(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Children's Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Theban ostraca : Edited from the originals, now mainly in the Royal Ontario Museum of Archaeology, Toronto, and the Bodleian Library, Oxford"

31 

_. > 

University of Toronto Studies 



i 

Volume 



THEBAN OSTRACA 

EDITED FROM THE ORIGINALS, NOW MAINLY IN 

THE ROYAL ONTARIO MUSEUM OF ARCHAEOLOGY, 

TORONTO, AND THE BODLEIAN LIBRARY, OXFORD 



PART I. HIERATIC TEXTS: BY ALAN H. GARDINER 

PART II. DEMOTIC TEXTS: BY HERBERT THOMPSON 

PART III. GREEK TEXTS: BY J. G. MILNE 

PART IV. COPTIC TEXTS: BY HERBERT THOMPSON 




UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO LIBRARY 

London : Humphrey Milford 
Oxford University Press 

1913 



OXFORD: HORACE HART 
PRINTER TO THE UNIVERSITY 



PJ 

O 



PREFATORY NOTE 

THE ostraca which are published in this volume have 
been selected from a large collection obtained in 1906 by 
Mr. J. G. Milne and myself in the neighbourhood of Thebes. 
As we practically bought up the whole stocks of one or two 
native excavators, in addition to making more discriminating 
purchases from other dealers, a good many of the pieces are 
of little interest. But, after all deductions of fragmentary, 
illegible, and unimportant examples, there remains a consider- 
able proportion of the collection which offers material of 
permanent value for students of the history or language 
of Egypt. After the preliminary sorting of the potsherds, 
we secured the assistance of Dr. Alan Gardiner and Sir Herbert 
Thompson for the work of editing the texts in the native 
language ; and the University of Toronto undertook to publish 
the volume. 

The collection has now been divided, and about half the 
texts included in this volume will be found in the Royal Ontario 
Museum of Archaeology at Toronto, while most of the remainder 
will, I understand, be deposited in the Bodleian Library at 
Oxford. 

C. T. CURRELLY. 



I 

HIERATIC TEXTS 

NOS. 

A. i-io. LITERARY TEXTS. 

B. 1-18. BUSINESS DOCUMENTS. 

C. 1-3. RELIGIOUS TEXTS. 

D. i. ROMAN PERIOD. 



INTRODUCTION 

AMONG the ostraca acquired in Egypt by Messrs. Currelly 
and Milne but few are inscribed in hieratic characters, and these 
are without great importance. Nevertheless in their subject- 
matter they are a fairly representative collection, the epistolary 
being the only common class of text of which there is no 
specimen. Among the literary ostraca (A) there are fragments 
of two Egyptian books which for their popularity in the Rames- 
side period deserve to be considered classics, namely the Satire 
on the Professions and the Instruction of King Amenemmes / 
to his son. Of the business documents (B) most are fragments 
of journals and accounts ; dry as isolated texts of this kind may 
seem, in bulk they afford us a comprehensive picture of the 
daily practical concerns of the population that dwelt in the 
Theban Necropolis. The religious texts (C) consist of a fine 
magical spell, the most valuable accession to our knowledge 
contained in the series ; and a fragment naming several places 
where Thoth was worshipped. All these texts are of Ramesside 
date ; there is also a tiny potsherd (D i) with part of a hymn 
dating from the Roman period. 



A. LITERARY TEXTS 

A 1. FRAGMENT OF AN EARTHENWARE POT, height 15-16 cm., 
greatest breadth 15 cm. The text, about thirteen lines in a good 
Ramesside hand, is very much rubbed, the following words being all 
that is legible : 



A"" 



Probably an extract from an unknown literary text, to the subject of which 
there is no clear clue. 



A 2. LIMESTONE FRAGMENT, height 15-5 cm., greatest breadth 
ii cm. Inscribed on both sides in the same large, careless, Ramesside 
hand ; the recto has preserved only the beginnings, the verso only the 
ends, of the lines. Red verse-points. 

Recto. 

^^\- ] blank 



5- 





6. 



7. HIERATIC TEXTS 

) 
_JU. A X - 



Verso. 



(5 

ifijs t\ EEED ^ : 

:>d^- 

(Rest blank.) 



II 



Perhaps the beginning of a lost book of didactic nature. Why the scribe 
wrote the words 'Thoth, master of the hieroglyphs' in recto i is not clear. 
Lines 2-3 give the normal beginning of a book of this kind : ' Beginning of the 
instruction which a man made for [his] son. . . . [Give] thy heart to that which 
I say to thee ; act according to. . . .' The remaining lines of the recto are too 
fragmentary to be intelligible. Note the rare word snm ' grief in 7, as also 
above in A 1. 2. The verso is no less obscure than the recto \ we appear to have 
the ends of the lines complete. In 4 there is the trace of a date (' . . . day 13 '), 
being the usual memorandum of the scribe as to when the following words were 
written. Then follows a sentence of proverbial (?) nature, ' He who is free from 
changes is a lord of wealth ' ; at this point the text comes abruptly to an end. 

A 3. LIMESTONE, inscribed on one side only in a large Ramesside 
literary hand. Red verse-points. Height 16 cm., breadth 16 cm. 

x lines lost, 
i. 



LITERARY TEXTS 



@@ 






"] 

J 



Remainder of stone blank. 



We have here an excerpt from the Satire on the Professions, of all Egyptian 
writings perhaps the most popular in the Ramesside schools. The text, which is 
fairly good, corresponds to Sallier //, 4, 6-9. In line 4 is a date of the kind 
mentioned in the notes on A 2. 



A 4. POTSHERD, 7-5 cm. high and 12-5 cm - broad, inscribed on one 
side in a literary hand of the New Kingdom. Red verse-points. In- 
complete in every direction. 



I 







o ill 



III 



An enumeration of minerals, obviously taken from a literary exercise of the 
kind known from the Papyrus Keller or Anastasi IV. This particular text 
appears to be unknown, and *i-r-h in line 2 is a a7ra 



6 /. HIERATIC TEXTS 

A 5. FRAGMENT (8 cm. high, 10 cm. broad) of a limestone tablet 
that was flat on each side and rounded at the edges. Complete at top 
only. Literary hand of the New Kingdom, with red verse-points. 

Recto. 







s$ 

? c 



SIC 

rp 



@ 



5 

6 



x lines lost. 
Verso. 



? ? 



"ft /WWW \\ 

.mi I I <=>\ 



x lines lost. 



Taken from a lost didactic or gnomic work. In lines 3 and 5 of the recto 
are traces of dates. Note the following expressions and sentences: recto 2, 
'the ears are deaf/ read '*'</(?); 3, ' thou art rich, thou art ... (m* is probably 
corrupt), thou passest thy life in , . . ' ; 4, 'he who is without a name shall find 



LITERARY TEXTS 7 

honour/ lit. 'he who is void of his name (shall be) for a revered one' ; 5, 'hale 
(wdl) of limbs is he who . . / ; verso 2, 'do not relax thy heart (i. e. attention), 
long be thy silence (?) ' ; 3, ' according to his deserts.' 



A 6. LIMESTONE, with rough surface, much worn ; height 9-5 cm., 
breadth 12-5 cm. Large uncial Ramesside hand. The text, which 
might be derived from a hymn, is very fragmentary and void of all 

interest. The word (1 <s m <S\ Vv <a .^y^ in line 4 is perhaps worth 

__jcX^ yjyiN^t ^""T 

noting. 



A 7. POTSHERD, 5-5 cm. x 9-5 cm., with the following words in large 
cursive hieroglyphs : 



* I [came ?], I carried off Cret[ans] . . / 

A 8. IRREGULAR RED POTSHERD, with some words in a big 
literary hand of the nineteenth dynasty ; 9 x 9*5 cm. Line i . . . . J (1 

I ^ ? I c -- sj 

I . . . c like Min the son of . . . ' ; line 2, . . . g ^_^ ~ 
< child of ' ; line 3, undecipherable. 



A 9. LIMESTONE FRAGMENT (13-5 x 6 cm.), with the ends of seven 
lines in a Ramesside literary hand ; in no line are there more than three 
words left. Duplicate of Millingen 2, 5-2, 9 (the instruction of king 
Amenemhet I to his son) without any variants of interest. 

A 10. SMALL LIMESTONE FLAKE, with a few signs, written vertically, 
in cursive hieroglyphs of uncertain date. Line i, . . . 

IJw *i^ V 

%...; Hoe a,... 



8 /. HIERATIC TEXTS 



B. BUSINESS DOCUMENTS 

B 1. SMALL FRAGMENT OF LIMESTONE (6x4 cm.), inscribed in 
hieratic of the New Kingdom (possibly Dyn. 18) on one side only. 
Broken on the left side. 



f n A/WVNA r\ <-, ^ ^^ <==> 
1 y Of)/ C3 GO 

/WWW ^ *^-> I Jf M/WVA I O 



- -^..'..OV^t,, " > 

' Amount of dates of the first month of winter, sacks .... Made into 

(?), | of a sack. Expended, second month of winter [. . . . sacks]. 

Day 17, 4 sacks. Total ' 

Memoranda for a journal recording receipts and consumption of dates. 

B 2. LIMESTONE (9x6 cm.). A few half-illegible words of uncertain 
meaning. 

B 3. FRAGMENT OF SMOOTH POT (Canopus ?), with the isolated 
word Q^/fiflflflJin hieratic. 



B 4. LIMESTONE FRAGMENT (6-5 x 13 cm.), with a few Ramesside 
hieratic signs. Accounts, without interest. 

B 5. UPPER PORTION OF CREAM-COLOURED OIL-JAR, inscribed in 
good hieratic characters with the following words : 



' Year 36, oil of the garden [of .... (?) king] Rameses II . . . . ' 



BUSINESS DOCUMENTS 9 

B 6. LIMESTONE (6x7 cm.), with fragments of accounts (of beer 
delivered ?) : 

IM i i nhn i 1 1 






fl (D ^ ^ mm ' ' ' 

3 J 4 ^nnnn n 

' [Day . . . ., by the hand of Amenjemuia, /#-jars, 23 65, remain- 
ing, /-jars, 72 [Amenemjuia, ^-jars 8, /3-jars 85. 



The combination ' -jars, /<$-jars ' is found elsewhere, e. g. the Papyrus Chabas- 
Lieblein at Turin. 



B 6 bis. LIMESTONE SLAB (17-5 x 14 cm.), inscribed on both sides 
in a XXth Dyn. business hand ; much rubbed and to a great extent 
illegible. Recto , journal entries from day 37 to day 6 of the next 

month ; in line i (1(1 | 1 shows that the figures in the following 

lines refer to '^-cakes'; note that Mast day' (of the month) is 
written ^ (sic). A second shorter column appears to give the month's 
totals : 



* Total, first month of Inundation, 245. 5 c jj/-cakes, 262. ./?-/z-,r-cakes, 
212. Vegetables, bundles 395.' 

The verso consists of similar accounts, almost wholly undecipherable. 



B 7. BROKEN POTSHERD (7 x 5-5 cm.), with parts of several lines 
in a legible Ramesside business hand. 

C 



io /. HIERATIC TEXTS 









I s$$ sss 

.... 1 x lines lost. 

1 the workman . . . . , left over, 20 bundles. Right hand. . . . Total 

of all the supplies (?), total, bundles. . . . Left hand, head workman of the 
workmen -mose ' 

From the accounts of the gangs of workmen belonging to the Theban 
Necropolis. The word ' bundles ' (hrs) makes it probable that ' vegetables ' (sm) 
are the commodity here in question. The words wnmy and smhy are an as yet 
unsolved puzzle ; they refer in some way to a twofold division of the workmen, 
but it is not easy to suggest an exact meaning for ' right hand ' and ' left hand ' 
here; so too in the Turin papyri, passim. H\w nb in line 4 is a not quite 
common expression. 



B 7 bis. LIMESTONE CHIP (6-5 x 4 cm.), inscribed in a Ramesside 

hand. 

? 

^ ^ * Us J 1^ I 



Perhaps the fragment of a letter. The name of a fish kP in line 4 seems 
legible enough, but the word is unknown. 



B 8. LIMESTONE (10x9 cm -)> incomplete. Ramesside accounts 
recording the deliveries of fish by various scribes. Of the seven lines 
preserved in part, line 6 is the most complete and may be restored as 



BUSINESS DOCUMENTS n 






' Received from the Scribe Pentwer, fish 400 dbnl The first five lines 
follow the same scheme, but lines i (?), 3, 3, and 4 replace the scribe 

Pentwer by F^ftl D ^^ t\ Q "^^ V* * [the scribe] Amenone ' ; 

L| |o|J l/wvwv _B^ 1 /wwv\ KA 1 L 

line 7 is an incomplete total of the fishes delivered. On the verso are 
faint traces of similar accounts ; the words H <=> t\ < ^- ' ^ en 

. /T^- ^7 AAAAM 

show that the word for c fish ' is to be read rm throughout. 



B 9. A THICK SLAB OF LIMESTONE, 15 cm. high by 10 cm. broad, 
inscribed in uncial Ramesside characters ; broken at the top, and chipped 
on the right-hand side : 



o 

AAAAAA 



& 



These lines contained the names of three ' chantresses of Amon ', all of them 
now partly illegible. The verso has faint traces of a similar text. 



B 10, AN INCOMPLETE FRAGMENT OF LIMESTONE (9x9 cm.) 
inscribed in a business hand of the Ramesside period. 

Recto. 

2. 



! w/// ^ I^M B ' ' ' ' B (perhaps no other line is lost). Verso, i. 



J] /WWSA (I ' Q (D V\i /## ^. 8 . . . . S space \ 

^A A ^ A .,S^ n ^- M ^ ^ -^ 



AWWV AAVWN 1 AAAAAA CiL AVWVN 

^ n lA r?_ -^1 fk n /o <t AAAAAA 



12 /. HIERATIC TEXTS 



. 4-. . 

(Probably this was the end.) 

This fragmentary text clearly refers to a bargain or dispute about the loan of 
an ass ; several ostraca of a similar kind are known. The parties concerned are 
the choachyte Amenkhow and the workman Hay. 

B 11. A GREYISH-BROWN POTSHERD, 11-5x10 cm., inscribed in 
a XXth Dyn. hand. The beginnings of nine lines seem to be journal 
entries of the ordinary type, not worth recording m extenso. The name 



^ ,] ^ j -n L<-J vii ^yj occurs twice. 

B 12. A WORTHLESS GREY-BROWN POTSHERD with some unde- 
cipherable words in a Ramesside hand. 

B 13. A FRAGMENT OF LIMESTONE with rough convex surface, 
isxio cm. The text consists of two columns of proper names in 
a small and difficult cursive writing dating from perhaps the XXIst or 
XXIInd Dynasty. Among the legible names are the following : (i, 10) 



B 14. LIMESTONE, measuring 23 x 15 cm. Badly-damaged accounts 
of the XlXth or XXth Dynasty. The text does not merit reproduction 

as a whole, but the following items deserve notice : (1. 5) * |f fl 5^ 
fl iH G I -ft ^^ = a HI' ____ a basket, value 3 dbn ' ; (1. 7 

I ' ' /WWv\ /WVW\ ' 



and 1. 12) s= " t^a t\ \\(\ 'wood for burning' ; (1. 11 and 1. 13) 

Z^ I /WWNA W^> ^7 



f\ ] - J 

(I U\ 

IV. 



i ^=0) *tf /WVAAA I one donkey-skin for water '. 

1 



\ /WWVN /WVW\ 



B 15. A WORTHLESS YELLOW POTSHERD with a few words from 
a business (?) text. N. K. 



BUSINESS DOCUMENTS 



B 16. A SMALL POTSHERD with the words 
I * its deficit on the last day of the month '. 



B 17. A SMALL LIMESTONE FLAKE with some rather obscure 
fragments of temple accounts ; the word smd-t seems here to have the 

exceptional spelling \\ 






B 18. A ROUGH-SURFACED RED-BROWN POTSHERD (9x8 cm.) ; 
the hieratic words upon it probably belong to the label of a jar for wine 

nnnn 
nnnn 



or oil ; the only legible signs are : i 

i& , D ^ 



2. 



C. RELIGIOUS TEXTS. 

C 1. A VALUABLE LIMESTONE OSTRACON, complete at top and 
on the right ; the other sides are damaged. Inscribed on one side only 
in an uncial Ramesside hand ; the surface available for writing 
measures 21 x n cm. 




\\ \\ 



(D [*^ 

v\ \\ 



1 S might possibly be oo, and ,r^& an n. 

2 These signs look more like , < 7 :5 j, but 'wy must surely be the right reading ; 

at its first occurrence the word is of still more doubtful reading, the surface being 
very rough. 



I. HIERATIC TEXTS 




D 



e 



^ length? dS^a f] I 

I I 4- Ml 

| S^ . ^ /wwv\ I 4^ 

rn^j^-^ 



p; 



*ikp 



^^_ uu 
D <^? 



-A 



X o 73 

^j length? 58 



^^^e-PiPi(l(j 



^ length? 

^ Is? -^ -A \\ 

sic 
^^^A/v^ f" (Jj) 



length? 



/wvw\ A /wwv\ 



<: 



7-ffiJ 







X 



1 """ 
f 






lines lost. 



'Get thee back, thou enemy, thou dead man or woman (and so 
forth) who dost cause pain to N the son of M .... his flesh. Thou 
dost not fall upon him, thou dost not establish thyself in him. Thy 
head has no power over his head. Thy arms have no power over 



1 So more probably than . w .. 
z Mnd a little doubtful. 

3 /WSAAA (apparently so) added above line ; this can only mean that 
be read in place of 



should 



RELIGIOUS TEXTS 15 

[his] arms, [thy legs ?] have no power [over his legs ?]. No limbs 
of thine have power over any limbs of his. Thou fallest not upon 
him, so that suffering befall him. Thou hast no power over his toes, 
so that there be. ... Thou weighest not (upon) his flesh, so that there 
be aught wherewith his limbs are burdened. Thou pressest not upon 
his breast, so that there be blood (?). Thou enterest not into [his . . . , 
so that there be . . . .] in it. Thou dost not take up thy position on 
his back, so that there is injury to his spine. Thou dost not cleave to 
his buttocks, so that there is shshy\t ?]. [Thou dost not . . .] his legs, 
so that there is retreat. Thou dost not enter into his phallus, so that it 
grows limp. Thou dost not cast seed into [his] anus(?) . . . Thou hast 
no power over his toes, so that thou impedest him (?). Thou dost not 
press upon [his] fingers . . . , thou dost not [blind] his eyes, thou dost 
not deafen his ears, [thou] hast no power . . . 

This is a singularly clear and simple spell for the prevention of disease. The 
demon is directly invoked and bidden to be gone ; various possibilities of attack 
are then enumerated in turn, it being denied in each case that the demon is able 
to force an entrance by this channel. Of special interest are the statements * thy 
head has no power over his head ' and the following, as they contain a somewhat 
novel application of the magical adage that like influences like. The text is not 

quite free from mistakes; in line 4 ^ must be inserted after dns-k, and for 

er\ AA/WVA *_ 
<^> I / . In line 6 

I *S^--^ o 



hnhn lacks its usual determinative /V^ , and the suffix f ought to be supplied 
after hnn. In line 7 the final h of s\h has dropped out. The only unknown 
word is shshy\i\ in line 5. 

C 2. LIMESTONE (8-5 x 13 cm.), inscribed on both sides with large 
uncial writing of the New Kingdom. Complete only on the right side 
and at bottom. 

Recto. Column i. # lines lost. 



i6 /. HIERATIC TEXTS 



Column 2 (separated from col. i by a thick curved line), x lines lost. 



2. 

3- -A 

Verso. Very obscure signs written in red. 

The redo enumerates (for what purpose is not clear) a number of towns in 
which offerings were made to Thoth. The formula throughout is ' Offerings 
(zvdnw) to Thoth in . . . ' (name of town). The places mentioned are Schmun (?), 
Cusae, Bubastis, Meir, >2nbw and H\t-k\-k\-\k ?]. What town is meant by *lnbw 
is uncertain ; the place-name H\t-k\-k\-\k ?] occurs in the Golenischeff Vocabulary 
somewhere between Ptolemais and Aphroditopolis; in the Medinet Habu list it occurs 



is a similar position, the local deity being fijl I \\ ^Jj . Of col. 2 of the recto, 

JQ I 
and of the signs on the verso I can make no sense. 



D. ROMAN PERIOD. 

D 1. A POTSHERD OF RED WARE with fragments of five lines in 
hieratic of the Roman period, giving parts of a hymn. Without interest. 

1 It is doubtful whether v. ^> was ever written. 



LITERARY TEXTS. APPENDIX i6a 



APPENDIX 

AT the last moment it has been found possible to include in our 
volume a record of one of the largest and best-preserved hieratic ostraca 
in existence. This stone belongs to the Toronto Museum, and became 
available for study in England only in September, 1913, when the earlier 
portions of the book were already printed off. 

A 11. SLAB OF LIMESTONE, height 54 cm., greatest breadth 28 cm. 
Incomplete at the top of recto = bottom of verso. Inscribed on both 
sides in a practised but careless literary hand, the signs varying consider- 
ably as to both size and thickness in different parts of the text. The 
writing is of Ramesside date, and closely resembles that of an ostracon 
in Berlin (P 12337 = Hierat. Pap. III. 31). Red verse-points, and 
a rubric at the conclusion of the recto. In front of the twelfth and 
following lines of the verso there are written a few epistolary phrases. 
These in some cases join up so closely with the text proper of the verso 
as to appear continuous with it. 

The subject-matter is a collection of four model letters, such as are 
familiar to us in the Anastasi, Sallier, and other papyri ; such ' Complete 
Letter- writers ' are among the commonest varieties of text found on 
hieratic ostraca. The spelling and the readings are here throughout 
extremely corrupt, and it is not always possible to discern the intended 
meaning. In order to facilitate the study of the ostracon, critical notes 
giving what I believe to be the true readings are added to the notes on 
the hieratic. 



c* 



I. HIERATIC TEXTS 



&U J 4K&PZ>S** &&4E! 

*&9 _ ^ < A _ Oi ^ . A^Jb * ) _ . 




RECTO : lines 1-16. 



LITERARY TEXTS. APPENDIX 



16 c 



*ife*ft** 



riH?*t*B3P 



^^?U*WMK*&T 
cVft*%4i ^ffcPii&p; 




RECTO : lines 17-30. 



L HIERATIC TEXTS 




VERSO : lines 1-13. 



LITERARY TEXTS. APPENDIX 



i6e 




VERSO: lines 14-25. 



/. HIERATIC TEXTS 



I. 



lacuna 



LETTER I (recto i- 

2. 



very large lacuna 

J 



< > 

j/<: ? 

3- er y a Iacuna [||J 

[p]l ver y lar g elacuna l 5 



% very large 



MiP 



' mmj 



space 

Notes on the hieratic. ! Followed by two small undecipherable signs. 
8 Over a deleted f . 8 Corrected from 



Critical notes. a Read ^ J^=^; then probably followed lniy<r\ n-t, 
/;-/, &c. b Emend \tto-i\ hr dd (n) ^f/nn> c For snb-lwf (sic), cf, 

below 14. d Emend /j^-/ ^ e Emend n t\ for w? f Read 



LITERARY TEXTS. APPENDIX 



i6g 



The servant .............. [salutes] his lord ............... 

The town [of Pharaoh (?), which is under the control of my lord, is in 
good condition .......... The servants] of Pharaoh [who are in it] 

........................ which my lord gives to them, in due order. 

[I] say to Amon-Rasonter, to Mut . ....... Amon, to Khons in Thebes, 

who receives the new-moon (?), lord of heaven ........ Neferhotp. In 

life, prosperity, health ! In the praise of Pharaoh, thy good lord ! May 
he have the duration of the mountains, the sky and the water, being in 
the house of his father Re, the lord of eternity, prince of everlasting, 
my lord being in life, prosperity, and health ! Again, salutations to my 
lord ! May my lord turn his face towards the work-people, and give to 
them their [rations] ..... 

(Written) by the scribe Si-Amon. 

The first letter was not improbably addressed to the Vizier Khay, like the second 
and third. Some hints as to how the defective portions should be restored may 
be got from the fourth letter, The salutations occupy the best part of ten lines, 
while the actual subject of the letter a request for the work-people's wages is 
dismissed in a couple of sentences. The epithet hp psd^ here given to Khons, is 
unknown to me elsewhere. For e fi e w n] dww, cf. Leipzig Os fr aeon 5. 



LETTER II (recto 12-30). 




i6h 



L HIERATIC TEXTS 



* 






31. 



A/VWW S~M }T^\. I w i H 

5 6 



LITERARY TEXTS. APPENDIX 



161 



25. 



10 




$ 



12 



1*1 - 



n 

AAAAAA 



l" 1 ""! 

AAAAAA 



15 . -| F=? &. i tk n ^ a 

44 $ ^ilMfv^ 



aa 



29. 



Dbb 



llll 



l AAAAAA 




Notes on the hieratic. l Above the line is t^^i which has been erased ; 
upon this has been written a sign like =*f= or ^y 3 . 2 O I above the line. 
8 o has the appearance of ss . 4 * is surcharged on ^i^a . B -s&- is a 
correction. 6 Written over H . 7 (| (j <^^ is a correction. 8 JJ is 

a correction. 9 ^ written over *^ - 10 Like the sign of the old man, but 
without any stick. u o surcharged upon **=> " Corrections. 

18 Under fl (1 are visible the deleted signs Tk |). 14 ^ is almost like 



hieratic 



" Corrections. " is a correction. 17 Corrections. 



Critical notes. a Read nb-(/). b Read / y^T as in 22 ; so too 24. 

c Read nty r. d Emend .>*-. for /zt/j as above 10. e Some words seem 
to be omitted. f Read fr 3 . g Read H ^. h Surely ^ ^ should be 

C** 






i6/ /. HIERATIC TEXTS 

substituted. * Emend hst-(tw)f. J For ^ read ^. k Emend ^ . 

1 Dsr-hprw-R* is clearly meant. m The verse-point is misplaced. n Read 
2^. For substitute T^, an easy corruption. P Corrupt? 1 Ditto- 



graph? r Read . s Readr? t Read 

" Read ptrl. v Read U ^. w .gj? is a n t uncommon 

" I v^_^^j *z*- 



_ 

confusion for hr-f, e.g. Leipzig Ostracon 16 ; so, too, at the beginning of the next 
line. x ^imperative? y Read Q ^. z Readwjy-z? aa Read 

V^^G 

Mntw-rh, like 'Inhr-rh, Bologna 1094, 2, 7. bb TV omitted. 

The chief of the Mazoi ....... .... salutes (his) lord, the Overseer 

of the City and Vizier Khay. In life, prosperity, health ! It is a com- 
munication to inform my lord ! Again a salutation to my lord, to the 
effect that the great place of Pharaoh which is under the charge of 
my lord is in proper order ; the walls in the district .......... are 

safe and sound. (As to the) delivery of the yearly dues, they are in 
proper order, wood, vegetables, fish and beer ....... I (?) say unto 

Amon, Ptah, Pre, and the gods of the Place of Truth, ' Preserve Pharaoh, 
my good lord, in health, and may my lord be in his favour daily.' Again 
a salutation to my lord, to the effect that I am the aged servant of my 
lord since the seventh (?) year of King Haremheb. I (?) ran before 
the horses (?) of Pharaoh. I brought to him .......... I yoked (his 

steeds) for him (?). I made report to him, and he inquired of my name 
before the courtiers ; and no fault was found in me. I acted as Mazoi 
of the west of Thebes, and guarded the walls of his great place. I was 
made (?) chief of Mazoi, thy excellent recompense because .......... 

Now behold the chief of the Mazoi Nakht-Thout ; ruined (?) is the 
great place of Pharaoh in which I am ......... * ... my lord ..... 

........... ( I am small,' said he to me, ' do thou equip (?) this place ; 

thou art ........ ,' said he to me. He took away my fields in the 

country. He took away ^ ..... vegetables (?), belonging to my lord as 

the share of the Vizier, and gave (them to) the chief of the Mazoi 
Ment-rakh, and gave the remainder to the high-priest of Mont. He 
took away my grain, which was stored in the country. It is a communi- 
cation to inform my lord. 

The draughtsman Si-Amon. 



LITERARY TEXTS. APPENDIX 



This model letter is addressed by a chief of Mazoi, i.e. a head-policeman or 
head-ghaffir, to the well-known Vizier Khay, who was a contemporary of 
Rameses II. The first part of the letter, down to line 18, consists of the customary 
greetings and assurances that the writer's duties are being properly performed. 
The remaining twelve lines are so corrupt as to be barely intelligible. In 
11. 18-23 tne writer seems to enumerate his past services, doubtless in the hope 
that the grievances spoken of in 11. 2330 may receive the more attention. It is 
difficult to make out what the complaints are about. Another chief Mazoi 
Nakht-Thout is named, after which the text becomes wholly incomprehensible; 
in 11. 27-30 reference is apparently made to some property that this official has 
taken away, and allocated to wrong people. There is only one difficulty of 
vocabulary, tfcn in 1. 24, which is not improbably corrupt. For the formula 
ssnb Pr-*\ (1. 16), cf. Anast. v. 19, 5 ; see too here, verso 24. 



LETTER III (verso 1-13). 



i. 




e 



6. 



0-6 
1^-111 

/VWW ft n _ 2 



n n 



J* 



7. 



I. HIERATIC TEXTS 



" 'TX m 



II. 



: O 



I I I 

r 5 HD - 

O - -H- H 1 I I I 



10. 



[TT] A/WWV 



v^ 

Q < x 



o \\ 

sic 



o 
1 1 1 



1 



Notes on the hieratic. l r-**-i corrected from (a. 2 - corrected from <a. 

8 1 1 over - , which however is preferable. 4 Here corrections. 6 For the 
phrases at the beginning of this and the next lines see after the twelfth letter. 

Critical notes. a For hr swd\ Ib n. b Read i\y hwy-t hr wnmy (n 

ni-swt), cf. below, 14. c _g!^ is dittographed and the words ist m s-t 

m\*-t probably borrowed from line i ; but cf. below, 1. 15. d Read r rdi-t rh 

p]y-l nb. e (AW) omitted, as once above and often below. f Emend 

m n\ n Is-wft e I suspect that hr wn driw m-di-s-n\- is merely a corruption 



of the familiar adjectives driw mnh. 
*-* 

k Emend h\b r di-t t m 



I I 



) omitted. 

1 -/I/ superfluous. 



Read nfrw 
m Read 



for which the scribe has wrongly substituted the similar-looking sign J T T. 
D Read V\ ^ ^ $ . o For r rdi-t. P For Aj? read -. q Read 



LITERARY TEXTS. APPENDIX i6m 



- wsV jl @ ^ I Ql " ' r Read mtw ~l or mfw-n. g (A^) omitted. 

* (A^) omitted, as above, note e . 



The workman in the Place of Truth, Enherkhow salutes his lord, the 
Fanbearer to the Right (of the King) ; the Overseer of the City and 
Vizier, who does Justice, Khay. In life, prosperity, health ! It is a com- 
munication to inform my (lord). Again a salutation to my lord, to the 
effect that we are working (in) the place that my lord said should be 
excellently adorned. Let my lord (cause) me to perform his good 
purposes, and let a message be sent to cause Pharaoh to know. And 
let a dispatch be sent to the Estate-superintendent of Thebes, to the 
high-priest and second priest of Amon, to the toparch of Thebes, and 
to the controllers who control in the Treasury of Pharaoh, so as to 
supply us with all that we require. To inform my lord! Ifnt\ knl\ 
\w-t-ib \ tmhy; lapis lazuli ; ssy\ fresh fat for burning; old clothes for 
lamps ; and we will perform (every) commission which my lord has said. 

This is a letter supposed to be written by one of the workmen at the Theban 
Necropolis, doubtless one of those engaged in work at the Royal Tombs, to the 
well-known Vizier Khay, the addressee of letter No. 2. The upshot of the text 
when shorn of its ceremonious phraseology is a request for certain pigments and 
materials required in the decoration of the tombs. The only unusual words that 
occur are in the list of desiderata, gnt and km are well-known names of 
pigments; \wt-lb occurs Ebers 54, 18; Lmhy, cf. Harris /, 62 b, 14; 70 a, n ; 
MAR., Dendera IV, 36, 50; 39. 



LETTER IV (verso 13-25). 



\\ a 



\ I 1 1 



i6n 



/. HIERATIC TEXTS 
!? 




about line lost 



Notes on the hieratic. 



Corrected from 



2 Here a correction. 



Critical notes. a For these titles, here again corruptly written, see verso, 
1. i. b See above verso 1-2 and critical note thereon. c F is superfluous. 
d Emend p\y-i (nb). e P\y-\ does not seem right and is perhaps corrupt. 

The scribe Neb-re salutes his lord, the Fanbearer to the Right of 

the King, the ; the Overseer of the treasury, the Overseer 

of the priests of the Gods of Upper Egypt ; the Overseer of the City 
and Vizier, who does Justice, Psiur. In life, prosperity, health ! It is 
a communication to inform my (lord). The town of Pharaoh which 
is under the control of my lord is in good condition ; every wall which 
is in its neighbourhood is safe. The servants of Pharaoh who are 
therein are given my(?) revenues, which [my lord] has granted 

to them. [I say unto Amon, Ptah [Pre] [May] Pharaoh 

be kept in health . May it (?) be given to thee here 

eternally 



LITERARY TEXTS. APPENDIX 



16 6 



A letter very similar to the first, addressed by a scribe to the Vizier Psiur, who 
was Khay's predecessor. No information is given in the letter beyond the state- 
ment that the ' town of Pharaoh ' is prospering. 

A few very short lines are inscribed in front of verso 12 et seqq., and appear 
to contain a consecutive text. These lines which I letter (a), (6), (<:), &c., are as 

follows :_() 



In the P raise of 



Again salutations to my lord, to the effect that of my lord 

To inform my lord ' What is intelligible 

of this is couched in the usual epistolary phraseology. 



II 

DEMOTIC TEXTS 



1) 



TABLE 

PAGE 

D 5. Tax Receipt . 23 

D 29. Tax Receipt 25 

D 16. Tax Receipt 25 

D 37. Tax Receipt 26 

D 52. Tax Receipt . . . . . . . . 28 

D 4. Receipt for arrears of taxes. . . . . 29 

D 61. Receipt 30 

D 28. Tax (?) Receipt 31 

D 19. Receipt for rent . . . . , . 31 

D 45. Receipt for rent 33 

D 216. Receipt for rent 34 

D 49. Notice of payment of rent ..... 34 

D 107. Receipt for rent . ..... 35 

D 55. Tax (?) Receipt 36 

D 56. Receipt for money 36 

D 22. Acknowledgement of wheat-loan (?) . . . 37 

D 24. Acknowledgement of receipt of wheat . . . 38 

D 51. Acknowledgement of receipt of wheat . . . 39 

D 100. Acknowledgement of receipt of wheat . . . 40 

D 103. Acknowledgement of receipt of wheat . . . 41 

D 135. Order to deliver wheat . . . . . 42 

D 12. Land measurement . . . . . . 42 

D 23. Allotment (?) of land ...... 44 

D i. Allotment (?) of land . . . . . 46 

D 25. Allotment (?) of land 46 

D 6. Allotment (?) of land 47 

D 44. Allotment (?) of land 48 

D 2. Allotment (?) of land 49 

D 82. Allotment (?) of land 50 

D 31. Transfer of temple services . . . . 51 

D 122. Transfer of temple services . . . . 52 

D 175. Transfer of temple services 53 

D 221. Transfer of temple services . . . 54 

0235. Transfer of temple services 55 

D 197. Listofphylae ....... 56 

D 88. Oath 57 

D 32. Oath . 58 

D 104. Oath ........ 59 

D 179. Oath 60 

D 9. Letter 61 

D 14. Letter 62 

Dm. Letter .... ... 63 

D 220. Memorandum ... ... 64 

D 168. Accounts .... ... 65 



INTRODUCTION 

No large collection of demotic ostraca has ever been published 
and treated systematically in the way in which Wilcken has 
dealt with the Greek ostraca. This is probably due mainly to 
two reasons the difficulty of reading them and consequently 
the uselessness of publishing transcriptions or translations with- 
out reproducing the originals ; and any mechanical reproduction 
on a large scale has until recently been very expensive. 

The difficulty of reading them arises from various causes 
the perishable nature of the writing, the cursive nature of the 
script on documents originally of small importance, and the 
little care taken of such fleeting records. These considerations 
affect the Greek ostraca equally. Peculiar to the demotic ones 
are the inherent difficulty of the writing with its immense 
number of separate signs, many of which have a tendency to 
run into closely similar forms, and our limited knowledge of the 
vocabulary of the language, and more especially of the abbrevia- 
tions used in these often hurriedly written memoranda. The 
only way to overcome these obstacles is to publish as accurately 
as possible a large number of ostraca so that by the comparison 
of numerous specimens of the various types of formulae we may 
eventually arrive at definite results as to their meaning. It is 
hoped that the present collection may form a small contribution 
towards such a corpus. 

M. Revillout in this, as in other departments of demotic work, 
has been a pioneer ; he has published by far the largest number 
of demotic ostraca hitherto. He transcribed several from the 



20 INTRODUCTION 

Louvre, British Museum, and Berlin in the Revue Egyptologique, 
vols. iv and vi (1885-8), and the P.S.B.A. xiv (1891), but 
these are mostly demotic dockets to Greek ostraca. In 1895 
he published in his Melanges sur la Me'trologie, &c., over 
1 20 ostraca of different kinds, many being of great interest ; 
unfortunately his hand-copies are very imperfect ; it is difficult 
sometimes to accept his readings and impossible to control 
them, for he often omits the number and not infrequently the 
resting-place of the original. 

In 1891 H. Brugsch published thirty-six from the Berlin 
Museum in hand-copies in his Thesaurus, as well as three from 
Ghizeh in the A. Z. xxix. 

Wiedemann in 1881 (Revue Egyptol. ii) had already given 
a short account of a collection he made at Karnak, which has 
since passed into the Berlin Museum, but he gave, no examples. 

Chardon in his Dictionnaire Dgmotique, 1893-7, published 
about a dozen examples from the Louvre and one from the 
British Museum in hand-copies. 

In 1902 Magnien published ' Quelques recus cl'impots agri- 
coles ', comprising nine ostraca from the Louvre with hand-copies 
and translations. In the same year Hess published three from 
Berlin in the notes to his edition of the Rosetta inscription, and 
Spiegelberg has published three or four incidentally in various 
publications (A.Z. xlii. 57, xlvi. 112 ; Pap. Elephantine, p. 13; 
Pap. Libbey, pi. III). Up to the present time, however, only 
one single example that in Pap. Libbey above has been 
reproduced by photography. 1 On the plates of the present 
volume will be found untouched photographs of forty-five 
specimens, which perhaps will be an encouragement to others, 

1 Since the above was written Prof. Spiegelberg has reproduced four more by 
photography in A. Z. xlix, pi. VI. 



INTRODUCTION 21 

so that the best of these documents may be preserved. The 
chief causes of their destruction in museums or private hands 
are exposure to light and especially to dust. If each ostracon 
is wrapped in paper before being stored, it will, if it have no 
salt in it, remain legible for an indefinite period ; but if they are 
left unwrapped in drawers, the dust fills the fine pores of the 
clay and the inscription becomes illegible. 

The present demotic collection consists in all of nearly 
400 specimens, including a large number of fragments and many 
in very poor condition. They all come from Thebes. About 
300 are serviceable and from these I have selected forty-four. 
The number was necessarily restricted by considerations of 
expense of reproduction ; but the selection gives a very fair 
idea of the more interesting ones. A considerable proportion 
contains only lists of names and many are only partly legible 
and afford small information as to their meaning. 

I must be allowed here to offer my thanks to my collaborators 
in this volume who generously gave up nearly the whole of their 
share of the plates in order to allow of as many demotic exam- 
ples as possible being reproduced, and also to Mr. Horace Hart 
of the Oxford University Press, who by his skill has overcome 
the difficulties of reproduction with marked success. In order 
to adapt them to the plates, the ostraca are given on a scale of 
approximately two-thirds of the size of the originals. 

H. T. 



OSTR. D 5 (PL I). TAX RECEIPT. 1 

1. a. 5 n P-sr-Mnt s Pa-Mn a p shn n n c y-w 

2. sbte-w hr p ht c pe.t n hsp 2.t n Zme sttr i.t 

3. a qt i.t a sttr i.t wth (?) c n sh n hsp 2.t n Gys c .w.s. 

4. 5 bt-4 pr ss 3 5 bt-J sm ss i hr p ht <pe.t sttr i.t a qt i.t a sttr 
i.t wth(?) <n 

5 >bt-i sm ss 26 hr p ht ( pe.t sttr i.t a qt i.t a sttr 

i.t wth(?) <n . . . . 

6. 5 bt-2 sm ss 24 hr p ht <pe.t sttr i.t a qt i.t a sttr i.t 
wth (?) <n 

7 5 bt-4 sm ss 3 hr n tMv qt i.t t s.t 

8. ? ywn qt i.t a qt | a qt i.t c n 

' Psenmonthes, son of Paminis, has paid 2 to the bank of the 
merchants' houses 3 for the silver 4 (of the) poll(-tax) of the year 2 in 
Jeme 5 stater 6 i = kite i = stater i refined (?) 7 (silver) again. Written" 
in year 2 of Gaius, 8 Pharmuthi day 3. 

Pachons day i, for the silver (of the) poll(-tax) stater i = kite i 
= stater i refined (?) (silver) again. 

Item, 9 Pachons day 26, for the silver (of the) poll(-tax) stater i = 
kite i = stater i refined (?) (silver) again. 

Item, Payni day 24, for the silver (of the) poll(-tax) stater i = kite i 
= stater i refined (?) (silver) again. 

Item, Mesore day 3, for the apomoira^ kite i, the bath(-tax) 11 kite i 
= kite | = kite i again.' 

1 Taxes were usually paid by instalments and each instalment, as it was paid, 
was acknowledged by the banker on the same ostracon, which the tax-payer 
doubtless kept at home and brought with him on each occasion to the bank with 
his money. The chief taxes mentioned at this time (early Roman empire) are 
poll-tax, apomoira, bath- and dyke-tax. 

2 lit. ' bring ' : it is the technical word for paying money. 

8 The bank is no doubt the royal bank to which taxes payable in money were 



24 //. DEMOTIC TEXTS 

paid. The name it bears here, ' bank of the merchants' houses/ probably refers 
to the locality in Thebes where it was situated. These ' merchants' houses ' are 
mentioned on six ostraca in this collection besides others known to me. I suspect 
it is the district known from Greek ostraca as the dyopat, from an unpublished 
bilingual, but the demotic reading is not certain. For the use of y-w, ' houses,' as 
the name of a district, cf. n y-w mht, Rec. tr. xxxi, pp. 92 and 103, n. xii, and 
n y-w n *Y-m-htp in Ostr. Louvre 9069 (Revillout, Melanges, p. 147 note). For 
the reading Ute, see Griffith in P.S.JB.A., xxxi, pp. 51-2 ; Spiegelberg adopts 
the transcription st\ (Cat. Gen. du Mus. du Caire: die demotischen Papyrus, p. i 
and elsewhere), which he derives from H. Brugsch, Worterb., p. 1335. 

4 At first sight the reading here appears to be p <pe.t, but *pe.t is a feminine word, 
and the full phrase is/ ht n *pe.t, 'the silver of poll(-tax)/ which occurs on D 69 in 
this collection. Usually the words p ht are run together by the scribe so as to 
resemble a p with a small additional stroke as here ; occasionally it is still further 
reduced to a sign resembling p rather than ht : but as / *pe ./ is impossible, there 
is little doubt it must be read ht *pe.t. 

5 A district of Thebes on trie west bank of the Nile called in the Greek papyri 
and ostraca the Mc/M/ovcta. 

6 The stater at this time was equivalent to four drachmas, the kite to two. The 
Egyptian in financial documents, in order to avoid errors, after mentioning a sum, 
wrote down half the amount and then repeated the original amount. Hence, 
though he uses a sign meaning = , it is not a real equivalence, and after the 
first = the words 'its half must be understood. 

7 These two signs seem to be an abbreviated form of writing the word wth, 
' refined ' (silver). Cf. Griffith, Cat. Rylands Demotic Papyri, Glossary, p. 344, 
and his notes there referred to. The words ht wth, ' refined silver/ are written out 
in full on a Berlin Ostracon published by Brugsch, Thes., p. 1059, though from 
his translation he has misread the words as e-fwt-w. 

8 A. D. 38. The Emperor's name is followed by the three signs representing 
' life, health, strength ', which were always attached to the names of the ancient 
Pharaohs, and in demotic they follow every imperial title and epithet, but it is not 
necessary to translate them. 

9 There is no doubt as to the meaning of the Egyptian word : it is clearly the 
same as the Greek 6/Wcos, but the reading is very uncertain. 

10 This was a tax of one-sixth of the produce of vineyards and orchards 
(cf. Grenfell, Revenue Laws, p. 119 ; Wilcken, Gr. Ostr.,\, p. 157; Otto, Priester 
u. Tempel, i, p. 340; Pap. Tel fonts, i, p. 37). In demotic it is always used in the 
plural (Rosetta inscr., 1. 9, where, however, the Greek has TO.S a/7ro/Wpas, and on 
the three other ostraca in this collection, D 37, D 52, D 69). The plural is 
employed probably because the tax was levied on two classes of land. It is literally 
' the portions '. 

11 s.t ywn t Coptic cioovn, c bath/ here used for the tax = /foAaviKoV, cf. Wilcken, 
u. s. i, p. 165; Pap. Hibeh, i, p. 284. The amount of the tax seems to have 
varied at different times and, perhaps, localities. On Theban demotic ostraca the 
amount is usually, as here, two drachmas ; but numerous unpublished tax receipts 
from Dendera (belonging to Mr. J. G. Milne) show that the amount there in the 
reign of Tiberius was 40 drachmas per annum. 



TAX RECEIPT 25 

OSTR. D 29 (PL I). TAX RECEIPT. 

1. a.wt 5 Mns s Glymqs(?) 

2. hr ht <pe n hsp 29 sttr 2.t wth(?) n hsp 29 n Gsrs 

3. 5 bt-2 sm ss c rq n 'bt-3 sm ss 4 sh . . . . s Gphls(?) 

' Ammonius, son of Kallimachus (?) 1 , has paid 2 on account of the poll 
(-tax) of the year 29 two staters refined (?) (silver) in the year 29 of 
Caesar 3 , Payni day 30 (and ?) on Epiphi day 4. Written by .... son 
of Kephalos (?).' 

1 The handwriting is difficult, and the names Kallimachus and Kephalos are 
doubtful. They are certainly Greek, not Egyptian names. 

2 The word wt is not infrequently used instead of >n for ' pay ' in the early 
Roman empire. It seems to have no special significance., Cf. Spiegelberg, 
Demotische Papyrus von Elephantine, p. 13, note xiii. 

3 i. e. Augustus, B.C. i. 

OSTR. D 1 6 (PL X). TAX RECEIPT. 

1. a.'n Pa-Mnt p c o s Glen a p shn n 

2. n c y-w sbte-w hr p ht c pe.t n hsp 25 

3. hn n rm-w Pa-Mnt s Pa- 5 re sttr 2*.t a sttr i.t a 

4. sttr 2.t ( n sh n hsp 25 5 bt-3 sm ss 27 

5. . . . n 5 bt-4 sm ss 4 sttr 2.t a sttr i.t a 

6. sttr 2.t <n 

* Pamonthes the eldef, son of Glen, 1 has paid into the bank of the 
merchants' houses on account of the silver (of the) poll(-tax) of year 25 
among the men 2 of Pamonthes, son of Paeris, 2 staters = i stater = 
2 staters again. Written in year 25, Epiphi day 27. 

Item, in Mesore day 4, 2 staters = i stater 3 = 2 staters again.' 

1 KAccw (?). 

2 He was one of the veterans who had kleroi allotted to them and was enrolled 
in a company called after its captain, Pamonthes, son of Paeris. 

3 The last six words of 1. 5 are very indistinct, but there is no practical doubt 
as to the reading. 

E 



26 //. DEMOTIC TEXTS 



OSTR. D 37 (PL I). T'AX RECEIPT. 

1. a.'n Py-k s Hns-tef-nht a p shn n n c y-w sbte-w 

2. hr ht ( pe n hsp 3.1 n Zme sttr 2.t a sttr i.t a sttr 2.t c n 

3. sh n hsp 3.1 n Gys c .w.s. Gysrs c .w.s. Sb c sts c .w.s. 

4. Grmnykws c .w.s. 5 bt-3 pr ss c rq . . . . 5 bt-i sm ss 19 hr 

5. p ht c pe.t sttr 2.t a sttr i.t a sttr 2.t c n . . . . 5 bt-2 sm 
ss 23 hr 

6. n V-w qt i.t a qt | a qt i.t c n t s.t 5 ywn qt i.t a qt f a qt i.t 
<n . . . . >bt-4 sm 

7. ss 5 hr p nbe n hsp 3.t sttr i.t qtf (oft.) 4.t a qt i.t (o/3.) 5.t 
a sttr i.t qt | (o/3.) 4.t <n 

* Pikos, the son of Khons-tef-nekht, 1 has paid to the bank of the 
merchants' houses for silver (of the) poll(-tax) of year 3 in Jeme, 
2 staters = i stater = 2 staters again. Written in year 3 of Gaius Caesar 
Sebastos Germanicus, Phamenoth day 3o. 2 

Item, Pachons day 19, for the silver (of the) poll(-tax) 2 staters = 
i stater = 2 staters again. 

Item, Payni day 23, for the apomoira i kite = J kite = i kite again ; 
the bath (-tax) i kite = -|kite = i kite again. 

Item, Mesore day 5, for the dyke-tax 3 of year 3, i stater \ kite 4 obols 4 = 
i kite 5 obols = i stater f kite 4 obols again.' 

1 The same individual as on D 52 infra. 

2 A.D. 39. 

3 The word nbe is not a new one, though its reading and meaning have not 
hitherto been fully recognized. The ostraca here published furnish fresh evidence 
on these points. It occurs on four demotic ostraca, D 37, D 52, D 69, D 117, 
and on one bilingual, G 222 (unpublished), and doubtfully on a second, G 427. 

From these, especially G 222, there is no doubt that the reading is nbe \ \\ \\ Q . 

The word occurs on two published papyri in the Louvre (below), but only on one 
published ostracon, a bilingual at Berlin, no. 1113. The latter was published by 
Revillout and Wilcken in the Revue figyptologtque, vi, p. n, and the Greek text 



TAX RECEIPT 27 

again by Wilcken in his Grieckische Ostraka under no, 1025, and it explains one 
meaning of nbe for us. The Greek text is 

L/c/3 aTrcipyaorai 
eis TO 8iaKo/A/xa v A cp/xo^iXos 
'Year 22 work done on the breach in the dyke, 30 naubia, Hermophilus.' 

StaKo/x/xa is clearly a breach in a dyke (x^/xa, 7re/oixeo//,a), or rather in the bank 
of a canal which is raised above the surrounding fields (8iwpv, Pap. Tebtunis, 
no. 13 and notes). See Mahaffy-Smyly, Petrie Papyri, iii, nos. 37 a. ii. 19, b. iii. 9, 
and 45. (2). 5. The two lines of demotic underneath the Greek read, so far as 
one can be sure from the hand-copy, 

sh Hr . . . . s Hry a nbe 30 

sh . . . . s S-wsr nb 30 

' Written by Hor .... son of Erieus for 30 nbe\ signed by .... son of Senwosre 
for 30 nb! 

Wilcken, Griech. Ostr. i. 259-60 discusses the question whether the Egyptian nbt 
(as Revillout read it) can be the same as the Greek word vavfiiov, of which it is 
here clearly the equivalent, and leaves it unsettled. This is settled for us not only 
by the material published here, but also by over thirty unpublished demotic ostraca 
known to me, the large majority of which come from Dendera and belong to 
Mr. J. G. Milne. The Greek word which is unknown to classical literature and 
has long been a subject of discussion since its appearance in the papyri and ostraca, 
is now known to be a cubic measure of soil equal to a cube whose side is a royal 
double cubit (Pap. Lille, i, p. 1 5), No reasonable etymology has, I believe, been 
suggested for it ; if so, there is the more reason for regarding it as a graecized 
Egyptian word, if we can find an origin for nbe. Now there is an old word 



i l\ 0-7*" (Brugsch, Wtb. 327-8, 749, Suppl., 662) meaning a stake which 

was employed in staking out the ground in the representations of temple founda- 
tion scenes. It is not difficult to see that such a stake should be, or become, 
of a recognized length and form the origin of a measure for excavating earth 
generally. 

The above bilingual accounts for the number of naubia of earth removed. 
Thirty naubia seem to have been the amount of forced labour on dykes which 
the government could demand (MahafFy-Smyly, u. s. p. 344), and probably 
represents the five days' work which constituted the corve'e (Wilcken, u. s. p. 338). 
In two papyri in the Louvre of the 36th year of Amasis (535 B.C.) this corve'e 
is mentioned as p nbe n hte ' the compulsory nbe ' (Corpus Papyrorum, Louvre, 
no. 14, pi. xv, 11. 14, 15, and no. 15, pi. xvi, 1. 7), a tax on land the payment 
of which has to be specifically provided for in agreements relating to the transfer 
of land. Even at that early date it would seem that the corve'e could be 
commuted for a money payment. It was certainly so in Ptolemaic and Roman 
times, when the tax in money form was known in Greek as XW/^TIKOV (Wilcken, 
u.s. p. 338), and in demotic it is the tax we have here, in D 37, as nbe. That 
these are the same is evident from the amount of the tax, which for the 



28 II. DEMOTIC TEXTS 

was the peculiar sum of 6 dr. 4 obols annually (Wilcken, . s. p. 334, Pap. Brit. 
Mus. ii, p. 107, iii, p. 55, Pap. Tebtunis, ii, p. 188), thus distinguishing this tax from 
all others. In our ostracon (037) the payment, it is true, is only 5 dr. 4 obols, 
but in D 52 and in D 69 the payments, though paid by instalments, in each case 
amount together to 6 dr. 4 obols. Conclusive evidence, however, is furnished by 
Mr. Milne's Dendera ostraca, since out of twenty-nine fc-ostraca (unpublished) 
twenty-four are for precisely 6 dr. 4 obols and three of the remainder are for 
exactly half the amount. 

4 This reading of the demotic word is uncertain. Dr. Griffith in his Cat. 
Rylands Demotic Papyri, iii, p. 400, suggests qt (?) with doubt ; but as this may 
lead to confusion with the silver kite, I have preferred to use the Greek o/?oAos 
in a bracket, seeing that there is no doubt as to the meaning. 

OSTR. D 52 (PL I). TAX RECEIPT. 

1. a.'n Py-k s Hns-tef-nht a p shn 

2. n n <y-w sbte-w hr p ht ( pe.t n hsp 2.t n Zme sttr i.t 

3. a qt i.t a (?) sttr i.t wth (?) <n sh n hsp 2.t n Gys .w.s. >bt-2 
pr ss 26 

4 n >bt-3 pr ss 3 hr p ht c pe.t sttr i.t a qt'i.t a sttr i.t 

wth (?) <n 

5. . . . . n ss 25 hr p ht. <pe.t sttr i.t a qt i.t a sttr i.t wth (?) 
c n . . . . n 

6. ? bt-4 pr ss 19 hr p ht <pe.t sttr i.t a qt i.t a sttr i.t wth (?) <n 
7 5 bt-i sm ss 26 hr n tMv qt i.t a qt | a qt i.t c n . . . . t s.t 

ywn qt i.t 

8. a qt | a qt i.t <n . . . . >bt-4 sm ss 3 hr p nbe qt i| (o/J.) 4! 
a qt | (o/3.) 5 .t 

9. a qt i| (o/3.) 4! <n . . . . ss 24 hr p nbe qt i.t (o/3.) S.t f 
a qt I (oft.) 4 .t | 

10. a qt i.t (o/3.) S.t c n 

' Pikos, son of Khons-tef-nekht, has paid to the bank of the merchants' 
houses for the silver (of the) poll(-tax) of year 2 in Jeme, i stater = 
i kite = i stater refined (?) (silver) again. Written in year 2 of Gaius, 1 
Mechir day 2,6. 

Item, Phamenoth day 3, for the silver (of the) poll(-tax) i stater = 
i kite = i stater refined (?) (silver) again. 



TAX RECEIPT 29 

Item, on day 35, for the silver (of the) poll(-tax) i stater = i kite = 
i stater refined (?) (silver) again. 

Item, Pharmuthi day 19, for the silver of the poll(-tax) i stater = 
i kite = i stater refined (?) (silver) again. 

Item, Pachons day 26, for the apomoira i kite = \ kite = I kite again. 

Item, the bath(-tax) i kite = J kite = i kite again. 

Item, Mesore day 3, for the dyke-tax ij kite 4| obols = J kite 
5 obols 2 = i kite 4^ obols again. 

Item, day 24, for the dyke-tax i kite 5^ obols = \ kite 1% obols 3 = 
i kite 5^ obols again/ 

1 A.D. 38. 

2 Strictly 5j obols, but the scribes often neglect small fractions in these 
equivalences. 

3 Strictly 2| obols. 



OSTR. D 4 (PL VIII). RECEIPT FOR ARREARS OF TAXES. 

1. Ws-h s Hry 

2. Ns-Mn s Pa-by 

3. n nt z n Pa-Zme 

4. s Pa-Wn wn . . . . Pr- c o 

5. i a | a i <n e. 5 n-k s a 

6. p pr-ht Pr-<o n N 

7. n hsp 35 5 bt-3 pr ss 18 hn 

8. n sp-w 

9. sh hsp 35 5 bt-3 pr ss 18 

' Weser-he, son of Erieus (and) Zminis, son of Pa-by, say to Pasemis, 
son of Phagonis : there is 1 .... 2 of the King (artaba?) i = = i again, 
which thou hast paid to the treasury 3 of the King in the City (Thebes) 
in year 35, Phamenoth day 18, among the arrears. Written year 35,* 
Phamenoth day 18.' 

1 i.e. 'we have', 'we acknowledge'. The receipt is given by two sitologoi 
probably to the tax-payer. 

2 At first glance this group looks like a date, but this it cannot be here, and 



3 o //. DEMOTIC TEXTS 

I can only suggest but with great diffidence that it may be a writing of pr, corn, 
with a ' prosthetic alif to represent the initial vowel of e&p* (e&pe, e&pi), pi. 
e&pHire. 

3 * Treasury ' is not, perhaps, the most appropriate word, but it is the customary 
translation <ti pr-ht = ra/uetov (for this equation see Spiegelberg, Demot. Pap. Berlin, 
p. 4 note). According to Wilcken (Griech. Ostr. i, reff. in index, s.v. ra/xtctov) the 
latter is a general word for the' royal (and imperial) ' treasury ', which included 
both the banks (rpa7reai), for receipts and payments in money, and the magazines 
(Qrjo-avpoi, storehouses, granaries) for the like in kind, whether live stock, or grain, 
oil, &c. In Ptolemaic times the usual word for ra/xtetov was simply TO /foo-iAtKoV. 
In demotic shn n pr-'o = rpdir^a /frwnAi/o} and r n pr-'o = Orjcravpos /2ao-. Here 
we have the less common and more generalized term pr-ht n pr-*o = ra/uetov /?ao-., 
which in this case is more probably = ^o-avpos than rpaTrc^a. Had it been 
a money payment into the bank, the nature of the sum, whether teben, stater, or 
kite, would probably have been stated. 

* From the handwriting I should be inclined to date the ostracon as late 
Ptolemaic. If so, the 3 5th year would be either of Philometor or Euergetes II, 
147/6 or 136/5 B.C. 



OSTR. D 6 1 (PI. VIII). RECEIPT. 

1. Ws-h s Hry Ns-Mn s Pa-by 

2. n nt z n P-sr- c opht s Ns-Mn wn 
3 Pr-<o i a | a i c n e. 5 n-k s 

4. a p pr-ht n Pr-<o n N n hsp 35 

5. >bt-3 pr ss 18 hn p wbt(?) 

6. sh hsp 35 5 bt-3 pr ss 18 

' Weser-he, son of Erieus, (and) Zminis, son of Pa-by, say to Psena- 
pathes, son of Zminis : there is .... of the King (artaba ?) i = J = i again, 
which thou hast paid to the treasury of the King in the City (Thebes), 
in year 35, Phamenoth day 18, among the . . . , 1 . Written year 35, 
Phamenoth day 18.' 



1 This ostracon is of exactly the same date and in the same handwriting 
as D 4, see notes there. The givers of the receipt are the same, but the individual 
to whom the document is given is different and also the subject of the receipt* 
What wbt (or wb* ?) is, I cannot guess. 



TAX RECEIPT 31 

OSTR. D 28 (PL II). TAX(?) RECEIPT. 

1 . a. 5 n Pa-Mnt s P-msh a p r 

2. Pr- c o ( .w.s. n t (?) nsytykwn n hsp 2,t 

3. hr Zme yt (?) | & a yt (?) i a yt(?) | & <n 

4. n p hy n ? yp.t sh n hsp 3.t n 

5. TwmHyns c .w.s. nt hwe 

6. [>bt-. .] >h ss 2 i 

* Pamonthes, son of Pempsais, has paid to the royal thesaurus for the 
..... - 1 of year i for Jme barley (?) (artaba) J ^ := barley (?) \ $ = 
barley (?) -fa again by the measure of the oiphi. 2 Written in year 3 of 
Domitian, who is august 3 [month- . . of] verdure, 4 day 21.' 

1 This should be the name of a tax or other reason for payment The reading 
of the demotic word (which is obviously a Greek word transliterated) is certain 
except for the second letter s. Demotic ns is the customary transliteration of 
and the word which naturally suggests itself is tyriKov. There is some obscurity 
attaching to this tax which rarely occurs under this name (see note in Pap. Tebt. 
ii, p. 335), the usual word being ^vrrjpd, but both taxes were paid in money, 
whereas here the payment is made in corn of some kind ; for though there is some 
doubt about the symbol for ' barley ', the reference to the measure of the oiphi 
and the payment into the Oya-avpos /?a<riAtKos are conclusive as to its being grain 
in some form. 

2 The oT<i was equal to four ^otViKcs, cf. Wilcken, Gr. Ostr. i, 750-1. It 
occurs not infrequently in demotic documents; in Coptic, Crum, Coptic Ostr. 
no. 499. 

8 lit. ' who protects '. The word hw> originally ' protect ', seems in Ptolemaic 
times to have come to mean simply * sacred ' when applied to divine beings. 
In the bilingual inscriptions it is used as the equivalent of iepos (Brugsch, Wtb. 
1061). The formula nt hw is found on the cartouche of Domitian and many 
other Roman emperors, and presumably represents o-e/fooros (Augustus). On 
Greek ostraca Domitian is usually qualified as 6 Kvptos or Kcucrap 6 

4 i.e. a month between Thoth and Choiak inclusive. 



OSTR. D 19 (PL II). RECEIPT FOR RENT. 

1. a. 5 n P-me s Hr-Mnt hn p shn 

2. a.'r-f n t qnb.t (?) n p tme n p wh (?) 5 s 

3. n p wh (?) 5 Mn P-^he n hsp 22 m (?) sh wy mbh 



3 2 



//. DEMOTIC TEXTS 



4. 'Mn-R'-nsw^ntr-w rtb sw 50 a sw 25 a sw 50 c n 

5. n p qws n hmt n h.t-ntr N e-w swt 

6. st p 5 p sh Ns Z-hr 

7. sh hsp 22 5 bt-i pr ss 24 

8. s~P-hl-Hns hr-f (?) 

< Pmois, son of Harmonthes, has paid under (?) the (contract of) lease 
which he made with the council (?) of the village of " The old Estate (?)" 2 
on the estate (?) of Amon 3 (called) Pois, 4 in year aa, 5 by deed of cession 6 
before Amonrasonther, 7 50 artabas of wheat = 25 (artabas of) wheat = 
50 (artabas of) wheat again by the bronze xofo-measure 8 of the temple of 
Thebes, they being delivered. 9 They are received by reckoning (?). 10 

Written by Ns . . . ., (son of) Teos. Written in year 22, Tybi day 24, 
by ...... son of Pkhelkhons, on his account (?).' 

1 Sethe, A. Z. xlix. 15. His arguments for this reading seem to me convincing. 

2 The reading and meaning of wh are doubtful. The word occurs frequently 
in place-names. Spiegelberg reads it hr ( face ', ' aspect ', and gives references 
(Rec. trav. xxxi, pp. 98 and 104, n. xxix) to its use with the words 'North' and 
' South '. But this meaning does not satisfy other contexts, and the sign may 
equally well be read wh, possibly with a meaning akin to oviog ' dwell, dwelling- 
place ', though as it is here applied to a landed property containing a village, 
it must have a wider significance than a mere house or group of houses. This 
village is named also in D 24 and D 100. 

3 This property of the great Temple of Amon at Thebes is mentioned on other 
documents, viz. Pap. dem. Berlin 3116, col. 6, 1. 21, and Ostr. Louvre 9086 
(Revillout, Melanges, p. 80), and another unnumbered (ibid. p. 191, p wfi(?) *hy)> 
and Pap. dem. Brussels 5 (Spiegelberg, Demot. Pap. Mus. Roy. du Cinquantenaire, 
pp. 20 and 24, note 21 t p *hy only). 

4 Pois is the Greek form of the demotic p *hy given by the Pap. Casati 14/5 
(Bibl. nat. no. 5, only in the genitive TTWCWS). It means 'the stables', no doubt 
large erections for the great herds of cattle belonging to the Temple. Cf. Spiegelberg. 
Pap. Reinach, p. 196. In Peyron, Pap. gr. Taurin, ii, p. 45, we have TTOCVTTWIS, 
perhaps p wh (hr ?) n p *hy. Cf. Phtlologus, Ixiii, p. 530. 

5 Judging by the writing I think the date is probably late Ptolemaic, but as 
several kings reigned twenty-two years and over, it is not possible to be more 
precise. 

6 See Griffith, Cat. Rylands Demot. Pap. iii, p. 255. 

7 i. e. confirmed by oath in the great Temple of Amon at Karnak. 

8 Cf. Griffith, u. s. p. 397 ; also Spiegelberg, Pap. Reinach, 39, 4/1 4 (he reads 
hnwsl), Ostr. Louvre 9083, 9066 (Revillout, Melanges,^. 92, no). M. Revillout 
was the first to read the word as kos (= qws}. As to the ' bronze ' measure, see 
Pap. Hibeh, i, p. 229. 



RECEIPT FOR RENT 33 

9 ' They ', i. e. ( the wheat ' ; suit probably implies actual delivery at the cost of 
the tenant, cf. Spiegelberg, u.s. p. 183. 

10 The exact significance of this frequently recurring sentence is not clear. The 
full phrase is st sp n >/ and seems to mean that the amount has been received 
after being counted or measured. 



OSTR. D 45 (PL V). RECEIPT FOR RENT. 

1. >n Hrklts 

2. s 'Rystypws 

3. hr p sm pe-f (?) km n t mrwt 

4. 'py nt sh wy mbh 5 Mn-R c -nsw-ntr-w 

5. p ntr ( o hn c pe-f 5 rp a w c km 

6. 5 rp 2 hr pe-f km 

7. n p 5 br (?) rt 5 rp f 

8. a >rp 2| st 3p n (?) 5 p 

g. sh . . . . s Hf-Hns hsp 15 a hsp 12 

10. >bt-i ^h (?) ss 25 sh Hr . . . -Hns 

1 1. sh Wn-nfr s Hr sh Z-hr Hf-Hns 

' Herakleitos, 1 son of Aristippus, has paid for the rent 2 of his garden 
in the corn-land 3 of Ophi, 4 which was conveyed 5 before Amonrasonther 
the great god, together with his wine(-tax ?) for a garden 2 (keramia of) 
wine 6 for his garden (and) for the .... (of) the produce half a (keramion 
of) wine, making a J (keramia of) wine. They are received by reckoning (?). 

Written by .... son of Khapokhonsis, year 15 = year* i a, 7 Thoth (?) 
day 35. 

Written by Horus, (son of) ... -khons. 

Written by Onnophris, son of Horus. 

Written by Teos, son of Khapokhonsis. 

1 Or Heraklides. 

2 Cf. Spiegelberg, Pap. Reinach^ pp. 181-2, 240. If further proof were required 
that sm = fK<f>6piov, it is given by a bilingual in this collection, G. 131, where the 
two words correspond. 

8 Cf. Griffith, Cat. Rylands Pap. in, p. 266, n. 15. 
4 i. e. the modern Karnak. 



34 //. DEMOTIC TEXTS 

5 Usually sh wy means a deed conveying all the property in the land possessed 
by the owner. Here it seems to be a lease. 

6 For this use of >rp as a measure of wine, cf. Rosetta, 1. 18. 

7 This double date applies to the regnal years of Cleopatra III and Alexander I 

IO2 B. C. 

OSTR. D 216 (PL V). RECEIPT FOR RENT. 

1. Thwt-stm s 

2. By-<nh 

3. p nt Z n Hr-py-k 5 s 

4. Pa-n-nht.w (?) erme P- 5 hy s 

5. P-hm-bk wn sttr.t 2.t 

6. a sttr.t i.t a sttr.t 2.t c n 

7. sp n 5 p hr p sm n 

8. T-sgt (?) sh n hsp 6.t 

9. tp-sm ss 14 (2nd hand) sh Thwt-stm 
10. s By-<nh 

' Thotsutmis, son of Bienchis, saith to Harpikos, son of Panekhates (?), 
and Pois (?), son of P-khem-bekis : there are l 2 staters = i stater = 
1 staters again received by reckoning (?) for the rent of Tseget (?). 
Written in year 6, Pachons day 14. Signed Thotsutmis, son of Bienchis.' 

1 i. e. 'I have ' = $x> of the Greek tax-collectors' receipts (Wilcken, Griech. 
Ostr. i, p. 6 1 sq.). 

OSTR. D 49 (PL XI). NOTICE OF PAYMENT OF RENT. 

y 

1. Ssnq s Pa-^Mn p nt z n P-hb 

2. s P-sr-Mnt te-y mh p hwe Hr-nht 

3. n t t.t I n p yh tkm a. 5 r-k t (?) wp.t hr zz 

4. p rrP n t msh n hsp 10 hr T-sr.t-^Mn-htp (?) 

5. ta Ns-Mn e-y st ty . . . . a hn 

6. hsp 9 sh Ssnq s Pa-'Mn n hsp 9 >bt-3 sm ss 19 

* Sheshonk, son of Pamounis, saith to Phibis, son of Psenmonthes, I am 
paying the surplus of Ho-nekht 1 for the quarter share of the land 



NOTICE OF PAYMENT OF RENT 35 

(under) oil-crop, of which thou doest the work, 2 on the canal 3 of the 
Crocodile for year 10 on behalf of Senamenothis (?), the daughter of 
Zminis. I will discharge (?) 4 this .... until year 9. Signed Sheshonk, 
son of Pamounis, in year gf Epiphi day 19.' 

1 The name of a farm more clearly written in D 107 (pi. XI). Perhaps 
it should be read wh-nht, cf. D 1 9, note 2 above. The farm was probably worked 
in common by Sheshonk and Phibis under a farming agreement such as we have 
in Griffith, Cat. Rylands Pap. nos. xxvi, xxxiv (and see reffs. there, pp. 155-6). 

2 i. e. in the full phrase / wp.t wy f (eienovoei) ' tillage '. It means here the work 
on the crop, not ' work on the canal ', the hr zz refers to the locality of the farm. 

8 The word m*, the old word for a canal (Griffith, u. s. p. 170, n. 3, and 
p. 299, n. 7), is only known to me in published demotic documents in the compound 
me-wr = /xotpis (Griffith, u. s. and p. 423 ; Spiegelberg, A. Z. xliii. 84) and once 
alone (Spiegelberg, Demot. Pap.Mus. Roy. du Cinquantenaire, no. 4, 1. 3). It seems 
to have survived chiefly in place-names. In this collection, besides the present 
instance, we have in D 35 / m? t zl* ' the canal of the Scorpion', D 147^ m* u 
Hr-p-K(f) 'the canal of Horus-the-bull '. From the context it seems usually, 
however, to denote a tract of land named after the canal bounding it (?). ' The 
crocodile ' has the feminine article and must refer to a crocodile-goddess, 
cf. D 22, note 4. 

4 lit. ' avert '. The meaning of this phrase is probably ' I will be responsible 
for the payment of rent till the end of year 9, if you do the work on the land*. 

5 Phibis, son of Psenmonthes, occurs on a number of these ostraca, including 
D 6 below, and as he is doubtless the same person in both, it is likely that this 
is the ninth year of Augustus. 



OSTR. D 107 (PL XI). RECEIPT FOR RENT. 

1. [a.Jn P-hb s P-sr-Mnt 

2. hn p hwe Hr-nht 

3. p yh tkm a 5 r-f h-zz 

4. t msh hr hsp ic.t tkm 

5. 1 2 hr t t 5 .t e p yh rn-f 

6. e-f sp 5 p sh Nht-Mnt 

7. s Hf-Hns n hsp lo.t 5 bt-i m ss 25 

' Phibis, son of Psenmonthes, has paid from among the surplus of 
Ho-nekht 1 the land (under) oil crop which he worked 2 on the Crocodile 3 
on account of year 10, oil (artabas) 12 for the Jth share of the land 



3 6 II. DEMOTIC TEXTS 

named. It is received by reckoning (?). Signed Nekhthmonthes, son of 
Khapokhonsis, in year 10, Pachons 25.' 

1 Cf. D 49, note i. 

2 V-^here is evidently equivalent to >r t wp.t in D 49. 

3 = the place known as the ' Canal of the Crocodile ' in D 49. This ostracon 
is much abbreviated and would be unintelligible without D 49. Note the writing 
h-zz for hr-zz. 



OSTR. D 55 (PL IX). RECEIPT FOR A TAX(?). 

1. E-f- c nh s Wm-p-mw (?) 

2. p nt z n Py-k s E-f- c [nh] 

3. wn sttr 2.t p ms sp n [ 5 p ?] 

4. hn pe-k t'y (?) n hsp 16 . . . 

' Apynkhis, son of Wem-pmou (P), 1 saith to Pikos, son of Apynkhis : 
there are 2 staters (and) the interest received by reckoning (?) for thy 
tax(?) 2 of year 16 . . . .' 

1 The name is incomplete owing to the left-hand corner of the ostracon having 
been broken away; but it can hardly be anything else. The tip of the deter- 
minative of mw ' death ' remains. The name, which is new to me, means ' Death 
has consumed ' and is parallel to Sy-p-mw (O-ICTT/AOVS) * Death is sated ' (cf. Griffith, 
Cat. Rylands Pap. iii, p. 131, n. 7). The name P-sr-p-mw * the child of death ' 
occurs on an ostracon (D 81) in this collection.. 

2 This seems to be the same word as in Brugsch, A. Z. xxix. 67-8, and 
Spiegelberg, Rec. trav. xxxi. 102 ; cf. Id., Pap. Reinach^ pp. 181-2. It is written 
very like sm 'rent', but the determinative is different. Here I think it is the 
silver determinative. 



OSTR. D 56 (PL IX). RECEIPT FOR MONEY. 

1 . Pa-Mnt s Pa-p-zyt sme a 

2. Pa-Zme s Py-k wn krkr 5 

3. erme p . . . . sp n >p hr P-'swr 

4. s P-sr-'Np 

5. sh n hsp 29 >bt-i pr ss 14 



RECEIPT FOR MONEY 37 

' Pamonthes, son of Papzoit, 1 sends greeting to Pasemis, son of Pikos. 
There are 5 talents and the . . . . 2 received by reckoning (?) for Pesuris, 
son of Psenenupis. Written in year 39, Tybi day 14.' 

1 lit. * he of the olive tree ', a name I have not met elsewhere. 

2 This word begins with w ; the gender prevents it being wz.t ' interest ', It 
may be the same as the obscure word in 1. 5 of D 61 (wbtl]. 



OSTR. D 22 (PI. II). ACKNOWLEDGEMENT OF WHEAT-LOAN (?). 

1. hsp 18 >bt-i sm ss 12 

2. Pa-Mnt s P-sr-'Mn-'py p nt z 

3. n P-siMn s My-hs wn nte-k 

4. rtb n sw 22^ a c -y nte-y 

5. t sp-w a p qws n Mn-k-R c (?) 

6. s (?) Pa-Mnt p srtyqws erme 

7. ne-w hwe-w hr (?) wn n yh a-te-k n-y 

8. hn p gsrrP n t 

9. msh.t n hsp 18 
10. n htr 't mn 

* Year 18, Pachons day 12, Pamonthes, son of Psenamenophis, saith to 
Psenamounis, son of Miusis, there are (belonging) to thee 1 22^ artabas 
of wheat in my charge and I will cause them to be received at the \ovs- 
measure of Menkere(?), 2 son(?) of Pamonthes, the strategus, together with 
their interest (?) 3 according to (?) (the) list of fields which thou gavest me 
in the " canal-land (?) of the Crocodile" 4 in the year 18 compulsorily 
without delay.' 

1 i.e. 'I owe thee', cf. Spiegelberg, Pap. Reinach, p. 199. 

2 For corn-measures known by the names of individuals cf. Cat. Greek. Pap. 
Brit. Mus. ii, p. 257. The reading of the name Menkere (only the final syllable 
is doubtful) I owe to Dr. F. LI. Griffith. Nothing else is known of this strategus 
unless, as Dr. Griffith suggests, he be the same as Menkere, the father of Ham- 
sauf (?), whose tomb-papyrus (' Book of the Dead ') we have in the Rhind papyrus 
(ed. H. Brugsch, 1865). Menkere is there called governor (hieratic wr, demotic 
*o * great one ') of Hermonthis, but his father's name is not given, only that of his 
mother. His son was born in the thirteenth year of Ptolemy Neos Dionysos, 



3 8 //. DEMOTIC TEXTS 

69-8 B. c. ; and if the eighteenth year of the ostracon be taken to refer to the same 
king (64-3 B. c.), I should not be inclined to contradict it on palaeographical 
grounds, though it could perhaps be earlier. 

3 The meaning of hw is uncertain. The word itself is very general, ' excess, 
addition/ It might mean cost of carriage, or in connexion with the measure- 
ment (cf. Spiegelberg, Pap. Reinach, 1/13, p. 176), but is more likely interest on 
the loan (Spiegelberg, Pap. Strassb. no. 44/5, Pap. Berlin, no. 3103/7, Rec. trav. 
xxxi, p. 92, and Griffith, Cat. Rylands Pap. no. xxi, 1. n). 

4 The word gsm? is obscure. It has the determinative of water, and being 
written out alphabetically it suggests a foreign word. It possibly might stand for 
xdo-fjia, though the transliteration of x ^7 8 ^ s unusual. But it may also be 

a demotic writing for a hieroglyphic *-j ( ^ ' side of a canal ' (for m* J^, see 
D 49, note 3 above), and be equivalent to Tre/otxw/xa ' land bounded by a dyke or 



canal ', Pap. Tebt. i, p. 80. The ' canal-land (?) of the Crocodile (fern.) ' is a 
place-name, the crocodile being no doubt a local goddess ; with t-msh.t, cf. Lake 
Timsah. See also D 175, note i, p. 54 infra. 



OSTR. D. 24 (PL II). ACKNOWLEDGEMENT OF RECEIPT 

OF WHEAT. 

1 . Twt s Se-ny p mr pr-st.t (?) 

2. n pr 5 Mn n s 2-n sme a n rt-w n 

3. t sme.t wn rtb n sw 35 a sw 1 7! a sw 35 c n 

4. e-te s n-y Ns-Mn s P-a.te-'Mn-nsw-tw Z-hr s Mnhs 

5. n shn-w n p wh (?) >s n hsp 30 hn pe >p 

6. n s 2-n st sp n 'p 

7. Sh hsp 30 ^bt-2 sm ss 2 

'Totoes, son of Shenai, 1 the chief baker 2 oi the Temple of Amon, 
of the second 3 phyle, greets the bailiffs of the stock-farm (?). 4 There 
are 5 35 artabas of wheat = 17! (artabas of) wheat = 35 (artabas of) 
wheat again, which Zminis, son of Petamestous, and Teos, son of Menhes, 6 
the collectors 7 of " The Old Estate (?) ", 8 gave to me for year 30 in my 
account of the second phyle. They are received by reckoning (?). 

Written in year 30, Payni day 2.' 

1 The literal meaning of the name as written is ' These have departed ', but 
what the mythological reference is, I do not know. Perhaps the Greek transcrip- 
tion is o-evat^s (Cat. Greek Pap. Brit. Mus. iii, p. 164 a woman's name there). 

2 The same title is found in Pap. Dem. Berlin, 3116, col. 2, 1. 18, with the 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENT OF RECEIPT OF WHEAT 39 

Greek equivalent dpTo/c[o7ros] in Pap. Casati, vi, 1. i, and in Petrie, Denderah, 
pi. XXVI. A 28, 29, lit. 'overseer of the fire-chamber ', i. e. kitchen or bakery. 
The reading of this last may perhaps be e -st.t (?), cf. Spiegelberg, Cat. Cairo Dem. 
Pap. no. 30801. 

1 The numeral is written with the old form of the ordinal numbers, cf. Griffith, 
Cat. Rylands Pap. p. 417. In what sense Totoes belonged to the second phyle 
is not clear, probably not as Chief Baker (cf. Otto, Priester u. Tempel im Helleni- 
stischen Aegypten, i. 283), but he may have been priest as well, though it does not 
seem probable in so large an institution as the Temple of Amon at Thebes. 

* This word occurs again on two other ostraca in this collection (D 78, D 157) 
and Ostr. Louvre 9083 (Revillout, Melanges, p. 92). Perhaps it is only a variant 
of the word smyme.t which is found on an ostracon at Cairo (A. Z. xxix. 70), 
and which Brugsch translates Gehoft ' farm-buildings ', deriving it doubtless from 

which is found on the Pianchi stela with the meaning ' stables ' 
n 

or ' stud-farm', cf. Brugsch, Wtb. 1390, Suppl. 1186. 

5 i. e. 'I have in my charge ', * I account for '. The rent-collectors of the 
village which was on the estate of the Temple (p. 32 supra) would ordinarily 
hand over the rents, which were paid in kind, to the Temple-bailiffs ; but in this 
instance they handed these 35 artabas direct to the Chief Baker for his use, and 
hence he addresses this ostracon to the bailiffs. 

6 These two officials are named also on D 100 and the former of them on 
D 103 also. On D 100 the name Menhes is clearly written in its more familiar 
form Menkhes. 

7 Cf. Spiegelberg (A. Z. xlii. 57), who takes the shn to have been 'finance 
officials ', perhaps taxation officials, corresponding to the Xoycvrat who were the 
ordinary tax-collectors of Ptolemaic times (Grenfell and Hunt, Fayum Towns, 
p. 323). Here they are clearly collectors of rents or other dues belonging to 
the Temple. 

8 Cf. p. 32 supra, D 19 and notes 2, 3 ibid. 

OSTR. D 51 (PL II). ACKNOWLEDGEMENT OF RECEIPT 

OF WHEAT. 

%/ 

1. Ssnq s Hr 

2. s Ssnq n nt z n P-sr-Mnt (?) 

3. s P-sr-'MrPpy wn rtb sw if n p qws 

4. n 29 e-te-k s n-n hr P-a.te-'Mn (?) p mr sn Mnt 

5. p hm-ntr 2-n hn n sw a.te-f n-n n p h c Mnt 

6. hsp 9 st sp n 'p sh n hsp 9 ^bt-i sm ss 26 

4 Sheshonk son of Hor (?), [and X.] son of Sheshonk, say unto Psen- 
monthes son of Psenamenophis : there are J ij artabas of wheat by the 



4 o //. DEMOTIC TEXTS 

29-Xos measure 2 which thou hast given to us on behalf of Petamounis (?), 
the chief priest 3 of Montu (and) second prophet, among the wheat 
which he gave us for the festival of Montu 4 of the 9th year. They are 
received by reckoning (?). 

Written in year 9, Pachons day 21.' 

1 i. e. ' we have '. 

2 The artaba varied in size locally and hence was frequently defined. What 
was the meaning of this particular measure, which occurs frequently, is obscure. 
It is discussed in Griffith, Cat. Rylands Pap. iii, p. 397, and references given there. 

8 The mr-sn is represented in the Canopus and Rosetta decrees by dpx^pevs, 
and etymologically by the word Aeo-ows. He was administrator as well as chief 
priest of the temple and was elected annually (Arch. f. Papyrusforschung, ii, 
p. 122 ; cf. Griffith, u. s. p. 65, note 3). 

4 There is, as far as I know, no record of the date of the annual feast of Montu 
at Thebes. From this it would appear that it was possibly in Pachons. 



OSTR. D 100 (PI. II). ACKNOWLEDGEMENT OF RECEIPT 

OF WHEAT. 

i. Se-ny s Hns-p-hrt p gwt n pr Mnt nb 

2 s tp p nt z n Ns-Mn s P-a.te-^Mn-nsw-tw 

3. Z-hr s Mnh n shn-w n p wh (?) 5 s wn rtb 

4. n sw 10 a sw 5 a sw 10 c n e.te-tn n-y hr 

5. p fy pr Mnt nb . . . . s tp 

6. st sp 5 p 

7. sh n hsp 30 5 bM sm ss 21 

'Shenai, son of Khespokhrates, the gwt 1 of the temple of Montu, 
lord of .... 2 (of) the first phyle saith to Zminis, son of Petamestous, 
(and) Teos, son of Menkhes, 3 the collectors of " The Old Estate " : there 
are 10 artabas of wheat = 5 (artabas of) wheat = 10 (artabas of) wheat 
again, which you have given me on account of the bread-rations 4 
(of) the temple of Montu, lord of .... (for) the first phyle. They are 
received by reckoning (?). Written year 30, Pachons day 21.' 

1 Cf. Spiegelberg in A. Z. xxxvii. 36. The meaning is uncertain ; from similar 
hieroglyphic titles Spiegelberg thought it might mean a workman, but in demotic 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENT OF RECEIPT OF WHEAT 41 

at any rate the title is always associated with a temple or a god. In his later 
Cat. Demotic Papyri at Cairo (no. 3 1 080) Spiegelberg translates it ' to-Priester ', 
and as its holder is described as belonging to a phyle (D 103 below), he was 
probably a priest. 

2 Montu is usually ' lord of Wese (Karnak) ' or ' of Hermonthis ', or rarely ' of 
Totun ' (Cat. Dem. Papyri Cairo, u. s.), but I cannot read any of these in the 
present signs. 

3 See D 24 and notes 6 and 7, p. 39, supra. For the 'Old Estate', cf. D 19, 
note 2 (p. 32). 

4 Cf. D 31, note 6, infra, p. 52. 



OSTR. D 103 (PL II). ACKNOWLEDGEMENT OF RECEIPT 

OF WHEAT. 

1. Se-ny s Hns-p-hrt p gwt n pr 

2. Mnt s . . . . p nt z n Ns-Mn s P-a.te-^Mn-nsw-tw 

3. [p] shn n (?) t (?) my.t rs n hsp 30 wn rtb n sw 5^ ~ 

4. [a sw] 2| | - a rtb n sw 5! ~ c n e.te-k [n-y] 

5. [hr p] fy n pr Mnt nb . . . 

6. sh hsp 30 5 bt-4 pr (?)... 

' Shenai, son of Khespokhrates, 1 the gwt of the temple of Montu, (of 
the) .... phyle 2 saith to Zminis, son of Petamestous, 3 the collector 
of the Southern Island 4 for year 30 : there are 5^ T ^ artabas of wheat 
[= wheat (artabas)] 2f J^ = 5i T ^ artabas of wheat again, which thou 
hast given [to me on account of the] bread-rations (?) 5 of the temple of 
Montu, lord of .... 

Written in year 30, Pharmuthi (?)....' 

1 Cf. D ioo, supra, p. 40. 

2 In D ioo Shenai is said to belong to the first phyle. Here the reading looks 
like ' fifth phyle ', but the number is faint, and I do not venture to insert it. It 
would be unprecedented to find a man belonging to two phylae in succession 
(cf. Otto, Priester u. Tempel, i. 31) except in the circumstances arising out of the 
formation of the fifth phyle (Canopus decree), and the date does not allow of that 
explanation here; but see P.SJB.A. xxxi. 219, where a priest appears to belong 
to two phylae at once. A few months only separate this ostracon and D ioo. 

3 Cf. D 24. 4 Not referred to elsewhere, I believe. 
5 Cf. D 31, note 6, p. 52 infra. 

G 



42 //. DEMOTIC TEXTS 

OSTR. D 135 (PL V). ORDER TO DELIVER WHEAT. 

1. a.nw a p gy n t rtb n sw 2 

2. Py-k s My a h p tbhe nte-y 

3. t.t-f (?) n-t.t-k SoOrjvai TTLKCDTL 

ras Svo apra/3(as) 

' See a to the giving 2 of two artabas of wheat (to) Pikos, son of Moui, 
according to the petition which I have received (?) from thee. (Greek) 3 
To be given to Pikos, the two artabas/ 



1 The old form of imperative retained in the Coptic 

3 Vm^ actio dandi : so far only the Bohairic form -xm^ seems to have occurred 
(Peyron). 

3 Mr. Milne has kindly read the Greek. There is room for the two missing 
letters at the end, and possibly a trace of them exists. 



OSTR. D 12 (PL III). LAND MEASUREMENT. 

1 . hsp 1 1 .t ">bt-4 'h ss 20 n hy-w n P-twl 

2. n P-siNp s Py-k erme (?) pe-f 're nt hn 

3. p yh c S-">hy mh-i n rs 




* Year 1 1, Khoiak day 20, the measurements of Ptollis for (?) Psenenupis, 



LAND MEASUREMENT 43 

son of Pikos, and (?) his companion, which are in the first field of Asychis 
on the South. 1 



= total (?) 2 M (arura) 3 
its adjacent (?) 4 (piece) 

i ^4 = total (?) (arura) 
East (?)... 

i-TT 1 = total (?) f (arura) 
its adjacent (?) (piece) 



tl H = total (?) A (arura).' 



1 This system of recording land measurements has been explained by Kenyon 
in his Cat. Greek Pap. Brit. Mus. ii, p. 129. The dimensions of the sides of each 
plot are written round a line representing the plot. The unit of measurement 
is the h.t= 100 cubits linear*, or should be, strictly speaking, as the scribe 
employs the fractions of the arura here and in all the instances I have met with, 
the arura having a set of symbols for its fractions distinct from those for ordinary 
fractions, which should properly be used for those of the h.t. Since the arura was 
i oo xi oo cubits, or a square h.t, it comes to the same thing for practical 
purposes, though it is logically indefensible, if he says \ (ar.) x-| (ar.) = J arura, 
when he means -| (h.t) x \ (h.f) = J arura. It is only a substitution of the symbols 
he is working with. The area is obtained by multiplying together the means 
of the two opposite numbers. When the two opposite sides of a plot have the 
same length, the figure is written out once and a dot placed on the other side 
of the line. 

Other examples of land measurement may be found in Cat. Greek Pap. u. s. 
and Pap. Tebt. no. 87 (Greek), in Brugsch, Thesaurus, iii-567 (hieroglyphic), Hall, 
Greek and Coptic Ostraca, p. 128 (Coptic), and in demotic, in this collection are 
several examples. 

2 A symbol having a strong likeness to the fraction f (ar.) followed by a dot 
comes in each case between the preposition a (' amounting to ') and the result. 
It must stand for ' total ' or * superficies '. 

3 None of the fractions are carried beyond the nearest -^. Strictly the first 
result should be T %, i.e. T Jg more than is set down. The second result is 
overstated by T J^, the third by T |^, and the fourth is understated by -$. On 
other ostraca the measurements are carried down to ^ arura. 

4 This is speculative : I cannot read it. 

* This h.t, the linear measurement, must not be confused with the mh ty or 
square cubit, a unit of surface. This ht is a different word altogether. 



44 //. DEMOTIC TEXTS 

5 Against each of the first three measurements some notes are recorded in the 
margin; but as I do not feel at all sure of their reading, I give them under 
reserve here. To the first: sp . . . . mh 5o(?) n ht 'remainder .... 50 square 
cubits', and below it a st \ J ....'= -| arura', which I take to mean that 
50 square cubits have for some reason or other been omitted from the measure- 
ment and also f ar. of land unfit to be included owing to it being desert, salt- 
marsh, &c., indicated by the word I cannot read. To the second : sp a mh 80 (?) 
' remainder So (?) cubits ' and . . . . st \ ^ ' . . . . arura ^ '. To the third : 
sp . . . . mh 80 (?) ' remainder .... 80 (?) cubits '. 



OSTR. D 23 (PI. IV). ALLOTMENT (?) OF LAND. 

1. a.rh-w a P-sr-Mnt s P-hb st 3 a st i| a st 3 c n 

2. sh <O-pht s Hr-s-'S hsp 30 5 bt-4 Sm ss 2 

3. sh Hns-Thwt s P-sr-Mn a st 3 a h p nt sh hry 

4. sh P-a.te-p-sy s Hr-Thwt 

5. a st 3 a h p nt sh hry 

6. sh S-wsr s <Nh-H<p 

7. st 3 a st if a st 3 c n 

' There have been adjudged (?) l to Psenmonthes, son of Phibis, 
3 aruras = i \ aruras = 3 aruras again. Written by Apathes, son of 
Harsiesis, year 30,2 Mesore day 2. 

(2nd hand) Written by Khesthotes, son of Psenminis, for 3 aruras as 
is above written. 

(3rd hand) Written by Petepsais, son of Harthotes, for 3 aruras as is 
above written. 

(4th hand) Written by Senwosre, 3 son of Ankh-Hapi, 3 aruras 
= ij aruras = 3 aruras again.' 

1 rh, primarily ' to know ', ' recognize ', seems to have a technical meaning here. 
It is followed by a (e) and apparently means ' to recognize as belonging to ', 
' measure out to ', ' adjudge ', just the meaning of the Coptic verb pu>uje which 
is found followed by e in the same sense, e.g. Z. 419, qcooTit ^^p -xenKcogT 
irrregen^ n^pcouje eneTejULTTOTroTWig CCWTJUL ' for he knows that the fire of 
Gehenna will be meted out to those who have refused to hearken'. The 
derivation of pu>uje is unknown and may come from this special use of rh. (The 



ALLOTMENT OF LAND 45 

other verb pcoiye 'to see to V consider', j s associated withr$ by Brugsch, Wtb. p.868, 
and by Griffith, Cat. Ry lands Pap. iii. 367, but this word, whether it have the same 
origin or not, has become differentiated in meaning.) Dr. Griffith has kindly 
referred me to what is perhaps a similar use of the word rh in earlier times, 
Beni-Hasan, i, p. 59, where Chnemhotep relates how the king 'came .... and 
caused one city to know its boundary with another city, establishing their land- 
marks as heaven, reckoning their waters (r$ mw-sn) according to that which was' 
in the writings ', &c., i. e. allotting their rights in the water for irrigation purposes. 
Probably the sense is approximately the same here, and these ostraca may refer 
to rectifications of boundaries of land disturbed by the inundation. The amount 
of land is sometimes so small as to exclude the idea that they can be allotments 
of kleroi or of farms to royal georgoi. 

This ostracon is one of a considerable group. Revillout has published four 
examples from the Louvre, nos. 8007, 9070, 9083, and 9152 (Melanges, pp. 108, 
97, 92, 99), but I cannot agree with many of his readings. There are sixteen 
examples in this collection, and five others, unpublished, are known to me. They 
usually state that so much land has been adjudged (?) to X. This formula 
is expanded in Louvre 9083, 9152 to 'there has been adjudged (?) to the (land-) 
measurements' (a n hy) of X, &c., and in D 41 here we have 'there has been 
adjudged (?) for the compensation of the measurements (n p >s n hy-w) of the 
year 23 of Caesar to X '. In Louvre 9070 we read ' There have been adjudged (?) 
to X for the tillage (wp.t ivy<) of the temple of Montu, lord of Thebes ' so many 
aruras. These documents are usually signed by three officials, but their status 
is not revealed. The land is always agricultural land but its locality is nowhere 
more closely defined than ' in J6me '. Some few of the ostraca give further 
details, which only make the subject more obscure ; they will be discussed in the 
notes as they occur. 

2 I am inclined to think that the whole group dates from about the same period. 
The regnal years fall into two groups, one ranging from 2 to 9, the other from 
22 to 37, with a single one of year 17 between them. Only one, D 41 (not 
published here because it is partly obliterated), bears a definite date, year 23 of 
Augustus. But another, D 82 below, bears the name of a man, Pikos the younger, 
son of Permamis, who is almost necessarily identified with a group of Greek 
ostraca which Mr. Milne attributes to the years 94 to 75 B.C. (Part III, no. 1 2 note). 
On palaeographical grounds I should be content to accept Mr. Milne's date also 
for my group, except perhaps for D 44, which looks to me Roman ; but I confess 
to having little confidence in my ability to put anything like an accurate date to 
these demotic hands on ostraca, and as I cannot distinguish D 41 with Us certain 
Augustan date from the rest of the group, I must leave the problem open. 

3 This official signs four other ostraca in this group ranging between years 
29 and 36. His name is the same as that of the i2th dynasty kings which used 
to be transliterated as Usertesen, and of which Sethe gave the correct reading 
and interpretation (Untersuchungen, ii ; A. Z. xli, p. 45), equating it with the 
Sesostris of the Greeks. For the demotic form, see Spiegelberg, Rec. trav. 
xxviii, p. 195. I have refrained from using the Greek form of the name as it 
does not occur as a proper name in Ptolemaic or Roman times. 



4 6 II. DEMOTIC TEXTS 

OSTR. D i (PL IV). ALLOTMENT (?) OF LAND. 

1. a.rh-w 'Pwlnys s Th 5 m 

2. rtb sw 10 (?) -J- Zme q st 3 a st i| a st 3 c n 

3. sh S-ws(r) s <Nh-H c p n hsp 35 >bt-2 pr 

4. sh Hr-s-'S s Hns-te-f-nht a q st 3 

5. a st i| a st 3 c n n hsp 35 

6. sh P-sr-Hr s P-sr-Hns a q st 3 a st if a st 3 <n 

7. sh P-sr->Mn->py s Hr-Thwt st 3 

8. a st if st 3 c n a h p nt hry 

'There have been adjudged (?) (to) Apollonius, the son of Teham l 

2 (in) Jeme high-land 3 aruras = ij aruras = 3 aruras again. 

Written by Senwosre, son of Ankh-Hapi, year 35 Mechir. 

(2nd hand) Written by Harsiesis, son of Khons-tef-nekht, for high-land 
3 aruras = i| ar. = 3 ar. again in the year 35. 

(3rd hand) Written by Psenuris, son of Psenkhonsis, for high-land 
3 aruras = i-| ar. = 3 ar. again. 

(4th hand) Written by Psenamenophis, son of Harthotes, 3 aruras 
= i-|ar. ( = ) 3 ar. again according to the above.' 

1 The final letter of this name may perhaps be n instead of m ; if so, it could 
represent eW. 

2 The words rtb sw 10 (?) J, ' ioj (?) artabas of wheat ', look as though they had 
been inserted later, probably after the ostracon was signed. It may represent 
a rent reserved on the land allotted, but if so, it is a very high one. Cf. D 44, 
note 2, p. 49 infra. 

3 Cf. Spiegelberg, Pap. Elephantine, p. 15, note ii. 



OSTR. D 25 (PI. IV). ALLOTMENT (?) OF LAND. 

1. arh-w a P-hr s Ns-ne-w-hmn-'w Zme 

2. q st i|-J- a st \\-h-h a st if * f 6 - sh S-ws(r) s <Nh-H<p 

3. [hsp] 29 2-pr ss 4 

4. [sh . . . -]Thwt hn< Pa-zme a st i|rg- a st -J l^-h a st 



ALLOTMENT OF LAND 47 

5- [sh ]st iHastHast l \lh c n a h p nt 

sh hry 

6. [sh . . . -]Thwtast if f J-astff^r^ast i|f^<n 

'There have been adjudged (?) to Pkhoiris, son of Snakhomneus, 1 (in) 
Jeme high-land i aruras = ar. 2 = ij ar. Written by Senwosre, 
son of Ankh-Hapi, [year] 29, Mechir 4. 

(snd hand) [Written by .... -JThoout and Pasemis for iJJ aruras 
= f-J ar. = i JJ- ar. again. 

(3rd hand) [Written by ] ift ar. = f Jar. = ij| ar. again as 

is written above. 

(4th hand) [Written by -]Thoout for i| ar. = J ar. = i J ar. 

again/ 

1 This name, which is not uncommon in the Theban district, means ' devoted 
to Nakhomneus ', the latter being a surname of Amon. But what the surname 
means as an epithet of Amon it is difficult to say. Its literal meaning is ' They 
of ffmnw are coming ', i.e. the gods or spirits of Shmun, the eight elemental 
gods, children of Ra, who were associated with Thoth in his worship at Hermopolis 
(Brugsch, Diet. Geogr., p. 750). The form of the name is comparable with 
Thoteus, ' Thoth is coming ', and- several others. 

* The two signs for the fractions ^ and -^ of an arura are sometimes ligatured 
when they follow one another, and this has caused them to be read as a single 
sign. Griffith (P.S.B.A. xiv, p. 410 table, and ibid, xxiii, p. 295, and Cat. Rylands 
Pap. iii, p. 414) reads the group as in order to make an equation when the 
fraction is divided into its component parts. In a similar context it occurs in 
Pap. Strassburg no. 7, line 3. But I believe the Egyptian was satisfied to equate 
the -J to as many smaller fractions as he knew, viz. J- J- ^ ^. When he wanted 

to express ^, he adopted another system, see D 6, note 2. H, probably the 
first letter of P ^\ \> 5 and not ( as Griffith, Cat. Rylands Pap. p. 414) = 
J^ arura ; and ^ , abbreviated often to | (hierogl. < ^ > \>) = ^. 

OSTR. D 6 (PI. IV). ALLOTMENT (?) OF LAND. 

1. a.rh-w a P-hb s P-sr-Mnt n Zme q 

2. tkm st ~ a st i| a st ^ c n sh Hry n hsp 7.1 

3. sh Hry hn< Pa-Mnt a q st ^ a st i| a st ^ <n hsp ;.t 

4. sh P-sr-Mnt hn< P-sr-Mnt a tkm st ^ n hsp ;.t 

5. sh Hr-p-R c a h p nt sh hry n hsp y.t 



4 8 //. DEMOTIC TEXTS 

'There have been adjudged (?) to Phibis, son of Psenmonthes, in Jme 
high-land (under) oil-crop l arura ^ = (land-cubit) i 2 = arura ^ again. 
Written by Erieus in year 7. 

Written by Erieus and Pamonthes for high-land arura ^ = (land-cubit) 
i = arura ^ again, in year 7. 

Written by Psenmonthes and Psenmonthes for oil-crop arura ^ in 
year 7. 

Written by Harpres in conformity to that which is written above', in 
year 7.' 

1 tkm, the final letter is written with a stroke so small as to be little more than 
a mere dot and this occurs elsewhere as well as here so as to raise a question 
whether the reading should not be tk tgy of Rosetta, 1. 9, where yh-w tgy = 
7ra/oa8o-oi, ' orchards '. But since, so far as I know, tgy does not occur alone 
without^ and as in one of this group (D 26) the word is undoubtedly igm, I have 
preferred to take it so here. The ?7/z-plant produced an oil which was exten- 
sively used by the Egyptians. Loret (Flore Pharaonique, ed. 2, p. 49) identifies 
it with Ricinus communis, mainly on the authority of Revillout ; but the identi- 
fication is not free from doubt. 

2 Apparently there was no symbol for % arura. We know the hieroglyphic 
words for the fractions of the arura down to and including -%> hut none is known 
for $ (cf. Griffith, P.S.B.A. xiv, table, p. 410). So it is expressed in mh ytn 
'land-cubits' (the mh ytn being one-hundredth of an arura) as i^ 'land-cubits' ; 
strictly speaking ^ arura = 1-5625 land-cubits. 



Ostr. D 44 (PI. IV). ALLOTMENT (?) OF LAND. 

1. a.rh-w a Z-hr s Py-k 

2. n Zme st(?) q st 7! || 

3. a st 3|J a st 7! f c n sh Pa-Mnt n hsp 1 7 

4. sw 33! bt (?) 2-J- a sw i 

5. tkm i\\ 

'There have been adjudged (?) to Teos, son of Pikos, in Jeme aruras (?) 
(of) high-land 7| aruras = 3! ar. = 7f 1 ar. again. Written by Pamonthes 
in year 17. Wheat 33^ (artabas) 2 , spelt (?) 3 2| (artabas) to wheat 
i (artaba). Croton-oil i| (artabas) 4 .' 

1 These figures do not correspond, though the reading is quite certain. Either 
the first must be corrected to 7| by omitting the final fraction ; or if 7-^ be accepted, 
then 3! should be 3jf , and yj becomes 7|. 



ALLOTMENT OF LAND 49 

3 If this be the entire rent, it is doubtless a round figure. If the land was 7 J ar. 
in extent, it means 4^ art. wheat per arura, which would work out exactly 
at 33re artabas rent. If the land was 7| aruras, it means 4^ artabas per 
arura, working out exactly at 33f . In either case the result is not far removed 
from the average rent of crown-land at Tebtunis somewhat earlier than this 
(Pap. Ted/, i, p. 564). 

J The reading is very uncertain. Cf. Griffith, Cat. Rylands Pap.) p. 412, for 
the same group, who reads it /(?) or h (?). The ratio would be about that for 
oXvpa, cf. Pap. Tebt. t p. 560, value of wheat to olyra = 5:2, or as the ratio is put 
on the ostracon, spelt 2^ art. = wheat i art.* 

4 Presumably this is the ratio of croton-oil to wheat. 



OSTR. D 2 (PI. IV). ALLOTMENT (?) OF LAND. 

1. hsp 4.1 a.rh-w a P-sr-Mn s P-siS ne-f yh 

2. Ptlwmys s 5 Mnys hn 

3. st 9| sw 4| st \ 2.t st 2| k.t (?) hn st 25 

4. sw 3f . . . . i.t 2| a st 5 a st 2| a st 5 c n sh P-sr-Mn 

5. s<O-pht 

6. sh ^Y-m-htp s Hry st 5 a st 2| a st 5 c n n hsp 4.1 

7. sh Gphln s Hr-p-bk st 5 a st 2\ a st 5 c n n hsp 4.t 

8. TTToXe/xaios cre(cn7/xatwju,ai) (erous) S 7 

'There have been adjudged (?) to Psenminis, son of Psenesis, (as?) his 
lands l from (?) Ptolemy, 2 son of Ammonius, among 9 aruras (at ?) 

4| (artabas of) wheat, 3 J arura (at ?) 2 , 4 2 \ aruras ; 5 another, 

among 25 aruras (at ?) 3! (artabas of) wheat, i , 2j (aruras), making 

5 aruras = i\ aruras = 5 aruras again. Written by Psenminis, son of 
Apathes. 

(2nd hand) Written by Imuthes, son of Erieus, 5 aruras = 2j aruras 
= 5 aruras again, in year 4. 

(3rd hand) Written by Kephalon, son of Harpbekis, 5 aruras = i\ aruras 
= 5 arufas again, in year 4. 

(Greek) I, Ptolemy, have signed, year 4.' 

* In P.S.J3.A. 31/50 Dr. Griffith rejects the reading btiti (oXvpa) but agrees 
that it represents some grain or other. Spiegelberg (Rec. trav. 28/187 ; Cairo 
Cat. Demot. Pap. p. 2) treats it as a measure = 

H 



50 II. DEMOTIC TEXTS 

1 Elsewhere n ne-fyh (D 68) 'for his lands' or 'as his lands '. 

2 In two other instances (ostraca in private possession unpublished) a name 
is inserted here in one case preceded by n but what its relation is to the 
preceding name is by no means clear. Perhaps the land assigned to Psenminis 
had belonged to Ptolemy. In any case, the latter is presumably the man who 
signs in Greek at the foot. In neither of the instances quoted does the 
corresponding individual sign the ostracon. 

3 Probably the annual rental per arura of the ground out of which an allotment 
is being made. 

4 This group, which I cannot read, occurs also in D 68 and D 82 in the same 
connexion as here. It is a feminine substantive and is always followed by a number 
which ranges between i and 3 and admits of fractions (ordinary fractions, not 
those of the arura). I suspect that it is the name of some crop other than the 
wheat which always precedes it. Sometimes it is written so as to be indis- 
tinguishable from the word sJ ' seat ' (without its determinative), but usually it is 
a little more 'curly ' in its upper part. It is not impossible that it reads rnp ' year' 

5 This is the amount actually allotted ; but in all the examples I know of this 
group of ostraca, there is never any relation between the number so allotted and 
the larger number ' among ' or ' from ' which it is taken, nor any relation to the 
other numbers involved. Here we have two plots of 2-| aruras allotted, making 
a total of five. 



OSTR. D 82 (PI. IX). ALLOTMENT (?) OF LAND. 

1. hsp 23 a.rh-w a Py-k p hm s P-rm-mm (?) hn st 3 

2. n sw 6f . . . . i.t (?) | st i hn st 10 n sw 6 . . . . i.t (?) | (?) -J- 
st i 

3. hn st 1 5 n sw 3 . . . . 3.t st i * a st 3- a st i \ -J a st 3* c n 

4. sh >Skl> Gphln 

5. sh Hrmys s Phyln st 3^ a st i\\ 

6. a st 3f c n n hsp 23 

' Year 23, there have been adjudged (?) to Pikos the younger, the son 

of Permamis, 1 among 3 aruras of 6J (artabas of) wheat ij, 

i arura; among 10 aruras of 6 (artabas of) wheat ..... i-|J(?), 

i arura ; among 2 15 aruras of 3 (artabas of) wheat 3, ij arura, 

making 3^ aruras = ij aruras = 3^ aruras again. Written by Asklas, 
son of Kephalon. 

(2nd hand) Written by Hermias, son of Philon, 3^ aruras = if aruras 
= 3j aruras again in year 23.' 



ALLOTMENT OF LAND 51 

1 This is a not infrequent name on Theban ostraca in its Greek form wep/xa/xig, 
fern. Tp/x,a/u,ts : but hitherto it has only occurred twice in demotic publications, 
on an ostracon in the Louvre, no. 8112 (ap. Chardon, Diet. De'motique, p. 1 1 3), 
and on the verso of the Pap. Brit. Mus. 1201 (Rec. irav. xxxi, pL v, 1. 16). 
I do not think there can be serious doubt as to the reading. The hieroglyphic 

transcription is A$ <5cv * > W I 4w> | JjWi | W* , perhaps ' the man of 

the </2?/K-palm '. For Trep/x,- =p rm cf. Spiegelberg, A. Z. xliii, pp. 89, 158. The 
same name TTIKWS i/ewre/oos Trepjua/uos occurs on six Greek ostraca (see Part III, 
no. 1 2 note), and this Pikos being the only one distinguished by the epithet ' the 
younger ', it is natural to conclude that the same person is named on the Greek 
and demotic ostraca. 

2 The stroke which looks like nt before hn is continuous with the top stroke 
of sh in 1. 4, and I believe it is merely a flourish belonging to it, especially as it 
was written over, and therefore after, the horizontal stroke of hn. In line 3 the 
number 15 is certain. 



OSTR. D 31 (PI. III). TRANSFER OF TEMPLE SERVICES. 

1. [P-sr ?]-Mnt s P-a.te-Hns-p-hrt p nt z n yt-ntr Yr.t-Hr-ar-w 

s sp-sn 

n bt-4 pr ss 28 a bt-i sm ss 27 

2. [shn-y] n-k pe 5 bt n h.t-ntr n s tp nte-k 5 r ne-f sms-w 

3. '[ ne ~]f c rs-w ne-f h c -w e.bnp-k t c s-w m-s-y n mt 

4. n p t e.nte-k s p fy p hnq hn nh 
5- 3 sw | hn t wpre.t e-w ivm nt nb 

6. nk nb nt a hp n p 'bt rn-f e-w wm 

7. p ky n p tre 5 bt-4 pr ss 15 

8. sh n hsp 12 (?) n K c myts ( .w.s. 

9. pr- c o nt hwe 

' Psen(?)-monthes, son of Petekhespokhrates, saith to the divine father 1 
Inaros, 2 son of Inaros, [I have leased] 3 to thee my temple-month 4 in the 
first phyle *of Pharmuthi day 28 to Pachons day 27* that you may do 
its services, 5 its celebrations (and) its feasts without your making any 
claim for them against me in any respect whatsoever, since to you belong 
the solid offerings (?) 6 , the beer, 7 three kin of oil (and) one-sixth (artaba 
of) wheat in the .... when they 8 eat, (and) everything whatsoever that 



5 2 II. DEMOTIC TEXTS 

shall accrue during the month aforesaid when they eat the .... of the 
... . 9 of Pharmuthi day 15. 

Written in year 12 (?) of Commodus. the King who is august.* 10 

1 A general title of honour given to any priest who held no special rank. 

cq ^ j^o | 
Cf. Canop. 3, where j * /^8 I = ot aXXot Upcts = dem. n ky-w w*b-w. 

2 Spiegelberg, Rec. tr. xxviii. 197. 

3 Restored from D 175 below, and from a very similar demotic ostracon at 
Brussels (E 353) of the fourteenth year of Tiberius. The verb shn is used 
of a temporary assignment (lease or pledge) of land in Pap. Sirassb. no. 9, 1. 7 ; 
Pap. Reinach, no. 5,!. 30; and Ostraca Louvre, nos. 9081, 9052 (Revillout, 
Melanges, pp. 175-6) ; or of chattels, Pap. Reinach, no. 4, 1. 9 (cows). The same 
temporary quality of transfer applies in these instances of priestly offices. 

4 This with similar expressions in other ostraca here proves that the term 
of service of each phyle was one month, which was not so clearly stated before 
(Otto, Priester u. Tenipel, i. 24-5). The words between asterisks are written 
above the line in the original. 

5 For the meanings and Greek equivalents of these words see Griffith, Cat, 
Rylands Pap. iii, p. 319. 

6 fy is that which is brought, any offering. It seems likely, however, that the 
temple offerings were largely a matter of contract, or at any rate not wholly 
voluntary ; and when they were in the shape of food they became the perquisites 
of the priests. Perhaps \hzfy were largely bread (cf. Brugsch, Wtb. p. 536). 

7 In view of the frequent occurrence of hnq in later demotic = gnKe : ge.u.Ki(ii) 
' beer ', and its spelling, both here and elsewhere, with ^, I have not ventured 
to depart from that translation, though I have a suspicion that it rather represents 
the old word hnk 'liquid-offering* here, which in the temples meant wine and 
milk rather than beer. 

8 i. e. the priests. 

9 Cf. D 122, 1. 8. The reading is certainly tre> but I cannot give any inter- 
pretation. It is not possible to read pre ' dream *. 

10 Cf. D 28, note 3, p. 31, supra. [In connexion with this group of ostraca, see 
one just published by Prof. Spiegelberg, A. Z. xlix. 37, and his valuable notes.] 



OSTR. D 122 (PI. III). TRANSFER OF TEMPLE SERVICES. 

1. [P-sr-Mnt (?) s P-a.te-] Hns-p-hrt p nt z n yt-ntr .... 

2. [ s . . . . shn-y]n-k pe 5 bt n h.t-ntr n s 3-11 sty 

3. Jbt-i 5 h ss 14 nte-k 5 r ne-f sms-w 

4. ]-w e.bnp-k t c s-w m-s-y n mt n p t 

5. [e.nte-k s p] fy p hnqe p kft (?) glm 



TRANSFER OF TEMPLE SERVICES 53 

6. ] pe (?) >bt nte-y t.t-w h.t-y 

7- ] hp nte-y t n-k ty (?) 

]pe-k (?) 5 bt n s 4-11 hn c p qy (?) n p tre 

9- b nC nt a hp n-k e-w p fy 

10 ]nte-k t n-y p sp . . 

11. pe >bt >bt-4 sm . . . . 

12. sh 

13. nt hwe 

' [Psenmonthes (?), son of Petejkhespokhrates, saith to the divine 
father [X, son of Y, I have leased] to thee my month of the temple 
in the third phyle (and its) dues 1 [of Mesore day 15 to] Thoth day 14 
that thou mayest do its services, [its celebrations, its feast]s (?) without 
your making any claim for them against me in any respect whatsoever 
[since to you belong the] solid offerings (?), the beer, the .... 2 wreaths 
[which shall accrue during] my month and I will take them myself 

happen and I will give thee [in exchange for (?)] thy 

month in the fourth phyle 3 together with the 4 and the 

which shall accrue to thee, they being (?) the solid offerings (?) [and the 

beer (?)] and thou shalt give me the remainder my month of 

Mesore Written Augustus.' 

1 sty, see. Griffith, Cat. Rylands Pap. Hi. 319. 

2 The reading seems to be kft or possibly kfn, in either case an unknown word. 
If it could be read kf, it might be K^q : x*^ ' branches ', especially of palm-trees, 
but as against this the determinative looks like a vessel. 

3 This must mean an exchange of duties between the two priests for their 
respective months. 

1 Cf.D 3 i, 1. 7. 



OSTR. D 175 (PL III). TRANSFER OF TEMPLE SERVICES. 

1. yt-ntr Hr . . . s 5 Mn (?)-htp p nt Z n (?) 

2. Ns-pe-w-t s Bs shn-k n-y pe-k 

3. 5 bt n Qsm n 5 bt-4 pr 

4. ss 9 a 5 bt-i sm ss 9 n Bs s (?) Ns-pe-w-t pe-k sr 



54 //. DEMOTIC TEXTS 

5. n te-y 5 r ne-f sms ne-f c rs-w e.bnp-y 

6. t c s-k m-s-y n mt p t (?) nte-K 

7. t n-y (?) p (?) -sw (?) . . hn nh (?) 2 (?) (?) 
8 >bt-4 (?) pr ss 9 

' The divine father Hor . . . ., son of Amenothes (?), saith to Spotous, 
son of Besis, thou hast leased to me thy month of Qesm * of Pharmuthi 
day 9 till Pachons day 9 belonging (?) to 2 Besis, son of (?) Spotous thy 
son ; and I will do its services (and) its celebrations without causing thee 
to make any claim upon me for anything on earth, and thou shalt give 3 
me (?) the . . (artabas) of wheat (and) 2 T ^ (?) hin of oil (?).... Phar- 
muthi (?) day 9.' 

1 Written A \2=$ I f\ 1/L T ' probably the name of the temple of some 

\ I -r^ vL/\ I I I 

goddess. This can hardly be the same as the gsm* of D 22. 

2 It is not clear how the ' month ' could belong both to Spotous and to his son. 

3 From here to the end the text is a palimpsest and very difficult to decipher. 



OSTR. D 221 (PI. X). TRANSFER OF TEMPLE SERVICES. 

1 . y t-ntr 

2. p nt z n yt ntr Hf-Hns s . . . shn[-y] 

3. n-k pe ">bt n h.t-ntr n s 3-11 

4. n ">bt-4 sm mte-k ? r ne-f sms-w ne-f c r 

5. sw e-bn (?)-k t c s m-s-y n mt p t 

6. mte-k t p f y p hnq 

7. hn n nh 2 ef sw (?) 

8. n t mte.t yt-ntr p >bt . . . . sh 

9. n hsp n.t n n pr- c o-w nt hwe 
10. 5 bt-4 sm ss i 

' The divine father . . . ., son of . . . ., saith to the divine father 
Khapokhonsis, I have leased to thee my temple-month of the third 
phyle for Mesore so that thou mayest do its services (and) its cele- 
brations ; thou shalt not cause any claim to be made against me in 



TRANSFER OF TEMPLE SERVICES 55 

regard of anything on earth, and thou shalt take the solid offerings (?) 
(and) the beer, two kin of oil, meat (and) corn (?) as the due (?) l of a 
divine father (for) the temple- month aforesaid (?). Written in year 1 1 
of the august kings, 2 Mesore day T .' 

1 This may be only an unusual way of writing mt = JU.HT-, 'the beer, &c., of the 
office of a divine father/ 

2 The only joint emperors to whom such a date can apply are Septimius 
Severus and Caracalla. The eleventh year of their joint reign would be A. n. 208-9. 



OSTR. D 235 (PL X). TRANSFER OF TEMPLE SERVICES. 

1. [A s B pnt z n CsD] 

2. [shn-k] n-y (?) ne-k >bt-w n thb (?) n (?) h-t-ntr n 

3. [n ?] rpy-w [n] h.t[-w-ntr] .... Zme(?) >Py pr-Mnt nb To-tn(?) 

4. [n hsp . .] Wspsyns Sbsts (?) 'bt-i pr ss 4 s< p mnq n 
rnp(?).: 

5. ... 3.1 n Wspsyns 5 bt-i pr c n nte-y 5 r ne-w sms-w ne-w 
c rs-w 

6. e.bnp-y t <s-w m-s-k n mt nb (?) p t e.'nk s nt nb nk nb nt 
e-w a hp n n ^bt-w 

7 nt sh hry hp nte . . . -k n . . >bt-w nt (?) hry (?) 

8 t c s-y m-s-k n mt n p t e.bn-y rh 

9 nte-k 5 r syh 

10 n n skr erme-k hr n ^bt-w 

n skr hr-w sh n 

12 

'[A, son of B, saith to C, son of D, thou hast leased] to me (?) thy 
months l of temple-duties 2 of the shrines and temples in (?) Jeme (?), 3 
Ophi, (and) the temple of Montu in To-tun (?) for the [second ?] year of 
Vespasian Augustus (?), Tybi day 4, until the completion of the year (?), 
[being year] 3 of Vespasian, month of Thoth again ; 4 and I will perform 
their services (and) their celebrations, without my making claim for them 
against thee in any respect whatsoever, since to me 5 belongs everything 
which shall accrue in the months above mentioned. If [anything 



56 //. DEMOTIC TEXTS 

shall come to thee in ?] the months above mentioned [or any one should ?] 
cause me to make a claim on thee for anything whatsoever, I shall not 
be able [to claim it of thee ?], and thou shalt keep possession [thereof and 
I shall not have any question] with thee as to the rent (?) 6 of the months 
[aforesaid] the rent (?) on account of them. Written .....' 

1 The only instance I know of a lease for more than a month's service. 

2 The reading is uncertain ; but if it be thb, it is doubtless the same word that 
we have in the Canopus decree n gy n thb (Tanis, 1. 31 = El hisn, 1. 9) = al 
ayi/eicu, i. e. the payment of the priests for their religious services (Otto, Priester 
u. Tempel, ii. 32). For another instance of the same word see Spiegelberg, 
Cairo Cat. Demotic Papyri, no. 3061 1, 1. 10. In the Canopus decree it means the 
payment for services, here it is the services themselves, called after one of the 
principal duties, viz. that of ' sprinkling ' the statues of the gods (Moret, Rituel 
du culte divin, p. 171 sq.). 

8 Jme was the Memnoneia on the west bank, Ophi was Kamak on the east 
bank, and To-tun was the site of a temple of Montu somewhere close to Thebes (cf. 
Spiegelberg, Cairo Cat. u. s. p. 258, n. 4). 

4 i.e. for the eight months from Dec. 30, A.D. 69, to Aug. 29, A.D. 70, 

8 The scribe began writing mte-k and altered it >nk. 

6 This word is found in the decrees of Canopus and Rosetta as = Tr/ooo-oSot 
' the revenues of the state ', especially those derived from sources other than the 
taxes chiefly rents ; and this is the meaning also of ujK&p in Coptic (Crum, 
Copt. MSS. Fayyum, p. 79; Id., Coptic Ostraca, Ad. 15, p. 23; Krai], C.P.R. 
Kopt. Texte, pp. 72, 107). 



OSTR. D 197 (PL V). LIST OF PHYLAE. 

1. n s w c b 12 

2. n s tp w c b 12 

3. n s 2-n w<b 1 2 

4. n s 3-11 w c b 1 1 

5. n s 4-11 w c b 12 

6. n s 5-11 w c b 10 

' To each (?) phyle, 1 2 priests. 1 
To the first phyle, 12 priests. 
To the 2nd phyle, 12 priests. 
To the 3rd phyle, 1 1 priests. 
To the 4th phyle, 1 2 priests. 
To the 5th phyle, 10 priests.' 



LIST OF PHYLAE 57 

1 I cannot read the critical word in this line. I suppose it is a statement of the 
normal number in each phyle and we should expect n s nb in w<b 12. The 
fifth phyle was instituted by the decree of Canopus, 238 B.C.; but the writing here 
seems to me to be Roman. The inscription is apparently complete. 



OSTR. D 88 (PL VI). OATH. 

Recto i. h p c nh nte P-hb s Hr . . . 

2. a 5 r-f pr Hns nb c h hsp io(?) 5 bt-i sm (?) ss 19 

3. n Hns-Thwt s P-a.te-'y-m-htp (?) z c nh 

4. Hns nb c h nt htp ty erme ntr nb 

5. nt htp erme-f p hw sp te-k 

6. t.t -J- a.'r-y a (?) <pr (?) bp-s .... 

7. hn-y (?) e.'r-k t pr.t sh.t 
Verso 8. nte-w wy ar-f 

9. e-f 5 r p c nh nte Hns-Thwt 

10. 1 1 pr.t sh.t e-f st 

11. a tm >r-f nte P-hb t 

12. sw rtb 2| 

13. te-w(?) p c nh a rt 

14. Pa-Mnt 

' Copy of the oath which Phibis, son of Hor . . ., shall l make (in) the 
temple of Khons, lord of time, 2 in year io(?), Pachons (?) day 19, to 
Khesthotes, son of Petimuthes (?), saying, " As liveth Khons, lord of 
time, who dwelleth here, and every god who dwelleth with him, 3 (since) 
the day I received 4 your quarter share for storage (?) 5 it has not . . . 

If you give seed corn, let no claim be made upon him. If he make 
the oath, let Khesthotes give the seed corn ; if he fail to make it, let 
Phibis give 2j artabas of wheat/' 

hand) The oath was given to Pamonthes.' 6 



1 The future tense seems undoubted, though we should rather expect the oath 
to be made verbally first and then recorded as having been taken. The demotic 
is exactly the Sah. n&n&>u| eTepe$i&ic e&a,q. Cf. Spiegelberg, Demot. Pap. 
Strassburg, p. 34, 'Eid welchen A. leisten wird/ quoting Wilcken, Gr. Ostr. 

I 



5 8 II. DEMOTIC TEXTS 

no. 1150, O/OKOS ov Set o/x,o<rai'HpaKAei&7v; and another Greek example has recently 
been published in A. Z. xlviii, p. 168. 

2 As the moon-god Khons was 'lord of time'. Lanzone, Mil. pi. 343, 2. His 
temple at Thebes seems to have been known as the Xeo-e/fooyov (A. Z. xlviii, p. 173), 
and Wilcken raises the question whether this can involve the above title ffns nb f h 
(or nb ha, as Revillout transliterated it): Though I know no parallel for the elision 
of the n of nb, I think Wilcken's suggestion must be correct. The Coptic form of 
*h is *ge : ^gi, which would be quite right for -0,07-. The n. pr. irerexfvo-e^aL^ is 
also known (Wilcken, Gr. Ostr. ii, p. 480). 

3 = (rvwaoi Oeot. 

4 lit. * the day of receiving thy J share which I did '. 

5 e pr, a word unknown to me in demotic elsewhere ; it is perhaps the hieroglyphic 

D A, but the meaning here is very doubtful. 

d'__ :^ Inn 

6 I suppose Pamonthes was the temple official before whom the oath was taken. 

a rt = 



OSTR. D 32 (PI. VI). OATH. 

1. h p c nh nte 5 r Pa-zme s P-siNp 

2. [n X. s] Py-k mbh Mnt hsp 2.t(?) 

3. ? bt-4 (?) >h ss 23 (?) z <nh Mnt nt htp ty 

4. [erme] ntr nb nt htp ty erme-f ty sttr.t 8.t 

5. [a.] 5 n-w n-t.t-y my ? p n-t.t-k e-f 5 r p c nh (?) 

6. nte-f wy n-f e-f mh t sttr.t 8.t nt hry 

7. e-f st a tm 5 r-f nte-f 5 y e. 5 r-hr p rt 

8. [nte-f] t <h (?) p <nh 

1 Copy of the oath which Pasemis, son of Psenenupis, shall make [to X, 
son of] Pikos, before Montu in the year a (?), Khoiak (?) day 23 (P), 1 
saying, "As liveth Montu who dwelleth here [and] every god who dwelleth 
here with him, these 8 staters [which] were paid to me, let them be 
reckoned to thee." If he (i. e. Pasemis) makes the oath, let him make 
no claim on him (i. e. X), he paying the 8 staters aforesaid. If he fails 
to keep it, let him go before the Steward, 2 [and let him] confirm (?) 
the oath.' 

1 The month is either Athyr or Khoiak and the day is one of the twenties. 
9 The steward of the priests of the temple of Montu, the usual representative of 
the priests in business matters. In Wilcken, Gr. Ostr. no. 1150, an oath of 



OATH 59 



134 B.C. before Khonsu of Thebes, we have the phrase d Se w Zpxeo-Ocn eul TOV 
fTTLa-TaTYjv, i.e. no doubt the cTrio-rar^s TOV Icpov. This officer is named in the 
Canopus decree (Kom-el-hisn, Greek, 1. 62), and is equivalent to the demotic 
(1. 20) p rm nt In, who is found making oaths (not receiving them as here) on 
behalf of the priests in Spiegelberg, Pap. Elephantine, no. 5. 



OSTR. D 104 (PL VI). OATH. 

1. h p c nh nte Py-k s Hns-Thwt a 5 r-f 

2. n hfth n Zme a 5 r-f n hfth n Zme 

3. n hsp 2O.t 5 bt-3 sm ss 1 1 n Ne-w-hwe ta 4-Mn 

4. c nh 5 Mn na-hmn-'w nt htp ty erme ntr nb 

5. nt htp ty n t n p se a.'r Twt s sp-sn pe-t 

6. hy a bl ty bnp-y prq tkm 

7. hn pe-t tkm bnp-y nw a ge e-f prq 

8. bnp 5 h.t nte-y wm-f sh n hsp 2i.t 

1 Copy of the oath l which Pikos, son of Khesthotes, shall make in the 
dromos of Jeme 2 shall make in the dromos of Jeme (sic) in the year 2O, 3 
Epiphi day n to Neuhoue (i/e^otm?), the daughter of Phthouminis 4 : 
" As liveth Amon Nakhomneus, 5 who dwelleth here together with every 
god who dwelleth here, since the departure which Totoes, the son of 
Totoes, 6 thy husband, made from here, I have not rooted up (any) 
castor-oil plant among thy castor-oil (crop) ; I have not seen any one 
else rooting (it) up; no cow belonging to me has eaten it." Written in 
the year 31 ' 

1 There is another copy of this same oath in this collection, D 180, but made 
by another individual. It is in the same handwriting. In 1. i after <nh we have 
nt e.'r My-hs s P-a.te . . . ., then a fracture till n hfth n Zme n hsp . . . ; thereafter the 
text begins in 1. 3 at <5/-3 sm ; the name -Mn is broken away. In 1. 4 the words 
nte-t z (which must be a blunder for nte-f z) are inserted before *nh. In 1. 5 
erme-f is inserted after ty, while s sp-sn is omitted, and thenceforward the text is 
the same except that after 2o./ the rest of the date J /-4 hi ss n is added; this 
may be lost by fracture in D 104. The translation of D 180 is as follows: 

' [^Py f tne ] oatn which Miusis, son of Pete , [shall make in the] dromos 

of Jeme in year [21 ?], Epiphi day n, to Neuhoue, daughter of [Phthouminis], and 
he (?) shall say : As liveth Amon Nakhomneus who dwelleth here and every god 
who dwelleth here with him, since the departure which Totoes, thy husband, made 

I 2 



6o //. DEMOTIC TEXTS 

from here, I have not rooted up (any) castor-oil plant among thy castor-oil (crop) ; 
I have not seen any one else rooting (it) up ; no cow belonging to me has eaten it. 
Written in the year 21, Epiphi day n (altered from day 2).' 

2 Presumably the dromos of a temple of Amon since the oath is taken before 
him in Jeme, i. e. on the west bank of the river at Thebes ; possibly the great 
temple of Deir-el-bahri, which was dedicated to him, though his title of Nakhomneus 
occurs nowhere on the inscriptions there. 

3 ' 20 ' must be a mistake for ' 21 ', as that is the date clearly written onD 180, 
as well as at the foot of the present ostracon. 

4 This name means 'the four Mins', Min being one of the gods having a 
manifold form ; there are also references to four or more Montus and a corre- 
sponding name <0ov/xw0?7s. 

5 Cf. note i to D 25, p. 47, supra. 

6 lit. ' Totoes, son of ditto ', a frequent method of abbreviation. 



OSTR. D 179 (PI. XI). OATH. 

1. h p <nh nte a.'r Hr-wz 

2. s P-sr-Mnt a >r-f hr (?) Zme n hsp 30 

3. 5 bt-3 sm ss 6 (?) [n] P-sr-Mnt s Ws- 

4. M c .t-R c z c nh 5 Mn ne-w-hmn-'w nt 

5. htp ty erme ntr nb nt htp ty erme-f 

6. bnp-y t (?) c z a.'r-k z p ? sy 

7. nt e-y 'r-f hr (?) ny sw-w nt (?).ne-hr (?) 

8. p srtyqws e-y t-s e-f 

9. 5 r p c nh nte-f wy ar-f e-f st 
10. a tm 5 r-f nte-f t sw | ^ -^ 
n. sh(?) 

1 Copy of the oath which Haruothes, son of Psenmonthes, shall make l 
in (?) Jeme in year 30, Epiphi day 6 (?), [to] Psenmonthes, son of 
Osimarres, 2 saying, " As liveth Amon Nakhomneus who dwelleth here 
and every god who dwelleth here with him : I have not lied to thee (?), 3 
for the damage which I have done to this wheat, 4 which is before (?) the 
strategus, I will pay (for) it." If he (i. e. Haruothes) makes the oath, let 
him (Psenmonthes) make no claim on him ; if he fail to keep it, let him 
give ^ (artaba) wheat. Signed (?).' 5 



OATH 6-i 

1 a.'r is written, but as it is followed by a *r-f t it can only be the same as 'r epe. 

2 Cf. A. Z. xlii, p. 46 and pi. IV. 

3 Cf. Pap. fnstnger, xxvii. 12. 

4 lit. * these wheats ' in the plural. Cf. D 1 1 1 pass, and Coptic Texts no. 30, 
note 4, Pt. IV, p. 200, infra. 

5 No name was ever written after sh, if it be sh. 



OSTR. D 9 (PI. VII). LETTER. 

1. >Y-m-htp s Ns-Pth n Mn-'S (?) te sr.t 

2. e.'r-t gm 5 nqer e.ne- c n-f my te-w 

3. mz' 2.t n-y nte.t 1 5 n-w-s n-y a. 5 r-t gm 

4. kwk c n my te-w . . 2.t (?) ne-a.'r-t gm n p c y 

5. n t sr.t n Hr s Ns-Hns-p-R c (?) m-s (?) hp tPr-y rh 

6. zhe a.wn ty hr-y t-w ne- 5 r hp n-y a R c -qty 

7. n w c hbl nte-y . . 

8. te-y gm 5 nqer ty n qb (?) 

9. my mze | 

1 Imuthes, son of Nesptah, to my daughter Menese (?). If thou findest 
(any) excellent anker? let two matia be given to me, and do thou have it 
sent to me. If thou findest dilm-palm dates also, let two (matia) of those 
which (?) thou findest be given to the daughter of Hor, son of Nesikhons- 
pre (?) ...... I cannot touch anything (?) here. 2 I have taken those 

which I have to Rhacotis (Alexandria) in a parcel (?) 3 of mine (?). 

I find (some) anker here ..... Send a quarter of a mation! 

1 This is probably a foreign word, being spelt out. It has the determinative 
of a plant, and as the pdnov was a dry measure for small things such as seeds, 
spices, salt, &c., it probably means some species of seed or nut. e.ne^n-f Copt. 



2 The translation of this sentence is very doubtful. 

3 A word unknown to me elsewhere. 



62 //. DEMOTIC TEXTS 



OSTR. D 14 (PL VII). LETTER. 

1. T-Sr.t-Bhy ta T-sr.t (?)-n-Hns sme a .... 

2. s P-4-Mnt ty mbh >Mn p ntr c o nte-f a t [nw-y] 

3. a hr-k hn c s-shn (ne-)nfr nb h.t n mt nb p [t] 

4. mn ze.t nm-y a hn a p-hw (?) te-y . . . 

5. te-y tbh nm-k nte-k t ^n-w (?).... 

6. a rs atbe hp te-y mqh (?)... 

7. P-sr-Hns s Z-hr (?) nte-k t . . . 

8. ty n p <ys sn (?) a m< (?)... 

9. sh n hsp 1 2.t n Twmty[n] . . . 

' Senbukhis, 1 the daughter of Senkhonsis (?), greets .... the son of 

Phthoumonthes 2 here before Amon the great god, who shall 3 cause [me 
to see] thy face in all prosperity (?) 4 before everything [on earth]. There 
is nothing to reproach me with 5 up to to-day (?). I .... I pray thee to 

let them send .... southwards on account of what has happened (?). 

I am in trouble (?) 6 [with regard to ?] Psenkhonsis, son of Teos (?). Do 
thou give ...... here to the ^-priest (?) 7 ; inquire in [every ?] place (?) 

..... Written in the 1 2th year of Domitian 8 . . . .' 

1 For the god Bukhis, the name of the sacred bull of Hermonthis, and its form 
in demotic, see Spiegelberg, Rec. trav. xxiv. 30. 

2 See D 104, note 4. 

3 The future here no doubt implies an optative. 

4 Or perhaps 'success'. The words *l-shn nfr or shn-nfr, they seem to be 
used interchangeably occur often as an element in the valedictory phrases of 
letters (cf. Spiegelberg, Cat. Demot. Pap. Cairo, p. 201, note) and especially in 
petitions to the gods. 

lit. ' there is no fraud in me ' a common formula. Cf. A. Z. xlii, pp. 57-8. 



6 Copt. ju.K*2 (?). 

7 The word ys has occurred so far only as a title or description of some 
members of a priestly college. Spiegelberg (u. s. nos. 30618, 30619) translates 
' c $ Priester '. The context does not allow of any certainty as to whether it is 
the same word here. 

8 A. D. 92-3. The month and day have disappeared with the portion of the 
ostracon broken away. 



LETTER 63 



OSTR. Dm (PI. VII). LETTER. 

(Recto) i. Ns-Mn sy Z-hr p nt z pe-f sme a (?) 5 Y-m-htp 

2. s P-a.te-'Mn-R^-nsw-t mbh 5 Mn p-hw ss 5 

3. te-y 5 n-w n-k sw f erme w c .t ble z c t st (?) 

4. Ta-wbst.t t rm.t Ns-p-wt sy Ns-Mn bnp Wn-nfr 

5. 5 y n-y n sf (?) erme (?) w c . . . z >w-f 

6. a N c n w c . . . p-e. 5 r fy n sw-w a 5 Py 

7. e-y y<b m-ss e.^r Wn-nfr >y 

8. n-y t p . . . a. 5 r-y n 'Py e-y t 

9. n-f ke sw I a mh sw f hb n-y n rst- 

10. -e n . . . e-f hp e. 5 n-w-s 

1 1. n-k mte-k 1 5 w Wn-nfr 

12. n rste m-s p ke^ 

13. sw \ a mh p rtb sw i 

14. hp bnp 

(Verso) 15. T-sr.t-Mn ta P-a.te-^Mn-R^-nsw-t 

1 6. wh p sw | a.hb-k a.tbe.t-f 

1 7. my ^n-f p bre 2 a. 5 n-w n-k hr 

1 8. n sw.w n p-hw e-f 5 w a N n rste 

19. t mt.t c o.t hb n-y n rste n p wh 

20. n n sw.w n p-hw z n-y 5 n-w-s n-k 

21. n nte 5 r-k wh-s hb n-y n'm-s (?) 

22. sh hsp 28 3-% ss 5 

* Zminis, son of Teos, utters his greeting to Imuthes, son of Peta- 

mestous l , before Amon to-day, the 5th (of the month). I am 

sending them to you, | (artaba) wheat and a basket 2 of chaff (?). 3 Give 
them (?) to Taubastis, the wife of Nes-pwot, son of Zminis. Onnophris 

did not come to me yesterday , because (?) he went back to the 

City (Thebes) . . . . a . . . , who took the wheat to Ophi. I am very ill. 
When Onnophris comes to me from the in Ophi, I will give (?) 



6 4 //. DEMOTIC TEXTS 

him another | (art.) wheat to make up f (art.) wheat. Write to me 
to-morrow .... if it is brought to thee, and send Onnophris to-morrow 
for the other | (art.) wheat to complete the one artaba of wheat. If 
Senminis, the daughter of Petamestous, has not asked for the J (art.) 
wheat which thou hast written about, let him bring the two baskets, 
which were brought to thee with the wheat to-day, when he goes to the 
City to-morrow. The chief thing is (to) write to me to-morrow, in 
addition (?) to the wheat to-day, (to say) that it has been brought to thee, 
that which thou didst ask for. Write it to me. Written year 28, 
Athyr day 5.' 

1 The Greek equivalent is not quite accurate. It represents P-aJe-^Mn-nsw-t, 
whereas here, and in 1. 15 also, Amon-Ra takes the place of the usual Amon. 

2 This word is distinctly written with a feminine article here and with /, and yet 
it can hardly be different from the word bre with a masculine article in 1. 17. 
Copt. Aip is feminine. 

3 js c qy. -XH 



OSTR. D 220 (PI. VIII). MEMORANDUM. 

1 . z-yt (?) n-f n rn n 

2. c o hwt hn c p sym 

3. a.'n-y etbe ht e.^r 

4. Hgr 

1 1 have spoken (P) 1 to him in the matter of the male ass and the 
fodder which I bought from (?) 2 Akoris.' 3 

1 I cannot explain the final /, if it be one ; it closely resembles in form the hn* 
of the following line, but that is impossible here. The phrase z-yt n-f is used as 
our word 'called' ('Simon called Peter'), see Griffith, Cat. Rylands Pap. iii, 
p. 407, and probably also P.S.B.A. xxiii, May, 1901, pi. II,/". i, which Dr. Griffith 
explains as a participle. Here it can hardly be other than the first person singular 
of the stm-f form. 

2 Cf. Griffith, u.s. no. xv, A/2, B/3. Following t. 9 r is a sign resembling ht 
which I do not understand. 

3 I think certain, but the first two letters are written over an earlier error 
perhaps Sgr. 



ACCOUNTS 65 



OSTR. D 1 68 (PI. IX). ACCOUNTS. 

1. P-my 5 bt-2 pr ss 25 i 

2. p hw ms srtyqws i 

3. 5 bt-4 pr ss 1 8 2 ss 20 i 

4. >bt-i sm ss 2 a p . . . . i a 6 

5. Pa- 5 Mn 5 bt>3 pr ss 10 i 

6. p srtyqws i 

7. >bt>3 pr ss 10 i 

8 sm ss 3 2 

9. a 5 ii 

* Pmois, Mechir day 35 i l 
the birthday (of the) strategus i 
Pharmuthi day 18 2 day 30 i 
Pachons day 2 for the .... 
Pamounis, Phamenoth day 10 
The strategus i 
Phamenoth day 10 i 
.... day 3 2 
= 5 II-' 2 

1 It does not appear what the units are. ** 

2 This final summation for lack of space at the bottom is written in the margin 
between 11. 5 and 6. 



INDEXES 



(The numbers refer to the pages.) 



i . GODS. 

Amon, 32, 38, 62, 63. 
Amon Nakhomneus, 59, 60. 
Amonrasonther, 32, 33. 
The Crocodile (fern.), 35, 37. 
Khons, 57. 
Montu, 40, 41, 55, 58. 

2. KINGS AND EMPERORS. 

Cleopatra III and Ptol. Alexander I, 34. 
Augustus (' Caesar '), 27. 
Caligula ('Gaius'), 23, 26, 28. 
Vespasian, 55. 
Domitian, 31, 62. 
Commodus, 52. 
Septimius Severus, 55 n. 
Caracalla, 55 n. 

3. GEOGRAPHY. 

Bank of the Merchants' Houses, 23, 25, 

26, 28. 
Canal of the Crocodile, 35, 37. 

Horus-the-bull, 35 n. 

the Scorpion, 35 n. 
Honekht, 34, 35. 

Jeme,2 3 , 26, 28, 31, 46, 47, 48, 55, 59, 60. 
Ne (the City) = Thebes, 29, 30, 63, 64. 
' The Old Estate (?) ', village, 32, 38, 40. 
Ophi, 33, 55, 63. 
Pois, 32. 
Qesm (?), 54. 
Rhacotis, 61. 
Southern Island, 41. 
Temple of Amon, 38. 
Khons, 57. 



Temple of Montu, 40, 41, 55. 
To-tun(P), 55. 
Tseget(P), 34. 



4. PERSONAL NAMES. 

Akoris, 64. 
Amenothes (?), 54. 
Ammonius, 25, 49. 
Ankh-Hapi, 44, 46, 47. 
Apathes, 44, 49. 
Apollonius, 46. 
Apynkhis, 36. 
Aristippus, 33. 
Asklas, 50. 
Asykhis, 43. 

Besis, 54. 
Bienkhis, 34. 

Erieus, 29, 30, 48, 49. 
Glen(Kleon?), 25. 

Harmonthes, 32. 
Harpbekis, 49. 
Harpikos, 34. 
Harpres, 48. 
Harsiesis, 44, 46. 
Harthotes, 44, 46. 
Haruothes, 60. 
Herakleitos, 33. 
Hermias, 50. 
Horus, 33, 39. 

Imuthes, 49, 61, 63. 
Inaros, 51. 



INDEXES 



67 



Kallimachus, 25. 
Kephalon, 49, 50. 
Kephalos, 25. 
Khapokhonsis, 33, 36, 54. 
Khespokhrates, 40, 41. 
Khesthotes, 44, 57, 59. 
Khons-tef-nekht, 26, 28, 46. 

Menese(F), 61. 
Menhes, 38. 
Menkere, 37. 
Menkhes, 40. 
Miusis, 37. 
Moui, 42. 

Nekhthmonthes, 36. 

Nes , 32. 

Nesptah, 61. 
Nespwot, 63. 
Neuhoue, 59. 

Onnophris, 33, 63, 64. 
Osimarres, 60. 

Pa-by, 29, 30. 

Paeris, 25. 

Paminis, 23. 

Pamonthes, 25, 31, 37, 38, 57. 

Pamounis, 34, 65. 

Panekhates, 34. 

Pa-p-zoit, 37. 

Pasemis, 29, 37, 47, 58. 

Pempsais, 31. 

Permamis, 50. 

Pesuris, 37. 

Petamestous, 38, 40, 41 , 63, 64. 

Petamounis, 40. 

Petekhespokhrates, 51, 53. 

Petepsais, 44. 

Petimuthes (?), 57. 

Phagonis, 29. 

Phibis, 34, 35> 44, 4$, 57- 

Philon, 50. 

Phthouminis, 59. 

Phthoumonthes, 62. 

Pikos, 26, 28, 36, 37, 42, 43, 48, 50, 

Pkhelkhons, 32. 



Pkhembekis, 34. 

Pkhoiris, 47. 

Pmois, 32, 65. 

Pois(?), 34. 

Psenamenophis, 37, 39, 46. 

Psenamounis, 37. 

Psenapathesj 30. 

Psenenupis, 37, 42, 58. 

Psenesis, 49. 

Psenkhonsis, 46, 62. 

Psenminis, 44, 49. 

Psenmonthes, 2 3,34, 35, 39, 44, 48,5 1,60. 

Psenuris, 46. 

Ptolemy, 49. 

Ptollis, 42. 

Senamenothis (?), 35. 
Senbukhis, 62. 
Senkhonsis, 62. 
Senminis, 64. 
Senwosre, 44, 46, 47. 
Shenai, 38, 40, 41. 
Sheshonk, 34, 35, 39. 
Snakhomneus, 47. 
Spotous, 54. 

Taubastis, 63. 

Teham, 46. 

Teos, 32, 33, 38, 40, 48, 62, 63. 

Thotsutmis, 34. 

Totoes, 38, 59. 

Wem-p-mou, 36. 
Weser-he, 29, 30. 

Zminis, 29, 30, 35, 38, 40, 41, 63. 



5. DEMOTIC WORDS. 
(A selected list) 

yp.t, 'oiphi', 31. 

6r (?).... ,33- 

*btnh.t-ntr, 'temple-month , 51, 52, 54, 

55- 

>rp, ' wine(-tax) ', 33. 
'r/>, 'keramion', 33. 



68 



INDEXES 



S 'charge', 37. 

ys, ' ^-priest (?)', 62. 

/*./, 'poll(-tax)', 23, 25, 26, 28. 

yr . . . ., 57- 

rJr-o;, 'celebrations , 51, 54, 55. 

y<b, v. 'to be sick', 63. 
, 'barley ',31. 

, 'divine father', 51, 52, 53, 54. 



---- , 30, 37 n. 
wp.t t 'work', 34. 
wpre.t . . . ., 51. 

o$(?), 'estate, farm(?)', 31, 38, 40. 
w/, 'pay', 25. 
wth, 'refined (silver)', 23, 25, 28. 

&, 'basket', 63. 
, 'spelt', 48. 



-$/, 'treasury', 29, 30. 

fy, 'bread-rations, solid offerings (?)', 
40, 41, 51, 52, 53, 54. 

m>, ' canal ',34. 

mrpr-st.t(j)> ' chief baker ', 38. 

mr sn, ' chief priest ', ' lesonis ',39. 

mrwt, 'corn-land', 33. 

mh, 'pay', 34. 

ms, 'interest', 36. 

mz>, l mation', 61. 

nbe, ' dyke(-tax) ', 26, 28. 

r, 'thesaurus, granary', 31. 
rm-w, ' men (of X.) ', 25. 
rh ' adjudge (?)', 44, 46-50. 
rt, ' produce ',33. 
rt, 'bailiff', 38. 

hwe, 'surplus', 34, 35, 37. 
hnq, <beer(?)', 51, 52, 54. 

ft, 'festival', 39,41- 

hwe, 'Augustus', 31, 51, 53, 54. 



hbl, ' parcel (?)', 61. 
hfth, ' dromos ',59. 

-r, 'phyle', 38, 40, 41, 51, 52, 54, 56 

s.t-ywn, ' bath(-tax) ', 26, 28. 

swt, 'deliver', 32. 

sp-w, ' arrears ',29. 

shn, v. 'to lease', 53, 54. 

shn, sb. Mease', 31. 

shn, 'collector', 38, 40, 41. 

sh wy, ' deed of cession', 31, 33. 

shn, 'bank', 23, 25, 26, 28. 

sbte, 'merchant', 23, 25, 26, 28. 

sm, 'rent', 33, 34. 

sme.t, ' stock-farm (?) ',38. 

sms-w, 'services', 51, 52, 54, 55: 

skr, 'rent', 55. 

sty, 'temple-dues', 52. 

qws, ' xovs-measure ', 32, 37, 39. 

qnb.t, 'council', 31. 

^/(?), 'copper kite, obol', 28n. 

kynptre, 51, 53. 

kwk, '^w-palm dates', 61. 

gwt, 'a temple official', 40, 41. 

kft 



. . ., 52. 
km, ' garden ', 33. 
gsm* ---- , 37. 



tax'(?), 36. 
/ } -z#, ' apomoira ', 23, 26, 28. 
thb (?), ' sprinkling ', 56 n. 
tkm, 'oil', 34, 35, 47, 48, 59. 

e , 'chaff', 63. 



6. FOREIGN WORDS. 

<nqer, a plant (?), 61. 
nsytykwn, ^vTt/cdv(?), 31. 
srtyqws, crrpaT^yos, 37, 60, 65. 




SJHr(*V' 



'X 




\$$$$$&*^ 

^i^^E^^*; 1 ' , 

' * ' " 




D 5 2 



D 29 







D 100 



D 103 










D 122 



.ft, 

u j> 3 *?* v' 1 1 

^a> i 

" 

'' 



-"4 








v, 



! ^ w * . 






^u,,, Vi 




/p.'JW 



D2 3 



rr-jT' 



D6 






I / * 

t --*r^\/!Xy ? v 







D i 









025 



044 







045 




Di 97 







D 216 



w 

';(i4 

4%*** >.-. ; !v 



* 



D 88 




/ 




D 88 verso 




' '- 










D 3 2 



D 104 



'?> "3 ^ IV- 




\ x ;;^ 

& v- - 

I ^^ 





>t , v 

>X&S** 



X? 



1 5^ 

Vi-& L 










D 14 



NI 

D 9 




I 



- * 

i v*. -- 1 ; 
- M"u>- > 

5 ^ .^-r^ 

r >' ; 'v 

& ' 

1 1 - d i 

."<** ._ .1 






Dm 







Dm 




X 

D6i 








D220 



D 4 



I 





D 5 6 



R ' ~f~~ ' 

* ' \ 



D8 2 



" . 




D 168 





. sate .; 



f^f: sM|'J.'P. r ^ 

/"' '' f /** 



D 235 (right half) 



V v 

T> 235 (left half) 





D 16 



D 221 



, 




' f 



D 49 










".-,'.. ^ 









D 107 







26 



Di 79 



n 



III 
GREEK TEXTS 

A. PTOLEMAIC 

I. RECEIPTS FOR TAXES PAID IN MONEY. Nos. 1-9. 
II. RECEIPTS^ FOR TAXES PAID IN KIND. Nos. 10-27. 
III. MISCELLANEOUS RECEIPTS. Nos. 28-31. 

B. ROMAN 

I. RECEIPTS FOR TAXES PAID IN MONEY. Nos. 32-101, 
II. RECEIPTS FOR TAXES PAID IN KIND. Nos. 102-125. 

III. RECEIPTS FOR PERSONAL SERVICE. Nos. 126-130. 

IV. MISCELLANEOUS. Nos. 131-146. 



INTRODUCTION 

THE total number of Greek ostraca included in this collection is 
about 1500. A large proportion of these, however, are fragmentary 
or partly illegible, and only about 500 appeared to be worth copying. 
Even of these many are of little interest, especially those belonging to 
the common class of receipts for corn : and I have therefore selected for 
publication only such as seemed to give some fact to be added to the 
evidence accumulating with regard to the economy of Graeco-Roman 
Egypt. 

Any large collection of Greek ostraca must now be treated in the 
main as supplementary to Wilcken's great publication: and its chiet 
value is likely to be found in the additional light which it may give 
upon the taxation of Egypt. For this purpose I have grouped the 
texts according to the taxes to which they refer, and prefixed to each 
subsection references to Wilcken or other writers on the subject. 

In preparing this work I have received most valuable help from 
Dr. A. S. Hunt, who has compared the transcripts of most of the 
Ptolemaic, and several of the Roman, ostraca with the originals, and 
made corrections and suggestions so numerous that they can better 
be acknowledged here than in sporadic notes. He has also read through 
the proofs, and thus assisted further in the improvement of the texts. 
I am indebted to Sir Herbert Thompson for the transcripts and 
translations of the demotic parts of the bilinguals. 

J. G. M. 



~7f 



A. PTOLEMAIC 

I. RECEIPTS FOR TAXES PAID IN MONEY. 

(a) 'A(T7ro( .). 

The receipt in this ostracon refers to a payment, the amount of which 
is lost, in copper at par on ao-Tro, a contraction which only suggests 
da-Tropov : in this case it would appear that a tax on unsown land might 
be paid in money, contrary to the general principle observed that land- 
taxes were payable in kind, except for those on ground occupied by fruit- 
trees. But, as has been shown by Grenfell and Hunt (TebttiHis Papyri, 
i, p. 39), there are instances of money-payments for other land-taxes : 
and it is not unreasonable to suppose that a tax on land which produced 
nothing, and so could not furnish material for a payment in kind, was 
settled in cash. 

1. (G. 101). -065 x -082 (broken below). 156 or 145 B.C. 

"ETOVS /ce Meo-opr] K 
T(ra/crai) eirl TTJV kv 

os) a<nro( ) /ce L 
[ 
5 



1 Year 25, Mesore 20. Psenapathes has paid into the bank at 
Hermonthis kept by Apollonios for unsown land (?) for the twenty-fifth 
year [> drachmae] of copper at par.' 

i . "Erous KC : from the handwriting there can be little doubt that the date is the 
twenty-fifth year of Philometor or Euergetes II. 

3. 'ATTOAA.WVIOS : possibly identical with the Apollonios of G. O. 342, who was 
in charge of a bank at Hermonthis in the thirtieth year. 



The receipts for bath-tax published by Wilcken are all of the Roman 
period, and he assumed (Ostr. i, p. 170) that the tax was introduced in 



7 2 ///. GREEK TEXTS 

Egypt by Augustus. This view has already been shown to be incorrect 
(Grenfell and Hunt, Hibeh Papyri, i, p. 284), and the present ostracon 
proves the existence of the tax at Thebes in Ptolemaic times. I have 
another Ptolemaic ostracon from Denderah, which records the payment 
of 1 60 copper drachmae for bath- tax. 

For notes on the tax in Roman times see p. 99. 

2. (G. 120). -090 x -064. 154 or 143 B.C. 

"Erovs K{ 'End(j) la 

Te(TaKTai) em rrjv kv 'EpfifivQei) Tpd(ireav) 

t(fj rjs 'EpjjLofaXo 

KgL MC/JI(VOVIG>V) 

5 OTJS Tpi(r\iXia$ 



' Year 27, Epeiph n. Psemmonthes has paid into the bank at Her- 
monthis kept by Hermophilos for the bath-tax of the twenty-seventh 
year in the Memnonia three thousand six hundred and twenty (copper 
drachmae) = 3620 (dr.). (Signed), Hermophilos, 4180 (dr.).' 

(c) 'EXai'Kd. 

The ostraca relating to payments for oil are almost always in the form 
of receipts given by the royal banks, into which the sums collected by 
the government officials from the KdnyXot. were passed (cf. Rev. Laws, 
xlviii. 3). The first three published here refer to oil used for the gym- 
nasium at Thebes : it may be noted that no. 5 is dated five days later 
than no. 4, and so is in agreement with the direction in the Revenue 
Laws that oil should be measured out every five days to the dealers, 
and paid for if possible on the same day. It is not unreasonable to 
assume that each of these three ostraca refers to the amount of oil 
required for five days' consumption in the gymnasium : and, as the sums 
paid are comparatively small, averaging 500 copper drachmae, or 
approximately one silver drachma, it would not appear that the gym- 



PTOLEMAIC 73 

riasium was a very important institution. A similar receipt (G. O. 318) 
for the price of oil apparently for the use of the baths at Thebes about 
the same date is for 3000 copper drachmae i. e. six times the amount 
spent for the gymnasium. No. 6, which shows a much larger payment, is 
probably for sums received from the dealers who retailed oil to the 
general public : the managers of the gymnasium perhaps did not obtain 
their oil from these dealers, but got it direct from the government 
officials. 

3. (G. 102). -095 x- 109. Possibly 107 B.C. 

Li <Pap/j,ov6i Ky rera/crat 

(TTI rr\v kv Albs zroAe* rrji fj.e(ydXr)) 

Tpd(7Tav) e<f> rjs ' 

TOV e/y TO yvpvdviov 



5 )(a(A/eoi5) i<rov6(jJLOv) h rerpaKocnay / v. 
(ah.) rpa(7re$T?7y) ' 



'Year 10, Pharmouthi 23. Simaristos has paid into the bank at Dios- 
polis Magna kept by Apollonios for olive oil used in the gymnasium for 
the tenth year four hundred drachmae of copper at par = 400 (dr.). 
(Signed), Ammonios, banker.' 

i. Lt : from the handwriting the reign of Soter II would seem a probable date for 
this and the two following ostraca. 

4. (G. 103). -086 x -092. Possibly 107 B.C. 

Lt Mt&Opr] Ky TtTCLKTaL 

7rl rrjv kv Jioy TroXet 



airb Tifjifjs eXaiov TOV 
5 i'y ro yvfjLvdariov 'AiroX- 
Acoi/ios AecovtSov 
l(rov6(fjLov) h 



(ah.) 



74 ///. GREEK TEXTS 

' Year 10, Mesore 23. Apollonios son of Leonidas has paid into the 
bank at Diospolis Magna kept by Apollonios as the price of olive oil 
used in the gymnasium five hundred drachmae of copper at par =500 (dr.). 
(Signed), Herakleides. (Countersigned), Herakleides.' 

5. (G. 128). -063 x -097. Possibly 107 B.C. 

Li Mearoprj KTJ re(raAcrai) CTH T^V 
kv Albs 7roA(ei) rr\i fjLe(yd\fl) rpdfrefav) e0' rjs 
'Aft/nans LOS cXai/crJs tL 
TOV LS TO yvLLvda-LOv 
5 Aea>vi8ov ^a(\Kov) i<rov6(jtov) 

/ h X' 'AfJLfJL<X>J/LOS. 

(2 h.) NiKOfia^ov. 

7 1. NiKo/x^x 05 ' 

'Year i o, Mesore 28. Apollonios son of Leonidas has paid into the bank 
at Diospolis Magna kept by Am monies for the dues on olive oil used in 
the gymnasium for the tenth year six hundred (drachmae) of copper at 
par = 600 dr. (Signed), Ammonios. (Countersigned), Nikomachos.' 



3. 'Aju/xwj/ios : the relationship between the various bank officials who sign these 
ostraca is not clear. Presumably the one who is named as ' over ' the bank is the 
head : and, if there was only one bank concerned in the three payments recorded 
on nos. 3, 4, and 5, it would appear that Ammonios, who signed no. 3 as a sub- 
ordinate of Apollonios on 23 Pharmouthi, succeeded him in charge of the bank 
between 23 and 28 Mesore.' 

6. (G. 119). -064 x -093 (broken on left). Second to first century B.C. 

$]apfjLov6i ie T(TdKTai) eirl rr\v kv A LOS JTO(\L) rfji /JLe(yd\r)) 
. . ] . dnb Ti(fjLrjs) eXaiov KOL KLKL(OS) *EpfJLoywr)S 



'[Year #], Pharmouthi 15. Hermogenes has paid into the bank at 
Diospolis Magna [ ] as the price of olive and castor oil [ ] 

five talents three thousand (drachmae) = 5 T. 3000 (dr.). (Signed), 
Apollonios, banker.' 

3. c v : this presumably relates to the amount of oil. 



PTOLEMAIC 75 

The next ostracon is rather obscure: as it refers to a payment in 
respect of sales of sesame, it would appear to belong to the series of 
receipts dealing with the revenue from oils ; but there is an entry, in 
a position in the formula which would suggest that it was intended to 
give the general classification of the tax, of the title viTpiKrj. It is diffi- 
cult to see the connexion between the sale of sesame and that of natron, 
beyond the fact that the latter very likely, as the former certainly, was a 
royal monopoly (cf. next section). 

7. (G. 1 1 6). .065 x -080. Latter part of third century B.C. 

avvi /c5 

TJS Ko\ .... lV07r6(\CDS) 

y Ta<ro(t5Toy ?) ty TI^V 
<rrj(rdfjiov h e/<r. XX 



5 

1 Year 24, Pauni 24. For the tax on natron in Kol[ Jinopolis Thoteus 
son of Tasous (has paid) as the price of sesame oil six drachmae = 6 (dr.). 
(Signed), Heliodoros.' 

1. L/<S : the most probable date is in the reign of Euergetes I; the writing would 
suit this better than the twenty-fourth year of Philadelphus. 

2. KoX .... IVOTT : this contraction presumably represents a place-name ending 
in 



(d) NiTpiKrj. 

The virpiKij, which is mentioned both on papyri and on ostraca 
(cf. Wilcken, Ostr. i, p. 264), is found on the latter with the addition 
TT\VVOV. The two examples published by Wilcken, like the one given 
here, are from Thebes ; and it would seem possible that the word TrAiWy 
has a local signification, in which case it may be compared with viTpiKrj 
KoX .... tj/oTroXecoy in no. 7 above. This interpretation is suggested by 
Grenfell and Hunt (Hibeh Papyri, i, p. 305) in connexion with the 
occurrence of the word TT\VVO$ in P. Hib. 114 and 116, in the latter of 
which vfcpov is also mentioned. The sale of natron was probably a 
government monopoly, and the ostraca may therefore represent pay- 
ments into the royal banks of the sums received from the contractors 
who retailed it, In all three of the ostraca relating to this tax the pay- 



7 6 ///. GREEK TEXTS 

ments are in copper at a discount (G. O. 329, 60 drachmae Trpoy apyvpiov : 
G. O. 1497, 600 drachmae accounted as 500 : this ostracon, 2400 drach- 
mae accounted as 2085). 

8. (G. 132). -090 x -ioi. 155 or 144 B.C. 

2-sm 15 ^ntrsthns 
(tbn) 104 (qt) 2j tbn 1 20 

L/CT Tlavvi i T(ra/crat) e?n TTJV kv AIDS 7ro(\i) 
rrji 
5 TT\VVOV 

oySorJKOvra 

. TIa(dTrjs ?) 
f?v. 
' Pauni 15. Androsthenes, 104 teben 2j kite : 120 teben. 

Year 26, Pauni 15. [ ]eon son of Stal( ) has paid into the bank 
at Diospolis Magna kept by Paates (?) for the tax on natron of the 
washing-place (?) for the twenty-sixth year two thousand and eighty- 
five (drachmae) = 2085 (dr.). (Signed), Paates (?), banker, 2400 (dr.).' 

4. Ilaap??: Dr. Hunt suggests Harpy? as a possible alternative reading. 

5. . . 0)i/ 2<Ta\( ) or . . eon/s TaX( ) : the name is not to be equated with the 
Androsthenes of the demotic text : he was probably a clerk. 



A tax on ferrymen Tropevr&v is already known from several ostraca 
published by Wilcken (Ostr. i, p. 280). Probably the same tax is the 
subject of the following receipt, although in this case it is nominally 
assessed on the ferry-boats instead of the men. Like Wilcken's ostraca, 
this shows a payment into the royal bank of sums collected in copper at 
a discount. 

9. (G. 115). -oSyxaoS. 134 B.C. 

LA<r Mto-oprj T(T(tKTai) enl TT?J> kv Jto? Tr(oXei) 

TTJL /JLy(d\rf) Tpd(7T^av) 7TOpO/JLl8ct)l' KTOV KOU A L 



PTOLEMAIC 77 

'Year 36, Mesore 9. Isidores has paid into the bank at Diospolis Magna 
for ferry-boats for the thirty-sixth year two talents five thousand one 
hundred and forty (drachmae) = 2 T. 5140 (dr.). (Signed), Diogenes, 
banker, 3 T. 1620 (dr.).' 



II. RECEIPTS FOR TAXES PAID IN KIND. 

(a) 'Aprapieia. 

The relationship of the various and numerous la^nd-taxes mentioned 
in papyri and ostraca is still obscure. But there can be little doubt 
that the apra/Steia was a tax of one artaba per aroura on corn-land ; 
and variants of this may be found in the rifj,LTTaprapra^Lia of P. Tebt. 
346 i.e. a tax of three-quarters of an artaba per aroura and the 
rjfjiiapTapitLa of P. Reinach 9 bis. The latter impost occurs in these 
ostraca, once coupled with the dpraft^ia (no. n), where aprapitia KCU 
fl/juapTa/3ita may mean a tax of one and a half artabae per aroura, and 
twice with the 7ny/>a0?7 (nos. 13 and 15). 

10. (G. 121). -065 x -089. 53 B.C. (?). 

"Erovs Krj Tlavvi if 
apTafiidas rov avrov L 

Av\OVS TTVpOV SeKCL / 



(on verso) hr 's hsp 25 hq (?) sw (?) i a k (?) I (?) 

* Year 28, Pauni 17. Seloulis son of Aueles has paid for the i artaba - 
tax of the same year ten (artabae) of corn =10 art. corn. (Signed), Theon, 
sitologus.' 

' For payment of year 25 i artaba of corn = \ = i.' 

i. 'Erovs K7) : the handwriting is distinctly of later Ptolemaic times, and, as 
Soter II was not recognized in Egypt during his twenty-eighth year, the date must 
be of Philometor (153 B.C.), Euergetes II (142 B.C.), or Neos Dionysos (53 B.C.). The 
attribution to the later reign is supported by no. n, which contains a payment 
by the same man in the third year. As a rule, the ostraca in this collection refer- 
ring to any one individual are fairly close together in date ; and it would be more 
likely that nos. 10 and u belong to the twenty-eighth year of Neos Dionysos and 

L 



78 ///. GREEK TEXTS 

the third of Cleopatra VII and Ptolemy XIV, with an interval of four years, rather 
than to the corresponding regnal years of Euergetes II and Soter II respectively, 
with an interval of twenty-eight. 

5. The demotic docket on the verso relates to a different transaction from that 
recorded on the recto. 

11. (G. 122). -066 X -077. 49 B.C. (?). 

"Erovs y Hay<b(y) 19 fi(jJLTpr)Ky) 

e/s rr]v ap(Taf$LGiav) Kal (rj/jLiapTa^ieiav) TOV av\Tov) L 

2\OV\IS Av\OVS TTVpOV 
CIKOPL TTeVre 

5 /* * 

* Year 3, Pachon 16. Seloulis son of Aueles has paid for the i^ artaba- 
tax of the same year twenty-five (artabae) of corn = 25 art. corn/ 

i. "Brow y : see note on 10. i. 
written L-$~. 



(fr) 

Grenfell and Hunt (Tebtunis Papyri, i, p. 39) have shown considerable 
reason for doubting Wilcken's explanation (Ostr. i, p. 194) of eTTiypacfrrj 
as the special term for the land-tax on corn -land; but its exact nature 
remains obscure. The name is confined to Ptolemaic times, except for 
a reference on an early Roman papyrus from Hawara (Archiv v, p. 397) ; 
but the very brief character of the receipts on which the tax is mentioned 
throw no light on the method of its assessment. In two cases it is 
coupled with the 



12. (G. 126). -079 x -064. 94 B.C. (?). 

K 'E7Tl(/> KB 

TOV avfrov) L 



5 KOVTO, Tpey 
rpirov 



<nro\(6yoi). 



PTOLEMAIC 79 

' Year 20, Epeiph 29. Pikos the younger, son of Permamis, has paid 
for the epigraphe of the same year forty-three and eleven-twelfths artabae 
of corn = 43^1 art. corn. (Signed), Memnon (?) and Hermias, sitologi.' 

i. "Erovs K: there are in this collection six Greek ostraca referring to Pikos 
son of Permamis nos. 12, 13, 14,30, and 15, and G. 141 (not published), dated 
in years 20, 21, 23, 30, 5, and 6 respectively, and one demotic (D. 82) of year 23. 
In the first three and the demotic he is described as Pikos the younger, but the 
epithet is dropped in nos. 30 and 1 5, which may suggest that they are later in date. 
The only successions of regnal years which would fit this series, without a serious 
gap, in the later Ptolemaic period are from 94 B.C. to 75 B.C., which covers the 
twentieth to twenty-sixth years of Alexander I, the twenty-ninth to thirty-seventh of 
Soter II after his restoration, and (after the brief reign of Alexander II) the opening 
years of Neos Dionysos or, as an alternative, 61 B.C. to 46 B.C., which covers the 
twentieth to thirtieth years of Neos Dionysos and the first to sixth of Cleopatra VII : 
but against the latter it may be urged that in the fifth and sixth years of Cleo- 
patra VII she was associated with Ptolemy XV, and there should be a double 
date ; the former series is accordingly preferable. 

13. (G. 104). 102 x -128. 93 B.C. (?). 

'JErot/y KO, Havvi K /z(/xerp^^ce^) /y r^v 

KOL (tipiapTafiietav) IIiKa>$ vcafrcpos) Ilopfid- 
nvpov SeKa 8vo 



5 KpovLos (n 

2. 1. 

* Year 21, Pauni 20. Pikos the younger, son of Permamis, has paid for 
the epigraphe and -| artaba-tax twelve and a quarter artabae of corn 
= 12^ art. corn. (Signed), Kronios, sitologus.' 

1. "Erovs KOL'. see note on 12. i. 

2. YffAiapTaj3i,iav '. written ^-3-. 

14. (G. 127). -089 x -088. 9 1 B -C. ( ? ) 

y Eroi;9 /cy 'Efrety fjL(/JLTprjKv) ety TTJ(V) 
TTi'yp(a^rjv) TOV OLV(TOV) L 
nvpov $Ka eVra THJHOTV rpirov. 
i? K 6 av(To$) 8eKa eVra rpiTOv. Me<ro(prj) X 

5 8VO TJHK7V TpLTO(v) / % Xr/. 



8o ///. GREEK TEXTS 

* Year 33, Epeiph 9. Pikos the younger, son of Permamis, has paid for 
the epigraphe of the same year seventeen and five-sixths artabae of corn. 
(Epeiph) 1 6, 2o(?), the same man, seventeen and one-third (artabae). 
Mesore 30, two and five-sixths artabae = 38 art. corn. (Signed), Hermias, 
sitologus.' 

i. "Erovs Ky : see note on 12. i. 

15. (G. 113). -079 x -098. 76 B.C. (?). 

"Erovs e 'E7Ti</> t/3 /^(//erpr/Kej/) e/y TTJV 

/cat fi/jLiapfrapietav) TOV O,V(TOV) L UtKa>(y) 
irvpov \jiiav Tpi]rov 

/ * / 

5 ITeTe( ) (nroX(oyoy). 

' Year 5, Epeiph 12. Pikos son of Permamis has paid for the epigraphe 
and \ artaba-tax of the same year one and one-third artabae of corn 
= 1 1 art. corn. (Signed), Pete( ), sitdlogus.' 

i. "Erous e : see note on 12. i. 

16. (G. 138). -i 15 x -087. Second to first century 'B. C. 

v Erouy X Ilavvi Icy /j.(fJLTpr)Kv) e/y TOV ev Jtoy 7roA(t) 
TTJL fJL(yd\rj) 67)((ravpbv) f7r/y/?a(0^y) e/y TO XL ^eXovXiy AgXrjvios, 
rcot 8e irportpov ypa(<j>tVTi) fJLrj XP^("??)> T t ^ * v T ^ L K ^ 
c/y TTJV iTLypaj(<f)r)v) TOV avTOv L c/y TrXtfg&ffiy jeXoi^Xecoy) firj 



Two lines demotic, mainly effaced. 

( Year 30, Pauni 23. Seloulis son of Lolenis has paid into the granary 
atDiospolis Magnafor the epigraphe for the thirtieth year the receipt pre- 
viously given is not to be used, nor that given in the twenty-ninth year for 
the epigraphe of the same year for the balance due from Seloulis thirteen 
and three-quarters artabae of corn = 13! art. corn. (Signed), Apollonios.' 



3. TOH 8e TTporepov ypa(<f>VTi) /AT) XP^(77) KT ^ ' ^ e prohibition to use a former 
receipt i.e. the cancellation of a receipt 'by a subsequent one is found on several 
ostraca (G, O. 351, 1026, 1496, and 1526, and no. 25 of this collection). It is 



PTOLEMAIC 81 

discussed by Wilcken (Ostr. i, p. 78), and Grenfell and Hunt have treated of the 
similar formula on papyri (Faydm Towns, p. 181). The present instance is excep- 
tional, as in it two previous receipts are cancelled by a single one. 

4. t? TrXrjptixriv SeXo^Xccos) : this phrase is explained by G. O. 464, which 



contains a receipt for re'Aos rjTrrjrwv specified as Xonral Spaced Svo/ \-{3 et 

i.e. it was the payment of the balance owing to complete the tax; though it is 



not clear in this instance why a receipt for a payment towards the itnyptufrq of 
the thirtieth year should cancel one for the balance of that of the twenty-ninth year, 
unless it had been proved that the amount paid as balance brought the total 
payment above the amount due for the twenty-ninth year, and so could be credited 
towards the payments for the next year. 

(c) Unspecified purposes. 

A considerable proportion of the Ptolemaic receipts for payments of 
corn from Thebes do not specify the tax or other purpose for which these 
payments were made. It is probable that many, if not all, of these 
refer to rent for the royal domain-land, which, as suggested fay Grenfell 
and Hunt (Tebtunis Papyri, i, p. 40), most likely accounted for the bulk 
of the corn received by the government. In this case the receipts would 
presumably be given by the sitologi at the royal granaries direct to the 
holders of the land. Wilcken (Ostr. i, p. 99) is of opinion that the 
receipts were addressed to the tax-collectors. But the receipts for corn, 
with a very similar formula, of the Roman period were clearly, as Wilcken 
admits, made out to the actual taxpayers ; and -it is rather against his 
theory that receipts occur addressed to the same person over a long 
series of years (e.g. nos. 18, 19, 30, and 21, covering ten years). The 
position of the landholders in regard to./^erp^ara e/y Orjcravpov is shown 
for a later date by no. 133. There is, indeed, no definite evidence that 
any of the payments of corn into the royal granaries, whether for taxes 
in kind or for rents of royal domain-land, were farmed or made through 
collectors. The group of receipts given to Pikos, the son of Permamis, 
for 67ny/>a077 during a period of 18 years (nos. i to 15) do not suggest 
that he was a tax-farmer. Further, the amounts paid in are not such as 
would be likely to be passed on to the granaries by collectors ; it would 
not, at any rate, seem reasonable that a collector should go round to the 
granary with half an artaba which he had happened to receive : he 
would be much more likely to wait till he had accumulated rather more. 
The formula of cancellation (cf. note on 16. 3) also distinctly suggests that 
the receipt was to the actual taxpayer ; there would be little point in 



82 ///. GREEK TEXTS 

cancelling a receipt to a collector ; and the words /y TrXrjpaxnv 2eXov- 
Aeooy added to the description of the receipt cancelled in no. 16 show 
that this receipt had been given to the person liable for the tax, to 
whom the new receipt also was addressed. 

17. (G. 125). -090 x -i 02. Latter part of third century B.C. 

Lty $ap/jiovOi A e/y TOV KO.T& Jtdy 

TToXlV [[.....]] 'AfJLVO>6r)$ ' 

Oov Kal Weft/Awl 

ety TO iL 8ia KaXXiov 



5 vr\ 

'Year 13, Pharmouthi 30. Amenothes son of Amenothes and Psem- 
minis son of Peteminis (have paid) into (the granary) at Diospolis for 
the thirteenth year through Kallias 58 (artabae) of corn only/ 

1. Liy : probably the thirteenth year of Euergetes I or of Philopator. 

2. 1 ..... 3: the cancelled word may have been 6rja-avp6v, but it has been 
thoroughly erased, and it does not appear why, if it was this word, it should have 
been struck out. 

18. (G. 106). -084 X -087. I33B.C. 

if TIav(vL) 



/ % e. ?/?*( ) 

'Year 47, Pauni 5. Phibis son of Psemmonthes has paid for the 
forty-seventh year in the Memnonia five (artabae of corn) = 5 art. corn. 
(Signed), Pine( )(?).' 

19. (G. 107). -058x073 (chipped on right). 115 B.C. 

~iQ TrK^v aL . 



wvpov 

fiiav rjfiia-v iff / % aLif? . .[ 

' Year 2, Epeiph 19. Phibis son of Psemmonthes has paid for the first 
year one and seven-twelfths (artabae) of corn = i^ art. corn.' 

i. "Erovs ft: there can be little doubt that, as the forty-seventh year of no. 18 
must be of Euergetes II, the second year of this ostracon, a receipt addressed to 
the same man as no. 18, is of the following reign of Soter II. 

3. The signature at the end of the line is almost entirely broken away. 



PTOLEMAIC 83 

20. (G. 117). -060 x -099. 115 B.C. 

"Erovs /S Mecrop^ i? 



1 Year 2, Mesore 1 6. Phibis son of Psemmonthes has paid for the second 
year in the Memnonia one and two- thirds artabae of corn = i art. corn. 
(Signed), Ammonios.' 

i. "Erovs /? : see note on 19. i. 

3. fuav ft : it may be observed that the payment made by Phibis for the second 
year 1 artabae of corn was almost identical in amount with the belated pay- 
ment for the first year iy^ artabae made twenty-seven days previously (no. 19). 
On the other hand, in the forty-seventh year he paid 5 artabae (no. 18), and in the 
fourth he with others paid 5^ (no. 21). The explanation of the variations may 
be that the payments were instalments ; or, if it be accepted that they represent 
rent of domain-land, the amount cultivated may have varied from year to year. 

21. (G. 108). -069 x -077. 113 B.C. 

*Erov$ S Ila^obv a 
8L e 



, 

Kal oi Xour(ol) j 



P-hb s P-sf-Mnt sw 



' Year 4, Pachon i. Phibis son of Psemmonthes and others, sons of 
Phibis, have paid for the fourth year ................ (?) in the Memnonia 

five and one- twelfth (artabae of corn) = 5^2- Phibis son of Psemmonthes 
(art.) of corn/ 



i . "Erovs 8 : see note on 19. i . 

2. e d^Tt&ay/oa^s) : this phrase occurs on Ptolemaic ostraca in reference to 
payments both in money (G. O. 1518) and in kind (G. O. 713, 742, 1509, 1533); 
but its meaning remains obscure. 

22. (G. 133). -074 x -070 (chipped at edges). Second century B.C. 

? Li] $apfjiov6i a fjL(jjLTprJKa(riy) e/y TOV i[v 
Jioy] 7ro(Xct) rg fj.t(yd\y) Orja-avpw 'Ep/JLias 
KO). .]av<rt$ Wwa/JLOvvtos 



8 4 ///. GREEK TEXTS 

ra !] fyi<rv rpirov iff / K P [tO(fjs) 



5 

Ns-p-mt a yt (?) 66| . . 
[P]-sr-Mn a yt (?) 66f . . 
...... 661 A 

' Year 17 (?), Pharmouthi i. Hermias son of Ptolemaios and [ Jausis 
son of Psenamounis have paid into the granary at Diospolis Magna 
sixty-six and eleven-twelfths (artabae) of barley = 66^ (art.) barley. 
(Signed), Antiochos. 

Estimetis for barley 66^ (?). 

Psemminis for barley 



23. (G. 112). -099 x -105. 155 or 144 B.C. 

c /L(e(/*Tp?7K) K<rL 
Ila . . . 

(2 h.) M 'ATro\\a>v(ov TOV 
(i h.) % *Wa y iff / Qytff. ' 

5 'ATroXXwvios % toy iff f By 'iff '. 
(3h.) 'AfxriiJM % Oy'tft' / Qy'iff. 

SW 9ll2 
hsp 26 3-sm ss 15 sw Q!^ 

'Year 26, Epeiph 15. Chesthotes son of Pa. . . chimos has paid for 
the twenty-sixth year in the Memnonia through Apollonios son of 
Theon nine and five-twelfths artabae of corn = 9-^. (Signed), Apollonios. 
(Countersigned), Apollonios, 9^ art. corn = 9 r \. (Countersigned), 
Harsiesis, g^ art. corn = 9 T %. 

(art.) of corn. Year 26, Epeiph 15, 9 T \ (art.) of corn.' 



3. This line has been inserted in a different hand from that of the body of the 
receipt. Apollonios, the son of Theon, who made the payment on behalf of 
Chesthotes, appears five days later as paying in corn on his own account 
(no. 24). 



PTOLEMAIC 85 

24. (G. 105). -135 x -092. 155 or 144 B.C. 



@<*)VO$ TTVpOV 

eVr* Lip / li 
5 'Apo-irjo-is % iCtip'. 

SW I7f T2 

hsp 26 3-sm sw 17! T *2 

' Year 26, Epeiph 20. Apollonios son of Theon has paid for the twenty- 
sixth year in the Memnonia seventeen and seven-twelfths (artabae) of corn 
= I 7rV (Signed), Heliodoros. (Countersigned), Harsiesis, 17-^ art. corn. 

J 7T 7 ^ ( art -) of corn. Year 26, Epeiph, 17^ (art.) of corn.' 

5. 'Apcrajo-ts : the sitologus who signs this receipt is the same who signs no. 23 
of five days earlier, though the subordinate clerks are different in this instance 
Heliodoros, in the earlier Apollonios. Possibly it is the same Harsiesis who signs 
G. O. 732 of the twenty-eighth year as sitologus, with Antiochos and Apollonios 
as clerks, and no. 26 of the thirty-third year with Antiochos as clerk. 

25. (G. 118). -073 x -079. 149 or 138 B.C. 

"ETOVS X/3 Havvi a /ze(ywr/07;/ce) X/3{, 



% o/cro) 0' /rjp'. *Hpa(K\c(8ris). 

T(Ol 

5 

hsp 32 sw 8J(?) 

tr (?) 

' Year 32, Pauni i. Haruothes son of Psemmonthes has paid for the 
thirty-second year in the Memnonia eight and two-thirds artabae of 
corn = 8. (Signed), Herakleides. The receipt previously given is not 
to be used. (Countersigned), Hermias, 8| art. corn. 
Year 32, 8J (?) (art.) of corn. (Signed), Hatres.' 

2. 'ApvvOrjs ^feimu(vOov)'> the same man appears as paying in 2j artabae of 
corn on Pauni 30 ol the twenty-ninth year in an ostracon of this collection 
(G. 114) not published here. 

4. (TTporepov) : written a. For the formula see note on 16. 3. 

7. Htr : it is noticeable that, as a rule, when a demotic docket is added to 
a receipt and signed by a clerk, this clerk is not the same as the one signing 
the Greek receipt; cf. nos. 22 and 26, and, in the case of a bank-receipt, no. 8. 

M 



86 ///. GREEK TEXTS 

26. (G. in). -117 x -085. 148 or 137 B.C. 

LXy 'Enel(f> te /ze(/ter/)?7/ce) XyL 

^flpOS WfJi/*ll>LO$ % jJLiaV 

I % a. - 'Avrio'xps. 
sh Thwt-stm s Pa-mnt a sw i 
5 *Ap<Tifj(ns % a. 

Z^ 6 avTos % ?;/cru / % Z.. 



sh Thwt-stm s Pa-mnt a sw f 

* Year 33, Epeiph 15. Horos son of Psemminis has paid for the thirty- 
third year in the Memnonia one artaba of corn = I art. corn. (Signed), 
Antiochos. (Countersigned), Written by Thotsutmis for I artaba. 
(Countersigned), Harsiesis, I art. corn. 

(Epeiph) 1 6. The same man (has paid) half an artaba of corn = | art. 
corn. (Signed), Antiochos. (Countersigned), Written by Thotsutmis for 
4 artaba.' 

5. 'Apo-djo-is: see note on 24. 5. 



27. (G. 124). -087 x -125. 128 B.C. 

"ErOVS /JL/3 <Pa//J>0)0 i fJLf(flTpT]K1/) 1$ TOV 

kv A LOS TTo(\i) rfji /JL(yd\rj) Qr)(cravpov) //^L vnep TOTT(OV 
Mrjvo8<*>pov irvpov erJKOVTa T<r<rapS 



5 irj 6 OLVTOS aAXay ^ 8tKa OKTCO / % irj. 

4 Year 42, Phamenoth 15. Straton son of Menodoros has paid into the 
granary at Diospolis Magna for the forty-second year for the district 
sixty-four and a half (artabae) of corn = 64! art. corn. 

(Phamenoth) 18. The same man (has paid) eighteen artabae of corn 
more = 18 art. corn.' 

2. VTTC/O TOTT(OV): this phrase, which is found frequently in Ptolemaic receipts for 
payments in kind, is explained by Wilcken (Os/r. i, p. 306) as the equivalent of 
VTrep TOTrap^tas. 

irparov M^i/oSwpou : the same payer occurs in G. O. 749, a receipt for 20 
artabae of corn dated Pharmouthi 22 in the fortieth year. 



PTOLEMAIC 87 

III. MISCELLANEOUS RECEIPTS. 



(a) ' 

As the term tK<f>6piov was used commonly for rent of any kind, 
receipts specifying this may be of a purely private nature (cf. Wilcken, 
Ostr. i, p. 185). No. 39, though it does not include the word e/c06/ofoj>, 
may be placed under this head, as it clearly refers to a payment of rent. 

28. (G. 131). -086 x -095. Second to first century B.C. 

a cKcfiopiov TOV i@L 
SIV&TOS Kpi0(fj$) K. XXX 

p sm hsp 12 n (?) P-sr-'mn ..... yt (?) 20 
sh Hry 4-pr i 

' Year 12, Pharmouthi i. Psenamounis son of Sinas (has paid) for rent 
of the twelfth year 20 (artabae ?) of barley. 

The rent year 12 of (?) Psenamounis 20 ....... barley (?). 

Written by Erieus, Pharmouthi i.' 

29. (G. 16). .100x061. Possibly 88-87 B - c - 

\ov\L ^a- 
7rap(a) 



aov TOV XaL 

TOV TTVpOV 

5 ycov Kal ovB\(y) crol 

ZVKOlXS). 

1 Sarapion to Seloulis, greeting. I have received from you for the 
thirty-first year the corn in respect of the lands, and I make no claim 
against you.' 

3. XaL : the handwriting would suit the thirty-first year of Soter II. 



The word 7n<SeKaTOj>, as has been shown by Grenfell and Hunt 
(Hibeh Papyri, i, p. 171), means an ' extra tenth' in connexion with fines. 
But in the present instance there is no suggestion of a fine ; and it would 
seem probable that the receipt is for a tithe simply. It is given by the 
Trpoorcmu of Philae, who were certainly temple officials (see Otto, Priester 



88 ///. GREEK TEXTS 

. Tempel, ii, p. 75, note i) : in a series of ostraca dated in the reign of 
Nero (G. O. 412-18, 420, 421) Psenamounis the son of Pekusis bears the 
titles of TfpocrTOLTV}S TOV Qeov and </)ei>i>fj(ri$, and gives receipts for the 
Aoye/a "lo-ttfoy, which facts mark him as the representative of the temples 
of Isis and her associated gods at Philae, who collected dues for them 
at Thebes (see Otto, op. cit. i, p. 362. It does not appear necessary to 
suppose with Wilcken (Archwjur Papyrus/, iv, pp. 251, 267) that these 
collections were made by a subordinate temple of Isis at Hermonthis 
a sort of chapel of ease to Philae though this explanation is possible). 
The tinStKaTov may be another form of the later Aoye/a, derived from 
lands, as is suggested by the addition of a place-name. 

30. (G. 130). -117 x- 105. 87 B.C. (?). 

l Hpa.K\d8ov 
o$ Kal IIiKa>$ dp- 
'Epiea>s TT/OOCT- 



5 Ui/cooy 

irapa <rov TO tiri- 

TTJS 'IpKOVlTOTT^XttoS ?) 
TOV /C^L. IIpa(KTOpLOV ?) TOV /3a((TiAt)- 

KOV(?) |_A QafttvcbO a. 
5. 1. lit/cam. 

' Erieus son of Herakleides and Horos and Pikos sons of Erieus, assis- 
tant priests of Philae . . . . , to Pikos son of Permamis greeting. We 
have received from you the tithe of Ibionitopolis (?) for the twenty-ninth 
year. At the royal tax- office (?), year 30, Phamenoth i.' 

4. a-Tparrj( ) : the meaning of this contraction is obscure: presumably it relates 
to the crrpar^yos in some way. 

7. 'I/?ian/iT07r(oA<os) : this seems the natural resolution of the contraction. 

8. IIpa(/cTo/3tov) TOV /2a((nAi)Ko9 : this is suggested by Dr. Hunt as a possible 
explanation of the text irp^ TOV p KOV ; for the contraction fi^Kov cf. P. Amh. 35, 55. 

9. LA: see note on 12. i. 

(c) 'OfaiXrjfjLaTa. 

This ostracon may refer either to public or to private debts: more 
probably perhaps the former. 



PTOLEMAIC 89 

31. (G. 137). -106 x -049. Latter part of third century B.C. 

Li 'AOvp f its ra 
6(/)i\rjfjLaTa TOV 0L 
'A6r)viG)v 7rvp(ov) yf? t 

'tnyn 

5 sw 3 P . . . 
hsp 

' Year 10, Hathur 7. Athenion has paid for debts of the ninth year 
3 (artabae) of corn. 

Athenion : 3! (art.) of corn. Year . . . .' 



B. ROMAN 

I. RECEIPTS FOR TAXES PAID IN MONEY. 

(a)Af. 

It seems desirable to treat the ostraca in which the symbol at* occurs 
separately, as Wilcken (Ostr. i, p. 132) has regarded this symbol as the 
name of a tax. There is, however, considerable reason to take a different 
view. The symbol is always used in immediate sequence to a stated sum 
of money, and is followed by a second sum slightly less than the previous 
one, e.g. $8ai*$ypc. If it introduced a fresh payment, it should be 
preceded by o/zoiiwy, according to the general rule observed in ostraca 
giving a series of payments (cf. nos. 32-6). Commonly, further, the 
symbol $ is omitted before the second sum, and the entry runs $8ai*ypc. 
The second sum also bears approximately the same proportion to the 
first in all instances, the normal decrease being that in the instance cited 
one and a half obols in four drachmae. It would appear therefore that 
the second sum is a restatement of the first with the omission of a fixed 
charge or discount. The payments in connexion with which ai" occurs 
are usually for \<x>}ia,TiK6v or, more rarely, XaoypaQia, during a period 
extending from the fourth year of Claudius to the second of Antoninus 
Pius. During this same period another formula is found in receipts for 
these taxes a sum is stated with the addition KOU TO. TOVTG>V wpocrSia- 
ypa(f>6/jLi>a, sometimes with the further words e-c, which Wilcken has 
lately explained (Archiv filr Papymsforschung^ iv, p. 146) on the basis 
of the fuller phrase coy TOV evos orar^poy *-c of a Strasburg ostracon as 
meaning an additional charge of i| obols to the stater of four drachmae. 
Another rate for the 7r/>oo-<$taypa06/*ej/a one- tenth is found in connexion 
with the naubion (Tebtunis Papyri, ii, App. I). The two formulae at* 
and Kal 7rpoo-8iaypa<p6fj,i>a never occur together ; but as they both 
relate to a charge of the same proportion to the sum paid, so far as the 
ostraca show, it seems clear that they are two separate ways of stating 



ROMAN 91 

the same transaction : when a payment was made the payer might either 
add to the amount on account of the tax a sum of i obols for each 
stater, in which case he would get a receipt for the amount of the tax 
Kal 7rpoo-8iaypa</)6iJLva, or he might have a deduction made from what he 
actually paid at a similar rate, when the receipt would be for the sum 
paid ai K this sum less the deduction. Under these circumstances the 
meaning of at* would appear to be cu Kai, treated as indeclinable. 

It is still, however, not clear why the extra payment or alternative 
deduction should have been required in the case of certain taxes only. 
But the charge of ] J obols to a stater is approximately the same as that 
found in cases of conversion of copper into silver. In the Ptolemaic 
period a silver stater was reckoned as the equivalent of a6J obols copper 
for the purposes of certain taxes, in the payment of which copper was 
only accepted at a discount. In the early part of the first century A.D. 
the rate of exchange had fallen, as appears from a case of conversion of 
copper into silver at 26 obols to the stater (P. Tebt. 401). In the ostraca 
now under consideration the rate is practically 35! obols to the stater. 
The discount on copper seems to have been about the same at Pergamon 
in the second century A.D., viz. one-eighteenth. 

No clear distinction can yet be drawn, either for the Ptolemaic or for 
the Roman period, between taxes for which payment could be made at 
par and those for which it was subject to a discount. As has already been 
noted, on the ostraca the deduction is made most commonly in payments 
for -^yLGLTiKov sometimes (e. g. G. O. 1379) in a receipt given for this 
tax alone ; but more usually a series of payments for Aaoy/oa0/a, 
$iAaVa>j>, or other taxes is followed by an entry or two for 
from which alone the deduction is made (e. g. nos. 32, 33,34)- Occasionally, 
however, the amount reduced is for Xaoypafyia, in two instances (1105.37 
and 39) through a series of payments. In one ostracon (G. O. 1282) 
a reduction of uncertain proportions seems to be made from a payment for 
reXoy r)7rrjTan>, and in another (no. 40) the tax concerned is tvK(vK\i.ov ?). 

The two formulae that with at /cat and that with Kal irpoaSiaypa^o- 
fieva may have been local variants. Wilcken (Ostr. i, pp. 133 and 287) 
has pointed out that the great majority of his ostraca in which the former 
is used come from the district Noro? KOI Aty, while those with the latter 
are from Xdpag, '/20*efoj/, and 'Ayopal ftoppd: and from the examples 
here published it would appear that the usage of Me/xi/oi/eia was the 



9 2 ///. GREEK TEXTS 

former. In a number of instances the precise district is omitted : but all 
examples of either formula on ostraca come from the neighbourhood of 
Thebes ; and, so far as our present information goes, the cases may be 
grouped as follows : 
at Kai : *A(j>is (?) 



NOTOS 

NOTOS Kai Aty : XtofiaTixfo, Xaoypa<f>ia. 



: 'Ayopal floppa : \a>/iaTlK6y f Xaoypa<f)ia, 
'Ayopal VOTOV : Xaoypa(f>ia. 



No-Toy : Xaoypafaa, 

IVoro? KOU Aty : x&fjiaTiKov (once). 

Xdpa : xcopaTiKov, XaoypcKftia, 

'fifaeTov : Xaoypafaa, ycafttTpia. 

But, even during the period when these formulae were in use, ostraca 
occur relating to the above-mentioned localities and taxes in which there 
is no note of any addition or subtraction. 

In illustration, a few examples of the use of at Kai may be given here 
instead of under the headings of the taxes to which they should more 
strictly be referred. 

32. (G. 263). -iiax-137. 68 A. D. 



IIafjiovi>i(os;) vn(ep) Xaoy(pa<pia$) Me/jLvo^eicw) 18$ $rj. L,t8 Ne 
TOV Kvptov Me\(tp) K^. 
t O/zo(roo9) $apnov(6i) K $8. 
5 ITaw(i) K0 $8. ( O/JM(MV) 
$y- at K (al) /3^c. 

' Psemmonthes son of Patephmois and Tachoulis daughter of Pamounis 
has paid for poll-tax in the Memnonia for the fourteenth year 8 dr. 
Year 14 of Nero our lord, Mecheir 2,6. Likewise on Phamenoth 25, 4 dr. 
Likewise on Pharmouthi 30, 4 dr. Likewise on Pachon 23, 4 dr. Likewise 



ROMAN 



93 



on Pauni 29, 4 dr. Likewise in the first year, on Mesore 5, for dyke-tax 
for the first year 3 dr. i obol, reckoned as 2 (dr.) 5| obols.' 

5. a $ : i. e. the first year of Galba. It would appear that the writer of this 
receipt had heard of the death of Nero (June g, 68) by July 29. But G. O. 1399, 
written ten days later, is still dated under Nero. 



33. (G. 273). -115 X -109. 70 A.D. 

Ilao-fjpis tFevapovfyios) JTar^aofy) 

) ftt 5i/3. \_/3 

TOV Kvpiov $appo(vOi) P. *Opo(i<QS) 

/3 $8. * 
at K(OL) /3. 

' Pasemis son of Psenamounis son of Patphaes has paid for poll-tax in 
Photr( ) for the second year 12 dr. Year 2, of Vespasianus our lord, 
Pharmouthi 2. Likewise on Pachon 23, 8 dr. Likewise on Epeiph 2, 
4 dr. Likewise in the third year, on Thoth 3, for dyke-tax 2 dr. i obol, 
reckoned as 2 (dr.).' 

34. (G. 422). -104 x -115. 109 A.D. 

apy(vpiK<*)v) 



taf. Lift Tpaiavov Kaicrapos TOV 
Kvpiov $a//(evoo^) a. 
5 ^. 'Opofas $apfji(ovOi) 

'O//OW09 Ha\(>V f $8. 

ic/8 $8. ^XX(ay) 'Eir/> 5 0a\(dviKov) 
$8. 'O pottos iy<> &(od K/3 
Xa>(paTtKov) $8 at K(al) ypc. 'Opoiax Tv/3i 
10 8 $j8/?c X od K(al} ft/px 

* Petosiris, collector of money-taxes of the Memnonia, to Phthoumonthes 
son of Chemsneus. (I have received) for guard-tax in the Memnonia for 
the twelfth year i dr. 3 obols. Year 12 of Trajanus Caesar our lord, 

N 



94 /// GREEK TEXTS 

Phamenoth i. Likewise on Phamenoth 5, 4 dr. Likewise on Phar- 
mouthi 14, 4 dr. Likewise on Pachon 6, 4 dr. Likewise on (Pachon) 
23, 4 dr. Also on Epeiph 4, for bath-tax 4 dr. Likewise in the thirteenth 
year, on Thoth 22, for dyke-tax 4 dr., reckoned as 3 (dr.) 4-| obols. 
Likewise on Tubi 4, 2 dr. 5 obols 5 chalki, reckoned as 2 (dr.) 4 obols 
I chalkus.' 



1. Heroo-ipis: the same irpaKrup appears in G. O. 1613, which is a receipt for 
payments of Xaoy/oa^ia and xoyuiTiKoi/ from March 16 to December 3, 109, while 
this one covers a period from February 25 to December 30" of the same year. 
From no. 82 it appears that Petosiris was still in office in the fourteenth year of 
Trajan, but had retired before the seventeenth year. 

2. &6ovfjL<*)(v6r)) : the names of the taxpayers are usually abbreviated in the 
receipts given by the collectors of the Memnonia during the reigns of Trajan and 
Hadrian. It has been assumed that they should be restored in the dative, and 
that the formula is a summary variant of that more commonly found elsewhere, 
which would run in this case IIeTo<r6pis . . . ^Oov^vOy xatpctv. "E<TXOV Trapa crov 



4. 'O/xoiws 3>aft(ei/w0) e *S: the objects of this and the three following payments 
are not specified, and at first sight they would appear, like the preceding one, to 
be for o-KOTre'Aon/. But this would give an unusually high total for this tax, and 
it is more probable that the sums were actually paid for Xaoypacpia. 



35. (G. 228). -J33X-1II. IIOA.D. 

/cat Ilao'fjfjLLS 7rpdK(TOp$) apy(ypiKS*v) Mefavovticov) 

VfVS 

) Aao(y/>a0*as) iy<> Me(/*t>oi>aW) 5 77. L*y Tpacavov 
Kaia-apos TOV Kvpiov $afJL(ev<*>)Q y. *O pottos $apfj(ovOi) 
rj $S. 'OyLtoicoy Ha^tov a 55. 
5 'Quotas I? $8. 'Ofjioicos )((o(fjLaTiKov) )f at K(CU) )( a . 

I. 1. 



' Petosiris and Pasemis, collectors of money-taxes of the Memnonia, to 
Sachomneus son of Pamonthes. (We have received) for poll-tax for the 
thirteenth year in the Memnonia 8 dr. Year 13 of Trajanus Caesar our 
lord, Phamenoth 3. Likewise on Pharmouthi 8, 4 dr. Likewise on 
Pachon i, 4 dr. Likewise on (Pachon) 16, 4 dr. Likewise for dyke-tax 
2 chalki, reckoned as i chalkus.' 



ROMAN 95 

36. (G. 231). -Ii6x-i57 (broken above on left). 113 A.D. 

8i(a) v flp(ov) 



<POofji<x>(v6ov) 'Arprjovs VTT(CP) \ao(y pastas] Me/ij/o(i/etW) i<?$ 
T<Tpa$ / $8. LIT Tpaiavov TOV Kvpiov 
) KTJ. I7ax<*>M iO 8pax(pas) Tecrepas / $8. Mcvofaty ^ 
5 8pax(f*as) 8vo / 5/3. 'O/iot&s Ze Spa%(/*a9) 8vo / 5/3, KOL vn(p) TTOTO,- 

8vo / $@. t$ $aa>(j)i KOL x^aTLKov) 55 at K(al) 



' Erieus son of Pamonthes, collector of money-taxes of the Memnonia, 
through Horos his assistant, to Petechonsis son of Phthomonthes son of 
Hatres. (I have received) for poll-tax in the Memnonia for the sixteenth 
year four drachmae = 4 dr. Year 16 of Trajanus our lord, Pharmouthi 28. 
Pachon 19, four drachmae = 4 dr. Mesore 6, two drachmae = 2 dr. Like- 
wise on (Mesore) 15, two drachmae = 2 dr. : and for river-police two 
drachmae = 2 dr. Year 17, Phaophi 21, for dyke-tax 4 dr., reckoned as 
3 (dr.) 4^ obols. Hathur 18, for dyke-tax 6 dr. 2 obols 2 chalki, 
reckoned as 6 dr.' 



i . 'Epievs IIa/A<o(v0ov) : this irpaKTtap occurs in several receipts of this collection 
(cf. nos. 37, 38, 99, with G. 217 and G. 417, not published here). He employed 
various /Jo^floi, but the receipts are all written in the same hand, presumably that 
of Erieus. One receipt (G. 217) is to the same taxpayer as the present one, and 
is also for payments of Xaoypa^ia of the sixteenth year, ending on Pharmouthi 
23, five days before the first payment recorded on this one. The two must 
therefore clearly be taken together (see p. 119). 

3 and 4. 1. TeWa/oag. Erieus habitually misspelt this word. 

4. ~M.<ro(prj) : from this point the entries, though in the same hand, are written 
with a different ink and pen. 

5-6. 1. TTora/uov. For the term cf. G. O. 440. 

7. The entry on this line is again in a changed ink and pen. 

37. (G. 251). -204 x -170. 113-14 A.D. 

8i(a) "fip(ov) 
/3(or)0ov, 



\(aoypa<j)ias) Me/zi/o(mW) i$ 5/3cx /3 < *(') * Li Tpaiavov 



96 ///. GREEK TEXTS 

TOV Kvptov $aa>(/>i 8. 'AOvp la ^fay? at K(al) 



5 */?. XoL(aK) Id Ipcx 13 at K (al) */3. Tvpi <~ 
at K(al) */?. 



at K(al) 10. Mea-o(p^) ^ I fay* ai K ( al ) 
10 j. 1 * at K (al) $0. 

2. 1. 



' Erieus son of Pamonthes, collector of money-taxes of the Memnonia, 
through Horos his assistant, to Psenamounis son of Patphaes son of 
Psenthuntasemis. (I have received) for poll-tax in the Memnonia for the 
seventeenth year a dr. 6 chalki, reckoned as i dr. Year 17 of Trajanus 
our lord, Phaophi 4. Hathur n, a dr. 6 chalki, reckoned as a dr. 
Choiak n, a dr. 6 chalki, reckoned as 2 dr. Tubi 6, 2 dr. 6 chalki, 
reckoned as 2 dr. Mecheir5, 2, dr. 6 chalki, reckoned as 2 dr. Phamenoth 6, 
2 dr. 6 chalki, reckoned as 2 dr. Pharmouthi 7, 2 dr. 6 chalki, (reckoned 
as) 2, (dr.)- Pachon 3, 2 dr. 6 chalki, reckoned as 2 (dr.). Pauni 4, 2 dr. 
6 chalki, reckoned as 2 (dr.). Epeiph 6, 2 dr. 6 chalki, reckoned as 2 dr. 
Mesore 6, 2 dr. 6 chalki, reckoned as 2 dr. Thoth 3, 2 dr. 6 chalki, 
reckoned as 2 dr.' 

i. 'Eptcvs: cf. note on 36. i. 

7. [[ilaxj| $-' there has been a blunder here, partly corrected; perhaps the 
writer, after entering Ila^wi/) as the beginning of the next item, realized that he 
had omitted at ic(at) 5 before the preceding (3, and erased Ilax(wv), adding $. He 
has, however, left out 5 after at K(<U) in both entries on the next line. 

* 
38. (G. 216). -063 x -135 (chipped on right). 114 A.D. 

tW) 
\ao(ypa<t>las) 



Tpaiav[ov 

Kat&apos TOV Kvpiov Hayow q- "A\(\o 
5 Havv(t) a $/oa X //(ay) recrepey / $ 8. irj$ 
w) $8 at K(al) 5yfc. Tvfii 8 



ROMAN 97 

' Erieus son of Pamonthes, collector of money-taxes of the Memnonia, 
through Phthomonthes, to Psommonthes son of Patpheus. (I have 
received) for poll-tax in the Memnonia four drachmae =4 dr. Year 17 
of Trajanus Caesar our lord, Pachon 8. Also 4 dr ...... Pauni i, four 

drachmae =4 dr. Year 18, Hathur . . for dyke-tax 4 dr., reckoned as 
3 dr. 4^ obols. Tubi 4 . . . .' 

3 and $. 1. reWapas : cf. note on 36. 3 and 4. 

39. (G. 275). -084 x -131. 126 A.D. 

Wavarv&s TrpaK(T(op) dpy(v paeans) Me^(VoyetW) 8t(a) 



8i(a) n/}6/zra>(rou). "Eoyfov) vn(ep) Aao(y/>a0fa?) it $80$ K(ai) yp 
'ASptavov Kafoapos TOV Kvpiov *A6vp 8. 
5 Xo(iaK) \ao(ypa<t>ia$) $8 at K(al) y/?c. 



2. 



' Psansnos, collector of money-taxes of the Memnonia, through Phmois 
his clerk, to Petearoueris son of Asklas through Premtotes. I have 
received for poll-tax for the tenth year 4 dr., reckoned as 3 (dr.) 4^ obols. 
Year n of Hadrianus Caesar our lord, Hathur 4. Choiak 9, for poll-tax 
4 dr., reckoned as 3 (dr.) 4^ obols.' 

40. (G. 226). -086 x -105. 138 A.D. 

'Ie/>a Kal IIopitvQ(ris} 7rpa/c(rope?) apy(vpiKG>v) 
8i(a) Wevo'i>Trdo(vs') ypa^/zarea)?) ^i/7raa"tjfjL(i) 
.E(rx(o/*'') vn(ep) VK(VK\IOV) K \(rjpovo/j,iS>v ?) a 5 
Kaia-apos TOV Kvpiov $aco(0f) . O/i(o x (y 
5 v7r(e/>) VK(VK\IOV) K\(ripovofjLiS)v^) $a at K(al) 



' Hierax and Porieuthes, collectors of money-taxes of the Memnonia, 
through Psensenpaes their clerk, to Senpasemis daughter of Paeris. We 
have received for the fee on inheritances (?) for the first year I dr. 4 obols. 
Year 2 of Antoninus Caesar our lord, Phaophi 7. Likewise on Phaophi 19 
for the fee on inheritances (?) i dr., reckoned as 5^ obols.' 



9 8 ///. GREEK TEXTS 



3 and 5. K\(^povo^v) : this is suggested as a possible expansion of the abbrevia- 
tion K\ as KXypovofjiLaL were a likely subject for ey/cv'/cAiov; see note below, p. 114. 
4. O/A(OICOS) : written . 



(6) ' 

The receipts on Theban ostraca for salt-tax previously published have 
all been of Ptolemaic period (cf. Wilcken, Ostr. i, p. 141) ; but the existence 
of the tax in Roman times is shown by papyri (e.g. P. Fay. 42 (a), 192, 
341, of the second century A.D., P. Tebt. 482 of the reign of Augustus). 
It is not clear in what manner the tax was levied ; but it appears to have 
been collected with other money-taxes by the npaKTopes. The suggestion 
of Wilcken (/. c.) that the consumers of salt i. e. practically all inhabi- 
tants paid an annual sum to the state in recognition of the royal 
monopoly, in addition to buying their salt from the retailers, is not in 
accordance with any of the known principles of Egyptian tax-collection : 
a more probable supposition is that it was paid by the dealers for the 
right to sell salt. It is fairly clear that the tax was accounted a yearly 
one ; and the receipts are mostly for small sums, though of very varying 
amounts. 

41. (G. 291). -097 x -099. 64-5 A.D. 

toS TIaiJLG)vQ(ov) KCU 



recrajoay / $S TOV ia$ 

TOV KVplQV. 
2. 1. 



' Pikos son of Pamonthes and his colleagues to Senphaeris, greeting. 
We have received for salt four drachmae = 4 dr., for the eleventh year of 
Nero our lord.' 



There are three Theban receipts published by Wilcken (G. O. 559, 603, 
604) for /j.pio-fj,bs av s ; and he offers no explanation of the contracted 
word. It would appear possible that the levy was one vtrep avSpiavrtov , 
which he recognizes in G. O. 1430 from Thebes and a long series of 
ostraca from Elephantine. In the latter the full particulars given admit 
of no doubt as to the purpose of the tax ; and it is commonly described 



ROMAN 



99 



as a /j,picrfj,6s and collected in small amounts, as in the examples from 
Thebes. It may be due to chance only, but the three receipts of Wilcken 
and the one here published belong to two years only the eighteenth of 
Hadrian and the fifth of Antoninus Pius which suggests that the tax 
was a casual one at. Thebes, as at Elephantine. The receipts for the 
eighteenth year of Hadrian may perhaps be taken as representing a 
collection for a rather belated statue of the emperor, put up to celebrate 
his visit to Thebes over two years previously ; but it is difficult to suggest 
an occasion for the erection of a statue of Antoninus Pius in his fifth year, 
unless it was an even more belated record of the completion of a Sothic 
period in 138 A.D. (It may be noted that the Phoenix, which occurs as 
a type on Alexandrian coins of the second year of Antoninus, doubtless 
with reference to the Sothic celebration of that year, is used again on 
coins of the sixth year.) In one case G. 0. 603 the tax is said to 
have been levied on land, the receipt being for 5^ obols on 30^! arourae, 
which shows a very low rate per aroura, much below that of any known 

land-tax. 

I 

42. (G. 246). -053 x -077. 133 A.p. 

al 'Airta>v d7TaiT(rjTai) 
) *Ayo(pS>v) 8 No(rou) 



KpjJ.(aTOs) 6po\(oi>s) 8. LIT? 'ASpiavov Kalvapos 
5 8a>0 KTJ. 

(% h.) 'Airfav <Tcrr]fj.(i<*)iJLai). 

* Pasemis and Apion, collectors of the rate for statues (?) in the fourth 
district of Agorai South, to Petermouthes son of Phaeris. We have 
received four obols in copper = 4 obols in copper. Year 1 8 of Hadrianus 
Caesar, Thoth 28. Signed, Apion.' 

2. 'Ayo(pem/) 8 NO(TOV) : see note on 125. 3. 

3. /cep/x(aTos)*: the term Ke'/o/xa was probably used to denote the copper 
(or bronze) coinage of Alexandria of the first and second centuries A. D., which 
supplied the needs of Egypt for any change less than a tetradrachm. 

(d) BaXaviKov. 

Receipts for (ZaXaviKov are among the commonest of those found on 
Theban ostraca ; but in spite of their number it is still obscure how the 



ioo ///. GREEK TEXTS 

tax was assessed or collected : and the additional information given by 
those published here does not agree with the conclusions previously formed 
by Wilcken (Ostr. i, pp. 165 ff.). It has already been mentioned (p. 71) 
that his supposition, that the tax was introduced by Augustus into Egypt, 
has been found to be wrong ; and it now appears that the tax might be 
reckoned in monthly payments (no. 47). As a general rule, however, the 
payments for bath-tax are entered as adjuncts to other taxes, usually 
\aoypa</>ia and ^{JLOLTLKOV ; and the amounts of the receipts in the first 
century A. D. may explain the reason for this. The normal forms of state- 
ment are either \aoypa(f>ia 10 drachmae, fBaXaviKov I dr. ij obols, KOL 
TTpoa-SLaypatyopeva, or \(A^OLTLK.OV 6 dr. 4 obols, fiaXavLKov 4 (later 4-5) 
obols, Kal Trpoo-SiaypaQofjieva. It is probable that at this period the 
fixed rates for Xaoypafaa and xcofjLaTiKov in most regions of Thebes were 
10 drachmae and 6 dr. 4 obols respectively, though the evidence with 
regard to Xaoypafaa is not very definite (see p. 118). There was always, 
during the Roman rule in Egypt, a dearth of small change in the country; 
a disproportionately large part of the coinage in circulation consisted of 
tetradrachms, and consequently as many payments as possible were made 
in coins of this denomination. A man desiring to pay his 10 drachmae 
as Xaoypafaa for a year would accordingly hand in three tetradrachms ; 
and, instead of receiving any change, he would have the balance credited 
to his paXaviKov, after the 7rpoo-8iaypa(f>6/jLi>a had been written off at the 
rate of i^ obols to the tetradrachm. Similarly, in the case of a year's 
XtopaTLKov he would pay in two tetradrachms ; though in the latter class 
of transactions the payers seem to have lost an obol or half an obol, as 
the 6 dr. 4 obols for ytofjiaTiKov and 3 obols for TrpocrSiaypa^o/JLeva on two 
tetradrachms should have left 5 obols for ftaXaviKov, whereas only 4 or 
4-| are credited. It might be supposed that the total amount due for the 
year was made up by the two balances as the same man occurs paying 
in both forms in the same year (nos. 49 and 50), and I dr. i J obols and 
4-| obols at any rate make up a round sum but other instances of higher 
payments for ftaXaviKQv alone conflict with this idea. Possibly these 
sums were taken as convenient instalments and the remainder of the tax 
due was collected later : the latter may be referred to in the receipts for 
TO TTpoXoiirov Tov fiaXaviKov of G. O. 1032,, 1033, 1035, 1036, IO37; the 
only two of these which are exactly dated are at the end of the year for 
which the tax was due or the beginning of the next. 



ROMAN 101 

The amounts, however, for which receipts are given, even in the same 
year and place, or to the same individual, do not show any definite basis : 
it may be remarked that in one instance (no. 47) the sum is much higher 
than anything noted by Wilcken ; but in no case do they approach what 
appears to have been the regular payment at Tentyra in the reign of 
Tiberius 40 drachmae a year as shown by a series of demotic ostraca, 
an account of which I hope to publish shortly. 

43. (G. 83). -104 x -095. 76 A. D. 



s vir(ep) x<a(jJiaTiKOv) 'Ay(op$>v) (3o(ppa) r\ L 
/3a(\ai'iKov) pc / KCU ?r(/oo<r&ay/>a06/iej'a). L/ Ouecr- 
iraviavov TOV Kvpiov 
5 'E7Ti<p \J. 'Airiafy) (rf(rrf(fiicofjLaL\ 

' Psenamounis son of Harphmois has paid for dyke-tax in Agorai North 
for the eighth year 6 dr. 4 obols, for bath -tax 4^ obols, with the extra 
charges. Year 8 of Vespasianus our lord, Epeiph 33. Signed, Apion.' 

3- pc /' the writer has omitted to enter the total amount. 
5. 'Eiret^ Xy : for suggested explanations of this peculiar style of dating see 
Wilcken, Ostr. i, p. 813. 

44. (G. 269). -090 x -104. 78 A.D. 

KOI fiT(o^OL) T\(o>vai) Orj<T(avpov} iep(S)v 



KOU 
TO f$a\(aviKov) TOV iL OvO"jraa'iavov 

TOV KVpLOV na^OHS d. 

* Theon and his colleagues, farmers of the granary of the temples, to 
Maieuris son of Harphmois and Psenamounis his brother, greeting. 
We have received the bath-tax for the tenth year of Vespasianus our lord ; 
Pachon i.' 

45. (G. 252). -078 x -109. 80 A.D. 

Maitvpis 
vn(p) Xao(ypa0(ay) *Ayo(pS>v) 



102 ///. GREEK TEXTS 

a-c ta-c Kal TT 



LjS T[ITO]V TOV Kvpiov 

5 Mex(V) ^ ^& 'Hpa^Xei^y) <r ((777/1 ia>fj.ai) 

(An illegible line of demotic.) 

' Maieuris son of Harphmois has paid for poll-tax in Agorai North 
for the second year ten dr., for bath -tax i (dr.) i obols = 1 1 (dr.) i obols, 
with the extra charges. Year 2 of Titus our lord, Mecheir 30-34. 
Signed, Herakleides.' 

4. T[LTO]V : the name, which is almost rubbed out, might be Ao/xmavov in a very 
abbreviated form, but the traces of the first letter look like T. 

5. Mx(flp) XX8: for an explanation of the peculiar system of dating by 30 
followed by a second number for the days of a month see Wilcken, Ostr. i, 
p. 813. In the instances cited by him, however, the series runs from Xa to XX : 
here the second number exceeds 30'. 

46- (G. 264). -o6ox-o88. SoA.D. 



Orjcr(avpov) U(pS>v) "/2pa) 'O<ropovr}p(io$) 

Kal 'Ocropovrj(pi) f/(a>) %a(ipiv). 'ATri^o^v) TO 

f$a\(aviKov) TOV @L TLTOV Kafoapos 

5 TOV KVplOV IlaVVL KTJ. 

' Apollos and his colleagues, farmers of the granary of the temples, to 
Horos son of Osoroueris and Osoroueris his son, greeting. We have 
received the bath-tax for the second year of Titus Caesar our lord ; 
Pauni 28.' 

47. (G. 245). -097x-io6. 82 A.D. 

Maitvpis !4/)0//6i(ros) 

/3a\(aviKOv) 'Ayo(pwv) f$o(ppa) e/y ap^/zr/o- 
Kal e/y dp^dfirja-Lv} $a/jL(va)Q) 5/o(a^/ia?) 6^ K(al) 
Kal Trpo^o-diaypaQofJLeita). La 
5 TOV Kvpiov M&(opT)') Xa. 



ROMAN 



103 



' Maieuris son of Harphmois has paid for bath-tax in Agorai North 
on account of Mecheir of the first year and on account of Phamenoth 
sixteen drachmae = 16 dr., with the extra charges. Year i of Domitianus 
our lord, Mesore 31. Signed, Am ....... ' 

5. Mecr(op^) Act: see note on 45. 5. This instance rather militates against 
Wilcken's suggested explanation (I.e., p. 815) of e.g. Meo-opy Act as equivalent 
to o>0 a eis apiO(jLr)(riv Meo-op?}, since here the payment is not cts apiOprja-iv Mco-op?}, 
but eis apLO^ariv Mc^eip KCU <>a//,vo>0. 



48. (G. 297). -080 x -070 (chipped on right). 82 A.D. 



Maivp(is) ! 
v} 'Ayo(p$>v) 

K(al) Trp(o(r8iaypa(p6/jLva). Ly 
TOV K(v)piov 'Entity 
5 K&. A( 



* Maieuris son of Harphmois has paid for dyke- tax in Agorai North 
for the third year 6 dr. [4 obols ?], for bath- tax 3 obols, with the extra 
charges. Year 3 of Domitianus our lord, Epeiph 39. Signed, A ....... ' 

49. (G. 68). -i 10 x -089. 85 A.D. 



V7r(ep) \ao(ypa<l>ias) 

'Ayopa po(ppd) el_ 5i fta\(aviKov) a-c 
5 /$m-c Kal TO, irpo(<r8taypa<f>6tJiva). Le Aop.i- 
Tiavov TOV Kvpiov 
Xe. 



2. 1. 'Ap<^/AoiT05 Matcvptos. 4. 1. 'Ayopoii/. 

' Psenamounis son of Harphmois son of Maieuris has paid for poll-tax 
in Agorai North for the fifth year 10 dr., for bath-tax i (dr.) ij obols 
= ii dr. ij obols, with the extra charges. Year 5 of Domitianus our 
lord, Mecheir 35. Signed, Ptolemaios.' 



104 ///. GREEK TEXTS 

50. (G. 293). -07 9 x -096. 85 A. D. 

Aiayeypd(<l>r)K) Yevafiofivis) 'ApfaotToty Mai- 



fla\(aviKov) pc / ^=c Kal ?rpo(o-&aypa06/iej/a). Le 
TOV Kvptov 'ETrtty rj. 

' Psenamounis son of Harphmois son of Maieuris has paid for dyke- 
tax in Agorai North for the fifth year six dr. 4 obols, for bath- tax 4^ obols 
= 7 dr. i\ obols, with the extra charges. Year 5 of Domitianus our lord, 
Epeiph 8.' 

51. (G. 274). -o89X-io5. H9A.D. 

Scow TTpdK(ra>p) apy(vpiKa>v) $fjLois 

'A7roX\a>vio(v). "Ecrxfpv) v 
NO(TOV) y<> pvn(apas) 

L.8 *A8pta(i>ov) Kai(r(apo$) T(OV) Kvpiov 'AOvp id. 
5 Ev8 . . . $ 

I. 1. 

1 Theon, collector of money-taxes, to Phmois son of Ammonios son of 
Apollonios. I have received for dyke-tax and bath-tax in the South 
district for the third year 7 bad dr. 4 obols 2 chalki = 7 bad dr. 4 obols 
2 chalki. Year 4 of Hadrianus Caesar our lord, Hathur 19. Signed, 
Eud . . . s.' 

3. pvn{apas): the term /Wapos occurs not infrequently in statements of 
payments in the Roman period, most commonly in the latter half of the first and 
early half of the second centuries. It does not appear to refer to any distinct 
class of coins all Roman tetradrachms of Alexandria might ^have been called 
pwrapd and probably was a term of account, like the 'bad' piastre of some 
Turkish towns, e.g. Smyrna. 

52. (G. 87). -085 x -095. 140 A.D. 

IIa/jLw(vOrj$) Kal IIopLe(vdrjSf) diraiT(r)Tal) fjLpi<r/i(ov) 
(la\(ai>ia>v) Em^v) 
"Earxtofiev) $a 6/3(o\ovs) 
Katcrapos TOV Kvpiov /^(os) 'ASpiavov 
5 * 



ROMAN 105 

' Pamonthes and Porieuthes, collectors of the rate for baths in the 
Villages, to Horos son of Psentphous son of Psenminis. We have 
received i dr. 3 obols. Year 4 of Antoninus Caesar our lord, month 
Hadrianus 8.' 

53. (G. 230). -134 x >i2,i. 160 A.D. 

n\ijvis <al l Pov(j)os TrpaK(Tops) dpy(vpiKan') M^JJLVOV^LGDV) 8ia 
Ay<f>o( ) Porj(0ov) Ilafipis Ilafjpis Wtv^aipios ?). 
\aoy(pa</)ia$) Kal /3a\(aviKov) Ky$ $i<?. LK 

TOV Kvpiov $apfji(ovOi) Ze. 
5 c O)u(o/a>9) Ilaxfyv) la, $8. 'O^oi^s) 'E^lty la ,$B. 

2. 1. Tlai/jpti IlaTypios. 

' Plenis and Rufus, collectors of money-taxes of the Memnonia, through 
Aupho( ) their assistant, to Paeris son of Paeris son of Psenosiris (?). 
We have received for poll-tax and bath-tax of the twenty-third year 
16 dr. Year 23 of Antoninus our lord, Pharmouthi 15. Likewise on 
Pachon n, 4 dr. Likewise on Epeiph n, 4 dr.' 

54. (G. 337). -093 x -104. 189-90 A.D. 

'fipiytyijs) K(al) //(eroxot) WiT(T]pr}Tal) reX(cn;s) 
6rj(r(avpov) IlT/Ji(va>(f)L) ^er7Tre 
TO 3a\avtKbv TOV 



* Origenes and his colleagues, supervisors of the tax of the granary, to 
Petemenophis son of Senpetemenophis. We have received the bath-tax 
for the thirtieth year.' 

2. IlT/x(evco0i) 2ev7TT/>t(vci><tos) i the abbreviated names are restored on the 
assumption that the taxpayer is the same man who appears in nos. 60 and 61 of 
this same year. 

3. X$ : the thirtieth year must be of Commodus, as the hand is clearly a late 
second century one. 

55. (G.265). -059 x -074. 190-iA.D. 

ITa/zcBi/^y) K(ai) X* TO X0 ^(^pTjrat) reA(ot>y) 
6r)<r(avpov) itp(S)v) 'Evovfi(pti) vvv vi(G>) 



io6 ///. GREEK TEXTS 



IIeTo<r(ipi). "E<rypiJL(v) TO 
TOV 



1 Pamonthes and his colleagues, supervisors of the tax of the granary of 
the temples, to Esoueris and his son Petosiris. We have received the 
bath-tax for the thirty-first year/ 

4. A.a$ : see note on 54. 3. 

[See also no. 34 for another receipt for /3a\aviKov.~] 
(e) 



The information to be obtained from these ostraca on the subject of 
the tax on weavers does not add much to that already summarized by 
Wilcken (Ostr. i, p. 172). The facts that the tax is usually stated to be 
for a particular month, and that it is usually paid at the close of that 
month or shortly after, suggest strongly that it was regarded as accruing 
from month to month, at any rate at Thebes (though the evidence of 
papyri e.g. P. Oxy. 388, P. Fay. 48 does not show the same principle 
in other districts). Wherever we have more than one receipt given to the 
same individual (e.g. nos. 59 and 62, 60 and 61) he always appears as 
paying at the same monthly rate, though for different individuals the 
rates vary from 2 to 10 drachmae a month; which looks as if the 
assessment was based in some way on the extent of the business 
activities of the taxpayer in each case. 

It may be noted that the receipts down to the end of the reign of 
Marcus Aurelius were always given by reXa>at, with the exception of 
two (G. O. 574 and no. 56) given by Erieus KOI p.iro\oi emTrjprjTai in the 
nineteenth and twentieth years of Hadrian, whereas afterwards they 
were regularly given by ^TrirrjprjTai, with one exception (no. 64) given by 
Asklas Kal ptToyot reXo>j/at in the reign of Pertinax. 



56. (G. 399). -077 x '063. 136 A. D. 

zTox(ot) emTrjpr]T(ai) 
>v Ne0ga)s 
"E<rypiJL(v) wet pa 



crov 



ROMAN 107 

5 LK 'ASptavov TOV 
Kvpiov $a/j.VQ)0 Trj. 

2. 1. Ne^epom. 

' Erieus and his colleagues, supervisors of the tax on weavers, to 
Nepheros son of Psemmonthes. We have received from you four 
drachmae. Year 20 of Hadrianus our lord, Phamenoth 18.' 



57- (G. 99). -066 x -105 (surface chipped). 156 A. D. 



c[^ w]a[p]a <rov TA(oy) 'AOvp 
Kal 'ASpiavov [t^L] 8pa^(fjtas) o/cro) 
/ ^17. LiO 'AVTCOVIVOV Kaio\apo$\ 
5 TOV Kvpiov Tv/3i Trj 

I. 1. tycvafjiovvfi. 

' Horos and his colleagues, farmers of the weaving-tax, to Psenamounis 
son of Phaeris. We have received from you the tax for Hathur and 
Hadrianus of the nineteenth year, eight drachmae = 8 dr. Year 19 of 
Antoninus Caesar our lord, Tubi 18.' 

58. (G. 215). -073 x -089. 167 A. D. 



TT- 

pa (TOV for(ep) TeA(oi/y) firjvaty) &a>0 K(O,I) 
$a$><f>i T(OV) av(Tov) $ $ OKT& / $rj. L^ *AvT(a(vtvov) 
5 K(OL) Ovijpov T&V Kvpicov Zcpao-Tafy 
'AOvp Z?. 

2. 1. AcAovri. 

'Porieuthes and his colleagues, farmers of the weaving-tax of the eighth 
year, to Lelous son of Senamenrosis. We have received from you for the 



io8 III. GREEK TEXTS 

tax of the months Thoth and Phaophi of the said year eight dr. = 8 dr. 
Year 8 of Antoninus and Verus our lords Augusti, Hathur 16.' 

59. (G. 378). -081 x-o83. 189 A.D. 

Kdl 



reX(ot/9) 
'AOvp trj. LX* 
5 Mtp ly. 

' Porieuthes and his colleagues, supervisors of the tax on weavers, to 
Permamis son of Phthouminis. We have received for the tax of Hathur 
8 dr. Year 30, Hathur 13.' 



2. Iltp/Aa/m : the same payer occurs on no. 62 of the thirty-second year. 

4. LXt : the thirtieth year must be of Commodus, as the hand is a late second 
century one. The bad habit of omitting the name of the reigning emperor in 
dates seems to have arisen at Thebes, as elsewhere, about this time. 



60. (G. 80). -068 x -124. 191 A.D. 

JTpe/zacoy KOL fjL(tTO\oi) eniTrjfyrjTai) reX(ouy) 



TOV 



5 

' Premaos and his colleagues, supervisors of the tax on weavers, to 
Petemenophis son of Senpetemenophis, greeting. We have received 
for the tax of the month Phamenoth of the thirty-first year 8 dr. = 8 dr. 
Year 31, Pharmouthi 6.' 



1. npe/mws: this collector occurs also in G. O. 664 and no. 61, of the same 
year; in no. 63, of the thirty-second year ; and in G. O. 1073, and two unpublished 
ostraca of this collection (G. 85 and G. 292) of the third year of Severus. 

2. nere/z^evox^ei) 2o/7reTfi(i'<o<ios) : these names are completed from two other 
receipts for the same tax, not published here, on which they are written out more 
fully (G. 84 and G. 292, of the second and third years of Severus). The same 
payer occurs on. the next ostracon. 

5. LAa*: see note on 59. 4. 



ROMAN 109 

61. (G. 220). -079 x -090. 191 A. D. 

Uyoe/zacoy KOL ^(tToyoi) 7riTr)(pr)Tal) 
yp8(iaKov) 



5 LXa<? 

' Premaos and his colleagues, supervisors of the weaving-tax, to Pete- 
menophis son of Senpetemenophis, greeting. ' We have- received for 
the tax of the month Pharmouthi 8 dr. = 8 dr. Year 31, Pachon 2.' 

1. UpcfjLaus: see note on 60. i. 

2. IIeTe/x,(ev(60ei) : see note on 60. 2. 
5. LAa^: see note on 59. 4. 



62. (0.284). -048 x -060. 191 A.D. 



/ca 



'AOvp $rj. 
5 LXjS# 'AOvp a. 

* Psansnos and his colleagues, supervisors of the tax on weavers, to 
Permamis son of Phthouminis. We have received for Hathur 8 dr. 
Year 32, Hathur i.' 

3. Uep^dfjLci) : see note on 59. 2. 

5. L\/3t: see note on 59. 4. 

63. (G. 420). -076 x -073. 192 A.D. 

KOLL 



reA(ovy) 
''E(Tx(ofjLfv) napa crov 
5 
id. 



X. 
P 



no ///. GREEK TEXTS 

' Premaos and his colleagues, supervisors of the tax on weavers. We 
have received from you for Mecheir 4 dr. Year 32, Mecheir 30.' 



i. Upe/Aaws: see note on 60. i. 

4. Trapa arov : the name of the payer of the tax is not given. 

6. LXfit : see note on 59. 4. 

64. (G. 394). -078 x -103. 193 A.D. 



KCU 



Trapa arov u7r(ep) jjL7)(vbs) 
TO KaOfjKOv T(eXo9). 
5 La IIov/3\iov 'EXoviov 



A. 

' Asklas and his colleagues, farmers of the weaving-tax, to Petemenophis 
son of Phthouminis. We have received from you for the month Pachon 
the appointed tax. Year i of Publius Helvius Pertinax Augustus, 
Pachon 30.' 

2. 1. H.Tfj.vu)ffiL : the same payer occurs in G. 85 (not published) of year 3, 
presumably of Severus. 

7. Ilaxwi/ A: on this date (May 25) Pertinax had been dead for nearly two 
months. 

66. (G. 82). -048 x -076. 197 A.D. 



TOV 

k <r(ov) TO reA(oy) 
Le Mex(ei ? 

' Nepheros the elder, son of Phthouminis, and his colleagues, supervisors 
of the tax on weavers of the fifth year, in respect of Pemsaos. We have 
received from you the tax for the month Tubi, 2 dr. Year 5, Mecheir 6.' 

i. Ne<epws: this collector also occurs in G. 84 (unpublished) of the second 
year; in G. O. 1332 of the fifth year; in no. 68 of the sixth year; and possibly 
in no. 69 of the seventh year. These years are practically fixed as of Severus, 
since G. 84 is a receipt to the same payer as nos. 60 and 61 of the thirty-first 
year of Commodus, 



ROMAN in 

66. (G. 86). -069 x -072. 197 A. D. 

Ilopova-ios K(OLL) /z(ero;(0i) ir(iTr)pr]Tai) T\(ov$] ye/>5/jW) TOV $ 

i>a>0ioy ?). 'Eo"XTJK(ajiv) irapa, (r(ov) TO 
TOV e$ $8. 
A. 



' Porousios and his colleagues, supervisors of the tax on weavers of the 
fifth year, in respect of Petemenophis. We have received from you the 
tax for the month Pachon of the fifth year, 4 dr. Year 5, Pachon 30.' 

i. $ : the fifth year may be taken to be of Severus, as the handwriting suggests 
this rather than the next fifth year in Egyptian dating that of Elagabalus (who 
was indeed dead three months before Pachon 30 of his fifth year, but this would 
not be decisive against such a date at Thebes) ; also the IlTe//,( ) of 1. 2 may 
be identical with the IIeTe/x,vw<is of no. 69 who got a receipt in the seventh year 
from Ne^cpws, who was collecting in the early years of Severus (see note on 65. i); 
but IleTe/Acvw^is seems to have been such a favourite name at this period among 
the Theban weavers that the identity cannot safely be accepted. 

67. (G. 72). -085 x -086. Possibly 197 A.D. 

7TiTr)pr](Tr)$) 



napa a-ov vnfip) a 
TOV e 8aJ.a$ OKTQ> 



* Miusis son of Xenon, supervisor of the tax on weavers, to Petsen ..... 
son of Petemenophis, greeting. I have received from you for the account 
of the month Epeiph of the fifth year eight drachmae = 8 dr. Year 5, 
Epeiph 17.' 

3. V7r(/o) dpi0(/Ai7(re<0s) /xr;v(6s) 'E(7m)< : cf. G. O. 660. 

4. e : the fifth year is most likely to be that of Severus, on grounds of hand- 
writing. 

68. (G. 243). -079 x -088. 198 A.D. 

(ea-^vTpos) $Oov/j.L(i>io$) Kal /*(ero;(0i) mTr)(prjTal) T\(ovs) 
TOV <j-L ovofsfaTos) ITerc^ei/co^ioy ?) 'Ap/3rj(\io$). 
Trapa o-ov VTrfip) T\(OVS) /J,rj(vbi) Ilavin 



H2 ///. GREEK TEXTS 

' Nepheros the elder, son of Phthouminis, and his colleagues, super- 
visors of the tax on weavers of the sixth year, in respect of Petemenophis 
son of Harbechis. We have received from you for the tax of the month 
Pauni six drachmae = 6 dr. Year 6, Epeiph 10.' 

2. ?L: see note on 65. i as to the date of Nepheros son of Phthouminis. 

69. (G. 93). 077 x -107 (chipped on left). Possibly 198 A.D. 



a <rov vnep reA(ot/y) ye/o5(tW) TOV 
os) ITeTe/*ej/cw0(toy) virlp 
Kal airo *A6vp 
5 Spaxfcas) 8 / $8 TOV Lfr. 

'Nepheros and his colleagues, supervisors of the tax on weavers. 
I have received from you for the tax on weavers of the seventh year in 
respect of Petemenophis for Phaophi 4 dr. and from Hathur 4 drachmae 
=4 dr. for the seventh year.' 



i . Ncf^epws : this collector may possibly be the same as the 
3>0oi/AiV6os who was in office in years 2, 5, and 6 of Severus (see note on 65. i), 
although the hand in which the receipt is written is not the same as that of 
nos. 65 and 68, and the formula is different and considerably confused. 

70. (G. 211). -056 x -082. Early third century A.D. 

Kal ^(ero^oi) 7TiT(r)pr]Tal) TX(ouy) ye/o$(i>) TOV 
oif6/jL(aTOs) Here //(ej/oo^os- ?). "Ea-^o^v] irapa <ro(i)) 



K/3. 

1 Besos and his colleagues, supervisors of the tax on weavers of the 
sixth year, in respect of Petemenophis. We have received from you for 
the tax of the month Thoth ten dr.= 10 dr. Year 6", Phaophi 22.' 

2. s-L : the handwriting of this receipt seems to be of a later date than the 
sixth year of Septimius Severus, and it more probably belongs to the reign of 
Severus Alexander or one of his successors. 



It is unfortunately still obscure what the nature of the tax v-rrep 
yea>/i6Tp/ay was whether it was the ordinary land-tax or a special 



ROMAN 113 

assessment to cover the survey of land and it is equally impossible 
to say at what rate it was levied or how it was assessed. There are 
many instances of the tax, both on papyri and on ostraca, but the 
amounts paid vary very widely and do not fall into any apparent 
system. 

71. (G. 410). -055 x -067 (chipped on left). 67 A.D. 

lTeTe//(/toy) 



K(al) TO(VTO>V) wp^a-Siaypa^o/jLeva). Uy 
TO]V Kvpiov 
5 ]et>a)*> 

1 Psenminis son of Peteminis son of Petechon has paid for the survey- 
tax in Ophieion for the thirteenth year ten dr. = 10 dr. and the extra 
charges on this. Year 13 of Nero our lord, Mecheir 36. Signed, 
. . enon.' 

4. Me^etp \$ : see note on 45. 5. 



72. (G. 412). -086 x -088 (chipped on right at top). 161-2 A.D. 



Xd(paKos) a$ d(vTi) 

pVTr(apav) $ piav / $a. L/8 'A VTCO vtvov 
Kal Ovrjpov rS>v KVpia>v AvTOKparopoov 
5 $aa>(0i) f. Kou( ) o-(eo-)77(/^eiO)/zai). 
(2 h.) Jiey/)(ai/re) Sepvofis) $arl(pios) dvT 

s) V7r(p) y(o/j,(TpLas) Xa(pa/coy) pvir(apav) 
Ly 'Av(T(*>vivov) Kal Ovrjp(ov) 



3. pvir(apav) : first letter corrected from 8. 

' Petearoueris son of Phaeris has paid for the survey-tax in Charax for 
the first year on behalf of Semnous son of Phaeris one bad dr. = i dr. 
Year 2 of Antoninus and Verus our lords Emperors, Phaophi 7. Signed, 
Ka. 



1 1 4 ///. GREEK TEXTS 

Semnous son of Phaeris has paid on behalf of Petearoueris son of 
Phaeris for the survey-tax in Charax one bad dr. = i dr. Year 3 of 
Antoninus and Verus our lords Augusti, Thoth 20. Signed, G ..... ' 

2. d(i/ri) : this seems the probable expansion of the contraction a, which is 
written out in full in the second receipt. The two brothers seem to have paid 
alternately on one another's behalf. 



The one instance in this collection in which a payment for 
occurs is printed above as no. 40. The tax is described as tv K K X , which 
I have suggested stands for kvKVK\iov KXrjpovofju&v ; the eLKoa-rr) K\rjpo- 
vofjLitov, which appears in papyri (e.g.B. G. U. 240, 326), might be classified 
as kyKVK\Lov, as that term seems to have covered percentages of varying 
rates payable to the state on contracts and mercantile transactions 
(Wilcken, Ostr. i, p. 182). But on the other hand a sum paid in respect 
of an inheritance would probably be specifically described as referring to 
the particular occasion, just as (in G. O. 1066) the duty paid on the 
sale of a slave is described ; whereas the payment here is said to be for 
the tax of a certain year. A similar formula occurs in G. O. 473 virlp 
evKVK\iov (L ; and on an ostracon from Denderah in my possession there 
is a record of a payment eyKVK\iov laL. The latter appears to belong to 
the same group as a number of demotic ostraca found with it, which all 
relate to members of the same family as the one Greek example, but 
describe the tax paid as ' one-twentieth ' simply. These demotic ostraca 
show that the tax for a given year was regularly paid early in the 
succeeding year ; that the amounts paid by the same man were different 
in different years ; but that the amounts paid by different members of the 
family were the same in any one year. It seems probable that in this 
case the twentieth or tyKVK\iov was assessed at the close of the year on 
the year's profits of some trade carried on by the family ; and the same 
explanation may be suggested for the kyKVK\iov of no. 40, which was 
similarly paid after the close of the year for which it was assessed ; but 
in this case some other expansion of K X than /cA?7poj>oyLua>i> seems desirable. 



The natureof the tax known as tiriKtfydXaiov is discussed below (p. 153), 
where I have argued that it is to be taken as equivalent to 



ROMAN 115 

and not to XaoypaQia. It seems natural to consider the abbreviation 
e?n* in the following ostracon and in G. O. 68 1, 686, and 696 as standing 
for cTTiKeQaXatov, in view of the long lists of persons paying CTn/ce^aAata 
given in no. 136 and other instances quoted in the notes on that text. 

73. (G. 437). -059 x -096. Second to third century A.D. 

TIavvL i ft TOV Ky$ 6vo(jJ.aTos) Brjcrios 
Xa/3oi>xa>v(rio$ vnfip) tiriK^aXaiov) KCU ^^(aTiKov) 
$ 6/CTO) / $77. Havi(<rKOs) a-(ecrrj/j.ioi>fjiai). 
p hmt n (?) nbe (?) n Bs s Hf-Hns ri h-sp 23 (?) 
5 5 bt-2 sm ss-12 

' Pauni 12 in the twenty- third year in respect of Besis son of Chabon- 
chonsis for trade-tax (?) and dyke-tax eight dr. = 8 dr. Signed, Paniskos. 
The bronze of (?) (the) dyke-tax (?) of Bes son of Khef-khons, year 23 (?), 
Pauni 12.' 



() 

The receipts for the tax on cobblers show much the same character- 
istics as those for the tax on weavers (section (*?) above). The tax is 
usually stated to be for a particular month, though this does not hold 
good of no. 74 and G. O. 464, and the amounts paid by different 
individuals vary ; so that it seems probable that the assessment was on 
the extent of the business of the individual. 

As in the case of the yep&a/c6*>, the earlier receipts are given by 
, the later by 



74- (G. 405). '140 x -125 (broken above on right and left). 44 A.D. 



rejAo? 7777777-0)*' Sta 'AIJLIJL<>VO(VTO$ ?) 

] $f*. L8 Ti/3epiov K\av8[iov 
Katvapos ^fftaa'TO 
5 AvTOKpdropos $ap/j.oi)0(i) 18. 
4>apfJiovQ(i) KO $8. 

whm (?) n >bt-3 sm ss-2 sttr i.t qt | a qt i.t (ooA) 3 
a sttr i.t qt | <n 



n6 ///. GREEK TEXTS 

1 . . eikonis son of Pechutes [has paid] as tax on cobblers through 
Ammonous (?) [ ] 7 dr. 3 obols. Year 4 of Tiberius Claudius Caesar 
Augustus Germanicus Imperator, Pharmouthi 14. Likewise on Phar- 
mouthi 39, 4 dr. 

Likewise, Epeiph 2, i stater \ kite= i kite 3 obols = i stater kite again/ 
7. The demotic entry refers to a further transaction in continuation of the Greek. 
75. (G. 349). -oSix-ios. 190 A. D. 

KOL /z(ero)(ot 
i $aTprjo(vs) 

irapa (TOV TO KaOfJK(ov) reX(oy) vir(tp) 
HavvL TOV A$. LA AvprjXiov 
5 KopfioSov 'Avtafyivov} Kaicrapos TOV Kvpiov 
Havvi 7c^. 

* Tithoes and his colleagues, supervisors of the tax on cobblers, toPhatres 
son of Phatres, greeting. We have received from you the appointed tax 
for the month Pauni of the thirtieth year. Year 30 of Aurelius Commodus 
Antoninus Caesar our lord, Pauni 26.' 

i . Ti0o77s : this collector is possibly identical with TI&M/S IleTe/xtVtos who gave 
the receipts G. O. 1069, 1070, 1071 for the tax on cobblers in the twenty-second, 
twenty-third, and twenty-fifth years of Commodus. 

76- (G. 423). -081 x 076. Second to third century A.D. 

Ilaa-fjfjLis QaTprjovs 
7TiTr)pr)T(r]s) reA(ouy) r]irr)T($>v) KCLI 



Trapa o~ov TO reA(o?) TOV 
5 $i 6/3(o\ovs) e. 



' Pasemis son of Phatres, supervisor of the tax on cobblers, and his 
colleagues to Antonius, greeting. I have received from you the tax for 
Pachon, 10 dr. 5 obols. Year 6, Pauni 2.' 



(k) KvvrjyiSow Tr\oi&v. 

Wilcken published five ostraca relating to payments for this tax, the 
name of which is usually written Kv^ y but in one case Kvvrjyfi ; and he 



ROMAN 117 

appears to have found the correct explanation in expanding this con- 
traction as KvvrjyiScov and translating this as * hunting-boats ' (Ostr. i, 
p. 229). The addition in no. 78 of TT after KVV^ supports Wilcken's 
rendering. There is, however, a point arising in connexion with the 
formula shown in these receipts which he had to leave unexplained. In 
four out of the five examples the name of the payer is preceded or 
followed by the symbol <p, which occurs similarly in no. 78 ; but fortu- 
nately in no. 77 the word is written out as #e/cay, which supplies a 
suitable expansion of the symbol. It would appear therefore that SeKavot 
were responsible for this tax ; and this gives a point of contact with the 
entry in B. G. U. i. i of a payment of 60 drachmae SeKaviKov 6/zotW TOOJ/ 
CLVTWV TrXoicov, which suggests the existence at Soknopaiou Nesos in the 
Fayum of a similar responsibility of SeKavoi for certain boat-taxes. 

77. (G. 406). -07IX-I28. 75 A. D. 

Kvvr](yttov) l_ Ov(TTTa<rLavov TOV wpiov 
Tv/3i TO 'Ayo(p$>v) NO(TOV). $afjpi( 
pV7r(apas) rj 



'For hunting-boats in the seventh year of Vespasianus our lord,Tubi 19, 
in Agorai South. Phaeris son of Harbechis, decurion, and his colleagues 
(have paid) 8 bad (dr.) 4 obols. (Signed), Pechutes. 1 

3. Kal /^'(TOXOI) : cf. G. O. 1564, where the payment is similarly made by a man 
described as ^ (see above) and 



78. (G. 270). -123 x -120. 100 A. D. 



pvir(apas:) 
Ly Tpaiavov TOV Kvpiov 



' For hunting-boats in the third year. Teos son of Phatres, decurion of 
hunting-boats, (has paid) eight bad drachmae = 8 dr. Year 3 of Trajanus 
our lord. Mecheir 15. Signed, Herakleides.' 

2. (SeKavos) : written T (see above). 
Q 



n8 ///. GREEK TEXTS 



As pointed out by Grenfell and Hunt on P. Tebt. 365, the term 
is used of village-dues in a purely general sense ; it includes various 
classes of payments in kind, and, as here, in cash. The tax in this case, 
though collected by the yrpa/cropey apyvpiK&v in money, is on land. 

79. (G. 91). -070 x -062. Third century A.D. 

A(vpr\\Los} Kapovvios 

KCU fJLTO)((oi) TTpd^TOpeS 1 ) 



5 Toy TeXcojOoy 2aficrov(ri(o$) 
<> Cp. Le^ Tvpi k. 

' Aurelius Karounios son of Plunis and his colleagues, collectors of 
money-taxes, for the village-dues in the Memnonia. We have received 
for the produce of the fourth year in respect of Teloros son of Samsousis 
7 dr. 3 obols. Year 5, Tubi 20.' 

(m) Aaoypa<f)la. 

Wilcken has shown (Ostr. i, pp. 230 ff.) that the rate of the poll-tax 
apparently differed considerably, not only in various parts of Egypt, but 
even in separate districts of Thebes ; and he drew up the following table 
as giving the results of his investigations with regard to Thebes. The 

districts and rates were, according to this : 


Charax . . . 10 dr., after 113-14 rather more. 

Ophieion . . . 10 dr., later 10 dr. 4 ob. 
Agorai North . . 10 dr. 
Kerameia . . . 10 dr. 4 ob. 
Memnonia . . .16 dr. 
South and South-west . 24 dr. 

But this table appears to require modification in some respects. In 
the first place it is based on the highest sums which occur on any single 
ostracon for any district, except in the case of Kerameia, the only two 
examples from which show payments of 5 dr. 2 ob. : Wilcken assumes 



ROMAN 119 

that these must be instalments, and, in order to bring the rate for 
Kerameia into line with that for Ophieion at the same period, that they 
must be one-half the tax for the year. But they might equally well be 
one-third of 16 dr., or indeed any proportion of any sum. Similarly 
the receipts from other districts for 10 dr. .might be half or some other 
proportion of a larger sum. That the receipt for a year's poll-tax was 
not necessarily entered in full on a single ostracon, even if a series of 
instalments were paid, is shown by two receipts in this collection (no. 36 
and G. 217, not published) given by the same collector Erieus to the 
same taxpayer Petechonsis son of Phthomonthes son of Hatres. These 
contain the following record of instalments of taxes for the sixteenth year 
of Trajan : 

G. 217. Pharmouthi 6, year 16 4 dr. for 

21 4 dr. 

33 4 dr. 

No. 36. 28 4 dr. 

Pachon 19 4 dr. 

Mesore 6 2 dr. 

15 a dr. 

,, ,, 2 dr. for 7roTafjLo(f)v\aKLa. 

Phaophi 21, year 17 3 dr. 4^ ob. for ^^OLTLKOV. 

Hathur 18 6 dr. 

This gives a, higher total 24 dr. for the Memnonia than Wilcken's ; 
and still larger sums occur on other ostraca from the same district. 
G. 417 shows payments amounting to 32 dr. as one man's poll-tax in 
the seventeenth year of Trajan, and G. 272 similar payments amounting 
to 28 dr. in the fourth year of Hadrian. 

At the same time there is no reason to assume that the divergence 
between the rates of 10 dr. and 24 dr. or even 32 dr. for neighbouring 
districts is too wide. It is fairly certain that the usual poll-tax at Syene 
was 1 6 dr. ; and the same rate is shown to have been the regular one at 
Tentyra under Tiberius by a series of 49 demotic ostraca given to 
members of one family (an account of which I hope to publish shortly). 
At Oxyrhynchus there were apparently two rates of 12 and 16 dr.; 
while in the Fayum even more variation occurs. The commonest rate 



120 ///. GREEK TEXTS 

in the district was 20 dr. ; but at Tebtunis alone payments of 8 dr., 
16 dr., 22 dr. 4 ob., 24 dr., and 40 dr. also occur (cf. Grenfell and Hunt, 
Tebtunis Papyri, ii, p. 99). It can only be concluded that the amount 
payable by any individual was determined by some circumstances not at 
present known to us. 

80. (G. 248). -058 x -076 (right top corner broken). 19 B.C. 

IIacrrj/j[ios 

) iaL $r). Lia Kaicra(pos) 



' Psenthaesis son of Pasemis has paid for poll-tax for the eleventh 
year 8 dr. Year 1 1 of Caesar, Mecheir 4. (Signed), Kephalos, banker.' 

3. Ke<a(Aos) : this banker occurs on ten of Wilcken's ostraca, of dates ranging 
between the thirteenth and twenty-third years of Augustus. 



81. (G. 287). -076 X -109. 107 A.D. 

KOL //(ero^oi) 7rpaK(TOpes) apyiypiK&v) 



?) 



rj. LSeK(aTov) Tpaiavov 
i>a)6) X ~K&. 'ApvcoTr)^ 

X KJ vir^ep) Xao(ypa(/)ias) ^e/3 .... T<r(rap(as) 
o-(T7)(fjLia)fj.aC). 



'Apollonios and his colleagues, collectors of money-taxes of the 
metropolis, to Pachomneus son of Psenchnoumis son of Petechesthos. 
We have received for dyke-tax in Charax ten (drachmae) = 10, for 
poll-tax eight = 8. Tenth year of Trajanus, Phamenoth 30-21. Signed, 
Haruotes. 

Also on Pauni 30-23 for poll-tax in Seb ---- (?) four (drachmae) =4 dr. 
Signed, Haruotes/ 

i. *A7roA.(A.owos) : cf. G. O. 497, 498, 503, of the eleventh and thirteenth years 
of Trajan, where the same collector appears. 



ROMAN 121 

82. (G. 78). -o73X-o82. 114 A.D. 

ytvo^vos) Trpa^Tcop) apy(vpiK$>v) 



\ao(ypa<j)ias) 18$ at 
6v6(fJ.aTi) fjfjicov vn\p crov 
5 $8. Li Tpaiavov Kafoapos 
TOV KVpLov IIa^a)(v) Ty. 

2. 1. ToX.dv@rj. 3. 1. Siaypat^ctcrat ? 

' Petosiris, formerly collector of money-taxes in the Memnonia, to 
Kolanthes son of Pasemis. In regard to the poll-tax of the fourteenth 
year, the 4 dr. entered in our name are for you. Year 17 of Trajanus 
Caesar our lord, Pachon 13.' 

i. Heroo-ipis: this collector is shown by G. O. 1613 and no. 35 above to have 
been in office in the Memnonia district in the twelfth and thirteenth years of 
Trajan. The purport of this ostracon is not very clear, but it appears to relate 
to a correction in his accounts after he laid down his office. 

83. (G. 238). -105 x -109. 132 A.D. 

7Tpa/c(ro>p) dpy(vpiKa>v) 
^Fe/ia^i/fleeoy) KOI 
E<ryo(v) vnfip) \ao(y patyias) i<s<> pvfrapas) 6/crco 

'ASpiavov 
5 Kaicrapos TOV Kvpiov 'ETrelty iQ. 

' Phthomonthes, collector of money-taxes of Hermonthis,to Psentasemis 
son of Psemonthes and Petechonsis his son. I have received for poll- 
tax of the sixteenth year eight bad (drachmae) = 8 dr. Year 16 of 
Hadrianus Caesar our lord, Epeiph 19.' 

84. (G. 407). -093 x -098. 134 A.D. 

Kal /i(ero;(ot) TrpaAf(ropey) apy(vpiKa>v) 

P7r/?75x(ioy) 8ia tf fi,po(v). 

UTT(/J) \ao(y pafytas) 16$ fivn(apas) dpaxfjias) Tret/re 
p / pvn(apas) Iff. Ltd 'ASpiavov 
5 Kai&apos TOV Kvpiov 
A 



122 ///. GREEK TEXTS 

' Pikos and his colleagues, collectors of money-taxes, to Psenharpbechis 
son of Harpbechis, through Horos. We have received for poll-tax of 
the nineteenth year five bad drachmae 4 obols = 5 bad dr. 4 obols. 
Year 19 of Hadrianus Caesar our lord, Phamenoth 30.' 

i. The beginning of the first line is nearly washed out. 

85. (G. 416). -091 x -113. 157 A.D. 

dpy(vpiKa>v) 



^arj(pios). "E<r\(o/j.v) vnfip) Xao(ypa<f>ia$) 
Kal aX(Xa>v) K$ 8pa\(/J,as;) Tea-aapas / $8. LKO, 
'AvTwvivov Kaivapos TOV KVpiov 'AOvp K. ^^(coi/foy) <r(<rrjfj,ei<ofjLai). 

'Ammonios and Pachnoumis, formerly collectors of money-taxes of the 
upper toparchy, to Asklas the younger, son of Erieus, son of Phaeris. 
We have received for poll-tax and other taxes of the twentieth year four 
drachmae = 4 dr. Year 21 of Antoninus Caesar our lord, Hathur 2,4. 
Signed, Ammonios.' 

86. (G. 66). -085 x -084 (face chipped). Probably 213 A.D. 

AvprjXios Tvpavos ' ETTOWV^OV) 
Kal /ie(roxoi) Trpa^ropes) dpy(vpiKa>v) 
8ia AvprjXios 
vn(ep) Xaoypatyias) Kal 
5 6v6 



$ap[fj.ovO]i id. 

3. 1. AvpyXiov. 5. 1. 

'Aurelios Turanos son of Eponuchos and his colleagues, collectors 
of money-taxes of the village Taur . . . . , through Aurelios Psemonthes. 
We have received for poll-tax and other taxes of the twenty-first year in 
respect of Paniomos son of Paos 12 dr. Year 21, Pharmouthi IT/ 

[See also nos. 33, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 45, 49, 53, and 97 for other receipts 
for Xaoy pa(j>iaJ\ 



ROMAN 123 

(n) BcinKa. 

The reXoy 7nej/o>i/ is mentioned in a Cairo ostracon published by 
Wilcken (Archiv i, p. 153), which is dated in the reign of Nero, and, like 
this one, shows a payment of 2 drachmae a month. It is probably to be 
explained by P. Tebt. 391, which relates to the collection of poll-tax: 
from this it appears that two of the collectors were responsible for TO 
tTTigevov the inhabitants of Tebtunis who were away from home. If the 
payment in this ostracon was for poll-tax, it points to a rate of 24 drachmae 
a year (cf. last section, p. 118). * As the collection here is made by 
tmTrjprjTai, it seems to have been taken out of the hands of the usual 
collectors of poll-tax, and transferred to the tiriTrjprjTal geviK&v irpa- 
KTopias, who were responsible for recovering debts from people living 
outside their own district (cf. Grenfell and Hunt on P. Oxy. 712). 

87. (G. 236). -070 x -094. 133 A.D. 



KOL jL 

8ia $6o/j.<*>(vQov) ypa(/*/jaTeo)y) JTere- 

. "Ea^Ofiftf) napa o-o(u) U7r(e 
5 Me( X )x"> TOV i& *0. Ltf 
'Adpiavov Kafoapos TOV Kvpiov 



3. 1. 

' Apollinarios son of Akamas and his colleagues, supervisors of the tax 
on strangers, through Phthomonthes their clerk, to Petechon son of Tern . . . 
We have received from you for Mecheir of the seventeenth year 2 dr. 
Year 17 of Hadrianus Caesar our lord, Phamenoth 7.' 

5. Me(x)xp : the first x is only partly written on a rough spot in the surface of 
the ostracon. 

(o) OLVOV Tiprj. 

As suggested by Wilcken (Ostr. i, p. 271), the payments entered on 
ostraca virtp TI/JLTJS O/LVOV were probably money equivalents of a tax 
payable in kind. The latest of the three examples given here (no. 90) 
furnishes a clue to the rate 144 drachmae to the aroura ; but the rate 
may very probably have varied for different estates, as the OLVOV reAo? 
(cf. Wilcken, p. 270) apparently did. 



124 HI- GREEK TEXTS 

88. (G. 380). -079 x -093. 90 A. D. 

) Ti6ofj($) 



8ia <f flpo(v) vn(p) Tifji(fjs) oi(vov) t$ "Ava> ( 
p. Li Aofj,iT(iav)ov TOV Kvpiov 'AOvp la. 

' Tithoes son of Petosorkon has paid through Horos for the valuation 
of wine for the tenth year in the Upper toparchy 4 obols. Year 10 of 
Domitianus our lord, Hathur n.' 

89. (G. 70). -076 x -084. 1 8 1-2 A. D. 

Mivcris Kal fj.(TO)(oi) 7riT(r]pr)Tal) TtfJi(fjs) o'lvov 

Kttl <pot(viKO)V) IlKpl)((l) IlKpi\(lOS) 

*Evyo(iJLGv) irapa <ro(v) 
oi(vov] 



?n TTJV 

'Miusis and his colleagues, supervisors of the valuation of wine and 
palms, to Pekrichis son of Pekrichis son of Heraklas. We have received 
from you for the valuation of wine of the produce of the twenty-second 
year eleven dr. 2 obols = n dr. 2 obols, which we will pay into the official 
bank.' 

i. MuJo-is: this collector occurs in G. O. 1264, dated in 183 A. D., which gives 
a date for the present example. 

6. as Kat KrX. For a similar note cf. G. O. 662. 



90. (G. 253). -102 x -114. Early third century A.D. 

A(vprj\ios) . . . dOr]s 'JVapcoovy Kal 

Wevevtya^TOs) ot ft aTran(r]Tai) 

oi(vov) Kal (j)Oi(viKO)v) y$ oj>6/^(aros) A(vpr)\iov) 



Mcaopr) fj. 

$ $7J. 

3. 1. 



ROMAN 125 

' Aurelios . . . athes son of Inaros and Plenis son of Psenenphos, col- 
lectors of the valuation of wine and palms of the third year, in respect of 
Aurelios Pechutes son of Premtotes, on J aroura 24 dr. Year 3, Mesore 8. 
Also for the fourth year 8 dr.' 



The octroi-charges on goods entering or leaving various districts in 
Egypt have been illustrated by many references on papyri and ostraca. 
The charges seem to have varied locally : at Thebes the rate, both for 
e/<rayo>y?7 (G. O. 1569) and for tgaycoyrj (G. O. 801, 806), was two per 
cent. The ostracon given here does not specify whether the produce on 
which the charge was levied was going in or out. 

91. (G. 296). -072 x -075. First century A. D. 

b? Kal ^(ero^ot) r 



TeXo(y) % ovov evos. 
L. 



' Germanos and his colleagues, farmers of the two per cent, tax, to 
Petenchonsis, greeting. I have received the tax on one ass loaded with 
corn. Year [?], Phamenoth 22.' 

3. %: it would be expected that the number of artabae of corn would be 
specified, as in G. O. 801 and 806; but instead the customs-officer has contented 
himself by simply stating the quantity as an ass-load. 



The contraction TrXt, which specifies the tax to which the following 
ostracon refers, may most probably be taken as connected with bricks ; 
and the tax is very likely identical with the //epfoyto? ir\iv6evonvr]s of 
P. Oxy. 502 and 574 and the virep ir\iv e of G. O. 512, 572, 592, 1421. 
In these ostraca, as here, the collection is made by djraiTrjTat, though the 
tax is described as a /zepio-^oy, not a reXo? : but the two words are 
sometimes used indifferently. The nature of the tax is still obscure : 
possibly, as suggested by Grenfell and Hunt on P. Oxy. 502. 43> it: was 
a payment in lieu of providing bricks for the government. 

R 



126 ///. GREEK TEXTS 

92. (G. 279). -091 x -104. 141 A. D. 

KOL /z(ero^of) d7raiT(r)Tal) TrXityOevofjLzvrjs) reX(oi>?) 
Qeov 'ASpiavov 



Trapa 
5 nevTC / pvir(apai} 

L<$ 'AvT<ov(iv)ov Kai(rap(o$) TOV Kvptov 

'Entity K. 

3. 1. Ilt/CWTt 0OTCVTOV. 

' Horos and his colleagues, collectors of the brick-tax of the twenty- 
second year of the deified Hadrianus, to Pikos son of Thoteutes. We 
have received from you five drachmae = five bad dr. Year 4 of Antoninus 
Caesar our lord, Epeiph 25.' 

(r) IIoTafi.o<f>v\aKia. 

The tax for policing the river is one which offers no difficulties, except 
as regards the variations in the rate at which it was paid. Possibly, as 
suggested by Wilcken (Ostr. i, p. 285), it was assessed annually for each 
locality and paid as a poll-tax by every one. In no. 36 above the 
amount was apparently 2 drachmae for A.D. 112-13 in the Memnonia ; in 
no. 93 three men pay 33 obols i.e. probably i drachma 5 obols each 
a year later in Charax ; but in G. O. 507 there is a payment in Charax 
of 4 obols only in the former year. There may, therefore, have been 
other considerations which entered into the determination of the assess- 
ment of each individual. 



93. (G. 425). -158 x -067. 113 A.D. 

KOU 



KCU nafjLfjLivis aX(Xos) 

Xd(pa,Kos) 



ROMAN 127 



6/3o\(ovs) 

/ 6poX(oi>s) Ay. Li Tpaiavov 
TOV Kvpiov @o>0 X. A( ) 
"AX(Xo) 
10 UaiJL<*>vQ 

aA(Aa>j/) Xa(pa/co?) i^ pvir(apa$) 
e. 



2. 1. <aiY>77Ti ITa/xwi/^ov. 3. 1. Ila/xwv^ 

4. 1. na/A/uVet aX(Xa)) aSeA(<a>). IO. l/Ha/xwi/^ov. 

* Imouthes and his colleagues to Phatres son of Pamonthes, son ol 
Phatres, and Thermouthis, and to his brothers Pamonthes and Pamminis. 
We have received for the river-police in Charax for the seventeenth year 
thirty-three obols = 33 obols. Year 17 of Trajanus our lord, Thoth 30. 
Signed, A ..... 

Also on Phaophi i likewise Paminis son of Pamonthes, son of Phatres, 
and Thermouthis (paid) for guard-tax and other taxes in Charax for the 
seventeenth year three bad dr. 5 (obols) copper = 3 dr. 5 (obols) copper 
Signed, A ..... ' 

i. 'I/Aov0i?s: cf. G. O. 507, 511, 512, where the same collector appears; in the 
first for the previous, in the two latter for the succeeding, year. 

[See also no. 36 for another receipt for 



Like the last tax, the payment for maintenance of guard-posts shows 
some variations in rate. As a rule, the amounts for which receipts were 
given in Charax in the opening years of the second century were about 
4 drachmae (cf. Wilcken, Ostr. i, p. 293, and no. 93 above). But in 
no. 34 above, which belongs to the same period, the sum paid in the 
Memnonia was only ij drachmae, unless the later payments, amounting 
to 1 6 dr., refer to the same tax. Presumably the rate was fixed by the 
needs of the locality. 



128 ///. GREEK TEXTS 

94. (0.385). -I25x-io8. 119 A.D. 



<r/co7r(eAa>*>) Kal aA(Aa>i/) 8$ /W(apaj) 8pax(jjia$) rpls Terpa>(/3oAo>) Kal 



L8 "ASpiavov Kafoapos 
5 TOV Kvpiov $aa>(j)i jcfj. Uaj>t07co(s) 

2. 

' Chesphmois, collector of money-taxes of the metropolis, to Petechnoubis 
son of Psenamounis. I have received for guard-tax and other taxes for 
the fourth year three bad drachmae four obols, with the extra charges 
= 3 dr. 4 obols. Year 4 of Hadrianus Caesar our lord, Phaophi 28. 
Signed, Paniskos/ 

i. Xeo-0/Aois : the same collector occurs in G. O. 1241 and 1570, both of the 
following year ; these receipts are also subscribed by Paniskos. 

[See also nos. 34 and 93 for other receipts for cr/co7reAa>j>.] 



The practice of raising contributions for aurum coronarium in Egypt 
under the Roman emperors has been well illustrated by recent discoveries. 
The only noteworthy point in the following ostraca is the occurrence of 
Trpa/cTopey (TTtfyavLKov at Thebes ; hitherto these officials have only been 
named in papyri from the Fayum, the Theban receipts being normally 
given by the banks. 

95. (G. 206). -052 x -115. Second century A.D. 

KTJ TOV /c/3$ 6j>6(/zaros) 



t ?pwkh n p rn n Ta-lw ta Z-hr (?) hr n bne-w 
n h-sp 22 >bt-4 pr 55-29 (6/3o\.) 3 n sbte-w (?) 

' Pharmouthi 28 of the twenty-second year in respect of Talos the elder, 
daughter of Seto .... for crown-tax in Agorai 3 obols = 3 obols. Signed. 

The receipt in the name of Talou daughter of Zeho (?) for the palm- 
trees, year 22, Pharmouthi 29, 3 obols, the merchants (?).' 

2. vrr(p) oT<a(viKov) xp^/^aros) : presumably the relation between this entry 
and the ' palm-trees ' of the demotic text is that the latter were the property on 
which the tax was assessed. 



ROMAN 



129 



4. (6/?oA.) : the reading of the demotic sign for obol is uncertain, though its 
meaning is certain; so I have used the Greek equivalent in brackets. [H. T.] 

sbte-w (?) : reading uncertain ; perhaps an abbreviation of a locality frequently 
mentioned in the demotic ostraca, ' the houses of the merchants.' [H. T.] (Cf. 
note 3 on D. 5, p. 23.) 

96- (G. 403). -085 x -ioo. Possibly 222 A.D. 

vlbs . 



A(ypr]\(ov) 
dp(ovp7]$) <f $8 
5 Le" TSfli) #. 

* Aurelios Plenis son of Senkalasiris and his colleagues, collectors of the 
crown-tax, have received in respect of Aurelios Pechutes son of Premtotes 
on ^ aroura 4 dr. Year 5, Tubi 1 2.' 

i. 1. IlXiyvis: the letter following vios seems to have been intentionally erased. 

3. 1. ILcxvrov : this Aur. Pechutes son of Premtotes is doubtless the same 
person who occurs in no. 90 above, possibly rather more than a year earlier, 
in which also the tax is paid on J- aroura. 

5. Lc" : the year may be of Elagabalus ; the hand is an early third century one, 
and presumably the date is after 212, in view of the Aurelii ; also receipts for 
occur rather frequently in Egypt in the reign of Elagabalus. 



(u) 

The \cofjLaTLK6yy as has been shown by Wilcken (Ostr. i, pp. 333 ff.), 
was normally paid at the annual rate of 6 dr. 4 obols in most of the 
districts of Thebes and in the Fayum during the first century and a half 
of Roman rule in Egypt ; and the same rate holds good at Oxyrhynchus 
(see Grenfell and Hunt's note in P. Oxy. ii, p. 281) and Tentyra. It is 
most probable, as suggested by Kenyon (B. M. Cat. ii, p. 103), that 
it represented an adaeratio of the five days' work on embankments which 
was required in Egypt. 

The rate, however, is not absolutely uniform in all instances. Wilcken 
pointed out (p. 335) that a Fayum papyrus of the year 178-9 shows 
a payment of 7 drachmae 4 obols 2 chalki, which may be due to a rise 
in the assessment or, possibly, to a rise in the standard rate of wages ; 
and this agrees very closely with the sum entered in no. ioo below. 
Even at an earlier date there are abnormal amounts on Theban ostraca ; 
thus in no. 98 we have a payment of 7 drachmae for the fifteenth year 



I 3 o ///. GREEK TEXTS 

of Trajan, in some unspecified district ; and in no. 99 one of 8 drachmae 
1 obols i chalki for the nineteenth year of Trajan in the Memnonia. 
With the latter may be compared G. O. 1613, which contains an entry 
of two sums amounting to 8 drachmae 4 chalki for the twelfth year of 
Trajan, and no. 36 above, with similar entries amounting to 9 drachmae 
4 obols 4 chalki for the seventeenth year of Trajan, both alike from the 
Memnonia. It would seem, therefore, that in the latter part of the reign 
of Trajan there was an increase in the assessment in the Memnonia ; 
and that this extended to other districts of Thebes appears from no. 81, 
which probably shows a payment of 10 drachmae for the tenth year ol 
Trajan in Charax. 

97. (G. 418). -I04X-H3. 46 A. D. 



V7r(ep) 

KXavSiov Kafoapos 2e/3a<rrov 
TeppaviKov AvTOKpaT[opos] 
I7ax<M y- 'Opofos) Uavvi "f 
Ka $8. 'Ctytd(i'a>y) KTJ $8. 

rj 
' Pasion son of Phthomonthes, son of Pikos, and ...... has paid for 

poll-tax in the Memnonia for the sixth year 4 dr. Year 6 of Tiberius 
Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus Imperator, Pachon 3. Likewise 
on Pauni 7, 4 dr. Likewise on Epeiph 21, 4 dr. Likewise on (Epeiph) 
28, 4 dr. Likewise on Mesore 8 for dyke-tax 3 dr. 4^ obols.' 

98. (G. 388). -083 x- 083. IIIA.D. 

Qr](cravpov) 



Lfe Tpaiavov 

5 Xiy- r 

' Pemsaos, clerk of the granary, to Petechon son of Petemphthos and 
Kroniaina. I have received for dyke-tax for the fourteenth year seven 
bad drachmae = 7 dr. Year 15 of Trajanus Caesar, Phaophi 30-13. 
(Signed) G ........ ' 



ROMAN 131 



i. yp(a/x,/x,aTevs) Or}(<ravpov) : it is a novelty to find an official of the 
collecting the dyke-tax, though the fTriTrjprjTai or TeA.wvai 6-rjoravpov icpwv frequently 
occur as collectors of the bath-tax, which was paid in money. 

99. (G. 257). -098 x -095. 116 A.D. 

'E/)tft>s nafJLa>(v6ov) 7rpd(KT(op) apy(vpiKS>v) Me/z(i/oi>etW) [[y]] 
Ff. .] 



Tpata(vov) 'Apicrrov Kafoapos TOV Kvpiov 
5 Mea(op^) 7rayo(/ze^oor) ft. 

I. 1. 'EtV5. 2. 1. 



c Erieus son of Pamonthes, collector of money-taxes of the Memnonia, 
to Kametis son of Pamonthes son of Psenpo .... (I have received) for 
dyke-tax in the Memnonia for the nineteenth year 8 dr. 2, obols 2 chalki. 
Year 19 of Trajanus Optimus Caesar our lord, Mesore second extra day.' 

i. 'Epte'ws: cf. note on 36. i. 

3. 5r/: the rj is apparently written over 0; possibly the actual payment was 
9 drachmae, which was reduced as in the cases discussed above (p. 90). 

100. (G. 222). -085 x -053 (only the right-hand side preserved). 

Plate XII. 177 A.D. 
..... r\ov ir]$ AvprjXicov ' 
KOL KofjL\fJi68ov 






..... vn(p)] xaXa^Acoi)) i& 'Ayo(p$>v) 
5 ${px* ' '} o-(ea-);(//eiV a O- 
p(?) hmt p(?) nbe n [ ..... 

' [ ] of the eighteenth year of Aurelii Antoninus and Commodus 

Caesars our lords, in respect of Phthoumonthes [ ] for dyke-tax for 

the seventeenth year in Agorai seven dr. 5 obols 2 chalki [= 7 dr. 5 ob. 
2 ch.]. Signed, [ ]. 

[ ] the (?) bronze (of) the (?) dyke-tax of [ ].' 

[See nos. 33, 34, 35, 36, 38, 43, 48, 5<>, 5L 73. 81, for other receipts for 



///. GREEK TEXTS 

(w) 'flvfav. 

The exact nature of the tax on marketable goods is still an open 
question ; the sums paid for it are normally small, the highest recorded 
by Wilcken being 4 drachmae. Wilcken's suggestion (Ostr. i, p. 343) 
that it represents a payment for a stand in the market seems to suit the 
facts sufficiently well. It may be related to a ' dromos ' tax named on 
a series of demotic ostraca from Denderah, which refer to the years 
37 Augustus to 21 Tiberius, and show apparently an annual payment 
of 2 to 2j drachmae, which is about the average of the amount in the 
Theban ostraca. 

101. (G. 424). 103 x -098. 142 A. D. 

KOL fjL(eTO)(Oi) dncuTfrTai) /j,pi(TfJL(ov) Te\(ovs) toploty) 'Ay(opG)v) 

N(OTOV) 

v(a>Ttpa) 'Ivapoo(TO$) 8ia 'IvapS^Tos) 
"flpov. *Eaxpp(v) vn(p) /ze/otoy/(ot)) eL 6/3(o\ov$) 8 
/ 6ft(o\ov$) 8. L<r 'Amsvbw Kafoapos 
5 TOV Kvpiov ^aS>(f)L K. 
JTi/coo? 



' Horos and his colleagues, collectors of the rate for the tax on market- 
able goods in Agorai South, to Sentithoes the younger, daughter of Inaros, 
through Inaros son of Horos. We have received for the rate of the fifth 
year 4 obols = 4 obols. Year 6 of Antoninus Caesar our lord, Phaophi 20. 
Signed, Pikos.' 



1. ^Opos: probably this head collector is the same individual who appears in 
G. O. 608, a receipt for the same tax dated in the previous year. 

2. Sto, 'Ivapo>(Tos) : the name is written over another word, which cannot be 
deciphered. 



II. RECEIPTS FOR TAXES PAID IN KIND. 



(a) 

The receipts for avv&vr) are almost certainly, as pointed out by Wilcken 
(Ostr. i, p. 155), to be referred to the annona militaris the contributions 



ROMAN 



133 



levied in kind for the troops stationed in Egypt. Very often this was 
converted into a payment in money, and the majority of the instances 
published by Wilcken are receipts for such money-payments. There 
are, however, a few, like the one given below, which specify payments 
in kind. 

102. (G, 276). -059 x -084. Second to third century A.D. 

r\ TOV 6 



\6y(ov) av(ya>vri$) 
fjiias / -r a. 



4. 1. aprdfirjv (UCLV. 

'Mesore 8 of the ninth year, in respect of Senpikos daughter of Charops 
on account of the annona of the tenth year, one artaba of barley = i art. 
Year 9. Signed, Phidammon.' 

3. Lt: the tax was apparently paid in advance, in the last month of the year 
before that in which it became due a very unusual proceeding. 



Receipts for the delivery of chaff are common on ostraca ; but in spite 
of their frequency it remains doubtful on what system the collection was 
made. Practically all that is certain is contained in Wilcken's summary 
(Ostr. i, pp. 162 ff.) ; the chaff was, in almost all cases, for the use of 
the troops, and served as fuel ; sometimes the destination is more 
definitely stated as the furnaces of the baths ; in a very few instances 
it seems to have been required for brick-making. The levy was pre- 
sumably made on landholders or cultivators, but there is no evidence 
as to the rate of assessment. 



103. (G. 401). -088 x -122. 77-8 A.D. 

K]d<r<no$ (TTpaTitoTrjs "*FI>VTJO~I Wevo- 
cre//oeos \ai(pLi^). 'An^x Trapa <rov yo/z(o*>) ayypov. 
Li Ov(T7Ta(7iavov TOV Kvpiov. 

S 



134 /// GREEK TEXTS 

1 Cassius, soldier, to Psennesis son of Psenosiris, greeting. I have 
received from you a load of chaff. Year 10 of Vespasianus our lord.' 

i. Kcuro-ios: another receipt given by the same Cassius in the same year, also 
for one load of chaff, is G. 52 (not published). The man is perhaps identical 
with the Kao-ts of G. O. 776, a similar receipt of the previous year. The receipts 
for chaff of the first century seem to have been normally given by soldiers, 
while those of the second century, where the collectors are named, are from 
dxvpoTrpaKTopes or a^ypdpiOL or dTrair^ral a^ypov, except for one or two from 
centurions; many of the second century receipts, however, do not specify the 
office or rank of the collector, and these may still have been soldiers ; in some 
cases the names are Roman. 



104. (G. 256). -070X-IOI. 88-9 A.D. 

"Appios "Arep 
fipa> 

E^v napa arov y6/j,ov d^vpov 
eva TOV L AofJLiTiavov 
5 TOV Kvptov. 'Eypdfyri 77 L fAyty 
KCL. 



' Arrius Ater, soldier, to Horos son of Osoroueris, greeting. I have 
received from you one load of chaff for the seventh year of Domitianus 
our lord. Written in the eighth year, month Domitianus 31.' 

2. "fipw Ovo-epouijpews : presumably the same man who appears in no. 46 above. 



105. (G. 100). -078 x -095. 148 A.D. 

Uafjpis ........... 



wapa 

d-^ypov SrjfjLOO'lOV yofiov 
5 



TOV Kvpiov TIavvL 

I 



ROMAN 135 

' Paeris [and his colleagues, collectors of chaff in the metropolis ?] to 
Kollanthes son of Petemenouphis, greeting. We have received from 
you one and a half loads of chaff for public use. Year u of Antoninus 
Caesar our lord, Pauni 7.' 

i. HafjpLs: the line, the end of which is obscured by discoloration, may 
perhaps be completed KOL ^(ero^ot) a^yp(dpLOL) />tr;Tpo7r(dXe(os). 

3. eXay8a/xcv: .Wilcken pointed out (Ostr, i, p. 109) that all the instances of the 
use of Xaficiv in receipts on ostraca known to him were written by Romans ; this 
case appears to be an exception, as the name of the writer is clearly Egyptian. 



106. (G. 268). -065 x -084. Plate XII. 160 A.D. 



KOIVTOV 8ia 7Tf( ) i;( ) AvXrfpios 
<r\(ofj.v) V7r(ep) yeyT^iaroy) K/3$ 
5 d^vpov yofj.ov[^\ e. 

Ltfy 'AVTWVLVOV Kai<rapos 
TOV Kvpiov HOLV(VL) d. 

3. 1. A.vprj\LOv. 

' Pamonthes son of- Phthomonthes and Paunches the elder, son of 
Athas, collectors of chaff in the Memnonia, in respect of the two 
Quintae, daughters of Quintus, through . . Aurelios Psenoros. We have 
received on account of the produce of the twenty-second year 5 loads of 

chaff. Year 23 of Antoninus Caesar our lord, Pauni i.' 

,% 

3. TT( ) v( ) : I am unable to suggest a meaning for this contraction ; TT and 
v seem clear, and the former is followed by a letter above the line which is 
probably meant for c, while the v has a stroke over it. 

107. (G. 209). -125 x -141. 160 A.D. 



) 77(6/0) yvrjfjL(aTO$) Ky$ yoyLtoi(?) d^ypov 
L/cy 'AvTosvtvov Kalvapos TOV Kvpiov 'JB(7rei0) Irj. 



I 3 6 ///. GREEK TEXTS 

4 Pamonthes son of Phthomonthes and Paunches the elder, son of 
Athas, collectors of chaff in the Memnonia, in respect of Psemmonthes 
freedman(P) of Amenothes. We have received on account of the 
produce of the twenty-third year 15 loads of chaff. Year 23 of Antoninus 
Caesar our lord, Epeiph 18.' 

2. dTrf \(ev6ipov) : the reading is very doubtful; the first two letters are clear, 
but the following contraction is obscure. 

108. (G. 65). -065 x -065 (broken on right). 166 A.D. 

Te/xeXXoy (/caro^rap)x(^s > ) [ 

"EXafiov Trapa (rov [ety 
8rj[fj,oo*iov 

[Lf '' 

5 Kal OvTjpov T$>V \Kvpia>v 
Ty. 



( Aprius Gemellus, centurion, [to ... .], greeting. I have received from 
you [for the heating] of the baths half a load of chaff for public use [from 
the produce] of the sixth year. [Year 6 of Antoninus] and Verus our 
[lords Augusti], Epeiph 13. Signed/ 

The restorations are on the analogy of G. O. 927, a similar receipt of a year later. 
109. (G. 254). -078 x -092. 176 A.D. 



r) ey T 
dyypov 

oy) f<r$ AvprjXiov ' 
Kafoapos rov Kvpiov Ma-(oprj) y. !47roXX(c6^ioy) (r((r)r}((Jiico/J,ai). 



' Delivered to the cohort in respect of Peteminis son of Pemseus one- 
third of a load of chaff = J load, on account of the produce of the 
sixteenth year of Aurelius Antoninus Caesar our lord, Mesore 3. Signed, 
Apollonios/ 



ROMAN 137 

110. (G. 408). -065 x -ioi. 183 A.D. 



TiOo(rjovs) d^(vpov) y6fj,(ov) Z.5' 
e/cro(t/) TTpaK(aieiKO(rTw) / y(6fjiov) L8'$K8. LKy AvprjXiov 

Ka(<rap(o?) T(OV) Kvptov 'AOvp Ty. 



1 Delivered to Ophieion on account of the produce of the twenty-second 
year in respect of Pechutes son of Tithoes twenty-three twenty-fourths 
of a load of chaff = | load. Year 33 of Aurelius Commodus Antoninus 
Caesar our lord, Hathur 13. Signed, Paniskos.' 



111. (G. 319). -084 x -142. 215 A.D 

AvXrjpios *flpo$ 6 Kal IlKoiX(is) /cat MdpK(os 
01 ] 
IIaa"rjfjiio( < s) 



'Arprjovs JTaTcre(0toy) yofj^ov) ^/c5 Kal o^6/z(aro?) Ila<rr]fjiio$ 
5 Uar(re)3(^oy) yo//(ou) /c5 j yo/jLa> reTapro 
TOV. L*y* 'Encty 1^. 

MdpKos Av\(ripios) *flpos 6 Kal IlKotX(t$) cr(e 
MdpK(o$) AvX(rjpio$) IIX(fjvis) nX(rjvios) 8ia TOV 

2. 1. IIX^vis IlX^vtos. 5- ! yo/x,ov. 

* Marcus Aurelius Horos, also called Pkoilis, and Marcus Aurelius 
Plenis son of Plenis, collectors of chaff in the Memnonia, have received 
in respect of Pasemis son of Patsebthis ^ load, and in respect of Pasemis 
son of Hatres son of Patsebthis ^ load, and in respect of Pasemis son of 
Patsebthis -^ load = seven twenty-fourths of a load. Year 23, Epeiph 16. 

Signed, Marcus Aurelius Horos, also called Pkoilis. 

Signed, Marcus Aurelius Plenis son of Plenis, through his father.' 



i 3 8 ///. GREEK TEXTS 

112. (G. 419). -087 x -109. Probably 212 A. D. 



ey 



yofiov CKTOV K8 / yo(fjLov) 
LK* IIav(vL) 16. 
5 ^/ipoy 

' Delivered to the cohort from the produce of the nineteenth year in 
respect of Pekusis son of Trempapouesis five twenty-fourths of a load 
of chafT=^r load. Year 20, Pauni 19. (Signed), Pikos(?), scribe. 
Signed, Horos.' 

4. LK* : this date may be taken as of Caracalla, on the assumption that the 
Pekusis of this ostracon is the same man who appears in no. 123. 



A tax for the expenses of collection of barley has not hitherto been 
noted from Egyptian records ; but there are close parallels in the 
payment vwep olvoXoyias of G. O. 7 1 1 of Ptolemaic times, in the aiToXoyiKov 
of P. Oxy. 740 2 22, and probably in the entries for cr x , which contraction 
Wilcken (Ostr. i, p. 294) thinks may represent o-iroAoy/a, on four ostraca 
of the reigns of Augustus and Tiberius. The existence of the term 
KpiOoXoyia is shown by Wilcken (Ostr. i, p. 270, note i) from an entry 
in the Codex Theodosianus. 

113. (G. 282). -072 x -08 1. Late second or early third century A.D. 

'E(iri)(f) K0 TOV a$ 6vo(fjLaTOs 
vnfip) Kpt6r]Xoyi(as) 

y 



1 Epeiph 29 of the first year in respect of Petechespochrates son of 
Psenapathes for the collection of barley in the Islands, five-twelfths 
of an artaba of barley = T 5 ^ art. Signed, Ammonios.' 



2. Nrj(o-o)v): the district known as N^o-oi occurs in many ostraca dealing with 
payments in kind (cf. Wilcken, Ostr, i, p. 7 14). A Orjcravpos Nrjo-wv is mentioned 
in a list of entries of corn in an unpublished text (G. 191) of this collection. 



ROMAN 139 

(d) IIpovOciJLa. 

The exact nature of the payments for 7r/>6o-0e/*a which occur on ostraca 
is not clear ; but evidently, as pointed out by Wilcken (Ostr. i, p. 288), 
it must have been an extraordinary demand above the regular payments 
for a given year. It is noticeable that in the instance given here, as in 
three out of Wilcken's four examples, the payment is made after the 
close of the year for which it is assessed ; in one case (G. O. 973) it is 
made two years after. 

114. (G. 409). -115 x -ii2. 192 A.D. 

i/6/*(ej/oy) irpd(KT(t>p) (riTiK(a>v) Xdpa(KO$) 
ety 7rp6<r6(fji 

II\ri(vio$) 'AQo-tycrorjoi^s) veforepov) 
\a6J Kal o^o/zfaro?) ' 
5 %$ Kal 6v6 



ro 



3. 1. 

' Serenus, formerly collector of corn-taxes in Charax, has received for 
the extra charge from the produce of the thirty-second year in respect 
of Senapathes daughter of Plenis son of Harsiesoes the younger i art. 
corn, and in respect of Esoueris son of Pachomis | art. corn, and in 
respect of Pachomis the elder art. corn, and in respect of Esoueris son 
of Hatres ^ art. corn = ^ art. : total, 2^4 art. corn. Year 33, Thoth 20. 
Signed, Serenus.' 



A very large proportion of the receipts on ostraca found at Thebes 
consist of fj,TprifjLaTa Orja-avpov of corn and other produce, without any 
mention of the name of the tax. There can be little doubt that these 
represent the erm/ca reXe^/mra mentioned in papyri, and referred to the 
levy made on the crops from which the corn required to feed the 



140 ///. GREEK TEXTS 

populace of Rome was drawn (cf. Wilcken, Ostr. i, p. 201). There is 
not much variation in the formulae, and a small selection out of the 
numerous examples in this collection will suffice. 



115. (G. 54). -073 x -147. 16 B.C. 

"ETOVS 18 Kafoapos Mo~oprj A //e/zerp^Ke) Ka\\ia(s) 
'Aptva>6ov is TOV Tliarif) . . . Orja-avpbv Ai@vr]$ TOV KO\( ) 



OLTfO \epO-OV %K 

5 / &. Ti ( 

' Year 14 of Caesar, Mesore 30 : Kallias son of Amenothes has paid 
into the ..... granary of Libya ..... 

from rented land 40 art. corn 

from unwatered land 25 art. corn 
= 65 (art.). (Signed) Ti( ), scribe.' 



2. Uua-Lf) . . . : presumably a proper name; the surface of the ostracon is dis- 
coloured by spots, one of which covers the termination of this word. 



116. (G. 262). -073 x -142. 61 A.D. 



Adfiais e/s Orjvavpov tepariKov 

Kara TOTrapyfJas) yei/^/zaroy) TOV L virfip) 

TTVpOV (TWpOV dpTdftaS TJ/jLLO-V 

5 KdTov I \n$. Ly Nep&vos 

TOV KVplOV 3>a$Mpl X. 
I. 1. 



' Horos son of Pasemis son of Labais has paid into the granary of the 
temples of the Lower toparchy from the produce of the seventh year on 
account of the Memnonia seven-twelfths of an artaba of sifted corn 
T 7 ^ ai *t- corn. Year 8 of Nero our lord, Phaophi 30.' 

2. Oya-avpov (1. Orjcravpbv) LtpaTiKov : cf. for the title the 6r)(ravpos icpwv commonly 
found on Theban ostraca. 



ROMAN 141 

117. (G. 411). -I32X-I08. 99 A. D. 

Or](<ravpov) fepo>(i/ 



Tpaiavov TOV Kvpiov ' 
poy 
flpov 



' Payment into the granary of the temples in the Villages from the 
produce of the second year of Trajanus our lord, Epeiph 27, in respect 
of Horos son of Petechespochrates son of Pikos, through Asklas son of 
Horos, two artabae of corn = 2 art. corn. Signed, Nem( ).' 



i. Orj(<Tavpov) icpw(v) Ko>/x(wv): Upon/ is not to be taken as an epithet of 
there were Orjo-avpol tepwv for various districts, as 'Ep/twv&ws (G. O. 779) and'Avw 
(G. O. 783), and the district known as Kw/x,cu occurs frequently. 



118. (G. 57). -140 x -148 (chipped at bottom). 107 A.D. 

MTprj(fj,a) Orjd(avpov) Kara* (To)ir(ap^Las) yey^(ftaroy) L$ Tpaiavov 
TOV Kvptov J E7re20 Zy 6j/6(/zaroy) Nrja-o(v) ' 
II6<rTVfjLos Sia>vo(s) Kal 'A&KXas "flpov KOL 
Sia y0)(pyai/) IltKvcrios 'O(ropovri(pio$) Kal 
5 evvea rj/jLtav Tptrov TTpaK(aitiKOcrTov) / 



AXXo y^77/i(aroy) Sia raw a(yrS>v 



* Payment into the granary of the Lower toparchy from the produce of 
the tenth year of Trajanus our lord, Epeiph 13, in respect of the Island 
of Akruo( ) (from) Postumus son of Theon and Asklas son of Horos 
and their colleagues, through the husbandmen Pekusis son of Osoroueris 
and his colleagues, twenty-nine and twenty-one twenty-fourths artabae 
of corn = 29f| art. corn. Signed, Apollodoros. 

A further payment through the same, one quarter of an artaba of 
corn = [ art. corn]. [Signed], Harpchemis.' 

T 



I 4 2 



///. GREEK TEXTS 



1. Karw (ToX a PX t/a5 ) : this is doubtless tne meaning of the contraction 

(cf. Wilcken, O-r/r. i, p. 308). The name Orjo-avpos Karoo roTrapx"*? is written out 
in full in an unpublished list (G. 191). 

2. OVO(/WITOS) NTJO-O(V) 'AK/>VO( ) : there appears to be a variant from the usual 
formula here, possibly due to a slip of the writer; the normal form would be 
virlp Niyo-ov 'A*pvo( ) ovo/xaros IIoo-Tv/xov KT\. The Nijo-os 'AKpvo( ^) 
possibly to be read 'A/fy>uo( ) does not occur elsewhere, but several vfj 
with various names are mentioned on Theban ostraca. 

119. (G. 2,61). -iaox-139. H4A.D. 



ey 

vnep a$ Tpaiavov TOV Kvpiov ety ray a/coX( ) 
AifJLvr)? dno r(co^) MefjLt>o(i'ia>i') irvpov <Ta>po(v) Te 
5 TTpaK(aieLKoarTov) / %&c<$, /cat bvo(jjLaTOs) TI^T^<O( 
o/io/eoy irvpov <ra>po(v) TtrapTov rerpa/c(aiaKooTdj>) 
/ %5/c5. Lt^ Tpaiavov Kaivapos TOV 

Kvpiov, Mexei/o 9. 

5. 1. 



* Psenamounis son of Patphoues son of Psenthuntasemis has paid into 
the granary of the Memnonia from the produce of the sixteenth year on 
account of the same (?) year of Trajanus our lord for the ..... of the 
Lake from the Memnonia seven twenty-fourths (of an artaba) of sifted 
corn = -^ art. corn, and in respect of Petechon his brother likewise 
seven twenty-fourths (of an artaba) of sifted corn = ^ art. corn. Year 
17 of Trajanus Caesar our lord, Mecheir 6.' 

2. \J>ev0(wTcun7/Aios) : this expansion is given on the assumption that the payer 
is the same who appears in no. 37 of the same year. 

3. vTrtp a$ : if this is to be taken in the natural sense as for the first year 
of Trajan, the payment was extraordinarily late ; the corn-tax was usually collected 
promptly, and Wilcken (Os tr. \, p. 215) only notes two cases of the debt to the 
state being allowed to run on over a year. It would give an easier explanation 
if a$ could be taken to mean (TOV) a(vrov) ITOVS, i.e. the payment was made from 
the produce of the sixteenth year in respect of that year, although in the 
seventeenth year. 

ts Tas <XKO\( ) : the reading is very doubtful, as the writer of the ostracon 
is apt to degenerate into a mere scribble, and the meaning remains uncertain. 

4. At/xi/rys: probably the basin now known as the Birket Habu, lying a little 
way south of the Colossi, which would be included in the district of the Memnonia. 



ROMAN 143 

120. (G. 303). -051 x -065. 126 A.D. 

MeTprj(fjLa) 6rjo-(avpov) fj,7}Tpo7r(6\ 
i$ l A8piavov TOV Kvpiov Meo-op?) 
ovoQjiaTos) Maievpio($) 
vir(ep) *Ayo(pS>v} irvpo(v) 
5 



' Payment into the granary of the metropolis from the produce of the 
tenth year of Hadrianus our lord, Mesore 22, in respect of Maieuris son 
of Harphmois for the Agorai, one quarter (of an artaba) of corn = J art. 
corn. Signed, Eph( ).' 

3. Mcucv/oios 'Ap^/xoiTos : this is the latest appearance in our collection of this 
man, who first occurs in the tenth year of Vespasian (no. 44 above). 

121. (G. 97).' -096 x -145. i63A.D. 

Me(Tprjfjia) Or](r(avpov) /^(rporroAecos) yevrj^aros) j85 'AvTGwwov KOI 

Ovrjpov 

TO>V Kvpicw ^e/Saoro)!/ Tv/3i 6 TOV y$ vrrfip) Nrj^crS)^) ovoQiaTOS?) 
TaX<Sro(y) 'Ivap&To($) \ay(civov) -r rerapro(j/) / \a^(dvov) 8. 
*A\\o d/zowoy \a^(dvov) -7- ijfj.i<rv T/>/TO(Z>) K8 / 
5 / 7r(l TO avTo) \a^(dvov) arj. 

1 Payment into the granary of the metropolis from the produce of the 
second year of Antoninus and Verus our lords Augusti, Tubi 9 of the 
third year, for the Islands in respect of Talos daughter of Inaros one 
quarter of an artaba of vegetables = J art/vegetables. A further pay- 
ment likewise of twenty-one twenty-fourths of an artaba of vegetables 
= fj art. vegetables : total, if art. vegetables. Signed, Ammonios.' 

122. (G. 77). -078 x -073. 197 A.D. 
Me(Tpr]fj.a) 6r]o~(avpov) ^(rpoTroAecoy) yevrj(fiaTOs) $ AOVKIOV 



crel3ov$ TltpTivaKos Kai- 
TOV Kvpiov Havvi 



i 44 ///. GREEK TEXTS 



5 vn(p) Xa(paKos) oj> 
Trvpov Ttraprov re- 



' Payment into the granary of the metropolis from the produce of the 
fifth year of Lucius Septimius Severus Pius Pertinax Caesar our lord, 
Pauni 34, for Charax in respect of Phthouminis son of Tithoes, seven 
twenty-fourths (of an artaba) of corn = ^ art. corn. Signed, Ph( ), 
gz art. corn.' 

5. <J>0ov/xi(vios) Ti0oi}ovs: the same payer occurs in G. O. 983 two years later. 



123. (G. 371). -105 x -098. an A.D. 

Orj<r(avpov) 



Pera 

Hav(vi) KTJ tiirfip) NO(TOV) 



Kp(iOfjs) -r KTO(V) K$ / Kp(i6fjs) <?K$. EVKTJ( 
"A\(\o) 0a 



-r oySoov. 
5 / Kp(iOfj$) rj* EVKTJ( ) (r( 



' Payment into the granary of the metropolis from the produce of the 
nineteenth year of Antoninus and Geta Pii Augusti, Pauni 28, for the 
South district on account of the produce of the eighteenth year in respect 
of Pekusis son of Trempapouesis, five twenty-fourths of an artaba of 
barley = ^ art. barley. Signed, Euke( ). 

A further payment, Thoth 16, on account of the produce of the 
eighteenth year in respect of Pekusis, one-eighth of an artaba of barley 
= J art. barley. Signed, Euke( ).' 

2. vTr(ep) y(fv)rj([jiaTo<s) ir)$ : a similar instance of the settlement of a debt due 
from a previous year with the produce of the next is to be found in G. O. 995. 
IIcKvo-to(s) Tp/x7ra7rov^(o-ios) : probably identical with the payer of no. 112. 



ROMAN 145 

124. (G. 239). -092 x -091. 233 A.D. 

Or)or(avpov) ^(rpOTroXecBy) y(ey)?7(/*aToy) i/3$ MdpKov AvprjXiov 



TOV Kvpiov *A8p(iavov) la TOV iy$ vn(ep) y( 
t/3$ 7r(ep) . . . ov6fi(aTos:) ^47roXo&0(poi/) IIopiv6o(v) 
5 KpiOfjs -r KfJLOipo(v) / Kp(tOfjs) -r (^ . . ^(upT/Xtoy) J*( 

' Payment into the granary of the metropolis from the produce of the 
twelfth year of Marcus Aurelius Severus Alexander Caesar our lord, 
Hadrianus 1 1 of the thirteenth year, on account of the produce of the 
twelfth year for ..... in respect of Apollodoros son of Porieuthes, two- 
thirds of an artaba of barley = f art.' barley. Signed, Aurelios Di( ).' 

3. TOV Ly$: apparently corrected from TOV ia$. 

4. vir(ep) . . . : the name of the district is obscured by discoloration of the surface. 

125. (G. 414). -134 x -095 (top left-hand corner broken). 

Plate XII. 253 A.D. 

[M^TprjfjLo)] Orj(r(avpov) fJujfrpoiroXeons) yej/i^/Ltaroy) ft$ r$>v Kvpiow TI/JL>V 
FdXXov Kal Ovo\ov<riai>ov ^e/Sao-roo^ 'ETTtty rj 

a 6v6jJL(aros) 'I(ri8(a(pov) i/e(ft)repou) 'AnoXXo8oo(pov) 



drrb ywrj(fjLaTO$) TOV a(vrov) @$ 7rv(pov) ^ 
5 Tpirov / %jS/ly. Av(prjXios) Ai6<TK(opos) A . . 
Kal tvxov rov 6j$o\(6v}. 

6 Payment into the granary of the metropolis from the produce of the 
second year of our lords Gallus and Volusianus Augusti, Epeiph 8, for 
the first district of the Agorai in respect of Isidoros the younger, son 
of Apollodoros the elder, through Phthomonthes, from the produce of 
the said second year, two and five-sixths artabae of corn = a| art. corn. 
Signed, Aurelios Dioskoros ..... , who has received the fee.' 

3. 'Ayo(/owi/) a: there seems to be a variation between the earlier and later 
subdivisions of the quarter of Thebes known as 'Ayopcu, the change occurring 
about the time of Hadrian. Up till this reign the usual forms are Ayo ft and 
Ayo v, which are doubtless correctly taken by Wilcken as 'Ayopat J3oppa and 
'Ayopat vorov; the latest instance of either form seems to be in A.D. 142 (no. 101). 
But in G. O. 1471 (A.D. 250) and 1474 (A.D. 261) there is mentioned 'Ayo(pcu) y, 
which would belong to the same series as the 'Ayopat a of this text ; and possibly 



I 4 6 ///. GREEK TEXTS 



the 'Ayo(pai) ft of G. O. 643, 834, 1008, 1583, and 1594 should be taken as 
falling into the same numeration ; they are all of the reign of Hadrian or later, 
and the contraction is 'Ayo or 'Ayop w /?, not ft ; in three of the five instances the 
ft is apparently marked ft as a numeral. A transitional form may be found in 
'Ayo(/><u) 8 VO(TOV) of no. 42, dated A.D. 133. It may be suggested that about 
A.D. 130 the quarter, formerly subdivided into the districts ftoppa and vorov, was 
rearranged in four numbered districts. The new arrangement would not, however, 
appear to have been universally accepted at .once; the earliest instance of 
'Ayo/wu ft is in A.D. 131 (G. O. 834), but 'Ayopai ftoppa occurs in A.D. 138 
(G. O. 857) and 'Ayopat I/OTOV in A. D. 142 (no. 101). 
6. KCU lo-xov TOV 6fto\(6v) : cf. G. O. ioo8. 



III. RECEIPTS FOR PERSONAL SERVICE. 

The final section of the Roman tax-receipts is concerned with those 
given in respect of the liturgy on dykes and embankments to which the 
inhabitants of Egypt were liable. As has been seen above (p. 129), the 
personal service could probably be commuted by a money-payment ; 
but it is not uncommon to find receipts for the actual work done. The 
general problem arising from these receipts so far as they appear on 
ostraca is the basis on which they were given. If the liability of the 
individual was simply to work for five days, the natural form of the 
quittance would be a statement that the man had worked for five days ; 
and such a form is actually found on papyri (e.g. P. Tebt. 371, 641-74). 
On ostraca, however, the usual course of the receipt is that the man has 
dug a number of naubia, which suggests piecework rather than day- 
work. But the numbers of naubia stated in different receipts vary 
widely; the highest amount is in G. O. 1399, where three brothers are 
stated to have dug 15 naubia ; and this agrees with a small series of 
receipts from Denderah, where the dva/3o\rj ^pdrcdv is regularly given 
as 5 naubia for each man ; on the other hand, in G. O. 1567, a man and 
his two sons are credited with only half a naubion, which seems a very 
small amount of work for five days, and in no. 128 two men have 
a receipt for two-thirds of a naubion. As Wilcken has pointed out 
(Ostr. i, p. 337), the phraseology of the receipts leaves little doubt that 
they are for compulsory, not for paid, work ; but it is rather mysterious 
why the officials should have taken the trouble to measure up the 
number of naubia dug, and to enter it in the receipts, if the obligation 
was only for service by time ; they would hardly be anxious to preserve 
a record of the comparative diligence of different workers. The simplest 



ROMAN 147 



explanation would be to suppose that, in common acceptance, 
was regarded as meaning a day's compulsory work, and a statement that 
a man had dug five naubia was equivalent to saying that he had worked 
on the dykes for five days. 

126. (G. 13). -076 x -058. Early part of first century A.D. 

Ly 
JJLOLTIKOV 



5 '. 

(Traces of a line, apparently of demotic, below.) 
3-4. 1. TrdVra. 

* Year 3, Choiak. Psononter has done the whole of his dyke-work/ 

The ostracon is inscribed in rude capitals, obviously by an illiterate person ; it 
reduces the formula of quittance practically to its simplest elements. 

127. (G. 260). -097 x -146. 117-18 A.D. 



($) 'IfjLoy(6ov ? 
rov &/JLOV ran )3$ 

'ASpidvov Kaicrapo? TOV Kvpiov vavf$(ia) 8vo 
5 / vav/3(ia) f$, KOU 

i>avl3(ia) ei> rj/j,i(rv 

'Isidoros son of Phthomonthes, dyke-supervisor of Hermon this, through 
Memrion his clerk, to Psemonthes son of Harpaesis son of Imouthes (?), 
greeting. You have dug two naubia on the dyke of Klouphis(P) of 
Phmou (?) in the second year of Hadrianus Caesar our lord, = 2, naubia, 
and in respect of Pamounis your brother likewise one and a half naubia, 
= ij naubia.' 

6. *IiJLpy(6ov) : as this ostracon follows the same general formula as G. O. 10437, 
the word standing here should be the name of the district ; but the letters cannot 
be made into v6(rov) /cat A(i/3os), the district of those five ostraca. 

3. KAou TOV 3>//,ov : possibly this should be read as a single word, the local 
name of the embankment ; the first four letters suggest the TrepLx^^oL KXov^tos 
of G. O. 1043-7, which are, like this ostracon, from Hermonthis, and perhaps the 
title here is a fuller form of the same KXov(<^ios) TOV </xov( ). 



I 4 8 ///. GREEK TEXTS 

128. (G. 290). -068 x -081 (broken at bottom). Plate XII. 139 A.D. 



Ka/3ipio(s:) KOL Ko\\ev6r)(s) 
ol aiLv. 'AvaXrKare ety 



5 

Ly 'AvTcovivov TOV Kvpiov 

Qaf^twO) [.] 
i. 1. y?wfi<TLs. 3, 4. 1. 'Ivapom KayStptos Kat 

' Psennesis son of Isidores, dyke-supervisor, through Psensenphthomon- 
thes his assistant, to Inaros son of Kabiris and Kolleuthes his son, 
greeting. You have thrown up on the dyke of Psam( ) naubion. 
Year 3 of Antoninus our lord, Phamenoth [ ].' 

129. (G. 433). -128 x -08 1 (top right-hand corner lost). 140 A.D. 

flpov )(a)([j.aTTrifJ,\r)Tr)$) [ 

IlKo[i\io$ (?) yaipeiv. 

^a/z( ) Kal aA(Xo) 
vavfi(ia) fSSrj. 1.8 'Avrwivov 
5 Kaivapos TOV Kvpiov <a/*(ej>a>0) ta. 
2. 1. ' 



* Phthomonthes son of Horos, dyke-supervisor [ ], to Harpaesis son 
of Pasemis son of Pko[ilis?] [greeting]. You have thrown up an the 
dyke of Psam( ) and the mound of Ps[ ] 2 naubia. Year 4 of 
Antoninus Caesar our lord, Phamenoth 1 1 .' 

The following text appears to belong to the class of receipts for work 
on dykes ; but it is distinguished from the ordinary type of these 
receipts by the fact that it specifies a payment for the work, and so 
can hardly be regarded as dealing with the five days' compulsory 
service. Further, the quittance is not given by x o >/ J - a T* 7 rifj,\T)Tai ) but by 
officials if they were officials whose title does not occur elsewhere. 
Perhaps, as it seems to have been permitted for men liable to this 



ROMAN 149 

compulsory service to compound for it by a money-payment (see p. 129), 
and considerable numbers must have availed themselves of this permission, 
to judge by the frequency of receipts for money-payments on account of 
XtofjLaTiKov, the revenue derived from the compositions might be devoted 
to hiring men for the dyke-work as required to supplement the forced 
labour, and this ostracon may be taken as a statement of a payment 
for this purpose ; though it would have appeared more natural for the 
men who did the work to give a receipt for their payment. 

If the standard amount of work was one naubion a day, the value 
of five days' work at the rate shown in this ostracon would be ten 
drachmae five obols, which is higher than any recorded payment for 
XvpaTLKoi' as a composition in money. Possibly, however, the forced 
labour was not reckoned at so high a value as paid labour; it would 
almost certainly be worth less in fact. 



130. (G. 434). -i x -096 (broken at right below). Second cent. A.D. 

KCU $6on(a)vOr)s) "flpov 



itov 8ia 
ov9 xai(pii 
(rov 



5 T 

*Kd(rrov eVoy 

KaOapov </> < ra;y d[iro-] 

X^y ray TT<B[ 



10 Ue 

3. 1. 

' Psenmonthes son of Plenis the younger and Phthomonthes son of 
Horos, ....... of the Memnonia, through Epos (?) their clerk, to 

Sachoumnes, greeting. 8| naubia have been thrown up by you, for 
which you have received pay at the rate of 13 obols for each naubion 
clear, on condition that th former (?) receipts are annulled. Year 15 



150 ///. GREEK TEXTS 



2. TrcvTr)K( ): the officials here can hardly be the Trei/T^Koo-Twi/cu (cf. Wilcken, 
Ostr. i, p. 277), who were collectors of customs. It seems more probable that 
some local title analogous to Se/cai/os or SeKaTrpcoTos is to be sought in the con- 
traction. 

7-9. e<' w rots d[7ro]xas ras 7rw[ ] aKvpw[o-ai]. Dr. Hunt remarks that the 
ordinary phrase to be expected would be <j> <S ras dTro^as ras Trporepas d/ay>w<rcu, 
but he cannot make the remaining letters at the end of 1. 8 fit Trporepas, and 
suggests that rrwf ] may be a name. 



IV. MISCELLANEOUS. 
(a) Receipts. 
The first of these receipts is clearly a private one. 

131. (G. 15). -090 x -095 (broken below and on right). 

First to second century A.D. 



Ka 

Tptos 'Hpa/cXe/o) Kal 
'AiroXXcwicp xaipciv. 






5 v Trap vfJL&v ray 8ia 
fiHrOaxreoDS irvpov [dp-] 

Tdf3a$ 7TVT I 
[Kttl 0\vOV V/JLLV 

[\ov/Ji]v. " 
10 [ ........ ]<f>r)S 

[ ........ Mecrjop?) rj. 

' Thamudares and Demetrios to Herakleios and Apollonios, greeting. 
We acknowledge the receipt from you of the five artabae of corn due 
for rent, and make no claim against you. Written by . . . ., Mesore 8.' 

The next list appears to give the number of men, probably soldiers, 
for whom certain nomes contributed supplies in kind oil, vinegar, pulse, 
and other articles, the names of which are lost. So far as can be judged 
from the fragment, which accounts for over half the total of 140 men, 



ROMAN 151 

there can only have been a small proportion of the nomes of the whole 
country concerned, and the nomes mentioned are all in Lower or Middle 
Egypt. It is noticeable that the totals of eorai specified at the end 
are divisible not by 140 but by 167 in each case, which looks as if some 
of the 140 men got double or treble allowances or more. 



132. (G. 32). -096 x -075 (broken above and on right). 

Third century A.D, 



av8(p5>v) K[ 
av8p($>v) O/ NiXovTToXiv av8p(S>v) [ 
av8p(a>v) 8vo/ 'A(j)po8tT(d dv8[p(of)v) 
Kafiao-iTOv avSp&v e/ AO[VTOITO\LTOV 
av8p(<x>v) K/ AiO(nro\iTov Karoo [ av8pa>v 
) p///. 



70S T\8 </)0,K[oV 
10 ---- flt . . . [ 

2. $Xaj3<oviTov : this may be meant for <paywviTov, as the nomes are not 
arranged in a strict geographical order ; Phragonis seems to have risen in 
importance at the expense of the neighbouring Buto in late Roman times. 



(6) Orders. 

The three following ostraca may be grouped together, as they are all 
private notes conveying orders. 

The first is of some interest in connexion with the fjLTprjfiara cy 
Orjo-avp6v(pp. 139-46), as showing the relations of the landholders and the 
yecopyof'. In this case it would appear that the yecopyoy is not a tenant, 
but a person in the position of a bailiff; and the numerous instances of 
fj.Tpri/j,aTa made 8ia yecopyoO which occur on ostraca probably relate 
to similar transactions, where the corn was not delivered by the land- 
holder in person, but by deputy through one of his servants. 



152 ///. GREEK TEXTS 

133. (G. 12). -079 x -i 1 8 (broken at bottom). Second century A.D. 
^V7r\rj(vLSf) yvvr) nx 
KO\' Tcrav yccopyo) /JLOV 
Mfrprjo-ov ety TOV 8r]/j.6o-iov Orja-av- 
pov Trvpov dpTa/3as TpiaKovTa 
5 KOI KpiOfjs dpTaftas eiKo<ri [J.6- 
vas CVT av <re t<$J. .Jji/oxw Kal ft- 
Tprj(ra> TTJV yfjv fj,ov ewel y&p 
/j,eTprj<ra tvTavQa KOI vi\OKa/j.iv 



{ Senplenis wife of Plenis to Andronikos ..... my husbandman, greeting. 
Pay into the public granary thirty artabae of corn and twenty artabae 
of barley only till I see you and measure my land ; for when I measured 
it and having perceived there was a failure of the Nile (?) ....... ' 

6. iS[[. .J]?7o-w : apparently $><o was first written and then altered. 
8. vL\oKafjLivi possibly this should be read viAoKa/mv Tryp^o-acra], with a reference 
to a low inundation ; or Dr. Hunt suggests that NiAo'*a/uv may be a proper name. 

134. (G. 18). .075X-IOI. First to second century A.D. 



Ta 7r/ooy ITpar^ra 
dirdXXagov Kara ray 
Kay, ovSev yap frjTei- 
5 rat 7T/>oy avTov. 

1 Sarapion to Phthomonthes, greeting. Discharge the debt to Krates at 
once in accordance with the agreement, for there is no question against him.' 

135. (G. 21). -071 x-105 (surface chipped). First century A.D. 

UOIT/OW TOV dva8i- 

TO offrpcutov 

SovTa <roi </>VTa ndpov 

TOV CVtaVTOV TOVTOV 

8i[. . . .]v[.] TTpaynaTiKas 

'} 'T( ] 

the final s is on the edge of the ostracon. 



ROMAN 153 

' Supply the man who delivers this ostracon to you with caraway plants 
of this year ' 

(c) Lists. 

A considerable proportion of the Greek ostraca in our collection 
consists of lists and accounts. In many cases the lists are merely of 
names, with no indication of their purpose ; or the names have against 
them entries of sums in money or kind, but again without any definition 
of the reason of the entries. There is, however, one group, represented 
by a large number of fragments, from which six fairly complete docu- 
ments have been made up ; these are referred to as G. 151 (consisting of 
G. 151 and an unnumbered fragment), G. 158 (G. 158, G. 330, and G. 197), 
G. 159 (G. 200, G. 322, G. 159, and G. 196), G. 161 (G. 166 and G. 161), 
G. 172, and no. 136 (G. 310, G. 187, and an unnumbered fragment). All 
these ostraca, besides several other fragments which do not fit together, 
are in the same hand, and appear to be summaries of the accounts 
of Paeris son of Psensenplenis. The names in the lists for the most 
part recur, though not always in the same order; nearly all are found 
in three or four of the six lists ; and against the names are entered 
numbers of /*?;/, which can be nothing but fjLrjviaia, in view of some 
of the headings, and must apparently be taken in the sense of monthly 
payments. The number of /jLijviaTa entered is regularly less than twelve ; 
but, from a comparison of G. 151, G. 158, and G. 159, it appears that 
these three relate to one year and are complementary: thus Paeris of 
Thebes is credited with n ^vLala on G. 151 and i on G. 158 ; Mauos 
son of Hatres with 10 and 2 ; Sisois son of Suros with n on G. 151 and 
i on G. 159 ; the sum being always 12. The clearest evidence that 
a total of 12 /jLrjviaia was required is to be found in no. 138, belonging 
to another series, where the number of WVICUOL credited is followed by 
a note of the balance of the 12 remaining. The nature of these ^viala 
may be gathered from the headings of the lists: G. 151 is headed 
[IIafj}pi$ "*Fev<rev7r\ri(vio$) \ [ir]pdi$ km Ke<pa\fj$ dpyvpiov : G. 159, 
Xoy(oy) \ivo(vpyS>v) KaTafjLrjv^ai&v) \ Sia Ilarjpis WtixrevTrXtfi'ios) : G. 161, 
[PXoyoy tg\ov<rias 7n/ce$aAeiW : and no. 136, Aoy(os) egov<ria$ eiriKtfya- 
AetW IlarjpLS \ Me<ro>pa Xa. The jjLrjviaia were therefore for 7nAce0aAaioi>, 
and this kiriK^dXaiov cannot be taken in the sense of poll-tax, XaoypaQta, 



i 5 4 /// GREEK TEXTS 

which was not collected as a monthly tax at Thebes, so far -as the 
ostraca show, but is presumably one of the taxes on trades, like 
the yepSiaKov and rjTrrjTiKov already discussed ; and the \ii> of 
G. 159, which is presumably for \LVOV pyS>v or Ati>07ro>A<j>, shows the 
trade concerned in one instance. The ostraca from Syene supply 
numerous instances of a xcipcovdgiov nqviaTov paid by linen-workers 
or sellers at Elephantine (cf. Wilcken, Ostr. i, pp. 322 ff.) ; and it may 
be assumed with reason that the tax here was also a xciptovdgwv, and 
that Wilcken (Ostr. i, p. 249, note i) was wrong in rejecting Marquardt's 
interpretation of the pseudo-Aristotelian phrase 7riK</>d\ai6v re Kal 
Xfiptovdgiov TT poo-ay opcvofjLwr], as showing that the two terms applied 
to the same tax. The monthly payments do not appear to have been 
collected with great regularity ; on G. 151, indeed, the normal entry is 
either 10 or n prji/taTa, but G. 161 shows entries varying from 3 to 10, 
and G. 172 and no. 136 are similar. The sums entered against individuals 
also vary: thus XoAAoSy 2vpov is credited with u /jLrjvtala on G. 151, 
i on G. 159, 10 on G. 172, and 3 on no. 136; KaXao-Tpts 'AXtiKti with 
ii on G. 151, i on G. 159, 6 on G. 161, 9 on G. 172, and 8 on no. 136 ; 
and so forth. In two cases, not belonging to the accounts of Paeris, 
some of the entries are not in prjviata, but in denarii ; the more complete 
of these is given below (no. 137), and the figures given suggest that 
19 denarii, which would be the equivalent of 76 drachmae, were the unit 
of the ^VLOLOV. This is unusually high for yjtipavdgiov , even though 
the ostracon is a late one ; the rates for various trades at Arsinoe about 
300 A.D., as shown by B. G. U. 9, ranged from 8 to 60 drachmae a 
month (cf. Wilcken, Ostr. i, p. 325). The ostracon is complete, but 
bears no note of the trade which was the subject of the 



136. (G. 310 + G. 1 87 + unnumbered). 

Second century A.D. 
A6y(o$) efovcrias tiriiccQaXeuov Ilafjpis 

Aa. 

firj(viaia) y. 

'Arprjs irapayyTOV i^viala) . 
5 Z'eAcOe Ilafjpis fj.r)(viaia) la. 
/J.r)(viaia) rj. 



ROMAN L55 



Ka\a<rTpi$ vibs fjLr)(vicua) 17. 

SOKTOITOS Svpovs fj.r)(viaTa) e. 
KaXao-ipis TleK^a-tos) fj(rjviaTa) y. 
10 i?V(Ti></)Oo(/j,<x>vQr]si) /jLrj(viaia) e. 



XoAA<y Svp(ov) firj(viaia) y. 

n\rj(vi$) irapa^vTOV ' prtfyiaia) rj. 
$QofJiii' IlK(v<nos) prj(inaia) y. 
15 Ilaijpis Ilafjpis 7r(po-/3vTpov) ^( 
Ilafjpis a?ro &r)/3a>v /j.rj(viaTa) 8. 
Svpovs ITar<rj8(^ioy) ^(VLOLO} rj. 



i. 1. Ilettj/oios: so also in 11. 5 and 15. 17. 1. 

3. 'Ai/TT/Ae: this name is spelt 'AraAe in G. 159, which looks as if it was 
a Greek form; from G. 172, however, it appears that the bearer of the name 
was a son of IIA^vis, though this would not exclude the possibility of his having 
a Greek name. 

4. Trapaxyrov: probably not a proper name here and in line 13, but simply 
giving the trade of the father; so in G. 151 and elsewhere TlKotAis ^n-yjrov occurs. 

8. 1. Swrots Svpov : this name seems to have given Paeris much difficulty ; in 
G. 159 he spells it 



137. (G. 156). 164 x -105. Second to third century A.D. 

y. 

Ta 8. 



Ilafjpis IIari(ptos) vCOT(pov) ^(VLOUOV) a. 
5 'Apv<Q6(ri$) KvpaiKos fj,rj(viata) e. 
SevTrexyTrjs X v. 

IIp/jLfJ.OVV X pt8 

Tvvr) 



6. X v: if the unit was 19 denarii, as suggested above, this should be K: but 
there is no sign of a . 



i 5 6 ///. GREEK TEXTS 

138. (G, 176). 115 x -143. Second century A. D. 



\a eW Ae 
KaXrjovs 

fjLr)(viata) 0, \OLTT(^) y. 
<5/*(oia>y) y, XotTr(a) 0. 
5 Ilacpfuos ITacp/Jtoy d/*(ota>s) (, \onr(ty e. 



epov) "fipov d/i(owoy) {, \OITT(OL) . 



The following ostracon is a fragment only, but is interesting on 
account of the heading, which shows it to have contained a list of the 
night-police for a particular month. 

139. (G. 195). -071 x -086 (broken below). Second century A. D. 

rov t$ 



flpo(v) 'Oi>[va></>pios] 
5 [ W<*) Ha^Oov) ( ] 



2. Aexavos: written <p; cf. p. 117. 



One list occurs in two copies (G. 153 and G. 188), written in different 
hands ; it contains a numbered statement of K\fjpoi tpyar&v for a certain 
year. Unfortunately both copies are broken, and the end of the first 
line, which may have contained a statement of the purpose of the K\fjpot, 
is lost in both. In view of the duplication of the list, it may be suggested 
that, when the lots were drawn for rota of duties, each man concerned 
was supplied with a copy of the list. The text given is that of the more 
complete copy. 



ROMAN 157 

140. (G. 153). a 10 x -087 (broken on right and below). 

Second century A.D. 
KXfjp(oi) ipyaratv te Kai y[ 

a IlXi}(w) IIapJK(ios) Ta'tov 



y Hap-tv Tcuov 

5 8 





{ KaXaaripis ' 
rj Ilovtopio 
10 6 Ilafjpis 'AfjLp[cwiov ? 

I* ...... M 

2. Faiov: in G. 188 written here and in 1. 4 Facibv. 

3. 'AXetfcet IlaTa-e^ts : 1. IIaT(rej8^ios : this name and that of KaXao-ipts 'AXeiicei 
(1. 8) occur in the Paeris lists (no. 136 above). 

g. Ilouwptos: 1. IIovwpts: in G. 188 it is written Ilovopts. 

Another fragment presents a problem, the solution of which is 
obscure. Entries are made of quantities of corn, barley, and pulse, and 
one-third is taken of each entry ; and at the end a valuation in money 
appears to have been made. 

141. (G. 168). -093 x -094 (broken on all sides). Second century A.D. 

]a . . OHTI . . . [ 

]^Tpo(i) airo 'lonSiov opovs %a TO y [%y 
]os AO\OVTOS %e TO y %ao^ 
]yov 7ra(TTo<f>6(pov) %/3 TO y %(fy 

5 ] "flpov %/3 Kpi(6fjs) - y8 TO y %o7 K(pi6?is) - oifi 
]<So-iy yvvrj n\6p(r(ios) iy TO y %a 
]y %y TO y %a 

]co/ooy 0a/c(of5) -r- a^ TO y (paK(ov) [-r ^ 
Af/?t(^7}y)] y TO y Kpi6(fj$) a 
10 - .# 



-r dpy(vpiov) ira\(ouov) 
X 



158 ///. GREEK TEXTS 

6. ty : y is corrected, apparently from a. 

ii. x/ry: this number is written over another, possibly 

1 2. apy(vpLov) 7ra\(aiov) : this may refer to the Ptolemaic tetradrachms, which 
were still in circulation in Egypt till late in the third century ; or, if the ostracon 
was written after the debasement of the currency in the reign of Commodus, the 
reckoning may be in the older Roman tetradrachms, which appear, from the 
evidence of hoards, to have been more appreciated than the debased issues. 

The following account, which is almost complete, concerns a society 
of worshippers of Amenothes, probably connected with the temple of 
Hatasu at Deir-el-bahri, the upper court of which was given over in 
Ptolemaic and Roman times to the cult ot this god of healing ; the 
graffiti scribbled on the walls suggest that it became a sanatorium. The 
ostracon gives a list of names with entries of one po 5 or /ceP against 
each ; the contractions are presumably for p68iov and Kepd/jLiov, and 
the account is one of the contributions of jars of wine made by members 
of the society, no doubt for the common benefit at their meetings. 

142. (G. 334). -178 x -163 (top right-hand corner broken). 

Second century A.D. 

Aoyos avvoSov 'A/jLva>6ov Oeov [neyivTov 
Meo-opr) e WevTirovfj^) y p68(iov) [a. 
<~ $OofjLw6(r)$) o- 'A7ro\\ovi(ov) p68(iov) a. 
la 2i(r6is 'Airo\Xa)vi(ov) p68(iov) a. 
5 ' E7rayo(jjii><oi') a 'Afj.a)i/io(?) WWTLTOV^OVS) p68(iov) a. 
8 nafjKX>v6(r)$) $6ofji<x>i>0(ov) p6S(iov) a. 

^L a>0 a IlKv<7i($) KafjLr)Tt(os) p68(iov) a. 
J3 WVTLTovfj(s) y p68(iov) a. 
^Fej/riroi^y) y p68(iov) a. 
10 ^fcroty ^47roAA(0j>/'(oi;) p6S(iov) a. 



77 Wei>TLTOvfj(s) y p68(iov) a. 

o- 'Airo\\(ii)vi(ov) fi68(Lov) a. 
p68(iov) a. 

) Kepfapiov) a. 
15 6 ^4/^(0^^0(9) "evTLTOvrj(ovs) fib8(LOv) 



a. 



ROMAN 159 

la Sicr6is 'A7roX(Xcwiov) p68(iov) a. 

Kp(dfJ.ioi>) a. 

a. 

(col. 2) <$ nKVo>i(s) p68(iov) a. 

20 WVKdX(afJ.f]S ?) Kp(dfJLLOV) a. 

'A7roX(Xoi)i>iov} p68(iov) a. 

?) Kp(dfjLlOV) a. 

p68(iov) a. 



2. y: this letter regularly follows the name of Psentitoues, except in the last 
entry ;' it may be suggested that it represents ypa/x/xaTev?, and he was secretary 
of the society ; at any rate he is the most frequent contributor in this list. 

poSiov: the Rhodian measure of wine is already known from an ostracon 
(Wilcken, Ostr. i, p. 765); it probably originated from the Rhodian amphorae, 
the stamped handles of which are common at Alexandria, though I know no 
instance of their having been found at Thebes ; they are rare outside the Delta. 
Another measure of wine which occurs in Egyptian documents is the KVI&IOV 
(Wilcken, /. c.). This may have been connected with amphorae similarly, as Knidian 
amphora-handles also have been found fairly frequently at Alexandria. 

3. o- : the symbol following the name of Phthomonthes here and in 1. 12 is 
obscure; it appears to be <57, possibly for 



Another list possibly concerned with wine gives particulars of SnrXo- 
Kpd/j,ia distributed to various persons, in the same manner as G. O. 1485* 
The offices of the recipients suggest that the occasion of the distribution 
was a festival. 

143. (G. 305). -098 x -075. Third century A.D. 



Por)6(&} Sur^oKepdfjLiov) a. 

d/io/joo?) &7r(Ao/cepa/aoj>) a. 
7nTp6iT(ov) Snr(\oKpd/*ia) ft. 



pr}T<opi 'ETTurOfor} ?) 8nr(XoKpdfjiiov) a. 

8l7T(XoKpdfJLLOV a. 

8i7r(XoK6pdfj.ioi') a. 



i6o ///. GREEK TEXTS 

10 @07)6(<) &a<n\iK(ov) 8nr(\oKpdfua) e. 
0T/>ari7yo> 8nr(\oKpdfjua) y. 

y(iyi>T<u) 8iir(\oKpdfjiia) tO y TT 
X(otTrdj') @OVT( ) SnT^oKepdpiov) a. 

2. 1. Sa/MXTiWi. 3. 1. 'Ai/Ticr^cvj/. 6. 1. KOpvovK\api<*>. 8. 1. TT/OIVKITTI. 

i. K: the date appears to have been altered from K$-. 

5. aypaprja-avTi : Dr. Hunt suggests that this may be meant for ayopavo^a-avn 

The following account of ' heliotrope ' wood presents some novelties. 
144. (G. 192). -104 x -084. First century A. D. 

v\ov 
7rpa>Tov 



A(Xo) O/JL(OIO>S) eVra^uXoi p 
5 ^A(Xo) 6fjL(ofa) 8ckdv\(oi) 
aX(Xo) 6/jL(ota)s) 7ro\vgv\(oi) 
7rl TO OUTO 



I. 

2. Tr/ovcr/xoi; : presumably for 

8. This line is badly rubbed; possibly it should be completed 
is intended to convey that the 20 7roAvvXoi, which may be those referred to in the 
side-note as put aside for sawing, were not to be reckoned in : but in this case the 
arithmetic is wrong, and it does not appear for what the I and ft are meant. 

Two lists of names may be given in conclusion : the first, written in 
good capitals, contains a curious metronymic ; the second is interesting 
for the occupations noted. 

145. (G. 6). -092 x '154. First century A.D. 

Tav<ripLS 

ptias KCU 

fJirjTpbs Seas 

7TO TOV Hep/ rj/3a$. 



ROMAN 161 

146. (G. 154). -089 x -098. Second century A.D. 



ITXeXoily 

KXaTcts 
5 KaXfjs a 



S 
IIa)(ov/jLi$ vtos. 




'*ts 






/ / . 

W -V" 



/ 

/ s 



128 









- v..'vi.*ltV*' 



100 




IT' 



, 



*?*>?* 



'.: 









1 06 



125 



INDEXES 



I. EMPERORS. 



Augustus : Kaurap, 80, 2 : 115,1. 

Claudius : Tt/Jeptos KXavStos Kato-ap 2U/?aoros TepfjiaviKos AvroKpdVwp, 74, 3 : 

97, 2. 

Nero : Nepwv 6 KV/HO?^ 32, 2 : 41, 3 : 71, 3 : 116, 5. 

Vespasian: Oveo-Trao-tavos 6 *vptos, 33, 2 : 43, 3 : 44, 3 : 77, i : 103, 3. 

Titus : TITOS 6 KV/MOS, 45, 4 : 46, 4. 

Domitian : Ao/urtavos 6 Kvptos, 47, 4 : 48, 3 : 49, 5 : 50, 3 : 88, 3 : 104, 4. 

Trajan: Tpatavos, 81, 4. 

Tpatavos Katcrap, 98, 4. 

Tpatavos 6 /cvptos, 36, 3 : 37, 3 : 78, 3 : 93, 7: 117, 2 : 118, i : 

H9 v 3- 

Tpatai/os Kato-ap 6 Kvptos, 34, 3 : 35, 2 : 38, 3 : 82, 5 : 119, 7. 
Tpatavos "Apioros Karap 6 /cvptos, 99, 4. 
Hadrian : A8ptai/6s Kato-ap, 42, 4. 

'ASptavos 6 Kvptos, 56, 5 I 1 2O, 2. 

'Afyxavos Kato-ap 6 Kvpios, 39, 4 : 51, 4 : 83, 4 : 84, 4: 87, 6 : 

94, 4: 127, 4. 
cos 'ASpiavos, 92, 2. 
Antoninus Pius: 'Ai/rawi/os 6 Kvpto?, 53, 3: 128, 6. 

*AvTawvos Katcrap 6 Kvpios, 40, 3 : 52, 3 : 57, 4 : 85, 4 : 92, 6 : 

101, 4 : 105, 6 : 106, 6 : 107, 4 : 129, 4. 
M. Aurelius and L. Verus : 'Ai/rowi/os /cat Ovrjpos ol Kvpiot 2c/?aaW, 58, 4 : 72, 8 : 

108, 4: 121, i. 

'Avrtovtvos /cat Ovrypos ot Kvptot AvroKparope?, 72, 3. 
M. Aurelius: Avp>yXtos 'Avrcovtvos Karcrap 6 /cvpios, 109, 3. 
Aurelius and Commodus : Avp^Atot 'Avrcovtvos ^at Kd//,//,o8os KatVapcs ot Kvptot, 

100, i. 

Commodus: AvpiyAtos Ko/x,/xo8os 'Ai/T<ovtvos Kato~ap 6 Kvpios, 75> 4 IIQ J 3- 
Pertinax : DovySXios "EXovtos IIcpTtVa^ ^eySao-ros, 64, 5. 

Sept. Severus : Aov/aos ^ScTTTt/xios 2covr;pos Evo-cyS^/s IlepriVa^ Kato-ap 6 Kvptos, 
122, I. 

Caracalla and Geta: 'Ai/r<oi/tvos /<at Fcras Evo-^8ets lU/faorot", 123, i. 

Sev. Alexander: Map/co? Avp^Xtos Seov^pos 'AXe^ai'Spos Kato^ap 6 Kvptos, 124, i. 

Gallus and Volusian: ot Kvptot T^/XCOI/ TaXXos /<at OvoXovo-tavos ^e/Jao-roi, 125, i. 



164 



INDEXES 



II. TAXING-OFFICERS. 

[Note : The date of each reference is given in angular brackets : in the 
Ptolemaic list B.C. is to be understood; in the Roman, except where otherwise 
specified, A. D.] 



(i) Money-taxes. 
TpairiTcu (by districts). 



A. Ptolemaic. 

'Ep//,(tas) 



(156 or 145), i, 3. 
'Ep/x,o<iAos (154 or 143), 2, 3, 8. 

AlOS TToAtS. 

(155 or I44>, 8, 4. 

i34> 9, 4- 
(107?), 3, 6 : 5, 3. 

(107?), 3, 3: 4, 3: 

(2nd-ist cent.), 6, 4. 
'Hpa/cAi&7s (107?), 4, 8. 
NiKo/rnxos (107 ?>, 5, 7. 
District not specified. 

'HAtoSwpos (3rd cent.), 7, 5. 

(ii) Taxes in kind. 
IiroXoyoi. 



i/?) Kat 'Ep//,(ias) 
Kpdvtos (93 ? >> 13, 5. 



> 6. 
15, 5- 



Signers of receipts (by districts). 



Atos 

'AVTI'OXOS (2nd cent.), 22, 5. 
Estimetis (2nd cent.), 22, 6. 
Psemminis (2nd cent.), 22, 7. 

(2nd-ist cent.), 16, 5. 



'A7roAAan/ios (155 or 144), 23, 4, 5. 
'Apo-Lrjo-Ls (155 or 144), 23, 6 : 24, 5, 
'HAto&opos (155 or 144), 24, 4. 
Hatres (149 or 138), 25, 7. 
(149 or 138), 25, 5. 

(149 or 138), 25, 3. 
(148 or 137), 26, 3, 7. 
(148 or 137), 26, 5. 
Thotsutmis (148 or 137), 26, 4, 8. 
mve( ) (123), 1 8, 3. 

(US), 20, 3. 



Avo> 



(i) Money-taxes. 
dpyupiKuv (by districts). 



Roman. 



ovtos Kat IIaxi/oi!/x,ts(l56), 85, I. 
(132), 83, i. 



Me/xvoi/eta. 

neroo-ipis (109), 34, i : (before 114), 
82, i. 

Kal Ilao-^/xts (no), 35, I. 



IIa//,<oj/#ou (113), 36, i: 

(iiS-M), 37, i: (H4>, 38, i : 
(116), 99, i. 

^avcrva>s^(i26), 39, i. 
Iepa Kat Ilopievtfr/s (138), 40, I. 
IIA^i/is Kat Pov<f>o<s (160), 53> i. 
Avpr/Atos Kapowtos IIAvi/ios Kat //,. 
(3rd cent.), 79, i. 



Kat fji. (107), 8 1 , i. 
Xecr^ots (119), 94, I- 



INDEXES 



165 



Tavp(. . . .) 

AvpTyAtos Tvpavos 

(213), 86, i. 
District not specified. 

eW (119), 51, i. 

Ili/aos Kat ft. (134), 84, I. 



/cat ft. 



District not specified. 

Avp^Atos IIA^ns 2}ei/KaAacrtpto9 {3rd 
cent.), 96, i. 

TcXwmi (by taxes). 



t. (156), 57> i- 
Kat ft. (167), 58, I. 
'AovcAas Kat p. (193), 64, I. 



os Kat ft. (ist cent.}, 91, i. 

TeXwi/ai Otjaaupou Upuc. 
eWKotft. (78), 44, i. 

Kttt /X. (80), 46, I. 



BaA.ai/W 



i (by taxes). 

Kat ' ATrtwv (133), 42, I. 
.). 
t IIo/oicv^s (140), 52, I. 



i/ts 



(3rd cent.), 90, i. 



Kat /A. (141), 92, I. 
(reA.). 
Kat ft. (142), 101, I. 

'EirinrjptjTai (by taxes). 



(re A.). 
J Ep(i>s Kat fjL. (136), 56, I. 

Kat p. (189), 59, I, 



Kat fj,. (191), 60, i : 61, i : 
(192), 63, i. 

#avcn/cus Kat JJL. (191), 62, I. 
Ilopovcrtos Kat //,. (197), 66, I. 
Ne<ep(os 7rpccrj8vTpos ^^ov/xtvtos Kat 

/* (J97), 65, i: (198), 68, i. 
Ne<^pa>s Kat ft. (198?), 69, I. 
MtiJcrts SeVeoi/os (197?), 67, I. 
Kat /A. (3rd cent.), 70, i. 
(reA.). 

*A7roAAtvaptos *AKa/otavros Kat /x. { 1 3 3 ), 
87, I. 

rcA.). 



Kat /x,. (2nd-3rd cent.), 76, i. 
r)<ravpov (rcA.). 

'OptyeV^s Kat ft. (189-90), 54, i. 
r)<ravpov tcpwv (reA.). 

Ilaftwv^s Kat ft. (190-1), 55, I. 

Otl/OV Tlft^S. 

Mtvo-ts Kat ft. (181-2), 89, I. 

Collectors without title. 

IltKws TlafjLwvOov Kat ft. (645), 41, I. 
'Iftov% Kat ft. (113), 93> * 



Ke^aAos (19 B.C.), 80, 3. 

BOT)001. 

Of TrpaKTOpcs apyvpiK&v. 

(113), 36, i : (113-14), 37, 
(114), 38, 2. 
) (160), 53, 2. 



Of 



Ileftcratus 



dpyvpiKoiv. 
(126), 39, 2. 

(138), 40, 2. 



(133), 87, 3. 

us Orjo-aupou. 
, 98, I. 



i66 



INDEXES 



Assistants without title. 

v? (44), 74> 2. 

(213), 86, 3. 



Signers of receipts. 

(67), 71, 5. 

(75), 77, 4- 
(76), 43, 5. 
'Hpa/cXct'Srjs <8o), 45, 5. 
) (82), 47, 6. 
82>, 48, 5- 
(85), 49, 7. 
'Hpa/cXei&7S (loo), 78, 4. 
'ApvwT>?s (107), 81, 5, 7. 
'A( ) (113), 93, 8, 13. 
s(ii9), 5i, 5- 
(119), 94, 5. 
(142), 101, 6. 
Ka( )<i6i>, 72,5. 
T( ) (162), 72, 10. 
IIavt(r/cos (2nd~3rd cent.), 73, 3. 



(ii) Taxes in kind. 



Xapa 



(192), 114, I. 



Me/xvoi/eta. 

M. Avp. Qpo? 6 /cat n/coiXts /cat M. Avp. 
IIA^vts IIATJi/tos {215), in, i. 



/cat 

irp. 'A^as (160), 106, I : 107, I. 
District not specified. 

Ila^/HS [KOI /*.?] (148), 105, I. 

Collectors of&xupiK.& rAr). 

KdWios (o-TpaTtw-nys) (77-8), 103, I. 
ATrptos Pe/x,eAAos 
<i66), 108, i. 



Appio<s "Arep (o-rpaTtwr^s) (89), 
104, I. 



of receipts. 

For a^ypLKo. rcXiy. 

(176), 109, 4. 
(182), no, 5. 
I!IK(CUS?) (212), 112, 4. 
r Opos (212), 112, 5. 
For KpiOYjXoyiKov. 

'A/A/AWVIOS (2nd-3rd cent.), 113, 4. 
For //,Tp>y/AaTa Oyo-avpov. 
Tt( ) (16 B.C.), 115, 5. 

)<99X "7. 5- 

(107), 118, 6. 
ws (107), 118, 8. 
'Ec/>( ) (126), 120, 5. 
'A/xw(vios) (163), 121, 5. 

$( ) (197), 122, 8. 

E^( ) (211), 123, 3, 5. 
Avp>jAios At( ) (233), 124, 5. 
Avp^Xtos Atoo-Kopo? A( ) (253), 

125, 5- 

(iii) Dyke-works. 



-1 8), I 27, I. 

District not specified. 

'lo-tSwpov (139), 128, i. 
v (140), 129, I. 



nXiyvtos /cat 
"Opov (2nd cent.), 130, i 



Me/mov (117-18), 127, I. 
WS? (2nd cent.), 130, 2. 



Oys (139), 128, 2. 



INDEXES 



167 



III. PERSONAL NAMES. 



A( ) (sign.), 48, 5. 

A( ) (sign.), 93, 8, 13. 

A( ), Avp?;Xio9 AidcrKopo9 (sign.), 

125, 5. 

'Ao>9, father of Kametis, 139, 2. 
'A0a9, father of Paunches the elder, 
106, i : 107, i. 

31, 3. 
, father of Apollinarios, 87, i. 

father of Kalasiris, 136, 6: 
140, 8. 

son of Patsebthis, 140, 3. 
^ ) (sign.), 47, 6. 
*A/xevo>0?7?, 107, 2. 

'A/Aveo&79, father of Amenothes, 17, 2. 
'A/A.ev<60?79, son of Amenothes, 17, 2. 
, father of Kallias, 115, 2. 
, son of Kametis, 139, 2. 
son of Kumaikos (?), 137, 5. 
(praktor), 85, i, 4. 
(sign.), 20, 3. 
'A/x/x,(6no9 (sign.), 113, 4. 

ios) (sign.), 121, 5. 
(trapezites), 3, 6 : 5, 3, 6. 
'A/x,fu6nos, son of Apollonios, father of 

Phmois, 51, 2. 

'A/A/XOW09 (?), father of Paeris, 140, 10. 
'A/x.(/A><ovio9, son of Psentitoues, 142, 5, 

15- 

A/xfoi/ov9, 74 j 2> 

'Aj/8pdl/lK09, 133, I. 

'Avri/Xe, 136, 3. 

'AI/TIOXOS (sign.), 22, 5: 26, 3, 7. 

'AvTicr0evr79, 143* 3- 

'AVTCOVIO?, 76, 3* 

(apaitetes), 42, i, 6. 
(sign.), 43, 5. 

son of Akamas (epite- 
retes), 87, i. 

(sign.), 118, 6. 

, father of Isi- 
dores the younger, 125, 3. 
> A7roX(X)o8wpo9, son of Porieuthes, 124,4. 



3, 3 : 



'AiroXXwvio9, 131, 3. 
'A7roXXwvio9 (praktor), 81, i. 
'A7roXXdwo9 (sitologus), 23, 4, 5. 
'A7roXX(oW)9) (sign.), 1 6, 5. 
> A7ToXXwvto9 (sign.), 109, 4. 
J A7roXX(6no9 (trapezites), i, 3 : 

4, 3 : 6, 4. 
J A7roXX(6vto9, father of Ammonios, 51, 2. 
*A7roXXwvto9, son of Leonidas, 4, 5 : 5, 4. 
'A7roXXoWo9, father of Phthomonthes, 

142, 3, 12. 
'A7roXXo)j/io9, father of Sisois, 142, 4, 10, 

1 6, 21. 

'A7roXXwi/io9, son of Theon, 23, 3: 24, 2. 
'A7roXXw9 (telones), 46, i. 
v A7r/oio9 re/xXXo9 (centurion), 108, i. 
'Apftrjx 1 '*} father of Petem(enophis ?), 
68, 2. 

father of Phaeris, 77, 2. 
, son of Imouthes (?), father of 
Psemonthes and Pamounis, 127, 2. 
l A/o7rai5<ri9, son of Pasemis, 129, 2. 
'ApTr/Srix 1 *' father of Psenharpbechis, 

84, 2. 

'Ap7rxwu9 (sign.), 1 1 8, 8. 
"Appto9 "Arcp, 104, i. 
'Apo-i7?o-t9 (sitologus), 23, 6: 24, 5: 26, 5. 
, son of Kales, 138, 2. 

father of Plenis, 



, son of Psemmonthes, 25, 2. 
(sign.), 8 1, 5, 7. 
, son of Maieuris, father of 
Maieuris and Psenamounis, 43, 2 : 
44, 2 : 45, 2 : 47, i : 48, i : 49> * ' 
50, i: 120, 3. 
'Ao-/cXa9 (telones), 64, i. 
'Ao-KXa9 vWTepo9, son of Erieus, 85, 2. 
'Ao-KXa9, father of Petearoueris, 39, 2. 
'Ao-KXfc, son of Horos, 117, 4 : 1 18, 3. 
"Arep, v Appto9, 104, i. 
'Arp^9, father of Esoueris, 114, 6. 
'Arpij9, son of a parachutes, 136, 4. 



Y 2, 



i68 



INDEXES 



'ATPTJS, son of Patsebthis, father of 

Pasemis, in, 4. 
rjs, father of Phthomonthes, 36, 2. 

, father of Seloulis, 10, 3 : 11,3. 
Avp-rjXios Ai( ) (sign.), 124, 5. 
Avp?jAio9 Ato<r/copo9 A( ) (sign.), 

125, 5- 
AvprjXios Kapowio9, son of Plunis (prak- 

tor), 79, i. 
AvpTJXtos ncx^s, son of Premtotes, 

90, 3 : 96, 3. 
Avp>?Aio9 IIXiJvis, Map/cos, son of Plenis, 

in, i, 8. 
Avp?jAio9 ILX.7JVL5, son of Senkalasiris 

(praktor), 96, i. 
AvprjXios Tvpaj/(v)o9, son of Eponuchos 

(praktor), 86, i. 
A^p^Aios tyejJiwvOrjs, 86, 3. 
Avp?7Aio9 \Ifevwpo9, 1 06, 3. 
Avp>jAio9 r flp09, Map/co9, 6 KCU II/coIAis, 

III, I, 7. 
AvpiJAios . . a&?9, son of Inaros (apai- 

tetes), 90, i. 
A{><f>o( ) (boethos), 53, 2. 



is, son of Chabonchonsis, 73, i. 
WS (epiteretes), 70, i. 



72, 10. 

Pato?, father of Pabekis, 140, 2. 
, father of Pamin, 140, 4. 

, "ATT/HOS (centurion), 108, i. 
(telones), 91,1. 



, 131, i. 

At( ), A^Atos (sign.), 124, 5. 
Aioyev^s (trapezites), 9, 4. 
Atoo-Kopos, AvpTJAios, 125, 5. 



143, 7. 

, father of Aur. Turanos, 86, i. 
(grammateus), 130, 2. 
(epiteretes), 56, i. 
son of Herakleides, father of 
Horos and Pikos (prostates), 30, i, 3. 
son of Pamonthes (praktor), 
36, i: 37 i: 38* i: 99> i- 



'Ep(t)vs, son of Phaeris, father of Asklas 

the younger, 85,- 2. 
'Ep/u'as (sign.), 25, 5. 
'Ep^tas (sitologus), 12, 8: 14, 6. 
'Ep/xtas, son of Ptolemaios, 22, 2. 
'Ep//,oyv^5, 6, 2. 
e Ep/xo^>tAos (trapezites), 2, 3, 8. 

, son of Hatres, 114, 6. 

, son of Pachomis, 114, 4. 

, father of Petosiris, 55, 2. 

(sign.), 51,5. 
) (sign.), 123, 3, 5. 

) (sign.), 120, 5. 



(sign.), 24, 4. 
'HAioSwpos (trapezites), 7, 5. 
'HpaicAas, father of Pekrichis, 89, 3. 
C ( Hpa(KAetSi7s ?) (sign.), 25, 3. 
c Hpa(/cA t'S77s?) (sign.), 45, 5. 
c ?) (sign.), 78, 4. 

(trapezites), 4, 8, 9. 

father of Erieus, 30, i. 

131, 2. 



131, i. 

mother of Kalatephois, 



ea 

M5, 3- 

p/>to{5^i9, wife of Pamonthes, 93, 3, 10, 
cW (praktor), 51, i. 
eW (sitologus), 10, 4. 
eW (telones), 44, i. 
eW, father of Apollonios, 23, 3 : 24, 3. 
eW, father of Postumos, 1 18, 3. 
VS, son of Taso(us ?), 7, 3. 
, father of Pikos, 92, 3. 



'Icpa^ (praktor), 40, i. 
'Icpa^, son of Pelileus, 146, i. 
, son of Phmois, 146, 2. 
93, i. 

, father of Harpaesis, 127, 2. 
, father of Aur. ( )athes, 90, i. 
co?, son of Kabiris, father of Kol- 
leuthes, 128, 3. 
/apws, father of Sentithoes the younger, 

101, 2. 

, father of Talos, 121, 3. 



INDEXES 



, son of Horos, 101, 2. 
9, 3. 

vcwTcpos, son of Apollodoros 
the elder, 125, 3. 

, son of Phthomonthes, 127, i. 
, father of Psennesis, 128, i. 



Ka( ) (sign.), 72, 5- 
Ka/ftpis, father of Inaros, 128, 3. 
KaXao-ipis, son of Aleikei, 1 36, 7 : 

140, 8. 

KaXao-ipi?, son of Pekusis, 136, 9. 
KaAa-n/^ois, daughter of Thea Megiste, 

145, 2. 

KaA^s, 146, 5- 

KaX>7s, father of Harsiesis, 138, 2. 
KaXXi'as, 17, 4. 

KaXXias, son of Amenothes, 115, i. 
Ka/x^rts, son of Abos, father of Ame- 

nothes, 139, 2. 

son of Pamonthes, 99, 2. 
^Tts, father of Pekusis, 136, n. 

, father of Pekusis, 142, 7, 13. 
Kapowios, Avp>;Xios, son of Plunis (prak- 

tor), 79, i. 
Kcurcrios, 103, i. 
Ke'<aXos (trapezites), 80, 3. 
KXwTts,_i46, 4. 

Koii/rcu/3, daughters of Quintus, 106, 2. 
Kotvros, father of two Quintae, 106, 3. 
KoXav#)?s, son of Pasemis, 82, 2. 
KoXXai/0?7s,son of Petemenouphis, 105, 2. 
KoXXev'flr/s, son of Inaros, 128, 3. 
Kpar>7S, 134, 2. 

Kpovicuva, wife of Petemphthos, 98, 2. 
KpoVos (sitologus), 13, 5. 
Kv/>iaiKos(?), father of Amenothes, 137,5. 

Aa/3cu?, father of Pasemis, 116, 2. 
AcXovs, son of Senamenrosis, 58, 2. 
Accon&xs, father of Apollonios, 4, 6 : 

5, 5- 

AoX^ns, father of Seloulis, 16, 2. 
AoXovs, father of .... os, 141, 3. 

fyHs, father of Harphmois, 49, 2: 

50, i. 



45> 



169 



son of Harphmois, 44, i : 
: 47 i- 48, i : 1 20,^3. 
AvpijXios *Opos 6 KCU IlKotXi?, 
in, I, 7. 
Map/cos Avp?JXios IIX^vis, son of Plenis, 

in, i, 8. 

Me/xvwv (grammateus), 127, i. 
Mc/x,(va)v ?) (sitologus), 12,8. 

, father of Straton, 27, 3. 
(epiteretes), 89, i. 
son of Xenon (epiteretes), 67, i. 

Nc[ ], father of Pouoris, 140, 9. 
)(sign.), 117, 5. 
(epiteretes), 69, i. 
Trpco-^vrepos, son of Phthou- 
minis (epiteretes), 65, i : 68, i. 
, son of Psemmonthes, 56, 2. 
.), 5, 7. 



father of Miusis, 67, i. 



, father of Horos, 139, 4. 
, son of Horos, 139, 4. 
, father of Pekusis, 118, 4. 
(or Ovcrepovvjpis), father of 
Horos, 46, 2 : 104, 2. 
'Oo-opovJ/pis, son of Horos, 46, 3. 

(trapezites), 8, 4. 
, son of Gaius, father of Plenis, 
140, 2. 

, father of Paermis, 138, 5. 
, son of Paermis, 138, 5. 
105, i. 
, 136, i. 

, son of Ammonios (?), 140, 10. 
a,7r6 T^yScov, 136, 1 6. 

, son of Paeris, 53, 2. 
pts, son of Paeris the elder, 136, 15. 
liar/pis, son of Paeris the younger, 137, 4. 
liar/pis vewrepos, father of Paeris, 137, 4. 
Ila^pts Trpco-^vrepos, father of Paei is, 1 36, 



, father of Seleue, 136, 5. 
liar/pis, father of Senpasemis, 40, 2. 



I 7 



INDEXES 



fjpis, son of Pseno(siris ?), father of 
Paeris, 53, 2. 

, son of Gaius, 140, 4. 
xii/is, son of Pamonthes and Ther- 
mouthis, 93, 4, 9. 

, son of Pachomis, 137, i. 
, son of Harpaesis, 127, 5. 
, father of Tachoulis, 32, 2. 
i/cwrepos, son of Horos, 

138, 7- 

HafjuavOrjs (apaitetes), 52, i. 
Ila/xw^s (epiteretes), 55, i. 
Ila/xwv^s, father of Erieus, 36, i : 37, i : 

38, i : 99, i. 

, son of Pamonthes, 93, 3. 
, father of Pikos, 41, i. 
, father of Sachomneus, 35, 2. 
s, son of Phatres, father of 
Phatres, Pamonthes, and Paminis, 
93, 2, 10. 
IIa/Awi/0?7s, son of Phthomonthes, 106, 

i: 107, i. 
IIa/x,<oi/0?7s, son of Phthomonthes, 142, 

6, 14, 17. 
IIa/Aort>&7s, son of Psenpo( ), father 

of Kametis, 99, 2. 

IIa//,on/0?7s, father of [ ]phris, 139, 5. 
Jlavto/Atos, son of Paos, 86, 5. 
iWo-Kos (sign.), 73, 3: 94, 5. 
ILmovcos (sign.), no, 5. 
IlaTrovTtos, father of Psuros, 137, 2. 
HacrfjfjiL<s (apaitetes), 42, i. 
(praktor), 35, i. 
, son of Hatres, in, 3. 
, father of Kolanthes, 82, 2. 
y/Ais, son of Labais, father of Horos, 
1 1 6, i. 

fiacre/us, son of Patsebthis, in, 3, 4. 
IlcuriJ/u?, son of Pko(ilis?), father of 

Harpaesis, 129, 2. 
IlatnJ/Ais, son of Phatres (epiteretes), 

76, i. 

Ilao-q/us, son of Psenamounis, 33, i. 
Ilacnj/us, father of Psenthaesis, 80, i. 
Uao-iW, son of Phthomonthes, 97, i. 
IIaT</x<Hs, father of Psemmonthes, 32, i . 
, father of Aleikei, 140, 3. 



, father o Pasemis and Hatres, 



father of Suros, 136, 17. 
IIaTo-e/?0is, son of Phthomonthes, 137, 8. 
IlaT^ar;?, father of Psenamounis, 33, i. 
HaT^d-tr)? (or HaT^ov^s), son of Psen- 
thuntasemis, father of Psenamounis, 
37, 2: 119, i. 

IIaT<j!>vs, father of Psommonthes, 38, 2. 
vTc/oos, son of Athas, 
106, i : 107, i. 

(praktor), 85, i. 

son of Psenchnoumis, 
81, 2. 

IIaxov/x,is, son of Pachoumis, 146, 8. 
Ilaxov/iis, son of Sansnos, father of 
Pachoumis, 146, 7. 

Trpto-ftvTcpos, 114, 5. 
s, father of Esoueris, 114, 4. 
, father of Paminis, 137, i. 
Haws, father of Paniomos, 86, 5. 
Ha ... x^os, father of Chesthotes, 23, 2. 
son of Heraklas, father of 
Pekrichis, 89, 2. 
ixiS) son of Pekrichis, 89, 2. 
, father of Kalasiris, 136, 9. 
, son of Kametis, 142, 7, 13, 19. 
, son of Kametis, father of Ple- 
nis, 136, TI. 

, son of Osoroueris, 118, 4. 
, son of Trempapouesis, 112, 2: 
123, 2, 4. 

xm, father of Phthominis, 136, 14. 
, father of Phthomonthes, 137, 8. 
s, father of Hierax, 146, i. 
Il/xo-(acos ?), 65, 2. 
Il/xo-(aw5?) (grammateus), 98, i. 

s, father of Peteminis, 109, 2. 

, father of Pikes, 12, 3 : 13, 2 : 
, 2: 15, 3: 30, 5. 

, son of PhthouminiSj 59, 2 : 
62, 3. 

IlT( ) (sitologus), 15, 5. 
IleTeapov^pts, son of Asklas, 39, 2. 
i IieTapovfjpL<s, son of Phaeris, 72, i, 6. 
J IlT/>tvoi;^)ts, father of Kollanthes, 
105, 2. 



INDEXES 



171 



, 66, 2. 
IIeTe/xeva)</>is, 69, 3. 
IlTe/x(eva></HS ?), 70, 2. 
IlTe/u,(ei/u><ts ?), son of Harbechis, 68, 2. 
neTe/Ava><is, father of Petemenophis, 

138, 3- 
rUTc/Acvw^is, son of Petemenophis, 

138, 3- 
IlT/>i,(evoHis ?), father of Petsen( ), 

67, 2. 
nT/x,ei/w<is, son of Senpetemenophis, 

54, 2: 60, 2: 61, 2. 
IlTe/xi/<o<is, son of Phthouminis, 64, 2. 
IIcTe/xtvts, son of Pemseus, 109, i. 
IIeT/uns, son of Petechon, father of 

Psenminis, 71, i. 

, father of Psemminis, 17, 3. 
<os, father of Petechon, 98, 2. 
IIeTv;(<ov<ris, 91, 2. 
IleTep/Aov&js, son of Phaeris, 42, 2. 
HeTxecr0<os, father of Psenchnoumis, 

81, 2. 

aT^s, son of Pikos, father 

of Horos, 117, 3. 

a<n;s, son of Psenapathes, 



IIeTxvov/?is, son of Psenamounis, 94, 2. 
, son of Patphoues, 119, 5. 
, father of Peteminis, 71, 2. 
/, son of Petemphthos and 
Kroniaina, 98, i. 

, father of Plelous, 146, 3. 
, son of Tem( ), 87, 3. 
father of Petechonsis, 138, 4. 
, son of Petechonsis, 138, 4. 
, son of Phthomonthes, 36, 2. 
, son of Psentasemis, 83, 2. 
-ipis (praktor), 34, i : 35, i : 82, i. 
Heroo-ipis, son of Esoueris, 55, 3. 
IleToo-op/cwv, father of Tithoes, 88, i. 
IlT<rev( ), son of Petemenophis, 6 7, 2. 
mxvVrys (sign.), 77, 4. 
Jlexirn/s, Avp^Xtos, son of Premtotes, 

90, 3 : 96, 3- 

nex^T^s, son of Tithoes, no, 2. 
ncx^nys, father of [ Jet/coii/is, 74, i. 
nt/<(<us ?) (grammateus), 112, 4. 



(praktor), 84, i. 
(sign.), 101, 6. 

, son of Erieus (prostates), 30, 2. 
, son of Thoteutes, 92, 3. 
, son of Pamonthes, 41, i. 

epos, son of Permamis, 12,3: 
13, 2: 14, 2: 15, 2: 30, 5. 

father of Petechespochrates, 

3- 

father of Phthomonthes, 97, i. 
n/ ( ) (sign.), 1 8, 3. 
ILcotAis, M. Avp. ^lipos 6 /cat, ill, I, 7. 
IlKo(tXts?), father of Pasemis, 129, 2. 
, son of Petechon, 146, 3. 
, 133, i. 
(praktor), 53, i. 

, son of Harsiesoes the younger, 
father of Senapathes, 114, 3. 
, son of Pabekis, 140, 2. 
, son of a parachutes, 136, 13. 
, son of Pekusis, 136, n. 
, /ather of Plenis the younger, 
140, 5. 

, son of Plenis the younger, 140, 7. 
, father of M. Aur. Plenis, in, 
2,8. 
Ii\rjvL<s, M. Av/Q^Aios, son of Plenis, in, 



2,8. 



vewTpo9, father of Plenis, 140, 7. 
vcwre/oos, son of Plenis, 140, 5. 
iyvis, AvprjXio?, son of Senkalasiris, 
96, i. 

^vis, son of Strabon the elder, 137, 3. 
son of Psenenphos (apaitetes), 
90, i. 

wTepos, father of Psenmonthes, 
130, i. 

nXiJvts, son of Psensenpaeris, 140, 6. 
IlXwts, father of Aur. Karounios, 79, i. 
Ilopuv'fys (apaitetes), 52, i. 
(epiteretes), 59, i. 
(praktor), 40, i . 
(telones), 58, i. 
, father of Apollodoros, 124, 4. 
HopovVios (epiteretes), 66, i. 
ndorv/xos, son of Theon, 118, 3. 
Hovoipts, son of Ne[ ], 140, 9. 



INDEXES 



IIpe/Aaws (epiteretes), 60, i : 61, i : 63, i . 
137, 7. 
39, 3. 

, father of Aur. Pechutes, 
90, 4 : 96, 3. 

IlToA(e/>iaios) (sign.), 49, 6. 
UroAc/xatos, father of Hermias, 22, 2. 
n x op<ns(?), 141, 6. 

'Pov<os (praktor), 53, i. 



father of Teloros, 79, 5. 
-us, father of Pachoumis, 146, 7. 
?, son of Truphon, 138, 6. 
29, i. 
i34> i. 
UapaTTiW, I43> 2. 

vs, son of Pamonthes, 35, i. 

130, 3- 
E, son of Paeris, 136, 5. 

29, i. 

>{)Ats, son of Aueles, 10, 2 : 11,3. 
>9Ais, son of Lolenis, 16, 2, 4. 
>s, son of Phaeris, 72, 2, 6. 

?, mother of Lelous, 58, 2. 
;, daughter of Plenis, 114, 3. 
5>KaAao-rpig, mother of Aur. Plenis, 96, i . 

, 18, 22. 

;, daughter of Paeris, 40, 2. 
'w<is, mother of Petemenophis, 
54, 2 : 60, 2 : 61, 2. 
vrr/s, 137, 6. 

:ws, daughter of Charops, 102, 2. 
?, wife of Plenis, 133, i. 

vcwTcpa, daughter of Inaros, 
101, 2. 

v<a?7pis, 41? 2. 

rats, mother of Phmois, 146, 9. 
(praktor), 114, i, 8. 

), father of Tabs the elder, 
95, 2. 
2i//,apio-T05, 3, 4- 

'as, father of Psenamounis, 28, 2. 

, son of Apollonios, 142, 4, 10, 
1 6, 28. 

?, son of Suros, 136, 8. 
2raA( ), father of [ ] <OK, 8, 5. i 



Trpeo-ySvrepos, father of Plenis, 

137, 3- 

Tparwv, son of Menodoros, 27, 2. 
vpos, son of Patsebthis, 136, 17. 
vpos, father of Sisois, 136, 8. 
, father of Chollos, 136, 12. 



TaAws, daughter of Inaros, 121, 3. 
TaAws Trpco-ySvTepa, daughter of Seto( ), 

95. i- 
Tao-oCs (?), mother of Thoteus, 7,3. 

, daughter of Tphoireia, 145, i. 
vAts, daughter of Pamounis, 32, i. 
, son of Samsousis, 79, 5. 

), father of Petechon, 87, 4. 
ws, son of Phatres, 78, i. 
Tt( ) (grammateus), 115, 5. 
TiOafjs (epiteretes), 75, i. 
Tt^o^s, son of Petosorkon, 88, i. 
Ti0oi}s, father of Pechutes, no, 2. 

^s, father of Phthouminis, 122, 5. 
e/xTraTrovi/o-is, father of Pekusis, 112,2: 
123,2. 

father of Sansnos, 138, 6. 
Tvpav(v )os, AvpTjAtos, son of Eponuchos 

(praktor), 86, i. 
T<f>oLpLa, mother of Tausiris, 145, i. 



ign.), 122, 8. 
, son of Harbechis, 77, 2. 
, father of Erieus, 85, 2. 
, father of Petearoueris and Sem- 
nous, 72, i, 2, 6, 7. 

, father of Petermouthes, 42, 3. 
father of Psenamounis, 57, 2. 
^s, father of Pamonthes, 93, 2, 10. 
, son of Pamonthes and Ther- 
mouthis, 93, 2. 
7}s, father of Pasemis, 76, i. 
^s, father of Teos, 78, i. 
>79, father of Phatres, 75, 2. 
>7s, son of Phatres, 75, 2. 
, son of Pekusis, 136, 14. 
38, 2. 
125, 3. 
134, I- 



INDEXES 



(grammateus), 87, 3, 
(praktor), 83, i. 
son of Apollonios, 142, 



, son of Hatres, father of 

Petechonsis, 36, 2. 
6ofj,<av6r)s } father of Isidores, 127, i. 
0o/x,o>v0>7s, father of Pamonthes, 106, 

i: 107, i. 
0o/xa)j/0r7s, father of Pamonthes, 142, 

6, 14, 17. 

o^v6-rj<s, son of Pekusis, father of 

Patsebthis, 137, 8. 

ofjLwOr]s, son of Pikos, father of 

Pasion, 97, i. 

s, son of Chestphnachthis, 

3- 

son of Horos, 129, i : 
130, i. 
$6ovfuvi<s, father of Nepheros the elder, 

65, i : 68, i. 
0ovtuvis, father of Permamis, 59, 3 : 

62,3- 
3>0ovfuvLs, father of Petemenophis, 

64, 2. 

0ovfjuvi<s, son of Tithoes, 122, 5. 
&0oviJi<jt>v0ir)<5, IOO, 3. 
&0ovfjLw0r)<s, son of Chemsneus, 34, 2. 
<K/?is, son of Psemmonthes, 1 8, 2 : 

19, 2: 20, 2: 21, 2, 3. 

<E>iSa/>t/x(ov (sign.), 102, 5. 
(grammateus), 39, 2. 
son of Ammonios, 51, i. 
, father of 'Icpal, 146, 2. 
, son of Sev^ai?, 146, 9. 
A.yo//,vos ^opo-is, 146, 6. 
, 146, 6. 



, father of Besis, 73, 2. 
, father of Senpikos, 102, 2. 

father of Phthoumonthes, 
34, 2. 

, son of Pa ... chimos, 23, 2. 
is, father of Phthomonthes, 

139; 3- 

(praktor), 94, i. 
ws, son of Suros, 136, 12. 



(epiteretes), 62, i. 
ws (praktor), 39, i. 
, son of Peteminis, 17, 3. 
, father of Horos, 26, 2. 
2, 4. 

freedman (?) of Amenothes, 
107, 2. 

, father of Haruothes, 25, 2. 
father of Nepheros, 56, 3. 
, son of Patephmois and Ta- 
choulis, 32, i. 

efjLfjLw0r)<s, father of Phibis, 18, 2 : 19, 
2: 20, 2 : 21, 3. 

AvpTJA.609, 86, 3. 
, son of Harpaesis, 127, 2. 
, father of Psentasemis, 83, 2. 
, son of Harphmois, 43, i ; 
44, 2 : 49, i ; 50, i. 
^cva/iowts, son of Patphaes (Patphoues), 

37, 2: 119, i. 

\l>i/a/Aowi5, son of Patphaes, father of 
Pasemis, 33, i. 

, father of Petechnoubis, 94, 2. 
, son of Sinas, 28, 2. 
, son of Phaeris, 57, i. 
, father of [ Jausis, 22, 3. 

I, 3. 
, father of Petechespochrates, 

113, 2. 

son ^ Harpbechis, 84, 2. 
w?, father of Plenis, 90, 2. 
son of Pasemis, 80, i. 

, father of Patphaes (Pat- 
phoues), 37, 2: 119, 2. 

, 142, 2O. 

son of Peteminis, 71, i. 
vis, father of Psentphous, 52, 2. 

, son of Plenis the younger, 
130, i. 

, son of Isidores, 128, i. 
^o-ts, son of Psenosiris, 103, i. 
father of Paeris, 53, 2. 
-ipts, father of Psennesis, 103, i. 
), father of Pamonthes, 99, 2. 
(grammateus), 40, 2. 
, father of Plenis, 140, 6. 
;, 136, IO. 



INDEXES 



128, i. 

, son of Psemonthes, father 
of Petechonsis, 83, 2. 

v?/?, 142, 2, 8, 9, ii, 23. 

vrjs, father of Ammonios, 142, 5, 



, son of Psenminis, father of 
Horos, 52, 2. 

son of Petechesthos, father 
of Pachomneus, 81, 2. 
, Avp^Ato?, 1 06, 4. 

126, 2. 
, son of Papontos, 137, 2. 

, son of Patpheus, 38, 2. 



(epiteretes), 54, i. 

, 84, 2. 

s, 88, 2. 

(apaitetes), 92, i. 
r Opos (apaitetes), 101, i. 
^/ao? (boethos), 36, i: 37, i. 
T Opos (sign.), 112, 5. 
*Qpog (telones), 57, i. 
fipos, M. Avp^Atos, 6 KCU 11*01X15, in, 

i> 7- 

*Opo5, father of Asklas, 117, 4: 118, 3. 
T Qpo5, son of Erieus (prostates), 30, 2. 
, father of Inaros, 101, 3. 
, son of Onnophris, father of On- 
nophris, 139, 4. 



son of Osoroueris (Ouseroueris), 
46, 2 : 104, 2. 

, father of Pamounis the younger, 
138, 7- 

son of Pasemis, 116, i. 
son of Petechespochrates, 117, 3. 
, father of Phthomonthes, 129, i : 
130, i. 

, son of Psemminis, 26, 2. 
, son of Psentphous, 52, 2. 
, father of ?, 141, 5. 



Demotic texts. 

Androsthenes, 8, i. 

Athenion, 31, 4. 

Bes, son of Khef-khons, 73, 4. 

Erieus, 28, 4. 

Estimetis, 22, 6. 

Hatres, 25, 7. 

Khef-khons, father of Bes, 73, 4. 

Phibis, son of Psemmonthes, 21, 5. 

Psemminis, 22, 7. 

Psemmonthes, father of Phibis, 2 1, 5. 

Psenamounis, 28, 3. 

Talos, daughter of Zeho (?), 95, 3. 

Thotsutmis, 26, 5, 9. 

Zeho(?), father of Talos, 95, 3. 



IV. GEOGRAPHICAL. 



I Ayopat, 95, 2 : ioo, 4: 120, 3. . 

'Ayopat a, 125, 3. 

'Ayopat /3oppa, 43, 2 : 45, 2 : 47, 2 : 

48, 2; 49, 4: 50, 2. 
Ayopat 8 vorov, 42, 2. 
Ayopat VOTOV, 77? 2 ' IOI, I. 
Aj/(o TOTrapxta, 85, I I 88, 2. 
A^poSiTco, 132, 4. 
Atoo-7roAi5 ^ /xeyaAr;, 3, 2 : 4, 2 : 5, 2 : 

6, i : 8, 3 : 9, i : 16, i : 17, i : 22, 

2 : 27, 2. 
Aioo~7roAtV>75 KCITW (1/0/^05), 132, 6, 



'Ep/xwv0t9, i, 2 : 2, 2 : 83, i: 127, i, 
'Hpa/cXeoTToAtr^s (vo/xos), 132, I. 
>7/?ai, 136, 1 6. 

'Iy8tCOI/lT07ToAt5, 3O, 7. 

'Io-toYov opos, 141, 2. 
Ka/?ao-tV>7S (1/07x05), 132, 5. 
Kara) TOTrap^ta, II 6, 3: 1 1 8, I. 
KAov( ? ) (Trep/xw/xa), 127, 3. 

KoA . . . IVOTTOA.15, 7> 2. 

Kto/xat, 52,^2: 117,^1. 
Acoi/TOTroXirr;? (vo/xos), I3 2 > 5- 
At/3v>;, 115, 2. 



INDEXES 



119, 4. 

, 2, 4 : 18, 2 : 20, 2 : 21, 2: 
23, i : 24, 2 : 25, 2 : 26, i : 32, 2 : 
34, i, 2 : 35, i, 2 : 36, i, 2 : 37, i, 3 : 
38, i, 2 : 39, i : 40, 1:53.1: 79, 
3: 82, 2: 97, 2: 99, i, 3: 106, 2: 
107, 2: in, 2: 116, 3: 119, 2, 4: 
131, 2. 

MrjTpoTroAis, 8 1, i : 94, i : 120, i : 121, 
i: 122, i : 123, i : 124, i : 125, i. 
Nrjo-oi, 113, 2 : 121, 2. 

'AK/OVO( ? ), 1 1 8, 2. 



132, 3. 

NO'TOV (Aav'pa), 51, 3 : 123, 2. 
Ilept ij/3a5, 145, 4. 
2e/3 ....(?), 81, 6. 
Tavp( ? ), 86, 2. 
$iAat, 30, 4. 

(vo/xos), 132, 2. 
? ), 33, 2. 
Xapa, 72, 2, 7 : 81, 3 : 93, 5, n : 114, 
i: 122, 5. 

? ) (7repi X <o/*a), 128, g: 129, 3. 
, 71, 2 : no, i. 



V. WORDS. 



aAs, 41, 2. 

di/a/3aAAeiv, 128, 4: 129, 3: 130, 3. 
di/aStSdi/at, 135? * 
dvSpias, 42, 2. 
di/voovr;, 1 02, 3. 
dimStaypa</>?7, 21, 2. 
aTratT^T^s (see Officials). . 
aTraAAdo-crctv, 134, 3. 
5,7- 

47 2, 3: 67, 3. 
dpra/Jieia, IO, 2 : II, 2. 
acrTropos (?), I, 3. 

axvpov, 103, 2 : 104, 3 : 105, 4 : 106, 5: 
107,3: 108, 3: 109, 2: 110/2: 112, 3. 

/JaAavetov, 2, 3 : 52, 2 : 108, 3. 
paXavLKov, 34, 7 : 43, 3 : 44, 3 : 45, 3 : 4 6 > 4 : 
47, 2: 48, 3: 49, 4: 50, 3: 51, 3: 53, 3: 

54) 3 : 55, 3- 
/focriAiKdV (?), 30, 8. 
[see Officials). 

ov, 57, i: 58, i : 61, 2: 64, 2. 
?,56, 2: 59) 2: 60, i: 62,2: 63,3: 
65, 2: 66, i : 67, 2: 68, 2: 69, i: 70, i. 
yew/xcrpta, 71, 2: 72, 2, 7. 
yewpyds, 1 1 8, 4: 133, 2. 
ypa/A/mTvs (see Officials). 
3, 4 : 4, 5 : 5, 4. 



77, 3: 78, 2: 139, 2. 
8/<at>A.05, 144, 5. 



3, 7. 

SlttTTOtCtl/, 126, 4. 

, 143, 2, &c. 



, 29, 6: 131, 8. 

yKVKAtoi/(?), 40, 3, 5. 
eKarovrdpx^s, 108, I. 

K<j)6pLOV, 28, I. 

eAai'K^, 5, 3. 

IXatov, 3, 3: 4, 4: 6, 2: 132, 7. 

7Tt TO ttVTO, H4, 7: 121, 5. 

ImypaM, 12, 2: 13, 2: 14, 2 : 15, 2 

1 6, 2, 4. 

eTTtSeKarov, 30, 6. 
7riK<aA,aiov, 73, 2 (?) : 136, i. 
, 87, 2. 



eTTlVpOTTO?, 143, 4. 

144, 4. 
127, 2. 



epycmys, 



143, 9. 
134, 4- 



144) r 

11,2: 1 3, 2 : 1 5, 2 . 
74, 2 : 75, i : 76, 2. 



os, 1 1 6, 2. 
Zepov, 44, i : 46, 2: 55, 2: 117, i. 

KaOapos, 130, 7. 



176 



INDEXES 



KdpOV, 135, 2. 
KCpdfJLLOV, 142, 14, &C. 
/ClKl, 6, 2. 

Kopvov/cAapios, 143, 6. 
KpiQrjXoyia., 1 13, 2. 

ig, 77, i : 78, i, 2. 

79, 3. 



Aaoypa<ia, 32, 2 : 33, 2 : 35, 2 : 36, 2 : 37, 
2 : 3 8 > 2: 39,3>5' 45,2: 49,3: 53> 3 : 
80,2: 81,3,6: 82,3: 83,3: 84,3: 85, 
2: 86,4: 97, 2. 

Aaxavov, 121, 3, 4, 5. 

Ao'yos, 102, 3: 136, i: 142, i: 144,1. 



's, 42, I : 52, I : IOI, I, 3. 
(see Officials). 

, 136, 3, &c.: 137, i, &c. : 138, 
3, &c. 

/xio-005, 130, 5. 
//,io-0wcris, 115, 8: 131, 6. 

i/av/?ioi/, 127, 4, 6: 128, 5: 129, 4: 
130, 4, 6. 

146, 6. 
rj, 7, 2 : 8, 4. 
WKTO<j>vXa, 139, I. 



s, 132, 8, 9. 
gv\ov, 144, I, 9. 

011/05, 88, 2 : 89, i, 4 : 90, 3. 

131, 4. 
s, 146, 7, 9. 
6Vog, 91, 3. 
3os, 132, 8. 
oo-TpaKov, 135, 2. 
31, 2. 



109, I : IIO, I : 112, I. 
S, 136, 4, 13. 
7raoTO<opos, 141, 4. 

91, 2. 

127, 3: 128, 4: 129, 3. 
, 1 6, 4. 

92, I. 
TrXotov, 78, I. 



, 8, 5. 

, 144, 6. 

9, 2. 

36, 5 : 93, 5. 

TrpaKTOpeiov (?), 30, 8. 

(see Officials). 

114, 2. 
7iy>oo-TaTr?s, 30, 3. 
irporepov ypa^>eV, 1 6, 3: 25, 4. 
144, 2. 



143, 7. 
po6W, 142, 2, &C. 

o-i}o-a/ios, 7, 4. 

o-KoVeAos, 34, 2 : 93, ii : 94, 3- 

o"7Ttpa, 109, I. 

ov, 95? 2 : 96, 2. 
143, II. 
103, I : 104, I. 
134, 3. 



s, n6, 4: 119, 4, 6. 



TKTO)V, 1465 4- 

reAwi/^s (see Officials). 
rt/4 4, 4 : 6, 2 : 7, 3 : 88, 2 : 89, i, 4 : 
90, 2. 

T07TOS, 27, 2. 

TpaTTcfa, i, 2 : 2, 2 : 3, 3: 4, 3: 5, 2 : 8, 4: 
9, 2 : 89, 6. 

XTT/S (see Officials). 
H4, 3- 



<a/<o's, 132, 9: 141, 8, II. 
0otk 89, 2 : 90, 3. 

135, 2. 



Xepcros, 115, 4. 

Xp^/xa, 95, 2 : 96, 2. 

Xw/m, 129, 3. 

X<o/>uxTi/<6V, 32, 5: 33,5: 34, 9: 35,5: 36, 
6,7: 38,6: 43,2: 48,2: 50, 2: 51,2: 
73> 2: 81, 3: 97, 7: 98,3: 99, 3: 
100, 4 : 126, i. 
112, i. 



IOI I. 



IV 
COPTIC TEXTS 

NOS. 

i-n. LEGAL DOCUMENTS. 

12-2,6. TAX RECEIPTS. 

27-42. LETTERS. 

43. ACCOUNTS. 

44. LIST OF NAMES. 

45- SCHOOL EXERCISE. 2 SAMUEL i. i, 
46. ACTS ii. 9. 

47, 48. 



INTRODUCTION 

THE Coptic Ostraca in this collection number about 90. 
They all come from Thebes and its neighbourhood, and 
they are very similar to others which have been published 
from the same locality. None of them offer material of any 
special interest and many are very fragmentary; hence it 
seemed to me that a selection of the better preserved 
examples would suffice. They may probably all be dated 
in the seventh and eighth centuries after Christ. 

H. T. 



fr 

1. REPAYMENT OF LOAN. 



R 



sic 

5 g 






10 

cjaxie ei 

o-y^e dwttoR oT^e ujHp[e] 

eqespe juln^npoconon 



15 qen epoi 
epoR 



OR 



20 jut(x>p n . 
e . . eg*. . . 



Verso i ..... OTR 
11. 25 illegible. 
6 ju 



' I, Eudoxia, with (?) ..... write to Ma ..... to the effect that 
I have assigned (diroTdoro-eiv) to thee the casks (*&>?) towards your 



i8o IV. COPTIC TEXTS 

amount \ for I am in debt to thee ; now no man shall have a claim 
on thee for ever, neither I nor a child representing (rrpoa-^Trov) me, nor 
any man belonging (1. eqim) to me. If one shall make a claim on thee, 
he 2 shall pay a gold solidus. I, Eudoxia, assent to this contract, 
together with (?) Hor . . . .' 

1 Lit. your something. X&.A.V is used elsewhere in begging petitions where 
the petitioner asks for ' something ' meaning money ; but I do not know of any 
other instance comparable to its use here. The form of acknowledgement is 
a common one. 

2 We should expect ' I/ but the reading is clear, and the same phrase is 
found in Turaieff, Ostr. no. 4 (Bull. Ac. Sd. St.-Pttersb. 1899, x, no. 5). 



2. BOND FOR REPAYMENT OF LOAN. 



nujftpe j 

eeoc eicg&'i w^iioit^c nujnpe 
topioc 'xeeni^H aan^p^R&Aei JUUULOK 



figeTejuoc 



cecoov TOtie it 



eneR(ops 

10 COOP'S gJUUl^ ItlJU ^UOR R 



COT le 



15 JuiiTpe- jutHtfdwC n 
e\A.^ iinpec aa 

CJUttTC O JUL 



LEGAL DOCUMENTS 181 

< I, Cyriacus son of Philotheus, write to Jonas l son of Paglorios that, 
as I begged (irapaKaXeiv) of thee, thou didst come before me 2 , thou 
didst bring me (1. it*i?) a half tremision of gold for my need. Now 
I am ready (erot/zoy) to repay (aTroXoyifciv) thee the half tremision in 
barley in Payni 3 ; they are six artabas and I will deliver them at your 
house at my (expense for) freight. For thy confirmation I have written 
this bond (ao-0aAeta) which is valid everywhere. 

' I, Cyriacus, assent to this bond (1. ^c$*\i*). Written (cypa^?;) on 
the 1 5th day of Khoiak, second (Prepay) (indiction-year). 

1 1, Psemo, the deacon, bear witness. 

* I, Paham, bear witness. 

' I, Menas, the humble (eAax^oros) priest (Trpeo-jSurepoy), have drawn it 
up (and) I bear witness. + ' 

1 Written Aionas, but Jonas is meant. Cf. nos. 13, 14, 15. 

2 i.e. didst anticipate my request, or hastened to meet it. Cf. Crum, Ostr. 
no. 1 60 fcKpgeTd.ge in a similar context; also John xx. 4 (Boh.) &cjd'o<xi 
^kCiepeTPH (var. 1. ^cjepgiTgH) jutneTpoc = 7rpoe8pa/>tei/ ra^ctoi/, praevenit Petrum. 

3 After the harvest and six months from the date of the contract. 



3. BOND FOR REPAYMENT OF LOAN. 






nuj]Hp 
]MHK 

ltgeT]jUlOC UT^T^q ItHK It 



WHR 



10 X 



4 [I, X. the son] of Pheu (?) [write to Y. the] son of John in Je[me, 
I owe] thee a solidus [of gold and I am rea]dy to pay it thee on ...... 



182 IV. COPTIC TEXTS 

[at thy] threshing-floor in Ahit (?) [and I will give so much] flax to thee 
for interest [without any] dispute. [I, ...... ] assent to this bond V 

Three witnesses also sign ; the name of the first is probably Pouhar ; 
those of the others are lost. 

1 This form of document is so familiar that *c . . . . here can hardly be other 
than the equivalent of do-^aXcia. The Coptic article is undoubtedly masculine 
however, which is either a scribe's blunder or some such form as 
must have been used. 

4. LOAN OF CORN. 



ogpn covo a^ivriq 
Tetio 
5 itHK 
TCC 



' We, the heirs of Hierax, write to Aham that behold (1. eic) there 
is (1. oiron) wheat that thou hast given [to us]. We are ready to 
[repay it] to thee in our .... without any dispute . . . . ' 

5. AGREEMENT. 



eix&e uo[ 

ite [ 

2^e __ _ 

eponc 

5 Mdju 

[ 

[itnoTrfe we 
nqgton 



10 



LEGAL DOCUMENTS 183 

1 I, Peter (the son) of Eli[as, write] to Tsyros, the wife of lo .... 

[I] agree with thee .... but if thou l reckon it among 

If any man [make a claim on thee, I will] pay a solidus [of gold to thee] 
and he shall submit to this [agreement] . . . . ' 

1 Apparently the p (2nd sing, fern.) has been written over K (2nd sing. masc.). 
6. FRAGMENT OF AN AGREEMENT FOR THE LEASE OF LAND. 



ou 



10 



* ........ the seed .... and thou shalt pay its rent .... without 

any [dispute] .... kasion l in ..... [this agreement] being 

valid [in every place] in which it is. Written ..... Kosma (?).... 

[P]tolo[my?]. 

1 Perhaps part of a place-name. 



7. FRAGMENT OF A CONTRACT. 


]uuo[. . . 



184 IV. COPTIC TEXTS 

5 ]JUOOTT 



The words in 1. 8 * if vinegar, if impurity ' suffice to show that this is a 
contract relating to the sale of wine (cf. Krall, Kopt. Texte, no. xxix, 
Crum, Cat. Rylands Pap. no. 206). The amount seems from 1. 3 to have 
been ' 100 baskets 'for baskets of wine see Crum, Ostr. no. 160. The 
text is too fragmentary for reconstruction. 



8. ATTESTATION OF AN AGREEMENT. 



]e Mfcjtiq>i&[o\i^ . . .]copx[ 

*x* / 

]TICTOI epoc e^p ju 3ffi 11? iifx/ ^ + 

RTpl]^ROC Fl^^eT JLlHI^HOofc CO\OiJUO>n Tit 

o jujxittTpe +^e^n^cio KO^MMHC 

5 ft^CTW ^TeSTI JLJLQl ^ICJUTe 

i\iujittTpeeT Ttericettoi ^n npoc 

+ 



'without question .... confirmed .... [I, X.] assent thereto. Written 
in the month of Phamenoth(P) 13, indiction 6. + We, [Cyrijacus (son of) 
Papheu (?) and Jacob (son of) Solomon, are witnesses + I, Athanasius 
(son of) John in Patoubasten 1 , at their request have drawn up this bond, 
(and) I have written for the witnesses 2 who were unable to do so, at their 
request. 1 

1 A place near Thebes containing a monastery. Cf. Crum, Ostr. no. 301, 
Btrl. KopL Urk. no. 78. 

2 I do not know another instance of this plural form in Sahidic. 
occurs in Bohairic (cf. Peyron, Lex. s. v.). 



LEGAL DOCUMENTS 185 

9. ATTESTATION OF AN AGREEMENT. 



]TpiTH : 

UO 
cp 



5 ]eviutifc epoq 



* ..... third [indiction ?] ; without [any] dispute. I, Dav[id, assent] to 
this contract and it is [valid 1 , wherever] it shall be taken. [I, Sim]eon 
bear witness, [I, Men]a (?) bear witness.' 



1 1. cp<xoeic gjuuuek IIIJUL eTeTtt&'&ifc epoq. 

10. GUARANTEE (?). 



pe JUUU(AiTtt[ 



5 n 

JUUUOOT 

]RpHCl[ 

I. 5 seems to show that this is a guarantee of some sort ; but the frag 
ment is too slight for translation. 

11. INJUNCTION. 

+ 
. . noov il 



A a 



i86 IV. COPTIC TEXTS 



eic 

5 itTOOTe HTIO Rvpa^ irre 
gxiooc ngpvtt JLAIIHI 



epio 
m^ 
10 nTegJuiooc ttgoTrn KITHI 



[n]pocee 
. . co 



15 ....... KC 

* On this day which is the tenth of Mechir, lo, here is the word of God 
to thee 1 ) Cyra, that thou live in the house of Mena, thy son, so that thou 
be not found in any other offence, but that thou live in the house of thy 
son permanently (?) 2 , according as I have written a declaration . . . being 
the guarantors ..... 3 ' 

1 This formula occurs usually, as here, in an order to do a specified thing. Cf. 
Crum, Cat. Rylands Pap., p. 79 n. and references there. 

2 Cf. Cat. Gk. Pap. Brit. Mus. iv, no. 1597. 

5 This refers to the class of document known as 6/xoXoyta eyyi^riK?} whereby 
persons of standing made themselves liable to produce other persons at a given 
place and time for government purposes (taxation, enforced labour, &c.) under 
penalties. There are numerous examples in the Brit. Mus. Cat. u. s., in Krall, 
Kopt. Texte, in Crum, Cat. Rylands Pap., and elsewhere. 



12. TAX RECEIPT. 
JUCOTCHC 

mtcow 



5 Te CTevocene JCTCO &.Keiq T 



TAX RECEIPTS -187 



itgpov 
WIJUL ene eiutKT e&o\ epon itRecon 

gi\Tei^lJULOCIOtl TtUO 
TW^IOTT Ifgp\OH" HTttglOtt 

10 &iton JUIOTCHC 



ce ngrecop tta^gpaA* tieXece-rroc 



15 
on lower edge 

* I, Moses, together with Pamoute, we write to Papnoute the monk 
(povayos) and our brother, that we have applied to thee for the tax 
(8r)fj,6<nov) 1 of this year, which is a (year of?) loss and thou hast paid it 
now from to-day henceforth for ever. We will not come against thee 
again for this tax. We are ready to pay five solidi 2 and we adhere to 
this contract 3 . We, Moses and Pamoute, assent to this contract. I, 
Abraham, at their request (irapaKaXetv) have written this contract (with) 
my own hand on the twenty-sixth day of Athyr in the presence of 
Eleseuos (son of) Peter 4 , the lashane. 

I bear witness -f Germanus (son) of Tyror 5 
John 

I bear witness, Daniel (son of) Poie V 

1 This is a general term for all the public ordinary taxes, and included poll-tax, 
a land-tax, and Scwm^ (probably expenses of collection, &c.), all paid in money, 
and the corn-tax paid in kind. See H. I. Bell's Introduction to Greek Papyri in 
the Brit. Mus. vol. iv, p. xxv, 169. 

2 i.e. as a fine in case of the contract being broken. 

3 Lit. this potsherd (ostracon). 

4 Inserted above the line ; the last two letters are not quite certain. 

5 Cf. proper name TipwpH in Berl. Kopt. Urk. no. 119. It may however be a 
place-name Germanus of Tyror ; such a place is not known. 

6 For this form of tax receipt cf. Berl. Kopt. Urk. no. 80. 



i88 IV. COPTIC TEXTS 

13. TAX RECEIPT. 



+ eic 
tidtpie.iA.Hv 

TOOT ITOOTR KTOR 

waul 



yi ap a $& i iv8 



npa> + Aoii^mo naoie 



H<V ^q^rrei JULHOI 

10 



' Behold a solidus by reckoning (apt'fyua) 1 has come to me from thee, 
Jonas (son of) Pkellorios 2 , for thy poll-tax (SidypaQov)* for the first 
payment (KarapoXrj)* of this fifteenth year = i solidus, Phaophi 5 10, first 
indiction 6 . + Longinus 7 , the headman, I assent. I, Psate 8 (son of) Pisrael, 
at his request (alretv) have drawn up this receipt 



1 The coinage at this time was debased, and, contrary to what one would expect, 
the government taxes seem to have been assessed at the debased value (vo/xiV/xara 
apiOfna), coins reckoned, i. e. by weight, not at the standard value (i/o/x. e^o/tcva). 
The word ^pujuu^ is often used alone for goXoKOTTinoc iievp. = solidus. See 
on the whole subject the discussion by H. I. Bell in Greek Pap. in the Brit. Mus. 
iv, p. 84 seq. 

2 Cf. nos. 2, 14, 15. For the father's name cf. P. Ox. vi, no. 992 Tre/coAapios 
(fifth cent.). 

3 Cf. H. I. Bell, u. s., pp. 168-9. 

4 Ibid., p. 87. There were at this time, it seems, two payments in the year for 
poll-tax. There is no certain instance in the Coptic tax receipts of a third Kara- 
fioXrj ; but the payment might be made by instalments. The amount of the tax is 
uncertain, probably about two solidi (see discussion, ibid., pp. 1 7 1-2). 

5 The abbreviation is written with the <*> at the bottom of the tail of the <. The 
expansion of the Greek summation is yiverat dpifyuoj/ a <f>aC)<JH i U/SIKTIOVOS Trpdmys. 

6 The tax was assessed in the last year of one indiction and paid as is usually 
the case in the following year. Occasionally assessment and payment are made 
in the same year ; rarely two years intervene between them. 

7 Longinus, cf. no. 14. For the headman of a village see Crum, Ostr., p. 23 
(no. 308) ; there might be several headmen in a village at the same time. 



TAX RECEIPTS 189 

8 Known elsewhere as a scribe of papyri and ostraca. 

9 The ivrdyiov was strictly the order for payment of taxes (H. I. Bell, u.s. 
xxvii), but as these documents state that the sum in question has been paid and at 
a date usually a year after the year of the tax, it is evident that they are really 
receipts. 

This and the following tax receipts belong to a well-known group to which 
attention was first called by Dr. Crum in his Coptic Ostraca (1902), p. 36. They 
are mostly written on pieces of pottery covered with a white or yellowish slip and 
glazed. The handwriting is easily recognizable, but often difficult to decipher with 
certainty. Besides the specimens published by Crum, others are to be found in 
the Koptische Urkunden of the Berlin Museum, Bd. I, nos. 84-93 > Cairo Mus. Cat. 
(Crum, Copt. Monuments], nos. 8 2 66-91 and 8293,8295, 8296 ; Hall, Texts, pp. 118, 
122, 124-8, 147; Guidi, Coptica (1906), p. 16. Their date has been proved by 
Crum to be about the middle of the eighth century. 



14. TAX RECEIPT. 



+ eic 

it^pieuti^ *qei CTOOT 

gITOOTK ItTOK 



npco yi p a 
IJL ]JL i<? iv8/ ft + 
<Von<?moc 



10 



' Behold a solidus by reckoning has come to me from thee, Jonas (son 
of) Pagellorios, for thy poll-tax for the second payment of this first year 
= i solidus 1 in the month of Mechir 16, indiction a. + I, Longinus the 
headman, assent. I, Psate (son of) Pisrael, at his request have drawn up 
this receipt.' 

1 p stands for d/o^fyua). Cf. no. 13, n. i, and Crum, Ostr. no. 419, n. 2. 



I 9 o IV. COPTIC TEXTS 

15. TAX RECEIPT. 

3 "..:'".":"!." - ...'. 

-f eic ovTpiAi/ npi 
0juii^ a.qei CTOOT gi 

TOOTR tlTOR 



T - 

npw yt p y 

l6 IV&I TT/Oft) 



naom 

10 



* Behold a tremision by reckoning has come to me from thee, Jonas 
(son of) Pagellorios, for thy poll-tax for the first payment of this first year 
= -| solidus, Pharmuthi 19, first indiction. I, Daniel the headman, 
assent. I, Psate, .... have drawn it up/ 

16. TAX RECEIPT. 



e 

TOOT glTOOTR UTOR 



5 



ne npiOTHc p a aOvp iQ 

ivB, /3 *X^UIH\ navHR 4- 

!X1 
CTOI/ 

10 



TAX RECEIPTS'" 191 

'Behold a solidus by reckoning has come to me from thee, George 
(son of) Onuphrios Victor 1 , for thy poll-tax for the first payment of this 
first year = i sol., Athyr 19, indiction a. I, Daniel the headman, 
assent. I, Psate (son of) Pisrael, at his request I have drawn up this 
receipt.' 

1 There is little doubt that these double names, in spite of the fact that the second 
is usually written in the nominative form, represent filiation. This is shown by 
instances where the filiation is fully written out. Cf. ' Jonas son of Paglorius ' in 
no. 2 with the 'Jonas Paglorius' of nos. 13-15, or again, the second name is put 
in the genitive, 'Psate nicp^HXiov ' of no. 18 compared with the usual 'Psate 
Pisrael.' In Coptic this is at this time expressed by n, e. g. iwg^niiHC n\a^poc 
of BerL Kopt. Urk. nos. 86, 87 is the same person as the John Lazarus of our no. 20. 
When, as in this case, we have three names, presumably George is the son of 
Onuphrios who was the son of Victor, and the latter must have been always known 
by his patronymic to distinguish him from some other contemporary Onuphrios. 



17. TAX RECEIPT. 



eic 

qei CTOOT grroo 
TR irroK eeo^iopoc 



TpeiTH yi p a &J1I&. TlfcTlH 

DC 
CTO 



' Behold a solidus by reckoning has come to me from thee, Theodore 
(son of) Jonas, for thy poll-tax for the first payment of this third year 
= i sol. I, Apeia l the headman, assent. I, Psate (son of) Pisrael, at his 
request have drawn up this receipt.' 

1 Cf. Abeia, Crum, Ostr. nos. 414, 415. 



r 9 2 IV. COPTIC TEXTS 

18. TAX RECEIPT. 



OTR tlTOK 

..[... gaoie] 

gott giT[n]p[(o] 



5 Aine TT*pTH yi p a {L Toftl K1J 

ivS 8 xi^eievc naoiH 



* [Behold a solidus has come to me] from thee [Ba]sil (son of) ..... 
[for thy] poll-tax for the first (P) 1 payment of this fourth year = i sol. 
in the month of Tybi 28, indiction 4. I, Mathias the headman, 
assent. I, Psate son of Pisrael 2 , at his request have drawn up this 
receipt.' 

1 There is little doubt of the reading. 

3 The reading is quite certain, as this receipt is written with unusual distinctness. 
The graecized form is curious. Cf. no. 16 n. 



19. TAX RECEIPT. 



+ eiccovnuje 

OK/ ndtpiejui*. d^qei ero 

OT gITOOTR MTOK 



TAX RECEIPTS 193 



ap 5 
10 



'Behold a. half-solidus by reckoning has come to me from thee, 
Abram (?) ........ for the first payment of this fourth year (of the) 

indiction (?) = sol. Thoth 10, indiction 5. I, Ananias 1 , the headman, 
assent.' 

1 Known also from Crum, Oslr. no. 428, and Berl Kopl. Urk. no. 87. 



20. TAX RECEIPT. 



[+ i] 

[TOOT] gITOOTfi 



THC yi v y Tpitov 



On reverse: nc&re v^* 

s & 

' [Behold] a tremision has come [to me] from thee, Psate (son of) Pses, 
[for the] taxes 1 of this ninth year [= \ sol.] one-third, Pachons 17, indic- 
tion 10. I ..... assent. I, John, have drawn it up.' 

On the back : ' Psate (son of) P(ses) 2 solidi.' 

1 Cf. Crum, Ostr. no. 421. ' Imposts ' generally, Bell, Brit. Mus. Cat. iv, p. 9 n. 

Bb 



j 9 4 IV. COPTIC TEXTS 

21. TAX RECEIPT. 

+ esc ovTpfsju/] 
CTOOT 5 



TOOTK StTOR 



trrspoui 
ne etm^THC yi/ p y y 
rpirov a iv8/ L 
V|fCJLl(O CTOI^ SCO 



10 



' Behold a tremision has come to me from thee, Enoch (son of) 
Stephanus, for the SioiKrjcrts 1 of this ninth year = sol. by reckoning 2 , 
one-third, Athyr 19, indiction 10. I, Psmotos 3 , assent. I, John (son of) 
Lazarus, have drawn it up.' 

1 Lit. a district for taxation purposes, the word came to mean * tax,' as the taxes 
at this time were levied in a lump sum on each district, the local officials deter- 
mining the distribution of each tax among the individuals liable. 

2 These signs are uncertain. 

3 As the cursive ^ and the cross are often indistinguishable, it would be possible 
to take the first sign as a cross and read the name CJUK*>T(OC). But -V^TCJUIWTOC 
occurs in Berl, Kopt. Urk. no. 87 (where John Lazarus is also the scribe). Cf. 
also Crum, Brit. Mus. Cat., p. 451 Tnra/A/xoov, Id., Copt. Mon. no. 8293 

and perhaps Hall, Texts, p. 52 



22. TAX RECEIPT. 
esc ovTpsjm . . . 

TOOTH WTOK . . . 



TAX RECEIPTS 195 

' Behold a tremision [has come to me] from thee .... [Vic]tor for 
thy poll-tax [among the] 1 public taxes [of this] third (?) [year] . ". .' 



Cf. Crum, Ostr. no. 416. 

23. TAX RECEIPT. 



. . ./ 

UTOK 
TCJUUOCC 
ce ga/repo-tine 
5 nawimoTTTe c . 

e ...... by reckoning, thou hast given them to me, thou Sabinus for thy 

tax (8rnj,6<nov) for thy tax (sic) for this year . . . Phamenoth. I, Papnoute, 
assent. 1 

24. TAX RECEIPT. 

+ eic p [/ 
WTOR 



no 



* Behold ii carats 1 by reckoning, thou Paham (son of) Paulos hast 
paid them for thy poll-tax for the tenth (year), Pachons 29. I, Maen- 
knou, assent. I, David, assent/ 

1 This is not quite the usual symbol for Kepdnov which is in one piece and of a 
reverse form, q ; it cannot however be anything else here. It approximates to a 
form occurring in Cat. Gk. Pap. Brit. Mus. iii, p. 59. 



i 9 6 IV. COPTIC TEXTS 



25. TAX RECEIPT. 



+ eic p [/ I* [ 

ItTOK ICivK JUIOCHC 



THC n e 

5 



1 Behold 1 1 carats by reckoning, thou Isaac (son of) Moses hast paid 
them for the poll-tax of the eleventh (year), Pachons 9, indiction (?) n. 
I, David, assent ..... ' 



26, TAX RECEIPT (PL XI). 



IITOK 



5 R^THC ItfX T 



' Behold 22 carats (P) 1 by reckoning, thou hast paid it me, thou Andrew 
for thy poll-tax for the thirteenth indiction, Tybi. I, Isaac, assent for 
myself (?).' 

1 The symbol, which looks like * and a diagonal abbreviation mark, can hardly, 
in view of the number 22 following, stand for anything but carats. The poll-tax 
was always paid in money. The same symbol occurs in Berl. Kopt. Urk. no. 89, 

where a tax receipt begins eic *p */ K& f, &c., and probably in Hall, Texts, p. 128, 

no. 29684, where I should read the first line + eic p */ K& . . In our ostracon 
there is a mark above the line after K& which I cannot read. 



LETTERS 197 



27. LETTER (limestone). 

Recto [ttjopn] jmett THiijiiie e 

[pOR?] juutcco[c] ..... JUL 

e .... iij ... 



5 nnnpecfe/ 

AAJU.OOV micTT^ . . w . 
RTOOTK 



10 aoidw necirneioc 



Verso inpewJUie7Vei OTTW n 



OTCOUJ uiooje p^cTe nujo 
pn Rgpoir ROTTCOUJ ujme CM w 
5 Cdwcirre HC^KI^ ev^ceiwov 

IWWTOTT egOTK KTOOTR 

junencoit 



(Recto). ' [First of all] we greet [thee] ; next [we instruct thee that 
on receipt of] this potsherd thou shalt go to the monastery (?) l of the 
priest Andrew. We begged them that thou mightest get a ... and 
bear it in thy hand (as a) sign to them (?) with the father (?) 2 of 
the blessing, for we will go and visit our father Apa Pesynthius the 
bishop 3 .... 

( Verso}. ' Do not neglect then to read these (?) our words (?) ; we wish 



I 9 8 IV. COPTIC TEXTS 

you to go to-morrow at daybreak . . . . ; inquire further for two light 
sacks 4 and take them in thy hand. Salutation. 
' To be given to our brother Apa Michaias (from) the humble Antonius.' 

1 c^qr prob. = co&T, ' wall/ also used for any enclosed place and of a monastery. 
Cf. Peyron, s. v. 

2 The meaning of this phrase is very uncertain. 

3 A bishop Pesynthius is named on a contemporary ostracon in Crum, Ostr. 
no. 25, and is identified by Crum with the well-known bishop of Coptos (ibid., 
p. 8, where references are given). The name however was common, and bishops 
were many in Egypt, 

4 Greek O-CUCKIOV; cf. ibid., no. 473, p. 44. 



28. LETTER. 



COOVW TJ . . . JULTORgHT 

5 e juuuoc 

c 



OTTHtlOTT. . TRCn WTOO 



10 ojurr UTOOTOTT CT^^C it 

juixiooT efe 
nnoiTTe co 

OTTM TOC jumeujepe ein 
Teoiron AAJU.OOTT pujcowe 
15 Teim;\gjk R^iu^p ^- 
n 'xeRjuee itngHRe 
' T 



LETTERS 199 



20 aoi*. 

n 



' ........ for I give thy charitable (lordship) information concerning 

this widow, Paula (P) 1 , as I know the .... of thy heart is in pain for her 

and her orphans. Besides she begged thy paternity that if ....... 

were assigned ( en ?) to thee, thou wouldest take three hundred pieces of 
copper therefrom and give it to them, as they have no light to go to Kae 2 . 
Indeed God knows that she and the children each one of them have pains 
in the neck, and I know that thou lovest the poor. Health in the Lord ! 
' To be given to my beloved holy father Apa Isaac from John the 
humble.' 

1 The name is very uncertain. 

2 Unknown place-name. What is meant by ' light ' I do not know. 

29. LETTER. 

cnovxa^e frttioov UK&JUOTT'X it^'i fio[v] 
UJH arwTume TOVUJH Rpoeic *y[co] 

tt&OOK 



fltnooT nujoufr eew[eeTe] 



JL*HP eno^r 
TT oTrojoir . 
10 utnewsne irr 
R 



< Make haste to send me the camels by night. Find out where is the 
vigil 1 and send a draught (?)-camel 2 that I may get (? T *pi*i) f r myself 



200 IV. COPTIC TEXTS 

the value of two jars ...... 3 , ancf send the keys of the monastery as 

I want them ; they are inside ..... in (?) the brass vessel 4 . Open .... 

the box (which is) fastened on both [sides ?] with iron ; the box is 
closed (?) [with ?] a bolt 

1 i.e. of some church feast. 2 From AIOK, ' servant ' ? 

3 Some short word, doubtless npn, ' wine/ or neg, ' oil.' 

4 Cf. Crum, Cat. Rylands Pap., p. 116 OTTKOTI XIOK en&^poj. Here perhaps 

is rather short for Xdjtoit, for which see Crum, Os/r., p. 41, note to no. 455. 

30, LETTER. 

+ dtitOK cajuovH^ HT'\T&. ei 
cg&i Jurii'Kioc 



MHK 
5 ita/i 



up 

MCOTO MHK + 
10 OTT'X^ 

enini ^ 

' I, Samuel of Telta (?), write to Pikos 1 Para (?) that when I sent (?) a 
basket 2 of diskaria* in return (?) for the barley (?) 4 , thou didst send to me 
saying, " When thou wishest it, send." Now send five artabas (of wheat) 
to me (?) from Abraham .... until Payni and I will pay thee back the 
five artabas of wheat + Health in the Lord. Epiphi i.' 

1 It is interesting to see this old name derived from the worship of the bull-god 
Montu and very common in pagan times at Thebes still surviving so late. I do 
not know of its occurrence elsewhere in Coptic times. 

2 &i\ = Jfcip. It is a M.E. form. Cf. O. v. Lemm, Apostelacten, Bull. Ac. Set. 
St.-Pflersb. x (1890), p. 103. 

3 The reading may have been ^ecK&pm. Cf. Crum, Cat. Rylands Pap. pp. 82, 
84 xiCKd.pm, Krall, Kopt. Texte, ccxli. 44 T CK&pm. Crum takes it = Sia-Kapiov, 
' dish,' but it does not suit his context in either case, where it is named with wine, 
oil, and eatables ; it must be something similar, perhaps a form of bread or biscuit 
so called from its circular shape. 

4 Translation uncertain. CIWT, ' barley/ is often used in the plural. 



LETTERS 201 



31. LETTER (limestone), 
Recto . . . 



AMITOUJ WRH&T 

5 fciRTco 

eve AinecetiTe e 



ponoc 



10 TO\H n 

ne^oifi n . . 
Xenon 



Verso . . . uj 



xx.ju.tp 

10 Til OTTK& 



The ^^ and w^j<? seem to have no connexion, the former being 
addressed to a single person, the latter to more than one. Perhaps they 
are drafts of two letters. 



cc 



202 IV. COPTIC TEXTS 

Recto. '. . . . pretext .... remembrance. I sent .... the most 
holy 1 .... of the nome of Koptos, Apa Victor who had procured (?) 
(irapa<TKtvoitLv ?) Pesynthius there to be thy guardian and [who had] 
written a letter to me (?) about (?) this matter ; but (\onrov) . . . 

Verso. ' that ye may .... and recognize its (fern.) validity and send 
it to me. Do not root "them up(?), for they are not flourishing (?) 2 . . . 
.... They came to an agreement on this matter again. I greet you (pi.). 
Health in the Lord.' 

1 This is the usual epithet of a bishop ; the missing word of about three letters 
is probably IO>T or enc (eTrib-KOTros). If so, TOUJ is probably ' diocese* here. 

2 For 



32. LETTER (limestone). 
ujopn jue 



ne WHH THpq 

5 RH JULTlgHKC 



(Below, a rude drawing of a man begging.) 
Verso. Drawings of trees, birds, and a vase, nni 

' In the first place I greet thee. May the Lord bless thee and all that 
belongs to thee. Be kind to the poor man Hatre (?). The Lord bless 
thee. To be given to the devout 1 and God-loving . . . .' (name 
omitted) 2 . 

1 Cf. Crum, Ostr, no. 61 n. 

2 Apparently a pattern for a begging letter. 



LETTERS 203 

33. LETTER. 



tlTOOT 

5 euj'xencxiKne ngp\OR/ 
/ eti^novq naa 



MTOOT 



10 ROTI jut^oe it^i ngpvo 

An involved and obscure communication relating to a piece of money. 
The translation seems to be as follows : 

' .... I asked her, saying, Exchange (aAAacrcreji/) the solidus for (?) 
me, that I may buy(?) me some flax. If the solidus is thine (masc.), 
credit a good solidus to me and I will please thee (1. pgn^n). She asked 
me, saying, Give up the solidus to (?) me and let him exchange it (?) and 
let him give it to her. Give (?) a little flax to me besides.' 

34. LETTER OR MEMORANDUM. 



UII . . . 

u oiPgp tt^puj 



eTpoeic 
twA* THpoir ceeipe j 



10 



204 IV > COPTIC TEXTS 

1 *, thirty artabas of lentils, a ^-measure 2 of lentils .... 

camels (?) 3 , a ^-measure of orax*> .... artabas belonging to the work- 
men (epydrrjs) of the small boy (*\oir) who watches .... all 

these make fruit belonging to the builder .... of the farm. 5 

1 There are several possible restorations for the first two lines, but the result 
must be guess work. 

2 Cf. Crum, Ostr. no. 309 n. 

8 Or the proper name Kamoul. 
* Probably a species of vetch. 



35. LETTER. 



1 



10 



' ...... if 1 they are brought to their home (lit. place) happily 2 through 

thy prayers, we will not cease until we come and salute (irpoa-Kvvt'iv) thee 3 . 
To be given to this holy father from Pjoujai . . . .' 



Ka\ov. Cf. A. Z. xxii (1884), p. 147, Krall, Kopt. Texte, p. 81, Crum, 
Ostr., p. 107 n., and Brit. Mus. Cat., p. 490. 

3 The meaning is, ' if they return home in safety through thy prayers, we will 
come and salute thee as soon as possible.' 



LETTERS 205 

36. LETTER. 



epoft 



TA. 



10 .... CJUOT ep . . . . 

{ The Lord shall bless thee and thy cattle. Kindly have pity and send 
the wagon and tell . . . .' 



37. LETTER. 



5 jutn^ne 

[nT]nitOTT CAJIOT 



' Deliver this to Brother Apakyre from Az \ [I] wish as soon as thou 
[receivest this] potsherd, pay the headman (?), who will give thee a receipt 
(lit. potsherd), and may the Lord bless thy ...... ' 

1 Az must be an abbreviation, probably for Azarias, a name which is found in 
Hall, Texts, and Crum, Ostr. 



206 IV. COPTIC TEXTS 



38. LETTER. 



iteovca 



5 ... ovgfciwK/ K&.I iteq 
. . . Tq RCI 
. . . uje 



This is a fragment of a letter in the Achmimic dialect. It refers to 
money matters, as the word for ' solidus ' occurs twice. 



39. LETTER. 



we eneqjutepiT Rc[on 



llT 

5 ne 



. . pHC n^K ttToq 

Cg&I + A1H 

10 mi .... 

A letter written by Papnoute to his dear brother Enoch. The 
missing ends of the lines render the meaning obscure. 



LETTERS 207 

40. LETTER. 



CJUL&, 



5 neon 



glTIt 

ton 
neie 

10 



End of a letter addressed by one Aaron to his dear brother Paul the 
lashane (of Jme), whom we know also from Berl. Kopt. Urk. no. 71, and 
Crum, 6tor. nos. 120, Ad. 26. 



41. LETTER. 



5 l< 

CJUOT 



10 



X, 



2o8 IV. COPTIC TEXTS 

1 ...... kindly take camels according to thy judgement and load them 1 . 

May the Lord bless thee. To be given to my brother Pjoui from 
Andrew the humble.' 

1 i.e. some goods referred to in the lost portion of the letter. 
42. LETTER. 



. . . nnoTTe coovit 



oir&tate 

10 

MIA*. 



Cx>T 

15 



' ..... 1 God knows I am ready to give(?) them (1. TAVT ?) to thee ..... 
and I will give a receipt (lit. potsherd) with the other .... in all things. 
Now when (?) thou hast read this potsherd, write to me also with thy hand.' 

1 A few letters only remain of the first five lines. 



ACCOUNTS 

43. ACCOUNTS (limestone). 
Recto 



209 



* & p 

*\ *\ P 

niton 3>fcju & b^ it 



10 



Verso gpiTe it .. 
pujcacoit ^ 



(Recto). * List of the jars which we have delivered, so that we may 
receive their price of the wine: from Isaac (son of) Peilou. - 1 100; from 
Colluthus . . 150; from Sarapion the carpenter (?) . . 50; from Agnato 8 
the carpenter (?) . . 30 ; from Apa Victor . . 30. 

( Verso). Dresses ...54 cloaks ; guests' (?) blankets . . ; 4 . . , 3 , . . 
napkins.' 

1 The measure is represented by aj or *p followed by an abbreviation mark 
and always repeated, perhaps to mark the plural. What word it represents I do 
not know. 

a Cf. Hall, Texts, pi. i5.juttTu>iu 

8 Cf. AiittKe Crum, Oslr. no. 465, meaning unknown. 



Dd 



2io IV. COPTIC TEXTS 

44. LIST OF NAMES. 
..... tjjopoc . . 



n 
H <?eop 



KOttO . . 



* . . . . phoros . . ; [6] Jeremias . . . ; 7 Severus the . . . ; 8 George 
(son of) Luke ; 9 Jo . . . . ; . . Mena, oeconomus 1 ; . . Papnoute . . . ; 
. . .; lola. . .' 

1 This suggests a list of monastery officials. 
45. BIBLICAL. 2 SAM. i. i (limestone). 



JUIOTT 



-M 

This ostracon is written in very rude uncials and is evidently a school 
exercise. In 1. 6 I think there is no doubt n and not AI was written. 
This verse has been printed by Maspero in Miss. Arch.fr. VI as above 
(except that David is contracted in the usual way) down to giove, after 
which he continues nee. 



SCHOOL EXERCISES 211 



46. BIBLICAL. ACTS ii. 9. 
ic 3c jun^fpeoc JULNJU] 



JUtlT 



A school exercise in uncials. 

Printed by Woide from two MSS., one the same as above, the other 
with the following variations in spelling, JULHTOC, HX^JULITHC, 



47. RELIGIOUS (limestone). 
+ ic 



'Jesus Christ. Alleluia. O Eternal Life.' 
A school exercise. 



212 IV. COPTIC TEXTS 

48. LIST OF WORDS. 

&0 JUOC 



JUlHttdt 
OC 



-tioc 

TOC 



poll 

X. p. . 

H 

A school exercise. On the recto each word is divided by a space into 
two syllables, and there are remains of a second column divided from the 
first by a line; there remain however only the initial letters of three 
words beginning with <z followed by two with n. 



INDEX OF NAMES 

(The numbers are those of the Ostraca.) 

PERSONS, 
40 KOCAJL& 6 (?) 

12, I9(?), 3O KTp^ II 

43 KTPpJ^KOC 2, 8 (?) 

37 

X*k7A>pOC 21 

19 XOIUMIIOC 13, 14 

26, 27, 41 

2*7 AlXPttKtfOTP 2A 

-> *-r /-i 

37 JUL&&I&C 1 8 

*7 ju.Hit*w(c) 2, ii, 44 

) 3 2 AiipQ^i^c 27 

4 AKOTCHC, var., 12, 25 



10 (!) 

16, 22, 31, 43 

otiocjjpjoc 16 

10 16, 44 

Tii^Xwpioc, var., 2, 13, 14, 15 

: 12, I 5 , 16 H^OTTTe 12 

rk / > or- TI&TTHOTPTe 12, 2^, ^O, 44 

9> 24, 25 v /ax 2g ' 



cXeceiroc 12 n^rXoc 24, 40 

21, 39 n*$ev(?) 8 

rt, i n^^x 2 24 

neiXoT(r) 43 
!^ necen-re 31 

8 nejpoc, var., 5, 12 

44 niKtoc 30 

4 nicp^nX 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18 

25, 26, 28, 43 noirAp(?) 3 

2, 13, 14, 15, 17 RTOXOAIMOC (?) 6 

3, 8, 12, 20, 21, 28 irv^rAiio 2 

mom 12 



34 itww 41 

43 irxora*! 35 



214 INDEX OF NAMES 



23 -nrpcop 12 

30 

43 $HTT 3 

cevnpoc 44 $i\oeeoc 2 
cuuLt'wn 9 (?) 

CJULCJDTOC (?) 21 \\revTe 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 20 

coXdojuuoit 8 -V^THC 20 

21 



TCTpOC 5 

OFFICIALS, ETC. 



27, 28, 31, 43 \og*ne 12, 40 

13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 1 8, 19, 37 (?) Axon^x oc I2 

2 ojK.onoju.oc 44(?) 

eniCKonoc 27 npec^TTTepoc 2, 27 

enrrponoc 31 

PLACE NAMES. 



3 nevTOTrA^CTii 8 

28 T\new(?) 30 

KH&T 31 -XHJULe 3 



o 



PtT Theban ostraca 

1675 



PLEASE DO NOT REMOVE 
CARDS OR SLIPS FROM THIS PO 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO LIBfc