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Full text of "The 1990 CIA World Factbook"

** The Project Gutenberg Etext of the 1995 CIA World Factbook **

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The 1995 CIA World Factbook

June, 1996 [Etext #571]


**The Project Gutenberg Etext of the 1995 CIA World Factbook**
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**The Project Gutenberg Etext of the 1995 CIA World Factbook**





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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Publication Information
Notes, Definitions, and Abbreviations

Afghanistan
Albania
Algeria
American Samoa
Andorra
Angola
Anguilla
Antarctica
Antigua and Barbuda
Arctic Ocean
Argentina
Armenia
Aruba
Ashmore and Cartier Islands
Atlantic Ocean
Australia
Austria
Azerbaijan

The Bahamas
Bahrain
Baker Island
Bangladesh
Barbados
Bassas da India
Belarus
Belgium
Belize
Benin
Bermuda
Bhutan
Bolivia
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Botswana
Bouvet Island
Brazil
British Indian OceanTerritory
British Virgin Islands
Brunei
Bulgaria
Burkina
Burma
Burundi

Cambodia
Cameroon
Canada
Cape Verde
Cayman Islands
Central African Republic
Chad
Chile
China
Christmas Island
Clipperton Island
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Colombia
Comoros
Congo
Cook Islands
Coral Sea Islands
Costa Rica
Cote d'Ivoire
Croatia
Cuba
Cyprus
Czech Republic

Denmark
Djibouti
Dominica
Dominican Republic 

Ecuador
Egypt
El Salvador
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Estonia
Ethiopia
Europa Island

Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)
Faroe Islands
Fiji
Finland
France
French Guiana
French Polynesia
French Southern and Antarctic Lands

Gabon
The Gambia
Gaza Strip
Georgia
Germany
Ghana
Gibraltar
Glorioso Islands
Greece
Greenland
Grenada
Guadeloupe
Guam
Guatemala
Guernsey
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Guyana

Haiti
Heard Island and McDonald Islands
Holy See (Vatican City)
Honduras
Hong Kong
Howland Island
Hungary

Iceland
India
Indian Ocean
Indonesia
Iran
Iraq
Ireland
Israel (also see separate Gaza Strip and West Bank entries)
Italy

Jamaica
Jan Mayen
Japan
Jarvis Island
Jersey
Johnston Atoll
Jordan (also see separate West Bank entry)
Juan de Nova Island

Kazakhstan
Kenya
Kingman Reef
Kiribati
Korea, North
Korea, South
Kuwait
Kyrgyzstan

Laos
Latvia
Lebanon
Lesotho
Liberia
Libya
Liechtenstein
Lithuania
Luxembourg

Macau
Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of
Madagascar
Malawi
Malaysia
Maldives
Mali
Malta
Man, Isle of
Marshall Islands
Martinique
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mayotte
Mexico
Micronesia, Federated States of
Midway Islands
Moldova
Monaco
Mongolia
Montserrat
Morocco
Mozambique

Namibia
Nauru
Navassa Island
Nepal
Netherlands
Netherlands Antilles
New Caledonia
New Zealand
Nicaragua
Niger
Nigeria
Niue
Norfolk Island
Northern Mariana Islands
Norway

Oman

Pacific Ocean
Pakistan
Palau
Palmyra Atoll
Panama
Papua New Guinea
Paracel Islands
Paraguay
Peru
Philippines
Pitcairn Islands
Poland
Portugal
Puerto Rico

Qatar

Reunion
Romania
Russia
Rwanda

Saint Helena
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Saint Lucia
Saint Pierre and Miquelon
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
San Marino
Sao Tome and Principe
Saudi Arabia
Senegal
Serbia and Montenegro
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Singapore
Slovakia
Slovenia
Solomon Islands
Somalia
South Africa
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
Spain
Spratly Islands
Sri Lanka
Sudan
Suriname
Svalbard
Swaziland
Sweden
Switzerland
Syria

Taiwan
Tajikistan
Tanzania
Thailand
Togo
Tokelau
Tonga
Trinidad and Tobago
Tromelin Island
Tunisia
Turkey
Turkmenistan
Turks and Caicos Islands
Tuvalu

Uganda
Ukraine
United Arab Emirates
United Kingdom
United States
Uruguay
Uzbekistan

Vanuatu
Venezuela
Vietnam
Virgin Islands

Wake Island
Wallis and Futuna
West Bank
Western Sahara
Western Samoa
World

Yemen

Zaire
Zambia
Zimbabwe

Appendices
  
A. The United Nations System (a graphical file not available in the
	Project Gutenberg edition)
B. Abbreviations for International Organizations and Groups
C. International Organizations and Groups
D. Abbreviations for Selected International Environmental Agreements
E. Selected International Environmental Agreements
F. Weights and Measures
G. Estimates of Gross Domestic Product on an Exchange Rate Basis
H. Cross-Reference List of Geographic Items


________________________________________________________________________

Publication Information for The World Factbook 1995
 
 The printed version of the Factbook is published annually in July by
 the Central Intelligence Agency for the use of US Government
 officials, and the style, format, coverage, and content are designed
 to meet their specific requirements. Information was provided by the
 American Geophysical Union, Bureau of the Census, Central Intelligence
 Agency, Defense Intelligence Agency, Defense Mapping Agency, Defense
 Nuclear Agency, Department of State, Foreign Broadcast Information
 Service, Maritime Administration, National Science Foundation (Polar
 Information Program), Naval Maritime Intelligence Center, Office of
 Territorial and International Affairs, US Board on Geographic Names,
 US Coast Guard, and others.
 
 Comments and queries are welcome and may be addressed to:
 
 Central Intelligence Agency
 Attn.: Office of Public and Agency Information
 Washington, DC 20505
 Telephone: [1] (703) 351-2053
 
 US Government officials should obtain copies of The World Factbook
 directly from their own organization or through liaison channels from
 the Central Intelligence Agency. This publication is also available in
 microfiche, magnetic tape, or computer diskettes.
 
 This publication may be purchased by telephone (VISA or MasterCard) or
        mail from:
        
 Superintendent of Documents 
 P.O. Box 371954
 Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954
 Telephone: [1] (202) 512-1800
 
 A subscription to this publication may be purchased from:
        
 Document Expediting (DOCEX) Project
 Exchange and Gift Division
 Library of Congress
 Washington, DC 20540
 Telephone: [1] (202) 707-9527
        
 
 This publication may be purchased in printed form, photocopy,
        microfiche, magnetic tape, or computer diskettes from:
        
 National Technical Information Service 
 5285 Port Royal Road
 Springfield, VA 22161 
 Telephone: [1] (703) 487-4650
        
 This publication may be purchased in photocopy or microform from:
        
 Photoduplication Service Library of Congress 
 Washington, DC 20540-5234
 Telephone: [1] (202) 707-5640 


________________________________________________________________________

                 NOTES, DEFINITIONS, AND ABBREVIATIONS

There have been some significant changes in this edition. The Trust
Territory of the Pacific Islands became the independent nation of
Palau. The gross domestic product (GDP) of all countries is now
presented on a purchasing power parity (PPP) basis rather than on the
old exchange rate basis. There is a new entry on Age structure and the
Airports entry now includes unpaved runways. The Communications
category has been restructured and now includes the entries of
Telephone system, Radio, and Television. The remainder of the entries
in the former Communications category-Railroads, Highways, Inland
waterways, Pipelines, Ports, Merchant marine, and Airports-can now be
found under a new category called Transportation. There is a new
appendix listing estimates of gross domestic product on an exchange
rate basis for all nations. A reference map of the Republic of South
Africa is included. The electronic files used to produce the Factbook
have been restructured into a database. As a result, the formats of
some entries in this edition have been changed. Additional changes
will occur in the 1996 Factbook.

Abbreviations: (see Appendix B for abbreviations for international
organizations and groups and Appendix D for abbreviations for selected
international environmental agreements)
avdp. -- avoirdupois
    c.i.f. -- cost, insurance, and freight
    CY -- calendar year
    DWT -- deadweight ton
    est. -- estimate
    Ex-Im -- Export-Import Bank of the United States
    f.o.b. -- free on board
    FRG -- Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany); used for
    information dated before 3 October 1990 or CY91
    FSU -- former Soviet Union
    FY -- fiscal year
    FYROM -- The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
    GDP -- gross domestic product
    GDR -- German Democratic Republic (East Germany); used for
    information dated before 3 October 1990 or CY91
    GNP -- gross national product
    GRT -- gross register ton
    GWP -- gross world product
    km -- kilometer
    kW -- kilowatt
    kWh -- kilowatt hour
    m -- meter
    NA -- not available
    NEGL -- negligible
    nm -- nautical mile
    NZ -- New Zealand
    ODA -- official development assistance
    OOF -- other official flows
    PDRY -- People's Democratic Republic of Yemen [Yemen (Aden) or
    South Yemen]; used for information dated before 22 May 1990 or
    CY91
    sq km -- square kilometer
    sq mi -- square mile
    UAE -- United Arab Emirates
    UK -- United Kingdom
    US -- United States
    USSR -- Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Soviet Union); used
    for information dated before 25 December 1991
    YAR -- Yemen Arab Republic [Yemen (Sanaa) or North Yemen]; used
    for information dated before 22 May 1990 or CY91
    
Administrative divisions: The numbers, designatory terms, and
first-order administrative divisions are generally those approved by
the US Board on Geographic Names (BGN). Changes that have been
reported but not yet acted on by BGN are noted.

Airports: Only airports with usable runways are included in this
listing. For airports with more than one runway, only the longest
runway is included. Not all airports have facilities for refueling,
maintenance, or air traffic control. Paved runways have concrete or
asphalt surfaces; unpaved runways have grass, dirt, sand, or gravel
surfaces.

Area: Total area is the sum of all land and water areas delimited by
international boundaries and/or coastlines. Land area is the aggregate
of all surfaces delimited by international boundaries and/or
coastlines, excluding inland water bodies (lakes, reservoirs, rivers).
Comparative areas are based on total area equivalents. Most entities
are compared with the entire US or one of the 50 states. The smaller
entities are compared with Washington, DC (178 sq km, 69 sq mi) or The
Mall in Washington, DC (0.59 sq km, 0.23 sq mi, 146 acres).

Birth rate: The average annual number of births during a year per
1,000 population at midyear; also known as crude birth rate. Dates of
information: In general, information available as of 1 January 1995 is
used in the preparation of this edition. Population figures are
estimates for 1 July 1995, with population growth rates estimated for
calendar year 1995. Major political events have been updated through
April 1995.

Death rate: The average annual number of deaths during a year per
l,000 population at midyear; also known as crude death rate.

Digraphs: The digraph is a two-letter "country code" that precisely
identifies every entity without overlap, duplication, or omission. AF,
for example, is the digraph for Afghanistan. It is a standardized
geopolitical data element promulgated in the Federal Information
Processing Standards Publication (FIPS) 10-3 by the National Bureau of
Standards (now called National Institute of Standards and Technology)
at the US Department of Commerce and maintained by the Office of the
Geographer at the US Department of State. The digraph is used to
eliminate confusion and incompatibility in the collection, processing,
and dissemination of area-specific data and is particularly useful for
interchanging data between databases.

Diplomatic representation: The US Government has diplomatic relations
with 184 nations, including 178 of the 185 UN members (excluded UN
members are Bhutan, Cuba, Iran, Iraq, North Korea, former Yugoslavia,
and the US itself). In addition, the US has diplomatic relations with
6 nations that are not in the UN - Holy See, Kiribati, Nauru,
Switzerland, Tonga, and Tuvalu.

Economic aid: This entry refers to bilateral commitments of official
development assistance (ODA) and other official flows (OOF). ODA is
defined as financial assistance which is concessional in character,
has the main objective to promote economic development and welfare of
LDCs, and contains a grant element of at least 25%. OOF transactions
are also official government assistance, but with a main objective
other than development and with a grant element less than 25%. OOF
transactions include official export credits (such as Ex-Im Bank
credits), official equity and portfolio investment, and debt
reorganization by the official sector that does not meet concessional
terms. Aid is considered to have been committed when agreements are
initialed by the parties involved and constitute a formal declaration
of intent.

Entities: Some of the nations, dependent areas, areas of special
sovereignty, and governments included in this publication are not
independent, and others are not officially recognized by the US
Government. "Nation" refers to a people politically organized into a
sovereign state with a definite territory. "Dependent area" refers to
a broad category of political entities that are associated in some way
with a nation. Names used for page headings are usually the short-form
names as approved by the US Board on Geographic Names. There are 266
entities in The World Factbook that may be categorized as follows:

NATIONS
184 -- UN members (excluding the former Yugoslavia, which is still
    counted by the UN)
    7 -- nations that are not members of the UN--Holy See, Kiribati,
    Nauru, Serbia and Montenegro, Switzerland, Tonga, Tuvalu

OTHER
1 -- Taiwan

DEPENDENT AREAS
6 -- Australia--Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Christmas Island, Cocos
    (Keeling) Islands, Coral Sea Islands, Heard Island and McDonald
    Islands, Norfolk Island
    2 -- Denmark--Faroe Islands, Greenland
    16 -- France--Bassas da India, Clipperton Island, Europa Island,
    French Guiana, French Polynesia, French Southern and Antarctic
    Lands, Glorioso Islands, Guadeloupe, Juan de Nova Island,
    Martinique, Mayotte, New Caledonia, Reunion, Saint Pierre and
    Miquelon, Tromelin Island, Wallis and Futuna
    2 -- Netherlands--Aruba, Netherlands Antilles
    3 -- New Zealand--Cook Islands, Niue, Tokelau
    3 -- Norway--Bouvet Island, Jan Mayen, Svalbard
    1 -- Portugal--Macau
    16 -- United Kingdom--Anguilla, Bermuda, British Indian Ocean
    Territory, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Falkland
    Islands, Gibraltar, Guernsey, Hong Kong, Jersey, Isle of Man,
    Montserrat, Pitcairn Islands, Saint Helena, South Georgia and the
    South Sandwich Islands, Turks and Caicos Islands
    14 -- United States--American Samoa, Baker Island, Guam, Howland
    Island, Jarvis Island, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Midway
    Islands, Navassa Island, Northern Mariana Islands, Palmyra Atoll,
    Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, Wake Island

MISCELLANEOUS
6 -- Antarctica, Gaza Strip, Paracel Islands, Spratly Islands, West
    Bank, Western Sahara

OTHER ENTITIES
4 -- oceans--Arctic Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean, Pacific Ocean
    
    1 -- World
    266 -- total

Exchange rate: 
The official value of a nation's monetary unit at a given date or over
a given period of time, as expressed in units of local currency per US
dollar and as determined by international market forces or official
fiat.

GDP methodology: In the "Economy" section, GDP dollar estimates for
all countries are derived from purchasing power parity (PPP)
calculations rather than from conversions at official currency
exchange rates. The PPP method normally involves the use of
international dollar price weights, which are applied to the
quantities of goods and services produced in a given economy. In
addition to the lack of reliable data from the majority of countries,
the statistician faces a major difficulty in specifying, identifying,
and allowing for the quality of goods and services. The division of a
GDP estimate in local currency by the corresponding PPP estimate in
dollars gives the PPP conversion rate. On average, one thousand
dollars will buy the same market basket of goods in the US as one
thousand dollars - converted to the local currency at the PPP
conversion rate - will buy in the other country. Whereas PPP estimates
for OECD countries are quite reliable, PPP estimates for developing
countries are often rough approximations. Most of the GDP estimates
are based on extrapolation of numbers published by the UN
International Comparison Program and by Professors Robert Summers and
Alan Heston of the University of Pennsylvania and their colleagues.
Currency exchange rates depend on a variety of international and
domestic financial forces that often have little relation to domestic
output. In developing countries with weak currencies the exchange rate
estimate of GDP in dollars is typically one-fourth to one-half the PPP
estimate. Furthermore, exchange rates may suddenly go up or down by
10% or more because of market forces or official fiat whereas real
output has remained unchanged. On 12 January 1994, for example, the 14
countries of the African Financial Community (whose currencies are
tied to the French franc) devalued their currencies by 50%. This move,
of course, did not cut the real output of these countries by half. One
important caution: the proportion of, say, defense expenditures as a
percentage of GDP in local currency accounts may differ substantially
from the proportion when GDP accounts are expressed in PPP terms, as,
for example, when an observer tries to estimate the dollar level of
Russian or Japanese military expenditures. Note: The numbers for GDP
and other economic data can not be chained together from successive
volumes of the Factbook because of changes in the US dollar measuring
rod, revisions of data by statistical agencies, use of new or
different sources of information, and changes in national statistical
methods and practices.

Gross domestic product (GDP): The value of all final goods and
services produced within a nation in a given year.

Gross national product (GNP): The value of all final goods and
services produced within a nation in a given year, plus income earned
abroad, minus income earned by foreigners from domestic production.

Gross world product (GWP): The aggregate value of all goods and
services produced worldwide in a given year.

Growth rate (population): The annual percent change in the population,
resulting from a surplus (or deficit) of births over deaths and the
balance of migrants entering and leaving a country. The rate may be
positive or negative.

Illicit drugs: There are five categories of illicit drugs - narcotics,
stimulants, depressants (sedatives), hallucinogens, and cannabis.
These categories include many drugs legally produced and prescribed by
doctors as well as those illegally produced and sold outside medical
channels.
Cannabis (Cannabis sativa) is the common hemp plant, which provides
hallucinogens with some sedative properties, and includes marijuana
(pot, Acapulco gold, grass, reefer), tetrahydrocannabinol (THC,
Marinol), hashish (hash), and hashish oil (hash oil).
Coca (Erythroxylum coca) is a bush, and the leaves contain the
stimulant used to make cocaine. Coca is not to be confused with cocoa,
which comes from cacao seeds and is used in making chocolate, cocoa,
and cocoa butter.
Cocaine is a stimulant derived from the leaves of the coca bush.
Depressants (sedatives) are drugs that reduce tension and anxiety and
include chloral hydrate, barbiturates (Amytal, Nembutal, Seconal,
phenobarbital), benzodiazepines (Librium, Valium), methaqualone
(Quaalude), glutethimide (Doriden), and others (Equanil, Placidyl,
Valmid). Drugs are any chemical substances that effect a physical,
mental, emotional, or behavioral change in an individual. Drug abuse
is the use of any licit or illicit chemical substance that results in
physical, mental, emotional, or behavioral impairment in an
individual. Hallucinogens are drugs that affect sensation, thinking,
self-awareness, and emotion. Hallucinogens include LSD (acid,
microdot), mescaline and peyote (mexc, buttons, cactus), amphetamine
variants (PMA, STP, DOB), phencyclidine (PCP, angel dust, hog),
phencyclidine analogues (PCE, PCPy, TCP), and others (psilocybin,
psilocyn).
Hashish is the resinous exudate of the cannabis or hemp plant
(Cannabis sativa).
Heroin is a semisynthetic derivative of morphine.
Mandrax is the Southwest Asian slang term for methaqualone, a
pharmaceutical depressant.
Marijuana is the dried leaves of the cannabis or hemp plant (Cannabis
sativa).
Methaqualone is a pharmaceutical depressant, in slang referred to as
Quaaludes in North America or Mandrax in Southwest Asia Narcotics are
drugs that relieve pain, often induce sleep, and refer to opium, opium
derivatives, and synthetic substitutes. Natural narcotics include
opium (paregoric, parepectolin), morphine (MS-Contin, Roxanol),
codeine (Tylenol with codeine, Empirin with codeine, Robitussan AC),
and thebaine. Semisynthetic narcotics include heroin (horse, smack),
and hydromorphone (Dilaudid). Synthetic narcotics include meperidine
or Pethidine (Demerol, Mepergan), methadone (Dolophine, Methadose),
and others (Darvon, Lomotil).
Opium is the milky exudate of the incised, unripe seedpod of the opium
poppy. Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) is the source for many natural
and semisynthetic narcotics. Poppy straw concentrate is the alkaloid
derived from the mature dried opium poppy.
Qat (kat, khat) is a stimulant from the buds or leaves of catha edulis
that is chewed or drunk as tea.
Quaaludes is the North American slang term for methaqualone, a
pharmaceutical depressant.
Stimulants are drugs that relieve mild depression, increase energy and
activity, and include cocaine (coke, snow, crack), amphetamines
(Desoxyn, Dexedrine), phenmetrazine (Preludin), methylphenidate
(Ritalin), and others (Cylert, Sanorex, Tenuate).

Infant mortality rate: The number of deaths to infants under one year
old in a given year per l,000 live births occurring in the same year.

International disputes: This category includes a wide variety of
situations that range from traditional bilateral boundary disputes to
unilateral claims of one sort or another. Information regarding
disputes over international boundaries and maritime boundaries has
been reviewed by the Department of State. References to other
situations involving borders or frontiers may also be included, such
as resource disputes, geopolitical questions, or irredentist issues.
However, inclusion does not necessarily constitute official acceptance
or recognition by the US Government.

Irrigated land: The figure refers to the land area that is
artificially supplied with water.

Land use: The land surface is categorized as arable land - land
cultivated for crops that are replanted after each harvest (wheat,
maize, rice); permanent crops - land cultivated for crops that are not
replanted after each harvest (citrus, coffee, rubber); meadows and
pastures - land permanently used for herbaceous forage crops; forest
and woodland - under dense or open stands of trees; and other - any
land type not specifically mentioned above (urban areas, roads,
desert).

Leaders: The chief of state is the titular leader of the country who
represents the state at official and ceremonial functions but is not
involved with the day- to-day activities of the government. The head
of government is the administrative leader who manages the day-to-day
activities of the government. In the UK, the monarch is the chief of
state, and the Prime Minister is the head of government. In the US,
the President is both the chief of state and the head of government.

Life expectancy at birth: The average number of years to be lived by a
group of people all born in the same year, if mortality at each age
remains constant in the future.

Literacy: There are no universal definitions and standards of
literacy. Unless otherwise noted, all rates are based on the most
common definition - the ability to read and write at a specified age.
Detailing the standards that individual countries use to assess the
ability to read and write is beyond the scope of this publication.

Maritime claims: The proximity of neighboring states may prevent some
national claims from being extended the full distance.

Merchant marine: All ships engaged in the carriage of goods. All
commercial vessels (as opposed to all nonmilitary ships), which
excludes tugs, fishing vessels, offshore oil rigs, etc. Also, a
grouping of merchant ships by nationality or register.
Captive register - A register of ships maintained by a territory,
possession, or colony primarily or exclusively for the use of ships
owned in the parent country; also referred to as an offshore register,
the offshore equivalent of an internal register. Ships on a captive
register will fly the same flag as the parent country, or a local
variant of it, but will be subject to the maritime laws and taxation
rules of the offshore territory. Although the nature of a captive
register makes it especially desirable for ships owned in the parent
country, just as in the internal register, the ships may also be owned
abroad. The captive register then acts as a flag of convenience
register, except that it is not the register of an independent state.
Flag of convenience register - A national register offering
registration to a merchant ship not owned in the flag state. The major
flags of convenience (FOC) attract ships to their registers by virtue
of low fees, low or nonexistent taxation of profits, and liberal
manning requirements. True FOC registers are characterized by having
relatively few of the ships registered actually owned in the flag
state. Thus, while virtually any flag can be used for ships under a
given set of circumstances, an FOC register is one where the majority
of the merchant fleet is owned abroad. It is also referred to as an
open register.
Flag state - The nation in which a ship is registered and which holds
legal jurisdiction over operation of the ship, whether at home or
abroad. Flag state maritime legislation determines how a ship is
manned and taxed and whether a foreign-owned ship may be placed on the
register.
Internal register - A register of ships maintained as a subset of a
national register. Ships on the internal register fly the national
flag and have that nationality but are subject to a separate set of
maritime rules from those on the main national register. These
differences usually include lower taxation of profits, manning by
foreign nationals, and, usually, ownership outside the flag state
(when it functions as an FOC register). The Norwegian International
Ship Register and Danish International Ship Register are the most
notable examples of an internal register. Both have been instrumental
in stemming flight from the national flag to flags of convenience and
in attracting foreign owned ships to the Norwegian and Danish flags.
Merchant ship - A vessel that carries goods against payment of
freight; commonly used to denote any nonmilitary ship but accurately
restricted to commercial vessels only.
Register - The record of a ship's ownership and nationality as listed
with the maritime authorities of a country; also, the compendium of
such individual ships' registrations. Registration of a ship provides
it with a nationality and makes it subject to the laws of the country
in which registered (the flag state) regardless of the nationality of
the ship's ultimate owner.

Money figures: All money figures are expressed in contemporaneous US
dollars unless otherwise indicated.

National product: The total output of goods and services in a country
in a given year. See GDP methodology, Gross domestic product (GDP),
and Gross national product (GNP).

Net migration rate: The balance between the number of persons entering
and leaving a country during the year per 1,000 persons (based on
midyear population). An excess of persons entering the country is
referred to as net immigration (3.56 migrants/1,000 population); an
excess of persons leaving the country as net emigration (-9.26
migrants/1,000 population).

Population: Figures are estimates from the Bureau of the Census based
on statistics from population censuses, vital statistics registration
systems, or sample surveys pertaining to the recent past, and on
assumptions about future trends. Starting with the 1993 Factbook,
demographic estimates for some countries (mostly African) have taken
into account the effects of the growing incidence of AIDS infections;
in 1993 these countries were Burkina, Burundi, Central African
Republic, Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Kenya, Malawi, Rwanda, Tanzania,
Uganda, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Thailand, Brazil, and Haiti.

Telephone numbers: All telephone numbers presented in the Factbook
consist of the country code in brackets, the city or area code (where
required) in parentheses, and the local number. The one component that
is not presented is the international access code which varies from
country to country. For example, an international direct dial phone
call placed from the United States to Madrid, Spain, would be as
follows:

    011 [34] (1) 577-xxxx where
    011 is the international access code for station-to-station calls
    (01 is for calls other than station-to-station calls),
    [34] is the country code for Spain,
    (1) is the city code for Madrid,
    577 is the local exchange,
    and xxxx is the local telephone number.
    
An international direct dial phone call placed from another country to
the United States would be as follows:

international access code + [1] (202) 939-xxxx where
    [1] is the country code for the United States,
    (202) is the area code for Washington, DC,
    939 is the local exchange,
    and xxxx is the local telephone number.

Total fertility rate: The average number of children that would be
born per woman if all women lived to the end of their childbearing
years and bore children according to a given fertility rate at each
age. Years: All year references are for the calendar year (CY) unless
indicated as fiscal year (FY). FY93/94 refers to the fiscal year that
began in calendar year 1993 and ended in calendar year 1994 as defined
in the Fiscal Year entry of the Economy section for each nation.
FY90-94 refers to the four fiscal years that began in calendar year
1990 and ended in calendar year 1994.

Note: Information for the US and US dependencies was compiled from
material in the public domain and does not represent Intelligence
Community estimates. The Handbook of International Economic
Statistics, published annually in September by the Central
Intelligence Agency, contains detailed economic information for the
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)
countries, Eastern Europe, the newly independent republics of the
former nations of Yugoslavia and the Soviet Union, and selected other
countries. The Handbook can be obtained wherever The World Factbook is
available.


________________________________________________________________________

AFGHANISTAN

@Afghanistan:Geography

 Location: Southern Asia, north of Pakistan

 Map references: Asia

 Area:
 total area: 647,500 sq km 
 land area: 647,500 sq km
 comparative area: slightly smaller than Texas

 Land boundaries: total 5,529 km, China 76 km, Iran 936 km,
 Pakistan 2,430 km, Tajikistan 1,206 km, Turkmenistan 744 km, 
 Uzbekistan 137 km

 Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

 Maritime claims: none; landlocked 

 International disputes: periodic disputes with Iran over Helmand water
 rights; Iran supports clientsin country, private Pakistani and Saudi
 sources also are active; power struggles among various groups for
 control of Kabul, regional rivalries among emerging warlords,
 traditional tribal disputes continue; support to Islamic fighters in
 Tajikistan's civil war; border dispute with Pakistan (Durand Line);
 support to Islamic militants worldwide by some factions

 Climate: arid to semiarid; cold winters and hot summers

 Terrain: mostly rugged mountains; plains in north and southwest

 Natural resources: natural gas, petroleum, coal, copper, talc,
 barites, sulphur, lead, zinc, iron ore, salt, precious and 
 semiprecious stones 

 Land use:
 arable land: 12%
 permanent crops: 0%
 meadows and pastures: 15%
 forest and woodland: 3%
 other: 39%

 Irrigated land: 26,600 sq km (1989 est.)

 Environment:
 current issues: soil degradation; overgrazing; deforestation (much of 
 the remaining forests are being cut down for fuel and building 
 materials); desertification
 natural hazards: damaging earthquakes occur in Hindu Kush mountains;  
 flooding
 international agreements: party to - Endangered Species, Environmental
 Modification, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban; signed, but not
 ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the 
 Sea, Marine Life Conservation 
 Note: landlocked

@Afghanistan:People

 Population: 21,251,821 (July 1995 est.)

 Age structure:
 0-14 years: 42% (female 4,342,218; male 4,507,141)
 15-64 years: 56% (female 5,406,675; male 6,443,734)
 65 years and over: 2% (female 256,443; male 295,610) (July 1995 est.)

 Population growth rate: 14.47% (1995 est.)

 Birth rate: 42.69 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Death rate: 18.53 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Net migration rate: 120.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Infant mortality rate: 152.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

 Life expectancy at birth:
 total population: 45.37 years
 male: 45.98 years
 female: 44.72 years (1995 est.)

 Total fertility rate: 6.21 children born/woman (1995 est.)

 Nationality:
 noun: Afghan(s)
 adjective: Afghan

 Ethnic divisions: Pashtun 38%, Tajik 25%, Uzbek 6%, Hazara 19%,
 minor ethnic groups (Chahar Aimaks, Turkmen, Baloch, and others)

 Religions: Sunni Muslim 84%, Shi'a Muslim 15%, other 1%

 Languages: Pashtu 35%, Afghan Persian (Dari) 50%, Turkic languages
 (primarily Uzbek and Turkmen) 11%, 30 minor languages (primarily Balochi
 and Pashai) 4%, much bilingualism

 Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
 total population: 29%
 male: 44%
 female: 14%

 Labor force: 4.98 million
 by occupation: agriculture and animal husbandry 67.8%, industry 10.2%,
 construction 6.3%, commerce 5.0%, services and other 10.7% (1980 est.)

@Afghanistan:Government

 Names:
 conventional long form: Islamic State of Afghanistan
 conventional short form: Afghanistan
 local long form: Dowlat-e Eslami-ye Afghanestan
 local short form: Afghanestan
 former: Republic of Afghanistan

 Digraph: AF

 Type: transitional government

 Capital: Kabul

 Administrative divisions: 30 provinces (velayat, singular - velayat);
 Badakhshan, Badghis, Baghlan, Balkh, Bamian, Farah, Faryab, Ghazni,
 Ghowr, Helmand, Herat, Jowzjan, Kabol, Kandahar, Kapisa, Konar,
 Kondoz, Laghman, Lowgar, Nangarhar, Nimruz, Oruzgan, Paktia, Paktika,
 Parvan, Samangan, Sar-e Pol, Takhar, Vardak, Zabol

 Note: there may be two new provinces of Nurestan (Nuristan) and Khowst 

 Independence: 19 August 1919 (from UK)

 National holiday: Victory of the Muslim Nation, 28 April; Remembrance
 Day for Martyrs and Disabled, 4 May; Independence Day, 19 August

 Constitution: none

 Legal system: a new legal system has not been adopted but the 
 transitional government has declared it will follow Islamic law
 (Shari'a)

 Suffrage: undetermined; previously males 15-50 years of age, universal

 Executive branch:
 chief of state: President Burhanuddin RABBANI (Interim President July-
 December 1992; President since 2 January 1993); Vice President
 Mohammad NABI MOHAMMADI (since NA); election last held 31 December
 1992 (next to be held NA); results - Burhanuddin RABBANI was elected
 to a two-year term by a national shura, later amended by multi-party
 agreement to 18 months; note - in June 1994 failure to agree on a
 transfer mechanism resulted in RABBANI's extending the term to
 28 December 1994; following the expiration of the term and while
 negotiations on the formation of a new government go on, RABBANI
 continues in office head of government: Prime Minister of the Council
 of Ministers Aleksander Gabriel MEKSI (since 10 April 1992)
 cabinet: Council of Ministers

 Note: term of present government expired 28 December 1994; factional
 fighting since 1 January 1994 has kept government officers from
 actually occupying ministries and discharging government
 responsibilities; the government's authority to remove cabinet
 members, including the Prime Minister, following the expiration of
 their term is questionable 

 Legislative branch: a unicameral parliament consisting of 205 members
 was chosen by the shura in January 1993; non-functioning as of June
 1993

 Judicial branch: an interim Chief Justice of the Supreme Court has
 been appointed, but a new court system has not yet been organized

 Political parties and leaders: current political organizations include
 Jamiat-i-Islami (Islamic Society), Burhanuddin RABBANI, Ahmad Shah
 MASOOD; Hizbi Islami-Gulbuddin (Islamic Party), Gulbuddin HIKMATYAR
 faction; Hizbi Islami-Khalis (Islamic Party), Yunis KHALIS faction;
 Ittihad-i-Islami Barai Azadi Afghanistan (Islamic Union for the
 Liberation of Afghanistan), Abdul Rasul SAYYAF;
 Harakat-Inqilab-i-Islami (Islamic Revolutionary Movement), Mohammad
 Nabi MOHAMMADI; Jabha-i-Najat-i-Milli Afghanistan (Afghanistan
 National Liberation Front), Sibghatullah MOJADDEDI;
 Mahaz-i-Milli-Islami (National Islamic Front), Sayed Ahamad GAILANI;
 Hizbi Wahdat-Khalili faction (Islamic Unity Party), Abdul Karim
 KHALILI; Hizbi Wahdat-Akbari faction (Islamic Unity Party), Mohammad
 Akbar AKBARI; Harakat-i-Islami (Islamic Movement), Mohammed Asif
 MOHSENI; Jumbesh-i-Milli Islami (National Islamic Movement), Abdul
 Rashid DOSTAM; Taliban (Religious Students Movement), Mohammad OMAR 

 Note: the former ruling Watan Party has been disbanded 

 Other political or pressure groups: the former resistance commanders
 are the major power brokers in the countryside and their shuras
 (councils) are now administering most cities  outside Kabul; tribal
 elders and religious students are trying to wrest control from them;
 ulema (religious scholars); tribal elders; religious students (talib)

 Member of: AsDB, CP, ECO, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM,
 IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, IOC, ITU, NAM, OIC,
 UN, NCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO

 Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission: (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Abdul RAHIM
 chancery: 2341 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
 telephone: [1] (202) 234-3770, 3771
 FAX: [1] (202) 328-3516
 consulate(s) general: New York 
 consulate(s): Washington, DC 

 US diplomatic representation:
 none; embassy was closed in January 1989

 Flag: NA; note - the flag has changed at least twice since 1992

@Afghanistan:Economy

 Overview: Afghanistan is an extremely poor, landlocked country, highly
 dependent on farming (wheat especially) and livestock raising (sheep
 and goats). Economic considerations have played second fiddle to
 political and military upheavals during more than 15 years of war,
 including the nearly 10-year Soviet military occupation (which ended
 15 February 1989). Over the past decade, one-third of the population
 fled the country, with Pakistan sheltering more than 3 million
 refugees and Iran about 3 million. About 1.4 million Afghan refugees
 remain in Pakistan and about 2 million in Iran. Another 1 million
 probably moved into and around urban areas within Afghanistan.
 Although reliable data are unavailable, gross domestic product is
 lower than 13 years ago because of the loss of labor and capital and
 the disruption of trade and transport. 

National product: GDP $NA

 National product real growth rate: NA%

 National product per capita: $NA

 Inflation rate (consumer prices): 56.7% (1991)

 Unemployment rate: NA%

 Budget:
 revenues: $NA
 expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA million (1991
 est.)

 Exports: $188.2 million (f.o.b., 1991)
 commodities: fruits and nuts, handwoven carpets, wool, cotton, hides
 and pelts, precious and semi-precious gems
 partners: FSU countries, Pakistan, Iran, Germany, India, UK, Belgium,
 Luxembourg, Czechoslovakia

 Imports: $616.4 million (c.i.f., 1991)
 commodities: food and petroleum products; most consumer goods
 partners: FSU countries, Pakistan, Iran, Japan, Singapore, India,
 South Korea, Germany

 External debt: $2.3 billion (March 1991 est.)

 Industrial production: growth rate 2.3% (FY90/91 est.); accounts for
 about 25% of GDP

 Electricity:
 capacity: 480,000 kW
 production: 550 million kWh
 consumption per capita: 39 kWh (1993)

 Industries: small-scale production of textiles, soap, furniture,
 shoes, fertilizer, and  cement; handwoven carpets; natural gas, oil,
 coal, copper

 Agriculture: largely subsistence farming and nomadic animal husbandry;
 cash products - wheat, fruits, nuts, karakul pelts, wool, mutton

 Illicit drugs: an illicit cultivator of opium poppy and cannabis for
 the international drug trade; world's second-largest opium producer
 after Burma (950 metric tons in 1994) and a major source of hashish

 Economic aid:
 recipient: $450 million US assistance provided 1985-1993; the UN
 provides assistance in the form of food aid, immunization, land mine
 removal, and a wide range of aid to refugees and displaced persons

 Currency: 1 afghani (AF) = 100 puls

 Exchange rates: afghanis (Af) per US$1 - 1,900 (January 1994), 1,019
 (March 1993), 850 (1991), 700 (1989-90), 220 (1988-89); note  these
 rates reflect the free market exchange rates rather than the official
 exchange rates

 Fiscal year: 21 March - 20 March

@Afghanistan:Transportation

 Railroads:
 total: 24.6 km
 broad gauge: 9.6 km 1.524-m gauge from Gushgy (Turkmenistan) to
 Towraghondi; 15 km 1,524-m gauge from Termiz (Uzbekistan) to Kheyrabad
 transshipment point on south bank of Amu Darya

 Highways:
 total: 21,000 km
 paved: 2,800 km
 unpaved: gravel 1,650 km; earth 16,550 km (1984)

 Inland waterways: total navigability 1,200 km; chiefly Amu Darya,
 which handles vessels up to about 500 metric tons

 Pipelines: petroleum products - Uzbekistan to Bagram and Turkmenistan
 to Shindand; natural gas 180 km

 Ports: Keleft, Kheyrabad, Shir Khan

 Airports:
 total: 48
 with paved runways over 3,047 m: 3
 with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
 with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 2
 with paved runways under 914 m: 15
 with unpaved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
 with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 14
 with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 6

@Afghanistan:Communications

 Telephone system: 31,200 telephones; limited telephone, telegraph, and
 radiobroadcast services; 1 public telephone in Kabul
 local: NA
 intercity: NA
 international: one link between western Afghanistan and Iran (via
 satellite)

 Radio:
 broadcast stations: AM 5, FM 0, shortwave 2
 radios: NA

 Television:
 broadcast stations: several television stations run by factions and
 local councils which provide intermittent service
 televisions: NA

@Afghanistan:Defense Forces

 Branches: the military still does not exist on a national scale; some
 elements of the former Army, Air and Air Defense Forces, National
 Guard, Border Guard  Forces, National Police Force (Sarandoi), and
 tribal militias still exist but are factionalized among the various
 mujahedin and former regime leaders

 Manpower availability: males age 15-49 5,646,789; males fit for
 military service 3,011,777; males reach military age (22) annually
 200,264 (1995 est.)

 Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $450 million, 15% of
 GDP (1990 est.); the new government has not yet adopted a defense
 budget



________________________________________________________________________

ALBANIA

@Albania:Geography

 Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Ionian
 Sea, between Greece and Serbia and Montenegro

 Map references: Ethnic Groups in Eastern Europe, Europe

 Area:
 total area: 28,750 sq km
 land area: 27,400 sq km
 comparative area: slightly larger than Maryland

 Land boundaries: total 720 km, Greece 282 km, The Former Yugoslav
 Republic of Macedonia 151 km, Serbia and Montenegro 287 km (114 km
 with Serbia, 173 km with Montenegro)

 Coastline: 362 km

 Maritime claims:
 continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
 territorial sea: 12 nm

 International disputes: the Albanian Government supports protection of
 the rights of ethnic Albanians outside of its borders; Albanian
 majority in Kosovo seeks independence from Serbian Republic; Albanians
 in Macedonia claim discrimination in education, access to public
 sector jobs and representation in government; Albania is involved in a
 bilaterlal dispute with Greece over border demarcation, the treatment
 of Albania's ethnic Greek minority, and migrant Albanian workers in
 Greece

 Climate: mild temperate; cool, cloudy, wet winters; hot, clear, dry
 summers; interior is cooler and wetter

 Terrain: mostly mountains and hills; small plains along coast

 Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, coal, chromium, copper,
 timber, nickel

 Land use:
 arable land: 21%
 permanent crops: 4%
 meadows and pastures: 15%
 forest and woodland: 38%
 other: 22%

 Irrigated land: 4,230 sq km (1989)

 Environment:
 current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution from
 industrial and domestic effluents
 natural hazards: destructive earthquakes; tsunami occur along
 southwestern coast
 international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change

 Note: strategic location along Strait of Otranto (links Adriatic Sea
 to Ionian Sea and Mediterranean Sea)

@Albania:People

 Population: 3,413,904 (July 1995 est.)
 note: IMF, working with Albanian government figures, estimates the
 population at 3,120,000 in 1993 and that the population has fallen
 since 1990

 Age structure:
 0-14 years: 32% (female 520,186; male 563,953)
 15-64 years: 62% (female 1,026,321; male 1,104,371)
 65 years and over: 6% (female 112,252; male 86,821) (July 1995 est.)

 Population growth rate: 1.16% (1995 est.)

 Birth rate: 21.7 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Death rate: 5.22 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Net migration rate: -4.88 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Infant mortality rate: 28.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

 Life expectancy at birth:
 total population: 73.81 years
 male: 70.83 years
 female: 77.02 years (1995 est.)

 Total fertility rate: 2.71 children born/woman (1995 est.)

 Nationality:
 noun: Albanian(s)
 adjective: Albanian

 Ethnic divisions: Albanian 95%, Greeks 3%, other 2% (Vlachs, Gypsies,
 Serbs, and Bulgarians) (1989 est.)

 Religions: Muslim 70%, Albanian Orthodox 20%, Roman Catholic 10%
 note: all mosques and churches were closed in 1967 and religious
 observances prohibited; in November 1990, Albania began allowing
 private religious practice

 Languages: Albanian (Tosk is the official dialect), Greek

 Literacy: age 9 and over can read and write (1955)
 total population: 72%
 male: 80%
 female: 63%

 Labor force: 1.5 million (1987)
 by occupation: agriculture 60%, industry and commerce 40% (1986)

@Albania:Government

 Names:
 conventional long form: Republic of Albania
 conventional short form: Albania
 local long form: Republika e Shqiperise
 local short form: Shqiperia
 former: People's Socialist Republic of Albania

 Digraph: AL

 Type: emerging democracy

 Capital: Tirane

 Administrative divisions: 26 districts (rrethe, singular - rreth);
 Berat, Dibre, Durres, Elbasan, Fier, Gjirokaster, Gramsh, Kolonje,
 Korce, Kruje, Kukes, Lezhe, Librazhd, Lushnje, Mat, Mirdite, Permet,
 Pogradec, Puke, Sarande, Shkoder, Skrapar, Tepelene, Tirane, Tropoje,
 Vlore

 Independence: 28 November 1912 (from Ottoman Empire)

 National holiday: Independence Day, 28 November (1912)

 Constitution: an interim basic law was approved by the People's
 Assembly on 29 April 1991; a draft constitution was rejected by
 popular referendum in the fall of 1994 and a new draft is pending

 Legal system: has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

 Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

 Executive branch:
 chief of state: President of the Republic Sali BERISHA (since 9 April
 1992)
 head of government: Prime Minister of the Council of Ministers
 Aleksander Gabriel MEKSI (since 10 April 1992)
 cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by the president

 Legislative branch: unicameral
 People's Assembly (Kuvendi Popullor): elections last held 22 March
 1992; results - DP 62.29%, ASP 25.57%, SDP 4.33%, RP 3.15%, UHP 2.92%,
 other 1.74%; seats - (140 total) DP 92, ASP 38, SDP 7, RP 1, UHP 2
 note: 6 members of the Democratic Party defected making the present
 seating in the Assembly DP 86, ASP 38, SDP 7, DAP 6, RP 1, UHP 2

 Judicial branch: Supreme Court

 Political parties and leaders: there are at least 28 political
 parties; most prominent are the Albanian Socialist Party (ASP;
 formerly the Albania Workers Party), Fatos NANO, first secretary;
 Democratic Party (DP); Albanian Republican Party (RP), Sabri GODO;
 Omonia (Greek minority party), Sotir QIRJAZATI, first secretary;
 Social Democratic Party (SDP), Skender GJINUSHI; Democratic Alliance
 Party (DAP), Neritan CEKA, chairman; Unity for Human Rights Party
 (UHP), Vasil MELO, chairman; Ecology Party (EP), Namik HOTI, chairman

 Member of: BSEC, CCC, CE (guest), EBRD, ECE, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
 ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT
 (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NACC, OIC, OSCE,
 UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

 Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Lublin Hasan DILJA
 chancery: Suite 1010, 1511 K Street NW, Washington, DC 20005
 telephone: [1] (202) 223-4942, 8187
 FAX: [1] (202) 628-7342

 US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Joseph E. LAKE
 embassy: Rruga E. Elbansanit 103, Tirane
 mailing address: PSC 59, Box 100 (A), APO AE 09624
 telephone: [355] (42) 328-75, 335-20
 FAX: [355] (42) 322-22

 Flag: red with a black two-headed eagle in the center

@Albania:Economy

 Overview: An extremely poor country by European standards, Albania is
 making the difficult transition to a more open-market economy. The
 economy rebounded in 1993-94 after a severe depression accompanying
 the collapse of the previous centrally planned system in 1990 and
 1991. Stabilization policies - including a strict monetary policy,
 public sector layoffs, and reduced social services - have improved the
 government's fiscal situation and reduced inflation. The recovery was
 spurred by the remittances of some 20% of the population which works
 abroad, mostly in Greece and Italy. These remittances supplement GDP
 and help offset the large foreign trade deficit. Foreign assistance
 and humanitarian aid also supported the recovery. Most agricultural
 land was privatized in 1992, substantially improving peasant incomes.
 Albania's limited industrial sector, now less than one-sixth of GDP,
 continued to decline in 1994. A sharp fall in chromium prices reduced
 hard currency receipts from the mining sector. Large segments of the
 population, especially those living in urban areas, continue to depend
 on humanitarian aid to meet basic food requirements. Unemployment
 remains a severe problem accounting for approximately one-fifth of the
 work force. Growth is expected to continue in 1995, but could falter
 if Albania becomes involved in the conflict in the former Yugoslavia,
 workers' remittances from Greece are reduced, or foreign assistance
 declines.

 National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $3.8 billion (1994
 est.)

 National product real growth rate: 11% (1994 est.)

 National product per capita: $1,110 (1994 est.)

 Inflation rate (consumer prices): 16% (1994)

 Unemployment rate: 18% (1994 est.)

 Budget:
 revenues: $1.1 billion
 expenditures: $1.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $70
 million (1991 est.)

 Exports: $112 million (f.o.b., 1993)
 commodities: asphalt, metals and metallic ores, electricity, crude
 oil, vegetables, fruits, tobacco
 partners: Italy, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Germany,
 Greece, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland, Romania, Bulgaria, Hungary

 Imports: $621 million (f.o.b., 1993)
 commodities: machinery, consumer goods, grains
 partners: Italy, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Germany,
 Czech Republic, Slovakia, Romania, Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria, Greece

 External debt: $920 million (1994 est.)

 Industrial production: growth rate -10% (1993 est.); accounts for 16%
 of GDP (1993 est.)

 Electricity:
 capacity: 770,000 kW
 production: 4 billion kWh
 consumption per capita: 1,200 kWh (1994)

 Industries: food processing, textiles and clothing, lumber, oil,
 cement, chemicals, mining, basic metals, hydropower

 Agriculture: accounts for 55% of GDP; arable land per capita among
 lowest in Europe; 80% of arable land now in private hands; 60% of the
 work force engaged in farming; produces wide range of temperate-zone
 crops and livestock

 Illicit drugs: transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin
 transiting the Balkan route and cocaine from South America destined
 for Western Europe; limited opium production

 Economic aid:
 recipient: $303 million (1993)

 Currency: 1 lek (L) = 100 qintars

 Exchange rates: leke (L) per US$1 - 100 (January 1995), 99 (January
 1994), 97 (January 1993), 50 (January 1992), 25 (September 1991)

 Fiscal year: calendar year

@Albania:Transportation

 Railroads:
 total: 543 km line connecting Podgorica (Serbia and Montenegro) and
 Shkoder completed August 1986
 standard gauge: 509 km 1.435-m gauge
 narrow gauge: 34 km 0.950-m gauge (1990)

 Highways:
 total: 18,450 km
 paved: 17,450 km
 unpaved: earth 1,000 km (1991)

 Inland waterways: 43 km plus Albanian sections of Lake Scutari, Lake
 Ohrid, and Lake Prespa (1990)

 Pipelines: crude oil 145 km; petroleum products 55 km; natural gas 64
 km (1991)

 Ports: Durres, Sarande, Shergjin, Vlore

 Merchant marine:
 total: 11 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 52,967 GRT/76,887
 DWT

 Airports:
 total: 11
 with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
 with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 2
 with unpaved runways over 3,047 m: 2
 with unpaved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
 with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 1
 with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 2

@Albania:Communications

 Telephone system: about 55,000 telephones; about 15 telephones/1,000
 persons
 local: primitive; about 11,000 telephones in Tirane, the capital city
 intercity: obsolete wire system; no longer provides a telephone for
 every village; in 1992, following the fall of the communist
 government, peasants cut the wire to about 1,000 villages and used it
 to build fences
 international: inadequate; carried through the Tirane exchange and
 transmitted through Italy on 240 microwave radio relay circuits and
 through Greece on 150 microwave radio relay circuits

 Radio:
 broadcast stations: AM 17, FM 1, shortwave 0
 radios: 515,000 (1987 est.)

 Television:
 broadcast stations: 9
 televisions: 255,000 (1987 est.)

@Albania:Defense Forces

 Branches: Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, Interior Ministry
 Troops, Border Guards

 Manpower availability: males age 15-49 919,085; males fit for military
 service 755,574; males reach military age (19) annually 33,323 (1995
 est.)

 Defense expenditures: 330 million leke, NA% of GNP (1993); note -
 conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the current
 exchange rate could produce misleading results


________________________________________________________________________

ALGERIA

@Algeria:Geography

 Location: Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between
 Morocco and Tunisia

 Map references: Africa

 Area:
 total area: 2,381,740 sq km
 land area: 2,381,740 sq km
 comparative area: slightly less than 3.5 times the size of Texas

 Land boundaries: total 6,343 km, Libya 982 km, Mali 1,376 km,
 Mauritania 463 km, Morocco 1,559 km, Niger 956 km, Tunisia 965 km,
 Western Sahara 42 km

 Coastline: 998 km

 Maritime claims:
 exclusive fishing zone: 32-52 nm
 territorial sea: 12 nm

 International disputes: Libya claims part of southeastern Algeria;
 land boundary dispute with Tunisia settled in 1993

 Climate: arid to semiarid; mild, wet winters with hot, dry summers
 along coast; drier with cold winters and hot summers on high plateau;
 sirocco is a hot, dust/sand-laden wind especially common in summer

 Terrain: mostly high plateau and desert; some mountains; narrow,
 discontinuous coastal plain

 Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates,
 uranium, lead, zinc

 Land use:
 arable land: 3%
 permanent crops: 0%
 meadows and pastures: 13%
 forest and woodland: 2%
 other: 82%

 Irrigated land: 3,360 sq km (1989 est.)

 Environment:
 current issues: soil erosion from overgrazing and other poor farming
 practices; desertification; dumping of raw sewage, petroleum refining
 wastes, and other industrial effluents is leading to the pollution of
 rivers and coastal waters; Mediterranean Sea, in particular, becoming
 polluted from oil wastes, soil erosion, and fertilizer runoff;
 inadequate supplies of potable water
 natural hazards: mountainous areas subject to severe earthquakes;
 mudslides
 international agreements: party to - Climate Change, Endangered
 Species, Environmental Modification, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
 Pollution, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity,
 Desertification, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban

 Note: second-largest country in Africa (after Sudan)

@Algeria:People

 Population: 28,539,321 (July 1995 est.)

 Age structure:
 0-14 years: 41% (female 5,678,879; male 5,885,246)
 15-64 years: 56% (female 7,887,885; male 8,033,508)
 65 years and over: 3% (female 557,636; male 496,167) (July 1995 est.)

 Population growth rate: 2.25% (1995 est.)

 Birth rate: 29.02 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Death rate: 6.05 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Net migration rate: -0.49 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Infant mortality rate: 50.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

 Life expectancy at birth:
 total population: 68.01 years
 male: 66.94 years
 female: 69.13 years (1995 est.)

 Total fertility rate: 3.7 children born/woman (1995 est.)

 Nationality:
 noun: Algerian(s)
 adjective: Algerian

 Ethnic divisions: Arab-Berber 99%, European less than 1%

 Religions: Sunni Muslim (state religion) 99%, Christian and Jewish 1%

 Languages: Arabic (official), French, Berber dialects

 Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
 total population: 57%
 male: 70%
 female: 46%

 Labor force: 6.2 million (1992 est.)
 by occupation: government 29.5%, agriculture 22%, construction and
 public works 16.2%, industry 13.6%, commerce and services 13.5%,
 transportation and communication 5.2% (1989)

@Algeria:Government

 Names:
 conventional long form: Democratic and Popular Republic of Algeria
 conventional short form: Algeria
 local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Jaza'iriyah ad Dimuqratiyah ash
 Shabiyah
 local short form: Al Jaza'ir

 Digraph: AG

 Type: republic

 Capital: Algiers

 Administrative divisions: 48 provinces (wilayas, singular - wilaya);
 Adrar, Ain Defla, Ain Temouchent, Alger, Annaba, Batna, Bechar,
 Bejaia, Biskra, Blida, Bordj Bou Arreridj, Bouira, Boumerdes, Chlef,
 Constantine, Djelfa, El Bayadh, El Oued, El Tarf, Ghardaia, Guelma,
 Illizi, Jijel, Khenchela, Laghouat, Mascara, Medea, Mila, Mostaganem,
 M'Sila, Naama, Oran, Ouargla, Oum el Bouaghi, Relizane, Saida, Setif,
 Sidi Bel Abbes, Skikda, Souk Ahras, Tamanghasset, Tebessa, Tiaret,
 Tindouf, Tipaza, Tissemsilt, Tizi Ouzou, Tlemcen

 Independence: 5 July 1962 (from France)

 National holiday: Anniversary of the Revolution, 1 November (1954)

 Constitution: 19 November 1976, effective 22 November 1976; revised 3
 November 1988 and 23 February 1989

 Legal system: socialist, based on French and Islamic law; judicial
 review of legislative acts in ad hoc Constitutional Council composed
 of various public officials, including several Supreme Court justices;
 has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

 Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

 Executive branch:
 chief of state: President Lamine ZEROUAL (since 31 January 1994); next
 election to be held by the end of 1995
 head of government: Prime Minister Mokdad SIFI (since 11 April 1994)
 cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by the prime minister

 Legislative branch: unicameral; note - suspended since 1992
 National People's Assembly (Al-Majlis Ech-Chaabi Al-Watani): elections
 first round held on 26 December 1991 (second round canceled by the
 military after President BENDJEDID resigned 11 January 1992,
 effectively suspending the Assembly); results - percent of vote by
 party NA; seats - (281 total); the fundamentalist FIS won 188 of the
 231 seats contested in the first round; note - elections (provincial
 and municipal) were held in June 1990, the first in Algerian history;
 results - FIS 55%, FLN 27.5%, other 17.5%, with 65% of the voters
 participating

 Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

 Political parties and leaders: Islamic Salvation Front (FIS, outlawed
 April 1992), Ali BELHADJ, Dr. Abassi MADANI, Abdelkader HACHANI (all
 under arrest), Rabeh KEBIR (self-exile in Germany); National
 Liberation Front (FLN), Abdelhamid MEHRI, Secretary General; Socialist
 Forces Front (FFS), Hocine Ait AHMED, Secretary General
 note: the government established a multiparty system in September 1989
 and, as of 31 December 1990, over 50 legal parties existed

 Member of: ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, AMU, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-15,
 G-19, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
 ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, NAM,
 OAPEC, OAS (observer), OAU, OIC, OPEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR,
 UNIDO, UNMIH, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

 Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Osmane BENCHERIF
 chancery: 2118 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008
 telephone: [1] (202) 265-2800

 US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Ronald E. NEUMANN
 embassy: 4 Chemin Cheikh Bachir El-Ibrahimi, Algiers
 mailing address: B. P. Box 549, Alger-Gare, 16000 Algiers
 telephone: [213] (2) 69-11-86, 69-18-54, 69-38-75
 FAX: [213] (2) 69-39-79
 consulate(s): none (Oran closed June 1993)

 Flag: two equal vertical bands of green (hoist side) and white with a
 red five-pointed star within a red crescent; the crescent, star, and
 color green are traditional symbols of Islam (the state religion)

@Algeria:Economy

 Overview: The hydrocarbons sector is the backbone of the economy,
 accounting for roughly 57% of government revenues, 25% of GDP, and
 almost all export earnings; Algeria has the fifth largest reserves of
 natural gas in the world and ranks fourteenth for oil. Algiers'
 efforts to reform one of the most centrally planned economies in the
 Arab world began after the 1986 collapse of world oil prices plunged
 the country into a severe recession. In 1989, the government launched
 a comprehensive, IMF-supported program to achieve macroeconomic
 stabilization and to introduce market mechanisms into the economy.
 Despite substantial progress toward macroeconomic adjustment, in 1992
 the reform drive stalled as Algiers became embroiled in political
 turmoil. In September 1993, a new government was formed, and one
 priority was the resumption and acceleration of the structural
 adjustment process. Buffeted by the slump in world oil prices and
 burdened with a heavy foreign debt, Algiers concluded a one-year
 standby arrangement with the IMF in April 1994.

 National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $97.1 billion (1994
 est.)

 National product real growth rate: 0.2% (1994 est.)

 National product per capita: $3,480 (1994 est.)

 Inflation rate (consumer prices): 30% (1994 est.)

 Unemployment rate: 30% (1994 est.)

 Budget:
 revenues: $14.3 billion
 expenditures: $17.9 billion (1995 est.)

 Exports: $9.1 billion (f.o.b., 1994)
 commodities: petroleum and natural gas 97%
 partners: Italy 21%, France 16%, US 14%, Germany 13%, Spain 9%

 Imports: $9.2 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
 commodities: capital goods 39.7%, food and beverages 21.7%, consumer
 goods 11.8% (1990)
 partners: France 29%, Italy 14%, Spain 9%, US 9%, Germany 7%

 External debt: $26 billion (1994)

 Industrial production: growth rate NA%; accounts for 35% of GDP
 (including hydrocarbons)

 Electricity:
 capacity: 5,370,000 kW
 production: 18.3 billion kWh
 consumption per capita: 587 kWh (1993)

 Industries: petroleum, light industries, natural gas, mining,
 electrical, petrochemical, food processing

 Agriculture: accounts for 12% of GDP (1993) and employs 22% of labor
 force; products- wheat, barley, oats, grapes, olives, citrus, fruits,
 sheep, cattle; net importer of food - grain, vegetable oil, sugar

 Economic aid:
 recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-85), $1.4 billion;
 Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
 (1970-89), $925 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $1.8 billion;
 Communist countries (1970-89), $2.7 billion; net official
 disbursements (1985-89), $375 million

 Currency: 1 Algerian dinar (DA) = 100 centimes

 Exchange rates: Algerian dinars (DA) per US$1 - 42.710 (January 1995),
 35.059 (1994), 23.345 (1993), 21.836 (1992), 18.473 (1991), 8.958
 (1990)

 Fiscal year: calendar year

@Algeria:Transportation

 Railroads:
 total: 4,733 km
 standard gauge: 3,576 km 1.435-m gauge (299 km electrified; 215 km
 double track)
 narrow gauge: 1,157 km 1.055-m gauge

 Highways:
 total: 95,576 km
 paved: concrete, bituminous 57,346 km
 unpaved: gravel, crushed stone, earth 38,230 km

 Pipelines: crude oil 6,612 km; petroleum products 298 km; natural gas
 2,948 km

 Ports: Algiers, Annaba, Arzew, Bejaia, Beni Saf, Dellys, Djendjene,
 Ghazaouet, Jijel, Mostaganem, Oran, Skikda, Tenes

 Merchant marine:
 total: 75 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 903,179 GRT/1,064,211 DWT

 ships by type: bulk 9, cargo 27, chemical tanker 7, liquefied gas
 tanker 9, oil tanker 5, roll-on/roll-off cargo 12, short-sea passenger
 5, specialized tanker 1

 Airports:
 total: 139
 with paved runways over 3,047 m: 9
 with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 23
 with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 14
 with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 5
 with paved runways under 914 m: 20
 with unpaved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
 with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 24
 with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 41

@Algeria:Communications

 Telephone system: 822,000 telephones; excellent domestic and
 international service in the north, sparse in the south
 local: NA
 intercity: 12 domestic satellite links; 20 additional satellite links
 are planned
 international: 5 submarine cables; microwave radio relay to Italy,
 France, Spain, Morocco, and Tunisia; coaxial cable to Morocco and
 Tunisia; 2 INTELSAT (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), 1
 Intersputnik, 1 ARABSAT earth station

 Radio:
 broadcast stations: AM 26, FM 0, shortwave 0
 radios: 5.2 million

 Television:
 broadcast stations: 18
 televisions: 1.6 million

@Algeria:Defense Forces

 Branches: National Popular Army, Navy, Air Force, Territorial Air
 Defense, National Gendarmerie

 Manpower availability: males age 15-49 7,124,894; males fit for
 military service 4,373,272; males reach military age (19) annually
 313,707 (1995 est.)

 Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $1.3 billion, 2.7% of
 GDP (1994)


________________________________________________________________________

AMERICAN SAMOA

 (territory of the US) 

@American Samoa:Geography

 Location: Oceania, group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean, about
 one-half of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand

 Map references: Oceania

 Area:
 total area: 199 sq km
 land area: 199 sq km
 comparative area: slightly larger than Washington, DC
 note: includes Rose Island and Swains Island

 Land boundaries: 0 km

 Coastline: 116 km

 Maritime claims:
 exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
 territorial sea: 12 nm

 International disputes: none

 Climate: tropical marine, moderated by southeast trade winds; annual
 rainfall averages 124 inches; rainy season from November to April, dry
 season from May to October; little seasonal temperature variation

 Terrain: five volcanic islands with rugged peaks and limited coastal
 plains, two coral atolls (Rose Island, Swains Island)

 Natural resources: pumice, pumicite

 Land use:
 arable land: 10%
 permanent crops: 5%
 meadows and pastures: 0%
 forest and woodland: 75%
 other: 10%

 Irrigated land: NA sq km

 Environment:
 current issues: limited natural fresh water resources; in many areas
 of the island water supplies come from roof catchments
 natural hazards: typhoons common from December to March
 international agreements: NA

 Note: Pago Pago has one of the best natural deepwater harbors in the
 South Pacific Ocean, sheltered by shape from rough seas and protected
 by peripheral mountains from high winds; strategic location in the
 South Pacific Ocean

@American Samoa:People

 Population: 57,366 (July 1995 est.)

 Age structure:
 0-14 years: NA
 15-64 years: NA
 65 years and over: NA

 Population growth rate: 3.82% (1995 est.)

 Birth rate: 36.21 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Death rate: 4.01 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Net migration rate: 6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Infant mortality rate: 18.78 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

 Life expectancy at birth:
 total population: 72.91 years
 male: 71.03 years
 female: 74.85 years (1995 est.)

 Total fertility rate: 4.3 children born/woman (1995 est.)

 Nationality:
 noun: American Samoan(s)
 adjective: American Samoan

 Ethnic divisions: Samoan (Polynesian) 89%, Caucasian 2%, Tongan 4%,
 other 5%

 Religions: Christian Congregationalist 50%, Roman Catholic 20%,
 Protestant denominations and other 30%

 Languages: Samoan (closely related to Hawaiian and other Polynesian
 languages), English; most people are bilingual

 Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1980)
 total population: 97%
 male: 98%
 female: 97%

 Labor force: 14,400 (1990)
 by occupation: government 33%, tuna canneries 34%, other 33% (1990)

@American Samoa:Government

 Names:
 conventional long form: Territory of American Samoa
 conventional short form: American Samoa

 Abbreviation: AS

 Digraph: AQ

 Type: unincorporated and unorganized territory of the US; administered
 by the US Department of Interior, Office of Territorial and
 International Affairs

 Capital: Pago Pago

 Administrative divisions: none (territory of the US)

 Independence: none (territory of the US)

 National holiday: Territorial Flag Day, 17 April (1900)

 Constitution: ratified 1966, in effect 1967

 Legal system: NA

 Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

 Executive branch:
 chief of state: President William Jefferson CLINTON (since 20 January
 1993); Vice President Albert GORE, Jr. (since 20 January 1993)
 head of government: Governor A. P. LUTALI (since 3 January 1993);
 Lieutenant Governor Tauese P. SUNIA (since 3 January 1993); election
 last held 3 November 1992 (next to be held NA November 1996); results
 - A. P. LUTALI (Democrat) 53%, Peter Tali COLEMAN (Republican) 36%

 Legislative branch: bicameral Legislative Assembly (Fono)
 House of Representatives: elections last held 3 November 1992 (next to
 be held NA November 1994); results - representatives popularly elected
 from 17 house districts; seats - (21 total, 20 elected, and 1
 nonvoting delegate from Swains Island)
 Senate: elections last held 3 November 1992 (next to be held NA
 November 1996); results - senators elected by village chiefs from 12
 senate districts; seats - (18 total) number of seats by party NA
 US House of Representatives: elections last held 3 November 1992 (next
 to be held NA November 1994); results - Eni R. F. H. FALEOMAVAEGA
 reelected as delegate

 Judicial branch: High Court

 Political parties and leaders: NA

 Member of: ESCAP (associate), INTERPOL (subbureau), IOC, SPC

 Diplomatic representation in US: none (territory of the US)

 US diplomatic representation: none (territory of the US)

 Flag: blue with a white triangle edged in red that is based on the fly
 side and extends to the hoist side; a brown and white American bald
 eagle flying toward the hoist side is carrying two traditional Samoan
 symbols of authority, a staff and a war club

@American Samoa:Economy

 Overview: Economic activity is strongly linked to the US, with which
 American Samoa conducts 80%-90% of its foreign trade. Tuna fishing and
 tuna processing plants are the backbone of the private sector, with
 canned tuna the primary export. The tuna canneries and the government
 are by far the two largest employers. Other economic activities
 include a slowly developing tourist industry. Transfers from the US
 Government add substantially to American Samoa's economic well-being.

 National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $128 million (1991
 est.)

 National product real growth rate: NA%

 National product per capita: $2,600 (1991)

 Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7% (1990)

 Unemployment rate: 12% (1991)

 Budget:
 revenues: $97 million (includes $43,000,000 in local revenue and
 $54,000,000 in grant revenue);
 expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY90/91)

 Exports: $306 million (f.o.b., 1989)
 commodities: canned tuna 93%
 partners: US 99.6%

 Imports: $360.3 million (c.i.f., 1989)
 commodities: materials for canneries 56%, food 8%, petroleum products
 7%, machinery and parts 6%
 partners: US 62%, Japan 9%, NZ 7%, Australia 11%, Fiji 4%, other 7%

 External debt: $NA

 Industrial production: growth rate NA%

 Electricity:
 capacity: 30,000 kW
 production: 90 million kWh
 consumption per capita: 1,505 kWh (1993)

 Industries: tuna canneries (largely dependent on foreign fishing
 vessels), meat canning, handicrafts

 Agriculture: bananas, coconuts, vegetables, taro, breadfruit, yams,
 copra, pineapples, papayas, dairy farming

 Economic aid:
 recipient: $21,042,650 in operational funds and $1,227,000 in
 construction funds for capital improvement projects from the US
 Department of Interior (1991)

 Currency: 1 United States dollar = 100 cents

 Exchange rates: US currency is used

 Fiscal year: 1 October - 30 September

@American Samoa:Transportation

 Railroads: 0 km

 Highways:
 total: 350 km
 paved: 150 km
 unpaved: 200 km

 Ports: Aanu'u (new construction), Auasi, Faleosao, Ofu, Pago Pago,
 Ta'u

 Merchant marine: none

 Airports:
 total: 4
 with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
 with paved runways under 914 m: 3
 note: small airstrips on Fituita and Ofu

@American Samoa:Communications

 Telephone system: 8,399 telephones; good telex, telegraph, and
 facsimile services
 local: NA
 intercity: NA
 international: 1 INTELSAT (Pacific Ocean) and 1 COMSAT earth station

 Radio:
 broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 1, shortwave 0
 radios: NA

 Television:
 broadcast stations: 1
 televisions: NA

@American Samoa:Defense Forces

 Note: defense is the responsibility of the US


________________________________________________________________________

ANDORRA

@Andorra:Geography

 Location: Southwestern Europe, between France and Spain

 Map references: Europe

 Area:
 total area: 450 sq km
 land area: 450 sq km
 comparative area: slightly more than 2.5 times the size of Washington,
 DC

 Land boundaries: total 125 km, France 60 km, Spain 65 km

 Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

 Maritime claims: none; landlocked

 International disputes: none

 Climate: temperate; snowy, cold winters and warm, dry summers

 Terrain: rugged mountains dissected by narrow valleys

 Natural resources: hydropower, mineral water, timber, iron ore, lead

 Land use:
 arable land: 2%
 permanent crops: 0%
 meadows and pastures: 56%
 forest and woodland: 22%
 other: 20%

 Irrigated land: NA sq km

 Environment:
 current issues: deforestation; overgrazing of mountain meadows
 contributes to soil erosion
 natural hazards: snowslides, avalanches
 international agreements: NA

 Note: landlocked

@Andorra:People

 Population: 65,780 (July 1995 est.)

 Age structure:
 0-14 years: 18% (female 5,503; male 5,985)
 15-64 years: 70% (female 21,873; male 24,334)
 65 years and over: 12% (female 4,020; male 4,065) (July 1995 est.)

 Population growth rate: 2.72% (1995 est.)

 Birth rate: 12.92 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Death rate: 7.25 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Net migration rate: 21.53 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Infant mortality rate: 7.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

 Life expectancy at birth:
 total population: 78.52 years
 male: 75.65 years
 female: 81.66 years (1995 est.)

 Total fertility rate: 1.72 children born/woman (1995 est.)

 Nationality:
 noun: Andorran(s)
 adjective: Andorran

 Ethnic divisions: Spanish 61%, Andorran 30%, French 6%, other 3%

 Religions: Roman Catholic (predominant)

 Languages: Catalan (official), French, Castilian

 Literacy: NA%

 Labor force: NA

@Andorra:Government

 Names:
 conventional long form: Principality of Andorra
 conventional short form: Andorra
 local long form: Principat d'Andorra
 local short form: Andorra

 Digraph: AN

 Type: parliamentary democracy (since March 1993) that retains as its
 heads of state a co-principality; the two princes are the president of
 France and Spanish bishop of Seo de Urgel, who are represented locally
 by officials called veguers

 Capital: Andorra la Vella

 Administrative divisions: 7 parishes (parroquies, singular -
 parroquia); Andorra, Canillo, Encamp, La Massana, Les Escaldes,
 Ordino, Sant Julia de Loria

 Independence: 1278

 National holiday: Mare de Deu de Meritxell, 8 September

 Constitution: Andorra's first written constitution was drafted in
 1991; adopted 14 March 1993

 Legal system: based on French and Spanish civil codes; no judicial
 review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
 jurisdiction

 Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

 Executive branch:
 chiefs of state: French Co-Prince Francois MITTERRAND (since 21 May
 1981), represented by Veguer de Franca Jean Pierre COURTOIS (since
 NA); note - COURTOIS is to become French ambassador to Libreville and
 his replacement has not been announced; Spanish Episcopal Co-Prince
 Mgr. Juan MARTI Alanis (since 31 January 1971), represented by Veguer
 Episcopal Francesc BADIA Bata (since NA); two permanent delegates
 (French Prefect Pierre STEINMETZ for the department of
 Pyrenees-Orientales, since NA, and Spanish Vicar General Nemesi
 MARQUES Oste for the Seo de Urgel diocese, since NA)
 head of government: Executive Council President Marc FORNE (since 21
 December 1994) elected by Parliament, following resignation of Oscar
 RIBAS Reig
 cabinet: Executive Council; designated by the executive council
 president

 Legislative branch: unicameral
 General Council of the Valleys: (Consell General de las Valls);
 elections last held 12 December 1993 (next to be held NA); yielded no
 clear winner; results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (28
 total) number of seats by party NA

 Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Andorra at Perpignan (France) for
 civil cases, the Ecclesiastical Court of the bishop of Seo de Urgel
 (Spain) for civil cases, Tribunal of the Courts (Tribunal des Cortes)
 for criminal cases

 Political parties and leaders: National Democratic Group (AND), Oscar
 RIBAS Reig and Jordi FARRAS; Liberal Union (UL), Francesc CERQUEDA;
 New Democracy (ND), Jaume BARTOMEU; Andorran National Coalition (CNA),
 Antoni CERQUEDA; National Democratic Initiative (IDN), Vincenc MATEU;
 Liberal Union (UL), Marc FORNE
 note: there are two other small parties

 Member of: ECE, IFRCS (associate), INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, UN, UNESCO

 Diplomatic representation in US: Andorra has no mission in the US

 US diplomatic representation: Andorra is included within the Barcelona
 (Spain) Consular District, and the US Consul General visits Andorra
 periodically

 Flag: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red
 with the national coat of arms centered in the yellow band; the coat
 of arms features a quartered shield; similar to the flags of Chad and
 Romania that do not have a national coat of arms in the center

@Andorra:Economy

 Overview: Tourism, the mainstay of Andorra's economy, accounts for
 roughly 80% of GDP. An estimated 13 million tourists visit annually,
 attracted by Andorra's duty-free status and by its summer and winter
 resorts. The banking sector, with its "tax haven" status, also
 contributes substantially to the economy. Agricultural production is
 limited by a scarcity of arable land, and most food has to be
 imported. The principal livestock activity is sheep raising.
 Manufacturing consists mainly of cigarettes, cigars, and furniture.
 Andorra is a member of the EU Customs Union; it is unclear what effect
 the European Single Market will have on the advantages Andorra obtains
 from its duty-free status.

 National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $760 million (1992
 est.)

 National product real growth rate: NA%

 National product per capita: $14,000 (1992 est.)

 Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

 Unemployment rate: 0%

 Budget:
 revenues: $138 million
 expenditures: $177 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
 (1993)

 Exports: $30 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
 commodities: electricity, tobacco products, furniture
 partners: France, Spain

 Imports: $NA
 commodities: consumer goods, food
 partners: France, Spain

 External debt: $NA

 Industrial production: growth rate NA%

 Electricity:
 capacity: 35,000 kW
 production: 140 million kWh
 consumption per capita: 2,570 kWh (1992)

 Industries: tourism (particularly skiing), sheep, timber, tobacco,
 banking

 Agriculture: sheep raising; small quantities of tobacco, rye, wheat,
 barley, oats, and some vegetables

 Economic aid: none

 Currency: 1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes; 1 peseta (Pta) = 100
 centimos; the French and Spanish currencies are used

 Exchange rates: French francs (F) per US$1 - 5.2943 (January 1995),
 5,5520 (1994), 5.6632 (1993), 5.2938 (1992), 5.6421 (1991), 5.4453
 (1990); Spanish pesetas (Ptas) per US$1 - 132.61 (January 1995),
 133.96 (1994), 127.26 (1993), 102.38 (1992), 103.91 (1991), 101.93
 (1990)

 Fiscal year: calendar year

@Andorra:Transportation

 Railroads: 0 km

 Highways:
 total: 96 km
 paved: NA
 unpaved: NA

 Ports: none

 Airports: none

@Andorra:Communications

 Telephone system: 17,700 telephones; digital microwave network
 local: NA
 intercity: NA
 international: landline circuits to France and Spain

 Radio:
 broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 0, shortwave 0
 radios: NA

 Television:
 broadcast stations: 0
 televisions: NA

@Andorra:Defense Forces

 Note: defense is the responsibility of France and Spain


________________________________________________________________________

ANGOLA

@Angola:Geography

 Location: Southern Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between
 Namibia and Zaire

 Map references: Africa

 Area:
 total area: 1,246,700 sq km
 land area: 1,246,700 sq km
 comparative area: slightly less than twice the size of Texas

 Land boundaries: total 5,198 km, Congo 201 km, Namibia 1,376 km, Zaire
 2,511 km, Zambia 1,110 km

 Coastline: 1,600 km

 Maritime claims:
 exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
 territorial sea: 20 nm

 International disputes: none

 Climate: semiarid in south and along coast to Luanda; north has cool,
 dry season (May to October) and hot, rainy season (November to April)

 Terrain: narrow coastal plain rises abruptly to vast interior plateau

 Natural resources: petroleum, diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, copper,
 feldspar, gold, bauxite, uranium

 Land use:
 arable land: 2%
 permanent crops: 0%
 meadows and pastures: 23%
 forest and woodland: 43%
 other: 32%

 Irrigated land: NA km2

 Environment:
 current issues: population pressures contributing to overuse of
 pastures and subsequent soil erosion; desertification; deforestation
 of tropical rain forest attributable to the international demand for
 tropical timber and domestic use as a fuel; deforestation contributing
 to loss of biodiversity; soil erosion contributing to water pollution
 and siltation of rivers and dams; inadequate supplies of potable water

 natural hazards: locally heavy rainfall causes periodic flooding on
 the plateau
 international agreements: party to - Law of the Sea; signed, but not
 ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification

 Note: Cabinda is separated from rest of country by Zaire

@Angola:People

 Population: 10,069,501 (July 1995 est.)

 Age structure:
 0-14 years: 45% (female 2,208,307; male 2,274,533)
 15-64 years: 53% (female 2,641,259; male 2,685,543)
 65 years and over: 2% (female 136,573; male 123,286) (July 1995 est.)

 Population growth rate: 2.68% (1995 est.)

 Birth rate: 45.05 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Death rate: 18.1 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Net migration rate: -0.15 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Infant mortality rate: 142.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

 Life expectancy at birth:
 total population: 46.28 years
 male: 44.18 years
 female: 48.49 years (1995 est.)

 Total fertility rate: 6.42 children born/woman (1995 est.)

 Nationality:
 noun: Angolan(s)
 adjective: Angolan

 Ethnic divisions: Ovimbundu 37%, Kimbundu 25%, Bakongo 13%, mestico
 (mixed European and Native African) 2%, European 1%, other 22%

 Religions: indigenous beliefs 47%, Roman Catholic 38%, Protestant 15%
 (est.)

 Languages: Portuguese (official), Bantu and other African languages

 Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
 total population: 42%
 male: 56%
 female: 28%

 Labor force: 2.783 million economically active
 by occupation: agriculture 85%, industry 15% (1985 est.)

@Angola:Government

 Note: Civil war has been the norm since independence from Portugal on
 11 November 1975; a cease-fire lasted from 31 May 1991 until October
 1992 when the insurgent National Union for the Total Independence of
 Angola (UNITA) refused to accept its defeat in internationally
 monitored elections and fighting resumed throughout much of the
 countryside. The two sides signed another peace accord on 20 November
 1994; the cease-fire is generally holding but most provisions of the
 accord remain to be implemented.

 Names:
 conventional long form: Republic of Angola
 conventional short form: Angola
 local long form: Republica de Angola
 local short form: Angola
 former: People's Republic of Angola

 Digraph: AO

 Type: transitional government nominally a multiparty democracy with a
 strong presidential system

 Capital: Luanda

 Administrative divisions: 18 provinces (provincias, singular -
 provincia); Bengo, Benguela, Bie, Cabinda, Cuando Cubango, Cuanza
 Norte, Cuanza Sul, Cunene, Huambo, Huila, Luanda, Lunda Norte, Lunda
 Sul, Malanje, Moxico, Namibe, Uige, Zaire

 Independence: 11 November 1975 (from Portugal)

 National holiday: Independence Day, 11 November (1975)

 Constitution: 11 November 1975; revised 7 January 1978, 11 August
 1980, 6 March 1991, and 26 August 1992

 Legal system: based on Portuguese civil law system and customary law;
 recently modified to accommodate political pluralism and increased use
 of free markets

 Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

 Executive branch:
 chief of state: President Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS (since 21 September
 1979)
 head of government: Prime Minister Marcolino Jose Carlos MOCO (since 2
 December 1992)
 cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by the president

 Legislative branch: unicameral
 National Assembly (Assembleia Nacional): first nationwide, multiparty
 elections were held 29-30 September 1992 with disputed results

 Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Tribunal da Relacao)

 Political parties and leaders: Popular Movement for the Liberation of
 Angola (MPLA), led by Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS, is the ruling party and
 has been in power since 1975; National Union for the Total
 Independence of Angola (UNITA), led by Jonas SAVIMBI, is a legal party
 despite its history of armed resistance to the government; five minor
 parties have small numbers of seats in the National Assembly

 Other political or pressure groups: Cabindan State Liberation Front
 (FLEC), N'ZITA Tiago, leader of largest faction (FLEC-FAC)
 note: FLEC is waging a small-scale, highly factionalized, armed
 struggle for the independence of Cabinda Province

 Member of: ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEEAC (observer), ECA, FAO, FLS, G-77,
 GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO,
 INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ITU, NAM, OAS (observer), OAU, SADC, UN,
 UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

 Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Jose Goncalves Martins PATRICIO
 embassy: 1819 L Street NW, Washington, DC 20036, Suite 400
 telephone: [1] (202) 785-1156
 FAX: [1] (202) 785-1258

 US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Edmund T. DE JARNETTE
 embassy: 32 Rua Houari Boumedienne, Miramar, Luanda
 mailing address: C.P. 6484, Luanda; American Embassy, Luanda,
 Department of State, Washington, D.C. 20521-2550 (pouch)
 telephone: [244] (2) 345-481, 346-418
 FAX: [244] (2) 347-884

 Flag: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and black with a
 centered yellow emblem consisting of a five-pointed star within half a
 cogwheel crossed by a machete (in the style of a hammer and sickle)

@Angola:Economy

 Overview: Subsistence agriculture provides the main livelihood for
 80%-90% of the population but accounts for less than 15% of GDP. Oil
 production is vital to the economy, contributing about 60% to GDP.
 Despite the signing of a peace accord in November 1994 between the
 Angola government and the UNITA insurgents, sporadic fighting
 continues and many farmers remain reluctant to return to their fields.
 As a result, much of the country's food requirements must still be
 imported. Angola has rich natural resources - notably gold, diamonds,
 and arable land, in addition to large oil deposits - but will need to
 observe the cease-fire, implement the peace agreement, and reform
 government policies if it is to achieve its potential.

 National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $6.1 billion (1994
 est.)

 National product real growth rate: -1% (1994 est.)

 National product per capita: $620 (1994 est.)

 Inflation rate (consumer prices): 20% average per month (1994 est.)

 Unemployment rate: 15% with considerable underemployment (1993 est.)

 Budget:
 revenues: $928 million
 expenditures: $2.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $963
 million (1992 est.)

 Exports: $3 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
 commodities: oil, diamonds, refined petroleum products, gas, coffee,
 sisal, fish and fish products, timber, cotton
 partners: US, France, Germany, Netherlands, Brazil

 Imports: $1.6 billion (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
 commodities: capital equipment (machinery and electrical equipment),
 food, vehicles and spare parts, textiles and clothing, medicines,
 substantial military deliveries
 partners: Portugal, Brazil, US, France, Spain

 External debt: $11.7 billion (1994 est.)

 Industrial production: growth rate NA%; accounts for about 60% of GDP,
 including petroleum output

 Electricity:
 capacity: 620,000 kW
 production: 1.9 billion kWh
 consumption per capita: 189 kWh (1993)

 Industries: petroleum; mining - diamonds, iron ore, phosphates,
 feldspar, bauxite, uranium, and gold; fish processing; food
 processing; brewing; tobacco; sugar; textiles; cement; basic metal
 products

 Agriculture: cash crops - bananas, sugarcane, coffee, sisal, corn,
 cotton, cane, manioc, tobacco; food crops - cassava, corn, vegetables,
 plantains; livestock production accounts for 20%, fishing 4%, forestry
 2% of total agricultural output

 Illicit drugs: increasingly used as a transshipment point for cocaine
 destined for Western Europe

 Economic aid:
 recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $265 million;
 Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
 (1970-89), $1.105 billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $1.3
 billion; net official disbursements (1985-89), $750 million

 Currency: 1 new kwanza (NKz) = 100 lwei

 Exchange rates: new kwanza (NKz) per US$1 - 900,000 (official rate 25
 April 1995), 1,900,000 (black market rate 6 April 1995), 600,000
 (official rate 10 January 1995), 90,000 (official rate 1 June 1994),
 180,000 (black market rate 1 June 1994); 7,000 (official rate 16
 December 1993), 50,000 (black market rate 16 December 1993); 3,884
 (July 1993); 550 (April 1992); 90 (November 1991); 60 (October 1990)

 Fiscal year: calendar year

@Angola:Transportation

 Railroads:
 total: 3,189 km; note - limited trackage in use because of landmines
 still in place from the civil war; majority of the Benguela Railroad
 also closed because of civil war
 narrow gauge: 2,879 km 1.067-m gauge; 310 km 0.600-m gauge

 Highways:
 total: 73,828 km
 paved: bituminous-surface 8,577 km
 unpaved: crushed stone, gravel, improved earth 29,350 km; unimproved
 earth 35,901 km

 Inland waterways: 1,295 km navigable

 Pipelines: crude oil 179 km

 Ports: Ambriz, Cabinda, Lobito, Luanda, Malogo, Namibe, Porto Amboim,
 Soyo

 Merchant marine:
 total: 12 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 63,776 GRT/99,863 DWT
 ships by type: cargo 11, oil tanker 1

 Airports:
 total: 289
 with paved runways over 3,047 m: 4
 with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 9
 with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 12
 with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 6
 with paved runways under 914 m: 93
 with unpaved runways over 3,047 m: 1
 with unpaved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
 with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 33
 with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 126

@Angola:Communications

 Telephone system: 40,300 telephones; 4.1 telephones/1,000 persons;
 high frequency radio used extensively for military links; telephone
 service limited mostly to government and business use
 local: NA
 intercity: limited system of wire, microwave radio relay, and
 troposcatter routes
 international: 2 INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean) earth stations

 Radio:
 broadcast stations: AM 17, FM 13, shortwave 0
 radios: NA

 Television:
 broadcast stations: 6
 televisions: NA

@Angola:Defense Forces

 Branches: Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, National Police
 Force

 Manpower availability: males age 15-49 2,315,717; males fit for
 military service 1,166,082; males reach military age (18) annually
 100,273 (1995 est.)

 Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $1.1 billion, 31% of
 GDP (1993)


________________________________________________________________________

ANGUILLA

 (dependent territory of the UK) 

@Anguilla:Geography

 Location: Caribbean, island in the Caribbean Sea, east of Puerto Rico

 Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

 Area:
 total area: 91 sq km
 land area: 91 sq km
 comparative area: about half the size of Washington, DC

 Land boundaries: 0 km

 Coastline: 61 km

 Maritime claims:
 exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
 territorial sea: 3 nm

 International disputes: none

 Climate: tropical; moderated by northeast trade winds

 Terrain: flat and low-lying island of coral and limestone

 Natural resources: negligible; salt, fish, lobster

 Land use:
 arable land: NA%
 permanent crops: NA%
 meadows and pastures: NA%
 forest and woodland: NA%
 other: NA% (mostly rock with sparse scrub oak, few trees, some
 commercial salt ponds)

 Irrigated land: NA sq km

 Environment:
 current issues: supplies of potable water sometimes cannot meet
 increasing demand largely because of poor distribution system
 natural hazards: frequent hurricanes and other tropical storms (July
 to October)
 international agreements: NA

@Anguilla:People

 Population: 7,099 (July 1995 est.)

 Age structure:
 0-14 years: 32% (female 1,129; male 1,115)
 15-64 years: 60% (female 2,101; male 2,126)
 65 years and over: 8% (female 362; male 266) (July 1995 est.)

 Population growth rate: 0.66% (1995 est.)

 Birth rate: 24.09 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Death rate: 8.03 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Net migration rate: -9.44 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Infant mortality rate: 17.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

 Life expectancy at birth:
 total population: 74.1 years
 male: 71.32 years
 female: 76.91 years (1995 est.)

 Total fertility rate: 3.05 children born/woman (1995 est.)

 Nationality:
 noun: Anguillan(s)
 adjective: Anguillan

 Ethnic divisions: black African

 Religions: Anglican 40%, Methodist 33%, Seventh-Day Adventist 7%,
 Baptist 5%, Roman Catholic 3%, other 12%

 Languages: English (official)

 Literacy: age 12 and over can read and write (1984)
 total population: 95%
 male: 95%
 female: 95%

 Labor force: 4,400 (1992)
 by occupation: commerce 36%, services 29%, construction 18%,
 transportation and utilities 10%, manufacturing 3%,
 agriculture/fishing/forestry/mining 4%

@Anguilla:Government

 Names:
 conventional long form: none
 conventional short form: Anguilla

 Digraph: AV

 Type: dependent territory of the UK

 Capital: The Valley

 Administrative divisions: none (dependent territory of the UK)

 Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)

 National holiday: Anguilla Day, 30 May

 Constitution: Anguilla Constitutional Orders 1 April 1982; amended
 1990

 Legal system: based on English common law

 Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

 Executive branch:
 chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
 represented by Governor Alan W. SHAVE (since 14 August 1992)
 head of government: Chief Minister Hubert HUGHES (since 16 March 1994)

 cabinet: Executive Council; appointed by the governor from the elected
 members of the House of Assembly

 Legislative branch: unicameral
 House of Assembly: elections last held 16 March 1994 (next to be held
 March 1999); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (11 total,
 7 elected) ANA 2, AUP 2, ADP 2, independent 1

 Judicial branch: High Court

 Political parties and leaders: Anguilla National Alliance (ANA);
 Anguilla United Party (AUP), Hubert HUGHES; Anguilla Democratic Party
 (ADP), Victor BANKS

 Member of: CARICOM (observer), CDB, INTERPOL (subbureau)

 Diplomatic representation in US: none (dependent territory of the UK)

 US diplomatic representation: none (dependent territory of the UK)

 Flag: two horizontal bands of white (top, almost triple width) and
 light blue with three orange dolphins in an interlocking circular
 design centered in the white band; a new flag may have been in use
 since 30 May 1990

@Anguilla:Economy

 Overview: Anguilla has few natural resources, and the economy depends
 heavily on lobster fishing, offshore banking, tourism, and remittances
 from emigrants. In recent years the economy has benefited from a boom
 in tourism and construction. Development plans center around the
 improvement of the infrastructure, particularly transport and tourist
 facilities, and also light industry.

 National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $49 million (1993
 est.)

 National product real growth rate: 7.5% (1992)

 National product per capita: $7,000 (1993 est.)

 Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3% (1992 est.)

 Unemployment rate: 7% (1992 est.)

 Budget:
 revenues: $13.8 million
 expenditures: $15.2 million, including capital expenditures of $2.4
 million (1992 est.)

 Exports: $556,000 (f.o.b., 1992)
 commodities: lobster and salt
 partners: NA

 Imports: $33.5 million (f.o.b., 1992)
 commodities: NA
 partners: NA

 External debt: $NA

 Industrial production: growth rate NA%

 Electricity:
 capacity: 2,000 kW
 production: 6 million kWh
 consumption per capita: 862 kWh (1992)

 Industries: tourism, boat building, salt

 Agriculture: pigeon peas, corn, sweet potatoes, sheep, goats, pigs,
 cattle, poultry, fishing (including lobster)

 Economic aid:
 recipient: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral
 commitments (1970-89), $38 million

 Currency: 1 EC dollar (EC$) = 100 cents

 Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1 - 2.70 (fixed
 rate since 1976)

 Fiscal year: NA

@Anguilla:Transportation

 Railroads: 0 km

 Highways:
 total: 105 km (1992 est.)
 paved: 65 km
 unpaved: gravel and earth 40 km

 Ports: Blowing Point, Road Bay

 Merchant marine: none

 Airports:
 total: 3
 with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 1
 with paved runways under 914 m: 2

@Anguilla:Communications

 Telephone system: 890 telephones; modern internal telephone system
 local: NA
 intercity: NA
 international: radio relay microwave link to island of Saint Martin

 Radio:
 broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 1, shortwave 0
 radios: NA

 Television:
 broadcast stations: 0
 televisions: NA

@Anguilla:Defense Forces

 Note: defense is the responsibility of the UK


________________________________________________________________________

ANTARCTICA

@Antarctica:Geography

 Location: continent mostly south of the Antarctic Circle

 Map references: Antarctic Region

 Area:
 total area: 14 million sq km (est.)
 land area: 14 million sq km (est.)
 comparative area: slightly less than 1.5 times the size of the US
 note: second-smallest continent (after Australia)

 Land boundaries: none, but see entry on International disputes

 Coastline: 17,968 km

 Maritime claims: none, but see entry on International Disputes

 International disputes: Antarctic Treaty defers claims (see Antarctic
 Treaty Summary below); sections (some overlapping) claimed by
 Argentina, Australia, Chile, France (Adelie Land), New Zealand (Ross
 Dependency), Norway (Queen Maud Land), and UK; the US and most other
 nations do not recognize the territorial claims of other nations and
 have made no claims themselves (the US reserves the right to do so);
 no formal claims have been made in the sector between 90 degrees west
 and 150 degrees west

 Climate: severe low temperatures vary with latitude, elevation, and
 distance from the ocean; East Antarctica is colder than West
 Antarctica because of its higher elevation; Antarctic Peninsula has
 the most moderate climate; higher temperatures occur in January along
 the coast and average slightly below freezing

 Terrain: about 98% thick continental ice sheet and 2% barren rock,
 with average elevations between 2,000 and 4,000 meters; mountain
 ranges up to 4,897 meters high; ice-free coastal areas include parts
 of southern Victoria Land, Wilkes Land, the Antarctic Peninsula area,
 and parts of Ross Island on McMurdo Sound; glaciers form ice shelves
 along about half of the coastline, and floating ice shelves constitute
 11% of the area of the continent

 Natural resources: none presently exploited; iron ore, chromium,
 copper, gold, nickel, platinum and other minerals, and coal and
 hydrocarbons have been found in small, uncommercial quantities

 Land use:
 arable land: 0%
 permanent crops: 0%
 meadows and pastures: 0%
 forest and woodland: 0%
 other: 100% (ice 98%, barren rock 2%)

 Irrigated land: 0 sq km

 Environment:
 current issues: in October 1991 it was reported that the ozone shield,
 which protects the Earth's surface from harmful ultraviolet radiation,
 had dwindled to the lowest level recorded over Antarctica since 1975
 when measurements were first taken
 natural hazards: katabatic (gravity-driven) winds blow coastward from
 the high interior; frequent blizzards form near the foot of the
 plateau; cyclonic storms form over the ocean and move clockwise along
 the coast; volcanism on Deception Island and isolated areas of West
 Antarctica; other seismic activity rare and weak
 international agreements: NA

 Note: the coldest, windiest, highest, and driest continent; during
 summer more solar radiation reaches the surface at the South Pole than
 is received at the Equator in an equivalent period; mostly
 uninhabitable

@Antarctica:People

 Population: no indigenous inhabitants; note - there are seasonally
 staffed research stations
 Summer (January) population: over 4,115 total; Argentina 207,
 Australia 268, Belgium 13, Brazil 80, Chile 256, China NA, Ecuador NA,
 Finland 11, France 78, Germany 32, Greenpeace 12, India 60, Italy 210,
 Japan 59, South Korea 14, Netherlands 10, NZ 264, Norway 23, Peru 39,
 Poland NA, South Africa 79, Spain 43, Sweden 10, UK 116, Uruguay NA,
 US 1,666, former USSR 565 (1989-90)
 Winter (July) population: over 1,046 total; Argentina 150, Australia
 71, Brazil 12, Chile 73, China NA, France 33, Germany 19, Greenpeace
 5, India 1, Japan 38, South Korea 14, NZ 11, Poland NA, South Africa
 12, UK 69, Uruguay NA, US 225, former USSR 313 (1989-90)
 Year-round stations: 42 total; Argentina 6, Australia 3, Brazil 1,
 Chile 3, China 2, Finland 1, France 1, Germany 1, India 1, Japan 2,
 South Korea 1, NZ 1, Poland 1, South Africa 3, UK 5, Uruguay 1, US 3,
 former USSR 6 (1990-91)
 Summer only stations: over 38 total; Argentina 7, Australia 3, Chile
 5, Germany 3, India 1, Italy 1, Japan 4, NZ 2, Norway 1, Peru 1, South
 Africa 1, Spain 1, Sweden 2, UK 1, US numerous, former USSR 5
 (1989-90); note - the disintegration of the former USSR has placed the
 status and future of its Antarctic facilities in doubt; stations may
 be subject to closings at any time because of ongoing economic
 difficulties

@Antarctica:Government

 Names:
 conventional long form: none
 conventional short form: Antarctica

 Digraph: AY

 Type:
 Antarctic Treaty Summary: The Antarctic Treaty, signed on 1 December
 1959 and entered into force on 23 June 1961, establishes the legal
 framework for the management of Antarctica. Administration is carried
 out through consultative member meetings - the 18th Antarctic Treaty
 Consultative Meeting was in Japan in April 1993. Currently, there are
 42 treaty member nations: 26 consultative and 16 acceding.
 Consultative (voting) members include the seven nations that claim
 portions of Antarctica as national territory (some claims overlap) and
 19 nonclaimant nations. The US and some other nations that have made
 no claims have reserved the right to do so. The US does not recognize
 the claims of others. The year in parentheses indicates when an
 acceding nation was voted to full consultative (voting) status, while
 no date indicates the country was an original 1959 treaty signatory.
 Claimant nations are - Argentina, Australia, Chile, France, New
 Zealand, Norway, and the UK. Nonclaimant consultative nations are -
 Belgium, Brazil (1983), China (1985), Ecuador (1990), Finland (1989),
 Germany (1981), India (1983), Italy (1987), Japan, South Korea (1989),
 Netherlands (1990), Peru (1989), Poland (1977), South Africa, Spain
 (1988), Sweden (1988), Uruguay (1985), the US, and Russia. Acceding
 (nonvoting) members, with year of accession in parentheses, are -
 Austria (1987), Bulgaria (1978), Canada (1988), Colombia (1988), Cuba
 (1984), Czech Republic (1993), Denmark (1965), Greece (1987),
 Guatemala (1991), Hungary (1984), North Korea (1987), Papua New Guinea
 (1981), Romania (1971), Slovakia (1993), Switzerland (1990), and
 Ukraine (1992).
 Article 1: area to be used for peaceful purposes only; military
 activity, such as weapons testing, is prohibited, but military
 personnel and equipment may be used for scientific research or any
 other peaceful purpose
 Article 2: freedom of scientific investigation and cooperation shall
 continue
 Article 3: free exchange of information and personnel in cooperation
 with the UN and other international agencies
 Article 4: does not recognize, dispute, or establish territorial
 claims and no new claims shall be asserted while the treaty is in
 force
 Article 5: prohibits nuclear explosions or disposal of radioactive
 wastes
 Article 6: includes under the treaty all land and ice shelves south of
 60 degrees 00 minutes south
 Article 7: treaty-state observers have free access, including aerial
 observation, to any area and may inspect all stations, installations,
 and equipment; advance notice of all activities and of the
 introduction of military personnel must be given
 Article 8: allows for jurisdiction over observers and scientists by
 their own states
 Article 9: frequent consultative meetings take place among member
 nations
 Article 10: treaty states will discourage activities by any country in
 Antarctica that are contrary to the treaty
 Article 11: disputes to be settled peacefully by the parties concerned
 or, ultimately, by the ICJ
 Articles 12, 13, 14: deal with upholding, interpreting, and amending
 the treaty among involved nations
 Other agreements: more than 170 recommendations adopted at treaty
 consultative meetings and ratified by governments include - Agreed
 Measures for the Conservation of Antarctic Fauna and Flora (1964);
 Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Seals (1972); Convention
 on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (1980); a
 mineral resources agreement was signed in 1988 but was subsequently
 rejected; in 1991 the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the
 Antarctic Treaty was signed and awaits ratification; this agreement
 provides for the protection of the Antarctic environment through five
 specific annexes on marine pollution, fauna, and flora, environmental
 impact assessments, waste management, and protected areas; it also
 prohibits all activities relating to mineral resources except
 scientific research; 14 parties have ratified Protocol as of April
 1995

 Legal system: US law, including certain criminal offenses by or
 against US nationals, such as murder, may apply to areas not under
 jurisdiction of other countries. Some US laws directly apply to
 Antarctica. For example, the Antarctic Conservation Act, 16 U.S.C.
 section 2401 et seq., provides civil and criminal penalties for the
 following activities, unless authorized by regulation of statute: The
 taking of native mammals or birds; the introduction of nonindigenous
 plants and animals; entry into specially protected or scientific
 areas; the discharge or disposal of pollutants; and the importation
 into the US of certain items from Antarctica. Violation of the
 Antarctic Conservation Act carries penalties of up to $10,000 in fines
 and 1 year in prison. The Departments of Treasury, Commerce,
 Transportation, and Interior share enforcement responsibilities.
 Public Law 95-541, the US Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978, requires
 expeditions from the US to Antarctica to notify, in advance, the
 Office of Oceans and Polar Affairs, Room 5801, Department of State,
 Washington, DC 20520, which reports such plans to other nations as
 required by the Antarctic Treaty. For more information contact Permit
 Office, Office of Polar Programs, National Science Foundation,
 Arlington, Virginia 22230 (703-306-1031).

@Antarctica:Economy

 Overview: No economic activity at present except for fishing off the
 coast and small-scale tourism, both based abroad.

@Antarctica:Transportation

 Ports: none; offshore anchorage

 Airports: 42 landing facilities at different locations operated by 15
 national governments party to the Treaty; one additional air facility
 operated by commercial (nongovernmental) tourist organization;
 helicopter pads at 36 of these locations; runways at 14 locations are
 gravel, sea ice, glacier ice, or compacted snow surface suitable for
 wheeled fixed-wing aircraft; no paved runways; 15 locations have
 snow-surface skiways limited to use by ski-equipped planes - 11
 runways/skiways 1,000 to 3,000 m, 5 runways/skiways less than 1,000 m,
 8 runways/skiways greater than 3,000 m, and 5 of unspecified or
 variable length; airports generally subject to severe restrictions and
 limitations resulting from extreme seasonal and geographic conditions;
 airports do not meet ICAO standards; advance approval from the
 respective governmental or non-governmental operating organization
 required for landing

@Antarctica:Communications

 Telephone system:
 local: NA
 intercity: NA
 international: NA

 Radio:
 broadcast stations: AM NA, FM NA, shortwave NA
 radios: NA

 Television:
 broadcast stations: NA
 televisions: NA

@Antarctica:Defense Forces

 Note: the Antarctic Treaty prohibits any measures of a military
 nature, such as the establishment of military bases and
 fortifications, the carrying out of military maneuvers, or the testing
 of any type of weapon; it permits the use of military personnel or
 equipment for scientific research or for any other peaceful purposes


________________________________________________________________________

ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA

@Antigua And Barbuda:Geography

 Location: Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and the North
 Atlantic Ocean, east-southeast of Puerto Rico

 Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

 Area:
 total area: 440 sq km
 land area: 440 sq km
 comparative area: slightly less than 2.5 times the size of Washington,
 DC
 note: includes Redonda

 Land boundaries: 0 km

 Coastline: 153 km

 Maritime claims:
 contiguous zone: 24 nm
 continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
 exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
 territorial sea: 12 nm

 International disputes: none

 Climate: tropical marine; little seasonal temperature variation

 Terrain: mostly low-lying limestone and coral islands with some higher
 volcanic areas

 Natural resources: negligible; pleasant climate fosters tourism

 Land use:
 arable land: 18%
 permanent crops: 0%
 meadows and pastures: 7%
 forest and woodland: 16%
 other: 59%

 Irrigated land: NA sq km

 Environment:
 current issues: water management - a major concern because of limited
 natural fresh water resources - is further hampered by the clearing of
 trees to increase crop production, causing rainfall to run off quickly

 natural hazards: hurricanes and tropical storms (July to October);
 periodic droughts
 international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
 Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine
 Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
 Whaling

@Antigua And Barbuda:People

 Population: 65,176 (July 1995 est.)

 Age structure:
 0-14 years: 25% (female 8,062; male 8,390)
 15-64 years: 69% (female 22,342; male 22,334)
 65 years and over: 6% (female 2,231; male 1,817) (July 1995 est.)

 Population growth rate: 0.68% (1995 est.)

 Birth rate: 17.08 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Death rate: 5.35 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Net migration rate: -4.91 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Infant mortality rate: 17.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

 Life expectancy at birth:
 total population: 73.4 years
 male: 71.32 years
 female: 75.57 years (1995 est.)

 Total fertility rate: 1.68 children born/woman (1995 est.)

 Nationality:
 noun: Antiguan(s), Barbudan(s)
 adjective: Antiguan, Barbudan

 Ethnic divisions: black African, British, Portuguese, Lebanese, Syrian

 Religions: Anglican (predominant), other Protestant sects, some Roman
 Catholic

 Languages: English (official), local dialects

 Literacy: age 15 and over has completed five or more years of
 schooling (1960)
 total population: 89%
 male: 90%
 female: 88%

 Labor force: 30,000
 by occupation: commerce and services 82%, agriculture 11%, industry 7%
 (1983)

@Antigua And Barbuda:Government

 Names:
 conventional long form: none
 conventional short form: Antigua and Barbuda

 Digraph: AC

 Type: parliamentary democracy

 Capital: Saint John's

 Administrative divisions: 6 parishes and 2 dependencies*; Barbuda*,
 Redonda*, Saint George, Saint John, Saint Mary, Saint Paul, Saint
 Peter, Saint Philip

 Independence: 1 November 1981 (from UK)

 National holiday: Independence Day, 1 November (1981)

 Constitution: 1 November 1981

 Legal system: based on English common law

 Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

 Executive branch:
 chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
 represented by Governor General James B. CARLISLE (since NA 1993)
 head of government: Prime Minister Lester Bryant BIRD (since 8 March
 1994)
 cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by the governor general on
 the advice of the prime minister

 Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament
 Senate: 17 member body appointed by the governor general
 House of Representatives: elections last held 8 March 1994 (next to be
 held NA 1999); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (17
 total) ALP 11, UPP 5, independent 1

 Judicial branch: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court

 Political parties and leaders: Antigua Labor Party (ALP), Lester
 Bryant BIRD; United Progressive Party (UPP), Baldwin SPENCER

 Other political or pressure groups: United Progressive Party (UPP),
 headed by Baldwin SPENCER, a coalition of three opposition political
 parties - the United National Democratic Party (UNDP); the Antigua
 Caribbean Liberation Movement (ACLM); and the Progressive Labor
 Movement (PLM); Antigua Trades and Labor Union (ATLU), headed by
 William ROBINSON

 Member of: ACP, C, CARICOM, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO,
 ICFTU, ICRM, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS (associate), ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT
 (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC, ISO (subscriber), ITU, NAM
 (observer), OAS, OECS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WCL, WFTU,
 WHO, WMO

 Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Patrick Albert LEWIS
 chancery: 3216 New Mexico Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20016
 telephone: [1] (202) 362-5211, 5166, 5122
 FAX: [1] (202) 362-5225
 consulate(s) general: Miami

 US diplomatic representation: the post was closed 30 June 1994; the US
 Ambassador to Barbados is accredited to Antigua and Barbuda

 Flag: red with an inverted isosceles triangle based on the top edge of
 the flag; the triangle contains three horizontal bands of black (top),
 light blue, and white with a yellow rising sun in the black band

@Antigua And Barbuda:Economy

 Overview: The economy is primarily service oriented, with tourism the
 most important determinant of economic performance. In 1993, tourism
 made a direct contribution to GDP of about 17%, and also spurred
 growth in other sectors such as construction and transport. While only
 accounting for roughly 5% of GDP in 1993, agricultural production
 increased by 4%. Tourist arrivals remained strong in 1994.

 National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $400 million (1993
 est.)

 National product real growth rate: 3.4% (1993)

 National product per capita: $6,000 (1993 est.)

 Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7% (1993)

 Unemployment rate: 6% (1992 est.)

 Budget:
 revenues: $105 million
 expenditures: $161 million, including capital expenditures of $56
 million (1992)

 Exports: $54.7 million (f.o.b., 1992)
 commodities: petroleum products 48%, manufactures 23%, food and live
 animals 4%, machinery and transport equipment 17%
 partners: OECS 26%, Barbados 15%, Guyana 4%, Trinidad and Tobago 2%,
 US 0.3%

 Imports: $260.9 million (f.o.b., 1992)
 commodities: food and live animals, machinery and transport equipment,
 manufactures, chemicals, oil
 partners: US 27%, UK 16%, Canada 4%, OECS 3%, other 50%

 External debt: $250 million (1990 est.)

 Industrial production: growth rate -4.9% (1993 est.); accounts for
 6.5% of GDP

 Electricity:
 capacity: 52,100 kW
 production: 95 million kWh
 consumption per capita: 1,242 kWh (1993)

 Industries: tourism, construction, light manufacturing (clothing,
 alcohol, household appliances)

 Agriculture: accounts for 5% of GDP; expanding output of cotton,
 fruits, vegetables, and livestock; other crops - bananas, coconuts,
 cucumbers, mangoes, sugarcane; not self-sufficient in food

 Illicit drugs: a long-time but relatively minor transshipment point
 for narcotics bound for the US and Europe and recent transshipment
 point for heroin from Europe to the US; more significant as a drug
 money laundering center

 Economic aid:
 recipient: US commitments (1985-88), $10 million; Western (non-US)
 countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $50 million

 Currency: 1 EC dollar (EC$) = 100 cents

 Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1 - 2.70 (fixed
 rate since 1976)

 Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Antigua And Barbuda:Transportation

 Railroads:
 total: 77 km
 narrow gauge: 64 km 0.760-m gauge; 13 km 0.610-m gauge (used almost
 exclusively for handling sugar cane)

 Highways:
 total: 240 km
 paved: NA
 unpaved: NA

 Ports: Saint John's

 Merchant marine:
 total: 304 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,188,113 GRT/1,651,190
 DWT
 ships by type: bulk 7, cargo 216, chemical tanker 8, container 48,
 liquefied gas tanker 3, oil tanker 1, refrigerated cargo 10,
 roll-on/roll-off cargo 11
 note: a flag of convenience registry

 Airports:
 total: 3
 with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
 with paved runways under 914 m: 2

@Antigua And Barbuda:Communications

 Telephone system: 6,700 telephones; good automatic telephone system
 local: NA
 intercity: NA
 international: 1 coaxial submarine cable; 1 INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean)
 earth station; tropospheric scatter links with Saba and Guadeloupe

 Radio:
 broadcast stations: AM 4, FM 2, shortwave 2
 radios: NA

 Television:
 broadcast stations: 2
 televisions: NA

@Antigua And Barbuda:Defense Forces

 Branches: Royal Antigua and Barbuda Defense Force, Royal Antigua and
 Barbuda Police Force (includes the Coast Guard)

 Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $1.4 million, 1% of
 GDP (FY90/91)


________________________________________________________________________

ARCTIC OCEAN

@Arctic Ocean:Geography

 Location: body of water mostly north of the Arctic Circle

 Map references: Arctic Region

 Area:
 total area: 14.056 million sq km
 comparative area: slightly more than 1.5 times the size of the US;
 smallest of the world's four oceans (after Pacific Ocean, Atlantic
 Ocean, and Indian Ocean)
 note: includes Baffin Bay, Barents Sea, Beaufort Sea, Chukchi Sea,
 East Siberian Sea, Greenland Sea, Hudson Bay, Hudson Strait, Kara Sea,
 Laptev Sea, Northwest Passage, and other tributary water bodies

 Coastline: 45,389 km

 International disputes: some maritime disputes (see littoral states);
 Svalbard is the focus of a maritime boundary dispute between Norway
 and Russia

 Climate: polar climate characterized by persistent cold and relatively
 narrow annual temperature ranges; winters characterized by continuous
 darkness, cold and stable weather conditions, and clear skies; summers
 characterized by continuous daylight, damp and foggy weather, and weak
 cyclones with rain or snow

 Terrain: central surface covered by a perennial drifting polar icepack
 that averages about 3 meters in thickness, although pressure ridges
 may be three times that size; clockwise drift pattern in the Beaufort
 Gyral Stream, but nearly straight line movement from the New Siberian
 Islands (Russia) to Denmark Strait (between Greenland and Iceland);
 the ice pack is surrounded by open seas during the summer, but more
 than doubles in size during the winter and extends to the encircling
 land masses; the ocean floor is about 50% continental shelf (highest
 percentage of any ocean) with the remainder a central basin
 interrupted by three submarine ridges (Alpha Cordillera, Nansen
 Cordillera, and Lomonsov Ridge); maximum depth is 4,665 meters in the
 Fram Basin

 Natural resources: sand and gravel aggregates, placer deposits,
 polymetallic nodules, oil and gas fields, fish, marine mammals (seals
 and whales)

 Environment:
 current issues: endangered marine species include walruses and whales;
 fragile ecosystem slow to change and slow to recover from disruptions
 or damage
 natural hazards: ice islands occasionally break away from northern
 Ellesmere Island; icebergs calved from glaciers in western Greenland
 and extreme northeastern Canada; permafrost in islands; virtually
 icelocked from October to June; ships subject to superstructure icing
 from October to May
 international agreements: NA

 Note: major chokepoint is the southern Chukchi Sea (northern access to
 the Pacific Ocean via the Bering Strait); strategic location between
 North America and Russia; shortest marine link between the extremes of
 eastern and western Russia, floating research stations operated by the
 US and Russia; maximum snow cover in March or April about 20 to 50
 centimeters over the frozen ocean and lasts about 10 months

@Arctic Ocean:Government

 Digraph: XQ

@Arctic Ocean:Economy

 Overview: Economic activity is limited to the exploitation of natural
 resources, including petroleum, natural gas, fish, and seals.

@Arctic Ocean:Transportation

 Ports: Churchill (Canada), Murmansk (Russia), Prudhoe Bay (US)

 Note: sparse network of air, ocean, river, and land routes; the
 Northwest Passage (North America) and Northern Sea Route (Eurasia) are
 important seasonal waterways

@Arctic Ocean:Communications

 Telephone system:
 international: no submarine cables

________________________________________________________________________

ARGENTINA

@Argentina:Geography

 Location: Southern South America, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean,
 between Chile and Uruguay

 Map references: South America

 Area:
 total area: 2,766,890 sq km
 land area: 2,736,690 sq km
 comparative area: slightly less than three-tenths the size of the US

 Land boundaries: total 9,665 km, Bolivia 832 km, Brazil 1,224 km,
 Chile 5,150 km, Paraguay 1,880 km, Uruguay 579 km

 Coastline: 4,989 km

 Maritime claims:
 contiguous zone: 24 nm
 continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
 exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
 territorial sea: 12 nm

 International disputes: short section of the boundary with Uruguay is
 in dispute; short section of the boundary with Chile is indefinite;
 claims British-administered Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas); claims
 British-administered South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands;
 territorial claim in Antarctica

 Climate: mostly temperate; arid in southeast; subantarctic in
 southwest

 Terrain: rich plains of the Pampas in northern half, flat to rolling
 plateau of Patagonia in south, rugged Andes along western border

 Natural resources: fertile plains of the pampas, lead, zinc, tin,
 copper, iron ore, manganese, petroleum, uranium

 Land use:
 arable land: 9%
 permanent crops: 4%
 meadows and pastures: 52%
 forest and woodland: 22%
 other: 13%

 Irrigated land: 17,600 sq km (1989 est.)

 Environment:
 current issues: erosion results from inadequate flood controls and
 improper land use practices; irrigated soil degradation;
 desertification; air pollution in Buenos Aires and other major cites;
 water pollution in urban areas; rivers becoming polluted due to
 increased pesticide and fertilizer use
 natural hazards: Tucuman and Mendoza areas in the Andes subject to
 earthquakes; pamperos are violent windstorms that can strike the
 Pampas and northeast; heavy flooding
 international agreements: party to - Antarctic-Environmental Protocol,
 Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species,
 Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear
 Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling;
 signed, but not ratified - Desertification, Law of the Sea, Marine
 Life Conservation

 Note: second-largest country in South America (after Brazil);
 strategic location relative to sea lanes between South Atlantic and
 South Pacific Oceans (Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel, Drake
 Passage)

@Argentina:People

 Population: 34,292,742 (July 1995 est.)

 Age structure:
 0-14 years: 28% (female 4,706,793; male 4,903,589)
 15-64 years: 62% (female 10,680,074; male 10,689,728)
 65 years and over: 10% (female 1,922,552; male 1,390,006) (July 1995
 est.)

 Population growth rate: 1.11% (1995 est.)

 Birth rate: 19.51 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Death rate: 8.62 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Net migration rate: 0.19 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Infant mortality rate: 28.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

 Life expectancy at birth:
 total population: 71.51 years
 male: 68.22 years
 female: 74.97 years (1995 est.)

 Total fertility rate: 2.65 children born/woman (1995 est.)

 Nationality:
 noun: Argentine(s)
 adjective: Argentine

 Ethnic divisions: white 85%, mestizo, Indian, or other nonwhite groups
 15%

 Religions: nominally Roman Catholic 90% (less than 20% practicing),
 Protestant 2%, Jewish 2%, other 6%

 Languages: Spanish (official), English, Italian, German, French

 Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
 total population: 95%
 male: 96%
 female: 95%

 Labor force: 10.9 million
 by occupation: agriculture 12%, industry 31%, services 57% (1985 est.)

@Argentina:Government

 Names:
 conventional long form: Argentine Republic
 conventional short form: Argentina
 local long form: Republica Argentina
 local short form: Argentina

 Digraph: AR

 Type: republic

 Capital: Buenos Aires

 Administrative divisions: 23 provinces (provincias, singular -
 provincia), and 1 federal district* (distrito federal); Buenos Aires;
 Catamarca; Chaco; Chubut; Cordoba; Corrientes; Distrito Federal*;
 Entre Rios; Formosa; Jujuy; La Pampa; La Rioja; Mendoza; Misiones;
 Neuquen; Rio Negro; Salta; San Juan; San Luis; Santa Cruz; Santa Fe;
 Santiago del Estero; Tierra del Fuego, Antartida e Islas del Atlantico
 Sur; Tucuman
 note: the US does not recognize any claims to Antarctica or
 Argentina's claims to the Falkland Islands

 Independence: 9 July 1816 (from Spain)

 National holiday: Revolution Day, 25 May (1810)

 Constitution: 1 May 1853; revised August 1994

 Legal system: mixture of US and West European legal systems; has not
 accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

 Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

 Executive branch:
 chief of state and head of government: President Carlos Saul MENEM
 (since 8 July 1989); Vice President (position vacant); election last
 held 14 May 1995 (next to be held NA May 1999); results - Carlos Saul
 MENEM was reelected
 cabinet: Cabinet; appointed by the president

 Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress (Congreso Nacional)
 Senate: elections last held May 1989, but provincial elections in late
 1991 set the stage for indirect elections by provincial senators for
 one-third of 48 seats in the national senate in May 1992; seats (48
 total) - PJ 29, UCR 11, others 7, vacant 1
 Chamber of Deputies: elections last held 3 October 1993 ( next to be
 held October 1995); elections are held every two years and half of the
 total membership is elected each time for four year terms; seats -
 (257 total) PJ 122, UCR 83, MODIN 7, UCD 5, other 40

 Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema)

 Political parties and leaders: Justicialist Party (PJ), Carlos Saul
 MENEM, Peronist umbrella political organization; Radical Civic Union
 (UCR),Raul ALFONSIN, moderately left-of-center party; Union of the
 Democratic Center (UCD), Jorge AGUADO, conservative party; Dignity and
 Independence Political Party (MODIN), Aldo RICO, right-wing party;
 Grand Front (Frente Grande), Carlos ALVAREZ, center-left coalition;
 several provincial parties

 Other political or pressure groups: Peronist-dominated labor movement;
 General Confederation of Labor (CGT; Peronist-leaning umbrella labor
 organization); Argentine Industrial Union (manufacturers'
 association); Argentine Rural Society (large landowners' association);
 business organizations; students; the Roman Catholic Church; the Armed
 Forces

 Member of: AfDB, AG (observer), Australia Group, BCIE, CCC, ECLAC,
 FAO, G- 6, G-11, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
 ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT,
 INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, MERCOSUR, MINURSO,
 MTCR, NSG (observer), OAS, ONUSAL, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNAVEM II,
 UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNMIH, UNOMOZ,
 UNPROFOR, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

 Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Raul Enrique GRANILLO OCAMPO
 chancery: 1600 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
 telephone: [1] (202) 939-6400 through 6403
 consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami,
 New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico)

 US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission: Ambassador James R. CHEEK
 embassy: 4300 Colombia, 1425 Buenos Aires
 mailing address: Unit 4334; APO AA 34034
 telephone: [54] (1) 777-4533, 4534
 FAX: [54] (1) 777-0197

 Flag: three equal horizontal bands of light blue (top), white, and
 light blue; centered in the white band is a radiant yellow sun with a
 human face known as the Sun of May

@Argentina:Economy

 Overview: Argentina, rich in natural resources, benefits also from a
 highly literate population, an export-oriented agricultural sector,
 and a diversified industrial base. Nevertheless, following decades of
 mismanagement and statist policies, the economy in the late 1980s was
 plagued with huge external debts and recurring bouts of
 hyperinflation. Elected in 1989, in the depths of recession, President
 MENEM has implemented a comprehensive economic restructuring program
 that shows signs of putting Argentina on a path of stable, sustainable
 growth. Argentina's currency has traded at par with the US dollar
 since April 1991, and inflation has fallen to its lowest level in 20
 years. Argentines have responded to the relative price stability by
 repatriating flight capital and investing in domestic industry. The
 economy registered an impressive 6% advance in 1994, fueled largely by
 inflows of foreign capital and strong domestic consumption spending.
 The government's major short term objective is encouraging exports,
 e.g., by reducing domestic costs of production. At the start of 1995,
 the government had to deal with the spillover from international
 financial movements associated with the devaluation of the Mexican
 peso. In addition, unemployment had become a serious issue for the
 government. Despite average annual 7% growth in 1991-94, unemployment
 surprisingly has doubled - due mostly to layoffs in government bureaus
 and in privatized industrial firms and utilities and, to a lesser
 degree, to illegal immigration. Much remains to be done in the 1990s
 in dismantling the old statist barriers to growth, extending the
 recent economic gains, and bringing down the rate of unemployment.

 National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $270.8 billion (1994
 est.)

 National product real growth rate: 6% (1994 est.)

 National product per capita: $7,990 (1994 est.)

 Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.9% (1994 est.)

 Unemployment rate: 12% (1994 est.)

 Budget:
 revenues: $48.46 billion
 expenditures: $46.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $3.5
 billion (1994 est.)

 Exports: $15.7 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
 commodities: meat, wheat, corn, oilseed, manufactures
 partners: US 12%, Brazil, Italy, Japan, Netherlands

 Imports: $21.4 billion (c.i.f., 1994 est.)
 commodities: machinery and equipment, chemicals, metals, fuels and
 lubricants, agricultural products
 partners: US 22%, Brazil, Germany, Bolivia, Japan, Italy, Netherlands

 External debt: $73 billion (April 1994)

 Industrial production: growth rate 12.5% accounts for 31% of GDP (1994
 est.)

 Electricity:
 capacity: 17,330,000 kW
 production: 54.8 billion kWh
 consumption per capita: 1,610 kWh (1993)

 Industries: food processing, motor vehicles, consumer durables,
 textiles, chemicals and petrochemicals, printing, metallurgy, steel

 Agriculture: accounts for 8% of GDP (including fishing); produces
 abundant food for both domestic consumption and exports; among world's
 top five exporters of grain and beef; principal crops - wheat, corn,
 sorghum, soybeans, sugar beets

 Illicit drugs: increasing use as a transshipment country for cocaine
 headed for the US and Europe

 Economic aid:
 recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1 billion;
 Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
 (1970-89), $4.4 billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $718 million

 Currency: 1 nuevo peso argentino = 100 centavos

 Exchange rates: pesos per US$1 - 0.99870 (December 1994), 0.99901
 (1994), 0.99895 (1993), 0.99064 (1992), 0.95355 (1991), 0.48759 (1990)

 Fiscal year: calendar year

@Argentina:Transportation

 Railroads:
 total: 34,572 km
 broad gauge: NA km 1.676-m gauge
 standard gauge: NA km 1.435-m
 narrow gauge: 400 km 0.750-m gauge; NA km 1.000-m gauge (209 km
 electrified)

 Highways:
 total: 208,350 km
 paved: 57,000 km
 unpaved: gravel 39,500 km; improved/unimproved earth 111,850 km

 Inland waterways: 11,000 km navigable

 Pipelines: crude oil 4,090 km; petroleum products 2,900 km; natural
 gas 9,918 km

 Ports: Bahia Blanca, Buenos Aires, Comodoro Rivadavia, Concepcion del
 Uruguay, La Plata, Mar del Plata, Necochea, Rio Gallegos, Rosario,
 Santa Fe, Ushuaia

 Merchant marine:
 total: 44 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 434,525 GRT/667,501 DWT
 ships by type: bulk 3, cargo 21, chemical tanker 1, container 4, oil
 tanker 8, railcar carrier 1, refrigerated cargo 5, roll-on/roll-off
 cargo 1

 Airports:
 total: 1,602
 with paved runways over 3,047 m: 5
 with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 25
 with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 55
 with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 48
 with paved runways under 914 m: 703
 with unpaved runways over 3,047 m: 2
 with unpaved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
 with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 70
 with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 693

@Argentina:Communications

 Telephone system: 2,650,000 telephones; 12,000 public telephones; 78
 telephones/1,000 persons; extensive modern system but many families do
 not have telephones; microwave widely used; however, during
 rainstorms, the telephone system frequently grounds out, even in
 Buenos Aires
 local: NA
 intercity: microwave radio relay and domestic satellite network with
 40 earth stations
 international: 2 INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean) earth stations

 Radio:
 broadcast stations: AM 171, FM 0, shortwave 13
 radios: NA

 Television:
 broadcast stations: 231
 televisions: NA

@Argentina:Defense Forces

 Branches: Argentine Army, Navy of the Argentine Republic, Argentine
 Air Force, National Gendarmerie, Argentine Naval Prefecture (Coast
 Guard only), National Aeronautical Police Force

 Manpower availability: males age 15-49 8,573,780; males fit for
 military service 6,954,584; males reach military age (20) annually
 301,166 (1995 est.)

 Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP


________________________________________________________________________

ARMENIA

@Armenia:Geography

 Location: Southwestern Asia, east of Turkey

 Map references: Commonwealth of Independent States - European States

 Area:
 total area: 29,800 sq km
 land area: 28,400 sq km
 comparative area: slightly larger than Maryland

 Land boundaries: total 1,254 km, Azerbaijan (east) 566 km, Azerbaijan
 (south) 221 km, Georgia 164 km, Iran 35 km, Turkey 268 km

 Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

 Maritime claims: none; landlocked

 International disputes: supports ethnic Armenians in Nagorno-Karabakh
 in their separatist conflict against the Azerbaijani government;
 traditional demands on former Armenian lands in Turkey have subsided

 Climate: highland continental, hot summers, cold winters

 Terrain: high Armenian Plateau with mountains; little forest land;
 fast flowing rivers; good soil in Aras River valley

 Natural resources: small deposits of gold, copper, molybdenum, zinc,
 alumina

 Land use:
 arable land: 17%
 permanent crops: 3%
 meadows and pastures: 20%
 forest and woodland: 0%
 other: 60%

 Irrigated land: 3,050 sq km (1990)

 Environment:
 current issues: soil pollution from toxic chemicals such as DDT;
 energy blockade, the result of conflict with Azerbaijan, has led to
 deforestation as citizens scavenge for firewood; pollution of Hrazdan
 (Razdan) and Aras Rivers; the draining of Sevana Lich, a result of its
 use as a source for hydropower, threatens drinking water supplies
 natural hazards: occasionally severe earthquakes; droughts
 international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
 Nuclear Test Ban, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Desertification

 Note: landlocked

@Armenia:People

 Population: 3,557,284 (July 1995 est.)

 Age structure:
 0-14 years: 31% (female 542,664; male 570,998)
 15-64 years: 61% (female 1,103,171; male 1,076,226)
 65 years and over: 8% (female 154,784; male 109,441) (July 1995 est.)

 Population growth rate: 0.94% (1995 est.)

 Birth rate: 22.79 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Death rate: 6.66 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Net migration rate: -6.68 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Infant mortality rate: 26 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

 Life expectancy at birth:
 total population: 72.36 years
 male: 68.94 years
 female: 75.95 years (1995 est.)

 Total fertility rate: 3.06 children born/woman (1995 est.)

 Nationality:
 noun: Armenian(s)
 adjective: Armenian

 Ethnic divisions: Armenian 93%, Azeri 3%, Russian 2%, other (mostly
 Yezidi Kurds) 2% (1989)
 note: as of the end of 1994, most Azeris had emigrated from Armenia

 Religions: Armenian Orthodox 94%

 Languages: Armenian 96%, Russian 2%, other 2%

 Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1989)
 total population: 99%
 male: 99%
 female: 98%

 Labor force: 1.578 million
 by occupation: industry and construction 34%, agriculture and forestry
 31%, other 35% (1992)

@Armenia:Government

 Names:
 conventional long form: Republic of Armenia
 conventional short form: Armenia
 local long form: Hayastani Hanrapetut'yun
 local short form: Hayastan
 former: Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic; Armenian Republic

 Digraph: AM

 Type: republic

 Capital: Yerevan

 Administrative divisions: 37 regions (shrjanner, singular - shrjan)
 and 23 cities* (kaghakner, singular - kaghak); Abovyan*, Akhuryani
 Shrjan, Alaverdi*, Amasiayi Shrjan, Anii Shrjan, Aparani Shrjan,
 Aragatsi Shrjan, Ararat*, Ararati Shrjan, Armaviri Shrjan, Artashat*,
 Artashati Shrjan, Art'ik*, Art'iki Shrjan, Ashots'k'i Shrjan,
 Ashtarak*, Ashtaraki Shrjan, Baghramyani Shrjan, Ch'arents'avan*,
 Dilijan*, Ejmiatsin*, Ejmiatsni Shrjan, Goris*, Gorisi Shrjan,
 Gugark'i Shrjan, Gyumri*, Hoktemberyan*, Hrazdan*, Hrazdani Shrjan,
 Ijevan*, Ijevani Shrjan, Jermuk*, Kamo*, Kamoyi Shrjan, Kapan*, Kapani
 Shrjan, Kotayk'i Shrjan, Krasnoselski Shrjan, Martunu Shrjan, Masisi
 Shrjan, Meghru Shrjan, Metsamor*, Nairii Shrjan, Noyemberyani Shrjan,
 Sevan*, Sevani Shrjan, Sisiani Shrjan, Spitak*, Spitaki Shrjan,
 Step'anavan*, Step'anavani Shrjan, T'alini Shrjan, Tashiri Shrjan,
 Taushi Shrjan, T'umanyani Shrjan, Vanadzor*, Vardenisi Shrjan, Vayk'i
 Shrjan, Yeghegnadzori Shrjan, Yerevan*

 Independence: 28 May 1918 (First Armenian Republic); 23 September 1991
 (from Soviet Union)

 National holiday: Referendum Day, 21 September

 Constitution: adopted NA April 1978; referendum on new constitution to
 be held 5 July 1995

 Legal system: based on civil law system

 Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

 Executive branch:
 chief of state: President Levon Akopovich TER-PETROSYAN (since October
 1991) election last held 16 October 1991 (next to be held NA 1996);
 results - Levon Akopovich TER-PETROSYAN 86%; radical nationalists
 about 7%; note - Levon Akopovich TER-PETROSYAN was elected Chairman of
 the Armenian Supreme Soviet 4 August 1990 before becoming president
 head of government: Prime Minister Hrant BAGRATYAN (since 16 February
 1993); First Deputy Prime Minister Vigen CHITECHYAN (since 16 February
 1993)
 cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by the president

 Legislative branch: unicameral
 Supreme Soviet: elections last held 20 May 1990 (next to be held 5
 July 1995); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (260 total)
 non-aligned 136, ANM 52, DPA 17, Democratic Liberal Party 17, ARF 12,
 NDU 9, Christian Democratic Party 1, Constitutional Rights Union 1,
 ONS 1, Republican Party 1, Nagorno-Karabakh representatives 13

 Judicial branch: Supreme Court

 Political parties and leaders: Armenian National Movement (ANM),
 Ter-Husik LAZARYAN, chairman; National Democratic Union (NDU), David
 VARTANYAN, chairman; Armenian Revolutionary Federation (ARF,
 Dashnaktsutyun); note - banned until reorganized; Democratic Party of
 Armenia (DPA; Communist Party), Aram SARKISYAN, chairman; Christian
 Democratic Party, Azat ARSHAKYAN, chairman; Greens Party, Hakob
 SANASARIAN, chairman; Democratic Liberal Party, Rouben MIRZAKHANYAN,
 chairman; Republican Party, Ashot NAVARSARDYAN, chairman; Union for
 Self-Determination (ONS), Paruir AIRIKYAN, chairman

 Member of: BSEC, CCC, CIS, EBRD, ECE, ESCAP, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
 IDA, IFAD, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ITU, NACC, NAM
 (observer), OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

 Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Ruben SHUGARIAN
 chancery: Suite 210, 1660 L Street NW, Washington, DC 20036
 telephone: [1] (202) 628-5766
 FAX: [1] (202) 628-5769

 US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Harry J. GILMORE
 embassy: 18 Gen Bagramian, Yerevan
 mailing address: use embassy street address
 telephone: [7] (8852) 151-144, 524-661
 FAX: [7] (8852) 151-138

 Flag: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), blue, and gold

@Armenia:Economy

 Overview: Under the old Soviet central planning system, Armenia had
 developed a more modern industrial sector, supplying machine building
 equipment, textiles, and other manufactured goods to sister republics
 in exchange for raw materials and energy resources. Armenia is a large
 food importer and its mineral deposits (gold, bauxite) are small. The
 economic decline in recent years (1991-94) has been particularly
 severe due to the ongoing conflict over the ethnic Armenian-dominated
 region of Nagorno-Karabakh in Azerbaijan. Azerbaijan and Turkey have
 blockaded pipeline and railroad traffic to Armenia for its support of
 the Karabakh Armenians. This has left Armenia with chronic energy
 shortages because of a lack of capacity and frequent disruptions of
 natural gas deliveries through unstable Georgia, as well as
 difficulties in obtaining other types of fuel. In addition, bread is
 strictly rationed and there are shortages of other goods. In 1994, the
 economy seemed to bottom out. The government has managed to increase
 its financial and budgetary discipline, bringing inflation down from
 around 40% per month in first half 1994 to single digits in second
 half 1994 and the first quarter of 1995. A full economic recovery
 cannot be expected until the conflict is settled and the blockade
 lifted.

 National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $8.1 billion (1994
 estimate as extrapolated from World Bank estimate for 1992)

 National product real growth rate: -2% (1994 est.)

 National product per capita: $2,290 (1994 est.)

 Inflation rate (consumer prices): 27% per month average (1994 est.)

 Unemployment rate: 6.5% of officially registered unemployed but large
 numbers of underemployed (1994 est.)

 Budget:
 revenues: $NA
 expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

 Exports: $43 million to countries outside the FSU (f.o.b., 1994)
 commodities: gold and jewelry, aluminum, transport equipment,
 electrical equipment
 partners: Iran, Russia, Turkmenistan, Georgia

 Imports: $120 million from countries outside the FSU (c.i.f., 1994)
 commodities: grain, other foods, fuel, other energy
 partners: Iran, Russia, Turkmenistan, Georgia, US, EU

 External debt: $NA

 Industrial production: growth rate 7% (1994 est.); accounts for 41% of
 GDP

 Electricity:
 capacity: 4,620,000 kW
 production: 5.7 billion kWh
 consumption per capita: 1,620 kWh (1994)

 Industries: traditionally diverse, including (as a percent of output
 of former USSR) metalcutting machine tools (5.5%), forging-pressing
 machines (1.9%), electric motors (9%), tires (1.5%), knitted wear
 (4.4%), hosiery (3.0%), shoes (2.2%), silk fabric (0.8%), washing
 machines (2.0%), chemicals, trucks, watches, instruments, and
 microelectronics (1990); currently, much of industry is shut down

 Agriculture: only 17% of land area is arable; employs 31% of labor
 force as residents increasingly turn to subsistence agriculture;
 fruits (especially grapes) and vegetable farming, minor livestock
 sector; vineyards near Yerevan are famous for brandy and other
 liqueurs

 Illicit drugs: illicit cultivator of cannabis mostly for domestic
 consumption; used as a transshipment point for illicit drugs to
 Western Europe

 Economic aid:
 recipient: considerable humanitarian aid, mostly food and energy
 products, from US and EU; Russia granted 60 billion rubles in
 technical credits in late 1994 and approved a 110 billion ruble credit
 almost half of which was to go toward the restart of the Metsamor
 nuclear power plant

 Currency: 1 dram = 100 luma (introduced new currency in November 1993)

 Exchange rates: dram per US$1 - 406 (end December 1994)

 Fiscal year: calendar year

@Armenia:Transportation

 Railroads:
 total: 840 km in common carrier service; does not include industrial
 lines
 broad gauge: 840 km 1.520-m gauge (1990)

 Highways:
 total: 11,300 km
 paved: 10,500 km
 unpaved: earth 800 km (1990)

 Inland waterways: NA km

 Pipelines: natural gas 900 km (1991)

 Ports: none

 Airports:
 total: 11
 with paved runways over 3,047 m: 2
 with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
 with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 2
 with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 2
 with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 3
 with unpaved runways under 914 m: 1

@Armenia:Communications

 Telephone system: about 650,000 telephones; 177 telephones/1,000
 persons; progress on installation of fiber optic cable and
 construction of facilities for mobile cellular phone service remains
 in the negotiation phase for joint venture agreement
 local: NA
 intercity: NA
 international: international connections to other former republics of
 the USSR are by landline or microwave and to other countries by
 satellite and by leased connection through the Moscow international
 gateway switch; 1 INTELSAT satellite link

 Radio:
 broadcast stations: AM NA, FM NA, shortwave NA
 radios: NA

 Television:
 broadcast stations: NA; note - 100% of population receives Armenian
 and Russian TV programs
 televisions: NA

@Armenia:Defense Forces

 Branches: Army, Air and Air Defense Forces, National Guard, Security
 Forces (internal and border troops)

 Manpower availability: males age 15-49 877,414; males fit for military
 service 699,167; males reach military age (18) annually 28,634 (1995
 est.)

 Defense expenditures: 250 million rubles, NA% of GDP (1992 est.); note
 - conversion of the military budget into US dollars using the current
 exchange rate could produce misleading results


________________________________________________________________________

ARUBA

 (part of the Dutch realm) 

@Aruba:Geography

 Location: Caribbean, island in the Caribbean Sea, north of Venezuela

 Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

 Area:
 total area: 193 sq km
 land area: 193 sq km
 comparative area: slightly larger than Washington, DC

 Land boundaries: 0 km

 Coastline: 68.5 km

 Maritime claims:
 territorial sea: 12 nm

 International disputes: none

 Climate: tropical marine; little seasonal temperature variation

 Terrain: flat with a few hills; scant vegetation

 Natural resources: negligible; white sandy beaches

 Land use:
 arable land: 0%
 permanent crops: 0%
 meadows and pastures: 0%
 forest and woodland: 0%
 other: 100%

 Irrigated land: NA sq km

 Environment:
 current issues: NA
 natural hazards: lies outside the Caribbean hurricane belt
 international agreements: NA

@Aruba:People

 Population: 65,974 (July 1995 est.)

 Age structure:
 0-14 years: 23% (female 7,377; male 7,726)
 15-64 years: 69% (female 24,269; male 21,141)
 65 years and over: 8% (female 3,223; male 2,238) (July 1995 est.)

 Population growth rate: 0.65% (1995 est.)

 Birth rate: 14.6 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Death rate: 6.17 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Net migration rate: -1.91 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Infant mortality rate: 8.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

 Life expectancy at birth:
 total population: 76.56 years
 male: 72.89 years
 female: 80.42 years (1995 est.)

 Total fertility rate: 1.82 children born/woman (1995 est.)

 Nationality:
 noun: Aruban(s)
 adjective: Aruban

 Ethnic divisions: mixed European/Caribbean Indian 80%

 Religions: Roman Catholic 82%, Protestant 8%, Hindu, Muslim,
 Confucian, Jewish

 Languages: Dutch (official), Papiamento (a Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch,
 English dialect), English (widely spoken), Spanish

 Literacy: NA%

 Labor force: NA
 by occupation: most employment is in the tourist industry (1995)

@Aruba:Government

 Names:
 conventional long form: none
 conventional short form: Aruba

 Digraph: AA

 Type: part of the Dutch realm; full autonomy in internal affairs
 obtained in 1986 upon separation from the Netherlands Antilles

 Capital: Oranjestad

 Administrative divisions: none (self-governing part of the
 Netherlands)

 Independence: none (part of the Dutch realm; in 1990, Aruba requested
 and received from the Netherlands cancellation of the agreement to
 automatically give independence to the island in 1996)

 National holiday: Flag Day, 18 March

 Constitution: 1 January 1986

 Legal system: based on Dutch civil law system, with some English
 common law influence

 Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

 Executive branch:
 chief of state: Queen BEATRIX Wilhelmina Armgard (since 30 April
 1980), represented by Governor General Olindo KOOLMAN (since 1 January
 1992)
 head of government: Prime Minister Jan (Henny) H. EMAN (since 29 July
 1994)
 cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed with the advice and approval
 of the legislature

 Legislative branch: unicameral
 Legislature (Staten): elections last held 29 July 1994 (next to be
 held by NA July 1998); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats -
 (21 total) AVP 10, MEP 9, OLA 2

 Judicial branch: Joint High Court of Justice

 Political parties and leaders: Electoral Movement Party (MEP), Nelson
 ODUBER; Aruban People's Party (AVP), Jan (Henny) H. EMAN; National
 Democratic Action (ADN), Pedro Charro KELLY; New Patriotic Party
 (PPN), Eddy WERLEMEN; Aruban Patriotic Party (PPA), Benny NISBET;
 Aruban Democratic Party (PDA), Leo BERLINSKI; Democratic Action '86
 (AD '86), Arturo ODUBER; Organization for Aruban Liberty (OLA),
 Glenbert CROES
 note: governing coalition includes the MEP, PPA, and ADN

 Member of: ECLAC (associate), INTERPOL, IOC, UNESCO (associate), WCL,
 WTO (associate)

 Diplomatic representation in US: none (self-governing part of the
 Netherlands)

 US diplomatic representation: none (self-governing part of the
 Netherlands)

 Flag: blue with two narrow horizontal yellow stripes across the lower
 portion and a red, four-pointed star outlined in white in the upper
 hoist-side corner

@Aruba:Economy

 Overview: Tourism is the mainstay of the Aruban economy, although
 offshore banking and oil refining and storage are also important. The
 rapid growth of the tourism sector over the last decade has resulted
 in a substantial expansion of other activities. Construction has
 boomed, with hotel capacity five times the 1985 level. Additionally,
 the reopening of the country's oil refinery in 1993, a major source of
 employment and foreign exchange earnings, has further spurred growth.
 Aruba's small labor force and less than 1% unemployment rate have led
 to a large number of unfilled job vacancies despite sharp rises in
 wage rates in recent years.

 National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $1.1 billion (1993
 est.)

 National product real growth rate: 5% (1993 est.)

 National product per capita: $17,000 (1993 est.)

 Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7% (1994 est.)

 Unemployment rate: 0.6% (1992)

 Budget:
 revenues: $145 million
 expenditures: $185 million, including capital expenditures of $42
 million (1988)

 Exports: $1.3 billion (including oil re-exports) (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
 commodities: mostly refined petroleum products
 partners: US 64%, EC

 Imports: $1.6 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
 commodities: food, consumer goods, manufactures, petroleum products,
 crude oil for refining and re-export
 partners: US 8%, EC

 External debt: $81 million (1987)

 Industrial production: growth rate NA%

 Electricity:
 capacity: 90,000 kW
 production: 330 million kWh
 consumption per capita: 4,761 kWh (1993)

 Industries: tourism, transshipment facilities, oil refining

 Agriculture: poor quality soils and low rainfall limit agricultural
 activity to the cultivation of aloes, some livestock, and fishing

 Illicit drugs: drug money laundering center and transit point for
 narcotics bound for the US and Europe

 Economic aid:
 recipient: Western (non-US) countries ODA and OOF bilateral
 commitments (1980-89), $220 million

 Currency: 1 Aruban florin (Af.) = 100 cents

 Exchange rates: Aruban florins (Af.) per US$1 - 1.7900 (fixed rate
 since 1986)

 Fiscal year: calendar year

@Aruba:Transportation

 Railroads: 0 km

 Highways:
 total: NA
 paved: NA
 unpaved: NA

 Ports: Barcadera, Oranjestad, Sint Nicolaas

 Merchant marine: none

 Airports:
 total: 2
 with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
 with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 1
 note: government-owned airport east of Oranjestad accepts
 transatlantic flights

@Aruba:Communications

 Telephone system: 72,168 telephones; 1,100 telephones/1,000 persons;
 more than adequate
 local: NA
 intercity: extensive interisland microwave radio relay links
 international: 1 submarine cable to Sint Maarten

 Radio:
 broadcast stations: AM 4, FM 4, shortwave 0
 radios: NA

 Television:
 broadcast stations: 1
 televisions: NA

@Aruba:Defense Forces

 Note: defense is the responsibility of the Netherlands


________________________________________________________________________

ASHMORE AND CARTIER ISLANDS

 (territory of Australia) 

@Ashmore And Cartier Islands:Geography

 Location: Southeastern Asia, islands in the Indian Ocean, northwest of
 Australia

 Map references: Southeast Asia

 Area:
 total area: 5 sq km
 land area: 5 sq km
 comparative area: about 8.5 times the size of The Mall in Washington,
 DC
 note: includes Ashmore Reef (West, Middle, and East Islets) and
 Cartier Island

 Land boundaries: 0 km

 Coastline: 74.1 km

 Maritime claims:
 contiguous zone: 12 nm
 continental shelf: 200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
 exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
 territorial sea: 3 nm

 International disputes: none

 Climate: tropical

 Terrain: low with sand and coral

 Natural resources: fish

 Land use:
 arable land: 0%
 permanent crops: 0%
 meadows and pastures: 0%
 forest and woodland: 0%
 other: 100% (all grass and sand)

 Irrigated land: 0 sq km

 Environment:
 current issues: NA
 natural hazards: surrounded by shoals and reefs which can pose
 maritime hazards
 international agreements: NA

 Note: Ashmore Reef National Nature Reserve established in August 1983

@Ashmore And Cartier Islands:People

 Population: no indigenous inhabitants; note - there are only seasonal
 caretakers

@Ashmore And Cartier Islands:Government

 Names:
 conventional long form: Territory of Ashmore and Cartier Islands
 conventional short form: Ashmore and Cartier Islands

 Digraph: AT

 Type: territory of Australia administered by the Australian Ministry
 for the Environment, Sport, and Territories

 Capital: none; administered from Canberra, Australia

 Administrative divisions: none (territory of Australia)

 Independence: none (territory of Australia)

 Legal system: relevant laws of the Northern Territory of Australia

 Diplomatic representation in US: none (territory of Australia)

 US diplomatic representation: none (territory of Australia)

@Ashmore And Cartier Islands:Economy

 Overview: no economic activity

@Ashmore And Cartier Islands:Transportation

 Ports: none; offshore anchorage only

@Ashmore And Cartier Islands:Defense Forces

 Note: defense is the responsibility of Australia; periodic visits by
 the Royal Australian Navy and Royal Australian Air Force


________________________________________________________________________

ATLANTIC OCEAN

@Atlantic Ocean:Geography

 Location: body of water between Africa, Antarctica, and the Western
 Hemisphere

 Map references: World

 Area:
 total area: 82.217 million sq km
 comparative area: slightly less than nine times the size of the US;
 second-largest of the world's four oceans (after the Pacific Ocean,
 but larger than Indian Ocean or Arctic Ocean)
 note: includes Baltic Sea, Black Sea, Caribbean Sea, Davis Strait,
 Denmark Strait, Drake Passage, Gulf of Mexico, Mediterranean Sea,
 North Sea, Norwegian Sea, Scotia Sea, Weddell Sea, and other tributary
 water bodies

 Coastline: 111,866 km

 International disputes: some maritime disputes (see littoral states)

 Climate: tropical cyclones (hurricanes) develop off the coast of
 Africa near Cape Verde and move westward into the Caribbean Sea;
 hurricanes can occur from May to December, but are most frequent from
 August to November

 Terrain: surface usually covered with sea ice in Labrador Sea, Denmark
 Strait, and Baltic Sea from October to June; clockwise warm water gyre
 (broad, circular system of currents) in the northern Atlantic,
 counterclockwise warm water gyre in the southern Atlantic; the ocean
 floor is dominated by the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, a rugged north-south
 centerline for the entire Atlantic basin; maximum depth is 8,605
 meters in the Puerto Rico Trench

 Natural resources: oil and gas fields, fish, marine mammals (seals and
 whales), sand and gravel aggregates, placer deposits, polymetallic
 nodules, precious stones

 Environment:
 current issues: endangered marine species include the manatee, seals,
 sea lions, turtles, and whales; driftnet fishing is exacerbating
 declining fish stocks and contributing to international disputes;
 municipal sludge pollution off eastern US, southern Brazil, and
 eastern Argentina; oil pollution in Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico,
 Lake Maracaibo, Mediterranean Sea, and North Sea; industrial waste and
 municipal sewage pollution in Baltic Sea, North Sea, and Mediterranean
 Sea
 natural hazards: icebergs common in Davis Strait, Denmark Strait, and
 the northwestern Atlantic Ocean from February to August and have been
 spotted as far south as Bermuda and the Madeira Islands; icebergs from
 Antarctica occur in the extreme southern Atlantic Ocean; ships subject
 to superstructure icing in extreme northern Atlantic from October to
 May and extreme southern Atlantic from May to October; persistent fog
 can be a maritime hazard from May to September
 international agreements: NA

 Note: major choke points include the Dardanelles, Strait of Gibraltar,
 access to the Panama and Suez Canals; strategic straits include the
 Strait of Dover, Straits of Florida, Mona Passage, The Sound
 (Oresund), and Windward Passage; the Equator divides the Atlantic
 Ocean into the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean

@Atlantic Ocean:Government

 Digraph: ZH

@Atlantic Ocean:Economy

 Overview: The Atlantic Ocean provides some of the world's most heavily
 trafficked sea routes, between and within the Eastern and Western
 Hemispheres. Other economic activity includes the exploitation of
 natural resources, e.g., fishing, the dredging of aragonite sands (The
 Bahamas), and production of crude oil and natural gas (Caribbean Sea,
 Gulf of Mexico, and North Sea).

@Atlantic Ocean:Transportation

 Ports: Alexandria (Egypt), Algiers (Algeria), Antwerp (Belgium),
 Barcelona (Spain), Buenos Aires (Argentina), Casablanca (Morocco),
 Colon (Panama), Copenhagen (Denmark), Dakar (Senegal), Gdansk
 (Poland), Hamburg (Germany), Helsinki (Finland), Las Palmas (Canary
 Islands, Spain), Le Havre (France), Lisbon (Portugal), London (UK),
 Marseille (France), Montevideo (Uruguay), Montreal (Canada), Naples
 (Italy), New Orleans (US), New York (US), Oran (Algeria), Oslo
 (Norway), Piraeus (Greece), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), Rotterdam
 (Netherlands), Saint Petersburg (Russia), Stockholm (Sweden)

 Note: Kiel Canal and Saint Lawrence Seaway are two important waterways

@Atlantic Ocean:Communications

 Telephone system:
 international: numerous submarine cables with most between continental
 Europe and the UK, North America and the UK, and in the Mediterranean;
 numerous direct links across Atlantic via INTELSAT satellite network

________________________________________________________________________

AUSTRALIA

@Australia:Geography

 Location: Oceania, continent between the Indian Ocean and the South
 Pacific Ocean

 Map references: Oceania

 Area:
 total area: 7,686,850 sq km
 land area: 7,617,930 sq km
 comparative area: slightly smaller than the US
 note: includes Macquarie Island

 Land boundaries: 0 km

 Coastline: 25,760 km

 Maritime claims:
 contiguous zone: 24 nm
 continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
 exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
 territorial sea: 12 nm

 International disputes: territorial claim in Antarctica (Australian
 Antarctic Territory)

 Climate: generally arid to semiarid; temperate in south and east;
 tropical in north

 Terrain: mostly low plateau with deserts; fertile plain in southeast

 Natural resources: bauxite, coal, iron ore, copper, tin, silver,
 uranium, nickel, tungsten, mineral sands, lead, zinc, diamonds,
 natural gas, petroleum

 Land use:
 arable land: 6%
 permanent crops: 0%
 meadows and pastures: 58%
 forest and woodland: 14%
 other: 22%

 Irrigated land: 18,800 sq km (1989 est.)

 Environment:
 current issues: soil erosion from overgrazing, industrial development,
 urbanization, and poor farming practices; soil salinity rising due to
 the use of poor quality water; desertification; clearing for
 agricultural purposes threatens the natural habitat of many unique
 animal and plant species; the Great Barrier Reef off the northeast
 coast, the largest coral reef in the world, is threatened by increased
 shipping and its popularity as a tourist site; limited natural fresh
 water resources
 natural hazards: cyclones along the coast; severe droughts
 international agreements: party to - Antarctic-Environmental Protocol,
 Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species,
 Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine
 Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
 Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands, Whaling;
 signed, but not ratified - Desertification

 Note: world's smallest continent but sixth-largest country; population
 concentrated along the eastern and southeastern coasts; regular,
 tropical, invigorating, sea breeze known as "the Doctor" occurs along
 the west coast in the summer

@Australia:People

 Population: 18,322,231 (July 1995 est.)

 Age structure:
 0-14 years: 22% (female 1,929,366; male 2,032,238)
 15-64 years: 67% (female 6,017,362; male 6,181,887)
 65 years and over: 11% (female 1,227,004; male 934,374) (July 1995
 est.)

 Population growth rate: 1.31% (1995 est.)

 Birth rate: 14.13 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Death rate: 7.37 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Net migration rate: 6.33 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Infant mortality rate: 7.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

 Life expectancy at birth:
 total population: 77.78 years
 male: 74.67 years
 female: 81.04 years (1995 est.)

 Total fertility rate: 1.82 children born/woman (1995 est.)

 Nationality:
 noun: Australian(s)
 adjective: Australian

 Ethnic divisions: Caucasian 95%, Asian 4%, aboriginal and other 1%

 Religions: Anglican 26.1%, Roman Catholic 26%, other Christian 24.3%

 Languages: English, native languages

 Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1980 est.)
 total population: 100%
 male: 100%
 female: 100%

 Labor force: 8.63 million (September 1991)
 by occupation: finance and services 33.8%, public and community
 services 22.3%, wholesale and retail trade 20.1%, manufacturing and
 industry 16.2%, agriculture 6.1% (1987)

@Australia:Government

 Names:
 conventional long form: Commonwealth of Australia
 conventional short form: Australia

 Digraph: AS

 Type: federal parliamentary state

 Capital: Canberra

 Administrative divisions: 6 states and 2 territories*; Australian
 Capital Territory*, New South Wales, Northern Territory*, Queensland,
 South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia

 Dependent areas: Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Christmas Island, Cocos
 (Keeling) Islands, Coral Sea Islands, Heard Island and McDonald
 Islands, Norfolk Island

 Independence: 1 January 1901 (federation of UK colonies)

 National holiday: Australia Day, 26 January (1788)

 Constitution: 9 July 1900, effective 1 January 1901

 Legal system: based on English common law; accepts compulsory ICJ
 jurisdiction, with reservations

 Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

 Executive branch:
 chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
 represented by Governor General William George HAYDEN (since 16
 February 1989)
 head of government: Prime Minister Paul John KEATING (since 20
 December 1991); Deputy Prime Minister Brian HOWE (since 4 June 1991)
 cabinet: Cabinet; prime minister selects his cabinet from members of
 the House and Senate

 Legislative branch: bicameral Federal Parliament
 Senate: elections last held 13 March 1993 (next to be held by NA
 1996); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (76 total)
 Liberal-National 36, Labor 30, Australian Democrats 7, Greens 2,
 independents 1
 House of Representatives: elections last held 13 March 1993 (next to
 be held by NA 1996); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats -
 (147 total) Labor 80, Liberal-National 65, independent 2

 Judicial branch: High Court

 Political parties and leaders:
 government: Australian Labor Party, Paul John KEATING
 opposition: Liberal Party, John HOWARD; National Party, Timothy
 FISCHER; Australian Democratic Party, Cheryl KERNOT; Green Party,
 leader NA

 Other political or pressure groups: Australian Democratic Labor Party
 (anti-Communist Labor Party splinter group); Peace and Nuclear
 Disarmament Action (Nuclear Disarmament Party splinter group)

 Member of: AfDB, AG (observer), ANZUS, APEC, AsDB, Australia Group,
 BIS, C, CCC, CP, EBRD, ESCAP, FAO, G- 8, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC,
 ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT,
 INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, MTCR, NAM (guest),
 NEA, NSG, OECD, PCA, SPARTECA, SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP,
 UNHCR, UNIDO, UNOSOM, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, ZC

 Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Donald Eric RUSSELL
 chancery: 1601 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
 telephone: [1] (202) 797-3000
 FAX: [1] (202) 797-3168
 consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Honolulu, Houston, Los Angeles, New
 York, Pago Pago (American Samoa), and San Francisco

 US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Edward J. PERKINS
 embassy: Moonah Place, Yarralumla, Canberra, Australian Capital
 Territory 2600
 mailing address: APO AP 96549
 telephone: [61] (6) 270-5000
 FAX: [61] (6) 270-5970
 consulate(s) general: Melbourne, Perth, and Sydney
 consulate(s): Brisbane

 Flag: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant
 and a large seven-pointed star in the lower hoist-side quadrant; the
 remaining half is a representation of the Southern Cross constellation
 in white with one small five-pointed star and four, larger,
 seven-pointed stars

@Australia:Economy

 Overview: Australia has a prosperous Western-style capitalist economy,
 with a per capita GDP comparable to levels in industrialized West
 European countries. Rich in natural resources, Australia is a major
 exporter of agricultural products, minerals, metals, and fossil fuels.
 Primary products account for more than 60% of the value of total
 exports, so that, as in 1983-84, a downturn in world commodity prices
 can have a big impact on the economy. The government is pushing for
 increased exports of manufactured goods, but competition in
 international markets continues to be severe. Australia has suffered
 from the low growth and high unemployment characterizing the OECD
 countries in the early 1990s. In 1992-93 the economy recovered slowly
 from the prolonged recession of 1990-91, a major restraining factor
 being weak world demand for Australia's exports. Growth picked up so
 strongly in 1994 that the government felt the need for fiscal and
 monetary tightening by yearend. Australia's GDP grew 6.4% in 1994,
 largely due to increases in industrial output and business investment.
 A severe drought in 1994 is expected to reduce the value of
 Australia's net farm production by $825 million in the twelve months
 through June 1995, but rising world commodity prices are likely to
 boost rural exports by 7.7% to $14.5 billion in 1995/96, according to
 government statistics.

 National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $374.6 billion (1994
 est.)

 National product real growth rate: 6.4% (1994)

 National product per capita: $20,720 (1994 est.)

 Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.5% (1994)

 Unemployment rate: 8.9% (December 1994)

 Budget:
 revenues: $83.8 billion
 expenditures: $92.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
 (FY93/94)

 Exports: $50.4 billion (1994)
 commodities: coal, gold, meat, wool, alumina, wheat, machinery and
 transport equipment
 partners: Japan 25%, US 11%, South Korea 6%, NZ 5.7%, UK, Taiwan,
 Singapore, Hong Kong (1992)

 Imports: $51.1 billion (1994)
 commodities: machinery and transport equipment, computers and office
 machines, crude oil and petroleum products
 partners: US 23%, Japan 18%, UK 6%, Germany 5.7%, NZ 4% (1992)

 External debt: $147.2 billion (1994)

 Industrial production: growth rate 3.9% (FY93/94); accounts for 32% of
 GDP

 Electricity:
 capacity: 34,540,000 kW
 production: 155 billion kWh
 consumption per capita: 8,021 kWh (1993)

 Industries: mining, industrial and transportation equipment, food
 processing, chemicals, steel

 Agriculture: accounts for 5% of GDP and over 30% of export revenues;
 world's largest exporter of beef and wool, second-largest for mutton,
 and among top wheat exporters; major crops - wheat, barley, sugarcane,
 fruit; livestock - cattle, sheep, poultry

 Illicit drugs: Tasmania is one of the world's major suppliers of licit
 opiate products; government maintains strict controls over areas of
 opium poppy cultivation and output of poppy straw concentrate

 Economic aid:
 donor: ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $10.4 billion

 Currency: 1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents

 Exchange rates: Australian dollars ($A) per US$1 - 1.3058 (January
 1995), 1.3667 (1994), 1.4704 (1993), 1.3600 (1992), 1.2835 (1991),
 1.2799 (1990)

 Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

@Australia:Transportation

 Railroads:
 total: 40,478 km (1,130 km electrified; 183 km dual gauge)
 broad gauge: 7,970 km 1.600-m gauge
 standard gauge: 16,201 km 1.435-m gauge
 narrow gauge: 16,307 km 1.067-m gauge

 Highways:
 total: 837,872 km
 paved: 243,750 km
 unpaved: gravel, crushed stone, stabilized earth 228,396 km;
 unimproved earth 365,726 km

 Inland waterways: 8,368 km; mainly by small, shallow-draft craft

 Pipelines: crude oil 2,500 km; petroleum products 500 km; natural gas
 5,600 km

 Ports: Adelaide, Brisbane, Cairns, Darwin, Devonport, Fremantle,
 Geelong, Hobart (Tasmania), Launceton (Tasmania), Mackay, Melbourne,
 Sydney, Townsville

 Merchant marine:
 total: 81 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,620,536 GRT/3,801,970
 DWT
 ships by type: bulk 30, cargo 7, chemical tanker 3, combination bulk
 2, container 7, liquefied gas tanker 6, oil tanker 18,
 roll-on/roll-off cargo 7, short-sea passenger 1

 Airports:
 total: 480
 with paved runways over 3,047 m: 9
 with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 15
 with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 128
 with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 125
 with paved runways under 914 m: 31
 with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 23
 with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 149

@Australia:Communications

 Telephone system: 8,700,000 telephones; good international and
 domestic service
 local: NA
 intercity: domestic satellite service
 international: submarine cables to New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, and
 Indonesia; 10 INTELSAT (4 Indian Ocean and 6 Pacific Ocean) earth
 stations

 Radio:
 broadcast stations: AM 258, FM 67, shortwave 0
 radios: NA

 Television:
 broadcast stations: 134
 televisions: NA

@Australia:Defense Forces

 Branches: Australian Army, Royal Australian Navy, Royal Australian Air
 Force

 Manpower availability: males age 15-49 4,934,175; males fit for
 military service 4,274,900; males reach military age (17) annually
 131,852 (1995 est.)

 Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $7.2 billion, 2.2% of
 GDP (FY94/95)


________________________________________________________________________

AUSTRIA

@Austria:Geography

 Location: Central Europe, north of Italy

 Map references: Europe

 Area:
 total area: 83,850 sq km
 land area: 82,730 sq km
 comparative area: slightly smaller than Maine

 Land boundaries: total 2,496 km, Czech Republic 362 km, Germany 784
 km, Hungary 366 km, Italy 430 km, Liechtenstein 37 km, Slovakia 91 km,
 Slovenia 262 km, Switzerland 164 km

 Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

 Maritime claims: none; landlocked

 International disputes: none

 Climate: temperate; continental, cloudy; cold winters with frequent
 rain in lowlands and snow in mountains; cool summers with occasional
 showers

 Terrain: in the west and south mostly mountains (Alps); along the
 eastern and northern margins mostly flat or gently sloping

 Natural resources: iron ore, petroleum, timber, magnesite, aluminum,
 lead, coal, lignite, copper, hydropower

 Land use:
 arable land: 17%
 permanent crops: 1%
 meadows and pastures: 24%
 forest and woodland: 39%
 other: 19%

 Irrigated land: 40 sq km (1989)

 Environment:
 current issues: some forest degradation caused by air and soil
 pollution; soil pollution results from the use of agricultural
 chemicals; air pollution results from emissions by coal- and oil-fired
 power stations and industrial plants and from trucks transiting
 Austria between northern and southern Europe
 natural hazards: NA
 international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Air
 Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air
 Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity,
 Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification,
 Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
 Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified -
 Air Pollution-Sulpher 94, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Law of the
 Sea, Whaling

 Note: landlocked; strategic location at the crossroads of central
 Europe with many easily traversable Alpine passes and valleys; major
 river is the Danube; population is concentrated on eastern lowlands
 because of steep slopes, poor soils, and low temperatures elsewhere

@Austria:People

 Population: 7,986,664 (July 1995 est.)

 Age structure:
 0-14 years: 17% (female 681,087; male 711,127)
 15-64 years: 67% (female 2,672,554; male 2,677,100)
 65 years and over: 16% (female 791,762; male 453,034) (July 1995 est.)

 Population growth rate: 0.35% (1995 est.)

 Birth rate: 11.21 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Death rate: 10.27 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Net migration rate: 2.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Infant mortality rate: 6.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

 Life expectancy at birth:
 total population: 76.9 years
 male: 73.7 years
 female: 80.27 years (1995 est.)

 Total fertility rate: 1.48 children born/woman (1995 est.)

 Nationality:
 noun: Austrian(s)
 adjective: Austrian

 Ethnic divisions: German 99.4%, Croatian 0.3%, Slovene 0.2%, other
 0.1%

 Religions: Roman Catholic 85%, Protestant 6%, other 9%

 Languages: German

 Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1974 est.)
 total population: 99%

 Labor force: 3.47 million (1989)
 by occupation: services 56.4%, industry and crafts 35.4%, agriculture
 and forestry 8.1%
 note: an estimated 200,000 Austrians are employed in other European
 countries; foreign laborers in Austria number 177,840, about 5% of
 labor force (1988)

@Austria:Government

 Names:
 conventional long form: Republic of Austria
 conventional short form: Austria
 local long form: Republik Oesterreich
 local short form: Oesterreich

 Digraph: AU

 Type: federal republic

 Capital: Vienna

 Administrative divisions: 9 states (bundeslaender, singular -
 bundesland); Burgenland, Kaernten, Niederoesterreich, Oberoesterreich,
 Salzburg, Steiermark, Tirol, Vorarlberg, Wien

 Independence: 12 November 1918 (from Austro-Hungarian Empire)

 National holiday: National Day, 26 October (1955)

 Constitution: 1920; revised 1929 (reinstated 1 May 1945)

 Legal system: civil law system with Roman law origin; judicial review
 of legislative acts by a Constitutional Court; separate administrative
 and civil/penal supreme courts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
 jurisdiction

 Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal; compulsory for presidential
 elections

 Executive branch:
 chief of state: President Thomas KLESTIL (since 8 July 1992); election
 last held 24 May 1992 (next to be held 1996); results of second ballot
 - Thomas KLESTIL 57%, Rudolf STREICHER 43%
 head of government: Chancellor Franz VRANITZKY (since 16 June 1986);
 Vice Chancellor Erhard BUSEK (since 2 July 1991)
 cabinet: Council of Ministers; chosen by the president on the advice
 of the chancellor

 Legislative branch: bicameral Federal Assembly (Bundesversammlung)
 Federal Council (Bundesrat): consists of 63 members representing each
 of the provinces on the basis of population, but with each province
 having at least 3 representatives
 National Council (Nationalrat): elections last held 9 October 1994
 (next to be held October 1998); results - SPOE 34.9%, OEVP 27.7%, FPOE
 22.5%, Greens 7.3%, LF 6.0% other 1.6%; seats - (183 total) SPOE 65,
 OEVP 52, FPOE 42, Greens 13, LF 11

 Judicial branch: Supreme Judicial Court (Oberster Gerichtshof) for
 civil and criminal cases, Administrative Court
 (Verwaltungsgerichtshof) for bureaucratic cases, Constitutional Court
 (Verfassungsgerichtshof) for constitutional cases

 Political parties and leaders: Social Democratic Party of Austria
 (SPOE), Franz VRANITZKY, chairman; Austrian People's Party (OEVP),
 Erhard BUSEK, chairman; Freedom Movement (F) (was the Freedom Party of
 Austria, FPOE), Joerg HAIDER, chairman; Communist Party (KPOE), Walter
 SILBERMAYER, chairman; The Greens, Madeleine PETROVIC; Liberal Forum
 (LF), Heide SCHMIDT

 Other political or pressure groups: Federal Chamber of Commerce and
 Industry; Austrian Trade Union Federation (primarily Socialist); three
 composite leagues of the Austrian People's Party (OEVP) representing
 business, labor, and farmers; OEVP-oriented League of Austrian
 Industrialists; Roman Catholic Church, including its chief lay
 organization, Catholic Action

 Member of: AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, CCC, CE,
 CEI, CERN, EBRD, ECE, EFTA, ESA, EU, FAO, G- 9, GATT, IADB, IAEA,
 IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF,
 IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, MTCR, NAM
 (guest), NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, ONUSAL, OSCE, PCA, UN,
 UNAMIR, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMIH,
 UNOMIL, UNOMOZ, UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

 Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Helmut TUERK
 chancery: 3524 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008-3035
 telephone: [1] (202) 895-6700
 FAX: [1] (202) 895-6750
 consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York

 US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Swanee G. HUNT
 chancery: Boltzmanngasse 16, A-1091, Vienna
 mailing address: use embassy street address
 telephone: [43] (1) 313-39
 FAX: [43] (1) 310-0682
 consulate(s) general: none (Salzburg closed September 1993)

 Flag: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and red

@Austria:Economy

 Overview: Austria boasts a prosperous and stable market economy with a
 sizable but falling proportion of nationalized industry and with
 extensive welfare benefits. Thanks to its raw material endowment, a
 technically skilled labor force, and strong links to German industrial
 firms, Austria occupies specialized niches in European industry and
 services (tourism, banking) and produces almost enough food to feed
 itself with only 8% of the labor force in agriculture. After 11
 consecutive years of growth, the Austrian economy experienced a mild
 recession in 1993, but growth resumed in 1994. Unemployment is 4.3%
 and will likely stay at that level as companies adjust to the
 competition of EU membership beginning 1 January 1995. To prepare for
 EU membership, Austria's government has taken measures to open the
 economy by introducing a major tax reform, privatizing state-owned
 firms, and liberalizing cross-border capital movements. Problems for
 the 1990s include an aging population, the high level of industrial
 subsidies, and the struggle to keep welfare benefits within budgetary
 capabilities - the deficit climbed to over 4% of GDP in 1994.

 National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $139.3 billion (1994
 est.)

 National product real growth rate: 2.5% (1994 est.)

 National product per capita: $17,500 (1994 est.)

 Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3% (1994)

 Unemployment rate: 4.3% (1994 est.)

 Budget:
 revenues: $52.2 billion
 expenditures: $60.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
 (1993 est.)

 Exports: $44.1 billion (1994 est.)
 commodities: machinery and equipment, iron and steel, lumber,
 textiles, paper products, chemicals
 partners: EC 63.5% (Germany 38.9%), EFTA 9.0%, Eastern Europe/FSU
 12.3%, Japan 1.5%, US 3.4% (1993)

 Imports: $53.8 billion (1994 est.)
 commodities: petroleum, foodstuffs, machinery and equipment, vehicles,
 chemicals, textiles and clothing, pharmaceuticals
 partners: EC 66.8% (Germany 41.3%), EFTA 6.7%, Eastern Europe/FSU
 7.5%, Japan 4.4%, US 4.4% (1993)

 External debt: $21.5 billion (1994 est.)

 Industrial production: growth rate 2.5% (1994 est.)

 Electricity:
 capacity: 17,230,000 kW
 production: 50.2 billion kWh
 consumption per capita: 5,824 kWh (1993)

 Industries: foods, iron and steel, machines, textiles, chemicals,
 electrical, paper and pulp, tourism, mining, motor vehicles

 Agriculture: accounts for 3.2% of GDP (including forestry); principal
 crops and animals - grains, fruit, potatoes, sugar beets, sawn wood,
 cattle, pigs, poultry; 80%-90% self-sufficient in food

 Illicit drugs: transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin
 transiting the Balkan route and Eastern Europe

 Economic aid:
 donor: ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $2.4 billion

 Currency: 1 Austrian schilling (S) = 100 groschen

 Exchange rates: Austrian schillings (S) per US$1 - 10.774 (January
 1995), 11.422 (1994), 11.632 (1993), 10.989 (1992), 11.676 (1991),
 11.370 (1990)

 Fiscal year: calendar year

@Austria:Transportation

 Railroads:
 total: 5,624 km
 standard gauge: 5,269 km 1.435-m gauge (3,162 km electrified)
 narrow gauge: 355 km 1.000-m and 0.760-m gauge (84 km electrified)
 (1994)

 Highways:
 total: 110,000 km
 paved: 35,000 km (including 1,554 km of autobahn)
 unpaved: mostly gravel and earth 75,000 km (1992)

 Inland waterways: 446 km

 Pipelines: crude oil 554 km; petroleum products 171 km; natural gas
 2,611 km

 Ports: Linz, Vienna

 Merchant marine:
 total: 32 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 152,885 GRT/235,719 DWT
 ships by type: bulk 3, cargo 25, oil tanker 1, refrigerated cargo 2,
 roll-on/roll-off cargo 1

 Airports:
 total: 55
 with paved runways over 3,047 m: 1
 with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
 with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
 with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 3
 with paved runways under 914 m: 41
 with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 4

@Austria:Communications

 Telephone system: 4,014,000 telephones; highly developed and efficient

 local: NA
 intercity: NA
 international: 2 INTELSAT (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), and
 EUTELSAT earth stations

 Radio:
 broadcast stations: AM 6, FM 21 (repeaters 545), shortwave 0
 radios: NA

 Television:
 broadcast stations: 47 (repeaters 870)
 televisions: NA

@Austria:Defense Forces

 Branches: Army (includes Flying Division)

 Manpower availability: males age 15-49 2,026,567; males fit for
 military service 1,695,879; males reach military age (19) annually
 46,821 (1995 est.)

 Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - about $1.8 billion,
 0.9% of GDP (1994)


________________________________________________________________________

AZERBAIJAN

 Note--Azerbaijan continues to be plagued by an unresolved
 seven-year-old conflict with Armenian separatists over its
 Nagorno-Karabakh region. The Karabakh Armenians have declared
 independence and seized almost 20% of the country's territory,
 creating almost 1 million Azeri displaced persons in the process. Both
 sides have generally observed a Russian-mediated cease-fire in place
 since May 1994, and support the OSCE-mediated peace process, now
 entering its fourth year. Nevertheless, Baku and Xankandi
 (Stepanakert) remain far apart on most substantive issues from the
 placement and composition of a peacekeeping force to the enclave's
 ultimate political status, and prospects for a negotiated settlement
 remain dim. 

@Azerbaijan:Geography

 Location: Southwestern Asia, bordering the Caspian Sea, between Iran
 and Russia

 Map references: Commonwealth of Independent States - European States

 Area:
 total area: 86,600 sq km
 land area: 86,100 sq km
 comparative area: slightly larger than Maine
 note: includes the exclave of Naxcivan Autonomous Republic and the
 Nagorno-Karabakh region; the region's autonomy was abolished by
 Azerbaijani Supreme Soviet on 26 November 1991

 Land boundaries: total 2,013 km, Armenia (west) 566 km, Armenia
 (southwest) 221 km, Georgia 322 km, Iran (south) 432 km, Iran
 (southwest) 179 km, Russia 284 km, Turkey 9 km

 Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
 note: Azerbaijan borders the Caspian Sea (800 km, est.)

 Maritime claims: none; landlocked

 International disputes: violent and longstanding dispute with ethnic
 Armenians of Nagorno-Karabakh over its status; Caspian Sea boundaries
 are not yet determined

 Climate: dry, semiarid steppe

 Terrain: large, flat Kur-Araz Lowland (much of it below sea level)
 with Great Caucasus Mountains to the north, Qarabag (Karabakh) Upland
 in west; Baku lies on Abseron (Apsheron) Peninsula that juts into
 Caspian Sea

 Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, nonferrous
 metals, alumina

 Land use:
 arable land: 18%
 permanent crops: 4%
 meadows and pastures: 25%
 forest and woodland: 0%
 other: 53%

 Irrigated land: 14,010 sq km (1990)

 Environment:
 current issues: local scientists consider the Abseron (Apsheron)
 Peninsula (including Baku and Sumqayit) and the Caspian Sea to be the
 ecologically most devastated area in the world because of severe air,
 water, and soil pollution; soil pollution results from the use of DDT
 as a pesticide and also from toxic defoliants used in the production
 of cotton
 natural hazards: droughts; some lowland areas threatened by rising
 levels of the Caspian Sea
 international agreements: signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity,
 Climate Change

 Note: landlocked

@Azerbaijan:People

 Population: 7,789,886 (July 1995 est.)

 Age structure:
 0-14 years: 33% (female 1,241,952; male 1,315,313)
 15-64 years: 61% (female 2,437,810; male 2,307,496)
 65 years and over: 6% (female 303,926; male 183,389) (July 1995 est.)

 Population growth rate: 1.32% (1995 est.)

 Birth rate: 22.05 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Death rate: 6.56 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Net migration rate: -2.32 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Infant mortality rate: 33.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

 Life expectancy at birth:
 total population: 71.09 years
 male: 67.4 years
 female: 74.97 years (1995 est.)

 Total fertility rate: 2.64 children born/woman (1995 est.)

 Nationality:
 noun: Azerbaijani(s)
 adjective: Azerbaijani

 Ethnic divisions: Azeri 90%, Dagestani Peoples 3.2%, Russian 2.5%,
 Armenian 2.3%, other 2% (1995 est.)
 note: almost all Armenians live in the separatist Nagorno-Karabakh
 region

 Religions: Muslim 93.4%, Russian Orthodox 2.5%, Armenian Orthodox
 2.3%, other 1.8% (1995 est.)
 note: religious affiliation is still nominal in Azerbaijan; actual
 practicing adherents are much lower

 Languages: Azeri 89%, Russian 3%, Armenian 2%, other 6% (1995 est.)

 Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1989)
 total population: 97%
 male: 99%
 female: 96%

 Labor force: 2.789 million
 by occupation: agriculture and forestry 32%, industry and construction
 26%, other 42% (1990)

@Azerbaijan:Government

 Names:
 conventional long form: Azerbaijani Republic
 conventional short form: Azerbaijan
 local long form: Azarbaycan Respublikasi
 local short form: none
 former: Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic

 Digraph: AJ

 Type: republic

 Capital: Baku (Baki)

 Administrative divisions: 59 rayons (rayonlar; rayon - singular), 11
 cities* (saharlar; sahar - singular), 1 autonomous republic** (muxtar
 respublika); Abscron Rayonu, Agcabadi Rayonu, Agdam Rayonu, Agdas
 Rayonu, Agstafa Rayonu, Agsu Rayonu, AliBayramli Sahari*, Astara
 Rayonu, Baki Sahari*, Balakan Rayonu, Barda Rayonu, Beylaqan Rayonu,
 Bilasuvar Rayonu, Cabrayil Rayonu, Calilabad Rayonu, Daskasan Rayonu,
 Davaci Rayonu, Fuzuli Rayonu, Gadabay Rayonu, Ganca Sahari*, Goranboy
 Rayonu, Goycay Rayonu, Haciqabul Rayonu, Imisli Rayonu, Ismayilli
 Rayonu, Kalbacar Rayonu, Kurdamir Rayonu, Lacin Rayonu, Lankaran
 Rayonu, Lankaran Sahari*, Lerik Rayonu, Masalli Rayonu, Mingacevir
 Sahari*, Naftalan Sahari*, Naxcivan Muxtar Respublikasi**, Neftcala
 Rayonu, Oguz Rayonu, Qabala Rayonu, Qax Rayonu, Qazax Rayonu, Qobustan
 Rayonu, Quba Rayonu, Qubadli Rayonu, Qusar Rayonu, Saatli Rayonu,
 Sabirabad Rayonu, Saki Rayonu, Saki Sahari*, Salyan Rayonu, Samaxi
 Rayonu, Samkir Rayonu, Samux Rayonu, Siyazan Rayonu, Sumqayit Sahari*,
 Susa Rayonu, Susa Sahari*, Tartar Rayonu, Tovuz Rayonu, Ucar Rayonu,
 Xacmaz Rayonu, Xankandi Sahari*, Xanlar Rayonu, Xizi Rayonu, Xocali
 Rayonu, Xocavand Rayonu, Yardimb Rayonu, Yevlax Rayonu, Yevlax
 Sahari*, Zangilan Rayonu, Zaqatala Rayonu, Zardab Rayonu

 Independence: 30 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)

 National holiday: Independence Day, 28 May

 Constitution: adopted NA April 1978; writing a new constitution

 Legal system: based on civil law system

 Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

 Executive branch:
 chief of state: President Heydar ALIYEV (since 18 June 1993); election
 last held 3 October 1993 (next to be held NA); results - Heydar ALIYEV
 won 97% of vote
 head of government: Acting Prime Minister Fuad QULIYEV (since 9
 October 1994); First Deputy Prime Ministers Abbas ABBASOV, Samed
 SADYKOV, Vahid AKHMEDOV (since NA)
 cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by the president and
 confirmed by the Mejlis

 Legislative branch: unicameral
 National Assembly (Milli Mejlis): elections last held 30 September and
 14 October 1990 for the Supreme Soviet (next expected to be held
 September 1995 for the National Assembly); seats for Supreme Soviet -
 (360 total) Communists 280, Democratic Bloc 45 (grouping of opposition
 parties), other 15, vacant 20; note - on 19 May 1992 the Supreme
 Soviet was prorogued in favor of a Popular Front-dominated National
 Council; seats - (50 total) Popular Front 25, opposition elements 25
 note: since June 1993 ALIYEV has rotated in several supporters to
 replace Popular Front adherents

 Judicial branch: Supreme Court

 Political parties and leaders: Azerbaijan Popular Front (APF), Ebulfez
 ELCIBEY, chairman; Musavat Party, Isa GAMBAR, chairman; National
 Independence Party, Etibar MAMEDOV, chairman; Social Democratic Party
 (SDP), Araz ALIZADE, chairman; Communist Party, Ramiz AKHMEDOV,
 chairman; People's Freedom Party, Yunus OGUZ, chairman; Independent
 Social Democratic Party, Arif YUNUSOV and Leila YUNOSOVA, cochairmen;
 New Azerbaijan Party, Heydar ALIYEV, chairman; Boz Gurd Party,
 Iskander HAMIDOV, chairman; Azerbaijan Democratic Independence Party,
 Qabil HUSEYNLI, chairman; Islamic Party of Azerbaijan, Ali Akram,
 chairman; Ana Veten Party, Fazail AGAMALIYEV; Azerbaijan Democratic
 Party, Sardar Jalaloglu MAMEDOV; Azerbaijan Democratic Party of
 Proprietors (DPOP), Makhmud MAMEDOV; Azerbaijan Patriotic Solidarity
 Party, Sabir RUSTAMHANLI; Azerbaijan Republic Reform Party, Fuad
 ASADOV; Communist Party of Azerbaijan (unregistered), Sayad SAYADOV;
 Equality of the Peoples Party, Faukhraddin AYDAYEV; Independent
 Azerbaijan Party, Nizami SULEYMANOV; Labor Party of Azerbaijan,
 Sabutai HAJIYEV; Liberal-Democratic Party of Azerbaijan, Lyudmila
 NIKOLAYEVNA; National Enlightenment Party, Hajy Osman EFENDIYEV;
 National Liberation Party, Panak SHAKHSEVEV; Peasant Party, Firuz
 MUSTAFAYEV; Radical Party of Azerbaijan, Malik SHARIFOV; United
 Azerbaijan Party, Kerrar ABILOV; Vetan Adzhagy Party, Zakir TAGIYEV

 Other political or pressure groups: self-proclaimed Armenian
 Nagorno-Karabakh Republic; Talysh independence movement

 Member of: BSEC, CCC, CIS, EBRD, ECE, ECO, ESCAP, IBRD, ICAO, IDB,
 IFAD, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, NACC, OIC, OSCE, PFP,
 UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO

 Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Hafiz Mir Jalal PASHAYEV
 chancery: (temporary) Suite 700, 927 15th Street NW, Washington, DC
 20005
 telephone: [1] (202) 842-0001
 FAX: [1] (202) 842-0004

 US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Richard D. KAUZLARICH
 embassy: Azadliq Prospect 83, Baku
 mailing address: use embassy street address
 telephone: [9] (9412) 96-00-19, 98-03-37
 FAX: [9] (9412) 98-37-55

 Flag: three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), red, and green; a
 crescent and eight-pointed star in white are centered in red band

@Azerbaijan:Economy

 Overview: Azerbaijan is less developed industrially than either
 Armenia or Georgia, the other Transcaucasian states. It resembles the
 Central Asian states in its majority nominally Muslim population, high
 structural unemployment, and low standard of living. The economy's
 most prominent products are oil, cotton, and gas. Production from the
 Caspian oil and gas field has been in decline for several years, but
 the November 1994 ratification of the $7.5 billion oil deal with a
 consortium of Western companies should generate the funds needed to
 spur future industrial development. Azerbaijan accounted for 1.5% to
 2% of the capital stock and output of the former Soviet Union.
 Azerbaijan shares all the formidable problems of the ex-Soviet
 republics in making the transition from a command to a market economy,
 but its considerable energy resources brighten its long-term
 prospects. Baku has only recently begun making progress on economic
 reform, and old economic ties and structures have yet to be replaced.

 National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $13.8 billion (1994
 estimate as extrapolated from World Bank estimate for 1992)

 National product real growth rate: -22% (1994 est.)

 National product per capita: $1,790 (1994 est.)

 Inflation rate (consumer prices): 28% monthly average (1994)

 Unemployment rate: 0.9% includes officially registered unemployed;
 also large numbers of other unemployed and underemployed workers
 (December 1994)

 Budget:
 revenues: $167.5 million
 expenditures: $234.6 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
 (1994)

 Exports: $366 million to non-FSU countries (f.o.b., 1994)
 commodities: oil and gas, chemicals, oilfield equipment, textiles,
 cotton (1991)
 partners: mostly CIS and European countries

 Imports: $296 million from non-FSU countries (c.i.f., 1994)
 commodities: machinery and parts, consumer durables, foodstuffs,
 textiles (1991)
 partners: European countries

 External debt: $NA

 Industrial production: growth rate -25% (1994)

 Electricity:
 capacity: 4,900,000 kW
 production: 17.5 billion kWh
 consumption per capita: 2,270 kWh (1994)

 Industries: petroleum and natural gas, petroleum products, oilfield
 equipment; steel, iron ore, cement; chemicals and petrochemicals;
 textiles

 Agriculture: cotton, grain, rice, grapes, fruit, vegetables, tea,
 tobacco; cattle, pigs, sheep and goats

 Illicit drugs: illicit cultivator of cannabis and opium poppy; mostly
 for CIS consumption; limited government eradication program;
 transshipment point for illicit drugs to Western Europe

 Economic aid:
 recipient: wheat from Turkey

 Currency: 1 manat = 100 gopik

 Exchange rates: manats per US$1 - 4500 (April 1995), 4168 (end of
 December 1994)

 Fiscal year: calendar year

@Azerbaijan:Transportation

 Railroads:
 total: 2,090 km in common carrier service; does not include industrial
 lines
 broad gauge: 2,090 km 1.520-m gauge (1990)

 Highways:
 total: 36,700 km
 paved or graveled: 31,800 km
 unpaved: earth 4,900 km (1990)

 Pipelines: crude oil 1,130 km; petroleum products 630 km; natural gas
 1,240 km

 Ports: Baku (Baki)

 Airports:
 total: 69
 with paved runways over 3,047 m: 2
 with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 6
 with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 17
 with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 3
 with paved runways under 914 m: 1
 with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 7
 with unpaved runways under 914 m: 33

@Azerbaijan:Communications

 Telephone system: 710,000 telephones; 90 telephones/1,000 persons
 (1991); 202,000 persons waiting for telephone installations (January
 1991); domestic telephone service is of poor quality and inadequate
 local: a joint venture to establish a cellular telephone system
 (Bakcel) in the Baku area is supposed to become operational in 1994
 intercity: NA
 international: connections to other former USSR republics by cable and
 microwave and to other countries via the Moscow international gateway
 switch; INTELSAT link installed in late 1992 in Baku with Turkish
 financial assistance with access to 200 countries through Turkey;
 since August 1993 an earth station near Baku has provided direct
 communications with New York through Russia's Stationar-11 satellite

 Radio:
 broadcast stations: AM NA, FM NA, shortwave NA
 radios: NA

 Television:
 broadcast stations: NA; domestic and Russian TV programs are received
 locally and Turkish and Iranian TV is received from an INTELSAT
 satellite through a receive-only earth station
 televisions: NA

@Azerbaijan:Defense Forces

 Branches: Army, Air Force, Navy, Maritime Border Guard, National
 Guard, Security Forces (internal and border troops)

 Manpower availability: males age 15-49 1,927,955; males fit for
 military service 1,553,736; males reach military age (18) annually
 68,407 (1995 est.)

 Defense expenditures: 70.5 billion rubles, 10% of GDP (1993 budget
 allocation); note - conversion of the military budget into US dollars
 using the current exchange rate could produce misleading results


________________________________________________________________________

THE BAHAMAS

@The Bahamas:Geography

 Location: Caribbean, chain of islands in the North Atlantic Ocean,
 southeast of Florida

 Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

 Area:
 total area: 13,940 sq km
 land area: 10,070 sq km
 comparative area: slightly larger than Connecticut

 Land boundaries: 0 km

 Coastline: 3,542 km

 Maritime claims:
 continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
 exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
 territorial sea: 3 nm

 International disputes: none

 Climate: tropical marine; moderated by warm waters of Gulf Stream

 Terrain: long, flat coral formations with some low rounded hills

 Natural resources: salt, aragonite, timber

 Land use:
 arable land: 1%
 permanent crops: 0%
 meadows and pastures: 0%
 forest and woodland: 32%
 other: 67%

 Irrigated land: NA sq km

 Environment:
 current issues: coral reef decay
 natural hazards: hurricanes and other tropical storms that cause
 extensive flood and wind damage
 international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
 Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test
 Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution

 Note: strategic location adjacent to US and Cuba; extensive island
 chain

@The Bahamas:People

 Population: 256,616 (July 1995 est.)

 Age structure:
 0-14 years: 28% (female 35,924; male 36,504)
 15-64 years: 66% (female 87,868; male 82,780)
 65 years and over: 6% (female 8,247; male 5,293) (July 1995 est.)

 Population growth rate: 1.09% (1995 est.)

 Birth rate: 19.23 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Death rate: 5.79 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Net migration rate: -2.56 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Infant mortality rate: 24.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

 Life expectancy at birth:
 total population: 72.12 years
 male: 67.37 years
 female: 76.97 years (1995 est.)

 Total fertility rate: 2.01 children born/woman (1995 est.)

 Nationality:
 noun: Bahamian(s)
 adjective: Bahamian

 Ethnic divisions: black 85%, white 15%

 Religions: Baptist 32%, Anglican 20%, Roman Catholic 19%, Methodist
 6%, Church of God 6%, other Protestant 12%, none or unknown 3%, other
 2%

 Languages: English, Creole (among Haitian immigrants)

 Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write but definition of
 literary not available (1963 est.)
 total population: 90%
 male: 90%
 female: 89%

 Labor force: 136,900 (1993)
 by occupation: government 30%, hotels and restaurants 25%, business
 services 10%, agriculture 5% (1989)

@The Bahamas:Government

 Names:
 conventional long form: Commonwealth of The Bahamas
 conventional short form: The Bahamas

 Digraph: BF

 Type: commonwealth

 Capital: Nassau

 Administrative divisions: 21 districts; Acklins and Crooked Islands,
 Bimini, Cat Island, Exuma, Freeport, Fresh Creek, Governor's Harbour,
 Green Turtle Cay, Harbour Island, High Rock, Inagua, Kemps Bay, Long
 Island, Marsh Harbour, Mayaguana, New Providence, Nicholls Town and
 Berry Islands, Ragged Island, Rock Sound, Sandy Point, San Salvador
 and Rum Cay

 Independence: 10 July 1973 (from UK)

 National holiday: National Day, 10 July (1973)

 Constitution: 10 July 1973

 Legal system: based on English common law

 Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

 Executive branch:
 chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
 represented by Governor General Sir Clifford DARLING (since 2 January
 1992)
 head of government: Prime Minister Hubert A. INGRAHAM (since 19 August
 1992)
 cabinet: Cabinet; appointed by the governor on the prime minister's
 recommendation

 Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament
 Senate: a 16-member body appointed by the governor general
 House of Assembly: elections last held 19 August 1992 (next to be held
 by August 1997); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (49
 total) FNM 32, PLP 17

 Judicial branch: Supreme Court

 Political parties and leaders: Progressive Liberal Party (PLP), Sir
 Lynden O. PINDLING; Free National Movement (FNM), Hubert Alexander
 INGRAHAM;

 Member of: ACP, C, CARICOM, CCC, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IBRD,
 ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT,
 INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU,
 WHO, WIPO, WMO

 Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Timothy Baswell DONALDSON
 chancery: 2220 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
 telephone: [1] (202) 319-2660
 FAX: [1] (202) 319-2668
 consulate(s) general: Miami and New York

 US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Sidney WILLIAMS
 embassy: Mosmar Building, Queen Street, Nassau
 mailing address: P. O. Box N-8197, Nassau
 telephone: [1] (809) 322-1181, 328-2206
 FAX: [1] (809) 328-7838

 Flag: three equal horizontal bands of aquamarine (top), gold, and
 aquamarine with a black equilateral triangle based on the hoist side

@The Bahamas:Economy

 Overview: The Bahamas is a stable, developing nation whose economy is
 based primarily on tourism and offshore banking. Tourism alone
 provides about 50% of GDP and directly or indirectly employs about
 50,000 people or 40% of the local work force. The economy has
 slackened in recent years, as the annual increase in the number of
 tourists slowed. Nonetheless, per capita GDP is one of the highest in
 the region.

 National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $4.4 billion (1994
 est.)

 National product real growth rate: 3.5% (1994 est.)

 National product per capita: $15,900 (1994 est.)

 Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.7% (1994)

 Unemployment rate: 13.1% (1993)

 Budget:
 revenues: $696 million
 expenditures: $756 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
 (FY94/95)

 Exports: $257 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
 commodities: pharmaceuticals, cement, rum, crawfish, refined petroleum
 products
 partners: US 51%, UK 7%, Norway 7%, France 6%, Italy 5%

 Imports: $1.15 billion (f.o.b,,1993 est.)
 commodities: foodstuffs, manufactured goods, crude oil, vehicles,
 electronics
 partners: US 55%, Japan 17%, Nigeria 12%, Denmark 7%, Norway 6%

 External debt: $455 million (December 1993)

 Industrial production: growth rate 3% (1990); accounts for 15% of GDP

 Electricity:
 capacity: 424,000 kW
 production: 929 million kWh
 consumption per capita: 3,200 kWh (1993)

 Industries: tourism, banking, cement, oil refining and transshipment,
 salt production, rum, aragonite, pharmaceuticals, spiral welded steel
 pipe

 Agriculture: accounts for 5% of GDP; dominated by small-scale
 producers; principal products - citrus fruit, vegetables, poultry;
 large net importer of food

 Illicit drugs: transshipment point for cocaine and marijuana bound for
 US and Europe; also a money-laundering center

 Economic aid:
 recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY85-89), $1 million;
 Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
 (1970-89), $345 million

 Currency: 1 Bahamian dollar (B$) = 100 cents

 Exchange rates: Bahamian dollar (B$) per US$1 - 1.00 (fixed rate)

 Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

@The Bahamas:Transportation

 Railroads: 0 km

 Highways:
 total: 2,400 km
 paved: 1,350 km
 unpaved: gravel 1,050 km

 Ports: Freeport, Matthew Town, Nassau

 Merchant marine:
 total: 936 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 21,815,474
 GRT/35,253,416 DWT
 ships by type: bulk 162, cargo 181, chemical tanker 39, combination
 bulk 9, combination ore/oil 19, container 52, liquefied gas tanker 20,
 oil tanker 182, passenger 55, refrigerated cargo 146, roll-on/roll-off
 cargo 43, short-sea passenger 16, vehicle carrier 12
 note: a flag of convenience registry; includes 46 countries among
 which are UK 158 ships, Norway 125, Greece 100, US 94, Denmark 80,
 Netherlands 53, France 36, Finland 35, Japan 35, Sweden 25

 Airports:
 total: 60
 with paved runways over 3,047 m: 2
 with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
 with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 16
 with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 11
 with paved runways under 914 m: 22
 with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 8

@The Bahamas:Communications

 Telephone system: 99,000 telephones; totally automatic system; highly
 developed
 local: NA
 intercity: NA
 international: tropospheric scatter and submarine cable links to
 Florida; 3 coaxial submarine cables; 1 INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean) earth
 station

 Radio:
 broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 2, shortwave 0
 radios: NA

 Television:
 broadcast stations: 1
 televisions: NA

@The Bahamas:Defense Forces

 Branches: Royal Bahamas Defense Force (Coast Guard only), Royal
 Bahamas Police Force

 Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $65 million, 2.7% of
 GDP (1990)


________________________________________________________________________

BAHRAIN

@Bahrain:Geography

 Location: Middle East, archipelago in the Persian Gulf, east of Saudi
 Arabia

 Map references: Middle East

 Area:
 total area: 620 sq km
 land area: 620 sq km
 comparative area: slightly less than 3.5 times the size of Washington,
 DC

 Land boundaries: 0 km

 Coastline: 161 km

 Maritime claims:
 contiguous zone: 24 nm
 continental shelf: extending to boundaries to be determined
 territorial sea: 12 nm

 International disputes: territorial dispute with Qatar over the Hawar
 Islands; maritime boundary with Qatar

 Climate: arid; mild, pleasant winters; very hot, humid summers

 Terrain: mostly low desert plain rising gently to low central
 escarpment

 Natural resources: oil, associated and nonassociated natural gas, fish

 Land use:
 arable land: 2%
 permanent crops: 2%
 meadows and pastures: 6%
 forest and woodland: 0%
 other: 90%

 Irrigated land: 10 sq km (1989 est.)

 Environment:
 current issues: desertification resulting from the degradation of
 limited arable land, periods of drought, and dust storms; coastal
 degradation (damage to coastlines, coral reefs, and sea vegetation)
 resulting from oil spills and other discharges from large tankers, oil
 refineries, and distribution stations; no natural fresh water
 resources so that groundwater and sea water are the only sources for
 all water needs
 natural hazards: periodic droughts; dust storms
 international agreements: party to - Climate Change, Hazardous Wastes,
 Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection; signed, but not ratified -
 Biodiversity

 Note: close to primary Middle Eastern petroleum sources; strategic
 location in Persian Gulf through which much of Western world's
 petroleum must transit to reach open ocean

@Bahrain:People

 Population: 575,925 (July 1995 est.)

 Age structure:
 0-14 years: 31% (female 87,398; male 89,976)
 15-64 years: 67% (female 152,363; male 231,586)
 65 years and over: 2% (female 7,051; male 7,551) (July 1995 est.)

 Population growth rate: 2.58% (1995 est.)

 Birth rate: 24.12 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Death rate: 3.31 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Net migration rate: 4.95 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Infant mortality rate: 18 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

 Life expectancy at birth:
 total population: 73.94 years
 male: 71.46 years
 female: 76.49 years (1995 est.)

 Total fertility rate: 3.12 children born/woman (1995 est.)

 Nationality:
 noun: Bahraini(s)
 adjective: Bahraini

 Ethnic divisions: Bahraini 63%, Asian 13%, other Arab 10%, Iranian 8%,
 other 6%

 Religions: Shi'a Muslim 70%, Sunni Muslim 30%

 Languages: Arabic, English, Farsi, Urdu

 Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1991)
 total population: 84%
 male: 89%
 female: 77%

 Labor force: 140,000
 by occupation: industry and commerce 85%, agriculture 5%, services 5%,
 government 3% (1982)
 note: 42% of labor force is Bahraini

@Bahrain:Government

 Names:
 conventional long form: State of Bahrain
 conventional short form: Bahrain
 local long form: Dawlat al Bahrayn
 local short form: Al Bahrayn

 Digraph: BA

 Type: traditional monarchy

 Capital: Manama

 Administrative divisions: 12 districts (manatiq, singular - mintaqah);
 Al Hadd, Al Manamah, Al Mintaqah al Gharbiyah, Al Mintaqah al Wusta,
 Al Mintaqah ash Shamaliyah, Al Muharraq, Ar Rifa'wa al Mintaqah al
 Janubiyah, Jidd Hafs, Madinat Hamad, Madinat 'Isa, Mintaqat Juzur
 Hawar, Sitrah

 Independence: 15 August 1971 (from UK)

 National holiday: Independence Day, 16 December (1961)

 Constitution: 26 May 1973, effective 6 December 1973

 Legal system: based on Islamic law and English common law

 Suffrage: none

 Executive branch:
 chief of state: Amir ISA bin Salman Al Khalifa (since 2 November
 1961); Heir Apparent HAMAD bin Isa bin Salman Al Khalifa (son of the
 Amir, born 28 January 1950)
 head of government: Prime Minister KHALIFA bin Salman Al Khalifa
 (since 19 January 1970)
 cabinet: Cabinet

 Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly was dissolved 26
 August 1975 and legislative powers were assumed by the Cabinet;
 appointed Advisory Council established 16 December 1992

 Judicial branch: High Civil Appeals Court

 Political parties and leaders: political parties prohibited; several
 small, clandestine leftist and Islamic fundamentalist groups are
 active

 Member of: ABEDA, AFESD, AL, AMF, ESCWA, FAO, G-77, GATT, GCC, IBRD,
 ICAO, ICRM, IDB, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL,
 IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
 UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO

 Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Muhammad ABD AL-GHAFFAR al-Abdallah
 chancery: 3502 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
 telephone: [1] (202) 342-0741, 342-0742
 consulate(s) general: New York

 US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission: Ambassador David M. RANSOM
 embassy: Building No. 979, Road 3119 (next to Ahli Sports Club), Zinj
 District, Manama
 mailing address: FPO AE 09834-5100; P.O. Box 26431, Manama
 (International Mail)
 telephone: [973] 273300; afterhours [973] 275-126
 FAX: [973] 272594

 Flag: red with a white serrated band (eight white points) on the hoist
 side

@Bahrain:Economy

 Overview: Tiny in area, Bahrain is well-to-do in economic resources
 and per capita income. Petroleum production and processing account for
 about 80% of export receipts, 60% of government revenues, and 30% of
 GDP. Economic conditions have fluctuated with the changing fortunes of
 oil since 1985, for example, during and following the Gulf crisis of
 1990-91. With its highly developed communication and transport
 facilities Bahrain is home to numerous multinational firms with
 business in the Gulf. A large share of exports consists of petroleum
 products made from imported crude. Prospects for 1995 are good, with
 private enterprise the main driving force, e.g., in banking and
 construction. Unemployment, especially among the young, and the
 depletion of both oil and underground water resources are major
 long-term economic problems.

 National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $7.1 billion (1994
 est.)

 National product real growth rate: 2.2% (1994 est.)

 National product per capita: $12,100 (1994 est.)

 Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2% (1994 est.)

 Unemployment rate: 15% (1991 est.)

 Budget:
 revenues: $1.2 billion (1989)
 expenditures: $1.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
 (1992)

 Exports: $3.69 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
 commodities: petroleum and petroleum products 80%, aluminum 7%
 partners: Japan 11%, UAE 5%, South Korea 4%, India 4%, Saudi Arabia 3%
 (1992)

 Imports: $3.83 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
 commodities: nonoil 59%, crude oil 41%
 partners: Saudi Arabia 47%, UK 7%, Japan 7%, US 6%, Germany 5% (1992)

 External debt: $2.6 billion (1993)

 Industrial production: growth rate 13% (1992); accounts for 38% of
 GDP, including petroleum

 Electricity:
 capacity: 1,050,000 kW
 production: 3.3 billion kWh
 consumption per capita: 5,453 kWh (1993)

 Industries: petroleum processing and refining, aluminum smelting,
 offshore banking, ship repairing

 Agriculture: including fishing, accounts for less than 2% of GDP; not
 self-sufficient in food production; heavily subsidized sector produces
 fruit, vegetables, poultry, dairy products, shrimp, fish

 Economic aid:
 recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-79), $24 million;
 Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
 (1970-89), $45 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $9.8 billion

 Currency: 1 Bahraini dinar (BD) = 1,000 fils

 Exchange rates: Bahraini dinars (BD) per US$1 - 0.3760 (fixed rate)

 Fiscal year: calendar year

@Bahrain:Transportation

 Railroads: 0 km

 Highways:
 total: 2,670 km
 paved: 2,010 km
 unpaved: 660 km (1991 est.)

 Pipelines: crude oil 56 km; petroleum products 16 km; natural gas 32
 km

 Ports: Manama, Mina' Salman, Sitrah

 Merchant marine:
 total: 6 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 79,949 GRT/120,900 DWT
 ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 4, chemical tanker 1

 Airports:
 total: 4
 with paved runways over 3,047 m: 2
 with paved runways under 914 m: 1
 with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 1

@Bahrain:Communications

 Telephone system: 98,000 telephones; 170 telephones/1,000 persons;
 modern system; good domestic services; excellent international
 connections
 local: NA
 intercity: NA
 international: 2 INTELSAT (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) and 1
 ARABSAT earth station; tropospheric scatter to Qatar, UAE; microwave
 radio relay to Saudi Arabia; submarine cable to Qatar, UAE, and Saudi
 Arabia

 Radio:
 broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 3, shortwave 0
 radios: 60 million

 Television:
 broadcast stations: 2
 televisions: 21 million

@Bahrain:Defense Forces

 Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense, Coast Guard, Police
 Force

 Manpower availability: males age 15-49 210,725; males fit for military
 service 117,414; males reach military age (15) annually 4,346 (1995
 est.)

 Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $247 million, 5.5% of
 GDP (1994)


________________________________________________________________________

BAKER ISLAND

 (territory of the US) 

@Baker Island:Geography

 Location: Oceania, atoll in the North Pacific Ocean, about one-half of
 the way from Hawaii to Australia

 Map references: Oceania

 Area:
 total area: 1.4 sq km
 land area: 1.4 sq km
 comparative area: about 2.3 times the size of The Mall in Washington,
 DC

 Land boundaries: 0 km

 Coastline: 4.8 km

 Maritime claims:
 exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
 territorial sea: 12 nm

 International disputes: none

 Climate: equatorial; scant rainfall, constant wind, burning sun

 Terrain: low, nearly level coral island surrounded by a narrow
 fringing reef

 Natural resources: guano (deposits worked until 1891)

 Land use:
 arable land: 0%
 permanent crops: 0%
 meadows and pastures: 0%
 forest and woodland: 0%
 other: 100%

 Irrigated land: 0 sq km

 Environment:
 current issues: no natural fresh water resources
 natural hazards: the narrow fringing reef surrounding the island can
 be a maritime hazard
 international agreements: NA

 Note: treeless, sparse, and scattered vegetation consisting of
 grasses, prostrate vines, and low growing shrubs; primarily a nesting,
 roosting, and foraging habitat for seabirds, shorebirds, and marine
 wildlife

@Baker Island:People

 Population: uninhabited; note - American civilians evacuated in 1942
 after Japanese air and naval attacks during World War II; occupied by
 US military during World War II, but abandoned after the war; public
 entry is by special-use permit only and generally restricted to
 scientists and educators; a cemetery and cemetery ruins are located
 near the middle of the west coast

@Baker Island:Government

 Names:
 conventional long form: none
 conventional short form: Baker Island

 Digraph: FQ

 Type: unincorporated territory of the US administered by the Fish and
 Wildlife Service of the US Department of the Interior as part of the
 National Wildlife Refuge system

 Capital: none; administered from Washington, DC

@Baker Island:Economy

 Overview: no economic activity

@Baker Island:Transportation

 Ports: none; offshore anchorage only; note - there is one boat landing
 area along the middle of the west coast

 Airports: 1 abandoned World War II runway of 1,665 m

 Note: there is a day beacon near the middle of the west coast

@Baker Island:Defense Forces

 Note: defense is the responsibility of the US; visited annually by the
 US Coast Guard


________________________________________________________________________

BANGLADESH

@Bangladesh:Geography

 Location: Southern Asia, bordering the Bay of Bengal, between Burma
 and India

 Map references: Asia

 Area:
 total area: 144,000 sq km
 land area: 133,910 sq km
 comparative area: slightly smaller than Wisconsin

 Land boundaries: total 4,246 km, Burma 193 km, India 4,053 km

 Coastline: 580 km

 Maritime claims:
 contiguous zone: 18 nm
 continental shelf: up to the outer limits of the continental margin
 exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
 territorial sea: 12 nm

 International disputes: a portion of the boundary with India is in
 dispute; water-sharing problems with upstream riparian India over the
 Ganges

 Climate: tropical; cool, dry winter (October to March); hot, humid
 summer (March to June); cool, rainy monsoon (June to October)

 Terrain: mostly flat alluvial plain; hilly in southeast

 Natural resources: natural gas, arable land, timber

 Land use:
 arable land: 67%
 permanent crops: 2%
 meadows and pastures: 4%
 forest and woodland: 16%
 other: 11%

 Irrigated land: 27,380 sq km (1989)

 Environment:
 current issues: many people are landless and forced to live on and
 cultivate flood-prone land; limited access to potable water;
 water-borne diseases prevalent; water pollution especially of fishing
 areas results from the use of commercial pesticides; intermittent
 water shortages because of falling water tables in the northern and
 central parts of the country; soil degradation; deforestation; severe
 overpopulation
 natural hazards: droughts, cyclones; much of the country routinely
 flooded during the summer monsoon season
 international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
 Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes,
 Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands; signed, but not
 ratified - Desertification, Law of the Sea

@Bangladesh:People

 Population: 128,094,948 (July 1995 est.)

 Age structure:
 0-14 years: 40% (female 25,195,262; male 26,352,299)
 15-64 years: 57% (female 34,862,105; male 37,867,705)
 65 years and over: 3% (female 1,761,336; male 2,056,241) (July 1995
 est.)

 Population growth rate: 2.32% (1995 est.)

 Birth rate: 34.62 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Death rate: 11.43 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Infant mortality rate: 104.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

 Life expectancy at birth:
 total population: 55.46 years
 male: 55.69 years
 female: 55.22 years (1995 est.)

 Total fertility rate: 4.39 children born/woman (1995 est.)

 Nationality:
 noun: Bangladeshi(s)
 adjective: Bangladesh

 Ethnic divisions: Bengali 98%, Biharis 250,000, tribals less than 1
 million

 Religions: Muslim 83%, Hindu 16%, Buddhist, Christian, other

 Languages: Bangla (official), English

 Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
 total population: 35%
 male: 47%
 female: 22%

 Labor force: 50.1 million
 by occupation: agriculture 65%, services 21%, industry and mining 14%
 (1989)
 note: extensive export of labor to Saudi Arabia, UAE, and Oman (1991)

@Bangladesh:Government

 Names:
 conventional long form: People's Republic of Bangladesh
 conventional short form: Bangladesh
 former: East Pakistan

 Digraph: BG

 Type: republic

 Capital: Dhaka

 Administrative divisions: 4 divisions; Chittagong, Dhaka, Khulna,
 Rajshahi

 Independence: 16 December 1971 (from Pakistan)

 National holiday: Independence Day, 26 March (1971)

 Constitution: 4 November 1972, effective 16 December 1972, suspended
 following coup of 24 March 1982, restored 10 November 1986, amended
 many times

 Legal system: based on English common law

 Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

 Executive branch:
 chief of state: President Abdur Rahman BISWAS (since 8 October 1991);
 election last held 8 October 1991 (next to be held by NA October
 1996); results - Abdur Rahman BISWAS received 52.1% of parliamentary
 vote
 head of government: Prime Minister Khaleda ZIAur RAHMAN (since 20
 March 1991)
 cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by the president

 Legislative branch: unicameral
 National Parliament (Jatiya Sangsad): elections last held 27 February
 1991 (next to be held by February 1996); results - percent of vote by
 party NA; seats - (330 total, 300 elected and 30 seats reserved for
 women) BNP 168, AL 93, JP 35, JI 20, BCP 5, National Awami Party
 (Muzaffar) 1, Workers Party 1, JSD 1, Ganotantri Party 1, Islami Oikya
 Jote 1, NDP 1, independents 3

 Judicial branch: Supreme Court

 Political parties and leaders: Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP),
 Khaleda ZIAur RAHMAN; Awami League (AL), Sheikh Hasina WAJED; Jatiyo
 Party (JP), Hussain Mohammad ERSHAD (in jail); Jamaat-E-Islami (JI),
 Ali KHAN; Bangladesh Communist Party (BCP), Saifuddin Ahmed MANIK;
 National Awami Party (Muzaffar); Workers Party, leader NA; Jatiyo
 Samajtantik Dal (JSD), Serajul ALAM KHAN; Ganotantri Party, leader NA;
 Islami Oikya Jote, leader NA; National Democratic Party (NDP), leader
 NA; Muslim League, Khan A. SABUR; Democratic League, Khondakar
 MUSHTAQUE Ahmed; Democratic League, Khondakar MUSHTAQUE Ahmed; United
 People's Party, Kazi ZAFAR Ahmed

 Member of: AsDB, C, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
 ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT,
 INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, NAM, OIC, SAARC, UN,
 UNAMIR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNOMIG, UNOMIL, UNOMOZ, UNOMUR,
 UNOSOM, UNPROFOR, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

 Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Humayun KABIR
 chancery: 2201 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007
 telephone: [1] (202) 342-8372 through 8376
 consulate(s) general: New York

 US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission: Ambassador David N. MERRILL
 embassy: Diplomatic Enclave, Madani Avenue, Baridhara, Dhaka
 mailing address: G. P. O. Box 323, Dhaka 1212
 telephone: [880] (2) 884700 through 884722
 FAX: [880] (2) 883-744

 Flag: green with a large red disk slightly to the hoist side of
 center; green is the traditional color of Islam

@Bangladesh:Economy

 Overview: Despite sustained domestic and international efforts to
 improve economic and demographic prospects, Bangladesh remains one of
 the world's poorest, most densely populated, and least developed
 nations. Its economy is overwhelmingly agricultural, with the
 cultivation of rice the single most important activity in the economy.
 Major impediments to growth include frequent cyclones and floods, the
 inefficiency of state-owned enterprises, a rapidly growing labor force
 that cannot be absorbed by agriculture, delays in exploiting energy
 resources (natural gas), and inadequate power supplies. Excellent rice
 crops and expansion of the export garment industry led to real growth
 of 4% in 1992 and again in 1993. Policy measures intended to reduce
 government regulation of private industry, to curb population growth,
 and to expand employment opportunities have had only partial success
 given the serious nature of Bangladesh's basic problems.

 National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $130.1 billion (1994
 est.)

 National product real growth rate: 4.5% (1994 est.)

 National product per capita: $1,040 (1994 est.)

 Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.3% (1992 est.)

 Unemployment rate: NA%

 Budget:
 revenues: $2.8 billion
 expenditures: $4.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $1.8
 billion (FY92/93)

 Exports: $2.38 billion (1993)
 commodities: garments, jute and jute goods, leather, shrimp
 partners: US 33%, Western Europe 39% (Germany 8.4%, Italy 6%) (FY91/92
 est.)

 Imports: $3.99 billion (1993)
 commodities: capital goods, petroleum, food, textiles
 partners: Hong Kong 7.5%, Singapore 7.4%, China 7.4%, Japan 7.1%
 (FY91/92 est.)

 External debt: $13.5 billion (June 1993)

 Industrial production: growth rate 6.9% (FY92/93 est.); accounts for
 9.4% of GDP

 Electricity:
 capacity: 2,740,000 kW
 production: 9.2 billion kWh
 consumption per capita: 70 kWh (1993)

 Industries: jute manufacturing, cotton textiles, food processing,
 steel, fertilizer

 Agriculture: accounts for 33% of GDP, 65% of employment, and one-fifth
 of exports; world's largest exporter of jute; commercial products -
 jute, rice, wheat, tea, sugarcane, potatoes, beef, milk, poultry;
 shortages include wheat, vegetable oils, cotton

 Illicit drugs: transit country for illegal drugs produced in
 neighboring countries

 Economic aid:
 recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $3.4 billion;
 Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
 (1980-89), $11.65 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $6.52
 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $1.5 billion

 Currency: 1 taka (Tk) = 100 poiska

 Exchange rates: taka (Tk) per US$1 - 40.250 (January 1995), 40.212
 (1994), 39.567 (1993), 38.951 (1992), 36.596 (1991), 34.569 (1990)

 Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

@Bangladesh:Transportation

 Railroads:
 total: 2,892 km
 broad gauge: 978 km 1.676-m gauge
 narrow gauge: 1,914 km 1.000-m gauge (1992)

 Highways:
 total: 7,240 km
 paved: 3,840 km
 unpaved: 3,400 km (1985)

 Inland waterways: 5,150-8,046 km navigable waterways (includes
 2,575-3,058 km main cargo routes)

 Pipelines: natural gas 1,220 km

 Ports: Barisal, Chandpur, Chittagong, Cox's Bazar, Dacca, Khulna,
 Mongla (includes Chalna), Narayanganj

 Merchant marine:
 total: 38 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 293,304 GRT/428,013 DWT
 ships by type: bulk 2, cargo 31, oil tanker 2, refrigerated cargo 3

 Airports:
 total: 16
 with paved runways over 3,047 m: 2
 with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
 with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
 with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 1
 with paved runways under 914 m: 7

@Bangladesh:Communications

 Telephone system: 241,250 telephones; 1 telephone/522 persons; poor
 domestic telephone service
 local: NA
 intercity: NA
 international: 2 INTELSAT (Indian Ocean) earth stations; adequate
 international radio communications and landline service

 Radio:
 broadcast stations: AM 9, FM 6, shortwave 0
 radios: NA

 Television:
 broadcast stations: 11
 televisions: NA

@Bangladesh:Defense Forces

 Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force
 paramilitary forces: Bangladesh Rifles, Bangladesh Ansars, Armed
 Police Reserve, Village Defense Parties, National Cadet Corps

 Manpower availability: males age 15-49 33,039,035; males fit for
 military service 19,607,817 (1995 est.)

 Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $448 million, 1.7% of
 GDP (FY93/94)


________________________________________________________________________

BARBADOS

@Barbados:Geography

 Location: Caribbean, island between the Caribbean Sea and the North
 Atlantic Ocean, northeast of Venezuela

 Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

 Area:
 total area: 430 sq km
 land area: 430 sq km
 comparative area: slightly less than 2.5 times the size of Washington,
 DC

 Land boundaries: 0 km

 Coastline: 97 km

 Maritime claims:
 exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
 territorial sea: 12 nm

 International disputes: none

 Climate: tropical; rainy season (June to October)

 Terrain: relatively flat; rises gently to central highland region

 Natural resources: petroleum, fishing, natural gas

 Land use:
 arable land: 77%
 permanent crops: 0%
 meadows and pastures: 9%
 forest and woodland: 0%
 other: 14%

 Irrigated land: NA sq km

 Environment:
 current issues: pollution of coastal waters from waste disposal by
 ships; soil erosion; illegal solid waste disposal threatens
 contamination of aquifers
 natural hazards: hurricanes (especially June to October); periodic
 landslides
 international agreements: party to - Climate Change, Endangered
 Species, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
 Pollution; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity

 Note: easternmost Caribbean island

@Barbados:People

 Population: 256,395 (July 1995 est.)

 Age structure:
 0-14 years: 24% (female 30,175; male 31,507)
 15-64 years: 66% (female 86,103; male 82,727)
 65 years and over: 10% (female 15,849; male 10,034) (July 1995 est.)

 Population growth rate: 0.24% (1995 est.)

 Birth rate: 15.45 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Death rate: 8.27 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Net migration rate: -4.82 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Infant mortality rate: 19.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

 Life expectancy at birth:
 total population: 74.16 years
 male: 71.47 years
 female: 77.06 years (1995 est.)

 Total fertility rate: 1.78 children born/woman (1995 est.)

 Nationality:
 noun: Barbadian(s)
 adjective: Barbadian

 Ethnic divisions: African 80%, European 4%, other 16%

 Religions: Protestant 67% (Anglican 40%, Pentecostal 8%, Methodist 7%,
 other 12%), Roman Catholic 4%, none 17%, unknown 3%, other 9% (1980)

 Languages: English

 Literacy: age 15 and over has ever attended school (1970)
 total population: 99%
 male: 99%
 female: 99%

 Labor force: 124,800 (1992)
 by occupation: services and government 41%, commerce 15%,
 manufacturing and construction 18%, transportation, storage,
 communications, and financial institutions 8%, agriculture 6%,
 utilities 2% (1992 est.)

@Barbados:Government

 Names:
 conventional long form: none
 conventional short form: Barbados

 Digraph: BB

 Type: parliamentary democracy

 Capital: Bridgetown

 Administrative divisions: 11 parishes; Christ Church, Saint Andrew,
 Saint George, Saint James, Saint John, Saint Joseph, Saint Lucy, Saint
 Michael, Saint Peter, Saint Philip, Saint Thomas
 note: the new city of Bridgetown may be given parish status

 Independence: 30 November 1966 (from UK)

 National holiday: Independence Day, 30 November (1966)

 Constitution: 30 November 1966

 Legal system: English common law; no judicial review of legislative
 acts

 Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

 Executive branch:
 chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
 represented by Governor General Dame Nita BARROW (since 6 June 1990)
 head of government: Prime Minister Owen Seymour ARTHUR (since 6
 September 1994); Deputy Prime Minister Billie MILLER (since 6
 September 1994)
 cabinet: Cabinet; appointed by the governor general on advice of the
 prime minister

 Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament
 Senate: consists of a 21-member body appointed by the governor general

 House of Assembly: election last held 6 September 1994 (next to be
 held by January 1999); results - percentage vote by party NA; seats -
 (28 total) DLP 8, BLP 19, NDP 1

 Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Judicature

 Political parties and leaders: Democratic Labor Party (DLP),David
 THOMPSON; Barbados Labor Party (BLP), Owen ARTHUR; National Democratic
 Party (NDP), Richard HAYNES

 Other political or pressure groups: Barbados Workers Union, Leroy
 TROTMAN; People's Progressive Movement, Eric SEALY; Workers' Party of
 Barbados, Dr. George BELLE; Clement Payne Labor Union, David
 COMMISSIONG

 Member of: ACP, C, CARICOM, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB, IBRD,
 ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT,
 INTERPOL, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LAES, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, UN,
 UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

 Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Courtney BLACKMAN
 chancery: 2144 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
 telephone: [1] (202) 939-9218, 9219
 FAX: [1] (202) 332-7467
 consulate(s) general: Miami and New York
 consulate(s): Los Angeles

 US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Jeanette W. HYDE
 embassy: Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce Building, Broad Street,
 Bridgetown
 mailing address: P. O. Box 302, Bridgetown; FPO AA 34055
 telephone: [1] (809) 436-4950
 FAX: [1] (809) 429-5246

 Flag: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and
 blue with the head of a black trident centered on the gold band; the
 trident head represents independence and a break with the past (the
 colonial coat of arms contained a complete trident)

@Barbados:Economy

 Overview: A per capita income of $9,200 gives Barbados one of the
 highest standards of living of all the small island states of the
 eastern Caribbean. Historically, the economy was based on the
 cultivation of sugarcane and related activities. In recent years,
 however, the economy has diversified into manufacturing and tourism. A
 moderate recovery that began in late 1993 after 3 years of contraction
 is mainly due to increased tourism and expansion in the construction
 sector. Economic prospects for 1995 depend mostly on continued growth
 in the industrialized countries, especially in Europe, which would
 spur further expansion in tourism.

 National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $2.4 billion (1994
 est.)

 National product real growth rate: 3% (1994 est.)

 National product per capita: $9,200 (1994 est.)

 Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2% (1994 est.)

 Unemployment rate: 20.5% (1994 est.)

 Budget:
 revenues: $509 million
 expenditures: $636 million, including capital expenditures of $86
 million (FY94/95 est.)

 Exports: $161 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
 commodities: sugar and molasses, rum, other foods and beverages,
 chemicals, electrical components, clothing
 partners: US 13%, UK 10%, Trinidad and Tobago 9%, Windward Islands 8%

 Imports: $703 million (c.i.f., 1993 est.)
 commodities: consumer goods, machinery, foodstuffs, construction
 materials, chemicals, fuel, electrical components
 partners: US 36%, UK 11%, Trinidad and Tobago 11%, Japan 3%

 External debt: $652 million (1991 est.)

 Industrial production: growth rate 2% (FY93/94 est.); accounts for
 about 10% of GDP

 Electricity:
 capacity: 152,100 kW
 production: 510 million kWh
 consumption per capita: 1,841 kWh (1993)

 Industries: tourism, sugar, light manufacturing, component assembly
 for export

 Agriculture: accounts for 6% of GDP; major cash crop is sugarcane;
 other crops - vegetables, cotton; not self-sufficient in food

 Illicit drugs: one of many Caribbean transshipment points for
 narcotics bound for the US and Europe

 Economic aid:
 recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $15 million;
 Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
 (1970-89), $171 million

 Currency: 1 Barbadian dollar (Bds$) = 100 cents

 Exchange rates: Barbadian dollars (Bds$) per US$1 - 2.0113 (fixed
 rate)

 Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Barbados:Transportation

 Railroads: 0 km

 Highways:
 total: 1,570 km
 paved: 1,475 km
 unpaved: gravel, earth 95 km

 Ports: Bridgetown

 Merchant marine:
 total: 12 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 61,563 GRT/103,632 DWT
 ships by type: bulk 4, cargo 6, oil tanker 2

 Airports:
 total: 1
 with paved runways over 3,047 m: 1

@Barbados:Communications

 Telephone system: 89,000 telephones
 local: island wide automatic telephone system;
 intercity: NA
 international: 1 INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean) earth station; tropospheric
 scatter link to Trinidad and Saint Lucia

 Radio:
 broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 2, shortwave 0
 radios: NA

 Television:
 broadcast stations: 2 (1 pay)
 televisions: NA

@Barbados:Defense Forces

 Branches: Royal Barbados Defense Force (includes the Ground Forces and
 Coast Guard), Royal Barbados Police Force

 Manpower availability: males age 15-49 71,153; males fit for military
 service 49,488 (1995 est.)

 Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $NA, NA% of GDP


________________________________________________________________________

BASSAS DA INDIA

 (possession of France) 

@Bassas Da India:Geography

 Location: Southern Africa, islands in the southern Mozambique Channel,
 about one-half of the way from Madagascar to Mozambique

 Map references: Africa

 Area:
 total area: 0.2 km2
 land area: 0.2 km2
 comparative area: NA

 Land boundaries: 0 km

 Coastline: 35.2 km

 Maritime claims:
 exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
 territorial sea: 12 nm

 International disputes: claimed by Madagascar

 Climate: tropical

 Terrain: a volcanic rock 2.4 meters high

 Natural resources: none

 Land use:
 arable land: 0%
 permanent crops: 0%
 meadows and pastures: 0%
 forest and woodland: 0%
 other: 100% (all rock)

 Irrigated land: 0 sq km

 Environment:
 current issues: NA
 natural hazards: maritime hazard since it is usually under water
 during high tide and surrounded by reefs; subject to periodic cyclones

 international agreements: NA

@Bassas Da India:People

 Population: uninhabited

@Bassas Da India:Government

 Names:
 conventional long form: none
 conventional short form: Bassas da India

 Digraph: BS

 Type: French possession administered by a Commissioner of the
 Republic, resident in Reunion

 Capital: none; administered by France from Reunion

 Independence: none (possession of France)

@Bassas Da India:Economy

 Overview: no economic activity

@Bassas Da India:Transportation

 Ports: none; offshore anchorage only

@Bassas Da India:Defense Forces

 Note: defense is the responsibility of France


________________________________________________________________________

BELARUS

@Belarus:Geography

 Location: Eastern Europe, east of Poland

 Map references: Commonwealth of Independent States - European States

 Area:
 total area: 207,600 sq km
 land area: 207,600 sq km
 comparative area: slightly smaller than Kansas

 Land boundaries: total 3,098 km, Latvia 141 km, Lithuania 502 km,
 Poland 605 km, Russia 959 km, Ukraine 891 km

 Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

 Maritime claims: none; landlocked

 International disputes: none

 Climate: cold winters, cool and moist summers; transitional between
 continental and maritime

 Terrain: generally flat and contains much marshland

 Natural resources: forest land, peat deposits, small quantities of oil
 and natural gas

 Land use:
 arable land: 29%
 permanent crops: 1%
 meadows and pastures: 15%
 forest and woodland: 0%
 other: 55%

 Irrigated land: 1,490 sq km (1990)

 Environment:
 current issues: soil pollution from pesticide use; southern part of
 the country contaminated with fallout from 1986 nuclear reactor
 accident at Chornobyl'
 natural hazards: NA
 international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Air
 Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Biodiversity,
 Environmental Modification, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone
 Layer Protection; signed, but not ratified - Climate Change, Law of
 the Sea

 Note: landlocked

@Belarus:People

 Population: 10,437,418 (July 1995 est.)

 Age structure:
 0-14 years: 22% (female 1,126,062; male 1,166,439)
 15-64 years: 65% (female 3,494,891; male 3,293,196)
 65 years and over: 13% (female 913,508; male 443,322) (July 1995 est.)

 Population growth rate: 0.3% (1995 est.)

 Birth rate: 12.98 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Death rate: 11.23 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Net migration rate: 1.27 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Infant mortality rate: 18.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

 Life expectancy at birth:
 total population: 71.03 years
 male: 66.36 years
 female: 75.93 years (1995 est.)

 Total fertility rate: 1.87 children born/woman (1995 est.)

 Nationality:
 noun: Belarusian(s)
 adjective: Belarusian

 Ethnic divisions: Byelorussian 77.9%, Russian 13.2%, Polish 4.1%,
 Ukrainian 2.9%, other 1.9%

 Religions: Eastern Orthodox, other

 Languages: Byelorussian, Russian, other

 Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1989)
 total population: 97%
 male: 99%
 female: 96%

 Labor force: 4.887 million
 by occupation: industry and construction 40%, agriculture and forestry
 21%, other 39% (1992)

@Belarus:Government

 Names:
 conventional long form: Republic of Belarus
 conventional short form: Belarus
 local long form: Respublika Byelarus'
 local short form: none
 former: Belorussian (Byelorussian) Soviet Socialist Republic

 Digraph: BO

 Type: republic

 Capital: Minsk

 Administrative divisions: 6 voblastsi (singular - voblasts') and one
 municipality* (harady, singular - horad); Brestskaya (Brest),
 Homyel'skaya (Homyel'), Horad Minsk*, Hrodzyenskaya (Hrodna),
 Mahilyowskaya (Mahilyow), Minskaya, Vitsyebskaya (Vitsyebsk)
 note: the administrative centers of the voblastsi are included in
 parentheses

 Independence: 25 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)

 National holiday: Independence Day, 27 July (1990)

 Constitution: adopted 15 March 1994; replaces constitution of April
 1978

 Legal system: based on civil law system

 Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

 Executive branch:
 chief of state: President Aleksandr LUKASHENKO (since 20 July 1994);
 election held June 24 and 10 July 1994 (next to be held NA 1999);
 Aleksandr LUKASHENKO 80%, Vyacheslav KEBICH 14%
 head of government: Prime Minister Mikhail CHIGIR (since July 1994);
 Deputy Prime Ministers Vladimir GARKUN, Viktor GONCHAR, Sergey LING,
 Mikhail MYASNIKOVICH, Valeriy KOKAREV (since NA)
 cabinet: Council of Ministers
 note: first presidential elections took place in June-July 1994

 Legislative branch: unicameral
 Supreme Soviet: elections last held 4 April 1990 (next to be held 14
 May 1995); results - Communists 87%; seats - (360 total) number of
 seats by party NA; note - 50 seats are for public bodies; the
 Communist Party obtained an overwhelming majority

 Judicial branch: Supreme Court

 Political parties and leaders: Belarusian Popular Front (BPF), Zenon
 POZNYAK, chairman; Party of Popular Accord, Gennadiy KARPENKO; Union
 of Belarusian Entreprenuers, V. N. KARYAGIN; Belarusian Party of
 Communists, Vasiliy NOVIKOV, Viktor CHIKIN, chairmen; Belarus Peasant
 Party, Yevgeniy LUGIN, chairman; Belarusian Socialist Party,
 Vyacheslav KUZNETSOV, chairman; Belarusian Social Democrat Party
 (SDBP), Oleg TRUSOV, Stanislav SHUSHKEVICH, chairmen; Agrarian Party
 of Belarus, Aleksandr DUBKO; United Democratic Party of Belarus
 (UDPB), Aleksandr DOBROVOLSKIY, chairman; Independent Trade Unions,
 Sergey ANTONCHIK, chairman

 Member of: CCC, CE (guest), CEI (associate members), CIS, EBRD, ECE,
 IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IFC, ILO, IMF, INMARSAT, INTELSAT (nonsignatory
 user), INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, NACC, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD,
 UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

 Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Sergey Nikolayevich MARTYNOV
 chancery: 1619 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
 telephone: [1] (202) 986-1604
 FAX: [1] (202) 986-1805
 consulate(s) general: New York

 US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Kenneth Spencer YALOWITZ
 embassy: Starovilenskaya #46, Minsk
 mailing address: use embassy street address
 telephone: [7] (0172) 34-65-37

 Flag: three horizontal bands of white (top), red, and white

@Belarus:Economy

 Overview: Belarus ranks among the most developed of the former Soviet
 states, with a relatively modern - by Soviet standards - and diverse
 machine building sector and a robust agriculture sector. It also
 serves as a transport link for Russian oil exports to the Baltic
 states and Eastern and Western Europe. The breakup of the Soviet Union
 and its command economy has resulted in a sharp economic contraction
 as traditional trade ties have collapsed. The Belarusian government
 has lagged behind the governments of most other former Soviet states
 in economic reform, with privatization almost nonexistent. The system
 of state orders and distribution persists. In mid-1994, the Belarusian
 government embarked on an austerity program with IMF support to slash
 state credits and consumer subsidies in order to bring down the budget
 deficit and reduce inflation. However, despite its promising start,
 the regime's drive to reinvigorate the economy has fallen short, and
 the IMF has criticized its failure to implement the reforms that the
 Fund had negotiated. As a result, the IMF has suspended talks on
 introducing a stand-by arrangement. Economic relations with Russia,
 which will have an important bearing on the future course of the
 economy, will be strengthened if Minsk adopts the necessary
 legislation to implement a customs union agreed to in January 1995.

 National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $53.4 billion (1994
 estimate as extrapolated from World Bank estimate for 1992)

 National product real growth rate: -20% (1994)

 National product per capita: $5,130 (1994 est.)

 Inflation rate (consumer prices): 29% per month (1994)

 Unemployment rate: 1.4% officially registered unemployed (December
 1993); large numbers of underemployed workers

 Budget:
 revenues: $NA
 expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

 Exports: $968 million to outside of the FSU countries (f.o.b., 1994)
 commodities: machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, foodstuffs
 partners: Russia, Ukraine, Poland, Bulgaria

 Imports: $534 million from outside the FSU countries (c.i.f., 1994)
 commodities: fuel, natural gas, industrial raw materials, textiles,
 sugar
 partners: Russia, Ukraine, Poland

 External debt: $1.5 billion (July 1994 est.)

 Industrial production: growth rate -19% (1994); accounts for about 40%
 of GDP (1992)

 Electricity:
 capacity: 7,010,000 kW
 production: 31.4 billion kWh
 consumption per capita: 3,010 kWh (1994)

 Industries: employ about 40% of labor force and produced a wide
 variety of products including (in percent share of total output of
 former Soviet Union): tractors (12%); metal-cutting machine tools
 (11%); off-highway dump trucks up to 110-metric-ton load capacity
 (100%); wheel-type earthmovers for construction and mining (100%);
 eight-wheel-drive, high-flotation trucks with cargo capacity of 25
 metric tons for use in tundra and roadless areas (100%); equipment for
 animal husbandry and livestock feeding (25%); motorcycles (21.3%);
 television sets (11%); chemical fibers (28%); fertilizer (18%); linen
 fabric (11%); wool fabric (7%); radios; refrigerators; and other
 consumer goods

 Agriculture: accounts for almost 25% of GDP and 5.7% of total
 agricultural output of former Soviet Union; employs 21% of the labor
 force; in 1988 produced the following (in percent of total Soviet
 production): grain (3.6%), potatoes (12.2%), vegetables (3.0%), meat
 (6.0%), milk (7.0%); net exporter of meat, milk, eggs, flour, potatoes

 Illicit drugs: illicit cultivator of opium poppy and cannabis; mostly
 for the domestic market; transshipment point for illicit drugs to
 Western Europe

 Economic aid: $NA

 Currency: Belarusian rubel (BR)

 Exchange rates: Belarusian rubels per US$1 - 10,600 (end December
 1994)

 Fiscal year: calendar year

@Belarus:Transportation

 Railroads:
 total: 5,570 km in common carrier service; does not include industrial
 lines
 broad gauge: 5,570 km 1.520-m gauge (1990)

 Highways:
 total: 98,200 km
 paved: 66,100 km
 unpaved: earth 32,100 km (1990)

 Inland waterways: NA km

 Pipelines: crude oil 1,470 km; refined products 1,100 km; natural gas
 1,980 km (1992)

 Ports: Mazyr

 Merchant marine:
 note: claims 5% of former Soviet fleet

 Airports:
 total: 118
 with paved runways over 3,047 m: 2
 with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 18
 with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
 with paved runways under 914 m: 11
 with unpaved runways over 3,047 m: 1
 with unpaved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 6
 with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 4
 with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 9
 with unpaved runways under 914 m: 62

@Belarus:Communications

 Telephone system: 1,849,000 telephones (December 1991); 18
 telephones/100 persons; telephone service inadequate for the purposes
 of either business or the population; about 70% of the telephones are
 in homes; over 750,000 applications from households for telephones
 remain unsatisfied (1992); new investment centers on international
 connections and business needs; the new BelCel NMT 450 cellular system
 (a joint venture) is now operating in Minsk
 local: NA
 intercity: NA
 international: international traffic is carried by the Moscow
 international gateway switch and also by 2 satellite earth stations
 near Minsk - INTELSAT (through Canada) and EUTELSAT (through the UK)

 Radio:
 broadcast stations: AM NA, FM NA, shortwave 0
 radios: 3.14 million (5,615,000 with multiple speaker systems for
 program diffusion)

 Television:
 broadcast stations: NA
 televisions: 3.538 million

@Belarus:Defense Forces

 Branches: Army, Air Force, Air Defense Force, Republic Security Forces
 (internal and border troops)

 Manpower availability: males age 15-49 2,550,500; males fit for
 military service 1,999,138; males reach military age (18) annually
 71,808 (1995 est.)

 Defense expenditures: 56.5 billion rubles, NA% of GDP (1993 est.);
 note - conversion of the military budget into US dollars using the
 current exchange rate could produce misleading results


________________________________________________________________________

BELGIUM

@Belgium:Geography

 Location: Western Europe, bordering the North Sea, between France and
 the Netherlands

 Map references: Europe

 Area:
 total area: 30,510 sq km
 land area: 30,230 sq km
 comparative area: slightly larger than Maryland

 Land boundaries: total 1,385 km, France 620 km, Germany 167 km,
 Luxembourg 148 km, Netherlands 450 km

 Coastline: 64 km

 Maritime claims:
 continental shelf: median line with neighbors
 exclusive fishing zone: median line with neighbors (extends about 68
 km from coast)
 territorial sea: 12 nm

 International disputes: none

 Climate: temperate; mild winters, cool summers; rainy, humid, cloudy

 Terrain: flat coastal plains in northwest, central rolling hills,
 rugged mountains of Ardennes Forest in southeast

 Natural resources: coal, natural gas

 Land use:
 arable land: 24%
 permanent crops: 1%
 meadows and pastures: 20%
 forest and woodland: 21%
 other: 34%

 Irrigated land: 10 sq km (1989 est.)

 Environment:
 current issues: Meuse River, a major source of drinking water,
 polluted from steel production wastes; other rivers polluted by animal
 wastes and fertilizers; industrial air pollution contributes to acid
 rain in neighboring countries
 natural hazards: flooding is a threat in areas of reclaimed coastal
 land, protected from the sea by concrete dikes
 international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Air
 Pollution-Sulphur 85, Antarctic Treaty, Endangered Species,
 Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Marine
 Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
 Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified -
 Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air
 Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental
 Protocol, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of the Sea

 Note: crossroads of Western Europe; majority of West European capitals
 within 1,000 km of Brussels which is the seat of the EU

@Belgium:People

 Population: 10,081,880 (July 1995 est.)

 Age structure:
 0-14 years: 18% (female 875,079; male 919,939)
 15-64 years: 66% (female 3,303,219; male 3,363,250)
 65 years and over: 16% (female 969,966; male 650,427) (July 1995 est.)

 Population growth rate: 0.17% (1995 est.)

 Birth rate: 11.46 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Death rate: 10.22 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Net migration rate: 0.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Infant mortality rate: 7 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

 Life expectancy at birth:
 total population: 77.21 years
 male: 73.94 years
 female: 80.67 years (1995 est.)

 Total fertility rate: 1.62 children born/woman (1995 est.)

 Nationality:
 noun: Belgian(s)
 adjective: Belgian

 Ethnic divisions: Fleming 55%, Walloon 33%, mixed or other 12%

 Religions: Roman Catholic 75%, Protestant or other 25%

 Languages: Dutch 56%, French 32%, German 1%, legally bilingual 11%
 divided along ethnic lines

 Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1980 est.)
 total population: 99%

 Labor force: 4.126 million
 by occupation: services 63.6%, industry 28%, construction 6.1%,
 agriculture 2.3% (1988)

@Belgium:Government

 Names:
 conventional long form: Kingdom of Belgium
 conventional short form: Belgium
 local long form: Royaume de Belgique
 local short form: Belgique

 Digraph: BE

 Type: constitutional monarchy

 Capital: Brussels

 Administrative divisions: 9 provinces (French: provinces, singular -
 province; Flemish: provincien, singular - provincie); Antwerpen,
 Brabant, Hainaut, Liege, Limburg, Luxembourg, Namur, Oost-Vlaanderen,
 West-Vlaanderen

 Independence: 4 October 1830 (from the Netherlands)

 National holiday: National Day, 21 July (ascension of King Leopold to
 the throne in 1831)

 Constitution: 7 February 1831, last revised 14 July 1993; parliament
 approved a constitutional package creating a federal state

 Legal system: civil law system influenced by English constitutional
 theory; judicial review of legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ
 jurisdiction, with reservations

 Suffrage: 18 years of age, universal and compulsory

 Executive branch:
 chief of state: King ALBERT II (since 9 August 1993)
 head of government: Prime Minister Jean-Luc DEHAENE (since 6 March
 1992)
 cabinet: Cabinet; the king appoints the ministers who are approved by
 the legislature

 Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament
 Senate: (Flemish - Senaat, French - Senat); elections last held 24
 November 1991 (next to be held by the end of 1995); results - percent
 of vote by party NA; seats - (184 total; of which 106 are directly
 elected; in the 1995 elections, seats will decrease to 71) CVP 20, SP
 14, VLD 13, VU 5, AGALEV 5, VB 5, ROSSEN 1, PS 18, PRL 9, PSC 9, ECOLO
 6, FDF 1
 Chamber of Deputies: (Flemish - Kamer van Volksvertegenwoordigers,
 French - Chambre des Representants); elections last held 24 November
 1991 (next to be held by 21 May 1995); results - CVP 16.7%, PS 13.6%,
 SP 12.0%, VLD 11.9%, PRL 8.2%, PSC 7.8%, VB 6.6%, VU 5.9%, ECOLO 5.1%,
 AGALEV 4.9%, FDF 2.6%, ROSSEM 3.2%, FN 1.5%; seats - (212 total; in
 1995 elections, seats will decrease to 150) CVP 39, PS 35, SP 28, VLD
 26, PRL 20, PSC 18, VB 12, VU 10, ECOLO 10, AGALEV 7, FDF 3, ROSSEM 3,
 FN 1

 Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice (Flemish - Hof van Cassatie,
 French - Cour de Cassation)

 Political parties and leaders: Flemish Christian Democrats (CVP -
 Christian People's Party), Johan van HECKE, president; Francophone
 Christian Democrats (PSC - Social Christian Party), Gerard DEPREZ,
 president; Flemish Socialist Party (SP), Louis TOBBACK, president;
 Francophone Socialist Party (PS), Philippe BUSQUIN, president; Flemish
 Liberal Democrats (VLD), Guy VERHOFSTADT, president; Francophone
 Liberal Reform Party (PRL), Jean GOL, president; Francophone
 Democratic Front (FDF), Georges CLERFAYT, president; Volksunie (VU),
 Bert ANCIAUX, president; Vlaams Blok (VB), Karel DILLEN, chairman;
 ROSSEM, Jean Pierre VAN ROSSEM; National Front (FN), Daniel FERET,
 president; AGALEV (Flemish Greens), no president; ECOLO (Francophone
 Ecologists), no president; other minor parties

 Other political or pressure groups: Christian and Socialist Trade
 Unions; Federation of Belgian Industries; numerous other associations
 representing bankers, manufacturers, middle-class artisans, and the
 legal and medical professions; various organizations represent the
 cultural interests of Flanders and Wallonia; various peace groups such
 as the Flemish Action Committee Against Nuclear Weapons and Pax
 Christi

 Member of: ACCT, AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, Australia Group, Benelux,
 BIS, CCC, CE, CERN, EBRD, EC, ECE, EIB, ESA, FAO, G- 9, G-10, GATT,
 IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
 ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU,
 MINURSO, MTCR, NACC, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OSCE, PCA,
 UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMOGIP, UNPROFOR, UNRWA,
 UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

 Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Andre ADAM (appointed 3 October 1994)
 chancery: 3330 Garfield Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
 telephone: [1] (202) 333-6900
 FAX: [1] (202) 333-3079
 consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York

 US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Alan J. BLINKEN
 embassy: 27 Boulevard du Regent, B-1000 Brussels
 mailing address: APO AE 09724; PSC 82, Box 002, Brussels
 telephone: [32] (2) 513 38 30
 FAX: [32] (2) 511 27 25

 Flag: three equal vertical bands of black (hoist side), yellow, and
 red; the design was based on the flag of France

@Belgium:Economy

 Overview: This small private enterprise economy has capitalized on its
 central geographic location, highly developed transport network, and
 diversified industrial and commercial base. Industry is concentrated
 mainly in the populous Flemish area in the north, although the
 government is encouraging reinvestment in the southern region of
 Walloon. With few natural resources Belgium must import substantial
 quantities of raw materials and export a large volume of manufactures,
 making its economy unusually dependent on the state of world markets.
 Three-fourths of its trade is with other EU countries. The economy
 grew at a strong 4% pace during the period 1988-90, slowed to 1% in
 1991-92, dropped by 1.5% in 1993, and recovered with 2.3% growth in
 1994. Belgium's public debt has risen to 140% of GDP, and the
 government is trying to control its expenditures to bring the figure
 more into line with other industrialized countries.

 National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $181.5 billion (1994
 est.)

 National product real growth rate: 2.3% (1994 est.)

 National product per capita: $18,040 (1994 est.)

 Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.5% (1994)

 Unemployment rate: 14.1% (December 1994)

 Budget:
 revenues: $97.8 billion
 expenditures: $109.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
 (1989)

 Exports: $117 billion (f.o.b., 1992) Belgium-Luxembourg Economic Union

 commodities: iron and steel, transportation equipment, tractors,
 diamonds, petroleum products
 partners: EC 75.5%, US 3.7%, former Communist countries 1.4% (1991)

 Imports: $120 billion (c.i.f., 1992) Belgium-Luxembourg Economic Union

 commodities: fuels, grains, chemicals, foodstuffs
 partners: EC 73%, US 4.8%, oil-exporting less developed countries 4%,
 former Communist countries 1.8% (1991)

 External debt: $31.3 billion (1992 est.)

 Industrial production: growth rate -0.1% (1993 est.); accounts for 25%
 of GDP

 Electricity:
 capacity: 14,040,000 kW
 production: 66 billion kWh
 consumption per capita: 6,334 kWh (1993)

 Industries: engineering and metal products, motor vehicle assembly,
 processed food and beverages, chemicals, basic metals, textiles,
 glass, petroleum, coal

 Agriculture: accounts for 2.0% of GDP; emphasis on livestock
 production - beef, veal, pork, milk; major crops are sugar beets,
 fresh vegetables, fruits, grain, tobacco; net importer of farm
 products

 Illicit drugs: source of precursor chemicals for South American
 cocaine processors; transshipment point for cocaine entering the
 European market

 Economic aid:
 donor: ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $5.8 billion

 Currency: 1 Belgian franc (BF) = 100 centimes

 Exchange rates: Belgian francs (BF) per US$1 - 31.549 (January 1995),
 33.456 (1994), 34.597 (1993), 32.150 (1992), 34.148 (1991), 33.418
 (1990)

 Fiscal year: calendar year

@Belgium:Transportation

 Railroads:
 total: 3,410 km (2,362 km electrified; 2,563 km double track)
 standard gauge: 3,410 km 1.435-m gauge (1994)

 Highways:
 total: 137,912 km
 paved: 129,639 km (including 1,667 km of limited access divided
 highway)
 unpaved: 8,273 km (1992)

 Inland waterways: 2,043 km (1,528 km in regular commercial use)

 Pipelines: crude oil 161 km; petroleum products 1,167 km; natural gas
 3,300 km

 Ports: Antwerp, Brugge, Gent, Hasselt, Liege, Mons, Namur, Oostende,
 Zeebrugge

 Merchant marine:
 total: 23 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 42,055 GRT/56,842 DWT
 ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 9, chemical tanker 6, liquefied gas 2,
 oil tanker 5

 Airports:
 total: 43
 with paved runways over 3,047 m: 6
 with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 9
 with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
 with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 1
 with paved runways under 914 m: 22
 with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 3

@Belgium:Communications

 Telephone system: 4,720,000 telephones; highly developed,
 technologically advanced, and completely automated domestic and
 international telephone and telegraph facilities
 local: NA
 intercity: extensive cable network; limited microwave radio relay
 network; nationwide mobile phone system
 international: 5 submarine cables; 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth
 stations and 1 EUTELSAT earth station

 Radio:
 broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 39, shortwave 0
 radios: NA

 Television:
 broadcast stations: 32
 televisions: NA

@Belgium:Defense Forces

 Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, National Gendarmerie

 Manpower availability: males age 15-49 2,559,077; males fit for
 military service 2,126,875; males reach military age (19) annually
 61,488 (1995 est.)

 Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $3.9 billion, 1.8% of
 GDP (1994)


________________________________________________________________________

BELIZE

@Belize:Geography

 Location: Middle America, bordering the Caribbean Sea, between
 Guatemala and Mexico

 Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

 Area:
 total area: 22,960 sq km
 land area: 22,800 sq km
 comparative area: slightly larger than Massachusetts

 Land boundaries: total 516 km, Guatemala 266 km, Mexico 250 km

 Coastline: 386 km

 Maritime claims:
 exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
 territorial sea: 12 nm in the north, 3 nm in the south; note - from
 the mouth of the Sarstoon River to Ranguana Cay, Belize's territorial
 sea is 3 miles; according to Belize's Maritime Areas Act, 1992, the
 purpose of this limitation is to provide a framework for the
 negotiation of a definitive agreement on territorial differences with
 Guatemala

 International disputes: border with Guatemala in dispute; talks to
 resolve the dispute are stalled

 Climate: tropical; very hot and humid; rainy season (May to February)

 Terrain: flat, swampy coastal plain; low mountains in south

 Natural resources: arable land potential, timber, fish

 Land use:
 arable land: 2%
 permanent crops: 0%
 meadows and pastures: 2%
 forest and woodland: 44%
 other: 52%

 Irrigated land: 20 sq km (1989 est.)

 Environment:
 current issues: deforestation; water pollution from sewage, industrial
 effluents, agricultural runoff
 natural hazards: frequent, devastating hurricanes (September to
 December) and coastal flooding (especially in south)
 international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
 Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping

 Note: national capital moved 80 km inland from Belize City to Belmopan
 because of hurricanes; only country in Central America without a
 coastline on the North Pacific Ocean

@Belize:People

 Population: 214,061 (July 1995 est.)

 Age structure:
 0-14 years: 44% (female 45,812; male 47,618)
 15-64 years: 53% (female 55,630; male 57,230)
 65 years and over: 3% (female 3,970; male 3,801) (July 1995 est.)

 Population growth rate: 2.42% (1995 est.)

 Birth rate: 33.71 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Death rate: 5.86 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Net migration rate: -3.7 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Infant mortality rate: 34.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

 Life expectancy at birth:
 total population: 68.32 years
 male: 66.37 years
 female: 70.36 years (1995 est.)

 Total fertility rate: 4.25 children born/woman (1995 est.)

 Nationality:
 noun: Belizean(s)
 adjective: Belizean

 Ethnic divisions: mestizo 44%, Creole 30%, Maya 11%, Garifuna 7%,
 other 8%

 Religions: Roman Catholic 62%, Protestant 30% (Anglican 12%, Methodist
 6%, Mennonite 4%, Seventh-Day Adventist 3%, Pentecostal 2%, Jehovah's
 Witnesses 1%, other 2%), none 2%, other 6% (1980)

 Languages: English (official), Spanish, Maya, Garifuna (Carib)

 Literacy: age 15 and over has ever attended school (1970)
 total population: 91%
 male: 91%
 female: 91%

 Labor force: 51,500
 by occupation: agriculture 30%, services 16%, government 15.4%,
 commerce 11.2%, manufacturing 10.3%
 note: shortage of skilled labor and all types of technical personnel
 (1985)

@Belize:Government

 Names:
 conventional long form: none
 conventional short form: Belize
 former: British Honduras

 Digraph: BH

 Type: parliamentary democracy

 Capital: Belmopan

 Administrative divisions: 6 districts; Belize, Cayo, Corozal, Orange
 Walk, Stann Creek, Toledo

 Independence: 21 September 1981 (from UK)

 National holiday: Independence Day, 21 September (1981)

 Constitution: 21 September 1981

 Legal system: English law

 Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

 Executive branch:
 chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
 represented by Governor General Sir Colville YOUNG (since 17 November
 1993)
 head of government: Prime Minister Manuel ESQUIVEL (since July 1993);
 Deputy Prime Minister Dean BARROW (since NA 1993)
 cabinet: Cabinet; appointed by the governor general on advice from the
 prime minister

 Legislative branch: bicameral National Assembly
 Senate: consists of an 8-member appointed body; 5 members are
 appointed on the advice of the prime minister, 2 on the advice of the
 leader of the opposition, and 1 after consultation with the Belize
 Advisory Council (this council serves as an independent body to advise
 the governor-general with respect to difficult decisions such as
 granting pardons, commutations, stays of execution, the removal of
 justices of appeal who appear to be incompetent, etc.)
 National Assembly: elections last held 30 June 1993 (next to be held
 June 1998); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (28 total)
 PUP 13 UDP 15

 Judicial branch: Supreme Court

 Political parties and leaders: People's United Party (PUP), George
 PRICE, Florencio MARIN, Said MUSA; United Democratic Party (UDP),
 Manuel ESQUIVEL, Dean LINDO, Dean BARROW; National Alliance for
 Belizean Rights, Philip GOLDSON

 Other political or pressure groups: Society for the Promotion of
 Education and Research (SPEAR), Assad SHOMAN; United Workers Front,
 leader NA

 Member of: ACP, C, CARICOM, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB, IBRD,
 ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT
 (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, LAES, NAM,
 OAS, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WMO

 Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Dean R. LINDO
 chancery: 2535 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
 telephone: [1] (202) 332-9636
 FAX: [1] (202) 332-6888
 consulate(s) general: Los Angeles
 consulate(s): New York

 US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission: Ambassador George Charles BRUNO
 embassy: Gabourel Lane and Hutson Street, Belize City
 mailing address: P. O. Box 286, Belize City; APO: Unit 7401, APO AA
 34025
 telephone: [501] (2) 77161 through 77163
 FAX: [501] (2) 30802

 Flag: blue with a narrow red stripe along the top and the bottom
 edges; centered is a large white disk bearing the coat of arms; the
 coat of arms features a shield flanked by two workers in front of a
 mahogany tree with the related motto SUB UMBRA FLOREO (I Flourish in
 the Shade) on a scroll at the bottom, all encircled by a green garland

@Belize:Economy

 Overview: The small, essentially private enterprise economy is based
 primarily on agriculture, agro-based industry, and merchandising, with
 tourism and construction assuming increasing importance. Agriculture
 accounts for about 30% of GDP and provides 75% of export earnings,
 while sugar, the chief crop, accounts for almost 40% of hard currency
 earnings. The US, Belize's main trading partner, is assisting in
 efforts to reduce dependency on sugar with an agricultural
 diversification program.

 National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $575 million (1994
 est.)

 National product real growth rate: 2% (1994 est.)

 National product per capita: $2,750 (1994 est.)

 Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.5% (1991)

 Unemployment rate: 10% (1993 est.)

 Budget:
 revenues: $126.8 million
 expenditures: $123.1 million, including capital expenditures of $44.8
 million (FY90/91 est.)

 Exports: $115 million (f.o.b., 1993)
 commodities: sugar, citrus fruits, bananas, clothing, fish products,
 molasses, wood
 partners: US 51%, UK, other EC (1992)

 Imports: $281 million (c.i.f., 1993)
 commodities: machinery and transportation equipment, food,
 manufactured goods, fuels, chemicals, pharmaceuticals
 partners: US 57%, UK 8%, other EC 7%, Mexico (1992)

 External debt: $158 million (1992)

 Industrial production: growth rate 3.7% (1990); accounts for 12% of
 GDP

 Electricity:
 capacity: 34,532 kW
 production: 110 million kWh
 consumption per capita: 490 kWh (1993)

 Industries: garment production, food processing, tourism, construction

 Agriculture: commercial crops: bananas, coca, citrus fruits, fish,
 cultured shrimp, lumber

 Illicit drugs: transshipment point for cocaine; an illicit producer of
 cannabis for the international drug trade; minor money-laundering
 center

 Economic aid:
 recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $104 million;
 Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
 (1970-89), $215 million

 Currency: 1 Belizean dollar (Bz$) = 100 cents

 Exchange rates: Belizean dollars (Bz$) per US$1 - 2.00 (fixed rate)

 Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Belize:Transportation

 Railroads: 0 km

 Highways:
 total: 2,710 km
 paved: 500 km
 unpaved: gravel 1,600 km; improved earth 300 km; unimproved earth 310
 km

 Inland waterways: 825 km river network used by shallow-draft craft;
 seasonally navigable

 Ports: Belize City, Big Creek, Corozol, Punta Gorda

 Merchant marine:
 total: 41 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 170,002 GRT/270,893 DWT
 ships by type: bulk 5, cargo 25, container 4, oil tanker 2,
 refrigerated cargo 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 3, vehicle carrier 1

 Airports:
 total: 46
 with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
 with paved runways under 914 m: 35
 with unpaved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
 with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 9

@Belize:Communications

 Telephone system: 8,650 telephones; above-average system based on
 microwave radio relay
 local: NA
 intercity: microwave radio relay
 international: 1 INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean) earth station

 Radio:
 broadcast stations: AM 6, FM 5, shortwave 1
 radios: NA

 Television:
 broadcast stations: 1
 televisions: NA

@Belize:Defense Forces

 Branches: Belize Defense Force (includes Army, Navy, Air Force, and
 Volunteer Guard), Belize National Police

 Manpower availability: males age 15-49 50,499; males fit for military
 service 30,040; males reach military age (18) annually 2,285 (1995
 est.)

 Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $11 million, 2.2% of
 GDP (FY93/94)


________________________________________________________________________

BENIN

@Benin:Geography

 Location: Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between
 Nigeria and Togo

 Map references: Africa

 Area:
 total area: 112,620 sq km
 land area: 110,620 sq km
 comparative area: slightly smaller than Pennsylvania

 Land boundaries: total 1,989 km, Burkina 306 km, Niger 266 km, Nigeria
 773 km, Togo 644 km

 Coastline: 121 km

 Maritime claims:
 territorial sea: 200 nm

 International disputes: none

 Climate: tropical; hot, humid in south; semiarid in north

 Terrain: mostly flat to undulating plain; some hills and low mountains

 Natural resources: small offshore oil deposits, limestone, marble,
 timber

 Land use:
 arable land: 12%
 permanent crops: 4%
 meadows and pastures: 4%
 forest and woodland: 35%
 other: 45%

 Irrigated land: 60 sq km (1989 est.)

 Environment:
 current issues: recent droughts have severely affected marginal
 agriculture in north; inadequate supplies of potable water; poaching
 threatens wildlife populations; deforestation; desertification
 natural hazards: hot, dry, dusty harmattan wind may affect north in
 winter
 international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
 Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Nuclear Test Ban,
 Ozone Layer Protection; signed, but not ratified - Desertification,
 Law of the Sea

 Note: no natural harbors

@Benin:People

 Population: 5,522,677 (July 1995 est.)

 Age structure:
 0-14 years: 48% (female 1,324,553; male 1,333,673)
 15-64 years: 49% (female 1,431,630; male 1,299,180)
 65 years and over: 3% (female 74,119; male 59,522) (July 1995 est.)

 Population growth rate: 3.33% (1995 est.)

 Birth rate: 47.25 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Death rate: 13.93 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Infant mortality rate: 107.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

 Life expectancy at birth:
 total population: 52.24 years
 male: 50.34 years
 female: 54.2 years (1995 est.)

 Total fertility rate: 6.72 children born/woman (1995 est.)

 Nationality:
 noun: Beninese (singular and plural)
 adjective: Beninese

 Ethnic divisions: African 99% (42 ethnic groups, most important being
 Fon, Adja, Yoruba, Bariba), Europeans 5,500

 Religions: indigenous beliefs 70%, Muslim 15%, Christian 15%

 Languages: French (official), Fon and Yoruba (most common vernaculars
 in south), tribal languages (at least six major ones in north)

 Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
 total population: 23%
 male: 32%
 female: 16%

 Labor force: 1.9 million (1987)
 by occupation: agriculture 60%, transport, commerce, and public
 services 38%, industry less than 2%

@Benin:Government

 Names:
 conventional long form: Republic of Benin
 conventional short form: Benin
 local long form: Republique du Benin
 local short form: Benin
 former: Dahomey

 Digraph: BN

 Type: republic under multiparty democratic rule dropped
 Marxism-Leninism December 1989; democratic reforms adopted February
 1990; transition to multiparty system completed 4 April 1991

 Capital: Porto-Novo

 Administrative divisions: 6 provinces; Atakora, Atlantique, Borgou,
 Mono, Oueme, Zou

 Independence: 1 August 1960 (from France)

 National holiday: National Day, 1 August (1990)

 Constitution: 2 December 1990

 Legal system: based on French civil law and customary law; has not
 accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

 Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

 Executive branch:
 chief of state and head of government: President Nicephore SOGLO
 (since 4 April 1991); election last held 10 and 24 March 1991 (next
 election 1996); results - Nicephore SOGLO 68%, Mathieu KEREKOU 32%
 cabinet: Executive Council; appointed by the president

 Legislative branch: unicameral
 National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale): elections last held 28 March
 1995; results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (83 total)
 Renaissance Party and allies 20, PRD 19, FARD-ALAFIA 10, PSD 7, NCC 3,
 RDL-VIVOTEN 3, Communist Party 2, Alliance Chameleon 1, RDP 1, ADP 1,
 other 16

 Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

 Political parties and leaders: as of August 1994, 72 political parties
 were officially recognized; the following are among the most
 important: Alliance of the Democratic Union for the Forces of Progress
 (UDFP), Timothee ADANLIN; Movement for Democracy and Social Progress
 (MDPS), Jean-Roger AHOYO; Union for Liberty and Development (ULD),
 Marcellin DEGBE; Alliance of the National Party for Democracy and
 Development (PNDD) and the Democratic Renewal Party (PRD), Pascal
 Chabi KAO; Alliance of the Social Democratic Party (PSD) and the
 National Union for Solidarity and Progress (UNSP), Bruno AMOUSSOU; Our
 Common Cause (NCC), Albert TEVOEDJRE; National Rally for Democracy
 (RND), Joseph KEKE; Alliance of the National Movement for Democracy
 and Development (MNDD), leader NA; Movement for Solidarity, Union, and
 Progress (MSUP), Adebo ADENIYI; Union for Democracy and National
 Reconstruction (UDRN), Azaria FAKOREDE; Union for Democracy and
 National Solidarity (UDS), Mama Amadou N'DIAYE; Assembly of Liberal
 Democrats for National Reconstruction (RDL), Severin ADJOVI; Alliance
 for Social Democracy (ASD), Robert DOSSOU; Bloc for Social Democracy
 (BSD), Michel MAGNIDE; Alliance for Democracy and Progress (ADP),
 Akindes ADEKPEDJOU, and the Democratic Union for Social Renewal
 (UDRS), Bio Gado Seko N'GOYE; National Union for Democracy and
 Progress (UNDP), Robert TAGNON; Party for Progress and Democracy,
 Thiophile NATA; FARD-ALAFIA, Mathieu KEREKOU; The Renaissance Party,
 Nicephore SOGLO; The Patriotic Union for the Republic (UPR),
 Jean-Marie ZAHOUN; Union for the Conservation of Democracy, Bernard
 HOUEGNON

 Member of: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CEAO, ECA, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77,
 GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF,
 IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
 UNIDO, UPU, WADB, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

 Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Lucien Edgar TONOUKOUIN
 chancery: 2737 Cathedral Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
 telephone: [1] (202) 232-6656, 6657, 6658
 FAX: [1] (202) 265-1996

 US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Ruth A. DAVIS
 embassy: Rue Caporal Bernard Anani, Cotonou
 mailing address: B. P. 2012, Cotonou
 telephone: [229] 30-06-50, 30-05-13, 30-17-92
 FAX: [229] 41-15-22

 Flag: two equal horizontal bands of yellow (top) and red with a
 vertical green band on the hoist side

@Benin:Economy

 Overview: The economy of Benin remains underdeveloped and dependent on
 subsistence agriculture, cotton production, and regional trade. Growth
 in real output has averaged a sound 4% in 1991-94 but this rate barely
 exceeds the rapid population growth of 3.3%. Inflation jumped to 35%
 in 1994 (compared to 3% in 1993) following the 50% currency
 devaluation in January. Commercial and transport activities, which
 make up almost 36% of GDP, are extremely vulnerable to developments in
 Nigeria as evidenced by decreased reexport trade in 1994 due to a
 severe contraction in Nigerian demand. The industrial sector accounts
 for less than 10% of GDP and mainly produces foods, beverages, cement,
 and textiles. Support by the Paris Club and official bilateral
 creditors has eased the external debt situation in recent years. The
 government, still burdened with money-losing state enterprises and a
 bloated civil service, is gradually implementing a World Bank
 supported structural adjustment program.

 National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $6.7 billion (1994
 est.)

 National product real growth rate: 4% (1994 est.)

 National product per capita: $1,260 (1994 est.)

 Inflation rate (consumer prices): 35% (1994 est.)

 Unemployment rate: NA%

 Budget:
 revenues: $272 million (1993 est.)
 expenditures: $375 million, including capital expenditures of $84
 million (1993 est.)

 Exports: $332 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
 commodities: cotton, crude oil, palm products, cocoa
 partners: FRG 36%, France 16%, Spain 14%, Italy 8%, UK 4%

 Imports: $571 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
 commodities: foodstuffs, beverages, tobacco, petroleum products,
 intermediate goods, capital goods, light consumer goods
 partners: France 20%, Thailand 8%, Netherlands 7%, US 5%

 External debt: $1 billion (December 1990 est.)

 Industrial production: growth rate -0.7% (1988); accounts for 10% of
 GDP

 Electricity:
 capacity: 30,000 kW
 production: 10 million kWh
 consumption per capita: 25 kWh (1993)

 Industries: textiles, cigarettes, construction materials, beverages,
 food, petroleum

 Agriculture: accounts for 35% of GDP; small farms produce 90% of
 agricultural output; production is dominated by food crops - corn,
 sorghum, cassava, yams, beans, rice; cash crops include cotton, palm
 oil, peanuts; poultry and livestock output has not kept up with
 consumption

 Illicit drugs: transshipment point for narcotics associated with
 Nigerian trafficking organizations and most commonly destined for
 Western Europe and the US

 Economic aid:
 recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $46 million;
 Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
 (1970-89), $1.3 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $19 million;
 Communist countries (1970-89), $101 million

 Currency: 1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes

 Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1
 - 529.43 (January 1995), 555.20 (1994), 283.16 (1993), 264.69 (1992),
 282.11 (1991), 272.26 (1990)
 note: beginning 12 January 1994 the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF 100
 per French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since 1948

 Fiscal year: calendar year

@Benin:Transportation

 Railroads:
 total: 578 km (single track)
 narrow gauge: 578 km 1.000-m gauge

 Highways:
 total: 8,435 km
 paved: 1,038 km
 unpaved: crushed stone 2,600 km; improved earth 1,530 km; unimproved
 earth 3,267 km

 Inland waterways: navigable along small sections, important only
 locally

 Ports: Cotonou, Porto-Novo

 Merchant marine: none

 Airports:
 total: 7
 with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
 with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
 with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 1
 with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 4

@Benin:Communications

 Telephone system: NA telephones; fair system of open wire and
 microwave radio relay
 local: NA
 intercity: microwave radio relay and open wire
 international: 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station, submarine
 cable

 Radio:
 broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 2, shortwave 0
 radios: NA

 Television:
 broadcast stations: 2
 televisions: NA

@Benin:Defense Forces

 Branches: Armed Forces (includes Army, Navy, Air Force), National
 Gendarmerie

 Manpower availability: males age 15-49 1,165,463; females age 15-49
 1,249,234; males fit for military service 596,956; females fit for
 military service 631,780; males reach military age (18) annually
 60,282 (1995 est.); females reach military age (18) annually 58,770
 (1995 est.)
 note: both sexes are liable for miltary service

 Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $33 million, 3.2% of
 GDP (1994)


________________________________________________________________________

BERMUDA

 (dependent territory of the UK) 

@Bermuda:Geography

 Location: North America, group of islands in the North Atlantic Ocean,
 east of North Carolina (US)

 Map references: North America

 Area:
 total area: 50 sq km
 land area: 50 sq km
 comparative area: about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC

 Land boundaries: 0 km

 Coastline: 103 km

 Maritime claims:
 exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
 territorial sea: 12 nm

 International disputes: none

 Climate: subtropical; mild, humid; gales, strong winds common in
 winter

 Terrain: low hills separated by fertile depressions

 Natural resources: limestone, pleasant climate fostering tourism

 Land use:
 arable land: 0%
 permanent crops: 0%
 meadows and pastures: 0%
 forest and woodland: 20%
 other: 80%

 Irrigated land: NA sq km

 Environment:
 current issues: NA
 natural hazards: hurricanes (June to November)
 international agreements: NA

 Note: consists of about 360 small coral islands with ample rainfall,
 but no rivers or freshwater lakes; some reclaimed land leased by US
 Government

@Bermuda:People

 Population: 61,629 (July 1995 est.)

 Age structure:
 0-14 years: NA
 15-64 years: NA
 65 years and over: NA

 Population growth rate: 0.76% (1995 est.)

 Birth rate: 15.07 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Death rate: 7.3 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Net migration rate: -0.13 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Infant mortality rate: 13.16 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

 Life expectancy at birth:
 total population: 75.03 years
 male: 73.36 years
 female: 76.97 years (1995 est.)

 Total fertility rate: 1.81 children born/woman (1995 est.)

 Nationality:
 noun: Bermudian(s)
 adjective: Bermudian

 Ethnic divisions: black 61%, white and other 39%

 Religions: Anglican 37%, Roman Catholic 14%, African Methodist
 Episcopal (Zion) 10%, Methodist 6%, Seventh-Day Adventist 5%, other
 28%

 Languages: English

 Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1970)
 total population: 98%
 male: 98%
 female: 99%

 Labor force: 32,000
 by occupation: clerical 25%, services 22%, laborers 21%, professional
 and technical 13%, administrative and managerial 10%, sales 7%,
 agriculture and fishing 2% (1984)

@Bermuda:Government

 Names:
 conventional long form: none
 conventional short form: Bermuda

 Digraph: BD

 Type: dependent territory of the UK

 Capital: Hamilton

 Administrative divisions: 9 parishes and 2 municipalities*;
 Devonshire, Hamilton, Hamilton*, Paget, Pembroke, Saint George*, Saint
 Georges, Sandys, Smiths, Southampton, Warwick

 Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)

 National holiday: Bermuda Day, 24 May

 Constitution: 8 June 1968

 Legal system: English law

 Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

 Executive branch:
 chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
 represented by Governor Lord David WADDINGTON (since 25 August 1992)
 head of government: Premier John William David SWAN (since NA January
 1982); Deputy Premier J. Irving PEARMAN (since 5 October 1993)
 cabinet: Cabinet; nominated by the premier, appointed by the governor

 Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament
 Senate: consists of an 11-member body appointed by the governor
 House of Assembly: elections last held 5 October 1993 (next to be held
 by NA October 1998); results - percent of vote by party UBP 50%, PLP
 46%, independents 4%; seats - (40 total) UBP 22, PLP 18

 Judicial branch: Supreme Court

 Political parties and leaders: United Bermuda Party (UBP), John W. D.
 SWAN; Progressive Labor Party (PLP), Frederick WADE; National Liberal
 Party (NLP), Gilbert DARRELL

 Other political or pressure groups: Bermuda Industrial Union (BIU),
 Ottiwell SIMMONS

 Member of: CARICOM (observer), CCC, ICFTU, INTERPOL (subbureau), IOC

 Diplomatic representation in US: none (dependent territory of the UK)

 US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Robert A. FARMER
 consulate(s) general: Crown Hill, 16 Middle Road, Devonshire, Hamilton

 mailing address: P. O. Box HM325, Hamilton HMBX; PSC 1002, FPO AE
 09727-1002
 telephone: [1] (809) 295-1342
 FAX: [1] (809) 295-1592

 Flag: red with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and
 the Bermudian coat of arms (white and blue shield with a red lion
 holding a scrolled shield showing the sinking of the ship Sea Venture
 off Bermuda in 1609) centered on the outer half of the flag

@Bermuda:Economy

 Overview: Bermuda enjoys one of the highest per capita incomes in the
 world, having successfully exploited its location by providing luxury
 tourist facilities and financial services. The tourist industry
 attracts more than 90% of its business from North America. The
 industrial sector is small, and agriculture is severely limited by a
 lack of suitable land. About 80% of food needs are imported.

 National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $1.7 billion (1994
 est.)

 National product real growth rate: 2.5% (1994)

 National product per capita: $28,000 (1994 est.)

 Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.5% (1993)

 Unemployment rate: 6% (1991)

 Budget:
 revenues: $327.5 million
 expenditures: $308.9 million, including capital expenditures of $35.4
 million (FY90/91 est.)

 Exports: $60 million (f.o.b., 1991)
 commodities: semitropical produce, light manufactures, re-exports of
 pharmaceuticals
 partners: US 62.4%, UK 20%

 Imports: $519 million (f.o.b.,1993)
 commodities: fuel, foodstuffs, machinery
 partners: US 38%, UK 5%, Canada 5%

 External debt: $NA

 Industrial production: growth rate NA%

 Electricity:
 capacity: 140,000 kW
 production: 504 million kWh
 consumption per capita: 7,745 kWh (1993)

 Industries: tourism, finance, structural concrete products, paints,
 pharmaceuticals, ship repairing

 Agriculture: accounts for less than 1% of GDP; most basic foods must
 be imported; produces bananas, vegetables, citrus fruits, flowers,
 dairy products

 Economic aid:
 recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-81), $34 million;
 Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
 (1970-89), $277 million

 Currency: 1 Bermudian dollar (Bd$) = 100 cents

 Exchange rates: Bermudian dollar (Bd$) per US$1 - 1.0000 (fixed rate)

 Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Bermuda:Transportation

 Railroads: 0 km

 Highways:
 total: 210 km
 paved: 210 km
 note: in addition, there are 400 km of paved and unpaved roads that
 are privately owned

 Ports: Hamilton, Saint George

 Merchant marine:
 total: 65 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,144,245 GRT/5,152,030
 DWT
 ships by type: bulk 14, cargo 4, container 7, liquefied gas tanker 15,
 oil tanker 16, refrigerated cargo 2, roll-on/roll-off cargo 5,
 short-sea passenger 1, vehicle carrier 1
 note: a flag of convenience registry; includes 12 countries among
 which are UK 6 ships, Canada 4, US 4, Sweden 3, Hong Kong 2, Mexico 2,
 Norway 2, Australia 1, Germany 1, NZ 1

 Airports:
 total: 1
 with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

@Bermuda:Communications

 Telephone system: 52,670 telephones; modern, fully automatic telephone
 system
 local: NA
 intercity: NA
 international: 3 submarine cables; 2 INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean) earth
 stations

 Radio:
 broadcast stations: AM 5, FM 3, shortwave 0
 radios: NA

 Television:
 broadcast stations: 2
 televisions: NA

@Bermuda:Defense Forces

 Branches: Bermuda Regiment, Bermuda Police Force, Bermuda Reserve
 Constabulary

 Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP

 Note: defense is the responsibility of the UK


________________________________________________________________________

BHUTAN

@Bhutan:Geography

 Location: Southern Asia, between China and India

 Map references: Asia

 Area:
 total area: 47,000 sq km
 land area: 47,000 sq km
 comparative area: slightly more than half the size of Indiana

 Land boundaries: total 1,075 km, China 470 km, India 605 km

 Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

 Maritime claims: none; landlocked

 International disputes: none

 Climate: varies; tropical in southern plains; cool winters and hot
 summers in central valleys; severe winters and cool summers in
 Himalayas

 Terrain: mostly mountainous with some fertile valleys and savanna

 Natural resources: timber, hydropower, gypsum, calcium carbide

 Land use:
 arable land: 2%
 permanent crops: 0%
 meadows and pastures: 5%
 forest and woodland: 70%
 other: 23%

 Irrigated land: 340 sq km (1989 est.)

 Environment:
 current issues: soil erosion; limited access to potable water
 natural hazards: violent storms coming down from the Himalayas are the
 source of the country's name which translates as Land of the Thunder
 Dragon; frequent landslides during the rainy season
 international agreements: party to - Nuclear Test Ban; signed, but not
 ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of the Sea

 Note: landlocked; strategic location between China and India; controls
 several key Himalayan mountain passes

@Bhutan:People

 Population: 1,780,638 (July 1995 est.)
 note: other estimates range as low as 600,000

 Age structure:
 0-14 years: 40% (female 342,276; male 368,916)
 15-64 years: 56% (female 486,258; male 513,560)
 65 years and over: 4% (female 34,215; male 35,413) (July 1995 est.)

 Population growth rate: 2.34% (1995 est.)

 Birth rate: 39.02 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Death rate: 15.61 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Infant mortality rate: 118.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

 Life expectancy at birth:
 total population: 51.03 years
 male: 51.56 years
 female: 50.48 years (1995 est.)

 Total fertility rate: 5.39 children born/woman (1995 est.)

 Nationality:
 noun: Bhutanese (singular and plural)
 adjective: Bhutanese

 Ethnic divisions: Bhote 50%, ethnic Nepalese 35%, indigenous or
 migrant tribes 15%

 Religions: Lamaistic Buddhism 75%, Indian- and Nepalese-influenced
 Hinduism 25%

 Languages: Dzongkha (official), Bhotes speak various Tibetan dialects;
 Nepalese speak various Nepalese dialects

 Literacy: NA%

 Labor force: NA
 by occupation: agriculture 93%, services 5%, industry and commerce 2%
 note: massive lack of skilled labor

@Bhutan:Government

 Names:
 conventional long form: Kingdom of Bhutan
 conventional short form: Bhutan

 Digraph: BT

 Type: monarchy; special treaty relationship with India

 Capital: Thimphu

 Administrative divisions: 18 districts (dzongkhag, singular and
 plural); Bumthang, Chhukha, Chirang, Daga, Geylegphug, Ha, Lhuntshi,
 Mongar, Paro, Pemagatsel, Punakha, Samchi, Samdrup Jongkhar, Shemgang,
 Tashigang, Thimphu, Tongsa, Wangdi Phodrang

 Independence: 8 August 1949 (from India)

 National holiday: National Day, 17 December (1907) (Ugyen Wangchuck
 became first hereditary king)

 Constitution: no written constitution or bill of rights

 Legal system: based on Indian law and English common law; has not
 accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

 Suffrage: each family has one vote in village-level elections

 Executive branch:
 Chief of State and Head of Government: King Jigme Singye WANGCHUCK
 (since 24 July 1972)
 Royal Advisory Council (Lodoi Tsokde): nominated by the king
 cabinet: Council of Ministers (Lhengye Shungtsog); appointed by the
 king

 Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Tshogdu); no
 national elections

 Judicial branch: High Court

 Political parties and leaders: no legal parties

 Other political or pressure groups: Buddhist clergy; Indian merchant
 community; ethnic Nepalese organizations leading militant
 antigovernment campaign

 Member of: AsDB, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IMF,
 INTELSAT, IOC, ITU, NAM, SAARC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO,
 WIPO

 Diplomatic representation in US: Bhutan has no embassy in the US, but
 does have a Permanent Mission to the UN, headed by Ugyen TSERING,
 located at 2 United Nations Plaza, 27th Floor, New York, NY 10017,
 telephone [1] (212) 826-1919; note - the Bhutanese mission to the UN
 has consular jurisdiction in the US
 consulate(s) general: New York
 honorary consulate(s): San Francisco; Washington, DC

 US diplomatic representation: no formal diplomatic relations, although
 informal contact is maintained between the Bhutanese and US Embassy in
 New Delhi (India)

 Flag: divided diagonally from the lower hoist side corner; the upper
 triangle is orange and the lower triangle is red; centered along the
 dividing line is a large black and white dragon facing away from the
 hoist side

@Bhutan:Economy

 Overview: The economy, one of the world's least developed, is based on
 agriculture and forestry, which provide the main livelihood for 90% of
 the population and account for about half of GDP. Agriculture consists
 largely of subsistence farming and animal husbandry. Rugged mountains
 dominate the terrain and make the building of roads and other
 infrastructure difficult and expensive. The economy is closely aligned
 with India's through strong trade and monetary links. The industrial
 sector is small and technologically backward, with most production of
 the cottage industry type. Most development projects, such as road
 construction, rely on Indian migrant labor. Bhutan's hydropower
 potential and its attraction for tourists are key resources; however,
 the government limits the number of tourists to 4,000 per year to
 minimize foreign influence. Much of the impetus for growth has come
 from large public-sector companies. Nevertheless, in recent years,
 Bhutan has shifted toward decentralized development planning and
 greater private initiative. The government privatized several large
 public-sector firms, is revamping its trade regime and liberalizing
 administerial procedures over industrial licensing. The government's
 industrial contribution to GDP decreased from 13% in 1988 to about 11%
 in 1993.

 National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $1.2 billion (1994
 est.)

 National product real growth rate: 5% (1994 est.)

 National product per capita: $700 (1994 est.)

 Inflation rate (consumer prices): 10% (October 1994)

 Unemployment rate: NA%

 Budget:
 revenues: $52 million
 expenditures: $150 million, including capital expenditures of $95
 million (FY93/94 est.)
 note: the government of India finances nearly three-fifths of Bhutan's
 budget expenditures

 Exports: $66.8 million (f.o.b., FY93/94)
 commodities: cardamon, gypsum, timber, handicrafts, cement, fruit,
 electricity (to India), precious stones, spices
 partners: India 87%, Bangladesh

 Imports: $97.6 million (c.i.f., FY93/94 est.)
 commodities: fuel and lubricants, grain, machinery and parts,
 vehicles, fabrics, rice
 partners: India 79%, Japan, UK, Germany, US

 External debt: $141 million (October 1994)

 Industrial production: growth rate 7.6% (1992 est.); accounts for 18%
 of GDP; primarily cottage industry and home based handicrafts

 Electricity:
 capacity: 360,000 kW
 production: 1.7 billion kWh
 consumption per capita: 143 kWh (1993)
 note: Bhutan exports electricity to India

 Industries: cement, wood products, processed fruits, alcoholic
 beverages, calcium carbide

 Agriculture: rice, corn, root crops, citrus fruit, dairy products,
 foodgrains, eggs

 Economic aid:
 recipient: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral
 commitments (1970-89), $115 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $11
 million

 Currency: 1 ngultrum (Nu) = 100 chetrum; note - Indian currency is
 also legal tender

 Exchange rates: ngultrum (Nu) per US$1 - 31.374 (January 1995), 31.374
 (1994), 30.493 (1993), 25.918 (1992), 22.742 (1991), 17.504 (1990);
 note - the Bhutanese ngultrum is at par with the Indian rupee

 Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

@Bhutan:Transportation

 Railroads: 0 km

 Highways:
 total: 2,165 km
 paved: NA
 unpaved: gravel 1,703 km
 undifferentiated: 462 km

 Ports: none

 Airports:
 total: 2
 with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
 with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 1

@Bhutan:Communications

 Telephone system: NA telephones; domestic telephone service is very
 poor with very few telephones in use
 local: NA
 intercity: NA
 international: international telephone and telegraph service is by
 land line through India; an earth station was planned (1990)

 Radio:
 broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 1, shortwave 0 (1990)
 radios: NA

 Television:
 broadcast stations: 0 (1990)
 televisions: NA

@Bhutan:Defense Forces

 Branches: Royal Bhutan Army, Palace Guard, Militia, Royal Bhutan
 Police

 Manpower availability: males age 15-49 434,586; males fit for military
 service 232,121; males reach military age (18) annually 17,365 (1995
 est.)

 Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP


________________________________________________________________________

BOLIVIA

@Bolivia:Geography

 Location: Central South America, southwest of Brazil

 Map references: South America

 Area:
 total area: 1,098,580 sq km
 land area: 1,084,390 sq km
 comparative area: slightly less than three times the size of Montana

 Land boundaries: total 6,743 km, Argentina 832 km, Brazil 3,400 km,
 Chile 861 km, Paraguay 750 km, Peru 900 km

 Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

 Maritime claims: none; landlocked

 International disputes: has wanted a sovereign corridor to the South
 Pacific Ocean since the Atacama area was lost to Chile in 1884;
 dispute with Chile over Rio Lauca water rights

 Climate: varies with altitude; humid and tropical to cold and semiarid

 Terrain: rugged Andes Mountains with a highland plateau (Altiplano),
 hills, lowland plains of the Amazon Basin

 Natural resources: tin, natural gas, petroleum, zinc, tungsten,
 antimony, silver, iron, lead, gold, timber

 Land use:
 arable land: 3%
 permanent crops: 0%
 meadows and pastures: 25%
 forest and woodland: 52%
 other: 20%

 Irrigated land: 1,650 sq km (1989 est.)

 Environment:
 current issues: the clearing of land for agricultural purposes and the
 international demand for tropical timber are contributing to
 deforestation; soil erosion from overgrazing and poor cultivation
 methods (including slash-and-burn agriculture); desertification; loss
 of biodiversity; industrial pollution of water supplies used for
 drinking and irrigation
 natural hazards: cold, thin air of high plateau is obstacle to
 efficient fuel combustion, as well as to physical activity by those
 unaccustomed to it from birth; flooding in the northeast (March to
 April)
 international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
 Endangered Species, Nuclear Test Ban, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands;
 signed, but not ratified - Desertification, Environmental
 Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine
 Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection

 Note: landlocked; shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest
 navigable lake (elevation 3,805 m), with Peru

@Bolivia:People

 Population: 7,896,254 (July 1995 est.)

 Age structure:
 0-14 years: 39% (female 1,542,931; male 1,565,624)
 15-64 years: 57% (female 2,276,308; male 2,188,100)
 65 years and over: 4% (female 174,419; male 148,872) (July 1995 est.)

 Population growth rate: 2.25% (1995 est.)

 Birth rate: 31.61 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Death rate: 8.12 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Net migration rate: -1.01 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Infant mortality rate: 70.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

 Life expectancy at birth:
 total population: 63.85 years
 male: 61.39 years
 female: 66.43 years (1995 est.)

 Total fertility rate: 4.1 children born/woman (1995 est.)

 Nationality:
 noun: Bolivian(s)
 adjective: Bolivian

 Ethnic divisions: Quechua 30%, Aymara 25%, mestizo (mixed European and
 Indian ancestry) 25%-30%, European 5%-15%

 Religions: Roman Catholic 95%, Protestant (Evangelical Methodist)

 Languages: Spanish (official), Quechua (official), Aymara (official)

 Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1992)
 total population: 80%
 male: 88%
 female: 72%

 Labor force: 3.54 million
 by occupation: agriculture NA, services and utilities 20%,
 manufacturing, mining and construction 7% (1993)

@Bolivia:Government

 Names:
 conventional long form: Republic of Bolivia
 conventional short form: Bolivia
 local long form: Republica de Bolivia
 local short form: Bolivia

 Digraph: BL

 Type: republic

 Capital: La Paz (seat of government); Sucre (legal capital and seat of
 judiciary)

 Administrative divisions: 9 departments (departamentos, singular -
 departamento); Chuquisaca, Cochabamba, Beni, La Paz, Oruro, Pando,
 Potosi, Santa Cruz, Tarija

 Independence: 6 August 1825 (from Spain)

 National holiday: Independence Day, 6 August (1825)

 Constitution: 2 February 1967

 Legal system: based on Spanish law and Code Napoleon; has not accepted
 compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

 Suffrage: 18 years of age, universal and compulsory (married); 21
 years of age, universal and compulsory (single)

 Executive branch:
 chief of state and head of government: President Gonzalo SANCHEZ DE
 LOZADA Bustamente (since 6 August 1993); Vice President Victor Hugo
 CARDENAS Conde (since 6 August 1993); election last held 6 June 1993
 (next to be held May 1997); results - Gonzalo SANCHEZ DE LOZADA (MNR)
 34%, Hugo BANZER Suarez (ADN/MIR alliance) 20%, Carlos PALENQUE Aviles
 (CONDEPA) 14%, Max FERNANDEZ Rojas (UCS) 13%, Antonio ARANIBAR Quiroga
 (MBL) 5%; no candidate received a majority of the popular vote;
 Gonzalo SANCHEZ DE LOZADA won a congressional runoff election on 4
 August 1993 after forming a coalition with Max FERNANDEZ and Antonio
 ARANIBAR; FERNANDEZ left the coalition in 1994
 cabinet: Cabinet; appointed by the president from panel proposed by
 the Senate

 Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress (Congreso Nacional)
 Chamber of Deputies (Camara de Diputados): elections last held 6 June
 1993 (next to be held May 1997); results - percent of vote by party
 NA; seats - (130 total) MNR 52, UCS 20, ADN 17, MIR 17, CONDEPA 13,
 MBL 7, ARBOL 1, ASD 1, EJE 1, PCD 1
 Chamber of Senators (Camara de Senadores): elections last held 6 June
 1993 (next to be held May 1997); results - percent of vote by party
 NA; seats - (27 total) MNR 17, ADN 4, MIR 4, CONDEPA 1, UCS 1

 Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema)

 Political parties and leaders:
 Left parties: Free Bolivia Movement (MBL), Antonio ARANIBAR; April 9
 Revolutionary Vanguard (VR-9), Carlos SERRATE; Alternative of
 Democratic Socialism (ASD), Jerjes JUSTIANO; Revolutionary Front of
 the Left (FRI), Oscar ZAMORA; Bolivian Socialist Falange (FSB);
 Socialist Unzaguista Movement (MAS); Socialist Party One (PS-1);
 Bolivian Communist Party (PCB)
 Center-Left parties: Nationalist Revolutionary Movement (MNR), Gonzalo
 SANCHEZ DE LOZADA; Movement of the Revolutionary Left (MIR), Jaime PAZ
 Zamora, Oscar EID; Christian Democrat (PCD), Jorge AGREDA
 Center-Right party: Nationalist Democratic Action (ADN), Jorge
 LANDIVAR, Hugo BANZER
 populist parties: Civic Solidarity Union (UCS), Max FERNANDEZ Rojas;
 Conscience of the Fatherland (CONDEPA), Carlos PALENQUE Aviles;
 Popular Patriotic Movement (MPP), Julio MANTILLA; Unity and Progress
 Movement (MUP), Ivo KULJIS
 Evangelical: Bolivian Renovating Alliance (ARBOL), Hugo VILLEGAS
 indigenous: Tupac Katari Revolutionary Liberation Movement (MRTK-L),
 Victor Hugo CARDENAS Conde; Patriotic Axis of Convergence (EJE-P),
 Ramiro BARRANCHEA; National Katarista Movement (MKN), Fernando UNTOJA

 Member of: AG, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
 ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC,
 IOM, ITU, LAES, LAIA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
 UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

 Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Andres PETRICEVIC Raznatovic
 chancery: 3014 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
 telephone: [1] (202) 483-4410 through 4412
 FAX: [1] (202) 328-3712
 consulate(s) general: Miami, New York, and San Francisco

 US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Curt Warren KAMMAN
 embassy: Avenida Arce 2780, San Jorge, La Paz
 mailing address: P. O. Box 425, La Paz; APO AA 34032
 telephone: [591] (2) 430251
 FAX: [591] (2) 4339000

 Flag: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), yellow, and green
 with the coat of arms centered on the yellow band; similar to the flag
 of Ghana, which has a large black five-pointed star centered in the
 yellow band

@Bolivia:Economy

 Overview: With its long history of semifeudal social controls,
 dependence on volatile prices for its mineral exports, and bouts of
 hyperinflation, Bolivia has remained one of the poorest and least
 developed Latin American countries. However, Bolivia has experienced
 generally improving economic conditions since the PAZ Estenssoro
 administration (1985-89) introduced market-oriented policies which
 reduced inflation from 11,700% in 1985 to about 20% in 1988. PAZ
 Estenssoro was followed as President by Jaime PAZ Zamora (1989-93) who
 continued the free-market policies of his predecessor, despite
 opposition from his own party and from Bolivia's once powerful labor
 movement. By maintaining fiscal discipline, PAZ Zamora helped reduce
 inflation to 9.3% in 1993, while GDP grew by an annual average of
 3.25% during his tenure. Inaugurated in August 1993, President SANCHEZ
 DE LOZADA has vowed to advance the market-oriented economic reforms he
 helped launch as PAZ Estenssoro's planning minister. His successes so
 far have included an inflation rate that continues to decrease - the
 1994 rate of 8.5% was the lowest in ten years - the signing of a free
 trade agreement with Mexico, and progress on his unique privatization
 plan. The main privatization bill was passed by the Bolivian
 legislature in late March 1994. Related laws - one that establishes
 SIRESE, the regulatory agency that will oversee the privatizations,
 and another that outlines the rules for privatization in the
 electricity sector - were approved later in the year.

 National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $18.3 billion (1994
 est.)

 National product real growth rate: 4.2% (1994 est.)

 National product per capita: $2,370 (1994 est.)

 Inflation rate (consumer prices): 8.5% (1994 est.)

 Unemployment rate: 6.2% (1994 est.)

 Budget:
 revenues: $3.75 billion
 expenditures: $3.75 billion, including capital expenditures of $556.2
 million (1995 est.)

 Exports: $1.1 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
 commodities: metals 39%, natural gas 9%, soybeans 11%, jewelry 11%,
 wood 8%
 partners: US 26%, Argentina 15% (1993 est.)

 Imports: $1.21 billion (c.i.f., 1994 est.)
 commodities: capital goods 48%, chemicals 11%, petroleum 5%, food 5%
 (1993 est.)
 partners: US 24%, Argentina 13%, Brazil 11%, Japan 11% (1993 est.)

 External debt: $4.2 billion (January 1995)

 Industrial production: growth rate 5% (1994 est.)

 Electricity:
 capacity: 756,200 kW
 production: 2.116 billion kWh
 consumption per capita: 367 kWh (1994)

 Industries: mining, smelting, petroleum, food and beverage, tobacco,
 handicrafts, clothing; illicit drug industry reportedly produces 15%
 of its revenues

 Agriculture: accounts for about 21% of GDP (including forestry and
 fisheries); principal commodities - coffee, coca, cotton, corn,
 sugarcane, rice, potatoes, timber; self-sufficient in food

 Illicit drugs: world's second-largest producer of coca (after Peru)
 with an estimated 48,100 hectares under cultivation in 1994; voluntary
 and forced eradication programs unable to prevent production from
 rising to 89,800 metric tons in 1994 from 84,400 tons in 1993;
 government considers all but 12,000 hectares illicit; intermediate
 coca products and cocaine exported to or through Colombia and Brazil
 to the US and other international drug markets; alternative crop
 program aims to reduce illicit coca cultivation

 Economic aid:
 recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $990 million;
 Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
 (1970-89), $2.025 billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $340 million

 Currency: 1 boliviano ($B) = 100 centavos

 Exchange rates: bolivianos ($B) per US$1 - 4.72 (January 1995), 4.6205
 (1994), 4.2651 (1993), 3.9005 (1992), 3.5806 (1991), 3.1727 (1990)

 Fiscal year: calendar year

@Bolivia:Transportation

 Railroads:
 total: 3,684 km (single track)
 narrow gauge: 3,652 km 1.000-m gauge; 32 km 0.760-m gauge

 Highways:
 total: 42,815 km
 paved: 1,865 km
 unpaved: gravel 12,000 km; improved/unimproved earth 28,950 km

 Inland waterways: 10,000 km of commercially navigable waterways

 Pipelines: crude oil 1,800 km; petroleum products 580 km; natural gas
 1,495 km

 Ports: none; however, Bolivia has free port privileges in the maritime
 ports of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Paraguay

 Merchant marine:
 total: 1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,214 GRT/6,390 DWT

 Airports:
 total: 1,382
 with paved runways over 3,047 m: 3
 with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
 with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
 with paved runways under 914 m: 1,016
 with unpaved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
 with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 77
 with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 275

@Bolivia:Communications

 Telephone system: about 150,000 telephones; about 2.0 telephones/100
 persons; new subscribers face bureaucratic difficulties; most
 telephones in La Paz and other cities; microwave radio relay system
 being expanded; improved international services
 local: NA
 intercity: microwave radio relay system
 international: 1 INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean) earth station

 Radio:
 broadcast stations: AM 129, FM 0, shortwave 68
 radios: NA

 Television:
 broadcast stations: 43
 televisions: NA

@Bolivia:Defense Forces

 Branches: Army (Ejercito Boliviano), Navy (Fuerza Naval Boliviana,
 includes Marines), Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Boliviana), National Police
 Force (Policia Nacional de Bolivia)

 Manpower availability: males age 15-49 1,885,485; males fit for
 military service 1,226,218; males reach military age (19) annually
 81,065 (1995 est.)

 Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $134 million; 1.9% of
 GDP (1994)


________________________________________________________________________

BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

 Note--Bosnia and Herzegovina is set to enter its third year of
 interethnic civil strife which began in the spring of 1992 after the
 Government of Bosnia and Herzegovina held a referendum on
 independence. Bosnia's Serbs - supported by neighboring Serbia -
 responded with armed resistance aimed at partitioning the republic
 along ethnic lines and joining Serb-held areas to 'greater Serbia'. In
 March 1994, Bosnia's Muslims and Croats reduced the number of warring
 factions from three to two by signing an agreement in Washington, DC,
 creating the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. A group of rebel
 Muslims, however, continues to battle government forces in the
 northwest enclave of Bihac. A Contact Group of countries, the US, UK,
 France, Germany, and Russia, continues to seek a resolution between
 the Federation and the Bosnian Serbs. In July of 1994 the Contact
 Group presented a plan to the warring parties that roughly equally
 divides the country between the two, while maintaining Bosnia in its
 current internationally recognized borders. The Federation agreed to
 the plan almost immediately, while the Bosnian Serbs rejected it. 

@Bosnia And Herzegovina:Geography

 Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Croatia

 Map references: Ethnic Groups in Eastern Europe, Europe

 Area:
 total area: 51,233 sq km
 land area: 51,233 sq km
 comparative area: slightly larger than Tennessee

 Land boundaries: total 1,459 km, Croatia 932 km, Serbia and Montenegro
 527 km (312 km with Serbia; 215 km with Montenegro)

 Coastline: 20 km

 Maritime claims: NA

 International disputes: as of January 1995, Bosnian Government and
 Bosnian Serb leaders remain far apart on territorial and
 constitutional solutions for Bosnia; the two sides did, however, sign
 a four-month cessation of hostilities agreement effective January 1;
 the Bosnian Serbs continue to reject the Contact Group Plan submitted
 by the United States, United Kingdom, France, Germany, and Russia, and
 accepted by the Bosnian Government, which stands firm in its desire to
 regain lost territory and preserve Bosnia as a multiethnic state
 within its current borders; Bosnian Serb forces control approximately
 70% of Bosnian territory

 Climate: hot summers and cold winters; areas of high elevation have
 short, cool summers and long, severe winters; mild, rainy winters
 along coast

 Terrain: mountains and valleys

 Natural resources: coal, iron, bauxite, manganese, timber, wood
 products, copper, chromium, lead, zinc

 Land use:
 arable land: 20%
 permanent crops: 2%
 meadows and pastures: 25%
 forest and woodland: 36%
 other: 17%

 Irrigated land: NA sq km

 Environment:
 current issues: air pollution from metallurgical plants; sites for
 disposing of urban waste are limited; widespread casualties, water
 shortages, and destruction of infrastructure because of civil strife
 natural hazards: frequent and destructive earthquakes
 international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Law of the Sea,
 Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone
 Layer Protection

@Bosnia And Herzegovina:People

 Population: 3,201,823 (July 1995 est.)
 note: all data dealing with population is subject to considerable
 error because of the dislocations caused by military action and ethnic
 cleansing

 Age structure:
 0-14 years: 22% (female 337,787; male 370,966)
 15-64 years: 68% (female 1,082,357; male 1,085,610)
 65 years and over: 10% (female 190,992; male 134,111) (July 1995 est.)

 Population growth rate: 0.65% (1995 est.)

 Birth rate: 11.29 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Death rate: 7.51 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Net migration rate: 2.72 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Infant mortality rate: 11.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

 Life expectancy at birth:
 total population: 75.47 years
 male: 72.75 years
 female: 78.37 years (1995 est.)

 Total fertility rate: 1.65 children born/woman (1995 est.)

 Nationality:
 noun: Bosnian(s), Herzegovinian(s)
 adjective: Bosnian, Herzegovinian

 Ethnic divisions: Muslim 38%, Serb 40%, Croat 22% (est.)

 Religions: Muslim 40%, Orthodox 31%, Catholic 15%, Protestant 4%,
 other 10%

 Languages: Serbo-Croatian 99%

 Literacy: NA%

 Labor force: 1,026,254
 by occupation: NA%

@Bosnia And Herzegovina:Government

 Note: The US recognizes the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The
 Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, formed by the Muslims and Croats
 in March 1994, remains in the implementation stages.

 Names:
 conventional long form: Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina
 conventional short form: Bosnia and Herzegovina
 local long form: Republika Bosna i Hercegovina
 local short form: Bosna i Hercegovina

 Digraph: BK

 Type: emerging democracy

 Capital: Sarajevo

 Administrative divisions: 109 districts (opstinas, singular - opstina)
 Banovici, Banja Luka, Bihac, Bijeljina, Bileca, Bosanska Dubica,
 Bosanska Gradiska, Bosanska Krupa, Bosanski Brod, Bosanski Novi,
 Bosanski Petrovac, Bosanski Samac, Bosansko Grahovo, Bratunac, Brcko,
 Breza, Bugojno, Busovaca, Cazin, Cajnice, Capljina, Celinac, Citluk,
 Derventa, Doboj, Donji Vakuf, Foca, Fojnica, Gacko, Glamoc, Gorazde,
 Gornji Vakuf, Gracanica, Gradacac, Grude, Han Pijesak, Jablanica,
 Jajce, Kakanj, Kalesija, Kalinovik, Kiseljak, Kladanj, Kljuc, Konjic,
 Kotor Varos, Kresevo, Kupres, Laktasi, Listica, Livno, Lopare,
 Lukavac, Ljubinje, Ljubuski, Maglaj, Modrica, Mostar, Mrkonjic-Grad,
 Neum, Nevesinje, Odzak, Olovo, Orasje, Posusje, Prijedor, Prnjavor,
 Prozor, (Pucarevo) Novi Travnik, Rogatica, Rudo, Sanski Most,
 Sarajevo-Centar, Sarajevo-Hadzici, Sarajevo-Ilidza, Sarajevo-Ilijas,
 Sarajevo-Novi Grad, Sarajevo-Novo, Sarajevo-Pale, Sarajevo-Stari Grad,
 Sarajevo-Trnovo, Sarajevo-Vogosca, Skender Vakuf, Sokolac, Srbac,
 Srebrenica, Srebrenik, Stolac, Sekovici, Sipovo, Teslic, Tesanj,
 Drvar, Duvno, Travnik, Trebinje, Tuzla, Ugljevik, Vares, Velika
 Kladusa, Visoko, Visegrad, Vitez, Vlasenica, Zavidovici, Zenica,
 Zvornik, Zepce, Zivinice
 note: currently under negotiation with the assistance of international
 mediators

 Independence: NA April 1992 (from Yugoslavia)

 National holiday: NA

 Constitution: promulgated in 1974 (under the Communists), amended
 1989, 1990, and 1991; the Assembly planned to draft a new constitution
 in 1991, before conditions deteriorated; constitution of Federation of
 Bosnia and Herzegovina (including Muslim and Croatian controlled parts
 of Republic) ratified April 1994

 Legal system: based on civil law system

 Suffrage: 16 years of age, if employed; 18 years of age, universal

 Executive branch:
 chief of state: President Alija IZETBEGOVIC (since 20 December 1990),
 other members of the collective presidency: Ejup GANIC (since NA
 November 1990), Nijaz DURAKOVIC (since NA October 1993), Stjepan
 KLJUJIC (since NA October 1993), Ivo KOMSIC (since NA October 1993),
 Mirko PEJANOVIC (since NA June 1992), Tatjana LJUJIC-MIJATOVIC (since
 NA December 1992)
 head of government: Prime Minister Haris SILAJDZIC (since NA October
 1993)
 cabinet: executive body of ministers; members of, and responsible to,
 the National Assembly
 note: the president of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina is
 Kresimir ZUBAK (since 31 May 1994); Vice President Ejup GANIC (since
 31 May 1994)

 Legislative branch: bicameral National Assembly
 Chamber of Municipalities (Vijece Opeina): elections last held
 November-December 1990 (next to be held NA); percent of vote by party
 NA; seats - (110 total) SDA 43, SDS BiH 38, HDZ BiH 23, Party of
 Democratic Changes 4, DSS 1, SPO 1
 Chamber of Citizens (Vijece Gradanstvo): elections last held
 November-December 1990 (next to be held NA); percent of vote by party
 NA; seats - (130 total) SDA 43, SDS BiH 34, HDZ BiH 21, Party of
 Democratic Changes 15, SRSJ BiH 12, LBO 2, DSS 1, DSZ 1, LS 1
 note: legislative elections for Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina
 are slated for late 1994

 Judicial branch: Supreme Court, Constitutional Court

 Political parties and leaders: Party of Democratic Action (SDA), Alija
 IZETBEGOVIC; Croatian Democratic Union of Bosnia and Herzegovina (HDZ
 BiH), Dario KORDIC; Serbian Democratic Party of Bosnia and Herzegovina
 (SDS BiH), Radovan KARADZIC, president; Liberal Bosnian Organization
 (LBO), Adil ZULFIKARPASIC, president; Democratic Party of Socialists
 (DSS), Nijaz DURAKOVIC, president; Party of Democratic Changes, leader
 NA; Serbian Movement for Renewal (SPO), Milan TRIVUNCIC; Alliance of
 Reform Forces of Yugoslavia for Bosnia and Herzegovina (SRSJ BiH), Dr.
 Nenad KECMANOVIC, president; Democratic League of Greens (DSZ), Drazen
 PETROVIC; Liberal Party (LS), Rasim KADIC, president

 Other political or pressure groups: NA

 Member of: CE (guest), CEI, ECE, FAO, ICAO, IFAD, ILO, IMO, INTELSAT
 (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, NAM (guest),
 OSCE, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WTO

 Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Sven ALKALAJ
 chancery: Suite 760, 1707 L Street NW, Washington, DC 20036
 telephone: [1] (202) 833-3612, 3613, 3615
 FAX: [1] (202) 833-2061
 consulate(s) general: New York

 US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Victor JACKOVICH
 embassy: address NA
 mailing address: American Embassy Bosnia, c/o AmEmbassy Vienna
 Boltzmangasse 16, A-1091, Vienna, Austria; APO: (Bosnia) Vienna,
 Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-9900
 telephone: [43] (1) 313-39
 FAX: [43] (1) 310-0682

 Flag: white with a large blue shield; the shield contains white Roman
 crosses with a white diagonal band running from the upper hoist corner
 to the lower fly side

@Bosnia And Herzegovina:Economy

 Overview: Bosnia and Herzegovina ranked next to The Former Yugoslav
 Republic of Macedonia as the poorest republic in the old Yugoslav
 federation. Although agriculture has been almost all in private hands,
 farms have been small and inefficient, and the republic traditionally
 has been a net importer of food. Industry has been greatly
 overstaffed, one reflection of the rigidities of Communist central
 planning and management. TITO had pushed the development of military
 industries in the republic with the result that Bosnia hosted a large
 share of Yugoslavia's defense plants. As of February 1995, Bosnia and
 Herzegovina was being torn apart by the continued bitter interethnic
 warfare that has caused production to plummet, unemployment and
 inflation to soar, and human misery to multiply. No economic
 statistics for 1992-94 are available, although output clearly has
 fallen substantially below the levels of earlier years and almost
 certainly is well below $1,000 per head. The country receives
 substantial amounts of humanitarian aid from the international
 community.

 National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $NA

 National product real growth rate: NA%

 National product per capita: $NA

 Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

 Unemployment rate: NA%

 Budget:
 revenues: $NA
 expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

 Exports: $NA
 commodities: NA
 partners: NA

 Imports: $NA
 commodities: NA
 partners: NA

 External debt: $NA

 Industrial production: growth rate NA%; production is sharply down
 because of interethnic and interrepublic warfare (1991-94)

 Electricity:
 capacity: 3,800,000 kW
 production: NA kWh
 consumption per capita: NA kWh (1993)

 Industries: steel production, mining (coal, iron ore, lead, zinc,
 manganese, and bauxite), manufacturing (vehicle assembly, textiles,
 tobacco products, wooden furniture, 40% of former Yugoslavia's
 armaments including tank and aircraft assembly, domestic appliances),
 oil refining (1991)

 Agriculture: accounted for 9.0% of GDP in 1989; regularly produces
 less than 50% of food needs; the foothills of northern Bosnia support
 orchards, vineyards, livestock, and some wheat and corn; long winters
 and heavy precipitation leach soil fertility reducing agricultural
 output in the mountains; farms are mostly privately held, small, and
 not very productive (1991)

 Illicit drugs: NA

 Economic aid: $NA

 Currency: 1 dinar = 100 para; Croatian dinar used in Croat-held area,
 presumably to be replaced by new Croatian kuna; old and new Serbian
 dinars used in Serb-held area; hard currencies probably supplanting
 local currencies in areas held by Bosnian government

 Exchange rates: NA

 Fiscal year: calendar year

@Bosnia And Herzegovina:Transportation

 Railroads:
 total: 1,021 km (electrified 795 km)
 standard gauge: 1,021 km 1.435-m gauge (1994)

 Highways:
 total: 21,168 km
 paved: 11,436 km
 unpaved: gravel 8,146 km; earth 1,586 km (1991)

 Inland waterways: NA km

 Pipelines: crude oil 174 km; natural gas 90 km (1992); note -
 pipelines now disrupted

 Ports: Bosanski Brod

 Merchant marine: none

 Airports:
 total: 27
 with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
 with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
 with paved runways under 914 m: 11
 with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 1
 with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 8

@Bosnia And Herzegovina:Communications

 Telephone system: 727,000 telephones; telephone and telegraph network
 is in need of modernization and expansion; many urban areas are below
 average when compared with services in other former Yugoslav republics

 local: NA
 intercity: NA
 international: no earth stations

 Radio:
 broadcast stations: AM 9, FM 2, shortwave 0
 radios: 840,000

 Television:
 broadcast stations: 6
 televisions: 1,012,094

@Bosnia And Herzegovina:Defense Forces

 Branches: Army

 Manpower availability: males age 15-49 815,055; males fit for military
 service 657,454; males reach military age (19) annually 38,201 (1995
 est.)

 Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP


________________________________________________________________________

BOTSWANA

@Botswana:Geography

 Location: Southern Africa, north of South Africa

 Map references: Africa

 Area:
 total area: 600,370 sq km
 land area: 585,370 sq km
 comparative area: slightly smaller than Texas

 Land boundaries: total 4,013 km, Namibia 1,360 km, South Africa 1,840
 km, Zimbabwe 813 km

 Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

 Maritime claims: none; landlocked

 International disputes: short section of boundary with Namibia is
 indefinite; quadripoint with Namibia, Zambia, and Zimbabwe is in
 disagreement; dispute with Namibia over uninhabited Kasikili (Sidudu)
 Island in Linyanti (Chobe) River remained unresolved in mid-February
 1995 and the parties agreed to refer the matter to the International
 Court of Justice

 Climate: semiarid; warm winters and hot summers

 Terrain: predominately flat to gently rolling tableland; Kalahari
 Desert in southwest

 Natural resources: diamonds, copper, nickel, salt, soda ash, potash,
 coal, iron ore, silver

 Land use:
 arable land: 2%
 permanent crops: 0%
 meadows and pastures: 75%
 forest and woodland: 2%
 other: 21%

 Irrigated land: 20 sq km (1989 est.)

 Environment:
 current issues: overgrazing, primarily as a result of the expansion of
 the cattle population; desertification; limited natural fresh water
 resources
 natural hazards: periodic droughts; seasonal August winds blow from
 the west, carrying sand and dust across the country, which can obscure
 visibility
 international agreements: party to - Climate Change, Endangered
 Species, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection;
 signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity

 Note: landlocked; population concentrated in eastern part of the
 country

@Botswana:People

 Population: 1,392,414 (July 1995 est.)

 Age structure:
 0-14 years: 43% (female 300,598; male 303,333)
 15-64 years: 53% (female 398,347; male 344,838)
 65 years and over: 4% (female 25,773; male 19,525) (July 1995 est.)

 Population growth rate: 2.36% (1995 est.)

 Birth rate: 31.01 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Death rate: 7.41 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Infant mortality rate: 38 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

 Life expectancy at birth:
 total population: 63.56 years
 male: 60.54 years
 female: 66.67 years (1995 est.)

 Total fertility rate: 3.86 children born/woman (1995 est.)

 Nationality:
 noun: Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)
 adjective: Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)

 Ethnic divisions: Batswana 95%, Kalanga, Basarwa, and Kgalagadi 4%,
 white 1%

 Religions: indigenous beliefs 50%, Christian 50%

 Languages: English (official), Setswana

 Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
 total population: 23%
 male: 32%
 female: 16%

 Labor force: 428,000 (1992)
 by occupation: 220,000 formal sector employees, most others are
 engaged in cattle raising and subsistence agriculture (1992 est.);
 14,300 are employed in various mines in South Africa (March 1992)

@Botswana:Government

 Names:
 conventional long form: Republic of Botswana
 conventional short form: Botswana
 former: Bechuanaland

 Digraph: BC

 Type: parliamentary republic

 Capital: Gaborone

 Administrative divisions: 10 districts; Central, Chobe, Ghanzi,
 Kgalagadi, Kgatleng, Kweneng, Ngamiland, North-East, South-East,
 Southern; in addition, there are 4 town councils - Francistown,
 Gaborone, Lobatse, Selebi-Phikwe

 Independence: 30 September 1966 (from UK)

 National holiday: Independence Day, 30 September (1966)

 Constitution: March 1965, effective 30 September 1966

 Legal system: based on Roman-Dutch law and local customary law;
 judicial review limited to matters of interpretation; has not accepted
 compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

 Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

 Executive branch:
 chief of state and head of government: President Sir Ketumile MASIRE
 (since 13 July 1980); Vice President Festus MOGAE (since 9 March
 1992); election last held 15 October 1994 (next to be held October
 1999); results - President Sir Ketumile MASIRE was reelected by the
 National Assembly
 cabinet: Cabinet; appointed by the president

 Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament
 House of Chiefs: is a largely advisory 15-member body consisting of
 chiefs of the 8 principal tribes, 4 elected subchiefs, and 3 members
 selected by the other 12
 National Assembly: elections last held 15 October 1994 (next to be
 held October 1999); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (44
 total of which 40 are elected and 4 are appointed) BDP 27, BNF 13

 Judicial branch: High Court, Court of Appeal

 Political parties and leaders: Botswana Democratic Party (BDP), Sir
 Ketumile MASIRE; Botswana National Front (BNF), Kenneth KOMA; Botswana
 People's Party (BPP), Knight MARIPE; Botswana Independence Party
 (BIP), Motsamai MPHO

 Member of: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, FLS, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO,
 ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT (nonsignatory
 user), INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, SACU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
 UNIDO, UNOMOZ, UNOMUR, UNOSOM, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WMO

 Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Botsweletse Kingsley SEBELE
 chancery: Suite 7M, 3400 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
 telephone: [1] (202) 244-4990, 4991
 FAX: [1] (202) 244-4164

 US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Howard F. JETER
 embassy: address NA, Gaborone
 mailing address: P. O. Box 90, Gaborone
 telephone: [267] 353982
 FAX: [267] 356947

 Flag: light blue with a horizontal white-edged black stripe in the
 center

@Botswana:Economy

 Overview: The economy has historically been based on cattle raising
 and crops. Agriculture today provides a livelihood for more than 80%
 of the population but supplies only about 50% of food needs and
 accounts for only 5% of GDP. Subsistence farming and cattle raising
 predominate. The driving force behind the rapid economic growth of the
 1970s and 1980s has been the mining industry. This sector, mostly on
 the strength of diamonds, has gone from generating 25% of GDP in 1980
 to 39% in 1994. No other sector has experienced such growth,
 especially not agriculture, which is plagued by erratic rainfall and
 poor soils. The unemployment rate remains a problem at 25%. Hampered
 by a still sluggish diamond market in 1994, GDP grew by only 1%.

 National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $4.3 billion (1994
 est.)

 National product real growth rate: 1% (1994 est.)

 National product per capita: $3,130 (1994 est.)

 Inflation rate (consumer prices): 10% (1994 est.)

 Unemployment rate: 25% (1994 est.)

 Budget:
 revenues: $1.7 billion
 expenditures: $1.99 billion, including capital expenditures of $652
 million (FY93/94)

 Exports: $1.8 billion (f.o.b. 1994)
 commodities: diamonds 78%, copper and nickel 6%, meat 5%
 partners: Switzerland, UK, SACU (Southern African Customs Union)

 Imports: $1.8 billion (c.i.f., 1992)
 commodities: foodstuffs, vehicles and transport equipment, textiles,
 petroleum products
 partners: Switzerland, SACU (Southern African Customs Union), UK, US

 External debt: $344 million (December 1991)

 Industrial production: growth rate 4.6% (FY92/93); accounts for about
 43% of GDP, including mining

 Electricity:
 capacity: 220,000 kW
 production: 900 million kWh
 consumption per capita: 694 kWh (1993)

 Industries: mining of diamonds, copper, nickel, coal, salt, soda ash,
 potash; livestock processing

 Agriculture: sorghum, maize, millet, pulses, groundnuts, beans,
 cowpeas, sunflower seeds; livestock

 Economic aid:
 recipient: US aid (1992), $13 million; Norway (1992), $16 million;
 Sweden (1992), $15.5 million; Germany (1992), $3.6 million; EC/Lome-IV
 (1992), $3 million-$6 million in grants; $28.7 million in long-term
 projects (1992)

 Currency: 1 pula (P) = 100 thebe

 Exchange rates: pula (P) per US$1 - 1.7086 (January 1995), 2.6976
 (November 1994), 2.4190 (1993), 2.1327 (1992), 2.0173 (1991), 1.8601
 (1990)

 Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Botswana:Transportation

 Railroads:
 total: 888 km
 narrow gauge: 888 km 1.067-m gauge (1992)

 Highways:
 total: 11,514 km
 paved: 1,600 km
 unpaved: crushed stone, gravel 1,700 km; improved earth 5,177 km;
 unimproved earth 3,037 km

 Ports: none

 Airports:
 total: 100
 with paved runways over 3,047 m: 1
 with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
 with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
 with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 2
 with paved runways under 914 m: 23
 with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 5
 with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 62

@Botswana:Communications

 Telephone system: 26,000 telephones; sparse system; telephone density
 - 18.67 telephones/1,000 persons
 local: NA
 intercity: small system of open wire lines, microwave radio relay
 links, and a few radio communication stations
 international: 1 INTELSAT (Indian Ocean) earth station

 Radio:
 broadcast stations: AM 7, FM 13, shortwave 0
 radios: NA

 Television:
 broadcast stations: 0
 televisions: NA

@Botswana:Defense Forces

 Branches: Botswana Defense Force (includes Army and Air Wing),
 Botswana National Police

 Manpower availability: males age 15-49 306,878; males fit for military
 service 161,376; males reach military age (18) annually 15,403 (1995
 est.)

 Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $198 million, 5.2% of
 GDP (FY93/94)


________________________________________________________________________

BOUVET ISLAND

 (territory of Norway) 

@Bouvet Island:Geography

 Location: Southern Africa, island in the South Atlantic Ocean,
 south-southwest of the Cape of Good Hope (South Africa)

 Map references: Antarctic Region

 Area:
 total area: 58 sq km
 land area: 58 sq km
 comparative area: about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC

 Land boundaries: 0 km

 Coastline: 29.6 km

 Maritime claims:
 territorial sea: 4 nm

 International disputes: none

 Climate: antarctic

 Terrain: volcanic; maximum elevation about 800 meters; coast is mostly
 inaccessible

 Natural resources: none

 Land use:
 arable land: 0%
 permanent crops: 0%
 meadows and pastures: 0%
 forest and woodland: 0%
 other: 100% (all ice)

 Irrigated land: 0 sq km

 Environment:
 current issues: NA
 natural hazards: NA
 international agreements: NA

 Note: covered by glacial ice

@Bouvet Island:People

 Population: uninhabited

@Bouvet Island:Government

 Names:
 conventional long form: none
 conventional short form: Bouvet Island

 Digraph: BV

 Type: territory of Norway

 Capital: none; administered from Oslo, Norway

 Independence: none (territory of Norway)

@Bouvet Island:Economy

 Overview: no economic activity

@Bouvet Island:Transportation

 Ports: none; offshore anchorage only

@Bouvet Island:Communications

 Telephone system: *** No data for this item ***

 Note: automatic meteorological station

@Bouvet Island:Defense Forces

 Note: defense is the responsibility of Norway


________________________________________________________________________

BRAZIL

@Brazil:Geography

 Location: Eastern South America, bordering the Atlantic Ocean

 Map references: South America

 Area:
 total area: 8,511,965 sq km
 land area: 8,456,510 sq km
 comparative area: slightly smaller than the US
 note: includes Arquipelago de Fernando de Noronha, Atol das Rocas,
 Ilha da Trindade, Ilhas Martin Vaz, and Penedos de Sao Pedro e Sao
 Paulo

 Land boundaries: total 14,691 km, Argentina 1,224 km, Bolivia 3,400
 km, Colombia 1,643 km, French Guiana 673 km, Guyana 1,119 km, Paraguay
 1,290 km, Peru 1,560 km, Suriname 597 km, Uruguay 985 km, Venezuela
 2,200 km

 Coastline: 7,491 km

 Maritime claims:
 contiguous zone: 24 nm
 continental shelf: 200 nm
 exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
 territorial sea: 12 nm

 International disputes: short section of the boundary with Paraguay,
 just west of Salto das Sete Quedas (Guaira Falls) on the Rio Parana,
 is in dispute; two short sections of boundary with Uruguay are in
 dispute - Arroio Invernada (Arroyo de la Invernada) area of the Rio
 Quarai (Rio Cuareim) and the islands at the confluence of the Rio
 Quarai and the Uruguay River

 Climate: mostly tropical, but temperate in south

 Terrain: mostly flat to rolling lowlands in north; some plains, hills,
 mountains, and narrow coastal belt

 Natural resources: bauxite, gold, iron ore, manganese, nickel,
 phosphates, platinum, tin, uranium, petroleum, hydropower, timber

 Land use:
 arable land: 7%
 permanent crops: 1%
 meadows and pastures: 19%
 forest and woodland: 67%
 other: 6%

 Irrigated land: 27,000 sq km (1989 est.)

 Environment:
 current issues: deforestation in Amazon Basin destroys the habitat and
 endangers the existence of a multitude of plant and animal species
 indigenous to the area; air and water pollution in Rio de Janeiro, Sao
 Paulo, and several other large cities; land degradation and water
 pollution caused by improper mining activities
 natural hazards: recurring droughts in northeast; floods and
 occasional frost in south
 international agreements: party to - Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity,
 Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification,
 Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban,
 Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands,
 Whaling; signed, but not ratified - Antarctic-Environmental Protocol,
 Desertification

 Note: largest country in South America; shares common boundaries with
 every South American country except Chile and Ecuador

@Brazil:People

 Population: 160,737,489 (July 1995 est.)

 Age structure:
 0-14 years: 31% (female 24,641,868; male 25,515,775)
 15-64 years: 64% (female 51,966,272; male 51,254,165)
 65 years and over: 5% (female 4,393,530; male 2,965,879) (July 1995
 est.)

 Population growth rate: 1.22% (1995 est.)

 Birth rate: 21.16 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Death rate: 8.98 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Infant mortality rate: 57.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

 Life expectancy at birth:
 total population: 61.82 years
 male: 56.57 years
 female: 67.32 years (1995 est.)

 Total fertility rate: 2.39 children born/woman (1995 est.)

 Nationality:
 noun: Brazilian(s)
 adjective: Brazilian

 Ethnic divisions: Caucasion (includes Portuguese, German, Italian,
 Spanish, Polish) 55%, mixed Caucasion and African 38%, African 6%,
 other (includes Japanese, Arab, Amerindian) 1%

 Religions: Roman Catholic (nominal) 70%

 Languages: Portuguese (official), Spanish, English, French

 Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1991)
 total population: 80%
 male: 80%
 female: 80%

 Labor force: 57 million (1989 est.)
 by occupation: services 42%, agriculture 31%, industry 27%

@Brazil:Government

 Names:
 conventional long form: Federative Republic of Brazil
 conventional short form: Brazil
 local long form: Republica Federativa do Brasil
 local short form: Brasil

 Digraph: BR

 Type: federal republic

 Capital: Brasilia

 Administrative divisions: 26 states (estados, singular - estado) and 1
 federal district* (distrito federal); Acre, Alagoas, Amapa, Amazonas,
 Bahia, Ceara, Distrito Federal*, Espirito Santo, Goias, Maranhao, Mato
 Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Para, Paraiba, Parana,
 Pernambuco, Piaui, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Norte, Rio Grande do
 Sul, Rondonia, Roraima, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo, Sergipe, Tocantins

 Independence: 7 September 1822 (from Portugal)

 National holiday: Independence Day, 7 September (1822)

 Constitution: 5 October 1988

 Legal system: based on Roman codes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
 jurisdiction

 Suffrage: voluntary between 16 and 18 years of age and over 70;
 compulsory over 18 and under 70 years of age

 Executive branch:
 chief of state and head of government: President Fernando Henrique
 CARDOSO (since 1 January 1995) election last held 3 October 1994; next
 to be held October 1998); results - Fernando Henrique CARDOSO 53%,
 Luis Inacio LULA da Silva 26%, Eneas CARNEIRO 7%, Orestes QUERCIA 4%,
 Leonel BRIZOLA 3%, Espiridiao AMIN 3%; note - second free, direct
 presidential election since 1960
 cabinet: Cabinet; appointed by the president

 Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress (Congresso Nacional)
 Federal Senate (Senado Federal): election last held 3 October 1994 for
 two-thirds of Senate (next to be held October 1996 for one-third of
 the Senate); results - PMBD 28%, PFL 22%, PSDB 12%, PPR 7%, PDT 7%, PT
 6%, PTB 6%, other 12%
 Chamber of Deputies (Camara dos Deputados): election last held 3
 October 1994 (next to be held October 1998); results - PMDB 21%, PFL
 18%, PDT 7%, PSDB 12%, PPR 10%, PTB 6%, PT 10%, other 16%

 Judicial branch: Supreme Federal Tribunal

 Political parties and leaders: National Reconstruction Party (PRN),
 Daniel TOURINHO, president; Brazilian Democratic Movement Party
 (PMDB), Luiz HENRIQUE da Silveira, president; Liberal Front Party
 (PFL), Jorge BORNHAUSEN, president; Workers' Party (PT), Rui Goethe da
 Costa FALCAO, president; Brazilian Workers' Party (PTB), Jose Eduardo
 ANDRADE VIEIRA, president; Democratic Workers' Party (PDT), Anthony
 GAROTINHO, president; Progressive Renewal Party (PPR), Espiridiao
 AMIN, president; Brazilian Social Democracy Party (PSDB), Artur DA
 TAVOLA, president; Popular Socialist Party (PPS), Roberto FREIRE,
 president; Communist Party of Brazil (PCdoB), Joao AMAZONAS, secretary
 general; Liberal Party (PL), Alvero VALLE, president

 Other political or pressure groups: left wing of the Catholic Church
 and labor unions allied to leftist Workers' Party are critical of
 government's social and economic policies

 Member of: AfDB, AG (observer), CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-15, G-19,
 G-24, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD,
 IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM
 (observer), ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, MERCOSUR, NAM (observer), OAS,
 ONUSAL, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNAVEM II, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO,
 UNOMOZ, UNOMUR, UNPROFOR, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

 Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Paulo Tarso FLECHA de LIMA
 chancery: 3006 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
 telephone: [1] (202) 745-2700
 FAX: [1] (202) 745-2827
 consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, Miami, New York,
 San Juan (Puerto Rico), and San Francisco
 consulate(s): Houston

 US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Melvyn LEVITSKY
 embassy: Avenida das Nacoes, Lote 3, Brasilia, Distrito Federal
 mailing address: Unit 3500; APO AA 34030
 telephone: [55] (61) 321-7272
 FAX: [55] (61) 225-9136
 consulate(s) general: Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo
 consulate(s): Porto Alegre, Recife

 Flag: green with a large yellow diamond in the center bearing a blue
 celestial globe with 27 white five-pointed stars (one for each state
 and the Federal District) arranged in the same pattern as the night
 sky over Brazil; the globe has a white equatorial band with the motto
 ORDEM E PROGRESSO (Order and Progress)

@Brazil:Economy

 Overview: The economy, with large agrarian, mining, and manufacturing
 sectors, entered the 1990s with declining real growth, runaway
 inflation, an unserviceable foreign debt of $122 billion, and a lack
 of policy direction. In addition, the economy remained highly
 regulated, inward-looking, and protected by substantial trade and
 investment barriers. Ownership of major industrial and mining
 facilities is divided among private interests - including several
 multinationals - and the government. Most large agricultural holdings
 are private, with the government channeling financing to this sector.
 Conflicts between large landholders and landless peasants have
 produced intermittent violence. The COLLOR government, which assumed
 office in March 1990, launched an ambitious reform program that sought
 to modernize and reinvigorate the economy by stabilizing prices,
 deregulating the economy, and opening it to increased foreign
 competition. Itamar FRANCO, who assumed the presidency following
 President COLLOR's resignation in December 1992, was out of step with
 COLLOR's reform agenda; initiatives to redress fiscal problems,
 privatize state enterprises, and liberalize trade and investment
 policies lost momentum. Galloping inflation - by June 1994 the monthly
 rate had risen to nearly 50% - had undermined economic stability. In
 response, the then finance minister, Fernando Henrique CARDOSO,
 launched the third phase of his stabilization plan, known as Plano
 Real, that called for a new currency, the real, which was introduced
 on 1 July 1994. Inflation subsequently dropped to under 3% per month
 through the end of 1994. The newly elected President CARDOSO has
 called for the implementation of sweeping market-oriented reform,
 including public sector and fiscal reform, privatization,
 deregulation, and elimination of barriers to increased foreign
 investment. Brazil's natural resources remain a major, long-term
 economic strength.

 National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $886.3 billion (1994
 est.)

 National product real growth rate: 5.3% (1994 est.)

 National product per capita: $5,580 (1994 est.)

 Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1,094% (1994 est.)

 Unemployment rate: 4.9% (1993)

 Budget:
 revenues: $113 billion
 expenditures: $109 billion, including capital expenditures of $23
 billion (1992)

 Exports: $43.6 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
 commodities: iron ore, soybean bran, orange juice, footwear, coffee,
 motor vehicle parts
 partners: EC 27.6%, Latin America 21.8%, US 17.4%, Japan 6.3% (1993)

 Imports: $33.2 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
 commodities: crude oil, capital goods, chemical products, foodstuffs,
 coal
 partners: US 23.3%, EC 22.5%, Middle East 13.0%, Latin America 11.8%,
 Japan 6.5% (1993)

 External debt: $134 billion (1994)

 Industrial production: growth rate 9.5% (1993); accounts for 39% of
 GDP

 Electricity:
 capacity: 55,130,000 kW
 production: 241.4 billion kWh
 consumption per capita: 1,589 kWh (1993)

 Industries: textiles, shoes, chemicals, cement, lumber, mining (iron
 ore, tin), steel making, machine building - including aircraft, motor
 vehicles, motor vehicle parts and assemblies, and other machinery and
 equipment

 Agriculture: accounts for 11% of GDP; world's largest producer and
 exporter of coffee and orange juice concentrate and second-largest
 exporter of soybeans; other products - rice, corn, sugarcane, cocoa,
 beef; self-sufficient in food, except for wheat

 Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis and coca, mostly for
 domestic consumption; government has a small-scale eradication program
 to control cannabis and coca cultivation; important transshipment
 country for Bolivian and Colombian cocaine headed for the US and
 Europe

 Economic aid:
 recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $2.5 billion;
 Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
 (1970-89), $10.2 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $284 million;
 former Communist countries (1970-89), $1.3 billion

 Currency: 1 real (R$) = 100 centavos

 Exchange rates: R$ per US$1 - 0.85 (January 1995); CR$ per US$1 -
 390.845 (January 1994), 88.449 (1993), 4.513 (1992), 0.407 (1991),
 0.068 (1990)
 note: on 1 August 1993 the cruzeiro real (CR$), equal to 1,000
 cruzeiros, was introduced; another new currency, the real, was
 introduced on 1 July 1994, equal to 2,750 cruzeiro reals

 Fiscal year: calendar year

@Brazil:Transportation

 Railroads:
 total: 30,612 km (1992)
 broad gauge: 5,369 km 1.600-m gauge (1,108 km electrified)
 standard gauge: 194 km 1.440-m gauge
 narrow gauge: 24,739 km 1.000-m gauge (112 km electrified); 13 km
 0.760-m gauge
 dual gauge: 310 km 1.600-m/1.000-m gauge (78 km electrified)

 Highways:
 total: 1,670,148 km
 paved: 161,503 km
 unpaved: gravel/earth 1,508,645 km (1990)

 Inland waterways: 50,000 km navigable

 Pipelines: crude oil 2,000 km; petroleum products 3,804 km; natural
 gas 1,095 km

 Ports: Belem, Fortaleza, Ilheus, Imbituba, Manaus, Paranagua, Porto
 Alegre, Recife, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande, Salvador, Santos, Vitoria

 Merchant marine:
 total: 215 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,128,654 GRT/8,664,776
 DWT
 ships by type: bulk 52, cargo 34, chemical tanker 13, combination
 ore/oil 12, container 12, liquefied gas tanker 11, oil tanker 64,
 passenger-cargo 5, refrigerated cargo 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 11

 Airports:
 total: 3,467
 with paved runways over 3,047 m: 5
 with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 19
 with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 126
 with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 286
 with paved runways under 914 m: 1,652
 with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 76
 with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 1,303

@Brazil:Communications

 Telephone system: 9.86 million telephones; telephone density -
 61/1,000 persons; good working system
 local: NA
 intercity: extensive microwave radio relay systems and 64 domestic
 satellite earth stations
 international: 3 coaxial submarine cables; 3 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT
 earth stations

 Radio:
 broadcast stations: AM 1,223, FM 0, shortwave 151
 radios: NA

 Television:
 broadcast stations: 112 (Brazil has the world's fourth largest
 television broadcasting system)
 televisions: NA

@Brazil:Defense Forces

 Branches: Brazilian Army, Brazilian Navy (includes Marines), Brazilian
 Air Force, Federal Police (paramilitary)

 Manpower availability: males age 15-49 44,301,765; males fit for
 military service 29,815,576; males reach military age (18) annually
 1,703,438 (1995 est.)

 Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $5.0 billion, 0.9% of
 GDP (1994)


________________________________________________________________________

BRITISH INDIAN OCEAN TERRITORY

 (dependent territory of the UK) 

@British Indian Ocean Territory:Geography

 Location: Southern Asia, archipelago in the Indian Ocean, about
 one-half the way from Africa to Indonesia

 Map references: World

 Area:
 total area: 60 sq km
 land area: 60 sq km
 comparative area: about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC
 note: includes the island of Diego Garcia

 Land boundaries: 0 km

 Coastline: 698 km

 Maritime claims:
 exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
 territorial sea: 3 nm

 International disputes: the entire Chagos Archipelago is claimed by
 Mauritius

 Climate: tropical marine; hot, humid, moderated by trade winds

 Terrain: flat and low (up to 4 meters in elevation)

 Natural resources: coconuts, fish

 Land use:
 arable land: 0%
 permanent crops: 0%
 meadows and pastures: 0%
 forest and woodland: 0%
 other: 100%

 Irrigated land: 0 sq km

 Environment:
 current issues: NA
 natural hazards: NA
 international agreements: NA

 Note: archipelago of 2,300 islands; Diego Garcia, largest and
 southernmost island, occupies strategic location in central Indian
 Ocean; island is site of joint US-UK military facility

@British Indian Ocean Territory:People

 Population: no indigenous inhabitants
 note: there are UK-US military personnel; civilian inhabitants, known
 as the Ilois, evacuated to Mauritius before construction of UK-US
 military facilities

@British Indian Ocean Territory:Government

 Names:
 conventional long form: British Indian Ocean Territory
 conventional short form: none

 Abbreviation: BIOT

 Digraph: IO

 Type: dependent territory of the UK

 Capital: none

 Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)

 Executive branch:
 chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952)
 head of government: Commissioner Mr. D. R. MACLENNAN); Administrator
 Mr. David Smith; note - both reside in the UK

 Diplomatic representation in US: none (dependent territory of the UK)

 US diplomatic representation: none (dependent territory of the UK)

 Flag: white with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant
 and six blue wavy horizontal stripes bearing a palm tree and yellow
 crown centered on the outer half of the flag

@British Indian Ocean Territory:Economy

 Overview: All economic activity is concentrated on the largest island
 of Diego Garcia, where joint UK-US defense facilities are located.
 Construction projects and various services needed to support the
 military installations are done by military and contract employees
 from the UK, Mauritius, the Philippines, and the US. There are no
 industrial or agricultural activities on the islands.

 Electricity: provided by the US military

@British Indian Ocean Territory:Transportation

 Railroads: 0 km

 Highways:
 total: NA
 paved: short stretch of paved road between port and airfield on Diego
 Garcia
 unpaved: NA

 Ports: Diego Garcia

 Airports:
 total: 1
 with paved runways over 3,047 m: 1

@British Indian Ocean Territory:Communications

 Telephone system: NA telephones; minimal facilities
 local: NA
 intercity: NA
 international: 1 INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean) earth station

 Radio:
 broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 1, shortwave 0
 radios: NA

 Television:
 broadcast stations: 1
 televisions: NA

@British Indian Ocean Territory:Defense Forces

 Note: defense is the responsibility of the UK


________________________________________________________________________

BRITISH VIRGIN ISLANDS

 (dependent territory of the UK) 

@British Virgin Islands:Geography

 Location: Caribbean, between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic
 Ocean, east of Puerto Rico

 Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

 Area:
 total area: 150 sq km
 land area: 150 sq km
 comparative area: about 0.8 times the size of Washington, DC
 note: includes the island of Anegada

 Land boundaries: 0 km

 Coastline: 80 km

 Maritime claims:
 exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
 territorial sea: 3 nm

 International disputes: none

 Climate: subtropical; humid; temperatures moderated by trade winds

 Terrain: coral islands relatively flat; volcanic islands steep, hilly

 Natural resources: negligible

 Land use:
 arable land: 20%
 permanent crops: 7%
 meadows and pastures: 33%
 forest and woodland: 7%
 other: 33%

 Irrigated land: NA sq km

 Environment:
 current issues: limited natural fresh water resources (except for a
 few seasonal streams and springs on Tortola, most of the island's
 water supply comes from wells and rainwater catchment)
 natural hazards: hurricanes and tropical storms (July to October)
 international agreements: NA

 Note: strong ties to nearby US Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico

@British Virgin Islands:People

 Population: 13,027 (July 1995 est.)

 Age structure:
 0-14 years: NA
 15-64 years: NA
 65 years and over: NA

 Population growth rate: 1.27% (1995 est.)

 Birth rate: 20.25 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Death rate: 6.07 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Net migration rate: -1.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Infant mortality rate: 19.33 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

 Life expectancy at birth:
 total population: 72.73 years
 male: 70.88 years
 female: 74.7 years (1995 est.)

 Total fertility rate: 2.27 children born/woman (1995 est.)

 Nationality:
 noun: British Virgin Islander(s)
 adjective: British Virgin Islander

 Ethnic divisions: black 90%, white, Asian

 Religions: Protestant 86% (Methodist 45%, Anglican 21%, Church of God
 7%, Seventh-Day Adventist 5%, Baptist 4%, Jehovah's Witnesses 2%,
 other 2%), Roman Catholic 6%, none 2%, other 6% (1981)

 Languages: English (official)

 Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1970)
 total population: 98%
 male: 98%
 female: 98%

 Labor force: 4,911 (1980)
 by occupation: NA

@British Virgin Islands:Government

 Names:
 conventional long form: none
 conventional short form: British Virgin Islands

 Abbreviation: BVI

 Digraph: VI

 Type: dependent territory of the UK

 Capital: Road Town

 Administrative divisions: none (dependent territory of the UK)

 Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)

 National holiday: Territory Day, 1 July

 Constitution: 1 June 1977

 Legal system: English law

 Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

 Executive branch:
 chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
 represented by Governor Peter Alfred PENFOLD (since 14 October 1991)
 head of government: Chief Minister H. Lavity STOUTT (since NA
 September 1986)
 cabinet: Executive Council; appointed by the governor

 Legislative branch: unicameral
 Legislative Council: election last held 20 February 1995 (next to be
 held on NA February 2000); results - percent of vote by party NA;
 seats - (13 total) VIP 6, CCM 2, UP 2, independents 3
 note: legislature was expanded to 13 seats as of election on 20
 February 1995

 Judicial branch: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court

 Political parties and leaders: United Party (UP), Conrad MADURO;
 Virgin Islands Party (VIP), H. Lavity STOUTT; Concerned Citizens
 Movement (CCM), E. Walwyln BREWLEY

 Member of: CARICOM (associate), CDB, ECLAC (associate), INTERPOL
 (subbureau), IOC, OECS (associate), UNESCO (associate)

 Diplomatic representation in US: none (dependent territory of the UK)

 US diplomatic representation: none (dependent territory of the UK)

 Flag: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant
 and the Virgin Islander coat of arms centered in the outer half of the
 flag; the coat of arms depicts a woman flanked on either side by a
 vertical column of six oil lamps above a scroll bearing the Latin word
 VIGILATE (Be Watchful)

@British Virgin Islands:Economy

 Overview: The economy, one of the most prosperous in the Caribbean
 area, is highly dependent on the tourist industry, which generates
 about 21% of the national income. In 1985 the government offered
 offshore registration to companies wishing to incorporate in the
 islands, and, in consequence, incorporation fees generated about $2
 million in 1987. The economy slowed in 1991 because of the poor
 performances of the tourist sector and tight commercial bank credit.
 Livestock raising is the most significant agricultural activity. The
 islands' crops, limited by poor soils, are unable to meet food
 requirements.

 National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $133 million (1991)

 National product real growth rate: 2% (1991)

 National product per capita: $10,600 (1991)

 Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.5% (1990 est.)

 Unemployment rate: NEGL% (1992)

 Budget:
 revenues: $51 million
 expenditures: $88 million, including capital expenditures of $38
 million (1991)

 Exports: $2.7 million (f.o.b., 1988)
 commodities: rum, fresh fish, gravel, sand, fruits, animals
 partners: Virgin Islands (US), Puerto Rico, US

 Imports: $11.5 million (c.i.f., 1988)
 commodities: building materials, automobiles, foodstuffs, machinery
 partners: Virgin Islands (US), Puerto Rico, US

 External debt: $4.5 million (1985)

 Industrial production: growth rate 4% (1985)

 Electricity:
 capacity: 10,500 kW
 production: 50 million kWh
 consumption per capita: 3,148 kWh (1993)

 Industries: tourism, light industry, construction, rum, concrete
 block, offshore financial center

 Agriculture: livestock (including poultry), fish, fruit, vegetables

 Economic aid: $NA

 Currency: 1 United States dollar (US$) = 100 cents

 Exchange rates: US currency is used

 Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@British Virgin Islands:Transportation

 Railroads: 0 km

 Highways:
 total: 106 km (1983)
 paved: NA
 unpaved: NA

 Ports: Road Town

 Merchant marine: none

 Airports:
 total: 3
 with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 1
 with paved runways under 914 m: 1
 with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 1

@British Virgin Islands:Communications

 Telephone system: 3,000 telephones; worldwide external telephone
 service
 local: NA
 intercity: NA
 international: submarine cable communication links to Bermuda

 Radio:
 broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 0, shortwave 0
 radios: NA

 Television:
 broadcast stations: 1
 televisions: NA

@British Virgin Islands:Defense Forces

 Note: defense is the responsibility of the UK


________________________________________________________________________

BRUNEI

@Brunei:Geography

 Location: Southeastern Asia, bordering the South China Sea and
 Malaysia

 Map references: Southeast Asia

 Area:
 total area: 5,770 sq km
 land area: 5,270 sq km
 comparative area: slightly larger than Delaware

 Land boundaries: total 381 km, Malysia 381 km

 Coastline: 161 km

 Maritime claims:
 exclusive economic zone: 200 nm or to median line
 territorial sea: 12 nm

 International disputes: may wish to purchase the Malaysian salient
 that divides the country; all of the Spratly Islands are claimed by
 China, Taiwan, and Vietnam; parts of them are claimed by Malaysia and
 the Philippines; in 1984, Brunei established an exclusive fishing zone
 that encompasses Louisa Reef, but has not publicly claimed the island

 Climate: tropical; hot, humid, rainy

 Terrain: flat coastal plain rises to mountains in east; hilly lowland
 in west

 Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, timber

 Land use:
 arable land: 1%
 permanent crops: 1%
 meadows and pastures: 1%
 forest and woodland: 79%
 other: 18%

 Irrigated land: 10 sq km (1989 est.)

 Environment:
 current issues: NA
 natural hazards: typhoons, earthquakes, and severe flooding are very
 rare
 international agreements: party to - Endangered Species, Ozone Layer
 Protection, Ship Pollution; signed, but not ratified - Law of the Sea

 Note: close to vital sea lanes through South China Sea linking Indian
 and Pacific Oceans; two parts physically separated by Malaysia; almost
 an enclave of Malaysia

@Brunei:People

 Population: 292,266 (July 1995 est.)

 Age structure:
 0-14 years: 34% (female 48,458; male 50,624)
 15-64 years: 62% (female 85,581; male 95,955)
 65 years and over: 4% (female 5,172; male 6,476) (July 1995 est.)

 Population growth rate: 2.63% (1995 est.)

 Birth rate: 25.83 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Death rate: 5.07 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Net migration rate: 5.49 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Infant mortality rate: 24.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

 Life expectancy at birth:
 total population: 71.24 years
 male: 69.65 years
 female: 72.91 years (1995 est.)

 Total fertility rate: 3.41 children born/woman (1995 est.)

 Nationality:
 noun: Bruneian(s)
 adjective: Bruneian

 Ethnic divisions: Malay 64%, Chinese 20%, other 16%

 Religions: Muslim (official) 63%, Buddhism 14%, Christian 8%,
 indigenous beliefs and other 15% (1981)

 Languages: Malay (official), English, Chinese

 Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1991)
 total population: 88%
 male: 92%
 female: 82%

 Labor force: 119,000 (1993 est.); note - includes members of the Army
 by occupation: government 47.5%, production of oil, natural gas,
 services, and construction 41.9%, agriculture, forestry, and fishing
 3.8% (1986)
 note: 33% of labor force is foreign (1988)

@Brunei:Government

 Names:
 conventional long form: Negara Brunei Darussalam
 conventional short form: Brunei

 Digraph: BX

 Type: constitutional sultanate

 Capital: Bandar Seri Begawan

 Administrative divisions: 4 districts (daerah-daerah, singular -
 daerah); Belait, Brunei and Muara, Temburong, Tutong

 Independence: 1 January 1984 (from UK)

 National holiday: National Day 23 February (1984)

 Constitution: 29 September 1959 (some provisions suspended under a
 State of Emergency since December 1962, others since independence on 1
 January 1984)

 Legal system: based on Islamic law

 Suffrage: none

 Executive branch:
 chief of state and head of government: Sultan and Prime Minister His
 Majesty Paduka Seri Baginda Sultan Haji HASSANAL Bolkiah Mu'izzaddin
 Waddaulah (since 5 October 1967)
 cabinet: Council of Cabinet Ministers; composed chiefly of members of
 the royal family

 Legislative branch: unicameral
 Legislative Council (Majlis Masyuarat Megeri): elections last held in
 March 1962; in 1970 the Council was changed to an appointive body by
 decree of the sultan; an elected legislative Council is being
 considered as part of constitution reform, but elections are unlikely
 for several years

 Judicial branch: Supreme Court

 Political parties and leaders: Brunei United National Party
 (inactive), Anak HASANUDDIN, chairman; Brunei National Solidarity
 Party (the first legal political party and now banned), leader NA;
 Brunei Peoples Party (banned), leader NA

 Member of: APEC, ASEAN, C, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, GATT, ICAO, IDB, IMO,
 INMARSAT, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC, ISO
 (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

 Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Haji JAYA bin Abdul Latif
 chancery: Watergate, Suite 300, 3rd floor, 2600 Virginia Avenue NW,
 Washington, DC 20037
 telephone: [1] (202) 342-0159
 FAX: [1] (202) 342-0158

 US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Theresa A. TULL
 embassy: Third Floor, Teck Guan Plaza, Jalan Sultan, Bandar Seri
 Begawan
 mailing address: American Embassy Box B, APO AP 96440
 telephone: [673] (2) 229670
 FAX: [673] (2) 225293

 Flag: yellow with two diagonal bands of white (top, almost double
 width) and black starting from the upper hoist side; the national
 emblem in red is superimposed at the center; the emblem includes a
 swallow-tailed flag on top of a winged column within an upturned
 crescent above a scroll and flanked by two upraised hands

@Brunei:Economy

 Overview: The economy is a mixture of foreign and domestic
 entrepreneurship, government regulation and welfare measures, and
 village tradition. It is almost totally supported by exports of crude
 oil and natural gas, with revenues from the petroleum sector
 accounting for more than 40% of GDP. Per capita GDP is among the
 highest in the Third World, and substantial income from overseas
 investment supplements domestic production. The government provides
 for all medical services and subsidizes food and housing.

 National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $4.43 billion (1993
 est.)

 National product real growth rate: -4% (1993 est.)

 National product per capita: $16,000 (1993 est.)

 Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.5% (1993 est.)

 Unemployment rate: 5% (1993 est.)

 Budget:
 revenues: $1.5 billion
 expenditures: $1.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $255
 million (1990 est.)

 Exports: $2.2 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
 commodities: crude oil, liquefied natural gas, petroleum products
 partners: Japan 52%, South Korea 10%, UK 9%, Thailand 7%, Singapore 6%
 (1991)

 Imports: $1.2 billion (c.i.f., 1993 est.)
 commodities: machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods,
 food, chemicals
 partners: Singapore 34%, UK 23%, US 10%, Japan 8%, Malaysia 7%,
 Switzerland 4% (1991)

 External debt: $0

 Industrial production: growth rate 12.9% (1987); accounts for 41.6% of
 GDP (1990), includes mining, quarrying, and manufacturing

 Electricity:
 capacity: 380,000 kW
 production: 1.2 billion kWh
 consumption per capita: 3,971 kWh (1993)

 Industries: petroleum, petroleum refining, liquefied natural gas,
 construction

 Agriculture: imports about 80% of its food needs; principal crops and
 livestock include rice, cassava, bananas, buffaloes, and pigs

 Economic aid:
 recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-87), $20.6 million;
 Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
 (1970-89), $153 million

 Currency: 1 Bruneian dollar (B$) = 100 cents

 Exchange rates: Bruneian dollars (B$) per US$1 - 1.4524 (January
 1995), 1.5274 (1994), 1.6158 (1993), 1.6290 (1992), 1.7276 (1991),
 1.8125 (1990); note - the Bruneian dollar is at par with the Singapore
 dollar

 Fiscal year: calendar year

@Brunei:Transportation

 Railroads:
 total: 13 km private line
 narrow gauge: 13 km 0.610-m gauge

 Highways:
 total: 1,090 km
 paved: bituminous 370 km (with another 52 km under construction)
 unpaved: gravel or earth 720 km

 Inland waterways: 209 km; navigable by craft drawing less than 1.2
 meters

 Pipelines: crude oil 135 km; petroleum products 418 km; natural gas
 920 km

 Ports: Bandar Seri Begawar, Kuala Belait, Muara, Seria, Tutong

 Merchant marine:
 total: 7 liquefied gas carriers (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 348,476
 GRT/340,635 DWT

 Airports:
 total: 5
 with paved runways over 3,047 m: 1
 with paved runways under 914 m: 3
 with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 1

@Brunei:Communications

 Telephone system: 33,000 telephones (1987); service throughout country
 is adequate for present needs; international service good to adjacent
 Malaysia
 local: NA
 intercity: NA
 international: INTELSAT (NA Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean) earth
 stations

 Radio:
 broadcast stations: AM 4, FM 4, shortwave 0
 radios: 74,000 (1987)
 note: radiobroadcast coverage good

 Television:
 broadcast stations: 1
 televisions: NA

@Brunei:Defense Forces

 Branches: Land Forces, Navy, Air Force, Royal Brunei Police

 Manpower availability: males age 15-49 81,560; males fit for military
 service 47,403; males reach military age (18) annually 2,835 (1995
 est.)

 Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $312 million, 6.2% of
 GDP (1994)


________________________________________________________________________

BULGARIA

@Bulgaria:Geography

 Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between
 Romania and Turkey

 Map references: Ethnic Groups in Eastern Europe, Europe

 Area:
 total area: 110,910 sq km
 land area: 110,550 sq km
 comparative area: slightly larger than Tennessee

 Land boundaries: total 1,808 km, Greece 494 km, The Former Yugoslav
 Republic of Macedonia 148 km, Romania 608 km, Serbia and Montenegro
 318 km (all with Serbia), Turkey 240 km

 Coastline: 354 km

 Maritime claims:
 contiguous zone: 24 nm
 exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
 territorial sea: 12 nm

 International disputes: none

 Climate: temperate; cold, damp winters; hot, dry summers

 Terrain: mostly mountains with lowlands in north and southeast

 Natural resources: bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, coal, timber, arable
 land

 Land use:
 arable land: 34%
 permanent crops: 3%
 meadows and pastures: 18%
 forest and woodland: 35%
 other: 10%

 Irrigated land: 10 sq km (1989 est.)

 Environment:
 current issues: air pollution from industrial emissions; rivers
 polluted from raw sewage, heavy metals, detergents; deforestation;
 forest damage from air pollution and resulting acid rain; soil
 contamination from heavy metals from metallurgical plants and
 industrial wastes
 natural hazards: earthquakes, landslides
 international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Air
 Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Antarctic Treaty,
 Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Nuclear Test Ban,
 Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands; signed, but not
 ratified - Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic
 Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Biodiversity, Climate
 Change, Law of the Sea

 Note: strategic location near Turkish Straits; controls key land
 routes from Europe to Middle East and Asia

@Bulgaria:People

 Population: 8,775,198 (July 1995 est.)

 Age structure:
 0-14 years: 19% (female 800,413; male 841,697)
 15-64 years: 66% (female 2,927,880; male 2,910,133)
 65 years and over: 15% (female 735,706; male 559,369) (July 1995 est.)

 Population growth rate: -0.25% (1995 est.)

 Birth rate: 11.75 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Death rate: 11.31 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Net migration rate: -2.91 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Infant mortality rate: 11.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

 Life expectancy at birth:
 total population: 73.68 years
 male: 70.43 years
 female: 77.1 years (1995 est.)

 Total fertility rate: 1.71 children born/woman (1995 est.)

 Nationality:
 noun: Bulgarian(s)
 adjective: Bulgarian

 Ethnic divisions: Bulgarian 85.3%, Turk 8.5%, Gypsy 2.6%, Macedonian
 2.5%, Armenian 0.3%, Russian 0.2%, other 0.6%

 Religions: Bulgarian Orthodox 85%, Muslim 13%, Jewish 0.8%, Roman
 Catholic 0.5%, Uniate Catholic 0.2%, Protestant, Gregorian-Armenian,
 and other 0.5%

 Languages: Bulgarian; secondary languages closely correspond to ethnic
 breakdown

 Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1992)
 total population: 98%
 male: 99%
 female: 97%

 Labor force: 4.3 million
 by occupation: industry 33%, agriculture 20%, other 47% (1987)

@Bulgaria:Government

 Names:
 conventional long form: Republic of Bulgaria
 conventional short form: Bulgaria

 Digraph: BU

 Type: emerging democracy

 Capital: Sofia

 Administrative divisions: 9 provinces (oblasti, singular - oblast);
 Burgas, Grad Sofiya, Khaskovo, Lovech, Montana, Plovdiv, Ruse, Sofiya,
 Varna

 Independence: 22 September 1908 (from Ottoman Empire)

 National holiday: Independence Day 3 March (1878)

 Constitution: adopted 12 July 1991

 Legal system: based on civil law system, with Soviet law influence;
 has accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

 Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

 Executive branch:
 chief of state: President Zhelyu Mitev ZHELEV (since 1 August 1990);
 Vice President (vacant); election last held January 1992; results -
 Zhelyu ZHELEV was elected by popular vote
 head of government: Chairman of the Council of Ministers (Prime
 Minister) Zhan VIDENOV (since 25 January 1995); Deputy Prime Ministers
 Doncho KONAKCHIEV, Kiril TSOCHEV, Rumen GECHEV, Svetoslav SHIVAROV
 (since 25 January 1995)
 cabinet: Council of Ministers; elected by the National Assembly

 Legislative branch: unicameral
 National Assembly (Narodno Sobranie): last held 18 December 1994 (next
 to be held NA 1997); results - BSP 43.5%, UDF 24.2%, PU 6.5%, MRF
 5.4%, BBB 4.7%; seats - (240 total) BSP 125, UDF 69, PU 18, MRF 15,
 BBB 13

 Judicial branch: Supreme Court, Constitutional Court

 Political parties and leaders: Bulgarian Socialist Party (BSP), Zhan
 VIDENOV, chairman; Union of Democratic Forces (UDF), Ivan KOSTOV an
 alliance of pro-Democratic parties; People's Union (PU), Stefan SAVOV;
 Movement for Rights and Freedoms (mainly ethnic Turkish party) (MRF),
 Ahmed DOGAN; Bulgarian Business Bloc (BBB), George GANCHEV

 Other political or pressure groups: Democratic Alliance for the
 Republic (DAR); New Union for Democracy (NUD); Ecoglasnost; Podkrepa
 Labor Confederation; Fatherland Union; Bulgarian Communist Party
 (BCP); Confederation of Independent Trade Unions of Bulgaria (KNSB);
 Bulgarian Agrarian National Union - United (BZNS); Bulgarian
 Democratic Center; "Nikola Petkov" Bulgarian Agrarian National Union;
 Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization - Union of Macedonian
 Societies (IMRO-UMS); numerous regional, ethnic, and national interest
 groups with various agendas

 Member of: ACCT, BIS, BSEC, CCC, CE, CEI (associate members), EBRD,
 ECE, FAO, G- 9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF,
 IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC, IOM
 (observer), ISO, ITU, NACC, NAM (guest), NSG, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN,
 UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WEU (associate partner), WFTU, WHO, WIPO,
 WMO, WTO, ZC

 Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Snezhana Damianova BOTUSHAROVA
 chancery: 1621 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
 telephone: [1] (202) 387-7969
 FAX: [1] (202) 234-7973

 US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission: Ambassador William D. MONTGOMERY
 embassy: 1 Saborna Street, Sofia
 mailing address: Unit 1335, Sofia; APO AE 09213-1335
 telephone: [359] (2) 88-48-01 through 05
 FAX: [359] (2) 80-19-77

 Flag: three equal horizontal bands of white (top), green, and red; the
 national emblem formerly on the hoist side of the white stripe has
 been removed - it contained a rampant lion within a wreath of wheat
 ears below a red five-pointed star and above a ribbon bearing the
 dates 681 (first Bulgarian state established) and 1944 (liberation
 from Nazi control)

@Bulgaria:Economy

 Overview: The Bulgarian economy continued its painful adjustment in
 1994 from the misdirected development undertaken during four decades
 of Communist rule. Many aspects of a market economy have been put in
 place and have begun to function, but much of the economy, especially
 the industrial sector, has yet to re-establish market links lost with
 the collapse of the other centrally planned Soviet Bloc economies. The
 prices of many imported industrial inputs, especially energy products,
 have risen markedly, and falling real wages have not sufficed to
 restore competitiveness. The government plans more extensive
 privatization in 1995 to improve the management of enterprises and to
 encourage foreign investment. Bulgaria resumed payments on its $10
 billion in commercial debt in 1993 following the negotiation of a 50%
 write-off.

 National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $33.7 billion (1994
 est.)

 National product real growth rate: 0.2% (1994 est.)

 National product per capita: $3,830 (1994 est.)

 Inflation rate (consumer prices): 122% (1994)

 Unemployment rate: 16% (1994)

 Budget:
 revenues: $14 billion
 expenditures: $17.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $610
 million (1993 est.)

 Exports: $3.6 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
 commodities: machinery and equipment 30.6%; agricultural products 24%;
 manufactured consumer goods 22.2%; fuels, minerals, raw materials, and
 metals 10.5%; other 12.7% (1991)
 partners: former CEMA countries 57.7% (FSU 48.6%, Poland 2.1%,
 Czechoslovakia 0.9%); developed countries 26.3% (Germany 4.8%, Greece
 2.2%); less developed countries 15.9% (Libya 2.1%, Iran 0.7%) (1991)

 Imports: $4.3 billion (c.i.f., 1993)
 commodities: fuels, minerals, and raw materials 58.7%; machinery and
 equipment 15.8%; manufactured consumer goods 4.4%; agricultural
 products 15.2%; other 5.9%
 partners: former CEMA countries 51.0% (FSU 43.2%, Poland 3.7%);
 developed countries 32.8% (Germany 7.0%, Austria 4.7%); less developed
 countries 16.2% (Iran 2.8%, Libya 2.5%)

 External debt: $12 billion (1994)

 Industrial production: growth rate 4% (1994); accounts for about 37%
 of GDP (1990)

 Electricity:
 capacity: 11,500,000 kW
 production: 35.9 billion kWh
 consumption per capita: 3,827 kWh (1993)

 Industries: machine building and metal working, food processing,
 chemicals, textiles, building materials, ferrous and nonferrous metals

 Agriculture: climate and soil conditions support livestock raising and
 the growing of various grain crops, oilseeds, vegetables, fruits, and
 tobacco; more than one-third of the arable land devoted to grain;
 world's fourth-largest tobacco exporter; surplus food producer

 Illicit drugs: transshipment point for southwest Asian heroin and
 South American cocaine transiting the Balkan route; limited producer
 of precursor chemicals

 Economic aid:
 recipient: $700 million in balance of payments support (1994)

 Currency: 1 lev (Lv) = 100 stotinki

 Exchange rates: leva (Lv) per US$1 - 67.04 (January 1995), 32.00
 (January 1994), 24.56 (January 1993), 17.18 (January 1992), 16.13
 (March 1991), 0.7446 (November 1990); note - floating exchange rate
 since February 1991

 Fiscal year: calendar year

@Bulgaria:Transportation

 Railroads:
 total: 4,294 km
 standard gauge: 4,049 km 1.435-m gauge (2,650 km electrified; 917
 double track)
 other: 245 km NA-m gauge (1994)

 Highways:
 total: 36,932 km
 paved: 33,904 km (including 276 km expressways)
 unpaved: earth 3,028 km (1992)

 Inland waterways: 470 km (1987)

 Pipelines: crude oil 193 km; petroleum products 525 km; natural gas
 1,400 km (1992)

 Ports: Burgas, Lom, Nesebur, Ruse, Varna, Vidin

 Merchant marine:
 total: 109 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,191,231 GRT/1,762,461
 DWT
 ships by type: bulk 47, cargo 29, chemical carrier 4, container 2, oil
 tanker 15, passenger-cargo 2, railcar carrier 2, roll-on/roll-off
 cargo 6, short-sea passenger 1, refrigerated cargo 1
 note: Bulgaria owns 2 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 12,960 DWT
 operating under Liberian registry

 Airports:
 total: 355
 with paved runways over 3,047 m: 1
 with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 17
 with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 10
 with paved runways under 914 m: 88
 with unpaved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
 with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 1
 with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 10
 with unpaved runways under 914 m: 226

@Bulgaria:Communications

 Telephone system: 2,600,000 telephones; 29 telephones/100 persons
 (1992); extensive but antiquated transmission system of coaxial cable
 and microwave radio relay; direct dialing to 36 countries; telephone
 service is available in most villages; almost two-thirds of the lines
 are residential; 67% of Sofia households have phones (November 1988)
 local: NA
 intercity: NA
 international: 1 earth station using Intersputnik; INTELSAT link used
 through a Greek earth station

 Radio:
 broadcast stations: AM 20, FM 15, shortwave 0
 radios: NA

 Television:
 broadcast stations: 29 (Russian repeater in Sofia 1)
 televisions: 2.1 million (May 1990)

@Bulgaria:Defense Forces

 Branches: Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, Border Troops,
 Internal Troops

 Manpower availability: males age 15-49 2,171,414; males fit for
 military service 1,810,989; males reach military age (19) annually
 69,200 (1995 est.)

 Defense expenditures: 13 billion leva, NA% of GDP (1994 est.); note -
 conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the current
 exchange rate could produce misleading results


________________________________________________________________________

BURKINA

@Burkina:Geography

 Location: Western Africa, north of Ghana

 Map references: Africa

 Area:
 total area: 274,200 sq km
 land area: 273,800 sq km
 comparative area: slightly larger than Colorado

 Land boundaries: total 3,192 km, Benin 306 km, Ghana 548 km, Cote
 d'Ivoire 584 km, Mali 1,000 km, Niger 628 km, Togo 126 km

 Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

 Maritime claims: none; landlocked

 International disputes: following mutual acceptance of an
 International Court of Justice (ICJ) ruling in December 1986 on their
 international boundary dispute, Burkina and Mali are proceeding with
 boundary demarcation, including the tripoint with Niger

 Climate: tropical; warm, dry winters; hot, wet summers

 Terrain: mostly flat to dissected, undulating plains; hills in west
 and southeast

 Natural resources: manganese, limestone, marble; small deposits of
 gold, antimony, copper, nickel, bauxite, lead, phosphates, zinc,
 silver

 Land use:
 arable land: 10%
 permanent crops: 0%
 meadows and pastures: 37%
 forest and woodland: 26%
 other: 27%

 Irrigated land: 160 sq km (1989 est.)

 Environment:
 current issues: recent droughts and desertification severely affecting
 agricultural activities, population distribution, and the economy;
 overgrazing; soil degradation; deforestation
 natural hazards: recurring droughts
 international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
 Endangered Species, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection,
 Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Desertification, Law of the Sea,
 Nuclear Test Ban

 Note: landlocked

@Burkina:People

 Population: 10,422,828 (July 1995 est.)

 Age structure:
 0-14 years: 48% (female 2,488,662; male 2,517,245)
 15-64 years: 49% (female 2,707,601; male 2,378,957)
 65 years and over: 3% (female 184,578; male 145,785) (July 1995 est.)

 Population growth rate: 2.79% (1995 est.)

 Birth rate: 48.05 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Death rate: 18.22 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Net migration rate: -1.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Infant mortality rate: 116.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

 Life expectancy at birth:
 total population: 46.6 years
 male: 45.71 years
 female: 47.51 years (1995 est.)

 Total fertility rate: 6.88 children born/woman (1995 est.)

 Nationality:
 noun: Burkinabe (singular and plural)
 adjective: Burkinabe

 Ethnic divisions: Mossi (about 2.5 million), Gurunsi, Senufo, Lobi,
 Bobo, Mande, Fulani

 Religions: indigenous beliefs 40%, Muslim 50%, Christian (mainly Roman
 Catholic) 10%

 Languages: French (official), tribal languages belonging to Sudanic
 family, spoken by 90% of the population

 Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
 total population: 18%
 male: 28%
 female: 9%

 Labor force: NA (most adults are employed in subsistance agriculture)
 by occupation: agriculture 80%, industry 15%, commerce, services, and
 government 5%
 note: 20% of male labor force migrates annually to neighboring
 countries for seasonal employment (1984)

@Burkina:Government

 Names:
 conventional long form: Burkina Faso
 conventional short form: Burkina
 former: Upper Volta

 Digraph: UV

 Type: parliamentary

 Capital: Ouagadougou

 Administrative divisions: 30 provinces; Bam, Bazega, Bougouriba,
 Boulgou, Boulkiemde, Ganzourgou, Gnagna, Gourma, Houet, Kadiogo,
 Kenedougou, Komoe, Kossi, Kouritenga, Mouhoun, Namentenga, Naouri,
 Oubritenga, Oudalan, Passore, Poni, Sanguie, Sanmatenga, Seno,
 Sissili, Soum, Sourou, Tapoa, Yatenga, Zoundweogo

 Independence: 5 August 1960 (from France)

 National holiday: Anniversary of the Revolution, 4 August (1983)

 Constitution: 2 June 1991

 Legal system: based on French civil law system and customary law

 Suffrage: none

 Executive branch:
 chief of state: President Captain Blaise COMPAORE (since 15 October
 1987); election last held December 1991
 head of government: Prime Minister Roch KABORE (since March 1994)
 cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by the president

 Legislative branch: unicameral
 Assembly of People's Deputies: elections last held 24 May 1992 (next
 to be held 1997); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (107
 total), ODP-MT 78, CNPP-PSD 12, RDA 6, ADF 4, other 7
 note: the current law also provides for a second consultative chamber,
 which has not been formally constituted

 Judicial branch: Appeals Court

 Political parties and leaders: Organization for People's Democracy -
 Labor Movement (ODP-MT), ruling party, Simon COMPAORE, Secretary
 General; National Convention of Progressive Patriots-Social Democratic
 Party (CNPP-PSD), Moussa BOLY; African Democratic Rally (RDA), Gerard
 Kango OUEDRAOGO; Alliance for Democracy and Federation (ADF), Amadou
 Michel NANA

 Other political or pressure groups: committees for the defense of the
 revolution; watchdog/political action groups throughout the country in
 both organizations and communities

 Member of: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEAO, ECA, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ,
 G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
 ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, PCA, UN,
 UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WADB, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

 Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Gaetan R. OUEDRAOGO
 chancery: 2340 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
 telephone: [1] (202) 332-5577, 6895

 US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Donald J. McCONNELL
 embassy: Avenue Raoul Follerau, Ouagadougou
 mailing address: 01 B. P. 35, Ouagadougou
 telephone: [226] 306723 through 306725
 FAX: [226] 312368

 Flag: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green with a yellow
 five-pointed star in the center; uses the popular pan-African colors
 of Ethiopia

@Burkina:Economy

 Overview: One of the poorest countries in the world, Burkina has a
 high population density and a high population growth rate, few natural
 resources, and a fragile soil. Economic development is hindered by a
 poor communications network within a landlocked country. Agriculture
 provides about 40% of GDP and is mainly of a subsistence nature.
 Industry, dominated by unprofitable government-controlled
 corporations, accounts for about 15% of GDP. Following the 50%
 currency devaluation in January 1994, the government updated its
 development program in conjunction with international agencies. Even
 with the best of plans, however, the government faces formidable
 problems on all sides.

 National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $6.5 billion (1993
 est.)

 National product real growth rate: 0.4% (1993 est.)

 National product per capita: $660 (1993 est.)

 Inflation rate (consumer prices): -0.6% (1993 est.)

 Unemployment rate: NA%

 Budget:
 revenues: $483 million
 expenditures: $548 million, including capital expenditures of $189
 million (1992)

 Exports: $273 million (f.o.b., 1993)
 commodities: cotton, gold, animal products
 partners: EC 42%, Cote d'Ivoire 11%, Taiwan 15% (1992)

 Imports: $636 million (f.o.b., 1993)
 commodities: machinery, food products, petroleum
 partners: EC 49%, Africa 24%, Japan 6% (1992)

 External debt: $865 million (December 1991 est.)

 Industrial production: growth rate 6.7% (1992); accounts for about 15%
 of GDP

 Electricity:
 capacity: 60,000 kW
 production: 190 million kWh
 consumption per capita: 17 kWh (1993)

 Industries: cotton lint, beverages, agricultural processing, soap,
 cigarettes, textiles, gold mining and extraction

 Agriculture: accounts for about 40% of GDP; cash crops - peanuts, shea
 nuts, sesame, cotton; food crops - sorghum, millet, corn, rice;
 livestock; not self-sufficient in food grains

 Economic aid:
 recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $294 million;
 Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
 (1970-89), $2.9 billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $113 million

 Currency: 1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes

 Exchange rates: CFA francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 529.43 (January 1995),
 555.20 (1995), 283.16 (1993), 264.69 (1992), 282.11 (1991), 272.26
 (1990)
 note: beginning 12 January 1994 the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF 100
 per French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since 1948

 Fiscal year: calendar year

@Burkina:Transportation

 Railroads:
 total: 620 km (520 km Ouagadougou to Cote d'Ivoire border and 100 km
 Ouagadougou to Kaya; single track)
 narrow gauge: 620 km 1.000-m gauge

 Highways:
 total: 16,500 km
 paved: 1,300 km
 unpaved: improved earth 7,400 km; unimproved earth 7,800 km (1985)

 Ports: none

 Airports:
 total: 48
 with paved runways over 3,047 m: 1
 with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
 with paved runways under 914 m: 26
 with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 4
 with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 16

@Burkina:Communications

 Telephone system: NA telephones; all services only fair
 local: NA
 intercity: microwave radio relay, wire, and radio communication
 stations
 international: 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

 Radio:
 broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 1, shortwave 0
 radios: NA

 Television:
 broadcast stations: 2
 televisions: NA

@Burkina:Defense Forces

 Branches: Army, Air Force, National Gendarmerie, National Police,
 People's Militia

 Manpower availability: males age 15-49 2,081,999; males fit for
 military service 1,065,605 (1995 est.)

 Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $104 million, 6.4% of
 GDP (1994)


________________________________________________________________________

BURMA

@Burma:Geography

 Location: Southeastern Asia, bordering the Andaman Sea and the Bay of
 Bengal, between Bangladesh and Thailand

 Map references: Southeast Asia

 Area:
 total area: 678,500 sq km
 land area: 657,740 sq km
 comparative area: slightly smaller than Texas

 Land boundaries: total 5,876 km, Bangladesh 193 km, China 2,185 km,
 India 1,463 km, Laos 235 km, Thailand 1,800 km

 Coastline: 1,930 km

 Maritime claims:
 contiguous zone: 24 nm
 continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
 exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
 territorial sea: 12 nm

 International disputes: none

 Climate: tropical monsoon; cloudy, rainy, hot, humid summers
 (southwest monsoon, June to September); less cloudy, scant rainfall,
 mild temperatures, lower humidity during winter (northeast monsoon,
 December to April)

 Terrain: central lowlands ringed by steep, rugged highlands

 Natural resources: petroleum, timber, tin, antimony, zinc, copper,
 tungsten, lead, coal, some marble, limestone, precious stones, natural
 gas

 Land use:
 arable land: 15%
 permanent crops: 1%
 meadows and pastures: 1%
 forest and woodland: 49%
 other: 34%

 Irrigated land: 10,180 sq km (1989)

 Environment:
 current issues: deforestation; industrial pollution of air, soil, and
 water; inadequate sanitation and water treatment contribute to disease

 natural hazards: destructive earthquakes and cyclones; flooding and
 landslides common during rainy season (June to September); periodic
 droughts
 international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
 Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical
 Timber 83; signed, but not ratified - Law of the Sea

 Note: strategic location near major Indian Ocean shipping lanes

@Burma:People

 Population: 45,103,809 (July 1995 est.)

 Age structure:
 0-14 years: 36% (female 7,963,544; male 8,285,459)
 15-64 years: 60% (female 13,478,211; male 13,404,987)
 65 years and over: 4% (female 1,080,922; male 890,686) (July 1995
 est.)

 Population growth rate: 1.84% (1995 est.)

 Birth rate: 28.02 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Death rate: 9.63 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Infant mortality rate: 61.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

 Life expectancy at birth:
 total population: 60.47 years
 male: 58.38 years
 female: 62.69 years (1995 est.)

 Total fertility rate: 3.58 children born/woman (1995 est.)

 Nationality:
 noun: Burmese (singular and plural)
 adjective: Burmese

 Ethnic divisions: Burman 68%, Shan 9%, Karen 7%, Rakhine 4%, Chinese
 3%, Mon 2%, Indian 2%, other 5%

 Religions: Buddhist 89%, Christian 4% (Baptist 3%, Roman Catholic 1%),
 Muslim 4%, animist beliefs 1%, other 2%

 Languages: Burmese; minority ethnic groups have their own languages

 Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
 total population: 81%
 male: 89%
 female: 72%

 Labor force: 16.007 million (1992)
 by occupation: agriculture 65.2%, industry 14.3%, trade 10.1%,
 government 6.3%, other 4.1% (FY88/89 est.)

@Burma:Government

 Names:
 conventional long form: Union of Burma
 conventional short form: Burma
 local long form: Pyidaungzu Myanma Naingngandaw (translated by the US
 Government as Union of Myanma and by the Burmese as Union of Myanmar)
 local short form: Myanma Naingngandaw
 former: Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma

 Digraph: BM

 Type: military regime

 Capital: Rangoon (regime refers to the capital as Yangon)

 Administrative divisions: 7 divisions* (yin-mya, singular - yin) and 7
 states (pyine-mya, singular - pyine); Chin State, Ayeyarwady*, Bago*,
 Kachin State, Kayin State, Kayah State, Magway*, Mandalay*, Mon State,
 Rakhine State, Sagaing*, Shan State, Tanintharyi*, Yangon*

 Independence: 4 January 1948 (from UK)

 National holiday: Independence Day, 4 January (1948)

 Constitution: 3 January 1974 (suspended since 18 September 1988);
 National Convention started on 9 January 1993 to draft a new
 constitution; chapter headings and three of 15 sections have been
 approved

 Legal system: has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

 Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

 Executive branch:
 chief of state and head of government: Chairman of the State Law and
 Order Restoration Council Gen. THAN SHWE (since 23 April 1992)
 State Law and Order Restoration Council: military junta which assumed
 power 18 September 1988

 Legislative branch:
 People's Assembly (Pyithu Hluttaw): election last held 27 May 1990,
 but Assembly never convened; results - NLD 80%; seats - (485 total)
 NLD 396, the regime-favored NUP 10, other 79; was dissolved after the
 coup of 18 September 1988

 Judicial branch: limited; remnants of the British-era legal system in
 place, but there is no guarantee of a fair public trial; the judiciary
 is not independent of the executive

 Political parties and leaders: Union Solidarity and Development
 Association (USDA), THAN AUNG, Secretary; National Unity Party (NUP;
 proregime), THA KYAW; National League for Democracy (NLD), U AUNG
 SHWE; and eight other minor legal parties

 Other political or pressure groups: National Coalition Government of
 the Union of Burma (NCGUB), headed by the elected prime minister SEIN
 WIN (consists of individuals legitimately elected to Parliament but
 not recognized by the military regime; the group fled to a border area
 and joined with insurgents in December 1990 to form a parallel
 government; Kachin Independence Army (KIA); United Wa State Army
 (UWSA); Karen National Union (KNU); several Shan factions, including
 the Mong Tai Army (MTA); All Burma Student Democratic Front (ABSDF)

 Member of: AsDB, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
 ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT (nonsignatory
 user), INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, NAM, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO,
 WMO

 Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission: Ambassador U THAUNG
 chancery: 2300 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
 telephone: [1] (202) 332-9044, 9045
 consulate(s) general: New York

 US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission: (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Marilyn A. MEYERS
 embassy: 581 Merchant Street, Rangoon (GPO 521)
 mailing address: American Embassy, Box B, APO AP 96546
 telephone: [95] (1) 82055, 82182 (operator assistance required)
 FAX: [95] (1) 80409

 Flag: red with a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner
 bearing, all in white, 14 five-pointed stars encircling a cogwheel
 containing a stalk of rice; the 14 stars represent the 14
 administrative divisions

@Burma:Economy

 Overview: Burma has a mixed economy with about 75% private activity,
 mainly in agriculture, light industry, and transport, and with about
 25% state-controlled activity, mainly in energy, heavy industry, and
 foreign trade. Government policy in the last six years, 1989-94, has
 aimed at revitalizing the economy after four decades of tight central
 planning. Thus, private activity has markedly increased; foreign
 investment has been encouraged, so far with moderate success; and
 efforts continue to increase the efficiency of state enterprises.
 Published estimates of Burma's foreign trade are greatly understated
 because of the volume of black market trade. A major ongoing problem
 is the failure to achieve monetary and fiscal stability. Although
 Burma remains a poor Asian country, its rich resources furnish the
 potential for substantial long-term increases in income, exports, and
 living standards.

 National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $41.4 billion (1994
 est.)

 National product real growth rate: 6.4% (1994)

 National product per capita: $930 (1994 est.)

 Inflation rate (consumer prices): 38% (1994 est.)

 Unemployment rate: NA%

 Budget:
 revenues: $4.4 billion
 expenditures: $6.7 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
 (FY93/94 est.)

 Exports: $674 million (FY93/94 est.)
 commodities: pulses and beans, teak, rice, hardwood
 partners: Singapore, China, Thailand, India, Hong Kong

 Imports: $1.2 billion (FY93/94 est.)
 commodities: machinery, transport equipment, chemicals, food products
 partners: Japan, China, Thailand, Singapore, Malaysia

 External debt: $5.4 billion (FY93/94 est.)

 Industrial production: growth rate 4.9% (FY92/93 est.); accounts for
 10% of GDP

 Electricity:
 capacity: 1,100,000 kW
 production: 2.6 billion kWh
 consumption per capita: 55 kWh (1993)

 Industries: agricultural processing; textiles and footwear; wood and
 wood products; petroleum refining; mining of copper, tin, tungsten,
 iron; construction materials; pharmaceuticals; fertilizer

 Agriculture: accounts for 65% of GDP and 65% of employment (including
 fishing, animal husbandry, and forestry); self-sufficient in food;
 principal crops - paddy rice, corn, oilseed, sugarcane, pulses;
 world's largest stand of hardwood trees; rice and timber account for
 55% of export revenues

 Illicit drugs: world's largest illicit producer of opium (2,030 metric
 tons in 1994 - dropped 21% due to regional drought in 1994) and minor
 producer of cannabis for the international drug trade; opium
 production continues to be almost double since the collapse of
 Rangoon's antinarcotic programs; growing role in amphetamine
 production for regional consumption

 Economic aid:
 recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $158 million;
 Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
 (1970-89), $3.9 billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $424 million

 Currency: 1 kyat (K) = 100 pyas

 Exchange rates: kyats (K) per US$1 - 5.8640 (January 1995), 5.9749
 (1994), 6.1570 (1993), 6.1045 (1992), 6.2837 (1991), 6.3386 (1990);
 unofficial - 120

 Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Burma:Transportation

 Railroads:
 total: 3,991 km (3,878 km common carrier lines, 113 km industrial
 lines)
 standard gauge: 3,878 km 1.435-m gauge
 other: 113 km NA-m gauge

 Highways:
 total: 27,000 km
 paved: bituminous 3,200 km
 unpaved: gravel, improved earth 17,700 km; unimproved earth 6,100 km

 Inland waterways: 12,800 km; 3,200 km navigable by large commercial
 vessels

 Pipelines: crude oil 1,343 km; natural gas 330 km

 Ports: Bassein, Bhamo, Chauk, Mandalay, Moulmein, Myitkyina, Rangoon,
 Sittwe, Tavoy

 Merchant marine:
 total: 49 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 638,297 GRT/884,492 DWT
 ships by type: bulk 19, cargo 15, chemical tanker 1, container 2, oil
 tanker 3, passenger-cargo 3, refrigerated cargo 4, vehicle carrier 2

 Airports:
 total: 80
 with paved runways over 3,047 m: 2
 with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
 with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 10
 with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 11
 with paved runways under 914 m: 33
 with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 5
 with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 17

@Burma:Communications

 Telephone system: 53,000 telephones (1986); meets minimum requirements
 for local and intercity service for business and government;
 international service is good
 local: NA
 intercity: NA
 international: 1 INTELSAT (Indian Ocean) earth station

 Radio:
 broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 1, shortwave 0 (1985)
 radios: NA
 note: radiobroadcast coverage is limited to the most populous areas

 Television:
 broadcast stations: 1 (1985)
 televisions: NA

@Burma:Defense Forces

 Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force

 Manpower availability: males age 15-49 11,553,094; females age 15-49
 11,463,189; males fit for military service 6,180,091; females fit for
 military service 6,116,421; males reach military age (18) annually
 457,445 (1995 est.); females reach military age (18) annually 441,628
 (1995 est.)
 note: both sexes liable for military service

 Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP


________________________________________________________________________

BURUNDI

@Burundi:Geography

 Location: Central Africa, east of Zaire

 Map references: Africa

 Area:
 total area: 27,830 sq km
 land area: 25,650 sq km
 comparative area: slightly larger than Maryland

 Land boundaries: total 974 km, Rwanda 290 km, Tanzania 451 km, Zaire
 233 km

 Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

 Maritime claims: none; landlocked

 International disputes: none

 Climate: temperate; warm; occasional frost in uplands; dry season from
 June to September

 Terrain: hilly and mountainous, dropping to a plateau in east, some
 plains

 Natural resources: nickel, uranium, rare earth oxide, peat, cobalt,
 copper, platinum (not yet exploited), vanadium

 Land use:
 arable land: 43%
 permanent crops: 8%
 meadows and pastures: 35%
 forest and woodland: 2%
 other: 12%

 Irrigated land: 720 sq km (1989 est.)

 Environment:
 current issues: soil erosion as a result of overgrazing and the
 expansion of agriculture into marginal lands; deforestation (little
 forested land remains because of uncontrolled cutting of trees for
 fuel); habitat loss threatens wildlife populations
 natural hazards: flooding, landslides
 international agreements: party to - Endangered Species; signed, but
 not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Law of
 the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban

 Note: landlocked; straddles crest of the Nile-Congo watershed

@Burundi:People

 Population: 6,262,429 (July 1995 est.)

 Age structure:
 0-14 years: 48% (female 1,489,721; male 1,494,730)
 15-64 years: 50% (female 1,606,307; male 1,498,021)
 65 years and over: 2% (female 105,446; male 68,204) (July 1995 est.)

 Population growth rate: 2.18% (1995 est.)

 Birth rate: 43.35 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Death rate: 21.51 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Net migration rate: NA migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)
 note: in a number of waves since April 1994, hundreds of thousands of
 refugees have fled the civil strife between the Hutu and Tutsi
 factions in Burundi and crossed into Rwanda, Tanzania, and Zaire; the
 refugee flows are continuing in 1995 as the ethnic violence has
 persisted

 Infant mortality rate: 111.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

 Life expectancy at birth:
 total population: 39.86 years
 male: 37.84 years
 female: 41.95 years (1995 est.)

 Total fertility rate: 6.63 children born/woman (1995 est.)

 Nationality:
 noun: Burundian(s)
 adjective: Burundi

 Ethnic divisions:
 Africans: Hutu (Bantu) 85%, Tutsi (Hamitic) 14%, Twa (Pygmy) 1%
 non-Africans: Europeans 3,000, South Asians 2,000

 Religions: Christian 67% (Roman Catholic 62%, Protestant 5%),
 indigenous beliefs 32%, Muslim 1%

 Languages: Kirundi (official), French (official), Swahili (along Lake
 Tanganyika and in the Bujumbura area)

 Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
 total population: 50%
 male: 61%
 female: 40%

 Labor force: 1.9 million (1983 est.)
 by occupation: agriculture 93.0%, government 4.0%, industry and
 commerce 1.5%, services 1.5%

@Burundi:Government

 Names:
 conventional long form: Republic of Burundi
 conventional short form: Burundi
 local long form: Republika y'u Burundi
 local short form: Burundi

 Digraph: BY

 Type: republic

 Capital: Bujumbura

 Administrative divisions: 15 provinces; Bubanza, Bujumbura, Bururi,
 Cankuzo, Cibitoke, Gitega, Karuzi, Kayanza, Kirundo, Makamba,
 Muramvya, Muyinga, Ngozi, Rutana, Ruyigi

 Independence: 1 July 1962 (from UN trusteeship under Belgian
 administration)

 National holiday: Independence Day, 1 July (1962)

 Constitution: 13 March 1992; provides for establishment of a plural
 political system

 Legal system: based on German and Belgian civil codes and customary
 law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

 Suffrage: universal adult at age NA

 Executive branch:
 chief of state: President Sylvestre NTIBANTUNGANYA (since September
 1994)
 note: President Melchior NDADAYE, Burundi's first democratically
 elected president, died in the military coup of 21 October 1993 and
 was succeeded on 5 February 1994 by President Cyprien NTARYAMIRA, who
 was killed in a mysterious airplane explosion on 6 April 1994
 head of government: Prime Minister Antoine NDUWAYO (since February
 1995); selected by President NTIBANTUNGANYA following the resignation
 of Anatole KANYENKIKO on 15 February 1995
 cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by prime minister

 Legislative branch: unicameral
 National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale): elections last held 29 June
 1993 (next to be held NA); results - FRODEBU 71%, UPRONA 21.4%; seats
 - (81 total) FRODEBU 65, UPRONA 16; other parties won too small shares
 of the vote to win seats in the assembly
 note: The National Unity Charter outlining the principles for
 constitutional government was adopted by a national referendum on 5
 February 1991

 Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

 Political parties and leaders: Unity for National Progress (UPRONA);
 Burundi Democratic Front (FRODEBU); Organization of the People of
 Burundi (RBP); Socialist Party of Burundi (PSB); People's
 Reconciliation Party (PRP); opposition parties, legalized in March
 1992, include Burundi African Alliance for the Salvation (ABASA);
 Rally for Democracy and Economic and Social Development (RADDES); and
 Party for National Redress (PARENA)

 Other political or pressure groups: NA;

 Member of: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEEAC, CEPGL, ECA, FAO, G-77, GATT,
 IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT
 (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC, ISO (subscriber), ITU, NAM, OAU,
 UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

 Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission: post vacant since recall of Ambassador Jacques
 BACAMURWANKO in November 1994
 chancery: Suite 212, 2233 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007
 telephone: [1] (202) 342-2574

 US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Robert C. KRUEGER
 embassy: Avenue des Etats-Unis, Bujumbura
 mailing address: B. P. 1720, Bujumbura
 telephone: [257] (2) 23454
 FAX: [257] (2) 22926

 Flag: divided by a white diagonal cross into red panels (top and
 bottom) and green panels (hoist side and outer side) with a white disk
 superimposed at the center bearing three red six-pointed stars
 outlined in green arranged in a triangular design (one star above, two
 stars below)

@Burundi:Economy

 Overview: A landlocked, resource-poor country in an early stage of
 economic development, Burundi since October 1993 has suffered from
 massive ethnic-based violence that has displaced an estimated million
 people, disrupted production, and set back needed reform programs.
 Burundi is predominately agricultural with roughly 90% of the
 population dependent on subsistence agriculture. Its economic health
 depends on the coffee crop, which accounts for 80% of foreign exchange
 earnings. The ability to pay for imports therefore continues to rest
 largely on the vagaries of the climate and the international coffee
 market. As part of its economic reform agenda, launched in February
 1991 with IMF and World Bank support, Burundi is trying to diversify
 its agricultural exports, attract foreign investment in industry, and
 modernize government budgetary practices. Although the government
 remains committed to reforms, it fears new austerity measures would
 add to ethnic tensions.

 National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $3.7 billion (1994
 est.)

 National product real growth rate: -13.5% (1994 est.)

 National product per capita: $600 (1994 est.)

 Inflation rate (consumer prices): 10% (1993 est.)

 Unemployment rate: NA%

 Budget:
 revenues: $318 million
 expenditures: $326 million, including capital expenditures of $150
 million (1991 est.)

 Exports: $68 million (f.o.b., 1993)
 commodities: coffee 81%, tea, cotton, hides, and skins
 partners: EC 57%, US 19%, Asia 1%

 Imports: $203 million (c.i.f., 1993)
 commodities: capital goods 31%, petroleum products 15%, foodstuffs,
 consumer goods
 partners: EC 45%, Asia 29%, US 2%

 External debt: $1.05 billion (1994 est.)

 Industrial production: growth rate 11% (1991 est.); accounts for about
 15% of GDP

 Electricity:
 capacity: 55,000 kW
 production: 100 million kWh
 consumption per capita: 20 kWh (1993)

 Industries: light consumer goods such as blankets, shoes, soap;
 assembly of imported components; public works construction; food
 processing

 Agriculture: accounts for 50% of GDP; cash crops - coffee, cotton,
 tea; food crops - corn, sorghum, sweet potatoes, bananas, manioc;
 livestock - meat, milk, hides and skins

 Economic aid:
 recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $71 million;
 Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
 (1970-89), $10.2 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $32 million;
 Communist countries (1970-89), $175 million

 Currency: 1 Burundi franc (FBu) = 100 centimes

 Exchange rates: Burundi francs (FBu) per US$1 - 248.51 (December
 1994), 252.66 (1994), 242.78 (1993), 208.30 (1992), 181.51 (1991),
 171.26 (1990), 158.67 (1989), 140.40 (1988)

 Fiscal year: calendar year

@Burundi:Transportation

 Railroads: 0 km

 Highways:
 total: 5,900 km
 paved: 640 km
 unpaved: gravel, crushed stone 2,260 km; improved, unimproved earth
 3,000 km (1990)

 Inland waterways: Lake Tanganyika

 Ports: Bujumbura

 Airports:
 total: 4
 with paved runways over 3,047 m: 1
 with paved runways under 914 m: 1
 with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 2

@Burundi:Communications

 Telephone system: 8,000 telephones; primative system; telephone
 density - 1.3 telephones/1,000 persons
 local: NA
 intercity: sparse system of wire, radiocommunications, and
 low-capacity microwave radio relay links
 international: 1 INTELSAT (Indian Ocean) earth station

 Radio:
 broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 2, shortwave 0
 radios: NA

 Television:
 broadcast stations: 1
 televisions: NA

@Burundi:Defense Forces

 Branches: Army (includes naval and air units), paramilitary
 Gendarmerie

 Manpower availability: males age 15-49 1,350,042; males fit for
 military service 705,864; males reach military age (16) annually
 73,308 (1995 est.)

 Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $25 million, 2.6% of
 GDP (1993)


________________________________________________________________________

CAMBODIA

@Cambodia:Geography

 Location: Southeastern Asia, bordering the Gulf of Thailand, between
 Thailand and Vietnam

 Map references: Southeast Asia

 Area:
 total area: 181,040 sq km
 land area: 176,520 sq km
 comparative area: slightly smaller than Oklahoma

 Land boundaries: total 2,572 km, Laos 541 km, Thailand 803 km, Vietnam
 1,228 km

 Coastline: 443 km

 Maritime claims:
 contiguous zone: 24 nm
 continental shelf: 200 nm
 exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
 territorial sea: 12 nm

 International disputes: offshore islands and sections of the boundary
 with Vietnam are in dispute; maritime boundary with Vietnam not
 defined; parts of border with Thailand in dispute; maritime boundary
 with Thailand not clearly defined

 Climate: tropical; rainy, monsoon season (May to November); dry season
 (December to April); little seasonal temperature variation

 Terrain: mostly low, flat plains; mountains in southwest and north

 Natural resources: timber, gemstones, some iron ore, manganese,
 phosphates, hydropower potential

 Land use:
 arable land: 16%
 permanent crops: 1%
 meadows and pastures: 3%
 forest and woodland: 76%
 other: 4%

 Irrigated land: 920 sq km (1989 est.)

 Environment:
 current issues: logging activities throughout the country and strip
 mining for gems in the western region along the border with Thailand
 are resulting in habitat loss and declining biodiversity (in
 particular, destruction of mangrove swamps threatens natural
 fisheries); deforestation; soil erosion; in rural areas, a majority of
 the population does not have access to potable water
 natural hazards: monsoonal rains (June to November); flooding;
 occasional droughts
 international agreements: party to - Marine Life Conservation, Ship
 Pollution; signed, but not ratified - Desertification, Endangered
 Species, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping

 Note: a land of paddies and forests dominated by the Mekong River and
 Tonle Sap

@Cambodia:People

 Population: 10,561,373 (July 1995 est.)

 Age structure:
 0-14 years: 46% (female 2,367,414; male 2,438,104)
 15-64 years: 51% (female 2,932,788; male 2,494,203)
 65 years and over: 3% (female 185,337; male 143,527) (July 1995 est.)

 Population growth rate: 2.83% (1995 est.)

 Birth rate: 44.42 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Death rate: 16.16 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Infant mortality rate: 109.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

 Life expectancy at birth:
 total population: 49.46 years
 male: 48 years
 female: 51 years (1995 est.)

 Total fertility rate: 5.81 children born/woman (1995 est.)

 Nationality:
 noun: Cambodian(s)
 adjective: Cambodian

 Ethnic divisions: Khmer 90%, Vietnamese 5%, Chinese 1%, other 4%

 Religions: Theravada Buddhism 95%, other 5%

 Languages: Khmer (official), French

 Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
 total population: 35%
 male: 48%
 female: 22%

 Labor force: 2.5 million to 3 million
 by occupation: agriculture 80% (1988 est.)

@Cambodia:Government

 Names:
 conventional long form: Kingdom of Cambodia
 conventional short form: Cambodia
 local long form: Reacheanachak Kampuchea
 local short form: Kampuchea

 Digraph: CB

 Type: multiparty liberal democracy under a constitutional monarchy
 established in September 1993

 Capital: Phnom Penh

 Administrative divisions: 21 provinces (khet, singular and plural);
 Banteay Meanchey, Batdambang, Kampong Cham, Kampong Chhnang, Kampong
 Spoe, Kampong Thum, Kampot, Kandal, Kaoh Kong, Kracheh, Mondol Kiri,
 Phnum Penh, Pouthisat, Preah Vihear, Prey Veng, Rotanokiri,
 Siemreab-Otdar Meanchey, Sihanoukville, Stoeng Treng, Svay Rieng,
 Takev
 note: Siemreab-Otdar Meanchey may have been divided into two provinces
 named Siemreab and Otdar Meanchey

 Independence: 9 November 1949 (from France)

 National holiday: Independence Day, 9 November 1949

 Constitution: promulgated September 1993

 Legal system: currently being defined

 Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

 Executive branch:
 chief of state: King Norodom SIHANOUK (reinstated 24 September 1993)
 head of government: power shared between First Prime Minister Prince
 Norodom RANARIDDH and Second Prime Minister HUN SEN
 cabinet: Council of Ministers; elected by the National Assembly

 Legislative branch: unicameral; a 120-member constituent assembly
 based on proportional representation within each province was
 established following the UN-supervised election in May 1993; the
 constituent assembly was transformed into a legislature in September
 1993 after delegates promulgated the constitution

 Judicial branch: Supreme Court provided for by the constitution has
 not yet been established and the future judicial system is yet to be
 defined by law

 Political parties and leaders: National United Front for an
 Independent, Neutral, Peaceful, and Cooperative Cambodia (FUNCINPEC),
 Prince NORODOM RANARIDDH; Cambodian Pracheachon Party or Cambodian
 People's Party (CPP), CHEA SIM; Buddhist Liberal Democratic Party, SON
 SANN; Democratic Kampuchea (DK, also known as the Khmer Rouge), KHIEU
 SAMPHAN; Molinaka, PROM NEAKAREACH

 Member of: ACCT, AsDB, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM,
 IDA, IFAD, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user),
 INTERPOL, ITU, NAM, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO

 Diplomatic representation in US: Ambassador SISOWATH SIRIRATH
 represents Cambodia at the United Nations

 US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Charles H. TWINING
 embassy: 27 EO Street 240, Phnom Penh
 mailing address: Box P, APO AP 96546
 telephone: [855] (23) 26436, 26438
 FAX: [855] (23) 26437

 Flag: horizontal band of red separates two equal horizontal bands of
 blue with a white three-towered temple representing Angkor Wat in the
 center

@Cambodia:Economy

 Overview: The Cambodian economy - virtually destroyed by decades of
 war - is slowly recovering. Government leaders are moving toward
 restoring fiscal and monetary discipline and have established good
 working relations with international financial institutions. Growth,
 starting from a low base, has been strong in 1991-94. Despite such
 positive developments, the reconstruction effort faces many tough
 challenges because of the persistence of internal political divisions
 and the related lack of confidence of foreign investors. Rural
 Cambodia, where 90% of about 9.5 million Khmer live, remains mired in
 poverty. The almost total lack of basic infrastructure in the
 countryside will hinder development and will contribute to a growing
 imbalance in growth between urban and rural areas over the near term.
 Moreover, the government's lack of experience in administering
 economic and technical assistance programs and rampant corruption
 among officials will slow the growth of critical public sector
 investment. Inflation for 1994 as a whole was less than a quarter of
 the 1992 rate and was declining during the year.

 National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $6.4 billion (1994
 est.)

 National product real growth rate: 5% (1994 est.)

 National product per capita: $630 (1994 est.)

 Inflation rate (consumer prices): 26%-30% (1994 est.)

 Unemployment rate: NA%

 Budget:
 revenues: $190 million
 expenditures: $365 million, including capital expenditures of $120
 million (1994 est.)

 Exports: $283.6 million (f.o.b., 1993)
 commodities: timber, rubber, soybeans, sesame
 partners: Singapore, Japan, Thailand, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Malaysia

 Imports: $479.3 million (c.i.f., 1993)
 commodities: cigarettes, construction materials, petroleum products,
 machinery
 partners: Singapore, Vietnam, Japan, Australia, Hong Kong, Indonesia

 External debt: $383 million to OECD members (1993)

 Industrial production: growth rate 7.9% (1993 est.); accounts for 8%
 of GDP

 Electricity:
 capacity: 40,000 kW
 production: 160 million kWh
 consumption per capita: 14 kWh (1993)

 Industries: rice milling, fishing, wood and wood products, rubber,
 cement, gem mining

 Agriculture: mainly subsistence farming except for rubber plantations;
 main crops - rice, rubber, corn; food shortages - rice, meat,
 vegetables, dairy products, sugar, flour

 Illicit drugs: increasingly used as a transshipment country for heroin
 produced in the Golden Triangle; growing money-laundering center;
 high-level narcotics-related corruption in government; possible
 small-scale heroin production; large producer of cannibis

 Economic aid:
 recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $725 million;
 Western (non-US countries) (1970-89), $300 million; Communist
 countries (1970-89), $1.8 billion; donor countries and multilateral
 institutions pledged $880 million in assistance in 1992; IMF pledged
 $120 million in aid for 1995-98

 Currency: 1 new riel (CR) = 100 sen

 Exchange rates: riels (CR) per US$1 - 2,470 (December 1993), 2,800
 (September 1992), 500 (December 1991), 560 (1990), 159.00 (1988),
 100.00 (1987)

 Fiscal year: calendar year

@Cambodia:Transportation

 Railroads:
 total: 655 km
 narrow gauge: 655 km 1.000-m gauge

 Highways:
 total: 34,100 km (some roads in serious disrepair)
 paved: bituminous 3,000 km
 unpaved: crushed stone, gravel, or improved earth 3,100 km; unimproved
 earth 28,000 km

 Inland waterways: 3,700 km navigable all year to craft drawing 0.6
 meters; 282 km navigable to craft drawing 1.8 meters

 Ports: Kampong Saom (Sihanoukville), Kampot, Krong Kaoh Kong, Phnom
 Penh

 Merchant marine: none

 Airports:
 total: 22
 with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
 with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
 with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 3
 with paved runways under 914 m: 2
 with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 3
 with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 10

@Cambodia:Communications

 Telephone system: NA telephones; service barely adequate for
 government requirements and virtually nonexistent for general public
 local: NA
 intercity: NA
 international: international service limited to Vietnam and other
 adjacent countries

 Radio:
 broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 0, shortwave 0
 radios: NA

 Television:
 broadcast stations: 1
 televisions: NA

@Cambodia:Defense Forces

 Branches:
 Khmer Royal Armed Forces (KRAF): created in 1993 by the merger of the
 Cambodian People's Armed Forces and the two non-Communist resistance
 armies; note - the KRAF is also known as the Royal Cambodian Armed
 Forces (RCAF)
 Resistance forces: National Army of Democratic Kampuchea (Khmer Rouge)

 Manpower availability: males age 15-49 2,255,050; males fit for
 military service 1,256,632; males reach military age (18) annually
 70,707 (1995 est.)

 Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $85 million, 1.4% of
 GDP (1995 est.)


________________________________________________________________________

CAMEROON

@Cameroon:Geography

 Location: Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between
 Equatorial Guinea and Nigeria

 Map references: Africa

 Area:
 total area: 475,440 sq km
 land area: 469,440 sq km
 comparative area: slightly larger than California

 Land boundaries: total 4,591 km, Central African Republic 797 km, Chad
 1,094 km, Congo 523 km, Equatorial Guinea 189 km, Gabon 298 km,
 Nigeria 1,690 km

 Coastline: 402 km

 Maritime claims:
 territorial sea: 50 nm

 International disputes: demarcation of international boundaries in
 Lake Chad, the lack of which led to border incidents in the past, is
 completed and awaits ratification by Cameroon, Chad, Niger, and
 Nigeria; dispute with Nigeria over land and maritime boundaries in the
 vicinity of the Bakasi Peninsula has been referred to the
 International Court of Justice

 Climate: varies with terrain, from tropical along coast to semiarid
 and hot in north

 Terrain: diverse, with coastal plain in southwest, dissected plateau
 in center, mountains in west, plains in north

 Natural resources: petroleum, bauxite, iron ore, timber, hydropower
 potential

 Land use:
 arable land: 13%
 permanent crops: 2%
 meadows and pastures: 18%
 forest and woodland: 54%
 other: 13%

 Irrigated land: 280 sq km (1989 est.)

 Environment:
 current issues: water-borne diseases are prevalent; deforestation;
 overgrazing; desertification; poaching; overfishing
 natural hazards: recent volcanic activity with release of poisonous
 gases
 international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
 Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical
 Timber 83; signed, but not ratified - Desertification, Nuclear Test
 Ban, Tropical Timber 94

 Note: sometimes referred to as the hinge of Africa

@Cameroon:People

 Population: 13.521 million (July 1995 est.)

 Age structure:
 0-14 years: 44% (female 2,978,216; male 3,001,487)
 15-64 years: 52% (female 3,562,247; male 3,523,100)
 65 years and over: 4% (female 248,314; male 207,636) (July 1995 est.)

 Population growth rate: 2.92% (1995 est.)

 Birth rate: 40.42 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Death rate: 11.19 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Infant mortality rate: 75.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

 Life expectancy at birth:
 total population: 57.48 years
 male: 55.41 years
 female: 59.6 years (1995 est.)

 Total fertility rate: 5.8 children born/woman (1995 est.)

 Nationality:
 noun: Cameroonian(s)
 adjective: Cameroonian

 Ethnic divisions: Cameroon Highlanders 31%, Equatorial Bantu 19%,
 Kirdi 11%, Fulani 10%, Northwestern Bantu 8%, Eastern Nigritic 7%,
 other African 13%, non-African less than 1%

 Religions: indigenous beliefs 51%, Christian 33%, Muslim 16%

 Languages: 24 major African language groups, English (official),
 French (official)

 Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1987)
 total population: 55%
 male: 66%
 female: 45%

 Labor force: NA
 by occupation: agriculture 74.4%, industry and transport 11.4%, other
 services 14.2% (1983)

@Cameroon:Government

 Names:
 conventional long form: Republic of Cameroon
 conventional short form: Cameroon
 former: French Cameroon

 Digraph: CM

 Type: unitary republic; multiparty presidential regime (opposition
 parties legalized 1990)

 Capital: Yaounde

 Administrative divisions: 10 provinces; Adamaoua, Centre, Est,
 Extreme-Nord, Littoral, Nord, Nord-Ouest, Ouest, Sud, Sud-Ouest

 Independence: 1 January 1960 (from UN trusteeship under French
 administration)

 National holiday: National Day, 20 May (1972)

 Constitution: 20 May 1972

 Legal system: based on French civil law system, with common law
 influence; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

 Suffrage: 20 years of age; universal

 Executive branch:
 chief of state: President Paul BIYA (since 6 November 1982); election
 last held 11 October 1992; results - President Paul BIYA reelected
 with about 40% of the vote amid widespread allegations of fraud; SDF
 candidate John FRU NDI got 36% of the vote; UNDP candidate Bello Bouba
 MAIGARI got 19% of the vote
 head of government: Prime Minister Simon ACHIDI ACHU (since 9 April
 1992)
 cabinet: Cabinet; appointed by the president

 Legislative branch: unicameral
 National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale): elections last held 1 March
 1992 (next scheduled for March 1997); results - (180 seats) CPDM 88,
 UNDP 68, UPC 18, MDR 6

 Judicial branch: Supreme Court

 Political parties and leaders: Cameroon People's Democratic Movement
 (CPDM), Paul BIYA, president, is government-controlled and was
 formerly the only party, but opposition parties were legalized in 1990

 major opposition parties: National Union for Democracy and Progress
 (UNDP); Social Democratic Front (SDF); Cameroonian Democratic Union
 (UDC); Union of Cameroonian Populations (UPC); Movement for the
 Defense of the Republic (MDR)

 Other political or pressure groups: Alliance for Change (FAC),
 Cameroon Anglophone Movement (CAM)

 Member of: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CCC, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-19,
 G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC,
 IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, NAM,
 OAU, OIC, PCA, UDEAC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO,
 WIPO, WMO, WTO

 Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Jerome MENDOUGA
 chancery: 2349 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
 telephone: [1] (202) 265-8790 through 8794

 US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Harriet W. ISOM
 embassy: Rue Nachtigal, Yaounde
 mailing address: B. P. 817, Yaounde
 telephone: [237] 23-40-14
 FAX: [237] 23-07-53
 consulate(s): none (Douala closed September 1993)

 Flag: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), red, and
 yellow with a yellow five-pointed star centered in the red band; uses
 the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

@Cameroon:Economy

 Overview: Because of its offshore oil resources and favorable
 agricultural conditions, Cameroon has one of the best-endowed, most
 diversified primary commodity economies in sub-Saharan Africa. Still,
 it faces many of the serious problems facing other underdeveloped
 countries, such as political instability, a top-heavy civil service,
 and a generally unfavorable climate for business enterprise. The
 development of the oil sector led rapid economic growth between 1970
 and 1985. Growth came to an abrupt halt in 1986, precipitated by steep
 declines in the prices of major exports: coffee, cocoa, and petroleum.
 Export earnings were cut by almost one-third, and inefficiencies in
 fiscal management were exposed. In 1990-93, with support from the IMF
 and World Bank, the government began to introduce reforms designed to
 spur business investment, increase efficiency in agriculture, and
 recapitalize the nation's banks. Political instability, following
 suspect elections in 1992, brought IMF/WB structural adjustment to a
 halt. Although the 50% devaluation of the currency in January 1994
 improved the potential for export growth, mismanagement remains and is
 the main barrier to economic improvement.

 National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $15.7 billion (1994
 est.)

 National product real growth rate: -2.9% (1994 est.)

 National product per capita: $1,200 (1994 est.)

 Inflation rate (consumer prices): -0.8% (FY91/92)

 Unemployment rate: 25% (1990 est.)

 Budget:
 revenues: $1.6 billion
 expenditures: $2.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $226
 million (FY92/93 est.)

 Exports: $1.6 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
 commodities: petroleum products, lumber, cocoa beans, aluminum,
 coffee, cotton
 partners: EC (particularly France) about 40%, African countries, US

 Imports: $1.96 billion (c.i.f., 1993)
 commodities: machines and electrical equipment, food, consumer goods,
 transport equipment
 partners: EC about 60% (France 38%, Germany 9%), African countries,
 Japan, US 5%

 External debt: $6 billion (1991)

 Industrial production: growth rate -2.1% (FY90/91); accounts for about
 20% of GDP

 Electricity:
 capacity: 630,000 kW
 production: 2.7 billion kWh
 consumption per capita: 196 kWh (1993)

 Industries: petroleum production and refining, food processing, light
 consumer goods, textiles, lumber

 Agriculture: the agriculture and forestry sectors provide employment
 for the majority of the population, contributing about 25% to GDP and
 providing a high degree of self-sufficiency in staple foods;
 commercial and food crops include coffee, cocoa, timber, cotton,
 rubber, bananas, oilseed, grains, livestock, root starches

 Economic aid:
 recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-90), $479 million;
 Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
 (1970-90), $4.75 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $29 million;
 Communist countries (1970-89), $125 million

 Currency: 1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes

 Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1
 - 529.43 (January 1995), 555.20 (1994), 283.16 (1993), 264.69 (1992),
 282.11 (1991), 272.26 (1990)
 note: beginning 12 January 1994, the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF
 100 per French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since
 1948

 Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

@Cameroon:Transportation

 Railroads:
 total: 1,111 km
 narrow gauge: 1,111 km 1.000-m gauge

 Highways:
 total: 65,000 km
 paved: 2,682 km
 unpaved: gravel, improved earth 32,318 km; unimproved earth 30,000 km

 Inland waterways: 2,090 km; of decreasing importance

 Ports: Bonaberi, Douala, Garoua, Kribi, Tiko

 Merchant marine:
 total: 2 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 24,122 GRT/33,509
 DWT

 Airports:
 total: 60
 with paved runways over 3,047 m: 2
 with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
 with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
 with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 1
 with paved runways under 914 m: 20
 with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 9
 with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 21

@Cameroon:Communications

 Telephone system: 26,000 telephones; telephone density - 2
 telephones/1,000 persons; available only to business and government
 local: NA
 intercity: cable, microwave radio relay, and troposcatter
 international: 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations

 Radio:
 broadcast stations: AM 11, FM 11, shortwave 0
 radios: NA

 Television:
 broadcast stations: 1
 televisions: NA

@Cameroon:Defense Forces

 Branches: Army, Navy (includes Naval Infantry), Air Force, National
 Gendarmerie, Presidential Guard

 Manpower availability: males age 15-49 3,038,007; males fit for
 military service 1,532,303; males reach military age (18) annually
 147,293 (1995 est.)

 Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $102 million, NA% of
 GDP (1994)


________________________________________________________________________

CANADA

@Canada:Geography

 Location: Northern North America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean
 and North Pacific Ocean, north of the conterminous US

 Map references: North America

 Area:
 total area: 9,976,140 sq km
 land area: 9,220,970 sq km
 comparative area: slightly larger than US

 Land boundaries: total 8,893 km, US 8,893 km (includes 2,477 km with
 Alaska)

 Coastline: 243,791 km

 Maritime claims:
 continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
 exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
 territorial sea: 12 nm

 International disputes: maritime boundary disputes with the US; Saint
 Pierre and Miquelon is focus of maritime boundary dispute between
 Canada and France

 Climate: varies from temperate in south to subarctic and arctic in
 north

 Terrain: mostly plains with mountains in west and lowlands in
 southeast

 Natural resources: nickel, zinc, copper, gold, lead, molybdenum,
 potash, silver, fish, timber, wildlife, coal, petroleum, natural gas

 Land use:
 arable land: 5%
 permanent crops: 0%
 meadows and pastures: 3%
 forest and woodland: 35%
 other: 57%

 Irrigated land: 8,400 sq km (1989 est.)

 Environment:
 current issues: air pollution and resulting acid rain severely
 affecting lakes and damaging forests; metal smelting, coal-burning
 utilities, and vehicle emissions impacting on agricultural and forest
 productivity; ocean waters becoming contaminated due to agricultural,
 industrial, mining, and forestry activities
 natural hazards: continuous permafrost in north is a serious obstacle
 to development; cyclonic storms form east of the Rocky Mountains, a
 result of the mixing of air masses from the Arctic, Pacific, and
 American interior, and produce most of the country's rain and snow
 international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Air
 Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Antarctic Treaty,
 Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental
 Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban,
 Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands;
 signed, but not ratified - Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air
 Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental
 Protocol, Desertification, Law of the Sea

 Note: second-largest country in world (after Russia); strategic
 location between Russia and US via north polar route; nearly 90% of
 the population is concentrated in the region near the US/Canada border

@Canada:People

 Population: 28,434,545 (July 1995 est.)

 Age structure:
 0-14 years: 21% (female 2,874,705; male 3,016,050)
 15-64 years: 67% (female 9,529,272; male 9,531,107)
 65 years and over: 12% (female 2,022,324; male 1,461,087) (July 1995
 est.)

 Population growth rate: 1.09% (1995 est.)

 Birth rate: 13.74 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Death rate: 7.43 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Net migration rate: 4.55 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Infant mortality rate: 6.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

 Life expectancy at birth:
 total population: 78.29 years
 male: 74.93 years
 female: 81.81 years (1995 est.)

 Total fertility rate: 1.83 children born/woman (1995 est.)

 Nationality:
 noun: Canadian(s)
 adjective: Canadian

 Ethnic divisions: British Isles origin 40%, French origin 27%, other
 European 20%, indigenous Indian and Eskimo 1.5%

 Religions: Roman Catholic 46%, United Church 16%, Anglican 10%, other
 28%

 Languages: English (official), French (official)

 Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1986)
 total population: 97%

 Labor force: 13.38 million
 by occupation: services 75%, manufacturing 14%, agriculture 4%,
 construction 3%, other 4% (1988)

@Canada:Government

 Names:
 conventional long form: none
 conventional short form: Canada

 Digraph: CA

 Type: confederation with parliamentary democracy

 Capital: Ottawa

 Administrative divisions: 10 provinces and 2 territories*; Alberta,
 British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Northwest
 Territories*, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec,
 Saskatchewan, Yukon Territory*

 Independence: 1 July 1867 (from UK)

 National holiday: Canada Day, 1 July (1867)

 Constitution: amended British North America Act 1867 patriated to
 Canada 17 April 1982; charter of rights and unwritten customs

 Legal system: based on English common law, except in Quebec, where
 civil law system based on French law prevails; accepts compulsory ICJ
 jurisdiction, with reservations

 Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

 Executive branch:
 chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
 represented by Governor General Romeo LeBLANC (since 8 February 1995)
 head of government: Prime Minister Jean CHRETIEN (since 4 November
 1993) was elected on 25 October 1993, replacing Kim CAMBELL; Deputy
 Prime Minister Sheila COPPS
 cabinet: Federal Ministry; chosen by the prime minister from members
 of his own party sitting in Parliament

 Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament (Parlement)
 Senate (Senat): consisting of a body whose members are appointed to
 serve until 75 years of age by the governor general and selected on
 the advice of the prime minister; its normal limit 104 senators
 House of Commons (Chambre des Communes): elections last held 25
 October 1993 (next to be held by NA October 1998); results - percent
 of votes by party NA; seats - (295 total) Liberal Party 178, Bloc
 Quebecois 54, Reform Party 52, New Democratic Party 8, Progressive
 Conservative Party 2, independents 1

 Judicial branch: Supreme Court

 Political parties and leaders: Liberal Party, Jean CHRETIEN; Bloc
 Quebecois, Lucien BOUCHARD; Reform Party, Preston MANNING; New
 Democratic Party, Audrey McLAUGHLIN; Progressive Conservative Party,
 Jean CHAREST

 Member of: ACCT, AfDB, AG (observer), APEC, AsDB, Australia Group,
 BIS, C, CCC, CDB (non-regional), EBRD, ECE, ECLAC, ESA (cooperating
 state), FAO, G- 7, G- 8, G-10, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC,
 ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT,
 INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, MTCR, NACC, NAM
 (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS, OECD, ONUSAL, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNAMIR,
 UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNOMOZ,
 UNOSOM, UNPROFOR, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

 Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Raymond A.J. CHRETIEN
 chancery: 501 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20001
 telephone: [1] (202) 682-1740
 FAX: [1] (202) 682-7726
 consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Buffalo, Chicago, Dallas,
 Detroit, Los Angeles, Minneapolis, New York, and Seattle
 consulate(s): Cincinnati, Cleveland, Miami, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh,
 Princeton, San Diego, San Francisco, San Jose, and San Juan (Puerto
 Rico)

 US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission: Ambassador James Johnston BLANCHARD
 embassy: 100 Wellington Street, K1P 5T1, Ottawa
 mailing address: P. O. Box 5000, Ogdensburg, NY 13669-0430
 telephone: [1] (613) 238-5335, 4470
 FAX: [1] (613) 238-5720
 consulate(s) general: Calgary, Halifax, Montreal, Quebec, Toronto, and
 Vancouver

 Flag: three vertical bands of red (hoist side), white (double width,
 square), and red with a red maple leaf centered in the white band

@Canada:Economy

 Overview: As an affluent, high-tech industrial society, Canada today
 closely resembles the US in per capita output, market-oriented
 economic system, and pattern of production. Since World War II the
 impressive growth of the manufacturing, mining, and service sectors
 has transformed the nation from a largely rural economy into one
 primarily industrial and urban. In the 1980s, Canada registered one of
 the highest rates of real growth among the OECD nations, averaging
 about 3.2%. With its great natural resources, skilled labor force, and
 modern capital plant, Canada has excellent economic prospects,
 although the country still faces high unemployment and a growing debt.
 Moreover, the continuing constitutional impasse between English- and
 French-speaking areas has observers discussing a possible split in the
 confederation; foreign investors have become edgy.

 National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $639.8 billion (1994
 est.)

 National product real growth rate: 4.5% (1994)

 National product per capita: $22,760 (1994)

 Inflation rate (consumer prices): 0.2% (1994)

 Unemployment rate: 9.6% (December 1994)

 Budget:
 revenues: $85 billion (Federal)
 expenditures: $115.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
 (FY93/94 est.)

 Exports: $164.3 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
 commodities: newsprint, wood pulp, timber, crude petroleum, machinery,
 natural gas, aluminum, motor vehicles and parts; telecommunications
 equipment
 partners: US, Japan, UK, Germany, South Korea, Netherlands, China

 Imports: $151.5 billion (c.i.f., 1994 est.)
 commodities: crude oil, chemicals, motor vehicles and parts, durable
 consumer goods, electronic computers; telecommunications equipment and
 parts
 partners: US, Japan, UK, Germany, France, Mexico, Taiwan, South Korea

 External debt: $243 billion (1993)

 Industrial production: growth rate 4.8% (1993)

 Electricity:
 capacity: 108,090,000 kW
 production: 511 billion kWh
 consumption per capita: 16,133 kWh (1993)

 Industries: processed and unprocessed minerals, food products, wood
 and paper products, transportation equipment, chemicals, fish
 products, petroleum and natural gas

 Agriculture: accounts for about 3% of GDP; one of the world's major
 producers and exporters of grain (wheat and barley); key source of US
 agricultural imports; large forest resources cover 35% of total land
 area; commercial fisheries provide annual catch of 1.5 million metric
 tons, of which 75% is exported

 Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis for the domestic drug
 market; use of hydroponics technology permits growers to plant large
 quantities of high-quality marijuana indoors; growing role as a
 transit point for heroin and cocaine entering the US market

 Economic aid:
 donor: ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $7.2 billion

 Currency: 1 Canadian dollar (Can$) = 100 cents

 Exchange rates: Canadian dollars (Can$) per US$1 - 1.4129 (January
 1995), 1.3656 (1994), 1.2901 (1993), 1.2087 (1992), 1.1457 (1991),
 1.1668 (1990)

 Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Canada:Transportation

 Railroads:
 total: 78,148 km; note - there are two major transcontinental freight
 railway systems: Canadian National (government owned) and Canadian
 Pacific Railway; passenger service provided by VIA (government
 operated)
 standard gauge: 78,148 km 1.435-m gauge (185 km electrified) (1994)

 Highways:
 total: 849,404 km
 paved: 253,692 km (15,983 km of expressways)
 unpaved: gravel 595,712 km (1991)

 Inland waterways: 3,000 km, including Saint Lawrence Seaway

 Pipelines: crude and refined oil 23,564 km; natural gas 74,980 km

 Ports: Becancour, Churchill, Halifax, Montreal, New Westminister,
 Prince Rupert, Quebec, Saint John (New Brunswick), Saint John's
 (Newfoundland), Seven Islands, Sydney, Three Rivers, Toronto,
 Vancouver, Windsor

 Merchant marine:
 total: 71 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 617,010 GRT/878,819 DWT
 ships by type: bulk 17, cargo 10, chemical tanker 5, oil tanker 23,
 passenger 1, passenger-cargo 1, railcar carrier 2, roll-on/roll-off
 cargo 7, short-sea passenger 3, specialized tanker 2
 note: does not include ships used exclusively in the Great Lakes

 Airports:
 total: 1,386
 with paved runways over 3,047 m: 17
 with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 16
 with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 147
 with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 234
 with paved runways under 914 m: 550
 with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 69
 with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 353

@Canada:Communications

 Telephone system: 18,000,000 telephones; excellent service provided by
 modern media
 local: NA
 intercity: about 300 earth stations for domestic satellite
 communications
 international: 5 coaxial submarine cables; 5 INTELSAT earth stations
 (4 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean)

 Radio:
 broadcast stations: AM 900, FM 29, shortwave 0
 radios: NA

 Television:
 broadcast stations: 53 (repeaters 1,400)
 televisions: NA

@Canada:Defense Forces

 Branches: Canadian Armed Forces (includes Land Forces Command or LC,
 Maritime Command or MC, Air Command or AC, Communications Command or
 CC, Training Command or TC), Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP)

 Manpower availability: males age 15-49 7,570,877; males fit for
 military service 6,522,092; males reach military age (17) annually
 151,590 (1995 est.)

 Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $9.0 billion, 1.6% of
 GDP (FY95/96)


________________________________________________________________________

CAPE VERDE

@Cape Verde:Geography

 Location: Western Africa, group of Islands in the North Atlantic
 Ocean, west of Senegal

 Map references: World

 Area:
 total area: 4,030 sq km
 land area: 4,030 sq km
 comparative area: slightly larger than Rhode Island

 Land boundaries: 0 km

 Coastline: 965 km

 Maritime claims: measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
 exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
 territorial sea: 12 nm

 International disputes: none

 Climate: temperate; warm, dry, summer; precipitation very erratic

 Terrain: steep, rugged, rocky, volcanic

 Natural resources: salt, basalt rock, pozzolana, limestone, kaolin,
 fish

 Land use:
 arable land: 9%
 permanent crops: 0%
 meadows and pastures: 6%
 forest and woodland: 0%
 other: 85%

 Irrigated land: 20 sq km (1989 est.)

 Environment:
 current issues: overgrazing of livestock and improper land use such as
 the cultivation of crops on steep slopes has led to soil erosion;
 demand for wood used as fuel has resulted in deforestation;
 desertification; environmental damage has threatened several
 indigenous species of birds and reptiles; overfishing
 natural hazards: prolonged droughts; harmattan wind can obscure
 visibility; volcanically and seismically active
 international agreements: party to - Environmental Modification, Law
 of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban; signed, but not ratified
 - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification

 Note: strategic location 500 km from west coast of Africa near major
 north-south sea routes; important communications station; important
 sea and air refueling site

@Cape Verde:People

 Population: 435,983 (July 1995 est.)

 Age structure:
 0-14 years: 50% (female 106,539; male 110,301)
 15-64 years: 47% (female 114,931; male 88,029)
 65 years and over: 3% (female 9,781; male 6,402) (July 1995 est.)

 Population growth rate: 2.98% (1995 est.)

 Birth rate: 45.32 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Death rate: 8.65 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Net migration rate: -6.88 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Infant mortality rate: 55.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

 Life expectancy at birth:
 total population: 63.01 years
 male: 61.1 years
 female: 65.01 years (1995 est.)

 Total fertility rate: 6.23 children born/woman (1995 est.)

 Nationality:
 noun: Cape Verdean(s)
 adjective: Cape Verdean

 Ethnic divisions: Creole (mulatto) 71%, African 28%, European 1%

 Religions: Roman Catholicism fused with indigenous beliefs

 Languages: Portuguese, Crioulo, a blend of Portuguese and West African
 words

 Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
 total population: 63%
 male: 75%
 female: 53%

 Labor force: 102,000 (1985 est.)
 by occupation: agriculture (mostly subsistence) 57%, services 29%,
 industry 14% (1981)

@Cape Verde:Government

 Names:
 conventional long form: Republic of Cape Verde
 conventional short form: Cape Verde
 local long form: Republica de Cabo Verde
 local short form: Cabo Verde

 Digraph: CV

 Type: republic

 Capital: Praia

 Administrative divisions: 14 districts (concelhos, singular -
 concelho); Boa Vista, Brava, Fogo, Maio, Paul, Praia, Porto Novo,
 Ribeira Grande, Sal, Santa Catarina, Santa Cruz, Sao Nicolau, Sao
 Vicente, Tarrafal

 Independence: 5 July 1975 (from Portugal)

 National holiday: Independence Day, 5 July (1975)

 Constitution: new constitution came into force 25 September 1992

 Legal system: NA

 Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

 Executive branch:
 chief of state: President Antonio MASCARENHAS Monteiro (since 22 March
 1991; election last held 17 February 1991 (next to be held February
 1996); results - Antonio Monteiro MASCARENHAS (independent) received
 72.6% of vote
 head of government: Prime Minister Carlos Alberto Wahnon de Carvalho
 VEIGA (since 13 January 1991)
 cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by prime minister from
 members of the Assembly

 Legislative branch: unicameral
 People's National Assembly (Assembleia Nacional Popular): elections
 last held 13 January 1991 (next to be held January 1996); results -
 percent of vote by party NA; seats - (79 total) MPD 56, PAICV 23; note
 - the 1991 multiparty Assembly election ended 15 years of single-party
 rule

 Judicial branch: Supreme Tribunal of Justice (Supremo Tribunal de
 Justia)

 Political parties and leaders: Movement for Democracy (MPD), Prime
 Minister Carlos VEIGA, founder and chairman; African Party for
 Independence of Cape Verde (PAICV), Pedro Verona Rodrigues PIRES,
 chairman

 Member of: ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU,
 ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC,
 IOM (observer), ITU, NAM, OAU, UN (Cape Verde assumed a nonpermanent
 seat on the Security Council on 1 January 1992), UNCTAD, UNESCO,
 UNIDO, UNOMOZ, UPU, WCL, WHO, WMO

 Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission: (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Jose Eduardo BARBOSA
 (since 12 February 1994)
 chancery: 3415 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007
 telephone: [1] (202) 965-6820
 FAX: [1] (202) 965-1207
 consulate(s) general: Boston

 US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Joseph M. SEGARS
 embassy: Rua Abilio Macedo 81, Praia
 mailing address: C. P. 201, Praia
 telephone: [238] 61 56 16
 FAX: [238] 61 13 55

 Flag: three horozontal bands of light blue (top, double width), white
 (with a horozontal red stripe in the middle third), and light blue; a
 circle of 10 yellow five-pointed stars is centered on the hoist end of
 the red stripe and extends into the upper and lower blue bands

@Cape Verde:Economy

 Overview: Cape Verde's low per capita GDP reflects a poor natural
 resource base, serious water shortages exacerbated by cycles of
 long-term drought, and a high birthrate. The economy is service
 oriented, with commerce, transport, and public services accounting for
 60% of GDP. Although nearly 70% of the population lives in rural
 areas, agriculture's share of GDP is only 20%; the fishing sector
 accounts for 4%. About 90% of food must be imported. The fishing
 potential, mostly lobster and tuna, is not fully exploited. Cape Verde
 annually runs a high trade deficit, financed by remittances from
 emigrants and foreign aid, which form important supplements to GDP.
 Economic reforms, launched by the new democratic government in 1991,
 are aimed at developing the private sector and attracting foreign
 investment to diversify the economy. Prospects for 1995 depend heavily
 on the maintenance of aid flows, remittances, and the momentum of the
 government's development program.

 National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $410 million (1993
 est.)

 National product real growth rate: 3.5% (1992 est.)

 National product per capita: $1,000 (1993 est.)

 Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7% (1992)

 Unemployment rate: 26% (1990 est.)

 Budget:
 revenues: $174 million
 expenditures: $235 million, including capital expenditures of $165
 million (1993 est.)

 Exports: $4.4 million (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
 commodities: fish, bananas, hides and skins
 partners: Netherlands, Portugal, Angola

 Imports: $173 million (c.i.f., 1992 est.)
 commodities: foodstuffs, consumer goods, industrial products,
 transport equipment
 partners: Portugal, Netherlands, Germany, Spain

 External debt: $156 million (1991)

 Industrial production: growth rate 3.6% (1990 est.); accounts for 8%
 of GDP

 Electricity:
 capacity: 15,000 kW
 production: 40 million kWh
 consumption per capita: 73 kWh (1993)

 Industries: fish processing, salt mining, garment industry, ship
 repair, construction materials, food and beverage production

 Agriculture: accounts for 20% of GDP (including fishing); largely
 subsistence farming; bananas are the only export crop; other crops -
 corn, beans, sweet potatoes, coffee; growth potential of agricultural
 sector limited by poor soils and scanty rainfall; annual food imports
 required; fish catch provides for both domestic consumption and small
 exports

 Illicit drugs: increasingly used as a transshipment point for illicit
 drugs moving from Latin America and Africa destined for Western Europe

 Economic aid:
 recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY75-90), $93 million;
 Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
 (1970-90), $586 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $12 million;
 Communist countries (1970-89), $36 million

 Currency: 1 Cape Verdean escudo (CVEsc) = 100 centavos

 Exchange rates: Cape Verdean escudos (CVEsc) per US$1 - 85.537 (1st
 Quarter 1994), 80.427 (1993), 68.018 (1992), 71.408 (1991), 70.031
 (1990)

 Fiscal year: calendar year

@Cape Verde:Transportation

 Railroads: 0 km

 Highways:
 total: 1,100 km (1992)
 paved: 680 km
 unpaved: 420 km

 Ports: Mindelo, Praia, Tarrafal

 Merchant marine:
 total: 7 (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 11,609 GRT/19,052 DWT cargo 6,
 chemical tanker 1

 Airports:
 total: 6
 with paved runways over 3,047 m: 1
 with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 5

@Cape Verde:Communications

 Telephone system: over 1,700 telephones; telephine density - about 4
 telephones/1,000 persons
 local: NA
 intercity: interisland microwave radio relay system, high frequency
 radio links to Senegal and Guinea-Bissau
 international: 2 coaxial submarine cables; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT
 earth station

 Radio:
 broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 6, shortwave 0
 radios: NA

 Television:
 broadcast stations: 1
 televisions: NA

@Cape Verde:Defense Forces

 Branches: People's Revolutionary Armed Forces (FARP; includes Army and
 Navy), Security Service

 Manpower availability: males age 15-49 80,867; males fit for military
 service 47,225 (1995 est.)

 Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $3.4 million, NA% of
 GDP (1994)


________________________________________________________________________

CAYMAN ISLANDS

 (dependent territory of the UK) 

@Cayman Islands:Geography

 Location: Caribbean, island group in Caribbean Sea, nearly one-half of
 the way from Cuba to Honduras

 Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

 Area:
 total area: 260 sq km
 land area: 260 sq km
 comparative area: slightly less than 1.5 times the size of Washington,
 DC

 Land boundaries: 0 km

 Coastline: 160 km

 Maritime claims:
 exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
 territorial sea: 12 nm

 International disputes: none

 Climate: tropical marine; warm, rainy summers (May to October) and
 cool, relatively dry winters (November to April)

 Terrain: low-lying limestone base surrounded by coral reefs

 Natural resources: fish, climate and beaches that foster tourism

 Land use:
 arable land: 0%
 permanent crops: 0%
 meadows and pastures: 8%
 forest and woodland: 23%
 other: 69%

 Irrigated land: NA sq km

 Environment:
 current issues: no natural fresh water resources, drinking water
 supplies must be met by rainwater catchment
 natural hazards: hurricanes (July to November)
 international agreements: NA

 Note: important location between Cuba and Central America

@Cayman Islands:People

 Population: 33,192 (July 1995 est.)

 Age structure:
 0-14 years: NA
 15-64 years: NA
 65 years and over: NA

 Population growth rate: 4.3% (1995 est.)

 Birth rate: 14.79 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Death rate: 4.98 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Net migration rate: 33.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Infant mortality rate: 8.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

 Life expectancy at birth:
 total population: 77.1 years
 male: 75.37 years
 female: 78.81 years (1995 est.)

 Total fertility rate: 1.43 children born/woman (1995 est.)

 Nationality:
 noun: Caymanian(s)
 adjective: Caymanian

 Ethnic divisions: mixed 40%, white 20%, black 20%, expatriates of
 various ethnic groups 20%

 Religions: United Church (Presbyterian and Congregational), Anglican,
 Baptist, Roman Catholic, Church of God, other Protestant denominations

 Languages: English

 Literacy: age 15 and over has ever attended school (1970)
 total population: 98%
 male: 98%
 female: 98%

 Labor force: 8,061
 by occupation: service workers 18.7%, clerical 18.6%, construction
 12.5%, finance and investment 6.7%, directors and business managers
 5.9% (1979)

@Cayman Islands:Government

 Names:
 conventional long form: none
 conventional short form: Cayman Islands

 Digraph: CJ

 Type: dependent territory of the UK

 Capital: George Town

 Administrative divisions: 8 districts; Creek, Eastern, Midland, South
 Town, Spot Bay, Stake Bay, West End, Western

 Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)

 National holiday: Constitution Day (first Monday in July)

 Constitution: 1959, revised 1972 and 1992

 Legal system: British common law and local statutes

 Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

 Executive branch:
 chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952)
 head of government: Governor and President of the Executive Council
 Michael GORE (since 15 September 1992)
 cabinet: Executive Council; 3 members are appointed by the governor, 4
 members elected by the Legislative Assembly

 Legislative branch: unicameral
 Legislative Assembly: election last held November 1992 (next to be
 held November 1996); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats -
 (15 total, 12 elected)

 Judicial branch: Grand Court, Cayman Islands Court of Appeal

 Political parties and leaders: no formal political parties

 Member of: CARICOM (observer), CDB, INTERPOL (subbureau), IOC

 Diplomatic representation in US: none (dependent territory of the UK)

 US diplomatic representation: none (dependent territory of the UK)

 Flag: blue, with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant
 and the Caymanian coat of arms on a white disk centered on the outer
 half of the flag; the coat of arms includes a pineapple and turtle
 above a shield with three stars (representing the three islands) and a
 scroll at the bottom bearing the motto HE HATH FOUNDED IT UPON THE
 SEAS

@Cayman Islands:Economy

 Overview: The economy depends heavily on tourism (70% of GDP and 75%
 of foreign currency earnings) and offshore financial services, with
 the tourist industry aimed at the luxury market and catering mainly to
 visitors from North America. About 90% of the islands' food and
 consumer goods must be imported. The Caymanians enjoy one of the
 highest outputs per capita and one of the highest standards of living
 in the world.

 National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $700 million (1993
 est.)

 National product real growth rate: 1.4% (1991)

 National product per capita: $23,000 (1993 est.)

 Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.5% (1993 est.)

 Unemployment rate: 7% (1992)

 Budget:
 revenues: $141.5 million
 expenditures: $160.7 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
 (1991)

 Exports: $10 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
 commodities: turtle products, manufactured consumer goods
 partners: mostly US

 Imports: $312 million (c.i.f., 1993 est.)
 commodities: foodstuffs, manufactured goods
 partners: US, Trinidad and Tobago, UK, Netherlands Antilles, Japan

 External debt: $15 million (1986)

 Industrial production: growth rate NA%

 Electricity:
 capacity: 80,000 kW
 production: 230 million kWh
 consumption per capita: 6,899 kWh (1993)

 Industries: tourism, banking, insurance and finance, construction,
 building materials, furniture making

 Agriculture: minor production of vegetables, fruit, livestock; turtle
 farming

 Illicit drugs: a major money-laundering center for illicit drug
 profits; transshipment point for narcotics bound for the US and Europe

 Economic aid:
 recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $26.7 million;
 Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
 (1970-89), $35 million

 Currency: 1 Caymanian dollar (CI$) = 100 cents

 Exchange rates: Caymanian dollars (CI$) per US$1 - 0.83 (18 November
 1993), 0.85 (22 November 1993)

 Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Cayman Islands:Transportation

 Railroads: 0 km

 Highways:
 total: 160 km (main roads)
 paved: NA
 unpaved: NA

 Ports: Cayman Brac, George Town

 Merchant marine:
 total: 26 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 321,434 GRT/583,348 DWT
 ships by type: bulk 7, cargo 6, chemical tanker 2, container 1, oil
 tanker 3, roll-on/roll-off cargo 7
 note: a flag of convenience registry; UK owns 6 ships, India 5, Norway
 3, US 3, Greece 1, Sweden 1, UAE 1

 Airports:
 total: 3
 with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
 with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 1

@Cayman Islands:Communications

 Telephone system: 35,000 telephones
 local: NA
 intercity: NA
 international: 1 submarine coaxial cable; 1 INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean)
 earth station

 Radio:
 broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 1, shortwave 0
 radios: NA

 Television:
 broadcast stations: 0
 televisions: NA

@Cayman Islands:Defense Forces

 Branches: Royal Cayman Islands Police Force (RCIPF)

 Note: defense is the responsibility of the UK


________________________________________________________________________

CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC

@Central African Republic:Geography

 Location: Central Africa, north of Zaire

 Map references: Africa

 Area:
 total area: 622,980 sq km
 land area: 622,980 sq km
 comparative area: slightly smaller than Texas

 Land boundaries: total 5,203 km, Cameroon 797 km, Chad 1,197 km, Congo
 467 km, Sudan 1,165 km, Zaire 1,577 km

 Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

 Maritime claims: none; landlocked

 International disputes: none

 Climate: tropical; hot, dry winters; mild to hot, wet summers

 Terrain: vast, flat to rolling, monotonous plateau; scattered hills in
 northeast and southwest

 Natural resources: diamonds, uranium, timber, gold, oil

 Land use:
 arable land: 3%
 permanent crops: 0%
 meadows and pastures: 5%
 forest and woodland: 64%
 other: 28%

 Irrigated land: NA sq km

 Environment:
 current issues: tap water is not potable; poaching has diminished
 reputation as one of last great wildlife refuges; desertification
 natural hazards: hot, dry, dusty harmattan winds affect northern
 areas; floods are common
 international agreements: party to - Endangered Species, Nuclear Test
 Ban, Ozone Layer Protection; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity,
 Climate Change, Desertification, Law of the Sea

 Note: landlocked; almost the precise center of Africa

@Central African Republic:People

 Population: 3,209,759 (July 1995 est.)

 Age structure:
 0-14 years: 43% (female 690,290; male 694,153)
 15-64 years: 53% (female 886,421; male 825,268)
 65 years and over: 4% (female 64,846; male 48,781) (July 1995 est.)

 Population growth rate: 2.1% (1995 est.)

 Birth rate: 41.84 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Death rate: 20.89 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Infant mortality rate: 135.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

 Life expectancy at birth:
 total population: 42.15 years
 male: 40.68 years
 female: 43.67 years (1995 est.)

 Total fertility rate: 5.37 children born/woman (1995 est.)

 Nationality:
 noun: Central African(s)
 adjective: Central African

 Ethnic divisions: Baya 34%, Banda 27%, Sara 10%, Mandjia 21%, Mboum
 4%, M'Baka 4%, Europeans 6,500 (including 3,600 French)

 Religions: indigenous beliefs 24%, Protestant 25%, Roman Catholic 25%,
 Muslim 15%, other 11%
 note: animistic beliefs and practices strongly influence the Christian
 majority

 Languages: French (official), Sangho (lingua franca and national
 language), Arabic, Hunsa, Swahili

 Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
 total population: 38%
 male: 52%
 female: 25%

 Labor force: 775,413 (1986 est.)
 by occupation: agriculture 85%, commerce and services 9%, industry 3%,
 government 3%
 note: about 64,000 salaried workers (1985)

@Central African Republic:Government

 Names:
 conventional long form: Central African Republic
 conventional short form: none
 local long form: Republique Centrafricaine
 local short form: none
 former: Central African Empire

 Abbreviation: CAR

 Digraph: CT

 Type: republic;

 Capital: Bangui

 Administrative divisions: 14 prefectures (prefectures, singular -
 prefecture), 2 economic prefectures* (prefectures economiques,
 singular - prefecture economique), and 1 commune**; Bamingui-Bangoran,
 Bangui** Basse-Kotto, Gribingui*, Haute-Kotto, Haute-Sangha,
 Haut-Mbomou, Kemo-Gribingui, Lobaye, Mbomou, Nana-Mambere,
 Ombella-Mpoko, Ouaka, Ouham, Ouham-Pende, Sangha*, Vakaga

 Independence: 13 August 1960 (from France)

 National holiday: National Day, 1 December (1958) (proclamation of the
 republic)

 Constitution: 21 November 1986

 Legal system: based on French law

 Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

 Executive branch:
 chief of state: President Ange PATASSE (since 22 October 1993);
 election last held 19 September 1993 (next scheduled for 1998);
 PATASSE received 52.45% of the votes and Abel GOUMBA received 45.62%
 head of government: Prime Minister (vacant) (Dr. Jean-Luc MANDABA
 resigned on 11 April 1995)
 cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by the president

 Legislative branch: unicameral
 National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale): elections last held 19
 September 1993; results - percentage vote by party NA; seats - (85
 total) MLPC 33, RDC 14, PLD 7, ADP 6, PSD 3, others 22
 note: the National Assembly is advised by the Economic and Regional
 Council (Conseil Economique et Regional); when they sit together they
 are called the Congress (Congres)

 Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

 Political parties and leaders: Movement for the Liberation of the
 Central African People (MLPC), the party of the new president, Ange
 Felix PATASSE; Movement for Democracy and Development (MDD), David
 DACKO; Marginal Movement for Democracy, Renaissance and Evolution
 (MDREC), Joseph BENDOUNGA; Central African Democratic Assembly (RDC),
 Andre KOLINGBA; Patriotic Front for Progress (FFP), Abel GOUMBA; Civic
 Forum (FC), Gen. Timothee MALENDOMA

 Member of: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CCC, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77,
 GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT,
 INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, UDEAC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU,
 WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO

 Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Henri KOBA (appointed 19 September 1994)
 chancery: 1618 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
 telephone: [1] (202) 483-7800, 7801
 FAX: [1] (202) 332-9893

 US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Robert E. GRIBBIN III
 embassy: Avenue David Dacko, Bangui
 mailing address: B. P. 924, Bangui
 telephone: [236] 61 02 00, 61 25 78, 61 02 10
 FAX: [236] 61 44 94

 Flag: four equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, green, and
 yellow with a vertical red band in center; there is a yellow
 five-pointed star on the hoist side of the blue band

@Central African Republic:Economy

 Overview: Subsistence agriculture, together with forestry, remains the
 backbone of the CAR economy, with more than 70% of the population
 living in outlying areas. The agricultural sector generates about half
 of GDP. Timber has accounted for about 26% of export earnings and the
 diamond industry for 54%. Important constraints to economic
 development include the CAR's landlocked position, a poor
 transportation system, a largely unskilled work force, and a legacy of
 misdirected macroeconomic policies. A major plus is the large forest
 reserves, which the government is moving to protect from
 overexploitation. The 50% devaluation of the currencies of 14
 Francophone African nations on 12 January 1994 had mixed effects on
 CAR's economy. While diamond, timber, coffee, and cotton exports
 increased - leading GDP to increase by 5.5% - inflation rose to 40%,
 fueled by the rising prices of imports on which the economy depends.
 CAR's poor resource base and primitive infrastructure will keep it
 dependent on multilateral donors and France for the foreseeable
 future.

 National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $2.2 billion (1994
 est.)

 National product real growth rate: 5.5% (1994 est.)

 National product per capita: $700 (1994 est.)

 Inflation rate (consumer prices): 40% (1994 est.)

 Unemployment rate: 30% (1988 est.) in Bangui

 Budget:
 revenues: $175 million
 expenditures: $312 million, including capital expenditures of $122
 million (1991 est.)

 Exports: $123.5 million (f.o.b., 1992)
 commodities: diamonds, timber, cotton, coffee, tobacco
 partners: France, Belgium, Italy, Japan, US

 Imports: $165.1 million (f.o.b., 1992)
 commodities: food, textiles, petroleum products, machinery, electrical
 equipment, motor vehicles, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, consumer goods,
 industrial products
 partners: France, other EC countries, Japan, Algeria

 External debt: $859 million (1991)

 Industrial production: growth rate 4% (1990 est.); accounts for 14% of
 GDP

 Electricity:
 capacity: 40,000 kW
 production: 100 million kWh
 consumption per capita: 29 kWh (1993)

 Industries: diamond mining, sawmills, breweries, textiles, footwear,
 assembly of bicycles and motorcycles

 Agriculture: self-sufficient in food production except for grain;
 commercial crops - cotton, coffee, tobacco, timber; food crops -
 manioc, yams, millet, corn, bananas

 Economic aid:
 recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-90), $52 million;
 Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
 (1970-90), $1.6 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $6 million;
 Communist countries (1970-89), $38 million

 Currency: 1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes

 Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1
 - 529.43 (January 1995), 555.20 (1994), 283.16 (1993), 264.69 (1992),
 282.11 (1991), 272.26 (1990)
 note: beginning 12 January 1994, the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF
 100 per French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since
 1948

 Fiscal year: calendar year

@Central African Republic:Transportation

 Railroads: 0 km

 Highways:
 total: 22,000 km
 paved: bituminous 458 km
 unpaved: improved earth 10,542 km; unimproved earth 11,000 km

 Inland waterways: 800 km; traditional trade carried on by means of
 shallow-draft dugouts; Oubangui is the most important river

 Ports: Bangui, Nola

 Airports:
 total: 61
 with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
 with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
 with paved runways under 914 m: 19
 with unpaved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
 with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 9
 with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 29

@Central African Republic:Communications

 Telephone system: NA telephones; system is only fair
 local: NA
 intercity: network consists principally of micowave radio relay and
 low capacity, low powered radio communication
 international: 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

 Radio:
 broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 1, shortwave 0
 radios: NA

 Television:
 broadcast stations: 1
 televisions: NA

@Central African Republic:Defense Forces

 Branches: Central African Army (includes Republican Guard), Air Force,
 National Gendarmerie, Police Force

 Manpower availability: males age 15-49 718,487; males fit for military
 service 375,950 (1995 est.)

 Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $30 million, 2.3% of
 GDP (1994)


________________________________________________________________________

CHAD

@Chad:Geography

 Location: Central Africa, south of Libya

 Map references: Africa

 Area:
 total area: 1.284 million sq km
 land area: 1,259,200 sq km
 comparative area: slightly more than three times the size of
 California

 Land boundaries: total 5,968 km, Cameroon 1,094 km, Central African
 Republic 1,197 km, Libya 1,055 km, Niger 1,175 km, Nigeria 87 km,
 Sudan 1,360 km

 Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

 Maritime claims: none; landlocked

 International disputes: the International Court of Justice (ICJ) ruled
 in February 1994 that the 100,000 sq km Aozou Strip between Chad and
 Libya belongs to Chad; Libya has withdrawn some of its forces in
 response to the ICJ ruling, but still maintains an airfield in the
 disputed area; demarcation of international boundaries in Lake Chad,
 the lack of which has led to border incidents in the past, is
 completed and awaiting ratification by Cameroon, Chad, Niger, and
 Nigeria

 Climate: tropical in south, desert in north

 Terrain: broad, arid plains in center, desert in north, mountains in
 northwest, lowlands in south

 Natural resources: petroleum (unexploited but exploration under way),
 uranium, natron, kaolin, fish (Lake Chad)

 Land use:
 arable land: 2%
 permanent crops: 0%
 meadows and pastures: 36%
 forest and woodland: 11%
 other: 51%

 Irrigated land: 100 sq km (1989 est.)

 Environment:
 current issues: inadequate supplies of potable water; improper waste
 disposal in rural areas contributes to soil and water pollution;
 desertification
 natural hazards: hot, dry, dusty harmattan winds occur in north;
 periodic droughts; locust plagues
 international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
 Endangered Species, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection,
 Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping

 Note: landlocked; Lake Chad is the most significant water body in the
 Sahel

@Chad:People

 Population: 5,586,505 (July 1995 est.)

 Age structure:
 0-14 years: 44% (female 1,198,619; male 1,267,470)
 15-64 years: 54% (female 1,563,678; male 1,456,481)
 65 years and over: 2% (female 71,971; male 28,286) (July 1995 est.)

 Population growth rate: 2.18% (1995 est.)

 Birth rate: 42.05 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Death rate: 20.26 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Infant mortality rate: 129.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

 Life expectancy at birth:
 total population: 41.19 years
 male: 40.04 years
 female: 42.38 years (1995 est.)

 Total fertility rate: 5.33 children born/woman (1995 est.)

 Nationality:
 noun: Chadian(s)
 adjective: Chadian

 Ethnic divisions:
 north and center: Muslims (Arabs, Toubou, Hadjerai, Fulbe, Kotoko,
 Kanembou, Baguirmi, Boulala, Zaghawa, and Maba)
 south: non-Muslims (Sara, Ngambaye, Mbaye, Goulaye, Moundang, Moussei,
 Massa) nonindigenous 150,000, of whom 1,000 are French

 Religions: Muslim 50%, Christian 25%, indigenous beliefs, animism 25%

 Languages: French (official), Arabic (official), Sara (in south),
 Sango (in south), more than 100 different languages and dialects are
 spoken

 Literacy: age 15 and over has the ability to read and write in French
 and Arabic (1990 est.)
 total population: 30%
 male: 42%
 female: 18%

 Labor force: NA
 by occupation: agriculture 85% (engaged in unpaid subsistence farming,
 herding, and fishing)

@Chad:Government

 Names:
 conventional long form: Republic of Chad
 conventional short form: Chad
 local long form: Republique du Tchad
 local short form: Tchad

 Digraph: CD

 Type: republic

 Capital: N'Djamena

 Administrative divisions: 14 prefectures (prefectures, singular -
 prefecture); Batha, Biltine, Borkou-Ennedi-Tibesti, Chari-Baguirmi,
 Guera, Kanem, Lac, Logone Occidental, Logone Oriental, Mayo-Kebbi,
 Moyen-Chari, Ouaddai, Salamat, Tandjile

 Independence: 11 August 1960 (from France)

 National holiday: Independence Day 11 August (1960)

 Constitution: 22 December 1989 (suspended 3 December 1990);
 Provisional National Charter 1 March 1991 is in effect (note - the
 constitutional commission, which was drafting a new constitution to
 submit to transitional parliament for ratification in April 1994,
 failed to do so but expects to submit a new draft to the parliament
 before the end of April 1995)

 Legal system: based on French civil law system and Chadian customary
 law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

 Suffrage: universal at age NA

 Executive branch:
 chief of state: President Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY, since 4 December 1990
 (after seizing power on 3 December 1990 - transitional government's
 mandate expires April 1996)
 head of government: Prime Minister Djimasta KOIBLA (since 9 April
 1995)
 cabinet: Council of State; appointed by the president on
 recommendation of the prime minister

 Legislative branch: unicameral
 National Consultative Council (Conceil National Consultatif):
 elections, formerly scheduled for April 1995, were postponed by mutual
 agreement of the parties concerned until some time prior to April
 1996; elections last held 8 July 1990; the National Consultative
 Council was disbanded 3 December 1990 and replaced by the Provisional
 Council of the Republic having 30 members appointed by President DEBY
 on 8 March 1991; this, in turn, was replaced by a 57-member Higher
 Transitional Council (Conseil Superieur de Transition) elected by a
 specially convened Sovereign National Conference on 6 April 1993

 Judicial branch: Court of Appeal

 Political parties and leaders: Patriotic Salvation Movement (MPS),
 former dissident group, Idriss DEBY, chairman
 note: President DEBY, who promised political pluralism, a new
 constitution, and free elections by April 1994, subsequently twice
 postponed these initiatives, first until April 1995 and again until
 sometime before April 1996; there are numerous dissident groups and at
 least 45 opposition political parties

 Other political or pressure groups: NA

 Member of: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, GATT,
 IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT,
 INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, UDEAC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
 UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

 Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Mahamat Saleh AHMAT
 chancery: 2002 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
 telephone: [1] (202) 462-4009
 FAX: [1] (202) 265-1937

 US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Laurence E. POPE II
 embassy: Avenue Felix Eboue, N'Djamena
 mailing address: B. P. 413, N'Djamena
 telephone: [235] (51) 62 18, (51) 40 09, (51) 47 59
 FAX: [235] (51) 33 72

 Flag: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and
 red; similar to the flag of Romania; also similar to the flag of
 Andorra, which has a national coat of arms featuring a quartered
 shield centered in the yellow band; design was based on the flag of
 France

@Chad:Economy

 Overview: Climate, geographic remoteness, poor resource endowment, and
 lack of infrastructure make Chad one of the most underdeveloped
 countries in the world. Its economy is hobbled by political turmoil,
 conflict with Libya, drought, and food shortages. Consequently the
 economy has shown little progress in recent years in overcoming a
 severe setback brought on by civil war in the late 1980s. More than
 80% of the work force is involved in subsistence farming and fishing.
 Cotton is the major cash crop, accounting for at least half of
 exports. Chad is highly dependent on foreign aid, especially food
 credits, given chronic shortages in several regions. Of all the
 Francophone countries in Africa, Chad has benefited the least from the
 50% devaluation of their currencies on 12 January 1994. Despite an
 increase in external financial aid and favorable price increases for
 cotton - the primary source of foreign exchange - the corrupt and
 enfeebled government bureaucracy continues to dampen economic
 enterprise by neglecting payments to domestic suppliers and public
 sector salaries. Oil production in the Lake Chad area remains a
 distant prospect and the subsistence-driven economy probably will
 continue to limp along in the near term.

 National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $2.8 billion (1993
 est.)

 National product real growth rate: 3.5% (1993 est.)

 National product per capita: $530 (1993 est.)

 Inflation rate (consumer prices): -4.1% (1992)

 Unemployment rate: NA%

 Budget:
 revenues: $120 million
 expenditures: $363 million, including capital expenditures of $104
 million (1992 est.)

 Exports: $190 million (f.o.b., 1992)
 commodities: cotton 48%, cattle 35%, textiles 5%, fish
 partners: France, Nigeria, Cameroon

 Imports: $261 million (f.o.b., 1992)
 commodities: machinery and transportation equipment 39%, industrial
 goods 20%, petroleum products 13%, foodstuffs 9%; note - excludes
 military equipment
 partners: US, France, Nigeria, Cameroon

 External debt: $492 million (December 1990 est.)

 Industrial production: growth rate 2.7% (1992 est.); accounts for
 nearly 15% of GDP

 Electricity:
 capacity: 40,000 kW
 production: 80 million kWh
 consumption per capita: 13 kWh (1993)

 Industries: cotton textile mills, slaughterhouses, brewery, natron
 (sodium carbonate), soap, cigarettes

 Agriculture: accounts for about 45% of GDP; largely subsistence
 farming; cotton most important cash crop; food crops include sorghum,
 millet, peanuts, rice, potatoes, manioc; livestock - cattle, sheep,
 goats, camels; self-sufficient in food in years of adequate rainfall

 Economic aid:
 recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $198 million;
 Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
 (1970-89), $1.5 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $28 million;
 Communist countries (1970-89), $80 million

 Currency: 1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes

 Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine Francs (CFAF) per US$1
 - 529.43 (January 1995), 555.20 (1994), 283.16 (1993), 264.69 (1992),
 282.11 (1991), 272.26 (1990)
 note: beginning 12 January 1994 the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF 100
 per French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since 1948

 Fiscal year: calendar year

@Chad:Transportation

 Railroads: 0 km

 Highways:
 total: 31,322 km
 paved: bituminous 263 km
 unpaved: gravel, crushed stone 7,069 km; earth 23,990 km

 Inland waterways: 2,000 km navigable

 Ports: none

 Airports:
 total: 66
 with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
 with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
 with paved runways under 914 m: 23
 with unpaved runways over 3,047 m: 1
 with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 17
 with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 21

@Chad:Communications

 Telephone system: NA telephones; primitive system
 local: NA
 intercity: fair system of radio communication stations for intercity
 links
 international: 1 INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean) earth station

 Radio:
 broadcast stations: AM 6, FM 1, shortwave 0
 radios: NA

 Television:
 broadcast stations: NA; note - limited TV service; many facilties are
 inoperative
 televisions: NA

@Chad:Defense Forces

 Branches: Armed Forces (includes Ground Force, Air Force, and
 Gendarmerie), Republican Guard, Police

 Manpower availability: males age 15-49 1,307,210; males fit for
 military service 679,640; males reach military age (20) annually
 54,945 (1995 est.)

 Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $74 million, 11.1% of
 GDP (1994)


________________________________________________________________________

CHILE

@Chile:Geography

 Location: Southern South America, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean
 and South Pacific Ocean, between Argentina and Peru

 Map references: South America

 Area:
 total area: 756,950 sq km
 land area: 748,800 sq km
 comparative area: slightly smaller than twice the size of Montana
 note: includes Isla de Pascua (Easter Island) and Isla Sala y Gomez

 Land boundaries: total 6,171 km, Argentina 5,150 km, Bolivia 861 km,
 Peru 160 km

 Coastline: 6,435 km

 Maritime claims:
 contiguous zone: 24 nm
 continental shelf: 200 nm
 exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
 territorial sea: 12 nm

 International disputes: short section of the southern boundary with
 Argentina is indefinite; Bolivia has wanted a sovereign corridor to
 the South Pacific Ocean since the Atacama area was lost to Chile in
 1884; dispute with Bolivia over Rio Lauca water rights; territorial
 claim in Antarctica (Chilean Antarctic Territory) partially overlaps
 Argentine and British claims

 Climate: temperate; desert in north; cool and damp in south

 Terrain: low coastal mountains; fertile central valley; rugged Andes
 in east

 Natural resources: copper, timber, iron ore, nitrates, precious
 metals, molybdenum

 Land use:
 arable land: 7%
 permanent crops: 0%
 meadows and pastures: 16%
 forest and woodland: 21%
 other: 56%

 Irrigated land: 12,650 sq km (1989 est.)

 Environment:
 current issues: air pollution from industrial and vehicle emissions;
 water pollution from raw sewage; deforestation contributing to loss of
 biodiversity; soil erosion; desertification
 natural hazards: severe earthquakes; active volcanism; tsunamis
 international agreements: party to - Antarctic-Environmental Protocol,
 Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species,
 Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear
 Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling;
 signed, but not ratified - Law of the Sea

 Note: strategic location relative to sea lanes between Atlantic and
 Pacific Oceans (Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel, Drake Passage);
 Atacama Desert one of world's driest regions

@Chile:People

 Population: 14,161,216 (July 1995 est.)

 Age structure:
 0-14 years: 29% (female 2,014,877; male 2,099,450)
 15-64 years: 64% (female 4,574,947; male 4,529,251)
 65 years and over: 7% (female 549,385; male 393,306) (July 1995 est.)

 Population growth rate: 1.49% (1995 est.)

 Birth rate: 20.29 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Death rate: 5.42 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Infant mortality rate: 14.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

 Life expectancy at birth:
 total population: 74.88 years
 male: 71.89 years
 female: 78.01 years (1995 est.)

 Total fertility rate: 2.49 children born/woman (1995 est.)

 Nationality:
 noun: Chilean(s)
 adjective: Chilean

 Ethnic divisions: European and European-Indian 95%, Indian 3%, other
 2%

 Religions: Roman Catholic 89%, Protestant 11%, Jewish

 Languages: Spanish

 Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1992)
 total population: 94%
 male: 95%
 female: 94%

 Labor force: 4.728 million
 by occupation: services 38.3% (includes government 12%), industry and
 commerce 33.8%, agriculture, forestry, and fishing 19.2%, mining 2.3%,
 construction 6.4% (1990)

@Chile:Government

 Names:
 conventional long form: Republic of Chile
 conventional short form: Chile
 local long form: Republica de Chile
 local short form: Chile

 Digraph: CI

 Type: republic

 Capital: Santiago

 Administrative divisions: 13 regions (regiones, singular - region);
 Aisen del General Carlos Ibanez del Campo, Antofagasta, Araucania,
 Atacama, Bio-Bio, Coquimbo, Libertador General Bernardo O'Higgins, Los
 Lagos, Magallanes y de la Antartica Chilena, Maule, Region
 Metropolitana, Tarapaca, Valparaiso
 note: the US does not recognize claims to Antarctica

 Independence: 18 September 1810 (from Spain)

 National holiday: Independence Day, 18 September (1810)

 Constitution: 11 September 1980, effective 11 March 1981; amended 30
 July 1989

 Legal system: based on Code of 1857 derived from Spanish law and
 subsequent codes influenced by French and Austrian law; judicial
 review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; has not accepted
 compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

 Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

 Executive branch:
 chief of state and head of government: President Eduardo FREI
 Ruiz-Tagle (since 11 March 1994) election last held 11 December 1993
 (next to be held December 1999); results - Eduardo FREI Ruiz-Tagle
 (PDC) 58%, Arturo ALESSANDRI 24.4%, other 17.6%
 cabinet: Cabinet; appointed by the president

 Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress (Congreso Nacional)
 Senate (Senado): election last held 11 December 1993 (next to be held
 December 1997); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (46
 total, 38 elected) Concertation of Parties for Democracy 21 (PDC 13,
 PS 4, PPD 3, PR 1), Union for the Progress of Chile 15 (RN 11, UDI 3,
 UCC 1), right-wing independents 10
 Chamber of Deputies (Camara de Diputados): election last held 11
 December 1993 (next to be held December 1997); results - Concertation
 of Parties for Democracy 53.95% (PDC 27.16%, PS 12.01%, PPD 11.82%, PR
 2.96%,); Union for the Progress of Chile 30.57% (RN 15.25%, UDI
 12.13%, UCC 3.19%); seats - (120 total) Concertation of Parties for
 Democracy 70 (PDC 37, PPD 15, PR 2, PS 15, left-wing independent 1),
 Union for the Progress of Chile 47 (RN 30, UDI 15, UCC 2), right-wing
 independents 3

 Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema)

 Political parties and leaders: Concertation of Parties for Democracy
 consists mainly of three parties: Christian Democratic Party (PDC),
 Alejandro FOXLEY; Socialist Party (PS), Camilo ESCALONA; Party for
 Democracy (PPD), Jorge SCHAULSOHN; Radical Party (PR); Union for the
 Progress of Chile consists mainly of three parties: National Renewal
 (RN), Andres ALLAMAND; Independent Democratic Union (UDI), Jovino
 NOVOA; Center Center Union (UCC), Francisco Javier ERRAZURIZ

 Other political or pressure groups: revitalized university student
 federations at all major universities; labor - United Labor Central
 (CUT) includes trade unionists from the country's five largest labor
 confederations; Roman Catholic Church

 Member of: APEC, CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD,
 ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT,
 INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, NAM, OAS, ONUSAL,
 OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMOGIP, UNTSO, UNU, UPU,
 WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

 Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Gabriel GUERRA-MONDRAGON
 chancery: 1732 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
 telephone: [1] (202) 785-1746
 FAX: [1] (202) 887-5579
 consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York,
 Philadelphia, San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico)

 US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Gabriel GUERRA-MONDRAGON
 embassy: Codina Building, 1343 Agustinas, Santiago
 mailing address: Unit 4127, Santiago; APO AA 34033
 telephone: [56] (2) 232-2600
 FAX: [56] (2) 330-3710

 Flag: two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red; there is a
 blue square the same height as the white band at the hoist-side end of
 the white band; the square bears a white five-pointed star in the
 center; design was based on the US flag

@Chile:Economy

 Overview: Chile has a prosperous, essentially free market economy,
 with the degree of government intervention varying according to the
 philosophy of the different regimes. Under the center-left government
 of President AYLWIN, which took power in March 1990, spending on
 social welfare rose steadily. At the same time business investment,
 exports, and consumer spending also grew substantially. The new
 president, FREI, who took office in March 1994, has emphasized social
 spending even more. Growth in 1991-94 has averaged 6.5% annually, with
 an estimated one million Chileans having moved out of poverty in the
 last four years. Copper remains vital to the health of the economy;
 Chile is the world's largest producer and exporter of copper. Success
 in meeting the government's goal of sustained annual growth of 5%
 depends on world copper prices, the level of confidence of foreign
 investors and creditors, and the government's own ability to maintain
 a conservative fiscal stance.

 National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $97.7 billion (1994
 est.)

 National product real growth rate: 4.3% (1994 est.)

 National product per capita: $7,010 (1994 est.)

 Inflation rate (consumer prices): 8.7% (1994 est.)

 Unemployment rate: 6% (1994 est.)

 Budget:
 revenues: $10.9 billion
 expenditures: $10.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $1.2
 billion (1993)

 Exports: $11.5 billion (f.o.b., 1994)
 commodities: copper 41%, other metals and minerals 8.7%, wood products
 7.1%, fish and fishmeal 9.8%, fruits 8.4% (1991)
 partners: EC 29%, Japan 17%, US 16%, Argentina 5%, Brazil 5% (1992)

 Imports: $10.9 billion (f.o.b., 1994)
 commodities: capital goods 25.2%, spare parts 24.8%, raw materials
 15.4%, petroleum 10%, foodstuffs 5.7%
 partners: EC 24%, US 21%, Brazil 10%, Japan 10% (1992)

 External debt: $20 billion (1994 est.)

 Industrial production: growth rate 4.3% (1993 est.); accounts for 34%
 of GDP

 Electricity:
 capacity: 4,810,000 kW
 production: 22 billion kWh
 consumption per capita: 1,499 kWh (1993)

 Industries: copper, other minerals, foodstuffs, fish processing, iron
 and steel, wood and wood products, transport equipment, cement,
 textiles

 Agriculture: accounts for about 7% of GDP (including fishing and
 forestry); major exporter of fruit, fish, and timber products; major
 crops - wheat, corn, grapes, beans, sugar beets, potatoes, deciduous
 fruit; livestock products - beef, poultry, wool; self-sufficient in
 most foods; 1991 fish catch of 6.6 million metric tons; net
 agricultural importer

 Illicit drugs: a minor transshipment country for cocaine destined for
 the US and Europe; booming economy has made it more attractive to
 traffickers seeking to launder drug profits

 Economic aid:
 recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $521 million;
 Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
 (1970-89), $1.6 billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $386 million

 Currency: 1 Chilean peso (Ch$) = 100 centavos

 Exchange rates: Chilean pesos (Ch$) per US$1 - 408 (January 1995),
 420.08 (1994), 404.35 (1993), 362.59 (1992), 349.37 (1991), 305.06
 (1990)

 Fiscal year: calendar year

@Chile:Transportation

 Railroads:
 total: 7,766 km
 broad gauge: 3,974 km 1.676-m gauge (1,865 km electrified)
 standard gauge: 150 km 1.435-m gauge
 narrow gauge: 3,642 km 1.000-m gauge (80 km electrified)

 Highways:
 total: 79,599 km
 paved: 10,984 km
 unpaved: gravel or earth 68,615 km (1990)

 Inland waterways: 725 km

 Pipelines: crude oil 755 km; petroleum products 785 km; natural gas
 320 km

 Ports: Antofagasta, Arica, Chanarol, Coquimbo, Iquique, Puerto Montt,
 Punta Arenas, San Antonio, San Vicente, Talcahuano, Valparaiso

 Merchant marine:
 total: 36 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 510,006 GRT/879,891 DWT
 ships by type: bulk 13, cargo 7, chemical tanker 3, combination
 ore/oil 2, liquefied gas tanker 3, oil tanker 3, roll-on/roll-off
 cargo 3, vehicle carrier 2

 Airports:
 total: 390
 with paved runways over 3,047 m: 5
 with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
 with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 18
 with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 17
 with paved runways under 914 m: 252
 with unpaved runways over 3,047 m: 1
 with unpaved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
 with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 13
 with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 76

@Chile:Communications

 Telephone system: 768,000 telephones; modern telephone system based on
 extensive microwave radio relay facilities
 local: NA
 intercity: extensive microwave radio relay links and 3 domestic
 satellite stations
 international: 2 INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean) earth stations

 Radio:
 broadcast stations: AM 159, FM 0, shortwave 11
 radios: NA

 Television:
 broadcast stations: 131
 televisions: NA

@Chile:Defense Forces

 Branches: Army of the Nation, National Navy (includes Naval Air, Coast
 Guard, and Marines), Air Force of the Nation, Carabineros of Chile
 (National Police), Investigations Police

 Manpower availability: males age 15-49 3,758,770; males fit for
 military service 2,796,740; males reach military age (19) annually
 121,831 (1995 est.)

 Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $1 billion, 3.4% of
 GDP (1991 est.)


________________________________________________________________________

CHINA

 (also see separate Taiwan entry) 

@China:Geography

 Location: Eastern Asia, bordering the East China Sea, Korea Bay,
 Yellow Sea, and South China Sea, between North Korea and Vietnam

 Map references: Asia

 Area:
 total area: 9,596,960 sq km
 land area: 9,326,410 sq km
 comparative area: slightly larger than the US

 Land boundaries: total 22,143.34 km, Afghanistan 76 km, Bhutan 470 km,
 Burma 2,185 km, Hong Kong 30 km, India 3,380 km, Kazakhstan 1,533 km,
 North Korea 1,416 km, Kyrgyzstan 858 km, Laos 423 km, Macau 0.34 km,
 Mongolia 4,673 km, Nepal 1,236 km, Pakistan 523 km, Russia (northeast)
 3,605 km, Russia (northwest) 40 km, Tajikistan 414 km, Vietnam 1,281
 km

 Coastline: 14,500 km

 Maritime claims:
 continental shelf: claim to shallow areas of East China Sea and Yellow
 Sea
 territorial sea: 12 nm

 International disputes: boundary with India in dispute; disputed
 sections of the boundary with Russia remain to be settled; boundary
 with Tajikistan in dispute; a short section of the boundary with North
 Korea is indefinite; involved in a complex dispute over the Spratly
 Islands with Malaysia, Philippines, Taiwan, Vietnam, and possibly
 Brunei; maritime boundary dispute with Vietnam in the Gulf of Tonkin;
 Paracel Islands occupied by China, but claimed by Vietnam and Taiwan;
 claims Japanese-administered Senkaku-shoto (Senkaku Islands/Diaoyu
 Tai), as does Taiwan

 Climate: extremely diverse; tropical in south to subarctic in north

 Terrain: mostly mountains, high plateaus, deserts in west; plains,
 deltas, and hills in east

 Natural resources: coal, iron ore, petroleum, mercury, tin, tungsten,
 antimony, manganese, molybdenum, vanadium, magnetite, aluminum, lead,
 zinc, uranium, hydropower potential (world's largest)

 Land use:
 arable land: 10%
 permanent crops: 0%
 meadows and pastures: 31%
 forest and woodland: 14%
 other: 45%

 Irrigated land: 478,220 sq km (1991 - Chinese data)

 Environment:
 current issues: air pollution from the overwhelming use of high-sulfur
 coal as a fuel, produces acid rain which is damaging forests; water
 shortages experienced throughout the country, particularly in urban
 areas; future growth in water usage threatens to outpace supplies;
 water pollution from industrial effluents; much of the population does
 not have access to potable water; less than 10% of sewage receives
 treatment; deforestation; estimated loss of one-fifth of agricultural
 land since 1957 to soil erosion and economic development;
 desertification; trade in endangered species
 natural hazards: frequent typhoons (about five per year along southern
 and eastern coasts); damaging floods; tsunamis; earthquakes; droughts
 international agreements: party to - Antarctic-Environmental Protocol,
 Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species,
 Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
 Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands, Whaling;
 signed, but not ratified - Desertification, Law of the Sea

 Note: world's third-largest country (after Russia and Canada)

@China:People

 Population: 1,203,097,268 (July 1995 est.)

 Age structure:
 0-14 years: 26% (female 151,266,866; male 167,234,782)
 15-64 years: 67% (female 391,917,572; male 419,103,994)
 65 years and over: 7% (female 39,591,692; male 33,982,362) (July 1995
 est.)

 Population growth rate: 1.04% (1995 est.)

 Birth rate: 17.78 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Death rate: 7.36 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Infant mortality rate: 52.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

 Life expectancy at birth:
 total population: 68.08 years
 male: 67.09 years
 female: 69.18 years (1995 est.)

 Total fertility rate: 1.84 children born/woman (1995 est.)

 Nationality:
 noun: Chinese (singular and plural)
 adjective: Chinese

 Ethnic divisions: Han Chinese 91.9%, Zhuang, Uygur, Hui, Yi, Tibetan,
 Miao, Manchu, Mongol, Buyi, Korean, and other nationalities 8.1%

 Religions: Daoism (Taoism), Buddhism, Muslim 2%-3%, Christian 1%
 (est.)
 note: officially atheist, but traditionally pragmatic and eclectic

 Languages: Standard Chinese or Mandarin (Putonghua, based on the
 Beijing dialect), Yue (Cantonese), Wu (Shanghainese), Minbei (Fuzhou),
 Minnan (Hokkien-Taiwanese), Xiang, Gan, Hakka dialects, minority
 languages (see Ethnic divisions entry)

 Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
 total population: 78%
 male: 87%
 female: 68%

 Labor force: 583.6 million (1991)
 by occupation: agriculture and forestry 60%, industry and commerce
 25%, construction and mining 5%, social services 5%, other 5% (1990
 est.)

@China:Government

 Names:
 conventional long form: People's Republic of China
 conventional short form: China
 local long form: Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo
 local short form: Zhong Guo

 Abbreviation: PRC

 Digraph: CH

 Type: Communist state

 Capital: Beijing

 Administrative divisions: 23 provinces (sheng, singular and plural), 5
 autonomous regions* (zizhiqu, singular and plural), and 3
 municipalities** (shi, singular and plural); Anhui, Beijing**, Fujian,
 Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi*, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Heilongjiang,
 Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol*,
 Ningxia*, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanghai**, Shanxi, Sichuan,
 Tianjin**, Xinjiang*, Xizang* (Tibet), Yunnan, Zhejiang
 note: China considers Taiwan its 23rd province

 Independence: 221 BC (unification under the Qin or Ch'in Dynasty 221
 BC; Qing or Ch'ing Dynasty replaced by the Republic on 12 February
 1912; People's Republic established 1 October 1949)

 National holiday: National Day, 1 October (1949)

 Constitution: most recent promulgated 4 December 1982

 Legal system: a complex amalgam of custom and statute, largely
 criminal law; rudimentary civil code in effect since 1 January 1987;
 new legal codes in effect since 1 January 1980; continuing efforts are
 being made to improve civil, administrative, criminal, and commercial
 law

 Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

 Executive branch:
 chief of state: President JIANG Zemin (since 27 March 1993); Vice
 President RONG Yiren (since 27 March 1993); election last held 27
 March 1993 (next to be held 1998); results - JIANG Zemin was nominally
 elected by the Eighth National People's Congress
 head of government: Premier LI Peng (Acting Premier since 24 November
 1987, Premier since 9 April 1988) Vice Premier ZHU Rongji (since 8
 April 1991); Vice Premier ZOU Jiahua (since 8 April 1991); Vice
 Premier QIAN Qichen (since 29 March 1993); Vice Premier LI Lanqing (29
 March 1993); Vice Premier WU Bangguo (since 17 March 1995); Vice
 Premier JIANG Chunyun (since 17 March 1995)
 cabinet: State Council; appointed by the National People's Congress
 (NPC)

 Legislative branch: unicameral
 National People's Congress: (Quanguo Renmin Daibiao Dahui) elections
 last held March 1993 (next to be held March 1998); results - CCP is
 the only party but there are also independents; seats - (2,977 total)
 (elected at county or xian level)

 Judicial branch: Supreme People's Court

 Political parties and leaders: Chinese Communist Party (CCP), JIANG
 Zemin, general secretary of the Central Committee (since 24 June
 1989); eight registered small parties controlled by CCP

 Other political or pressure groups: such meaningful opposition as
 exists consists of loose coalitions, usually within the party and
 government organization, that vary by issue

 Member of: AfDB, APEC, AsDB, CCC, ESCAP, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU,
 ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT,
 INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, NAM (observer), PCA, UN, UN Security
 Council, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNOMIL, UNOMOZ,
 UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

 Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission: Ambassador LI Daoyu
 chancery: 2300 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
 telephone: [1] (202) 328-2500 through 2502
 consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, and San
 Francisco

 US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission: Ambassador J. Stapleton ROY
 embassy: Xiu Shui Bei Jie 3, 100600 Beijing
 mailing address: PSC 461, Box 50, Beijing; FPO AP 96521-0002
 telephone: [86] (1) 5323831
 FAX: [86] (1) 5323178
 consulate(s) general: Chengdu, Guangzhou, Shanghai, Shenyang

 Flag: red with a large yellow five-pointed star and four smaller
 yellow five-pointed stars (arranged in a vertical arc toward the
 middle of the flag) in the upper hoist-side corner

@China:Economy

 Overview: Beginning in late 1978 the Chinese leadership has been
 trying to move the economy from the sluggish Soviet-style centrally
 planned economy to a more productive and flexible economy with market
 elements, but still within the framework of monolithic Communist
 control. To this end the authorities switched to a system of household
 responsibility in agriculture in place of the old collectivization,
 increased the authority of local officials and plant managers in
 industry, permitted a wide variety of small-scale enterprise in
 services and light manufacturing, and opened the economy to increased
 foreign trade and investment. The result has been a strong surge in
 production, particularly in agriculture in the early 1980s. Industry
 also has posted major gains, especially in coastal areas near Hong
 Kong and opposite Taiwan, where foreign investment and modern
 production methods have helped spur production of both domestic and
 export goods. Aggregate output has more than doubled since 1978. On
 the darker side, the leadership has often experienced in its hybrid
 system the worst results of socialism (bureaucracy, lassitude,
 corruption) and of capitalism (windfall gains and stepped-up
 inflation). Beijing thus has periodically backtracked, retightening
 central controls at intervals. In 1992-94 annual growth of GDP
 accelerated, particularly in the coastal areas - to more than 10%
 annually according to official claims. In late 1993 China's leadership
 approved additional long-term reforms aimed at giving more play to
 market-oriented institutions and at strengthening the center's control
 over the financial system. In 1994 strong growth continued in the
 widening market-oriented areas of the economy. At the same time, the
 government struggled to (a) collect revenues due from provinces,
 businesses, and individuals; (b) keep inflation within bounds; (c)
 reduce extortion and other economic crimes; and (d) keep afloat the
 large state-owned enterprises, most of which had not participated in
 the vigorous expansion of the economy. From 60 to 100 million surplus
 rural workers are adrift between the villages and the cities, many
 barely subsisting through part-time low-pay jobs. Popular resistance,
 changes in central policy, and loss of authority by rural cadres have
 weakened China's population control program, which is essential to the
 nation's long-term economic viability. One of the most dangerous
 long-term threats to continued rapid economic growth is the
 deterioration in the environment, notably air pollution, soil erosion,
 and the steady fall of the water table especially in the north.

 National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $2.9788 trillion
 (1994 estimate as extrapolated from World Bank estimate for 1992 by
 use of official Chinese growth statistics for 1993-94; because of the
 difficulties with official statistics in this time of rapid change,
 the result may overstate China's GDP by as much as 25%)

 National product real growth rate: 11.8% (1994 est.)

 National product per capita: $2,500 (1994 est.)

 Inflation rate (consumer prices): 25.5% (December 1994 over December
 1993)

 Unemployment rate: 2.7% in urban areas (1994); substantial
 underemployment

 Budget: deficit $13.7 billion (1994)

 Exports: $121 billion (f.o.b., 1994)
 commodities: textiles, garments, footwear, toys, machinery and
 equipment, weapon systems
 partners: Hong Kong, Japan, US, Germany, South Korea, Russia (1993)

 Imports: $115.7 billion (c.i.f., 1994)
 commodities: rolled steel, motor vehicles, textile machinery, oil
 products, aircraft
 partners: Japan, Taiwan, US, Hong Kong, Germany, South Korea (1993)

 External debt: $100 billion (1994 est.)

 Industrial production: growth rate 17.5% (1994 est.)

 Electricity:
 capacity: 162,000,000 kW
 production: 746 billion kWh
 consumption per capita: 593 kWh (1993)

 Industries: iron and steel, coal, machine building, armaments,
 textiles and apparel, petroleum, cement, chemical fertilizers,
 consumer durables, food processing, autos, consumer electronics,
 telecommunications

 Agriculture: accounts for almost 30% of GDP; among the world's largest
 producers of rice, potatoes, sorghum, peanuts, tea, millet, barley,
 and pork; commercial crops include cotton, other fibers, and oilseeds;
 produces variety of livestock products; basically self-sufficient in
 food; fish catch of 13.35 million metric tons (including fresh water
 and pond raised) (1991)

 Illicit drugs: illicit producer of opium; bulk of production is in
 Yunnan Province (which produced 25 metric tons in 1994); transshipment
 point for heroin produced in the Golden Triangle

 Economic aid:
 donor: to less developed countries (1970-89) $7 billion
 recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-87), $220.7 million;
 Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
 (1970-87), $13.5 billion

 Currency: 1 yuan (Y) = 10 jiao

 Exchange rates: yuan (Y) per US$1 - 8.4413 (January 1995), 8.6187
 (1994), 5.7620 (1993), 5.5146 (1992), 5.3234 (1991), 4.7832 (1990)
 note: beginning 1 January 1994, the People's Bank of China quotes the
 midpoint rate against the US dollar based on the previous day's
 prevailing rate in the interbank foreign exchange market

 Fiscal year: calendar year

@China:Transportation

 Railroads:
 total: 65,780 km
 standard gauge: 55,180 km 1.435-m gauge (7,174 km electrified; more
 than 11,000 km double track)
 narrow gauge: 600 km 1.000-m gauge; 10,000 km 0.762-m to 1.067-m gauge
 dedicated industrial lines

 Highways:
 total: 1.029 million km
 paved: 170,000 km
 unpaved: gravel/improved earth 648,000 km; unimproved earth 211,000 km
 (1990)

 Inland waterways: 138,600 km; about 109,800 km navigable

 Pipelines: crude oil 9,700 km; petroleum products 1,100 km; natural
 gas 6,200 km (1990)

 Ports: Aihui, Changsha, Dalian, Fuzhou, Guangzhou, Hangzhou, Harbin,
 Huangpu, Nanning, Ningbo, Qingdao, Qinhuangdao, Shanghai, Shantou,
 Tanggu, Xiamen, Xingang, Zhanjiang

 Merchant marine:
 total: 1,628 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 16,013,532
 GRT/24,027,766 DWT
 ships by type: barge carrier 3, bulk 298, cargo 849, chemical tanker
 14, combination bulk 10, container 98, liquefied gas tanker 4,
 multifunction large load carrier 1, oil tanker 212, passenger 24,
 passenger-cargo 25, refrigerated cargo 21, roll-on/roll-off cargo 24,
 short-sea passenger 44, vehicle carrier 1
 note: China beneficially owns an additional 250 ships (1,000 GRT or
 over) totaling approximately 8,831,462 DWT that operate under
 Panamanian, Hong Kong, Maltese, Liberian, Vanuatu, Cypriot, Saint
 Vincent and the Grenadines, Bahamian, and Singaporean registry

 Airports:
 total: 204
 with paved runways over 3,047 m: 17
 with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 69
 with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 89
 with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 9
 with paved runways under 914 m: 7
 with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 7
 with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 3
 with unpaved runways under 914 m: 3

@China:Communications

 Telephone system: 20,000,000 telephones (summer 1994); domestic and
 international services are increasingly available for private use;
 unevenly distributed internal system serves principal cities,
 industrial centers, and most townships; expanding phone lines,
 interprovincial fiber optic links, satellite communications,
 cellullar/mobile communications, etc.
 local: NA
 intercity: fiber optic trunk lines, 55 earth stations for domestic
 satellites
 international: 5 INTELSAT earth stations (4 Pacific Ocean and 1 Indian
 Ocean) and 1 INMARSAT earth station; several international fiber optic
 links to Japan and Hong Kong

 Radio:
 broadcast stations: AM 274, FM NA, shortwave 0
 radios: 215 million

 Television:
 broadcast stations: 202 (repeaters 2,050)
 televisions: 75 million

@China:Defense Forces

 Branches: People's Liberation Army (PLA), which includes the Ground
 Forces, Navy (includes Marines and Naval Aviation), Air Force, Second
 Artillery Corps (the strategic missile force), People's Armed Police
 (internal security troops, nominally subordinate to Ministry of Public
 Security, but included by the Chinese as part of the "armed forces"
 and considered to be an adjunct to the PLA in war time)

 Manpower availability: males age 15-49 351,330,411; males fit for
 military service 194,286,619; males reach military age (18) annually
 9,841,658 (1995 est.)

 Defense expenditures: defense budget - 63.09 billion yuan, NA% of GDP
 (1995 est.); note - conversion of the defense budget into US dollars
 using the current exchange rate could produce misleading results


________________________________________________________________________

CHRISTMAS ISLAND

 (territory of Australia) 

@Christmas Island:Geography

 Location: Southeastern Asia, island in the Indian Ocean, south of
 Indonesia

 Map references: Southeast Asia

 Area:
 total area: 135 sq km
 land area: 135 sq km
 comparative area: about 0.8 times the size of Washington, DC

 Land boundaries: 0 km

 Coastline: 138.9 km

 Maritime claims:
 contiguous zone: 12 nm
 exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
 territorial sea: 3 nm

 International disputes: none

 Climate: tropical; heat and humidity moderated by trade winds

 Terrain: steep cliffs along coast rise abruptly to central plateau

 Natural resources: phosphate

 Land use:
 arable land: 0%
 permanent crops: 0%
 meadows and pastures: 0%
 forest and woodland: 0%
 other: 100%

 Irrigated land: NA sq km

 Environment:
 current issues: NA
 natural hazards: almost completely surrounded by a reef which can be a
 maritime hazard
 international agreements: NA

 Note: located along major sea lanes of Indian Ocean

@Christmas Island:People

 Population: 889 (July 1995 est.)

 Age structure:
 0-14 years: NA
 15-64 years: NA
 65 years and over: NA

 Population growth rate: -9% (1995 est.)

 Birth rate: NA

 Death rate: NA

 Net migration rate: NA

 Infant mortality rate: NA

 Life expectancy at birth:
 total population: NA
 male: NA
 female: NA

 Total fertility rate: NA

 Nationality:
 noun: Christmas Islander(s)
 adjective: Christmas Island

 Ethnic divisions: Chinese 61%, Malay 25%, European 11%, other 3%, no
 indigenous population

 Religions: Buddhist 36.1%, Muslim 25.4%, Christian 17.7% (Roman
 Catholic 8.2%, Church of England 3.2%, Presbyterian 0.9%, Uniting
 Church 0.4%, Methodist 0.2%, Baptist 0.1%, and other 4.7%), none
 12.7%, unknown 4.6%, other 3.5% (1981)

 Languages: English

 Labor force: NA
 by occupation: all workers are employees of the Phosphate Mining
 Company of Christmas Island, Ltd.

@Christmas Island:Government

 Names:
 conventional long form: Territory of Christmas Island
 conventional short form: Christmas Island

 Digraph: KT

 Type: territory of Australia

 Capital: The Settlement

 Administrative divisions: none (territory of Australia)

 Independence: none (territory of Australia)

 National holiday: NA

 Constitution: Christmas Island Act of 1958

 Legal system: under the authority of the governor general of Australia

 Executive branch:
 chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952)
 head of government: Administrator M. J. GRIMES (since NA)
 cabinet: Advisory Council

 Legislative branch: none

 Judicial branch: none

 Political parties and leaders: none

 Member of: none

 Diplomatic representation in US: none (territory of Australia)

 US diplomatic representation: none (territory of Australia)

 Flag: the flag of Australia is used

@Christmas Island:Economy

 Overview: Phosphate mining had been the only significant economic
 activity, but in December 1987 the Australian Government closed the
 mine as no longer economically viable. Plans have been under way to
 reopen the mine and also to build a casino and hotel to develop
 tourism.

 National product: GDP $NA

 National product real growth rate: NA%

 National product per capita: $NA

 Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

 Unemployment rate: NA%

 Budget:
 revenues: $NA
 expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

 Exports: $NA
 commodities: phosphate
 partners: Australia, NZ

 Imports: $NA
 commodities: consumer goods
 partners: principally Australia

 External debt: $NA

 Industrial production: growth rate NA%

 Electricity:
 capacity: 11,000 kW
 production: 30 million kWh
 consumption per capita: 17,800 kWh (1990)

 Industries: phosphate extraction (near depletion)

 Agriculture: NA

 Economic aid: none

 Currency: 1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents

 Exchange rates: Australian dollars ($A) per US$1 - 1.3058 (January
 1995), 1.3667 (1994), 1.4704, (1993), 1.3600 (1992), 1.2836 (1991),
 1.2799 (1990)

 Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

@Christmas Island:Transportation

 Railroads: 0 km

 Highways:
 total: NA km
 paved: NA km
 unpaved: NA km

 Ports: Flying Fish Cove

 Merchant marine: none

 Airports:
 total: 1
 with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

@Christmas Island:Communications

 Telephone system: NA telephones
 local: NA
 intercity: NA
 international: NA

 Radio:
 broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 0, shortwave 0
 radios: NA

 Television:
 broadcast stations: 1
 televisions: NA

@Christmas Island:Defense Forces

 Note: defense is the responsibility of Australia


________________________________________________________________________

CLIPPERTON ISLAND

 (possession of France) 

@Clipperton Island:Geography

 Location: Middle America, atoll in the North Pacific Ocean, southwest
 of Mexico

 Map references: World

 Area:
 total area: 7 sq km
 land area: 7 sq km
 comparative area: about 12 times the size of The Mall in Washington,
 DC

 Land boundaries: 0 km

 Coastline: 11.1 km

 Maritime claims:
 exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
 territorial sea: 12 nm

 International disputes: claimed by Mexico

 Climate: tropical

 Terrain: coral atoll

 Natural resources: none

 Land use:
 arable land: 0%
 permanent crops: 0%
 meadows and pastures: 0%
 forest and woodland: 0%
 other: 100% (all coral)

 Irrigated land: 0 sq km

 Environment:
 current issues: NA
 natural hazards: NA
 international agreements: NA

 Note: reef about 8 km in circumference

@Clipperton Island:People

 Population: uninhabited

@Clipperton Island:Government

 Names:
 conventional long form: none
 conventional short form: Clipperton Island
 local long form: none
 local short form: Ile Clipperton
 former: sometimes called Ile de la Passion

 Digraph: IP

 Type: French possession administered by France from French Polynesia
 by High Commissioner of the Republic

 Capital: none; administered by France from French Polynesia

 Independence: none (possession of France)

@Clipperton Island:Economy

 Overview: The only economic activity is a tuna fishing station.

@Clipperton Island:Transportation

 Ports: none; offshore anchorage only

@Clipperton Island:Defense Forces

 Note: defense is the responsibility of France


________________________________________________________________________

COCOS (KEELING) ISLANDS

 (territory of Australia) 

@Cocos (keeling) Islands:Geography

 Location: Southeastern Asia, group of islands in the Indian Ocean,
 south of Indonesia, about one-half of the way from Australia to Sri
 Lanka

 Map references: Southeast Asia

 Area:
 total area: 14 sq km
 land area: 14 sq km
 comparative area: about 24 times the size of The Mall in Washington,
 DC
 note: includes the two main islands of West Island and Home Island

 Land boundaries: 0 km

 Coastline: 2.6 km

 Maritime claims:
 exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
 territorial sea: 3 nm

 International disputes: none

 Climate: pleasant, modified by the southeast trade wind for about nine
 months of the year; moderate rain fall

 Terrain: flat, low-lying coral atolls

 Natural resources: fish

 Land use:
 arable land: NA%
 permanent crops: NA%
 meadows and pastures: NA%
 forest and woodland: NA%
 other: NA%

 Irrigated land: NA sq km

 Environment:
 current issues: there are no natural fresh water resources on the
 island, groundwater does accumulate in natural underground reservoirs
 natural hazards: cyclones may occur in the early months of the year
 international agreements: NA

 Note: two coral atolls thickly covered with coconut palms and other
 vegetation

@Cocos (keeling) Islands:People

 Population: 604 (July 1995 est.)

 Age structure:
 0-14 years: NA
 15-64 years: NA
 65 years and over: NA

 Population growth rate: 0.98% (1995 est.)

 Birth rate: NA births/1,000 population

 Death rate: NA deaths/1,000 population

 Net migration rate: NA migrant(s)/1,000 population

 Infant mortality rate: NA deaths/1,000 live births

 Life expectancy at birth:
 total population: NA years
 male: NA years
 female: NA years

 Total fertility rate: NA children born/woman

 Nationality:
 noun: Cocos Islander(s)
 adjective: Cocos Islander

 Ethnic divisions:
 West Island: Europeans
 Home Island: Cocos Malays

 Religions: Sunni Muslims

 Languages: English

 Labor force: NA

@Cocos (keeling) Islands:Government

 Names:
 conventional long form: Territory of Cocos (Keeling) Islands
 conventional short form: Cocos (Keeling) Islands

 Digraph: CK

 Type: territory of Australia

 Capital: West Island

 Administrative divisions: none (territory of Australia)

 Independence: none (territory of Australia)

 National holiday: NA

 Constitution: Cocos (Keeling) Islands Act of 1955

 Legal system: based upon the laws of Australia and local laws

 Suffrage: NA

 Executive branch:
 chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952)
 head of government: Administrator B. CUNNINGHAM (since NA)
 cabinet: Islands Council; Chairman of the Islands Council Haji WAHIN
 bin Bynie (since NA)

 Legislative branch: unicameral Islands Council

 Judicial branch: Supreme Court

 Political parties and leaders: NA

 Member of: none

 Diplomatic representation in US: none (territory of Australia)

 US diplomatic representation: none (territory of Australia)

 Flag: the flag of Australia is used

@Cocos (keeling) Islands:Economy

 Overview: Grown throughout the islands, coconuts are the sole cash
 crop. Copra and fresh coconuts are the major export earners. Small
 local gardens and fishing contribute to the food supply, but
 additional food and most other necessities must be imported from
 Australia.

 National product: GDP $NA

 National product real growth rate: NA%

 National product per capita: $NA

 Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

 Budget:
 revenues: $NA
 expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

 Exports: $NA
 commodities: copra
 partners: Australia

 Imports: $NA
 commodities: foodstuffs
 partners: Australia

 External debt: $NA

 Industrial production: growth rate NA%

 Electricity:
 capacity: 1,000 kW
 production: 2 million kWh
 consumption per capita: 2,980 kWh (1990)

 Industries: copra products

 Agriculture: gardens provide vegetables, bananas, pawpaws, coconuts

 Economic aid: none

 Currency: 1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents

 Exchange rates: Australian dollars ($A) per US$1 - 1.3058 (January
 1995), 1.3667 (1994), 1.4704 (1993), 1.3600 (1992), 1.2836 (1991),
 1.2799 (1990)

 Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

@Cocos (keeling) Islands:Transportation

 Railroads: 0 km

 Highways:
 total: NA km
 paved: NA km
 unpaved: NA km

 Ports: none; lagoon anchorage only

 Merchant marine: none

 Airports:
 total: 1
 with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

@Cocos (keeling) Islands:Communications

 Telephone system: NA telephones
 local: NA
 intercity: NA
 international: linked by telephone, telex, and facsimile
 communications via satellite with Australia

 Radio:
 broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 0, shortwave 0
 radios: 250 (1985)

 Television:
 broadcast stations: 0
 televisions: NA

@Cocos (keeling) Islands:Defense Forces

 Note: defense is the responsibility of Australia


________________________________________________________________________

COLOMBIA

@Colombia:Geography

 Location: Northern South America, bordering the Caribbean Sea, between
 Panama and Venezuela, and bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between
 Ecuador and Panama

 Map references: South America

 Area:
 total area: 1,138,910 sq km
 land area: 1,038,700 sq km
 comparative area: slightly less than three times the size of Montana
 note: includes Isla de Malpelo, Roncador Cay, Serrana Bank, and
 Serranilla Bank

 Land boundaries: total 7,408 km, Brazil 1,643 km, Ecuador 590 km,
 Panama 225 km, Peru 2,900 km, Venezuela 2,050 km

 Coastline: 3,208 km (Caribbean Sea 1,760 km, North Pacific Ocean 1,448
 km)

 Maritime claims:
 continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
 exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
 territorial sea: 12 nm

 International disputes: maritime boundary dispute with Venezuela in
 the Gulf of Venezuela; territorial dispute with Nicaragua over
 Archipelago de San Andres y Providencia and Quita Sueno Bank

 Climate: tropical along coast and eastern plains; cooler in highlands

 Terrain: flat coastal lowlands, central highlands, high Andes
 Mountains, eastern lowland plains

 Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, coal, iron ore, nickel,
 gold, copper, emeralds

 Land use:
 arable land: 4%
 permanent crops: 2%
 meadows and pastures: 29%
 forest and woodland: 49%
 other: 16%

 Irrigated land: 5,150 sq km (1989 est.)

 Environment:
 current issues: deforestation; soil damage from overuse of pesticides;
 air pollution, especially in Bogota, from vehicle emissions
 natural hazards: highlands subject to volcanic eruptions; occasional
 earthquakes; periodic droughts
 international agreements: party to - Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity,
 Endangered Species, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone
 Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83; signed, but not
 ratified - Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Climate Change,
 Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping

 Note: only South American country with coastlines on both North
 Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea

@Colombia:People

 Population: 36,200,251 (July 1995 est.)

 Age structure:
 0-14 years: 32% (female 5,784,010; male 5,925,600)
 15-64 years: 63% (female 11,642,870; male 11,245,235)
 65 years and over: 5% (female 888,358; male 714,178) (July 1995 est.)

 Population growth rate: 1.7% (1995 est.)

 Birth rate: 21.89 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Death rate: 4.69 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Net migration rate: -0.17 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Infant mortality rate: 26.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

 Life expectancy at birth:
 total population: 72.48 years
 male: 69.68 years
 female: 75.38 years (1995 est.)

 Total fertility rate: 2.4 children born/woman (1995 est.)

 Nationality:
 noun: Colombian(s)
 adjective: Colombian

 Ethnic divisions: mestizo 58%, white 20%, mulatto 14%, black 4%, mixed
 black-Indian 3%, Indian 1%

 Religions: Roman Catholic 95%

 Languages: Spanish

 Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1985)
 total population: 88%
 male: 88%
 female: 88%

 Labor force: 12 million (1990)
 by occupation: services 46%, agriculture 30%, industry 24% (1990)

@Colombia:Government

 Names:
 conventional long form: Republic of Colombia
 conventional short form: Colombia
 local long form: Republica de Colombia
 local short form: Colombia

 Digraph: CO

 Type: republic; executive branch dominates government structure

 Capital: Bogota

 Administrative divisions: 32 departments (departamentos, singular -
 departamento) and 1 capital district* (distrito capital); Amazonas,
 Antioquia, Arauca, Atlantico, Bogota*, Bolivar, Boyaca, Caldas,
 Caqueta, Casanare, Cauca, Cesar, Choco, Cordoba, Cundinamarca,
 Guainia, Guaviare, Huila, La Guajira, Magdalena, Meta, Narino, Norte
 de Santander, Putumayo, Quindio, Risaralda, San Andres y Providencia,
 Santander, Sucre, Tolima, Valle del Cauca, Vaupes, Vichada

 Independence: 20 July 1810 (from Spain)

 National holiday: Independence Day, 20 July (1810)

 Constitution: 5 July 1991

 Legal system: based on Spanish law; a new criminal code modeled after
 US procedures was enacted in 1992-93; judicial review of executive and
 legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with
 reservations

 Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

 Executive branch:
 chief of state and head of government: President Ernesto SAMPER Pizano
 (since 7 August 1994); election last held 29 May 1994 (next to be held
 May 1998) and resulted in no candidate receiving more than 50% of the
 total vote; a run-off election to select a president from the two
 leading candidates was held on 19 June 1994; results - Ernesto SAMPER
 Pizano (Liberal Party) 50.4%, Andres PASTRANA Arango (Conservative
 Party) 48.6%, blank votes 1%; Humberto de la CALLE was elected vice
 president in a new proceedure that replaces the traditional
 designation of vice presidents by newly elected presidents.
 cabinet: Cabinet

 Legislative branch: bicameral Congress (Congreso)
 Senate (Senado): elections last held 13 March 1994 (next to be held NA
 March 1998); preliminary results - percent of vote by party NA; seats
 - (102 total) Liberal Party 59, conservatives (includes PC, MSN, and
 NDF) 31, other 12
 House of Representatives (Camara de Representantes): elections last
 held 13 March 1994 (next to be held NA March 1998); preliminary
 results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (161 total) Liberal
 Party 89, conservatives (includes PC, MSN, and NDF) 53, AD/M-19 2,
 other 17

 Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justical),
 Constitutional Court, Council of State

 Political parties and leaders: Liberal Party (PL), Juan Guillermo
 ANGEL; Conservative Party (PC), Fabio VALENCIA Cossio; National
 Salvation Movement (MSN), Alvaro GOMEZ Hurtado; New Democratic Force
 (NDF), Andres PASTRANA Arango; Democratic Alliance M-19 (AD/M-19) is a
 coalition of small leftist parties and dissident liberals and
 conservatives; Patriotic Union (UP) is a legal political party formed
 by Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) and Colombian
 Communist Party (PCC), Carlos ROMERO

 Other political or pressure groups: three insurgent groups are active
 in Colombia - Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC), Manuel
 MARULANDA and Alfonso CANO; National Liberation Army (ELN), Manuel
 PEREZ; and dissidents of the recently demobilized People's Liberation
 Army (EPL), Francisco CARABALLO; Francisco CARABALLO was captured by
 the government in June 1994

 Member of: AG, CCC, CDB, CG, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-24, G-77, GATT, IADB,
 IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF,
 IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA,
 NAM, OAS, ONUSAL, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO,
 UNPROFOR, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

 Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Carlos LLERAS de la Fuente
 chancery: 2118 Leroy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
 telephone: [1] (202) 387-8338
 FAX: [1] (202) 232-8643
 consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami,
 New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, San Juan (Puerto Rico), and
 Washington, DC
 consulate(s): Atlanta and Tampa

 US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Myles R. R. FRECHETTE
 embassy: Calle 38, No. 8-61, Bogota
 mailing address: Apartado Aereo 3831, Bogota; APO AA 34038
 telephone: [57] (1) 320-1300
 FAX: [57] (1) 288-5687
 consulate(s): Barranquilla

 Flag: three horizontal bands of yellow (top, double-width), blue, and
 red; similar to the flag of Ecuador, which is longer and bears the
 Ecuadorian coat of arms superimposed in the center

@Colombia:Economy

 Overview: Colombia's economy has grown steadily since 1991, when the
 government implemented sweeping economic reform measures. President
 SAMPER, who took office in August 1994, has pledged to maintain those
 reforms while expanding government assistance for poor Colombians, who
 continue to make up about 40% of the population. In an effort to bring
 down inflation, SAMPER has arranged a "social pact" with business and
 labor to curtail price hikes and trim inflation to 18%. The rapid
 development of oil, coal, and other nontraditional industries, along
 with copious inflows of capital and strengthening of prices for
 coffee, have helped keep growth at 5%-6%. Development of the massive
 Cusiana oilfield provides the means to sustain this level over the
 next several years. Exporters say, however, that their sales have been
 hampered by the appreciation of the Colombian peso, and farmers have
 sought government help in adjusting to greater foreign competition.
 Moreover, increased foreign investment and even greater domestic
 growth have been hindered by an inadequate energy and transportation
 infrastructure and by violence stemming from drug trafficking and
 persistent rural insurgency.

 National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $172.4 billion (1994
 est.)

 National product real growth rate: 5.7% (1994 est.)

 National product per capita: $4,850 (1994 est.)

 Inflation rate (consumer prices): 22.6% (1994 est.)

 Unemployment rate: 7.9% (1994 est.)

 Budget:
 revenues: $16 billion (1995 est.)
 expenditures: $21 billion (1995 est.)

 Exports: $8.3 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
 commodities: petroleum, coffee, coal, bananas, fresh cut flowers
 partners: US 39%, EC 25.7%, Japan 2.9%, Venezuela 8.5% (1992)

 Imports: $10.6 billion (c.i.f., 1994 est.)
 commodities: industrial equipment, transportation equipment, consumer
 goods, chemicals, paper products
 partners: US 36%, EC 18%, Brazil 4%, Venezuela 6.5%, Japan 8.7% (1992)

 External debt: $12.6 billion (1994 est.)

 Industrial production: growth rate 5% (1994 est.); accounts for about
 20% of GDP

 Electricity:
 capacity: 10,220,000 kW
 production: 33 billion kWh
 consumption per capita: 890 kWh (1993)

 Industries: textiles, food processing, oil, clothing and footwear,
 beverages, chemicals, metal products, cement; mining - gold, coal,
 emeralds, iron, nickel, silver, salt

 Agriculture: growth rate 3.8% (1994 est.); accounts for about 15% of
 GDP; crops make up two-thirds and livestock one-third of agricultural
 output; climate and soils permit a wide variety of crops, such as
 coffee, rice, tobacco, corn, sugarcane, cocoa beans, oilseeds,
 vegetables; forest products and shrimp farming are becoming more
 important

 Illicit drugs: illicit producer of coca, opium poppies, and cannabis;
 about 45,000 hectares of coca under cultivation; the world's largest
 processor of coca derivatives into cocaine; supplier of cocaine to the
 US and other international drug markets; active eradication program
 against narcotics crop

 Economic aid:
 recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1.6 billion;
 Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
 (1970-89), $3.3 billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $399 million

 Currency: 1 Colombian peso (Col$) = 100 centavos

 Exchange rates: Colombian pesos (Col$) per US$1 - 846.67 (January
 1995), 844.84 (1994), 863.06 (1993), 759.28 (1992), 633.05 (1991),
 502.26 (1990)

 Fiscal year: calendar year

@Colombia:Transportation

 Railroads:
 total: 3,386 km
 standard gauge: 150 km 1.435-m gauge
 narrow gauge: 3,236 km 0.914-m gauge (2,611 km in use)

 Highways:
 total: 107,377 km (1991)
 paved: 12,778 km
 unpaved: gravel/earth 94,599 km

 Inland waterways: 14,300 km, navigable by river boats

 Pipelines: crude oil 3,585 km; petroleum products 1,350 km; natural
 gas 830 km; natural gas liquids 125 km

 Ports: Barranquilla, Buenaventura, Cartagena, Leticia, Puerto Bolivar,
 San Andres, Santa Marta, Tumaco, Turbo

 Merchant marine:
 total: 22 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 104,577 GRT/142,617 DWT
 ships by type: bulk 6, cargo 9, container 4, oil tanker 3

 Airports:
 total: 1,307
 with paved runways over 3,047 m: 2
 with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
 with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 34
 with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 31
 with paved runways under 914 m: 734
 with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 80
 with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 419

@Colombia:Communications

 Telephone system: 1,890,000 telephones; modern system in many respects

 local: NA
 intercity: nationwide microwave radio relay system; 11 domestic earth
 stations
 international: 2 INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean) earth stations

 Radio:
 broadcast stations: AM 413, FM 0, shortwave 28
 radios: NA

 Television:
 broadcast stations: 33
 televisions: NA

@Colombia:Defense Forces

 Branches: Army (Ejercito Nacional), Navy (Armada Nacional, includes
 Marines and Coast Guard), Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Colombiana),
 National Police (Policia Nacional)

 Manpower availability: males age 15-49 9,851,980; males fit for
 military service 6,640,348; males reach military age (18) annually
 349,599 (1995 est.)

 Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $1.2 billion (1992
 est.)


________________________________________________________________________

COMOROS

@Comoros:Geography

 Location: Southern Africa, group of islands in the Mozambique Channel,
 about two-thirds of the way between northern Madagascar and northern
 Mozambique

 Map references: Africa

 Area:
 total area: 2,170 sq km
 land area: 2,170 sq km
 comparative area: slightly more than 12 times the size of Washington,
 DC

 Land boundaries: 0 km

 Coastline: 340 km

 Maritime claims:
 exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
 territorial sea: 12 nm

 International disputes: claims French-administered Mayotte

 Climate: tropical marine; rainy season (November to May)

 Terrain: volcanic islands, interiors vary from steep mountains to low
 hills

 Natural resources: negligible

 Land use:
 arable land: 35%
 permanent crops: 8%
 meadows and pastures: 7%
 forest and woodland: 16%
 other: 34%

 Irrigated land: NA sq km

 Environment:
 current issues: soil degradation and erosion results from crop
 cultivation on slopes without proper terracing; deforestation
 natural hazards: cyclones and tsunamis possible during rainy season
 (December to April); Mount Kartala on Grand Comore is an active
 volcano
 international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
 Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer
 Protection; signed, but not ratified - Desertification

 Note: important location at northern end of Mozambique Channel

@Comoros:People

 Population: 549,338 (July 1995 est.)

 Age structure:
 0-14 years: 48% (female 131,334; male 132,327)
 15-64 years: 49% (female 137,083; male 133,629)
 65 years and over: 3% (female 7,860; male 7,105) (July 1995 est.)

 Population growth rate: 3.56% (1995 est.)

 Birth rate: 46.22 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Death rate: 10.6 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Infant mortality rate: 77.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

 Life expectancy at birth:
 total population: 58.27 years
 male: 56.04 years
 female: 60.57 years (1995 est.)

 Total fertility rate: 6.73 children born/woman (1995 est.)

 Nationality:
 noun: Comoran(s)
 adjective: Comoran

 Ethnic divisions: Antalote, Cafre, Makoa, Oimatsaha, Sakalava

 Religions: Sunni Muslim 86%, Roman Catholic 14%

 Languages: Arabic (official), French (official), Comoran (a blend of
 Swahili and Arabic)

 Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1980)
 total population: 48%
 male: 56%
 female: 40%

 Labor force: 140,000 (1982)
 by occupation: agriculture 80%, government 3%

@Comoros:Government

 Names:
 conventional long form: Federal Islamic Republic of the Comoros
 conventional short form: Comoros
 local long form: Republique Federale Islamique des Comores
 local short form: Comores

 Digraph: CN

 Type: independent republic

 Capital: Moroni

 Administrative divisions: three islands; Grand Comore (Njazidja),
 Anjouan (Nzwani), and Moheli (Mwali)
 note: there are also four municipalities named Domoni, Fomboni,
 Moroni, and Mutsamudu

 Independence: 6 July 1975 (from France)

 National holiday: Independence Day, 6 July (1975)

 Constitution: 7 June 1992

 Legal system: French and Muslim law in a new consolidated code

 Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

 Executive branch:
 chief of state: President Said Mohamed DJOHAR (since 11 March 1990);
 election last held 11 March 1990 (next to be held March 1996); results
 - Said Mohamed DJOHAR (UDZIMA) 55%, Mohamed TAKI Abdulkarim (UNDC) 45%

 head of government: Prime Minister Halifa HOUMADI (since 13 October
 1994); note - HOUMADI is the fifteenth prime minister appointed by
 President DJOHAR in the last three years
 cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by the president

 Legislative branch: unicameral
 Federal Assembly (Assemblee Federale): elections last held 12-20
 December 1993 (next to be held by NA January 1998); results - percent
 of vote by party NA; seats - (42 total) Ruling Coalition: RDR 15, UNDC
 5, MWANGAZA 2; Opposition: UDZIMA 8, other smaller parties 10; 2 seats
 remained unfilled

 Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

 Political parties and leaders: over 20 political parties are currently
 active, the most important of which are; Comoran Union for Progress
 (UDZIMA), Omar TAMOU; Islands' Fraternity and Unity Party (CHUMA),
 Said Ali KEMAL; Comoran Party for Democracy and Progress (PCDP), Ali
 MROUDJAE; Realizing Freedom's Capability (UWEZO), Mouazair ABDALLAH;
 Democratic Front of the Comoros (FDR), Moustapha CHELKH; Dialogue
 Proposition Action (DPA/MWANGAZA), Said MCHAWGAMA; Rally for Change
 and Democracy (RACHADE), Hassan HACHIM; Union for Democracy and
 Decentralization (UNDC), Mohamed Taki Halidi IBRAHAM; Rally for
 Democracy and Renewal (RDR); Comoran Popular Front (FPC), Mohamed
 HASSANALI, Mohamed El Arif OUKACHA, Abdou MOUSTAKIM (Secretary
 General)

 Member of: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AL, CCC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO,
 IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS (associate), ILO, IMF, INTELSAT
 (nonsignatory user), IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
 UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WMO

 Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Mohamed Ahamadu DJIMBANAO (ambassador to
 the US and Canada)
 chancery: (temporary) care of the Permanent Mission of the Federal and
 Islamic Republic of the Comoros to the United Nations, 336 East 45th
 Street, 2nd Floor, New York, NY 10017
 telephone: [1] (212) 972-8010
 FAX: [1] (212) 983-4712

 US diplomatic representation: none; ambassador to Port Louis,
 Mauritius, is accredited to Comoros

 Flag: green with a white crescent in the center of the field, its
 points facing upward; there are four white five-pointed stars placed
 in a line between the points of the crescent; the crescent, stars, and
 color green are traditional symbols of Islam; the four stars represent
 the four main islands of the archipelago - Mwali, Njazidja, Nzwani,
 and Mayotte (a territorial collectivity of France, but claimed by
 Comoros); the design, the most recent of several, is described in the
 constitution approved by referendum on 7 June 1992

@Comoros:Economy

 Overview: One of the world's poorest countries, Comoros is made up of
 several islands that have poor transportation links, a young and
 rapidly increasing population, and few natural resources. The low
 educational level of the labor force contributes to a subsistence
 level of economic activity, high unemployment, and a heavy dependence
 on foreign grants and technical assistance. Agriculture, including
 fishing, hunting, and forestry, is the leading sector of the economy.
 It contributes 40% to GDP, employs 80% of the labor force, and
 provides most of the exports. The country is not self-sufficient in
 food production; rice, the main staple, accounts for 90% of imports.
 The government is struggling to upgrade education and technical
 training, to privatize commercial and industrial enterprises, to
 improve health services, to diversify exports, and to reduce the high
 population growth rate. Continued foreign support is essential if the
 goal of 4% annual GDP growth is to be reached in the late 1990s.

 National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $370 million (1994
 est.)

 National product real growth rate: 0.9% (1994 est.)

 National product per capita: $700 (1994 est.)

 Inflation rate (consumer prices): 15% (1993 est.)

 Unemployment rate: 15.8% (1989)

 Budget:
 revenues: $83 million
 expenditures: $92 million, including capital expenditures of $32
 million (1992)

 Exports: $13.7 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
 commodities: vanilla, ylang-ylang, cloves, perfume oil, copra
 partners: US 44%, France 40%, Germany 6%, Africa 5% (1992)

 Imports: $40.9 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
 commodities: rice and other foodstuffs, petroleum products, cement,
 consumer goods
 partners: France 34%, South Africa 14%, Kenya 8%, Japan 4% (1992)

 External debt: $160 million (1992 est.)

 Industrial production: growth rate -6.5% (1989 est.); accounts for 6%
 of GDP

 Electricity:
 capacity: 16,000 kW
 production: 17 million kWh
 consumption per capita: 27 kWh (1993)

 Industries: perfume distillation, textiles, furniture, jewelry,
 construction materials, soft drinks

 Agriculture: accounts for 40% of GDP; most of population works in
 subsistence agriculture and fishing; plantations produce cash crops
 for export - vanilla, cloves, perfume essences, copra; principal food
 crops - coconuts, bananas, cassava; world's leading producer of
 essence of ylang-ylang (for perfumes) and second-largest producer of
 vanilla; large net food importer

 Economic aid:
 recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY80-89), $10 million;
 Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
 (1970-89), $435 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $22 million;
 Communist countries (1970-89), $18 million

 Currency: 1 Comoran franc (CF) = 100 centimes

 Exchange rates: Comoran francs (CF) per US$1 - 297.07 (January 1995),
 416.40 (1994), 254.57 (1993), 264.69 (1992), 282.11 (1991), 272.26
 (1990)
 note: beginning 12 January 1994, the Comoran franc was devalued to 75
 per French franc from 50 per French franc at which it had been fixed
 since 1948

 Fiscal year: calendar year

@Comoros:Transportation

 Railroads: 0 km

 Highways:
 total: 750 km
 paved: bituminous 210 km
 unpaved: crushed stone, gravel 540 km

 Ports: Fomboni, Moroni, Mutsamudo

 Merchant marine: none

 Airports:
 total: 4
 with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
 with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 3

@Comoros:Communications

 Telephone system: over 1,800 telephones; sparse system of radio relay
 and high-frequency radio communication stations for interisland and
 external communications to Madagascar and Reunion
 local: NA
 intercity: high frequency radio and microwave radio relay
 international: high frequency radio

 Radio:
 broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 1, shortwave 0
 radios: NA

 Television:
 broadcast stations: 0
 televisions: NA

@Comoros:Defense Forces

 Branches: Comoran Security Force

 Manpower availability: males age 15-49 117,349; males fit for military
 service 70,178 (1995 est.)

 Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP


________________________________________________________________________

CONGO

@Congo:Geography

 Location: Western Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between
 Angola and Gabon

 Map references: Africa

 Area:
 total area: 342,000 sq km
 land area: 341,500 sq km
 comparative area: slightly smaller than Montana

 Land boundaries: total 5,504 km, Angola 201 km, Cameroon 523 km,
 Central African Republic 467 km, Gabon 1,903 km, Zaire 2,410 km

 Coastline: 169 km

 Maritime claims:
 territorial sea: 200 nm

 International disputes: long segment of boundary with Zaire along the
 Congo River is indefinite (no division of the river or its islands has
 been made)

 Climate: tropical; rainy season (March to June); dry season (June to
 October); constantly high temperatures and humidity; particularly
 enervating climate astride the Equator

 Terrain: coastal plain, southern basin, central plateau, northern
 basin

 Natural resources: petroleum, timber, potash, lead, zinc, uranium,
 copper, phosphates, natural gas

 Land use:
 arable land: 2%
 permanent crops: 0%
 meadows and pastures: 29%
 forest and woodland: 62%
 other: 7%

 Irrigated land: 40 sq km (1989)

 Environment:
 current issues: air pollution from vehicle emissions; water pollution
 from the dumping of raw sewage; tap water is not potable;
 deforestation
 natural hazards: seasonal flooding
 international agreements: party to - Endangered Species, Ozone Layer
 Protection, Tropical Timber 83; signed, but not ratified -
 Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Law of the Sea,
 Tropical Timber 94

 Note: about 70% of the population lives in Brazzaville, Pointe Noire,
 or along the railroad between them

@Congo:People

 Population: 2,504,996 (July 1995 est.)

 Age structure:
 0-14 years: 44% (female 543,324; male 548,840)
 15-64 years: 53% (female 682,927; male 645,045)
 65 years and over: 3% (female 49,879; male 34,981) (July 1995 est.)

 Population growth rate: 2.32% (1995 est.)

 Birth rate: 39.86 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Death rate: 16.7 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Infant mortality rate: 109.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

 Life expectancy at birth:
 total population: 47.09 years
 male: 45.23 years
 female: 49 years (1995 est.)

 Total fertility rate: 5.23 children born/woman (1995 est.)

 Nationality:
 noun: Congolese (singular and plural)
 adjective: Congolese or Congo

 Ethnic divisions:
 south: Kongo 48%
 north: Sangha 20%, M'Bochi 12%
 center: Teke 17%, Europeans 8,500 (mostly French)

 Religions: Christian 50%, animist 48%, Muslim 2%

 Languages: French (official), African languages (Lingala and Kikongo
 are the most widely used)

 Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1984)
 total population: 60%
 male: 71%
 female: 49%

 Labor force: 79,100 wage earners
 by occupation: agriculture 75%, commerce, industry, and government 25%

@Congo:Government

 Names:
 conventional long form: Republic of the Congo
 conventional short form: Congo
 local long form: Republique Populaire du Congo
 local short form: Congo
 former: Congo/Brazzaville

 Digraph: CF

 Type: republic

 Capital: Brazzaville

 Administrative divisions: 9 regions (regions, singular - region) and 1
 commune*; Bouenza, Brazzaville*, Cuvette, Kouilou, Lekoumou, Likouala,
 Niari, Plateaux, Pool, Sangha

 Independence: 15 August 1960 (from France)

 National holiday: Congolese National Day, 15 August (1960)

 Constitution: new constitution approved by referendum March 1992

 Legal system: based on French civil law system and customary law

 Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

 Executive branch:
 chief of state: President Pascal LISSOUBA (since August 1992);
 election last held August 1992 (next to be held August 1997); results
 - President Pascal LISSOUBA won with 61% of the vote
 head of government: Prime Minister Jacques Joachim YHOMBI-OPANGO
 (since 23 June 1993)
 cabinet: Council of Ministers; named by the president

 Legislative branch: bicameral
 National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale): election last held 3 October
 1993; results - percentage vote by party NA; seats - (125 total) UPADS
 64, URD/PCT 58, others 3
 Senate: election last held 26 July 1992 (next to be held July 1998);
 results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (60 total) UPADS 23,
 MCDDI 14, RDD 8, RDPS 5, PCT 2, others 8

 Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

 Political parties and leaders: Congolese Labor Party (PCT), Denis
 SASSOU-NGUESSO, president; Pan-African Union for Social Development
 (UPADS), Pascal LISSOUBA, leader; Association for Democracy and
 Development (RDD), Joachim Yhombi OPANGO, president; Congolese
 Movement for Democracy and Integral Development (MCDDI), Bernard
 KOLELAS, leader; Association for Democracy and Social Progress (RDPS),
 Jean-Pierre Thystere TCHICAYA, president; Union of Democratic Forces
 (UFD), David Charles GANAO, leader; Union for Development and Social
 Progress (UDPS), Jean-Michael BOKAMBA-YANGOUMA, leader
 note: Congo has many political parties of which these are among the
 most important

 Other political or pressure groups: Union of Congolese Socialist Youth
 (UJSC); Congolese Trade Union Congress (CSC); Revolutionary Union of
 Congolese Women (URFC); General Union of Congolese Pupils and Students
 (UGEEC)

 Member of: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CCC, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77,
 GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO,
 INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, UDEAC, UN, UNAMIR, UNAVEM II,
 UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

 Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Pierre Damien BOUSSOUKOU-BOUMBA
 chancery: 4891 Colorado Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20011
 telephone: [1] (202) 726-0825
 FAX: [1] (202) 726-1860

 US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission: Ambassador William C. RAMSEY
 embassy: Avenue Amilcar Cabral, Brazzaville
 mailing address: B. P. 1015, Brazzaville
 telephone: [242] 83 20 70
 FAX: [242] 83 63 38

 Flag: red, divided diagonally from the lower hoist side by a yellow
 band; the upper triangle (hoist side) is green and the lower triangle
 is red; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

@Congo:Economy

 Overview: Congo's economy is a mixture of village agriculture and
 handicrafts, an industrial sector based largely on oil, support
 services, and a government characterized by budget problems and
 overstaffing. A reform program, supported by the IMF and World Bank,
 ran into difficulties in 1990-91 because of problems in changing to a
 democratic political regime and a heavy debt-servicing burden. Oil has
 supplanted forestry as the mainstay of the economy, providing about
 two-thirds of government revenues and exports. In the early 1980s
 rapidly rising oil revenues enabled Congo to finance large-scale
 development projects with growth averaging 5% annually, one of the
 highest rates in Africa. Subsequently, growth has slowed to an average
 of roughly 1.5% annually, only two-thirds of the population growth
 rate. Political turmoil and misguided government investment have
 derailed economic reform programs sponsored by the IMF and World Bank.
 Even with these difficulties Congo enjoys one of the highest incomes
 per capita in sub-Saharan Africa

 National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $6.7 billion (1993
 est.)

 National product real growth rate: -2.1% (1993 est.)

 National product per capita: $2,820 (1994 est.)

 Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.2% (1992 est.)

 Unemployment rate: NA%

 Budget:
 revenues: $765 million
 expenditures: $952 million, including capital expenditures of $65
 million (1990)

 Exports: $1.1 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
 commodities: crude oil 83%, lumber, plywood, sugar, cocoa, coffee,
 diamonds
 partners: US, Italy, France, Spain, other EC countries

 Imports: $472 million (c.i.f., 1991)
 commodities: intermediate manufactures, capital equipment,
 construction materials, foodstuffs
 partners: France, US, Italy, Japan, other EC countries

 External debt: $4 billion (1993)

 Industrial production: growth rate 8% (1993 est.); accounts for 35% of
 GDP; includes petroleum

 Electricity:
 capacity: 120,000 kW
 production: 400 million kWh
 consumption per capita: 201 kWh (1993)

 Industries: petroleum, cement, lumbering, brewing, sugar milling, palm
 oil, soap, cigarette

 Agriculture: accounts for 12% of GDP (including fishing and forestry);
 cassava accounts for 90% of food output; other crops - rice, corn,
 peanuts, vegetables; cash crops include coffee and cocoa; forest
 products important export earner; imports over 90% of food needs

 Economic aid:
 recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-90), $63 million;
 Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
 (1970-90), $2.5 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $15 million;
 Communist countries (1970-89), $338 million

 Currency: 1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes

 Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1
 - 529.43 (January 1994), 555.20 (1994), 283.16 (1993), 264.69 (1992),
 282.11 (1991), 272.26 (1990)
 note: beginning 12 January 1994, the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF
 100 per French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since
 1948

 Fiscal year: calendar year

@Congo:Transportation

 Railroads:
 total: 797 km (includes 285 km that are privately owned)
 narrow gauge: 797 km 1.067-m gauge

 Highways:
 total: 11,960 km
 paved: 560 km
 unpaved: gravel or crushed stone 850 km; improved earth 5,350 km;
 unimproved earth 5,200 km

 Inland waterways: the Congo and Ubangi (Oubangui) Rivers provide 1,120
 km of commercially navigable water transport; the rest are used for
 local traffic only

 Pipelines: crude oil 25 km

 Ports: Brazzaville, Impfondo, Ouesso, Oyo, Pointe-Noire

 Merchant marine: none

 Airports:
 total: 41
 with paved runways over 3,047 m: 1
 with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
 with paved runways under 914 m: 11
 with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 8
 with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 18

@Congo:Communications

 Telephone system: 18,100 telephones; 7 telephones/1,000 persons;
 services adequate for government use; key centers are Brazzaville,
 Pointe-Noire, and Loubomo
 local: NA
 intercity: primary network consists of microwave radio relay and
 coaxial cable
 international: 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

 Radio:
 broadcast stations: AM 4, FM 1, shortwave 0
 radios: NA

 Television:
 broadcast stations: 4
 televisions: NA

@Congo:Defense Forces

 Branches: Army, Navy (includes Marines), Air Force, National Police

 Manpower availability: males age 15-49 568,663; males fit for military
 service 289,335; males reach military age (20) annually 24,749 (1995
 est.)

 Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $110 million, 3.8% of
 GDP (1993)


________________________________________________________________________

COOK ISLANDS

 (free association with New Zealand) 

@Cook Islands:Geography

 Location: Oceania, group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean, about
 one-half of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand

 Map references: Oceania

 Area:
 total area: 240 sq km
 land area: 240 sq km
 comparative area: slightly less than 1.3 times the size of Washington,
 DC

 Land boundaries: 0 km

 Coastline: 120 km

 Maritime claims:
 continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
 exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
 territorial sea: 12 nm

 International disputes: none

 Climate: tropical; moderated by trade winds

 Terrain: low coral atolls in north; volcanic, hilly islands in south

 Natural resources: negligible

 Land use:
 arable land: 4%
 permanent crops: 22%
 meadows and pastures: 0%
 forest and woodland: 0%
 other: 74%

 Irrigated land: NA sq km

 Environment:
 current issues: NA
 natural hazards: typhoons (November to March)
 international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change;
 signed, but not ratified - Law of the Sea

@Cook Islands:People

 Population: 19,343 (July 1995 est.)

 Age structure:
 0-14 years: NA
 15-64 years: NA
 65 years and over: NA

 Population growth rate: 1.13% (1995 est.)

 Birth rate: 23.05 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Death rate: 5.2 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Net migration rate: -6.53 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Infant mortality rate: 24.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

 Life expectancy at birth:
 total population: 71.14 years
 male: 69.2 years
 female: 73.1 years (1995 est.)

 Total fertility rate: 3.27 children born/woman (1995 est.)

 Nationality:
 noun: Cook Islander(s)
 adjective: Cook Islander

 Ethnic divisions: Polynesian (full blood) 81.3%, Polynesian and
 European 7.7%, Polynesian and other 7.7%, European 2.4%, other 0.9%

 Religions: Christian (majority of populace members of Cook Islands
 Christian Church)

 Languages: English (official), Maori

 Literacy: NA%

 Labor force: 5,810
 by occupation: agriculture 29%, government 27%, services 25%, industry
 15%, other 4% (1981)

@Cook Islands:Government

 Names:
 conventional long form: none
 conventional short form: Cook Islands

 Digraph: CW

 Type: self-governing parliamentary government in free association with
 New Zealand; Cook Islands is fully responsible for internal affairs;
 New Zealand retains responsibility for external affairs, in
 consultation with the Cook Islands

 Capital: Avarua

 Administrative divisions: none

 Independence: none (became self-governing in free association with New
 Zealand on 4 August 1965 and has the right at any time to move to full
 independence by unilateral action)

 National holiday: Constitution Day, 4 August

 Constitution: 4 August 1965

 Legal system: NA

 Suffrage: universal adult at age NA

 Executive branch:
 chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952);
 Representative of the Queen Apenera SHORT (since NA); Representative
 of New Zealand Adrian SINCOCK (since NA)
 head of government: Prime Minister Geoffrey HENRY (since 1 February
 1989); Deputy Prime Minister Inatio AKARURU (since 1 February 1989)
 cabinet: Cabinet; collectively responsible to the Parliament

 Legislative branch: unicameral
 Parliament: elections last held 24 March 1994 (next to be held NA);
 results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (25 total) Cook Islands
 Party 20, Democratic Party 3, Alliance Party 2
 note: the House of Arikis (chiefs) advises on traditional matters, but
 has no legislative powers

 Judicial branch: High Court

 Political parties and leaders: Cook Islands Party, Geoffrey HENRY;
 Democratic Party, Sir Thomas DAVIS; Cook Islands Labor Party, Rena
 JONASSEN; Cook Islands People's Party, Sadaraka SADARAKA; Alliance
 Party, Norman GEORGE

 Member of: AsDB, ESCAP (associate), ICAO, ICFTU, IFAD, INTELSAT
 (nonsignatory user), IOC, SPARTECA, SPC, SPF, UNESCO, WHO

 Diplomatic representation in US: none (self-governing in free
 association with New Zealand)

 US diplomatic representation: none (self-governing in free association
 with New Zealand)

 Flag: blue, with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant
 and a large circle of 15 white five-pointed stars (one for every
 island) centered in the outer half of the flag

@Cook Islands:Economy

 Overview: Agriculture provides the economic base. The major export
 earners are fruit, copra, and clothing. Manufacturing activities are
 limited to a fruit-processing plant and several clothing factories.
 Economic development is hindered by the isolation of the islands from
 foreign markets and a lack of natural resources and good
 transportation links. A large trade deficit is annually made up for by
 remittances from emigrants and from foreign aid, largely from New
 Zealand. Current economic development plans call for exploiting the
 tourism potential and expanding the fishing industry.

 National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $57 million (1993
 est.)

 National product real growth rate: NA%

 National product per capita: $3,000 (1993 est.)

 Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6.2% (1990)

 Unemployment rate: NA%

 Budget:
 revenues: $38 million
 expenditures: $34.4 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
 (1993 est.)

 Exports: $3.4 million (f.o.b., 1990)
 commodities: copra, fresh and canned fruit, clothing
 partners: NZ 80%, Japan

 Imports: $50 million (c.i.f., 1990)
 commodities: foodstuffs, textiles, fuels, timber
 partners: NZ 49%, Japan, Australia, US

 External debt: $124 million (1994)

 Industrial production: growth rate NA%; accounts for 5% of GDP

 Electricity:
 capacity: 14,000 kW
 production: 21 million kWh
 consumption per capita: 741 kWh (1993)

 Industries: fruit processing, tourism

 Agriculture: accounts for 12% of GDP, export crops - copra, citrus
 fruits, pineapples, tomatoes, bananas; subsistence crops - yams, taro

 Economic aid:
 recipient: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral
 commitments (1970-89), $128 million; in 1994, Cook Islands received
 $4.3 million in budget support and $2.7 million in project aid from
 New Zealand, the country's largest source of aid

 Currency: 1 New Zealand dollar (NZ$) = 100 cents

 Exchange rates: New Zealand dollars (NZ$) per US$1 - 1.5601 (January
 1995), 1.6844 (1994), 1.8495 (1993), 1.8584 (1992), 1.7265 (1991),
 1.6750 (1990)

 Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Cook Islands:Transportation

 Railroads: 0 km

 Highways:
 total: 187 km
 paved: 35 km
 unpaved: gravel 35 km; improved earth 84 km; unimproved earth 33 km
 (1980)

 Ports: Avarua, Avatiu

 Merchant marine:
 total: 1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,464 GRT/2,181 DWT

 Airports:
 total: 7
 with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
 with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 3
 with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 3

@Cook Islands:Communications

 Telephone system: 2,052 telephones
 local: NA
 intercity: NA
 international: 1 INTELSAT (Pacific Ocean) earth station

 Radio:
 broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 1, shortwave 0
 radios: 11,000

 Television:
 broadcast stations: 1
 televisions: 17,000 (1989)

@Cook Islands:Defense Forces

 Note: defense is the responsibility of New Zealand


________________________________________________________________________

CORAL SEA ISLANDS

 (territory of Australia) 

@Coral Sea Islands:Geography

 Location: Oceania, islands in the Coral Sea, northeast of Australia

 Map references: Oceania

 Area:
 total area: less than 3 sq km
 land area: less than 3 sq km
 comparative area: NA
 note: includes numerous small islands and reefs scattered over a sea
 area of about 1 million sq km, with Willis Islets the most important

 Land boundaries: 0 km

 Coastline: 3,095 km

 Maritime claims:
 exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
 territorial sea: 3 nm

 International disputes: none

 Climate: tropical

 Terrain: sand and coral reefs and islands (or cays)

 Natural resources: negligible

 Land use:
 arable land: 0%
 permanent crops: 0%
 meadows and pastures: 0%
 forest and woodland: 0%
 other: 100% (mostly grass or scrub cover)

 Irrigated land: 0 sq km

 Environment:
 current issues: no permanent fresh water resources
 natural hazards: occasional, tropical cyclones
 international agreements: NA

 Note: important nesting area for birds and turtles

@Coral Sea Islands:People

 Population: no indigenous inhabitants; note - there are 3
 meteorologists

@Coral Sea Islands:Government

 Names:
 conventional long form: Coral Sea Islands Territory
 conventional short form: Coral Sea Islands

 Digraph: CR

 Type: territory of Australia administered by the Ministry for
 Environment, Sport, and Territories

 Capital: none; administered from Canberra, Australia

 Independence: none (territory of Australia)

 Flag: the flag of Australia is used

@Coral Sea Islands:Economy

 Overview: no economic activity

@Coral Sea Islands:Transportation

 Ports: none; offshore anchorage only

@Coral Sea Islands:Defense Forces

 Note: defense is the responsibility of Australia; visited regularly by
 the Royal Australian Navy; Australia has control over the activities
 of visitors


________________________________________________________________________

COSTA RICA

@Costa Rica:Geography

 Location: Middle America, bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the
 North Pacific Ocean, between Nicaragua and Panama

 Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

 Area:
 total area: 51,100 sq km
 land area: 50,660 sq km
 comparative area: slightly smaller than West Virginia
 note: includes Isla del Coco

 Land boundaries: total 639 km, Nicaragua 309 km, Panama 330 km

 Coastline: 1,290 km

 Maritime claims:
 exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
 territorial sea: 12 nm

 International disputes: none

 Climate: tropical; dry season (December to April); rainy season (May
 to November)

 Terrain: coastal plains separated by rugged mountains

 Natural resources: hydropower potential

 Land use:
 arable land: 6%
 permanent crops: 7%
 meadows and pastures: 45%
 forest and woodland: 34%
 other: 8%

 Irrigated land: 1,180 sq km (1989 est.)

 Environment:
 current issues: deforestation, largely a result of the clearing of
 land for cattle ranching; soil erosion
 natural hazards: occasional earthquakes, hurricanes along Atlantic
 coast; frequent flooding of lowlands at onset of rainy season; active
 volcanoes
 international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
 Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban,
 Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands, Whaling; signed, but not ratified -
 Desertification, Marine Life Conservation

@Costa Rica:People

 Population: 3,419,114 (July 1995 est.)

 Age structure:
 0-14 years: 35% (female 585,976; male 617,456)
 15-64 years: 60% (female 1,013,491; male 1,036,195)
 65 years and over: 5% (female 88,050; male 77,946) (July 1995 est.)

 Population growth rate: 2.24% (1995 est.)

 Birth rate: 24.88 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Death rate: 3.47 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Net migration rate: 1.02 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Infant mortality rate: 10.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

 Life expectancy at birth:
 total population: 78.11 years
 male: 76.21 years
 female: 80.1 years (1995 est.)

 Total fertility rate: 3.01 children born/woman (1995 est.)

 Nationality:
 noun: Costa Rican(s)
 adjective: Costa Rican

 Ethnic divisions: white (including mestizo) 96%, black 2%, Indian 1%,
 Chinese 1%

 Religions: Roman Catholic 95%

 Languages: Spanish (official), English; spoken around Puerto Limon

 Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1984)
 total population: 93%
 male: 93%
 female: 93%

 Labor force: 868,300
 by occupation: industry and commerce 35.1%, government and services
 33%, agriculture 27%, other 4.9% (1985 est.)

@Costa Rica:Government

 Names:
 conventional long form: Republic of Costa Rica
 conventional short form: Costa Rica
 local long form: Republica de Costa Rica
 local short form: Costa Rica

 Digraph: CS

 Type: democratic republic

 Capital: San Jose

 Administrative divisions: 7 provinces (provincias, singular -
 provincia); Alajuela, Cartago, Guanacaste, Heredia, Limon, Puntarenas,
 San Jose

 Independence: 15 September 1821 (from Spain)

 National holiday: Independence Day, 15 September (1821)

 Constitution: 9 November 1949

 Legal system: based on Spanish civil law system; judicial review of
 legislative acts in the Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
 jurisdiction

 Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

 Executive branch:
 chief of state and head of government: President Jose Maria FIGUERES
 Olsen (since 8 May 1994); First Vice President Rodrigo OREAMUNO Blanco
 (since 8 May 1994); Second Vice President Rebeca GRYNSPAN Mayufis
 (since 8 May 1994); election last held 6 February 1994 (next to be
 held February 1998); results - President FIGUERES (PLN party) 49.7%,
 Miquel Angel RODRIGUEZ (PUSC party) 47.5%
 cabinet: Cabinet; selected by the president

 Legislative branch: unicameral
 Legislative Assembly (Asamblea Legislativa): elections last held 6
 February 1994 (next to be held February 1998); results - percent of
 vote by party NA; seats - (61 total) PLN 28, PUSC 29, minority parties
 4

 Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema)

 Political parties and leaders: National Liberation Party (PLN), Manuel
 AGUILAR Bonilla; Social Christian Unity Party (PUSC), Rafael Angel
 CALDERON Fournier; Marxist Popular Vanguard Party (PVP), Humberto
 VARGAS Carbonell; New Republic Movement (MNR), Sergio Erick ARDON
 Ramirez; Progressive Party (PP), Isaac Felipe AZOFEIFA Bolanos;
 People's Party of Costa Rica (PPC), Lenin CHACON Vargas; Radical
 Democratic Party (PRD), Juan Jose ECHEVERRIA Brealey

 Other political or pressure groups: Costa Rican Confederation of
 Democratic Workers (CCTD, Liberation Party affiliate); Confederated
 Union of Workers (CUT, Communist Party affiliate); Authentic
 Confederation of Democratic Workers (CATD, Communist Party affiliate);
 Chamber of Coffee Growers; National Association for Economic
 Development (ANFE); Free Costa Rica Movement (MCRL, rightwing
 militants); National Association of Educators (ANDE)

 Member of: AG (observer), BCIE, CACM, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB,
 IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO,
 INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer), NAM
 (observer), OAS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNU, UPU, WCL,
 WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

 Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Sonia PICADO
 chancery: 2114 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
 telephone: [1] (202) 234-2945
 FAX: [1] (202) 265-4795
 consulate(s) general: Albuquerque, Atlanta, Chicago, Durham, Houston,
 Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, Orlando, Philadelphia, San
 Antonio, San Diego, San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico)
 consulate(s): Austin

 US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission: US Ambassador to Costa Rica Peter DE VOS
 embassy: Pavas Road, San Jose
 mailing address: APO AA 34020
 telephone: [506] 220-3939
 FAX: [506] 220-2305

 Flag: five horizontal bands of blue (top), white, red (double width),
 white, and blue, with the coat of arms in a white disk on the hoist
 side of the red band

@Costa Rica:Economy

 Overview: Costa Rica's basically stable and progressive economy
 depends especially on tourism and export of bananas, coffee, and other
 agricultural products. In 1994 the economy grew at an estimated 4.3%,
 compared with 6.5% in 1993, 7.7% in 1992, and 2.1% in 1991. Inflation
 in 1993 dropped to 9% from 17% in 1992 and 25% in 1991, an indication
 of basic financial stability. Unemployment is officially reported at
 only 4.0%, but there is much underemployment. Costa Rica signed a free
 trade agreement with Mexico in 1994.

 National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $16.9 billion (1994
 est.)

 National product real growth rate: 4.3% (1994 est.)

 National product per capita: $5,050 (1994 est.)

 Inflation rate (consumer prices): 9% (1993 est.)

 Unemployment rate: 4% (1993); much underemployment

 Budget:
 revenues: $1.1 billion
 expenditures: $1.34 billion, including capital expenditures of $110
 million (1991 est.)

 Exports: $2.1 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
 commodities: coffee, bananas, textiles, sugar
 partners: US, Germany, Italy, Guatemala, El Salvador, Netherlands, UK,
 France

 Imports: $2.9 billion (c.i.f., 1993)
 commodities: raw materials, consumer goods, capital equipment,
 petroleum
 partners: US, Japan, Mexico, Guatemala, Venezuela, Germany

 External debt: $3.2 billion (1991)

 Industrial production: growth rate 10.5% (1992); accounts for 22% of
 GDP

 Electricity:
 capacity: 1,040,000 kW
 production: 4.1 billion kWh
 consumption per capita: 1,164 kWh (1993)

 Industries: food processing, textiles and clothing, construction
 materials, fertilizer, plastic products

 Agriculture: accounts for 19% of GDP and 70% of exports; cash
 commodities - coffee, beef, bananas, sugar; other food crops include
 corn, rice, beans, potatoes; normally self-sufficient in food except
 for grain; depletion of forest resources resulting in lower timber
 output

 Illicit drugs: transshipment country for cocaine and heroin from South
 America; illicit production of cannabis on small, scattered plots

 Economic aid:
 recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1.4 billion;
 Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
 (1970-89), $935 million; Communist countries (1971-89), $27 million

 Currency: 1 Costa Rican colon (C) = 100 centimos

 Exchange rates: Costa Rican colones (C) per US$1 - 164.39 (December
 1994), 157.07 (1994), 142.17 (1993), 134.51 (1992), 122.43 (1991),
 91.58 (1990)

 Fiscal year: calendar year

@Costa Rica:Transportation

 Railroads:
 total: 950 km (260 km electrified)
 narrow gauge: 950 km 1.067-m gauge

 Highways:
 total: 35,560 km
 paved: 5,600 km
 unpaved: gravel and earth 29,960 km (1992)

 Inland waterways: about 730 km, seasonally navigable

 Pipelines: petroleum products 176 km

 Ports: Caldera, Golfito, Moin, Puerto Limon, Puerto Quepos, Puntarenas

 Merchant marine: none

 Airports:
 total: 174
 with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
 with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
 with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 17
 with paved runways under 914 m: 117
 with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 1
 with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 36

@Costa Rica:Communications

 Telephone system: 292,000 telephones; very good domestic telephone
 service
 local: NA
 intercity: NA
 international: connection into Central American Microwave System; 1
 INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean) earth station

 Radio:
 broadcast stations: AM 71, FM 0, shortwave 13
 radios: NA

 Television:
 broadcast stations: 18
 televisions: NA

@Costa Rica:Defense Forces

 Branches: Civil Guard, Coast Guard, Air Section, Rural Assistance
 Guard; note - the Constitution prohibits armed forces

 Manpower availability: males age 15-49 896,516; males fit for military
 service 602,785; males reach military age (18) annually 32,815 (1995
 est.)

 Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $22 million, 0.5% of
 GDP (1989)


________________________________________________________________________

COTE D'IVOIRE

 (also known as Ivory Coast) 

@Cote D'ivoire:Geography

 Location: Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between
 Ghana and Liberia

 Map references: Africa

 Area:
 total area: 322,460 sq km
 land area: 318,000 sq km
 comparative area: slightly larger than New Mexico

 Land boundaries: total 3,110 km, Burkina 584 km, Ghana 668 km, Guinea
 610 km, Liberia 716 km, Mali 532 km

 Coastline: 515 km

 Maritime claims:
 continental shelf: 200 nm
 exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
 territorial sea: 12 nm

 International disputes: none

 Climate: tropical along coast, semiarid in far north; three seasons -
 warm and dry (November to March), hot and dry (March to May), hot and
 wet (June to October)

 Terrain: mostly flat to undulating plains; mountains in northwest

 Natural resources: petroleum, diamonds, manganese, iron ore, cobalt,
 bauxite, copper

 Land use:
 arable land: 9%
 permanent crops: 4%
 meadows and pastures: 9%
 forest and woodland: 26%
 other: 52%

 Irrigated land: 620 sq km (1989 est.)

 Environment:
 current issues: deforestation (most of the country's forests - once
 the largest in West Africa - have been cleared by the timber
 industry); water pollution from sewage and industrial and agricultural
 effluents
 natural hazards: coast has heavy surf and no natural harbors; during
 the rainy season torrential flooding is possible
 international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
 Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping,
 Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical
 Timber 83; signed, but not ratified - Desertification

@Cote D'ivoire:People

 Population: 14,791,257 (July 1995 est.)

 Age structure:
 0-14 years: 48% (female 3,506,147; male 3,534,751)
 15-64 years: 50% (female 3,619,759; male 3,820,999)
 65 years and over: 2% (female 142,366; male 167,235) (July 1995 est.)

 Population growth rate: 3.38% (1995 est.)

 Birth rate: 46.17 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Death rate: 14.95 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Net migration rate: NA migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)
 note: since 1989, over 350,000 refugees have fled to Cote d'Ivoire to
 escape the civil war in Liberia; if a lasting peace is achieved in
 Liberia in 1995, large numbers of refugees can be expected to return
 to their homes

 Infant mortality rate: 93.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

 Life expectancy at birth:
 total population: 48.87 years
 male: 46.52 years
 female: 51.29 years (1995 est.)

 Total fertility rate: 6.61 children born/woman (1995 est.)

 Nationality:
 noun: Ivorian(s)
 adjective: Ivorian

 Ethnic divisions: Baoule 23%, Bete 18%, Senoufou 15%, Malinke 11%,
 Agni, foreign Africans (mostly Burkinabe and Malians, about 3
 million), non-Africans 130,000 to 330,000 (French 30,000 and Lebanese
 100,000 to 300,000)

 Religions: indigenous 25%, Muslim 60%, Christian 12%

 Languages: French (official), 60 native dialects; Dioula is the most
 widely spoken

 Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1988)
 total population: 34%
 male: 44%
 female: 23%

 Labor force: 5.718 million
 by occupation: over 85% of population engaged in agriculture,
 forestry, livestock raising; about 11% of labor force are wage
 earners, nearly half in agriculture and the remainder in government,
 industry, commerce, and professions

@Cote D'ivoire:Government

 Names:
 conventional long form: Republic of Cote d'Ivoire
 conventional short form: Cote d'Ivoire
 local long form: Republique de Cote d'Ivoire
 local short form: Cote d'Ivoire
 former: Ivory Coast

 Digraph: IV

 Type: republic; multiparty presidential regime established 1960

 Capital: Yamoussoukro
 note: although Yamoussoukro has been the capital since 1983, Abidjan
 remains the administrative center; foreign governments, including the
 United States, maintain presence in Abidjan

 Administrative divisions: 50 departments (departements, singular -
 departement); Abengourou, Abidjan, Aboisso, Adzope, Agboville,
 Agnibilekrou, Bangolo, Beoumi, Biankouma, Bondoukou, Bongouanou,
 Bouafle, Bouake, Bouna, Boundiali, Dabakala, Daloa, Danane, Daoukro,
 Dimbokro, Divo, Duekoue, Ferkessedougou, Gagnoa, Grand-Lahou, Guiglo,
 Issia, Katiola, Korhogo, Lakota, Man, Mankono, Mbahiakro, Odienne,
 Oume, Sakassou, San-Pedro, Sassandra, Seguela, Sinfra, Soubre, Tabou,
 Tanda, Tingrela, Tiassale, Touba, Toumodi, Vavoua, Yamoussoukro,
 Zuenoula

 Independence: 7 August 1960 (from France)

 National holiday: National Day, 7 December

 Constitution: 3 November 1960; has been amended numerous times, last
 time November 1990

 Legal system: based on French civil law system and customary law;
 judicial review in the Constitutional Chamber of the Supreme Court;
 has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

 Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

 Executive branch:
 chief of state: President Henri Konan BEDIE (since 7 December 1993)
 constitutional successor who will serve during the remainder of the
 term of former President Felix HOUPHOUET-BOIGNY who died in office
 after continuous service from November 1960 (next election October
 1995)
 head of government: Prime Minister Daniel Kablan DUNCAN (since 10
 December 1993)
 cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by the prime minister

 Legislative branch: unicameral
 National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale): elections last held 25
 November 1990 (next to be held November 1995); results - percent of
 vote by party NA; seats - (175 total) PDCI 163, FPI 9, PIT 1,
 independents 2

 Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

 Political parties and leaders: Democratic Party of the Cote d'Ivoire
 (PDCI), Henri Konan BEDIE; Rally of the Republicans (RDR), Djeny
 KOBINA; Ivorian Popular Front (FPI), Laurent GBAGBO; Ivorian Worker's
 Party (PIT), Francis WODIE; Ivorian Socialist Party (PSI), Morifere
 BAMBA; over 20 smaller parties

 Member of: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEAO, ECA, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ,
 G-24, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
 ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD,
 UNESCO, UNIDO, UNITAR, UPU, WADB, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

 Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Moise KOUMOUE-KOFFI
 chancery: 2424 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
 telephone: [1] (202) 797-0300

 US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Hume A. HORAN
 embassy: 5 Rue Jesse Owens, Abidjan
 mailing address: 01 B. P. 1712, Abidjan
 telephone: [225] 21 09 79, 21 46 72
 FAX: [225] 22 32 59

 Flag: three equal vertical bands of orange (hoist side), white, and
 green; similar to the flag of Ireland, which is longer and has the
 colors reversed - green (hoist side), white, and orange; also similar
 to the flag of Italy, which is green (hoist side), white, and red;
 design was based on the flag of France

@Cote D'ivoire:Economy

 Overview: Cote d'Ivoire is among the world's largest producers and
 exporters of coffee, cocoa beans, and palm-kernel oil. Consequently,
 the economy is highly sensitive to fluctuations in international
 prices for coffee and cocoa and to weather conditions. Despite
 attempts by the government to diversify, the economy is still largely
 dependent on agriculture and related industries. After several years
 of lagging performance, the Ivorian economy began a comeback in 1994,
 due to improved prices for cocoa and coffee, growth in non-traditional
 primary exports such as pineapples and rubber, trade and banking
 liberalization, offshore oil and gas discoveries, and generous
 external financing and debt rescheduling by multilateral lenders and
 France. The 50% devaluation in January 1994 caused a one time jump in
 the inflation rate. Government adherence to a renewed structural
 adjustment program has led to a budget surplus for the first time in
 several years, a smaller personnel budget, and an increase in public
 investment. While real growth in 1994 was only 1.5%, the IMF and World
 Bank expect it will surpass 6% in 1995.

 National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $20.5 billion (1994
 est.)

 National product real growth rate: 1.5% (1994 est.)

 National product per capita: $1,430 (1994 est.)

 Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

 Unemployment rate: 14% (1985)

 Budget:
 revenues: $1.9 billion
 expenditures: $3.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $408
 million (1993)

 Exports: $2.7 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
 commodities: cocoa 30%, coffee 20%, tropical woods 11%, petroleum,
 cotton, bananas, pineapples, palm oil, cotton
 partners: France, Netherlands, Germany, Italy, Burkina, US, Belgium,
 UK (1992)

 Imports: $1.6 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
 commodities: food, capital goods, consumer goods, fuel
 partners: France, Nigeria, Japan, Netherlands, US (1992)

 External debt: $17.3 billion (1993 est.)

 Industrial production: growth rate 0% (1993 est.); accounts for 20% of
 GDP, including petroleum

 Electricity:
 capacity: 1,170,000 kW
 production: 1.8 billion kWh
 consumption per capita: 123 kWh (1993)

 Industries: foodstuffs, wood processing, oil refining, automobile
 assembly, textiles, fertilizer, beverages

 Agriculture: most important sector, contributing one-third to GDP and
 80% to exports; cash crops include coffee, cocoa beans, timber,
 bananas, palm kernels, rubber; food crops - corn, rice, manioc, sweet
 potatoes; not self-sufficient in bread grain and dairy products

 Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis; mostly for local
 consumption; some international drug trade; transshipment point for
 Southwest and Southeast Asian heroin to Europe and occasionally to the
 US

 Economic aid:
 recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $356 million;
 Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
 (1970-88), $5.2 billion

 Currency: 1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes

 Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1
 - 529.43 (January 1995), 555.20 (1994), 283.16 (1993), 264.69 (1992),
 282.11 (1991), 272.26 (1990)
 note: beginning 12 January 1994, the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF
 100 per French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since
 1948

 Fiscal year: calendar year

@Cote D'ivoire:Transportation

 Railroads:
 total: 660 km (25 km double track)
 narrow gauge: 660 km 1.000-meter gauge

 Highways:
 total: 46,600 km
 paved: 3,600 km
 unpaved: gravel, crushed stone, improved earth 32,000 km; unimproved
 earth 11,000 km

 Inland waterways: 980 km navigable rivers, canals, and numerous
 coastal lagoons

 Ports: Abidjan, Aboisso, Dabou, San-Pedro

 Merchant marine:
 total: 5 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 49,671 GRT/69,216 DWT
 ships by type: chemical tanker 1, container 2, oil tanker 1,
 roll-on/roll-off cargo 1

 Airports:
 total: 40
 with paved runways over 3,047 m: 1
 with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
 with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
 with paved runways under 914 m: 11
 with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 6
 with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 16

@Cote D'ivoire:Communications

 Telephone system: 87,700 telephones; well-developed by African
 standards but operating well below capacity; consists of open-wire
 lines and radio relay microwave links
 local: NA
 intercity: NA microwave radio relay
 international: 2 INTELSAT (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) earth
 stations; 2 coaxial submarine cables

 Radio:
 broadcast stations: AM 71, FM 0, shortwave 13
 radios: NA

 Television:
 broadcast stations: 18
 televisions: NA

@Cote D'ivoire:Defense Forces

 Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, paramilitary Gendarmerie,
 Presidential Guard, Military Fire Group

 Manpower availability: males age 15-49 3,318,314; males fit for
 military service 1,724,020; males reach military age (18) annually
 154,120 (1995 est.)

 Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $140 million, 1.4% of
 GDP (1993)


________________________________________________________________________

CROATIA

@Croatia:Geography

 Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea, between
 Bosnia and Herzegovina and Slovenia

 Map references: Ethnic Groups in Eastern Europe, Europe

 Area:
 total area: 56,538 sq km
 land area: 56,410 sq km
 comparative area: slightly smaller than West Virginia

 Land boundaries: total 2,028 km, Bosnia and Herzegovina 932 km,
 Hungary 329 km, Serbia and Montenegro 266 km (241 km with Serbia; 25
 km with Montenego), Slovenia 501 km

 Coastline: 5,790 km (mainland 1,778 km, islands 4,012 km)

 Maritime claims:
 continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

 International disputes: Ethnic Serbs have occupied UN protected areas
 in eastern Croatia and along the western Bosnia and Herzegovinian
 border

 Climate: Mediterranean and continental; continental climate
 predominant with hot summers and cold winters; mild winters, dry
 summers along coast

 Terrain: geographically diverse; flat plains along Hungarian border,
 low mountains and highlands near Adriatic coast, coastline, and
 islands

 Natural resources: oil, some coal, bauxite, low-grade iron ore,
 calcium, natural asphalt, silica, mica, clays, salt

 Land use:
 arable land: 32%
 permanent crops: 20%
 meadows and pastures: 18%
 forest and woodland: 15%
 other: 15%

 Irrigated land: NA sq km

 Environment:
 current issues: air pollution (from metallurgical plants) and
 resulting acid rain is damaging the forests; coastal pollution from
 industrial and domestic waste; widespread casualties and destruction
 of infrastructure in border areas affected by civil strife
 natural hazards: frequent and destructive earthquakes
 international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Hazardous Wastes,
 Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
 Pollution, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Air Pollution-Sulphur
 94, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification

 Note: controls most land routes from Western Europe to Aegean Sea and
 Turkish Straits

@Croatia:People

 Population: 4,665,821 (July 1995 est.)

 Age structure:
 0-14 years: 19% (female 418,272; male 442,064)
 15-64 years: 68% (female 1,592,187; male 1,588,455)
 65 years and over: 13% (female 394,650; male 230,193) (July 1995 est.)

 Population growth rate: 0.13% (1995 est.)

 Birth rate: 11.02 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Death rate: 10.55 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Net migration rate: 0.77 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Infant mortality rate: 8.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

 Life expectancy at birth:
 total population: 74.02 years
 male: 70.59 years
 female: 77.65 years (1995 est.)

 Total fertility rate: 1.62 children born/woman (1995 est.)

 Nationality:
 noun: Croat(s)
 adjective: Croatian

 Ethnic divisions: Croat 78%, Serb 12%, Muslim 0.9%, Hungarian 0.5%,
 Slovenian 0.5%, others 8.1% (1991)

 Religions: Catholic 76.5%, Orthodox 11.1%, Slavic Muslim 1.2%,
 Protestant 0.4%, others and unknown 10.8%

 Languages: Serbo-Croatian 96%, other 4%

 Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1991)
 total population: 97%
 male: 99%
 female: 95%

 Labor force: 1,509,489
 by occupation: industry and mining 37%, agriculture 16% (1981 est.),
 government NA%, other

@Croatia:Government

 Names:
 conventional long form: Republic of Croatia
 conventional short form: Croatia
 local long form: Republika Hrvatska
 local short form: Hrvatska

 Digraph: HR

 Type: parliamentary democracy

 Capital: Zagreb

 Administrative divisions: 21 counties (zupanijas, zupanija -
 singular): Bjelovar-Bilogora, City of Zagreb, Dubrovnik-Neretva,
 Istra, Karlovac, Koprivnica-Krizevci, Krapina-Zagorje, Lika-Senj,
 Medimurje, Osijek-Baranja, Pozega-Slavonija, Primorje-Gorski Kotar,
 Sibenik, Sisak-Moslavina, Slavonski Brod-Posavina, Split-Dalmatia,
 Varazdin, Virovitica-Podravina, Vukovar-Srijem, Zadar-Knin, Zagreb

 Independence: 25 June 1991 (from Yugoslavia)

 National holiday: Statehood Day, 30 May (1990)

 Constitution: adopted on 22 December 1990

 Legal system: based on civil law system

 Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal (16 years of age, if employed)

 Executive branch:
 chief of state: President Franjo TUDJMAN (since 30 May 1990); election
 last held 4 August 1992 (next to be held NA 1997); results - Franjo
 TUDJMAN reelected with about 56% of the vote; his opponent Dobroslav
 PARAGA got 5% of the vote
 head of government: Prime Minister Nikica VALENTIC (since 3 April
 1993); Deputy Prime Ministers Mato GRANIC (since 8 September 1992);
 Ivica KOSTOVIC (since 14 October 1993); Jure RADIC (since NA);
 Borislav SKEGRO (since 3 April 1993)
 cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by the president

 Legislative branch: bicameral parliament Assembly (Sabor)
 House of Districts (Zupanije Dom): elections last held 7 and 21
 February 1993 (next to be held NA February 1997); results - percent of
 vote by party NA; seats - (68 total; 63 elected, 5 presidentially
 appointed) HDZ 37, HSLS 16, HSS 5, Istrian Democratic Assembly 3,
 SPH-SDP 1, HNS 1
 House of Representatives (Predstavnicke Dom): elections last held 2
 August 1992 (next to be held NA August 1996); results - percent of
 vote by party NA; seats - (138 total) HDZ 85, HSLS 14, SPH-SDP 11, HNS
 6, Dalmatian Action/Istrian Democratic Assembly/ Rijeka Democratic
 Alliance coalition 6, HSP 5, HSS 3, SNS 3, independents 5

 Judicial branch: Supreme Court, Constitutional Court

 Political parties and leaders: Croatian Democratic Union (HDZ), Zlatko
 CANJUGA, secretary general; Croatian Democratic Independents (HND),
 Stjepan MESIC, president; Croatian Social Liberal Party (HSLS), Drazen
 BUDISA, president; Croatian Democratic Peasant Party (HDSS), Ante
 BABIC; Croatian Party of Rights (HSP), Ante DAPIC; Croatian Peasants'
 Party (HSS), Josip PANKRETIC; Croatian People's Party (HNS), Radimir
 CACIC, president; Dalmatian Action (DA), Mira LJUBIC-LORGER; Serb
 National Party (SNS), Milan DJUKIC; Social Democratic Action (SDP),
 Miko TRIPALO; other small parties include the Istrian Democratic
 Assembly and the Rijeka Democratic Alliance

 Other political or pressure groups: NA

 Member of: CCC, CE (guest), CEI, EBRD, ECE, FAO, IADB, IAEA, IBRD,
 ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT,
 INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM (observer), OSCE, UN, UNCTAD,
 UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

 Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Petar A. SARCEVIC
 chancery: 2343 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
 telephone: [1] (202) 588-5899
 FAX: [1] (202) 588-8936
 consulate(s) general: New York

 US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Peter W. GALBRAITH
 embassy: Andrije Hebranga 2, Zagreb
 mailing address: US Embassy, Zagreb, Unit 1345, APO AE 09213-1345
 telephone: [385] (41) 456-000
 FAX: [385] (41) 440-235

 Flag: red, white, and blue horizontal bands with Croatian coat of arms
 (red and white checkered)

@Croatia:Economy

 Overview: Before the dissolution of Yugoslavia, the republic of
 Croatia, after Slovenia, was the most prosperous and industrialized
 area, with a per capita output perhaps one-third above the Yugoslav
 average. At present, Croatian Serb Separatists control approximately
 one-third of the Croatian territory, and one of the overriding
 determinants of Croatia's long-term political and economic prospects
 will be the resolution of this territorial dispute. Croatia faces
 serious economic problems stemming from: the legacy of longtime
 Communist mismanagement of the economy; large foreign debt; damage
 during the fighting to bridges, factories, power lines, buildings, and
 houses; the large refugee population, both Croatian and Bosnian; and
 the disruption of economic ties to Serbia and the other former
 Yugoslav republics, as well as within its own territory. At the
 minimum, extensive Western aid and investment, especially in the
 tourist and oil industries, would seem necessary to revive the
 moribund economy. However, peace and political stability must come
 first; only then will recent government moves toward a
 "market-friendly" economy restore old levels of output. As of February
 1995, fighting continues among Croats, Serbs, and Muslims, and
 national boundaries and final political arrangements are still in
 doubt.

 National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $12.4 billion (1994
 est.)

 National product real growth rate: 3.4% (1994 est.)

 National product per capita: $2,640 (1994 est.)

 Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3% (1994 est.)

 Unemployment rate: 17% (December 1994)

 Budget:
 revenues: $NA
 expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

 Exports: $3.9 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
 commodities: machinery and transport equipment 30%, other
 manufacturers 37%, chemicals 11%, food and live animals 9%, raw
 materials 6.5%, fuels and lubricants 5% (1990)
 partners: EC countries, Slovenia

 Imports: $4.7 billion (c.i.f., 1993)
 commodities: machinery and transport equipment 21%, fuels and
 lubricants 19%, food and live animals 16%, chemicals 14%, manufactured
 goods 13%, miscellaneous manufactured articles 9%, raw materials 6.5%,
 beverages and tobacco 1% (1990)
 partners: EC countries, Slovenia, FSU countries

 External debt: $2.9 billion (September 1994)

 Industrial production: growth rate -4% (1994 est.)

 Electricity:
 capacity: 3,570,000 kW
 production: NA kWh
 consumption per capita: NA kWh (1993)

 Industries: chemicals and plastics, machine tools, fabricated metal,
 electronics, pig iron and rolled steel products, aluminum reduction,
 paper, wood products (including furniture), building materials
 (including cement), textiles, shipbuilding, petroleum and petroleum
 refining, food processing and beverages

 Agriculture: Croatia normally produces a food surplus; most
 agricultural land in private hands and concentrated in Croat-majority
 districts in Slavonia and Istria; much of Slavonia's land has been put
 out of production by fighting; wheat, corn, sugar beets, sunflowers,
 alfalfa, and clover are main crops in Slavonia; central Croatian
 highlands are less fertile but support cereal production, orchards,
 vineyards, livestock breeding, and dairy farming; coastal areas and
 offshore islands grow olives, citrus fruits, and vegetables

 Economic aid:
 recipient: IMF, $192 million

 Currency: 1 Croatian kuna (HRK) = 100 paras

 Exchange rates: Croatian kuna per US $1 - 5.6144 (November 1994)

 Fiscal year: calendar year

@Croatia:Transportation

 Railroads:
 total: 2,699 km
 standard gauge: 2,699 km 1.435-m gauge (963 km electrified)
 note: disrupted by territorial dispute (1994)

 Highways:
 total: 27,368 km
 paved: 22,176 km (302 km of expressways)
 unpaved: 5,192 km (1991)

 Inland waterways: 785 km perennially navigable

 Pipelines: crude oil 670 km; petroleum products 20 km; natural gas 310
 km (1992); note - now disrupted because of territorial dispute

 Ports: Dubrovnik, Omis, Ploce, Pula, Rijeka, Sibenik, Split, Zadar

 Merchant marine:
 total: 35 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 181,565 GRT/225,533 DWT
 ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 20, chemical tanker 1, container 2, oil
 tanker 2, passenger 2, refrigerated cargo 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 2,
 short-sea passenger 4
 note: also controlled by Croatian shipowners are 134 ships (1,000 GRT
 or over) totaling 3,286,231 DWT that operate under Maltese and Saint
 Vincent and the Grenadines registry

 Airports:
 total: 76
 with paved runways over 3,047 m: 2
 with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 6
 with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
 with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 1
 with paved runways under 914 m: 55
 with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 2
 with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 8

@Croatia:Communications

 Telephone system: 350,000 telephones
 local: NA
 intercity: NA
 international: no satellite links

 Radio:
 broadcast stations: AM 14, FM 8, shortwave 0
 radios: 1.1 million

 Television:
 broadcast stations: 12 (repeaters 2)
 televisions: 1.027 million

@Croatia:Defense Forces

 Branches: Ground Forces, Naval Forces, Air and Air Defense Forces,
 Frontier Guard, Home Guard

 Manpower availability: males age 15-49 1,183,184; males fit for
 military service 943,749; males reach military age (19) annually
 32,831 (1995 est.)

 Defense expenditures: 337 billion to 393 billion dinars, NA% of GDP
 (1993 est.); note - conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars
 using the current exchange rate could produce misleading results


________________________________________________________________________

CUBA

@Cuba:Geography

 Location: Caribbean, island between the Caribbean Sea and the North
 Atlantic Ocean, south of Florida

 Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

 Area:
 total area: 110,860 sq km
 land area: 110,860 sq km
 comparative area: slightly smaller than Pennsylvania

 Land boundaries: total 29 km, US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay 29 km
 note: Guantanamo Naval Base is leased by the US and thus remains part
 of Cuba

 Coastline: 3,735 km

 Maritime claims:
 exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
 territorial sea: 12 nm

 International disputes: US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay is leased to
 US and only mutual agreement or US abandonment of the area can
 terminate the lease

 Climate: tropical; moderated by trade winds; dry season (November to
 April); rainy season (May to October)

 Terrain: mostly flat to rolling plains with rugged hills and mountains
 in the southeast

 Natural resources: cobalt, nickel, iron ore, copper, manganese, salt,
 timber, silica, petroleum

 Land use:
 arable land: 23%
 permanent crops: 6%
 meadows and pastures: 23%
 forest and woodland: 17%
 other: 31%

 Irrigated land: 8,960 sq km (1989)

 Environment:
 current issues: pollution of Havana Bay; overhunting threatens
 wildlife populations; deforestation
 natural hazards: the east coast is subject to hurricanes from August
 to October (in general, the country averages about one hurricane every
 other year); droughts are common
 international agreements: party to - Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity,
 Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification,
 Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer
 Protection, Ship Pollution; signed, but not ratified -
 Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Desertification, Marine Life
 Conservation

 Note: largest country in Caribbean

@Cuba:People

 Population: 10,937,635 (July 1995 est.)

 Age structure:
 0-14 years: 22% (female 1,191,320; male 1,256,928)
 15-64 years: 68% (female 3,732,434; male 3,751,464)
 65 years and over: 10% (female 528,104; male 477,385) (July 1995 est.)

 Population growth rate: 0.65% (1995 est.)

 Birth rate: 14.54 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Death rate: 6.53 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Net migration rate: -1.55 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Infant mortality rate: 8.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

 Life expectancy at birth:
 total population: 77.05 years
 male: 74.86 years
 female: 79.37 years (1995 est.)

 Total fertility rate: 1.63 children born/woman (1995 est.)

 Nationality:
 noun: Cuban(s)
 adjective: Cuban

 Ethnic divisions: mulatto 51%, white 37%, black 11%, Chinese 1%

 Religions: nominally Roman Catholic 85% prior to Castro assuming power

 Languages: Spanish

 Literacy: age 15-49 and over can read and write (1981)
 total population: 98%

 Labor force: 4,620,800 economically active population (1988);
 3,578,800 in state sector
 by occupation: services and government 30%, industry 22%, agriculture
 20%, commerce 11%, construction 10%, transportation and communications
 7% (June 1990)

@Cuba:Government

 Names:
 conventional long form: Republic of Cuba
 conventional short form: Cuba
 local long form: Republica de Cuba
 local short form: Cuba

 Digraph: CU

 Type: Communist state

 Capital: Havana

 Administrative divisions: 14 provinces (provincias, singular -
 provincia) and 1 special municipality* (municipio especial); Camaguey,
 Ciego de Avila, Cienfuegos, Ciudad de La Habana, Granma, Guantanamo,
 Holguin, Isla de la Juventud*, La Habana, Las Tunas, Matanzas, Pinar
 del Rio, Sancti Spiritus, Santiago de Cuba, Villa Clara

 Independence: 20 May 1902 (from Spain 10 December 1898; administered
 by the US from 1898 to 1902)

 National holiday: Rebellion Day, 26 July (1953)

 Constitution: 24 February 1976

 Legal system: based on Spanish and American law, with large elements
 of Communist legal theory; does not accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

 Suffrage: 16 years of age; universal

 Executive branch:
 chief of state and head of government: President of the Council of
 State and President of the Council of Ministers Fidel CASTRO Ruz
 (Prime Minister from February 1959 until 24 February 1976 when office
 was abolished; President since 2 December 1976); First Vice President
 of the Council of State and First Vice President of the Council of
 Ministers Gen. Raul CASTRO Ruz (since 2 December 1976)
 cabinet: Council of Ministers; proposed by the president of the
 Council of State, appointed by the National Assembly

 Legislative branch: unicameral
 National Assembly of People's Power: (Asamblea Nacional del Poder
 Popular) elections last held February 1993 (next to be held NA); seats
 - 589 total, elected directly from slates approved by special
 candidacy commissions

 Judicial branch: People's Supreme Court (Tribunal Supremo Popular)

 Political parties and leaders: only party - Cuban Communist Party
 (PCC), Fidel CASTRO Ruz, first secretary

 Member of: CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, ICAO, ICRM, IFAD, IFRCS,
 ILO, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC, ISO,
 ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer), NAM, OAS (excluded from formal
 participation since 1962), PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL,
 WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

 Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission: Principal Officer Alfonso FRAGA PEREZ (since August
 1992) represented by the Cuban Interests Section of the Swiss Embassy
 in Washington, DC
 chancery: 2630 and 2639 16th Street NW, Cuban Interests Section, Swiss
 Embassy, Washington, DC 20009
 telephone: [1] (202) 797-8609, 8610, 8615

 US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission: Principal Officer Joseph G. SULLIVAN
 US Interests Section: USINT, Swiss Embassy, Calzada Entre L Y M,
 Vedado Seccion, Havana
 mailing address: use street address
 telephone: 33-3551 through 3559, 33-3543 through 3547, 33-3700
 (operator assistance required)
 FAX: Telex 512206
 note: protecting power in Cuba is Switzerland - US Interests Section,
 Swiss Embassy

 Flag: five equal horizontal bands of blue (top and bottom) alternating
 with white; a red equilateral triangle based on the hoist side bears a
 white five-pointed star in the center

@Cuba:Economy

 Overview: Cuba's heavily statist economy remains severely depressed as
 the result of its own inefficiencies and the loss of massive amounts
 of economic aid from the former Soviet Bloc. Total output in 1994 was
 only about half the output of 1989. The fall in output and in imports
 is reflected in the deterioration of food supplies, shortages of
 electricity, inability to get spare parts, and the replacement of
 motor-driven vehicles by bicycles and draft animals. Higher world
 market prices for sugar and nickel in 1994, however, resulted in a
 slight increase in export earnings for the first time in six years,
 despite lower production of both commodities. The growth of tourism
 slowed in late 1994 as a result of negative publicity surrounding the
 exodus of Cubans from the island and other international factors. The
 government continued its aggressive search for foreign investment and
 announced preliminary agreements to form large joint ventures with
 Mexican investors in telecommunications and oil refining. In mid-1994,
 the National Assembly began introducing several new taxes and price
 increases to stem growing excess liquidity and restore some of the
 peso's value as a monetary instrument. In October the government
 attempted to stimulate food production by permitting the sale of any
 surplus production (over state quotas) at unrestricted prices at
 designated markets. Similar but much smaller markets were also
 introduced for the sale of manufactured goods in December. The various
 government measures have influenced a remarkable appreciation of the
 black market value of the peso, from more than 100 pesos to the dollar
 in September 1994 to 40 pesos to the dollar in early 1995. Policy
 discussions continue in the bureaucracy over the proper pace and scope
 of economic reform.

 National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $14 billion (1994
 est.)

 National product real growth rate: 0.4% (1994 est.)

 National product per capita: $1,260 (1994 est.)

 Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

 Unemployment rate: NA%

 Budget:
 revenues: $9.3 billion
 expenditures: $12.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
 (1994 est.)

 Exports: $1.6 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
 commodities: sugar, nickel, shellfish, tobacco, medical products,
 citrus, coffee
 partners: Russia 15%, Canada 9%, China 8%, Egypt 6%, Spain 5%, Japan
 4%, Morocco 4% (1994 est.)

 Imports: $1.7 billion (c.i.f., 1994 est.)
 commodities: petroleum, food, machinery, chemicals
 partners: Spain 17%, Mexico 10%, France 8%, China 8%, Venezuela 7%,
 Italy 4%, Canada 3%, (1994 est.)

 External debt: $10.8 billion (convertible currency, December 1993)

 Industrial production: growth rate NA%

 Electricity:
 capacity: 3,990,000 kW
 production: 12 billion kWh
 consumption per capita: 1,022 kWh (1993)

 Industries: sugar milling and refining, petroleum refining, food and
 tobacco processing, textiles, chemicals, paper and wood products,
 metals (particularly nickel), cement, fertilizers, consumer goods,
 agricultural machinery

 Agriculture: key commercial crops - sugarcane, tobacco, and citrus
 fruits; other products - coffee, rice, potatoes, meat, beans; world's
 largest sugar exporter; not self-sufficient in food (excluding sugar);
 sector hurt by persistent shortages of fuels and parts

 Economic aid:
 recipient: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral
 commitments (1970-89), $710 million; Communist countries (1970-89),
 $18.5 billion

 Currency: 1 Cuban peso (Cu$) = 100 centavos

 Exchange rates: Cuban pesos (Cu$) per US$1 - 1.0000 (non-convertible,
 official rate, linked to the US dollar)

 Fiscal year: calendar year

@Cuba:Transportation

 Railroads:
 total: 12,623 km
 standard gauge: 4,881 km 1.435-m gauge (151.7 km electrified)
 other: 7,742 km 0.914- and 1.435-m gauge for sugar plantation lines

 Highways:
 total: 26,477 km
 paved: 14,477 km
 unpaved: gravel or earth 12,000 km (1989)

 Inland waterways: 240 km

 Ports: Cienfuegos, La Habana, Manzanillo, Mariel, Matanzas, Nuevitas,
 Santiago de Cuba

 Merchant marine:
 total: 48 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 278,103 GRT/396,138 DWT
 ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 22, chemical tanker 1, liquefied gas
 tanker 4, oil tanker 10, passenger-cargo 1, refrigerated cargo 9
 note: Cuba beneficially owns an additional 24 ships (1,000 GRT or
 over) totaling 215,703 DWT under the registry of Panama, Cyprus,
 Malta, and Mauritius

 Airports:
 total: 181
 with paved runways over 3,047 m: 7
 with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
 with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 13
 with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 10
 with paved runways under 914 m: 106
 with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 1
 with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 36

@Cuba:Communications

 Telephone system: 229,000 telephones; 20.7 telephones/1,000 persons;
 among the world's least developed telephone systems
 local: NA
 intercity: NA
 international: 1 INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean) earth station

 Radio:
 broadcast stations: AM 150, FM 5, shortwave 0
 radios: 2.14 million

 Television:
 broadcast stations: 58
 televisions: 1.53 million

@Cuba:Defense Forces

 Branches: Revolutionary Armed Forces (FAR) includes ground forces,
 Revolutionary Navy (MGR), Air and Air Defense Force (DAAFAR),
 Territorial Militia Troops (MTT), and Youth Labor Army (EJT); Interior
 Ministry Border Guards (TGF),

 Manpower availability: males age 15-49 3,065,751; females age 15-49
 3,023,997; males fit for military service 1,909,901; females fit for
 military service 1,878,768; males reach military age (17) annually
 72,582; females reach military age (17) annually 69,361 (1995 est.)

 Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - approx. $600 million,
 4% of GSP (gross social product) in 1994 was for defense

 Note: Moscow, for decades the key military supporter and supplier of
 Cuba, cut off military aid by 1993


________________________________________________________________________

CYPRUS

@Cyprus:Geography

 Location: Middle East, island in the Mediterreanean Sea, south of
 Turkey

 Map references: Middle East

 Area:
 total area: 9,250 sq km (note - 3,355 sq km are in the Turkish area)
 land area: 9,240 sq km
 comparative area: about 0.7 times the size of Connecticut

 Land boundaries: 0 km

 Coastline: 648 km

 Maritime claims:
 continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
 territorial sea: 12 nm

 International disputes: 1974 hostilities divided the island into two
 de facto autonomous areas, a Greek area controlled by the Cypriot
 Government (59% of the island's land area) and a Turkish-Cypriot area
 (37% of the island), that are separated by a UN buffer zone (4% of the
 island); there are two UK sovereign base areas within the Greek
 Cypriot portion of the island

 Climate: temperate, Mediterranean with hot, dry summers and cool, wet
 winters

 Terrain: central plain with mountains to north and south; scattered
 but significant plains along southern coast

 Natural resources: copper, pyrites, asbestos, gypsum, timber, salt,
 marble, clay earth pigment

 Land use:
 arable land: 40%
 permanent crops: 7%
 meadows and pastures: 10%
 forest and woodland: 18%
 other: 25%

 Irrigated land: 350 sq km (1989)

 Environment:
 current issues: water resource problems (no natural reservoir
 catchments, seasonal disparity in rainfall, and most potable resources
 concentrated in the Turkish Cypriot area); water pollution from sewage
 and industrial wastes; coastal degradation; loss of wildlife habitats
 from urbanization
 natural hazards: moderate earthquake activity
 international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Endangered
 Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea,
 Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
 Pollution; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change

@Cyprus:People

 Population:
 total: 736,636 (July 1995 est.) (78% Greek, 18% Turk, 4% other)
 Greek area: 602,656 (July 1995 est.) (94.9% Greek, 0.3% Turk, 4.8%
 other)
 Turkish area: 133,980 (July 1995 est.) (2.1% Greek, 97.7% Turk, 0.2%
 other)

 Age structure:
 0-14 years: 26% (female 92,179; male 97,723)
 15-64 years: 64% (female 234,929; male 236,693)
 65 years and over: 10% (female 42,190; male 32,922) (July 1995 est.)

 Population growth rate: 0.88% (1995 est.)

 Birth rate: 16.27 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Death rate: 7.48 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Infant mortality rate: 8.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

 Life expectancy at birth:
 total population: 76.47 years
 male: 74.19 years
 female: 78.85 years (1995 est.)

 Total fertility rate: 2.3 children born/woman (1995 est.)

 Nationality:
 noun: Cypriot(s)
 adjective: Cypriot

 Ethnic divisions:
 total: Greek 78% (99.5% of the Greeks live in the Greek area; 0.5% of
 the Greeks live in the Turkish area), Turkish 18% (1.3% of the Turks
 live in the Greek area; 98.7% of the Turks live in the Turkish area),
 other 4% (99.2% of the other ethnic groups live in the Greek area;
 0.8% of the other ethnic groups live in the Turkish area)

 Religions: Greek Orthodox 78%, Muslim 18%, Maronite, Armenian
 Apostolic, and other 4%

 Languages: Greek, Turkish, English

 Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1987 est.)
 total population: 94%
 male: 98%
 female: 91%

 Labor force:
 Greek area: 285,500
 by occupation: services 57%, industry 29%, agriculture 14% (1992)
 Turkish area: 74,000
 by occupation: services 52%, industry 23%, agriculture 25% (1992)

@Cyprus:Government

 Names:
 conventional long form: Republic of Cyprus
 conventional short form: Cyprus
 note: the Turkish area refers to itself as the "Turkish Republic" or
 the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus"

 Abbreviation: the Turkish area is sometimes referred to as the TRNC
 which is short for "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus"

 Digraph: CY

 Type: republic
 note: a disaggregation of the two ethnic communities inhabiting the
 island began after the outbreak of communal strife in 1963; this
 separation was further solidified following the Turkish invasion of
 the island in July 1974, which gave the Turkish Cypriots de facto
 control in the north; Greek Cypriots control the only internationally
 recognized government; on 15 November 1983 Turkish Cypriot President
 Rauf DENKTASH declared independence and the formation of a "Turkish
 Republic of Northern Cyprus" (TRNC), which has been recognized only by
 Turkey; both sides publicly call for the resolution of intercommunal
 differences and creation of a new federal system of government

 Capital: Nicosia
 note: the Turkish area's capital is Lefkosa (Nicosia)

 Administrative divisions: 6 districts; Famagusta, Kyrenia, Larnaca,
 Limassol, Nicosia, Paphos; note - Turkish area administrative
 divisions include Kyrenia, all but a small part of Famagusta, and
 small parts of Nicosia and Larnaca

 Independence: 16 August 1960 (from UK)
 note: Turkish area proclaimed self-rule on NA February 1975 from
 Republic of Cyprus

 National holiday: Independence Day, 1 October
 note: Turkish area celebrates 15 November as Independence Day

 Constitution: 16 August 1960; negotiations to create the basis for a
 new or revised constitution to govern the island and to better
 relations between Greek and Turkish Cypriots have been held
 intermittently; in 1975 Turkish Cypriots created their own
 Constitution and governing bodies within the "Turkish Federated State
 of Cyprus," which was renamed the "Turkish Republic of Northern
 Cyprus" in 1983; a new Constitution for the Turkish area passed by
 referendum on 5 May 1985

 Legal system: based on common law, with civil law modifications

 Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

 Executive branch:
 chief of state and head of government: President Glafcos CLERIDES
 (since 28 February 1993); election last held 14 February 1993 (next to
 be held February 1998); results - Glafkos CLERIDES 50.3%, George
 VASSILIOU 49.7%
 cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed jointly by the president and
 vice-president
 note: Rauf R. DENKTASH has been president of the Turkish area since 13
 February 1975; Hakki ATUN has been prime minister of the Turkish area
 since 1 January 1994; there is a Council of Ministers (cabinet) in the
 Turkish area; elections last held 15 and 22 April 1995 (next to be
 held April 2000); results - Rauf R. DENKTASH 62.5%, Dervis EROGLU
 37.5%

 Legislative branch: unicameral
 Greek area: House of Representatives (Vouli Antiprosopon): elections
 last held 19 May 1991 (next to be held NA); results - DISY 35.8%, AKEL
 (Communist) 30.6%, DIKO 19.5%, EDEK 10.9%; others 3.2%; seats - (56
 total) DISY 20, AKEL (Communist) 18, DIKO 11, EDEK 7
 Turkish area: Assembly of the Republic (Cumhuriyet Meclisi): elections
 last held 12 December 1993 (next to be held NA); results - UBP 29.9%,
 DP 29.2%, CTP 24.2% TKP 13.3%, others 3.4%; seats - (50 total) UBP
 (conservative) 15, DP 16, CTP 13, TKP 5, UDP 1

 Judicial branch: Supreme Court; note - there is also a Supreme Court
 in the Turkish area

 Political parties and leaders:
 Greek area: Progressive Party of the Working People (AKEL, Communist
 Party), Dimitrios CHRISTOFIAS; Democratic Rally (DISY), John MATSIS;
 Democratic Party (DIKO), Spyros KYPRIANOU; United Democratic Union of
 the Center (EDEK), Vassos LYSSARIDIS; Socialist Democratic Renewal
 Movement (ADISOK), Mikhalis PAPAPETROU; Liberal Party, Nikos ROLANDIS;
 Free Democrats, George VASSILIOU
 Turkish area: National Unity Party (UBP), Dervis EROGLU; Communal
 Liberation Party (TKP), Mustafa AKINCI; Republican Turkish Party
 (CTP), Ozker OZGUR; New Cyprus Party (YKP), Alpay DURDURAN; Free
 Democratic Party (HDP), Ismet KOTAK; National Justice Party (MAP),
 Zorlu TORE; Unity and Sovereignty Party (BEP), Arif Salih KIRDAG;
 Democratic Party (DP), Hakki ATUN; Fatherland Party (VP), Orhan UCOK;
 National Birth Party (UDP); the HDP, MAP, and VP merged under the
 label National Struggle Unity Party (MMBP) to compete in the 12
 December 1993 legislative election

 Other political or pressure groups: United Democratic Youth
 Organization (EDON, Communist controlled); Union of Cyprus Farmers
 (EKA, Communist controlled); Cyprus Farmers Union (PEK, pro-West);
 Pan-Cyprian Labor Federation (PEO, Communist controlled);
 Confederation of Cypriot Workers (SEK, pro-West); Federation of
 Turkish Cypriot Labor Unions (Turk-Sen); Confederation of
 Revolutionary Labor Unions (Dev-Is)

 Member of: C, CCC, CE, EBRD, ECE, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
 ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS (associate), ILO, IMF, IMO,
 INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAS (observer),
 OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
 WTO

 Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Andreas J. JACOVIDES
 chancery: 2211 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
 telephone: [1] (202) 462-5772
 consulate(s) general: New York
 note: Representative of the Turkish area in the US is Namik KORMAN,
 office at 1667 K Street NW, Washington, DC, telephone [1] (202)
 887-6198

 US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Richard A. BOUCHER
 embassy: corner of Metochiou and Ploutarchou Streets, Engomi, Nicosia
 mailing address: P. O. Box 4536 APO AE 09836
 telephone: [357] (2) 476100
 FAX: [357] (2) 465944

 Flag: white with a copper-colored silhouette of the island (the name
 Cyprus is derived from the Greek word for copper) above two green
 crossed olive branches in the center of the flag; the branches
 symbolize the hope for peace and reconciliation between the Greek and
 Turkish communities
 note: the Turkish Cypriot flag has a horizontal red stripe at the top
 and bottom between which is a red crescent and red star on a white
 field

@Cyprus:Economy

 Overview: The Greek Cypriot economy is small, diversified, and
 prosperous. Industry contributes 14% to GDP and employs 29% of the
 labor force, while the service sector contributes 53% to GDP and
 employs 57% of the labor force. An average 6.8% rise in real GDP
 between 1986 and 1990 was temporarily checked in 1991, because of the
 adverse effects of the Gulf war on tourism. After surging 8.5% in
 1992, growth slowed to 2.0% in 1993 - its lowest level in two decades
 - because of the decline in tourist arrivals associated with the
 recession in Western Europe, Cyprus' main trading partner, and the
 loss in export competitiveness due to a sharp rise in unit labor
 costs. Real GDP is likely to have picked up in 1994, and inflation is
 estimated to have risen to between 5% and 6%. The Turkish Cypriot
 economy has less than one-third the per capita GDP of the south.
 Because it is recognized only by Turkey, it has had much difficulty
 arranging foreign financing, and foreign firms have hesitated to
 invest there. The economy remains heavily dependent on agriculture,
 which employs one-quarter of the work force. Moreover, because the
 Turkish lira is legal tender, the Turkish Cypriot economy has suffered
 the same high inflation as mainland Turkey. The small, vulnerable
 economy is estimated to have experienced a sharp drop in growth during
 1994 because of the severe economic crisis affecting the mainland. To
 compensate for the economy's weakness, Turkey provides direct and
 indirect aid to nearly every sector; financial support has risen in
 value to about one-third of Turkish Cypriot GDP.

 National product:
 Greek area: GDP - purchasing power parity - $7.3 billion (1994 est.)
 Turkish area: GDP - purchasing power parity - $510 million (1994 est.)

 National product real growth rate:
 Greek area: 5% (1994 est.)
 Turkish area: -4% (1994 est.)

 National product per capita:
 Greek area: $12,500 (1994 est.)
 Turkish area: $3,500 (1994 est.)

 Inflation rate (consumer prices):
 Greek area: 4.8% (1993)
 Turkish area: 63.4% (1992)

 Unemployment rate:
 Greek area: 2.3% (1993)
 Turkish area: 1.2% (1992)

 Budget:
 revenues: Greek area - $1.8 billion Turkish area - $285 million
 expenditures: Greek area - $2.4 billion, including capital
 expenditures of $400 million Turkish area - $377 million, including
 capital expenditures of $80 million (1995 est.)

 Exports: $868 million (f.o.b., 1993)
 commodities: citrus, potatoes, grapes, wine, cement, clothing and
 shoes
 partners: UK 18%, Greece 9%, Lebanon 14%, Germany 6%

 Imports: $2.6 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
 commodities: consumer goods, petroleum and lubricants, food and feed
 grains, machinery
 partners: UK 13%, Japan 9%, Italy 10%, Germany 8%, US 8%

 External debt: $2.4 billion (1993)

 Industrial production: growth rate 0.1% (1993); accounts for 14% of
 GDP

 Electricity:
 capacity: 550,000 kW
 production: 2.3 billion kWh
 consumption per capita: 2,903 kWh (1993)

 Industries: food, beverages, textiles, chemicals, metal products,
 tourism, wood products

 Agriculture: contributes 6% to GDP and employs 25% of labor force in
 the south; major crops - potatoes, vegetables, barley, grapes, olives,
 citrus fruits; vegetables and fruit provide 25% of export revenues

 Illicit drugs: transit point for heroin via air routes and container
 traffic to Europe, especially from Lebanon and Turkey

 Economic aid:
 recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $292 million;
 Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
 (1970-89), $250 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $62 million;
 Communist countries (1970-89), $24 million

 Currency: 1 Cypriot pound (#C) = 100 cents; 1 Turkish lira (TL) = 100
 kurus

 Exchange rates: Cypriot pounds per $US1 - 0.4725 (January 1995),
 0.4915 (1994), 0.4970 (1993), 0.4502 (1992), 0.4615 (1991), 0.4572
 (1990); Turkish liras (TL) per US$1 - 37,444.1 (December 1994),
 29,608.7 (1994), 10,984.6 (1993), 6,872.4 (1992), 4,171.8 (1991),
 2,608.6 (1990)

 Fiscal year: calendar year

@Cyprus:Transportation

 Railroads: 0 km

 Highways:
 Greek area: *** No data for this item ***
 total: 10,448 km
 paved: 5,694 km
 unpaved: gravel, crushed stone, earth 4,754 km (1992)
 Turkish area: *** No data for this item ***
 total: 6,116 km
 paved: 5,278 km
 unpaved: 838 km

 Ports: Famagusta, Kyrenia, Larnaca, Limassol, Vasilikos Bay

 Merchant marine:
 total: 1,446 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 22,911,818
 GRT/39,549,216 DWT
 ships by type: bulk 473, cargo 530, chemical tanker 28, combination
 bulk 55, combination ore/oil 24, container 92, liquefied gas tanker 3,
 multifunction large-load carrier 5, oil tanker 120, passenger 5,
 passenger-cargo 1, railcar carrier 1, refrigerated cargo 58,
 roll-on/roll-off cargo 33, short-sea passenger 14, specialized tanker
 2, vehicle carrier 2
 note: a flag of convenience registry; includes 48 countries among
 which are ships of Greece 705, Germany 174, Russia 56, Netherlands 45,
 Japan 27, Belgium 25, UK 21, Spain 17, Switzerland 14, Hong Kong 13

 Airports:
 total: 15
 with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
 with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 3
 with paved runways under 914 m: 4
 with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 1

@Cyprus:Communications

 Telephone system: 210,000 telephones; excellent in both the area
 controlled by the Cypriot Government (Greek area), and in the
 Turkish-Cypriot administered area; largely open-wire and microwave
 radio relay
 local: NA
 intercity: microwave radio relay
 international: international service by tropospheric scatter, 3
 submarine cables, and 2 INTELSAT (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean)
 and 1 EUTELSAT earth station

 Radio:
 Greek sector: NA
 broadcast stations: AM 11, FM 8, shortwave 0
 radios: NA
 Turkish sector: NA
 broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 6, shortwave 0
 radios: NA

 Television:
 Greek sector: NA
 broadcast stations: 1 (repeaters 34)
 televisions: NA
 Turkish sector: NA
 broadcast stations: 1
 televisions: NA

@Cyprus:Defense Forces

 Branches:
 Greek area: Greek Cypriot National Guard (GCNG; includes air and naval
 elements), Greek Cypriot Police
 Turkish area: Turkish Cypriot Security Force

 Manpower availability: males age 15-49 188,231; males fit for military
 service 129,397; males reach military age (18) annually 5,467 (1995
 est.)

 Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $457 million, 5.6% of
 GDP (1995)


________________________________________________________________________

CZECH REPUBLIC

@Czech Republic:Geography

 Location: Central Europe, southeast of Germany

 Map references: Ethnic Groups in Eastern Europe, Europe

 Area:
 total area: 78,703 sq km
 land area: 78,645 sq km
 comparative area: slightly smaller than South Carolina

 Land boundaries: total 1,880 km, Austria 362 km, Germany 646 km,
 Poland 658 km, Slovakia 214 km

 Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

 Maritime claims: none; landlocked

 International disputes: Liechtenstein claims restitution for l,600
 square kilometers of Czech territory confiscated from its royal family
 in 1918; Sudeten German claims for restitution of property confiscated
 in connection with their expulsion after World War II versus the Czech
 Republic claims that restitution does not preceed before February 1948
 when the Communists seized power; unresolved property issues with
 Slovakia over redistribution of property of the former Czechoslovak
 federal government

 Climate: temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters

 Terrain: two main regions: Bohemia in the west, consisting of rolling
 plains, hills, and plateaus surrounded by low mountains; and Moravia
 in the east, consisting of very hilly country

 Natural resources: hard coal, soft coal, kaolin, clay, graphite

 Land use:
 arable land: NA%
 permanent crops: NA%
 meadows and pastures: NA%
 forest and woodland: NA%
 other: NA%

 Irrigated land: NA sq km

 Environment:
 current issues: air and water pollution in areas of northwest Bohemia
 centered around Zeplica and in northern Moravia around Ostrava present
 health risks; acid rain damaging forests
 natural hazards: NA
 international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Air
 Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Antarctic Treaty,
 Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental
 Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
 Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Air
 Pollution-Sulphur 94, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Law of the Sea

 Note: landlocked; strategically located astride some of oldest and
 most significant land routes in Europe; Moravian Gate is a traditional
 military corridor between the North European Plain and the Danube in
 central Europe

@Czech Republic:People

 Population: 10,432,774 (July 1995 est.)

 Age structure:
 0-14 years: 19% (female 981,918; male 1,030,003)
 15-64 years: 68% (female 3,529,411; male 3,530,112)
 65 years and over: 13% (female 848,599; male 512,731) (July 1995 est.)

 Population growth rate: 0.26% (1995 est.)

 Birth rate: 13.46 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Death rate: 10.85 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Infant mortality rate: 8.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

 Life expectancy at birth:
 total population: 73.54 years
 male: 69.87 years
 female: 77.41 years (1995 est.)

 Total fertility rate: 1.84 children born/woman (1995 est.)

 Nationality:
 noun: Czech(s)
 adjective: Czech
 note: 300,000 Slovaks declared themselves Czech citizens in 1994

 Ethnic divisions: Czech 94.4%, Slovak 3%, Polish 0.6%, German 0.5%,
 Gypsy 0.3%, Hungarian 0.2%, other 1%

 Religions: atheist 39.8%, Roman Catholic 39.2%, Protestant 4.6%,
 Orthodox 3%, other 13.4%

 Languages: Czech, Slovak

 Literacy: can read and write
 total population: 99%

 Labor force: 5.389 million
 by occupation: industry 37.9%, agriculture 8.1%, construction 8.8%,
 communications and other 45.2% (1990)

@Czech Republic:Government

 Names:
 conventional long form: Czech Republic
 conventional short form: Czech Republic
 local long form: Ceska Republika
 local short form: Cechy

 Digraph: EZ

 Type: parliamentary democracy

 Capital: Prague

 Administrative divisions: 8 regions (kraje, kraj - singular);
 Jihocesky, Jihomoravsky, Praha, Severocesky, Severomoravsky,
 Stredocesky, Vychodocesky, Zapadocesky

 Independence: 1 January 1993 (from Czechoslovakia)

 National holiday: National Liberation Day, 9 May; Founding of the
 Republic, 28 October

 Constitution: ratified 16 December 1992; effective 1 January 1993

 Legal system: civil law system based on Austro-Hungarian codes; has
 not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; legal code modified to bring
 it in line with Organization on Security and Cooperation in Europe
 (OSCE) obligations and to expunge Marxist-Leninist legal theory

 Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

 Executive branch:
 chief of state: President Vaclav HAVEL (since 26 January 1993);
 election last held 26 January 1993 (next to be held NA January 1998);
 results - Vaclav HAVEL elected by the National Council
 head of government: Prime Minister Vaclav KLAUS (since NA June 1992);
 Deputy Prime Ministers Ivan KOCARNIK, Josef LUX, Jan KALVODA (since NA
 June 1992)
 cabinet: Cabinet; appointed by the president on recommendation of the
 prime minister

 Legislative branch: bicameral National Council (Narodni rada)
 Senate: elections not yet held; seats (81 total)
 Chamber of Deputies: elections last held 5-6 June 1992 (next to be
 held NA 1996); results - percent of vote by party NA given breakup and
 realignment of all parliamentary opposition parties since 1992; seats
 - (200 total) governing coalition: ODS 65, KDS 10, ODA 16, KDU-CSL 15,
 opposition: CSSD 18, LB 25, KSCM 10, LSU 9, LSNS 5, CMSS 9, SPR-RSC 6,
 independents 12

 Judicial branch: Supreme Court, Constitutional Court

 Political parties and leaders:
 governing coalition: Civic Democratic Party (ODS), Vaclav KLAUS,
 chairman; Christian Democratic Party (KDS), Ivan PILIP, chairman;
 Civic Democratic Alliance (ODA), Jan KALVODA, chairman; Christian
 Democratic Union/Czech People's Party (KDU-CSL), Josef LUX, chairman
 opposition: Czech Social Democrats (CSSD - left opposition), Milos
 ZEMAN, chairman; Left Bloc (LB - left opposition), Marie STIBOROVA,
 chairman; Communist Party (KSCM - left opposition), Miroslav
 GREBENICEK, chairman; Liberal Social Union (LSU - left opposition),
 Frantisek TRNKA, chairman; Liberal National Social Party (LSNS -
 center party), Pavel HIRS, chairman; Bohemian-Moravian Center Party
 (CMSS - center party), Jan KYCER, chairman; Assembly for the Republic
 (SPR-RSC - right radical) , Miroslav SLADEK, chairman

 Other political or pressure groups: Czech-Moravian Chamber of Trade
 Unions; Civic Movement

 Member of: Australia Group, BIS, CCC, CE (guest), CEI, CERN, EBRD,
 ECE, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO,
 IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU,
 NACC, NSG, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOMIL, UNOMOZ,
 UNPROFOR, UPU, WEU (associate partner), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

 Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Michael ZANTOVSKY
 chancery: 3900 Spring of Freedom Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
 telephone: [1] (202) 363-6315, 6316
 FAX: [1] (202) 966-8540

 US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Adrian A. BASORA
 embassy: Trziste 15, 11801 Prague 1
 mailing address: Unit 1330; APO AE 09213-1330
 telephone: [42] (2) 2451-0847
 FAX: [42] (2) 2451-1001

 Flag: two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red with a blue
 isosceles triangle based on the hoist side (almost identical to the
 flag of the former Czechoslovakia)

@Czech Republic:Economy

 Overview: The government of the Czech Republic, using successful
 stabilization policies to bolster its claims to full membership in the
 western economic community, has reduced inflation to 10%, kept
 unemployment at 3%, balanced the budget, run trade surpluses, and
 reoriented exports to the EU since the breakup of the Czechoslovak
 federation on 1 January 1993. GDP grew 2% in 1994 after stagnating in
 1993 and contracting nearly 20% since 1990. Prague's mass
 privatization program, including its innovative distribution of
 ownership shares to Czech citizens via 'coupon vouchers,' has made the
 most rapid progress in Eastern Europe. When coupon shares are
 distributed in early 1995, 75%-80% of the economy will be in private
 hands or partially privatized, according to the Czech government.
 Privatized companies still face major problems in restructuring; the
 number of annual bankruptcies quadrupled in 1994. In September 1994,
 Prague repaid $471 million in IMF loans five years ahead of schedule,
 making the Czech Republic the first East European country to pay off
 all IMF debts. Despite these outlays, hard-currency reserves in the
 banking system totaled more than $8.5 billion in October. Standard &
 Poor's boosted the Republic's credit rating to BBB+ in mid-1994 - up
 from a BBB rating that was already two steps higher than Hungary's and
 one step above Greece's rating. Prague forecasts a balanced budget, at
 least 3% GDP growth, 5% unemployment, and single-digit inflation for
 1995. Inflationary pressures - primarily as a result of foreign bank
 lending to Czech enterprises but perhaps also due to eased currency
 convertibility controls - are likely to be the most troublesome issues
 in 1995. Continuing economic recovery in Western Europe should boost
 Czech exports and production but a substantial increase in prices
 could erode the Republic's comparative advantage in low wages and
 exchange rates. Prague already took steps in 1994 to increase control
 over banking policies to neutralize the impact of foreign inflows on
 the money supply. Although Czech unemployment is currently the lowest
 in Central Europe, it will probably increase 1-2 percentage points in
 1995 as large state firms go bankrupt or are restructured and service
 sector growth slows.

 National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $76.5 billion (1994
 est.)

 National product real growth rate: 2.2% (1994 est.)

 National product per capita: $7,350 (1994 est.)

 Inflation rate (consumer prices): 10.2% (1994 est.)

 Unemployment rate: 3.2% (1994 est.)

 Budget:
 revenues: $14 billion
 expenditures: $13.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
 (1994 est.)

 Exports: $13.4 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
 commodities: manufactured goods, machinery and transport equipment,
 chemicals, fuels, minerals, metals, agricultural products
 (January-November 1994)
 partners: Germany 28.7%, Slovakia 15.5%, Austria 7.9%, Italy 6.4%,
 France 3.2%, Russia 3.2%, Poland 3.1%, UK 2.9%, Netherlands 2.4%,
 Hungary 2.2%, US 2.1%, Belgium 1.3% (January-June 1994)

 Imports: $13.3 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
 commodities: machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods,
 chemicals, fuels and lubricants, raw materials, agricultural products
 (January-November 1994)
 partners: Germany 24.1%, Slovakia 15.6%, Russia 9.8%, Austria 7.6%,
 Italy 4.9%, France 3.6%, US 3.2%, Netherlands 2.9%, UK 2.8%, Poland
 2.7%, Switzerland 2.2%, Belgium 2.0% (January-June 1994)

 External debt: $8.7 billion (October 1994)

 Industrial production: growth rate 4.9% (January-September 1994)

 Electricity:
 capacity: 14.470,000 kW
 production: 56.3 billion kWh
 consumption per capita: 4,842 kWh (1993)

 Industries: fuels, ferrous metallurgy, machinery and equipment, coal,
 motor vehicles, glass, armaments

 Agriculture: largely self-sufficient in food production; diversified
 crop and livestock production, including grains, potatoes, sugar
 beets, hops, fruit, hogs, cattle, and poultry; exporter of forest
 products

 Illicit drugs: transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and
 Latin American cocaine to Western Europe

 Economic aid:
 donor: 1.4 million annually to IMF beginning in 1994

 Currency: 1 koruna (Kc) = 100 haleru

 Exchange rates: koruny (Kcs) per US$1 - 27.762 (January 1995), 28.785
 (1994), 29.153 (1993), 28.26 (1992), 29.53 (1991), 17.95 (1990)
 note: values before 1993 reflect Czechoslovak exchange rates

 Fiscal year: calendar year

@Czech Republic:Transportation

 Railroads:
 total: 9,434 km (include 1.520-m broad, 1.435-m standard, and several
 narrow gauges) (1988)

 Highways:
 total: 55,890 km (1988)
 paved: NA
 unpaved: NA

 Inland waterways: NA km; the Elbe (Labe) is the principal river

 Pipelines: natural gas 5,400 km

 Ports: Decin, Prague, Usti nad Labem

 Merchant marine:
 total: 14 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 181,646 GRT/282,296 DWT
 ships by type: bulk 5, cargo 9

 Airports:
 total: 116
 with paved runways over 3,047 m: 2
 with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 9
 with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 13
 with paved runways under 914 m: 5
 with unpaved runways over 3,047 m: 1
 with unpaved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
 with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 10
 with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 32
 with unpaved runways under 914 m: 41

@Czech Republic:Communications

 Telephone system: NA telephones
 local: NA
 intercity: NA
 international: NA

 Radio:
 broadcast stations: AM, FM, shortwave
 radios: NA

 Television:
 broadcast stations: NA
 televisions: NA

@Czech Republic:Defense Forces

 Branches: Army, Air and Air Defense Forces, Civil Defense, Railroad
 Units

 Manpower availability: males age 15-49 2,753,301; males fit for
 military service 2,095,661; males reach military age (18) annually
 91,177 (1995 est.)

 Defense expenditures: 27 billion koruny, NA% of GNP (1994 est.); note
 - conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the current
 exchange rate could produce misleading results


________________________________________________________________________

DENMARK

@Denmark:Geography

 Location: Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and the North Sea,
 on a peninsula north of Germany

 Map references: Europe

 Area:
 total area: 43,070 sq km
 land area: 42,370 sq km
 comparative area: slightly more than twice the size of Massachusetts
 note: includes the island of Bornholm in the Baltic Sea and the rest
 of metropolitan Denmark, but excludes the Faroe Islands and Greenland

 Land boundaries: total 68 km, Germany 68 km

 Coastline: 3,379 km

 Maritime claims:
 contiguous zone: 4 nm
 continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
 exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
 territorial sea: 3 nm

 International disputes: Rockall continental shelf dispute involving
 Iceland, Ireland, and the UK (Ireland and the UK have signed a
 boundary agreement in the Rockall area)

 Climate: temperate; humid and overcast; mild, windy winters and cool
 summers

 Terrain: low and flat to gently rolling plains

 Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, fish, salt, limestone

 Land use:
 arable land: 61%
 permanent crops: 0%
 meadows and pastures: 6%
 forest and woodland: 12%
 other: 21%

 Irrigated land: 4,300 sq km (1989 est.)

 Environment:
 current issues: air pollution, principally from vehicle emissions;
 nitrogen and phosphorus pollution of the North Sea; drinking and
 surface water becoming polluted from animal wastes
 natural hazards: flooding is a threat in some areas of the country
 (e.g., parts of Jutland, along the southern coast of the island of
 Lolland) that are protected from the sea by a system of dikes
 international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Air
 Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Antarctic Treaty,
 Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental
 Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Marine Life
 Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
 Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands, Whaling; signed, but not
 ratified - Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic
 Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Desertification, Law of
 the Sea

 Note: controls Danish Straits linking Baltic and North Seas; about
 one-quarter of the population lives in Copenhagen

@Denmark:People

 Population: 5,199,437 (July 1995 est.)

 Age structure:
 0-14 years: 17% (female 430,598; male 451,993)
 15-64 years: 68% (female 1,731,531; male 1,780,083)
 65 years and over: 15% (female 473,537; male 331,695) (July 1995 est.)

 Population growth rate: 0.22% (1995 est.)

 Birth rate: 12.38 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Death rate: 11.14 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Net migration rate: 0.96 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Infant mortality rate: 6.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

 Life expectancy at birth:
 total population: 76.11 years
 male: 73.23 years
 female: 79.16 years (1995 est.)

 Total fertility rate: 1.69 children born/woman (1995 est.)

 Nationality:
 noun: Dane(s)
 adjective: Danish

 Ethnic divisions: Scandinavian, Eskimo, Faroese, German

 Religions: Evangelical Lutheran 91%, other Protestant and Roman
 Catholic 2%, other 7% (1988)

 Languages: Danish, Faroese, Greenlandic (an Eskimo dialect), German
 (small minority)

 Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1980 est.)
 total population: 99%

 Labor force: 2,553,900
 by occupation: private services 37.1%, government services 30.4%,
 manufacturing and mining 20%, construction 6.3%, agriculture,
 forestry, and fishing 5.6%, electricity/gas/water 0.6% (1991)

@Denmark:Government

 Names:
 conventional long form: Kingdom of Denmark
 conventional short form: Denmark
 local long form: Kongeriget Danmark
 local short form: Danmark

 Digraph: DA

 Type: constitutional monarchy

 Capital: Copenhagen

 Administrative divisions: metropolitan Denmark - 14 counties (amter,
 singular - amt) and 1 city* (stad); Arhus, Bornholm, Frederiksborg,
 Fyn, Kbenhavn, Nordjylland, Ribe, Ringkbing, Roskilde, Snderjylland,
 Staden Kbenhavn*, Storstrm, Vejle, Vestsjaelland, Viborg
 note: see separate entries for the Faroe Islands and Greenland, which
 are part of the Danish realm and self-governing administrative
 divisions

 Independence: 1849 (became a constitutional monarchy)

 National holiday: Birthday of the Queen, 16 April (1940)

 Constitution: 5 June 1953

 Legal system: civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts;
 accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

 Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

 Executive branch:
 chief of state: Queen MARGRETHE II (since NA January 1972); Heir
 Apparent Crown Prince FREDERIK, elder son of the Queen (born 26 May
 1968)
 head of government: Prime Minister Poul Nyrup RASMUSSEN (since NA
 January 1993)
 cabinet: Cabinet; appointed by the monarch

 Legislative branch: unicameral
 Parliament (Folketing): elections last held 21 September 1994 (next to
 be held by December 1998); results - Social Democrats 34.6%, Liberals
 23.3%, Conservatives 15.0%, Social People's Party 7.3%, Progress Party
 6.4%, Radical Liberals 4.6%, Unity Party 3.1%, Center Democrats 2.8%,
 Christian People's Party 1.8%; seats - (179 total) Social Democrats
 63, Liberals 44, Conservatives 28, Social People's Party 13, Progress
 Party 11, Radical Liberals 8, Unity Party 6, Center Democrats 5,
 independent 1

 Judicial branch: Supreme Court

 Political parties and leaders: Social Democratic Party, Poul Nyrup
 RASMUSSEN; Conservative Party, Hans ENGELL; Liberal Party, Uffe
 ELLEMANN-JENSEN; Socialist People's Party, Holger K. NIELSEN; Progress
 Party, Group Chairman Kim BEHNKE and Policy Spokesman Jan Kopke
 CHRISTENSEN; Center Democratic Party, Mimi Stilling JAKOBSEN; Radical
 Liberal Party, Marianne JELVED; Christian People's Party, Jann
 SJURSEN; Common Course, Preben Moller HANSEN; Danish Workers' Party;
 Unity Party

 Member of: AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CCC,
 CE, CERN, EBRD, EC, ECE, EIB, ESA, FAO, G- 9, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD,
 ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO,
 INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MTCR, NACC, NATO,
 NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OECD, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP,
 UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMOGIP, UNOMIG, UNPROFOR, UNTSO, UPU, WEU,
 WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, ZC

 Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Peter Pedersen DYVIG (Knud-Erik TYGESEN
 is Ambassador Elect for 1995)
 chancery: 3200 Whitehaven Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
 telephone: [1] (202) 234-4300
 FAX: [1] (202) 328-1470
 consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York

 US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Edward E. ELSON
 embassy: Dag Hammarskjolds Alle 24, 2100 Copenhagen O
 mailing address: APO AE 09716
 telephone: [45] (31) 42 31 44
 FAX: [45] (35) 43 02 23

 Flag: red with a white cross that extends to the edges of the flag;
 the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side, and that
 design element of the DANNEBROG (Danish flag) was subsequently adopted
 by the other Nordic countries of Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden

@Denmark:Economy

 Overview: This thoroughly modern economy features high-tech
 agriculture, up-to-date small-scale and corporate industry, extensive
 government welfare measures, comfortable living standards, and high
 dependence on foreign trade. Denmark is self-sufficient in food
 production. The new center-left coalition government will concentrate
 on reducing the persistent high unemployment rate and the budget
 deficit as well as following the previous government's policies of
 maintaining low inflation and a current account surplus. In the face
 of recent international market pressure on the Danish krone, the
 coalition has also vowed to maintain a stable currency. The coalition
 hopes to lower marginal income taxes while maintaining overall tax
 revenues; boost industrial competitiveness through labor market and
 tax reforms and increased research and development funds; and improve
 welfare services for the neediest while cutting paperwork and delays.
 Prime Minister RASMUSSEN's reforms will focus on adapting Denmark to
 the criteria for European integration by 1999; although Copenhagen has
 won from the European Union (EU) the right to opt out of the European
 Monetary Union (EMU) if a national referendum rejects it. Denmark is,
 in fact, one of the few EU countries likely to fit into the EMU on
 time. Denmark is weathering the current worldwide slump better than
 many West European countries. After posting 4.5% real GDP growth in
 1994, Copenhagen is predicting a continued strong showing in 1995,
 with real GDP up by 3.2%. The government expects an upswing in
 business investment in 1995 to drive economic growth. Although
 unemployment is high, it remains stable compared to most European
 countries.

 National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $103 billion (1994
 est.)

 National product real growth rate: 4.5% (1994 est.)

 National product per capita: $19,860 (1994 est.)

 Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2% (1994 est.)

 Unemployment rate: 12.3% (1994 est.)

 Budget:
 revenues: $56.5 billion
 expenditures: $64.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
 (1994 est.)

 Exports: $42.9 billion (f.o.b., 1994)
 commodities: meat and meat products, dairy products, transport
 equipment (shipbuilding), fish, chemicals, industrial machinery
 partners: EC 54.3% (Germany 23.6%, UK 10.1%, France 5.7%), Sweden
 10.5%, Norway 5.8%, US 4.9%, Japan 3.6% (1992)

 Imports: $37.1 billion (c.i.f., 1994 est.)
 commodities: petroleum, machinery and equipment, chemicals, grain and
 foodstuffs, textiles, paper
 partners: EC 53.4% (Germany 23.1%, UK 8.2%, France 5.6%), Sweden
 10.8%, Norway 5.4%, US 5.7%, Japan 4.1% (1992)

 External debt: $40.9 billion (1994 est.)

 Industrial production: growth rate -2.5% (1993 est.)

 Electricity:
 capacity: 10,030,000 kW
 production: 32 billion kWh
 consumption per capita: 5,835 kWh (1993)

 Industries: food processing, machinery and equipment, textiles and
 clothing, chemical products, electronics, construction, furniture, and
 other wood products, shipbuilding

 Agriculture: accounts for 4% of GDP; principal products - meat, dairy,
 grain, potatoes, rape, sugar beets, fish

 Economic aid:
 donor: ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $5.9 billion

 Currency: 1 Danish krone (DKr) = 100 oere

 Exchange rates: Danish kroner (DKr) per US$1 - 6.034 (January 1995),
 6.361 (1994), 6.484 (1993), 6.036 (1992), 6.396 (1991), 6.189 (1990)

 Fiscal year: calendar year

@Denmark:Transportation

 Railroads:
 total: 2,838 km (494 km privately owned and operated)
 standard gauge: 2,838 km 1.435-m gauge (440 km electrified; 760 km
 double track) (1994)

 Highways:
 total: 71,042 km
 paved: concrete, asphalt, stone block 71,042 km (696 km of
 expressways)

 Inland waterways: 417 km

 Pipelines: crude oil 110 km; petroleum products 578 km; natural gas
 700 km

 Ports: Alborg, Arhus, Copenhagen, Esbjerg, Fredericia, Grenaa, Koge,
 Odense, Struer

 Merchant marine:
 total: 345 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,005,470 GRT/6,974,750
 DWT
 ships by type: bulk 17, cargo 109, chemical tanker 24, combination
 bulk 1, container 61, liquefied gas tanker 32, livestock carrier 4,
 oil tanker 32, railcar carrier 1, refrigerated cargo 18,
 roll-on/roll-off cargo 35, short-sea passenger 11
 note: Denmark has created its own internal register, called the Danish
 International Ship register (DIS); DIS ships do not have to meet
 Danish manning regulations, and they amount to a flag of convenience
 within the Danish register

 Airports:
 total: 118
 with paved runways over 3,047 m: 2
 with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
 with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
 with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 13
 with paved runways under 914 m: 85
 with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 1
 with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 7

@Denmark:Communications

 Telephone system: 4,509,000 telephones; excellent telephone and
 telegraph services; buried and submarine cables and microwave radio
 relay support trunk network
 local: NA
 intercity: microwave radio relay
 international: 19 submarine coaxial cables; 7 INTELSAT, EUTELSAT, and
 INMARSAT earth stations

 Radio:
 broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 2, shortwave 0
 radios: NA

 Television:
 broadcast stations: 50
 televisions: NA

@Denmark:Defense Forces

 Branches: Royal Danish Army, Royal Danish Navy, Royal Danish Air
 Force, Home Guard

 Manpower availability: males age 15-49 1,347,774; males fit for
 military service 1,158,223; males reach military age (20) annually
 36,191 (1995 est.)

 Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $2.7 billion, 1.9% of
 GDP (1994)


________________________________________________________________________

DJIBOUTI

@Djibouti:Geography

 Location: Eastern Africa, bordering the Gulf of Aden and the Red Sea,
 between Eritrea and Somalia

 Map references: Africa

 Area:
 total area: 22,000 sq km
 land area: 21,980 sq km
 comparative area: slightly larger than Massachusetts

 Land boundaries: total 508 km, Eritrea 113 km, Ethiopia 337 km,
 Somalia 58 km

 Coastline: 314 km

 Maritime claims:
 contiguous zone: 24 nm
 exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
 territorial sea: 12 nm

 International disputes: none

 Climate: desert; torrid, dry

 Terrain: coastal plain and plateau separated by central mountains

 Natural resources: geothermal areas

 Land use:
 arable land: 0%
 permanent crops: 0%
 meadows and pastures: 9%
 forest and woodland: 0%
 other: 91%

 Irrigated land: NA sq km

 Environment:
 current issues: inadequate supplies of potable water; desertification
 natural hazards: earthquakes; droughts; occasional cyclonic
 disturbances from the Indian Ocean bring heavy rains and flash floods
 international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Endangered Species,
 Law of the Sea, Ship Pollution; signed, but not ratified - Climate
 Change, Desertification

 Note: strategic location near world's busiest shipping lanes and close
 to Arabian oilfields; terminus of rail traffic into Ethiopia; a vast
 wasteland

@Djibouti:People

 Population: 421,320 (July 1995 est.)

 Age structure:
 0-14 years: 43% (female 90,070; male 90,631)
 15-64 years: 55% (female 108,824; male 121,715)
 65 years and over: 2% (female 4,900; male 5,180) (July 1995 est.)

 Population growth rate: 1.48% (1995 est.)

 Birth rate: 42.79 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Death rate: 15.51 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Net migration rate: -12.46 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Infant mortality rate: 108.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

 Life expectancy at birth:
 total population: 49.7 years
 male: 47.83 years
 female: 51.62 years (1995 est.)

 Total fertility rate: 6.15 children born/woman (1995 est.)

 Nationality:
 noun: Djiboutian(s)
 adjective: Djiboutian

 Ethnic divisions: Somali 60%, Afar 35%, French, Arab, Ethiopian, and
 Italian 5%

 Religions: Muslim 94%, Christian 6%

 Languages: French (official), Arabic (official), Somali, Afar

 Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
 total population: 48%
 male: 63%
 female: 34%

@Djibouti:Government

 Names:
 conventional long form: Republic of Djibouti
 conventional short form: Djibouti
 former: French Territory of the Afars and Issas French Somaliland

 Digraph: DJ

 Type: republic

 Capital: Djibouti

 Administrative divisions: 5 districts (cercles, singular - cercle);
 'Ali Sabih, Dikhil, Djibouti, Obock, Tadjoura

 Independence: 27 June 1977 (from France)

 National holiday: Independence Day, 27 June (1977)

 Constitution: multiparty constitution approved in referendum 4
 September 1992

 Legal system: based on French civil law system, traditional practices,
 and Islamic law

 Suffrage: universal adult at age NA

 Executive branch:
 chief of state: President HASSAN GOULED Aptidon (since 24 June 1977);
 election last held 7 May 1993 (next to be held NA 1999); results -
 President Hassan GOULED Aptidon was reelected
 head of government: Prime Minister BARKAT Gourad Hamadou (since 30
 September 1978)
 cabinet: Council of Ministers; responsible to the president

 Legislative branch: unicameral
 Chamber of Deputies (Chambre des Deputes): elections last held 18
 December 1992; results - RPP (the ruling party) dominated; seats - (65
 total) RPP 65

 Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

 Political parties and leaders:
 ruling party: People's Progress Assembly (RPP), Hassan GOULED Aptidon
 other parties: Democratic Renewal Party (PRD), Mohamed Jama ELABE;
 Democratic National Party (PND), ADEN Robleh Awaleh

 Other political or pressure groups: Front for the Restoration of Unity
 and Democracy (FRUD) and affiliates; Movement for Unity and Democracy
 (MUD)

 Member of: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AL, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO,
 ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGADD, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT
 (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD,
 UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO

 Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Roble OLHAYE
 chancery: Suite 515, 1156 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20005
 telephone: [1] (202) 331-0270
 FAX: [1] (202) 331-0302

 US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Martin L. CHESHES
 embassy: Plateau du Serpent, Boulevard Marechal Joffre, Djibouti
 mailing address: B. P. 185, Djibouti
 telephone: [253] 35 39 95
 FAX: [253] 35 39 40

 Flag: two equal horizontal bands of light blue (top) and light green
 with a white isosceles triangle based on the hoist side bearing a red
 five-pointed star in the center

@Djibouti:Economy

 Overview: The economy is based on service activities connected with
 the country's strategic location and status as a free trade zone in
 northeast Africa. Two-thirds of the inhabitants live in the capital
 city, the remainder being mostly nomadic herders. Scanty rainfall
 limits crop production to fruits and vegetables, and most food must be
 imported. Djibouti provides services as both a transit port for the
 region and an international transshipment and refueling center. It has
 few natural resources and little industry. The nation is, therefore,
 heavily dependent on foreign assistance (an important supplement to
 GDP) to help support its balance of payments and to finance
 development projects. An unemployment rate of over 30% continues to be
 a major problem. Per capita consumption dropped an estimated 35% over
 the last six years because of recession, civil war, and a high
 population growth rate (including immigrants and refugees).

 National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $500 million (1994
 est.)

 National product real growth rate: -3% (1994 est.)

 National product per capita: $1,200 (1994 est.)

 Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6% (1993 est.)

 Unemployment rate: over 30% (1994 est.)

 Budget:
 revenues: $164 million
 expenditures: $201 million, including capital expenditures of $16
 million (1993 est.)

 Exports: $184 million (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
 commodities: hides and skins, coffee (in transit)
 partners: Somalia 48%, Yemen 42%

 Imports: $384 million (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
 commodities: foods, beverages, transport equipment, chemicals,
 petroleum products
 partners: France, UK, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, South Korea

 External debt: $227 million (1993 est.)

 Industrial production: growth rate 3% (1991 est.); accounts for 14% of
 GDP

 Electricity:
 capacity: 90,000 kW
 production: 170 million kWh
 consumption per capita: 398 kWh (1993)

 Industries: limited to a few small-scale enterprises, such as dairy
 products and mineral-water bottling

 Agriculture: mostly fruit and vegetables; herding of goats, sheep, and
 camels

 Economic aid:
 recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY78-89), $39 million;
 Western (non-US) countries, including ODA and OOF bilateral
 commitments (1970-89), $1.1 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89),
 $149 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $35 million

 Currency: 1 Djiboutian franc (DF) = 100 centimes

 Exchange rates: Djiboutian francs (DF) per US$1 - 177.721 (fixed rate
 since 1973)

 Fiscal year: calendar year

@Djibouti:Transportation

 Railroads:
 total: 97 km (Djibouti segment of the Addis Ababa-Djibouti railroad)
 narrow gauge: 97 km 1.000-m gauge

 Highways:
 total: 2,900 km
 paved: 280 km
 unpaved: improved, unimproved earth 2,620 km (1982)

 Ports: Djibouti

 Merchant marine:
 total: 1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,369 GRT/3,030 DWT

 Airports:
 total: 13
 with paved runways over 3,047 m: 1
 with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
 with paved runways under 914 m: 3
 with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 2
 with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 6

@Djibouti:Communications

 Telephone system: NA telephones; telephone facilities in the city of
 Djibouti are adequate as are the microwave radio relay connections to
 outlying areas of the country
 local: NA
 intercity: microwave radio relay network
 international: international connections via submarine cable to Saudi
 Arabia and by satellite link to other countries; 1 INTELSAT (Indian
 Ocean) and 1 ARABSAT earth station

 Radio:
 broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 2, shortwave 0
 radios: NA

 Television:
 broadcast stations: 1
 televisions: NA

@Djibouti:Defense Forces

 Branches: Djibouti National Army (includes Navy and Air Force),
 National Security Force (Force Nationale de Securite), National Police
 Force

 Manpower availability: males age 15-49 101,385; males fit for military
 service 59,337 (1995 est.)

 Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $26 million, NA% of
 GDP (1989)


________________________________________________________________________

DOMINICA

@Dominica:Geography

 Location: Caribbean, island between the Caribbean Sea and the North
 Atlantic Ocean, about one-half of the way from Puerto Rico to Trinidad
 and Tobago

 Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

 Area:
 total area: 750 sq km
 land area: 750 sq km
 comparative area: slightly more than four times the size of
 Washington, DC

 Land boundaries: 0 km

 Coastline: 148 km

 Maritime claims:
 contiguous zone: 24 nm
 exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
 territorial sea: 12 nm

 International disputes: none

 Climate: tropical; moderated by northeast trade winds; heavy rainfall

 Terrain: rugged mountains of volcanic origin

 Natural resources: timber

 Land use:
 arable land: 9%
 permanent crops: 13%
 meadows and pastures: 3%
 forest and woodland: 41%
 other: 34%

 Irrigated land: NA sq km

 Environment:
 current issues: NA
 natural hazards: flash floods are a constant threat; destructive
 hurricanes can be expected during the late summer months
 international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
 Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection,
 Whaling

@Dominica:People

 Population: 82,608 (July 1995 est.)

 Age structure:
 0-14 years: 29% (female 11,665; male 12,130)
 15-64 years: 64% (female 25,606; male 26,890)
 65 years and over: 7% (female 3,724; male 2,593) (July 1995 est.)

 Population growth rate: 0.4% (1995 est.)

 Birth rate: 18.63 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Death rate: 5.33 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Net migration rate: -9.36 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Infant mortality rate: 9.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

 Life expectancy at birth:
 total population: 77.2 years
 male: 74.35 years
 female: 80.2 years (1995 est.)

 Total fertility rate: 1.95 children born/woman (1995 est.)

 Nationality:
 noun: Dominican(s)
 adjective: Dominican

 Ethnic divisions: black, Carib Indians

 Religions: Roman Catholic 77%, Protestant 15% (Methodist 5%,
 Pentecostal 3%, Seventh-Day Adventist 3%, Baptist 2%, other 2%), none
 2%, unknown 1%, other 5%

 Languages: English (official), French patois

 Literacy: age 15 and over has ever attended school (1970)
 total population: 94%
 male: 94%
 female: 94%

 Labor force: 25,000
 by occupation: agriculture 40%, industry and commerce 32%, services
 28% (1984)

@Dominica:Government

 Names:
 conventional long form: Commonwealth of Dominica
 conventional short form: Dominica

 Digraph: DO

 Type: parliamentary democracy

 Capital: Roseau

 Administrative divisions: 10 parishes; Saint Andrew, Saint David,
 Saint George, Saint John, Saint Joseph, Saint Luke, Saint Mark, Saint
 Patrick, Saint Paul, Saint Peter

 Independence: 3 November 1978 (from UK)

 National holiday: Independence Day, 3 November (1978)

 Constitution: 3 November 1978

 Legal system: based on English common law

 Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

 Executive branch:
 chief of state: President Crispin Anselm SORHAINDO (since 25 October
 1993) election last held 4 October 1993 (next to be held NA October
 1998); results - President Crispin Anselm SORHAINDO was elected by the
 House of Assembly to a five-year term
 head of government: Prime Minister (Mary) Eugenia CHARLES (since 21
 July 1980, elected for a third term 28 May 1990)
 cabinet: Cabinet; appointed by the president on the advice of the
 prime minister

 Legislative branch: unicameral
 House of Assembly: elections last held 28 May 1990 (next to be held by
 October 1995); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (30
 total; 9 appointed senators and 21 elected representatives) DFP 11,
 UWP 6, DLP 4

 Judicial branch: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court

 Political parties and leaders: Dominica Freedom Party (DFP), Brian
 ALLEYNE; Dominica Labor Party (DLP), Rosie DOUGLAS; United Workers
 Party (UWP), Edison JAMES

 Other political or pressure groups: Dominica Liberation Movement
 (DLM), a small leftist group

 Member of: ACCT, ACP, C, CARICOM, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD,
 ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, IOC, NAM
 (observer), OAS, OECS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL,
 WHO, WMO

 Diplomatic representation in US: Dominica has no embassy in the US
 consulate(s) general: New York

 US diplomatic representation: no official presence since the
 Ambassador resides in Bridgetown (Barbados), but travels frequently to
 Dominica

 Flag: green with a centered cross of three equal bands - the vertical
 part is yellow (hoist side), black, and white - the horizontal part is
 yellow (top), black, and white; superimposed in the center of the
 cross is a red disk bearing a sisserou parrot encircled by 10 green
 five-pointed stars edged in yellow; the 10 stars represent the 10
 administrative divisions (parishes)

@Dominica:Economy

 Overview: The economy is dependent on agriculture and thus is highly
 vulnerable to climatic conditions. Agriculture accounts for about 30%
 of GDP and employs 40% of the labor force. Principal products include
 bananas, citrus, mangoes, root crops, and coconuts. Development of the
 tourist industry remains difficult because of the rugged coastline and
 the lack of an international airport. In 1994 a tropical storm
 devastated the banana industry.

 National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $200 million (1994
 est.)

 National product real growth rate: 1.6% (1994 est.)

 National product per capita: $2,260 (1994 est.)

 Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.6% (1993 est.)

 Unemployment rate: 15% (1992 est.)

 Budget:
 revenues: $70 million
 expenditures: $84 million, including capital expenditures of $26
 million (FY90/91 est.)

 Exports: $48.3 million (f.o.b., 1993)
 commodities: bananas, soap, bay oil, vegetables, grapefruit, oranges
 partners: UK 55%, CARICOM countries, Italy, US

 Imports: $98.8 million (f.o.b., 1993)
 commodities: manufactured goods, machinery and equipment, food,
 chemicals
 partners: US 25%, CARICOM, UK, Japan, Canada

 External debt: $92.8 million (1992)

 Industrial production: growth rate -10% (1994 est.); accounts for 7%
 of GDP

 Electricity:
 capacity: 7,000 kW
 production: 30 million kWh
 consumption per capita: 347 kWh (1993)

 Industries: soap, coconut oil, tourism, copra, furniture, cement
 blocks, shoes

 Agriculture: accounts for 30% of GDP; principal crops - bananas,
 citrus, mangoes, root crops, coconuts; bananas provide the bulk of
 export earnings; forestry and fisheries potential not exploited

 Illicit drugs: transshipment point for narcotics bound for the US and
 Europe; minor cannabis producer

 Economic aid:
 recipient: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral
 commitments (1970-89), $120 million

 Currency: 1 EC dollar (EC$) = 100 cents

 Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1 - 2.70 (fixed
 rate since 1976)

 Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

@Dominica:Transportation

 Railroads: 0 km

 Highways:
 total: 750 km
 paved: 370 km
 unpaved: gravel or earth 380 km

 Ports: Portsmouth, Roseau

 Merchant marine: none

 Airports:
 total: 2
 with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 1
 with paved runways under 914 m: 1

@Dominica:Communications

 Telephone system: 4,600 telephones; fully automatic network
 local: NA
 intercity: NA
 international: SHF radio and microwave radio relay links to Martinique
 and Guadeloupe; VHF and UHF radio links to Saint Lucia

 Radio:
 broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 2, shortwave 0
 radios: NA

 Television:
 broadcast stations: 1 cable
 televisions: NA

@Dominica:Defense Forces

 Branches: Commonwealth of Dominica Police Force (includes Special
 Service Unit, Coast Guard)

 Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP


________________________________________________________________________

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC

@Dominican Republic:Geography

 Location: Caribbean, eastern two-thirds of the island of Hispaniola,
 between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, east of Haiti

 Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

 Area:
 total area: 48,730 sq km
 land area: 48,380 sq km
 comparative area: slightly more than twice the size of New Hampshire

 Land boundaries: total 275 km, Haiti 275 km

 Coastline: 1,288 km

 Maritime claims:
 contiguous zone: 24 nm
 continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
 exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
 territorial sea: 6 nm

 International disputes: none

 Climate: tropical maritime; little seasonal temperature variation;
 seasonal variation in rainfall

 Terrain: rugged highlands and mountains with fertile valleys
 interspersed

 Natural resources: nickel, bauxite, gold, silver

 Land use:
 arable land: 23%
 permanent crops: 7%
 meadows and pastures: 43%
 forest and woodland: 13%
 other: 14%

 Irrigated land: 2,250 sq km (1989)

 Environment:
 current issues: water shortages; soil eroding into the sea damages
 coral reefs; deforestation
 natural hazards: occasional hurricanes (July to October)
 international agreements: party to - Endangered Species, Marine
 Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
 Protection; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
 Law of the Sea

 Note: shares island of Hispaniola with Haiti (eastern two-thirds is
 the Dominican Republic, western one-third is Haiti)

@Dominican Republic:People

 Population: 7,511,263 (July 1995 est.)

 Age structure:
 0-14 years: 35% (female 1,288,210; male 1,336,162)
 15-64 years: 61% (female 2,246,791; male 2,312,555)
 65 years and over: 4% (female 178,388; male 149,157) (July 1995 est.)

 Population growth rate: 1.17% (1995 est.)

 Birth rate: 23.92 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Death rate: 6.15 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Net migration rate: -6.04 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Infant mortality rate: 49.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

 Life expectancy at birth:
 total population: 68.73 years
 male: 66.57 years
 female: 70.99 years (1995 est.)

 Total fertility rate: 2.72 children born/woman (1995 est.)

 Nationality:
 noun: Dominican(s)
 adjective: Dominican

 Ethnic divisions: white 16%, black 11%, mixed 73%

 Religions: Roman Catholic 95%

 Languages: Spanish

 Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
 total population: 83%
 male: 85%
 female: 82%

 Labor force: 2.3 million to 2.6 million
 by occupation: agriculture 49%, services 33%, industry 18% (1986)

@Dominican Republic:Government

 Names:
 conventional long form: Dominican Republic
 conventional short form: none
 local long form: Republica Dominicana
 local short form: none

 Digraph: DR

 Type: republic

 Capital: Santo Domingo

 Administrative divisions: 29 provinces (provincias, singular -
 provincia) and 1 district* (distrito); Azua, Baoruco, Barahona,
 Dajabon, Distrito Nacional*, Duarte, Elias Pina, El Seibo, Espaillat,
 Hato Mayor, Independencia, La Altagracia, La Romana, La Vega, Maria
 Trinidad Sanchez, Monsenor Nouel, Monte Cristi, Monte Plata,
 Pedernales, Peravia, Puerto Plata, Salcedo, Samana, Sanchez Ramirez,
 San Cristobal, San Juan, San Pedro de Macoris, Santiago, Santiago
 Rodriguez, Valverde

 Independence: 27 February 1844 (from Haiti)

 National holiday: Independence Day, 27 February (1844)

 Constitution: 28 November 1966

 Legal system: based on French civil codes

 Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory or married persons
 regardless of age
 note: members of the armed forces and police cannot vote

 Executive branch:
 chief of state and head of government: President Joaquin BALAGUER
 Ricardo (since 16 August 1986, sixth elected term began 16 August
 1994); Vice President Jacinto PEYNADO (since 16 August 1994) election
 last held 16 May 1994 (next to be held May 1996); results - Joaquin
 BALAGUER (PRSC) 42.6%, Juan BOSCH Gavino (PLD) 13.2%, Jose Francisco
 PENA Gomez (PRD) 41.9%, Jacobo MAJLUTA (PRI) 2.3%
 cabinet: Cabinet; nominated by the president

 Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress (Congreso Nacional)
 Senate (Senado): elections last held 16 May 1994 (next to be held May
 1998); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (30 total) PRSC
 15, PLD 1, PRD 14
 Chamber of Deputies (Camara de Diputados): elections last held 16 May
 1994 (next to be held May 1998); results - percent of vote by party
 NA; seats - (120 total) PLD 13, PRSC 50, PRD 57

 Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema)

 Political parties and leaders:
 major parties: Social Christian Reformist Party (PRSC), Joaquin
 BALAGUER Ricardo; Dominican Liberation Party (PLD), (vacant following
 retirement of Juan BOSCH Gavino); Dominican Revolutionary Party (PRD),
 Jose Franciso PENA Gomez; Independent Revolutionary Party (PRI),
 Jacobo MAJLUTA
 minor parties: National Veterans and Civilian Party (PNVC), Juan Rene
 BEAUCHAMPS Javier; Liberal Party of the Dominican Republic (PLRD),
 Andres Van Der HORST; Democratic Quisqueyan Party (PQD), Elias WESSIN
 Chavez; National Progressive Force (FNP), Marino VINICIO Castillo;
 Popular Christian Party (PPC), Rogelio DELGADO Bogaert; Dominican
 Communist Party (PCD), Narciso ISA Conde; Dominican Workers' Party
 (PTD), Ivan RODRIGUEZ; Anti-Imperialist Patriotic Union (UPA), Ignacio
 RODRIGUEZ Chiappini; Alliance for Democracy Party (APD), Maximilano
 Rabelais PUIG Miller, Nelsida MARMOLEJOS, Vicente BENGOA; Democratic
 Union (UD), Fernando ALVAREZ Bogaert
 note: in 1983 several leftist parties, including the PCD, joined to
 form the Dominican Leftist Front (FID); however, they still retain
 individual party structures

 Other political or pressure groups: Collective of Popular Organzations
 (COP), leader NA

 Member of: ACP, CARICOM (observer), ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-77, GATT,
 IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF,
 IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer), NAM
 (guest), OAS, OPANAL, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU,
 WHO, WMO, WTO

 Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Jose del Carmen ARIZA Gomez
 chancery: 1715 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
 telephone: [1] (202) 332-6280
 FAX: [1] (202) 265-8057
 consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, Mayaguez (Puerto
 Rico), Miami, New Orleans, New York, Philadelphia, San Francisco, and
 San Juan (Puerto Rico)
 consulate(s): Charlotte Amalie (Virgin Islands), Detroit, Houston,
 Jacksonville, Minneapolis, Mobile, and Ponce (Puerto Rico)

 US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Donna Jean HRINAK
 embassy: corner of Calle Cesar Nicolas Penson and Calle Leopoldo
 Navarro, Santo Domingo
 mailing address: Unit 5500, Santo Domingo; APO AA 34041
 telephone: [1] (809) 541-2171, 8100
 FAX: [1] (809) 686-7437

 Flag: a centered white cross that extends to the edges, divides the
 flag into four rectangles - the top ones are blue (hoist side) and
 red, the bottom ones are red (hoist side) and blue; a small coat of
 arms is at the center of the cross

@Dominican Republic:Economy

 Overview: The Dominican economy showed some signs of slippage in 1994,
 although its overall performance in recent years has been relatively
 strong. After posting an increase of nearly 8% in 1992, GDP growth
 fell to 3% in 1993 and 1994 as mining output decreased and erosion of
 real wages caused private consumption to decline. A pre-election boost
 in government spending in early 1994 led to the first government
 deficit in four years and bumped inflation up to 14% for the year.
 Continued dynamism in construction and the services sector, especially
 tourism, should keep the economy growing in 1995. Tourism,
 agriculture, and manufacturing for export remain key sectors of the
 economy. Domestic industry is based on the processing of agricultural
 products, oil refining, and chemicals.

 National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $24 billion (1994
 est.)

 National product real growth rate: 2.9% (1994 est.)

 National product per capita: $3,070 (1994 est.)

 Inflation rate (consumer prices): 14% (1994)

 Unemployment rate: 30% (1994 est.)

 Budget:
 revenues: $1.8 billion
 expenditures: $2.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
 (1994 est.)

 Exports: $585 million (f.o.b., 1994)
 commodities: ferronickel, sugar, gold, coffee, cocoa
 partners: US 52%, EC 23%, Puerto Rico 9%, Asia 7% (1992)

 Imports: $2.5 billion (c.i.f., 1994 est.)
 commodities: foodstuffs, petroleum, cotton and fabrics, chemicals and
 pharmaceuticals
 partners: US 60% (1993)

 External debt: $4.3 billion (1994 est.)

 Industrial production: growth rate 3.4% (1994); accounts for 14% of
 GDP

 Electricity:
 capacity: 1,450,000 kW
 production: 5.4 billion kWh
 consumption per capita: 651 kWh (1993)

 Industries: tourism, sugar processing, ferronickel and gold mining,
 textiles, cement, tobacco

 Agriculture: accounts for 15% of GDP and employs 49% of labor force;
 commercial crops - sugarcane, coffee, cotton, cocoa, and tobacco; food
 crops - rice, beans, potatoes, corn, bananas; animal output - cattle,
 hogs, dairy products, meat, eggs; not self-sufficient in food

 Illicit drugs: transshipment point for South American drugs destined
 for the US and Europe

 Economic aid:
 recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY85-89), $575 million;
 Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
 (1970-89), $655 million

 Currency: 1 Dominican peso (RD$) = 100 centavos

 Exchange rates: Dominican pesos (RD$) per US$1 - 13.258 (January
 1995), 13.160 (1994), 12.679 (1993), 12.774 (1992), 12.692 (1991),
 8.525 (1990)

 Fiscal year: calendar year

@Dominican Republic:Transportation

 Railroads:
 total: 1,655 km (in numerous segments; includes 4 different gauges
 from 0.558-m narrow gauge to 1.435-m standard gauge)

 Highways:
 total: 12,000 km
 paved: 5,800 km
 unpaved: gravel or improved earth 5,600 km; unimproved earth 600 km

 Pipelines: crude oil 96 km; petroleum products 8 km

 Ports: Barahona, La Romana, Puerto Plata, San Pedro de Macoris, Santo
 Domingo

 Merchant marine:
 total: 1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,587 GRT/1,165 DWT

 Airports:
 total: 36
 with paved runways over 3,047 m: 2
 with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
 with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
 with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 5
 with paved runways under 914 m: 16
 with unpaved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
 with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 1
 with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 6

@Dominican Republic:Communications

 Telephone system: 190,000 telephones; relatively efficient domestic
 system based on islandwide microwave radio relay network
 local: NA
 intercity: islandwide microwave radio relay network
 international: 1 coaxial submarine cable; 1 INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean)
 earth station

 Radio:
 broadcast stations: AM 120, FM 0, shortwave 6
 radios: NA

 Television:
 broadcast stations: 18
 televisions: NA

@Dominican Republic:Defense Forces

 Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, National Police

 Manpower availability: males age 15-49 2,008,597; males fit for
 military service 1,266,812; males reach military age (18) annually
 79,769 (1995 est.)

 Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $116 million, 1.4% of
 GDP (1994)


________________________________________________________________________

ECUADOR

@Ecuador:Geography

 Location: Western South America, bordering the Pacific Ocean at the
 Equator, between Colombia and Peru

 Map references: South America

 Area:
 total area: 283,560 sq km
 land area: 276,840 sq km
 comparative area: slightly smaller than Nevada
 note: includes Galapagos Islands

 Land boundaries: total 2,010 km, Colombia 590 km, Peru 1,420 km

 Coastline: 2,237 km

 Maritime claims:
 continental shelf: claims continental shelf between mainland and
 Galapagos Islands
 territorial sea: 200 nm

 International disputes: three sections of the boundary with Peru are
 in dispute

 Climate: tropical along coast becoming cooler inland

 Terrain: coastal plain (costa), inter-Andean central highlands
 (sierra), and flat to rolling eastern jungle (oriente)

 Natural resources: petroleum, fish, timber

 Land use:
 arable land: 6%
 permanent crops: 3%
 meadows and pastures: 17%
 forest and woodland: 51%
 other: 23%

 Irrigated land: 5,500 sq km (1989 est.)

 Environment:
 current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; water
 pollution
 natural hazards: frequent earthquakes, landslides, volcanic activity;
 periodic droughts
 international agreements: party to - Antarctic-Environmental Protocol,
 Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species,
 Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
 Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified -
 Tropical Timber 94

 Note: Cotopaxi in Andes is highest active volcano in world

@Ecuador:People

 Population: 10,890,950 (July 1995 est.)

 Age structure:
 0-14 years: 36% (female 1,928,977; male 1,990,036)
 15-64 years: 60% (female 3,281,575; male 3,230,082)
 65 years and over: 4% (female 244,862; male 215,418) (July 1995 est.)

 Population growth rate: 1.95% (1995 est.)

 Birth rate: 25.08 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Death rate: 5.55 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Infant mortality rate: 37.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

 Life expectancy at birth:
 total population: 70.35 years
 male: 67.83 years
 female: 72.99 years (1995 est.)

 Total fertility rate: 2.97 children born/woman (1995 est.)

 Nationality:
 noun: Ecuadorian(s)
 adjective: Ecuadorian

 Ethnic divisions: mestizo (mixed Indian and Spanish) 55%, Indian 25%,
 Spanish 10%, black 10%

 Religions: Roman Catholic 95%

 Languages: Spanish (official), Indian languages (especially Quechua)

 Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
 total population: 87%
 male: 90%
 female: 84%

 Labor force: 2.8 million
 by occupation: agriculture 35%, manufacturing 21%, commerce 16%,
 services and other activities 28% (1982)

@Ecuador:Government

 Names:
 conventional long form: Republic of Ecuador
 conventional short form: Ecuador
 local long form: Republica del Ecuador
 local short form: Ecuador

 Digraph: EC

 Type: republic

 Capital: Quito

 Administrative divisions: 21 provinces (provincias, singular -
 provincia); Azuay, Bolivar, Canar, Carchi, Chimborazo, Cotopaxi, El
 Oro, Esmeraldas, Galapagos, Guayas, Imbabura, Loja, Los Rios, Manabi,
 Morona-Santiago, Napo, Pastaza, Pichincha, Sucumbios, Tungurahua,
 Zamora-Chinchipe

 Independence: 24 May 1822 (from Spain)

 National holiday: Independence Day, 10 August (1809) (independence of
 Quito)

 Constitution: 10 August 1979

 Legal system: based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory
 ICJ jurisdiction

 Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal, compulsory for literate persons
 ages 18-65, optional for other eligible voters

 Executive branch:
 chief of state and head of government: President Sixto DURAN-BALLEN
 Cordovez (since 10 August 1992); Vice President Alberto DAHIK Garzoni
 (since 10 August 1992); election runoff election held 5 July 1992
 (next to be held NA 1996); results - Sixto DURAN-BALLEN elected as
 president and Alberto DAHIK elected as vice president
 cabinet: Cabinet; appointed by the president

 Legislative branch: unicameral
 National Congress (Congreso Nacional): elections last held 1 May 1994
 (next to be held 1 May 1996); results - percent of vote by party NA;
 seats - (77 total) PSC 25, PRE 11, MPD 8, ID 7, DP 7, PCE 7, PUR 2,
 CFP 2, APRE 2, PSE 1, FRA 1, PLRE 1, LN 1, independents 2

 Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema)

 Political parties and leaders:
 Center-Right parties: Social Christian Party (PSC), Jaime NEBOT Saadi,
 president; Republican Unity Party (PUR), President Sixto DURAN-BALLEN,
 leader; Ecuadorian Conservative Party (PCE), Vice President Alberto
 DAHIK, president
 Center-Left parties: Democratic Left (ID), Andres VALLEJO Arcos,
 Rodrigo BORJA Cevallos, leaders; Popular Democracy (DP), Rodrigo PAZ,
 leader; Ecuadorian Radical Liberal Party (PLRE), Medardo MORA, leader;
 Radical Alfarista Front (FRA), Jaime ASPIAZU Seminario, director
 populist parties: Roldista Party (PRE), Abdala BUCARAM Ortiz,
 director; Concentration of Popular Forces (CFP), Rodolfo BAQUERIZO
 Nazur, leader; Popular Revolutionary Action (APRE), Frank VARGAS
 Passos, leader
 Far-Left parties: Popular Democratic Movement (MPD), Juan Jose
 CASTELLO, leader; Ecuadorian Socialist Party (PSE), Leon ROLDOS,
 leader; Broad Leftist Front (FADI), Rene Mauge MOSQUERA, chairman;
 Ecuadorian National Liberation (LN), Alfredo CASTILLO, director
 Communists: Communist Party of Ecuador (PCE, pro-North Korea), Rene
 Mauge MOSQUERA, Secretary General; Communist Party of
 Ecuador/Marxist-Leninist (PCMLE, Maoist)

 Member of: AG, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC,
 ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL,
 IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES, LAIA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD,
 UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

 Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Edgar TERAN Teran
 chancery: 2535 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
 telephone: [1] (202) 234-7200
 consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New
 Orleans, New York, and San Francisco
 consulate(s): Newark

 US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Peter F. ROMERO
 embassy: Avenida 12 de Octubre y Avenida Patria, Quito
 mailing address: APO AA 34039-3420
 telephone: [593] (2) 562-890, 561-624, 561-749
 FAX: [593] (2) 502-052
 consulate(s) general: Guayaquil

 Flag: three horizontal bands of yellow (top, double width), blue, and
 red with the coat of arms superimposed at the center of the flag;
 similar to the flag of Colombia that is shorter and does not bear a
 coat of arms

@Ecuador:Economy

 Overview: Ecuador has substantial oil resources and rich agricultural
 areas. Growth has been uneven in recent years because of fluctuations
 in prices for Ecuador's primary exports - oil and bananas - as well as
 because of government policies designed to curb inflation. President
 Sixto DURAN-BALLEN launched a series of macroeconomic reforms when he
 came into office in August 1992 which included raising domestic fuel
 prices and utility rates, eliminating most subsidies, and bringing the
 government budget into balance. These measures helped to reduce
 inflation from 55% in 1992 to 25% in 1994. DURAN-BALLEN has a much
 more favorable attitude toward foreign investment than his predecessor
 and has supported several laws designed to encourage foreign
 investment. Ecuador has implemented free or complementary trade
 agreements with Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Peru, and Venezuela, as well
 as applied for World Trade Organization membership. Ecuador signed a
 standby agreement with the IMF and rescheduled its $7.6 billion
 commercial debt in 1994 thereby regaining access to multilateral
 lending. Growth in 1994 speeded up to 3.9%, based on increased exports
 of bananas and non-traditional products, while international reserves
 increased to a record $1.6 billion.

 National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $41.1 billion (1994
 est.)

 National product real growth rate: 3.9% (1994 est.)

 National product per capita: $3,840 (1994 est.)

 Inflation rate (consumer prices): 25% (1994)

 Unemployment rate: 7.1% (1994)

 Budget:
 revenues: $2.76 billion
 expenditures: $2.76 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
 (1994)

 Exports: $3.3 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
 commodities: petroleum 39%, bananas 17%, shrimp 16%, cocoa 3%, coffee
 6%
 partners: US 42%, Latin America 29%, Caribbean, EU countries 17%

 Imports: $3 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
 commodities: transport equipment, consumer goods, vehicles, machinery,
 chemicals
 partners: US 28%, EU 17%, Latin America 31%, Caribbean, Japan

 External debt: $13.2 billion (yearend 1993 est.)

 Industrial production: growth rate 6.4% (1993); accounts for almost
 35% of GDP, including petroleum

 Electricity:
 capacity: 2,230,000 kW
 production: 6.9 billion kWh
 consumption per capita: 612 kWh (1993)

 Industries: petroleum, food processing, textiles, metal work, paper
 products, wood products, chemicals, plastics, fishing, lumber

 Agriculture: accounts for 14% of GDP (including fishing and forestry);
 leading producer and exporter of bananas and balsawood; other
 agricultural exports - coffee, cocoa, fish, shrimp; other crops -
 rice, potatoes, manioc, plantains, sugarcane; livestock products -
 cattle, sheep, hogs, beef, pork, dairy products; net importer of
 foodgrains, dairy products, and sugar

 Illicit drugs: significant transit country for derivatives of coca
 originating in Colombia, Bolivia, and Peru; minor illicit producer of
 coca; importer of precursor chemicals used in production of illicit
 narcotics; important money-laundering hub

 Economic aid:
 recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $498 million;
 Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
 (1970-91), $2.39 billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $64 million

 Currency: 1 sucre (S/) = 100 centavos

 Exchange rates: sucres (S/) per US$1 - 1,198.1 (December 1994),
 2,196.7 (1994), 1,919.1 (1993), 1,534.0 (1992), 1,046.25 (1991), 767.8
 (1990), 767.78 (1990), 526.35 (1989)

 Fiscal year: calendar year

@Ecuador:Transportation

 Railroads:
 total: 965 km (single track)
 narrow gauge: 965 km 1.067-m gauge

 Highways:
 total: 43,709 km
 paved: 5,245 km
 unpaved: 38,464 km

 Inland waterways: 1,500 km

 Pipelines: crude oil 800 km; petroleum products 1,358 km

 Ports: Esmeraldas, Guayaquil, La Libertad, Manta, Puerto Bolivar, San
 Lorenzo

 Merchant marine:
 total: 33 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 222,822 GRT/326,447 DWT
 ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 2, container 2, liquefied gas tanker 2,
 oil tanker 13, passenger 3, refrigerated cargo 10

 Airports:
 total: 175
 with paved runways over 3,047 m: 2
 with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
 with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 8
 with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 15
 with paved runways under 914 m: 107
 with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 5
 with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 31

@Ecuador:Communications

 Telephone system: 318,000 telephones; 30 telephones/1,000 persons;
 domestic facilities generally inadequate and unreliable
 local: NA
 intercity: NA
 international: 1 INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean) earth station

 Radio:
 broadcast stations: AM 272, FM 0, shortwave 39
 radios: NA

 Television:
 broadcast stations: 33
 televisions: NA

@Ecuador:Defense Forces

 Branches: Army (Ejercito Ecuatoriano), Navy (Armada Ecuatoriana,
 includes Marines), Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Ecuatoriana), National
 Police

 Manpower availability: males age 15-49 2,814,867; males fit for
 military service 1,903,979; males reach military age (20) annually
 113,985 (1995 est.)

 Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP


________________________________________________________________________

EGYPT

@Egypt:Geography

 Location: Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between
 Libya and the Gaza Strip

 Map references: Africa

 Area:
 total area: 1,001,450 sq km
 land area: 995,450 sq km
 comparative area: slightly more than three times the size of New
 Mexico

 Land boundaries: total 2,689 km, Gaza Strip 11 km, Israel 255 km,
 Libya 1,150 km, Sudan 1,273 km

 Coastline: 2,450 km

 Maritime claims:
 contiguous zone: 24 nm
 continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
 exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
 territorial sea: 12 nm

 International disputes: administrative boundary with Sudan does not
 coincide with international boundary creating the "Hala'ib Triangle,"
 a barren area of 20,580 sq km, tensions over this disputed area began
 to escalate in 1992 and remain high

 Climate: desert; hot, dry summers with moderate winters

 Terrain: vast desert plateau interrupted by Nile valley and delta

 Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates,
 manganese, limestone, gypsum, talc, asbestos, lead, zinc

 Land use:
 arable land: 3%
 permanent crops: 2%
 meadows and pastures: 0%
 forest and woodland: 0%
 other: 95%

 Irrigated land: 25,850 sq km (1989 est.)

 Environment:
 current issues: agricultural land being lost to urbanization and
 windblown sands; increasing soil salinization below Aswan High Dam;
 desertification; oil pollution threatening coral reefs, beaches, and
 marine habitats; other water pollution from agricultural pesticides,
 raw sewage, and industrial effluents; very limited natural fresh water
 resources away from the Nile which is the only perennial water source;
 rapid growth in population overstraining natural resources
 natural hazards: periodic droughts; frequent earthquakes, flash
 floods, landslides, volcanic activity; hot, driving windstorm called
 khamsin occurs in spring; duststorms, sandstorms
 international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
 Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law
 of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection,
 Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified
 - Desertification, Tropical Timber 94

 Note: controls Sinai Peninsula, only land bridge between Africa and
 remainder of Eastern Hemisphere; controls Suez Canal, shortest sea
 link between Indian Ocean and Mediterranean Sea; size, and
 juxtaposition to Israel, establish its major role in Middle Eastern
 geopolitics

@Egypt:People

 Population: 62,359,623 (July 1995 est.)

 Age structure:
 0-14 years: 37% (female 11,380,668; male 11,872,728)
 15-64 years: 59% (female 18,250,706; male 18,641,830)
 65 years and over: 4% (female 1,204,477; male 1,009,214) (July 1995
 est.)

 Population growth rate: 1.95% (1995 est.)

 Birth rate: 28.69 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Death rate: 8.86 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Net migration rate: -0.35 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Infant mortality rate: 74.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

 Life expectancy at birth:
 total population: 61.12 years
 male: 59.22 years
 female: 63.12 years (1995 est.)

 Total fertility rate: 3.67 children born/woman (1995 est.)

 Nationality:
 noun: Egyptian(s)
 adjective: Egyptian

 Ethnic divisions: Eastern Hamitic stock (Egyptians, Bedouins, and
 Berbers) 99%, Greek, Nubian, Armenian, other European (primarily
 Italian and French) 1%

 Religions: Muslim (mostly Sunni) 94% (official estimate), Coptic
 Christian and other 6% (official estimate)

 Languages: Arabic (official), English and French widely understood by
 educated classes

 Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
 total population: 48%
 male: 63%
 female: 34%

 Labor force: 16 million (1994 est.)
 by occupation: government, public sector enterprises, and armed forces
 36%, agriculture 34%, privately owned service and manufacturing
 enterprises 20% (1984)
 note: shortage of skilled labor; 2,500,000 Egyptians work abroad,
 mostly in Saudi Arabia and the Gulf Arab states (1993 est.)

@Egypt:Government

 Names:
 conventional long form: Arab Republic of Egypt
 conventional short form: Egypt
 local long form: Jumhuriyat Misr al-Arabiyah
 local short form: none
 former: United Arab Republic (with Syria)

 Digraph: EG

 Type: republic

 Capital: Cairo

 Administrative divisions: 26 governorates (muhafazat, singular -
 muhafazah); Ad Daqahliyah, Al Bahr al Ahmar, Al Buhayrah, Al Fayyum,
 Al Gharbiyah, Al Iskandariyah, Al Isma'iliyah, Al Jizah, Al Minufiyah,
 Al Minya, Al Qahirah, Al Qalyubiyah, Al Wadi al Jadid, Ash Sharqiyah,
 As Suways, Aswan, Asyu't, Bani Suwayf, Bur Sa'id, Dumyat, Janub Sina,
 Kafr ash Shaykh, Matruh, Qina, Shamal Sina, Suhaj

 Independence: 28 February 1922 (from UK)

 National holiday: Anniversary of the Revolution, 23 July (1952)

 Constitution: 11 September 1971

 Legal system: based on English common law, Islamic law, and Napoleonic
 codes; judicial review by Supreme Court and Council of State (oversees
 validity of administrative decisions); accepts compulsory ICJ
 jurisdiction, with reservations

 Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

 Executive branch:
 chief of state: President Mohammed Hosni MUBARAK (sworn in as
 president on 14 October 1981, eight days after the assassination of
 President SADAT); national referendum held 4 October 1993 validated
 Mubarak's nomination by the People's Assembly to a third 6-year
 presidential term
 head of government: Prime Minister Atef Mohammed Najib SEDKY (since 12
 November 1986)
 cabinet: Cabinet; appointed by the president

 Legislative branch: bicameral
 People's Assembly (Majlis al-Cha'b): elections last held 29 November
 1990 (next to be held NA November 1995); results - NDP 86.3%, NPUG
 1.3%, independents 12.4%; seats - (454 total, 444 elected, 10
 appointed by the president) NDP 383, NPUG 6, independents 55; note -
 most opposition parties boycotted; NDP figures include NDP members who
 ran as independents and other NDP-affiliated independents
 Advisory Council (Majlis al-Shura): functions only in a consultative
 role; elections last held 8 June 1989 (next to be held NA June 1995);
 results - NDP 100%; seats - (258 total, 172 elected, 86 appointed by
 the president) NDP 172

 Judicial branch: Supreme Constitutional Court

 Political parties and leaders: National Democratic Party (NDP),
 President Mohammed Hosni MUBARAK, leader, is the dominant party; legal
 opposition parties are; New Wafd Party (NWP), Fu'ad SIRAJ AL-DIN;
 Socialist Labor Party, Ibrahim SHUKRI; National Progressive Unionist
 Grouping (NPUG), Khalid MUHYI-AL-DIN; Socialist Liberal Party (SLP),
 Mustafa Kamal MURAD; Democratic Unionist Party, Mohammed
 'Abd-al-Mun'im TURK; Umma Party, Ahmad al-SABAHI; Misr al-Fatah Party
 (Young Egypt Party), Gamal RABIE; Nasserist Arab Democratic Party,
 Dia' al-din DAWUD; Democratic Peoples' Party, Anwar AFIFI; The Greens
 Party, Kamal KIRAH; Social Justice Party, Muhammad 'ABD-AL-'AL
 note: formation of political parties must be approved by government

 Other political or pressure groups: despite a constitutional ban
 against religious-based parties, the technically illegal Muslim
 Brotherhood constitutes MUBARAK's potentially most significant
 political opposition; MUBARAK tolerated limited political activity by
 the Brotherhood for his first two terms, but has moved more
 aggressively in the past year to block its influence; trade unions and
 professional associations are officially sanctioned

 Member of: ABEDA, ACC, AFESD, AL, AMF, CAEU, CCC, ESCWA, FAO, G-19,
 G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF,
 IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAPEC, OIC,
 OPEC, PCA, UN, UNAMIR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOMIL, UNPROFOR, UPU,
 WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

 Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Ahmed Maher El SAYED
 chancery: 3521 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008
 telephone: [1] (202) 895-5400
 FAX: [1] (202) 244-4319, 5131
 consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, New York, and San Francisco

 US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Edward S. WALKER, Jr.
 embassy: (North Gate) 8, Kamel El-Din Salah Street, Garden City, Cairo

 mailing address: APO AE 09839-4900
 telephone: [20] (2) 3557371
 FAX: [20] (2) 3573200

 Flag: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black with
 the national emblem (a shield superimposed on a golden eagle facing
 the hoist side above a scroll bearing the name of the country in
 Arabic) centered in the white band; similar to the flag of Yemen,
 which has a plain white band; also similar to the flag of Syria that
 has two green stars and to the flag of Iraq, which has three green
 stars (plus an Arabic inscription) in a horizontal line centered in
 the white band

@Egypt:Economy

 Overview: Half of Egypt's GDP originates in the public sector, most
 industrial plants being owned by the government. Overregulation holds
 back technical modernization and foreign investment. Even so, the
 economy grew rapidly during the late 1970s and early 1980s, but in
 1986 the collapse of world oil prices and an increasingly heavy burden
 of debt servicing led Egypt to begin negotiations with the IMF for
 balance-of-payments support. Egypt's first IMF standby arrangement
 concluded in mid-1987 was suspended in early 1988 because of the
 government's failure to adopt promised reforms. Egypt signed a
 follow-on program with the IMF and also negotiated a structural
 adjustment loan with the World Bank in 1991. In 1991-93 the government
 made solid progress on administrative reforms such as liberalizing
 exchange and interest rates but resisted implementing major structural
 reforms like streamlining the public sector. As a result, the economy
 has not gained momentum and unemployment has become a growing problem.
 Egypt probably will continue making uneven progress in implementing
 the successor programs with the IMF and World Bank it signed onto in
 late 1993. Tourism has plunged since 1992 because of sporadic attacks
 by Islamic extremists on tourist groups. President MUBARAK has cited
 population growth as the main cause of the country's economic
 troubles. The addition of about 1.2 million people a year to the
 already huge population of 62 million exerts enormous pressure on the
 5% of the land area available for agriculture along the Nile.

 National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $151.5 billion (1994
 est.)

 National product real growth rate: 1.5% (1994 est.)

 National product per capita: $2,490 (1994 est.)

 Inflation rate (consumer prices): 8% (1994 est.)

 Unemployment rate: 20% (1994 est.)

 Budget:
 revenues: $18 billion
 expenditures: $19.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $3.8
 billion (FY94/95 est.)

 Exports: $3.1 billion (f.o.b., FY93/94 est.)
 commodities: crude oil and petroleum products, cotton yarn, raw
 cotton, textiles, metal products, chemicals
 partners: EU, US, Japan

 Imports: $11.2 billion (c.i.f., FY93/94 est.)
 commodities: machinery and equipment, foods, fertilizers, wood
 products, durable consumer goods, capital goods
 partners: EU, US, Japan

 External debt: $31.2 billion (December 1994 est.)

 Industrial production: growth rate 2.7% (FY92/93 est.)

 Electricity:
 capacity: 11,830,000 kW
 production: 44.5 billion kWh
 consumption per capita: 695 kWh (1993)

 Industries: textiles, food processing, tourism, chemicals, petroleum,
 construction, cement, metals

 Agriculture: cotton, rice, corn, wheat, beans, fruit, vegetables;
 cattle, water buffalo, sheep, goats; annual fish catch about 140,000
 metric tons

 Illicit drugs: a transit point for Southwest Asian and Southeast Asian
 heroin and opium moving to Europe and the US; popular transit stop for
 Nigerian couriers; large domestic consumption of hashish from Lebanon
 and Syria

 Economic aid:
 recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $15.7 billion;
 Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
 (1970-88), $10.1 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $2.9 billion;
 Communist countries (1970-89), $2.4 billion

 Currency: 1 Egyptian pound (#E) = 100 piasters

 Exchange rates: Egyptian pounds (#E) per US$1 - 3.4 (November 1994),
 3.369 (November 1993), 3.345 (November 1992), 2.7072 (1990); market
 rate: 3.3920 (January 1995), 3.3920 (1994), 3.3704 (1993), 3.3300
 (1992), 2.0000 (1991), 1.1000 (1990)

 Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

@Egypt:Transportation

 Railroads:
 total: 4,895 km (42 km electrified; 951 km double track)
 standard gauge: 4,548 km 1,435-m gauge (42 km electrified; 951 km
 double track)
 narrow gauge: 347 km 0.750-m gauge

 Highways:
 total: 47,387 km
 paved: 34,593 km
 unpaved: 12,794 km

 Inland waterways: 3,500 km (including the Nile, Lake Nasser,
 Alexandria-Cairo Waterway, and numerous smaller canals in the delta);
 Suez Canal, 193.5 km long (including approaches), used by oceangoing
 vessels drawing up to 16.1 meters of water

 Pipelines: crude oil 1,171 km; petroleum products 596 km; natural gas
 460 km

 Ports: Alexandria, Al Ghurdaqah, Aswan, Asyut, Bur Safajah, Damietta,
 Marsa Matruh, Port Said, Suez

 Merchant marine:
 total: 168 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,187,442 GRT/1,821,327
 DWT
 ships by type: bulk 19, cargo 83, container 2, oil tanker 15,
 passenger 30, refrigerated cargo 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 14,
 short-sea passenger 4

 Airports:
 total: 91
 with paved runways over 3,047 m: 11
 with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 35
 with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 17
 with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 3
 with paved runways under 914 m: 14
 with unpaved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
 with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 2
 with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 7

@Egypt:Communications

 Telephone system: 600,000 telephones; 11 telephones/1,000 persons;
 large system by Third World standards but inadequate for present
 requirements and undergoing extensive upgrading
 local: NA
 intercity: principal centers at Alexandria, Cairo, Al Mansurah,
 Ismailia Suez, and Tanta are connected by coaxial cable and microwave
 radio relay
 international: 2 INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean), 1
 ARABSAT, and 1 INMARSAT earth station; 5 coaxial submarine cables,
 microwave troposcatter (to Sudan), and microwave radio relay (to
 Libya, Israel, and Jordan)

 Radio:
 broadcast stations: AM 39, FM 6, shortwave 0
 radios: NA

 Television:
 broadcast stations: 41
 televisions: NA

@Egypt:Defense Forces

 Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense Command

 Manpower availability: males age 15-49 16,113,413; males fit for
 military service 10,455,955; males reach military age (20) annually
 648,724 (1995 est.)

 Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $3.5 billion, 8.2% of
 total government budget (FY94/95)


________________________________________________________________________

EL SALVADOR

@El Salvador:Geography

 Location: Middle America, bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between
 Guatemala and Honduras

 Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

 Area:
 total area: 21,040 sq km
 land area: 20,720 sq km
 comparative area: slightly smaller than Massachusetts

 Land boundaries: total 545 km, Guatemala 203 km, Honduras 342 km

 Coastline: 307 km

 Maritime claims:
 territorial sea: 200 nm

 International disputes: land boundary dispute with Honduras mostly
 resolved by 11 September 1992 International Court of Justice (ICJ)
 decision; with respect to the maritime boundary in the Golfo de
 Fonseca, ICJ referred to an earlier agreement in this century and
 advised that some tripartite resolution among El Salvador, Honduras
 and Nicaragua likely would be required

 Climate: tropical; rainy season (May to October); dry season (November
 to April)

 Terrain: mostly mountains with narrow coastal belt and central plateau

 Natural resources: hydropower, geothermal power, petroleum

 Land use:
 arable land: 27%
 permanent crops: 8%
 meadows and pastures: 29%
 forest and woodland: 6%
 other: 30%

 Irrigated land: 1,200 sq km (1989)

 Environment:
 current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution;
 contamination of soils from disposal of toxic wastes
 natural hazards: known as the Land of Volcanoes; frequent and
 sometimes very destructive earthquakes and volcanic activity
 international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Endangered Species,
 Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection; signed,
 but not ratified - Climate Change, Law of the Sea

 Note: smallest Central American country and only one without a
 coastline on Caribbean Sea

@El Salvador:People

 Population: 5,870,481 (July 1995 est.)

 Age structure:
 0-14 years: 40% (female 1,165,152; male 1,200,759)
 15-64 years: 56% (female 1,677,958; male 1,602,230)
 65 years and over: 4% (female 122,368; male 102,014) (July 1995 est.)

 Population growth rate: 2.02% (1995 est.)

 Birth rate: 32.39 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Death rate: 6.19 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Net migration rate: -5.96 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Infant mortality rate: 38.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

 Life expectancy at birth:
 total population: 67.5 years
 male: 64.89 years
 female: 70.23 years (1995 est.)

 Total fertility rate: 3.69 children born/woman (1995 est.)

 Nationality:
 noun: Salvadoran(s)
 adjective: Salvadoran

 Ethnic divisions: mestizo 94%, Indian 5%, white 1%

 Religions: Roman Catholic 75%
 note: there is extensive activity by Protestant groups throughout the
 country; by the end of 1992, there were an estimated 1 million
 Protestant evangelicals in El Salvador

 Languages: Spanish, Nahua (among some Indians)

 Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
 total population: 73%
 male: 76%
 female: 70%

 Labor force: 1.7 million (1982 est.)
 by occupation: agriculture 40%, commerce 16%, manufacturing 15%,
 government 13%, financial services 9%, transportation 6%, other 1%
 note: shortage of skilled labor and a large pool of unskilled labor,
 but training programs improving situation (1984 est.)

@El Salvador:Government

 Names:
 conventional long form: Republic of El Salvador
 conventional short form: El Salvador
 local long form: Republica de El Salvador
 local short form: El Salvador

 Digraph: ES

 Type: republic

 Capital: San Salvador

 Administrative divisions: 14 departments (departamentos, singular -
 departamento); Ahuachapan, Cabanas, Chalatenango, Cuscatlan, La
 Libertad, La Paz, La Union, Morazan, San Miguel, San Salvador, Santa
 Ana, San Vicente, Sonsonate, Usulutan

 Independence: 15 September 1821 (from Spain)

 National holiday: Independence Day, 15 September (1821)

 Constitution: 20 December 1983

 Legal system: based on civil and Roman law, with traces of common law;
 judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; accepts
 compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

 Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

 Executive branch:
 chief of state and head of government: President Armando CALDERON SOL
 (since 1 June 1994); Vice President Enrique BORGO Bustamante (since 1
 June 1994) election last held 20 March 1994 (next to be held March
 1999); results - Armando CALDERON SOL (ARENA) 49.03%, Ruben ZAMORA
 Rivas (CD/FMLN/MNR) 24.09%, Fidel CHAVEZ Mena (PDC) 16.39%, other
 10.49%; because no candidate received a majority, a run-off election
 was held 24 April 1994; results - Armando CALDERON SOL (ARENA) 68.35%,
 Ruben ZAMORA Rivas (CD/FMLN/MNR) 31.65%
 cabinet: Council of Ministers

 Legislative branch: unicameral
 Legislative Assembly (Asamblea Legislativa): elections last held 20
 March 1994 (next to be held March 1997); results - ARENA 46.4%, FMLN
 25.0%, PDC 21.4%, PCN 4.8%, other 2.4%; seats - (84 total) ARENA 39,
 FMLN 21, PDC 18, PCN 4, other 2

 Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema)

 Political parties and leaders: National Republican Alliance (ARENA),
 Juan Jose DOMENECH, president; Farabundo Marti National Liberation
 Front (FMLN), Salvador SANCHEZ Ceren (aka Leonel GONZALEZ), general
 coordinator; Christian Democratic Party (PDC), Ronal UMANA, secretary
 general; National Conciliation Party (PCN), Ciro CRUZ Zepeda,
 secretary general; Democratic Convergence (CD), Juan Jose MARTEL,
 secretary general; Unity Movement, Jorge MARTINEZ Menendez, president
 note: newly formed parties not yet officially recognized by the
 Supreme Electoral Tribunal: Liberal Democratic Party (PLD), Kirio
 Waldo SALGADO, founder; Social Democratic Party (breakaway from FMLN),
 Joaquin VILLALOBOS, founder; Social Christian Renovation Movement
 (MRSC) (breakaway from PDC), Abraham RODRIGUEZ, founder

 Other political or pressure groups:
 labor organizations: Salvadoran Communal Union (UCS), peasant
 association; General Confederation of Workers (CGT), moderate; United
 Workers Front (FUT)
 business organizations: Productive Alliance (AP), conservative;
 National Federation of Salvadoran Small Businessmen (FENAPES),
 conservative

 Member of: BCIE, CACM, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
 ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL,
 IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer), NAM (observer), OAS, OPANAL,
 PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

 Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Ana Cristina SOL
 chancery: 2308 California Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
 telephone: [1] (202) 265-9671, 9672
 consulate(s) general: Chicago, Dallas, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami,
 New Orleans, New York, and San Francisco

 US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Alan H. FLANIGAN
 embassy: Final Boulevard, Station Antiguo Cuscatlan, San Salvador
 mailing address: Unit 3116, San Salvador; APO AA 34023
 telephone: [503] 78-4444
 FAX: [503] 78-6011

 Flag: three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and blue with
 the national coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms
 features a round emblem encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE EL
 SALVADOR EN LA AMERICA CENTRAL; similar to the flag of Nicaragua,
 which has a different coat of arms centered in the white band - it
 features a triangle encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE NICARAGUA on
 top and AMERICA CENTRAL on the bottom; also similar to the flag of
 Honduras, which has five blue stars arranged in an X pattern centered
 in the white band

@El Salvador:Economy

 Overview: The agricultural sector accounts for 24% of GDP, employs
 about 40% of the labor force, and contributes about 66% to total
 exports. Coffee is the major commercial crop, accounting for 45% of
 export earnings. The manufacturing sector, based largely on food and
 beverage processing, accounts for 19% of GDP and 15% of employment. In
 1992-94 the government made substantial progress toward privatization
 and deregulation of the economy. Growth in national output in 1991-94
 nearly averaged 5%, exceeding growth in population for the first time
 since 1987; and inflation in 1994 of 10% was down from 19% in 1993.

 National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $9.8 billion (1994
 est.)

 National product real growth rate: 5% (1994 est.)

 National product per capita: $1,710 (1994 est.)

 Inflation rate (consumer prices): 10% (1994 est.)

 Unemployment rate: 6.7% (1993)

 Budget:
 revenues: $846 million
 expenditures: $890 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
 (1992 est.)

 Exports: $823 million (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
 commodities: coffee, sugarcane, shrimp
 partners: US, Guatemala, Costa Rica, Germany

 Imports: $2.1 billion (c.i.f., 1994 est.)
 commodities: raw materials, consumer goods, capital goods
 partners: US, Guatemala, Mexico, Venezuela, Germany

 External debt: $2.6 billion (December 1992)

 Industrial production: growth rate 7.6% (1993)

 Electricity:
 capacity: 750,000 kW
 production: 2.4 billion kWh
 consumption per capita: 408 kWh (1993)

 Industries: food processing, beverages, petroleum, nonmetallic
 products, tobacco, chemicals, textiles, furniture

 Agriculture: accounts for 24% of GDP and 40% of labor force (including
 fishing and forestry); coffee most important commercial crop; other
 products - sugarcane, corn, rice, beans, oilseeds, beef, dairy
 products, shrimp; not self-sufficient in food

 Illicit drugs: transshipment point for cocaine; marijuana produced for
 local consumption

 Economic aid:
 recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-90), $2.95 billion
 (plus $250 million for 1992-96); Western (non-US) countries, ODA and
 OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $525 million

 Currency: 1 Salvadoran colon (C) = 100 centavos

 Exchange rates: Salvadoran colones (C) per US$1 - 8.760 (January
 1995), 8.750 (1994), 8.670 (1993), 8.4500 (1992), 8.080 (1991), 8.0300
 (1990)

 Fiscal year: calendar year

@El Salvador:Transportation

 Railroads:
 total: 602 km (single track; note - some sections abandoned, unusable,
 or operating at reduced capacity)
 narrow gauge: 602 km 0.914-m gauge

 Highways:
 total: 10,000 km
 paved: 1,500 km
 unpaved: gravel 4,100 km; improved, unimproved earth 4,400 km

 Inland waterways: Rio Lempa partially navigable

 Ports: Acajutla, Puerto Cutuco, La Libertad, La Union, Puerto El
 Triunfo

 Merchant marine: none

 Airports:
 total: 106
 with paved runways over 3,047 m: 1
 with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
 with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 2
 with paved runways under 914 m: 78
 with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 23

@El Salvador:Communications

 Telephone system: 116,000 telephones; 21 telephones/1,000 persons
 local: NA
 intercity: nationwide microwave radio relay system
 international: 1 INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean) earth station; connected to
 Central American Microwave System

 Radio:
 broadcast stations: AM 77, FM 0, shortwave 2
 radios: NA

 Television:
 broadcast stations: 5
 televisions: NA

@El Salvador:Defense Forces

 Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force

 Manpower availability: males age 15-49 1,393,480; males fit for
 military service 892,958; males reach military age (18) annually
 77,562 (1995 est.)

 Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $103 million, 0.7% of
 GDP (1994); $91.9 million, less than 1% of GDP (1995 est.)


________________________________________________________________________

EQUATORIAL GUINEA

@Equatorial Guinea:Geography

 Location: Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between
 Cameroon and Gabon

 Map references: Africa

 Area:
 total area: 28,050 sq km
 land area: 28,050 sq km
 comparative area: slightly larger than Maryland

 Land boundaries: total 539 km, Cameroon 189 km, Gabon 350 km

 Coastline: 296 km

 Maritime claims:
 exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
 territorial sea: 12 nm

 International disputes: maritime boundary dispute with Gabon because
 of disputed sovereignty over islands in Corisco Bay

 Climate: tropical; always hot, humid

 Terrain: coastal plains rise to interior hills; islands are volcanic

 Natural resources: timber, petroleum, small unexploited deposits of
 gold, manganese, uranium

 Land use:
 arable land: 8%
 permanent crops: 4%
 meadows and pastures: 4%
 forest and woodland: 51%
 other: 33%

 Irrigated land: NA sq km

 Environment:
 current issues: tap water is not potable; desertification
 natural hazards: violent windstorms
 international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Endangered Species,
 Nuclear Test Ban; signed, but not ratified - Desertification, Law of
 the Sea

 Note: insular and continental regions rather widely separated

@Equatorial Guinea:People

 Population: 420,293 (July 1995 est.)

 Age structure:
 0-14 years: 43% (female 90,404; male 90,997)
 15-64 years: 53% (female 117,124; male 105,724)
 65 years and over: 4% (female 8,969; male 7,075) (July 1995 est.)

 Population growth rate: 2.59% (1995 est.)

 Birth rate: 40.22 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Death rate: 14.36 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Infant mortality rate: 100.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

 Life expectancy at birth:
 total population: 52.56 years
 male: 50.39 years
 female: 54.79 years (1995 est.)

 Total fertility rate: 5.23 children born/woman (1995 est.)

 Nationality:
 noun: Equatorial Guinean(s) or Equatoguinean(s)
 adjective: Equatorial Guinean or Equatoguinean

 Ethnic divisions: Bioko (primarily Bubi, some Fernandinos), Rio Muni
 (primarily Fang), Europeans less than 1,000, mostly Spanish

 Religions: nominally Christian and predominantly Roman Catholic, pagan
 practices

 Languages: Spanish (official), pidgin English, Fang, Bubi, Ibo

 Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1983)
 total population: 62%
 male: 77%
 female: 48%

 Labor force: 172,000 (1986 est.)
 by occupation: agriculture 66%, services 23%, industry 11% (1980)
 note: labor shortages on plantations

@Equatorial Guinea:Government

 Names:
 conventional long form: Republic of Equatorial Guinea
 conventional short form: Equatorial Guinea
 local long form: Republica de Guinea Ecuatorial
 local short form: Guinea Ecuatorial
 former: Spanish Guinea

 Digraph: EK

 Type: republic in transition to multiparty democracy

 Capital: Malabo

 Administrative divisions: 7 provinces (provincias, singular -
 provincia); Annobon, Bioko Norte, Bioko Sur, Centro Sur, Kie-Ntem,
 Litoral, Wele-Nzas

 Independence: 12 October 1968 (from Spain)

 National holiday: Independence Day, 12 October (1968)

 Constitution: new constitution 17 November 1991

 Legal system: partly based on Spanish civil law and tribal custom

 Suffrage: universal adult at age NA

 Executive branch:
 chief of state: President Brig. Gen. (Ret.) Teodoro OBIANG NGUEMA
 MBASOGO (since 3 August 1979); election last held 25 June 1989 (next
 to be held 25 June 1996); results - President Brig. Gen. (Ret.)
 Teodoro OBIANG NGUEMA MBASOGO was reelected without opposition
 head of government: Prime Minister Silvestre SIALE BILEKA (since 17
 January 1992); Vice Prime Minister Anatolio NDONG MBA (since November
 1993)
 cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by the president

 Legislative branch: unicameral
 House of People's Representatives: (Camara de Representantes del
 Pueblo) elections last held 21 November 1993; seats - (82 total) PDGE
 72, various opposition parties 10

 Judicial branch: Supreme Tribunal

 Political parties and leaders:
 ruling party: Democratic Party for Equatorial Guinea (PDGE), Brig.
 Gen. (Ret.) Teodoro OBIANG NGUEMA MBASOGO, party leader
 opposition parties: Progressive Democratic Alliance (ADP),
 Antonio-Ebang Mbele Abang, president; Popular Action of Equatorial
 Guinea (APGE),Casiano Masi Edu, leader; Liberal Democratic Convention
 (CLD), Alfonso Nsue MOKUY, president; Convergence for Social Democracy
 (CPDS),Santiago Obama Ndong, president; Social Democratic and Popular
 Convergence (CSDP), Secundino Oyono Agueng Ada, general secretary;
 Party of the Social Democratic Coalition (PCSD), Buenaventura Moswi
 M'Asumu, general coordinater; Liberal Party (PL), leaders unknown;
 Party of Progress (PP), Severo MOTO Nsa, president; Social Democratic
 Party (PSD), Benjamin-Gabriel Balingha Balinga Alene, general
 secretary; Socialist Party of Equatorial Guinea (PSGE), Tomas MICHEBE
 Fernandez, general secretary; National Democratic Union (UDENA), Jose
 MECHEBA Ikaka, president; Democratic Social Union (UDS), Jesus Nze
 Obama Avomo, general secretary; Popular Union (UP), Juan Bitui,
 president

 Member of: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD,
 ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS (associate), ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT
 (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAS (observer), OAU,
 UDEAC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO

 Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission: (vacant); Charge d'Affaires ad interim Teodoro
 Biyogo NSUE
 chancery: (temporary) 57 Magnolia Avenue, Mount Vernon, NY 10553
 telephone: [1] (914) 738-9584, 667-6913
 FAX: [1] (914) 667-6838

 US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission: Charge d'Affaires Joseph P. O'NEILL
 embassy: Calle de Los Ministros, Malabo
 mailing address: P.O. Box 597, Malabo
 telephone: [240] (9) 21-85, 24-06, 25-07
 FAX: [240] (9) 21-64

 Flag: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white, and red with
 a blue isosceles triangle based on the hoist side and the coat of arms
 centered in the white band; the coat of arms has six yellow
 six-pointed stars (representing the mainland and five offshore
 islands) above a gray shield bearing a silk-cotton tree and below
 which is a scroll with the motto UNIDAD, PAZ, JUSTICIA (Unity, Peace,
 Justice)

@Equatorial Guinea:Economy

 Overview: Agriculture, forestry, and fishing account for about half of
 GDP and nearly all exports. Subsistence farming predominates. Although
 pre-independence Equatorial Guinea counted on cocoa production for
 hard currency earnings, the deterioration of the rural economy under
 successive brutal regimes has diminished potential for agriculture-led
 growth. A number of aid programs sponsored by the World Bank and the
 international donor community have failed to revitalize export
 agriculture. Businesses for the most part are owned by government
 officials and their family members. Commerce accounts for about 8% of
 GDP and the construction, public works, and service sectors for about
 38%. Undeveloped natural resources include titanium, iron ore,
 manganese, uranium, and alluvial gold. Oil exploration, taking place
 under concessions offered to US, French, and Spanish firms, has been
 moderately successful. Increased production from recently discovered
 natural gas fields will provide a greater share of exports in 1995.

 National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $280 million (1993
 est.)

 National product real growth rate: 7.3% (1993 est.)

 National product per capita: $700 (1993 est.)

 Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.6% (1992 est.)

 Unemployment rate: NA%

 Budget:
 revenues: $32.5 million
 expenditures: $35.9 million, including capital expenditures of $3
 million (1992 est.)

 Exports: $56 million (f.o.b., 1993)
 commodities: coffee, timber, cocoa beans
 partners: Spain 55.2%, Nigeria 11.4%, Cameroon 9.1% (1992)

 Imports: $62 million (c.i.f., 1993)
 commodities: petroleum, food, beverages, clothing, machinery
 partners: Cameroon 23.1%, Spain 21.8%, France 14.1%, US 4.3% (1992)

 External debt: $260 million (1992 est)

 Industrial production: growth rate 11.3% (1993 est.)

 Electricity:
 capacity: 23,000 kW
 production: 20 million kWh
 consumption per capita: 50 kWh (1993)

 Industries: fishing, sawmilling

 Agriculture: accounts for almost 50% of GDP, cash crops - timber and
 coffee from Rio Muni, cocoa from Bioko; food crops - rice, yams,
 cassava, bananas, oil palm nuts, manioc, livestock

 Economic aid:
 recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY81-89), $14 million;
 Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
 (1970-89), $130 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $55 million

 Currency: 1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes

 Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1
 - 529.43 (January 1995), 555.20 (1994), 273,16 (1993), 264.69 (1992),
 282.11 (1991), 272.26 (1990)
 note: beginning 12 January 1994, the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF
 100 per French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since
 1948

 Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Equatorial Guinea:Transportation

 Railroads:
 total: 0 km

 Highways:
 total: 2,760 km (2,460 km on Rio Muni and 300 km on Bioko)
 paved: NA
 unpaved: NA

 Ports: Bata, Luba, Malabo

 Merchant marine:
 total: 2 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 6,412 GRT/6,699 DWT
 ships by type: cargo 1, passenger-cargo 1

 Airports:
 total: 3
 with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
 with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
 with paved runways under 914 m: 1

@Equatorial Guinea:Communications

 Telephone system: 2,000 telephones; poor system with adequate
 government services
 local: NA
 intercity: NA
 international: international communications from Bata and Malabo to
 African and European countries; 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth station

 Radio:
 broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 0, shortwave 0
 radios: NA

 Television:
 broadcast stations: 1
 televisions: NA

@Equatorial Guinea:Defense Forces

 Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Rapid Intervention Force, National
 Police

 Manpower availability: males age 15-49 89,752; males fit for military
 service 45,611 (1995 est.)

 Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $2.5 million, NA% of
 GDP (FY93/94)


________________________________________________________________________

ERITREA

@Eritrea:Geography

 Location: Eastern Africa, bordering the Red Sea, between Djibouti and
 Sudan

 Map references: Africa

 Area:
 total area: 121,320 sq km
 land area: 121,320 sq km
 comparative area: slightly larger than Pennsylvania

 Land boundaries: total 1,630 km, Djibouti 113 km, Ethiopia 912 km,
 Sudan 605 km

 Coastline: 1,151 km (land and island coastline is 2,234 km)

 Maritime claims: NA

 International disputes: none

 Climate: hot, dry desert strip along Red Sea coast; cooler and wetter
 in the central highlands (up to 61 cm of rainfall annually); semiarid
 in western hills and lowlands; rainfall heaviest during June-September
 except on coastal desert

 Terrain: dominated by extension of Ethiopian north-south trending
 highlands, descending on the east to a coastal desert plain, on the
 northwest to hilly terrain and on the southwest to flat-to-rolling
 plains

 Natural resources: gold, potash, zinc, copper, salt, probably oil
 (petroleum geologists are prospecting for it), fish

 Land use:
 arable land: 3%
 permanent crops: 2% (coffee)
 meadows and pastures: 40%
 forest and woodland: 5%
 other: 50%

 Irrigated land: NA sq km

 Environment:
 current issues: famine; deforestation; desertification; soil erosion;
 overgrazing; loss of infrastructure from civil warfare
 natural hazards: frequent droughts
 international agreements: party to - Endangered Species; signed, but
 not ratified - Desertification

 Note: strategic geopolitical position along world's busiest shipping
 lanes; Eritrea retained the entire coastline of Ethiopia along the Red
 Sea upon de jure independence from Ethiopia on 27 April 1993

@Eritrea:People

 Population: 3,578,709 (July 1995 est.)

 Age structure:
 0-14 years: 43% (female 763,416; male 774,922)
 15-64 years: 54% (female 965,124; male 965,435)
 65 years and over: 3% (female 52,950; male 56,862) (July 1995 est.)

 Population growth rate: 9.04% (1995 est.)

 Birth rate: 44.34 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Death rate: 15.67 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Net migration rate: NA migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)
 note: repatriation of up to a half million Eritrean refugees in Sudan
 is now underway; 100,000 are expected to return during 1995

 Infant mortality rate: 120.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

 Life expectancy at birth:
 total population: 50 years
 male: 48.28 years
 female: 51.78 years (1995 est.)

 Total fertility rate: 6.53 children born/woman (1995 est.)

 Nationality:
 noun: Eritrean(s)
 adjective: Eritrean

 Ethnic divisions: ethnic Tigrays 50%, Tigre and Kunama 40%, Afar 4%,
 Saho (Red Sea coast dwellers) 3%

 Religions: Muslim, Coptic Christian, Roman Catholic, Protestant

 Languages: Tigre and Kunama, Cushitic dialects, Tigre, Nora Bana,
 Arabic

 Labor force: NA

@Eritrea:Government

 Names:
 conventional long form: State of Eritrea
 conventional short form: Eritrea
 local long form: none
 local short form: none
 former: Eritrea Autonomous Region in Ethiopia

 Digraph: ER

 Type: transitional government
 note: on 29 May 1991 ISAIAS Afworke, secretary general of the Peoples'
 Front for Democracy and Justice (PFDJ), which then served and still
 serves as the country's legislative body, announced the formation of
 the Provisional Government in Eritrea (PGE) in preparation for the
 23-25 April 1993 referendum on independence for the autonomous region
 of Eritrea; the result was a landslide vote for independence which was
 proclaimed on 27 April 1993

 Capital: Asmara (formerly Asmera)

 Administrative divisions: 9 provinces; Akole Guzay, Baraka, Danakil,
 Hamasen, Sahil, Samhar, Senhit, Seraye, Sahil

 Independence: 27 May 1993 (from Ethiopia; formerly the Eritrea
 Autonomous Region)

 National holiday: National Day (independence from Ethiopia), 24 May
 (1993)

 Constitution: transitional "constitution" decreed 19 May 1993

 Legal system: NA

 Suffrage: NA

 Executive branch:
 chief of state and head of government: President ISAIAS Afworke (since
 22 May 1993)
 cabinet: State Council; the collective executive authority
 note: election to be held before 20 May 1997

 Legislative branch: unicameral
 National Assembly: PFDJ Central Committee serves as the country's
 legislative body until country-wide elections are held (before 20 May
 1997)

 Judicial branch: Judiciary

 Political parties and leaders: People's Front for Democracy and
 Justice (PFDJ), ISAIAS Afworke, PETROS Solomon (the only party
 recognized by the government)

 Other political or pressure groups: Eritrean Islamic Jihad (EIJ);
 Islamic Militant Group; Eritrean Liberation Front (ELF), ABDULLAH
 Muhammed; Eritrean Liberation Front - United Organization (ELF-UO),
 Mohammed Said NAWUD; Eritrean Liberation Front - Revolutionary Council
 (ELF-RC), Ahmed NASSER

 Member of: ACP, ECA, FAO, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IGADD, ILO, IMF, IMO,
 INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), ITU, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU

 Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission: Ambassador AMDEMICHAEL Berhane Khasai
 chancery: Suite 400, 910 17th Street NW, Washington, DC 20006
 telephone: [1] (202) 429-1991
 FAX: [1] (202) 429-9004

 US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Robert G. HOUDEK
 embassy: 34 Zera Yacob St., Asmara
 mailing address: P.O. Box 211, Asmara
 telephone: [291] (1) 120004
 FAX: [291] (1) 127584

 Flag: red isosceles triangle (based on the hoist side) dividing the
 flag into two right triangles; the upper triangle is green, the lower
 one is blue; a gold wreath encircling a gold olive branch is centered
 on the hoist side of the red triangle

@Eritrea:Economy

 Overview: With independence from Ethiopia on 27 April 1993, Eritrea
 faces the bitter economic problems of a small, desperately poor
 African country. Most of the population will continue to depend on
 subsistence farming. Domestic output is substantially augmented by
 worker remittances from abroad. Government revenues come from custom
 duties and income and sales taxes. Eritrea has inherited the entire
 coastline of Ethiopia and has long-term prospects for revenues from
 the development of offshore oil, offshore fishing, and tourism. For
 the time being, Ethiopia will be largely dependent on Eritrean ports
 for its foreign trade.

 National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $1.8 billion (1994
 est.)

 National product real growth rate: 2% (1994 est.)

 National product per capita: $500 (1994 est.)

 Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

 Unemployment rate: NA%

 Budget:
 revenues: $NA
 expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

 Exports: $NA
 commodities: NA
 partners: NA

 Imports: $NA
 commodities: NA
 partners: NA

 External debt: $NA

 Industrial production: growth rate NA%

 Electricity:
 capacity: NA kW
 production: NA kWh
 consumption per capita: NA kWh

 Industries: food processing, beverages, clothing and textiles

 Agriculture: products - sorghum, livestock (including goats), fish,
 lentils, vegetables, maize, cotton, tobacco, coffee, sisal (for making
 rope)

 Economic aid: $NA

 Currency: 1 birr (Br) = 100 cents; at present, Ethiopian currency used

 Exchange rates: 1 birr (Br) per US$1 - 5.9500 (January 1995), 5.9500
 (1994), 5.000 (fixed rate 1992-93); note - official rate pegged to US$

 Fiscal year: NA

@Eritrea:Transportation

 Railroads:
 total: 307 km; note - nonoperational since 1978; links Ak'ordat and
 Asmara (formerly Asmera) with the port of Massawa (formerly Mits'iwa)
 narrow gauge: 307 km 1.000-m gauge (1993 est.)

 Highways:
 total: 3,845 km
 paved: 807 km
 unpaved: gravel 840 km; improved earth 402 km; unimproved earth 1,796
 km

 Ports: Assab (Aseb), Massawa (Mits'iwa)

 Merchant marine: none

 Airports:
 total: 20
 with paved runways over 3,047 m: 1
 with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
 with paved runways under 914 m: 2
 with unpaved runways over 3,047 m: 1
 with unpaved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
 with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 6
 with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 7

@Eritrea:Communications

 Telephone system: NA
 local: NA
 intercity: NA
 international: NA

 Radio:
 broadcast stations: AM NA, FM NA, shortwave 0
 radios: NA

 Television:
 broadcast stations: NA
 televisions: NA

@Eritrea:Defense Forces

 Branches: Eritrean People's Liberation Front (EPLF)

 Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP


________________________________________________________________________

ESTONIA

@Estonia:Geography

 Location: Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and Gulf of
 Finland, between Latvia and Russia

 Map references: Europe

 Area:
 total area: 45,100 sq km
 land area: 43,200 sq km
 comparative area: slightly larger than New Hampshire and Vermont
 combined
 note: includes 1,520 islands in the Baltic Sea

 Land boundaries: total 557 km, Latvia 267 km, Russia 290 km

 Coastline: 1,393 km

 Maritime claims:
 exclusive economic zone: limits to be fixed in coordination with
 neighboring states
 territorial sea: 12 nm

 International disputes: claims over 2,000 sq km of Russian territory
 in the Narva and Pechora regions - based on boundary established under
 the 1921 Peace Treaty of Tartu

 Climate: maritime, wet, moderate winters, cool summers

 Terrain: marshy, lowlands

 Natural resources: shale oil, peat, phosphorite, amber

 Land use:
 arable land: 22%
 permanent crops: 0%
 meadows and pastures: 11%
 forest and woodland: 31%
 other: 36%

 Irrigated land: 110 sq km (1990)

 Environment:
 current issues: air heavily polluted with sulfur dioxide from
 oil-shale burning power plants in northeast; contamination of soil and
 groundwater with petroleum products, chemicals at military bases
 natural hazards: flooding occurs frequently in the spring
 international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
 Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

@Estonia:People

 Population: 1,625,399 (July 1995 est.)

 Age structure:
 0-14 years: 22% (female 174,304; male 181,101)
 15-64 years: 65% (female 549,473; male 515,426)
 65 years and over: 13% (female 139,722; male 65,373) (July 1995 est.)

 Population growth rate: 0.53% (1995 est.)

 Birth rate: 13.9 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Death rate: 11.93 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Net migration rate: 3.31 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Infant mortality rate: 18.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

 Life expectancy at birth:
 total population: 70.17 years
 male: 65.2 years
 female: 75.39 years (1995 est.)

 Total fertility rate: 1.98 children born/woman (1995 est.)

 Nationality:
 noun: Estonian(s)
 adjective: Estonian

 Ethnic divisions: Estonian 61.5%, Russian 30.3%, Ukrainian 3.17%,
 Byelorussian 1.8%, Finn 1.1%, other 2.13% (1989)

 Religions: Lutheran

 Languages: Estonian (official), Latvian, Lithuanian, Russian, other

 Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1989)
 total population: 100%
 male: 100%
 female: 100%

 Labor force: 750,000 (1992)
 by occupation: industry and construction 42%, agriculture and forestry
 20%, other 38% (1990)

@Estonia:Government

 Names:
 conventional long form: Republic of Estonia
 conventional short form: Estonia
 local long form: Eesti Vabariik
 local short form: Eesti
 former: Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic

 Digraph: EN

 Type: republic

 Capital: Tallinn

 Administrative divisions: 15 counties (maakonnad, singular - maakond):
 Harju maakond (Tallinn), Hiiu maakond (Kardla), Ida-Viru maakond
 (Johvi), Jarva maakond (Paide), Jogeva maakond (Jogeva), Laane maakond
 (Haapsalu), Laane-Viru maakond (Rakvere), Parnu maakond (Parnu), Polva
 maakond (Polva), Rapla maakond (Rapla), Saare maakond (Kuessaare),
 Tartu maakond (Tartu), Valga maakond (Valga), Viljandi maakond
 (Viljandi), Voru maakond (Voru)
 note: county centers are in parentheses

 Independence: 6 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)

 National holiday: Independence Day, 24 February (1918)

 Constitution: adopted 28 June 1992

 Legal system: based on civil law system; no judicial review of
 legislative acts

 Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

 Executive branch:
 chief of state: President Lennart MERI (since 21 October 1992);
 election last held 20 September 1992; (next to be held fall 1996);
 results - no candidate received majority; newly elected Parliament
 elected Lennart MERI (21 October 1992)
 head of government: Prime Minister Andres TARAND (since NA October
 1994)
 cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by the prime minister,
 authorized by the legislature

 Legislative branch: unicameral
 Parliament (Riigikogu): elections last held 5 March 1995 (next to be
 held NA 1998); results - KMU 32.22%, RE 16.18%, K 14.17%, Pro Patria
 and ERSP 7.85%, M 5.98%, Our Home is Estonia and Right-Wingers 5.0%;
 seats - (101 total) KMU 41, RE 19, K 16, Pro Patria 8, Our Home is
 Estonia 6, M 6, Right-Wingers 5

 Judicial branch: Supreme Court

 Political parties and leaders: Coalition Party and Rural Union (KMU)
 made up of 4 parties: Coalition Party, Country People's Party,
 Farmer's Assembly, and Pensioners' and Families' League; Coalition
 Party, Tiit VAHI, chairman; Country People's Party, Arnold RUUTEL,
 chairman; Farmer's Assembly, Jaak-Hans KUKS, chairman; Pensioners' and
 Families' League; Reform Party-Liberals (RE), Siim KALLAS, chairman;
 Center Party (K), Edgar SAVISAAR, chairman; Union of Pro Patria
 (Isaama of Fatherland), Mart LAAR, chairman; National Independence
 Party (ERSP), Kelam TUNNE, chairman; Our Home is Estonia made up of 2
 parties: United Peoples Party and the Russian Party in Estonia; United
 Peoples Party, Viktor ANDREJEV, chairman; Russian Party in Estonia,
 Sergei KUZNETSOV, chairman; Moderates (M) made up of 2 parties: Social
 Democratic Party and Rural Center Party; Social Democratic Party, Eiki
 NESTOR, chairman; Rural Center Party, Vambo KAAL, chairman;
 Right-Wingers, Ulo NUGIS, chairman

 Member of: BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE, EBRD, ECE, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
 ICFTU, ICRM, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO (correspondent),
 ITU, NACC, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WEU (associate
 partner), WHO, WIPO, WMO

 Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Toomas Hendrik ILVES
 chancery: 1030 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20005, Suite 1000
 telephone: [1] (202) 789-0320
 FAX: [1] (202) 789-0471
 consulate(s) general: New York

 US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission: (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Keith SMITH
 embassy: Kentmanni 20, Tallinn EE 0001
 mailing address: use embassy street address
 telephone: [372] (2) 312-021 through 024
 FAX: [372] (2) 312-025

 Flag: pre-1940 flag restored by Supreme Soviet in May 1990 - three
 equal horizontal bands of blue (top), black, and white

@Estonia:Economy

 Overview: Bolstered by a widespread national desire to reintegrate
 into Western Europe, the Estonian government has pursued an ambitious
 program of market reforms and stabilization measures, which is rapidly
 transforming the economy. Three years after independence - and two
 years after the introduction of the kroon - Estonians are beginning to
 reap tangible benefits; inflation, though still high, was brought down
 to about 2% per month in second half 1994; production declines have
 bottomed out with estimated growth of 4% in 1994; and living standards
 are rising. Economic restructuring has been dramatic. By 1994 the
 service sector accounted for over 55% of GDP, while the once-dominant
 heavy industrial sector continues to shrink. The private sector is
 growing rapidly; the share of the state enterprises in the economy has
 steadily declined and by late 1994 accounted for only about 40% of
 GDP. Estonia's foreign trade has shifted rapidly from East to West;
 the Western industrialized countries now account for two-thirds of
 foreign trade.

 National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $10.4 billion (1994
 estimate as extrapolated from World Bank estimate for 1992)

 National product real growth rate: 4% (1994 est.)

 National product per capita: $6,460 (1994 est.)

 Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.3% per month (1994 average)

 Unemployment rate: about 2% in 1994 (official estimate but large
 number of underemployed workers)

 Budget:
 revenues: $643 million
 expenditures: $639 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
 (1993 est.)

 Exports: $1.65 billion (f.o.b., 1994)
 commodities: textile 14%, food products 11%, vehicles 11%, metals 11%
 (1993)
 partners: Russia, Finland, Sweden, Germany

 Imports: $1 billion (c.i.f., 1994)
 commodities: machinery 18%, fuels 15%, vehicles 14%, textiles 10%
 (1993)
 partners: Finland, Russia, Germany, Sweden

 External debt: $650 million (end of 1991)

 Industrial production: growth rate -27% (1993)

 Electricity:
 capacity: 3,420,000 kW
 production: 11.3 billion kWh
 consumption per capita: 6,528 kWh (1993)

 Industries: oil shale, shipbuilding, phosphates, electric motors,
 excavators, cement, furniture, clothing, textiles, paper, shoes,
 apparel

 Agriculture: accounts for 10% of GDP; employs 20% of work force; very
 efficient by Soviet standards; net exports of meat, fish, dairy
 products, and potatoes; imports of feedgrains for livestock; fruits
 and vegetables

 Illicit drugs: transshipment point for illicit drugs from Central and
 Southwest Asia and Latin America to Western Europe; very limited
 illicit opium producer; mostly for domestic consumption

 Economic aid:
 recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (1992), $10 million

 Currency: 1 Estonian kroon (EEK) = 100 cents (introduced in August
 1992)

 Exchange rates: kroons (EEK) per US$1 - 12.25 (January 1995); note -
 kroons are tied to the German Deutschmark at a fixed rate of 8 to 1

 Fiscal year: calendar year

@Estonia:Transportation

 Railroads:
 total: 1,030 km common carrier lines only; does not include dedicated
 industrial lines
 broad gauge: 1,030 km 1.520-m gauge (1990)

 Highways:
 total: 30,300 km
 paved or graveled: 29,200 km
 unpaved: earth 1,100 km (1990)

 Inland waterways: 500 km perennially navigable

 Pipelines: natural gas 420 km (1992)

 Ports: Haapsalu, Narva, Novotallin, Paldiski, Parnu, Tallinn

 Merchant marine:
 total: 65 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 415,332 GRT/532,749 DWT
 ships by type: bulk 6, cargo 44, container 2, oil tanker 2,
 roll-on/roll-off cargo 7, short-sea passenger 4

 Airports:
 total: 22
 with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
 with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 3
 with unpaved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
 with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 2
 with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 4
 with unpaved runways under 914 m: 5

@Estonia:Communications

 Telephone system: about 400,000 telephones; 246 telephones/1,000
 persons; telephone system is antiquated; improvements are being made
 piecemeal, with emphasis on business needs and international
 connections; there are still about 150,000 unfulfilled requests for
 telephone service
 local: NA
 intercity: NA
 international: international traffic is carried to the other former
 USSR republics by land line or microwave and to other countries partly
 by leased connection to the Moscow international gateway switch, and
 partly by a new Tallinn-Helsinki fiber optic submarine cable which
 gives Estonia access to international circuits everywhere; substantial
 investment has been made in cellular systems which are operational
 throughout Estonia and also Latvia and which have access to the
 international packet switched digital network via Helsinki

 Radio:
 broadcast stations: AM NA, FM NA, shortwave 0
 radios: NA

 Television:
 broadcast stations: 3; note - provide Estonian programs as well as
 Moscow Ostenkino's first and second programs
 televisions: NA

@Estonia:Defense Forces

 Branches: Ground Forces, Navy, Air and Air Defense Force (not
 officially sanctioned), Maritime Border Guard, Volunteer Defense
 League (Kaitseliit), Security Forces (internal and border troops),
 Coast Guard

 Manpower availability: males age 15-49 396,588; males fit for military
 service 311,838; males reach military age (18) annually 11,915 (1995
 est.)

 Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $34.1 million, almost
 5% of the overall State budget and 1.5% of GDP (1995)


________________________________________________________________________

ETHIOPIA

@Ethiopia:Geography

 Location: Eastern Africa, west of Somalia

 Map references: Africa

 Area:
 total area: 1,127,127 sq km
 land area: 1,119,683 sq km
 comparative area: slightly less than twice the size of Texas

 Land boundaries: total 5,311 km, Djibouti 337 km, Eritrea 912 km,
 Kenya 830 km, Somalia 1,626 km, Sudan 1,606 km

 Coastline: none - landlocked

 Maritime claims: none; landlocked

 International disputes: southern half of the boundary with Somalia is
 a Provisional Administrative Line; territorial dispute with Somalia
 over the Ogaden

 Climate: tropical monsoon with wide topographic-induced variation

 Terrain: high plateau with central mountain range divided by Great
 Rift Valley

 Natural resources: small reserves of gold, platinum, copper, potash

 Land use:
 arable land: 12%
 permanent crops: 1%
 meadows and pastures: 41%
 forest and woodland: 24%
 other: 22%

 Irrigated land: 1,620 sq km (1989 est.)

 Environment:
 current issues: deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion;
 desertification; famine
 natural hazards: geologically active Great Rift Valley susceptible to
 earthquakes, volcanic eruptions; frequent droughts
 international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
 Endangered Species, Ozone Layer Protection; signed, but not ratified -
 Desertification, Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea, Nuclear
 Test Ban

 Note: landlocked - entire coastline along the Red Sea was lost with
 the de jure independence of Eritrea on 27 April 1993

@Ethiopia:People

 Population: 55,979,018 (July 1995 est.)
 note: Ethiopian demographic data, except population and population
 growth rate, include Eritrea

 Age structure:
 0-14 years: 46% (female 12,782,345; male 12,802,187)
 15-64 years: 52% (female 14,352,059; male 14,511,342)
 65 years and over: 2% (female 815,974; male 715,111) (July 1995 est.)

 Population growth rate: 3.09% (1995 est.)

 Birth rate: 46.68 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Death rate: 15.77 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Net migration rate: NA migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)
 note: repatriation of Ethiopian refugees from Sudan, Kenya and
 Somalia, where they had taken refuge from war and famine in earlier
 years, is expected to continue in 1995; additional influxes of
 Sudanese and Somalis fleeing fighting in their countries can be
 expected in 1995

 Infant mortality rate: 120.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

 Life expectancy at birth:
 total population: 50 years
 male: 48.28 years
 female: 51.78 years (1995 est.)

 Total fertility rate: 7.07 children born/woman (1995 est.)

 Nationality:
 noun: Ethiopian(s)
 adjective: Ethiopian

 Ethnic divisions: Oromo 40%, Amhara and Tigrean 32%, Sidamo 9%,
 Shankella 6%, Somali 6%, Afar 4%, Gurage 2%, other 1%

 Religions: Muslim 45%-50%, Ethiopian Orthodox 35%-40%, animist 12%,
 other 5%

 Languages: Amharic (official), Tigrinya, Orominga, Guaraginga, Somali,
 Arabic, English (major foreign language taught in schools)

 Literacy: age 10 and over can read and write (1984)
 total population: 24%
 male: 33%
 female: 16%

 Labor force: 18 million
 by occupation: agriculture and animal husbandry 80%, government and
 services 12%, industry and construction 8% (1985)

@Ethiopia:Government

 Names:
 conventional long form: none
 conventional short form: Ethiopia
 local long form: none
 local short form: Ityop'iya

 Digraph: ET

 Type: transitional government
 note: on 28 May 1991 the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic
 Front (EPRDF) toppled the authoritarian government of MENGISTU
 Haile-Mariam and took control in Addis Ababa; a new constitution was
 promulgated in December 1994 and national and regional elections are
 scheduled for May 1995; the administrative regions will elect regional
 assemblies by popular vote; the National Assembly will have two
 chambers - one elected by popular vote and the other selected as
 representatives by the regional assemblies; the lower house of the
 National Assembly will select or confirm the president, the prime
 minister and the cabinet officers and judges; the prime minister will
 be the chief executive officer and the duties of the president will be
 mostly ceremonial

 Capital: Addis Ababa

 Administrative divisions: 14 ethnically-based administrative regions
 (astedader akababiwach, singular - astedader akababi) Addis Ababa,
 Afar, Amhara, Benishangul, Gambela, Gurage-Hadiya-Kambata, Hareri,
 Kefa, Omo, Oromo, Sidama, Somali, Tigray, Wolayta
 note: the following named four administrative regions may have been
 abolished and their territories distributed among the remaining ten
 regions: Kefa, Omo, Sidama, and Wolayta

 Independence: oldest independent country in Africa and one of the
 oldest in the world - at least 2,000 years

 National holiday: National Day, 28 May (1991) (defeat of Mengistu
 regime)

 Constitution: new constitution promulgated in December 1994

 Legal system: NA

 Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

 Executive branch:
 chief of state: President MELES Zenawi (since 1 June 1991); appointed
 by the Council of Representatives following the military defeat of the
 MENGISTU government; following the elections to the National Assembly
 scheduled for May 1995 the lower house of the National Assembly will
 nominate a new president
 head of government: Prime Minister TAMIRAT Layne (since 6 June 1991);
 a new prime minister will be designated by the party in power
 following the elections to the General Assembly in May 1995
 cabinet: Council of Ministers; presently designated by the chairman of
 the Council of Representatives; under the new constitution and
 following the elections in May 1995 the cabinet officers will be
 selected by the prime minister

 Legislative branch:
 Constituent Assembly: elections were held on 5 June 1994; results -
 government parties swept almost all seats; in December 1994 the
 Constituent Assembly ratified the new constitution with few changes;
 the new constitution prescribes two chambers for the new National
 Assembly - one which is elected by popular vote and one which
 represents the ethnic interests of the regional governments

 Judicial branch: Supreme Court

 Political parties and leaders: Ethiopian People's Revolutionary
 Democratic Front (EPRDF), MELES Zenawi;

 Other political or pressure groups: Oromo Liberation Front (OLF); All
 Amhara People's Organization; Southern Ethiopia People's Democratic
 Coalition; numerous small, ethnic-based groups have formed since
 Mengistu's resignation, including several Islamic militant groups

 Member of: ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
 ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGADD, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL,
 IOC, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNU, UPU,
 WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO

 Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission: Ambassador BERHANE Gebre-Christos
 chancery: 2134 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008
 telephone: [1] (202) 234-2281, 2282
 FAX: [1] (202) 328-7950

 US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Irvin HICKS
 embassy: Entoto Street, Addis Ababa
 mailing address: P. O. Box 1014, Addis Ababa
 telephone: [251] (1) 550666
 FAX: [251] (1) 552191

 Flag: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), yellow, and red;
 Ethiopia is the oldest independent country in Africa, and the colors
 of her flag were so often adopted by other African countries upon
 independence that they became known as the pan-African colors

@Ethiopia:Economy

 Overview: With the independence of Eritrea on 27 April 1993, Ethiopia
 continues to face difficult economic problems as one of the poorest
 and least developed countries in Africa. Its economy is based on
 agriculture, which accounts for about 45% of GDP, 90% of exports, and
 80% of total employment; coffee generates 60% of export earnings. The
 agricultural sector suffers from frequent periods of drought, poor
 cultivation practices, and deterioration of internal security
 conditions. The manufacturing sector is heavily dependent on inputs
 from the agricultural sector. Over 90% of large-scale industry, but
 less than 10% of agriculture, is state run. The government is
 considering selling off a portion of state-owned plants, and is
 implementing reform measures that are gradually liberalizing the
 economy. A major medium-term problem is the improvement of roads,
 water supply, and other parts of an infrastructure badly neglected
 during years of civil strife.

 National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $20.3 billion (1993
 est.)

 National product real growth rate: 3% (1994 est.)

 National product per capita: $380 (1993 est.)

 Inflation rate (consumer prices): 10% (FY93/94)

 Unemployment rate: NA%

 Budget:
 revenues: $1.2 billion
 expenditures: $1.7 billion, including capital expenditures of $707
 million (FY93/94)

 Exports: $219.8 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
 commodities: coffee, leather products, gold
 partners: Germany, Japan, Saudi Arabia, France, Italy

 Imports: $1.04 billion (c.i.f., 1993 est.)
 commodities: capital goods, consumer goods, fuel
 partners: US, Germany, Italy, Saudi Arabia, Japan

 External debt: $3.7 billion (1993 est.)

 Industrial production: growth rate -3.3% (FY91/92); accounts for 12%
 of GDP

 Electricity:
 capacity: 460,000 kW
 production: 1.3 billion kWh
 consumption per capita: 23 kWh (1993)

 Industries: food processing, beverages, textiles, chemicals, metals
 processing, cement

 Agriculture: accounts for 45% of GDP; export crops of coffee and
 oilseeds are grown partly on state farms; estimated 50% of
 agricultural production is at subsistence level; principal crops and
 livestock - cereals, pulses, coffee, oilseeds, sugarcane, potatoes and
 other vegetables, hides and skins, cattle, sheep, goats

 Illicit drugs: transit hub for heroin originating in Southwest and
 Southeast Asia and destined for Europe and North America as well as
 cocaine destined for southern African markets; cultivates qat (chat)
 for local use and regional export

 Economic aid:
 recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $504 million;
 Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
 (1970-89), $3.4 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $8 million;
 Communist countries (1970-89), $2 billion

 Currency: 1 birr (Br) = 100 cents

 Exchange rates: birr (Br) per US$1 - 5.9500 (January 1995), 5.9500
 (1994), 5.0000 (fixed rate 1992-93); fixed at 2.070 before 1992; note
 - official rate pegged to the US$

 Fiscal year: 8 July - 7 July

@Ethiopia:Transportation

 Railroads:
 total: 681 km (Ethiopian segment of the Addis Ababa-Djibouti railroad)

 narrow gauge: 681 km 1.000-m gauge

 Highways:
 total: 24,127 km
 paved: 3,289 km
 unpaved: gravel 6,664 km; improved earth 1,652 km; unimproved earth
 12,522 km (1993)

 Ports: none

 Merchant marine:
 total: 12 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 62,627 GRT/88,909 DWT
 ships by type: cargo 8, livestock carrier 1, oil tanker 2,
 roll-on/roll-off cargo 1

 Airports:
 total: 98
 with paved runways over 3,047 m: 2
 with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
 with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
 with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 1
 with paved runways under 914 m: 24
 with unpaved runways over 3,047 m: 4
 with unpaved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 6
 with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 14
 with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 42

@Ethiopia:Communications

 Telephone system: NA telephones; open-wire and radio relay system
 adequate for government use
 local: NA
 intercity: open wire and microwave radio relay links
 international: open-wire to Sudan and Djibouti; microwave radio relay
 to Kenya and Djibouti; 3 INTELSAT (1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Pacific
 Ocean) earth stations

 Radio:
 broadcast stations: AM 4, FM 0, shortwave 0
 radios: 9 million

 Television:
 broadcast stations: 1
 televisions: 100,000

@Ethiopia:Defense Forces

 Branches: Transitional Government of Ethiopia Forces, Air Force,
 Police

 Manpower availability: males age 15-49 12,658,084; males fit for
 military service 6,569,759; males reach military age (18) annually
 565,976 (1995 est.)

 Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $140 million, 4.1% of
 GDP (FY94/95)


________________________________________________________________________

EUROPA ISLAND

 (possession of France) 

@Europa Island:Geography

 Location: Southern Africa, island in the Mozambique Channel, about
 one-half of the way from southern Madagascar to southern Mozambique

 Map references: Africa

 Area:
 total area: 28 sq km
 land area: 28 sq km
 comparative area: about 0.2 times the size of Washington, DC

 Land boundaries: 0 km

 Coastline: 22.2 km

 Maritime claims:
 exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
 territorial sea: 12 nm

 International disputes: claimed by Madagascar

 Climate: tropical

 Terrain: NA

 Natural resources: negligible

 Land use:
 arable land: NA%
 permanent crops: NA%
 meadows and pastures: NA%
 forest and woodland: NA% (heavily wooded)
 other: NA%

 Irrigated land: 0 sq km

 Environment:
 current issues: NA
 natural hazards: NA
 international agreements: NA

 Note: wildlife sanctuary

@Europa Island:People

 Population: uninhabited

@Europa Island:Government

 Names:
 conventional long form: none
 conventional short form: Europa Island
 local long form: none
 local short form: Ile Europa

 Digraph: EU

 Type: French possession administered by Commissioner of the Republic;
 resident in Reunion

 Capital: none; administered by France from Reunion

 Independence: none (possession of France)

@Europa Island:Economy

 Overview: no economic activity

@Europa Island:Transportation

 Ports: none; offshore anchorage only

 Airports:
 total: 1
 with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 1

@Europa Island:Communications

 Note: 1 meteorological station

@Europa Island:Defense Forces

 Note: defense is the responsibility of France


________________________________________________________________________

FALKLAND ISLANDS (ISLAS MALVINAS)

 (dependent territory of the UK) 

@Falkland Islands (islas Malvinas):Geography

 Location: Southern South America, islands in the South Atlantic Ocean,
 east of southern Argentina

 Map references: South America

 Area:
 total area: 12,170 sq km
 land area: 12,170 sq km
 comparative area: slightly smaller than Connecticut
 note: includes the two main islands of East and West Falkland and
 about 200 small islands

 Land boundaries: 0 km

 Coastline: 1,288 km

 Maritime claims:
 continental shelf: 200 nm
 exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
 territorial sea: 12 nm

 International disputes: administered by the UK, claimed by Argentina

 Climate: cold marine; strong westerly winds, cloudy, humid; rain
 occurs on more than half of days in year; occasional snow all year,
 except in January and February, but does not accumulate

 Terrain: rocky, hilly, mountainous with some boggy, undulating plains

 Natural resources: fish, wildlife

 Land use:
 arable land: 0%
 permanent crops: 0%
 meadows and pastures: 99%
 forest and woodland: 0%
 other: 1%

 Irrigated land: NA sq km

 Environment:
 current issues: NA
 natural hazards: strong winds persist throughout the year
 international agreements: NA

 Note: deeply indented coast provides good natural harbors; short
 growing season

@Falkland Islands (islas Malvinas):People

 Population: 2,317 (July 1995 est.)

 Age structure:
 0-14 years: NA
 15-64 years: NA
 65 years and over: NA

 Population growth rate: 2.43% (1995 est.)

 Birth rate: NA

 Death rate: NA

 Net migration rate: NA

 Infant mortality rate: NA

 Life expectancy at birth: NA

 Total fertility rate: NA

 Nationality:
 noun: Falkland Islander(s)
 adjective: Falkland Island

 Ethnic divisions: British

 Religions: primarily Anglican, Roman Catholic, United Free Church,
 Evangelist Church, Jehovah's Witnesses, Lutheran, Seventh-Day
 Adventist

 Languages: English

 Labor force: 1,100 (est.)
 by occupation: agriculture 95% (mostly sheepherding)

@Falkland Islands (islas Malvinas):Government

 Names:
 conventional long form: Colony of the Falkland Islands
 conventional short form: Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)

 Digraph: FA

 Type: dependent territory of the UK

 Capital: Stanley

 Administrative divisions: none (dependent territory of the UK)

 Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)

 National holiday: Liberation Day, 14 June (1982)

 Constitution: 3 October 1985

 Legal system: English common law

 Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

 Executive branch:
 chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952)
 head of government: Governor David Everard TATHAM (since August 1992)
 cabinet: Executive Council; 3 members elected by the Legislative
 Council, 2 ex-officio members (chief executive and the financial
 secretary), and the governor

 Legislative branch: unicameral
 Legislative Council: elections last held 11 October 1989 (next to be
 held October 1994); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (10
 total, 8 elected) independents 8

 Judicial branch: Supreme Court

 Political parties and leaders: NA

 Member of: ICFTU

 Diplomatic representation in US: none (dependent territory of the UK)

 US diplomatic representation: none (dependent territory of the UK)

 Flag: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant
 and the Falkland Island coat of arms in a white disk centered on the
 outer half of the flag; the coat of arms contains a white ram (sheep
 raising is the major economic activity) above the sailing ship Desire
 (whose crew discovered the islands) with a scroll at the bottom
 bearing the motto DESIRE THE RIGHT

@Falkland Islands (islas Malvinas):Economy

 Overview: The economy was formerly based on agriculture, mainly sheep
 farming, which directly or indirectly employs most of the work force.
 Dairy farming supports domestic consumption; crops furnish winter
 fodder. Exports feature shipments of high-grade wool to the UK and the
 sale of postage stamps and coins. Rich stocks of fish in the
 surrounding waters are not presently exploited by the islanders. So
 far, efforts to establish a domestic fishing industry have been
 unsuccessful. The economy has diversified since 1987 when the
 government began selling fishing licenses to foreign trawlers
 operating within the Falklands exclusive fishing zone. These license
 fees total more than $40 million per year and support the island's
 health, education, and welfare system. To encourage tourism, the
 Falkland Islands Development Corporation has built three lodges for
 visitors attracted by the abundant wildlife and trout fishing. The
 islands are now self-financing except for defense. The British
 Geological Survey announced a 200-mile oil exploration zone around the
 islands in 1993 and early seismic surveys suggest substantial reserves
 capable of producing 500,000 barrels per day.

 National product: GDP $NA

 National product real growth rate: NA%

 National product per capita: $NA

 Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7.4% (1980-87 average)

 Unemployment rate: NA%; labor shortage

 Budget:
 revenues: $65 million
 expenditures: $55.2 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
 (1992-93)

 Exports: at least $14.7 million
 commodities: wool, hides and skins, and meat
 partners: UK, Netherlands, Japan (1987 est.)

 Imports: at least $13.9 million
 commodities: food, clothing, timber, and machinery
 partners: UK, Netherlands Antilles (Curacao), Japan (1987 est.)

 External debt: $NA

 Industrial production: growth rate NA%

 Electricity:
 capacity: 9,200 kW
 production: 17 million kWh
 consumption per capita: 7,253 kWh (1993)

 Industries: wool and fish processing

 Agriculture: predominantly sheep farming; small dairy herds; some
 fodder and vegetable crops

 Economic aid:
 recipient: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral
 commitments (1992-93), $87 million

 Currency: 1 Falkland pound (#F) = 100 pence

 Exchange rates: Falkland pound (#F) per US$1 - 0.6350 (January 1995),
 0.6529 (1994), 0.6658 (1993), 0.5664 (1992), 0.5652 (1991), 0.5604
 (1990); note - the Falkland pound is at par with the British pound

 Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Falkland Islands (islas Malvinas):Transportation

 Railroads: 0 km

 Highways:
 total: 510 km
 paved: 30 km
 unpaved: gravel 80 km; unimproved earth 400 km

 Ports: Stanley

 Merchant marine: none

 Airports:
 total: 5
 with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
 with paved runways under 914 m: 4

@Falkland Islands (islas Malvinas):Communications

 Telephone system: 590 telephones
 local: NA
 intercity: government-operated radiotelephone and private VHF/CB radio
 networks provide effective service to almost all points on both
 islands
 international: 1 INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean) earth station with links
 through London to other countries

 Radio:
 broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 3, shortwave 0
 radios: NA

 Television:
 broadcast stations: 0
 televisions: NA

@Falkland Islands (islas Malvinas):Defense Forces

 Branches: British Forces Falkland Islands (includes Army, Royal Air
 Force, Royal Navy, and Royal Marines), Police Force

 Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP

 Note: defense is the responsibility of the UK


________________________________________________________________________

FAROE ISLANDS

 (part of the Danish realm) 

@Faroe Islands:Geography

 Location: Northern Europe, island group between the Norwegian Sea and
 the north Atlantic Ocean, about one-half of the way from Iceland to
 Norway

 Map references: Europe

 Area:
 total area: 1,400 sq km
 land area: 1,400 sq km
 comparative area: slightly less than eight times the size of
 Washington, DC

 Land boundaries: 0 km

 Coastline: 764 km

 Maritime claims:
 exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
 territorial sea: 3 nm

 International disputes: none

 Climate: mild winters, cool summers; usually overcast; foggy, windy

 Terrain: rugged, rocky, some low peaks; cliffs along most of coast

 Natural resources: fish

 Land use:
 arable land: 2%
 permanent crops: 0%
 meadows and pastures: 0%
 forest and woodland: 0%
 other: 98%

 Irrigated land: NA sq km

 Environment:
 current issues: NA
 natural hazards: NA
 international agreements: NA

 Note: archipelago of 18 inhabited islands and a few uninhabited
 islets; strategically located along important sea lanes in
 northeastern Atlantic; precipitous terrain limits habitation to small
 coastal lowlands

@Faroe Islands:People

 Population: 48,871 (July 1995 est.)

 Age structure:
 0-14 years: 24% (female 5,673; male 6,119)
 15-64 years: 63% (female 14,164; male 16,835)
 65 years and over: 13% (female 3,335; male 2,745) (July 1995 est.)

 Population growth rate: 0.99% (1995 est.)

 Birth rate: 17.54 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Death rate: 7.59 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Infant mortality rate: 7.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

 Life expectancy at birth:
 total population: 78.29 years
 male: 74.91 years
 female: 81.8 years (1995 est.)

 Total fertility rate: 2.42 children born/woman (1995 est.)

 Nationality:
 noun: Faroese (singular and plural)
 adjective: Faroese

 Ethnic divisions: Scandinavian

 Religions: Evangelical Lutheran

 Languages: Faroese (derived from Old Norse), Danish

 Literacy: NA%

 Labor force: 17,585
 by occupation: largely engaged in fishing, manufacturing,
 transportation, and commerce

@Faroe Islands:Government

 Names:
 conventional long form: none
 conventional short form: Faroe Islands
 local long form: none
 local short form: Foroyar

 Digraph: FO

 Type: part of the Danish realm; self-governing overseas administrative
 division of Denmark

 Capital: Torshavn

 Administrative divisions: none (self-governing overseas administrative
 division of Denmark)

 Independence: none (part of the Danish realm; self-governing overseas
 administrative division of Denmark)

 National holiday: Birthday of the Queen, 16 April (1940)

 Constitution: 5 June 1953 (Danish constitution)

 Legal system: Danish

 Suffrage: 20 years of age; universal

 Executive branch:
 chief of state: Queen MARGRETHE II (since 14 January 1972),
 represented by High Commissioner Bent KLINTE (since NA)
 head of government: Prime Minister Edmund JOENSEN (since 15 September
 1994)
 cabinet: Landsstyri; elected by the local legislature

 Legislative branch: unicameral
 Faroese Parliament (Logting): elections last held 8 July 1994 (next to
 be held by July 1998); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats -
 (32 total) Liberal Party 8, People's Party 6, Social Democrats 5,
 Republicans 4, Workers' Party 3, Christian Democrats 2, Center Party
 2, Home Rule Party 2
 Danish Parliament: elections last held on 21 September 1994 (next to
 be held by September 1998); results - percent of vote by party NA;
 seats - (2 total) Liberals 2

 Judicial branch: none

 Political parties and leaders: Social Democratic Party, Marita
 PETERSEN; Workers Front, Oli JACOBSEN; Home Rule Party, Helena Dam A
 NEYSTABOE; The 'Coalition Party', Edmund JOENSEN; Republican Party,
 Finnbogir ESAKSON; Centrist Party, Tordur NICLASEN; Christian People's
 Party, Niels Pauli DANIELSEN; People's Party, Arnfinn KALLSBERG;
 Liberal Party; Christian Democratic Party

 Member of: none

 Diplomatic representation in US: none (self-governing overseas
 administrative division of Denmark)

 US diplomatic representation: none (self-governing overseas
 administrative division of Denmark)

 Flag: white with a red cross outlined in blue that extends to the
 edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the
 hoist side in the style of the DANNEBROG (Danish flag)

@Faroe Islands:Economy

 Overview: The Faroese, who have long enjoyed the affluent living
 standards of the Danes and other Scandinavians, now must cope with the
 decline of the all-important fishing industry and one of the world's
 heaviest per capita external debts of about $25,000. When the nations
 of the world extended their fishing zones to 200 nautical miles in the
 early 1970s, the Faroese no longer could continue their traditional
 long-distance fishing and subsequently depleted their own nearby
 fishing areas. The government's tight controls on fish stocks and its
 austerity measures have caused a recession, and subsidy cuts will
 force nationalization in the fishing industry, which has already been
 plagued with bankruptcies. Copenhagen has threatened to withhold its
 annual subsidy of $130 million - roughly one-third of the islands'
 budget revenues - unless the Faroese make significant efforts to
 balance their budget. To this extent the Faroe government is expected
 to continue its tough policies, including introducing a 20%
 value-added tax (VAT) in 1993, and has agreed to an IMF
 economic-political stabilization plan. In addition to its annual
 subsidy, the Danish government has bailed out the second largest Faroe
 bank to the tune of $140 million since October 1992.

 National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $662 million (1989
 est.)

 National product real growth rate: -10.8% (1993 est.)

 National product per capita: $14,000 (1989 est.)

 Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6.8% (1993 est.)

 Unemployment rate: 23% (1993)

 Budget:
 revenues: $407.2 million
 expenditures: $482.7 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
 (1993 est.)

 Exports: $345.3 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
 commodities: fish and fish products 88%, animal feedstuffs, transport
 equipment (ships) (1989)
 partners: Denmark 20%, Germany 18.3%, UK 14.2%, France 11.2%, Spain
 7.9%, US 4.5%

 Imports: $234.4 million (c.i.f., 1993 est.)
 commodities: machinery and transport equipment 24.4%, manufactures
 24%, food and livestock 19%, fuels 12%, chemicals 6.5%
 partners: Denmark 43.8%, Norway 19.8%, Sweden 4.9%, Germany 4.2%, US
 1.3%

 External debt: $1.2 billion (1993 est.)

 Industrial production: growth rate NA%

 Electricity:
 capacity: 90,000 kW
 production: 200 million kWh
 consumption per capita: 3,953 kWh (1992)

 Industries: fishing, shipbuilding, handicrafts

 Agriculture: accounts for 27% of GDP; principal crops - potatoes and
 vegetables; livestock - sheep; annual fish catch about 360,000 metric
 tons

 Economic aid:
 recipient: receives an annual subsidy from Denmark of about $130
 million

 Currency: 1 Danish krone (DKr) = 100 oere

 Exchange rates: Danish kroner (DKr) per US$1 - 6.034 (January 1995),
 6.361 (1994), 6.484 (1993), 6.036 (1992), 6.396 (1991), 6.189 (1990)

 Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Faroe Islands:Transportation

 Railroads: 0 km

 Highways:
 total: 200 km
 paved: NA
 unpaved: NA

 Ports: Klaksvick, Torshavn, Tvoroyri

 Merchant marine:
 total: 7 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 19,879 GRT/18,444 DWT
 ships by type: cargo 5, roll-on/roll-off cargo 1, short-sea passenger
 1

 Airports:
 total: 1
 with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 1

@Faroe Islands:Communications

 Telephone system: 27,900 telephones; good international
 communications; fair domestic facilities
 local: NA
 intercity: NA
 international: 3 coaxial submarine cables

 Radio:
 broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 3 repeaters 10, shortwave 0
 radios: NA

 Television:
 broadcast stations: 3 (repeaters 29)
 televisions: NA

@Faroe Islands:Defense Forces

 Branches: no organized native military forces; only a small Police
 Force and Coast Guard are maintained

 Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP

 Note: defense is the responsibility of Denmark


________________________________________________________________________

FIJI

@Fiji:Geography

 Location: Oceania, island group in the South Pacific Ocean, about
 two-thirds of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand

 Map references: Oceania

 Area:
 total area: 18,270 sq km
 land area: 18,270 sq km
 comparative area: slightly smaller than New Jersey

 Land boundaries: 0 km

 Coastline: 1,129 km

 Maritime claims: measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
 continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation;
 rectilinear shelf claim added
 exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
 territorial sea: 12 nm

 International disputes: none

 Climate: tropical marine; only slight seasonal temperature variation

 Terrain: mostly mountains of volcanic origin

 Natural resources: timber, fish, gold, copper, offshore oil potential

 Land use:
 arable land: 8%
 permanent crops: 5%
 meadows and pastures: 3%
 forest and woodland: 65%
 other: 19%

 Irrigated land: 10 sq km (1989 est.)

 Environment:
 current issues: deforestation; soil erosion
 natural hazards: cyclonic storms can occur from November to January
 international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law
 of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
 Protection, Tropical Timber 94

 Note: includes 332 islands of which approximately 110 are inhabited

@Fiji:People

 Population: 772,891 (July 1995 est.)

 Age structure:
 0-14 years: 36% (female 136,570; male 142,581)
 15-64 years: 61% (female 235,491; male 235,411)
 65 years and over: 3% (female 11,943; male 10,895) (July 1995 est.)

 Population growth rate: 1.16% (1995 est.)

 Birth rate: 23.69 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Death rate: 6.42 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Net migration rate: -5.67 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Infant mortality rate: 17.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

 Life expectancy at birth:
 total population: 65.42 years
 male: 63.13 years
 female: 67.82 years (1995 est.)

 Total fertility rate: 2.87 children born/woman (1995 est.)

 Nationality:
 noun: Fijian(s)
 adjective: Fijian

 Ethnic divisions: Fijian 49%, Indian 46%, European, other Pacific
 Islanders, overseas Chinese, and other 5%

 Religions: Christian 52% (Methodist 37%, Roman Catholic 9%), Hindu
 38%, Muslim 8%, other 2%
 note: Fijians are mainly Christian, Indians are Hindu, and there is a
 Muslim minority (1986)

 Languages: English (official), Fijian, Hindustani

 Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1986)
 total population: 87%
 male: 90%
 female: 84%

 Labor force: 235,000
 by occupation: subsistence agriculture 67%, wage earners 18%, salary
 earners 15% (1987)

@Fiji:Government

 Names:
 conventional long form: Republic of Fiji
 conventional short form: Fiji

 Digraph: FJ

 Type: republic
 note: military coup leader Maj. Gen. Sitiveni RABUKA formally declared
 Fiji a republic on 6 October 1987

 Capital: Suva

 Administrative divisions: 4 divisions and 1 dependency*; Central,
 Eastern, Northern, Rotuma*, Western

 Independence: 10 October 1970 (from UK)

 National holiday: Independence Day, 10 October (1970)

 Constitution: 10 October 1970 (suspended 1 October 1987); a new
 Constitution was proposed on 23 September 1988 and promulgated on 25
 July 1990; the 1990 Constitution is under review; the review is
 scheduled to be complete by 1997

 Legal system: based on British system

 Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

 Executive branch:
 chief of state: President Ratu Sir Kamisese MARA (since 12 January
 1994); First Vice President Ratu Sir Josaia TAIVAIQIA (since 12
 January 1994); Second Vice President Ratu Inoke TAKIVEIKATA (since 12
 January 1994); note - President GANILAU died on 15 December 1993 and
 Vice President MARA became acting president; MARA was elected
 president by the Great Council of Chiefs on 12 January 1994
 head of government: Prime Minister Sitiveni RABUKA (since 2 June 1992)

 Presidential Council: appointed by the governor general
 Great Council of Chiefs: highest ranking members of the traditional
 chiefly system
 cabinet: Cabinet; appointed by prime minister from members of
 Parliament and responsible to Parliament

 Legislative branch: the bicameral Parliament was dissolved following
 the coup of 14 May 1987
 Senate: nonelective body containing 34 seats, 24 reserved for ethnic
 Fijians, 9 for Indians and others, 1 for the island of Rotuma;
 appointed by President
 House of Representatives: elections last held 18-25 February 1994
 (next to be held NA 1999); results - percent of vote by party NA;
 seats - (70 total, with ethnic Fijians allocated 37 seats, ethnic
 Indians 27 seats, and independents and other 6 seats) number of seats
 by party SVT 31, NFP 20, FLP 7, FA 5, GVP 4, independents 2, ANC 1

 Judicial branch: Supreme Court

 Political parties and leaders: Fijian Political Party (SVT - primarily
 Fijian), leader Maj. Gen. Sitivini RABUKA; National Federation Party
 (NFP; primarily Indian), Jai Ram REDDY; Fijian Nationalist Party
 (FNP), Sakeasi BUTADROKA; Fiji Labor Party (FLP), Mahendra CHAUDHRY;
 General Voters Party (GVP), Bill SORBY; Fiji Conservative Party (FCP),
 Isireli VUIBAU; Conservative Party of Fiji (CPF), Jolale ULUDOLE and
 Viliame SAVU; Fiji Indian Liberal Party, Swami MAHARAJ; Fiji Indian
 Congress Party, Ishwari BAJPAI; Fiji Independent Labor (Muslim),
 leader NA; Four Corners Party, David TULVANUAVOU; Fijian Association
 (FA), leader NA; General Electors' Association, leader NA
 note: in early 1995, ethnic Fijian members of the All National
 Congress (ANC) merged with the Fijian Association (FA); the new FA is
 scheduled to hold its first meeting in April 1995 at which time the
 leaders of the party will be chosen; it is likely that Josevata
 KAMIKAMICA, the leader of the FA before the merger, will be elected
 leader and Adi Kuini Bavadra SPEED, the leader of the ANC before the
 merger, will be elected deputy leader; the remaining members of the
 ANC have renamed their party the General Electors' Association

 Member of: ACP, AsDB, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU,
 ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC,
 ITU, PCA, SPARTECA, SPC, SPF, UN, UNAMIR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
 UNIFIL, UNIKOM, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

 Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Pita Kewa NACUVA
 chancery: Suite 240, 2233 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007
 telephone: [1] (202) 337-8320
 FAX: [1] (202) 337-1996
 consulate(s): New York

 US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission: (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Michael W. MARINE
 embassy: 31 Loftus Street, Suva
 mailing address: P. O. Box 218, Suva
 telephone: [679] 314466
 FAX: [679] 300081

 Flag: light blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side
 quadrant and the Fijian shield centered on the outer half of the flag;
 the shield depicts a yellow lion above a white field quartered by the
 cross of Saint George featuring stalks of sugarcane, a palm tree,
 bananas, and a white dove

@Fiji:Economy

 Overview: Fiji's economy is primarily agricultural, with a large
 subsistence sector. Sugar exports and tourism are the major sources of
 foreign exchange. Industry contributes 13% to GDP, with sugar
 processing accounting for one-third of industrial activity. Roughly
 250,000 tourists visit each year. Political uncertainty and drought,
 however, contribute to substantial fluctuations in earnings from
 tourism and sugar and to the emigration of skilled workers. In 1992,
 growth was approximately 3%, based on growth in tourism and a
 lessening of labor-management disputes in the sugar and gold-mining
 sectors. In 1993, the government's budgeted growth rate of 3% was not
 achieved because of a decline in non-sugar agricultural output and
 damage from Cyclone Kina. Growth in 1994 is estimated to be 5%,
 largely attributed to increased tourism and expansion in domestic
 production, particularly in the manufacturing sector.

 National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $4.3 billion (1994
 est.)

 National product real growth rate: 5% (1994 est.)

 National product per capita: $5,650 (1994 est.)

 Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.5% (1994)

 Unemployment rate: 5.4% (1992)

 Budget:
 revenues: $485 million
 expenditures: $579 million, including capital expenditures of $58
 million (1994)

 Exports: $405 million (f.o.b., 1993)
 commodities: sugar 40%, clothing, gold, processed fish, lumber
 partners: EC 26%, Australia 15%, Pacific Islands 11%, Japan 6%

 Imports: $634 million (c.i.f., 1993)
 commodities: machinery and transport equipment, petroleum products,
 food, consumer goods, chemicals
 partners: Australia 30%, NZ 17%, Japan 13%, EC 6%, US 6%

 External debt: $670 million (1994 est.)

 Industrial production: growth rate 0% (1993 est.); accounts for 13% of
 GDP

 Electricity:
 capacity: 200,000 kW
 production: 480 million kWh
 consumption per capita: 581 kWh (1993)

 Industries: sugar, tourism, copra, gold, silver, clothing, lumber,
 small cottage industries

 Agriculture: accounts for 23% of GDP; principal cash crop is
 sugarcane; coconuts, cassava, rice, sweet potatoes, bananas; small
 livestock sector includes cattle, pigs, horses, and goats; fish catch
 nearly 33,000 tons (1989)

 Economic aid:
 recipient: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral
 commitments (1980-89), $815 million

 Currency: 1 Fijian dollar (F$) = 100 cents

 Exchange rates: Fijian dollars (F$) per US$1 - 1.4140 (January 1995),
 1.4641 (1994), 1.5418 (1993), 1.5030 (1992), 1.4756 (1991), 1.4809
 (1990)

 Fiscal year: calendar year

@Fiji:Transportation

 Railroads:
 total: 644 km; note - belongs to the government owned Fiji Sugar
 Corporation
 narrow gauge: 644 km 0.610-m gauge

 Highways:
 total: 3,300 km
 paved: 1,590 km
 unpaved: gravel, crushed stone, stabilized earth 1,290 km; unimproved
 earth 420 km (1984)

 Inland waterways: 203 km; 122 km navigable by motorized craft and
 200-metric-ton barges

 Ports: Labasa, Lautoka, Levuka, Savusavu, Suva

 Merchant marine:
 total: 5 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 16,267 GRT/17,884 DWT
 ships by type: chemical tanker 2, oil tanker 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo
 2

 Airports:
 total: 23
 with paved runways over 3,047 m: 1
 with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
 with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 1
 with paved runways under 914 m: 16
 with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 4

@Fiji:Communications

 Telephone system: 53,228 telephones; 71 telephones/1,000 persons;
 modern local, interisland, and international (wire/radio integrated)
 public and special-purpose telephone, telegraph, and teleprinter
 facilities; regional radio center
 local: NA
 intercity: NA
 international: important COMPAC cable link between US-Canada and
 NZ-Australia; 1 INTELSAT (Pacific Ocean) earth station

 Radio:
 broadcast stations: AM 7, FM 1, shortwave 0
 radios: NA

 Television:
 broadcast stations: 0
 televisions: NA

@Fiji:Defense Forces

 Branches: Republic of Fiji Military Forces (RFMF; includes army, navy,
 and air elements)

 Manpower availability: males age 15-49 201,441; males fit for military
 service 111,046; males reach military age (18) annually 8,466 (1995
 est.)

 Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $22.4 million, about
 2% of GDP (FY91/92)


________________________________________________________________________

FINLAND

@Finland:Geography

 Location: Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia,
 and Gulf of Finland, between Sweden and Russia

 Map references: Europe

 Area:
 total area: 337,030 sq km
 land area: 305,470 sq km
 comparative area: slightly smaller than Montana

 Land boundaries: total 2,628 km, Norway 729 km, Sweden 586 km, Russia
 1,313 km

 Coastline: 1,126 km (excludes islands and coastal indentations)

 Maritime claims:
 contiguous zone: 6 nm
 continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
 exclusive fishing zone: 12 nm
 territorial sea: 4 nm

 International disputes: none

 Climate: cold temperate; potentially subarctic, but comparatively mild
 because of moderating influence of the North Atlantic Current, Baltic
 Sea, and more than 60,000 lakes

 Terrain: mostly low, flat to rolling plains interspersed with lakes
 and low hills

 Natural resources: timber, copper, zinc, iron ore, silver

 Land use:
 arable land: 8%
 permanent crops: 0%
 meadows and pastures: 0%
 forest and woodland: 76%
 other: 16%

 Irrigated land: 620 sq km (1989 est.)

 Environment:
 current issues: air pollution from manufacturing and power plants
 contributing to acid rain; water pollution from industrial wastes,
 agricultural chemicals; habitat loss threatens wildlife populations
 natural hazards: NA
 international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Air
 Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air
 Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity,
 Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification,
 Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear
 Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83,
 Wetlands, Whaling; signed, but not ratified - Air Pollution-Sulphur
 94, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Desertification, Law of the Sea

 Note: long boundary with Russia; Helsinki is northernmost national
 capital on European continent; population concentrated on small
 southwestern coastal plain

@Finland:People

 Population: 5,085,206 (July 1995 est.)

 Age structure:
 0-14 years: 19% (female 469,666; male 491,484)
 15-64 years: 67% (female 1,683,371; male 1,716,307)
 65 years and over: 14% (female 457,061; male 267,317) (July 1995 est.)

 Population growth rate: 0.3% (1995 est.)

 Birth rate: 12.22 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Death rate: 9.77 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Net migration rate: 0.59 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Infant mortality rate: 5.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

 Life expectancy at birth:
 total population: 76.22 years
 male: 72.51 years
 female: 80.11 years (1995 est.)

 Total fertility rate: 1.79 children born/woman (1995 est.)

 Nationality:
 noun: Finn(s)
 adjective: Finnish

 Ethnic divisions: Finn, Swede, Lapp, Gypsy, Tatar

 Religions: Evangelical Lutheran 89%, Greek Orthodox 1%, none 9%, other
 1%

 Languages: Finnish 93.5% (official), Swedish 6.3% (official), small
 Lapp- and Russian-speaking minorities

 Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1980 est.)
 total population: 100%

 Labor force: 2.533 million
 by occupation: public services 30.4%, industry 20.9%, commerce 15.0%,
 finance, insurance, and business services 10.2%, agriculture and
 forestry 8.6%, transport and communications 7.7%, construction 7.2%

@Finland:Government

 Names:
 conventional long form: Republic of Finland
 conventional short form: Finland
 local long form: Suomen Tasavalta
 local short form: Suomi

 Digraph: FI

 Type: republic

 Capital: Helsinki

 Administrative divisions: 12 provinces (laanit, singular - laani);
 Ahvenanmaa, Hame, Keski-Suomi, Kuopio, Kymi, Lappi, Mikkeli, Oulu,
 Pohjois-Karjala, Turku ja Pori, Uusimaa, Vaasa

 Independence: 6 December 1917 (from Soviet Union)

 National holiday: Independence Day, 6 December (1917)

 Constitution: 17 July 1919

 Legal system: civil law system based on Swedish law; Supreme Court may
 request legislation interpreting or modifying laws; accepts compulsory
 ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

 Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

 Executive branch:
 chief of state: President Martti AHTISAARI (since 1 March 1994);
 election last held 31 January-6 February 1994 (next to be held January
 2000); results - Martti AHTISAARI 54%, Elisabeth REHN 46%
 head of government: Prime Minister Paavo LIPPONEN (since 13 April
 1995); Deputy Prime Minister Sauli NIINISTO (since 13 April 1995)
 cabinet: Council of State (Valtioneuvosto); appointed by the
 president, responsible to Parliament

 Legislative branch: unicameral
 Parliament (Eduskunta): elections last held 19 March 1995 (next to be
 held March 1999); results - Social Democratic Party 28.3%, Center
 Party 19.9%, National Coalition (Conservative) Party 17.9%, Leftist
 Alliance (Communist) 11.2%, Swedish People's Party 5.1%, Green League
 6.5%, Ecology Party 0.3%, Rural 1.3%, Finnish Christian League 3.0%,
 Liberal People's Party 0.6%, Young Finns 2.8%; seats - (200 total)
 Social Democratic Party 63, Center Party 44, National Coalition
 (Conservative) Party 39, Leftist Alliance (Communist) 22, Swedish
 People's Party 11, Green League 9, Ecology Party 1, Rural 1, Finnish
 Christian League 7, Young Finns 2, Aaland Islands 1

 Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Korkein Oikeus)

 Political parties and leaders:
 government coalition: Social Democratic Party, Paavo LIPPONEN;
 National Coalition (conservative) Party, Sauli NIINISTO; Leftist
 Alliance (Communist) People's Democratic League and Democratic
 Alternative, Claes ANDERSON; Swedish People's Party, (Johan) Ole
 NORRBACK; Green League, Pekka HAAVISTO
 other: Center Party, Esko AHO; Finnish Christian League, Toimi
 KANKAANNIEMI; Rural Party, Tina MAKELA; Liberal People's Party,
 Tuulikki UKKOLA; Greens Ecological Party (EPV); Young Finns

 Other political or pressure groups: Finnish Communist Party-Unity,
 Yrjo HAKANEN; Constitutional Rightist Party; Finnish Pensioners Party;
 Communist Workers Party, Timo LAHDENMAKI

 Member of: AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CCC,
 CE, CERN, EBRD, ECE, EFTA, ESA (associate), EU, FAO, G- 9, GATT, IADB,
 IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO,
 IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MTCR, NACC
 (observer), NAM (guest), NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD,
 OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO,
 UNIFIL, UNIKOM, UNMOGIP, UNPROFOR, UNTSO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
 WTO, ZC

 Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Jukka VALTASAARI
 chancery: 3301 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
 telephone: [1] (202) 298-5800
 FAX: [1] (202) 298-6030
 consulate(s) general: Los Angeles and New York

 US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Derek N. SHEARER
 embassy: Itainen Puistotie 14A, FIN-00140, Helsinki
 mailing address: APO AE 09723
 telephone: [358] (0) 171931
 FAX: [358] (0) 174681

 Flag: white with a blue cross that extends to the edges of the flag;
 the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the
 style of the DANNEBROG (Danish flag)

@Finland:Economy

 Overview: Finland has a highly industrialized, largely free market
 economy, with per capita output two-thirds of the US figure. Its key
 economic sector is manufacturing - principally the wood, metals, and
 engineering industries. Trade is important, with the export of goods
 representing about 30% of GDP. Except for timber and several minerals,
 Finland depends on imports of raw materials, energy, and some
 components for manufactured goods. Because of the climate,
 agricultural development is limited to maintaining self-sufficiency in
 basic products. Forestry, an important export earner, provides a
 secondary occupation for the rural population. The economy, which
 experienced an average of 4.9% annual growth between 1987 and 1989,
 sank into deep recession in 1991 as GDP contracted by 6.5%. The
 recession - which continued in 1992 with GDP contracting by 4.1% - has
 been caused by economic overheating, depressed foreign markets, and
 the dismantling of the barter system between Finland and the former
 Soviet Union under which Soviet oil and gas had been exchanged for
 Finnish manufactured goods. The Finnish Government has proposed
 efforts to increase industrial competitiveness and efficiency by an
 increase in exports to Western markets, cuts in public expenditures,
 partial privatization of state enterprises, and changes in monetary
 policy. In June 1991 Helsinki had tied the markka to the European
 Union's (EU) European Currency Unit (ECU) to promote stability.
 Ongoing speculation resulting from a lack of confidence in the
 government's policies forced Helsinki to devalue the markka by about
 12% in November 1991 and to indefinitely break the link in September
 1992. The devaluations have boosted the competitiveness of Finnish
 exports. The recession bottomed out in 1993, and Finland participated
 in the general European upturn of 1994. Unemployment probably will
 remain a serious problem during the next few years; the majority of
 Finnish firms face a weak domestic market and the troubled German and
 Swedish export markets. The Finns voted in an October 1994 referendum
 to enter the EU, and Finland officially joined the Union on 1 January
 1995. Increasing integration with Western Europe will dominate the
 economic picture over the next few years.

 National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $81.8 billion (1994
 est.)

 National product real growth rate: 3.5% (1994 est.)

 National product per capita: $16,140 (1994 est.)

 Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.1% (1992)

 Unemployment rate: 22% (1993)

 Budget:
 revenues: $21.7 billion
 expenditures: $31.7 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
 (1993 est.)

 Exports: $23.4 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
 commodities: paper and pulp, machinery, chemicals, metals, timber
 partners: EC 53.2% (Germany 15.6%, UK 10.7%), EFTA 19.5% (Sweden
 12.8%), US 5.9%, Japan 1.3%, Russia 2.8% (1992)

 Imports: $18 billion (c.i.f., 1993)
 commodities: foodstuffs, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals,
 transport equipment, iron and steel, machinery, textile yarn and
 fabrics, fodder grains
 partners: EC 47.2% (Germany 16.9%, UK 8.7%), EFTA 19.0% (Sweden
 11.7%), US 6.1%, Japan 5.5%, Russia 7.1% (1992)

 External debt: $30 billion (December 1993)

 Industrial production: growth rate 5% (1993 est.); accounts for 28% of
 GDP

 Electricity:
 capacity: 13,360,000 kW
 production: 58 billion kWh
 consumption per capita: 12,196 kWh (1993)

 Industries: metal products, shipbuilding, forestry and wood processing
 (pulp, paper), copper refining, foodstuffs, chemicals, textiles,
 clothing

 Agriculture: accounts for 7% of GDP (including forestry); livestock
 production, especially dairy cattle, predominates; main crops -
 cereals, sugar beets, potatoes; 85% self-sufficient, but short of
 foodgrains and fodder grains; annual fish catch about 160,000 metric
 tons

 Illicit drugs: transshipment point for Latin American cocaine for the
 West European market

 Economic aid:
 donor: ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $2.7 billion

 Currency: 1 markka (FMk) or Finmark = 100 pennia

 Exchange rates: markkaa (FMk) per US$1 - 4.7358 (January 1995), 5.2235
 (1994), 5.7123 (1993), 4.4794 (1992), 4.0440 (1991), 3.8235 (1990)

 Fiscal year: calendar year

@Finland:Transportation

 Railroads:
 total: 5,864 km
 broad gauge: 5,864 km 1.524-m gauge (1,710 km electrified; 480 km
 multiple track)

 Highways:
 total: 76,755 km
 paved: bituminous concrete, bituminous treated soil 47,588 km (318 km
 of expressways)
 unpaved: gravel 29,167 km (1992)

 Inland waterways: 6,675 km total (including Saimaa Canal); 3,700 km
 suitable for steamers

 Pipelines: natural gas 580 km

 Ports: Hamina, Helsinki, Kokkola, Kotka, Loviisa, Oulu, Pori, Rauma,
 Turku, Uusikaupunki, Varkaus

 Merchant marine:
 total: 93 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,050,270 GRT/1,080,150
 DWT
 ships by type: bulk 7, cargo 20, chemical tanker 5, liquefied gas
 tanker 3, oil tanker 12, passenger 3, refrigerated cargo 1,
 roll-on/roll-off cargo 31, short-sea passenger 10, vehicle carrier 1

 Airports:
 total: 159
 with paved runways over 3,047 m: 3
 with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 23
 with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 13
 with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 21
 with paved runways under 914 m: 94
 with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 5

@Finland:Communications

 Telephone system: 3,140,000 telephones; good service from cable and
 microwave radio relay network
 local: NA
 intercity: cable and microwave radio relay
 international: 1 submarine cable; INTELSAT satellite transmission
 service via Swedish earth station and a receive-only INTELSAT earth
 station near Helsinki for TV programs

 Radio:
 broadcast stations: AM 6, FM 105, shortwave 0
 radios: NA

 Television:
 broadcast stations: 235
 televisions: NA

@Finland:Defense Forces

 Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Frontier Guard (includes Sea Guard)

 Manpower availability: males age 15-49 1,318,231; males fit for
 military service 1,083,749; males reach military age (17) annually
 33,085 (1995 est.)

 Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $1.86 billion, about
 1.9% of GDP (1994)


________________________________________________________________________

FRANCE

@France:Geography

 Location: Western Europe, bordering the Bay of Biscay and English
 Channel, between Belgium and Spain southeast of the UK; bordering the
 Mediterranean Sea, between Italy and Spain

 Map references: Europe

 Area:
 total area: 547,030 sq km
 land area: 545,630 sq km
 comparative area: slightly more than twice the size of Colorado
 note: includes Corsica and the rest of metropolitan France, but
 excludes the overseas administrative divisions

 Land boundaries: total 2,892.4 km, Andorra 60 km, Belgium 620 km,
 Germany 451 km, Italy 488 km, Luxembourg 73 km, Monaco 4.4 km, Spain
 623 km, Switzerland 573 km

 Coastline: 3,427 km (mainland 2,783 km, Corsica 644 km)

 Maritime claims:
 contiguous zone: 24 nm
 continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
 exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
 territorial sea: 12 nm

 International disputes: Madagascar claims Bassas da India, Europa
 Island, Glorioso Islands, Juan de Nova Island, and Tromelin Island;
 Comoros claims Mayotte; Mauritius claims Tromelin Island; Seychelles
 claims Tromelin Island; Suriname claims part of French Guiana; Mexico
 claims Clipperton Island; territorial claim in Antarctica (Adelie
 Land); Saint Pierre and Miquelon is focus of maritime boundary dispute
 between Canada and France

 Climate: generally cool winters and mild summers, but mild winters and
 hot summers along the Mediterranean

 Terrain: mostly flat plains or gently rolling hills in north and west;
 remainder is mountainous, especially Pyrenees in south, Alps in east

 Natural resources: coal, iron ore, bauxite, fish, timber, zinc, potash

 Land use:
 arable land: 32%
 permanent crops: 2%
 meadows and pastures: 23%
 forest and woodland: 27%
 other: 16%

 Irrigated land: 11,600 sq km (1989 est.)

 Environment:
 current issues: some forest damage from acid rain; air pollution from
 industrial and vehicle emissions; water pollution from urban wastes,
 agricultural runoff
 natural hazards: flooding
 international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Air
 Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85,
 Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity,
 Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping,
 Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
 Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands, Whaling; signed, but not ratified - Air
 Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds,
 Desertification, Law of the Sea

 Note: largest West European nation; occasional warm tropical wind
 known as mistral

@France:People

 Population: 58,109,160 (July 1995 est.)

 Age structure:
 0-14 years: 19% (female 5,438,447; male 5,700,143)
 15-64 years: 65% (female 18,889,771; male 19,001,536)
 65 years and over: 16% (female 5,433,276; male 3,645,987) (July 1995
 est.)

 Population growth rate: 0.46% (1995 est.)

 Birth rate: 13 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Death rate: 9.29 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Net migration rate: 0.86 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Infant mortality rate: 6.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

 Life expectancy at birth:
 total population: 78.37 years
 male: 74.5 years
 female: 82.44 years (1995 est.)

 Total fertility rate: 1.8 children born/woman (1995 est.)

 Nationality:
 noun: Frenchman(men), Frenchwoman(women)
 adjective: French

 Ethnic divisions: Celtic and Latin with Teutonic, Slavic, North
 African, Indochinese, Basque minorities

 Religions: Roman Catholic 90%, Protestant 2%, Jewish 1%, Muslim (North
 African workers) 1%, unaffiliated 6%

 Languages: French 100%, rapidly declining regional dialects and
 languages (Provencal, Breton, Alsatian, Corsican, Catalan, Basque,
 Flemish)

 Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1991 est.)
 total population: 99%

 Labor force: 24.17 million
 by occupation: services 61.5%, industry 31.3%, agriculture 7.2% (1987)

@France:Government

 Names:
 conventional long form: French Republic
 conventional short form: France
 local long form: Republique Francaise
 local short form: France

 Digraph: FR

 Type: republic

 Capital: Paris

 Administrative divisions: 22 regions (regions, singular - region);
 Alsace, Aquitaine, Auvergne, Basse-Normandie, Bourgogne, Bretagne,
 Centre, Champagne-Ardenne, Corse, Franche-Comte, Haute-Normandie,
 Ile-de-France, Languedoc-Roussillon, Limousin, Lorraine,
 Midi-Pyrenees, Nord-Pas-de-Calais, Pays de la Loire, Picardie,
 Poitou-Charentes, Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur, Rhone-Alpes
 note: the 22 regions are subdivided into 96 departments; see separate
 entries for the overseas departments (French Guiana, Guadeloupe,
 Martinique, Reunion) and the territorial collectivities (Mayotte,
 Saint Pierre and Miquelon)

 Dependent areas: Bassas da India, Clipperton Island, Europa Island,
 French Polynesia, French Southern and Antarctic Lands, Glorioso
 Islands, Juan de Nova Island, New Caledonia, Tromelin Island, Wallis
 and Futuna
 note: the US does not recognize claims to Antarctica

 Independence: 486 (unified by Clovis)

 National holiday: National Day, Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)

 Constitution: 28 September 1958, amended concerning election of
 president in 1962, amended to comply with provisions of EC Maastricht
 Treaty in 1992; amended to tighten immigration laws 1993

 Legal system: civil law system with indigenous concepts; review of
 administrative but not legislative acts

 Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

 Executive branch:
 chief of state: President Francois MITTERRAND (since 21 May 1981);
 election last held 8 May 1988 (next to be held by May 1995); results -
 Second Ballot Francois MITTERRAND 54%, Jacques CHIRAC 46%
 head of government: Prime Minister Edouard BALLADUR (since 29 March
 1993)
 cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by the president on the
 suggestion of the prime minister

 Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament (Parlement)
 Senate (Senat): elections last held 27 September 1992 (next to be held
 September 1995; nine-year term, elected by thirds every three years);
 results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (321 total; 296
 metropolitan France, 13 for overseas departments and territories, and
 12 for French nationals abroad) RPR 91, UDF 142, PS 66, PCF 16,
 independents 2, other 4
 National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale): elections last held 21 and 28
 March 1993 (next to be held NA 1998); results - percent of vote by
 party NA; seats - (577 total) RPR 247, UDF 213, PS 67, PCF 24,
 independents 26

 Judicial branch: Constitutional Court (Cour Constitutionnelle)

 Political parties and leaders: Rally for the Republic (RPR), Alain
 JUPPE, interim head; Union for French Democracy (UDF, coalition of PR,
 CDS, RAD, PSD), Valery Giscard d'ESTAING; Republican Party (PR),
 Gerard LONGUET; Center for Social Democrats (CDS), Francois BAYROU;
 Radical (RAD), Yves GALLAND; Socialist Party (PS), Henri EMMANUELLI;
 Left Radical Movement (MRG), Jean-Francois HORY; Communist Party
 (PCF), Robert HUE; National Front (FN), Jean-Marie LE PEN; The Greens,
 Antoine WAECHTER, Jean-Louis VIDAL, Guy CAMBOT; Generation Ecology
 (GE), Brice LALONDE

 Other political or pressure groups: Communist-controlled labor union
 (Confederation Generale du Travail - CGT) nearly 2.4 million members
 (claimed); Socialist-leaning labor union (Confederation Francaise
 Democratique du Travail or CFDT) about 800,000 members (est.);
 independent labor union (Force Ouvriere) 1 million members (est.);
 independent white-collar union (Confederation Generale des Cadres)
 340,000 members (claimed); National Council of French Employers
 (Conseil National du Patronat Francais - CNPF or Patronat)

 Member of: ACCT, AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, Australia Group, BDEAC,
 BIS, CCC, CDB (non-regional), CE, CERN, EBRD, EC, ECA (associate),
 ECE, ECLAC, EIB, ESA, ESCAP, FAO, FZ, G- 5, G- 7, G-10, GATT, IADB,
 IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO,
 IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO,
 MTCR, NACC, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, ONUSAL, OSCE, PCA,
 SPC, UN, UN Security Council, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL,
 UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNMIH, UNPROFOR, UNRWA, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WCL, WEU,
 WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

 Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Jacques ANDREANI
 chancery: 4101 Reservoir Road NW, Washington, DC 20007
 telephone: [1] (202) 944-6000
 consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Honolulu, Houston, Los
 Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, and San Juan
 (Puerto Rico)

 US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Pamela C. HARRIMAN
 embassy: 2 Avenue Gabriel, 75382 Paris Cedex 08
 mailing address: Unit 21551, Paris; APO AE 09777
 telephone: [33] (1) 42 96 12 02, 42 61 80 75
 FAX: [33] (1) 42 66 97 83
 consulate(s) general: Bordeaux, Marseille, Strasbourg

 Flag: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), white, and red;
 known as the French Tricouleur (Tricolor); the design and colors are
 similar to a number of other flags, including those of Belgium, Chad,
 Ireland, Cote d'Ivoire, and Luxembourg; the official flag for all
 French dependent areas

@France:Economy

 Overview: One of the world's most highly developed economies, France
 has substantial agricultural resources and a diversified modern
 industrial sector. Large tracts of fertile land, the application of
 modern technology, and subsidies have combined to make it the leading
 agricultural producer in Western Europe. Largely self-sufficient in
 agricultural products, France is a major exporter of wheat and dairy
 products. The industrial sector generates about one-quarter of GDP,
 and the growing services sector has become crucial to the economy.
 Following stagnation and recession in 1991-93, French GDP in 1994
 expanded 2.4%. Growth in 1995 is expected to be in the 3.0% to 3.5%
 range. Persistently high unemployment will still pose a major problem
 for the government. Paris remains committed to maintaining the
 franc-deutsche mark parity, which has kept French interest rates high
 despite France's low inflation. Although the pace of economic and
 financial integration within the European Union has slowed down,
 integration presumably will remain a major force shaping the fortunes
 of the various economic sectors over the next few years.

 National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $1.0801 trillion
 (1994 est.)

 National product real growth rate: 2.4% (1994 est.)

 National product per capita: $18,670 (1994 est.)

 Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.6% (1994)

 Unemployment rate: 12.6% (yearend 1994)

 Budget:
 revenues: $220.5 billion
 expenditures: $249.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $47
 billion (1993 budget)

 Exports: $249.2 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
 commodities: machinery and transportation equipment, chemicals,
 foodstuffs, agricultural products, iron and steel products, textiles
 and clothing
 partners: Germany 18.6%, Italy 11.0%, Spain 11.0%, Belgium-Luxembourg
 9.1%, UK 8.8%, Netherlands 7.9%, US 6.4%, Japan 2.0%, FSU 0.7% (1991
 est.)

 Imports: $238.1 billion (c.i.f., 1994 est.)
 commodities: crude oil, machinery and equipment, agricultural
 products, chemicals, iron and steel products
 partners: Germany 17.8%, Italy 10.9%, US 9.5%, Netherlands 8.9%, Spain
 8.8%, Belgium-Luxembourg 8.5%, UK 7.5%, Japan 4.1%, FSU 1.3% (1991
 est.)

 External debt: $300 billion (1993 est.)

 Industrial production: growth rate 2.6% (1994 est.)

 Electricity:
 capacity: 105,250,000 kW
 production: 447 billion kWh
 consumption per capita: 6,149 kWh (1993)

 Industries: steel, machinery, chemicals, automobiles, metallurgy,
 aircraft, electronics, mining, textiles, food processing, tourism

 Agriculture: accounts for 4% of GDP (including fishing and forestry);
 one of the world's top five wheat producers; other principal products
 - beef, dairy products, cereals, sugar beets, potatoes, wine grapes;
 self-sufficient for most temperate-zone foods; shortages include fats
 and oils and tropical produce, but overall net exporter of farm
 products; fish catch of 850,000 metric tons ranks among world's top 20
 countries and is all used domestically

 Economic aid:
 donor: ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $75.1 billion

 Currency: 1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes

 Exchange rates: French francs (F) per US$1 - 5.9243 (January 1995),
 5.5520 (1994), 5.6632 (1993), 5.2938 (1992), 5.6421 (1991), 5.4453
 (1990)

 Fiscal year: calendar year

@France:Transportation

 Railroads:
 total: 34,074 km
 standard gauge: 33,975 km 1.435-m gauge (5,850 km electrified; 12,132
 km double or multiple track)
 other: 99 km various gauges including 1.000-m (privately owned and
 operated) (1994)

 Highways:
 total: 1,511,200 km
 paved: 811,200 km (including 7,700 km of controlled access divided
 highway)
 unpaved: 700,000 km (1992)

 Inland waterways: 14,932 km; 6,969 km heavily traveled

 Pipelines: crude oil 3,059 km; petroleum products 4,487 km; natural
 gas 24,746 km

 Ports: Bordeaux, Boulogne, Cherbourg, Dijon, Dunkerque, La Pallice, Le
 Havre, Lyon, Marseille, Mullhouse, Nantes, Paris, Rouen, Saint
 Nazaire, Saint Malo, Strasbourg

 Merchant marine:
 total: 78 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,186,183 GRT/3,323,068
 DWT
 ships by type: bulk 6, cargo 7, chemical tanker 6, container 15,
 liquefied gas tanker 4, oil tanker 21, passenger 1, roll-on/roll-off
 cargo 11, short-sea passenger 5, specialized tanker 2
 note: France also maintains a captive register for French-owned ships
 in the Kerguelen Islands (French Southern and Antarctic Lands) and
 French Polynesia

 Airports:
 total: 476
 with paved runways over 3,047 m: 12
 with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 29
 with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 96
 with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 74
 with paved runways under 914 m: 188
 with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 3
 with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 74

@France:Communications

 Telephone system: 39,200,000 telephones; highly developed; extensive
 cable and microwave radio relay networks; large-scale introduction of
 optical-fiber systems; satellite systems for domestic traffic
 local: NA
 intercity: microwave radio relay, optical fiber cable, and domestic
 satellites
 international: 2 INTELSAT earth stations (with total of 5 antennas - 2
 Indian Ocean and 3 for Atlantic Ocean); HF radio communications with
 more than 20 countries; INMARSAT service; EUTELSAT TV service

 Radio:
 broadcast stations: AM 41, FM 800 (mostly repeaters), shortwave 0
 radios: 48 million

 Television:
 broadcast stations: 846 (mostly repeaters)
 televisions: 36 million

@France:Defense Forces

 Branches: Army, Navy (includes Naval Air), Air Force and Air Defense,
 National Gendarmerie

 Manpower availability: males age 15-49 14,740,155; males fit for
 military service 12,258,691; males reach military age (18) annually
 378,489 (1995 est.)

 Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $47.1 billion, 3.1%
 of GDP (1995)


________________________________________________________________________

FRENCH GUIANA

 (overseas department of France) 

@French Guiana:Geography

 Location: Northern South America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean,
 between Brazil and Suriname

 Map references: South America

 Area:
 total area: 91,000 sq km
 land area: 89,150 sq km
 comparative area: slightly smaller than Indiana

 Land boundaries: total 1,183 km, Brazil 673 km, Suriname 510 km

 Coastline: 378 km

 Maritime claims:
 exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
 territorial sea: 12 nm

 International disputes: Suriname claims area between Riviere Litani
 and Riviere Marouini (both headwaters of the Lawa)

 Climate: tropical; hot, humid; little seasonal temperature variation

 Terrain: low-lying coastal plains rising to hills and small mountains

 Natural resources: bauxite, timber, gold (widely scattered), cinnabar,
 kaolin, fish

 Land use:
 arable land: 0%
 permanent crops: 0%
 meadows and pastures: 0%
 forest and woodland: 82%
 other: 18%

 Irrigated land: NA sq km

 Environment:
 current issues: NA
 natural hazards: high frequency of heavy showers and severe
 thunderstorms; flooding
 international agreements: NA

 Note: mostly an unsettled wilderness

@French Guiana:People

 Population: 145,270 (July 1995 est.)

 Age structure:
 0-14 years: 32% (female 22,511; male 23,535)
 15-64 years: 63% (female 41,995; male 50,064)
 65 years and over: 5% (female 3,608; male 3,557) (July 1995 est.)

 Population growth rate: 4.13% (1995 est.)

 Birth rate: 25.23 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Death rate: 4.61 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Net migration rate: 20.65 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Infant mortality rate: 15.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

 Life expectancy at birth:
 total population: 75.52 years
 male: 72.27 years
 female: 78.94 years (1995 est.)

 Total fertility rate: 3.46 children born/woman (1995 est.)

 Nationality:
 noun: French Guianese (singular and plural)
 adjective: French Guianese

 Ethnic divisions: black or mulatto 66%, Caucasian 12%, East Indian,
 Chinese, Amerindian 12%, other 10%

 Religions: Roman Catholic

 Languages: French

 Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1982)
 total population: 83%
 male: 84%
 female: 82%

 Labor force: 23,265
 by occupation: services, government, and commerce 60.6%, industry
 21.2%, agriculture 18.2% (1980)

@French Guiana:Government

 Names:
 conventional long form: Department of Guiana
 conventional short form: French Guiana
 local long form: none
 local short form: Guyane

 Digraph: FG

 Type: overseas department of France

 Capital: Cayenne

 Administrative divisions: none (overseas department of France)

 Independence: none (overseas department of France)

 National holiday: National Day, Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)

 Constitution: 28 September 1958 (French Constitution)

 Legal system: French legal system

 Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

 Executive branch:
 chief of state: President Francois MITTERRAND (since 21 May 1981)
 head of government: Prefect Jean-Francois CORDET (since NA 1992);
 President of the General Council Elie CASTOR (since NA); President of
 the Regional Council Antoine KARAM (22 March 1993)
 cabinet: Council of Ministers

 Legislative branch: unicameral General Council and a unicameral
 Regional Council
 General Council: elections last held 25 September and 8 October 1988
 (next to be held NA); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats -
 (19 total) PSG 12, URC 7
 Regional Council: elections last held 22 March 1992 (next to be held
 NA); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (31 total) PSG 16,
 FDG 10, RPR 2, independents 3
 French Senate: elections last held 24 September 1989 (next to be held
 September 1998); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (1
 total) PSG 1
 French National Assembly: elections last held 21 and 28 March 1993
 (next to be held NA 1998); results - percent of vote by party NA;
 seats - (2 total) RPR 1, independent 1

 Judicial branch: Court of Appeals (highest local court based in
 Martinique with jurisdiction over Martinique, Guadeloupe, and French
 Guiana)

 Political parties and leaders: Guianese Socialist Party (PSG), Elie
 CASTRO; Conservative Union for the Republic (UPR), Leon BERTRAND;
 Rally for the Center Right (URC); Rally for the Republic (RPR); Guyana
 Democratic Front (FDG), Georges OTHILY; Walwari Committee, Christine
 TAUBIRA-DELANON

 Member of: FZ, WCL, WFTU

 Diplomatic representation in US: none (overseas department of France)

 US diplomatic representation: none (overseas department of France)

 Flag: the flag of France is used

@French Guiana:Economy

 Overview: The economy is tied closely to that of France through
 subsidies and imports. Besides the French space center at Kourou,
 fishing and forestry are the most important economic activities, with
 exports of fish and fish products (mostly shrimp) accounting for more
 than 60% of total revenue in 1992. The large reserves of tropical
 hardwoods, not fully exploited, support an expanding sawmill industry
 that provides sawn logs for export. Cultivation of crops - rice,
 cassava, bananas, and sugarcane - is limited to the coastal area,
 where the population is largely concentrated. French Guiana is heavily
 dependent on imports of food and energy. Unemployment is a serious
 problem, particularly among younger workers.

 National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $800 million (1993
 est.)

 National product real growth rate: NA%

 National product per capita: $6,000 (1993 est.)

 Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.5% (1992)

 Unemployment rate: 13% (1990)

 Budget:
 revenues: $735 million
 expenditures: $735 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
 (1987)

 Exports: $59 million (f.o.b., 1992)
 commodities: shrimp, timber, rum, rosewood essence
 partners: France 52%, Spain 15%, US 5% (1992)

 Imports: $1.5 billion (c.i.f., 1992)
 commodities: food (grains, processed meat), other consumer goods,
 producer goods, petroleum
 partners: France 77%, Germany 11%, US 5% (1992)

 External debt: $1.2 billion (1988)

 Industrial production: growth rate NA%

 Electricity:
 capacity: 180,000 kW
 production: 450 million kWh
 consumption per capita: 3,149 kWh (1993)

 Industries: construction, shrimp processing, forestry products, rum,
 gold mining

 Agriculture: some vegetables for local consumption; rice, corn,
 manioc, cocoa, bananas, sugar; livestock - cattle, pigs, poultry

 Illicit drugs: small amount of marijuana grown for local consumption

 Economic aid:
 recipient: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral
 commitments (1970-89), $1.51 billion

 Currency: 1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes

 Exchange rates: French francs (F) per US$1 - 5.9243 (January 1995),
 5.5520 (1994), 5.6632 (1993), 5.2938 (1992), 5.6421 (1991), 5.4453
 (1990)

 Fiscal year: calendar year

@French Guiana:Transportation

 Railroads:
 total: 22 km (est.)

 Highways:
 total: 1,137 km
 paved: 455 km
 unpaved: improved, unimproved earth 682 km (1988)

 Inland waterways: 460 km, navigable by small oceangoing vessels and
 river and coastal steamers; 3,300 km navigable by native craft

 Ports: Cayenne, Degrad des Cannes, Saint-Laurent du Maroni

 Merchant marine: none

 Airports:
 total: 11
 with paved runways over 3,047 m: 1
 with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 2
 with paved runways under 914 m: 5
 with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 3

@French Guiana:Communications

 Telephone system: 18,100 telephones; fair open-wire and microwave
 radio relay system
 local: NA
 intercity: open wire and microwave radio relay
 international: 1 INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean) earth station

 Radio:
 broadcast stations: AM 5, FM 7, shortwave 0
 radios: NA

 Television:
 broadcast stations: 9
 televisions: NA

@French Guiana:Defense Forces

 Branches: French Forces, Gendarmerie

 Manpower availability: males age 15-49 41,986; males fit for military
 service 27,298

 Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP

 Note: defense is the responsibility of France


________________________________________________________________________

FRENCH POLYNESIA

 (overseas territory of France) 

@French Polynesia:Geography

 Location: Oceania, archipelago in the South Pacific Ocean, about
 one-half of the way from South America to Australia

 Map references: Oceania

 Area:
 total area: 3,941 sq km
 land area: 3,660 sq km
 comparative area: slightly less than one-third the size of Connecticut

 Land boundaries: 0 km

 Coastline: 2,525 km

 Maritime claims:
 exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
 territorial sea: 12 nm

 International disputes: none

 Climate: tropical, but moderate

 Terrain: mixture of rugged high islands and low islands with reefs

 Natural resources: timber, fish, cobalt

 Land use:
 arable land: 1%
 permanent crops: 19%
 meadows and pastures: 5%
 forest and woodland: 31%
 other: 44%

 Irrigated land: NA sq km

 Environment:
 current issues: NA
 natural hazards: occasional cyclonic storms in January
 international agreements: NA

 Note: includes five archipelagoes; Makatea in French Polynesia is one
 of the three great phosphate rock islands in the Pacific Ocean - the
 others are Banaba (Ocean Island) in Kiribati and Nauru

@French Polynesia:People

 Population: 219,999 (July 1995 est.)

 Age structure:
 0-14 years: 36% (female 38,361; male 39,744)
 15-64 years: 60% (female 64,034; male 69,024)
 65 years and over: 4% (female 4,437; male 4,399) (July 1995 est.)

 Population growth rate: 2.23% (1995 est.)

 Birth rate: 27.56 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Death rate: 5.27 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Infant mortality rate: 14.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

 Life expectancy at birth:
 total population: 70.75 years
 male: 68.32 years
 female: 73.29 years (1995 est.)

 Total fertility rate: 3.3 children born/woman (1995 est.)

 Nationality:
 noun: French Polynesian(s)
 adjective: French Polynesian

 Ethnic divisions: Polynesian 78%, Chinese 12%, local French 6%,
 metropolitan French 4%

 Religions: Protestant 54%, Roman Catholic 30%, other 16%

 Languages: French (official), Tahitian (official)

 Literacy: age 14 and over can read and write but definition of
 literary not available (1977)
 total population: 98%
 male: 98%
 female: 98%

 Labor force: 76,630 employed (1988)

@French Polynesia:Government

 Names:
 conventional long form: Territory of French Polynesia
 conventional short form: French Polynesia
 local long form: Territoire de la Polynesie Francaise
 local short form: Polynesie Francaise

 Digraph: FP

 Type: overseas territory of France since 1946

 Capital: Papeete

 Administrative divisions: none (overseas territory of France); there
 are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US
 Government, but there are 5 archipelagic divisions named Archipel des
 Marquises, Archipel des Tuamotu, Archipel des Tubuai, Iles du Vent,
 and Iles Sous-le-Vent
 note: Clipperton Island is administered by France from French
 Polynesia

 Independence: none (overseas territory of France)

 National holiday: National Day, Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)

 Constitution: 28 September 1958 (French Constitution)

 Legal system: based on French system

 Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

 Executive branch:
 chief of state: President Francois MITTERRAND (since 21 May 1981);
 High Commissioner of the Republic Paul RONCIERE (since 8 August 1994)
 head of government: President of the Territorial Government of French
 Polynesia Gaston FLOSSE (since 10 May 1991); Deputy to the French
 Assembly and President of the Territorial Assembly Jean JUVENTIN
 (since NA November 1992); Territorial Vice President and Minister of
 Health Michel BUILLARD (since 12 September 1991)
 cabinet: Council of Ministers; president submits a list of members of
 the Assembly for approval by them to serve as ministers

 Legislative branch: unicameral
 Territorial Assembly: elections last held 17 March 1991 (next to be
 held March 1996); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (41
 total) People's Rally for the Republic (Gaullist) 18, Polynesian Union
 Party 12, New Fatherland Party 7, other 4
 French Senate: elections last held 24 September 1989 (next to be held
 September 1998); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (1
 total) party NA
 French National Assembly: elections last held 21 and 28 March 1993
 (next to be held NA March 1998); results - percent of vote by party
 NA; seats - (2 total) People's Rally for the Republic (Gaullist) 2

 Judicial branch: Court of Appeal, Court of the First Instance, Court
 of Administrative Law

 Political parties and leaders: People's Rally for the Republic
 (Tahoeraa Huiraatira), Gaston FLOSSE; Polynesian Union Party (includes
 Te Tiarama), Alexandre LEONTIEFF; Here Ai'a Party, Jean JUVENTIN; New
 Fatherland Party (Ai'a Api), Emile VERNAUDON; Polynesian Liberation
 Front (Tavini Hviraatira No Te Ao Maohi), Oscar TEMARU; Independent
 Party (Ia Mana Te Nunaa), Jacques DROLLET; other small parties

 Member of: ESCAP (associate), FZ, ICFTU, SPC, WMO

 Diplomatic representation in US: none (overseas territory of France)

 US diplomatic representation: none (overseas territory of France)

 Flag: the flag of France is used

@French Polynesia:Economy

 Overview: Since 1962, when France stationed military personnel in the
 region, French Polynesia has changed from a subsistence economy to one
 in which a high proportion of the work force is either employed by the
 military or supports the tourist industry. Tourism accounts for about
 20% of GDP and is a primary source of hard currency earnings.

 National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $1.5 billion (1993
 est.)

 National product real growth rate: NA%

 National product per capita: $7,000 (1993 est.)

 Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.7% (1991)

 Unemployment rate: 10% (1990 est.)

 Budget:
 revenues: $614 million
 expenditures: $957 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
 (1988)

 Exports: $88.9 million (f.o.b., 1989)
 commodities: coconut products 79%, mother-of-pearl 14%, vanilla, shark
 meat
 partners: France 54%, US 17%, Japan 17%

 Imports: $765 million (c.i.f., 1989)
 commodities: fuels, foodstuffs, equipment
 partners: France 53%, US 11%, Australia 6%, NZ 5%

 External debt: $NA

 Industrial production: growth rate NA%; accounts for 15% of GDP

 Electricity:
 capacity: 75,000 kW
 production: 275 million kWh
 consumption per capita: 1,189 kWh (1993)

 Industries: tourism, pearls, agricultural processing, handicrafts

 Agriculture: coconut and vanilla plantations; vegetables and fruit;
 poultry, beef, dairy products

 Economic aid:
 recipient: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral
 commitments (1970-88), $3.95 billion

 Currency: 1 CFP franc (CFPF) = 100 centimes

 Exchange rates: Comptoirs Francais du Pacifique francs (CFPF) per US$1
 - 96.25 (January 1995), 100.94 (1994), 102.96 (1993), 96.24 (1992),
 102.57 (1991), 99.00 (1990); note - linked at the rate of 18.18 to the
 French franc

 Fiscal year: calendar year

@French Polynesia:Transportation

 Railroads: 0 km

 Highways:
 total: 600 km (1982)
 paved: NA
 unpaved: NA

 Ports: Mataura, Papeete, Rikitea, Uturoa

 Merchant marine:
 total: 3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,127 GRT/6,710 DWT
 ships by type: passenger-cargo 2, refrigerated cargo 1
 note: a subset of the French register allowing French-owned ships to
 operate under more liberal taxation and manning regulations than
 permissable under the main French register

 Airports:
 total: 43
 with paved runways over 3,047 m: 2
 with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
 with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 14
 with paved runways under 914 m: 18
 with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 4

@French Polynesia:Communications

 Telephone system: 33,200 telephones
 local: NA
 intercity: NA
 international: 1 INTELSAT (Pacific Ocean) earth station

 Radio:
 broadcast stations: AM 5, FM 2, shortwave 0
 radios: 84,000

 Television:
 broadcast stations: 6
 televisions: 26,400

@French Polynesia:Defense Forces

 Branches: French Forces (includes Army, Navy, Air Force), Gendarmerie

 Note: defense is responsibility of France


________________________________________________________________________

FRENCH SOUTHERN AND ANTARCTIC LANDS

 (overseas territory of France) 

@French Southern And Antarctic Lands:Geography

 Location: Southern Africa, islands in the southern Indian Ocean, about
 equidistant between Africa, Antarctica, and Australia; note - "French
 Southern and Antarctic Lands" includes Ile Amsterdam, Ile Saint-Paul,
 Iles Crozet, and Iles Kerguelen in the southern Indian Ocean, along
 with the French-claimed sector of Antartica, "Terre Adelie"; the
 United States does not recognize the French claim to "Terre Adelie"

 Map references: Antarctic Region

 Area:
 total area: 7,781 sq km
 land area: 7,781 sq km
 comparative area: slightly less than 1.5 times the size of Delaware
 note: includes Ile Amsterdam, Ile Saint-Paul, Iles Crozet and Iles
 Kerguelen; excludes "Terre Adelie" claim of about 500,000 sq km in
 Antarctica that is not recognized by the US

 Land boundaries: 0 km

 Coastline: 1,232 km

 Maritime claims:
 exclusive economic zone: 200 nm from Iles Kerguelen only
 territorial sea: 12 nm

 International disputes: "Terre Adelie" claim in Antarctica is not
 recognized by the US

 Climate: antarctic

 Terrain: volcanic

 Natural resources: fish, crayfish

 Land use:
 arable land: 0%
 permanent crops: 0%
 meadows and pastures: 0%
 forest and woodland: 0%
 other: 100%

 Irrigated land: 0 sq km

 Environment:
 current issues: NA
 natural hazards: Ile Amsterdam and Ile Saint-Paul are extinct
 volcanoes
 international agreements: NA

 Note: remote location in the southern Indian Ocean

@French Southern And Antarctic Lands:People

 Population: no indigenous inhabitants; note - there are researchers
 whose numbers vary from 150 in winter (July) to 200 in summer
 (January)

@French Southern And Antarctic Lands:Government

 Names:
 conventional long form: Territory of the French Southern and Antarctic
 Lands
 conventional short form: French Southern and Antarctic Lands
 local long form: Territoire des Terres Australes et Antarctiques
 Francaises
 local short form: Terres Australes et Antarctiques Francaises

 Digraph: FS

 Type: overseas territory of France since 1955; governed by High
 Administrator Bernard de GOUTTES (since May 1990), who is assisted by
 a 7-member Consultative Council and a 12-member Scientific Council

 Capital: none; administered from Paris, France

 Administrative divisions: none (overseas territory of France); there
 are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US
 Government, but there are 3 districts named Ile Crozet, Iles
 Kerguelen, and Iles Saint-Paul et Amsterdam; excludes "Terre Adelie"
 claim in Antarctica that is not recognized by the US

 Independence: none (overseas territory of France)

 Flag: the flag of France is used

@French Southern And Antarctic Lands:Economy

 Overview: Economic activity is limited to servicing meteorological and
 geophysical research stations and French and other fishing fleets. The
 fish catches landed on Iles Kerguelen by foreign ships are exported to
 France and Reunion.

 Budget:
 revenues: $17.5 million
 expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA (1992)

@French Southern And Antarctic Lands:Transportation

 Highways:
 total: NA
 paved: NA
 unpaved: NA

 Ports: none; offshore anchorage only

 Merchant marine:
 total: 48 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,290,975 GRT/2,403,050
 DWT
 ships by type: bulk 5, cargo 6, chemical tanker 4, container 1,
 liquefied gas tanker 3, multifunction large-load carrier 1, oil tanker
 15, refrigerated cargo 4, roll-on/roll-off cargo 8, specialized
 liquefied tanker 1
 note: a subset of the French register allowing French-owned ships to
 operate under more liberal taxation and manning regulations than
 permissable under the main French register

 Airports: none

@French Southern And Antarctic Lands:Communications

 Telephone system: NA telephones
 local: NA
 intercity: NA
 international: NA

 Radio:
 broadcast stations: AM NA, FM NA, shortwave NA
 radios: NA

 Television:
 broadcast stations: NA
 televisions: NA

@French Southern And Antarctic Lands:Defense Forces

 Note: defense is the responsibility of France


________________________________________________________________________

GABON

@Gabon:Geography

 Location: Western Africa, bordering the Atlantic Ocean at the Equator,
 between Congo and Equatorial Guinea

 Map references: Africa

 Area:
 total area: 267,670 sq km
 land area: 257,670 sq km
 comparative area: slightly smaller than Colorado

 Land boundaries: total 2,551 km, Cameroon 298 km, Congo 1,903 km,
 Equatorial Guinea 350 km

 Coastline: 885 km

 Maritime claims:
 contiguous zone: 24 nm
 exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
 territorial sea: 12 nm

 International disputes: maritime boundary dispute with Equatorial
 Guinea because of disputed sovereignty over islands in Corisco Bay

 Climate: tropical; always hot, humid

 Terrain: narrow coastal plain; hilly interior; savanna in east and
 south

 Natural resources: petroleum, manganese, uranium, gold, timber, iron
 ore

 Land use:
 arable land: 1%
 permanent crops: 1%
 meadows and pastures: 18%
 forest and woodland: 78%
 other: 2%

 Irrigated land: NA sq km

 Environment:
 current issues: deforestation; poaching
 natural hazards: NA
 international agreements: party to - Endangered Species, Marine
 Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
 Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity,
 Climate Change, Law of the Sea, Tropical Timber 94

@Gabon:People

 Population: 1,155,749 (July 1995 est.)

 Age structure:
 0-14 years: 34% (female 193,859; male 194,761)
 15-64 years: 61% (female 347,839; male 359,997)
 65 years and over: 5% (female 30,218; male 29,075) (July 1995 est.)

 Population growth rate: 1.46% (1995 est.)

 Birth rate: 28.34 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Death rate: 13.72 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Infant mortality rate: 92.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

 Life expectancy at birth:
 total population: 55.14 years
 male: 52.31 years
 female: 58.06 years (1995 est.)

 Total fertility rate: 3.93 children born/woman (1995 est.)

 Nationality:
 noun: Gabonese (singular and plural)
 adjective: Gabonese

 Ethnic divisions: Bantu tribes including four major tribal groupings
 (Fang, Eshira, Bapounou, Bateke), other Africans and Europeans
 100,000, including 27,000 French

 Religions: Christian 55%-75%, Muslim less than 1%, animist

 Languages: French (official), Fang, Myene, Bateke, Bapounou/Eschira,
 Bandjabi

 Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
 total population: 61%
 male: 74%
 female: 48%

 Labor force: 120,000 salaried
 by occupation: agriculture 65.0%, industry and commerce 30.0%,
 services 2.5%, government 2.5%

@Gabon:Government

 Names:
 conventional long form: Gabonese Republic
 conventional short form: Gabon
 local long form: Republique Gabonaise
 local short form: Gabon

 Digraph: GB

 Type: republic; multiparty presidential regime (opposition parties
 legalized 1990)

 Capital: Libreville

 Administrative divisions: 9 provinces; Estuaire, Haut-Ogooue,
 Moyen-Ogooue, Ngounie, Nyanga, Ogooue-Ivindo, Ogooue-Lolo,
 Ogooue-Maritime, Woleu-Ntem

 Independence: 17 August 1960 (from France)

 National holiday: Renovation Day, 12 March (1968) (Gabonese Democratic
 Party established)

 Constitution: adopted 14 March 1991

 Legal system: based on French civil law system and customary law;
 judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Chamber of the
 Supreme Court; compulsory ICJ jurisdiction not accepted

 Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

 Executive branch:
 chief of state: President El Hadj Omar BONGO (since 2 December 1967);
 election last held on 5 December 1993 (next to be held 1998); results
 - President Omar BONGO was reelected with 51% of the vote
 head of government: Prime Minister Paulin OBAME Nguema (since 9
 December 1994)
 cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by the prime minister in
 consultation with the president

 Legislative branch: unicameral
 National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale): elections last held on 5
 December 1993 (next to be held by 1998); results - percent of vote by
 party NA; seats - (120 total) PDG 62, Morena-Bucherons/RNB 19, PGP 18,
 National Recovery Movement (Morena-Original) 7, APSG 6, USG 4, CRP 1,
 independents 3

 Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

 Political parties and leaders: Gabonese Democratic Party (PDG, former
 sole party), Jaques ADIAHENOT, Secretary General; National Recovery
 Movement - Lumberjacks (Morena-Bucherons/RNB), Fr. Paul M'BA-ABESSOLE,
 leader; Gabonese Party for Progress (PGP), Pierre-Louis AGONDHO-OKAWE,
 President; National Recovery Movement (Morena-Original), Pierre
 ZONGUE-NGUEMA, Chairman; Association for Socialism in Gabon (APSG),
 leader NA; Gabonese Socialist Union (USG), leader NA; Circle for
 Renewal and Progress (CRP), leader NA; Union for Democracy and
 Development (UDD), leader NA; Rally of Democrats (RD), leader NA;
 Forces of Change for Democratic Union, leader NA

 Member of: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CCC, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-24,
 G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS
 (associate), ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU,
 NAM, OAU, OIC, OPEC, UDEAC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO,
 WIPO, WMO, WTO

 Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Paul BOUNDOUKOU-LATHA
 chancery: 2233 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007, Suite 200
 telephone: [1] (202) 797-1000

 US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Joseph C. WILSON IV
 embassy: Boulevard de la Mer, Libreville
 mailing address: B. P. 4000, Libreville
 telephone: [241] 76 20 03 through 76 20 04, 74 34 92
 FAX: [241] 74 55 07

 Flag: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), yellow, and blue

@Gabon:Economy

 Overview: Notwithstanding its serious ongoing economic problems, Gabon
 enjoys a per capita income more than twice that of most nations of
 sub-Saharan Africa. Gabon depended on timber and manganese until oil
 was discovered offshore in the early 1970s. The oil sector now
 accounts for 50% of GDP. Real growth was feeble in 1992 and Gabon
 continues to face the problem of fluctuating prices for its oil,
 timber, manganese, and uranium exports. Despite an abundance of
 natural wealth, and a manageable rate of population growth, the
 economy is hobbled by poor fiscal management. In 1992, the fiscal
 deficit widened to 2.4% of GDP, and Gabon failed to settle arrears on
 its bilateral debt, leading to a cancellation of rescheduling
 agreements with official and private creditors. Devaluation of its
 Francophone currency by 50% in January 1994 did not set off an
 expected inflationary spiral but the government must continue to keep
 a tight reign on spending and wage increases.

 National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $5.6 billion (1994
 est.)

 National product real growth rate: 1.9% (1994 est.)

 National product per capita: $4,900 (1994 est.)

 Inflation rate (consumer prices): 35% (1994 est.)

 Unemployment rate: NA%

 Budget:
 revenues: $1.3 billion
 expenditures: $1.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $311
 million (1993 est.)

 Exports: $2.1 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est)
 commodities: crude oil 80%, timber 10%, manganese 6%, uranium 2%
 partners: US 38%, France 26%, Japan, Germany

 Imports: $832 million (c.i.f., 1993 est.)
 commodities: foodstuffs, chemical products, petroleum products,
 construction materials, manufactures, machinery
 partners: France 42%, African countries 23%, US, Japan

 External debt: $3.3 billion (1993 est.)

 Industrial production: growth rate -3% (1991)

 Electricity:
 capacity: 315,000 kW
 production: 910 million kWh
 consumption per capita: 757 kWh (1993)

 Industries: food and beverages, lumbering and plywood, textiles,
 cement, petroleum refining, mining - manganese, uranium, gold,
 petroleum

 Agriculture: cash crops - cocoa, coffee, palm oil; livestock raising
 not developed; importer of food; small fishing operations provide a
 catch of about 20,000 metric tons; okoume (a tropical softwood) is the
 most important timber product

 Economic aid:
 recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-90), $68 million;
 Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
 (1970-90), $2.342 billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $27 million

 Currency: 1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes

 Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1
 - 529.43 (January 1995), 555.20 (1994), 283.16 (1993), 264.69 (1992),
 282.11 (1991), 272.26 (1990)
 note: beginning 12 January 1994, the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF
 100 per French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since
 1948

 Fiscal year: calendar year

@Gabon:Transportation

 Railroads:
 total: 649 km single track (Transgabonese Railroad)
 standard gauge: 649 km 1.437-m gauge

 Highways:
 total: 7,500 km
 paved: 560 km
 unpaved: crushed stone 960 km; earth 5,980 km

 Inland waterways: 1,600 km perennially navigable

 Pipelines: crude oil 270 km; petroleum products 14 km

 Ports: Cape Lopez, Kango, Lambarene, Libreville, Owendo, Port-Gentil

 Merchant marine:
 total: 1 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 9,281 GRT/12,665 DWT

 Airports:
 total: 69
 with paved runways over 3,047 m: 1
 with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
 with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
 with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 1
 with paved runways under 914 m: 28
 with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 8
 with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 23

@Gabon:Communications

 Telephone system: 15,000 telephones; telephone density - 13/1,000
 persons
 local: NA
 intercity: adequate system, comprising cable, microwave radio relay,
 tropospheric scatter, radiocommunication stations, and 12 domestic
 satellite links
 international: 3 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations

 Radio:
 broadcast stations: AM 6, FM 6, shortwave 0
 radios: NA

 Television:
 broadcast stations: 3 (repeaters 5)
 televisions: NA

@Gabon:Defense Forces

 Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Presidential Guard, National
 Gendarmerie, National Police

 Manpower availability: males age 15-49 272,025; males fit for military
 service 138,197; males reach military age (20) annually 10,516 (1995
 est.)

 Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $154 million, 2.4% of
 GDP (1993)


________________________________________________________________________

THE GAMBIA

@The Gambia:Geography

 Location: Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean and
 Senegal

 Map references: Africa

 Area:
 total area: 11,300 sq km
 land area: 10,000 sq km
 comparative area: slightly more than twice the size of Delaware

 Land boundaries: total 740 km, Senegal 740 km

 Coastline: 80 km

 Maritime claims:
 contiguous zone: 18 nm
 continental shelf: not specified
 exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
 territorial sea: 12 nm

 International disputes: short section of boundary with Senegal is
 indefinite

 Climate: tropical; hot, rainy season (June to November); cooler, dry
 season (November to May)

 Terrain: flood plain of the Gambia River flanked by some low hills

 Natural resources: fish

 Land use:
 arable land: 16%
 permanent crops: 0%
 meadows and pastures: 9%
 forest and woodland: 20%
 other: 55%

 Irrigated land: 120 sq km (1989 est.)

 Environment:
 current issues: deforestation; desertification; water-borne diseases
 prevalent
 natural hazards: rainfall has dropped by 30% in the last thirty years
 international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
 Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
 Protection, Ship Pollution; signed, but not ratified - Desertification

 Note: almost an enclave of Senegal; smallest country on the continent
 of Africa

@The Gambia:People

 Population: 989,273 (July 1995 est.)

 Age structure:
 0-14 years: 47% (female 231,636; male 231,053)
 15-64 years: 51% (female 257,329; male 244,947)
 65 years and over: 2% (female 11,850; male 12,458) (July 1995 est.)

 Population growth rate: 3.08% (1995 est.)

 Birth rate: 45.97 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Death rate: 15.19 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Infant mortality rate: 120.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

 Life expectancy at birth:
 total population: 50.55 years
 male: 48.25 years
 female: 52.92 years (1995 est.)

 Total fertility rate: 6.23 children born/woman (1995 est.)

 Nationality:
 noun: Gambian(s)
 adjective: Gambian

 Ethnic divisions: African 99% (Mandinka 42%, Fula 18%, Wolof 16%, Jola
 10%, Serahuli 9%, other 4%), non-Gambian 1%

 Religions: Muslim 90%, Christian 9%, indigenous beliefs 1%

 Languages: English (official), Mandinka, Wolof, Fula, other indigenous
 vernaculars

 Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
 total population: 27%
 male: 39%
 female: 16%

 Labor force: 400,000 (1986 est.)
 by occupation: agriculture 75.0%, industry, commerce, and services
 18.9%, government 6.1%

@The Gambia:Government

 Names:
 conventional long form: Republic of The Gambia
 conventional short form: The Gambia

 Digraph: GA

 Type: republic under multiparty democratic rule

 Capital: Banjul

 Administrative divisions: 5 divisions and 1 city*; Banjul*, Lower
 River, MacCarthy Island, North Bank, Upper River, Western

 Independence: 18 February 1965 (from UK; The Gambia and Senegal signed
 an agreement on 12 December 1981 that called for the creation of a
 loose confederation to be known as Senegambia, but the agreement was
 dissolved on 30 September 1989)

 National holiday: Independence Day, 18 February (1965)

 Constitution: 24 April 1970

 Legal system: based on a composite of English common law, Koranic law,
 and customary law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with
 reservations

 Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

 Executive branch:
 chief of state and head of government: Chairman of the Armed Forces
 Provisional Ruling Council Capt. Yahya A. J. J. JAMMEH (since the
 military coup of 22 July 1994); Vice Chairman of the Armed Forces
 Provisional Ruling Council Capt. Edward SINGHATEH (since March 1995);
 election last held on 29 April 1992; results - Sir Dawda JAWARA (PPP)
 58.5%, Sherif Mustapha DIBBA (NCP) 22.2%, Assan Musa CAMARA (GPP) 8.0%
 (prior to the 22 July 1994 coup, next election was scheduled for April
 1997)
 cabinet: Cabinet; appointed by the president from members of the House
 of Representatives (present cabinet appointed by Chairman of the Armed
 Forces Provisional Ruling Council)

 Legislative branch: unicameral
 House of Representatives: elections last held on 29 April 1992 (next
 to be held April 1997); results - PPP 58.1%; seats - (43 total, 36
 elected) PPP 30, NCP 6

 Judicial branch: Supreme Court

 Political parties and leaders: People's Progressive Party (PPP), Dawda
 K. JAWARA (in exile), secretary general; National Convention Party
 (NCP), Sheriff DIBBA (in exile); Gambian People's Party (GPP), Hassan
 Musa CAMARA; United Party (UP), leader NA; People's Democratic
 Organization of Independence and Socialism (PDOIS), leader NA;
 People's Democratic Party (PDP), Jabel SALLAH

 Member of: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD,
 ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT
 (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD,
 UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

 Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission: (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Aminatta DIBBA
 chancery: Suite 1000, 1155 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20005
 telephone: [1] (202) 785-1399, 1379, 1425
 FAX: [1] (202) 785-1430

 US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Andrew J. WINTER
 embassy: Fajara, Kairaba Avenue, Banjul
 mailing address: P. M. B. No. 19, Banjul
 telephone: [220] 392856, 392858, 391970, 391971
 FAX: [220] 392475

 Flag: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), blue with white
 edges, and green

@The Gambia:Economy

 Overview: The Gambia has no important mineral or other natural
 resources and has a limited agricultural base. About 75% of the
 population is engaged in crop production and livestock raising, which
 contribute 30% to GDP. Small-scale manufacturing activity - processing
 peanuts, fish, and hides - accounts for less than 10% of GDP. A
 sustained structural adjustment program, including a liberalized trade
 policy, had fostered a respectable 4% rate of growth in recent years.
 Reexport trade constitutes one-third of economic activity; however,
 border closures associated with Senegal's monetary crisis in late 1993
 led to a halving of reexport trade, reducing government revenues in
 turn. The 50% devaluation of the CFA franc in January 1994 has made
 Senegalese goods more competitive and apparently prompted a relaxation
 of Senegalese controls, paving the way for a comeback in reexports.
 But overwhelming these developments were the devastating effects of
 the military's takeover in July 1994. By October, traffic at the Port
 of Banjul had fallen precipitously as importers nervously scaled back
 their activities with the commencement of the anticorruption drive by
 the new regime. Concerned with the growing potential for serious
 unrest after a countercoup attempt was bloodily put down by the
 regime, the United Kingdom and the EU in November issued a travelers
 advisory for The Gambia, which brought a halt to tourism almost
 immediately. The Gambia faces additional problems in 1995 if, as is
 likely, economic sanctions by Western governments remain in effect in
 response to indications that the military regime intends to stay in
 power far longer than expected by the donors.

 National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $1 billion (1993
 est.)

 National product real growth rate: NA%

 National product per capita: $1,050 (1993 est.)

 Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6.5% (1993)

 Unemployment rate: NA%

 Budget:
 revenues: $94 million
 expenditures: $89 million, including capital expenditures of $24
 million (FY92/93 est.)

 Exports: $81 million (f.o.b., FY92/93 est.)
 commodities: peanuts and peanut products, fish, cotton lint, palm
 kernels
 partners: Japan 60%, Europe 29%, Africa 5%, US 1%, other 5% (1989)

 Imports: $154 million (f.o.b., FY92/93 est.)
 commodities: foodstuffs, manufactures, raw materials, fuel, machinery
 and transport equipment
 partners: Europe 57%, Asia 25%, USSR and Eastern Europe 9%, US 6%,
 other 3% (1989)

 External debt: $286 million (FY92/93 est.)

 Industrial production: growth rate 6.7%

 Electricity:
 capacity: 30,000 kW
 production: 70 million kWh
 consumption per capita: 64 kWh (1993)

 Industries: peanut processing, tourism, beverages, agricultural
 machinery assembly, woodworking, metalworking, clothing

 Agriculture: accounts for 30% of GDP; one-third of food requirements
 is imported; major export crop is peanuts; other principal crops -
 millet, sorghum, rice, corn, cassava, palm kernels; livestock -
 cattle, sheep, goats; forestry and fishing resources not fully
 exploited

 Economic aid:
 recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $93 million;
 Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
 (1970-89), $535 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $39 million

 Currency: 1 dalasi (D) = 100 butut

 Exchange rates: dalasi (D) per US$1 - 9.565 (January 1995), 9.576
 (1994), 9.129 (1993), 8.888 (1992), 8.803 (1991), 7.883 (1990)

 Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

@The Gambia:Transportation

 Railroads: 0 km

 Highways:
 total: 3,083 km
 paved: 431 km
 unpaved: gravel, crushed stone 501 km; unimproved earth 2,151 km

 Inland waterways: 400 km

 Ports: Banjul

 Merchant marine:
 total: 1 bulk ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 11,194 GRT/19,394 DWT

 Airports:
 total: 1
 with paved runways over 3,047 m: 1

@The Gambia:Communications

 Telephone system: 3,500 telephones; telephone density - 4
 telephones/1,000 persons
 local: NA
 intercity: adequate network of radio relay and wire
 international: 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

 Radio:
 broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 2, shortwave 0
 radios: NA

 Television:
 broadcast stations: NA
 televisions: NA

@The Gambia:Defense Forces

 Branches: Army, Navy, National Police

 Manpower availability: males age 15-49 214,680; males fit for military
 service 108,659 (1995 est.)

 Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $14 million, 3.8% of
 GDP (FY93/94)


________________________________________________________________________

GAZA STRIP

 Note--The Israel-PLO Declaration of Principles on Interim
 Self-Government Arrangements ("the DOP"), signed in Washington on 13
 September 1993, provides for a transitional period not exceeding five
 years of Palestinian interim self-government in the Gaza Strip and the
 West Bank. Under the DOP, final status negotiations are to begin no
 later than the beginning of the third year of the transitional period.

@Gaza Strip:Geography

 Location: Middle East, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Egypt
 and Israel

 Map references: Middle East

 Area:
 total area: 360 sq km
 land area: 360 sq km
 comparative area: slightly more than twice the size of Washington, DC

 Land boundaries: total 62 km, Egypt 11 km, Israel 51 km

 Coastline: 40 km

 Maritime claims: Israeli occupied with interim status subject to
 Israeli/Palestinian negotiations - final status to be determined

 International disputes: West Bank and Gaza Strip are Israeli occupied
 with interim status subject to Israeli/Palestinian negotiations -
 final status to be determined

 Climate: temperate, mild winters, dry and warm to hot summers

 Terrain: flat to rolling, sand- and dune-covered coastal plain

 Natural resources: negligible

 Land use:
 arable land: 13%
 permanent crops: 32%
 meadows and pastures: 0%
 forest and woodland: 0%
 other: 55%

 Irrigated land: 115 sq km (1992 est.)

 Environment:
 current issues: desertification
 natural hazards: NA
 international agreements: NA

 Note: there are 24 Jewish settlements and civilian land use sites in
 the Gaza Strip (August 1994 est.)

@Gaza Strip:People

 Population: 813,322 (July 1995 est.)
 note: in addition, there are 4,800 Jewish settlers in the Gaza Strip
 (August 1994 est.)

 Age structure:
 0-14 years: 52% (female 205,192; male 215,158)
 15-64 years: 45% (female 185,748; male 183,886)
 65 years and over: 3% (female 13,106; male 10,232) (July 1995 est.)

 Population growth rate: 4.55% (1995 est.)

 Birth rate: 50.24 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Death rate: 4.75 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Infant mortality rate: 30.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

 Life expectancy at birth:
 total population: 71.09 years
 male: 69.56 years
 female: 72.69 years (1995 est.)

 Total fertility rate: 7.74 children born/woman (1995 est.)

 Nationality:
 noun: NA
 adjective: NA

 Ethnic divisions: Palestinian Arab and other 99.4%, Jewish 0.6%

 Religions: Muslim (predominantly Sunni) 98.7%, Christian 0.7%, Jewish
 0.6%

 Languages: Arabic, Hebrew (spoken by Israeli settlers), English
 (widely understood)

 Literacy: NA%

 Labor force: NA
 by occupation: construction 33.4%, agriculture 20.0%, commerce,
 restaurants, and hotels 14.9%, industry 10.0%, other services 21.7%
 (1991)
 note: excluding Jewish settlers

@Gaza Strip:Government

 Note: Under the Israeli-PLO Declaration of Principles on Interim
 Self-Government Arrangements ("the DOP"), Israel agreed to transfer
 certain powers and responsibilities to the Palestinian Authority, and
 subsequently to an elected Palestinian Council, as part of interim
 self-governing arrangements in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. A
 transfer of powers and responsibilities for the Gaza Strip and Jericho
 has taken place pursuant to the Israel-PLO 4 May 1994 Cairo Agreement
 on the Gaza Strip and the Jericho Area. The DOP provides that Israel
 will retain responsibility during the transitional period for external
 security and for internal security and public order of settlements and
 Israelis. Final status is to be determined through direct negotiations
 within five years.

 Names:
 conventional long form: none
 conventional short form: Gaza Strip
 local long form: none
 local short form: Qita Ghazzah

 Digraph: GZ

@Gaza Strip:Economy

 Overview: In 1991 roughly 40% of Gaza Strip workers were employed
 across the border by Israeli industrial, construction, and
 agricultural enterprises, with worker remittances supplementing GDP by
 roughly 50%. Gaza depends upon Israel for nearly 90% of its external
 trade. Aggravating the impact of Israeli military administration,
 unrest in the territory since 1988 (intifadah) has raised unemployment
 and lowered the standard of living of Gazans. The Persian Gulf crisis
 and its aftershocks also have dealt blows to Gaza since August 1990.
 Worker remittances from the Gulf states have dropped, unemployment has
 increased, and exports have fallen. The withdrawal of Israel from the
 Gaza Strip in May 1994 brings a new set of adjustment problems.

 National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $1.7 billion (1993
 est.)

 National product real growth rate: NA%

 National product per capita: $2,400 (1993 est.)

 Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.7% (1993)

 Unemployment rate: 45% (1994 est.)

 Budget:
 revenues: $33.6 million
 expenditures: $34.5 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
 (FY89/90)

 Exports: $83 million (f.o.b., 1992)
 commodities: citrus
 partners: Israel, Egypt

 Imports: $365 million (c.i.f., 1992)
 commodities: food, consumer goods, construction materials
 partners: Israel, Egypt

 External debt: $NA

 Industrial production: growth rate 11% (1991 est.)

 Electricity: power supplied by Israel

 Industries: generally small family businesses that produce textiles,
 soap, olive-wood carvings, and mother-of-pearl souvenirs; the Israelis
 have established some small-scale modern industries in an industrial
 center

 Agriculture: olives, citrus and other fruits; vegetables; beef and
 dairy products

 Economic aid: $240 million disbursed from international aid pledges in
 1994

 Currency: 1 new Israeli shekel (NIS) = 100 new agorot

 Exchange rates: new Israeli shekels (NIS) per US$1 - 3.0270 (December
 1994), 3.0111 (1994), 2.8301 (1993), 2.4591 (1992), 2.2791 (1991),
 2.0162 (1990)

 Fiscal year: calendar year (since 1 January 1992)

@Gaza Strip:Transportation

 Railroads:
 total: NA km; note - one line, abandoned and in disrepair, little
 trackage remains

 Highways:
 total: NA
 paved: NA
 unpaved: NA
 note: small, poorly developed road network

 Ports: Gaza

 Airports:
 total: 1
 with paved runways under 914 m: 1

@Gaza Strip:Communications

 Telephone system: NA; note - 10% of Palestinian households have
 telephones (1992 est.)
 local: NA
 intercity: NA
 international: NA

 Radio:
 broadcast stations: AM 0, FM 0, shortwave 0
 radios: NA; note - 95% of Palestinian households have radios (1992
 est.)

 Television:
 broadcast stations: 0
 televisions: NA; note - 59% of Palestinian households have televisions
 (1992 est.)

@Gaza Strip:Defense Forces

 Branches: NA

 Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP


________________________________________________________________________

GEORGIA

 Note--Georgia has been beset by ethnic and civil strife since
 independence. In late 1991, the country's first elected president,
 Zviad GAMSAKHURDIA was ousted in an armed coup. In October 1993,
 GAMSAKHURDIA, and his supporters sponsored a failed attempt to retake
 power from the current government led by former Soviet Foreign
 Minister Eduard SHEVARDNADZE. The Georgian government has also faced
 armed separatist conflicts in the Abkhazia and South Ossetia regions.
 A cease-fire went into effect in South Ossetia in June 1992 and a
 joint Georgian-Ossetian-Russian peacekeeping force has been in place
 since that time. Georgian forces were driven out of the Abkhaz region
 in September 1993 after a yearlong war with Abkhaz separatists. Nearly
 200,000 Georgian refugees have since fled Abkhazia, adding
 substantially to the estimated 100,000 internally displaced persons
 already in Georgia. Russian peacekeepers are deployed along the border
 of Abkhazia and the rest of Georgia. 

@Georgia:Geography

 Location: Southwestern Asia, bordering the Black Sea, between Turkey
 and Russia

 Map references: Middle East

 Area:
 total area: 69,700 sq km
 land area: 69,700 sq km
 comparative area: slightly larger than South Carolina

 Land boundaries: total 1,461 km, Armenia 164 km, Azerbaijan 322 km,
 Russia 723 km, Turkey 252 km

 Coastline: 310 km

 Maritime claims: NA

 International disputes: none

 Climate: warm and pleasant; Mediterranean-like on Black Sea coast

 Terrain: largely mountainous with Great Caucasus Mountains in the
 north and Lesser Caucasus Mountains in the south; Kolkhida Lowland
 opens to the Black Sea in the west; Mtkvari River Basin in the east;
 good soils in river valley flood plains, foothills of Kolkhida Lowland

 Natural resources: forest lands, hydropower, manganese deposits, iron
 ores, copper, minor coal and oil deposits; coastal climate and soils
 allow for important tea and citrus growth

 Land use:
 arable land: 11%
 permanent crops: 4%
 meadows and pastures: 29%
 forest and woodland: 38%
 other: 18%

 Irrigated land: 4,660 sq km (1990)

 Environment:
 current issues: air pollution, particularly in Rust'avi; heavy
 pollution of Mtkvari River and the Black Sea; inadequate supplies of
 potable water; soil pollution from toxic chemicals
 natural hazards: NA
 international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
 Ship Pollution; signed, but not ratified - Desertification

@Georgia:People

 Population: 5,725,972 (July 1995 est.)

 Age structure:
 0-14 years: 24% (female 674,331; male 707,355)
 15-64 years: 64% (female 1,894,681; male 1,791,847)
 65 years and over: 12% (female 410,703; male 247,055) (July 1995 est.)

 Population growth rate: 0.77% (1995 est.)

 Birth rate: 15.77 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Death rate: 8.73 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Net migration rate: 0.66 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Infant mortality rate: 22.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

 Life expectancy at birth:
 total population: 73.1 years
 male: 69.43 years
 female: 76.95 years (1995 est.)

 Total fertility rate: 2.16 children born/woman (1995 est.)

 Nationality:
 noun: Georgian(s)
 adjective: Georgian

 Ethnic divisions: Georgian 70.1%, Armenian 8.1%, Russian 6.3%, Azeri
 5.7%, Ossetian 3%, Abkhaz 1.8%, other 5%

 Religions: Georgian Orthodox 65%, Russian Orthodox 10%, Muslim 11%,
 Armenian Orthodox 8%, unknown 6%

 Languages: Armenian 7%, Azeri 6%, Georgian 71% (official), Russian 9%,
 other 7%

 Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1989)
 total population: 99%
 male: 100%
 female: 98%

 Labor force: 2.763 million
 by occupation: industry and construction 31%, agriculture and forestry
 25%, other 44% (1990)

@Georgia:Government

 Names:
 conventional long form: Republic of Georgia
 conventional short form: Georgia
 local long form: Sak'art'velos Respublika
 local short form: Sak'art'velo
 former: Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic

 Digraph: GG

 Type: republic

 Capital: T'bilisi

 Administrative divisions: 2 autonomous republics (avtomnoy respubliki,
 singular - avtom respublika); Abkhazia (Sokhumi), Ajaria (Bat'umi)
 note: the administrative centers of the autonomous republics are
 included in parentheses; there are no oblasts - the rayons around
 T'bilisi are under direct republic jurisdiction

 Independence: 9 April 1991 (from Soviet Union)

 National holiday: Independence Day, 26 May (1991)

 Constitution: adopted 21 February 1921; currently amending
 constitution for Parliamentary and popular review by late 1995

 Legal system: based on civil law system

 Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

 Executive branch:
 chief of state: Chairman of Parliament Eduard Amvrosiyevich
 SHEVARDNADZE (Chairman of the Government Council since 10 March 1992;
 elected Chairman of Parliament in 11 October 1992; note - the
 Government Council has since been disbanded); election last held 11
 October 1992 (next to be held October 1995); results - Eduard
 SHEVARDNADZE 95%
 head of government: Prime Minister Otar PATSATSIA (since September
 1993); Deputy Prime Ministers Avtandil MARGIANI, Zurab KERVALISHVILI
 (since 25 November 1992), Tamaz NADAREISHVILI (since September 1993),
 Temur BASILIA (since 17 March 1994), Bakur GULA (since NA)
 cabinet: Council of Ministers

 Legislative branch: unicameral
 Georgian Parliament (Supreme Soviet): elections last held 11 October
 1992 (next to be held October 1995); results - percent of vote by
 party NA; seats - (225 total) number of seats by party NA

 Judicial branch: Supreme Court

 Political parties and leaders: Citizens Union (CU), Eduard
 SHEVARDNADZE, Zurab SHVANIA, general secretary; National Democratic
 Party (NDP), Georgi (Gia) CHANTURIA, Ivane GIORGADZE; United
 Republican Party, umbrella organization for parties including the GPF
 and the Charter 1991 Party, cochairmen Bakhtand DZABIRADZE, Notar
 NATADZE, and Theodor PAATASHVILI; Georgian Popular Front (GPF), Nodar
 NATADZE, chairman; Charter 1991 Party, Thedor PAATASHVILI; Georgian
 Social Democratic Party (GSDP), Guram MUCHAIDZE, secretary general;
 National Reconstruction and Rebirth of Georgia Union, Valerian
 ADVADZE; Christian Democratic Union (CDU), Irakli SHENGELAYA;
 Democratic Georgia Union (DGU), El'dar SHENGELAYA; National
 Independence Party (NIP), Irakliy TSERETELI, chairman; Georgian
 Monarchists' Party (GMP), Temur ZHORZHOLIANI; Green Party, Zurab
 ZHVANIA; Republican Party (RP), Ivliane KHAINDRAVA; Workers' Union of
 Georgia (WUG), Vakhtang GABUNIA; Agrarian Party of Georgia (APG), Roin
 LIPARTELIANI; Choice Society (Archevani), Jaba IOSELIANI, chairman;
 Georgian Workers Communist Party, Panteleimon GIORGADZE, chairman;
 National Liberation Front, Tengiz SIGULA, chairman

 Other political or pressure groups: supporters of ousted President
 Zviad GAMSAKHURDIA (deceased 1 January 1994) boycotted the October
 elections and remain a source of opposition

 Member of: BSEC, CCC, CIS, EBRD, ECE, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, ILO, IMF, IMO,
 INMARSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, NACC, OSCE, PFP, UN,
 UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

 Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Tedo JAPARIDZE
 chancery: (temporary) Suite 424, 1511 K Street NW, Washington, DC
 20005
 telephone: [1] (202) 393-6060, 5959

 US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Kent N. BROWN
 embassy: #25 Antoneli Street, T'bilisi 380026
 mailing address: use embassy street address
 telephone: [7] (8832) 98-99-67, 93-38-03
 FAX: [7] (8832) 93-37-59

 Flag: maroon field with small rectangle in upper hoist side corner;
 rectangle divided horizontally with black on top, white below

@Georgia:Economy

 Overview: Georgia's economy has traditionally revolved around Black
 Sea tourism; cultivation of citrus fruits, tea, and grapes; mining of
 manganese and copper; and a small industrial sector producing wine,
 metals, machinery, chemicals, and textiles. The country imports the
 bulk of its energy needs, including natural gas and oil products. Its
 only sizable domestic energy resource is hydropower. Since 1990,
 widespread conflicts, e.g., in Abkhazia, South Ossetia, and
 Mingreliya, have severely aggravated the economic crisis resulting
 from the disintegration of the Soviet command economy in December
 1991. Throughout 1993 and 1994, much of industry was functioning at
 only 20% of capacity; heavy disruptions in agricultural cultivation
 were reported; and tourism was shut down. The country is precariously
 dependent on US and EU humanitarian grain shipments, as most other
 foods are priced beyond reach of the average citizen. Georgia is also
 suffering from an acute energy crisis, as it is having problems paying
 for even minimal imports. Georgia is pinning its hopes for recovery on
 reestablishing trade ties with Russia and on developing international
 transportation through the key Black Sea ports of P'ot'i and Bat'umi.
 The government began a tenuous program in 1994 aiming to stabilize
 prices and reduce large consumer subsidies.

 National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $6 billion (1994
 estimate as extrapolated from World Bank estimate for 1992)

 National product real growth rate: -30% (1994 est.)

 National product per capita: $1,060 (1994 est.)

 Inflation rate (consumer prices): 40.5% per month (2nd half 1993 est.)

 Unemployment rate: officially less than 5% but real unemployment may
 be more than 20%, with even larger numbers of underemployed workers

 Budget:
 revenues: $NA
 expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

 Exports: $NA
 commodities: citrus fruits, tea, wine, other agricultural products;
 diverse types of machinery; ferrous and nonferrous metals; textiles;
 chemicals; fuel re-exports
 partners: Russia, Turkey, Armenia, Azerbaijan (1992)

 Imports: $NA
 commodities: fuel, grain and other foods, machinery and parts,
 transport equipment
 partners: Russia, Azerbaijan, Turkey (1993); note - EU and US sent
 humanitarian food shipments

 External debt: NA (T'bilisi owes about $400 million to Turkmenistan
 for natural gas as of January 1995)

 Industrial production: growth rate -27% (1993); accounts for 36% of
 GDP

 Electricity:
 capacity: 4,410,000 kW
 production: 9.1 billion kWh
 consumption per capita: 1,526 kWh (1993)

 Industries: heavy industrial products include raw steel, rolled steel,
 airplanes; machine tools, foundry equipment, electric locomotives,
 tower cranes, electric welding equipment, machinery for food
 preparation and meat packing, electric motors, process control
 equipment, instruments; trucks, tractors, and other farm machinery;
 light industrial products, including cloth, hosiery, and shoes;
 chemicals; wood-working industries; the most important food industry
 is wine

 Agriculture: accounted for 97% of former USSR citrus fruits and 93% of
 former USSR tea; important producer of grapes; also cultivates
 vegetables and potatoes; dependent on imports for grain, dairy
 products, sugar; small livestock sector

 Illicit drugs: illicit cultivator of cannabis and opium poppy; mostly
 for domestic consumption; used as transshipment point for illicit
 drugs to Western Europe

 Economic aid:
 recipient: heavily dependent on US and EU for humanitarian grain
 shipments; EC granted around $70 million in trade credits in 1992 and
 another $40 million in 1993; Turkey granted $50 million in 1993;
 smaller scale credits granted by Russia and China

 Currency: coupons introduced in April 1993 to be followed by
 introduction of the lari at undetermined future date; in July 1993 use
 of the Russian ruble was banned

 Exchange rates: coupons per $US1 - 1,280,000 (end December 1994)

 Fiscal year: calendar year

@Georgia:Transportation

 Railroads:
 total: 1,570 km in common carrier service; does not include industrial
 lines
 broad gauge: 1,570 km 1.520-m gauge (1990)

 Highways:
 total: 33,900 km
 paved and graveled: 29,500 km
 unpaved: earth 4,400 km (1990)

 Pipelines: crude oil 370 km; refined products 300 km; natural gas 440
 km (1992)

 Ports: Bat'umi, P'ot'i, Sokhumi

 Merchant marine:
 total: 32 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 419,416 GRT/640,897 DWT
 ships by type: bulk 11, cargo 1, oil tanker 19, short-sea passenger 1

 Airports:
 total: 28
 with paved runways over 3,047 m: 1
 with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
 with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
 with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 1
 with paved runways under 914 m: 1
 with unpaved runways over 3,047 m: 1
 with unpaved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
 with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 1
 with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 5
 with unpaved runways under 914 m: 6

 Note: transportation network is in poor condition and disrupted by
 ethnic conflict, criminal activities, and fuel shortages; network
 lacks maintenance and repair

@Georgia:Communications

 Telephone system: 672,000 telephones (mid-1993); 117 telephones/1,000
 persons; poor telephone service; 339,000 unsatisfied applications for
 telephones (December 1990)
 local: NA
 intercity: NA
 international: links via landline to CIS members and Turkey;
 low-capacity satellite link and leased international connections via
 the Moscow international gateway switch with other countries;
 international electronic mail and telex service available

 Radio:
 broadcast stations: AM NA, FM NA, shortwave NA
 radios: NA

 Television:
 broadcast stations: NA
 televisions: NA

@Georgia:Defense Forces

 Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Interior Ministry Troops, Border
 Guards/National Guard

 Manpower availability: males age 15-49 1,385,593; males fit for
 military service 1,095,835; males reach military age (18) annually
 42,207 (1995 est.)

 Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $85 million, NA% of
 GDP (1992)

 Note: Georgian forces are poorly organized and not fully under the
 government's control


________________________________________________________________________

GERMANY

@Germany:Geography

 Location: Central Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and the North Sea,
 between the Netherlands and Poland, south of Denmark

 Map references: Europe

 Area:
 total area: 356,910 sq km
 land area: 349,520 sq km
 comparative area: slightly smaller than Montana
 note: includes the formerly separate Federal Republic of Germany, the
 German Democratic Republic, and Berlin following formal unification on
 3 October 1990

 Land boundaries: total 3,621 km, Austria 784 km, Belgium 167 km, Czech
 Republic 646 km, Denmark 68 km, France 451 km, Luxembourg 138 km,
 Netherlands 577 km, Poland 456 km, Switzerland 334 km

 Coastline: 2,389 km

 Maritime claims:
 continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
 exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
 territorial sea: 12 nm

 International disputes: none

 Climate: temperate and marine; cool, cloudy, wet winters and summers;
 occasional warm, tropical foehn wind; high relative humidity

 Terrain: lowlands in north, uplands in center, Bavarian Alps in south

 Natural resources: iron ore, coal, potash, timber, lignite, uranium,
 copper, natural gas, salt, nickel

 Land use:
 arable land: 34%
 permanent crops: 1%
 meadows and pastures: 16%
 forest and woodland: 30%
 other: 19%

 Irrigated land: 4,800 sq km (1989 est.)

 Environment:
 current issues: emissions from coal-burning utilities and industries
 and lead emissions from vehicle exhausts (the result of continued use
 of leaded fuels) contribute to air pollution; acid rain, resulting
 from sulfur dioxide emissions, is damaging forests; heavy pollution in
 the Baltic Sea from raw sewage and industrial effluents from rivers in
 eastern Germany
 natural hazards: NA
 international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Air
 Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air
 Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental
 Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered
 Species, Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping,
 Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical
 Timber 83, Wetlands, Whaling; signed, but not ratified - Air
 Pollution-Sulphur 94, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes

 Note: strategic location on North European Plain and along the
 entrance to the Baltic Sea

@Germany:People

 Population: 81,337,541 (July 1995 est.)

 Age structure:
 0-14 years: 16% (female 6,518,108; male 6,857,577)
 15-64 years: 68% (female 27,167,824; male 28,130,083)
 65 years and over: 16% (female 8,127,938; male 4,536,011) (July 1995
 est.)

 Population growth rate: 0.26% (1995 est.)

 Birth rate: 10.98 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Death rate: 10.83 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Net migration rate: 2.46 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Infant mortality rate: 6.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

 Life expectancy at birth:
 total population: 76.62 years
 male: 73.5 years
 female: 79.92 years (1995 est.)

 Total fertility rate: 1.5 children born/woman (1995 est.)

 Nationality:
 noun: German(s)
 adjective: German

 Ethnic divisions: German 95.1%, Turkish 2.3%, Italians 0.7%, Greeks
 0.4%, Poles 0.4%, other 1.1% (made up largely of people fleeing the
 war in the former Yugoslavia)

 Religions: Protestant 45%, Roman Catholic 37%, unaffiliated or other
 18%

 Languages: German

 Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1991 est.)
 total population: 99%

 Labor force: 36.75 million
 by occupation: industry 41%, agriculture 6%, other 53% (1987)

@Germany:Government

 Names:
 conventional long form: Federal Republic of Germany
 conventional short form: Germany
 local long form: Bundesrepublik Deutschland
 local short form: Deutschland

 Digraph: GM

 Type: federal republic

 Capital: Berlin
 note: the shift from Bonn to Berlin will take place over a period of
 years with Bonn retaining many administrative functions and several
 ministries

 Administrative divisions: 16 states (laender, singular - land);
 Baden-Wuerttemberg, Bayern, Berlin, Brandenburg, Bremen, Hamburg,
 Hessen, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Niedersachsen, Nordrhein-Westfalen,
 Rheinland-Pfalz, Saarland, Sachsen, Sachsen-Anhalt,
 Schleswig-Holstein, Thueringen

 Independence: 18 January 1871 (German Empire unification); divided
 into four zones of occupation (UK, US, USSR, and later, France) in
 1945 following World War II; Federal Republic of Germany (FRG or West
 Germany) proclaimed 23 May 1949 and included the former UK, US, and
 French zones; German Democratic Republic (GDR or East Germany)
 proclaimed 7 October 1949 and included the former USSR zone;
 unification of West Germany and East Germany took place 3 October
 1990; all four power rights formally relinquished 15 March 1991

 National holiday: German Unity Day (Day of Unity), 3 October (1990)

 Constitution: 23 May 1949, known as Basic Law; became constitution of
 the united German people 3 October 1990

 Legal system: civil law system with indigenous concepts; judicial
 review of legislative acts in the Federal Constitutional Court; has
 not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

 Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

 Executive branch:
 chief of state: President Roman HERZOG (since 1 July 1994)
 head of government: Chancellor Dr. Helmut KOHL (since 4 October 1982)
 cabinet: Cabinet; appointed by the president upon the proposal of the
 chancellor

 Legislative branch: bicameral chamber (no official name for the two
 chambers as a whole)
 Federal Assembly (Bundestag): last held 16 October 1994 (next to be
 held by NA 1998); results - CDU 34.2%, SPD 36.4%, Alliance 90/Greens
 7.3%, CSU 7.3%, FDP 6.9%, PDS 4.4%, Republicans 1.9% ; seats - (662
 total, but number can vary) CDU 244, SPD 252, Alliance 90/Greens 49,
 CSU 50, FDP 47, PDS 30; elected by direct popular vote under a system
 combining direct and proportional representation; a party must win 5%
 of the national vote or 3 direct mandates to gain representation
 Federal Council (Bundesrat): State governments are directly
 represented by votes; each has 3 to 6 votes depending on size and are
 required to vote as a block; current composition: votes - (68 total)
 SPD-led states 37, CDU-led states 31

 Judicial branch: Federal Constitutional Court
 (Bundesverfassungsgericht)

 Political parties and leaders: Christian Democratic Union (CDU),
 Helmut KOHL, chairman; Christian Social Union (CSU), Theo WAIGEL,
 chairman; Free Democratic Party (FDP), Klaus KINKEL, chairman; Social
 Democratic Party (SPD), Rudolf SCHARPING, chairman; Alliance
 '90/Greens, Krista SAGER, Juergen TRITTIN, cochairpersons; Party of
 Democratic Socialism (PDS), Lothar BISKY, chairman; Republikaner, Rolf
 SCHLIERER, chairman; National Democratic Party (NPD), Guenter DECKERT;
 Communist Party (DKP), Rolf PRIEMER

 Other political or pressure groups: expellee, refugee, and veterans
 groups

 Member of: AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, Australia Group, BDEAC, BIS,
 CBSS, CCC, CDB (non-regional), CE, CERN, EBRD, EC, ECE, EIB, ESA, FAO,
 G- 5, G- 7, G-10, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA,
 IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL,
 IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, MTCR, NACC, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG,
 OAS (observer), OECD, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO,
 UNITAR, UNOMIG, UPU, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

 Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Juergen CHROBOG
 chancery: 4645 Reservoir Road NW, Washington, DC 20007
 telephone: [1] (202) 298-4000
 FAX: [1] (202) 298-4249
 consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Detroit, Houston, Los
 Angeles, Miami, New York, San Francisco, Seattle
 consulate(s): Manila (Trust Territories of the Pacific Islands) and
 Wellington (America Samoa)

 US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Charles E. REDMAN
 embassy: Deichmanns Aue 29, 53170 Bonn
 mailing address: Unit 21701, Bonn; APO AE 09080
 telephone: [49] (228) 3391
 FAX: [49] (228) 339-2663
 branch office: Berlin
 consulate(s) general: Frankfurt, Hamburg, Leipzig, Munich, and
 Stuttgart

 Flag: three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and yellow

@Germany:Economy

 Overview: Five years after the fall of the Berlin Wall, progress
 towards economic integration between eastern and western Germany is
 clearly visible, yet the eastern region almost certainly will remain
 dependent on subsidies funded by western Germany until well into the
 next century. The staggering $390 billion in western German assistance
 that the eastern states have received since 1990 - 40 times the amount
 in real terms of US Marshall Fund aid sent to West Germany after World
 War II - is just beginning to have an impact on the eastern German
 standard of living, which plummeted after unification. Assistance to
 the east continues to run at roughly $100 billion annually. Although
 the growth rate in the east was much greater than in the west in
 1993-94, eastern GDP per capita nonetheless remains well below
 preunification levels; it will take 10-15 years for the eastern states
 to match western Germany's living standards. The economic recovery in
 the east is led by the construction industries which account for
 one-third of industrial output, with growth increasingly supported by
 the service sectors and light manufacturing industries. Eastern
 Germany's economy is changing from one anchored on manufacturing to a
 more service-oriented economy. Western Germany, with three times the
 per capita output of the eastern states, has an advanced market
 economy and is a world leader in exports. The strong recovery in 1994
 from recession began in the export sector and spread to the investment
 and consumption sectors in response to falling interest rates. Western
 Germany has a highly urbanized and skilled population that enjoys
 excellent living standards, abundant leisure time, and comprehensive
 social welfare benefits. It is relatively poor in natural resources,
 coal being the most important mineral. Western Germany's world-class
 companies manufacture technologically advanced goods. The region's
 economy is mature: services and manufacturing account for the dominant
 share of economic activities, and raw materials and semimanufactured
 goods constitute a large portion of imports.

 National product:
 Germany: GDP - purchasing power parity - $1.3446 trillion (1994 est.)
 western: GDP - purchasing power parity - $1.2363 trillion (1994 est.)
 eastern: GDP - purchasing power parity - $108.3 billion (1994 est.)

 National product real growth rate:
 Germany: 2.9% (1994 est.)
 western: 2.3% (1994 est.)
 eastern: 9.2% (1994 est.)

 National product per capita:
 Germany: $16,580 (1994 est.)
 western: $19,660 (1994 est.)
 eastern: $5,950 (1994 est.)

 Inflation rate (consumer prices):
 western: 3% (1994)
 eastern: 3.2% (1994 est.)

 Unemployment rate:
 western: 8.2% (December 1994)
 eastern: 13.5% (December 1994)

 Budget:
 revenues: $690 billion
 expenditures: $780 billion, including capital expenditures of $96.5
 billion (1994)

 Exports: $437 billion (f.o.b., 1994)
 commodities: manufactures 89.3% (including machines and machine tools,
 chemicals, motor vehicles, iron and steel products), agricultural
 products 5.5%, raw materials 2.7%, fuels 1.3% (1993)
 partners: EC 47.9% (France 11.7%, Netherlands 7.4%, Italy 7.5%, UK
 7.7%, Belgium-Luxembourg 6.6%), EFTA 15.5%, US 7.7%, Eastern Europe
 5.2%, OPEC 3.0% (1993)

 Imports: $362 billion (f.o.b., 1994)
 commodities: manufactures 75.1%, agricultural products 10.0%, fuels
 8.3%, raw materials 5.0% (1993)
 partners: EC 46.4% (France 11.3%, Netherlands 8.4%, Italy 8.1%, UK
 6.0%, Belgium-Luxembourg 5.7%), EFTA 14.3%, US 7.3%, Japan 6.3%,
 Eastern Europe 5.1%, OPEC 2.6% (1993)

 External debt: $NA

 Industrial production:
 western: growth rate 2.8% (1994)
 eastern: growth rate $NA

 Electricity:
 capacity: 115,430,000 kW
 production: 493 billion kWh
 consumption per capita: 5,683 kWh (1993)

 Industries:
 western: among world's largest and technologically advanced producers
 of iron, steel, coal, cement, chemicals, machinery, vehicles, machine
 tools, electronics; food and beverages
 eastern: metal fabrication, chemicals, brown coal, shipbuilding,
 machine building, food and beverages, textiles, petroleum refining

 Agriculture:
 western: accounts for about 1% of GDP (including fishing and
 forestry); diversified crop and livestock farming; principal crops and
 livestock include potatoes, wheat, barley, sugar beets, fruit,
 cabbage, cattle, pigs, poultry; net importer of food
 eastern: accounts for about 10% of GDP (including fishing and
 forestry); principal crops - wheat, rye, barley, potatoes, sugar
 beets, fruit; livestock products include pork, beef, chicken, milk,
 hides and skins; net importer of food

 Illicit drugs: source of precursor chemicals for South American
 cocaine processors; transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and
 Latin American cocaine for West European markets

 Economic aid:
 western-donor: ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $75.5 billion
 eastern-donor: bilateral to non-Communist less developed countries
 (1956-89) $4 billion

 Currency: 1 deutsche mark (DM) = 100 pfennige

 Exchange rates: deutsche marks (DM) per US$1 - 1.5313 (January 1995),
 1.6228 (1994), 1.6533 (1993), 1.5617 (1992), 1.6595 (1991), 1.6157
 (1990)

 Fiscal year: calendar year

@Germany:Transportation

 Railroads:
 total: 43,457 km
 standard gauge: 43,190 km (electrified 16,694 km)
 narrow gauge: 267 km (1994)

 Highways:
 total: 636,282 km
 paved: 501,282 km (10,955 km of autobahn)
 unpaved: 135,000 km (1991)

 Inland waterways:
 western: 5,222 km, of which almost 70% are usable by craft of
 1,000-metric-ton capacity or larger; major rivers include the Rhine
 and Elbe; Kiel Canal is an important connection between the Baltic Sea
 and North Sea
 eastern: 2,319 km (1988)

 Pipelines: crude oil 3,644 km; petroleum products 3,946 km; natural
 gas 97,564 km (1988)

 Ports: Berlin, Bonn, Brake, Bremen, Bremerhaven, Cologne, Dresden,
 Duisburg, Emden, Hamburg, Karlsruhe, Kiel, Lubeck, Magdeburg,
 Mannheim, Rostock, Stuttgart

 Merchant marine:
 total: 481 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,065,074 GRT/6,409,198
 DWT
 ships by type: barge carrier 6, bulk 8, cargo 224, chemical tanker 16,
 combination bulk 4, combination ore/oil 5, container 158, liquefied
 gas tanker 13, oil tanker 10, passenger 3, railcar carrier 4,
 refrigerated cargo 7, roll-on/roll-off cargo 18, short-sea passenger 5

 note: the German register includes ships of the former East and West
 Germany

 Airports:
 total: 660
 with paved runways over 3,047 m: 13
 with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 64
 with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 68
 with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 53
 with paved runways under 914 m: 381
 with unpaved runways over 3,047 m: 2
 with unpaved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
 with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 9
 with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 62

@Germany:Communications

 Telephone system:
 western: 40,300,000 telephones; highly developed, modern
 telecommunication service to all parts of the country; fully adequate
 in all respects; intensively developed, highly redundant cable and
 microwave radio relay networks, all completely automatic
 local: very modern
 intercity: domestic satellite, microwave radio relay, and cable
 systems
 international: 12 INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean), 2 INTELSAT (Indian
 Ocean), and 1 EUTELSAT earth station; 2 HF radiocommunication centers;
 tropospheric scatter links
 eastern: 3,970,000 telephones; badly needs modernization
 local: NA
 intercity: NA
 international: 1 INTELSAT earth station and 1 Intersputnik system

 Radio:
 western: NA
 broadcast stations: AM 80, FM 470, shortwave 0
 radios: NA
 eastern: NA
 broadcast stations: AM 23, FM 17, shortwave 0
 radios: 67 million

 Television:
 broadcast stations: 246 (repeaters 6,000); note - there are 15 Russian
 repeaters in eastern Germany
 televisions: 25 million in western Germany, 6 million in eastern
 Germany

@Germany:Defense Forces

 Branches: Army, Navy (includes Naval Air Arm), Air Force, Border
 Police, Coast Guard

 Manpower availability: males 15-49 20,274,127; males fit for military
 service 17,472,940; males reach military age (18) annually 428,082
 (1995 est.)

 Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $40 billion, 1.8% of
 GNP (1995)


________________________________________________________________________

GHANA

@Ghana:Geography

 Location: Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between
 Cote d'Ivoire and Togo

 Map references: Africa

 Area:
 total area: 238,540 sq km
 land area: 230,020 sq km
 comparative area: slightly smaller than Oregon

 Land boundaries: total 2,093 km, Burkina 548 km, Cote d'Ivoire 668 km,
 Togo 877 km

 Coastline: 539 km

 Maritime claims:
 contiguous zone: 24 nm
 continental shelf: 200 nm
 exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
 territorial sea: 12 nm

 International disputes: none

 Climate: tropical; warm and comparatively dry along southeast coast;
 hot and humid in southwest; hot and dry in north

 Terrain: mostly low plains with dissected plateau in south-central
 area

 Natural resources: gold, timber, industrial diamonds, bauxite,
 manganese, fish, rubber

 Land use:
 arable land: 5%
 permanent crops: 7%
 meadows and pastures: 15%
 forest and woodland: 37%
 other: 36%

 Irrigated land: 80 sq km (1989)

 Environment:
 current issues: recent drought in north severely affecting
 agricultural activities; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion;
 poaching and habitat destruction threatens wildlife populations; water
 pollution; inadequate supplies of potable water
 natural hazards: dry, dusty, harmattan winds occur from January to
 March; droughts
 international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Endangered Species,
 Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone
 Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands;
 signed, but not ratified - Climate Change, Desertification, Marine
 Life Conservation

 Note: Lake Volta is the world's largest artificial lake; northeasterly
 harmattan wind (January to March)

@Ghana:People

 Population: 17,763,138 (July 1995 est.)

 Age structure:
 0-14 years: 46% (female 4,030,154; male 4,069,945)
 15-64 years: 51% (female 4,638,451; male 4,494,533)
 65 years and over: 3% (female 276,186; male 253,869) (July 1995 est.)

 Population growth rate: 3.06% (1995 est.)

 Birth rate: 43.57 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Death rate: 12.02 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Net migration rate: -0.94 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Infant mortality rate: 81.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

 Life expectancy at birth:
 total population: 55.85 years
 male: 53.88 years
 female: 57.88 years (1995 est.)

 Total fertility rate: 6.09 children born/woman (1995 est.)

 Nationality:
 noun: Ghanaian(s)
 adjective: Ghanaian

 Ethnic divisions: black African 99.8% (major tribes - Akan 44%,
 Moshi-Dagomba 16%, Ewe 13%, Ga 8%), European and other 0.2%

 Religions: indigenous beliefs 38%, Muslim 30%, Christian 24%, other 8%

 Languages: English (official), African languages (including Akan,
 Moshi-Dagomba, Ewe, and Ga)

 Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
 total population: 60%
 male: 70%
 female: 51%

 Labor force: 3.7 million
 by occupation: agriculture and fishing 54.7%, industry 18.7%, sales
 and clerical 15.2%, services, transportation, and communications 7.7%,
 professional 3.7%

@Ghana:Government

 Names:
 conventional long form: Republic of Ghana
 conventional short form: Ghana
 former: Gold Coast

 Digraph: GH

 Type: constitutional democracy

 Capital: Accra

 Administrative divisions: 10 regions; Ashanti, Brong-Ahafo, Central,
 Eastern, Greater Accra, Northern, Upper East, Upper West, Volta,
 Western

 Independence: 6 March 1957 (from UK)

 National holiday: Independence Day, 6 March (1957)

 Constitution: new constitution approved 28 April 1992

 Legal system: based on English common law and customary law; has not
 accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

 Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

 Executive branch:
 chief of state and head of government: President Jerry John RAWLINGS
 (since 3 November 1992) election last held 3 November 1992 (next to be
 held November 1996); results - opposition boycotted the election, the
 National Democratic Congress won 198 of the total 200 seats and 2
 seats were won by independents
 cabinet: Cabinet; president nominates members subject to approval by
 the Parliament

 Legislative branch: unicameral
 National Assembly: elections last held 29 December 1992 (next to be
 held December 1996); results - opposition boycotted the election; the
 National Democratic Congress won 198 0f 200 total seats and
 independents won 2

 Judicial branch: Supreme Court

 Political parties and leaders: National Democratic Congress, Jerry
 John RAWLINGS; New Patriotic Party, Albert Adu BOAHEN; People's
 Heritage Party, Alex ERSKINE; various other smaller parties

 Member of: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-24, G-77, GATT,
 IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO,
 INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, MINURSO, NAM, OAU, UN,
 UNAMIR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIKOM, UNPROFOR, UNU, UPU,
 WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

 Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Ekwow SPIO-GARBRAH
 chancery: 3512 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
 telephone: [1] (202) 686-4520
 FAX: [1] (202) 686-4527
 consulate(s) general: New York

 US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Kenneth L. BROWN (scheduled to leave in
 June 1995)
 embassy: Ring Road East, East of Danquah Circle, Accra
 mailing address: P. O. Box 194, Accra
 telephone: [233] (21) 775348, 775349, 775297, 775298
 FAX: [233] (21) 776008

 Flag: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), yellow, and green
 with a large black five-pointed star centered in the gold band; uses
 the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia; similar to the flag of
 Bolivia, which has a coat of arms centered in the yellow band

@Ghana:Economy

 Overview: Well endowed with natural resources, Ghana is relatively
 well off, having twice the per capita output of the poorer countries
 in West Africa. Heavily reliant on international assistance, Ghana has
 made steady progress in liberalizing its economy since 1983. Overall
 growth continued at a rate of approximately 5% in 1994, due largely to
 increased gold, timber, and cocoa production - major sources of
 foreign exchange. The economy, however, continues to revolve around
 subsistence agriculture, which accounts for 45% of GDP and employs 55%
 of the work force, mainly small landholders. Public sector wage
 increases, regional peacekeeping commitments, and the containment of
 internal unrest in the underdeveloped north have placed substantial
 demands on the government's budget and have led to inflationary
 deficit financing and a 27% depreciation of the cedi in 1994.

 National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $22.6 billion (1994
 est.)

 National product real growth rate: 5% (1994 est.)

 National product per capita: $1,310 (1994 est.)

 Inflation rate (consumer prices): 25% (1993 est.)

 Unemployment rate: 10% (1991)

 Budget:
 revenues: $1.05 billion
 expenditures: $1.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $178
 million (1993)

 Exports: $1 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
 commodities: cocoa 40%, gold, timber, tuna, bauxite, and aluminum
 partners: Germany 31%, US 12%, UK 11%, Netherlands 6%, Japan 5% (1991)

 Imports: $1.7 billion (c.i.f., 1993 est.)
 commodities: petroleum 16%, consumer goods, foods, intermediate goods,
 capital equipment
 partners: UK 22%, US 11%, Germany 9%, Japan 6%

 External debt: $4.6 billion (December 1993 est.)

 Industrial production: growth rate 3.4% in manufacturing (1993);
 accounts for almost 15% of GDP

 Electricity:
 capacity: 1,180,000 kW
 production: 6.1 billion kWh
 consumption per capita: 323 kWh (1993)

 Industries: mining, lumbering, light manufacturing, aluminum, food
 processing

 Agriculture: accounts for almost 50% of GDP (including fishing and
 forestry); the major cash crop is cocoa; other principal crops - rice,
 coffee, cassava, peanuts, corn, shea nuts, timber; normally
 self-sufficient in food

 Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis for the international drug
 trade; transit hub for Southwest and Southeast Asian heroin destined
 for Europe and the US

 Economic aid:
 recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $455 million;
 Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
 (1970-89), $2.6 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $78 million;
 Communist countries (1970-89) $106 million

 Currency: 1 new cedi (C) = 100 pesewas

 Exchange rates: new cedis per US$1 - 1,046.74 (December 1994), 936.71
 (1994), 649.06 (1993), 437.09 (1992), 367.83 (1991), 326.33 (1990)

 Fiscal year: calendar year

@Ghana:Transportation

 Railroads:
 total: 953 km; note - undergoing major renovation
 narrow gauge: 953 km 1.067-m gauge (32 km double track)

 Highways:
 total: 32,250 km
 paved: concrete, bituminous 6,084 km
 unpaved: gravel, crushed stone, improved earth 26,166 km

 Inland waterways: Volta, Ankobra, and Tano Rivers provide 168 km of
 perennial navigation for launches and lighters; Lake Volta provides
 1,125 km of arterial and feeder waterways

 Pipelines: none

 Ports: Takoradi, Tema

 Merchant marine:
 total: 3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 27,427 GRT/35,894 DWT
 ships by type: cargo 2, refrigerated cargo 1

 Airports:
 total: 12
 with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
 with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
 with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 2
 with paved runways under 914 m: 2
 with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 2
 with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 2

@Ghana:Communications

 Telephone system: 42,300 telephones; poor to fair system; telephone
 density - 2.4/1,000 persons
 local: NA
 intercity: primarily microwave radio relay
 international: 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

 Radio:
 broadcast stations: AM 4, FM 1, shortwave 0
 radios: NA

 Television:
 broadcast stations: 4 (translators 8)
 televisions: NA

@Ghana:Defense Forces

 Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Police Force, Palace Guard, Civil
 Defense

 Manpower availability: males age 15-49 3,975,767; males fit for
 military service 2,217,032; males reach military age (18) annually
 170,723 (1995 est.)

 Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $108 million, 1.5% of
 GDP (1993)


________________________________________________________________________

GIBRALTAR

 (dependent territory of the UK) 

@Gibraltar:Geography

 Location: Southwestern Europe, bordering the Strait of Gibraltar,
 which links the Mediterranean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, on the
 southern coast of Spain

 Map references: Europe

 Area:
 total area: 6.5 sq km
 land area: 6.5 sq km
 comparative area: about 11 times the size of The Mall in Washington,
 DC

 Land boundaries: total 1.2 km, Spain 1.2 km

 Coastline: 12 km

 Maritime claims:
 territorial sea: 3 nm

 International disputes: source of occasional friction between Spain
 and the UK

 Climate: Mediterranean with mild winters and warm summers

 Terrain: a narrow coastal lowland borders The Rock

 Natural resources: negligible

 Land use:
 arable land: 0%
 permanent crops: 0%
 meadows and pastures: 0%
 forest and woodland: 0%
 other: 100%

 Irrigated land: NA sq km

 Environment:
 current issues: limited natural freshwater resources, so large
 concrete or natural rock water catchments collect rain water
 natural hazards: NA
 international agreements: NA

 Note: strategic location on Strait of Gibraltar that links the North
 Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea

@Gibraltar:People

 Population: 31,874 (July 1995 est.)

 Age structure:
 0-14 years: 24% (female 3,757; male 3,835)
 15-64 years: 63% (female 9,730; male 10,485)
 65 years and over: 13% (female 2,360; male 1,707) (July 1995 est.)

 Population growth rate: 0.62% (1995 est.)

 Birth rate: 15 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Death rate: 8.85 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Infant mortality rate: 7.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

 Life expectancy at birth:
 total population: 76.61 years
 male: 73.7 years
 female: 79.48 years (1995 est.)

 Total fertility rate: 2.29 children born/woman (1995 est.)

 Nationality:
 noun: Gibraltarian(s)
 adjective: Gibraltar

 Ethnic divisions: Italian, English, Maltese, Portuguese, Spanish

 Religions: Roman Catholic 74%, Protestant 11% (Church of England 8%,
 other 3%), Moslem 8%, Jewish 2%, none or other 5% (1981)

 Languages: English (used in schools and for official purposes),
 Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, Russian

 Literacy: NA%

 Labor force: 14,800 (including non-Gibraltar laborers)
 note: UK military establishments and civil government employ nearly
 50% of the labor force

@Gibraltar:Government

 Names:
 conventional long form: none
 conventional short form: Gibraltar

 Digraph: GI

 Type: dependent territory of the UK

 Capital: Gilbraltar

 Administrative divisions: none (dependent territory of the UK)

 Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)

 National holiday: Commonwealth Day (second Monday of March)

 Constitution: 30 May 1969

 Legal system: English law

 Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal, plus other UK subjects resident
 six months or more

 Executive branch:
 chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
 represented by Governor and Commander in Chief Gen. Sir John CHAPPLE
 (since NA March 1993)
 head of government: Chief Minister Joe BOSSANO (since 25 March 1988)
 Gibraltar Council: advises the governor
 cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed from the elected members of
 the Assembly by the governor in consultation with the chief minister

 Legislative branch: unicameral
 House of Assembly: elections last held on 16 January 1992 (next to be
 held January 1996); results - SL 73.3%; seats - (18 total, 15 elected)
 number of seats by party NA

 Judicial branch: Supreme Court, Court of Appeal

 Political parties and leaders: Gibraltar Socialist Labor Party (SL),
 Joe BOSSANO; Gibraltar Labor Party/Association for the Advancement of
 Civil Rights (GCL/AACR), leader NA; Gibraltar Social Democrats, Peter
 CARUANA; Gibraltar National Party, Joe GARCIA

 Other political or pressure groups: Housewives Association; Chamber of
 Commerce; Gibraltar Representatives Organization

 Member of: INTERPOL (subbureau)

 Diplomatic representation in US: none (dependent territory of the UK)

 US diplomatic representation: none (dependent territory of the UK)

 Flag: two horizontal bands of white (top, double width) and red with a
 three-towered red castle in the center of the white band; hanging from
 the castle gate is a gold key centered in the red band

@Gibraltar:Economy

 Overview: Gibraltar benefits from an extensive shipping trade and
 offshore banking. The British military presence has been severely
 reduced and now only contributes about 11% to the local economy. The
 financial sector accounts for 15% of GDP; tourism, shipping services
 fees, and duties on consumer goods also generate revenue. Because more
 than 70% of the economy is in the public sector, changes in government
 spending have a major impact on the level of employment.

 National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $205 million (1993
 est.)

 National product real growth rate: NA%

 National product per capita: $6,600 (1993 est.)

 Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.6% (1988)

 Unemployment rate: NA%

 Budget:
 revenues: $116 million
 expenditures: $124 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
 (1992-93)

 Exports: $57 million (f.o.b., 1992)
 commodities: (principally re-exports) petroleum 51%, manufactured
 goods 41%, other 8%
 partners: UK, Morocco, Portugal, Netherlands, Spain, US, FRG

 Imports: $420 million (c.i.f., 1992)
 commodities: fuels, manufactured goods, and foodstuffs
 partners: UK, Spain, Japan, Netherlands

 External debt: $318 million (1987)

 Industrial production: growth rate NA%

 Electricity:
 capacity: 47,000 kW
 production: 90 million kWh
 consumption per capita: 2,539 kWh (1993)

 Industries: tourism, banking and finance, construction, commerce;
 support to large UK naval and air bases; transit trade and supply
 depot in the port; light manufacturing of tobacco, roasted coffee,
 ice, mineral waters, candy, beer, and canned fish

 Agriculture: none

 Economic aid:
 recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $800,000;
 Western (non-US) countries and ODA bilateral commitments (1992-93),
 $2.5 million

 Currency: 1 Gibraltar pound (#G) = 100 pence

 Exchange rates: Gibraltar pounds (#G) per US$1 - 0.6350 (January
 1995), 0.6529 (1994), 0.6658 (1993), 0.5664 (1992), 0.5652 (1991),
 0.5603 (1990); note - the Gibraltar pound is at par with the British
 pound

 Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

@Gibraltar:Transportation

 Railroads:
 total: NA km; 1.000-m gauge system in dockyard area only

 Highways:
 total: 50 km
 paved: 50 km

 Pipelines: none

 Ports: Gibraltar

 Merchant marine:
 total: 23 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 419,707 GRT/721,110 DWT
 ships by type: bulk 3, cargo 3, chemical tanker 1, container 2, oil
 tanker 14

 Airports:
 total: 1
 with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

@Gibraltar:Communications

 Telephone system: 9,400 telephones; adequate, automatic domestic
 system and adequate international radiocommunication and microwave
 facilities
 local: NA
 intercity: NA
 international: 1 INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean) earth station

 Radio:
 broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 6, shortwave 0
 radios: NA

 Television:
 broadcast stations: 4
 televisions: NA

@Gibraltar:Defense Forces

 Branches: British Army, Royal Navy, Royal Air Force

 Note: defense is the responsibility of the UK


________________________________________________________________________

GLORIOSO ISLANDS

 (possession of France) 

@Glorioso Islands:Geography

 Location: Southern Africa, group of islands in the Indian Ocean,
 northwest of Madagascar

 Map references: Africa

 Area:
 total area: 5 sq km
 land area: 5 sq km
 comparative area: about 8.5 times the size of The Mall in Washington,
 DC
 note: includes Ile Glorieuse, Ile du Lys, Verte Rocks, Wreck Rock, and
 South Rock

 Land boundaries: 0 km

 Coastline: 35.2 km

 Maritime claims:
 exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
 territorial sea: 12 nm

 International disputes: claimed by Madagascar

 Climate: tropical

 Terrain: NA

 Natural resources: guano, coconuts

 Land use:
 arable land: 0%
 permanent crops: 0%
 meadows and pastures: 0%
 forest and woodland: 0%
 other: 100% (all lush vegetation and coconut palms)

 Irrigated land: 0 sq km

 Environment:
 current issues: NA
 natural hazards: periodic cyclones
 international agreements: NA

@Glorioso Islands:People

 Population: uninhabited

@Glorioso Islands:Government

 Names:
 conventional long form: none
 conventional short form: Glorioso Islands
 local long form: none
 local short form: Iles Glorieuses

 Digraph: GO

 Type: French possession administered by Commissioner of the Republic,
 resident in Reunion

 Capital: none; administered by France from Reunion

 Independence: none (possession of France)

@Glorioso Islands:Economy

 Overview: no economic activity

@Glorioso Islands:Transportation

 Ports: none; offshore anchorage only

 Airports:
 total: 1
 with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 1

@Glorioso Islands:Defense Forces

 Note: defense is the responsibility of France


________________________________________________________________________

GREECE

@Greece:Geography

 Location: Southern Europe, bordering the Aegean Sea, Ionian Sea, and
 the Mediterranean Sea, between Albania and Turkey

 Map references: Europe

 Area:
 total area: 131,940 sq km
 land area: 130,800 sq km
 comparative area: slightly smaller than Alabama

 Land boundaries: total 1,210 km, Albania 282 km, Bulgaria 494 km,
 Turkey 206 km, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 228 km

 Coastline: 13,676 km

 Maritime claims:
 continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
 territorial sea: 6 nm

 International disputes: complex maritime, air, and territorial
 disputes with Turkey in Aegean Sea; Cyprus question; dispute with The
 Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia over name, symbols, and certain
 constitutional provisions; Greece is involved in a bilateral dispute
 with Albania over border demarcation, the treatment of Albania's
 ethnic Greek minority, and migrant Albanian workers in Greece

 Climate: temperate; mild, wet winters; hot, dry summers

 Terrain: mostly mountains with ranges extending into sea as peninsulas
 or chains of islands

 Natural resources: bauxite, lignite, magnesite, petroleum, marble

 Land use:
 arable land: 23%
 permanent crops: 8%
 meadows and pastures: 40%
 forest and woodland: 20%
 other: 9%

 Irrigated land: 11,900 sq km (1989 est.)

 Environment:
 current issues: air pollution; water pollution
 natural hazards: severe earthquakes
 international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Antarctic Treaty,
 Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental
 Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban,
 Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands;
 signed, but not ratified - Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
 Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds,
 Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Desertification, Law of the Sea

 Note: strategic location dominating the Aegean Sea and southern
 approach to Turkish Straits; a peninsular country, possessing an
 archipelago of about 2,000 islands

@Greece:People

 Population: 10,647,511 (July 1995 est.)

 Age structure:
 0-14 years: 18% (female 904,374; male 947,494)
 15-64 years: 67% (female 3,601,029; male 3,565,931)
 65 years and over: 15% (female 919,044; male 709,639) (July 1995 est.)

 Population growth rate: 0.72% (1995 est.)

 Birth rate: 10.56 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Death rate: 9.31 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Net migration rate: 5.99 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Infant mortality rate: 8.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

 Life expectancy at birth:
 total population: 77.92 years
 male: 75.39 years
 female: 80.59 years (1995 est.)

 Total fertility rate: 1.46 children born/woman (1995 est.)

 Nationality:
 noun: Greek(s)
 adjective: Greek

 Ethnic divisions: Greek 98%, other 2%
 note: the Greek Government states there are no ethnic divisions in
 Greece

 Religions: Greek Orthodox 98%, Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%

 Languages: Greek (official), English, French

 Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1991)
 total population: 95%
 male: 98%
 female: 93%

 Labor force: 4.077 million
 by occupation: services 52%, agriculture 23%, industry 25% (1994)

@Greece:Government

 Names:
 conventional long form: Hellenic Republic
 conventional short form: Greece
 local long form: Elliniki Dhimokratia
 local short form: Ellas
 former: Kingdom of Greece

 Digraph: GR

 Type: presidential parliamentary government; monarchy rejected by
 referendum 8 December 1974

 Capital: Athens

 Administrative divisions: 52 prefectures (nomoi, singular - nomos);
 Aitolia kai Akarnania, Akhaia, Argolis, Arkadhia, Arta, Attiki,
 Dhodhekanisos, Dhrama, Evritania, Evros, Evvoia, Florina, Fokis,
 Fthiotis, Grevena, Ilia, Imathia, Ioannina, Iraklion, Kardhitsa,
 Kastoria, Kavala, Kefallinia, Kerkira, Khalkidhiki, Khania, Khios,
 Kikladhes, Kilkis, Korinthia, Kozani, Lakonia, Larisa, Lasithi,
 Lesvos, Levkas, Magnisia, Messinia, Pella, Pieria, Piraievs, Preveza,
 Rethimni, Rodhopi, Samos, Serrai, Thesprotia, Thessaloniki, Trikala,
 Voiotia, Xanthi, Zakinthos, autonomous region: Agion Oros (Mt. Athos)

 Independence: 1829 (from the Ottoman Empire)

 National holiday: Independence Day, 25 March (1821) (proclamation of
 the war of independence)

 Constitution: 11 June 1975

 Legal system: based on codified Roman law; judiciary divided into
 civil, criminal, and administrative courts

 Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

 Executive branch:
 chief of state: President Konstantinos (Kostis) STEPHANOPOULOS (since
 10 March 1995) election last held 10 March 1995 (next to be held by NA
 2000); results - Konstantinos STEPHANOPOULOS was elected by Parliament

 head of government: Prime Minister Andreas PAPANDREOU (since 10
 October 1993)
 cabinet: Cabinet; appointed by the president on recommendation of the
 prime minister

 Legislative branch: unicameral
 Chamber of Deputies (Vouli ton Ellinon): elections last held 10
 October 1993 (next to be held by NA October 1997); results - PASOK
 46.88%, ND 39.30%, Political Spring 4.87%, KKE 4.54%, and Progressive
 Left (replaced by Coalition of the Left and Progress) 2.94%; seats -
 (300 total) PASOK 170, ND 111, Political Spring 10, KKE 9

 Judicial branch: Supreme Judicial Court, Special Supreme Tribunal

 Political parties and leaders: New Democracy (ND; conservative),
 Miltiades EVERT; Panhellenic Socialist Movement (PASOK), Andreas
 PAPANDREOU; Communist Party (KKE), Aleka PAPARIGA;
 Ecologist-Alternative List, leader rotates; Political Spring, Antonis
 SAMARAS; Coalition of the Left and Progress (Synaspismos), Nikolaos
 KONSTANTOPOULOS

 Member of: Australia Group, BIS, BSEC, CCC, CE, CERN, EBRD, EC, ECE,
 EIB, FAO, G- 6, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA,
 IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC,
 IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, MTCR, NACC, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS
 (observer), OECD, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM,
 UPU, WEU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

 Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Loucas TSILAS
 chancery: 2221 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
 telephone: [1] (202) 939-5800
 FAX: [1] (202) 939-5824
 consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles,
 New York, and San Francisco
 consulate(s): New Orleans

 US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Thomas M.T. NILES
 embassy: 91 Vasilissis Sophias Boulevard, 10160 Athens
 mailing address: PSC 108, Athens; APO AE 09842
 telephone: [30] (1) 721-2951, 8401
 FAX: [30] (1) 645-6282
 consulate(s) general: Thessaloniki

 Flag: nine equal horizontal stripes of blue alternating with white;
 there is a blue square in the upper hoist-side corner bearing a white
 cross; the cross symbolizes Greek Orthodoxy, the established religion
 of the country

@Greece:Economy

 Overview: Greece has a mixed capitalist economy with the basic
 entrepreneurial system overlaid in 1981-89 by a socialist system that
 enlarged the public sector from 55% of GDP in 1981 to about 70% in
 1989. Since then, the public sector has been reduced to about 60% of
 GDP. Tourism continues as a major source of foreign exchange, and
 agriculture is self-sufficient except for meat, dairy products, and
 animal feedstuffs. Over the last decade, real GDP growth has averaged
 1.6% a year, compared with the European Union average of 2.2%.
 Inflation continues to be well above the EU average, and the national
 debt has reached 140% of GDP, the highest in the EU. Prime Minister
 PAPANDREOU will probably make only limited progress correcting the
 economy's problems of high inflation, large budget deficit, and
 decaying infrastructure. His economic program suggests that although
 he will shun his expansionary policies of the 1980s, he will avoid
 tough measures needed to slow inflation or reduce the state's role in
 the economy. He has limited the previous government's privatization
 plans, for example, and has called for generous welfare spending and
 real wage increases. Athens continues to rely heavily on EU aid, which
 recently has amounted to about 6% of GDP. Greece almost certainly will
 not meet the EU's Maastricht Treaty convergence targets of public
 deficit held to 3% of GDP and national debt to 60% of GDP by 1999. Per
 capita GDP has fallen below Portugal's level, the lowest among EU
 members.

 National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $93.7 billion (1994
 est.)

 National product real growth rate: 0.4% (1994 est.)

 National product per capita: $8,870 (1994 est.)

 Inflation rate (consumer prices): 10.9% (1994 est.)

 Unemployment rate: 10.1% (1994 est.)

 Budget:
 revenues: $28.3 billion
 expenditures: $37.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $5.2
 billion (1994)

 Exports: $9 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
 commodities: manufactured goods 53%, foodstuffs 34%, fuels 5%
 partners: Germany 24%, Italy 14%, France 7%, UK 6%, US 4% (1993)

 Imports: $19.2 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
 commodities: manufactured goods 72%, foodstuffs 15%, fuels 10%
 partners: Germany 16%, Italy 14%, France 7%, Japan 7%, UK 6% (1993)

 External debt: $26.9 billion (1993)

 Industrial production: growth rate 3.2% (1993 est.); accounts for 18%
 of GDP

 Electricity:
 capacity: 8,970,000 kW
 production: 35.8 billion kWh
 consumption per capita: 3,257 kWh (1993)

 Industries: tourism, food and tobacco processing, textiles, chemicals,
 metal products, mining, petroleum

 Agriculture: including fishing and forestry, accounts for 12% of GDP;
 principal products - wheat, corn, barley, sugar beets, olives,
 tomatoes, wine, tobacco, potatoes; self-sufficient in food except
 meat, dairy products, and animal feedstuffs

 Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis and limited opium; mostly
 for domestic production; serves as a gateway to Europe for traffickers
 smuggling cannabis and heroin from the Middle East and Southwest Asia
 to the West and precursor chemicals to the East; transshipment point
 for Southwest Asian heroin transiting the Balkan route

 Economic aid:
 recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-81), $525 million;
 Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
 (1970-89), $1.39 billion

 Currency: 1 drachma (Dr) = 100 lepta

 Exchange rates: drachmae (Dr) per US$1 - 238.20 (January 1995), 242.60
 (1994), 229.26 (1993), 190.62 (1992), 182.27 (1991), 158.51 (1990)

 Fiscal year: calendar year

@Greece:Transportation

 Railroads:
 total: 2,503 km
 standard gauge: 1,565 km 1.435-m gauge (36 km electrified; 100 km
 double track)
 narrow gauge: 887 km 1,000-m gauge; 22 km 0.750-m gauge; 29 km 0.600-m
 gauge

 Highways:
 total: 130,000 km
 paved: 119,210 km (116 km expressways)
 unpaved: 10,790 km (1990)

 Inland waterways: 80 km; system consists of three coastal canals;
 including the Corinth Canal (6 km) which crosses the Isthmus of
 Corinth connecting the Gulf of Corinth with the Saronic Gulf and
 shortens the sea voyage from the Adriatic to Piraievs (Piraeus) by 325
 km; and three unconnected rivers

 Pipelines: crude oil 26 km; petroleum products 547 km

 Ports: Alexandroupolis, Elevsis, Iraklion (Crete), Kavala, Kerkira,
 Khalkis, Igoumenitsa, Lavrion, Patrai, Piraievs (Piraeus),
 Thessaloniki, Volos

 Merchant marine:
 total: 1,046 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 29,076,911
 GRT/53,618,024 DWT
 ships by type: bulk 469, cargo 105, chemical tanker 22, combination
 bulk 21, combination ore/oil 31, container 40, liquefied gas tanker 5,
 oil tanker 239, passenger 14, passenger-cargo 3, refrigerated cargo
 10, roll-on/roll-off cargo 16, short-sea passenger 67, specialized
 tanker 3, vehicle carrier 1
 note: ethnic Greeks also own 125 ships under Liberian registry, 323
 under Panamanian, 705 under Cypriot, 351 under Maltese, and 100 under
 Bahamian

 Airports:
 total: 79
 with paved runways over 3,047 m: 5
 with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 15
 with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 16
 with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 17
 with paved runways under 914 m: 22
 with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 1
 with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 3

@Greece:Communications

 Telephone system: 4,080,000 telephones; adequate, modern networks
 reach all areas; microwave radio relay carries most traffic; extensive
 open-wire network; submarine cables to off-shore islands
 local: NA
 intercity: microwave radio relay and open wire
 international: tropospheric links, 8 submarine cables; 2 INTELSAT (1
 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) and 1 EUTELSAT ground station

 Radio:
 broadcast stations: AM 29, FM 17 (repeaters 20), shortwave 0
 radios: NA

 Television:
 broadcast stations: 361
 televisions: NA

@Greece:Defense Forces

 Branches: Hellenic Army, Hellenic Navy, Hellenic Air Force, National
 Guard, Police

 Manpower availability: males age 15-49 2,676,152; males fit for
 military service 2,046,996; males reach military age (21) annually
 75,857 (1995 est.)

 Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $4.1 billion, 5.4% of
 GDP (1994)


________________________________________________________________________

GREENLAND

 (part of the Danish realm) 

@Greenland:Geography

 Location: Northern North America, island between the Arctic Ocean and
 the North Atlantic Ocean, northeast of Canada

 Map references: Arctic Region

 Area:
 total area: 2,175,600 sq km
 land area: 383,600 sq km (ice free)
 comparative area: slightly more than three times the size of Texas

 Land boundaries: 0 km

 Coastline: 44,087 km

 Maritime claims:
 exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
 territorial sea: 3 nm

 International disputes: none

 Climate: arctic to subarctic; cool summers, cold winters

 Terrain: flat to gradually sloping icecap covers all but a narrow,
 mountainous, barren, rocky coast

 Natural resources: zinc, lead, iron ore, coal, molybdenum, cryolite,
 uranium, fish

 Land use:
 arable land: 0%
 permanent crops: 0%
 meadows and pastures: 1%
 forest and woodland: 0%
 other: 99%

 Irrigated land: 0 sq km

 Environment:
 current issues: NA
 natural hazards: continuous permafrost over northern two-thirds of the
 island
 international agreements: NA

 Note: dominates North Atlantic Ocean between North America and Europe;
 sparse population confined to small settlements along coast

@Greenland:People

 Population: 57,611 (July 1995 est.)

 Age structure:
 0-14 years: 27% (female 7,664; male 7,881)
 15-64 years: 68% (female 17,761; male 21,580)
 65 years and over: 5% (female 1,500; male 1,225) (July 1995 est.)

 Population growth rate: 1.05% (1995 est.)

 Birth rate: 17.7 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Death rate: 7.2 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Infant mortality rate: 25.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

 Life expectancy at birth:
 total population: 67.65 years
 male: 63.33 years
 female: 71.98 years (1995 est.)

 Total fertility rate: 2.25 children born/woman (1995 est.)

 Nationality:
 noun: Greenlander(s)
 adjective: Greenlandic

 Ethnic divisions: Greenlander 86% (Eskimos and Greenland-born
 Caucasians), Danish 14%

 Religions: Evangelical Lutheran

 Languages: Eskimo dialects, Danish

 Literacy: NA%

 Labor force: 22,800
 by occupation: largely engaged in fishing, hunting, sheep breeding

@Greenland:Government

 Names:
 conventional long form: none
 conventional short form: Greenland
 local long form: none
 local short form: Kalaallit Nunaat

 Digraph: GL

 Type: part of the Danish realm; self-governing overseas administrative
 division

 Capital: Nuuk (Godthab)

 Administrative divisions: 3 municipalities (kommuner, singular -
 kommun); Nordgronland, Ostgronland, Vestgronland

 Independence: none (part of the Danish realm; self-governing overseas
 administrative division)

 National holiday: Birthday of the Queen, 16 April (1940)

 Constitution: 5 June 1953 (Danish constitution)

 Legal system: Danish

 Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

 Executive branch:
 chief of state: Queen MARGRETHE II (since 14 January 1972),
 represented by High Commissioner Steen SPORE (since NA 1993)
 head of government: Home Rule Chairman Lars Emil JOHANSEN (since 15
 March 1991)
 cabinet: Landsstyre; formed from the Landsting on basis of strength of
 parties

 Legislative branch: unicameral
 Parliament (Landsting): elections last held on 4 March 1995 (next to
 be held 5 March 1999); results - Siumut 38.5%, Inuit Ataqatigiit
 20.3%, Atassut Party 29.7%; seats - (31 total) Siumut 12, Atassut
 Party 10, Inuit Ataqatigiit 6, conservative splinter grouping 2,
 independent 1
 Danish Folketing: last held on 21 September 1994 (next to be held by
 September 1998); Greenland elects two representatives to the
 Folketing; results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (2 total)
 Liberals 1, Social Democrats 1; note - Greenlandic representatives are
 affiliated with Danish political parties

 Judicial branch: High Court (Landsret)

 Political parties and leaders: two-party ruling coalition; Siumut
 (Forward Party, a moderate socialist party that advocates more
 distinct Greenlandic identity and greater autonomy from Denmark), Lars
 Emil JOHANSEN, chairman; Inuit Ataqatigiit (IA) (Eskimo Brotherhood, a
 Marxist-Leninist party that favors complete independence from Denmark
 rather than home rule), Josef MOTZFELDT; Atassut Party (Solidarity, a
 more conservative party that favors continuing close relations with
 Denmark), Daniel SKIFTE; AKULLIIT, Bjarne KREUTZMANN; Issituup (Polar
 Party), Nicolai HEINRICH

 Diplomatic representation in US: none (self-governing overseas
 administrative division of Denmark)

 US diplomatic representation: none (self-governing overseas
 administrative division of Denmark)

 Flag: two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red with a large
 disk slightly to the hoist side of center - the top half of the disk
 is red, the bottom half is white

@Greenland:Economy

 Overview: Greenland's economic situation at present is difficult.
 Unemployment is increasing, and prospects for economic growth in the
 immediate future are dim. Following the closing of the Black Angel
 lead and zinc mine in 1989, Greenland became almost completely
 dependent on fishing and fish processing, the sector accounting for
 95% of exports. Prospects for fisheries are not bright, as the
 important shrimp catches will at best stabilize and cod catches have
 dropped. Resumption of mining and hydrocarbon activities is not around
 the corner, thus leaving only tourism with some potential for the near
 future. The public sector in Greenland, i.e., the central government
 and its commercial entities and the municipalities, plays a dominant
 role in Greenland accounting for about two-thirds of total employment.
 About half the government's revenues come from grants from the Danish
 Government.

 National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $NA

 National product real growth rate: NA%

 National product per capita: $NA

 Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.3% (1993 est.)

 Unemployment rate: 6.6% (1993 est.)

 Budget:
 revenues: $667 million
 expenditures: $635 million, including capital expenditures of $103.8
 million (1993 est.)

 Exports: $330.5 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
 commodities: fish and fish products 95%
 partners: Denmark 79%, Benelux 9%, Germany 5%

 Imports: $369.6 million (c.i.f., 1993 est.)
 commodities: manufactured goods 28%, machinery and transport equipment
 24%, food and live animals 12.4%, petroleum products 12%
 partners: Denmark 65%, Norway 8.8%, US 4.6%, Germany 3.8%, Japan 3.8%,
 Sweden 2.4%

 External debt: $297.1 million (1993)

 Industrial production: growth rate NA%

 Electricity:
 capacity: 84,000 kW
 production: 210 million kWh
 consumption per capita: 3,361 kWh (1993)

 Industries: fish processing (mainly shrimp), lead and zinc mining,
 handicrafts, some small shipyards, potential for platinum and gold
 mining

 Agriculture: sector dominated by fishing and sheep raising; crops
 limited to forage and small garden vegetables; 1988 fish catch of
 133,500 metric tons

 Economic aid: none

 Currency: 1 Danish krone (DKr) = 100 oere

 Exchange rates: Danish kroner (DKr) per US$1 - 6.034 (January 1995),
 6.361 (1994), 6.484 (1993), 6.036 (1992), 6.396 (1991), 6.189 (1990)

 Fiscal year: calendar year

@Greenland:Transportation

 Railroads: 0 km

 Highways:
 total: 150 km
 paved: 60 km
 unpaved: 90 km

 Ports: Faeringehavn, Frederikshaab, Holsteinsborg, Nanortalik, Narsaq,
 Nuuk (Godthaab), Sondrestrom

 Merchant marine: none

 Airports:
 total: 10
 with paved runways over 3,047 m: 1
 with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
 with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
 with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 1
 with paved runways under 914 m: 2
 with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 1
 with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 3

@Greenland:Communications

 Telephone system: 17,900 telephones; adequate domestic and
 international service provided by cables and microwave radio relay
 local: NA
 intercity: microwave radio relay
 international: 2 coaxial submarine cables; 1 INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean)
 earth station

 Radio:
 broadcast stations: AM 5, FM 7 (repeaters 35), shortwave 0
 radios: NA

 Television:
 broadcast stations: 4 (repeaters 9)
 televisions: NA

@Greenland:Defense Forces

 Note: defense is responsibility of Denmark


________________________________________________________________________

GRENADA

@Grenada:Geography

 Location: Caribbean, island in the Caribbean Sea, north of Trinidad
 and Tobago

 Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

 Area:
 total area: 340 sq km
 land area: 340 sq km
 comparative area: slightly less than twice the size of Washington, DC

 Land boundaries: 0 km

 Coastline: 121 km

 Maritime claims:
 exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
 territorial sea: 12 nm

 International disputes: none

 Climate: tropical; tempered by northeast trade winds

 Terrain: volcanic in origin with central mountains

 Natural resources: timber, tropical fruit, deepwater harbors

 Land use:
 arable land: 15%
 permanent crops: 26%
 meadows and pastures: 3%
 forest and woodland: 9%
 other: 47%

 Irrigated land: NA sq km

 Environment:
 current issues: NA
 natural hazards: lies on edge of hurricane belt; hurricane season
 lasts from June to November
 international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law
 of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Whaling

 Note: the administration of the islands of the Grenadines group is
 divided between Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and Grenada

@Grenada:People

 Population: 94,486 (July 1995 est.)

 Age structure:
 0-14 years: 43% (female 20,076; male 20,824)
 15-64 years: 52% (female 23,123; male 25,828)
 65 years and over: 5% (female 2,514; male 2,121) (July 1995 est.)

 Population growth rate: 0.45% (1995 est.)

 Birth rate: 29.69 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Death rate: 5.95 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Net migration rate: -19.24 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Infant mortality rate: 12.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

 Life expectancy at birth:
 total population: 70.67 years
 male: 68.2 years
 female: 73.17 years (1995 est.)

 Total fertility rate: 3.85 children born/woman (1995 est.)

 Nationality:
 noun: Grenadian(s)
 adjective: Grenadian

 Ethnic divisions: black African

 Religions: Roman Catholic, Anglican, other Protestant sects

 Languages: English (official), French patois

 Literacy: age 15 and over has ever attended school (1970)
 total population: 98%
 male: 98%
 female: 98%

 Labor force: 36,000
 by occupation: services 31%, agriculture 24%, construction 8%,
 manufacturing 5%, other 32% (1985)

@Grenada:Government

 Names:
 conventional long form: none
 conventional short form: Grenada

 Digraph: GJ

 Type: parliamentary democracy

 Capital: Saint George's

 Administrative divisions: 6 parishes and 1 dependency*; Carriacou and
 Petit Martinique*, Saint Andrew, Saint David, Saint George, Saint
 John, Saint Mark, Saint Patrick

 Independence: 7 February 1974 (from UK)

 National holiday: Independence Day, 7 February (1974)

 Constitution: 19 December 1973

 Legal system: based on English common law

 Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

 Executive branch:
 chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
 represented by Governor General Reginald Oswald PALMER (since 6 August
 1992)
 head of government: Prime Minister George BRIZAN (since 1 February
 1994)
 cabinet: Cabinet; appointed by the governor general on advice of the
 prime minister

 Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament
 Senate: consists of a 13-member body, 10 appointed by the government
 and 3 by the Leader of the Opposition
 House of Representatives: elections last held on 13 March 1990 (next
 to be held by NA July 1995); results - percent of vote by party NA;
 seats - (15 total) NDC 7, GULP 4, TNP 2, NNP 2

 Judicial branch: Supreme Court

 Political parties and leaders: National Democratic Congress (NDC),
 George BRIZAN; Grenada United Labor Party (GULP), Sir Eric GAIRY; The
 National Party (TNP), Ben JONES; New National Party (NNP), Keith
 MITCHELL; Maurice Bishop Patriotic Movement (MBPM), Terrence MARRYSHOW

 Member of: ACP, C, CARICOM, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO,
 ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO
 (subscriber), ITU, LAES, NAM, OAS, OECS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
 UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WTO

 Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Denneth MODESTE
 chancery: 1701 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
 telephone: [1] (202) 265-2561

 US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission: (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Ollie P. ANDERSON, Jr.
 embassy: Point Salines, Saint George's
 mailing address: P. O. Box 54, Saint George's, Grenada, W.I.
 telephone: [1] (809) 444-1173 through 1178
 FAX: [1] (809) 444-4820

 Flag: a rectangle divided diagonally into yellow triangles (top and
 bottom) and green triangles (hoist side and outer side) with a red
 border around the flag; there are seven yellow five-pointed stars with
 three centered in the top red border, three centered in the bottom red
 border, and one on a red disk superimposed at the center of the flag;
 there is also a symbolic nutmeg pod on the hoist-side triangle
 (Grenada is the world's second-largest producer of nutmeg, after
 Indonesia); the seven stars represent the seven administrative
 divisions

@Grenada:Economy

 Overview: The economy is essentially agricultural and centers on the
 traditional production of spices and tropical plants. Agriculture
 accounts for about 15% of GDP and 80% of exports and employs 24% of
 the labor force. Tourism is the leading foreign exchange earner,
 followed by agricultural exports. Manufacturing remains relatively
 undeveloped, but is expected to grow, given a more favorable private
 investment climate since 1983. The economy achieved an impressive
 average annual growth rate of 5.5% in 1986-91 but has stalled since
 1992. Unemployment remains high at about 25%.

 National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $258 million (1993
 est.)

 National product real growth rate: 0.5% (1993 est.)

 National product per capita: $2,750 (1993 est.)

 Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.6% (1993 est.)

 Unemployment rate: 25% (1994 est.)

 Budget:
 revenues: $82.2 million (1993 est.)
 expenditures: $74.3 million, including capital expenditures of $11.8
 million (1993 est.)

 Exports: $18.6 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
 commodities: bananas, cocoa, nutmeg, fruit and vegetables, clothing,
 mace
 partners: Netherlands, UK, Trinidad and Tobago, United States

 Imports: $133.8 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
 commodities: food 25%, manufactured goods 22%, machinery 20%,
 chemicals 10%, fuel 6% (1989)
 partners: US 29%, UK, Trinidad and Tobago, Japan, Canada (1989)

 External debt: $89.9 million (1993)

 Industrial production: growth rate 1.8% (1992 est.); accounts for 9%
 of GDP

 Electricity:
 capacity: 12,500 kW
 production: 60 million kWh
 consumption per capita: 639 kWh (1993)

 Industries: food and beverage, textile, light assembly operations,
 tourism, construction

 Agriculture: accounts for 14% of GDP and 80% of exports; bananas,
 cocoa, nutmeg, and mace account for two-thirds of total crop
 production; world's second-largest producer and fourth-largest
 exporter of nutmeg and mace; small-sized farms predominate, growing a
 variety of citrus fruits, avocados, root crops, sugarcane, corn, and
 vegetables

 Economic aid:
 recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY84-89), $60 million;
 Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
 (1970-89), $70 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $32 million

 Currency: 1 EC dollar (EC$) = 100 cents

 Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1 - 2.70 (fixed
 rate since 1976)

 Fiscal year: calendar year

@Grenada:Transportation

 Railroads: 0 km

 Highways:
 total: 1,000 km
 paved: 600 km
 unpaved: otherwise improved 300 km; unimproved earth 100 km

 Ports: Grenville, Saint George's

 Merchant marine: none

 Airports:
 total: 3
 with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
 with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
 with paved runways under 914 m: 1

@Grenada:Communications

 Telephone system: 5,650 telephones; automatic, islandwide telephone
 system; new SHF radio links to the islands of Trinidad, Tobago, and
 Saint Vincent; VHF and UHF radio links to the islands of Trinidad and
 Carriacou
 local: NA
 intercity: NA
 international: SHF, VHF, and UHF radio communications

 Radio:
 broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 0, shortwave 0
 radios: NA

 Television:
 broadcast stations: 1
 televisions: NA

@Grenada:Defense Forces

 Branches: Royal Grenada Police Force, Coast Guard

 Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP


________________________________________________________________________

GUADELOUPE

 (overseas department of France) 

@Guadeloupe:Geography

 Location: Caribbean, islands in the eastern Caribbean Sea, southeast
 of Puerto Rico

 Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

 Area:
 total area: 1,780 sq km
 land area: 1,706 sq km
 comparative area: 10 times the size of Washington, DC
 note: Guadeloupe is an archipelago of nine inhabited islands, of which
 Basse-Terre, Grande-Terre, and Marie-Galante are the three largest

 Land boundaries: 0 km

 Coastline: 306 km

 Maritime claims:
 exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
 territorial sea: 12 nm

 International disputes: none

 Climate: subtropical tempered by trade winds; relatively high humidity

 Terrain: Basse-Terre is volcanic in origin with interior mountains;
 Grand-Terre is low limestone formation; most of the seven other
 islands are volcanic in origin

 Natural resources: cultivable land, beaches and climate that foster
 tourism

 Land use:
 arable land: 18%
 permanent crops: 5%
 meadows and pastures: 13%
 forest and woodland: 40%
 other: 24%

 Irrigated land: 30 sq km (1989 est.)

 Environment:
 current issues: NA
 natural hazards: hurricanes (June to October); La Soufriere is an
 active volcano
 international agreements: NA

@Guadeloupe:People

 Population: 402,815 (July 1995 est.)

 Age structure:
 0-14 years: 26% (female 51,069; male 52,922)
 15-64 years: 66% (female 134,328; male 130,875)
 65 years and over: 8% (female 19,318; male 14,303) (July 1995 est.)

 Population growth rate: 1.24% (1995 est.)

 Birth rate: 18.15 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Death rate: 5.58 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Net migration rate: -0.16 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Infant mortality rate: 8.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

 Life expectancy at birth:
 total population: 77.2 years
 male: 74.16 years
 female: 80.38 years (1995 est.)

 Total fertility rate: 1.95 children born/woman (1995 est.)

 Nationality:
 noun: Guadeloupian(s)
 adjective: Guadeloupe

 Ethnic divisions: black or mulatto 90%, white 5%, East Indian,
 Lebanese, Chinese less than 5%

 Religions: Roman Catholic 95%, Hindu and pagan African 5%

 Languages: French, creole patois

 Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1982)
 total population: 90%
 male: 90%
 female: 90%

 Labor force: 120,000
 by occupation: services, government, and commerce 53.0%, industry
 25.8%, agriculture 21.2%

@Guadeloupe:Government

 Names:
 conventional long form: Department of Guadeloupe
 conventional short form: Guadeloupe
 local long form: Departement de la Guadeloupe
 local short form: Guadeloupe

 Digraph: GP

 Type: overseas department of France

 Capital: Basse-Terre

 Administrative divisions: none (overseas department of France)

 Independence: none (overseas department of France)

 National holiday: National Day, Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)

 Constitution: 28 September 1958 (French Constitution)

 Legal system: French legal system

 Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

 Executive branch:
 chief of state: President Francois MITTERRAND (since 21 May 1981)
 head of government: Prefect Franck PERRIEZ (since NA 1992); President
 of the General Council Dominique LARIFLA (since NA); President of the
 Regional Council Lucette MICHAUX-CHEVRY (since 22 March 1992)
 cabinet: Council of Ministers

 Legislative branch: unicameral General Council and unicameral Regional
 Council
 General Council: elections last held NA March 1992 (next to be held by
 NA 1996); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (43 total)
 FRUI.G 13, RPR/DUD 13, PPDG 8, FGPS 3, PCG 3, UPLG 1, PSG 1,
 independent 1
 Regional Council: elections last held on 31 January 1993 (next to be
 held by 16 March 1998); results - RPR/DUD 48.30%, FGPS 17.09%, FRUI.G
 7.44%, PPDG 8.90%, UPLG 7.75% PCG 6.05%; seats - (41 total) seats by
 party NA
 French Senate: elections last held in September 1986 (next to be held
 September 1995); Guadeloupe elects two representatives; results -
 percent of vote by party NA; seats - (2 total) PCG 1, FGPS 1
 French National Assembly: elections last held on 21 and 28 March 1993
 (next to be held March 1998); Guadeloupe elects four representatives;
 results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (4 total) FGPS 1, RPR
 1, PPDG 1, independent 1

 Judicial branch: Court of Appeal (Cour d'Appel) with jurisdiction over
 Guadeloupe, French Guiana, and Martinique

 Political parties and leaders: Rally for the Republic (RPR), Aldo
 BLAISE; Communist Party of Guadeloupe (PCG), Christian Medard CELESTE;
 Socialist Party (FGPS), Georges LOUISOR; Popular Union for the
 Liberation of Guadeloupe (UPLG), Lucien PERATIN; FGPS Dissidents
 (FRUI.G); Union for French Democracy (UDF), Simon BARLAGNE;
 Progressive Democratic Party (PPDG), Henri BANGOU

 Other political or pressure groups: Popular Union for the Liberation
 of Guadeloupe (UPLG); Movement for Independent Guadeloupe (MPGI);
 General Union of Guadeloupe Workers (UGTG); General Federation of
 Guadeloupe Workers (CGT-G); Christian Movement for the Liberation of
 Guadeloupe (KLPG)

 Member of: FZ, WCL, WFTU

 Diplomatic representation in US: none (overseas department of France)

 US diplomatic representation: none (overseas department of France)

 Flag: the flag of France is used

@Guadeloupe:Economy

 Overview: The economy depends on agriculture, tourism, light industry,
 and services. It is also dependent upon France for large subsidies and
 imports. Tourism is a key industry, with most tourists from the US. In
 addition, an increasingly large number of cruise ships visit the
 islands. The traditionally important sugarcane crop is slowly being
 replaced by other crops, such as bananas (which now supply about 50%
 of export earnings), eggplant, and flowers. Other vegetables and root
 crops are cultivated for local consumption, although Guadeloupe is
 still dependent on imported food, which comes mainly from France.
 Light industry consists mostly of sugar and rum production. Most
 manufactured goods and fuel are imported. Unemployment is especially
 high among the young.

 National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $3.8 billion (1993
 est.)

 National product real growth rate: NA%

 National product per capita: $9,000 (1993 est.)

 Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.7% (1990)

 Unemployment rate: 31.3% (1990)

 Budget:
 revenues: $400 million
 expenditures: $671 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
 (1989)

 Exports: $130 million (f.o.b., 1992)
 commodities: bananas, sugar, rum
 partners: France 70%, Martinique 17% (1991)

 Imports: $1.5 billion (c.i.f., 1992)
 commodities: foodstuffs, fuels, vehicles, clothing and other consumer
 goods, construction materials
 partners: France 60%, EC, US, Japan (1991)

 External debt: $NA

 Industrial production: growth rate NA%

 Electricity:
 capacity: 320,000 kW
 production: 650 million kWh
 consumption per capita: 1,421 kWh (1993)

 Industries: construction, cement, rum, sugar, tourism

 Agriculture: cash crops - bananas, sugarcane; other products include
 tropical fruits and vegetables; livestock - cattle, pigs, goats; not
 self-sufficient in food

 Economic aid:
 recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $4 million;
 Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
 (1970-89), $8.235 billion

 Currency: 1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes

 Exchange rates: French francs (F) per US$1 - 5.9243 (January 1995),
 5.5520 (1994), 5.6632 (1993), 5.2938 (1992), 5.6421 (1991), 5.4453
 (1990)

 Fiscal year: calendar year

@Guadeloupe:Transportation

 Railroads:
 total: NA km; privately owned, narrow-gauge plantation lines

 Highways:
 total: 1,940 km
 paved: 1,600 km
 unpaved: gravel, earth 340 km

 Ports: Basse-Terre, Gustavia, Marigot, Pointe-a-Pitre

 Merchant marine: none

 Airports:
 total: 9
 with paved runways over 3,047 m: 1
 with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 2
 with paved runways under 914 m: 6

@Guadeloupe:Communications

 Telephone system: 57,300 telephones; domestic facilities inadequate
 local: NA
 intercity: NA
 international: 1 INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean) earth station; interisland
 microwave radio relay to Antigua and Barbuda, Dominica, and Martinique

 Radio:
 broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 8 (private stations licensed to broadcast
 FM 30), shortwave 0
 radios: NA

 Television:
 broadcast stations: 9
 televisions: NA

@Guadeloupe:Defense Forces

 Branches: French Forces, Gendarmerie

 Note: defense is responsibility of France


________________________________________________________________________

GUAM

 (territory of the US) 

@Guam:Geography

 Location: Oceania, island in the North Pacific Ocean, about
 three-quarters of the way from Hawaii to the Philippines

 Map references: Oceania

 Area:
 total area: 541.3 sq km
 land area: 541.3 sq km
 comparative area: slightly more than three times the size of
 Washington, DC

 Land boundaries: 0 km

 Coastline: 125.5 km

 Maritime claims:
 exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
 territorial sea: 12 nm

 International disputes: none

 Climate: tropical marine; generally warm and humid, moderated by
 northeast trade winds; dry season from January to June, rainy season
 from July to December; little seasonal temperature variation

 Terrain: volcanic origin, surrounded by coral reefs; relatively flat
 coraline limestone plateau (source of most fresh water) with steep
 coastal cliffs and narrow coastal plains in north, low-rising hills in
 center, mountains in south

 Natural resources: fishing (largely undeveloped), tourism (especially
 from Japan)

 Land use:
 arable land: 11%
 permanent crops: 11%
 meadows and pastures: 15%
 forest and woodland: 18%
 other: 45%

 Irrigated land: NA sq km

 Environment:
 current issues: NA
 natural hazards: frequent squalls during rainy season; relatively
 rare, but potentially very destructive typhoons (especially in August)

 international agreements: NA

 Note: largest and southernmost island in the Mariana Islands
 archipelago; strategic location in western North Pacific Ocean

@Guam:People

 Population: 153,307 (July 1995 est.)

 Age structure:
 0-14 years: NA
 15-64 years: NA
 65 years and over: NA

 Population growth rate: 2.42% (1995 est.)

 Birth rate: 25.01 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Death rate: 3.86 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Net migration rate: 3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Infant mortality rate: 15.17 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

 Life expectancy at birth:
 total population: 74.29 years
 male: 72.42 years
 female: 76.13 years (1995 est.)

 Total fertility rate: 2.32 children born/woman (1995 est.)

 Nationality:
 noun: Guamanian(s)
 adjective: Guamanian

 Ethnic divisions: Chamorro 47%, Filipino 25%, Caucasian 10%, Chinese,
 Japanese, Korean, and other 18%

 Religions: Roman Catholic 98%, other 2%

 Languages: English, Chamorro, Japanese

 Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
 total population: 99%
 male: 99%
 female: 99%

 Labor force: 46,930 (1990)
 by occupation: federal and territorial government 40%, private 60%
 (trade 18%, services 15.6%, construction 13.8%, other 12.6%) (1990)

@Guam:Government

 Names:
 conventional long form: Territory of Guam
 conventional short form: Guam

 Digraph: GQ

 Type: organized, unincorporated territory of the US with policy
 relations between Guam and the US under the jurisdiction of the Office
 of Territorial and International Affairs, US Department of the
 Interior

 Capital: Agana

 Administrative divisions: none (territory of the US)

 Independence: none (territory of the US)

 National holiday: Guam Discovery Day (first Monday in March) (1521);
 Liberation Day, 21 July

 Constitution: Organic Act of 1 August 1950

 Legal system: modeled on US; federal laws apply

 Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal; US citizens, but do not vote in
 US presidential elections

 Executive branch:
 chief of state: President William Jefferson CLINTON (since 20 January
 1993); Vice President Albert GORE, Jr. (since 20 January 1993)
 head of government: Governor Carl GUTIERREZ (since 8 November 1994);
 Lieutenant Governor Madeleine BORDALLO (since 8 November 1994);
 election last held 8 November 1994 (next to be held NA November 1998);
 results - Carl GUTIERREZ (Democrat) was elected Governor and Madeleine
 BORDALLO (Democrat) was elected Lieutenant Governor
 cabinet: executive departments; heads appointed by the governor with
 the consent of the Guam legislature

 Legislative branch: unicameral
 Legislature: elections last held 8 November 1994 (next to be held NA
 November 1996); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (21
 total) Democrats 14, Republican 7
 US House of Representatives: elections last held 8 November 1994 (next
 to be held NA November 1996); Guam elects one delegate; results -
 Robert UNDERWOOD was reelected as delegate; seats - (1 total) Democrat
 1

 Judicial branch: Federal District Court, Territorial Superior Court

 Political parties and leaders: Democratic Party (controls the
 legislature); Republican Party (party of the Governor)

 Member of: ESCAP (associate), INTERPOL (subbureau), IOC, SPC

 Diplomatic representation in US: none (territory of the US)

 US diplomatic representation: none (territory of the US)

 Flag: territorial flag is dark blue with a narrow red border on all
 four sides; centered is a red-bordered, pointed, vertical ellipse
 containing a beach scene, outrigger canoe with sail, and a palm tree
 with the word GUAM superimposed in bold red letters; US flag is the
 national flag

@Guam:Economy

 Overview: The economy depends mainly on US military spending and on
 revenues from tourism. Over the past 20 years the tourist industry has
 grown rapidly, creating a construction boom for new hotels and the
 expansion of older ones. Visitors numbered about 900,000 in 1992. The
 slowdown in Japanese economic growth has been reflected in less
 vigorous growth in the tourism sector. About 60% of the labor force
 works for the private sector and the rest for government. Most food
 and industrial goods are imported, with about 75% from the US. Guam
 faces the problem of building up the civilian economic sector to
 offset the impact of military downsizing.

 National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $2 billion (1991
 est.)

 National product real growth rate: NA%

 National product per capita: $14,000 (1991 est.)

 Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4% (1992 est.)

 Unemployment rate: 2% (1992 est.)

 Budget:
 revenues: $525 million
 expenditures: $395 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
 (1991)

 Exports: $34 million (f.o.b., 1984)
 commodities: mostly transshipments of refined petroleum products,
 construction materials, fish, food and beverage products
 partners: US 25%, Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands 63%, other
 12%

 Imports: $493 million (c.i.f., 1984)
 commodities: petroleum and petroleum products, food, manufactured
 goods
 partners: US 23%, Japan 19%, other 58%

 External debt: $NA

 Industrial production: growth rate NA%

 Electricity:
 capacity: 300,000 kW
 production: 750 million kWh
 consumption per capita: 4,797 kWh (1993)

 Industries: US military, tourism, construction, transshipment
 services, concrete products, printing and publishing, food processing,
 textiles

 Agriculture: relatively undeveloped with most food imported; fruits,
 vegetables, eggs, pork, poultry, beef, copra

 Economic aid: although Guam receives no foreign aid, it does receive
 large transfer payments from the general revenues of the US Federal
 Treasury into which Guamanians pay no income or excise taxes; under
 the provisions of a special law of Congress, the Guamanian Treasury,
 rather than the US Treasury, receives federal income taxes paid by
 military and civilian Federal employees stationed in Guam

 Currency: 1 United States dollar (US$) = 100 cents

 Exchange rates: US currency is used

 Fiscal year: 1 October - 30 September

@Guam:Transportation

 Railroads: 0 km

 Highways:
 total: 674 km (all-weather roads)
 paved: NA
 unpaved: NA

 Ports: Apra Harbor

 Merchant marine: none

 Airports:
 total: 5
 with paved runways over 3,047 m: 2
 with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
 with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
 with paved runways under 914 m: 1

@Guam:Communications

 Telephone system: 26,317 telephones (1989)
 local: NA
 intercity: NA
 international: 2 INTELSAT (Pacific Ocean) earth stations

 Radio:
 broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 3, shortwave 0
 radios: NA

 Television:
 broadcast stations: 3
 televisions: NA

@Guam:Defense Forces

 Note: defense is the responsibility of the US


________________________________________________________________________

GUATEMALA

@Guatemala:Geography

 Location: Middle America, bordering the Caribbean Sea, between
 Honduras and Belize and bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between El
 Salvador and Mexico

 Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

 Area:
 total area: 108,890 sq km
 land area: 108,430 sq km
 comparative area: slightly smaller than Tennessee

 Land boundaries: total 1,687 km, Belize 266 km, El Salvador 203 km,
 Honduras 256 km, Mexico 962 km

 Coastline: 400 km

 Maritime claims:
 continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
 exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
 territorial sea: 12 nm

 International disputes: border with Belize in dispute; talks to
 resolve the dispute are stalled

 Climate: tropical; hot, humid in lowlands; cooler in highlands

 Terrain: mostly mountains with narrow coastal plains and rolling
 limestone plateau (Peten)

 Natural resources: petroleum, nickel, rare woods, fish, chicle

 Land use:
 arable land: 12%
 permanent crops: 4%
 meadows and pastures: 12%
 forest and woodland: 40%
 other: 32%

 Irrigated land: 780 sq km (1989 est.)

 Environment:
 current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution
 natural hazards: numerous volcanoes in mountains, with frequent
 violent earthquakes; Caribbean coast subject to hurricanes and other
 tropical storms
 international agreements: party to - Antarctic Treaty, Endangered
 Species, Environmental Modification, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban,
 Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified -
 Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Biodiversity, Climate Change,
 Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea

 Note: no natural harbors on west coast

@Guatemala:People

 Population: 10,998,602 (July 1995 est.)

 Age structure:
 0-14 years: 43% (female 2,324,041; male 2,424,686)
 15-64 years: 53% (female 2,939,170; male 2,934,334)
 65 years and over: 4% (female 198,807; male 177,564) (July 1995 est.)

 Population growth rate: 2.53% (1995 est.)

 Birth rate: 34.65 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Death rate: 7.33 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Net migration rate: -2.04 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

 Infant mortality rate: 52.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

 Life expectancy at birth:
 total population: 64.85 years
 male: 62.27 years
 female: 67.56 years (1995 est.)

 Total fertility rate: 4.63 children born/woman (1995 est.)

 Nationality:
 noun: Guatemalan(s)
 adjective: Guatemalan

 Ethnic divisions: Mestizo - mixed Amerindian-Spanish ancestry (in
 local Spanish called Ladino) 56%, Amerindian or predominently
 Amerindian 44%

 Religions: Roman Catholic, Protestant, traditional Mayan

 Languages: Spanish 60%, Indian language 40% (23 Indian dialects,
 including Quiche, Cakchiquel, Kekchi)

 Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
 total population: 55%
 male: 63%
 female: 47%

 Labor force: 3.2 million (1994 est.)
 by occupation: agriculture 60%, services 13%, manufacturing 12%,
 commerce 7%, construction 4%, transport 3%, utilities 0.7%, mining
 0.3% (1985)

@Guatemala:Government

 Names:
 conventional long form: Republic of Guatemala
 conventional short form: Guatemala
 local long form: Republica de Guatemala
 local short form: Guatemala

 Digraph: GT

 Type: republic

 Capital: Guatemala

 Administrative divisions: 22 departments (departamentos, singular -
 departamento); Alta Verapaz, Baja Verapaz, Chimaltenango, Chiquimula,
 El Progreso, Escuintla, Guatemala, Huehuetenango, Izabal, Jalapa,
 Jutiapa, Peten, Quetzaltenango, Quiche, Retalhuleu, Sacatepequez, San
 Marcos, Santa Rosa, Solola, Suchitepequez, Totonicapan, Zacapa

 Independence: 15 September 1821 (from Spain)

 National holiday: Independence Day, 15 September (1821)

 Constitution: 31 May 1985, effective 14 January 1986
 note: suspended 25 May 1993 by President SERRANO; reinstated 5 June
 1993 following ouster of president

 Legal system: civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts;
 has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

 Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

 Executive branch:
 chief of state and head of government: President Ramiro DE LEON Carpio
 (since 6 June 1993); Vice President Arturo HERBRUGER (since 18 June
 1993); election runoff held on 11 January 1991 (next to be held
 November 1995); results - Jorge SERRANO Elias (MAS) 68.1%, Jorge
 CARPIO Nicolle (UCN) 31.9%
 note: President SERRANO resigned on 1 June 1993 shortly after
 dissolving Congress and the judiciary; on 6 June 1993, Ramiro DE LEON
 Carpio was chosen as the new president by a vote of Congress; he will
 finish off the remainder of SERRANO's term which expires 14 January
 1996
 cabinet: Council of Ministers; named by the president

 Legislative branch: unicameral
 Congress of the Republic (Congreso de la Republica): by agreement of
 11 November 1993, a special election was held on 14 August 1994 to
 select 80 new congressmen (next election to be held in November 1995
 for full four year terms); results - percent of vote by party; FRG
 40%, PAN 31.25%, DCG 15%, UCN 10%, MLN 2.5%, UD 1.25%; seats - (80
 total) FRG 32, PAN 25, DCG 12, UCN 8, MLN 2, UD 1
 note: on 11 November 1993 the congress approved a procedure that would
 reduce its membership from 116 seats to 80; the procedure provided for
 a special election in mid-1994 to elect an interim congress of 80
 members to serve until replaced in a general election in November
 1995; the plan was approved in a general referendum in January 1994
 and the special election was held on 14 August 1994

 Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justicia);
 additionally the Court of Constitutionality is presided over by the
 President of the Supreme Court

 Political parties and leaders: National Centrist Union (UCN),
 (vacant); Solidarity Action Movement (MAS), Oliverio GARCIA Rodas;
 Christian Democratic Party (DCG), Alfonso CABRERA Hidalgo; National
 Advancement Party (PAN), Alvaro ARZU Irigoyen; National Liberation
 Movement (MLN), Mario SANDOVAL Alarcon; Social Democratic Party (PSD),
 Mario SOLORZANO Martinez; Revolutionary Party (PR), Carlos CHAVARRIA
 Perez; Guatemalan Republican Front (FRG), Efrain RIOS Montt;
 Democratic Union (UD)

 Other political or pressure groups: Coordinating Committee of
 Agricultural, Commercial, Industrial, and Financial Associations
 (CACIF); Mutual Support Group (GAM); Agrarian Owners Group (UNAGRO);
 Committee for Campesino Unity (CUC); leftist guerrilla movement known
 as Guatemalan National Revolutionary Union (URNG) has four main
 factions - Guerrilla army of the Poor (EGP); Revolutionary
 Organization of the People in Arms (ORPA); Rebel Armed Forces (FAR);
 Guatemalan Labor Party (PGT/O)

 Member of: BCIE, CACM, CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-24, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA,
 IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO,
 INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer), NAM, OAS,
 OPANAL, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO,
 WIPO, WMO, WTO

 Diplomatic representation in US:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Edmond MULET
 chancery: 2220 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
 telephone: [1] (202) 745-4952 through 4954
 FAX: [1] (202) 745-1908
 consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York,
 and San Francisco

 US diplomatic representation:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Marilyn McAFEE
 embassy: 7-01 Avenida de la Reforma, Zone 10, Guatemala City
 mailing address: APO AA 34024
 telephone: [502] (2) 311541
 FAX: [502] (2) 318885

 Flag: three equal vertical bands of light blue (hoist side), white,
 and light blue with the coat of arms centered in the white band; the
 coat of arms includes a green and red quetzal (the national bird) and
 a scroll bearing the inscription LIBERTAD 15 DE SEPTIEMBRE DE 1821
 (the original date of independence from Spain) all superimposed on a
 pair of crossed rifles and a pair of crossed swords and framed by a
 wreath

@Guatemala:Economy

 Overview: The economy is based on family and corporate agriculture,
 which accounts for 25% of GDP, employs about 60% of the labor force,
 and supplies two-thirds of exports. Manufacturing, predominantly in
 private hands, accounts for about 15% of GDP and 12% of the labor
 force. In both 1990 and 1991, the economy grew by 3%, the fourth and
 fifth consecutive years of mild growth. In 1992 growth picked up to
 almost 5% as government policies favoring competition and foreign
 trade and investment took stronger hold. In 1993-94, despite political
 unrest, this momentum continued, foreign investment held up, and
 annual growth was 4%.

 National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $33 billion (1994
 est.)

 National product real growth rate: 4% (1994 est.)

 National product per capita: $3,080 (1994 est.)

 Inflation rate (consumer prices): 12% (1994 est.)

 Unemployment rate: 4.9%; underemployment 30%-40% (1994 est.)

 Budget:
 revenues: $604 million (1990)
 expenditures: $808 million, including capital expenditures of $134
 million (1990)

 Exports: $1.38 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
 commodities: coffee, sugar, bananas, cardamon, beef
 partners: US 30%, El Salvador, Costa Rica, Germany, Honduras

 Imports: $2.6 billion (c.i.f., 1994 est.)
 commodities: fuel and petroleum products, machinery, grain,
 fertilizers, motor vehicles
 partners: US 44%, Mexico, Venezuela, Japan, Germany

 External debt: $2.2 billion ( 1992 est.)

 Industrial production: growth rate 1.9% (1991 est.); accounts for 18%
 of GDP

 Electricity:
 capacity: 700,000 kW
 production: 2.3 billion kWh
 consumption per capita: 211 kWh (1993)

 Industries: sugar, textiles and clothing, furniture, chemicals,
 petroleum, metals, rubber, tourism

 Agriculture: accounts for 25% of GDP; most important sector of
 economy; contributes two-thirds of export earnings; principal crops -
 sugarcane, corn, bananas, coffee, beans, cardamom; livestock - cattle,
 sheep, pigs, chickens; food importer

 Illicit drugs: transit country for cocaine shipments; illicit producer
 of opium poppy and cannabis for the international drug trade; the
 government has an active eradication program for cannabis and opium
 poppy

 Economic aid:
 recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-90), $1.1 billion;
 Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
 (1970-89), $7.92 billion

 Currency: 1 quetzal (Q) = 100 centavos

 Exchange rates: free market quetzales (Q) per US$1 - 5.7372 (January
 1995), 5.7512 (1994), 5,6354 (1993), 5.1706 (1992), 5.0289 (1991),
 4.4858 (1990); note - black-market rate 2.800 (May 1989)

 Fiscal year: calendar