala'ib Triangle," a barren area of 20,580 km2, the
  dispute over this area escalated in 1993
Climate:
  desert; hot, dry summers with moderate winters
Terrain:
  vast desert plateau interrupted by Nile valley and delta
Natural resources:
  petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, manganese, limestone, gypsum,
  talc, asbestos, lead, zinc
Land use:
 arable land:
  3%
 permanent crops:
  2%
 meadows and pastures:
  0%
 forest and woodland:
  0%
 other:
  95%
Irrigated land:
  25,850 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
  Nile is only perennial water source; increasing soil salinization below
  Aswan High Dam; hot, driving windstorm called khamsin occurs in spring;
  water pollution; desertification
Note:
  controls Sinai Peninsula, only land bridge between Africa and remainder of
  Eastern Hemisphere; controls Suez Canal, shortest sea link between Indian
  Ocean and Mediterranean; size and juxtaposition to Israel establish its
  major role in Middle Eastern geopolitics

*Egypt, People

Population:
  59,585,529 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
  2.3% (1993 est.)
 note:
  the US Bureau of the Census has lowered its 1993 estimate of growth to 2.0%
  on the basis of a 1992 Egyptian government survey, whereas estimates of
  other observers go as high as 2.9%
Birth rate:
  33 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
  9 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
  NEGL
Infant mortality rate:
  78.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
 total population:
  60.46 years
 male:
  58.61 years
 female:
  62.41 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
  4.35 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
 noun:
  Egyptian(s)
 adjective:
  Egyptian
Ethnic divisions:
  Eastern Hamitic stock 90%, Greek, Italian, Syro-Lebanese 10%
Religions:
  Muslim (mostly Sunni) 94% (official estimate), Coptic Christian and other 6%
  (official estimate)
Languages:
  Arabic (official), English and French widely understood by educated classes
Literacy:
  age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
 total population:
  48%
 male:
  63%
 female:
  34%
Labor force:
  15 million (1989 est.)
 by occupation:
  government, public sector enterprises, and armed forces 36%, agriculture
  34%, privately owned service and manufacturing enterprises 20% (1984)
 note:   shortage of skilled labor; 2,500,000 Egyptians work abroad, mostly in Saudi
  Arabia and the Gulf Arab states (1988 est.)

*Egypt, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  Arab Republic of Egypt
 conventional short form:
  Egypt
 local long form:
  Jumhuriyat Misr al-Arabiyah
 local short form:
  none
 former:
  United Arab Republic (with Syria)
Digraph:
  EG
Type:
  republic
Capital:
  Cairo
Administrative divisions:
  26 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah); Ad Daqahliyah, Al Bahr al
  Ahmar, Al Buhayrah, Al Fayyum, Al Gharbiyah, Al Iskandariyah, Al
  Isma'iliyah, Al Jizah, Al Minufiyah, Al Minya, Al Qahirah, Al Qalyubiyah, Al
  Wadi al Jadid, Ash Sharqiyah, As Suways, Aswan, Asyu't, Bani Suwayf, Bur
  Sa'id, Dumyat, Janub Sina, Kafr ash Shaykh, Matruh, Qina, Shamal Sina, Suhaj
Independence:
  28 February 1922 (from UK)
Constitution:
  11 September 1971
Legal system:
  based on English common law, Islamic law, and Napoleonic codes; judicial
  review by Supreme Court and Council of State (oversees validity of
  administrative decisions); accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with
  reservations
National holiday:
  Anniversary of the Revolution, 23 July (1952)
Political parties and leaders:
  National Democratic Party (NDP), President Mohammed Hosni MUBARAK, leader,
  is the dominant party; legal opposition parties are Socialist Liberal Party
  (SLP), Kamal MURAD; Socialist Labor Party, Ibrahim SHUKRI; National
  Progressive Unionist Grouping (NPUG), Khalid MUHYI-AL-DIN; Umma Party, Ahmad
  al-SABAHI; New Wafd Party (NWP), Fu'ad SIRAJ AL-DIN; Misr al-Fatah Party
  (Young Egypt Party), Ali al-Din SALIH; The Greens Party, Hasan RAJABD;
  Nasserist Arab Democratic Party, Muhammad Rif'at al-MUHAMI; Democratic
  Unionist Party, Mohammed 'Abd-al-Mun'im TURK; Democratic Peoples' Party,
  Anwar AFISI
 note:
  formation of political parties must be approved by government
Other political or pressure groups:
  Islamic groups are illegal, but the largest one, the Muslim Brotherhood, is
  tolerated by the government; trade unions and professional associations are
  officially sanctioned
Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Elections:
 Advisory Council:
  last held 8 June 1989 (next to be held June 1995); results - NDP 100%; seats
  - (258 total, 172 elected) NDP 172

*Egypt, Government

 People's Assembly:
  last held 29 November 1990 (next to be held November 1995); results - NDP
  78.4%, NPUG 1.4%, independents 18.7%; seats - (437 total, 444 elected) NDP
  348, NPUG 6, independents 83; note - most opposition parties boycotted
 President:
  last held 5 October 1987 (next to be held October 1993); results - President
  Hosni MUBARAK was reelected
Executive branch:
  president, prime minister, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
  unicameral People's Assembly (Majlis al-Cha'b); note - there is an Advisory
  Council (Majlis al-Shura) that functions in a consultative role
Judicial branch:
  Supreme Constitutional Court
Leaders:
 Chief of State:
  President Mohammed Hosni MUBARAK (was made acting President on 6 October
  1981 upon the assassination of President SADAT and sworn in as president on
  14 October 1981)
 Head of Government:
  Prime Minister Atef Mohammed Najib SEDKY (since 12 November 1986)
Member of:
  ABEDA, ACC, ACCT (associate), AfDB, AFESD, AG (observer), AL, AMF, CAEU,
  CCC, EBRD, ECA, ESCWA, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
  ICC, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC,
  IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS, MINURSO, NAM, OAPEC, OAS (observer), OAU, OIC, PCA,
  UN, UNAVEM II, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOMOZ, UNOSOM, UNPROFOR, UPU, UNRWA,
  WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador Ahmed MAHER El Sayed
 chancery:
  2310 Decatur Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
 telephone:
  (202) 232-5400
 consulates general:
  Chicago, Houston, New York, and San Francisco
US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador Robert PELLETREAU
 embassy:
  Lazougi Street, Garden City, Cairo
 mailing address:
  APO AE 09839  telephone:
  [20] (2) 355-7371
 FAX:
  [20] (2) 355-7375
 consulate general:
  Alexandria
Flag:
  three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black with the
  national emblem (a shield superimposed on a golden eagle facing the hoist
  side above a scroll bearing the name of the country in Arabic) centered in
  the white band; similar to the flag of Yemen, which has a plain white band;
  also similar to the flag of Syria that has two green stars and to the flag
  of Iraq, which has three green stars (plus an Arabic inscription) in a
  horizontal line centered in the white band

*Egypt, Economy

Overview:
  Egypt has one of the largest public sectors of all the Third World
  economies, most industrial plants being owned by the government.
  Overregulation holds back technical modernization and foreign investment.
  Even so, the economy grew rapidly during the late 1970s and early 1980s, but
  in 1986 the collapse of world oil prices and an increasingly heavy burden of
  debt servicing led Egypt to begin negotiations with the IMF for
  balance-of-payments support. Egypt's first IMF standby arrangement concluded
  in mid-1987 was suspended in early 1988 because of the government's failure
  to adopt promised reforms. Egypt signed a follow-on program with the IMF and
  also negotiated a structural adjustment loan with the World Bank in 1991. In
  1991-92 the government made solid progress on administrative reforms such as
  liberalizing exchange and interest rates but resisted implementing major
  structural reforms like streamlining the public sector. As a result, the
  economy has not gained momentum and unemployment has become a growing
  problem. In 1992-93 tourism has plunged 20% or so because of sporadic
  attacks by Islamic extremists on tourist groups. President MUBARAK has cited
  population growth as the main cause of the country's economic troubles. The
  addition of about 1.4 million people a year to the already huge population
  of 60 million exerts enormous pressure on the 5% of the land area available
  for agriculture.
National product:
  GDP - exchange rate conversion - $41.2 billion (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate:
  2.1% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
  $730 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  21% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
  20% (1992 est.)
Budget:
  revenues $12.6 billion; expenditures $15.2 billion, including capital
  expenditures of $4 billion (FY92 est.)
Exports:
  $3.6 billion (f.o.b., FY92 est.)
 commodities:   crude oil and petroleum products, cotton yarn, raw cotton, textiles, metal
  products, chemicals
 partners:
  EC, Eastern Europe, US, Japan
Imports:
  $10.0 billion (c.i.f., FY92 est.)
 commodities:
  machinery and equipment, foods, fertilizers, wood products, durable consumer
  goods, capital goods
 partners:
  EC, US, Japan, Eastern Europe
External debt:
  $38 billion (December 1991 est.)
Industrial production:
  growth rate 7.3% (FY89 est.); accounts for 18% of GDP
Electricity:
  14,175,000 kW capacity; 47,000 million kWh produced, 830 kWh per capita
  (1992)
Industries:
  textiles, food processing, tourism, chemicals, petroleum, construction,
  cement, metals

*Egypt, Economy

Agriculture:
  accounts for 20% of GDP and employs more than one-third of labor force;
  dependent on irrigation water from the Nile; world's sixth-largest cotton
  exporter; other crops produced include rice, corn, wheat, beans, fruit,
  vegetables; not self-sufficient in food for a rapidly expanding population;
  livestock - cattle, water buffalo, sheep, goats; annual fish catch about
  140,000 metric tons
Illicit drugs:
  a transit point for Southwest Asian and Southeast Asian heroin and opium
  moving to Europe and the US; popular transit stop for Nigerian couriers;
  large domestic consumption of hashish and heroin from Lebanon and Syria
Economic aid:
  US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $15.7 billion; Western (non-US)
  countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-88), $10.1 billion; OPEC
  bilateral aid (1979-89), $2.9 billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $2.4
  billion
Currency:
  1 Egyptian pound (#E) = 100 piasters
Exchange rates:
  Egyptian pounds (#E) per US$1 - 3.345 (November 1992), 2.7072 (1990), 2.5171
  (1989), 2.2233 (1988), 1.5183 (1987)
Fiscal year:
  1 July - 30 June

*Egypt, Communications

Railroads:
  5,110 km total; 4,763 km 1,435-meter standard gauge, 347 km 0.750-meter
  gauge; 951 km double track; 25 km electrified
Highways:
  51,925 km total; 17,900 km paved, 2,500 km gravel, 13,500 km improved earth,
  18,025 km unimproved earth
Inland waterways:
  3,500 km (including the Nile, Lake Nasser, Alexandria-Cairo Waterway, and
  numerous smaller canals in the delta); Suez Canal, 193.5 km long (including
  approaches), used by oceangoing vessels drawing up to 16.1 meters of water
Pipelines:
  crude oil 1,171 km; petroleum products 596 km; natural gas 460 km
Ports:
  Alexandria, Port Said, Suez, Bur Safajah, Damietta
Merchant marine:
  168 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,097,707 GRT/1,592,885 DWT; includes
  25 passenger, 6 short-sea passenger, 2 passenger-cargo, 88 cargo, 3
  refrigerated cargo, 14 roll-on/roll-off, 13 oil tanker, 16 bulk, 1 container
Airports:
 total:
  92
 usable:
  82
 with permanent-surface runways:
  66
 with runways over 3,659 m:
  2
 with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
  44
 with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
  24
Telecommunications:
  large system by Third World standards but inadequate for present
  requirements and undergoing extensive upgrading; about 600,000 telephones
  (est.) - 11 telephones per 1,000 persons; principal centers at Alexandria,
  Cairo, Al Mansurah, Ismailia Suez, and Tanta are connected by coaxial cable
  and microwave radio relay; international traffic is carried by satellite -
  one earth station for each of Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, Indian Ocean
  INTELSAT, ARABSAT and INMARSAT; by 5 coaxial submarine cables, microwave
  troposcatter (to Sudan), and microwave radio relay (to Libya, Israel, and
  Jordan); broadcast stations - 39 AM, 6 FM, and 41 TV

*Egypt, Defense Forces

Branches:
  Army, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense Command
Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49 14,513,752; fit for military service 9,434,020; reach
  military age (20) annually 581,858 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
  exchange rate conversion - $2.05 billion, 5% of GDP (FY92/93)

*El Salvador, Geography

Location:
  Central America, bordering the North Pacific Ocean between Guatemala and
  Honduras
Map references:
  Central America and the Caribbean, North America, Standard Time Zones of the
  World
Area:
 total area:
  21,040 km2
 land area:
  20,720 km2
 comparative area:
  slightly smaller than Massachusetts
Land boundaries:
  total 545 km, Guatemala 203 km, Honduras 342 km
Coastline:
  307 km
Maritime claims:
 territorial sea:
  200 nm; overflight and navigation permitted beyond 12 nm
International disputes:
  land boundary dispute with Honduras mostly resolved by 11 September 1992
  International Court of Justice (ICJ) decision; ICJ referred the maritime
  boundary in the Golfo de Fonseca to an earlier agreement in this century and
  advised that some tripartite resolution among El Salvador, Honduras and
  Nicaragua likely would be required
Climate:
  tropical; rainy season (May to October); dry season (November to April)
Terrain:
  mostly mountains with narrow coastal belt and central plateau
Natural resources:
  hydropower, geothermal power, petroleum
Land use:
 arable land:
  27%
 permanent crops:
  8%
 meadows and pastures:
  29%
 forest and woodland:
  6%
 other:
  30%
Irrigated land:
  1,200 km2 (1989)
Environment:
  the Land of Volcanoes; subject to frequent and sometimes very destructive
  earthquakes; deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution
Note:
  smallest Central American country and only one without a coastline on
  Caribbean Sea

*El Salvador, People

Population:
  5,636,524 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
  2.04% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
  33.12 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
  6.53 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
  -6.21 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
  42.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
 total population:
  66.5 years
 male:
  63.93 years
 female:
  69.2 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
  3.87 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
 noun:
  Salvadoran(s)
 adjective:
  Salvadoran
Ethnic divisions:
  mestizo 94%, Indian 5%, white 1%
Religions:
  Roman Catholic 75%
 note:
  Roman Catholic about 75%; there is extensive activity by Protestant groups
  throughout the country; by the end of 1992, there were an estimated 1
  million Protestant evangelicals in El Salvador
Languages:
  Spanish, Nahua (among some Indians)
Literacy:
  age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
 total population:
  73%
 male:
  76%
 female:
  70%
Labor force:
  1.7 million (1982 est.)
 by occupation:
  agriculture 40%, commerce 16%, manufacturing 15%, government 13%, financial
  services 9%, transportation 6%, other 1%
 note:
  shortage of skilled labor and a large pool of unskilled labor, but manpower
  training programs improving situation (1984 est.)

*El Salvador, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  Republic of El Salvador
 conventional short form:
  El Salvador
 local long form:
  Republica de El Salvador
 local short form:
  El Salvador
Digraph:
  ES
Type:
  republic
Capital:
  San Salvador
Administrative divisions:
  14 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Ahuachapan,
  Cabanas, Chalatenango, Cuscatlan, La Libertad, La Paz, La Union, Morazan,
  San Miguel, San Salvador, Santa Ana, San Vicente, Sonsonate, Usulutan
Independence:
  15 September 1821 (from Spain)
Constitution:
  20 December 1983
Legal system:
  based on civil and Roman law, with traces of common law; judicial review of
  legislative acts in the Supreme Court; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction,
  with reservations
National holiday:
  Independence Day, 15 September (1821)
Political parties and leaders:
  National Republican Alliance (Arena), Armando CALDERON Sol, president;
  Christian Democratic Party (PDC), Fidel CHAVEZ Mena, secretary general;
  National Conciliation Party (PCN), Ciro CRUZ Zepeda, president; Democratic
  Convergence (CD) is a coalition of three parties - the Social Democratic
  Party (PSD), Carlos Diaz BARRERA, secretary general; Democratic Nationalist
  Union (UDN), Mario AGUINADA Carranza, secretary general; and the Popular
  Social Christian Movement (MPSC), Dr. Ruben Ignacio ZAMORA Rivas; Authentic
  Christian Movement (MAC), Guillermo Antonia GUEVARA Lacayo, president;
  Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front (FMLM), Jorge Shafik HANDAL,
  general coordinator, has five factions - Popular Liberation Forces (FPL),
  Salvador SANCHEZ Ceren; Armed Forces of National Resistance (FARN), Ferman
  CIENFUEGOS; People's Revolutionary Army (ERP), Joaquin VILLA LOBOS Huezo;
  Salvadoran Communist Party/Armed Forces of Liberation (PCES/FAL), Jorge
  Shafik HANDAL; and
  Central American Workers' Revolutionary Party (PRTC)/Popular Liberation
  Revolutionary Aermed Forces (FARLP), Francisco JOVEL
Other political or pressure groups:
 FMLN labor front organizations:
  National Union of Salvadoran Workers (UNTS), leftist umbrella front group,
  leads FMLN front network; National Federation of Salvadoran Workers
  (FENASTRAS), best organized of front groups and controlled by FMLN's
  National Resistance (RN); Social Security Institute Workers Union (STISSS),
  one of the most militant fronts, is controlled by FMLN's Armed Forces of
  National Resistance (FARN) and RN; Association of Telecommunications Workers
  (ASTTEL); Unitary Federation of Salvadoran Unions (FUSS), leftist; Treasury
  Ministry Employees (AGEMHA)

*El Salvador, Government

 FMLN nonlabor front organizations:
  Committee of Mothers and Families of Political Prisoners, Disappeared
  Persons, and Assassinated of El Salvador (COMADRES); Nongovernmental Human
  Rights Commission (CDHES); Committee of Dismissed and Unemployed of El
  Salvador (CODYDES); General Association of Salvadoran University Students
  (AGEUS); National Association of Salvadoran Educators (ANDES-21 DE JUNIO);
  Salvadoran Revolutionary Student Front (FERS), associated with the Popular
  Forces of Liberation (FPL); Association of National University Educators
  (ADUES); Salvadoran University Students Front (FEUS); Christian Committee
  for the Displaced of El Salvador (CRIPDES), an FPL front; The Association
  for Communal Development in El Salvador (PADECOES), controlled by the
  People's Revolutionary Army (ERP); Confederation of Cooperative Associations
  of El Salvador (COACES)
 labor organizations:
  Federation of Construction and Transport Workers Unions (FESINCONSTRANS),
  independent; Salvadoran Communal Union (UCS), peasant association;
  Democratic Workers Central (CTD), moderate; General Confederation of Workers
  (CGT), moderate; National Union of Workers and Peasants (UNOC), moderate
  labor coalition of democratic labor organizations; United Workers Front
  (FUT)
 business organizations:
  National Association of Private Enterprise (ANEP), conservative; Productive
  Alliance (AP), conservative; National Federation of Salvadoran Small
  Businessmen (FENAPES), conservative
Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal
Elections:
 Legislative Assembly:
  last held 10 March 1991 (next to be held March 1994); results - ARENA 44.3%,
  PDC 27.96%, CD 12.16%, PCN 8.99%, MAC 3.23%, UDN 2.68%; seats - (84 total)
  ARENA 39, PDC 26, PCN 9, CD 8, UDN 1, MAC 1
 President:
  last held 19 March 1989 (next to be held March 1994); results - Alfredo
  CRISTIANI (ARENA) 53.8%, Fidel CHAVEZ Mena (PDC) 36.6%, other 9.6%
Executive branch:
  president, vice president, Council of Ministers (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
  unicameral Legislative Assembly (Asamblea Legislativa)
Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court (Corte Suprema)
Leaders:
 Chief of State and Head of Government:
  President (Felix) Alfredo CRISTIANI Buchard (since 1 June 1989); Vice
  President (Jose) Francisco MERINO Lopez (since 1 June 1989)
Member of:
  BCIE, CACM, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA,
  IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer),
  LORCS, NAM (observer), OAS, OPANAL, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU,
  WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:  chief of mission:
  Ambassador Miguel Angel SALAVERRIA
 chancery:
  2308 California Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
 telephone:
  (202) 265-9671 through 3482
 consulates general:
  Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, and San Francisco

*El Salvador, Government

US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission:
  Charge d'Affaires Peter F. ROMERO
 embassy:
  Final Boulevard, Station Antigua Cuscatlan, San Salvador
 mailing address:
  APO AA 34023
 telephone:
  [503] 78-4444
 FAX:
  [503] 78-6011
Flag:
  three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and blue with the
  national coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms features
  a round emblem encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE EL SALVADOR EN LA AMERICA
  CENTRAL; similar to the flag of Nicaragua, which has a different coat of
  arms centered in the white band - it features a triangle encircled by the
  words REPUBLICA DE NICARAGUA on top and AMERICA CENTRAL on the bottom; also
  similar to the flag of Honduras, which has five blue stars arranged in an X
  pattern centered in the white band

*El Salvador, Economy

Overview:
  The agricultural sector accounts for 24% of GDP, employs about 40% of the
  labor force, and contributes about 66% to total exports. Coffee is the major
  commercial crop, accounting for 45% of export earnings. The manufacturing
  sector, based largely on food and beverage processing, accounts for 18% of
  GDP and 15% of employment. Economic losses because of guerrilla sabotage
  total more than $2 billion since 1979. The costs of maintaining a large
  military seriously constrain the government's efforts to provide essential
  social services. Nevertheless, growth in national output during the period
  1990-92 exceeded growth in population for the first time since 1987.
National product:
  GDP - exchange rate conversion - $5.9 billion (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate:
  4.6% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
  $1,060 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  17% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
  7.5% (1991)
Budget:
  revenues $846 million; expenditures $890 million, including capital
  expenditures of $NA (1992 est.)
Exports:
  $693 million (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
 commodities:
  coffee 45%, sugar, shrimp, cotton
 partners:
  US 33%, Guatemala, Germany, Costa Rica
Imports:
  $1.47 billion (c.i.f., 1992 est.)
 commodities:
  raw materials, consumer goods, capital goods
 partners:
  US 43%, Guatemala, Mexico, Venezuela, Germany
External debt:
  $2.6 billion (December 1992)
Industrial production:
  growth rate 4.7% (1991); accounts for 22% of GDP
Electricity:
  713,800 kW capacity; 2,190 million kWh produced, 390 kWh per capita (1992)
Industries:
  food processing, beverages, petroleum, nonmetallic products, tobacco,
  chemicals, textiles, furniture
Agriculture:
  accounts for 24% of GDP and 40% of labor force (including fishing and
  forestry); coffee most important commercial crop; other products -
  sugarcane, corn, rice, beans, oilseeds, beef, dairy products, shrimp; not
  self-sufficient in food
Illicit drugs:
  transshipment point for cocaine
Economic aid:
  US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-90), $2.95 billion, plus $250 million
  for 1992-96; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
  (1970-89), $525 million
Currency:
  1 Salvadoran colon (C) = 100 centavos

*El Salvador, Economy

Exchange rates:
  Salvadoran colones (C) per US$1 - 8.7600 (January 1993), 9.1700 (1992),
  8.0300 (1991), fixed rate of 5.000 (1986-1989)
Fiscal year:
  calendar year

*El Salvador, Communications

Railroads:
  602 km 0.914-meter gauge, single track; 542 km in use
Highways:
  10,000 km total; 1,500 km paved, 4,100 km gravel, 4,400 km improved and
  unimproved earth
Inland waterways:
  Rio Lempa partially navigable
Ports:
  Acajutla, Cutuco
Airports:
 total:
  105
 usable:
  74
 with permanent-surface runways:
  5
 with runways over 3,659 m:
  0
 with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
  1
 with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
  5
Telecommunications:
  nationwide trunk microwave radio relay system; connection into Central
  American Microwave System; 116,000 telephones (21 telephones per 1,000
  persons); broadcast stations - 77 AM, no FM, 5 TV, 2 shortwave; 1 Atlantic
  Ocean INTELSAT earth station

*El Salvador, Defense Forces

Branches:
  Army, Navy, Air Force
Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49 1,305,853; fit for military service 836,192; reach military
  age (18) annually 71,101 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
  exchange rate conversion - $104 million, 3%-4% of GDP (1993 est.)

*Equatorial Guinea, Geography

Location:
  Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean between Cameroon and
  Gabon
Map references:
  Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
 total area:
  28,050 km2
 land area:
  28,050 km2
 comparative area:
  slightly larger than Maryland
Land boundaries:
  total 539 km, Cameroon 189 km, Gabon 350 km
Coastline:
  296 km
Maritime claims:
 exclusive economic zone:
  200 nm
 territorial sea:
  12 nm
International disputes:
  maritime boundary dispute with Gabon because of disputed sovereignty over
  islands in Corisco Bay
Climate:
  tropical; always hot, humid
Terrain:
  coastal plains rise to interior hills; islands are volcanic
Natural resources:
  timber, petroleum, small unexploited deposits of gold, manganese, uranium
Land use:
 arable land:
  8%
 permanent crops:
  4%
 meadows and pastures:
  4%
 forest and woodland:
  51%
 other:
  33%
Irrigated land:
  NA km2
Environment:
  subject to violent windstorms
Note:
  insular and continental regions rather widely separated

*Equatorial Guinea, People

Population:
  399,055 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
  2.6% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
  41.1 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
  15.11 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
  104.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
 total population:
  51.63 years
 male:
  49.56 years
 female:   53.76 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
  5.33 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
 noun:
  Equatorial Guinean(s) or Equatoguinean(s)
 adjective:
  Equatorial Guinean or Equatoguinean
Ethnic divisions:
  Bioko (primarily Bubi, some Fernandinos), Rio Muni (primarily Fang),
  Europeans less than 1,000, mostly Spanish
Religions:
  nominally Christian and predominantly Roman Catholic, pagan practices
Languages:
  Spanish (official), pidgin English, Fang, Bubi, Ibo
Literacy:
  age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
 total population:
  50%
 male:
  64%
 female:
  37%
Labor force:
  172,000 (1986 est.)
 by occupation:
  agriculture 66%, services 23%, industry 11% (1980)
 note:
  labor shortages on plantations; 58% of population of working age (1985)

*Equatorial Guinea, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  Republic of Equatorial Guinea
 conventional short form:
  Equatorial Guinea
 local long form:
  Republica de Guinea Ecuatorial
 local short form:
  Guinea Ecuatorial
 former:
  Spanish Guinea
Digraph:
  EK
Type:
  republic in transition to multiparty democracy
Capital:
  Malabo
Administrative divisions:
  7 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Annobon, Bioko Norte, Bioko
  Sur, Centro Sur, Kie-Ntem, Litoral, Wele-Nzas
Independence:
  12 October 1968 (from Spain)
Constitution:
  new constitution 17 November 1991
Legal system:
  partly based on Spanish civil law and tribal custom
National holiday:
  Independence Day, 12 October (1968)
Political parties and leaders:
  ruling - Democratic Party for Equatorial Guinea (PDGE), Brig. Gen. (Ret.)
  Teodoro OBIANG NGUEMA MBASOGO, party leader
Suffrage:
  universal adult at age NA
Elections:
 President:
  last held 25 June 1989 (next to be held 25 June 1996); results - President
  Brig. Gen. (Ret.) Teodoro OBIANG NGUEMA MBASOGO was reelected without
  opposition
 Chamber of People's Representatives:
  last held 10 July 1988 (next to be held 10 July 1993); results - PDGE is the
  only party; seats - (41 total) PDGE 41
Executive branch:
  president, prime minister, deputy prime minister, Council of Ministers
  (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
  unicameral House of Representatives of the People (Camara de Representantes
  del Pueblo)
Judicial branch:
  Supreme Tribunal
Leaders:
 Chief of State:
  President Brig. Gen. (Ret.) Teodoro OBIANG NGUEMA MBASOGO (since 3 August
  1979)
 Head of Government:
  Prime Minister Silvestre SIALE BILEKA (since 17 January 1992); Deputy Prime
  Minister Miguel OYONO NDONG MIFUMU (since 22 January 1992)

*Equatorial Guinea, Government

Member of:
  ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CEEAC, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA,
  IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS (associate), NAM, OAS
  (observer), OAU, UDEAC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO
Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador Damaso OBIANG NDONG
 chancery:
  (temporary) 57 Magnolia Avenue, Mount Vernon, NY 10553
 telephone:
  (914) 667-9664
US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador John E. BENNETT
 embassy:
  Calle de Los Ministros, Malabo
 mailing address:   P.O. Box 597, Malabo
 telephone:
  [240] (9) 2185
 FAX:
  [240] (9) 2164
Flag:
  three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white, and red with a blue
  isosceles triangle based on the hoist side and the coat of arms centered in
  the white band; the coat of arms has six yellow six-pointed stars
  (representing the mainland and five offshore islands) above a gray shield
  bearing a silk-cotton tree and below which is a scroll with the motto
  UNIDAD, PAZ, JUSTICIA (Unity, Peace, Justice)

*Equatorial Guinea, Economy

Overview:
  The economy, devastated during the regime of former President Macias NGUEMA,
  is based on agriculture, forestry, and fishing, which account for about half
  of GDP and nearly all exports. Subsistence agriculture predominates, with
  cocoa, coffee, and wood products providing income, foreign exchange, and
  government revenues. There is little industry. Commerce accounts for about
  8% of GDP and the construction, public works, and service sectors for about
  38%. Undeveloped natural resources include titanium, iron ore, manganese,
  uranium, and alluvial gold. Oil exploration, taking place under concessions
  offered to US, French, and Spanish firms, has been moderately successful.
  Increased production from recently discovered natural gas deposits will
  provide a greater share of exports by 1995.
National product:
  GDP - exchange rate conversion - $144 million (1991 est.)
National product real growth rate:
  -1% (1991 est.)
National product per capita:
  $380 (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  1.4% (1990)
Unemployment rate:
  NA%
Budget:
  revenues $26 million; expenditures $30 million, including capital
  expenditures of $3 million (1991 est.)
Exports:
  $37 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.)
 commodities:
  coffee, timber, cocoa beans
 partners:
  Spain 38.2%, Italy 12.2%, Netherlands 11.4%, FRG 6.9%, Nigeria 12.4% (1988)
Imports:
  $63.0 million (c.i.f., 1990)
 commodities:
  petroleum, food, beverages, clothing, machinery
 partners:
  France 25.9%, Spain 21.0%, Italy 16%, US 12.8%, Netherlands 8%, FRG 3.1%,
  Gabon 2.9%, Nigeria 1.8% (1988)
External debt:   $213 million (1990)
Industrial production:
  growth rate 6.8% (1990 est.)
Electricity:
  23,000 kW capacity; 60 million kWh produced, 160 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
  fishing, sawmilling
Agriculture:
  cash crops - timber and coffee from Rio Muni, cocoa from Bioko; food crops -
  rice, yams, cassava, bananas, oil palm nuts, manioc, livestock
Economic aid:
  US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY81-89), $14 million; Western (non-US)
  countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89) $130 million;
  Communist countries (1970-89), $55 million
Currency:
  1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
  Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 274.06 (January
  1993), 264.69 (1992), 282.11 (1991), 272.26 (1990), 319.01 (1989), 297.85
  (1988)

*Equatorial Guinea, Economy

Fiscal year:
  1 April - 31 March

*Equatorial Guinea, Communications

Highways:
  Rio Muni - 2,460 km; Bioko - 300 km
Ports:
  Malabo, Bata
Merchant marine:
  2 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 6,413 GRT/6,699 DWT; includes 1 cargo
  and 1 passenger-cargo
Airports:
 total:
  3
 usable:
  3
 with permanent-surface runways:
  2
 with runways over 3,659 m:
  0
 with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
  1
 with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
  1
Telecommunications:
  poor system with adequate government services; international communications
  from Bata and Malabo to African and European countries; 2,000 telephones;
  broadcast stations - 2 AM, no FM, 1 TV; 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth
  station

*Equatorial Guinea, Defense Forces

Branches:
  Army, Navy, Air Force, National Guard, National Police
Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49 84,323; fit for military service 42,812 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
  exchange rate conversion - $NA, NA% of GDP

*Eritrea, Geography

Location:
  Eastern Africa, bordering the Red Sea between Djibouti and Sudan
Map references:
  Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
 total area:
  121,320 km2
 land area:
  121,320 km2
 comparative area:
  slightly larger than Pennsylvania
Land boundaries:
  total 1,630 km, Djibouti 113 km, Ethiopia 912 km, Sudan 605 km
Coastline:
  1,151 km (land and island coastline is 2,234 km)
Maritime claims:
 territorial sea:
  12 nm
International disputes:
  none
Climate:
  hot, dry desert strip along Red Sea coast; cooler and wetter in the central
  highlands (up to 61 cm of rainfall annually); semiarid in western hills and
  lowlands; rainfall heaviest during June-September except on coast desert
Terrain:
  dominated by extension of Ethiopian north-south trending highlands,
  descending on the east to a coastal desert plan, on the northwest to hilly
  terrain and on the southwest to flat-to-rolling plains
Natural resources:
  gold, potash, zinc, copper, salt, probably oil, fish
Land use:
 arable land:
  3%
 permanent crops:
  2% (coffee)
 meadows and pastures:
  40%
 forest and woodland:
  5%  other:
  50%
Irrigated land:
  NA km2
Environment:
  frequent droughts, famine; deforestation; soil eroision; overgrazing; loss
  of infrastructure from civil warfare
Note:
  strategic geopolitical position along world's busiest shipping lanes and
  close to Arabian oilfields, Eritrea retained the entire coastline of
  Ethiopia along the Red Sea upon de jure independence from Ethiopia on 27
  April 1993

*Eritrea, People

Population:
  3,467,087 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
  3.46% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
  NA births/1,000 population
Death rate:
  NA deaths/1,000 population
Net migration rate:
  NA migrant(s)/1,000 population
Infant mortality rate:
  NA deaths/1,000 live births
Life expectancy at birth:
 total population:
  NA years
 male:
  NA years
 female:
  NA years
Total fertility rate:
  NA children born/woman
Nationality:
 noun:
  Eritrean(s)
 adjective:
  Eritrean
Ethnic divisions:
  ethnic Tigrays 50%, Tigre and Kunama 40%, Afar 4%, Saho (Red Sea coast
  dwellers) 3%
Religions:
  Muslim, Coptic Christian, Roman Catholic, Protestant
Languages:
  Tigre and Kunama, Cushitic dialects, Tigre, Nora Bana, Arabic
Literacy:
  NA%
Labor force:
  NA

*Eritrea, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  none
 conventional short form:
  Eritrea
 local long form:
  none
 local short form:
  none
 former:
  Eritrea Autonomous Region in Ethiopia
Digraph:
  ER
Type:
  transitional government
 note:
  on 29 May 1991 ISSAIAS Afeworke, secretary general of the Eritrean People's
  Liberation Front (EPLF), announced the formation of the Provisional
  Government in Eritrea (PGE), in preparation for the 23-25 April 1993
  referendum on independence for the autonomous region of Eritrea; the result
  was a landslide vote for independence that was announced on 27 April 1993
Capital:
  Asmara (formerly Asmera)
Administrative divisions:
  NA
Independence:
  27 April 1993 (from Ethiopia; formerly the Eritrea Autonomous Region)
Constitution:
  transitional "constitution" decreed 19 May 1993
Legal system:
  NA
National holiday:
  National Day (independence from Ethiopia), 24 May (1993)
Political parties and leaders:
  Eritrean People's Liberation Front (EPLF) (Christian Muslim), ISSAIAS
  Aferworke, PETROS Soloman; Eritrean Liberation Front (ELF) (Muslim),
  ABDULLAH Muhammed; Eritrean Liberation Front - United Organization (ELF-UO),
  leader NA
Other political or pressure groups:
  Oromo Liberation Front (OLF); Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Party (EPRP);
  numerous small, ethnic-based groups have formed since Mengistu's
  resignation, including several Islamic militant groups
Suffrage:
  NA
Elections:
  multinational election before 20 May 1997
Executive branch:
  president, Eritrean National Council
Legislative branch:
  National Assembly
Judicial branch:
  Judiciary
Leaders:  Chief of State and Head of Government:
  President ISSAIAS Aferworke
Member of:
  OAU, UN, UNCTAD

*Eritrea, Government

Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission:
  NA
 chancery:
  NA
 telephone:
  NA
US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission:
  Joseph P. O'NEILL
 embassy:
  NA
 mailing address:
  NA
 telephone:
  251-4-113-720
 FAX:
  NA
Flag:
  red isosceles triangle (based on the hoist side) dividing the flag into two
  right triangles; the upper triangle is green, the lower one is blue; a gold
  wreath encircling a gold olive branch is centered on the hoist side of the
  red triangle

*Eritrea, Economy

Overview:
  With independence from Ethiopia on 27 April 1993, Eritrea faces the bitter
  economic problems of a small, desperately poor African country. Most of the
  population will continue to depend on subsistence farming. Domestic output
  is substantially augmented by worker remittances from abroad. Government
  revenues come from custom duties and income and sales taxes. Eritrea has
  inherited the entire coastline of Ethiopia and has long-term prospects for
  revenues from the devlopment of offshore oil, offshore fishing and tourist
  development. For the time being, Ethiopia will be largely dependent on
  Eritrean ports for its foreign trade.
National product:
  GDP - exchange rate conversion - $400 million (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate:
  NA%
National product per capita:
  $115 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  NA%
Unemployment rate:   NA%
Budget:
  revenues $NA; expenditures $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports:
  $NA
 commodities:
  NA
 partners:
  NA
Imports:
  $NA
 commodities:
  NA
 partners:
  NA
External debt:
  $NA
Industrial production:
  growth rate NA%
Electricity:
  NA kW capacity; NA kWh produced, NA kWh per capita
Industries:
  food processing, beverages, clothing and textiles
Agriculture:
  NA
Economic aid:
  NA
Currency:
  NA
Exchange rates:
  NA
Fiscal year:
  NA

*Eritrea, Communications

Railroads:
  307 km total; 307 km 1.000-meter gauge; 307 km 0.950-meter gauge
  (nonoperational) linking Ak'ordat and Asmera with the port of Mits'iwe (1993
  est.)
Highways:
  3,845 km total; 807 km paved, 840 km gravel, 402 km improved earth, 1,796 km
  unimproved earth
Ports:
  Assab (formerly Aseb), Massawa (formerly Mits'iwa)
Merchant marine:
  14 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 71,837 GRT/90,492 DWT; includes 9
  cargo, 1 roll-on/roll off, 1 livestock carrier, 2 oil tanker, 1 refrigerated
  cargo
Airports:
 total:
  5
 usable:
  5  with permanent-surface runways:
  2
 with runways over 3,659 m:
  0
 with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
  2
 with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
  2
Telecommunications:
  NA

*Eritrea, Defense Forces

Branches:
  Eritrean People's Liberation Front (EPLF)
Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49 NA; fit for military service NA; reach military age (18)
  annually NA
Defense expenditures:
  exchange rate conversion - $NA, NA% of GDP

*Estonia, Geography

Location:
  Northeastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, between Sweden and Russia
Map references:
  Arctic Region, Asia, Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
 total area:
  45,100 km2
 land area:
  43,200 km2
 comparative area:
  slightly larger than New Hampshire and Vermont combined
 note:
  includes 1,520 islands in the Baltic Sea
Land boundaries:
  total 557 km, Latvia 267 km, Russia 290 km
Coastline:
  1,393 km
Maritime claims:
 territorial sea:
  12 nm
International disputes:
  international small border strips along the northern (Narva) and southern
  (Petseri) sections of eastern border with Russia ceded to Russia in 1945 by
  the Estonian SSR
Climate:
  maritime, wet, moderate winters
Terrain:
  marshy, lowlands
Natural resources:   shale oil, peat, phosphorite, amber
Land use:
 arable land:
  22%
 permanent crops:
  0%
 meadows and pastures:
  11%
 forest and woodland:
  31%
 other:
  36%
Irrigated land:
  110 km2 (1990)
Environment:
  air heavily polluted with sulphur dioxide from oil-shale burning power
  plants in northeast; radioactive wastes dumped in open reservoir in
  Sillamae, a few dozen meters from Baltic Sea; contamination of soil and
  ground water with petroleum products, chemicals at military bases

*Estonia, People

Population:
  1,608,469 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
  0.52% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
  14.05 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
  12.13 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
  3.28 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
  19.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
 total population:
  69.75 years
 male:
  64.75 years
 female:
  74.99 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
  2.01 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
 noun:
  Estonian(s)
 adjective:
  Estonian
Ethnic divisions:
  Estonian 61.5%, Russian 30.3%, Ukrainian 3.17%, Belarusian 1.8%, Finn 1.1%,
  other 2.13% (1989)
Religions:
  Lutheran
Languages:   Estonian (official), Latvian, Lithuanian, Russian, other
Literacy:
  age 9-49 can read and write (1970)
 total population:
  100%
 male:
  100%
 female:
  100%
Labor force:
  796,000
 by occupation:
  industry and construction 42%, agriculture and forestry 20%, other 38%
  (1990)

*Estonia, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  Republic of Estonia
 conventional short form:
  Estonia
 local long form:
  Eesti Vabariik
 local short form:
  Eesti
 former:
  Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic
Digraph:
  EN
Type:
  republic
Capital:
  Tallinn
Administrative divisions:
  none (all districts are under direct republic jurisdiction)
Independence:
  6 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)
Constitution:
  adopted 28 June 1992
Legal system:
  based on civil law system; no judicial review of legislative acts
National holiday:
  Independence Day, 24 February (1918)
Political parties and leaders:
  Popular Front of Estonia (Rahvarinne), NA chairman; Estonian Christian
  Democratic Party, Aivar KALA, chairman; Estonian Christian Democratic Union,
  Illar HALLASTE, chairman; Estonian Heritage Society (EMS), Trivimi VELLISTE,
  chairman; Estonian National Independence Party (ENIP), Lagle PAREK,
  chairman; Estonian Social Democratic Party, Marju LAURISTIN, chairman;
  Estonian Green Party, Tonu OJA; Independent Estonian Communist Party, Vaino
  VALJAS; People's Centrist Party, Edgar SAVISAAR, chairman; Estonian Royalist
  Party (ERP), Kalle KULBOK, chairman; Entrpreneurs' Party (EP), Tiit MADE;
  Estonian Fatherland Party, Mart LAAR, chairman; Safe Home; Moderates;
  Estonian Citizen
Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal
Elections:
 President:
  last held 20 September 1992; (next to be held NA); results - no candidate
  received majority; newly elected Parliament elected Lennart MERI (NA October
  1992)
 Parliament:
  last held 20 September 1992; (next to be held NA); results - Fatherland 21%,
  Safe Home 14%, Popular Front 13%, Moderates 10%, Estonian National
  Independence Party 8%, Royalists 7%, Estonian Citizen 7%, Estonian
  Entrepreneurs 2%, other 18%; seats - (101 total) Fatherland 29, Safe Home
  18, Popular Front 15, Moderates 12, ENIP 10, Royalists 8, Estonian Citizen
  8, Estonian Entrepreneurs 1
 Congress of Estonia:
  last held March 1990 (next to be held NA); note - Congress of Estonia was a
  quasi-governmental structure which disbanded itself October 1992 after the
  new Parliament and government were installed
Executive branch:
  president, prime minister, cabinet

*Estonia, Government

Legislative branch:
  unicameral Parliament (Riigikogu)
Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court
Leaders:
 Chief of State:
  President Lennart MERI (since NA October 1992)
 Head of Government:
  Prime Minister Mart LAAR (since NA October 1992)
Member of:
  CBSS, CSCE, EBRD, ECE, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ILO, IMF, IMO, NACC,
  UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU
Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador Toomas Hendrik IIVES
 chancery:
  (temporary) 630 Fifth Avenue, Suite 2415, New York, NY 10111
 telephone:
  (212) 247-2131
 consulate general:
  New York
US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador Robert C. FRASURE
 embassy:
  Kentmanni 20, Tallin EE 0001
 mailing address:
  use embassy street address
 telephone:
  011-[358] (49) 303-182 (cellular)  FAX:
  [358] (49) 306-817 (cellular)
 note:
  dialing to Baltics still requires use of an international operator unless
  you use the cellular phone lines
Flag:
  pre-1940 flag restored by Supreme Soviet in May 1990 - three equal
  horizontal bands of blue (top), black, and white

*Estonia, Economy

Overview:
  As of June 1993 Estonia ranks first among the 15 former Soviet republics in
  moving from its obsolete command economy to a modern market economy. Yet
  serious problems remain. In contrast to the estimated 30% drop in output in
  1992, GDP should grow by a small percent in 1993. Of key importance has been
  the introduction of the kroon in August 1993 and the subsequent reductions
  in inflation to 1%-2% per month. Starting in July 1991, under a new law on
  private ownership, small enterprises, such as retail shops and restaurants,
  were sold to private owners. The auctioning of large-scale enterprises is
  progressing with the proceeds being held in escrow until the prior ownership
  (that is, Estonian or the Commonwealth of Independent States) can be
  established. Estonia ranks first in per capita consumption among the former
  Soviet republics. Agriculture is well developed, especially meat production,
  and provides a surplus for export. Only about one-fifth of the work force is
  in agriculture. The major share of the work force engages in manufacturing
  both capital and consumer goods based on raw materials and intermediate
  products from the other former Soviet republics. These manufactures are of
  high quality by ex-Soviet standards and are exported to the other republics.
  Estonia's mineral resources are limited to major deposits of shale oil (60%
  of the old Soviet total) and phosphorites (400 million tons). Estonia has a
  large, relatively modern port and produces more than half of its own energy
  needs at highly polluting shale oil power plants. It has advantages in the
  transition, not having suffered so long under the Soviet yoke and having
  better chances of developing profitable ties to the Nordic and West European
  countries. Like Latvia, but unlike Lithuania, the large portion of ethnic
  Russians (30%) in the population poses still another difficulty in the
  transition to an independent market economy.
National product:
  GDP $NA
National product real growth rate:
  -30% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
  $NA
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  1%-2% per month (first quarter 1993)
Unemployment rate:
  3% (March 1993); but large number of underemployed workers
Budget:
  revenues $223 million; expenditures $142 million, including capital
  expenditures of $NA (1992)
Exports:
  $NA
 commodities:   textile 11%, wood products and timber 9%, dairy products 9%
 partners:
  Russia and the other former Soviet republics 50%, West 50% (1992)
Imports:
  $NA
 commodities:
  machinery 45%, oil 13%, chemicals 12%
 partners:
  Finland 15%, Russia 18%
External debt:
  $650 million (end of 1991)
Industrial production:
  growth rate -40% (1992)
Electricity:
  3,700,000 kW capacity; 22,900 million kWh produced, 14,245 kWh per capita
  (1992)

*Estonia, Economy

Industries:
  accounts for 30% of labor force; oil shale, shipbuilding, phosphates,
  electric motors, excavators, cement, furniture, clothing, textiles, paper,
  shoes, apparel
Agriculture:
  employs 20% of work force; very efficient; net exports of meat, fish, dairy
  products, and potatoes; imports of feedgrains for livestock; fruits and
  vegetables
Illicit drugs:
  transshipment point for illicit drugs from Central and Southwest Asia to
  Western Europe; limited illicit opium producer; mostly for domestic
  production
Economic aid:
  US commitments, including Ex-Im (1992), $10 million
Currency:
  1 Estonian kroon (EEK) = 100 NA; (introduced in August 1992)
Exchange rates:
  kroons (EEK) per US$1 - 12 (January 1993)
Fiscal year:
  calendar year

*Estonia, Communications

Railroads:
  1,030 km (includes NA km electrified); does not include industrial lines
  (1990)
Highways:
  30,300 km total (1990); 29,200 km hard surfaced; 1,100 km earth
Inland waterways:
  500 km perennially navigable
Pipelines:
  natural gas 420 km (1992)
Ports:   coastal - Tallinn, Novotallin, Parnu; inland - Narva
Merchant marine:
  68 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 394,501 GRT/526,502 DWT; includes 52
  cargo, 6 roll-on/roll-off, 2 short-sea passenger, 6 bulk, 2 container
Airports:
 total:
  29
 useable:
  18
 with permanent-surface runways:
  11
 with runways over 3,659 m:
  0
 with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
  10
 with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
  8
Telecommunications:
  300,000 telephone subscribers in 1990 with international direct dial service
  available to Finland, Germany, Austria, UK and France; 21 telephone lines
  per 100 persons as of 1991; broadcast stations - 3 TV (provide Estonian
  programs as well as Moscow Ostenkino's first and second programs);
  international traffic is carried to the other former USSR republics by
  landline or microwave and to other countries by leased connection to the
  Moscow international gateway switch via 19 incoming/20 outgoing
  international channels, by the Finnish cellular net, and by an old copper
  submarine cable to Finland soon to be replaced by an undersea fiber optic
  cable system; there is also a new international telephone exchange in
  Tallinn handling 60 channels via Helsinki; 2 analog mobile cellular networks
  with international roaming capability to Scandinavia are operating in major
  cities

*Estonia, Defense Forces

Branches:
  Ground Forces, Maritime Border Guard, National Guard (Kaitseliit), Security
  Forces (internal and border troops)
Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49 387,733; fit for military service 306,056; reach military
  age (18) annually 11,570 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
  124.4 million kroons, NA% of GDP (forecast for 1993); note - conversion of
  the military budget into US dollars using the current exchange rate could
  produce misleading results

*Ethiopia, Geography

Location:
  Eastern Africa, between Somalia and Sudan
Map references:
  Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:  total area:
  1,127,127 km2
 land area:
  1,119,683 km2
 comparative area:
  slightly less than twice the size of Texas
Land boundaries:
  total 5,311 km, Djibouti 337 km, Erithea 912 km, Kenya 830 km, Somalia 1,626
  km, Sudan 1,606 km
Coastline:
  none - landlocked
Maritime claims:
  none - landlocked
International disputes:
  southern half of the boundary with Somalia is a Provisional Administrative
  Line; possible claim by Somalia based on unification of ethnic Somalis;
  territorial dispute with Somalia over the Ogaden
Climate:
  tropical monsoon with wide topographic-induced variation; some areas prone
  to extended droughts
Terrain:
  high plateau with central mountain range divided by Great Rift Valley
Natural resources:
  small reserves of gold, platinum, copper, potash
Land use:
 arable land:
  12%
 permanent crops:
  1%
 meadows and pastures:
  41%
 forest and woodland:
  24%
 other:
  22%
Irrigated land:
  1,620 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
  geologically active Great Rift Valley susceptible to earthquakes, volcanic
  eruptions; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification;
  frequent droughts; famine
Note:
  landlocked - entire coastline along the Red Sea was lost with the de jure
  independence of Eritrea on 27 April 1993

*Ethiopia, People

Population:
  53,278,446 (July 1993 est.)
 note:
  Ethiopian demographic data, except population and population growth rate,
  include Eritrea
Population growth rate:
  3.41% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
  45.37 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
  14.23 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
  2.94 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
  108.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
 total population:
  52.21 years
 male:
  50.6 years
 female:
  53.88 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
  6.88 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
 noun:
  Ethiopian(s)
 adjective:
  Ethiopian
Ethnic divisions:
  Oromo 40%, Amhara and Tigrean 32%, Sidamo 9%, Shankella 6%, Somali 6%, Afar
  4%, Gurage 2%, other 1%
Religions:
  Muslim 45-50%, Ethiopian Orthodox 35-40%, animist 12%, other 5%
Languages:
  Amharic (official), Tigrinya, Orominga, Guaraginga, Somali, Arabic, English
  (major foreign language taught in schools)
Literacy:
  age 10 and over can read and write (1983)
 total population:
  62%
 male:
  NA%
 female:
  NA%
Labor force:
  18 million
 by occupation:
  agriculture and animal husbandry 80%, government and services 12%, industry
  and construction 8% (1985)

*Ethiopia, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  none
 conventional short form:
  Ethiopia
 local long form:
  none
 local short form:   Ityop'iya
Digraph:
  ET
Type:
  transitional government
 note:
  on 28 May 1991 the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF)
  toppled the authoritarian government of MENGISTU Haile-Mariam and took
  control in Addis Ababa; the Transitional Government of Ethiopia (TGE),
  announced a two-year transitional period
Capital:
  Addis Ababa
Administrative divisions:
  14 administrative regions (astedader akababiwach, singular - astedader
  akababi) Addis Ababa, Afar, Amhara, Benishangul, Gambela,
  Gurage-Hadiya-Kambata, Harer, Kefa, Omo, Oromo, Sidamo, Somali, Tigray,
  Wolayta
Independence:
  oldest independent country in Africa and one of the oldest in the world - at
  least 2,000 years
Constitution:
  to be redrafted by 1993
Legal system:
  NA
National holiday:
  National Day, 28 May (1991) (defeat of Mengistu regime)
Political parties and leaders:
  NA
Other political or pressure groups:
  Oromo Liberation Front (OLF); Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Party (EPRP);
  numerous small, ethnic-based groups have formed since Mengistu's
  resignation, including several Islamic militant groups
Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal
Elections:
 President:
  last held 10 September 1987; next election planned after new constitution
  drafted; results - MENGISTU Haile-Mariam elected by the now defunct National
  Assembly, but resigned and left Ethiopia on 21 May 1991
 Constituent Assembly:
  now planned for January 1994 (to ratify constitution to be drafted by end of
  1993)
Executive branch:
  president, prime minister, Council of Ministers
Legislative branch:
  unicameral Constituent Assembly
Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court
Leaders:
 Chief of State:
  President MELES Zenawi (since 1 June 1991)

*Ethiopia, Government

 Head of Government:
  Prime Minister TAMIRAT Layne (since 6 June 1991)
Member of:
  ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC,
  IGADD, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU,
  UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador BERHANE Gebre-Christos
 chancery:
  2134 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008
 telephone:
  (202) 234-2281 or 2282
US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador Marc A. BAAS
 embassy:
  Entoto Street, Addis Ababa
 mailing address:
  P. O. Box 1014, Addis Ababa
 telephone:
  [251] (1) 550-666
 FAX:
  [251] (1) 551-166
Flag:
  three equal horizontal bands of green (top), yellow, and red; Ethiopia is
  the oldest independent country in Africa, and the colors of her flag were so
  often adopted by other African countries upon independence that they became
  known as the pan-African colors

*Ethiopia, Economy

Overview:
  With the independence of Eritrea on 27 April 1993, Ethiopia continues to
  face difficult economic problems as one of the poorest and least developed
  countries in Africa. (The accompanying analysis and figures predate the
  independence of Eritrea.) Its economy is based on subsistence agriculture,
  which accounts for about 45% of GDP, 90% of exports, and 80% of total
  employment; coffee generates 60% of export earnings. The manufacturing
  sector is heavily dependent on inputs from the agricultural sector. Over 90%
  of large-scale industry, but less than 10% of agriculture, is state run; the
  government is considering selling off a portion of state-owned plants.
  Favorable agricultural weather largely explains the 4.5% growth in output in
  FY89, whereas drought and deteriorating internal security conditions
  prevented growth in FY90. In 1991 the lack of law and order, particularly in
  the south, interfered with economic development and growth. In 1992, because
  of some easing of civil strife and aid from the outside world, the economy
  substantially improved.
National product:
  GDP - exchange rate conversion - $6.6 billion (FY92 est.)
National product real growth rate:
  6% (FY92 est.)
National product per capita:
  $130 (FY92 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  7.8% (1989)
Unemployment rate:
  NA%
Budget:
  revenues $1.4 billion; expenditures $2.3 billion, including capital
  expenditures of $565 million (FY91)
Exports:
  $276 million (f.o.b., FY90)
 commodities:
  coffee, leather products, gold, petroleum products
 partners:
  EC, Djibouti, Japan, Saudi Arabia, US
Imports:
  $1.0 billion (c.i.f., FY90)
 commodities:
  capital goods, consumer goods, fuel
 partners:
  EC, Eastern Europe, Japan, US
External debt:
  $3.48 billion (1991)
Industrial production:
  growth rate 2.3% (FY89 est.); accounts for 12% of GDP
Electricity:
  330,000 kW capacity; 650 million kWh produced, 10 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
  food processing, beverages, textiles, chemicals, metals processing, cement
Agriculture:
  accounts for 47% of GDP and is the most important sector of the economy even
  though frequent droughts and poor cultivation practices keep farm output
  low; famines not uncommon; export crops of coffee and oilseeds grown partly
  on state farms; estimated 50% of agricultural production at subsistence
  level; principal crops and livestock - cereals, pulses, coffee, oilseeds,
  sugarcane, potatoes and other vegetables, hides and skins, cattle, sheep,
  goats

*Ethiopia, Economy

Illicit drugs:
  transit hub for heroin originating in Southwest and Southeast Asia and
  destined for Europe and North America; cultivates qat (chat) for local use
  and regional export
Economic aid:
  US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $504 million; Western (non-US)
  countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $3.4 billion; OPEC
  bilateral aid (1979-89), $8 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $2.0
  billion
Currency:
  1 birr (Br) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
  birr (Br) per US$1 - 5.0000 (fixed rate)
Fiscal year:
  8 July - 7 July

*Ethiopia, Communications

Railroads:
  781 km total; 781 km 1.000-meter gauge; 307 km 0.950-meter gauge linking
  Addis Ababa (Ethiopia) to Djibouti; control of railroad is shared between
  Djibouti and Ethiopia
Highways:
  39,150 km total; 2,776 km paved, 7,504 km gravel, 2,054 km improved earth,
  26,816 km unimproved earth (1993 est.)
Ports:
  none; landlocked
Merchant marine:
  none; landlocked
Airports:
 total:
  121
 usable:
  82
 with permanent-surface runways:
  9
 with runways over 3,659 m:
  1
 with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
  13
 with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
  83 (1993 est.)
Telecommunications:
  open-wire and radio relay system adequate for government use; open-wire to
  Sudan and Djibouti; microwave radio relay to Kenya and Djibouti; broadcast
  stations - 4 AM, no FM, 1 TV; 100,000 TV sets; 9,000,000 radios; satellite
  earth stations - 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 2 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT

*Ethiopia, Defense Forces

Branches:
  Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF)
Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49 12,793,340; fit for military service 6,640,616; reach
  military age (18) annually 576,329 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
  exchange rate conversion - $NA, NA% of GDP

*Europa Island, Header

Affiliation:
  (possession of France)

*Europa Island, Geography

Location:
  Southern Africa, in the southern Mozambique Channel about halfway between
  Madagascar and Mozambique
Map references:
  Africa
Area:
 total area:
  28 km2
 land area:
  28 km2
 comparative area:
  about 0.2 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
  0 km
Coastline:
  22.2 km
Maritime claims:
 exclusive economic zone:
  200 nm
 territorial sea:
  12 nm
International disputes:
  claimed by Madagascar
Climate:
  tropical
Terrain:
  NA
Natural resources:
  negligible
Land use:
 arable land:
  NA%
 permanent crops:
  NA%
 meadows and pastures:
  NA%
 forest and woodland:
  NA%
 other:
  NA% (heavily wooded)
Irrigated land:
  0 km2
Environment:
  wildlife sanctuary

*Europa Island, People

Population:
  uninhabited

*Europa Island, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  none
 conventional short form:
  Europa Island
 local long form:
  none
 local short form:
  Ile Europa
Digraph:
  EU
Type:
  French possession administered by Commissioner of the Republic; resident in
  Reunion
Capital:
  none; administered by France from Reunion
Independence:
  none (possession of France)

*Europa Island, Economy

Overview:
  no economic activity

*Europa Island, Communications

Ports:
  none; offshore anchorage only
Airports:
 total:
  1
 usable:
  1
 with permanent-surface runways:
  0
 with runways over 3,659 m:
  0
 with runways 2,439-3,659 m:
  0
 with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
  1
Telecommunications:
  1 meteorological station

*Europa Island, Defense Forces

Note:
  defense is the responsibility of France

*Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas), Header

Affiliation:
  (dependent territory of the UK)

*Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas), Geography

Location:
  in the South Atlantic Ocean, off the southern coast of Argentina
Map references:
  Antarctic Region, South America
Area:
 total area:
  12,170 km2
 land area:
  12,170 km2
 comparative area:
  slightly smaller than Connecticut
 note:
  includes the two main islands of East and West Falkland and about 200 small
  islands
Land boundaries:
  0 km
Coastline:
  1,288 km
Maritime claims:
 continental shelf:
  100 m depth
 exclusive fishing zone:
  200 nm
 territorial sea:
  12 nm
International disputes:
  administered by the UK, claimed by Argentina
Climate:
  cold marine; strong westerly winds, cloudy, humid; rain occurs on more than
  half of days in year; occasional snow all year, except in January and
  February, but does not accumulate
Terrain:
  rocky, hilly, mountainous with some boggy, undulating plains
Natural resources:
  fish, wildlife
Land use:
 arable land:
  0%
 permanent crops:
  0%
 meadows and pastures:
  99%
 forest and woodland:
  0%
 other:   1%
Irrigated land:
  NA km2
Environment:
  poor soil fertility and a short growing season
Note:
  deeply indented coast provides good natural harbors

*Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas), People

Population:
  2,206 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
  2.43% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
  NA births/1,000 population
Death rate:
  NA deaths/1,000 population
Net migration rate:
  NA migrant(s)/1,000 population
Infant mortality rate:
  NA deaths/1,000 population
Life expectancy at birth:
 total population:
  NA years
 male:
  NA years
 female:
  NA years
Total fertility rate:
  NA children born/woman
Nationality:
 noun:
  Falkland Islander(s)
 adjective:
  Falkland Island
Ethnic divisions:
  British
Religions:
  primarily Anglican, Roman Catholic, United Free Church, Evangelist Church,
  Jehovah's Witnesses, Lutheran, Seventh-Day Adventist
Languages:
  English
Literacy:
 total population:
  NA%
 male:
  NA%
 female:
  NA%
Labor force:
  1,100 (est.)
 by occupation:
  agriculture 95% (mostly sheepherding)

*Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas), Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  Colony of the Falkland Islands
 conventional short form:
  Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)
Digraph:
  FA
Type:
  dependent territory of the UK
Capital:
  Stanley
Administrative divisions:
  none (dependent territory of the UK)
Independence:
  none (dependent territory of the UK)
Constitution:
  3 October 1985
Legal system:
  English common law
National holiday:
  Liberation Day, 14 June (1982)
Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal
Elections:
 Legislative Council:
  last held 11 October 1989 (next to be held October 1994); results - percent
  of vote by party NA; seats - (10 total, 8 elected) number of seats by party
  NA
Executive branch:
  British monarch, governor, Executive Council
Legislative branch:
  unicameral Legislative Council
Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court
Leaders:
 Chief of State:
  Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952)
 Head of Government:
  Governor David Everard TATHAM (since August 1992)
Member of:
  ICFTU
Diplomatic representation in US:
  none (dependent territory of the UK)
US diplomatic representation:
  none (dependent territory of the UK)
Flag:
  blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the
  Falkland Island coat of arms in a white disk centered on the outer half of
  the flag; the coat of arms contains a white ram (sheep raising is the major
  economic activity) above the sailing ship Desire (whose crew discovered the
  islands) with a scroll at the bottom bearing the motto DESIRE THE RIGHT

*Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas), Economy

Overview:
  The economy is based on sheep farming, which directly or indirectly employs
  most of the work force. A few dairy herds are kept to meet domestic
  consumption of milk and milk products, and crops grown are primarily those
  for providing winter fodder. Exports feature shipments of high-grade wool to
  the UK and the sale of postage stamps and coins. Rich stocks of fish in the
  surrounding waters are not presently exploited by the islanders. So far,
  efforts to establish a domestic fishing industry have been unsuccessful. In
  1987 the government began selling fishing licenses to foreign trawlers
  operating within the Falklands exclusive fishing zone. These license fees
  amount to more than $40 million per year and are a primary source of income
  for the government. To encourage tourism, the Falkland Islands Development
  Corporation has built three lodges for visitors attracted by the abundant
  wildlife and trout fishing.
National product:
  GDP $NA
National product real growth rate:
  NA%
National product per capita:
  $NA
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  7.4% (1980-87 average)
Unemployment rate:
  NA%; labor shortage
Budget:
  revenues $62.7 million; expenditures $41.8 million, including capital
  expenditures of $NA (FY90)
Exports:
  at least $14.7 million
 commodities:
  wool, hides and skins, and meat
 partners:
  UK, Netherlands, Japan (1987 est.)
Imports:
  at least $13.9 million
 commodities:
  food, clothing, fuels, and machinery
 partners:
  UK, Netherlands Antilles (Curacao), Japan (1987 est.)
External debt:
  $NA
Industrial production:
  growth rate NA%
Electricity:
  9,200 kW capacity; 17 million kWh produced, 8,940 kWh per capita (1992)
Industries:
  wool and fish processing
Agriculture:
  predominantly sheep farming; small dairy herds; some fodder and vegetable
  crops
Economic aid:   Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89),
  $277 million
Currency:
  1 Falkland pound (#F) = 100 pence
Exchange rates:
  Falkland pound (#F) per US$1 - 0.6527 (January 1993), 0.5664 (1992), 0.5652
  (1991), 0.5604 (1990), 0.6099 (1989), 0.5614 (1988); note - the Falkland
  pound is at par with the British pound

*Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas), Economy

Fiscal year:
  1 April - 31 March

*Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas), Communications

Highways:
  510 km total; 30 km paved, 80 km gravel, and 400 km unimproved earth
Ports:
  Stanley
Airports:
 total:
  5
 usable:
  5
 with permanent-surface runways:
  2
 with runways over 3,659 m:
  0
 with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
  1
 with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
  0
Telecommunications:
  government-operated radiotelephone and private VHF/CB radio networks provide
  effective service to almost all points on both islands; 590 telephones;
  broadcast stations - 2 AM, 3 FM, no TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth
  station with links through London to other countries

*Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas), Defense Forces

Branches:
  British Forces Falkland Islands (including Army, Royal Air Force, Royal
  Navy, and Royal Marines), Police Force
Note:
  defense is the responsibility of the UK

*Faroe Islands, Header

Affiliation:
  (part of the Danish realm)

*Faroe Islands, Geography

Location:
  in the north Atlantic Ocean, located half way between Norway and Iceland
Map references:
  Arctic Region
Area:
 total area:
  1,400 km2
 land area:
  1,400 km2
 comparative area:
  slightly less than eight times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
  0 km
Coastline:
  764 km
Maritime claims:
 exclusive fishing zone:
  200 nm
 territorial sea:
  3 nm
International disputes:
  none
Climate:
  mild winters, cool summers; usually overcast; foggy, windy
Terrain:
  rugged, rocky, some low peaks; cliffs along most of coast
Natural resources:
  fish
Land use:
 arable land:
  2%
 permanent crops:
  0%
 meadows and pastures:
  0%
 forest and woodland:
  0%
 other:
  98%
Irrigated land:
  NA km2
Environment:
  precipitous terrain limits habitation to small coastal lowlands; archipelago
  of 18 inhabited islands and a few uninhabited islets
Note:
  strategically located along important sea lanes in northeastern Atlantic

*Faroe Islands, People

Population:
  48,065 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
  0.67% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
  18.45 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
  7.57 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
  -4.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
  8.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
 total population:
  77.92 years
 male:
  74.51 years
 female:
  81.45 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
  2.52 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
 noun:
  Faroese (singular and plural)
 adjective:
  Faroese
Ethnic divisions:
  Scandinavian
Religions:
  Evangelical Lutheran
Languages:
  Faroese (derived from Old Norse), Danish
Literacy:
 total population:
  NA%
 male:
  NA%
 female:
  NA%
Labor force:
  17,585
 by occupation:
  largely engaged in fishing, manufacturing, transportation, and commerce

*Faroe Islands, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  none
 conventional short form:
  Faroe Islands  local long form:
  none
 local short form:
  Foroyar
Digraph:
  FO
Type:
  part of the Danish realm; self-governing overseas administrative division of
  Denmark
Capital:
  Torshavn
Administrative divisions:
  none (self-governing overseas administrative division of Denmark)
Independence:
  none (part of the Danish realm; self-governing overseas administrative
  division of Denmark)
Constitution:
  Danish
Legal system:
  Danish
National holiday:
  Birthday of the Queen, 16 April (1940)
Political parties and leaders:
 three-party ruling coalition:
  Social Democratic Party, Marita PETERSEN; Republican Party, Signer HANSEN;
  Home Rule Party, Hilmar KASS
 opposition:
  Cooperation Coalition Party, Pauli ELLEFSEN; Progressive and Fishing
  Industry Party-Christian People's Party (PFIP-CPP), leader NA; Progress
  Party, leader NA; People's Party, Jogvan SUND-STEIN
Suffrage:
  20 years of age; universal
Elections:
 Danish Parliament:
  last held on 12 December 1990 (next to be held by December 1994); results -
  percent of vote by party NA; seats - (2 total) Social Democratic 1, People's
  Party 1; note - the Faroe Islands elects two representatives to the Danish
  Parliament
 Faroese Parliament:
  last held 17 November 1990 (next to be held November 1994); results - Social
  Democratic 27.4%, People's Party 21.9%, Cooperation Coalition Party 18.9%,
  Republican Party 14.7%, Home Rule 8.8%, PFIP-CPP 5.9%, other 2.4%; seats -
  (32 total) two-party coalition 17 (Social Democratic 10, People's Party 7),
  Cooperation Coalition Party 6, Republican Party 4, Home Rule 3, PFIP-CPP 2
Executive branch:
  Danish monarch, high commissioner, prime minister, deputy prime minister,
  Cabinet (Landsstyri)
Legislative branch:
  unicameral Parliament (Lgting)
Judicial branch:
  none

*Faroe Islands, Government

Leaders:
 Chief of State:
  Queen MARGRETHE II (since 14 January 1972), represented by High Commissioner
  Bent KLINTE (since NA)
 Head of Government:
  Prime Minister Marita PETERSEN (since 18 January 1993)
Member of:
  none
Diplomatic representation in US:
  none (self-governing overseas administrative division of Denmark)
US diplomatic representation:
  none (self-governing overseas administrative division of Denmark)
Flag:
  white with a red cross outlined in blue that extends to the edges of the
  flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the
  style of the DANNEBROG (Danish flag)

*Faroe Islands, Economy

Overview:
  The Faroese, who have long enjoyed the affluent living standards of the
  Danes and other Scandinavians, now must cope with the decline of the
  all-important fishing industry and one of the world's heaviest per capita
  external debts of nearly $30,000. When the nations of the world extended
  their fishing zones to 200 nautical miles in the early 1970s, the Faroese no
  longer could continue their traditional long-distance fishing and
  subsequently depleted their own nearby fishing areas. The government's tight
  controls on fish stocks and its austerity measures have caused a recession,
  and subsidy cuts will force nationalization in the fishing industry, which
  has already been plagued with bankruptcies. Copenhagen has threatened to
  withhold its annual subsidy of $130 million - roughly one-third of the
  islands' budget revenues - unless the Faroese make significant efforts to
  balance their budget. To this extent the Faroe government is expected to
  continue its tough policies, including introducing a 20% VAT in 1993, and
  has agreed to an IMF economic-political stabilization plan. In addition to
  its annual subsidy, the Danish government has bailed out the second largest
  Faroe bank to the tune of $140 million since October 1992.
National product:
  GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $662 million (1989 est.)
National product real growth rate:
  3% (1989 est.)
National product per capita:
  $14,000 (1989 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  2% (1988)
Unemployment rate:
  5%-6% (1991 est.)
Budget:
  revenues $425 million; expenditures $480 million, including capital
  expenditures of $NA (1991 est.)
Exports:
  $386 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.)
 commodities:
  fish and fish products 88%, animal feedstuffs, transport equipment (ships)
  (1989)
 partners:
  Denmark 20%, Germany 18.3%, UK 14.2%, France 11.2%, Spain 7.9%, US 4.5%
Imports:
  $322 million (c.i.f., 1990 est.)
 commodities:
  machinery and transport equipment 24.4%, manufactures 24%, food and
  livestock 19%, fuels 12%, chemicals 6.5%
 partners:
  Denmark 43.8%, Norway 19.8%, Sweden 4.9%, Germany 4.2%, US 1.3%
External debt:
  $1.3 billion (1991)
Industrial production:
  growth rate NA%
Electricity:
  80,000 kW capacity; 280 million kWh produced, 5,760 kWh per capita (1992)
Industries:
  fishing, shipbuilding, handicrafts
Agriculture:
  accounts for 27% of GDP and employs 27% of labor force; principal crops -
  potatoes and vegetables; livestock - sheep; annual fish catch about 360,000
  metric tons
Economic aid:
  receives an annual subsidy from Denmark of about $130 million

*Faroe Islands, Economy

Currency:
  1 Danish krone (DKr) = 100 ore
Exchange rates:
  Danish kroner (DKr) per US$1 - 6.236 (January 1993), 6.036 (1992), 6.396
  (1991), 6.189 (1990), 7.310 (1989), 6.732 (1988)
Fiscal year:
  1 April - 31 March

*Faroe Islands, Communications

Highways:
  200 km
Ports:
  Torshavn, Tvoroyri
Merchant marine:
  10 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 22,015 GRT/24,007 DWT; includes 1
  short-sea passenger, 5 cargo, 2 roll-on/roll-off, 2 refrigerated cargo; note
  - a subset of the Danish register
Airports:
 total:
  1
 useable:
  1
 with permanent-surface runways:
  1  with runways over 3659 m:
  0
 with runways 2440-3659 m:
  0
 with runways 1220-2439 m:
  1
Telecommunications:
  good international communications; fair domestic facilities; 27,900
  telephones; broadcast stations - 1 AM, 3 (10 repeaters) FM, 3 (29 repeaters)
  TV; 3 coaxial submarine cables

*Faroe Islands, Defense Forces

Branches:
  small Police Force, no organized native military forces
Note:
  defense is the responsibility of Denmark

*Fiji, Geography

Location:
  Oceania, 2,500 km north of New Zealand in the South Pacific Ocean
Map references:
  Oceania, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
 total area:
  18,270 km2
 land area:
  18,270 km2
 comparative area:
  slightly smaller than New Jersey
Land boundaries:
  0 km
Coastline:
  1,129 km
Maritime claims:
  (measured from claimed archipelagic baselines)
 continental shelf:
  200 m depth or to depth of exploitation; rectilinear shelf claim added
 exclusive economic zone:
  200 nm
 territorial sea:
  12 nm
International disputes:
  none
Climate:
  tropical marine; only slight seasonal temperature variation
Terrain:
  mostly mountains of volcanic origin
Natural resources:
  timber, fish, gold, copper, offshore oil potential
Land use:  arable land:
  8%
 permanent crops:
  5%
 meadows and pastures:
  3%
 forest and woodland:
  65%
 other:
  19%
Irrigated land:
  10 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
  subject to hurricanes from November to January; includes 332 islands of
  which approximately 110 are inhabited

*Fiji, People

Population:
  756,762 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
  0.95% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
  24.74 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
  6.59 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
  -8.65 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
  18.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
 total population:
  64.86 years
 male:
  62.62 years
 female:
  67.21 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
  2.98 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
 noun:
  Fijian(s)
 adjective:
  Fijian
Ethnic divisions:
  Fijian 49%, Indian 46%, European, other Pacific Islanders, overseas Chinese,
  and other 5%
Religions:
  Christian 52% (Methodist 37%, Roman Catholic 9%), Hindu 38%, Muslim 8%,
  other 2%
 note:
  Fijians are mainly Christian, Indians are Hindu, and there is a Muslim
  minority (1986)
Languages:   English (official), Fijian, Hindustani
Literacy:
  age 15 and over can read and write (1985)
 total population:
  86%
 male:
  90%
 female:
  81%
Labor force:
  235,000
 by occupation:
  subsistence agriculture 67%, wage earners 18%, salary earners 15% (1987)

*Fiji, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  Republic of Fiji
 conventional short form:
  Fiji
Digraph:
  FJ
Type:
  republic
 note:
  military coup leader Maj. Gen. Sitiveni RABUKA formally declared Fiji a
  republic on 6 October 1987
Capital:
  Suva
Administrative divisions:
  4 divisions and 1 dependency*; Central, Eastern, Northern, Rotuma*, Western, Independence:
  10 October 1970 (from UK)
Constitution:
  10 October 1970 (suspended 1 October 1987); a new Constitution was proposed
  on 23 September 1988 and promulgated on 25 July 1990; the 1990 Constitution
  is currently still under review (February 1993)
Legal system:
  based on British system
National holiday:
  Independence Day, 10 October (1970)
Political parties and leaders:
  Fijian Political Party (SVT - primarily Fijian), leader Maj. Gen. Sitivini
  RABUKA; National Federation Party (NFP; primarily Indian), Siddiq KOYA;
  Christian Fijian Nationalist Party (CFNP), Sakeasi BUTADROKA; Fiji Labor
  Party (FLP), Jokapeci KOROI; All National Congress (ANC), Apisai TORA;
  General Voters Party (GVP), Max OLSSON; Fiji Conservative Party (FCP),
  Isireli VUIBAU; Conservative Party of Fiji (CPF), Jolale ULUDOLE and Viliame
  SAVU; Fiji Indian Liberal Party, Swami MAHARAJ; Fiji Indian Congress Party,
  Ishwari BAJPAI; Fiji Independent Labor (Muslim), leader NA; Four Corners
  Party, David TULVANUAVOU
Suffrage:
  none
Elections:
 House of Representatives:
  last held 23-29 May 1992 (next to be held NA 1997); results - percent of
  vote by party NA; seats - (70 total, with ethnic Fijians allocated 37 seats,
  ethnic Indians 27 seats, and independents and other 6 seats) number of seats
  by party NA
Executive branch:
  president, prime minister, Cabinet, Great Councils of Chiefs (highest
  ranking members of the traditional chiefly system)
Legislative branch:
  the bicameral Parliament, consisting of an upper house or Senate and a lower
  house or House of Representatives, was dissolved following the coup of 14
  May 1987; the Constitution of 23 September 1988 provides for a bicameral
  Parliament
Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court
Leaders:
 Chief of State:
  President Ratu Sir Penaia Kanatabatu GANILAU (since 5 December 1987); Vice
  President Ratu Sir Kamisese MARA (since 14 April 1992); Vice President Ratu
  Sir Josaia TAIVAIQIA (since 14 April 1992)

*Fiji, Government

 Head of Government:
  Prime Minister Sitiveni RABUKA (since 2 June 1992); Deputy Prime Minister
  Filipe BOLE (since 11 June 1992); Deputy Prime Minister Ratu Timoci VESIKULA
  (since 11 June 1993)
Member of:
  ACP, AsDB, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO,
  IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, PCA, SPARTECA, SPC, SPF, UN,
  UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIKOM, UNOSOM, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador Pita Kewa NACUVA
 chancery:
  Suite 240, 2233 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007
 telephone:
  (202) 337-8320
 consulate:
  New York
US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador Evelyn I. H. TEEGEN
 embassy:
  31 Loftus Street, Suva
 mailing address:
  P. O. Box 218, Suva
 telephone:
  [679] 314-466
 FAX:
  [679] 300-081
Flag:
  light blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the
  Fijian shield centered on the outer half of the flag; the shield depicts a
  yellow lion above a white field quartered by the cross of Saint George
  featuring stalks of sugarcane, a palm tree, bananas, and a white dove

*Fiji, Economy

Overview:
  Fiji's economy is primarily agricultural, with a large subsistence sector.
  Sugar exports are a major source of foreign exchange, and sugar processing
  accounts for one-third of industrial output. Industry, including sugar
  milling, contributes 13% to GDP. Fiji traditionally had earned considerable
  sums of hard currency from the 250,000 tourists who visited each year. In
  1987, however, after two military coups, the economy went into decline. GDP
  dropped by 7.8% in 1987 and by another 2.5% in 1988; political uncertainty
  created a drop in tourism, and the worst drought of the century caused sugar
  production to fall sharply. In contrast, sugar and tourism turned in strong
  performances in 1989, and the economy rebounded vigorously. In 1990 the
  economy received a setback from cyclone Sina, which cut sugar output by an
  estimated 21%. Sugar exports recovered in 1991-92.
National product:
  GDP - exchange rate conversion - $1.4 billion (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate:
  3% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
  $1,900 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  5% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
  5.9% (1991 est.)
Budget:
  revenues $455 million; expenditures $546 million, including capital
  expenditures of $NA (1993 est.)
Exports:
  $435 million (f.o.b., 1991)
 commodities:
  sugar 40%, gold, clothing, copra, processed fish, lumber
 partners:
  EC 31%, Australia 21%, Japan 8%, US 6%
Imports:
  $553 million (c.i.f., 1991)
 commodities:
  machinery and transport equipment 32%, food 15%, petroleum products,
  consumer goods, chemicals
 partners:
  Australia 30%, NZ 17%, Japan 13%, EC 6%, US 6%
External debt:
  $428 million (December 1990 est.)
Industrial production:
  growth rate 8.4% (1991 est.); accounts for 13% of GDP
Electricity:
  215,000 kW capacity; 420 million kWh produced, 560 kWh per capita (1992)
Industries:
  sugar, tourism, copra, gold, silver, clothing, lumber, small cottage
  industries
Agriculture:
  accounts for 23% of GDP; principal cash crop is sugarcane; coconuts,
  cassava, rice, sweet potatoes, bananas; small livestock sector includes
  cattle, pigs, horses, and goats; fish catch nearly 33,000 tons (1989)
Economic aid:
  Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1980-89),
  $815 million
Currency:
  1 Fijian dollar (F$) = 100 cents

*Fiji, Economy

Exchange rates:
  Fijian dollars (F$) per US$1 - 1.5809 (January 1993), 1.5029 (1992), 1.4756
  (1991), 1.4809 (1990), 1.4833 (1989), 1.4303 (1988)
Fiscal year:
  calendar year

*Fiji, Communications

Railroads:
  644 km 0.610-meter narrow gauge, belonging to the government-owned Fiji
  Sugar Corporation
Highways:
  3,300 km total; 1,590 km paved; 1,290 km gravel, crushed stone, or
  stabilized soil surface; 420 unimproved earth (1984)
Inland waterways:
  203 km; 122 km navigable by motorized craft and 200-metric-ton barges
Ports:
  Lambasa, Lautoka, Savusavu, Suva
Merchant marine:
  7 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 40,072 GRT/47,187 DWT; includes 2
  roll-on/roll-off, 2 container, 1 oil tanker, 1 chemical tanker, 1 cargo
Airports:
 total:
  25
 usable:
  22
 with permanent-surface runways:
  2
 with runways over 3,659 m:
  0
 with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
  1
 with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
  2
Telecommunications:
  modern local, interisland, and international (wire/radio integrated) public
  and special-purpose telephone, telegraph, and teleprinter facilities;
  regional radio center; important COMPAC cable link between US-Canada and New
  Zealand-Australia; 53,228 telephones (71 telephones per 1,000 persons);
  broadcast stations - 7 AM, 1 FM, no TV; 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth
  station

*Fiji, Defense Forces

Branches:
  Fiji Military Force (FMF; including a naval division, police)
Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49 194,634; fit for military service 107,304; reach military
  age (18) annually 7,834 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
  exchange rate conversion - $22.4 million, about 2% of GDP (FY91/92)

*Finland, Geography

Location:
  Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea between Sweden and Russia
Map references:
  Arctic Region, Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
 total area:
  337,030 km2
 land area:
  305,470 km2
 comparative area:
  slightly smaller than Montana
Land boundaries:
  total 2,628 km, Norway 729 km, Sweden 586 km, Russia 1,313 km
Coastline:
  1,126 km (excludes islands and coastal indentations)
Maritime claims:
 contiguous zone:
  6 nm
 continental shelf:
  200 m depth or to depth of exploitation
 exclusive fishing zone:
  12 nm
 territorial sea:
  4 nm
International disputes:
  none
Climate:
  cold temperate; potentially subarctic, but comparatively mild because of
  moderating influence of the North Atlantic Current, Baltic Sea, and more
  than 60,000 lakes
Terrain:
  mostly low, flat to rolling plains interspersed with lakes and low hills
Natural resources:
  timber, copper, zinc, iron ore, silver
Land use:
 arable land:
  8%
 permanent crops:   0%
 meadows and pastures:
  0%
 forest and woodland:
  76%
 other:
  16%
Irrigated land:
  620 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
  permanently wet ground covers about 30% of land; population concentrated on
  small southwestern coastal plain
Note:
  long boundary with Russia; Helsinki is northernmost national capital on
  European continent

*Finland, People

Population:
  5,050,942 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
  0.37% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
  12.61 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
  9.91 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
  1.04 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
  5.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
 total population:
  75.65 years
 male:
  71.85 years
 female:
  79.62 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
  1.79 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
 noun:
  Finn(s)
 adjective:
  Finnish
Ethnic divisions:
  Finn, Swede, Lapp, Gypsy, Tatar
Religions:
  Evangelical Lutheran 89%, Greek Orthodox 1%, none 9%, other 1%
Languages:
  Finnish 93.5% (official), Swedish 6.3% (official), small Lapp- and
  Russian-speaking minorities
Literacy:
  age 15 and over can read and write (1980)
 total population:   100%
 male:
  NA%
 female:
  NA%
Labor force:
  2.533 million
 by occupation:
  public services 30.4%, industry 20.9%, commerce 15.0%, finance, insurance,
  and business services 10.2%, agriculture and forestry 8.6%, transport and
  communications 7.7%, construction 7.2%

*Finland, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  Republic of Finland
 conventional short form:
  Finland
 local long form:
  Suomen Tasavalta
 local short form:
  Suomi
Digraph:
  FI
Type:
  republic
Capital:
  Helsinki
Administrative divisions:
  12 provinces (laanit, singular - laani); Ahvenanmaa, Hame, Keski-Suomi,
  Kuopio, Kymi, Lappi, Mikkeli, Oulu, Pohjois-Karjala, Turku ja Pori, Uusimaa,
  Vaasa
Independence:
  6 December 1917 (from Soviet Union)
Constitution:
  17 July 1919
Legal system:
  civil law system based on Swedish law; Supreme Court may request legislation
  interpreting or modifying laws; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with
  reservations
National holiday:
  Independence Day, 6 December (1917)
Political parties and leaders:
 government coalition:
  Center Party, Esko AHO; National Coalition (conservative) Party, Perti
  SALOLAINEN; Swedish People's Party, (Johan) Ole NORRBACK; Finnish Christian
  League, Toimi KANKAANNIEMI
 other parties:
  Social Democratic Party, Antero KEKKONEN, Acting Chairman; Leftist Alliance
  (Communist) People's Democratic League and Democratic Alternative, Claes
  ANDERSON; Green League, Pekka SAURI; Rural Party, Tina MAKELA; Liberal
  People's Party, Kalle MAATTA
Other political or pressure groups:   Finnish Communist Party-Unity, Yrjo HAKANEN; Constitutional
Rightist Party;
  Finnish Pensioners Party; Communist Workers Party, Timo LAHDENMAKI
Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal
Elections:
 President:
  last held 31 January - 1 February and 15 February 1988 (next to be held
  January 1994); results - Mauno KOIVISTO 48%, Paavo VAYRYNEN 20%, Harri
  HOLKERI 18%
 Parliament:
  last held 17 March 1991 (next to be held March 1995); results - Center Party
  24.8%, Social Democratic Party 22.1%, National Coalition (Conservative)
  Party 19.3%, Leftist Alliance (Communist) 10.1%, Green League 6.8%, Swedish
  People's Party 5.5%, Rural 4.8%, Finnish Christian League 3.1%, Liberal
  People's Party 0.8%; seats - (200 total) Center Party 55, Social Democratic
  Party 48, National Coalition (Conservative) Party 40, Leftist Alliance
  (Communist) 19, Swedish People's Party 12, Green League 10, Finnish
  Christian League 8, Rural 7, Liberal People's Party 1

*Finland, Government

Executive branch:
  president, prime minister, deputy prime minister, Council of State
  (Valtioneuvosto)
Legislative branch:
  unicameral Parliament (Eduskunta)
Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court (Korkein Oikeus)
Leaders:
 Chief of State:
  President Mauno KOIVISTO (since 27 January 1982)
 Head of Government:
  Prime Minister Esko AHO (since 26 April 1991); Deputy Prime Minister Ilkka
  KANERVA (since 26 April 1991)
Member of:
  AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE, CERN, COCOM
  (cooperating country), CSCE, EBRD, ECE, EFTA, ESA (associate), FAO, G-9,
  GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO,
  INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS, MTCR, NAM (guest),
  NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO,
  UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIKOM, UNMOGIP, UNOSOM, UNPROFOR, UNTSO,
  UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador Jukka VALTASAARI
 chancery:
  3216 New Mexico Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20016
 telephone:
  (202) 363-2430
 FAX:
  (202) 363-8233
 consulates general:
  Los Angeles and New York
 consulates:   Chicago and Houston
US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador John H. KELLY
 embassy:
  Itainen Puistotie 14A, SF-00140, Helsinki
 mailing address:
  APO AE 09723
 telephone:
  [358] (0) 171931
 FAX:
  [358] (0) 174681
Flag:
  white with a blue cross that extends to the edges of the flag; the vertical
  part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the DANNEBROG
  (Danish flag)

*Finland, Economy

Overview:
  Finland has a highly industrialized, largely free market economy, with per
  capita output two-thirds of the US figure. Its key economic sector is
  manufacturing - principally the wood, metals, and engineering industries.
  Trade is important, with the export of goods representing about 30% of GDP.
  Except for timber and several minerals, Finland depends on imports of raw
  materials, energy, and some components for manufactured goods. Because of
  the climate, agricultural development is limited to maintaining
  self-sufficiency in basic products. The economy, which experienced an
  average of 4.9% annual growth between 1987 and 1989, sank into deep
  recession in 1991 as growth contracted by 6.5%. The recession - which
  continued in 1992 with growth contracting by 3.5% - has been caused by
  economic overheating, depressed foreign markets, and the dismantling of the
  barter system between Finland and the former Soviet Union under which Soviet
  oil and gas had been exchanged for Finnish manufactured goods. The Finnish
  Government has proposed efforts to increase industrial competitiveness and
  efficiency by an increase in exports to Western markets, cuts in public
  expenditures, partial privatization of state enterprises, and changes in
  monetary policy. In June 1991 Helsinki had tied the markka to the EC's
  European Currency Unit (ECU) to promote stability. Ongoing speculation
  resulting from a lack of confidence in the government's policies forced
  Helsinki to devalue the markka by about 12% in November 1991 and to
  indefinitely break the link in September 1992. By boosting the
  competitiveness of Finnish exports, these measures presumably have kept the
  economic downturn from being even more severe. Unemployment probably will
  remain a serious problem during the next few years - monthly figures in
  early 1993 are approaching 20% - with the majority of Finnish firms facing a
  weak domestic market and the troubled German and Swedish export markets.
  Declining revenues, increased transfer payments, and extensive funding to
  bail out the banking system are expected to push the central government's
  budget deficit to nearly 13% in 1993. Helsinki continues to harmonize its
  economic policies with those of the EC during Finland's current EC
  membership bid.
National product:
  GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $79.4 billion (1992)
National product real growth rate:
  -3.5% (1992)
National product per capita:
  $15,900 (1992)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  2.1% (1992)
Unemployment rate:
  13.1% (1992)
Budget:
  revenues $26.8 billion; expenditures $40.6 billion, including capital
  expenditures of $NA (1992)
Exports:
  $24.0 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
 commodities:
  timber, paper and pulp, ships, machinery, clothing and footwear
 partners:
  EC 53.2% (Germany 15.6%, UK 10.7%), EFTA 19.5% (Sweden 12.8%), US 5.9%,
  Japan 1.3%, Russia 2.8% (1992)
Imports:
  $21.2 billion (c.i.f., 1992)
 commodities:
  foodstuffs, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, transport
  equipment, iron and steel, machinery, textile yarn and fabrics, fodder
  grains

*Finland, Economy

 partners:
  EC 47.2% (Germany 16.9%, UK 8.7%), EFTA 19.0% (Sweden 11.7%), US 6.1%, Japan
  5.5%, Russia 7.1% (1992)
External debt:
  $25 billion (1992)
Industrial production:
  growth rate 7.6% (1992 est.)
Electricity:
  13,500,000 kW capacity; 55,300 million kWh produced, 11,050 kWh per capita
  (1992)
Industries:
  metal products, shipbuilding, forestry and wood processing (pulp, paper),
  copper refining, foodstuffs, chemicals, textiles, clothing
Agriculture:
  accounts for 5% of GDP (including forestry); livestock production,
  especially dairy cattle, predominates; forestry is an important export
  earner and a secondary occupation for the rural population; main crops -
  cereals, sugar beets, potatoes; 85% self-sufficient, but short of foodgrains
  and fodder grains; annual fish catch about 160,000 metric tons
Economic aid:
  donor - ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $2.7 billion
Currency:
  1 markkaa (FMk) or Finmark = 100 pennia
Exchange rates:
  markkaa (FMk) per US$1 - 5.4193 (January 1993), 4.4794 (1992), 4.0440
  (1991), 3.8235 (1990), 4.2912 (1989), 4.1828 (1988)
Fiscal year:   calendar year

*Finland, Communications

Railroads:
  5,924 km total; Finnish State Railways (VR) operate a total of 5,863 km
  1.524-meter gauge, of which 480 km are multiple track and 1,445 km are
  electrified
Highways:
  about 103,000 km total, including 35,000 km paved (bituminous, concrete,
  bituminous-treated surface) and 38,000 km unpaved (stabilized gravel,
  gravel, earth); additional 30,000 km of private (state-subsidized) roads
Inland waterways:
  6,675 km total (including Saimaa Canal); 3,700 km suitable for steamers
Pipelines:
  natural gas 580 km
Ports:
  Helsinki, Oulu, Pori, Rauma, Turku
Merchant marine:
  87 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 935,260 GRT/973,995 DWT; includes 3
  passenger, 11 short-sea passenger, 17 cargo, 1 refrigerated cargo, 26
  roll-on/roll-off, 14 oil tanker, 6 chemical tanker, 2 liquefied gas, 7 bulk
Airports:
 total:
  160
 usable:
  157
 with permanent-surface runways:
  66
 with runways over 3,659 m:
  0
 with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
  25
 with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
  22
Telecommunications:
  good service from cable and microwave radio relay network; 3,140,000
  telephones; broadcast stations - 6 AM, 105 FM, 235 TV; 1 submarine cable;
  INTELSAT satellite transmission service via Swedish earth station and a
  receive-only INTELSAT earth station near Helsinki

*Finland, Defense Forces

Branches:
  Army, Navy, Air Force, Frontier Guard (including Coast Guard)
Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49 1,323,381; fit for military service 1,091,613; reach
  military age (17) annually 33,828 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
  exchange rate conversion - $1.93 billion, about 2% of GDP (1992)

*France, Geography

Location:
  Western Europe, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean between Spain and Germany
Map references:
  Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
 total area:
  547,030 km2
 land area:
  545,630 km2
 comparative area:
  slightly more than twice the size of Colorado
 note:
  includes Corsica and the rest of metropolitan France, but excludes the
  overseas administrative divisions
Land boundaries:
  total 2,892.4 km, Andorra 60 km, Belgium 620 km, Germany 451 km, Italy 488
  km, Luxembourg 73 km, Monaco 4.4 km, Spain 623 km, Switzerland 573 km
Coastline:
  3,427 km (mainland 2,783 km, Corsica 644 km)
Maritime claims:
 contiguous zone:
  12-24 nm
 exclusive economic zone:
  200 nm
 territorial sea:
  12 nm
International disputes:
  Madagascar claims Bassas da India, Europa Island, Glorioso Islands, Juan de
  Nova Island, and Tromelin Island; Comoros claims Mayotte; Mauritius claims
  Tromelin Island; Seychelles claims Tromelin Island; Suriname claims part of
  French Guiana; Mexico claims Clipperton Island; territorial claim in
  Antarctica (Adelie Land); Saint Pierre and Miquelon is focus of maritime
  boundary dispute between Canada and France
Climate:
  generally cool winters and mild summers, but mild winters and hot summers
  along the Mediterranean
Terrain:
  mostly flat plains or gently rolling hills in north and west; remainder is
  mountainous, especially Pyrenees in south, Alps in east
Natural resources:
  coal, iron ore, bauxite, fish, timber, zinc, potash
Land use:
 arable land:
  32%
 permanent crops:
  2%
 meadows and pastures:
  23%
 forest and woodland:
  27%
 other:
  16%
Irrigated land:   11,600 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
  most of large urban areas and industrial centers in Rhone, Garonne, Seine,
  or Loire River basins; occasional warm tropical wind known as mistral
Note:
  largest West European nation

*France, People

Population:
  57,566,091 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
  0.48% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
  13.24 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
  9.3 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
  0.87 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
  6.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
 total population:
  78 years
 male:
  74.04 years
 female:
  82.16 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
  1.8 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
 noun:
  Frenchman(men), Frenchwoman(women)
 adjective:
  French
Ethnic divisions:
  Celtic and Latin with Teutonic, Slavic, North African, Indochinese, Basque
  minorities
Religions:
  Roman Catholic 90%, Protestant 2%, Jewish 1%, Muslim (North African workers)
  1%, unaffiliated 6%
Languages:
  French 100%, rapidly declining regional dialects and languages (Provencal,
  Breton, Alsatian, Corsican, Catalan, Basque, Flemish)
Literacy:
  age 15 and over can read and write (1980)
 total population:
  99%
 male:
  NA%
 female:
  NA%
Labor force:
  24.17 million  by occupation:
  services 61.5%, industry 31.3%, agriculture 7.2% (1987)

*France, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  French Republic
 conventional short form:
  France
 local long form:
  Republique Francaise
 local short form:
  France
Digraph:
  FR
Type:
  republic
Capital:
  Paris
Administrative divisions:
  22 regions (regions, singular - region); Alsace, Aquitaine, Auvergne,
  Basse-Normandie, Bourgogne, Bretagne, Centre, Champagne-Ardenne, Corse,
  Franche-Comte, Haute-Normandie, Ile-de-France, Languedoc-Roussillon,
  Limousin, Lorraine, Midi-Pyrenees, Nord-Pas-de-Calais, Pays de la Loire,
  Picardie, Poitou-Charentes, Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur, Rhone-Alpes
 note:
  the 22 regions are subdivided into 96 departments; see separate entries for
  the overseas departments (French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Reunion)
  and the territorial collectivities (Mayotte, Saint Pierre and Miquelon)
Dependent areas:
  Bassas da India, Clipperton Island, Europa Island, French Polynesia, French
  Southern and Antarctic Lands, Glorioso Islands, Juan de Nova Island, New
  Caledonia, Tromelin Island, Wallis and Futuna
 note:
  the US does not recognize claims to Antarctica
Independence:
  486 (unified by Clovis)
Constitution:
  28 September 1958, amended concerning election of president in 1962,
  ammended to comply with provisions of EC Maastricht Treaty in 1992
Legal system:
  civil law system with indigenous concepts; review of administrative but not
  legislative acts
National holiday:
  National Day, Taking of theBastille, 14 July (1789)
Political parties and leaders:
  Rally for the Republic (RPR), Jacques CHIRAC; Union for French Democracy
  (UDF, federation of UREI, UC, RDE), Valery Giscard d'ESTAING; Republican
  Party (PR), Gerard LONGUET; Center for Social Democrats (CDS), Pierre
  MEHAIGNERIE; Radical (RAD), Yves GALLAND; Socialist Party (PS), Michel
  ROCARD; Left Radical Movement (MRG), Emile ZUCCARELLI; Communist Party
  (PCF), Georges MARCHAIS; National Front (FN), Jean-Marie LE PEN; Union of
  Republican and Independents (UREI); Centrist Union (UC); (RDE)
Other political or pressure groups:
  Communist-controlled labor union (Confederation Generale du Travail) nearly
  2.4 million members (claimed); Socialist-leaning labor union (Confederation
  Francaise Democratique du Travail or CFDT) about 800,000 members est.;
  independent labor union (Force Ouvriere) 1 million members (est.);
  independent white-collar union (Confederation Generale des Cadres) 340,000
  members (claimed); National Council of French Employers (Conseil National du
  Patronat Francais - CNPF or Patronat)
Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

*France, Government

Elections:
 President:
  last held 8 May 1988 (next to be held by May 1995); results - Second Ballot
  Francois MITTERRAND 54%, Jacques CHIRAC 46%
 Senate:
  last held NA September 1992 (next to be held September 1995 - nine-year
  term, elected by thirds every three years); results - percent of vote by
  party NA; seats - (321 total; 296 metropolitan France, 13 for overseas
  departments and territories, and 12 for French nationals abroad) RPR 91, UDF
  142 (UREI 51, UC 68, RDE 23), PS 66, PCF 16, independents 2, other 4
 National Assembly:
  last held 21 and 28 March 1993 (next to be held NA 1998); results - percent
  of vote by party NA; seats - (577 total) RPR 247, UDF 213, PS 67, PCF 24,
  independents 26
Executive branch:
  president, prime minister, Council of Ministers (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
  bicameral Parliament (Parlement) consists of an upper house or Senate
  (Senat) and a lower house or National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale)
Judicial branch:
  Constitutional Court (Cour Constitutionnelle)
Leaders:
 Chief of State:
  President Francois MITTERRAND (since 21 May 1981)
 Head of Government:
  Prime Minister Edouard BALLADUR (since 29 March 1993)
Member of:
  ACCT, AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, Australia Group, BDEAC, BIS, CCC, CDB
  (non-regional), CE, CERN, COCOM, CSCE, EBRD, EC, ECA (associate), ECE,
  ECLAC, EIB, ESA, ESCAP, FAO, FZ, GATT, G-5, G-7, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD,
  ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT,
  INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS, MINURSO, MTCR, NACC, NATO, NEA, NSG,
  OAS (observer), OECD, PCA, SPC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL,
  UNIKOM, UNPROFOR, UNRWA, UN Security Council, UNTAC, UN Trusteeship Council,
  UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WEU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador Jacques ANDREANI
 chancery:
  4101 Reservoir Road NW, Washington, DC 20007
 telephone:   (202) 944-6000
 consulates general:
  Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Honolulu, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New
  Orleans, New York, San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico)
US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador Pamela HARRIMAN
 embassy:
  2 Avenue Gabriel, 75382 Paris Cedex 08, Unit 21551
 mailing address:
  APO AE 09777
 telephone:
  [33] (1) 4296-12-02 or 4261-80-75
 FAX:
  [33] (1) 4266-9783
 consulates general:
  Bordeaux, Marseille, Strasbourg

*France, Government

Flag:
  three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), white, and red; known as
  the French Tricouleur (Tricolor); the design and colors have been the basis
  for a number of other flags, including those of Belgium, Chad, Ireland, Cote
  d'Ivoire, and Luxembourg; the official flag for all French dependent areas

*France, Economy

Overview:
  One of the world's most developed economies, France has substantial
  agricultural resources and a highly diversified modern industrial sector.
  Large tracts of fertile land, the application of modern technology, and
  subsidies have combined to make it the leading agricultural producer in
  Western Europe. France is largely self-sufficient in agricultural products
  and is a major exporter of wheat and dairy products. The industrial sector
  generates about one-quarter of GDP, and the growing services sector has
  become crucial to the economy. The French economy is entering its fourth
  consecutive year of sluggish growth after a strong expansion in the late
  1980s. Growth averaged only 1.3% in 1990-92 and is expected to drop to
  between zero and -0.5% in 1993. The government budget deficit rose to 3.2%
  of GDP in 1992 and is expected to be far larger than planned in the 1993
  budget. Paris remains committed to maintaining the franc-deutsch mark
  parity, which has kept French interest rates high despite France's low
  inflation. Although the pace of economic integration within the European
  Community has slowed down, integration presumably will remain a major force
  shaping the fortunes of the various economic sectors.
National product:
  GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $1.08 trillion (1992)
National product real growth rate:
  1.1% (1992)
National product per capita:
  $18,900 (1992)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  2.1% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
  10.5% (end 1992)
Budget:
  revenues $220.5 billion; expenditures $249.1 billion, including capital
  expenditures of $47 billion (1993 budget)
Exports:
  $212.7 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
 commodities:
  machinery and transportation equipment, chemicals, foodstuffs, agricultural
  products, iron and steel products, textiles and clothing
 partners:
  Germany 18.6%, Italy 11.0%, Spain 11.0%, Belgium-Luxembourg 9.1%, UK 8.8%,
  Netherlands 7.9%, US 6.4%, Japan 2.0%, former USSR 0.7% (1991 est.)
Imports:
  $230.3 billion (c.i.f., 1991)
 commodities:
  crude oil, machinery and equipment, agricultural products, chemicals, iron
  and steel products
 partners:
  Germany 17.8%, Italy 10.9%, US 9.5%, Netherlands 8.9%, Spain 8.8%,
  Belgium-Luxembourg 8.5%, UK 7.5%, Japan 4.1%, former USSR 1.3% (1991 est.)
External debt:
  $270 billion (December 1992)
Industrial production:
  growth rate 0.2% (1992 est.)
Electricity:
  110,000,000 kW capacity; 426,000 million kWh produced, 7,430 kWh per capita
  (1992)
Industries:
  steel, machinery, chemicals, automobiles, metallurgy, aircraft, electronics,
  mining, textiles, food processing, tourism

*France, Economy

Agriculture:
  accounts for 4% of GDP (including fishing and forestry); one of the world's
  top five wheat producers; other principal products - beef, dairy products,
  cereals, sugar beets, potatoes, wine grapes; self-sufficient for most
  temperate-zone foods; shortages include fats and oils and tropical produce,
  but overall net exporter of farm products; fish catch of 850,000 metric tons
  ranks among world's top 20 countries and is all used domestically
Economic aid:
  donor - ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $75.1 billion
Currency:
  1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
  French francs (F) per US$1 - 5.4812 (January 1993), 5.2938 (1992), 5.6421
  (1991), 5.4453 (1990), 6.3801 (1989), 5.9569 (1988)
Fiscal year:
  calendar year

*France, Communications

Railroads:
  French National Railways (SNCF) operates 34,322 km 1.435-meter standard
  gauge; 12,434 km electrified, 15,132 km double or multiple track; 99 km of
  various gauges (1.000-meter), privately owned and operated
Highways:
  1,551,400 km total; 33,400 km national highway; 347,000 km departmental
  highway; 421,000 km community roads; 750,000 km rural roads; 5,401 km of
  controlled-access divided autoroutes; about 803,000 km paved
Inland waterways:
  14,932 km; 6,969 km heavily traveled
Pipelines:
  crude oil 3,059 km; petroleum products 4,487 km; natural gas 24,746 km
Ports:
  coastal - Bordeaux, Boulogne, Brest, Cherbourg, Dunkerque, Fos-Sur-Mer, Le
  Havre, Marseille, Nantes, Sete, Toulon; inland - Rouen
Merchant marine:
  130 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,224,945 GRT/5,067,252 DWT; includes
  7 short-sea passenger, 10 cargo, 20 container, 1 multifunction large-load
  carrier, 27 roll-on/roll-off, 36 oil tanker, 11 chemical tanker, 6 liquefied
  gas, 2 specialized tanker, 10 bulk; note - France also maintains a captive
  register for French-owned ships in the Kerguelen Islands (French Southern
  and Antarctic Lands) and French Polynesia
Airports:
 total:
  471
 usable:
  461
 with permanent-surface runways:
  256
 with runways over 3,659 m:
  3
 with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
  37
 with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
  136
Telecommunications:
  highly developed; extensive cable and microwave radio relay networks;
  large-scale introduction of optical-fiber systems; satellite systems for
  domestic traffic; 39,200,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 41 AM, 800
  (mostly repeaters) FM, 846 (mostly repeaters) TV; 24 submarine coaxial
  cables; 2 INTELSAT earth stations (with total of 5 antennas - 2 for the
  Indian Ocean INTELSAT and 3 for the Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT); HF radio
  communications with more than 20 countries; INMARSAT service; EUTELSAT TV
  service

*France, Defense Forces

Branches:
  Army, Navy (including Naval Air), Air Force, National Gendarmerie
Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49 14,662,761; fit for military service 12,247,950; reach
  military age (18) annually 386,504 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
  exchange rate conversion - $36.6 billion, 3.1% of GDP (1993 est.)

*French Guiana, Header

Affiliation:
  (overseas department of France)

*French Guiana, Geography

Location:
  northern South America, bordering on the North Atlantic Ocean between
  Suriname and Brazil
Map references:
  South America, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
 total area:
  91,000 km2
 land area:
  89,150 km2
 comparative area:
  slightly smaller than Indiana
Land boundaries:
  total 1,183 km, Brazil 673 km, Suriname 510 km
Coastline:
  378 km
Maritime claims:
 exclusive economic zone:
  200 nm
 territorial sea:
  12 nm
International disputes:
  Suriname claims area between Riviere Litani and Riviere Marouini (both
  headwaters of the Lawa)
Climate:
  tropical; hot, humid; little seasonal temperature variation
Terrain:
  low-lying coastal plains rising to hills and small mountains
Natural resources:
  bauxite, timber, gold (widely scattered), cinnabar, kaolin, fish
Land use:
 arable land:
  0%
 permanent crops:
  0%
 meadows and pastures:
  0%
 forest and woodland:
  82%
 other:
  18%
Irrigated land:
  NA km2
Environment:
  mostly an unsettled wilderness

*French Guiana, People

Population:
  133,376 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
  4.42% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
  26.46 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
  4.72 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
  22.49 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
  16.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
 total population:
  74.87 years
 male:
  71.59 years
 female:
  78.32 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
  3.54 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
 noun:
  French Guianese (singular and plural)
 adjective:
  French Guianese
Ethnic divisions:
  black or mulatto 66%, Caucasian 12%, East Indian, Chinese, Amerindian 12%,
  other 10%
Religions:
  Roman Catholic
Languages:
  French
Literacy:
  age 15 and over can read and write (1982)
 total population:
  82%
 male:
  81%
 female:
  83%
Labor force:
  23,265
 by occupation:
  services, government, and commerce 60.6%, industry 21.2%, agriculture 18.2%
  (1980)

*French Guiana, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  Department of Guiana
 conventional short form:
  French Guiana
 local long form:
  none
 local short form:
  Guyane
Digraph:
  FG
Type:
  overseas department of France
Capital:
  Cayenne
Administrative divisions:
  none (overseas department of France)
Independence:
  none (overseas department of France)
Constitution:
  28 September 1958 (French Constitution)
Legal system:
  French legal system
National holiday:
  National Day, Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)
Political parties and leaders:
  Guianese Socialist Party (PSG), Gerard HOLDER; Rally for the Republic (RPR),
  Paulin BRUNE; Union of the Center Rally (URC); Union for French Democracy
  (UDF), Claude Ho A CHUCK; Guyana Democratic Front (FDG), Georges OTHILY
Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal
Elections:
 French National Assembly:
  last held 24 September 1989 (next to be held March 1993); results - percent
  of vote by party NA; seats - (2 total) PSG 1, RPR 1
 French Senate:
  last held 24 September 1989 (next to be held September 1998); results -
  percent of vote by party NA; seats - (1 total) PSG 1
 Regional Council:
  last held 22 March 1992 (next to be held NA); results - percent of vote by
  party NA; seats - (31 total) PSG 16
Executive branch:
  French president, commissioner of the republic
Legislative branch:
  unicameral General Council and a unicameral Regional Council
Judicial branch:
  Court of Appeals (highest local court based in Martinique with jurisdiction
  over Martinique, Guadeloupe, and French Guiana)
Leaders:
 Chief of State:
  President Francois MITTERRAND (since 21 May 1981)
 Head of Government:   Prefect Jean-Francois CORDET (since NA 1992)
Member of:
  FZ, WCL
Diplomatic representation in US:
  as an overseas department of France, the interests of French Guiana are
  represented in the US by France

*French Guiana, Government

US diplomatic representation:
  none (overseas department of France)
Flag:
  the flag of France is used

*French Guiana, Economy

Overview:
  The economy is tied closely to that of France through subsidies and imports.
  Besides the French space center at Kourou, fishing and forestry are the most
  important economic activities, with exports of fish and fish products
  (mostly shrimp) accounting for more than 60% of total revenue in 1987. The
  large reserves of tropical hardwoods, not fully exploited, support an
  expanding sawmill industry that provides sawn logs for export. Cultivation
  of crops - rice, cassava, bananas, and sugarcane - is limited to the coastal
  area, where the population is largely concentrated. French Guiana is heavily
  dependent on imports of food and energy. Unemployment is a serious problem,
  particularly among younger workers.
National product:
  GDP - exchange rate conversion - $421 million (1986)
National product real growth rate:
  NA%
National product per capita:
  $4,390 (1986)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  4.1% (1987)
Unemployment rate:
  13% (1990)
Budget:
  revenues $735 million; expenditures $735 million, including capital
  expenditures of $NA (1987)
Exports:
  $64.8 million (f.o.b., 1990)
 commodities:
  shrimp, timber, rum, rosewood essence
 partners:
  France 36%, US 14%, Japan 6% (1990)
Imports:
  $435 million (c.i.f., 1990)
 commodities:
  food (grains, processed meat), other consumer goods, producer goods,
  petroleum
 partners:   France 62%, Trinidad and Tobago 9%, US 4%, FRG 3% (1987)
External debt:
  $1.2 billion (1988)
Industrial production:
  growth rate NA%
Electricity:
  92,000 kW capacity; 185 million kWh produced, 1,450 kWh per capita (1992)
Industries:
  construction, shrimp processing, forestry products, rum, gold mining
Agriculture:
  some vegetables for local consumption; rice, corn, manioc, cocoa, bananas,
  sugar; livestock - cattle, pigs, poultry
Economic aid:
  Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89),
  $1.51 billion
Currency:
  1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
  French francs (F) per US$1 - 5.4812 (January 1993), 5.2938 (1992), 5.6421
  (1991), 5.4453 (1990), 6.3801 (1989), 5.9569 (1988)
Fiscal year:
  calendar year

*French Guiana, Communications

Highways:
  680 km total; 510 km paved, 170 km improved and unimproved earth
Inland waterways:
  460 km, navigable by small oceangoing vessels and river and coastal
  steamers; 3,300 km navigable by native craft
Ports:
  Cayenne
Airports:
 total:
  10
 usable:
  10
 with permanent-surface runways:
  4
 with runways over 3,659 m:
  0
 with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
  1
 with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
  1
Telecommunications:
  fair open-wire and microwave radio relay system; 18,100 telephones;
  broadcast stations - 5 AM, 7 FM, 9 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth
  station

*French Guiana, Defense Forces

Branches:
  French Forces, Gendarmerie
Manpower availability:
  males 15-49 39,005; fit for military service 25,477 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
  $NA, NA% of GDP
Note:
  defense is the responsibility of France

*French Polynesia, Header

Affiliation:
  (overseas territory of France)

*French Polynesia, Geography

Location:
  Oceania, halfway between Australia and South America
Map references:
  Oceania
Area:
 total area:
  3,941 km2
 land area:
  3,660 km2
 comparative area:
  slightly less than one-third the size of Connecticut
Land boundaries:
  0 km
Coastline:
  2,525 km
Maritime claims:
 exclusive economic zone:
  200 nm
 territorial sea:
  12 nm
International disputes:
  none
Climate:
  tropical, but moderate
Terrain:
  mixture of rugged high islands and low islands with reefs
Natural resources:
  timber, fish, cobalt
Land use:
 arable land:
  1%
 permanent crops:
  19%
 meadows and pastures:
  5%
 forest and woodland:   31%
 other:
  44%
Irrigated land:
  NA km2
Environment:
  occasional cyclonic storm in January; includes five archipelagoes
Note:
  Makatea in French Polynesia is one of the three great phosphate rock islands
  in the Pacific Ocean - the others are Banaba (Ocean Island) in Kiribati and
  Nauru

*French Polynesia, People

Population:
  210,333 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
  2.26% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
  27.89 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
  5.27 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
  15 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
 total population:
  70.33 years
 male:
  67.95 years
 female:
  72.84 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
  3.32 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
 noun:
  French Polynesian(s)
 adjective:
  French Polynesian
Ethnic divisions:
  Polynesian 78%, Chinese 12%, local French 6%, metropolitan French 4%
Religions:
  Protestant 54%, Roman Catholic 30%, other 16%
Languages:
  French (official), Tahitian (official)
Literacy:
  age 14 and over but definition of literacy not available (1977)
 total population:
  98%
 male:
  98%
 female:
  98%
Labor force:
  76,630 employed (1988)

*French Polynesia, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  Territory of French Polynesia
 conventional short form:
  French Polynesia
 local long form:
  Territoire de la Polynesie Francaise
 local short form:
  Polynesie Francaise
Digraph:
  FP
Type:
  overseas territory of France since 1946
Capital:
  Papeete
Administrative divisions:
  none (overseas territory of France); there are no first-order administrative
  divisions as defined by the US Government, but there are 5 archipelagic
  divisions named Archipel des Marquises, Archipel des Tuamotu, Archipel des
  Tubuai, Iles du Vent, and Iles Sous-le-Vent
 note:
  Clipperton Island is administered by France from French Polynesia
Independence:
  none (overseas territory of France)
Constitution:
  28 September 1958 (French Constitution)
Legal system:
  based on French system
National holiday:
  National Day, Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)
Political parties and leaders:
  People's Rally (Tahoeraa Huiraatira; Gaullist), Gaston FLOSSE; Polynesian
  Union Party (Te Tiarama; centrist), Alexandre LEONTIEFF; New Fatherland
  Party (Ai'a Api), Emile VERNAUDON; Polynesian Liberation Front (Tavini
  Huiraatira), Oscar TEMARU; other small parties
Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal
Elections:
 French National Assembly:
  last held 5 and 12 June 1988 (next to be held 21 and 28 March 1993); results
  - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (2 total) People's Rally (Gaullist)
  1, New Fatherland Party 1
 French Senate:
  last held 24 September 1989 (next to be held September 1998); results -
  percent of vote by party NA; seats - (1 total) party NA
 Territorial Assembly:
  last held 17 March 1991 (next to be held March 1996); results - percent of
  vote by party NA; seats - (41 total) People's Rally (Gaullist) 18,
  Polynesian Union Party 14, New Fatherland Party 5, other 4
Executive branch:
  French president, high commissioner of the republic, president of the
  Council of Ministers, vice president of the Council of Ministers, Council of
  Ministers
Legislative branch:
  unicameral Territorial Assembly
Judicial branch:
  Court of Appeal, Court of the First Instance, Court of Administrative Law

*French Polynesia, Government

Leaders:
 Chief of State:
  President Francois MITTERRAND (since 21 May 1981); High Commissioner of the
  Republic Michel JAU (since NA 1992)
 Head of Government:
  President of the Council of Ministers Gaston FLOSSE (since 10 May 1991);
  Vice President of the Council of Ministers Joel BUILLARD (since 12 September
  1991)
Member of:
  ESCAP (associate), FZ, ICFTU, SPC, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
  as an overseas territory of France, French Polynesian interests are
  represented in the US by France
US diplomatic representation:
  none (overseas territory of France)
Flag:
  the flag of France is used

*French Polynesia, Economy

Overview:
  Since 1962, when France stationed military personnel in the region, French
  Polynesia has changed from a subsistence economy to one in which a high
  proportion of the work force is either employed by the military or supports
  the tourist industry. Tourism accounts for about 20% of GDP and is a primary
  source of hard currency earnings.
National product:
  GDP - exchange rate conversion - $1.2 billion (1991 est.)
National product real growth rate:
  NA%
National product per capita:
  $6,000 (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  2.9% (1989)
Unemployment rate:
  14.9% (1988 est.)
Budget:
  revenues $614 million; expenditures $957 million, including capital
  expenditures of $NA (1988)
Exports:
  $88.9 million (f.o.b., 1989)
 commodities:
  coconut products 79%, mother-of-pearl 14%, vanilla, shark meat
 partners:
  France 54%, US 17%, Japan 17%
Imports:
  $765 million (c.i.f., 1989)
 commodities:
  fuels, foodstuffs, equipment
 partners:
  France 53%, US 11%, Australia 6%, NZ 5%
External debt:
  $NA
Industrial production:
  growth rate NA%
Electricity:
  75,000 kW capacity; 275 million kWh produced, 1,330 kWh per capita (1992)
Industries:
  tourism, pearls, agricultural processing, handicrafts
Agriculture:
  coconut and vanilla plantations; vegetables and fruit; poultry, beef, dairy
  products
Economic aid:
  Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-88),
  $3.95 billion
Currency:
  1 CFP franc (CFPF) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
  Comptoirs Francais du Pacifique francs (CFPF) per US$1 - 99.65 (January
  1993), 96.24 (1992), 102.57 (1991), 99.00 (1990), 115.99 (1989), 108.30
  (1988); note - linked at the rate of 18.18 to the French franc
Fiscal year:
  calendar year

*French Polynesia, Communications

Highways:
  600 km (1982)
Ports:
  Papeete, Bora-bora
Merchant marine:
  3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,127 GRT/6,710 DWT; includes 2
  passenger-cargo, 1 refrigerated cargo; note - a captive subset of the French
  register
Airports:
 total:
  43
 usable:
  41
 with permanent-surface runways:
  23
 with runways over 3,659 m:
  0
 with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
  2  with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
  12
Telecommunications:
  33,200 telephones; 84,000 radio receivers; 26,400 TV sets; broadcast
  stations - 5 AM, 2 FM, 6 TV; 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth station

*French Polynesia, Defense Forces

Branches:
  French forces (including Army, Navy, Air Force), Gendarmerie
Note:
  defense is responsibility of France

*French Southern and Antarctic Lands, Header

Affiliation:
  (overseas territory of France)

*French Southern and Antarctic Lands, Geography

Location:
  in the southern Indian Ocean, about equidistant between Africa, Antarctica,
  and Australia
Map references:
  Antarctic Region, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
 total area:
  7,781 km2
 land area:
  7,781 km2
 comparative area:
  slightly less than 1.5 times the size of Delaware
 note:
  includes Ile Amsterdam, Ile Saint-Paul, Iles Kerguelen, and Iles Crozet;
  excludes Terre Adelie claim of about 500,000 km2 in Antarctica that is not
  recognized by the US
Land boundaries:
  0 km
Coastline:
  1,232 km
Maritime claims:
 exclusive economic zone:
  200 nm from Iles Kerguelen only
 territorial sea:
  12 nm
International disputes:
  Terre Adelie claim in Antarctica is not recognized by the US
Climate:
  antarctic
Terrain:   volcanic
Natural resources:
  fish, crayfish
Land use:
 arable land:
  0%
 permanent crops:
  0%
 meadows and pastures:
  0%
 forest and woodland:
  0%
 other:
  100%
Irrigated land:
  0 km2
Environment:
  Ile Amsterdam and Ile Saint-Paul are extinct volcanoes
Note:
  remote location in the southern Indian Ocean

*French Southern and Antarctic Lands, People

Population:
  no indigenous inhabitants; note - there are researchers whose numbers vary
  from 150 in winter (July) to 200 in summer (January)

*French Southern and Antarctic Lands, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  Territory of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands
 conventional short form:
  French Southern and Antarctic Lands
 local long form:
  Territoire des Terres Australes et Antarctiques Francaises
 local short form:
  Terres Australes et Antarctiques Francaises
Digraph:
  FS
Type:
  overseas territory of France since 1955; governed by High Administrator
  Bernard de GOUTTES (since May 1990), who is assisted by a 7-member
  Consultative Council and a 12-member Scientific Council
Capital:
  none; administered from Paris, France
Administrative divisions:
  none (overseas territory of France); there are no first-order administrative
  divisions as defined by the US Government, but there are 3 districts named
  Ile Crozet, Iles Kerguelen, and Iles Saint-Paul et Amsterdam; excludes Terre
  Adelie claim in Antarctica that is not recognized by the US
Independence:   none (overseas territory of France)
Flag:
  the flag of France is used

*French Southern and Antarctic Lands, Economy

Overview:
  Economic activity is limited to servicing meteorological and geophysical
  research stations and French and other fishing fleets. The fishing catches
  landed on Iles Kerguelen by foreign ships are exported to France and
  Reunion.
Budget:
  revenues $17.5 million; expenditures $NA, including capital expenditures of
  $NA (1992)

*French Southern and Antarctic Lands, Communications

Ports:
  none; offshore anchorage only
Merchant marine:
  16 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 292,490 GRT/514,389 DWT; includes 2
  cargo, 4 refrigerated cargo, 4 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 2 oil tanker, 3 bulk,
  1 multifunction large load carrier; note - a captive subset of the French
  register
Telecommunications:
  NA

*French Southern and Antarctic Lands, Defense Forces

Note:
  defense is the responsibility of France


*Gabon, Geography

Location:
  Western Africa, bordering the Atlantic Ocean at the Equator between the
  Congo and Equatorial Guinea
Map references:
  Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
 total area:
  267,670 km2
 land area:
  257,670 km2
 comparative area:
  slightly smaller than Colorado
Land boundaries:   total 2,551 km, Cameroon 298 km, Congo 1,903 km, Equatorial Guinea 350 km
Coastline:
  885 km
Maritime claims:
 contiguous zone:
  24 nm
 exclusive economic zone:
  200 nm
 territorial sea:
  12 nm
International disputes:
  maritime boundary dispute with Equatorial Guinea because of disputed
  sovereignty over islands in Corisco Bay
Climate:
  tropical; always hot, humid
Terrain:
  narrow coastal plain; hilly interior; savanna in east and south
Natural resources:
  petroleum, manganese, uranium, gold, timber, iron ore
Land use:
 arable land:
  1%
 permanent crops:
  1%
 meadows and pastures:
  18%
 forest and woodland:
  78%
 other:
  2%
Irrigated land:
  NA km2
Environment:
  deforestation

*Gabon, People

Population:
  1,122,550 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
  1.45% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
  28.63 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
  14.08 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
  97.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
 total population:
  54.19 years
 male:
  51.46 years  female:
  57.01 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
  4.02 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
 noun:
  Gabonese (singular and plural)
 adjective:
  Gabonese
Ethnic divisions:
  Bantu tribes including four major tribal groupings (Fang, Eshira, Bapounou,
  Bateke), Africans and Europeans 100,000, including 27,000 French
Religions:
  Christian 55-75%, Muslim less than 1%, animist
Languages:
  French (official), Fang, Myene, Bateke, Bapounou/Eschira, Bandjabi
Literacy:
  age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
 total population:
  61%
 male:
  74%
 female:
  48%
Labor force:
  120,000 salaried
 by occupation:
  agriculture 65.0%, industry and commerce 30.0%, services 2.5%, government
  2.5%
 note:
  58% of population of working age (1983)

*Gabon, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  Gabonese Republic
 conventional short form:
  Gabon
 local long form:
  Republique Gabonaise
 local short form:
  Gabon
Digraph:
  GB
Type:
  republic; multiparty presidential regime (opposition parties legalized 1990)
Capital:
  Libreville
Administrative divisions:
  9 provinces; Estuaire, Haut-Ogooue, Moyen-Ogooue, Ngounie, Nyanga,
  Ogooue-Ivindo, Ogooue-Lolo, Ogooue-Maritime, Woleu-Ntem
Independence:
  17 August 1960 (from France)
Constitution:
  21 February 1961, revised 15 April 1975
Legal system:
  based on French civil law system and customary law; judicial review of
  legislative acts in Constitutional Chamber of the Supreme Court; compulsory
  ICJ jurisdiction not accepted
National holiday:
  Renovation Day, 12 March (1968) (Gabonese Democratic Party established)
Political parties and leaders:
  Gabonese Democratic Party (PDG, former sole party), El Hadj Omar BONGO,
  president; National Recovery Movement - Lumberjacks (Morena-Bucherons);
  Gabonese Party for Progress (PGP); National Recovery Movement
  (Morena-Original); Association for Socialism in Gabon (APSG); Gabonese
  Socialist Union (USG); Circle for Renewal and Progress (CRP); Union for
  Democracy and Development (UDD)
Suffrage:
  21 years of age; universal
Elections:
 National Assembly:
  last held on 28 October 1990 (next to be held by NA); results - percent of
  vote NA; seats - (120 total, 111 elected) PDG 62, National Recovery Movement
  - Lumberjacks (Morena-Bucherons) 19, PGP 18, National Recovery Movement
  (Morena-Original) 7, APSG 6, USG 4, CRP 1, independents 3
 President:
  last held on 9 November 1986 (next to be held December 1993); results -
  President Omar BONGO was reelected without opposition
Executive branch:
  president, prime minister, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
  unicameral National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale)
Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)
Leaders:
 Chief of State:
  President El Hadj Omar BONGO (since 2 December 1967)
 Head of Government:
  Prime Minister Casimir OYE-MBA (since 3 May 1990)

*Gabon, Government

Member of:
  ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CCC, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-24, G-77, GATT, IAEA,
  IBRD, ICAO, ICC, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT,
  INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS (associate), NAM, OAU, OIC, OPEC, UDEAC, UN,
  UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission:
  (vacant)
 chancery:
  2034 20th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
 telephone:
  (202) 797-1000
US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission:   Ambassador John C. WILSON IV
 embassy:
  Boulevard de la Mer, Libreville
 mailing address:
  B. P. 4000, Libreville
 telephone:
  (241) 762003/4, or 743492
 FAX:
  [241] 745-507
Flag:
  three equal horizontal bands of green (top), yellow, and blue

*Gabon, Economy

Overview:
  The economy, dependent on timber and manganese until the early 1970s, is now
  dominated by the oil sector. In 1981-85, oil accounted for about 45% of GDP,
  80% of export earnings, and 65% of government revenues on average. The high
  oil prices of the early 1980s contributed to a substantial increase in per
  capita national income, stimulated domestic demand, reinforced migration
  from rural to urban areas, and raised the level of real wages to among the
  highest in Sub-Saharan Africa. The subsequent slide of Gabon's economy,
  which began with falling oil prices in 1985, was reversed in 1989-90, but
  debt servicing obligations continue to limit prospects for further domestic
  development. Real growth in 1991-92 was weak because of a combination of an
  overstaffed bureaucracy, a large budget deficit, and the continued
  underdevelopment of the whole economy outside the petroleum sector.
National product:
  GDP - exchange rate conversion - $4.6 billion (1991)
National product real growth rate:
  13% (1990 est.)
National product per capita:
  $4,200 (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  0.7% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
  NA%
Budget:
  revenues $1.4 billion; expenditures $1.4 billion, including capital
  expenditures of $247 million (1990 est.)
Exports:
  $2.2 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
 commodities:
  crude oil 80%, manganese 7%, wood 7%, uranium 2%
 partners:
  France 48%, US 15%, Germany 2%, Japan 2%
Imports:
  $702 million (c.i.f., 1991 est.)
 commodities:
  foodstuffs, chemical products, petroleum products, construction materials,
  manufactures, machinery
 partners:
  France 64%, African countries 7%, US 5%, Japan 3%
External debt:   $4.4 billion (1991)
Industrial production:
  growth rate - 10% (1988 est.); accounts for 45% of GDP, including petroleum
Electricity:
  315,000 kW capacity; 995 million kWh produced, 920 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
  petroleum, food and beverages, lumbering and plywood, textiles, mining -
  manganese, uranium, gold, cement
Agriculture:
  accounts for 10% of GDP (including fishing and forestry); cash crops -
  cocoa, coffee, palm oil; livestock not developed; importer of food; small
  fishing operations provide a catch of about 20,000 metric tons; okoume (a
  tropical softwood) is the most important timber product
Economic aid:
  US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-90), $68 million; Western (non-US)
  countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-90), $2,342 million;
  Communist countries (1970-89), $27 million
Currency:
  1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes

*Gabon, Economy

Exchange rates:
  Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 274.06 (January
  1993), 264.69 (1992), 282.11 (1991), 272.26 (1990), 319.01 (1989), 297.85
  (1988)
Fiscal year:
  calendar year

*Gabon, Communications

Railroads:
  649 km 1.437-meter standard-gauge single track (Transgabonese Railroad)
Highways:
  7,500 km total; 560 km paved, 960 km laterite, 5,980 km earth
Inland waterways:
  1,600 km perennially navigable
Pipelines:
  crude oil 270 km; petroleum products 14 km
Ports:
  Owendo, Port-Gentil, Libreville
Merchant marine:
  2 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 18,563 GRT/25,330 DWT
Airports:
 total:
  68
 usable:
  56
 with permanent-surface runways:
  10
 with runways over 3,659 m:
  0  with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
  2
 with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
  22
Telecommunications:
  adequate system of cable, radio relay, tropospheric scatter links and
  radiocommunication stations; 15,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 6 AM, 6
  FM, 3 (5 repeaters) TV; satellite earth stations - 3 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT
  and 12 domestic satellite

*Gabon, Defense Forces

Branches:
  Army, Navy, Air Force, Presidential Guard, National Gendarmerie, National
  Police
Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49 269,066; fit for military service 135,836; reach military
  age (20) annually 9,680 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
  exchange rate conversion - $102 million, 3.2% of GDP (1990 est.)

*The Gambia, Geography

Location:
  Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean almost completely
  surrounded by Senegal
Map references:
  Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
 total area:
  11,300 km2
 land area:
  10,000 km2
 comparative area:
  slightly more than twice the size of Delaware
Land boundaries:
  total 740 km, Senegal 740 km
Coastline:
  80 km
Maritime claims:
 contiguous zone:
  18 nm
 continental shelf:
  not specified
 exclusive fishing zone:
  200 nm
 territorial sea:
  12 nm
International disputes:
  short section of boundary with Senegal is indefinite
Climate:
  tropical; hot, rainy season (June to November); cooler, dry season (November
  to May)
Terrain:
  flood plain of the Gambia River flanked by some low hills
Natural resources:
  fish
Land use:
 arable land:
  16%
 permanent crops:
  0%
 meadows and pastures:
  9%
 forest and woodland:
  20%
 other:
  55%
Irrigated land:
  120 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
  deforestation
Note:
  almost an enclave of Senegal; smallest country on the continent of Africa

*The Gambia, People

Population:
  930,249 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
  3.07% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
  46.85 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
  16.1 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
  126.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
 total population:
  49.61 years
 male:
  47.41 years
 female:
  51.87 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
  6.35 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
 noun:
  Gambian(s)
 adjective:
  Gambian
Ethnic divisions:
  African 99% (Mandinka 42%, Fula 18%, Wolof 16%, Jola 10%, Serahuli 9%, other
  4%), non-Gambian 1%
Religions:
  Muslim 90%, Christian 9%, indigenous beliefs 1%
Languages:
  English (official), Mandinka, Wolof, Fula, other indigenous vernaculars
Literacy:
  age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
 total population:
  27%
 male:
  39%
 female:
  16%
Labor force:
  400,000 (1986 est.)
 by occupation:
  agriculture 75.0%, industry, commerce, and services 18.9%, government 6.1%
 note:
  55% population of working age (1983)

*The Gambia, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  Republic of The Gambia
 conventional short form:
  The Gambia
Digraph:
  GA
Type:
  republic under multiparty democratic rule
Capital:
  Banjul
Administrative divisions:
  5 divisions and 1 city*; Banjul*, Lower River, MacCarthy Island, North Bank,,   Upper River,
Western
Independence:
  18 February 1965 (from UK; The Gambia and Senegal signed an agreement on 12
  December 1981 that called for the creation of a loose confederation to be
  known as Senegambia, but the agreement was dissolved on 30 September 1989)
Constitution:
  24 April 1970
Legal system:
  based on a composite of English common law, Koranic law, and customary law;
  accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
National holiday:
  Independence Day, 18 February (1965)
Political parties and leaders:
  People's Progressive Party (PPP), Dawda K. JAWARA, secretary general;
  National Convention Party (NCP), Sheriff DIBBA; Gambian People's Party
  (GPP), Hassan Musa CAMARA; United Party (UP), leader NA; People's Democratic
  Organization of Independence and Socialism (PDOIS), leader NA; People's
  Democratic Party (PDP), Jabel SALLAH
Suffrage:
  21 years of age; universal
Elections:
 House of Representatives:
  last held on 11 March 1987 (next to be held by March 1992); results - PPP
  56.6%, NCP 27.6%, GPP 14.7%, PDOIS 1%; seats - (43 total, 36 elected) PPP
  31, NCP 5
 President:
  last held on 11 March 1987 (next to be held March 1992); results - Sir Dawda
  JAWARA (PPP) 61.1%, Sherif Mustapha DIBBA (NCP) 25.2%, Assan Musa CAMARA
  (GPP) 13.7%
Executive branch:
  president, vice president, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
  unicameral House of Representatives
Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court
Leaders:
 Chief of State and Head of Government:
  President Alhaji Sir Dawda Kairaba JAWARA (since 24 April 1970); Vice
  President Saihou SABALLY (since NA)
Member of:
  ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA,
  IDB, IFAD, IFC, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN,
  UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador Ousman A. SALLAH

*The Gambia, Government

 chancery:
  Suite 720, 1030 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20005
 telephone:
  (202) 842-1356 or 842-1359
US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador Arlene RENDER
 embassy:
  Pipeline Road (Kairaba Avenue), Fajara, Banjul
 mailing address:
  P. M. B. No. 19, Banjul
 telephone:
  [220] 92856 or 92858, 91970, 91971
 FAX:
  (220) 92475
Flag:
  three equal horizontal bands of red (top), blue with white edges, and green

*The Gambia, Economy

Overview:
  The Gambia has no important mineral or other natural resources and has a
  limited agricultural base. It is one of the world's poorest countries with a
  per capita income of about $325. About 75% of the population is engaged in
  crop production and livestock raising, which contribute 30% to GDP.
  Small-scale manufacturing activity - processing peanuts, fish, and hides -
  accounts for less than 10% of GDP. Tourism is a growing industry. The Gambia
  imports one-third of its food, all fuel, and most manufactured goods.
  Exports are concentrated on peanut products (about 75% of total value).
National product:
  GDP - exchange rate conversion - $292 million (1991 est.)
National product real growth rate:
  3% (1991)
National product per capita:
  $325 (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  12% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
  NA%
Budget:
  revenues $94 million; expenditures $80 million, including capital
  expenditures of $25 million (FY91 est.)
Exports:
  $133 million (f.o.b., FY91 est.)
 commodities:
  peanuts and peanut products, fish, cotton lint, palm kernels
 partners:
  Japan 60%, Europe 29%, Africa 5%, US 1%, other 5% (1989)
Imports:
  $174 million (f.o.b., FY91 est.)
 commodities:
  foodstuffs, manufactures, raw materials, fuel, machinery and transport
  equipment
 partners:
  Europe 57%, Asia 25%, USSR and Eastern Europe 9%, US 6%, other 3% (1989)
External debt:
  $336 million (December 1990 est.)
Industrial production:
  growth rate 6.7%; accounts for 5.8% of GDP (FY90)
Electricity:
  30,000 kW capacity; 65 million kWh produced, 75 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
  peanut processing, tourism, beverages, agricultural machinery assembly,
  woodworking, metalworking, clothing
Agriculture:
  accounts for 30% of GDP and employs about 75% of the population; imports
  one-third of food requirements; major export crop is peanuts; other
  principal crops - millet, sorghum, rice, corn, cassava, palm kernels;
  livestock - cattle, sheep, goats; forestry and fishing resources not fully
  exploited
Economic aid:
  US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $93 million; Western (non-US)
  countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $535 million;
  Communist countries (1970-89), $39 million
Currency:
  1 dalasi (D) = 100 bututs
Exchange rates:
  dalasi (D) per US$1 - 8.673 (October 1992), 8.803 (1991), 7.883 (1990),
  7.5846 (1989), 6.7086 (1988), 7.0744 (1987)

*The Gambia, Economy

Fiscal year:
  1 July - 30 June

*The Gambia, Communications

Highways:
  3,083 km total; 431 km paved, 501 km gravel/laterite, and 2,151 km
  unimproved earth
Inland waterways:
  400 km
Ports:
  Banjul
Airports:
 total:
  1
 usable:
  1
 with permanent-surface runways:
  1
 with runways over 3,659 m:
  0
 with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
  1
 with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
  0
Telecommunications:
  adequate network of radio relay and wire; 3,500 telephones; broadcast
  stations - 3 AM, 2 FM; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

*The Gambia, Defense Forces

Branches:
  Army, Navy, National Gendarmerie, National Police
Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49 201,026; fit for military service 101,642 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
  exchange rate conversion - $NA, NA% of GDP

*Gaza Strip, Header

Note:
  The war between Israel and the Arab states in June 1967 ended with Israel in
  control of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, the Sinai, and the Golan
  Heights. As stated in the 1978 Camp David accords and reaffirmed by
  President Bush's post-Gulf crisis peace initiative, the final status of the
  West Bank and the Gaza Strip, their relationship with their neighbors, and a
  peace treaty between Israel and Jordan are to be negotiated among the
  concerned parties. Camp David further specifies that these negotiations will
  resolve the respective boundaries. Pending the completion of this process,
  it is US policy that the final status of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip
  has yet to be determined. In the US view, the term West Bank describes all
  of the area west of the Jordan River under Jordanian administration before
  the 1967 Arab-Israeli war. With respect to negotiations envisaged in the
  framework agreement, however, it is US policy that a distinction must be
  made between Jerusalem and the rest of the West Bank because of the city's
  special status and circumstances. Therefore, a negotiated solution for the
  final status of Jerusalem could be different in character from that of the
  rest of the West Bank.

*Gaza Strip, Geography

Location:
  Middle East, bordering the eastern Mediterranean Sea, between Egypt and
  Israel
Map references:
  Middle East
Area:
 total area:
  380 km2
 land area:
  380 km2
 comparative area:
  slightly more than twice the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
  total 62 km, Egypt 11 km, Israel 51 km
Coastline:
  40 km
Maritime claims:
  Israeli occupied with status to be determined
International disputes:
  Israeli occupied with status to be determined
Climate:
  temperate, mild winters, dry and warm to hot summers
Terrain:
  flat to rolling, sand- and dune-covered coastal plain
Natural resources:
  negligible
Land use:
 arable land:
  13%
 permanent crops:
  32%
 meadows and pastures:
  0%
 forest and woodland:
  0%
 other:
  55%
Irrigated land:   200 km2
Environment:
  desertification

*Gaza Strip, People

Population:
  705,834 (July 1993 est.)
 note:
  in addition, there are 4,000 Jewish settlers in the Gaza Strip (1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
  3.56% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
  45.66 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
  5.71 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
  -4.35 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
  38.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
 total population:
  67.26 years
 male:
  66.01 years
 female:
  68.57 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
  7.51 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
 noun:
  NA
 adjective:
  NA
Ethnic divisions:
  Palestinian Arab and other 99.8%, Jewish 0.2%
Religions:
  Muslim (predominantly Sunni) 99%, Christian 0.7%, Jewish 0.3%
Languages:
  Arabic, Hebrew (spoken by Israeli settlers), English (widely understood)
Literacy:
 total population:
  NA%
 male:
  NA%
 female:
  NA%
Labor force:
  NA
 by occupation:
  small industry, commerce and business 32.0%, construction 24.4%, service and
  other 25.5%, agriculture 18.1% (1984)
 note:
  excluding Israeli Jewish settlers

*Gaza Strip, Government

Note:
  The Gaza Strip is currently governed by Israeli military authorities and
  Israeli civil administration. It is US policy that the final status of the
  Gaza Strip will be determined by negotiations among the concerned parties.
  These negotiations will determine how this area is to be governed.
Names:
 conventional long form:
  none
 conventional short form:
  Gaza Strip
 local long form:
  none
 local short form:
  Qita Ghazzah
Digraph:
  GZ

*Gaza Strip, Economy

Overview:
  In 1990 roughly 40% of Gaza Strip workers were employed across the border by
  Israeli industrial, construction, and agricultural enterprises, with worker
  remittances accounting for about one-third of GNP. The construction,
  agricultural, and industrial sectors account for about 15%, 12%, and 8% of
  GNP, respectively. Gaza depends upon Israel for some 90% of its external
  trade. Unrest in the territory in 1988-93 (intifadah) has raised
  unemployment and substantially lowered the standard of living of Gazans. The
  Persian Gulf crisis and its aftershocks also have dealt severe blows to Gaza
  since August 1990. Worker remittances from the Gulf states have plunged,
  unemployment has increased, and exports have fallen dramatically. The area's
  economic outlook remains bleak.
National product:
  GNP - exchange rate conversion - $380 million (1991 est.)
National product real growth rate:
  -30% (1991 est.)
National product per capita:
  $590 (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  9% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
  20% (1990 est.)
Budget:
  revenues $33.8 million; expenditures $33.3 million, including capital
  expenditures of $NA (FY88)
Exports:
  $30 million (f.o.b., 1989)
 commodities:
  citrus
 partners:   Israel, Egypt
Imports:
  $255 million (c.i.f., 1989)
 commodities:
  food, consumer goods, construction materials
 partners:
  Israel, Egypt
External debt:
  $NA
Industrial production:
  growth rate 10% (1989); accounts for about 8% of GNP
Electricity:
  power supplied by Israel
Industries:
  generally small family businesses that produce textiles, soap, olive-wood
  carvings, and mother-of-pearl souvenirs; the Israelis have established some
  small-scale modern industries in an industrial center
Agriculture:
  accounts for about 12% of GNP; olives, citrus and other fruits, vegetables,
  beef, dairy products
Economic aid:
  NA
Currency:
  1 new Israeli shekel (NIS) = 100 new agorot
Exchange rates:
  new Israeli shekels (NIS) per US$1 - 2.6480 (November 1992), 2.4591 (1992),
  2.2791 (1991), 2.0162 (1990), 1.9164 (1989), 1.5989 (1988), 1.5946 (1987)
Fiscal year:
  calendar year (since 1 January 1992)

*Gaza Strip, Communications

Railroads:
  one line, abandoned and in disrepair, some trackage remains
Highways:
  small, poorly developed indigenous road network
Ports:
  facilities for small boats to service the city of Gaza
Airports:
 total:
  1
 useable:
  1
 with permanent-surface runways:
  0
 with runways over 3,659 m:
  0
 with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
  0
 with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
  0
Telecommunications:
  broadcast stations - no AM, no FM, no TV

*Gaza Strip, Defense Forces

Branches:
  NA
Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49 136,311; fit for military service NA (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
  exchange rate conversion - $NA, NA% of GDP

*Georgia, Header

Note:
  Georgia is currently besieged by conflicts driven by separatists in its
  Abkazian and South Ossetian enclaves, and supporters of ousted President
  GAMAKHURDIA control much of western Georgia

*Georgia, Geography

Location:
  Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Turkey and Russia
Map references:
  Africa, Asia, Middle East, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
 total area:
  69,700 km2
 land area:
  69,700 km2
 comparative area:
  slightly larger than South Carolina
Land boundaries:
  total 1,461 km, Armenia 164 km, Azerbaijan 322 km, Russia 723 km, Turkey 252
  km
Coastline:
  310 km
Maritime claims:
 note:
  12 nm in 1973 USSR-Turkish Protocol concerning the sea boundary between the
  two states in the Black Sea; Georgia claims the coastline along the Black
  Sea as its international waters, although it cannot control this area and
  the Russian navy and commercial ships transit freely
International disputes:
  none
Climate:
  warm and pleasant; Mediterranean-like on Black Sea coast
Terrain:
  largely mountainous with Great Caucasus Mountains in the north and Lesser
  Caucasus Mountains in the south; Kolkhida Lowland opens to the Black Sea in
  the west; Kura River Basin in the east; good soils in river valley flood
  plains, foothills of Kolkhida lowland
Natural resources:   forest lands, hydropower, manganese deposits, iron ores, copper, minor coal
  and oil deposits; coastal climate and soils allow for important tea and
  citrus growth
Land use:
 arable land:
  NA%
 permanent crops:
  NA%
 meadows and pastures:
  NA%
 forest and woodland:
  NA%
 other:
  NA%
Irrigated land:
  4,660 km2 (1990)
Environment:
  air pollution, particularly in Rustavi; heavy pollution of Kura River, Black
  Sea

*Georgia, People

Population:
  5,634,296 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
  0.85% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
  16.48 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
  8.68 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
  0.64 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.) note - this data may be low
  because of movement of Ossetian, Russian, and Abkhaz refugees due to ongoing
  conflicts
Infant mortality rate:
  24.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
 total population:
  72.58 years
 male:
  68.89 years
 female:
  76.46 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
  2.21 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
 noun:
  Georgian(s)
 adjective:
  Georgian
Ethnic divisions:
  Georgian 70.1%, Armenian 8.1%, Russian 6.3%, Azeri 5.7%, Ossetian 3%, Abkhaz
  1.8%, other 5%
Religions:   Georgian Orthodox 65%, Russian Orthodox 10%, Muslim 11%, Armenian Orthodox
  8%, unknown 6%
Languages:
  Armenian 7%, Azerbaijani 6%, Georgian 71% (official), Russian 9%, other 7%
Literacy:
  age 9-49 can read and write (1970)
 total population:
  100%
 male:
  100%
 female:
  100%
Labor force:
  2.763 million
 by occupation:
  industry and construction 31%, agriculture and forestry 25%, other 44%
  (1990)

*Georgia, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  Republic of Georgia
 conventional short form:
  Georgia
 local long form:
  Sakartvelo Respublika
 local short form:
  Sakartvelo
 former:
  Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic
Digraph:
  GG
Type:
  republic
Capital:
  T'bilisi (Tbilisi)
Administrative divisions:
  2 autonomous republics (avtomnoy respubliki, singular - avtom respublika);
  Abkhazia (Sukhumi), Ajaria (Batumi)
 note:
  the administrative centers of the autonomous republics are included in
  parentheses; there are no oblasts - the rayons around T'bilisi are under
  direct republic jurisdiction; also included is the South Ossetia Autonomous
  Oblast
Independence:
  9 April 1991 (from Soviet Union)
Constitution:
  adopted NA 1921; currently amending constitution for Parliamentary and
  popular review by late 1995
Legal system:
  based on civil law system
National holiday:
  Independence Day, 9 April 1991
Political parties and leaders:
  All-Georgian Merab Kostava Society, Vazha ADAMIA, chairman; All-Georgian
  Traditionalists' Union, Akakiy ASATIANI, chairman; Georgian National Front -
  Radical Union, Ruslan GONGADZE, chairman; Georgian Social Democratic Party,
  Guram MUCHAIDZE, chairman; Green Party, Zurab ZHVANIA, chairman;
  Monarchist-Conservative Party (MCP), Temur ZHORZHOLIANI, chairman; Georgian
  Popular Front (GPF), Nodar NATADZE, chairman; National Democratic Party
  (NDP), Georgi CHANTURIA, chairman; National Independence Party (NIP), Irakli
  TSERETELI and Irakli BATIASHVILI, chairmen; Charter 1991 Party, Tedo
  PAATASHVILI, chairman; Democratic Georgia Party, Georgiy SHENGELAYA,
  Chairman; Peace Bloc; Unity; October 11
Other political or pressure groups:
  supporters of ousted President GAMSAKHURDIA boycotted the October elections
  and remain an important source of opposition and instability
Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal
Elections:
 Chairman of Parliament:
  last held NA October 1992 (next to be held NA); results - Eduard
  SHEVARDNADZE 95%

*Georgia, Government

 Georgian Parliament (Supreme Soviet):
  last held 11 October 1992 (next to be held NA); results - percent of vote by
  party NA; seats - (225 total) number of seats by party NA; note -
  representatives of 26 parties elected; Peace Bloc, October 11, Unity,
  National Democratic Party, and the Greens Party won the largest
  representation
Executive branch:
  chairman of Parliament, Council of Ministers, prime minister
Legislative branch:
  unicameral Parliament
Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court
Leaders:
 Chief of State:
  Chairman of Parliament Eduard Amvrosiyevich SHEVARDNADZE (since 10 March
  1992)
 Head of Government:
  Prime Minister Tengiz SIGUA (since NA January 1992); First Deputy Prime
  Minister Roman GOTSIRIDZE (since NA); Deputy Prime Ministers Aleksandr
  KAVADZE, Avtandil MARGIANI, Zurab KERVALISHVILI (since NA)
Member of:
  BSEC, CSCE, EBRD, IBRD, IMF, NACC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, WHO
Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission:
  NA
 chancery:
  NA
 telephone:
  NA
US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission:   Ambassador Kent N. BROWN
 embassy:
  #25 Antoneli Street, T'bilisi
 mailing address:
  APO AE 09862
 telephone:
  (7) 8832-74-46-23
Flag:
  maroon field with small rectangle in upper hoist side corner; rectangle
  divided horizontally with black on top, white below

*Georgia, Economy

Overview:
  Among the former Soviet republics, Georgia has been noted for its Black Sea
  tourist industry, its large output of citrus fruits and tea, and an
  industrial sector that accounted, however, for less than 2% of the USSR's
  output. Another salient characteristic of the economy has been a flourishing
  private sector (compared with the other republics). About 25% of the labor
  force is employed in agriculture. Mineral resources consist of manganese and
  copper, and, to a lesser extent, molybdenum, arsenic, tungsten, and mercury.
  Except for very small quantities of domestic oil, gas, and coal, fuel must
  be imported from neighboring republics. Oil and its products have been
  delivered by pipeline from Azerbaijan to the port of Batumi for export and
  local refining. Gas has been supplied in pipelines from Krasnodar and
  Stavropol'. The dismantling of central economic controls has been delayed by
  political factionalism, marked by bitter armed struggles. In early 1993 the
  Georgian economy was operating at well less than half capacity due to
  disruptions in fuel supplies and vital transportation links as a result of
  conflicts in Abkhazia and South Ossetia, antigovernment activity in Western
  Georgia, and Azerbaijani pressure against Georgian assistance for Armenia.
  To restore economic viability, Georgia must establish domestic peace and
  must maintain economic ties to the other former Soviet republics while
  developing new links to the West.
National product:
  GDP $NA
National product real growth rate:
  -35% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
  $NA
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  50% per month (January 1993 est.)
Unemployment rate:
  3% but large numbers of underemployed workers
Budget:
  revenues $NA; expenditures $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports:
  $NA
 commodities:
  citrus fruits, tea, other agricultural products; diverse types of machinery;
  ferrous and nonferrous metals; textiles
 partners:
  Russia, Turkey, Armenia, Azerbaijan (1992)
Imports:   $NA
 commodities:
  machinery and parts, fuel, transport equipment, textiles
 partners:
  Russia, Ukraine (1992)
External debt:
  $650 million (1991 est.)
Industrial production:
  growth rate -50% (1992)
Electricity:
  4,875,000 kW capacity; 15,800 million kWh produced, about 2,835 kWh per
  capita (1992)

*Georgia, Economy

Industries:
  heavy industrial products include raw steel, rolled steel, cement, lumber;
  machine tools, foundry equipment, electric mining locomotives, tower cranes,
  electric welding equipment, machinery for food preparation, meat packing,
  dairy, and fishing industries; air-conditioning electric motors up to 100 kW
  in size, electric motors for cranes, magnetic starters for motors; devices
  for control of industrial processes; trucks, tractors, and other farm
  machinery; light industrial products, including cloth, hosiery, and shoes
Agriculture:
  accounted for 97% of former USSR citrus fruits and 93% of former USSR tea;
  berries and grapes; sugar; vegetables, grains, potatoes; cattle, pigs,
  sheep, goats, poultry; tobacco
Illicit drugs:
  illicit producers of cannabis and opium; mostly for domestic consumption;
  used as transshipment point for illicit drugs to Western Europe
Economic aid:
  NA
Currency:
  coupons introduced in April 1993 to be followed by introduction of the lari
  at undetermined future date; Russian ruble remains official currency until
  introduction of the lari
Exchange rates:
  rubles per US$1 - 415 (24 December 1992) but subject to wide fluctuations
Fiscal year:
  calendar year

*Georgia, Communications

Railroads:
  1,570 km, does not include industrial lines (1990)
Highways:
  33,900 km total; 29,500 km hard surfaced, 4,400 km earth (1990)
Pipelines:
  crude oil 370 km, refined products 300 km, natural gas 440 km (1992)
Ports:
  coastal - Batumi, Poti, Sukhumi
Merchant marine:   47 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 658,192 GRT/1,014,056 DWT; includes 16
  bulk cargo, 30 oil tanker, and 1 specialized liquid carrier
Airports:
 total:
  37
 useable:
  26
 with permanent-surface runways:
  19
 with runways over 3,659 m:
  0
 with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
  10
 with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
  9
Telecommunications:
  poor telephone service; as of 1991, 672,000 republic telephone lines
  providing 12 lines per 100 persons; 339,000 unsatisfied applications for
  telephones (31 January 1992); international links via landline to CIS
  members and Turkey; low capacity satellite earth station and leased
  international connections via the Moscow international gateway switch;
  international electronic mail and telex service established
Note:
  transportation network is disrupted by ethnic conflict, criminal activities,
  and fuel shortages

*Georgia, Defense Forces

Branches:
  Army, National Guard, Interior Ministry Troops
Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49 1,338,606; fit for military service 1,066,309; reach
  military age (18) annually 43,415 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
  $NA, NA% of GNP
Note:
  Georgian forces are poorly organized and not fully under the government's
  control

*Germany, Geography

Location:
  Western Europe, bordering the North Sea between France and Poland
Map references:
  Arctic Region, Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
 total area:
  356,910 km2
 land area:
  349,520 km2
 comparative area:
  slightly smaller than Montana
 note:
  includes the formerly separate Federal Republic of Germany, the German
  Democratic Republic, and Berlin following formal unification on 3 October
  1990
Land boundaries:
  total 3,621 km, Austria 784 km, Belgium 167 km, Czech Republic 646 km,
  Denmark 68 km, France 451 km, Luxembourg 138 km, Netherlands 577 km, Poland
  456 km, Switzerland 334 km
Coastline:
  2,389 km
Maritime claims:
 continental shelf:
  200 m depth or to depth of exploitation
 exclusive fishing zone:
  200 nm
 territorial sea:
  3 nm in North Sea and Schleswig-Holstein coast of Baltic Sea (extends, at
  one point, to 16 nm in the Helgolander Bucht); 12 nm in remainder of Baltic
  Sea
International disputes:
  none
Climate:
  temperate and marine; cool, cloudy, wet winters and summers; occasional
  warm, tropical foehn wind; high relative humidity
Terrain:
  lowlands in north, uplands in center, Bavarian Alps in south
Natural resources:
  iron ore, coal, potash, timber, lignite, uranium, copper, natural gas, salt,
  nickel
Land use:
 arable land:
  34%
 permanent crops:
  1%
 meadows and pastures:
  16%
 forest and woodland:
  30%
 other:
  19%
Irrigated land:
  4,800 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
  air and water pollution; groundwater, lakes, and air quality in eastern
  Germany are especially bad; significant deforestation in the eastern
  mountains caused by air pollution and acid rain

*Germany, Geography

Note:
  strategic location on North European Plain and along the entrance to the
  Baltic Sea

*Germany, People

Population:
  80,767,591 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
  0.4% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
  11 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
  11 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
  4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
  7 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
 total population:
  76 years
 male:
  73 years
 female:
  79 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
  1.4 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
 noun:
  German(s)
 adjective:
  German
Ethnic divisions:
  German 95.1%, Turkish 2.3%, Italians 0.7%, Greeks 0.4%, Poles 0.4%, other
  1.1% (made up largely of people fleeing the war in the former Yugoslavia)
Religions:
  Protestant 45%, Roman Catholic 37%, unaffiliated or other 18%
Languages:
  German
Literacy:
  age 15 and over can read and write (1977 est.)
 total population:
  99%
 male:
  NA%
 female:
  NA%
Labor force:
  36.75 million
 by occupation:
  industry 41%, agriculture 6%, other 53% (1987)

*Germany, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  Federal Republic of Germany  conventional short form:
  Germany
 local long form:
  Bundesrepublik Deutschland
 local short form:
  Deutschland
Digraph:
  GM
Type:
  federal republic
Capital:
  Berlin
 note:
  the shift from Bonn to Berlin will take place over a period of years with
  Bonn retaining many administrative functions and several ministries
Administrative divisions:
  16 states (laender, singular - land); Baden-Wuerttemberg, Bayern, Berlin,
  Brandenburg, Bremen, Hamburg, Hessen, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Niedersachsen,
  Nordrhein-Westfalen, Rheinland-Pfalz, Saarland, Sachsen, Sachsen-Anhalt,
  Schleswig-Holstein, Thuringen
Independence:
  18 January 1871 (German Empire unification); divided into four zones of
  occupation (UK, US, USSR, and later, France) in 1945 following World War II;
  Federal Republic of Germany (FRG or West Germany) proclaimed 23 May 1949 and
  included the former UK, US, and French zones; German Democratic Republic
  (GDR or East Germany) proclaimed 7 October 1949 and included the former USSR
  zone; unification of West Germany and East Germany took place 3 October
  1990; all four power rights formally relinquished 15 March 1991
Constitution:
  23 May 1949, provisional constitution known as Basic Law
Legal system:
  civil law system with indigenous concepts; judicial review of legislative
  acts in the Federal Constitutional Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
  jurisdiction
National holiday:
  German Unity Day, 3 October (1990)
Political parties and leaders:
  Christian Democratic Union (CDU), Helmut KOHL, chairman; Christian Social
  Union (CSU), Theo WAIGEL, chairman; Free Democratic Party (FDP), Klaus
  KINKEL, chairman; Social Democratic Party (SPD); Green Party, Ludger VOLMER,
  Christine WEISKE, co-chairmen (after the 2 December 1990 election the East
  and West German Green Parties united); Alliance 90 united to form one party
  in September 1991, Petra MORAWE, chairwoman; Party of Democratic Socialism
  (PDS), Gregor GYSI, chairman; Republikaner, Franz SCHOENHUBER; National
  Democratic Party (NPD), Walter BACHMANN; Communist Party (DKP), Rolf PRIEMER
Other political or pressure groups:
  expellee, refugee, and veterans groups
Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

*Germany, Government

Elections:
 Federal Diet:   last held 2 December 1990 (next to be held October 1994); results - CDU
  36.7%, SPD 33.5%, FDP 11.0%, CSU 7.1%, Green Party (West Germany) 3.9%, PDS
  2.4%, Republikaner 2.1%, Alliance 90/Green Party (East Germany) 1.2%, other
  2.1%; seats - (662 total, 656 statutory with special rules to allow for
  slight expansion) CDU 268, SPD 239, FDP 79, CSU 51, PDS 17, Alliance
  90/Green Party (East Germany) 8; note - special rules for this election
  allowed former East German parties to win seats if they received at least 5%
  of vote in eastern Germany
Executive branch:
  president, chancellor, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
  bicameral parliament (no official name for the two chambers as a whole)
  consists of an upper chamber or Federal Council (Bundesrat) and a lower
  chamber or Federal Diet (Bundestag)
Judicial branch:
  Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht)
Leaders:
 Chief of State:
  President Dr. Richard von WEIZSACKER (since 1 July 1984)
 Head of Government:
  Chancellor Dr. Helmut KOHL (since 4 October 1982)
Member of:
  AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, Australian Group, BDEAC, BIS, CBSS, CCC, CDB
  (non-regional), CE, CERN, COCOM, CSCE, EBRD, EC, ECE, EIB, ESA, FAO, G-5,
  G-7, G-10, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC,
  ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS,
  MTCR, NACC, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, PCA, UN,
  UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNHCR, UNTAC, UPU, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador Juergen RUHFUS
 chancery:
  4645 Reservoir Road NW, Washington, DC 20007
 telephone:
  (202) 298-4000
 consulates general:
  Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Detroit, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York,
  San Francisco, Seattle
 consulates:
  Manila (Trust Territories of the Pacific Islands) and Wellington (America
  Samoa)
US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador Robert M. KIMMITT
 embassy:
  Deichmanns Avenue, 5300 Bonn 2, Unit 21701
 mailing address:
  APO AE 09080
 telephone:
  [49] (228) 3391
 FAX:
  [49] (228) 339-2663
 branch office:
  Berlin
 consulates general:
  Frankfurt, Hamburg, Leipzig, Munich, and Stuttgart
Flag:
  three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and yellow

*Germany, Economy

Overview:
  With the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe in 1989, prospects seemed
  bright for a fairly rapid incorporation of East Germany into the highly
  successful West German economy. The Federal Republic, however, continues to
  experience difficulties in integrating and modernizing eastern Germany, and
  the tremendous costs of unification have sunk western Germany deeper into
  recession. The western German economy grew by less than 1% in 1992 as the
  Bundesbank set high interest rates to offset the inflationary effects of
  large government deficits and high wage settlements. Eastern Germany grew by
  6.8% in 1992 but this was from a shrunken base. Despite government transfers
  to the east amounting to nearly $110 billion annually, a self-sustaining
  economy in the region is still some years away. The bright spots are eastern
  Germany's construction, transportation, telecommunications, and service
  sectors, which have experienced strong growth. Western Germany has an
  advanced market economy and is a world leader in exports. It has a highly
  urbanized and skilled population that enjoys excellent living standards,
  abundant leisure time, and comprehensive social welfare benefits. Western
  Germany is relatively poor in natural resources, coal being the most
  important mineral. Western Germany's world-class companies manufacture
  technologically advanced goods. The region's economy is mature: services and
  manufacturing account for the dominant share of economic activity, and raw
  materials and semimanufactured goods constitute a large portion of imports.
  In recent years, manufacturing has accounted for about 31% of GDP, with
  other sectors contributing lesser amounts. Gross fixed investment in 1992
  accounted for about 21.5% of GDP. GDP in the western region is now $20,000
  per capita, or 85% of US per capita GDP. Eastern Germany's economy appears
  to be changing from one anchored on manufacturing into a more
  service-oriented economy. The German government, however, is intent on
  maintaining a manufacturing base in the east and is considering a policy for
  subsidizing industrial cores in the region. Eastern Germany's share of
  all-German GDP is only 7% and eastern productivity is just 30% that of the
  west even though eastern wages are at roughly 70% of western levels. The
  privatization agency for eastern Germany, Treuhand, has privatized more than
  four-fifths of the almost 12,000 firms under its control and will likely
  wind down operations in 1994. Private investment in the region continues to
  be lackluster, resulting primarily from the deepening recession in western
  Germany and excessively high eastern wages. Eastern Germany has one of the
  world's largest reserves of low-grade lignite coal but little else in the
  way of mineral resources. The quality of statistics from eastern Germany is
  improving, yet many gaps remain; the federal government began producing
  all-German data for select economic statistics at the start of 1992. The
  most challenging economic problem is promoting eastern Germany's economic
  reconstruction - specifically, finding the right mix of fiscal, monetary,
  regulatory, and tax policies that will spur investment in eastern Germany -
  without destabilizing western Germany's economy or damaging relations with
  West European partners. The government hopes a "solidarity pact" among labor
  unions, business, state governments, and the SPD opposition will provide the
  right mix of wage restraints, investment incentives, and spending cuts to
  stimulate eastern recovery. Finally, the homogeneity of the German economic
  culture has been changed by the admission of large numbers of immigrants.
National product:
 Germany:
  GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $1.398 trillion (1992)
 western:
  GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $1.294 trillion (1992)
 eastern:
  GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $104 billion (1992)

*Germany, Economy

National product real growth rate:
 Germany:
  1.5% (1992)
 western:
  0.9% (1992)
 eastern:
  8% (1992)
National product per capita:
 Germany:
  $17,400 (1992)
 western:
  $20,000 (1992)
 eastern:
  $6,500 (1992)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
 western:
  4% (1992)
 eastern:
  NA%
Unemployment rate:
 western:
  7.1% (1992)
 eastern:
  13.5% (December 1992)
Budget:
 western (federal, state, local):
  revenues $684 billion; expenditures $704 billion, including capital
  expenditures $NA (1990)
 eastern:
  revenues $NA; expenditures $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports:
  $378.0 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
 commodities:
  manufactures 86.6% (including machines and machine tools, chemicals, motor
  vehicles, iron and steel products), agricultural products 4.9%, raw
  materials 2.3%, fuels 1.3%
 partners:
  EC 54.3% (France 12.9%, Netherlands 8.3%, Italy 9.3%, UK 7.7%,
  Belgium-Luxembourg 7.4%), other Western Europe 17.0%, US 6.4%, Eastern
  Europe 5.6%, OPEC 3.4% (1992)
Imports:
  $354.5 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
 commodities:   manufactures 68.5%, agricultural products 12.0%, fuels 9.7%, raw materials
  7.1%
 partners:
  EC 52.0 (France 12.0%, Netherlands 9.6%, Italy 9.2%, UK 6.8%,
  Belgium-Luxembourg 7.0%), other Western Europe 15.2%, US 6.6%, Eastern
  Europe 5.5%, OPEC 2.4% (1992)
External debt:
  $NA
Industrial production:
 western:
  growth rates -5% (1992 est.)
 eastern:
  $NA
Electricity:
  134,000,000 kW capacity; 580,000 million kWh produced, 7,160 kWh per capita
  (1992)

*Germany, Economy

Industries:
 western:
  among world's largest producers of iron, steel, coal, cement, chemicals,
  machinery, vehicles, machine tools, electronics; food and beverages
 eastern:
  metal fabrication, chemicals, brown coal, shipbuilding, machine building,
  food and beverages, textiles, petroleum refining
Agriculture:
 western:
  accounts for about 2% of GDP (including fishing and forestry); diversified
  crop and livestock farming; principal crops and livestock include potatoes,
  wheat, barley, sugar beets, fruit, cabbage, cattle, pigs, poultry; net
  importer of food; fish catch of 202,000 metric tons in 1987
 eastern:
  accounts for about 10% of GDP (including fishing and forestry); principal
  crops - wheat, rye, barley, potatoes, sugar beets, fruit; livestock products
  include pork, beef, chicken, milk, hides and skins; net importer of food;
  fish catch of 193,600 metric tons in 1987
Illicit drugs:
  source of precursor chemicals for South American cocaine processors
Economic aid:
 western:
  donor - ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $75.5 billion
 eastern:
  donor - $4.0 billion extended bilaterally to non-Communist less developed
  countries (1956-89)
Currency:
  1 deutsche mark (DM) = 100 pfennige
Exchange rates:
  deutsche marks (DM) per US$1 - 1.6158 (January 1993), 1.5617 (1992), 1.6595
  (1991), 1.6157 (1990), 1.8800 (1989), 1.7562 (1988)
Fiscal year:
  calendar year

*Germany, Communications

Railroads:
 western:
  31,443 km total; 27,421 km government owned, 1.435-meter standard gauge
  (12,491 km double track, 11,501 km electrified); 4,022 km nongovernment
  owned, including 3,598 km 1.435-meter standard gauge (214 km electrified)
  and 424 km 1.000-meter gauge (186 km electrified)
 eastern:
  14,025 km total; 13,750 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, 275 km 1.000-meter or
  other narrow gauge; 3,830 (est.) km 1.435-meter standard gauge double-track;
  3,475 km overhead electrified (1988)
Highways:
 western:
  466,305 km total; 169,568 km primary, includes 6,435 km autobahn, 32,460 km
  national highways (Bundesstrassen), 65,425 km state highways
  (Landesstrassen), 65,248 km county roads (Kreisstrassen); 296,737 km of
  secondary communal roads (Gemeindestrassen)
 eastern:
  124,604 km total; 47,203 km concrete, asphalt, stone block, of which 1,855
  km are autobahn and limited access roads, 11,326 km are trunk roads, and
  34,022 km are regional roads; 77,401 km municipal roads (1988)
Inland waterways:
 western:
  5,222 km, of which almost 70% are usable by craft of 1,000-metric-ton
  capacity or larger; major rivers include the Rhine and Elbe; Kiel Canal is
  an important connection between the Baltic Sea and North Sea
 eastern:
  2,319 km (1988)
Pipelines:
  crude oil 3,644 km; petroleum products 3,946 km; natural gas 97,564 km
  (1988)
Ports:
  coastal - Bremerhaven, Brunsbuttel, Cuxhaven, Emden, Bremen, Hamburg, Kiel,
  Lubeck, Wilhelmshaven, Rostock, Wismar, Stralsund, Sassnitz; inland - 31
  major on Rhine and Elbe rivers
Merchant marine:
  565 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,928,759 GRT/6,292,193 DWT; includes
  5 short-sea passenger, 3 passenger, 303 cargo, 10 refrigerated cargo, 134
  container, 28 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 5 railcar carrier, 7 barge carrier, 9
  oil tanker, 21 chemical tanker, 17 liquefied gas tanker, 5 combination
  ore/oil, 6 combination bulk, 12 bulk; note - the German register includes
  ships of the former East and West Germany; during 1991 the fleet underwent
  major restructuring as surplus ships were sold off
Airports:
 total:
  499
 usable:
  492
 with permanent-surface runways:
  271
 with runways over 3,659 m:
  5
 with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
  59  with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
  67

*Germany, Communications

Telecommunications:
 western:
  highly developed, modern telecommunication service to all parts of the
  country; fully adequate in all respects; 40,300,000 telephones; intensively
  developed, highly redundant cable and microwave radio relay networks, all
  completely automatic; broadcast stations - 80 AM, 470 FM, 225 (6,000
  repeaters) TV; 6 submarine coaxial cables; satellite earth stations - 12
  Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT antennas, 2 Indian Ocean INTELSAT antennas,
  EUTELSAT, and domestic systems; 2 HF radiocommunication centers;
  tropospheric links
 eastern:
  badly needs modernization; 3,970,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 23 AM,
  17 FM, 21 TV (15 Soviet TV repeaters); 6,181,860 TVs; 6,700,000 radios; 1
  satellite earth station operating in INTELSAT and Intersputnik systems

*Germany, Defense Forces

Branches:
  Army, Navy, Air Force
Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49 20,295,655; fit for military service 17,577,570; reach
  military age (18) annually 411,854 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
  exchange rate conversion - $42.4 billion, 2.2% of GDP (1992)

*Ghana, Geography

Location:
  Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean between Cote d'Ivoire and
  Togo
Map references:
  Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
 total area:
  238,540 km2
 land area:
  230,020 km2
 comparative area:
  slightly smaller than Oregon
Land boundaries:
  total 2,093 km, Burkina 548 km, Cote d'Ivoire 668 km, Togo 877 km
Coastline:
  539 km
Maritime claims:
 contiguous zone:   24 nm
 continental shelf:
  200 nm
 exclusive economic zone:
  200 nm
 territorial sea:
  12 nm
International disputes:
  none
Climate:
  tropical; warm and comparatively dry along southeast coast; hot and humid in
  southwest; hot and dry in north
Terrain:
  mostly low plains with dissected plateau in south-central area
Natural resources:
  gold, timber, industrial diamonds, bauxite, manganese, fish, rubber
Land use:
 arable land:
  5%
 permanent crops:
  7%
 meadows and pastures:
  15%
 forest and woodland:
  37%
 other:
  36%
Irrigated land:
  80 km2 (1989)
Environment:
  recent drought in north severely affecting marginal agricultural activities;
  deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; dry, northeasterly harmattan wind
  (January to March)
Note:
  Lake Volta is the world's largest artificial lake

*Ghana, People

Population:
  16,699,105 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
  3.12% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
  44.66 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
  12.52 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
  -1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
  84.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
 total population:
  55.19 years
 male:   53.27 years
 female:
  57.17 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
  6.21 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
 noun:
  Ghanaian(s)
 adjective:
  Ghanaian
Ethnic divisions:
  black African 99.8% (major tribes - Akan 44%, Moshi-Dagomba 16%, Ewe 13%, Ga
  8%), European and other 0.2%
Religions:
  indigenous beliefs 38%, Muslim 30%, Christian 24%, other 8%
Languages:
  English (official), African languages (including Akan, Moshi-Dagomba, Ewe,
  and Ga)
Literacy:
  age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
 total population:
  60%
 male:
  70%
 female:
  51%
Labor force:
  3.7 million
 by occupation:
  agriculture and fishing 54.7%, industry 18.7%, sales and clerical 15.2%,
  services, transportation, and communications 7.7%, professional 3.7%
 note:
  48% of population of working age (1983)

*Ghana, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  Republic of Ghana
 conventional short form:
  Ghana
 former:
  Gold Coast
Digraph:
  GH
Type:
  constitutional democracy
Capital:
  Accra
Administrative divisions:
  10 regions; Ashanti, Brong-Ahafo, Central, Eastern, Greater Accra, Northern,
  Upper East, Upper West, Volta, Western
Independence:
  6 March 1957 (from UK)
Constitution:
  new constitution approved 28 April 1992
Legal system:
  based on English common law and customary law; has not accepted compulsory
  ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
  Independence Day, 6 March (1957)
Political parties and leaders:
  National Democratic Congress, Jerry John Rawlings; New Patriotic Party,
  Albert Adu BOAHEN; People's Heritage Party, Alex Erskine; various other
  smaller parties
Suffrage:
  universal at 18
Elections:
 President:
  last held 3 November 1992 (next to be held NA)
 National Assembly:
  last held 29 December 1992 (next to be held NA)
Executive branch:
  president, cabinet
Legislative branch:
  unicameral National Assembly
Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court
Leaders:
 Chief of State and Head of Government:
  President Jerry John RAWLINGS (since 3 November 1992)
Member of:
  ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-24, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
  IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO,
  ITU, LORCS, MINURSO, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIKOM,
  UNPROFOR, UNTAC, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador Dr. Joseph ABBEY
 chancery:
  3512 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
 telephone:
  (202) 686-4520
 consulate general:
  New York

*Ghana, Government

US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador Kenneth L. BROWN
 embassy:
  Ring Road East, East of Danquah Circle, Accra
 mailing address:
  P. O. Box 194, Accra
 telephone:
  [233] (21) 775348, 775349, 775295 or 775298
 FAX:   [233] (21) 776008
Flag:
  three equal horizontal bands of red (top), yellow, and green with a large
  black five-pointed star centered in the gold band; uses the popular
  pan-African colors of Ethiopia; similar to the flag of Bolivia, which has a
  coat of arms centered in the yellow band

*Ghana, Economy

Overview:
  Supported by substantial international assistance, Ghana has been
  implementing a steady economic rebuilding program since 1983, including
  moves toward privatization and relaxation of government controls. Heavily
  dependent on cocoa, gold, and timber exports, economic growth so far has not
  spread substantially to other areas of the economy. The costs of sending
  peacekeeping forces to Liberia and preparing for the transition to a
  democratic government have boosted government expenditures and undercut
  structural adjustment reforms. Ghana opened a stock exchange in 1990.
  Meanwhile, declining world commodity prices for Ghana's exports has placed
  the government under severe financial pressure.
National product:
  GDP - exchange rate conversion - $6.6 billion (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate:
  3.9% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
  $410 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  10% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
  10% (1991)
Budget:
  revenues $1.0 billion; expenditures $905 million, including capital
  expenditures of $200 million (1991 est.)
Exports:
  $1.1 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
 commodities:
  cocoa 45%, gold, timber, tuna, bauxite, and aluminum
 partners:
  Germany 29%, UK 12%, US 12%, Japan 5%
Imports:
  $1.4 billion (c.i.f., 1992 est.)
 commodities:
  petroleum 16%, consumer goods, foods, intermediate goods, capital equipment
 partners:
  UK 23%, US 11%, Germany 10%, Japan 6%
External debt:
  $4.6 billion (1992 est.)
Industrial production:
  growth rate 4.6% in manufacturing (1991); accounts for almost 15% of GDP
Electricity:
  1,180,000 kW capacity; 4,490 million kWh produced, 290 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
  mining, lumbering, light manufacturing, aluminum, food processing
Agriculture:   accounts for about 50% of GDP (including fishing and forestry); the major
  cash crop is cocoa; other principal crops - rice, coffee, cassava, peanuts,
  corn, shea nuts, timber; normally self-sufficient in food
Illicit drugs:
  illicit producer of cannabis for the international drug trade
Economic aid:
  US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $455 million; Western (non-US)
  countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $2.6 billion; OPEC
  bilateral aid (1979-89), $78 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $106
  million
Currency:
  1 cedi (C) = 100 pesewas
Exchange rates:
  ceolis per US$1 - 437 (July 1992)

*Ghana, Economy

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

*Ghana, Communications

Railroads:
  953 km, all 1.067-meter gauge; 32 km double track; railroads undergoing
  major renovation
Highways:
  32,250 km total; 6,084 km concrete or bituminous surface, 26,166 km gravel,
  laterite, and improved earth surfaces
Inland waterways:
  Volta, Ankobra, and Tano Rivers provide 168 km of perennial navigation for
  launches and lighters; Lake Volta provides 1,125 km of arterial and feeder
  waterways
Pipelines:
  none
Ports:
  Tema, Takoradi
Merchant marine:
  6 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 59,293 GRT/78,246 DWT; includes 5
  cargo, 1 refrigerated cargo
Airports:
 total:
  10
 usable:
  9
 with permanent-surface runways:
  5
 with runways over 3,659 m:
  0
 with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
  2
 with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
  6
Telecommunications:
  poor to fair system handled primarily by microwave radio relay links; 42,300
  telephones; broadcast stations - 4 AM, 1 FM, 4 (8 translators) TV; 1
  Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

*Ghana, Defense Forces

Branches:
  Army, Navy, Air Force, Police Force, Civil Defense
Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49 3,766,073; fit for military service 2,105,865; reach
  military age (18) annually 171,145 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
  exchange rate conversion - $30 million, less than 1% of GDP (1989 est.)

*Gibraltar, Header

Affiliation:
  (dependent territory of the UK)

*Gibraltar, Geography

Location:
  Southwestern Europe, bordering the Strait of Gibraltar, which links the
  North Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, on the southern coast of
  Spain
Map references:
  Africa, Europe
Area:
 total area:
  6.5 km2
 land area:
  6.5 km2
 comparative area:
  about 11 times the size of the Mall in Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
  total 1.2 km, Spain 1.2 km
Coastline:
  12 km
Maritime claims:
 exclusive fishing zone:
  3 nm
 territorial sea:
  3 nm
International disputes:
  source of occasional friction between Spain and the UK
Climate:
  Mediterranean with mild winters and warm summers
Terrain:
  a narrow coastal lowland borders The Rock
Natural resources:
  negligible
Land use:
 arable land:
  0%
 permanent crops:
  0%
 meadows and pastures:
  0%
 forest and woodland:
  0%
 other:
  100%
Irrigated land:
  NA km2
Environment:
  natural freshwater sources are meager, so large water catchments (concrete
  or natural rock) collect rain water
Note:
  strategic location on Strait of Gibraltar that links the North Atlantic
  Ocean and Mediterranean Sea

*Gibraltar, People

Population:
  31,508 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
  0.53% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
  15.68 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
  8.89 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
  -1.46 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
  8.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
 total population:
  76.06 years
 male:
  73.18 years
 female:
  78.91 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
  2.37 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
 noun:
  Gibraltarian(s)
 adjective:
  Gibraltar
Ethnic divisions:
  Italian, English, Maltese, Portuguese, Spanish
Religions:
  Roman Catholic 74%, Protestant 11% (Church of England 8%, other 3%), Moslem
  8%, Jewish 2%, none or other 5% (1981)
Languages:
  English (used in schools and for official purposes), Spanish, Italian,
  Portuguese, Russian
Literacy:
 total population:
  NA%
 male:
  NA%
 female:
  NA%
Labor force:
  14,800 (including non-Gibraltar laborers)
 note:
  UK military establishments and civil government employ nearly 50% of the
  labor force

*Gibraltar, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  none
 conventional short form:
  Gibraltar
Digraph:
  GI
Type:
  dependent territory of the UK
Capital:
  Gilbraltar
Administrative divisions:
  none (dependent territory of the UK)
Independence:
  none (dependent territory of the UK)
Constitution:
  30 May 1969
Legal system:
  English law
National holiday:
  Commonwealth Day (second Monday of March)
Political parties and leaders:
  Socialist Labor Party (SL), Joe BOSSANO; Gibraltar Labor Party/Association
  for the Advancement of Civil Rights (GCL/AACR), leader NA; Gibraltar Social
  Democrats, Peter CARUANA; Gibraltar National Party, Joe GARCIA
Other political or pressure groups:
  Housewives Association; Chamber of Commerce; Gibraltar Representatives
  Organization
Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal, plus other UK subjects resident six months or
  more
Elections:
 House of Assembly:
  last held on 16 January 1992 (next to be held January 1996); results - SL
  73.3%; seats - (18 total, 15 elected) number of seats by party NA
Executive branch:
  British monarch, governor, chief minister, Gibraltar Council, Council of
  Ministers (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
  unicameral House of Assembly
Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court, Court of Appeal
Leaders:
 Chief of State:
  Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor and
  Commander in Chief Adm. Sir Derek REFFELL (since NA 1989)
 Head of Government:
  Chief Minister Joe BOSSANO (since 25 March 1988)
Member of:
  INTERPOL (subbureau)
Diplomatic representation in US:
  none (dependent territory of the UK)
US diplomatic representation:
  none (dependent territory of the UK)
Flag:
  two horizontal bands of white (top, double width) and red with a
  three-towered red castle in the center of the white band; hanging from the
  castle gate is a gold key centered in the red band

*Gibraltar, Economy

Overview:
  The economy depends heavily on British defense expenditures, revenue from
  tourists, fees for services to shipping, and revenues from banking and
  finance activities. Because more than 70% of the economy is in the public
  sector, changes in government spending have a major impact on the level of
  employment. Construction workers are particularly affected when government
  expenditures are cut.
National product:
  GNP - exchange rate conversion - $182 million (FY87)
National product real growth rate:
  5% (FY87)
National product per capita:
  $4,600 (FY87)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  3.6% (1988)
Unemployment rate:
  NA%
Budget:
  revenues $136 million; expenditures $139 million, including capital
  expenditures of $NA (FY88)
Exports:
  $82 million (f.o.b., 1988)
 commodities:
  (principally reexports) petroleum 51%, manufactured goods 41%, other 8%
 partners:
  UK, Morocco, Portugal, Netherlands, Spain, US, FRG
Imports:
  $258 million (c.i.f., 1988)
 commodities:
  fuels, manufactured goods, and foodstuffs
 partners:
  UK, Spain, Japan, Netherlands
External debt:
  $318 million (1987)
Industrial production:
  growth rate NA%
Electricity:
  47,000 kW capacity; 200 million kWh produced, 6,740 kWh per capita (1992)
Industries:
  tourism, banking and finance, construction, commerce; support to large UK
  naval and air bases; transit trade and supply depot in the port; light
  manufacturing of tobacco, roasted coffee, ice, mineral waters, candy, beer,
  and canned fish
Agriculture:
  none
Economic aid:
  US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $0.8 million; Western (non-US)
  countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $188 million
Currency:
  1 Gibraltar pound (#G) = 100 pence
Exchange rates:
  Gibraltar pounds (#G) per US$1 - 0.6527 (January 1993), 0.5664 (1992),
  0.5652 (1991), 0.5603 (1990), 0.6099 (1989), 0.5614 (1988); note - the
  Gibraltar pound is at par with the British pound
Fiscal year:
  1 July - 30 June

*Gibraltar, Communications

Railroads:
  1.000-meter-gauge system in dockyard area only
Highways:
  50 km, mostly good bitumen and concrete
Pipelines:
  none
Ports:
  Gibraltar
Merchant marine:
  32 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 642,446 GRT/1,141,592 DWT; includes 4
  cargo, 2 refrigerated cargo, 1 container, 18 oil tanker, 2 chemical tanker,
  5 bulk; note - a flag of convenience registry
Airports:
 total:
  1
 useable:
  1
 with permanent surface runways:
  1
 with runways over 3,659 m:
  0
 with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
  0  with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
  1
Telecommunications:
  adequate, automatic domestic system and adequate international
  radiocommunication and microwave facilities; 9,400 telephones; broadcast
  stations - 1 AM, 6 FM, 4 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

*Gibraltar, Defense Forces

Branches:
  British Army, Royal Navy, Royal Air Force
Note:
  defense is the responsibility of the UK

*Glorioso Islands, Header

Affiliation:
  (possession of France)

*Glorioso Islands, Geography

Location:
  Southern Africa, in the Indian Ocean just north of Madagascar
Map references:
  Africa
Area:
 total area:
  5 km2
 land area:
  5 km2
 comparative area:
  about 8.5 times the size of the Mall in Washington, DC
 note:
  includes Ile Glorieuse, Ile du Lys, Verte Rocks, Wreck Rock, and South Rock
Land boundaries:
  0 km
Coastline:
  35.2 km
Maritime claims:
 contiguous zone:
  12 nm
 exclusive economic zone:
  200 nm
 territorial sea:
  12 nm
International disputes:
  claimed by Madagascar
Climate:
  tropical
Terrain:   NA
Natural resources:
  guano, coconuts
Land use:
 arable land:
  0%
 permanent crops:
  0%
 meadows and pastures:
  0%
 forest and woodland:
  0%
 other:
  100% (all lush vegetation and coconut palms)
Irrigated land:
  0 km2
Environment:
  subject to periodic cyclones

*Glorioso Islands, People

Population:
  unihabited

*Glorioso Islands, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  none
 conventional short form:
  Glorioso Islands
 local long form:
  none
 local short form:
  Iles Glorieuses
Digraph:
  GO
Type:
  French possession administered by Commissioner of the Republic, resident in
  Reunion
Capital:
  none; administered by France from Reunion
Independence:
  none (possession of France)

*Glorioso Islands, Economy

Overview:
  no economic activity

*Glorioso Islands, Communications

Ports:
  none; offshore anchorage only
Airports:
 total:
  1
 usable:
  1
 with permanent-surface runways:
  0
 with runsways over 3,6359 m:
  0
 with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
  0
 with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
  1

*Glorioso Islands, Defense Forces

Note:
  defense is the responsibility of France

*Greece, Geography

Location:
  Southern Europe, bordering the Mediterranean Sea between Turkey and Bulgaria
Map references:
  Africa, Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
 total area:
  131,940 km2
 land area:
  130,800 km2
 comparative area:
  slightly smaller than Alabama
Land boundaries:
  total 1,210 km, Albania 282 km, Bulgaria 494 km, Turkey 206 km, Macedonia
  228 km
Coastline:
  13,676 km
Maritime claims:
 continental shelf:
  200 m depth or to depth of exploitation
 territorial sea:
  6 nm, but Greece has threatened to claim 12 nm
International disputes:
  air, continental shelf, and territorial water disputes with Turkey in Aegean
  Sea; Cyprus question; northern Epirus question with Albania; Macedonia
  question with Bulgaria and Macedonia
Climate:
  temperate; mild, wet winters; hot, dry summers
Terrain:
  mostly mountains with ranges extending into sea as peninsulas or chains of
  islands
Natural resources:
  bauxite, lignite, magnesite, petroleum, marble
Land use:
 arable land:
  23%
 permanent crops:
  8%
 meadows and pastures:
  40%
 forest and woodland:
  20%
 other:
  9%
Irrigated land:
  11,900 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
  subject to severe earthquakes; air pollution
Note:
  strategic location dominating the Aegean Sea and southern approach to
  Turkish Straits; a peninsular country, possessing an archipelago of about
  2,000 islands

*Greece, People

Population:
  10,470,460 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
  0.95% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
  10.42 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
  9.36 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
  8.46 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
  8.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
 total population:
  77.5 years
 male:
  75.02 years
 female:
  80.12 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
  1.44 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
 noun:
  Greek(s)
 adjective:   Greek
Ethnic divisions:
  Greek 98%, other 2%
 note:
  the Greek Government states there are no ethnic divisions in Greece
Religions:
  Greek Orthodox 98%, Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%
Languages:
  Greek (official), English, French
Literacy:
  age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
 total population:
  93%
 male:
  98%
 female:
  89%
Labor force:
  3,966,900
 by occupation:
  services 45%, agriculture 27%, industry 28% (1990)

*Greece, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  Hellenic Republic
 conventional short form:
  Greece
 local long form:
  Elliniki Dhimokratia
 local short form:
  Ellas
 former:
  Kingdom of Greece
Digraph:
  GR
Type:
  presidential parliamentary government; monarchy rejected by referendum 8
  December 1974
Capital:
  Athens
Administrative divisions:
  52 prefectures (nomoi, singular - nomos); Aitolia kai Akarnania, Akhaia,
  Argolis, Arkadhia, Arta, Attiki, Dhodhekanisos, Dhrama, Evritania, Evros,
  Evvoia, Florina, Fokis, Fthiotis, Grevena, Ilia, Imathia, Ioannina,
  Iraklion, Kardhitsa, Kastoria, Kavala, Kefallinia, Kerkira, Khalkidhiki,
  Khania, Khios, Kikladhes, Kilkis, Korinthia, Kozani, Lakonia, Larisa,
  Lasithi, Lesvos, Levkas, Magnisia, Messinia, Pella, Pieria, Piraievs,
  Preveza, Rethimni, Rodhopi, Samos, Serrai, Thesprotia, Thessaloniki,
  Trikala, Voiotia, Xanthi, Zakinthos, autonomous region: Agion Oros (Mt.
  Athos)
Independence:
  1829 (from the Ottoman Empire)
Constitution:
  11 June 1975
Legal system:
  based on codified Roman law; judiciary divided into civil, criminal, and
  administrative courts
National holiday:
  Independence Day, 25 March (1821) (proclamation of the war of independence)
Political parties and leaders:
  New Democracy (ND; conservative), Konstantinos MITSOTAKIS; Panhellenic
  Socialist Movement (PASOK), Andreas PAPANDREOU; Left Alliance, Maria
  DAMANAKI; Democratic Renewal (DIANA), Konstantinos STEFANOPOULOS; Communist
  Party (KKE), Aleka PAPARIGA; Ecologist-Alternative List, leader rotates
Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Elections:
 President:
  last held 4 May 1990 (next to be held May 1995); results - Konstantinos
  KARAMANLIS was elected by Parliament
 Chamber of Deputies:
  last held 8 April 1990 (next must be held by May 1994); results - ND 46.89%,
  PASOK 38.62%, Left Alliance 10.27%, PASOK/Left Alliance 1.02%,
  Ecologist-Alternative List 0.77%, DIANA 0.67%, Muslim independents 0.5%;
  seats - (300 total) ND 150, PASOK 123, Left Alliance 19, PASOK-Left Alliance
  4, Muslim independents 2, DEANA 1, Ecologist-Alternative List 1
 note:
  deputies shifting from one party to another and the dissolution of party
  coalitions have resulted in the following seating arrangement: ND 152, PASOK
  124, Left Alliance 14, KKE 7, Muslim deputies 2, Ecologist-Alternative List
  1

*Greece, Government

Executive branch:
  president, prime minister, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
  unicameral Greek Chamber of Deputies (Vouli ton Ellinon)
Judicial branch:
  Supreme Judicial Court, Special Supreme Tribunal
Leaders:
 Chief of State:
  President Konstantinos KARAMANLIS (since 5 May 1990)
 Head of Government:
  Prime Minister Konstantinos MITSOTAKIS (since 11 April 1990)
Member of:
  Australian Group, BIS, BSEC, CCC, CE, CERN, COCOM, CSCE, EBRD, EC, ECE, EIB,
  FAO, G-6, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF,
  IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS, MINURSO, MTCR,
  NACC, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, PCA, UN, UNCTAD,
  UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UPU, WEU (observer), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador Christos ZACHARAKIS
 chancery:
  2221 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008  telephone:
  (202) 939-5800
 FAX:
  (202) 939-5824
 consulates general:
  Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, New York, and San Francisco
 consulate:
  New Orleans
US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission:
  (vacant); Charge d'Affaires James A. WILLIAMS
 embassy:
  91 Vasilissis Sophias Boulevard, 10160 Athens
 mailing address:
  PSC 108, Box 56, APO AE 09842
 telephone:
  [30] (1) 721-2951 or 721-8401
 FAX:
  [30] (1) 645-6282
 consulate general:
  Thessaloniki
Flag:
  nine equal horizontal stripes of blue alternating with white; there is a
  blue square in the upper hoist-side corner bearing a white cross; the cross
  symbolizes Greek Orthodoxy, the established religion of the country

*Greece, Economy

Overview:
  Greece has a mixed capitalist economy with the basic entrepreneurial system
  overlaid in 1981-89 by a socialist system that enlarged the public sector
  from 55% of GDP in 1981 to about 70% when Prime Minister MITSOTAKIS took
  office. Tourism continues as a major source of foreign exchange, and
  agriculture is self-sufficient except for meat, dairy products, and animal
  feedstuffs. Since 1986, real GDP growth has averaged only 1.6% a year,
  compared with the Europen Community average of 3%. The MITSOTAKIS government
  has made little progress during its two and one-half years in power in
  coming to grips with Greece's main economic problems: an inflation rate
  still four times the EC average, a large public sector deficit, and a
  fragile current account position. In early 1991, the government secured a
  three-year, $2.5 billion assistance package from the EC under the strictest
  terms yet imposed on a member country, as the EC finally ran out of patience
  with Greece's failure to put its financial affairs in order. On the advice
  of the EC Commission, Greece delayed applying for the second installment
  until 1993 because of the failure of the government to meet the 1992
  targets. Although MITSOTAKIS faced down the unions in mid-1992 in a dispute
  over privatization plans, social security reform, and tax and price
  increases, and his new economics czar, Stephanos MANOS, is a respected
  economist committed to renovating the ailing economy. However, a national
  elections due by May 1994 will probably prompt MITSOTAKIS to backtrack on
  economic reform. In 1993, the GDP growth rate likely will remain low; the
  inflation rate probably will continue to fall, while remaining the highest
  in the EC.
National product:   GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $82.9 billion (1992)
National product real growth rate:
  1.2% (1992)
National product per capita:
  $8,200 (1992)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  15.6% (1992)
Unemployment rate:
  9.1% (1992)
Budget:
  revenues $37.6 billion; expenditures $45.1 billion, including capital
  expenditures of $5.4 billion (1993)
Exports:
  $6.8 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
 commodities:
  manufactured goods 53%, foodstuffs 31%, fuels 9%
 partners:
  Germany 24%, France 18%, Italy 17%, UK 7%, US 6%
Imports:
  $21.5 billion (c.i.f., 1991)
 commodities:
  manufactured goods 71%, foodstuffs 14%, fuels 10%
 partners:
  Germany 20%, Italy 14%, France 8%, UK 5%, US 4%
External debt:
  $23.7 billion (1991)
Industrial production:
  growth rate -1.0% (1991); accounts for 20% of GDP
Electricity:
  10,500,000 kW capacity; 36,400 million kWh produced, 3,610 kWh per capita
  (1992)

*Greece, Economy

Industries:
  food and tobacco processing, textiles, chemicals, metal products, tourism,
  mining, petroleum
Agriculture:
  including fishing and forestry, accounts for 15% of GDP and 27% of the labor
  force; principal products - wheat, corn, barley, sugar beets, olives,
  tomatoes, wine, tobacco, potatoes; self-sufficient in food except meat,
  dairy products, and animal feedstuffs; fish catch of 116,600 metric tons in
  1988
Illicit drugs:
  illicit producer of cannabis and limited opium; mostly for domestic
  production; serves as a gateway to Europe for traffickers smuggling cannabis
  and heroin from the Middle East and Southwest Asia to the West and precursor
  chemicals to the East; transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin
  transiting the Balkan route
Economic aid:
  US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-81), $525 million; Western (non-US)
  countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $1,390 million
Currency:
  1 drachma (Dr) = 100 lepta
Exchange rates:
  drachma (Dr) per US$1 - 215.82 (January 1993), 190.62 (1992), 182.27 (1991),
  158.51 (1990), 162.42 (1989), 141.86 (1988)
Fiscal year:
  calendar year

*Greece, Communications

Railroads:
  2,479 km total; 1,565 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, of which 36 km
  electrified and 100 km double track; 892 km 1.000-meter gauge; 22 km
  0.750-meter narrow gauge; all government owned
Highways:
  38,938 km total; 16,090 km paved, 13,676 km crushed stone and gravel, 5,632
  km improved earth, 3,540 km unimproved earth
Inland waterways:
  80 km; system consists of three coastal canals; including the Corinth Canal
  (6 km) which crosses the Isthmus of Corinth connecting the Gulf of Corinth
  with the Saronic Gulf and shortens the sea voyage from the Adriatic to
  Piraievs (Piraeus) by 325 km; and three unconnected rivers
Pipelines:
  crude oil 26 km; petroleum products 547 km
Ports:
  Piraievs (Piraeus), Thessaloniki
Merchant marine:
  998 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 25,483,768 GRT/47,047,285 DWT;
  includes 14 passenger, 66 short-sea passenger, 2 passenger-cargo, 128 cargo,
  26 container, 15 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 14 refrigerated cargo, 1 vehicle
  carrier, 214 oil tanker, 19 chemical tanker, 7 liquefied gas, 42 combination
  ore/oil, 3 specialized tanker, 424 bulk, 22 combination bulk, 1 livestock
  carrier; note - ethnic Greeks also own large numbers of ships under the
  registry of Liberia, Panama, Cyprus, Malta, and The Bahamas
Airports:
 total:
  78
 usable:
  77
 with permanent-surface runways:
  63
 with runways over 3,659 m:
  0
 with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
  20
 with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
  24
Telecommunications:
  adequate, modern networks reach all areas; 4,080,000 telephones; microwave
  radio relay carries most traffic; extensive open-wire network; submarine
  cables to off-shore islands; broadcast stations - 29 AM, 17 (20 repeaters)
  FM, 361 TV; tropospheric links, 8 submarine cables; 1 satellite earth
  station operating in INTELSAT (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean antenna),
  and EUTELSAT systems

*Greece, Defense Forces

Branches:
  Hellenic Army, Hellenic Navy, Hellenic Air Force, National Guard, Police
Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49 2,606,267; fit for military service 1,996,835; reach
  military age (21) annually 73,541 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
  exchange rate conversion - $4.2 billion, 5.1% of GDP (1992)

*Greenland, Header

Affiliation:
  (part of the Danish realm)

*Greenland, Geography

Location:
  in the North Atlantic Ocean, between Canada and Norway
Map references:
  Arctic Region, North America, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
 total area:
  2,175,600 km2
 land area:
  341,700 km2 (ice free)
 comparative area:
  slightly more than three times the size of Texas
Land boundaries:
  0 km
Coastline:
  44,087 km
Maritime claims:
 exclusive fishing zone:
  200 nm
 territorial sea:
  3 nm
International disputes:
  Denmark has challenged Norway's maritime claims between Greenland and Jan
  Mayen
Climate:
  arctic to subarctic; cool summers, cold winters
Terrain:
  flat to gradually sloping icecap covers all but a narrow, mountainous,
  barren, rocky coast
Natural resources:
  zinc, lead, iron ore, coal, molybdenum, cryolite, uranium, fish
Land use:
 arable land:
  0%
 permanent crops:   0%
 meadows and pastures:
  1%
 forest and woodland:
  0%
 other:
  99%
Irrigated land:
  NA km2
Environment:
  sparse population confined to small settlements along coast; continuous
  permafrost over northern two-thirds of the island
Note:
  dominates North Atlantic Ocean between North America and Europe

*Greenland, People

Population:
  56,533 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
  0.84% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
  19.62 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
  7.66 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
  -3.54 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
  28.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
 total population:
  66.19 years
 male:
  61.79 years
 female:
  70.6 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
  2.33 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
 noun:
  Greenlander(s)
 adjective:
  Greenlandic
Ethnic divisions:
  Greenlander 86% (Eskimos and Greenland-born Caucasians), Danish 14%
Religions:
  Evangelical Lutheran
Languages:
  Eskimo dialects, Danish
Literacy:
 total population:
  NA%
 male:
  NA%  female:
  NA%
Labor force:
  22,800
 by occupation:
  largely engaged in fishing, hunting, sheep breeding

*Greenland, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  none
 conventional short form:
  Greenland
 local long form:
  none
 local short form:
  Kalaallit Nunaat
Digraph:
  GL
Type:
  part of the Danish realm; self-governing overseas administrative division
Capital:
  Nuuk (Godthab)
Administrative divisions:
  3 municipalities (kommuner, singular - kommun); Nordgronland, Ostgronland,
  Vestgronland
Independence:
  none (part of the Danish realm; self-governing overseas administrative
  division)
Constitution:
  Danish
Legal system:
  Danish
National holiday:
  Birthday of the Queen, 16 April (1940)
Political parties and leaders:
  two-party ruling coalition; Siumut (a moderate socialist party that
  advocates more distinct Greenlandic identity and greater autonomy from
  Denmark), Lars Emil JOHANSEN, chairman; Inuit Ataqatigiit (IA; a
  Marxist-Leninist party that favors complete independence from Denmark rather
  than home rule), Arqaluk LYNGE; Atassut Party (a more conservative party
  that favors continuing close relations with Denmark), leader NA; Polar Party
  (conservative-Greenland nationalist), Lars CHEMNITZ; Center Party (a new
  nonsocialist protest party), leader NA
Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal
Elections:
 Danish Folketing:
  last held on 12 December 1990 (next to be held by December 1994); Greenland
  elects two representatives to the Folketing; results - percent of vote by
  party NA; seats - (2 total) Siumut 1, Atassut 1
 Landsting:
  last held on 5 March 1991 (next to be held 5 March 1995); results - percent
  of vote by party NA; seats - (27 total) Siumut 11, Atassut Party 8, Inuit
  Ataqatigiit 5, Center Party 2, Polar Party 1
Executive branch:
  Danish monarch, high commissioner, home rule chairman, prime minister,
  Cabinet (Landsstyre)
Legislative branch:
  unicameral Parliament (Landsting)
Judicial branch:
  High Court (Landsret)
Leaders:
 Chief of State:
  Queen MARGRETHE II (since 14 January 1972), represented by High Commissioner
  Torben Hede PEDERSEN (since NA)

*Greenland, Government

 Head of Government:
  Home Rule Chairman Lars Emil JOHANSEN (since 15 March 1991)
Diplomatic representation in US:
  none (self-governing overseas administrative division of Denmark)
US diplomatic representation:
  none (self-governing overseas administrative division of Denmark)
Flag:
  two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red with a large disk slightly
  to the hoist side of center - the top half of the disk is red, the bottom
  half is white

*Greenland, Economy

Overview:
  Greenland's economic situation at present is difficult and unemployment
  increases. Prospects for economic growth in the immediate future are not
  bright. The Home Rule Government's economic restraint measures introduced in
  the late 1980s have assisted in shifting red figures into a balance in the
  public budget. Foreign trade produced a surplus in 1989 and 1990, but has
  now returned to a deficit. Following the closing of the Black Angel lead and
  zinc mine in 1989, Greenland today is fully dependent on fishing and fish
  processing, this sector accounting for 95% of exports. Prospects for
  fisheries are not bright, as the important shrimp catches will at best
  stabilize and cod catches have dropped. Resumption of mining and hydrocarbon
  activities is not around the corner, thus leaving only tourism with some
  potential for the near future. The public sector in Greenland, i.e. the HRG
  and its commercial entities and the municipalities, plays a dominant role in
  Greenland accounting for about two thirds of total employment. About half
  the government's revenues come from grants from the Danish Government.
National product:
  GNP - purchasing power equivalent - $500 million (1988)
National product real growth rate:
  -10% (1990)
National product per capita:
  $9,000 (1988)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):   1.6% (1991)
Unemployment rate:
  9% (1990 est.)
Budget:
  revenues $381 million; expenditures $381 million, including capital
  expenditures of $36 million (1989)
Exports:
  $340.6 million (f.o.b., 1991)
 commodities:
  fish and fish products 95%
 partners:
  Denmark 79%, Benelux 9%, Germany 5%
Imports:
  $403 million (c.i.f., 1991)
 commodities:
  manufactured goods 28%, machinery and transport equipment 24%, food and live
  animals 12.4%, petroleum products 12%
 partners:
  Denmark 65%, Norway 8.8%, US 4.6%, Germany 3.8%, Japan 3.8%, Sweden 2.4%
External debt:
  $480 million (1990 est.)
Industrial production:
  growth rate NA%
Electricity:
  84,000 kW capacity; 176 million kWh produced, 3,060 kWh per capita (1992)
Industries:
  fish processing (mainly shrimp), lead and zinc mining, handicrafts, some
  small shipyards, potential for platinum and gold mining
Agriculture:
  sector dominated by fishing and sheep raising; crops limited to forage and
  small garden vegetables; 1988 fish catch of 133,500 metric tons
Economic aid:
  none
Currency:
  1 Danish krone (DKr) = 100 re

*Greenland, Economy

Exchange rates:
  Danish kroner (DKr) per US$1 - 6.236 (January 1993), 6.036 (1992), 6.396
  (1991), 6.189 (1990), 7.310 (1989), 6.732 (1988)
Fiscal year:
  calendar year

*Greenland, Communications

Highways:
  80 km
Ports:
  Kangerluarsoruseq (Faeringehavn), Paamiut (Frederikshaab), Nuuk (Godthaab),
  Sisimiut (Holsteinsborg), Julianehaab, Maarmorilik, North Star Bay
Airports:  total:
  11
 usable:
  8
 with permanent-surface runways:
  5
 with runways over 3,659 m:
  0
 with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
  2
 with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
  2
Telecommunications:
  adequate domestic and international service provided by cables and microwave
  radio relay; 17,900 telephones; broadcast stations - 5 AM, 7 (35 repeaters)
  FM, 4 (9 repeaters) TV; 2 coaxial submarine cables; 1 Atlantic Ocean
  INTELSAT earth station

*Greenland, Defense Forces

Note:
  defense is responsibility of Denmark

*Grenada, Geography

Location:
  in the eastern Caribbean Sea, about 150 im north of Trinidad and Tobago
Map references:
  Central America and the Caribbean, South America, Standard Time Zones of the
  World
Area:
 total area:
  340 km2
 land area:
  340 km2
 comparative area:
  slightly less than twice the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
  0 km
Coastline:
  121 km
Maritime claims:
 exclusive economic zone:
  200 nm
 territorial sea:
  12 nm
International disputes:
  none
Climate:
  tropical; tempered by northeast trade winds
Terrain:
  volcanic in origin with central mountains
Natural resources:
  timber, tropical fruit, deepwater harbors
Land use:
 arable land:
  15%
 permanent crops:
  26%
 meadows and pastures:
  3%
 forest and woodland:
  9%
 other:
  47%
Irrigated land:
  NA km2
Environment:
  lies on edge of hurricane belt; hurricane season lasts from June to November
Note:
  islands of the Grenadines group are divided politically with Saint Vincent
  and the Grenadines

*Grenada, People

Population:
  93,830 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
  0.24% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
  30.85 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
  6.46 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
  -21.95 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
  12.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
 total population:
  70.15 years
 male:
  67.79 years
 female:
  72.54 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
  4 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
 noun:
  Grenadian(s)
 adjective:
  Grenadian
Ethnic divisions:
  black African
Religions:
  Roman Catholic, Anglican, other Protestant sects
Languages:   English (official), French patois
Literacy:
  age 15 and over having ever attended school (1970)
 total population:
  98%
 male:
  98%
 female:
  98%
Labor force:
  36,000
 by occupation:
  services 31%, agriculture 24%, construction 8%, manufacturing 5%, other 32%
  (1985)

*Grenada, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  none
 conventional short form:
  Grenada
Digraph:
  GJ
Type:
  parliamentary democracy
Capital:
  Saint George's
Administrative divisions:
  6 parishes and 1 dependency*; Carriacou and Petit Martinique*, Saint Andrew,,   Saint David, Saint
George, Saint John, Saint Mark, Saint Patrick
Independence:
  7 February 1974 (from UK)
Constitution:
  19 December 1973
Legal system:
  based on English common law
National holiday:
  Independence Day, 7 February (1974)
Political parties and leaders:
  National Democratic Congress (NDC), Nicholas BRATHWAITE; Grenada United
  Labor Party (GULP), Sir Eric GAIRY; The National Party (TNP), Ben JONES; New
  National Party (NNP), Keith MITCHELL; Maurice Bishop Patriotic Movement
  (MBPM), Terrence MARRYSHOW; New Jewel Movement (NJM), Bernard COARD
Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal
Elections:
 House of Representatives:
  last held on 13 March 1990 (next to be held by NA March 1996); results -
  percent of vote by party NA; seats - (15 total) NDC 8, GULP 3, TNP 2, NNP 2
Executive branch:
  British monarch, governor general, prime minister, Ministers of Government
  (cabinet)
Legislative branch:   bicameral Parliament consists of an upper house or Senate and a lower house
  or House of Representatives
Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court
Leaders:
 Chief of State:
  Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General
  Reginald Oswald PALMER (since 6 August 1992)
 Head of Government:
  Prime Minister Nicholas BRATHWAITE (since 13 March 1990)
Member of:
  ACP, C, CARICOM, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC,
  ILO, IMF, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LAES, LORCS, NAM, OAS, OECS, OPANAL, UN,
  UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador Denneth MODESTE
 chancery:
  1701 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
 telephone:
  (202) 265-2561

*Grenada, Government

 consulate general:
  New York
US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission:
  Charge d'Affaires Annette T. VELER
 embassy:
  Ross Point Inn, Saint George's
 mailing address:
  P. O. Box 54, Saint George's
 telephone:
  (809) 444-1173 through 1178
 FAX:
  (809) 444-4820
Flag:
  a rectangle divided diagonally into yellow triangles (top and bottom) and
  green triangles (hoist side and outer side) with a red border around the
  flag; there are seven yellow five-pointed stars with three centered in the
  top red border, three centered in the bottom red border, and one on a red
  disk superimposed at the center of the flag; there is also a symbolic nutmeg
  pod on the hoist-side triangle (Grenada is the world's second-largest
  producer of nutmeg, after Indonesia); the seven stars represent the seven
  administrative divisions

*Grenada, Economy

Overview:
  The economy is essentially agricultural and centers on the traditional
  production of spices and tropical plants. Agriculture accounts for about 16%
  of GDP and 80% of exports and employs 24% of the labor force. Tourism is the
  leading foreign exchange earner, followed by agricultural exports.
  Manufacturing remains relatively undeveloped, but is expected to grow, given
  a more favorable private investment climate since 1983. The economy achieved
  an impressive average annual growth rate of 5.5% in 1986-91 but stalled in
  1992. Unemployment remains high at about 25%.
National product:
  GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $250 million (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate:
  -0.4% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
  $3,000 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  2.6% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
  25% (1992 est.)
Budget:
  revenues $78 million; expenditures $51 million, including capital
  expenditures of $22 million (1991 est.)
Exports:
  $30 million (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
 commodities:
  nutmeg 36%, cocoa beans 9%, bananas 14%, mace 8%, textiles 5%
 partners:
  US 12%, UK, FRG, Netherlands, Trinidad and Tobago (1989)
Imports:
  $110 million (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
 commodities:
  food 25%, manufactured goods 22%, machinery 20%, chemicals 10%, fuel 6%
  (1989)
 partners:
  US 29%, UK, Trinidad and Tobago, Japan, Canada (1989)
External debt:
  $104 million (1990 est.)
Industrial production:
  growth rate 5.8% (1989 est.); accounts for 9% of GDP
Electricity:
  12,500 kW capacity; 26 million kWh produced, 310 kWh per capita (1992)
Industries:
  food and beverage, textile, light assembly operations, tourism, construction
Agriculture:
  accounts for 16% of GDP and 80% of exports; bananas, cocoa, nutmeg, and mace
  account for two-thirds of total crop production; world's second-largest
  producer and fourth-largest exporter of nutmeg and mace; small-size farms
  predominate, growing a variety of citrus fruits, avocados, root crops,
  sugarcane, corn, and vegetables
Economic aid:
  US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY84-89), $60 million; Western (non-US)
  countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $70 million;
  Communist countries (1970-89), $32 million
Currency:
  1 EC dollar (EC$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
  East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1 - 2.70 (fixed rate since 1976)
Fiscal year:
  calendar year

*Grenada, Communications

Highways:
  1,000 km total; 600 km paved, 300 km otherwise improved; 100 km unimproved
Ports:
  Saint George's
Airports:
 total:
  3
 usable:
  3
 with permanent-surface runways:
  2
 with runways over 3,659 m:
  0
 with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
  1
 with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
  1
Telecommunications:
  automatic, islandwide telephone system with 5,650 telephones; new SHF radio
  links to Trinidad and Tobago and Saint Vincent; VHF and UHF radio links to
  Trinidad and Carriacou; broadcast stations - 1 AM, no FM, 1 TV

*Grenada, Defense Forces

Branches:
  Royal Grenada Police Force, Coast Guard
Manpower availability:
  NA
Defense expenditures:
  $NA, NA% of GDP

*Guadeloupe, Header

Affiliation:
  (overseas department of France)

*Guadeloupe, Geography

Location:
  in the Caribbean Sea, 500 km southeast of Puerto Rico
Map references:
  Central America and the Caribbean
Area:
 total area:
  1,780 km2  land area:
  1,760 km2
 comparative area:
  10 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
  0 km
Coastline:
  306 km
Maritime claims:
 exclusive economic zone:
  200 nm
 territorial sea:
  12 nm
International disputes:
  none
Climate:
  subtropical tempered by trade winds; relatively high humidity
Terrain:
  Basse-Terre is volcanic in origin with interior mountains; Grand-Terre is
  low limestone formation
Natural resources:
  cultivable land, beaches and climate that foster tourism
Land use:
 arable land:
  18%
 permanent crops:
  5%
 meadows and pastures:
  13%
 forest and woodland:
  40%
 other:
  24%
Irrigated land:
  30 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
  subject to hurricanes (June to October); La Soufriere is an active volcano

*Guadeloupe, People

Population:
  422,114 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
  1.67% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
  18.18 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
  5.94 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
  4.42 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
  9.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
 total population:   76.72 years
 male:
  73.67 years
 female:
  79.9 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
  2.08 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
 noun:
  Guadeloupian(s)
 adjective:
  Guadeloupe
Ethnic divisions:
  black or mulatto 90%, white 5%, East Indian, Lebanese, Chinese less than 5%
Religions:
  Roman Catholic 95%, Hindu and pagan African 5%
Languages:
  French, creole patois
Literacy:
  age 15 and over can read and write (1982)
 total population:
  90%
 male:
  90%
 female:
  91%
Labor force:
  120,000
 by occupation:
  services, government, and commerce 53.0%, industry 25.8%, agriculture 21.2%

*Guadeloupe, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  Department of Guadeloupe
 conventional short form:
  Guadeloupe
 local long form:
  Departement de la Guadeloupe
 local short form:
  Guadeloupe
Digraph:
  GP
Type:
  overseas department of France
Capital:
  Basse-Terre
Administrative divisions:
  none (overseas department of France)
Independence:
  none (overseas department of France)
Constitution:
  28 September 1958 (French Constitution)
Legal system:
  French legal system
National holiday:
  National Day, Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)
Political parties and leaders:
  Rally for the Republic (RPR), Marlene CAPTANT; Communist Party of Guadeloupe
  (PCG), Christian Medard CELESTE; Socialist Party (PS), Dominique LARIFLA;
  Popular Union for the Liberation of Guadeloupe (UPLG); Independent
  Republicans; Union for French Democracy (UDF); Union for the Center Rally
  (URC coalition of the PS, RPR, and UDF); Guadeloupe Objective (OG), Lucette
  MICHAUX-CHEVRY
Other political or pressure groups:
  Popular Union for the Liberation of Guadeloupe (UPLG); Popular Movement for
  Independent Guadeloupe (MPGI); General Union of Guadeloupe Workers (UGTG);
  General Federation of Guadeloupe Workers (CGT-G); Christian Movement for the
  Liberation of Guadeloupe (KLPG)
Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal
Elections:
 French National Assembly:
  last held on 5 and 12 June 1988 (next to be held March 1993); Guadeloupe
  elects four representatives; results - percent of vote by party NA; seats -
  (4 total) PS 2 seats, RPR 1 seat, PCG 1 seat
 French Senate:
  last held in September 1986 (next to be held September 1995); Guadeloupe
  elects two representatives; results - percent of vote by party NA; seats -
  (2 total) PCG 1, PS 1
 General Council:
  last held 25 September and 8 October 1988 (next to be held by NA 1992);
  results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (42 total) PS 26, URC 16
 Regional Council:
  last held on 22 March 1992 (next to be held by 16 March 1998); results - OG
  33.1%, PSG 28.7%, PCG 23.8%, UDF 10.7%, other 3.7%; seats - (41 total) OG
  15, PSG 12, PCG 10, UDF 4
Executive branch:
  government commissioner
Legislative branch:
  unicameral General Council and unicameral Regional Council

*Guadeloupe, Government

Judicial branch:
  Court of Appeal (Cour d'Appel) with jurisdiction over Guadeloupe, French
  Guiana, and Martinique
Leaders:
 Chief of State:
  President Francois MITTERRAND (since 21 May 1981)
 Head of Government:
  Prefect Franck PERRIEZ (since NA 1992)
Member of:
  FZ, WCL
Diplomatic representation in US:
  as an overseas department of France, the interests of Guadeloupe are
  represented in the US by France
US diplomatic representation:
  none (overseas department of France)
Flag:
  the flag of France is used

*Guadeloupe, Economy

Overview:
  The economy depends on agriculture, tourism, light industry, and services.
  It is also dependent upon France for large subsidies and imports. Tourism is
  a key industry, with most tourists from the US. In addition, an increasingly
  large number of cruise ships visit the islands. The traditionally important
  sugarcane crop is slowly being replaced by other crops, such as bananas
  (which now supply about 50% of export earnings), eggplant, and flowers.
  Other vegetables and root crops are cultivated for local consumption,
  although Guadeloupe is still dependent on imported food, which comes mainly
  from France. Light industry consists mostly of sugar and rum production.
  Most manufactured goods and fuel are imported. Unemployment is especially
  high among the young.
National product:
  GDP - exchange rate conversion - $1.5 billion (1989)
National product real growth rate:
  NA%
National product per capita:
  $4,700 (1989)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  3.7% (1990)
Unemployment rate:
  31.3% (1990)
Budget:
  revenues $333 million; expenditures $671 million, including capital
  expenditures of $NA (1989)
Exports:
  $168 million (f.o.b., 1988)
 commodities:
  bananas, sugar, rum
 partners:
  France 68%, Martinique 22% (1987)
Imports:
  $1.2 billion (c.i.f., 1988)
 commodities:
  vehicles, foodstuffs, clothing and other consumer goods, construction
  materials, petroleum products
 partners:
  France 64%, Italy, FRG, US (1987)
External debt:
  $NA
Industrial production:
  growth rate NA%
Electricity:
  171,500 kW capacity; 441 million kWh produced, 1,080 kWh per capita (1992)
Industries:
  construction, cement, rum, sugar, tourism
Agriculture:   cash crops - bananas, sugarcane; other products include tropical fruits and
  vegetables; livestock - cattle, pigs, goats; not self-sufficient in food
Economic aid:
  US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $4 million; Western (non-US)
  countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $8.235 billion
Currency:
  1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
  French francs (F) per US$1 - 5.4812 (January 1993), 5.2938 (1992), 5.6421
  (1991), 5.4453 (1990), 6.3801 (1989), 5.9569 (1988)
Fiscal year:
  calendar year

*Guadeloupe, Communications

Railroads:
  privately owned, narrow-gauge plantation lines
Highways:
  1,940 km total; 1,600 km paved, 340 km gravel and earth
Ports:
  Pointe-a-Pitre, Basse-Terre
Airports:
 total:
  9
 usable:
  9
 with permanent-surface runways:
  8
 with runways over 3,659 m:
  0
 with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
  1
 with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
  1
Telecommunications:
  domestic facilities inadequate; 57,300 telephones; interisland microwave
  radio relay to Antigua and Barbuda, Dominica, and Martinique; broadcast
  stations - 2 AM, 8 FM (30 private stations licensed to broadcast FM), 9 TV;
  1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT ground station

*Guadeloupe, Defense Forces

Branches:
  French Forces, Gendarmerie
Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49 98,069; fit for military service NA (1993 est.)
Note:
  defense is responsibility of France

*Guam, Header

Affiliation:
  (territory of the US)

*Guam, Geography

Location:
  in the North Pacific Ocean, 5,955 km west-southwest of Honolulu, about
  three-quarters of the way between Hawaii and the Philippines
Map references:
  Oceania
Area:
 total area:
  541.3 km2
 land area:
  541.3 km2
 comparative area:
  slightly more than three times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
  0 km
Coastline:
  125.5 km
Maritime claims:
 contiguous zone:
  24 nm
 continental shelf:
  200 m or depth of exploitation
 exclusive economic zone:
  200 nm
 territorial sea:
  12 nm
International disputes:
  none
Climate:
  tropical marine; generally warm and humid, moderated by northeast trade
  winds; dry season from January to June, rainy season from July to December;
  little seasonal temperature variation
Terrain:
  volcanic origin, surrounded by coral reefs; relatively flat coraline
  limestone plateau (source of most fresh water) with steep coastal cliffs and
  narrow coastal plains in north, low-rising hills in center, mountains in
  south
Natural resources:
  fishing (largely undeveloped), tourism (especially from Japan)
Land use:
 arable land:
  11%
 permanent crops:
  11%
 meadows and pastures:
  15%
 forest and woodland:
  18%
 other:   45%
Irrigated land:
  NA km2
Environment:
  frequent squalls during rainy season; subject to relatively rare, but
  potentially very destructive typhoons (especially in August)
Note:
  largest and southernmost island in the Mariana Islands archipelago;
  strategic location in western North Pacific Ocean

*Guam, People

Population:
  145,935 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
  2.53% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
  26.16 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
  3.86 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
  3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
  15.17 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
 total population:
  74.29 years
 male:
  72.42 years
 female:
  76.13 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
  2.44 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
 noun:
  Guamanian(s)
 adjective:
  Guamanian
Ethnic divisions:
  Chamorro 47%, Filipino 25%, Caucasian 10%, Chinese, Japanese, Korean, and
  other 18%
Religions:
  Roman Catholic 98%, other 2%
Languages:
  English, Chamorro, Japanese
Literacy:
  age 15 and over can read and write (1980)
 total population:
  96%
 male:
  96%
 female:
  96%
Labor force:   46,930 (1990)
 by occupation:
  federal and territorial government 40%, private 60% (trade 18%, services
  15.6%, construction 13.8%, other 12.6%) (1990)

*Guam, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  Territory of Guam
 conventional short form:
  Guam
Digraph:
  GQ
Type:
  organized, unincorporated territory of the US with policy relations between
  Guam and the US under the jurisdiction of the Office of Territorial and
  International Affairs, US Department of the Interior
Capital:
  Agana
Administrative divisions:
  none (territory of the US)
Independence:
  none (territory of the US)
Constitution:
  Organic Act of 1 August 1950
Legal system:
  modeled on US; federal laws apply
National holiday:
  Guam Discovery Day (first Monday in March); Liberation Day, 21 July
Political parties and leaders:
  Democratic Party (controls the legislature); Republican Party (party of the
  Governor)
Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal; US citizens, but do not vote in US presidential
  elections
Elections:
 Governor:
  last held on 6 November 1990 (next to be held NA November 1994); results -
  Joseph F. ADA reelected
 Legislature:
  last held on 9 November 1992 (next to be held NA November 1994); results -
  percent of vote by party NA; seats - (21 total) Democratic 14, Republican 7
 US House of Representatives:
  last held 9 November 1992 (next to be held NA November 1994); Guam elects
  one delegate; results - Robert UNDERWOOD was elected as delegate; seats - (1
  total) Democrat 1
Executive branch:
  US president, governor, lieutenant governor, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
  unicameral Legislature
Judicial branch:
  Federal District Court, Territorial Superior Court
Leaders:  Chief of State:
  President William Jefferson CLINTON (since 20 January 1993); Vice President
  Albert GORE, Jr. (since 20 January 1993)
 Head of Government:
  Governor Joseph A. ADA (since November 1986); Lieutenant Governor Frank F.
  BLAS (since NA)
Member of:
  ESCAP (associate), IOC, SPC
Diplomatic representation in US:
  none (territory of the US)

*Guam, Government

Flag:
  territorial flag is dark blue with a narrow red border on all four sides;
  centered is a red-bordered, pointed, vertical ellipse containing a beach
  scene, outrigger canoe with sail, and a palm tree with the word GUAM
  superimposed in bold red letters; US flag is the national flag

*Guam, Economy

Overview:
  The economy depends mainly on US military spending and on revenues from
  tourism. Over the past 20 years the tourist industry has grown rapidly,
  creating a construction boom for new hotels and the expansion of older ones.
  Visitors numbered about 900,000 in 1992. About 60% of the labor force works
  for the private sector and the rest for government. Most food and industrial
  goods are imported, with about 75% from the US.
National product:
  GNP - purchasing power equivalent - $2 billion (1991 est.)
National product real growth rate:
  NA%
National product per capita:
  $14,000 (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  4% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
  2% (1992 est.)
Budget:
  revenues $525 million; expenditures $395 million, including capital
  expenditures of $NA
Exports:
  $34 million (f.o.b., 1984)
 commodities:
  mostly transshipments of refined petroleum products, construction materials,
  fish, food and beverage products
 partners:
  US 25%, Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands 63%, other 12%
Imports:
  $493 million (c.i.f., 1984)
 commodities:
  petroleum and petroleum products, food, manufactured goods
 partners:
  US 23%, Japan 19%, other 58%
External debt:
  $NA
Industrial production:
  growth rate NA%
Electricity:
  500,000 kW capacity; 2,300 million kWh produced, 16,300 kWh per capita
  (1990)
Industries:
  US military, tourism, construction, transshipment services, concrete
  products, printing and publishing, food processing, textiles
Agriculture:
  relatively undeveloped with most food imported; fruits, vegetables, eggs,
  pork, poultry, beef, copra
Economic aid:
  although Guam receives no foreign aid, it does receive large transfer
  payments from the general revenues of the US Federal Treasury into which
  Guamanians pay no income or excise taxes; under the provisions of a special
  law of Congress, the Guamanian Treasury, rather than the US Treasury,
  receives federal income taxes paid by military and civilian Federal
  employees stationed in Guam
Currency:
  US currency is used
Fiscal year:
  1 October - 30 September

*Guam, Communications

Highways:
  674 km all-weather roads
Ports:
  Apra Harbor
Airports:
 total:
  5
 usable:
  4
 with permanent-surface runways:
  3
 with runways over 3,659 m:
  0
 with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
  3
 with runways 1,200-2,439 m:
  0
Telecommunications:
  26,317 telephones (1989); broadcast stations - 3 AM, 3 FM, 3 TV; 2 Pacific
  Ocean INTELSAT ground stations

*Guam, Defense Forces

Note:
  defense is the responsibility of the US

*Guatemala, Geography

Location:
  Central America, between Honduras and Mexico
Map references:
  Central America and the Caribbean, North America, Standard Time Zones of the
  World
Area:
 total area:
  108,890 km2
 land area:
  108,430 km2
 comparative area:
  slightly smaller than Tennessee
Land boundaries:
  total 1,687 km, Belize 266 km, El Salvador 203 km, Honduras 256 km, Mexico
  962 km
Coastline:
  400 km
Maritime claims:
 continental shelf:
  the outer edge of the continental shelf
 exclusive economic zone:
  200 nm
 territorial sea:
  12 nm
International disputes:
  border with Belize in dispute; negotiations to resolve the dispute have
  begun
Climate:
  tropical; hot, humid in lowlands; cooler in highlands
Terrain:
  mostly mountains with narrow coastal plains and rolling limestone plateau
  (Peten)
Natural resources:
  petroleum, nickel, rare woods, fish, chicle
Land use:
 arable land:
  12%
 permanent crops:
  4%
 meadows and pastures:
  12%
 forest and woodland:
  40%
 other:
  32%
Irrigated land:
  780 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
  numerous volcanoes in mountains, with frequent violent earthquakes;
  Caribbean coast subject to hurricanes and other tropical storms;
  deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution
Note:
  no natural harbors on west coast

*Guatemala, People

Population:
  10,446,015 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
  2.63% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
  36.19 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
  7.74 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
  -2.18 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
  55.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
 total population:
  63.99 years
 male:
  61.46 years
 female:
  66.65 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
  4.9 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
 noun:
  Guatemalan(s)
 adjective:
  Guatemalan
Ethnic divisions:
  Ladino 56% (mestizo - mixed Indian and European ancestry), Indian 44%
Religions:
  Roman Catholic, Protestant, traditional Mayan
Languages:
  Spanish 60%, Indian language 40% (18 Indian dialects, including Quiche,
  Cakchiquel, Kekchi)
Literacy:
  age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
 total population:
  55%
 male:
  63%
 female:
  47%
Labor force:
  2.5 million
 by occupation:
  agriculture 60%, services 13%, manufacturing 12%, commerce 7%, construction
  4%, transport 3%, utilities 0.8%, mining 0.4% (1985)

*Guatemala, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  Republic of Guatemala
 conventional short form:
  Guatemala
 local long form:
  Republica de Guatemala
 local short form:
  Guatemala
Digraph:
  GT
Type:
  republic
Capital:
  Guatemala
Administrative divisions:
  22 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Alta Verapaz, Baja
  Verapaz, Chimaltenango, Chiquimula, El Progreso, Escuintla, Guatemala,
  Huehuetenango, Izabal, Jalapa, Jutiapa, Peten, Quetzaltenango, Quiche,
  Retalhuleu, Sacatepequez, San Marcos, Santa Rosa, Solola, Suchitepequez,
  Totonicapan, Zacapa
Independence:
  15 September 1821 (from Spain)
Constitution:
  31 May 1985, effective 14 January 1986
 note:
  suspended on 25 May 1993 by President SERRANO; reinstated on 5 June 1993
  following ouster of president
Legal system:
  civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted
  compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
  Independence Day, 15 September (1821)
Political parties and leaders:
  National Centrist Union (UCN), Jorge CARPIO Nicolle; Solidarity Action
  Movement (MAS), Jorge SERRANO Elias; Christian Democratic Party (DCG),
  Alfonso CABRERA Hidalgo; National Advancement Party (PAN), Alvaro ARZU
  Irigoyen; National Liberation Movement (MLN), Mario SANDOVAL Alarcon; Social
  Democratic Party (PSD), Mario SOLARZANO Martinez; Popular Alliance 5 (AP-5),
  Max ORLANDO Molina; Revolutionary Party (PR), Carlos CHAVARRIA; National
  Authentic Center (CAN), Hector MAYORA Dawe; Democratic Institutional Party
  (PID), Oscar RIVAS; Nationalist United Front (FUN), Gabriel GIRON;
  Guatemalan Republican Front (FRG), Efrain RIOS Montt
Other political or pressure groups:
  Federated Chambers of Commerce and Industry (CACIF); Mutual Support Group
  (GAM); Agrarian Owners Group (UNAGRO); Committee for Campesino Unity (CUC);
  leftist guerrilla movement known as Guatemalan National Revolutionary Union
  (URNG) has four main factions - Guerrilla army of the Poor (EGP);
  Revolutionary Organization of the People in Arms (ORPA); Rebel Armed Forces
  (FAR); Guatemalan Labor Party (PGT/O)
Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal
Elections:
 Congress:
  last held on 11 November 1990 (next to be held 11 November 1995); results -
  UCN 25.6%, MAS 24.3%, DCG 17.5%, PAN 17.3%, MLN 4.8%, PSD/AP-5 3.6%, PR
  2.1%; seats - (116 total) UCN 38, DCG 27, MAS 18, PAN 12, Pro - Rios Montt
  10, MLN 4, PR 1, PSD/AP-5 1, independent 5

*Guatemala, Government

 President:
  runoff held on 11 January 1991 (next to be held 11 November 1995); results -
  Jorge SERRANO Elias (MAS) 68.1%, Jorge CARPIO Nicolle (UCN) 31.9%
 note:
  President SERRANO resigned on 1 June 1993 shortly after dissolving Congress
  and the judiciary; on 6 June 1993, Ramiro DE LEON Carpio was chosen as the
  new president by a vote of Congress; he will finish off the remainder of
  SERRANO's five-year term which expires in 1995
Executive branch:
  president, vice president, Council of Ministers (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
  unicameral Congress of the Republic (Congreso de la Republica)
Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justicia)
Leaders:
 Chief of State and Head of Government:
  President Ramiro DE LEON Carpio (since 6 June 1993); Vice President Arturo
  HERBRUGER (since 18 June 1993)
Member of:
  BCIE, CACM, CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-24, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
  ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ITU,
  LAES, LAIA (observer), LORCS, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
  UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador Juan Jose CASO-FANJUL
 chancery:
  2220 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
 telephone:
  (202) 745-4952 through 4954
 consulates general:
  Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, and San
  Francisco
US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador Marilyn MCAFEE (since 28 May 1993)
 embassy:
  7-01 Avenida de la Reforma, Zone 10, Guatemala City
 mailing address:
  APO AA 34024
 telephone:
  [502] (2) 31-15-41
 FAX:
  [502] (2) 318855
Flag:   three equal vertical bands of light blue (hoist side), white, and light blue
  with the coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms includes
  a green and red quetzal (the national bird) and a scroll bearing the
  inscription LIBERTAD 15 DE SEPTIEMBRE DE 1821 (the original date of
  independence from Spain) all superimposed on a pair of crossed rifles and a
  pair of crossed swords and framed by a wreath

*Guatemala, Economy

Overview:
  The economy is based on family and corporate agriculture, which accounts for
  26% of GDP, employs about 60% of the labor force, and supplies two-thirds of
  exports. Manufacturing, predominantly in private hands, accounts for about
  18% of GDP and 12% of the labor force. In both 1990 and 1991, the economy
  grew by 3%, the fourth and fifth consecutive years of mild growth. In 1992
  growth picked up to 4% as government policies favoring competition and
  foreign trade and investment took stronger hold.
National product:
  GDP - exchange rate conversion - $12.6 billion (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate:
  4.2% (1992)
National product per capita:
  $1,300 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  14% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
  6.5% (1991 est.), with 30-40% underemployment
Budget:
  revenues $604 million; expenditures $808 million, including capital
  expenditures of $134 million (1990 est.)
Exports:
  $1.3 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
 commodities:
  coffee 26%, sugar 13%, bananas 7%, beef 3%
 partners:
  US 36%, El Salvador, Costa Rica, Germany, Honduras
Imports:
  $1.8 billion (c.i.f., 1992)
 commodities:
  fuel and petroleum products, machinery, grain, fertilizers, motor vehicles
 partners:
  US 40%, Mexico, Venezuela, Japan, Germany
External debt:
  $2.5 billion (December 1992 est.)
Industrial production:
  growth rate 1.9% (1991 est.); accounts for 18% of GDP
Electricity:
  847,600 kW capacity; 2,500 million kWh produced, 260 kWh per capita (1992)
Industries:
  sugar, textiles and clothing, furniture, chemicals, petroleum, metals,
  rubber, tourism
Agriculture:
  accounts for 26% of GDP; most important sector of economy; contributes
  two-thirds of export earnings; principal crops - sugarcane, corn, bananas,
  coffee, beans, cardamom; livestock - cattle, sheep, pigs, chickens; food
  importer
Illicit drugs:
  illicit producer of opium poppy and cannabis for the international drug
  trade; the government has an active eradication program for cannabis and
  opium poppy; transit country for cocaine shipments
Economic aid:
  US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-90), $1.1 billion; Western (non-US)
  countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $7.92 billion
Currency:
  1 quetzal (Q) = 100 centavos

*Guatemala, Economy

Exchange rates:
  free market quetzales (Q) per US$1 - 5.2850 (December 1993), 5.1706 (1992),
  5.0289 (1991), 2.8161 (1989), 2.6196 (1988); note - black-market rate 2.800
  (May 1989)
Fiscal year:
  calendar year

*Guatemala, Communications

Railroads:
  1,019 km 0.914-meter gauge, single track; 917 km government owned, 102 km
  privately owned
Highways:
  26,429 km total; 2,868 km paved, 11,421 km gravel, and 12,140 unimproved
Inland waterways:
  260 km navigable year round; additional 730 km navigable during high-water
  season
Pipelines:
  crude oil 275 km
Ports:
  Puerto Barrios, Puerto Quetzal, Santo Tomas de Castilla
Merchant marine:
  1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,129 GRT/6,450 DWT
Airports:
 total:
  474
 usable:
  418
 with permanent-surface runways:
  11
 with runways over 3,659 m:
  0
 with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
  3
 with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
  21
Telecommunications:
  fairly modern network centered in Guatemala [city]; 97,670 telephones;
  broadcast stations - 91 AM, no FM, 25 TV, 15 shortwave; connection into
  Central American Microwave System; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

*Guatemala, Defense Forces

Branches:
  Army, Navy, Air Force
Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49 2,410,760; fit for military service 1,576,569; reach
  military age (18) annually 115,178 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
  exchange rate conversion - $121 million, 1% of GDP (1993)

*Guernsey, Header

Affiliation:
  (British crown dependency)

*Guernsey, Geography

Location:
  in the English Channel, 52 km west of France between UK and France
Map references:
  Europe
Area:
 total area:
  194 km2
 land area:
  194 km2
 comparative area:
  slightly larger than Washington, DC
 note:
  includes Alderney, Guernsey, Herm, Sark, and some other smaller islands
Land boundaries:
  0 km
Coastline:
  50 km
Maritime claims:
 exclusive fishing zone:
  200 nm
 territorial sea:
  3 nm
International disputes:
  none
Climate:
  temperate with mild winters and cool summers; about 50% of days are overcast
Terrain:
  mostly level with low hills in southwest
Natural resources:
  cropland
Land use:
 arable land:
  NA%
 permanent crops:
  NA%
 meadows and pastures:
  NA%
 forest and woodland:
  NA%
 other:
  NA%
Irrigated land:
  NA km2
Environment:
  large, deepwater harbor at Saint Peter Port

*Guernsey, People

Population:
  63,075 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
  1.02% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
  13.1 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
  10.08 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
  7.23 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
  6.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
 total population:
  77.96 years
 male:
  75.27 years
 female:
  80.68 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
  1.66 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
 noun:
  Channel Islander(s)
 adjective:
  Channel Islander
Ethnic divisions:
  UK and Norman-French descent
Religions:
  Anglican, Roman Catholic, Presbyterian, Baptist, Congregational, Methodist
Languages:
  English, French; Norman-French dialect spoken in country districts
Literacy:
 total population:
  NA%
 male:   NA%
 female:
  NA%
Labor force:
  NA

*Guernsey, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  Bailiwick of Guernsey
 conventional short form:
  Guernsey
Digraph:
  GK
Type:
  British crown dependency
Capital:
  Saint Peter Port
Administrative divisions:
  none (British crown dependency)
Independence:
  none (British crown dependency)
Constitution:
  unwritten; partly statutes, partly common law and practice
Legal system:
  English law and local statute; justice is administered by the Royal Court
National holiday:
  Liberation Day, 9 May (1945)
Political parties and leaders:
  none; all independents
Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal
Elections:
 Assembly of the States:
  last held NA (next to be held NA); results - no percent of vote by party
  since all are independents; seats - (60 total, 33 elected), all independents
Executive branch:
  British monarch, lieutenant governor, bailiff, deputy bailiff
Legislative branch:
  unicameral Assembly of the States
Judicial branch:
  Royal Court
Leaders:
 Chief of State:
  Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952)
 Head of Government:
  Lieutenant Governor and Commander in Chief Lt. Gen. Sir Michael WILKINS
  (since NA 1990); Bailiff Mr. Graham Martyn DOREY (since February 1992)
Member of:
  none
Diplomatic representation in US:
  none (British crown dependency)
US diplomatic representation:   none (British crown dependency)
Flag:
  white with the red cross of Saint George (patron saint of England) extending
  to the edges of the flag

*Guernsey, Economy

Overview:
  Tourism is a major source of revenue. Other economic activity includes
  financial services, breeding the world-famous Guernsey cattle, and growing
  tomatoes and flowers for export.
National product:
  GDP - $NA
National product real growth rate:
  9% (1987)
National product per capita:
  $NA
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  7% (1988)
Unemployment rate:
  NA%
Budget:
  revenues $208.9 million; expenditures $173.9 million, including capital
  expenditures of $NA (1988)
Exports:
  $NA
 commodities:
  tomatoes, flowers and ferns, sweet peppers, eggplant, other vegetables
 partners:
  UK (regarded as internal trade)
Imports:
  $NA
 commodities:
  coal, gasoline, and oil
 partners:
  UK (regarded as internal trade)
External debt:
  $NA
Industrial production:
  growth rate NA%
Electricity:
  173,000 kW capacity; 525 million kWh produced, 9,060 kWh per capita (1992)
Industries:
  tourism, banking
Agriculture:
  tomatoes, flowers (mostly grown in greenhouses), sweet peppers, eggplant,
  other vegetables, fruit; Guernsey cattle
Economic aid:
  none
Currency:
  1 Guernsey (#G) pound = 100 pence
Exchange rates:
  Guernsey pounds (#G) per US$1 - 0.6527 (January 1993), 0.5664 (1992), 0.5652
  (1991), 0.5603 (1990), 0.6099 (1989), 0.5614 (1988); note - the Guernsey
  pound is at par with the British pound
Fiscal year:
  calendar year

*Guernsey, Communications

Ports:
  Saint Peter Port, Saint Sampson
Airports:
 total:
  2
 useable:
  2
 with permanent-surface runways:
  2
 with runways over 3,659 m:
  0
 with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
  0
 with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
  1
Telecommunications:
  broadcast stations - 1 AM, no FM, 1 TV; 41,900 telephones; 1 submarine cable

*Guernsey, Defense Forces

Note:
  defense is the responsibility of the UK

*Guinea, Geography

Location:
  Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean between Guinea-Bissau and
  Sierra Leone
Map references:
  Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
 total area:
  245,860 km2
 land area:
  245,860 km2
 comparative area:
  slightly smaller than Oregon
Land boundaries:
  total 3,399 km, Guinea-Bissau 386 km, Cote d'Ivoire 610 km, Liberia 563 km,
  Mali 858 km, Senegal 330 km, Sierra Leone 652 km
Coastline:
  320 km
Maritime claims:
 exclusive economic zone:   200 nm
 territorial sea:
  12 nm
International disputes:
  none
Climate:
  generally hot and humid; monsoonal-type rainy season (June to November) with
  southwesterly winds; dry season (December to May) with northeasterly
  harmattan winds
Terrain:
  generally flat coastal plain, hilly to mountainous interior
Natural resources:
  bauxite, iron ore, diamonds, gold, uranium, hydropower, fish
Land use:
 arable land:
  6%
 permanent crops:
  0%
 meadows and pastures:
  12%
 forest and woodland:
  42%
 other:
  40%
Irrigated land:
  240 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
  hot, dry, dusty harmattan haze may reduce visibility during dry season;
  deforestation

*Guinea, People

Population:
  6,236,506 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
  2.46% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
  44.76 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
  20.13 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
  141.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
 total population:
  43.68 years
 male:
  41.49 years
 female:
  45.93 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
  5.9 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:  noun:
  Guinean(s)
 adjective:
  Guinean
Ethnic divisions:
  Fulani 35%, Malinke 30%, Soussou 20%, indigenous tribes 15%
Religions:
  Muslim 85%, Christian 8%, indigenous beliefs 7%
Languages:
  French (official); each tribe has its own language
Literacy:
  age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
 total population:
  24%
 male:
  35%
 female:
  13%
Labor force:
  2.4 million (1983)
 by occupation:
  agriculture 82.0%, industry and commerce 11.0%, services 5.4%
 note:
  88,112 civil servants (1987); 52% of population of working age (1985)

*Guinea, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  Republic of Guinea
 conventional short form:
  Guinea
 local long form:
  Republique de Guinee
 local short form:
  Guinee
 former:
  French Guinea
Digraph:
  GV
Type:
  republic
Capital:
  Conakry
Administrative divisions:
  33 administrative regions (regions administratives, singular - region
  administrative); Beyla, Boffa, Boke, Conakry, Coyah, Dabola, Dalaba,
  Dinguiraye, Faranah, Forecariah, Fria, Gaoual, Gueckedou, Kankan, Kerouane,
  Kindia, Kissidougou, Koubia, Koundara, Kouroussa, Labe, Lelouma, Lola,
  Macenta, Mali, Mamou, Mandiana, Nzerekore, Pita, Siguiri, Telimele, Tougue,
  Yomou
Independence:
  2 October 1958 (from France)
Constitution:   23 December 1990 (Loi Fundamentale)
Legal system:
  based on French civil law system, customary law, and decree; legal codes
  currently being revised; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
  Anniversary of the Second Republic, 3 April (1984)
Political parties and leaders:
  political parties were legalized on 1 April 1992
 pro-government:
  Party for Unity and Progress (PUP), leader NA
 other:
  Rally for the Guinean People (RPG), Alpha CONDE; Union for a New Republic
  (UNR), Mamadon BAH; Party for Renewal and Progress (PRP), Siradion DIALLO
Suffrage:
  none
Elections:
  none
Executive branch:
  president, Transitional Committee for National Recovery (Comite
  Transitionale de Redressement National or CTRN) replaced the Military
  Committee for National Recovery (Comite Militaire de Redressement National
  or CMRN); Council of Ministers (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
  unicameral People's National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale Populaire) was
  dissolved after the 3 April 1984 coup; framework established in December
  1991 for a new National Assembly with 114 seats
Judicial branch:
  Court of Appeal (Cour d'Appel)
Leaders:
 Chief of State and Head of Government:
  Gen. Lansana CONTE (since 5 April 1984)

*Guinea, Government

Member of:
  ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEAO (observer), ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO,
  IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO
  (correspondent), ITU, LORCS, MINURSO, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
  UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission:
  (vacant); Charge d'Affaires ad interim Ansoumane CAMARA
 chancery:
  2112 Leroy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
 telephone:
  (202) 483-9420
US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador Dane F. SMITH, Jr.
 embassy:
  2nd Boulevard and 9th Avenue, Conakry
 mailing address:
  B. P. 603, Conakry
 telephone:   (224) 44-15-20 through 24
 FAX:
  (224) 44-15-22
Flag:
  three equal vertical bands of red (hoist side), yellow, and green; uses the
  popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia; similar to the flag of Rwanda, which
  has a large black letter R centered in the yellow band

*Guinea, Economy

Overview:
  Although possessing many natural resources and considerable potential for
  agricultural development, Guinea is one of the poorest countries in the
  world. The agricultural sector contributes about 40% to GDP and employs more
  than 80% of the work force, while industry accounts for 27% of GDP. Guinea
  possesses over 25% of the world's bauxite reserves; exports of bauxite and
  alumina accounted for about 70% of total exports in 1989.
National product:
  GDP - exchange rate conversion - $3 billion (1990 est.)
National product real growth rate:
  4.3% (1990 est.)
National product per capita:
  $410 (1990 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  19.6% (1990 est.)
Unemployment rate:
  NA%
Budget:
  revenues $449 million; expenditures $708 million, including capital
  expenditures of $361 million (1990 est.)
Exports:
  $788 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.)
 commodities:
  alumina, bauxite, diamonds, coffee, pineapples, bananas, palm kernels
 partners:
  US 33%, EC 33%, USSR and Eastern Europe 20%, Canada
Imports:
  $692 million (c.i.f., 1990 est.)
 commodities:
  petroleum products, metals, machinery, transport equipment, foodstuffs,
  textiles, and other grain
 partners:
  US 16%, France, Brazil
External debt:
  $2.6 billion (1990 est.)
Industrial production:
  growth rate NA%; accounts for 27% of GDP
Electricity:
  113,000 kW capacity; 300 million kWh produced, 40 kWh per capita (1989)
Industries:
  bauxite mining, alumina, gold, diamond mining, light manufacturing and
  agricultural processing industries
Agriculture:
  accounts for 40% of GDP (includes fishing and forestry); mostly subsistence
  farming; principal products - rice, coffee, pineapples, palm kernels,
  cassava, bananas, sweet potatoes, timber; livestock - cattle, sheep and
  goats; not self-sufficient in food grains
Economic aid:
  US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $227 million; Western (non-US)
  countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $1,465 million; OPEC
  bilateral aid (1979-89), $120 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $446
  million
Currency:
  1 Guinean franc (FG) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
  Guinean francs (FG) per US$1 - 675 (1990), 618 (1989), 515 (1988), 440
  (1987), 383 (1986)
Fiscal year:
  calendar year

*Guinea, Communications

Railroads:
  1,045 km; 806 km 1.000-meter gauge, 239 km 1.435-meter standard gauge
Highways:
  30,100 km total; 1,145 km paved, 12,955 km gravel or laterite (of which
  barely 4,500 km are currently all-weather roads), 16,000 km unimproved earth
  (1987)
Inland waterways:
  1,295 km navigable by shallow-draft native craft
Ports:
  Conakry, Kamsar
Airports:
 total:
  15
 usable:
  15
 with permanent-surface runways:
  4
 with runways over 3,659 m:
  0
 with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
  3
 with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
  10
Telecommunications:
  poor to fair system of open-wire lines, small radiocommunication stations,
  and new radio relay system; 15,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 3 AM 1
  FM, 1 TV; 65,000 TV sets; 200,000 radio receivers; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT
  earth station

*Guinea, Defense Forces

Branches:
  Army, Navy (acts primarily as a coast guard), Air Force, Presidential Guard,
  Republican Guard, paramilitary National Gendarmerie, National Police Force
Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49 1,403,776; fit for military service 708,078 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
  exchange rate conversion - $29 million, 1.2% of GDP (1988)

*Guinea-Bissau, Geography

Location:
  Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean between Guinea and
  Senegal
Map references:
  Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
 total area:
  36,120 km2
 land area:
  28,000 km2
 comparative area:
  slightly less than three times the size of Connecticut
Land boundaries:
  total 724 km, Guinea 386 km, Senegal 338 km
Coastline:
  350 km
Maritime claims:
 exclusive economic zone:
  200 nm
 territorial sea:
  12 nm
International disputes:
  the International Court of Justice (ICJ) on 12 November 1991 rendered its
  decision on the Guinea-Bissau/Senegal maritime boundary in favor of Senegal
Climate:
  tropical; generally hot and humid; monsoonal-type rainy season (June to
  November) with southwesterly winds; dry season (December to May) with
  northeasterly harmattan winds
Terrain:
  mostly low coastal plain rising to savanna in east
Natural resources:
  unexploited deposits of petroleum, bauxite, phosphates, fish, timber
Land use:
 arable land:
  11%
 permanent crops:
  1%
 meadows and pastures:
  43%
 forest and woodland:
  38%
 other:
  7%
Irrigated land:
  NA km2
Environment:
  hot, dry, dusty harmattan haze may reduce visibility during dry season

*Guinea-Bissau, People

Population:
  1,072,439 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
  2.38% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
  41.26 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
  17.45 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
  122.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
 total population:
  47.03 years
 male:
  45.38 years
 female:
  48.73 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
  5.6 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
 noun:
  Guinea-Bissauan(s)
 adjective:
  Guinea-Bissauan
Ethnic divisions:
  African 99% (Balanta 30%, Fula 20%, Manjaca 14%, Mandinga 13%, Papel 7%),
  European and mulatto less than 1%
Religions:
  indigenous beliefs 65%, Muslim 30%, Christian 5%
Languages:
  Portuguese (official), Criolo, African languages
Literacy:
  age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
 total population:
  36%
 male:
  50%
 female:
  24%
Labor force:
  403,000 (est.)
 by occupation:
  agriculture 90%, industry, services, and commerce 5%, government 5%
 note:
  population of working age 53% (1983)

*Guinea-Bissau, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  Republic of Guinea-Bissau
 conventional short form:
  Guinea-Bissau
 local long form:
  Republica de Guine-Bissau
 local short form:
  Guine-Bissau
 former:
  Portuguese Guinea
Digraph:
  PU
Type:
  republic highly centralized multiparty since mid-1991; the African Party for
  the Independence of Guinea-Bissau and Cape Verde (PAIGC) held an
  extraordinary party congress in December 1990 and established a two-year
  transition program during which the constitution will be revised, allowing
  for multiple political parties and a presidential election in 1993
Capital:
  Bissau
Administrative divisions:
  9 regions (regioes, singular - regiao); Bafata, Biombo, Bissau, Bolama,
  Cacheu, Gabu, Oio, Quinara, Tombali
Independence:
  10 September 1974 (from Portugal)
Constitution:
  16 May 1984
Legal system:
  NA
National holiday:
  Independence Day, 10 September (1974)
Political parties and leaders:
  African Party for the Independence of Guinea-Bissau and Cape Verde (PAIGC),
  President Joao Bernardo VIEIRA, leader; Democratic Social Front (FDS),
  Rafael BARBOSA, leader; Bafata Movement, Domingos Fernandes GARNER, leader;
  Democratic Front, Aristides MENEZES, leader
 note:
  PAIGC is still the major party (of 10 parties) and controls all aspects of
  the government
Suffrage:
  15 years of age; universal
Elections:
 National People's Assembly:
  last held 15 June 1989 (next to be held 15 June 1994); results - PAIGC is
  the only party; seats - (150 total) PAIGC 150, appointed by Regional
  Councils
 President of Council of State:
  last held 19 June 1989 (next to be held NA 1993); results - Gen. Joao
  Bernardo VIEIRA was reelected without opposition by the National People's
  Assembly
Executive branch:
  president of the Council of State, vice presidents of the Council of State,
  Council of State, Council of Ministers (cabinet)
Legislative branch:   unicameral National People's Assembly (Assembleia Nacional Popular)
Judicial branch:
  none; there is a Ministry of Justice in the Council of Ministers

*Guinea-Bissau, Government

Leaders:
 Chief of State and Head of Government:
  President of the Council of State Gen. Joao Bernardo VIEIRA (assumed power
  14 November 1980 and elected President of Council of State on 16 May 1984)
Member of:
  ACCT (associate), ACP, AfDB, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB,
  IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, IOM (observer), ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN,
  UNAVEM II, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOMOZ, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador Alfredo Lopes CABRAL
 chancery:
  918 16th Street NW, Mezzanine Suite, Washington, DC 20006
 telephone:
  (202) 872-4222
US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador Roger A. MAGUIRE
 embassy:
  17 Avenida Domingos Ramos, Bissau
 mailing address:
  1067 Bissau Codex, Bissau
 telephone:
  [245] 20-1139, 20-1145, 20-1113
 FAX:
  [245] 20-1159
Flag:
  two equal horizontal bands of yellow (top) and green with a vertical red
  band on the hoist side; there is a black five-pointed star centered in the
  red band; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia; similar to the
  flag of Cape Verde, which has the black star raised above the center of the
  red band and is framed by two corn stalks and a yellow clam shell

*Guinea-Bissau, Economy

Overview:
  Guinea-Bissau ranks among the poorest countries in the world, with a per
  capita GDP of roughly $200. Agriculture and fishing are the main economic
  activities. Cashew nuts, peanuts, and palm kernels are the primary exports.
  Exploitation of known mineral deposits is unlikely at present because of a
  weak infrastructure and the high cost of development. The government's
  four-year plan (1988-91) targeted agricultural development as the top
  priority.
National product:
  GDP - exchange rate conversion - $210 million (1991 est.)
National product real growth rate:   2.3% (1991 est.)
National product per capita:
  $210 (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  55% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
  NA%
Budget:
  revenues $33.6 million; expenditures $44.8 million, including capital
  expenditures of $.57 million (1991 est.)
Exports:
  $20.4 million (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
 commodities:
  cashews, fish, peanuts, palm kernels
 partners:
  Portugal, Senegal, France, The Gambia, Netherlands, Spain
Imports:
  $63.5 million (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
 commodities:
  capital equipment, consumer goods, semiprocessed goods, foods, petroleum
 partners:
  Portugal, Netherlands, Senegal, USSR, Germany
External debt:
  $462 million (December 1990 est.)
Industrial production:
  growth rate 1.0% (1989 est.); accounts for 10% of GDP (1989 est.)
Electricity:
  22,000 kW capacity; 30 million kWh produced, 30 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
  agricultural processing, beer, soft drinks
Agriculture:
  accounts for over 50% of GDP, nearly 100% of exports, and 90% of employment;
  rice is the staple food; other crops include corn, beans, cassava, cashew
  nuts, peanuts, palm kernels, and cotton; not self-sufficient in food;
  fishing and forestry potential not fully exploited
Economic aid:
  US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $49 million; Western (non-US)
  countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $615 million; OPEC
  bilateral aid (1979-89), $41 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $68
  million
Currency:
  1 Guinea-Bissauan peso (PG) = 100 centavos
Exchange rates:
  Guinea-Bissauan pesos (PG) per US$1 - 1987.2 (1989), 1363.6 (1988), 851.65
  (1987), 238.98 (1986)
Fiscal year:
  calendar year

*Guinea-Bissau, Communications

Highways:
  3,218 km; 2,698 km bituminous, remainder earth
Inland waterways:
  scattered stretches are important to coastal commerce
Ports:
  Bissau
Airports:
 total:
  33
 usable:
  15
 with permanent-surface runways:
  4
 with runways over 3,659 m:
  0
 with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
  1
 with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
  5
Telecommunications:
  poor system of radio relay, open-wire lines, and radiocommunications; 3,000
  telephones; broadcast stations - 2 AM, 3 FM, 1 TV

*Guinea-Bissau, Defense Forces

Branches:
  People's Revolutionary Armed Force (FARP; including Army, Navy, Air Force),
  paramilitary force
Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49 235,931; fit for military service 134,675 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
  exchange rate conversion - $9.3 million, 5%-6% of GDP (1987)

*Guyana, Geography

Location:
  Northern South America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean between Suriname
  and Venezuela
Map references:
  South America, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
 total area:
  214,970 km2
 land area:
  196,850 km2
 comparative area:
  slightly smaller than Idaho
Land boundaries:
  total 2,462 km, Brazil 1,119 km, Suriname 600 km, Venezuela 743 km
Coastline:
  459 km
Maritime claims:
 continental shelf:
  200 nm or the outer edge of continental margin
 exclusive fishing zone:
  200 nm
 territorial sea:
  12 nm
International disputes:
  all of the area west of the Essequibo River claimed by Venezuela; Suriname
  claims area between New (Upper Courantyne) and Courantyne/Koetari Rivers
  (all headwaters of the Courantyne)
Climate:
  tropical; hot, humid, moderated by northeast trade winds; two rainy seasons
  (May to mid-August, mid-November to mid-January)
Terrain:
  mostly rolling highlands; low coastal plain; savanna in south
Natural resources:
  bauxite, gold, diamonds, hardwood timber, shrimp, fish
Land use:
 arable land:
  3%
 permanent crops:
  0%
 meadows and pastures:
  6%
 forest and woodland:
  83%
 other:
  8%
Irrigated land:
  1,300 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
  flash floods a constant threat during rainy seasons; water pollution

*Guyana, People

Population:
  734,640 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
  -0.68% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
  20.47 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
  7.39 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
  -19.89 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
  49.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
 total population:
  64.7 years
 male:
  61.46 years
 female:
  68.1 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
  2.35 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
 noun:   Guyanese (singular and plural)
 adjective:
  Guyanese
Ethnic divisions:
  East Indian 51%, black and mixed 43%, Amerindian 4%, European and Chinese 2%
Religions:
  Christian 57%, Hindu 33%, Muslim 9%, other 1%
Languages:
  English, Amerindian dialects
Literacy:
  age 15 and over having ever attended scool (1990)
 total population:
  95%
 male:
  98%
 female:
  96%
Labor force:
  268,000
 by occupation:
  industry and commerce 44.5%, agriculture 33.8%, services 21.7%
 note:
  public-sector employment amounts to 60-80% of the total labor force (1985)

*Guyana, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  Co-operative Republic of Guyana
 conventional short form:
  Guyana
 former:
  British Guiana
Digraph:
  GY
Type:
  republic
Capital:
  Georgetown
Administrative divisions:
  10 regions; Barima-Waini, Cuyuni-Mazaruni, Demerara-Mahaica, East
  Berbice-Corentyne, Essequibo Islands-West Demerara, Mahaica-Berbice,
  Pomeroon-Supenaam, Potaro-Siparuni, Upper Demerara-Berbice, Upper
  Takutu-Upper Essequibo
Independence:
  26 May 1966 (from UK)
Constitution:
  6 October 1980
Legal system:
  based on English common law with certain admixtures of Roman-Dutch law; has
  not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
  Republic Day, 23 February (1970)
Political parties and leaders:   People's National Congress (PNC), Hugh Desmond HOYTE; People's
Progressive
  Party (PPP), Cheddi JAGAN; Working People's Alliance (WPA), Eusi KWAYANA,
  Rupert ROOPNARINE; Democratic Labor Movement (DLM), Paul TENNASSEE; People's
  Democratic Movement (PDM), Llewellyn JOHN; National Democratic Front (NDF),
  Joseph BACCHUS; The United Force (TUF), Manzoor NADIR; United Republican
  Party (URP), Leslie RAMSAMMY; National Republican Party (NRP), Robert
  GANGADEEN; Guyana Labor Party (GLP), Nanda GOPAUL
Other political or pressure groups:
  Trades Union Congress (TUC); Guyana Council of Indian Organizations (GCIO);
  Civil Liberties Action Committee (CLAC)
 note:
  the latter two organizations are small and active but not well organized
Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal
Elections:
 Executive President:
  last held on 5 October 1992; results - Cheddi JAGAN was elected president
  since he was leader of the party with the most votes in the National
  Assembly elections
 National Assembly:
  last held on 5 October 1992 (next to be held in 1997); results - PPP 53.4%,
  PNC 42.3%, WPA 2%, TUF 1.2%; seats - (65 total, 53 elected) PPP 36, PNC 26,
  WPA 2, TUF 1
Executive branch:
  executive president, first vice president, prime minister, first deputy
  prime minister, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
  unicameral National Assembly
Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court of Judicature

*Guyana, Government

Leaders:
 Chief of State:
  Executive President Cheddi JAGAN (since 5 October 1992); First Vice
  President Sam HINDS (since 5 October 1992)
 Head of Government:
  Prime Minister Sam HINDS (since 5 October 1992)
Member of:
  ACP, C, CARICOM, CCC, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU,
  IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LAES, LORCS, NAM, OAS,
  UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador Dr. Odeen ISHMAEL
 chancery:
  2490 Tracy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
 telephone:
  (202) 265-6900
 consulate general:
  New York
US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission:   Ambassador George Jones
 embassy:
  99-100 Young and Duke Streets, Georgetown
 mailing address:
  P. O. Box 10507, Georgetown
 telephone:
  [592] (2) 54900 through 54909 and 57960 through 57969
 FAX:
  [592] (2) 58497
Flag:
  green with a red isosceles triangle (based on the hoist side) superimposed
  on a long yellow arrowhead; there is a narrow black border between the red
  and yellow, and a narrow white border between the yellow and the green

*Guyana, Economy

Overview:
  Guyana is one of the world's poorest countries with a per capita income less
  than one-fifth the South American average. After growing on average at less
  than 1% a year in 1986-87, GDP dropped by 5% a year in 1988-90. The decline
  resulted from bad weather, labor trouble in the cane fields, and flooding
  and equipment problems in the bauxite industry. Consumer prices rose about
  100% in 1989 and 75% in 1990, and the current account deficit widened
  substantially as sugar and bauxite exports fell. Moreover, electric power
  has been in short supply and constitutes a major barrier to future gains in
  national output. The government, in association with international financial
  agencies, seeks to reduce its payment arrears and to raise new funds. The
  government's stabilization program - aimed at establishing realistic
  exchange rates, reasonable price stability, and a resumption of growth -
  requires considerable public administrative abilities and continued patience
  by consumers during a long incubation period. Buoyed by a recovery in mining
  and agriculture, the economy posted 6% growth in 1991 and 7% growth in 1992,
  according to official figures. A large volume of illegal and quasi-legal
  economic activity is not captured in estimates of the country's total
  output.
National product:
  GDP - exchange rate conversion - $267.5 million (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate:
  7% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
  $370 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  15% (1992)
Unemployment rate:
  12%-15% (1991 est.)
Budget:
  revenues $121 million; expenditures $225 million, including capital
  expenditures of $50 million (1990 est.)
Exports:
  $268 million (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
 commodities:
  sugar, bauxite/alumina, rice, gold, shrimp, molasses, timber, rum
 partners:
  UK 28%, US 25%, FRG 8%, Canada 7%, Japan 6% (1989)
Imports:
  $242.4 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.)
 commodities:
  manufactures, machinery, food, petroleum
 partners:
  US 40%, Trinidad & Tobago 13%, UK 11%, Japan 5%, Netherland Antilles 3%
  (1989)
External debt:
  $2 billion including arrears (1990)
Industrial production:
  growth rate 12% (1990 est.); accounts for about 24% of GDP
Electricity:
  253,500 kW capacity; 276 million kWh produced, 370 kWh per capita (1992)
Industries:
  bauxite mining, sugar, rice milling, timber, fishing (shrimp), textiles,
  gold mining
Agriculture:
  most important sector, accounting for 25% of GDP and about half of exports;
  sugar and rice are key crops; development potential exists for fishing and
  forestry; not self-sufficient in food, especially wheat, vegetable oils, and
  animal products

*Guyana, Economy

Economic aid:
  US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $116 million; Western (non-US)
  countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $325 million;
  Communist countries 1970-89, $242 million
Currency:
  1 Guyanese dollar (G$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
  Guyanese dollars (G$) per US$1 - 125.8 (January 1993) 125.0 (1992), 111.8
  (1991), 39.533 (1990), 27.159 (1989), 10.000 (1988)
Fiscal year:
  calendar year

*Guyana, Communications

Railroads:
  187 km total, all single track 0.914-meter gauge
Highways:
  7,665 km total; 550 km paved, 5,000 km gravel, 1,525 km earth, 590 km
  unimproved
Inland waterways:
  6,000 km total of navigable waterways; Berbice, Demerara, and Essequibo
  Rivers are navigable by oceangoing vessels for 150 km, 100 km, and 80 km,
  respectively
Ports:
  Georgetown, New Amsterdam
Merchant marine:
  1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,317 GRT/2,558 DWT
Airports:  total:
  53
 usable:
  48
 with permanent-surface runways:
  5
 with runways over 3,659 m:
  0
 with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
  0
 with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
  13
Telecommunications:
  fair system with radio relay network; over 27,000 telephones; tropospheric
  scatter link to Trinidad; broadcast stations - 4 AM, 3 FM, no TV, 1
  shortwave; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

*Guyana, Defense Forces

Branches:
  Guyana Defense Force (GDF; including the Ground Forces, Coast Guard and Air
  Corps), Guyana People's Militia (GPM), Guyana National Service (GNS)
Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49 196,960; fit for military service 149,583 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
  $NA, NA% of GDP

*Haiti, Geography

Location:
  in the northern Caribbean Sea, about 90 km southeast of Cuba
Map references:
  Central America and the Caribbean, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
 total area:
  27,750 km2
 land area:
  27,560 km2
 comparative area:
  slightly larger than Maryland
Land boundaries:
  total 275 km, Dominican Republic 275 km
Coastline:
  1,771 km
Maritime claims:
 contiguous zone:
  24 nm
 continental shelf:
  to depth of exploitation
 exclusive economic zone:
  200 nm
 territorial sea:   12 nm
International disputes:
  claims US-administered Navassa Island
Climate:
  tropical; semiarid where mountains in east cut off trade winds
Terrain:
  mostly rough and mountainous
Natural resources:
  bauxite
Land use:
 arable land:
  20%
 permanent crops:
  13%
 meadows and pastures:
  18%
 forest and woodland:
  4%
 other:
  45%
Irrigated land:
  750 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
  lies in the middle of the hurricane belt and subject to severe storms from
  June to October; occasional flooding and earthquakes; deforestation; soil
  erosion
Note:
  shares island of Hispaniola with Dominican Republic (western one-third is
  Haiti, eastern two-thirds is the Dominican Republic)

*Haiti, People

Population:
  6,384,877 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
  1.68% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
  40.77 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
  18.88 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
  -5.04 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
  109.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
 total population:
  45.45 years
 male:
  43.88 years
 female:
  47.11 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
  6.05 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:  noun:
  Haitian(s)
 adjective:
  Haitian
Ethnic divisions:
  black 95%, mulatto and European 5%
Religions:
  Roman Catholic 80% (of which an overwhelming majority also practice Voodoo),
  Protestant 16% (Baptist 10%, Pentecostal 4%, Adventist 1%, other 1%), none
  1%, other 3% (1982)
Languages:
  French (official) 10%, Creole
Literacy:
  age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
 total population:
  53%
 male:
  59%
 female:
  47%
Labor force:
  2.3 million
 by occupation:
  agriculture 66%, services 25%, industry 9%
 note:
  shortage of skilled labor, unskilled labor abundant (1982)

*Haiti, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  Republic of Haiti
 conventional short form:
  Haiti
 local long form:
  Republique d'Haiti
 local short form:
  Haiti
Digraph:
  HA
Type:
  republic
Capital:
  Port-au-Prince
Administrative divisions:
  9 departments, (departements, singular - departement); Artibonite, Centre,
  Grand'Anse, Nord, Nord-Est, Nord-Ouest, Ouest, Sud, Sud-Est
Independence:
  1 January 1804 (from France)
Constitution:
  27 August 1983, suspended February 1986; draft constitution approved March
  1987, suspended June 1988, most articles reinstated March 1989; October
  1991, government claims to be observing the Constitution
Legal system:   based on Roman civil law system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
  Independence Day, 1 January (1804)
Political parties and leaders:
  National Front for Change and Democracy (FNCD), including National Congress
  of Democratic Movements (CONACOM), Victor BENOIT, and National Cooperative
  Action Movement (MKN), Volvick Remy JOSEPH; Movement for the Installation of
  Democracy in Haiti (MIDH), Marc BAZIN; National Progressive Revolutionary
  Party (PANPRA), Serge GILLES; National Patriotic Movement of November 28
  (MNP-28), Dejean BELIZAIRE; National Agricultural and Industrial Party
  (PAIN), Louis DEJOIE; Movement for National Reconstruction (MRN), Rene
  THEODORE; Haitian Christian Democratic Party (PDCH), Joseph DOUZE; Assembly
  of Progressive National Democrats (RDNP), Leslie MANIGAT; National Party of
  Labor (PNT), Thomas DESULME; Mobilization for National Development (MDN),
  Hubert DE RONCERAY; Democratic Movement for the Liberation of Haiti
  (MODELH), Francois LATORTUE; Haitian Social Christian Party (PSCH), Gregoire
  EUGENE; Movement for the Organization of the Country (MOP), Gesner COMEAU
  and Jean MOLIERE
Other political or pressure groups:
  Democratic Unity Confederation (KID); Roman Catholic Church; Confederation
  of Haitian Workers (CTH); Federation of Workers Trade Unions (FOS);
  Autonomous Haitian Workers (CATH); National Popular Assembly (APN)
Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal
Elections:
 Chamber of Deputies:
  last held 16 December 1990, with runoff held 20 January 1991 (next to be
  held by December 1994); results - percent of vote NA; seats - (83 total)
  FNCD 27, ANDP 17, PDCH 7, PAIN 6, RDNP 6, MDN 5, PNT 3, MKN 2, MODELH 2, MRN
  1, independents 5, other 2
 President:
  last held 16 December 1990 (next election to be held by December 1995);
  results - Rev. Jean-Bertrand ARISTIDE 67.5%, Marc BAZIN 14.2%, Louis DEJOIE
  4.9%

*Haiti, Government

 Senate:
  last held 18 January 1993, widely condemned as illegitimate (next to be held
  December 1994); results - percent of vote NA; seats - (27 total) FNCD 12,
  ANDP 8, PAIN 2, MRN 1, RDNP 1, PNT 1, independent 2
Executive branch:
  president, Council of Ministers (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
  bicameral National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale) consisting of an upper
  house or Senate and a lower house or Chamber of Deputies
Judicial branch:
  Court of Appeal (Cour de Cassation)
Leaders:
 Chief of State:
  President Jean-Bertrand ARISTIDE (since 7 February 1991), ousted in a coup
  in September 1991, but still recognized by international community as Chief
  of State
 Head of Government:   de facto Prime Minister Marc BAZIN (since NA June 1992)
Member of:
  ACCT, ACP, CARICOM (observer), CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA,
  IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU,
  LAES, LORCS, OAS, OPANAL, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU,
  WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador Jean CASIMIR
 chancery:
  2311 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
 telephone:
  (202) 332-4090 through 4092
 consulates general:
  Boston, Chicago, Miami, New York, and San Juan (Puerto Rico)
US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission:
  Special Charge d'Affaires Charles REDMAN
 embassy:
  Harry Truman Boulevard, Port-au-Prince
 mailing address:
  P. O. Box 1761, Port-au-Prince
 telephone:
  [509] 22-0354, 22-0368, 22-0200, or 22-0612
 FAX:
  [509] 23-9007
Flag:
  two equal horizontal bands of blue (top) and red with a centered white
  rectangle bearing the coat of arms, which contains a palm tree flanked by
  flags and two cannons above a scroll bearing the motto L'UNION FAIT LA FORCE
  (Union Makes Strength)

*Haiti, Economy

Overview:
  About 75% of the population live in abject poverty. Agriculture is mainly
  small-scale subsistence farming and employs nearly three-fourths of the work
  force. The majority of the population does not have ready access to safe
  drinking water, adequate medical care, or sufficient food. Few social
  assistance programs exist, and the lack of employment opportunities remains
  one of the most critical problems facing the economy, along with soil
  erosion and political instability. Trade sanctions applied by the
  Organization of American States in response to the September 1991 coup
  against President ARISTIDE have further damaged the economy.
National product:
  GDP - exchange rate conversion - $2.2 billion (1991 est.)
National product real growth rate:
  -4% (FY91 est.)
National product per capita:
  $340 (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  20% (FY91 est.)
Unemployment rate:
  25-50% (1991)
Budget:
  revenues $300 million; expenditures $416 million, including capital
  expenditures of $145 million (1990 est.)
Exports:
  $146 million (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
 commodities:
  light manufactures 65%, coffee 19%, other agriculture 8%, other 8%
 partners:
  US 84%, Italy 4%, France 3%, other industrial countries 6%, less developed
  countries 3% (1987)
Imports:
  $252 million (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
 commodities:
  machines and manufactures 34%, food and beverages 22%, petroleum products
  14%, chemicals 10%, fats and oils 9%
 partners:
  US 64%, Netherlands Antilles 5%, Japan 5%, France 4%, Canada 3%, Germany 3%
  (1987)
External debt:
  $838 million (December 1990)
Industrial production:
  growth rate -2.0% (1991 est.); accounts for 15% of GDP
Electricity:
  217,000 kW capacity; 480 million kWh produced, 75 kWh per capita (1992)
Industries:
  sugar refining, textiles, flour milling, cement manufacturing, tourism,
  light assembly industries based on imported parts
Agriculture:
  accounts for 28% of GDP and employs around 70% of work force; mostly
  small-scale subsistence farms; commercial crops - coffee, mangoes,
  sugarcane, wood; staple crops - rice, corn, sorghum; shortage of wheat flour
Illicit drugs:
  transshipment point for cocaine
Economic aid:
  US commitments, including Ex-Im (1970-89), $700 million; Western (non-US)
  countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $770 million
Currency:
  1 gourde (G) = 100 centimes

*Haiti, Economy

Exchange rates:
  gourdes (G) per US$1 - 8.4 (December 1991), fixed rate of 5.000 through
  second quarter of 1991)
Fiscal year:
  1 October - 30 September

*Haiti, Communications

Railroads:
  40 km 0.760-meter narrow gauge, single-track, privately owned industrial
  line
Highways:
  4,000 km total; 950 km paved, 900 km otherwise improved, 2,150 km unimproved
Inland waterways:
  negligible; less than 100 km navigable
Ports:
  Port-au-Prince, Cap-Haitien
Airports:
 total:
  13
 usable:
  10
 with permanent-surface runways:
  3
 with runways over 3,659 m:
  0
 with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
  1
 with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
  3
Telecommunications:
  domestic facilities barely adequate, international facilities slightly
  better; 36,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 33 AM, no FM, 4 TV, 2
  shortwave; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

*Haiti, Defense Forces

Branches:
  Army (including Police), Navy, Air Force
Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49 1,289,310; fit for military service 695,997; reach military
  age (18) annually 60,588 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
  exchange rate conversion - $34 million, 1.5% of GDP (1988 est.)

*Heard Island and McDonald Islands, Header

Affiliation:
  (territory of Australia)

*Heard Island and McDonald Islands, Geography

Location:
  in the Indian Ocean, 4,100 km southwest of Australia
Map references:
  Antarctic Region
Area:
 total area:
  412 km2
 land area:
  412 km2  comparative area:
  slightly less than 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
  0 km
Coastline:
  101.9 km
Maritime claims:
 exclusive fishing zone:
  200 nm
 territorial sea:
  3 nm
International disputes:
  none
Climate:
  antarctic
Terrain:
  Heard Island - bleak and mountainous, with an extinct volcano; McDonald
  Islands - small and rocky
Natural resources:
  none
Land use:
 arable land:
  0%
 permanent crops:
  0%
 meadows and pastures:
  0%
 forest and woodland:
  0%
 other:
  100%
Irrigated land:
  0 km2
Environment:
  primarily used for research stations

*Heard Island and McDonald Islands, People

Population:
  uninhabited

*Heard Island and McDonald Islands, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  Territory of Heard Island and McDonald Islands
 conventional short form:
  Heard Island and McDonald Islands
Digraph:
  HM
Type:
  territory of Australia administered by the Ministry for Arts, Sport, the
  Environment, Tourism and Territories
Capital:
  none; administered from Canberra, Australia
Independence:
  none (territory of Australia)

*Heard Island and McDonald Islands, Economy

Overview:
  no economic activity

*Heard Island and McDonald Islands, Communications

Ports:
  none; offshore anchorage only

*Heard Island and McDonald Islands, Defense Forces

Note:
  defense is the responsibility of Australia

*Holy See (Vatican City), Geography

Location:
  Southern Europe, an enclave of Rome - central Italy
Map references:
  Europe
Area:
 total area:
  0.44 km2
 land area:
  0.44 km2
 comparative area:
  about 0.7 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
  total 3.2 km, Italy 3.2 km
Coastline:
  0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
  none; landlocked
International disputes:
  none
Climate:
  temperate; mild, rainy winters (September to mid-May) with hot, dry summers
  (May to September)
Terrain:
  low hill
Natural resources:   none
Land use:
 arable land:
  0%
 permanent crops:
  0%
 meadows and pastures:
  0%
 forest and woodland:
  0%
 other:
  100%
Irrigated land:
  0 km2
Environment:
  urban
Note:
  landlocked; enclave of Rome, Italy; world's smallest state; outside the
  Vatican City, 13 buildings in Rome and Castel Gandolfo (the pope's summer
  residence) enjoy extraterritorial rights

*Holy See (Vatican City), People

Population:
  811 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
  1.15% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
  NA births/1,000 population
Death rate:
  NA deaths/1,000 population
Net migration rate:
  NA migrant(s)/1,000 population
Infant mortality rate:
  NA deaths/1,000 live births
Life expectancy at birth:
 total population:
  NA years
 male:
  NA years
 female:
  NA years
Total fertility rate:
  NA children born/woman
Nationality:
 noun:
  none
 adjective:
  none
Ethnic divisions:
  Italians, Swiss
Religions:
  Roman Catholic
Languages:   Italian, Latin, various other languages
Literacy:
 total population:
  NA%
 male:
  NA%
 female:
  NA%
Labor force:
  NA
 by occupation:
  dignitaries, priests, nuns, guards, and 3,000 lay workers who live outside
  the Vatican

*Holy See (Vatican City), Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  The Holy See (State of the Vatican City)
 conventional short form:
  Holy See (Vatican City)
 local long form:
  Santa Sede (Stato della Citta del Vaticano)
 local short form:
  Santa Sede (Citta del Vaticano)
Digraph:
  VT
Type:
  monarchical-sacerdotal state
Capital:
  Vatican City
Independence:
  11 February 1929 (from Italy)
Constitution:
  Apostolic Constitution of 1967 (effective 1 March 1968)
Legal system:
  NA
National holiday:
  Installation Day of the Pope, 22 October (1978) (John Paul II)
 note:
  Pope John Paul II was elected on 16 October 1978
Political parties and leaders:
  none
Other political or pressure groups:
  none (exclusive of influence exercised by church officers)
Suffrage:
  limited to cardinals less than 80 years old
Elections:
 Pope:
  last held 16 October 1978 (next to be held after the death of the current
  pope); results - Karol WOJTYLA was elected for life by the College of
  Cardinals
Executive branch:
  pope
Legislative branch:
  unicameral Pontifical Commission
Judicial branch:
  none; normally handled by Italy
Leaders:
 Chief of State:
  Pope JOHN PAUL II (Karol WOJTYLA; since 16 October 1978)
 Head of Government:
  Secretary of State Archbishop Angelo Cardinal SODANO (since NA)
Member of:
  CSCE, IAEA, ICFTU, IMF (observer), INTELSAT, IOM (observer), ITU, OAS
  (observer), UN (observer), UNCTAD, UNHCR, UPU, WIPO, WTO (observer)
Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission:
  Apostolic Pro-Nuncio Archbishop Agostino CACCIAVILLAN
 chancery:
  3339 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
 telephone:
  (202) 333-7121

*Holy See (Vatican City), Government

US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador Raymond L. FLYNN
 embassy:
  Villino Pacelli, Via Aurelia 294, 00165 Rome
 mailing address:
  PSC 59, APO AE 09624
 telephone:
  [396] 46741
 FAX:
  [396] 638-0159
Flag:
  two vertical bands of yellow (hoist side) and white with the crossed keys of
  Saint Peter and the papal tiara centered in the white band

*Holy See (Vatican City), Economy

Overview:
  This unique, noncommercial economy is supported financially by contributions
  (known as Peter's Pence) from Roman Catholics throughout the world, the sale
  of postage stamps and tourist mementos, fees for admission to museums, and
  the sale of publications. The incomes and living standards of lay workers
  are comparable to, or somewhat better than, those of counterparts who work
  in the city of Rome.
Budget:
  revenues $86 million; expenditures $178 million, including capital
  expenditures of $NA (1993 est.)
Electricity:
  5,000 kW standby capacity (1992); power supplied by Italy
Industries:   printing and production of a small amount of mosaics and staff uniforms;
  worldwide banking and financial activities
Currency:
  1 Vatican lira (VLit) = 100 centesimi
Exchange rates:
  Vatican lire (VLit) per US$1 - 1,482.5 (January 1993), 1,232.4 (1992),
  1,240.6 (1991), 1,198.1 (1990), 1,372.1 (1989), 1,301.6 (1988); note - the
  Vatican lira is at par with the Italian lira which circulates freely
Fiscal year:
  calendar year

*Holy See (Vatican City), Communications

Railroads:
  850 m, 750 mm gauge (links with Italian network near the Rome station of
  Saint Peter's)
Highways:
  none; all city streets
Telecommunications:
  broadcast stations - 3 AM, 4 FM, no TV; 2,000-line automatic telephone
  exchange; no communications satellite systems

*Holy See (Vatican City), Defense Forces

Note:
  defense is the responsibility of Italy; Swiss Papal Guards are posted at
  entrances to the Vatican City

*Honduras, Geography

Location:
  Central America, between Guatemala and Nicaragua
Map references:
  Central America and the Caribbean, North America, Standard Time Zones of the
  World
Area:
 total area:
  112,090 km2
 land area:
  111,890 km2
 comparative area:
  slightly larger than Tennessee
Land boundaries:
  total 1,520 km, Guatemala 256 km, El Salvador 342 km, Nicaragua 922 km
Coastline:
  820 km
Maritime claims:
 contiguous zone:
  24 nm
 continental shelf:   200 m depth or to depth of exploitation
 exclusive economic zone:
  200 nm
 territorial sea:
  12 nm
International disputes:
  land boundary dispute with El Salvador mostly resolved by 11 September 1992
  International Court of Justice (ICJ) decision; ICJ referred the maritime
  boundary in the Golfo de Fonseca to an earlier agreement in this century and
  advised that some tripartite resolution among El Salvador, Honduras and
  Nicaragua likely would be required
Climate:
  subtropical in lowlands, temperate in mountains
Terrain:
  mostly mountains in interior, narrow coastal plains
Natural resources:
  timber, gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, iron ore, antimony, coal, fish
Land use:
 arable land:
  14%
 permanent crops:
  2%
 meadows and pastures:
  30%
 forest and woodland:
  34%
 other:
  20%
Irrigated land:
  900 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
  subject to frequent, but generally mild, earthquakes; damaging hurricanes
  and floods along Caribbean coast; deforestation; soil erosion

*Honduras, People

Population:
  5,170,108 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
  2.8% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
  35.82 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
  6.44 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
  -1.43 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
  47.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
 total population:
  67.17 years
 male:
  64.82 years
 female:   69.62 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
  4.87 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
 noun:
  Honduran(s)
 adjective:
  Honduran
Ethnic divisions:
  mestizo (mixed Indian and European) 90%, Indian 7%, black 2%, white 1%
Religions:
  Roman Catholic 97%, Protestant minority
Languages:
  Spanish, Indian dialects
Literacy:
  age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
 total population:
  73%
 male:
  76%
 female:
  71%
Labor force:
  1.3 million
 by occupation:
  agriculture 62%, services 20%, manufacturing 9%, construction 3%, other 6%
  (1985)

*Honduras, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  Republic of Honduras
 conventional short form:
  Honduras
 local long form:
  Republica de Honduras
 local short form:
  Honduras
Digraph:
  HO
Type:
  republic
Capital:
  Tegucigalpa
Administrative divisions:
  18 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Atlantida,
  Choluteca, Colon, Comayagua, Copan, Cortes, El Paraiso, Francisco Morazan,
  Gracias a Dios, Intibuca, Islas de la Bahia, La Paz, Lempira, Ocotepeque,
  Olancho, Santa Barbara, Valle, Yoro
Independence:
  15 September 1821 (from Spain)
Constitution:
  11 January 1982, effective 20 January 1982
Legal system:
  rooted in Roman and Spanish civil law; some influence of English common law;
  accepts ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
National holiday:
  Independence Day, 15 September (1821)
Political parties and leaders:
  Liberal Party (PLH), Carlos Roberto REINA, presidential candidate, Rafael
  PINEDA Ponce, president; National Party (PN) has two factions: Movimiento
  Nacional de Reivindication Callejista (Monarca), Rafael Leonardo CALLEJAS,
  and Oswaldista, Oswaldo RAMOS SOTO, presidential candidate; National
  Innovation and Unity Party (PINU), German LEITZELAR, president; Christian
  Democratic Party (PDCH), Efrain DIAZ Arrivillaga, president
Other political or pressure groups:
  National Association of Honduran Campesinos (ANACH); Honduran Council of
  Private Enterprise (COHEP); Confederation of Honduran Workers (CTH);
  National Union of Campesinos (UNC); General Workers Confederation (CGT);
  United Federation of Honduran Workers (FUTH); Committee for the Defense of
  Human Rights in Honduras (CODEH); Coordinating Committee of Popular
  Organizations (CCOP)
Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Elections:
 President:
  last held on 26 November 1989 (next to be held November 1993); results -
  Rafael Leonardo CALLEJAS (PNH) 51%, Carlos FLORES Facusse (PLH) 43.3%, other
  5.7%
 National Congress:
  last held on 26 November 1989 (next to be held November 1993); results - PNH
  51%, PLH 43%, PDCH 1.9%, PINU-SD 1.5%, other 2.6%; seats - (128 total) PNH
  71, PLH 55, PINU-SD 2
Executive branch:
  president, Council of Ministers (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
  unicameral National Congress (Congreso Nacional)

*Honduras, Government

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justica)
Leaders:
 Chief of State and Head of Government:
  President Rafael Leonardo CALLEJAS Romero (since 26 January 1990)
Member of:
  BCIE, CACM, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO,
  IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer), LORCS,
  OAS, OPANAL, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador Rene Arturo BENDANA-VALENZUELA
 chancery:
  3007 Tilden Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
 telephone:
  (202) 966-7702
 consulates general:   Chicago, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, and San Francisco
 consulates:
  Baton Rouge, Boston, Detroit, Houston, and Jacksonville
US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador William Bryce (since 28 May 1993)
 embassy:
  Avenida La Paz, Tegucigalpa
 mailing address:
  APO AA 34022, Tegucigalpa
 telephone:
  [504] 32-3120
 FAX:
  [504] 32-0027
Flag:
  three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and blue with five blue
  five-pointed stars arranged in an X pattern centered in the white band; the
  stars represent the members of the former Federal Republic of Central
  America - Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua;
  similar to the flag of El Salvador, which features a round emblem encircled
  by the words REPUBLICA DE EL SALVADOR EN LA AMERICA CENTRAL centered in the
  white band; also similar to the flag of Nicaragua, which features a triangle
  encircled by the word REPUBLICA DE NICARAGUA on top and AMERICA CENTRAL on
  the bottom, centered in the white band

*Honduras, Economy

Overview:
  Honduras is one of the poorest countries in the Western Hemisphere.
  Agriculture, the most important sector of the economy, accounts for more
  than 25% of GDP, employs 62% of the labor force, and produces two-thirds of
  exports. Productivity remains low. Industry, still in its early stages,
  employs nearly 9% of the labor force, accounts for 15% of GDP, and generates
  20% of exports. The service sectors, including public administration,
  account for 50% of GDP and employ nearly 20% of the labor force. Basic
  problems facing the economy include rapid population growth, high
  unemployment, a lack of basic services, a large and inefficient public
  sector, and the dependence of the export sector mostly on coffee and
  bananas, which are subject to sharp price fluctuations. A far-reaching
  reform program initiated by President CALLEJAS in 1990 is beginning to take
  hold.
National product:
  GDP - exchange rate conversion - $5.5 billion (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate:
  3.6% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
  $1,090 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  8% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
  15% (30-40% underemployed) (1989)
Budget:
  revenues $1.4 billion; expenditures $1.9 billion, including capital
  expenditures of $511 million (1990 est.)
Exports:
  $1.0 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
 commodities:
  bananas, coffee, shrimp, lobster, minerals, meat, lumber
 partners:
  US 65%, Germany 9%, Japan 8%, Belgium 7%
Imports:
  $1.3 billion (c.i.f. 1991)
 commodities:
  machinery and transport equipment, chemical products, manufactured goods,
  fuel and oil, foodstuffs
 partners:
  US 45%, Japan 9%, Netherlands 7%, Mexico 7%, Venezuela 6%
External debt:
  $2.8 billion (1990)
Industrial production:
  growth rate 0.8% (1990 est.); accounts for 15% of GDP
Electricity:
  575,000 kW capacity; 2,000 million kWh produced, 390 kWh per capita (1992)
Industries:
  agricultural processing (sugar and coffee), textiles, clothing, wood
  products
Agriculture:
  most important sector, accounting for more than 25% of GDP, more than 60% of
  the labor force, and two-thirds of exports; principal products include
  bananas, coffee, timber, beef, citrus fruit, shrimp; importer of wheat
Illicit drugs:
  illicit producer of cannabis, cultivated on small plots and used principally
  for local consumption; transshipment point for cocaine
Economic aid:
  US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1.4 billion; Western (non-US)
  countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $1.1 billion

*Honduras, Economy

Currency:
  1 lempira (L) = 100 centavos
Exchange rates:
  lempiras (L) per US$1 - 5.4 (fixed rate); 5.70 parallel black-market rate
  (November 1990); the lempira was allowed to float in 1992; current rate
  about US$1 - 5.65
Fiscal year:
  calendar year

*Honduras, Communications

Railroads:
  785 km total; 508 km 1.067-meter gauge, 277 km 0.914-meter gauge
Highways:
  8,950 km total; 1,700 km paved, 5,000 km otherwise improved, 2,250 km
  unimproved earth
Inland waterways:   465 km navigable by small craft
Ports:
  Puerto Castilla, Puerto Cortes, San Lorenzo
Merchant marine:
  252 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 819,100 GRT/1,195,276 DWT; includes 2
  passenger-cargo, 162 cargo, 20 refrigerated cargo, 10 container, 6
  roll-on/roll-off cargo, 22 oil tanker, 1 chemical tanker, 2 specialized
  tanker, 22 bulk, 3 passenger, 2 short-sea passenger; note - a flag of
  convenience registry; Russia owns 10 ships under the Honduran flag
Airports:
 total:
  165
 usable:
  137
 with permanent-surface runways:
  11
 with runways over 3,659 m:
  0
 with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
  4
 with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
  14
Telecommunications:
  inadequate system with only 7 telephones per 1,000 persons; international
  services provided by 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earch stations and the
  Central American microwave radio relay system; broadcast stations - 176 AM,
  no FM, 7 SW, 28 TV

*Honduras, Defense Forces

Branches:
  Army, Navy (including Marines), Air Force, Public Security Forces (FUSEP)
Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49 1,185,072; fit for military service 706,291; reach military
  age (18) annually 58,583 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
  exchange rate conversion - $45 million, about 1% of GDP (1993 est.)

*Hong Kong, Header

Affiliation:
  (dependent territory of the UK)

*Hong Kong, Geography

Location:
  East Asia, on the southeast coast of China bordering the South China Sea
Map references:
  Asia, Southeast Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:  total area:
  1,040 km2
 land area:
  990 km2
 comparative area:
  slightly less than six times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
  total 30 km, China 30 km
Coastline:
  733 km
Maritime claims:
 exclusive fishing zone:
  3 nm
 territorial sea:
  3 nm
International disputes:
  none
Climate:
  tropical monsoon; cool and humid in winter, hot and rainy from spring
  through summer, warm and sunny in fall
Terrain:
  hilly to mountainous with steep slopes; lowlands in north
Natural resources:
  outstanding deepwater harbor, feldspar
Land use:
 arable land:
  7%
 permanent crops:
  1%
 meadows and pastures:
  1%
 forest and woodland:
  12%
 other:
  79%
Irrigated land:
  20 km2 (1989)
Environment:
  more than 200 islands; occasional typhoons

*Hong Kong, People

Population:
  5,552,965 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
  -0.06% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
  12.27 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
  5.68 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
  -7.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
  5.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
 total population:
  79.99 years
 male:
  76.55 years
 female:
  83.64 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
  1.34 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
 noun:
  Chinese
 adjective:
  Chinese
Ethnic divisions:
  Chinese 98%, other 2%
Religions:
  eclectic mixture of local religions 90%, Christian 10%
Languages:
  Chinese (Cantonese), English
Literacy:
  age 15 and over can read and write (1971)
 total population:
  77%
 male:
  90%
 female:
  64%
Labor force:
  2.8 million (1990)
 by occupation:
  manufacturing 28.5%, wholesale and retail trade, restaurants, and hotels
  27.9%, services 17.7%, financing, insurance, and real estate 9.2%, transport
  and communications 4.5%, construction 2.5%, other 9.7% (1989)

*Hong Kong, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  none
 conventional short form:
  Hong Kong
Abbreviation:
  HK
Digraph:
  HK
Type:
  dependent territory of the UK scheduled to revert to China in 1997
Capital:
  Victoria
Administrative divisions:
  none (dependent territory of the UK)
Independence:
  none (dependent territory of the UK; the UK signed an agreement with China
  on 19 December 1984 to return Hong Kong to China on 1 July 1997; in the
  joint declaration, China promises to respect Hong Kong's existing social and
  economic systems and lifestyle)
Constitution:
  unwritten; partly statutes, partly common law and practice; new Basic Law
  approved in March 1990 in preparation for 1997
Legal system:
  based on English common law
National holiday:
  Liberation Day, 29 August (1945)
Political parties and leaders:
  United Democrats of Hong Kong, Martin LEE, chairman; Democratic Alliance for
  the Betterment of Hong Kong; Hong Kong Democratic Foundation
Other political or pressure groups:
  Cooperative Resources Center, Allen LEE, chairman; Meeting Point, Anthony
  CHEUNG, chairman; Association of Democracy and People's Livelihood,
  Frederick FUNG Kin Kee, chairman; Liberal Democratic Federation, HEUNG Yee
  Kuk; Federation of Trade Unions (pro-China); Hong Kong and Kowloon Trade
  Union Council (pro-Taiwan); Confederation of Trade Unions (prodemocracy);
  Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce; Chinese General Chamber of Commerce
  (pro-China); Federation of Hong Kong Industries; Chinese Manufacturers'
  Association of Hong Kong; Hong Kong Professional Teachers' Union; Hong Kong
  Alliance in Support of the Patriotic Democratic Movement in China
Suffrage:
  direct election 21 years of age; universal as a permanent resident living in
  the territory of Hong Kong for the past seven years indirect election
  limited to about 100,000 professionals of electoral college and functional
  constituencies
Elections:
 Legislative Council:
  indirect elections last held 12 September 1991 and direct elections were
  held for the first time 15 September 1991 (next to be held in September 1995
  when the number of directly-elected seats increases to 20); results -
  percent of vote by party NA; seats - (60 total; 21 indirectly elected by
  functional constituencies, 18 directly elected, 18 appointed by governor, 3
  ex officio members); indirect elections - number of seats by functional
  constituency NA; direct elections - UDHK 12, Meeting Point 3, ADPL 1, other
  2
Executive branch:
  British monarch, governor, chief secretary of the Executive Council
Legislative branch:
  unicameral Legislative Council

*Hong Kong, Government

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court
Leaders:
 Chief of State:
  Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952)
 Head of Government:
  Governor Chris PATTEN (since NA July 1992); Chief Secretary Sir David Robert
  FORD (since NA February 1987)
Member of:   APEC, AsDB, CCC, ESCAP (associate), GATT, ICFTU, IMO (associate), INTERPOL
  (subbureau), IOC, ISO (correspondent), WCL, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
  as a dependent territory of the UK, the interests of Hong Kong in the US are
  represented by the UK
US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission:
  Consul General Richard L. WILLIAMS
 embassy:
  Consulate General at 26 Garden Road, Hong Kong
 mailing address:
  Box 30, Hong Kong, or FPO AP 96522-0002
 telephone:
  [852] 239-011
Flag:
  blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant with the Hong
  Kong coat of arms on a white disk centered on the outer half of the flag;
  the coat of arms contains a shield (bearing two junks below a crown) held by
  a lion (representing the UK) and a dragon (representing China) with another
  lion above the shield and a banner bearing the words HONG KONG below the
  shield

*Hong Kong, Economy

Overview:
  Hong Kong has a bustling free market economy with few tariffs or nontariff
  barriers. Natural resources are limited, and food and raw materials must be
  imported. Manufacturing accounts for about 18% of GDP, employs 28% of the
  labor force, and exports about 90% of its output. Real GDP growth averaged a
  remarkable 8% in 1987-88, slowed to 3.0% in 1989-90, and picked up to 4.2%
  in 1991 and 5.9% in 1992. Unemployment, which has been declining since the
  mid-1980s, is now about 2%. A shortage of labor continues to put upward
  pressure on prices and the cost of living. Short-term prospects remain
  bright so long as major trading partners continue to be reasonably
  prosperous.
National product:
  GDP - exchange rate conversion - $86 billion (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate:
  5.9% (1992)
National product per capita:
  $14,600 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  9.4% (1992)
Unemployment rate:
  2% (1992 est.)
Budget:
  revenues $17.4 billion; expenditures $14.7 billion, including capital
  expenditures of $NA (FY92)
Exports:
  $118 billion, including reexports of $85.1 billion (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
 commodities:
  clothing, textiles, yarn and fabric, footwear, electrical appliances,
  watches and clocks, toys
 partners:   US 29%, China 21%, Germany 8%, UK 6%, Japan 5% (1990)
Imports:
  $120 billion (c.i.f., 1992 est.)
 commodities:
  foodstuffs, transport equipment, raw materials, semimanufactures, petroleum
 partners:
  China 37%, Japan 16%, Taiwan 9%, US 8% (1990)
External debt:
  $9.5 billion (December 1990 est.)
Industrial production:
  growth rate NA%
Electricity:
  9,566,000 kW capacity; 29,400 million kWh produced, 4,980 kWh per capita
  (1992)
Industries:
  textiles, clothing, tourism, electronics, plastics, toys, watches, clocks
Agriculture:
  minor role in the economy; rice, vegetables, dairy products; less than 20%
  self-sufficient; shortages of rice, wheat, water
Illicit drugs:
  a hub for Southeast Asian heroin trade; transshipment and major financial
  and money-laundering center
Economic aid:
  US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-87), $152 million; Western (non-US)
  countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $923 million
Currency:
  1 Hong Kong dollar (HK$) = 100 cents

*Hong Kong, Economy

Exchange rates:
  Hong Kong dollars (HK$) per US$ - 7.800 (1992), 7.771 (1991), 7.790 (1990),
  7.800 (1989), 7.810 (1988), 7.760 (1987); note - linked to the US dollar at
  the rate of about 7.8 HK$ per 1 US$ since 1985
Fiscal year:
  1 April - 31 March

*Hong Kong, Communications

Railroads:
  35 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, government owned
Highways:
  1,100 km total; 794 km paved, 306 km gravel, crushed stone, or earth
Ports:
  Hong Kong
Merchant marine:
  176 ships (1,000 GRT or over), totaling 5,870,007 GRT/10,006,390 DWT;
  includes 1 passenger, 1 short-sea passenger, 20 cargo, 6 refrigerated cargo,
  29 container, 15 oil tanker, 3 chemical tanker, 6 combination ore/oil, 5
  liquefied gas, 88 bulk, 2 combination bulk; note - a flag of convenience
  registry; ships registered in Hong Kong fly the UK flag, and an estimated
  500 Hong Kong-owned ships are registered elsewhere
Airports:
 total:
  2
 useable:
  2
 with permanent-surface runways:
  2
 with runways over 3,659 m:
  0
 with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
  1
 with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
  0
Telecommunications:
  modern facilities provide excellent domestic and international services;
  3,000,000 telephones; microwave transmission links and extensive optical
  fiber transmission network; broadcast stations - 6 AM, 6 FM, 4 TV; 1 British
  Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) repeater station and 1 British Forces
  Broadcasting Service repeater station; 2,500,000 radio receivers; 1,312,000
  TV sets (1,224,000 color TV sets); satellite earth stations - 1 Pacific
  Ocean INTELSAT and 2 Indian Ocean INTELSAT; coaxial cable to Guangzhou,
  China; links to 5 international submarine cables providing access to ASEAN
  member nations, Japan, Taiwan, Australia, Middle East, and Western Europe

*Hong Kong, Defense Forces

Branches:
  Headquarters of British Forces, Royal Navy, Royal Air Force, Royal Hong Kong
  Auxiliary Air Force, Royal Hong Kong Police Force
Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49 1,635,516; fit for military service 1,256,057; reach
  military age (18) annually 43,128 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
  exchange rate conversion - $300 million, 0.5% of GDP (1989 est.); this
  represents one-fourth of the total cost of defending itself, the remainder
  being paid by the UK
Note:
  defense is the responsibility of the UK

*Howland Island, Header

Affiliation:
  (territory of the US)

*Howland Island, Geography

Location:
  in the North Pacific Ocean, 2,575 km southwest of Honolulu, just north of
  the Equator, about halfway between Hawaii and Australia
Map references:   Oceania
Area:
 total area:
  1.6 km2
 land area:
  1.6 km2
 comparative area:
  about 2.7 times the size of the Mall in Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
  0 km
Coastline:
  6.4 km
Maritime claims:
 contiguous zone:
  24 nm
 continental shelf:
  200 m or the depth of exploitation
 exclusive economic zone:
  200 nm
 territorial sea:
  12 nm
International disputes:
  none
Climate:
  equatorial; scant rainfall, constant wind, burning sun
Terrain:
  low-lying, nearly level, sandy, coral island surrounded by a narrow fringing
  reef; depressed central area
Natural resources:
  guano (deposits worked until late 1800s)
Land use:
 arable land:
  0%
 permanent crops:
  0%
 meadows and pastures:
  0%
 forest and woodland:
  5%
 other:
  95%
Irrigated land:
  0 km2
Environment:
  almost totally covered with grasses, prostrate vines, and low-growing
  shrubs; small area of trees in the center; lacks fresh water; primarily a
  nesting, roosting, and foraging habitat for seabirds, shorebirds, and marine
  wildlife; feral cats

*Howland Island, People

Population:
  uninhabited; note - American civilians evacuated in 1942 after Japanese air
  and naval attacks during World War II; occupied by US military during World
  War II, but abandoned after the war; public entry is by special-use permit
  only and generally restricted to scientists and educators

*Howland Island, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  none
 conventional short form:
  Howland Island
Digraph:
  HQ
Type:
  unincorporated territory of the US administered by the Fish and Wildlife
  Service of the US Department of the Interior as part of the National
  Wildlife Refuge System
Capital:
  none; administered from Washington, DC

*Howland Island, Economy

Overview:
  no economic activity

*Howland Island, Communications

Ports:
  none; offshore anchorage only, one boat landing area along the middle of the
  west coast
Airports:
  airstrip constructed in 1937 for scheduled refueling stop on the
  round-the-world flight of Amelia Earhart and Fred Noonan - they left Lae,
  New Guinea, for Howland Island, but were never seen again; the airstrip is
  no longer serviceable
Note:
  Earhart Light is a day beacon near the middle of the west coast that was
  partially destroyed during World War II, but has since been rebuilt in
  memory of famed aviatrix Amelia Earhart

*Howland Island, Defense Forces

  defense is the responsibility of the US; visited annually by the US Coast
  Guard

*Hungary, Geography

Location:
  Eastern Europe, between Slovakia and Romania
Map references:
  Ethnic Groups in Eastern Europe, Europe
Area:
 total area:
  93,030 km2
 land area:
  92,340 km2
 comparative area:
  slightly smaller than Indiana
Land boundaries:
  total 1,952 km, Austria 366 km, Croatia 292 km, Romania 443 km, Serbia and
  Montenegro 151 km (all with Serbia), Slovakia 515 km, Slovenia 82 km,
  Ukraine 103 km
Coastline:
  0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
  none; landlocked
International disputes:
  Gabcikovo Dam dispute with Slovakia; Vojvodina taken from Hungary and
  awarded to the former Yugoslavia by treaty of Trianon in 1920
Climate:
  temperate; cold, cloudy, humid winters; warm summers
Terrain:
  mostly flat to rolling plains
Natural resources:
  bauxite, coal, natural gas, fertile soils
Land use:
 arable land:
  50.7%
 permanent crops:
  6.1%
 meadows and pastures:
  12.6%
 forest and woodland:
  18.3%
 other:
  12.3%
Irrigated land:
  1,750 km2 (1989)
Environment:
  levees are common along many streams, but flooding occurs almost every year
Note:
  landlocked; strategic location astride main land routes between Western
  Europe and Balkan Peninsula as well as between Ukraine and Mediterranean
  basin

*Hungary, People

Population:
  10,324,018 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
  -0.07% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
  12.33 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
  13.02 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
  13.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
 total population:
  70.86 years
 male:
  66.81 years
 female:
  75.12 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
  1.83 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
 noun:
  Hungarian(s)
 adjective:
  Hungarian
Ethnic divisions:
  Hungarian 89.9%, Gypsy 4%, German 2.6%, Serb 2%, Slovak 0.8%, Romanian 0.7%
Religions:
  Roman Catholic 67.5%, Calvinist 20%, Lutheran 5%, atheist and other 7.5%
Languages:
  Hungarian 98.2%, other 1.8%
Literacy:
  age 15 and over can read and write (1980)
 total population:
  99%
 male:
  99%
 female:
  98%
Labor force:
  5.4 million
 by occupation:
  services, trade, government, and other 44.8%, industry 29.7%, agriculture
  16.1%, construction 7.0% (1991)

*Hungary, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  Republic of Hungary
 conventional short form:
  Hungary
 local long form:
  Magyar Koztarsasag
 local short form:
  Magyarorszag
Digraph:   HU
Type:
  republic
Capital:
  Budapest
Administrative divisions:
  38 counties (megyek, singular - megye) and 1 capital city* (fovaros);,   Bacs-Kiskun, Baranya,
Bekes, Bekescsaba, Borsod-Abauj-Zemplen, Budapest*,,   Csongrad, Debrecen, Dunaujvaros, Eger, Fejer,
Gyor, Gyor-Moson-Sopron,
  Hajdu-Bihar, Heves, Hodmezovasarhely, Jasz-Nagykun-Szolnok, Kaposvar,
  Kecskemet, Komarom-Esztergom, Miskolc, Nagykanizsa, Nograd, Nyiregyhaza,
  Pecs, Pest, Somogy, Sopron, Szabolcs-Szatmar-Bereg, Szeged, Szekesfehervar,
  Szolnok, Szombathely, Tatabanya, Tolna, Vas, Veszprem, Zala, Zalaegerszeg
Independence:
  1001 (unification by King Stephen I)
Constitution:
  18 August 1949, effective 20 August 1949, revised 19 April 1972; 18 October
  1989 revision ensured legal rights for individuals and constitutional checks
  on the authority of the prime minister and also established the principle of
  parliamentary oversight
Legal system:
  in process of revision, moving toward rule of law based on Western model
National holiday:
  October 23 (1956) (commemorates the Hungarian uprising)
Political parties and leaders:
  Democratic Forum, Jozsef ANTALL, chairman, Dr. Lajos FUR, executive
  chairman; Independent Smallholders (FKGP), Jozsef TORGYAN, president;
  Hungarian Socialist Party (MSZP), Gyula HORN, chairman; Christian Democratic
  People's Party (KDNP), Dr. Lazlo SURJAN, president; Federation of Young
  Democrats (FIDESZ), Viktor ORBAN, chairman; Alliance of Free Democrats
  (SZDSZ), Ivan PETO, chairman
 note:
  the Hungarian Socialist (Communist) Workers' Party (MSZMP) renounced
  Communism and became the Hungarian Socialist Party (MSP) in October 1989;
  there is still a small (fringe) MSZMP
Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal
Elections:
 President:
  last held 3 August 1990 (next to be held NA 1995); results - President GONCZ
  elected by parliamentary vote; note - President GONCZ was elected by the
  National Assembly with a total of 295 votes out of 304 as interim President
  from 2 May 1990 until elected President
 National Assembly:
  last held on 25 March 1990 (first round, with the second round held 8 April
  1990); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (386 total) Democratic
  Forum 162, Free Democrats 90, Independent Smallholders 45, Hungarian
  Socialist Party (MSP) 33, Young Democrats 22, Christian Democrats 21,
  independents or jointly sponsored candidates 13

*Hungary, Government

Executive branch:
  president, prime minister
Legislative branch:
  unicameral National Assembly (Orszaggyules)
Judicial branch:
  Constitutional Court
Leaders:
 Chief of State:
  President Arpad GONCZ (since 3 August 1990; previously interim president
  from 2 May 1990)
 Head of Government:
  Prime Minister Jozsef ANTALL (since 21 May 1990)
Member of:
  Australian Group, BIS, CCC, CE, CEI, CERN, CSCE, EBRD, ECE, FAO, G-9, GATT,
  IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU,
  LORCS, MTCR, NACC, NAM (guest), NSG, PCA, UN, UNAVEM II, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
  UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNOMOZ, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador Pal TAR
 chancery:
  3910 Shoemaker Street NW, Washington DC 20008
 telephone:
  (202) 362-6730
 FAX:
  (202) 966-8135
 consulate general:
  New York
US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador Charles H. THOMAS
 embassy:
  V. Szabadsag Ter 12, Budapest
 mailing address:
  Am Embassy, Unit 25402, APO AE 09213-5270
 telephone:
  [36] (1) 112-6450
 FAX:
  [36] (1) 132-8934
Flag:
  three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and green

*Hungary, Economy

Overview:
  Hungary is in the midst of a difficult transition from a command to a market
  economy. Agriculture is an important sector, providing sizable export
  earnings and meeting domestic food needs. Industry accounts for about 40% of
  GDP and 30% of employment. Hungary claims that less than 25% of foreign
  trade is now with former CEMA countries, while about 70% is with OECD
  members. Hungary's economic reform programs during the Communist era gave it
  a head start in creating a market economy and attracting foreign investment.
  In 1991, Hungary received 60% of all foreign investment in Eastern Europe,
  and in 1992 received the largest single share. The growing private sector
  accounts for about one-third of national output according to unofficial
  estimates. Privatization of state enterprises is progressing, although
  excessive red tape, bureaucratic oversight, and uncertainties about pricing
  have slowed the process. Escalating unemployment and high rates of inflation
  may impede efforts to speed up privatization and budget reform, while
  Hungary's heavy foreign debt will make the government reluctant to introduce
  full convertibility of the forint before 1994 and to rein in inflation. The
  government is projecting an end to the 5-year recession in 1993, and GDP is
  forecast to grow 0%-3%.
National product:
  GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $55.4 billion (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate:
  -5% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
  $5,380 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  23% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
  12.3% (1992)
Budget:
  revenues $13.2 billion; expenditures $15.4 billion, including capital
  expenditures $NA (1993 est.)
Exports:
  $10.9 billion (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
 commodities:
  raw materials, semi-finished goods, chemicals 35.5%, machinery 13.5%, light
  industry 23.3%, food and agricultural 24.8%, fuels and energy 2.8%
 partners:
  OECD 70.7%, (EC 50.1%, EFTA 15.0%), LDCs 5.1%, former CEMA members 23.2%,
  others 1.0% (1991)
Imports:
  $11.7 billion (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
 commodities:
  fuels and energy 14.9%, raw materials, semi-finished goods, chemicals 37.6%,
  machinery 19.7%, light industry 21.5%, food and agricultural 6.3%
 partners:
  OECD 71.0%, (EC 45.4%, EFTA 20.0%), LDCs 3.9%, former CEMA members 23.9%,
  others 1.2% (1991)
External debt:
  $23.5 billion (September 1992)
Industrial production:
  growth rate -10% (1992)
Electricity:
  7,200,000 kW capacity; 30,000 million kWh produced, 3,000 kWh per capita
  (1992)
Industries:
  mining, metallurgy, construction materials, processed foods, textiles,
  chemicals (especially pharmaceuticals), buses, automobiles

*Hungary, Economy

Agriculture:
  including forestry, accounts for 15% of GDP and 16% of employment; highly
  diversified crop and livestock farming; principal crops - wheat, corn,
  sunflowers, potatoes, sugar beets; livestock - hogs, cattle, poultry, dairy
  products; self-sufficient in food output
Illicit drugs:
  transshipment point for Southeast Asia heroin transiting the Balkan route
Economic aid:
  recipient - $9.1 billion in assistance from OECD countries (from 1st quarter
  1990 to end of 2nd quarter 1991)
Currency:
  1 forint (Ft) = 100 filler
Exchange rates:
  forints per US$1 - 83.97 (December 1992), 78.99 (1992), 74.74 (1991), 63.21
  (1990), 59.07 (1989), 50.41 (1988)
Fiscal year:
  calendar year

*Hungary, Communications

Railroads:
  7,765 km total; 7,508 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, 222 km narrow gauge
  (mostly 0.760-meter), 35 km 1.520-meter broad gauge; 1,236 km double track,
  2,249 km electrified; all government owned (1990)
Highways:
  130,218 km total; 29,919 km national highway system (27,212 km asphalt, 126
  km concrete, 50 km stone and road brick, 2,131 km macadam, 400 km unpaved);
  58,495 km country roads (66% unpaved), and 41,804 km other roads (70%
  unpaved) (1988)
Inland waterways:
  1,622 km (1988)
Pipelines:
  crude oil 1,204 km; natural gas 4,387 km (1991)
Ports:
  Budapest and Dunaujvaros are river ports on the Danube; coastal outlets are
  Rostock (Germany), Gdansk (Poland), Gdynia (Poland), Szczecin (Poland),
  Galati (Romania), and Braila (Romania)
Merchant marine:
  12 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) and 1 bulk totaling 83,091 GRT/115,950
  DWT
Airports:
 total:
  92
 usable:
  92
 with permanent-surface runways:
  25
 with runways over 3,659 m:
  1
 with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
  20
 with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
  28
Telecommunications:
  automatic telephone network based on microwave radio relay system; 1,128,800
  phones (1991); telephone density is at 19.4 per 100 inhabitants; 49% of all
  phones are in Budapest; 608,000 telephones on order (1991); 12-15 year wait
  for a phone; 14,213 telex lines (1991); broadcast stations - 32 AM, 15 FM,
  41 TV (8 Soviet TV repeaters); 4.2 million TVs (1990); 1 satellite ground
  station using INTELSAT and Intersputnik

*Hungary, Defense Forces

Branches:
  Ground Forces, Air and Air Defense Forces, Border Guard, Territorial Defense
Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49 2,630,552; fit for military service 2,101,637; reach
  military age (18) annually 91,979 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
  66.5 billion forints, NA% of GNP (1993 est.); note - conversion of defense
  expenditures into US dollars using the current exchange rate could produce
  misleading results

*Iceland, Geography

Location:
  in the North Atlantic Ocean, between Greenland and Norway
Map references:
  Arctic Region, Europe, North America, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
 total area:
  103,000 km2
 land area:
  100,250 km2
 comparative area:
  slightly smaller than Kentucky
Land boundaries:
  0 km
Coastline:
  4,988 km
Maritime claims:
 continental shelf:
  200 nm or the edge of continental margin
 exclusive economic zone:
  200 nm
 territorial sea:
  12 nm
International disputes:
  Rockall continental shelf dispute involving Denmark, Ireland, and the UK
  (Ireland and the UK have signed a boundary agreement in the Rockall area)
Climate:
  temperate; moderated by North Atlantic Current; mild, windy winters; damp,
  cool summers
Terrain:
  mostly plateau interspersed with mountain peaks, icefields; coast deeply
  indented by bays and fiords
Natural resources:
  fish, hydropower, geothermal power, diatomite
Land use:
 arable land:
  1%  permanent crops:
  0%
 meadows and pastures:
  20%
 forest and woodland:
  1%
 other:
  78%
Irrigated land:
  NA km2
Environment:
  subject to earthquakes and volcanic activity
Note:
  strategic location between Greenland and Europe; westernmost European
  country; more land covered by glaciers than in all of continental Europe

*Iceland, People

Population:
  261,270 (July 1993 est.)
 note:
  population data estimates based on average growth rate may differ slightly
  from official population data because of volatile migration rates
Population growth rate:
  0.88% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
  16.99 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
  6.74 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
  -1.47 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
  4 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
 total population:
  78.69 years
 male:
  76.45 years
 female:
  81.04 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
  2.16 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
 noun:
  Icelander(s)
 adjective:
  Icelandic
Ethnic divisions:
  homogeneous mixture of descendants of Norwegians and Celts
Religions:
  Evangelical Lutheran 96%, other Protestant and Roman Catholic 3%, none 1%
  (1988)
Languages:
  Icelandic
Literacy:
  age 15 and over can read and write (1976)
 total population:
  100%
 male:
  NA%
 female:
  NA%
Labor force:
  127,900
 by occupation:
  commerce, transportation, and services 60.0%, manufacturing 12.5%, fishing
  and fish processing 11.8%, construction 10.8%, agriculture 4.0% (1990)

*Iceland, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  Republic of Iceland
 conventional short form:
  Iceland
 local long form:
  Lyoveldio Island
 local short form:
  Island
Digraph:
  IC
Type:
  republic
Capital:
  Reykjavik
Administrative divisions:
  23 counties (syslar, singular - sysla) and 14 independent towns*,   (kaupstadhir, singular -
kaupstadhur); Akranes*, Akureyri*, Arnessysla,,   Austur-Bardhastrandarsysla, Austur-Hunavatnssysla,
Austur-Skaftafellssysla,
  Borgarfjardharsysla, Dalasysla, Eyjafjardharsysla, Gullbringusysla,
  Hafnarfjordhur*, Husavik*, Isafjordhur*, Keflavik*, Kjosarsysla, Kopavogur*,,   Myrasysla,
Neskaupstadhur*, Nordhur-Isafjardharsysla, Nordhur-Mulasys-la,,   Nordhur-Thingeyjarsysla,
Olafsfjordhur*, Rangarvallasysla, Reykjavik*,,   Saudharkrokur*, Seydhisfjordhur*, Siglufjordhur*,,
Skagafjardharsysla,
  Snaefellsnes-og Hnappadalssysla, Strandasysla, Sudhur-Mulasysla,
  Sudhur-Thingeyjarsysla, Vesttmannaeyjar*, Vestur-Bardhastrandarsysla,,   Vestur-Hunavatnssysla,
Vestur-Isafjardharsysla, Vestur-Skaftafellssysla
Independence:
  17 June 1944 (from Denmark)
Constitution:
  16 June 1944, effective 17 June 1944
Legal system:
  civil law system based on Danish law; does not accept compulsory ICJ
  jurisdiction
National holiday:
  Anniversary of the Establishment of the Republic, 17 June (1944)
Political parties and leaders:
  Independence Party (conservative), David ODDSSON; Progressive Party,
  Steingrimur HERMANNSSON; Social Democratic Party, Jon Baldvin HANNIBALSSON;
  People's Alliance (left socialist), Olafur Ragnar GRIMSSON; Women's List
Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal
Elections:
 President:
  last held on 29 June 1988 (next scheduled for June 1996); results - there
  was no election in 1992 as President Vigdis FINNBOGADOTTIR was unopposed
 Althing:
  last held on 20 April 1991 (next to be held by April 1995); results -
  Independence Party 38.6%, Progressive Party 18.9%, Social Democratic Party
  15.5%, People's Alliance 14.4%, Womens List 8.3%, Liberals 1.2%, other 3.1%;
  seats - (63 total) Independence 26, Progressive 13, Social Democratic 10,
  People's Alliance 9, Womens List 5
Executive branch:
  president, prime minister, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
  unicameral Parliament (Althing)
Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court (Haestirettur)

*Iceland, Government

Leaders:
 Chief of State:
  President Vigdis FINNBOGADOTTIR (since 1 August 1980)
 Head of Government:
  Prime Minister David ODDSSON (since 30 April 1991)
Member of:
  Australian Group, BIS, CCC, CE, CSCE, EBRD, ECE, EFTA, FAO, GATT, IAEA,
  IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT,
  INTERPOL, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LORCS, MTCR, NACC, NATO, NC, NEA,
  NIB, OECD, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WEU (associate), WHO, WIPO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission:
  (vacant)
 chancery:
  2022 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008
 telephone:
  (202) 265-6653 through 6655
 FAX:
  (202) 265-6656
 consulate general:
  New York
US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission:
   (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Jon GUNDERSEN
 embassy:
  Laufasvegur 21, Box 40, Reykjavik
 mailing address:
  USEMB, PSC 1003, Box 40, FPO AE 09728-0340
 telephone:
  [354] (1) 29100
 FAX:   [354] (1) 29139
Flag:
  blue with a red cross outlined in white that extends to the edges of the
  flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the
  style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)

*Iceland, Economy

Overview:
  Iceland's Scandinavian-type economy is basically capitalistic, but with an
  extensive welfare system, relatively low unemployment, and comparatively
  even distribution of income. The economy is heavily dependent on the fishing
  industry, which provides nearly 75% of export earnings and employs 12% of
  the workforce. In the absence of other natural resources - except energy -
  Iceland's economy is vulnerable to changing world fish prices. Iceland's
  economy has been in recession since 1988. The recession deepened in 1992 due
  to severe cutbacks in fishing quotas and falling world prices for the
  country's main exports: fish and fish products, aluminum, and ferrosilicon.
  Real GDP declined 3.3% in 1992 and is forecast to contract another 1.5% in
  1993. The center-right government's economic goals include reducing the
  budget and current account deficits, limiting foreign borrowing, containing
  inflation, revising agricultural and fishing policies, diversifying the
  economy, and privatizing state-owned industries. The recession has led to a
  wave of bankruptcies and mergers throughout the economy, as well as the
  highest unemployment of the post-World War II period. The national
  unemployment rate reached 5% in early 1993, with some parts of the country
  experiencing unemployment in the 9-10% range. Inflation, previously a
  serious problem, declined from double digit rates in the 1980s to only 3.7%
  in 1992.
National product:
  GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $4.5 billion (1992)
National product real growth rate:
  -3.3% (1992)
National product per capita:
  $17,400 (1992)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  3.7% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
  5% (first quarter 1993)
Budget:
  revenues $1.8 billion; expenditures $1.9 billion, including capital
  expenditures of $191 million (1992)
Exports:
  $1.5 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
 commodities:
  fish and fish products, animal products, aluminum, ferrosilicon, diatomite
 partners:
  EC 68% (UK 25%, Germany 12%), US 11%, Japan 8% (1992)
Imports:
  $1.5 billion (c.i.f., 1992)
 commodities:
  machinery and transportation equipment, petroleum products, foodstuffs,
  textiles
 partners:   EC 53% (Germany 14%, Denmark 10%, UK 9%), Norway 14%, US 9% (1992)
External debt:
  $3.9 billion (1992 est.)
Industrial production:
  growth rate 1.75% (1991 est.)
Electricity:
  1,063,000 kW capacity; 5,165 million kWh produced, 19,940 kWh per capita
  (1992)
Industries:
  fish processing, aluminum smelting, ferro-silicon production, geothermal
  power

*Iceland, Economy

Agriculture:
  accounts for about 25% of GDP; fishing is most important economic activity,
  contributing nearly 75% to export earnings; principal crops - potatoes,
  turnips; livestock - cattle, sheep; self-sufficient in crops; fish catch of
  about 1.4 million metric tons in 1989
Economic aid:
  US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-81), $19.1 million
Currency:
  1 Icelandic krona (IKr) = 100 aurar
Exchange rates:
  Icelandic kronur (IKr) per US$1 - 63.789 (January 1993), 57.546 (1992),
  58.996 (1991), 58.284 (1990), 57.042 (1989), 43.014 (1988)
Fiscal year:
  calendar year

*Iceland, Communications

Highways:
  11,543 km total; 2,690 km hard surfaced, 8,853 km gravel and earth
Ports:
  Reykjavik, Akureyri, Hafnarfjordhur, Keflavik, Seydhisfjordhur,
  Siglufjordhur, Vestmannaeyjar
Merchant marine:
  10 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 35,832 GRT/53,037 DWT; includes 3
  cargo, 3 refrigerated cargo, 2 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 1 oil tanker, 1
  chemical tanker
Airports:
 total:
  90
 usable:
  84
 with permanent-surface runways:
  8
 with runways over 3,659 m:
  0
 with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
  1
 with runways 1,220-2,439 m:   12
Telecommunications:
  adequate domestic service; coaxial and fiber-optical cables and microwave
  radio relay for trunk network; 140,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 5
  AM, 147 (transmitters and repeaters) FM, 202 (transmitters and repeaters)
  TV; 2 submarine cables; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station carries all
  international traffic; a second INTELSAT earth station is scheduled to be
  operational in 1993

*Iceland, Defense Forces

Branches:
  Police, Coast Guard
 note:
  no armed forces, Iceland's defense is provided by the US-manned Icelandic
  Defense Force (IDF) headquartered at Keflavik
Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49 69,499; fit for military service 61,798 (1993 est.); no
  conscription or compulsory military service
Defense expenditures:
  none

*India, Geography

Location:
  South Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal, between
  Bangladesh and Pakistan
Map references:
  Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
 total area:
  3,287,590 km2
 land area:
  2,973,190 km2
 comparative area:
  slightly more than one-third the size of the US
Land boundaries:
  total 14,103 km, Bangladesh 4,053 km, Bhutan 605 km, Burma 1,463 km, China
  3,380 km, Nepal 1,690 km, Pakistan 2,912 km
Coastline:
  7,000 km
Maritime claims:
 contiguous zone:
  24 nm
 continental shelf:
  200 nm or the edge of continental margin
 exclusive economic zone:
  200 nm
 territorial sea:
  12 nm
International disputes:
  boundaries with Bangladesh and China; status of Kashmir with Pakistan;
  water-sharing problems with downstream riparians, Bangladesh over the Ganges
  and Pakistan over the Indus
Climate:
  varies from tropical monsoon in south to temperate in north
Terrain:
  upland plain (Deccan Plateau) in south, flat to rolling plain along the
  Ganges, deserts in west, Himalayas in north
Natural resources:
  coal (fourth-largest reserves in the world), iron ore, manganese, mica,
  bauxite, titanium ore, chromite, natural gas, diamonds, petroleum, limestone
Land use:
 arable land:
  55%
 permanent crops:
  1%
 meadows and pastures:
  4%
 forest and woodland:
  23%
 other:
  17%
Irrigated land:
  430,390 km2 (1989)
Environment:
  droughts, flash floods, severe thunderstorms common; deforestation; soil
  erosion; overgrazing; air and water pollution; desertification
Note:
  dominates South Asian subcontinent; near important Indian Ocean trade routes

*India, People

Population:
  903,158,968 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
  1.86% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
  29.11 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
  10.52 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
  80.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
 total population:
  58.12 years
 male:
  57.69 years
 female:
  58.59 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
  3.57 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
 noun:   Indian(s)
 adjective:
  Indian
Ethnic divisions:
  Indo-Aryan 72%, Dravidian 25%, Mongoloid and other 3%
Religions:
  Hindu 82.6%, Muslim 11.4%, Christian 2.4%, Sikh 2%, Buddhist 0.7%, Jains
  0.5%, other 0.4%
Languages:
  English enjoys associate status but is the most important language for
  national, political, and commercial communication, Hindi the national
  language and primary tongue of 30% of the people, Bengali (official), Telugu
  (official), Marathi (official), Tamil (official), Urdu (official), Gujarati
  (official), Malayalam (official), Kannada (official), Oriya (official),
  Punjabi (official), Assamese (official), Kashmiri (official), Sindhi
  (official), Sanskrit (official), Hindustani a popular variant of Hindu/Urdu,
  is spoken widely throughout northern India
 note:
  24 languages each spoken by a million or more persons; numerous other
  languages and dialects, for the most part mutually unintelligible
Literacy:
  age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
 total population:
  48%
 male:
  62%
 female:
  34%
Labor force:
  284.4 million
 by occupation:
  agriculture 67% (FY85)

*India, Government

Names:
 conventional long form:
  Republic of India
 conventional short form:
  India
Digraph:
  IN
Type:
  federal republic
Capital:
  New Delhi
Administrative divisions:
  25 states and 7 union territories*; Andaman and Nicobar Islands*, Andhra,   Pradesh, Arunachal
Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chandigarh*, Dadra and Nagar,   Haveli*, Daman and Diu*, Delhi*, Goa,,
Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh,
  Jammu and Kashmir, Karnataka, Kerala, Lakshadweep*, Madhya Pradesh,,   Maharashtra, Manipur,
Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Orissa, Pondicherry*,,   Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu,
Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal
Independence:   15 August 1947 (from UK)
Constitution:
  26 January 1950
Legal system:
  based on English common law; limited judicial review of legislative acts;
  accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
National holiday:
  Anniversary of the Proclamation of the Republic, 26 January (1950)
Political parties and leaders:
  Congress (I) Party, P. V. Narasimha RAO, president; Bharatiya Janata Party,
  M. M. JOSHI; Janata Dal Party; Communist Party of India/Marxist (CPI/M),
  Harkishan Singh SURJEET; Communist Party of India (CPI), C. Rajeswara RAO;
  Telugu Desam (a regional party in Andhra Pradesh), N. T. Rama RAO; All-India
  Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazagham (AIADMK; a regional party in Tamil Nadu),
  JAYALALITHA Jeyaram; Samajwadi Janata Party, CHANDRA SHEKHAR; Shiv Sena, Bal
  THACKERAY; Revolutionary Socialist Party (RSP), Tridip CHOWDHURY; Bahujana
  Samaj Party (BSP), Kanshi RAM; Congress (S) Party, leader NA; Communist
  Party of India/Marxist-Leninist (CPI/ML), Satyanarayan SINGH; Dravida
  Munnetra Kazagham (a regional party in Tamil Nadu), M. KARUNANIDHI; Akali
  Dal factions representing Sikh religious community in the Punjab; National
  Conference (NC; a regional party in Jammu and Kashmir), Farooq ABDULLAH;
  Asom Gana Parishad (a regional party in Assam), Prafulla MAHANTA
Other political or pressure groups:
  various separatist groups seeking greater communal and/or regional autonomy;
  numerous religious or militant/chauvinistic organizations, including Adam
  Sena, Ananda Marg, Vishwa Hindu Parishad, and Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh
Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal
Elections:
 People's Assembly:
  last held 21 May, 12 and 15 June 1991 (next to be held by November 1996);
  results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (545 total, 543 elected, 2
  appointed) Congress (I) Party 245, Bharatiya Janata Party 119, Janata Dal
  Party 39, Janata Dal (Ajit Singh) 20, CPI/M 35, CPI 14, Telugu Desam 13,
  AIADMK 11, Samajwadi Janata Party 5, Shiv Sena 4, RSP 4, BSP 1, Congress (S)
  Party 1, other 23, vacant 9
Executive branch:
  president, vice president, prime minister, Council of Ministers

*India, Government

Legislative branch:
  bicameral Parliament (Sansad) consists of an upper house or Council of
  States (Rajya Sabha) and a lower house or People's Assembly (Lok Sabha)
Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court
Leaders:
 Chief of State:
  President Shankar Dayal SHARMA (since 25 July 1992); Vice President K.R.
  NARAYANAN (since 21 August 1992)
 Head of Government:
  Prime Minister P. V. Narasimha RAO (since 21 June 1991)
Member of:
  AG (observer), AsDB, C, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-6, G-15, G-19, AfDB, G-24,
  G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO,
  INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM,
  ONUSAL, PCA, SAARC, UN, UNAVEM II, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNOMOZ,
  UNTAC, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador Siddhartha Shankar RAY
 chancery:
  2107 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
 telephone:
  (202) 939-7000
 consulates general:
  Chicago, New York, and San Francisco
US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission:
  Ambassador Thomas R. Pickering
 embassy:
  Shanti Path, Chanakyapuri 110021, New Delhi
 mailing address:
  use embassy street address
 telephone:
  [91] (11) 600651
 FAX:
  [91] (11) 687-2028, 687-2391
 consulates general:
  Bombay, Calcutta, Madras
Flag:
  three equal horizontal bands of orange (top), white, and green with a blue
  chakra (24-spoked wheel) centered in the white band; similar to the flag of
  Niger, which has a small orange disk centered in the white band

*India, Economy

Overview:
  India's economy is a mixture of traditional village farming, modern
  agriculture, handicrafts, a wide range of modern industries, and a multitude
  of support services. Faster economic growth in the 1980s permitted a
  significant increase in real per capita private consumption. A large share
  of the population, perhaps as much as 40%, remains too poor to afford an
  adequate diet. Financial strains in 1990 and 1991 prompted government
  austerity measures that slowed industrial growth but permitted India to meet
  its international payment obligations without rescheduling its debt. Policy