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Full text of "The 1990 CIA World Factbook"

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The 1994 Edition of the CIA World Factbook

November, 1994  [Etext #180]


**The Project Gutenberg Etext of the 1994 CIA World Factbook**
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*The Project Gutenberg Edition of the 1994 CIA World Factbook*

Central Intelligence Agency 
 
The World Factbook 1994 
 
US Government officials should obtain copies of The World Factbook directly from 
their own organization or through liaison channels from the Central Intelligence 
Agency. This publication is also available in microfiche, magnetic tape, or 
diskettes for microcomputers. 
 
This publication may be purchased by telephone (VISA or MasterCard) or mail 
from: 
Superintendent of Documents 
P.O. Box 371954 
Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954 
Telephone: (202) 783-3238 
 
A subscription to this publication may be purchased from: 
Document Expediting (DOCEX) Project 
Exchange and Gift Division 
Library of Congress 
Washington, DC 20540 
Telephone: (202) 707-9527 
 
This publication may be purchased in printed form, photocopy, microfiche,  
magnetic tape, or diskettes for microcomputers from: 
National Technical Information Service 
5285 Port Royal Road 
Springfield, VA 22161 
Telephone: (703) 487-4650 
 
This publication may be purchased in photocopy or microform from:  
Photoduplication Service Library of Congress 
Washington, DC 20540-5234 
Telephone: (202) 707-5640 
 
The World Factbook is produced annually by the Central Intelligence Agency for 
the use of US Government officials, and the style, format, coverage, and content 
are designed to meet their specific requirements. Information was provided by 
the Bureau of the Census, Central Intelligence Agency, Defense Intelligence 
Agency, Defense Nuclear Agency, Department of State, Maritime Administration, 
National Science Foundation (Polar Information Program), Naval Maritime 
Intelligence Center, Office of Territorial and International Affairs, US Board 
on Geographic Names, US Coast Guard, and others. 
 
Comments and queries are welcome and may be addressed to: 
Central Intelligence Agency 
Attn.: Office of Public and Agency Information 
Washington, DC 20505 
Telephone: (703) 351-2053 
 
Notes, Definitions, and Abbreviations 
 
A 
Afghanistan 
Albania 
Algeria 
American Samoa 
Andorra 
Angola 
Anguilla 
Antarctica 
Antigua and Barbuda 
Arctic Ocean 
Argentina 
Armenia 
Aruba 
Ashmore and Cartier Islands 
Atlantic Ocean 
Australia 
Austria 
Azerbaijan 
 
B 
Bahamas, The 
Bahrain 
Baker Island 
Bangladesh 
Barbados 
Bassas da India 
Belarus 
Belgium 
Belize 
Benin 
Bermuda 
Bhutan 
Bolivia 
Bosnia and Herzegovina 
Botswana 
Bouvet Island 
Brazil 
British Indian Ocean Territory 
British Virgin Islands 
Brunei 
Bulgaria 
Burkina 
Burma 
Burundi 
 
C 
Cambodia 
Cameroon 
Canada 
Cape Verde 
Cayman Islands 
Central African Republic 
Chad 
Chile 
China (also see separate Taiwan entry) 
Christmas Island 
Clipperton Island 
Cocos (Keeling) Islands 
Colombia 
Comoros 
Congo 
Cook Islands 
Coral Sea Islands 
Costa Rica 
Cote d'Ivoire 
Croatia 
Cuba 
Cyprus 
Czech Republic 
 
D 
Denmark 
Djibouti 
Dominica 
Dominican Republic 
 
E 
Ecuador 
Egypt 
El Salvador 
Equatorial Guinea 
Eritrea 
Estonia 
Ethiopia 
Europa Island 
 
F 
Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) 
Faroe Islands 
Fiji 
Finland 
France 
French Guiana 
French Polynesia 
French Southern and Antarctic Lands 
 
G 
Gabon 
Gambia, The 
Gaza Strip 
Georgia 
Germany 
Ghana 
Gibraltar 
Glorioso Islands 
Greece 
Greenland 
Grenada 
Guadeloupe 
Guam 
Guatemala 
Guernsey 
Guinea 
Guinea-Bissau 
Guyana 
 
H 
Haiti 
Heard Island and McDonald Islands 
Holy See (Vatican City) 
Honduras 
Hong Kong 
Howland Island 
Hungary 
 
I 
Iceland 
India 
Indian Ocean 
Indonesia 
Iran 
Iraq 
Ireland 
Israel (also see separate Gaza Strip and West Bank entries) 
Italy 
 
J 
Jamaica 
Jan Mayen 
Japan 
Jarvis Island 
Jersey 
Johnston Atoll 
Jordan (also see separate West Bank entry) 
Juan de Nova Island 
 
K 
Kazakhstan 
Kenya 
Kingman Reef 
Kiribati 
Korea, North 
Korea, South 
Kuwait 
Kyrgyzstan 
 
L 
Laos 
Latvia 
Lebanon 
Lesotho 
Liberia 
Libya 
Liechtenstein 
Lithuania 
Luxembourg 
 
M 
Macau 
Macedonia entry follows Thailand 
Madagascar 
Malawi 
Malaysia 
Maldives 
Mali 
Malta 
Man, Isle of 
Marshall Islands 
Martinique 
Mauritania 
Mauritius 
Mayotte 
Mexico 
Micronesia, Federated States of 
Midway Islands 
Moldova 
Monaco 
Mongolia 
Montserrat 
Morocco 
Mozambique 
 
N 
Namibia 
Nauru 
Navassa Island 
Nepal 
Netherlands 
Netherlands Antilles 
New Caledonia 
New Zealand 
Nicaragua 
Niger 
Nigeria 
Niue 
Norfolk Island 
Northern Mariana Islands 
Norway 
 
O 
Oman 
 
P 
Pacific Islands (Palau), Trust Territory of the 
Pacific Ocean 
Pakistan 
Palmyra Atoll 
Panama 
Papua New Guinea 
Paracel Islands 
Paraguay 
Peru 
Philippines 
Pitcairn Islands 
Poland 
Portugal 
Puerto Rico 
 
Q 
Qatar 
 
R 
Reunion 
Romania 
Russia 
Rwanda 
 
S 
Saint Helena 
Saint Kitts and Nevis 
Saint Lucia 
Saint Pierre and Miquelon 
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 
San Marino 
Sao Tome and Principe 
Saudi Arabia 
Senegal 
Serbia and Montenegro 
Seychelles 
Sierra Leone 
Singapore 
Slovakia 
Slovenia 
Solomon Islands 
Somalia 
South Africa 
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands 
Spain 
Spratly Islands 
Sri Lanka 
Sudan 
Suriname 
Svalbard 
Swaziland 
Sweden 
Switzerland 
Syria 
 
T 
Taiwan 
Tajikistan 
Tanzania 
Thailand 
The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 
Togo 
Tokelau 
Tonga 
Trinidad and Tobago 
Tromelin Island 
Tunisia 
Turkey 
Turkmenistan 
Turks and Caicos Islands 
Tuvalu 
 
U 
Uganda 
Ukraine 
United Arab Emirates 
United Kingdom 
United States 
Uruguay 
Uzbekistan 
 
V 
Vanuatu 
Venezuela 
Vietnam 
Virgin Islands 
 
W 
Wake Island 
Wallis and Futuna 
West Bank 
Western Sahara 
Western Samoa 
World 
 
Y 
Yemen 
 
Z 
Zaire 
Zambia 
Zimbabwe  
 
Appendixes 
A: The United Nations System 
B: Abbreviations for International Organizations and Groups 
C: International Organizations and Groups 
D: Abbreviations for Selected International Environmental Agreements 
E: Selected International Environmental Agreements  
F: Weights and Measures 
G: Cross-Reference List of Geographic Names 
 
Reference Maps 
The World 
North America 
Central America and the Caribbean 
South America 
Europe 
Ethnic Groups in Eastern Europe 
Middle East 
Africa 
Asia 
Commonwealth of Independent States--European States 
Commonwealth of Independent States--Central Asian States 
Southeast Asia 
Oceania 
Arctic Region 
Antarctic Region 
Standard Time Zones of the World 
 
 
There have been some significant changes in this edition. The format and content 
of the former entries on the Environment have been changed, and two new 
appendixes have been added--Appendix D: Abbreviations for Selected International 
Environmental Agreements and Appendix E:  Selected International Environmental 
Agreements. The name of Macedonia was changed to The Former Yugoslav Republic of 
Macedonia (FYROM). The gross domestic product (GDP) of most of the developing 
countries is now presented on a purchasing power parity (PPP) basis rather than 
on an exchange rate basis. The electronic files used to produce the Factbook 
have been restructured into a database. As a result, the formats of some entries 
in this edition have been changed. Additional changes will occur in the 1995 
Factbook.  
 
Abbreviations: (see Appendix B for abbreviations for international organizations 
and groups and Appendix D for abbreviations for international environmental 
agreements) 
 
avdp. -- avoirdupois 
 
c.i.f. -- cost, insurance, and freight 
 
CY -- calendar year 
 
DWT -- deadweight ton 
 
est. -- estimate 
 
Ex-Im -- Export-Import Bank of the United States 
 
f.o.b. -- free on board 
 
FRG -- Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany); used for information dated 
before 3 October 1990 or CY91 
 
FSU -- former Soviet Union 
 
FY -- fiscal year 
 
FYROM -- The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 
 
GDP -- gross domestic product 
 
GDR -- German Democratic Republic (East Germany); used for information dated 
before 3 October 1990 or CY91 
 
GNP -- gross national product 
 
GRT -- gross register ton 
 
GWP -- gross world product 
 
km -- kilometer 
 
kW -- kilowatt 
 
kWh -- kilowatt hour 
 
m -- meter 
 
NA -- not available 
 
NEGL -- negligible 
 
nm -- nautical mile 
 
NZ -- New Zealand 
 
ODA -- official development assistance 
 
OOF -- other official flows 
 
PDRY -- People's Democratic Republic of Yemen [Yemen (Aden) or South Yemen]; 
used for information dated before 22 May 1990 or CY91 
 
sq km -- square kilometer 
 
sq mi -- square mile 
 
UAE -- United Arab Emirates 
 
UK -- United Kingdom 
 
US -- United States 
 
USSR -- Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Soviet Union); used for information 
dated before 25 December 1991 
 
YAR -- Yemen Arab Republic [Yemen (Sanaa) or North Yemen]; used for information 
dated before 22 May 1990 or CY91 
 
Administrative divisions: The numbers, designatory terms, and first-order 
administrative divisions are generally those approved by the US Board on 
Geographic Names (BGN). Changes that have been reported but not yet acted on by 
BGN are noted. 
 
Area: Total area is the sum of all land and water areas delimited by 
international boundaries and/or coastlines. Land area is the aggregate of all 
surfaces delimited by international boundaries and/or coastlines, excluding 
inland water bodies (lakes, reservoirs, rivers). Comparative areas are based on 
total area equivalents. Most entities are compared with the entire US or one of 
the 50 states. The smaller entities are compared with Washington, DC (178 sq km, 
69 sq mi) or The Mall in Washington, DC (0.59 sq km, 0.23 sq mi, 146 acres). 
 
Birth rate: The average annual number of births during a year per 1,000 
population at midyear; also known as crude birth rate. 
 
Dates of information: In general, information available as of 1 January 1994 was 
used in the preparation of this edition. Population figures are estimates for 1 
July 1994, with population growth rates estimated for calendar year 1994. Major 
political events have been updated through May 1994. 
 
Death rate: The average annual number of deaths during a year per l,000 
population at midyear; also known as crude death rate. 
 
Digraphs: The digraph is a two-letter "country code" that precisely identifies 
every entity without overlap, duplication, or omission. AF, for example, is the 
digraph for Afghanistan. It is a standardized geopolitical data element 
promulgated in the  Federal Information Processing Standards Publication (FIPS) 
10-3 by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (US Department of 
Commerce) and maintained by the Office of the Geographer (US Department of 
State). The digraph is used to eliminate confusion and incompatibility in the 
collection, processing, and dissemination of area-specific data and is 
particularly useful for interchanging data between databases. 
 
Diplomatic representation: The US Government has diplomatic relations with 183 
nations, including 177 of the 184 UN members (excluded UN members are Bhutan, 
Cuba, Iran, Iraq, North Korea, Vietnam, and former Yugoslavia). In addition, the 
US has diplomatic relations with 6 nations that are not in the UN - Holy See, 
Kiribati, Nauru, Switzerland, Tonga, and Tuvalu. 
 
Economic aid: This entry refers to bilateral commitments of official development 
assistance (ODA) and other official flows (OOF). ODA is defined as financial 
assistance which is concessional in character, has the main objective to promote 
economic development and welfare of LDCs. and contains a grant element of at 
least 25%. OOF transactions are also official government assistance, but with a 
main objective other than development and with a grant element less than 25%. 
OOF transactions include official export credits (such as Ex-Im Bank credits), 
official equity and portfolio investment, and debt reorganization by the 
official sector that does not meet concessional terms. Aid is considered to have 
been committed when agreements are initialed by the parties involved and 
constitute a formal declaration of intent. 
 
Entities: Some of the nations, dependent areas, areas of special sovereignty, 
and governments included in this publication are not independent, and others are 
not officially recognized by the US Government. "Nation" refers to a people 
politically organized into a sovereign state with a definite territory. 
"Dependent area" refers to a broad category of political entities that are 
associated in some way with a nation. Names used for page headings are usually 
the short-form names as approved by the US Board on Geographic Names. There are 
266 entities in The World Factbook that may be categorized as follows: 
 
NATIONS 
 
183 -- UN members (excluding both the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia 
and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia; membership status in the UN is still to 
be determined) 
 
7 -- nations that are not members of the UN--Holy See, Kiribati, Nauru, Serbia 
and Montenegro, Switzerland, Tonga, Tuvalu 
 
OTHER 
 
1 -- Taiwan 
 
DEPENDENT AREAS 
 
6 -- Australia--Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) 
Islands, Coral Sea Islands, Heard Island and McDonald Islands, Norfolk Island 
 
2 -- Denmark--Faroe Islands, Greenland 
 
16 -- France--Bassas da India, Clipperton Island, Europa Island, French Guiana, 
French Polynesia, French Southern and Antarctic Lands, Glorioso Islands, 
Guadeloupe, Juan de Nova Island, Martinique, Mayotte, New Caledonia, Reunion, 
Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Tromelin Island, Wallis and Futuna 
 
2 -- Netherlands--Aruba, Netherlands Antilles 
 
3 -- New Zealand--Cook Islands, Niue, Tokelau 
 
3 -- Norway--Bouvet Island, Jan Mayen, Svalbard 
 
1 -- Portugal--Macau 
 
16 -- United Kingdom--Anguilla, Bermuda, British Indian Ocean Territory, British 
Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Falkland Islands, Gibraltar, Guernsey, Hong 
Kong, Jersey, Isle of Man, Montserrat, Pitcairn Islands, Saint Helena, South 
Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Turks and Caicos Islands 
 
15 -- United States--American Samoa, Baker Island, Guam, Howland Island, Jarvis 
Island, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Midway Islands, Navassa Island, Northern 
Mariana Islands, Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (Palau), Palmyra Atoll, 
Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, Wake Island 
 
MISCELLANEOUS 
 
6 -- Antarctica, Gaza Strip, Paracel Islands, Spratly Islands, West Bank, 
Western Sahara 
 
OTHER ENTITIES 
 
4 -- oceans--Arctic Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean, Pacific Ocean 
 
1 -- World 
 
266 -- total 
 
Exchange rate: The value of a nation's monetary unit at a given date or over a 
given period of time, as expressed in units of local currency per US dollar and 
as determined by international market forces or official fiat. 
 
Gross domestic product (GDP): The value of all final goods and services produced 
within a nation in a given year. 
 
Gross national product (GNP): The value of all final goods and services produced 
within a nation in a given year, plus income earned abroad, minus income earned 
by foreigners from domestic production. 
 
Gross world product (GWP): The aggregate value of all goods and services 
produced worldwide in a given year. 
 
GNP/GDP methodology: In the "Economy" section, GNP/GDP dollar estimates for the 
great majority of countries are derived from purchasing power parity (PPP) 
calculations rather than from conversions at official currency exchange rates. 
The PPP method normally involves the use of international dollar price weights, 
which are applied to the quantities of goods and services produced in a given 
economy. In addition to the lack of reliable data from the majority of 
countries, the statistician faces a major difficulty in specifying, identifying, 
and allowing for the quality of goods and services. The division of a GNP/GDP 
estimate in local currency by the corresponding PPP estimate in dollars gives 
the PPP conversion rate. On average, one thousand dollars will buy the same 
market basket of goods in the US as one thousand dollars--converted to the local 
currency at the PPP conversion rate--will buy in the other country.  Whereas PPP 
estimates for OECD countries are quite reliable, PPP estimates for developing 
countries are often rough approximations.  The latter estimates are based on 
extrapolation of numbers published by the UN International Comparison Program 
and by Professors Robert Summers and Alan Heston of the University of 
Pennsylvania and their colleagues.  Because currency exchange rates depend on a 
variety of international and domestic financial forces that often have little 
relation to domestic output, use of these rates is less satisfactory for 
calculating GNP/GDP than the PPP method.  In developing countries with weak 
currencies the exchange rate estimate of GNP/GDP in dollars is typically one-
fourth to one-half the PPP estimate.  Furthermore, exchange rates may suddenly 
go up or down by 10% or more because of market forces or official fiat whereas 
real output has remained unchanged.  On 12 January 1994, for example, the 14 
countries of the African Financial Community (whose currencies are tied to the 
French franc) devalued their currencies by 50%.  This move, of course, did not 
cut the real output of these countries by half.  One additional caution: the 
proportion of, say, defense expenditures as a percent of GNP/GDP in local 
currency accounts may differ substantially from the proportion when GNP/GDP 
accounts are expressed in PPP terms, as, for example, when an observer estimates 
the dollar level of Russian or Japanese military expenditures; 
 
Growth rate (population): The annual percent change in the population, resulting 
from a surplus (or deficit) of births over deaths and the balance of migrants 
entering and leaving a country. The rate may be positive or negative. 
 
Illicit drugs: There are five categories of illicit drugs--narcotics, 
stimulants, depressants (sedatives), hallucinogens, and cannabis. These 
categories include many drugs legally produced and prescribed by doctors as well 
as those illegally produced and sold outside medical channels. 
 
Cannabis (Cannabis sativa) is the common hemp plant, which provides 
hallucinogens with some sedative properties, and includes marijuana (pot, 
Acapulco gold, grass, reefer), tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, Marinol), hashish 
(hash), and hashish oil (hash oil). 
 
Coca (Erythroxylon coca) is a bush, and the leaves contain the stimulant 
cocaine. Coca is not to be confused with cocoa, which comes from cacao seeds and 
is used in making chocolate, cocoa, and cocoa butter. 
 
Cocaine is a stimulant derived from the leaves of the coca bush. 
 
Depressants (sedatives) are drugs that reduce tension and anxiety and include 
chloral hydrate, barbiturates (Amytal, Nembutal, Seconal, phenobarbital), 
benzodiazepines (Librium, Valium), methaqualone (Quaalude), glutethimide 
(Doriden), and others (Equanil, Placidyl, Valmid). 
 
Drugs are any chemical substances that effect a physical, mental, emotional, or 
behavioral change in an individual. 
 
Drug abuse is the use of any licit or illicit chemical substance that results in 
physical, mental, emotional, or behavioral impairment in an individual. 
 
Hallucinogens are drugs that affect sensation, thinking, self-awareness, and 
emotion. Hallucinogens include LSD (acid, microdot), mescaline and peyote (mexc, 
buttons, cactus), amphetamine variants (PMA, STP, DOB), phencyclidine (PCP, 
angel dust, hog), phencyclidine analogues (PCE, PCPy, TCP), and others 
(psilocybin, psilocyn). 
 
Hashish is the resinous exudate of the cannabis or hemp plant (Cannabis sativa). 
 
Heroin is a semisynthetic derivative of morphine. 
 
Mandrax is a synthetic chemical depressant, the same as, or similar to Quaalude. 
 
Marijuana is the dried leaves of the cannabis or hemp plant (Cannabis sativa). 
 
Narcotics are drugs that relieve pain, often induce sleep, and refer to opium, 
opium derivatives, and synthetic substitutes. Natural narcotics include opium 
(paregoric, parepectolin), morphine (MS-Contin, Roxanol), codeine (Tylenol with 
codeine, Empirin with codeine, Robitussan AC), and thebaine. Semisynthetic 
narcotics include heroin (horse, smack), and hydromorphone (Dilaudid). Synthetic 
narcotics include meperidine or Pethidine (Demerol, Mepergan), methadone 
(Dolophine, Methadose), and others (Darvon, Lomotil). 
 
Opium is the milky exudate of the incised, unripe seedpod of the opium poppy. 
 
Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) is the source for many natural and 
semisynthetic narcotics. 
 
Poppy straw concentrate is the alkaloid derived from the mature dried opium 
poppy. 
 
Qat (kat, khat) is a stimulant from the buds or leaves of catha edulis that is 
chewed or drunk as tea. 
 
Stimulants are drugs that relieve mild depression, increase energy and activity, 
and include cocaine (coke, snow, crack), amphetamines (Desoxyn, Dexedrine), 
phenmetrazine (Preludin), methylphenidate (Ritalin), and others (Cylert, 
Sanorex, Tenuate). 
 
Infant mortality rate: The number of deaths to infants under one year old in a 
given year per l,000 live births occurring in the same year. 
 
International disputes: This category includes a wide variety of situations that 
range from traditional bilateral boundary disputes to unilateral claims of one 
sort or another. Information regarding disputes over international boundaries 
and maritime boundaries has been reviewed by the Department of State. References 
to other situations involving borders or frontiers may also be included, such as 
resource disputes, geopolitical questions, or irredentist issues. However, 
inclusion does not necessarily constitute official acceptance or recognition by 
the US Government. 
 
Irrigated land: The figure refers to the land area that is artificially supplied 
with water. 
 
Land use: Human use of the land surface is categorized as arable land--land 
cultivated for crops that are replanted after each harvest (wheat, maize, rice);  
permanent crops--land cultivated for crops that are not replanted after each 
harvest (citrus, coffee, rubber);  meadows and pastures--land permanently used 
for herbaceous forage crops; forest and woodland--under dense or open stands of 
trees; and other--any land type not specifically mentioned above (urban areas, 
roads, desert). 
 
Leaders: The chief of state is the titular leader of the country who represents 
the state at official and ceremonial functions but is not involved with the day-
to-day activities of the government. The head of government is the 
administrative leader who manages the day-to-day activities of the government. 
In the UK, the monarch is the chief of state, and the Prime Minister is the head 
of government. In the US, the President is both the chief of state and the head 
of government. 
 
Life expectancy at birth: The average number of years to be lived by a group of 
people all born in the same year, if mortality at each age remains constant in 
the future. 
 
Literacy: There are no universal definitions and standards of literacy. Unless 
otherwise noted, all rates are based on the most common definition--the ability 
to read and write at a specified age. Detailing the standards that individual 
countries use to assess the ability to read and write is beyond the scope of 
this publication. 
 
Maritime claims: The proximity of neighboring states may prevent some national 
claims from being extended the full distance. 
 
Merchant marine: All ships engaged in the carriage of goods. All commercial 
vessels (as opposed to all nonmilitary ships), which excludes tugs, fishing 
vessels, offshore oil rigs, etc.; also, a grouping of merchant ships by 
nationality or register. 
 
Captive register--A register of ships maintained by a territory, possession, or 
colony primarily or exclusively for the use of ships owned in the parent 
country; also referred to as an offshore register, the offshore equivalent of an 
internal register. Ships on a captive register will fly the same flag as the 
parent country, or a local variant of it, but will be subject to the maritime 
laws and taxation rules of the offshore territory. Although the nature of a 
captive register makes it especially desirable for ships owned in the parent 
country, just as in the internal register, the ships may also be owned abroad. 
The captive register then acts as a flag of convenience register, except that it 
is not the register of an independent state. 
 
Flag of convenience register--A national register offering registration to a 
merchant ship not owned in the flag state. The major flags of convenience (FOC) 
attract ships to their register by virtue of low fees, low or nonexistent 
taxation of profits, and liberal manning requirements. True FOC registers are 
characterized by having relatively few of the ships registered actually owned in 
the flag state. Thus, while virtually any flag can be used for ships under a 
given set of circumstances, an FOC register is one where the majority of the 
merchant fleet is owned abroad. It is also referred to as an open register. 
 
Flag state--The nation in which a ship is registered and which holds legal 
jurisdiction over operation of the ship, whether at home or abroad. Differences 
in flag state maritime legislation determine how a ship is manned and taxed and 
whether a foreign-owned ship may be placed on the register. 
 
Internal register--A register of ships maintained as a subset of a national 
register. Ships on the internal register fly the national flag and have that 
nationality but are subject to a separate set of maritime rules from those on 
the main national register. These differences usually include lower taxation of 
profits, manning by foreign nationals, and, usually, ownership outside the flag 
state (when it functions as an FOC register). The Norwegian International Ship 
Register and Danish International Ship Register are the most notable examples of 
an internal register. Both have been instrumental in stemming flight from the 
national flag to flags of convenience and in attracting foreign owned ships to 
the Norwegian and Danish flags. 
 
Merchant ship--A vessel that carries goods against payment of freight; commonly 
used to denote any nonmilitary ship but accurately restricted to commercial 
vessels only. 
 
Register--The record of a ship's ownership and nationality as listed with the 
maritime authorities of a country; also, the compendium of such individual 
ships' registrations. Registration of a ship provides it with a nationality and 
makes it subject to the laws of the country in which registered (the flag state) 
regardless of the nationality of the ship's ultimate owner. 
 
Money figures: All money figures are expressed in contemporaneous US dollars 
unless otherwise indicated. 
 
National product: The total output of goods and services in a country in a given 
year. See Gross domestic product (GDP), Gross national product (GNP), and 
GNP/GDP methodology. 
 
Net migration rate: The balance between the number of persons entering and 
leaving a country during the year per 1,000 persons (based on midyear 
population). An excess of persons entering the country is referred to as net 
immigration (3.56 migrants/1,000 population); an excess of persons leaving the 
country as net emigration (-9.26 migrants/1,000 population). 
 
Population: Figures are estimates from the Bureau of the Census based on 
statistics from population censuses, vital statistics registration systems, or 
sample surveys pertaining to the recent past, and on assumptions about future 
trends. Starting with the 1993 Factbook demographic estimates for some countries 
(mostly African) have taken into account the effects of the growing incidence of 
AIDS infections; in 1993 these countries were Burkina, Burundi, Central African 
Republic, Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Haiti, Kenya, Malawi, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda, 
Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Thailand, and Brazil.  
 
Total fertility rate: The average number of children that would be born per 
woman if all women lived to the end of their childbearing years and bore 
children according to a given fertility rate at each age. 
 
Years: All year references are for the calendar year (CY) unless indicated as 
fiscal year (FY). 
 
Note: Information for the US and US dependencies was compiled from material in 
the public domain and does not represent Intelligence Community estimates. The 
Handbook of International Economic Statistics, published annually in September 
by the Central Intelligence Agency, contains detailed economic information for 
the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries, 
Eastern Europe, the newly independent republics of the former nations of 
Yugoslavia and the Soviet Union, and selected other countries. The Handbook can 
be obtained wherever The World Factbook is available.


***THE WORLD FACTBOOK 1994


@Afghanistan, Geography

Location: 
  Southern Asia, between Iran and Pakistan
Map references: 
  Asia, Middle East, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
  647,500 sq km 
land area: 
  647,500 sq km 
comparative area: 
  slightly smaller than Texas
Land boundaries: 
  total 5,529 km, China 76 km, Iran 936 km, Pakistan 2,430 km,
  Tajikistan 1,206 km, Turkmenistan 744 km, Uzbekistan 137 km 
Coastline: 
  0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: 
  none; landlocked
International disputes: 
  periodic disputes with Iran over Helmand water rights; Iran supports
  clients in country, private Pakistani and Saudi sources also are
  active; power struggles among various groups for control of Kabul,
  regional rivalries among emerging warlords, traditional tribal
  disputes continue; support to Islamic fighters in Tajikistan's civil
  war; border dispute with Pakistan (Durand Line); support to Islamic
  militants worldwide by some factions
Climate: 
  arid to semiarid; cold winters and hot summers
Terrain: 
  mostly rugged mountains; plains in north and southwest
Natural resources: 
  natural gas, petroleum, coal, copper, talc, barites, sulphur, lead,
  zinc, iron ore, salt, precious and semiprecious stones 
Land use: 
arable land: 
  12% 
permanent crops: 
  0% 
meadows and pastures: 
  46% 
forest and woodland: 
  3% 
other: 
  39% 
Irrigated land: 
  26,600 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
  soil degradation; overgrazing; deforestation (much of the remaining
  forests are being cut down for fuel and building materials);
  desertification
natural hazards: 
  damaging earthquakes occur in Hindu Kush mountains (one measured 6.8
  on the Richter scale in 1991); flooding
international agreements: 
  party to - Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Marine
  Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity,
  Climate Change, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life
  Conservation
Note: 
  landlocked

@Afghanistan, People

Population: 
  16,903,400 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
  2.45% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
  43.46 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
  18.94 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
  155.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
  44.89 years 
male: 
  45.53 years 
female: 
  44.21 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
  6.27 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
  Afghan(s) 
adjective: 
  Afghan 
Ethnic divisions: 
  Pashtun 38%, Tajik 25%, Uzbek 6%, Hazara 19%, minor ethnic groups
  (Chahar Aimaks, Turkmen, Baloch, and others)
Religions: 
  Sunni Muslim 84%, Shi'a Muslim 15%, other 1% 
Languages: 
  Pashtu 35%, Afghan Persian (Dari) 50%, Turkic languages (primarily
  Uzbek and Turkmen) 11%, 30 minor languages (primarily Balochi and
  Pashai) 4%, much bilingualism
Literacy: 
  age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
  29% 
male: 
  44% 
female: 
  14% 
Labor force: 
  4.98 million 
by occupation: 
  agriculture and animal husbandry 67.8%, industry 10.2%, construction
  6.3%, commerce 5.0%, services and other 10.7% (1980 est.)

@Afghanistan, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
  Islamic State of Afghanistan 
conventional short form: 
  Afghanistan 
local long form: 
  Dowlat-e Eslami-ye Afghanestan 
local short form: 
  Afghanestan 
former: 
  Republic of Afghanistan 
Digraph: 
  AF
Type: 
  transitional government 
Capital: 
  Kabul 
Administrative divisions: 
  30 provinces (velayat, singular - velayat); Badakhshan, Badghis,
  Baghlan, Balkh, Bamian, Farah, Faryab, Ghazni, Ghowr, Helmand, Herat,
  Jowzjan, Kabol, Kandahar, Kapisa, Konar, Kondoz, Laghman, Lowgar,
  Nangarhar, Nimruz, Oruzgan, Paktia, Paktika, Parvan, Samangan, Sar-e
  Pol, Takhar, Vardak, Zabol
note: 
  there may be a new province of Nurestan (Nuristan)
Independence: 
  19 August 1919 (from UK)
National holiday: 
  Victory of the Muslim Nation, 28 April; Remembrance Day for Martyrs
  and Disabled, 4 May; Independence Day, 19 August 
Constitution: 
  none
Legal system: 
  a new legal system has not been adopted but the transitional
  government has declared it will follow Islamic law (Shari'a)
Suffrage: 
  undetermined; previously universal, male ages 15-50
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
  President Burhanuddin RABBANI (Interim President July - December 1992;
  President since 2 January 1993); First Vice President Mohammad NABI
  Mohammadi (since NA); First Vice President Mohammad SHAH Fazli (since
  NA); election last held NA December 1992 (next to be held NA December
  1994); results - Burhanuddin RABBANI was elected to a two-year term by
  a national shura, later amended by multi-party agreement to 18 months.
head of government: 
  Prime Minister Gulbuddin HIKMATYAR (since 17 March 1993); First Deputy
  Prime Minister Qutbuddin HELAL (since 17 March 1993); Deputy Prime
  Minister Arsala RAHMANI (since 17 March 1993) 
cabinet: 
  Council of Ministers 
Legislative branch: 
  a unicameral parliament consisting of 205 members was chosen by the
  shura in January 1993; non-functioning as of June 1993
Judicial branch: 
  an interim Chief Justice of the Supreme Court has been appointed, but
  a new court system has not yet been organized
Political parties and leaders: 
  current political organizations include Jamiat-i-Islami (Islamic
  Society), Burhanuddin RABBANI, Ahmad Shah MASOOD; Hizbi
  Islami-Gulbuddin (Islamic Party), Gulbuddin HIKMATYAR faction; Hizbi
  Islami-Khalis (Islamic Party), Yunis KHALIS faction; Ittihad-i-Islami
  Barai Azadi Afghanistan (Islamic Union for the Liberation of
  Afghanistan), Abdul Rasul SAYYAF; Harakat-Inqilab-i-Islami (Islamic
  Revolutionary Movement), Mohammad Nabi MOHAMMADI;
  Jabha-i-Najat-i-Milli Afghanistan (Afghanistan National Liberation
  Front), Sibghatullah MOJADDEDI; Mahaz-i-Milli-Islami (National Islamic
  Front), Sayed Ahamad GAILANI; Hizbi Wahdat (Islamic Unity Party),
  Abdul Ali MAZARI; Harakat-i-Islami (Islamic Movement), Mohammed Asif
  MOHSENI; Jumbesh-i-Milli Islami (National Islamic Movement), Rashid
  DOSTUM
note: 
  the former ruling Watan Party has been disbanded
Other political or pressure groups: 
  the former resistance commanders are the major power brokers in the
  countryside; shuras (councils) of commanders are now administering
  most cities outside Kabul; ulema (religious scholars); tribal elders
Member of: 
  AsDB, CP, ECO, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD,
  IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OIC, UN, UNCTAD,
  UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
  (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Abdul RAHIM 
chancery: 
  2341 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
  (202) 234-3770 or 3771 
FAX: 
  (202) 328-3516 
US diplomatic representation: 
  none; embassy was closed in January 1989
Flag: 
  three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white, and black, with
  the national coat of arms superimposed in the middle of the white band
  and large Islamic lettering superimposed over the green and white
  bands
Overview: 
  Afghanistan is an extremely poor, landlocked country, highly dependent
  on farming (wheat especially) and livestock raising (sheep and goats).
  Economic considerations have played second fiddle to political and
  military upheavals during more than 14 years of war, including the
  nearly 10-year Soviet military occupation (which ended 15 February
  1989). Over the past decade, one-third of the population fled the
  country, with Pakistan sheltering more than 3 million refugees and
  Iran about 3 million. About 1.4 million Afghan refugees remain in
  Pakistan and about 2 million in Iran. Another 1 million probably moved
  into and around urban areas within Afghanistan. Although reliable data
  are unavailable, gross domestic product is lower than 12 years ago
  because of the loss of labor and capital and the disruption of trade
  and transport.
National product: 
  GDP $NA
National product real growth rate: 
  NA%
National product per capita: 
  $NA
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
  NA%
Unemployment rate: 
  NA%
Budget: 
revenues: 
  $NA
expenditures: 
  $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports: 
  $243 million (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities: 
  fruits and nuts, handwoven carpets, wool, cotton, hides and pelts,
  precious and semi-precious gems
partners: 
  FSU countries, Pakistan, Iran, Germany, India, UK, Belgium,
  Luxembourg, Czechoslovakia
Imports: 
  $737 million (c.i.f., 1991)
commodities: 
  food and petroleum products; most consumer goods
partners: 
  FSU countries, Pakistan, Iran, Japan, Singapore, India, South Korea,
  Germany
External debt: 
  $2.3 billion (March 1991 est.)
Industrial production: 
  growth rate 2.3% (FY91 est.); accounts for about 25% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
  480,000 kW
production: 
  1 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
  60 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
  small-scale production of textiles, soap, furniture, shoes,
  fertilizer, and cement; handwoven carpets; natural gas, oil, coal,
  copper
Agriculture: 
  largely subsistence farming and nomadic animal husbandry; cash
  products - wheat, fruits, nuts, karakul pelts, wool, mutton
Illicit drugs: 
  an illicit cultivator of opium poppy and cannabis for the
  international drug trade; world's second-largest opium producer after
  Burma (680 metric tons in 1993) and a major source of hashish
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
  $450 million US assistance provided 1985-1993; USAID will stop all
  programs by mid-1994; the UN provides assistance in the form of food
  aid, immunization, land mine removal, and a wide range of aid to
  refugees and displaced persons
Currency: 
  1 afghani (AF) = 100 puls
Exchange rates: 
  afghanis (Af) per US$1 - 1,900 (January 1994), 1,019 (March 1993), 850
  (1991), 700 (1989-90), 220 (1988-89); note - these rates reflect the
  free market exchange rates rather than the official exchange rates
Fiscal year: 
  21 March - 20 March

@Afghanistan, Communications

Railroads: 
  9.6 km (single track) 1.524-meter gauge from Gushgy (formerly Kushka)
  (Turkmenistan) to Towraghondi and 15.0 km from Termiz (Uzbekistan) to
  Kheyrabad transshipment point on south bank of Amu Darya
Highways: 
total: 
  21,000 km 
paved: 
  2,800 km 
unpaved: 
  gravel 1,650 km; earth 16,550 km (1984)
Inland waterways: 
  total navigability 1,200 km; chiefly Amu Darya, which handles vessels
  up to about 500 metric tons
Pipelines: 
  petroleum products - Uzbekistan to Bagram and Turkmenistan to
  Shindand; natural gas 180 km 
Ports: 
  Shir Khan and Kheyrabad (river ports)
Airports: 
total: 
  42 
usable: 
  35 
with permanent-surface runways: 
  9 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
  0 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
  10 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
  17 
Telecommunications: 
  limited telephone, telegraph, and radiobroadcast services; television
  introduced in 1980; 31,200 telephones; numerous cellular telephones;
  broadcast stations - 5 AM, no FM, 1 TV; 1 satellite earth station

@Afghanistan, Defense Forces

Branches: 
  the military still does not yet exist on a national scale; some
  elements of the former Army, Air and Air Defense Forces, National
  Guard, Border Guard Forces, National Police Force (Sarandoi), and
  tribal militias remain intact but are factionalized among the various
  mujahedin and former regime leaders
Manpower availability: 
  males age 15-49 4,188,036; fit for military service 2,245,196; reach
  military age (22) annually 158,335 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
  the new government has not yet adopted a defense budget


@Albania, Geography

Location: 
  Balkan State, Southeastern Europe, on the Balkan Peninsula between
  Serbia and Montenegro and Greece
Map references: 
  Africa, Ethnic Groups in Eastern Europe, Europe, Standard Time Zones
  of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
  28,750 sq km 
land area: 
  27,400 sq km 
comparative area: 
  slightly larger than Maryland
Land boundaries: 
  total 720 km, Greece 282 km, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
  151 km, Serbia and Montenegro 287 km (114 km with Serbia, 173 km with
  Montenegro)
Coastline: 
  362 km 
Maritime claims: 
continental shelf: 
  not specified
territorial sea: 
  12 nm
International disputes: 
  Albanian majority in Kosovo seeks independence from Serbia and
  Montenegro, and the Albanian Government supports the Kosovo position
  politically
Climate: 
  mild temperate; cool, cloudy, wet winters; hot, clear, dry summers;
  interior is cooler and wetter
Terrain: 
  mostly mountains and hills; small plains along coast
Natural resources: 
  petroleum, natural gas, coal, chromium, copper, timber, nickel 
Land use: 
arable land: 
  21% 
permanent crops: 
  4% 
meadows and pastures: 
  15% 
forest and woodland: 
  38% 
other: 
  22% 
Irrigated land: 
  4,230 sq km (1989)
Environment: 
current issues: 
  deforestation
natural hazards: 
  subject to destructive earthquakes; tsunami occur along southwestern
  coast
international agreements: 
  party to - Biodiversity
Note: 
  strategic location along Strait of Otranto (links Adriatic Sea to
  Ionian Sea and Mediterranean Sea)

@Albania, People

Population: 
  3,374,085 (July 1994 est.) 
note: 
  IMF, working with Albanian government figures estimates the population
  at 3,120,000 in 1993 and that the population has fallen since 1990
Population growth rate: 
  1.19% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
  22.46 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
  5.32 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
  -5.27 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
  30 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
  73.4 years 
male: 
  70.42 years 
female: 
  76.61 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
  2.78 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
  Albanian(s) 
adjective: 
  Albanian 
Ethnic divisions: 
  Albanian 95%, Greeks 3%, other 2% (Vlachs, Gypsies, Serbs, and
  Bulgarians) (1989 est.)
Religions: 
  Muslim 70%, Greek Orthodox 20%, Roman Catholic 10% 
note: 
  all mosques and churches were closed in 1967 and religious observances
  prohibited; in November 1990, Albania began allowing private religious
  practice
Languages: 
  Albanian (Tosk is the official dialect), Greek 
Literacy: 
  age 9 and over can read and write (1955)
total population: 
  72% 
male: 
  80% 
female: 
  63% 
Labor force: 
  1.5 million (1987)
by occupation: 
  agriculture 60%, industry and commerce 40% (1986)

@Albania, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
  Republic of Albania 
conventional short form: 
  Albania 
local long form: 
  Republika e Shqiperise 
local short form: 
  Shqiperia 
former: 
  People's Socialist Republic of Albania 
Digraph: 
  AL
Type: 
  nascent democracy 
Capital: 
  Tirane 
Administrative divisions: 
  26 districts (rrethe, singular - rreth); Berat, Dibre, Durres,
  Elbasan, Fier, Gjirokaster, Gramsh, Kolonje, Korce, Kruje, Kukes,
  Lezhe, Librazhd, Lushnje, Mat, Mirdite, Permet, Pogradec, Puke,
  Sarande, Shkoder, Skrapar, Tepelene, Tirane, Tropoje, Vlore
Independence: 
  28 November 1912 (from Ottoman Empire)
National holiday: 
  Liberation Day, 28 November (1944; changed by decree on 12 November
  1993)
Constitution: 
  an interim basic law was approved by the People's Assembly on 29 April
  1991; a new constitution was to be drafted for adoption in 1992, but
  is still in process
Legal system: 
  has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 
  18 years of age, universal and compulsory
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
  President of the Republic Sali BERISHA (since 9 April 1992) 
head of government: 
  Prime Minister of the Council of Ministers Aleksander Gabriel MEKSI
  (since 10 April 1992) 
Cabinet: 
  Council of Ministers; appointed by the president
Legislative branch: 
  unicameral
People's Assembly (Kuvendi Popullor): 
  elections last held 22 March 1992; results - DP 62.29%, ASP 25.57%,
  SDP 4.33%, RP 3.15%, UHP 2.92%, other 1.74%; seats - (140 total) DP
  92, ASP 38, SDP 7, RP 1, UHP 2
Judicial branch: 
  Supreme Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
  there are at least 18 political parties; most prominent are the
  Albanian Socialist Party (ASP; formerly the Albania Workers Party),
  Fatos NANO, first secretary; Democratic Party (DP), Eduard SELAMI,
  chairman; Albanian Republican Party (RP), Sabri GODO; Omonia (Greek
  minority party), leader NA (ran in 1992 election as Unity for Human
  Rights Party (UHP)); Social Democratic Party (SDP), Skender GJINUSHI;
  Democratic Alliance Party (DAP), Spartak NGJELA, chairman
Member of: 
  BSEC, CCC, CE (guest), CSCE, EBRD, ECE, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA,
  IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL,
  IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LORCS, NACC, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
  UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador Lublin Hasan DILJA 
chancery: 
  Suite 1010, 1511 K Street NW, Washington, DC 20005 
telephone: 
  (202) 223-4942, 8187 
FAX: 
  (202) 628-7342 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador William E. RYERSON 
embassy: 
  Rruga E. Elbansanit 103, Tirane 
mailing address: 
  PSC 59, Box 100 (A), APO AE 09624 
telephone: 
  355-42-32875, 33520 
FAX: 
  355-42-32222 
Flag: 
  red with a black two-headed eagle in the center

@Albania, Economy
Overview: 
  An extremely poor country by European standards, Albania is making the
  difficult transition to a more open-market economy. The economy
  rebounded in 1993 after a severe depression accompanying the collapse
  of the previous centrally planned system in 1990 and 1991.
  Stabilization policies, including public sector layoffs and reduced
  social services, have improved the government's fiscal situation and
  reduced inflation. The recovery was spurred by the remittances of some
  5% of the population which works abroad, mostly in Greece and Italy.
  Foreign assistance and humanitarian aid also supported the recovery.
  Most agricultural land was privatized in 1992, substantially improving
  peasant incomes. Albania's limited industrial sector, now less than
  one-sixth of GDP, continued to decline in 1993. A sharp fall in
  chromium prices reduced hard currency receipts from the mining sector.
  Large segments of the population, especially those living in urban
  areas, continue to depend on humanitarian aid to meet basic food
  requirements. Unemployment remains a severe problem accounting for
  approximately one-fifth of the work force. Growth is expected to
  continue in 1994, but could falter if Albania becomes involved in the
  conflict in the former Yugoslavia, workers' remittances from Greece
  are reduced, or foreign assistance declines.
National product: 
  GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $3.3 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
  11% (1993)
National product per capita: 
  $1,100 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
  31% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
  18% (1993 est.)
Budget: 
revenues: 
  $1.1 billion 
expenditures: 
  $1.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $70 million (1991
  est.)
Exports: 
  $70 million (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities: 
  asphalt, metals and metallic ores, electricity, crude oil, vegetables,
  fruits, tobacco
partners: 
  Italy, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Germany, Greece,
  Czechoslovakia, Poland, Romania, Bulgaria, Hungary
Imports: 
  $524 million (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities: 
  machinery, consumer goods, grains
partners: 
  Italy, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Germany,
  Czechoslovakia, Romania, Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria, Greece
External debt: 
  $724 million (1993 est.)
Industrial production: 
  growth rate -10% (1993 est.); accounts for 16% of GDP (1993 est.)
Electricity: 
capacity: 
  1,690,000 kW
production: 
  5 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
  1,520 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
  food processing, textiles and clothing, lumber, oil, cement,
  chemicals, mining, basic metals, hydropower
Agriculture: 
  accounts for 55% of GDP; arable land per capita among lowest in
  Europe; 80% of arable land now in private hands; one-half of work
  force engaged in farming; produces wide range of temperate-zone crops
  and livestock
Illicit drugs: 
  transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin transiting the Balkan
  route; limited opium production
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
  $190 million humanitarian aid; $94 million in loans/guarantees/credits
Currency: 
  1 lek (L) = 100 qintars
Exchange rates: 
  leke (L) per US$1 - 99 (January 1994), 97 (January 1993), 50 (January
  1992), 25 (September 1991)
Fiscal year: 
  calendar year

@Albania, Communications

Railroads: 
  543 km total; 509 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, single track and 34
  km narrow gauge, single track (1990); line connecting Titograd (Serbia
  and Montenegro) and Shkoder (Albania) completed August 1986
Highways: 
total: 
  16,700 km 
paved: 
  6,700 km 
unpaved: 
  earth 10,000 km (1990)
Inland waterways: 
  43 km plus Albanian sections of Lake Scutari, Lake Ohrid, and Lake
  Prespa (1990)
Pipelines: 
  crude oil 145 km; petroleum products 55 km; natural gas 64 km (1991)
Ports: 
  Durres, Sarande, Vlore
Merchant marine: 
  11 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 52,967 GRT/76,887 DWT
Airports: 
total: 
  12 
usable: 
  10 
with permanent-surface runways: 
  3 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
  0 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
  6 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
  4 
Telecommunications: 
  inadequate service; 15,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 13 AM, 1
  TV; 514,000 radios, 255,000 TVs (1987 est.)

@Albania, Defense Forces

Branches: 
  Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, Interior Ministry Troops 
Manpower availability: 
  males age 15-49 906,938; fit for military service 746,945; reach
  military age (19) annually 33,184 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
  215 million leke, NA% of GNP (1993 est.); note - conversion of defense
  expenditures into US dollars using the current exchange rate could
  produce misleading results


@Algeria, Geography

Location: 
  Northern Africa, along the Mediterranean Sea, between Morocco and
  Tunisia
Map references: 
  Africa, Europe 
Area: 
total area: 
  2,381,740 sq km 
land area: 
  2,381,740 sq km 
comparative area: 
  slightly less than 3.5 times the size of Texas
Land boundaries: 
  total 6,343 km, Libya 982 km, Mali 1,376 km, Mauritania 463 km,
  Morocco 1,559 km, Niger 956 km, Tunisia 965 km, Western Sahara 42 km 
Coastline: 
  998 km 
Maritime claims: 
territorial sea: 
  12 nm
International disputes: 
  Libya claims part of southeastern Algeria; land boundary dispute with
  Tunisia settled in 1993
Climate: 
  arid to semiarid; mild, wet winters with hot, dry summers along coast;
  drier with cold winters and hot summers on high plateau; sirocco is a
  hot, dust/sand-laden wind especially common in summer
Terrain: 
  mostly high plateau and desert; some mountains; narrow, discontinuous
  coastal plain
Natural resources: 
  petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, uranium, lead, zinc 
Land use: 
arable land: 
  3% 
permanent crops: 
  0% 
meadows and pastures: 
  13% 
forest and woodland: 
  2% 
other: 
  82% 
Irrigated land: 
  3,360 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
  soil erosion from overgrazing and other poor farming practices;
  desertification; dumping of untreated sewage, petroleum refining
  wastes, and other industrial effluents is leading to the pollution of
  rivers and coastal waters; Mediterranean Sea, in particular, becoming
  polluted from oil wastes, soil erosion, and fertilizer runoff; limited
  supply of potable water
natural hazards: 
  mountainous areas subject to severe earthquakes
international agreements: 
  party to - Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental
  Modification, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands;
  signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test
  Ban
Note: 
  second-largest country in Africa (after Sudan)

@Algeria, People

Population: 
  27,895,068 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
  2.29% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
  29.71 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
  6.22 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
  -0.58 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
  52.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
  67.68 years 
male: 
  66.63 years 
female: 
  68.77 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
  3.83 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
  Algerian(s) 
adjective: 
  Algerian 
Ethnic divisions: 
  Arab-Berber 99%, European less than 1%
Religions: 
  Sunni Muslim (state religion) 99%, Christian and Jewish 1% 
Languages: 
  Arabic (official), French, Berber dialects 
Literacy: 
  age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
  57% 
male: 
  70% 
female: 
  46% 
Labor force: 
  6.2 million (1992 est.)
by occupation: 
  government 29.5%, agriculture 22%, construction and public works
  16.2%, industry 13.6%, commerce and services 13.5%, transportation and
  communication 5.2% (1989)

@Algeria, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
  Democratic and Popular Republic of Algeria 
conventional short form: 
  Algeria 
local long form: 
  Al Jumhuriyah al Jaza'iriyah ad Dimuqratiyah ash Shabiyah 
local short form: 
  Al Jaza'ir 
Digraph: 
  AG
Type: 
  republic 
Capital: 
  Algiers 
Administrative divisions: 
  48 provinces (wilayast, singular - wilaya); Adrar, Ain Defla, Ain
  Temouchent, Alger, Annaba, Batna, Bechar, Bejaia, Biskra, Blida, Bordj
  Bou Arreridj, Bouira, Boumerdes, Chlef, Constantine, Djelfa, El
  Bayadh, El Oued, El Tarf, Ghardaia, Guelma, Illizi, Jijel, Khenchela,
  Laghouat, Mascara, Medea, Mila, Mostaganem, M'Sila, Naama, Oran,
  Ouargla, Oum el Bouaghi, Relizane, Saida, Setif, Sidi Bel Abbes,
  Skikda, Souk Ahras, Tamanghasset, Tebessa, Tiaret, Tindouf, Tipaza,
  Tissemsilt, Tizi Ouzou, Tlemcen
Independence: 
  5 July 1962 (from France)
National holiday: 
  Anniversary of the Revolution, 1 November (1954) 
Constitution: 
  19 November 1976, effective 22 November 1976; revised 3 November 1988
  and 23 February 1989
Legal system: 
  socialist, based on French and Islamic law; judicial review of
  legislative acts in ad hoc Constitutional Council composed of various
  public officials, including several Supreme Court justices; has not
  accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 
  18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
  President Lamine ZEROUAL (since 31 January 1994); next election to be
  held after a three-year transition period which began on 31 January
  1994 
head of government: 
  Prime Minister Mokdad SIFI (since 11 April 1994) 
cabinet: 
  Council of Ministers; appointed by the prime minister
Legislative branch: 
  unicameral
National People's Assembly (Al-Majlis Ech-Chaabi Al-Watani):
  elections first round held on 26 December 1991 (second round canceled
  by the military after President BENDJEDID resigned 11 January 1992,
  effectively suspending the Assembly); results - percent of vote by
  party NA; seats - (281 total); the fundamentalist FIS won 188 of the
  231 seats contested in the first round; note - elections (municipal
  and wilaya) were held in June 1990, the first in Algerian history;
  results - FIS 55%, FLN 27.5%, other 17.5%, with 65% of the voters
  participating
Judicial branch: 
  Supreme Court (Cour Supreme) 
Political parties and leaders: 
  Islamic Salvation Front (FIS, outlawed April 1992), Ali BELHADJ, Dr.
  Abassi MADANI, Abdelkader HACHANI (all under arrest), Rabeh KEBIR
  (self-exile in Germany); National Liberation Front (FLN), Abdelhamid
  MEHRI, Secretary General; Socialist Forces Front (FFS), Hocine Ait
  AHMED, Secretary General
note: 
  the government established a multiparty system in September 1989 and,
  as of 31 December 1990, over 50 legal parties existed
Member of: 
  ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, AMU, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-24,
  G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT,
  INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAPEC, OAS (observer),
  OAU, OIC, OPEC, UN, UNAVEM II, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNTAC,
  UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador Nourredine Yazid ZERHOUNI 
chancery: 
  2118 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
  (202) 265-2800 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador Mary Ann CASEY 
embassy: 
  4 Chemin Cheikh Bachir El-Ibrahimi, Algiers 
mailing address: 
  B. P. Box 549, Alger-Gare, 16000 Algiers 
telephone: 
  [213] (2) 601-425, 255, 186 
FAX: 
  [213] (2) 603979 
consulate(s): 
  Oran 
Flag: 
  two equal vertical bands of green (hoist side) and white with a red
  five-pointed star within a red crescent; the crescent, star, and color
  green are traditional symbols of Islam (the state religion)

@Algeria, Economy

Overview: 
  The hydrocarbons sector is the backbone of the economy, accounting for
  roughly 57% of government revenues, 25% of GDP, and almost all export
  earnings; Algeria has the fifth largest reserves of natural gas in the
  world and ranks fourteenth for oil. Algiers' efforts to reform one of
  the most centrally planned economies in the Arab world began after the
  1986 collapse of world oil prices plunged the country into a severe
  recession. In 1989, the government launched a comprehensive,
  IMF-supported program to achieve macroeconomic stabilization and to
  introduce market mechanisms into the economy. Despite substantial
  progress toward macroeconomic adjustment, in 1992 the reform drive
  stalled as Algiers became embroiled in political turmoil. In September
  1993, a new government was formed, one of whose priorities was the
  resumption and acceleration of the structural adjustment process.
  Buffeted by the slump in world oil prices and burdened with a heavy
  foreign debt, Algiers in 1993 resumed negotiations with the IMF and is
  on track to conclude a standby arrangement with the Fund in 1994.
National product: 
  GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $89 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
  1% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
  $3,300 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
  22% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
  22% (1993 est.)
Budget: 
revenues: 
  $14.4 billion 
expenditures: 
  $14.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $3.5 billion (1992
  est.)
Exports: 
  $11.4 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
  petroleum and natural gas 97%
partners: 
  Italy 21%, France 16%, US 14%, Germany 13%, Spain 9%
Imports: 
  $9 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
  capital goods 39.7%, food and beverages 21.7%, consumer goods 11.8%
  (1990)
partners: 
  France 29%, Italy 14%, Spain 9%, US 9%, Germany 7%
External debt: 
  $26 billion (1994)
Industrial production: 
  growth rate NA%
Electricity: 
capacity: 
  6,380,000 kW
production: 
  16.384 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
  630 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
  petroleum, light industries, natural gas, mining, electrical,
  petrochemical, food processing
Agriculture: 
  accounts for 12.8% of GDP (1993 est.) and employs 22% of labor force;
  products- wheat, barley, oats, grapes, olives, citrus, fruits, sheep,
  cattle; net importer of food - grain, vegetable oil, sugar
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
  US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-85), $1.4 billion; Western
  (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $925
  million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $1.8 billion; Communist
  countries (1970-89), $2.7 billion; net official disbursements
  (1985-89), $375 million 
Currency: 
  1 Algerian dinar (DA) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates: 
  Algerian dinars (DA) per US$1 - 36.008 (April 1994), 23.345 (1993),
  21.836 (1992), 18.473 (1991), 8.958 (1990), 7.6086 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
  calendar year

@Algeria, Communications

Railroads: 
  4,060 km total; 2,616 km standard gauge (1.435 m), 1,188 km
  1.055-meter gauge, 256 km 1.000-meter gauge; 300 km electrified; 215
  km double track
Highways: 
total: 
  90,031 km 
paved: 
  concrete, bituminous 58,868 km 
unpaved: 
  gravel, crushed stone, earth 31,163 km (1990)
Pipelines: 
  crude oil 6,612 km; petroleum products 298 km; natural gas 2,948 km 
Ports: 
  Algiers, Annaba, Arzew, Bejaia, Djendjene, Ghazaouet, Jijel, Mers el
  Kebir, Mostaganem, Oran, Skikda
Merchant marine: 
  75 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 903,179 GRT/1,064,211 DWT, bulk
  9, cargo 27, chemical tanker 7, liquefied gas 9, oil tanker 5,
  roll-on/roll-off cargo 12, short-sea passenger 5, specialized tanker 1
Airports: 
total: 
  140 
usable: 
  124 
with permanent-surface runways: 
  53 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
  2 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
  32 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
  65 
Telecommunications: 
  excellent domestic and international service in the north, sparse in
  the south; 822,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 26 AM, no FM, 18
  TV; 1,600,000 TV sets; 5,200,000 radios; 5 submarine cables; microwave
  radio relay to Italy, France, Spain, Morocco, and Tunisia; coaxial
  cable to Morocco and Tunisia; satellite earth stations - 1 Atlantic
  Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Intersputnik, l ARABSAT,
  and 12 domestic; 20 additional satellite earth stations are planned

@Algeria, Defense Forces

Branches: 
  National Popular Army, Navy, Air Force, Territorial Air Defense 
Manpower availability: 
  males age 15-49 6,863,378; fit for military service 4,215,767; reach
  military age (19) annually 301,945 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
  exchange rate conversion - $1.36 billion, 2.5% of GDP (1993 est.)


@American Samoa

Header

Affiliation: 
  (territory of the US) 

@American Samoa, Geography

Location: 
  Oceania, Polynesia, in the South Pacific Ocean, 3,700 km
  south-southwest of Honolulu, about halfway between Hawaii and New
  Zealand
Map references: 
  Oceania 
Area: 
total area: 
  199 sq km 
land area: 
  199 sq km 
comparative area: 
  slightly larger than Washington, DC
note: 
  includes Rose Island and Swains Island
Land boundaries: 
  0 km 
Coastline: 
  116 km 
Maritime claims: 
contiguous zone: 
  24 nm
continental shelf: 
  200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 
  200 nm
territorial sea: 
  12 nm
International disputes: 
  none
Climate: 
  tropical marine, moderated by southeast trade winds; annual rainfall
  averages 124 inches; rainy season from November to April, dry season
  from May to October; little seasonal temperature variation
Terrain: 
  five volcanic islands with rugged peaks and limited coastal plains,
  two coral atolls (Rose Island, Swains Island)
Natural resources: 
  pumice, pumicite 
Land use: 
arable land: 
  10% 
permanent crops: 
  5% 
meadows and pastures: 
  0% 
forest and woodland: 
  75% 
other: 
  10% 
Irrigated land: 
  NA sq km 
Environment: 
rent issues: 
     NA 
ural hazards: 
     typhoons common from December to March
ernational agreements: 
     NA 
Note: 
  Pago Pago has one of the best natural deepwater harbors in the South
  Pacific Ocean, sheltered by shape from rough seas and protected by
  peripheral mountains from high winds; strategic location in the South
  Pacific Ocean

@American Samoa, People

Population: 
  55,223 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
  3.86% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
  36.63 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
  4.01 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
  6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
  18.78 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
Total population: 
  72.91 years 
male: 
  71.03 years 
female: 
  74.85 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
  4.36 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
  American Samoan(s) 
adjective: 
  American Samoan 
Ethnic divisions: 
  Samoan (Polynesian) 89%, Caucasian 2%, Tongan 4%, other 5% 
Religions: 
  Christian Congregationalist 50%, Roman Catholic 20%, Protestant
  denominations and other 30% 
Languages: 
  Samoan (closely related to Hawaiian and other Polynesian languages),
  English; most people are bilingual
Literacy: 
  age 15 and over can read and write (1980)
total population: 
  97% 
male: 
  97% 
female: 
  97% 
Labor force: 
  14,400 (1990)
by occupation: 
  government 33%, tuna canneries 34%, other 33% (1990)

@American Samoa, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
  Territory of American Samoa 
conventional short form: 
  American Samoa 
Abbreviation: 
  AS
Digraph: 
  AQ
Type: 
  unincorporated and unorganized territory of the US; administered by
  the US Department of Interior, Office of Territorial and International
  Affairs 
Capital: 
  Pago Pago 
Administrative divisions: 
  none (territory of the US)
Independence: 
  none (territory of the US)
National holiday: 
  Territorial Flag Day, 17 April (1900) 
Constitution: 
  ratified 1966, in effect 1967
Legal system: 
  NA
Suffrage: 
  18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
  President William Jefferson CLINTON (since 20 January 1993); Vice
  President Albert GORE, Jr. (since 20 January 1993) 
head of government: 
  Governor A. P. LUTALI (since 3 January 1993); Lieutenant Governor
  Tauese P. SUNIA (since 3 January 1993); election last held 3 November
  1992 (next to be held NA November 1996); results - A. P. LUTALI
  (Democrat) 53%, Peter Tali COLEMAN (Republican) 36%
Legislative branch: 
  bicameral Legislative Assembly (Fono)
House of Representatives: 
  elections last held 3 November 1992 (next to be held NA November
  1994); results - representatives popularly elected from 17 house
  districts; seats - (21 total, 20 elected, and 1 nonvoting delegate
  from Swains Island)
Senate: 
  elections last held 3 November 1992 (next to be held NA November
  1996); results - senators elected by village chiefs from 12 senate
  districts; seats - (18 total) number of seats by party NA
US House of Representatives: 
  elections last held 3 November 1992 (next to be held NA November
  1994); results - Eni R. F. H. FALEOMAVAEGA reelected as delegate
Judicial branch: 
  High Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
  NA
Member of: 
  ESCAP (associate), INTERPOL (subbureau), IOC, SPC 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
  none (territory of the US)
US diplomatic representation: 
  none (territory of the US)
Flag: 
  blue with a white triangle edged in red that is based on the fly side
  and extends to the hoist side; a brown and white American bald eagle
  flying toward the hoist side is carrying two traditional Samoan
  symbols of authority, a staff and a war club

@American Samoa, Economy

Overview: 
  Economic activity is strongly linked to the US, with which American
  Samoa conducts 80%-90% of its foreign trade. Tuna fishing and tuna
  processing plants are the backbone of the private sector, with canned
  tuna the primary export. The tuna canneries and the government are by
  far the two largest employers. Other economic activities include a
  slowly developing tourist industry. Transfers from the US Government
  add substantially to American Samoa's economic well-being.
National product: 
  GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $128 million (1991)
National product real growth rate: 
  NA%
National product per capita: 
  $2,600 (1991)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
  7% (1990)
Unemployment rate: 
  12% (1991)
Budget: 
revenues: 
  $97 million (includes $43,000,000 in local revenue and $54,000,000 in
  grant revenue);
expenditures: 
  $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY91)
Exports: 
  $306 million (f.o.b., 1989)
commodities: 
  canned tuna 93%
partners: 
  US 99.6%
Imports: 
  $360.3 million (c.i.f., 1989)
commodities: 
  materials for canneries 56%, food 8%, petroleum products 7%, machinery
  and parts 6%
partners: 
  US 62%, Japan 9%, NZ 7%, Australia 11%, Fiji 4%, other 7%
External debt: 
  $NA
Industrial production: 
  growth rate NA%
Electricity: 
capacity: 
  42,000 kW
production: 
  100 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
  2,020 kWh (1990)
Industries: 
  tuna canneries (largely dependent on foreign fishing vessels), meat
  canning, handicrafts
Agriculture: 
  bananas, coconuts, vegetables, taro, breadfruit, yams, copra,
  pineapples, papayas, dairy farming
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
  $21,042,650 in operational funds and $1,227,000 in construction funds
  for capital improvement projects from the US Department of Interior
  (1991)
Currency: 
  1 United States dollar = 100 cents
Exchange rates: 
  US currency is used
Fiscal year: 
  1 October - 30 September

@American Samoa, Communications

Railroads: 
  none
Highways: 
total: 
  350 km 
paved: 
  150 km 
unpaved: 
  200 km 
Ports: 
  Pago Pago, Ta'u, Ofu, Auasi, Aanu'u (new construction), Faleosao
Airports: 
total: 
  4 
usable: 
  4 
with permanent-surface runways: 
  2 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
  0 
with runways 2,440 to 3,659 m: 
  1 (international airport at Tafuna)
with runways 1,200 to 2,439 m: 
  0 
note: 
  small airstrips on Fituita and Ofu
Telecommunications: 
  8,399 telephones; broadcast stations - 1 AM, 1 FM, 1 TV; good telex,
  telegraph, and facsimile services; 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth
  station, 1 COMSAT earth station

@American Samoa, Defense Forces

Note: 
  defense is the responsibility of the US


@Andorra, Geography

Location: 
  Southwestern Europe, between France and Spain
Map references: 
  Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
  450 sq km 
land area: 
  450 sq km 
comparative area: 
  slightly more than 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries: 
  total 125 km, France 60 km, Spain 65 km 
Coastline: 
  0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: 
  none; landlocked
International disputes: 
  none
Climate: 
  temperate; snowy, cold winters and cool, dry summers
Terrain: 
  rugged mountains dissected by narrow valleys
Natural resources: 
  hydropower, mineral water, timber, iron ore, lead 
Land use: 
arable land: 
  2% 
permanent crops: 
  0% 
meadows and pastures: 
  56% 
forest and woodland: 
  22% 
other: 
  20% 
Irrigated land: 
  NA sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
  deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion
natural hazards: 
  NA 
international agreements: 
  NA 
Note: 
  landlocked

@Andorra, People

Population: 
  63,930 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
  2.99% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
  13.34 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
  7.12 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
  23.65 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
  7.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
  78.37 years 
male: 
  75.5 years 
female: 
  81.5 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
  1.73 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
  Andorran(s) 
adjective: 
  Andorran 
Ethnic divisions: 
  Spanish 61%, Andorran 30%, French 6%, other 3% 
Religions: 
  Roman Catholic (predominant)
Languages: 
  Catalan (official), French, Castilian 
Literacy: 
total population: 
  NA%
male: 
  NA%
female: 
  NA%
Labor force: 
  NA

@Andorra, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
  Principality of Andorra 
conventional short form: 
  Andorra 
local long form: 
  Principat d'Andorra 
local short form: 
  Andorra 
Digraph: 
  AN
Type: 
  parliamentary democracy (since March 1993) that retains as its heads
  of state a co-principality; the two princes are the president of
  France and Spanish bishop of Seo de Urgel, who are represented locally
  by officials called veguers
Capital: 
  Andorra la Vella 
Administrative divisions: 
  7 parishes (parroquies, singular - parroquia); Andorra, Canillo,
  Encamp, La Massana, Les Escaldes, Ordino, Sant Julia de Loria
Independence: 
     1278 
National holiday: 
  Mare de Deu de Meritxell, 8 September 
Constitution: 
  Andorra's first written constitution was drafted in 1991; adopted 14
  March 1993
Legal system: 
  based on French and Spanish civil codes; no judicial review of
  legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 
  18 years of age, universal
Executive branch: 
chiefs of state: 
  French Co-Prince Francois MITTERRAND (since 21 May 1981), represented
  by Veguer de Franca Jean Pierre COURTOIS (since NA); Spanish Episcopal
  Co-Prince Mgr. Juan MARTI Alanis (since 31 January 1971), represented
  by Veguer Episcopal Francesc BADIA Bata - two co-princes (President
  Francois MITTERRAND of France, since 21 May 1981, and Bishop of Seo de
  Urgel Juan MARTI Alanis in Spain, since 31 January 1971), two
  designated representatives (France - Veguer de Franca Jean Pierre
  COURTOIS, since NA, and Spain - Veguer Episcopal Francesc BADIA Bata,
  since NA), two permanent delegates (French Prefect Pierre STEINMETZ
  for the department of Pyrenees-Orientales, since NA, and Spanish Vicar
  General Nemesi MARQUES Oste for the Seo de Urgel diocese, since NA)
head of government: 
  Executive Council President Oscar RIBAS Reig (since 10 December 1993)
  elected by Parliament
cabinet: 
  Executive Council; designated by the executive council president
Legislative branch: 
  unicameral
General Council of the Valleys: 
  (Consell General de las Valls); elections last held 12 December 1993
  (next to be held NA); yielded no clear winner; results - percent of
  vote by party NA; seats - (28 total) number of seats by party NA
Judicial branch: 
  Supreme Court of Andorra at Perpignan (France) for civil cases, the
  Ecclesiastical Court of the bishop of Seo de Urgel (Spain) for civil
  cases, Tribunal of the Courts (Tribunal des Cortes) for criminal cases
Political parties and leaders: 
  National Democratic Group (AND), Oscar RIBAS Reig and Jordi FARRAS;
  Liberal Union (UL), Francesc CERQUEDA; New Democracy (ND), Jaume
  BARTOMEU; Andorran National Coalition (CNA), Antoni CERQUEDA; National
  Democratic Initiative (IDN), Vincenc MATEU; Liberal Union (UL),
  Francesc CERQUEDA
note: 
  there are two other small parties
Member of: 
  ECE, INTERPOL, IOC, UN 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
  Andorra has no mission in the US
US diplomatic representation: 
  Andorra is included within the Barcelona (Spain) Consular District,
  and the US Consul General visits Andorra periodically
Flag: 
  three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red with
  the national coat of arms centered in the yellow band; the coat of
  arms features a quartered shield; similar to the flags of Chad and
  Romania that do not have a national coat of arms in the center

@Andorra, Economy

Overview: 
  Tourism, the mainstay of Andorra's economy, accounts for roughly 80%
  of GDP. An estimated 13 million tourists visit annually, attracted by
  Andorra's duty-free status and by its summer and winter resorts. The
  banking sector, with its "tax haven" status, also contributes
  substantially to the economy. Agricultural production is limited by a
  scarcity of arable land, and most food has to be imported. The
  principal livestock activity is sheep raising. Manufacturing consists
  mainly of cigarettes, cigars, and furniture. Andorra is a member of
  the EU Customs Union; it is unclear what effect the European Single
  Market will have on the advantages Andorra obtains from its duty-free
  status.
National product: 
  GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $760 million (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
  NA%
National product per capita: 
  $14,000 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
  NA%
Unemployment rate: 
  0% 
Budget: 
revenues: 
  $138 million 
expenditures: 
  $177 million, Including capital expenditures of $NA (1993)
Exports: 
  $30 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
  electricity, tobacco products, furniture
partners: 
  France, Spain
Imports: 
  $NA
commodities: 
  consumer goods, food
partners: 
  France, Spain
External debt: 
  $NA
Industrial production: 
  growth rate NA%
Electricity: 
capacity: 
  35,000 kW
production: 
  140 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
  2,570 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
  tourism (particularly skiing), sheep, timber, tobacco, banking
Agriculture: 
  sheep raising; small quantities of tobacco, rye, wheat, barley, oats,
  and some vegetables
Economic aid: 
  none
Currency: 
  1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes; 1 peseta (Pta) = 100 centimos; the
  French and Spanish currencies are used
Exchange rates: 
  French francs (F) per US$1 - 5.9205 (January 1994), 5.6632 (1993),
  5.2938 (1992), 5.6421 (1991), 5.4453 (1990), 6.3801 (1989); Spanish
  pesetas (Ptas) per US$1 - 143.04 (January 1994), 127.26 (1993), 102.38
  (1992), 103.91 (1991), 101.93 (1990), 118.38 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
  calendar year

@Andorra, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
  96 km 
paved: 
  NA 
unpaved: 
  NA 
Telecommunications: 
  international digital microwave network; international landline
  circuits to France and Spain; broadcast stations - 1 AM, no FM, no TV;
  17,700 telephones

@Andorra, Defense Forces

Note: 
  defense is the responsibility of France and Spain


@Angola, Geography

Location: 
  Southern Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean between Namibia
  and Zaire
Map references: 
  Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
  1,246,700 sq km 
land area: 
  1,246,700 sq km 
comparative area: 
  slightly less than twice the size of Texas
Land boundaries: 
  total 5,198 km, Congo 201 km, Namibia 1,376 km, Zaire 2,511 km, Zambia
  1,110 km 
Coastline: 
  1,600 km 
Maritime claims: 
exclusive fishing zone: 
  200 nm
territorial sea: 
  20 nm
International disputes: 
  none
Climate: 
  semiarid in south and along coast to Luanda; north has cool, dry
  season (May to October) and hot, rainy season (November to April)
Terrain: 
  narrow coastal plain rises abruptly to vast interior plateau
Natural resources: 
  petroleum, diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, copper, feldspar, gold,
  bauxite, uranium 
Land use: 
arable land: 
  2% 
permanent crops: 
  0% 
meadows and pastures: 
  23% 
forest and woodland: 
  43% 
other: 
  32% 
Irrigated land: 
  NA km2
Environment: 
current issues: 
  population pressures contributing to overuse of pastures and
  subsequent soil erosion; desertification; deforestation of tropical
  rain forest attributable to the international demand for tropical
  timber and domestic use as a fuel; deforestation contributing to loss
  of biodiversity; soil erosion contributing to water pollution and
  siltation of rivers and dams; scarcity of potable water
natural hazards: 
  locally heavy rainfall causes periodic flooding on the plateau
international agreements: 
  party to - Law of the Sea; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity,
  Climate Change
Note: 
  Cabinda is separated from rest of country by Zaire

@Angola, People

Population: 
  9,803,576 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
  2.67% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
  45.43 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
  18.55 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
  -0.15 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
  145.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
  45.77 years 
male: 
  43.72 years 
female: 
  47.92 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
  6.48 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
  Angolan(s) 
adjective: 
  Angolan 
Ethnic divisions: 
  Ovimbundu 37%, Kimbundu 25%, Bakongo 13%, mestico (mixed European and
  Native African) 2%, European 1%, other 22% 
Religions: 
  indigenous beliefs 47%, Roman Catholic 38%, Protestant 15% (est.)
Languages: 
  Portuguese (official), Bantu and other African languages 
Literacy: 
  age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
  42% 
male: 
  56% 
female: 
  28% 
Labor force: 
  2.783 million economically active
by occupation: 
  agriculture 85%, industry 15% (1985 est.)

@Angola, Government

Note: 
  Civil war has been the norm since independence on 11 November 1975; a
  cease-fire lasted from 31 May 1991 until October 1992 when the
  insurgent National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA)
  refused to accept its defeat in internationally monitored elections;
  fighting has since resumed throughout much of the countryside.
  Nevertheless, the two sides are negotiating the details for holding
  the second round of presidential elections.
Names: 
conventional long form: 
  Republic of Angola 
conventional short form: 
  Angola 
local long form: 
  Republica de Angola 
local short form: 
  Angola 
former: 
  People's Republic of Angola 
Digraph: 
  AO
Type: 
  transitional government nominally a multiparty democracy with a strong
  presidential system
Capital: 
  Luanda 
Administrative divisions: 
  18 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Bengo, Benguela, Bie,
  Cabinda, Cuando Cubango, Cuanza Norte, Cuanza Sul, Cunene, Huambo,
  Huila, Luanda, Lunda Norte, Lunda Sul, Malanje, Moxico, Namibe, Uige,
  Zaire
Independence: 
  11 November 1975 (from Portugal)
National holiday: 
  Independence Day, 11 November (1975) 
Constitution: 
  11 November 1975; revised 7 January 1978, 11 August 1980, 6 March
  1991, and 26 August 1992
Legal system: 
  based on Portuguese civil law system and customary law; recently
  modified to accommodate political pluralism and increased use of free
  markets
Suffrage: 
  18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
  President Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS (since 21 September 1979) 
head of government: 
  Prime Minister Marcolino Jose Carlos MOCO (since 2 December 1992) 
cabinet: 
  Council of Ministers; appointed by the president
Legislative branch: 
  unicameral
National Assembly (Assembleia Nacional): 
  first nationwide, multiparty elections were held 29-30 September 1992
  with disputed results; further elections are being discussed
Judicial branch: 
  Supreme Court (Tribunal da Relacao) 
Political parties and leaders: 
  Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA), led by Jose
  Eduardo DOS SANTOS, is the ruling party and has been in power since
  1975; National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA), led
  by Jonas SAVIMBI, remains a legal party despite its return to armed
  resistance to the government; five minor parties have small numbers of
  seats in the National Assembly
Other political or pressure groups: 
  Cabindan State Liberation Front (FLEC), N'ZITA Tiago, leader of
  largest faction (FLEC-FAC)
note: 
  FLEC is waging a small-scale, highly factionalized, armed struggle for
  the independence of Cabinda Province
Member of: 
  ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEEAC (observer), ECA, FAO, FLS, G-77, IBRD, ICAO,
  IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ITU,
  LORCS, NAM, OAS (observer), OAU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU,
  WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador Jose PATRICIO 
embassy: 
  1899 L Street NW, 5th floor, Washington, DC 20038 
telephone: 
  (202) 785-1156 
FAX: 
  (202) 785-1258 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador Edmund DE JARNETTE 
embassy: 
  Miramar, Luanda 
mailing address: 
  CP6484, Luanda, Angola (mail international); US Embassy, Luanda,
  Department of State, Washington, D.C. 20521-2550 (pouch) 
telephone: 
  [244] (2) 39-24-98 
FAX: 
  [244] (2) 39-05-15 
Flag: 
  two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and black with a centered
  yellow emblem consisting of a five-pointed star within half a cogwheel
  crossed by a machete (in the style of a hammer and sickle)

@Angola, Economy

Overview: 
  Subsistence agriculture provides the main livelihood for 80-90% of the
  population but accounts for less than 15% of GDP. Oil production is
  vital to the economy, contributing about 60% to GDP. Bitter internal
  fighting continues to severely affect the economy, and food must be
  imported. In 1993, production fell by an estimated 22.6%, mainly
  because of the capture by insurgents of the oil town of Soyo and
  diamond-producing areas in northeastern Angola. Angola has rich
  natural resources - notably gold, diamonds, and arable land, in
  addition to large oil depoaits - but will need to end the war and
  reform government policies if it is to achieve its potential.
National product: 
  GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $5.7 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
  -22.6% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
  $600 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
  1,840% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
  15% with considerable underemployment (1993 est.)
Budget: 
revenues: 
  $928 million 
expenditures: 
  $2.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $963 million (1992
  est.)
Exports: 
  $3 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
  oil, diamonds, refined petroleum products, gas, coffee, sisal, fish
  and fish products, timber, cotton
partners: 
  US, France, Germany, Netherlands, Brazil
Imports: 
  $1.6 billion (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities: 
  capital equipment (machinery and electrical equipment), food, vehicles
  and spare parts, textiles and clothing, medicines; substantial
  military deliveries
partners: 
  Portugal, Brazil, US, France, Spain
External debt: 
  $8 billion (1993 est.)
Industrial production: 
  growth rate NA%; accounts for about 60% of GDP, including petroleum
  output
Electricity: 
capacity: 
  510,000 kW
production: 
  800 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
  84 kWh (1991)
Industries: 
  petroleum; mining - diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, feldspar, bauxite,
  uranium, and gold; fish processing; food processing; brewing; tobacco;
  sugar; textiles; cement; basic metal products
Agriculture: 
  cash crops - bananas, sugar cane, coffee, sisal, corn, cotton, cane,
  manioc, tobacco; food crops - cassava, corn, vegetables, plantains ;
  livestock production accounts for 20%, fishing 4%, forestry 2% of
  total agricultural output; disruptions caused by civil war, and
  marketing deficiencies require food imports
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
  US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $265 million; Western
  (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89),
  $1.105 billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $1.3 billion; net
  official disbursements (1985-89), $750 million 
Currency: 
  1 new kwanza (NKz) = 100 lwei
Exchange rates: 
  kwanza (Kz) per US$1 - 90,000 (official rate 1June 1994), 180,000
  (black market rate 1 June 1994); 7,000 (official rate 16 December
  1993), 50,000 (black market rate 16 December 1993); 3,884 (July 1993);
  550 (April 1992); 90 (November 1991); 60 (October 1990)
Fiscal year: 
  calendar year

@Angola, Communications

Railroads: 
  3,189 km total; 2,879 km 1.067-meter gauge, 310 km 0.600-meter gauge;
  limited trackage in use because of landmines still in place from the
  civil war; majority of the Benguela Railroad also closed because of
  civil war
Highways: 
total: 
  73,828 km 
paved: 
  bituminous-surface 8,577 km 
unpaved: 
  crushed stone, gravel, improved earth 29,350 km; unimproved earth
  35,901 km 
Inland waterways: 
  1,295 km navigable
Pipelines: 
  crude oil 179 km 
Ports: 
  Luanda, Lobito, Namibe, Cabinda
Merchant marine: 
  12 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 63,776 GRT/99,863 DWT, cargo 11,
  oil tanker 1 
Airports: 
total: 
  302 
usable: 
  175 
with permanent-surface runways: 
  32 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
  2 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
  18 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
  59 
Telecommunications: 
  limited system of wire, microwave radio relay, and troposcatter
  routes; high frequency radio used extensively for military links;
  telephone service limited mostly to government and business use;
  40,300 telephones (4.1 telephones per 1,000 persons); broadcast
  stations - 17 AM, 13 FM, 6 TV; 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth
  stations

@Angola, Defense Forces

Branches: 
  Army, Navy, Air Force/Air Defense, People's Defense Organization and
  Territorial Troops, 
Manpower availability: 
  males age 15-49 2,262,669; fit for military service 1,139,319; reach
  military age (18) annually 96,900 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
  $NA, NA% of GDP


@Anguilla

Header

Affiliation: 
  (dependent territory of the UK) 

@Anguilla, Geography

Location: 
  Caribbean, in the eastern Caribbean Sea, about 270 km east of Puerto
  Rico
Map references: 
  Central America and the Caribbean 
Area: 
total area: 
  91 sq km 
land area: 
  91 sq km 
comparative area: 
  about half the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries: 
  0 km  
Coastline: 
  61 km 
Maritime claims: 
exclusive fishing zone: 
  200 nm
territorial sea: 
     3 nm
International disputes: 
  none
Climate: 
  tropical; moderated by northeast trade winds
Terrain: 
  flat and low-lying island of coral and limestone
Natural resources: 
  negligible; salt, fish, lobster 
Land use: 
arable land: 
  NA%
permanent crops: 
  NA%
meadows and pastures: 
  NA%
forest and woodland: 
  NA%
other: 
  NA% (mostly rock with sparse scrub oak, few trees, some commercial
  salt ponds)
Irrigated land: 
  NA sq km
Environment: 
current issues: 
  NA 
natural hazards: 
  frequent hurricanes and other tropical storms (July to October)
international agreements: 
  NA 

@Anguilla, People

Population: 
  7,052 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
  0.67% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
  24.25 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
  8.08 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
  -9.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
  17.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
  73.99 years 
male: 
  71.21 years 
female: 
  76.8 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
  3.07 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
  Anguillan(s) 
adjective: 
  Anguillan 
Ethnic divisions: 
  black African 
Religions: 
  Anglican 40%, Methodist 33%, Seventh-Day Adventist 7%, Baptist 5%,
  Roman Catholic 3%, other 12% 
Languages: 
  English (official)
Literacy: 
  age 12 and over can read and write (1984)
total population: 
  95% 
male: 
  95% 
female: 
  95% 
Labor force: 
  2,780 (1984)
by occupation: 
  NA

@Anguilla, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
  none 
conventional short form: 
  Anguilla 
Digraph: 
  AV
Type: 
  dependent territory of the UK 
Capital: 
  The Valley 
Administrative divisions: 
  none (dependent territory of the UK)
Independence: 
  none (dependent territory of the UK)
National holiday: 
  Anguilla Day, 30 May 
Constitution: 
  Anguilla Constitutional Orders 1 April 1982; amended 1990
Legal system: 
  based on English common law
Suffrage: 
  18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
  Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor
  Alan W. SHAVE (since 14 August 1992) 
head of government: 
  Chief Minister Hubert HUGHES (since 16 March 1994) 
cabinet: 
   Executive Council; appointed by the governor from the elected members
  of the House of Assembly
Legislative branch: 
  unicameral
House of Assembly: 
  elections last held 16 March 1994 (next to be held March 1999);
  results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (11 total, 7 elected)
  ANA 2, AUP 2, ADP 2, independent 1
Judicial branch: 
  High Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
  Anguilla National Alliance (ANA); Anguilla United Party (AUP), Hubert
  HUGHES; Anguilla Democratic Party (ADP), Victor BANKS
Member of: 
  CARICOM (observer), CDB, INTERPOL (subbureau) 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
  none (dependent territory of the UK)
US diplomatic representation: 
  none (dependent territory of the UK)
Flag: 
  two horizontal bands of white (top, almost triple width) and light
  blue with three orange dolphins in an interlocking circular design
  centered in the white band; a new flag may have been in use since 30
  May 1990

@Anguilla, Economy

Overview: 
  Anguilla has few natural resources, and the economy depends heavily on
  lobster fishing, offshore banking, tourism, and remittances from
  emigrants. In recent years the economy has benefited from a boom in
  tourism and construction. Development plans center around the
  improvement of the infrastructure, particularly transport and tourist
  facilities, and also light industry.
National product: 
  GDP - exchange rate conversion - $56.5 million (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
  7.5% (1992 est.)
National product per capita: 
  $6,800 (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
  3% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
  5% (1988 est.)
Budget: 
revenues: 
  $13.8 million 
expenditures: 
  $15.2 million, including capital expenditures of $2.4 million (1992
  est.)
Exports: 
  $556,000 (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities: 
  lobster and salt
partners: 
  NA
Imports: 
  $33.5 million (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities: 
  NA
partners: 
  NA
External debt: 
  $NA
Industrial production: 
  growth rate NA%
Electricity: 
capacity: 
  2,000 kW
production: 
  6 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
  862 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
  tourism, boat building, salt
Agriculture: 
  pigeon peas, corn, sweet potatoes, sheep, goats, pigs, cattle,
  poultry, fishing (including lobster)
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
  Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
  (1970-89), $38 million 
Currency: 
  1 EC dollar (EC$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates: 
  East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1 - 2.70 (fixed rate since 1976)
Fiscal year: 
  NA

@Anguilla, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
  NA 
paved: 
  60 km 
unpaved: 
  NA 
Ports: 
  Road Bay, Blowing Point
Airports: 
total: 
  3 
usable: 
  2 
with permanent-surface runways: 
  1 (1,000 m at Wallblake Airport)
with runways over 3,659 m: 
  0 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
  0 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
  0 
Telecommunications: 
  modern internal telephone system; 890 telephones; broadcast stations -
  3 AM, 1 FM, no TV; radio relay microwave link to island of Saint
  Martin

@Anguilla, Defense Forces

Note: 
  defense is the responsibility of the UK


@Antarctica, Geography

Location: 
  continent mostly south of the Antarctic Circle
Map references: 
  Antarctic Region 
Area: 
total area: 
  14 million sq km (est.)
land area: 
  14 million sq km (est.)
comparative area: 
  slightly less than 1.5 times the size of the US
note: 
  second-smallest continent (after Australia)
Land boundaries: 
  none, but see entry on International disputes
Coastline: 
  17,968 km 
Maritime claims: 
  none, but see entry on International Disputes
International disputes: 
  Antarctic Treaty defers claims (see Antarctic Treaty Summary below);
  sections (some overlapping) claimed by Argentina, Australia, Chile,
  France (Adelie Land), New Zealand (Ross Dependency), Norway (Queen
  Maud Land), and UK; the US and most other nations do not recognize the
  territorial claims of other nations and have made no claims themselves
  (the US reserves the right to do so); no formal claims have been made
  in the sector between 90 degrees west and 150 degrees west
Climate: 
  severe low temperatures vary with latitude, elevation, and distance
  from the ocean; East Antarctica is colder than West Antarctica because
  of its higher elevation; Antarctic Peninsula has the most moderate
  climate; higher temperatures occur in January along the coast and
  average slightly below freezing
Terrain: 
  about 98% thick continental ice sheet and 2% barren rock, with average
  elevations between 2,000 and 4,000 meters; mountain ranges up to 4,897
  meters high; ice-free coastal areas include parts of southern Victoria
  Land, Wilkes Land, the Antarctic Peninsula area, and parts of Ross
  Island on McMurdo Sound; glaciers form ice shelves along about half of
  the coastline, and floating ice shelves constitute 11% of the area of
  the continent
Natural resources: 
  none presently exploited; iron ore, chromium, copper, gold, nickel,
  platinum and other minerals, and coal and hydrocarbons have been found
  in small, uncommercial quantities 
Land use: 
arable land: 
  0% 
permanent crops: 
  0% 
meadows and pastures: 
  0% 
forest and woodland: 
  0% 
other: 
  100% (ice 98%, barren rock 2%)
Irrigated land: 
  0 sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
  in October 1991 it was reported that the ozone shield, which protects
  the Earth's surface from harmful ultraviolet radiation, had dwindled
  to the lowest level recorded over Antarctica since 1975 when
  measurements were first taken
natural hazards: 
  katabatic (gravity-driven) winds blow coastward from the high
  interior; frequent blizzards form near the foot of the plateau;
  cyclonic storms form over the ocean and move clockwise along the
  coast; volcanism on Deception Island and isolated areas of West
  Antarctica; other seismic activity rare and weak
international agreements: 
  NA 
Note: 
  the coldest, windiest, highest, and driest continent; during summer
  more solar radiation reaches the surface at the South Pole than is
  received at the Equator in an equivalent period; mostly uninhabitable

@Antarctica, People

Population: 
  no indigenous inhabitants; note - there are seasonally staffed
  research stations
Summer (January) population: 
  over 4,115 total; Argentina 207, Australia 268, Belgium 13, Brazil 80,
  Chile 256, China NA, Ecuador NA, Finland 11, France 78, Germany 32,
  Greenpeace 12, India 60, Italy 210, Japan 59, South Korea 14,
  Netherlands 10, NZ 264, Norway 23, Peru 39, Poland NA, South Africa
  79, Spain 43, Sweden 10, UK 116, Uruguay NA, US 1,666, former USSR 565
  (1989-90)
Winter (July) population: 
  over 1,046 total; Argentina 150, Australia 71, Brazil 12, Chile 73,
  China NA, France 33, Germany 19, Greenpeace 5, India 1, Japan 38,
  South Korea 14, NZ 11, Poland NA, South Africa 12, UK 69, Uruguay NA,
  US 225, former USSR 313 (1989-90)
Year-round stations: 
  42 total; Argentina 6, Australia 3, Brazil 1, Chile 3, China 2,
  Finland 1, France 1, Germany 1, India 1, Japan 2, South Korea 1, NZ 1,
  Poland 1, South Africa 3, UK 5, Uruguay 1, US 3, former USSR 6
  (1990-91)
Summer only stations: 
  over 38 total; Argentina 7, Australia 3, Chile 5, Germany 3, India 1,
  Italy 1, Japan 4, NZ 2, Norway 1, Peru 1, South Africa 1, Spain 1,
  Sweden 2, UK 1, US numerous, former USSR 5 (1989-90); note - the
  disintegration of the former USSR has placed the status and future of
  its Antarctic facilities in doubt; stations may be subject to closings
  at any time because of ongoing economic difficulties
Names: 
conventional long form: 
  none 
conventional short form: 
  Antarctica 
Digraph: 
  AY
Type: 
Antarctic Treaty Summary: 
  The Antarctic Treaty, signed on 1 December 1959 and entered into force
  on 23 June 1961, establishes the legal framework for the management of
  Antarctica. Administration is carried out through consultative member
  meetings - the 18th Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting was in Japan
  in April 1993. Currently, there are 42 treaty member nations: 26
  consultative and 16 acceding. Consultative (voting) members include
  the seven nations that claim portions of Antarctica as national
  territory (some claims overlap) and 19 nonclaimant nations. The US and
  some other nations that have made no claims have reserved the right to
  do so. The US does not recognize the claims of others. The year in
  parentheses indicates when an acceding nation was voted to full
  consultative (voting) status, while no date indicates the country was
  an original 1959 treaty signatory. Claimant nations are - Argentina,
  Australia, Chile, France, New Zealand, Norway, and the UK. Nonclaimant
  consultative nations are - Belgium, Brazil (1983), China (1985),
  Ecuador (1990), Finland (1989), Germany (1981), India (1983), Italy
  (1987), Japan, South Korea (1989), Netherlands (1990), Peru (1989),
  Poland (1977), South Africa, Spain (1988), Sweden (1988), Uruguay
  (1985), the US, and Russia.
  Acceding (nonvoting) members, with year of accession in parentheses,
  are - Austria (1987), Bulgaria (1978), Canada (1988), Colombia (1988),
  Cuba (1984), Czech Republic (1993), Denmark (1965), Greece (1987),
  Guatemala (1991), Hungary (1984), North Korea (1987), Papua New Guinea
  (1981), Romania (1971), Slovakia (1993), Switzerland (1990), and
  Ukraine (1992).
Article 1: 
  area to be used for peaceful purposes only; military activity, such as
  weapons testing, is prohibited, but military personnel and equipment
  may be used for scientific research or any other peaceful purpose
Article 2: 
  freedom of scientific investigation and cooperation shall continue
Article 3: 
  free exchange of information and personnel in cooperation with the UN
  and other international agencies
Article 4: 
  does not recognize, dispute, or establish territorial claims and no
  new claims shall be asserted while the treaty is in force
Article 5: 
  prohibits nuclear explosions or disposal of radioactive wastes
Article 6: 
  includes under the treaty all land and ice shelves south of 60 degrees
  00 minutes south
Article 7: 
  treaty-state observers have free access, including aerial observation,
  to any area and may inspect all stations, installations, and
  equipment; advance notice of all activities and of the introduction of
  military personnel must be given
Article 8: 
  allows for jurisdiction over observers and scientists by their own
  states
Article 9: 
  frequent consultative meetings take place among member nations
Article 10: 
  treaty states will discourage activities by any country in Antarctica
  that are contrary to the treaty
Article 11: 
  disputes to be settled peacefully by the parties concerned or,
  ultimately, by the ICJ
Article 12, 13, 14: 
  deal with upholding, interpreting, and amending the treaty among
  involved nations
Other agreements: 
  more than 170 recommendations adopted at treaty consultative meetings
  and ratified by governments include - Agreed Measures for the
  Conservation of Antarctic Fauna and Flora (1964); Convention for the
  Conservation of Antarctic Seals (1972); Convention on the Conservation
  of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (1980); a mineral resources
  agreement was signed in 1988 but was subsequently rejected; in 1991
  the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty was
  signed and awaits ratification; this agreement provides for the
  protection of the Antarctic environment through five specific annexes
  on marine pollution, fauna, and flora, environmental impact
  assessments, waste management, and protected areas; it also prohibits
  all activities relating to mineral resources except scientific
  research; nine parties have ratified Protocol as of April 1994
Legal system: 
  US law, including certain criminal offenses by or against US
  nationals, such as murder, may apply to areas not under jurisdiction
  of other countries. Some US laws directly apply to Antarctica. For
  example, the Antarctic Conservation Act, 16 U.S.C. section 2401 et
  seq., provides civil and criminal penalties for the following
  activities, unless authorized by regulation of statute: The taking of
  native mammals or birds; the introduction of nonindigenous plants and
  animals; entry into specially protected or scientific areas; the
  discharge or disposal of pollutants; and the importation into the US
  of certain items from Antarctica. Violation of the Antarctic
  Conservation Act carries penalties of up to $10,000 in fines and 1
  year in prison. The Departments of Treasury, Commerce, Transportation,
  and Interior share enforcement responsibilities. Public Law 95-541,
  the US Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978, requires expeditions from
  the US to Antarctica to notify, in advance, the Office of Oceans and
  Polar Affairs, Room 5801, Department of State, Washington, DC 20520,
  which reports such plans to other nations as required by the Antarctic
  Treaty. For more information contact Permit Office, Office of Polar
  Programs, National Science Foundation, Arlington, Virginia 22230
  (703-306-1031).
Overview: 
  No economic activity at present except for fishing off the coast and
  small-scale tourism, both based abroad.

@Antarctica, Communications

Ports: 
  none; offshore anchorage only at most coastal stations
Airports: 
  42 landing facilities at different locations operated by 15 national
  governments party to the Treaty; one additional air facility operated
  by commercial (nongovernmental) tourist organization; helicopter pads
  at 28 of these locations; runways at 10 locations are gravel, sea ice,
  glacier ice, or compacted snow surface suitable for wheeled fixed-wing
  aircraft; no paved runways; 16 locations have snow-surface skiways
  limited to use by ski-equipped planes--11 runways/skiways 1,000 to
  3,000 m, 3 runways/skiways less than 1,000 m, 5 runways/skiways
  greater than 3,000 m, and 7 of unspecified or variable length;
  airports generally subject to severe restrictions and limitations
  resulting from extreme seasonal and geographic conditions; airports do
  not meet ICAO standards; advance approval from the respective
  governmental or non-governmental operating organization required for
  landing

@Antarctica, Defense Forces

Note: 
  the Antarctic Treaty prohibits any measures of a military nature, such
  as the establishment of military bases and fortifications, the
  carrying out of military maneuvers, or the testing of any type of
  weapon; it permits the use of military personnel or equipment for
  scientific research or for any other peaceful purposes


@Antigua and Barbuda, Geography

Location: 
  Caribbean, in the eastern Caribbean Sea, about 420 km east-southeast
  of Puerto Rico
Map references: 
  Central America and the Caribbean, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
  440 sq km 
land area: 
  440 sq km 
comparative area: 
  slightly less than 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC
note: 
  includes Redonda
Land boundaries: 
  0 km  
Coastline: 
  153 km 
Maritime claims: 
contiguous zone: 
  24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 
  200 nm
territorial sea: 
  12 nm
International disputes: 
  none
Climate: 
  tropical marine; little seasonal temperature variation
Terrain: 
  mostly low-lying limestone and coral islands with some higher volcanic
  areas
Natural resources: 
  negligible; pleasant climate fosters tourism 
Land use: 
arable land: 
  18% 
permanent crops: 
  0% 
meadows and pastures: 
  7% 
forest and woodland: 
  16% 
other: 
  59% 
Irrigated land: 
  NA sq km
Environment: 
current issues: 
  insufficient freshwater resources
natural hazards: 
  subject to hurricanes and tropical storms (July to October)
international agreements: 
  party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Environmental Modification,
  Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
  Pollution, Whaling

@Antigua and Barbuda, People

Population: 
  64,762 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
  0.59% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
  17.31 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
  5.44 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
  -5.93 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
  18.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
  73.11 years 
male: 
  71.07 years 
female: 
  75.26 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
  1.67 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
  Antiguan(s), Barbudan(s) 
adjective: 
  Antiguan, Barbudan 
Ethnic divisions: 
  black African, British, Portuguese, Lebanese, Syrian 
Religions: 
  Anglican (predominant), other Protestant sects, some Roman Catholic 
Languages: 
  English (official), local dialects 
Literacy: 
  age 15 and over having completed 5 or more years of schooling (1960)
total population: 
  89% 
male: 
  90% 
female: 
  88% 
Labor force: 
  30,000 
by occupation: 
  commerce and services 82%, agriculture 11%, industry 7% (1983)

@Antigua and Barbuda, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
  none 
conventional short form: 
  Antigua and Barbuda 
Digraph: 
  AC
Type: 
  parliamentary democracy 
Capital: 
  Saint John's 
Administrative divisions: 
  6 parishes and 2 dependencies*; Barbuda*, Redonda*, Saint George,
  Saint John, Saint Mary, Saint Paul, Saint Peter, Saint Philip
Independence: 
  1 November 1981 (from UK)
National holiday: 
  Independence Day, 1 November (1981) 
Constitution: 
  1 November 1981
Legal system: 
  based on English common law
Suffrage: 
  18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
  Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor
  General James B. CARLISLE (since NA 1993) 
head of government: 
  Prime Minister Lester Bryant BIRD (since 8 March 1994) 
cabinet: 
  Council of Ministers; appointed by the governor general on the advice
  of the prime minister
Legislative branch: 
  bicameral Parliament
Senate: 
  17 member body appointed by the governor general
House of Representatives: 
  elections last held 8 March 1994 (next to be held NA 1999); results -
  percent of vote by party NA; seats - (17 total) ALP 11, UPP 5,
  independent 1
Judicial branch: 
  Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
  Antigua Labor Party (ALP), Lester Bryant BIRD; United Progressive
  Party (UPP), Baldwin SPENCER
Other political or pressure groups: 
  United Progressive Party (UPP), headed by Baldwin SPENCER, a coalition
  of three opposition political parties - the United National Democratic
  Party (UNDP); the Antigua Caribbean Liberation Movement (ACLM); and
  the Progressive Labor Movement (PLM); Antigua Trades and Labor Union
  (ATLU), headed by Noel THOMAS
Member of: 
  ACP, C, CARICOM, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IFAD,
  IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC, ITU,
  LORCS, NAM (observer), OAS, OECS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, WCL,
  WHO, WMO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador Patrick Albert LEWIS 
chancery: 
  Suite 4M, 3400 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
  (202) 362-5211 or 5166, 5122 
FAX: 
  (202) 362-5225 
consulate(s) general: 
  Miami 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
  the US Ambassador to Barbados is accredited to Antigua and Barbuda,
  and, in his absence, the Embassy is headed by Charge d'Affaires Bryant
  J. SALTER 
embassy: 
  Queen Elizabeth Highway, Saint John's 
mailing address: 
  FPO AA 34054-0001 
telephone: 
  (809) 462-3505 or 3506 
FAX: 
  (809) 462-3516 
Flag: 
  red with an inverted isosceles triangle based on the top edge of the
  flag; the triangle contains three horizontal bands of black (top),
  light blue, and white with a yellow rising sun in the black band

@Antigua and Barbuda, Economy

Overview: 
  The economy is primarily service oriented, with tourism the most
  important determinant of economic performance. During the period
  1986-91, real GDP expanded at an annual average rate of about 6%.
  Tourism makes a direct contribution to GDP of about 13% and also
  affects growth in other sectors - particularly in construction,
  communications, and public utilities. In 1992, reduced government
  capital spending and private sector investment, dampened by recession
  in the major world economies, slowed economic growth.
National product: 
  GDP - exchange rate conversion - $368.5 million (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
  NA
National product per capita: 
  $5,800 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
  7% (1993)
Unemployment rate: 
  5% (1988 est.)
Budget: 
revenues: 
  $105 million 
expenditures: 
  $161 million, including capital expenditures of $56 million (1992)
Exports: 
  $54.7 million (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities: 
  petroleum products 48%, manufactures 23%, food and live animals 4%,
  machinery and transport equipment 17%
partners: 
  OECS 26%, Barbados 15%, Guyana 4%, Trinidad and Tobago 2%, US 0.3%
Imports: 
  $260.9 million (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities: 
  food and live animals, machinery and transport equipment,
  manufactures, chemicals, oil
partners: 
  US 27%, UK 16%, Canada 4%, OECS 3%, other 50%
External debt: 
  $250 million (1990 est.)
Industrial production: 
  growth rate 3% (1989 est.); accounts for 8% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
  52,100 kW
production: 
  95 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
  1,482 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
  tourism, construction, light manufacturing (clothing, alcohol,
  household appliances)
Agriculture: 
  accounts for 4% of GDP; expanding output of cotton, fruits,
  vegetables, and livestock; other crops - bananas, coconuts, cucumbers,
  mangoes, sugarcane; not self-sufficient in food
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
  US commitments (1985-88), $10 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA
  and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $50 million 
Currency: 
  1 EC dollar (EC$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates: 
  East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1 - 2.70 (fixed rate since 1976)
Fiscal year: 
  1 April - 31 March

@Antigua and Barbuda, Communications

Railroads: 
  64 km 0.760-meter narrow gauge and 13 km 0.610-meter gauge used almost
  exclusively for handling sugarcane
Highways: 
total: 
  240 km 
paved: 
  NA 
unpaved: 
  NA 
Ports: 
  Saint John's
Merchant marine: 
  227 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 849,699 GRT/1,218,492 DWT, bulk
  4, cargo 156, chemical tanker 11, container 37, liquified gas 2, oil
  tanker 2, refrigerated cargo 4, roll-on/roll-off cargo 11 
note: 
  a flag of convenience registry
Airports: 
total: 
  3 
usable: 
  3 
with permanent-surface runways: 
  2 
with runways 3,659 m: 
  0 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
  1 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
  0 
Telecommunications: 
  good automatic telephone system; 6,700 telephones; tropospheric
  scatter links with Saba and Guadeloupe; broadcast stations - 4 AM, 2
  FM, 2 TV, 2 shortwave; 1 coaxial submarine cable; 1 Atlantic Ocean
  INTELSAT earth station

@Antigua and Barbuda, Defense Forces

Branches: 
  Royal Antigua and Barbuda Defense Force, Royal Antigua and Barbuda
  Police Force (including the Coast Guard)
Defense expenditures: 
  exchange rate conversion - $1.4 million, 1% of GDP (FY90/91)


@Arctic Ocean, Geography

Location: 
  body of water mostly north of the Arctic Circle
Map references: 
  Arctic Region, Asia, North America, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
  14.056 million sq km 
comparative area: 
  slightly more than 1.5 times the size of the US; smallest of the
  world's four oceans (after Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, and Indian
  Ocean)
note: 
  includes Baffin Bay, Barents Sea, Beaufort Sea, Chukchi Sea, East
  Siberian Sea, Greenland Sea, Hudson Bay, Hudson Strait, Kara Sea,
  Laptev Sea, Northwest Passage, and other tributary water bodies
Coastline: 
  45,389 km 
International disputes: 
  some maritime disputes (see littoral states); Svalbard is the focus of
  a maritime boundary dispute between Norway and Russia
Climate: 
  polar climate characterized by persistent cold and relatively narrow
  annual temperature ranges; winters characterized by continuous
  darkness, cold and stable weather conditions, and clear skies; summers
  characterized by continuous daylight, damp and foggy weather, and weak
  cyclones with rain or snow
Terrain: 
  central surface covered by a perennial drifting polar icepack that
  averages about 3 meters in thickness, although pressure ridges may be
  three times that size; clockwise drift pattern in the Beaufort Gyral
  Stream, but nearly straight line movement from the New Siberian
  Islands (Russia) to Denmark Strait (between Greenland and Iceland);
  the ice pack is surrounded by open seas during the summer, but more
  than doubles in size during the winter and extends to the encircling
  land masses; the ocean floor is about 50% continental shelf (highest
  percentage of any ocean) with the remainder a central basin
  interrupted by three submarine ridges (Alpha Cordillera, Nansen
  Cordillera, and Lomonsov Ridge); maximum depth is 4,665 meters in the
  Fram Basin
Natural resources: 
  sand and gravel aggregates, placer deposits, polymetallic nodules, oil
  and gas fields, fish, marine mammals (seals and whales) 
Environment: 
current issues: 
  endangered marine species include walruses and whales; fragile
  ecosystem slow to change and slow to recover from disruptions or
  damage
natural hazards: 
  ice islands occasionally break away from northern Ellesmere Island;
  icebergs calved from glaciers in western Greenland and extreme
  northeastern Canada; permafrost in islands; virtually icelocked from
  October to June
international agreements: 
  NA 
Note: 
  major chokepoint is the southern Chukchi Sea (northern access to the
  Pacific Ocean via the Bering Strait); ships subject to superstructure
  icing from October to May; strategic location between North America
  and Russia; shortest marine link between the extremes of eastern and
  western Russia, floating research stations operated by the US and
  Russia; maximum snow cover in March or April about 20 to 50
  centimeters over the frozen ocean and lasts about 10 months

@Arctic Ocean, Government

Digraph: 
  XQ

@Arctic Ocean, Economy

Overview: 
  Economic activity is limited to the exploitation of natural resources,
  including petroleum, natural gas, fish, and seals.

@Arctic Ocean, Communications

Ports: 
  Churchill (Canada), Murmansk (Russia), Prudhoe Bay (US)
Telecommunications: 
  no submarine cables
Note: 
  sparse network of air, ocean, river, and land routes; the Northwest
  Passage (North America) and Northern Sea Route (Eurasia) are important
  seasonal waterways


@Argentina, Geography

Location: 
  Southern South America, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean between
  Chile and Uruguay
Map references: 
  South America, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
  2,766,890 sq km 
land area: 
  2,736,690 sq km 
comparative area: 
  slightly less than three-tenths the size of the US
Land boundaries: 
  total 9,665 km, Bolivia 832 km, Brazil 1,224 km, Chile 5,150 km,
  Paraguay 1,880 km, Uruguay 579 km 
Coastline: 
  4,989 km 
Maritime claims: 
contiguous zone: 
  24 nm
continental shelf: 
  200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 
  not specified
territorial sea: 
  200 nm; overflight and navigation permitted beyond 12 nm
International disputes: 
  short section of the boundary with Uruguay is in dispute; short
  section of the boundary with Chile is indefinite; claims
  British-administered Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas); claims
  British-administered South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands;
  territorial claim in Antarctica
Climate: 
  mostly temperate; arid in southeast; subantarctic in southwest
Terrain: 
  rich plains of the Pampas in northern half, flat to rolling plateau of
  Patagonia in south, rugged Andes along western border
Natural resources: 
  fertile plains of the pampas, lead, zinc, tin, copper, iron ore,
  manganese, petroleum, uranium 
Land use: 
arable land: 
  9% 
permanent crops: 
  4% 
meadows and pastures: 
  52% 
forest and woodland: 
  22% 
other: 
  13% 
Irrigated land: 
  17,600 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
  erosion results from inadequate flood controls and improper land use
  practices; irrigated soil degradation; desertification; air pollution
  in Buenos Aires and other major cites; water pollution in urban areas;
  rivers becoming polluted due to increased pesticide and fertilizer use
natural hazards: 
  Tucuman and Mendoza areas in the Andes subject to earthquakes;
  pamperos are violent windstorms that can strike the Pampas and
  northeast; heavy flooding
international agreements: 
  party to - Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Climate
  Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous
  Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
  Pollution, Whaling; signed, but not ratfied - Biodiversity, Law of the
  Sea, Marine Life Conservation
Note: 
  second-largest country in South America (after Brazil); strategic
  location relative to sea lanes between South Atlantic and South
  Pacific Oceans (Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel, Drake Passage)

@Argentina, People

Population: 
  33,912,994 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
  1.12% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
  19.62 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
  8.63 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
  0.21 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
  29.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
  71.35 years 
male: 
  68.06 years 
female: 
  74.81 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
  2.68 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
  Argentine(s) 
adjective: 
  Argentine 
Ethnic divisions: 
  white 85%, mestizo, Indian, or other nonwhite groups 15% 
Religions: 
  nominally Roman Catholic 90% (less than 20% practicing), Protestant
  2%, Jewish 2%, other 6% 
Languages: 
  Spanish (official), English, Italian, German, French 
Literacy: 
  age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
  95% 
male: 
  96% 
female: 
  95% 
Labor force: 
  10.9 million 
by occupation: 
  agriculture 12%, industry 31%, services 57% (1985 est.)

@Argentina, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
  Argentine Republic 
conventional short form: 
  Argentina 
local long form: 
  Republica Argentina 
local short form: 
  Argentina 
Digraph: 
     AR
Type: 
  republic 
Capital: 
  Buenos Aires 
Administrative divisions: 
  23 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia), and 1 federal
  district* (distrito federal); Buenos Aires; Catamarca; Chaco; Chubut;
  Cordoba; Corrientes; Distrito Federal*; Entre Rios; Formosa; Jujuy; La
  Pampa; La Rioja; Mendoza; Misiones; Neuquen; Rio Negro; Salta; San
  Juan; San Luis; Santa Cruz; Santa Fe; Santiago del Estero; Tierra del
  Fuego, Antartida e Islas del Atlantico Sur; Tucuman
note: 
  the US does not recognize any claims to Antarctica or Argentina's
  claims to the Falkland Islands
Independence: 
  9 July 1816 (from Spain)
National holiday: 
  Revolution Day, 25 May (1810) 
Constitution: 
  1 May 1853
Legal system: 
  mixture of US and West European legal systems; has not accepted
  compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 
  18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state and head of government: 
  President Carlos Saul MENEM (since 8 July 1989); Vice President
  (position vacant); election last held 14 May 1989 (next to be held
  summer 1995); results - Carlos Saul MENEM was elected
cabinet: 
  Cabinet; appointed by the president
Legislative branch: 
  bicameral National Congress (Congreso Nacional)
Senate: 
  elections last held May 1989, but provincial elections in late 1991
  set the stage for indirect elections by provincial senators for
  one-third of 48 seats in the national senate in May 1992; seats (48
  total) - PJ 30, UCR 11, others 7
Chamber of Deputies: 
  elections last held NA October 1993 ( next to be held October 1995);
  elections are held every two years and half of the total membership is
  elected each time for four year terms; seats--(257 total) PJ 128, UCR
  81, MODIN 7, UCD 5, other 36
Judicial branch: 
  Supreme Court (Corte Suprema) 
Political parties and leaders: 
  Justicialist Party (PJ), Carlos Saul MENEM, Peronist umbrella
  political organization; Radical Civic Union (UCR),Raul ALFONSIN,
  moderately left-of-center party; Union of the Democratic Center (UCD),
  Jorge AGUADO, conservative party; Intransigent Party (PI), Dr. Oscar
  ALENDE, leftist party; Dignity and Independence Political Party
  (MODIN), Aldo RICO, right-wing party; Grand Front (Frente Grande),
  Carlos ALVAREZ, center-left coalition; several provincial parties
Other political or pressure groups: 
  Peronist-dominated labor movement; General Confederation of Labor
  (CGT; Peronist-leaning umbrella labor organization); Argentine
  Industrial Union (manufacturers' association); Argentine Rural Society
  (large landowners' association); business organizations; students; the
  Roman Catholic Church; the Armed Forces
Member of: 
  AG (observer), Australia Group, BCIE, CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-6, G-11,
  G-15, G-19, G-24, AfDB, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC,
  ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL,
  IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, LORCS, MERCOSUR, MINURSO, MTCR, OAS,
  PCA, RG, UN, UNAVEM II, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNOMOZ,
  UNOSOM, UNPROFOR, UNTAC, UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador Raul Enrique GRANILLO OCAMPO 
chancery: 
  1600 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009 
telephone: 
  (202) 939-6400 through 6403 
consulate(s) general: 
  Atlanta, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York,
  San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico) 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador James CHEEK (since 28 May 1993) 
embassy: 
  4300 Colombia, 1425 Buenos Aires 
mailing address: 
  APO AA 34034 
telephone: 
  [54] (1) 774-7611, 8811, 9911 
FAX: 
  [54] (1) 775-4205 
Flag: 
  three equal horizontal bands of light blue (top), white, and light
  blue; centered in the white band is a radiant yellow sun with a human
  face known as the Sun of May

@Argentina, Economy

Overview: 
  Argentina is rich in natural resources and has a highly literate
  population, an export-oriented agricultural sector, and a diversified
  industrial base. Nevertheless, following decades of mismanagement and
  statist policies, the economy in the late 1980s was plagued with huge
  external debts and recurring bouts of hyperinflation. Elected in 1989,
  in the depths of recession, President MENEM has implemented a
  comprehensive economic restructuring program that shows signs of
  putting Argentina on a path of stable, sustainable growth. Argentina's
  currency has traded at par with the US dollar since April 1991, and
  inflation has fallen to its lowest level in 20 years. Argentines have
  responded to the relative price stability by repatriating flight
  capital and investing in domestic industry. Growth slowed somewhat in
  1993 but Argentina still registered an impressive 6% advance, fueled
  largely by inflows of foreign capital and strong domestic consumption
  spending. The government's major short term objective is encouraging
  exports, e.g., by reducing domestic costs of production. Much remains
  to be done in the 1990s in dismantling the old statist barriers to
  growth and in solidifying the recent economic gains.
National product: 
  GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $185 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
  6% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
  $5,500 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
  7.4% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
  10% (1993)
Budget: 
revenues: 
  $33.1 billion 
expenditures: 
  $35.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $3.5 billion (1992)
Exports: 
  $12.7 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
  meat, wheat, corn, oilseed, hides, wool
partners: 
  US 12%, Brazil, Italy, Japan, Netherlands
Imports: 
  $16 billion (c.i.f., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
  machinery and equipment, chemicals, metals, fuels and lubricants,
  agricultural products
partners: 
  US 22%, Brazil, Germany, Bolivia, Japan, Italy, Netherlands
External debt: 
  $73 billion (April 1994)
Industrial production: 
  growth rate 10% (1992 est.); accounts for 31% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
  17,911,000 kW
production: 
  51.305 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
  1,559 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
  food processing, motor vehicles, consumer durables, textiles,
  chemicals and petrochemicals, printing, metallurgy, steel
Agriculture: 
  accounts for 8% of GDP (including fishing); produces abundant food for
  both domestic consumption and exports; among world's top five
  exporters of grain and beef; principal crops - wheat, corn, sorghum,
  soybeans, sugar beets
Illicit drugs: 
  increasing use as a transshipment country for cocaine headed for the
  US and Europe
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
  US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1 billion; Western
  (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $4.4
  billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $718 million 
Currency: 
  1 nuevo peso argentino = 100 centavos
Exchange rates: 
  pesos per US$1 - 0.99850 (January 1994), 0.99895 (1993), 0.99064
  (1992), 0.95355 (1991), 0.48759 (1990), 0.04233 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
  calendar year

@Argentina, Communications

Railroads: 
  34,172 km total (includes 209 km electrified); includes a mixture of
  1.435-meter standard gauge, 1.676-meter broad gauge, 1.000-meter
  narrow gauge, and 0.750-meter narrow gauge
Highways: 
total: 
  208,350 km 
paved: 
  57,000 km 
unpaved: 
  gravel 39,500 km; improved/unimproved earth 111,850 km 
Inland waterways: 
  11,000 km navigable
Pipelines: 
  crude oil 4,090 km; petroleum products 2,900 km; natural gas 9,918 km 
Ports: 
  Bahia Blanca, Buenos Aires, Comodoro Rivadavia, La Plata, Rosario,
  Santa Fe
Merchant marine: 
  57 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 656,289 GRT/1,008,792 DWT, bulk
  3, cargo 29, container 4, oil tanker 14, railcar carrier 1,
  refrigerated cargo 5, roll-on/roll-off cargo 1 
Airports: 
total: 
  1,649 
usable: 
  1,394 
with permanent-surface runways: 
  139 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
  0 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
  31 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
  332 
Telecommunications: 
  extensive modern system but many families do not have telephones;
  2,650,000 telephones (12,000 public telephones); telephone density 78
  per 1000 persons; microwave widely used; broadcast stations - 171 AM,
  no FM, 231 TV, 13 shortwave; 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations;
  domestic satellite network has 40 earth stations

@Argentina, Defense Forces

Branches: 
  Argentine Army, Navy of the Argentine Republic, Argentine Air Force,
  National Gendarmerie, Argentine Naval Prefecture (Coast Guard only),
  National Aeronautical Police Force 
Manpower availability: 
  males age 15-49 8,417,880; fit for military service 6,825,795; reach
  military age (20) annually 292,725 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
  $NA, NA% of GDP


@Armenia, Geography

Location: 
  Southwestern Asia, between Turkey and Azerbaijan
Map references: 
  Africa, Asia, Commonwealth of Independent States - European States,
  Middle East, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
  29,800 sq km 
land area: 
  28,400 sq km 
comparative area: 
  slightly larger than Maryland
Land boundaries: 
  total 1,254 km, Azerbaijan (east) 566 km, Azerbaijan (south) 221 km,
  Georgia 164 km, Iran 35 km, Turkey 268 km 
Coastline: 
  0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: 
  none; landlocked
International disputes: 
  violent and longstanding dispute with Azerbaijan over ethnically
  Armenian exclave of Nagorno-Karabakh; traditional demands on former
  Armenian lands in Turkey have greatly subsided
Climate: 
  highland continental, hot summers, cold winters
Terrain: 
  high Armenian Plateau with mountains; little forest land; fast flowing
  rivers; good soil in Aras River valley
Natural resources: 
  small deposits of gold, copper, molybdenum, zinc, alumina 
Land use: 
arable land: 
  17% 
permanent crops: 
  3% 
meadows and pastures: 
  20% 
forest and woodland: 
  0% 
other: 
  60% 
Irrigated land: 
  3,050 sq km (1990)
Environment: 
current issues: 
  soil pollution from toxic chemicals such as DDT; energy blockade, the
  result of conflict with Azerbaijan, has led to deforestation as
  citizens scavenge for firewood; pollution of Hrazdan (Razdan) and Aras
  Rivers; the draining of Lake Sevan, a result of its use as a source
  for hydropower, threatens drinking water supplies; air pollution in
  Yerevan
natural hazards: 
  occasionally severe earthquakes (25,000 people killed in major quake
  in 1988); subject to drought
international agreements: 
  party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change
Note: 
  landlocked

@Armenia, People

Population: 
  3,521,517 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
  1.08% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
  24.21 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
  6.72 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
  -6.72 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
  27.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
  72.07 years 
male: 
  68.65 years 
female: 
  75.65 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
  3.19 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
  Armenian(s) 
adjective: 
  Armenian 
Ethnic divisions: 
  Armenian 93%, Azeri 3%, Russian 2%, other 2% 
Religions: 
  Armenian Orthodox 94% 
Languages: 
  Armenian 96%, Russian 2%, other 2% 
Literacy: 
  age 9-49 can read and write (1970)
total population: 
  100% 
male: 
  100% 
female: 
  100% 
Labor force: 
  1.578 million 
by occupation: 
  industry and construction 34%, agriculture and forestry 31%, other 35%
  (1992)

@Armenia, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
  Republic of Armenia 
conventional short form: 
  Armenia 
local long form: 
  Hayastani Hanrapetut'yun 
local short form: 
  Hayastan 
former: 
  Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic; Armenian Republic 
Digraph: 
  AM
Type: 
  republic 
Capital: 
  Yerevan 
Administrative divisions: 
  none (all rayons are under direct republic jurisdiction)
Independence: 
  28 May 1918 (First Armenian Republic);  23 September 1991 (from Soviet
  Union)
National holiday: 
  Referendum Day, 21 September 
Constitution: 
  adopted NA April 1978; post-Soviet constitution not yet adopted
Legal system: 
  based on civil law system
Suffrage: 
  18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
  President Levon Akopovich TER-PETROSYAN (since 16 October 1991), Vice
  President Gagik ARUTYUNYAN (since 16 October 1991); election last held
  16 October 1991 (next to be held NA); results - Levon Akopovich
  TER-PETROSYAN 86%; radical nationalists about 7%; note - Levon
  Akopovich TER-PETROSYAN was elected Chairman of the Armenian Supreme
  Soviet 4 August 1990 before becoming president
head of government: 
  Prime Minister Hrant BAGRATYAN (since 16 February 1993); First Deputy
  Prime Minister Vigen CHITECHYAN (since 16 February 1993) 
cabinet: 
  Council of Ministers; appointed by the president
Legislative branch: 
  unicameral
Supreme Soviet: 
  elections last held 20 May 1990 (next to be held NA); results -
  percent of vote by party NA; seats - (260 total) non-aligned 125, ANM
  52, DPA 23, Democratic Liberal Party 17, ARF 17, NDU 9, Christian
  Democratic Party 1, Constitutional Rights Union 1, UNSD 1, Republican
  Party 1, Nagorno-Karabakh representatives 13
Judicial branch: 
  Supreme Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
  Armenian National Movement (ANM), Ter-Husik LAZARYAN, chairman;
  National Democratic Union (NDU), David VARTANYAN, chairman; Armenian
  Revolutionary Federation (ARF, Dashnaktsutyun), Arutyun ALISTAKESYAN,
  chairman; Democratic Party of Armenia (DPA; Communist Party), Aram
  SARKISYAN, chairman; Christian Democratic Party, Azat ARSHAKYAN,
  chairman; Greens Party, Hakob SANASARIAN, chairman; Democratic Liberal
  Party, Rouben MIRZAKHANYAN, chairman; Republican Party, Ashot
  NAVARSARDYAN, chairman; Union for Self-Determination (UNSD), Paruir
  AIRIKYAN, chairman
Member of: 
  BSEC, CCC, CIS, CSCE, EBRD, ECE, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, ILO,
  IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, NACC, NAM (observer), UN, UNCTAD,
  UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador Rouben Robert SHUGARIAN 
chancery: 
  Suite 210, 1660 L Street NW, Washington, DC 20036 
telephone: 
  (202) 628-5766 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador Harry J. GILMORE 
embassy: 
  18 Gen Bagramian, Yerevan 
mailing address: 
  use embassy street address 
telephone: 
  7-8852-151-144 or 8852-524-661 
FAX: 
  7-8852-151-138 
Flag: 
  three equal horizontal bands of red (top), blue, and gold

@Armenia, Economy

Overview: 
  Under the old central planning system, Armenia had built up a
  developed industrial sector, supplying machine building equipment,
  textiles, and other manufactured goods to sister republics in exchange
  for raw materials and energy resources. Armenia is a large food
  importer and its mineral deposits (gold, bauxite) are small. The
  economic decline in the past three years (1991-93) has been
  particularly severe due to the ongoing conflict over the Armenian
  enclave of Nagorno-Karabakh in Azerbaijan. Azerbaijan and Turkey have
  blockaded pipeline and railroad traffic to Armenia for its support of
  the Karabakh Armenians. This has left Armenia with only sporadic
  deliveries of natural gas through unstable Georgia, while other fuel
  and raw materials are in critical short supply. Inflation, roughly 14%
  per month in the first nine months of 1993, surged even higher in the
  fourth quarter. In late 1993, most industrial enterprises were either
  shut down or operating at drastically reduced levels. Only small
  quantities of food were available (mostly humanitarian aid), heat was
  nonexistent, and electricity strictly rationed. An economic recovery
  cannot be expected until the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict is settled and
  until transportation through Georgia improves.
National product: 
  GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $7.1 billion (1993 estimate from
  the UN International Comparison Program, as extended to 1991 and
  published in the World Bank's World Development Report 1993; and as
  extrapolated to 1993 using official Armenian statistics, which are
  very uncertain because of major economic changes since 1990)
National product real growth rate: 
  -9.9% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
  $2,040 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
  14% per month average (first 9 months, 1993)
Unemployment rate: 
  6.5% of officially registered unemployed but large numbers of
  underemployed (1993 est.)
Budget: 
revenues: 
  $NA
expenditures: 
  $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports: 
  $31 million to countries outside the FSU (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: 
  machinery and transport equipment, light industrial products,
  processed food items, alcoholic products (1991)
partners: 
  NA
Imports: 
  $87 million from countries outside the FSU (c.i.f., 1993)
commodities: 
  grain, other foods, fuel, other energy (1991)
partners: 
  Russia, US, EC
External debt: 
  $NA
Industrial production: 
  growth rate -11% (1993 est.)
Electricity: 
capacity: 
  2,875,000 kW
production: 
  9 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
  2,585 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
  traditionally diverse, including (as a percent of output of former
  USSR) metalcutting machine tools (5.5%), forging-pressing machines
  (1.9%), electric motors (9%), tires (1.5%), knitted wear (4.4%),
  hosiery (3.0%), shoes (2.2%), silk fabric (0.8%), washing machines
  (2.0%), chemicals, trucks, watches, instruments, and microelectronics
  (1990); currently, much of industry is shut down
Agriculture: 
  accounts for about 45% of GDP; only 17% of land area is arable;
  employs 20%-30% of labor force as residents increasingly turn to
  subsistence agriculture; fruits (especially grapes) and vegetable
  farming, minor livestock sector; vineyards near Yerevan are famous for
  brandy and other liqueurs
Illicit drugs: 
  illicit cultivator of cannabis mostly for domestic consumption; used
  as a transshipment point for illicit drugs to Western Europe
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
  considerable humanitarian aid, mostly food and energy products, from
  US and EC; Russia has granted 60 billion rubles in technical credits
Currency: 
  1 dram = 100 luma; introduced separate currency in November 1993
Exchange rates: 
  NA
Fiscal year: 
  calendar year

@Armenia, Communications

Railroads: 
  840 km; does not include industrial lines (1990)
Highways: 
total: 
  11,300 km 
paved: 
  10,500 km 
unpaved: 
  earth 800 km (1990)
Inland waterways: 
  NA km
Pipelines: 
  natural gas 900 km (1991)
Ports: 
  none; landlocked
Airports: 
total: 
  12 
usable: 
  10 
with permanent-surface runways: 
  6 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
  1 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
  3 
with runways 1,060-2,439 m: 
  2 
note: 
  a C-130 can land on a 1,060-m airstrip
Telecommunications: 
  progress on installation of fiber optic cable and construction of
  facilities for mobile cellular phone service remains in the
  negotiation phase for joint venture agreement; Armenia has about
  650,000 telephones; average telephone density is 17.7 per 100 persons;
  international connections to other former republics of the USSR are by
  landline or microwave and to other countries by satellite and by
  leased connection through the Moscow international gateway switch;
  broadcast stations - 100% of population receives Armenian and Russian
  TV programs; satellite earth station - INTELSAT

@Armenia, Defense Forces

Branches: 
  Army, Air Force, National Guard, Security Forces (internal and border
  troops)
Manpower availability: 
  males age 15-49 862,921; fit for military service 690,113; reach
  military age (18) annually 28,458 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
  250 million rubles, NA% of GDP (1992 est.); note - conversion of the
  military budget into US dollars using the current exchange rate could
  produce misleading results


@Aruba

Header
Affiliation: 
  (part of the Dutch realm) 

@Aruba, Geography

Location: 
  Caribbean, in the southern Caribbean Sea, 28 km north of Venezuela and
  125 km east of Colombia
Map references: 
  Central America and the Caribbean 
Area: 
total area: 
  193 sq km 
land area: 
  193 sq km 
comparative area: 
  slightly larger than Washington, DC
Land boundaries: 
  0 km  
Coastline: 
  68.5 km 
Maritime claims: 
exclusive fishing zone: 
  12 nm
territorial sea: 
  12 nm
International disputes: 
  none
Climate: 
  tropical marine; little seasonal temperature variation
Terrain: 
  flat with a few hills; scant vegetation
Natural resources: 
  negligible; white sandy beaches 
Land use: 
arable land: 
  0% 
permanent crops: 
  0% 
meadows and pastures: 
  0% 
forest and woodland: 
  0% 
other: 
  100% 
Irrigated land: 
  NA sq km
Environment: 
current issues: 
  NA 
natural hazards: 
  lies outside the Caribbean hurricane belt
international agreements: 
  NA 

@Aruba, People

Population: 
  65,545 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
  0.65% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
  14.95 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
  6.12 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
  -2.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
  8.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
  76.43 years 
male: 
  72.77 years 
female: 
  80.27 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
  1.82 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
  Aruban(s) 
adjective: 
  Aruban 
Ethnic divisions: 
  mixed European/Caribbean Indian 80% 
Religions: 
  Roman Catholic 82%, Protestant 8%, Hindu, Muslim, Confucian, Jewish 
Languages: 
  Dutch (official), Papiamento (a Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch, English
  dialect), English (widely spoken), Spanish 
Literacy: 
total population: 
  NA%
male: 
  NA%
female: 
  NA%
Labor force: 
  NA
by occupation: 
  most employment is in the tourist industry (1986)

@Aruba, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
  none 
conventional short form: 
  Aruba 
Digraph: 
  AA
Type: 
  part of the Dutch realm; full autonomy in internal affairs obtained in
  1986 upon separation from the Netherlands Antilles
Capital: 
  Oranjestad 
Administrative divisions: 
  none (self-governing part of the Netherlands)
Independence: 
  none (part of the Dutch realm; in 1990, Aruba requested and received
  from the Netherlands cancellation of the agreement to automatically
  give independence to the island in 1996)
National holiday: 
  Flag Day, 18 March 
Constitution: 
  1 January 1986
Legal system: 
  based on Dutch civil law system, with some English common law
  influence
Suffrage: 
  18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
  Queen BEATRIX Wilhelmina Armgard (since 30 April 1980), represented by
  Governor General Olindo KOOLMAN (since 1 January 1992) 
head of government: 
  Prime Minister Nelson ODUBER (since 6 February 1989) 
cabinet: 
  Council of Ministers; appointed with the advice and approval of the
  legislature
Legislative branch: 
  unicameral
Legislature (Staten): 
  elections last held 8 January 1993 (next to be held by NA January
  1997); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (21 total) MEP
  9, AVP 8, ADN 1, PPA 1, OLA 1, other 1
Judicial branch: 
  Joint High Court of Justice 
     Political parties and leaders: 
          Electoral Movement Party (MEP), Nelson ODUBER; Aruban People's Party
          (AVP), Henny EMAN; National Democratic Action (ADN), Pedro Charro
          KELLY; New Patriotic Party (PPN), Eddy WERLEMEN; Aruban Patriotic
          Party (PPA), Benny NISBET; Aruban Democratic Party (PDA), Leo
          BERLINSKI; Democratic Action '86 (AD '86), Arturo ODUBER; Organization
          for Aruban Liberty (OLA), Glenbert CROES
     note: 
          governing coalition includes the MEP, PPA, and ADN
     Member of: 
          ECLAC (associate), INTERPOL, IOC, UNESCO (associate), WCL, WTO
          (associate) 
     Diplomatic representation in US: 
          none (self-governing part of the Netherlands)
     US diplomatic representation: 
          none (self-governing part of the Netherlands)
     Flag: 
          blue with two narrow horizontal yellow stripes across the lower
          portion and a red, four-pointed star outlined in white in the upper
          hoist-side corner

@Aruba, Economy

Overview: 
  Tourism is the mainstay of the economy, although offshore banking and
  oil refining and storage are also important. Hotel capacity expanded
  rapidly between 1985 and 1989 and nearly doubled in 1990 alone.
  Unemployment has steadily declined from about 20% in 1986 to about 3%
  in 1991 and to less than 1% in 1992. The reopening of the local oil
  refinery, once a major source of employment and foreign exchange
  earnings, promises to give the economy an additional boost.
National product: 
  GDP - exchange rate conversion - $1.2 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
  5% (1993)
National product per capita: 
  $17,400 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
  6.5% (1993)
Unemployment rate: 
  0.6% (1992)
Budget: 
revenues: 
  $145 million 
expenditures: 
  $185 million, including capital expenditures of $42 million (1988)
Exports: 
  $1.3 billion (including oil re-exports) (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
     mostly petroleum products
partners: 
  US 64%, EC
Imports: 
  $1.6 billion including oil for processing and re-export (f.o.b., 1993
  est.)
commodities: 
  food, consumer goods, manufactures, petroleum products
partners: 
  US 8%, EC
External debt: 
  $81 million (1987)
Industrial production: 
  growth rate NA%
Electricity: 
capacity: 
  90,000 kW
production: 
  375 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
  6,000 kWh (1990 est.)
Industries: 
  tourism, transshipment facilities, oil refining
Agriculture: 
  poor quality soils and low rainfall limit agricultural activity to the
  cultivation of aloes, some livestock, and fishing
Illicit drugs: 
  drug money laundering center and transit point for narcotics bound for
  the US and Europe
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
  Western (non-US) countries ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
  (1980-89), $220 million 
Currency: 
  1 Aruban florin (Af.) = 100 cents
Exchange rates: 
  Aruban florins (Af.) per US$1 - 1.7900 (fixed rate since 1986)
Fiscal year: 
  calendar year

@Aruba, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
  NA 
paved: 
  NA 
unpaved: 
  NA 
Ports: 
  Oranjestad, Sint Nicolaas
Airports: 
total: 
  2 
usable: 
  2 
with permanent-surface runways: 
  2 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
  0 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
  1 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
  0 
note: 
  government-owned airport east of Oranjestad accepts transatlantic
  flights
Telecommunications: 
  more than adequate; telephone density - 1,100 telephones per 1,000
  persons; extensive interisland microwave radio relay links; 72,168
  telephones; broadcast stations - 4 AM, 4 FM, 1 TV; 1 submarine cable
  to Saint Maarten

@Aruba, Defense Forces

Note: 
  defense is the responsibility of the Netherlands


@Ashmore and Cartier Islands

Header
Affiliation: 
  (territory of Australia) 

@Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Geography

Location: 
  Southeastern Asia, in the Indian Ocean, 320 km off the northwest coast
  of Australia, between Australia and Indonesia
Map references: 
  Oceania, Southeast Asia 
Area: 
total area: 
  5 sq km 
land area: 
  5 sq km 
comparative area: 
  about 8.5 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC
note: 
  includes Ashmore Reef (West, Middle, and East Islets) and Cartier
  Island
Land boundaries: 
  0 km  
Coastline: 
  74.1 km 
Maritime claims: 
contiguous zone: 
  12 nm
continental shelf: 
  200-m depth or to depth of exploration
exclusive fishing zone: 
  200 nm
territorial sea: 
  3 nm
International disputes: 
  none
Climate: 
  tropical
Terrain: 
  low with sand and coral
Natural resources: 
  fish 
Land use: 
arable land: 
  0% 
permanent crops: 
  0% 
meadows and pastures: 
  0% 
forest and woodland: 
  0% 
other: 
  100% (all grass and sand)
Irrigated land: 
  0 sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
  NA 
natural hazards: 
  surrounded by shoals and reefs
international agreements: 
  NA 
Note: 
  Ashmore Reef National Nature Reserve established in August 1983

@Ashmore and Cartier Islands, People

Population: 
  no indigenous inhabitants; note - there are only seasonal caretakers

@Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
  Territory of Ashmore and Cartier Islands 
conventional short form: 
  Ashmore and Cartier Islands 
Digraph: 
  AT
Type: 
  territory of Australia administered by the Australian Ministry for the
  Environment, Sport, and Territories
Capital: 
  none; administered from Canberra, Australia
Administrative divisions: 
  none (territory of Australia)
Independence: 
  none (territory of Australia)
Legal system: 
  relevant laws of the Northern Territory of Australia
Diplomatic representation in US: 
  none (territory of Australia)
US diplomatic representation: 
  none (territory of Australia)

@Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Economy

Overview: 
  no economic activity

@Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Communications

Ports: 
  none; offshore anchorage only

@Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Defense Forces

Note: 
  defense is the responsibility of Australia; periodic visits by the
  Royal Australian Navy and Royal Australian Air Force


@Atlantic Ocean, Geography

Location: 
  body of water between the Western Hemisphere and Europe/Africa
Map references: 
  Africa, Antarctic Region, Arctic Region, Central America and the
  Caribbean, Europe, North America, South America, Standard Time Zones
  of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
  82.217 million sq km 
comparative area: 
  slightly less than nine times the size of the US; second-largest of
  the world's four oceans (after the Pacific Ocean, but larger than
  Indian Ocean or Arctic Ocean)
note: 
  includes Baltic Sea, Black Sea, Caribbean Sea, Davis Strait, Denmark
  Strait, Drake Passage, Gulf of Mexico, Mediterranean Sea, North Sea,
  Norwegian Sea, Scotia Sea, Weddell Sea, and other tributary water
  bodies
Coastline: 
  111,866 km 
International disputes: 
  some maritime disputes (see littoral states)
Climate: 
  tropical cyclones (hurricanes) develop off the coast of Africa near
  Cape Verde and move westward into the Caribbean Sea; hurricanes can
  occur from May to December, but are most frequent from August to
  November
Terrain: 
  surface usually covered with sea ice in Labrador Sea, Denmark Strait,
  and Baltic Sea from October to June; clockwise warm water gyre (broad,
  circular system of currents) in the north Atlantic, counterclockwise
  warm water gyre in the south Atlantic; the ocean floor is dominated by
  the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, a rugged north-south centerline for the entire
  Atlantic basin; maximum depth is 8,605 meters in the Puerto Rico
  Trench
Natural resources: 
  oil and gas fields, fish, marine mammals (seals and whales), sand and
  gravel aggregates, placer deposits, polymetallic nodules, precious
  stones 
Environment: 
current issues: 
  endangered marine species include the manatee, seals, sea lions,
  turtles, and whales; municipal sludge pollution off eastern US,
  southern Brazil, and eastern Argentina; oil pollution in Caribbean
  Sea, Gulf of Mexico, Lake Maracaibo, Mediterranean Sea, and North Sea;
  industrial waste and municipal sewage pollution in Baltic Sea, North
  Sea, and Mediterranean Sea
natural hazards: 
  icebergs common in Davis Strait, Denmark Strait, and the northwestern
  Atlantic Ocean from February to August and have been spotted as far
  south as Bermuda and the Madeira Islands; icebergs from Antarctica
  occur in the extreme southern Atlantic Ocean
international agreements: 
  NA 
Note: 
  ships subject to superstructure icing in extreme north Atlantic from
  October to May and extreme south Atlantic from May to October;
  persistent fog can be a hazard to shipping from May to September;
  major choke points include the Dardanelles, Strait of Gibraltar,
  access to the Panama and Suez Canals; strategic straits include the
  Strait of Dover, Straits of Florida, Mona Passage, The Sound
  (Oresund), and Windward Passage; north Atlantic shipping lanes subject
  to icebergs from February to August; the Equator divides the Atlantic
  Ocean into the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean

@Atlantic Ocean, Government

Digraph: 
  ZH

@Atlantic Ocean, Economy

Overview: 
  The Atlantic Ocean provides some of the world's most heavily
  trafficked sea routes, between and within the Eastern and Western
  Hemispheres. Other economic activity includes the exploitation of
  natural resources, e.g., fishing, the dredging of aragonite sands (The
  Bahamas), and production of crude oil and natural gas (Caribbean Sea,
  Gulf of Mexico, and North Sea).

@Atlantic Ocean, Communications

Ports: 
  Alexandria (Egypt), Algiers (Algeria), Antwerp (Belgium), Barcelona
  (Spain), Buenos Aires (Argentina), Casablanca (Morocco), Colon
  (Panama), Copenhagen (Denmark), Dakar (Senegal), Gdansk (Poland),
  Hamburg (Germany), Helsinki (Finland), Las Palmas (Canary Islands,
  Spain), Le Havre (France), Lisbon (Portugal), London (UK), Marseille
  (France), Montevideo (Uruguay), Montreal (Canada), Naples (Italy), New
  Orleans (US), New York (US), Oran (Algeria), Oslo (Norway), Piraeus
  (Greece), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), Rotterdam (Netherlands), Saint
  Petersburg (formerly Leningrad; Russia), Stockholm (Sweden)
Telecommunications: 
  numerous submarine cables with most between continental Europe and the
  UK, North America and the UK, and in the Mediterranean; numerous
  direct links across Atlantic via INTELSAT satellite network
Note: 
  Kiel Canal and Saint Lawrence Seaway are two important waterways


@Australia, Geography

Location: 
  Southwestern Oceania, between Indonesia and New Zealand
Map references: 
  Southeast Asia, Oceania, Antarctic Region, Standard Time Zones of the
  World 
Area: 
total area: 
  7,686,850 sq km 
land area: 
  7,617,930 sq km 
comparative area: 
  slightly smaller than the US
note: 
  includes Macquarie Island
Land boundaries: 
  0 km  
Coastline: 
  25,760 km 
Maritime claims: 
contiguous zone: 
  12 nm
continental shelf: 
  200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive fishing zone: 
  200 nm
territorial sea: 
  12 nm
International disputes: 
  territorial claim in Antarctica (Australian Antarctic Territory)
Climate: 
  generally arid to semiarid; temperate in south and east; tropical in
  north
Terrain: 
  mostly low plateau with deserts; fertile plain in southeast
Natural resources: 
  bauxite, coal, iron ore, copper, tin, silver, uranium, nickel,
  tungsten, mineral sands, lead, zinc, diamonds, natural gas, petroleum 
Land use: 
arable land: 
  6% 
permanent crops: 
  0% 
meadows and pastures: 
  58% 
forest and woodland: 
  14% 
other: 
  22% 
Irrigated land: 
  18,800 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
  soil erosion from overgrazing, industrial development, urbanization,
  and poor farming practices; soil salinity rising due to the use of
  poor quality water; desertification; clearing for agricultural
  purposes threatens the natural habitat of many unique animal and plant
  species; the Great Barrier Reef off the northeast coast, the largest
  coral reef in the world, is threatened by increased shipping and its
  popularity as a tourist site; limited freshwater availability
natural hazards: 
  cyclones along the coast; subject to severe droughts
international agreements: 
  party to - Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty,
  Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental
  Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Marine Life
  Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
  Pollution, Tropical Timber, Wetlands, Whaling; signed, but not
  ratified - Law of the Sea
Note: 
  world's smallest continent but sixth-largest country; population
  concentrated along the eastern and southeastern coasts; regular,
  tropical, invigorating, sea breeze known as "the Doctor" occurs along
  the west coast in the summer

@Australia, People

Population: 
  18,077,419 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
  1.38% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
  14.29 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
  7.38 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
  6.91 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
  7.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
  77.57 years 
male: 
  74.45 years 
female: 
  80.84 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
  1.83 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
  Australian(s) 
adjective: 
  Australian 
Ethnic divisions: 
  Caucasian 95%, Asian 4%, aboriginal and other 1% 
Religions: 
  Anglican 26.1%, Roman Catholic 26%, other Christian 24.3% 
Languages: 
  English, native languages 
Literacy: 
  age 15 and over can read and write (1980 est.)
total population: 
  100% 
male: 
  100% 
female: 
  100% 
Labor force: 
  8.63 million (September 1991)
by occupation: 
  finance and services 33.8%, public and community services 22.3%,
  wholesale and retail trade 20.1%, manufacturing and industry 16.2%,
  agriculture 6.1% (1987)

@Australia, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
  Commonwealth of Australia 
conventional short form: 
  Australia 
Digraph: 
  AS
Type: 
  federal parliamentary state 
Capital: 
  Canberra 
Administrative divisions: 
  6 states and 2 territories*; Australian Capital Territory*, New South
  Wales, Northern Territory*, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania,
  Victoria, Western Australia
Dependent areas: 
  Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling)
  Islands, Coral Sea Islands, Heard Island and McDonald Islands, Norfolk
  Island 
Independence: 
  1 January 1901 (federation of UK colonies)
National holiday: 
  Australia Day, 26 January (1788) 
Constitution: 
  9 July 1900, effective 1 January 1901
Legal system: 
  based on English common law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with
  reservations
Suffrage: 
  18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
  Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor
  General William George HAYDEN (since 16 February 1989) 
head of government: 
  Prime Minister Paul John KEATING (since 20 December 1991); Deputy
  Prime Minister Brian HOWE (since 4 June 1991) 
cabinet: 
  Cabinet; prime minister selects his cabinet from members of the House
  and Senate
Legislative branch: 
  bicameral Federal Parliament
Senate: 
  elections last held 13 March 1993 (next to be held by NA 1996);
  results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (76 total)
  Liberal-National 36, Labor 30, Australian Democrats 7, Greens 2,
  independents 1
House of Representatives: 
  elections last held 13 March 1993 (next to be held by NA 1996);
  results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (147 total) Labor 80,
  Liberal-National 65, independent 2
Judicial branch: 
  High Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
government: 
  Australian Labor Party, Paul John KEATING
opposition: 
  Liberal Party, John HEWSON; National Party, Timothy FISCHER;
  Australian Democratic Party, Cheryl KERNOT; Green Party, leader NA
Other political or pressure groups: 
  Australian Democratic Labor Party (anti-Communist Labor Party splinter
  group); Peace and Nuclear Disarmament Action (Nuclear Disarmament
  Party splinter group)
Member of: 
  AfDB, AG (observer), ANZUS, APEC, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, C, CCC,
  COCOM, CP, EBRD, ESCAP, FAO, GATT, G-8, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU,
  IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC,
  IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS, MINURSO, MTCR, NAM (guest), NEA, NSG, OECD, PCA,
  SPARTECA, SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNOSOM,
  UNPROFOR, UNTAC, UNTSO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, ZC 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador Donald RUSSELL 
chancery: 
  1601 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036 
telephone: 
  (202) 797-3000 
FAX: 
  (202) 797-3168 
consulate(s) general: 
  Chicago, Honolulu, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, Pago Pago (American
  Samoa), and San Francisco 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador Edward PERKINS 
embassy: 
  Moonah Place, Yarralumla, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 2600 
mailing address: 
  APO AP 96549 
telephone: 
  [61] (6) 270-5000 
FAX: 
  [61] (6) 270-5970 
consulate(s) general: 
  Melbourne, Perth, and Sydney 
consulate(s): 
  Brisbane 
Flag: 
  blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and a
  large seven-pointed star in the lower hoist-side quadrant; the
  remaining half is a representation of the Southern Cross constellation
  in white with one small five-pointed star and four, larger,
  seven-pointed stars

@Australia, Economy

Overview: 
  Australia has a prosperous Western-style capitalist economy, with a
  per capita GDP comparable to levels in industrialized West European
  countries. Rich in natural resources, Australia is a major exporter of
  agricultural products, minerals, metals, and fossil fuels. Primary
  products account for more than 60% of the value of total exports, so
  that, as in 1983-84, a downturn in world commodity prices can have a
  big impact on the economy. The government is pushing for increased
  exports of manufactured goods, but competition in international
  markets continues to be severe. Australia has suffered from the low
  growth and high unemployment characterizing the OECD countries in the
  early 1990s. In 1992-93 the economy recovered slowly from the
  prolonged recession of 1990-91, a major restraining factor being weak
  world demand for Australia's exports. Unemployment has hovered around
  10% and probably will remain at that level in 1994 as productivity
  gains rather than more jobs account for growth.
National product: 
  GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $339.7 billion (1993)
National product real growth rate: 
  4% (1993)
National product per capita: 
  $19,100 (1993)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
  1.1% (1993)
Unemployment rate: 
  10% (December 1993)
Budget: 
revenues: 
  $71.9 billion 
expenditures: 
  $83.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY93)
Exports: 
  $44.1 billion (1992)
commodities: 
  coal, gold, meat, wool, alumina, wheat, machinery and transport
  equipment
partners: 
  Japan 25%, US 11%, South Korea 6%, NZ 5.7%, UK, Taiwan, Singapore,
  Hong Kong (1992)
Imports: 
  $43.6 billion (1992)
commodities: 
  machinery and transport equipment, computers and office machines,
  crude oil and petroleum products
partners: 
  US 23%, Japan 18%, UK 6%, Germany 5.7%, NZ 4% (1992)
External debt: 
  $141.1 billion (1993)
Industrial production: 
  growth rate 1.9% (FY93); accounts for 32% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
  40,000,000 kW
production: 
  150 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
  8,475 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
  mining, industrial and transportation equipment, food processing,
  chemicals, steel
Agriculture: 
  accounts for 5% of GDP and over 30% of export revenues; world's
  largest exporter of beef and wool, second-largest for mutton, and
  among top wheat exporters; major crops - wheat, barley, sugarcane,
  fruit; livestock - cattle, sheep, poultry
Illicit drugs: 
  Tasmania is one of the world's major suppliers of licit opiate
  products; government maintains strict controls over areas of opium
  poppy cultivation and output of poppy straw concentrate
Economic aid: 
donor: 
  ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $10.4 billion 
Currency: 
  1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents
Exchange rates: 
  Australian dollars ($A) per US$1 - 1.4364 (January 1994), 1.4704
  (1993), 1.3600 (1992), 1.2835 (1991), 1.2799 (1990), 1.2618 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
  1 July - 30 June

@Australia, Communications

Railroads: 
  40,478 km total; 7,970 km 1.600-meter gauge, 16,201 km 1.435-meter
  standard gauge, 16,307 km 1.067-meter gauge; 183 km dual gauge; 1,130
  km electrified; government owned (except for a few hundred kilometers
  of privately owned track) (1985)
Highways: 
total: 
  837,872 km 
paved: 
  243,750 km 
unpaved: 
  gravel, crushed stone, stabilized earth 228,396 km; unimproved earth
  365,726 km 
Inland waterways: 
  8,368 km; mainly by small, shallow-draft craft
Pipelines: 
  crude oil 2,500 km; petroleum products 500 km; natural gas 5,600 km 
Ports: 
  Adelaide, Brisbane, Cairns, Darwin, Devonport, Fremantle, Geelong,
  Hobart, Launceston, Mackay, Melbourne, Sydney, Townsville
Merchant marine: 
  83 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,517,538 GRT/3,711,549 DWT,
  bulk 30, cargo 8, chemical tanker 3, combination bulk 2, container 7,
  liquefied gas 5, oil tanker 18, roll-on/roll-off cargo 7, short-sea
  passenger 2, vehicle carrier 1 
Airports: 
total: 
  481 
usable: 
  440 
with permanent-surface runways: 
  241 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
  1 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
  20 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
  268 
Telecommunications: 
  good international and domestic service; 8.7 million telephones;
  broadcast stations - 258 AM, 67 FM, 134 TV; submarine cables to New
  Zealand, Papua New Guinea, and Indonesia; domestic satellite service;
  satellite stations - 4 Indian Ocean INTELSAT, 6 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT
  earth stations

@Australia, Defense Forces

Branches: 
  Australian Army, Royal Australian Navy, Royal Australian Air Force 
Manpower availability: 
  males age 15-49 4,885,574; fit for military service 4,239,459; reach
  military age (17) annually 133,337 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
  exchange rate conversion - $7.1 billion, 2.4% of GDP (FY92/93)


@Austria, Geography

Location: 
  Central Europe, between Germany and Hungary
Map references: 
  Africa, Arctic Region, Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
  83,850 sq km 
land area: 
  82,730 sq km 
comparative area: 
  slightly smaller than Maine
Land boundaries: 
  total 2,496 km, Czech Republic 362 km, Germany 784 km, Hungary 366 km,
  Italy 430 km, Liechtenstein 37 km, Slovakia 91 km, Slovenia 262 km,
  Switzerland 164 km 
Coastline: 
  0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: 
  none; landlocked
International disputes: 
  none
Climate: 
  temperate; continental, cloudy; cold winters with frequent rain in
  lowlands and snow in mountains; cool summers with occasional showers
Terrain: 
  in the west and south mostly mountains (Alps); along the eastern and
  northern margins mostly flat or gently sloping
Natural resources: 
  iron ore, petroleum, timber, magnesite, aluminum, lead, coal, lignite,
  copper, hydropower 
Land use: 
arable land: 
  17% 
permanent crops: 
  1% 
meadows and pastures: 
  24% 
forest and woodland: 
  39% 
other: 
  19% 
Irrigated land: 
  40 sq km (1989)
Environment: 
current issues: 
  some forest degradation caused by air and soil pollution; soil
  pollution results from the use of agricultural chemicals; air
  pollution results from emissions by coal- and oil-fired power stations
  and industrial plants
natural hazards: 
  NA 
international agreements: 
  party to - Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
  Pollution-Sulphur, Antarctic Treaty, Climate Change, Endangered
  Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test
  Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber,
  Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Air Pollution-Volatile Organic
  Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Biodiversity, Law of the
  Sea
Note: 
  landlocked; strategic location at the crossroads of central Europe
  with many easily traversable Alpine passes and valleys; major river is
  the Danube; population is concentrated on eastern lowlands because of
  steep slopes, poor soils, and low temperatures elsewhere

@Austria, People

Population: 
  7,954,974 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
  0.45% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
  11.38 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
  10.34 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
  3.46 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
  7.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
  76.65 years 
male: 
  73.44 years 
female: 
  80.03 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
  1.48 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
  Austrian(s) 
adjective: 
  Austrian 
Ethnic divisions: 
  German 99.4%, Croatian 0.3%, Slovene 0.2%, other 0.1% 
Religions: 
  Roman Catholic 85%, Protestant 6%, other 9% 
Languages: 
  German 
Literacy: 
  age 15 and over can read and write (1974 est.)
total population: 
  99% 
male: 
  NA%
female: 
  NA%
Labor force: 
  3.47 million (1989)
by occupation: 
  services 56.4%, industry and crafts 35.4%, agriculture and forestry
  8.1%
note: 
  an estimated 200,000 Austrians are employed in other European
  countries; foreign laborers in Austria number 177,840, about 6% of
  labor force (1988)

@Austria, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
  Republic of Austria 
conventional short form: 
  Austria 
local long form: 
  Republik Oesterreich 
local short form: 
  Oesterreich 
Digraph: 
  AU
Type: 
  federal republic 
Capital: 
  Vienna 
Administrative divisions: 
  9 states (bundeslander, singular - bundesland); Burgenland, Karnten,
  Niederoesterreich, Oberoesterreich, Salzburg, Steiermark, Tirol,
  Vorarlberg, Wien
Independence: 
  12 November 1918 (from Austro-Hungarian Empire)
National holiday: 
  National Day, 26 October (1955) 
Constitution: 
  1920; revised 1929 (reinstated 1 May 1945)
Legal system: 
  civil law system with Roman law origin; judicial review of legislative
  acts by a Constitutional Court; separate administrative and
  civil/penal supreme courts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
  jurisdiction
Suffrage: 
  19 years of age, universal; compulsory for presidential elections
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
  President Thomas KLESTIL (since 8 July 1992); election last held 24
  May 1992 (next to be held 1996); results of second ballot - Thomas
  KLESTIL 57%, Rudolf STREICHER 43%
head of government: 
  Chancellor Franz VRANITZKY (since 16 June 1986); Vice Chancellor
  Erhard BUSEK (since 2 July 1991) 
cabinet: 
  Council of Ministers; chosen by the president on the advice of the
  chancellor
Legislative branch: 
  bicameral Federal Assembly (Bundesversammlung)
Federal Council (Bundesrat): 
  consists of 63 members representing each of the provinces on the basis
  of population, but with each province having at least 3
  representatives
National Council (Nationalrat): 
  elections last held 7 October 1990 (next to be held October 1994);
  results - SPOE 43%, OEVP 32.1%, FPOE 16.6%, GAL 4.5%, KPOE 0.7%, other
  3.1%; seats - (183 total) SPOE 80, OEVP 60, FPOE 33, GAL 10
Judicial branch: 
  Supreme Judicial Court (Oberster Gerichtshof) for civil and criminal
  cases, Administrative Court (Verwaltungsgerichtshof) for bureaucratic
  cases, Constitutional Court (Verfassungsgerichtshof) for
  constitutional cases
Political parties and leaders: 
  Social Democratic Party of Austria (SPOE), Franz VRANITZKY, chairman;
  Austrian People's Party (OEVP), Erhard BUSEK, chairman; Freedom Party
  of Austria (FPOE), Joerg HAIDER, chairman; Communist Party (KPOE),
  Walter SILBERMAYER, chairman; Green Alternative List (GAL), Peter
  PILZ, chairman; Liberal Forum (LF), Heidi SCHMIDT
Other political or pressure groups: 
  Federal Chamber of Commerce and Industry; Austrian Trade Union
  Federation (primarily Socialist); three composite leagues of the
  Austrian People's Party (OEVP) representing business, labor, and
  farmers; OEVP-oriented League of Austrian Industrialists; Roman
  Catholic Church, including its chief lay organization, Catholic Action
Member of: 
  AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, CCC, CE, CEI, CERN,
  COCOM (cooperating), CSCE, EBRD, ECE, EFTA, ESA, FAO, G-9, GATT, IADB,
  IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO,
  INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS, MINURSO, MTCR, NAM
  (guest), NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, ONUSAL, PCA, UN, UNCTAD,
  UNESCO, UNDOF, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNOMIG, UNTAC, UNTSO,
  UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador Helmut TUERK 
chancery: 
  3524 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008-3035 
telephone: 
  (202) 895-6700 
FAX: 
  (202) 895-6750 
consulate(s) general: 
  Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador Swanee G. HUNT 
chancery: 
  Boltzmanngasse 16, A-1091, Vienna 
mailing address: 
  Unit 27937, Vienna 
telephone: 
  [43] (1) 313-39 
FAX: 
  [43] (1) 513-43-51 
consulate(s) general: 
  Salzburg 
Flag: 
  three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and red

@Austria, Economy

Overview: 
  Austria boasts a prosperous and stable socialist market economy with a
  sizable but falling proportion of nationalized industry and extensive
  welfare benefits. Thanks to its raw material endowment, a technically
  skilled labor force, and strong links to German industrial firms,
  Austria occupies specialized niches in European industry and services
  (tourism, banking) and produces almost enough food to feed itself with
  only 8% of the labor force in agriculture. Increased export sales
  resulting from German unification, boosted Austria's economy through
  1991, but Austria's GDP growth slowed to 2% in 1992 and -0.5% in 1993
  due to the weak international economy, particularly in Germany - its
  largest trading partner. GDP growth will resume slowly in 1994, with
  estimates ranging from a 0.5% to a 1% increase. Unemployment has risen
  to 7% as a result of the slowdown and will continue to rise in 1994.
  Problems for the l990s include an aging population, the high level of
  subsidies, and the struggle to keep welfare benefits within budgetary
  capabilities. Austria's government has taken measures to make the
  economy more liberal and open by introducing a major tax reform,
  privatizing state-owned firms, and liberalizing cross-border capital
  movements. Although it will face increased competition, Austria should
  benefit from the continued opening of eastern European markets, as
  well as the 1 January 1994 start of the European Economic Area which
  extends the European Union rules on the free movement of people,
  capital, and goods and services to four members (including Austria) of
  the European Free Trade Association (EFTA). Austria has concluded
  membership negotiations with the European Union and is expected to
  join in early 1995, thus broadening European economic unity. The
  government, however, plans to hold a national referendum on the matter
  on 12 June 1994; support for and opposition to membership appears
  about equal.
National product: 
  GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $134.4 billion (1993)
National product real growth rate: 
  -0.5% (1993)
National product per capita: 
  $17,000 (1993)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
  3.7% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
  7% (1993 est.)
Budget: 
revenues: 
  $52.2 billion 
expenditures: 
  $60.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1993 est.)
Exports: 
  $39.9 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: 
  machinery and equipment, iron and steel, lumber, textiles, paper
  products, chemicals
partners: 
  EC 63.5% (Germany 38.9%), EFTA 9.0%, Eastern Europe/FSU 12.3%, Japan
  1.5%, US 3.35% (1993)
Imports: 
  $48.5 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: 
  petroleum, foodstuffs, machinery and equipment, vehicles, chemicals,
  textiles and clothing, pharmaceuticals
partners: 
  EC 66.8% (Germany 41.3%), EFTA 6.7%, Eastern Europe/FSU 7.5%, Japan
  4.4%, US 4.4% (1993)
External debt: 
  $16.2 billion (1993 est.)
Industrial production: 
  growth rate -4.5% (1993 est.)
Electricity: 
capacity: 
  17,600,000 kW
production: 
  49.5 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
  6,300 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
  foods, iron and steel, machines, textiles, chemicals, electrical,
  paper and pulp, tourism, mining, motor vehicles
Agriculture: 
  accounts for 3.2% of GDP (including forestry); principal crops and
  animals - grains, fruit, potatoes, sugar beets, sawn wood, cattle,
  pigs, poultry; 80%-90% self-sufficient in food
Illicit drugs: 
  transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin transiting the Balkan
  route and Eastern Europe
Economic aid: 
donor: 
  ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $2.4 billion 
Currency: 
  1 Austrian schilling (S) = 100 groschen
Exchange rates: 
  Austrian schillings (S) per US$1 - 12.255 (January 1994), 11.632
  (1993), 10.989 (1992), 11.676 (1991), 11.370 (1990), 13.231 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
  calendar year

@Austria, Communications

Railroads: 
  5,749 km total; 5,652 km government owned and 97 km privately owned
  (0.760-, 1.435- and 1.000-meter gauge); 5,394 km 1.435-meter standard
  gauge of which 3,154 km is electrified and 1,520 km is double tracked;
  339 km 0.760-meter narrow gauge of which 84 km is electrified
Highways: 
total: 
  95,412 km 
paved: 
  21,812 km (including 1,012 km of autobahn)
unpaved: 
  mostly gravel and earth 73,600 km 
Inland waterways: 
  446 km
Pipelines: 
  crude oil 554 km; petroleum products 171 km; natural gas 2,611 km 
Ports: 
  Vienna, Linz (Danube river ports)
Merchant marine: 
  29 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 158,724 GRT/259,594 DWT, bulk 3,
  cargo 23, oil tanker 1, refrigerated cargo 2 
Airports: 
total: 
  55 
usable: 
  55 
with permanent-surface runways: 
  20 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
  0 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
  6 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
  4 
Telecommunications: 
  highly developed and efficient; 4,014,000 telephones; broadcast
  stations - 6 AM, 21 (545 repeaters) FM, 47 (870 repeaters) TV;
  satellite ground stations for Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, Indian Ocean
  INTELSAT, and EUTELSAT systems

@Austria, Defense Forces

Branches: 
  Army (including Flying Division) 
Manpower availability: 
  males age 15-49 2,018,954; fit for military service 1,693,341; reach
  military age (19) annually 48,710 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
  exchange rate conversion - $1.7 billion, 0.9% of GDP (1993)


@Azerbaijan, Geography

Location: 
  Southwestern Asia, between Armenia and Turkmenistan, bordering the
  Caspian Sea
Map references: 
  Africa, Asia, Commonwealth of Independent States - Central Asian
  States, Commonwealth of Independent States - European States, Middle
  East, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
  86,600 sq km 
land area: 
  86,100 sq km 
comparative area: 
  slightly larger than Maine
note: 
  includes the Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic and the Nagorno-Karabakh
  regions; regions' autonomy was abolished by Azerbaijani Supreme Soviet
  on 26 November 1991
Land boundaries: 
  total 2,013 km, Armenia (west) 566 km, Armenia (southwest) 221 km,
  Georgia 322 km, Iran (south) 432 km, Iran (southwest) 179 km, Russia
  284 km, Turkey 9 km 
Coastline: 
  0 km (landlocked)
note: 
  Azerbaijan borders the Caspian Sea (800 km, est.)
Maritime claims: 
  NA
note: 
  Azerbaijani claims in Caspian Sea unknown; 10-nm fishing zone provided
  for in 1940 treaty regarding trade and navigation between Soviet Union
  and Iran
International disputes: 
  violent and longstanding dispute with ethnic Armenians of
  Nagorno-Karabakh over its status, lesser dispute concerns Nakhichevan;
  some Azerbaijanis desire absorption of and/or unification with the
  ethnic Azeri portion of Iran
Climate: 
  dry, semiarid steppe
Terrain: 
  large, flat Kur-Araz Lowland (much of it below sea level) with Great
  Caucasus Mountains to the north, Qarabag (Karabakh) Upland in west;
  Baku lies on Abseron (Apsheron) Peninsula that juts into Caspian Sea
Natural resources: 
  petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, nonferrous metals, alumina 
Land use: 
arable land: 
  18% 
permanent crops: 
  4% 
meadows and pastures: 
  25% 
forest and woodland: 
  0% 
other: 
  53% 
Irrigated land: 
  14,010 sq km (1990)
Environment: 
current issues: 
  local scientists consider the Abseron (Apsheron) Peninsula (including
  Baku and Sumqayit) and the Caspian Sea to be the ecologically most
  devastated area in the world because of severe air, water, and soil
  pollution; soil pollution results from the use of DDT as a pesticide
  and also from toxic defoliants used in the production of cotton
natural hazards: 
  subject to drought; some coastal areas threatened by rising levels of
  the Caspian Sea
international agreements: 
  signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change
Note: 
  landlocked

@Azerbaijan, People

Population: 
  7,684,456 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
  1.41% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
  23.04 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
  6.58 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
  -2.38 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
  34.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
  70.85 years 
male: 
  67.08 years 
female: 
  74.8 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
  2.7 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
  Azerbaijani(s) 
adjective: 
  Azerbaijani 
Ethnic divisions: 
  Azeri 82.7%, Russian 5.6%, Armenian 5.6%, Dagestani 3.2%, other 2.9%
  (1989)
note: 
  Armenian share is now approximately 0.3% because most Armenians have
  fled the ethnic violence since 1989 census; Russian percentage is
  probably half what it was for the same reason
Religions: 
  Muslim 87%, Russian Orthodox 5.6%, Armenian Orthodox 5.6%, other 1.8% 
Languages: 
  Azeri 82%, Russian 7%, Armenian 5%, other 6% 
Literacy: 
  age 9-49 can read and write (1970)
total population: 
  100% 
male: 
  100% 
female: 
  100% 
Labor force: 
  2.789 million 
by occupation: 
  agriculture and forestry 32%, industry and construction 26%, other 42%
  (1990)

@Azerbaijan, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
  Azerbaijani Republic 
conventional short form: 
  Azerbaijan 
local long form: 
  Azarbaycan Respublikasi 
local short form: 
  none 
former: 
  Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic 
Digraph: 
  AJ
Type: 
  republic 
Capital: 
  Baku (Baky) 
Administrative divisions: 
  1 autonomous republic (avtomnaya respublika); Nakhichevan
  (administrative center at Nakhichevan)
note: 
  all rayons except for the exclave of Nakhichevan are under direct
  republic jurisdiction
Independence: 
  30 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)
National holiday: 
  Novruz Bayram, 21-22 March 
Constitution: 
  adopted NA April 1978; writing a new constitution mid-1993
Legal system: 
  based on civil law system
Suffrage: 
  18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
  President Heydar ALIYEV (since 18 June 1993 after President ELCIBEY
  left Baku for Nakhichevan); election last held 3 October 1993 (next to
  be held NA); results - Heydar ALIYEV won 97% of vote
head of government: 
  Prime Minister Surat HUSEYNOV (since 30 June 1993) 
cabinet: 
  Council of Ministers; appointed by the president and confirmed by the
  Mejlas
Legislative branch: 
  unicameral
National Assembly (Milli Mejlis): 
  elections last held 30 September and 14 October 1990 for the Supreme
  Soviet (next expected to be held NA 1994 for the National Assembly);
  seats for Supreme Soviet - (360 total) Communists 280, Democratic Bloc
  45 (grouping of opposition parties), other 15, vacant 20; note - on 19
  May 1992 the Supreme Soviet was prorogued in favor of a Popular
  Front-dominated National Council; seats - (50 total) Popular Front 25,
  opposition elements 25
Judicial branch: 
  Supreme Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
  Azerbaijan Popular Front (APF), Ebulfez ELCIBEY, chairman; Musavat
  Party, Isa GAMBAR, chairman; National Independence Party, Etibar
  MAMEDOV, chairman; Social Democratic Party (SDP), Araz ALIZADE,
  chairman; Communist Party, Ramiz AKHMEDOV, chairman; People's Freedom
  Party, Yunus OGUZ, chairman; Independent Social Democratic Party, Arif
  YUNUSOV and Leila YUNOSOVA, cochairmen; New Azerbaijan Party, Heydar
  ALIYEV, chairman; Boz Gurd Party, Iskander HAMIDOV, chairman;
  Azerbaijan Democratic Party, Sardar MAMEDOV, chairman; Azerbaijan
  Democratic Independence Party, Qabil HUSELNLI, chairman; Islamic Party
  of Azerbaijan, Ali Akram, chairman
Other political or pressure groups: 
  self-proclaimed Armenian Nagorno-Karabakh Republic; Talysh
  independence movement
Member of: 
  BSEC, CCC, CIS, CSCE, EBRD, ECE, ECO, ESCAP, IBRD, ICAO, IDB, ILO,
  IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, NACC, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU,
  WHO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador Hafiz Mir Jalal Ogly PASHAYEV 
chancery: 
  Suite 700, 927 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20005 
telephone: 
  (202) 842-0001 
FAX: 
  (202) 842-0004 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador Richard KAZLAURICH 
embassy: 
  Hotel Intourist, Baku 
mailing address: 
  use embassy street address 
telephone: 
  7-8922-92-63-06 through 09, extension 441, 442, 446, 447, 448, 450 
FAX: 
  Telex 142110 AMEMB SU 
Flag: 
  three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), red, and green; a crescent
  and eight-pointed star in white are centered in red band

@Azerbaijan, Economy

Overview: 
  Azerbaijan is less developed industrially than either Armenia or
  Georgia, the other Transcaucasian states. It resembles the Central
  Asian states in its majority Muslim population, high structural
  unemployment, and low standard of living. The economy's most prominent
  products are oil, cotton, and gas. Production from the Caspian oil and
  gas field has been in decline for several years. With foreign
  assistance, the oil industry might generate the funds needed to spur
  industrial development. However, civil unrest, marked by armed
  conflict in the Nagorno-Karabakh region between Muslim Azeris and
  Christian Armenians, makes foreign investors wary. Azerbaijan
  accounted for 1.5% to 2% of the capital stock and output of the former
  Soviet Union. Azerbaijan shares all the formidable problems of the
  ex-Soviet republics in making the transition from a command to a
  market economy, but its considerable energy resources brighten its
  prospects somewhat. Old economic ties and structures have yet to be
  replaced. A particularly galling constraint on economic revival is the
  Nagorno-Karabakh conflict, said to consume 25% of Azerbaijan's
  economic resources.
National product: 
  GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $15.5 billion (1993 estimate from
  the UN International Comparison Program, as extended to 1991 and
  published in the World Bank's World Development Report 1993; and as
  extrapolated to 1993 using official Azerbaijani statistics, which are
  very uncertain because of major economic changes since 1990)
National product real growth rate: 
  -13.3% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
  $2,040 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
  20% per month (average 1993); above 50% per month (February 1994)
Unemployment rate: 
  0.7% includes officially registered unemployed; also large numbers of
  underemployed workers (December 1993)
Budget: 
revenues: 
  $NA
expenditures: 
  $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports: 
  $355 million to outside the FSU countries (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: 
  oil and gas, chemicals, oilfield equipment, textiles, cotton (1991)
partners: 
  mostly CIS and European countries
Imports: 
  $240 million from outside the FSU countries (c.i.f., 1993)
commodities: 
  machinery and parts, consumer durables, foodstuffs, textiles (1991)
partners: 
  European countries
External debt: 
  $NA
Industrial production: 
  growth rate -7% (1993)
Electricity: 
capacity: 
  6,025,000 kW
production: 
  22,300 kWh 
consumption per capita: 
  2,990 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
  petroleum and natural gas, petroleum products, oilfield equipment;
     steel, iron ore, cement; chemicals and petrochemicals; textiles
iculture: 
  cotton, grain, rice, grapes, fruit, vegetables, tea, tobacco; cattle,
  pigs, sheep and goats
Illicit drugs: 
  illicit cultivator of cannabis and opium poppy; mostly for CIS
  consumption; limited government eradication program; transshipment
  point for illicit drugs to Western Europe
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
  wheat from Turkey
Currency: 
  1 manat = 100 gopik
Exchange rates: 
  NA
Fiscal year: 
  calendar year

@Azerbaijan, Communications

Railroads: 
  2,090 km; does not include industrial lines (1990)
Highways: 
total: 
  36,700 km 
paved or graveled: 
  31,800 km 
unpaved: 
  earth 4,900 km (1990)
Pipelines: 
  crude oil 1,130 km; petroleum products 630 km; natural gas 1,240 km 
Ports: 
  inland - Baku (Baky)
Airports: 
total: 
  65 
usable: 
  33 
with permanent-surface runways: 
  26 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
  0 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
  8 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
  23 
Telecommunications: 
  domestic telephone service is of poor quality and inadequate; 710,000
  domestic telephone lines [density - 9 lines per 100 persons (1991)],
  202,000 persons waiting for telephone installations (January 1991);
  connections to other former USSR republics by cable and microwave and
  to other countries via the Moscow international gateway switch;
  INTELSAT earth station installed in late 1992 in Baku with Turkish
  financial assistance with access to 200 countries through Turkey;
  since August 1993 an earth station near Baku has provided direct
  communications with New York through Russia's Stationar-11 satellite;
  a joint venture to establish a cellular telephone system (Bakcel) in
  the Baku area is supposed to become operational in 1994; domestic and
  Russian TV programs are received locally and Turkish and Iranian TV is
  received from an INTELSAT satellite through a receive-only earth
  station

@Azerbaijan, Defense Forces

Branches: 
  Army, Air Force, Navy, Maritime Border Guard, National Guard, Security
  Forces (internal and border troops)
Manpower availability: 
  males age 15-49 1,884,458; fit for military service 1,525,123; reach
  military age (18) annually 68,192 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
  2,848 million rubles, NA% of GDP (1992 est.); note - conversion of the
  military budget into US dollars using the current exchange rate could
  produce misleading results


@The Bahamas, Geography

Location: 
  Caribbean, in the western North Atlantic Ocean, southeast of Florida
  and northwest of Cuba
Map references: 
  Central America and the Caribbean, North America, Standard Time Zones
  of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
  13,940 sq km 
land area: 
  10,070 sq km 
comparative area: 
  slightly larger than Connecticut
Land boundaries: 
  0 km  
Coastline: 
  3,542 km 
Maritime claims: 
continental shelf: 
  200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive fishing zone: 
  200 nm
territorial sea: 
  3 nm
International disputes: 
  none
Climate: 
  tropical marine; moderated by warm waters of Gulf Stream
Terrain: 
  long, flat coral formations with some low rounded hills
Natural resources: 
  salt, aragonite, timber 
Land use: 
arable land: 
  1% 
permanent crops: 
  0% 
meadows and pastures: 
  0% 
forest and woodland: 
  32% 
other: 
  67% 
Irrigated land: 
  NA sq km
Environment: 
current issues: 
  NA 
natural hazards: 
  subject to hurricanes and other tropical storms that cause extensive
  flood and wind damage
international agreements: 
  party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the
  Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
Note: 
  strategic location adjacent to US and Cuba; extensive island chain

@The Bahamas, People

Population: 
  273,055 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
  1.57% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
  18.86 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
  5.38 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
  2.24 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
  33.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
  71.52 years 
male: 
  67.66 years 
female: 
  75.49 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
  1.88 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
  Bahamian(s) 
adjective: 
  Bahamian 
Ethnic divisions: 
  black 85%, white 15% 
Religions: 
  Baptist 32%, Anglican 20%, Roman Catholic 19%, Methodist 6%, Church of
  God 6%, other Protestant 12%, none or unknown 3%, other 2% 
Languages: 
  English, Creole (among Haitian immigrants)
Literacy: 
  age 15 and over but definition of literacy not available (1963 est.)
total population: 
  90% 
male: 
  90% 
female: 
  89% 
Labor force: 
  127,400 
by occupation: 
  government 30%, hotels and restaurants 25%, business services 10%,
  agriculture 5% (1989)

@The Bahamas, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
   Commonwealth of The Bahamas 
conventional short form: 
  The Bahamas 
Digraph: 
  BF
Type: 
  commonwealth 
Capital: 
  Nassau 
Administrative divisions: 
  21 districts; Acklins and Crooked Islands, Bimini, Cat Island, Exuma,
  Freeport, Fresh Creek, Governor's Harbour, Green Turtle Cay, Harbour
  Island, High Rock, Inagua, Kemps Bay, Long Island, Marsh Harbour,
  Mayaguana, New Providence, Nichollstown and Berry Islands, Ragged
  Island, Rock Sound, Sandy Point, San Salvador and Rum Cay
Independence: 
  10 July 1973 (from UK)
National holiday: 
  National Day, 10 July (1973) 
Constitution: 
  10 July 1973
Legal system: 
  based on English common law
Suffrage: 
  18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
  Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor
  General Sir Clifford DARLING (since 2 January 1992) 
head of government: 
  Prime Minister Hubert A. INGRAHAM (since 19 August 1992); Deputy Prime
  Minister Orville A. TURNQUEST (since 19 August 1992) 
cabinet: 
  Cabinet; appointed by the governor on the prime minister's
  recommendation
Legislative branch: 
  bicameral Parliament
Senate: 
  a 16-member body appointed by the governor general
House of Assembly: 
  elections last held 19 August 1992 (next to be held by August 1997);
  results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (49 total) FNM 32, PLP
  17
Judicial branch: 
  Supreme Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
  Progressive Liberal Party (PLP), Sir Lynden O. PINDLING; Free National
  Movement (FNM), Hubert Alexander INGRAHAM; 
Member of: 
  ACP, C, CCC, CARICOM, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU,
  IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAS,
  OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador Timothy Baswell DONALDSON 
chancery: 
  2220 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
  (202) 319-2660 
FAX: 
  (202) 319-2668 
consulate(s) general: 
  Miami and New York 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
  (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Lino GUTIERREZ 
embassy: 
  Mosmar Building, Queen Street, Nassau 
mailing address: 
  P. O. Box N-8197, Nassau 
telephone: 
  (809) 322-1181 or 328-2206 
FAX: 
  (809) 328-7838 
Flag: 
  three equal horizontal bands of aquamarine (top), gold, and aquamarine
  with a black equilateral triangle based on the hoist side

@The Bahamas, Economy

Overview: 
  The Bahamas is a stable, developing nation whose economy is based
  primarily on tourism and offshore banking. Tourism alone provides
  about 40% of GDP and directly or indirectly employs about 50,000
  people or 40% of the local work force. The economy has slackened in
  recent years, as the annual increase in the number of tourists slowed.
  Nonetheless, per capita GDP is one of the highest in the region.
National product: 
  GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $4.4 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
  2% (1991)
National product per capita: 
  $16,500 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
  6.5% (1991)
Unemployment rate: 
  5.7% (1992 est.)
Budget: 
revenues: 
  $628.5 million 
expenditures: 
  $574 million, including capital expenditures of $100 million (1992
  est.)
Exports: 
  $310 million (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities: 
  pharmaceuticals, cement, rum, crawfish
partners: 
  US 51%, UK 7%, Norway 7%, France 6%, Italy 5%
Imports: 
  $1.2 billion (f.o.b,,1992)
commodities: 
  foodstuffs, manufactured goods, mineral fuels, crude oil
partners: 
  US 32%, Japan 17%, Nigeria 12%, Denmark 7%, Norway 6%
External debt: 
  $1.2 billion (December 1990)
Industrial production: 
  growth rate 3% (1990); accounts for 15% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
  424,000 kW
production: 
  929 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
  3,599 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
  tourism, banking, cement, oil refining and transshipment, salt
  production, rum, aragonite, pharmaceuticals, spiral welded steel pipe
Agriculture: 
  accounts for 5% of GDP; dominated by small-scale producers; principal
  products - citrus fruit, vegetables, poultry; large net importer of
  food
Illicit drugs: 
  transshipment point for cocaine and marijuana bound for US and Europe;
  also money-laundering center
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
  US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY85-89), $1 million; Western
  (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $345
  million 
Currency: 
  1 Bahamian dollar (B$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates: 
  Bahamian dollar (B$) per US$1 - 1.00 (fixed rate)
Fiscal year: 
  calendar year

@The Bahamas, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
  2,400 km 
paved: 
  1,350 km 
unpaved: 
  gravel 1,050 km 
Ports: 
  Freeport, Nassau
Merchant marine: 
  879 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 20,424,439 GRT/33,330,160 DWT,
  bulk 167, cargo 148, chemical tanker 43, combination bulk 8,
  combination ore/oil 20, container 48, liquefied gas 18, oil tanker
  177, passenger 54, refrigerated cargo 132, roll-on/roll-off cargo 41,
  short-sea passenger 16, vehicle carrier 7 
note: 
  a flag of convenience registry
Airports: 
total: 
  60 
usable: 
  55 
with permanent-surface runways: 
  31 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
  0 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
  3 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
  26 
Telecommunications: 
  highly developed; 99,000 telephones in totally automatic system;
  tropospheric scatter and submarine cable links to Florida; broadcast
  stations - 3 AM, 2 FM, 1 TV; 3 coaxial submarine cables; 1 Atlantic
  Ocean INTELSAT earth station

@The Bahamas, Defense Forces

Branches: 
  Royal Bahamas Defense Force (Coast Guard only), Royal Bahamas Police
  Force 
Defense expenditures: 
  exchange rate conversion - $65 million, 2.7% of GDP (1990)


@Bahrain, Geography

Location: 
  Middle East, in the central Persian Gulf, between Saudi Arabia and
  Qatar
Map references: 
  Africa, Middle East, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
  620 sq km 
land area: 
  620 sq km 
comparative area: 
  slightly less than 3.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries: 
  0 km  
Coastline: 
  161 km 
Maritime claims: 
contiguous zone: 
  24 nm
continental shelf: 
  not specified
territorial sea: 
  12 nm
International disputes: 
  territorial dispute with Qatar over the Hawar Islands; maritime
  boundary with Qatar
Climate: 
  arid; mild, pleasant winters; very hot, humid summers
Terrain: 
  mostly low desert plain rising gently to low central escarpment
Natural resources: 
  oil, associated and nonassociated natural gas, fish 
Land use: 
arable land: 
  2% 
permanent crops: 
  2% 
meadows and pastures: 
  6% 
forest and woodland: 
  0% 
other: 
  90% 
Irrigated land: 
  10 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
  desertification resulting from the degradation of limited arable land,
  periods of drought, and dust storms; coastal degradation (damage to
  coastlines, coral reefs, and sea vegetation) resulting from oil spills
  and other discharges from large tankers, oil refineries, and
  distribution stations; no surface water resources; groundwater and sea
  water are the only sources for all water needs
natural hazards: 
  periods of drought, dust storms
international agreements: 
  party to - Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection;
  signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change
Note: 
  close to primary Middle Eastern petroleum sources; strategic location
  in Persian Gulf through which much of Western world's petroleum must
  transit to reach open ocean

@Bahrain, People

Population: 
  585,683 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
  2.96% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
  26.59 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
  3.83 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
  6.83 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
  19 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
  73.51 years 
male: 
  71.1 years 
female: 
  76.05 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
  3.96 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
  Bahraini(s) 
adjective: 
  Bahraini 
Ethnic divisions: 
  Bahraini 63%, Asian 13%, other Arab 10%, Iranian 8%, other 6% 
Religions: 
  Shi'a Muslim 70%, Sunni Muslim 30% 
Languages: 
  Arabic, English, Farsi, Urdu 
Literacy: 
  age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
  77% 
male: 
  82% 
female: 
  69% 
Labor force: 
  140,000 
by occupation: 
  industry and commerce 85%, agriculture 5%, services 5%, government 3%
  (1982)
note: 
  42% of labor force is Bahraini

@Bahrain, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
  State of Bahrain 
conventional short form: 
  Bahrain 
local long form: 
  Dawlat al Bahrayn 
local short form: 
  Al Bahrayn 
Digraph: 
  BA
Type: 
  traditional monarchy 
Capital: 
  Manama 
Administrative divisions: 
  12 districts (manatiq, singular - mintaqah); Al Hadd, Al Manamah, Al
  Mintaqah al Gharbiyah, Al Mintaqah al Wusta, Al Mintaqah ash
  Shamaliyah, Al Muharraq, Ar Rifa'wa al Mintaqah al Janubiyah, Jidd
  Hafs, Madinat Hamad, Madinat 'Isa, Mintaqat Juzur Hawar, Sitrah
Independence: 
  15 August 1971 (from UK)
National holiday: 
  Independence Day, 16 December (1961) 
Constitution: 
  26 May 1973, effective 6 December 1973
Legal system: 
  based on Islamic law and English common law
Suffrage: 
  none
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
  Amir ISA bin Salman Al Khalifa (since 2 November 1961); Heir Apparent
  HAMAD bin Isa bin Salman Al Khalifa (son of the Amir, born 28 January
  1950) 
head of government: 
  Prime Minister KHALIFA bin Salman Al Khalifa (since 19 January 1970) 
cabinet: 
  Cabinet 
Legislative branch: 
  unicameral National Assembly was dissolved 26 August 1975 and
  legislative powers were assumed by the Cabinet; appointed Advisory
  Council established 16 December 1992  
Judicial branch: 
  High Civil Appeals Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
  political parties prohibited; several small, clandestine leftist and
  Islamic fundamentalist groups are active
Member of: 
  ABEDA, AFESD, AL, AMF, ESCWA, FAO, G-77, GATT, GCC, IBRD, ICAO, IDB,
  ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC,
  ISO (correspondent), ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
  UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador Mohammad ABD al-GHAFFAR 
chancery: 
  3502 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
  (202) 342-0741 or 342-0742 
consulate(s) general: 
  New York 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
  (vacant); Charge d'Affaires David S. ROBINS 
embassy: 
  Road No. 3119 (next to Alahli Sports Club), Zinj District, Manama 
mailing address: 
  FPO AE 09834-5100; P.O. Box 26431, Manama 
telephone: 
  [973] 273-300 
FAX: 
  (973) 272-594 
Flag: 
  red with a white serrated band (eight white points) on the hoist side

@Bahrain, Economy

Overview: 
  Petroleum production and processing account for about 80% of export
  receipts, 60% of government revenues, and 30% of GDP. Economic
  conditions have fluctuated with the changing fortunes of oil since
  1985, for example, during and following the Gulf crisis of 1990-91.
  Bahrain with its highly developed communication and transport
  facilities is home to numerous multinational firms with business in
  the Gulf. A large share of exports consists of petroleum products made
  from imported crude. Prospects for 1994 are good, with private
  enterprise the main driving force, e.g., in banking and construction.
National product: 
  GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $6.8 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
  4% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
  $12,000 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
  2% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
  8%-10% (1989)
Budget: 
revenues: 
  $1.2 billion 
expenditures: 
  $1.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1992)
Exports: 
  $3.5 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
  petroleum and petroleum products 80%, aluminum 7%
partners: 
  Japan 13%, UAE 12%, India 10%, Pakistan 8%, Singapore 6% (1991)
Imports: 
  $3.7 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
  nonoil 59%, crude oil 41%
partners: 
  Saudi Arabia 42%, US 14%, UK 7%, Japan 5%, Germany 4% (1991)
External debt: 
  $2.6 billion (1993)
Industrial production: 
  growth rate 3.8% (1988); accounts for 44% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
  1,600,000 kW
production: 
  4.7 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
  8,500 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
  petroleum processing and refining, aluminum smelting, offshore
  banking, ship repairing
Agriculture: 
  including fishing, accounts for less than 2% of GDP; not
  self-sufficient in food production; heavily subsidized sector produces
  fruit, vegetables, poultry, dairy products, shrimp, fish
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
  US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-79), $24 million; Western
  (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $45
  million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $9.8 billion 
Currency: 
  1 Bahraini dinar (BD) = 1,000 fils
Exchange rates: 
  Bahraini dinars (BD) per US$1 - 0.3760 (fixed rate)
Fiscal year: 
  calendar year

@Bahrain, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
  NA 
paved: 
  bituminous 200 km 
unpaved: 
  NA 
Pipelines: 
  crude oil 56 km; petroleum products 16 km; natural gas 32 km 
Ports: 
  Mina' Salman, Manama, Sitrah
Merchant marine: 
  6 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 101,844 GRT/143,997 DWT, bulk 1,
  cargo 4, container 1 
Airports: 
total: 
  3 
usable: 
  3 
with permanent-surface runways: 
  2 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
  2 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
  0 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
  1 
Telecommunications: 
  modern system; good domestic services; 98,000 telephones (1 for every
  6 persons); excellent international connections; tropospheric scatter
  to Qatar, UAE; microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia; submarine cable
  to Qatar, UAE, and Saudi Arabia; satellite earth stations - 1 Atlantic
  Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT, 1 ARABSAT; broadcast stations
  - 2 AM, 3 FM, 2 TV

@Bahrain, Defense Forces

Branches: 
  Army, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense, Police Force 
Manpower availability: 
  males age 15-49 198,414; fit for military service 109,431; reach
  military age (15) annually 5,093 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
  exchange rate conversion - $245 million, 6% of GDP (1993)


@Baker Island

Header

Affiliation: 
  (territory of the US) 

@Baker Island, Geography

Location: 
  Oceania, Micronesia, in the North Pacific Ocean, just north of the
  Equator, 2,575 km southwest of Honolulu, about halfway between Hawaii
  and Australia
Map references: 
  Oceania 
Area: 
total area: 
  1.4 sq km 
land area: 
  1.4 sq km 
comparative area: 
  about 2.3 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC
Land boundaries: 
  0 km 
Coastline: 
  4.8 km 
Maritime claims: 
contiguous zone: 
  12 nm
continental shelf: 
  200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 
  200 nm
territorial sea: 
  12 nm
International disputes: 
     none
mate: 
     equatorial; scant rainfall, constant wind, burning sun
rain: 
     low, nearly level coral island surrounded by a narrow fringing reef
ural resources: 
     guano (deposits worked until 1891) 
Land use: 
arable land: 
  0% 
permanent crops: 
  0% 
meadows and pastures: 
  0% 
forest and woodland: 
  0% 
other: 
  100% 
Irrigated land: 
  0 sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
  lacks fresh water
natural hazards: 
  NA 
international agreements: 
  NA 
Note: 
  treeless, sparse, and scattered vegetation consisting of grasses,
  prostrate vines, and low growing shrubs; primarily a nesting,
  roosting, and foraging habitat for seabirds, shorebirds, and marine
  wildlife

@Baker Island, People

Population: 
  uninhabited; note - American civilians evacuated in 1942 after
  Japanese air and naval attacks during World War II; occupied by US
  military during World War II, but abandoned after the war; public
  entry is by special-use permit only and generally restricted to
  scientists and educators; a cemetery and cemetery ruins are located
  near the middle of the west coast

@Baker Island, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
  none 
conventional short form: 
  Baker Island 
Digraph: 
  FQ
Type: 
  unincorporated territory of the US administered by the Fish and
  Wildlife Service of the US Department of the Interior as part of the
  National Wildlife Refuge system
Capital: 
  none; administered from Washington, DC

@Baker Island, Economy

Overview: 
  no economic activity

@Baker Island, Communications

Ports: 
  none; offshore anchorage only, one boat landing area along the middle
  of the west coast
Airports: 
  1 abandoned World War II runway of 1,665 m
Note: 
  there is a day beacon near the middle of the west coast

@Baker Island, Defense Forces

  defense is the responsibility of the US; visited annually by the US
  Coast Guard


@Bangladesh, Geography

Location: 
  Southern Asia, at the head of the Bay of Bengal, almost completely
  surrounded by India
Map references: 
  Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
  144,000 sq km 
land area: 
  133,910 sq km 
comparative area: 
  slightly smaller than Wisconsin
Land boundaries: 
  total 4,246 km, Burma 193 km, India 4,053 km 
Coastline: 
  580 km 
Maritime claims: 
contiguous zone: 
  18 nm
continental shelf: 
  up to outer limits of continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 
  200 nm
territorial sea: 
  12 nm
International disputes: 
  a portion of the boundary with India is in dispute; water-sharing
  problems with upstream riparian India over the Ganges
Climate: 
  tropical; cool, dry winter (October to March); hot, humid summer
  (March to June); cool, rainy monsoon (June to October)
Terrain: 
  mostly flat alluvial plain; hilly in southeast
Natural resources: 
  natural gas, arable land, timber 
Land use: 
arable land: 
  67% 
permanent crops: 
  2% 
meadows and pastures: 
  4% 
forest and woodland: 
  16% 
other: 
  11% 
Irrigated land: 
  27,380 sq km (1989)
Environment: 
current issues: 
  many people are landless and forced to live on and cultivate
  flood-prone land; limited access to potable water; water-borne
  diseases prevalent; water pollution especially of fishing areas
  results from the use of commercial pesticides; intermittent water
  shortages because of falling water tables in the northern and central
  parts of the country; soil degradation; deforestation; severe
  overpopulation
natural hazards: 
  vulnerable to droughts, cyclones; much of the country routinely
  flooded during the summer monsoon season
international agreements: 
  party to - Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous
  Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection; signed, but not
  ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of the Sea

@Bangladesh, People

Population: 
  125,149,469 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
  2.33% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
  35.02 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
  11.68 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
  106.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
  55.08 years 
male: 
  55.35 years 
female: 
  54.8 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
  4.47 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
  Bangladeshi(s) 
adjective: 
  Bangladesh 
Ethnic divisions: 
  Bengali 98%, Biharis 250,000, tribals less than 1 million
Religions: 
  Muslim 83%, Hindu 16%, Buddhist, Christian, other 
Languages: 
  Bangla (official), English 
Literacy: 
  age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
  35% 
male: 
  47% 
female: 
  22% 
Labor force: 
  50.1 million 
by occupation: 
  agriculture 65%, services 21%, industry and mining 14% (1989)
note: 
  extensive export of labor to Saudi Arabia, UAE, and Oman (1991)

@Bangladesh, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
  People's Republic of Bangladesh 
conventional short form: 
  Bangladesh 
former: 
  East Pakistan 
Digraph: 
  BG
Type: 
  republic 
Capital: 
  Dhaka 
Administrative divisions: 
  64 districts (zillagulo, singular - zilla); Bagerhat, Bandarban,
  Barguna, Barisal, Bhola, Bogra, Brahmanbaria, Chandpur, Chapai
  Nawabganj, Chattagram, Chuadanga, Comilla, Cox's Bazar, Dhaka,
  Dinajpur, Faridpur, Feni, Gaibandha, Gazipur, Gopalganj, Habiganj,
  Jaipurhat, Jamalpur, Jessore, Jhalakati, Jhenaidah, Khagrachari,
  Khulna, Kishorganj, Kurigram, Kushtia, Laksmipur, Lalmonirhat,
  Madaripur, Magura, Manikganj, Meherpur, Moulavibazar, Munshiganj,
  Mymensingh, Naogaon, Narail, Narayanganj, Narsingdi, Nator, Netrakona,
  Nilphamari, Noakhali, Pabna, Panchagar, Parbattya Chattagram,
  Patuakhali, Pirojpur, Rajbari, Rajshahi, Rangpur, Satkhira,
  Shariyatpur, Sherpur, Sirajganj, Sunamganj, Sylhet, Tangail,
  Thakurgaon
Independence: 
  16 December 1971 (from Pakistan)
National holiday: 
  Independence Day, 26 March (1971) 
Constitution: 
  4 November 1972, effective 16 December 1972, suspended following coup
  of 24 March 1982, restored 10 November 1986, amended many times
Legal system: 
  based on English common law
Suffrage: 
  18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
  President Abdur Rahman BISWAS (since 8 October 1991); election last
  held 8 October 1991 (next to be held by NA October 1996); results -
  Abdur Rahman BISWAS received 52.1% of parliamentary vote
head of government: 
  Prime Minister Khaleda ZIAur RAHMAN (since 20 March 1991) 
cabinet: 
  Council of Ministers; appointed by the president
Legislative branch: 
  unicameral
National Parliament (Jatiya Sangsad): 
  elections last held 27 February 1991 (next to be held NA February
  1996); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (330 total, 300
  elected and 30 seats reserved for women) BNP 168, AL 93, JP 35, JI 20,
  BCP 5, National Awami Party (Muzaffar) 1, Workers Party 1, JSD 1,
  Ganotantri Party 1, Islami Oikya Jote 1, NDP 1, independents 3
Judicial branch: 
  Supreme Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
  Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP), Khaleda ZIAur RAHMAN; Awami League
  (AL), Sheikh Hasina WAJED; Jatiyo Party (JP), Hussain Mohammad ERSHAD
  (in jail); Jamaat-E-Islami (JI), Ali KHAN; Bangladesh Communist Party
  (BCP), Saifuddin Ahmed MANIK; National Awami Party (Muzaffar); Workers
  Party, leader NA; Jatiyo Samajtantik Dal (JSD), Serajul ALAM KHAN;
  Ganotantri Party, leader NA; Islami Oikya Jote, leader NA; National
  Democratic Party (NDP), leader NA; Muslim League, Khan A. SABUR;
  Democratic League, Khondakar MUSHTAQUE Ahmed; Democratic League,
  Khondakar MUSHTAQUE Ahmed; United People's Party, Kazi ZAFAR Ahmed
Member of: 
  AsDB, C, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU,
  IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO,
  ITU, LORCS, MINURSO, NAM, OIC, SAARC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
  UNIKOM, UNOMIG, UNOMOZ, UNOMUR, UNOSOM, UNPROFOR, UNTAC, UPU, WCL,
  WHO, WFTU, WIPO, WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador Abul AHSAN 
chancery: 
  2201 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007 
telephone: 
  (202) 342-8372 through 8376 
consulate(s) general: 
  New York 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador David MERRILL 
embassy: 
  Diplomatic Enclave, Madani Avenue, Baridhara, Dhaka 
mailing address: 
  G. P. O. Box 323, Dhaka 1212 
telephone: 
  [880] (2) 884700-22 
FAX: 
  [880] (2) 883-744 
Flag: 
  green with a large red disk slightly to the hoist side of center;
  green is the traditional color of Islam

@Bangladesh, Economy

Overview: 
  Bangladesh is one of the world's poorest, most densely populated, and
  least developed nations. Its economy is overwhelmingly agricultural,
  with the cultivation of rice the single most important activity in the
  economy. Major impediments to growth include frequent cyclones and
  floods, government interference with the economy, a rapidly growing
  labor force that cannot be absorbed by agriculture, a low level of
  industrialization, failure to fully exploit energy resources (natural
  gas), and inefficient and inadequate power supplies. Excellent rice
  crops and expansion of the export garment industry helped growth in
  FY92 and FY93. Policy reforms intended to reduce government regulation
  of private industry and promote public-sector efficiency have been
  announced but are being implemented only slowly.
National product: 
  GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $122 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
  4.3% (FY93)
National product per capita: 
  $1,000 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
  1.4% (FY93)
Unemployment rate: 
  NA%
Budget: 
revenues: 
  $2.5 billion 
expenditures: 
  $3.7 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY92)
Exports: 
  $2.1 billion (FY93)
commodities: 
  garments, jute and jute goods, leather, shrimp
partners: 
  US 33%, Western Europe 39% (Germany 8.4%, Italy 6%) (FY92 est.)
Imports: 
  $3.5 billion (FY93)
commodities: 
  capital goods, petroleum, food, textiles
partners: 
  Hong Kong 7.5%, Singapore 7.4%, China 7.4%, Japan 7.1% (FY92 est.)
External debt: 
  $13.5 billion (June 1993)
Industrial production: 
  growth rate 6.9% (FY93 est.); accounts for 9.4% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
  2,400,000 kW
production: 
  9 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
  75 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
  jute manufacturing, cotton textiles, food processing, steel,
  fertilizer
Agriculture: 
  accounts for 33% of GDP, 65% of employment, and one-fifth of exports;
  world's largest exporter of jute; commercial products - jute, rice,
  wheat, tea, sugarcane, potatoes, beef, milk, poultry; shortages
  include wheat, vegetable oils, cotton
Illicit drugs: 
  transit country for illegal drugs produced in neighboring countries
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
  US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $3.4 billion; Western
  (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1980-89),
  $11.65 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $6.52 million; Communist
  countries (1970-89), $1.5 billion 
Currency: 
  1 taka (Tk) = 100 poiska
Exchange rates: 
  taka (Tk) per US$1 - 40.064 (January 1994), 39.567 (1993), 38.951
  (1992), 36.596 (1991), 34.569 (1990), 32.270 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
  1 July - 30 June

@Bangladesh, Communications

Railroads: 
  2,892 km total (1986); 1,914 km 1.000 meter gauge, 978 km 1.676 meter
  broad gauge
Highways: 
total: 
  7,240 km 
paved: 
  3,840 km 
unpaved: 
  3,400 km (1985)
Inland waterways: 
  5,150-8,046 km navigable waterways (includes 2,575-3,058 km main cargo
  routes)
Pipelines: 
  natural gas 1,220 km 
Ports: 
  Chittagong, Chalna
Merchant marine: 
  41 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 312,172 GRT/458,131 DWT, bulk 3,
  cargo 33, oil tanker 2, refrigerated cargo 3 
Airports: 
total: 
  16 
usable: 
  12 
with permanent-surface runways: 
  12 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
  0 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
  4 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
  6 
Telecommunications: 
  adequate international radio communications and landline service; poor
  domestic telephone service; 241.250 telephones - only one telephone
  for each 522 persons; fair broadcast service; broadcast stations - 9
  AM, 6 FM, 11 TV; 2 Indian Ocean INTELSAT satellite earth stations

@Bangladesh, Defense Forces

Branches: 
  Army, Navy, Air Force 
paramilitary forces: 
  Bangladesh Rifles, Bangladesh Ansars, Armed Police Reserve, Defense
  Parties, National Cadet Corps 
Manpower availability: 
  males age 15-49 31,955,948; fit for military service 18,967,602 
Defense expenditures: 
  exchange rate conversion - $355 million, 1.5% of GDP (FY92/93)


@Barbados, Geography

Location: 
  Caribbean, in the extreme eastern Caribbean Sea, about 375 km
  northeast of Venezuela
Map references: 
  Central America and the Caribbean, South America, Standard Time Zones
  of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
  430 sq km 
land area: 
  430 sq km 
comparative area: 
  slightly less than 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries: 
  0 km  
Coastline: 
  97 km 
Maritime claims: 
exclusive economic zone: 
  200 nm
territorial sea: 
  12 nm
International disputes: 
  none
Climate: 
  tropical; rainy season (June to October)
Terrain: 
  relatively flat; rises gently to central highland region
Natural resources: 
  petroleum, fishing, natural gas 
Land use: 
arable land: 
  77% 
permanent crops: 
  0% 
meadows and pastures: 
  9% 
forest and woodland: 
  0% 
other: 
  14% 
Irrigated land: 
  NA sq km
Environment: 
current issues: 
  pollution of coastal waters from waste disposal by ships; soil
  erosion; illegal solid waste disposal threatens contamination of
  aquifers
natural hazards: 
  subject to hurricanes (especially June to October); periodic
  landslides
international agreements: 
  party to - Climate Change, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection;
  signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity
Note: 
  easternmost Caribbean island

@Barbados, People

Population: 
  255,827 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
  0.21% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
  15.63 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
  8.4 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
  -5.16 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
  3 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
  73.83 years 
male: 
  71.11 years 
female: 
  76.76 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
  1.78 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
  Barbadian(s) 
adjective: 
  Barbadian 
Ethnic divisions: 
  African 80%, European 4%, other 16% 
Religions: 
  Protestant 67% (Anglican 40%, Pentecostal 8%, Methodist 7%, other
  12%), Roman Catholic 4%, none 17%, unknown 3%, other 9% (1980)
Languages: 
  English 
Literacy: 
  age 15 and over having ever attended school (1970)
total population: 
  99% 
male: 
  99% 
female: 
  99% 
Labor force: 
  120,900 (1991)
by occupation: 
  services and government 37%, commerce 22%, manufacturing and
  construction 22%, transportation, storage, communications, and
  financial institutions 9%, agriculture 8%, utilities 2% (1985 est.)

@Barbados, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
  none 
conventional short form: 
  Barbados 
Digraph: 
  BB
Type: 
  parliamentary democracy 
Capital: 
  Bridgetown 
Administrative divisions: 
  11 parishes; Christ Church, Saint Andrew, Saint George, Saint James,
  Saint John, Saint Joseph, Saint Lucy, Saint Michael, Saint Peter,
  Saint Philip, Saint Thomas
note: 
  the new city of Bridgetown may be given parish status
Independence: 
  30 November 1966 (from UK)
National holiday: 
  Independence Day, 30 November (1966) 
Constitution: 
  30 November 1966
Legal system: 
  English common law; no judicial review of legislative acts
Suffrage: 
  18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
  Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor
  General Dame Nita BARROW (since 6 June 1990) 
head of government: 
  Prime Minister Lloyd Erskine SANDIFORD (since 2 June 1987); Deputy
  Prime Minister Philip Marlowe GREAVES (since 2 June 1987) 
cabinet: 
  Cabinet; appointed by the governor general on advice of the prime
  minister
Legislative branch: 
  bicameral Parliament
Senate: 
  consists of a 21-member body appointed by the governor general
House of Assembly: 
  election last held 22 January 1991 (next to be held by January 1996);
  results - DLP 49.8%; seats - (28 total) DLP 18, BLP 10
Judicial branch: 
  Supreme Court of Judicature 
Political parties and leaders: 
  Democratic Labor Party (DLP), Erskine SANDIFORD; Barbados Labor Party
  (BLP), Owen ARTHUR; National Democratic Party (NDP), Richie HAYNES
Other political or pressure groups: 
  Barbados Workers Union, Leroy TROTMAN; People's Progressive Movement,
  Eric SEALY; Workers' Party of Barbados, Dr. George BELLE; Clement
  Payne Labor Union, David COMMISSIONG
Member of: 
  ACP, C, CARICOM, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU,
  IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO
  (correspondent), ITU, LAES, LORCS, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD,
  UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador Dr. Rudi Valentine WEBSTER 
chancery: 
  2144 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
  (202) 939-9200 through 9202 
consulate(s) general: 
  New York 
consulate(s): 
  Los Angeles 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador Jeanette W. HYDE 
embassy: 
  Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce Building, Broad Street, Bridgetown 
mailing address: 
  P. O. Box 302, Bridgetown; FPO AA 34055 
telephone: 
  (809) 436-4950 
FAX: 
  (809) 429-5246 
Flag: 
  three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and blue with
  the head of a black trident centered on the gold band; the trident
  head represents independence and a break with the past (the colonial
  coat of arms contained a complete trident)

@Barbados, Economy

Overview: 
  A per capita income of $8,700 gives Barbados one of the highest
  standards of living of all the small island states of the eastern
  Caribbean. Historically, the economy was based on the cultivation of
  sugar cane and related activities. In recent years, however, the
  economy has diversified into manufacturing and tourism. The tourist
  industry is now a major employer of the labor force and a primary
  source of foreign exchange. The economy slowed in 1990-92 as
  Bridgetown's difficulty in financing its deficits caused it to exert
  control over domestic demands
National product: 
  GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $2.2 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
  -3% (1992)
National product per capita: 
  $8,700 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
  6.1% (1992)
Unemployment rate: 
  23% (1992)
Budget: 
revenues: 
  $547 million 
expenditures: 
  $620 million, including capital expenditures of $60 million (FY92-93)
Exports: 
  $158 million (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities: 
  sugar and molasses, rum, other foods and beverages, chemicals,
  electrical components, clothing
partners: 
  US 13%, UK 13%, Trinidad and Tobago 9%, Windward Islands 7.8%
Imports: 
  $465 million (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities: 
  machinery, foodstuffs, construction materials, chemicals, fuel,
  electrical components
partners: 
  US 33%, UK 11%, Trinidad and Tobago 11%, Japan 5%
External debt: 
  $652 million (1991 est.)
Industrial production: 
  growth rate -1.3% (1991); accounts for 10% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
  152,100 kW
production: 
  540 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
  2,118 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
  tourism, sugar, light manufacturing, component assembly for export,
  petroleum
Agriculture: 
  accounts for 6% of GDP; major cash crop is sugarcane; other crops -
  vegetables, cotton; not self-sufficient in food
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
  US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $15 million; Western
  (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $171
  million 
Currency: 
  1 Barbadian dollar (Bds$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates: 
  Barbadian dollars (Bds$) per US$1 - 2.0113 (fixed rate)
Fiscal year: 
  1 April - 31 March

@Barbados, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
  1,570 km 
paved: 
  1,475 km 
unpaved: 
  gravel, earth 95 km 
Ports: 
  Bridgetown
Merchant marine: 
  2 oil tankers (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 44,466 GRT/76,219 DWT
Airports: 
total: 
  1 
usable: 
  1 
with permanent-surface runways: 
  1 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
  0 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
  1 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
  0 
Telecommunications: 
  island wide automatic telephone system with 89,000 telephones;
  tropospheric scatter link to Trinidad and Saint Lucia; broadcast
  stations - 3 AM, 2 FM, 2 (1 is pay) TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT
  earth station

@Barbados, Defense Forces

Branches: 
  Royal Barbados Defense Force, including the Ground Forces and Coast
  Guard, Royal Barbados Police Force 
Manpower availability: 
  males age 15-49 70,751; fit for military service 49,330 
Defense expenditures: 
  exchange rate conversion - $10 million, 0.7% of GDP (1989)


@Bassas da India

Header
Affiliation: 
  (possession of France) 

@Bassas da India, Geography

Location: 
  Southern Africa, in the southern Mozambique Channel about halfway
  between Madagascar and Mozambique
Map references: 
  Africa 
Area: 
total area: 
  NA km2
land area: 
  NA km2
comparative area: 
  NA
Land boundaries: 
  0 km  
Coastline: 
  35.2 km 
Maritime claims: 
contiguous zone: 
  24 nm
continental shelf: 
  200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 
  200 nm
territorial sea: 
  12 nm
International disputes: 
  claimed by Madagascar
Climate: 
  tropical
Terrain: 
  a volcanic rock 2.4 meters high
Natural resources: 
  none 
Land use: 
arable land: 
  0% 
permanent crops: 
  0% 
meadows and pastures: 
  0% 
forest and woodland: 
  0% 
other: 
  100% (all rock)
Irrigated land: 
  0 sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
  NA 
natural hazards: 
  surrounded by reefs; subject to periodic cyclones
international agreements: 
  NA 
Note: 
  navigational hazard since it is usually under water during high tide

@Bassas da India, People

Population: 
  uninhabited

@Bassas da India, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
  none 
conventional short form: 
  Bassas da India 
Digraph: 
  BS
Type: 
  French possession administered by a Commissioner of the Republic,
  resident in Reunion
Capital: 
  none; administered by France from Reunion
Independence: 
  none (possession of France)

@Bassas da India, Economy

Overview: 
  no economic activity

@Bassas da India, Communications

Ports: 
  none; offshore anchorage only

@Bassas da India, Defense Forces

Note: 
  defense is the responsibility of France


@Belarus, Geography

Location: 
  Eastern Europe, between Poland and Russia
Map references: 
  Asia, Commonwealth of Independent States - European States, Europe,
  Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
  207,600 sq km 
land area: 
  207,600 sq km 
comparative area: 
  slightly smaller than Kansas
Land boundaries: 
  total 3,098 km, Latvia 141 km, Lithuania 502 km, Poland 605 km, Russia
  959 km, Ukraine 891 km 
Coastline: 
  0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: 
  none; landlocked
International disputes: 
  none
Climate: 
  cold winters, cool and moist summers; transitional between continental
  and maritime
Terrain: 
  generally flat and contains much marshland
Natural resources: 
  forest land, peat deposits 
Land use: 
arable land: 
  29% 
permanent crops: 
  1% 
meadows and pastures: 
  15% 
forest and woodland: 
  0% 
other: 
  55% 
Irrigated land: 
  1,490 sq km (1990)
Environment: 
current issues: 
  soil pollution from pesticide use; southern part of Belarus
  contaminated with fallout from 1986 nuclear reactor accident at
  Chornobyl'
natural hazards: 
     NA 
international agreements: 
  party to - Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
  Pollution-Sulphur, Biodiversity, Environmental Modification, Marine
  Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection; signed, but not ratified - Climate
  Change, Law of the Sea
Note: 
  landlocked

@Belarus, People

Population: 
  10,404,862 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
  0.32% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
  13.12 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
  11.16 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
  1.27 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
  18.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
  70.88 years 
male: 
  66.2 years 
female: 
  75.79 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
  1.88 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
  Belarusian(s) 
adjective: 
  Belarusian 
Ethnic divisions: 
  Byelorussian 77.9%, Russian 13.2%, Polish 4.1%, Ukrainian 2.9%, other
  1.9% 
Religions: 
  Eastern Orthodox, other 
Languages: 
  Byelorussian, Russian, other 
Literacy: 
  age 9-49 can read and write (1979)
total population: 
  100% 
male: 
  100% 
female: 
  100% 
Labor force: 
  4.887 million 
by occupation: 
  industry and construction 40%, agriculture and forestry 21%, other 39%
  (1992)

@Belarus, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
  Republic of Belarus 
conventional short form: 
  Belarus 
local long form: 
  Respublika Byelarus' 
local short form: 
  none 
former: 
  Belorussian (Byelorussian) Soviet Socialist Republic 
Digraph: 
  BO
Type: 
  republic 
Capital: 
  Minsk 
Administrative divisions: 
  6 voblastsi (singular - voblasts') and one municipality* (harady,
  singular - horad); Brestskaya (Brest), Homyel'skaya (Homyel'), Horad
  Minsk*, Hrodzyenskaya (Hrodna), Mahilyowskaya (Mahilyow), Minskaya,
  Vitsyebskaya (Vitsyebsk)
note: 
  the administrative centers of the voblastsi are included in
  parentheses
Independence: 
  25 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)
National holiday: 
  Independence Day, 27 July (1990) 
Constitution: 
  adopted 15 March 1994; replaces constitution of April 1978
Legal system: 
  based on civil law system
Suffrage: 
  18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
  President-elect Aleksandr LUKASHENKO (elected 10 July 1994, but not
  yet inaugurated) election held June 24 and 10 July 1994 (next to be
  held NA); Aleksandr LUKASHENKO 80%, Vyacheslav KEBICH 14%
head of government: 
  Prime Minister Vyacheslav F. KEBICH (since NA April 1990; offered his
  resignation on the election of LUCHASHENKO), First Deputy Prime
  Minister Mikhail MYASNIKOVICH (since NA 1991) 
cabinet: 
  Council of Ministers 
note: 
  first presidential elections took place in June-July 1994
Legislative branch: 
  unicameral
Supreme Soviet: 
  elections last held 4 April 1990 (next to be held NA); results -
  Communists 87%; seats - (360 total) number of seats by party NA; note
  - 50 seats are for public bodies; the Communist Party obtained an
  overwhelming majority
Judicial branch: 
  Supreme Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
  Belarusian Popular Front (BPF), Zenon PAZNYAK, chairman; United
  Democratic Party of Belarus (UDPB), Aleksandr DOBROVOLSKIY, chairman;
  Social Democratic Party of Belarus (SDBP), Mikhail TKACHEV, chairman;
  Belarus Workers Union, Mikhail SOBOL, Chairman; Belarus Peasants
  Party; Party of People's Unity, Gennadiy KARPENKO; Movement for
  Democracy, Social Progress, and Justice (DSPS; includes the Communist
  Party), Viktor CHIKIN, chairman
Member of: 
  CBSS (observer), CE (guest), CEI (participating), CIS, CSCE, ECE,
  IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IFC, ILO, IMF, INMARSAT, INTELSAT (nonsignatory
  user), IOC, ITU, NACC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO,
  WMO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador Sergey Nikolayevich MARTYNOV 
chancery: 
  1619 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009 
telephone: 
  (202) 986-1604 
FAX: 
  (202) 986-1805) 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
  (vacant); Charge d'Affaires George KROL 
embassy: 
  Starovilenskaya #46, Minsk 
mailing address: 
  use embassy street address 
telephone: 
  7-0172-34-65-37 
Flag: 
  three horizontal bands of white (top), red, and white

@Belarus, Economy
Overview: 
  Belarus ranks among the most developed of the former Soviet states,
  with a relatively modern - by Soviet standards - and diverse machine
  building sector and a robust agriculture sector. It also serves as a
  transport link for Russian oil exports to the Baltic states and
  Eastern and Western Europe. The breakup of the Soviet Union and its
  command economy has resulted in a sharp economic contraction as
  traditional trade ties have collapsed. At the same time, the
  Belarusian Government has lagged behind most other former Soviet
  states in economic reform; privatization has barely begun; the
  agriculture sector remains highly subsidized; the state retains
  control over many prices; and the system of state orders and
  distribution persists. Meanwhile, the national bank continues to pour
  credits into inefficient enterprises, fueling inflation and weakening
  incentives to improve performance. The government is pinning its hopes
  on reintegration with the Russian economy, but such a path would only
  partially restore traditional trade ties. Until economic reform is
  embraced, Belarus will continue in its economic morass.
National product: 
  GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $61 billion (1993 estimate from
  the UN International Comparison Program, as extended to 1991 and
  published in the World Bank's World Development Report 1993; and as
  extrapolated to 1993 using official Belarusian statistics, which are
  very uncertain because of major economic changes since 1990)
National product real growth rate: 
  -9% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
  $5,890 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
  30% per month (1993)
Unemployment rate: 
  1.4% officially registered unemployed (December 1993); large numbers
  of underemployed workers
Budget: 
revenues: 
  $NA
expenditures: 
  $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports: 
  $710 million to outside of the FSU countries (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: 
  machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, foodstuffs
partners: 
  Russia, Ukraine, Poland, Bulgaria
Imports: 
  $743 million from outside the FSU countries (c.i.f., 1993)
commodities: 
  fuel, industrial raw materials, textiles, sugar
partners: 
  Russia, Ukraine, Poland
External debt: 
  $NA
Industrial production: 
  growth rate -11% (1993); accounts for about 40% of GDP (1992)
Electricity: 
capacity: 
  8,025,000 kW
production: 
  37.6 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
  3,626 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
  employ about 40% of labor force and produce a wide variety of products
  including (in percent share of total output of former Soviet Union):
  tractors (12%); metal-cutting machine tools (11%); off-highway dump
  trucks up to 110-metric-ton load capacity (100%); wheel-type
  earthmovers for construction and mining (100%); eight-wheel-drive,
  high-flotation trucks with cargo capacity of 25 metric tons for use in
  tundra and roadless areas (100%); equipment for animal husbandry and
  livestock feeding (25%); motorcycles (21.3%); television sets (11%);
  chemical fibers (28%); fertilizer (18%); linen fabric (11%); wool
  fabric (7%); radios; refrigerators; and other consumer goods
Agriculture: 
  accounts for almost 25% of GDP and 5.7% of total agricultural output
  of former Soviet Union; employs 21% of the labor force; in 1988
  produced the following (in percent of total Soviet production): grain
  (3.6%), potatoes (12.2%), vegetables (3.0%), meat (6.0%), milk (7.0%);
  net exporter of meat, milk, eggs, flour, potatoes
Illicit drugs: 
  illicit cultivator of opium poppy and cannabis; mostly for the
  domestic market; transshipment point for illicit drugs to Western
  Europe
Economic aid: 
  $NA
Currency: 
  Belarusian rubel
note: 
  the government signed a framework agreement with Russia for a monetary
  union in January 1994, but a schedule and mechanism for merging the
  two monetary systems and replacing Belarusian rubels with Russian
  rubles have not been worked out
Exchange rates: 
  NA
Fiscal year: 
  calendar year

@Belarus, Communications

Railroads: 
  5,570 km; does not include industrial lines (1990)
Highways: 
total: 
  98,200 km 
paved: 
  66,100 km 
unpaved: 
  earth 32,100 km (1990)
Inland waterways: 
  NA km
Pipelines: 
  crude oil 1,470 km; refined products 1,100 km; natural gas 1,980 km
  (1992)
Ports: 
  none; landlocked
Merchant marine: 
  claims 5% of former Soviet fleet
Airports: 
total: 
  124 
usable: 
  55 
with permanent-surface runways: 
  31 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
  1 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
  28 
with runways 1,060-2,439 m: 
  20 
note: 
  a C-130 can land on a 1,060-m airstrip
Telecommunications: 
  telephone service in Belarus is inadequate for the purposes of either
  business or the population; total number of telephones 1,849,000 (31
  December 1991); telephone density - 18 for each 100 persons; about 70%
  of the telephones are in homes; over 750,000 applications from
  households for telephones remain unsatisfied (1992); new investment
  centers on international connections and business needs; the new
  BelCel NMT 450 cellular system (a joint venture) is now operating in
  Minsk but progress has been slower in establishing an INTELSAT earth
  station; international traffic still relies on the Moscow
  international gateway switch; broadcast receivers - television
  3,538,000, radio 3,140,000, radio receivers with multiple speaker
  systems for program diffusion 5,615,000

@Belarus, Defense Forces

Branches: 
  Army, Air Forces, Air Defense Forces, Security Forces (internal and
  border troops)
Manpower availability: 
  males age 15-49 2,520,487; fit for military service 1,981,749; reach
  military age (18) annually 71,922 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
  56.5 billion rubles, NA% of GDP (1993 est.); note - conversion of the
  military budget into US dollars using the current exchange rate could
  produce misleading results


@Belgium, Geography

Location: 
  Western Europe, bordering on the North Sea, between France and the
  Netherlands
Map references: 
  Arctic Region, Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
  30,510 sq km 
land area: 
  30,230 sq km 
comparative area: 
  slightly larger than Maryland
Land boundaries: 
  total 1,385 km, France 620 km, Germany 167 km, Luxembourg 148 km,
  Netherlands 450 km 
Coastline: 
  64 km 
Maritime claims: 
continental shelf: 
  equidistant line with neighbors
exclusive fishing zone: 
  equidistant line with neighbors (extends about 68 km from coast)
territorial sea: 
  12 nm
International disputes: 
  none
Climate: 
  temperate; mild winters, cool summers; rainy, humid, cloudy
Terrain: 
  flat coastal plains in northwest, central rolling hills, rugged
  mountains of Ardennes Forest in southeast
Natural resources: 
  coal, natural gas 
Land use: 
arable land: 
  24% 
permanent crops: 
  1% 
meadows and pastures: 
  20% 
forest and woodland: 
  21% 
other: 
  34% 
Irrigated land: 
  10 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
  Meuse River, a major source of drinking water, polluted from steel
  production wastes; other rivers polluted by animal wastes and
  fertilizers; industrial air pollution contributes to acid rain in
  neighboring countries
natural hazards: 
  NA 
international agreements: 
  party to - Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Sulphur, Antarctic Treaty,
  Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes,
  Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone
  Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber, Wetlands; signed,
  but not ratified - Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
  Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental
  Protocol, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of the Sea
Note: 
  crossroads of Western Europe; majority of West European capitals
  within 1,000 km of Brussels which is the seat of the EC

@Belgium, People

Population: 
  10,062,836 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
  0.2% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
  11.71 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
  10.26 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
  0.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
  7.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
  76.96 years 
male: 
  73.67 years 
female: 
  80.44 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
  1.62 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
  Belgian(s) 
adjective: 
  Belgian 
Ethnic divisions: 
  Fleming 55%, Walloon 33%, mixed or other 12% 
Religions: 
  Roman Catholic 75%, Protestant or other 25% 
Languages: 
  Dutch 56%, French 32%, German 1%, legally bilingual 11% divided along
  ethnic lines
Literacy: 
  age 15 and over can read and write (1980 est.)
total population: 
  99% 
male: 
  NA%
female: 
  NA%
Labor force: 
  4.126 million 
by occupation: 
  services 63.6%, industry 28%, construction 6.1%, agriculture 2.3%
  (1988)

@Belgium, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
  Kingdom of Belgium 
conventional short form: 
  Belgium 
local long form: 
  Royaume de Belgique 
local short form: 
  Belgique 
Digraph: 
  BE
Type: 
  constitutional monarchy 
Capital: 
  Brussels 
Administrative divisions: 
  9 provinces (French: provinces, singular - province; Flemish:
  provincien, singular - provincie); Antwerpen, Brabant, Hainaut, Liege,
  Limburg, Luxembourg, Namur, Oost-Vlaanderen, West-Vlaanderen
Independence: 
  4 October 1830 (from the Netherlands)
National holiday: 
  National Day, 21 July (ascension of King Leopold to the throne in
  1831) 
Constitution: 
  7 February 1831, last revised 14 July 1993; parliament approved a
  constitutional package creating a federal state
Legal system: 
  civil law system influenced by English constitutional theory; judicial
  review of legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with
  reservations
Suffrage: 
  18 years of age, universal and compulsory
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
  King ALBERT II (since NA August 1993) 
head of government: 
  Prime Minister Jean-Luc DEHAENE (since 6 March 1992) 
cabinet: 
  Cabinet; the king appoints the ministers who are chosen by the
  legislature
Legislative branch: 
  bicameral Parliament
Senate: 
   (Flemish - Senaat, French - Senat); elections last held 24 November
  1991 (next to be held by November 1996); results - percent of vote by
  party NA; seats - (184 total; of which 106 are directly elected) CVP
  20, SP 14, PVV (now VLD) 13, VU 5, AGALEV 5, VB 5, ROSSEN 1, PS 18,
  PRL 9, PSC 9, ECOLO 6, FDF 1
Chamber of Representatives: 
   (Flemish - Kamer van Volksvertegenwoordigers, French - Chambre des
  Representants); elections last held 24 November 1991 (next to be held
  by November 1996); results - CVP 16.7%, PS 13.6%, SP 12.0%, PVV (now
  VLD) 11.9%, PRL 8.2%, PSC 7.8%, VB 6.6%, VU 5.9%, ECOLO 5.1%, AGALEV
  4.9%, FDF 2.6%, ROSSEM 3.2%, FN 1.5%; seats - (212 total) CVP 39, PS
  35, SP 28, PVV (now VLD) 26, PRL 20, PSC 18, FB 12, VU 10, ECOLO 10,
  AGALEV 7, FDF 3, ROSSEM 3, FN 1
Judicial branch: 
  Supreme Court of Justice (Flemish - Hof van Cassatie, French - Cour de
  Cassation)
Political parties and leaders: 
  Flemish Social Christian (CVP), Johan van HECKE, president;
  Francophone Social Christian (PSC), Melchior WATHELET, president;
  Flemish Socialist (SP), Frank VANDENBROUCKE, president; Francophone
  Socialist (PS), Philippe BUSQUIN; Flemish Liberals and Democrats
  (VLD), Guy VERHOFSTADT, president; Francophone Liberal (PRL), Jean
  GOL, president; Francophone Democratic Front (FDF), Georges CLERFAYT,
  president; Volksunie (VU), Bert ANCIAUX, president; Communist Party
  (PCB), Louis VAN GEYT, president; Vlaams Blok (VB), Karel DILLEN,
  chairman; ROSSEM, Jean Pierre VAN ROSSEM; National Front (FN), Werner
  van STEEN; AGALEV (Flemish Greens), no president; ECOLO (Francophone
  Ecologists), no president; other minor parties
Other political or pressure groups: 
  Christian and Socialist Trade Unions; Federation of Belgian
  Industries; numerous other associations representing bankers,
  manufacturers, middle-class artisans, and the legal and medical
  professions; various organizations represent the cultural interests of
  Flanders and Wallonia; various peace groups such as the Flemish Action
  Committee Against Nuclear Weapons and Pax Christi
Member of: 
  AG (observer), ACCT, AfDB, AsDB, Australian Group, Benelux, BIS, CCC,
  CE, CERN, COCOM, CSCE, EBRD, EC, ECE, EIB, ESA, FAO, G-9, G-10, GATT,
  IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF,
  IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS, MINURSO,
  MTCR, NACC, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, PCA, UN, UNCTAD,
  UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMOGIP, UNOSOM, UNPROFOR, UNRWA, UNTAC, UNTSO,
  UPU, WCL, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador Juan CASSIERS 
chancery: 
  3330 Garfield Street NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
  (202) 333-6900 
FAX: 
  (202) 333-3079 
consulate(s) general: 
  Atlanta, Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador Alan J. BLINKEN 
embassy: 
  27 Boulevard du Regent, Brussels 
mailing address: 
  B-1000 Brussels, APO AE 09724 
telephone: 
  [32] (2) 513-3830 
FAX: 
  [32] (2) 511-2725 
Flag: 
  three equal vertical bands of black (hoist side), yellow, and red; the
  design was based on the flag of France

@Belgium, Economy

Overview: 
  This small private enterprise economy has capitalized on its central
  geographic location, highly developed transport network, and
  diversified industrial and commercial base. Industry is concentrated
  mainly in the populous Flemish area in the north, although the
  government is encouraging reinvestment in the southern region of
  Walloon. With few natural resources Belgium must import substantial
  quantities of raw materials and export a large volume of manufactures,
  making its economy unusually dependent on the state of world markets.
  Three fourths of its trade is with other EC countries. The economy
  grew at a strong 4% pace during the period 1988-90, but economic
  growth slowed to a 1% pace in 1991-92 and dropped by 1.5% in 1993.
  Belgium's public debt has risen to 140% of GDP, and the government is
  trying to control its expenditures to bring the figure more into line
  with other industrialized countries.
National product: 
  GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $177.5 billion (1993)
National product real growth rate: 
  -1.5% (1993)
National product per capita: 
  $17,700 (1993)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
  2.8% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
  13.5% (March 1994)
Budget: 
revenues: 
  $97.8 billion 
enditures: 
     $109.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1989)
Exports: 
  7 billion (f.o.b., 1992) Belgium-Luxembourg Economic Union
commodities: 
  iron and steel, transportation equipment, tractors, diamonds,
  petroleum products
partners: 
  EC 75.5%, US 3.7%, former Communist countries 1.4% (1991)
Imports: 
  $120 billion (c.i.f., 1992) Belgium-Luxembourg Economic Union
commodities: 
  fuels, grains, chemicals, foodstuffs
partners: 
  EC 73%, US 4.8%, oil-exporting less developed countries 4%, former
  Communist countries 1.8% (1991)
External debt: 
  $31.3 billion (1992 est.)
Industrial production: 
  growth rate -0.1% (1993 est.); accounts for 25% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
  17,500,000 kW
production: 
  68 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
  6,790 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
  engineering and metal products, motor vehicle assembly, processed food
  and beverages, chemicals, basic metals, textiles, glass, petroleum,
  coal
Agriculture: 
  accounts for 2.0% of GDP; emphasis on livestock production - beef,
  veal, pork, milk; major crops are sugar beets, fresh vegetables,
  fruits, grain, tobacco; net importer of farm products
Illicit drugs: 
  source of precursor chemicals for South American cocaine processors;
  important gateway country for cocaine entering the European market
Economic aid: 
donor: 
  ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $5.8 billion 
Currency: 
  1 Belgian franc (BF) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates: 
  Belgian francs (BF) per US$1 - 36.242 (January 1994), 34.597 (1993),
  32.150 (1992), 34.148 (1991), 33.418 (1990), 39.404 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
  calendar year

@Belgium, Communications

Railroads: 
  Belgian National Railways (SNCB) operates 3,568 km 1.435-meter
  standard gauge, government owned; 2,563 km double track; 2,207 km
  electrified
Highways: 
total: 
  137,876 km 
paved: 
  129,603 km (including 1,631 km of limited access divided highway)
unpaved: 
  8,273 km (1989)
Inland waterways: 
  2,043 km (1,528 km in regular commercial use)
Pipelines: 
  crude oil 161 km; petroleum products 1,167 km; natural gas 3,300 km 
Ports: 
  Antwerp, Brugge, Gent, Oostende, Zeebrugge
Merchant marine: 
  21 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 36,200 GRT/52,039 DWT, bulk 1,
  cargo 9, chemical tanker 5, liquefied gas 1, oil tanker 5 
Airports: 
total: 
  42 
usable: 
  42 
with permanent-surface runways: 
  24 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
  0 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
  15 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
  3 
Telecommunications: 
  highly developed, technologically advanced, and completely automated
  domestic and international telephone and telegraph facilities;
  extensive cable network; limited microwave radio relay network;
  4,720,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 3 AM, 39 FM, 32 TV; 5
  submarine cables; 2 satellite earth stations - Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT
  and EUTELSAT systems; nationwide mobile phone system

@Belgium, Defense Forces

Branches: 
  Army, Navy, Air Force, National Gendarmerie 
Manpower availability: 
  males age 15-49 2,558,109; fit for military service 2,130,172; reach
  military age (19) annually 61,710 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
  exchange rate conversion - $3.8 billion, 1.8% of GDP (1993)


@Belize, Geography

Location: 
  Middle America, bordering the Caribbean Sea between Guatemala and
  Mexico
Map references: 
  Central America and the Caribbean, North America, Standard Time Zones
  of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
  22,960 sq km 
land area: 
  22,800 sq km 
comparative area: 
  slightly larger than Massachusetts
Land boundaries: 
  total 516 km, Guatemala 266 km, Mexico 250 km 
Coastline: 
  386 km 
Maritime claims: 
territorial sea: 
  12 nm in the north, 3 nm in the south
note: 
  from the mouth of the Sarstoon River to Ranguana Cay, Belize's
  territorial sea is 3 miles; according to Belize's Maritime Areas Act,
  1992, the purpose of this limitation is to provide a framework for
  the negotiation of a definitive agreement on territorial differences
  with Guatemala
International disputes: 
  maritime border with Guatemala in dispute; desultory negotiations to
  resolve the dispute have begun
Climate: 
  tropical; very hot and humid; rainy season (May to February)
Terrain: 
  flat, swampy coastal plain; low mountains in south
Natural resources: 
  arable land potential, timber, fish 
Land use: 
arable land: 
  2% 
permanent crops: 
  0% 
meadows and pastures: 
  2% 
forest and woodland: 
  44% 
other: 
  52% 
Irrigated land: 
  20 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
  deforestation; water pollution from sewage, industrial effluents,
  agricultural runoff
natural hazards: 
  frequent devastating hurricanes (September to December) and coastal
  flooding (especially in south)
international agreements: 
  party to - Biodiversity, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Whaling;
  signed, but not ratified - Climate Change
Note: 
  national capital moved 80 km inland from Belize City to Belmopan
  because of hurricanes; only country in Central America without a
  coastline on the North Pacific Ocean

@Belize, People

Population: 
  208,949 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
  2.42% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
  34.74 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
  6 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
  -4.56 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
  35.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
  68.08 years 
male: 
  66.14 years 
female: 
  70.12 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
  4.39 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
  Belizean(s) 
adjective: 
  Belizean 
Ethnic divisions: 
  mestizo 44%, Creole 30%, Maya 11%, Garifuna 7%, other 8% 
Religions: 
  Roman Catholic 62%, Protestant 30% (Anglican 12%, Methodist 6%,
  Mennonite 4%, Seventh-Day Adventist 3%, Pentecostal 2%, Jehovah's
  Witnesses 1%, other 2%), none 2%, other 6% (1980)
Languages: 
  English (official), Spanish, Maya, Garifuna (Carib)
Literacy: 
  age 15 and over having ever attended school (1970)
total population: 
  91% 
male: 
  91% 
female: 
  91% 
Labor force: 
  51,500 
by occupation: 
  agriculture 30%, services 16%, government 15.4%, commerce 11.2%,
  manufacturing 10.3%
note: 
  shortage of skilled labor and all types of technical personnel (1985)

@Belize, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
  none 
conventional short form: 
  Belize 
former: 
  British Honduras 
Digraph: 
  BH
Type: 
  parliamentary democracy 
Capital: 
  Belmopan 
Administrative divisions: 
  6 districts; Belize, Cayo, Corozal, Orange Walk, Stann Creek, Toledo
Independence: 
  21 September 1981 (from UK)
National holiday: 
  Independence Day, 21 September (1981) 
Constitution: 
  21 September 1981
Legal system: 
  English law
Suffrage: 
  18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
  Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor
  General Sir Colville YOUNG (since 17 November 1993) 
head of government: 
  Prime Minister Manuel ESQUIVEL (since July 1993); Deputy Prime
  Minister Dean BARROW (since NA 1993) 
cabinet: 
  Cabinet; appointed by the governor general on advice from the prime
  minister
Legislative branch: 
  bicameral National Assembly
Senate: 
  consists of an 8-member body, 5 are appointed on the advice of the
  prime minister, 2 on the advice of the leader of the opposition, and 1
  after consultation with the Belize Advisory Council
National Assembly: 
  elections last held 30 June 1993 (next to be held June 1998); results
  - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (28 total) PUP 13 UDP 15
Judicial branch: 
  Supreme Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
  People's United Party (PUP), George PRICE, Florencio MARIN, Said MUSA;
  United Democratic Party (UDP), Manuel ESQUIVEL, Dean LINDO, Dean
  BARROW; National Alliance for Belizean Rights, Philip GOLDSON
Other political or pressure groups: 
  Society for the Promotion of Education and Research (SPEAR), Assad
  SHOMAN; United Workers Front, leader NA
Member of: 
  ACP, C, CARICOM, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU,
  IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL,
  IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, LAES, LORCS, NAM, OAS, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
  UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WMO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador Dean LINDO 
chancery: 
  2535 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
  (202) 332-9636 
FAX: 
  (202) 332-6888 
consulate(s) general: 
  Miami 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador Eugene L. SCASSA 
embassy: 
  Gabourel Lane and Hutson Street, Belize City 
mailing address: 
  P. O. Box 286, Belize City 
telephone: 
  [501] (2) 77161 through 77163 
FAX: 
  [501] (2) 30802 
Flag: 
  blue with a narrow red stripe along the top and the bottom edges;
  centered is a large white disk bearing the coat of arms; the coat of
  arms features a shield flanked by two workers in front of a mahogany
  tree with the related motto SUB UMBRA FLOREO (I Flourish in the Shade)
  on a scroll at the bottom, all encircled by a green garland

@Belize, Economy

Overview: 
  The economy is based primarily on agriculture, agro-based industry,
  and merchandising, with tourism and construction assuming increasing
  importance. Agriculture accounts for about 30% of GDP and provides 75%
  of export earnings, while sugar, the chief crop, accounts for almost
  40% of hard currency earnings. The US, Belize's main trading partner,
  is assisting in efforts to reduce dependency on sugar with an
  agricultural diversification program.
National product: 
  GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $550 million (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
  5.3% (1992)
National product per capita: 
  $2,700 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
  5.5% (1991)
Unemployment rate: 
  15% (1992 est.)
Budget: 
revenues: 
  $126.8 million 
expenditures: 
  $123.1 million, including capital expenditures of $44.8 million (FY91
  est.)
Exports: 
  $116 million (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities: 
  sugar, citrus, clothing, fish products, bananas, molasses, wood
partners: 
  US 51%, UK, other EC (1992)
Imports: 
  $273 million (c.i.f., 1992 est.)
commodities: 
  machinery and transportation equipment, food, manufactured goods,
  fuels, chemicals, pharmaceuticals
partners: 
  US 57%, UK 8%, other EC 7%, Mexico (1992)
External debt: 
  $143.7 million (1991)
Industrial production: 
  growth rate 3.7% (1990); accounts for 12% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
  34,532 kW
production: 
  90 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
  393 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
  garment production, citrus concentrates, sugar refining, rum,
  beverages, tourism
Agriculture: 
  accounts for 30% of GDP (including fish and forestry); commercial
  crops include sugar cane, bananas, coca, citrus fruits; expanding
  output of lumber and cultured shrimp; net importer of basic foods
Illicit drugs: 
  transshipment point for cocaine; an illicit producer of cannabis for
  the international drug trade; eradication program cut marijuana
  production from 200 metric tons in 1987 to about 50 metric tons in
  1991
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
  US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $104 million; Western
  (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $215
  million 
Currency: 
  1 Belizean dollar (Bz$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates: 
  Belizean dollars (Bz$) per US$1 - 2.00 (fixed rate)
Fiscal year: 
  1 April - 31 March

@Belize, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
  2,710 km 
paved: 
  500 km 
unpaved: 
  gravel 1,600 km; improved earth 300 km; unimproved earth 310 km 
Inland waterways: 
  825 km river network used by shallow-draft craft; seasonally navigable
Ports: 
  Belize City; additional ports for shallow draught craft include
  Corozol, Punta Gorda, Big Creek
Merchant marine: 
  25 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 53,509 GRT/80,345 DWT, bulk 6,
  cargo 11, container 2, oil tanker 1, refrigerated cargo 2,
  roll-on/roll-off cargo 3 
Airports: 
total: 
  47 
usable: 
  38 
with permanent-surface runways: 
  3 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
  0 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
  1 
with runways 1,229-2,439 m: 
  3 
Telecommunications: 
  8,650 telephones; above-average system based on microwave radio relay;
  broadcast stations - 6 AM, 5 FM, 1 TV, 1 shortwave; 1 Atlantic Ocean
  INTELSAT earth station

@Belize, Defense Forces

Branches: 
  British Forces Belize withdrawn by the end of 1993 except for a small
  training detachment, Belize Defense Force (including Army, Navy, Air
  Force, and Volunteer Guard), Belize National Police 
Manpower availability: 
  males age 15-49 48,789; fit for military service 29,040; reach
  military age (18) annually 2,175 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
  exchange rate conversion - $4.8 million, 1.8% of GDP (1992)


@Benin, Geography

Location: 
  Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean between Nigeria and
  Togo
Map references: 
  Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
  112,620 sq km 
land area: 
  110,620 sq km 
comparative area: 
  slightly smaller than Pennsylvania
Land boundaries: 
  total 1,989 km, Burkina 306 km, Niger 266 km, Nigeria 773 km, Togo 644
  km 
Coastline: 
  121 km 
Maritime claims: 
territorial sea: 
  200 nm
International disputes: 
  none
Climate: 
  tropical; hot, humid in south; semiarid in north
Terrain: 
  mostly flat to undulating plain; some hills and low mountains
Natural resources: 
  small offshore oil deposits, limestone, marble, timber 
Land use: 
arable land: 
  12% 
permanent crops: 
  4% 
meadows and pastures: 
  4% 
forest and woodland: 
  35% 
other: 
  45% 
Irrigated land: 
  60 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
  limited supply of safe drinking water; illegal hunting threatens
  wildlife populations; deforestation; desertification
natural hazards: 
  hot, dry, dusty harmattan wind may affect north in winter
international agreements: 
  party to - Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Nuclear
  Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection; signed, but not ratified -
  Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of the Sea
Note: 
  recent droughts have severely affected marginal agriculture in north;
  no natural harbors

@Benin, People

Population: 
  5,341,710 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
  3.33% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
  47.67 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
  14.36 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
  110.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
  51.77 years 
male: 
  49.92 years 
female: 
  53.68 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
  6.79 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
  Beninese (singular and plural) 
adjective: 
  Beninese 
Ethnic divisions: 
  African 99% (42 ethnic groups, most important being Fon, Adja, Yoruba,
  Bariba), Europeans 5,500
Religions: 
  indigenous beliefs 70%, Muslim 15%, Christian 15% 
Languages: 
  French (official), Fon and Yoruba (most common vernaculars in south),
  tribal languages (at least six major ones in north)
Literacy: 
  age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
  23% 
male: 
  32% 
female: 
  16% 
Labor force: 
  1.9 million (1987)
by occupation: 
  agriculture 60%, transport, commerce, and public services 38%,
  industry less than 2%
note: 
  49% of population of working age (1985)

@Benin, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
  Republic of Benin 
conventional short form: 
  Benin 
local long form: 
  Republique Populaire du Benin 
local short form: 
  Benin 
former: 
  Dahomey 
Digraph: 
  BN
Type: 
  republic under multiparty democratic rule dropped Marxism-Leninism
  December 1989; democratic reforms adopted February 1990; transition to
  multiparty system completed 4 April 1991
Capital: 
  Porto-Novo 
Administrative divisions: 
  6 provinces; Atakora, Atlantique, Borgou, Mono, Oueme, Zou
Independence: 
  1 August 1960 (from France)
National holiday: 
  National Day, 1 August (1990) 
Constitution: 
  2 December 1990
Legal system: 
  based on French civil law and customary law; has not accepted
  compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 
  18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state and head of government: 
  President Nicephore SOGLO (since 4 April 1991); election last held 10
  and 24 March 1991; results - Nicephore SOGLO 68%, Mathieu KEREKOU 32%
cabinet: 
  Executive Council; appointed by the president
Legislative branch: 
  unicameral
National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale): 
  elections last held 10 and 24 March 1991; results - percent of vote by
  party NA; seats - (64 total) UDFP-MDPS-ULD 12, PNDD/PRD 9, PSD/UNSP 8,
  NCC 7, RND 7, MNDD/MSUP/UDRN 6, UDS 5, RDL 4, ASD/BSD 3, ADP/UDRS 2,
  UNDP 1
Judicial branch: 
  Supreme Court (Cour Supreme) 
Political parties and leaders: 
  Alliance of the Democratic Union for the Forces of Progress (UDFP),
  Timothee ADANLIN; Movement for Democracy and Social Progress (MDPS),
  Jean-Roger AHOYO; Union for Liberty and Development (ULD), Marcellin
  DEGBE; Alliance of the National Party for Democracy and Development
  (PNDD) and the Democratic Renewal Party (PRD), Pascal Chabi KAO;
  Alliance of the Social Democratic Party (PSD) and the National Union
  for Solidarity and Progress (UNSP), Bruno AMOUSSOU; Our Common Cause
  (NCC), Albert TEVOEDJRE; National Rally for Democracy (RND), Joseph
  KEKE; Alliance of the National Movement for Democracy and Development
  (MNDD), leader NA; Movement for Solidarity, Union, and Progress
  (MSUP), Adebo ADENIYI; Union for Democracy and National Reconstruction
  (UDRN), Azaria FAKOREDE; Union for Democracy and National Solidarity
  (UDS), Mama Amadou N'DIAYE; Assembly of Liberal Democrats for National
  Reconstruction (RDL), Severin ADJOVI; Alliance of the Alliance for
  Social Democracy (ASD), Robert DOSSOU; Bloc for Social Democracy
  (BSD), Michel MAGNIDE; Alliance of the Alliance for Democracy and
  Progress (ADP), Akindes ADEKPEDJOU; Democratic Union for Social
  Renewal (UDRS), Bio Gado Seko N'GOYE; National Union for Democracy and
  Progress (UNDP), Robert TAGNON; Party for Progress and Democracy,
  Thiophile NATA; African Rally for Progress and Solidarity (RAPS),
  Florentin MITO-BABA; The Benin Renaissance Party , Desire VIEYRA and
  Rosine SOGLO; The Patriotic Union for the Republic (UPR), Jean-Marie
  ZAHOUN; Union for the Conservation of Democracy, Bernard HOUEGNON
note: 
  as of May 1994, Benin had about 60 political parties
Member of: 
  ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CEAO, ECA, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, GATT,
  IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT,
  INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
  UPU, WADB, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador Candide AHOUANSOU 
chancery: 
  2737 Cathedral Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
  (202) 232-6656  
FAX: 
  (202) 265-1996 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador Ruth A. DAVIS 
embassy: 
  Rue Caporal Anani Bernard, Cotonou 
mailing address: 
  B. P. 2012, Cotonou 
telephone: 
  [229] 30-06-50, 30-05-13, 30-17-92 
FAX: 
  [229] 30-14-39 and 30-19-74 
Flag: 
  two equal horizontal bands of yellow (top) and red with a vertical
  green band on the hoist side

@Benin, Economy

Overview: 
  Benin is one of the least developed countries in the world because of
  limited natural resources and a poorly developed infrastructure.
  Agriculture accounts for about 35% of GDP, employs about 60% of the
  labor force, and generates a major share of foreign exchange earnings.
  The industrial sector contributes only about 10% to GDP and employs 2%
  of the work force. Low prices in recent years have kept down hard
  currency earnings from Benin's major exports of agricultural products,
  primarily cotton. A World Bank supported structural adjustment program
  begun in 1989 has helped strengthen the economy through such measures
  as trimming the government payroll, reforming the tax system, and
  encouraging private investment, both domestic and foreign. Benin has
  experienced 3 consecutive years of moderate growth as a result.
National product: 
  GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $6.2 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
  3% (1991)
National product per capita: 
  $1,200 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
  3.4% (1990)
Unemployment rate: 
  NA%
Budget: 
revenues: 
  $218 million 
expenditures: 
  $355 million, including capital expenditures of $100 million (1991
  est.)
Exports: 
  $328.8 million (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
commodities: 
  crude oil, cotton, palm products, cocoa
partners: 
  FRG 36%, France 16%, Spain 14%, Italy 8%, UK 4%
Imports: 
  $482.3 million (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
commodities: 
  foodstuffs, beverages, tobacco, petroleum products, intermediate
  goods, capital goods, light consumer goods
partners: 
  France 20%, Thailand 8%, Netherlands 7%, US 5%
External debt: 
  $1 billion (December 1990 est.)
Industrial production: 
  growth rate -0.7% (1988); accounts for 10% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
  30,000 kW
production: 
  25 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
  5 kWh (1991)
Industries: 
  textiles, cigarettes, construction materials, beverages, food
  production, petroleum
Agriculture: 
  accounts for 35% of GDP; small farms produce 90% of agricultural
  output; production is dominated by food crops - corn, sorghum,
  cassava, beans, rice; cash crops include cotton, palm oil, peanuts;
  poultry and livestock output has not kept up with consumption
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
  US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $46 million; Western
  (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $1.3
  billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $19 million; Communist
  countries (1970-89), $101 million 
Currency: 
  1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates: 
  Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 592.05
  (January 1994), 283.16 (1993), 264.69 (1992), 282.11 (1991), 272.26
  (1990), 319.01 (1989)
note: 
  beginning 12 January 1994 the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF 100 per
  French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since 1948
Fiscal year: 
  calendar year

@Benin, Communications

Railroads: 
  578 km, all 1.000-meter gauge, single track
Highways: 
total: 
  8,435 km 
paved: 
  1,038 km 
unpaved: 
  crushed stone 2,600 km; improved earth 1,530 km; unimproved earth
  3,267 km 
Inland waterways: 
  navigable along small sections, important only locally
Ports: 
  Cotonou
Airports: 
total: 
  7 
usable: 
  6 
with permanent-surface runways: 
  2 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
  0 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
  1 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
  3 
Telecommunications: 
  fair system of open wire, submarine cable, and radio relay microwave;
  broadcast stations - 2 AM, 2 FM, 2 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth
  station

@Benin, Defense Forces

Branches: 
  Armed Forces (including Army, Navy, Air Force), National Gendarmerie 
Manpower availability: 
  males age 15-49 1,209,226; females age 15-49 1,120,105; males fit for
  military service 611,257; females fit for military service 573,775;
  males reach military age (18) annually 58,293 (1994 est.);
  femalesreach military age (18) annually 56,735 (1994 est.); both sexes
  are liable for miltary service
Defense expenditures: 
  exchange rate conversion - $29 million, 1.7% of GDP (1988 est.)


@Bermuda

Header
Affiliation: 
  (dependent territory of the UK) 

@Bermuda, Geography

Location: 
  Northern North America, in the western North Atlantic Ocean, 1,050 km
  east of North Carolina
Map references: 
  North America 
Area: 
total area: 
  50 sq km 
land area: 
  50 sq km 
comparative area: 
  about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries: 
  0 km  
Coastline: 
  103 km 
Maritime claims: 
exclusive fishing zone: 
  200 nm
territorial sea: 
  12 nm
International disputes: 
  none
Climate: 
  subtropical; mild, humid; gales, strong winds common in winter
Terrain: 
  low hills separated by fertile depressions
Natural resources: 
  limestone, pleasant climate fostering tourism 
Land use: 
arable land: 
  0% 
permanent crops: 
  0% 
meadows and pastures: 
  0% 
forest and woodland: 
  20% 
other: 
  80% 
Irrigated land: 
  NA sq km
Environment: 
current issues: 
  NA 
natural hazards: 
  subject to hurricanes (June to November)
international agreements: 
  NA 
Note: 
  some reclaimed land leased by US Government; consists of about 360
  small coral islands with ample rainfall, but no rivers or freshwater
  lakes

@Bermuda, People

Population: 
  61,158 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
  0.77% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
  15.14 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
  7.3 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
  -0.13 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
  13.16 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
  75.03 years 
male: 
  73.36 years 
female: 
  76.97 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
  1.81 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
  Bermudian(s) 
adjective: 
  Bermudian 
Ethnic divisions: 
  black 61%, white and other 39% 
Religions: 
  Anglican 37%, Roman Catholic 14%, African Methodist Episcopal (Zion)
  10%, Methodist 6%, Seventh-Day Adventist 5%, other 28% 
Languages: 
  English 
Literacy: 
  age 15 and over can read and write (1970)
total population: 
  98% 
male: 
  98% 
female: 
  99% 
Labor force: 
  32,000 
by occupation: 
  clerical 25%, services 22%, laborers 21%, professional and technical
  13%, administrative and managerial 10%, sales 7%, agriculture and
  fishing 2% (1984)

@Bermuda, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
  none 
conventional short form: 
  Bermuda 
Digraph: 
  BD
Type: 
  dependent territory of the UK 
Capital: 
  Hamilton 
Administrative divisions: 
  9 parishes and 2 municipalities*; Devonshire, Hamilton, Hamilton*,
  Paget, Pembroke, Saint George*, Saint Georges, Sandys, Smiths,
  Southampton, Warwick
Independence: 
  none (dependent territory of the UK)
National holiday: 
  Bermuda Day, 22 May 
Constitution: 
  8 June 1968
Legal system: 
  English law
Suffrage: 
  21 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
  Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor
  Lord David WADDINGTON (since 25 August 1992) 
head of government: 
  Premier John William David SWAN (since NA January 1982); Deputy
  Premier J. Irving PEARMAN (since 5 October 1993) 
cabinet: 
  Cabinet; nominated by the premier, appointed by the governor
Legislative branch: 
  bicameral Parliament
Senate: 
  consists of an 11-member body appointed by the governor
House of Assembly: 
  elections last held 5 October 1993 (next to be held by NA October
  1998); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (40 total) UBP
  22, PLP 18
Judicial branch: 
  Supreme Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
  United Bermuda Party (UBP), John W. D. SWAN; Progressive Labor Party
  (PLP), Frederick WADE; National Liberal Party (NLP), Gilbert DARRELL
Other political or pressure groups: 
  Bermuda Industrial Union (BIU), Ottiwell SIMMONS
Member of: 
  CARICOM (observer), CCC, ICFTU, INTERPOL (subbureau), IOC 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
  none (dependent territory of the UK)
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
  (vacant) 
consulate general: 
  Crown Hill, 16 Middle Road, Devonshire, Hamilton 
mailing address: 
  P. O. Box HM325, Hamilton HMBX; PSC 1002, FPO AE 09727-1002 
telephone: 
  (809) 295-1342 
FAX: 
  (809) 295-1592 
Flag: 
  red with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the
  Bermudian coat of arms (white and blue shield with a red lion holding
  a scrolled shield showing the sinking of the ship Sea Venture off
  Bermuda in 1609) centered on the outer half of the flag

@Bermuda, Economy

Overview: 
  Bermuda enjoys one of the highest per capita incomes in the world,
  having successfully exploited its location by providing luxury tourist
  facilities and financial services. The tourist industry attracts more
  than 90% of its business from North America. The industrial sector is
  small, and agriculture is severely limited by a lack of suitable land.
  About 80% of food needs are imported.
National product: 
  GDP - exchange rate conversion - $1.63 billion (1992)
National product real growth rate: 
  -1.5% (1991)
National product per capita: 
  $27,100 (1992)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
  4.4% (1991)
Unemployment rate: 
  6% (1991)
Budget: 
revenues: 
  $327.5 million 
expenditures: 
  $308.9 million, including capital expenditures of $35.4 million (FY91
  est.)
Exports: 
  $60 million (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities: 
  semitropical produce, light manufactures, re-exports of
  pharmaceuticals
partners: 
  US 55%, UK 32%, Canada 11%, other 2%
Imports: 
  $468 million (f.o.b.,1991)
commodities: 
  fuel, foodstuffs, machinery
partners: 
  US 60%, UK 8%, Venezuela 7%, Canada 5%, Japan 5%, other 15%
External debt: 
  $NA
Industrial production: 
  growth rate NA%
Electricity: 
capacity: 
  154,000 kW
production: 
  504 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
  8,370 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
  tourism, finance, structural concrete products, paints,
  pharmaceuticals, ship repairing
Agriculture: 
  accounts for less than 1% of GDP; most basic foods must be imported;
  produces bananas, vegetables, citrus fruits, flowers, dairy products
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
  US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-81), $34 million;  Western
  (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89),  $277
  million 
Currency: 
  1 Bermudian dollar (Bd$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates: 
  Bermudian dollar (Bd$) per US$1 - 1.0000 (fixed rate)
Fiscal year: 
  1 April - 31 March

@Bermuda, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
  210 km 
paved: 
  210 km 
note: 
  in addition, there are 400 km of paved and unpaved roads that are
  privately owned
Ports: 
  Freeport, Hamilton, Saint George
Merchant marine: 
  67 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,407,518 GRT/5,775,281 DWT,
  bulk 15, cargo 4, container 3, liquefied gas 14, oil tanker 20,
  refrigerated cargo 4, roll-on/roll-off cargo 7 
note: 
  a flag of convenience registry
Airports: 
total: 
  1 
usable: 
  1 
with permanent-surface runways: 
  1 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
  0 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
  1 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
  0 
Telecommunications: 
  modern, fully automatic telephone system; 52,670 telephones; broadcast
  stations - 5 AM, 3 FM, 2 TV; 3 submarine cables; 2 Atlantic Ocean
  INTELSAT earth stations

@Bermuda, Defense Forces

Branches: 
  Bermuda Regiment, Bermuda Police Force, Bermuda Reserve Constabulary 
Note: 
  defense is the responsibility of the UK


@Bhutan, Geography

Location: 
  Southern Asia, in the Himalayas, between China and India
Map references: 
  Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
  47,000 sq km 
land area: 
  47,000 sq km 
comparative area: 
  slightly more than half the size of Indiana
Land boundaries: 
  total 1,075 km, China 470 km, India 605 km 
Coastline: 
  0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: 
  none; landlocked
International disputes: 
  none
Climate: 
  varies; tropical in southern plains; cool winters and hot summers in
  central valleys; severe winters and cool summers in Himalayas
Terrain: 
  mostly mountainous with some fertile valleys and savanna
Natural resources: 
  timber, hydropower, gypsum, calcium carbide 
Land use: 
arable land: 
  2% 
permanent crops: 
  0% 
meadows and pastures: 
  5% 
forest and woodland: 
  70% 
other: 
  23% 
Irrigated land: 
  340 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
  soil erosion; limited access to safe drinking water
natural hazards: 
  violent storms coming down from the Himalayas are the source of the
  country's name which translates as Land of the Thunder Dragon
international agreements: 
  party to - Nuclear Test Ban; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity,
  Climate Change, Law of the Sea
Note: 
  landlocked; strategic location between China and India; controls
  several key Himalayan mountain passes

@Bhutan, People

Population: 
  716,380 (July 1994 est.) 
note: 
  other estimates range as high as 1.7 million (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate: 
  2.34% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
  39.31 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
  15.93 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
  121 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
  50.6 years 
male: 
  51.15 years 
female: 
  50.03 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
  5.42 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
  Bhutanese (singular and plural) 
adjective: 
  Bhutanese 
Ethnic divisions: 
  Bhote 50%, ethnic Nepalese 35%, indigenous or migrant tribes 15% 
Religions: 
  Lamaistic Buddhism 75%, Indian- and Nepalese-influenced Hinduism 25% 
Languages: 
  Dzongkha (official), Bhotes speak various Tibetan dialects; Nepalese
  speak various Nepalese dialects
Literacy: 
total population: 
  NA%
male: 
  NA%
female: 
  NA%
Labor force: 
  NA
by occupation: 
  agriculture 93%, services 5%, industry and commerce 2%
note: 
  massive lack of skilled labor

@Bhutan, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
  Kingdom of Bhutan 
conventional short form: 
  Bhutan 
Digraph: 
  BT
Type: 
  monarchy; special treaty relationship with India
Capital: 
  Thimphu 
Administrative divisions: 
  18 districts (dzongkhag, singular and plural); Bumthang, Chhukha,
  Chirang, Daga, Geylegphug, Ha, Lhuntshi, Mongar, Paro, Pemagatsel,
  Punakha, Samchi, Samdrup Jongkhar, Shemgang, Tashigang, Thimphu,
  Tongsa, Wangdi Phodrang
Independence: 
  8 August 1949 (from India)
National holiday: 
  National Day, 17 December (1907) (Ugyen Wangchuck became first
  hereditary king) 
Constitution: 
  no written constitution or bill of rights
Legal system: 
  based on Indian law and English common law; has not accepted
  compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 
  each family has one vote in village-level elections
Executive branch: 
Chief of State and Head of Government: 
  King Jigme Singye WANGCHUCK (since 24 July 1972) 
Royal Advisory Council (Lodoi Tsokde): 
  nominated by the king
cabinet: 
  Council of Ministers (Lhengye Shungtsog); appointed by the king
Legislative branch: 
  unicameral National Assembly (Tshogdu); no national elections
Judicial branch: 
  High Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
  no legal parties
Other political or pressure groups: 
  Buddhist clergy; Indian merchant community; ethnic Nepalese
  organizations leading militant antigovernment campaign
Member of: 
  AsDB, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IMF, INTELSAT, IOC,
  ITU, NAM, SAARC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
  no formal diplomatic relations; the Bhutanese mission to the UN in New
  York has consular jurisdiction in the US
consulate(s) general: 
  New York 
US diplomatic representation: 
  no formal diplomatic relations, although informal contact is
  maintained between the Bhutanese and US Embassies in New Delhi (India)
Flag: 
  divided diagonally from the lower hoist side corner; the upper
  triangle is orange and the lower triangle is red; centered along the
  dividing line is a large black and white dragon facing away from the
  hoist side

@Bhutan, Economy

Overview: 
  The economy, one of the world's least developed, is based on
  agriculture and forestry, which provide the main livelihood for 90% of
  the population and account for about 50% of GDP. Rugged mountains
  dominate the terrain and make the building of roads and other
  infrastructure difficult and expensive. The economy is closely aligned
  with that of India through strong trade and monetary links. The
  industrial sector is small and technologically backward, with most
  production of the cottage industry type. Most development projects,
  such as road construction, rely on Indian migrant labor. Bhutan's
  hydropower potential and its attraction for tourists are its most
  important natural resources; however, the government limits the number
  of tourists to 4,000 per year to minimize foreign influence. Much of
  the impetus for growth has come from large public-sector companies.
  Nevertheless, in recent years, Bhutan has shifted toward decentralized
  development planning and greater private initiative. The government
  privatized several large public-sector firms, is revamping its trade
  regime and liberalizing administerial procedures over industrial
  licensing. The government's industrial contribution to GDP decreased
  from 13% in 1988 to about 10% in 1992.
National product: 
  GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $500 million (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
  5% (FY93 est.)
National product per capita: 
  $700 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
  11% (October 1993)
Unemployment rate: 
  NA%
Budget: 
revenues: 
  $100 million 
expenditures: 
  $112 million, including capital expenditures of $60 million (FY92
  est.)
note: 
  the government of India finances nearly one-quarter of Bhutan's budget
  expenditures
Exports: 
  $66 million (f.o.b., FY93 est.)
commodities: 
  cardamon, gypsum, timber, handicrafts, cement, fruit, electricity (to
  India), precious stones, spices
partners: 
  India 82%, Bangladesh, Singapore
Imports: 
  $125 million (c.i.f., FY93 est.)
commodities: 
  fuel and lubricants, grain, machinery and parts, vehicles, fabrics
partners: 
  India 60%, Japan, Germany, US, UK
External debt: 
  $141 million (June 1993)
Industrial production: 
  growth rate NA%; accounts for 8% of GDP; primarily cottage industry
  and home based handicrafts
Electricity: 
capacity: 
  336,000 kW
production: 
  1.5422 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
  2,203 kWh (25.8% is exported to India leaving 1,633 kWh per capita;
  1990-91)
Industries: 
  cement, wood products, processed fruits, alcoholic beverages, calcium
  carbide
Agriculture: 
  accounts for 45% of GDP; based on subsistence farming and animal
  husbandry; self-sufficient in food except for foodgrains; other
  production - rice, corn, root crops, citrus fruit, dairy products,
  eggs
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
  Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
  (1970-89), $115 million;  OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $11 million 
Currency: 
  1 ngultrum (Nu) = 100 chetrum; note - Indian currency is also legal
  tender
Exchange rates: 
  ngultrum (Nu) per US$1 - 31.370 (January 1994), 30.493 (1993), 25.918
  (1992), 22.742 (1991), 17.504 (1990), 16.226 (1989); note - the
  Bhutanese ngultrum is at par with the Indian rupee
Fiscal year: 
  1 July - 30 June

@Bhutan, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
  2,165 km 
paved: 
  NA 
unpaved: 
  gravel 1,703 km 
undifferentiated: 
  462 km 
Airports: 
total: 
  2 
usable: 
  2 
with permanent-surface runways: 
  1 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
  0 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
  0 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
  2 
Telecommunications: 
  domestic telephone service is very poor with very few telephones in
  use; international telephone and telegraph service is by land line
  through India; a satellite earth station was planned (1990); broadcast
  stations - 1 AM, 1 FM, no TV (1990)

@Bhutan, Defense Forces

Branches: 
  Royal Bhutan Army, Palace Guard, Militia 
Manpower availability: 
  males age 15-49 424,558; fit for military service 226,851; reach
  military age (18) annually 17,310 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
  $NA, NA% of GDP


@Bolivia, Geography

Location: 
  Central South America, between Brazil and Chile
Map references: 
  South America, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
  1,098,580 sq km 
land area: 
  1,084,390 sq km 
comparative area: 
  slightly less than three times the size of Montana
Land boundaries: 
  total 6,743 km, Argentina 832 km, Brazil 3,400 km, Chile 861 km,
  Paraguay 750 km, Peru 900 km 
Coastline: 
  0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: 
  none; landlocked
International disputes: 
  has wanted a sovereign corridor to the South Pacific Ocean since the
  Atacama area was lost to Chile in 1884; dispute with Chile over Rio
  Lauca water rights
Climate: 
  varies with altitude; humid and tropical to cold and semiarid
Terrain: 
  rugged Andes Mountains with a highland plateau (Altiplano), hills,
  lowland plains of the Amazon Basin
Natural resources: 
  tin, natural gas, petroleum, zinc, tungsten, antimony, silver, iron
  ore, lead, gold, timber 
Land use: 
arable land: 
  3% 
permanent crops: 
  0% 
meadows and pastures: 
  25% 
forest and woodland: 
  52% 
other: 
  20% 
Irrigated land: 
  1,650 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
  deforestation contributing to loss of biodiversity; overgrazing; soil
  erosion; desertification; industrial pollution of water supplies used
  for drinking and irrigation
natural hazards: 
  flooding in the northeast (March to April)
international agreements: 
  party to - Endangered Species, Nuclear Test Ban, Wetlands; signed, but
  not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Environmental
  Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine
  Life Conservation, Tropical Timber
Note: 
  landlocked; shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest navigable
  lake (elevation 3,805 m), with Peru; cold, thin air of high plateau is
  obstacle to efficient fuel combustion, as well as to physical activity
  by those unaccustomed to it from birth

@Bolivia, People

Population: 
  7,719,445 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
  2.28% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
  32.22 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
  8.37 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
  -1.04 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
  73.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
  63.31 years 
male: 
  60.86 years 
female: 
  65.88 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
  4.21 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
  Bolivian(s) 
adjective: 
  Bolivian 
Ethnic divisions: 
  Quechua 30%, Aymara 25%, mestizo (mixed European and Indian ancestry)
  25%-30%, European 5%-15%
Religions: 
  Roman Catholic 95%, Protestant (Evangelical Methodist)
Languages: 
  Spanish (official), Quechua (official), Aymara (official)
Literacy: 
  age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
  78% 
male: 
  85% 
female: 
  71% 
Labor force: 
  3.54 million 
by occupation: 
  agriculture NA, services and utilities 20%, manufacturing, mining and
  construction 7% (1993)

@Bolivia, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
  Republic of Bolivia 
conventional short form: 
  Bolivia 
local long form: 
  Republica de Bolivia 
local short form: 
  Bolivia 
Digraph: 
  BL
Type: 
  republic 
Capital: 
  La Paz (seat of government);  Sucre (legal capital and seat of
  judiciary)
Administrative divisions: 
  9 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Chuquisaca,
  Cochabamba, Beni, La Paz, Oruro, Pando, Potosi, Santa Cruz, Tarija
Independence: 
  6 August 1825 (from Spain)
National holiday: 
  Independence Day, 6 August (1825) 
Constitution: 
  2 February 1967
Legal system: 
  based on Spanish law and Code Napoleon; has not accepted compulsory
  ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 
  18 years of age, universal and compulsory (married);  21 years of age,
  universal and compulsory (single)
Executive branch: 
chief of state and head of government: 
  President Gonzalo SANCHEZ DE LOZADA Bustamente (since 6 August 1993);
  Vice President Victor Hugo CARDENAS Conde (since 6 August 1993);
  election last held 6 June 1993 (next to be held May 1997); results -
  Gonzalo SANCHEZ DE LOZADA (MNR) 34%, Hugo BANZER Suarez (ADN/MIR
  alliance) 20%, Carlos PALENQUE Aviles (CONDEPA) 14%, Max FERNANDEZ
  Rojas (UCS) 13%, Antonio ARANIBAR Quiroga (MBL) 5%; no candidate
  received a majority of the popular vote; Gonzalo SANCHEZ DE LOZADA won
  a congressional runoff election on 4 August 1993 after forming a
  coalition with Max FERNANDEZ and Antonio ARANIBAR
cabinet: 
  Cabinet; appointed by the president from panel proposed by the Senate
Legislative branch: 
  bicameral National Congress (Congreso Nacional)
Chamber of Deputies (Camara de Diputados): 
  elections last held 6 June 1993 (next to be held May 1997); results -
  percent of vote by party NA; seats - (130 total) MNR 52, UCS 20, ADN
  17, MIR 17, CONDEPA 13, MBL 7, ARBOL 1, ASD 1, EJE 1, PDC 1
Chamber of Senators (Camara de Senadores): 
  elections last held 6 June 1993 (next to be held May 1997); results -
  percent of vote by party NA; seats - (27 total) MNR 17, ADN 4, MIR 4,
  CONDEPA 1, UCS 1
Judicial branch: 
  Supreme Court (Corte Suprema) 
Political parties and leaders: 
  Movement of the Revolutionary Left (MIR), Jaime PAZ Zamora;
  Nationalist Democratic Action (ADN), Jorge LANDIVAR; Nationalist
  Revolutionary Movement (MNR), Gonzalo SANCHEZ DE LOZADA; Civic
  Solidarity Union (UCS), Max FERNANDEZ Rojas; Conscience of the
  Fatherland (CONDEPA), Carlos PALENQUE Aviles; Free Bolivia Movement
  (MBL), Antonio ARANIBAR; Tupac Katari Revolutionary Liberation
  Movement (MRTK-L), Victor Hugo CARDENAS Conde; Christian Democrat
  Party (PDC), Jorge AGREDA
Member of: 
  AG, ECLAC, FAO, GATT, G-11, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD,
  IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES, LAIA,
  LORCS, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL,
  WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador Andres PETRICEVIC   
chancery: 
  3014 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
  (202) 483-4410 through 4412 
FAX: 
  (202) 328-3712 
consulate(s) general: 
  Los Angeles, Miami, New York, and San Francisco 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador Charles R. BOWERS 
embassy: 
  Banco Popular del Peru Building, corner of Calle Mercado and Calle
  Colon, La Paz 
mailing address: 
  P. O. Box 425, La Paz, or APO AA 34032 
telephone: 
  [591] (2) 350251 or 350120 
FAX: 
  [591] (2) 359875 
Flag: 
  three equal horizontal bands of red (top), yellow, and green with the
  coat of arms centered on the yellow band; similar to the flag of
  Ghana, which has a large black five-pointed star centered in the
  yellow band

@Bolivia, Economy

Overview: 
  With its long history of semifeudal social controls, dependence on
  volatile prices for its mineral exports, and bouts of hyperinflation,
  Bolivia has remained one of the poorest and least developed Latin
  American countries. However, Bolivia has experienced generally
  improving economic conditions since the PAZ Estenssoro administration
  (1985-89) introduced market-oriented policies which reduced inflation
  from 11,700% in 1985 to about 20% in 1988. PAZ Estenssoro was followed
  as President by Jaime PAZ Zamora (1989-93) who continued the
  free-market policies of his predecessor, despite opposition from his
  own party and from Bolivia's once powerful labor movement. By
  maintaining fiscal discipline, PAZ Zamora helped reduce inflation to
  9.3% in 1993, while GDP grew by an annual average of 3.25% during his
  tenure. Inaugurated in August 1993, President SANCHEZ DE LOZADA has
  vowed to advance government market-oriented economic reforms he helped
  launch as PAZ Estenssoro's Planning Minister. A major privatization
  bill was passed by the Bolivian legislature in late March 1994.
National product: 
  GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $15.8 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
  2.2% (1993)
National product per capita: 
  $2,100 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
  9.3% (1993)
Unemployment rate: 
  5.8% (1993)
Budget: 
revenues: 
  $3.19 billion 
expenditures: 
  $3.19 billion, including capital expenditures of $552.4 million (1994
  est.)
Exports: 
  $752 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
  metals 35%, natural gas 26%, other 39% (coffee, soybeans, sugar,
  cotton, timber)
partners: 
  US 16% , Argentina (1992 est.)
Imports: 
  $1.17 billion (c.i.f., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
  food, petroleum, consumer goods, capital goods
partners: 
  US 23.3% (1992)
External debt: 
  $3.8 billion (January 1994)
Industrial production: 
  growth rate 7% (1992); accounts for almost 30% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
  865,000 kW
production: 
  1.834 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
  250 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
  mining, smelting, petroleum, food and beverage, tobacco, handicrafts,
  clothing; illicit drug industry reportedly produces 15% of its
  revenues
Agriculture: 
  accounts for about 21% of GDP (including forestry and fisheries);
  principal commodities - coffee, coca, cotton, corn, sugarcane, rice,
  potatoes, timber; self-sufficient in food
Illicit drugs: 
  world's second-largest producer of coca (after Peru) with an estimated
  45,500 hectares under cultivation in 1992; voluntary and forced
  eradication program unable to prevent production from rising to 80,300
  metric tons in 1992 from 78,200 tons in 1989; government considers all
  but 12,000 hectares illicit; intermediate coca products and cocaine
  exported to or through Colombia and Brazil to the US and other
  international drug markets
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
  US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $990 million; Western
  (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89),
  $2.025 billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $340 million 
Currency: 
  1 boliviano ($B) = 100 centavos
Exchange rates: 
  bolivianos ($B) per US$1 - 4.5 (March 1994), 4.4604 (November 1993),
  3.9005 (1992), 3.5806 (1991), 3.1727 (1990), 2.6917 (1989), 2.3502
  (1988)
Fiscal year: 
  calendar year

@Bolivia, Communications

Railroads: 
  3,684 km total, all narrow gauge; 3,652 km 1.000-meter gauge and 32 km
  0.760-meter gauge, all government owned, single track
Highways: 
total: 
  42,815 km 
paved: 
  1,865 km 
unpaved: 
  gravel 12,000 km; improved/unimproved earth 28,950 km 
Inland waterways: 
  10,000 km of commercially navigable waterways
Pipelines: 
  crude oil 1,800 km; petroleum products 580 km; natural gas 1,495 km 
Ports: 
  none; maritime outlets are Arica and Antofagasta in Chile, Matarani
  and Ilo in Peru
Merchant marine: 
  1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,214 GRT/6,390 DWT
Airports: 
total: 
  1,395 
usable: 
  1,188 
with permanent-surface runways: 
  9 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
  2 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
  7 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
  165 
Telecommunications: 
  very poor telephone service for the general population; 144,300
  telephones - 18.7 telephones per 1,000 persons; microwave radio relay
  system being expanded; improved international services; broadcast
  stations - 129 AM, no FM, 43 TV, 68 shortwave; 1 Atlantic Ocean
  INTELSAT earth station

@Bolivia, Defense Forces

Branches: 
  Army (Ejercito Boliviano), Navy includes Marines (La Fuerza Naval
  Boliviana), Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Boliviana), National Police Force
  ( Policia Nacional de Bolivia)
Manpower availability: 
  males age 15-49 1,835,661; fit for military service 1,194,077; reach
  military age (19) annually 79,580 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
  exchange rate conversion - $130.48 million; NA% of GDP (1994 est.)


@Bosnia and Herzegovina

Header
Note: 
  Bosnia and Herzegovina is suffering from interethnic civil strife
  which began in March 1992 after the Government of Bosnia and
  Herzegovina held a referendum on independence. Bosnia's Serbs -
  supported by neighboring Serbia - responded with armed resistance
  aimed at partitioning the republic along ethnic lines and joining
  Serb-held areas to a "greater Serbia." Since the onset of the
  conflict, which has driven approximately half of the pre-war
  population of 4.4 million from their homes, both the Bosnian Serbs and
  the Bosnian Croats have asserted control of more than three-quarters
  of the territory formerly under the control of the Government of
  Bosnia and Herzegovina. The UN and the EU are continuing to try to
  mediate a plan for peace. In March 1994 Bosnian Muslims and Bosnian
  Croats signed an agreement in Washington, DC, creating a Federation of
  Bosnia and Herzegovina, which is to include territories in which
  Muslims or Croats predominated, according to the 1991 census. Bosnian
  Serbs refused to become a part of this Federation.

@Bosnia and Herzegovina, Geography

Location: 
  Balkan State, Southeastern Europe, on the Balkan Peninsula, between
  Croatia and Serbia and Montenegro
Map references: 
  Africa, Arctic Region, Ethnic Groups in Eastern Europe, Europe,
  Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
  51,233 sq km 
land area: 
  51,233 sq km 
comparative area: 
  slightly larger than Tennessee
Land boundaries: 
  total 1,459 km, Croatia 932 km, Serbia and Montenegro 527 km (312 km
  with Serbia; 215 km with Montenegro)
Coastline: 
  20 km 
Maritime claims: 
continental shelf: 
  200-m depth
exclusive economic zone: 
  12 nm
exclusive fishing zone: 
  12 nm
territorial sea: 
  12 nm
International disputes: 
  as of May 1994, members of the Bosnian Serb armed factions, desirous
  of establishing a separate state linked with neighboring Serbia,
  occupied 70% of Bosnia after having killed or driven out non-Serb
  inhabitants; the Bosnian Croats, occupied and declared an independent
  state in an additional 10% of Bosnia in 1993, but in March 1994, this
  faction and the Bosnian Government settled their dispute and entered
  into a bicommunal Federation; a Bosnian Government army commander who
  opposes the leadership of Bosnian President IZETBEGOVIC is leading an
  insurrection in the government-held enclave of Bihac
Climate: 
  hot summers and cold winters; areas of high elevation have short, cool
  summers and long, severe winters; mild, rainy winters along coast
Terrain: 
  mountains and valleys
Natural resources: 
  coal, iron, bauxite, manganese, timber, wood products, copper,
  chromium, lead, zinc 
Land use: 
arable land: 
  20% 
permanent crops: 
  2% 
meadows and pastures: 
  25% 
forest and woodland: 
  36% 
other: 
  17% 
Irrigated land: 
  NA sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
  air pollution from metallurgical plants; water scarce; sites for
  disposing of urban waste are limited; widespread casualties and
  destruction of infrastructure because of civil strife
natural hazards: 
  subject to frequent and destructive earthquakes
international agreements: 
  party to - Air Pollution, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer
  Protection

@Bosnia and Herzegovina, People

Population: 
  4,651,485 (July 1994 est.) 
note: 
  all data dealing with population is subject to considerable error
  because of the dislocations caused by military action and ethnic
  cleansing
Population growth rate: 
  0.69% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
  13.33 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
  6.39 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
  12.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
  75.13 years 
male: 
  72.43 years 
female: 
  78.02 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
  1.61 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
  Bosnian(s), Herzegovinian(s) 
adjective: 
  Bosnian, Herzegovinian 
Ethnic divisions: 
  Muslim 44%, Serb 31%, Croat 17%, other 8% 
Religions: 
  Muslim 40%, Orthodox 31%, Catholic 15%, Protestant 4%, other 10% 
Languages: 
  Serbo-Croatian 99% 
Literacy: 
total population: 
  NA%
male: 
  NA%
female: 
  NA%
Labor force: 
  1,026,254 
by occupation: 
  agriculture 2%, industry, mining 45% (1991 est.)

@Bosnia and Herzegovina, Government

Note: 
  The US recognizes the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The
  Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina is a new government being formed
  by the Muslims and Croats. On 31 May 1994 a Croat president, Kresimir
  ZUBAK, and a Muslim vice president, Ejup GANIC, were elected. Haris
  SILAJDZIC, who is prime minister of the Republic, is also the prime
  minister of the Federation.
Names: 
conventional long form: 
  Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina 
conventional short form: 
  Bosnia and Herzegovina 
local long form: 
  Republika Bosna i Hercegovina 
local short form: 
  Bosna i Hercegovina 
Digraph: 
  BK
Type: 
  emerging democracy 
Capital: 
  Sarajevo 
Administrative divisions: 
  109 districts (opstinas, singular - opstina) Banovici, Banja Luka,
  Bihac, Bijeljina, Bileca, Bosanska Dubica, Bosanska Gradiska, Bosanska
  Krupa, Bosanski Brod, Bosanski Novi, Bosanski Petrovac, Bosanski
  Samac, Bosansko Grahovo, Bratunac, Brcko, Breza, Bugojno, Busovaca,
  Cazin, Cajnice, Capljina, Celinac, Citluk, Derventa, Doboj, Donji
  Vakuf, Foca, Fojnica, Gacko, Glamoc, Gorazde, Gornji Vakuf, Gracanica,
  Gradacac, Grude, Han Pijesak, Jablanica, Jajce, Kakanj, Kalesija,
  Kalinovik, Kiseljak, Kladanj, Kljuc, Konjic, Kotor Varos, Kresevo,
  Kupres, Laktasi, Listica, Livno, Lopare, Lukavac, Ljubinje, Ljubuski,
  Maglaj, Modrica, Mostar, Mrkonjic-Grad, Neum, Nevesinje, Odzak, Olovo,
  Orasje, Posusje, Prijedor, Prnjavor, Prozor, (Pucarevo) Novi Travnik,
  Rogatica, Rudo, Sanski Most, Sarajevo-Centar, Sarajevo-Hadzici,
  Sarajevo-Ilidza, Sarajevo-Ilijas, Sarajevo-Novi Grad, Sarajevo-Novo,
  Sarajevo-Pale, Sarajevo-Stari Grad, Sarajevo-Trnovo, Sarajevo-Vogosca,
  Skender Vakuf, Sokolac, Srbac, Srebrenica, Srebrenik, Stolac,
  Sekovici, Sipovo, Teslic, Tesanj, Drvar, Duvno, Travnik, Trebinje,
  Tuzla, Ugljevik, Vares, Velika Kladusa, Visoko, Visegrad, Vitez,
  Vlasenica, Zavidovici, Zenica, Zvornik, Zepce, Zivinice
note: 
  currently under negotiation with the assistance of international
  mediators
Independence: 
  NA April 1992 (from Yugoslavia)
National holiday: 
  NA
Constitution: 
  promulgated in 1974 (under the Communists), amended 1989, 1990, and
  1991; the Assembly planned to draft a new constitution in 1991, before
  conditions deteriorated; constitution of Federation of Bosnia and
  Herzegovina (including Muslim and Croatian controlled parts of
  Republic) ratified April 1994
Legal system: 
  based on civil law system
Suffrage: 
  16 years of age, if employed;  18 years of age, universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
  President Alija IZETBEGOVIC (since 20 December 1990), other members of
  the collective presidency: Ejup GANIC (since NA November 1990), Nijaz
  DURAKOVIC (since NA October 1993), Stjepan KLJUJIC (since NA October
  1993), Ivo KOMSIC (since NA October 1993), Mirko PEJANOVIC (since NA
  June 1992), Tatjana LJUJIC-MIJATOVIC (since NA December 1992)
head of government: 
  Prime Minister Haris SILAJDZIC (since NA October 1993); Deputy Prime
  Minister Edib BUKVIC (since NA October 1993) 
cabinet: 
  executive body of ministers; members of, and responsible to, the
  National Assembly
Legislative branch: 
  bicameral National Assembly
Chamber of Municipalities (Vijece Opeina): 
  elections last held November-December 1990 (next to be held NA);
  percent of vote by party NA; seats - (110 total) SDA 43, SDS BiH 38,
  HDZ BiH 23, Party of Democratic Changes 4, DSS 1, SPO 1
Chamber of Citizens (Vijece Gradanstvo): 
  elections last held November-December 1990 (next to be held NA);
  percent of vote by party NA; seats - (130 total) SDA 43, SDS BiH 34,
  HDZ BiH 21, Party of Democratic Changes 15, SRSJ BiH 12, MBO 2, DSS 1,
  DSZ 1, LS 1
note: 
  legislative elections for Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina are
  slated for late 1994
Judicial branch: 
  Supreme Court, Constitutional Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
  Party of Democratic Action (SDA), Alija IZETBEGOVIC; Croatian
  Democratic Union of Bosnia and Herzegovina (HDZ BiH), KresimirZUBAK;
  Serbian Democratic Party of Bosnia and Herzegovina (SDS BiH), Radovan
  KARADZIC, president; Muslim-Bosnian Organization (MBO), Adil
  ZULFIKARPASIC, president; Democratic Party of Socialists (DSS), Nijaz
  DURAKOVIC, president; Party of Democratic Changes, leader NA; Serbian
  Movement for Renewal (SPO), Milan TRIVUNCIC; Alliance of Reform Forces
  of Yugoslavia for Bosnia and Herzegovina (SRSJ BiH), Dr. Nenad
  KECMANOVIC, president; Democratic League of Greens (DSZ), Drazen
  PETROVIC; Liberal Party (LS), Rasim KADIC, president
Other political or pressure groups: 
  NA
Member of: 
  CEI, CSCE, ECE, ICAO, ILO, IMO, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user),
  INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, NAM (guest), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
  (vacant); Minister-Counselor, Charge d'Affaires ad interim Seven
  ALKALAJ 
chancery: 
  Suite 760, 1707 L Street NW, Washington, DC 10036 
telephone: 
  (202) 833-3612, 3613, and 3615 
FAX: 
  (202) 833-2061 
consulate(s) general: 
  New York 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador Victor JACKOVICH 
embassy: 
  address NA 
mailing address: 
  NA 
telephone: 
  NA 
FAX: 
  NA 
Flag: 
  white with a large blue shield; the shield contains white Roman
  crosses with a white diagonal band running from the upper hoist corner
  to the lower fly side

@Bosnia and Herzegovina, Economy

Overview: 
  Bosnia and Herzegovina ranked next to The Former Yugoslav Republic of
  Macedonia as the poorest republic in the old Yugoslav federation.
  Although agriculture has been almost all in private hands, farms have
  been small and inefficient, and the republic traditionally has been a
  net importer of food. Industry has been greatly overstaffed, one
  reflection of the rigidities of Communist central planning and
  management. Tito had pushed the development of military industries in
  the republic with the result that Bosnia hosted a large share of
  Yugoslavia's defense plants. As of April 1994, Bosnia and Herzegovina
  was being torn apart by the continued bitter interethnic warfare that
  has caused production to plummet, unemployment and inflation to soar,
  and human misery to multiply. No reliable economic statistics for
  1992-93 are available, although output clearly has fallen
  substantially below the levels of earlier years.
National product: 
  GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $NA
National product real growth rate: 
  NA%
National product per capita: 
  $NA
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
  NA%
Unemployment rate: 
  NA%
Budget: 
revenues: 
  $NA
expenditures: 
  $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports: 
  $NA
commodities: 
  NA
partners: 
  NA
Imports: 
  $NA
commodities: 
  NA
partners: 
  NA
External debt: 
  $NA
Industrial production: 
  growth rate NA%; production is sharply down because of interethnic and
  interrepublic warfare (1991-93)
Electricity: 
capacity: 
  NA kW
production: 
  NA kWh
consumption per capita: 
  NA kWh
Industries: 
  steel production, mining (coal, iron ore, lead, zinc, manganese, and
  bauxite), manufacturing (vehicle assembly, textiles, tobacco products,
  wooden furniture, 40% of former Yugoslavia's armaments including tank
  and aircraft assembly, domestic appliances), oil refining (1991)
Agriculture: 
  accounted for 9.0% of GDP in 1989; regularly produces less than 50% of
  food needs; the foothills of northern Bosnia support orchards,
  vineyards, livestock, and some wheat and corn; long winters and heavy
  precipitation leach soil fertility reducing agricultural output in the
  mountains; farms are mostly privately held, small, and not very
  productive (1991)
Illicit drugs: 
  NA
Economic aid: 
  $NA
Currency: 
  1 dinar = 100 para; Croatian dinar used in Croat-held area, presumably
  to be replaced by new Croatian kuna; old and new Serbian dinars used
  in Serb-held area; hard currencies probably supplanting local
  currencies in areas held by Bosnian government
Exchange rates: 
  NA
Fiscal year: 
  calendar year

@Bosnia and Herzegovina, Communications

Railroads: 
  NA km
Highways: 
total: 
  21,168 km 
paved: 
  11,436 km 
unpaved: 
  gravel 8,146 km; earth 1,586 km (1991)
Inland waterways: 
  NA km
Pipelines: 
  crude oil 174 km; natural gas 90 km (1992); note - pipelines now
  disrupted
Ports: 
  coastal - none; inland - Bosanski Brod on the Sava River
Airports: 
total: 
  28 
usable: 
  24 
with permanent-surface runways: 
  5 
with runways over 3659: 
  0 
with runways 2440-3659 m: 
  3 
with runways 1220-2439 m: 
  6 
Telecommunications: 
  telephone and telegraph network is in need of modernization and
  expansion, many urban areas being below average compared with services
  in other former Yugoslav republics; 727,000 telephones; broadcast
  stations - 9 AM, 2 FM, 6 TV; 840,000 radios; 1,012,094 TVs; satellite
  ground stations - none

@Bosnia and Herzegovina, Defense Forces

Branches: 
  Army 
Manpower availability: 
  males age 15-49 1,298,102; fit for military service 1,054,068; reach
  military age (19) annually 38,283 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
  $NA, NA% of GDP


@Botswana, Geography

Location: 
  Southern Africa, north of South Africa
Map references: 
  Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
  600,370 sq km 
land area: 
  585,370 sq km 
comparative area: 
  slightly smaller than Texas
Land boundaries: 
  total 4,013 km, Namibia 1,360 km, South Africa 1,840 km, Zimbabwe 813
  km 
Coastline: 
  0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: 
  none; landlocked
International disputes: 
  short section of boundary with Namibia is indefinite; quadripoint with
  Namibia, Zambia, and Zimbabwe is in disagreement; recent dispute with
  Namibia over uninhabited Kasikili (Sidudu) Island in Linyanti (Chobe)
  River
Climate: 
  semiarid; warm winters and hot summers
Terrain: 
  predominately flat to gently rolling tableland; Kalahari Desert in
  southwest
Natural resources: 
  diamonds, copper, nickel, salt, soda ash, potash, coal, iron ore,
  silver 
Land use: 
arable land: 
  2% 
permanent crops: 
  0% 
meadows and pastures: 
  75% 
forest and woodland: 
  2% 
other: 
  21% 
Irrigated land: 
  20 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
  overgrazing; desertification; water scarcity
natural hazards: 
  NA 
international agreements: 
  party to - Climate Change, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Nuclear
  Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection; signed, but not ratified -
  Biodiversity
Note: 
  landlocked; population concentrated in eastern part of the country

@Botswana, People

Population: 
  1,359,352 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
  2.45% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
  32.19 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
  7.72 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
  39.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
  63.05 years 
male: 
  60.03 years 
female: 
  66.16 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
  4.06 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
  Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural) 
adjective: 
  Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural) 
Ethnic divisions: 
  Batswana 95%, Kalanga, Basarwa, and Kgalagadi 4%, white 1% 
Religions: 
  indigenous beliefs 50%, Christian 50% 
Languages: 
  English (official), Setswana 
Literacy: 
  age 15 and over able to read and write simple sentences (1990 est.)
total population: 
  23% 
male: 
  32% 
female: 
  16% 
Labor force: 
  428,000 (1992)
by occupation: 
  220,000 formal sector employees, most others are engaged in cattle
  raising and subsistence agriculture (1992 est.); 14,300 are employed
  in various mines in South Africa (March 1992)

@Botswana, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
  Republic of Botswana 
conventional short form: 
  Botswana 
former: 
  Bechuanaland 
Digraph: 
  BC
Type: 
  parliamentary republic 
Capital: 
  Gaborone 
Administrative divisions: 
  10 districts; Central, Chobe, Ghanzi, Kgalagadi, Kgatleng, Kweneng,
  Ngamiland, North-East, South-East, Southern; in addition, there are 4
  town councils - Francistown, Gaborone, Lobaste, Selebi-Phikwe
Independence: 
  30 September 1966 (from UK)
National holiday: 
  Independence Day, 30 September (1966) 
Constitution: 
  March 1965, effective 30 September 1966
Legal system: 
  based on Roman-Dutch law and local customary law; judicial review
  limited to matters of interpretation; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
  jurisdiction
Suffrage: 
  21 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state and head of government: 
  President Sir Ketumile MASIRE (since 13 July 1980); Vice President
  Festus MOGAE (since 9 March 1992); election last held 7 October 1989
  (next to be held October 1994); results - President Sir Ketumile
  MASIRE was reelected by the National Assembly
cabinet: 
  Cabinet; appointed by the president
Legislative branch: 
  bicameral Parliament
House of Chiefs: 
  is a largely advisory 15-member body consisting of chiefs of the 8
  principal tribes, 4 elected subchiefs, and 3 members selected by the
  other 12
National Assembly: 
  elections last held 7 October 1989 (next to be held October 1994);
  results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (38 total of which 34
  are elected and 4 are appointed) BDP 31, BNF 3, unfilled seats pending
  new elections 4
Judicial branch: 
  High Court, Court of Appeal 
Political parties and leaders: 
  Botswana Democratic Party (BDP), Sir Ketumile MASIRE; Botswana
  National Front (BNF), Kenneth KOMA; Botswana People's Party (BPP),
  Knight MARIPE; Botswana Independence Party (BIP), Motsamai MPHO
Member of: 
  ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, FLS, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA,
  IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC, ITU,
  LORCS, NAM, OAU, SACU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOMOZ,
  UNOMUR, UNOSOM, UPU, WCL, WHO, WMO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador Botsweletse Kingsley SEBELE 
chancery: 
  Suite 7M, 3400 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
  (202) 244-4990 or 4991 
FAX: 
  (202) 244-4164 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador Howard JETER  
embassy: 
  address NA, Gaborone 
mailing address: 
  P. O. Box 90, Gaborone 
telephone: 
  [267] 353-982 
FAX: 
  [267] 356-947 
Flag: 
  light blue with a horizontal white-edged black stripe in the center

@Botswana, Economy

Overview: 
  The economy has historically been based on cattle raising and crops.
  Agriculture today provides a livelihood for more than 80% of the
  population, but produces only about 50% of food needs. The driving
  force behind the rapid economic growth of the 1970s and 1980s has been
  the mining industry. This sector, mostly on the strength of diamonds,
  has gone from generating 25% of GDP in 1980 to 50% in 1991. No other
  sector has experienced such growth, especially not agriculture, which
  is plagued by erratic rainfall and poor soils. The unemployment rate
  remains a problem at 25%. Although diamond production was down
  slightly in 1992, substantial gains in coal output and manufacturing
  helped boost the economy. Recovery in sluggish diamond markets in
  second half 1993 helped Botswana achieve moderate growth of 3% for the
  year.
National product: 
  GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $6 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
  3% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
  $4,500 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
  14% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
  25% (1993 est.)
Budget: 
revenues: 
  $1.7 billion 
expenditures: 
  $1.99 billion, including capital expenditures of $652 million (FY94)
Exports: 
  $1.7 billion (f.o.b. 1992)
commodities: 
  diamonds 78%, copper and nickel 6%, meat 5%
partners: 
  Switzerland, UK, SACU (Southern African Customs Union)
Imports: 
  $1.8 billion (c.i.f., 1992)
commodities: 
  foodstuffs, vehicles and transport equipment, textiles, petroleum
  products
partners: 
  Switzerland, SACU (Southern African Customs Union), UK, US
External debt: 
  $344 million (December 1991)
Industrial production: 
  growth rate 6.8% (FY91); accounts for about 53% of GDP, including
  mining
Electricity: 
capacity: 
  220,000 kW
production: 
  901 million kWh (in addition 228,000,000 kWh were imported)
consumption per capita: 
  874 kWh (1992 est.)
Industries: 
  mining of diamonds, copper, nickel, coal, salt, soda ash, potash;
  livestock processing
Agriculture: 
  accounts for only 5% of GDP; subsistence farming predominates; cattle
  raising supports 50% of the population; must import up to of 80% of
  food needs
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
  US aid (1992), $13 million; Norway (1992), $16 million; Sweden (1992),
  $15.5 million; Germany (1992), $3.6 million; EC/Lome-IV (1992), $3-6
  million in grants; $28.7 million in long-term projects (1992)
Currency: 
  1 pula (P) = 100 thebe
Exchange rates: 
  pula (P) per US$1 - 3.1309 (January 1994), 2.4190 (1993), 2.1327
  (1992), 2.0173 (1991), 1.8601 (1990), 2.0125 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
  1 April - 31 March

@Botswana, Communications

Railroads: 
  712 km 1.067-meter gauge
Highways: 
total: 
  11,514 km 
paved: 
  1,600 km 
unpaved: 
  crushed stone, gravel 1,700 km; improved earth 5,177 km; unimproved
  earth 3,037 km 
Airports: 
total: 
  101 
usable: 
  90 
with permanent-surface runways: 
  9 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
  0 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
  1 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
  30 
Telecommunications: 
  the small system is a combination of open-wire lines, microwave radio
  relay links, and a few radio-communications stations; 26,000
  telephones; broadcast stations - 7 AM, 13 FM, no TV; 1 Indian Ocean
  INTELSAT earth station

@Botswana, Defense Forces

Branches: 
  Botswana Defense Force (including Army and Air Wing), Botswana
  National Police 
Manpower availability: 
  males age 15-49 294,603; fit for military service 154,997; reach
  military age (18) annually 15,156 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
  exchange rate conversion - $196 million, 4.9% of GDP (FY93/94)


@Bouvet Island

Header
Affiliation: 
  (territory of Norway) 

@Bouvet Island, Geography

Location: 
  Southern Africa, in the South Atlantic Ocean, 2,575 km south-southwest
  of the Cape of Good Hope (South Africa)
Map references: 
  Antarctic Region 
Area: 
total area: 
  58 sq km 
land area: 
  58 sq km 
comparative area: 
  about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries: 
  0 km  
Coastline: 
  29.6 km 
Maritime claims: 
territorial sea: 
  4 nm
International disputes: 
  none
Climate: 
  antarctic
Terrain: 
  volcanic; maximum elevation about 800 meters; coast is mostly
  inaccessible
Natural resources: 
  none 
Land use: 
arable land: 
  0% 
permanent crops: 
  0% 
meadows and pastures: 
  0% 
forest and woodland: 
  0% 
other: 
  100% (all ice)
Irrigated land: 
  0 sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
  NA 
natural hazards: 
  NA 
international agreements: 
  NA 
Note: 
  covered by glacial ice

@Bouvet Island, People

Population: 
  uninhabited

@Bouvet Island, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
  none 
conventional short form: 
  Bouvet Island 
Digraph: 
  BV
Type: 
  territory of Norway 
Capital: 
  none; administered from Oslo, Norway
Independence: 
  none (territory of Norway)

@Bouvet Island, Economy

Overview: 
  no economic activity

@Bouvet Island, Communications

Ports: 
  none; offshore anchorage only
Telecommunications: 
  automatic meteorological station

@Bouvet Island, Defense Forces

Note: 
  defense is the responsibility of Norway


@Brazil, Geography

Location: 
  Eastern South America, bordering the Atlantic Ocean
Map references: 
  South America, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
  8,511,965 sq km 
land area: 
  8,456,510 sq km 
comparative area: 
  slightly smaller than the US
note: 
  includes Arquipelago de Fernando de Noronha, Atol das Rocas, Ilha da
  Trindade, Ilhas Martin Vaz, and Penedos de Sao Pedro e Sao Paulo
Land boundaries: 
  total 14,691 km, Argentina 1,224 km, Bolivia 3,400 km, Colombia 1,643
  km, French Guiana 673 km, Guyana 1,119 km, Paraguay 1,290 km, Peru
  1,560 km, Suriname 597 km, Uruguay 985 km, Venezuela 2,200 km 
Coastline: 
  7,491 km 
Maritime claims: 
contiguous zone: 
  24 nm
continental shelf: 
  200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 
  200 nm
territorial sea: 
  12 nm
International disputes: 
  short section of the boundary with Paraguay, just west of Salto das
  Sete Quedas (Guaira Falls) on the Rio Parana, is in dispute; two short
  sections of boundary with Uruguay are in dispute - Arroio Invernada
  (Arroyo de la Invernada) area of the Rio Quarai (Rio Cuareim) and the
  islands at the confluence of the Rio Quarai and the Uruguay River
Climate: 
  mostly tropical, but temperate in south
Terrain: 
  mostly flat to rolling lowlands in north; some plains, hills,
  mountains, and narrow coastal belt
Natural resources: 
  iron ore, manganese, bauxite, nickel, uranium, phosphates, tin,
  hydropower, gold, platinum, petroleum, timber 
Land use: 
arable land: 
  7% 
permanent crops: 
  1% 
meadows and pastures: 
  19% 
forest and woodland: 
  67% 
other: 
  6% 
Irrigated land: 
  27,000 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
  deforestation in Amazon Basin; air and water pollution in Rio de
  Janeiro, Sao Paulo, and several other large cities; land degradation
  and water pollution caused by improper mining activities
natural hazards: 
  recurring droughts in northeast; floods and occasional frost in south
international agreements: 
  party to - Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered
  Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea,
  Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
  Pollution, Whaling; signed, but not ratified - Antarctic-Environmental
  Protocol, Tropical Timber
Note: 
  largest country in South America; shares common boundaries with every
  South American country except Chile and Ecuador

@Brazil, People

Population: 
  158,739,257 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
  1.28% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
  21.48 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
  8.63 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
  59.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
  62.25 years 
male: 
  57.41 years 
female: 
  67.32 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
  2.44 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
  Brazilian(s) 
adjective: 
  Brazilian 
Ethnic divisions: 
  Portuguese, Italian, German, Japanese, Amerindian, black 6%, white
  55%, mixed 38%, other 1% 
Religions: 
  Roman Catholic (nominal) 70% 
Languages: 
  Portuguese (official), Spanish, English, French 
Literacy: 
  age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
  81% 
male: 
  82% 
female: 
  80% 
Labor force: 
  57 million (1989 est.)
by occupation: 
  services 42%, agriculture 31%, industry 27%

@Brazil, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
  Federative Republic of Brazil 
conventional short form: 
  Brazil 
local long form: 
  Republica Federativa do Brasil 
local short form: 
  Brasil 
Digraph: 
  BR
Type: 
  federal republic 
Capital: 
  Brasilia 
Administrative divisions: 
  26 states (estados, singular - estado) and 1 federal district*
  (distrito federal); Acre, Alagoas, Amapa, Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara,
  Distrito Federal*, Espirito Santo, Goias, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Mato
  Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Para, Paraiba, Parana, Pernambuco, Piaui,
  Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Norte, Rio Grande do Sul, Rondonia,
  Roraima, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo, Sergipe, Tocantins
Independence: 
  7 September 1822 (from Portugal)
National holiday: 
  Independence Day, 7 September (1822) 
Constitution: 
  5 October 1988
Legal system: 
  based on Roman codes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 
  voluntary between 16 and 18 years of age and over 70; compulsory over
  18 and under 70 years of age
Executive branch: 
chief of state and head of government: 
  President Itamar FRANCO (since 29 December 1992); election last held
  15 November 1989, with runoff on 17 December 1989 (next to be held
  October 1994); results - Fernando COLLOR de Mello 53%, Luis Inacio
  LULA da Silva 47%; note - first free, direct presidential election
  since 1960; Fernando COLLOR de Mello was impeached in December 1992
  and succeeded by former Vice President Itamar FRANCO
cabinet: 
  Cabinet; appointed by the president
Legislative branch: 
  bicameral National Congress (Congresso Nacional)
Federal Senate (Senado Federal): 
  election last held 3 October 1990 (next to be held October 1994);
  results - percent of vote by party PMBD 33%, PFL 16%, PSDB 12%, PDS
  4%, PDT 6%, PT 1%, other 28%; seats - (81 total as of 3 February 1991)
  PMDB 27, PFL 15, PSDB 10, PTB 8, PDT 5, other 16
Chamber of Deputies (Camara dos Deputados): 
  election last held 3 October 1990 (next to be held October 1994);
  results - PMDB 21%, PFL 17%, PDT 9%, PDS 8%, PRN 7.9%, PTB 7%, PT 7%,
  other 23.1%; seats - (503 total as of 3 February 1991) PMDB 108, PFL
  87, PDT 46, PDS 43, PRN 40, PTB 35, PT 35, other 109
Judicial branch: 
  Supreme Federal Tribunal 
Political parties and leaders: 
  National Reconstruction Party (PRN), Daniel TOURINHO, president;
  Brazilian Democratic Movement Party (PMDB), Luiz HENRIQUE da Silveira,
  president; Liberal Front Party (PFL), Jorge BORNHAUSEN, president;
  Workers' Party (PT), Luis Inacio LULA da Silva, president; Brazilian
  Workers' Party (PTB), Rodrigues PALMA, president; Democratic Workers'
  Party (PDT), Leonel BRIZOLA, president; Progressive Renewal Party
  (PPR), Paulo MALUF, president; Brazilian Social Democracy Party
  (PSDB), Tasso JEREISSATI, president; Popular Socialist Party (PPS),
  Roberto FREIRE, president; Communist Party of Brazil (PCdoB), Joao
  AMAZONAS, secretary general; Liberal Party (PL), Flavio ROCHA,
  president
Other political or pressure groups: 
  left wing of the Catholic Church and labor unions allied to leftist
  Workers' Party are critical of government's social and economic
  policies
Member of: 
  AfDB, AG (observer), CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77,
  GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF,
  IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU,
  LAES, LAIA, LORCS, MERCOSUR, NAM (observer), OAS, ONUSAL, OPANAL, PCA,
  RG, UN, UNAVEM II, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNOMOZ, UNOMUR,
  UNPROFOR, UPU, WCL, WHO, WFTU, WIPO, WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador Paulo Tarso FLECHA de LIMA 
chancery: 
  3006 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
  (202) 745-2700 
FAX: 
  (202) 745-2827 
consulate(s) general: 
  Boston, Chicago, Hong Kong (Trust Territories of the Pacific Islands),
  Los Angeles, Miami, New York, and San Juan (Puerto Rico) 
consulate(s): 
  Houston and San Francisco 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador Melvyn LEVITSKY 
embassy: 
  Avenida das Nacoes, Lote 3, Brasilia, Distrito Federal 
mailing address: 
  APO AA 34030 
telephone: 
  [55] (61) 321-7272 
FAX: 
  [55] (61) 225-9136 
consulate(s) general: 
  Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo 
consulate(s): 
  Porto Alegre, Recife 
Flag: 
  green with a large yellow diamond in the center bearing a blue
  celestial globe with 27 white five-pointed stars (one for each state
  and district) arranged in the same pattern as the night sky over
  Brazil; the globe has a white equatorial band with the motto ORDEM E
  PROGRESSO (Order and Progress)

@Brazil, Economy

Overview: 
  The economy, with large agrarian, mining, and manufacturing sectors,
  entered the 1990s with declining real growth, runaway inflation, an
  unserviceable foreign debt of $122 billion, and a lack of policy
  direction. In addition, the economy remained highly regulated,
  inward-looking, and protected by substantial trade and investment
  barriers. Ownership of major industrial and mining facilities is
  divided among private interests - including several multinationals -
  and the government. Most large agricultural holdings are private, with
  the government channeling financing to this sector. Conflicts between
  large landholders and landless peasants have produced intermittent
  violence. The COLLOR government, which assumed office in March 1990,
  launched an ambitious reform program that sought to modernize and
  reinvigorate the economy by stabilizing prices, deregulating the
  economy, and opening it to increased foreign competition. The
  government also obtained an IMF standby loan in January 1992 and
  reached agreements with commercial bankers on the repayment of
  interest arrears and on the reduction of debt and debt service
  payments. Galloping inflation (the rate doubled in 1992 and by March
  1994 had risen to 42% per month) continues to undermine economic
  stability. Itamar FRANCO, who assumed the presidency following
  President COLLOR'S resignation in December 1992, was out of step with
  COLLOR'S reform agenda; initiatives to redress fiscal problems,
  privatize state enterprises, and liberalize trade and investment
  policies have lost momentum. Brazil's natural resources remain a
  major, long-term economic strength
National product: 
  GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $785 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
  5% (1993)
National product per capita: 
  $5,000 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
  2,709% (1993)
Unemployment rate: 
  4.9% (1993)
Budget: 
revenues: 
  $113 billion 
expenditures: 
  $109 billion, including capital expenditures of $23 billion (1992)
Exports: 
  $38.8 billion (f.o.b. 1993)
commodities: 
  iron ore, soybean bran, orange juice, footwear, coffee, motor vehicle
  parts
partners: 
  EC 27.6%, Latin America 21.8%, US 17.4%, Japan 6.3% (1993)
Imports: 
  $25.7 billion (f.o.b. 1993)
commodities: 
  crude oil, capital goods, chemical products, foodstuffs, coal
partners: 
  US 23.3%, EC 22.5%, Middle East 13.0%, Latin America 11.8%, Japan 6.5%
  (1993)
External debt: 
  $119 billion (1993)
Industrial production: 
  growth rate 9.5% (1993); accounts for 39% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
  63,765,000 kW
production: 
  242.184 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
  1,531 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
  textiles and other consumer goods, shoes, chemicals, cement, lumber,
  iron ore, steel, motor vehicles and auto parts, metalworking, capital
  goods, tin
Agriculture: 
  accounts for 11% of GDP; world's largest producer and exporter of
  coffee and orange juice concentrate and second-largest exporter of
  soybeans; other products - rice, corn, sugarcane, cocoa, beef;
  self-sufficient in food, except for wheat
Illicit drugs: 
  illicit producer of cannabis and coca, mostly for domestic
  consumption; government has a modest eradication program to control
  cannabis and coca cultivation; important transshipment country for
  Bolivian and Colombian cocaine headed for the US and Europe
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
  US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $2.5 billion; Western
  (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $10.2
  million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $284 million; former Communist
  countries (1970-89), $1.3 billion 
Currency: 
  1 cruzeiro real (CR$) = 100 centavos
Exchange rates: 
  CR$ per US$1 - 390.845 (January 1994), 88.449 (1993), 4.513 (1992),
  0.407 (1991), 0.068 (1990), 0.003 (1989)
note: 
  on 1 August 1993 the cruzeiro real, equal to 1,000 cruzeiros, was
  introduced; another new currency, the real, will be introduced on 1
  July 1994
Fiscal year: 
  calendar year

@Brazil, Communications

Railroads: 
  30,133 km total; 24,690 km 1.000-meter gauge, 5,120 km 1.600-meter
  gauge, 310 km mixed 1.600-1.000-meter gauge, 13 km 0.760-meter gauge;
  2,150 km electrified
Highways: 
total: 
  1,670,148 km 
paved: 
  161,503 km 
unpaved: 
  gravel/earth  1,508,645 km (1990)
Inland waterways: 
  50,000 km navigable
Pipelines: 
  crude oil 2,000 km; petroleum products 3,804 km; natural gas 1,095 km 
Ports: 
  Belem, Fortaleza, Ilheus, Manaus, Paranagua, Porto Alegre, Recife, Rio
  de Janeiro, Rio Grande, Salvador, Santos
Merchant marine: 
  220 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,139,176 GRT/8,695,682 DWT,
  bulk 53, cargo 40, chemical tanker 14, combination ore/oil 12,
  container 11, liquified gas 11, oil tanker 62, passenger-cargo 5,
  refrigerated cargo 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 11 
note: 
  in addition, 1 naval tanker is sometimes used commercially
Airports: 
total: 
  3,581 
usable: 
  3,024 
with permanent-surface runways: 
  436 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
  2 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
  22 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
  598 
Telecommunications: 
  good system; extensive microwave radio relay facilities; 9.86 million
  telephones; broadcast stations - 1,223 AM, no FM, 112 TV, 151
  shortwave; 3 coaxial submarine cables, 3 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth
  stations and 64 domestic satellite earth stations

@Brazil, Defense Forces

Branches: 
  Brazilian Army, Navy of Brazil (including Marines), Brazilian Air
  Force, Military Police (paramilitary)
Manpower availability: 
  males age 15-49 43,489,704; fit for military service 29,286,530; reach
  military age (18) annually 1,674,930 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
  exchange rate conversion - $1.1 billion, 3% of GDP (1990)


@British Indian Ocean Territory

Header
Affiliation: 
  (dependent territory of the UK) 

@British Indian Ocean Territory, Geography

Location: 
  Southern Asia, in the Indian Ocean, south of India about halfway
  between Africa and Indonesia
Map references: 
  Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
  60 sq km 
land area: 
  60 sq km 
comparative area: 
  about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC
note: 
  includes the island of Diego Garcia
Land boundaries: 
  0 km  
Coastline: 
  698 km 
Maritime claims: 
exclusive fishing zone: 
  200 nm
territorial sea: 
  3 nm
International disputes: 
  the entire Chagos Archipelago is claimed by Mauritius
Climate: 
  tropical marine; hot, humid, moderated by trade winds
Terrain: 
  flat and low (up to 4 meters in elevation)
Natural resources: 
  coconuts, fish 
Land use: 
arable land: 
  0% 
permanent crops: 
  0% 
meadows and pastures: 
  0% 
forest and woodland: 
  0% 
other: 
  100% 
Irrigated land: 
  0 sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
  NA 
natural hazards: 
  NA 
international agreements: 
  NA 
Note: 
  archipelago of 2,300 islands; Diego Garcia, largest and southernmost
  island, occupies strategic location in central Indian Ocean; island is
  site of joint US-UK military facility

@British Indian Ocean Territory, People

Population: 
  no indigenous inhabitants
note: 
  there are UK-US military personnel; civilian inhabitants, known as the
  Ilois, evacuated to Mauritius before construction of UK-US military
  facilities

@British Indian Ocean Territory, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
  British Indian Ocean Territory 
conventional short form: 
  none 
Abbreviation: 
  BIOT 
Digraph: 
  IO
Type: 
  dependent territory of the UK 
Capital: 
  none 
Independence: 
  none (dependent territory of the UK)
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
  Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952) 
head of government: 
  Commissioner Thomas GEORGE (since September 1991); Administrator Mr.
  R. G. WELLS (since NA 1991); note - both reside in the UK 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
  none (dependent territory of the UK)
US diplomatic representation: 
  none (dependent territory of the UK)
Flag: 
  white with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and six
  blue wavy horizontal stripes bearing a palm tree and yellow crown
  centered on the outer half of the flag

@British Indian Ocean Territory, Economy

Overview: 
  All economic activity is concentrated on the largest island of Diego
  Garcia, where joint UK-US defense facilities are located. Construction
  projects and various services needed to support the military
  installations are done by military and contract employees from the UK,
  Mauritius, the Philippines, and the US. There are no industrial or
  agricultural activities on the islands.
Electricity: 
  provided by the US military

@British Indian Ocean Territory, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
  NA 
paved: 
  short stretch of paved road between port and airfield on Diego Garcia
unpaved: 
  NA 
Ports: 
  Diego Garcia
Airports: 
total: 
  1 
usable: 
  1 
with permanent-surface runways: 
  1 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
  1 on Diego Garcia
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
  0 
with runways 1,229-2,439 m: 
  0 
Telecommunications: 
  minimal facilities; broadcast stations (operated by US Navy) - 1 AM, 1
  FM, 1 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

@British Indian Ocean Territory, Defense Forces

Note: 
  defense is the responsibility of the UK


@British Virgin Islands

Header
Affiliation: 
  (dependent territory of the UK) 

@British Virgin Islands, Geography

Location: 
  Caribbean, in the eastern Caribbean Sea, about 110 km east of Puerto
  Rico
Map references: 
  Central America and the Caribbean 
Area: 
total area: 
  150 sq km 
land area: 
  150 sq km 
comparative area: 
  about 0.8 times the size of Washington, DC
note: 
  includes the island of Anegada
Land boundaries: 
  0 km 
Coastline: 
  80 km 
Maritime claims: 
exclusive fishing zone: 
  200 nm
territorial sea: 
  3 nm
International disputes: 
  none
Climate: 
  subtropical; humid; temperatures moderated by trade winds
Terrain: 
  coral islands relatively flat; volcanic islands steep, hilly
Natural resources: 
  negligible 
Land use: 
arable land: 
  20% 
permanent crops: 
  7% 
meadows and pastures: 
  33% 
forest and woodland: 
  7% 
other: 
  33% 
Irrigated land: 
  NA sq km
Environment: 
current issues: 
  NA 
natural hazards: 
  subject to hurricanes and tropical storms (July to October)
international agreements: 
  NA 
Note: 
  strong ties to nearby US Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico

@British Virgin Islands, People

Population: 
  12,864 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
  1.24% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
  20.31 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
  6.09 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
  -1.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
  19.51 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
  72.67 years 
male: 
  70.83 years 
female: 
  74.65 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
  2.27 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
  British Virgin Islander(s) 
adjective: 
  British Virgin Islander 
Ethnic divisions: 
  black 90%, white, Asian 
Religions: 
  Protestant 86% (Methodist 45%, Anglican 21%, Church of God 7%,
  Seventh-Day Adventist 5%, Baptist 4%, Jehovah's Witnesses 2%, other
  2%), Roman Catholic 6%, none 2%, other 6% (1981)
Languages: 
  English (official)
Literacy: 
  age 15 and over can read and write (1970)
total population: 
  98% 
male: 
  98% 
female: 
  98% 
Labor force: 
  4,911 (1980)
by occupation: 
  NA

@British Virgin Islands, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
  none 
conventional short form: 
  British Virgin Islands 
Abbreviation: 
  BVI 
Digraph: 
  VI
Type: 
  dependent territory of the UK 
Capital: 
  Road Town 
Administrative divisions: 
  none (dependent territory of the UK)
Independence: 
  none (dependent territory of the UK)
National holiday: 
  Territory Day, 1 July 
Constitution: 
  1 June 1977
Legal system: 
  English law
Suffrage: 
  18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
  Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor
  Peter Alfred PENFOLD (since 14 October 1991) 
head of government: 
  Chief Minister H. Lavity STOUTT (since NA September 1986) 
cabinet: 
  Executive Council; appointed by the governor
Legislative branch: 
  unicameral
Legislative Council: 
  election last held 12 November 1990 (next to be held by November
  1995); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (9 total) VIP 6,
  IPM 1, independents 2
Judicial branch: 
  Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
  United Party (UP), Conrad MADURO; Virgin Islands Party (VIP), H.
  Lavity STOUTT; Independent Progressive Movement (IPM), E. Walwyln
  BREWLEY
Member of: 
  CARICOM (associate), CDB, ECLAC (associate), INTERPOL (subbureau),
  IOC, OECS (associate), UNESCO (associate) 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
  none (dependent territory of the UK)
US diplomatic representation: 
  none (dependent territory of the UK)
Flag: 
  blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the
  Virgin Islander coat of arms centered in the outer half of the flag;
  the coat of arms depicts a woman flanked on either side by a vertical
  column of six oil lamps above a scroll bearing the Latin word VIGILATE
  (Be Watchful)

@British Virgin Islands, Economy

Overview: 
  The economy, one of the most prosperous in the Caribbean area, is
  highly dependent on the tourist industry, which generates about 21% of
  the national income. In 1985 the government offered offshore
  registration to companies wishing to incorporate in the islands, and,
  in consequence, incorporation fees generated about $2 million in 1987.
  The economy slowed in 1991 because of the poor performances of the
  tourist sector and tight commercial bank credit. Livestock raising is
  the most significant agricultural activity. The islands' crops,
  limited by poor soils, are unable to meet food requirements.
National product: 
  GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $133 million (1991)
National product real growth rate: 
  2% (1991)
National product per capita: 
  $10,600 (1991)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
  2.5% (1990 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
  NEGL% (1992)
Budget: 
revenues: 
  $51 million 
expenditures: 
  $88 million, including capital expenditures of $38 million (1991)
Exports: 
  $2.7 million (f.o.b., 1988)
commodities: 
  rum, fresh fish, gravel, sand, fruits, animals
partners: 
  Virgin Islands (US), Puerto Rico, US
Imports: 
  $11.5 million (c.i.f., 1988)
commodities: 
  building materials, automobiles, foodstuffs, machinery
partners: 
  Virgin Islands (US), Puerto Rico, US
External debt: 
  $4.5 million (1985)
Industrial production: 
  growth rate 4% (1985)
Electricity: 
capacity: 
  10,500 kW
production: 
  43 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
  3,510 kWh (1990)
Industries: 
  tourism, light industry, construction, rum, concrete block, offshore
  financial center
Agriculture: 
  livestock (including poultry), fish, fruit, vegetables
Economic aid: 
  $NA
Currency: 
  1 United States dollar (US$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates: 
  US currency is used
Fiscal year: 
  1 April - 31 March

@British Virgin Islands, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
  106 km (1983)
paved: 
  NA 
unpaved: 
  NA 
Ports: 
  Road Town
Airports: 
total: 
  3 
usable: 
  3 
with permanent-surface runways: 
  2 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
  0 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
  0 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
  0 
Telecommunications: 
  3,000 telephones; worldwide external telephone service; submarine
  cable communication links to Bermuda; broadcast stations - 1 AM, no
  FM, 1 TV

@British Virgin Islands, Defense Forces

Note: 
  defense is the responsibility of the UK


@Brunei, Geography

Location: 
  Southeastern Asia, on the northern coast of Borneo almost completely
  surrounded by Malaysia
Map references: 
  Asia, Oceania, Southeast Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
  5,770 sq km 
land area: 
  5,270 sq km 
comparative area: 
  slightly larger than Delaware
Land boundaries: 
  total 381 km, Malysia 381 km 
Coastline: 
  161 km 
Maritime claims: 
exclusive fishing zone: 
  200 nm
territorial sea: 
  12 nm
International disputes: 
  may wish to purchase the Malaysian salient that divides the country;
  all of the Spratly Islands are claimed by China, Taiwan, and Vietnam;
  parts of them are claimed by Malaysia and the Philippines; in 1984,
  Brunei established an exclusive fishing zone that encompasses Louisa
  Reef, but has not publicly claimed the island
Climate: 
  tropical; hot, humid, rainy
Terrain: 
  flat coastal plain rises to mountains in east; hilly lowland in west
Natural resources: 
  petroleum, natural gas, timber 
Land use: 
arable land: 
  1% 
permanent crops: 
  1% 
meadows and pastures: 
  1% 
forest and woodland: 
  79% 
other: 
  18% 
Irrigated land: 
  10 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
  NA 
international agreements: 
  party to - Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution; signed, but not
  ratified - Law of the Sea
natural hazards: 
  typhoons, earthquakes, and severe flooding are rare
Note: 
  close to vital sea lanes through South China Sea linking Indian and
  Pacific Oceans; two parts physically separated by Malaysia; almost an
  enclave of Malaysia

@Brunei, People

Population: 
  284,653 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
  2.7% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
  26.18 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
  5.04 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
  5.81 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
  25.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
  71.1 years 
male: 
  69.46 years 
female: 
  72.78 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
  3.43 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
  Bruneian(s) 
adjective: 
  Bruneian 
Ethnic divisions: 
  Malay 64%, Chinese 20%, other 16% 
Religions: 
  Muslim (official) 63%, Buddhism 14%, Christian 8%, indigenous beliefs
  and other 15% (1981)
Languages: 
  Malay (official), English, Chinese 
Literacy: 
  age 15 and over can read and write (1981)
total population: 
  77% 
male: 
  85% 
female: 
  69% 
Labor force: 
  89,000 (includes members of the Army)
by occupation: 
  government 47.5%, production of oil, natural gas, services, and
  construction 41.9%, agriculture, forestry, and fishing 3.8% (1986)
note: 
  33% of labor force is foreign (1988)

@Brunei, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
  Negara Brunei Darussalam 
conventional short form: 
  Brunei 
Digraph: 
  BX
Type: 
  constitutional sultanate 
Capital: 
  Bandar Seri Begawan 
Administrative divisions: 
  4 districts (daerah-daerah, singular - daerah); Belait, Brunei and
  Muara, Temburong, Tutong
Independence: 
  1 January 1984 (from UK)
National holiday: 
  National Day 23 February (1984) 
Constitution: 
  29 September 1959 (some provisions suspended under a State of
  Emergency since December 1962, others since independence on 1 January
  1984)
Legal system: 
  based on Islamic law
Suffrage: 
  none
Executive branch: 
chief of state and head of government: 
  Sultan and Prime Minister His Majesty Paduka Seri Baginda Sultan Haji
  HASSANAL Bolkiah Mu'izzaddin Waddaulah (since 5 October 1967) 
cabinet: 
  Council of Cabinet Ministers; composed chiefly of members of the royal
  family
Legislative branch: 
  unicameral
Legislative Council (Majlis Masyuarat Megeri): 
  elections last held in March 1962; in 1970 the Council was changed to
  an appointive body by decree of the sultan; an elected legislative
  Council is being considered as part of constitution reform, but
  elections are unlikely for several years
Judicial branch: 
  Supreme Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
  Brunei United National Party (inactive), Anak HASANUDDIN, chairman;
  Brunei National Democratic Party (the first legal political party and
  now banned), leader NA
Member of: 
  APEC, ASEAN, C, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, GATT, ICAO, IDB, IMO, INTELSAT
  (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM,
  OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UPU, UNTAC, WHO, WMO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador JAYA bin Abdul Latif 
chancery: 
  2600 Virginia Avenue NW, Suite 300, Washington, DC 20037 
telephone: 
  (202) 342-0159 
FAX: 
  (202) 342-0158 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador Theresa A. TULL 
embassy: 
  Third Floor, Teck Guan Plaza, Jalan Sultan, Bandar Seri Begawan 
mailing address: 
  American Embassy Box B, APO AP 96440 
telephone: 
  [673] (2) 229-670 
FAX: 
  [673] (2) 225-293 
Flag: 
  yellow with two diagonal bands of white (top, almost double width) and
  black starting from the upper hoist side; the national emblem in red
  is superimposed at the center; the emblem includes a swallow-tailed
  flag on top of a winged column within an upturned crescent above a
  scroll and flanked by two upraised hands

@Brunei, Economy

Overview: 
  The economy is a mixture of foreign and domestic entrepreneurship,
  government regulation and welfare measures, and village tradition. It
  is almost totally supported by exports of crude oil and natural gas,
  with revenues from the petroleum sector accounting for more than 50%
  of GDP. Per capita GDP is among the highest in the Third World, and
  substantial income from overseas investment supplements domestic
  production. The government provides for all medical services and
  subsidizes food and housing.
National product: 
  GDP - exchange rate conversion - $2.5 billion (1991 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
  1% (1991)
National product per capita: 
  $9,000 (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
  2% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
  3.7% (1989)
Budget: 
revenues: 
  $1.3 billion 
expenditures: 
  $1.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $255 million (1989
  est.)
Exports: 
  $2.3 billion (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities: 
  crude oil, liquefied natural gas, petroleum products
partners: 
  Japan 53%, UK 12%, South Korea 9%, Thailand 7%, Singapore 5% (1990)
Imports: 
  $2 billion (c.i.f., 1992 est.)
commodities: 
  machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, food, chemicals
partners: 
  Singapore 35%, UK 26%, Switzerland 9%, US 9%, Japan 5% (1990)
External debt: 
  $0 
Industrial production: 
  growth rate 12.9% (1987); accounts for 52.4% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
  310,000 kW
production: 
  890 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
  3,300 kWh (1990)
Industries: 
  petroleum, petroleum refining, liquefied natural gas, construction
Agriculture: 
  imports about 80% of its food needs; principal crops and livestock
  include rice, cassava, bananas, buffaloes, and pigs
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
  US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-87), $20.6 million; Western
  (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89),  $153
  million 
Currency: 
  1 Bruneian dollar (B$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates: 
  Bruneian dollars (B$) per US$1 - 1.6032 (January 1994), 1.6158 (1993),
  1.6290 (1992), 1.7276 (1991), 1.8125 (1990), 1.9503 (1989); note - the
  Bruneian dollar is at par with the Singapore dollar
Fiscal year: 
  calendar year

@Brunei, Communications

Railroads: 
  13 km 0.610-meter narrow-gauge private line
Highways: 
total: 
  1,090 km 
paved: 
  bituminous 370 km (with another 52 km under construction)
unpaved: 
  gravel or earth 720 km 
Inland waterways: 
  209 km; navigable by craft drawing less than 1.2 meters
Pipelines: 
  crude oil 135 km; petroleum products 418 km; natural gas 920 km 
Ports: 
  Kuala Belait, Muara
Merchant marine: 
  7 liquefied gas carriers (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 348,476
  GRT/340,635 DWT
Airports: 
total: 
  2 
usable: 
  2 
with permanent-surface runways: 
  1 
with runway over 3,659 m: 
  1 
with runway 2,440-3,659 m: 
  0 
with runway 1,220-2,439 m: 
  1 
Telecommunications: 
  service throughout country is adequate for present needs;
  international service good to adjacent Malaysia; radiobroadcast
  coverage good; 33,000 telephones (1987); broadcast stations - 4 AM/FM,
  1 TV; 74,000 radio receivers (1987); satellite earth stations - 1
  Indian Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT

@Brunei, Defense Forces

Branches: 
  Land Force, Navy, Air Force, Royal Brunei Police 
Manpower availability: 
  males age 15-49 79,486; fit for military service 46,258; reach
  military age (18) annually 2,756 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
  exchange rate conversion - $300 million, 9% of GDP (1990)


@Bulgaria, Geography

Location: 
  Balkan State, Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between
  Romania and Turkey
Map references: 
  Africa, Arctic Region, Ethnic Groups in Eastern Europe, Europe, Middle
  East, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
  110,910 sq km 
land area: 
  110,550 sq km 
comparative area: 
  slightly larger than Tennessee
Land boundaries: 
  total 1,808 km, Greece 494 km, The Former Yugoslav Republic of
  Macedonia 148 km, Romania 608 km, Serbia and Montenegro 318 km (all
  with Serbia), Turkey 240 km 
Coastline: 
  354 km 
Maritime claims: 
contiguous zone: 
  24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 
  200 nm
territorial sea: 
  12 nm
International disputes: 
  none
Climate: 
  temperate; cold, damp winters; hot, dry summers
Terrain: 
  mostly mountains with lowlands in north and south
Natural resources: 
  bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, coal, timber, arable land 
Land use: 
arable land: 
  34% 
permanent crops: 
  3% 
meadows and pastures: 
  18% 
forest and woodland: 
  35% 
other: 
  10% 
Irrigated land: 
  10 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
  air pollution from industrial emissions; rivers polluted from raw
  sewage, heavy metals, detergents; deforestation; forest damage from
  air pollution; soil contamination from heavy metals from metallurgical
  plants and industrial wastes
natural hazards: 
  subject to earthquakes, landslides
international agreements: 
  party to - Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
  Pollution-Sulphur, Antarctic Treaty, Endangered Species, Environmental
  Modification, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
  Pollution, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Air Pollution-Volatile
  Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Biodiversity,
  Climate Change, Law of the Sea
Note: 
  strategic location near Turkish Straits; controls key land routes from
  Europe to Middle East and Asia

@Bulgaria, People

Population: 
  8,799,986 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
  -0.32% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
  11.71 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
  11.38 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
  -3.49 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
  12 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
  73.24 years 
male: 
  69.99 years 
female: 
  76.67 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
  1.71 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
  Bulgarian(s) 
adjective: 
  Bulgarian 
Ethnic divisions: 
  Bulgarian 85.3%, Turk 8.5%, Gypsy 2.6%, Macedonian 2.5%, Armenian
  0.3%, Russian 0.2%, other 0.6% 
Religions: 
  Bulgarian Orthodox 85%, Muslim 13%, Jewish 0.8%, Roman Catholic 0.5%,
  Uniate Catholic 0.2%, Protestant, Gregorian-Armenian, and other 0.5% 
Languages: 
  Bulgarian; secondary languages closely correspond to ethnic breakdown
Literacy: 
  age 15 and over can read and write (1970 est.)
total population: 
  93% 
male: 
  NA%
female: 
  NA%
Labor force: 
  4.3 million 
by occupation: 
  industry 33%, agriculture 20%, other 47% (1987)

@Bulgaria, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
  Republic of Bulgaria 
conventional short form: 
  Bulgaria 
Digraph: 
  BU
Type: 
  emerging democracy 
Capital: 
  Sofia 
Administrative divisions: 
  9 provinces (oblasti, singular - oblast); Burgas, Grad Sofiya,
  Khaskovo, Lovech, Montana, Plovdiv, Ruse, Sofiya, Varna
Independence: 
  22 September 1908 (from Ottoman Empire)
National holiday: 
  Independence Day 3 March (1878) 
Constitution: 
  adopted 12 July 1991
Legal system: 
  based on civil law system, with Soviet law influence; has accepted
  compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 
  18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
  President Zhelyu Mitev ZHELEV (since 1 August 1990); Vice President
  (vacant); election last held January 1992; results - Zhelyu ZHELEV was
  elected by popular vote
head of government: 
  Chairman of the Council of Ministers (Prime Minister) Lyuben Borisov
  BEROV (since 30 December 1992); Deputy Chairman of the Council of
  Ministers (Deputy Prime Minister) Evgeniy MATINCHEV (since 30 December
  1992) 
cabinet: 
  Council of Ministers; elected by the National Assembly
Legislative branch: 
  unicameral
National Assembly (Narodno Sobranie): 
  last held 13 October 1991; results - UDF (and breakaway factions) 34%,
  BSP 33%, MRF 7.5%; seats - (240 total) UDF 110, BSP 106, Movement for
  Rights and Freedoms 24
note: 
  the UDF split in March 1993 to form the New Union for Democracy (NUD)
  with 18 seats, and the Union of Democratic Forces (UDF) with 92 seats
Judicial branch: 
  Supreme Court, Constitutional Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
  Union of Democratic Forces (UDF), Filip DIMITROV, chairman, an
  alliance of approximately 20 pro-Democratic parties including United
  Democratic Center, Democratic Party, Radical Democratic Party,
  Christian Democratic Union, Alternative Social Liberal Party,
  Republican Party, Civic Initiative Movement, and about a dozen other
  groups; Movement for Rights and Freedoms (mainly ethnic Turkish party)
  (MRF), Ahmed DOGAN, chairman; Bulgarian Socialist Party (BSP), Zhan
  VIDENOV, chairman; New Union for Democracy (NUD), Dimitar LUDZHEV,
  chairman
Other political or pressure groups: 
  Ecoglasnost; Podkrepa (Support) Labor Confederation; Fatherland Union;
  Bulgarian Democratic Youth (formerly Communist Youth Union);
  Confederation of Independent Trade Unions of Bulgaria (KNSB);
  Nationwide Committee for Defense of National Interests; Peasant Youth
  League; Bulgarian Agrarian National Union - United (BZNS); Bulgarian
  Democratic Center; "Nikola Petkov" Bulgarian Agrarian National Union;
  Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization - Union of Macedonian
  Societies (IMRO-UMS); numerous regional, ethnic, and national interest
  groups with various agendas
Member of: 
  ACCT (observer), BIS, BSEC, CCC, CE, CEI (participating), CSCE, EBRD,
  ECE, FAO, G-9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO,
  INMARSAT, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer),
  ISO, ITU, LORCS, NACC, NAM (guest), NSG, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
  UNIDO, UNTAC, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador Ognyan Raytchev PISHEV 
chancery: 
  1621 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
  (202) 387-7969 
FAX: 
  (202) 234-7973 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador William D. MONTGOMERY 
embassy: 
  1 Saborna Street, Sofia 
mailing address: 
  Unit  25402, Sofia; APO AE 09213 
telephone: 
  [359] (2) 88-48-01 through 05 
FAX: 
  [359] (2) 80-19-77 
Flag: 
  three equal horizontal bands of white (top), green, and red; the
  national emblem formerly on the hoist side of the white stripe has
  been removed - it contained a rampant lion within a wreath of wheat
  ears below a red five-pointed star and above a ribbon bearing the
  dates 681 (first Bulgarian state established) and 1944 (liberation
  from Nazi control)

@Bulgaria, Economy

Overview: 
  The Bulgarian economy continued its painful adjustment in 1993 from
  the misdirected development undertaken during four decades of
  Communist rule. Many aspects of a market economy have been put in
  place and have begun to function, but much of the economy, especially
  the industrial sector, has yet to re-establish market links lost with
  the collapse of other centrally planned Eastern European economies.
  The prices of many imported industrial inputs, especially energy
  products, have risen markedly, and falling real wages have not
  sufficed to restore competitiveness. The trade deficit, exacerbated by
  UN trade sanctions against neighboring Serbia, grew in late 1993,
  accelerating the depreciation of the lev. These difficulties in
  adjusting to the challenges of a more open system, together with a
  severe drought, caused nonagricultural output to fall by perhaps 8% in
  1993. The government plans more extensive privatization in 1994 to
  improve the management of state enterprises and to encourage foreign
  investment in ailing state firms. Bulgaria resumed payments on its $10
  billion in commercial debt in 1993 following the negotiation of a 50%
  write-off. An IMF program and second agreement with official creditors
  on Bulgaria's smaller amount of official debt are required to close
  the debt deal.
National product: 
  GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $33.9 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
  -4% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
  $3,800 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
  64% (1993)
Unemployment rate: 
  16% (1993)
Budget: 
revenues: 
  $14 billion 
expenditures: 
  $17.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $610 million (1993
  est.)
Exports: 
  $3.5 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities: 
  machinery and equipment 30.6%; agricultural products 24%; manufactured
  consumer goods 22.2%; fuels, minerals, raw materials, and metals
  10.5%; other 12.7% (1991)
partners: 
  former CEMA countries 57.7% (USSR 48.6%, Poland 2.1%, Czechoslovakia
  0.9%); developed countries 26.3% (Germany 4.8%, Greece 2.2%); less
  developed countries 15.9% (Libya 2.1%, Iran 0.7%) (1991)
Imports: 
  $2.8 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities: 
  fuels, minerals, and raw materials 58.7%; machinery and equipment
  15.8%; manufactured consumer goods 4.4%; agricultural products 15.2%;
  other 5.9%
partners: 
  former CEMA countries 51.0% (former USSR 43.2%, Poland 3.7%);
  developed countries 32.8% (Germany 7.0%, Austria 4.7%); less developed
  countries 16.2% (Iran 2.8%, Libya 2.5%)
External debt: 
  $12 billion (1993)
Industrial production: 
  growth rate -10% (1993 est.); accounts for about 37% of GDP (1990)
Electricity: 
capacity: 
  11,500,000 kW
production: 
  45 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
  5,070 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
  machine building and metal working, food processing, chemicals,
  textiles, building materials, ferrous and nonferrous metals
Agriculture: 
  climate and soil conditions support livestock raising and the growing
  of various grain crops, oilseeds, vegetables, fruits, and tobacco;
  more than one-third of the arable land devoted to grain; world's
  fourth-largest tobacco exporter; surplus food producer
Illicit drugs: 
  transshipment point for southwest Asian heroin transiting the Balkan
  route
Economic aid: 
  $NA
Currency: 
  1 lev (Lv) = 100 stotinki
Exchange rates: 
  leva (Lv) per US$1 - 32.00 (January 1994), 24.56 (January 1993), 17.18
  (January 1992), 16.13 (March 1991), 0.7446 (November 1990), 0.84
  (1989); note - floating exchange rate since February 1991
Fiscal year: 
  calendar year

@Bulgaria, Communications

Railroads: 
  4,300 km total, all government owned (1987); 4,055 km 1.435-meter
  standard gauge, 245 km narrow gauge; 917 km double track; 2,640 km
  electrified
Highways: 
total: 
  36,930 km 
paved: 
  33,902 km (including 276 km expressways)
unpaved: 
  earth 3,028 km (1991)
Inland waterways: 
  470 km (1987)
Pipelines: 
  crude oil 193 km; petroleum products 525 km; natural gas 1,400 km
  (1992)
Ports: 
  coastal - Burgas, Varna, Varna West; inland - Ruse, Vidin, and Lom on
  the Danube
Merchant marine: 
  111 ships (1,000 GRT and over) totaling 1,225,996 GRT/1,829,642 DWT,
  bulk 48, cargo 30, chemical carrier 4, container 2, oil tanker 16,
  passenger-cargo 1, railcar carrier 2, roll-on/roll-off cargo 6,
  short-sea passenger 2 
note: 
  Bulgaria owns 1 ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 8,717 DWT operating
  under Liberian registry
Airports: 
total: 
  487 
usable: 
  85 
with permanent-surface runways: 
  32 
with runways over 3659 m: 
  0 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
  21 
with runways 1,060-2,439 m: 
  36 
note: 
  a C-130 can land on a 1,060-m airstrip
Telecommunications: 
  extensive but antiquated transmission system of coaxial cable and
  microwave radio relay; 2.6 million telephones; direct dialing to 36
  countries; phone density is 29 phones per 100 persons (1992); almost
  two-thirds of the lines are residential; 67% of Sofia households have
  phones (November 1988); telephone service is available in most
  villages; broadcast stations - 20 AM, 15 FM, and 29 TV, with 1 Soviet
  TV repeater in Sofia; 2.1 million TV sets (1990); 92% of country
  receives No. 1 television program (May 1990); 1 satellite ground
  station using Intersputnik; INTELSAT is used through a Greek earth
  station

@Bulgaria, Defense Forces

Branches: 
  Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, Frontier Troops, Internal
  Troops 
Manpower availability: 
  males age 15-49 2,175,921; fit for military service 1,816,484; reach
  military age (19) annually 70,306 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
  5.77 billion leva, NA% of GDP (1993 est.); note - conversion of
  defense expenditures into US dollars using the current exchange rate
  could produce misleading results


@Burkina, Geography

Location: 
  Western Africa, between Ghana and Mali
Map references: 
  Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
  274,200 sq km 
land area: 
  273,800 sq km 
comparative area: 
  slightly larger than Colorado
Land boundaries: 
  total 3,192 km, Benin 306 km, Ghana 548 km, Cote d'Ivoire 584 km, Mali
  1,000 km, Niger 628 km, Togo 126 km 
Coastline: 
  0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: 
  none; landlocked
International disputes: 
  the disputed international boundary between Burkina and Mali was
  submitted to the International Court of Justice (ICJ) in October 1983
  and the ICJ issued its final ruling in December 1986, which both sides
  agreed to accept; Burkina and Mali are proceeding with boundary
  demarcation, including the tripoint with Niger
Climate: 
  tropical; warm, dry winters; hot, wet summers
Terrain: 
  mostly flat to dissected, undulating plains; hills in west and
  southeast
Natural resources: 
  manganese, limestone, marble; small deposits of gold, antimony,
  copper, nickel, bauxite, lead, phosphates, zinc, silver 
Land use: 
arable land: 
  10% 
permanent crops: 
  0% 
meadows and pastures: 
  37% 
forest and woodland: 
  26% 
other: 
  27% 
Irrigated land: 
  160 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
  recent droughts and desertification severely affecting agricultural
  activities, population distribution, and the economy; overgrazing;
  soil degradation; deforestation
natural hazards: 
  recurring droughts
international agreements: 
  party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Marine
  Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands; signed, but not
  ratified - Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban
Note: 
  landlocked

@Burkina, People

Population: 
  10,134,661 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
  2.81% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
  48.42 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
  18.2 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
  -2.08 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
  118.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
  47.03 years 
male: 
  46.18 years 
female: 
  47.9 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
  6.94 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
  Burkinabe (singular and plural) 
adjective: 
  Burkinabe 
Ethnic divisions: 
  Mossi (about 2.5 million), Gurunsi, Senufo, Lobi, Bobo, Mande, Fulani 
Religions: 
  indigenous beliefs 40%, Muslim 50%, Christian (mainly Roman Catholic)
  10% 
Languages: 
  French (official), tribal languages belong to Sudanic family, spoken
  by 90% of the population
Literacy: 
  age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
  18% 
male: 
  28% 
female: 
  9% 
Labor force: 
  NA (most adults are employed in subsistance agriculture; 52% of
  population is 15 years of age or older)
by occupation: 
  agriculture 80%, industry 15%, commerce, services, and government 5%
note: 
  20% of male labor force migrates annually to neighboring countries for
  seasonal employment (1984)

@Burkina, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
  Burkina Faso 
conventional short form: 
  Burkina 
former: 
  Upper Volta 
Digraph: 
  UV
Type: 
  parliamentary 
Capital: 
  Ouagadougou 
Administrative divisions: 
  30 provinces; Bam, Bazega, Bougouriba, Boulgou, Boulkiemde,
  Ganzourgou, Gnagna, Gourma, Houet, Kadiogo, Kenedougou, Komoe, Kossi,
  Kouritenga, Mouhoun, Namentenga, Naouri, Oubritenga, Oudalan, Passore,
  Poni, Sanguie, Sanmatenga, Seno, Sissili, Soum, Sourou, Tapoa,
  Yatenga, Zoundweogo
Independence: 
  5 August 1960 (from France)
National holiday: 
  Anniversary of the Revolution, 4 August (1983) 
Constitution: 
  2 June 1991
Legal system: 
  based on French civil law system and customary law
Suffrage: 
  none
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
  President Captain Blaise COMPAORE (since 15 October 1987); election
  last held December 1991
head of government: 
  Prime Minister Roch KABORE (since March 1994) 
cabinet: 
  Council of Ministers;  appointed by the president
Legislative branch: 
  unicameral
Assembly of People's Deputies: 
  elections last held 24 May 1992 (next to be held NA); results -
  percent of vote by party NA; seats - (107 total), ODP-MT 78, CNPP-PSD
  12, RDA 6, ADF 4, other 7
note: 
  the current law also provides for a second consultative chamber, which
  had not been formally constituted as of 1 July 1992
Judicial branch: 
  Appeals Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
  Organization for People's Democracy- Labor Movement (ODP-MT), ruling
  party, Simon COMPAORE, Secretary General; National Convention of
  Progressive Patriots-Social Democratic Party (CNPP-PSD), Moussa BOLY;
  African Democratic Rally (RDA), Gerard Kango OUEDRAOGO; Alliance for
  Democracy and Federation (ADF), Amadou Michel NANA
Other political or pressure groups: 
  committees for the defense of the revolution; watchdog/political
  action groups throughout the country in both organizations and
  communities
Member of: 
  ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEAO, ECA, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, GATT,
  IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT,
  INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, OIC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
  UNIDO, UPU, WADB, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
  (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Thomas Yara KAMBOU 
chancery: 
  2340 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
  (202) 332-5577 or 6895 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador Donald J. McCONNELL 
embassy: 
  Avenue Raoul Follerau, Ouagadougou 
mailing address: 
  01 B. P. 35, Ouagadougou 
telephone: 
  [226] 30-67- 23 through 25 
FAX: 
  [226] 31-23-68 
Flag: 
  two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green with a yellow
  five-pointed star in the center; uses the popular pan-African colors
  of Ethiopia

@Burkina, Economy

Overview: 
  One of the poorest countries in the world, Burkina has a high
  population density, few natural resources, and relatively infertile
  soil. Economic development is hindered by a poor communications
  network within a landlocked country. Agriculture provides about 40% of
  GDP and is entirely of a subsistence nature. Industry, dominated by
  unprofitable government-controlled corporations, accounts for about
  15% of GDP.
National product: 
  GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $7 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
  0.7% (1992)
National product per capita: 
  $700 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
  -0.8% (1992)
Unemployment rate: 
  NA%
Budget: 
revenues: 
  $483 million 
expenditures: 
  $548 million, including capital expenditures of $189 million (1992)
Exports: 
  $300 million (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities: 
  cotton, gold, animal products
partners: 
  EC 42%, Cote d'Ivoire 11%, Taiwan 15%
Imports: 
  $685 million (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities: 
  machinery, food products, petroleum
partners: 
  EC 49%, Africa 24%, Japan 6%
External debt: 
  $865 million (December 1991 est.)
Industrial production: 
  growth rate 6.7% (1992); accounts for about 15% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
  120,000 kW
production: 
  320 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
  40 kWh (1991)
Industries: 
  cotton lint, beverages, agricultural processing, soap, cigarettes,
  textiles, gold mining and extraction
Agriculture: 
  accounts for about 40% of GDP; cash crops - peanuts, shea nuts,
  sesame, cotton; food crops - sorghum, millet, corn, rice; livestock;
  not self-sufficient in food grains
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
  US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $294 million; Western
  (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $2.9
  billion; Communist countries (1970-89),  $113 million 
Currency: 
  1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates: 
  CFA francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 592.05 (January 1994), 283.16 (1993),
  264.69 (1992), 282.11 (1991), 272.26 (1990), 319.01 (1989)
note: 
  beginning 12 January 1994 the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF 100 per
  French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since 1948
Fiscal year: 
  calendar year

@Burkina, Communications

Railroads: 
  620 km total; 520 km Ouagadougou to Cote d'Ivoire border and 100 km
  Ouagadougou to Kaya; all 1.00-meter gauge and single track
Highways: 
total: 
  16,500 km 
paved: 
  1,300 km 
unpaved: 
  improved earth 7,400 km; unimproved earth 7,800 km (1985)
Airports: 
total: 
  48 
usable: 
  38 
with permanent-surface runways: 
  2 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
  0 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
  2 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
  8 
Telecommunications: 
  all services only fair; microwave radio relay, wire, and radio
  communication stations in use; broadcast stations - 2 AM, 1 FM, 2 TV;
  1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

@Burkina, Defense Forces

Branches: 
  Army, Air Force, National Gendarmerie, National Police, People's
  Militia 
Manpower availability: 
  males age 15-49 2,013,763; fit for military service 1,029,960 
Defense expenditures: 
  $NA, NA% of GDP


@Burma, Geography

Location: 
  Southeastern Asia, bordering the Bay of Bengal, between Bangladesh and
  Thailand
Map references: 
  Asia, Southeast Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
  678,500 sq km 
land area: 
  657,740 sq km 
comparative area: 
  slightly smaller than Texas
Land boundaries: 
  total 5,876 km, Bangladesh 193 km, China 2,185 km, India 1,463 km,
  Laos 235 km, Thailand 1,800 km 
Coastline: 
  1,930 km 
Maritime claims: 
contiguous zone: 
  24 nm
continental shelf: 
  200 nm or to the edge of continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 
  200 nm
territorial sea: 
  12 nm
International disputes: 
  none
Climate: 
  tropical monsoon; cloudy, rainy, hot, humid summers (southwest
  monsoon, June to September); less cloudy, scant rainfall, mild
  temperatures, lower humidity during winter (northeast monsoon,
  December to April)
Terrain: 
  central lowlands ringed by steep, rugged highlands
Natural resources: 
  petroleum, timber, tin, antimony, zinc, copper, tungsten, lead, coal,
  some marble, limestone, precious stones, natural gas 
Land use: 
arable land: 
  15% 
permanent crops: 
  1% 
meadows and pastures: 
  1% 
forest and woodland: 
  49% 
other: 
  34% 
Irrigated land: 
  10,180 sq km (1989)
Environment: 
current issues: 
  deforestation
natural hazards: 
  subject to destructive earthquakes and cyclones; flooding and
  landslides common during rainy season (June to September)
international agreements: 
  party to - Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
  Tropical Timber; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate
  Change, Law of the Sea
Note: 
  strategic location near major Indian Ocean shipping lanes

@Burma, People

Population: 
  44,277,014 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
  1.86% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
  28.45 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
  9.84 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
  63.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
  59.98 years 
male: 
  57.94 years 
female: 
  62.15 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
  3.64 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
  Burmese (singular and plural) 
adjective: 
  Burmese 
Ethnic divisions: 
  Burman 68%, Shan 9%, Karen 7%, Rakhine 4%, Chinese 3%, Mon 2%, Indian
  2%, other 5% 
Religions: 
  Buddhist 89%, Christian 4% (Baptist 3%, Roman Catholic 1%), Muslim 4%,
  animist beliefs 1%, other 2% 
Languages: 
  Burmese; minority ethnic groups have their own languages
Literacy: 
  age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
  81% 
male: 
  89% 
female: 
  72% 
Labor force: 
  16.007 million (1992)
by occupation: 
  agriculture 65.2%, industry 14.3%, trade 10.1%, government 6.3%, other
  4.1% (FY89 est.)

@Burma, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
  Union of Burma 
conventional short form: 
  Burma 
local long form: 
  Pyidaungzu Myanma Naingngandaw (translated by the US Government as
  Union of Myanma and by the Burmese as Union of Myanmar)
local short form: 
  Myanma Naingngandaw 
former: 
  Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma 
Digraph: 
  BM
Type: 
  military regime 
Capital: 
  Rangoon (sometimes translated as Yangon)
Administrative divisions: 
  7 divisions* (yin-mya, singular - yin) and 7 states (pyine-mya,
  singular - pyine); Chin State, Irrawaddy*, Kachin State, Karan State,
  Kayah State, Magwe*, Mandalay*, Mon State, Pegu*, Rakhine State,
  Rangoon*, Sagaing*, Shan State, Tenasserim*
Independence: 
  4 January 1948 (from UK)
National holiday: 
  Independence Day, 4 January (1948) 
Constitution: 
  3 January 1974 (suspended since 18 September 1988); National
  Convention started on 9 January 1993 to draft chapter headings for a
  new constitution
Legal system: 
  has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 
  18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state and head of government: 
  Chairman of the State Law and Order Restoration Council Gen. THAN SHWE
  (since 23 April 1992) 
State Law and Order Restoration Council: 
  military junta which assumed power 18 September 1988
Legislative branch: 
People's Assembly (Pyithu Hluttaw): 
  last held 27 May 1990, but Assembly never convened; results - NLD 80%;
  seats - (485 total) NLD 396, the regime-favored NUP 10, other 79; was
  dissolved after the coup of 18 September 1988
Judicial branch: 
  none; Council of People's Justices was abolished after the coup of 18
  September 1988
Political parties and leaders: 
  Union Solidarity and Development Association (USDA), leader NA;
  National Unity Party (NUP; proregime), THA KYAW; National League for
  Democracy (NLD), U AUNG SHWE
Other political or pressure groups: 
  National Coalition Government of the Union of Burma (NCGUB), headed by
  the elected prime minister SEIN WIN (consists of individuals
  legitimately elected to Parliament but not recognized by the military
  regime; the group fled to a border area and joined with insurgents in
  December 1990 to form a parallel government; Kachin Independence Army
  (KIA); United Wa State Army (UWSA); Karen National Union (KNU);
  several Shan factions, including the Mong Tai Army (MTA); All Burma
  Student Democratic Front (ABSDF)
Member of: 
  AsDB, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD,
  IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC, ITU,
  LORCS, NAM, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WMO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador U THAUNG 
chancery: 
  2300 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
  (202) 332-9044 or 9045 
consulate(s) general: 
  New York 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
  (vacant); Deputy Chief of Mission, Charge d'Affaires Franklin P.
  HUDDLE, Jr. 
embassy: 
  581 Merchant Street, Rangoon 
mailing address: 
  American Embassy, Box B, APO AP 96546 
telephone: 
  [95] (1) 82055, 82181 
FAX: 
  [95] (1) 80409 
Flag: 
  red with a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner bearing, all
  in white, 14 five-pointed stars encircling a cogwheel containing a
  stalk of rice; the 14 stars represent the 14 administrative divisions

@Burma, Economy

Overview: 
  Burma has a mixed economy with about 70% private activity, mainly in
  agriculture, light industry, and transport, and with about 30%
  state-controlled activity, mainly in energy, heavy industry, and
  foreign trade. Government policy in the last five years, 1989-93, has
  aimed at revitalizing the economy after four decades of tight central
  planning. Thus, private activity has markedly increased; foreign
  investment has been encouraged, so far with moderate success; and
  efforts continue to increase the efficiency of state enterprises.
  Published estimates of Burma's foreign trade are greatly understated
  because of the volume of black market trade. A major ongoing problem
  is the failure to achieve monetary and fiscal stability. Inflation has
  been running at 25% to 30% annually. Good weather helped boost GDP by
  perhaps 5% in 1993. Although Burma remains a poor Asian country, its
  rich resources furnish the potential for substantial long-term
  increases in income, exports, and living standards.
National product: 
  GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $41 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
  5% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
  $950 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
  30% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
  NA%
Budget: 
revenues: 
  $8.1 billion 
expenditures: 
  $11.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1992)
Exports: 
  $613.4 million (FY93)
commodities: 
  pulses and beans, teak, rice, hardwood
partners: 
  Singapore, China, Thailand, India, Hong Kong
Imports: 
  $1.02 billion (FY93)
commodities: 
  machinery, transport equipment, chemicals, food products
partners: 
  Japan, China, Thailand, Singapore, Malaysia
External debt: 
  $4 billion (1992)
Industrial production: 
  growth rate 4.9% (FY93 est.); accounts for 10% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
  1,100,000 kW
production: 
  2.8 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
  65 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
  agricultural processing; textiles and footwear; wood and wood
  products; petroleum refining; mining of copper, tin, tungsten, iron;
  construction materials; pharmaceuticals; fertilizer
Agriculture: 
  accounts for 40% of GDP and 66% of employment (including fish and
  forestry); self-sufficient in food; principal crops - paddy rice,
  corn, oilseed, sugarcane, pulses; world's largest stand of hardwood
  trees; rice and timber account for 55% of export revenues
Illicit drugs: 
  world's largest illicit producer of opium (2,575 metric tons in 1993)
  and minor producer of cannabis for the international drug trade; opium
  production has doubled since the collapse of Rangoon's antinarcotic
  programs
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
  US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $158 million; Western
  (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $3.9
  billion; Communist countries (1970-89),  $424 million 
Currency: 
  1 kyat (K) = 100 pyas
Exchange rates: 
  kyats (K) per US$1 - 6.2301 (December 1993), 6.1570 (1993), 6.1045
  (1992), 6.2837 (1991), 6.3386 (1990), 6.7049 (1989); unofficial - 105
Fiscal year: 
  1 April - 31 March

@Burma, Communications

Railroads: 
  3,991 km total, all government owned; 3,878 km 1.000-meter gauge, 113
  km narrow-gauge industrial lines; 362 km double track
Highways: 
total: 
  27,000 km 
paved: 
  bituminous 3,200 km 
unpaved: 
  gravel, improved earth 17,700 km; unimproved earth 6,100 km 
Inland waterways: 
  12,800 km; 3,200 km navigable by large commercial vessels
Pipelines: 
  crude oil 1,343 km; natural gas 330 km 
Ports: 
  Rangoon, Moulmein, Bassein
Merchant marine: 
  47 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 665,628 GRT/941,512 DWT, bulk
  15, cargo 15, chemical 1, combination bulk 1, combination ore/oil 1,
  container 2, oil tanker 2, passenger-cargo 3, refrigerated cargo 5,
  vehicle carrier 2 
Airports: 
total: 
  83 
usable: 
  78 
with permanent-surface runways: 
  24 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
  0 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
  3 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
  38 
Telecommunications: 
  meets minimum requirements for local and intercity service for
  business and government; international service is good; 53,000
  telephones (1986); radiobroadcast coverage is limited to the most
  populous areas; broadcast stations - 2 AM, 1 FM, 1 TV (1985); 1 Indian
  Ocean INTELSAT earth station

@Burma, Defense Forces

Branches: 
  Army, Navy, Air Force 
Manpower availability: 
  males age 15-49 11,199,531; females age 15-49 11,273,643; males fit
  for military service 5,979,710; females fit for military service
  6,034,810; males reach military age (18) annually 445,933 (1994 est.);
  females reach military age (18) annually 430,738 (1994 est.); both
  sexes liable for military service
Defense expenditures: 
  $NA, NA% of GDP


@Burundi, Geography

Location: 
  Central Africa, between Tanzania and Zaire
Map references: 
  Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
  27,830 sq km 
land area: 
  25,650 sq km 
comparative area: 
  slightly larger than Maryland
Land boundaries: 
  total 974 km, Rwanda 290 km, Tanzania 451 km, Zaire 233 km 
Coastline: 
  0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: 
  none; landlocked
International disputes: 
  none
Climate: 
  temperate; warm; occasional frost in uplands
Terrain: 
  mostly rolling to hilly highland; some plains
Natural resources: 
  nickel, uranium, rare earth oxide, peat, cobalt, copper, platinum (not
  yet exploited), vanadium 
Land use: 
arable land: 
  43% 
permanent crops: 
  8% 
meadows and pastures: 
  35% 
forest and woodland: 
  2% 
other: 
  12% 
Irrigated land: 
  720 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
  soil exhaustion and erosion; deforestation; habitat loss threatening
  wildlife populations
natural hazards: 
  NA 
international agreements: 
  party to - Endangered Species; signed, but not ratified -
  Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban
Note: 
  landlocked; straddles crest of the Nile-Congo watershed
Population: 
  6,124,747 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
  2.26% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
  44.02 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
  21.38 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
  113.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
  40.3 years 
male: 
  38.31 years 
female: 
  42.35 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
  6.69 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
  Burundian(s) 
adjective: 
  Burundi 
Ethnic divisions: 
Africans: 
  Hutu (Bantu) 85%, Tutsi (Hamitic) 14%, Twa (Pygmy) 1% (other Africans
  include about 70,000 refugees, mostly Rwandans and Zairians)
non-Africans: 
  Europeans 3,000, South Asians 2,000
Religions: 
  Christian 67% (Roman Catholic 62%, Protestant 5%), indigenous beliefs
  32%, Muslim 1% 
Languages: 
  Kirundi (official), French (official), Swahili (along Lake Tanganyika
  and in the Bujumbura area)
Literacy: 
  age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
  50% 
male: 
  61% 
female: 
  40% 
Labor force: 
  1.9 million (1983 est.)
by occupation: 
  agriculture 93.0%, government 4.0%, industry and commerce 1.5%,
  services 1.5%
note: 
  52% of population of working age (1985)

@Burundi, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
  Republic of Burundi 
conventional short form: 
  Burundi 
local long form: 
  Republika y'u Burundi 
local short form: 
  Burundi 
Digraph: 
  BY
Type: 
  republic 
Capital: 
  Bujumbura 
Administrative divisions: 
  15 provinces; Bubanza, Bujumbura, Bururi, Cankuzo, Cibitoke, Gitega,
  Karuzi, Kayanza, Kirundo, Makamba, Muramvya, Muyinga, Ngozi, Rutana,
  Ruyigi
Independence: 
  1 July 1962 (from UN trusteeship under Belgian administration)
National holiday: 
  Independence Day, 1 July (1962) 
Constitution: 
  13 March 1992; provides for establishment of a plural political system
Legal system: 
  based on German and Belgian civil codes and customary law; has not
  accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 
  universal adult at age NA
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
  Interim President Sylvestre NTIBANTUNGANYA, Speaker of the National
  Assembly, succeeded deceased President NTARYAMIRA in early April 1994
  with a mandate for at least 90 days; on 11 July 1994 the mandate was
  extended by the Constitutional Court for three more months at the
  request of 12 political parties locked in negotiations on a new
  broad-based government; elections will be held later in 1994
note: 
  President Melchior NDADAYE died in the military coup of 21 October
  1993 and was succeeded on 5 February 1994 by President Cyprien
  NTARYAMIRA, who was killed in a mysterious airplane explosion on 6
  April 1994
head of government: 
  Prime Minister Anatole KANYENKIKO (since 7 February 1994); chosen by
  the president 
cabinet: 
  Council of Ministers ; appointed by prime minister
Legislative branch: 
  unicameral
National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale): 
  elections last held 29 June 1993 (next to be held NA): results -
  FRODEBU 71%, UPRONA 21.4%; seats - (81 total) FRODIBU 65, UPRONA 16;
  other parties won too small shares of the vote to win seats in the
  assembly
note: 
  The National Unity Charter outlining the principles for constitutional
  government was adopted by a national referendum on 5 February 1991
Judicial branch: 
  Supreme Court (Cour Supreme) 
Political parties and leaders: 
  Unity for National Progress (UPRONA); Burundi Democratic Front
  (FRODEBU); Organization of the People of Burundi (RBP); Socialist
  Party of Burundi (PSB); People's Reconciliation Party (PRP)
Other political or pressure groups: 
  opposition parties legalized in March 1992; Burundi African Alliance
  for the Salvation (ABASA); Rally for Democracy and Economic and Social
  Development (RADDES)
Member of: 
  ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEEAC, CEPGL, ECA, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO,
  IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, ITU,
  LORCS, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador Jacques BACAMURWANKO, designated (January 1994) 
chancery: 
  Suite 212, 2233 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007 
telephone: 
  (202) 342-2574 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
  (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Leonard J. LANGE 
embassy: 
  Avenue des Etats-Unis, Bujumbura 
mailing address: 
  B. P. 34, 1720, Bujumbura 
telephone: 
  [257] (223) 454 
FAX: 
  [257] (222) 926 
Flag: 
  divided by a white diagonal cross into red panels (top and bottom) and
  green panels (hoist side and outer side) with a white disk
  superimposed at the center bearing three red six-pointed stars
  outlined in green arranged in a triangular design (one star above, two
  stars below)

@Burundi, Economy

Overview: 
  A landlocked, resource-poor country in an early stage of economic
  development, Burundi is predominately agricultural with only a few
  basic industries. Its economic health depends on the coffee crop,
  which accounts for 80% of foreign exchange earnings. The ability to
  pay for imports therefore continues to rest largely on the vagaries of
  the climate and the international coffee market. As part of its
  economic reform agenda, launched in February 1991 with IMF and World
  Bank support, Burundi is trying to diversify its agricultural exports
  and attract foreign investment in industry. Several state-owned coffee
  companies were privatized via public auction in September 1991.
National product: 
  GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $4.4 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
  -3.8% (1991)
National product per capita: 
  $700 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
  4.7% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
  NA%
Budget: 
revenues: 
  $318 million 
expenditures: 
  $326 million, including capital expenditures of $150 million (1991
  est.)
Exports: 
  $40.8 million (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities: 
  coffee 81%, tea, cotton, hides, and skins
partners: 
  EC 57%, US 19%, Asia 1%
Imports: 
  $188 million (c.i.f., 1992 est.)
commodities: 
  capital goods 31%, petroleum products 15%, foodstuffs, consumer goods
partners: 
  EC 45%, Asia 29%, US 2%
External debt: 
  $970 million (1991)
Industrial production: 
  growth rate 11% (1991 est.); accounts for about 15% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
  55,000 kW
production: 
  105 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
  20 kWh (1991)
Industries: 
  light consumer goods such as blankets, shoes, soap; assembly of
  imported components; public works construction; food processing
Agriculture: 
  accounts for 50% of GDP; 90% of population dependent on subsistence
  farming; marginally self-sufficient in food production; cash crops -
  coffee, cotton, tea; food crops - corn, sorghum, sweet potatoes,
  bananas, manioc; livestock - meat, milk, hides and skins
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
  US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $71 million; Western
  (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $10.2
  billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $32 million; Communist
  countries (1970-89), $175 million 
Currency: 
  1 Burundi franc (FBu) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates: 
  Burundi francs (FBu) per US$1 - 247.94 (November 1993), 208.30 (1992),
  181.51 (1991), 171.26 (1990), 158.67 (1989), 140.40 (1988)
Fiscal year: 
  calendar year

@Burundi, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
  6,285 km 
paved: 
  1,099 km 
unpaved: 
  gravel, crushed stone 2,500 km; improved, unimproved earth 2,686 km
  (1990)
Inland waterways: 
  Lake Tanganyika
Ports: 
  Bujumbura (lake port) connects to transportation systems of Tanzania
  and Zaire
Airports: 
total: 
  5 
usable: 
  3 
with permanent-surface runways: 
  1 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
  0 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
  1 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
  0 
Telecommunications: 
  sparse system of wire, radiocommunications, and low-capacity microwave
  radio relay links; 8,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 2 AM, 2 FM,
  1 TV; 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth station

@Burundi, Defense Forces

Branches: 
  Army (includes naval and air units), paramilitary Gendarmerie 
Manpower availability: 
  males age 15-49 1,315,660; fit for military service 687,474; reach
  military age (16) annually 67,949 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
  exchange rate conversion - $28 million, 3.7% of GDP (1989)


@Cambodia, Geography

Location: 
  Southeastern Asia, bordering the Gulf of Thailand, between Thailand
  and Vietnam
Map references: 
  Asia, Southeast Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
  181,040 sq km 
land area: 
  176,520 sq km 
comparative area: 
  slightly smaller than Oklahoma
Land boundaries: 
  total 2,572 km, Laos 541 km, Thailand 803 km, Vietnam 1,228 km 
Coastline: 
  443 km 
Maritime claims: 
contiguous zone: 
  24 nm
continental shelf: 
  200 nm
exclusive economic zone: 
  200 nm
territorial sea: 
  12 nm
International disputes: 
  offshore islands and sections of the boundary with Vietnam are in
  dispute; maritime boundary with Vietnam not defined; parts of border
  with Thailand in dispute; maritime boundary with Thailand not clearly
  defined
Climate: 
  tropical; rainy, monsoon season (May to October); dry season (December
  to March); little seasonal temperature variation
Terrain: 
  mostly low, flat plains; mountains in southwest and north
Natural resources: 
  timber, gemstones, some iron ore, manganese, phosphates, hydropower
  potential 
Land use: 
arable land: 
  16% 
permanent crops: 
  1% 
meadows and pastures: 
  3% 
forest and woodland: 
  76% 
other: 
  4% 
Irrigated land: 
  920 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
  deforestation resulting in habitat loss and declining biodiversity (in
  particular, destruction of mangrove swamps threatens natural
  fisheries)
natural hazards: 
  monsoonal rains (June to November)
international agreements: 
  party to - Marine Life Conservation; signed, but not ratified -
  Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping
Note: 
  a land of paddies and forests dominated by the Mekong River and Tonle
  Sap

@Cambodia, People

Population: 
  10,264,628 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
  2.87% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
  45.09 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
  16.36 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
  110.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
  49.26 years 
male: 
  47.8 years 
female: 
  50.8 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
  5.81 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
  Cambodian(s) 
adjective: 
  Cambodian 
Ethnic divisions: 
  Khmer 90%, Vietnamese 5%, Chinese 1%, other 4% 
Religions: 
  Theravada Buddhism 95%, other 5% 
Languages: 
  Khmer (official), French 
Literacy: 
  age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
  35% 
male: 
  48% 
female: 
  22% 
Labor force: 
  2.5 million to 3 million
by occupation: 
  agriculture 80% (1988 est.)

@Cambodia, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
  Kingdom of Cambodia 
conventional short form: 
  Cambodia 
local long form: 
  Reacheanachak Kampuchea 
local short form: 
  Kampuchea 
Digraph: 
  CB
Type: 
  multiparty liberal democracy under a constitutional monarchy
  established in September 1993  
Capital: 
  Phnom Penh 
Administrative divisions: 
  20 provinces (khet, singular and plural); Banteay Meanchey,
  Batdambang, Kampong Cham, Kampong Chhnang, Kampong Spoe, Kampong Thum,
  Kampot, Kandal, Kaoh Kong, Kracheh, Mondol Kiri, Phnum Penh,
  Pouthisat, Preah Vihear, Prey Veng, Rotanokiri, Siemreab-Otdar
  Meanchey, Stoeng Treng, Svay Rieng, Takev
Independence: 
  9 November 1949 (from France)
National holiday: 
  Independence Day, 9 November 1949 
Constitution: 
  promulgated September 1993
Legal system: 
  currently being defined
Suffrage: 
  18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
  King Norodom SIHANOUK (reinstated NA September 1993) 
head of government: 
  power shared between First Prime Minister Prince Norodom RANARIDDH and
  Second Prime Minister HUN SEN 
cabinet: 
  Council of Ministers; elected by the National Assembly
Legislative branch: 
  unicameral; a 120-member constituent assembly based on proportional
  representation within each province was establised following the
  UN-supervised election in May 1993; the constituent assembly was
  transformed into a legislature in September 1993 after delegates
  promulgated the constitution
Judicial branch: 
  Supreme Court established under the constitution has not yet been
  established and the future judicial system is yet to be defined by law
Political parties and leaders: 
  National United Front for an Independent, Neutral, Peaceful, and
  Cooperative Cambodia (FUNCINPEC) under Prince NORODOM RANARIDDH;
  Cambodian Pracheachon Party or Cambodian People's Party (CPP) under
  CHEA SIM; Buddhist Liberal Democratic Party under SON SANN; Democratic
  Kampuchea (DK, also known as the Khmer Rouge) under KHIEU SAMPHAN
Member of: 
  ACCT (observer), AsDB, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA,
  IFAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, ITU,
  LORCS, NAM, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
  Ambassador SISOWATH SIRIRATH represents Cambodia at the United Nations
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador Charles H. TWINING 
embassy: 
  27 EO Street 240, Phnom Penh 
mailing address: 
  Box P, APO AP 96546 
telephone: 
  (855) 23-26436 or (855) 23-26438 
FAX: 
  (855) 23-26437 
Flag: 
  horizontal band of red separates two equal horizontal bands of blue
  with a white three-towered temple representing Angkor Wat in the
  center

@Cambodia, Economy

Overview: 
  The Cambodian economy - virtually destroyed by decades of war - is
  slowly recovering. Government leaders are moving toward restoring
  fiscal and monetary discipline and have established good working
  relations with international financial institutions. Despite such
  positive developments, the reconstruction effort faces many tough
  challenges. Rural Cambodia, where 90% of almost ten million Khmer
  live, remains mired in poverty. The almost total lack of basic
  infrastructure in the countryside will hinder development and will
  contribute to a growing imbalance in growth between urban and rural
  areas over the near term. Moreover, the new government's lack of
  experience in administering economic and technical assistance
  programs, and rampant corruption among officials, will slow the growth
  of critical public sector investment. Inflation for 1993 as a whole
  was 60%, less than a quarter of the 1992 rate, and was declining
  during the year. The government hoped the rate would fall to 10% in
  early 1994.
National product: 
  GDP - purchasing power equivalent -  $6 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
  7.5% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
  $600 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
  60% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
  NA%
Budget: 
revenues: 
  $350 million 
expenditures: 
  $350 million, including capital expenditures of $133 million (1994
  est.)
Exports: 
  $70 million (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities: 
  natural rubber, rice, pepper, raw timber
partners: 
  Thailand, Japan, India, Singapore, Malaysia, China, Vietnam
Imports: 
  $360 million (c.i.f., 1992 est.)
commodities: 
  international food aid; fuels, consumer goods, machinery
partners: 
  Japan, India, Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, China, Vietnam
External debt: 
  total outstanding bilateral official debt to OECD members $248 million
  (yearend 1991), plus 840 million ruble debt to former CEMA countries
Industrial production: 
  growth rate 15.6% (year NA); accounts for 10% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
  35,000 kW
production: 
  70 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
  9 kWh (1990)
Industries: 
  rice milling, fishing, wood and wood products, rubber, cement, gem
  mining
Agriculture: 
  accounts for 50% of GDP; mainly subsistence farming except for rubber
  plantations; main crops - rice, rubber, corn; food shortages - rice,
  meat, vegetables, dairy products, sugar, flour
Illicit drugs: 
  secondary transshipment country for heroin produced in the Golden
  Triangle
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
  US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $725 million; Western
  (non-US countries) (1970-89), $300 million; Communist countries
  (1970-89), $1.8 billion; donor countries and multilateral institutions
  pledged $880 million in assistance in 1992
Currency: 
  1 new riel (CR) = 100 sen
Exchange rates: 
  riels (CR) per US$1 - 2,390 (December 1993), 2,800 (September 1992),
  500 (December 1991), 560 (1990), 159.00 (1988), 100.00 (1987)
Fiscal year: 
  calendar year

@Cambodia, Communications

Railroads: 
  612 km 1.000-meter gauge, government owned
Highways: 
total: 
  13,351 km (some roads in serious disrepair)
paved: 
  bituminous 2,622 km 
unpaved: 
  crushed stone, gravel, or improved earth 7,105 km; unimproved earth
  3,624 km 
Inland waterways: 
  3,700 km navigable all year to craft drawing 0.6 meters; 282 km
  navigable to craft drawing 1.8 meters
Ports: 
  Kampong Saom, Phnom Penh
Airports: 
total: 
  20 
usable: 
  13 
with permanent-surface runways: 
  6 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
  0 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
  2 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
  8 
Telecommunications: 
  service barely adequate for government requirements and virtually
  nonexistent for general public; international service limited to
  Vietnam and other adjacent countries; broadcast stations - 1 AM, no
  FM, 1 TV

@Cambodia, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Khmer Royal Armed Forces (KRAF): 
  created in 1993 by the merger of the Cambodian People's Armed Forces
  and the two non-Communist resistance armies; note - the KRAF is also
  known as the Royal Cambodian Armed Forces (RCAF)
Resistance forces: 
  National Army of Democratic Kampuchea (Khmer Rouge) 
Manpower availability: 
  males age 15-49 2,182,912; fit for military service 1,217,357; reach
  military age (18) annually 67,463 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
  $NA, NA% of GDP


@Cameroon, Geography

Location: 
  Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean between Equatorial
  Guinea and Nigeria
Map references: 
  Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
  475,440 sq km 
land area: 
  469,440 sq km 
comparative area: 
  slightly larger than California
Land boundaries: 
  total 4,591 km, Central African Republic 797 km, Chad 1,094 km, Congo
  523 km, Equatorial Guinea 189 km, Gabon 298 km, Nigeria 1,690 km 
Coastline: 
  402 km 
Maritime claims: 
territorial sea: 
  50 nm
International disputes: 
  demarcation of international boundaries in Lake Chad, the lack of
  which has led to border incidents in the past, is completed and
  awaiting ratification by Cameroon, Chad, Niger, and Nigeria; boundary
  commission, created with Nigeria to discuss unresolved land and
  maritime boundaries in the vicinity of the Bakasi Peninsula, has not
  yet convened, but a commission was formed in January 1994 to study a
  flare-up of the dispute
Climate: 
  varies with terrain from tropical along coast to semiarid and hot in
  north
Terrain: 
  diverse, with coastal plain in southwest, dissected plateau in center,
  mountains in west, plains in north
Natural resources: 
  petroleum, bauxite, iron ore, timber, hydropower potential 
Land use: 
arable land: 
  13% 
permanent crops: 
  2% 
meadows and pastures: 
  18% 
forest and woodland: 
  54% 
other: 
  13% 
Irrigated land: 
  280 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
  water-borne diseases are prevalent; deforestation; overgrazing;
  desertification; poaching
natural hazards: 
  recent volcanic activity with release of poisonous gases
international agreements: 
  party to - Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection,
  Tropical Timber; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate
  Change, Nuclear Test Ban
Note: 
  sometimes referred to as the hinge of Africa

@Cameroon, People

Population: 
  13,132,191 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
  2.91% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
  40.53 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
  11.41 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
  77.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
  57.07 years 
male: 
  55.03 years 
female: 
  59.17 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
  5.84 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
  Cameroonian(s) 
adjective: 
  Cameroonian 
Ethnic divisions: 
  Cameroon Highlanders 31%, Equatorial Bantu 19%, Kirdi 11%, Fulani 10%,
  Northwestern Bantu 8%, Eastern Nigritic 7%, other African 13%,
  non-African less than 1%
Religions: 
  indigenous beliefs 51%, Christian 33%, Muslim 16% 
Languages: 
  24 major African language groups, English (official), French
  (official)
Literacy: 
  age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population: 
  55% 
male: 
  66% 
female: 
  45% 
Labor force: 
  NA
by occupation: 
  agriculture 74.4%, industry and transport 11.4%, other services 14.2%
  (1983)
note: 
  50% of population of working age (15-64 years) (1985)

@Cameroon, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
  Republic of Cameroon 
conventional short form: 
  Cameroon 
former: 
  French Cameroon 
Digraph: 
  CM
Type: 
  unitary republic; multiparty presidential regime (opposition parties
  legalized 1990)
Capital: 
  Yaounde 
Administrative divisions: 
  10 provinces; Adamaoua, Centre, Est, Extreme-Nord, Littoral, Nord,
  Nord-Ouest, Ouest, Sud, Sud-Ouest
Independence: 
  1 January 1960 (from UN trusteeship under French administration)
National holiday: 
  National Day, 20 May (1972) 
Constitution: 
  20 May 1972
Legal system: 
  based on French civil law system, with common law influence; has not
  accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 
  20 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
  President Paul BIYA (since 6 November 1982); election last held 11
  October 1992; results - President Paul BIYA reelected with about 40%
  of the vote amid widespread allegations of fraud; SDF candidate John
  FRU NDI got 36% of the vote; UNDP candidate Bello Bouba MAIGARI got
  19% of the vote
head of government: 
  Prime Minister Simon ACHIDI ACHU (since 9 April 1992) 
cabinet: 
  Cabinet; appointed by the president
Legislative branch: 
  unicameral
National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale): 
  elections last held 1 March 1992 (next scheduled for March 1997);
  results - (180 seats) CPDM 88, UNDP 68, UPC 18, MDR 6
Judicial branch: 
  Supreme Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
  Cameroon People's Democratic Movement (CPDM), Paul BIYA, president, is
  government-controlled and was formerly the only party, but opposition
  parties were legalized in 1990
major opposition parties: 
  National Union for Democracy and Progress (UNDP); Social Democratic
  Front (SDF); Cameroonian Democratic Union (UDC); Union of Cameroonian
  Populations (UPC)
Other political or pressure groups: 
  NA
Member of: 
  ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CCC, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-19, G-77, GATT,
  IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO,
  INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, OIC, PCA,
  UDEAC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNTAC, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador Jerome MENDOUGA 
chancery: 
  2349 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
  (202) 265-8790 through 8794 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador Harriet ISOM 
embassy: 
  Rue Nachtigal, Yaounde 
mailing address: 
  B. P. 817, Yaounde 
telephone: 
  [237] 23-40-14 and 23-05-12 
FAX: 
  [237] 23-07-53 
consulate(s): 
  none  (Douala closed July 1993) 
Flag: 
  three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), red, and yellow with
  a yellow five-pointed star centered in the red band; uses the popular
  pan-African colors of Ethiopia

@Cameroon, Economy

Overview: 
  Because of its offshore oil resources and favorable agricultural
  conditions, Cameroon has one of the best-endowed, most diversified
  primary commodity economies in sub-Saharan Africa. Still, it faces
  many of the serious problems facing other underdeveloped countries,
  such as political instability, a top-heavy civil service, and a
  generally unfavorable climate for business enterprise. The development
  of the oil sector led rapid economic growth between 1970 and 1985.
  Growth came to an abrupt halt in 1986, precipitated by steep declines
  in the prices of major exports: coffee, cocoa, and petroleum. Export
  earnings were cut by almost one-third, and inefficiencies in fiscal
  management were exposed. In 1990-93, with support from the IMF and
  World Bank, the government began to introduce reforms designed to spur
  business investment, increase efficiency in agriculture, and
  recapitalize the nation's banks. Political instability following
  suspect elections in 1992 brought IMF/WB structural adjustment to a
  halt. Although the 50% devaluation of the currency in January 1994
  improves the potential for export growth, mismanagement remains and is
  the main barrier to economic improvement.
National product: 
  GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $19.1 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
  NA
National product per capita: 
  $1,500 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
  3% (1990 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
  25% (1990 est.)
Budget: 
revenues: 
  $1.7 billion 
expenditures: 
  $2.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $422 million (FY90
  est.)
Exports: 
  $1.8 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities: 
  petroleum products 51%, coffee, beans, cocoa, aluminum products,
  timber
partners: 
  EC (particularly France) about 50%, US, African countries
Imports: 
  $1.2 billion (c.i.f., 1991)
commodities: 
  machines and electrical equipment, food, consumer goods, transport
  equipment
partners: 
  EC about 60% (France 41%, Germany 9%), African countries, Japan, US 4%
External debt: 
  $6 billion (1991)
Industrial production: 
  growth rate 6.4% (FY87); accounts for 30% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
  755,000 kW
production: 
  2.19 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
  190 kWh (1991)
Industries: 
  petroleum production and refining, food processing, light consumer
  goods, textiles, sawmills
Agriculture: 
  the agriculture and forestry sectors provide employment for the
  majority of the population, contributing nearly 25% to GDP and
  providing a high degree of self-sufficiency in staple foods;
  commercial and food crops include coffee, cocoa, timber, cotton,
  rubber, bananas, oilseed, grains, livestock, root starches
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
  US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-90), $479 million; Western
  (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-90), $4.75
  billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $29 million; Communist
  countries (1970-89), $125 million 
Currency: 
  1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates: 
  Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 592.05
  (January 1994), 283.16 (1993), 264.69 (1992), 282.11 (1991), 272.26
  (1990), 319.01 (1989)
note: 
  beginning 12 January 1994, the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF 100 per
  French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since 1948
Fiscal year: 
  1 July - 30 June

@Cameroon, Communications

Railroads: 
  1,003 km total; 858 km 1.000-meter gauge, 145 km 0.600-meter gauge
Highways: 
total: 
  65,000 km 
paved: 
  2,682 km 
unpaved: 
  gravel, improved earth 32,318 km; unimproved earth 30,000 km 
Inland waterways: 
  2,090 km; of decreasing importance
Ports: 
  Douala
Merchant marine: 
  2 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 24,122 GRT/33,509 DWT
Airports: 
total: 
  61 
usable: 
  49 
with permanent-surface runways: 
  11 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
  0 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
  6 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
  21 
Telecommunications: 
  good system of open wire, cable, troposcatter, and microwave radio
  relay; 26,000 telephones, 2 telephones per 1,000 persons, available
  only to business and government; broadcast stations - 11 AM, 11 FM, 1
  TV; 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations

@Cameroon, Defense Forces

Branches: 
  Army, Navy (including Naval Infantry), Air Force, National
  Gendarmerie, Presidential Guard 
Manpower availability: 
  males age 15-49 2,939,761; fit for military service 1,481,750; reach
  military age (18) annually 137,020 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
  exchange rate conversion - $219 million, less than 2% of GDP (1990
  est.)


@Canada, Geography

Location: 
  Northern North America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean and North
  Pacific Ocean north of the US
Map references: 
  Arctic Region, North America, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
  9,976,140 sq km 
land area: 
  9,220,970 sq km 
comparative area: 
  slightly larger than US
Land boundaries: 
  total 8,893 km, US 8,893 km (includes 2,477 km with Alaska)
Coastline: 
  243,791 km 
Maritime claims: 
continental shelf: 
  200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive fishing zone: 
  200 nm
territorial sea: 
  12 nm
International disputes: 
  maritime boundary disputes with the US; Saint Pierre and Miquelon is
  focus of maritime boundary dispute between Canada and France
Climate: 
  varies from temperate in south to subarctic and arctic in north
Terrain: 
  mostly plains with mountains in west and lowlands in southeast
Natural resources: 
  nickel, zinc, copper, gold, lead, molybdenum, potash, silver, fish,
  timber, wildlife, coal, petroleum, natural gas 
Land use: 
arable land: 
  5% 
permanent crops: 
  0% 
meadows and pastures: 
  3% 
forest and woodland: 
  35% 
other: 
  57% 
Irrigated land: 
  8,400 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
  acid rain severely affecting lakes and damaging forests; metal
  smelting, coal-burning utilities, and vehicle emissions impacting on
  agricultural and forest productivity; ocean waters becoming
  contaminated due to agricultural, industrial, mining, and forestry
  activities
natural hazards: 
  continuous permafrost in north is a serious obstacle to development
international agreements: 
  party to - Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
  Pollution-Sulphur, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change,
  Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes,
  Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
  Pollution, Tropical Timber, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Air
  Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental
  Protocol, Law of the Sea
Note: 
  second-largest country in world (after Russia); strategic location
  between Russia and US via north polar route; nearly 90% of the
  population is concentrated in the region near the US/Canada border

@Canada, People

Population: 
  28,113,997 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
  1.18% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
  14.1 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
  7.39 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
  5.11 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
  6.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
  78.13 years 
male: 
  74.73 years 
female: 
  81.71 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
  1.84 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
  Canadian(s) 
adjective: 
  Canadian 
Ethnic divisions: 
  British Isles origin 40%, French origin 27%, other European 20%,
  indigenous Indian and Eskimo 1.5% 
Religions: 
  Roman Catholic 46%, United Church 16%, Anglican 10%, other 28% 
Languages: 
  English (official), French (official)
Literacy: 
  age 15 and over can read and write (1986)
total population: 
  97% 
male: 
  NA%
female: 
  NA%
Labor force: 
  13.38 million 
by occupation: 
  services 75%, manufacturing 14%, agriculture 4%, construction 3%,
  other 4% (1988)

@Canada, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
  none 
conventional short form: 
  Canada 
Digraph: 
  CA
Type: 
  confederation with parliamentary democracy 
Capital: 
  Ottawa 
Administrative divisions: 
  10 provinces and 2 territories*; Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba,
  New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Northwest Territories*, Nova Scotia,
  Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Saskatchewan, Yukon Territory*
Independence: 
  1 July 1867 (from UK)
National holiday: 
  Canada Day, 1 July (1867) 
Constitution: 
  amended British North America Act 1867 patriated to Canada 17 April
  1982; charter of rights and unwritten customs
Legal system: 
  based on English common law, except in Quebec, where civil law system
  based on French law prevails; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction,
  with reservations
Suffrage: 
  18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
  Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor
  General Raymond John HNATYSHYN (since 29 January 1990) 
head of government: 
  Prime Minister Jean CHRETIEN (since 4 November 1993) was elected on 25
  October 1993, replacing Kim CAMBELL; Deputy Prime Minister Sheila
  COPPS 
cabinet: 
  Federal Ministry; chosen by the prime minister from members of his own
  party sitting in Parliament
Legislative branch: 
  bicameral Parliament (Parlement)
Senate (Senat): 
  consisting of a body whose members are appointed to serve until 75
  years of age by the governor general and selected on the advice of the
  prime minister; its normal limit 104 senators
House of Commons (Chambre des Communes): 
  elections last held 25 October 1993 (next to be held by NA October
  1998); results - number of votes by percent NA; seats - (295 total)
  Liberal Party 178, Bloc Quebecois 54, Reform Party 52, New Democratic
  Party 8, Progressive Conservative Party 2, independents 1
Judicial branch: 
  Supreme Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
  Liberal Party, Jean CHRETIEN; Bloc Quebecois, Lucien BOUCHARD; Reform
  Party, Preston MANNING; New Democratic Party, Audrey McLAUGHLIN;
  Progressive Conservative Party, Jean CHAREST
Member of: 
  ACCT, AfDB, AG (observer), APEC, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, C, CCC,
  CDB (non-regional), COCOM, CSCE, EBRD, ECE, ECLAC, ESA (cooperating
  state), FAO, G-7, G-8, G-10, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU,
  IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC,
  IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS, MINURSO, MTCR, NACC, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA,
  NSG, OAS, OECD, ONUSAL, PCA, UN, UNAVEM II, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO,
  UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNOMOZ, UNOMUR, UNPROFOR, UNTAC, UNTSO,
  UPU, WCL, WHO, WMO, WIPO, WTO, ZC 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador Raymond CHRETIEN 
chancery: 
  501 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20001 
telephone: 
  (202) 682-1740 
FAX: 
  (202) 682-7726 
consulate(s) general: 
  Atlanta, Boston, Buffalo, Chicago, Dallas, Detroit, Los Angeles,
  Minneapolis, New York, Philadelphia, and Seattle 
consulate(s): 
  Cincinnati, Cleveland, Miami, Pittsburg, Princeton, San Diego, San
  Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico) 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador James Johnston BLANCHARD 
embassy: 
  100 Wellington Street, K1P 5T1, Ottawa 
mailing address: 
  P. O. Box 5000, Ogdensburg, NY 13669-0430 
telephone: 
  (613) 238-5335 or 4470 
FAX: 
  (613) 238-5720 
consulate(s) general: 
  Calgary, Halifax, Montreal, Quebec, Toronto, and Vancouver 
Flag: 
  three vertical bands of red (hoist side), white (double width,
  square), and red with a red maple leaf centered in the white band

@Canada, Economy

Overview: 
  As an affluent, high-tech industrial society, Canada today closely
  resembles the US in per capita output, market-oriented economic
  system, and pattern of production. Since World War II the impressive
  growth of the manufacturing, mining, and service sectors has
  transformed the nation from a largely rural economy into one primarily
  industrial and urban. In the 1980s, Canada registered one of the
  highest rates of real growth among the OECD nations, averaging about
  3.2%. With its great natural resources, skilled labor force, and
  modern capital plant, Canada has excellent economic prospects,
  although the country still faces high unemployment and a growing debt.
  Moreover, the continuing constitutional impasse between English- and
  French-speaking areas has observers discussing a possible split in the
  confederation; foreign investors have become edgy.
National product: 
  GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $617.7 billion (1993)
National product real growth rate: 
  2.4% (1993)
National product per capita: 
  $22,200 (1993)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
  1.9% (1993)
Unemployment rate: 
  11% (December 1993)
Budget: 
revenues: 
  $92.34 billion (Federal)
expenditures: 
  $123.04 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY93 est.)
Exports: 
  $133.9 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: 
  newsprint, wood pulp, timber, crude petroleum, machinery, natural gas,
  aluminum, motor vehicles and parts; telecommunications equipment
partners: 
  US, Japan, UK, Germany, South Korea, Netherlands, China
Imports: 
  $125.3 billion (c.i.f., 1993)
commodities: 
  crude oil, chemicals, motor vehicles and parts, durable consumer
  goods, electronic computers; telecommunications equipment and parts
partners: 
  US, Japan, UK, Germany, France, Mexico, Taiwan, South Korea
External debt: 
  $435 billion (1993)
Industrial production: 
  growth rate 3.5% (1993)
Electricity: 
capacity: 
  109,340,000 kW
production: 
  493 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
  17,900 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
  processed and unprocessed minerals, food products, wood and paper
  products, transportation equipment, chemicals, fish products,
  petroleum and natural gas
Agriculture: 
  accounts for about 3% of GDP; one of the world's major producers and
  exporters of grain (wheat and barley); key source of US agricultural
  imports; large forest resources cover 35% of total land area;
  commercial fisheries provide annual catch of 1.5 million metric tons,
  of which 75% is exported
Illicit drugs: 
  illicit producer of cannabis for the domestic drug market; use of
  hydroponics technology permits growers to plant large quantities of
  high-quality marijuana indoors; growing role as a transit point for
  heroin and cocaine entering the US market
Economic aid: 
donor: 
  ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $7.2 billion 
Currency: 
  1 Canadian dollar (Can$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates: 
  Canadian dollars (Can$) per US$1 - 1.3174 (January 1994), 1.2901
  (1993), 1.2087 (1992), 1.1457 (1991), 1.1668 (1990), 1.1840 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
  1 April - 31 March

@Canada, Communications

Railroads: 
  146,444 km total; two major transcontinental freight railway systems -
  Canadian National (government owned) and Canadian Pacific Railway;
  passenger service - VIA (government operated); 158 km is electrified
Highways: 
total: 
  884,272 km 
paved: 
  250,023 km 
unpaved: 
  gravel 462,913 km; earth 171,336 km 
Inland waterways: 
  3,000 km, including Saint Lawrence Seaway
Pipelines: 
  crude and refined oil 23,564 km; natural gas 74,980 km 
Ports: 
  Halifax, Montreal, Quebec, Saint John (New Brunswick), Saint John's
  (Newfoundland), Toronto, Vancouver
Merchant marine: 
  59 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 448,357 GRT/639,319 DWT, bulk 9,
  cargo 8, chemical tanker 4, container 1, oil tanker 22, passenger 1,
  passenger-cargo 1, railcar carrier 2, roll-on/roll-off cargo 6,
  short-sea passenger 3, specialized tanker 2 
note: 
  does not include ships used exclusively in the Great Lakes
Airports: 
total: 
  1,356 
usable: 
  1,107 
with permanent-surface runways: 
  458 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
  4 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
  29 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
  326 
Telecommunications: 
  excellent service provided by modern media; 18.0 million telephones;
  broadcast stations - 900 AM, 29 FM, 53 (1,400 repeaters) TV; 5 coaxial
  submarine cables; over 300 earth stations operating in INTELSAT
  (including 4 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean) and domestic systems

@Canada, Defense Forces

Branches: 
  Canadian Armed Forces (including Land Forces Command, Maritime
  Command, Air Command, Communications Command, Training Command), Royal
  Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) 
Manpower availability: 
  males age 15-49 7,508,590; fit for military service 6,482,267; reach
  military age (17) annually 191,850 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
  exchange rate conversion - $10.3 billion, 1.9% of GDP (FY93/94)


@Cape Verde, Geography

Location: 
  Western Africa, in the southeastern North Atlantic Ocean, 500 km west
  of Senegal in Western Africa
Map references: 
  Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
  4,030 sq km 
land area: 
  4,030 sq km 
comparative area: 
  slightly larger than Rhode Island
Land boundaries: 
  0 km  
Coastline: 
  965 km 
Maritime claims: 
  measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
exclusive economic zone: 
  200 nm
territorial sea: 
  12 nm
International disputes: 
  none
Climate: 
  temperate; warm, dry, summer; precipitation very erratic
Terrain: 
  steep, rugged, rocky, volcanic
Natural resources: 
  salt, basalt rock, pozzolana, limestone, kaolin, fish 
Land use: 
arable land: 
  9% 
permanent crops: 
  0% 
meadows and pastures: 
  6% 
forest and woodland: 
  0% 
other: 
  85% 
Irrigated land: 
  20 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
  deforestation; overgrazing; desertification
natural hazards: 
  subject to prolonged droughts; harmattan wind can obscure visibility;
  volcanically and seismically active
international agreements: 
  party to - Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping,
  Nuclear Test Ban; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate
  Change
Note: 
  strategic location 500 km from west coast of Africa near major
  north-south sea routes; important communications station; important
  sea and air refueling site

@Cape Verde, People

Population: 
  423,120 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
  3.01% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
  46.23 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
  9.04 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
  -7.09 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
  57.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
  62.59 years 
male: 
  60.7 years 
female: 
  64.58 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
  6.32 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
  Cape Verdean(s) 
adjective: 
  Cape Verdean 
Ethnic divisions: 
  Creole (mulatto) 71%, African 28%, European 1% 
Religions: 
  Roman Catholicism fused with indigenous beliefs 
Languages: 
  Portuguese, Crioulo, a blend of Portuguese and West African words
Literacy: 
  age 15 and over can read and write (1989)
total population: 
  66% 
male: 
  NA%
female: 
  NA%
Labor force: 
  102,000 (1985 est.)
by occupation: 
  agriculture (mostly subsistence) 57%, services 29%, industry 14%
  (1981)
note: 
  51% of population of working age (1985)

@Cape Verde, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
  Republic of Cape Verde 
conventional short form: 
  Cape Verde 
local long form: 
  Republica de Cabo Verde 
local short form: 
  Cabo Verde 
Digraph: 
  CV
Type: 
  republic 
Capital: 
  Praia 
Administrative divisions: 
  14 districts (concelhos, singular - concelho); Boa Vista, Brava, Fogo,
  Maio, Paul, Praia, Porto Novo, Ribeira Grande, Sal, Santa Catarina,
  Santa Cruz, Sao Nicolau, Sao Vicente, Tarrafal
Independence: 
  5 July 1975 (from Portugal)
National holiday: 
  Independence Day, 5 July (1975) 
Constitution: 
  new constitution came into force 25 September 1992
Legal system: 
  NA
Suffrage: 
  18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
  President Antonio MASCARENHAS Monteiro (since 22 March 1991) election
  last held 17 February 1991 (next to be held February 1996); results -
  Antonio Monteiro MASCARENHAS (independent) received 72.6% of vote
head of government: 
  Prime Minister Carlos Alberto Wahnon de Carvalho VEIGA (since 13
  January 1991); 
cabinet: 
  Council of Ministers; appointed by prime minister from members of the
  Assembly
Legislative branch: 
  unicameral
People's National Assembly (Assembleia Nacional Popular): 
  elections last held 13 January 1991 (next to be held January 1996);
  results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (79 total) MPD 56,
  PAICV 23; note - this multiparty Assembly election ended 15 years of
  single-party rule
Judicial branch: 
  Supreme Tribunal of Justice (Supremo Tribunal de Justia) 
Political parties and leaders: 
  Movement for Democracy (MPD), Prime Minister Carlos VEIGA, founder and
  chairman; African Party for Independence of Cape Verde (PAICV), Pedro
  Verona Rodrigues PIRES, chairman
Member of: 
  ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD,
  IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOM (observer), ITU, LORCS,
  NAM, OAU, UN (Cape Verde assumed a nonpermanent seat on the Security
  Council on 1 January 1992), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOMOZ, UPU, WCL,
  WHO, WMO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador Carlos Alberto Santos SILVA 
chancery: 
  3415 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007 
telephone: 
  (202) 965-6820 
FAX: 
  (202) 965-1207 
consulate(s) general: 
  Boston 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador Joseph M. SEGARS 
embassy: 
  Rua Hoji Ya Henda 81, Praia 
mailing address: 
  C. P. 201, Praia 
telephone: 
  [238] 61-56-16 or 61-56-17 
FAX: 
  [238] 61-13-55 
Flag: 
  three horozontal bands of light blue (top, double width), white (with
  a horozontal red stripe in the middle third), and light blue; a circle
  of 10 yellow five pointed stars is centered on the hoist end of the
  red stripe and extends into the upper and lower blue bands

@Cape Verde, Economy

Overview: 
  Cape Verde's low per capita GDP reflects a poor natural resource base,
  a serious, long-term drought, and a high birthrate. The economy is
  service oriented, with commerce, transport, and public services
  accounting for 60% of GDP. Although nearly 70% of the population lives
  in rural areas, agriculture's share of GDP is only 20%; the fishing
  sector accounts for 4%. About 90% of food must be imported. The
  fishing potential, mostly lobster and tuna, is not fully exploited. In
  1988 fishing represented only 3.5% of GDP. Cape Verde annually runs a
  high trade deficit, financed by remittances from emigrants and foreign
  aid. Economic reforms launched by the new democratic government in
  February 1991 are aimed at developing the private sector and
  attracting foreign investment to diversify the economy.
National product: 
  GDP - exchange rate conversion - $415 million (1991 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
  3.3% (1991 est.)
National product per capita: 
  $1,070 (1991)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
  8.7% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
  25% (1988)
Budget: 
revenues: 
  $104 million 
expenditures: 
  $133 million, including capital expenditures of $72 million (1991
  est.)
Exports: 
  $6 million (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities: 
  fish, bananas, hides and skins
partners: 
  Portugal 40%, Algeria 31%, Angola, Netherlands (1990 est.)
Imports: 
  $145 million (c.i.f., 1990)
commodities: 
  foodstuffs, consumer goods, industrial products, transport equipment
partners: 
  Sweden 33%, Spain 11%, Germany 5%, Portugal 3%, France 3%,
  Netherlands, US (1990 est.)
External debt: 
  $156 million (1991)
Industrial production: 
  growth rate 18% (1988 est.); accounts for 7% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
  15,000 kW
production: 
  15 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
  40 kWh (1991)
Industries: 
  fish processing, salt mining, clothing factories, ship repair,
  construction materials, food and beverage production
Agriculture: 
  accounts for 20% of GDP (including fishing); largely subsistence
  farming; bananas are the only export crop; other crops - corn, beans,
  sweet potatoes, coffee; growth potential of agricultural sector
  limited by poor soils and scanty rainfall; annual food imports
  required; fish catch provides for both domestic consumption and small
  exports
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
  US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY75-90), $93 million; Western
  (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-90), $586
  million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $12 million; Communist
  countries (1970-89), $36 million 
Currency: 
  1 Cape Verdean escudo (CVEsc) = 100 centavos
Exchange rates: 
  Cape Verdean escudos (CVEsc) per US$1 - 85.992 (December 1993), 80.574
  (1993), 68.018 (1992), 71.408 (1991), 70.031 (1990), 77.978 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
  calendar year

@Cape Verde, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
  NA 
paved: 
  NA 
unpaved: 
  NA 
Ports: 
  Mindelo, Praia
Merchant marine: 
  7 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 11,717 GRT/19,000 DWT
Airports: 
total: 
  6 
usable: 
  6 
with permanent-surface runways: 
  6 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
  0 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
  1 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
  2 
Telecommunications: 
  interisland microwave radio relay system, high-frequency radio to
  Senegal and Guinea-Bissau; over 1,700 telephones; broadcast stations -
  1 AM, 6 FM, 1 TV; 2 coaxial submarine cables; 1 Atlantic Ocean
  INTELSAT earth station

@Cape Verde, Defense Forces

Branches: 
  People's Revolutionary Armed Forces (FARP) (including Army and Navy),
  Security Service 
Manpower availability: 
  males age 15-49 78,153; fit for military service 45,804 
Defense expenditures: 
  $NA, NA% of GDP


@Cayman Islands

Header
Affiliation: 
  (dependent territory of the UK) 

@Cayman Islands, Geography

Location: 
  Caribbean, in the northwestern Caribbean Sea, nearly halfway between
  Cuba and Honduras
Map references: 
  Central America and the Caribbean 
Area: 
total area: 
  260 sq km 
land area: 
  260 sq km 
comparative area: 
  slightly less than 1.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries: 
  0 km  
Coastline: 
  160 km 
Maritime claims: 
exclusive fishing zone: 
  200 nm
territorial sea: 
  3 nm
International disputes: 
  none
Climate: 
  tropical marine; warm, rainy summers (May to October) and cool,
  relatively dry winters (November to April)
Terrain: 
  low-lying limestone base surrounded by coral reefs
Natural resources: 
  fish, climate and beaches that foster tourism 
Land use: 
arable land: 
  0% 
permanent crops: 
  0% 
meadows and pastures: 
  8% 
forest and woodland: 
  23% 
other: 
  69% 
Irrigated land: 
  NA sq km
Environment: 
current issues: 
  NA 
natural hazards: 
  subject to hurricanes
international agreements: 
  NA 
Note: 
  important location between Cuba and Central America

@Cayman Islands, People

Population: 
  31,790 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
  4.33% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
  15.06 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
  4.98 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
  33.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
  8.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
  77.1 years 
male: 
  75.37 years 
female: 
  78.81 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
  1.46 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
  Caymanian(s) 
adjective: 
  Caymanian 
Ethnic divisions: 
  mixed 40%, white 20%, black 20%, expatriates of various ethnic groups
  20% 
Religions: 
  United Church (Presbyterian and Congregational), Anglican, Baptist,
  Roman Catholic, Church of God, other Protestant denominations 
Languages: 
  English 
Literacy: 
  age 15 and over having ever attended school (1970)
total population: 
  98% 
male: 
  98% 
female: 
  98% 
Labor force: 
  8,061 
by occupation: 
  service workers 18.7%, clerical 18.6%, construction 12.5%, finance and
  investment 6.7%, directors and business managers 5.9% (1979)

@Cayman Islands, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
  none 
conventional short form: 
  Cayman Islands 
Digraph: 
  CJ
Type: 
  dependent territory of the UK 
Capital: 
  George Town 
Administrative divisions: 
  8 districts; Creek, Eastern, Midland, South Town, Spot Bay, Stake Bay,
  West End, Western
Independence: 
  none (dependent territory of the UK)
National holiday: 
  Constitution Day (first Monday in July) 
Constitution: 
  1959, revised 1972 and 1992
Legal system: 
  British common law and local statutes
Suffrage: 
  18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
  Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952) 
head of government: 
  Governor and President of the Executive Council Michael GORE (since 15
  September 1992) 
cabinet: 
  Executive Council; 3 members are appointed by the governor, 4 members
  elected by the Legislative Assembly
Legislative branch: 
  unicameral
Legislative Assembly: 
  election last held November 1992 (next to be held November 1996);
  results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (15 total, 12 elected)
Judicial branch: 
  Grand Court, Cayman Islands Court of Appeal 
Political parties and leaders: 
  no formal political parties
Member of: 
  CARICOM (observer), CDB, INTERPOL (subbureau), IOC 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
  none (dependent territory of the UK)
US diplomatic representation: 
  none (dependent territory of the UK)
Flag: 
  blue, with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the
  Caymanian coat of arms on a white disk centered on the outer half of
  the flag; the coat of arms includes a pineapple and turtle above a
  shield with three stars (representing the three islands) and a scroll
  at the bottom bearing the motto HE HATH FOUNDED IT UPON THE SEAS

@Cayman Islands, Economy

Overview: 
  The economy depends heavily on tourism (70% of GDP and 75% of foreign
  currency earnings) and offshore financial services, with the tourist
  industry aimed at the luxury market and catering mainly to visitors
  from North America. About 90% of the islands' food and consumer goods
  needs must be imported. The Caymanians enjoy one of the highest
  standards of living in the region.
National product: 
  GDP - exchange rate conversion - $670 million (1991 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
  4.4% (1991)
National product per capita: 
  $23,000 (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
  1.5% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
  7% (1992)
Budget: 
revenues: 
  $141.5 million 
expenditures: 
  $160.7 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1991)
Exports: 
  $2.6 million (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
commodities: 
  turtle products, manufactured consumer goods
partners: 
  mostly US
Imports: 
  $262.2 million (c.i.f., 1991 est.)
commodities: 
  foodstuffs, manufactured goods
partners: 
  US, Trinidad and Tobago, UK, Netherlands Antilles, Japan
External debt: 
  $15 million (1986)
Industrial production: 
  growth rate NA%
Electricity: 
capacity: 
  74,000 kW
production: 
  256 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
  8,780 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
  tourism, banking, insurance and finance, construction, building
  materials, furniture making
Agriculture: 
  minor production of vegetables, fruit, livestock; turtle farming
Illicit drugs: 
  a major money-laundering center for illicit drug profits;
  transshipment point for cocaine and marijuana bound for the US and
  Europe
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
  US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $26.7 million; Western
  (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89),  $35
  million 
Currency: 
  1 Caymanian dollar (CI$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates: 
  Caymanian dollars (CI$) per US$1 - 0.85 (22 November 1993)
Fiscal year: 
  1 April - 31 March

@Cayman Islands, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
  160 km (main roads)
paved: 
  NA 
unpaved: 
  NA 
Ports: 
  George Town, Cayman Brac
Merchant marine: 
  30 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 368,037 GRT/581,060 DWT, bulk 9,
  cargo 8, chemical tanker 2, oil tanker 3, passenger-cargo 1,
  roll-on/roll-off cargo 7 
note: 
  a flag of convenience registry
Airports: 
total: 
  3 
usable: 
  3 
with permanent-surface runways: 
  2 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
  0 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
  0 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
  2 
Telecommunications: 
  35,000 telephones; telephone system uses 1 submarine coaxial cable and
  1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station to link islands and access
  international services; broadcast stations - 2 AM, 1 FM, no TV

@Cayman Islands, Defense Forces

Branches: 
  Royal Cayman Islands Police Force (RCIPF) 
Note: 
  defense is the responsibility of the UK


@Central African Republic, Geography

Location: 
  Central Africa, between Chad and Zaire
Map references: 
  Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
  622,980 sq km 
land area: 
  622,980 sq km 
comparative area: 
  slightly smaller than Texas
Land boundaries: 
  total 5,203 km, Cameroon 797 km, Chad 1,197 km, Congo 467 km, Sudan
  1,165 km, Zaire 1,577 km 
Coastline: 
  0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: 
  none; landlocked
International disputes: 
  none
Climate: 
  tropical; hot, dry winters; mild to hot, wet summers
Terrain: 
  vast, flat to rolling, monotonous plateau; scattered hills in
  northeast and southwest
Natural resources: 
  diamonds, uranium, timber, gold, oil 
Land use: 
arable land: 
  3% 
permanent crops: 
  0% 
meadows and pastures: 
  5% 
forest and woodland: 
  64% 
other: 
  28% 
Irrigated land: 
  NA sq km
Environment: 
current issues: 
  poaching has diminished reputation as one of last great wildlife
  refuges; desertification
natural hazards: 
  hot, dry, dusty harmattan winds affect northern areas
international agreements: 
  party to - Endangered Species, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
  Protection; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
  Law of the Sea
Note: 
  landlocked; almost the precise center of Africa
Population: 
  3,142,182 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
  2.16% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
  42.3 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
  20.69 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
  137.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
  42.54 years 
male: 
  41.07 years 
female: 
  44.06 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
  5.42 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
  Central African(s) 
adjective: 
  Central African 
Ethnic divisions: 
  Baya 34%, Banda 27%, Sara 10%, Mandjia 21%, Mboum 4%, M'Baka 4%,
  Europeans 6,500 (including 3,600 French)
Religions: 
  indigenous beliefs 24%, Protestant 25%, Roman Catholic 25%, Muslim
  15%, other 11% 
note: 
  animistic beliefs and practices strongly influence the Christian
  majority
Languages: 
  French (official), Sangho (lingua franca and national language),
  Arabic, Hunsa, Swahili 
Literacy: 
  age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
  27% 
male: 
  33% 
female: 
  15% 
Labor force: 
  775,413 (1986 est.)
by occupation: 
  agriculture 85%, commerce and services 9%, industry 3%, government 3%
note: 
  about 64,000 salaried workers; 55% of population of working age (1985)

@Central African Republic, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
  Central African Republic 
conventional short form: 
  none 
local long form: 
  Republique Centrafricaine 
local short form: 
  none 
former: 
  Central African Empire 
Abbreviation: 
  CAR 
Digraph: 
  CT
Type: 
  republic; one-party presidential regime since 1986
Capital: 
  Bangui 
Administrative divisions: 
  14 prefectures (prefectures, singular - prefecture), 2 economic
  prefectures* (prefectures economiques, singular - prefecture
  economique), and 1 commune**; Bamingui-Bangoran, Bangui** Basse-Kotto,
  Gribingui*, Haute-Kotto, Haute-Sangha, Haut-Mbomou, Kemo-Gribingui,
  Lobaye, Mbomou, Nana-Mambere, Ombella-Mpoko, Ouaka, Ouham,
  Ouham-Pende, Sangha*, Vakaga
Independence: 
  13 August 1960 (from France)
National holiday: 
  National Day, 1 December (1958) (proclamation of the republic)
Constitution: 
  21 November 1986
Legal system: 
  based on French law
Suffrage: 
  21 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
  President Felix (Ange) PATASSE (since 22 October 1993) election last
  held 19 September 1993; PATASSE received 52.45% of the votes and Abel
  GOUMBA received 45.62%; next election schelduled for 1998
head of government: 
  Prime Minister Dr. Jean-Luc MANDABA (since 25 October 1993) 
cabinet: 
  Council of Ministers; appointed by the president
Legislative branch: 
  unicameral
National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale): 
  elections last held 19 September 1993; results - percentage vote by
  party NA; seats - (85 total) MLPC 33, RDC 14, PLD 7, ADP 6, PSD 3,
  others 22
note: 
  the National Assembly is advised by the Economic and Regional Council
  (Conseil Economique et Regional); when they sit together they are
  called the Congress (Congres)
Judicial branch: 
  Supreme Court (Cour Supreme) 
Political parties and leaders: 
  Movement for the Liberation of the Central African People (MLPC), the
  party of the new president, Ange Felix PATASSE; Central African
  Democratic Party (RDC), Laurent GOMINA-PAMPALI; Council of Moderates
  Coalition includes; Union of the People for Economic and Social
  Development (UPDS), Katossy SIMANI; Liberal Republican Party (PARELI),
  Augustin M'BOE; Central African Socialist Movement (MSCA), Michel
  BENGUE; Concerted Democratic Forces (CFD), a coalition of 13 parties,
  including; Alliance for Democracy and Progress (ADP), Francois PEHOUA;
  Central African Republican party (PRC), Ruth ROLLAND; Social
  Democratic Party (PSD), Enoch DERANT-LAKOUE; Civic Forum (FC), Gen.
  Timothee MALENDOMA; Liberal Democratic Party (PLD), Nestor
  KOMBOT-NAGUEMON; Movement for the Liberation of the Central African
  People (MLPC), Felix (Ange) PATASSE
Member of: 
  ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CCC, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, GATT, IBRD,
  ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS,
  NAM, OAU, UDEAC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador Henri KOBA 
chancery: 
  1618 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
  (202) 483-7800 or 7801 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador Robert E. GRIBBIN 
embassy: 
  Avenue David Dacko, Bangui 
mailing address: 
  B. P. 924, Bangui 
telephone: 
  [236] 61-02-00, 61-25-78, 61-43-33, 61-02-10 
FAX: 
  [236] 61-44-94 
Flag: 
  four equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, green, and yellow
  with a vertical red band in center; there is a yellow five-pointed
  star on the hoist side of the blue band

@Central African Republic, Economy

Overview: 
  Subsistence agriculture, including forestry, remains the backbone of
  the CAR economy, with more than 70% of the population living in the
  countryside. In 1990 the agricultural sector generated about 42% of
  GDP. Timber accounted for about 26% of export earnings and the diamond
  industry for 54%. Important constraints to economic development
  include the CAR's landlocked position, a poor transportation system,
  and a weak human resource base. Multilateral and bilateral development
  assistance, particularly from France, plays a major role in providing
  capital for new investment.
National product: 
  GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $2.5 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
  -3% (1990 est.)
National product per capita: 
  $800 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
  -3% (1990 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
  30% (1988 est.) in Bangui
Budget: 
revenues: 
  $175 million 
expenditures: 
  $312 million, including capital expenditures of $122 million (1991
  est.)
Exports: 
  $123.5 million (f.o.b.1992)
commodities: 
  diamonds, cotton, coffee, timber, tobacco
partners: 
  France, Belgium, Italy, Japan, US
Imports: 
  $165.1 million (f.o.b.1992)
commodities: 
  food, textiles, petroleum products, machinery, electrical equipment,
  motor vehicles, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, consumer goods, industrial
  products
partners: 
  France, other EC countries, Japan, Algeria
External debt: 
  $859 million (1991)
Industrial production: 
  growth rate 4% (1990 est.); accounts for 14% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
  40,000 kW
production: 
  95 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
  30 kWh (1991)
Industries: 
  diamond mining, sawmills, breweries, textiles, footwear, assembly of
  bicycles and motorcycles
Agriculture: 
  accounts for 42% of GDP; self-sufficient in food production except for
  grain; commercial crops - cotton, coffee, tobacco, timber; food crops
  - manioc, yams, millet, corn, bananas
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
  US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-90), $52 million; Western
  (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-90), $1.6
  billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $6 million; Communist countries
  (1970-89), $38 million 
Currency: 
  1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates: 
  Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 592.05
  (January 1994), 283.16 (1993), 264.69 (1992), 282.11 (1991), 272.26
  (1990), 319.01 (1989)
note: 
  beginning 12 January 1994, the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF 100 per
  French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since 1948
Fiscal year: 
  calendar year

@Central African Republic, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
  22,000 km 
paved: 
  bituminous 458 km 
unpaved: 
  improved earth 10,542 km; unimproved earth 11,000 km 
Inland waterways: 
  800 km; traditional trade carried on by means of shallow-draft
  dugouts; Oubangui is the most important river
Airports: 
total: 
  65 
usable: 
  51 
with permanent-surface runways: 
  3 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
  0 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
  2 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
  20 
Telecommunications: 
  fair system; network relies primarily on radio relay links, with
  low-capacity, low-powered radiocommunication also used; broadcast
  stations - 1 AM, 1 FM, 1 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

@Central African Republic, Defense Forces

Branches: 
  Central African Army (including Republican Guard), Air Force, National
  Gendarmerie, Police Force 
Manpower availability: 
  males age 15-49 701,728; fit for military service 367,264 
Defense expenditures: 
  exchange rate conversion - $23 million, 1.8% of GDP (1989 est.)


@Chad, Geography

Location: 
  Central Africa, between the Central African Republic and Libya
Map references: 
  Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
  1.284 million sq km 
land area: 
  1,259,200 sq km 
comparative area: 
  slightly more than three times the size of California
Land boundaries: 
  total 5,968 km, Cameroon 1,094 km, Central African Republic 1,197 km,
  Libya 1,055 km, Niger 1,175 km, Nigeria 87 km, Sudan 1,360 km 
Coastline: 
  0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: 
  none; landlocked
International disputes: 
  the International Court of Justice (ICJ) ruled in February 1994 that
  the 100,000 sq km Aozou Strip between Chad and Libya belongs to Chad,
  and that Libya must withdraw from it by 31 May 1994; Libya had
  withdrawn its forces in response to the ICJ ruling, but as of June
  1994 still maintained an airfield in the disputed area; demarcation of
  international boundaries in Lake Chad, the lack of which has led to
  border incidents in the past, is completed and awaiting ratification
  by Cameroon, Chad, Niger, and Nigeria
Climate: 
  tropical in south, desert in north
Terrain: 
  broad, arid plains in center, desert in north, mountains in northwest,
  lowlands in south
Natural resources: 
  petroleum (unexploited but exploration under way), uranium, natron,
  kaolin, fish (Lake Chad) 
Land use: 
arable land: 
  2% 
permanent crops: 
  0% 
meadows and pastures: 
  36% 
forest and woodland: 
  11% 
other: 
  51% 
Irrigated land: 
  100 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
  desertification
natural hazards: 
  hot, dry, dusty harmattan winds occur in north; periodic droughts;
  subject to locust plagues
international agreements: 
  party to - Endangered Species, Nuclear Test Ban, Wetlands; signed, but
  not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of the Sea, Marine
  Dumping
Note: 
  landlocked; Lake Chad is the most significant water body in the Sahel

@Chad, People

Population: 
  5,466,771 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
  2.15% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
  42.12 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
  20.59 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
  131.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
  40.79 years 
male: 
  39.7 years 
female: 
  41.94 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
  5.33 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
  Chadian(s) 
adjective: 
  Chadian 
Ethnic divisions: 
north and center: 
  Muslims (Arabs, Toubou, Hadjerai, Fulbe, Kotoko, Kanembou, Baguirmi,
  Boulala, Zaghawa, and Maba)
south: 
  non-Muslims (Sara, Ngambaye, Mbaye, Goulaye, Moundang, Moussei, Massa)
  nonindigenous 150,000, of whom 1,000 are French
Religions: 
  Muslim 50%, Christian 25%, indigenous beliefs, animism 25% 
Languages: 
  French (official), Arabic (official), Sara (in south), Sango (in
  south), more than 100 different languages and dialects are spoken
Literacy: 
  age 15 and over can read and write French or Arabic (1990 est.)
total population: 
  30% 
male: 
  42% 
female: 
  18% 
Labor force: 
  NA
by occupation: 
  agriculture 85% (engaged in unpaid subsistence farming, herding, and
  fishing)

@Chad, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
  Republic of Chad 
conventional short form: 
  Chad 
local long form: 
  Republique du Tchad 
local short form: 
  Tchad 
Digraph: 
  CD
Type: 
  republic 
Capital: 
  N'Djamena 
Administrative divisions: 
  14 prefectures (prefectures, singular - prefecture); Batha, Biltine,
  Borkou-Ennedi-Tibesti, Chari-Baguirmi, Guera, Kanem, Lac, Logone
  Occidental, Logone Oriental, Mayo-Kebbi, Moyen-Chari, Ouaddai,
  Salamat, Tandjile
Independence: 
  11 August 1960 (from France)
National holiday: 
  Independence Day 11 August (1960) 
Constitution: 
  22 December 1989, suspended 3 December 1990; Provisional National
  Charter 1 March 1991; constitutional commission drafting new
  constitution to submit to transitional parliament for ratification in
  April 1994
Legal system: 
  based on French civil law system and Chadian customary law; has not
  accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 
  universal at age NA
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
  President Col. Idriss DEBY, since 4 December 1990 (after seizing power
  on 3 December 1990 - transitional government's mandate expires April
  1995)
head of government: 
  Prime Minister Kassire Delwa KOUMAKOYE (since 17 November 1993)
cabinet: 
  Council of State; appointed by the president on recommendation of the
  prime minister
Legislative branch: 
  unicameral
National Consultative Council (Conceil National
Consultatif): 
  elections last held 8 July 1990; disbanded 3 December 1990 and
  replaced by the Provisional Council of the Republic having 30 members
  appointed by President DEBY on 8 March 1991; this, in turn, was
  replaced by a 57-member Higher Transitional Council (Conseil Superieur
  de Transition) elected by a specially convened Sovereign National
  Conference on 6 April 1993
Judicial branch: 
  Court of Appeal 
Political parties and leaders: 
  Patriotic Salvation Movement (MPS; former dissident group), Idriss
  DEBY, chairman
note: 
  President DEBY, who promised political pluralism, a new constitution,
  and free elections by April 1994, has postponed these initiatives for
  another year; there are numerous dissident groups and 26 opposition
  political parties
Other political or pressure groups: 
  NA
Member of: 
  ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO,
  ICFTU, IDA, IDB, IFAD, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS,
  NAM, OAU, OIC, UDEAC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO,
  WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
  (vacant); Ambassador KOUMBARIA Laoumaye Mekonyo died on 16 May 1994 
chancery: 
  2002 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20009 
telephone: 
  (202) 462-4009 
FAX: 
  (202) 265-1937 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador Lawrence POPE 
embassy: 
  Avenue Felix Eboue, N'Djamena 
mailing address: 
  B. P. 413, N'Djamena 
telephone: 
  [235] (51) 62-18, 40-09, or 62-11 
FAX: 
  [235] (51) 33-72 
Flag: 
  three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red;
  similar to the flag of Romania; also similar to the flag of Andorra,
  which has a national coat of arms featuring a quartered shield
  centered in the yellow band; design was based on the flag of France
Overview: 
  Climate, geographic remoteness, poor resource endowment, and lack of
  infrastructure make Chad one of the most underdeveloped countries in
  the world. Its economy is hobbled by political turmoil, conflict with
  Libya, drought, and food shortages. Consequently the economy has shown
  little progress in recent years in overcoming a severe setback brought
  on by civil war in the late 1980s. Over 80% of the work force is
  involved in subsistence farming and fishing. Cotton is the major cash
  crop, accounting for at least half of exports. Chad is highly
  dependent on foreign aid, especially food credits, given chronic
  shortages in several regions. The government hopes that discovery of
  several oil deposits near Lake Chad will lead to economic revival and
  a windfall in government revenues by 2000.
National product: 
  GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $2.7 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
  8.4% (1991 est.)
National product per capita: 
  $500 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
  2%-3% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
  NA%
Budget: 
revenues: 
  $115 million 
expenditures: 
  $412 million, including capital expenditures of $218 million (1991
  est.)
Exports: 
  $193.9 million (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities: 
  cotton 48%, cattle 35%, textiles 5%, fish
partners: 
  France, Nigeria, Cameroon
Imports: 
  $294.1 million (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities: 
  machinery and transportation equipment 39%, industrial goods 20%,
  petroleum products 13%, foodstuffs 9%; note - excludes military
  equipment
partners: 
  US, France, Nigeria, Cameroon
External debt: 
  $492 million (December 1990 est.)
Industrial production: 
  growth rate 12.9% (1989 est.); accounts for nearly 15% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
  40,000 kW
production: 
  70 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
  15 kWh (1991)
Industries: 
  cotton textile mills, slaughterhouses, brewery, natron (sodium
  carbonate), soap, cigarettes
Agriculture: 
  accounts for about 45% of GDP; largely subsistence farming; cotton
  most important cash crop; food crops include sorghum, millet, peanuts,
  rice, potatoes, manioc; livestock - cattle, sheep, goats, camels;
  self-sufficient in food in years of adequate rainfall
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
  US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $198 million; Western
  (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $1.5
  billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $28 million; Communist
  countries (1970-89), $80 million 
Currency: 
  1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates: 
  Communaute Financiere Africaine Francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 592.05
  (January 1994), 283.16 (1993), 264.69 (1992), 282.11 (1991), 272.26
  (1990), 319.01 (1989)
note: 
  beginning 12 January 1994 the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF 100 per
  French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since 1948
Fiscal year: 
  calendar year

@Chad, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
  31,322 km 
paved: 
  bituminous 32 km 
unpaved: 
  gravel, crushed stone 7,300 km; earth 23,990 km 
Inland waterways: 
  2,000 km navigable
Airports: 
total: 
  68 
usable: 
  58 
with permanent-surface runways: 
  5 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
  1 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
  3 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
  27 
Telecommunications: 
  fair system of radiocommunication stations for intercity links;
  broadcast stations - 6 AM, 1 FM, limited TV service; many facilities
  are inoperative; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

@Chad, Defense Forces

Branches: 
  Army (includes Ground Forces, Air Force, and Gendarmerie), Republican
  Guard 
Manpower availability: 
  males age 15-49 1,276,167; fit for military service 663,326; reach
  military age (20) annually 54,027 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
  exchange rate conversion - $58 million, 5.6% of GDP (1989)


@Chile, Geography

Location: 
  Southern South America, bordering the South Pacific Ocean between
  Argentina and Peru
Map references: 
  South America, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
  756,950 sq km 
land area: 
  748,800 sq km 
comparative area: 
  slightly smaller than twice the size of Montana
note: 
  includes Isla de Pascua (Easter Island) and Isla Sala y Gomez
Land boundaries: 
  total 6,171 km, Argentina 5,150 km, Bolivia 861 km, Peru 160 km 
Coastline: 
  6,435 km 
Maritime claims: 
contiguous zone: 
  24 nm
continental shelf: 
  200 nm
exclusive economic zone: 
  200 nm
territorial sea: 
  12 nm
International disputes: 
  short section of the southern boundary with Argentina is indefinite;
  Bolivia has wanted a sovereign corridor to the South Pacific Ocean
  since the Atacama area was lost to Chile in 1884; dispute with Bolivia
  over Rio Lauca water rights; territorial claim in Antarctica (Chilean
  Antarctic Territory) partially overlaps Argentine and British claims
Climate: 
  temperate; desert in north; cool and damp in south
Terrain: 
  low coastal mountains; fertile central valley; rugged Andes in east
Natural resources: 
  copper, timber, iron ore, nitrates, precious metals, molybdenum 
Land use: 
arable land: 
  7% 
permanent crops: 
  0% 
meadows and pastures: 
  16% 
forest and woodland: 
  21% 
other: 
  56% 
Irrigated land: 
  12,650 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
  air pollution from industrial and vehicle emissions; water pollution
  from untreated sewage; deforestation contributing to loss of
  biodiversity; soil erosion; desertification
natural hazards: 
  subject to severe earthquakes; active volcanism; tsunamis
international agreements: 
  party to - Antarctic Treaty, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes,
  Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands,
  Whaling; signed, but not ratified - Antarctic-Environmental Protocol,
  Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of the Sea
Note: 
  strategic location relative to sea lanes between Atlantic and Pacific
  Oceans (Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel, Drake Passage); Atacama
  Desert one of world's driest regions

@Chile, People

Population: 
  13,950,557 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
  1.51% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
  20.59 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
  5.49 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
  15.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
  74.51 years 
male: 
  71.52 years 
female: 
  77.65 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
  2.5 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
  Chilean(s) 
adjective: 
  Chilean 
Ethnic divisions: 
  European and European-Indian 95%, Indian 3%, other 2% 
Religions: 
  Roman Catholic 89%, Protestant 11%, Jewish 
Languages: 
  Spanish 
Literacy: 
  age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
  93% 
male: 
  94% 
female: 
  93% 
Labor force: 
  4.728 million 
by occupation: 
  services 38.3% (includes government 12%), industry and commerce 33.8%,
  agriculture, forestry, and fishing 19.2%, mining 2.3%, construction
  6.4% (1990)

@Chile, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
  Republic of Chile 
conventional short form: 
  Chile 
local long form: 
  Republica de Chile 
local short form: 
  Chile 
Digraph: 
  CI
Type: 
  republic 
Capital: 
  Santiago 
Administrative divisions: 
  13 regions (regiones, singular - region); Aisen del General Carlos
  Ibanez del Campo, Antofagasta, Araucania, Atacama, Bio-Bio, Coquimbo,
  Libertador General Bernardo O'Higgins, Los Lagos, Magallanes y de la
  Antartica Chilena, Maule, Region Metropolitana, Tarapaca, Valparaiso
note: 
  the US does not recognize claims to Antarctica
Independence: 
  18 September 1810 (from Spain)
National holiday: 
  Independence Day, 18 September (1810) 
Constitution: 
  11 September 1980, effective 11 March 1981; amended 30 July 1989
Legal system: 
  based on Code of 1857 derived from Spanish law and subsequent codes
  influenced by French and Austrian law; judicial review of legislative
  acts in the Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
  jurisdiction
Suffrage: 
  18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Executive branch: 
chief of state and head of government: 
  President Eduardo FREI Ruiz-Tagle (since 11 March 1994) election last
  held 11 December 1993 (next to be held December 1999); results -
  Eduardo FREI Ruiz-Tagle (PDC) 58%, Arturo ALESSANDRI 24.4%, other
  17.6%
cabinet: 
  Cabinet; appointed by the president
Legislative branch: 
  bicameral National Congress (Congreso Nacional)
Senate (Senado): 
  election last held 11 December 1993 (next to be held December 1997);
  results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (46 total, 38 elected)
  Concertation of Parties for Democracy 21 (PDC 13, PS 4, PPD 3, PR 1),
  Union for the Progress of Chile 15 (RN 11, UDI 3, UCC 1), right-wing
  independents 10
Chamber of Deputies (Camara de Diputados): 
  election last held 11 December 1993 (next to be held December 1997);
  results - Concertation of Parties for Democracy 53.95% (PDC 27.16%, PS
  12.01%, PPD 11.82%, PR 2.96%,); Union for the Progress of Chile 30.57%
  (RN 15.25%, UDI 12.13%, UCC 3.19%); seats - (120 total) Concertation
  of Parties for Democracy 70 (PDC 37, PPD 15, PR 2, PS 15, left-wing
  independent 1), Union for the Progress of Chile 47 (RN 30, UDI 15, UCC
  2), right-wing independents 3
Judicial branch: 
  Supreme Court (Corte Suprema) 
Political parties and leaders: 
  Concertation of Parties for Democracy consists mainly of four parties:
  Christian Democratic Party (PDC), Gutenberg MARTINEZ; Socialist Party
  (PS), Camilo ESCALONA; Party for Democracy (PPD), Victor Manuel
  REBOLLEDO; Radical Party (PR), Carlos GONZALEZ Marquez; Union for the
  Progress of Chile consists mainly of three parties: National Renewal
  (RN), Andres ALLAMAND; Independent Democratic Union (UDI), Jovino
  NOVOA; Center Center Union (UCC), Francisco Javier ERRAZURIZ
Other political or pressure groups: 
  revitalized university student federations at all major universities;
  labor - United Labor Central (CUT) includes trade unionists from the
  country's five largest labor confederations; Roman Catholic Church
Member of: 
  CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA,
  IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO,
  ITU, LAES, LAIA, LORCS, NAM, OAS, ONUSAL, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD,
  UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMOGIP, UNTAC, UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
  WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador John BIEHL del Rio 
chancery: 
  1732 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036 
telephone: 
  (202) 785-1746 
FAX: 
  (202) 887-5579 
consulate(s) general: 
  Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Philadelphia, San Francisco,
  and San Juan (Puerto Rico) 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador Curtis W. KAMMAN 
embassy: 
  Codina Building, 1343 Agustinas, Santiago 
mailing address: 
  Unit 4127, Santiago; APO AA 34033 
telephone: 
  [56] (2) 671-0133 
FAX: 
  [56] (2) 699-1141 
Flag: 
  two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red; there is a blue
  square the same height as the white band at the hoist-side end of the
  white band; the square bears a white five-pointed star in the center;
  design was based on the US flag

@Chile, Economy

Overview: 
  Chile has a prosperous, essentially free market economy, with the
  degree of government intervention varying according to the philosophy
  of the different regimes. Under the center-left government of
  President AYLWIN, which took power in March 1990, spending on social
  welfare has risen steadily. At the same time business investment,
  exports and consumer spending have also grown substantially. The new
  president, FREI, who takes office in March 1994, is expected to
  emphasize social spending even more. Growth in 1991-93 has averaged 8%
  annually, with an estimated one million Chileans having moved out of
  poverty in the last four years. Copper remains vital to the health of
  the economy; Chile is the world's largest producer and exporter of
  copper.
National product: 
  GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $96 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
  5.8% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
  $7,000 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
  12.3% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
  5.1% (1993 est.)
Budget: 
revenues: 
  $10.9 billion 
expenditures: 
  $10.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $1.2 billion (1993)
Exports: 
  $10 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities: 
  copper 41%, other metals and minerals 8.7%, wood products 7.1%, fish
  and fishmeal 9.8%, fruits 8.4% (1991)
partners: 
  EC 29%, Japan 17%, US 16%, Argentina 5%, Brazil 5% (1992)
Imports: 
  $9.2 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities: 
  capital goods 25.2%, spare parts 24.8%, raw materials 15.4%, petroleum
  10%, foodstuffs 5.7%
partners: 
  EC 24%, US 21%, Brazil 10%, Japan 10% (1992)
External debt: 
  $19.7 billion (1993 est.)
Industrial production: 
  growth rate 9.3% (1992 est.); accounts for 34% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
  5,769,000 kW
production: 
  22.01 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
  1,630 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
  copper, other minerals, foodstuffs, fish processing, iron and steel,
  wood and wood products, transport equipment, cement, textiles
Agriculture: 
  accounts for about 7% of GDP (including fishing and forestry); major
  exporter of fruit, fish, and timber products; major crops - wheat,
  corn, grapes, beans, sugar beets, potatoes, deciduous fruit; livestock
  products - beef, poultry, wool; self-sufficient in most foods; 1991
  fish catch of 6.6 million metric tons; net agricultural importer
Illicit drugs: 
  a minor transshipment country for cocaine destined for the US and
  Europe
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
  US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $521 million; Western
  (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $1.6
  billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $386 million 
Currency: 
  1 Chilean peso (Ch$) = 100 centavos
Exchange rates: 
  Chilean pesos (Ch$) per US$1 - 430.57 (January 1994), 404.35 (1993),
  362.59 (1992), 349.37 (1991), 305.06 (1990), 267.16 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
  calendar year

@Chile, Communications

Railroads: 
  7,766 km total; 3,974 km 1.676-meter gauge, 150 km 1.435-meter
  standard gauge, 3,642 km 1.000-meter gauge; 1,865 km 1.676-meter gauge
  and 80 km 1.000-meter gauge electrified
Highways: 
total: 
  79,993 km 
paved: 
  10,984 km 
unpaved: 
  gravel or earth 68,615 km (1990)
Inland waterways: 
  725 km
Pipelines: 
  crude oil 755 km; petroleum products 785 km; natural gas 320 km 
Ports: 
  Antofagasta, Iquique, Puerto Montt, Punta Arenas, Valparaiso, San
  Antonio, Talcahuano, Arica
Merchant marine: 
  31 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 449,253 GRT/755,821 DWT, bulk
  10, cargo 7, chemical tanker 3, combination ore/oil 3, liquefied gas
  tanker 3, oil tanker 2, roll-on/roll-off cargo 3 
note: 
  in addition, 1 naval tanker and 1 military transport are sometimes
  used commercially
Airports: 
total: 
  392 
usable: 
  349 
with permanent-surface runways: 
  47 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
  0 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
  13 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
  58 
Telecommunications: 
  modern telephone system based on extensive microwave radio relay
  facilities; 768,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 159 AM, no FM,
  131 TV, 11 shortwave; satellite ground stations - 2 Atlantic Ocean
  INTELSAT and 3 domestic

@Chile, Defense Forces

Branches: 
  Army of the Nation, National Navy (including Naval Air, Coast Guard,
  and Marines), Air Force of the Nation, Carabineros of Chile (National
  Police), Investigative Police 
Manpower availability: 
  males age 15-49 3,705,321; fit for military service 2,759,130; reach
  military age (19) annually 120,512 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
  exchange rate conversion - $1 billion, 3.4% of GDP (1991 est.)


@China

Header
Affiliation: 
  (also see separate Taiwan entry) 

@China, Geography

Location: 
  Eastern Asia, between India and Mongolia
Map references: 
  Asia, Southeast Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
  9,596,960 sq km 
land area: 
  9,326,410 sq km 
comparative area: 
  slightly larger than the US
Land boundaries: 
  total 22,143.34 km, Afghanistan 76 km, Bhutan 470 km, Burma 2,185 km,
  Hong Kong 30 km, India 3,380 km, Kazakhstan 1,533 km, North Korea
  1,416 km, Kyrgyzstan 858 km, Laos 423 km, Macau 0.34 km, Mongolia
  4,673 km, Nepal 1,236 km, Pakistan 523 km, Russia (northeast) 3,605
  km, Russia (northwest) 40 km, Tajikistan 414 km, Vietnam 1,281 km 
Coastline: 
  14,500 km 
Maritime claims: 
continental shelf: 
  claim to shallow areas of East China Sea and Yellow Sea
territorial sea: 
  12 nm
International disputes: 
  boundary with India; bilateral negotiations are under way to resolve
  disputed sections of the boundary with Russia; boundary with
  Tajikistan in dispute; a short section of the boundary with North
  Korea is indefinite; involved in a complex dispute over the Spratly
  Islands with Malaysia, Philippines, Taiwan, Vietnam, and possibly
  Brunei; maritime boundary dispute with Vietnam in the Gulf of Tonkin;
  Paracel Islands occupied by China, but claimed by Vietnam and Taiwan;
  claims Japanese-administered Senkaku-shoto (Senkaku Islands/Diaoyu
  Tai), as does Taiwan
Climate: 
  extremely diverse; tropical in south to subarctic in north
Terrain: 
  mostly mountains, high plateaus, deserts in west; plains, deltas, and
  hills in east
Natural resources: 
  coal, iron ore, petroleum, mercury, tin, tungsten, antimony,
  manganese, molybdenum, vanadium, magnetite, aluminum, lead, zinc,
  uranium, hydropower potential (world's largest) 
Land use: 
arable land: 
  10% 
permanent crops: 
  0% 
meadows and pastures: 
  31% 
forest and woodland: 
  14% 
other: 
  45% 
Irrigated land: 
  478,220 sq km (1991 - Chinese statistic)
Environment: 
current issues: 
  air pollution from the overwhelming use of coal as a fuel, produces
  acid rain which is damaging forests; water pollution from industrial
  effluents; many people do not have access to safe drinking water; less
  than 10% of sewage receives treatment; deforestation; estimated loss
  of one-third of agricultural land since 1957 to soil erosion and
  economic development; desertification
natural hazards: 
  frequent typhoons (about five per year along southern and eastern
  coasts); damaging floods; tsunamis; earthquakes
international agreements: 
  party to - Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered
  Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone
  Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber, Whaling; signed,
  but not ratified - Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Law of the Sea
Note: 
  world's third-largest country (after Russia and Canada)

@China, People

Population: 
  1,190,431,106 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
  1.08% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
  18.1 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
  7.35 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
  52.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
  67.91 years 
male: 
  66.93 years 
female: 
  68.99 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
  1.84 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
  Chinese (singular and plural) 
adjective: 
  Chinese 
Ethnic divisions: 
  Han Chinese 91.9%, Zhuang, Uygur, Hui, Yi, Tibetan, Miao, Manchu,
  Mongol, Buyi, Korean, and other nationalities 8.1% 
Religions: 
  Daoism (Taoism), Buddhism, Muslim 2%-3%, Christian 1% (est.)
note: 
  officially atheist, but traditionally pragmatic and eclectic
Languages: 
  Standard Chinese or Mandarin (Putonghua, based on the Beijing
  dialect), Yue (Cantonese), Wu (Shanghainese), Minbei (Fuzhou), Minnan
  (Hokkien-Taiwanese), Xiang, Gan, Hakka dialects, minority languages
  (see Ethnic divisions entry)
Literacy: 
  age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population: 
  78% 
male: 
  87% 
female: 
  68% 
Labor force: 
  567.4 million 
by occupation: 
  agriculture and forestry 60%, industry and commerce 25%, construction
  and mining 5%, social services 5%, other 5% (1990 est.)

@China, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
  People's Republic of China 
conventional short form: 
  China 
local long form: 
  Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo 
local short form: 
  Zhong Guo 
Abbreviation: 
  PRC 
Digraph: 
  CH
Type: 
  Communist state 
Capital: 
  Beijing 
Administrative divisions: 
  23 provinces (sheng, singular and plural), 5 autonomous regions*
  (zizhiqu, singular and plural), and 3 municipalities** (shi, singular
  and plural); Anhui, Beijing Shi**, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi*,
  Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu,
  Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol*, Ningxia*, Qinghai, Shaanxi,
  Shandong, Shanghai Shi**, Shanxi, Sichuan, Tianjin Shi**, Xinjiang*,
  Xizang* (Tibet), Yunnan, Zhejiang
note: 
  China considers Taiwan its 23rd province
Independence: 
  221 BC (unification under the Qin or Ch'in Dynasty 221 BC; Qing or
  Ch'ing Dynasty replaced by the Republic on 12 February 1912; People's
  Republic established 1 October 1949)
National holiday: 
  National Day, 1 October (1949) 
Constitution: 
  most recent promulgated 4 December 1982
Legal system: 
  a complex amalgam of custom and statute, largely criminal law;
  rudimentary civil code in effect since 1 January 1987; new legal codes
  in effect since 1 January 1980; continuing efforts are being made to
  improve civil, administrative, criminal, and commercial law
Suffrage: 
  18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
  President JIANG Zemin (since 27 March 1993); Vice President RONG Yiren
  (since 27 March 1993); election last held 27 March 1993 (next to be
  held NA 1998); results - JIANG Zemin was nominally elected by the
  Eighth National People's Congress
chief of state and head of government (de facto): 
  DENG Xiaoping (since NA 1977) 
head of government: 
  Premier LI Peng (Acting Premier since 24 November 1987, Premier since
  9 April 1988)  Vice Premier ZHU Rongji (since 8 April 1991); Vice
  Premier ZOU Jiahua (since 8 April 1991); Vice Premier QIAN Qichen
  (since 29 March 1993); Vice Premier LI Lanqing (29 March 1993) 
cabinet: 
  State Council; containing 28 ministers and 8 state commissions and
  appointed by the National People's Congress (March 1993)
Legislative branch: 
  unicameral
National People's Congress: 
  (Quanguo Renmin Daibiao Dahui) elections last held March 1993 (next
  to be held March 1998); results - CCP is the only party but there are
  also independents; seats - (2,977 total) (elected at county or xian
  level)
Judicial branch: 
  Supreme People's Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
  Chinese Communist Party (CCP), JIANG Zemin, general secretary of the
  Central Committee (since 24 June 1989); eight registered small parties
  controlled by CCP
Other political or pressure groups: 
  such meaningful opposition as exists consists of loose coalitions,
  usually within the party and government organization, that vary by
  issue
Member of: 
  AfDB, APEC, AsDB, CCC, ESCAP, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD,
  IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU,
  LORCS, MINURSO, NAM (observer), PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO,
  UNIKOM, UN Security Council, UNTAC, UNTSO, UN Trusteeship Council,
  UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador LI Daoyu 
chancery: 
  2300 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
  (202) 328-2500 through 2502 
consulate(s) general: 
  Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, and San Francisco 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador J. Stapleton ROY 
embassy: 
  Xiu Shui Bei Jie 3, Beijing 
mailing address: 
  100600, PSC 461, Box 50, Beijing or FPO AP 96521-0002 
telephone: 
  [86] (1) 532-3831 
FAX: 
  [86] (1) 532-3178 
consulate(s) general: 
  Chengdu, Guangzhou, Shanghai, Shenyang 
Flag: 
  red with a large yellow five-pointed star and four smaller yellow
  five-pointed stars (arranged in a vertical arc toward the middle of
  the flag) in the upper hoist-side corner

@China, Economy

Overview: 
  Beginning in late 1978 the Chinese leadership has been trying to move
  the economy from the sluggish Soviet-style centrally planned economy
  to a more productive and flexible economy with market elements, but
  still within the framework of monolithic Communist control. To this
  end the authorities switched to a system of household responsibility
  in agriculture in place of the old collectivization, increased the
  authority of local officials and plant managers in industry, permitted
  a wide variety of small-scale enterprise in services and light
  manufacturing, and opened the economy to increased foreign trade and
  investment. The result has been a strong surge in production,
  particularly in agriculture in the early 1980s. Industry also has
  posted major gains, especially in coastal areas near Hong Kong and
  opposite Taiwan, where foreign investment and modern production
  methods have helped spur production of both domestic and export goods.
  Aggregate output has more than doubled since 1978. On the darker side,
  the leadership has often experienced in its hybrid system the worst
  results of socialism (bureaucracy, lassitude, corruption) and of
  capitalism (windfall gains and stepped-up inflation). Beijing thus has
  periodically backtracked, retightening central controls at intervals.
  In 1992-93 annual growth of GDP has accelerated, particularly in the
  coastal areas - to more than 10% annually according to official
  claims. In late 1993 China's leadership approved additional reforms
  aimed at giving more play to market-oriented institutions and at
  strengthening the center's control over the financial system. Popular
  resistance, changes in central policy, and loss of authority by rural
  cadres have weakened China's population control program, which is
  essential to the nation's long-term economic viability.
National product: 
  GDP - purchasing power equivalent -  $2.61 trillion (1993 estimate
  based on a 1990 figure from the UN International Comparison Program,
  as extended to 1991 and published in the World Bank's World
  Development Report 1993; and as extrapolated by use of official
  Chinese growth statistics for 1992 and 1993)
National product real growth rate: 
  13.4% (1993)
National product per capita: 
  $2,200 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
  17.6% (December 1993 over December 1992)
Unemployment rate: 
  2.3% in urban areas (1992); substantial underemployment
Budget: 
  deficit $15.6 billion (1993)
Exports: 
  $92 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: 
  textiles, garments, footwear, toys, crude oil
partners: 
  Hong Kong, US, Japan, Germany, South Korea, Russia (1993)
Imports: 
  $104 billion (c.i.f., 1993)
commodities: 
  rolled steel, motor vehicles, textile machinery, oil products
partners: 
  Japan, Taiwan, US, Hong Kong, Germany, South Korea (1993)
External debt: 
  $80 billion (1993 est.)
Industrial production: 
  growth rate 20.8% (1992)
Electricity: 
capacity: 
  158,690,000 kW
production: 
  740 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
  630 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
  iron and steel, coal, machine building, armaments, textiles,
  petroleum, cement, chemical fertilizers, consumer durables, food
  processing
Agriculture: 
  accounts for 26% of GNP; among the world's largest producers of rice,
  potatoes, sorghum, peanuts, tea, millet, barley, and pork; commercial
  crops include cotton, other fibers, and oilseeds; produces variety of
  livestock products; basically self-sufficient in food; fish catch of
  13.35 million metric tons (including fresh water and pond raised)
  (1991)
Illicit drugs: 
  illicit producer of opium; bulk of production is in Yunnan Province;
  transshipment point for heroin produced in the Golden Triangle
Economic aid: 
donor: 
  to less developed countries (1970-89) $7 billion 
recipient: 
  US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-87), $220.7 million;  Western
  (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $13.5
  billion 
Currency: 
  1 yuan (Y) = 10 jiao
Exchange rates: 
  yuan (Y) per US$1 - 8.7000 (January 1994), 5.7620 (1993), 5.5146
  (1992), 5.3234 (1991), 4.7832 (1990), 3.7651 (1989)
note: 
  beginning 1 January 1994, the People's Bank of China quotes the
  midpoint rate against the US dollar based on the previous day's
  prevailing rate in the interbank foreign exchange market
Fiscal year: 
  calendar year

@China, Communications

Railroads: 
  total about 64,000 km; 54,000 km of common carrier lines, of which
  53,400 km are 1.435-meter gauge (standard) and 600 km are 1.000-meter
  gauge (narrow); 11,200 km of standard gauge common carrier route are
  double tracked and 6,900 km are electrified (1990); an additional
  10,000 km of varying gauges (0.762 to 1.067-meter) are dedicated
  industrial lines
Highways: 
total: 
  1.029 million km 
paved: 
  170,000 km 
unpaved: 
  gravel/improved earth 648,000 km; unimproved earth 211,000 km (1990)
Inland waterways: 
  138,600 km; about 109,800 km navigable
Pipelines: 
  crude oil 9,700 km; petroleum products 1,100 km; natural gas 6,200 km
  (1990)
Ports: 
  Dalian, Guangzhou, Huangpu, Qingdao, Qinhuangdao, Shanghai, Xingang,
  Zhanjiang, Ningbo, Xiamen, Tanggu, Shantou
Merchant marine: 
  1,541 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 14,884,756 GRT/22,475,985
  DWT, barge carrier 1, bulk 285, cargo 819, chemical tanker 13,
  combination bulk 9, container 85, liquefied gas 4, multifunction/barge
  carrier 1, oil tanker 192, passenger 24, passenger-cargo 25,
  refrigerated cargo 17, roll-on/roll-off cargo 21, short-sea passenger
  43, vehicle carrier 2 
note: 
  China beneficially owns an additional 227 ships (1,000 GRT or over)
  totaling approximately 6,187,117 DWT that operate under Panamanian,
  British, Hong Kong, Maltese, Liberian, Vanuatu, Cypriot, Saint
  Vincent, Bahamian, and Romanian registry
Airports: 
total: 
  330 
usable: 
  330 
with permanent-surface runways: 
  260 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
  fewer than 10 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
  90 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
  200 
Telecommunications: 
  domestic and international services are increasingly available for
  private use; unevenly distributed internal system serves principal
  cities, industrial centers, and most townships; 11,000,000 telephones
  (December 1989); broadcast stations - 274 AM, unknown FM, 202 (2,050
  repeaters) TV; more than 215 million radio receivers; 75 million TVs;
  satellite earth stations - 4 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Indian Ocean
  INTELSAT, 1 INMARSAT, and 55 domestic

@China, Defense Forces

Branches: 
  People's Liberation Army (PLA), PLA Navy (including Marines), PLA Air
  Force, Second Artillery Corps (the strategic missle force), People's
  Armed Police (internal security troops, nominally subordinate to
  Ministry of Public Security, but included by the Chinese as part of
  the "armed forces" and considered to be an adjunct to the PLA in war
  time)
Manpower availability: 
  males age 15-49 347,458,052; fit for military service 192,546,413;
  reach military age (18) annually 10,256,181 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
  defense budget - 52.04 billion yuan, NA% of GDP (1994 est.); note -
  conversion of the defense budget into US dollars using the current
  exchange rate could produce misleading results


@Christmas Island

Header
Affiliation: 
  (territory of Australia) 

@Christmas Island, Geography

Location: 
  Southeastern Asia, in the Indian Ocean, between Australia and
  Indonesia
Map references: 
  Southeast Asia 
Area: 
total area: 
  135 sq km 
land area: 
  135 sq km 
comparative area: 
  about 0.8 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries: 
  0 km  
Coastline: 
  138.9 km 
Maritime claims: 
contiguous zone: 
  12 nm
exclusive fishing zone: 
  200 nm
territorial sea: 
  3 nm
International disputes: 
  none
Climate: 
  tropical; heat and humidity moderated by trade winds
Terrain: 
  steep cliffs along coast rise abruptly to central plateau
Natural resources: 
  phosphate 
Land use: 
arable land: 
  0% 
permanent crops: 
  0% 
meadows and pastures: 
  0% 
forest and woodland: 
  0% 
other: 
  100% 
Irrigated land: 
  NA sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
  NA 
natural hazards: 
  almost completely surrounded by a reef
international agreements: 
  NA 
Note: 
  located along major sea lanes of Indian Ocean

@Christmas Island, People

Population: 
  973 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
  -9% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
  NA
Death rate: 
  NA
Net migration rate: 
  NA
Infant mortality rate: 
  NA
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
  NA
male: 
  NA
female: 
  NA
Total fertility rate: 
  NA
Nationality: 
noun: 
  Christmas Islander(s) 
adjective: 
  Christmas Island 
Ethnic divisions: 
  Chinese 61%, Malay 25%, European 11%, other 3%, no indigenous
  population
Religions: 
  Buddhist 36.1%, Muslim 25.4%, Christian 17.7% (Roman Catholic 8.2%,
  Church of England 3.2%, Presbyterian 0.9%, Uniting Church 0.4%,
  Methodist 0.2%, Baptist 0.1%, and other 4.7%), none 12.7%, unknown
  4.6%, other 3.5% (1981)
Languages: 
  English 
Literacy: 
total population: 
  NA%
male: 
  NA%
female: 
  NA%
Labor force: 
  NA
by occupation: 
  all workers are employees of the Phosphate Mining Company of Christmas
  Island, Ltd.

@Christmas Island, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
  Territory of Christmas Island 
conventional short form: 
  Christmas Island 
Digraph: 
  KT
Type: 
  territory of Australia 
Capital: 
  The Settlement 
Administrative divisions: 
  none (territory of Australia)
Independence: 
  none (territory of Australia)
National holiday: 
  NA 
Constitution: 
  Christmas Island Act of 1958
Legal system: 
  under the authority of the governor general of Australia
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
  Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952) 
head of government: 
  Administrator M. J. GRIMES (since NA) 
cabinet: 
  Advisory Council  
Legislative branch: 
  none
Judicial branch: 
  none
Political parties and leaders: 
  none
Member of: 
  none 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
  none (territory of Australia)
US diplomatic representation: 
  none (territory of Australia)
Flag: 
  the flag of Australia is used

@Christmas Island, Economy

Overview: 
  Phosphate mining had been the only significant economic activity, but
  in December 1987 the Australian Government closed the mine as no
  longer economically viable. Plans have been under way to reopen the
  mine and also to build a casino and hotel to develop tourism.
National product: 
  GDP $NA
National product real growth rate: 
  NA%
National product per capita: 
  $NA
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
  NA%
Unemployment rate: 
  NA%
Budget: 
revenues: 
  $NA
expenditures: 
  $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports: 
  $NA
commodities: 
  phosphate
partners: 
  Australia, NZ
Imports: 
  $NA
commodities: 
  consumer goods
partners: 
  principally Australia
External debt: 
  $NA
Industrial production: 
  growth rate NA%
Electricity: 
capacity: 
  11,000 kW
production: 
  30 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
  17,800 kWh (1990)
Industries: 
  phosphate extraction (near depletion)
Agriculture: 
  NA
Economic aid: 
  none
Currency: 
  1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents
Exchange rates: 
  Australian dollars ($A) per US$1 - 1.4364 (January 1994), 1.4704,
  (1993), 1.3600 (1992), 1.2836 (1991), 1.2799 (1990), 1.2618 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
  1 July - 30 June

@Christmas Island, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
  NA 
paved: 
  NA 
unpaved: 
  NA 
Ports: 
  Flying Fish Cove
Airports: 
total: 
  1 
usable: 
  1 
with permanent-surface runways: 
  1 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
  0 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
  0 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
  1 
Telecommunications: 
  broadcast stations - 1 AM, 1 TV

@Christmas Island, Defense Forces

Note: 
  defense is the responsibility of Australia


@Clipperton Island

Header
Affiliation: 
  (possession of France) 

@Clipperton Island, Geography

Location: 
  Middle America, in the North Pacific Ocean, 1,120 km southwest of
  Mexico
Map references: 
  World 
Area: 
total area: 
  7 sq km 
land area: 
  7 sq km 
comparative area: 
  about 12 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC
Land boundaries: 
  0 km  
Coastline: 
  11.1 km 
Maritime claims: 
exclusive economic zone: 
  200 nm
territorial sea: 
  12 nm
International disputes: 
  claimed by Mexico
Climate: 
  tropical
Terrain: 
  coral atoll
Natural resources: 
  none 
Land use: 
arable land: 
  0% 
permanent crops: 
  0% 
meadows and pastures: 
  0% 
forest and woodland: 
  0% 
other: 
  100% (all coral)
Irrigated land: 
  0 sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
  NA 
natural hazards: 
  NA 
international agreements: 
  NA 
Note: 
  reef about 8 km in circumference

@Clipperton Island, People

Population: 
  uninhabited

@Clipperton Island, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
  none 
conventional short form: 
  Clipperton Island 
local long form: 
  none 
local short form: 
  Ile Clipperton 
former: 
  sometimes called Ile de la Passion 
Digraph: 
  IP
Type: 
  French possession administered by France from French Polynesia by High
  Commissioner of the Republic
Capital: 
  none; administered by France from French Polynesia
Independence: 
  none (possession of France)

@Clipperton Island, Economy

Overview: 
  The only economic activity is a tuna fishing station.

@Clipperton Island, Communications

Ports: 
  none; offshore anchorage only

@Clipperton Island, Defense Forces

Note: 
  defense is the responsibility of France


@Cocos (Keeling) Islands

Header
Affiliation: 
  (territory of Australia) 

@Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Geography

Location: 
  Southeastern Asia, in the Indian Ocean, 1,070 km southwest of
  Indonesia, about halfway between Australia and Sri Lanka
Map references: 
  Southeast Asia 
Area: 
total area: 
  14 sq km 
land area: 
  14 sq km 
comparative area: 
  about 24 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC
note: 
  includes the two main islands of West Island and Home Island
Land boundaries: 
  0 km  
Coastline: 
  2.6 km 
Maritime claims: 
exclusive fishing zone: 
  200 nm
territorial sea: 
  3 nm
International disputes: 
  none
Climate: 
  pleasant, modified by the southeast trade wind for about nine months
  of the year; moderate rain fall
Terrain: 
  flat, low-lying coral atolls
Natural resources: 
  fish 
Land use: 
arable land: 
  0% 
permanent crops: 
  0% 
meadows and pastures: 
  0% 
forest and woodland: 
  0% 
other: 
  100% 
Irrigated land: 
  NA sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
  NA 
natural hazards: 
  NA 
international agreements: 
  NA 
Note: 
  two coral atolls thickly covered with coconut palms and other
  vegetation

@Cocos (Keeling) Islands, People

Population: 
  598 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
  0.98% (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
  Cocos Islander(s) 
adjective: 
  Cocos Islander 
Ethnic divisions: 
West Island: 
  Europeans 
Home Island: 
  Cocos Malays 
Religions: 
  Sunni Muslims 
Languages: 
  English 
Literacy: 
total population: 
  NA%
male: 
  NA%
female: 
  NA%
Labor force: 
  NA

@Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
  Territory of Cocos (Keeling) Islands 
conventional short form: 
  Cocos (Keeling) Islands 
Digraph: 
  CK
Type: 
  territory of Australia 
Capital: 
  West Island 
Administrative divisions: 
  none (territory of Australia)
Independence: 
  none (territory of Australia)
National holiday: 
  NA 
Constitution: 
  Cocos (Keeling) Islands Act of 1955
Legal system: 
  based upon the laws of Australia and local laws
Suffrage: 
  NA
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
  Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952) 
head of government: 
  Administrator B. CUNNINGHAM (since NA) 
cabinet: 
  Islands Council; Chairman of the Islands Council Haji WAHIN bin Bynie
  (since NA)
Legislative branch: 
  unicameral Islands Council
Judicial branch: 
  Supreme Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
  NA
Member of: 
  none 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
  none (territory of Australia)
US diplomatic representation: 
  none (territory of Australia)
Flag: 
  the flag of Australia is used

@Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Economy

Overview: 
  Grown throughout the islands, coconuts are the sole cash crop. Copra
  and fresh coconuts are the major export earners. Small local gardens
  and fishing contribute to the food supply, but additional food and
  most other necessities must be imported from Australia.
National product: 
  GDP $NA
National product real growth rate: 
  NA%
National product per capita: 
  $NA
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
  NA%
Budget: 
revenues: 
  $NA
expenditures: 
  $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports: 
  $NA
commodities: 
  copra
partners: 
  Australia
Imports: 
  $NA
commodities: 
  foodstuffs
partners: 
  Australia
External debt: 
  $NA
Industrial production: 
  growth rate NA%
Electricity: 
capacity: 
  1,000 kW
production: 
  2 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
  2,980 kWh (1990)
Industries: 
  copra products
Agriculture: 
  gardens provide vegetables, bananas, pawpaws, coconuts
Economic aid: 
  none
Currency: 
  1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents
Exchange rates: 
  Australian dollars ($A) per US$1 - 1.4364 (January 1994), 1.4704
  (1993), 1.3600 (1992), 1.2836 (1991), 1.2799 (1990), 1.2618 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
  1 July - 30 June

@Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
  NA 
paved: 
  NA 
unpaved: 
  NA 
Ports: 
  none; lagoon anchorage only
Airports: 
total: 
  1 
usable: 
  1 
with permanent-surface runways: 
  1 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
  0 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
  0 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
  1 
Telecommunications: 
  250 radios (1985); linked by telephone, telex, and facsimile
  communications via satellite with Australia; broadcast stations - 1
  AM, no FM, no TV

@Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Defense Forces

Note: 
  defense is the responsibility of Australia



@Colombia, Geography

Location: 
  Northern South America, between Panama and Venezuela
Map references: 
  Central America and the Caribbean, South America, Standard Time Zones
  of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
  1,138,910 sq km 
land area: 
  1,038,700 sq km 
comparative area: 
  slightly less than three times the size of Montana
note: 
  includes Isla de Malpelo, Roncador Cay, Serrana Bank, and Serranilla
  Bank
Land boundaries: 
  total 7,408 km, Brazil 1,643 km, Ecuador 590 km, Panama 225 km, Peru
  2,900 km, Venezuela 2,050 km 
Coastline: 
  3,208 km (Caribbean Sea 1,760 km, North Pacific Ocean 1,448 km)
Maritime claims: 
continental shelf: 
  not specified
exclusive economic zone: 
  200 nm
territorial sea: 
  12 nm
International disputes: 
  maritime boundary dispute with Venezuela in the Gulf of Venezuela;
  territorial dispute with Nicaragua over Archipelago de San Andres y
  Providencia and Quita Sueno Bank
Climate: 
  tropical along coast and eastern plains; cooler in highlands
Terrain: 
  flat coastal lowlands, central highlands, high Andes Mountains,
  eastern lowland plains
Natural resources: 
  petroleum, natural gas, coal, iron ore, nickel, gold, copper, emeralds
Land use: 
arable land: 
  4% 
permanent crops: 
  2% 
meadows and pastures: 
  29% 
forest and woodland: 
  49% 
other: 
  16% 
Irrigated land: 
  5,150 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
  deforestation; soil damage from overuse of pesticides
natural hazards: 
  highlands subject to volcanic eruptions; periodic droughts
international agreements: 
  party to - Antarctic Treaty, Endangered Species, Marine Life
  Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
  Pollution, Tropical Timber; signed, but not ratified -
  Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Biodiversity, Climate Change,
  Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping
Note: 
  only South American country with coastlines on both North Pacific
  Ocean and Caribbean Sea

@Colombia, People

Population: 
  35,577,556 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
  1.77% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
  22.64 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
  4.75 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
  -0.21 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
  28.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
  72.1 years 
male: 
  69.33 years 
female: 
  74.95 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
  2.47 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
  Colombian(s) 
adjective: 
  Colombian 
Ethnic divisions: 
  mestizo 58%, white 20%, mulatto 14%, black 4%, mixed black-Indian 3%,
  Indian 1% 
Religions: 
  Roman Catholic 95% 
Languages: 
  Spanish 
Literacy: 
  age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
  87% 
male: 
  88% 
female: 
  86% 
Labor force: 
  12 million (1990)
by occupation: 
  services 46%, agriculture 30%, industry 24% (1990)

@Colombia, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
  Republic of Colombia 
conventional short form: 
  Colombia 
local long form: 
  Republica de Colombia 
local short form: 
  Colombia 
Digraph: 
  CO
Type: 
  republic; executive branch dominates government structure
Capital: 
  Bogota 
Administrative divisions: 
  32 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento) and 1 capital
  district* (distrito capital); Amazonas, Antioquia, Arauca, Atlantico,
  Bogota*, Bolivar, Boyaca, Caldas, Caqueta, Casanare, Cauca, Cesar,
  Choco, Cordoba, Cundinamarca, Guainia, Guaviare, Huila, La Guajira,
  Magdalena, Meta, Narino, Norte de Santander, Putumayo, Quindio,
  Risaralda, San Andres y Providencia, Santander, Sucre, Tolima, Valle
  del Cauca, Vaupes, Vichada  
Independence: 
  20 July 1810 (from Spain)
National holiday: 
  Independence Day, 20 July (1810) 
Constitution: 
  5 July 1991
Legal system: 
  based on Spanish law; a new criminal code modeled after US procedures
  was enacted in 1992-93; judicial review of executive and legislative
  acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage: 
  18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Executive branch: 
chief of state and head of government: 
  President Cesar GAVIRIA Trujillo (since 7 August 1990);
  President-designate Juan Manuel SANTOS (since NA 1993); election last
  held 27 May 1990 (next to be held May 1994); results - Cesar GAVIRIA
  Trujillo (Liberal Party) 47%, Alvaro GOMEZ Hurtado (National Salvation
  Movement) 24%, Antonio NAVARRO Wolff (AD/M-19) 13%, Rodrigo LLOREDA
  (Conservative Party) 12%
note: 
  a new government will be inaugurated on 7 August 1994; the
  presidential election of 29 May 1994 resulted in no candidate
  receiving more than 50% of the total vote and a run-off election to
  select a president from the two leading candidates was held on 19 June
  1994; results - Ernesto SAMPER Pizano (Liberal Party) 50.4%, Andres
  PASTRANA Arango (Conservative Party) 48.6%, blank votes 1%; Humberto
  de la CALLE was elected vice president; electing a vice president is a
  new proceedure that replaces the traditional appointment of
  president-designates by newly elected presidents
cabinet: 
  Cabinet 
Legislative branch: 
  bicameral Congress (Congreso)
Senate (Senado): 
  elections last held 13 March 1994 (next to be held NA March 1998);
  preliminary results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (102 total)
  Liberal Party 59, conservatives (includes PC, MSN, and NDF) 31, other
  12
House of Representatives (Camara de Representantes): 
  elections last held 13 March 1994 (next to be held NA March 1998);
  preliminary results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (161 total)
  Liberal Party 89, conservatives (includes PC, MSN, and NDF) 53,
  AD/M-19 2, other 17
Judicial branch: 
  Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justical), Constitutional
  Court, Council of State 
Political parties and leaders: 
  Liberal Party (PL), Ernesto SAMPER Pizano, president; Conservative
  Party (PC), Misael PASTRANA Borrero; National Salvation Movement
  (MSN), Alvaro GOMEZ Hurtado; New Democratic Force (NDF), Andres
  PASTRANA Arango; Democratic Alliance M-19 (AD/M-19) is a coalition of
  small leftist parties and dissident liberals and conservatives;
  Patriotic Union (UP) is a legal political party formed by
  Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) and Colombian Communist
  Party (PCC), Carlos ROMERO
Other political or pressure groups: 
  three insurgent groups are active in Colombia - Revolutionary Armed
  Forces of Colombia (FARC), Manuel MARULANDA and Alfonso CANO; National
  Liberation Army (ELN), Manuel PEREZ; and dissidents of the recently
  demobilized People's Liberation Army (EPL), Francisco CARABALLO;
  Francisco CARABALLO was captured by the government in June 1994
Member of: 
  AG, CDB, CG, ECLAC, FAO, G-3, G-11, G-24, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA,
  IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT,
  INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, LORCS, NAM, OAS,
  ONUSAL, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNPROFOR,
  UNTAC, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador Gabriel SILVA 
chancery: 
  2118 Leroy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
  (202) 387-8338 
FAX: 
  (202) 232-8643 
consulate(s) general: 
  Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York,
  San Francisco, San Juan (Puerto Rico), and Washington 
consulate(s): 
  Atlanta, Detroit, Los Angeles, and Tampa 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador Morris D. BUSBY 
embassy: 
  Calle 38, No. 8-61, Bogota 
mailing address: 
  Apartado Aereo 3831, Bogota or APO AA 34038 
telephone: 
  [57] (1) 320-1300 
FAX: 
  [57] (1) 288-5687 
consulate(s): 
  Barranquilla 
Flag: 
  three horizontal bands of yellow (top, double-width), blue, and red;
  similar to the flag of Ecuador, which is longer and bears the
  Ecuadorian coat of arms superimposed in the center

@Colombia, Economy

Overview: 
  Colombia's economic growth has recovered steadily since 1991 as
  President GAVIRIA'S sweeping economic reform measures have taken hold.
  Market reforms have included trade and investment liberalization,
  labor and tax overhauls and bureaucratic streamlining, among other
  things. Furthermore, conservative fiscal and monetary policies have
  helped to steadily reduce inflation to 23% and unemployment to about
  7% in 1993. The rapid development of oil, coal, and other
  nontraditional industries has helped offset the decline in coffee
  prices. A major oil find in 1993 in eastern Colombia may provide an
  extra $3 billion annually to the economy by 1997. Increased foreign
  investment and even greater domestic activity have been hampered,
  however, by a troublesome rural insurgency, a decrepit energy and
  transportation infrastructure, and drug-related violence. Agriculture
  also has encountered problems in adjusting to fewer subsidies, greater
  competition, and the collapse of the international coffee agreement,
  which has kept world coffee prices at near-record lows in 1991-93.
  Business construction was a leading sector in 1993. The substantial
  trade deficit in 1993 was the result of a strong peso that inhibited
  exports and a liberalized government policy that spurred imports.
National product: 
  GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $192 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
  5.1% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
  $5,500 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
  22.6% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
  7.9% (1993 est.)
Budget: 
revenues: 
  $11 billion 
expenditures: 
  $12 billion, including capital expenditures of $2.2 billion (1993
  est.)
Exports: 
  $6.9 billion (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities: 
  petroleum, coffee, coal, bananas, fresh cut flowers
partners: 
  US 39%, EC 25.7%, Japan 2.9%, Venezuela 8.5% (1992)
Imports: 
  $6.7 billion (c.i.f., 1992 est.)
commodities: 
  industrial equipment, transportation equipment, consumer goods,
  chemicals, paper products
partners: 
  US 36%, EC 18%, Brazil 4%, Venezuela 6.5%, Japan 8.7% (1992)
External debt: 
  $17 billion (1992)
Industrial production: 
  growth rate 2% (1993 est.); accounts for 21% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
  10,193,000 kW
production: 
  36 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
  1,050 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
  textiles, food processing, oil, clothing and footwear, beverages,
  chemicals, metal products, cement; mining - gold, coal, emeralds,
  iron, nickel, silver, salt
Agriculture: 
  growth rate 2.7% (1993 est.) accounts for 21% of GDP; crops make up
  two-thirds and livestock one-third of agricultural output; climate and
  soils permit a wide variety of crops, such as coffee, rice, tobacco,
  corn, sugarcane, cocoa beans, oilseeds, vegetables; forest products
  and shrimp farming are becoming more important
Illicit drugs: 
  illicit producer of coca, opium, and cannabis; about 37,100 hectares
  of coca under cultivation; the world's largest processor of coca
  derivatives into cocaine in 1992; supplier of cocaine to the US and
  other international drug markets
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
  US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1.6 billion; Western
  (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $3.3
  billion; Communist countries (1970-89),  $399 million 
Currency: 
  1 Colombian peso (Col$) = 100 centavos
Exchange rates: 
  Colombian pesos (Col$) per US$1 - 921.20 (January 1994), 863.06
  (1993), 759.28 (1992), 633.05 (1991), 502.26 (1990), 382.57 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
  calendar year

@Colombia, Communications

Railroads: 
  3,386 km; 3,236 km 0.914-meter gauge, single track (2,611 km in use),
  150 km 1.435-meter gauge
Highways: 
total: 
  128,717 km (1989)
paved: 
  10,330 km 
unpaved: 
  gravel/earth 118,387 km 
Inland waterways: 
  14,300 km, navigable by river boats
Pipelines: 
  crude oil 3,585 km; petroleum products 1,350 km; natural gas 830 km;
  natural gas liquids 125 km 
Ports: 
  Barranquilla, Buenaventura, Cartagena, Covenas, San Andres, Santa
  Marta, Tumaco
Merchant marine: 
  27 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 211,777 GRT/335,763 DWT, bulk 7,
  cargo 11, container 6, oil tanker 3 
Airports: 
total: 
  1,369 
usable: 
  1,156 
with permanent-surface runways: 
  73 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
  1 
with runways 2,440-2,659 m: 
  9 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
  205 
Telecommunications: 
  nationwide radio relay system; 1,890,000 telephones; broadcast
  stations - 413 AM, no FM, 33 TV, 28 shortwave; 2 Atlantic Ocean
  INTELSAT earth stations and 11 domestic satellite earth stations

@Colombia, Defense Forces

Branches: 
  Army (Ejercito Nacional), Navy (Armada Nacional, including Marines),
  Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Colombiana), National Police (Policia
  Nacional)
Manpower availability: 
  males age 15-49 9,639,080; fit for military service 6,507,935; reach
  military age (18) annually 354,944 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
  exchange rate conversion - $1.2 billion (1992 est.)


@Comoros, Geography

Location: 
  Southeastern Africa, in the extreme northern Mozambique Channel, about
  two-thirds of the way between northern Madagascar and northern
  Mozambique
Map references: 
  Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
  2,170 sq km 
land area: 
  2,170 sq km 
comparative area: 
  slightly more than 12 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries: 
  0 km  
Coastline: 
  340 km 
Maritime claims: 
exclusive economic zone: 
  200 nm
territorial sea: 
  12 nm
International disputes: 
  claims French-administered Mayotte
Climate: 
  tropical marine; rainy season (November to May)
Terrain: 
  volcanic islands, interiors vary from steep mountains to low hills
Natural resources: 
  negligible 
Land use: 
arable land: 
  35% 
permanent crops: 
  8% 
meadows and pastures: 
  7% 
forest and woodland: 
  16% 
other: 
  34% 
Irrigated land: 
  NA sq km
Environment: 
current issues: 
  soil degradation and erosion; deforestation
natural hazards: 
  cyclones possible during rainy season
international agreements: 
  signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of the
  Sea
Note: 
  important location at northern end of Mozambique Channel

@Comoros, People

Population: 
  530,136 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
  3.55% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
  46.48 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
  10.95 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
  79.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
  57.81 years 
male: 
  55.63 years 
female: 
  60.06 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
  6.79 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
  Comoran(s) 
adjective: 
  Comoran 
Ethnic divisions: 
  Antalote, Cafre, Makoa, Oimatsaha, Sakalava 
Religions: 
  Sunni Muslim 86%, Roman Catholic 14% 
Languages: 
  Arabic (official), French (official), Comoran (a blend of Swahili and
  Arabic)
Literacy: 
  age 15 and over can read and write (1980)
total population: 
  48% 
male: 
  56% 
female: 
  40% 
Labor force: 
  140,000 (1982)
by occupation: 
  agriculture 80%, government 3%
note: 
  51% of population of working age (1985)

@Comoros, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
  Federal Islamic Republic of the Comoros 
conventional short form: 
  Comoros 
local long form: 
  Republique Federale Islamique des Comores 
local short form: 
  Comores 
Digraph: 
  CN
Type: 
  independent republic 
Capital: 
  Moroni 
Administrative divisions: 
  three islands; Grand Comore (Njazidja), Anjouan (Nzwani), and Moheli
  (Mwali)
note: 
  there are also four municipalities named Domoni, Fomboni, Moroni, and
  Mutsamudu
Independence: 
  6 July 1975 (from France)
National holiday: 
  Independence Day, 6 July (1975) 
Constitution: 
  7 June 1992
Legal system: 
  French and Muslim law in a new consolidated code
Suffrage: 
  18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state:: 
  President Said Mohamed DJOHAR (since 11 March 1990); election last
  held 11 March 1990 (next to be held March 1996); results - Said
  Mohamed DJOHAR (UDZIMA) 55%, Mohamed TAKI Abdulkarim (UNDC) 45%
head of government:: 
  Prime Minister Mohamed Abdou MADI (since 6 January 1994) appointed by
  President DJOHAR 6 January 1994 (DJOHAR has appointed 14 prime
  ministers in the last three years)
cabinet: 
  Council of Ministers; appointed by the president
Legislative branch: 
  unicameral
Federal Assembly (Assemblee Federale): 
  elections last held 12-20 December 1993 (next to be held by NA January
  1998); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (42 total)
  Ruling Coalition: RDR 15, UNDC 5, MWANGAZA 2; Opposition: UDZIMA 8,
  other smaller parties 10; 2 seats remained unfilled
note: 
  opposition is boycotting the National Assembly until the government
  promises to investigate fraud in the last election
Judicial branch: 
  Supreme Court (Cour Supreme) 
Political parties and leaders: 
  over 20 political parties are currently active, the most important of
  which are; Comoran Union for Progress (UDZIMA), Omar TAMOU; Islands'
  Fraternity and Unity Party (CHUMA), Said Ali KEMAL; Comoran Party for
  Democracy and Progress (PCDP), Ali MROUDJAE; Realizing Freedom's
  Capability (UWEZO), Mouazair ABDALLAH; Democratic Front of the Comoros
  (FDR), Moustapha CHELKH; Dialogue Proposition Action (DPA/MWANGAZA),
  Said MCHAWGAMA; Rally for Change and Democracy (RACHADE), Hassan
  HACHIM; Union for Democracy and Decentralization (UNDC), Mohamed Taki
  Halidi IBRAHAM; Rally for Democracy and Renewal (RDR); Comoran Popular
  Front (FPC), Mohamed HASSANALI, Mohamed El Arif OUKACHA, Abdou
  MOUSTAKIM (Secretary General)
Member of: 
  ACCT, ACP, AfDB, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC,
  ILO, IMF, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN,
  UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WMO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador Amini Ali MOUMIN 
chancery: 
  (temporary) at the Comoran Permanent Mission to the UN, 336 East 45th
  Street, 2nd Floor, New York, NY 10017 
telephone: 
  (212) 972-8010 
FAX: 
  (212) 983-4712 
US diplomatic representation: 
  none; post closed in September 1993
Flag: 
  green with a white crescent placed diagonally (closed side of the
  crescent points to the upper hoist-side corner of the flag); there are
  four white five-pointed stars placed in a line between the points of
  the crescent; the crescent, stars, and color green are traditional
  symbols of Islam; the four stars represent the four main islands of
  the archipelago - Mwali, Njazidja, Nzwani, and Mayotte (which is a
  territorial collectivity of France, but claimed by the Comoros)

@Comoros, Economy

Overview: 
  One of the world's poorest countries, Comoros is made up of several
  islands that have poor transportation links, a young and rapidly
  increasing population, and few natural resources. The low educational
  level of the labor force contributes to a low level of economic
  activity, high unemployment, and a heavy dependence on foreign grants
  and technical assistance. Agriculture, including fishing, hunting, and
  forestry, is the leading sector of the economy. It contributes 40% to
  GDP, employs 80% of the labor force, and provides most of the exports.
  The country is not self-sufficient in food production, and rice, the
  main staple, accounts for 90% of imports. During 1982-86 the
  industrial sector grew at an annual average rate of 5.3%, but its
  contribution to GDP is small. Despite major investment in the tourist
  industry, which accounts for about 25% of GDP, growth has stagnated
  since 1983. A sluggish growth rate of 1.5% during 1985-90 has led to
  large budget deficits, declining incomes, and balance-of-payments
  difficulties. Estimates for 1992 show a moderate increase in the
  growth rate based on increased exports, tourism, and government
  investment outlays.
National product: 
  GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $360 million (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
  5% (1992 est.)
National product per capita: 
  $700 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
  4% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
  over 15.9% (1989)
Budget: 
revenues: 
  $96 million 
expenditures: 
  $88 million, including capital expenditures of $33 million (1991 est.)
Exports: 
  $21 million (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities: 
  vanilla, cloves, perfume oil, copra, ylang-ylang
partners: 
  US 53%, France 41%, Africa 4%, FRG 2% (1988)
Imports: 
  $60 million (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities: 
  rice and other foodstuffs, cement, petroleum products, consumer goods
partners: 
  Europe 62% (France 22%), Africa 5%, Pakistan, China (1988)
External debt: 
  $160 million (1992 est.)
Industrial production: 
  growth rate -6.5% (1989 est.); accounts for 10% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
  16,000 kW
production: 
  25 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
  50 kWh (1991)
Industries: 
  perfume distillation, textiles, furniture, jewelry, construction
  materials, soft drinks
Agriculture: 
  accounts for 40% of GDP; most of population works in subsistence
  agriculture and fishing; plantations produce cash crops for export -
  vanilla, cloves, perfume essences, copra; principal food crops -
  coconuts, bananas, cassava; world's leading producer of essence of
  ylang-ylang (for perfumes) and second-largest producer of vanilla;
  large net food importer
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
  US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY80-89), $10 million; Western
  (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $435
  million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $22 million; Communist
  countries (1970-89), $18 million 
Currency: 
  1 Comoran franc (CF) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates: 
  Comoran francs (CF) per US$1 - 444.03 (January 1994), 254.57 (1993),
  264.69 (1992), 282.11 (1991), 272.26 (1990), 319.01 (1989)
note: 
  beginning 12 January 1994, the Comoran franc was devalued to 75 per
  French franc from 50 per French franc at which it had been fixed since
  1948
Fiscal year: 
  calendar year

@Comoros, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
  750 km 
paved: 
  bituminous 210 km 
unpaved: 
  crushed stone, gravel 540 km 
Ports: 
  Mutsamudu, Moroni
Airports: 
total: 
  4 
usable: 
  4 
with permanent-surface runways: 
  4 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
  0 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
  1 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
  3 
Telecommunications: 
  sparse system of radio relay and high-frequency radio communication
  stations for interisland and external communications to Madagascar and
  Reunion; over 1,800 telephones; broadcast stations - 2 AM, 1 FM, no TV

@Comoros, Defense Forces

Branches: 
  Comoran Defense Force (FDC) 
Manpower availability: 
  males age 15-49 112,918; fit for military service 67,522 
Defense expenditures: 
  $NA, NA% of GDP


@Congo, Geography

Location: 
  Western Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean between Gabon and
  Zaire
Map references: 
  Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
  342,000 sq km 
land area: 
  341,500 sq km 
comparative area: 
  slightly smaller than Montana
Land boundaries: 
  total 5,504 km, Angola 201 km, Cameroon 523 km, Central African
  Republic 467 km, Gabon 1,903 km, Zaire 2,410 km 
Coastline: 
  169 km 
Maritime claims: 
territorial sea: 
  200 nm
International disputes: 
  long segment of boundary with Zaire along the Congo River is
  indefinite (no division of the river or its islands has been made)
Climate: 
  tropical; rainy season (March to June); dry season (June to October);
  constantly high temperatures and humidity; particularly enervating
  climate astride the Equator
Terrain: 
  coastal plain, southern basin, central plateau, northern basin
Natural resources: 
  petroleum, timber, potash, lead, zinc, uranium, copper, phosphates,
  natural gas 
Land use: 
arable land: 
  2% 
permanent crops: 
  0% 
meadows and pastures: 
  29% 
forest and woodland: 
  62% 
other: 
  7% 
Irrigated land: 
  40 sq km (1989)
Environment: 
current issues: 
  air pollution from vehicle emissions; water pollution from the dumping
  of raw sewage; deforestation
natural hazards: 
  NA 
international agreements: 
  party to - Endangered Species, Tropical Timber; signed, but not
  ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer
  Protection
Note: 
  about 70% of the population lives in Brazzaville, Pointe Noire, or
  along the railroad between them

@Congo, People

Population: 
  2,446,902 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
  2.38% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
  40.27 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
  16.49 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
  111 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
  47.56 years 
male: 
  45.76 years 
female: 
  49.41 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
  5.3 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
  Congolese (singular and plural) 
adjective: 
  Congolese or Congo 
Ethnic divisions: 
south: 
  Kongo 48% 
north: 
  Sangha 20%, M'Bochi 12% 
center: 
  Teke 17%, Europeans 8,500 (mostly French)
Religions: 
  Christian 50%, animist 48%, Muslim 2% 
Languages: 
  French (official), African languages (Lingala and Kikongo are the most
  widely used)
Literacy: 
  age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
  57% 
male: 
  70% 
female: 
  44% 
Labor force: 
  79,100 wage earners
by occupation: 
  agriculture 75%, commerce, industry, and government 25%
note: 
  51% of population of working age; 40% of population economically
  active (1985)

@Congo, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
  Republic of the Congo 
conventional short form: 
  Congo 
local long form: 
  Republique Populaire du Congo 
local short form: 
  Congo 
former: 
  Congo/Brazzaville 
Digraph: 
  CF
Type: 
  republic 
Capital: 
  Brazzaville 
Administrative divisions: 
  9 regions (regions, singular - region) and 1 commune*; Bouenza,
  Brazzaville*, Cuvette, Kouilou, Lekoumou, Likouala, Niari, Plateaux,
  Pool, Sangha
Independence: 
  15 August 1960 (from France)
National holiday: 
  Congolese National Day, 15 August (1960) 
Constitution: 
  new constitution approved by referendum March 1992
Legal system: 
  based on French civil law system and customary law
Suffrage: 
  18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
  President Pascal LISSOUBA (since August 1992); election last held 2-16
  August 1992 (next to be held August 1997); results - President Pascal
  LISSOUBA won with 61% of the vote
head of government: 
  Prime Minister Jacques Joachim YHOMBI-OPANGO (since 23 June 1993) 
cabinet: 
  Council of Ministers; named by the president
Legislative branch: 
  bicameral
National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale): 
  election last held 3 October 1993; results - percentage vote by party
  NA; seats - (125 total) UPADS 64, URD/PCT 58, others 3
Senate: 
  election last held 26 July 1992 (next to be held July 1998); results -
  percentage vote by party NA; seats - (60 total) UPADS 23, MCDDI 14,
  RDD 8, RDPS 5, PCT 2, others 8
Judicial branch: 
  Supreme Court (Cour Supreme) 
Political parties and leaders: 
  Congolese Labor Party (PCT), Denis SASSOU-NGUESSO, president;
  Pan-African Union for Social Development (UPADS), Pascal LISSOUBA,
  leader; Association for Democracy and Development (RDD) - Joachim
  Yhombi OPANGO, president; Congolese Movement for Democracy and
  Integral Development (MCDDI), Bernard KOLELAS, leader; Association for
  Democracy and Social Progress (RDPS), Jean-Pierre Thystere TCHICAYA,
  president; Union of Democratic Forces (UFD), David Charles GANAO,
  leader; Union for Development and Social Progress (UDPS), Jean-Michael
  BOKAMBA-YANGOUMA, leader
note: 
  Congo has many political parties of which these are among the most
  important
Other political or pressure groups: 
  Union of Congolese Socialist Youth (UJSC); Congolese Trade Union
  Congress (CSC); Revolutionary Union of Congolese Women (URFC); General
  Union of Congolese Pupils and Students (UGEEC)
Member of: 
  ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CCC, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, GATT, IBRD,
  ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU,
  LORCS, NAM, OAU, UDEAC, UN, UNAVEM II, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU,
  WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador Pierre Damien BOUSSOUKOU-BOUMBA 
chancery: 
  4891 Colorado Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20011 
telephone: 
  (202) 726-5500 or 5501 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador William RAMSEY 
embassy: 
  Avenue Amilcar Cabral, Brazzaville 
mailing address: 
  B. P. 1015, Brazzaville 
telephone: 
  (242) 83-20-70 
FAX: 
  [242] 83-63-38 
Flag: 
  red, divided diagonally from the lower hoist side by a yellow band;
  the upper triangle (hoist side) is green and the lower triangle is
  red; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

@Congo, Economy

Overview: 
  Congo's economy is a mixture of village agriculture and handicrafts,
  an industrial sector based largely on oil, support services, and a
  government characterized by budget problems and overstaffing. A reform
  program, supported by the IMF and World Bank, ran into difficulties in
  1990-91 because of problems in changing to a democratic political
  regime and a heavy debt-servicing burden. Oil has supplanted forestry
  as the mainstay of the economy, providing about two-thirds of
  government revenues and exports. In the early 1980s rapidly rising oil
  revenues enabled Congo to finance large-scale development projects
  with growth averaging 5% annually, one of the highest rates in Africa.
  Subsequently, growth has slowed to an average of roughly 1.5%
  annually, only half the population growth rate. Political turmoil and
  misguided government investment have derailed economic reform programs
  sponsored by the IMF and World Bank.
National product: 
  GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $7 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
  NA
National product per capita: 
  $2,900 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
  -0.6% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
  NA%
Budget: 
revenues: 
  $765 million 
expenditures: 
  $952 million, including capital expenditures of $65 million (1990)
Exports: 
  $1.1 billion (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities: 
  crude oil 72%, lumber, plywood, coffee, cocoa, sugar, diamonds
partners: 
  US, France, other EC countries
Imports: 
  $704 million (c.i.f., 1990)
commodities: 
  foodstuffs, consumer goods, intermediate manufactures, capital
  equipment
partners: 
  France, Germany, Italy, Spain, other EC countries, US, Japan, Brazil
External debt: 
  $4.1 billion (1991)
Industrial production: 
  growth rate 1.2% (1989); accounts for 33% of GDP; includes petroleum
Electricity: 
capacity: 
  140,000 kW
production: 
  315 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
  135 kWh (1991)
Industries: 
  petroleum, cement, lumbering, brewing, sugar milling, palm oil, soap,
  cigarette
Agriculture: 
  accounts for 13% of GDP (including fishing and forestry); cassava
  accounts for 90% of food output; other crops - rice, corn, peanuts,
  vegetables; cash crops include coffee and cocoa; forest products
  important export earner; imports over 90% of food needs
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
  US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-90), $63 million; Western
  (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-90), $2.5
  billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $15 million; Communist
  countries (1970-89),  $338 million 
Currency: 
  1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates: 
  Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 592.05
  (January 1994), 283.16 (1993), 264.69 (1992), 282.11 (1991), 272.26
  (1990), 319.01 (1989)
note: 
  beginning 12 January 1994, the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF 100 per
  French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since 1948
Fiscal year: 
  calendar year

@Congo, Communications

Railroads: 
  797 km, 1.067-meter gauge, single track (includes 285 km that are
  privately owned)
Highways: 
total: 
  11,960 km 
paved: 
  560 km 
unpaved: 
  gravel or crushed stone 850 km; improved earth 5,350 km; unimproved
  earth 5,200 km 
Inland waterways: 
  the Congo and Ubangi (Oubangui) Rivers provide 1,120 km of
  commercially navigable water transport; the rest are used for local
  traffic only
Pipelines: 
  crude oil 25 km 
Ports: 
  Pointe-Noire (ocean port), Brazzaville (river port)
Airports: 
total: 
  41 
usable: 
  37 
with permanent-surface runways: 
  5 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
  0 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
  1 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
  16 
Telecommunications: 
  services adequate for government use; primary network is composed of
  radio relay routes and coaxial cables; key centers are Brazzaville,
  Pointe-Noire, and Loubomo; 18,100 telephones; broadcast stations - 4
  AM, 1 FM, 4 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean satellite earth station

@Congo, Defense Forces

Branches: 
  Army, Navy (including Marines), Air Force, National Police 
Manpower availability: 
  males age 15-49 551,151; fit for military service 280,372; reach
  military age (20) annually 24,441 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
  $NA, NA% of GDP


@Cook Islands

Header
Affiliation: 
  (free association with New Zealand) 

@Cook Islands, Geography

Location: 
  Oceania, Polynesia, 4,500 km south of Hawaii in the South Pacific
  Ocean, about halfway between Hawaii and New Zealand
Map references: 
  Oceania 
Area: 
total area: 
  240 sq km 
land area: 
  240 sq km 
comparative area: 
  slightly less than 1.3 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries: 
  0 km  
Coastline: 
  120 km 
Maritime claims: 
continental shelf: 
  200 nm or the edge of continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 
  200 nm
territorial sea: 
  12 nm
International disputes: 
  none
Climate: 
  tropical; moderated by trade winds
Terrain: 
  low coral atolls in north; volcanic, hilly islands in south
Natural resources: 
  negligible 
Land use: 
arable land: 
  4% 
permanent crops: 
  22% 
meadows and pastures: 
  0% 
forest and woodland: 
  0% 
other: 
  74% 
Irrigated land: 
  NA sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
  NA 
natural hazards: 
  subject to typhoons (November to March)
international agreements: 
  party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change; signed, but not ratified -
  Law of the Sea

@Cook Islands, People

Population: 
  19,124 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
  1.15% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
  23.22 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
  5.2 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
  -6.49 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
  24.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
  71.14 years 
male: 
  69.2 years 
female: 
  73.1 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
  3.3 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
  Cook Islander(s) 
adjective: 
  Cook Islander 
Ethnic divisions: 
  Polynesian (full blood) 81.3%, Polynesian and European 7.7%,
  Polynesian and other 7.7%, European 2.4%, other 0.9% 
Religions: 
  Christian (majority of populace members of Cook Islands Christian
  Church)
Languages: 
  English (official), Maori 
Literacy: 
total population: 
  NA%
male: 
  NA%
female: 
  NA%
Labor force: 
  5,810 
by occupation: 
  agriculture 29%, government 27%, services 25%, industry 15%, other 4%
  (1981)

@Cook Islands, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
  none 
conventional short form: 
  Cook Islands 
Digraph: 
  CW
Type: 
  self-governing parliamentary government in free association with New
  Zealand; Cook Islands is fully responsible for internal affairs; New
  Zealand retains responsibility for external affairs, in consultation
  with the Cook Islands
Capital: 
  Avarua 
Administrative divisions: 
  none
Independence: 
  none (became self-governing in free association with New Zealand on 4
  August 1965 and has the right at any time to move to full independence
  by unilateral action)
National holiday: 
  Constitution Day, 4 August 
Constitution: 
  4 August 1965
Legal system: 
  NA
Suffrage: 
  universal adult at age NA
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
  Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); Representative of the
  Queen Apenera SHORT (since NA); Representative of New Zealand Adrian
  SINCOCK (since NA) 
head of government: 
  Prime Minister Geoffrey HENRY (since 1 February 1989); Deputy Prime
  Minister Inatio AKARURU (since 1 February 1989) 
cabinet: 
  Cabinet; collectively responsible to the Parliament
Legislative branch: 
  unicameral
Parliament: 
  elections last held 24 March 1994 (next to be held NA); results -
  percent of vote by party NA; seats - (25 total) Cook Islands Party 20,
  Democratic Party 3, Alliance Party 2
note: 
  the House of Arikis (chiefs) advises on traditional matters, but has
  no legislative powers
Judicial branch: 
  High Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
  Cook Islands Party, Geoffrey HENRY; Democratic Party, Sir Thomas
  DAVIS; Cook Islands Labor Party, Rena JONASSEN; Cook Islands People's
  Party, Sadaraka SADARAKA; Alliance, Norman GEORGE
Member of: 
  AsDB, ESCAP (associate), ICAO, ICFTU, IFAD, INTELSAT (nonsignatory
  user), IOC, SPARTECA, SPC, SPF, UNESCO, WHO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
  none (self-governing in free association with New Zealand)
US diplomatic representation: 
  none (self-governing in free association with New Zealand)
Flag: 
  blue, with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and a
  large circle of 15 white five-pointed stars (one for every island)
  centered in the outer half of the flag

@Cook Islands, Economy

Overview: 
  Agriculture provides the economic base. The major export earners are
  fruit, copra, and clothing. Manufacturing activities are limited to a
  fruit-processing plant and several clothing factories. Economic
  development is hindered by the isolation of the islands from foreign
  markets and a lack of natural resources and good transportation links.
  A large trade deficit is annually made up for by remittances from
  emigrants and from foreign aid, largely from New Zealand. Current
  economic development plans call for exploiting the tourism potential
  and expanding the fishing industry.
National product: 
  GDP - purchasing power equivalent  - $57 million (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
  NA%
National product per capita: 
  $3,000 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
  6.2% (1990)
Unemployment rate: 
  NA%
Budget: 
revenues: 
  $38 million 
expenditures: 
  $34.4 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1993 est.)
Exports: 
  $3.4 million (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities: 
  copra, fresh and canned fruit, clothing
partners: 
  NZ 80%, Japan
Imports: 
  $50 million (c.i.f., 1990)
commodities: 
  foodstuffs, textiles, fuels, timber
partners: 
  NZ 49%, Japan, Australia, US
External debt: 
  $NA
Industrial production: 
  growth rate NA%; accounts for 5% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
  14,000 kW
production: 
  21 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
  1,170 kWh (1990)
Industries: 
  fruit processing, tourism
Agriculture: 
  accounts for 12% of GDP, export crops - copra, citrus fruits,
  pineapples, tomatoes, bananas; subsistence crops - yams, taro
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
  Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
  (1970-89),  $128 million 
Currency: 
  1 New Zealand dollar (NZ$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates: 
  New Zealand dollars (NZ$) per US$1 - 1.7771 (January 1994), 1.8495
  (1993), 1.8584 (1992), 1.7265 (1991), 1.6750 (1990), 1.6708 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
  1 April - 31 March

@Cook Islands, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
  187 km 
paved: 
  35 km 
unpaved: 
  gravel 35 km; improved earth 84 km; unimproved earth 33 km (1980)
Ports: 
  Avatiu
Merchant marine: 
  1 cargo ship (1,000 or over) totaling 1,464 GRT/2,181 DWT
Airports: 
total: 
  7 
usable: 
  7 
with permanent-surface runways: 
  1 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
  0 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
  0 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
  5 
Telecommunications: 
  broadcast stations - 1 AM, 1 FM, 1 TV; 11,000 radio receivers; 17,000
  TV receivers (1989); 2,052 telephones; 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth
  station

@Cook Islands, Defense Forces

Note: 
  defense is the responsibility of New Zealand


@Coral Sea Islands

Header
Affiliation: 
  (territory of Australia) 

@Coral Sea Islands, Geography

Location: 
  Southwestern Oceania, just off the northeast coast of Australia in the
  Coral Sea
Map references: 
  Oceania 
Area: 
total area: 
  less than 3 sq km 
land area: 
  less than 3 sq km 
comparative area: 
  NA
note: 
  includes numerous small islands and reefs scattered over a sea area of
  about 1 million sq km, with Willis Islets the most important
Land boundaries: 
  0 km  
Coastline: 
  3,095 km 
Maritime claims: 
exclusive fishing zone: 
  200 nm
territorial sea: 
  3 nm
International disputes: 
  none
Climate: 
  tropical
Terrain: 
  sand and coral reefs and islands (or cays)
Natural resources: 
  negligible 
Land use: 
arable land: 
  0% 
permanent crops: 
  0% 
meadows and pastures: 
  0% 
forest and woodland: 
  0% 
other: 
  100% (mostly grass or scrub cover)
Irrigated land: 
  0 sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
  no permanent fresh water resources
natural hazards: 
  subject to occasional tropical cyclones
international agreements: 
  NA 
Note: 
  important nesting area for birds and turtles

@Coral Sea Islands, People

Population: 
  no indigenous inhabitants; note - there are 3 meteorologists

@Coral Sea Islands, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
  Coral Sea Islands Territory 
conventional short form: 
  Coral Sea Islands 
Digraph: 
  CR
Type: 
  territory of Australia administered by the Ministry for Environment,
  Sport, and Territories
Capital: 
  none; administered from Canberra, Australia
Independence: 
  none (territory of Australia)
Flag: 
  the flag of Australia is used

@Coral Sea Islands, Economy

Overview: 
  no economic activity

@Coral Sea Islands, Communications

Ports: 
  none; offshore anchorages only

@Coral Sea Islands, Defense Forces

Note: 
  defense is the responsibility of Australia; visited regularly by the
  Royal Australian Navy; Australia has control over the activities of
  visitors


@Costa Rica, Geography

Location: 
  Middle America, between Nicaragua and Panama
Map references: 
  Central America and the Caribbean, South America 
Area: 
total area: 
  51,100 sq km 
land area: 
  50,660 sq km 
comparative area: 
  slightly smaller than West Virginia
note: 
  includes Isla del Coco
Land boundaries: 
  total 639 km, Nicaragua 309 km, Panama 330 km 
Coastline: 
  1,290 km 
Maritime claims: 
continental shelf: 
  200 nm
exclusive economic zone: 
  200 nm
territorial sea: 
  12 nm
International disputes: 
  none
Climate: 
  tropical; dry season (December to April); rainy season (May to
  November)
Terrain: 
  coastal plains separated by rugged mountains
Natural resources: 
  hydropower potential 
Land use: 
arable land: 
  6% 
permanent crops: 
  7% 
meadows and pastures: 
  45% 
forest and woodland: 
  34% 
other: 
  8% 
Irrigated land: 
  1,180 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
  deforestation, largely a result of land clearing for cattle ranching;
  soil erosion
natural hazards: 
  subject to occasional earthquakes, hurricanes along Atlantic coast;
  frequent flooding of lowlands at onset of rainy season; active
  volcanoes
international agreements: 
  party to - Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear
  Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands, Whaling; signed, but not
  ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Marine Life Conservation

@Costa Rica, People

Population: 
  3,342,154 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
  2.31% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
  25.48 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
  3.52 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
  1.14 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
  11 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
  77.8 years 
male: 
  75.88 years 
female: 
  79.81 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
  3.06 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
  Costa Rican(s) 
adjective: 
  Costa Rican 
Ethnic divisions: 
  white (including mestizo) 96%, black 2%, Indian 1%, Chinese 1% 
Religions: 
  Roman Catholic 95% 
Languages: 
  Spanish (official), English; spoken around Puerto Limon
Literacy: 
  age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
  93% 
male: 
  93% 
female: 
  93% 
Labor force: 
  868,300 
by occupation: 
  industry and commerce 35.1%, government and services 33%, agriculture
  27%, other 4.9% (1985 est.)

@Costa Rica, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
  Republic of Costa Rica 
conventional short form: 
  Costa Rica 
local long form: 
  Republica de Costa Rica 
local short form: 
  Costa Rica 
Digraph: 
  CS
Type: 
  democratic republic 
Capital: 
  San Jose 
Administrative divisions: 
  7 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Alajuela, Cartago,
  Guanacaste, Heredia, Limon, Puntarenas, San Jose
Independence: 
  15 September 1821 (from Spain)
National holiday: 
  Independence Day, 15 September (1821) 
Constitution: 
  9 November 1949
Legal system: 
  based on Spanish civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts
  in the Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 
  18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Executive branch: 
chief of state and head of government: 
  President Jose Maria FIGUERES Olsen (since 8 May 1994); First Vice
  President Rodrigo OREAMUNO Blanco (since 8 May 1994); Second Vice
  President Rebeca GRYNSPAN Mayufis (since 8 May 1994); election last
  held 6 February 1994 (next to be held February 1998); results -
  President FIGUERES (PLN party) 49.7%, Miquel Angel RODRIGUEZ (PUSC
  party) 47.5%
cabinet: 
  Cabinet; selected by the president
Legislative branch: 
  unicameral
Legislative Assembly (Asamblea Legislativa): 
  elections last held 6 February 1994 (next to be held February 1998);
  results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (61 total) PLN 28, PUSC
  29, minority parties 4
Judicial branch: 
  Supreme Court (Corte Suprema) 
Political parties and leaders: 
  National Liberation Party (PLN), Manuel AGUILAR Bonilla; Social
  Christian Unity Party (PUSC), Rafael Angel CALDERON Fournier; Marxist
  Popular Vanguard Party (PVP), Humberto VARGAS Carbonell; New Republic
  Movement (MNR), Sergio Erick ARDON Ramirez; Progressive Party (PP),
  Isaac Felipe AZOFEIFA Bolanos; People's Party of Costa Rica (PPC),
  Lenin CHACON Vargas; Radical Democratic Party (PRD), Juan Jose
  ECHEVERRIA Brealey
Other political or pressure groups: 
  Costa Rican Confederation of Democratic Workers (CCTD; Liberation
  Party affiliate); Confederated Union of Workers (CUT, Communist Party
  affiliate); Authentic Confederation of Democratic Workers (CATD,
  Communist Party affiliate); Chamber of Coffee Growers; National
  Association for Economic Development (ANFE); Free Costa Rica Movement
  (MCRL, rightwing militants); National Association of Educators (ANDE)
Member of: 
  AG (observer), BCIE, CACM, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD,
  ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC,
  IOM, ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer), LORCS, NAM (observer), OAS, OPANAL,
  UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador Gonzalo FACIO Segreda 
chancery: 
  2114 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
  (202) 234-2945 
FAX: 
  (202) 265-4795 
consulate(s) general: 
  Albuquerque, Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami,
  New Orleans, New York, Orlando, Philadelphia, San Antonio, San Diego,
  San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico) 
consulate(s): 
  Austin and Raleigh 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
  (vacant); Charge d' Affaires Joseph BECELIA 
embassy: 
  Pavas Road, San Jose 
mailing address: 
  APO AA 34020 
telephone: 
  [506] 20-39-39 
FAX: 
  (506) 20-2305 
Flag: 
  five horizontal bands of blue (top), white, red (double width), white,
  and blue, with the coat of arms in a white disk on the hoist side of
  the red band

@Costa Rica, Economy

Overview: 
  In 1993 the economy grew at an estimated 6.5%, compared with 7.7% in
  1992 and 2.1% in 1991. Increases in agricultural production (coffee
  and bananas), nontraditional exports, and tourism are responsible for
  much of the growth. Inflation in 1993 dropped to 9% from 17% in 1992
  and 25% in 1991, an indication of basic financial stability.
  Unemployment is officially reported at 4.0%, but much underemployment
  remains.
National product: 
  GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $19.3 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
  6.5% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
  $5,900 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
  9% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
  4% (1993); much underemployment
Budget: 
revenues: 
  $1.1 billion 
expenditures: 
  $1.34 billion, including capital expenditures of $110 million (1991
  est.)
Exports: 
  $1.9 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: 
  coffee, bananas, textiles, sugar
partners: 
  US, Germany, Italy, Guatemala, El Salvador, Netherlands, UK, France
Imports: 
  $2.9 billion (c.i.f., 1993)
commodities: 
  raw materials, consumer goods, capital equipment, petroleum
partners: 
  US, Japan, Mexico, Guatemala, Venezuela, Germany
External debt: 
  $3.2 billion (1991)
Industrial production: 
  growth rate 10.5% (1992); accounts for 22% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
  927,000 kW
production: 
  3.612 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
  1,130 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
  food processing, textiles and clothing, construction materials,
  fertilizer, plastic products
Agriculture: 
  accounts for 19% of GDP and 70% of exports; cash commodities - coffee,
  beef, bananas, sugar; other food crops include corn, rice, beans,
  potatoes; normally self-sufficient in food except for grain; depletion
  of forest resources resulting in lower timber output
Illicit drugs: 
  transshipment country for cocaine and heroin from South America;
  illicit production of cannabis on small scattered plots
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
  US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1.4 billion; Western
  (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $935
  million; Communist countries (1971-89), $27 million 
Currency: 
  1 Costa Rican colon (C) = 100 centimos
Exchange rates: 
  Costa Rican colones (C) per US$1 - 150.67 (December 1993), 142.17
  (1993), 134.51 (1992), 122.43 (1991), 91.58 (1990), 81.504 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
  calendar year

@Costa Rica, Communications

Railroads: 
  950 km total, all 1.067-meter gauge; 260 km electrified
Highways: 
total: 
  35,536 km 
paved: 
  5,600 km 
unpaved: 
  gravel and earth 29,936 km (1991)
Inland waterways: 
  about 730 km, seasonally navigable
Pipelines: 
  petroleum products 176 km 
Ports: 
  Puerto Limon, Caldera, Golfito, Moin, Puntarenas
Merchant marine: 
  1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,878 GRT/4,506 DWT
Airports: 
total: 
  184 
usable: 
  165 
with permanent-surface runways: 
  27 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
  0 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
  2 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
  9 
Telecommunications: 
  very good domestic telephone service; 292,000 telephones; connection
  into Central American Microwave System; broadcast stations - 71 AM, no
  FM, 18 TV, 13 shortwave; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

@Costa Rica, Defense Forces

Branches: 
  Civil Guard, Rural Assistance Guard 
note: 
  constitution prohibits armed forces
Manpower availability: 
  males age 15-49 873,987; fit for military service 588,223; reach
  military age (18) annually 32,308 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
  exchange rate conversion - $22 million, 0.5% of GDP (1989)


@Cote d'Ivoire

Header
Affiliation: 
  (also known as Ivory Coast) 

@Cote d'Ivoire, Geography

Location: 
  Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean between Ghana and
  Liberia
Map references: 
  Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
  322,460 sq km 
land area: 
  318,000 sq km 
comparative area: 
  slightly larger than New Mexico
Land boundaries: 
  total 3,110 km, Burkina 584 km, Ghana 668 km, Guinea 610 km, Liberia
  716 km, Mali 532 km 
Coastline: 
  515 km 
Maritime claims: 
continental shelf: 
  200-m depth
exclusive economic zone: 
  200 nm
territorial sea: 
  12 nm
International disputes: 
  none
Climate: 
  tropical along coast, semiarid in far north; three seasons - warm and
  dry (November to March), hot and dry (March to May), hot and wet (June
  to October)
Terrain: 
  mostly flat to undulating plains; mountains in northwest
Natural resources: 
  petroleum, diamonds, manganese, iron ore, cobalt, bauxite, copper 
Land use: 
arable land: 
  9% 
permanent crops: 
  4% 
meadows and pastures: 
  9% 
forest and woodland: 
  26% 
other: 
  52% 
Irrigated land: 
  620 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
  deforestation; water pollution from sewage and industrial and
  agricultural effluents
natural hazards: 
  coast has heavy surf and no natural harbors
international agreements: 
  party to - Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone
  Layer Protection, Ship Pollution; signed, but not ratified -
  Biodiversity, Climate Change, Tropical Timber

@Cote d'Ivoire, People

Population: 
  14,295,501 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
  3.44% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
  46.52 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
  15.01 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
  2.86 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
  95 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
  48.92 years 
male: 
  46.75 years 
female: 
  51.16 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
  6.67 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
  Ivorian(s) 
adjective: 
  Ivorian 
Ethnic divisions: 
  Baoule 23%, Bete 18%, Senoufou 15%, Malinke 11%, Agni, foreign
  Africans (mostly Burkinabe and Malians, about 3 million), non-Africans
  130,000 to 330,000 (French 30,000 and Lebanese 100,000 to 300,000)
Religions: 
  indigenous 25%, Muslim 60%, Christian 12% 
Languages: 
  French (official), 60 native dialects Dioula is the most widely spoken
Literacy: 
  age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
  54% 
male: 
  67% 
female: 
  40% 
Labor force: 
  5.718 million 
by occupation: 
  over 85% of population engaged in agriculture, forestry, livestock
  raising; about 11% of labor force are wage earners, nearly half in
  agriculture and the remainder in government, industry, commerce, and
  professions
note: 
  54% of population of working age (1985)

@Cote d'Ivoire, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
  Republic of Cote d'Ivoire 
conventional short form: 
  Cote d'Ivoire 
local long form: 
  Republique de Cote d'Ivoire 
local short form: 
  Cote d'Ivoire 
former: 
  Ivory Coast 
Digraph: 
  IV
Type: 
  republic multiparty presidential regime established 1960
Capital: 
  Yamoussoukro 
note: 
  although Yamoussoukro has been the capital since 1983, Abidjan remains
  the administrative center; foreign governments, including the United
  States, maintain presence in Abidjan
Administrative divisions: 
  50 departments (departements, singular - departement); Abengourou,
  Abidjan, Aboisso, Adzope, Agboville, Agnibilckrou, Bangolo, Beoumi,
  Biankouma, Bondoukou, Bongouanou, Bouafle, Bouake, Bouna, Boundiali,
  Dabakala, Daloa, Danane, Daoukro, Dimbokro, Divo, Duekoue,
  Ferkessedougou, Gagnoa, Grand-Lahou, Guiglo, Issia, Katiola, Korhogo,
  Lakota, Man, Mankono, Mbahiakro, Odienne, Oume, Sakassou, San-Pedro,
  Sassandra, Seguela, Sinfra, Soubre, Tabou, Tanda, Tingrela, Tiassale,
  Touba, Toumodi, Vavoua, Yamoussoukro, Zuenoula
Independence: 
  7 August 1960 (from France)
National holiday: 
  National Day, 7 December 
Constitution: 
  3 November 1960; has been amended numerous times, last time November
  1990
Legal system: 
  based on French civil law system and customary law; judicial review in
  the Constitutional Chamber of the Supreme Court; has not accepted
  compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 
  21 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
  President Henri Konan BEDIE (since 7 December 1993) constitutional
  successor who will serve during the remainder of the term of former
  President Felix HOUPHOUET-BOIGNY who died in office after continuous
  service from November 1960 (next election October 1995)
head of government: 
  Prime Minister Kablan Daniel DUNCAN (since 10 December 1993) 
cabinet: 
  Council of Ministers; appointed by the prime minister
Legislative branch: 
  unicameral
National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale): 
  elections last held 25 November 1990 (next to be held November 1995);
  results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (175 total) PDCI 163,
  FPI 9, PIT 1, independents 2
Judicial branch: 
  Supreme Court (Cour Supreme) 
Political parties and leaders: 
  Democratic Party of the Cote d'Ivoire (PDCI), Henri Konan BEDIE;
  Ivorian Popular Front (FPI), Laurent GBAGBO; Ivorian Worker's Party
  (PIT), Francis WODIE; Ivorian Socialist Party (PSI), Morifere BAMBA;
  over 20 smaller parties
Member of: 
  ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEAO, ECA, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-24, G-77,
  GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT,
  INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU,
  WADB, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador Jean-Marie KACOU-GERVAIS 
chancery: 
  2424 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
  (202) 797-0300 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador Hume A. HORAN 
embassy: 
  5 Rue Jesse Owens, Abidjan 
mailing address: 
  01 B. P. 1712, Abidjan 
telephone: 
  [225] 21-09-79 or 21-46-72 
FAX: 
  [225] 22-32-59 
Flag: 
  three equal vertical bands of orange (hoist side), white, and green;
  similar to the flag of Ireland, which is longer and has the colors
  reversed - green (hoist side), white, and orange; also similar to the
  flag of Italy, which is green (hoist side), white, and red; design was
  based on the flag of France

@Cote d'Ivoire, Economy

Overview: 
  Cote d'Ivoire is among the world's largest producers and exporters of
  coffee, cocoa beans, and palm-kernel oil. Consequently, the economy is
  highly sensitive to fluctuations in international prices for coffee
  and cocoa and to weather conditions. Despite attempts by the
  government to diversify, the economy is still largely dependent on
  agriculture and related industries. The agricultural sector accounts
  for over one-third of GDP and about 80% of export earnings and employs
  about 85% of the labor force. A collapse of world cocoa and coffee
  prices in 1986 threw the economy into a recession, from which the
  country has yet to fully recover. Continuing weak prices for commodity
  exports, a bloated public-sector wage bill, and a large foreign debt
  will continue to constrain economic development, this despite the 50%
  currency devaluation in January 1994 designed to restore international
  price competitiveness. A large, non-competitive import-substitution
  sector continues to thrive under steep tariff and import quota
  barriers.
National product: 
  GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $21 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
  NA
National product per capita: 
  $1,500 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
  1% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
  14% (1985)
Budget: 
revenues: 
  $2.3 billion 
expenditures: 
  $3.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $274 million (1990
  est.)
Exports: 
  $2.8 billion (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities: 
  cocoa 30%, coffee 20%, tropical woods 11%, petroleum, cotton, bananas,
  pineapples, palm oil, cotton
partners: 
  France, FRG, Netherlands, US, Belgium, Spain (1985)
Imports: 
  $1.6 billion (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities: 
  food, capital goods, consumer goods, fuel
partners: 
  France 29%, other EC 29%, Nigeria 16%, US 4%, Japan 3% (1989)
External debt: 
  $17.3 billion (1993 est.)
Industrial production: 
  growth rate 6% (1990); accounts for 11% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
  1,210,000 kW
production: 
  1.97 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
  150 kWh (1991)
Industries: 
  foodstuffs, wood processing, oil refinery, automobile assembly,
  textiles, fertilizer, beverage
Agriculture: 
  most important sector, contributing one-third to GDP and 80% to
  exports; cash crops include coffee, cocoa beans, timber, bananas, palm
  kernels, rubber; food crops - corn, rice, manioc, sweet potatoes; not
  self-sufficient in bread grain and dairy products
Illicit drugs: 
  illicit producer of cannabis; mostly for local consumption; some
  international drug trade; transshipment point for Southwest and
  Southeast Asian heroin to Europe and occasionally to the US
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
  US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $356 million; Western
  (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-88), $5.2
  billion 
Currency: 
  1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates: 
  Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 592.05
  (January 1994), 283.16 (1993), 264.69 (1992), 282.11 (1991), 272.26
  (1990), 319.01 (1989)
note: 
  beginning 12 January 1994, the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF 100 per
  French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since 1948
Fiscal year: 
  calendar year

@Cote d'Ivoire, Communications

Railroads: 
  660 km (Burkina border to Abidjan, 1.00-meter gauge, single track,
  except 25 km Abidjan-Anyama section is double track)
Highways: 
total: 
  46,600 km 
paved: 
  3,600 km 
unpaved: 
  gravel, crushed stone, improved earth 32,000 km; unimproved earth
  11,000 km 
Inland waterways: 
  980 km navigable rivers, canals, and numerous coastal lagoons
Ports: 
  Abidjan, San-Pedro
Merchant marine: 
  8 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 92,828 GRT/ 134,606 DWT, bulk 1,
  chemical tanker 1, container 2, oil tanker 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 3
Airports: 
total: 
  41 
usable: 
  37 
with permanent-surface runways: 
  7 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
  0 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
  3 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
  15 
Telecommunications: 
  well-developed by African standards but operating well below capacity;
  consists of open-wire lines and radio relay microwave links; 87,700
  telephones; broadcast stations - 3 AM, 17 FM, 13 TV, 1 Atlantic Ocean
  and 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth station; 2 coaxial submarine cables

@Cote d'Ivoire, Defense Forces

Branches: 
  Army, Navy, Air Force, paramilitary Gendarmerie, Republican Guard,
  Military Fire Group 
Manpower availability: 
  males age 15-49 3,224,673; fit for military service 1,674,127; reach
  military age (18) annually 149,991 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
  exchange rate conversion - $200 million, 2.3% of GDP (1988)


@Croatia, Geography

Location: 
  Balkan State, Southeastern Europe, on the Balkan Peninsula, bordering
  the Adriatic Sea, between Slovenia and Bosnia and Herzegovina
Map references: 
  Africa, Ethnic Groups in Eastern Europe, Europe, Standard Time Zones
  of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
  56,538 sq km 
land area: 
  56,410 sq km 
comparative area: 
  slightly smaller than West Virginia
Land boundaries: 
  total 2,028 km, Bosnia and Herzegovina 932 km, Hungary 329 km, Serbia
  and Montenegro 266 km (241 km with Serbia; 25 km with Montenego),
  Slovenia 501 km 
Coastline: 
  5,790 km (mainland 1,778 km, islands 4,012 km)
Maritime claims: 
continental shelf: 
  200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 
  12 nm
exclusive fishing zone: 
  12 nm
territorial sea: 
  12 nm
International disputes: 
  Serbs have occupied UN protected areas in eastern Croatia and along
  the western Bosnia and Herzegovinian border; dispute with Slovenia
  over fishing rights in Adriatic
Climate: 
  Mediterranean and continental; continental climate predominant with
  hot summers and cold winters; mild winters, dry summers along coast
Terrain: 
  geographically diverse; flat plains along Hungarian border, low
  mountains and highlands near Adriatic coast, coastline, and islands
Natural resources: 
  oil, some coal, bauxite, low-grade iron ore, calcium, natural asphalt,
  silica, mica, clays, salt 
Land use: 
arable land: 
  32% 
permanent crops: 
  20% 
meadows and pastures: 
  18% 
forest and woodland: 
  15% 
other: 
  15% 
Irrigated land: 
  NA sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
  air pollution from metallurgical plants is damaging the forests;
  coastal pollution from industrial and domestic waste; widespread
  casualties and destruction of infrastructure in border areas affected
  by civil strife
natural hazards: 
  subject to frequent and destructive earthquakes
international agreements: 
  party to - Air Pollution, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone
  Layer Protection, Ship Pollution; signed, but not ratified -
  Biodiversity, Climate Change
Note: 
  controls most land routes from Western Europe to Aegean Sea and
  Turkish Straits

@Croatia, People

Population: 
  4,697,614 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
  0.07% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
  11.27 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
  10.54 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
  8.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
  73.6 years 
male: 
  70.14 years 
female: 
  77.26 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
  1.65 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
  Croat(s) 
adjective: 
  Croatian 
Ethnic divisions: 
  Croat 78%, Serb 12%, Muslim 0.9%, Hungarian 0.5%, Slovenian 0.5%,
  others 8.1% 
Religions: 
  Catholic 76.5%, Orthodox 11.1%, Slavic Muslim 1.2%, Protestant 0.4%,
  others and unknown 10.8% 
Languages: 
  Serbo-Croatian 96%, other 4% 
Literacy: 
total population: 
  NA%
male: 
  NA%
female: 
  NA%
Labor force: 
  1,509,489 
by occupation: 
  industry and mining 37%, agriculture 16% (1981 est.), government NA%,
  other 

@Croatia, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
  Republic of Croatia 
conventional short form: 
  Croatia 
local long form: 
  Republika Hrvatska 
local short form: 
  Hrvatska 
Digraph: 
  HR
Type: 
  parliamentary democracy 
Capital: 
  Zagreb 
Administrative divisions: 
  21 counties (zupanijas, zupanija - singular): Bjelovar-Bilogora, City
  of Zagreb, Dubrovnik-Neretva, Istra, Karlovac, Koprivnica-Krizevci,
  Krapina-Zagorje, Lika-Senj, Medimurje, Osijek-Baranja,
  Pozega-Slavonija, Primorje-Gorski Kotar, Sibenik, Sisak-Moslavina,
  Slavonski Brod-Posavina, Split-Dalmatia, Varazdin,
  Virovitica-Podravina, Vukovar-Srijem, Zadar-Knin, Zagreb
Independence: 
  NA June 1991 (from Yugoslavia)
National holiday: 
  Statehood Day, 30 May (1990) 
Constitution: 
  adopted on 2 December 1990
Legal system: 
  based on civil law system
Suffrage: 
  16 years of age, if employed;  18 years of age, universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
  President Franjo TUDJMAN (since 30 May 1990); election last held 4
  August 1992 (next to be held NA 1995); Franjo TUDJMAN reelected with
  about 56% of the vote; his opponent Dobroslav PARAGA got 5% of the
  vote
head of government: 
  Prime Minister Nikica VALENTIC (since 3 April 1993); Deputy Prime
  Ministers Mato GRANIC (since 8 September 1992), Ivica KOSTOVIC (since
  NA), Vladimir SEKS (since September 1992), Borislav SKEGRO (since NA) 
cabinet: 
  Council of Ministers; appointed by the president
Legislative branch: 
  bicameral parliament Assembly (Sabor)
House of Districts (Zupanije Dom): 
  elections last held 7 and 21 February 1993 (next to be held NA
  February 1997); seats - (68 total; 63 elected, 5 presidentially
  appointed) HDZ 37, HSLS 16, HSS 5, Istrian Democratic Assembly 3,
  SPH-SDP 1, HNS 1
House of Representatives (Predstavnicke Dom): 
  elections last held 2 August 1992 (next to be held NA August 1996);
  seats - (138 total) HDZ 85, HSLS 14, SPH-SDP 11, HNS 6, Dalmatian
  Action/Istrian Democratic Assembly/ Rijeka Democratic Alliance
  coalition 6, HSP 5, HSS 3, SNS 3, independents 5
Judicial branch: 
  Supreme Court, Constitutional Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
  Croatian Democratic Union (HDZ), Stjepan MESIC, chairman of the
  executive council; Croatian People's Party (HNS), Savka
  DABCEVIC-KUCAR, president; Serbian People's Party (SNS), Milan DUKIC;
  Croatian Party of Rights (HSP), leader NA; Croatian Social Liberal
  Party (HSLS), Drazen BUDISA, president; Croatian Peasant Party (HSS),
  leader NA; Dalmatian Action/Istrian Democratic Assembly/Rijecka
  Democratic Alliance coalition; Social Democratic Party of
  Croatia-Party of Democratic Changes (SPH-SDP), Ivica RACAN
Other political or pressure groups: 
  NA
Member of: 
  CE (guest), CEI, CSCE, ECE, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO,
  INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, NAM
  (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador Petr A. SARCEVIC 
chancery: 
  (temporary) 236 Massachusetts Avenue NE, Washington, DC 20002 
telephone: 
  (202) 543-5580 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador Peter W. GALBRAITH 
embassy: 
  Andrije Hebranga 2, Zagreb 
mailing address: 
  US Embassy, Zagreb, Unit 1345, APO AE 09213-1345 
telephone: 
  [385] (41) 444-800 
FAX: 
  [385] (41) 45 85 85 
Flag: 
  red, white, and blue horizontal bands with Croatian coat of arms (red
  and white checkered)

@Croatia, Economy

Overview: 
  Before the dissolution of Yugoslavia, the republic of Croatia, after
  Slovenia, was the most prosperous and industrialized area, with a per
  capita output roughly comparable to that of Portugal and perhaps
  one-third above the Yugoslav average. At present, Croatian Serb
  Nationalists control approximately one-third of the Croatian
  territory, and one of the overriding determinants of Croatia's
  long-term political and economic prospects will be the resolution of
  this territorial dispute. Croatia faces monumental economic problems
  stemming from: the legacy of longtime Communist mismanagement of the
  economy; large foreign debt; damage during the fighting to bridges,
  factories, power lines, buildings, and houses; the large refugee
  population, both Croatian and Bosnian; and the disruption of economic
  ties to Serbia and the other former Yugoslav republics, as well as
  within its own territory. At the minimum, extensive Western aid and
  investment, especially in the tourist and oil industries, would seem
  necessary to salvage a desperate economic situation. However, peace
  and political stability must come first; only then will recent
  government moves toward a "market-friendly" economy reverse the sharp
  drop in output. As of May 1994, fighting continues among Croats,
  Serbs, and Muslims, and national boundaries and final political
  arrangements are still in doubt.
National product: 
  GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $21.8 billion (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
  -19% (1992 est.)
National product per capita: 
  $4,500 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
  26% monthly average (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
  21% (December 1993)
Budget: 
revenues: 
  $NA
expenditures: 
  $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports: 
  $3.9 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: 
  machinery and transport equipment 30%, other manufacturers 37%,
  chemicals 11%, food and live animals 9%, raw materials 6.5%, fuels and
  lubricants 5% (1990)
partners: 
  EC countries, Slovenia
Imports: 
  $4.7 billion (c.i.f., 1993)
commodities: 
  machinery and transport equipment 21%, fuels and lubricants 19%, food
  and live animals 16%, chemicals 14%, manufactured goods 13%,
  miscellaneous manufactured articles 9%, raw materials 6.5%, beverages
  and tobacco 1% (1990)
partners: 
  EC countries, Slovenia, FSU countries
External debt: 
  $2.6 billion (December 1993)
Industrial production: 
  growth rate -5.9% (1993 est.)
Electricity: 
capacity: 
  3,570,000 kW
production: 
  11.5 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
  2,400 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
  chemicals and plastics, machine tools, fabricated metal, electronics,
  pig iron and rolled steel products, aluminum reduction, paper, wood
  products (including furniture), building materials (including cement),
  textiles, shipbuilding, petroleum and petroleum refining, food
  processing and beverages
Agriculture: 
  Croatia normally produces a food surplus; most agricultural land in
  private hands and concentrated in Croat-majority districts in Slavonia
  and Istria; much of Slavonia's land has been put out of production by
  fighting; wheat, corn, sugar beets, sunflowers, alfalfa, and clover
  are main crops in Slavonia; central Croatian highlands are less
  fertile but support cereal production, orchards, vineyards, livestock
  breeding, and dairy farming; coastal areas and offshore islands grow
  olives, citrus fruits, and vegetables
Economic aid: 
  $NA
Currency: 
  1 Croatian dinar (CD) = 100 paras; a new currency, the kuna, replaced
  the dinar on 30 May 1994
Exchange rates: 
  Croatian dinar per US $1 - 6,544 (January 1994), 3,637 (15 July 1993),
  60.00 (April 1992)
Fiscal year: 
  calendar year

@Croatia, Communications

Railroads: 
  2,592 km of standard guage (1.435 m) of which 864 km are electrified
  (1992); note - disrupted by territorial dispute
Highways: 
total: 
  32,071 km 
paved: 
  23,305 km 
unpaved: 
  gravel 8,439 km; earth 327 km (1990)
Inland waterways: 
  785 km perennially navigable
Pipelines: 
  crude oil 670 km; petroleum products 20 km; natural gas 310 km (1992);
  note - now disrupted because of territorial dispute
Ports: 
  coastal - Omisalj (oil), Ploce, Rijeka, Split; inland - Osijek,
  Slavonski Samac, Vukovar, Zupanja
Merchant marine: 
  28 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 108,194 GRT/131,880 DWT, cargo
  18, container 1, oil tanker 1, passenger 2, refrigerated cargo 1,
  roll-on/roll-off cargo 2, short-sea passenger 3 
note: 
  also controlled by Croatian shipowners are 151 ships (1,000 GRT or
  over) under flags of convenience - primarily Malta and St. Vincent -
  totaling 2,221,931 GRT/3,488,263 DWT; includes cargo 60, roll-on/
  roll-off 8, refrigerated cargo 4, container 12, multifunction large
  load carriers 3, bulk 45, oil tanker 9, liquified gas 1, chemical
  tanker 4, service vessel 5
Airports: 
total: 
  75 
usable: 
  70 
with permanent-surface runways: 
  16 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
  0 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
  7 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
  5 
Telecommunications: 
  350,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 14 AM, 8 FM, 12 (2 repeaters)
  TV; 1,100,000 radios; 1,027,000 TVs; satellite ground stations - none

@Croatia, Defense Forces

Branches: 
  Ground Forces, Naval Forces, Air and Air Defense Forces 
Manpower availability: 
  males age 15-49 1,182,767; fit for military service 946,010; reach
  military age (19) annually 33,166 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
  337 billion-393 billion Croatian dinars, NA% of GDP (1993 est.); note
  - conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the current
  exchange rate could produce misleading results


@Cuba, Geography

Location: 
  Caribbean, in the northern Caribbean Sea, 145 km south of Key West
  (Florida)
Map references: 
  Central America and the Caribbean, North America, Standard Time Zones
  of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
  110,860 sq km 
land area: 
  110,860 sq km 
comparative area: 
  slightly smaller than Pennsylvania
Land boundaries: 
  total 29 km, US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay 29 km 
note: 
  Guantanamo is leased and as such remains part of Cuba
Coastline: 
  3,735 km 
Maritime claims: 
exclusive economic zone: 
  200 nm
territorial sea: 
  12 nm
International disputes: 
  US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay is leased to US and only mutual
  agreement or US abandonment of the area can terminate the lease
Climate: 
  tropical; moderated by trade winds; dry season (November to April);
  rainy season (May to October)
Terrain: 
  mostly flat to rolling plains with rugged hills and mountains in the
  southeast
Natural resources: 
  cobalt, nickel, iron ore, copper, manganese, salt, timber, silica,
  petroleum 
Land use: 
arable land: 
  23% 
permanent crops: 
  6% 
meadows and pastures: 
  23% 
forest and woodland: 
  17% 
other: 
  31% 
Irrigated land: 
  8,960 sq km (1989)
Environment: 
current issues: 
  overhunting threatens wildlife populations; deforestation
natural hazards: 
  averages one hurricane every other year
international agreements: 
  party to - Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered
  Species, Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping,
  Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution; signed, but not ratified -
  Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Marine Life Conservation
Note: 
  largest country in Caribbean

@Cuba, People

Population: 
  11,064,344 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
  0.95% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
  16.59 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
  6.52 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
  -0.54 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
  10.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
  76.89 years 
male: 
  74.72 years 
female: 
  79.18 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
  1.83 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
  Cuban(s) 
adjective: 
  Cuban 
Ethnic divisions: 
  mulatto 51%, white 37%, black 11%, Chinese 1% 
Religions: 
  nominally Roman Catholic 85% prior to Castro assuming power
Languages: 
  Spanish 
Literacy: 
  age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
  94% 
male: 
  95% 
female: 
  93% 
Labor force: 
  4,620,800 economically active population (1988); 3,578,800 in state
  sector
by occupation: 
  services and government 30%, industry 22%, agriculture 20%, commerce
  11%, construction 10%, transportation and communications 7% (June
  1990)

@Cuba, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
  Republic of Cuba 
conventional short form: 
  Cuba 
local long form: 
  Republica de Cuba 
local short form: 
  Cuba 
Digraph: 
  CU
Type: 
  Communist state 
Capital: 
  Havana
Administrative divisions: 
  14 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia) and 1 special
  municipality* (municipio especial); Camaguey, Ciego de Avila,
  Cienfuegos, Ciudad de La Habana, Granma, Guantanamo, Holguin, Isla de
  la Juventud*, La Habana, Las Tunas, Matanzas, Pinar del Rio, Sancti
  Spiritus, Santiago de Cuba, Villa Clara
Independence: 
  20 May 1902 (from Spain 10 December 1898; administered by the US from
  1898 to 1902)
National holiday: 
  Rebellion Day, 26 July (1953) 
Constitution: 
  24 February 1976
Legal system: 
  based on Spanish and American law, with large elements of Communist
  legal theory; does not accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 
  16 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state and head of government: 
  President of the Council of State and President of the Council of
  Ministers Fidel CASTRO Ruz (Prime Minister from February 1959 until 24
  February 1976 when office was abolished; President since 2 December
  1976);  First Vice President of the Council of State and First Vice
  President of the Council of Ministers Gen. Raul CASTRO Ruz (since 2
  December 1976) 
cabinet: 
  Council of Ministers; proposed by the president of the Council of
  State, appointed by the National Assembly
Legislative branch: 
  unicameral
National Assembly of People's Power: 
  (Asamblea Nacional del Poder Popular) elections last held February
  1993; seats - 589 total, indirectly elected from slates approved by
  special candidacy commissions
Judicial branch: 
  People's Supreme Court (Tribunal Supremo Popular) 
Political parties and leaders: 
  only party - Cuban Communist Party (PCC), Fidel CASTRO Ruz, first
  secretary
Member of: 
  CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, ICAO, IFAD, ILO, IMO, INMARSAT,
  INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA
  (observer), LORCS, NAM, OAS (excluded from formal participation since
  1962), PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
  WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
  Principal Officer Alfonso FRAGA Perez (since August 1992) represented
  by the Cuban Interests Section of the Swiss Embassy in Washington, DC
chancery: 
  2630 and 2639 16th Street NW, US Interests Section, Swiss Embassy,
  Washington, DC 20009 
telephone: 
  (202) 797-8518 or 8519, 8520, 8609, 8610 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
  Principal Officer Joseph SULLIVAN 
US Interests Section: 
  USINT, Swiss Embassy, Calzada Entre L y M, Vedado Seccion, Havana 
mailing address: 
  use street address 
telephone: 
  33-3351 or 33-3543 
FAX: 
  no service available at this time 
note: 
  protecting power in Cuba is Switzerland - US Interests Section, Swiss
  Embassy
Flag: 
  five equal horizontal bands of blue (top and bottom) alternating with
  white; a red equilateral triangle based on the hoist side bears a
  white five-pointed star in the center

@Cuba, Economy

Overview: 
  Cuba's heavily statist economy remains in a severe depression as a
  result of the loss of massive amounts of economic aid from the former
  Soviet Bloc. In 1989-93, GDP declined by about 40% and import
  capability fell by about 80%. Reduced imports of fuel, spare parts,
  and chemicals combined with rainy weather to cut the production of
  sugar - the country's top export - from 7 million tons in 1992 to 4.3
  million tons in 1993, causing a loss of more than $400 million in
  export revenue. The government implemented several measures designed
  to stem the economic decline, e.g., legalizing the use of foreign
  currency by Cuban citizens in August 1993 in an attempt to increase
  remittances of foreign exchange from abroad. Authorities in September
  1993 began permitting self-employment in over 100 mostly service
  occupations. Also in September the government broke up many state
  farms into smaller, more autonomous cooperative units in an attempt to
  increase worker incentives and boost depressed food production levels.
  Fuel shortages persisted throughout 1993; draft animals and bicycles
  continued to replace motor-driven vehicles, and the use of electricity
  by households and factories was cut from already low levels. With the
  help of foreign investment, tourism has been one bright spot in the
  economy, with arrivals and earnings reaching record highs in 1993.
  Government officials have expressed guarded optimism for 1994, as the
  country struggles to achieve sustainable economic growth at a
  much-reduced standard of living.
National product: 
  GNP - purchasing power equivalent - $13.7 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
  -10% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
  $1,250 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
  NA%
Unemployment rate: 
  NA%
Budget: 
revenues: 
  $12.46 billion 
expenditures: 
  $14.45 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1990 est.)
Exports: 
  $1.5 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
  sugar, nickel, shellfish, tobacco, medical products, citrus, coffee
partners: 
  Russia 28%, Canada 9%, China 5%, Ukraine 5%, Japan 4%, Spain 4% (1993
  est.)
Imports: 
  $1.7 billion (c.i.f., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
  petroleum, food, machinery, chemicals
partners: 
  Venezuela 20%, China 9%, Spain 9%, Mexico 7%, Italy 4%, Canada 7%,
  France 8% (1993 est.)
External debt: 
  $6.8 billion (convertible currency, July 1989)
Industrial production: 
  growth rate NA%
Electricity: 
capacity: 
  3,889,000 kW
production: 
  16.248 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
  1,500 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
  sugar milling and refining, petroleum refining, food and tobacco
  processing, textiles, chemicals, paper and wood products, metals
  (particularly nickel), cement, fertilizers, consumer goods,
  agricultural machinery
Agriculture: 
  accounts for 11% of GNP (including fishing and forestry); key
  commercial crops - sugarcane, tobacco, and citrus fruits; other
  products - coffee, rice, potatoes, meat, beans; world's largest sugar
  exporter; not self-sufficient in food (excluding sugar); sector hurt
  by growing shortages of fuels and parts
Illicit drugs: 
  transshipment point for cocaine bound for the US
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
  Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
  (1970-89), $710 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $18.5 billion 
Currency: 
  1 Cuban peso (Cu$) = 100 centavos
Exchange rates: 
  Cuban pesos (Cu$) per US$1 - 1.0000 (non-convertible, official rate,
  linked to the US dollar)
Fiscal year: 
  calendar year

@Cuba, Communications

Railroads: 
  12,795 km total; Cuban National Railways operates 5,053 km of
  1.435-meter gauge track, including 151.7 km electrified; in addition,
  sugar plantation lines consist of 7,742 km of 0.914-meter and
  1.435-meter gauge track
Highways: 
total: 
  26,477 km 
paved: 
  14,477 km 
unpaved: 
  gravel or earth 12,000 km (1989)
Inland waterways: 
  240 km
Ports: 
  Cienfuegos, La Habana, Mariel, Matanzas, Santiago de Cuba; 7
  secondary, 35 minor
Merchant marine: 
  64 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 444,038 GRT/627,741 DWT, bulk 2,
  cargo 36, chemical tanker 1, liquefied gas 4, oil tanker 10, passenger
  cargo 1, refrigerated cargo 10 
note: 
  Cuba beneficially owns an additional 34 ships (1,000 GRT and over)
  totaling 529,090 DWT under the registry of Panama, Cyprus, and Malta
Airports: 
total: 
  187 
usable: 
  167 
with permanent-surface runways: 
  73 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
  3 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
  12 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
  19 
Telecommunications: 
  among the world's least developed telephone systems; 229,000
  telephones; telephone density - 20.7 per 1,000 persons; broadcast
  stations - 150 AM, 5 FM, 58 TV; 1,530,000 TVs; 2,140,000 radios; 1
  Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

@Cuba, Defense Forces

Branches: 
  Revolutionary Armed Forces (FAR) - including ground forces,
  Revolutionary Navy (MGR), Air and Air Defense Force (DAAFAR),
  Territorial Militia Troops (MTT), Youth Labor Army (EJT), and Interior
  Ministry Border Guard Troops 
Manpower availability: 
  males age 15-49 3,064,898; females age 15-49 3,088,810; males fit for
  military service 1,907,396; females fit for military service
  1,927,306; males reach military age (17) annually 81,536 (1994 est.);
  females reach military age (17) annually 78,612 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
  exchange rate conversion - approx. $600 million, 4% of GSP (gross
  social product) in 1993 was for defense
Note: 
  Moscow, for decades the key military supporter and supplier of Cuba,
  cut off military aid by 1993


@Cyprus, Geography

Location: 
  Middle East, in the eastern Mediterreanean Sea, 97 km west of Syria
  and 64 km west of Turkey
Map references: 
  Africa, Middle East, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
  9,250 sq km 
land area: 
  9,240 sq km 
comparative area: 
  about 0.7 times the size of Connecticut
Land boundaries: 
  0 km  
Coastline: 
  648 km 
Maritime claims: 
continental shelf: 
  200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
territorial sea: 
  12 nm
International disputes: 
  1974 hostilities divided the island into two de facto autonomous
  areas, a Greek area controlled by the Cypriot Government (60% of the
  island's land area) and a Turkish-Cypriot area (35% of the island),
  that are separated by a narrow UN buffer zone; in addition, there are
  two UK sovereign base areas (about 5% of the island's land area)
Climate: 
  temperate, Mediterranean with hot, dry summers and cool, wet winters
Terrain: 
  central plain with mountains to north and south
Natural resources: 
  copper, pyrites, asbestos, gypsum, timber, salt, marble, clay earth
  pigment 
Land use: 
arable land: 
  40% 
permanent crops: 
  7% 
meadows and pastures: 
  10% 
forest and woodland: 
  18% 
other: 
  25% 
Irrigated land: 
  350 sq km (1989)
Environment: 
current issues: 
  water resource problems (no natural reservoir catchments, seasonal
  disparity in rainfall, and most potable resources concentrated in the
  Turkish Cypriot area); water pollution from sewage and industrial
  wastes; coastal degradation; loss of wildlife habitats from
  urbanization
natural hazards: 
  moderate earthquake activity
international agreements: 
  party to - Air Pollution, Endangered Species, Environmental
  Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping,
  Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution; signed, but
  not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change

@Cyprus, People

Population: 
  730,084 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
  0.91% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
  16.69 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
  7.61 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
  9 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
  76.22 years 
male: 
  73.97 years 
female: 
  78.58 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
  2.32 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
  Cypriot(s) 
adjective: 
  Cypriot 
Ethnic divisions: 
  Greek 78%, Turkish 18%, other 4% 
Religions: 
  Greek Orthodox 78%, Muslim 18%, Maronite, Armenian, Apostolic, and
  other 4% 
Languages: 
  Greek, Turkish, English 
Literacy: 
  age 15 and over can read and write (1987 est.)
total population: 
  94% 
male: 
  98% 
female: 
  91% 
Labor force: 
Greek area: 
  285,500 
by occupation: 
  services 57%, industry 29%, agriculture 14% (1992)
Turkish area: 
  75,000 
by occupation: 
  services 52%, industry 22%, agriculture 26% (1992)

@Cyprus, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
  Republic of Cyprus 
conventional short form: 
  Cyprus 
Digraph: 
  CY
Type: 
  republic 
note: 
  a disaggregation of the two ethnic communities inhabiting the island
  began after the outbreak of communal strife in 1963; this separation
  was further solidified following the Turkish invasion of the island in
  July 1974, which gave the Turkish Cypriots de facto control in the
  north; Greek Cypriots control the only internationally recognized
  government; on 15 November 1983 Turkish Cypriot President Rauf
  DENKTASH declared independence and the formation of a "Turkish
  Republic of Northern Cyprus" (TRNC), which has been recognized only by
  Turkey; both sides publicly call for the resolution of intercommunal
  differences and creation of a new federal system of government
Capital: 
  Nicosia 
Administrative divisions: 
  6 districts; Famagusta, Kyrenia, Larnaca, Limassol, Nicosia, Paphos
Independence: 
  16 August 1960 (from UK)
National holiday: 
  Independence Day, 1 October (15 November (1983) is celebrated as
  Independence Day in the Turkish area) 
Constitution: 
  16 August 1960; negotiations to create the basis for a new or revised
  constitution to govern the island and to better relations between
  Greek and Turkish Cypriots have been held intermittently; in 1975
  Turkish Cypriots created their own Constitution and governing bodies
  within the "Turkish Federated State of Cyprus," which was renamed the
  "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" in 1983; a new Constitution for
  the Turkish area passed by referendum in 5 May 1985
Legal system: 
  based on common law, with civil law modifications
Suffrage: 
  18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state and head of government: 
  President Glafkos CLERIDES (since 28 February 1993); election last
  held 14 February 1993 (next to be held February 1998); results -
  Glafkos CLERIDES 50.3%, George VASSILIOU 49.7%
cabinet: 
  Council of Ministers; appointed jointly by the president and
  vice-president
note: 
  Rauf R. DENKTASH has been president of the Turkish area since 13
  February 1975; Hakki ATUN has been prime minister of the Turkish area
  since 1 January 1994; there is a Council of Ministers (cabinet) in the
  Turkish area
Legislative branch: 
  unicameral
House of Representatives (Vouli Antiprosopon): 
  elections last held 19 May 1991 (next to be held NA); results - DISY
  35.8%, AKEL (Communist) 30.6%, DIKO 19.5%, EDEK 10.9%; others 3.2%;
  seats - (56 total) DISY 20, AKEL (Communist) 18, DIKO 11, EDEK 7
Turkish Area: Assembly of the Republic (Cumhuriyet Meclisi):
  elections last held 12 December 1993 (next to be held NA); results -
  percent of vote by party NA; seats - (50 total) UBP (conservative) 17,
  DP 15, CTP 13, TKP 5
Judicial branch: 
  Supreme Court; note - there is also a Supreme Court in the Turkish
  area
Political parties and leaders: 
Greek Cypriot: 
  Progressive Party of the Working People (AKEL, Communist Party),
  Dimitrios CHRISTOFIAS; Democratic Rally (DISY), John MATSIS;
  Democratic Party (DIKO), Spyros KYPRIANOU; United Democratic Union of
  the Center (EDEK), Vassos LYSSARIDIS; Socialist Democratic Renewal
  Movement (ADISOK), Mikhalis PAPAPETROU; Liberal Party, Nikos ROLANDIS;
  Free Democrats, George VASSILIOU
Turkish area: 
  National Unity Party (UBP), Dervis EROGLU; Communal Liberation Party
  (TKP), Mustafa AKINCI; Republican Turkish Party (CTP), Ozker OZGUR;
  New Cyprus Party (YKP), Alpay DURDURAN; Social Democratic Party (SDP),
  Ergun VEHBI; New Birth Party (YDP), Ali Ozkan ALTINISHIK; Free
  Democratic Party (HDP), Ismet KOTAK; National Struggle Party (MSP),
  Zorlu TORE; Unity and Sovereignty Party (USP), Arif Salih KIRDAG;
  Democratic Party (DP), Hakki ATUN; Fatherland Party (VP), Orhan UCOK
note: 
  CTP, TKP, and YDP joined in the coalition Democratic Struggle Party
  (DMP) for the 22 April 1990 legislative election; the CTP and TKP
  boycotted the by-election of 13 October 1991, in which 12 seats were
  at stake; the DMP was dissolved after the 1990 election
Other political or pressure groups: 
  United Democratic Youth Organization (EDON, Communist controlled);
  Union of Cyprus Farmers (EKA, Communist controlled); Cyprus Farmers
  Union (PEK, pro-West); Pan-Cyprian Labor Federation (PEO, Communist
  controlled); Confederation of Cypriot Workers (SEK, pro-West);
  Federation of Turkish Cypriot Labor Unions (Turk-Sen); Confederation
  of Revolutionary Labor Unions (Dev-Is)
Member of: 
  C, CCC, CE, CSCE, EBRD, ECE, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC,
  ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL,
  IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAS (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
  UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador Andreas JACOVIDES 
chancery: 
  2211 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
  (202) 462-5772 
consulate(s) general: 
  New York 
note: 
  Representative of the Turkish area in the US is Namik KORMAN, office
  at 1667 K Street NW, Washington DC, telephone (202) 887-6198
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador Richard BOUCHER 
embassy: 
  corner of Metochiou and Ploutarchou Streets, Nicosia 
mailing address: 
  APO AE 09836 
telephone: 
  [357] (2) 476100 
FAX: 
  [357] (2) 465944 
Flag: 
  white with a copper-colored silhouette of the island (the name Cyprus
  is derived from the Greek word for copper) above two green crossed
  olive branches in the center of the flag; the branches symbolize the
  hope for peace and reconciliation between the Greek and Turkish
  communities
note: 
  the Turkish Cypriot flag has a horizontal red stripe at the top and
  bottom with a red crescent and red star on a white field

@Cyprus, Economy

Overview: 
  The Greek Cypriot economy is small, diversified, and prosperous.
  Industry contributes 16% to GDP and employs 29% of the labor force,
  while the service sector contributes 60% to GDP and employs 57% of the
  labor force. An average 6.8% rise in real GDP between 1986 and 1990
  was temporarily checked in 1991, because of the adverse effects of the
  Gulf War on tourism. Economic growth surged again in 1992, bolstered
  by strong foreign and domestic demand. As the economy gained momentum,
  however, it began to overheat; inflation reached 6.5%. The economy has
  likely recorded a sharp drop in growth in 1993, due to the recession
  in Western Europe, Cyprus' main trading partner, but probably will
  pick up again in 1994. The Turkish Cypriot economy has less than
  one-third the per capita GDP in the south. Because it is recognized
  only by Turkey, it has had much difficulty arranging foreign
  financing, and foreign firms have hesitated to invest there. The
  economy remains heavily dependent on agriculture, which employs more
  than one-quarter of the workforce. Moreover, because the Turkish lira
  is legal tender, the Turkish Cypriot economy has suffered the same
  high inflation as mainland Turkey. To compensate for the economy's
  weakness, Turkey provides direct and indirect aid to nearly every
  sector; financial support has reached about one-third of Turkish
  Cypriot GDP.
National product: 
Greek area: 
  GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $6.7 billion (1992)
Turkish area: 
  GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $550 million (1992)
National product real growth rate: 
Greek area: 
  8.2% (1992)
Turkish area: 
  7.3% (1992)
National product per capita: 
Greek area: 
  $11,390 (1992)
Turkish area: 
  $3,130 (1992)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
Greek area: 
  6.5% (1992)
Turkish area: 
  63.4% (1992)
Unemployment rate: 
Greek area: 
  1.8% (1992)
Turkish area: 
  1.2% (1992)
Budget: 
revenues: 
  Greek area - $1.7 billion 
  Turkish area -  $273 million 
expenditures: 
  Greek area - $2.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $350
  million 
  Turkish area - $360 million, including capital expenditures of $78
  million (1994)
Exports: 
  $1.1 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
  citrus, potatoes, grapes, wine, cement, clothing and shoes
partners: 
  UK 19%, Greece 8%, Lebanon 2%, Egypt 7%
Imports: 
  $3.3 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
  consumer goods, petroleum and lubricants, food and feed grains,
  machinery
partners: 
  UK 11%, Japan 11%, Italy 10%, Germany 9%, US 8%
External debt: 
  $1.6 billion (1992)
Industrial production: 
  growth rate 4% (1993 est.); accounts for 16.0% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
  620,000 kW
production: 
  1.77 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
  2,530 kWh (1991)
Industries: 
  food, beverages, textiles, chemicals, metal products, tourism, wood
  products
Agriculture: 
  contributes 7% to GDP and employs 26% of labor force in the south;
  major crops - potatoes, vegetables, barley, grapes, olives, citrus
  fruits; vegetables and fruit provide 25% of export revenues
Illicit drugs: 
  transit point for heroin via air routes and container traffic to
  Europe, especially from Lebanon and Turkey
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
  US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $292 million; Western
  (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $250
  million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $62 million; Communist
  countries (1970-89), $24 million 
Currency: 
  1 Cypriot pound (#C) = 100 cents; 1 Turkish lira (TL) = 100 kurus
Exchange rates: 
  Cypriot pounds per $US1 - 0.5148 (December 1993), 0.4970 (1993),
  0.4502 (1992), 0.4615 (1991), 0.4572 (1990), 0.4933 (1989); Turkish
  liras (TL) per US$1 - 15,196.1 (January 1994), 10,983.3 (1993),
  6,872.4 (1992), 4,171.8 (1991), 2,608.6 (1990), 2,121.7 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
  calendar year

@Cyprus, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
  10,780 km 
paved: 
  5,170 km 
unpaved: 
  gravel, crushed stone, earth 5,610 km 
Ports: 
  Famagusta, Kyrenia, Larnaca, Limassol, Paphos
Merchant marine: 
  1,399 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 22,743,484 GRT/39,874,985
  DWT, bulk 469, cargo 496, chemical tanker 27, combination bulk 48,
  combination ore/oil 32, container 82, liquefied gas 3, multifunction
  large load carrier 4, oil tanker 122, passenger 4, passenger-cargo 2,
  railcar carrier 1, refrigerated cargo 67, roll-on/roll-off cargo 24,
  short-sea passenger 12, specialized tanker 3, vehicle carrier 3 
note: 
  a flag of convenience registry; Cuba owns 26 of these ships, Russia
  owns 61, Latvia owns 7, Croatia owns 2, and Romania owns 4
Airports: 
total: 
  14 
usable: 
  14 
with permanent-surface runways: 
  11 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
  0 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
  7 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
  2 
Telecommunications: 
  excellent in both the area controlled by the Cypriot Government (Greek
  area), and in the Turkish-Cypriot administered area; 210,000
  telephones; largely open-wire and microwave radio relay; broadcast
  stations - 11 AM, 8 FM, 1 (34 repeaters) TV in Greek sector and 2 AM,
  6 FM and 1 TV in Turkish sector; international service by tropospheric
  scatter, 3 submarine cables, and satellite earth stations - 1 Atlantic
  Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT and EUTELSAT earth stations

@Cyprus, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Greek area: 
  Greek Cypriot National Guard (GCNG; including air and naval elements),
  Greek Cypriot Police 
Turkish area: 
  Turkish Cypriot Security Force 
Manpower availability: 
  males age 15-49 186,807; fit for military service 128,444; reach
  military age (18) annually 5,233 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
  exchange rate conversion - $407 million, 6.5% of GDP (1993)


@Czech Republic, Geography

Location: 
  Central Europe, between Germany and Slovakia
Map references: 
  Ethnic Groups in Eastern Europe, Europe, Standard Time Zones of the
  World 
Area: 
total area: 
  78,703 sq km 
land area: 
  78,645 sq km 
comparative area: 
  slightly smaller than South Carolina
Land boundaries: 
  total 1,880 km, Austria 362 km, Germany 646 km, Poland 658 km,
  Slovakia 214 km 
Coastline: 
  0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: 
  none; landlocked
International disputes: 
  Liechtenstein claims l,606 square miles of Czech territory confiscated
  from its royal family in 1918; Sudeten German claims for restitution
  of property confiscated in connection with their expulsion after World
  War II versus the Czech Republic claims that restitution does not
  proceed before February 1948 when the Communists seized power;
  unresolved property issues with Slovakia over redistribution of
  property of the former Czechoslovak federal government
Climate: 
  temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters
Terrain: 
  two main regions: Bohemia in the west, consisting of rolling plains,
  hills, and plateaus surrounded by low mountains; and Moravia in the
  east, consisting of very hilly country
Natural resources: 
  hard coal, soft coal, kaolin, clay, graphite 
Land use: 
arable land: 
  NA%
permanent crops: 
  NA%
meadows and pastures: 
  NA%
forest and woodland: 
  NA%
other: 
  NA%
Irrigated land: 
  NA sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
  air and water pollution in areas of northwest Bohemia centered around
  Zeplica and in northern Moravia around Ostrava presents health
  hazards; acid rain damaging forests
natural hazards: 
  NA 
international agreements: 
  party to - Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
  Pollution-Sulphur, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change,
  Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone
  Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified -
  Antarctic-Environmental Protocol
Note: 
  landlocked; strategically located astride some of oldest and most
  significant land routes in Europe; Moravian Gate is a traditional
  military corridor between the North European Plain and the Danube in
  central Europe

@Czech Republic, People

Population: 
  10,408,280 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
  0.21% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
  13.23 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
  11.14 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
  9.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
  73.08 years 
male: 
  69.38 years 
female: 
  76.99 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
  1.84 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
  Czech(s) 
adjective: 
  Czech 
Ethnic divisions: 
  Czech 94.4%, Slovak 3%, Polish 0.6%, German 0.5%, Gypsy 0.3%,
  Hungarian 0.2%, other 1% 
Religions: 
  atheist 39.8%, Roman Catholic 39.2%, Protestant 4.6%, Orthodox 3%,
  other 13.4% 
Languages: 
  Czech, Slovak 
Literacy: 
total population: 
  NA%
male: 
  NA%
female: 
  NA%
Labor force: 
  5.389 million 
by occupation: 
  industry 37.9%, agriculture 8.1%, construction 8.8%, communications
  and other 45.2% (1990)

@Czech Republic, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
  Czech Republic 
conventional short form: 
  Czech Republic 
local long form: 
  Ceska Republika 
local short form: 
  Cechy 
Digraph: 
  EZ
Type: 
  parliamentary democracy 
Capital: 
  Prague 
Administrative divisions: 
  8 regions (kraje, kraj - singular); Jihocesky, Jihomoravsky, Praha,
  Severocesky, Severomoravsky, Stredocesky, Vychodocesky, Zapadocesky
Independence: 
  1 January 1993 (from Czechoslovakia)
National holiday: 
  National Liberation Day, 9 May; Founding of the Republic, 28 October 
Constitution: 
  ratified 16 December 1992; effective 1 January 1993
Legal system: 
  civil law system based on Austro-Hungarian codes; has not accepted
  compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; legal code modified to bring it in line
  with Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE)
  obligations and to expunge Marxist-Leninist legal theory
Suffrage: 
  18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
  President Vaclav HAVEL (since 26 January 1993); election last held 26
  January 1993 (next to be held NA January 1998); results - Vaclav HAVEL
  elected by the National Council
head of government: 
  Prime Minister Vaclav KLAUS (since NA June 1992); Deputy Prime
  Ministers Ivan KOCARNIK, Josef LUX, Jan KALVODA (since NA June 1992) 
cabinet: 
  Cabinet; appointed by the president on recommendation of the prime
  minister
Legislative branch: 
  bicameral National Council (Narodni rada)
Senate: 
  elections not yet held; seats (81 total)
Chamber of Deputies: 
  elections last held 5-6 June 1992 (next to be held NA 1996); results -
  percent of vote by party NA; seats - (200 total) Civic Democratic
  Party/Christian Democratic Party 76, Left Bloc 35, Czech Social
  Democratic Party 16, Liberal Social Union 16, Christian Democratic
  Union/Czech People's Party 15, Assembly for the Republic/Republican
  Party 14, Civic Democratic Alliance 14, Movement for Self-Governing
  Democracy for Moravia and Silesia 14
Judicial branch: 
  Supreme Court, Constitutional Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
  Civic Democratic Party (ODS), Vaclav KLAUS, chairman; Christian
  Democratic Union-Czech People's Party (KDU-CSL), Josef LUX, chairman;
  Civic Democratic Alliance (ODA), Jan KALVODA, chairman; Christian
  Democratic Party (KDS), Ivan PILIP, chairman; Czech Social Democratic
  Party, Milos ZEMAN, chairman; Czech-Moravian Center Party, Jan KYCER,
  chairman; Liberal Social Union (LSU), Frantisek TRNKA; Communist Party
  of Bohemia/Moravia (KSCM), Miroslav GREBENICEK, chairman; Association
  for the Republic - Republican Party, Miroslav SLADEK, chairman; Left
  Bloc, Marie STIBOROVA, chairman
Other political or pressure groups: 
  Left Bloc; Liberal Party; Czech-Moravian Chamber of Trade Unions
Member of: 
  BIS, CCC, CE (guest), CEI, CERN, COCOM (cooperating), CSCE, EBRD, ECE,
  FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFC, IFCTU, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT,
  INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LORCS, NACC, NSG,
  PCA, UN (as of 8 January 1993), UNAVEM II, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
  UNOMIG, UNOMOZ, UNPROFOR, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador Michael ZANTOVSKY 
chancery: 
  3900 Spring of Freedom Street NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
  (202) 363-6315 or 6316 
FAX: 
  (202) 966-8540 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador Adrian A. BASORA 
embassy: 
  Trziste 15, 11801, Prague 1 
mailing address: 
  Unit 25402; APO AE 09213 
telephone: 
  [42] (2) 251-0847 
FAX: 
  [42] (2) 531-193 
Flag: 
  two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red with a blue
  isosceles triangle based on the hoist side (almost identical to the
  flag of the former Czechoslovakia)

@Czech Republic, Economy

Overview: 
  The dissolution of Czechoslovakia into two independent nation states -
  the Czech Republic and Slovakia - on 1 January 1993 has complicated
  the task of moving toward a more open and decentralized economy. The
  old Czechoslovakia, even though highly industrialized by East European
  standards, suffered from an aging capital plant, lagging technology,
  and a deficiency in energy and many raw materials. In January 1991,
  approximately one year after the end of communist control of Eastern
  Europe, the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic launched a sweeping
  program to convert its almost entirely state-owned and controlled
  economy to a market system. In 1991-92 these measures resulted in
  privatization of some medium- and small-scale economic activity and
  the setting of more than 90% of prices by the market - but at a cost
  in inflation, unemployment, and lower output. For Czechoslovakia as a
  whole inflation in 1991 was roughly 50% and output fell 15%. In 1992,
  in the Czech lands, inflation dropped to an estimated 12.5% and GDP
  was down a more moderate 5%. In 1993, Czech aggregate output remained
  unchanged, prices rose about 19%, and unemployment hovered above 3%;
  exports to Slovakia fell roughly 30%. An estimated 40% of the economy
  was privately owned. In 1994, Prague expects 2% to 3% growth in GDP,
  roughly 9% inflation, and 5% unemployment. Economic growth in 1994 is
  less important than continued economic restructuring; a mere 1% growth
  would be noteworthy if restructuring is accompanied by rising
  unemployment and enterprise bankruptcies.
National product: 
  GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $75 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
  0% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
  $7,200 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
  19% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
  3.3% (1993 est.)
Budget: 
revenues: 
  $11.9 billion 
expenditures: 
  $11.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1993 est.)
Exports: 
  $12.6 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
  manufactured goods, machinery and transport equipment, chemicals,
  fuels, minerals, and metals
partners: 
  Germany, Slovakia, Poland, Austria, Hungary, Italy, France, US, UK,
  CIS republics
Imports: 
  $12.4 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
  machinery and transport equipment, fuels and lubricants, manfactured
  goods, raw materials, chemicals, agricultural products
partners: 
  Slovakia, CIS republics, Germany, Austria, Poland, Switzerland,
  Hungary, UK, Italy
External debt: 
  $8.6 billion (October 1993)
Industrial production: 
  growth rate -5.5% (December 1993 over December 1992)
Electricity: 
capacity: 
  16,500,000 kW
production: 
  62.2 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
  6,030 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
  fuels, ferrous metallurgy, machinery and equipment, coal, motor
  vehicles, glass, armaments
Agriculture: 
  largely self-sufficient in food production; diversified crop and
  livestock production, including grains, potatoes, sugar beets, hops,
  fruit, hogs, cattle, and poultry; exporter of forest products
Illicit drugs: 
  transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and Latin American
  cocaine to Western Europe
Economic aid: 
donor: 
  the former Czechoslovakia was a donor - $4.2 billion in bilateral aid
  to non-Communist less developed countries (1954-89)
Currency: 
  1 koruna (Kc) = 100 haleru
Exchange rates: 
  koruny (Kcs) per US$1 - 30.122 (January 1994), 29.153 (1993), 28.26
  (1992), 29.53 (1991), 17.95 (1990), 15.05 (1989)
note: 
  values before 1993 reflect Czechoslovak exchange rates
Fiscal year: 
  calendar year

@Czech Republic, Communications

Railroads: 
  9,434 km total (1988)
Highways: 
total: 
  55,890 km (1988)
paved: 
  NA 
unpaved: 
  NA 
Inland waterways: 
  NA km; the Elbe (Labe) is the principal river
Pipelines: 
  natural gas 5,400 km 
Ports: 
  coastal outlets are in Poland (Gdynia, Gdansk, Szczecin), Croatia
  (Rijeka), Slovenia (Koper), Germany (Hamburg, Rostock); principal
  river ports are Prague on the Vltava, Decin on the Elbe (Labe)
Merchant marine: 
  18 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 225,934 GRT/350,330 DWT, bulk 7,
  cargo 11 
Airports: 
total: 
  155 
usable: 
  123 
with permanent-surface runways: 
  27 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
  1 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
  17 
with runways 1,060-2,439 m: 
  52 
note: 
  a C-130 can land on a 1,060-m airstrip
Telecommunications: 
  NA

@Czech Republic, Defense Forces

Branches: 
  Army, Air and Air Defense Forces, Civil Defense, Railroad Units 
Manpower availability: 
  males age 15-49 2,747,126; fit for military service 2,091,532; reach
  military age (18) annually 93,342 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
  23 billion koruny, NA% of GNP (1993 est.); note - conversion of
  defense expenditures into US dollars using the current exchange rate
  could produce misleading results


@Denmark, Geography

Location: 
  Nordic State, Northern Europe, bordering the North Sea on a peninsula
  north of Germany
Map references: 
  Arctic Region, Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
  43,070 sq km 
land area: 
  42,370 sq km 
comparative area: 
  slightly more than twice the size of Massachusetts
note: 
  includes the island of Bornholm in the Baltic Sea and the rest of
  metropolitan Denmark, but excludes the Faroe Islands and Greenland
Land boundaries: 
  total 68 km, Germany 68 km 
Coastline: 
  3,379 km 
Maritime claims: 
contiguous zone: 
  4 nm
continental shelf: 
  200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive fishing zone: 
  200 nm
territorial sea: 
  3 nm
International disputes: 
  Rockall continental shelf dispute involving Iceland, Ireland, and the
  UK (Ireland and the UK have signed a boundary agreement in the Rockall
  area); dispute between Denmark and Norway over maritime boundary in
  Arctic Ocean between Greenland and Jan Mayen has been settled by the
  International Court of Justice
Climate: 
  temperate; humid and overcast; mild, windy winters and cool summers
Terrain: 
  low and flat to gently rolling plains
Natural resources: 
  petroleum, natural gas, fish, salt, limestone 
Land use: 
arable land: 
  61% 
permanent crops: 
  0% 
meadows and pastures: 
  6% 
forest and woodland: 
  12% 
other: 
  21% 
Irrigated land: 
  4,300 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
  air pollution; nitrogen and phosphorus pollution of the North Sea;
  drinking and surface water becoming polluted from animal wastes
natural hazards: 
  NA 
international agreements: 
  party to - Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
  Pollution-Sulphur, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change,
  Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes,
  Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone
  Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber, Wetlands, Whaling;
  signed, but not ratified - Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds,
  Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Law of the Sea
Note: 
  controls Danish Straits linking Baltic and North Seas; about
  one-quarter of the population lives in Copenhagen

@Denmark, People

Population: 
  5,187,821 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
  0.23% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
  12.45 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
  11.28 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
  1.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
  6.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
  75.81 years 
male: 
  72.93 years 
female: 
  78.86 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
  1.68 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
  Dane(s) 
adjective: 
  Danish 
Ethnic divisions: 
  Scandinavian, Eskimo, Faroese, German 
Religions: 
  Evangelical Lutheran 91%, other Protestant and Roman Catholic 2%,
  other 7% (1988)
Languages: 
  Danish, Faroese, Greenlandic (an Eskimo dialect), German (small
  minority)
Literacy: 
  age 15 and over can read and write (1980 est.)
total population: 
  99% 
male: 
  NA%
female: 
  NA%
Labor force: 
  2,553,900 
by occupation: 
  private services 37.1%, government services 30.4%, manufacturing and
  mining 20%, construction 6.3%, agriculture, forestry, and fishing
  5.6%, electricity/gas/water 0.6% (1991)

@Denmark, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
  Kingdom of Denmark 
conventional short form: 
  Denmark 
local long form: 
  Kongeriget Danmark 
local short form: 
  Danmark 
Digraph: 
  DA
Type: 
  constitutional monarchy 
Capital: 
  Copenhagen 
Administrative divisions: 
  metropolitan Denmark - 14 counties (amter, singular - amt) and 1 city*
  (stad); Arhus, Bornholm, Frederiksborg, Fyn, Kbenhavn, Nordjylland,
  Ribe, Ringkbing, Roskilde, Snderjylland, Staden Kbenhavn*, Storstrm,
  Vejle, Vestsjaelland, Viborg
note: 
  see separate entries for the Faroe Islands and Greenland, which are
  part of the Danish realm and self-governing administrative divisions
Independence: 
  1849 (became a constitutional monarchy)
National holiday: 
  Birthday of the Queen, 16 April (1940) 
Constitution: 
  5 June 1953
Legal system: 
  civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts; accepts
  compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage: 
  21 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
  Queen MARGRETHE II (since NA January 1972); Heir Apparent Crown Prince
  FREDERIK, elder son of the Queen (born 26 May 1968) 
head of government: 
  Prime Minister Poul Nyrup RASMUSSEN (since NA January 1993) 
cabinet: 
  Cabinet; appointed by the monarch
Legislative branch: 
  unicameral
Parliament (Folketing): 
  elections last held 12 December 1990 (next to be held by December
  1994); results - Social Democratic Party 37.4%, Conservative Party
  16.0%, Liberal 15.8%, Socialist People's Party 8.3%, Progress Party
  6.4%, Center Democratic Party 5.1%, Radical Liberal Party 3.5%,
  Christian People's Party 2.3%, other 5.2%; seats - (179 total;
  includes 2 from Greenland and 2 from the Faroe Islands) Social
  Democratic 69, Conservative 30, Liberal 29, Socialist People's 15,
  Progress Party 12, Center Democratic 9, Radical Liberal 7, Christian
  People's 4
Judicial branch: 
  Supreme Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
  Social Democratic Party, Poul Nyrup RASMUSSEN; Conservative Party,
  Torben RECHENDORFF; Liberal Party, Uffe ELLEMANN-JENSEN; Socialist
  People's Party, Holger K. NIELSEN; Progress Party, Johannes SORENSEN;
  Center Democratic Party, Mimi Stilling JAKOBSEN; Radical Liberal
  Party, Marianne JELVED; Christian People's Party, Jann SJURSEN; Common
  Course, Preben Moller HANSEN; Danish Workers' Party
Member of: 
  AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE, CERN,
  COCOM, CSCE, EBRD, EC, ECE, EIB, ESA, FAO, G-9, GATT, IADB, IAEA,
  IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT,
  INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS, MTCR, NACC, NATO, NC,
  NEA, NIB, NSG, OECD, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO,
  UNIKOM, UNOMIG, UNMOGIP, UNPROFOR, UNTSO, UPU, WEU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO,
  WMO, ZC 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador Peter Pedersen DYVIG 
chancery: 
  3200 Whitehaven Street NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
  (202) 234-4300 
FAX: 
  (202) 328-1470 
consulate(s) general: 
  Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador Edward E. ELSON 
embassy: 
  Dag Hammarskjolds Alle 24, 2100 Copenhagen O 
mailing address: 
  APO AE 09716 
telephone: 
  [45] (31) 42-31-44 
FAX: 
  [45] (35) 43-0223 
Flag: 
  red with a white cross that extends to the edges of the flag; the
  vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side, and that
  design element of the DANNEBROG (Danish flag) was subsequently adopted
  by the other Nordic countries of Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden

@Denmark, Economy

Overview: 
  This modern economy features high-tech agriculture, up-to-date
  small-scale and corporate industry, extensive government welfare
  measures, comfortable living standards, and high dependence on foreign
  trade. Denmark's new center-left coalition government will concentrate
  on reducing the persistent high unemployment rate and the budget
  deficit as well as following the previous government's policies of
  maintaining low inflation and a current account surplus. In the face
  of recent international market pressure on the Danish krone, the
  coalition has also vowed to maintain a stable currency. The coalition
  hopes to lower marginal income taxes while maintaining overall tax
  revenues; boost industrial competitiveness through labor market and
  tax reforms and increased research and development funds; and improve
  welfare services for the neediest while cutting paperwork and delays.
  Prime Minister RASMUSSEN's reforms will focus on adapting Denmark to
  the criteria for European integration by 1999; although Copenhagen has
  won from the European Union (EU) the right to opt out of the European
  Monetary Union (EMU) if a national referendum rejects it. Denmark is,
  in fact, one of the few EU countries likely to fit into the EMU on
  time. Denmark is weathering the current worldwide slump better than
  many West European countries. As the EU's single market (formally
  established on 1 January 1993) gets underway, Danish economic growth
  is expected to pickup to around 2% in 1994. Danish approval of the
  Maastricht treaty on EU political and economic union in May 1993 has
  reversed the drop in investment, further boosting growth. The current
  account surplus remains strong as limitations on wage increases and
  low inflation - expected to be around 2% in 1994 - improve export
  competitiveness. Although unemployment is high, it remains stable
  compared to most European countries.
National product: 
  GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $95.6 billion (1993)
National product real growth rate: 
  0.5% (1993)
National product per capita: 
  $18,500 (1993)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
  1.8% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
  11.8% (1993 est.)
Budget: 
revenues: 
  $48 billion 
expenditures: 
  $55.7 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1993)
Exports: 
  $36.7 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: 
  meat and meat products, dairy products, transport equipment
  (shipbuilding), fish, chemicals, industrial machinery
partners: 
  EC 54.3% (Germany 23.6%, UK 10.1%, France 5.7%), Sweden 10.5%, Norway
  5.8%, US 4.9%, Japan 3.6% (1992)
Imports: 
  $29.7 billion (c.i.f., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
  petroleum, machinery and equipment, chemicals, grain and foodstuffs,
  textiles, paper
partners: 
  EC 53.4% (Germany 23.1%, UK 8.2%, France 5.6%), Sweden 10.8%, Norway
  5.4%, US 5.7%, Japan 4.1% (1992)
External debt: 
  $40 billion (1992 est.)
Industrial production: 
  growth rate -2.5% (1993 est.)
Electricity: 
capacity: 
  11,215,000 kW
production: 
  34.17 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
  6,610 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
  food processing, machinery and equipment, textiles and clothing,
  chemical products, electronics, construction, furniture, and other
  wood products, shipbuilding
Agriculture: 
  accounts for 4% of GDP and employs 5.6% of labor force (includes
  fishing and forestry); farm products account for nearly 15% of export
  revenues; principal products - meat, dairy, grain, potatoes, rape,
  sugar beets, fish; self-sufficient in food production
Economic aid: 
donor: 
  ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $5.9 billion 
Currency: 
  1 Danish krone (DKr) = 100 oere
Exchange rates: 
  Danish kroner (DKr) per US$1 - 6.771 (January 1994), 6.484 (1993),
  6.036 (1992), 6.396 (1991), 6.189 (1990), 7.310 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
  calendar year

@Denmark, Communications

Railroads: 
  2,770 km; Danish State Railways (DSB) operate 2,120 km (1,999 km rail
  line and 121 km rail ferry services); 188 km electrified, 730 km
  double tracked; 650 km of standard-gauge lines are privately owned and
  operated
Highways: 
total: 
  66,482 km 
paved: 
  concrete, asphalt, stone block 64,551 km 
unpaved: 
  gravel, crushed stone, improved earth 1,931 km 
Inland waterways: 
  417 km
Pipelines: 
  crude oil 110 km; petroleum products 578 km; natural gas 700 km 
Ports: 
  Alborg, Arhus, Copenhagen, Esbjerg, Fredericia; numerous secondary and
  minor ports
Merchant marine: 
  347 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,974,494 GRT/6,820,067 DWT,
  bulk 15, cargo 110, chemical tanker 24, combination bulk 1, container
  51, liquefied gas 36, livestock carrier 4, oil tanker 33, railcar
  carrier 1, refrigerated cargo 21, roll-on/roll-off cargo 39, short-sea
  passenger 12 
note: 
  Denmark has created its own internal register, called the Danish
  International Ship register (DIS); DIS ships do not have to meet
  Danish manning regulations, and they amount to a flag of convenience
  within the Danish register; by the end of 1990, 308 of the Danish-flag
  ships belonged to the DIS
Airports: 
total: 
  118 
usable: 
  109 
with permanent-surface runways: 
  28 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
  0 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
  9 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
  7 
Telecommunications: 
  excellent telephone, telegraph, and broadcast services; 4,509,000
  telephones; buried and submarine cables and microwave radio relay
  support trunk network; broadcast stations - 3 AM, 2 FM, 50 TV; 19
  submarine coaxial cables; 7 earth stations operating in INTELSAT,
  EUTELSAT, and INMARSAT

@Denmark, Defense Forces

Branches: 
  Royal Danish Army, Royal Danish Navy, Royal Danish Air Force, Home
  Guard 
Manpower availability: 
  males age 15-49 1,360,050; fit for military service 1,168,940; reach
  military age (20) annually 36,800 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
  exchange rate conversion - $2.6 billion, 2% of GDP (1993)


@Djibouti, Geography

Location: 
  Eastern Africa, at the entrance to the Red Sea between Eritrea and
  Somalia
Map references: 
  Africa, Middle East, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
  22,000 sq km 
land area: 
  21,980 sq km 
comparative area: 
  slightly larger than Massachusetts
Land boundaries: 
  total 508 km, Eritrea 113 km, Ethiopia 337 km, Somalia 58 km 
Coastline: 
  314 km 
Maritime claims: 
contiguous zone: 
  24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 
  200 nm
territorial sea: 
  12 nm
International disputes: 
  none
Climate: 
  desert; torrid, dry
Terrain: 
  coastal plain and plateau separated by central mountains
Natural resources: 
  geothermal areas 
Land use: 
arable land: 
  0% 
permanent crops: 
  0% 
meadows and pastures: 
  9% 
forest and woodland: 
  0% 
other: 
  91% 
Irrigated land: 
  NA sq km
Environment: 
current issues: 
  desertification
natural hazards: 
  prone to earthquakes, droughts
international agreements: 
  party to - Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ship Pollution; signed,
  but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change
Note: 
  strategic location near world's busiest shipping lanes and close to
  Arabian oilfields; terminus of rail traffic into Ethiopia; a vast
  wasteland

@Djibouti, People

Population: 
  412,599 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
  2.71% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
  42.94 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
  15.8 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
  111 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
  49.23 years 
male: 
  47.42 years 
female: 
  51.1 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
  6.21 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
  Djiboutian(s) 
adjective: 
  Djiboutian 
Ethnic divisions: 
  Somali 60%, Afar 35%, French, Arab, Ethiopian, and Italian 5% 
Religions: 
  Muslim 94%, Christian 6% 
Languages: 
  French (official), Arabic (official), Somali, Afar 
Literacy: 
  age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
  48% 
male: 
  63% 
female: 
  34% 
Labor force: 
  NA
by occupation: 
  a small number of semiskilled laborers at the port and 3,000 railway
  workers
note: 
  52% of population of working age (1983)

@Djibouti, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
  Republic of Djibouti 
conventional short form: 
  Djibouti 
former: 
  French Territory of the Afars and Issas  French Somaliland 
Digraph: 
  DJ
Type: 
  republic 
Capital: 
  Djibouti 
Administrative divisions: 
  5 districts (cercles, singular - cercle); 'Ali Sabih, Dikhil,
  Djibouti, Obock, Tadjoura
Independence: 
  27 June 1977 (from France)
National holiday: 
  Independence Day, 27 June (1977) 
Constitution: 
  multiparty constitution approved in referendum 4 September 1992
Legal system: 
  based on French civil law system, traditional practices, and Islamic
  law
Suffrage: 
  universal adult at age NA
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
  President HASSAN GOULED Aptidon (since 24 June 1977); election last
  held 7 May 1993 (next to be held NA 1999); results - President Hassan
  GOULED Aptidon was reelected
head of government: 
  Prime Minister BARKAT Gourad Hamadou (since 30 September 1978) 
cabinet: 
  Council of Ministers; responsible to the president
Legislative branch: 
  unicameral
Chamber of Deputies (Chambre des Deputes): 
  elections last held 18 December 1992; results - RPP is the only party;
  seats - (65 total) RPP 65
Judicial branch: 
  Supreme Court (Cour Supreme) 
Political parties and leaders: 
ruling party: 
  People's Progress Assembly (RPP), Hassan GOULED Aptidon
other parties: 
  Democratic Renewal Party (PRD), Mohamed Jama ELABE; Democratic
  National Party (PND), ADEN Robleh Awaleh
Other political or pressure groups: 
  Front for the Restoration of Unity and Democracy (FRUD) and
  affiliates; Movement for Unity and Democracy (MUD)
Member of: 
  ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AL, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB,
  IFAD, IFC, IGADD, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user),
  INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNESCO, UNCTAD, UNIDO,
  UPU, WHO, WMO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador Roble OLHAYE 
chancery: 
  Suite 515, 1156 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20005 
telephone: 
  (202) 331-0270 
FAX: 
  (202) 331-0302 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador Martin CHESES 
embassy: 
  Plateau du Serpent, Boulevard Marechal Joffre, Djibouti 
mailing address: 
  B. P. 185, Djibouti 
telephone: 
  [253] 35-39-95 
FAX: 
  [253] 35-39-40 
Flag: 
  two equal horizontal bands of light blue (top) and light green with a
  white isosceles triangle based on the hoist side bearing a red
  five-pointed star in the center

@Djibouti, Economy

Overview: 
  The economy is based on service activities connected with the
  country's strategic location and status as a free trade zone in
  northeast Africa. Djibouti provides services as both a transit port
  for the region and an international transshipment and refueling
  center. It has few natural resources and little industry. The nation
  is, therefore, heavily dependent on foreign assistance (an important
  supplement to GDP) to help support its balance of payments and to
  finance development projects. An unemployment rate of over 30%
  continues to be a major problem. Per capita consumption dropped an
  estimated 35% over the last five years because of recession, civil
  war, and a high population growth rate (including immigrants and
  refugees).
National product: 
  GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $500 million (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
  -1% (1992 est.)
National product per capita: 
  $1,200 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
  6% (1992)
Unemployment rate: 
  over 30% (1989)
Budget: 
revenues: 
  $170 million 
expenditures: 
  $203 million, including capital expenditures of $70 million (1991
  est.)
Exports: 
  $158 million (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities: 
  hides and skins, coffee (in transit)
partners: 
  Africa 47%, Middle East 40%, Western Europe 12%
Imports: 
  $334 million (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities: 
  foods, beverages, transport equipment, chemicals, petroleum products
partners: 
  Western Europe 48%, Asia 25%, Africa 8%
External debt: 
  $355 million (December 1990)
Industrial production: 
  growth rate 3% (1991 est.); manufacturing accounts for 12% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
  115,000 kW
production: 
  200 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
  580 kWh (1991)
Industries: 
  limited to a few small-scale enterprises, such as dairy products and
  mineral-water bottling
Agriculture: 
  accounts for only 2% of GDP; scanty rainfall limits crop production to
  mostly fruit and vegetables; half of population pastoral nomads
  herding goats, sheep, and camels; imports bulk of food needs
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
  US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY78-89), $39 million; Western
  (non-US) countries, including ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
  (1970-89), $1.1 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $149 million;
  Communist countries (1970-89), $35 million 
Currency: 
  1 Djiboutian franc (DF) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates: 
  Djiboutian francs (DF) per US$1 - 177.721 (fixed rate since 1973)
Fiscal year: 
  calendar year

@Djibouti, Communications

Railroads: 
  the Ethiopian-Djibouti railroad extends for 97 km through Djibouti
Highways: 
total: 
  2,900 km 
paved: 
  280 km 
unpaved: 
  improved, unimproved earth 2,620 km (1982)
Ports: 
  Djibouti
Merchant marine: 
  1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,369 GRT/3,030 DWT
Airports: 
total: 
  13 
usable: 
  11 
with permanent-surface runways: 
  2 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
  0 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
  2 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
  4 
Telecommunications: 
  telephone facilities in the city of Djibouti are adequate as are the
  microwave radio relay connections to outlying areas of the country;
  international connections via submarine cable to Saudi Arabia and by
  satellite to other countries; one ground station each for Indian Ocean
  INTELSAT and ARABSAT; broadcast stations - 2 AM, 2 FM, 1 TV

@Djibouti, Defense Forces

Branches: 
  Djibouti National Army (including Navy and Air Force), National
  Security Force (Force Nationale de Securite), National Police Force 
Manpower availability: 
  males age 15-49 99,811; fit for military service 58,346 
Defense expenditures: 
  exchange rate conversion - $26 million, NA% of GDP (1989)


@Dominica, Geography

Location: 
  Caribbean, in the eastern Caribbean Sea, about halfway between Puerto
  Rico and Trinidad and Tobago
Map references: 
  Central America and the Caribbean, South America, Standard Time Zones
  of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
  750 sq km 
land area: 
  750 sq km 
comparative area: 
  slightly more than four times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries: 
  0 km  
Coastline: 
  148 km 
Maritime claims: 
contiguous zone: 
  24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 
  200 nm
territorial sea: 
  12 nm
International disputes: 
  none
Climate: 
  tropical; moderated by northeast trade winds; heavy rainfall
Terrain: 
  rugged mountains of volcanic origin
Natural resources: 
  timber 
Land use: 
arable land: 
  9% 
permanent crops: 
  13% 
meadows and pastures: 
  3% 
forest and woodland: 
  41% 
other: 
  34% 
Irrigated land: 
  NA sq km
Environment: 
current issues: 
  NA 
natural hazards: 
  flash floods are a constant threat; occasional hurricanes
international agreements: 
  party to - Climate Change, Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea,
  Ozone Layer Protection

@Dominica, People

Population: 
  87,696 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
  1.32% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
  20.46 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
  4.98 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
  -2.23 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
  10.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
  76.96 years 
male: 
  74.12 years 
female: 
  79.95 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
  1.99 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
  Dominican(s) 
adjective: 
  Dominican 
Ethnic divisions: 
  black, Carib Indians 
Religions: 
  Roman Catholic 77%, Protestant 15% (Methodist 5%, Pentecostal 3%,
  Seventh-Day Adventist 3%, Baptist 2%, other 2%), none 2%, unknown 1%,
  other 5% 
Languages: 
  English (official), French patois 
Literacy: 
  age 15 and over having ever attended school (1970)
total population: 
  94% 
male: 
  94% 
female: 
  94% 
Labor force: 
  25,000 
by occupation: 
  agriculture 40%, industry and commerce 32%, services 28% (1984)

@Dominica, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
  Commonwealth of Dominica 
conventional short form: 
  Dominica 
Digraph: 
  DO
Type: 
  parliamentary democracy 
Capital: 
  Roseau 
Administrative divisions: 
  10 parishes; Saint Andrew, Saint David, Saint George, Saint John,
  Saint Joseph, Saint Luke, Saint Mark, Saint Patrick, Saint Paul, Saint
  Peter
Independence: 
  3 November 1978 (from UK)
National holiday: 
  Independence Day, 3 November (1978) 
Constitution: 
  3 November 1978
Legal system: 
  based on English common law
Suffrage: 
  18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
  President Crispin Anselm SORHAINDO (since 25 October 1993) election
  last held 4 October 1993 (next to be held NA October 1998); results -
  President Crispin Anselm SORHAINDO was elected by the House of
  Assembly to a five year term
head of government: 
  Prime Minister (Mary) Eugenia CHARLES (since 21 July 1980, elected for
  a third term 28 May 1990) 
cabinet: 
  Cabinet; appointed by the president on the advice of the prime
  minister
Legislative branch: 
  unicameral
House of Assembly: 
  elections last held 28 May 1990 (next to be held May 1995); results -
  percent of vote by party NA; seats - (30 total; 9 appointed senators
  and 21 elected representatives) DFP 11, UWP 6, DLP 4
Judicial branch: 
  Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
  Dominica Freedom Party (DFP), Brian ALLEYNE; Dominica Labor Party
  (DLP), Rosie DOUGLAS; United Workers Party (UWP), Edison JAMES
Other political or pressure groups: 
  Dominica Liberation Movement (DLM), a small leftist group
Member of: 
  ACCT, ACP, C, CARICOM, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICFTU, IDA,
  IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, LORCS, NAM (observer), OAS, OECS,
  UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WMO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
  Dominica has no chancery in the US
consulate(s) general: 
  New York 
US diplomatic representation: 
  no official presence since the Ambassador resides in Bridgetown
  (Barbados), but travels frequently to Dominica
Flag: 
  green with a centered cross of three equal bands - the vertical part
  is yellow (hoist side), black, and white - the horizontal part is
  yellow (top), black, and white; superimposed in the center of the
  cross is a red disk bearing a sisserou parrot encircled by 10 green
  five-pointed stars edged in yellow; the 10 stars represent the 10
  administrative divisions (parishes)

@Dominica, Economy

Overview: 
  The economy is dependent on agriculture and thus is highly vulnerable
  to climatic conditions. Agriculture accounts for about 30% of GDP and
  employs 40% of the labor force. Principal products include bananas,
  citrus, mangoes, root crops, and coconuts. Development of the tourist
  industry remains difficult because of the rugged coastline and the
  lack of an international airport.
National product: 
  GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $185 million (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
  2.6% (1992 est.)
National product per capita: 
  $2,100 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
  5.2% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
  15% (1992 est.)
Budget: 
revenues: 
  $70 million 
expenditures: 
  $84 million, including capital expenditures of $26 million (FY91 est.)
Exports: 
  $54.6 million (1992)
commodities: 
  bananas, soap, bay oil, vegetables, grapefruit, oranges
partners: 
  UK 50%, CARICOM countries, Italy, US
Imports: 
  $97.5 million (1992)
commodities: 
  manufactured goods, machinery and equipment, food, chemicals
partners: 
  US 25%, CARICOM, UK, Canada
External debt: 
  $92.8 million (1992)
Industrial production: 
  growth rate 4.2% (1992); accounts for 7% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
  7,000 kW
production: 
  16 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
  185 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
  soap, coconut oil, tourism, copra, furniture, cement blocks, shoes
Agriculture: 
  accounts for 30% of GDP; principal crops - bananas, citrus, mangoes,
  root crops, coconuts; bananas provide the bulk of export earnings;
  forestry and fisheries potential not exploited
Illicit drugs: 
  transshipment point for cocaine and marijuana bound for the US and
  Europe
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
  Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
  (1970-89), $120 million 
Currency: 
  1 EC dollar (EC$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates: 
  East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1 - 2.70 (fixed rate since 1976)
Fiscal year: 
  1 July - 30 June

@Dominica, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
  750 km 
paved: 
  370 km 
unpaved: 
  gravel or earth 380 km 
Ports: 
  Roseau, Portsmouth
Airports: 
total: 
  2 
usable: 
  2 
with permanent-surface runways: 
  2 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
  0 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
  0 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
  1 
Telecommunications: 
  4,600 telephones in fully automatic network; VHF and UHF link to Saint
  Lucia; new SHF links to Martinique and Guadeloupe; broadcast stations
  - 3 AM, 2 FM, 1 cable TV

@Dominica, Defense Forces

Branches: 
  Commonwealth of Dominica Police Force 
Defense expenditures: 
  $NA, NA% of GDP


@Dominican Republic, Geography

Location: 
  Caribbean, in the northern Caribbean Sea, about halfway between Cuba
  and Puerto Rico
Map references: 
  Central America and the Caribbean, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
  48,730 sq km 
land area: 
  48,380 sq km 
comparative area: 
  slightly more than twice the size of New Hampshire
Land boundaries: 
  total 275 km, Haiti 275 km 
Coastline: 
  1,288 km 
Maritime claims: 
contiguous zone: 
  24 nm
continental shelf: 
  200 nm or the outer edge of continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 
  200 nm
territorial sea: 
  6 nm
International disputes: 
  none
Climate: 
  tropical maritime; little seasonal temperature variation; seasonal
  variation in rainfall
Terrain: 
  rugged highlands and mountains with fertile valleys interspersed
Natural resources: 
  nickel, bauxite, gold, silver 
Land use: 
arable land: 
  23% 
permanent crops: 
  7% 
meadows and pastures: 
  43% 
forest and woodland: 
  13% 
other: 
  14% 
Irrigated land: 
  2,250 sq km (1989)
Environment: 
current issues: 
  water shortages; soil eroding into the sea damages coral reefs;
  deforestation
natural hazards: 
  subject to occasional hurricanes (July to October)
international agreements: 
  party to - Endangered Species, Marine Dumping, Marine Life
  Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection; signed, but
  not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of the Sea
Note: 
  shares island of Hispaniola with Haiti (eastern two-thirds is the
  Dominican Republic, western one-third is Haiti)

@Dominican Republic, People

Population: 
  7,826,075 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
  1.8% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
  24.87 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
  6.2 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
  -0.63 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
  51.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
  68.35 years 
male: 
  66.22 years 
female: 
  70.6 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
  2.8 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
  Dominican(s) 
adjective: 
  Dominican 
Ethnic divisions: 
  white 16%, black 11%, mixed 73% 
Religions: 
  Roman Catholic 95% 
Languages: 
  Spanish
Literacy: 
  age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
  83% 
male: 
  85% 
female: 
  82% 
Labor force: 
  2.3 million to 2.6 million
by occupation: 
  agriculture 49%, services 33%, industry 18% (1986)

@Dominican Republic, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
  Dominican Republic 
conventional short form: 
  none 
local long form: 
  Republica Dominicana 
local short form: 
  none 
Digraph: 
  DR
Type: 
  republic 
Capital: 
  Santo Domingo 
Administrative divisions: 
  29 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia) and 1 district*
  (distrito); Azua, Baoruco, Barahona, Dajabon, Distrito Nacional*,
  Duarte, Elias Pina, El Seibo, Espaillat, Hato Mayor, Independencia, La
  Altagracia, La Romana, La Vega, Maria Trinidad Sanchez, Monsenor
  Nouel, Monte Cristi, Monte Plata, Pedernales, Peravia, Puerto Plata,
  Salcedo, Samana, Sanchez Ramirez, San Cristobal, San Juan, San Pedro
  De Macoris, Santiago, Santiago Rodriguez, Valverde
Independence: 
  27 February 1844 (from Haiti)
National holiday: 
  Independence Day, 27 February (1844) 
Constitution: 
  28 November 1966
Legal system: 
  based on French civil codes
Suffrage: 
  18 years of age; universal and compulsory or married persons
  regardless of age
note: 
  members of the armed forces and police cannot vote
Executive branch: 
chief of state and head of government: 
  President Joaquin BALAGUER Ricardo (since 16 August 1986, fifth
  elected term began 16 August 1990); Vice President Carlos A. MORALES
  Troncoso (since 16 August 1986); election last held 16 May 1990 (next
  to be held May 1994); results - Joaquin BALAGUER (PRSC) 35.7%, Juan
  BOSCH Gavino (PLD) 34.4%, Jose Francisco PENA Gomez (PRD) 22.9%
cabinet: 
  Cabinet; nominated by the president
Legislative branch: 
  bicameral National Congress (Congreso Nacional)
Senate (Senado): 
  elections last held 16 May 1990 (next to be held May 1994); results -
  percent of vote by party NA; seats - (30 total) PRSC 16, PLD 12, PRD 2
Chamber of Deputies (Camara de Diputados): 
  elections last held 16 May 1990 (next to be held May 1994); results -
  percent of vote by party NA; seats - (120 total) PLD 44, PRSC 41, PRD
  33, PRI 2
Judicial branch: 
  Supreme Court (Corte Suprema) 
Political parties and leaders: 
Major parties: 
  Social Christian Reformist Party (PRSC), Joaquin BALAGUER Ricardo;
  Dominican Liberation Party (PLD), Juan BOSCH Gavino; Dominican
  Revolutionary Party (PRD), Jose Franciso PENA Gomez; Independent
  Revolutionary Party (PRI), Jacobo MAJLUTA
Minor parties: 
  National Veterans and Civilian Party (PNVC), Juan Rene BEAUCHAMPS
  Javier; Liberal Party of the Dominican Republic (PLRD), Andres Van Der
  HORST; Democratic Quisqueyan Party (PQD), Elias WESSIN Chavez;
  National Progressive Force (FNP), Marino VINICIO Castillo; Popular
  Christian Party (PPC), Rogelio DELGADO Bogaert; Dominican Communist
  Party (PCD), Narciso ISA Conde; Dominican Workers' Party (PTD), Ivan
  RODRIGUEZ; Anti-Imperialist Patriotic Union (UPA), Ignacio RODRIGUEZ
  Chiappini; Alliance for Democracy Party (APD), Maximilano Rabelais
  PUIG Miller, Nelsida MARMOLEJOS, Vicente BENGOA
note: 
  in 1983 several leftist parties, including the PCD, joined to form the
  Dominican Leftist Front (FID); however, they still retain individual
  party structures
Other political or pressure groups: 
  Collective of Popular Organzations (COP), leader NA
Member of: 
  ACP, CARICOM (observer), ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA,
  IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL,
  IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer), LORCS, NAM (guest), OAS, OPANAL,
  PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador Jose del Carmen ARIZA Gomez 
chancery: 
  1715 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
  (202) 332-6280 
FAX: 
  (202) 265-8057 
consulate(s) general: 
  Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, Mayaguez (Puerto Rico), Miami, New
  Orleans, New York, Philadelphia, San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto
  Rico) 
consulate(s): 
  Charlotte Amalie (Virgin Islands), Detroit, Houston, Jacksonville,
  Minneapolis, Mobile, Ponce (Puerto Rico), and San Francisco 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador Robert S. PASTORINO 
embassy: 
  corner of Calle Cesar Nicolas Penson and Calle Leopoldo Navarro, Santo
  Domingo 
mailing address: 
  Unit 5500, Santo Domingo; APO AA 34041-0008 
telephone: 
  (809) 541-2171 and 541-8100 
FAX: 
  (809) 686-7437 
Flag: 
  a centered white cross that extends to the edges, divides the flag
  into four rectangles - the top ones are blue (hoist side) and red, the
  bottom ones are red (hoist side) and blue; a small coat of arms is at
  the center of the cross

@Dominican Republic, Economy

Overview: 
  Rapid growth of free trade zones has led to a substantial expansion of
  manufacturing for export, especially of wearing apparel. Over the past
  decade, tourism has also increased in importance and is a major earner
  of foreign exchange and a source of new jobs. Agriculture remains a
  key sector of the economy. The principal commercial crop is sugarcane,
  followed by coffee, cotton, cocoa, and tobacco. Domestic industry is
  based on the processing of agricultural products, oil refining,
  minerals, and chemicals. Unemployment is officially reported at about
  30%, but there is considerable underemployment. Growth fell to a
  moderate 3% in 1993 because of power shortages in industry and
  political uncertainty which slowed down foreign investment.
National product: 
  GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $23 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
  3% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
  $3,000 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
  8% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
  30% (1993 est.)
Budget: 
revenues: 
  $1.4 billion 
expenditures: 
  $1.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1993 est.)
Exports: 
  $769 million (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: 
  ferronickel, sugar, gold, coffee, cocoa
partners: 
  US 56%, EC 22%, Puerto Rico 8% (1991)
Imports: 
  $2.2 billion (c.i.f., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
  foodstuffs, petroleum, cotton and fabrics, chemicals and
  pharmaceuticals
partners: 
  US 50%
External debt: 
  $4.7 billion (1993 est.)
Industrial production: 
  growth rate -0.1% (1991); accounts for 14% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
  2,283,000 kW
production: 
  5 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
  660 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
  tourism, sugar processing, ferronickel and gold mining, textiles,
  cement, tobacco
Agriculture: 
  accounts for 18% of GDP and employs 49% of labor force; sugarcane is
  the most important commercial crop, followed by coffee, cotton, cocoa,
  and tobacco; food crops - rice, beans, potatoes, corn, bananas; animal
  output - cattle, hogs, dairy products, meat, eggs; not self-sufficient
  in food
Illicit drugs: 
  transshipment point for South American drugs destined for the US and
  Europe
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
  US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY85-89), $575 million; Western
  (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $655
  million 
Currency: 
  1 Dominican peso (RD$) = 100 centavos
Exchange rates: 
  Dominican pesos (RD$) per US$1 - 12.841 (January 1994), 12.679 (1993),
  12.774 (1992), 12.692 (1991), 8.525 (1990), 6.340 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
  calendar year

@Dominican Republic, Communications

Railroads: 
  1,655 km total in numerous segments; 4 different gauges from 0.558 m
  to 1.435 m
Highways: 
total: 
  12,000 km 
paved: 
  5,800 km 
unpaved: 
  gravel or improved earth 5,600 km; unimproved earth 600 km 
Pipelines: 
  crude oil 96 km; petroleum products 8 km 
Ports: 
  Santo Domingo, Haina, San Pedro de Macoris, Puerto Plata
Merchant marine: 
  1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,587 GRT/1,165 DWT
Airports: 
total: 
  36 
usable: 
  31 
with permanent-surface runways: 
  12 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
  0 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
  4 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
  8 
Telecommunications: 
  relatively efficient domestic system based on islandwide microwave
  relay network; 190,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 120 AM, no FM,
  18 TV, 6 shortwave; 1 coaxial submarine cable; 1 Atlantic Ocean
  INTELSAT earth station

@Dominican Republic, Defense Forces

Branches: 
  Army, Navy, Air Force, National Police 
Manpower availability: 
  males age 15-49 2,114,606; fit for military service 1,333,049; reach
  military age (18) annually 81,919 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
  exchange rate conversion - $110 million, 0.7% of GDP (1993 est.)


@Ecuador, Geography

Location: 
  Western South America, bordering the Pacific Ocean at the Equator
  between Colombia and Peru
Map references: 
  South America, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
  283,560 sq km 
land area: 
  276,840 sq km 
comparative area: 
  slightly smaller than Nevada
note: 
  includes Galapagos Islands
Land boundaries: 
  total 2,010 km, Colombia 590 km, Peru 1,420 km 
Coastline: 
  2,237 km 
Maritime claims: 
continental shelf: 
  claims continental shelf between mainland and Galapagos Islands
territorial sea: 
  200 nm
International disputes: 
  three sections of the boundary with Peru are in dispute
Climate: 
  tropical along coast becoming cooler inland
Terrain: 
  coastal plain (costa), inter-Andean central highlands (sierra), and
  flat to rolling eastern jungle (oriente)
Natural resources: 
  petroleum, fish, timber 
Land use: 
arable land: 
  6% 
permanent crops: 
  3% 
meadows and pastures: 
  17% 
forest and woodland: 
  51% 
other: 
  23% 
Irrigated land: 
  5,500 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
  deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; water pollution
natural hazards: 
  subject to frequent earthquakes, landslides, volcanic activity;
  periodic droughts
international agreements: 
  party to - Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty,
  Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes,
  Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical
  Timber, Wetlands
Note: 
  Cotopaxi in Andes is highest active volcano in world

@Ecuador, People

Population: 
  10,677,067 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
  2.01% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
  25.82 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
  5.67 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
  39.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
  69.98 years 
male: 
  67.46 years 
female: 
  72.62 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
  3.08 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
  Ecuadorian(s) 
adjective: 
  Ecuadorian 
Ethnic divisions: 
  mestizo (mixed Indian and Spanish) 55%, Indian 25%, Spanish 10%, black
  10% 
Religions: 
  Roman Catholic 95% 
Languages: 
  Spanish (official), Indian languages (especially Quechua)
Literacy: 
  age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population: 
  88% 
male: 
  90% 
female: 
  86% 
Labor force: 
  2.8 million 
by occupation: 
  agriculture 35%, manufacturing 21%, commerce 16%, services and other
  activities 28% (1982)

@Ecuador, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
  Republic of Ecuador 
conventional short form: 
  Ecuador 
local long form: 
  Republica del Ecuador 
local short form: 
  Ecuador 
Digraph: 
  EC
Type: 
  republic 
Capital: 
  Quito 
Administrative divisions: 
  21 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Azuay, Bolivar,
  Canar, Carchi, Chimborazo, Cotopaxi, El Oro, Esmeraldas, Galapagos,
  Guayas, Imbabura, Loja, Los Rios, Manabi, Morona-Santiago, Napo,
  Pastaza, Pichincha, Sucumbios, Tungurahua, Zamora-Chinchipe
Independence: 
  24 May 1822 (from Spain)
National holiday: 
  Independence Day, 10 August (1809) (independence of Quito)
Constitution: 
  10 August 1979
Legal system: 
  based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
  jurisdiction
Suffrage: 
  18 years of age; universal, compulsory for literate persons ages
  18-65, optional for other eligible voters
Executive branch: 
chief of state and head of government: 
  President Sixto DURAN BALLEN Cordovez (since 10 August 1992); Vice
  President Alberto DAHIK Garzoni (since 10 August 1992); election
  runoff election held 5 July 1992 (next to be held NA 1996); results -
  Sixto DURAN BALLEN elected as president and Alberto DAHIK elected as
  vice president
cabinet: 
  Cabinet; appointed by the president
Legislative branch: 
  unicameral
National Congress (Congreso Nacional): 
  elections last held 17 May 1992 (next to be held 1 May 1994); results
  - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (77 total) PSC 20, PRE 15, PUR
  12, ID 7, PC 6, DP 5, PSE 3, MPD 3, PLRE 2, CFP 2, FRA 1, APRE 1
Judicial branch: 
  Supreme Court (Corte Suprema) 
Political parties and leaders: 
Center-Right parties: 
  Social Christian Party (PSC), Jaime NEBOT Saadi, president; Republican
  Unity Party (PUR), President Sixto DURAN BALLEN, leader; Conservative
  Party (PC), Vice President Alberto DAHIK, president
Center-Left parties: 
  Democratic Left (ID), Andres VALLEJO Arcos, Rodrigo BORJA Cevallos,
  leaders; Popular Democracy (DP), Jamil MANUAD Witt, president;
  Ecuadorian Radical Liberal Party (PLRE), Carlos Luis PLAZA Aray,
  director; Radical Alfarista Front (FRA), Jaime ASPIAZU Seminario,
  director
Populist parties: 
  Roldista Party (PRE), Abdala BUCARAM Ortiz, director; Concentration of
  Popular Forces (CFP), Rafael SANTELICES, director; Popular
  Revolutionary Action (APRE), Frank VARGAS Passos, leader; Assad
  Bucaram Party (PAB), Avicena BUCARAM, leader; People, Change, and
  Democracy (PCD), Raul AULESTIA, director
Far-Left parties: 
  Popular Democratic Movement (MPD), Jorge Fausto MORENO, director;
  Ecuadorian Socialist Party (PSE), Leon ROLDOS, leader; Broad Leftist
  Front (FADI), Jose Xavier GARAYCOA, president; Ecuadorian National
  Liberation (LN), Alfredo CASTILLO, director
Communists: 
  Communist Party of Ecuador (PCE, pro-North Korea), Rene Leon Mague
  MOSWUERRA, secretary general (5,000 members); Communist Party of
  Ecuador/Marxist-Leninist (PCMLE, Maoist), leader NA (3,000 members)
Member of: 
  AG, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA,
  IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES,
  LAIA, LORCS, NAM, OAS, ONUSAL, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
  UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador Edgar TERAN 
chancery: 
  2535 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009 
telephone: 
  (202) 234-7200 
consulate(s) general: 
  Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, San
  Diego, and San Francisco 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador Peter F. ROMERO 
embassy: 
  Avenida 12 de Octubre y Avenida Patria, Quito 
mailing address: 
  P. O. Box 538, Unit 5309, Quito, or APO AA 34039-3420 
telephone: 
  [593] (2) 562-890, 561-623 or 624 
FAX: 
  [593] (2) 502-052 
consulate(s) general: 
  Guayaquil 
Flag: 
  three horizontal bands of yellow (top, double width), blue, and red
  with the coat of arms superimposed at the center of the flag; similar
  to the flag of Colombia that is shorter and does not bear a coat of
  arms

@Ecuador, Economy

Overview: 
  Ecuador has substantial oil resources and rich agricultural areas.
  Growth has been uneven because of natural disasters, fluctuations in
  global oil prices, and government policies designed to curb inflation.
  Banana exports, second only to oil, have suffered as a result of
  import quotas of the European Union and banana blight. The new
  President Sixto DURAN-BALLEN, has a much more favorable attitude
  toward foreign investment than did his predecessor. Ecuador has
  implemented trade agreements with Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and
  Venezuela and has applied for GATT membership. At the end of 1991,
  Ecuador received a standby IMF loan of $105 million, which will permit
  the country to proceed with the rescheduling of Paris Club debt. In
  September 1992, the government launched a new, macroeconomic program
  that gives more play to market forces. In 1993, the DURAN-BALLEN
  administration adopted a rigorous austerity program that resulted in
  economic stabilization, with inflation cut in half and international
  reserves boosted to a record $1.3 billion. Growth in 1993 was perhaps
  only 2% due to falling export prices, notably oil, and slow progress
  on privatization.
National product: 
  GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $41.8 billion 
National product real growth rate: 
  2% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
  $4,000 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
  31% (1993)
Unemployment rate: 
  8% (1992)
Budget: 
revenues: 
  $1.9 billion 
expenditures: 
  $1.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1992)
Exports: 
  $3 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities: 
  petroleum 42%, bananas, shrimp, cocoa, coffee
partners: 
  US 53.4%, Latin America, Caribbean, EC countries
Imports: 
  $2.5 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities: 
  transport equipment, vehicles, machinery, chemicals
partners: 
  US 32.7%, Latin America, Caribbean, EC countries, Japan
External debt: 
  $12.7 billion (1992)
Industrial production: 
  growth rate 3.9% (1991); accounts for almost 30% of GDP, including
  petroleum
Electricity: 
capacity: 
  2,921,000 kW
production: 
  7.676 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
  700 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
  petroleum, food processing, textiles, metal works, paper products,
  wood products, chemicals, plastics, fishing, timber
Agriculture: 
  accounts for 18% of GDP and 35% of labor force (including fishing and
  forestry); leading producer and exporter of bananas and balsawood;
  other exports - coffee, cocoa, fish, shrimp; crop production - rice,
  potatoes, manioc, plantains, sugarcane; livestock sector - cattle,
  sheep, hogs, beef, pork, dairy products; net importer of foodgrains,
  dairy products, and sugar
Illicit drugs: 
  significant transit country for derivatives of coca originating in
  Colombia, Bolivia, and Peru; minor illicit producer of coca; importer
  of precursor chemicals used in production of illicit narcotics;
  important money-laundering hub
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
  US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $498 million; Western
  (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $2.15
  billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $64 million 
Currency: 
  1 sucre (S/) = 100 centavos
Exchange rates: 
  sucres (S/) per US$1 - 1,947.1 (October 1993), 1,534.0 (1992),
  1,046.25 (1991), 767.8 (1990), 767.78 (1990), 526.35 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
  calendar year

@Ecuador, Communications

Railroads: 
  965 km total; all 1.067-meter-gauge single track
Highways: 
total: 
  28,000 km 
paved: 
  3,600 km 
unpaved: 
  gravel or improved earth 17,400 km; unimproved earth 7,000 km 
Inland waterways: 
  1,500 km
Pipelines: 
  crude oil 800 km; petroleum products 1,358 km 
Ports: 
  Guayaquil, Manta, Puerto Bolivar, Esmeraldas
Merchant marine: 
  40 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 263,752 GRT/378,675 DWT, bulk 1,
  cargo 3, container 2, liquefied gas 1, oil tanker 14, passenger 3,
  refrigerated cargo 15, roll-on/roll-off cargo 1 
Airports: 
total: 
  211 
usable: 
  208 
with permanent-surface runways: 
  56 
with runway over 3,659 m: 
  1 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
  7 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
  21 
Telecommunications: 
  domestic facilities generally adequate; 318,000 telephones; telephone
  density - 30 per 1,000 persons; broadcast stations - 272 AM, no FM, 33
  TV, 39 shortwave; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

@Ecuador, Defense Forces

Branches: 
  Army (Ejercito Ecuatoriano), Navy (Armada Ecuatoriana), Air Force
  (Fuerza Aerea Ecuatoriana), National Police 
Manpower availability: 
  males age 15-49 2,734,988; fit for military service 1,850,989; reach
  military age (20) annually 111,707 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
  $NA, NA% of GDP


@Egypt, Geography

Location: 
  Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea,
  between Sudan and Libya
Map references: 
  Africa, Middle East, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
  1,001,450 sq km 
land area: 
  995,450 sq km 
comparative area: 
  slightly more than three times the size of New Mexico
Land boundaries: 
  total 2,689 km, Gaza Strip 11 km, Israel 255 km, Libya 1,150 km, Sudan
  1,273 km 
Coastline: 
  2,450 km 
Maritime claims: 
contiguous zone: 
  24 nm
continental shelf: 
  200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 
  not specified
territorial sea: 
  12 nm
International disputes: 
  administrative boundary with Sudan does not coincide with
  international boundary creating the "Hala'ib Triangle," a barren area
  of 20,580 sq km; the dispute over this area escalated in 1993, this
  area continues to be in dispute
Climate: 
  desert; hot, dry summers with moderate winters
Terrain: 
  vast desert plateau interrupted by Nile valley and delta
Natural resources: 
  petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, manganese, limestone,
  gypsum, talc, asbestos, lead, zinc 
Land use: 
arable land: 
  3% 
permanent crops: 
  2% 
meadows and pastures: 
  0% 
forest and woodland: 
  0% 
other: 
  95% 
Irrigated land: 
  25,850 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
  agricultural land being lost to urbanization and windblown sands;
  increasing soil salinization below Aswan High Dam; desertification;
  oil pollution threatening coral reefs, beaches, and marine habitats;
  other water pollution from agricultural pesticides, untreated sewage,
  and industrial effluents; water scarcity away from the Nile which is
  the only perennial water source; rapid growth in population
  overstraining natural resources
natural hazards: 
  periods of drought; subject to frequent earthquakes, landslides,
  volcanic activity; hot, driving windstorm called khamsin occurs in
  spring
international agreements: 
  party to - Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous
  Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
  Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber, Wetlands, Whaling;
  signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change
Note: 
  controls Sinai Peninsula, only land bridge between Africa and
  remainder of Eastern Hemisphere; controls Suez Canal, shortest sea
  link between Indian Ocean and Mediterranean; size, and juxtaposition
  to Israel, establish its major role in Middle Eastern geopolitics

@Egypt, People

Population: 
  60,765,028 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
  1.95% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
  28.69 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
  8.87 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
  -0.35 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
  76.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
  60.79 years 
male: 
  58.91 years 
female: 
  62.76 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
  3.77 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
  Egyptian(s) 
adjective: 
  Egyptian 
Ethnic divisions: 
  Eastern Hamitic stock (Egyptians, Bedouins, and Berbers) 99%, Greek,
  Nubian, Armenian, other European (primarily Italian and French) 1% 
Religions: 
  Muslim (mostly Sunni) 94% (official estimate), Coptic Christian and
  other 6% (official estimate)
Languages: 
  Arabic (official), English and French widely understood by educated
  classes  
Literacy: 
  age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
  48% 
male: 
  63% 
female: 
  34% 
Labor force: 
  15 million (1992 est.)
by occupation: 
  government, public sector enterprises, and armed forces 36%,
  agriculture 34%, privately owned service and manufacturing enterprises
  20% (1984)
note: 
  shortage of skilled labor; 2,500,000 Egyptians work abroad, mostly in
  Saudi Arabia and the Gulf Arab states (1993 est.)

@Egypt, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
  Arab Republic of Egypt 
conventional short form: 
  Egypt 
local long form: 
  Jumhuriyat Misr al-Arabiyah 
local short form: 
  none 
former: 
  United Arab Republic (with Syria) 
Digraph: 
  EG
Type: 
  republic 
Capital: 
  Cairo 
Administrative divisions: 
  26 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah); Ad Daqahliyah, Al
  Bahr al Ahmar, Al Buhayrah, Al Fayyum, Al Gharbiyah, Al Iskandariyah,
  Al Isma'iliyah, Al Jizah, Al Minufiyah, Al Minya, Al Qahirah, Al
  Qalyubiyah, Al Wadi al Jadid, Ash Sharqiyah, As Suways, Aswan, Asyu't,
  Bani Suwayf, Bur Sa'id, Dumyat, Janub Sina, Kafr ash Shaykh, Matruh,
  Qina, Shamal Sina, Suhaj
Independence: 
  28 February 1922 (from UK)
National holiday: 
  Anniversary of the Revolution, 23 July (1952) 
Constitution: 
  11 September 1971
Legal system: 
  based on English common law, Islamic law, and Napoleonic codes;
  judicial review by Supreme Court and Council of State (oversees
  validity of administrative decisions); accepts compulsory ICJ
  jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage: 
  18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
  President Mohammed Hosni MUBARAK (was made acting President on 6
  October 1981 upon the assassination of President SADAT and sworn in as
  president on 14 October 1981); national referendum held 4 October 1993
  validated Mubarak's nomination by the People's Assembly to a third
  6-year presidential term
head of government: 
  Prime Minister Atef Mohammed Najib SEDKY (since 12 November 1986) 
cabinet: 
  Cabinet; appointed by the president
Legislative branch: 
  bicameral
People's Assembly (Majlis al-Cha'b): 
  elections last held 29 November 1990 (next to be held NA November
  1995); results - NDP 86.3%, NPUG 1.3%, independents 12.4%; seats -
  (454 total, 444 elected, 10 appointed by the president) NDP 383, NPUG
  6, independents 55; note - most opposition parties boycotted; NDP
  figures include NDP members who ran as independents and other
  NDP-affiliated independents
Advisory Council (Majlis al-Shura): 
  functions only in a consultative role; elections last held 8 June 1989
  (next to be held NA June 1995); results - NDP 100%; seats - (258
  total, 172 elected, 86 appointed by the president) NDP 172
Judicial branch: 
  Supreme Constitutional Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
  National Democratic Party (NDP), President Mohammed Hosni MUBARAK,
  leader, is the dominant party; legal opposition parties are; New Wafd
  Party (NWP), Fu'ad SIRAJ AL-DIN; Socialist Labor Party, Ibrahim
  SHUKRI; National Progressive Unionist Grouping (NPUG), Khalid
  MUHYI-AL-DIN; Socialist Liberal Party (SLP), Mustafa Kamal MURAD;
  Democratic Unionist Party, Mohammed 'Abd-al-Mun'im TURK; Umma Party,
  Ahmad al-SABAHI; Misr al-Fatah Party (Young Egypt Party), Ali al-Din
  SALIH; Nasserist Arab Democratic Party, Dia' al-din DAWUD; Democratic
  Peoples' Party, Anwar AFIFI; The Greens Party, Kamal KIRAH
note: 
  formation of political parties must be approved by government
Other political or pressure groups: 
  the constitution bans religious-based political parties; nonetheless,
  the government tolerates limited political activity by the technically
  illegal Muslim Brotherhood, which constitutes Mubarak's chief
  political opposition; trade unions and professional associations are
  officially sanctioned
Member of: 
  ABEDA, ACC, ACCT (associate), AfDB, AFESD, AG (observer), AL, AMF,
  CAEU, CCC, EBRD, ECA, ESCWA, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, GATT, IAEA,
  IBRD, ICAO, ICC, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT,
  INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS, MINURSO, NAM, OAPEC,
  OAS (observer), OAU, OIC, PCA, UN, UNAVEM II, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
  UNOMOZ, UNOSOM, UNPROFOR, UNTAC, UPU, UNRWA, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador Ahmed Maher El SAYED 
chancery: 
  2310 Decatur Place NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
  (202) 232-5400 
consulate(s) general: 
  Chicago, Houston, New York, and San Francisco 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador Edward WALKER 
embassy: 
  (North Gate) 8, Kamel El-Din Saleh Street, Garden City, Cairo 
mailing address: 
  APO AE 09839-4900 
telephone: 
  [20] (2) 355-7371 
FAX: 
  [20] (2) 357-3200 
Flag: 
  three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black with the
  national emblem (a shield superimposed on a golden eagle facing the
  hoist side above a scroll bearing the name of the country in Arabic)
  centered in the white band; similar to the flag of Yemen, which has a
  plain white band; also similar to the flag of Syria that has two green
  stars and to the flag of Iraq, which has three green stars (plus an
  Arabic inscription) in a horizontal line centered in the white band

@Egypt, Economy

Overview: 
  Egypt has one of the largest public sectors of all the Third World
  economies, most industrial plants being owned by the government.
  Overregulation holds back technical modernization and foreign
  investment. Even so, the economy grew rapidly during the late 1970s
  and early 1980s, but in 1986 the collapse of world oil prices and an
  increasingly heavy burden of debt servicing led Egypt to begin
  negotiations with the IMF for balance-of-payments support. Egypt's
  first IMF standby arrangement concluded in mid-1987 was suspended in
  early 1988 because of the government's failure to adopt promised
  reforms. Egypt signed a follow-on program with the IMF and also
  negotiated a structural adjustment loan with the World Bank in 1991.
  In 1991-93 the government made solid progress on administrative
  reforms such as liberalizing exchange and interest rates but resisted
  implementing major structural reforms like streamlining the public
  sector. As a result, the economy has not gained momentum and
  unemployment has become a growing problem. Egypt probably will
  continue making uneven progress in implementing the successor programs
  with the IMF and World Bank it signed onto in late 1993. In 1992-93
  tourism plunged 20% or so because of sporadic attacks by Islamic
  extremists on tourist groups. President MUBARAK has cited population
  growth as the main cause of the country's economic troubles. The
  addition of about 1.4 million people a year to the already huge
  population of 60 million exerts enormous pressure on the 5% of the
  land area available for agriculture.
National product: 
  GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $139 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
  0.3% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
  $2,400 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
  11% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
  20% (1993 est.)
Budget: 
revenues: 
  $16.8 billion 
expenditures: 
  $19.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $3.4 billion (FY94
  est.)
Exports: 
  $3.5 billion (f.o.b., FY93 est.)
commodities: 
  crude oil and petroleum products, cotton yarn, raw cotton, textiles,
  metal products, chemicals
partners: 
  EC, Eastern Europe, US, Japan
Imports: 
  $10.5 billion (c.i.f., FY93 est.)
commodities: 
  machinery and equipment, foods, fertilizers, wood products, durable
  consumer goods, capital goods
partners: 
  EC, US, Japan, Eastern Europe
External debt: 
  $32 billion (March 1993 est.)
Industrial production: 
  growth rate -0.4% (FY92 est.); accounts for 18% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
  14,175,000 kW
production: 
  47 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
  830 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
  textiles, food processing, tourism, chemicals, petroleum,
  construction, cement, metals
Agriculture: 
  accounts for 20% of GDP and employs more than one-third of labor
  force; dependent on irrigation water from the Nile; world's
  sixth-largest cotton exporter; other crops produced include rice,
  corn, wheat, beans, fruit, vegetables; not self-sufficient in food for
  a rapidly expanding population; livestock - cattle, water buffalo,
  sheep, goats; annual fish catch about 140,000 metric tons
Illicit drugs: 
  a transit point for Southwest Asian and Southeast Asian heroin and
  opium moving to Europe and the US; popular transit stop for Nigerian
  couriers; large domestic consumption of hashish from Lebanon and Syria
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
  US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $15.7 billion; Western
  (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-88), $10.1
  billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $2.9 billion; Communist
  countries (1970-89),  $2.4 billion 
Currency: 
  1 Egyptian pound (#E) = 100 piasters
Exchange rates: 
  Egyptian pounds (#E) per US$1 - 3.369 (November 1993), 3.345 (November
  1992), 2.7072 (1990), 2.5171 (1989), 2.2233 (1988), 1.5183 (1987)
Fiscal year: 
  1 July - 30 June

@Egypt, Communications

Railroads: 
  5,110 km total; 4,763 km 1,435-meter standard gauge, 347 km
  0.750-meter gauge; 951 km double track; 25 km electrified
Highways: 
total: 
  45,500 km 
paved: 
  18,300 km 
unpaved: 
  gravel 12,503 km; earth 14,697 km 
Inland waterways: 
  3,500 km (including the Nile, Lake Nasser, Alexandria-Cairo Waterway,
  and numerous smaller canals in the delta); Suez Canal, 193.5 km long
  (including approaches), used by oceangoing vessels drawing up to 16.1
  meters of water
Pipelines: 
  crude oil 1,171 km; petroleum products 596 km; natural gas 460 km 
Ports: 
  Alexandria, Port Said, Suez, Bur Safajah, Damietta
Merchant marine: 
  171 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,08,208 GRT/1,617,890 DWT,
  bulk 16, cargo 88, container 1, oil tanker 14, passenger 27,
  refrigerated cargo 3, roll-on/roll-off cargo 15, short-sea passenger 7
Airports: 
total: 
  92 
usable: 
  82 
with permanent-surface runways: 
  66 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
  2 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
  45 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
  23 
Telecommunications: 
  large system by Third World standards but inadequate for present
  requirements and undergoing extensive upgrading; 600,000 telephones
  (est.) - 11 telephones per 1,000 persons; principal centers at
  Alexandria, Cairo, Al Mansurah, Ismailia Suez, and Tanta are connected
  by coaxial cable and microwave radio relay; international traffic is
  carried by satellite - one earth station for each of Atlantic Ocean
  INTELSAT, Indian Ocean INTELSAT, ARABSAT and INMARSAT; by 5 coaxial
  submarine cables, microwave troposcatter (to Sudan), and microwave
  radio relay (to Libya, Israel, and Jordan); broadcast stations - 39
  AM, 6 FM, and 41 TV

@Egypt, Defense Forces

Branches: 
  Army, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense Command 
Manpower availability: 
  males age 15-49 15,335,889; fit for military service 9,961,128; reach
  military age (20) annually 625,748 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
  exchange rate conversion - $2.05 billion, 6% of GDP (FY92/93)


@El Salvador, Geography

Location: 
  Middle America, bordering the North Pacific Ocean between Guatemala
  and Honduras
Map references: 
  Central America and the Caribbean, North America, Standard Time Zones
  of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
  21,040 sq km 
land area: 
  20,720 sq km 
comparative area: 
  slightly smaller than Massachusetts
Land boundaries: 
  total 545 km, Guatemala 203 km, Honduras 342 km 
Coastline: 
  307 km 
Maritime claims: 
territorial sea: 
  200 nm; overflight and navigation permitted beyond 12 nm
International disputes: 
  land boundary dispute with Honduras mostly resolved by 11 September
  1992 International Court of Justice (ICJ) decision; ICJ referred the
  maritime boundary in the Golfo de Fonseca to an earlier agreement in
  this century and advised that some tripartite resolution among El
  Salvador, Honduras and Nicaragua likely would be required
Climate: 
  tropical; rainy season (May to October); dry season (November to
  April)
Terrain: 
  mostly mountains with narrow coastal belt and central plateau
Natural resources: 
  hydropower, geothermal power, petroleum 
Land use: 
arable land: 
  27% 
permanent crops: 
  8% 
meadows and pastures: 
  29% 
forest and woodland: 
  6% 
other: 
  30% 
Irrigated land: 
  1,200 sq km (1989)
Environment: 
current issues: 
  deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution; contamination of soils
  from disposal of toxic wastes
natural hazards: 
  known as the Land of Volcanoes, subject to frequent and sometimes very
  destructive earthquakes and volcanic activity
international agreements: 
  party to - Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban,
  Ozone Layer Protection; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity,
  Climate Change, Law of the Sea
Note: 
  smallest Central American country and only one without a coastline on
  Caribbean Sea

@El Salvador, People

Population: 
  5,752,511 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
  2.04% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
  32.81 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
  6.36 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
  -6.08 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
  40.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
  66.99 years 
male: 
  64.41 years 
female: 
  69.71 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
  3.78 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
  Salvadoran(s) 
adjective: 
  Salvadoran 
Ethnic divisions: 
  mestizo 94%, Indian 5%, white 1% 
Religions: 
  Roman Catholic 75% 
note: 
  Roman Catholic about 75%; there is extensive activity by Protestant
  groups throughout the country; by the end of 1992, there were an
  estimated 1 million Protestant evangelicals in El Salvador
Languages: 
  Spanish, Nahua (among some Indians)
Literacy: 
  age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
  73% 
male: 
  76% 
female: 
  70% 
Labor force: 
  1.7 million (1982 est.)
by occupation: 
  agriculture 40%, commerce 16%, manufacturing 15%, government 13%,
  financial services 9%, transportation 6%, other 1%
note: 
  shortage of skilled labor and a large pool of unskilled labor, but
  manpower training programs improving situation (1984 est.)

@El Salvador, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
  Republic of El Salvador 
conventional short form: 
  El Salvador 
local long form: 
  Republica de El Salvador 
local short form: 
  El Salvador 
Digraph: 
  ES
Type: 
  republic 
Capital: 
  San Salvador 
Administrative divisions: 
  14 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Ahuachapan,
  Cabanas, Chalatenango, Cuscatlan, La Libertad, La Paz, La Union,
  Morazan, San Miguel, San Salvador, Santa Ana, San Vicente, Sonsonate,
  Usulutan
Independence: 
  15 September 1821 (from Spain)
National holiday: 
  Independence Day, 15 September (1821) 
Constitution: 
  20 December 1983
Legal system: 
  based on civil and Roman law, with traces of common law; judicial
  review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; accepts compulsory
  ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage: 
  18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state and head of government: 
  President Armando CALDERON SOL (since 1 June 1994); Vice President
  Enrique BORGO Bustamante (since 1 June 1994) election last held 20
  March 1994 (next to be held March 1999); results - Armando CALDERON
  SOL (ARENA) 49.03%, Ruben ZAMORA Rivas (CD/FMLN/MNR) 24.09%, Fidel
  CHAVEZ Mena (PDC) 16.39%, other 10.49%; because no candidate received
  a majority, run off election was held 24 April 1994; results - Armando
  CALDERON SOL (ARENA) 68.35%, Ruben ZAMORA Rivas (CD/FMLN/MNR) 31.65%
cabinet: 
  Council of Ministers 
Legislative branch: 
  unicameral
Legislative Assembly (Asamblea Legislativa): 
  elections last held 20 March 1994 (next to be held March 1997);
  results - ARENA 46.4%, FMLN 25.0%, PDC 21.4%, PCN 4.8%, other 2.4%;
  seats - (84 total) ARENA 39, FMLN 21, PDC 18, PCN 4, other 2
Judicial branch: 
  Supreme Court (Corte Suprema) 
Political parties and leaders: 
  National Republican Alliance (ARENA); Farabundo Marti National
  Liberation Front (FMLN) has five factions - Popular Liberation Forces
  (FPL), Armed Forces of National Resistance (FARN), Popular Expression
  of Renewal (ERP), Salvadoran Communist Party (PCES), and
  Central American Workers' Revolutionary Party (PRTC); Christian
  Democratic Party (PDC); National Conciliation Party (PCN); Democratic
  Convergence (CD), a coalition of three parties - the Social Democratic
  Party (PSD), Democratic Nationalist Union (UDN), and the Popular
  Social Christian Movement (MPSC); Authentic Christian Movement (MAC)
note: 
  new party leaders not yet designated at time of publication
Other political or pressure groups: 
labor organizations: 
  Salvadoran Communal Union (UCS), peasant association; General
  Confederation of Workers (CGT), moderate; United Workers Front (FUT)
business organizations: 
  Productive Alliance (AP), conservative; National Federation of
  Salvadoran Small Businessmen (FENAPES), conservative
Member of: 
  BCIE, CACM, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU,
  IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES, LAIA
  (observer), LORCS, NAM (observer), OAS, OPANAL, PCA, UN, UNCTAD,
  UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador Ana Cristina SOL 
chancery: 
  2308 California Street NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
  (202) 265-9671 or 9672 
consulate(s) general: 
  Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, and San
  Francisco 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador Alan H. FLANIGAN 
embassy: 
  Final Boulevard, Station Antigua Cuscatlan, San Salvador 
mailing address: 
  Unit 3116, San Salvador; APO AA 34023 
telephone: 
  [503] 78-4444 
FAX: 
  [503] 78-6011 
Flag: 
  three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and blue with the
  national coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms
  features a round emblem encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE EL
  SALVADOR EN LA AMERICA CENTRAL; similar to the flag of Nicaragua,
  which has a different coat of arms centered in the white band - it
  features a triangle encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE NICARAGUA on
  top and AMERICA CENTRAL on the bottom; also similar to the flag of
  Honduras, which has five blue stars arranged in an X pattern centered
  in the white band

@El Salvador, Economy

Overview: 
  The agricultural sector accounts for 24% of GDP, employs about 40% of
  the labor force, and contributes about 66% to total exports. Coffee is
  the major commercial crop, accounting for 45% of export earnings. The
  manufacturing sector, based largely on food and beverage processing,
  accounts for 19% of GDP and 15% of employment. In 1992-93 the
  government made substantial progress toward privatization and
  deregulation of the economy. Growth in national output in 1990-93
  exceeded growth in population for the first time since 1987, and
  inflation in 1993 of 12% was down from 17% in 1992
National product: 
  GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $14.2 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
  5% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
  $2,500 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
  12% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
  6.7% (1993)
Budget: 
revenues: 
  $846 million 
expenditures: 
  $890 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1992 est.)
Exports: 
  $730 million (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: 
  coffee, sugarcane, shrimp
partners: 
  US, Guatemala, Costa Rica, Germany
Imports: 
  $1.9 billion (c.i.f., 1993)
commodities: 
  raw materials, consumer goods, capital goods
partners: 
  US, Guatemala, Mexico, Venezuela, Germany
External debt: 
  $2.6 billion (December 1992)
Industrial production: 
  growth rate 7.6% (1993)
Electricity: 
capacity: 
  713,800 kW
production: 
  2.19 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
  390 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
  food processing, beverages, petroleum, nonmetallic products, tobacco,
  chemicals, textiles, furniture
Agriculture: 
  accounts for 24% of GDP and 40% of labor force (including fishing and
  forestry); coffee most important commercial crop; other products -
  sugarcane, corn, rice, beans, oilseeds, beef, dairy products, shrimp;
  not self-sufficient in food
Illicit drugs: 
  transshipment point for cocaine; marijuana produced for local
  consumption
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
  US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-90), $2.95 billion (plus $250
  million for 1992-96); Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF
  bilateral commitments (1970-89), $525 million 
Currency: 
  1 Salvadoran colon (C) = 100 centavos
Exchange rates: 
  Salvadoran colones (C) per US$1 - 8.720 (January 1994), 8.670 (1993),
  8.4500 (1992), 8.080 (1991), 8.0300 (1990), fixed rate of 5.000
  (1986-1989)
Fiscal year: 
  calendar year

@El Salvador, Communications

Railroads: 
  602 km 0.914-meter gauge, single track; some sections abandoned,
  unusable, or operating at reduced capacity
Highways: 
total: 
  10,000 km 
paved: 
  1,500 km 
unpaved: 
  gravel 4,100 km; improved, unimproved earth 4,400 km 
Inland waterways: 
  Rio Lempa partially navigable
Ports: 
  Acajutla, Cutuco
Airports: 
total: 
  107 
usable: 
  76 
with permanent-surface runways: 
  5 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
  0 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
  1 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
  6 
Telecommunications: 
  nationwide trunk microwave radio relay system; connection into Central
  American Microwave System; 116,000 telephones (21 telephones per 1,000
  persons); broadcast stations - 77 AM, no FM, 5 TV, 2 shortwave; 1
  Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

@El Salvador, Defense Forces

Branches: 
  Army, Navy, Air Force 
Manpower availability: 
  males age 15-49 1,351,641; fit for military service 866,010; reach
  military age (18) annually 74,181 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
  exchange rate conversion - $104 million, 1.1% of GDP (1994 est.)


@Equatorial Guinea, Geography

Location: 
  Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean between Cameroon
  and Gabon
Map references: 
  Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
  28,050 sq km 
land area: 
  28,050 sq km 
comparative area: 
  slightly larger than Maryland
Land boundaries: 
  total 539 km, Cameroon 189 km, Gabon 350 km 
Coastline: 
  296 km 
Maritime claims: 
exclusive economic zone: 
  200 nm
territorial sea: 
  12 nm
International disputes: 
  maritime boundary dispute with Gabon because of disputed sovereignty
  over islands in Corisco Bay
Climate: 
  tropical; always hot, humid
Terrain: 
  coastal plains rise to interior hills; islands are volcanic
Natural resources: 
  timber, petroleum, small unexploited deposits of gold, manganese,
  uranium 
Land use: 
arable land: 
  8% 
permanent crops: 
  4% 
meadows and pastures: 
  4% 
forest and woodland: 
  51% 
other: 
  33% 
Irrigated land: 
  NA sq km
Environment: 
current issues: 
  desertification
natural hazards: 
  subject to violent windstorms
international agreements: 
  party to - Nuclear Test Ban; signed, but not ratified - Law of the Sea
Note: 
  insular and continental regions rather widely separated

@Equatorial Guinea, People

Population: 
  409,550 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
  2.59% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
  40.65 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
  14.73 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
  102.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
  52.09 years 
male: 
  49.97 years 
female: 
  54.27 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
  5.28 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
  Equatorial Guinean(s) or Equatoguinean(s) 
adjective: 
  Equatorial Guinean or Equatoguinean 
Ethnic divisions: 
  Bioko (primarily Bubi, some Fernandinos), Rio Muni (primarily Fang),
  Europeans less than 1,000, mostly Spanish
Religions: 
  nominally Christian and predominantly Roman Catholic, pagan practices 
Languages: 
  Spanish (official), pidgin English, Fang, Bubi, Ibo 
Literacy: 
  age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
  50% 
male: 
  64% 
female: 
  37% 
Labor force: 
  172,000 (1986 est.)
by occupation: 
  agriculture 66%, services 23%, industry 11% (1980)
note: 
  labor shortages on plantations; 58% of population of working age
  (1985)

@Equatorial Guinea, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
  Republic of Equatorial Guinea 
conventional short form: 
  Equatorial Guinea 
local long form: 
  Republica de Guinea Ecuatorial 
local short form: 
  Guinea Ecuatorial 
former: 
  Spanish Guinea 
Digraph: 
  EK
Type: 
  republic in transition to multiparty democracy 
Capital: 
  Malabo 
Administrative divisions: 
  7 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Annobon, Bioko Norte,
  Bioko Sur, Centro Sur, Kie-Ntem, Litoral, Wele-Nzas
Independence: 
  12 October 1968 (from Spain)
National holiday: 
  Independence Day, 12 October (1968) 
Constitution: 
  new constitution 17 November 1991
Legal system: 
  partly based on Spanish civil law and tribal custom
Suffrage: 
  universal adult at age NA
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
  President Brig. Gen. (Ret.) Teodoro OBIANG NGUEMA MBASOGO (since 3
  August 1979) election last held 25 June 1989 (next to be held 25 June
  1996); results - President Brig. Gen. (Ret.) Teodoro OBIANG NGUEMA
  MBASOGO was reelected without opposition
head of government: 
  Prime Minister Silvestre SIALE BILEKA (since 17 January 1992); Vice
  Prime Minister Anatolio NDONG MBA (since November 1993); 
cabinet: 
  Council of Ministers; appointed by the president
Legislative branch: 
  unicameral
House of People's Representatives: 
  (Camara de Representantes del Pueblo) elections last held 21 November
  1993; seats - (82 total) PDGE 72, various opposition parties 10
Judicial branch: 
  Supreme Tribunal 
Political parties and leaders: 
  ruling - Democratic Party for Equatorial Guinea (PDGE), Brig. Gen.
  (Ret.) Teodoro OBIANG NGUEMA MBASOGO, party leader; Progressive
  Democratic Alliance (ADP), Antonio-Ebang Mbele Abang, president;
  Popular Action of Equatorial Guinea (APGE),Casiano Masi Edu, leader;
  Liberal Democratic Convention (CLD), Alfonso Nsue MOKUY, president;
  Convergence for Social Democracy (CPDS),Santiago Obama Ndong,
  president; Social Democratic and Popular Convergence (CSDP), Secundino
  Oyono Agueng Ada, general secretary; Party of the Social Democratic
  Coalition (PCSD), Buenaventura Moswi M'Asumu, general coordinater;
  Liberal Party (PL), leaders unknown; Party of Progress (PP), Severo
  MOTO Nsa, president; Social Democratic Party (PSD), Benjamin-Gabriel
  Balingha Balinga Alene, general secretary; Socialist Party of
  Equatorial Guinea (PSGE), Tomas MICHEBE Fernandez, general secretary;
  National Democratic Union (UDENA), Jose MECHEBA Ikaka, president;
  Democratic Social Union (UDS), Jesus Nze Obama Avomo, general
  secretary; Popular Union (UP), Juan Bitui, president
Member of: 
  ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA,
  IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC,
  ITU, LORCS (associate), NAM, OAS (observer), OAU, UDEAC, UN, UNCTAD,
  UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador DAMASO Obiang Ndong 
chancery: 
  (temporary) 57 Magnolia Avenue, Mount Vernon, NY 10553 
telephone: 
  (914) 738-9584 or 667-6913 
FAX: 
  (914) 667-6838 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador John E. BENNETT 
embassy: 
  Calle de Los Ministros, Malabo 
mailing address: 
  P.O. Box 597, Malabo 
telephone: 
  [240] (9) 2185, 2406, 2507 
FAX: 
  [240] (9) 2164 
Flag: 
  three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white, and red with a
  blue isosceles triangle based on the hoist side and the coat of arms
  centered in the white band; the coat of arms has six yellow
  six-pointed stars (representing the mainland and five offshore
  islands) above a gray shield bearing a silk-cotton tree and below
  which is a scroll with the motto UNIDAD, PAZ, JUSTICIA (Unity, Peace,
  Justice)

@Equatorial Guinea, Economy

Overview: 
  Agriculture, forestry, and fishing account for about half of GDP and
  nearly all exports. Subsistence farming predominates. Although
  pre-independence Equatorial Guinea counted on cocoa production for
  hard currency earnings, the deterioration of the rural economy under
  successive brutal regimes has diminished potential for agriculture-led
  growth. A number of AID programs sponsored by the World Bank and the
  international donor community have failed to revitalize export
  agriculture. There is little industry; businesses for the most part
  are owned by government officials and their family members. Commerce
  accounts for about 8% of GDP and the construction, public works, and
  service sectors for about 38%. Undeveloped natural resources include
  titanium, iron ore, manganese, uranium, and alluvial gold. Oil
  exploration, taking place under concessions offered to US, French, and
  Spanish firms, has been moderately successful. Increased production
  from recently discovered natural gas fields will provide a greater
  share of exports by 1995.
National product: 
  GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $280 million (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
  NA
National product per capita: 
  $700 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
  1.6% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
  NA%
Budget: 
revenues: 
  $32.5 million 
expenditures: 
  $35.9 million, including capital expenditures of $3 million (1992
  est.)
Exports: 
  $52.8 million (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities: 
  coffee, timber, cocoa beans
partners: 
  Spain 55.2%, Nigeria 11.4%, Cameroon 9.1% (1992)
Imports: 
  $63.6 million (c.i.f., 1992)
commodities: 
  petroleum, food, beverages, clothing, machinery
partners: 
  Cameroon 23.1%, Spain 21.8%, France 14.1%, US 4.3%
External debt: 
  $260 million (1992 est)
Industrial production: 
  growth rate -6.5% (1992 est.); accounts for 5% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
  23,000 kW
production: 
  60 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
  160 kWh (1991)
Industries: 
  fishing, sawmilling
Agriculture: 
  accounts for almost 50% of GDP, cash crops - timber and coffee from
  Rio Muni, cocoa from Bioko; food crops - rice, yams, cassava, bananas,
  oil palm nuts, manioc, livestock
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
  US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY81-89), $14 million; Western
  (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $130
  million; Communist countries (1970-89), $55 million 
Currency: 
  1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates: 
  Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 592.05
  (January 1994), 273,16 (1993), 264.69 (1992), 282.11 (1991), 272.26
  (1990), 319.01 (1989)
note: 
  beginning 12 January 1994, the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF 100 per
  French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since 1948
Fiscal year: 
  1 April - 31 March

@Equatorial Guinea, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
  2,760 km (2,460 km on Rio Muni and 300 km on Bioko)
paved: 
  NA 
unpaved: 
  NA 
Ports: 
  Malabo, Bata
Merchant marine: 
  2 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 6,412 GRT/6,699 DWT, cargo 1,
  passenger-cargo 1 
Airports: 
total: 
  3 
usable: 
  3 
with permanent-surface runways: 
  2 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
  0 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
  1 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
  1 
Telecommunications: 
  poor system with adequate government services; international
  communications from Bata and Malabo to African and European countries;
  2,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 2 AM, no FM, 1 TV; 1 Indian
  Ocean INTELSAT earth station

@Equatorial Guinea, Defense Forces

Branches: 
  Army, Navy, Air Force, National Guard, National Police 
Manpower availability: 
  males age 15-49 86,957; fit for military service 44,174 
Defense expenditures: 
  $NA, NA% of GDP


@Eritrea, Geography

Location: 
  Eastern Africa, bordering the Red Sea between Djibouti and Sudan
Map references: 
  Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
  121,320 sq km 
land area: 
  121,320 sq km 
comparative area: 
  slightly larger than Pennsylvania
Land boundaries: 
  total 1,630 km, Djibouti 113 km, Ethiopia 912 km, Sudan 605 km 
Coastline: 
  1,151 km (land and island coastline is 2,234 km)
Maritime claims: 
territorial sea: 
  12 nm
International disputes: 
  none
Climate: 
  hot, dry desert strip along Red Sea coast; cooler and wetter in the
  central highlands (up to 61 cm of rainfall annually); semiarid in
  western hills and lowlands; rainfall heaviest during June-September
  except on coast desert
Terrain: 
  dominated by extension of Ethiopian north-south trending highlands,
  descending on the east to a coastal desert plan, on the northwest to
  hilly terrain and on the southwest to flat-to-rolling plains
Natural resources: 
  gold, potash, zinc, copper, salt, probably oil, fish 
Land use: 
arable land: 
  3% 
permanent crops: 
  2% (coffee)
meadows and pastures: 
  40% 
forest and woodland: 
  5% 
other: 
  50% 
Irrigated land: 
  NA sq km
Environment: 
current issues: 
  famine; deforestation; soil erosion; overgrazing; loss of
  infrastructure from civil warfare
natural hazards: 
  frequent droughts
international agreements: 
  NA 
Note: 
  strategic geopolitical position along world's busiest shipping lanes
  and close to Arabian oilfields, Eritrea retained the entire coastline
  of Ethiopia along the Red Sea upon de jure independence from Ethiopia
  on 27 April 1993

@Eritrea, People

Population: 
  3,782,543 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
  3.41% (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
  Eritrean(s) 
adjective: 
  Eritrean 
Ethnic divisions: 
  ethnic Tigrays 50%, Tigre and Kunama 40%, Afar 4%, Saho (Red Sea coast
  dwellers) 3% 
Religions: 
  Muslim, Coptic Christian, Roman Catholic, Protestant 
Languages: 
  Tigre and Kunama, Cushitic dialects, Tigre, Nora Bana, Arabic 
Literacy: 
total population: 
  NA%
male: 
  NA%
female: 
  NA%
Labor force: 
  NA

@Eritrea, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
  State of Eritrea 
conventional short form: 
  Eritrea 
local long form: 
  none 
local short form: 
  none 
former: 
  Eritrea Autonomous Region in Ethiopia 
Digraph: 
  ER
Type: 
  transitional government 
note: 
  on 29 May 1991 ISSAIAS Afeworke, secretary general of the Eritrean
  People's Liberation Front (EPLF), announced the formation of the
  Provisional Government in Eritrea (PGE), in preparation for the 23-25
  April 1993 referendum on independence for the autonomous region of
  Eritrea; the result was a landslide vote for independence that was
  announced on 27 April 1993
Capital: 
  Asmara (formerly Asmera) 
Administrative divisions: 
  7 provinces; Akale Guzay, Baraka, Denakil, Hamasen, Samhar, Seraye,
  Sahil (1993)
Independence: 
  27 May 1993 (from Ethiopia; formerly the Eritrea Autonomous Region)
National holiday: 
  National Day (independence from Ethiopia), 24 May (1993) 
Constitution: 
  transitional "constitution" decreed 19 May 1993
Legal system: 
  NA
Suffrage: 
  NA
Executive branch: 
chief of state and head of government: 
  President ISSAIAS Afeworke (since 22 May 1993) 
cabinet: 
  State Council; the collective executive authority
note: 
  election to be held before 20 May 1997
Legislative branch: 
  unicameral
National Assembly: 
  EPLF Central Committee serves as the country's legislative body until
  multinational elections are held (before 20 May 1997)
Judicial branch: 
  Judiciary 
Political parties and leaders: 
  Eritrean People's Liberation Front (EPLF) (Christian Muslim), ISSAIAS
  Aferworke, PETROS Solomon; Eritrean Liberation Front (ELF) (Muslim),
  ABDULLAH Muhammed; Eritrean Liberation Front - United Organization
  (ELF-UO), Mohammed Said NAWUD; Eritrean Liberation Front -
  Revolutionary Council (ELF-RC), Ahmed NASSER
Other political or pressure groups: 
  Eritrean Islamic Jihad (EIJ); Islamic Militant Group
Member of: 
  OAU, ACP, AfDB, ECA, ILO, IMO, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), ITU, UN,
  UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WMO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador-designate Hagos GEBREHIWOT 
chancery: 
  Suite 400, 910 17th Street NW, Washington DC 20006 
telephone: 
  (202) 429-1991 
FAX: 
  (202) 429-9004 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador Robert G. HOUDEK 
embassy: 
  34 Zera Yacob St., Asmara 
mailing address: 
  P.O. Box 211, Asmara 
telephone: 
  [291] (1) 123-720 
FAX: 
  [291] (1) 127-584 
Flag: 
  red isosceles triangle (based on the hoist side) dividing the flag
  into two right triangles; the upper triangle is green, the lower one
  is blue; a gold wreath encircling a gold olive branch is centered on
  the hoist side of the red triangle

@Eritrea, Economy

Overview: 
  With independence from Ethiopia on 27 April 1993, Eritrea faces the
  bitter economic problems of a small, desperately poor African country.
  Most of the population will continue to depend on subsistence farming.
  Domestic output is substantially augmented by worker remittances from
  abroad. Government revenues come from custom duties and income and
  sales taxes. Eritrea has inherited the entire coastline of Ethiopia
  and has long-term prospects for revenues from the development of
  offshore oil, offshore fishing and tourism. For the time being,
  Ethiopia will be largely dependent on Eritrean ports for its foreign
  trade.
National product: 
  GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $1.7 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
  NA%
National product per capita: 
  $500 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
  NA%
Unemployment rate: 
  NA%
Budget: 
revenues: 
  $NA
expenditures: 
  $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports: 
  $NA
commodities: 
  NA
partners: 
  NA
Imports: 
  $NA
commodities: 
  NA
partners: 
  NA
External debt: 
  $NA
Industrial production: 
  growth rate NA%
Electricity: 
capacity: 
  NA kW
production: 
  NA kWh
consumption per capita: 
  NA kWh
Industries: 
  food processing, beverages, clothing and textiles
Agriculture: 
  products - sorghum, livestock (including goats), fish, lentils,
  vegetables, maize, cotton, tobacco, coffee, sisal (for making rope)
Economic aid: 
  $NA
Currency: 
  1 birr (Br) = 100 cents; at present, Ethiopian currency used
Exchange rates: 
  1 birr (Br) per US$1 - 5.000 (fixed rate since 1992)
Fiscal year: 
  NA

@Eritrea, Communications

Railroads: 
  307 km total; 307 km 1.000-meter gauge; 307 km 0.950-meter gauge
  (nonoperational) linking Ak'ordat and Asmara (formerly Asmera) with
  the port of Massawa (formerly Mits'iwa; 1993 est.)
Highways: 
total: 
  3,845 km 
paved: 
  807 km 
unpaved: 
  gravel 840 km; improved earth 402 km; unimproved earth 1,796 km 
Ports: 
  Assab (formerly Aseb), Massawa (formerly Mits'iwa)
Merchant marine: 
  none
Airports: 
total: 
  5 
usable: 
  5 
with permanent-surface runways: 
  2 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
  0 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
  2 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
  2 
Telecommunications: 
  NA

@Eritrea, Defense Forces

Branches: 
  Eritrean People's Liberation Front (EPLF) 
Defense expenditures: 
  $NA, NA% of GDP


@Estonia, Geography

Location: 
  Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, between Sweden and Russia
Map references: 
  Arctic Region, Asia, Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
  45,100 sq km 
land area: 
  43,200 sq km 
comparative area: 
  slightly larger than New Hampshire and Vermont combined
note: 
  includes 1,520 islands in the Baltic Sea
Land boundaries: 
  total 557 km, Latvia 267 km, Russia 290 km 
Coastline: 
  1,393 km 
Maritime claims: 
territorial sea: 
  12 nm
International disputes: 
  none
Climate: 
  maritime, wet, moderate winters, cool summers
Terrain: 
  marshy, lowlands
Natural resources: 
  shale oil, peat, phosphorite, amber 
Land use: 
arable land: 
  22% 
permanent crops: 
  0% 
meadows and pastures: 
  11% 
forest and woodland: 
  31% 
other: 
  36% 
Irrigated land: 
  110 sq km (1990)
Environment: 
current issues: 
  air heavily polluted with sulfur dioxide from oil-shale burning power
  plants in northeast; contamination of soil and ground water with
  petroleum products, chemicals at military bases
natural hazards: 
  NA 
international agreements: 
  party to - Hazardous Wastes, Ship Pollution; signed, but not ratified
  - Biodiversity, Climate Change
Population: 
  1,616,882 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
  0.52% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
  13.98 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
  12.04 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
  3.29 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
  19.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
  69.96 years 
male: 
  64.98 years 
female: 
  75.19 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
  2 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
  Estonian(s) 
adjective: 
  Estonian 
Ethnic divisions: 
  Estonian 61.5%, Russian 30.3%, Ukrainian 3.17%, Byelorussian 1.8%,
  Finn 1.1%, other 2.13% (1989)
Religions: 
  Lutheran 
Languages: 
  Estonian (official), Latvian, Lithuanian, Russian, other 
Literacy: 
  age 9-49 can read and write (1989)
total population: 
  100% 
male: 
  100% 
female: 
  100% 
Labor force: 
  750,000 (1992)
by occupation: 
  industry and construction 42%, agriculture and forestry 20%, other 38%
  (1990)

@Estonia, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
  Republic of Estonia 
conventional short form: 
  Estonia 
local long form: 
  Eesti Vabariik 
local short form: 
  Eesti 
former: 
  Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic 
Digraph: 
  EN
Type: 
  republic 
Capital: 
  Tallinn 
Administrative divisions: 
  15 counties (maakonnad, singular - maakond) and 6 municipalities*:
  Harju maakond (Tallinn), Hiiu maakond (Kardla), Ida-Viru maakond
  (Johvi), Jarva maakond (Paide), Jogeva maakond (Jogeva),
  Kohtla-Jarve*, Laane maakond (Haapsalu), Laane-Viru maakond (Rakvere),
  Narva*, Parnu*, Parnu maakond (Parnu), Polva maakond (Polva), Rapla
  maakond (Rapla), Saare maakond (Kuessaare), Sillamae*, Tallinn*,
  Tartu*, Tartu maakond (Tartu), Valga maakond (Valga), Viljandi maakond
  (Viljandi), Voru maakond (Voru)
note: 
  county centers are in parentheses
Independence: 
  6 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)
National holiday: 
  Independence Day, 24 February (1918) 
Constitution: 
  adopted 28 June 1992
Legal system: 
  based on civil law system; no judicial review of legislative acts
Suffrage: 
  18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
  President Lennart MERI (since 21 October 1992); election last held 20
  September 1992; (next to be held NA 1997); results - no candidate
  received majority; newly elected Parliament elected Lennart MERI (21
  October 1992)
head of government: 
  Prime Minister Mart LAAR (since 21 October 1992) 
cabinet: 
  Council of Ministers; appointed by the prime minister, authorized by
  the legislature
Legislative branch: 
  unicameral
Parliament (Riigikogu): 
  elections last held 20 September 1992; (next to be held NA); results -
  Fatherland 21%, Safe Haven 14%, Popular Front 13%, M 10%, ENIP 8%, ERP
  7%, ERL 7%, EP 2%, other 18%; seats - (101 total) Fatherland 29, Safe
  Haven 18, Popular Front 15, M 12, ENIP 10, ERP 8, ERL 8, EP 1
Judicial branch: 
  Supreme Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
  National Coalition Party 'Pro Patria' (Isamaa of Fatherland), Mart
  LAAR, president, made up of 4 parties: Christian Democratic Party
  (KDE), Aivar KALA, chairman; Christian Democratic Union (KDL), Illar
  HALLASTE, chairman; Conservative People's Party (KR), Enn TARTO,
  chairman; Republican Coalition Party (VK), Leo STARKOV, chairman;
  Moderates (M), made up of two parties: Estonian Social Democratic
  Party (ESDB), Marju LAURISTIN, chairman; Estonian Rural Center Pary
  (EMK), Ivar RAIG, chairman; Estonian National Independence Party
  (ENIP), Tunne KELAM, chairman; Liberal Democratic Party (LDP),
  Paul-Eerik RUMMO, chairman; Safe Haven, made up of three parties:
  Estonian Coalition Party (EK), Tiit VAHI, chairman; Estonian Rural
  Union (EM), Arvo SIRENDI, chairman; Estonian Democratic Justice
  Union/Estonian Pensioners' League (EDO/EPU), Harri KARTNER, chairman;
  Estonian Centrist Party (EK), Edgar SAVISAAR, chairman; Estonian
  Democratic Labor Party (EDT), Vaino VALJAS, chairman; Estonian Green
  Party (ERL), Tonu OJA; Estonian Royalist Party (ERP), Kalle KULBOK,
  chairman; Entrepreneurs' Party (EP), Tiit MADE; Estonian Citizen
  (EKL), Juri TOOMEPUU, chairman
Member of: 
  BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE, CSCE, EBRD, ECE, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU,
  IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NACC, UN,
  UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador Toomas Hendrik ILVES 
chancery: 
  1030 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20005, Suite 1000 
telephone: 
  (202) 789-0320 
FAX: 
  (202) 789-0471 
consulate(s) general: 
  New York 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador Robert C. FRASURE 
embassy: 
  Kentmanni 20, Tallin EE 0001 
mailing address: 
  use embassy street address 
telephone: 
  011-[372] (6) 312-021 through 024 
FAX: 
  [372] (6) 312-025 
Flag: 
  pre-1940 flag restored by Supreme Soviet in May 1990 - three equal
  horizontal bands of blue (top), black, and white

@Estonia, Economy

Overview: 
  Bolstered by a widespread national desire to reintegrate into Western
  Europe, the Estonian government has pursued a program of market
  reforms and rough stabilization measures, which is rapidly
  transforming the economy. Two years after independence - and one year
  after the introduction of the kroon - Estonians are beginning to reap
  tangible benefits; inflation is low; production declines appear to
  have bottomed out; and living standards are rising. Economic
  restructuring is clearly underway with the once-dominant
  energy-intensive heavy industrial sectors giving way to
  labor-intensive light industry and the underdeveloped service sector.
  The private sector is growing rapidly; the share of the state
  enterprises in retail trade has steadily declined and by June 1993
  accounted for only 12.5% of total turnover, and 70,000 new jobs have
  reportedly been created as a result of new business start-ups.
  Estonia's foreign trade has shifted rapidly from East to West with the
  Western industrialized countries now accounting for two-thirds of
  foreign trade.
National product: 
  GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $8.8 billion (1993 estimate from
  the UN International Comparison Program, as extended to 1991 and
  published in the World Bank's World Development Report 1993; and as
  extrapolated to 1993 using official Estonian statistics, which are
  very uncertain because of major economic changes since 1990)
National product real growth rate: 
  -5% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
  $5,480 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
  2.6% per month (1993 average)
Unemployment rate: 
  3.5% (May 1993); but large number of underemployed workers
Budget: 
revenues: 
  $223 million 
expenditures: 
  $142 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1992)
Exports: 
  $765 million (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: 
  textile 14%, food products 11%, vehicles 11%, metals 11% (1993)
partners: 
  Russia, Finland, Latvia, Germany, Ukraine
Imports: 
  $865 million (c.i.f., 1993)
commodities: 
  machinery 18%, fuels 15%, vehicles 14%, textiles 10% (1993)
partners: 
  Finland, Russia, Sweden, Germany, Netherlands
External debt: 
  $650 million (end of 1991)
Industrial production: 
  growth rate -27% (1993)
Electricity: 
capacity: 
  3,700,000 kW
production: 
  22.9 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
  14,245 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
  accounts for 42% of labor force; oil shale, shipbuilding, phosphates,
  electric motors, excavators, cement, furniture, clothing, textiles,
  paper, shoes, apparel
Agriculture: 
  employs 20% of work force; very efficient by Soviet standards; net
  exports of meat, fish, dairy products, and potatoes; imports of
  feedgrains for livestock; fruits and vegetables
Illicit drugs: 
  transshipment point for illicit drugs from Central and Southwest Asia
  and Latin America to Western Europe; limited illicit opium producer;
  mostly for domestic consumption
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
  US commitments, including Ex-Im (1992), $10 million 
Currency: 
  1 Estonian kroon (EEK) = 100 cents (introduced in August 1992)
Exchange rates: 
  kroons (EEK) per US$1 - 13.9 (January 1994), 13.2 (1993); note -
  kroons are tied to the German Deutschmark at a fixed rate of 8 to 1
Fiscal year: 
  calendar year

@Estonia, Communications

Railroads: 
  1,030 km; does not include industrial lines (1990)
Highways: 
total: 
  30,300 km 
paved or gravelled: 
  29,200 km 
unpaved: 
  earth 1,100 km (1990)
Inland waterways: 
  500 km perennially navigable
Pipelines: 
  natural gas 420 km (1992)
Ports: 
  coastal - Tallinn, Novotallin, Parnu; inland - Narva
Merchant marine: 
  69 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 406,405 GRT/537,016 DWT, bulk 6,
  cargo 50, container 2, oil tanker 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 6,
  short-sea passenger 4 
Airports: 
total: 
  29 
usable: 
  18 
with permanent-surface runways: 
  11 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
  0 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
  10 
with runways 1,060-2,439 m: 
  8 
note: 
  a C-130 can land on a 1,060-m airstrip
Telecommunications: 
  Estonia's telephone system is antiquated and supports about 400,000
  domestic telephone circuits, i.e. 25 telephones for each 100 persons;
  improvements are being made piecemeal, with emphasis on business needs
  and international connections; there are still about 150,000
  unfulfilled requests for telephone service; broadcast stations - 3 TV
  (provide Estonian programs as well Moscow Ostenkino's first and second
  programs); international traffic is carried to the other former USSR
  republics by land line or microwave and to other countries partly by
  leased connection to the Moscow international gateway switch, and
  partly by a new Tallinn-Helsinki fiber optic submarine cable which
  gives Estonia access to international circuits everywhere; substantial
  investment has been made in cellular systems which are operational
  throughout Estonia and also Latvia and which have access to the
  international packet switched digital network via Helsinki

@Estonia, Defense Forces

Branches: 
  Ground Forces, Maritime Border Guard, National Guard (Kaitseliit),
  Security Forces (internal and border troops), Coast Guard 
Manpower availability: 
  males age 15-49 392,135; fit for military service 308,951; reach
  military age (18) annually 11,789 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
  124.4 million kroons, NA% of GDP (forecast for 1993); note -
  conversion of the military budget into US dollars using the current
  exchange rate could produce misleading results


@Ethiopia, Geography

Location: 
  Eastern Africa, between Somalia and Sudan
Map references: 
  Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
  1,127,127 sq km 
land area: 
  1,119,683 sq km 
comparative area: 
  slightly less than twice the size of Texas
Land boundaries: 
  total 5,311 km, Djibouti 337 km, Eritrea 912 km, Kenya 830 km, Somalia
  1,626 km, Sudan 1,606 km 
Coastline: 
  none - landlocked
Maritime claims: 
  none - landlocked
International disputes: 
  southern half of the boundary with Somalia is a Provisional
  Administrative Line; territorial dispute with Somalia over the Ogaden
Climate: 
  tropical monsoon with wide topographic-induced variation
Terrain: 
  high plateau with central mountain range divided by Great Rift Valley
Natural resources: 
  small reserves of gold, platinum, copper, potash 
Land use: 
arable land: 
  12% 
permanent crops: 
  1% 
meadows and pastures: 
  41% 
forest and woodland: 
  24% 
other: 
  22% 
Irrigated land: 
  1,620 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
  deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; famine
natural hazards: 
  geologically active Great Rift Valley susceptible to earthquakes,
  volcanic eruptions; frequent droughts
international agreements: 
  party to - Endangered Species; signed, but not ratified -
  Biodiversity, Climate Change, Environmental Modification, Law of the
  Sea, Nuclear Test Ban
Note: 
  landlocked - entire coastline along the Red Sea was lost with the de
  jure independence of Eritrea on 27 April 1993

@Ethiopia, People

Population: 
  54,927,108 (July 1994 est.) 
note: 
  Ethiopian demographic data, except population and population growth
  rate, include Eritrea
Population growth rate: 
  3.4% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
  45.01 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
  13.89 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
  2.84 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
  106.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
  52.67 years 
male: 
  51 years 
female: 
  54.38 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
  6.81 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
  Ethiopian(s) 
adjective: 
  Ethiopian 
Ethnic divisions: 
  Oromo 40%, Amhara and Tigrean 32%, Sidamo 9%, Shankella 6%, Somali 6%,
  Afar 4%, Gurage 2%, other 1% 
Religions: 
  Muslim 45%-50%, Ethiopian Orthodox 35%-40%, animist 12%, other 5%
Languages: 
  Amharic (official), Tigrinya, Orominga, Guaraginga, Somali, Arabic,
  English (major foreign language taught in schools)
Literacy: 
  age 10 and over can read and write (1984)
total population: 
  24% 
male: 
  33% 
female: 
  16% 
Labor force: 
  18 million 
by occupation: 
  agriculture and animal husbandry 80%, government and services 12%,
  industry and construction 8% (1985)

@Ethiopia, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
  none 
conventional short form: 
  Ethiopia 
local long form: 
  none 
local short form: 
  Ityop'iya 
Digraph: 
  ET
Type: 
  transitional government 
note: 
  on 28 May 1991 the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front
  (EPRDF) toppled the authoritarian government of MENGISTU Haile-Mariam
  and took control in Addis Ababa; the Transitional Government of
  Ethiopia (TGE), announced a two-year transitional period
Capital: 
  Addis Ababa 
Administrative divisions: 
  14 administrative regions (astedader akababiwach, singular - astedader
  akababi) Addis Ababa, Afar, Amhara, Benishangul, Gambela,
  Gurage-Hadiya-Kambata, Harer, Kefa, Omo, Oromo, Sidamo, Somali,
  Tigray, Wolayta
Independence: 
  oldest independent country in Africa and one of the oldest in the
  world - at least 2,000 years
National holiday: 
  National Day, 28 May (1991) (defeat of Mengistu regime)
Constitution: 
  to be redrafted by 1993
Legal system: 
  NA
Suffrage: 
  18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
  President MELES Zenawi (since 1 June 1991); election last held 10
  September 1987; next election planned after new constitution drafted;
  results - MENGISTU Haile-Mariam elected by the now defunct National
  Assembly, but resigned and left Ethiopia on 21 May 1991
head of government: 
  Prime Minister TAMIRAT Layne (since 6 June 1991) 
cabinet: 
  Council of Ministers; designated by the chairman of the Council of
  Representatives
Legislative branch: 
  unicameral
Constituent Assembly: 
  elections were held on 5 June 1994 (next to be held NA); results - NA;
  a major task of the new Assembly will be to ratify the constitution to
  drafted by the end of 1994
Judicial branch: 
  Supreme Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
  Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF), MELES
  Zenawi; Oromo People's Democratic Organization (OPDO), Kuma DEMEKSA
Other political or pressure groups: 
  Oromo Liberation Front (OLF); Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Party
  (EPRP); numerous small, ethnic-based groups have formed since
  Mengistu's resignation, including several Islamic militant groups
Member of: 
  ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD,
  IFC, IGADD, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS,
  NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador BERHANE Gebre-Christos 
chancery: 
  2134 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
  (202) 234-2281 or 2282 
FAX: 
  (202) 328-7950 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador Marc A. BAAS 
embassy: 
  Entoto Street, Addis Ababa 
mailing address: 
  P. O. Box 1014, Addis Ababa 
telephone: 
  [251] (1) 550-666 
FAX: 
  [251] (1) 552-191 
Flag: 
  three equal horizontal bands of green (top), yellow, and red; Ethiopia
  is the oldest independent country in Africa, and the colors of her
  flag were so often adopted by other African countries upon
  independence that they became known as the pan-African colors

@Ethiopia, Economy

Overview: 
  With the independence of Eritrea on 27 April 1993, Ethiopia continues
  to face difficult economic problems as one of the poorest and least
  developed countries in Africa. (The accompanying analysis and figures
  predate the independence of Eritrea.) Its economy is based on
  subsistence agriculture, which accounts for about 45% of GDP, 90% of
  exports, and 80% of total employment; coffee generates 60% of export
  earnings. The manufacturing sector is heavily dependent on inputs from
  the agricultural sector. Over 90% of large-scale industry, but less
  than 10% of agriculture, is state run; the government is considering
  selling off a portion of state-owned plants. Favorable agricultural
  weather largely explains the 4.5% growth in output in FY89, whereas
  drought and deteriorating internal security conditions prevented
  growth in FY90. In 1991 the lack of law and order, particularly in the
  south, interfered with economic development and growth. In 1992,
  because of some easing of civil strife and aid from the outside world,
  the economy substantially improved.
National product: 
  GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $22.7 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
  7.8% (FY93 est)
National product per capita: 
  $400 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
  21% (1992 est)
Unemployment rate: 
  NA%
Budget: 
revenues: 
  $NA
expenditures: 
  $1.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1992 est.)
Exports: 
  $189 million (f.o.b., FY91)
commodities: 
  coffee, leather products, gold, petroleum products
partners: 
  Germany, Japan, Saudi Arabia, France, Italy
Imports: 
  $472 million (c.i.f., FY91)
commodities: 
  capital goods, consumer goods, fuel
partners: 
  US, Germany, Italy, Saudi Arabia, Japan
External debt: 
  $3.48 billion (1991)
Industrial production: 
  growth rate -3.3% (FY92); accounts for 12% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
  330,000 kW
production: 
  650 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
  10 kWh (1991)
Industries: 
  food processing, beverages, textiles, chemicals, metals processing,
  cement
Agriculture: 
  accounts for 47% of GDP and is the most important sector of the
  economy even though frequent droughts and poor cultivation practices
  keep farm output low; famines not uncommon; export crops of coffee and
  oilseeds grown partly on state farms; estimated 50% of agricultural
  production at subsistence level; principal crops and livestock -
  cereals, pulses, coffee, oilseeds, sugarcane, potatoes and other
  vegetables, hides and skins, cattle, sheep, goats
Illicit drugs: 
  transit hub for heroin originating in Southwest and Southeast Asia and
  destined for Europe and North America as well as cocaine destined for
  southern African markets; cultivates qat (chat) for local use and
  regional export
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
  US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $504 million; Western
  (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $3.4
  billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $8 million; Communist countries
  (1970-89), $2 billion 
Currency: 
  1 birr (Br) = 100 cents
Exchange rates: 
  birr (Br) per US$1 - 5.0000 (fixed rate since 1992); fixed at 2.070
  before 1992
Fiscal year: 
  8 July - 7 July

@Ethiopia, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
  24,127 km 
paved: 
  3,289 km 
unpaved: 
  gravel 6,664 km; improved earth 1,652 km; unimproved earth 12,522 km
  (1993)
Ports: 
  none; landlocked
Merchant marine: 
  12 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 62,627 GRT/88,909 DWT, cargo 8,
  livestock carrier 1, oil tanker 2, roll on/roll off cargo 1 
Airports: 
total: 
  120 
usable: 
  84 
with permanent-surface runways: 
  10 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
  1 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
  15 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
  83 
Telecommunications: 
  open-wire and radio relay system adequate for government use;
  open-wire to Sudan and Djibouti; microwave radio relay to Kenya and
  Djibouti; broadcast stations - 4 AM, no FM, 1 TV; 100,000 TV sets;
  9,000,000 radios; satellite earth stations - 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT
  and 2 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT

@Ethiopia, Defense Forces

Branches: 
  Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF) 
Manpower availability: 
  males age 15-49 13,229,078; fit for military service 6,867,582; reach
  military age (18) annually 596,691 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
  $NA, NA% of GDP


@Europa Island

Header
Affiliation: 
  (possession of France) 

@Europa Island, Geography

Location: 
  Southern Africa, in the southern Mozambique Channel about halfway
  between Madagascar and Mozambique
Map references: 
  Africa 
Area: 
total area: 
  28 sq km 
land area: 
  28 sq km 
comparative area: 
  about 0.2 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries: 
  0 km  
Coastline: 
  22.2 km 
Maritime claims: 
exclusive economic zone: 
  200 nm
territorial sea: 
  12 nm
International disputes: 
  claimed by Madagascar
Climate: 
  tropical
Terrain: 
  NA
Natural resources: 
  negligible 
Land use: 
arable land: 
  NA%
permanent crops: 
  NA%
meadows and pastures: 
  NA%
forest and woodland: 
  NA%
other: 
  NA% (heavily wooded)
Irrigated land: 
  0 sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
  NA 
natural hazards: 
  NA 
international agreements: 
  NA 
Note: 
  wildlife sanctuary

@Europa Island, People

Population: 
  uninhabited

@Europa Island, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
  none 
conventional short form: 
  Europa Island 
local long form: 
  none 
local short form: 
  Ile Europa 
Digraph: 
  EU
Type: 
  French possession administered by Commissioner of the Republic;
  resident in Reunion
Capital: 
  none; administered by France from Reunion
Independence: 
  none (possession of France)

@Europa Island, Economy

Overview: 
  no economic activity

@Europa Island, Communications

Ports: 
  none; offshore anchorage only
Airports: 
total: 
  1 
usable: 
  1 
with permanent-surface runways: 
  0 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
  0 
with runways 2,439-3,659 m: 
  0 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
  1 
Telecommunications: 
  1 meteorological station

@Europa Island, Defense Forces

Note: 
  defense is the responsibility of France


@Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)

Header
Affiliation: 
  (dependent territory of the UK) 

@Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas), Geography

Location: 
  Southern South America, in the South Atlantic Ocean, off the southern
  coast of Argentina
Map references: 
  Antarctic Region, South America 
Area: 
total area: 
  12,170 sq km 
land area: 
  12,170 sq km 
comparative area: 
  slightly smaller than Connecticut
note: 
  includes the two main islands of East and West Falkland and about 200
  small islands
Land boundaries: 
  0 km  
Coastline: 
  1,288 km 
Maritime claims: 
continental shelf: 
  100-m depth
exclusive fishing zone: 
  200 nm
territorial sea: 
  12 nm
International disputes: 
  administered by the UK, claimed by Argentina
Climate: 
  cold marine; strong westerly winds, cloudy, humid; rain occurs on more
  than half of days in year; occasional snow all year, except in January
  and February, but does not accumulate
Terrain: 
  rocky, hilly, mountainous with some boggy, undulating plains
Natural resources: 
  fish, wildlife 
Land use: 
arable land: 
  0% 
permanent crops: 
  0% 
meadows and pastures: 
  99% 
forest and woodland: 
  0% 
other: 
  1% 
Irrigated land: 
  NA sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
  NA 
natural hazards: 
  NA 
international agreements: 
  NA 
Note: 
  deeply indented coast provides good natural harbors; short growing
  season

@Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas), People

Population: 
  2,261 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
  2.43% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
  NA
Death rate: 
  NA
Net migration rate: 
  NA
Infant mortality rate: 
  NA
Life expectancy at birth: 
  NA
Total fertility rate: 
  NA
Nationality: 
noun: 
  Falkland Islander(s) 
adjective: 
  Falkland Island 
Ethnic divisions: 
  British 
Religions: 
  primarily Anglican, Roman Catholic, United Free Church, Evangelist
  Church, Jehovah's Witnesses, Lutheran, Seventh-Day Adventist 
Languages: 
  English 
Literacy: 
total population: 
  NA%
male: 
  NA%
female: 
  NA%
Labor force: 
  1,100 (est.)
by occupation: 
  agriculture 95% (mostly sheepherding)

@Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas), Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
  Colony of the Falkland Islands 
conventional short form: 
  Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) 
Digraph: 
  FA
Type: 
  dependent territory of the UK 
Capital: 
  Stanley 
Administrative divisions: 
  none (dependent territory of the UK)
Independence: 
  none (dependent territory of the UK)
National holiday: 
  Liberation Day, 14 June (1982) 
Constitution: 
  3 October 1985
Legal system: 
  English common law
Suffrage: 
  18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
  Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952) 
head of government: 
  Governor David Everard TATHAM (since August 1992) 
cabinet: 
  Executive Council; 3 members elected by the Legislative Council, 2
  ex-officio members (chief executive and the financial secretary), and
  the governor
Legislative branch: 
  unicameral
Legislative Council: 
  elections last held 11 October 1989 (next to be held October 1994);
  results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (10 total, 8 elected)
  number of seats by party NA
Judicial branch: 
  Supreme Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
  NA
Member of: 
  ICFTU 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
  none (dependent territory of the UK)
US diplomatic representation: 
  none (dependent territory of the UK)
Flag: 
  blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the
  Falkland Island coat of arms in a white disk centered on the outer
  half of the flag; the coat of arms contains a white ram (sheep raising
  is the major economic activity) above the sailing ship Desire (whose
  crew discovered the islands) with a scroll at the bottom bearing the
  motto DESIRE THE RIGHT

@Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas), Economy

Overview: 
  The economy is based on sheep farming, which directly or indirectly
  employs most of the work force. A few dairy herds are kept to meet
  domestic consumption of milk and milk products, and crops grown are
  primarily those for providing winter fodder. Exports feature shipments
  of high-grade wool to the UK and the sale of postage stamps and coins.
  Rich stocks of fish in the surrounding waters are not presently
  exploited by the islanders. So far, efforts to establish a domestic
  fishing industry have been unsuccessful. In 1987 the government began
  selling fishing licenses to foreign trawlers operating within the
  Falklands exclusive fishing zone. These license fees amount to more
  than $40 million per year and are a primary source of income for the
  government. To encourage tourism, the Falkland Islands Development
  Corporation has built three lodges for visitors attracted by the
  abundant wildlife and trout fishing.
National product: 
  GDP $NA
National product real growth rate: 
  NA%
National product per capita: 
  $NA
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
  7.4% (1980-87 average)
Unemployment rate: 
  NA%; labor shortage
Budget: 
revenues: 
  $62.7 million 
expenditures: 
  $42.8 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY90)
Exports: 
  at least $14.7 million 
commodities: 
  wool, hides and skins, and meat
partners: 
  UK, Netherlands, Japan (1987 est.)
Imports: 
  at least $13.9 million 
commodities: 
  food, clothing, fuels, and machinery
partners: 
  UK, Netherlands Antilles (Curacao), Japan (1987 est.)
External debt: 
  $NA
Industrial production: 
  growth rate NA%
Electricity: 
capacity: 
  9,200 kW
production: 
  17 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
  8,940 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
  wool and fish processing
Agriculture: 
  predominantly sheep farming; small dairy herds; some fodder and
  vegetable crops
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
  Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
  (1992-93), $87 million 
Currency: 
  1 Falkland pound (#F) = 100 pence
Exchange rates: 
  Falkland pound (#F) per US$1 - 0.6699 (January 1994), 0.6658 (1993),
  0.5664 (1992), 0.5652 (1991), 0.5604 (1990), 0.6099 (1989); note - the
  Falkland pound is at par with the British pound
Fiscal year: 
  1 April - 31 March

@Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas), Communications

Highways: 
total: 
  510 km 
paved: 
  30 km 
unpaved: 
  gravel 80 km; unimproved earth 400 km 
Ports: 
  Stanley
Airports: 
total: 
  5 
usable: 
  5 
with permanent-surface runways: 
  2 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
  0 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
  1 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
  0 
Telecommunications: 
  government-operated radiotelephone and private VHF/CB radio networks
  provide effective service to almost all points on both islands; 590
  telephones; broadcast stations - 2 AM, 3 FM, no TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean
  INTELSAT earth station with links through London to other countries

@Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas), Defense Forces

Branches: 
  British Forces Falkland Islands (including Army, Royal Air Force,
  Royal Navy, and Royal Marines), Police Force 
Note: 
  defense is the responsibility of the UK


@Faroe Islands

Header
Affiliation: 
  (part of the Danish realm) 

@Faroe Islands, Geography

Location: 
  Nordic States, Northern Europe in the north Atlantic Ocean, located
  half way between Norway and Iceland
Map references: 
  Arctic Region 
Area: 
total area: 
  1,400 sq km 
land area: 
  1,400 sq km 
comparative area: 
  slightly less than eight times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries: 
  0 km  
Coastline: 
  764 km 
Maritime claims: 
exclusive fishing zone: 
  200 nm
territorial sea: 
  3 nm
International disputes: 
  none
Climate: 
  mild winters, cool summers; usually overcast; foggy, windy
Terrain: 
  rugged, rocky, some low peaks; cliffs along most of coast
Natural resources: 
  fish 
Land use: 
arable land: 
  2% 
permanent crops: 
  0% 
meadows and pastures: 
  0% 
forest and woodland: 
  0% 
other: 
  98% 
Irrigated land: 
  NA sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
  NA 
natural hazards: 
  NA 
international agreements: 
  NA 
Note: 
  archipelago of 18 inhabited islands and a few uninhabited islets;
  strategically located along important sea lanes in northeastern
  Atlantic; precipitous terrain limits habitation to small coastal
  lowlands

@Faroe Islands, People

Population: 
  48,427 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
  0.83% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
  17.97 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
  7.56 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
  -2.09 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
  8.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
  78.1 years 
male: 
  74.71 years 
female: 
  81.62 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
  2.47 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
  Faroese (singular and plural) 
adjective: 
  Faroese 
Ethnic divisions: 
  Scandinavian 
Religions: 
  Evangelical Lutheran 
Languages: 
  Faroese (derived from Old Norse), Danish 
Literacy: 
total population: 
  NA%
male: 
  NA%
female: 
  NA%
Labor force: 
  17,585 
by occupation: 
  largely engaged in fishing, manufacturing, transportation, and
  commerce

@Faroe Islands, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
  none 
conventional short form: 
  Faroe Islands 
local long form: 
  none 
local short form: 
  Foroyar 
Digraph: 
  FO
Type: 
  part of the Danish realm; self-governing overseas administrative
  division of Denmark
Capital: 
  Torshavn 
Administrative divisions: 
  none (self-governing overseas administrative division of Denmark)
Independence: 
  none (part of the Danish realm; self-governing overseas administrative
  division of Denmark)
National holiday: 
  Birthday of the Queen, 16 April (1940) 
Constitution: 
  5 June 1953 (Danish constitution)
Legal system: 
  Danish
Suffrage: 
  20 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
  Queen MARGRETHE II (since 14 January 1972), represented by High
  Commissioner Bent KLINTE (since NA) 
head of government: 
  Prime Minister Marita PETERSEN (since 18 January 1993) 
cabinet: 
  Landsstyri; elected by the local legislature
Legislative branch: 
  unicameral
Faroese Parliament (Lgting): 
  elections last held 17 November 1990 (next to be held November 1994);
  results - Social Democratic 27.4%, People's Party 21.9%, Cooperation
  Coalition Party 18.9%, Republican Party 14.7%, Home Rule 8.8%,
  PFIP-CPP 5.9%, other 2.4%; seats - (32 total) two-party coalition 17
  (Social Democratic 10, People's Party 7), Cooperation Coalition Party
  6, Republican Party 4, Home Rule 3, PFIP-CPP 2
Danish Parliament: 
  elections last held on 12 December 1990 (next to be held by December
  1994); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (2 total) Social
  Democratic 1, People's Party 1; note - the Faroe Islands elects two
  representatives to the Danish Parliament
Judicial branch: 
  none
Political parties and leaders: 
three-party ruling coalition: 
  Social Democratic Party, Marita PETERSEN; Republican Party, Signer
  HANSEN; Home Rule Party, Hilmar KASS
opposition: 
  Cooperation Coalition Party, Pauli ELLEFSEN; Progressive and Fishing
  Industry Party-Christian People's Party (PFIP-CPP), leader NA;
  Progress Party, leader NA; People's Party, Jogvan SUND-STEIN
Member of: 
  none 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
  none (self-governing overseas administrative division of Denmark)
US diplomatic representation: 
  none (self-governing overseas administrative division of Denmark)
Flag: 
  white with a red cross outlined in blue that extends to the edges of
  the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side
  in the style of the DANNEBROG (Danish flag)

@Faroe Islands, Economy

Overview: 
  The Faroese, who have long enjoyed the affluent living standards of
  the Danes and other Scandinavians, now must cope with the decline of
  the all-important fishing industry and one of the world's heaviest per
  capita external debts of nearly $30,000. When the nations of the world
  extended their fishing zones to 200 nautical miles in the early 1970s,
  the Faroese no longer could continue their traditional long-distance
  fishing and subsequently depleted their own nearby fishing areas. The
  government's tight controls on fish stocks and its austerity measures
  have caused a recession, and subsidy cuts will force nationalization
  in the fishing industry, which has already been plagued with
  bankruptcies. Copenhagen has threatened to withhold its annual subsidy
  of $130 million - roughly one-third of the islands' budget revenues -
  unless the Faroese make significant efforts to balance their budget.
  To this extent the Faroe government is expected to continue its tough
  policies, including introducing a 20% value-added tax (VAT) in 1993,
  and has agreed to an IMF economic-political stabilization plan. In
  addition to its annual subsidy, the Danish government has bailed out
  the second largest Faroe bank to the tune of $140 million since
  October 1992.
National product: 
  GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $662 million (1989 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
  3% (1989 est.)
National product per capita: 
  $14,000 (1989 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
  2% (1988)
Unemployment rate: 
  2.5% (1993 est)
Budget: 
revenues: 
  $425 million 
expenditures: 
  $480 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1991 est.)
Exports: 
  $386 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.)
commodities: 
  fish and fish products 88%, animal feedstuffs, transport equipment
  (ships) (1989)
partners: 
  Denmark 20%, Germany 18.3%, UK 14.2%, France 11.2%, Spain 7.9%, US
  4.5%
Imports: 
  $322 million (c.i.f., 1990 est.)
commodities: 
  machinery and transport equipment 24.4%, manufactures 24%, food and
  livestock 19%, fuels 12%, chemicals 6.5%
partners: 
  Denmark 43.8%, Norway 19.8%, Sweden 4.9%, Germany 4.2%, US 1.3%
External debt: 
  $1.3 billion (1991)
Industrial production: 
  growth rate NA%
Electricity: 
capacity: 
  80,000 kW
production: 
  280 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
  5,760 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
  fishing, shipbuilding, handicrafts
Agriculture: 
  accounts for 27% of GDP and employs 27% of labor force; principal
  crops - potatoes and vegetables; livestock - sheep; annual fish catch
  about 360,000 metric tons
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
  receives an annual subsidy from Denmark of about $130 million
Currency: 
  1 Danish krone (DKr) = 100 oere
Exchange rates: 
  Danish kroner (DKr) per US$1 - 6.771 (January 1994), 6.484 (1993),
  6.036 (1992), 6.396 (1991), 6.189 (1990), 7.310 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
  1 April - 31 March

@Faroe Islands, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
  200 km 
paved: 
  NA 
unpaved: 
  NA 
Ports: 
  Torshavn, Tvoroyri
Merchant marine: 
  7 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 19,943 GRT/18,399 DWT, cargo 5,
  roll-on/roll-off cargo 1, short-sea passenger 1 
note: 
  a subset of the Danish register
Airports: 
total: 
  1 
usable: 
  1 
with permanent-surface runways: 
  1 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
  0 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
  0 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
  1 
Telecommunications: 
  good international communications; fair domestic facilities; 27,900
  telephones; broadcast stations - 1 AM, 3 (10 repeaters) FM, 3 (29
  repeaters) TV; 3 coaxial submarine cables

@Faroe Islands, Defense Forces

Branches: 
  small Police Force, no organized native military forces 
Note: 
  defense is the responsibility of Denmark


@Fiji, Geography

Location: 
  Oceania, Melanesia, 2,500 km north of New Zealand in the South Pacific
  Ocean
Map references: 
  Oceania, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
  18,270 sq km 
land area: 
  18,270 sq km 
comparative area: 
  slightly smaller than New Jersey
Land boundaries: 
  0 km  
Coastline: 
  1,129 km 
Maritime claims: 
  measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
continental shelf: 
  200-m depth or to depth of exploitation; rectilinear shelf claim added
exclusive economic zone: 
  200 nm
territorial sea: 
  12 nm
International disputes: 
  none
Climate: 
  tropical marine; only slight seasonal temperature variation
Terrain: 
  mostly mountains of volcanic origin
Natural resources: 
  timber, fish, gold, copper, offshore oil potential 
Land use: 
arable land: 
  8% 
permanent crops: 
  5% 
meadows and pastures: 
  3% 
forest and woodland: 
  65% 
other: 
  19% 
Irrigated land: 
  10 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
  deforestation; soil erosion
natural hazards: 
  cyclonic storms can occur from November to January
international agreements: 
  party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of the Sea, Marine Life
  Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection
Note: 
  includes 332 islands of which approximately 110 are inhabited

@Fiji, People

Population: 
  764,382 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
  1.05% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
  24.18 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
  6.5 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
  -7.15 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
  18.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
  65.14 years 
male: 
  62.88 years 
female: 
  67.51 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
  2.92 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
  Fijian(s) 
adjective: 
  Fijian 
Ethnic divisions: 
  Fijian 49%, Indian 46%, European, other Pacific Islanders, overseas
  Chinese, and other 5% 
Religions: 
  Christian 52% (Methodist 37%, Roman Catholic 9%), Hindu 38%, Muslim
  8%, other 2% 
note: 
  Fijians are mainly Christian, Indians are Hindu, and there is a Muslim
  minority (1986)
Languages: 
  English (official), Fijian, Hindustani 
Literacy: 
  age 15 and over can read and write (1985 est.)
total population: 
  86% 
male: 
  90% 
female: 
  81% 
Labor force: 
  235,000 
by occupation: 
  subsistence agriculture 67%, wage earners 18%, salary earners 15%
  (1987)

@Fiji, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
  Republic of Fiji 
conventional short form: 
  Fiji 
Digraph: 
  FJ
Type: 
  republic 
note: 
  military coup leader Maj. Gen. Sitiveni RABUKA formally declared Fiji
  a republic on 6 October 1987
Capital: 
  Suva 
Administrative divisions: 
  4 divisions and 1 dependency*; Central, Eastern, Northern, Rotuma*,
  Western
Independence: 
  10 October 1970 (from UK)
National holiday: 
  Independence Day, 10 October (1970) 
Constitution: 
  10 October 1970 (suspended 1 October 1987); a new Constitution was
  proposed on 23 September 1988 and promulgated on 25 July 1990; the
  1990 Constitution is under review; the review will be complete by 1997
Legal system: 
  based on British system
Suffrage: 
  none
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
  President Ratu Sir Kamisese MARA (since 12 January 1994); First Vice
  President Ratu Sir Josaia TAIVAIQIA (since 12 January 1994); Second
  Vice President Ratu Inoke TAKIVEIKATA (since 12 January 1994); note -
  President GANILAU died on 15 December 1993 and Vice President MARA
  became acting president; MARA was elected president by the Great
  Council of Chiefs on 12 January 1994
head of government: 
  Prime Minister Sitiveni RABUKA (since 2 June 1992) 
Presidential Council: 
  appointed by the governor general
Great Council of Chiefs: 
  (highest ranking members of the traditional chiefly system)
cabinet: 
  Cabinet; appointed by prime minister from members of Parliament and
  responsible to Parliament
Legislative branch: 
  the bicameral Parliament was dissolved following the coup of 14 May
  1987
Senate: 
  nonelective body containing 34 seats, 24 reserved for Melanesians, 9
  for Indians and others, 1 for the island of Rotuma
House of Representatives: 
  elections last held 18-25 February 1994 (next to be held NA 1997);
  results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (70 total, with ethnic
  Fijians allocated 37 seats, ethnic Indians 27 seats, and independents
  and other 6 seats) number of seats by party SVT 31, NFP 20, FLP 7, FA
  5, GVP 4, independents 2, ANC 1
Judicial branch: 
  Supreme Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
  Fijian Political Party (SVT - primarily Fijian), leader Maj. Gen.
  Sitivini RABUKA; National Federation Party (NFP; primarily Indian),
  Jai Ram REDDY; Christian Fijian Nationalist Party (CFNP), Sakeasi
  BUTADROKA; Fiji Labor Party (FLP), Mahendra CHAUDHRY; All National
  Congress (ANC), Apisai TORA; General Voters Party (GVP), Max OLSSON;
  Fiji Conservative Party (FCP), Isireli VUIBAU; Conservative Party of
  Fiji (CPF), Jolale ULUDOLE and Viliame SAVU; Fiji Indian Liberal
  Party, Swami MAHARAJ; Fiji Indian Congress Party, Ishwari BAJPAI; Fiji
  Independent Labor (Muslim), leader NA; Four Corners Party, David
  TULVANUAVOU; Fijian Association (FA), Josevata KAMIKAMICA
Member of: 
  ACP, AsDB, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD,
  IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, PCA,
  SPARTECA, SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIKOM, UNOMUR,
  UNTAC, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador Pita Kewa NACUVA 
chancery: 
  Suite 240, 2233 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007 
telephone: 
  (202) 337-8320 
FAX: 
  (202) 337-1996 
consulate(s): 
  New York 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
  (vacant); Charge d'Affaires William ROPE 
embassy: 
  31 Loftus Street, Suva 
mailing address: 
  P. O. Box 218, Suva 
telephone: 
  [679] 314-466 
FAX: 
  [679] 300-081 
Flag: 
  light blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant
  and the Fijian shield centered on the outer half of the flag; the
  shield depicts a yellow lion above a white field quartered by the
  cross of Saint George featuring stalks of sugarcane, a palm tree,
  bananas, and a white dove

@Fiji, Economy

Overview: 
  Fiji's economy is primarily agricultural, with a large subsistence
  sector. Sugar exports and tourism are the major sources of foreign
  exchange. Industry contributes 13% to GDP, with sugar processing
  accounting for one-third of industrial activity. Roughly 250,000
  tourists visit each year. Political uncertainty and drought, however,
  contribute to substantial fluctuations in earnings from tourism and
  sugar. In 1992, growth was approximately 3%, based on growth in
  tourism and a lessening of labor-management disputes in the sugar and
  gold-mining sectors. In 1993, the government's budgeted growth rate of
  3% was not achieved because of a decline in non-sugar agricultural
  output and damage from Cyclone Kina.
National product: 
  GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $3 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
  1% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
  $4,000 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
  5.6% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
  5.9% (1991 est.)
Budget: 
revenues: 
  $455 million 
expenditures: 
  $546 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1993 est.)
Exports: 
  $417 million (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities: 
  sugar 40%, clothing, processed fish, gold, lumber
partners: 
  EC 26%, Australia 15%, Pacific Islands 11%, Japan 6%
Imports: 
  $517 million (c.i.f., 1992 est)
commodities: 
  machinery and transport equipment, petroleum products, food, consumer
  goods, chemicals
partners: 
  Australia 30%, NZ 17%, Japan 13%, EC 6%, US 6%
External debt: 
  $670 million (1994 est.)
Industrial production: 
  growth rate 7.5% (1992 est.); accounts for 13% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
  215,000 kW
production: 
  420 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
  560 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
  sugar, tourism, copra, gold, silver, clothing, lumber, small cottage
  industries
Agriculture: 
  accounts for 23% of GDP; principal cash crop is sugarcane; coconuts,
  cassava, rice, sweet potatoes, bananas; small livestock sector
  includes cattle, pigs, horses, and goats; fish catch nearly 33,000
  tons (1989)
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
  Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
  (1980-89), $815 million 
Currency: 
  1 Fijian dollar (F$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates: 
  Fijian dollars (F$) per US$1 - 1.5239 (January 1994), 1.5418 (1993),
  1.5030 (1992), 1.4756 (1991), 1.4809 (1990), 1.4833 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
  calendar year

@Fiji, Communications

Railroads: 
  644 km 0.610-meter narrow gauge, belonging to the government-owned
  Fiji Sugar Corporation
Highways: 
total: 
  3,300 km 
paved: 
  1,590 km 
unpaved: 
  gravel, crushed stone, stabilized earth 1,290 km; unimproved earth 420
  km (1984)
Inland waterways: 
  203 km; 122 km navigable by motorized craft and 200-metric-ton barges
Ports: 
  Labasa, Lautoka, Savusavu, Suva
Merchant marine: 
  8 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 44,911 GRT/54,490 DWT, cargo 1,
  chemical tanker 2, container 2, oil tanker 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 2
Airports: 
total: 
  25 
usable: 
  22 
with permanent-surface runways: 
  3 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
  0 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
  1 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
  2 
Telecommunications: 
  modern local, interisland, and international (wire/radio integrated)
  public and special-purpose telephone, telegraph, and teleprinter
  facilities; regional radio center; important COMPAC cable link between
  US-Canada and NZ-Australia; 53,228 telephones (71 telephones per 1,000
  persons); broadcast stations - 7 AM, 1 FM, no TV; 1 Pacific Ocean
  INTELSAT earth station

@Fiji, Defense Forces

Branches: 
  Republic of Fiji Military Forces (RFMF; including a naval division,
  police)
Manpower availability: 
  males age 15-49 197,767; fit for military service 109,026; reach
  military age (18) annually 8,154 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
  exchange rate conversion - $22.4 million, about 2% of GDP (FY91/92)


@Finland, Geography

Location: 
  Nordic State, Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea between Sweden
  and Russia
Map references: 
  Arctic Region, Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
  337,030 sq km 
land area: 
  305,470 sq km 
comparative area: 
  slightly smaller than Montana
Land boundaries: 
  total 2,628 km, Norway 729 km, Sweden 586 km, Russia 1,313 km 
Coastline: 
  1,126 km (excludes islands and coastal indentations)
Maritime claims: 
contiguous zone: 
  6 nm
continental shelf: 
  200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive fishing zone: 
  12 nm
territorial sea: 
  4 nm
International disputes: 
  none
Climate: 
  cold temperate; potentially subarctic, but comparatively mild because
  of moderating influence of the North Atlantic Current, Baltic Sea, and
  more than 60,000 lakes
Terrain: 
  mostly low, flat to rolling plains interspersed with lakes and low
  hills
Natural resources: 
  timber, copper, zinc, iron ore, silver 
Land use: 
arable land: 
  8% 
permanent crops: 
  0% 
meadows and pastures: 
  0% 
forest and woodland: 
  76% 
other: 
  16% 
Irrigated land: 
  620 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
  air pollution from manufacturing and power plants contributing to acid
  rain; water pollution from industrial wastes, agricultural chemicals;
  habitat loss threatens wildlife populations
natural hazards: 
  NA 
international agreements: 
  party to - Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
  Pollution-Sulphur, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic
  Treaty, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous
  Wastes, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban,
  Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber, Wetlands,
  Whaling; signed, but not ratified - Antarctic-Environmental Protocol,
  Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of the Sea
Note: 
  long boundary with Russia; Helsinki is northernmost national capital
  on European continent; population concentrated on small southwestern
  coastal plain

@Finland, People

Population: 
  5,068,931 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
  0.34% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
  12.41 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
  9.84 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
  0.81 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
  5.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
  75.93 years 
male: 
  72.18 years 
female: 
  79.86 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
  1.79 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
  Finn(s) 
adjective: 
  Finnish 
Ethnic divisions: 
  Finn, Swede, Lapp, Gypsy, Tatar 
Religions: 
  Evangelical Lutheran 89%, Greek Orthodox 1%, none 9%, other 1% 
Languages: 
  Finnish 93.5% (official), Swedish 6.3% (official), small Lapp- and
  Russian-speaking minorities
Literacy: 
  age 15 and over can read and write (1980 est.)
total population: 
  100% 
male: 
  NA%
female: 
  NA%
Labor force: 
  2.533 million 
by occupation: 
  public services 30.4%, industry 20.9%, commerce 15.0%, finance,
  insurance, and business services 10.2%, agriculture and forestry 8.6%,
  transport and communications 7.7%, construction 7.2%

@Finland, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
  Republic of Finland 
conventional short form: 
  Finland 
local long form: 
  Suomen Tasavalta 
local short form: 
  Suomi 
Digraph: 
  FI
Type: 
  republic 
Capital: 
  Helsinki 
Administrative divisions: 
  12 provinces (laanit, singular - laani); Ahvenanmaa, Hame,
  Keski-Suomi, Kuopio, Kymi, Lappi, Mikkeli, Oulu, Pohjois-Karjala,
  Turku ja Pori, Uusimaa, Vaasa
Independence: 
  6 December 1917 (from Soviet Union)
National holiday: 
  Independence Day, 6 December (1917) 
Constitution: 
  17 July 1919
Legal system: 
  civil law system based on Swedish law; Supreme Court may request
  legislation interpreting or modifying laws; accepts compulsory ICJ
  jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage: 
  18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
  President Martti AHTISAARI (since 1 March 1994); election last held 31
  January - 6 February 1994 (next to be held January 2000); results -
  Martti AHTISAARI 54%, Elisabeth REHN 46%
head of government: 
  Prime Minister Esko AHO (since 26 April 1991); Deputy Prime Minister
  Pertti SALOLAINEN (since at least January 1992) 
cabinet: 
  Council of State (Valtioneuvosto); appointed by the president,
  responsible to Parliament
Legislative branch: 
  unicameral
Parliament (Eduskunta): 
  elections last held 17 March 1991 (next to be held March 1995);
  results - Center Party 24.8%, Social Democratic Party 22.1%, National
  Coalition (Conservative) Party 19.3%, Leftist Alliance (Communist)
  10.1%, Green League 6.8%, Swedish People's Party 5.5%, Rural 4.8%,
  Finnish Christian League 3.1%, Liberal People's Party 0.8%; seats -
  (200 total) Center Party 55, Social Democratic Party 48, National
  Coalition (Conservative) Party 40, Leftist Alliance (Communist) 19,
  Swedish People's Party 12, Green League 10, Finnish Christian League
  8, Rural 7, Liberal People's Party 1
Judicial branch: 
  Supreme Court (Korkein Oikeus) 
Political parties and leaders: 
government coalition: 
  Center Party, Esko AHO; National Coalition (conservative) Party, Perti
  SALOLAINEN; Swedish People's Party, (Johan) Ole NORRBACK; Finnish
  Christian League, Toimi KANKAANNIEMI
other parties: 
  Social Democratic Party, Paavo LIPPONEN, acting chairman; Leftist
  Alliance (Communist) People's Democratic League and Democratic
  Alternative, Claes ANDERSON; Green League, Pekka SAURI; Rural Party,
  Tina MAKELA; Liberal People's Party, Kalle MAATTA
Other political or pressure groups: 
  Finnish Communist Party-Unity, Yrjo HAKANEN; Constitutional Rightist
  Party; Finnish Pensioners Party; Communist Workers Party, Timo
  LAHDENMAKI
Member of: 
  AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE, CERN,
  COCOM (cooperating), CSCE, EBRD, ECE, EFTA, ESA (associate), FAO, G-9,
  GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO,
  IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS,
  MTCR, NAM (guest), NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, PCA, UN,
  UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIKOM, UNMOGIP,
  UNPROFOR, UNTSO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador Jukka VALTASAARI 
chancery: 
  3216 New Mexico Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20016 
telephone: 
  (202) 363-2430 
FAX: 
  (202) 363-8233 
consulate(s) general: 
  Los Angeles and New York 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador John H. KELLY 
embassy: 
  Itainen Puistotie 14A, SF-00140, Helsinki 
mailing address: 
  APO AE 09723 
telephone: 
  [358] (0) 171931 
FAX: 
  [358] (0) 174681 
Flag: 
  white with a blue cross that extends to the edges of the flag; the
  vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style
  of the DANNEBROG (Danish flag)

@Finland, Economy

Overview: 
  Finland has a highly industrialized, largely free market economy, with
  per capita output two-thirds of the US figure. Its key economic sector
  is manufacturing - principally the wood, metals, and engineering
  industries. Trade is important, with the export of goods representing
  about 30% of GDP. Except for timber and several minerals, Finland
  depends on imports of raw materials, energy, and some components for
  manufactured goods. Because of the climate, agricultural development
  is limited to maintaining self-sufficiency in basic products. The
  economy, which experienced an average of 4.9% annual growth between
  1987 and 1989, sank into deep recession in 1991 as growth contracted
  by 6.5%. The recession - which continued in 1992 with growth
  contracting by 4.1% - has been caused by economic overheating,
  depressed foreign markets, and the dismantling of the barter system
  between Finland and the former Soviet Union under which Soviet oil and
  gas had been exchanged for Finnish manufactured goods. The Finnish
  Government has proposed efforts to increase industrial competitiveness
  and efficiency by an increase in exports to Western markets, cuts in
  public expenditures, partial privatization of state enterprises, and
  changes in monetary policy. In June 1991 Helsinki had tied the markka
  to the European Union's (EU) European Currency Unit (ECU) to promote
  stability. Ongoing speculation resulting from a lack of confidence in
  the government's policies forced Helsinki to devalue the markka by
  about 12% in November 1991 and to indefinitely break the link in
  September 1992. The devaluations have boosted the competitiveness of
  Finnish exports to the extent the recession bottomed out in 1993 with
  renewed economic growth expected in 1994. Unemployment probably will
  remain a serious problem during the next few years, with the majority
  of Finnish firms facing a weak domestic market and the troubled German
  and Swedish export markets. Declining revenues, increased transfer
  payments, and extensive funding to bail out the banking system pushed
  the central government's budget deficit to nearly 13% in 1993.
  Helsinki continues to harmonize its economic policies with those of
  the EU during Finland's current EU membership bid. In early 1995,
  Finland is expected to join the European Union (formerly the European
  Community), thus broadening European economic unity.
National product: 
  GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $81.1 billion (1993)
National product real growth rate: 
  -2.6% (1993)
National product per capita: 
  $16,100 (1993)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
  2.1% (1992)
Unemployment rate: 
  22% (1993)
Budget: 
revenues: 
  $26.8 billion 
expenditures: 
  $40.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1992)
Exports: 
  $23.4 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: 
  timber, paper and pulp, ships, machinery, clothing and footwear
partners: 
  EC 53.2% (Germany 15.6%, UK 10.7%), EFTA 19.5% (Sweden 12.8%), US
  5.9%, Japan 1.3%, Russia 2.8% (1992)
Imports: 
  $18 billion (c.i.f., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
  foodstuffs, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, transport
  equipment, iron and steel, machinery, textile yarn and fabrics, fodder
  grains
partners: 
  EC 47.2% (Germany 16.9%, UK 8.7%), EFTA 19.0% (Sweden 11.7%), US 6.1%,
  Japan 5.5%, Russia 7.1% (1992)
External debt: 
  $30 billion (December 1993)
Industrial production: 
  growth rate 7.6% (1992 est.)
Electricity: 
capacity: 
  13,500,000 kW
production: 
  55.3 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
  11,050 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
  metal products, shipbuilding, forestry and wood processing (pulp,
  paper), copper refining, foodstuffs, chemicals, textiles, clothing
Agriculture: 
  accounts for 5% of GDP (including forestry); livestock production,
  especially dairy cattle, predominates; forestry is an important export
  earner and a secondary occupation for the rural population; main crops
  - cereals, sugar beets, potatoes; 85% self-sufficient, but short of
  foodgrains and fodder grains; annual fish catch about 160,000 metric
  tons
Economic aid: 
donor: 
  ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89),  $2.7 billion 
Currency: 
  1 markka (FMk) or Finmark = 100 pennia
Exchange rates: 
  markkaa (FMk) per US$1 - 5.6920 (January 1994), 5.7123 (1993), 4.4794
  (1992), 4.0440 (1991), 3.8235 (1990), 4.2912 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
  calendar year

@Finland, Communications

Railroads: 
  5,924 km total; Finnish State Railways (VR) operate a total of 5,863
  km 1,524-mm gauge, of which 480 km are multiple track and 1,710 km are
  electrified
Highways: 
total: 
  76,631 km (1991)
paved: 
  bituminous concrete, bituminous treated soil 46,745 km 
unpaved: 
  gravel 29,886 km 
Inland waterways: 
  6,675 km total (including Saimaa Canal); 3,700 km suitable for
  steamers
Pipelines: 
  natural gas 580 km 
Ports: 
  Helsinki, Oulu, Pori, Rauma, Turku
Merchant marine: 
  93 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,040,905 GRT/1,143,276 DWT,
  bulk 7, cargo 20, chemical tanker 5, liquefied gas 3, oil tanker 15,
  passenger 3, refrigerated cargo 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 30,
  short-sea passenger 9 
Airports: 
total: 
  160 
usable: 
  157 
with permanent-surface runways: 
  66 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
  0 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
  26 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
  20 
Telecommunications: 
  good service from cable and microwave radio relay network; 3,140,000
  telephones; broadcast stations - 6 AM, 105 FM, 235 TV; 1 submarine
  cable; INTELSAT satellite transmission service via Swedish earth
  station and a receive-only INTELSAT earth station near Helsinki

@Finland, Defense Forces

Branches: 
  Army, Navy, Air Force, Frontier Guard (including Coast Guard)
Manpower availability: 
  males age 15-49 1,323,322; fit for military service 1,089,300; reach
  military age (17) annually 33,594 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
  exchange rate conversion - $1.6 billion, about 1.5% of GDP (1993)


@France, Geography

Location: 
  Western Europe, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean between Spain and
  Germany
Map references: 
  Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
  547,030 sq km 
land area: 
  545,630 sq km 
comparative area: 
  slightly more than twice the size of Colorado
note: 
  includes Corsica and the rest of metropolitan France, but excludes the
  overseas administrative divisions
Land boundaries: 
  total 2,892.4 km, Andorra 60 km, Belgium 620 km, Germany 451 km, Italy
  488 km, Luxembourg 73 km, Monaco 4.4 km, Spain 623 km, Switzerland 573
  km 
Coastline: 
  3,427 km (mainland 2,783 km, Corsica 644 km)
Maritime claims: 
contiguous zone: 
  12-24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 
  200 nm
territorial sea: 
  12 nm
International disputes: 
  Madagascar claims Bassas da India, Europa Island, Glorioso Islands,
  Juan de Nova Island, and Tromelin Island; Comoros claims Mayotte;
  Mauritius claims Tromelin Island; Seychelles claims Tromelin Island;
  Suriname claims part of French Guiana; Mexico claims Clipperton
  Island; territorial claim in Antarctica (Adelie Land); Saint Pierre
  and Miquelon is focus of maritime boundary dispute between Canada and
  France
Climate: 
  generally cool winters and mild summers, but mild winters and hot
  summers along the Mediterranean
Terrain: 
  mostly flat plains or gently rolling hills in north and west;
  remainder is mountainous, especially Pyrenees in south, Alps in east
Natural resources: 
  coal, iron ore, bauxite, fish, timber, zinc, potash 
Land use: 
arable land: 
  32% 
permanent crops: 
  2% 
meadows and pastures: 
  23% 
forest and woodland: 
  27% 
other: 
  16% 
Irrigated land: 
  11,600 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
  some forest damage from acid rain; air pollution from industrial and
  vehicle emissions; water pollution from urban wastes, agricultural
  runoff
natural hazards: 
  NA 
international agreements: 
  party to - Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
  Pollution-Sulphur, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty,
  Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping,
  Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
  Tropical Timber, Wetlands, Whaling; signed, but not ratified - Air
  Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Law of the Sea
Note: 
  largest West European nation; occasional warm tropical wind known as
  mistral

@France, People

Population: 
  57,840,445 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
  0.47% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
  13.13 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
  9.3 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
  0.86 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
  6.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
  78.19 years 
male: 
  74.27 years 
female: 
  82.3 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
  1.8 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
  Frenchman(men), Frenchwoman(women) 
adjective: 
  French 
Ethnic divisions: 
  Celtic and Latin with Teutonic, Slavic, North African, Indochinese,
  Basque minorities 
Religions: 
  Roman Catholic 90%, Protestant 2%, Jewish 1%, Muslim (North African
  workers) 1%, unaffiliated 6% 
Languages: 
  French 100%, rapidly declining regional dialects and languages
  (Provencal, Breton, Alsatian, Corsican, Catalan, Basque, Flemish)
Literacy: 
  age 15 and over can read and write (1980 est.)
total population: 
  99% 
male: 
  NA%
female: 
  NA%
Labor force: 
  24.17 million 
by occupation: 
  services 61.5%, industry 31.3%, agriculture 7.2% (1987)

@France, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
  French Republic 
conventional short form: 
  France 
local long form: 
  Republique Francaise 
local short form: 
  France 
Digraph: 
  FR
Type: 
  republic 
Capital: 
  Paris 
Administrative divisions: 
  22 regions (regions, singular - region); Alsace, Aquitaine, Auvergne,
  Basse-Normandie, Bourgogne, Bretagne, Centre, Champagne-Ardenne,
  Corse, Franche-Comte, Haute-Normandie, Ile-de-France,
  Languedoc-Roussillon, Limousin, Lorraine, Midi-Pyrenees,
  Nord-Pas-de-Calais, Pays de la Loire, Picardie, Poitou-Charentes,
  Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur, Rhone-Alpes
note: 
  the 22 regions are subdivided into 96 departments; see separate
  entries for the overseas departments (French Guiana, Guadeloupe,
  Martinique, Reunion) and the territorial collectivities (Mayotte,
  Saint Pierre and Miquelon)
Dependent areas: 
  Bassas da India, Clipperton Island, Europa Island, French Polynesia,
  French Southern and Antarctic Lands, Glorioso Islands, Juan de Nova
  Island, New Caledonia, Tromelin Island, Wallis and Futuna 
note: 
  the US does not recognize claims to Antarctica 
Independence: 
  486 (unified by Clovis)
National holiday: 
  National Day, Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789) 
Constitution: 
  28 September 1958, amended concerning election of president in 1962,
  amended to comply with provisions of EC Maastricht Treaty in 1992;
  amended to tighten immigration laws 1993
Legal system: 
  civil law system with indigenous concepts; review of administrative
  but not legislative acts
Suffrage: 
  18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
  President Francois MITTERRAND (since 21 May 1981); election last held
  8 May 1988 (next to be held by May 1995); results - Second Ballot
  Francois MITTERRAND 54%, Jacques CHIRAC 46%
head of government: 
  Prime Minister Edouard BALLADUR (since 29 March 1993) 
cabinet: 
  Council of Ministers; appointed by the president on the suggestion of
  the prime minister
Legislative branch: 
  bicameral Parliament (Parlement)
Senate (Senat): 
  elections last held 27 September 1992 (next to be held September 1995
  - nine-year term, elected by thirds every three years); results -
  percent of vote by party NA; seats - (321 total; 296 metropolitan
  France, 13 for overseas departments and territories, and 12 for French
  nationals abroad) RPR 91, UDF 142 (UREI 51, UC 68, RDE 23), PS 66, PCF
  16, independents 2, other 4
National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale): 
  elections last held 21 and 28 March 1993 (next to be held NA 1998);
  results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (577 total) RPR 247,
  UDF 213, PS 67, PCF 24, independents 26
Judicial branch: 
  Constitutional Court (Cour Constitutionnelle) 
Political parties and leaders: 
  Rally for the Republic (RPR), Jacques CHIRAC; Union for French
  Democracy (UDF, federation of UREI, UC, RDE), Valery Giscard
  d'ESTAING; Republican Party (PR), Gerard LONGUET; Center for Social
  Democrats (CDS), Pierre MEHAIGNERIE; Radical (RAD), Yves GALLAND;
  Socialist Party (PS), Henri EMMAMUELLI, interim party leader; Left
  Radical Movement (MRG), Jean-Francois HORY; Communist Party (PCF),
  Robert HUE; National Front (FN), Jean-Marie LE PEN; Union of
  Republican and Independents (UREI); Centrist Union (UC); Democratic
  Assembly (RDE); The Greens, Antoine WAECHTER, Jean-Louis VIDAL, Guy
  CAMBOT; Generation Ecology (GE), Brice LALONDE
Other political or pressure groups: 
  Communist-controlled labor union (Confederation Generale du Travail -
  CGT) nearly 2.4 million members (claimed); Socialist-leaning labor
  union (Confederation Francaise Democratique du Travail or CFDT) about
  800,000 members (est.); independent labor union (Force Ouvriere) 1
  million members (est.); independent white-collar union (Confederation
  Generale des Cadres) 340,000 members (claimed); National Council of
  French Employers (Conseil National du Patronat Francais - CNPF or
  Patronat)
Member of: 
  ACCT, AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, Australia Group, BDEAC, BIS, CCC, CDB
  (non-regional), CE, CERN, COCOM, CSCE, EBRD, EC, ECA (associate), ECE,
  ECLAC, EIB, ESA, ESCAP, FAO, FZ, GATT, G-5, G-7, G-10, IADB, IAEA,
  IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT,
  INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS, MINURSO, MTCR, NACC,
  NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, ONUSAL, PCA, SPC, UN, UNCTAD,
  UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIKOM, UNOSOM, UNPROFOR, UNRWA, UN
  Security Council, UNTAC, UN Trusteeship Council, UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WEU,
  WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador Jacques ANDREANI 
chancery: 
  4101 Reservoir Road NW, Washington, DC 20007 
telephone: 
  (202) 944-6000 
consulate(s) general: 
  Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Honolulu, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New
  Orleans, New York, San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico) 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador Pamela C. HARRIMAN 
embassy: 
  2 Avenue Gabriel, 75382 Paris Cedex 08 
mailing address: 
  Unit 21551, Paris; APO AE 09777 
telephone: 
  [33] (1) 4296-12-02 or 42-61-80-75 
FAX: 
  [33] (1) 4266-9783 
consulate(s) general: 
  Bordeaux, Marseille, Strasbourg 
Flag: 
  three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), white, and red; known
  as the French Tricouleur (Tricolor); the design and colors are similar
  to a number of other flags, including those of Belgium, Chad, Ireland,
  Cote d'Ivoire, and Luxembourg; the official flag for all French
  dependent areas

@France, Economy

Overview: 
  One of the world's most developed economies, France has substantial
  agricultural resources and a highly diversified modern industrial
  sector. Large tracts of fertile land, the application of modern
  technology, and subsidies have combined to make it the leading
  agricultural producer in Western Europe. Largely self-sufficient in
  agricultural products, France is a major exporter of wheat and dairy
  products. The industrial sector generates about one-quarter of GDP,
  and the growing services sector has become crucial to the economy.
  Although French GDP contracted by 0.7% in 1993, the economy showed
  signs of life by yearend. GDP growth, however, will remain sluggish in
  1994 - perhaps reaching only 1.0%. Rapidly increasing unemployment
  will still pose a major problem for the government. Paris remains
  committed to maintaining the franc-deutsche mark parity, which has
  kept French interest rates high despite France's low inflation.
  Although the pace of economic integration within the European
  Community has slowed down, integration presumably will remain a major
  force shaping the fortunes of the various economic sectors.
National product: 
  GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $1.05 trillion (1993)
National product real growth rate: 
  -0.7% (1993)
National product per capita: 
  $18,200 (1993)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
  2.1% (1993)
Unemployment rate: 
  12.2% (May 1994)
Budget: 
revenues: 
  $220.5 billion 
expenditures: 
  $249.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $47 billion (1993
  budget)
Exports: 
  $270.5 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: 
  machinery and transportation equipment, chemicals, foodstuffs,
  agricultural products, iron and steel products, textiles and clothing
partners: 
  Germany 18.6%, Italy 11.0%, Spain 11.0%, Belgium-Luxembourg 9.1%, UK
  8.8%, Netherlands 7.9%, US 6.4%, Japan 2.0%, former USSR 0.7% (1991
  est.)
Imports: 
  $250.2 billion (c.i.f., 1993)
commodities: 
  crude oil, machinery and equipment, agricultural products, chemicals,
  iron and steel products
partners: 
  Germany 17.8%, Italy 10.9%, US 9.5%, Netherlands 8.9%, Spain 8.8%,
  Belgium-Luxembourg 8.5%, UK 7.5%, Japan 4.1%, former USSR 1.3% (1991
  est.)
External debt: 
  $300 billion (1993 est.)
Industrial production: 
  growth rate -4.3% (1993)
Electricity: 
capacity: 
  110 million kW
production: 
  426 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
  7,430 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
  steel, machinery, chemicals, automobiles, metallurgy, aircraft,
  electronics, mining, textiles, food processing, tourism
Agriculture: 
  accounts for 4% of GDP (including fishing and forestry); one of the
  world's top five wheat producers; other principal products - beef,
  dairy products, cereals, sugar beets, potatoes, wine grapes;
  self-sufficient for most temperate-zone foods; shortages include fats
  and oils and tropical produce, but overall net exporter of farm
  products; fish catch of 850,000 metric tons ranks among world's top 20
  countries and is all used domestically
Economic aid: 
donor: 
  ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $75.1 billion 
Currency: 
  1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates: 
  French francs (F) per US$1 - 5.9205 (January 1994), 5.6632 (1993),
  5.2938 (1992), 5.6421 (1991), 5.4453 (1990), 6.3801 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
  calendar year

@France, Communications

Railroads: 
  French National Railways (SNCF) operates 34,322 km 1,435-mm standard
  gauge; 12,434 km electrified, 15,132 km double or multiple track; 99
  km of various gauges (1,000-mm), privately owned and operated
Highways: 
total: 
  1,510,750 km 
paved: 
  747,750 km (including 7,450 km of controlled access divided highway)
unpaved: 
  763,000 km 
Inland waterways: 
  14,932 km; 6,969 km heavily traveled
Pipelines: 
  crude oil 3,059 km; petroleum products 4,487 km; natural gas 24,746 km
Ports: 
  coastal - Bordeaux, Boulogne, Brest, Cherbourg, Dunkerque,
  Fos-Sur-Mer, Le Havre, Marseille, Nantes, Sete, Toulon; inland - Rouen
Merchant marine: 
  124 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,226,175 GRT/5,109,375 DWT,
  bulk 9, cargo 10, chemical tanker 8, container 21, liquefied gas 6,
  multifunction large-load carrier 1, oil tanker 37, passenger 1,
  roll-on/roll-off cargo 21, short-sea passenger 7, specialized tanker 3
note: 
  France also maintains a captive register for French-owned ships in the
  Kerguelen Islands (French Southern and Antarctic Lands) and French
  Polynesia
Airports: 
total: 
  472 
usable: 
  461 
with permanent-surface runways: 
  258 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
  3 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
  37 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
  136 
Telecommunications: 
  highly developed; extensive cable and microwave radio relay networks;
  large-scale introduction of optical-fiber systems; satellite systems
  for domestic traffic; 39,200,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 41
  AM, 800 (mostly repeaters) FM, 846 (mostly repeaters) TV; 24 submarine
  coaxial cables; 2 INTELSAT earth stations (with total of 5 antennas -
  2 for the Indian Ocean INTELSAT and 3 for the Atlantic Ocean
  INTELSAT); HF radio communications with more than 20 countries;
  INMARSAT service; EUTELSAT TV service

@France, Defense Forces

Branches: 
  Army, Navy (including Naval Air), Air Force, National Gendarmerie 
Manpower availability: 
  males age 15-49 14,717,461; fit for military service 12,265,874; reach
  military age (18) annually 376,485 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
  exchange rate conversion - $33.0 billion, 3.3% of GDP (1993)


@French Guiana

Header
Affiliation: 
  (overseas department of France) 

@French Guiana, Geography

Location: 
  Northern South America, bordering on the North Atlantic Ocean between
  Suriname and Brazil
Map references: 
  South America, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
  91,000 sq km 
land area: 
  89,150 sq km 
comparative area: 
  slightly smaller than Indiana
Land boundaries: 
  total 1,183 km, Brazil 673 km, Suriname 510 km 
Coastline: 
  378 km 
Maritime claims: 
exclusive economic zone: 
  200 nm
territorial sea: 
  12 nm
International disputes: 
  Suriname claims area between Riviere Litani and Riviere Marouini (both
  headwaters of the Lawa)
Climate: 
  tropical; hot, humid; little seasonal temperature variation
Terrain: 
  low-lying coastal plains rising to hills and small mountains
Natural resources: 
  bauxite, timber, gold (widely scattered), cinnabar, kaolin, fish 
Land use: 
arable land: 
  0% 
permanent crops: 
  0% 
meadows and pastures: 
  0% 
forest and woodland: 
  82% 
other: 
  18% 
Irrigated land: 
  NA sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
  NA 
natural hazards: 
  NA 
international agreements: 
  NA 
Note: 
  mostly an unsettled wilderness

@French Guiana, People

Population: 
  139,299 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
  4.27% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
  25.83 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
  4.67 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
  21.54 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
  15.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
  75.2 years 
male: 
  71.93 years 
female: 
  78.63 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
  3.5 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
  French Guianese (singular and plural) 
adjective: 
  French Guianese 
Ethnic divisions: 
  black or mulatto 66%, Caucasian 12%, East Indian, Chinese, Amerindian
  12%, other 10% 
Religions: 
  Roman Catholic 
Languages: 
  French 
Literacy: 
  age 15 and over can read and write (1982)
total population: 
  82% 
male: 
  81% 
female: 
  83% 
Labor force: 
  23,265 
by occupation: 
  services, government, and commerce 60.6%, industry 21.2%, agriculture
  18.2% (1980)
Names: 
conventional long form: 
  Department of Guiana 
conventional short form: 
  French Guiana 
local long form: 
  none 
local short form: 
  Guyane 
Digraph: 
  FG
Type: 
  overseas department of France 
Capital: 
  Cayenne 
Administrative divisions: 
  none (overseas department of France)
Independence: 
  none (overseas department of France)
National holiday: 
  National Day, Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789) 
Constitution: 
  28 September 1958 (French Constitution)
Legal system: 
  French legal system
Suffrage: 
  18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
  President Francois MITTERRAND (since 21 May 1981) 
head of government: 
  Prefect Jean-Francois CORDET (since NA 1992); President of the General
  Council Elie CASTOR (since NA); President of the Regional Council
  Antoine KARAM (22 March 1993) 
cabinet: 
  Council of Ministers 
Legislative branch: 
  unicameral General Council and a unicameral Regional Council
General Council: 
  elections last held 25 September and 8 October 1988 (next to be held
  NA); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (19 total) PSG 12,
  URC 7
Regional Council: 
  elections last held 22 March 1992 (next to be held NA); results -
  percent of vote by party NA; seats - (31 total) PSG 16
French Senate: 
  elections last held 24 September 1989 (next to be held September
  1998); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (1 total) PSG 1
French National Assembly: 
  elections last held 21 and 28 March 1993 (next to be held NA 1998);
  results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (2 total) RPR 1,
  independent 1
Judicial branch: 
  Court of Appeals (highest local court based in Martinique with
  jurisdiction over Martinique, Guadeloupe, and French Guiana)
Political parties and leaders: 
  Guianese Socialist Party (PSG), Elie CASTRO; Conservative Union for
  the Republic (UPR), Leon BERTRAND; Rally for the Center Right (URC);
  Rally for the Republic (RPR); Guyana Democratic Front (FDG), Georges
  OTHILY; Walwari Committee, Christine TAUBIRA-DELANON
Member of: 
  FZ, WCL 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
  none (overseas department of France)
US diplomatic representation: 
  none (overseas department of France)
Flag: 
  the flag of France is used

@French Guiana, Economy

Overview: 
  The economy is tied closely to that of France through subsidies and
  imports. Besides the French space center at Kourou, fishing and
  forestry are the most important economic activities, with exports of
  fish and fish products (mostly shrimp) accounting for more than 60% of
  total revenue in 1992. The large reserves of tropical hardwoods, not
  fully exploited, support an expanding sawmill industry that provides
  sawn logs for export. Cultivation of crops - rice, cassava, bananas,
  and sugar cane - is limited to the coastal area, where the population
  is largely concentrated. French Guiana is heavily dependent on imports
  of food and energy. Unemployment is a serious problem, particularly
  among younger workers.
National product: 
  GDP - exchange rate conversion - $421 million (1986)
National product real growth rate: 
  NA%
National product per capita: 
  $4,390 (1986)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
  4.1% (1987)
Unemployment rate: 
  13% (1990)
Budget: 
revenues: 
  $735 million 
expenditures: 
  $735 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1987)
Exports: 
  $59 million (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities: 
  shrimp, timber, rum, rosewood essence
partners: 
  France 52%, Spain 15%, US 5% (1992)
Imports: 
  $1.5 billion (c.i.f., 1992)
commodities: 
  food (grains, processed meat), other consumer goods, producer goods,
  petroleum
partners: 
  France 77%, Germany 11%, US 5% (1992)
External debt: 
  $1.2 billion (1988)
Industrial production: 
  growth rate NA%
Electricity: 
capacity: 
  92,000 kW
production: 
  185 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
  1,450 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
  construction, shrimp processing, forestry products, rum, gold mining
Agriculture: 
  some vegetables for local consumption; rice, corn, manioc, cocoa,
  bananas, sugar; livestock - cattle, pigs, poultry
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
  Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
  (1970-89), $1.51 billion 
Currency: 
  1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates: 
  French francs (F) per US$1 - 5.9205 (January 1994), 5.6632 (1993),
  5.2938 (1992), 5.6421 (1991), 5.4453 (1990), 6.3801 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
  calendar year

@French Guiana, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
  680 km 
paved: 
  510 km 
unpaved: 
  improved, unimproved earth 170 km 
Inland waterways: 
  460 km, navigable by small oceangoing vessels and river and coastal
  steamers; 3,300 km navigable by native craft
Ports: 
  Cayenne
Airports: 
total: 
  10 
usable: 
  10 
with permanent-surface runways: 
  4 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
  0 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
  1 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
  1 
Telecommunications: 
  fair open-wire and microwave radio relay system; 18,100 telephones;
  broadcast stations - 5 AM, 7 FM, 9 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth
  station

@French Guiana, Defense Forces

Branches: 
  French Forces, Gendarmerie 
Manpower availability: 
  males age 15-49 40,506; fit for military service 26,394 
Defense expenditures: 
  $NA, NA% of GDP
Note: 
  defense is the responsibility of France


@French Polynesia

Header
Affiliation: 
  (overseas territory of France) 

@French Polynesia, Geography

Location: 
  Oceania, Polynesia halfway between Australia and South America
Map references: 
  Oceania 
Area: 
total area: 
  3,941 sq km 
land area: 
  3,660 sq km 
comparative area: 
  slightly less than one-third the size of Connecticut
Land boundaries: 
  0 km  
Coastline: 
  2,525 km 
Maritime claims: 
exclusive economic zone: 
  200 nm
territorial sea: 
  12 nm
International disputes: 
  none
Climate: 
  tropical, but moderate
Terrain: 
  mixture of rugged high islands and low islands with reefs
Natural resources: 
  timber, fish, cobalt 
Land use: 
arable land: 
  1% 
permanent crops: 
  19% 
meadows and pastures: 
  5% 
forest and woodland: 
  31% 
other: 
  44% 
Irrigated land: 
  NA sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
  NA 
natural hazards: 
  occasional cyclonic storms in January
international agreements: 
  NA 
Note: 
  includes five archipelagoes; Makatea in French Polynesia is one of the
  three great phosphate rock islands in the Pacific Ocean - the others
  are Banaba (Ocean Island) in Kiribati and Nauru

@French Polynesia, People

Population: 
  215,129 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
  2.25% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
  27.75 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
  5.27 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
  14.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
  70.54 years 
male: 
  68.14 years 
female: 
  73.06 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
  3.31 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
  French Polynesian(s) 
adjective: 
  French Polynesian 
Ethnic divisions: 
  Polynesian 78%, Chinese 12%, local French 6%, metropolitan French 4% 
Religions: 
  Protestant 54%, Roman Catholic 30%, other 16% 
Languages: 
  French (official), Tahitian (official)
Literacy: 
  age 14 and over but definition of literacy not available (1977)
total population: 
  98% 
male: 
  98% 
female: 
  98% 
Labor force: 
  76,630 employed (1988)

@French Polynesia, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
  Territory of French Polynesia 
conventional short form: 
  French Polynesia 
local long form: 
  Territoire de la Polynesie Francaise 
local short form: 
  Polynesie Francaise 
Digraph: 
  FP
Type: 
  overseas territory of France since 1946
Capital: 
  Papeete 
Administrative divisions: 
  none (overseas territory of France); there are no first-order
  administrative divisions as defined by the US Government, but there
  are 5 archipelagic divisions named Archipel des Marquises, Archipel
  des Tuamotu, Archipel des Tubuai, Iles du Vent, and Iles Sous-le-Vent
note: 
  Clipperton Island is administered by France from French Polynesia
Independence: 
  none (overseas territory of France)
National holiday: 
  National Day, Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789) 
Constitution: 
  28 September 1958 (French Constitution)
Legal system: 
  based on French system
Suffrage: 
  18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
  President Francois MITTERRAND (since 21 May 1981); High Commissioner
  of the Republic Michel JAU (since NA February 1992) 
head of government: 
  President of the Territorial Government of French Polynesia Gaston
  FLOSSE (since 10 May 1991); Deputy to the French Assembly and
  President of the Territorial Assembly Jean JUVENTIN (since NA November
  1992); Territorial Vice President and Minister of Health Michel
  BUILLARD (since 12 September 1991)
cabinet: 
  Council of Ministers; president submits a list of members of the
  Assembly for approval by them to serve as ministers
Legislative branch: 
  unicameral
Territorial Assembly: 
  elections last held 17 March 1991 (next to be held March 1996);
  results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (41 total) People's
  Rally for the Republic (Gaullist) 18, Polynesian Union Party 12, New
  Fatherland Party 7, other 4
French Senate: 
  elections last held 24 September 1989 (next to be held September
  1998); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (1 total) party
  NA
French National Assembly: 
  elections last held 21 and 28 March 1993 (next to be held NA March
  1998); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (2 total)
  People's Rally for the Republic (Gaullist) 2
Judicial branch: 
  Court of Appeal, Court of the First Instance, Court of Administrative
  Law 
Political parties and leaders: 
  People's Rally for the Republic (Tahoeraa Huiraatira), Gaston FLOSSE;
  Polynesian Union Party includes Te Tiarama, Alexandre LEONTIEFF, and
  Pupu Here Ai'a Te Nuneao Ia Ora, Jean JUVENTIN; New Fatherland Party
  (Ai'a Api), Emile VERNAUDON; Polynesian Liberation Front (Tavini
  Huiraatira), Oscar TEMARU; Independent Party (Ia Mana Te Nunaa), James
  SALMON; other small parties
Member of: 
  ESCAP (associate), FZ, ICFTU, SPC, WMO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
  none (overseas territory of France)
US diplomatic representation: 
  none (overseas territory of France)
Flag: 
  the flag of France is used

@French Polynesia, Economy

Overview: 
  Since 1962, when France stationed military personnel in the region,
  French Polynesia has changed from a subsistence economy to one in
  which a high proportion of the work force is either employed by the
  military or supports the tourist industry. Tourism accounts for about
  20% of GDP and is a primary source of hard currency earnings.
National product: 
  GDP - exchange rate conversion - $1.5 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
  NA%
National product per capita: 
  $7,000 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
  -0.6% (1991)
Unemployment rate: 
  10% (1990 est.)
Budget: 
revenues: 
  $614 million 
expenditures: 
  $957 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1988)
Exports: 
  $88.9 million (f.o.b., 1989)
commodities: 
  coconut products 79%, mother-of-pearl 14%, vanilla, shark meat
partners: 
  France 54%, US 17%, Japan 17%
Imports: 
  $765 million (c.i.f., 1989)
commodities: 
  fuels, foodstuffs, equipment
partners: 
  France 53%, US 11%, Australia 6%, NZ 5%
External debt: 
  $NA
Industrial production: 
  growth rate NA%
Electricity: 
capacity: 
  75,000 kW
production: 
  275 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
  1,330 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
  tourism, pearls, agricultural processing, handicrafts
Agriculture: 
  coconut and vanilla plantations; vegetables and fruit; poultry, beef,
  dairy products
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
  Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
  (1970-88), $3.95 billion 
Currency: 
  1 CFP franc (CFPF) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates: 
  Comptoirs Francais du Pacifique francs (CFPF) per US$1 - 107.63
  (January 1994), 102.96 (1993), 96.24 (1992), 102.57 (1991), 99.00
  (1990), 115.99 (1989); note - linked at the rate of 18.18 to the
  French franc
Fiscal year: 
  calendar year

@French Polynesia, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
  600 km (1982)
paved: 
  NA 
unpaved: 
  NA 
Ports: 
  Papeete, Bora-bora
Merchant marine: 
  3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,127 GRT/6,710 DWT,
  passenger-cargo 2, refrigerated cargo 1 
note: 
  a captive subset of the French register
Airports: 
total: 
  43 
usable: 
  41 
with permanent-surface runways: 
  23 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
  0 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
  2 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
  12 
Telecommunications: 
  33,200 telephones; 84,000 radio receivers; 26,400 TV sets; broadcast
  stations - 5 AM, 2 FM, 6 TV; 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth station

@French Polynesia, Defense Forces

Branches: 
  French forces (including Army, Navy, Air Force), Gendarmerie 
Note: 
  defense is responsibility of France


@French Southern and Antarctic Lands

Header
Affiliation: 
  (overseas territory of France) 

@French Southern and Antarctic Lands, Geography

Location: 
  Southern Africa, in the southern Indian Ocean, about equidistant
  between Africa, Antarctica, and Australia
Map references: 
  Antarctic Region, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
  7,781 sq km 
land area: 
  7,781 sq km 
comparative area: 
  slightly less than 1.5 times the size of Delaware
note: 
  includes Ile Amsterdam, Ile Saint-Paul, Iles Kerguelen, and Iles
  Crozet; excludes Terre Adelie claim of about 500,000 sq km in
  Antarctica that is not recognized by the US
Land boundaries: 
  0 km  
Coastline: 
  1,232 km 
Maritime claims: 
exclusive economic zone: 
  200 nm from Iles Kerguelen only
territorial sea: 
  12 nm
International disputes: 
  Terre Adelie claim in Antarctica is not recognized by the US
Climate: 
  antarctic
Terrain: 
  volcanic
Natural resources: 
  fish, crayfish 
Land use: 
arable land: 
  0% 
permanent crops: 
  0% 
meadows and pastures: 
  0% 
forest and woodland: 
  0% 
other: 
  100% 
Irrigated land: 
  0 sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
  NA 
natural hazards: 
  Ile Amsterdam and Ile Saint-Paul are extinct volcanoes
international agreements: 
  NA 
Note: 
  remote location in the southern Indian Ocean

@French Southern and Antarctic Lands, People

Population: 
  no indigenous inhabitants; note - there are researchers whose numbers
  vary from 150 in winter (July) to 200 in summer (January)

@French Southern and Antarctic Lands, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
  Territory of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands 
conventional short form: 
  French Southern and Antarctic Lands 
local long form: 
  Territoire des Terres Australes et Antarctiques Francaises 
local short form: 
  Terres Australes et Antarctiques Francaises 
Digraph: 
  FS
Type: 
  overseas territory of France since 1955; governed by High
  Administrator Bernard de GOUTTES (since May 1990), who is assisted by
  a 7-member Consultative Council and a 12-member Scientific Council
Capital: 
  none; administered from Paris, France
Administrative divisions: 
  none (overseas territory of France); there are no first-order
  administrative divisions as defined by the US Government, but there
  are 3 districts named Ile Crozet, Iles Kerguelen, and Iles Saint-Paul
  et Amsterdam; excludes Terre Adelie claim in Antarctica that is not
  recognized by the US
Independence: 
  none (overseas territory of France)
Flag: 
  the flag of France is used

@French Southern and Antarctic Lands, Economy

Overview: 
  Economic activity is limited to servicing meteorological and
  geophysical research stations and French and other fishing fleets. The
  fishing catches landed on Iles Kerguelen by foreign ships are exported
  to France and Reunion.
Budget: 
revenues: 
  $17.5 million 
expenditures: 
  $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA (1992)

@French Southern and Antarctic Lands, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
  NA 
paved: 
  NA 
unpaved: 
  NA 
Ports: 
  none; offshore anchorage only
Merchant marine: 
  21 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 441,962 GRT/813,779 DWT, bulk 3,
  cargo 2, chemical tanker 1, liquified gas 2, multifunction large load
  carrier 1, oil tanker 4, refrigerated cargo 4, roll-on/roll-off cargo
  4 
note: 
  a captive subset of the French register
Telecommunications: 
  NA

@French Southern and Antarctic Lands, Defense Forces

Note: 
  defense is the responsibility of France


@Gabon, Geography

Location: 
  Western Africa, bordering the Atlantic Ocean at the Equator between
  the Congo and Equatorial Guinea
Map references: 
  Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
  267,670 sq km 
land area: 
  257,670 sq km 
comparative area: 
  slightly smaller than Colorado
Land boundaries: 
  total 2,551 km, Cameroon 298 km, Congo 1,903 km, Equatorial Guinea 350
  km 
Coastline: 
  885 km 
Maritime claims: 
contiguous zone: 
  24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 
  200 nm
territorial sea: 
  12 nm
International disputes: 
  maritime boundary dispute with Equatorial Guinea because of disputed
  sovereignty over islands in Corisco Bay
Climate: 
  tropical; always hot, humid
Terrain: 
  narrow coastal plain; hilly interior; savanna in east and south
Natural resources: 
  petroleum, manganese, uranium, gold, timber, iron ore 
Land use: 
arable land: 
  1% 
permanent crops: 
  1% 
meadows and pastures: 
  18% 
forest and woodland: 
  78% 
other: 
  2% 
Irrigated land: 
  NA sq km
Environment: 
current issues: 
  deforestation; poaching
natural hazards: 
  NA 
international agreements: 
  party to - Endangered Species, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone
  Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber, Wetlands; signed,
  but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of the Sea

@Gabon, People

Population: 
  1,139,006 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
  1.46% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
  28.46 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
  13.9 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
  94.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
  54.67 years 
male: 
  51.88 years 
female: 
  57.53 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
  3.97 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
  Gabonese (singular and plural) 
adjective: 
  Gabonese 
Ethnic divisions: 
  Bantu tribes including four major tribal groupings (Fang, Eshira,
  Bapounou, Bateke), Africans and Europeans 100,000, including 27,000
  French
Religions: 
  Christian 55-75%, Muslim less than 1%, animist 
Languages: 
  French (official), Fang, Myene, Bateke, Bapounou/Eschira, Bandjabi 
Literacy: 
  age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
  61% 
male: 
  74% 
female: 
  48% 
Labor force: 
  120,000 salaried
by occupation: 
  agriculture 65.0%, industry and commerce 30.0%, services 2.5%,
  government 2.5%
note: 
  58% of population of working age (1983)

@Gabon, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
  Gabonese Republic 
conventional short form: 
  Gabon 
local long form: 
  Republique Gabonaise 
local short form: 
  Gabon 
Digraph: 
  GB
Type: 
  republic; multiparty presidential regime (opposition parties legalized
  1990)
Capital: 
  Libreville 
Administrative divisions: 
  9 provinces; Estuaire, Haut-Ogooue, Moyen-Ogooue, Ngounie, Nyanga,
  Ogooue-Ivindo, Ogooue-Lolo, Ogooue-Maritime, Woleu-Ntem
Independence: 
  17 August 1960 (from France)
National holiday: 
  Renovation Day, 12 March (1968) (Gabonese Democratic Party
  established)
Constitution: 
  adopted 14 March 1991
Legal system: 
  based on French civil law system and customary law; judicial review of
  legislative acts in Constitutional Chamber of the Supreme Court;
  compulsory ICJ jurisdiction not accepted
Suffrage: 
  21 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
  President El Hadj Omar BONGO (since 2 December 1967); election last
  held on 5 December 1993 (next to be held NA 1998); results - President
  Omar BONGO was reelected with 51% of the vote
head of government: 
  Prime Minister Casimir OYE-MBA (since 3 May 1990) 
cabinet: 
  Council of Ministers; appointed by the prime minister in consultation
  with the president
Legislative branch: 
  unicameral
National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale): 
  elections last held on 21 and 28 October and 4 November 1990 (next to
  be held by NA); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (120
  total) PDG 62, Morena-Bucherons/RNB 19, PGP 18, National Recovery
  Movement (Morena-Original) 7, APSG 6, USG 4, CRP 1, independents 3
Judicial branch: 
  Supreme Court (Cour Supreme) 
Political parties and leaders: 
  Gabonese Democratic Party (PDG, former sole party), Jaques ADIAHENOT,
  Secretary General; National Recovery Movement - Lumberjacks
  (Morena-Bucherons/RNB), Fr. Paul M'BA-ABESSOLE, leader; Gabonese Party
  for Progress (PGP), Pierre-Louis AGONDHO-OKAWE, President; National
  Recovery Movement (Morena-Original), Pierre ZONGUE-NGUEMA, Chairman;
  Association for Socialism in Gabon (APSG), leader NA; Gabonese
  Socialist Union (USG), leader NA; Circle for Renewal and Progress
  (CRP), leader NA; Union for Democracy and Development (UDD), leader
  NA; Rally of Democrats (RD), leader NA; Forces of Change for
  Democratic Union, leader NA
Member of: 
  ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CCC, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-24, G-77, GATT,
  IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO,
  INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS (associate), NAM, OAU,
  OIC, OPEC, UDEAC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
  WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador Paul BOUNDOUKOU-LATHA 
chancery: 
  2034 20th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009 
telephone: 
  (202) 797-1000 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador Joseph C. WILSON IV 
embassy: 
  Boulevard de la Mer, Libreville 
mailing address: 
  B. P. 4000, Libreville 
telephone: 
  (241) 762003/4, or 743492 
FAX: 
  [241] 745-507 
Flag: 
  three equal horizontal bands of green (top), yellow, and blue

@Gabon, Economy

Overview: 
  Notwithstanding its serious ongoing economic problems, Gabon enjoys a
  per capita income more than twice that of most nations of sub-Saharan
  Africa. Gabon depended on timber and manganese until oil was
  discovered offshore in the early 1970s. The oil sector now accounts
  for 50% of GNP. Real growth was feeble in 1992 and Gabon continues to
  face weak prices for its timber, manganese, and uranium exports.
  Despite an abundance of natural wealth, and a manageable rate of
  population growth, the economy is hobbled by poor fiscal management.
  In 1992, the fiscal deficit widened to 2.4% of GDP, and Gabon failed
  to settled arrears on its bilateral debt, leading to a cancellation of
  rescheduling agreements with official and private creditors.
  Devaluation of the local currency by 50% in January 1994 could set off
  an inflationary spiral if the government fails to reign in spending
  and grants large wage increases to an already overpaid public sector
  workforce.
National product: 
  GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $5.4 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
  0.5% (1992 est.)
National product per capita: 
  $4,800 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
  0.7% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
  NA%
Budget: 
revenues: 
  $1.3 billion 
expenditures: 
  $1.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $272 million (1992
  est.)
Exports: 
  $2.3 billion (f.o.b., 1992 est)
commodities: 
  crude oil 80%, timber 9%, manganese 7%, uranium 2%
partners: 
  France 48%, US 15%, Germany 2%, Japan 2%
Imports: 
  $702 million (c.i.f., 1992 est.)
commodities: 
  foodstuffs, chemical products, petroleum products, construction
  materials, manufactures, machinery
partners: 
  France 64%, African countries 7%, US 5%, Japan 3%
External debt: 
  $4.4 billion (1991)
Industrial production: 
  growth rate -10% (1988 est.); accounts for 8% of GDP, including
  petroleum
Electricity: 
capacity: 
  315,000 kW
production: 
  995 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
  920 kWh (1991)
Industries: 
  petroleum, food and beverages, lumbering and plywood, textiles, mining
  - manganese, uranium, gold, cement
Agriculture: 
  accounts for 9% of GDP (including fishing and forestry); cash crops -
  cocoa, coffee, palm oil; livestock not developed; importer of food;
  small fishing operations provide a catch of about 20,000 metric tons;
  okoume (a tropical softwood) is the most important timber product
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
  US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-90), $68 million; Western
  (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-90),
  $2.342 billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $27 million 
Currency: 
  1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates: 
  Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 592.05
  (January 1994), 283.16 (1993), 264.69 (1992), 282.11 (1991), 272.26
  (1990), 319.01 (1989)
note: 
  beginning 12 January 1994, the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF 100 per
  French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since 1948
Fiscal year: 
  calendar year

@Gabon, Communications

Railroads: 
  649 km 1.437-meter standard-gauge single track (Transgabonese
  Railroad)
Highways: 
total: 
  7,500 km 
paved: 
  560 km 
unpaved: 
  crushed stone 960 km; earth 5,980 km 
Inland waterways: 
  1,600 km perennially navigable
Pipelines: 
  crude oil 270 km; petroleum products 14 km 
Ports: 
  Owendo, Port-Gentil, Libreville
Merchant marine: 
  2 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 18,562 GRT/25,330 DWT
Airports: 
total: 
  70 
usable: 
  59 
with permanent-surface runways: 
  10 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
  0 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
  2 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
  22 
Telecommunications: 
  adequate system of cable, radio relay, tropospheric scatter links and
  radiocommunication stations; 15,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 6
  AM, 6 FM, 3 (5 repeaters) TV; satellite earth stations - 3 Atlantic
  Ocean INTELSAT and 12 domestic satellite

@Gabon, Defense Forces

Branches: 
  Army, Navy, Air Force, Presidential Guard, National Gendarmerie,
  National Police 
Manpower availability: 
  males age 15-49 270,501; fit for military service 136,995; reach
  military age (20) annually 10,107 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
  exchange rate conversion - $102 million, 3.2% of GDP (1990 est.)


@The Gambia, Geography

Location: 
  Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean almost completely
  surrounded by Senegal
Map references: 
  Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
  11,300 sq km 
land area: 
  10,000 sq km 
comparative area: 
  slightly more than twice the size of Delaware
Land boundaries: 
  total 740 km, Senegal 740 km 
Coastline: 
  80 km 
Maritime claims: 
contiguous zone: 
  18 nm
continental shelf: 
  not specified
exclusive fishing zone: 
  200 nm
territorial sea: 
  12 nm
International disputes: 
  short section of boundary with Senegal is indefinite
Climate: 
  tropical; hot, rainy season (June to November); cooler, dry season
  (November to May)
Terrain: 
  flood plain of the Gambia River flanked by some low hills
Natural resources: 
  fish 
Land use: 
arable land: 
  16% 
permanent crops: 
  0% 
meadows and pastures: 
  9% 
forest and woodland: 
  20% 
other: 
  55% 
Irrigated land: 
  120 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
  deforestation; desertification; water-borne diseases prevalent
natural hazards: 
  rainfall has dropped by 30% in the last thirty years
international agreements: 
  party to - Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone
  Layer Protection, Ship Pollution; signed, but not ratified -
  Biodiversity, Climate Change
Note: 
  almost an enclave of Senegal; smallest country on the continent of
  Africa

@The Gambia, People

Population: 
  959,300 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
  3.08% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
  46.39 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
  15.64 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
  123.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
  50.08 years 
male: 
  47.83 years 
female: 
  52.39 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
  6.29 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
  Gambian(s) 
adjective: 
  Gambian 
Ethnic divisions: 
  African 99% (Mandinka 42%, Fula 18%, Wolof 16%, Jola 10%, Serahuli 9%,
  other 4%), non-Gambian 1% 
Religions: 
  Muslim 90%, Christian 9%, indigenous beliefs 1% 
Languages: 
  English (official), Mandinka, Wolof, Fula, other indigenous
  vernaculars
Literacy: 
  age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
  27% 
male: 
  39% 
female: 
  16% 
Labor force: 
  400,000 (1986 est.)
by occupation: 
  agriculture 75.0%, industry, commerce, and services 18.9%, government
  6.1%
note: 
  55% population of working age (1983)

@The Gambia, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
  Republic of The Gambia 
conventional short form: 
  The Gambia 
Digraph: 
  GA
Type: 
  republic under multiparty democratic rule
Capital: 
  Banjul 
Administrative divisions: 
  5 divisions and 1 city*; Banjul*, Lower River, MacCarthy Island, North
  Bank, Upper River, Western
Independence: 
  18 February 1965 (from UK; The Gambia and Senegal signed an agreement
  on 12 December 1981 that called for the creation of a loose
  confederation to be known as Senegambia, but the agreement was
  dissolved on 30 September 1989)
National holiday: 
  Independence Day, 18 February (1965) 
Constitution: 
  24 April 1970
Legal system: 
  based on a composite of English common law, Koranic law, and customary
  law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage: 
  21 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state and head of government: 
  President Alhaji Sir Dawda Kairaba JAWARA (since 24 April 1970); Vice
  President Saihou SABALLY (since NA); election last held on 29 April
  1992 (next to be held April 1997); results - Sir Dawda JAWARA (PPP)
  58.5%, Sherif Mustapha DIBBA (NCP) 22.2%, Assan Musa CAMARA (GPP) 8.0%
cabinet: 
  Cabinet; appointed by the president from members of the House of
  Representatives
Legislative branch: 
  unicameral
House of Representatives: 
  elections last held on 29 April 1992 (next to be held April 1997);
  results - PPP 58.1%, seats - (43 total, 36 elected) PPP 30, NCP 6
Judicial branch: 
  Supreme Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
  People's Progressive Party (PPP), Dawda K. JAWARA, secretary general;
  National Convention Party (NCP), Sheriff DIBBA; Gambian People's Party
  (GPP), Hassan Musa CAMARA; United Party (UP), leader NA; People's
  Democratic Organization of Independence and Socialism (PDOIS), leader
  NA; People's Democratic Party (PDP), Jabel SALLAH
Member of: 
  ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU,
  IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL,
  IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL,
  WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador Ousman A. SALLAH 
chancery: 
  Suite 1000, 1155 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20005 
telephone: 
  (202) 785-1399, 1379, or 1425 
FAX: 
  (202) 785-1430 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador Arlene RENDER 
embassy: 
  Fajara, Kairaba Avenue, Banjul 
mailing address: 
  P. M. B. No. 19, Banjul 
telephone: 
  [220] 92856 or 92858, 91970, 91971 
FAX: 
  (220) 92475 
Flag: 
  three equal horizontal bands of red (top), blue with white edges, and
  green

@The Gambia, Economy

Overview: 
  The Gambia has no important mineral or other natural resources and has
  a limited agricultural base. It is one of the world's poorest
  countries with a per capita income of roughly $800. About 75% of the
  population is engaged in crop production and livestock raising, which
  contribute 30% to GDP. Small-scale manufacturing activity - processing
  peanuts, fish, and hides - accounts for less than 10% of GDP. A
  sustained structural adjustment program, including a liberalized trade
  policy, has fostered a respectable 4% rate of growth in recent years.
  Re-export trade constitutes one-third of economic activity; however,
  border closures associated with Senegal's monetary crisis in late 1993
  led to a 50% decline in re-export trade, reducing government revenues
  in turn. Devaluation of the CFA franc in January 1994 has made
  Senegalese goods more competitive, and is likely to prompt a
  relaxation of Senegalese controls, paving the way for a comeback in
  re-exports.
National product: 
  GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $740 million (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
  4.5% (FY92 est)
National product per capita: 
  $800 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
  5% (FY 92 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
  NA%
Budget: 
revenues: 
  $94 million 
expenditures: 
  $80 million, including capital expenditures of $25 million (FY91 est.)
Exports: 
  $164 million (f.o.b., FY92 est.)
commodities: 
  peanuts and peanut products, fish, cotton lint, palm kernels
partners: 
  Japan 60%, Europe 29%, Africa 5%, US 1%, other 5% (1989)
Imports: 
  $214 million (f.o.b., FY92 est.)
commodities: 
  foodstuffs, manufactures, raw materials, fuel, machinery and transport
  equipment
partners: 
  Europe 57%, Asia 25%, USSR and Eastern Europe 9%, US 6%, other 3%
  (1989)
External debt: 
  $336 million (December 1990 est.)
Industrial production: 
  growth rate 6.7% (year NA); accounts for 5.8% of GDP (FY90)
Electricity: 
capacity: 
  30,000 kW
production: 
  65 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
  75 kWh (1991)
Industries: 
  peanut processing, tourism, beverages, agricultural machinery
  assembly, woodworking, metalworking, clothing
Agriculture: 
  accounts for 30% of GDP and employs about 75% of the population;
  imports one-third of food requirements; major export crop is peanuts;
  other principal crops - millet, sorghum, rice, corn, cassava, palm
  kernels; livestock - cattle, sheep, goats; forestry and fishing
  resources not fully exploited
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
  US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $93 million; Western
  (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $535
  million; Communist countries (1970-89), $39 million 
Currency: 
  1 dalasi (D) = 100 butut
Exchange rates: 
  dalasi (D) per US$1 - 9.440 (November 1993), 8.888 (1992), 8.803
  (1991), 7.883 (1990), 7.5846 (1989), 6.7086 (1988)
Fiscal year: 
  1 July - 30 June

@The Gambia, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
  3,083 km 
paved: 
  431 km 
unpaved: 
  gravel, crushed stone 501 km; unimproved earth 2,151 km 
Inland waterways: 
  400 km
Ports: 
  Banjul
Merchant marine: 
  1 bulk ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 11,194 GRT/19,394 DWT
Airports: 
total: 
  1 
usable: 
  1 
with permanent-surface runways: 
  1 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
  0 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
  1 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
  0 
Telecommunications: 
  adequate network of radio relay and wire; 3,500 telephones; broadcast
  stations - 3 AM, 2 FM; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

@The Gambia, Defense Forces

Branches: 
  Army, Navy, National Gendarmerie, National Police 
Manpower availability: 
  males age 15-49 207,754; fit for military service 105,100 
Defense expenditures: 
  $NA, NA% of GDP


@Gaza Strip

Header
Note: 
  The war between Israel and Egypt, Syria, and Jordan in June 1967 ended
  with Israel in control of the West Bank, East Jerusalem, the Gaza
  Strip, the Sinai Peninsula, and the Golan Heights. Israel withdrew
  from the Sinai Peninsula pursuant to a 1979 peace treaty with Egypt.
  The Israeli-PLO Declaration of Principles on Interim Self-Government
  Arrangements ("the DOP"), signed in Washington on 13 September 1993,
  provides for a transitional period not exceeding five years of
  Palestinian interim self-government in the Gaza Strip and the West
  Bank. Under the DOP, final status negotiations are to begin no later
  than the beginning of the third year of the transitional period.

@Gaza Strip, Geography

Location: 
  Middle East, bordering the eastern Mediterranean Sea, between Egypt
  and Israel
Map references: 
  Middle East 
Area: 
total area: 
  360 sq km 
land area: 
  360 sq km 
comparative area: 
  slightly more than twice the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries: 
  total 62 km, Egypt 11 km, Israel 51 km 
Coastline: 
  40 km 
Maritime claims: 
  Israeli occupied with status to be determined
International disputes: 
  West Bank and Gaza Strip are Israeli occupied with interim status
  subject to Israeli/Palestinian negotiations - final status to be
  determined
Climate: 
  temperate, mild winters, dry and warm to hot summers
Terrain: 
  flat to rolling, sand- and dune-covered coastal plain
Natural resources: 
  negligible 
Land use: 
arable land: 
  13% 
permanent crops: 
  32% 
meadows and pastures: 
  0% 
forest and woodland: 
  0% 
other: 
  55% 
Irrigated land: 
  200 sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
  desertification
natural hazards: 
  NA 
international agreements: 
  NA 
Note: 
  there are 24 Jewish settlements and civilian land use sites in the
  Gaza Strip (April 1994)

@Gaza Strip, People

Population: 
  731,296 (July 1994 est.) 
note: 
  in addition, there are 4,500 Jewish settlers in the Gaza Strip (1994
  est.)
Population growth rate: 
  3.53% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
  45.01 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
  5.45 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
  -4.29 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
  36.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
  67.78 years 
male: 
  66.47 years 
female: 
  69.16 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
  7.39 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
  NA 
adjective: 
  NA 
Ethnic divisions: 
  Palestinian Arab and other 99.8%, Jewish 0.2% 
Religions: 
  Muslim (predominantly Sunni) 99%, Christian 0.7%, Jewish 0.3% 
Languages: 
  Arabic, Hebrew (spoken by Israeli settlers), English (widely
  understood)
Literacy: 
total population: 
  NA%
male: 
  NA%
female: 
  NA%
Labor force: 
  NA
by occupation: 
  construction 33.4%, agriculture 20.0%, commerce, restaurants, and
  hotels 14.9%, industry 10.0%, other services 21.7% (1991)
note: 
  excluding Jewish settlers

@Gaza Strip, Government

Note: 
  Under the Israeli-PLO Declaration of Principles on Interim
  Self-Government Arragements ("the DOP"), Israel agreed to transfer
  certain powers and responsibilities to the Palestinian Authority, and
  subsequently to an elected Palestinian Council, as part of interim
  self-governing arrangements in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. A
  transfer of powers and responsibilities for the Gaza Strip and Jericho
  has taken place pursuant to the Israel-PLO 4 May 1994 Cairo Agreement
  on the Gaza Strip and the Jericho Area. The DOP provides that Israel
  will retain responsibility during the transitional period for external
  security and for internal security and public order of settlements and
  Israelis. Final status is to be determined through direct negotiations
  within five years.
Names: 
conventional long form: 
  none 
conventional short form: 
  Gaza Strip 
local long form: 
  none 
local short form: 
  Qita Ghazzah 
Digraph: 
  GZ

@Gaza Strip, Economy

Overview: 
  In 1991 roughly 40% of Gaza Strip workers were employed across the
  border by Israeli industrial, construction, and agricultural
  enterprises, with worker remittances accounting for about one-third of
  GNP. The construction, agricultural, and industrial sectors account
  for about 18%, 16%, and 12% of GNP, respectively. Gaza depends upon
  Israel for nearly 90% of its external trade. Aggravating the impact of
  Israeli military administration, unrest in the territory since 1988
  (intifadah) has raised unemployment and lowered the standard of living
  of Gazans. The Persian Gulf crisis and its aftershocks also have dealt
  blows to Gaza since August 1990. Worker remittances from the Gulf
  states have dropped, unemployment has increased, and exports have
  fallen. The withdrawal of Israel from the Gaza Strip in May 1994
  brings a new set of adjustment problems.
National product: 
  GNP - exchange rate conversion - $840 million (1991 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
  1% (1991 est.)
National product per capita: 
  $1,275 (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
  7% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
  20% (1991 est.)
Budget: 
revenues: 
  $33.6 million 
expenditures: 
  $34.5 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY90)
Exports: 
  $75 million (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
commodities: 
  citrus
partners: 
  Israel, Egypt
Imports: 
  $370 million (c.i.f., 1991 est.)
commodities: 
  food, consumer goods, construction materials
partners: 
  Israel, Egypt
External debt: 
  $NA
Industrial production: 
  growth rate 11% (1991 est.); accounts for about 12% of GNP
Electricity: 
  power supplied by Israel
Industries: 
  generally small family businesses that produce textiles, soap,
  olive-wood carvings, and mother-of-pearl souvenirs; the Israelis have
  established some small-scale modern industries in an industrial center
Agriculture: 
  accounts for about 16% of GNP; olives, citrus and other fruits,
  vegetables, beef, dairy products
Economic aid: 
  $NA
Currency: 
  1 new Israeli shekel (NIS) = 100 new agorot
Exchange rates: 
  new Israeli shekels (NIS) per US$1 - 2.9760 (February 1994), 2.8301
  (1993), 2.4591 (1992), 2.2791 (1991), 2.0162 (1990), 1.9164 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
  calendar year (since 1 January 1992)

@Gaza Strip, Communications

Railroads: 
  one line, abandoned and in disrepair, some trackage remains
Highways: 
total: 
  NA 
paved: 
  NA 
unpaved: 
  NA 
note: 
  small, poorly developed road network
Ports: 
  facilities for small boats to service the city of Gaza
Airports: 
total: 
  1 
usable: 
  1 
with permanent-surface runways: 
  0 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
  0 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
  0 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
  0 
Telecommunications: 
  broadcast stations - no AM, no FM, no TV

@Gaza Strip, Defense Forces

Branches: 
  NA
Defense expenditures: 
  $NA, NA% of GDP


@Georgia

Note: 
  Georgia is currently besieged by interethnic strife in its Abkhazian
  and South Ossetian enclaves.

@Georgia, Geography

Location: 
  Southwestern Asia, bordering the Black Sea, between Turkey and Russia
Map references: 
  Africa, Asia, Commonwealth of Independent States - European States,
  Middle East, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
  69,700 sq km 
land area: 
  69,700 sq km 
comparative area: 
  slightly larger than South Carolina
Land boundaries: 
  total 1,461 km, Armenia 164 km, Azerbaijan 322 km, Russia 723 km,
  Turkey 252 km 
Coastline: 
  310 km 
Maritime claims: 
note: 
  12 nm in 1973 USSR-Turkish Protocol concerning the sea boundary
  between the two states in the Black Sea; Georgia claims the coastline
  along the Black Sea as its international waters, although it cannot
  control this area and the Russian navy and commercial ships transit
  freely
International disputes: 
  none
Climate: 
  warm and pleasant; Mediterranean-like on Black Sea coast
Terrain: 
  largely mountainous with Great Caucasus Mountains in the north and
  Lesser Caucasus Mountains in the south; Kolkhida Lowland opens to the
  Black Sea in the west; Mtkvari River Basin in the east; good soils in
  river valley flood plains, foothills of Kolkhida Lowland
Natural resources: 
  forest lands, hydropower, manganese deposits, iron ores, copper, minor
  coal and oil deposits; coastal climate and soils allow for important
  tea and citrus growth 
Land use: 
arable land: 
  NA%
permanent crops: 
  NA%
meadows and pastures: 
  NA%
forest and woodland: 
  NA%
other: 
  NA%
Irrigated land: 
  4,660 sq km (1990)
Environment: 
current issues: 
  air pollution, particularly in Rust'avi; heavy pollution of Mtkvari
  River and the Black Sea; inadequate supplies of safe drinking water;
  soil pollution from toxic chemicals
natural hazards: 
  NA 
international agreements: 
  NA 

@Georgia, People

Population: 
  5,681,025 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
  0.81% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
  16.11 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
  8.69 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
  0.65 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
  23.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
  72.84 years 
male: 
  69.16 years 
female: 
  76.7 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
  2.18 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
  Georgian(s) 
adjective: 
  Georgian 
Ethnic divisions: 
  Georgian 70.1%, Armenian 8.1%, Russian 6.3%, Azeri 5.7%, Ossetian 3%,
  Abkhaz 1.8%, other 5% 
Religions: 
  Georgian Orthodox 65%, Russian Orthodox 10%, Muslim 11%, Armenian
  Orthodox 8%, unknown 6% 
Languages: 
  Armenian 7%, Azeri 6%, Georgian 71% (official), Russian 9%, other 7% 
Literacy: 
  age 9-49 can read and write (1970)
total population: 
  100% 
male: 
  100% 
female: 
  100% 
Labor force: 
  2.763 million 
by occupation: 
  industry and construction 31%, agriculture and forestry 25%, other 44%
  (1990)

@Georgia, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
  Republic of Georgia 
conventional short form: 
  Georgia 
local long form: 
  Sak'art'velos Respublika 
local short form: 
  Sak'art'velo 
former: 
  Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic 
Digraph: 
  GG
Type: 
  republic 
Capital: 
  T'bilisi 
Administrative divisions: 
  2 autonomous republics (avtomnoy respubliki, singular - avtom
  respublika); Abkhazia (Sokhumi), Ajaria (Bat'umi)
note: 
  the administrative centers of the autonomous republics are included in
  parentheses; there are no oblasts - the rayons around T'bilisi are
  under direct republic jurisdiction
Independence: 
  9 April 1991 (from Soviet Union)
National holiday: 
  Independence Day, 9 April (1991) 
Constitution: 
  adopted NA February 1921; currently amending constitution for
  Parliamentary and popular review by late 1995
Legal system: 
  based on civil law system
Suffrage: 
  18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
  Chairman of Parliament Eduard Amvrosiyevich SHEVARDNADZE (since 10
  March 1992); election last held 11 October 1992 (next to be held NA
  1995); results - Eduard SHEVARDNADZE 95%
head of government: 
  Prime Minister Otar PATSATSIA (since September 1993); Deputy Prime
  Ministers Avtandil MARGIANI, Zurab KERVALISHVILI (since NA), Tamaz
  NADARISHVILI (since September 1993), Teimuraz BASILIA (since NA) 
cabinet: 
  Council of Ministers 
Legislative branch: 
  unicameral
Georgian Parliament (Supreme Soviet): 
  elections last held 11 October 1992 (next to be held NA 1995); results
  - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (225 total) number of seats by
  party NA; note - representatives of 26 parties elected; Peace Bloc,
  October 11, Unity, National Democratic Party, and the Greens Party won
  the largest representation
Judicial branch: 
  Supreme Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
  Merab Kostava Society, Vazha ADAMIA, chairman; Traditionalists' Union,
  Akaki ASATIANI, chairman; Georgian Social Democratic Party, Guram
  MUCHAIDZE, chairman; Green Party, Zurab ZHVANIA, chairman; Georgian
  Popular Front (GPF), Nodar NATADZE, chairman; National Democratic
  Party (NDP), Gia CHANTURIA, chairman; National Independence Party
  (NIP), Irakliy TSERETELI, chairmen; Charter 1991 Party, Tedo
  PATASHVILI, chairman; Peace Bloc; Unity; October 11
Other political or pressure groups: 
  supporters of ousted President Zuiad GAMSAKHURDIA (deceased 1 January
  1994) boycotted the October elections and remain a source of
  opposition and instability
Member of: 
  BSEC, CIS, CSCE, EBRD, ECE, IBRD, IDA, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, IOC,
  ITU, NACC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador Petr CHKHEIDZE 
chancery: 
  (temporary) Suite 424, 1511 K Street NW, Washington, DC 
telephone: 
  (202) 393-6060 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador Kent N. BROWN 
embassy: 
  #25 Antoneli Street, T'bilisi 380026 
mailing address: 
  use embassy street address 
telephone: 
  (7) 8832-98-99-68 
FAX: 
  (7) 8832-93-37-59 
Flag: 
  maroon field with small rectangle in upper hoist side corner;
  rectangle divided horizontally with black on top, white below

@Georgia, Economy

Overview: 
  Georgia's economy has traditionally revolved around Black Sea tourism;
  cultivation of citrus fruits, tea, and grapes; mining of manganese and
  copper; and a small industrial sector producing wine, metals,
  machinery, chemicals, and textiles. The country imports the bulk of
  its energy needs, including natural gas and coal. Its only sizable
  domestic energy resource is hydropower. Since 1990, widespread
  conflicts, e.g., in Abkhazia, South Ossetia, and Mengrelia, severely
  aggravated the economic crisis resulting from the disintegration of
  the Soviet command economy in December 1991. Throughout 1993, much of
  industry was functioning at only 20% of capacity; heavy disruptions in
  agricultural cultivation were reported; and tourism was shut down. The
  country is precariously dependent on US and EU humanitarian grain
  shipments, as most other foods are priced beyond reach of the average
  citizen. Georgia is also suffering from an acute energy crisis, as it
  is having problems paying for even minimal imports. Georgia is pinning
  its hopes for recovery on reestablishing trade ties with Russia and on
  developing international transportation through the key Black Sea
  ports of P'ot'i and Bat'umi.
National product: 
  GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $7.8 billion (1993 estimate from
  the UN International Comparison Program, as extended to 1991 and
  published in the World Bank's World Development Report 1993; and as
  extrapolated to 1993 using official Georgian statistics, which are
  very uncertain because of major economic changes since 1990)
National product real growth rate: 
  -35% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
  $1,390 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
  40.5% per month (2nd half 1993 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
  officially less than 5% but real unemployment may be up near 20%, with
  even larger numbers of underemployed workers; real unemployment may be
  up near 20% with even larger numbers of underemployed workers
Budget: 
revenues: 
  $NA
expenditures: 
  $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports: 
  $NA
commodities: 
  citrus fruits, tea, wine, other agricultural products; diverse types
  of machinery; ferrous and nonferrous metals; textiles; chemicals; fuel
  re-exports
partners: 
  Russia, Turkey, Armenia, Azerbaijan (1992)
Imports: 
  $NA
commodities: 
  fuel, grain and other foods, machinery and parts, transport equipment
partners: 
  Russia, Azerbaijan, Turkey (1993)
External debt: 
  $100 million to $200 million (1993 est.)
Industrial production: 
  growth rate -27% (1993); accounts for 36% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
  4,875,000 kW
production: 
  15.8 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
  2,835 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
  heavy industrial products include raw steel, rolled steel, airplanes;
  machine tools, foundry equipment, electric locomotives, tower cranes,
  electric welding equipment, machinery for food preparation and meat
  packing, electric motors, process control equipment, instruments;
  trucks, tractors, and other farm machinery; light industrial products,
  including cloth, hosiery, and shoes; chemicals; wood-working
  industries; the most important food industry is wine
Agriculture: 
  accounts for 41% of GDP; accounted for 97% of former USSR citrus
  fruits and 93% of former USSR tea; important producer of grapes; also
  cultivates vegetables and potatoes; dependent on imports for grain,
  dairy products, sugar; small livestock sector
Illicit drugs: 
  illicit cultivator of cannabis and opium poppy; mostly for domestic
  consumption; used as transshipment point for illicit drugs to Western
  Europe
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
  heavily dependent on US for humanitarian grain shipments; EC granted
  around $70 million in trade credits in 1992 and another $40 million in
  1993; Turkey granted $50 million in 1993; smaller scale credits
  granted by Russia and China
Currency: 
  coupons introduced in April 1993 to be followed by introduction of the
  lari at undetermined future date; in July 1993 use of the Russian
  ruble was banned
Exchange rates: 
  NA
Fiscal year: 
  calendar year

@Georgia, Communications

Railroads: 
  1,570 km, does not include industrial lines (1990)
Highways: 
total: 
  33,900 km 
paved and gravelled: 
  29,500 km 
unpaved: 
  earth 4,400 km (1990)
Pipelines: 
  crude oil 370 km; refined products 300 km; natural gas 440 km (1992)
Ports: 
  coastal - Bat'umi, P'ot'i, Sokhumi
Merchant marine: 
  41 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 575,823 GRT/882,110 DWT, bulk
  cargo 14, oil tanker 27 
Airports: 
total: 
  37 
usable: 
  27 
with permanent-surface runways: 
  14 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
  0 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
  10 
with runways 1,060-2,439 m: 
  4 
note: 
  a C-130 can land on a 1,060-m airstrip
Telecommunications: 
  poor telephone service; as of mid-1993, 672,000 telephone lines
  providing 14 lines per 100 persons; 339,000 unsatisfied applications
  for telephones (31 December 1990); international links via landline to
  CIS members and Turkey; low capacity satellite earth station and
  leased international connections via the Moscow international gateway
  switch with other countries; international electronic mail and telex
  service available
Note: 
  transportation network is disrupted by ethnic conflict, criminal
  activities, and fuel shortages

@Georgia, Defense Forces

Branches: 
  Army, Air Force, Navy, Interior Ministry Troops, Border Guards 
Manpower availability: 
  males age 15-49 1,362,818; fit for military service 1,081,624; reach
  military age (18) annually 42,881 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
  $NA, NA% of GNP
Note: 
  Georgian forces are poorly organized and not fully under the
  government's control


@Germany, Geography

Location: 
  Central Europe, bordering the North Sea between France and Poland
Map references: 
  Arctic Region, Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
  356,910 sq km 
land area: 
  349,520 sq km 
comparative area: 
  slightly smaller than Montana
note: 
  includes the formerly separate Federal Republic of Germany, the German
  Democratic Republic, and Berlin following formal unification on 3
  October 1990
Land boundaries: 
  total 3,621 km, Austria 784 km, Belgium 167 km, Czech Republic 646 km,
  Denmark 68 km, France 451 km, Luxembourg 138 km, Netherlands 577 km,
  Poland 456 km, Switzerland 334 km 
Coastline: 
  2,389 km 
Maritime claims: 
continental shelf: 
  200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive fishing zone: 
  200 nm
territorial sea: 
  3 nm in North Sea and Schleswig-Holstein coast of Baltic Sea (extends,
  at one point, to 16 nm in the Helgolander Bucht); 12 nm in remainder
  of Baltic Sea
International disputes: 
  none 
Climate: 
  temperate and marine; cool, cloudy, wet winters and summers;
  occasional warm, tropical foehn wind; high relative humidity
Terrain: 
  lowlands in north, uplands in center, Bavarian Alps in south
Natural resources: 
  iron ore, coal, potash, timber, lignite, uranium, copper, natural gas,
  salt, nickel 
Land use: 
arable land: 
  34% 
permanent crops: 
  1% 
meadows and pastures: 
  16% 
forest and woodland: 
  30% 
other: 
  19% 
Irrigated land: 
  4,800 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
  emissions from coal-burning utilities and industries in the southeast
  and lead emissions from vehicle exhausts (the result of continued use
  of leaded fuels) contribute to air pollution; acid rain, resulting
  from sulfur dioxide emissions, is damaging forests; heavy pollution in
  the Baltic Sea from raw sewage and industrial effluents from rivers in
  eastern Germany
natural hazards: 
  NA 
international agreements: 
  party to - Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
  Pollution-Sulphur, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change,
  Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Marine Dumping,
  Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical
  Timber, Wetlands, Whaling; signed, but not ratified - Air
  Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental
  Protocol, Hazardous Wastes
Note: 
  strategic location on North European Plain and along the entrance to
  the Baltic Sea

@Germany, People

Population: 
  81,087,506 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
  0.36% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
  11.04 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
  10.89 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
  3.39 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
  6.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
  76.34 years 
male: 
  73.22 years 
female: 
  79.64 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
  1.47 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
  German(s) 
adjective: 
  German 
Ethnic divisions: 
  German 95.1%, Turkish 2.3%, Italians 0.7%, Greeks 0.4%, Poles 0.4%,
  other 1.1% (made up largely of people fleeing the war in the former
  Yugoslavia)
Religions: 
  Protestant 45%, Roman Catholic 37%, unaffiliated or other 18% 
Languages: 
  German 
Literacy: 
  age 15 and over can read and write (1977 est.)
total population: 
  99% 
male: 
  NA%
female: 
  NA%
Labor force: 
  36.75 million 
by occupation: 
  industry 41%, agriculture 6%, other 53% (1987)

@Germany, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
  Federal Republic of Germany 
conventional short form: 
  Germany 
local long form: 
  Bundesrepublik Deutschland 
local short form: 
  Deutschland 
Digraph: 
  GM
Type: 
  federal republic 
Capital: 
  Berlin 
note: 
  the shift from Bonn to Berlin will take place over a period of years
  with Bonn retaining many administrative functions and several
  ministries
Administrative divisions: 
  16 states (laender, singular - land); Baden-Wurttemberg, Bayern,
  Berlin, Brandenburg, Bremen, Hamburg, Hessen, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern,
  Niedersachsen, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Rheinland-Pfalz, Saarland,
  Sachsen, Sachsen-Anhalt, Schleswig-Holstein, Thuringen
Independence: 
  18 January 1871 (German Empire unification); divided into four zones
  of occupation (UK, US, USSR, and later, France) in 1945 following
  World War II; Federal Republic of Germany (FRG or West Germany)
  proclaimed 23 May 1949 and included the former UK, US, and French
  zones; German Democratic Republic (GDR or East Germany) proclaimed 7
  October 1949 and included the former USSR zone; unification of West
  Germany and East Germany took place 3 October 1990; all four power
  rights formally relinquished 15 March 1991
National holiday: 
  German Unity Day (Day of Unity), 3 October (1990) 
Constitution: 
  23 May 1949, known as Basic Law; became constitution of the united
  German people 3 October 1990
Legal system: 
  civil law system with indigenous concepts; judicial review of
  legislative acts in the Federal Constitutional Court; has not accepted
  compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 
  18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
  President Dr. Richard von WEIZSACKER (since 1 July 1984); note -
  presidential elections were held on 23 May 1994; Roman HERZOG was the
  winner and will be inaugurated 1 July 1994
head of government: 
  Chancellor Dr. Helmut KOHL (since 4 October 1982) 
cabinet: 
  Cabinet; appointed by the president upon the proposal of the
  chancellor
Legislative branch: 
  bicameral chamber (no official name for the two chambers as a whole)
Federal Assembly (Bundestag): 
  last held 2 December 1990 (next to be held by 16 October 1994);
  results - CDU 36.7%, SPD 33.5%, FDP 11.0%, CSU 7.1%, Green Party (West
  Germany) 3.9%, PDS 2.4%, Republikaner 2.1%, Alliance 90/Green Party
  (East Germany) 1.2%, other 2.1%; seats - (662 total) CDU 268, CSU 51,
  SPD 239, FDP 79, PDS 17, Greens/Alliance '90 8; elected by direct
  popular vote under a system combining direct and proportional
  representation; a party must win 5% of the national vote or 3 direct
  mandates to gain representation
Federal Council (Bundesrat): 
  State governments are directly represented by votes; each has 3 to 6
  votes depending on size and are required to vote as a block; current
  composition: votes - (68 total) SPD-led states 37, CDU-led states 31
Judicial branch: 
  Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht) 
Political parties and leaders: 
  Christian Democratic Union (CDU), Helmut KOHL, chairman; Christian
  Social Union (CSU), Theo WAIGEL, chairman; Free Democratic Party
  (FDP), Klaus KINKEL, chairman; Social Democratic Party (SPD), Rudolf
  SCHARPING, chairman; Alliance '90/Greens, Ludger VOLMER, Marianne
  BIRTHLER, co-chairmen; Party of Democratic Socialism (PDS), Lothar
  BISKY, chairman; Republikaner, Franz SCHOENHUBER; National Democratic
  Party (NPD), Guenter DECKERT; Communist Party (DKP), Rolf PRIEMER
Other political or pressure groups: 
  expellee, refugee, and veterans groups
Member of: 
  AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, Australian Group, BDEAC, BIS, CBSS, CCC,
  CDB (non-regional), CE, CERN, COCOM, CSCE, EBRD, EC, ECE, EIB, ESA,
  FAO, G-5, G-7, G-10, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA,
  IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM,
  ISO, ITU, LORCS, MTCR, NACC, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS
  (observer), OECD, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNHCR, UNOMIG,
  UNOSOM, UNTAC, UPU, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador Immo STABREIT 
chancery: 
  4645 Reservoir Road NW, Washington, DC 20007 
telephone: 
  (202) 298-4000 
FAX: 
  (202) 298-4249 
consulate(s) general: 
  Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Detroit, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New
  York, San Francisco, Seattle 
consulate(s): 
  Manila (Trust Territories of the Pacific Islands) and Wellington
  (America Samoa) 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador Richard C. HOLBROOKE 
embassy: 
  Deichmanns Avenue 29, 53170 Bonn 
mailing address: 
  Unit 21701, Bonn; APO AE 09080 
telephone: 
  [49] (228) 3391 
FAX: 
  [49] (228) 339-2663 
branch office: 
  Berlin 
consulate(s) general: 
  Frankfurt, Hamburg, Leipzig, Munich, and Stuttgart 
Flag: 
  three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and yellow

@Germany, Economy

Overview: 
  With the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe in 1989, prospects
  seemed bright for a fairly rapid incorporation of East Germany into
  the highly successful West German economy. The Federal Republic,
  however, continues to experience difficulties in integrating and
  modernizing eastern Germany, and the tremendous costs of unification
  pushed western Germany into its deepest recession since World War II.
  The western German economy shrank by 1.9% in 1993 as the Bundesbank
  maintained high interest rates to offset the inflationary effects of
  large government deficits and high wage settlements. Eastern Germany
  grew by 7.1% in 1993 but this was from a shrunken base. Despite
  government transfers to the east amounting to nearly $110 billion
  annually, a self-sustaining economy in the region is still some years
  away. The bright spots are eastern Germany's construction,
  transportation, telecommunications, and service sectors, which have
  experienced strong growth. Western Germany has an advanced market
  economy and is a world leader in exports. It has a highly urbanized
  and skilled population that enjoys excellent living standards,
  abundant leisure time, and comprehensive social welfare benefits.
  Western Germany is relatively poor in natural resources, coal being
  the most important mineral. Western Germany's world-class companies
  manufacture technologically advanced goods. The region's economy is
  mature: services and manufacturing account for the dominant share of
  economic activity, and raw materials and semimanufactured goods
  constitute a large portion of imports. In recent years, manufacturing
  has accounted for about 31% of GDP, with other sectors contributing
  lesser amounts. Gross fixed investment in 1993 accounted for about
  20.5% of GDP. GDP in the western region is now $19,400 per capita, or
  78% of US per capita GDP. Eastern Germany's economy appears to be
  changing from one anchored on manufacturing into a more
  service-oriented economy. The German government, however, is intent on
  maintaining a manufacturing base in the east and is considering a
  policy for subsidizing industrial cores in the region. Eastern
  Germany's share of all-German GDP is only 8% and eastern productivity
  is just 30% that of the west even though eastern wages are at roughly
  70% of western levels. The privatization agency for eastern Germany,
  Treuhand, has privatized more than 90% of the 13,000 firms under its
  control and will likely wind down operations in 1994. Private
  investment in the region continues to be lackluster, resulting
  primarily from the deepening recession in western Germany and
  excessively high eastern wages. Eastern Germany has one of the world's
  largest reserves of low-grade lignite coal but little else in the way
  of mineral resources. The quality of statistics from eastern Germany
  is improving, yet many gaps remain; the federal government began
  producing all-German data for select economic statistics at the start
  of 1992. The most challenging economic problem is promoting eastern
  Germany's economic reconstruction - specifically, finding the right
  mix of fiscal, monetary, regulatory, and tax policies that will spur
  investment in eastern Germany - without destabilizing western
  Germany's economy or damaging relations with West European partners.
  The government hopes a "solidarity pact" among labor unions, business,
  state governments, and the SPD opposition will provide the right mix
  of wage restraints, investment incentives, and spending cuts to
  stimulate eastern recovery. Finally, the homogeneity of the German
  economic culture has been changed by the admission of large numbers of
  immigrants.
National product: 
Germany: 
  GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $1.331 trillion (1993)
western: 
  GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $1.218 trillion (1993)
eastern: 
  GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $112.7 billion (1993)
National product real growth rate: 
Germany: 
  -1.2% (1993)
western: 
  -1.9% (1993)
eastern: 
  7.1% (1993)
National product per capita: 
Germany: 
  $16,500 (1993)
western: 
  $19,400 (1993)
eastern: 
  $6,300 (1993)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
western: 
  4.2% (1993)
eastern: 
  8.9% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
western: 
  8.1% (December 1993)
eastern: 
  15.4% (December 1993)
Budget: 
revenues: 
  $918 billion 
expenditures: 
  $972 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1992)
Exports: 
  $392 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: 
  manufactures 89.0% (including machines and machine tools, chemicals,
  motor vehicles, iron and steel products), agricultural products 5.4%,
  raw materials 2.2%, fuels 1.3% (1922)
partners: 
  EC 51.3% (France 11.1%, Netherlands 8.3%, Italy 8.2%, UK 7.9%,
  Belgium-Luxembourg 7.5%), EFTA 13.3%, US 6.8%, Eastern Europe 5.0%,
  OPEC 3.3% (1993)
Imports: 
  $374.6 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: 
  manufactures 74.9%, agricultural products 10.3%, fuels 7.4%, raw
  materials 5.5% (1992)
partners: 
  EC 49.7 (France 11.0%, Netherlands 9.2%, Italy 8.8%, UK 6.6%,
  Belgium-Luxembourg 6.7%), EFTA 12.7%, US 5.9%, Japan 5.2%, Eastern
  Europe 4.8%, OPEC 2.6% (1993)
External debt: 
  $NA
Industrial production: 
western: 
  growth rate -7% (1993)
eastern: 
  growth rate $NA
Electricity: 
capacity: 
  134,000,000 kW
production: 
  580 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
  7,160 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
western: 
  among world's largest producers of iron, steel, coal, cement,
  chemicals, machinery, vehicles, machine tools, electronics; food and
  beverages
eastern: 
  metal fabrication, chemicals, brown coal, shipbuilding, machine
  building, food and beverages, textiles, petroleum refining
Agriculture: 
western: 
  accounts for about 2% of GDP (including fishing and forestry);
  diversified crop and livestock farming; principal crops and livestock
  include potatoes, wheat, barley, sugar beets, fruit, cabbage, cattle,
  pigs, poultry; net importer of food
eastern: 
  accounts for about 10% of GDP (including fishing and forestry);
  principal crops - wheat, rye, barley, potatoes, sugar beets, fruit;
  livestock products include pork, beef, chicken, milk, hides and skins;
  net importer of food
Illicit drugs: 
  source of precursor chemicals for South American cocaine processors;
  transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and Latin American
  cocaine for West European markets
Economic aid: 
western-donor: 
  ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $75.5 billion 
eastern-donor: 
  bilateral to non-Communist less developed countries (1956-89) $4
  billion 
Currency: 
  1 deutsche mark (DM) = 100 pfennige
Exchange rates: 
  deutsche marks (DM) per US$1 - 1.7431 (January 1994), 1.6533 (1993),
  1.5617 (1992), 1.6595 (1991), 1.6157 (1990), 1.8800 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
  calendar year

@Germany, Communications

Railroads: 
western: 
  31,443 km total; 27,421 km government owned, 1.435-meter standard
  gauge (12,491 km double track, 11,501 km electrified); 4,022 km
  nongovernment owned, including 3,598 km 1.435-meter standard gauge
  (214 km electrified) and 424 km 1.000-meter gauge (186 km electrified)
eastern: 
  14,025 km total; 13,750 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, 275 km
  1.000-meter or other narrow gauge; 3,830 (est.) km 1.435-meter
  standard gauge double-track; 3,475 km overhead electrified (1988)
Highways: 
total: 
  625,600 km (1991 est.); western - 501,000 km (1990 est.); eastern -
  124,600 km (1988 est.)
paved: 
  543,200 km, including 10,814 km of expressways; western - 495,900 km,
  including 8,959 km of expressways; eastern - 47,300 km, including
  1,855 km of expressways
unpaved: 
  82,400 km; western - 5,000 km earth; eastern - 77,400 km gravel and
  earth
Inland waterways: 
western: 
  5,222 km, of which almost 70% are usable by craft of 1,000-metric-ton
  capacity or larger; major rivers include the Rhine and Elbe; Kiel
  Canal is an important connection between the Baltic Sea and North Sea
eastern: 
  2,319 km (1988)
Pipelines: 
  crude oil 3,644 km; petroleum products 3,946 km; natural gas 97,564 km
  (1988)
Ports: 
  coastal - Bremerhaven, Brunsbuttel, Cuxhaven, Emden, Bremen, Hamburg,
  Kiel, Lubeck, Wilhelmshaven, Rostock, Wismar, Stralsund, Sassnitz;
  inland - 31 major on Rhine and Elbe rivers
Merchant marine: 
  485 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,541,441 GRT/5,835,511 DWT,
  barge carrier 7, bulk 11, cargo 241, chemical tanker 20, combination
  bulk 6, combination ore/oil 5, container 132, liquefied gas tanker 16,
  oil tanker 7, passenger 3, railcar carrier 5, refrigerated cargo 7,
  roll-on/roll-off cargo 20, short-sea passenger 5 
note: 
  the German register includes ships of the former East and West Germany
Airports: 
total: 
  590 
usable: 
  583 
with permanent-surface runways: 
  308 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
  5 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
  85 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
  97 
Telecommunications: 
western: 
  highly developed, modern telecommunication service to all parts of the
  country; fully adequate in all respects; 40,300,000 telephones;
  intensively developed, highly redundant cable and microwave radio
  relay networks, all completely automatic; broadcast stations - 80 AM,
  470 FM, 225 (6,000 repeaters) TV; 6 submarine coaxial cables;
  satellite earth stations - 12 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT antennas, 2
  Indian Ocean INTELSAT antennas, EUTELSAT, and domestic systems; 2 HF
  radiocommunication centers; tropospheric links
eastern: 
  badly needs modernization; 3,970,000 telephones; broadcast stations -
  23 AM, 17 FM, 21 TV (15 Soviet TV repeaters); 6,181,860 TVs; 6,700,000
  radios; 1 satellite earth station operating in INTELSAT and
  Intersputnik systems

@Germany, Defense Forces

Branches: 
  Army, Navy, Air Force 
Manpower availability: 
  males age 15-49 20,253,482; fit for military service 17,506,468; reach
  military age (18) annually 418,124 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
  exchange rate conversion - $37.3 billion, 2% of GDP (1993)


@Ghana, Geography

Location: 
  Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean between Cote
  d'Ivoire and Togo
Map references: 
  Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
  238,540 sq km 
land area: 
  230,020 sq km 
comparative area: 
  slightly smaller than Oregon
Land boundaries: 
  total 2,093 km, Burkina 548 km, Cote d'Ivoire 668 km, Togo 877 km 
Coastline: 
  539 km 
Maritime claims: 
contiguous zone: 
  24 nm
continental shelf: 
  200 nm
exclusive economic zone: 
  200 nm
territorial sea: 
  12 nm
International disputes: 
  none
Climate: 
  tropical; warm and comparatively dry along southeast coast; hot and
  humid in southwest; hot and dry in north
Terrain: 
  mostly low plains with dissected plateau in south-central area
Natural resources: 
  gold, timber, industrial diamonds, bauxite, manganese, fish, rubber 
Land use: 
arable land: 
  5% 
permanent crops: 
  7% 
meadows and pastures: 
  15% 
forest and woodland: 
  37% 
other: 
  36% 
Irrigated land: 
  80 sq km (1989)
Environment: 
current issues: 
  recent drought in north severely affecting agricultural activities;
  deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; poaching and habitat
  destruction threatens wildlife populations; water pollution; limited
  supply of safe drinking water
natural hazards: 
  dry, dusty, harmattan winds occur from January to March
international agreements: 
  party to - Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Law of the
  Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
  Tropical Timber, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity,
  Climate Change, Marine Life Conservation
Note: 
  Lake Volta is the world's largest artificial lake; northeasterly
  harmattan wind (January to March)

@Ghana, People

Population: 
  17,225,185 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
  3.09% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
  44.13 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
  12.27 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
  -0.97 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
  83.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
  55.52 years 
male: 
  53.58 years 
female: 
  57.52 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
  6.15 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
  Ghanaian(s) 
adjective: 
  Ghanaian 
Ethnic divisions: 
  black African 99.8% (major tribes - Akan 44%, Moshi-Dagomba 16%, Ewe
  13%, Ga 8%), European and other 0.2% 
Religions: 
  indigenous beliefs 38%, Muslim 30%, Christian 24%, other 8% 
Languages: 
  English (official), African languages (including Akan, Moshi-Dagomba,
  Ewe, and Ga)
Literacy: 
  age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
  60% 
male: 
  70% 
female: 
  51% 
Labor force: 
  3.7 million 
by occupation: 
  agriculture and fishing 54.7%, industry 18.7%, sales and clerical
  15.2%, services, transportation, and communications 7.7%, professional
  3.7%
note: 
  48% of population of working age (1983)

@Ghana, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
  Republic of Ghana 
conventional short form: 
  Ghana 
former: 
  Gold Coast 
Digraph: 
  GH
Type: 
  constitutional democracy 
Capital: 
  Accra 
Administrative divisions: 
  10 regions; Ashanti, Brong-Ahafo, Central, Eastern, Greater Accra,
  Northern, Upper East, Upper West, Volta, Western
Independence: 
  6 March 1957 (from UK)
National holiday: 
  Independence Day, 6 March (1957) 
Constitution: 
  new constitution approved 28 April 1992
Legal system: 
  based on English common law and customary law; has not accepted
  compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 
  universal at 18
Executive branch: 
chief of state and head of government: 
  President Jerry John RAWLINGS (since 3 November 1992) election last
  held 3 November 1992 (next to be held NA)
cabinet: 
  Cabinet; president nominates members subject to approval by the
  Parliament
Legislative branch: 
  unicameral
National Assembly: 
  elections last held 29 December 1992 (next to be held NA)
Judicial branch: 
  Supreme Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
  National Democratic Congress, Jerry John Rawlings; New Patriotic
  Party, Albert Adu BOAHEN; People's Heritage Party, Alex Erskine;
  various other smaller parties
Member of: 
  ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-24, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD,
  ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC,
  IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LORCS, MINURSO, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD,
  UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIKOM, UNPROFOR, UNTAC, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO,
  WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador Ekwow SPIO-GARBRAH 
chancery: 
  3512 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
  (202) 686-4520 
FAX: 
  (202) 686-4527 
consulate(s) general: 
  New York 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador Kenneth L. BROWN 
embassy: 
  Ring Road East, East of Danquah Circle, Accra 
mailing address: 
  P. O. Box 194, Accra 
telephone: 
  [233] (21) 775348, 775349, 775297 or 775298 
FAX: 
  [233] (21) 776008 
Flag: 
  three equal horizontal bands of red (top), yellow, and green with a
  large black five-pointed star centered in the gold band; uses the
  popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia; similar to the flag of
  Bolivia, which has a coat of arms centered in the yellow band

@Ghana, Economy

Overview: 
  Supported by substantial international assistance, Ghana has been
  implementing a steady economic rebuilding program since 1983,
  including moves toward privatization and relaxation of government
  controls. The agriculture sector consists largely of small traditional
  farm holdings, rain-fed for the most part. Heavily dependent on cocoa,
  gold, and timber exports, economic growth so far has not spread
  substantially to other areas of the economy. The costs of sending
  peacekeeping forces to Liberia and preparing for the transition to a
  democratic government have boosted government expenditures and
  undercut structural adjustment reforms. Ghana opened a stock exchange
  in 1990 and plans to float 5% of its stake in Ashanti Goldfields
  Corporation, which would make the exchange the largest in sub-Saharan
  Africa outside of South Africa.
National product: 
  GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $25 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
  3.9% (1992 est.)
National product per capita: 
  $1,500 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
  10% (1992)
Unemployment rate: 
  10% (1991)
Budget: 
revenues: 
  $1 billion 
expenditures: 
  $905 million, including capital expenditures of $200 million (1991
  est.)
Exports: 
  $1 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities: 
  cocoa 40%, gold, timber, tuna, bauxite, and aluminum
partners: 
  Germany 31%, US 12%, UK 11%, Netherlands 6%, Japan 5% (1991)
Imports: 
  $1.5 billion (c.i.f., 1992)
commodities: 
  petroleum 16%, consumer goods, foods, intermediate goods, capital
  equipment
partners: 
  UK 22%, US 11%, Germany 9%, Japan 6%
External debt: 
  $4.6 billion (1992 est.)
Industrial production: 
  growth rate in manufacturing (1992); accounts for almost 15% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
  1,180,000 kW
production: 
  4.49 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
  290 kWh (1991)
Industries: 
  mining, lumbering, light manufacturing, aluminum, food processing
Agriculture: 
  accounts for 43% of GDP (including fishing and forestry); the major
  cash crop is cocoa; other principal crops - rice, coffee, cassava,
  peanuts, corn, shea nuts, timber; normally self-sufficient in food
Illicit drugs: 
  illicit producer of cannabis for the international drug trade; transit
  hub for Southwest and Southeast Asian heroin destined for the US and
  Europe
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
  US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $455 million; Western
  (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $2.6
  billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $78 million; Communist
  countries (1970-89) $106 million 
Currency: 
  1 new cedi (C) = 100 pesewas
Exchange rates: 
  new cedis per US$1 - 713.00 (October 1993), 437.09 (1992), 367.83
  (1991), 326.33 (1990), 270.00 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
  calendar year

@Ghana, Communications

Railroads: 
  953 km, all 1.067-meter gauge; 32 km double track; railroads
  undergoing major renovation
Highways: 
total: 
  32,250 km 
paved: 
  concrete, bituminous 6,084 km 
unpaved: 
  gravel, crushed stone, improved earth 26,166 km 
Inland waterways: 
  Volta, Ankobra, and Tano Rivers provide 168 km of perennial navigation
  for launches and lighters; Lake Volta provides 1,125 km of arterial
  and feeder waterways
Pipelines: 
  none
Ports: 
  Tema, Takoradi
Merchant marine: 
  5 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 46,289 GRT/61,606 DWT, cargo 4,
  refrigerated cargo 1 
Airports: 
total: 
  11 
usable: 
  11 
with permanent-surface runways: 
  6 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
  0 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
  3 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
  6 
Telecommunications: 
  poor to fair system handled primarily by microwave radio relay links;
  42,300 telephones; broadcast stations - 4 AM, 1 FM, 4 (8 translators)
  TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

@Ghana, Defense Forces

Branches: 
  Army, Navy, Air Force, Police Force, Civil Defense 
Manpower availability: 
  males age 15-49 3,867,183; fit for military service 2,159,769; reach
  military age (18) annually 170,283 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
  exchange rate conversion - $30 million, less than 1% of GDP (1989
  est.)


@Gibraltar

Header
Affiliation: 
  (dependent territory of the UK) 

@Gibraltar, Geography

Location: 
  Southwestern Europe, bordering the Strait of Gibraltar, which links
  the North Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, on the southern
  coast of Spain
Map references: 
  Africa, Europe 
Area: 
total area: 
  6.5 sq km 
land area: 
  6.5 sq km 
comparative area: 
  about 11 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC
Land boundaries: 
  total 1.2 km, Spain 1.2 km 
Coastline: 
  12 km 
Maritime claims: 
exclusive fishing zone: 
  3 nm
territorial sea: 
  3 nm
International disputes: 
  source of occasional friction between Spain and the UK
Climate: 
  Mediterranean with mild winters and warm summers
Terrain: 
  a narrow coastal lowland borders The Rock
Natural resources: 
  negligible 
Land use: 
arable land: 
  0% 
permanent crops: 
  0% 
meadows and pastures: 
  0% 
forest and woodland: 
  0% 
other: 
  100% 
Irrigated land: 
  NA sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
  natural freshwater sources are meager, so large concrete or natural
  rock water catchments collect rain water
natural hazards: 
  NA 
international agreements: 
  NA 
Note: 
  strategic location on Strait of Gibraltar that links the North
  Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea

@Gibraltar, People

Population: 
  31,684 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
  0.58% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
  15.37 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
  8.87 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
  -0.73 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
  8.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
  76.33 years 
male: 
  73.44 years 
female: 
  79.19 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
  2.33 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
  Gibraltarian(s) 
adjective: 
  Gibraltar 
Ethnic divisions: 
  Italian, English, Maltese, Portuguese, Spanish 
Religions: 
  Roman Catholic 74%, Protestant 11% (Church of England 8%, other 3%),
  Moslem 8%, Jewish 2%, none or other 5% (1981)
Languages: 
  English (used in schools and for official purposes), Spanish, Italian,
  Portuguese, Russian 
Literacy: 
total population: 
  NA%
male: 
  NA%
female: 
  NA%
Labor force: 
  14,800 (including non-Gibraltar laborers)
note: 
  UK military establishments and civil government employ nearly 50% of
  the labor force

@Gibraltar, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
  none 
conventional short form: 
  Gibraltar 
Digraph: 
  GI
Type: 
  dependent territory of the UK 
Capital: 
  Gilbraltar 
Administrative divisions: 
  none (dependent territory of the UK)
Independence: 
  none (dependent territory of the UK)
National holiday: 
  Commonwealth Day (second Monday of March) 
Constitution: 
  30 May 1969
Legal system: 
  English law
Suffrage: 
  18 years of age; universal, plus other UK subjects resident six months
  or more
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
  Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor
  and Commander in Chief Gen. Sir John CHAPPLE (since NA March 1993) 
head of government: 
  Chief Minister Joe BOSSANO (since 25 March 1988) 
Gibraltar Council: 
  advises the governor
cabinet: 
  Council of Ministers; appointed from the elected members of the
  Assembly by the governor in consultation with the chief minister
Legislative branch: 
  unicameral
House of Assembly: 
  elections last held on 16 January 1992 (next to be held January 1996);
  results - SL 73.3%; seats - (18 total, 15 elected) number of seats by
  party NA
Judicial branch: 
  Supreme Court, Court of Appeal 
Political parties and leaders: 
  Gibraltar Socialist Labor Party (SL), Joe BOSSANO; Gibraltar Labor
  Party/Association for the Advancement of Civil Rights (GCL/AACR),
  leader NA; Gibraltar Social Democrats, Peter CARUANA; Gibraltar
  National Party, Joe GARCIA
Other political or pressure groups: 
  Housewives Association; Chamber of Commerce; Gibraltar Representatives
  Organization
Member of: 
  INTERPOL (subbureau) 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
  none (dependent territory of the UK)
US diplomatic representation: 
  none (dependent territory of the UK)
Flag: 
  two horizontal bands of white (top, double width) and red with a
  three-towered red castle in the center of the white band; hanging from
  the castle gate is a gold key centered in the red band

@Gibraltar, Economy

Overview: 
  The British military presence has been severely reduced and now only
  contributes about 11% to the local economy. The financial sector
  accounts for 15% of GDP; tourism and shipping services fees also
  generate income. Because more than 70% of the economy is in the public
  sector, changes in government spending have a major impact on the
  level of employment. Construction workers are particularly affected
  when government expenditures are cut.
National product: 
  GNP - exchange rate conversion - $182 million (FY87)
National product real growth rate: 
  5% (FY87)
National product per capita: 
  $4,600 (FY87)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
  3.6% (1988)
Unemployment rate: 
  NA%
Budget: 
revenues: 
  $136 million 
expenditures: 
  $139 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY88)
Exports: 
  $82 million (f.o.b., 1988)
commodities: 
  (principally re-exports) petroleum 51%, manufactured goods 41%, other
  8%
partners: 
  UK, Morocco, Portugal, Netherlands, Spain, US, FRG
Imports: 
  $258 million (c.i.f., 1988)
commodities: 
  fuels, manufactured goods, and foodstuffs
partners: 
  UK, Spain, Japan, Netherlands
External debt: 
  $318 million (1987)
Industrial production: 
  growth rate NA%
Electricity: 
capacity: 
  47,000 kW
production: 
  200 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
  6,740 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
  tourism, banking and finance, construction, commerce; support to large
  UK naval and air bases; transit trade and supply depot in the port;
  light manufacturing of tobacco, roasted coffee, ice, mineral waters,
  candy, beer, and canned fish
Agriculture: 
  none
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
  US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $800,000; Western (non-US)
  countries and ODA bilateral commitments (1992-93), $2.5 million 
Currency: 
  1 Gibraltar pound (#G) = 100 pence
Exchange rates: 
  Gibraltar pounds (#G) per US$1 - 0.6699 (January 1994), 0.6658 (1993),
  0.5664 (1992), 0.5652 (1991), 0.5603 (1990), 0.6099 (1989); note - the
  Gibraltar pound is at par with the British pound
Fiscal year: 
  1 July - 30 June

@Gibraltar, Communications

Railroads: 
  1.000-meter-gauge system in dockyard area only
Highways: 
total: 
  50 km 
paved: 
  50 km 
Pipelines: 
  none
Ports: 
  Gibraltar
Merchant marine: 
  29 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 496,898 GRT/857,140 DWT, bulk 5,
  cargo 4, chemical tanker 2, container 1, oil tanker 16, refrigerated
  cargo 1 
note: 
  a flag of convenience registry
Airports: 
total: 
  1 
usable: 
  1 
with permanent surface runways: 
  1 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
  0 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
  0 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
  1 
Telecommunications: 
  adequate, automatic domestic system and adequate international
  radiocommunication and microwave facilities; 9,400 telephones;
  broadcast stations - 1 AM, 6 FM, 4 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth
  station

@Gibraltar, Defense Forces

Branches: 
  British Army, Royal Navy, Royal Air Force 
Note: 
  defense is the responsibility of the UK


@Glorioso Islands

Header
Affiliation: 
  (possession of France) 

@Glorioso Islands, Geography

Location: 
  Southern Africa, in the Indian Ocean just north of Madagascar
Map references: 
  Africa 
Area: 
total area: 
  5 sq km 
land area: 
  5 sq km 
comparative area: 
  about 8.5 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC
note: 
  includes Ile Glorieuse, Ile du Lys, Verte Rocks, Wreck Rock, and South
  Rock
Land boundaries: 
  0 km  
Coastline: 
  35.2 km 
Maritime claims: 
contiguous zone: 
  12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 
  200 nm
territorial sea: 
  12 nm
International disputes: 
  claimed by Madagascar
Climate: 
  tropical
Terrain: 
  NA
Natural resources: 
  guano, coconuts 
Land use: 
arable land: 
  0% 
permanent crops: 
  0% 
meadows and pastures: 
  0% 
forest and woodland: 
  0% 
other: 
  100% (all lush vegetation and coconut palms)
Irrigated land: 
  0 sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
  NA 
natural hazards: 
  subject to periodic cyclones
international agreements: 
  NA 

@Glorioso Islands, People

Population: 
  uninhabited

@Glorioso Islands, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
  none 
conventional short form: 
  Glorioso Islands 
local long form: 
  none 
local short form: 
  Iles Glorieuses 
Digraph: 
  GO
Type: 
  French possession administered by Commissioner of the Republic,
  resident in Reunion
Capital: 
  none; administered by France from Reunion
Independence: 
  none (possession of France)

@Glorioso Islands, Economy

Overview: 
  no economic activity

@Glorioso Islands, Communications

Ports: 
  none; offshore anchorage only
Airports: 
total: 
  1 
usable: 
  1 
with permanent-surface runways: 
  0 
with runsways over 3,659 m: 
  0 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
  0 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
  1 

@Glorioso Islands, Defense Forces

Note: 
  defense is the responsibility of France


@Greece, Geography

Location: 
  Balkan State, Southern Europe, bordering the Mediterranean Sea between
  Turkey and Bulgaria
Map references: 
  Africa, Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
  131,940 sq km 
land area: 
  130,800 sq km 
comparative area: 
  slightly smaller than Alabama
Land boundaries: 
  total 1,210 km, Albania 282 km, Bulgaria 494 km, Turkey 206 km, The
  Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 228 km 
Coastline: 
  13,676 km 
Maritime claims: 
continental shelf: 
  200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
territorial sea: 
  6 nm, but Greece has threatened to claim 12 nm
International disputes: 
  air, continental shelf, and territorial water disputes with Turkey in
  Aegean Sea; Cyprus question; dispute with The Former Yugoslav Republic
  of Macedonia over name and symbol implying territorial claim
Climate: 
  temperate; mild, wet winters; hot, dry summers
Terrain: 
  mostly mountains with ranges extending into sea as peninsulas or
  chains of islands
Natural resources: 
  bauxite, lignite, magnesite, petroleum, marble 
Land use: 
arable land: 
  23% 
permanent crops: 
  8% 
meadows and pastures: 
  40% 
forest and woodland: 
  20% 
other: 
  9% 
Irrigated land: 
  11,900 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
  air pollution; water pollution
natural hazards: 
  subject to severe earthquakes
international agreements: 
  party to - Air Pollution, Antarctic Treaty, Environmental
  Modification, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
  Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber, Wetlands; signed, but not
  ratified - Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Volatile
  Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Biodiversity,
  Climate Change, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea
Note: 
  strategic location dominating the Aegean Sea and southern approach to
  Turkish Straits; a peninsular country, possessing an archipelago of
  about 2,000 islands

@Greece, People

Population: 
  10,564,630 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
  0.84% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
  10.5 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
  9.32 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
  7.21 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
  8.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
  77.71 years 
male: 
  75.2 years 
female: 
  80.35 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
  1.45 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
  Greek(s) 
adjective: 
  Greek 
Ethnic divisions: 
  Greek 98%, other 2% 
note: 
  the Greek Government states there are no ethnic divisions in Greece
Religions: 
  Greek Orthodox 98%, Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7% 
Languages: 
  Greek (official), English, French 
Literacy: 
  age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
  93% 
male: 
  98% 
female: 
  89% 
Labor force: 
  4.083 million 
by occupation: 
  services 48%, agriculture 24%, industry 28% (1993)

@Greece, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
  Hellenic Republic 
conventional short form: 
  Greece 
local long form: 
  Elliniki Dhimokratia 
local short form: 
  Ellas 
former: 
  Kingdom of Greece 
Digraph: 
  GR
Type: 
  presidential parliamentary government; monarchy rejected by referendum
  8 December 1974
Capital: 
  Athens 
Administrative divisions: 
  52 prefectures (nomoi, singular - nomos); Aitolia kai Akarnania,
  Akhaia, Argolis, Arkadhia, Arta, Attiki, Dhodhekanisos, Dhrama,
  Evritania, Evros, Evvoia, Florina, Fokis, Fthiotis, Grevena, Ilia,
  Imathia, Ioannina, Iraklion, Kardhitsa, Kastoria, Kavala, Kefallinia,
  Kerkira, Khalkidhiki, Khania, Khios, Kikladhes, Kilkis, Korinthia,
  Kozani, Lakonia, Larisa, Lasithi, Lesvos, Levkas, Magnisia, Messinia,
  Pella, Pieria, Piraievs, Preveza, Rethimni, Rodhopi, Samos, Serrai,
  Thesprotia, Thessaloniki, Trikala, Voiotia, Xanthi, Zakinthos,
  autonomous region: Agion Oros (Mt. Athos)
Independence: 
  1829 (from the Ottoman Empire)
National holiday: 
  Independence Day, 25 March (1821) (proclamation of the war of
  independence) 
Constitution: 
  11 June 1975
Legal system: 
  based on codified Roman law; judiciary divided into civil, criminal,
  and administrative courts
Suffrage: 
  18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
  President Konstantinos KARAMANLIS (since 5 May 1990); election last
  held 4 May 1990 (next to be held May 1995); results - Konstantinos
  KARAMANLIS was elected by Parliament
head of government: 
  Prime Minister Andreas PAPANDREOU (since 10 October 1993) 
cabinet: 
  Cabinet; appointed by the president on recommendation of the prime
  minister
Legislative branch: 
  unicameral
Chamber of Deputies (Vouli ton Ellinon): 
  elections last held 10 October 1993 (next to be held by NA October
  1997); results - PASOK 46.88%, ND 39.30%, Political Spring 4.87%, KKE
  4.54%, and Progressive Left Coalition 2.94%; seats - (300 total) PASOK
  170, ND 111, Political Spring 10, KKE 9
Judicial branch: 
  Supreme Judicial Court, Special Supreme Tribunal 
Political parties and leaders: 
  New Democracy (ND; conservative), Miltiades EVERT; Panhellenic
  Socialist Movement (PASOK), Andreas PAPANDREOU; Progressive Left
  Coalition, Maria DAMANAKI; Democratic Renewal (DIANA), Konstantinos
  STEFANOPOULOS; Communist Party (KKE), Aleka PAPARIGA;
  Ecologist-Alternative List, leader rotates; Political Spring, Antonis
  SAMARAS
Member of: 
  Australian Group, BIS, BSEC, CCC, CE, CERN, COCOM, CSCE, EBRD, EC,
  ECE, EIB, FAO, G-6, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IEA,
  IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO,
  ITU, LORCS, MINURSO, MTCR, NACC, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS
  (observer), OECD, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM,
  UNOMIG, UNOSOM, UPU, WEU (associate), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador Loucas TSILAS 
chancery: 
  2221 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
  (202) 939-5800 
FAX: 
  (202) 939-5824 
consulate(s) general: 
  Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, and San
  Francisco 
consulate(s): 
  New Orleans 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador Thomas M.T. NILES 
embassy: 
  91 Vasilissis Sophias Boulevard, 10160 Athens 
mailing address: 
  PSC 108, Athens; APO AE 09842 
telephone: 
  [30] (1) 721-2951 or 721-8401 
FAX: 
  [30] (1) 645-6282 
consulate(s) general: 
  Thessaloniki 
Flag: 
  nine equal horizontal stripes of blue alternating with white; there is
  a blue square in the upper hoist-side corner bearing a white cross;
  the cross symbolizes Greek Orthodoxy, the established religion of the
  country

@Greece, Economy

Overview: 
  Greece has a mixed capitalist economy with the basic entrepreneurial
  system overlaid in 1981-89 by a socialist system that enlarged the
  public sector from 55% of GDP in 1981 to about 70% in 1989. Since
  then, the public sector has been reduced to about 60% of GDP. Tourism
  continues as a major source of foreign exchange, and agriculture is
  self-sufficient except for meat, dairy products, and animal
  feedstuffs. Over the last decade, real GDP growth has averaged 1.6% a
  year, compared with the European Union average of 2.2%. Inflation is
  four times the EU average, and the national debt has reached 140% of
  GDP, the highest in the EU. Prime Minister PAPANDREOU will probably
  only make limited progress correcting the economy's problems of high
  inflation, large budget deficit, and decaying infrastructure. His
  economic program suggests that although he will shun his expansionary
  policies of the 1980s, he will avoid tough measures needed to slow
  inflation or reduce the state's role in the economy. He has limited
  the previous government's privatization plans, for example, and has
  called for generous welfare spending and real wage increases. In 1994,
  the GDP growth rate is likely to remain low, and inflation probably
  will accelerate, remaining the highest in the EU. PAPANDREOU'S failure
  to improve the country's economic performance will further strain
  relations with the EU. Since Greece's accession to the then EC in
  1981, Athens' heavy reliance on EU aid - amounting to about 6% of
  Greek GDP annually - and its poor use of Union funds have riled
  Brussels. Its ailing economy will continue to be a drag on European
  economic and monetary union.
National product: 
  GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $93.2 billion (1993)
National product real growth rate: 
  1% (1993)
National product per capita: 
  $8,900 (1993)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
  14.4% (1993)
Unemployment rate: 
  9.5% (1993)
Budget: 
revenues: 
  $28.3 billion 
expenditures: 
  $37.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $5.2 billion (1994)
Exports: 
  $6 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities: 
  manufactured goods 53%, foodstuffs 34%, fuels 5%
partners: 
  Germany 23%, Italy 18%, France 7%, UK 7%, US 4% (1992)
Imports: 
  $23.3 billion (c.i.f., 1992)
commodities: 
  manufactured goods 72%, foodstuffs 15%, fuels 10%
partners: 
  Germany 20%, Italy 14%, France 8%, Netherlands 7%, Japan 6% (1992)
External debt: 
  $23.1 billion (1992)
Industrial production: 
  growth rate -1.3% (1992); accounts for 20% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
  10,500,000 kW
production: 
  36.4 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
  3,610 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
  food and tobacco processing, textiles, chemicals, metal products,
  tourism, mining, petroleum
Agriculture: 
  including fishing and forestry, accounts for 15% of GDP and 24% of the
  labor force; principal products - wheat, corn, barley, sugar beets,
  olives, tomatoes, wine, tobacco, potatoes; self-sufficient in food
  except meat, dairy products, and animal feedstuffs
Illicit drugs: 
  illicit producer of cannabis and limited opium; mostly for domestic
  production; serves as a gateway to Europe for traffickers smuggling
  cannabis and heroin from the Middle East and Southwest Asia to the
  West and precursor chemicals to the East; transshipment point for
  Southwest Asian heroin transiting the Balkan route
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
  US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-81), $525 million; Western
  (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $1.39
  billion 
Currency: 
  1 drachma (Dr) = 100 lepta
Exchange rates: 
  drachmae (Dr) per US$1 - 250.28 (January 1994), 229.26 (1993), 190.62
  (1992), 182.27 (1991), 158.51 (1990), 162.42 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
  calendar year

@Greece, Communications

Railroads: 
  2,479 km total; 1,565 km 1,435-mm standard gauge, of which 36 km
  electrified and 100 km double track; 892 km 1,000-mm gauge; 22 km
  750-mm narrow gauge; all government owned
Highways: 
total: 
  38,938 km 
paved: 
  16,090 km 
unpaved: 
  crushed stone, gravel 13,676 km; improved earth 5,632 km; unimproved
  earth 3,540 km 
Inland waterways: 
  80 km; system consists of three coastal canals; including the Corinth
  Canal (6 km) which crosses the Isthmus of Corinth connecting the Gulf
  of Corinth with the Saronic Gulf and shortens the sea voyage from the
  Adriatic to Piraievs (Piraeus) by 325 km; and three unconnected rivers
Pipelines: 
  crude oil 26 km; petroleum products 547 km 
Ports: 
  Piraievs (Piraeus), Thessaloniki
Merchant marine: 
  1,059 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 29,343,367 GRT/54,249,294
  DWT, bulk 453, cargo 117, chemical tanker 20, combination bulk 23,
  combination ore/oil 38, container 36, liquefied gas 6, livestock
  carrier 1, oil tanker 251, passenger 15, passenger-cargo 2,
  refrigerated cargo 11, roll-on/roll-off cargo 17, short-sea passenger
  65, specialized tanker 3, vehicle carrier 1 
note: 
  ethnic Greeks also own large numbers of ships under the registry of
  Liberia, Panama, Cyprus, Malta, and The Bahamas
Airports: 
total: 
  78 
usable: 
  77 
with permanent-surface runways: 
  63 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
  0 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
  20 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
  24 
Telecommunications: 
  adequate, modern networks reach all areas; 4,080,000 telephones;
  microwave radio relay carries most traffic; extensive open-wire
  network; submarine cables to off-shore islands; broadcast stations -
  29 AM, 17 (20 repeaters) FM, 361 TV; tropospheric links, 8 submarine
  cables; 1 satellite earth station operating in INTELSAT (1 Atlantic
  Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean antenna), and EUTELSAT systems

@Greece, Defense Forces

Branches: 
  Hellenic Army, Hellenic Navy, Hellenic Air Force, National Guard,
  Police 
Manpower availability: 
  males age 15-49 2,645,859; fit for military service 2,025,212; reach
  military age (21) annually 74,484 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
  exchange rate conversion - $4.0 billion, 5.4% of GDP (1993)


@Greenland

Header
Affiliation: 
  (part of the Danish realm) 

@Greenland, Geography

Location: 
  Northern North America, in the North Atlantic Ocean, between Canada
  and Norway
Map references: 
  Arctic Region, North America, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
  2,175,600 sq km 
land area: 
  383,600 sq km (ice free)
comparative area: 
  slightly more than three times the size of Texas
Land boundaries: 
  0 km  
Coastline: 
  44,087 km 
Maritime claims: 
exclusive fishing zone: 
  200 nm
territorial sea: 
  3 nm
International disputes: 
  dispute betwen Denmark and Norway over maritime boundary in Arctic
  Ocean between Greenland and Jan Mayen has been settled by the
  International Court of Justice (ICJ)
Climate: 
  arctic to subarctic; cool summers, cold winters
Terrain: 
  flat to gradually sloping icecap covers all but a narrow, mountainous,
  barren, rocky coast
Natural resources: 
  zinc, lead, iron ore, coal, molybdenum, cryolite, uranium, fish 
Land use: 
arable land: 
  0% 
permanent crops: 
  0% 
meadows and pastures: 
  1% 
forest and woodland: 
  0% 
other: 
  99% 
Irrigated land: 
  NA sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
  NA 
natural hazards: 
  NA 
international agreements: 
  NA 
Note: 
  dominates North Atlantic Ocean between North America and Europe;
  sparse population confined to small settlements along coast;
  continuous permafrost over northern two-thirds of the island

@Greenland, People

Population: 
  57,040 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
  0.94% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
  18.6 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
  7.43 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
  -1.75 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
  26.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
  66.91 years 
male: 
  62.55 years 
female: 
  71.28 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
  2.29 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
  Greenlander(s) 
adjective: 
  Greenlandic 
Ethnic divisions: 
  Greenlander 86% (Eskimos and Greenland-born Caucasians), Danish 14% 
Religions: 
  Evangelical Lutheran 
Languages: 
  Eskimo dialects, Danish 
Literacy: 
total population: 
  NA%
male: 
  NA%
female: 
  NA%
Labor force: 
  22,800 
by occupation: 
  largely engaged in fishing, hunting, sheep breeding

@Greenland, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
  none 
conventional short form: 
  Greenland 
local long form: 
  none 
local short form: 
  Kalaallit Nunaat 
Digraph: 
  GL
Type: 
  part of the Danish realm; self-governing overseas administrative
  division
Capital: 
  Nuuk (Godthab) 
Administrative divisions: 
  3 municipalities (kommuner, singular - kommun); Nordgronland,
  Ostgronland, Vestgronland
Independence: 
  none (part of the Danish realm; self-governing overseas administrative
  division)
National holiday: 
  Birthday of the Queen, 16 April (1940) 
Constitution: 
  5 June 1953 (Danish constitution)
Legal system: 
  Danish
Suffrage: 
  18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
  Queen MARGRETHE II (since 14 January 1972), represented by High
  Commissioner Torben Hede PEDERSEN (since NA) 
head of government: 
  Home Rule Chairman Lars Emil JOHANSEN (since 15 March 1991) 
cabinet: 
  Landsstyre; formed from the Landsting on basis of strength of parties
Legislative branch: 
  unicameral
Parliament (Landsting): 
  elections last held on 5 March 1991 (next to be held 5 March 1995);
  results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (27 total) Siumut 11,
  Atassut Party 8, Inuit Ataqatigiit 5, Center Party 2, Polar Party 1
Danish Folketing: 
  last held on 12 December 1990 (next to be held by December 1994);
  Greenland elects two representatives to the Folketing; results -
  percent of vote by party NA; seats - (2 total) Siumut 1, Atassut 1
Judicial branch: 
  High Court (Landsret) 
Political parties and leaders: 
  two-party ruling coalition; Siumut (a moderate socialist party that
  advocates more distinct Greenlandic identity and greater autonomy from
  Denmark), Lars Emil JOHANSEN, chairman; Inuit Ataqatigiit (IA; a
  Marxist-Leninist party that favors complete independence from Denmark
  rather than home rule), Arqaluk LYNGE; Atassut Party (a more
  conservative party that favors continuing close relations with
  Denmark), leader NA; Polar Party (conservative-Greenland nationalist),
  Lars CHEMNITZ; Center Party (a new nonsocialist protest party), leader
  NA
Diplomatic representation in US: 
  none (self-governing overseas administrative division of Denmark)
US diplomatic representation: 
  none (self-governing overseas administrative division of Denmark)
Flag: 
  two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red with a large disk
  slightly to the hoist side of center - the top half of the disk is
  red, the bottom half is white

@Greenland, Economy

Overview: 
  Greenland's economic situation at present is difficult. Unemployment
  is increasing, and prospects for economic growth in the immediate
  future are dim. Following the closing of the Black Angel lead and zinc
  mine in 1989, Greenland became almost completely dependent on fishing
  and fish processing, the sector accounting for 95% of exports.
  Prospects for fisheries are not bright, as the important shrimp
  catches will at best stabilize and cod catches have dropped.
  Resumption of mining and hydrocarbon activities is not around the
  corner, thus leaving only tourism with some potential for the near
  future. The public sector in Greenland, i.e., the central government
  and its commercial entities and the municipalities, plays a dominant
  role in Greenland accounting for about two-thirds of total employment.
  About half the government's revenues come from grants from the Danish
  Government.
National product: 
  GNP - purchasing power equivalent - $500 million (1988)
National product real growth rate: 
  -10% (1990)
National product per capita: 
  $9,000 (1988)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
  1.6% (1991)
Unemployment rate: 
  9% (1990 est.)
Budget: 
revenues: 
  $381 million 
expenditures: 
  $381 million, including capital expenditures of $36 million (1989)
Exports: 
  $340.6 million (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities: 
  fish and fish products 95%
partners: 
  Denmark 79%, Benelux 9%, Germany 5%
Imports: 
  $403 million (c.i.f., 1991)
commodities: 
  manufactured goods 28%, machinery and transport equipment 24%, food
  and live animals 12.4%, petroleum products 12%
partners: 
  Denmark 65%, Norway 8.8%, US 4.6%, Germany 3.8%, Japan 3.8%, Sweden
  2.4%
External debt: 
  $480 million (1990 est.)
Industrial production: 
  growth rate NA%
Electricity: 
capacity: 
  84,000 kW
production: 
  176 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
  3,060 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
  fish processing (mainly shrimp), lead and zinc mining, handicrafts,
  some small shipyards, potential for platinum and gold mining
Agriculture: 
  sector dominated by fishing and sheep raising; crops limited to forage
  and small garden vegetables; 1988 fish catch of 133,500 metric tons
Economic aid: 
  none
Currency: 
  1 Danish krone (DKr) = 100 oere
Exchange rates: 
  Danish kroner (DKr) per US$1 - 6.771 (January 1994), 6.484 (1993),
  6.036 (1992), 6.396 (1991), 6.189 (1990), 7.310 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
  calendar year

@Greenland, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
  150 km 
paved: 
  60 km 
unpaved: 
  90 km 
Ports: 
  Kangerluarsoruseq (Faeringehavn), Paamiut (Frederikshaab), Nuuk
  (Godthaab), Sisimiut (Holsteinsborg), Julianehaab, Maarmorilik, North
  Star Bay
Airports: 
total: 
  11 
usable: 
  8 
with permanent-surface runways: 
  5 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
  0 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
  2 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
  2 
Telecommunications: 
  adequate domestic and international service provided by cables and
  microwave radio relay; 17,900 telephones; broadcast stations - 5 AM, 7
  (35 repeaters) FM, 4 (9 repeaters) TV; 2 coaxial submarine cables; 1
  Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

@Greenland, Defense Forces

Note: 
  defense is responsibility of Denmark


@Grenada, Geography

Location: 
  Caribbean, in the eastern Caribbean Sea, about 150 im north of
  Trinidad and Tobago
Map references: 
  Central America and the Caribbean, South America, Standard Time Zones
  of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
  340 sq km 
land area: 
  340 sq km 
comparative area: 
  slightly less than twice the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries: 
  0 km  
Coastline: 
  121 km 
Maritime claims: 
exclusive economic zone: 
  200 nm
territorial sea: 
  12 nm
International disputes: 
  none
Climate: 
  tropical; tempered by northeast trade winds
Terrain: 
  volcanic in origin with central mountains
Natural resources: 
  timber, tropical fruit, deepwater harbors 
Land use: 
arable land: 
  15% 
permanent crops: 
  26% 
meadows and pastures: 
  3% 
forest and woodland: 
  9% 
other: 
  47% 
Irrigated land: 
  NA sq km
Environment: 
current issues: 
  NA 
natural hazards: 
  lies on edge of hurricane belt; hurricane season lasts from June to
  November
international agreements: 
  party to - Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection; signed, but not
  ratified - Climate Change
Note: 
  islands of the Grenadines group are divided politically with Saint
  Vincent and the Grenadines

@Grenada, People

Population: 
  94,109 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
  0.35% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
  30.28 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
  6.19 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
  -20.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
  12.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
  70.4 years 
male: 
  68 years 
female: 
  72.85 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
  3.93 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
  Grenadian(s) 
adjective: 
  Grenadian 
Ethnic divisions: 
  black African 
Religions: 
  Roman Catholic, Anglican, other Protestant sects 
Languages: 
  English (official), French patois 
Literacy: 
  age 15 and over having ever attended school (1970)
total population: 
  98% 
male: 
  98% 
female: 
  98% 
Labor force: 
  36,000 
by occupation: 
  services 31%, agriculture 24%, construction 8%, manufacturing 5%,
  other 32% (1985)

@Grenada, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
  none 
conventional short form: 
  Grenada 
Digraph: 
  GJ
Type: 
  parliamentary democracy 
Capital: 
  Saint George's 
Administrative divisions: 
  6 parishes and 1 dependency*; Carriacou and Petit Martinique*, Saint
  Andrew, Saint David, Saint George, Saint John, Saint Mark, Saint
  Patrick
Independence: 
  7 February 1974 (from UK)
National holiday: 
  Independence Day, 7 February (1974) 
Constitution: 
  19 December 1973
Legal system: 
  based on English common law
Suffrage: 
  18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
  Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor
  General Reginald Oswald PALMER (since 6 August 1992) 
head of government: 
  Prime Minister Nicholas BRATHWAITE (since 13 March 1990) 
cabinet: 
  Cabinet; appointed by the governor general on advice of the prime
  minister
Legislative branch: 
  bicameral Parliament
Senate: 
  consists of a 13-member body, 10 appointed by the government and 3 by
  the Leader of the Opposition
House of Representatives: 
  elections last held on 13 March 1990 (next to be held by NA March
  1995); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (15 total) NDC
  7, GULP 4, TNP 2, NNP 2
Judicial branch: 
  Supreme Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
  National Democratic Congress (NDC), Nicholas BRATHWAITE; Grenada
  United Labor Party (GULP), Sir Eric GAIRY; The National Party (TNP),
  Ben JONES; New National Party (NNP), Keith MITCHELL; Maurice Bishop
  Patriotic Movement (MBPM), Terrence MARRYSHOW
Member of: 
  ACP, C, CARICOM, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA,
  IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LAES, LORCS, NAM, OAS, OECS,
  OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador Denneth MODESTE 
chancery: 
  1701 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009 
telephone: 
  (202) 265-2561 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
  Charge d'Affaires Ollie P. ANDERSON 
embassy: 
  Point Salines, Saint George's 
mailing address: 
  P. O. Box 54, Saint George's, Grenada, W.I. 
telephone: 
  (809) 444-1173 through 1178 
FAX: 
  (809) 444-4820 
Flag: 
  a rectangle divided diagonally into yellow triangles (top and bottom)
  and green triangles (hoist side and outer side) with a red border
  around the flag; there are seven yellow five-pointed stars with three
  centered in the top red border, three centered in the bottom red
  border, and one on a red disk superimposed at the center of the flag;
  there is also a symbolic nutmeg pod on the hoist-side triangle
  (Grenada is the world's second-largest producer of nutmeg, after
  Indonesia); the seven stars represent the seven administrative
  divisions

@Grenada, Economy

Overview: 
  The economy is essentially agricultural and centers on the traditional
  production of spices and tropical plants. Agriculture accounts for
  about 15% of GDP and 80% of exports and employs 24% of the labor
  force. Tourism is the leading foreign exchange earner, followed by
  agricultural exports. Manufacturing remains relatively undeveloped,
  but is expected to grow, given a more favorable private investment
  climate since 1983. The economy achieved an impressive average annual
  growth rate of 5.5% in 1986-91 but stalled in 1992. Unemployment
  remains high at about 25%.
National product: 
  GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $250 million (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
  -0.4% (1992 est.)
National product per capita: 
  $3,000 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
  3.6% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
  25% (1992 est.)
Budget: 
revenues: 
  $78 million 
expenditures: 
  $51 million, including capital expenditures of $22 million (1991 est.)
Exports: 
  $19.9 million (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities: 
  bananas, cocoa, nutmeg, fruit and vegetables, clothing, mace
partners: 
  Netherlands, UK, Trinidad and Tobago, United States
Imports: 
  $103.2 million (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities: 
  food 25%, manufactured goods 22%, machinery 20%, chemicals 10%, fuel
  6% (1989)
partners: 
  US 29%, UK, Trinidad and Tobago, Japan, Canada (1989)
External debt: 
  $109 million (1992)
Industrial production: 
  growth rate 1.8% (1992 est.); accounts for 9% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
  12,500 kW
production: 
  26 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
  310 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
  food and beverage, textile, light assembly operations, tourism,
  construction
Agriculture: 
  accounts for 15% of GDP and 80% of exports; bananas, cocoa, nutmeg,
  and mace account for two-thirds of total crop production; world's
  second-largest producer and fourth-largest exporter of nutmeg and
  mace; small-size farms predominate, growing a variety of citrus
  fruits, avocados, root crops, sugarcane, corn, and vegetables
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
  US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY84-89), $60 million; Western
  (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $70
  million; Communist countries (1970-89), $32 million 
Currency: 
  1 EC dollar (EC$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates: 
  East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1 - 2.70 (fixed rate since 1976)
Fiscal year: 
  calendar year

@Grenada, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
  1,000 km 
paved: 
  600 km 
unpaved: 
  otherwise improved 300 km; unimproved earth 100 km 
Ports: 
  Saint George's
Airports: 
total: 
  3 
usable: 
  3 
with permanent-surface runways: 
  2 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
  0 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
  1 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
  1 
Telecommunications: 
  automatic, islandwide telephone system with 5,650 telephones; new SHF
  radio links to the islands of Trinidad, Tobago and Saint Vincent; VHF
  and UHF radio links to the islands of Trinidad and Carriacou;
  broadcast stations - 1 AM, no FM, 1 TV

@Grenada, Defense Forces

Branches: 
  Royal Grenada Police Force, Coast Guard 
Defense expenditures: 
  $NA, NA% of GDP


@Guadeloupe

Header
Affiliation: 
  (overseas department of France) 

@Guadeloupe, Geography

Location: 
  Caribbean, in the Caribbean Sea, 500 km southeast of Puerto Rico
Map references: 
  Central America and the Caribbean 
Area: 
total area: 
  1,780 sq km 
land area: 
  1,760 sq km 
comparative area: 
  10 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries: 
  0 km  
Coastline: 
  306 km 
Maritime claims: 
exclusive economic zone: 
  200 nm
territorial sea: 
  12 nm
International disputes: 
  none
Climate: 
  subtropical tempered by trade winds; relatively high humidity
Terrain: 
  Basse-Terre is volcanic in origin with interior mountains; Grand-Terre
  is low limestone formation
Natural resources: 
  cultivable land, beaches and climate that foster tourism 
Land use: 
arable land: 
  18% 
permanent crops: 
  5% 
meadows and pastures: 
  13% 
forest and woodland: 
  40% 
other: 
  24% 
Irrigated land: 
  30 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
  NA 
natural hazards: 
  subject to hurricanes (June to October); La Soufriere is an active
  volcano
international agreements: 
  NA 

@Guadeloupe, People

Population: 
  428,947 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
  1.55% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
  17.68 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
  5.94 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
  3.73 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
  8.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
  76.97 years 
male: 
  73.91 years 
female: 
  80.14 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
  2.04 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
  Guadeloupian(s) 
adjective: 
  Guadeloupe 
Ethnic divisions: 
  black or mulatto 90%, white 5%, East Indian, Lebanese, Chinese less
  than 5%
Religions: 
  Roman Catholic 95%, Hindu and pagan African 5% 
Languages: 
  French, creole patois 
Literacy: 
  age 15 and over can read and write (1982)
total population: 
  90% 
male: 
  90% 
female: 
  91% 
Labor force: 
  120,000 
by occupation: 
  services, government, and commerce 53.0%, industry 25.8%, agriculture
  21.2%

@Guadeloupe, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
  Department of Guadeloupe 
conventional short form: 
  Guadeloupe 
local long form: 
  Departement de la Guadeloupe 
local short form: 
  Guadeloupe 
Digraph: 
  GP
Type: 
  overseas department of France 
Capital: 
  Basse-Terre 
Administrative divisions: 
  none (overseas department of France)
Independence: 
  none (overseas department of France)
National holiday: 
  National Day, Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789) 
Constitution: 
  28 September 1958 (French Constitution)
Legal system: 
  French legal system
Suffrage: 
  18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
  President Francois MITTERRAND (since 21 May 1981) 
head of government: 
  Prefect Franck PERRIEZ (since NA 1992); President of the General
  Council Dominique LARIFA (since NA); President of the Regional Council
  Lucette MICHAUX-CHEVRY (since 22 March 1992) 
cabinet: 
  Council of Ministers 
Legislative branch: 
  unicameral General Council and unicameral Regional Council
General Council: 
  elections last held NA March 1992 (next to be held by NA 1996);
  results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (43 total) FRUI.G 13,
  RPR/DUD 13, PPDG 8, FGPS 3, PCG 3 UPLG 1, PSG 1, independent 1
Regional Council: 
  elections last held on 31 January 1993 (next to be held by 16 March
  1998); results - RPR/DUD 48.30%, FGPS 17.09%, FRUI.G 7.44%, PPDG
  8.90%, UPLG 7.75% PCG 6.05%; seats - (41 total) seats by party NA
French Senate: 
  elections last held in September 1986 (next to be held September
  1995); Guadeloupe elects two representatives; results - percent of
  vote by party NA; seats - (2 total) PCG 1, PS 1
French National Assembly: 
  elections last held on 21 and 28 March1993 (next to be held March
  1998); Guadeloupe elects four representatives; results - percent of
  vote by party NA; seats - (4 total) PS 1, RPR 1, PCG 1, independent 1
Judicial branch: 
  Court of Appeal (Cour d'Appel) with jurisdiction over Guadeloupe,
  French Guiana, and Martinique
Political parties and leaders: 
  Rally for the Republic (RPR), Aldo BLAISE; Communist Party of
  Guadeloupe (PCG), Christian Medard CELESTE; Socialist Party (FGPS),
  Georges LOUISOR; Popular Union for the Liberation of Guadeloupe
  (UPLG), Lucien PERATIN; FGPS Dissidents (FRUI.G); Union for French
  Democracy (UDF), Simon BARLAGNE; Union for the Center Rally (URC;
  coalition of the FGPS, RPR, and UDF); Guadeloupe Objective (OG),
  Lucette MICHAUX-CHEVRY; Progressive Democratic Party (PPDG), Henri
  BANGOU
Other political or pressure groups: 
  Popular Union for the Liberation of Guadeloupe (UPLG); Popular
  Movement for Independent Guadeloupe (MPGI); General Union of
  Guadeloupe Workers (UGTG); General Federation of Guadeloupe Workers
  (CGT-G); Christian Movement for the Liberation of Guadeloupe (KLPG)
Member of: 
  FZ, WCL, WFTU 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
  none (overseas department of France)
US diplomatic representation: 
  none (overseas department of France)
Flag: 
  the flag of France is used

@Guadeloupe, Economy

Overview: 
  The economy depends on agriculture, tourism, light industry, and
  services. It is also dependent upon France for large subsidies and
  imports. Tourism is a key industry, with most tourists from the US. In
  addition, an increasingly large number of cruise ships visit the
  islands. The traditionally important sugarcane crop is slowly being
  replaced by other crops, such as bananas (which now supply about 50%
  of export earnings), eggplant, and flowers. Other vegetables and root
  crops are cultivated for local consumption, although Guadeloupe is
  still dependent on imported food, which comes mainly from France.
  Light industry consists mostly of sugar and rum production. Most
  manufactured goods and fuel are imported. Unemployment is especially
  high among the young.
National product: 
  GDP - exchange rate conversion - $2.9 billion (1991)
National product real growth rate: 
  NA%
National product per capita: 
  $8,400 (1991)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
  3.7% (1990)
Unemployment rate: 
  31.3% (1990)
Budget: 
revenues: 
  $333 million 
expenditures: 
  $671 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1989)
Exports: 
  $168 million (f.o.b., 1988)
commodities: 
  bananas, sugar, rum
partners: 
  France 68%, Martinique 22% (1987)
Imports: 
  $1.2 billion (c.i.f., 1988)
commodities: 
  vehicles, foodstuffs, clothing and other consumer goods, construction
  materials, petroleum products
partners: 
  France 64%, Italy, FRG, US (1987)
External debt: 
  $NA
Industrial production: 
  growth rate NA%
Electricity: 
capacity: 
  171,500 kW
production: 
  441 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
  1,080 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
  construction, cement, rum, sugar, tourism
Agriculture: 
  cash crops - bananas, sugarcane; other products include tropical
  fruits and vegetables; livestock - cattle, pigs, goats; not
  self-sufficient in food
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
  US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $4 million;  Western
  (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89),
  $8.235 billion 
Currency: 
  1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates: 
  French francs (F) per US$1 - 5.9205 (January 1994), 5.6632 (1993),
  5.2938 (1992), 5.6421 (1991), 5.4453 (1990), 6.3801 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
  calendar year

@Guadeloupe, Communications

Railroads: 
  privately owned, narrow-gauge plantation lines
Highways: 
total: 
  1,940 km 
paved: 
  1,600 km 
unpaved: 
  gravel, earth 340 km 
Ports: 
  Pointe-a-Pitre, Basse-Terre
Airports: 
total: 
  9 
usable: 
  9 
with permanent-surface runways: 
  8 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
  0 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
  1 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
  1 
Telecommunications: 
  domestic facilities inadequate; 57,300 telephones; interisland
  microwave radio relay to Antigua and Barbuda, Dominica, and
  Martinique; broadcast stations - 2 AM, 8 FM (30 private stations
  licensed to broadcast FM), 9 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT ground
  station

@Guadeloupe, Defense Forces

Branches: 
  French Forces, Gendarmerie 
Note: 
  defense is responsibility of France


@Guam

Header
Affiliation: 
  (territory of the US) 

@Guam, Geography

Location: 
  Oceania, Micronesia, in the North Pacific Ocean, 5,955 km
  west-southwest of Honolulu, about three-quarters of the way between
  Hawaii and the Philippines
Map references: 
  Oceania 
Area: 
total area: 
  541.3 sq km 
land area: 
  541.3 sq km 
comparative area: 
  slightly more than three times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries: 
  0 km 
Coastline: 
  125.5 km 
Maritime claims: 
contiguous zone: 
  24 nm
continental shelf: 
  200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 
  200 nm
territorial sea: 
  12 nm
International disputes: 
  none
Climate: 
  tropical marine; generally warm and humid, moderated by northeast
  trade winds; dry season from January to June, rainy season from July
  to December; little seasonal temperature variation
Terrain: 
  volcanic origin, surrounded by coral reefs; relatively flat coraline
  limestone plateau (source of most fresh water) with steep coastal
  cliffs and narrow coastal plains in north, low-rising hills in center,
  mountains in south
Natural resources: 
  fishing (largely undeveloped), tourism (especially from Japan) 
Land use: 
arable land: 
  11% 
permanent crops: 
  11% 
meadows and pastures: 
  15% 
forest and woodland: 
  18% 
other: 
  45% 
Irrigated land: 
  NA sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
  NA 
natural hazards: 
  frequent squalls during rainy season; subject to relatively rare, but
  potentially very destructive typhoons (especially in August)
international agreements: 
  NA 
Note: 
  largest and southernmost island in the Mariana Islands archipelago;
  strategic location in western North Pacific Ocean

@Guam, People

Population: 
  149,620 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
  2.48% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
  25.66 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
  3.86 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
  3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
  15.17 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
  74.29 years 
male: 
  72.42 years 
female: 
  76.13 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
  2.39 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
  Guamanian(s) 
adjective: 
  Guamanian 
Ethnic divisions: 
  Chamorro 47%, Filipino 25%, Caucasian 10%, Chinese, Japanese, Korean,
  and other 18% 
Religions: 
  Roman Catholic 98%, other 2% 
Languages: 
  English, Chamorro, Japanese 
Literacy: 
  age 15 and over can read and write (1980)
total population: 
  96% 
male: 
  96% 
female: 
  96% 
Labor force: 
  46,930 (1990)
by occupation: 
  federal and territorial government 40%, private 60% (trade 18%,
  services 15.6%, construction 13.8%, other 12.6%) (1990)

@Guam, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
  Territory of Guam 
conventional short form: 
  Guam 
Digraph: 
  GQ
Type: 
  organized, unincorporated territory of the US with policy relations
  between Guam and the US under the jurisdiction of the Office of
  Territorial and International Affairs, US Department of the Interior 
Capital: 
  Agana 
Administrative divisions: 
  none (territory of the US)
Independence: 
  none (territory of the US)
National holiday: 
  Guam Discovery Day (first Monday in March) (1521); Liberation Day, 21
  July 
Constitution: 
  Organic Act of 1 August 1950
Legal system: 
  modeled on US; federal laws apply
Suffrage: 
  18 years of age; universal; US citizens, but do not vote in US
  presidential elections
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
  President William Jefferson CLINTON (since 20 January 1993); Vice
  President Albert GORE, Jr. (since 20 January 1993) 
head of government: 
  Governor Joseph A. ADA (since November 1986); Lieutenant Governor
  Frank F. BLAS (since NA); election last held on 6 November 1990 (next
  to be held NA November 1994); results - Joseph F. ADA reelected
cabinet: 
  executive departments; heads appointed by the governor with the
  consent of the Guam legislature
Legislative branch: 
  unicameral
Legislature: 
  elections last held on 9 November 1992 (next to be held NA November
  1994); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (21 total)
  Democratic 14, Republican 7
US House of Representatives: 
  elections last held 9 November 1992 (next to be held NA November
  1994); Guam elects one delegate; results - Robert UNDERWOOD was
  elected as delegate; seats - (1 total) Democrat 1
Judicial branch: 
  Federal District Court, Territorial Superior Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
  Democratic Party (controls the legislature); Republican Party (party
  of the Governor)
Member of: 
  ESCAP (associate), IOC, SPC 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
  none (territory of the US)
US diplomatic representation: 
  none (territory of the US)
Flag: 
  territorial flag is dark blue with a narrow red border on all four
  sides; centered is a red-bordered, pointed, vertical ellipse
  containing a beach scene, outrigger canoe with sail, and a palm tree
  with the word GUAM superimposed in bold red letters; US flag is the
  national flag

@Guam, Economy

Overview: 
  The economy depends mainly on US military spending and on revenues
  from tourism. Over the past 20 years the tourist industry has grown
  rapidly, creating a construction boom for new hotels and the expansion
  of older ones. Visitors numbered about 900,000 in 1992. The slowdown
  in Japanese economic growth has been reflected in less vigorous growth
  in the tourism sector. About 60% of the labor force works for the
  private sector and the rest for government. Most food and industrial
  goods are imported, with about 75% from the US. In early 1994, Guam
  faces the problem of building up the civilian economic sector to
  offset the impact of military downsizing.
National product: 
  GNP - purchasing power equivalent - $2 billion (1991 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
  NA%
National product per capita: 
  $14,000 (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
  4% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
  2% (1992 est.)
Budget: 
revenues: 
  $525 million 
expenditures: 
  $395 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1991)
Exports: 
  $34 million (f.o.b., 1984)
commodities: 
  mostly transshipments of refined petroleum products, construction
  materials, fish, food and beverage products
partners: 
  US 25%, Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands 63%, other 12%
Imports: 
  $493 million (c.i.f., 1984)
commodities: 
  petroleum and petroleum products, food, manufactured goods
partners: 
  US 23%, Japan 19%, other 58%
External debt: 
  $NA
Industrial production: 
  growth rate NA%
Electricity: 
capacity: 
  500,000 kW
production: 
  2.3 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
  16,300 kWh (1990)
Industries: 
  US military, tourism, construction, transshipment services, concrete
  products, printing and publishing, food processing, textiles
Agriculture: 
  relatively undeveloped with most food imported; fruits, vegetables,
  eggs, pork, poultry, beef, copra
Economic aid: 
  although Guam receives no foreign aid, it does receive large transfer
  payments from the general revenues of the US Federal Treasury into
  which Guamanians pay no income or excise taxes; under the provisions
  of a special law of Congress, the Guamanian Treasury, rather than the
  US Treasury, receives federal income taxes paid by military and
  civilian Federal employees stationed in Guam
Currency: 
  1 United States dollar (US$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates: 
  US currency is used
Fiscal year: 
  1 October - 30 September

@Guam, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
  674 km (all-weather roads)
paved: 
  NA 
unpaved: 
  NA 
Ports: 
  Apra Harbor
Airports: 
total: 
  5 
usable: 
  4 
with permanent-surface runways: 
  3 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
  0 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
  3 
with runways 1,200-2,439 m: 
  0 
Telecommunications: 
  26,317 telephones (1989); broadcast stations - 3 AM, 3 FM, 3 TV; 2
  Pacific Ocean INTELSAT ground stations

@Guam, Defense Forces

Note: 
  defense is the responsibility of the US


@Guatemala, Geography

Location: 
  Middle America, between Honduras and Mexico
Map references: 
  Central America and the Caribbean, North America, Standard Time Zones
  of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
  108,890 sq km 
land area: 
  108,430 sq km 
comparative area: 
  slightly smaller than Tennessee
Land boundaries: 
  total 1,687 km, Belize 266 km, El Salvador 203 km, Honduras 256 km,
  Mexico 962 km 
Coastline: 
  400 km 
Maritime claims: 
continental shelf: 
  the outer edge of the continental shelf
exclusive economic zone: 
  200 nm
territorial sea: 
  12 nm
International disputes: 
  maritime border with Belize in dispute; desultory negotiations to
  resolve the dispute have begun
Climate: 
  tropical; hot, humid in lowlands; cooler in highlands
Terrain: 
  mostly mountains with narrow coastal plains and rolling limestone
  plateau (Peten)
Natural resources: 
  petroleum, nickel, rare woods, fish, chicle 
Land use: 
arable land: 
  12% 
permanent crops: 
  4% 
meadows and pastures: 
  12% 
forest and woodland: 
  40% 
other: 
  32% 
Irrigated land: 
  780 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
  deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution
natural hazards: 
  numerous volcanoes in mountains, with frequent violent earthquakes;
  Caribbean coast subject to hurricanes and other tropical storms
international agreements: 
  party to - Antarctic Treaty, Endangered Species, Environmental
  Modification, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
  Protection, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified -
  Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Biodiversity, Climate Change,
  Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea
Note: 
  no natural harbors on west coast

@Guatemala, People

Population: 
  10,721,387 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
  2.58% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
  35.42 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
  7.53 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
  -2.11 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
  53.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
  64.42 years 
male: 
  61.86 years 
female: 
  67.1 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
  4.76 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
  Guatemalan(s) 
adjective: 
  Guatemalan 
Ethnic divisions: 
  Ladino 56% (mestizo - mixed Indian and European ancestry), Indian 44% 
Religions: 
  Roman Catholic, Protestant, traditional Mayan 
Languages: 
  Spanish 60%, Indian language 40% (18 Indian dialects, including
  Quiche, Cakchiquel, Kekchi)
Literacy: 
  age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
  55% 
male: 
  63% 
female: 
  47% 
Labor force: 
  2.5 million 
by occupation: 
  agriculture 60%, services 13%, manufacturing 12%, commerce 7%,
  construction 4%, transport 3%, utilities 0.7%, mining 0.3% (1985)

@Guatemala, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
  Republic of Guatemala 
conventional short form: 
  Guatemala 
local long form: 
  Republica de Guatemala 
local short form: 
  Guatemala 
Digraph: 
  GT
Type: 
  republic 
Capital: 
  Guatemala 
Administrative divisions: 
  22 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Alta Verapaz,
  Baja Verapaz, Chimaltenango, Chiquimula, El Progreso, Escuintla,
  Guatemala, Huehuetenango, Izabal, Jalapa, Jutiapa, Peten,
  Quetzaltenango, Quiche, Retalhuleu, Sacatepequez, San Marcos, Santa
  Rosa, Solola, Suchitepequez, Totonicapan, Zacapa
Independence: 
  15 September 1821 (from Spain)
National holiday: 
  Independence Day, 15 September (1821) 
Constitution: 
  31 May 1985, effective 14 January 1986
note: 
  suspended on 25 May 1993 by President SERRANO; reinstated on 5 June
  1993 following ouster of president
Legal system: 
  civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts; has not
  accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 
  18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state and head of government: 
  President Ramiro DE LEON Carpio (since 6 June 1993); Vice President
  Arturo HERBRUGER (since 18 June 1993); election runoff held on 11
  January 1991 (next to be held 11 November 1995); results - Jorge
  SERRANO Elias (MAS) 68.1%, Jorge CARPIO Nicolle (UCN) 31.9%
note: 
  President SERRANO resigned on 1 June 1993 shortly after dissolving
  Congress and the judiciary; on 6 June 1993, Ramiro DE LEON Carpio was
  chosen as the new president by a vote of Congress; he will finish off
  the remainder of SERRANO's five-year term which expires in 1995
cabinet: 
  Council of Ministers; named by the president
Legislative branch: 
  unicameral
Congress of the Republic (Congreso de la Republica): 
  last held on 11 November 1990 (next to be held 11 November 1995);
  results - UCN 25.6%, MAS 24.3%, DCG 17.5%, PAN 17.3%, MLN 4.8%,
  PSD/AP-5 3.6%, PR 2.1%; seats - (116 total) UCN 38, DCG 27, MAS 18,
  PAN 12, Pro-Rios Montt 10, MLN 4, PR 1, PSD/AP-5 1, independent 5
note: 
  by agreement of 11 November 1993, a special election is to be held in
  mid-1994 to elect a new congress
Judicial branch: 
  Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justicia) 
Political parties and leaders: 
  National Centrist Union (UCN), (vacant); Solidarity Action Movement
  (MAS), Oliverio GARCIA Rodas; Christian Democratic Party (DCG),
  Alfonso CABRERA Hidalgo; National Advancement Party (PAN), Alvaro ARZU
  Irigoyen; National Liberation Movement (MLN), Mario SANDOVAL Alarcon;
  Social Democratic Party (PSD), Mario SOLARZANO Martinez; Popular
  Alliance 5 (AP-5), Max ORLANDO Molina; Revolutionary Party (PR),
  Carlos CHAVARRIA Perez; National Authentic Center (CAN), Hector MAYORA
  Dawe; Democratic Institutional Party (PID), Oscar RIVAS; Nationalist
  United Front (FUN), Gabriel GIRON; Guatemalan Republican Front (FRG),
  Efrain RIOS Montt
Other political or pressure groups: 
  Coordinating Comittee of Agricultural, Comercial, Industrial, and
  Financial Associations (CACIF); Mutual Support Group (GAM); Agrarian
  Owners Group (UNAGRO); Committee for Campesino Unity (CUC); leftist
  guerrilla movement known as Guatemalan National Revolutionary Union
  (URNG) has four main factions - Guerrilla army of the Poor (EGP);
  Revolutionary Organization of the People in Arms (ORPA); Rebel Armed
  Forces (FAR); Guatemalan Labor Party (PGT/O)
Member of: 
  BCIE, CACM, CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-24, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
  ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM,
  ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer), LORCS, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, PCA, UN, UNCTAD,
  UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador Edmond MULET Lesseur 
chancery: 
  2220 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
  (202) 745-4952 through 4954 
FAX: 
  (202) 745-1908 
consulate(s) general: 
  Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, and San Francisco 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador Marilyn McAFEE (since 28 May 1993) 
embassy: 
  7-01 Avenida de la Reforma, Zone 10, Guatemala City 
mailing address: 
  APO AA 34024 
telephone: 
  [502] (2) 31-15-41 
FAX: 
  [502] (2) 31-88-55 
Flag: 
  three equal vertical bands of light blue (hoist side), white, and
  light blue with the coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat
  of arms includes a green and red quetzal (the national bird) and a
  scroll bearing the inscription LIBERTAD 15 DE SEPTIEMBRE DE 1821 (the
  original date of independence from Spain) all superimposed on a pair
  of crossed rifles and a pair of crossed swords and framed by a wreath

@Guatemala, Economy

Overview: 
  The economy is based on family and corporate agriculture, which
  accounts for 26% of GDP, employs about 60% of the labor force, and
  supplies two-thirds of exports. Manufacturing, predominantly in
  private hands, accounts for about 18% of GDP and 12% of the labor
  force. In both 1990 and 1991, the economy grew by 3%, the fourth and
  fifth consecutive years of mild growth. In 1992 growth picked up to
  almost 5% as government policies favoring competition and foreign
  trade and investment took stronger hold. In 1993, despite political
  unrest, this momentum continued, foreign investment held up, and
  growth was estimated at 4%.
National product: 
  GDP - purchasing power equivalent- $31.3 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
  4% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
  $3,000 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
  11.6% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
  6.1%; underemployment 30%-40% (1992 est.)
Budget: 
revenues: 
  $604 million (1990)
expenditures: 
  $808 million, including capital expenditures of $134 million (1990)
Exports: 
  $1.3 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: 
  coffee, sugar, bananas, cardamon, beef
partners: 
  US 37%, El Salvador, Costa Rica, Germany, Honduras
Imports: 
  $2.6 billion (c.i.f., 1993)
commodities: 
  fuel and petroleum products, machinery, grain, fertilizers, motor
  vehicles
partners: 
  US 45%, Mexico, Venezuela, Japan, Germany
External debt: 
  $2.2 billion ( 1992 est.)
Industrial production: 
  growth rate 1.9% (1991 est.); accounts for 18% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
  847,600 kW
production: 
  2.5 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
  260 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
  sugar, textiles and clothing, furniture, chemicals, petroleum, metals,
  rubber, tourism
Agriculture: 
  accounts for 26% of GDP; most important sector of economy; contributes
  two-thirds of export earnings; principal crops - sugarcane, corn,
  bananas, coffee, beans, cardamom; livestock - cattle, sheep, pigs,
  chickens; food importer
Illicit drugs: 
  transit country for cocaine shipments; illicit producer of opium poppy
  and cannabis for the international drug trade; the government has an
  active eradication program for cannabis and opium poppy
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
  US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-90), $1.1 billion; Western
  (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $7.92
  billion 
Currency: 
  1 quetzal (Q) = 100 centavos
Exchange rates: 
  free market quetzales (Q) per US$1 - 5.8542 (January 1994), 5,6354
  (1993), 5.1706 (1992), 5.0289 (1991), 4.4858 (1990), 2.8161 (1989);
  note - black-market rate 2.800 (May 1989)
Fiscal year: 
  calendar year

@Guatemala, Communications

Railroads: 
  1,019 km 0.914-meter gauge, single track; 917 km government owned, 102
  km privately owned
Highways: 
total: 
  26,429 km 
paved: 
  2,868 km 
unpaved: 
  gravel 11,421 km; unimproved earth 12,140 km 
Inland waterways: 
  260 km navigable year round; additional 730 km navigable during
  high-water season
Pipelines: 
  crude oil 275 km 
Ports: 
  Puerto Barrios, Puerto Quetzal, Santo Tomas de Castilla
Merchant marine: 
  1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,129 GRT/6,450 DWT
Airports: 
total: 
  523 
usable: 
  465 
with permanent-surface runways: 
  11 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
  0 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
  3 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
  20 
Telecommunications: 
  fairly modern network centered in the city of Guatemala; 97,670
  telephones; broadcast stations - 91 AM, no FM, 25 TV, 15 shortwave;
  connection into Central American Microwave System; 1 Atlantic Ocean
  INTELSAT earth station

@Guatemala, Defense Forces

Branches: 
  Army, Navy, Air Force 
Manpower availability: 
  males age 15-49 2,491,582; fit for military service 1,629,222; reach
  military age (18) annually 119,545 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
  exchange rate conversion - $121 million, 1% of GDP (1993)


@Guernsey

Header
Affiliation: 
  (British crown dependency) 

@Guernsey, Geography

Location: 
  Western Europe, in the English Channel, 52 km west of France between
  UK and France
Map references: 
  Europe 
Area: 
total area: 
  194 sq km 
land area: 
  194 sq km 
comparative area: 
  slightly larger than Washington, DC
note: 
  includes Alderney, Guernsey, Herm, Sark, and some other smaller
  islands
Land boundaries: 
  0 km  
Coastline: 
  50 km 
Maritime claims: 
exclusive fishing zone: 
  200 nm
territorial sea: 
  3 nm
International disputes: 
  none
Climate: 
  temperate with mild winters and cool summers; about 50% of days are
  overcast
Terrain: 
  mostly level with low hills in southwest
Natural resources: 
  cropland 
Land use: 
arable land: 
  NA%
permanent crops: 
  NA%
meadows and pastures: 
  NA%
forest and woodland: 
  NA%
other: 
  NA%
Irrigated land: 
  NA sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
  NA 
natural hazards: 
  NA 
international agreements: 
  NA 
Note: 
  large, deepwater harbor at Saint Peter Port

@Guernsey, People

Population: 
  63,719 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
  1.01% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
  13.21 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
  9.97 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
  6.81 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
  6.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
  78.15 years 
male: 
  75.45 years 
female: 
  80.88 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
  1.68 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
  Channel Islander(s) 
adjective: 
  Channel Islander 
Ethnic divisions: 
  UK and Norman-French descent
Religions: 
  Anglican, Roman Catholic, Presbyterian, Baptist, Congregational,
  Methodist 
Languages: 
  English, French; Norman-French dialect spoken in country districts
Literacy: 
total population: 
  NA%
male: 
  NA%
female: 
  NA%
Labor force: 
  NA

@Guernsey, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
  Bailiwick of Guernsey 
conventional short form: 
  Guernsey 
Digraph: 
  GK
Type: 
  British crown dependency 
Capital: 
  Saint Peter Port 
Administrative divisions: 
  none (British crown dependency)
Independence: 
  none (British crown dependency)
National holiday: 
  Liberation Day, 9 May (1945) 
Constitution: 
  unwritten; partly statutes, partly common law and practice
Legal system: 
  English law and local statute; justice is administered by the Royal
  Court
Suffrage: 
  18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
  Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952) 
head of government: 
  Lieutenant Governor and Commander in Chief Lt. Gen. Sir Michael
  WILKINS (since NA 1990); Bailiff Mr. Graham Martyn DOREY (since
  February 1992) 
cabinet: 
  Advisory and Finance Committee (other committees); appointed by the
  States
Legislative branch: 
  unicameral
Assembly of the States: 
  elections last held NA (next to be held NA); results - no percent of
  vote by party since all are independents; seats - (60 total, 33
  elected), all independents
Judicial branch: 
  Royal Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
  none; all independents
Member of: 
  none 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
  none (British crown dependency)
US diplomatic representation: 
  none (British crown dependency)
Flag: 
  white with the red cross of Saint George (patron saint of England)
  extending to the edges of the flag

@Guernsey, Economy

Overview: 
  Financial services account from more than 50% of total income.
  Tourism, manufacturing, and horticulture, mainly tomatoes and cut
  flowers, have been declining. Bank profits (1992) registered a record
  26% growth. Fund management and insurance are the two other major
  income generators.
National product: 
  GDP  $NA 
National product real growth rate: 
  9% (1987)
National product per capita: 
  $NA 
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
  7% (1988)
Unemployment rate: 
  NA%
Budget: 
revenues: 
  $208.9 million 
expenditures: 
  $173.9 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1988)
Exports: 
  $NA
commodities: 
  tomatoes, flowers and ferns, sweet peppers, eggplant, other vegetables
partners: 
  UK (regarded as internal trade)
Imports: 
  $NA
commodities: 
  coal, gasoline, and oil
partners: 
  UK (regarded as internal trade)
External debt: 
  $NA
Industrial production: 
  growth rate NA%
Electricity: 
capacity: 
  173,000 kW
production: 
  525 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
  9,060 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
  tourism, banking
Agriculture: 
  tomatoes, flowers (mostly grown in greenhouses), sweet peppers,
  eggplant, other vegetables, fruit; Guernsey cattle
Economic aid: 
  none
Currency: 
  1 Guernsey (#G) pound = 100 pence
Exchange rates: 
  Guernsey pounds (#G) per US$1 - 0.6699 (January 1994), 0.6658 (1993),
  0.5664 (1992), 0.5652 (1991), 0.5603 (1990), 0.6099 (1989); note - the
  Guernsey pound is at par with the British pound
Fiscal year: 
  calendar year

@Guernsey, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
  NA 
paved: 
  NA 
unpaved: 
  NA 
Ports: 
  Saint Peter Port, Saint Sampson
Airports: 
total: 
  2 
usable: 
  2 
with permanent-surface runways: 
  2 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
  0 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
  0 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
  1 
Telecommunications: 
  broadcast stations - 1 AM, no FM, 1 TV; 41,900 telephones; 1 submarine
  cable

@Guernsey, Defense Forces

Note: 
  defense is the responsibility of the UK


@Guinea, Geography

Location: 
  Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean between
  Guinea-Bissau and Sierra Leone
Map references: 
  Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
  245,860 sq km 
land area: 
  245,860 sq km 
comparative area: 
  slightly smaller than Oregon
Land boundaries: 
  total 3,399 km, Guinea-Bissau 386 km, Cote d'Ivoire 610 km, Liberia
  563 km, Mali 858 km, Senegal 330 km, Sierra Leone 652 km 
Coastline: 
  320 km 
Maritime claims: 
exclusive economic zone: 
  200 nm
territorial sea: 
  12 nm
International disputes: 
  none
Climate: 
  generally hot and humid; monsoonal-type rainy season (June to
  November) with southwesterly winds; dry season (December to May) with
  northeasterly harmattan winds
Terrain: 
  generally flat coastal plain, hilly to mountainous interior
Natural resources: 
  bauxite, iron ore, diamonds, gold, uranium, hydropower, fish 
Land use: 
arable land: 
  6% 
permanent crops: 
  0% 
meadows and pastures: 
  12% 
forest and woodland: 
  42% 
other: 
  40% 
Irrigated land: 
  240 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
  deforestation; inadequate supplies of safe drinking water;
  desertification; soil contamination and erosion
natural hazards: 
  hot, dry, dusty harmattan haze may reduce visibility during dry season
international agreements: 
  party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Law of
  the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection

@Guinea, People

Population: 
  6,391,536 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
  2.45% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
  44.08 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
  19.6 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
  139.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
  44.13 years 
male: 
  41.9 years 
female: 
  46.43 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
  5.85 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
  Guinean(s) 
adjective: 
  Guinean 
Ethnic divisions: 
  Peuhl 40%, Malinke 30%, Soussou 20%, indigenous tribes 10% 
Religions: 
  Muslim 85%, Christian 8%, indigenous beliefs 7% 
Languages: 
  French (official); each tribe has its own language
Literacy: 
  age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
  24% 
male: 
  35% 
female: 
  13% 
Labor force: 
  2.4 million (1983)
by occupation: 
  agriculture 82.0%, industry and commerce 11.0%, services 5.4%
note: 
  88,112 civil servants (1987); 52% of population of working age (1985)

@Guinea, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
  Republic of Guinea 
conventional short form: 
  Guinea 
local long form: 
  Republique de Guinee 
local short form: 
  Guinee 
former: 
  French Guinea 
Digraph: 
  GV
Type: 
  republic 
Capital: 
  Conakry 
Administrative divisions: 
  33 administrative regions (regions administratives, singular - region
  administrative); Beyla, Boffa, Boke, Conakry, Coyah, Dabola, Dalaba,
  Dinguiraye, Faranah, Forecariah, Fria, Gaoual, Gueckedou, Kankan,
  Kerouane, Kindia, Kissidougou, Koubia, Koundara, Kouroussa, Labe,
  Lelouma, Lola, Macenta, Mali, Mamou, Mandiana, Nzerekore, Pita,
  Siguiri, Telimele, Tougue, Yomou
Independence: 
  2 October 1958 (from France)
National holiday: 
  Anniversary of the Second Republic, 3 April (1984) 
Constitution: 
  23 December 1990 (Loi Fundamentale)
Legal system: 
  based on French civil law system, customary law, and decree; legal
  codes currently being revised; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
  jurisdiction
Suffrage: 
  none
Executive branch: 
chief of state and head of government: 
  President Lansana CONTE, elected in the first multi-party election 19
  December 1993 prior to the election he had ruled as head of military
  government since 5 April 1984
cabinet: 
  Council of Ministers; appointed by the president
Legislative branch: 
  unicameral
People's National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale Populaire): 
  the People's National Assembly was dissolved after the 3 April 1984
  coup; framework established in December 1991 for a new National
  Assembly with 114 seats; legislative elections are scheduled for 1994
Judicial branch: 
  Court of Appeal (Cour d'Appel) 
Political parties and leaders: 
  political parties were legalized on 1 April 1992
pro-government: 
  Party for Unity and Progress (PUP)
other: 
  Rally for the Guinean People (RPG), Alpha CONDE; Union for a New
  Republic (UNR), Mamadou BAH; Party for Renewal and Progress (PRP),
  Siradiou DIALLO
Member of: 
  ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEAO (observer), ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, IBRD,
  ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC,
  ITU, LORCS, MINURSO, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU,
  WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador Elhadj Boubacar BARRY 
chancery: 
  2112 Leroy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
  (202) 483-9420 
FAX: 
  (202) 483-8688 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador Joseph A. SALOOM 
embassy: 
  2nd Boulevard and 9th Avenue, Conakry 
mailing address: 
  B. P. 603, Conakry 
telephone: 
  (224) 44-15-20 through 24 
FAX: 
  (224) 44-15-22 
Flag: 
  three equal vertical bands of red (hoist side), yellow, and green;
  uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia; similar to the flag
  of Rwanda, which has a large black letter R centered in the yellow
  band

@Guinea, Economy

Overview: 
  Although possessing major mineral and hydropower resources and
  considerable potential for agricultural development, Guinea remains
  one of the poorest countries in the world. The agricultural sector
  contributes about 40% to GDP and employs more than 80% of the work
  force, while industry accounts for 27% of GDP. Guinea possesses over
  25% of the world's bauxite reserves. The mining sector accounted for
  85% of exports in 1991. Long-run improvements in literacy, financial
  institutions, and the legal framework are needed if the country is to
  move out of poverty. Except in the bauxite industry, foreign
  investment remains minimal.
National product: 
  GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $3.1 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
  3.2% (1992 est.)
National product per capita: 
  $500 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
  16.6% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
  NA%
Budget: 
revenues: 
  $449 million 
expenditures: 
  $708 million, including capital expenditures of $361 million (1990
  est.)
Exports: 
  $622 million (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities: 
  bauxite, alumina, diamonds, gold, coffee, pineapples, bananas, palm
  kernels
partners: 
  US 23%, Belgium 12%, Ireland 12%, Spain 12%
Imports: 
  $768 million (c.i.f., 1992 est.)
commodities: 
  petroleum products, metals, machinery, transport equipment,
  foodstuffs, textiles, and other grain
partners: 
  France 26%, Cote d'Ivoire 12%, Hong Kong 6%, Germany 6%
External debt: 
  2.5 billion (1992)
Industrial production: 
  growth rate NA%; accounts for 27% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
  113,000 kW
production: 
  300 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
  40 kWh (1989)
Industries: 
  bauxite mining, alumina, gold, diamond mining, light manufacturing and
  agricultural processing industries
Agriculture: 
  accounts for 40% of GDP (includes fishing and forestry); mostly
  subsistence farming; principal products - rice, coffee, pineapples,
  palm kernels, cassava, bananas, sweet potatoes, timber; livestock -
  cattle, sheep and goats; not self-sufficient in food grains
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
  US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $227 million; Western
  (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89),
  $1.465 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $120 million; Communist
  countries (1970-89), $446 million 
Currency: 
  1 Guinean franc (FG) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates: 
  Guinean francs (FG) per US$1 - 810.94 (1 July 1993), 922.9 (30
  September 1992), 675 (1990), 618 (1989), 515 (1988), 440 (1987), 383
  (1986)
Fiscal year: 
  calendar year

@Guinea, Communications

Railroads: 
  1,045 km; 806 km 1.000-meter gauge, 239 km 1.435-meter standard gauge
Highways: 
total: 
  30,100 km 
paved: 
  1,145 km 
unpaved: 
  gravel, crushed stone 12,955 km (of which barely 4,500 are currently
  all-weather roads); unimproved earth 16,000 km (1987)
Inland waterways: 
  1,295 km navigable by shallow-draft native craft
Ports: 
  Conakry, Kamsar
Airports: 
total: 
  15 
usable: 
  15 
with permanent-surface runways: 
  4 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
  0 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
  3 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
  10 
Telecommunications: 
  poor to fair system of open-wire lines, small radiocommunication
  stations, and new radio relay system; 15,000 telephones; broadcast
  stations - 3 AM 1 FM, 1 TV; 65,000 TV sets; 200,000 radio receivers; 1
  Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

@Guinea, Defense Forces

Branches: 
  Army, Navy (acts primarily as a coast guard), Air Force, Presidential
  Guard, Republican Guard, paramilitary National Gendarmerie, National
  Police Force 
Manpower availability: 
  males age 15-49 1,440,297; fit for military service 726,543 
Defense expenditures: 
  exchange rate conversion - $29 million, 1.2% of GDP (1988)


@Guinea-Bissau, Geography

Location: 
  Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean between Guinea and
  Senegal
Map references: 
  Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
  36,120 sq km 
land area: 
  28,000 sq km 
comparative area: 
  slightly less than three times the size of Connecticut
Land boundaries: 
  total 724 km, Guinea 386 km, Senegal 338 km 
Coastline: 
  350 km 
Maritime claims: 
exclusive economic zone: 
  200 nm
territorial sea: 
  12 nm
International disputes: 
  Guinea-Bissau and Senegal signed an agreement resolving their maritime
  boundary in 1993
Climate: 
  tropical; generally hot and humid; monsoonal-type rainy season (June
  to November) with southwesterly winds; dry season (December to May)
  with northeasterly harmattan winds
Terrain: 
  mostly low coastal plain rising to savanna in east
Natural resources: 
  unexploited deposits of petroleum, bauxite, phosphates, fish, timber 
Land use: 
arable land: 
  11% 
permanent crops: 
  1% 
meadows and pastures: 
  43% 
forest and woodland: 
  38% 
other: 
  7% 
Irrigated land: 
  NA sq km
Environment: 
current issues: 
  deforestation; soil erosion; overgrazing
natural hazards: 
  hot, dry, dusty harmattan haze may reduce visibility during dry
  season; brush fires
international agreements: 
  party to - Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban,
  Wetlands; signed, but not ratifed - Biodiversity, Climate Change

@Guinea-Bissau, People

Population: 
  1,098,231 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
  2.37% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
  40.75 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
  17.03 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
  120 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
  47.44 years 
male: 
  45.79 years 
female: 
  49.15 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
  5.51 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
  Guinea-Bissauan(s) 
adjective: 
  Guinea-Bissauan 
Ethnic divisions: 
  African 99% (Balanta 30%, Fula 20%, Manjaca 14%, Mandinga 13%, Papel
  7%), European and mulatto less than 1%
Religions: 
  indigenous beliefs 65%, Muslim 30%, Christian 5% 
Languages: 
  Portuguese (official), Criolo, African languages 
Literacy: 
  age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
  36% 
male: 
  50% 
female: 
  24% 
Labor force: 
  403,000 (est.)
by occupation: 
  agriculture 90%, industry, services, and commerce 5%, government 5%
note: 
  population of working age 53% (1983)

@Guinea-Bissau, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
  Republic of Guinea-Bissau 
conventional short form: 
  Guinea-Bissau 
local long form: 
  Republica de Guine-Bissau 
local short form: 
  Guine-Bissau 
former: 
  Portuguese Guinea 
Digraph: 
  PU
Type: 
  republic formerly highly centralized, multiparty since mid-1991
Capital: 
  Bissau 
Administrative divisions: 
  9 regions (regioes, singular - regiao); Bafata, Biombo, Bissau,
  Bolama, Cacheu, Gabu, Oio, Quinara, Tombali
Independence: 
  10 September 1974 (from Portugal)
National holiday: 
  Independence Day, 10 September (1974) 
Constitution: 
  16 May 1984, amended 4 May 1991 (currently undergoing revision to
  liberalize popular participation in the government)
Legal system: 
  NA
Suffrage: 
  15 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state and head of government: 
  President of the Council of State Gen. Joao Bernardo VIEIRA (assumed
  power 14 November 1980 and was elected President of Council of State
  on 16 May 1984); election last held 19 June 1989 (next to be held 3
  July 1994); results - Gen. Joao Bernardo VIEIRA was reelected without
  opposition by the National People's Assembly
Council of State: 
  this body is elected by the National People's Assembly from among its
  own members to legislate between sessions of the National People's
  Assembly
cabinet: 
  Council of Ministers; appointed by the president
Legislative branch: 
  unicameral
National People's Assembly: 
  (Assembleia Nacional Popular) elections last held 15 June 1989 (next
  to be held 3 July 1994); results - PAIGC was the only party; seats -
  (150 total) PAIGC 150
Judicial branch: 
  none; there is a Ministry of Justice in the Council of Ministers
Political parties and leaders: 
  African Party for the Independence of Guinea-Bissau and Cape Verde
  (PAIGC), President Joao Bernardo VIEIRA, leader; Democratic Social
  Front (FDS), Rafael BARBOSA, leader; Bafata Movement, Domingos
  Fernandes GARNER, leader; Democratic Front (FD), Aristides MENEZES,
  leader
note: 
  PAIGC is still the major party (of 10 parties) and controls all
  aspects of the government
Member of: 
  ACCT (associate), ACP, AfDB, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA,
  IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL,
  IOM (observer), ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNAVEM II, UNCTAD,
  UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOMOZ, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador Alfredo Lopes CABRAL 
chancery: 
  918 16th Street NW, Mezzanine Suite, Washington, DC 20006 
telephone: 
  (202) 872-4222 
FAX: 
  (202) 872-4226 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador Roger A. McGUIRE 
embassy: 
  Barrio de Penha, Bissau 
mailing address: 
  C.P. 297, 1067 Bissau Codex, Bissau, Guinea-Bissau 
telephone: 
  [245] 25-2273, 25-2274, 25-2275, 25-2276 
FAX: 
  [245] 25-2282 
Flag: 
  two equal horizontal bands of yellow (top) and green with a vertical
  red band on the hoist side; there is a black five-pointed star
  centered in the red band; uses the popular pan-African colors of
  Ethiopia; similar to the flag of Cape Verde, which has the black star
  raised above the center of the red band and is framed by two corn
  stalks and a yellow clam shell

@Guinea-Bissau, Economy

Overview: 
  Guinea-Bissau ranks among the poorest countries in the world, with a
  per capita GDP of roughly $800. Agriculture and fishing are the main
  economic activities. Cashew nuts, peanuts, and palm kernels are the
  primary exports. Exploitation of known mineral deposits is unlikely at
  present because of a weak infrastructure and the high cost of
  development.
National product: 
  GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $860 million (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
  NA
National product per capita: 
  $800 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
  55% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
  NA%
Budget: 
revenues: 
  $33.6 million 
expenditures: 
  $44.8 million, including capital expenditures of $570,000 (1991 est.)
Exports: 
  $20.4 million (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
commodities: 
  cashews, fish, peanuts, palm kernels
partners: 
  Portugal, Spain, Senegal, India, Nigeria
Imports: 
  $63.5 million (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
commodities: 
  foodstuffs, transport equipment, petroleum products, machinery and
  equipment
partners: 
  Portugal, Netherlands, China, Germany, Senegal
External debt: 
  $462 million (December 1990 est.)
Industrial production: 
  growth rate 0.1% (1991 est.); accounts for 5% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
  22,000 kW
production: 
  30 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
  30 kWh (1991)
Industries: 
  agricultural processing, beer, soft drinks
Agriculture: 
  accounts for over 45% of GDP, nearly 100% of exports, and 90% of
  employment; rice is the staple food; other crops include corn, beans,
  cassava, cashew nuts, peanuts, palm kernels, and cotton; not
  self-sufficient in food; fishing and forestry potential not fully
  exploited
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
  US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $49 million; Western
  (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $615
  million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $41 million; Communist
  countries (1970-89), $68 million 
Currency: 
  1 Guinea-Bissauan peso (PG) = 100 centavos
Exchange rates: 
  Guinea-Bissauan pesos (PG) per US$1 - 11,850 (December 1993), 10,082
  (1993), 6,934 (1992), 3,659 (1991), 2,185 (1990), 1,810 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
  calendar year

@Guinea-Bissau, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
  3,218 km 
paved: 
  bituminous 2,698 km 
unpaved: 
  earth 520 km 
Inland waterways: 
  scattered stretches are important to coastal commerce
Ports: 
  Bissau
Airports: 
total: 
  32 
usable: 
  16 
with permanent-surface runways: 
  4 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
  0 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
  1 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
  5 
Telecommunications: 
  poor system of radio relay, open-wire lines, and radiocommunications;
  3,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 2 AM, 3 FM, 1 TV

@Guinea-Bissau, Defense Forces

Branches: 
  People's Revolutionary Armed Force (FARP; including Army, Navy, Air
  Force), paramilitary force 
Manpower availability: 
  males age 15-49 243,715; fit for military service 139,161 
Defense expenditures: 
  exchange rate conversion - $9.3 million, 5%-6% of GDP (1987)


@Guyana, Geography

Location: 
  Northern South America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean between
  Suriname and Venezuela
Map references: 
  South America, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
  214,970 sq km 
land area: 
  196,850 sq km 
comparative area: 
  slightly smaller than Idaho
Land boundaries: 
  total 2,462 km, Brazil 1,119 km, Suriname 600 km, Venezuela 743 km 
Coastline: 
  459 km 
Maritime claims: 
continental shelf: 
  200 nm or the outer edge of continental margin
exclusive fishing zone: 
  200 nm
territorial sea: 
  12 nm
International disputes: 
  all of the area west of the Essequibo River claimed by Venezuela;
  Suriname claims area between New (Upper Courantyne) and
  Courantyne/Kutari Rivers (all headwaters of the Courantyne)
Climate: 
  tropical; hot, humid, moderated by northeast trade winds; two rainy
  seasons (May to mid-August, mid-November to mid-January)
Terrain: 
  mostly rolling highlands; low coastal plain; savanna in south
Natural resources: 
  bauxite, gold, diamonds, hardwood timber, shrimp, fish 
Land use: 
arable land: 
  3% 
permanent crops: 
  0% 
meadows and pastures: 
  6% 
forest and woodland: 
  83% 
other: 
  8% 
Irrigated land: 
  1,300 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
  water pollution from sewage and agricultural and industrial chemicals;
  deforestation
natural hazards: 
  flash floods a constant threat during rainy seasons
international agreements: 
  party to - Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection,
  Tropical Timber; signed, but not ratifed - Biodiversity, Climate
  Change

@Guyana, People

Population: 
  729,425 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
  -0.75% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
  19.95 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
  7.36 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
  -20.03 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
  48.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
  64.9 years 
male: 
  61.66 years 
female: 
  68.3 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
  2.29 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
  Guyanese (singular and plural) 
adjective: 
  Guyanese 
Ethnic divisions: 
  East Indian 51%, black and mixed 43%, Amerindian 4%, European and
  Chinese 2% 
Religions: 
  Christian 57%, Hindu 33%, Muslim 9%, other 1% 
Languages: 
  English, Amerindian dialects 
Literacy: 
  age 15 and over having ever attended school (1990 est.)
total population: 
  95% 
male: 
  98% 
female: 
  96% 
Labor force: 
  268,000 
by occupation: 
  industry and commerce 44.5%, agriculture 33.8%, services 21.7%
note: 
  public-sector employment amounts to 60-80% of the total labor force
  (1985)

@Guyana, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
  Co-operative Republic of Guyana 
conventional short form: 
  Guyana 
former: 
  British Guiana 
Digraph: 
  GY
Type: 
  republic 
Capital: 
  Georgetown 
Administrative divisions: 
  10 regions; Barima-Waini, Cuyuni-Mazaruni, Demerara-Mahaica, East
  Berbice-Corentyne, Essequibo Islands-West Demerara, Mahaica-Berbice,
  Pomeroon-Supenaam, Potaro-Siparuni, Upper Demerara-Berbice, Upper
  Takutu-Upper Essequibo
Independence: 
  26 May 1966 (from UK)
National holiday: 
  Republic Day, 23 February (1970) 
Constitution: 
  6 October 1980
Legal system: 
  based on English common law with certain admixtures of Roman-Dutch
  law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 
  18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
  Executive President Cheddi JAGAN (since 5 October 1992); First Vice
  President Sam HINDS (since 5 October 1992); election last held on 5
  October 1992; results - Cheddi JAGAN was elected president since he
  was leader of the party with the most votes in the National Assembly
  elections
head of government: 
  Prime Minister Sam HINDS (since 5 October 1992) 
cabinet: 
  Cabinet of Ministers; appointed by the president, responsible to the
  legislature
Legislative branch: 
  unicameral
National Assembly: 
  elections last held on 5 October 1992 (next to be held in 1997);
  results - PPP 53.4%, PNC 42.3%, WPA 2%, TUF 1.2%; seats - (65 total,
  53 elected) PPP 36, PNC 26, WPA 2, TUF 1
Judicial branch: 
  Supreme Court of Judicature 
Political parties and leaders: 
  People's Progressive Party (PPP), Cheddi JAGAN; People's National
  Congress (PNC), Hugh Desmond HOYTE;; People's National Congress (PNC),
  Hugh Desmond HOYTE; Working People's Alliance (WPA), Eusi KWAYANA,
  Rupert ROOPNARINE; Democratic Labor Movement (DLM), Paul TENNASSEE;
  People's Democratic Movement (PDM), Llewellyn JOHN; National
  Democratic Front (NDF), Joseph BACCHUS; The United Force (TUF),
  Manzoor NADIR; United Republican Party (URP), Leslie RAMSAMMY;
  National Republican Party (NRP), Robert GANGADEEN; Guyana Labor Party
  (GLP), Nanda GOPAUL
Other political or pressure groups: 
  Trades Union Congress (TUC); Guyana Council of Indian Organizations
  (GCIO); Civil Liberties Action Committee (CLAC)
note: 
  the latter two organizations are small and active but not well
  organized
Member of: 
  ACP, C, CARICOM, CCC, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB, IBRD, ICAO,
  ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user),
  INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LAES, LORCS, NAM, OAS, ONUSAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
  UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WMO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador Dr. Ali Odeen ISHMAEL 
chancery: 
  2490 Tracy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
  (202) 265-6900 through 6903 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
  Ambassador George F. Jones 
embassy: 
  99-100 Young and Duke Streets, Kingstown, Georgetown 
mailing address: 
  P. O. Box 10507, Georgetown 
telephone: 
  [592] (2) 54900 through 54909 and 57960 through 57969 
FAX: 
  [592] (2) 58497 
Flag: 
  green with a red isosceles triangle (based on the hoist side)
  superimposed on a long yellow arrowhead; there is a narrow black
  border between the red and yellow, and a narrow white border between
  the yellow and the green

@Guyana, Economy

Overview: 
  Guyana, one of the poorest countries in the Western Hemisphere, has
  pushed ahead strongly in 1991-93, at 7% average annual growth rate.
  Favorable factors include recovery in the key agricultural and mining
  sectors, a more favorable atmosphere for business initiative, a more
  realistic exchange rate, a sharp drop in the inflation rate, and the
  continued support of international organizations. Serious underlying
  economic problems will continue. Electric power has been in short
  supply and constitutes a major barrier to future gains in national
  output. The government will have to persist in efforts to control
  external debt and inflation and to extend the privatization program.
National product: 
  GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $1.4 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
  8.3% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
  $1,900 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
  7% (1993
Unemployment rate: 
  12% (1992 est.)
Budget: 
revenues: 
  $121 million 
expenditures: 
  $225 million, including capital expenditures of $50 million (1990
  est.)
Exports: 
  $400 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
  sugar, bauxite/alumina, rice, shrimp, molasses
partners: 
  UK 33%, US 31%, Canada 9%, France 5%, Japan 3%, (1992)
Imports: 
  $520 million (c.i.f., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
  manufactures, machinery, petroleum, food
partners: 
  US 37%, Trinidad and Tobago 13%, UK 11%, Italy 8%, Japan 5% (1992)
External debt: 
  $1.9 billion including arrears (1992 est)
Industrial production: 
  growth rate 11% (1991 est.); accounts for about 11% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
  253,500 kW
production: 
  276 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
  370 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
  bauxite mining, sugar, rice milling, timber, fishing (shrimp),
  textiles, gold mining
Agriculture: 
  most important sector, accounting for 25% of GDP and about half of
  exports; sugar and rice are key crops; development potential exists
  for fishing and forestry; not self-sufficient in food, especially
  wheat, vegetable oils, and animal products
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
  US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $116 million; Western
  (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $325
  million; Communist countries 1970-89, $242 million 
Currency: 
  1 Guyanese dollar (G$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates: 
  Guyanese dollars (G$) per US$1 - 130.7 (January 1994), 126.7 (1993),
  125.0 (1992), 111.8 (1991), 39.533 (1990), 27.159 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
  calendar year

@Guyana, Communications

Railroads: 
  no public railroads; about 100 km of narrow gauge industrial railroads
  to transport minerals, including bauxite
Highways: 
total: 
  7,665 km 
paved: 
  550 km 
unpaved: 
  gravel 5,000 km; earth 2,115 km 
Inland waterways: 
  6,000 km total of navigable waterways; Berbice, Demerara, and
  Essequibo Rivers are navigable by oceangoing vessels for 150 km, 100
  km, and 80 km, respectively
Ports: 
  Georgetown, New Amsterdam
Merchant marine: 
  1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,317 GRT/2,558 DWT
Airports: 
total: 
  53 
usable: 
  48 
with permanent-surface runways: 
  5 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
  0 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
  0 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
  12 
Telecommunications: 
  fair system with radio relay network; over 27,000 telephones;
  tropospheric scatter link to Trinidad; broadcast stations - 4 AM, 3
  FM, no TV, 1 shortwave; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

@Guyana, Defense Forces

Branches: 
  Guyana Defense Force (GDF; including the Ground Forces, Coast Guard
  and Air Corps), Guyana People's Militia (GPM), Guyana National Service
  (GNS) 
Manpower availability: 
  males age 15-49 197,802; fit for military service 150,072 
Defense expenditures: 
  $NA, NA% of GDP


@Haiti, Geography

Location: 
  Caribbean, in the northern Caribbean Sea, about 90 km southeast of
  Cuba
Map references: 
  Central America and the Caribbean, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
  27,750 sq km 
land area: 
  27,560 sq km 
comparative area: 
  slightly larger than Maryland
Land boundaries: 
  total 275 km, Dominican Republic 275 km 
Coastline: 
  1,771 km 
Maritime claims: 
contiguous zone: 
  24 nm
continental shelf: 
  to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 
  200 nm
territorial sea: 
  12 nm
International disputes: 
  claims US-administered Navassa Island
Climate: 
  tropical; semiarid where mountains in east cut off trade winds
Terrain: 
  mostly rough and mountainous
Natural resources: 
  bauxite 
Land use: 
arable land: 
  20% 
permanent crops: 
  13% 
meadows and pastures: 
  18% 
forest and woodland: 
  4% 
other: 
  45% 
Irrigated land: 
  750 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
  deforestation; soil erosion
natural hazards: 
  lies in the middle of the hurricane belt and subject to severe storms
  from June to October; occasional flooding and earthquakes
international agreements: 
  party to - Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation; signed, but not
  ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the
  Sea, Nuclear Test Ban
Note: 
  shares island of Hispaniola with Dominican Republic (western one-third
  is Haiti, eastern two-thirds is the Dominican Republic)

@Haiti, People

Population: 
  6,491,450 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
  1.63% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
  39.72 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
  18.78 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
  -4.67 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
  108.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
  45.11 years 
male: 
  43.45 years 
female: 
  46.85 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
  5.94 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
  Haitian(s) 
adjective: 
  Haitian 
Ethnic divisions: 
  black 95%, mulatto and European 5% 
Religions: 
  Roman Catholic 80% (of which an overwhelming majority also practice
  Voodoo), Protestant 16% (Baptist 10%, Pentecostal 4%, Adventist 1%,
  other 1%), none 1%, other 3% (1982)
Languages: 
  French (official) 10%, Creole 
Literacy: 
  age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
  53% 
male: 
  59% 
female: 
  47% 
Labor force: 
  2.3 million 
by occupation: 
  agriculture 66%, services 25%, industry 9%
note: 
  shortage of skilled labor, unskilled labor abundant (1982)

@Haiti, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
  Republic of Ha