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Full text of "The Anglican Ordinal"

THE 



ANGLICAN 



ORDINAL 




FRQM THE LIBRARY OF 

TRINITY COLLEGE 



THE 

ANGLICAN ORDINAL, 



ANNOTATED AND ARRANGED 

FOR USE AT ORDINATIONS, 

COMBINED OR SINGLE. 



BLOMFIELD JACKSON, M.A., 

EXAMINING CHAPLAIN TO THE BISHOP OF ST. ALBANS. 



PUBLISHED UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE TRACT COMMITTEE. 



OCT 21995 



LONDON : 
SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE, 

NORTHUMBERLAND AVENUE, W.C.; 43, QUEEN VICTORIA STREET, E.G. 

BRIGHTON: 129, NORTH STREET. 

NEW YORK : E. & J. B. YOUNG & CO. 

1897- 



PREFACE. 



IT has seemed that the Ordinal of the Church of 
England thus annotated and arranged might be of 
use. In selecting patristic and liturgical illustrations 
I have been much indebted to Canon Bailey s 
valuable Rituale Anglo-Catholicum. For some im 
portant suggestions my thanks are specially due 
to the late Canon Churton, to the Rev. J. H. Maude, 

and to the Rev. H. Gee. 

B. J. 

Michaelmas, 1897. 



A 2 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

THE USE OF ST. ALBANS . ... 5 

DECLARATION AND OATH . . . . .6 
ARTICLES AND CANONS CONCERNING ORDINATION 

ARTICLE XXIII ... . . 7 

XXXVI . .8 

CANONS XXXI-XXXV . . 9 

BIDDING PRAYER ..... -13 

INTRODUCTION .... 15 

THE ORDINAL . ... .24 

INDEX 86 



NOTES OF CUSTOMS AT PRESENT 
OBSERVED AT ORDINATION SER 
VICES IN THE DIOCESE OF ST. 
ALBANS. 



H Candidates attend Morning Prayer unvested. They vest imme 
diately after Morning Prayer in cassock, surplice, and hood ; 
those to be ordained Deacons carrying their stoles with them, 
those to be ordained Priests wearing their stoles over the left 
shoulder. 

IF The Ordination Service p roper begins with the Bidding Prayer 
(p. 13) and Sermon. 

U After the Sermon the Preacher comes back to his place. 

IF On the return of the Preacher to his place the candidates for 
Deacon s Orders are fetched by an Examining Chaplain, who 
precedes them to the step in front of the Bishop, and there pre 
sents them. 

IF The Deacons then return to their places, and an Examining 
Chaplain in like manner presents the candidates for Priest s 
Orders. 

IF After the Epistle the candidates for Deacons Orders come to 
the Altar-step, the Gospel-Deacon last. 

If Immediately after the Ordination of the Gospel-Deacon he comes 
within the rails and reads the Gospel. 

IF The Deacons then return to their places, and the candidates 
for Priest s Orders stand before the Altar-rail, leaving a clear 
space before the Bishop. 

^F As each Priest is Ordered, he kneels at the Altar-rail, and 
remains in his place there until he has received the Communion. 

N. B. The Bishop requests that all Priests who take part in the 
"Laying on of Hands," should come into the Sacrarium, if not 
before the beginning of the Communion Service, at least imme 
diately before the Veni Creator is sung, and that they should then 
stand on the right and left of the Bishop, facing the Candidates, 



6 THE ANGLICAN ORDINAL. 

and should continue so standing during the Veni Creator, and the 
Prayer which immediately follows. If there is not room for them 
in the Sacrarium, they should return to their places immediately 
after the Ordination and before the Nicene Creed is sung. 

To avoid undue crowding it may be remarked that while it is 
desirable that Priests should touch the head of the ordinand, it 
may suffice that they extend their hands over his head. 



[Cassock from Ital. casacca = coat. Latin casa = house VSKAD 
cover. Surplice fromLat. superpelliceum, orig. an "over-leathern" 
garment. Stole from Gk. ffToXrj = garb, used from the ninth 
century for the orarium, of uncertain derivation, but probably 
originally the kerchief for the os, oris = face. Hood = Germ. hut. 
^/KAT hide, a covering for the head, first narrowed to monastic 
use, and later, as now, to the academic.] 

Declaration to be made and subscribed, and oath to be 
taken and subscribed, by all persons who are to be 
ordained Deacon or Priest. Vide 28 & 29 Viet. chap. 

122. 

I, M. N., about to be admitted to the Holy Order of , do 

solemnly make the following Declaration : I assent to the Thirty- 
nine Articles of Religion, and to the Book of Common Prayer, and 
of the Ordering of Bishops, Priests, and Deacons. I believe the 
Doctrine of the Church of England, as therein set forth, to be 
agreeable to the Word of God : and in Public Prayer and Adminis 
tration of the Sacraments I will use the Form in the said Book 
prescribed, and none other, except so far as shall be ordered by law 
ful authority. 

I, M. N., about to be admitted to the Holy Order of , do 

swear that I will be faithful and bear true allegiance to Her Majesty 
Queen Victoria, her heirs and successors, according to law. So 
help me God. 

Every Clergyman about to be licensed to any curacy 
has to take the Oath of Canonical Obedience to the 
Bishop, and make the Declaration of Assent. 

THE OATH OF CANONICAL OBEDIENCE. I, A. B., do swear that 

I will pay true and canonical obedience to the Lord Bishop of , 

and his successors, in all things lawful and honest. So help me God. 



ARTICLES AND CANONS 
CONCERNING ORDINATION. 

ARTICLE XXIII. 



Nemo in Ecclesia ministret nisi uocatu?. 

Non licet cuiquaui surnere sibi niunus publice 
praedicandi, aut administrandi Sacramenta in 
Ecclesia., nisi prius fuerit ad haec obeunda legitime 
uocatus e.t missus. Atque illos legitime uocatos 
et missos existimare debemus, qui per homines, 
quibus potestas uocandi Ministros atque mittendi 
in uinearn Domini publice concessa est in Ecclesia, 
cooptati fuerint et asciti in hoc opus. 



Of ministry >ng in the congregation. 

It is not lawful for any man to take upon hym 
the office of publique preachyng, or ministring the 
Sacramentes in the congregation, before he be 
lawfully called and sent to execute the same. And 
those we ought to judge lawfully called and sent, 
whiche be chosen and called to this worke by men 
who have publique aucthoritie geuen unto them in 
the congregation, to call and sende ministers into 
the Lorde s vineyarde. 



8 THE ANGLICAN ORDINAL. 

ARTICLE XXXVI. 

J 5 6 3- 

De Episcoporum et Ministrorum consecratione. 

Libellus de Consecratione Archiepiscoporum et 
Episcoporum et de ordinatione Presbyterorum 
et Diaconorum editus nuper temporibus Edwardi 
sexti, et autoritate Parlamenti illis ipsis temporibus 
confirmatus, omnia ad eiusmodi consecrationem et 
ordinationem necessaria continet, et nihil habet 
quod ex se sit aut superstitiosum aut impium. 
Itaque quicunque iuxta ritus illius libri consecrati 
aut ordinati sunt ab Anno secundo praedicti Regis 
Edwardi, usque ad hoc tempus, aut in posterum 
iuxta eosdem ritus consecrabuntur aut ordina- 
buntur rite, ordine, atque legitime, statuimus esse 
et fore consecrates et ordinatos. 

I57 1 - 

Of consecration of Bishops and Ministers. 
The booke of Consecration of Archbyshops, and 
Byshops, and ordering of Priestes and Deacons, 
lately set foorth in the time of Edwarde the Sixt, 
and confyrmed at the same tyme by aucthoritie 
of Parliament, doth conteyne all things necessarie 
to suche consecration and orderyng ; ney ther hath it 
any thing, that of itselfe is superstitious or vngodly. 
And therefore, whosoeuer are consecrate or ordered 
accordyng to the rites of that booke, since the 
seconde yere of the aforenamed King Edwarde, 
vnto this time, or hereafter shal be consecrated 
or ordered accordyng to the same rites, we decree 
all such to be ryghtly, orderly, and lawfully con 
secrated and ordered. 



THE ANGLICAN ORDINAL. 9 

CANONS XXXI-XXXV. 

31. Four solemn Times appointed for the Making 
of Ministers. 

Forasmuch as the ancient Fathers of the Church, 
led by example of the Apostles, appointed prayers 
and fasts to be used at the solemn Ordering of 
Ministers, and to that purpose allotted certain 
times, in which only Sacred Orders might be given 
or conferred ; we, following their holy and religious 
example, do constitute and decree, that no Deacons 
or Ministers be made and ordained, but only upon 
the Sundays immediately following leiunia quatuor 
tentyorum, commonly called JEmber Weeks, appointed 
in ancient time for prayer and fasting, (purposely 
for this cause at their first institution,) and so 
continued at this day in the Church of England : 
and that this be done in the Cathedral or Parish 
Church where the Bishop resideth, and in the time 
of Divine Service, in the presence not only of the 
Archdeacon, but of the Dean and two Prebendaries 
at the least, or (if they shall happen by any lawful 
cause to be let or hindered) in the presence of four 
other grave persons, being Masters of Arts at the 
least, and allowed for publick Preachers. 

32. None to be made Deacon and Minister both 
in one day. 

The office of Deacon being a step or degree to 
the Ministry, according to the judgement of the 
ancient Fathers, and the practice of the primitive 
Church ; we do ordain and appoint, that hereafter 



IO THE ANGLICAN ORDINAL. 

no Bishop shall make any person, of what qualities 
or gifts soever, a Deacon and a Minister both 
together upon one day ; but that the order in that 
behalf prescribed in the Book of making and con 
secrating Bishops, Priests, and Deacons be strictly 
observed. Not that always every Deacon should 
be kept from the Ministry for a whole year, when 
the Bishop shall find good cause to the contrary ; 
but that there being now four times appointed in 
every year for the Ordination of Deacons and 
Ministers, there may ever be some time of trial 
of their behaviour in the office of Deacon, before 
they be admitted to the order of Priesthood. 



33. The Titles of such as are to be made Ministers. 

It hath been long since provided by many 
decrees of the ancient Fathers, that none should be 
admitted either Deacon or Priest, who had not 
first some certain place where he might use his 
function. According to which examples we do 
ordain, that henceforth no person shall be admitted 
into Sacred Orders except he shall at that time 
exhibit to the Bishop, of whom he desireth imposi 
tion of hands, a Presentation of himself to some 
Ecclesiastical Preferment then void in that diocese ; 
or shall bring to the said Bishop a true and 
undoubted certificate, that either he is provided of 
some Church within the said diocese, where he 
may attend the cure of souls, or of some Minister s 
place vacant, either in the Cathedral Church of that 
diocese, or in some other Collegiate Church therein 
also situate, where he may execute his ministry ; 



THE ANGLICAN ORDINAL. II 

or that he is a Fellow, or in right as a Fellow, or to 
be a Conduct or Chaplain in some College in 
Cambridge or Oxford ; or except he be a Master 
of Aiis of five years standing, that liveth of his 
own charge in either of the Universities ; or except 
by the Bishop himself, that doth ordain him 
Minister, he be shortly after to be admitted either 
to some Benefice or Curateship then void. And if 
any Bishop shall admit any person into the 
ministry, that hath none of these titles as is afore 
said, then he shall keep and maintain him with all 
things necessary, till he do prefer him to some 
Ecclesiastical Living. And if the said Bishop 
shall refuse so to do, he shall be suspended by 
the Archbishop, being assisted with another 
Bishop, from giving of Orders by the space of 
a year. 



34. The Quality of such as are to be made 
Ministers. 

No Bishop shall henceforth admit any person 
into Sacred Orders, which is not of his own diocese, 
except he be either of one of the Universities of 
this realm, or except he shall bring Letters Dimis- 
sory (so termed) from the Bishop of whose diocese 
he is ; and desiring to be a Deacon, is three and 
twenty years old ; and to be a Priest, four and 
twenty years complete ; and hath taken some 
degree of school in either of the ?aid Universities ; 

o 

or at the least, except he be able to yield an account 
of his faith in Latin, according to the Articles of 
Religion approved in the Synod of the Bishops and 



12 THE ANGLICAN ORDINAL. 

Clergy of this realm, one thousand five hundred 
sixty and two, and to confirm the same by suffi 
cient testimonies out of the Holy Scriptures ; and 
except moreover he shall then exhibit Letters 
Testimonial of his good life and conversation, 
under the seal of some College in Cambridge or 
Oxford, where before he remained, or of three or 
four grave Ministers, together with the subscription 
and testimony of other credible persons, who have 
known his life and behaviour by the space of 
three years next before. 

35. The Examinations of such as are to be made 
Ministers. 

The Bishop, before he admit .any person to Holy 
Orders, shall diligently examine him in the 
presence of those Ministers that shall assist him 
at the imposition of hands : and if the said Bishop 
have any lawful impediment, he shall cause the 
said Ministers carefully to examine every such 
person so to be ordered. Provided, that they who 
shall assist the Bishop in examining and laying 
on of hands, shall be of his Cathedral Church, if 
they may conveniently be had, or other sufficient 
Preachers of the same diocese, to the number of 
three at the least : and if any Bishop or Suffragan 
shall admit any to Sacred Orders who is not so 
qualified and examined, as before we have ordained, 
the Archbishop of his province, having notice 
thereof, and being assisted therein by one Bishop, 
shall suspend the said Bishop or Suffragan so 
offending, from making either Deacons or Priests 
for the space of two years. 



THE BIDDING PRAYER. 

Ye shall pray for Christ s holy Catholic Church, 
that is, for the whole congregation of Christian 
people dispersed throughout the whole world, and 
especially for the Church of England ; and herein 
I require you most especially to pray for the Queen s 
most excellent Majesty, our Soveregn Lady Victoria, 
by the Grace of GOD Queen of Great Britain and 
Ireland, Empress of India, Defender of the Faith, 
and supreme governor in these her realms, and all 
other her dominions and countries, over all persons, 
in all causes, as well ecclesiastical as temporal : Ye 
shall also pray for the noble prince Albert Edward, 
Prince of Wales, the Princess of Wales, and the 
rest of the royal family : Ye shall also pray for the 
ministers of God s holy word and sacraments, 
and as well Archbishops and Bishops, and here are 
we especially bound to pray for ... Lord Archbishop 
of this Province, and for ... by Divine permission, 
Lord Bishop of this Diocese: Ye shall also pray for 
the Queen s most honourable council, and for all the 
nobility and magistrates of this realm ; that all and 
every of these, in their several callings, may serve 
truly and painfully to the glory of God and the 
edifying and well-governing of His people, remem 
bering the account that they must make : also ye 
shall pray for the whole commons of this realm, 
that they may live in the true faith and fear of God, 



14 THE ANGLICAN ORDINAL. 

in humble obedience to the Queen, and brotherly 
charity one to another. Finally, let us praise God 
for all those which are departed out of this life in 
the faith of Christ, and pray unto God that we 
may have grace to direct our lives after their good 
example ; that, this life ended, we may be made 
partakers with them of the glorious resurrection in 
the life everlasting. 
Our Father, &c. 

N.B. Bead, in Chaucer Bede, A. S. Bed,=a Prayer, 
connected with Bid, of uncertain root = Pray. Bid, 
probably of different etymology, also = command. Bidding 
formerly meant both " command " and " Prayer," and it is 
probable that Bidding Prayer meant " Command Prayer " 
rather than " Praying Prayer." The small perforated balls 
called " beads " are so named from having been used in 
Prayer. At the Prayer before the Sermon the people were 
" bid " to pray for subject after subject and " told " or 
reckoned their " beads " as the subjects were successively 
" told " off. The form above is that given in the fifty- 
fifth Canon of 1604. 



INTRODUCTION. 



HOLY ORDERS l IN THE BOOK OF COMMON PRAYER 
AND ARTICLES. 

I. The second Collect for the Ember 2 season 
and the Collects slightly varied in the Ordination 
Services, speak of the divers Orders 3 in the Church 

1 The word Orders is derived from the Latin ordo 
(possibly from \/AR = rise, go) = row, series, order. 
It first appears in Tertullian (de Exhort. Cast, vii) in the 
sense of Holy Orders : " The authority of the Church has 
established a distinction between order and people." It 
was in common use to indicate public office ; e. g. Ordo 
Mutinensis, the Senate of Modena, Tac. Hist. ii. 52. 
The Greek equivalents nigis and rd-ypn. from rarrw = set in 
order, had a similar use (cf. Xen. Mem. ii. i. 7 TT)I> TO>V 
*ipX ftv /3<;vAo/if i/cof Tagiv), and was first, like ordo. employed 
indifferently of any estate of men in the Church, St. Clement 
of Rome ( xl, xli) writing, " The laity are bound by lay 
ordinances ; let each one of you brethren offer Eucharist 
to God in his own Order. " 

The common name clergy is from clericus, K\T]piKos, of or 
belonging to the K\r]pos = lot or heritage, and so the 
heritage of God. Applied originally to the whole Church, 
as in i Pet. v. 3, it was soon limited to the ministry. 

2 i. e. the ymb-ryn or round running, or recurring 
seasons. The derivation from " embers " (ashes) or 
quatember is wrong. 

3 The seven Orders of the Church of Rome are Porter, 
Reader, Exorcist, Acolyte, Sub-deacon, Deacon, Priest; 
Bishop being regarded as a degi ee of the presbyterate 
and not a distinct Order (Cat. Cone. Trident, ii. 7, 25). 
For the pre-eminence of the three Orders of Bishops, 



1 6 THE ANGLICAN OEDINAL. 

as appointed by Almighty God, of His divine provi 
dence, and by His Holy Spirit. 

II. The Preface to the Ordinal L specifies Orders 
which have existed since the Apostles time as 
Bishops, Priests, and Deacons, and guards against 
the possibility of any idea of the starting of a new 
ministry, by the phrase " to the intent that these 
Orders may be continued 2 ." 

Priests, and Deacons, sometimes marked in the West 
as distinctively sacri ordines, cf. Cann. Apost. i and 2, 
and Council of Nicaea, c. iii. Restrictions are imposed 
on a Bishop, a Priest, or a Deacon, or any one who is of 
the clergy. 

1 Issued in 1550; see note thereon. Incorporated in 
3 & 4 Edw. VI, chap. 12, 5 & 6 Edw. VI, chap, i, and 
13 & 14 Car. II, chap. 4. See also 44 Geo. Ill, chap. 43. 

2 A Necessary Doctrine and Erudition for any 
Chrysten Man, commonly called the King s Book, put 
out in 1543, describes Order as "the gyf t or grace of 
mynistration in Christ s Church, given of God to Christen 
men by the consecration and imposition of the Bishop s 
hands. ... To the intent that by ministers duly placed 
there may be due spirituall fathers for spirituall gene 
ration." " In the English Ordination Service annexed 
to the First Prayer Book, and with some important 
changes incorporated in our present book, there is certainly 
nothing like a wholesale rejection of mediaeval additions. 
Not only does our Ordinal follow ancient precedent in 
connecting the bestowal of Holy Orders with the celebra 
tion of the Holy Communion, and in its strict adherence 
to the old rule, long adopted throughout the West, 
which requires the presbyterate to join with the Bishop in 
the laying on of hands upon a Priest, and three Bishops at 
least to take part in the consecration of a Bishop ; not 
only does the Anglican Church follow the example of the 
ancient Roman Church in limiting the ordination of 
Deacons and Priests to the four annual seasons of fasting 
and prayer, and the consecration of a Bishop to Sundays 
or holy days ; not only do the prayers of the Ordination 
Service rest ultimately on the ancient forms ; but we have 
retained such late additions as the Veni Creator and the 



THE ANGLICAN ORDINAL. 1 7 

III. Article XXIII says, " It is not lawful l for 
any man to take upon him the office of public 
preaching, or ministering the Sacraments to the 
Congregation, before he be lawfully called, and sent 
to execute the same. And those we ought to judge 
lawfully called and sent, which be chosen and called 
to this work by men who have publick authority 
given unto them in the Congregation [Latin 
ecclesia], to call and send Ministers into the Lord s 
vineyard." 

IV. By the Preface to the Ordinal "men who 
have public authority given unto them in the Con 
gregation [or Church], to call or send Ministers unto 
the Lord s vineyard," are limited to the Bishops, 
seeing that they alone are recognized as entrusted 
with the duty of ordaining 2 . 

V. The Preface of 1550 ended thus: ; It is 
requisite that no man (not being at this present 
Bishop, Priest, or Deacon) shall execute any of 
them, except he be called, tried and examined, 
and admitted, according to the form hereafter 
following." 

In 1662 this was altered to : : No man shall be 
accounted or taken to be a lawful Bishop, Priest, or 
Deacon in the Church of England, or suffered to 

Accipe Spiritum Sanctum, and the delivery of a book as 
the sign of office " (Swete s Services and Service Books 
before the Reformation, p. 207). 

1 Enforced by civil statute under penalties until the 
passing of the Toleration Act, i Will. & Mary, chap. 18. 

2 " Presbyters, though they be sacer dotes, nevertheless 
possess not the crown of the Pontificate. It is the special 
privilege of Pontiffs (i. e. Bishops) alone that they either 
ordain or confer the Holy Spirit (i.e. administer confirma 
tion)" (St. Isidore, circa A. D. 620, de Ecc. Off. ii. 7; 
cf. Gore, The Church and the Ministry, pp. 115 n., 181). 

B 



l8 THE ANGLICAN ORDINAL. 

execute any of the said functions, except he be 
called, tried, examined, and admitted thereunto, 
according to the form hereafter following, or 
hath had formerly episcopal consecration or ordi 
nation." 

The law of the Church of England, therefore, 
recognizes the Orders, and, subject to certain con 
ditions and statutory provisions 1 , allows the minis 
trations of, Bishops, Priests, and Deacons, conse 
crated and ordained in the Churches of Ireland, 
Scotland, the Colonies, America, Rome, and the East. 

The episcopal succession is also found with the 
Jansenists and Old Catholics. On the Church of 
Sweden and the Moravians the Report of the 
Lambeth Conference of 1897 may be consulted. 
The Churches of Denmark, Norway, and the so- 
called Methodist Episcopal Church of America 
use the name "Bishop" of ministers not episco- 
pally ordained. 

The ordinations in Presbyterian and other 
non-episcopal communities at home and abroad 
do not qualify their ministers either ecclesiastically 
or legally to take part in the ministrations of the 
Church of England. 

Luther s view of the ministry, more or less 
adopted by several sects since his time, was that 
it is merely a subordinate matter of Church 
organization, to be started or modified as need 
may require. Cf. Luther s Address to the Nobility 
of the German Nation, Luther s Primary Works, 
ed. Wace, 1896, p. 164. 

1 Vide 37 & 38 Victoria, chap. 77, and 27 & 28 Victoria, 
chap. 94. See also Blunt and Pliilliinoi e, Church Law, 
p. 191. 



THE ANGLICAN ORDINAL. 19 

The Presbyterian view is strict as to a succession 
of ministers ordained by Presbyters. 

Up to 1 747 Wesley admitted the historic position. 
There is, and always was, in every Christian 
Church an outward priesthood, ordained by Jesus 
Christ, and an outward sacrifice offered by author 
ized stewards of the divine mysteries " ( Wesley s 
Journal, Dec. 27, 1745). "The three Orders are 
plainly described in the New Testament, and they 
generally obtained in the Churches of the Apostolic 
age" (Minutes of Conference, 1747). 

VI. Article XXV excludes Orders from the 
category of Sacraments J " ordained of Christ in the 
Gospel," and denies it to have ; any visible sign or 
ceremony ordained of God," in that Scripture cori- 

1 The Homily " of Common Prayer and Sacraments," 
however, says, " As for the number of them, if they should 
be considered according to the exact signification of 
a Sacrament, viz. for the visible signs expressly t-om- 
manded in the New Testament, whereunto is awarded 
the promise of free forgiveness of our sin, and of our 
holiness and joining in Christ, there be but two, namely, 
Baptism and the Supper of the Lord. For although 
Absolution hath the promise of forgiveness of sin ; yet by 
the expiess word of the New Testament it hath not this 
promise annexed and tied to the visible sign, which is 
imposition of hands. For this visible sign (I mean laying 
on of hands) is not expressly commanded in the New 
Testament to be used in Absolution, as the visible sign 
in Baptism and the Lord s Supper are; and, therefore, 
Absolution is no such Sacrament as Baptism and the 
Communion are. And though the Ordering of Ministers 
hath this visible sign and promise ; yet it lacks the promise 
of remission of sin, as all other Sacraments besides the 
two above-named do. Therefore neither it nor any other 
Sacrament else, be such Sacraments as Baptism and the 
Communion are." Cf. the arrangement of the Title of 
the Book of Common Prayer. 

t B 2 



2O THE ANGLICAN ORDINAL. 

tains no record of the imposition of hands being 
the outward sign appointed by our Lord, nor can 
it be said to be generally necessary to salvation " 
in the sense in which Baptism and the Eucharist 
are generally necessary. 

VII. Article XXXVI asserts that the Ordinal 
contains all things necessary to " Consecration 
and Ordering " (Consecration of Archbishops and 
Bishops, and Ordering of Priests and Deacons), and 
denies that the Ordinal contains anything that of 
itself is " superstitious or ungodly." 

It therefore deals with two classes of depreciators : 
(L) the Roman or mediaevalist ; (2) the Puritan or 
non-catholic. 

(i) Roman or mediaevalist objections were not 
in many cases held of sufficient force, during the 
submission of the realm under Mary I to the Papacy, 
to vitiate Orders conferred with the Edwardine 
Ordinal 1 . Nor have they been judged weighty by 
foreign scholars like Bossuet (Le Courayer, Preuves 
Just, i.), Dollinger (Bonn Conference, 1874, p. 71), 
and more recently Duchesne (Bulletin Critique, 
July 15, 1894, p. 262). Notice has, however, been 
lately attracted to them by the issue from Rome of 
the Bull Apostolicae Curae (dated the Ides of Sep 
tember, 1896), in which the points wherein the 
English Ordinal is said to be defective are (a) form, 
and (/3) intention. The matter or outward sign of 
imposition of hands being retained, the form or 
words used are, it is urged, insufficient, because 
the offices of Priest and Bishop have not, through 
the changes of the English Liturgy, been explicitly 
mentioned. "T}o this it is enough to reply, (i) that 

1 See The Marian Reaction, Ch. Hist. Soc. xviii. p. 126. 



THE ANGLICAN ORDINAL. 21 

the distinct Orders intended to be conveyed have 
always been mentioned in some part of the office, 
and that (2) the specifying words are not found in 
the form accompanying- the imposition of hands in 
episcopal ordination in the Roman Pontifical l . 

(/3) As to intention. The Preface to the Ordinal 
sufficiently indicates that the " intent " of the ser 
vices is to " continue " in " the Church of England " 
the same Orders which have obtained in it all along, 
and to confer, when required to be conferred, the 
genuine " Office of Priesthood " and the privilege of 
offering on behalf of the congregation the proper 
Eucharistic sacrifice. (Of. Answer of the Arch 
bishops of England to Pope Leo XIII, xi.) 

On any defect arguable from the discontinuance 
of the picturesque and graceful rite of " the porrec- 
tion of the instruments " or delivery of the paten 
and chalice, it is to be noticed that the rite is com 
paratively modern ; it does not appear in the earliest 
known English Pontifical 2 , that of Archbishop 

1 On various early forms of ordination, illustrating the 
non-rigidity of ancient Catholic usage, see Notes on the 
Forms of Ordination, pp. 78, 79. 

2 A Pontifical is the book containing offices to be per 
formed by a Pontifex, or Bishop. The Latin name 
Pontifex (derived either from pons and /ac?o = path or 
bridge maker \Varro] or Pompa and facio), cf. Daniel, 
P. Book, p. 15, first appears in Tertullian (De Pudicitia, 
c. i). Hilary of Aries is Summus Pontifex in Eucherius 
(Migne, 1. 773). Other early Pontificals are those of 
Archbishop Dunstan (957-988) at Paris, and Ethelwold 
of Winchester (963-984). There is now no complete 
English Pontifical. The offices for Confirmation and the 
Ordinal are incorporated in the Book of Common Prayer, 
but those for the Coronation Service and the Consecration 
of Churches and Cemeteries are not. Cf. Swete, Services 
and Service Books before the Reformation, pp. 195-223. 



22 THE ANGLICAN ORDINAL. 

Egbert of York in the Paris Library (A. D. 732-766), 
or in the early Missale Francorum preserved in the 
Cod. Vat. apud Muratori. 

It may have arisen from the natural custom of 
giving to the recipients of minor " Orders ] " which 
were not, strictly speaking, " Orders " at all, some 
insignia of office, e. g. the Porter, a key ; the Reader, 
a book ; the Acolyte, a candlestick and candle, 
because it was his business to light the candles in 
the church, and a pitcher, because he had to see 
to the supply of wine for the Eucharist ; the Sub- 
deacon, an empty chalice and paten, and an ewer 
and towel, because he had to wash the Bishop s 
hands. So even a Deacon who was " ordained " by 
imposition of hands, in southern countries received 
a fan,because he would keep flies from the oblations. 
Or it may rather have grown from the Roman 
custom (Mabillon, Ordo ix. 3 ; Migne, Ixxviii. 1005) 
that, after an ordination, the Bishop should give 
the newly ordained Priest vestments and the sacred 
vessels, with wine, corn, and oil, and take him in 
state to his parish. About the twelfth century the 
" porrection " came to be regarded as the essential of 
ordination, and in the fifteenth, Pope Eugenius IV, 
in his Decretwm ad Armenos (A.D. 1439), committed 
himself to the curious theory that it, with the form, 
constituted ordination. 

(a) Puritan and non-catholic objections. The 
objections of the extreme Puritans naturally ex 
tended to the Ordinal in toto. They objected to 
episcopacy, to the term Priest, understanding it in 

1 After the thirteenth century, in the W. the sub- 
diaconate was reckoned among the sacri or majores 
ordines. Of. D. C. A. ii. 1475. 



THE ANGLICAN ORDINAL. 23 

its popular and narrower sense as connoting some 
thing more than its doublet Presbyter. They ob 
jected to any restriction of the ministry of the Word 
and Sacraments to officers episcopally ordained. 
Yet at the Hampton Court Conference in 1604, and 
at the Savoy in 1661, the Ordinal was not one of 
the points most prominently attacked. 

In view of objections to the use of formula, 
" Receive the Holy Ghost," it may be noted that 
the universal belief of Christendom has been that 
ministerial authority proceeds from the Holy Ghost, 
and that the right to exercise it is of the nature of 
a yja.pi(Tna (n Tim. i. 6). The quotation and appli 
cation of our Lord s words ( Whose soever sins/ &c., 
St. John xx. 23) spoken collectively to the assembled 
Church l on the evening of the day of the Resurrec 
tion fitly recall and individualize His charge. They 
are, however, a comparatively modern addition to 
the Ordinal, and are not in themselves essential to 
ordination. Cf. pp. 78, 80. 

1 " The act is described as one (eW^uo-^o-f) and not 
repeated. The gift was once for all, not to indi 
viduals, but to the abiding body" (Bishop Westcott on 
St. John xx). 



THE 
FORM AND MANNER (1) 

OF 
ORDAINING AND MAKING 

OF 

PRIESTS AND DEACONS 

ACCORDING TO THE ORDER OF 

THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND. 



1. The Form and Manner. 

At the time of the issue of the First Prayer Book of 
Edward VI the ancient Pontificals were in use. A com 
mission, of which Archbishop Cranmer was the prominent 
member, published early in 1550 " The Forme and maner 
of makyng and consecratyng of Archbishoppes, Bishoppes, 
Priestes, and Deacons," which is the first Ordinal in 
English. There are three copies in the Library of the 
British Museum and a reprint in The First Prayer Book 
of Edward VI (Parker, 1877). The chief variations from 
later Ordinals are the following: 

() " None shall be admitted a Deacon except he be 
twenty-one years at the least." 

(&) Of Priests and Deacons, " Every one of them that 
are presented having upon him a plain albe " (i. e. 
a closely fitting white tunic, girded). 

(c) The Rubric before the Gospel is, " Then one of them 
appointed by the Bishop, putting on a tunicle " (a scantier 
dalmatic ; the mediaeval vestment of the Sub-deacon). Cf. 
note 13, p. 33. 

(d) As the Introit to the Communion, in the Order of 
Priests, a Rubric orders Ps. xl, or else Ps. cxxxii, or else 
Ps. cxxxv. 



THE ANGLICAN ORDINAL. 25 

(e] The version of the Veni Creator, introduced after 
the Gospel, contains in the fourth stanza the line 

Strengthen and stablish all our weakness, so feeble 

and so frail ; " 
and in the sixth runs 

"That thou, Lord, mayst be our comfort at the last 
dreadful day." 

(/) The direction after the imposition of hands on 
Priests ran : 

" The Bishop shall deliver to every one of them the 
Bible in the one hand, and the chalice or cup, with 
the bread, in the other, and say, Take thou authority to 
preach the word of God, and to minister the Holy 
Sacraments in this congregation." 

The " Form " was mainly based upon the Sarum 
Pontifical. The oldest extant authorities on the Hite 
of Ordination in the Latin Church are 

(a) Statuta Ecdesiae Antigua, a collection of disciplinary 
and liturgical canons formed in Gaul, in the province of 
Aries, in the sixth century. 

(b) Of Roman Sacramentaries, those of Leo I (1461) 
and of Hadrian I (t 795). These show the same prayers 
for the ordination of Deacons, Priests, and Bishops, and 
make no mention of the minor Orders. Hence it is 
inferred that for the minor Orders there was at Rome 
originally no ceremonial ordination. Cf. Duchesne, Ori- 
gines du Culte ChretifM, pp. 337, 339. 

The oldest extant English Pontifical, that of Egbert of 
York (732-766) in the Bibliotheque Rationale at Paris, 
does contain directions for Sub-deacons and other minor 
Orders. 

The oldest rites in connexion with ordinations were 
(i) prayer, (2) the imposition of hands, and later (3) the 
delivery of the insignia of office. Cf. pp. 78, 79, 80. 

The "Form" of 1550 was modified as has been in 
dicated in 1552, and again in 1662. 

The modern Roman Pontifical, that of Pope Clement VIII, 
dates from 1596. 



26 THE ANGLICAN ORDINAL. 



THE PREFACE. 

IT is evident 
unto all men diligently reading the holy Scripture (2) 

2. Holy Scripture. 

(a) BISHOPS (" Bishop "=eVtWo7roy, Greek for "Over 
seer"). At first the supreme authority in the Church was 
vested in the Apostles, and the titles of Priest and Bishop 
were both used of the second Order. St. James the Just 
at Jerusalem (Acts xii. 17, xv. 13, xxi. 18), SS. Timothy 
and Titus at Ephesus and Crete, are the earliest instances 
of priests appointed to exercise episcopal authority over 
other priests (i Tim. i. 3, 4, v. 17-22; 2 Tim. ii. 2; Tit. i. 5, 
ii. i sqq., iii. 10). Probably this was the position of Epa- 
phroditus at Philippi (Phil. ii. 25), of Archippus at Colossae 
(Col. iv. 17; Philem. 2 \ and of the " Angels " of the 
Churches of Asia Minor (cf. (Ecumenius on Apoc. ii. i). 

(b) On PKIESTS ("Priest" is a contraction of Pres 
byter, from irpfa-pvTepos, comp. of 7rpeV/3vr, where the Trpeo- 
= Ijat.pris in prisons, meaning "old" : the -fivs is doubt 
ful) in the Church of Jerusalem cf. Acts xi. 30, and 
xv. 4, 6, 23. On their ordination for Gentile Churches 
cf. Acts xiv. 23, and xx. 17. The seventy (Luke x. i) 
may have originated a lower Apostolate (cf. Jer. Taylor, 
v. 24, ed. 1859). Priests were ordained by Apostles 
(Acts xiv. 23) and subsequently by their delegates (i Tim. 
v. 22). They aided in the ordination of other Priests 
(i Tim. iv. 14). 

(c) DEACONS (from Greek SIOKOVOS = " Minister ") were 
first elected by the congregation and ordained by the 
Apostles (Acts vi. 1-6). 

N.B. Thus the three Orders in Holy Scripture appear 
mainly as Apostles, Priest-bishops, and Deacons; the 
original Apostolate beginning to disappear, as in the case 
of the martyred St. James the Great, and some Priest- 
bishops beginning to be ordained to discharge episcopal 
functions (e.g. to ordain) and exercise authority over 
others as they received apostolic commission so to do. 
All three Orders, of course, retained each with its special 



THE ANGLICAN OKDINAL. 2J 

and ancient Authors (3), that from the Apostles 

character, the "hieratic" character (cf. St. Basil, Ep. 
237), for which the English tongue has no distinctive 
name, common to the whole Church, both clergy and laity 
(Rev. i. 6, v. 10; i Pet. ii. v. 9), though some sacred 
duties, specially belonging to the ministry of the word and 
sacraments, have been from the beginning confined to 
the three Holy Orders ; and the representative functions 
of pronouncing absolution and offering the Holy Eucharist 
to the two higher (cf. Ignatius, t c. no, Troll, iii, Justin 
Martyr, t c. 160, Apol. Major, 85, 87, and Cyprian, t 258, 
Epp. 33 and 73). 

3. Ancient Authors. 

(a) Clement, Bishop of Rome, died A. D. i oo. St. Clement 
in his Epistle to the Corinthians (written c. A.D. 95) still 
speaks of Apostles, bishops, and deacons, using the analogy 
of the Jewish High Priest, Priest and Levites. He is 
strong on ecclesiastical order : "Let each of you, brethren, 
being in a good conscience, offer his Eucharist to God in 
his own order, not transgressing the defined rule of his 
service, in reverence" ( xli). The Apostles were sent 
out by Christ and " they ordained their first fruits, after 
trying them by the Spirit, to be bishops and deacons of 
future believers " ( xlii). With " this work " of ordina 
tion they had " in Christ been entrusted by God " ( xliii). 
" They knew through our Lord Jesus Christ that there 
would be contention about the Episcopate ; for this cause, 
therefore, having received," i.e. from the Lord, "complete 
foreknowledge, they ordained the aforesaid, and afterwards 
have established a perpetuity, so that, if they should fall 
asleep, other approved men should in succession take their 
office." It is not right that exclusion from the ministry 
should be suffered by ministers "ordained by them," i.e. 
the Apostles, " or afterwards by other notable men, with 
the consent of the whole church " ( xliv). St. Clement, 
then, who was a contemporary with, and had met 
St. Peter, St. Paul, and St. John (Iren. iii), writes that 
(i) the Apostles had received from the Lord information 
as to the government and ministry of the Church, and 
that (ii) they acted on His commands in providing for 
the ordination by other notable men of a succession of 
the two Orders. 



28 THE ANGLICAN ORDINAL. 

time there have been these Orders of Ministers 
in Christ s Church ; Bishops, Priests, and Deacons. 
Which Offices were evermore had in such reverend 
Estimation, that no man might presume to 
execute any of them, except he were first called, 

(b) In Ignatius, Bishop of Antioch (martyred c. A.D. 
no) St. Clement s succession appears in definite operation. 
" The Bishop and the Priests and Deacons with him ap 
pointed according to the mind of Jesus Christ, whom in 
conformity with His own mind He confirmed in sure 
establishment by His Holy Spirit" (ad Philad. Inscr.}. 

(c) Irenaeus, Bishop of Lyons (t c. 200), adv. Haer. 
iii. 3, takes up the evidence : " We can reckon those who 
were appointed Bishops in the Churches by the Apostles, 
and their successors, down to our own time," and (adv. 
Haer. i. 27): " Hyginus holding the ninth place of epis 
copal succession from the Apostles." 

(d) Tertullian, t 240 (de Sapt. 17): "The right of 
giving Baptism lies with the chief Priest (Sacerdos), i.e. 
the Bishop, and after him with the Presbyters and Deacons, 
but not without the Bishop s authority," and " It is there 
fore for them (sc. the heretics) to publish the origin of 
their Churches : it is for them to display the roll of their 
bishops, a roll so following its course from the beginning 
that their first bishop had as maker and predecessor some 
one either of the Apostles or of apostolic men, who never 
theless continued steadfastly with the Apostles. Thus it 
is that Apostolic Churches hand down their registers ; as 
that of the Smyrnaeans recalls Polycarp appointed by 
John; as that of the Romans, Clement ordained in like 
manner by Peter, just as all the rest show forth their 
having transmitters of the Apostolic seed appointed to the 
Episcopate by the Apostles " (de Praescript. Haeret. xxxii). 

(e) Athanasius, t373: "The order the Lord has 
established by the Apostles abides fair and firm" (Ep. 
xlix. 3). 

(f) Augustine, t 430 writes (Ep. ccxxxii): " The root 
tree of the Christian Society, surely propagated through 
out the world by means of Apostles sees and Bishops 
successions." 



THE ANGLICAN ORDINAL. 29 

tried, examined (4), and known to have such 
qualities as are requisite for the same; and also 
by publick Prayer, with Imposition of Hands, 
were approved and admitted thereunto by lawful 
Authority. And therefore, to the intent that these 
Orders may be continued, and reverently used and 
esteemed, in the Church of England, no man 
shall be accounted or taken to be a lawful Bishop, 
Priest, or Deacon in the Church of England, or 
suffered to execute any of the said Functions, 
except he be called, tried, examined, and admitted 
thereunto, according to the Form hereafter fol 
lowing, or hath had formerly Episcopal Consecra 
tion, or Ordination. 

And none shall be admitted a Deacon, except he 
be Twenty- three years of age (5), unless he have 

4. Tried, examined. Cf. Council of Sardica (A. D. 343) 
ex. (Labbe, ii. 636 B). 

" And in the case of each Order the grade shall have 
a period of time, and that obviously not a very short one, 
whereby it shall be possible for the faith of the candidate, 
the high excellence of his character, his firmness and his 
fairness to be made generally known, and that he may 
enjoy this high honour after being reckoned worthy of the 
divine and sacred office. For it is alike unbecoming, and 
inconsistent with knowledge and good conversation to 
take this step rashly and lightly, so as in the case 
of either Bishop, Priest, or Deacon to make a hurried 
appointment." 

5. Of age. The age has varied at different periods and 
places. The earliest positive enactment as to the Pres- 
byterate was that of the Council of Neocaesarea (A.D. 314), 
c. xi, that the candidate must be thirty. Pope Zachary 
allowed Boniface in 751 to ordain presbyters at twenty- 
five (S. Zach. Ep. xiii). So the Council of Ravenna, 
A.D. 1314, and the modern Roman Pontifical. The 
earliest age for deacons was twenty-five (Cod. Eccles. 



30 THE ANGLICAN ORDINAL. 

a Faculty. And every man which is to be ad 
mitted a Priest shall be full Four-and-twenty 
years old. And every man -which is to be ordained 
or consecrated Bishop shall be fully Thirty years 
of age. 

And the Bishop, knowing either by himself, or 
by sufficient testimony, any Person to be a man 
of virtuous conversation, and without crime ; and. 
after examination and trial, finding him learned in 
the Latin Tongue (6), and sufficiently instructed 
in holy Scripture, may at the times appointed in 
the Canon, or else, on urgent occasion, upon some 
other Sunday or Holy-day, in the face of the 
Church (7), admit him a Deacon, in such manner 
and form as hereafter folio weth. 

Afr. Can. xvi). The age fixed for the Diaconate in the 
English Ordinal of 1550 was twenty-one, that for the 
Presbyterate and Episcopate being as now twenty-four 
and thirty. Twenty-three appears for the Diaconate in 
the Canon of 1604. 

6. Learned in the Latin tongue. Greek scholarship was 
yet practically unrevived in the middle of the sixteenth 
century. It is at least as important that a candidate for 
Holy Orders be learned in Greek as in Latin, and no one 
can be deemed " sufficiently instructed " in Holy Scripture 
unless he be acquainted with it. 

7. In the face of the Church. " Let no ordination take 
place in secret." Let it take place " with the approval of 
clerics of genuine orthodoxy, so that there be no oppor 
tunity for fraud," Theophilus of Alexandria, t 412, 
Can. VI. 



THE 
FORM AND MANNER 

OF 

ORDINATION. 



N-B. The portions of the service to be used at the Ordination 
of Priests are indicated by a line in the margin; portions common 
to both services by a double line. 

IT When the day appointed by the Bishop is come, after Morning 
Prayer is ended, there shall be a Sermon or Exhortation (8), 
declaring the Duty and Office of such as come to be admitted 
Deacons [or] Priests; how necessary that Order is, [or those 
Orders are] in the Church of Christ (9), and also, how the people 
ought to esteem them in their Office (10). 

8. Sermon or Exhortation. 

" When all are present before the Bishop, let either 
the Bishop himself or the Archdeacon make a discourse 
suitable to the occasion" (Pontifical of Tours, ed. 
Martene, ii. 61). 

9. How necessary thdse Orders are in the Church of Christ. 
" Be zealous to do all things in godly concord, the 
Bishop presiding after the likeness of God, and the 
Presbyters after the likeness of the Council of the Apostles, 
with the Deacons also who are right dear to me and are 
entrusted with the Ministry (8inicoi>ia) of Jesus Christ " 
(Ignatius to the Magnesians, vi). " Whence did Ischyras 
get his Orders ? Who ordained him 1 Colluthus 1 This 
is the only possible hypothesis. But it is notorious that 
Colluthus died a Presbyter, and that every ordination of 
his is invalid, and that all ordained by him in schism 
are laymen " (Athanasius, Apol. c. Arian. xii). " Follow 
the way of Catholic discipline, which from Christ Him 
self through His Apostles has flowed without break to us, 
and shall continue to follow from us to those that come 
after us " (Augustine, de Util. Cred. c. viii). 

10. How the people ought to esteem them in their Office. 



32 THE ANGLICAN ORDINAL, 

TI First the Archdeacon, or his Deputy, sliall present unto the 
Bishop (sitting in his chair (11) near to the holy 

" The express precepts of God in Scripture are written 
in great characters; there is a . double honour to be 
given to ecclesiastical i ulers, rulers that also labour 
in the word and doctrine ; there is obedience due to 
them, obedience in all things, and estimation, and love, 
vTTfp tK Trfpiaaov, very abundantly ; esteem such very 
highly fur their work s sake ; a communicating to them 
in all good things ; and their offices are described to be 
great, separate, busy, eminent, and profitable ; they are 
rulers, presidents, set over us in the Lord, taking 
care for us, labouring in doctrine, spiritual persons, 
restorers of them that were overtaken in a fault, 
curates of souls such as must give account for them, 
the salt, the light of the word/ shepherds, and much 
more, signifying work, and rule, and care, and honour. 
But next to the words of Scripture there can be no more 
said concerning the honour of the sacred order of the 
clergy than is said by St. Chrysostom in his book De 
Sacerdotio, and St. Ambrose De dignitate Sacerdotali ; 
and no greater thing can be supported by God, com 
municated to man, than to be the minister of God in 
the great conveyances of grace, and instruments of God 
in the pardon of sins, in the consecration of Christ s 
Body and Blood, in the guidance and conduct of souls." 
Bishop Jeremy Taylor in The Divine Institution of the 
Office Ministerial, 5. 

11. Sitting in his chair. 

So in the York Pontifical of Archbishop Bainbridge, 
1508-1514 "Episcopus sedens interrogat." In the Exeter 
Pontifical of the fourteenth century (ed. Barnes, 1847, 
pp. 84, 85, "Episcopus sedens" addresses the ordiuauds) : 
then the rubric for the Imposition of hands on Deacons is 
" tune surgeus Episcopus." 

So apparently the Sarum Pont. (Maskell, Mon. Rit. 
ii. p. 205). In the Roman Pont, at the presentation, 
" Pontifex sedens in faldistorio." 

In the Greek Church the Bishop sits in front of the 
Altar, but to the left of it, that he may not turn his back 
upon the Holy Sacrament. 



THE ANGLICAN ORDINAL. 33 

Table (12) ) such as desire to be ordained Deacons, (each of them 
being decently habited (13),) saying these words, 

Keverend Father in God (14), I present unto you 
these persons present, to be admitted Deacons. 

12. The Holy Table. The word Altar, removed from 
the Reformed Liturgy in 1552, was sanctioned by Con 
vocation in 1640, and appears in the Coronation Office. 
The Scriptural term Table (i Cor. x. 21) is frequent in 
Greek Liturgies (e. g. St. James, " sacred and spiritual 
Table"), St. Mark "All holy Table," and in the Greek 
Fathers. 

N.B. Altare=High Place \/AK=raise. 

Table = Spread Place V TA= stretch. 

Tpdfre fa = Fourfooted. 

Ecop.6s (v A BA = go) is generally used for heathen altars 
(e.g. i Maccab. i. 54), and so Ara (Sansk. AS = " where 
the victim rests ") equivalent of^w/xoy in LXX. (e.g. Min. 
Felix, Octavius, xxxii, " aras non habemus "). Svo-taorqptoj/, 
i. e. place of the Qva-la, offering whether bloody or un 
bloody, has a wider application (e.g. Matt. v. 24; Heb. 
xiii. 10; Ignat. Phil, iv; Polyc. Phil, iv), cf. B.C. A. i. 61. 

13. Decently habited. The Order of 1550 was that 
each candidate should wear " a plain albe," and the 
Gospeller a " tunicle," i.e. the " tunicella " dim. of tunica, 
a dalmatic, or short upper garment, with short sleeves, 
worn over the alb from the eighth century in the Western 
Church. 

" Decently habited " may be assumed to permit the 
dress appointed for future ministrations. 

14. Reverend Father in God, &c. 

" The Archdeacon walking into the middle of the choir, 
with his eyes fixed on the Bishop, addresses him in these 
words, Keverend Father, this holy Church demands 
that these men fit for Orders be consecrated for Her by 
your Paternity. The Bishop answers, In that by nature, 
knowledge, and manner of life, such persons may be 
presented by thee, and such by us ordained for God s 
House, that by them the devil may be banished afar off, 
and the clergy from among us be multiplied : the Arch 
deacon proceeds, So far as the examination of men is 
concerned, they are esteemed by nature, knowledge, 

C 



34 THE ANGLICAN ORDINAL. 

The Bishop. 

Take heed that the persons, whom ye present 
unto us, be apt and meet, for their learning and 
godly conversation, to exercise their Ministry duly, 
to the honour of God, and the edifying of his 
Church. 

U The Archdeacon shall answer, 

I have enquired of them, and also examined 
them, and think them so to be. 

H Then the Bishop shall say unto the people : 

Brethren, if there be any of you who knoweth 
any Impediment, or notable Crime, in any of these 
persons presented to be ordered Deacons, for the 
which he ought not to be admitted to that Office, 
let him come forth in the Name of God, and shew 
what the Crime or Impediment is. 

and way of life to be worthy, and by God s will 
can be made right and proper fellow- workers in these 
duties " (Pontifical of the Church of Noyon, A. D. 450, 
ed. Martene). 

Cf. Mediaeval Pontifical as given in Maskell, Mon. 
Rit. iii. pp. 154 et seqq. In Procter on Book of C. P., 
p. 435. " While the Office is being sung let those who 
are to be ordained be called by name ; then, after 
prayer, let the Bishop sit in front of the Altar with his 
face towards the Candidates and let the Archdeacon, 
vested in a cope, reverently looking towards the Bishop, 
address him in these words, " Reverend Father, this holy 
Church," &c., as before. " The Apostle Paul on choosing 
men to be ordained either Presbyters or Deacons, does 
not say If any one be without sin ; were he so to say, 
every human being would be rejected, no man would be 
ordained ; he says. If any one is not under charge of crime 
(A. V. blameless, Greek ai>eyKAi7Tor = not accused Tit. 
i. 6) such as murder, adultery, impurity, theft, fraud, 
sacrilege, and so forth." St. Aug. Tract XLI. on 
John viii. 



THE ANGLICAN ORDINAL. 35 

*i And if any great Crime or Impediment be objected, the Jlishop 
shall surcease from Ordering that person, until such time as the 
party accused shall be found clear of that Crime. 

H [Then~\ the Archdeacon, or, in his absence, one appointed in his 
ttead, shall present unto the Bishop (sitting in his chair near to 
the holy Ta^le) all them that shall receive the Order of Priest 
hood that day (each of them being decently habited) and sat/, 

Reverend Father in God, I present unto you 
these persons present, to be admitted to the Order 
of Priesthood. 

The Bishop. 

Take heed that the persons, whom ye present 
unto us, be apt and meet, for their learning and 
godly conversation, to exercise their Ministry duly, 
to the honour of God, and the edifying of his Church. 

H The Archdeacon shall answer, 

I have enquired of them, and also examined them, 
and think them so to be. 

^[ Then the Bishop shall say unto the people: 

Good people, these are they whom we purpose, 
God willing, to receive this day unto the holy Office 
of Priesthood : For after due examination we find 
not to the contrary, but that they be lawfully 
called to their Function and Ministry, and that 
they be persons meet for the same. But yet if 
there be any of you, who knoweth any Impediment, 
or notable Crime, in any of them, for the which he 
ought not to be received into this holy Ministry, 
let him come forth in the Name of God, and shew 
what the Crime or Impediment is. 

U And if any great Crime or Impediment be objected, the Bishop 
shall surcease from Ordering that person, until such time as the 
party accused shall be found cle>ir of that Crime. 
C 2 



36 THE ANGLICAN ORDINAL. 

IT Then the Bishop (commending such as shall befounfl meet to be 
Ordered to the Prayers of the congregation) shall, with the 
Clergy and people present, siny or say the Litany (15), with the 
Prayers, as folloiceth. [Both proper Suffrages shall be used 
when loth Deacons and Priests are to be Ordered. } 



The Litany and Suffrages (16). 

O God the Father of heaven : have mercy upon 
us miserable sinners. 

God the Father of heaven: have mercy upon 
us miserable sinners. 

O God the Son, Redeemer of the world : have 
mercy upon us miserable sinners. 

God the Son, Redeemer of the world : have 
mercy upon us miserable sinners. 

O God the Holy Ghost, proceeding from the 
Father and the Son : have mercy upon us miser 
able sinners. 

God the Holy Ghost, proceeding from the 
Father and the Son : have mercy upon us miser 
able sinners. 

O holy, blessed, and glorious Trinity, three 
Persons and one God : have mercy upon us, miser 
able sinners. 

15. " Then the Bishop . . . shall . . . sing or say the 
Litany." Let the Bishop prostrate himself with all the 
Candidates and let a Litany be said." MS. Pontif. of 
the use of Soissons, A.D. 650 (Martene, ii. 50). 

16. In the Litany in the Bainbridge York Pontifical 
"Let the Bishop rise, take his staff in his hand, turn 
to the candidates and say that it may please Thee (i) 
to bless, (2) to bless and sanctify, (3) to bless, sanctify 
and consecrate the chosen (candidates), We beseech Thee 
to hear us. After this the Bishop is to kneel with the 
Ministers, to the end of the Litany." 



THE ANGLICAN ORDINAL. 37 

holy, blessed, and glorious Trinity, three 
Persons and one God : have mercy upon us miser 
able sinners. 

Remember not. Lord, our offences, nor the offences 
of our forefathers ; neither take thou vengeance of 
our sins, spare us, good Lord, spare thy people, 
whom thou hast redeemed with thy most precious 
blood, and be not angry with us for ever. 
Spare us, good Lord. 

From all evil and mischief ; from sin, from the 
crafts and assaults of the devil ; from thy wrath, 
and from everlasting damnation, 

Good Lord, deliver us. 

From all blindness of heart ; from pride, vain 
glory, and hypocrisy ; from envy, hatred, and 
malice, and all uncharitableness, 

Good Lord, deliver us. 

From fornication, and all other deadly sin ; and 
from all the deceits of the world, the flesh, and the 
devil, 

Good Lord, deliver us. 

From lightning and tempest ; from plague, pesti 
lence, and famine ; from battle and murder, and 
from sudden death, 

Good Lord, deliver us. 

From all sedition, privy conspiracy, and rebel 
lion ; from all false doctrine, heresy, and schism ; 
from hardness of heart, and contempt of thy Word 
and Commandment, 

Good Lord, deliver us. 

By the mystery of thy holy Incarnation ; by thy 



38 THE ANGLICAN ORDINAL. 

holy Nativity and Circumcision ; by thy Baptism, 
Fasting, and Temptation, 

Good Lord, deliver us. 

By thine Agony and bloody Sweat ; by thy Cross 
and Passion ; by thy precious Death and Burial ; 
by thy glorious Resurrection and Ascension ; and 
by the coining of the Holy Ghost, 

Good Lord, deliver us. 

In all time of our tribulation ; in all time of our 
wealth ; in the hour of death, and in the day of 
judgement, 

Good Lord, deliver us. 

We sinners do beseech thee to hear us, O Lord 
God ; and that it may please thee to rule and govern 
thy holy Church universal in the right way ; 
We leteech thee to hear us, good Lord. 

That it may please thee to keep and strengthen 
in the true worshipping of thee, in righteousness 
and holiness of life, thy Servant VICTORIA, our 
most gracious Queen and Governour ; 

We leseech thee to hear us, good Lord. 

That it may please thee to rule her heart in thy 
faith, fear, and love, and that she may evermore 
have affiance in thee, and ever seek thy honour 
and glory ; 

We beteech thee to hear us, good Lord. 

That it may please thee to be her defender, and 
keeper, giving her the victory over all her enemies ; 
We beseech thee to hear us, good Lord. 

That it may please thee to bless and preserve 



THE ANGLICAN ORDINAL. 39 

Albert Edward Prince of Wales, the Princess of 
Wales, and all the Royal Family ; 

We beseech thee to hear us, good Lord. 

That it may please thee to illuminate all Bishops, 
Priests, and Deacons, with true knowledge and 
understanding of thy Word ; and that both by their 
preaching and living they may set it forth, and 
shew it accordingly ; 

We beseech thee to hear us, good Lord. 

That it may please thee to bless these thy ser 
vants (17), now to be admitted to the Order of 
Deacons, and to pour thy grace upon them ; that 
they may duly execute their Office, to the edifying 
of thy Church, and the glory of thy holy Name ; 
We beseech thee to hear us, good Lord. 

That it may please thee to bless these thy ser 
vants (17), now to be admitted to the Order of 
Priests, and to pour thy grace upon them ; that 
they may duly execute their Office, to the edifying 
of thy Church, and the glory of thy holy Name ; 
We beseech thee to hear us, good Lord. 

That it may please thee to endue the Lords of 
the Council, and all the Nobility, with grace, 
wisdom, and understanding ; 

We beseech thee to hear us, good Lord. 

17. On the special supplications, cf. " That the merciful 
God may for him keep his diaconate without spot and 
blameless let us beseech the Lord." J. Goar, p. 241 (in 
Ordinat. Diaconi). " Let us pray that on these His own 
servants whom He has chosen to the office of the Priest 
hood He will bestow abundantly those heavenly gifts 
whereby that which they undertake by His appointment 
the same by this aid they may perform." Sacr. of Leo, 424. 



4O THE ANGLICAN ORDINAL. 

That it may please thee to bless and keep the 
Magistrates, giving them grace to execute justice, 
and to maintain truth ; 

We beseech thee to hear us, good Lord. 

That it may please thee to bless and keep all thy 
people ; 

We beseech thee to hear us, good Lord. 

That it may please thee to give to all nations 
unity, peace, and concord ; 

We beseech thee to hear us, good Lord. 

That it may please thee to give us an heart to 
love and dread thee, and diligently to live after thy 
commandments ; 

We beseech thee to hear us, good Lord. 

That it may please thee to give to all thy people 
increase of grace to hear meekly thy Word, and to 
receive it with pure affection, and to bring forth 
the fruits of the Spirit ; 

We beseech thee to hear us, good Lord. 

That it may please thee to bring into the way of 
truth all such as have erred, and are deceived ; 
We beseech thee to hear us, good Lord. 

That it may please thee to strengthen such as 
do stand ; and to comfort and help the weak- 
hearted ; and to raise up them that fall ; and 
finally to beat down Satan under our feet ; 
We beseech thee to hear us, good Lord. 

That it may please thee to succour, help, and 
comfort, all that are in danger, necessity, and 
tribulation ; 

We beseech thee to hear us, good Lord. 



THE ANGLICAN ORDINAL. 4! 

That it may please thee to preserve all that 
travel by land or by water, all women labouring of 
child, all sick persons, and young children ; and to 
shew thy pity upon all prisoners and captives ; 
We beseech thee to hear us, good Lord. 

That it may please thee to defend, and provide 
for, the fatherless children and widows, and all that 
are desolate and oppressed ; 

We beseech thee to hear us, good Lord. 

That it may please thee to have mercy upon all 
men ; 

We beseech thee to hear us, good Lord. 

That it may please thee to forgive our enemies, 
persecutors, and slanderers, and to turn their 
hearts ; 

We beseech thee to hear us, good Lord. 

That it may please thee to give and preserve to 
our use the kindly fruits of the earth, so as in due 
time we may enjoy them ; 

We beseech thee to hear us, good Lord. 

That it may please thee to give us true repen 
tance ; to forgive us all our sins, negligences, and 
ignorances ; and to endue us with the grace of thy 
Holy Spirit to amend our lives according to thy 
holy Word ; 

We beseech thee to hear us, good Lord. 

Son of God : we beseech thee to hear us. 
Son of God : we beseech thee to hear us. 
Lamb of God: that takest away the sins of 
the world ; 

Grant us thy peace. 



42 THE ANGLICAN ORDINAL. 

O Lamb of God : that takest away the sins of 
the world ; 

Have mercy upon us. 
O Christ, hear us. 

Christ, hear us. 
Lord, have mercy upon us. 

Lord, have mercy upon us. 
Christ, have mercy upon us. 

Christ, have mercy upon us. 
Lord, have mercy upon us. 

Lord, have mercy upon us. 

^f Then shall the Priest, and the people icith 
him, say the Lord s Prayer. 

Our Father, which art in heaven, Hallowed be 
thy Name. Thy kingdom come. Thy will be done 
in earth, As it is in heaven. Give us this day our 
daily bread. And forgive us our trespasses, As 
we forgive them that trespass against us. And 
lead us not into temptation ; But deliver us from 
evil. Amen. 

Priest. Lord, deal not with us after our sins. 

Answer. Neither reward us after our iniquities. 

Let us pray. 

O God, merciful Father, that despisest not the 
sighing of a contrite heart, nor the desire of such 
as be sorrowful ; Mercifully assist our prayers that 
we make before thee in all our troubles and adver 
sities, whensoever they oppress us ; and graciously 
hear us, that those evils, which the craft and sub- 
tilty of the devil or man worketh against us, be 
brought to nought ; and by the providence of thy 
goodness they may be dispersed ; that we thy 



THE ANGLICAN ORDINAL. 43 

servants, being hurt by no persecutions, may 
evermore give thanks unto thee in thy holy 
Church ; through Jesus Christ our Lord. 

Lord, arise, help us, and deliver us for thy 
Name s sake. 

O God, we have heard with our ears, and our 
fathers have declared unto us, the noble works that 
thou didst in their days, and in the old time before 
them. 

Lord, arise, help us, and deliver us for thine 
honour. 

Glory be to the Father, and to the Son : and to 
the Holy Ghost ; 

Ansu er. As it was in the beginning, is now, 
and ever shall be : world without end. Amen. 

From our enemies defend us, O Christ. 

Graciously look upon our afflictions. 

Pitifully behold the sorrows of our hearts. 

Mercifully forgive the sins of thy people. 

Favourably with mercy hear our prayers. 

Son of David, have mercy upon us. 

Both now and ever vouchsafe to hear us, O 
Christ. 

Graciously hear us, Christ; graciously hear 
us, Lord Christ. 

Priest. O Lord, let thy mercy be shewed upon 
us ; 

Answer. As we do put our trust in thee. 

Let us pray. 

We humbly beseech thee, O Father, mercifully 
to look upon our infirmities ; and for the glory of 



44 THE ANGLICAN ORDINAL. 

thy Name turn from us all those evils that we most 
righteously have deserved ; and grant, that in all 
our troubles we may put our whole trust and con 
fidence in thy mercy, and evermore serve thee in 
holiness and pureness of living, to thy honour and 
glory ; through our only Mediator and Advocate, 
Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen. 

U Then shall be sung or said the Service for the Communion, with 
the Collect, Epistle, and Gospel, asfolloweth. 

The Collect (18). 

[For the Ordering of Deacons."} 

Almighty God, who by thy Divine Providence 
hast appointed divers Orders of Ministers in thy 
Church, and didst inspire thine Apostles to choose 

18. Cf. the Collect in the Ancient Greek Pontifical. 
" Lord our God, who by Thy foreknowledge sendest the 
gift of Thy Holy Spirit on those appointed by Thine 
unsearchable might, that they may be ministers and 
attendants on Thy spotless mysteries, keep, O Lord, this 
man, whom Thou hast vouchsafed to advance by me to 
the office of tbe Diaconate, in all holiness, holding the 
mystery of the faith in a pure conscience. Give him the 
grace which Thou didst give into Stephen Thy Protomartyr, 
whom Thou didst call first to the wurk of Thy Diaconate, 
and make him fit, according to Thy good pleasure, to guard 
well the degree bestowed on him by Thy goodness (for 
they who use this ministry well, procure to themselves a 
good degree) and make Thy servant perfect. For Thine 
is the kingdom, and the power, and the glory, Father, 
Son and Holy Ghost, now and ever, and to ages of ages. 
Amen." Offices of the Holy Eastern Church. Littledale. 

The Sacramentary of Leo, 423, 424, has the prayer : 
" Almighty God giver of good things, assignor of orders, 
Who preparest all things by Thy everlasting providence 
and appointest a service of sacred duty for three grades 
of ministers to fight in Thy name." 



THE ANGLICAN ORDINAL. 45 

into the Order of Deacons the first Martyr Saint 
Stephen, with others ; Mercifully behold these thy 
servants now called to the like Office and Adminis 
tration ; replenish them so with the truth of thy 
Doctrine, and adorn them with innocency of life, 
that, both by word and good example, they may 
faithfully serve thee in this Office, to the glory of 
thy Name, and the edification of thy Church ; 
through the merits of our Saviour Jesus Christ, 
who liveth and reigneth with thee and the Holy 
Ghost, now and for ever. Amen. 

The Collect. 

[.For the Ordering of Priests], 

Almighty God, giver of all good things, who by 
thy Holy Spirit hast appointed divers Orders of 
Ministers in the Church ; Mercifully behold these 
thy servants now called to the Office of Priesthood ; 
and replenish them so with the truth of thy doctrine, 
and adorn them with innocency of life, that, both 
by word and good example, they may faithfully 
serve thee in this Office, to the glory of thy Name, 
and the edification of thy Church ; through the 
merits of our Saviour Jesus Christ, who liveth and 
reigneth with thee and the Holy Ghost, world 
without end. Amen. 

The Epistle, i Tim. iii. 8. 

[To be read only at the Ordination of Deacons alone. ] 

Likewise must the Deacons be grave, not double 
tongued, not given to much wine, not greedy of 
filthy lucre, holding the mystery of the faith in a pure 
conscience. And let these also first be proved ; 



46 THE ANGLICAN ORDINAL. 

then let them use the Office of a Deacon, being 
found blameless. Even so must their wives be 
grave, not slanderers, sober, faithful in all things. 
Let the Deacons be the husbands of one wife, ruling 
their children and their own houses well. For they 
that have used the Office of a Deacon well purchase 
to themselves a good degree, and great boldness in 
the faith which is in Christ Jesus. 

Or else this, out of the sixth of the Acts of the 
Apostles, 

Acts vi. 2. 

Then the twelve called the multitude of the dis 
ciples unto them, and said, It is not reason that we 
should leave the Word of God, and serve tables. 
Wherefore, brethren, look ye out among you seven 
men of honest report, full of the holy Ghost and 
wisdom, whom we may appoint over this business. 
But we will give ourselves continually to prayer, 
and to the ministry of the Word. And the saying 
pleased the whole multitude. And they chose 
Stephen, a man full of faith, and of the holy Ghost, 
and Philip, and Prochorus, and Nicanor, and Timon, 
and Parmenas, and Nicolas a proselyte of Antioch ; 
whom they set before the Apostles ; and, when they 
had prayed, they laid their hands on them. And 
the Word of God increased, and the number of the 
disciples multiplied in Jerusalem greatly, and a 
great company of the Priests were obedient to the 
faith. 

The Epistle. Ephes. iv. 7. 

[To be read only when there are Priests to \>e ordained]. 

Unto every one of us is given grace, according to 



THE ANGLICAN OKDINAL. 47 

the measure of the gift of Christ. Wherefore he 
saith, When he ascended up on high, he led captivity 
captive, and gave gifts unto men. (Now that he 
ascended, what is it but that he also descended 
first into the lower parts of the earth ? He that 
descended, is the same also that ascended up far 
above all heavens, that he might fill all things.) 
And he gave some Apostles, and some Prophets, and 
some Evangelists, and some Pastors and Teachers ; 
for the perfecting of the Saints, for the work of the 
Ministry, for the edifying of the Body of Christ ; 
till we all come in the unity of the faith, and of 
the knowledge of the Son of God, unto a perfect 
man, unto the measure of the stature of the fulness 
of Christ. 



^f Then shall the Bishop, sitting in his chair," examine every one 
of them that are to be Ordered [Deacons], in the presence of the 
people, after this manner following 1 . 

Do you trust that you are inwardly moved by 
the Holy Ghost to take upon you this Office and 
Ministration, to serve God for the promoting of his 
glory, and the edifying of his people ? 

Answer. I trust so. 

The Bishop. 

Do you think that you are truly called, accord 
ing to the will of our Lord Jesus Christ, and the 
due order of this Realm, to the Ministry of the 
Church ? 

Answer. I think so. 

1 Cf. p. 32 n. 



48 THE ANGLICAN OKDINAL. 

The Bishop. 

Do you unfeignedly believe all the Canonical 
Scriptures (19) of the Old and New Testament ? 

19. " Unfeignedly believe all the, Canonical Scriptures." 
This would appear to mean believe the Catholic Faith as 
contained in and proved by the Canonical Scriptures, and 
accept those Scriptures as Canonical which the Church 
accepts. Cf. Art. vi. and Justinian, Nov. 137 "Above 
all things it is necessary that there be required from 
the candidate for ordination a document with his own 
signature containing his right faith," cf. Rufinus on the 
Creed, 37. "These the Fathers included in the Canon 
and on these determined our assertion of the Faith to 
depend." 

" Let preachers take heed that they deliver nothing 
from the pulpit, to be religiously held and believed by the 
people, but that which is agreeable to the Old and New 
Testament, and such as the Catholic fathers and ancient 
bishops have collected therefrom" (Canon of Conv. 1571). 
" Further, there hath been some doubt likewise, whether 
containing in Scripture do import express setting down in 
plain terms, or else comprehending in such sort that by 
reason we may from thence conclude all things which are 
necessary. Against the former of these two constructions 
instance hath sundry ways been given. For our belief in 
the Trinity, the co-eternity of the Son of God with His 
Father, the proceeding of the Spirit from the Father and 
the Son, the duty of baptizing infants : these with such 
other principal points, the necessity whereof is by none 
denied, are notwithstanding in Scripture nowhere to be 
found by express literal mention, only deduced they are 
out of Scripture by collection. This kind of comprehension 
in Scripture being therefore received, still there is doubt 
how far we are to proceed by collection, before the full 
and complete measure of things necessary be made up. 
For let us not think that as long as the world doth 
endure, the wit of man shall be able to sound the bottom 
of that which may be concluded out of the Scripture ; 
especially if things contained by collection do so far 
extend as to draw in whatsoever may be at any time out 
of Scripture but probably and conjecturally surmised. 



THE ANGLICAN ORDINAL. 49 

Answer. I do believe them. 

The B-ithop. 

Will you diligently read (20) the same unto the 
people assembled in the Church where you shall 
be appointed to serve ? 

Answer. I will. 

The Bishop. 

It appertaineth to the Office of a Deacon, in the 
Church where he shall be appointed to serve, to 
assist the Priest in Divine Service (21), and specially 

But let necessary collection be made requisite, and we 
may boldly deny that of all those things that at this day 
are with so great necessity urged upon this Church under 
the name of reformed Church discipline there is any one 
which their books hitherto have been made manifest to be 
contained in the Scriptures. Let them if they can allege 
but one properly belonging to their cause, arid not 
common to themselves, and shew the deduction thereof 
out of Scripture to be necessary " (Hooker, Ecc. Pol. /. 
xiv. 2). (Of course the argument of Hooker against 
Puritan innovators in the sixteenth century holds good 
also against Italian innovations of the same period, as well 
as against those of 1854 and 1870.) 

20. " Diligently read unto the people." The word 
" diligent," by derivation and usage, includes the two 
ideas of careful and loving. It forbids and excludes 
a reading unprepared, unscholarly, slipshod, callous, or 
conceited. 

21. Assist the Priest in Divine Service. " After the pre 
siding Minister " (6 irpoearas, cf. ot irpoia-Ta/Jifvoi in I Thess. 
v. 12, and the TrpoeorwTfs TTpfa-fivTepoi in i Tim. v. 17. 
IIpofOTcos later was commonly used for Bishop, and might 
be so translated here. Cf. the probati seniores of Tertullian, 
Apol. xxxix, and the majores natu of Firmilian to Cyprian, 
Ep. Ixxv, Ed. Oxf. 1844. Vide notes to Bp. Kaye s Justin 
in Griffith and Farran s Anct. and Mod. Theol. Library), 
" has offered Eucharist ^ev^apia-rfja-avTos), those who among 

D 



50 THE ANGLICAN ORDINAL. 

when he ministereth the holy Communion, and to 
help him in the distribution thereof, and to read 
holy Scriptures and Homilies in the Church ; and 
to instruct the youth in the Catechism ; in the 
absence of the Priest to baptize infants, and to 
preach, if he be admitted thereto by the Bishop. 
And furthermore, it is his Office, where provision is 
so made, to search for the sick, poor, and impotent 

us are called Deacons give to each of the persons present 
to partake of Eucharist ic bread and wine and water 
(tv\apurrij0fVTos blessed, or offered in thanksgiving) and 
then carry it to the absent" (Justin Martyr, | c. 166, 
Apol. i. 85). 

" The Deacons in their ecclesiastical rank were not 
entrusted with the duty of offering any mystery, but only 
with that of ministering the things offered (riTfAeZi> 
eiriTfXovpfia) (Epiph. Haer. CoHyrid. 79). 

" In the absence of the Priest, and when necessity 
compels, the Deacon must needs give Baptism to him that 
asketh " (Theodoret, t c. 458 in 2 Chroii. xxix. 34). 

" Let the Deacon take the cup, and as he gives it, let 
him say, Blood of Christ, Cup of Life " (Apost. Const. 
viii. 13). 

" A Deacon does not offer, but after the Bishop or the 
Presbyter has offered, he by himself gives it to the people, 
not as a hiereus " (lepevs, cf. note on p. 26 ; yet tenet s 
and its correlatives came to be used freely of all the 
clergy ; e.g. Theod. Ecc. Hist. iv. 8, cf. Diet. Christ. Ant. 
ii. 1470), "but as ministering to priests." (Ajwst. Const. 
viii. 28). 

" If a Priest, hindered by some infirmity, be unable to 
preach, let homilies of the holy Fathers be read aloud by 
Deacons. For if Deacons are fit to read what Christ speaks 
in the Gospel, why should they be deemed unfit to read 
aloud in public the comments of the holy Fathers 1 " 
(Council of Vaison, A.D. 529, Mans. viii. 725). 

" It becomes a sacerdos to offer, to bless, to preside, 
to preach and to baptize. A Levite, that is a Minister, it 
behoves to minister at the altar, to baptize, and to com 
municate " (English MS. Pontifical, Martene, ii. 37). 



THE ANGLICAN ORDINAL. 5! 

people of the Parish, to intimate their estates, 
names, and places where they dwell, unto the 
Curate, that by his exhortation they may be 
relieved with the alms of the Parishioners, or 
others. Will you do this gladly and willingly ? 
Answer. 1 will so do, by the help of God. 

The Bishop. 

Will you apply all your diligence to frame and 
fashion your own lives, and the lives of your 
families (22), according to the Doctrine of Christ ; 

22. Your own lives, and the lives of your families. 
It is enacted that the sons or daughters of Bishops or of 
any of the clergy, are not to be joined in marriage with 
the heathen, with heretics or with schismatics " (Third 
Council of Carthage, Labbe, ii. 1169). 

" Let all who serve at the Holy Altars be both built 
upon the foundation of the truth of the Faith, and con 
spicuous for purity of heart " (Sacramentary of Leo, 421), 

" Grant that all they that preach Thy word may pro 
fitably and godly preach Thee, and Thy Son Jesus Christ 
through all the world " (Inst. of a Christian Man, p. 189). 

" Priest, Deacon, and layman, using marriage blame 
lessly " (Clem. Alex. Strom, iii. 1 2). 

The parson is very exact in the governing of his 
house, making it a copy and model for his parish. He 
knows the temper and pulse of every person in his house, 
and accordingly either meets with their vices, or advanceth 
their virtues. His wife is either religious, or night and 
day he is winning her to it. Instead of the qualities of 
the world, he requires only three of her ; first, a training 
up of her children and maids in the fear of God, with 
prayers and catechizing, and all religious duties. Secondly, 
a curing and healing of all wounds and sores with her own 
hands ; which skill either she brought with her, or he 
takes care that she shall learn it of some religious 
neighbour. Thirdly, a providing for her family in such 
sort, as that neither they want a comfortable sustentation, 
nor her husband be brought into debt. His children he 
makes first Christians, and then Commonwealth s men ; 
D 2 



52 THE ANGLICAN ORDINAL. 

and to make both yourselves and them, as much as 
in you lieth, wholesome examples of the flock of 
Christ ? 

Ansicer. I will so do, the Lord being my helper. 

The Bishop. 

Will you reverently obey your Ordinary (23), and 
other chief Ministers of the Church, and them to 
whom the charge and government over you is com 
mitted, following with a glad mind and will their 
godly admonitions ? 

A nswer. I will endeavour myself, the Lord being 
my helper. 

r t Then the J.ishop laying his Hands severally upon the Head of 
every one of them (24), humbly kneeling before him, shall say, 

Take thou Authority to execute the Office of 
a Deacon in the Church of God committed unto 

the one he owes to his heavenly country, the other to his 
eaithly, having no title to either, except he do good to 
both " (George Herbert, A Priest to the Temple). 

23. Reverently obey your Ordinary. Cf. note 43. 

" To the end that ye may obey the Bishop of the 
Presbytery without distraction of mind " (Ignat. ad 
Epli. xx). " Neither do ye anything without the Bishop 
and Presbyters " (Ignat. ad Magnes. vii). " Refuse to 
resist the Bishop in this matter, and follow his action 
without scruple or dispute " (Aug. Ep. xxi. 6). 

N.B. Ordinary, in Civil Law, is any one who ordinarily 
exercises regular jurisdiction. In the Book of Common 
Prayer it will generally mean the Bishop *. 

24. The Bishop laying his Hands severally, &c. 

" Bisho]i, thou shalt oidain a Deacon on laying thy 
hands on him " (Const. Ap. viii. 17). " When a Deacon 
is ordained, let the Bishop alone, who has blessed him, 

1 Cf. note on p. 69 on the similar promise of those to be ordained 
Priests, and Oath of Canonical Obedience, p. 6. 



THE ANGLICAN ORDINAL. 53 

thee ; In the Name of the Father, and of the Son, 
and of the Holy Ghost. Amen (25). 

lay his hand upon his head, in that he is consecrated not 
to the priesthood (sacerdotium) but to the ministry" (Cone. 
Carth. iv. 4 ; Labbe, ii. 1200). 

" After the Litany let the candidates chosen for the 
priesthood return to their own places, while the Levites 
remain for consecration. Let the Bishop say to them 
without sign and sitting, It behoves a Deacon to serve 
at the Altar, to read the Gospel, to baptize and to preach. 
Tlien while they bend before him, let the Bishop alone 
who blesses them put his hand on the head of each, one by 
one, saying, alone and secretly, Receive the Holy Ghost ; 
inasmuch as they are consecrated not to the priesthood 
(sacerdotium) but to service (ministeriwm) " (Mediaeval 
Pontifical). In the Greek Pontifical (Littledale s Offices 
of Eastern Church, p. 150) " The Bishop, keeping his 
hand on the candidate s head, prays thus secretly . . . 
Lord of all, fill this Thy servant, whom Thou hast 
chosen to enter on the ministry of the Diaconute, with 
all faith and love and power and sanctification, by the 
visitation of Thy holy and quickening Spirit (for it is 
not by the imposition of my hands, but by the watch 
fulness of Thy rich mercies that grace is given to Thy 
chosen ones. . .). After the Amen he puts the stole 
on the newly-ordained, over the left shoulder, saying, 
Worthy ; and worthy is repeated thrice according to 
custom by those in the Bema, and thrice by the singers, 
then the Bishop gives him the holy fan." (Cf. Int. 
p. 22.) 

25. In the Mediaeval Pontifical, immediately after the 
laying on of hands, there follows : " Well beloved, let us 
beseech God the Father Almighty that over these His 
servants whom He has permitted to take the office of 
the Diaconate, He will mercifully pour out the grace 
of His blessing, and of His goodness preserve the gifts 
of the consecration bestowed upon them, and mercifully 
hear our prayers ; to the end that all things that are 
to be done by our ministry He may by His kindly aid 
bring to perfection, and by His election may sanctify those 
who in the measure of our understanding we judge right 
to be presented for the performance of His holy mysteries." 



54 THE ANGLICAN ORDINAL. 

^[ Then shall the Bixhop deliver to every one of 
them the New Testament (26), saying, 

Take thou Authority to read the Gospel in the 
Church of God, and to preach the same, if thou be 
thereto licensed by the Bishop himself. 

If Then one of them, appointed by the Bishop, 
shall read the Gospel. 

St. Luke xii. 35. 

Let your loins be girded about, and your lights 
burning ; and ye yourselves like unto men that 
wait for their Lord, when he will return from the 
wedding ; that, when he cometh and knocketh, 
they may open unto him immediately. Blessed are 
those servants, whom the Lord when he cometh 
shall find watching. Verily I say unto you, that 
he shall gird himself, and make them to sit down 
to meat, and will come forth and serve them. And 
if he shall come in the second watch, or come in the 
third watch, and find them so, blessed are those 
servants. 

II Or there shall be read for the Gospel part of the ninth 

Chapter of Saint Matthew, asfolloiveth [except 

when only Deacons are to be ordered]. 

St. Matth. ix. 36. 
When Jesus saw the multitudes, he was moved 

26. Then shall the Bishop deliver to every one of them 
the New Testament. 

The direction of the Mediaeval Pontifical was, " After 
the Prefatio then shall the Bishop give to every one of the 
Deacons a stole, saying, In the name of the Holy Trinity, 
receive the stole of immortality ; fulfil thy ministry, for 
God who lives and reigns is able to increase grace for thy 
aid. After this, let him give to them the book of the 
Gospels, saying, In the name of the Holy Trinity, receive 
authority to read the Gospel in God s Church, as well for 
the living as for the dead ; in the name of the Lord. 
Amen. " 



THE ANGLICAN ORDINAL. 55 

with compassion on them, because they fainted, 
and were scattered abroad as sheep having no shep 
herd. Then saith he unto his disciples, The harvest 
truly is plenteous, but the labourers are few. Pray 
ye therefore the Lord of the harvest, that he will 
send forth labourers into his harvest. 

\ Or else this that folloiceth, out of the tenth Chaptsr 
of Saint John [only when Priests alone are to be ordered], 

St. John x. i. 

Verily, verily I say unto you, He that entereth 
not by the door into the sheep-fold, but climbeth 
up some other way, the same is a thief and a robber. 
But he that entereth in by the door is the Shepherd 
of the sheep. To him the porter openeth, and the 
sheep hear his voice ; and he calleth his own sheep 
by name, and leadeth them out. And when he 
putteth forth his own sheep he goeth before them, 
and the sheep follow him ; for they know his voice. 
And a stranger will they not follow, but will flee 
from him ; for they know not the voice of strangers. 
This parable spake Jesus unto them, but they 
understood not what things they were which he 
spake unto them. Then said Jesus unto them again, 
Verily, verily I say unto you, I am the door of the 
sheep. All that ever came before me are thieves 
and robbers ; but the sheep did not hear them. 
I am the door ; by me if any man enter in, he shall 
be saved, and shall go in and out, and find pasture. 
The thief cometh not but for to steal, and to kill, 
and to destroy : I am come that they might have 
life, and that they might have it more abundantly. 
I am the good Shepherd : the good Shepherd giveth 
his life for the sheep. But he that is an hireling, 



56 THE ANGLICAN ORDINAL. 

and not the Shepherd, whose own the sheep are 
not, seeth the wolf coming, and leaveth the sheep, 
and fleeth ; and the wolf catcheth them, and scat- 
tereth the sheep. The hireling fleeth. because he is 
an hireling, and careth not for the sheep. I am 
the good Shepherd, and know my sheep, and am 
known of mine. As the Father knoweth me, even 
so know I the Father ; and I lay down my life for 
the sheep. And other sheep I have, which are not 
of this fold : them also I must bring, and they shall 
hear my voice ; and there shall be one fold, and 
one Shepherd. 

^[ Then ihe Bishop, sitting in his chair, shall sny unto them 
[that are to be ordered Priestt] as hereof ter followeth. 

You have heard, Brethren (27), as well in your 
private examination, as in the exhortation which 
was now made to you, and in the holy Lessons taken 
out of the Gospel, and the writings of the Apostles, 
of what dignity, and of how great importance this 
Office is, whereunto ye are called. And now again 
we exhort you, in the Name of our Lord Jesus 
Christ, that you have in remembrance, into how 

27. Ye have heard, Brethren. 

This address and the following questions are a peculiar 
feature of the English Ordinal. It has been thought 
that they may have been modelled on the corresponding 
part of the Office for the Consecration of Bishops (cf. 
Procter, B. of C. P. p. 437. and Palmer, Orig. Lit. xii. 7), 
The Pontificals of Salzburg, Soissons, Cambrai, and 
Mainz have a public examination of the ordinand. 
"Dost thou wish to receive the degree of the presbyterate 
in the name of the Lord ? Dost thou wish, as far as thou 
art able, and human frailty permits thee, to remain in 
that degree ? Dost thou wish to be obedient to thy 
Bishop to whose diocese thou art to be ordained 1 " 
(D. C.A.u. 1513). 



THE ANGLICAN ORDINAL. 57 

high a Dignity, and to how weighty an Office (28) 
and Charge ye are called : that is to say, to be 
Messengers, Watchmen, and Stewards of the Lord ; 
to teach, and to premonish, to feed and provide for 
the Lord s family ; to seek for Christ s sheep that 
are dispersed abroad, and for his children who are 
in the midst of this naughty world, that they may 
be saved through Christ for ever. 

Have always therefore printed in your remem 
brance, how great a treasure is committed to your 
charge. For they are the sheep of Christ (29), which 

28. How high a Dignity, and how weighty an Office. 

" From this time forward, well beloved brother, know 
that thou hast undertaken a right heavy load of labour. 
This responsibility is the supreme art of the guidance of 
souls. Thou must be subject to many men s manners and 
ways. Thou must be all men s minister, and for the 
talent entrusted to thee thou wilt have in the day of 
judgement to render an account. If our Saviour said, 
I came not to be ministered to, but to minister, how 
much more are we slothful servants of the Most High 
Head of the household (summi Patrisfamilias) bound with 
hardest toil to strive that, by the aid of the Divine grace, 
we may be enabled to bring the Lord s sheep, committed 
to us by the chief Shepherd, free from plagvie and spot to 
the Lord s fold 1 " (Exhortatio ad novum Episcopum, ex 
MS. Pontif. Turon. Martene, ii. 59). 

Messenger ^ ATTooroXoy, i.e. one sent with a commission 
from the Lord (Matt. x. 2, &c.). 

Watchman 6 yprjyopuv, i. e. the wakeful (Matt. xxiv. 
42, &c.). 

Steward = oiKoi>o /io?, i.e. house-feeder (Luke xii. 42, &c.). 

The names are all of the Lord s giving. 

29. The sheep of Christ. 

" The people expect thee to bring food to them, to wit, 
the teaching of the Scriptures. Whenever, then, the 
expectant folk are hungry, and thou nurturest thyself 
alone, and our Lord Jesus Christ cometh, and we stand 
before Him, what kind of defence couldst thou have, He 



58 THE ANGLICAN ORDINAL. 

he bought with his death, and for whom he shed 
his blood. The Church and Congregation whom you 
must serve, is his Spouse, and his Body. And if 
it shall happen the same Church, or any Member 
thereof, to take any hurt or hindrance by reason of 
your negligence, ye know the greatness of the fault, 
and also the horrible punishment that will ensue. 
Wherefore consider with yourselves the end of your 
Ministry towards the children of God, towards the 
Spouse and Body of Christ ; and see that you never 
cease your labour, your care and diligence, until 
you have done all that lieth in you, according to 
your bounden duty, to bring all such as are or shall 
be committed to your charge, unto that agreement 
in the faith and knowledge of God, and to that ripe 
ness and perfectness of age in Christ, that there be 
no place left among you, either for error in religion, 
or for viciousness in life. 

Forasmuch then as your Office is both of so great 
excellency, and of so great difficulty, ye see with 
how great care and study ye ought to apply your 
selves (30), as well that ye may shew yourselves 

seeing His own sheep a hungered 1 " (Athan. Ep. ad 
Dracont.) 

The time " pastoral " character of the Shepherd of the 
Gospel is in danger of being lost in the English 
" shepherd," which means getter and keeper of sheep 
into a herd (origin unknown). This " herding " is easier 
than the essential business of the pastor or iroi^v ( -V/PA), 
which = feeder. Milton had in mind this characteristic 
when he wrote, " The hungry sheep look up and are not 
fed." The Good Shepherd does nut merely recover and 
fold ; he feeds on the " green pasture." 

30. Apply yourselves. 

" No man that warreth (for God) entangleth himself 
with the affairs of this life, that he may please Him to 



THE ANGLICAN OKD1NAL. 59 

dutiful and thankful unto that Lord, who hath 
placed you in so high a Dignity ; as also to beware, 
that neither you yourselves offend, nor be occasion 

whom he hath approved himself (cf. Vulg.). This is 
said of all men, but how much more ought the clergy to 
he free from the entanglement of worldly cares and 
snares ? They are husied about divine and spiritual 
things ; for them it is impossible to withdraw from the 
Church, and find leisure for earthly and worldly pursuits. 
The form of this ordination and sacred office was of old 
under the Law held by the Levites, the whole of which 
(state of things) was brought about by divine authority 
and arrangement, to the end that they who were engaged 
in divine duties might under no circumstances be called 
away, nor be driven to deal with the things of this world 
in thought or act. The same form and method now 
obtains among the clergy, to the end that they who are 
given promotion in the Lord s Church by clerical ordina 
tion may in no wise be called away from divine minis 
tration, nor bound down to the anxieties and business of 
this world " (Cyp. Ep. Ixvi). 

" To-day, brethren, warns me to think very seriously 
of the burden I bear ; though I meditate on the weight 
of this burden by day and by night, yet somehow the 
recurrence of this anniversary so violently affects me that 
I cannot disguise my thinking of it and of it alone " (Aug. 
in die ordinationis suae, Serin. 339). 

" Let neither bishop, priest, nor deacon, take upon him 
worldly cares " (Cann. Apost. iv). 

"It is my will that all within the province entrusted 
to thee in the Catholic Church, presided over by Caecilianus, 
who give their ministry to this holy religion, who are 
commonly styled clerics, be kept wholly exempt from all 
official public duties (Xftroupyiw^), to the end that they be 
not through any error or sacrilegious backsliding with 
drawn from the service due to the Deity, but may rather 
without any hindrance fulfil their ministry to their own 
law. For when their diligence in their worship in rela 
tion to the divine is greatest, it seems likely that the 
greatest possible good will accrue to the state " (Emp. 
Constantine, Ep. ad Anulinuna apud Euseb. //. E. x. 7). 



60 THE ANGLICAN ORDINAL. 

that others offend. Howbeit, ye cannot have a mind 
and will thereto of yourselves ; for that will and 
ability is given of God alone : therefore ye ought, 
and have need, to pray earnestly for his holy Spirit. 
And seeing that you cannot by any other means 
compass the doing of so weighty a work, pertaining 
to the salvation of man. but with doctrine and 
exhortation taken out of the holy Scriptures, and 
with a life agreeable to the same ; consider how 
studious ye ought to be in reading and learning the 
Scriptures, and in framing the manners both of 
yourselves, and of them that specially pertain unto 
you, according to the rule of the same Scriptures : 
and for this self-same cause, how ye ought to for 
sake and set aside (as much as you may) all worldly 
cares and studies. 

We have good hope that you have well weighed 
and pondered these things with yourselves long 
before this time ; and that you have clearly deter 
mined, by God s grace, to give yourselves wholly 
to this Office, whereunto it hath pleased God to 
call you : so that, as much as lieth in you, you will 
apply yourselves w T holly to this one thing, and 
draw all your cares and studies this way ; and that 

" Of whyche charge and burden we wyll all pastours 
and preachers to be admonished to the entente that they 
may busely exercise themselves daye and nyghte in the 
studye of the Holy Scriptures, and &o use their ministerie 
with ample fruite, and for th;it respect withdrawe them 
selves not onely frome wordely intisements and carnal 
concupiscences, but also from all occupations, and affaires 
of the worlde, as much as the use of the present life wyll 
suffer, that they may altogether fully applye so harde 
and divine a ministerie, and execute their office with all 
diligence " (Archbp. Hermann s Consultation (Trans, of 
1548), 6). 



THE ANGLICAN ORDINAL. 6 1 

you will continually pray to God the Father, by 
the Mediation of our only Saviour Jesus Christ, 
for the heavenly assistance of the Holy Ghost ; 
that, by daily reading and weighing of the Scrip 
tures (31), ye may wax riper and stronger in your 
Ministry ; and that ye may so endeavour your 
selves, from time to time, to sanctify the lives of 
you and yours, and to fashion them after the Kule 
and Doctrine of Christ, that ye may be wholesome 
and godly examples and patterns for the people to 
follow. 

And now, that this present Congregation of Christ 
here assembled may also understand your minds 
and wills in these things, and that this your pro 
mise may the more move you to do your duties, ye 

31. Daily reading and weighing of the Scriptures. 

" Ignorance, mother of all vices, is above everything to 
be avoided in God s priests. . . . Priests are admonished 
to read the Holy Scriptures " (Cone. Tolet. iv. 25). 
" That meditating in thy Law, by day and by night, they 
may believe what they have read, teach what they have 
believed, imitate what they have taught, and at once 
show forth in themselves, prove by example, and confirm 
by admonitii n, justice, constancy, mercy, and courage " 
(Sacr. Gelas. ed. H. A. Wilson, p. 24, cf. p. 83). 

" That all the ministers of the Gospel read often and 
ponder the whole divine Scripture, with the i eare of 
God, and exquisite diligence, boeth that they them selves 
may be better learned and also that they may enstruct 
others " (Archbp. Hermann s Consultation (Trans, of 
1548), 14). 

" It is a plain defection from the faith, and a proof 
of arrogance, either to reject anything of what is written, 
or to introduce anything that is not " (St. Basil, de Fide, i). 

" If ever the Lord grant us to meet, I will discourse to 
you further concerning the Faith, to end that you may 
perceive at once the power of the truth and the rottenness 
of heresy by Scriptural proof" (St. Basil, Ep. cv). 



62 THE ANGLICAN ORDINAL. 

shall answer plainly to these things, which we in 
the Name of God, and of his Church, shall demand 
of you touching the same. 

Do you think in your heart (32), that you be truly 
called, according to the will of our Lord Jesus Christ, 
and the order of this Church of England, to the 
Order and Ministry of Priesthood ? 

Ans^ver. I think it. 

The Bishop. 

Are you persuaded that the holy Scriptures contain 
sufficiently (33) all Doctrine required of necessity 

32. Do you think in your heart, &c. 
Cf.AIed.Pont.ap. Martene, Ecc. Rit. ii. 146 ; Procter, 437. 

" BP. Is he worthy 1 R. He is worthy. BP. Is he just ? 
R. He is just. BP. God grant that he may ever remain 
worthy and just in his service. Then the Bishop ques 
tions the Presbyter in these words. BP. Are you \villing 
to receive the degree of the presbyterate in the name of 
the Lord ? R. I am willing. BP. Are you willing in 
the same degree according to the measure of your ability 
and understanding to abide continually by the sanctions 
of the canons ? R. I am willing. BP. Are you willing 
to be obedient to and of one mind with your Bishop to 
whose diocese (parochia, TrapoiKia, originally place where 
the brethren sojourned, TrapoiKfiv, and then the district 
under the Episcopus ; so later paroisse, parish) you are 
to be ordained in accordance with what is right and with 
your ministry ? R. I am willing. BP. May God deign 
to bring this your good and right will to perfection agree 
able to Him." 

33. Are you persuaded that the Holy Scriptures contain 
sufficiently ? &c. 

" I adore the fulness of Scripture. ... If it is not written, 
let him dread the wo that is the doom of all them that 
add or take away " (Tert. c. Hermog. xxii). 

" These " (i. e. the Books of Scripture) " are the springs 
of salvation, so that he who thirsts is filled full from the 
oracles contained therein. In these alone let the school of 



THE ANGLICAN ORDINAL. 63 

for eternal salvation through faith in Jesus Christ ? 
and are you determined, out of the said Scriptures 
to instruct the people committed to your charge, 
and to teach nothing as required of necessity to 
eternal salvation, but that which you shall be per 
suaded may be concluded and proved by the 
Scripture 1 

Answer. I am so persuaded, and have so deter 
mined by God s grace. 

The Bishop. 

Will you then give your faithful diligence always 
so to minister the Doctrine and Sacraments, and 
the Discipline of Christ, as the Lord hath com 
manded (34), and as this Church and Realm hath 

true religion be preached. To these let none add ; from 
these let none take aught away " (Athan. Ep. xxxix. 6). 
" Let God-inspired Scripture decide between us ; on 
whichever side be found doctrines in harmony with 
the word of God, in favour of that side will be cast 
the vote of truth " (St. Basil, Ep. clxxxix. 3). 

" Believe those things which are written, the things 
which are not written seek not " (Id. Horn. xxix. adv. 
Cal. S. Trin.). 

" By the Divine Word we perform each and all of 
everything that contributes to our soul s health " (Chrysost. 
de Sacerd. iv. 3). 

34. As the Lord hath commanded. 

" We ought to perform in order all things that the 
Master hath commanded us to perform at their appointed 
seasons. Both the offerings and the services He ordered 
to be performed with care, and that they should not come 
about at random and in irregular fashion, but at fixed 
times and seasons. Both where and by whom He wills 
them to be performed He Himself fixed by His supreme 
will ; to the end that all things being done with piety 
by His good pleasure might be acceptable to His 
good- will. It is they then who make their offerings at 
the ordained times who are both accepted and blessed, 



64 THE ANGLICAN ORDINAL. 

received the same, according to the Command 
ments of God ; so that you may teach the people 

because in following the laws of the Master they do not 
err. For to the High Priest are assigned peculiar ser 
vices, and for the Priests their own special office is fixed, 
and to the Levites proper ministrations are enjoined. The 
layfolk are bound by the layman s laws " (Clem. Horn. Ep. 
ad Corinth, xl). 

" At the outset I maintain that there is some one and 
definite thing instituted by Christ, which the nations are 
by all means bound to believe, and therefore to seek that 
they may, when they have found, believe. There can be 
BO indefinite search for that which is instituted as one 
only definite thing. You must seek until you find, and 
believe when you have found ; nor have you anything 
further to do than to keep what you have believed, pro 
vided you moreover believe this, that nothing else is to 
be believed, and therefore nothing else is to be sought, 
after you have found and believed what is instituted 
by Him, who charges you to seek no other thing than 
that which He has instituted" (Tertullian, de Praescr. 
Haeret. ix). 

"Jesus Christ our Lord did, whilst He lived on earth, 
Himself declare what He was, what He had been, what was 
the Father s will which He was administering, what was 
the duty of man which He was prescribing. He declared 
this either openly to the people, or privately to His dis 
ciples, of whom He had chosen twelve heads to be at His 
side, whom He ordained to be the teachers of the nations. 
So, when one of these had been cut off, on His departure 
to the Father He commanded the eleven others to go and 
teach all nations, who were to be baptized into the 
Father, and into the Son, and into the Holy Ghost. . . . 
Having . . . chosen Matthias by lot as the twelfth . . . they 
went forth into the world, and preached the same doctrine 
of the same faith to the nations. They then in like 
manner founded churches in every city, from which all 
the other churches, one after the other, borrowed the 
tradition of the Faith, and the seeds of doctrine, and are 
every day borrowing them that they may become churches. 
Indeed it is thus only that they can be deemed Apos 
tolic, as being offshoots of Apostolic Churches " (Id. xx). 



THE ANGLICAN ORDINAL. 65 

committed to your Cure and Charge with all dili 
gence to keep and observe the same ? (35) 

Answer. I will so do, by the help of the Lord. 

35. As this Church and Realm hath received the same. 
See " Declaration," p. 6. On the one hand, on the inviola 
bility of certain traditions, e.g. the baptism of infants, 
concerning which " the Church has received the tradition 
from the Apostles " (Origen, ad Rom. v) ; cf. Epiphanius, 
Haeres. Ixxv. 8. " Our Mother, the Church, had laws 
lying in her indissoluble, that cannot be undone," and 
the various forms both of creed and liturgy, alike in 
East and West. It would seem that the rise of heresies 
necessitated a stereotyping of the Creed, while the liturgies 
of Antioch, Constantinople, Alexandria, Rome, Gaul, and 
Spain showed a variety in non-essentials (see Bp. H. 
Browne, On Art. XXXIV; Bingham, E. A., II. vi; and 
Palmer, Or. Liturg. On the other hand, on what is within 
the sphere of national adjustment, cf. Augustine, Ep. ad 
Januar. liv : " He did not lay down directions accord 
ing to what order (the Holy Supper) was to be taken, 
that He might keep this office for the Apostles, by and 
through whom He was about to ordain the Churches." 
" When I," i. e. St. Ambrose, " come to Borne, I fast on the 
Sabbath, and when I am here, I do not fast ; so do thou 
likewise, to whatsoever church thou mayst haply come, 
observe its customs, if thou wish to give offence to no one, 
nor to thyself." 

On local uniformity cf. Council of Toledo, A.D.633,iv.c.2. 
" After the confession of the true faith which is preached 
in the Holy Church of God, it hath seemed good that all 
we priests, who are embraced in the unity of the Catholic 
Faith, do nothing diverse or inharmonious in Church 
affairs, lest any diversity of ours may seem to show any 
error of carnal schism, and the variety of Churches be to 
many a cause of scandal. Therefore let one order of 
prayer and praise be observed by us throughout all Spain 
and Gaul, one mode of celebrating the solemnities of 
masses, one for matins and evensong, and let there be no 
diverse ecclesiastical usage among us, forasmuch as we are 
contained in one Faith and Realm. This was decreed by 
the ancient canons. And let every province contain 

E 



66 THE ANGLICAN ORDINAL. 

The Bishop. 

Will you be ready, with all faithful diligence, to 
banish and drive away all erroneous and strange doc 
trines (36) contrary to God s word ; and to use both 
publick and private monitions (37) and exhortations, 

a like usage both of praise and prayer " (psallendi et mini- 
strandi). 

36. Banish and drive away all erroneous and strange 
doctrines. 

i. e. doctrine at variance with that of Scripture and the 
Church. 

" We have learned the ordering of our salvation through 
none others than those through whom the Gospel has 
come down to us. This they once upon a time openly 
preached. Afterwards, by God s will, they committed it 
to us in the Scriptures, to be the ground and pillar of our 
faith." " Again.when we refer opponents of tradition, which 
starts from the Apostles, and which is preserved by means 
of the successions of presbyters in the Churches, they will 
urge that they themselves are wiser, not only than pres 
byters, but even than Apostles, because they have dis 
covered the truth undefiled." These men therefore 
agree with neither Scripture nor tradition " (Ir. Haer. 
iii. i, 2). 

" Whenever the soul falls sick of spurious doctrines 
then is there abundant need of the Word, not only for the 
security of our own folk, but also for wars against them 
that are without" (Chrysost. de S. iv. 3). 

" A handler and teacher of the divine Scriptures as 
a defender of the right faith, and a destroyer of error, 
ought both to teach what is good and unteach what is 
bad" (Aug. de Doct. Christ, iv. 4). 

" Grant this, also, merciful Father, that all strange 
doctrines, in which Christ is not learned, may be thrust 
out of Thy Church" (Marshall s Prymer, p. 61). 

37. Both publick and private monitions. 

" Some are righted by consolation, others by rebuke. 
And this latter avails in some cases where men are 
convicted in public, in others where men are chidden 



THE ANGLICAN ORDINAL. 67 

as well to the sick as to the whole (38), within your 
Cures, as need shall require, and occasion shall be 
given ? 

Ans^ver. I will, the Lord being my helper. 

The Bishop. 

Will you be diligent in Prayers (39), and in read 
ing of the holy Scriptures (40), and in such studies 
as help to the knowledge of the same, laying aside 
the study of the world and the flesh (41)? 

secretly. For there are some who despise rebukes pri 
vately administered, while they are sobered by public 
condemnation. Others, on the contrary, show a shameless 
front when they are called freely and openly to account, 
but are influenced for good by the rebuke given in secret, 
and requite sympathy with docility" (Greg. Naz. Or. ii). 

38. As well to the sick as to the whole. 

Cf. Polycarp, ad Phil. vi. " Merciful priests . . . 
visiting all who are sick, neglecting neither widow, nor 
fatherless, nor poor." 

39. Diligent in Prayer. 

" Whosoever cf the Priests or subordinate clergy shall 
have omitted the Lord s Prayer daily, either in public 
or private service, let him be deprived of the dignity of 
his order" (Cone. Tolet. iv. 10 ; Labbe, v. 1708 E). 

40. In reading of the Holy Scripture. 

" It is necessary that you be very diligent in reading, 
laborious and assiduous in the study of, Scripture. . . . The 
minister may as well sin by his ignorance as by his negli 
gence." Bp. Jeremy Taylor, The Minister s Duty in Life 
and Doctrine, x. 

41. Laying aside the study of the world and the flesh. 

" Do you wish to be always devoted to God s business, 
and, so far as our human frailty shall have permitted, 
estranged from the business of this world and from vile 
gain ? " R. " I do wish." MS. Pont, for the use of the 
Church of Tours, A. D. 650 (Martene, ii. 56). 

" Consider what it is to take the lead of the holy 
nation ; reflect what kind of thing it is to be occupied in 

E 2 



68 THE ANGLICAN ORDINAL. 

Answer. I will endeavour myself so to do, the 
Lord being my helper. 

The Bishop. 

Will you be diligent to frame and fashion your 
own selves, and your families, according to the 
Doctrine of Christ ; and to make both yourselves 
and them as much as in you lieth, wholesome 
examples and patterns to the flock of Christ 1 

Answer. I will apply myself thereto, the Lord 
being my helper. 

The Bishop. 

Will you maintain and set forwards, as much as 
lieth in you, quietness, peace, and love (42) among 

the divine sacraments. They who live of the altar ought 
to have mind and time unoccupied for the altar ; an atten 
tion to purity and simplicity, befits the sacraments in 
proportion as the sacraments themselves are pure and 
simple, whereby they show forth the duties of their min 
istry lest against God they do despite to what they handle, 
or against the people begin to hinder what they preach " 
(De Singularitate Clericorum dtt. to St. Aug.). 

" If he is a Priest, let him know the law of the Lord ; 
if he is ignorant of the law of the Lord, he proves himself 
to be no Priest of the Lord ; for it is a Priest s duty to 
know the law, and, if asked, to answer about the law " 
(St. Jerome on Haggai). 

The shepherds on the eve of the Great Birth, round 
whom the glory of the Lord shone, who saw and heard the 
multitude of the army of heaven, were not, as Milton 
conjectured, " simply chatting in a rustic row" ; if it was 
" their loves . . . that did their silly thoughts so busy keep," 
it was their love for "their sheep;" for, according to the 
Evangelist, they were keeping wakeful watch over their 
flock. 

42. Set forward . . . quietness, peace, and love. 
Cf. Constantine at the Council of Nicaea (Soz. Hist. \. 
19) : " For everything," said the Emperor, "am I grateful 



THE ANGLICAN ORDINAL. 69 

all Christian people, and especially among them that 
are or shall be committed to your charge 1 

Ansicer. I will so do, the Lord being my helper. 

The -Bishop. 

Will you reverently obey your Ordinary (43), and 
other chief Ministers, unto whom is committed the 

to God, and not least for this, that I now, my friends, look 
on your assembly. To me, indeed, it hath befallen better 
than I had hoped, to bring so many sacred ministers 
(iepeas) of Christ together in one place. And I would 
wish that I might behold you of one mind, and possessed 
of a sentiment of harmonious concord. For in my judge 
ment the worst evil of all evils is that the Church of God 
should be the prey of faction (arao-ia^ti ). So when I heard 
as would to God I had never heard I was deeply 
grieved on hearing that you were divided you who of all 
men division misbecomes, in that you are God s ministers 
(Xfirovp-yous) and heralds of peace. It is for this cause 
that I have summoned your holy synod. At once as your 
sovereign and your fellow-servant, I do ask from you 
a favour, pleasing to God, who is your Lord and mine, and 
becoming alike for me to receive and for you to grant. 
It is this, that you openly discuss the causes of the dis 
agreement, and bring them to a peaceful end. Thus by 
your aid I shall raise this trophy of victory over our 
envious enemy, who, now that strangers and tyrants have 
been put out of our borders, has stirred this intestine 
sedition, because of his grudge against the good things 
we enjoy." 

43. Obey your Ordinary. Cf. note 23, and Oath on p. 6. 

" Should any cleric have any complaint against a cleric, 
let him not leave his own Bishop and have recourse to 
secular courts ; let him rather lay the matter bare before 
his own Bishop, or by the consent of the Bishop himself, 
let the case be argued out before arbitrators chosen by 
both parties. If any one act in contravention of these 
directions, let him lie under canonical censure. But if 
a clerk have a matter for judgement, either with his own 
Bishop, or with another Bishop, he must plead his cause 



70 THE ANGLICAN ORDINAL. 

charge and government over you ; following with 
a glad mind and will their godly admonitions, and 
submitting yourselves to their godly judgements ? 
A nswer. I will so do, the Lord being my helper. 

TI Then shall the Bishop, standing up, say (44), 

Almighty God, who hath given you this will to 
do all these things ; Grant also unto you strength 
and power to perform the same ; that he may 
accomplish his work which he hath begun in you ; 
through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen. 

before the synod of the province. And if there be a con 
tention between a Bishop or a clerk and the metropolitan 
of a province, he must go to the head of that administra 
tion or to the throne 1 of the imperial city, Constanti- 
nopolis " (Canons of Chalcedon, ix ; cf. Gr. B. Howard s 
translation, p. 64). 

" A sure cause of heresy and schism has arisen when 
the Bishop, who is one, and at the head of the Church, is 
by the proud presumption of certain men treated with 
contempt " (Gyp. Ep. Ixix). 

" Be subject to thy Bishop, and take him as a parent of 
thy soul " (Jer. Ep. Hi). 

" The Church s welfare depends on the dignity of the 
high priest ; if to him there be not conceded a certain 
peculiar authority, standing out above all, as many 
schisms are caused in churches as there are priests " 
(Jer. adv. Lucifer, ix). 

44. TJien shall the Bishop, standing up, say. 

In the Mediaeval Pontifical a prayer corresponding to 
this was uttered during the imposition of hands. 

" Afterwards, while the Bishop is blessing them and 
holding his hand above their heads, saying nothing to them, 
and touching them with one hand, let all the Priests who 
are present hold their hands raised above their heads." 

1 i.e. the metropolitan see of Constantinople. The notion of 
universal Italian supremacy is, of course, hardly above the horizon. 
At Chalcedon Paschasinus, Leo s representative, signed as " synodo- 
praesidens," but whatever precedence was allowed to Rome and 
Constantinople was to the two capitals. 



THE ANGLICAN ORDINAL. 7! 

T After this, the Congregation shall be desired, secretly in their 
Prayers, to make their humble supplications to God for all these 
things : for the which Prayers there shall be silence kipt for 
a space. 

Tl After icMch shall be sung or said by the Bishop (ihe persons to 
be Ordained Priests all kneeling) Veni, Creator Spiritus (45) ; the 
Bishop beginning, and the Priests, and others that are present, 
answering by verses, asfolloweth. 

Come, Holy Ghost, our souls inspire, 

And lighten with celestial fire. 

Thou the anointing Spirit art, 

Who dost thy seven-fold gifts impart. 

Thy blessed Unction from above, 

Is comfort, life, and fire of love. 

Enable with perpetual light 

The dulness of our blinded sight. 

Anoint and cheer our soiled face 

With the abundance of thy grace. 

Keep far our foes, give peace at home : 

Where thou art guide, no ill can come. 

Then follows the " Praefatio sacerdotum." 
" Well-beloved, let us beseech God, the Father Almighty, 
that on these His servants whom He has chosen for the 
work of the presbyterate, He will multiply heavenly gifts." 

45. The Latin version of the Hymn Veni, Creator, is as 
follows : 

Veni, Creator Spiritus, 
Mentes tuorum visita : 
Imple superna gratia 
Quae Tu creasti pectora. 

Qui Paraclitus diceris 
Domini Dei altissimi : 
Tons vivus, ignis, caritas, 
. Et spiritalis unctio. 

Tu septiformis munere, 
Dextrae Dei Tu digitus : 
Tu rite promisso Patris 
Sennone ditans guttura. 



72 THE ANGLICAN ORDINAL. 

Teach us to know the Father, Son, 
And thee, of both, to be but One. 
That, through the ages all along, 
This may be our endless song j 

Praise to thy eternal merit, 
Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. 

Or this: 

Come, Holy Ghost, eternal God, 

Proceeding from above, 
Both from the Father and the Son, 

The God of peace and love ; 

Visit our minds, into our hearts 

Thy heavenly grace inspire ; 
That truth and godliness we may 

Pursue ivith full desire. 

Accende lumen sensibus, 
Infunde amoiem cordibus : 
Infirma nostri corporis 
Virtute firmans perpetim. 

Hostem repellas longius, 
Pacemque clones protinus 
Ductore sic Te praevio 
Vitemus omne noxium. 

Per Te sciamus, da, Patrem, 
Noscamus atque Filium : 
Te utriusque Spiritum 
Credamus omni tempore. 

Sit laus Patri cum Filio 
Sancto simul Paraclito : 
Nobisque mittat Filius 
Charisma Sancti Spiritus. 

The hymn has been ascribed to St. Ambrose, but it is 
not included in the Benedictine edition of his works. It 



THE ANGLICAN ORDINAL. 73 

Thou art the very Comforter 

In grief and all distress ; 
The heav nly gift of God most high, 

No tongue can it express; 

The fountain and the living spring 

Of joy celestial; 
The fire so bright, the love so sweet, 

The Unction spiritual. 

Thou in thy gifts art manifold, 

By them Christ s Church doth stand : 

In faithful hearts thou writ st thy laiv, 
The finger of God s hand. 

According to thy promise, Lord, 
Thou givest speech with grace ; 

That through thy help God s praises may 
Resound in every place. 

O Holy Ghost, into our minds 
Send down thy heav nly light ; 

Kindle our hearts with fervent zeal, 
To serve God day and night. 

appears in the Pontifical of Soissons (eleventh century), 
and in all the English Pontificals except that of Winchester. 
It has also been assigned to Charlemagne and to Rhabanus 
Maurus (Rabanmaur), Archbishop of Mainz (t 856). The 
first of the two versions in the English Prayer Book, 
inserted in 1662, has been ascribed to Dryden, possibly 
from a confusion with a paraphrase really composed by 
him, and beginning " Creator Spirit, by whose aid." It 
is found in Bp. Cosin s Private Devotions (1627). 

The Sacramentary of Leo has the parallel prayer : 
" Emitte in eos, Domine, quaesumus, Spiritum Sanctum 
quo, in opus ministerii fideliter exequendi, munere septi- 
formi tuae gratiae roborentur ; " and that of Gelasius, 
" Sensibus nostris, quaesumus, Domine, lumen Sanctum 
tuum benignus infunde." 



74 THE ANGLICAN ORDINAL. 

Our weakness strengthen and confirm, 
(For, Lord, thou know st us frail ;) 

That neither devil, world, nor flesh, 
Against us may prevail. 

Put back our enemy far from us, 

And help us to obtain 
Peace in our hearts with God and man, 

(The best, the truest gain ;) 

And grant that thou being, O Lord, 

Our leader and our guide, 
We may escape the snares of sin, 

And never from thee slide. 

Such measures of thy powerful grace 
Grant, Lord, to us, we pray ; 

That thou may st be our Comforter 
At the last dreadful day. 

Of strife and of dissention 
Dissolve, O Lord, the bands, 

And knit the knots of peace and love 
Throughout all Christian lands. 

Grant us the grace that we may know 

The Father of all might, 
That we of his beloved Son 

May gain the blissful sight ; 

And that we may with perfect faith 

Ever acknowledge thee, 
The Spirit of Father, and of Son, 

One God in Persons Three. 

To God the Father laud and praise, 

And to his blessed Son, 
And to the Holy Spirit of grace, 

Co-equal Three in One. 



THE ANGLICAN ORDINAL. 75 

And pray we, that our only Lord 
Would please his Spirit to send 

On all that shall profess his Name, 

From hence to the ivorld s end. Amen. 

T That done, the Bishop shall pray in this n se(46), and say, 

Let us pray. 

Almighty God, and heavenly Father, who, of 
thine infinite love and goodness towards us, hast 
given to us thy only and most dearly beloved Son 

46. That done, the Bishop shall pray in this wise, &c. 

"Holy Lord, Almighty Father, Eternal God, Who 
appointest all good gifts and all dignities, which are 
doing battle for Thee ... by this Thy providence, O Lord, 
to the Apostles of Thy Son Thou didst add as 
comrades teachers of the Faith, by whose aid they filled 
the whole world with subordinate preachers. Wherefore, 
O Lord, we implore Thee bestow this aid also on our 
infirmity" (/Sacr. Leon. 424). 

" I can now no longer escape from the duty of teaching 
laid on me by the requirements of the Priesthood, though 
in truth I tried to avoid it. For God gave some Apostles, 
and some Prophets, and some Evangelists, and some 
Pastors and Teachers " (St. Ambrose, De Off. Min. i. i). 

"All the functions and powers of the Church were 
summed up at first in the Apostles, and were gradually 
imparted under their authority and leading to different 
officers who shared the ; ame ministry in different grades. 
Thus, if the function of worship, which in the Christian 
Church formed the spiritual counterpart of the Temple 
Xfirovpyia, was (as Harnack says) the primary function 
of the Episcopate, if it was the Bishop s office to offer 
the gifts (Clem, ad Cor. 44), yet they certainly in this 
respect only share the AeiToupyt a of the prophets and 
teachers (Did. xv. i), and these prophets and teachers 
are in the Acts specially brought before us as fulfilling 
this function of worship (Acts xiii. 2). Prophets in fact, 
and of course Apostles, were ministers of worship as well 
as ministers of the word and governing authorities. 
Then again with reference to the function of teaching. 



76 THE ANGLICAN ORDINAL. 

Jesus Christ, to be our Redeemer, and the Author 
of everlasting life ; who, after he had made perfect 
our redemption by his death, and was ascended 
into heaven, sent abroad into the world his 
Apostles, Prophets, Evangelists, Doctors, and Pas 
tors ; by whose labour and ministry he gathered 
together a great flock in all the parts of the world, 
to set forth the eternal praise of thy holy Name : 
For these so great benefits of thy eternal good 
ness, and for that thou hast vouchsafed to call 
these thy servants here present to the same Office 

It belongs primarily to Apostles, and prophets, and teachers 
and evangelists, but it is shared also by the bishops 
or presbyters ( i These, v. 12; i Tim. iii. 2 ; v. 17; 
Tit. i. 9 ; Acts xx. 29, 30; the local pastors are called 
teachers in Eph. iv. n)" (Gore, Christian Ministry, 
note K, p. 400). 

" Tis in the Church that God hath placed Apostles, 
prophets, teachers, and all the remaining operation of 
the Spirit. Of this Spirit all they who fail to have 
recourse to the Church are not partakers ; but, through 
their ill-will and most depraved action, they i-ob them 
selves of life. For where the Church is there is the 
Spirit of God, and where the Spirit of God is there is 
the Church and every grace ; the Spirit moreover is 
truth " (Ir. Haer. iii. 40). 

" The name Evangelist denotes a work rather than 
an order. The Evangelist might or might not be 
a Bishop, Elder or a Deacon. The Apostles, so far as 
they evangelized, might claim the title, though there 
were many Evangelists who were not Apostles " (Dean 
Plumptre in D. B. i. 593). 

In the Liturgy of St. Chrysostom, the Deacon, before 
reading the Gospel, says to the Priest, "Bless, Sir, the 
Evangelist of the holy Apostle and Evangelist . . . ; and 
the Priest, signing him with the sign of the Cross 
(o-ffrpayifav), says," &c. (In the Passio SS. Perpetuae et 
Felicitatis, c. A. D. 202 Aspasius is the Presbyter 
Teacher). 



THE ANGLICAN ORDINAL. 77 

and Ministry appointed for the salvation of man 
kind we render unto thee most hearty thanks, we 
praise and worship thee ; and we humbly beseech 
thee, by the same thy blessed Son, to grant unto 
all, which either here or elsewhere call upon thy 
holy Name, that we may continue to shew our 
selves thankful unto thee for these and all other 
thy benefits ; and that we may daily increase and 
go forwards in the knowledge and faith of thee 
and thy Son, by the Holy Spirit. So that as well 
by these thy Ministers, as by them over whom 
they shall be appointed thy Ministers, thy holy 
Name may be for ever glorified, and thy blessed 
kingdom enlarged ; through the same thy Son 
Jesus Christ our Lord, who liveth and reigneth 
with thee in the unity of the same Holy Spirit, 
world without end. Amen. 

U When this Prayer is done (47), the Bishop ivith the Priests present 

47. When this Prayer is done, &c. 

" When ordaining a Presbyter, O Bishop, do thou 
thyself lay thy hand upon his head, the Presbytery standing 
by thee" (Const. Ap. viii. 16). 

" A Presbyter lays on his hand, but does not appoint 
or ordain," id. 28 (xfipoderel, ou xfiporovei . later x ei p TOV <- a 
and x L PQ f<T <-a came to be identical in meaning). 

" When a Presbyter is ordained, while the Bishop is 
blessing him and holding his hand on his head, let all the 
Presbyters also who are present hold their hands over his 
head near the hand of the Bishop " (Cone. Garth, iv. 3). 

" The Priest kneels on both knees before the divine 
altar, and then has on his head the high-priestly right 
hand, and in this manner at the hands of the High Priest 
who appoints him by the invocations that make him 
a Priest (rdls ItpoiroLu is tiriK\r)(Te<Tiv} is he consecrated " 
(Dionys. Areop. de Ecc. Hier. v. 2). 

"And while the Bishop blesses him let him hold his 
hand over his head. Likewise let the Presbyters who 



78 THE AXGLICAX ORDINAL. 

shall lay their hands severally upon the head of evert/ one lhat 
receiceth the Order of Priesthood ; the Receivers humltly kneeling 
upon their knees, and the Bishop saying, 

Receive the Holy Ghost (48) for the Office and 

are present hold their hands near the hand of the Bishop 
over his head " (Pontifical of Egbert). 

In the Eoman Pontifical the Bishop and Priests lay 
both their hands on the head of the candidates, after 
which they hold their right hands extended over them. 

In the Greek Pontifical the Bishop, holding his right 
hand on the candidate s head, says, " The Divine grace, 
which always healeth that which is sick and filleth up 
that which lacketh, advances N. the most pious Deacon 
to be Priest. Let us therefore pray for him that the 
grace of the All-Holy Spirit may come upon him." 

" And this to be true Chrysostom affirmeth in his 
eighty-fifth homily upon St. John, where he saith in this 
manner : What speak I of Priests ? I say that neither 
Angel nor Archangel can of his own power give us any 
of those things which be given us from God : but it is 
the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost which is the 
effectual cause of all those things; the Priest doth 
only put to his hand and tongue. And in this point 
St. Ambrose also agreeth with the said opinion of 
Chrysostom. For in his book, De Dignitate Sacerdotali, 
he saith these words : The Priest layeth his hand upon 
us, but it is God that giveth the grace. The Priest 
layeth upon us his beseeching hand, but God blesseth us 
with His mighty hand. The Bishop consecrateth another 
Bishop, but it is God that giveth the dignity " (Institution 
of a Christian Man, p. 106). 

48. Receive the Holy Ghost, &c. 

Prayer and the laying on of hands being the essential 
" form and matter " of Ordination, without any speci 
fication of the words to be used, there is no Catholic rule 
as to the form, and antiquity exhibits variety. 

" There was no rite common to the whole Church, no 
Catholic rite, from which we departed at the Reforma 
tion " (Bishop Browne, Speech at the Church House, 
C. H. S. Tract, xvii). 

The form in the Canons of Hippolytus, third century, 



THE ANGLICAN ORDINAL. 79 

Work of a Priest in the Church of God, now com 
mitted unto thee by the Imposition of our hands. 
Whose sins thou dost forgive, they are forgiven; 
and whose sins thou dost retain, they are retained. 

was : " Receive his prayers and oblations, which he shall 
offer to Thee day and night, and may they be to Thee 
a pleasing odour. Bestow upon him the Presbyterate 
and the spirit of mercy, and the power to remit sins, 
and the faculty of dissolving all the bonds of the iniquity 
of demons, and of healing all diseases, and beat down 
Satan under his feet quickly." Cf. Cann. Hipp, in Texte 
und Untersuchungen, Gebhart and Harnack, vi. 46. 

The Maronite. 

" Presented to the high and sublime order of Presbyters, 
may he minister at Thy altar without condemnation ; 
may he honour Thy holy throne, and there offer perfect 
sacrifices and spiritual gifts ; may he renew Thy people 
by the laver of regeneration." 

The Coptic. 

" Look upon Thy servant promoted to the order of the 
Presbyterate : fill him with Thy Holy Spirit that he may 
preside over and rule Thy people with a pure heart : give 
him the spirit of wisdom that he may be full of salutary 
virtues arid the word of doctrine ; that he may teach Thy 
people in gentleness and serve Thee in holiness ; that he 
may pei-fect the works of the Priesthood on Thy people 
who duly show Thy misery to him ; that he may regenerate 
them in the font." 

The Nestorian. 

Choose them, Lord, to the Priesthood, that they 
may lay hands on the sick and they may be cured; that 
with pure heart and good conscience they may serve at 
Thy holy altar, offering to Thee the oblations of prayers 
and the sacrifices of confessions in Thy holy Church." 

The Armenian. 

" Keep him whom thou hast received to the Presbyterate 
unmoved in that Priesthood. Let him stand in that 
Priesthood, built and strengthened on the rock of the 
faith of the Apostles and Prophets : may he have apostolic 
grace to expel diseases and evil spirits, to call the Holy 



8o THE ANGLICAN ORDINAL. 

And be thou a faithful Dispenser of the Word of 
God, and of his holy Sacraments ; In the Name of 
the Father and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. 
Amen. 

U Then the Buhop shall deliver to every one of them kneeling (49), 
the Bible into his hand, saying, 

Take thou Authority (50) to preach the Word of 

Spirit from heaven for the spiritual life of the regenerate, 
renewing them in the sacred font ; may he perform the 
terrihle and Holy Sacrament of the Body and Blood of 
our Lord for the remission of faults ; may he worthily 
fulfil every office of the Priesthood." 

The actual words, Accipe Spiritum Sanctum : quorum 
remiseris peccata, remittuntur eis, et quorum retinueris, 
retenta erunt are used in the mediaeval Pontifical with 
a second imposition of hands, and are first found in the 
Mainz Pontifical of the thirteenth century (Morin, 279 E; 
Martene, ii. 327). They appear in a Bangor MS. of the 
same century, and in a Roman Pontifical of the fourteenth. 
They are not in the Pontificals of Egbert or Dunstan, 
nor in any of the foreign authorities printed by Martene 
before the twelfth century (see Maskell, Mon. Rit. iii. 
220). In the modern Roman Pontifical the candidates 
are called " ordinati " before the use of this form. 

49. Then the Bishop shall deliver to every one of them 
kneeling, &c. 

Here, in the mediaeval Pontificals, e.g. according to 
the Use of Sarum, the Bishop delivered "the paten with 
the oblations and the cup with wine." The Eubric of 1550 
ordered the Bible to be delivered " with one hand, and 
the chalice or cup, with the bread, in the other hand." 
On the comparative modernness of the custom of the por- 
rection of the paten and cup, cf. pp. 21, 22. The delivery, 
however picturesque and significant, was omitted in 
1552, the "preaching of the word of God" being indi 
cated by the gift of the Bible ; the " ministering of the 
Holy Sacraments " being described by word only. 

50. Take thou Authority, &c. 

The first Canon of the Council of Ancyra (A.D. 314) in 
prohibiting Priests who have lapsed into heathenism and 
then returned, from discharging a Presbyter s functions, 



THE ANGLICAN ORDINAL. 8l 

God, and to minister the holy Sacraments in the 
Congregation (5 1 ), where thou shalt be lawfully 
appointed thereunto. 

H When this is done, the Nicene Creed shall be sung or said : and 
the Bishop shall after that go on in the Service of the Com 
munion, which all they that receive Orders shall take together, 
and remain in the same place where Hands icere laid upon them, 
until such time as they have received the Communion. 

^ The Communion being done, after the last Collect, and imme 
diately before the Benediction, shall be (aid these Collects. 

[For newly ordained Deacons. ] 

Almighty God, giver of all good things, who of 
thy great goodness hast vouchsafed to accept and 
take these thy servants unto the Office of Deacons 
in thy Church; Make them, we beseech thee, 
O Lord, to be modest, humble, and constant in their 
Ministration, to have a ready will to observe all 

sums up these functions as offering the oblations 1 , 
preaching, or performing any of the sacred " liturgies " 
(Labbe, iv. 1680). 

Isidore of Seville (t 636) on the Services of the Church 
(c. vii) writes : " To them," i. e. Presbyters, " no less than 
to Bishops, is committed the stewardship of the mysteries 
of God ; for they take the chief authority in Christ s 
churches, alike in the consecration of the Body and 
Blood, and in teaching the people, and in the office of 
preaching." 

" The Sacrament of the Eucharist we receive from the 
hand of none others than our presidents " (Tertullian, 
de Cor. Mil. cap. iii). 

51. The Congregation. 

The Books of 1550 and 1552 read " this congregation." 
The change to " the " widens the commission to the 
Church generally, "the congregation" having the sense 
of "Ecclesia," as in Art. XXIV. 

1 In the Syriac " Corban." Cf. G. B. Howard, Canons of the 
Primitive Church, from the Syriac. 

F 



82 THE ANGLICAN OEDINAL. 

spiritual Discipline ; that they having always the 
testimony of a good conscience, and continuing 
ever stable and strong in thy Son Christ, may so 
well behave themselves in this inferior Office, that 
they may be found worthy to be called unto the 
higher Ministries in thy Church ; through the same 
thy Son our Saviour Jesus Christ, to whom be 
glory and honour world without end. Amen. 

[For newly-ordained Priests.] 

Most merciful Father (52), we beseech thee to send 
upon these thy servants thy heavenly blessing ; 
that they may be clothed with righteousness, and 
that thy Word spoken by their mouths may have 
such success, that it may never be spoken in vain. 

52. Most merciful Father, &c. 

The prayer of the mediaeval service, after the first 
imposition of hands 1 , laid stress on the " transformation " 
of the bread and wine in terms in themselves primitive, 
but open to misconstruction in view of erroneous theories 
of transubstantiation : 

" God, the author of all gifts of sanctification, Thou 
from whom cometh true consecration and full benediction, 
do Thou, Lord, on these Thy servants whom we dedicate 
Avith the dignity of the presbyterate pour forth the gift 
of Thy benediction : to the end that by the seriousness 
of their conversation and severity of life, they may prove 
themselves elders, trained in the studies which Paul 
taught to Titus and Timothy, and so, meditating day and 
night in Thy law, they may believe what they have read, 
teach what they have believed, and act up to what they 
have taught. Grant that they may show forth in them 
selves justice, constancy, mercy, fortitude, and the re 
mainder of the virtues. May they prove by example, 
confirm by admonition, and keep pure and undefiled the 

1 On successive varieties in this Prayer, cf. Gore s Christian 
Ministry, note C, p. 367. A peculiarity of the Roman ordinal is its 
probable combination of Roman and Gallican forms. 



THE ANGLICAN OKDINAL. 83 

Grant also, that we may have grace to hear and 
receive what they shall deliver out of thy most 

gift of their ministry. May they through the service of 
Thy people 1 transform 2 tlie bread and wine into the Body 
and Blood of Thy Son by holy and undefiled benediction, 
and by inviolable charity, to a perfect man, to the measure 
of the stature of the fulness of Christ, in the day of just 
and eternal judgement, in purity of conscience and fulness 
of faith, full of the Holy Ghost " (Sacr. Gelasii, ed. H. A. 
Wilson, p. 24). 

In the Greek Liturgy, after the laying on of the right 
hand : " Then those within the Bema, and the singers say, 
Lord, have mercy. The Bishop, having again signed him 
thrice, and keejnng the hand on his Jiead, says the following 
prayer secretly, after the Deacon has said, Let us beseech 
the Lord." 

" God, unbeginning and unending, Who art elder 
than all creation, Who hast honoured with the title of 
Priest those accounted worthy to discharge the holy 
ministry of the word of Thy truth in this degree ; 
vouchsafe, O Lord of all, that this man whom Thou hast 
been pleased to advance by me may receive this great 
grace of Thy Holy Spirit, in blameless conversation and 
unswerving faith, and make Thy servant perfect, in all 
things well pleasing unto Thee, and guiding well this 
great priestly honour given unto him by Thy foreknowing 
power. For Thine is the might, and Thine is the king 
dom, and the power and the glory, Father, Son, and Holy 
Ghost, now and ever, and to ages of ages." 

"And after this prayer the principal Priest says in 
a low tone, loud enough for his colleagues to hear and 
respond, the Diaconal sentences " : In peace, &c. (as for 

1 "Per obsequium plebis luae." Cf. "obsequium" in Vul. Eom. 
xii. where " rationabile obsequium " = " reasonable service." So in 
the Order of the Mass : " Orate fratres ut meum ac vestrum sacri- 
ficium fiat acceptabile apud Deum Patrem Omnipotentem." The 
sacrifice is the offering of the Church. 

a Transforment. The words fj^rairoitiv , " transformare," 
" transfigurare," were in use of the holy mysteries before the 
grosser conceptions, which date from the ninth century, were in 
the horizon. Cf. Tlieodoret, Dial. II, quoting Ambrose against 
Apollinarius. 

F 2 



84 THE ANGLICAN ORDINAL. 

holy Word, or agreeable to the same, as the means 
of our salvation ; that in all our words and deeds 
we may seek thy glory, and the increase of thy 
kingdom ; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen. 

Prevent us, O Lord, in all our doings, with thy 
most gracious favour, and further us with thy 
continual help ; that in all our works begun, con 
tinued, and ended in thee, we may glorify thy holy 
Name, and finally by thy mercy obtain everlasting 
life ; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen. 

The peace of God, which passeth all understand 
ing, keep your hearts and minds in the knowledge 

a Deacon). For the servant of God (iV.) now advanced 
to be Priest and for his salvation. 

" That our loving God may grant him a spotless and 
blameless Priesthood," &c. 

The Bishop, holding his hand still on the head of the 
candidate, prays again as follows secretly : 

" God, mighty in power, and unsearchable in wisdom, 
wonderful in counsel above the sons of men, fill, O Lord, 
with the gift of Thy Holy Spirit, this man whom Thou 
bast been pleased should enter the degree of Priest, that 
he may be worthy to stand blamelessly before Thine altar, 
to preach the Gospel of Thy kingdom, to discharge the 
sacred ministry of tbe word of Thy truth, to offer unto 
Thee gifts and spiritual sacrifices, to renew Thy people 
tbrough the laver of regeneration, that at the second 
coming of the great God and our Saviour Jesus Christ, 
Thine Only-begotten Son, he may then receive the reward 
of his good administration of his proper order in the 
multitude of Thy goodness. For Thine awful and glorious 
Name, that of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost, is 
blest and magnified now and ever, and to ages of ages. 
Amen." 

Cf. Institution of a Christian Man, p. 159. 

" Grant that all they that preach Thy word may 
profitably and godly preach Thee and Thy Son, Jesus 
Christ, through all the world : and that all we which 



THE ANGLICAN OEDINAL. 85 

and love of God, and of his Son Jesus Christ our 
Lord : And the blessing of God Almighty, the 
Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost, be amongst 
you, and remain with you always. Amen. 

U And here it must be declared unto the Deacon, that he must 
continue in that Office of a Deacon the space of a whole year 
(except for reasonable causes it shall othericise seem good unto 
the Bishop) to the intent he may be perfect, and ivell expert in 
the things appertaining to the Ecclesiastical Administration. 
In executing whereof if he be found faithful and diligent, he 
may be admitted by his Diocesan to the Order of Priesthood, at 
the times appointed in the Canon; or else, on urgent occasion, 
upon some other Sunday, or Holy-day, in the face of the Church, 
in such manner and form as hereafter followeth. 

hear Thy word preached may so be fed therewith that 
not only we may outwardly receive the same, but also 
digest it within our hearts ; and tliat it may so work and 
feed every part of us that it may appear in all the acts 
and deeds of our life." 



INDEX. 



Altar, 33. 

Ambrose, 32, 65, 72, 75. 
aw6aTo\os, 57. 
Athanasiu., 28, 31, 58, 63. 
Augustine, 28, 31, 34, 52, 59, 
65, 66, 68. 

Bainbriilge, Archbp., 32, 36. 

Basil, 27, 61, 63. 

Bead, 14. 

Bidding, 14. 

Bingham, 65. 

Bishop, 26. 

/8/wj, 33. 

Bossuet, 20. 

Browne, G. F., Bp., 78. 

Canons : 

Apost., 1 6, 50, 59, 77. 

Conv. of 1571, 48. 

Hippolytus, 78. 
Cassock, 6. 
\dpiff pa, 23. 
Charlemagne, 73. 
Chaucer, 14. 
XtipoOtTeiv, 77- 
Chrysostom, 32, 66, 76. 
Clement of Alexandria, 51. 
Clement VIII, Pope, 25. 
Clement of Rome, 15, 27, 63, 75. 
Constantino, Emp., 59, 68. 
Cosin, Bp., 73. 
Councils : 

Ancyra, 80. 

Bonn Conf., 20. 

Carthage, iii. 51. 

Carthage, iv. 53, 77. 

Chalcedon, 70. 

Neocaesarea, 29. 



Nicaea, 16, 68. 

Ravenna, 29. 

Sardica, 29. 

Toledo, 6 1, 65. 

Trent, 15. 

Vaison, 50. 

Cranmer, Archbp., 24. 
Cyprian, 27, 49, 59, 70. 

Daniel, Can., 21. 
Deacon, 26. 
Didache, 75. 
Dionysius, Ar. 77. 
Dollinger, 20. 
Dryden, 73. 
Duchesne, 20, 25. 
Dunstan, 80. 

Egbert, Archbp., 21, 25, 78. 
Ember, 15. 
Epiphanius, 50, 65. 
(iriTe\fiv, 50. 
Ethel wold, 21. 
ivxapiGTtiv, 49. 
Eucharius, 21. 
Eugenius IV, Pope, 22. 
Evangelist, 76. 

Felicitas and Perpetua, 76. 

Gelasius, 61, 82. 
Goar, 39. 

Gore, Can., 17, 76, 81. 
Gregory of Naz., 67. 

Hadrian I, Pope, 25. 
Harnack, 75- 
Herbert, G., 52. 
Hermann, Archbp., 60, 61. 



INDEX. 



Hippolytus, 78. 
Homilies, 19. 
Hooker, 49. 
Howard, G. B., 70, 8 1. 

Ignatius, 28, 31, 33, 52. 
Irenaeus, 28, 66. 
Isidore, 17, 81. 

Jerome, 68, 70. 
Justinian, 48. 

Kaye, Bp., 49. 
King s Book, 16. 
K\TJpos, 15. 

Le Courayer, 20. 
\fiTOvpyta, 75. 
Leo I, Pope, 25, 39, 44. 
Littledale, 44, 53. 
Liturgies ; 

Chrysostom, 76. 

1 Ed. VI, 24. 

2 Ed. VI, 33. 
(ielasius, 61, 82. 
Hadrian, 25. 
Leo, 25, 39, 44. 

Luther, 18. 

Mabillon, 22. 
Marshall, 66. 
fjifTairoLeiv, 82. 
Milton, 58, 68. 
Minucius, Felix, 33. 
Morin, 80. 

Obsequium, 82. 
Oecumenius, 26. 
olKov6fj.os, 57. 
Ordinary, 52. 
Ordo, 15, 1 6. 

Palmer, 56, 65. 
Parish, 62. 
Pastor, 58. 
Perpetua, 76. 
Plumptre, 76. 

, 58. 



Polycarp, 67. 
Pontificals : 

Bainbridge, 32, 36. 

Cambrai, 56. 

Egbert, 25, 78. 

Eng. MS., 50. 

Exeter, 32. 

Greek, 32, 44, 54, 62, 70. 

Mainz, 56, 80. 

Mediaeval, 34, 53, 54, 62, 70. 

Noyon, 34. 

Roman, 25. 

Salzburg, 56. 

Saruin, 32. 

Soissons, 36, 56, 72. 

Tours, 31, 57, 67. 
Priest, 26. 
Procter, 34. 

Eabanmaur, Archbp., 73. 
Rufinus, 48. 

Sozomen, 68. 
ff(ppayi^a}, 76. 
Stole, 6. 
Surplice, 6. 
Swete, 17, 21, 

Table, 33. 

Tacitus, 15. 

rais, 15. 

Taylor, Jeremy, Bp., 32, 67. 

Tertullian, 15, 21, 28, 49, 62, 

64, 81. 

Theodoret, 50, 82. 
Theophilus of Alexandria, 30. 
ffvffLaaTTjpiov, 33. 
Transformare, 82. 
33. 



Varro, 21. 

Wesley, 19. 
Westcott, Bp., 23. 

Xenophon, 15. 
Zacliary, Pope, 29. 



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