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Full text of "The Canadian Nurse Volume 71"

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The 
.1.1 
Nurse 


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DO Nor TAKI 
OUT OF (IBRAIt\' 
I January 1975 {;j 


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UNIV2
SITY OF OTLA
A 
NURSING LIBRARY 
OTTAWA, aNT. 
K1N óN5 
12-7L-FAX-11-74-CN-PD 


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Drug administration times should be reexamined 



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C) STYLE No. 4429 
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New...ready to use... 
"bolus" prefilled syringe. 
Xylocainé100 mg 
(lidocaine hydrochloride injection, USP) 


For 'stat' I.V. treatment of life 
threatening arrhythmias. 


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o Functions like a standard syringe. 
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o Calibrated and contains 5 ml Xylocaine. 


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o Package designed for safe and easy 
storage in critical care area 


o 


The only lidocaine preparation 
with specific labelling 
information concerning its 
use in the treatment of cardiac 
arrhythmias. 


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an original from 
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Xylocaine
 100 mg 
(lidocaIne hydrochlOride InJectIon U 5 P ) 
.....DI(-ATIOf'lS-Xvlocamc admlnlstcred mtra- 
\'cnousl
 IS specifically mdlcated In the acute 
mana!cment of( I' V(nln\.utar arrh\rhmlas occur- 
rrn@.durin@.cardlat.. mampulatlon. sUlh a... lardlat.. 
surgcn: and(2) hfc-thrcaICmn!arrh'Vlhml
. par- 
Ilcularh, lhoscwhkh arc vcntrlf..ular In Oflllln. :!Iuch 
as occur dunng acutc m)ocardlal mfarcu"ön 


CO....TRA"DlCATIO....S-X,locamc IS contra- 
mdlcated (I) In patients wuh a known hlslor'}' of 
h)pcrsensitIUI\ to local annlhelJcs of the amide 
I}pc. and (2) In pauents 
llh Adams-Slokes 5vn- 
dromc or with sc'Vcre dc@rces of slnoatnal. atrio- 
ventricular or Intraventricular block 


\\AR'I'C5t-Comtant monitonn@Wlth an elec- 
trocardIOgraph is csscntlal in the proper adminis- 
tration of1(ylocame mrravenoush SIEns of exces- 
SJve depre$slon of cardia\: conductt\. nv. such as 
prolongation of PR inter..al and QRS complex 
and the appearance or aggra\. aUon of arrh"'thmlas. 
!.hould be foll(.I,,'ed b\ prompl L"essalJon of the 
mlra\C'nou,S infusion of this agent It is mandatory 
to have emergenc\ resuscnauvc equipment and 
dru@.s Immedlatct) a\.allablc to manage possible 
adverse readlonS in....oh'ln
 the cardIOvascular 
respiratoTY or cC'ntral nervous S\-stems. 
E\ Idence for proper usage m children IS hmited 
PRfC 4.l TJO...." CaulI"" .hould be cmplo\Cd 
m the repeated USC' of X".locame In pattcnu '-'nb 
SC''''cre Iwer or renal disease becau
 accumulation 
ma\. ü'I..cur d.nd md" lead 10 tOlm. phenomena 
rntt 
X\loc..arne I
 melahohzrd maml\ In the h\oer and 
e:{\. retcd b" Ihe kldnc) The drug should also be 
used with cautIOn m paUenlS v.lth h\po"'olemló 
and 'iih\.xk. and all fl"rms uf heart hlOl.k (see CO,," 
TRAI'DK4.TlO....S 4. 'I) \I,...R.....'GSI 
In patlenb v.nh "lnU
 brad\Lardla the admmls- 
trallon ofXvlul'dme mtrnenou\h for the ehmma- 
lI'1.1n of "entnlular el.toplc beab V.IChoUi pnor 
aeeelerallon In hearl rate fe.!! þ\o CtOproterenol 
or b" elcetTic pa"lnl!) mil'" pro\ooke more frequent 
and senous ",entncular arrh'thmld:!l. 


AD\ fRSE RfACTlO....S S\Slcm.c reaclions of 
the follov.mg l\'pes have been reponed 
(I) Central r.....er..o
 System. Ii@.htheadednc

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drowsmess. dlzzlnes'li.. apprehenslon
 euphona. 
tmnitus; hlurred OJ douhle \. l"'lon: \.omnm@.... sen- 
sationS 01 heal Cliid or numbness. Iv.nchmll. 
trem"lr': L"'()n\. ulslon,.. un'l..{lnS\.lOusne
.. dnd resp
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ralOr.. depre"lon and arresl 
(:!þ Cardlo\.d,cular S\'stC'ffi hvpotenslOn. car- 
tJllJ\oasculdr colldp..e. dnd brad\.Ld.rdla v.hu.h ma\' 
lead to Lardldl: arre
t 
rhere haH' been no reporb of \.w
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IU"llv 
bec""ecn X,JOl..ame and pTO\:óunamlde or belween 
X"localne and qUIQldme 


OOSI\CF 1\'\0 4.0
1J""'!'tTRI\TIO"" Sin
'
 
Injection: The usudl dose IS 50 mg to 100 mg 
administered mtra\.enousl" under ECG moml..)T- 
mg. This dmoe ma, be admlnlslered at the rate 
of aprr(1"
lmalel, 2S mg 10 50 m@. per mmule 
Suthuent lime ",hould be allowe'd 10 enable a 
Inw 
ctTf...ulauon to Ldm Ihe drug to Ihe 'iilte of action 
If the Initial InJecuon of 50 mg to 100 mg docs 
not produLc ade!'!olrcd responsc.. a 'tecond dose may 
be rep(,3led aller IO-:!O mmutC'S. 
NO 
IORE THAN !OO MG TO 300 'IG OF 
XYlOCAl:-E SHOULD BE AD\.fI'ISTERED 
OLRlfIoG A ONE HOlJR PERIOD 
In children experience with the drug is limned 
Co.ti.uous Infu.sion: Following a single mjel'tion 
In those patienlS In v.hom the arrh,thml8 tends 
to rttur and who are Incapable of recei\. Ing oral 
antlarrhvthmlc therap'.. Intrdvenous m"'us.lon
 of 
X",locarne ma) be admmJSlered at the rate of 1 
mg 10 2 mg per minute (20 to 25 ug kg per minute 
In the a"erage 10 kg man) Intravenous. Infuslom 
of1(\'locame must beadmmistered under COnstant 
ECG monitoring co a\lOld potenu41 overdosa@.e 
and tOXlClt\, Intravenous mfuslon should be ter- 
minated as SoOOn as the patient's basIc rh"'lhm 
dppears 10 be stable or at the earliest sign!!> of 
toxic.,,,, Ie should rarelv be nf'Ces.san to Cûntmue 
Intra\.enOlb infusIOns be)ond :!4 hours Þt.s soon 
as possible. and when mdlcatcd. patienU 'Should 
be changed to an oral antiarrh\ thmi" a!ent for 
maintenan'l...C'therapv. 
Solutions for intravenous mfusion should be 
prepared by the addition of one 50 ml sm!!lc dose 
"Ial of X\. localne 2 r or OnC :5 ml X ylocame Dne 
Gram Disposable Transfer S\onnge to I Lter of 
appropnatc solution This will provide a OJt'f 
solution: that is. each ml v."1 eon tam I m2 of 
Xylocamc HC\. Thus I ml 10 2 ml per ml
ulc 
will proude I m
 10 2 mg of X,loe,nne HCI per 
minute 



New style 
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Clinical studies have shown that SELSUN controls up to 
95% of simple dandruff cases and 87% of cases of 
seborrheic dermatitis 2 . 
Controlling seborrhea is vital to best results in treating such 
skin conditions as acne, blepharitis and otitis externa. 
Precautions and side effects: Keep out of the eyes; burning 
or irritation may result. Avoid application to inflamed scalp 
or open lesions. Occasional sensitization may occur. selenium sulfide lotion, Abbott Standar 
No more reliable dandruff 
treatment anywhere 


1 Slinger, W.N. and Hubbard, D.M., Trea
ment of Seborrheic Dermatitis with a Shampoo CoN fig 
Selenium Sulfide. A M A Arch. Derm"t & Syph.. 64.41, 1951 
2 Bereston, E S. Use of Selemum Sulfide Shampoo In Seborrheic DermRlllls JAM A. 1561246 
1954. 


t .......c) "RD. T.M 


I AS.OTT 
437450 



The 
Canadian 
Nurse 


ð 

 


A monthl) journal tur the nur
es of Canada published 
in English and French editions bv the Canadian Nurses' Association 


Volume 71, Number 1 


January 1975 


17 Drug Administration Times 
Should Be Reexamined! 


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B.B. Moggach 


20 An Experiment with the Ladder Concept ............. J.A. Hezekiah 
23 Nursing in the Sky. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . M. Hill, M. McLean, E. Sherwood 


27 What Do Nurses Do to 
Help Patients Who Attempt Suicide? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R. Cunningham 


30 A Nutrition Course for Nurses. . . . . . . . . .. ............ G. Lapointe 


34 Idea Exchange. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S. Pearson, C. Rosell, M. Hitch 


The views expressed in the articles are those of the authors and do not necessarily reprpsent the 
policies or views of the Canadian Nurses' Association. 


4 Letters 44 Dates 
9 News 45 Books 
36 Names 46 Accession List 
43 New Products 64 Index to Advertisers 


Executive Director: Helen K. Mussallem . 
Editor: Virginia A. Lindabury . A,slStant 
Editors: Liv-Ellen Lockeberg, Dorothy S. 
Starr . Production Assistant: Mary Lou 
Downes . Circulation Managt'r: Beryl Dar- 
ling . Advertising Manager: Georgina Clarke 
. Subscription Rates: Canada: one year 
$6.00; two years, $11,00. Foreign: ont' year, 
$6.50; two years, $12.00. Singlt' lopit's: 
$1.00 each. Makt' cht'qut's or money ordt'rs 
pavable to the Canadian Nur",s' Association. 
. Change of Address: Six weeks' notict'; the 
old address as wt'li as the new are necessary, 
togelher with registration number in a pro 
vincial nurses' association. where applicablt'. 
Not rt'sponsible (or Journals lost in mail dut' 
to errors in add ress. 


Manuscript tnformalion: 'The Canadian 
Nurse" welcomes unsoliciled arlldes. All 
manuscripts should be typed, doublt'-spaced, 
on one side of unruled paper leaving wIde 
margins. Manuscripts are acct'pted (or revit'w 
for exclusive pubhcation. The editor rest'''es 
the right to make the usual editorial changes. 
Photographs (glossy pllntsl and graphs and 
diagrams (drawn in indIa ink on white paper) 
are welcomed with ,uch articles The edItor is not 
commilled to publish all articles sent 
nor to indicate definile dates of publicalion. 
Postage paid in cash at third class rate 
MONTREAl. P.l). Permit No 10 001 
50 The Drivt'wa
 Olla"'a Ontario K2P 1 U 
9 CanadIan Nurses' AssoCiallon 1975 


Editorial I 


This past week, 10,000 persons 
around the world died of starvation; this 
coming week. another 10,000 will die 
from the same cause. To find out how 
many will be dead by this date next 
year, just multiply 10,000 by 52 and 
you will reach a fairly accurate count. 
Ten thousand deaths weekly from a 
lack of food! Unbelievable. Yet, we 
know it is true, as we have seen films 
on our television screens of the dead 
and dying. 
Few of us have escaped feeling an 
overwhelming sense of frustration over 
this catastrophe. Part of our frustration 
is a reaction to the disappointing re- 
sults of the World Food Conference. 
where most nations were unwilling to 
shed their political differences long 
enough to come to grips with this crisis. 
As one writer put it, the conference was 
an exercise in moral abdication. 
Our frustration - and, indeed. guilt 
- also results from a personal feeling 
of helplessness. Here we are, in an 
affluent society, with an abundance of 
food on our table each day. In fact, a 
major concern in Canada is our life- 
style, which includes - for many of us 
- the problem of overeating. 
What, then, can we do to help feed 
the one-half billion hungry people in the 
world? Two things: First, send money 
- even as little as $1 will help - to 
UNICEF Canada, 443 Mount Pleasant 
Rd.. Toronto, Ontario, M4S 2L8. 
Second, we can send an avalanche 
of letters to the federal government in 
Ottawa. If each member of the Cana- 
dian Nurses' Association were to write 
a letter to the Prime Minister of Can- 
ada, stating that this country should 
pledge even more tons of grain than 
was promised at the World Food 
Conference, this would mean that the 
P.M.'s office would be deluged with 
over 97,000 letters - a number that 
can not be ignored. Although Canada's 
record at the conference was better 
than most countries. it can still be im- 
proved: 
As members of the CNA - the 
largest group of professional health 
workers in the country- we have an 
obligation to lead the way. Let no 
one accuse us of moral abdication 
- V.A.L. 


. Canada pledged 1,000,000 tons of grain 
a year as food aid over the next three years 
and later promised another 600.000 tons if 
the money can be found to pay for it. 
THE CANADIAN NURSE 3 


\NUARY 1975 



letters 


{ 


letter.. to the editor are welcome. 
Only signed letters, which include the writer's c\Jmplete add res.., 
will be considered for publication. 
Name will be withheld at the writer's request. 


Value of nursing research 
The article" Nursing research is not every 
nurse's bu
iness" by Marjorie Hayes (Oc- 
tober 1974) wa.. of particular interest to me 
because I have been introducing senior 
students to ba
ic concepts of nursing re- 
search for ..everal years, although I cannot 
claim to be a nurse researcher. Our goals 
are to create an awareness in students of 
the need for nursim.! research. and of the 
nurse's role in cont
ibuting to it. 
The fact that bona fide research requires 
a ..pecially trained person does not negate 
Lucille Notter's contention that" nursing 
re..earch is every nur..e'.. bu..ine..s." as 
quoted by Hdyes. 
Research depends on the collection of 
data. and every nurse practitioner provide
 
data in her daily reporting and recording. 
The validity of ..uch data depend.. on con- 
..istency and accuraq. 
It therefore 
eems reasonable to assume 
that every nurse "-ho has made nursing 
re..earch her business can better appreciate 
the value of her records as a potential 
source of data for the nurse researcher; she 
is also better prepared to identify problem.. 
that can be rðearched. which could be 
overlooked by the specially trained nurse- 
re..earcher-practitioner hef'.elf. 
Hayes believes that nurses ought to be 
"provided with the opportunity to learn 
aboUT research." This seems to imply that 
every nurse 
hould make nur..ing research 
her busine..... at least to some degree. I 
assume then that the meaning of her title is 
based on her belief. "-hich 
I accept. that 
not eve!) nur..e can be or ..hould be a 
researcher. 
The clarification of this point prompted 
my letter. It is not intended as a criticism of 
Haye..' summary of nursing re..earch and 
it.. needs. so succinctly 
expre
sed by 
h
r. - Joyce Nevitt. Associate Profe.uor 
(
f tv,ursinR, Memorial University oj 
Nel\joundllllili. St. John' s. 


The author'.. the..i
. that not all nurses are 
adequately prepared to conduct formal 
re..earch. ha.. merit. But thi.. po
tulak' 
cannot be a license to state that research is 
not every nur..e' s busines... 
A.. nursing move.. more to.., ard a 

rofes..ional ..tature. it becomes impera- 
tive that all nur
es be familiar with the 
benefits as "-ell a.. the limitations of 
re..earch in nursing. Unless we can apply 
the I.. no"- ledge gleaned through re
earch 
to our practice. our re
earch is for naught. 
4 THE CANADIAN NURSE 


Perhap.. not every nur..e ..hould be a 
producer of research, but every nur
e 
should be an intelligçnt consumer of 
research. 
I support wholeheartedly "Hayes' 
statements that nurses must be provided 
opportunities to learn abuut research. 
Educators and administrator.. must recog- 
nize that they possess a responsibility to 
those they lead to provide a climate 
conducive to learning about re..earch. 
Student.. of nursing. on the other hand. 
must be prepared to avail themselves of 
this climate. 
The intelligent use of re..earch in the 
process of caring for people is every 
nurse's business - James D. Parse/... 
R.N.. M.A. (NSA). Assistant Projessor. 
School (if Vursing. Northern Michigan 
University. Marquette. Michigan. U.S.A. 


In her article .. N urs ing research is not 
every nurse's business" (October 1974. 
p. 17). Marjorie Hayes incorrectly para- 
phrase.. Lucille Notter. Notter contends 
that the use and dissemination of research 
is a professional responsibility. "- hereas 
Hayes argues thdt not every RN should 
become a nurse researcher. These are two 
entirely different ideas. I "-ould agree 
with the author that not every nurse may 
desire or be capable of doing research at 
the level she describes; however. must 
research be so large-scale or grandiose to 
qualify as worthy of report. discu..sion. or 
use'! 
Research. a form of problem-solving. 
i.. vital to the development of nursing 
practice. To be infÖrmed of research 
findings. ne"- ideas. ways to solve sys- 
tematically the client".. problems. and the 
data needed for valid conclusion.. i.. an 
integral part of the practitioner's respon- 
sibility. 
Surely nurses have a commitment to 
develop skills and kno"- ledge if they "- i..h 
to serve clients adequately. If nursing 
research is not every nurse'.. bu..iness. 
and if "-e abdicate our re"ponsibilit'v to 
the development of our discipline: we 
have no right to call our..clve.. a profes- 
..ion or to offer our services to others. 
-Jan Given. London, Ontario. 


Marjorie Hayes replies: 
I thank Joyce Nevitt for her comments 
that so well restate my basic concerns. 
Her statement. "Every nurse who has 


made nursing röearch her business CJr 
better apprel."iate the ..alue of her records 
.. ..ureh restatö m\ concern tha, 
nurses need" to be better "informed aboul 
research and the "-ay.. it I."an a..sist theil 
practice by under..tanding ho"- it I."an bo; 
interpreted. One way of I."f
ating a pool 0 
better prepan:d nur..e.. i.. to providl 
research conl."ept.. in nur..ing educatÎor 
concept... and I "-as plea..ed to hear 0 
Ne..itt"
 effort... 
I al.!ree "-holehedrtedlv with Jame' 
Parsek
 that every nur<;e" should be aI 
intelligent con..umer of re..earl."h. Unfnr 
tunately, hm\ev.:r. the nur..ing profc..siOJ 
ha.. not pro..ided avenue.. for nur
es tl 
become intelligently informed about re 
..earch methodology. stati..tics. and thel 
implication fÓr nur..ing care It i, true thJ 
educator.. and/or administrator.. mu..t ac 
cept the responsibility to provide not onl
 
a climate conducive to leaminl.! but. abl 
the means of learning about re..earch 
Students mu..t expect and even deman. 
expert teaching in re..earch de..ign. ani 
that involves more than mere "problem 
..olving" techniques. It is alright to keel 
say ing that every nur..e ..hould u..e re 
searl."h in the proces.. of caring for people 
but h"o"- can ..he if 
he doö not know hm 
to use it'! Intellil.!em use of anvthin 
require.. informed 
 learning. Surelÿ. th 
clichés have to ..top and actions nee. 
to ..tart! 
I am sorry that Jan Given nli..interprete 
what I "- rote. She ..tates that I \\ as arguin 
that every nurse should become a 'ñurs 
researcher. What I "-as attempting to stat, 
clearl
 "-a
 that nur..e.. cannot be expecte 
to do research or even to inte
p,ret r.esearc I 
results unle..s adequate proVIsIOn IS mad 
to provide learning facilitie... climate' 
and role modeb. Surelv we do not "-ant t 
abdicate our responsibÚity; "-e ju..t "-ant t 
be allowed the opportunity to be well ir 
formed. .A....uming one's responsibilit 
a.lso means assuming consequences for al 
tl.O

 
emanded as a result of those respor 
slblhtle... Perhaps there are not enoug 
adequately trained and informed person 
to call ourselves a profe.....ion at thi.. timf 
if you a..
ume dbility to do and make use ( 
r
..ean:h data as pan of reaching profe
 
slOnal stature! 


Photos wanted 
From September 29 to October 7. 1974. 
"-as on a tour of Russia. as organized b 
(Colllilllled Oil page t 
JANUARY 197 



:NDORSED For SPRING 
A 
JESIGNE::S CHOICE 
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A) STYLE No. 44250 
Sizes 3-15 

 ROYALE SPICE 
. 100% POLYESTER KNIT 
White, 
pink. , . about $33.00 
-
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lesigner's -- . 


I

 choice 


81 \ 
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C) STYLE No. 44744 
Sizes 3-15 
ROYALE DIAMOND 
TRICOT KNIT 
White 
only . . . about $33.00 
\ 

 
AT YOUR FAVOURITE CAREER APPAREL STORE 


B) STYLE No. 44725 
Sizes 5-15 
ROYALE DIAMOND 
POL YESTERINYLON KNIT 
White 
only . _ about $22.00 


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letters 


(( 0"'''111(''' (rIll" {"'Pt' 4J 


Professional Semin,m.. Ltd. Like 
ever
 one ebe. I took many photograph.. 
during thi, tour. However. they did not 
lurn out. 
I \\ouJd he pka
l'd II .my nup;e \\ho 
wa.. on th.lt tour would lo.m me her color 
...hde.. or negallve' so that Icoulll hJ.ve my 
own print' mdlk. I would even he willing 
to pay fÒr Ihe...e slide... or negatives. - 
TallWi 5tallhill. 2155 It' 1st A 
'e.. 
Vall
'(J//I'l'r, R.c. VfJK IE7. 


Stand up .md be tl'
ted 
On heh.tIf of Recreation Canada. I wi,h to 
take thi, opportunily to thank the Cana- 
dÜm Nur..e..' A.....ociation and the hnst 
de!.:gation from Manitnba for inviting us 
to the recent annual meeting in Winnipeg. 
Di..play repre..ent.llive... .... ae heartily en- 
courdgl'd hy the enthu..m,tic reception to 
and pJ.rticipation of dekgJ.tes in the 
fitne.... ,.pprai,al program. 
llnlilrtunatdy. the cardinva...cular step 
le't. now commonly referred to as the 
Canadian Home Fitne" Test. will nol he 
availahlc Ihi.. year .I, anticipated It 
,hnuld he re.ulv for di...trihution. how- 
c\er. during the 'pring of I Q75. The 
formal dehut of Ihe Canadian Home 
Fitnc..... T C'I ....,11 he preceded hy an 
appropriale prnmotional campaign. We 
l\ould reque't that nurse' who arc in- 
teröted in receiving copies delay their 
requl"t' until that lime. - Richard R.J. 
I all:"". F il/le.l".\ ("/I.\"ullOlII. Recreation 
COllllclll. Hl'Clllh 1I11d Welfare Canada. 
()U{/\\"lI 


Down under 
We .Ire a group nt 7 Canadian R"'''' v.ho 
recently came to work in Brisbane, 
()uel'n,land. Australia. The purpnse of 
thi.. Icllcr is to intiJrm fello.... CanadiJ.n 
nur'e.. .... ho are con,idering employment 
here ot the diftïcultie... and inconsistencie, 
the. II1J.V meet with the Nur...es' Re!.!i...tra- 
I iori Aoãrd upon arri val here. 
 
Our qualificatinn, <Ire varied. Four of 
u, hdl'e .I h<lchelor (If science in nursing 
degree. and three are gwduatö from a 
I\lO-yedr program. with an addllional one 
hI t....o yeap; experience. Previou... cor- 
re"'pnndence with the Nur...es' Board 
informed the univer...it) graduates that 
thl') could not he regi...tered if they had 
graduated from d two-yedr program. 
un!.:.... they had an addiwmal one year of 
experience Ho....ever. the two-year 
gradu,\te.. ....ere nnt informed of thi.. 
mailer. The ...even of u, h<lw all met thl',e 
't<lted qUdlification... 
(, THE CANADIAN NURSE 


Upon amvmg in Brisbane. we found 
the requirements for nurse regi...tration to 
have ...uddenly hecome more difficult. 
The first 2 Canadian nurses who arrived 
wert:' ahle to hecome registered: however. 
the next 5 nurses. with similar qualifica- 
tion.... were not registered and are now 
required to work as third-year students for 
varying lengths of time. These times 
range from three to six or eight months. 
The rea...on... given for the additional 
training varies from the need for addi- 
tional hour... to the need for experience in 
a ...pecific area. 
We understand that a large number of 
Canadian nur...es have been recruited for 
the State of Queensland. It is important 
that they realize there is a distinct 
possibility they will not be registered, but 
will be employed and paid as third-year 
student nurses. We advise anyone seri- 
ously considering employment in this 
state to have their Qucen...land registration 
IJl1árl' leaving Canada - or be prepared 
to work as third-year student nurses! - 
Dl,horah A. Cooper. B.N.. R.N; Janet 
DeRoche R.N.; Christine Duffield 
B.5c.N R.N.; L\'/In McNamara R.N.; 
Karen Murdock B.Sc.N., R.N.. B.A.; 
Bel'aley Preston B .5c.N., R.N.; and 
Christine Rothera R.N. 


Any RN plannin!? 10 lI'ort... in a forei!?n 
COUlllfT should contact the C anae/illn 
Nurses' Association for information 
ahout re!?i.\tratÜm requiremellls and de- 
t(lil.
 lIhout It'orkin!? ahrolld. Write to: 
Nllning Coordinator, CNA, 50 The 
Dril'elVal'. Ottawa K:!P IE:! - The Editor 


New programs have advantages 
A letter in the October 1974 issue. written 
hy .. RN. Quebec" (page 7). has prompted 
mv first letter to any publication. 
The writer states that the 2-year pro- 
gram in nursing should never have been 
...tarted. She bases her opinion on 15 years 
of nursing experience. 
My reply is based on 36 years of nursing 
experience. 17 of which were in nursing 
education in 4 provinces. I have found just 
as many poor nurses who graduated from 
3- year programs a... from 2 - or 4- y
ar prog- 
ram.... Poor products are not necessarily the 
fault of the program, but rather of the qual- 
ity of the teaching. 
Students absorb teacher attitudes far 
more readily than factual data. If the 
teachers are disinterested. careles.... snob- 
bish. or ...mug in their positions. the stu- 
dents will frequently retlect the same at- 
titudes. Too often the staff send students 
who are poorly prepared to a health agency 
and expect the agency to teach the stu- 
dents. The instructors have never visited 
the agency to see what kinds of experience 
it offers and to e...tablish rapport and coop- 
eration with the agency staff. 
Sometimes. too. selection of staff for 


teaching positIOns is based solely (ìß. 
academic achievement. rather than on II 
balance of academic level and practical 
experience. A basic principle of employ- 
ment practice is to check references from 
former employer... and instructors. Mayhe 
there should also he a check of the opin J 
ions of former students. 
 
One great disadvantage of the 3-year, 
hospital-based programs was the segrega- I 
tion of the students in a totally work- 
oriented environment. The great advan- 
tage of the new programs is the contact I 
with students in other disciplines and ex- 
posure to nonnursing instructors. 
Emphasis in programs today is placed I 
on nursing action based on principles from 
many fields - the "why" of action. not l 
merely the "hows". When I hear nurses 
complain about how much the ne.... 
graduates cannot do. I am tempted to ask; 
"How perfectly prepared were you when 
you began your nursing career?" 
It has been proven that the 2-year pro- 
gram 'of instruction for nursing is ade- 
quate. given enthusiastic. interested, 
instructional staff who have demonstrated 
nur...ing competence and academic 
achievcment. 
We must all accept our responsibiliti
s 
as mentors to the newer members of our 
profession. and stop expecting ne\\ 
graduates to function as though the) have 
been in active nur...ing for 5 or more years. 
It is necessary to find out what things the 
...tudents have not had a chance to do and to 
give them the opportunity to do these 
things with interested guidance. not criti- 
cal ...upervision. - O. Bernice Donaldmn'l 
Assistant DireClor of Nursing, 
Wetast...ill'in General Ho.\pital. Wetast...ill'in 
Alberta. 


Graduates must keep up-to-date 
I am writing in reference to the article by 
Moira MacDougall. "A diploma is not an 
oil painting" (February 1974). in which 
the author presents an untlattering analogy 
between a graduate nurse and her diploma. 
and a housewife and an oil painting. 
I agree that in many cases this analogy is 
correct. Although it is not feasible to ex- 
pect every graduate to seek higher educa- 
tion. it is reasonable to expect graduates to 
maintain their level of education by read- 
ing journals. attending conferences. and 
participating in their own in service educa- 
tion programs. 
Our society is experiencing rapid 
change and advancement. Attaining 
knowledge cannot be left to the next nurs- 
ing generation. but must be achieved by 
practicing nurses. 
Why are nurses not meeting their re- 
sponsibility to acquire new knowledge? 
One reason. a... pointed out by Mac- 
Dougall. is the lack of inservice programs. 
In hospitals where such programs exist. 
however. staff shortages often prevent 
JANUARY 1975 



Irc than one nur
e per unit from atlend- 
!. Nur
es \\'ho \"ork evening or night 
Ith arc at a di
advantage. as most educa- 
n program!> are given during the da}. 
Dc'pite these barriers. it i, still the re- 
'n,ihility of thl' profl's,ion.11 nur'c to 
tntain hCI level of education and 'cd, 
.\ inti.rrmation. It is abo the emplo}er'
 
ty to provide opportunities to facilitate 
. staffs learninl.! needs. 
I dgree \\, ith \1;cDougall that insefl ice 
callon programs 
hould hecome an in- 
!rated part of the \\,ork ing day. S 
Irpl'r.fourth-year nuning Hudellt. Uni- 
Üty of Calgar\". Calgary. Albl'rta. 


fic(' nurses' work is degr.1ding to them 
'ter redding Wilinia B. Garhe'
 letter 
ugu
1 1974. page 4). I find I cannot 
ree \\'ith many of the statement
 !-ohe 
lkes. 
I am heing educated in .I four-yedr. In- 
!rated basic haccalaureate program. 
lIch 
trcsscs individualized patient- 
! ntered care and the nur,e practitioner 
ncept. Having had numerou
 contach 
th physiciam' office
, hoth a!-o a learning 
Iperient'e and as a con'umer. I strong I} 
liele that what most nur,es do tn an 
fice is degrading to them, to theireduca- 
Inal preparation. and their profe

ion. 
Ierefore. I cannot be horrified h} a doc- 
I' hiring a non-professiondl to do the 
Irk for a registered nurse 
Dutie
 such as t}ping. filing. filling out 
edicare form,. ans\\,ering the phone dnd 
Idying the mcs
dge to the phy,inan. 
loking appointments. and cleaning the 
tice can be carried out competently h} a 
lined medical secretary. The
 do nol 
'ed the attention of an educated nur
e; no 
Ie requires two. three. or four veal's 
'eparation to learn ho\\, to dean cx
mtn- 
g t
hles and wash specula. 00 
uch tasb 
quire the knowledge and s"ill ti.lr \\'hich 
e nurse was prepared'? Arc the
e tasks 
lti
fying to her? 
If these tasks are being taken over b} 
mprofcssionals. ""hat is going to happen 
our role in the physician'
 oftïce'? Un- 
s!-o ""e. as nurses. use our asseh. 
ell our 
uduct. and deliver a hi!.!h !-otandard of 
Ire. neither the phy!-oician 
 nor the patient 
ill buy our product. If this occurs. \\,e 
Ill' a right to be horrified. But \\'hat 
'oduct are ""e trying to 
ell'? 
An educated nur
e. l"ho is prepared to 
.e the knowledge and skill she has and is 
illing to gain more experti
e - thereh) 
Inctioning in what many leader
 call the 
lpanded role concept - must change her 
leus from one of serving the physician to 
le of 
erving the consumer. 
The nurse must be \\, illin!! to \\,ork not 
lly in the office. but aho in
the commun- 

. visiting the family at home and seeing 
Ie interaction and coping that occurs at 
Ii, level. Such a nur
e \\, ill be unique. She 
ill act as a change agent. creating her 
NUARY 1975 


o\\,n individualized program. \"hich \\,111 
meet the need
 of the communit) more 
economicall}. The ph) sician \\, ill also hc 
freer to carry out hi, role. In a\Suming an 
ex panding role. many nur'e
 arc tinding 
the necd 10 upd.lte .1Ilt! further their 
kills 
- thu'. the emphasi, on continuing edu- 
cation dnd obtaining degree
. 
y e
. the nur
e doö hclonl! in the 
physician' 
 office. B) being rele;sed from 
her mana!!erial duties. she could use her 
"no\\ Iedg
 and ,kil/more effective!) and 
helieI' 'crve the con,umer. \\ ho is turned J 
off h) Muting long hour, in a ,tuffy. 
germ-laden room for a five-minute contact 

"ith a ph),icidn. 
The expanded role concept i
 utopi3n to 
man}. hut it mu't ,tdrt 
ome""here if \\,e 
are to remain d viahle profösion. What 
heller place i, there to hegin than in a 
doctor'
 office. b) a doctor \\'ho free
 the 
nur
e from n1dnagerial dutie
 h) hiring a 
nonprofcsSlonal to do thcm'.' - ,'Vaner 
{m/1/or.\. fOllrth- \"i'ar nllr.Üng .\Illden!, 
Unil'cnityof Calgar\". Calgar\". A/halll. 


RN and aS5i
tant an' needed 
I concur \\'ith Wilinia B. Garbe'
 leller. 
"RN, helong in doctor" office'" (Augu,t 
1974. page 4) 
Lay and duxlliary !-otaff have a place in 
doctors' oftïccs. hut it i, not paforming 
nur
mg procedures. fhe..e per,on.. arc 
needed ti.)r the manv derio:al and house- 
keeping respon
ihilitie' of a husy office 
practice. 
Ph) sicians \\, ho hIre office pcr,onnel 
have 10 con
idlT the prlOrltlÖ and ramifi- 
cations of economics versus qualit) pa- 
tient care. Nurses in ph
 ,ician
' office
 
have to con,ider the challenge of ex panded 
role nursing. coming changes in primary 
health care. and the role they are prepared 
to accept. 
In addition to having technical ..kills and 
knm" ledge. as nurses \"e mu
t anticipate 
patient
' need.s and do health teaching. 
The,e cannot be taught to an office assis- 
tant. The) are gained in tho
e three year
 
of nur
ing education and years of practice 
afterward. 
I hope th.1t physicians. nurse
. and other 
health profes\ionals \\, ill see the many ad- 
vantages of \\'or"ing together as a team in 
giving the consumer heller patient 
care. - Eleanor Hallman, R.Y. 
Na/laimo. British Columhia. 


less helpful lately 
I ha\ie found the magazme to he Ics
 
interestmg and he1pfu( lately. [ am sure 
economics dre a hig part of the prohlem. 
The sections I like hest are hoob. 
research ah.,tracts. new
. and article, on 
nursing care prohlems. The section
 I like 
ledst are names. articles on conventions. 
and ne\\, products. - Marie [(I)'ell 
Wafl"er. Edmoll1oll, Alherta. 


The Professional 
Psychiatric Nurse 
Is Changing. 
We 
Are 
Too! 


Psychiatric Nursing, thl' oHindl publi- 
cation of thE' Ps
chj.Jtric ,ursl's 
AssrHïdtion of Cdnddd. IS chdnging. 
\:dtur.JlIy. \\"1"1'1' I'x!"itl'd. hilt \\"1' \\ .Int 
to I'mphdsizp it's our joh kl'l'pll1g thl' 
proff'ssiondlnp 10 clair' 
Today's psychidtric nursl's .11'1' pdrl of 
d dyndmic profl'ssion. Contll1uing 1'1' 
sedrch is producing dn 1'\ 1'1' gro\\"mg 
\ olume of informdtlon dnd. hdnd in 
hdnd. dn 1'\"1'1' gro\\ ing nl'l'd to mdkl' 
II kno\\ n to tho'>I' \\ orklng in Ihl' 
profession. 
Aut \\"1' dlso r!'dhzf' th.1t thl'r!' dr!' mdn
 
df'mands on d nurSt'"s IIITII' Thdt".. \\ h\" 
the ne\\" Psychiatric 
ursing hdS gl'dll'd 
f'arh ISSUp to thp hus
 profl'sslon.ll hy 
using timely arlidl's. prl'sentpd In .I 
stde intended to inform dnd stimuldtl' 
If you'rp a nul's!' in psychldtn, \\1' Ihmk 
thl' 1\\"0 of us should gf't togl'lhpr \\'1"11' 
hoth changll1g. 


[p
TI@rnDÆ1frnn@ 
IURSIIG 
t Pubhshed bl
monthh b\ the PS\l.hld1nC 
,"urses Assouatlon of Canada 
SVBSCRIPTIO.... 55 PER YEAR 


Pledse enler my subsrnptlOn 10 
Ps
('hialri(. :o-.;ursing. 
Cheque enclosed 0 Bill mp 0 


'\.A
IE 


ADDRESS 


Cll') 


PRe I\' 


POST-\L CODE 


Mdlllo' 
Ps
rhldlrt! :\ursmg. 
871 :o-.;olre Damp A\ P.. 
\\ I:\. '\II'E(;. Mdmloha R3E OM-l 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 7 



for relief of postpartum discomforts 
only Tucks babies 
tender tissues two ways 
as a soothing wipe...as a cooling compress...and as often as slìe likes 


Tucks medicated pads give your postpartum 
patient more relief, more often than ointments or 
aerosols because pads can be used more ways. 
Cooling Tucks medication can be applied by 
using the pad as a compress. Or the pad can be 
used as a wipe to both soothe and cleanse. As a 
wipe, it lets her avoid the mechanical irritation of 
harsh, dry toilet paper. A Tucks pad under her 
sanitary pad prevents chafing too. 
Tucks medication gives prompt, temporary 
relief from postpartum discomforts-the itching, 
burning and irritation of episiotomies and simple 
hemorrhoids. Its active ingredients are witch hazel 
and glycerine-there is no "caine" type anesthetic 


'. 


. 
. . 


. 
 
\;, 


<
. 
 


in it. Your patient can have her own supply of 
Tucks at bedside for self-administered relief with 
minimum risk of over-treatment or sensitization. 
In addition, Tuck:
 medication is buffered to an 
approximate pH of 4.6. This helps tissues maintain 
their normal acid defenses. Prescribe Tucks pads 
at bedside for soothing, cooling comfort from the 
first postpartum day on. 
IÖNiMffif 


1956 Bourdon Street. Montreal, P.Q, H4M 1V1 


"- 
,. 


.. 
.. 


.. 
.. ..... 
...,.
 

 


40 
T'U.ck_ 


.....


; 



news 


eneral Assembly of ONQ Members 
a Longer Makes Most Decisions 


Jntreal. Quehec -Important changt:
 in the structure. a slight ri
e in fees. and long- 
J short-lerm priorities were among the chief Items of business at the 54th annual 
eral a..sembly of the Order of Nurses of Quebec (o:-':Q). held in Montreal 4-6 
)vember 1974. 
ome important changes in the stmc- 
'e and responsibilities of the Quebec 
)fessional association became apparent 
ONQ members at the annual general 
,embly, They were: 
the general dssembly of members is no 
ger the decision-maker except on 
I tain points: 
the chief purpo
e of the ONQ IS 
otection of the public; and 
the ONQ bureau (board) is now made up 
28 directors elected or appointed for a 

 ear term. 
le
e changes were made when the new 
uebel' Nurses' Act and the Quebec code 
the professions came into effect in 
'bruary 1974. 
The September 1974 issue of the ONQ 
Illetin. News and Notes. explains: 
raking as a basis the administrative 
ganization of large companies. where 
)Ckholders elect directors to manage 
eir affair
. the Profe

ional Code has 
signed ne.... re
ponsibilities to the 
Ireau's directors. Former/,. the annual 
'neral meeting ....as sove;eign and the 
sociatlon ....as called on to implement its 
LJue
ts" .. 
NO\\. the bureau exercises all the rights 
Id p<mer
 of the corporation except for 
e folio.... ing. which remain with the 
'ncral assembly of members: 
to determine the method of electing the 
"esident; 
 
to approve any resolution passed by the 
rector.. to fix the fee that members must 
I}. except if it is an increase neces
ary 
pay expenses due to the indemnity 
nd. to the procedure of recognizing 
luivalent diplomas conferred ours ide 
uebel'. or for applicatio)1s of the code of 
e professions respecting professional 
scipline or inspection; and 
to elect the auditors. 
The general assembly now has the 
mer to make only recommendations to 
e bureau. which mayor may not 
lplement them. The bureau must ex- 
ain the reasons for refusal to implement 
commendatIOns and inform members of 
,tion taken on each recommendation. 
NUARY 1975 


Between annual assemblies. any 
member or group of members hds the 
right to present a recommendation to the 
bureau. These recommendations are dis- 
cussed at its next regular meeting. 
As a professional corporation. protec- 
tion of the public is our raison d'être. 
Nicole Du Mouchel. executive director 
and secretary of the Order. told the annual 
assembly. To respond to this expectation. 
the Order must encourage the profes- 
sional growth of its members. and inter- 
pret to the government. the public. the 
members. and other disciplinð .... hat the 


practice of nursing IS and the roles it 
includes, she said. 
The ONQ bureau is no\\ compo
ed of 
28 directors; 24 are elected for 2 year
 by 
members of the 13 section
 of the 
province. and the Quebec Prufe

ion
 
Board appoints 4 directors to represent 
the public. 
Under new regulations. the administra- 
tive committee is reduced to 5 members. 
In 1974-6. members of this committee 
are: Jeannine Tellier-Cormier. o:'oJQ presi- 
dent: Rachel Bureau. vice-president: 
Claire Loyer. treasurer: Raymond Boulay 
and Loui
e Wayland. councilor
. 
Among the 18 proposals presented l!t 
the general assembly. the one that dlew 
the most attention concerned a $5 raise in 
annual fee. effective I January 1975. The 
Order's increased responsibilities for pro- 
fessional inspection and discipline neces- 
sitated the increase. 
The a
sembly decided. on recommen- 
dation from the directors. that the Jirec- 


ONQ Priorities Are Explained Graphically 
, 
\ . 
11 1 


t 
t 


\, . 
I 

 


" 


\ 
, 


\ 


f' 


.1 


- 


I L 


....... 


\ 


\ 


" 


-"t 
\ 
.\ 
, . 
. 
.. 


.. 


(} 


. 


... 
. 


" 


Nicole Du Mouchel. executive director and <;ecretarv of the OnJer of :'>Jurse
 of 
Quebec. left. explains the priorities of the Order for the coming year during the 
annualmceting. She is assisted by Sheila O'Neill. one of the members of the O:'oJQ 
Bureau. representing the Montreal region. 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 9 



news 


tor,> would elect the ONQ president by 
,>eeret ballot. This is one of two methods 
provided by the code of the profe,>,>ion... 
The other method - election by all the 
members - would entail complicated 
and expen
ive procedure,>. becau
c of the 
large o:o.;() membership. . 
The Professional Code permIts. but 
docs not oblige, the bureau to .. impose 
upon it,> members an oath of 
eerecy." 
:\1cmber
 at the annual assembly re- 
quested the bureau to refrain from impl
s- 
ing such an oath of seerecy on Its 
directors; they said that section member
 
mu!'.t be informcd of the bureau's objcc- 
tive
. to be able to elect representative 
directors. 
Mcmbers abo recommcnded to the 
bureau that ONQ .. vigorousl) promote the 
organilation of professional development 
cour
e
 v"ithin reach of nurses in isolated 
center,>, taking into account regional 
needs. -- And the general a
sembly a!'.ked 
that ON() provide its members with 
infÒrmation on family planning. so they 
can play their role in promoting health. 
Priorities of the Order. which wcre 
establi
hed more than one year ago. form 
a long-term plan. made up of man) 
interrelated research project
. The pro- 
jects are divided into 6 main sectors: 
definition of nursing practice: establish- 
ment of 
tandards of nursing care; work 
on various piece
 of legislation. including 
fonnulation of re!.!Ulations concerning the 
!.!eneral administration of the Quebec 
Nurses' Act and planning professional 
inspection programs; basic education: 
continuing education; and public rela- 
tions. 


CNA Response To Health Paper 
Stresses Nursing Participation 
()11111l'1l - The Canadian Nurses' 
As
ociation's response to the 
government's working document. A New 
PenpectÏl'e Oil the Health oj Calladillns, 
says there are 4 main areas in which 
.. nur
e
 can and should play a particu- 
larly valuable role in program develop- 
ment and Implementation." The response 
was pre,>ented to the Minister of National 
Health and WelfJ.re 6 November 1974. 
The 4 main areas in which nur,>ing 
participation is stressed are: 
. reduction of ,>elf-imposed and en- 
vironmental health ri
ks; 
. de..elopment of alternative modes of 
health care for chronically-ill and aged 
individuab: 
. full usc of the education and experi- 
ence of nur,>cs in treatment. prevention. 
and promotion programs; and 
10 THE CANADIAN NURSE 


I · nitical evaluation of the co,>l-effective- 
ness of health care intervention,>. 
n,,', ""PO"'" "y' Ih" heallh pmmo- 
. lion '>Iralegies. which are intended to 
brin!.! aboul an awarenes,> of self-imposed 
and 
 environmental hcalth ri!'.ks and 10 
inered,>e mental and physical fitne..,>. are 
an integral part of all nursing care. 
including Ihe immediale Ireatment of 
peNJIl'> 
ith exi,>ting illness. 
Nurses and other health v"orker,> mu,>t 
actively adhere to the principle that 
accessibility to ambulatory. institutional. 
and homc care must be based upon actual 
public need. not upon professional and/or 
burcaucratic convenience. the CNA re- 
sponse say'>. .. . 
Under the hcading, "Full Utilization of 
Nurscs." the response say'> .. . . . if the 
traditional view of the health tield is to be 
expanded to include the philo,>ophy of the 
New Perspecti
'e. nurses should be 'given 
the psychological and financial support 
they need to function in nev" modes of 
practice in either traditional or ne
 set- 
tings. Implicit in this is the neces

ty. of 
viable educational programs. perml
slve 
legislation reflecting changing health care 
needs and resources. and 'untraditional" 
career opportunities. " 
The response states: "The Association 
v"ill v"elcome opportunities for participa- 
tion in the planning. development. and 
evaluation of new modes of care." 


Notice of Annual Meeting 
of the 
Canadian Nurses' Association 


In accordance with Bylaw Section 44. 
notice i,> !.!iven of an annual meeting to 
be held April 3. 1975. commencing at 
0900 hours. Thi!'. meeting will be held 
at the Chateau Laurier Hotel. Ottawa, 
Ontario The purpose of the meeting is 
to conduct the business of the Associa- 
tion 
The meeting will be asked to consi- 
der and approve a resolution passed by 
the Board of Directors authorizing an 
application for Supplementary Letter,> 
Patent amending paragraph (D) of the 
Letter,> Patent by sub,>tituting for the 
v"ords. "The Association of Nurses of 
the Province of Quebec:' the words. 
"The Order of Nurses of Québec."' 
Ordinary members of the Canadian 
Nurses' Association are eligible to at- 
tend the annual meeting. Presentation 
of a current provincial membership 
card will be required for admis,>ion. 
Nursing students are welcome to attend 
the meeting a!'. observers. Proof of en- 
rollment in a school of nursing will be 
required for admission. - Helell K. 
Mussallem. Executi
'e Director, Calla- 
dian Nurses' Association. 


Employee Physical Fitness 
Topic Of National Conference 
011(1Wll - Delegate.. to the NationJ.1 Cor 
fcrence on Emph)yee Ph
 sical Fitne" rc( 
'ommended that re!.!ular exerci!'.e bre<lk 
rcplace TV comme;ciab J.nd/l!r. .,ervc a 
till-in., during regular televl..lon pre 
!.!rammin!.!. Thc in-vitational confcrenc( 

ponsoreJ by Health and Welfare CanaJ, 
was held at the government contcrenc 
center. Ott,1\\ a. 2-4 Decemher 1974. 
Huguette Labelle. principal nur,>ing Ij 
ficer. Health and Welfare Canada. v"a' 
member of the conferencc planning COlT 
mittee. Canadian Nurse..' A..!'.ociatio 
Pre,>ident Labelle and Jean Everarc 
Canadian Nur,>cs' A!'.,>ociation project II 
ficer. were among the 19 v" ork shop lead 
ers. 
Some 2UU person,>. representing lahe 
union,>. indu,>try management. and healt 
and phy,>ical education profe",>ionab. II 
tended the conference. Among them v"er 
about, 10 nur
es from occupational healt 
departments of indu..trie.. and ho'>pitals 
provincial health dcpartmenh. and a hos 
pital health/safet) committee. 
The conference set a ne.... ..t)le in met:! 
inos: nutrition breaks offered fruit juice 
b . . . 
milk. bran muffins. and apple,> 111 addItlo 
to coffee: exercise breab had conferenc 
attenders relievi ng ten,>ion b
 rotatin, 
their shoulder,>. shaking their arm,>, ani 
swinging their legs in time to mu,>ic; ani 
luncheon and dinner menu,> showed thl 
caloric value of each dish. 
Recommendations on .... hich mo'>t at 
tenders agreed included: 
. quality and quantity of phy,>ical educa 
tion in schools should be improved: 
. physical fitness program guideline,> an 
needed on such aspects a<, medical clear 
ance. legal implication... facilitie,>. pro- 
gram adnlÏnistration. motivJ.tion. and \tatis. 
tical data on participation levels: and 
. inservice training is needed to update 
and upgrade potential leader.. of emplo)et 
physical fitne,>,> programs_ such a,> occupa- 
tional health nurses. 
The group did not reach con,>en"lI
 on 
sugge,>tion,> that: 
. the Olympic lotter) ,>hould be retained 
and the proceed,> allocated to a \\ ide- 
ranging. national. physical tUnes,> pro- 
gram: 
. federal and provincial governments 
should allocate sizeable portion
 of their 
health budgets to industrial titnes... provid- 
ing indu
try ....ould cooperate dnd ,>aving., 
from traditional medical Cdrc are tea,>ible, 
. .... orkme n' s compen,>at IOn board!'. 
should allocate fund!'. for ph) sical fitne.,s 
programs, recognizing that prevention 01 
unfitnes,> i!'. good bu!'.ine..,>; and 
. labor and mana!.!cment 
hould not view 
physical fitne,>s pnJgrams as a negotiablc 
item in union contracts. but a
 "a deter- 
minant in the qual it) of life of the indi- 
vidual for which they must take wmbined 


(Collfil/uetl Oil page /2 
JANUARY 1975 



here can you turn when 

 ou need up-to-date answers 
o what's new- 


__NW....... 
"'I
. 
 
=- 
:::a:- 


. in coronary and intensive care? 
· in obstetrics and gynecology? 
· in emergency treatment and diagnosis? 
.in chemotherapy and pharmacology? 


Th
 Nurse's 
ook SOCie
A helping hand for 
he nurse Just startIng out. A provIdent source of new techmques for the established 
professional. And a long-time friend of over 50.<XJO nurses who rely on it for the most 
important n.:w books on nursing. all at substantial discounts. Why not join now. and 
discmer the advantages for yourself! 


I elall p'Oces shown) 
32660. AMA DRUG EVALUATIONS. 2ND EDITION. 

rt'fJa'ed oy lhe AMA Vept of Drugs A priceless toul for 
{ leckang on over 1200 drugs (mIxtures and single 
Iò' parallons). hsled Dy both trade and genellc names and 
(' 55-andexed. and evaluated fOf dosages. routes and 
Ç'f 
parahons Interactions. more Counts as 2 0 our 
br JkS $22.50 
68570. PHARMACOLOGY: DRUG ACTIONS AND 
REACTIONS. Rutn R Levme How drugs work ano 
<'")eclhc examples of hundreds of drugs you'll work with In 
lour own nursing situation. anc1udulg the Important tOpiCS 
of drug Interaction, dose and time response relatlonst' ro."" 
$14.50 
44460. EMERGENCY ROOM CARE, 2ND EDITION. 
F':},teo by Charles Eckert. M D The gUIde thaI wIll arm you 
t (Ipe with the emergenCies that crop up-from cardiac 
(],ld obstetrical emergenCies, to treatment of we" Ids Co ,J 
a r 10pedlc Inl'JrleS S 14.00 
52230. HANDBOOK OF DRUG INTERACTIONS By 
Ge J/d Sw dIe, Sets down the mteractlons of more fhan 
. '300 dlugs telling whIch olher dlugs must De avoided 
Nil" a speCific drug. preferred methods of admll stefln
 
ellngel Signs $ 15.0Ó 
70840. PSYCHIATRIC DICTIONARY, REVISED. EN- 
LARGED FOURTH EDITION. La/anO f Hmsle. MD. anO 
," ri J Campbell. M D ReliaDle gUIde 10 checking up. 
on the meanmg of every known condltron m the 
I t d (II psych
logy and related SCiences, with relev.,..,t 
L Imcal Iondlngs Counts as 2 ot your 3 booles 519.50 
60250. MANAGEMENT OF MEDICAL EMERGEN- 
CIES. John Sharpe M D anO FreOe"ck 1
 x. M D 
.1po I sUlglcal or pedlalr 
-mOle than 750 pages 01 
, .... saving procedures to help IOU handle any emergency 
.,. and elloclently Counts as 2 of your 3 bookS 
$21.50 
60422. MANUAL OF CLINICAL PROBLEMS IN 
INTERNAL MEDICINE/SYllABUS OF PROBLEM- 
ORIENTED PATIENT CARE Two teac[)lng phYSicIans loll 
r n r delalls JI 200 cl" :al sltuahons (palhophYSIol 
::IV. Igno IS managementJ plus how to keep the very 
tJt .n ""'edlcal records The 2 count as or c' ............. 
514.90 
60410. MANUAL OF PEDIATRIC THERAPEUTICS, 
" the Cf lOre' s HospItal MeO/cal Center Boston The 
bf )t reference ever published tor managmg every facet of 
r. Id care, Includmg all childhoOd diseases and.... ... 
, '. plenalal Ihlough ado cence Sp"al-bound $8.95 
84780. THE TREATMENT OF BURNS: PRINCIPLES 
AND PRACTICE. WI' am W Mor f"J MD. fA C SEally 
t Ire. I un 
hv' ,wound care complicatIons. skm grarrm
, 
'a 'trealm. " $15.00 
56230. INTRODUCTION TO ELECTROCAR- 
DIOGRAPHY, 2ND EDITION. WII , Hurst anO Robert J 
1,.11'- r( IrQ Tne rt; t"lf, qJe Jt ,Prerl etmg both normal and 
)1 ''')rma ECG'
 Shows how to re('')gmze a whole range of 
d iers I u Ing pLJI lary emb( Ism heart 
b' ventricular hypertrophy and other dls....rd('u. 
59.95 
51950. GUIDE TO PATIENT EVALUATION. Jacques L 
,....
df ',MD.J u_ af..:.
anF,eJ
RN MAA 
gl m'e A c' -:Ioar rundown 01 dll the proëedur
s and 
If' IQ"IPS nef'rje
 for h,c::tory takm'" the rt.a':j ''-'J'''_ 
eJ( in 'nd.,I..... ,{-'O rr ).]P'î eOlc 11 f-V"j,] kePJ:llng $10.00 


35760. BEHAVIOR AND ILLNESS. Ruth Wu. RN A 
tresh look at why people acl and thInk as they do when 
laced wIth Illness and how to handle a wIde ga 1l 
DehavlOI slluatrons 59.65 
73960. RESPIRATORY INTENSIVE CARE NURSING: 
FROM BETH ISRAEL HOSPITAL. Sharon ;5 bu,,,,,ell 
HN What to do 101 resp"atolY cllses and ways 10 plevenl 
and deal with them Covers mtubatlon use of ventilators, 
oxygen therapy. and postural drainage Includes an array 
of charts and tables for qUick caJculatlons excellent 
diagrams $9.95 
44360_ EMERGENCY CARE, 7TH EDITION. EOlted by 
Warren ,.., Cole Clear, explicIt. well Illustrated treatment 
gUides on wounds. shock. hemorrhage. electrlC"al bL 
cardiopulmonary arrest. and respiratory Injuries $12.65 
70120. A PRIMER OF CLINICAL D',IoGNOSIS. 
W,lIlam B Bucklngnam Complete, easy-to
tolluw manual 
Takes you through Ihe actual process 01 Ihe crucial 
diagnostiC exammatlon. detailing every conceivable ab- 
normality that could allse 512,75 
70100. THE PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICES OF 
MEDICINE, 18TH EDITION. EOeteO by A MLGhee 
Harvey. M D et al 1600-page gUIde 10 chiHcal ploblem- 
SOlving, from diagnosIs through management and prog- 
nOSIS, presented In down-to-earth fashion With qUIck 
relerence charts and taDles Counts as 2 of your 3 books 
$25.85 
60450. MANUAL OF ROUTINE ORDERS FOR MEDI- 
CAL AND SURGICAL EMERGENCIES. Timothy A 
Lam(Jnler. M D Precise and senSIOle 1-2 J gUidancé for 
over 50 cnhcal situations. stab wounds to ectopic 
pregnancy to thyrOId CI )IS. ,"eluding such specifics as 
drug dosage emelgency venhlahon 59.50 
61680. MEDICAL CARE AND REHABILITATION OF 
THE AGED AND CHRONICAllY ILL, 3RD EDITION. 
Charles D Bonner M D Modern. relevant management 01 
the chrOnically III and aged with gUidehnes to mecha- 
nSms 01 aChon. eqUIpment. therapIes 516.50 
70151. A PRIMER OF CLINICAL SYMPTOMS/THE 
PRACTICAL ART OF MEDICINE. Robert B Taylor. MD 
Two books loaded with tipS on every aspecl ot pahent care. 
from detection of clinical symptoms to d,agnc-'" and 
leçOld-keeplng The set counts as 2 bookS $20.90 


- How the club operates 
The book Club News. desc'Oblng the comIng 
Ma.n Selection and Alternate Selections. WIll be 
sent to you 15 times a year at three 10 lour week 
Intervals . II you wish to purchase the Main Selec- 
tion. do nothIng and It WIll be shIpped to you auto- 
matlcallv. . II you preler one ot the Alternates. or 
no book at all. sImply IndIcate your declPon on Ihe 
reply lorm always enclosed wIth the News and 
mall It so we receille II by the date specrhed . The 
News IS mailed In tIme to allow you at least 10 
days to decIde " you wanl the commg Mam Selec- 
tion II. because 01 late mall delillery 01 the News, 
you should ever rece/lle a Main SelectIon wIthout 
hailing had the la-day consideratIon pe'Ood. that 
Se/ecl/on may be returned at Club expense . 
Alter completIng your t'Oal membershIp. you wIll 
be enlltled '0 take advantage 01 our bonus plan 


--- 


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- 


- 


- 


'''M^ 
. " (ß.-(; 
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let and 
the rirt"f;gedICln 
pra dlce 0 


Take any 3 books 
(values to $46.50) 
for only 99<<t each 


If you join now and agree to accept 
only 3 more books at member discount 
prices during the next 
 years , 


65001. NURSING IN THE SEVENTIES/NURSE'S 
GUIDE TO HEALTH SERVICES FOR PATIENTS. A 
cOllection of forty-eight lively. Inrormatlve arlfcles by 
nurSing pros on the latest trends and techniques Plus how 
to refer patients to theraplsls. social workers, agencies 
The 2 count as one book. $9.45 
70130. PRIMER OF CLINICAL RADIOLOGY. Thomas 
T Thompson, /vi D COvers every nurSing concern-from 
rhe proper pOSlhonmg of the patient-to selectmg and 
admlmstenng the fight contrast media (or "dye") -to whal 
kind of dlel and patient preparation must precp _e e
 h 
Iype of x-ray $12.50 
73960. RESPIRATORY TECHNOLOGY: A PRO- 
CEDURE MANUAL Foul experts gIve slep-uy-.lep 
1n5ilu{.llons for uSing ,"halation equipment and glvmg the 
best respiratory care Many diagrams. charts. and 'how
ro" 
instructions for all the newest respiratory dev"'._ -' fr rT1 
aerosolS 10 venl/lalors $12.95 
67220. PATHOLOGY: A DYNAMIC INTRODUCTION 
TO MEDICINE AND SURGERY, 2ND EDITION 
Thomas M Peery. M D anO Fra. h N M,ller M D The ent"e 
gamul 01 dISeases. gun shol wound 10 cancel 01 the bowel 
viral pneumOnia to yaws ,"cludlng the nature and 
causes of each disease. ItS sequence. and effe 
organs $ 14,00 
r Th'; Ñ;-s;;-B
k S
i;tÿ - -, 
Riverside, New Jersey 08075 6-4AA 
Please accept my applicatIon tor member- 
ship and send me the three lIolumes Indi- 
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purchase at least three additIonal SelectIons 
or Alternates du'Ong the I"st two years I am 
a member. under the club plan descnbed In 
thi
 

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sionally ellen more My membership is can- 
celable any lime after I buy Ihese Ihree 
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added 10 all shipments Send no money. 
Members are billed when books arrive_ 
3 books for only ggç each 
Indicate by number the 3 books you want. 


II 


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lections 
Name 


Address 
CIty 
State Z/P_ 
Book selections purchased tor prolesslonal 
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(Offer good in Continental U S and Canada 
L 
n
 
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:. 
n::ð.2.. _ _ J 



news 


(Contil/ued from page IOj 
responsibility for providing the education 
and the opportunity." 
At the closing luncheon on 4 December. 
conference attenders a
ked that Health and 
Welfare Minister Marc Lalonde send a let- 
ter (0 the presidents of companies rep- 
resented at the conference. asking top 
management's support of suggestions and 
recommendations for employee physical 
fitness. which are brought back to the 
company by its represent;ttives at the con- 
ference. 
They also asked that conference pro- 
ceedings be published "no later than 24 
December 1974." Conference Chairman 
Cor Westlund. director of Recreation 
Canada. a department in Health and Wel- 
fare Canada. said this recommendation 
could not be implemented. because gov- 
ernment documents must be issued simul- 
taneously in English and French. He esti- 
mated the recommendations will be avail- 
able in 3 months and the final report in 6 
months. 


fCC Uses Social Indicators 
To Monitor Canadian Society 
Ottawa - The Economic Council of 
Canada (ECC). which was set up to monitor 
the state of Canadian society. has offi- 
cially recognized health as one statistical 
measure of the quality of life. In it!> 
Eleve1llh AI/nual Review, released re- 
cently. the ECC presents "first approxima- 
tions" of some principal social indicators 
for health. housing. and natural environ- 
ment. 
CNA'S executive director. Helen K, 
Mu<;sallem. is one of the 24 members of 
the Council. Other members include rep- 
resentatives of business. labor. and gov- 
ernment. 
There is general agreement on the de- 
sirability of a healthy society. the 
Council's report points out. ""Health. 
being intimately linked with survival. has 
always been one of society's major con- 
cerns." It says that. in spite of advances in 
the health field and increases in expendi- 
ture. there remain considerable problems 
concerning the treatment and prevention 
of disease and the organization and dis- 
tribution of health and medical care. 
Three mortality-oriented measures of 
health - life expectancy. infant mortal- 
lIy. and prime-age mortality - have been 
chosen to assess the health of Canadian 
society. Although the Council recognizes 
that it would be preferable to employ both 
morbidity- and mortality-oriented meas- 
ures. necessary data are not available at 
this time. It i<; not yet possible. either. to 
state objectives in terms of positive health. 
12 THE CANADIAN NURSE 


Cuban Nurses Visit Canada 


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Four Cuban nurses. who visited Canada under a Canada-Cuba nursmg 
exchange agreement recently concluded between the two governments. spent 
22 November 1974 at CNA House. Seated in the foyer of the Canadian Nurses' 
Association building are. left to right. Silvia Gomez. nursing officer. Ministry of 
Public Health. Cuba: Dora Rodriguez. chief nurse. Ministry of Public Health: 
Maria Fenton. director of nursing. National Hospital. Havana: and Nilda Bello. 
nurse-teacher. National School of Health Sciences. The 4 Cuban nurSð. \>ho arc 
responsible for the planning and implementation of the first postbasic university 
nursing program in Cuba. visited selected univer,ities and health institutions in 
Canada. A return visit by three Canadian nurses is planned for early 1975. 


although this approach would be prefera- 
ble. 
As an indication of the measure ()f 
health ()f Canadians. the C()uncil came up 
with the following findings in the three 
chosen areas of study. Life expectancy at 
birth has risen steadily over the years. to 
71.4 years for males and 77.3 years for 
females in 1971. according to Council 
tabulations. but the disparity between life 
expectanC)' for men and women has c()n- 
tmued 10 wIden. 
Infant m()rtality rates have dropped by 
more than 50t;} from 195 I to 1972. but 
Canada ranked 12th. just above the United 
States and behind such nati()ns as Sweden. 
the Netherlands. Norway. Denmark. 
France. and Australia in a 1970- 71 compa- 
rison ()f these rates. About 40 thousand 
persons aged 35 t() 64 die each year in 
Canada. representing a considerable social 
and economic loss. the Rn'iew points out. 
The prime-age mortality rate dmpped 


about 1 öt;} from 195 I t() 1972. but the dro 
for men was only 79c. and that fÒr wmne 
289'c. 
The Council stressed the need to begi 
development of morbidity-oriented ind 
cators of health. It rec()mmended "th: 
effort be made by the federal/provinci. 
wnference of deputy minister, of health t 
ensure that the dilta produced by the 01 
ganizations responsible for the adminislr< 
tion of the provincial medical care an 
hospital insurance plan are consisten 
comparable. and efficient for the dt 
vel()pment of national morbidity-base 
health indicators," 
The Council describes the developmel 
of social indicators as . "the measuremel 
and analysis of aspects of social welfm 
that enhance our understanding of a give 
area. .. It states that it has been necessary t 
take preliminary steps toward a system ( 
"social accounting" because economi 
(Collf;llued Oil page I. 
JANUARY 19i 



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servICes 


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These sheets list the jobs avail- 
able from employers In the area. 
We pin them up on our boards for 
potential employees to find the jobs 
they re most quahfled for 
That way employ<òrs'lobs get 
filled faster. 
Boards hke these are gOing Into 
over 400 Canada Manpower 
Centres across Canada The Jobs yot. 
have to offer could be on these 
boards. All you have to do IS let us 
know about them 
But Canada Manpower Centres 
are much more than Just placement 
offices. We're helping Canadian em- 
ployers élnc! employees in many 
different ways. 
We provide labour market 
information to help you In the planning 
of your manpower needs both 
short and long-term We can help you 
get the right people for specific 


NUARY 1975 


- 


, 


m- 


jobs: well arrange advertising. 
screen apphcants or assist you to 
Interview candidates on the spot 
And while the employer has 
primary responsibility for training his 
staff, we may well be able to lend 
him a hand through the Canada 
Manpower Industrial Training Pro- 
gram This program can help 
Canadian businesses Increase pro- 
ductIVIty and reduce unemployment 
by assisting in the development 
or expanSion of their employee 
training programs. 
Through the Canada Manpower 
Consultative Service we can help 
you, as an employer, smooth the 
upheaval caused by a technological 
change In your business or a plant 
relocation 
In addition. our counselling 
services provide gUidance to people 
with special problems so that 


canada Manpowet 
Let's work together. 


, 



 


, 


I 


s. 


I 


they can again become productive 
members of society. 
If you have questions about any 
aspect of Canada Manpower's 
services. just gIve us a call; we'll be 
happy to give you further Infor- 
mation. 


I
 


C.nada 
Manpower Centre 
"anpower 
and Immlgr..ìon 
Robert Andra 
Minister 


Centre de Mlln-d"QlUv,. 
du CanMSa 
M.in-d"CIIUV.. 
et Immigration 
Robø1 And,.. 
M.nlst,. 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 13 



news 


(ComilluccI (rom PlIXC /2) 
indicators. v. hich have been used in the 
past. do not fully or adequately reflect the 
broadening com:erns of society in recent 
years. 
A 
yslem of "social accounting" Ihal 
would permit a simultaneous. comprehen- 
sive examination of all a
pecls of Ihe so- 
cial system is 
till a long way off. the 
Council cautions. Housing. health. and 
natural environment were chosen for thi
 
initial asses
ment of Ihe quality of life be- 
cau
e they are essentially quantitative 
measures and do not involve subjective 
judgements to the same extent as qualita- 
live indicators. such as individual rights 
and responsibilities. 


Self-Actualization Is Theme 
Of McGill Nursing Conference 
Montreal, Quehec - On II October 
1974. the p...ychiatric unils of the teaching 
hospitals affiliated with McGill Univer- 

ily held an all-day conference on Ihe 
theme of self-actualization. entitled 
"Transition and Metamorpho
i
." 
Spealo.ers at the third annual psychiatric 
nur
ing conference were Dr. Margaret 
Kiely. a clinical psychologist at the 
Mental Health Inslitute. University of 
Monlreal: Dr. Lionel Tiger. profess
)[ of 
anthropology ..It Rutgers University. Nev. 
Jersey. and author of Men ill Groups: 
Lorine Besel. director of nursing. Royal 
Victoria Hospital. Montreal: and 
Margarel Alwood. Canadian poet and 
novelist. author of The Edih/e Woman. 
The entire conference was videotaped. 
The tapes are available for borrowing by 
any agency or group. for a nominal fee. 
To borro", the tapes. write 10: Gillian 
Cargill. Inservice Supervisor. Allan 
Memorial In
titute. 1025 Pine A venue 
West. Montreal. Quebec. H3A IA I. 


Quebec Minister Supports 
Expanded Role For Nurses 
Montreal, Quehec - Li
e Bacon. 
Quebec Minister of Social Affairs. lold 
the annual general assembly of the Order 
of Nurses of Quebec (ONQ) that rational 
use and expan
ion of the nursing role will 
help make health care more accessible 
and humane. Areas in which she said Ihe 
nurse's role might be expdnded included 
care of a pregnant woman before. during. 
and after delivery: care of newborn and 
",ell babie
; and emergency care. 
Bacon endorsed the vie", that a nurse 
with special training in obstetrics is 
competent to follow women through the 
course of their pregnanc). It is equally 
important to give nurses larger responsi- 
14 THE CANADIAN NURSE 


bility for prevenlive measures. especially 
in prenatal classes. she said. 
Without staling explicill) that the 
'....1inistrv of Social Affairs endor
es the 
principie of nur,e-midv. ifery. Bacon sug- 
ge...ted that a nurse specialized in obslet- 
ric
 could playa more important role in 
labor and delivery. She abo expressed the 
hope that the expanded role of the nUN;,: 
in emergency care v.ould be carefully 

tudied, 
Huguette Labelle. president of the 
Canadian Nurses' As
ociation. speaking 
to O:'l.Q member
 at the general a
sembly. 
said that nurses should turn to promotion 
and maintenance of heallh. But a good 
deal of re...earch needs to be done to learn 
hov. to educate the publ ic. hov. to 
measure the state of an individual"s 
health. and hov. to measure the effects of 
nursing intervention on client
' health. 

he said. 
Ackno",kdging that certain questions 
are dealt v. ith on the provincial level. 
Labelle said that the time is past v. hen 
problems can be 
olved in a single ",ay. 
The breadth of the questions require
 a 
multifaceted and flex ible approach. 
he 
said. The ansv.ers \\e ought to use \..ill be 
the result of such an appr
Jach. 


Remove Discrimination Against 
Married Women, Quebec Nurses Ask 
Quebec. Que. - The otlicers of La 
Fédération des Syndicats Professionels 
dïnfirmières et dïnfirmiers du Québee 
(FSPIIQ) are about to request the Quebec 
Council on the Status of Women to re- 
commend an amendment to the Profes- 
sional SyndICates Act of Quebec (R.S.Q. 
1964. Chapter 146). 
Ratified in 1964 and amended in 1972. 
the act contains a clause that discrimindtes 
against married ",omen. Item 7 reads: 
"Minors of sixteen years of age and mar- 
ried ",omen. except ",hen the husbands 
object. may be members of a professional 
syndicate. " 
The act applies to the II .000 members 
of FSPIIQ. They are 8.000 full-time and 
3.000 pan-time nurses. of v.hom 45 to 50 
percent are married women. 
Although the clause in question does not 

eem to have caused prejudice against its 
members. the FSPIIQ is taking this stand as 
it is convinced that. in any area of concern 
to the federation. all f(lrm
 of discrimina- 
tion 
hould disappear. 


Resolutions for Annual Meeting 
Per
on, ",ho wi
h to submit resolutlon
 
to the Canadian Nurses' Association 
annual general meeting (3 April 1975) 
are asked to send the resolutions to C:'\ 1\ 
House as soon as possible. to assure 
distribution. - Helen K. MU.Hallelll, 
Erecutil'c Director. Co\' 4. 0(((/\\"(/. 


RNABC Proposes Pilot Project 
In Psychiatric Nursing Consultation 
Val/coU\'cr, R.C - The Regi,ter 
:'oJur
e...' A.....,ocidtion of Briti...h Columh 
(R'.\SC) v. ill a...1o. B,C. :-v1ìni,ter of Heal 
Denni, Cocke to assign a registered nUl 
consultdnt to conduct a pilot project 
p
ychiatric nur...ing con
ultative ,en ice 
The decision v. a... made at ..I meeting of tl 
R\lAsr board of director... on I 
November. 
The director, requested thdt the projec 
be conducted in cooperation \\ ith tl 
R:'\II\SC The) proposed that. foIlm\Ïng ,\ 

essment of the need for con...ulldlive 'e
 
vice... in psychiatric nur...ing. the nur 
\..ould formulate and implement the.. 'r 
vice in general hospital-. and communit: 
mental health centers in Briti...h Columbia 
The nurse con...ultant and the R.... .\BC v.oul. 
also explore the need for a mullidi,CI 
plinar) consultative ...ervice. 
The R....AHC provide, a con,ultative ...er 
\ ice to nur,ing ...ervice departments 0 
B,C.' hospitals. The total co,t of thi 
heavily used service. döigned to improvi 
nursing care in hospitals. is covered by Ih, 
R:-':ABC 


Third Pulmonary Nursing Course 
Meets Fellowship Requirements 
TuomI, Ari;:OIIlI - The l'niver,it'" \J 
Arizona noVo offer
 a nursing specJi, ali 
degree in pulmonary nursing. Thi... is th 
third course to meet the requirements fo 
study as a nur
ing fellov. of the Canadia 
Tuberculosis dnd Re
pirator) Diseas 
As
ociation. 
The t\\ 0 olher programs approved fo 
sludy under the feIl()\\...hip are the Uni 
ver
ity of California al San Francisco ..In 
the Uni\ersity of Cincinnati. Ohio. Th 
Association's nursing felltm 
hip 0 
$6.000 per year. for 2 years minimum. i 
given for study at the ma
ler's le\cI in 
clinical nursing specialty in re...pirator 
disease. 
The Universit).- of Arizon.1 program i 
cosponsored by the colleges of nur
in, 
and medicine. Tv. 0 options are available 
There is a graduate program leading to 
master of science degree \\ ilh a major il 
medical-surgical nursing. dnd a nursll1 
specialì
t d
gree in pulmonary mlr
ing 
v. hich is one and one-half calendar) ear 
in length. 
For tho,e \\ ith a master' 
 degree i 
medical-surgical nursing. a prograTn lead 
ing to the nur
ing 'pecialisl degree i 
pulmonary nur
ing is available in on 
I O-week 
ummer session and one seme, 
ter of full-time stud... _ 
The nur
ing 
pèciali
t program pre 
pares a nurse to funclion as ..I clinician 
educator. and/or clinical researcher Fo 
information on the program. contact 
Gladys Sorensen. Dean. College of Nur, 
in!!. Umversil\ of Arizona. Tuc
on 
A;i7l1nd. H572(.l:.S.A. 


JANUARY 197 



,t Northeast Canada/U.S. 
alth Seminar planned 
,,,rreal, Quebec - Some 500 panici- 
It, .ne expected to attend the first 
nheast Canadian/American health 
1lJndr to be held 1 tJ-22 :\Iarch 11)75. at 
. Queen Elizabeth Hotel. \1ontreal. 
__ 'eminar \\ ill iJ1\ ohe ti\e Cdnadian 
wincö - Quebec. :'\e\\ Bruns\\ ick. 
'\..1 Scotia. Prince Ed\\ard "land. dnd 
\\ foundl..md - and 6 ]\;e\\ England 
Ie'. It is expected thaI those attending 
II repröent nearly all the health-related 
Ifösion.... 
The .,emindr \\ ill ...tud
 a brodd range of 
Iblcm.. ari...ing from Ihe migration of 
lionah bel\\een Canada and :'IJe\\ Eng- 
Id. and particularl} the complicatio
s 
neerned \\ ith ...uch health mdtter... a... 
'1HllUnicable disease.. and emergenc} 
11th care. 
Chdirper;,ons for the seminar are Dr. 
rtrude T. Hunter. 
e\\ England reg- 
I,al health ddministrator for the U.S. 
pdrtment of hedlth. education and 

Ifare's publIc health service. Boston. 
J Dr. Rd} nwnd Robillard. president of 
e Federation of Medicdl SpeÓalist'> of 
ebec. :\ 10ntreal. 
Included among speaker... on the pro- 
am for the seminar are Denise Lalan- 
tte. clinical nur...e specialist. Umversit} 
o...pital. Sherbrooke. Quebec. and 
..Ii ne !\1cCart\. fdmih nur...e a...sociate. 
land \1edic
1 Centér. Deer Island. 
dille. 
For turther information about the first 
,ortheast Canadian/American health 
minar. contdct: Lili de Grandpré. 
anadian :\ledical As",oClation. Room 
T 10. 1350 Sherbrooke Streel \Vest. 
lontreal. Quebec. H3G 1J I 


uee Nursing Croups Form 
ouncil Of Nurses In Manitoba 
/II"ipeR, MCII/itoha - The three \lani- 
,ba ds...ociations representing registered 
urses. registered p...ychiatric nUrses. and 
censed practical nur.,ö have formed a 
ouncil of 
ur...es In :\Ianitoba. The presi- 
L 1t and t\\O members from each a.....ocia- 
,'n comprise the Council. \\hich held it'> 
r.,1 organizational meeting III October 
97-1- and a second :lleeting on 28 Nl)\,em- 
11)7-1-, 
The \Ianitoba A......ociation of Register- 
d :'-Jur,ö (\I.\R') approved participation 
I the Council at its annual meeting III !\Ia\ 
97-1-. U\e\\s. September 197-1-. p-age 13:) 


1974 Index Available 
The 1974 index for The Canadian 
Vurse, vol. 70. is available on request. 
\\ rite to the Circul..lIion Manager The 
Canadian Nurse. 50 The Drive
a). 
Ottd\\d. Ontario. K2P IE2. 


NVARY 1975 


\1.\R' representati\C'o on the Council are 
\I.\R' President Greer Black. EXeCuli\e 
Director Louise Tod. and :\largaret 
Bicknell. chairman (,f Ihe \IAR..... legisla- 
tion committee. 
According to the \lovembcr 1974 i.....ue 
of Sursane. \tAR'.'" bulletin. the 1\\0 
major taslo.s of Ihe Council are "to ..let 
a... a mean' of liaison bet\\ecn the three a'\- 
,ociations. and to act in an ad\i",or\ 
capaeit} in the devell'pment of a unifieJ 

ur'ö' Act." 


International Nursing Revie\\' 
Publishes 75th Birthday Issue 
Gel/e\'a. Swit:::.erlalld - lmerllational 
Vursillg Re\"iew, the official publication 
of the International Council of Nurses 
(lC:,\). published a ..pecial 64-page issue in 
September 1974 in honor of IC:,\'s 75th 
dnmVerSar) . 
Included in the is...ue are an article on 
IC,"' '\ mosl significant achievements o\er 
the year.... a ;eport on current projects of 
IC"s slanding committees. and a conver- 
...ation \\ ith IC\:'s officers and executi\e 
director. \\ho share their vie\\s on IC",,- 
p.1...t. present. and future. Vema Huffman 
Splane. VancoU\er. is third vice- 
president of tC' . 
The issue also indudes 100 photo... 
from IC"," archi\es. sho\\ ing e\ents and 
nurse leader;, in 1C,'s history. A personal 
\Íe\\ of significant milestones is gi\en 
b} former IC\: presidents. including Alice 
Girdrd. 
lontreal. \\ ho \\ a... pre...ident 
1965-9. 
'l;ur...ing libraries and schools of nur...- 
ing \\ho \\ant a copy of this special 
document for hi..torical purpo...es ma) 
order it. at a price of U.S. S2.25. from: 
International Council of Nurse.... Publica- 
tion Sale... Dep..lrtment. P.O. Bm. -1-2. 
:H- 1211 Genè\e 20. S\\itzerland. 


Committee Advising NBARN Council 
Holds Its First Meeting 
Fredericton, ,\'.B. - An Advisory Com- 
mittee on Regulation and Professional 
Plactice. set up to study evaluation ofnurs- 
ing practice and make recommendations to 
the council of the 
e\\ Bruns\\iclo. A...soci- 
ation of Registered 
urses. held its first 
meeting earlv in October. It is acting in an 
adviso
y capacit) in matters including re- 
gistrdtion and discipline policies. ad- 
ministration of R..... examinations. and 
standards of nursing practice. 
At the October meeting. hospital ad- 
ministrator Elizabeth 
1urray \\as nameù 
chairman. There are 6 nurse members on 
the committee so far: Geraldine Pelletier. 
Edmundston; Anne Thorne. Saint John: 
Jedn Sillars. Campbellton: Elizabeth Bcat- 
tea). Saint John: Mar
 Wheeler. Bathur'\t; 
and Eva O'Connor. Fredericton, The gov- 
ernment still has 10 appoint one nonnur'e 
member. \\ ho \\ ill represent the public 


POSEY 
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shell supporls the foot, helps pre- 
vent footdrop, Removable 'T' bar 
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liner easily removed for launder- 
ing. #6412 (complele with T Bar) 
@ $39.00 pair. 



 


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for the difficuh-to-control patient. 
Set belt around the waist to a 
comfortable size and the buckles 
lock onto the webbing, Key neces- 
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Excellent wheelchair support. 
#3614 (Breezeline) @ $10,80. 


Send your order roddY! 
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1033 Rangev.ew Road 
Port Credit Onlano Canada 


THE CA/"IIADIAN NURSE 15 



\ 


r 


- 



 


Ahhh...thafs nice. 


HEELBO"" and the new "supercushioned" HEELBO FLAIR 
are the only protection for decubitus ulcers that allow your 
patients to walk in comfort and safety. 
The slim, natural shape gives patients a firmer footing, so 
that during late hours and on weekends they can man- 
age better alone. 
Like the original HEELBO, the FLAIR has a patented, 
warm, comfortable lining of bwshed Acrilan. T " Heal- 
ing is more rapid, because there are no straps or 
bindings to restrict blood circulation. 
But only the new FLAIR has an extra deep "arm- 
chair" of foam with higher sides for an important 
extra edge of protection. 
Leading institutions have given HEELBO 
excellent evaluations. Now you can give 
HEELBO comfort and protection to 
your patients. 
After all, it shouldn't be just the doctor 
who can make your patients say 
"Ahhh." 


HEELBO and the new FLAIR are 
made of washable Acrilan with a 
st ain-resi stant foam cushion, and 
can b e autoclaved. One size fits all 
adults, heels or elbows. In blue or 
yellow, 3 dozen pairs per case. 



 


FLAIR on elbow 


FLAI R onsìde-()ut 


Heel 00 


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I Name: 
I Title: 
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I Address: 
I Cit:y-=- Stat e: Zip: 
I Prefe rred Dealer: 
I 
, Heelbo Corporation P.O. Box 950 Evanston, Illinois 60204 



OPINION 


Drug administration times 
should be reexamined! 


The pharmacy staff of a 370-bed general hospital, in cooperation with the pharmacy and tht>rapeutics 
committee, and the nursing staff, revised the time schedules for administering drugs. The new times went 
into effect after a through, personalized inservice program, reinforced by a videotape. 


FIGURE 1 
Former Policy on Drug Scheduling 
To reduct' thp likelihood of error, the follm\ing interpretations \..ill be follo\\ed with 
regard to the phvsician's orders: 
q.i.d, lun
peLitied) mean
 to Iw given at 1000 
q,i.r!. a,( . & h.
 " 0730 
Q.i.d. p.L & h.s 0900 
I i,d. lunspecìtiedl 1000 
I .I.d, ,un'pelltiedl 1000 
r 6 h. 1000 
r 8 h 0600 
("' 12 h. 1000 


.i.d. doc, nt't ha\e t,1 hc tr.m...latcd into 
)(10. I
OO. and I
OO h,'ur'! Optimum 
,lIC' for admini,tcring one drug are not 
timum. or e\en moderatd) dfeeti\e. 
me' for a diftácnt medication. alth,'ugh 
,th ha\c bcen ordered to be gi\cn t.i,d. 
Therc i, a proper timc to admini,ter 
ug...: thi, i, not ne\\. E \ idem:c of thi... 
,nl'crn ma
 be 'e.:n in ancienl pre...crip- 
on \\ riling and in pharm.K
 lexl.... A 
mdboo" "f malaid medica and therap.:u- 
C'. publi,hed in II}OJ. m.:nliom,. among 
Iher thing.... thaI int.:na" bel\\een do.,eo; 
Id {JI1Ie (,f admini'lr.llion arc condilion... 
Idt modif
 Ihc actiono; of medicali,Jn.... * 
\1
 Cdl.:er in h""pital pharmac
 began 
!Ih r."pect for proper admini,tration 
me,. I \\ a, eager to pa,.. on to nur...ing 
,..Ill inf"rmation I felt nel'e,..ar
 for thc 
wper timing "f drug admini,tration. 
I aho kne\\ that then
 \\ a.. a lime 
l'heduk for drug'. \\hich \\as h"...pital 
olin iniliated b
 thc pharmac
 and 
ler.lpeutic, comminee and o;anctioned b
 


NUARY 1975 


Ben B. Moggach 


the medical ad\ ISor
 committce. But. I did 
not realize that it \\ a... in no \\ a
 flex ihlc. 
E\en if ..I drug ordcrcd t.i.d. \\ould be böt 
admini...lcred 4. 8 h.. it \"mld ,Iill b.: ad- 
mini...tercd according 10 Ihe ,chcdule: 
I(I(KI. I
()(). and IXOO hour,. :\I
 dfort...to 
a...sio;1 were ...eldom. if e\er. ...uccessfuJ. 
A\\ arene...... of thi... situation grdduall
 
becamc more acute. On onc occa...i,'n. in 
m) efforto; to l'ommunicate \\ ith a ph
 ,i- 
cian "ho had \\riUen an exceplionall
 
large do...e t. i.d. (no timc 'pecified I. I 
a..."ed the head nur'e hO\\ ,hc had 
schedukd thc drug and. 10 m
 horror. ,he 
replied 1000. I
OO. and 1800 hour.... 
Thi... e,1mpellcd me to declare tfl thc 
pharmac
 ar.d Iherapeutics commiUee thaI 
1000. 1400. and IHoo hour... \\ere seldom. 
if öcr. ,I rational admini...trdtion ...ch.:duk. 
The motivation \\ ..I' further strength.:ncd 
during the R'.\()... interacti'1n conl
rcnc':.. 
fÒr phanllaci,t... dnd nur...eo;. \\ hen I discov- 
ered that r.i.d. in 1110'01 Ontario hO'ipitah 
mcant lOW. I-WO. and I XUO hours. and 


1400 
1130 
1300 
1400 
2200 
1600 
14UO 
22UO 


1800 
1630 
1800 
1800 


2200 
2200 
noo 


2200 - 0400 
2200 


that man
 nur...e, kit compdl
d to 
'ichcdule thi'i tim
 
\ cn though the
 "lIe\\ 
it \\..1, not nece'...aril
 in the he,t illl.:re,1 of 
the pati
nl. 
I aJo.,o hegan /() .,c
 ,!Iller defect... in thc 
......hedulc polic
 (FÎI:/lrl' I). In our h"...pi- 
tal. lJ.i.d. mcant 1000. I
OO. Hs(K). and 
2200 hour
. If th.: drug \\ ere an anlibiotic. 
for example. the patient rccci\ed no do,e 
for 12 hours. from 2200 hour... 10 1000 
hours the follm\Îng day. Our lJ. 6 h. 
...chcdule \\a... 1000. 1600.2200. and U
OO 
hours: thcre \\ a... a po.....ible conflict \\ith 
food at 1600 hour.. and the nced to \\ aken 
the patient .1t O-UKI hours, 
The pharmac
 and therdpeutic' l."lllllmit- 
tee began tll look more cll'scl
 at the drug 
grouping' ,et out b) :\1urra
 Shore** \\ e 
concei\ed the idea of grouping drug' into 
.\.B.CD. and f- categoric, and ...elting up a 
specific schedule for each group 
(Figure 2). 
Drug' were arrangcd in alphahctical 
ordcr b
 both proprietar
 and generic 
name,. indicating their panicular group- 
ing (Fig/lrl' 3), Onl
 a panial lisl i... in- 
cluded in this anide. ...incc mall
 drug... 


* S. O.l. P,lIh:r. \1,/1(''';'' \1 ('(/,,,, <11/./ 
Tha<l[Jl'lIt;( \. 'ku. Phìl"ddphl.1. P 
Hlal..i,ton', \on.lI1uCo.. (lJOJ, p. 7
 


\lurr,,
 F- Sh"fl:. -\ time "'1 drug'. Cwwd. 
1'/"'''111.1.. IO-t:-L:'i lJlJ. -'\pr. I 'J71. 


Ben \Iogga,'h I Phm. B.. Om,1I jo C..llege .., 
Pharm,I,"
. l'njh..-,il
 .,1' T.'fl'IlIl'1 i, .lIr-:.:II',- 
.., ph.lrnJ.l':
 .11 St. \ I.lr
 " G,'nd..I H"'p"al. 
"it.:h':llcr. ()nta.-i.. 


THE CANADIAN NURSI:: 17 



FIGURE 2 
Guide to Administration Schedules 


GROUP A Drug
 to be takenon an empty stomMh- about one hour a.c. or .dxJUt two hrs. p.c. 


o.d. 
b.i.d. 
q.n.h. 
t.i.d. 
q.i.d. 
q.6.h. 


1000 
1000 
1000 
0600 
060U 
0600 


1400 


110U 
1100 


1600 
1600 


noo 
non 
non 
2100 
2..100 


GROUP B Drugs to be taken immediatelv a.c., immediateh p.L, or with food or milk 


o.d. 
b.i.d. 
q.12.h. 
!.i.d. 


0800 or with food 
0800 
0800 
0800 


1400 
with food or milk 


2000 with food or milk 
2000 with food or milk 
2200 with food or milk 


q.i.d. 
q.6.h. 


0800 
OßOO 


noo 
noo 


1700 
1700 


2200 with food or milk 
2200 with food or milk 


GROUP C Drugs to be taken 1/2 hour before food. 


(J.d. 
b.i.d. 
t.Ld. 
q.i.d. 
q.6.h. 


0730 or 1/2 hour before food 
0730 
0730 
0730 
0730 


1130 
1130 
1130 


1630 I 
1630 
1630 
1630 


2200 
noo 


GROUP D Long-acting (slow release) drugs, and drugs whose effect is required during waking hours. 


o.d. 
b.i.d. 
q. n.h. 
!.i.d. 
q.i.d. 
q.6.h. 


0<)00 
O<)UO 11300 
06UO 1800 
0730 1400 2UOO 
06UO 1100 1600 2..100 
0600 1100 1600 1200 


GROUP E 


Drugs whose maximum benefit is not dependent upon dosage inlcrv.\ls .md m.'v be taken \\ ilh or \\ ithout food 


o.d. 1000 
b.i.d. 1000 lßOO 
q. 12. h. 1000 2200 
t.i.d. !OOO 1...00 lßOO 
q.i.d. 1000 14UO 1800 2200 
q.6.h. 0600 11UO 1600 noo 
18 THE CANADIAN NURSE JANUARY 1975 



FIGURE 3 
Example of Drug Groupings 


rug 
mpicìllin (Penbritin) 
..S.A. and compounds .,. 
tropine sulphate ........... 
elladonna; phenobarbital 
nd belladonna. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
erninal . ......................... 
entylol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
uffazone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
.uscopan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
_ .utagesic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
'utazolidin ........... . . . . . . . . 
;utone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . - 
hlordiazepoxide hydrochloride (Librium) . 
hlopromazine (Largactil). . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
hlorpropamide (Diabinese) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
loxacillin (Orbenin) ........................... 
)echolin (also with belladonna) ................. 
)iazepam .................................... 
)icoumarol (same time daily) ................. 
ligoxin (b.i.d. = 1000 & 2200 hours) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
)onnatal ..................................... 
'rythromycin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
errous gluconate .............................. 
errous sulphate ............................... 


Group 
A 
B 
C 


Drug 
Fersamal 
Furadantin ....... 
hydrochlorothiazide (HydroOiuril) ... 
hydrocortisone ......... 
indomethacin (lndocid) ., 
Lasix (b.i.d. = 0700 & 1600) 
Librax . . . . . 
Mobenol .. 
multivitamins ........................... 
nalidixic acid (NegGram) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
nitrofurantoin ..................... 
phenformin hydrochloride (OBI) . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . 
phenylbutazone . . . . . . . . . . . . 
prednisolone 
prednisone. . . 
Pro-Banthine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Salazopyrin ..... _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Serpasil ...... . . . . . . . . . . . . 
sulfonamides (with large amounts of fluid) ..... 
Tandearil . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
tolbutamide. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
trimeprazine tartrate (Panectyl) ............:...... 


C 
E 
C 
B 
C 
B 
B 
B 
o 
B 
B 
A 
C 
o 
E 
E 
C 
A 
B 
B 


Group 
B 
B 
B 
B 
B 
E 
C 
B 
E 
B 
B 
B 
B 
B 
B 
C 
B 
B 
A 
B 
B 
B 


(Adapted from Murray Shore, "A Time for Drugs ") 


d to be arbitrarily placed for lack of 
formation. 
Pharmacy 
taff member
. on recom- 
endation of the pharmacy and therapeu- 
's committee. conducted a survey on all 

r
ing unit
 to determine the present 
orl<.. load placement. We rescheduled ac- 

rding to our proposed system and found 

me interesting and encouraging infor- 
ation. It dppeared that the work load in 
edical and surgical areas could be more 
en I) distributed throughout the day. 
A 2-month project on medical and sur- 
cal floors was authorized by the phar- 
ac) and therapeutic
 committee. 


service program 
We began to worl<.. immediately \\ ith the 
afT development persons to prepare an 
ùdiovisual in
ervice program. We made a 
llor movie \\ith sound. showing nurses 
I1d pharrnacists preparing the Kardex and 
edication ticl<..ets. using the alphabetical 
rug grouping list and the schedules. 
T\\o pharmacists discussed the ne\\ sys- 
m \\ith personnel on each shift until we 
ere certain everyone understood the 
roject's aims and ho\\ the system 
orl<..ed. We assured the head nurses that a 
h..trInacist \\ould assist on the first day of 
f\NUARY 1975 


the project and would be at her beck and 
call throughout the project period, The 
pharmacy is routinel) open 56 hours a 
week and offers 24-hour. .. on call" ser- 
vice. using a paging system. 
Meetings were held \\ ith the head 
nurses and the area coordinators at least 
once a weel<.. to monitor progress and deal 
with problems Problems were rare. and 
usually preex isting. and \\ ere sol ved to 
everyone's satisfaction. Nurses expressed 
a sense of well-being about gi ving medica- 
tinns at times that \\ere best for the patient: 
they became more aware of the imponance 
of administration time">. 
The project \\ as extended an extra 
month before final approval was given by 
members of the pharmacy and therapeutics 
committee and sanction from the medical 
advisor} committee. 
Then it was pharmacy personneJ"s tasl<.. 
to introduce the system throughout the 
hospital. We followed the same procedure 
of personal inservice. reinforced by a vid- 
eotape. 


Conclusion 
We still have a drug administration time 
schedule authorized by medical advisory 
committee. but it is much broader in 


scope. permitting scheduling with respect 
to food. time. and desired effect. The 
grouping for each drug has been carefully 
scrutinized by the pharmacy department 
and will be revised as more information 
becomes available. Pharmacy staff have 
an opponunity for input as ne\\ drugs are 
ordered: our information is being applied 
and our efforts in medication scheduling 
are seldom fru
trated. 
Nursö have a ne\\ 
en
e of \\ell-being 
in kmming patients are receiving better 
care. Doctor.. have complimented our ef- 
fons. none has been critical. and we hope 
they use the information in community 
prescribing. Pharmacy per
onnel see this 
experience as an '
pening door to patient 
education via the nurse or directly or both. 
It is our hope that this 
hared experience 
\\ ill encourage nurses to look more closdy 
into an area of patient 
ervice. controlled 
by a policy that may be interfering with the 
safe and proper scheduling of drug ad- 
mini
tration . 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 19 



An experiment with 
the ladder concept 


A description of an experiment with core courses, specifically designed for 
students in the nursing diploma and nursing assistant programs. 


Although much has been \Hitten about the 
.:om:ept of vertical mobility in education. 
so far in nursing there i
 little evidence that 
thi
 concept has heen put into practice. A 
te\\ experiment'> are now being tried. In 
the United States. for example. practical 
nurses at the State College of Arkan
as can 
move to the bdccdlaureatc level with 
credit given for pd
t educational 
achievement. I 
Another \..ay of facilitating venical mo- 
bility i
 to use the core curriculum. The 
concept of a common core. either in one 
subject or in a variety of subjects. is not 
radically ne..... Within the past four or five 
)'ear
. repons at the federal and provincial 
leveb. addres
ing themselves to the health 
care system. have recommended that 
common coursö for 
tudenh in various 
health di
ciplines 
hould be introduced in 
universities and in colleges of applied ans 
and technology. This. it.... a
 hoped. would 
not only maximize learning opportunitie
 
and 
hare co,t
. but ....ould also help stu- 
dents under
tand each other's roles and 
responsihilitie
. thu
 facilitating com- 
munication and coordination hct....een the 
various health disciplines. 2.3,4 
Cognizant of the need.. of the health care 
system. the faculty of the Health Science.. 
Divi
ion. Humber College of Applied Ans 


Jocelyn Hae"iah (B.N.. 
kGill: 
1.hl.. On- 
tario In'titutc for Studic, in [:ducalion) j, 
Chairman. 
ursing Progranh. North Campus, 
Humber College (If Applied Art, ,md T cchnol- 
ogy. Rnuak. Ontdrio 
20 THE CANADIAN NURSE 


Jocelyn A. Hezekiah 


and Technology. decided to experiment 
.... ith core courses for nurses and allied 
health workers. We believed that much 
innovation and experimentation could and 
should take place in the college setting. A 
key component in our philosophy was to 
provide an opponunity for potential health 
workers to be educated in common courses 
and in similar settings to facilitate func- 
tioning of the health care team. 
It 
eemed appropriate that we should 
attempt to experiment in this area by or- 
ganizing a curriculum that would facilitate 
career mobility and possible transfer from 
one nursing program or allied health prog- 
ram to another. 


An experiment 
The following is a description of an ex- 
periment with core cour
es. specifically 
for students in the nursing diploma and 
nursing assistant programs. 
A number of factors precipitated this 
experiment: 
o The College of Nurses of Ontario. in its 
"whitc paper" that was circulated provin- 
cially. n
afflfllled that the functions of 
both thc registered nur
e and the registered 
nursing assistant constituted a single dis- 
cipline. namely. nursing. with identified 
levels of skills and application of know- 
ledge in clinical practice. s 
o Humber College. at that time. was the 
only community college in Ontario with a 
nursing diploma program. 
o The phasing out of a nursing assistant 
training center .... ithin the region that 
Humber College served. created the op- 


ponunity for the transfer of such a school 
into the college setting. 
It is a well-kno.... n fact that many regis- 
tered nursing ao;sistant
 have entercd 
schools of nursing 10 heC:Jllle registered 
nurses. but have been given no credit for 
their past kno....ledge and/or experience. 
When credit was given. it ....a
 in a hap- 
hazard fashion. Furthermore. the
e t....o 
groups work clo<;ely together on the health 
care team. 
T l10 often. one g.-oup. .... hich is prepan
d 
differently from the other. tends to feel 

uperior or inferior. rather than recogniz- 
ing that each fill!> a ....ell-needed role on the 
team, Con
equently. one group feels 
threatened by the other: instead of a 
cooperative. complementary relation
hip 
transpiring. a competitive one occurs. We 
hope that a more positive appreciation of 
each other's role.... ill be fo
tcred in our 
educational program. 


The curriculum 
Final approval of the curriculum to meet 
the College of Nurses' requirements ....as 
granted in June 1972. Commencing in the 
fall of 1972. both nursing diploma and 
nursing as
istant students 
hared a com- 
mon initial semester. (September to De- 
cember. ) 
The curriculum content for both group
 
is comprised of bioscience. developmental 
psychology. !>ociology. communit)' 
health. nur
ing I theor
. nursing I prac- 
tice. and first aid and accident prc\emion. 
The total numher of hour, in theory anu 
practil'e per \\eek i.. ::!9. 


JANUARY lq7
 



Behavinr.tI obje
tives are identical for 
II cour
ö. Student
 explore common 
end
 in the prmision of health care. learn 
itsic skills of nur...ing care. and take clini- 
I pra
ti
e and theof) cla
"es together. 
\Íe make no di..tinction in terms of assign- 
19 ,tudent
 to the clinical setting: ea
h 
roup of 10 to 12 comprise.. both nursing 
nd nur..mg a

ist.mt students, 


dmission requirements 
GrJde 12 is required of all students. In 
ddition. diploma nursing students need 
n overall a\erage of 60 percent in 
cadenm: subjects and in each of tv. 0 sci- 
nces. Science courses are not required of 
ursing a
si
tant students. 
Students v. ho contemplate upgrading to 
he nursing diploma program are advised 
hat the) require two sciences. Mature 
ursin:; a,sistant applicanl'i v. ho do not 
a\e Grade 12 Cdn v. rite a Humber College 
1ature Applicant te
t and. on succes,ful 
ompktion. are admissible to the prog- 
am. 
Intef\ie\\,_ group and indi\idual. are 
arried out for both groups with estdh- 
ished criteria to a
se<;s students' suitabil- 
t
 for the nursing program.... 


=andidates 
Fifty-five students enrolled in the dip- 
oma program. and 18 in the nur
ing assis- 
.If}[ program in the class c0mmencing Sep- 
ember 1972. All nursing assistanï upplic- 
lOt.. had the requirement of Grade 12 and 
lIan) had one or tv.o sciences. 
During the fir..t semester. four students 
ithdrev. from the nursing assistant prog- 
-am and one transferred to the nursing dip- 
omd program: one student v. as unahle to 
'omplete the nursing component satisfac- 
oril) and wa
 given the option to reenter 
he program in September 1973. As a re- 
,ult. 12 students remained from the origi- 
lal enrollment. 
In addition to these 12 remdining stu- 
jent
. ..J 
tudent
 in the nursing diploma 
program of September 1971 v. ere admitted 
to the senJOd .,emester of the nursing ass is- 
tdnt program. at their request. Five stu- 
dents v.ho v.ere experiencing some diffi- 
culty in the 1972 nursing diploma program 
tran
ferred to the nUf<;ing assistant prog- 
ram in the second seme'iter. The numberof 
JANUARY 1975 



 


.... 


students thus enrolled in semester II "as 
21. All successtully completed the prog- 
ram. 


Results 
The evaluation of the common semöter 
and the program as a v. hole involved 'i1U- 
dents. faculty. and nursing service agen- 
cies. It took place in several stages. A 
que...tionnaire pel1aining to nursing con- 
tent and role perception was distributed to 
students at the end of the first semöter. 
second semester. and again after the sum- 
mer session. 
After the first semester. 50 percent of 
the respondents stated they v.ere attracted 
to the program because "the oppol1unity 
for transferability to other health programs 
is possible." Fifty percent stated that the 


1 


-, 


teachers hdd simildr expectation
 of nurs- 
ing diploma and nur,ing a
si...tant students 
during the common 'emester and that the 
teachers did not make distinctions in their 
relationships \\ ith ,tuden" from either 
group. T\\ent)-tïve percent commented 
on the advantagö of studying" ith other 
health v.orker... in semester I. 
By the end ofthe second semester. mo...t 

tudents perceived the registered nurse a
 
the person respon
ible for the ddministra- 
tive side of nur..ing and for medH:ations. 
The) sa\\ her as ledm leader and a, the 
person v. ho 'upervi'ies the registered nurs- 
ing aSSistants. 
1o...t percei\ed the nursing 
a
sistant as the hed...ide nur...c. the one in 
close contact \\ ith the patient. 
The faeult) .I.. a IOta I group gave \erbal 
e\aluation on both nur,ing content and 
THE CANADIAN NURSE 21 



their perception of having combined nurs- 
ing and nursing as
istant students together 
in the clinical practice and classroom set- 
ting: T)1ey felt they had treated both 
groups similarly. forgetting that students 
were either nursing diploma or nursing 
assistant. It must be noted that the role 
perception questionnaire was designed by 
faculty and wa
 by no means a precise 
instrument. 
An outside researcher wa!'. hired to 
document findings on the performance and 
career plans of the first graduates of the 
nursing assistant program. In addition. a 
refined role-perception instrument ",as de- 
signed. 
The questionnaire.... ith regard to \\001'10. 
performance was issued to both the 
graduates and their employers. whereas 
the refined role-perception questionnaire 
was issued to the graduates only. From the 
data obtained. it appeared that the first 
graduate
 ",ere considered by their emp- 
loyers to function about the same as other 
nursing assistants of equal work experi- 
ence. Four indicated that they intended to 
continue what they were doing at the time 
the questionnaire was completed. Four 
others indicated a desire to complete re- 
quirements for the diploma program. One 
intended to take up a different career. and 
one to take a postbasic course. 6 


Problem areas 
With the first class. a major problem 
experienced was in communication. that 
is. unclear interpretation of the purpose of 
the common semester. Because of this. 
many students entered the nursing assis- 
tant program as a "back door" approach 
to the nur!'.ing diploma program. either be- 
cau
e the diploma program was filled. or 
because they did not meet the admission 
requirements. Consequently. in the first 
!'.emester there were many requests for 
transfer to the diploma program. 
Perhap
 this problem bears a relation- 
ship to the outside researcher's findings. 
which indicated that at least one-half of the 
group planned to become registered nurses 
and wished they had done so in the first 
place. Further follow-up studies of subse- 
quent classes have been recommended by 
the researcher to negate or validate this 
finding. 
22 THE CANADIAN NURSE 


Summary 
Having a common initial ,emester not 
only facilitates vertical mobility for nurs- 
ing a!'.!'.istants - should they desire to con- 
tinue their studie!'. toward diploma nursing 
- but it also provides a way for the dip- 
loma student
 to transfer to the nursing 
assistant program when they are unable to 
cope ",ith the requiremem
 of the nursing 
program. In the past. these ,tudents left the 
nursing diploma program and ",ent into 
nursing a!'.sistant programs. .... hcre they 
often had to repeat their entire year. With 
the common semester. they receive credit 
for the entire first semester. and they have 
to pick up only from semester t"'O. 
We. the nur
ing faculty. have worked 
hard to revi
e the curriculum. based on the 
evaluative toob. We are enthusiastic about 
the common semester and its implementa- 
tion. and hope that students will pick up a 
more positive outlook. understanding. and 
appreciation of the other health care team 
members' roles and functions. Our find- 
ing!'. indicate on a small scale that the be- 
ginning of such appreciation is 
engendered.? 
For too long. registered nurses in bac- 
calaureate programs have complained 
about this need to repeal courses they took 
as diploma students. Variou
 proficiency 
tests are being de!'.igned to exempt students 
from particular courses.s We have started 
with such tests for the nursing assistant 
student who moves to the diploma level in 
nursing. 
There is an urgent need to look at other 
levels of nursing. With the transfer of dip- 
loma programs to community colleges. the 
time i
 ripe for us to work closely with 
faculty of university nursing programs. 
We need to develop a variety of models 
and methods so the diploma nurse can re- 
ceive credit toward the baccalaureate 
level. In this .... ay. each level can contri- 
bute fully to the development of the pro- 
fession and provide optimum care to our 
society. 
Nursing. if it is to go fomard and not 
become obsolescent. mu
t be prepared to 
take risks - risks in innovation. risks in 
pioneering. 


References 
I. . . COile' . - Career 01'';011.\ /II /IIIßilIf? 


edl/nllioll. C"I1\\ a
. Ar\..an'a'_ Slate C.. 
lege of Arblha,. 1471 fl 'npuoli,he 
uoculHent.1 
., Ont.nio. Dc p.lI"tlHent "f Health (il/Illill 
prillciple\ lilf tire rl'J:l/lal/"" al/{l IIr 
edUCal/11II 01 lire healtlr diH'iplilll, 
Thoma, Well,. Health 
;1ini,ter. 1471. 
3. Ontari" Coum:il of Health FiliI"." 11/' 
rallgl'lI/l'III.\ for hea/tlr e"Un/llOlI. Toronto 
Onlario Dcpt. "f Health. 1471. ('1<'1](,-1 
gr..!ph n". I) 
4. Canaua. Comllllllee 011 Co,t, "f He.lltt 
Service,. TwÁ F "rce repOrl "" thl' 1'0\1 0/ 
health xen'Ù"e\ ill Callada. Ulla\\ a. c ILJhY. 
(Draft) 
5. College of Nur,e, ot Ontario. Sratel/lel/1\ 
of educatioll alld fWICIÙII/\ fi" the ha(- 
calaurell1e IIune. diploll/a l/IIr.\e. II//I'\illg 
a.o-;'\lall1. Draft. Toronto. I Y71. 
6. Smith. I. A .\ludy (!f thi' .fir.\I daB '!f IIUl".\' 
illg a.uÎslllll1.\ to graduate /i,ml HUII/hel 
Co/legi' I!r Applii'd ArI.\ all'/ Tee/Illolog.\ 
/973. Rexdalc. Humber College of Appliel 
Art
 and T echnolog
. I Y74. 
7. Ibid. 
g. Sl:hmidt. Mildred S.. and L
on
. \\ illiam 
Credit for v.hdt 
ou \..no\l. AII/er. J. .\UI'\. 
69: I: 101-4. Jan. I 96Y. 


Bibliography 
Brunet. Jacl.juö. and Gagnon. Claire. La\a 
Univcr
it
 aCl:ept, a challenge. Call(/(I 
Nune 65:8:44-5. Aug. 1',169. 
Canada. Comminee on CO'h of Heallh Sa 
vil:e,. fln/.. .tárce report Oil thi' 1'0,\1 '! 
health .\l'n'ices ill Calla'/a. Oll..!\\..!. d9h9 
<Dr"ft). 
College ot ;-.Jur
ö I,f Ontario. Statelllellts 0 
edunl1ioll 1//1(/ .tullctiol/.
 .for Ihe Ilac 
c"/l/l/reate IIU!".\('. diploll/a IIIII".\e. /IIlnill.l 
llHÜI(II/f. Draft. T 01'01110. 1971 . 
Ontario. Department \,f Heallh. Gwdillg prill' 
ciple.I./or Ihe regl/latioll I/lld Ihe educ"I/(1l 
oj the hea/th dÜnplil/l's. Thoma, \\ ell- 
Health \1I11i,ter. 1971. 
Ontario Council I,f Health. FI/"'",' (I/')"{/lIl1e' 
lI/ell1.\ for hl'a/th educatiol/. Toronto. On 
tario Dept. of Health. I Y71. (\lonograpl 
no. I) 
Schmidt. :\lildred S. and L
on,. \\ illimll 
Crcdil for \\ hat 
 ou \..no\\. 411/l'/". J. \un 
69: I: 101-4. Jail. 1%9. 
Upril:hard. \1unel. The education of nur,e, 
Ca/l(/(/. .Vur.\(' 61\:6:30-6. Jun. 197"2. 



 


JANUARY 197 



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The three pilot-nurse crews of the Saskatchewan Air Ambulance Service assure 
continuitv of patient care for even the remotest community of the province. 


n unexpected prairie dust !.torm h.ld lov.- 
red vi!.ibility to almo!.t zero. Approach- 
ng the airport v.ith the aid of in
trument!.. 
he pilot received clearance to attempt a 
.mding directly into the RO mile-an-hour 
md. 
Our patient v.a.. to be a kidney recipient 
nd. as the donor kidney v. a
 in Sa..kd- 
oon. a detourto an alternate airport \\ould 
lean losing valuable time. 
T\\.o landing attempt!. \\,ere un<;uccess- 
ul as v.e strained to see dn:- identif} ing 
andmarb: these v.ere obscured. On our 


\tal} Hill (R N.. Univer..it) H()
pital School 
of NUNng. S.t,\..atoon: dip!. public he.tlth 
nUl'ing. L. of SasJ...ttchev.anL \t.trl}n 
\kLean (R.:\. Sa,J...tIl'on Cit) Ho'pital 
,chool of nur..ing). and Ern.t She,," ood ( R _ N _ . 
\ too,c J.tv. Prm idence ,chool of nur, ing) .Ire 
the nur..ing ,tatl 01 thc Sa,\..atchev.an Air 
Ambul.tnce SCr\ice in S.I\\...ttoon and Regina. 
ANUARY 1975 


Mary Hill, Marlyn Mclean, Erna Sherwood 


third approach. the v. ind shifted suffi- 
ciently to attempt landing on the longer 
runv.ay. We landed safely v.ith the aid of 
.lpproach lights. The palient. seemingly 
unav.are of the problem
 encountered. 
thanked us for a pleasant trip! 


Air ambulance service 
The Saskatchev.an Government Air 
Ambulance Service v.as formed in 1946. 
Since then it has flov.n more than 23.000 
Ilight.. and logged nearly 7 mi1\ion miles. 
v.ithout injury or fatal accident to passen- 
gers or erev. There are three pilot-nur<;e 
crev.s. four aircraft engineers. and five 
aircraft. 
The principal function of the service is 
to tr.lnsport patients quickly. safely. and as 
comfortably as possible from the rural cen- 
ters of the prO\ ince 10 hospitals v.here 
specialized medical care is available. 
Requests to transfer a patient are usua1\y 
received from the doctor in the rural com- 
munity or from the receiving doctor in the 


city. In the absence of a doc !Or. calls nm} 
be made by any re
pon
ible person of the 
community. such as a member of the 
clergy or Ro} al Canadian Mounted Police. 
The sen. ice reaches a1\ areas of the pro- 
vince \\.here there are adequate landing 

trips. and even v. here they are le

 than 
adequate. For e'l.ample. in one smaIl 
community the landing strip is outlined by 
a public school at one end and a dugout at 
the other. bordered by a curling rink on the 
right side. and a stone monument on the 
left. Here. it seemed the v. hole 1Ov. n came 
to greet us on arri\ al. no doubt amazed th.lt 
v.e had missed all obstacles. 
Most patients transported faIl into the 
categories of medical emergencies. such 
as cardiac failure or respiratory distress: 
accidental injurie
. such as head injuries or 
fraclUres: or complications of pregnancy 
and premalUre babies. 
The flight nurse is responsible for (he 
continuation en route of medical treatment 
a
 prescribed by the physician or. in the 
THE CANADIAN NURSE 23 



absence of such orders. on her personal 
initiative. The aim. as in any field of nurs- 
ing 
ervice. is to provide the best possible 
patient care in any given 
ituation. and to 
anticipate. recognize. and cope \\ ith 
emergenciö that may ari
e. 
Besides. \\-e must give con!.ideration to 
the effects of turbulent air and confined 

pace on the patient. his p
ychological 
reaction to flying. and the phy
iological 
reaction of the body to changes in altitude. 
Reduction in air pres
ure during flight \\-ill 
expand a collection of air Vvithin body 
cavities by 20 percent at 5.000 feet above 

ea level. Areas mo
t affected are the ab- 
domen. chest. cars. and 
inuses. 
Patients u
ually \\-ill already have re- 
ceived con
iderable definitive treatment 
prior to their transfer to the aircraft from 
the rural hospital. Ho\\-ever. there are 
some in!.tances \\-here there can be little 
previous preparation. One such \\-as on a 
typical. bright summer day. \\-hen Vve took 
off from a small northern community \\-ith 
t\\-o patients on board. 
Mrs. C. \\-a!. diagno
ed a
 possibly hav- 
ing a brain tumor. yet \\-as able to sit up. 
Our other patient. Mrs. U.. was a multi- 
para with placenta praevia. Ten minutes 
prior to our arrival at Saskatoon. our pa- 
tient count increased to three. as a healthy 
baby boy had arrived on the 
cene. 
There have been several births \\- hile 
airborne and many "almosts" during the 
28-year history of the air ambulance ser- 
vice. One gmteful mother named her ne\\-- 
born son after the pilot and the aircraft.s 
registration letters. \\-hich happened to be 
CF SA
1. 
Since space is at a premium in a small 
aircraft. deliveries are often hard to man- 
age. Equipment must be \\-ithin arm's 
reach. and as clean and sterile a field as 
pos!.ible must be maintained. \\-hile reas- 
suring the mother - \\-ho may not care to 
have her child delivered 3.000 feet in the 
air - and coping \\-ith the complications 
of labor. since most pregnant patients are 
being floVvn because of maternal or fetal 
emergency. Ba
ically. the flight nurse 
must be able to anticipate. improvise. ob- 
serve. and initiate treatment \\-hen neces- 
sdry. 


Equipment 
Equipped to operate on a year-round 
basi!.. the service provides coverage 24 
hours a day. \\-ith cre\\-s prepared for Im- 
24 THE CANADIAN NURSE 


mediate departure from the airport office 
from 09:00 to 17:00 hours. and providing 
standby coverage at night. 
All equipment is portable. except for the 
oxygen supply. \\- hich is permanently lo- 
cated \\-ithin the aircraft. Therefore. it is 
important that the nurse obtain as much 
information a
 possible about the patient's 
condition prior to leaving base in order to 
have available en route the equipment she 
\\-ill need. 
Each nurse has a medical bag containing 
basic supplies. These include dressings. 
needles and syringes. catheters (suction 
and oxygen). oxygen masks and nasal 
cannulas. airway... tape. clamps and scis- 
sors. sterile gloves. and a small supply of 
drugs. such as analgesic
 and cardiac and 
respiratory stimulants. 
Our portable equipment includes infant 
and adult re
uscitators (kept on the aircraft 
at all times). an automatic re!.uscitator 
(used \\-hen \\-e knoVv in advance that a 
patient needs constant röuscitation). in- 
cubator. croupelle. blood pressure cuff. 
pre<;sure infusion cuff. cardia-beeper. * 
fracture boards. sandbag!.. suction. and 
maternity bundles. 
Nur
ing dutie
. apart from direct patient 
care. include maintenance and cleaning of 
equipment. keeping 
tock supplies up-to- 
date. recommending purchase of ne\\- 
equipment. recording information dbout 
each patient carried. and arranging for and 
attending refresher programs on nursing 
care. 


Weather or not 
Environmental factor
 obviou!.ly playa 
major role in aeromedical nursing. 
Weather conditions. as \\-ell as the im- 
mediate physical environment of the air- 
craft. are defimte considerations in provid- 
. . 
mg nursmg care. 
During \\-inter. stretchers are made up 
\\-ith extra blankets and "bunny bags" 
(heavy zippered covers). as the tempera- 


* A cardio-beeper is a portable battery- 
operated hean monitor approximate!} 4" x ó" 
It can be u
ed either b
 attach ing a 
mall dia- 
phragm to the patient's tïnger b} mean, of a 
Velcro strip. or b) attdching the beeper to elec- 
trodes placed on the Pdtient's chest or \\rists. 
The monitor tells the heartbeat
 per minute on a 
meter. and indicates the heart rhythm by \\ dY of 
a "beep" .md tldshing light. 


ture inside the aircraft is often not mud 
higher than outside the nan. especially ir 
30-degree-beloVv \\-eather. Providing nur
 
ing care\\- hen both patient and nurse arf 
heavily bundled in layers of blanket!. 01 
clothing i
 cumber
ome and can be fru,> 
trating. All procedurö are carried out .1' 
quickly as possible. Intravenou
 ...olution- 
sometimes freeze during 
tretcher te 
stretcher transfer and on very cold days 
can take the durati()n ()f the flight tn thaw. 
An unu
ual and atypical röponsibility 
u
ed to fall to the nur
e during \\-inter Vvhen 
our smallöt aircraft Vva!. on ski
. The 
plane often refu
ed to turn around in the 
soft sno\\-. so the nurse \\-as a
ked tn take;J 
rope - conveniently located ncxt to her 
seat - and loop it through a ring on the 
outer edge of the wing. dig her heels into 
the deep sno\\-. and hang on for dear life 
\\ hile the pilot roared the engine to 
\\ ing 
the aircraft around. Shock and disbelief 
can be!.t describe our inilial reaction in 
such a 
ituation. 
In summer, problems include motion 
skkness due to turhulent air and heat. 
Muddy ficld
. ma
se!. of grasshorper
. 
mo
quitoe!.. and bloVving dUst are often 
additional halards. 
The patien(
 diagnn
is largely deter 
mines the altitude in flight. For in
tance. 
patients \\ith head injuries are flf)\\n at 
lo\\-er altitudes to le
'en a po

ible in- 
crease in pres
ure on the injured brain 
Conversely. patients \\-ith fractures .Ire 
often tran!.ported at higher altitudes to 
avoid turbulence. \\-hich \\-ould add to dl
- 
comfort and pain. 
Although the primary concern dunng 
any flight is patient comfort. the overall 
safety in flight operations a
 determined 
by the pilot takes precedence over fli
ht 
levels or routes that may be preferred -by 
the flight nur
e. The pilot does. ho\\-ever. 
comply Vvith reasonable reque...t
 by the 
flight nurse Vvhen they do not con...titute a 
real or potential flight hazard. A pilot and 
nurse simply VvOfk a.. a team. \\-hile ret.lin- 
ing a mutual respect for each other's re- 
sponsibilitiö. 


Willing hands 
A pilot's licence is nol a requirement for 
employment a
 a nur
e \\ ith the air .1mbul- 
ance service. Ho\\-cver. it \\as decided one 

ummer thdt the nur,cs ...hould learn slime 
thing about flying. or at least beu'llIc 
familiar \\-ith landing procedures and in 
JANUARY 197! 





 


-----.... 


-::-- 



-=- 



- 



 
'-- 


- 


The nurse was asked to take a rope and loop it through a ring on the outer edge of the wing, dig her 
heels into the deep snow, and hang on for dear life while the pilot revved the engine to swing the 
aircraft around. 


ight control of the aircraft. in the un- 
appy c\ent that the pilot become 
ud- 
enl) ill 

ot quite realizing the full extent of thc 
ugge
tion. v.e gamd} agreed. and dual 
ontrol
 "ere 
oon mounted on the tv.in. 
ngine aircraft. 
\\ e experienced 
tarlo. tcrror during the 
0110" ing fev. days as v.e attempted to 
'arn a fev. ba
ic rulö and land the aircraft 
ith the help of our pilot-instructors. 
here v.a
 no patient on board. We gladl) 
Ulrendered the controls to the qualified 
lalf of our team after these fev. hair- 
aising da}
. Happil}. our pilob also sur- 
i \ cd v. hat v. e fondl)' refer to as our 
'crash" course in aviation. 
A mo
t vòluable a...set for completing 
ny ambulance night is a c\o.,e v.orlo.ing 
imsun betv.ecn air ambulance 
taff. road 
mbulance personnel. and the people of 
he rural center. An especiall} pleasant 
ANUARY 1975 


experience i... to land at a small airstrip and 
be met b} smiling faces and v.illing hand
. 

o matter hov. tiring the da} or ho" 
"bumpy" the flight ha
 been. a friendl} 
v.eIcome from tho
e a"Jiling our arrival 
mar...es air ambulance nur
ing a particu- 
larl} gratifying experience. 


'\1inutes count 
Time is an important factor for many ot 
the patients transported. especially in 
terms of the total time they are out of reach 
of the care of a ph}sician and hospital 
facilities. 
Thi
 v.a
 illu
trated v. hen v.e received a 
request late one afternoun from a rural 
huspital approximately 200 mile
 a"ay to 
tran
port tv.o patient
 v.ho v.ere in critical 
condition and in urgcnt need of specialized 
medical care in an urban center. Treatment 
that had been initiated prior to transport 
"as continued en route. The total time 


expended bet"een medical centers v.as 
one hour. a sharp contrast to four or even 
five hours had the} gone b} road. 
In some cases. patient
 rcquire little 
ph)'sical care but need a great deal of emo- 
tional support and rea

urance. Relatives 
accompJn} ing the patient may also need 

upport and ad\ ice during" hat is usually a 
stressful time for them also. 
On occasion. the air ambulance service 
tliö 
pecialists ònd blood 
upplies to the 
rural centers. This v.a
 the case v. hen l\lrs. 
R. gave birth and began to hemorrhage. 
Tv.o specialists "ere tlo"n out to assist 
the rural doctor v. ith emcrgency surgery. 
since the patient' s condition v.ould not 
.1110" her to be mmed. Blood supplies had 
been transported earlier in the evening. 
Local resident
 turned out to light the air- 
strip v.ith car lights to enable the aircraft to 
land safel}. 
:\1rs. R. not only 
urvived the 
THE CANADIAN NURSE 25 



. 



 


,"" 
.... 
\ 




 
t 


]!j4 I.. _.. \'1:' '
ti.' 



,... 

 
\ 
 


--.' .. 


Loading patient into aircraft at Hudson 
Bay. Saskatchewan. 


emergency surgel y. but also the tramfu- 

ion of 42 pints of blood. 32 of them do- 
nated that evening by local residents. Ju...t 
such community involvement and !'.pirit i... 
often in evidence. 
Although the service is available only to 
residents of Sa...kah:he\\-an. flight... are not 
all confined \\ ithin provincial boundaries. 
Trips have been made to Texas. Califor- 
nia. Ontario. and many other Canadian 
provinces. For such extended nights. addi- 
tional preparation is needed to ensure ade- 
quate supplies for the entire trip. 
One interesting flight \\as to California 
to bring a 91-year-old man and his 
86-year-old \\-ife back to Saskatche\\-an, 
Mr. M. had become ill while visiting rela- 
tives. The diagno!'.is \\-as cerebrovascular 
accident. pneumonia. and diabetes. 
Mr. M. \\-as unl'onscious and required 
continuous oxygen and frequent oral suc- 
tioning He \\-as to have tube feedings 
every three hours. important because of 
26 THE CANADIAN NURSE 


- 
., 


} 



- 


. ... 


- :I. I '
""I 
 O ' 

 _ .;. 
. \, t
t" 
- n. "h 
. -:1_ 
" .f 


t- 


. ... .. 


" 


r",- ..... 


. 
.\j 


.' 


r 


. 


---
 


.. 
J 


.. 


Transferring patient from air ambulance to road ambulance. 


his diabetic condition. Ho\\-ever. due to air 
turbulence and the con...equent increa<;ed 
danger of vomiting and aspiration. the 
tube feedings \\ere given at refueling stops 
only. 
For this kind of trip. the nurse mu!'.t 
con...ider the am0unt of oxygen. feeding
. 
linen. and 0;0 on. to have sufficient ...up- 
plies. but not t00 many. in the limited 
space available on the aircraft. 


Conclusion 
The aeromedical branch of nursing of- 
fers a dimension of nur
ing service that 
differs fmlll mo...t other field... of nursing 


pral"lice. Although some training in avia 
tion medicine i... available. most knoVo 
ledge is gained through experience 011 
tained in actual flight ...ituation.... Becaus 
the service is unique. there are fe\\ prece 
dents for many of the nur!'.ing situation 
that ari...e. Thi... makes air ambulance nur
 
ing interesting. at times exciting. and sel 
dOIll .. routi ne. .. 
Although VoC have patients in our car 
for only a short time. Vol' derive sali...fac 
tion from the k nOVolcdge that the ,ervice i 
an important link in the provision of healt 
care. Our personal re\\ard is a ...impl 
""thank you" at the end of each flight. 
JANUARY 19i 



What do nurses do 


to help patients 


who attempt suicide? 


A description of an exploratory study that was undertaken to look at public 
health nursing activities in relation to patients who had attempted suicide. 


Rosella Cunningham 


he number of 
uicides and the suicide 
ate in Canada has increased alarmingly 
n recent years. In 1921 there were 496 
eported suicides. \\-ith a rate of 
i.7/100.000 population; in 1970 there 
ere 2.413 suicidal deaths. \\-ith a rate of 
1.3/100.000 population. I 
Unquestionably. a large number of 
'potential" suicides exist. Man
 persons 
ho are subject to O\emhelming fits of 
epression make repeated attempts at 
uicide; 50me of these attempts are 
erious. intended to succeed. and some 
re merely gestures or appeals for help. It 
as been found that those who make one 
Hempt are likely to make another. and 
hat up to 10 percent of persons who 
ttempt suicide kill themselves 
ventually.2 
What do public health nurses do to help 
hese people? With this question in mind. 
an exploratory study was undertaken to 
look at public health nursing activities in 
relation to such patients in the Borough of 
Scarborough during the period I May to 
8 June 1973. 
It \\-as decided that the investigator 
\\- ould accompany Scarborough nurses 
participating in the study on their first 
visits to patients \\- ho had attempted 
suicide. One \\-eek after the first visit by 


Rosella Cunningham (B.Sc:-.l.. University of 
Toronto. Toronto. Ontario: 
I.P.H.. Univer- 
o;ity of 
Iichig.ln. Ann Arbor. 
Iichigan) is 
Ao;sociate Professor. Cni\ersitv of Toronto 
School of !\jursing. 
JANUARY 1975 


the public health nurse and the inves- 
tigator. the nursing record was reviewed. 
Some 2 to 5 weeks later. this process was 
repeated. that is. a second visit was 
observed. the record reviewed. and data 
recorded. Finally. each nurse was inter- 
viewed. 
Before a visit was made. permission 
for the patient to participate in the study 
was obtained from the psychiatrist in- 
volved. and the family physician was 
notified of the project by a letter from the 
Scarborough Health Department. The 
liaison nurse. who is employed by the 
health department. arranged for the public 
health nursing follow-up. and briefly 
explained the study to the patient. When 
the patient was receptive to participating 
in the study. she asked for his signature 
on the consent form. Fifteen patients 
agreed to take part. 
The participating patients consisted of 
14 women and I man, ranging in age 
from 18 to 73 years. with 6 under the age 
of 30. The mode of the suicide attempt for 
13 patients had been overdose of drugs 
(mainly soporifics). and 8 patients had 
also consumed alcohol. One patient had 
slashed her arms and another had deliber- 
ately walked into heavy traffic. Six of the 
15 had previously attempted suicide. 
Although economic status appeared to 


A seIect..d bibliography is available on request 
from the Library. Canadian Nurses' AssocIa- 
tion. 50 The Drivewa). Ottawa, Ontario. 


vary. all patients had multiproblems; 
severe marital strife \\-ao; evident in Y 
families. 
The patients were assigned by the 
health department in it
 usual \\ ay to 12 
nurses (6 of these had a certificate in 
public health nursing. and 6 had a 
baccalaureate degree). During the study 
period. the 15 patients received 62 visits. 
The investigator accompanied the 12 
nurses on 28 of these visits. 


Analysis of Home Visits 
To focus ob
enation of activities. the 
aspects of a visit were broken do\\-n mto 
the folio\\- ing categories: entry to the 
home; content of the visit. induJing the 
nurse's assessment of the problem. her 
plan for dealing\\- ith it. and its implemen- 
tation; and conclusion of the visit. 


Emry 
Showing an awareness that the entr} 
into a home paves the \\-ay to the visit and 
that the initial communication is basic to 
the establishment of a helping relation- 
ship bet\\-een nurse and patient. each 
nurse made a friendly entry into the 
home. introducing herself b} name and 
profession and also introducing the ob- 
server in the same manner. In a sentence 
or two she stated in general\\- hy she \\ as 
there. leaving the specific plan for the 
visit until she wa<; able to as'iess the 
situation and establish priorities. 
For the most part. nurses emphasized 
that they did not have answers to prob- 
lems. but that they \\-ere there to help see" 
THE CANADIAN NURSE 27 



solutions, usually beginning with !ouch 
remarks as: 
0"1 came to see if there was anything I could 
do to help solve your problems. What hap- 
pened that caused you to go into hospital'?" 
o "We can try to 
ort out how you .Ire 
feeling. and maybe later on we can talk with 
your mom about it, and help her to under- 
stdnd."' (This was to an 18-year-old student 


0 00 11001.. at the patient's ability to cope with 
everyday things - her apartment. her chil- 
dren. the meals. ete. I especially listen to her 
plans' 
o "By sitting around the table and having a 
cup of tea, I note the family interaction. I was 
aware which problems made Mrs. X tense, but 
I wasn't sure at first whether thi
 was anger or 
fear. .. 


In no visit was the word "suicide" used by either 
the patient or the nurse. The nurses often referred to 
these patients as "O.D.s" (overdoses), which gives 
some indication of the frequency of this type of visit. 


\\'ho sought the nurse at school. and who 
obviously sa" the nurse as a hdping pason.) 
0 00 1 wondered if it would help to talk over 
your problems."' (This nurse had known the 
patient for some time.) 
o . ï came to see you so that we can discuss 
your problems and together look for solu- 
tions. " 


Content 


1. Assessment 
It was evident that the nurses were in 
agreement with the point of view expres- 
sed by Shneidman and Farberow: 
"Suicide is. of course, not only the 
individual's problem. It is the family's 
problem and it is the community's 
problem. "] These nurses looked not only 
dt the patient, but also at the immediate 
family, the extended family. and the 
environment. They were very aWdre of 
the background of existing problems in 
some of the Ontario Housing units - the 
problems of poverty. multifamily dwel- 
lings with shared facilities. and the 
interwoven sexual problems that seemed 
to occur frequently. 
When the nurses were asked in inter- 
views how they assessed and planned care 
for the patient and family. several de- 
scribed their way of observing the patient 
and the family interaction: 
0 00 1 especidlly observe the nonverbal com- 
munication - the posture. facial expression, 
and method of talking (response or no 
response) - and I especially look .II their 
eyes. Their eyes seem to show .Inger or fear 
very quickly. " 
28 THE CANADIAN NURSE 


2. Plan 
Following the assessment, the nurse 
made a plan and a record of the approach 
and the progress made in each case. 
Usually she established short-term goals 
for immediate problems and long-term 
goals for behavioral changes. These goals 
were frequently discussed with the pa- 
tients or families. In planning for care. 
most nurses worked closely with the 
social worker who had known the patient 
in hospital. 


3. Implementation 
(a) Approach: 
Two main approaches were used in 
offering care on these visits. One was 
referred to as the "confrontation" or 
"contract" approach; the other was much 
more indirect, a '"listening" type of 
approach. Perhaps the value of the first 
approach is to help the patient face 
reality. to accept the outcome of his 
behavior, and to be accountable for his 
actions. 
The value of the second approach is 
outlined by Fallon. who reminds nurses 
that they must listen to their patients. and 
convey real concern for their well-being. 
while appreciating them as valuable 
persons. 4 Most nurses emphasized one or 
other approach. but some elements of 
both methods were observed in most 
visits. 
The "confrontation" approach tries to 
get fami!ies to look at their interaction. as 
may be seen in the following instances: 
o In talking with a young couple with marital 
difficulties, the nurse sdid: "What has been 
going on between YOIl two'
 Do you really 


wdnt to get together again'
 And. directly tc 
the patient, "Ho\\' do you feel about it 
Barb'!"' Later, she a
ked the hu
band the same 
question. 
o In talking with another family: "Whal 
happens when your mother comes home anc 
blows her top about what is going on'!' 
Teenage boy replied. "We try to keep hel 
from knowing what has been going on." Th( 
daughter said, 001 get mad back and I yell al 
her."' The nurse went on helping them to !>ee 
how these interactions build on one dnother 
that all the family must change and devdo
 
better" ays of coping with situations, and thai 
they must be open with their feelings so the} 
would understand each other. 


When "setting contracts," the nurse 
and the patient together plan a course 01 
action. If the patient repeatedly does no! 
keep his part of the contract. the nurse 
may "iscontinue visiting because she i5 
not accomplishing any of the goals. She 
makes it clear to the patient that she i5 
willing to return any time he is v. illing tc 
cooperate. 
Having assessed the situation and es- 
tablished a helping relationship, the nurse 
frequently breaks the problems down into 
parts. Together. the patient and nurse 
then establish priority of action. For 
example: 


o One nurse told a young couple, "1 can't 
solve your problems. What is to happen will 
be up to you, and it will take a long time to 
talk all your problems through. In the mean- 
time, let's deal with those we can and get them 
out of the way." She went on to explain three 
possible arrangements for a pregnancy test. 
The patient then decided the course of action 
and kept her part of the contral:t by dealing 
with the problem of a possible extra-marital 
pregnancy. 


How the "listening approach" is based 
on establishing personal rapport with the 
patients was clearly observed in the 
following visit and the discussion after- 
ward. 


o One nurse visited a woman who had 
attempted suicide ",ith an overdose of Elavil 
(Amitriptyline HCL) and alcohol. The nurse 
prai
ed the patient for small accomplishments 
in everyday living. On the second observed 
visit this patient appeared to be coping with 
her depression; she was interested in her 
appearance and in the care of her apartment. 
and she was seeking employment. Following 
thi
 visit, the investigator dsked if consump- 
tion of alcohol had been discussed. The nurse 
replied, "No. if the patient \\'ishes to talk 
about it she will bring it up. In the meantime, I 
think there is more accomplished by praise 
than blame. It is important to try to find a 
JANUARY 1975 



ason to hve. not to dwell on y,hat happened 
the past... 
Nurses appeared quite confident and 
;;tablished a helping relationship quickly 
1 using their own approach. However. 
1is doe,; not mean that they were not 
'iIling to discuss. observe. and evaluate 
ther approaches. Since every situation is 
ifferent, they are quite willing to adapt 
nd modify their approach and to try a 
ompletcly different one. Several of the 
urses discussed this with the inves- 
gator. It appears that each nurse's 
pproach is unique to her and not just a 
_chnique to be adopted mechanically. 
-he nurse must be herself. 


(b) Prohlem-Solving: 
The basis of all approaches wa
 
mblem-solving. Since hospitalization 
ad been relatively short for patient" in 
'he present study. the public health nurse 
sually came into the picture when there 

as a felt need to restore equilibrium. 
erhaps because of this. the nurse was 
ost welcome. Her task seemed to be to 
ssi"t the patient to seek out and use the 
alancing factors. 
The following example of this type of 
:risis intervention was observed: 


The nurse encouraged the patient. a young 
mother. to tell what happened that caused 
her to be admitted to hospital. In relating 
the specific events that led to hospitaliza- 
tion. this mother told of many problems. 
Her husband had been having psychiatric 
treatment; previously. he had molested her 
8-year-old daughter. The patient had been 
advised by the psychiatrist never to .1lloy, 
the husband and her daughter to be alone in 
the hou
e. This y,as a difficult recommen- 
dati0n. becau
e financially it \\ as neces- 
sary for this mother. who had two other 
small children. to be employed. The 
situation fostered guilt feelings. fear. and 
hostility. These feelings. along with her 
financial problems. became unbearable. 
To aSSDS the adequacy of "the situational 
support."' the nurse next visited in the 
evening to talk with both parents. She 
encouraged the mother to develop a closer 
relationship \\ith the 8-year-old chIld and 
al
o with an aunt who lived nearby and 
who seemed able to offer additional sup- 
port. The husband seemed angry and rather 
patronizing with the p.1tient. 
When the problem of incest occurred the 
next time. the patient and aunt sought the 
assistance of the nurse dnd accepted legal 
aid. Instead of attempting self-destruction. 
the patient was ready to face the court 
proceedings. Welfare assistance \\as ar- 
ranged. \\hich permitted her to have 
JANUARY 1975 


necessary medical and dentdl treallnenl. 
She dlso showed evidem:e of dn ilbility to 
budget. and was beginning to plan for a 
future with her children. 


The nurse had helped this patient gain a 
realistic perception of the events, to seek 
and use adequate situational support. and 
to use more adequate coping mechanisms 
to try to find a resolution for her problem. 


(c) Family-Centered Care: 
Nurses welcomed the opportunity to 
talk with the whole family. When this 
was not possible during the usual working 
hours. arrangements were made for even- 
ing visits. Two evening visit
 v.ere 
observed by the investigator. but nurses 
made others to the patient population 
during the study period. 
Evans reminds us that .. . . . all family 
members and/or significant others need 
help to come to terms v.ith their feelings 
about suicide - , Being available. being 
undemanding. and assisting in practical 
ways all help. Emotional support from the 
nurse may be the decisive factor between 
adaptation and maladaptation." 5 These 
nurses were concerned with the numerous 
problems that contributed to the depres- 
sion and to the defeated attitude of the 
patient. 


(d) Inten'iewing and Coumeling: 
Although nurses frequently express a 
need for more preparation in counseling. 
it was observed that some were continu- 
ally analyzing their interviews and de- 
veloping much skill. They appeared 
av.are of the setting of the interview. the 
importance of easy eye contact. the use of 
direct and indirect questions. and the need 
for mutual trust. 
It was interesting to note that in no visit 
was the word . 'suicide" used by either 
the patient or the nurse. The nurses often 
referred to these patients as "O.D.s" 
(overdoses). which gives some indication 
of the frequency of this type of visit. The 
use of first names seemed acceptable for 
both patients and nurses. 


4. Conclusion of Visit 
All the observed visits were completed 
in about one hour. The nurses concluded 
the visits with specific directions as to 
how they could be contacted and with 
plans for the next vi!.it. This ensured 
continuity of care. 


Summary 
What do nurses do to help patienh who 
attempt suicide? During these 28 visits. 
many nursing skills were observed in 
acti.on. reflecting the v.ords of Dr. LlUra 


Simms: .. Nursing nurture
 people and 
their coping bchaviors. Nurses dtagnose 
and treat human responses." 6 
It was apparent that the nursc's help. 
based on an understanding of illncss and 
social situations. did assist the patient and 
his famil
 10 gain insight into problems 
and actions. The family-centered care 
given by the public health nur
e provided 
continuit) of scrvice hetv.een home and 
ho,;pital. She wa
 the onl) v.orl-.er v. ho 
knev. the family in many 
cttings - 
!>chool. hospital. doctor's office. clinic. 
and especially hi
 home. Her broad 
knov.ledge of community rcs(Jurce
 and 
her ability to coordinate them provided 
direct support. Using sl-. illful interviev. ing 
techniques. the nurse
 directed the pa- 
tients toward reality. toward attainable 
goals. and tov.ard decisions for future 
actions. 


References 
Candda. Statistics Canada. Suicide morra/- 
i".. /950-/968. Otlay,a. Information 
Canadd. 1972. p. 68. (This volumc in- 
cludes some 
tatistics beyond the period 
indicated by thc title.) 
2 Burton. Lloyd E. and Smith. Hugh H 
Public health and community medicine. 
Baltimore. Williams and Wil"-ins. 1970. p. 
391. 
3. Shneidman. Ed\\in S. dnd Farbefl)\\. 
Nonnan L. The Los Angdes suicide 
prevention center: a demonstration of pub- 
lic health fe.lsibilities, Amer J. Puh. 
Hell/th 55: 1:26. J.IO. 1965. 
4. Fallon. Bdrbara. "And certain thoughts go 
through m) head. .. Amer. 1. Vurs. 
7"2:7: 1257. Jul)l 1972. 
5. Evans. Frances Monet Carter. Ps\'cho.w- 
cia/nursing; theon. and prllctice in }wspi- 
tal wid community IIIt'fIla/ health. :\ie\
 
Y or"-. Macmillan. cl971. p. 21\9. 
6. Simm
. Liiurii. Clinic;;! nur
e spcciùlisl. 
/n Report of the Clinical ;>.Jurse Speci.1li
t 
Conference. Sponsored b) Faculties of 
Nursing .md Medicine. and the School of 
H) giene of the Universit) ot Toronto. June 
-to 1973. Toronto. Faculty of Nursing. 
University of Toronto. 1973. 'G' 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 29 



A nutrition 
course for 


nurses 


Practical training in nutrition for nUrs
s is now available on the Loyola Campus, 
Concordia University, Montreal. In this article, which has been translated from 
the French, the instructor of the course explains its aims and justifies its existence. 


In spite of their close relationship. the art 
of cooking and the science of nutrition 
have become virtual adversaries. Fine liv- 
ing emphasizes the attractions of one. 
while good health depends upon the other. 
It is hard to understand why the two cannot 
be reconciled; why the efforts of organiza- 
tions devoted to health care are held in 
such slight regard; and why members of 
the public. in the face of a multiplicity of 
recipe books. indulge in those foods most 
likely to insult their stomachs. 
Besieged with demands for their ser- 
vices. doctors. nutritionists. and dietitians 
are harassed and overworked. Nurses. 
conscious of their close relationships with 
patients. would like to throw some light 
into the dim corridor leading from the din- 
ner table to the hospital. but have to endure 
certain restraints. 


A nutrition course for nurses 
Three years ago. in support of her own 
convictions. Gladys Lennox - the direc- 
tor of health education programs at Loyola 
Campus. Concordia University. Montreal 
- introduced a course in nutrition for 
nurses working in industry. schools. and 


The author is assistant editor of L' illfirmière 
clInadienne, the French-language magazine 
published by the Canadian Nur!.es' Associa- 
tion. Ottawa. 


Gertrude Lapointe 


community health centers. She believes 
the course is needed. as most nurses are in 
no position to act as intermediaries in mat- 
ters related to nutrition. Lennox also be- 
lieves that the basic course in nursing does 
not prepare the nurse to help others with 
their nutritional needs, although she con- 
cedes that graduates from some of the 
newer programs in basic nursing are 
somewhat beller prepared than graduates 
from earlier pt'ograms. 
Knowledge of foods that nourish the 
body is essential to everyone. but has par- 
ticular significance for health educators. 
Lennox says. They are expected to give 
advice to those who seek it. She em- 
phasizes this in justification of Loyola's 
nutrition course. Nurses involved in com- 
munity health programs cannot sidestep 
issues related to diets for the sick. nor 
absolve themselves of the responsibility to 
discuss dietary regimens intelligently. 
The course, "Nutrition in the 70's." is 
a requisite for any Loyola student who 
wishes to obtain a bachelor of arts degree 
with a major in community nursing. In- 
cluded in this nutrition course is a study of 
dietary regimens in relation to health prob- 
lems such as obesity. heart disease. poor 
eating habits. and malnutrition. The ef- 
fects of socioeconomic forces on the nutri- 
tional status of individuals is examined. as 
well as the relationships beween food cus- 
toms and various social. cultural. and 


psychological aspects of Ii fe. Students are 
required to draw up budgets for consumers 
at all socioeconomic levels. 
As part of this nutrition course. students 
learn to estimate individual food require- 
ments in relation to age and activity. They 
must also be able to recognize and Jeal 
effectively with nutritional problems ex- 
perienced by persons in the community, 
home. or hospital. Graduates are prepared 
to counsel others concerning proper nutri- 
tion within their budgetary limits. and to 
teach them how to shop economically as 
well as \\oisely. In short, the course pro- 
vides application of the principles of nutri- 
tion to everyday living. The student is also 
introduced to available literary resources 
and taught how to use them. 
Gladys Lennox is both practical and 
foresighted. Developing the interest of 
nurses in nutrition is only the first step in 
her ultimate objective to teach the public 
how to use food to improve growth and 
maintain health. As she sees it. the nurse 
occupies an enviable position between the 
dietitian. the doctor. and the community at 
large. Preparing her to meet the needs of 
the latter in regard to nutrition is preven- 
tive work of the highest order. 
Consequently. the course has been or- 
ganized along pragmatic lines so that stu- 
dents may emerge better prepared to act 
efficiently wtthin the community or as 
members of a multidisciplinary team. In a 


10 THE CANADIAN NURSE 


JANUARY 1975 



The courses in nutrition are abo open to 
student nurses enrolled in basic programs, 
and applicants from other provinces are 
welcome, However. the director suggests 
that interested persons should register in 
advance. as applications are flowing in 
from all areas. 


nourishing food intake. Naturally, the 
nurse must be assured of management" s 
support if she is to supervise effectively 
the \..ell-being of staff. 


orld v. here poverty and affluence live 
ide b} side, nurses have an important 
ontribution w make through their ability 
o integrate various health aspects, includ- 
ng proper nutrition. 


The summer course 
Loyola Campu<; offers a summer course 
called "Hunger in the Classroom" for 
teachers v. ishing to obtain credits. There 
were 6 students the first year. and 150 in 
the second (summer. 1974). No attempt is 
made to develop nutritionists or dietitians 
out of teachers \\ ho \\ant only to improve 
their general knowledge. The aim is to 
help teachers to know when to direct stu- 
dents to the specialists - nurses. doctors, 
and dietitians - before it is too late. Al- 
though there will never be enough experts 
in nutrition. this group may be able to 
guide their students to professional help. 


\ question of abilit
 
Graduates l)f the nutntlon Cl}lJr<;e are 
Jrepared to counsel individuals about diet- 
11} habits. phy<;ical condition. and exer- 
'i<;e - that is. about good health and its 
naintenance, Even in our aftluent society, 
uch advice is a necessity. The well-to-do 
'uffer from mdlnutrition too. not because 
hey lack the necèSsities. but because their 
.:hoice.. are poor. 
Lennox believes that the nurse is still the 
bèSt health educator dvailable to teach 
people hm\ to balance their diets. This is 
not a situation involving the hierarchical 
position of nurses and dietitians, It is sim- 
pi} a question of v. ho is prepared to do the 
job. The one who has the infonnation 
should give it. 
.. Nurses are prepared to counsel. .. 
I ennox says. "but they are not prepared in 
diet therapy. Therefore. the community 
nurse will find many opportunities to help 
people develop good eating habits and ul- 
timately improve health standards. We do 
not foresee that qualified nutritionists v. ill 
be available on a one-to-one basis in the 
community. and therefore we see the nurse 
as someone who kno\\s when to counsel 
and \\ hen to refer nutritional problems to 
others. .. 
In a nation where soft drinks. hot dogs. 
french fries. and chocolate bars are staples 
in so many diets. Lennox sees her effort as 
an attempt to bring about a general change 
in dit:tary habits. Encouragement is forth- 
coming. At the moment. interest is being 
shO\\n by school nurses. Audim-isual in- 
struction. school health programs. and 
projects directly related to cafeteria ser- 
vice are in full s\\ ing. There has been 
support from provincidl and municipal 
bodies, as well as from school boards. 
Various indu<;tries are beginning to in- 
dicate inkrcst in projects of a nutritional 
nature. Nurses employed by industries and 
business are able to demon<;trate what con- 
stitutes a nutntious box lunch, to show low 
and high energy points in a worker's daYJi 
and to teach workers the elements of a 


Conclusion 
The course . 'Nutrition in the 70's" is an 
innovation. Nothing similar existed previ- 
ously in Quebec and pos<;ibly not in other 
provinces. It is noVo a requisite for regis- 
trants in the community health program. 
but can be taken as an elective by other 
students. Like . "Hunger in the Class- 
room. ., it responds to an urgent need. 


" 


-- 



 


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. 
. 
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Gladys Lennox, director of health education programs at Loyola Campus, 
Concordia University, Montreal, says the basic course in nursing does not 
prepare the nurse to help others with theIr nutritional needs. 


IANI'ARY 1975 


THE CANADIAN NUR
I: 31 



ew and cur-rent boolü 


LIPPINCOTT'S NO-RISK GUARANTEE: 
Books are shipped to you ON APPROVAL' if you are not 
entirely satisfied you may return them within 30 days 
for full credit. 


NURSING MANAGEMENT OF THE PATIENT WITH 
PAIN - McCaffery 
This brilliantly researched text presents sociologic, 
psychologic and physiologic concepts within a 
problem-solving framework. The patient is viewed as 
a total human being with a variety of physical, emo- 
tional and intellectual needs and experiences. 
LIPPINCOTT 248 Pages 
PRICE: $5.25 Paperbound/1972 


THE LIPPINCOTT MANUAL OF NURSING PRACTICE 
- Brunner and Suddarth 
Designed to be the most useful 
single volume ever published 
for the nursing profession, The 
Lippincott Manual will provide 
all nursing practitioners with 
instant information for immedi- 
ate application to patient care. 


1h6 
!JP
 
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LIPPINCOTT 
PRICE: $21.50 


1473 Pages 
Illustrated/1974 


PERSPECTIVES IN HUMAN DEVELOPMENT - 
Sulterly and Donnelly 
Nursing Throughout the 
Life Cycle 


, 


A 
,

 
1\ 


.... 


LIPPINCOTT 
PRICE: $8.75 


An entirely new approach to the 
study of human development, 
designed to prepare nurses to 
meet the challenges of the 
present and future, and to apply 
recent findings in the physical 
and social sciences to the care 
of patients. 


331 Pages 
Diagrams and Charts/1973 


CRITICAL CARE NURSING - Hudak, Gallo and Lohr 
A comprehensive course in the 
area of critical care nursing, un- 
excelled in depth and content. 
Material for the text evolved 
from the authors' four years 
experience in teaching intensive 
care nursing content in continu- 
ing education courses. The 
approach is holistic, based on 
the interrelatedness of the four 
major body systems - respira- 
tory, cardiovascular, renal and 
nervous - with man's hierarchy 
of needs as a framework. 
351 Pages 
1973 


æfTÇAL 
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LIPPINCOTT 
PRICE: $9.95 


NURSES' HANDBOOK OF FLUID BALANCE 
2nd EDITION- 
ø:: Metheny and Snively 
The expanded responsibilitie 
of the nurse in the areas ( 
physical diagnosis, treatmen 
and evaluation of laborator 
findings are reflected in thi 
thoroughly revised edition. A 
chapters have been revised t' l 
include the latest findings i 
types of imbalances. treatmentl' l 
and medication, and each ele 
ment, deficit and excess is dis 
cussed in greater depth an< 
clarity. 
Illustrated 



Cf
 
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LIPPINCOTT 
PRICE: $8.75 


325 Page! 
Paperbound/197' 


. 
A GUIDE TO PHYSICAL EXAMINATION - Bates 
__ - Expertly illustrated. this"how-to" 
text bridges the gap between 
anatomy and physiology and 
their application to the physical 
examination. Within each bod
 
region or system. three topics 
are dealt with: 1) anatomy and 
physiology basic to the examin- 
ation, 2) examination techni- 
ques, 3) examples of selected 
abnormalities. 


C
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LIPPINCOTT 
PRICE: $18.75 


375 Page
 
lIIustrated/1974 


NURSING OF FAMILIES IN CRISIS - Hall and Weaver 
This unique book provides an introduction to crisis 
theory as a conceptual approach to nursing of families. 
The authors include numerous case studies of families 
who have experienced maturational or situational 
crises. 


LIPPINCOTT 
PRICE: $6.50 


250 Pages 
1974 


ABOUT BEDSORES - Miller and Sachs 
What You Need to Know to Help Prevent and 
Treat Them 
In simple language and with many full color photo- 
graphs and drawings, this unique manua! effectivel
 
presents what the nurse needs to know to prevent and 
treat bedsores. 
LIPPINCOTT 
PRICE: $5.40 


Many full color illustrations - 50 Pages 
Paperbound/1974 


CARING FOR AND CARING ABOUT ELDERLY 
PEOPLE - Long 
A Guide to the Rehabilitative Approach 
The content is centered around concepts and skills 
fundamental to the rehabilitative process. including 
such concepts as the dynamics of independence. the 
hazards of immobility, the age continuum, the value 
system and life style, and the dynamics of role in the 
rehabilitative team relationship. 
LIPPINCOTT 127 Pages 
PRICE: $3.90 Paperbound/1974 




u.-e dinical <<Ð1petellce 



 


,1EDICAL CARE AND REHABILITATION OF THE 
-- CHRONICALLY ILL 
"'-,...,:;:. 3rd Edition - Bonner 
::=--..- 
"..- 
,--'"'.,11' 
II 'it'II::II:' 
n. '
I
r.
 
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', 
,"'II" 
1rf/1ii
1 


.lTTLE, BROWN 
RICE: $16.50 


Frequently, various members of 
the health team have not known 
what can be done to help the 
aged and/or chronically ill. This 
new edition of this unique book 
answers the need. 


311 Pages 
1974 


'ATIENT CARE SYSTEMS- 
Kraegel, Arora, Mouseau, and 
Goldsmith 
Based on a project which won 
the 1972 Lambert Award, this 
new book extends the science 
of design to the rational planning 
of complex health care systems. 
Administrative principles are 
applied to the hospital setting: 
patient. environmental and nur- 
sing needs are examined; case 
studies are used to explore and 
implement patient care plans. 
150 Pages 
1974 


IPPINCOTT 
RICE: $10.95 



 "'LlNICAl GERIATRICS - Rossman 
his timely, cross-disciplinary work provides a com- 
rehensive account of the diagnosis and treatment of 
he older pati
nt within the framework of the biological 
rocess of agmg. All organ systems and their diseases 
re .completely covered from the preventive, diag- 
rostlc, and therapeutic aspects. 
_IPPINCOTT 525 Pages 
PRICE: $26.00 171 Figures 1971 


QUICK REFERENCE TO PEDIATRIC EMERGENCIES 
- Pascoe and Grossman 
-Iere is an unusual reference for the health team faced 
Nith pediatric emergencies. It provides quick access 
.0 the information needed to "do the best thing at the 
ight time." The organization of material and the 

hapter heading have been structured with speed of 
iccessibility always in mind. 
JPPINCOTT 421 Pages 
)RICE: $17.00 IIlustrated/1973 


::URRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION IN NURSING _ 
::onley 
rhis text carefully examines nursing education and 
he process of change in relation to the nature and 
)bjectives of curriculum and instruction. 
-'TILE, BROWN 673 Pages 
)RICE: $16.50 lIIustratedl1973 


METHODS OF CLINICAL EXAMINATION: 
A PHYSIOLOGIC APPROACH - 3rd edition - 
Judge and Zuidema 
Extensively revised and updated to include new 
diagnostic techniques such as the problem-oriented 
approach to medical history-taking. Methods of 
Clinical Examination helps the student to develop early 
experience in the differentiation of normality and 
abnormality over a broad diagnostic range. and to 
correlate preliminary diagnostic findings with special 
techniques for the further evaluation of any 
physiologic system. 
LITTLE, BROWN 439 Pages 
PRICE: paper $11.50 cloth $17.50 IIlustrated/1974 
SEX AND THE INTELLIGENT WOMAN - De Martino 
Is high intelligence in women compatible with an 
active and enjoyable sex life? This question has 
particular relevance today as the conventional image 
of woman gives way to a broader view of women's 
mental powers and right to personal fulfillment. 
SPRINGER 320 Pages 
PRICE: $8.95 1974 
PROBLEM-ORIENTED NURSING - 
Woolley, Warnick, Kane and Dyer 
A comprehensive text and how-to book. introducing 
the theory and application of the problem-oriented 
medical record system. The presentation, based on 
actual hospital situations, details the incorporation of 
the nurse into a functioning. decision-making medical 
care team. 
SPRINGER 176 Pages 
PRICE: paper $5.25 cloth $8.50 1974 
MANUAL OF PEDIATRIC THERAPEUTICS- 
Children's Hospital Medical Center, Boston 
This book provides specific, up-to-date information on 
current pediatric therapy, including administration and 
dosages of new drugs. In clear, outline form. it offers 
a sound approach to the diagnosis and management 
of most of the major syndromes and diseases of 
infants. children, and adolescents, and presents 
r "ional therapeutic procedures for all of the common 
I ' diatric emergencies. 
LITTLE, BROWN 525 Pages 
PRICE: $8.95 1974 
RESPIRATORY INTENSIVE CARE NURSING- 
Bushnell 
Presenting current interdisciplinary practices in res- 
piratory and intensive care, this book is a necessity for 
nurses and nursing instructors involved in the treat- 
ment of critically ill patients as well as for those nurses 
organizing intensive care facilities. 
LITTLE, BROWN 354 Pages 
PRICE: $10.95 Illustrated/1973 


. 
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SERVING THE HEALTH PROFESSIONS IN CANADA SINCE 1897 
75 HORNER AVE. TORONTO. ONTARIO M8Z 4X7 (416) 252 5277 



idea 
exchange 


Nursing grand rounds 
Cheryl Rosell 


Nursing Grand Rounds is a vital and 
important educational tool. On 24 Jan- 
uar\ 1974. the nursinl! education staff of 
Sunnybrook Medical Centre initiated the 
Rounds to imolve the nursing staff in 
their own professional development. 
Rounds are held once a month. each 
time given by a different service among 
our 33 nursing units. Three to six staff 
nurses do the presenting. Nurses who 
give the care should be the ones discus- 
sing such care. A patient may be cared for 
in more than one area, For example. a 
patient who is admitted to a medical unit 
may be transferred to a surgical ward after 
his initial workup. In such an instance. 
we try to involve each of the units 
associated with the patient's care. in some 
aspect of the presentðtion at Rounds. The 
learning that is the end product of 
preparing for these presentations benefits 
similðr patients in the future. 
The Rounds. aIthoul!h not interdisci- 
plinary in presentation: are open to all 
departments. Attendance has ranged from 
45 to 60. including staff from pharmacy. 
physiotherapy. occupationel therapy. and 
social service, Other departments report 
benefits from their attendance. Local 
public health nurses also have attended. 
About four weeks ahead of the date. 
the nursing staff begm to prepare for 
Rounds by selecting their patient for 
presentation. Then. weekly meetings are 
held to discuss the patient's progress and 
the nursing care to be emphasized. 
Respon
e from the nursing staff has 
been excellent. They find this a stimula- 
ting way of keeping up with new ideas in 
nursing c.iTe that arc being implemented 
in various part.. of the hospital. 
The role of the nursing education staff 
has been one of guidance and resource. 
The style of the presentation is decided by 
the unit presenting. There is a question 
and answer period at the end of each 
presentation. This has. perhaps, been our 
weakest area; nurses are still hesitant to 
bf' critical of each other. 
34 THE CANADIAN NURSE 



 


.. 
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- 


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- 


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, 


, 


, 


, 


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The nurses have a practice session to get used to talking and handling the microphone 
The nurse pictured here is Joan Smith. 


We find the Rounds to be a valuable 
method of education, We also see it as an 
important tool in bringing pride to the 
staff nurses presenting. Successes and 
failures are discussed at the Rounds. and 
it is this evaluation of one's professional 
ability that justifies saying that nursing at 
Sunny brook is done professionally- 
by prokssional nurses. 


Cheryl Reinholz Ro\ell gradualnJ lrom The 
john
 Hopkin
 Ho
pital Schonl ot Nursing 
Baltimore. Mar} Idnd She has worked ir 
Candda since 1970 and WdS responslhle li)1 
instituting nursmg grand round, al Sunny 
hrook. 1\1s. Rosell i\ nursing educdlion in- 
\Iructor at Sunn
brook 
lcdicdl Centre. To- 
ronto. 


JANUARY 197 



troducts festival 


elanie Hitch 


vances in orthopedic nursing require 
ongoing education program if RI'!. and 
: -\s are to keep abreast of ne\
 products 
d prm:edures. With this in mind. the 
)ronto chapter of the Orthopaedic 
use!. Association CTONA) recently spon- 
red a "products festival" at Sunn}- 
Jok Medical Centre. Toronto. 
The 
oals of the evening-long program 

re fivefold: to acquaint R'I;, and R'\ ,"". 
10 are interested in orthopedic nursing. 
th TO:"o.A. to introduce them to ne\\, 
oducts: to make available ne\
 educa- 
mal material: to introduce them to other 
rse-. interested in orthopedics: and to 
change idea!. on this intere
ting area of 
rsmg. 
The evening \
as definitel} a succcs!.. 
mrteen Toronto-area distributors of or- 
pedic and orthotic products each ex- 
ited 6 of their late
t products. provi- 
g educational material on each. \1ore 

 100 persons attended, \\'hich made it 
arding for the organizers. 
Most attenders considered it an infor- 
dtive öening. and expre!.sed consider- 
Ie interest in the educational program!. 
fered by TO/l.A. It is equally important to 
te that man} expres!.ed interest in 
ining the Orthopaedic Nurses Associa- 
n. 
HO\
 \\,as the evening organized? 
lor-coded name tags \
ere di!.tributed 
an effort to get a cros!. section of 
hopedic nur!.ing in each tour group. A 
dm leader \\,as appointed for each 
oup. Over a period of some 1 hours. 
ch group \\,as given 6 minutes at each 
oth to examine material. ask questions. 
d exchange ideas. 
Among the products exhibited \\,ere a 
\
 fiberglass casting method. a variety 
ne\\, prosthetic joint implants. several 


danie Hileh. (B .Sc.
.. Uni\t
rsit
 of Virginia) 
nllßc dinit:ian at SlInnyhrook :\1edieal 
entre. Toronto. and pre,ident of TO:-'::\. 
'''WARY 1975 


\ 
 

 

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braces. plus the latest in soft goods. 
traction. and operating room equipment. 
Several companies also provided 
brochures containing mformation On 
m0vies and educational programs that are 
available free of charge for in<;ervice 


education and team conferences. 
Finall). a (juestionnaire \\,as cin;ulatcd. 
asking guests \
 hat they thought of our 
products festival. Their positive reaction 
made the entire effort \\'orth\
hile. 


Corridor Playroom 


Sally Pearson 


What do you do with the little ones in the 
pediatric ward when you do not have a 
playroom? 
At Kootena) Lake District Hospital. 
\\,e put chalkboards on the corridor walls 
and got our best maintenance man to 
build a gate across the hallway in the end 
of the corridor. We then got a play lady 
and a nurse. the little patients and some 
toys. a tdble and chairs. a stroller and a 


rocking horse - we had all the mgre- 
dients for a makeshift playroom. 
The gate swings back flat again
t the 
\\,all \\'hen the corridor pia} room is not in 
use. 


SJ.II
 PeJ.rson is director of patient senlces at 
KootenJ.
 Lake Di,triet Hospital. :'\d,on. 
Briti,h Columbia. 
THE CANADIAN NURSE 35 



names 


Irene Nurtun (R.N,. Ma
sachusetts 
Memorial Hospitdl. Boston; B.S,N.Ed.. 
M. Ed,. Boston University) has been 
appointed acting chairman of the nursing 
department. Ryer
on Poly technical Insti- 
tute . Toronto. Roslyn Klaiman, former 
chairman. is currently on sabbatical leave 
tix further stud\ . 



1s. Norton was an 
army nurse during 
World War II. Later. 
she was assistant 
principal. Faulkner 
Hospital school of 
nursing. Jamaica 
Plain. N.Y. She was 
in teaching and ad- 
" · ministration at the 
Massachusetts General Hospital school of 
nursing before coming to Toronto in 1957 
to be director of nursing education. 
Women's College Hospital. 



 


J.J1. 


\ 


....,..-- 
-- 


Suzanne Brazeau 
(Reg. N.. Ottawa 
General Hospital 
school of nursing; B. 
SeN. Ed.. B.A.. B. 
Th.. M.A, Th.. Ot- 
tawa University) has 
been appointed 
health education and 
nursing consultant 
for thc Carlddian Tuberculosis and Re- 
spirator} Oisea
e A
sociation. 
She was formerly a public health nurse 
with the Ottawa-Carleton Regional Area 
Health Unit and is currently studying 
to\\-ard a doctorate in ethics and society at 
the University of Chicago. 


... 



 


The Council of the College of Nurses of 
Ontario announced two new appoint- 
ments. effecti ve Septe m ber 4. 1974. 
Helen Evans (Re!!,N.. Toronto General 
Hospital school 
f nursing; B. Sc. N. . 
University of Western Ontario; M.S.. 
Boston University) is assistant director- 
professional standards. She was formerly 
a<;sistant chairman. nursing department. 
Ryerson Poly technical Institute. Gerrard 
Campus <Hospital for Sick Children). 
Toronto. 
Janice legg (R,N.. Saskatoon City 
Hospital school of nursing; B, N,. McGill 
University) has accepted the position of 
inspector. She was formerly chairman. 
nursing division. Ooon Centre. Cones- 
toga College of Applied Arts and Tech- 
nology. Kitchener. Ontario. 
36 THE CANADIAN NURSE 


M,ugaret Ann Cock- 
man (Reg, N.. St. 
Michael's Hospital 
school of nursing. 
Toronto; Public 
Health Cert.. Uni- 
versity of Toronto) 
has been appointed 
to the health services 
. t, recruitment staff of 
Canadian University Services Overseas 
in Otta\\-a. 
Her nursing experience has included a 
tour of volunteer duty with CUSo in 
India; surgical nursing at St. Michael's 
Hospital. Toronto; nursing in the coronary 
care unit of St. Joseph' s Hospital. Hamil- 
ton; and community health nursing with 
the St. Elizabeth Visiting Nurses' Asso- 
ciation. Hamilton. 


....' 
,. 


The Marjorie Hiscott Keyes Medal (1974) 
of the Canadian Mental Health Associa- 
tion has been awarded to Dorothy Burwell 
director of nursing education. Clarke Insti- 
tute of Psychiatry in Toronto. Ontario. as a 
recognition of and in tribute to her deep 
concern for. and her interest in. the men- 
tally troubled. 
Ms. Burwell (Reg. N.. Toronto General 
Hospital school of nursing; B.Sc.N.. Uni- 
versity of Western Ontario; !\t.A., Col- 
umbia University) has been staff nurse, 
head nurse. instructor and supervisor at the 
Toronto General Hospital; lecturer and as- 
sistant professor of mental health and 
psychiatric nursing at the University of 
Toronto. She has given courses on coun- 
seling the mentally and emotionally dis- 
turbed. and has led a number of workshops 
and conferences on communications. 
psychodrama. and counseling. She has 
been chairman of the National Committee 
of Mental Health Professions and a 
member of the National Scientific and 
Planning Council. 


Anne Gribben (Reg. N.. Toronto Western 
Hospital school of nursing; B ,A.. Univer- 
sity of Toronto) has become the chief ex- 
ecutive officer of the Ontario Nurses As- 
<;ociation (ONA). She was formerly direc- 
tor of employment relations of the Regis- 
tered Nurses Association of Ontario and 
was chief negotiator for ONA and 10.000 
nurses with their respective hospital emp- 
loyers when Ontario registered nurses' 
starting salaries were increased in July 
1974. She began her ne\\- duties October I. 


., 


".. 


"'.. 

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.
 
....-

 
- *". ,,/ 
...-::
 


 
.
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Marguerite (Dick) Richards \\ as present! 
with a silver tray on her retirement aft 
more than 30 yéars of nursing. She h 
for many years been head nurse of II 
obstetrical department of the Blancha 
Fraser Memorial Hospital in Kentvill 
Nova Scotia. 


Ann Hilton and Olive Wilson Simps( 
have been appointed assistant professo 
at the school of nursing. University 
British Columbia. Vancouver. 
Hilton <B.S.N,. University of Briti
 
Columbia; M.Sc.N.. University of T. 
rontO) was a Canadian Nurses' Found, 
tion fellow. and has been a team leader 
Sunny brook Hospital in Toronto and 
lecturer at the University of Toronto. 
Simpson (Reg. N., Victoria Hospit 
school of nursing, Renfrew; B.Sc.N 
!\t.Ed., University of Ottawa) has been é 
instructor at the schools of nursing c 
Victoria Hospital and of the Ottawa Civ 
Hospital. Prior to her current appoin 
ment, she \\-as director of nursing at It 
Regional Medica! Centre. Abbotsfon 
B.C. 


Dr. Arnold l. Swanson has been appointe 
executive director of the Canadian Cour 
cil on Hospital Accreditation. Toront( 
Ontario. He assumed his duties 
January. 1975. on the retirement of OJ 
L.O. Bradley. Dr. Swanson was fonnerl 
administrator of the Queen Street Ment: 
Health Centre. Toronto. prior to which h 
was executive director of the Victori 
General Hospital. London. Ontario. 
(Contillued Oil page 3
 
JANUARY 19i 



What the well-bandaged 
patient should wear: 


Bandafix has a maximum of 
elasticity (up to lO-fold) and 
therefore makes a perfect 
fixation bandage that never 
obstructs or causes local 
pressure on the blood vessels. 
 
Bandafix is not air-tight, 
because it has large meshes; it 
causes no skin irritation even "- 
when used for the fixation of '\.. f 
greasy dressings. The mate- "l 
rial is completely non-reactive. "- 
Bandafix stays securely in 
place; there are eight sizes, 
which if used correctly wiII 
provide an excellent 
fixation bandage for 
every part of the 
body. 


I Bandafix does not change in 
the presence of blood, pus. 
serum, urine. water or any 
liquid met in nursing. 


Bandafix is a seamless round- 
woven elastic "net" bandage, 
composed of spun latex 
threads and twined cotton. 


... 


Bandafix saves time when 
applying. changing and 
removing bandages; the same 
bandage may be used several 
times; it is washable and 
may be sterilized in an 
autoclave. 


Bandafix is an up-to-date 
easy-to-use bandage in line 
with modern efficiency. 


- ......., 


; Bandafix replaces hydrophilic 
gauze and adhesive plaster, 
is very quick to use and 
has many possibilities of 
application. It is very suit- 
able for places that otherwise 
are difficult to bandage. 


\ 


IN
/ 


Bandafix is economical in use, 
not only because of its rela- 
tively low price but because 
the same bandage may be 
used repeatedly. 


. 


\ 


.. 


- 
- 


Bandafix does not fray. 
because every connection 
between the iatex and coUon 
threads is knotted; openings 
of any size may be made with 
scissors or the fingers. 


'""'- 


Bandafix* 


Distl'ibllted by 


Now available 
'"Ready to Use" 
Bandafix 
. Pre-measured 
. Pre-cut 
. 14 different applicatIons 
. IndIvidually Illustrated 
peel-open packages 


IONi
 


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ORegiøtered trademark of CO"Rtanental Pharma 



NUARY 1975 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 37 



names 


,CO/1/it"",,, from pag(' 3fJ} 


Recent appOinllllents to the faculty 
l,f the University of Alberta school of 
nursing hdve been announced: 
Joyc(' B('nders (R, N.. Royal Alexandra 
Hospital school of nursing. Edmonton: 
R.SeN.. Universitv of Alberta. Edmon- 
ton) is a part-tin;e clinical instructor 
in the basic degree 
program. She has 
previously taught 
ob
tetrics at the 
Roval Alexandra 
Ho
pital school of 
nursing and nursing 
fundamentals at the 
Miscricordia Hospi- 
_
 tal school of nursing 
in Edmonton. Alta. 
Margaret Brackstone (Reg. N.. Public 
Gencral Hospital school of nursing. 
Chatham. Ontario: Dipl. Nurs. Edue. 
R,Sc.N.. University of Western Ontario) 
is a lecturer (nursing for mental health). 
She hJS been a teacher at the Hamilton 
Psy<.:hiatric Hospital and at the Hamilton 
Civic Hospital s<.:hool of nursing: assistant 
director of the Public General Hospital 
school of nursing. Chatham: a le<.:turer in 
pSy<.:hiatric nursing at the University of 
Ottawa school of nursin!!: and Year II 
coordinator at Mohawk College. Hamil- 
ton Campus. 
Judith Friend (Reg. N.. Kitchener- 
Waterloo School of Nursing: Cer\. 
Nurse-Midwifery. Frontier School of 
Nurse Mld\\-ifery. Hyden. Kentucky; 
B.SeN.. University of Alberta. Edmon- 
ton) is lecturer in the advanced practical 
obstetrics program. Her nursing experi- 
ence has included general duty nursing at 
Bella Bella Church Hospital. Bella Bella, 
B.C.; public health and family planning 
in India. under the auspices of the 
Canadian University Services Overseas; 
and being in charge of the Health and 
Welfare Canada nursing station at Tuk- 
toyaktuk, N.W T. 
Barbara Kerr (R.N.. University of Al- 
berta Hospital school of nursing. Edmon- 
ton: B .Sc. University of Alberta) is a 
lecturer. She has nursed at the University 
of Alberta Hospital and has been a 
nursing instructor at the Royal Alexandra 
Hospital s<.:hool of nursing. Edmonton. 
Elaine Parfitt (Reg, N.. Calgary Gen- 
eral Hospital school of nursing; Dipl. 
Teach. and Supervision. B,Sc.N.. Uni- 
versity of Alberta. Calgary) is a lecturer. 
Her career assignments have included 
those of staff nurse, clinical instructor. 
and coordinator of the first-year program 
at the Calgary General Hospital; instruc- 
tor at Mount Royal College. Calgary; and 
38 THE CANADIAN NURSE 


-'1""'-.>> 
-JI. 
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evening supervisor. University of Alberta 
Hospital. Edmonton. 
Patricia McKillip (B.S. in Nursing. 
Universit\ of Nebraska Medical Center. 
Omaha: 
1.A,Ed.. Idaho State Univer- 
sity. Pocatello) i<; assistant professor of 
nur
ing. She has been an instructor and 
chdirman of the department of nursing at 
Idaho State University; director of nurs- 
ing servi<.:e at Bannoà Memorial Hospi- 
tal. Pocatello; and nursing instrudor at 
Solano Community College. Fairfield, 
California, 
Margaret E. Steed (Reg. N.. Toronto 
Western Hospital school of nursing; B. N.. 
McGill University. Montreal: M.A. 
(Nurs. Edue). Colúmbia University. New 
York) i
 director of continuing education 
in nursing, During 
her career. she has 
been a nursing sister 
with the Royal Cana- 
c.::- dian Medical Corps; 
nursing instructor. 
). Toronto Western 
Hospital: asssitant 
director of nursing. 
Kitchener- Waterloo 
Hospital. Kitchener: consultant \\-ith the 
Canadian Nurses' Association. Ottawa: 
and adviser with the Universities Coor- 
dinating council in Alberta. Steed has 
also served on various provincial and 
national nursing committees dnd has been 
a member of panels presented at the 
International Council of Nurses. 


Phyllis Bluett (Reg. N. . Toronto General 
Hospital school of nursing: B.Sc.N.. Uni- 
versitv of Western Ontario. London) re- 
tires fan 31. 1975 as director of nursin!! of 
the Woodstock General Hospital. She 
began her association with that hospital in 
1934. but following her university gradua- 
tion in 1946 she was for a few years in- 
structor of nurses at the Victoria Hospital 
in London. 


Dorothy Kergin is one of four members 
reappointed to the Medical Research 
Council. She is director of the school of 
nursing at McMaster University. Her re- 
search interests are directed to\\-ard the 
development of educational programs for 
nurse-practitioners and the nursing ac- 
tivities in primary care settings. 


Jeannine Tellier-Cormier was elected pres- 
ident of the Order of Nurses of Quebec at 
its annual meeting in November, She 
succeeds Rachel Bureau. Tellier-Cormier 
(R.N.. Hôpital St.-Joseph des Trois- 
Rivières. Three Rivers. Que.) is responsi- 
ble for the obstetrical team and is 
professor at the CEGEP in Three Rivers. 
She has done outpost nursing among the 
Indians of Northern Alberta: has been in 
charge of trauma. operating room at 


HÔpital St.-Joseph in Three Rivers; a 
has taught obstetrical nursing at t! 
school of nurslllg of HÔpital St.-Jos e r' 
Her professional activities have includ; 
three years as president of District NO'1 
two terms a, treasurer. and membersl' 
on 
evcral committees of ONQ. 


Elizabeth M. Butler (S.R.N.. Hammq 
smith Hospital. London. Englani 
O.H.N.C.. D.N,. London) has be 
appointed occupational health nurse cc 
sullant in the Alberta Department 
Hcalth and Social Development (lnuL 
trial Health Services Division), 
On coming 
Canada in 1967. ,I, 
joined the depJ.1 
ment of health 
Saskatchewan'. L. I 
cr. 
he worked at tll 
University of Albel 
Hospital and then 
a full-time occup 
tionJ.1 health nurse. 




 


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lean G. Church (R.N.. Royal VictOi 
Hospital School of Nursing. Montre. 
B.Sc,. Dalhousie U.; Dipl. teaching 
schools ofnursin!!. McGill U.; M.A. Cc 
umbia University. New York) has r 
signed as associate professor and cO( 
dinatorofthe B.N, program forregisten 
nurses at Dalhousie University school 
nursing. She had been with th
 faculty f 
22 Years. 
Ãn untiring member of the Registen 
Nurses Association of Nova Scotia. sl 
was president from 1967 to 1969, an 
later. chairman of the board of examiner 


Dollene Diane Rampersaud (Reg, N.. 
 
Joseph's School of Nursing. Londo 
P,H.
. Cert; B.Sc.N.. University 
Western Ontario. London) has been a 
pointed nursing supervisor. Oxfo 
Health Unit. Woodstock. Ontario, 
During her nur
il 
career. she has bee 
staff nurse J.t tl 
London Psychiatr 
Hospital and tl 
Addiction Rcsean 
Foundation, Tl 
ronto; instructor al 
mental health coo 
.J dinator at the Woo. 
stock General Hospital: and supervisor 
the Oxford Mental Health Center. c- 
. 


r: 


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BE A + 
BLOOD 
DONOR 


JANUARY 1q 



AUTONOMY. . 
\ù AUTHORITY.. 
ACCOUNTAßILITY. 
- 
nursing 
leadership 
defined. 



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New Mosby texts 
help today's students 
become tomorrows 
leaders. 


II 


1 


\NUARY 1975 


. . 


New 2nd Edition! 


Mcinnes 


THE VITAL SIGNS, WITH RELATED CLINICAL 
MEASUREMENTS: A Programmed Presentation 
Covering more than basic vital signs, this new edition includes 
all aspects of measurement of body temperature and cardiac 
activity. The authors provide the student with the scientific 
concepts that permit understanding and assessment of 
vital signs. Fetal heart rate and venous pressure are also 
incorporated, along with reorganized bibliographies. 
By BETTY McINNES, R.N., B.Sc.N., M.Sc. (Ed.). January, 1975. 
Approx. 144 pages. 7 w x 10 w , 45 illustrations. About $6.S!>>. 
New 3rd Edition' Anthony 
BASIC CONCEPTS IN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY: 
A Programmed Presentation 
This manual teaches the facts necessary for developing a 
clear understanding of the human body. Material has been 
totally reorganized to focus on functions of the body. 
The endocrine chapter has been enlarged, and a new 
chapter discusses the respiratory system. 
By CATHERINE PARKER ANTHONY, R.N., B.A., M.S. July, 1974. 
182 pages plus FM I-VIII, 7 w x 10', 54 illustrations. Price, $6.60. 
3rd Edition! Labunski et al 


WORKBOOK AND STUDY GUIDE FOR MEDICAL-SURGICAL 
NURSING-A Patient-Centered Approach 
Realistic exercises encourage students to develop problem- 
solving techniques and communication skills as they identify 
and solve nursing problems. The authors' flexible approach 
shows students how to integrate the information from their 
general education courses to improve the quality of 
patient care. 
By ALMA JOEL LABUNSKI, R.N., B.S.N.; MARJORIE BEYERS, R.N., 
B.S.. M.S.; LOIS S. CARTER, R.N., B.S.N.; BARBARA PURAS STELMAN, 
R.N., B.S.N.; MARY ANN PUGH RANDOLPH, R.N., B.S.N.; and 
DOROTHY SAVICH, R.N., B.S. 1973, 331 pages plus FM I-VIII, 
7v.. w x 101f2 w . Price. $6.70. 


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TIMES MIRROR 
THE C V MOSBY COMPANY L TO 
86 NORTHLINE ROAD 
TORONTO. ONTARIO 
M4B 3E5 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 39 



AUTONOMY. . 
AUTHORITY.. ACCOUNTAßILITY... 


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A New Book! Dreyer-Bailey-Doucet 
NURSING MANAGEMENT OF THE PSYCHIATRIC 
PATIENT: A Workbook 
Based on actual clinical cases, this unique workbook is a 
practical guide for the application of psychiatric nursing 
techniques. Topics covered include: legal aspects; patients 
with problems related to alcohol and drug abuse; behavior 
disorders in children; and more. Each chapter concludes with 
useful questions similar to those found on State Board exams. 
By SHARON DREYER. R.N., M.S.; DAVID BAILEY, Ed.D.; and WILLS 
DOUCET. M.Ed. January, 1975. Approx. 208 pages, 7V4" x 10Vz". 
About $6.25. 


/ 


A New Book! 


Kneisl-Ames 


MENTAL HEALTH CONCEPTS IN MEDICAL-SURGICAL 
NURSING: A Workbook 
This new text offers a practical way to help students apply 
mental health-psychiatric nursing concepts when caring for 
adult patients with medical and/or surgical problems. 
Holistic in approach, this workbook can aid in assessing 
needs, planning care, and evaluating effectiveness of 
nursing actions with medical or surgery patients. 
By CAROL REN KNEISL. R.N., M.S.; and SUE ANN AMES, R.N., M.S. 
September, 1974. 160 pages plus FM I-X, 7V4" x 10Vz", 23 illustrations. 
Price, $5.80. 


A New Book! Davis et al 
NURSES IN PRACTICE: A Perspective on Work Environments 
This new text is a collection of articles which consider the 
work of nurses in a variety of settings. As R.N.'s, two of the 
authors present special insight into the nurse's lack of 
autonomy; the attitudes concerning the role of women today; 
and the care components of other health professionals. 
By MARCELLA Z. DAVIS, R.N., Ph.D.; MARLENE KRAMER. R.N., Ph.D.; 
and ANSELM L. STRAUSS, Ph.D.; with 11 contributors. February, 1975. 
Approx. 272 pages. 6314" x 9314". About $7.30. 



nursing leadership defined. 


New 3rd Edition! 
CHILDBIRTH: FAMILY-CENTERED NURSING 
This new edition presents the nursing concepts necessary 
for nursing intervention in childbirth. Well-grounded in 
physiology, the text considers the psychologic implications 
of growth and maturation of all family members; abortion; 
trends in maternal-health services; and more. The author 
covers the normal maternity cycle in full detail. 
By JOSEPHINE IORIO, R.N., B.S., M.A.. M.Ed.January, 1975. 
468 pages. plus FM I-XII 6'Y4 w x 9
., 199 illustrations. Price $9.40. 


Iorio 


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A New Book! 
PRACTICAL MANUAL OF PEDIATRICS: 
A Pocket Reference for Those Who Treat Children 
This pocket-size book is a ready source for information 
necessary for "on-the-spof' treatment of children. The 
information is highly accessible through the use ot charts, 
tables. and outlines. It includes forgettable facts and figures 
ot drug dosages, nutrition, standard measurements, 
conversion tables, etc. 
By WILLIAM W. WARING, M.D.; and LOUIS O. JEANSONNE III, M.D. 
April, 1975. Approx. 360 pages, 4Y4 W x 6", 213 Illustrations. About $6.25. 


Waring-Jeansonne 


"\. 


A New Book! Saxton-Hyland 
AN INTEGRATED APPROACH FOR PLANNING AND 
IMPLEMENTING NURSING INTERVENTION 
This unique new text explores the concepts of stress and 
adaptation, problem solving, and 21 nursing problems. 
Emphasis is on the levels of adaptation and their relationship 
to nursing intervention. In an integrated approach, the 
authors present the development of an assessment graph 
for use in P lanning nursin g intervention. 
(c...... ' / 
By DOLORES F. SAXTON, R.N., B.S., M.A., Ed.D.; and PATRICIA "'g 
A. HYLAND. R.N., B.S., M.S., M. Ed. January, 1975. Approx. 192 pages, 
 J5 ::-....". 
6" x 9 w , 46 illustrations. About $6.05. 
 
 
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THE C V MOSBY COMPANY L TO 
86 NORTH LINE ROAO 
TORONTO. ONTARIO 
M4B 3E5 


\NUARY 1975 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 41 



AUTONOMY. . 
AUTHORITY. . . 
ACCOUNTAßILITY.. . 
nursing leadership defined. 


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A New Book! Schreck 
ORGANIC CHEMISTRY: Concepts and Applications 
Presenting the essentials of organic chemistry, this new 
text offers students a comprehensible treatment of the 
basics. Written from a functional approach, it blends 
chemistry basics and relevant examples to relate chemistry 
to the real world. Energy considerations and profiles of 
common reactions appear throughout the text. Each 
chapter contains a summary of important concepts, a list of 
new terms, and a problem set which reinforces pertinent 
concepts. 
By JAMES O. SCHRECK. May, 1975. Approx. 448 pages, 
7 w x 10 w . 93 illustrations. About $13.60. 


New 3rd Edition! 


Guthrie 


INTRODUCTORY NUTRITION 
The new edition of a popular text presents relevant 
nutrition information in a direct and extremely readable 
style. It is organized into 3 parts: part 1-Basic Principles 
of Nutrition-includes discussions of all major nutrients. 
Part 2-Applied Nutrition-deals with the application of 
basic principles to various nutritional situations. 
Part 3-Appendices-includes a glossary, prefixes and 
suffixes, and a multitude of tables. 
By HELEN ANDREWS GUTHRIE, B.Sc., M.S., Ph.D. March, 1975. 
Approx. 576 pages, 7 w x 10 w , 159 illustrations. About $11.50. 


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TIMES MIRROR 
THE C V MOSBY COMPANY L TO 
B6 NORTHLINE ROAD 
TORONTO. ONTARIO 
M48 3E5 


MOSBY 


--" 


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new products 


{ 


Descriptions are based on information 
supplied by the manufacturer. No 
endorsement is intended. 


ubitus ulcer cushions 
. Heelbo and Heelbo "Flair" prO\ide 
nfOl1able protection for p..ltients \\ ith 
ubitu... ulcer.... 
Vhcn used as a heel pwtn:tor. Heelbo 
\ idð ...erni-ambulator
 patlenh \\ ith 
ter tooting. allO\\ ing greater freedom 
I ..ecurit\. The Heelbo stavs comfOl1a- 
in pláce \.\.ithout 'itrap
. !'.o blood 
'ulates freely to promote ti......ue granu- 
on and rapid healing. 
he Heelho', bru...hed acrilan interior 
\ ide.. patients with gentle warmth 
hout pressure. The cu...hion it..elf is 


de of stain-re...istant urethane foam 
h a tricot finish. The Heelho "Flair" 
a deeper cushion to protect more 01 
elhO\.\ or the area around the an"-Ie 


e. 


ne size fits all adult... and can be used 
either elbO\\ s or heels \\ ithout adju'it- 
nt. The) are \.\.ashahle In autoclave or 
chine. Exclusive Canadian distributor 
Hal1z-Standard Ltd.. J
 Metropolitan 
..Id. Agincourt. Ontario. 


ixoral 
ixoral. an oral antihistaminel 
congestant preparation is in the 
n of a su...tained-action sugar-coated 
let for t\\ ice-a-dav admi'ñistration. 
provides effecti\e J relief of s} mp 
lS of nasal congestion. 
Each tablet contains 6 mg. dexbrorn- 
eniramine mdleate :-':.F. a
nd I.::!O mg. 
isoephedrine sulphate. 
 
I The tn 0 active ingredients are equally 

tributed het\.\.een the tablet's outer 

ating and a sustained-relea!'.e inner 
Ire. FolIO\\Îng ingestion. the content of 

 outer coating is 4uickl
 liberated. and 
:e content of the inner core subsequently 
'''-IUARY 1975 


become!'. d\ailable for approximatel} 
I.::!-hour sustained rclea..e. 
Drixoral is indicated for the relief of 
upper re!'.piratol) muco!'.al conge...tion in 
...,',I...onal ..Ind perennial [u..al allergic.... 
acute rhiniti... and rhinosinu...itis. acute and 
subacute sinu...itis. eu...tachian tube bloc"-- 
age. and secretory otitis media. 
The product is supplied in bottle... of 50 
tablets. Information is ..Ivailable from 
Schering Corporation Limited. 3535 
Tran!'. Canada High"a
. Pointe Claire. 
Que. H9R I B
. 


Urine meter 
The Bard urine meter l)f molded transpar- 
ent plastic i'i a completely sealed. closed 
system. Its shape allo\.\.s accurate meas- 
urement from 2cc to 
OO cc. Graduations 
are rai,ed 10 facilitate reading and record- 
ing of measurements. 
A molded drip chamber. bonded to a 
9/32" drainage tube. minimizes the 


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danger of retrograde infection from the 
urine meter to the bladder. The urine meter 
is air-vented for uninterrupted flo\.\. 
Drainage is through a bottom outlet 
valve. Each unit is supplied individually 
pac"-aged with sterile fluid path. in a 
snap-open poly bag. 
For details. write C.R. Bard (Canada) 
Ltd.. I Westside Drive. Etohico"-e. Ont. 
M9C IB.::!. 


" . "'" . 
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Aseptic scrub station 
The :\1ar"-et Forge Surgical Scrub Station 
r>.lodel 5S 10 is Jesign
d to prO\. ide max- 
imum convenience. comfol1. and a......ur- 
ance of proper techniques for the surgeon 
and the OR ...taff. \\ ater temperature and 
volume are pre-set. Each bay of the :\1ar- 
ket Forge SS I 0 Scrub Station is isolated 
\\ ith a Plexi-glas divider and high sides. 
minimizing 
 the danger o( no'iS- 
contaminati
m from bac[e
rial aerosols, Di- 
rect shad{mless illumination is prO\ided 
\\ ithin the scrub area, Sin"- and faucet are 
designed to eliminate splashing of floor or 
operator. 
The SS 10 accommodates a "' ide varia- 
tion in operator heights. It offers .In unoh- 
structed \ie\\ of the operating room ",hile 
scrubbing. hs ""no touch" press and re- 
lea'ie "-nee l:ontro1s turn soap and \\ater on 
and off. Unsanitary soap dispenser'i are 
eliminated. The scrub station is ",all- 
mounted. \\ ith pipes concealed. It is avail- 
able \\ith one. two. or three bavs. For 
inf('rmation. \\fite \1dr"-et Forge Hospital 
Equipment Division. Everett. Ma'is. 


Complete infusion system 
The LaBarge Iilfusion System will elec- 
tronically pump. regulate. and monitorthe 
intravenous flow of fluids and drugs to a 
patient. It contains specially designed 
safeguards against variation!'. in the flow 
rate.
1t is als
 designed not to infuse air or 
interfere with the 
terilitv of the fluid, 
The unit can be used -in intensive care 
therapy. neonatal units. labor and delivery 
units. coronary care. and or"her general 
drea.. \\ here present infu.,ion sets are em- 
ployed. 
For infonnation \\ rite: LaBarge. Inc.. 
500 Broad\\ay Bldg.. SI. Loui....-Mo. 
THE CANADIAN NURSE 43 



Next Month 
In 


Thp 
Canadian 
Nurse 


D U-100 Insulin: 
A Challenge for Nur<;es 


D Guidelines fur Quality uf C.are 
in Patient Education 


D Critique: Nursing Re,>earch 
is Not Every Nurse's Business 


D Ostomy Skin Barriers 
Used to Treat De<-ubitus Ulcers 


ð 

 


Photo Credits 
for January 1975 


Graetz Hro
, Limited. 
'\1ontreal. ()uchec _ p. 9 


Photo Fedture.. Ltd.. 
Ottawd. Ontario. p. 12 


Field A vidtlon Comp..my Limited. 
Ottawa. Ontario. p. 23 


Sa..kdtoon Star Phoenix 
Sask..ltoon. Sd..k.. p. 26 


Canada Wide. 
Montreal. Quebec. p. 3 I 


Sunnybrook Medical Centre. 
Toronto. Ontario. pp, 34.35 


44 THE CANADIAN NURSE 


dates 


February 17- 18, 1975 
Seminar on budgeting in health care 
administration, Chateau Halifax, Nova 
Scotia, sponsored by Ottawa University 
School of Health Administration. For in- 
formation write: Barbara Schulman, Coor- 
dinator Continuing Education Program, 
School of Health Administration. University 
of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, K1 N 6N5, 


March 26-28, 1975 
A three-day intensive course on au- 
diometry and hearing conservation In 
industry will be held at Rensselaer 
Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York, For 
information write: Office of Continuing 
Studies, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. 
Communications Center 209, Troy, New 
York 12181, U.S.A. 


April 21-2J, 1975 
Ninth annual conference of Operating 
Room Nurses of Greater Toronto to be 
held at Skyline Hotel, Toronto. Address 
inquiries to: Dixie O'Sullivan, Convener, 
Publicity Committee, OANGT, 624 Tedwyn 
Dnve, Mississauga, Ontario, L5A 1 K2. 


May 6-9,1975 
Alberta Association of Registered Nurses 
annual convention to be held at the 
Calgary Inn, Calgary, Alberta, The theme 
is "Nursing Power." 


May 26-30, 1975 
Canadian Public Health Association 66th 
annual conference, MacDonald Hotel, 
Edmonton. Alberta, Theme is "Priorities 
for Prevention 'þ,ddress inquiries to: CPHA. 
55 Parkdale Avenue, Ottawa, Ontario, 
K1Y 1 E5. 


June 1975 
SI. Joseph's School of Nursing Alumnae, 
Victoria, B.C.. 75th anniversary reunion. 
For further information, write to: Ms. Phyllis 
Fatt, 4253 Dieppe Rd., Victoria, B.C.. 


June 4-6, 1975 
Canadian Hospital Association national 
convention and 32nd annual meeting will 
be held in Saskatoon, Sask. 


June 9 and 10, 1975 
Fifteenth annual meeting of the Ambula- 
tory Pediatric Association, to be held at the 


Royal York Hotel. Toronto, Canada. A 
stracts are invited for consideration f 
presentation at the scientific sessions ar 
must be postmarked no later than Janua 
31, 1975, Papers on pediatric educatic 
and health care research in ambulato 
facilities are particularly encouraged. F 
information. write: George D. Comen 
M.D.. Department of Pediatrics, Universl 
of Anzona College of Medicine, Tucso 
Arizona, 85724, U.S.A. 


June 11-14,1975 
The annual meeting of the Register. 
Nurses Association of Ontario will coincic 
with' ANAO'S 50th birthday, The meetil 
and anniversary celebrations are to be 
the Royal York Hotel, Toronto, Ontario. 


August 11-16, 1975 
World Assembly or War Veterans, 
commemorate the 30th anniversary of tl 
end of World War II. Sydney, Australl 
Pre- and post-convention tours availabl 
Registration fee: $A. 30,00 For furth 
information. write to: Assembly Secret
 
iat, G,P.O, Box 2609, Sydney. N.S.V 
2001, Australia, 


August 14 - 17, 1975 
The Moncton Hospital school of nursir 
homecoming reunion and the last gradu 
tion of the school of nursing. For mo 
information write Harriett Hayes, Cha 
man, Reunion Committee, 43 Wal! 
Street, Moncton, N,B., E1C 6W6 


August 17-18, 1975 
American Academy of Medical Admin! 
trators 18th annual convocation and meE 
ing, Continental Plaza Hotel. Chicag 
Illinois. For information write: ACMA. 
Beacon Street, Boston, Mass" 02108. 


August 29-31, 1975 
Hotel-Dieu SI. Joseph school of nursln 
Campbellton, N.B., final graduation ar 
grand reunion of graduates. Wnte: Clal 
C. Doucet, Director. School of NurSIn 
Hotel-Dleu St Joseph, Campbellton. N B 



oven1bcr24-26, 1975 
Conference for nurse administrators to 
held at OHA Centre Auditorium, Toron 
For information, write: Educational S 
vices Division, Ontario Hospital Assoc 
tion, 150 Ferrand Drive, Don Mills, Ontar 
JANUARY 1 <J 



books 


I",x of Canadian Nursing Studies. Com- 
piled by Canadian Nurses' Association 
Library. under the direction of 
Margaret L. Parkin. Librarian. 184 
p..lge
. Otta\\-a. CNA.. 1974. 


IS addition of the Index. of Canadian 
r
ing Studies is a cumulation of the 
S9 edition. the Addenda for 1970-72. 
j the data collected through 1973 to 3 I 
} 1974. 
 
The Index is in two parts: Part I - a 
in}! by author. or responsible agency. 
h full bibliography description. Part /I 
subject listings by author or agency. 

lUdies in the Index are done by Cana- 
n nurses or are concerned with nursing 
Canada. They range. therefore. from 
'cific investigations to major research 
!jects. and include master's and doc- 
al theses a!> well as reports by institu- 
ns. associations. and government de- 
lments. The Index includes all studies 
which reference could be found. 
rhose studies not in the CNA Repository 
lIection of Nursing Studies are indi- 
ed by an asterisk. Inquiries concerning 
ir availability must generally be di- 
'ted to the author or source. 
Studies in the CNA Repository Collec- 
n ..Ire available for consultation in the 
A Library or may be borrowed on inter- 
rary loan. 


itical Im.id{'nts in Nursing, edited by 
Loretta Sue Bermosk and Raymond 
Cor
ini Jr. 369 pages. Toronto. 
Saunders. 11)73. 
Re\'iewed bv He/ell Niska/Ll. Coor- 
dilll/tor. Ulldergrlll/uate Programs, 
Sdwo/ of Nunillg. Uni\'ersit} of 
Alberta, Edmonton, A/berta. 


this book. the editors have arranged for 
liberation 38 situations or critical inci- 
IItS. dealing \\- ith current controversial 
ues in nursing service, nursing educa- 
111. and nursing research. The everyday 
man relations incidents or problems 
ve been sectioned into six areas of 
rse interactions: \\-ith the patient. with 
r peers. with the doctor, with the 
mily. with her supervisors. and with the 
stem. 
The presentations might have been 
cngthencd by reordering of chapters. 
that patient- and family-related sit- 
tions appear in sequence and those 
,'<IUARY 1975 


related to the nurse's interactions with her 
professional colleagues. supervisors. and 
the system \\-ere together. 
The incident
. 
elected from a pool of 
situations reported to the editors by 
nurses. deal with such timely topics as 
euthanasia. patient rights. drug abuse by 
health professionals. ethics in research. 
and difficult intra and interprofessional 
relations. 
Each incident includes relevant back- 
ground information aiJOut the event. a 
description of the situation as reported by 
the nurse involved. and. finally. opinions 
solicited from concerned. experienced. 
knowledgeable persons from a variety of 
disciplines. Inclusion of opinions of 
specialists from other disciplines should 
enrich the reader" s appreciation of how 
others consider the ethics and profes- 
sionalism involved in each incident. 
Althou gh some of the reactions seem to 
reflect 
 profe

ional biases or lack of 
understanding about nur.-.ing. they are 
nonetheless provocative observations that 
should lead the reader 10 revie\\- her own 
feelings and beliefs about the topics under 
consideration. 
The text is a useful reference for senior 
nursing students. regardless of the pro- 
gram. and for all those \\ho are concerned 
about dealing \\-ith the complex human 
situations that confront the nurse of 
today. 


Patient Care Systems by Janet Kraegel et 
al. 219 pages. Philadelphia. Lippin- 
cott. 1974. Canadian agent: Lippincott. 
Toronto. 
Re\'iewed by Marvel Seeley. Lectllrer. 
Facu/ty of Nursin[.? University of Sas- 
katchewan. Saskatoon. Sask. 


This book is based on the outcome of a 
3-year research project on patient care sys- 
tems. IIIu
trations. appendixes. pictures. 
and results of the study fill 84 of the 219 
pages. For the most part. these are mean- 
ingful and may serve as a guide in setting 


+ Roll up 
your sleeve 
to save a life... 


up such a system. There are 2 pages of 
mathematics and formulas that deserve a 
more adequate explanation; ho\\-ever. this 
in no \\ay detracts from the usefulness of 
the book, 
The system described focuses on patient 
needs and is patient-centered. The practi- 
cal andlogies used by the authors make 
reading easy and meaningful to a \\ide 
variety of health care planners. The book 
i
 \\ell organized and follo\\s a logical 
sequence from beginning to end, \\-ith a 
comprehensive summary at the end of 
each chapter. 
The chapters are short; the contents of 
each are adequately defined at the begin- 
ning for quick and ea
y reference. Ho\\- 
ever. to be totally appreciated the book 
must be read from cover to cover. as it 
follo\\s a continuum, 
The book begins \\ilh a historical ap- 
proach. sho\\-ing the fragmentation of 
health care systems 10 date, and discusses 
their detrimental effect on the patient. It 
identifies the lack of a unifying philosophy 
and clearly indicates the neces
ity for 
change to meet the needs of society and to 
keep abreast \\-ith the rapid gro\\-th of the 
medical and nursing professions. An in- 
tegrated approach based on patient need
 
is proposed. 
The authors shlm ho\\- a design. based 
on patient-centered care. brings the patient 
to light and makes him an integral part of 
the health care syslem. They suggest the 
type of em ironment necessary to meet the 
patient's needs. This environment is ideal 
and would be most u
eful to health care 
planners involved in hospital design. 
I doubt\\- hether existing hospitals could 
be modified or renovated \\-ithout consid- 
erable cost to create such an environment. 
The authors are explicit in their approach 
to decentralization and sho\\- how such 
systems cannot rely on mere chance for 
their interrelationship. 
The book brings out the necessity for 
health care system's components to oper- 
ate as a unified \\-hole based on a common 
purpose: patient needs. The book's sequel 
effect sho\\-s the implications of designing 
patient care systelI1
 to meet patient needs 
and ho\\- they can be implemented \\ ith no 
undue ri
e in the cost of operating ex- 
penses of increase in personnel. 
This modern book \\ould be an asset to 
any hospital libr..lry. It is an excellent re- 
ference book for colleges that conduct 
programs for health care planners. 
THE CANADIAN NURSE 45 



accession list 


Publications n:cently r
ccived in the 
Canadian Nurses' Association library are 
av..lilable Oil [oall - with the exception of 
item, marl-.ed R - to CNA members. 
schoob of nur
in!!. and other institutions, 
itcms marl-.ed R
 indud
 r
ference and 
archivc material that does IIof go out on 
loan, Theses. also R. are on Reserve and 
go out on Interlibrary Loan only 
RC4ue
ts for loan
. maximum 3 at a 
time. ,hould be made on a 
tandard Inter- 
librar) Loan form or on the "Reque
t 
Form for Acce
sion List" 


BOOKS AND DOCUMENIS 
I L' ame/ior(l/ioll d,' I" ell.leiWl<'melll del penO/mels 
de "lIlle. Genèw. Organi,.ttion Mondidle de la 
Sante. IY74. Illp. (Cahier, de 'dnte publique no. 
52) 
2 Bl<.Iic cOllcepl.1 ill Wll/lm"" alld phnioloR\': a 
progrommed pr""'lIlaIÌtm. by Catherine Parker An- 
thon}. 3ed. SI. Louis. Mo,by. IY74. 181p. 
3 Cardim arrnl allli re.m.lâtaIÌtm. by Hugh E. 
Stephen,,,n. -ted. SI. Loui,. Mo,by. IY74. 181p. 
4. Co.II reductiOIl}"r speâallihrurie.I alld illforma- 
lioll ,emers. edited h) Fr.tnk Simer. W.t,hington. 
American Sodet\ fur Infonl1.ttion Science. 1973. 
5. CO.II.I of educalioll ill Ihe h,'ollh profeuio1l.\. Re- 


p,.n of.t 'tudy b\ In,[itute of Medicine. \\ .t,hing"'n. 
Pan, I and II. W .t,hing[on. Nation.tl A':.td"m) 01 
S""nce,. I Y74. 284p. 
6. Currem illd", 10 )ounll/h ill edun/lioll; alllllwl 
..,U/mlaIÌtm. Vol. 5. IY73. Ne" York. Macmill.tn. 
IY74.4pt, R. 
7. The dymg poNem: a lIunillg p,'npecli,'e Com- 
piled b) 
lar) H. Bru"ningand I::.dith P. Le"". Ne" 
York. Am"rican IOU mal of nur,mg. dY72. 275p 
(Con["mpur.trv nur,ing ,erie') 
8. The etpalllied role of Ihe IIUr.le. Compilt:d h) 

1"r) H. Bm"ning. and Edith P. L""i,. Ne" York. 
Americ.tn iourn.tl 01 nur,ing. dY73. 325 p. (Con- 
temporary nur,mg ,erie,) 
Y. Hi.llOph\"\ioloRie de I"apporeil R"lIItal };"lIl1/ill. 
par I\larc Maillet. et al. :\lon[re.t1. Gauthier- Vill.tr, 
dY74. 252p. 
10. HU/llall snualit\,: nur.\ÙIR i/llplin/liolli. COI11- 
piled by M.try H. Bro"ning and l:dith P. L""i,. New 
Y"rk. American joumal of nur,ing. dY73. 276p. 
(Contempor.try nur,ing ,erie,) 
II. A1aterIl111111l1/ lieu-horn ("an J .- Ilursing ;1l1en'l'tJ- 
liolls Compiled by Mary H. Browning and Edith P. 
Le"i,. New York. American journal 01 nur,ing. 
cl973. 258p. (Contemporary nur,ing ,erie,) 
12. Modem /IIw.aRemelll melhod.1 alld Ihe orRwlÌ
a- 
lion o} heallh .Ien'ices. Geneva. World Hedllh Or- 
ganization. 1974. lOOp. (WHO Public health paper, 
no. 55) 
13. The "'lr.Il' ill nJ/II/II'lIlin memal heallh. Com- 
piled by Edith P. Lewis and Mary H. Bro"ning. New 
York. American j,'urn.tl of nur
ing. el972. 21}8p 
(Contempor.try nur,ing serie') 
14. Nunes' alumllae jVllrnal Winnipeg. Winnipeg 


Gener.tl Ho'plI.t1. School 01 Nur"ng. Alumn.te 
,0CI.t1101l. 1974 248p. R 
I 
 \Ilnil/
 (llId II,,' "mar pmiem. Compikd 

1.'r) H Browning and Edith P Le"" '\Iew Yo 
Amcncan lo"m.tl 01 nur"ng, d971. 354p. 10 
t"mpor.tr) nUhmg wri",) 
16 .Vllr.lill
 ill ""I{Jiralon dill'(I.le.I. c..mpil"d 
l:dith P. Lc"i, dnd Mdr
 H. Browning. New Yo 
Americ.tn lourn.tl 01 nur,ing. cI<}72. 275p. (0 
lempor.lr) nur"ng ,erie') 
17. Nunillgpa{Jen ".6.110.2. The er{J(llIdillg rolt 
Ihe IlIIrle: ha pr('l'(lral,,'" (llId praclice. Montre 
McGill Untvcr,i[y. School for Gradu.tt" '\Iur, 
19H. Mp. R 
18. O}fi" "IIlI "-"odalioll t/irec{(ln Toron 
C.tn.tdi.tll H",p'I.t1 <\"Ocl.t[lon. 197
. 73p R 
II). Pel".l{Jl,oi, e\' /II hio(ll"Udahilil\' ,1 ,Int 
Iherape(({ic a",1 100"icoloRical \igll!{ìnmce. Proc", 
ing' of C.tn.tdian A"odation for Re.e.trch in T 
imlogy, Annual Sympo,ium. Filth. 1<}71. MOlltn 
Le, Pre"e,d" rUni\er,ile de Montreal. 1973 IK 
20. PI(/}lIIÌ1.g for ("{Irdiac ("{Ire. A guide to Ihc pi 
ning and de,ign ofcdrdi.tc care facilitie'. by Colin 
Clip
on and Jo
eph J. Wehrer Ann Arb 
MIChigan. He.tlth AdnJin,,[ration Pre". ell} 

07p. 
21. Pr.tctical nur,ing; d t"x[bnok lor 
tuden" 
graduale.. by Doro[hy R. Mee"-'. el .II. 5ed. 
Loui,. Mo.bv. 1974. 72Op. 
22. Primer of epidemioloR\". by G.tf) D. Fri"dm 
Ne" York. McGr.t,,-Hill. d974. nop. 
23 Rl'("herche ell orR,mi.\UIÙm sallitaire 1'1 lech 
queHlem(/}ll/?,emelll, parE Grundy et W.A. Rein 
Genève. Organi,ation mondi.tle de la Sanle, 19 


NURSING EMPLOYMENT 
OPPORTUNITY 


NURSING EMPLOYMENT 
OPPORTUNITY 
COORDINATOR OF 
PROFESSIONAL 
INSPECTION 
THE ORDER DF NURSES OF QUÉBEC 


ASSISTANT REGISTRAR 


o 


AND 



 


PERSON RESPONSIBLE FOR 
THE LEGISLATION SECTOR 
OF THE ORDER 
THE ORDER OF NURSES OF QUEBEC 


RESPONSIBILITIES 
Plans professional Inspection program as prescribed by the ProfessIOnal 
Code and according to regional disparities and availability of resource per- 
sons. 
ParticIpates In the development of standards and necessary instruments of 
measure. 
ResponsIble for the Professional Inspection Committee. 
Prepares plans for visits, develops gnds with the help of other consultants and 
submits repons to the chairman ofthe Professional Inspection Committee. the 
Secretary of the Order and the Bureau depending on circumstances and the 
provisions under the Act. 


RESPONSIBILITIES 
AssIsts the regIstrar to carry out registration procedures. 
Works closely wIth the legal advIsors on all questIons of legislation raised by a 
member, an organization, a commIttee or the Bureau. 
Informs ONQ members on the nursing. social and health laws. 
Studies all legal documents concerning the nursing profession, health and 
health serVices, and education, al the provincial, national and international 
level. 


aUALIFICA TIONS 
CandIdates must be bIlingual and possess: 
. a university degree 
. knowledge of Professional Code, Nurses Act. Act Respectmg Health 
Services and Social Services. labour, etc, 
. varied nursing experience. 


aUALIFICA TIONS 
Candidates must be bilingual and possess: 
. a university degree 
. nursing expenence (administratIon and education) 
. knowledge of Québec legIslation In the fields of health and nursing. 
Applications containing full Information must be receIved befo,. 
February 15, 1975. 


Applications containing full Information must be received before 
February 15. 1975, 


The Executive Director and 
Secretary of the Order 
4200 Dorchester Blvd. West 
Montréal H3Z 1V4, Oué. 


46 THE CANADIAN NURSE 


JANUARY 1< 


The Executive Director and 
Secretary of the Order 
4200 Dorchester Blvd. West 
Montréal H3Z 1V4, Oué. 



p. (Org.mi'ation mondlafe de la Sante C.Jhier,dc 
Ie Put>1 ilj ue no. 51) 
SllIflml(: 0 jOllrnal of IIl1ning admini.wmlÙm 
I/'T. Selected b) i\.ldr) Ellen WaNler. Wd"efield, 
Contcmpordn publi,hing: for Americdn 
,,
,' A"oci.J!Ìon. 1974. 57p, 
S/tIll'-apprm'ed school.< (
f Il/InillK 
. \ .11." \., mel,tillg millimum reqllireml'nt' ,ct 
all' lJIllI board rllle\ ill the )'arioll\ jllri.Hlicliom, 
4. ;o.je", 'r "'
. N.Jliondl Ledgue for :o.:ur__ng. Oi- 
..n of Re'edn:lt. 1974 120p. 
State-llpprm cd .r<lwol.. of nllrsillg - R "V.: 
l/I1g m/l1il/1l1m reqllirel/1el//' lell,,'la" alld hoard 
'r /11 thc )'ariOIlS jllriHltc'li"',.I. Ne", Yorio.. Na- 
..II League for "Iur,ing. Oi\i,ion 01 Re'edrch. 
4 UfJp. 
Teachill
 the milltall\- halll/icapped chiM, edited 
Rdlph HYdll dnd Norma RolmcL "e\1 Yorio.. 
'd.,lOral Put>licalion,. d974 JJ7p. 
Telt'-dilliqlle Molltreal-Lwm. Bildn de I
 pre- 
re tele<:onfen>nce medlcale par satelille enllo 1.1 
n_e d Ie Quét>ec. 14 juin 1973. Quebec. P.V.. 
ler,ite du Quet>ec. Vice-Presidence au\ Com- 
flÌcations. 1973. IH5p. 
Three or f'J/lr da\' ,,"orl. "eel.. fdited by S.I\.1.A. 
need dnd G.S. PduL I-dmonton. Faculty .If Busi- 
, Admini,tra!Ìon. University of Alberta. cl974 
p. 
11 rigle\"" hotel d,recton: (!ffiâal director\' (!f 
I AH'l(iatÙm of Canada, 1974. Vancouver. 
Igky O,rectorie, Ltd. for Hotel A,sociation nf 
..ld.I, 1474. .\J4p. R 



PHLETS 
Mel/1ort/l1dlll/1 ro the jécleral !cm' reform commis- 
I ill relpeel to: 
t orkillg paper 110. I, the fami/\ 
" Olla",a, Vanier Institute nfthe Family. 1974. 


lVlIrsillK sl.illl' alld techniqlles, A series of 126 

le concept silent tïlm loops (Super !lmm teeh- 
"lor mOlion pictures: catalogue) Engle",ood 
tho NJ.. Prentice-Hall. 1970. 28p. 
Proposah jor pri,loII leform, by N.lrvdl i\.lorris 
J.Jmes Ja.:ob,. Ne", Yorio.. Public Affairs 
lImillee. cl974. 28p. (Publi.: Atldirs Pamphlet 
511)). 
WOl/1an'.) dWIII:illg place: a 1001. or sexism, by 


... 


1141" 
OF' 
.AC, 


4'" 


.... 


, 


.\ 


LOWE .'I..f! 


'0\\ I L\ 1)1)\ ! I 
h,ld ugl\ ,up
rllll(1l1' hair... "a, 
lInlov
d .. di..eour,tgell. I ried man\ 
things. . e\en ra/ll;" NOlhlllg "".1', 
'0.\1 i,faetur
. I hen I deveillped 
 ,im- 
pic. painle". ine'pl'n,i\e. noneleelrie 
melhod It ha
 helped thllu..and, "" in 
l1eauI
. love. happin
". \I
 "RH. 
11001... "Whal I Did . \ bout ';uper- 
Iluou.. H,lir" explain, method. \tailed 
in plo.\in 
nvdllpe, AJ..l) I rial Oller. 
\\ rile \lme Annette 1,InLettc. P.o. 
Box 610. DepL C-504 Adelaide 51. 
P.O.. roronto 210. OnL 


NUARY 1975 
I 


"IJdncy Doyle. :o.:e). Yorio.. Puhlic -\1I,Hr' Commit- 
tee 1974. 2Xp. (P.,l,lic AtÏ.tir' Pamphlet /1(' 5(4). 


GOVERNMENT DOCUMENTS 
.
5. Co",,"il";Oll ell' relorl/I" ell' droll. f).'C/{///{'II/' 
prl'iiminaire pTl'paTl'l'par la It't'rion dt reeherchl' '"r 
la prOCedllrL'pl'lllllc. 011.111.1. 197.
. I.. 
36. Health dnd Welfare Canadd. Pilot.lllrl'e. ofllOr- 
pital Ihempe",;, ahortir", c"'"l11itteCl Brillsh 
Collllllhia 1971-/97:! Oltdll d. Informdlion 
Can.Jda.1974.44pp. 
37. Q"ael re)'Ìe\\' 2: a p"hlicarÙm oj till' dr/lK ""alir. 
arreHlIIl'llt pmgralll, hI' rhl Healrh PrOrl'cr"," 
Brallch, Dlpt. (1' Vati",wl IIl'allh alld II ('!jare 
Oua,,'a,Illjormati(1I/ Callada, 1974, :!.jIJp. 
3R. Rl'porl 011 the opl'ralioll '1 a
rt'l'lIIell/
 "irh rill' 
prt"'lI1ce
 llllda rhl' horpital illlllrmlU' alld dia,,"OJ- 
ri.. .ren-ice, acr for rhe fl
cal \"ear "lltled Mar, h 31, 
1973. OIl.Jlla. 67p. 
39. Infonndtion C.Jndd.J. Phoro_
 Callada. OUdll:l. 
cI 465-1 97-t. 4v. 
40. Trd\ail Cdn.Jda. Direction dc, Recherche, ,ur la 
Legi..ldtion. I e,l ll0rllle.\ lill Irtllail ClI/wda, 1973. 
OIl.Jwa. 1974. IO-tp. 
41. North",e,t T erritorie... La II , dnd Statute,. Ordi- 
mlllce
 g'73. 3rd wnioll Ollalld Information 
Cdnada. 1974 J7p. 


Olltario 
42. Mini\try of Health. Directo,.. of "".-sillg pa- 
sO//lI1,1 ill charge of official Pllhlic heallh lll1r1illK 
\l'rn,'el ill Omario; liIred al'cordillK 10 COlll/tte
 and 
tlisrric"t.' , 1974. Toro/llo. 1974. 4p. R 
43. i\.1ini'lry of Lahour. Women', Buredu.I_o... amI 


Ihl' \\ olllall ill OllrarlO, 1974 loruntn. 19p 


Cllitul Stllfl , 
+\ I.S DI\i,ionol "ur,in
.A rt'fn',hu,ollnl'f,'r 
reg;\Il,,,'d 111""\1.'\: (l 
I"d(' for 1Il\11"l1( Ion L11ltl .\tll- 
elell/.). Rethe,J,I. \ld.. 1474 


STUDIES DEPOSITED IN CNA REPOSITOR
 COLLECTION 
-t 
 Iml('\ of CllIad"," ""nll/g \I"clin "''''pc/,'d h, 
C,\ -1 "hrarl AIl
11I1 1'i74. 011.1'\ ,I. (',III,I\II"n 
:\ur"," -'\"O':I.UII"L 1'174 21''' In I R 
46. I' illjlll"lIlt' dll ,"frllre \Ill III latil/llc 11011 
""Ill rlllt, llll Iral'llli el,', ill{irl/lla"1 , \f/Ii"1l I"" 
pilalia ,,"ehen,;\), pdr JdCllue- Salllt.GennallJ 
\lnmredL 1474. 2 
Xp R 
-t7 Sm,le... i" ll({n/ll
, rt'p"rt, Illh",wnI ill partllli 
fu!fill",,'''' of IIIl ll'lflllrt''''''l1hjor Ihe ,Il'
r<'. of ",lIl 
Il'r Of.Il"Ù'IIl"l' /II '/llni,,
 1474. \.e\' Hd,cn. (""nn 
Y die LlJller"t). Schnnl nf :\ur'lIIg. I 47-t. II/,p R 
4!1 A mllh of thl' ""('{I, for, mU/l111ÙlI!l'd,llllllolljor 
IJUnt'1 Ì1l/he Irit"tllll1l\ lIrE'lI''.! f,it'\, "ell"/I,,/I_lIm/>, 
to". h) I\1drg.Jrd \\ il-nn and '\nna GUptd \\ IIId,nr. 
OnL. Schonl or "ur,ing. UnJ\er'lI) of \\ IIId,nr. 
1474,25p R 


AUDIO-VISUAL AIDS 
49. So"ome,I, 'aÌl' :!, "0 2. Cote A. Didhcle et 
grossc"e. pdr Dr. Pierre Guimond. C.,te H ("dr- 
dinpathle ct gnl"e',e. par Dr. Jd.:que' De-w'ler, 
Monlreal. þ",,'cid,inn dcs :l.leùecin.. de L .lIIl!ue 
frdnçdi'e du Cdnada. 1974. I ca"elle. - 
50 Prim iplllH ob;,'cliþ du progrllmme "u,Iic \ 
Quet>ec. :l.lini,tère de, Atfdirc, 'O<'idle,. Dlrcclion 
de Id recherche. 1473. 19 didpo"tivcs. 35111m. couL 


I 


JOHN ABBOTT COLLEGE (CEGEP) 
Ste Anne de Bellevue 
(Suburban Montreal) 
THREE-YEAR NURSING PROGRAMME 


requires 


ADDITIONAL TEACHING STAFF 
for September, 1975. 



pplicants should possess an RN. or eligibility for licensure in Quebec, a Bachelor s Degree 
In nursmg and a minimum of two years general nursing expenence. 
John Abbott College is a community college serving the West Island of Montreal 
It otIers a park-like setting, close to the city, on campus sports, recreation, and the 
possibilIty of resIdence close to the campus, 
Teaching salaries according to Quebec teacher's scale. excellent fringe benefits, 
group Insurance, pensIOn plan. health benefits, and two months paid vacallon 


Address application and completed curriculum vitae to: 
{ 


DIRECTOR OF PERSONNEL 
JOHN ABBOTT COLLEGE 
P.O. BOX 2000 
STE ANNE DE BELLEVUE. QUEBEC 
H9X 3L9 


THE CANADIAN NUR
E 47 



classified advertisements 
ALBERTA I I BRITISH COLUMBIA I I NEW BRUNSWICK 
EGISTERED NURSES required lor 30 bed Accredited Gen- REGISTERED and GRADUA TE NURSES and an a.A. THREE FACULTY MEMBERS needed July 1. 1975. to reç 
ral Hospllal Apply to AdmlOlstralor, Our lady 01 the Rosary NURSE required for new 41-bed acule care hospital. 200 miles faculty members gOing on one-year sabbatical and two. 
HospItal POBox 329, Caslor Alberta. TOC OXO north of Vancouver. 60 miles from Kamloops limited furnished study leaves Preparatron and experrence desirable In male 
<ö
;

["





 





 A



ft




 8fo
u
b
ag Ashcroft & Infant and m mechcal-surgICB' mK"sing. Increasing ef\rolrT'c.o 
permit retention of nght persons at end of these penods E 
EGISTERED NURSES required lor 70 bed accredIted ac
ve - we have to oHer are an exciting new cUrriculum approach a I 
-- well-equipped self-Instructional laboratory a new hospital 
reatment Hospltat Fullll"T1e and !)ummtfr relief All AARN per- Application;:, are Invltpd for a very mterestlns and challenging the advantages 01 lIVIng In a beautiful. small City Address. 0 
onne! policies Apply In wntlng to the DlreClor of Nursing. 
rumt)eller General Hospital Druïheller Alberta new posnlon We leqUlre a B.C. REGISTERE NURSE to assIst Faculty of Nursing. The Unrverslty of New Brunswick. Fred 
the Nurse Þ,dmlmstr2lor to be cl2SSIfied 2S a He2d Nurse ton. New Brunswick 
- - - - Preference will be given one with pnor Emergency or Obstetnc 
Nurslr1Ç expenence 2nd h2vlr1Ç successfully completed the 
R.N:s wanted for Immediate emftloyment at the Two Hills Nur C 'lr1Ç Unrt Admlnls.tr2tlon course The hosplt21 IS 2 nevvly 
umclpal Hospital. Two Hills. A berta We follow salary opened one sllué.led on the Yellowhead Hlçhw2Y 80 miles north I 
chedule as set lorth br the MRN Must be wdlln\lto stay at thIs of K2mloops. 8 C The z.rea IS é:. V2Cë:bOners parz.dlse both 10 NOVA SCOTIA 
Dcatlon a minimum 0 one year AFtPly to Admlmstr ator. Two Summer end WlOter RNÞ,BC së:.lary scale znd fnnge benefits 
IUS Munrclpal Hospital. Two Hills A berta applicable Ple2se reply to Mrs K Rice Nurse Admlnrstretor. 
- Dr Helmcken Memonal Hos-plta!. Cle2rw2ter. Bntlsh Columbia. 
ENERAL DUTY NURSES required lor 50-bed hospltal'n cen- REGISTERED NURSES and PSYCHIATRIC NURSES.Ger 
REGISTERED NURSES LICENCED PRACTICAL Siall Positions available In this modern. 270-bed psychiatric 
ral Alberta half way between Calgary end Edmonton on main and pltal localed In the Annapohs Valley Onentallon and In:,er 
Ighway Salanes and personnel policIes as set by AARN NURSES lor 27.bed hospital Salary and personnel policies In provided Excellent personnel policies Salary according to s( 
greement Residence accommodatIOn aVailable Contact Mrs. accordance with RNABC Accommodations available In resl- For further mformallon direct inquIries to The Director of "
ur' 
Har\lle R N Administrator lal.ombe General Hospital dpnce Apply to Dlreclor 01 NurslOg, Queen Charlotte Islands Kings County Hospital. Walerville. Nova Scotia 
acombe. Alberta TOC ISO. General Hospital Queen Charlotte Clly Brlllsh COlumbia VOT 
ISO . 
EXPERIENCED NURSES (eligible for B C. reglslrallon) required I ONTARIO 
BRITISH COLUMBIA for 409-bed acute care. teaching hospital located In Fr
ser 


I 
[ 


R 
e 


R 
t 
s 
o 


2 
M 
s 
I 
H 


G 
I 
h 
a 
E 
l 


OPERATING ROOM NURSES required by a 580.bed acllve 
teechlng hospital Applicants with expener,ce and or post 
graduate course prelerred Salalles and benehts as per RNABC 
contract Apply to Assistant o.rector 01 NurSing Service. SI 
Paul s HospItal t 081 Burrard Street. Vancouver Bntlsh COlum- 
ala V6Z 1Y6 


ADVERTISING 
RATES 


FOR ALL 


ClASSIFIED <\0\ ERTISING 


$15.00 for 6 lines or less 
$2.50 for each add'lional line 


Roles for d..ploy 
advertisements on request 


CioslO9 dale for copy and concellollon is 
6 weeks proor '0 1st day of publicolion 
month 


The Canadian Nurses Association does 
not review the personnel paliclcs of 
the hospitals and agenCies advertising 
In the Journal. For authentic Information, 
prospectIve opphconts should apply 10 
,he Re9"'ered Nurse. AS.Oclot,on of the 
Province in which the" ore interested 
In working 


Address correspondence to: 


The 
Canadian 
Nurse 


g 


50 THE DRIVEWAY 
OTTAWA, ONTARIO 
K2P lF2 


48 THE CANADIAN NURSE 


Valley. 20 manules by freeway from Vancouver. and within 
easy access of vaned recreational lacllrtles Excellent Onenta- 
tlon and Continuing Education programmes Salary $85000 to 
$102000 ClIOical areas Include Medicine General and Spe- 
Cialized Surgery Obstetrics. Pedlatncs Coronery Care. Hemo- 
dialysIs, Rehablhtallon. (' )ératlng Room. Intensive Care. Emer- 
gency PRACTICAL NURSES (elijllble lor B.C. license) also 
reqùlred Apply 10 NurSing HecrUitment. Personnel Department 
Royal Columbian Hospllal New Westmmster. British Columbia 
VJl3W7 


GRADUATE NURSES 101 21-bed hospital prelerably 
with obstetrical experience Salary m accordance 
wIth RNABC Nurses lesldence Apply 10 Ma'ron 
To"no General Hospital. Tollno. Vancouver Island. 
Bntl sh Columbia 


EXPERIENCED GENERAL DUTY NURSES AND 
LICENSED PRACTICAL NURSES requ,,"d 101 small 
UPcvøbl huspltal vdlary rilld personnel policies as 
per RNABC c nlract S.
I
 nes start at 567200 lor 
Registered Nurse"- .. I( I (':'J for ll< lsed Practical 
Nur"..pc:. Rps,rlence accommcH::Jalton 52500 ppr month 
Tran
 Jortdll 
n pdu1 fr m \ InCOUvpr Apply to 
Dlrørtor 01 Nursmg SI eorgt- s Hospital Alert Bay 
Bnl! .h ,nll'mbl 


GENERAL DUTY NURSES AND LICENSED PRACTICAL 
NURSeS tor modern 130 bed accredited hospital on Vancouver 
Island Resort area - home of Ihe Tyee Salmon Four hours 
travellmg time to City of Vancouver Collective agreements with 
Provincial Nursing ASSociation and Hospital Employees Union. 
Residence accommodation available Please direct InqUiries to 
Dlreclor of Nursing Services Campbell River & o.strlct General 
HospItal 375 - 2nd Avenue Campbell River. Bflhsh COlumbia. 
V9W 3V1 


WANTED: GENERAL DUTY NURSES lor modern 70- 
bed hosp,tal 148 acute beds 22 Exlended Care) 
located On the Sunshme Coast. 2 hrs. from Vancou- 
ver Salaflpo; and Personnel Pollcløo; In accordance 
with RNABe Agreeme I Accommodalton available 
(female nurc:cs) In re
,dencp Apply The Director 
01 NurSing SI Mary s Ho,p,lal POBox 678. Se 
chelt British Columbia 


GENERAL DUTY NURSES for modern 41-bed hospltallocaled 
on the Alaska Highway. Salary and personnel policies In 
accordance with RNABC Accommodation aVéUlable In resI- 
dence Apply. Director of Nursing. Fort Nelson General Hospital. 
Fort Nelson. Brrtlsh ColumbIa 


NEWFOUNDLAND 


HEAD NURSE required for the Newborn Nursery and Neonatal 
Intpns.lve Care Urn' Appbcants mu
t have c11nlcal experience 
ann or P^st 'ìraduate trdlnlng 10 the care of hlgh-nsk Infants 
Apt r r of NurSing Service SI Clare 5 Mercy Hospital 
SI John, Newloundland AI C 5B8 


DIRECTOR OF NURSING required by expandIng accred 
300-bed Chronic Illness and Convalescent Hospital locate 
Northwest Metropohlan Toronto Please reply 10 confldel1n 
Director of Nurses The Toronto Hospital Weston. Onte 
M9N 3M6 


OPERATING ROOM STAFF NURSE required lor lully acen 
ted 75-bed Hospital. BasIc wage $689 00 with consideration 
expenence, also an OPERATING ROOM TECHNICIAN. b, 
wage $526 00. Call time rates available on request Wnte 
phone the. Director of Nursing Dryden Dlstnct General H(I
pl 
Dryden. Ontano. 


REGISTERED NURSES lor 34-bed General Hasp 
Salary $85000 per month to $1.02000 plus expenence 

I
:c
g
 ofX


I


 P





::t P&OIIßII;
rlctAP.f

p 
Inc. Englehart, Ontano. POJ 1 HO 


REGISTERED NURSES reqUlled lor 107-bed accredited Ge 
ral Hospital BasIc salary comparable fa other Ontano Hospd 
with remuneratiOn fOr past experience. Yearly Increment! 
progressive hospital amidst the lakes and streams of North\\ 
tern Ontano Apply to Director of Nursing laVerenc 
Hospllal. Fort Frances Onlano P9A 2B7 


REGISTERED NURSES required 101 our ultramodern 79 b 
General HospItal 10 bllmgual community 01 Northern Onlal 
French language an asset. but not compulsory Salary IS $8 
to $1030 monthly with aUowance for past expenence an 
weeks vacahon atter 1 year Hospital pays 100 0 0 of 0 H I 
life Insurance (10.000). Salary Insurance (75 0 0 of wages to 
age 01 65 with U I C carve-out). a 354 drug plan and a der 
care plan. Master rotation In effect Rooming accommodatlt 
aVailable In town Excellent personnel poliCies Apply 
Personnel Director Notre-Dame Hospital POBox 8- 
Hearst. Ontano. 


REGISTERED NURSES AND REGISTERED NURSII 
ASSISTANTS lor 45-bed HospItal Salary ranc 
Include Generous experience allowances R t- 
salary $915 to $1 085 and R N A s salary $650 10 
7 
Nurses residence - private rooms with bath - $60 per mor 
Apply to The Drrector of Nursing Geraldton District Hos.pI 
Geraldlon. Onlano POT 1 MO 


REGISTERED NURSES FOR GENERAL DUTY. I.C, 
C,C.U, UNIT and OPERATING ROOM required 
lully accredited hospItal Starling salary $850 00 , 
regular Increments and with allowance for expt 
ence ExceUent personnel pOlicies and tem
)I. 
residence accommodation available Apply to T 
Director of NursinG Kirkland & District Hospll 
K..ldand lake, Cntano P2N 1 R2 


JANUARY 19i 



I 
1 


QUEBEC 


;!STERED NURSE required lor CD ed children s summer 
P In the Laurentl2ns (seventy mile!:. north of Montreal) from 
E 20,1975 to AUGUST 20. 1975. Call (514) 688 1753 Dr 
I CAMP MAROMAC. 4548 8th Street Chomedey, Laval, 
bec H7W 2A4 


[ SASKATCHEWAN 


,ISTERED NURSES ulgenfly needed lor actIVe 47-bed 
lern hospllal. Especially Interesting to those who like vanety 
'I1ergençy care In nursIng. Apply to. Director 01 NursIng. SI. 
'nh s HospItal. lie à La Crosse Saskatchewan, SOM 1 CO 


UNITED STATES 


ERANT PUBLIC HEALTH NURSE POSITIONS - Open ,n 
al areas 01 Alaska. Require travel to group 01 vIllages to 
Ide pnmary health care services. Accredited public health 
.ng preparatIon required; prelerence given 10 pub',c heallh 
.mg. outpost nursing. or nurse praclltloner expenence. High 
"es IIberallringe benefits. Contact: Edna Crawford. Chiel. 

 ,g Section. Dlv. of PublIc Heallh. Pouch H-06E Juneau. 
. a USA,99811. 


I 's _ Openongs now avaIlable in a variety of arpas of a 458 
teamIng and research hospital affiliated wIth the school 01 
j IClne of Case Western Reserve Unoverslty New facIlity 
ling In the spring. Personalized onentatlon excellent salary 
Jald benefits and housIng avaIlable In hospItal resIdence 
,assist you with H 1 Visa for ImmigratIOn. A lIcense in Ohio 10 
. lIce nursing IS necessary lor employment For further 
mallon write or phone: Mrs. Mary Hernck Personnel 
artment. SaInt Luke s Hospital, 11311 Shaker Blvd.. Cleve- 
, Ohio. 44104. Phone: Monday - Friday. 9 A M - 4 P.M.. 
1 6-368-7440 
I d L ' . 
5 an PN s - UniversIty HospItal North, a 
, 'hmg HospItal of the University of Oregon MedIcal 
DOl. has openIngs In a variety 01 HosPital ser- 
'5. We offer competitive salanes :)nd excellent 
. 
e benefits tnaulles should be dllpcted fa Gale 
I' ". ",recror of N!,rslng, 3171 S W Sam Jackson 
j k Road. Portland. Oregon. 97201 
I 
- >!STERED NURSES: Excellent opportunotles in a large 
'ndlng & progressive hospItal. Located In the heart 01 
J romla near the finest educational and recreational aCllvltles 
. re the Climate IS mild the_ year round. Good starting salaries 
liberal employee benefits Wrote: Pe
onnel Dept. Sutter 
pitals.282G 'L"" SI.. Sacramento, Calrforma 95816 
I 
bõRATING ROOM NURSE EDUCATORS - pOSItIons Im- 
Ilately avaolable with Project HOPE ,n Tunosla Duties Include 
hlng and supervisIOn of practical experience of T umSlan 
Iterparts. ReqUirements two years 0 A. exp. formal or 
mal teaching exp.. French lang abIlIty. 18 mo commItment 
lact: PrOlect HOPE, 2233 WIsconsin Ave. N W.. Washlng- 
D.C 20007 (202) 338-6110 





 b4NS
 
9COibEGE 


LONDON, ONTARIO 


nVltes applications for the posItion of 


NURSE TEACHER 


_ocatlon. School of Nursing. Victoroa Campus. London. 
Ontario. 
)utles' To teach in the 2 year Diplo't'a NursIng Program. 
)uallf,cations .B Sc.N. and at least two years nursing 
experience 


D/e.se submit applications 10: 


The Personnel Officer. 
Fanshawe College, 
P.O. Box 4005, 
Terminal C. 
London, Ontario. N5W 5H1. 


INUARY 1975 


I I 


UNITED STATES 


TEXAS wants you' If you are an RN. exper. nc d Or 
a recent graduate come to Corpus Christi Sparkling 
City by Ihe Sea a city bUilding lor a betler 
future where your opportunities for recn: Ihon and 
studies are limitless Memorial Medical Center soO 
bed. general teaching hospital encourages career 
advancement and provides in-serVICe orientatIOn 
Salary Irom S68200 to $94000 per month. com 
mensurate with education and expenence Differential 
for evening shifts. available. Benefits Include holl 
days. sick leave. vacations. paid hospitalizatIOn 
health hfe Insurance. penSion program Become a 
vItal part ot a modern. up-to-date hospItal wrote or 
call collect John W Gover. Jr. Dllector 01 Per- 
sonnel. Memoroal MedIcal Center POBox 5280. 
Corpus Chnsti. Texas, 78405. 


I I 


UNITED STATES 


VOLUNTEER WORK OVERSEAS - SpecIalists In the areas 01 
NURSING. PUBLIC HEALTH, NUTRITION. 
AMIL Y PLAN- 
NING. MIDWIFERY, MEDICAL TECHNOLOGY and RURAL 
HEALTH needed for two-year asslýnments on muh.l-natlOnal 
teams In Bangladesh, Papua New GUInea. Yemen and 
Ecuador. Single prelerred. Modest salary. IJV/ng allowances and 
transportation provided Send resume to. International Volun. 
tary ServIces, Inc.. 1555 Connecticut Avenue, North West. 
WashIngton. D C 20036. U. S A 


FREE SERVICE BY AUTHORIZED HOSPITAL REPRESEN- 
TATIVE FOR QUALIFIED R.N. s WANTING U.s A. OR CANA- 
DIAN NURSING POSITIONS. VISA. TRAVEL AND ACCOM- 
MODATION ASSISTANCE ALSO CONTACT: PHIL CAN PER- 
SONNEL. THE MEDICAL PLACEMENT SPECIALIST. 5022 
VICTORIA DRIVE. VANCOUVER. B C . CANADA V5P 3T8 
TEL (604) 327-9631 TELEX' 0455333. 


Get what you've 
always wanted 
frODl nursing 


,.' 
, , 


.
 


.. 


,_ --F.. 


Like. for a change. working the way you want to 


Medox can't make you a better nurse 
Only you can do that. 
But we can help you see to it you're 
working under the kind of conditions 
that allow you to make the most of 
your talents and experience. 
With Medox, you get a flexibility 
that lets you direct your own career. 
For instance. did you know that 
Medox can help you find a permanent 
nursing position? That's right 
Ifs part of the service. Or you can 
work at temporary assignments on a 
permanent basis Another interesting 
po ss i bili ty 


Or you can pick and choose from a 
wide range of temporary positions in 
Just about any nursmg field to 
broaden your professional expenence 
Permanent. Permanent/temporary 
Temporary. With Medox. if s up to you 
And. since ifs up to you. better 
come to Medox. 


Word of our "Travel Canada and U S.A."' 
program is getting around Enquire how you 
can participate. write MEDOX Travelling 
Nurse Co-Ordmator. Plaza 37. 4 Place Ville 
Marie. Montreal. Quebec 


Í1 --l 
ME DnX 


a DRAKE INTERNATIONAL company 


CANAOA. USA. UK. AUSTRALIA 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 49 



NURSING 
FELLOWSHIP 


(Two (2) Years - Minimum 
$6,000.00 per annum) 
To study at Master's level 
in a clinical nursing speci- 
ality in respiratory disease 
at a recognized University, 
Application process to the 
University must have been 
started by February 1 st, 
1975. 
For further Information and appli- 
cation form please write, before 
February 1st, 1975, to: 
The Nursing Consultant, 
Canadian Tuberculosis and 
Respiratory Disease Association. 
345 O'Connor Street, 
Ottawa. Ontario, K2P 1 V9 


GENERAL DUTY NURSES 


Required immediately lor acute care gen- 
eral hospital expanding to 343 beds plus 
proposed 75 bed extended care unit. 
Clinical areas include: medicine, surgery, 
obstetrics, paediatrics, psychiatry, activa- 
tion & rehabilitation, operating room, 
emerge.ncy and intensive and coronary 
care unit. 
Must be eligible lor B.C. Registration 
Personnel policies in accordance with 
RN.A,B.C. contract: 
SALARY: $850 - $1020 per month 
(1974 rates) 
SHIFT DIFFERENTIAL 


APPL Y TO: 
Director of Nursing 
Prince George Regional Hospital 
Prince George, B.C. 


GENERAL DUTY NURSES 


MEDICINE 
PAEDIATRICS 
CHRONIC & REHABILITATION 


REQUIREMENTS: 
Current Ontario Registration as a Regis- 
tered Nurse. 


Inquiries may be directed 10: 


Mrs. J. Stewart 
Director of Nursing 
Oshawa General Hospital 
24 Alma Street 
OSHAWA. Ontario 
L1 G 2B9 


50 THE CANADIAN NURSE 


nurses 


who want to 


nurse 


At York Central you can join an 
active. interested group of nurses 
who want the chance to nurse in its 
broadest sense. Our hospital is 
presently expanding from 126 beds 
to 400 and is fully accredited. 
Nursing is a profession we respect 
and we were the first to plan and 
develop a unique nursing audit 
system. There are opportunities for 
gaining wide experience. for get- 
ting to know patients as well as 
staff. R.N salaries range from 
$850. to $1020. per month. Credit 
allowed for relevant previous hospi- 
tal ex perience. 


Situated in Richmond Hill. all 
the cultural and entertainment faci- 
lities of Metropolitan Toronto are 
available a few miles to the 
South. .. and the winter and 
summer holiday and week-end 
pleasures of Ontario are easily 
accessible to the North. If you are 
really interested in nursing. you are 
needed and will be made welcome. 


Apply in person or by mail to the 
Director of Personnel. 


YORK 
CENTRAL 
HOSPITAL 


RICH\IO'D HI! L. 
O;\I-\RIO 
L4C 4Z3 


DIRECTOR 
OF NURSING 


A Director of Nursing IS needed as the Incumbent Direct 
of Nursing IS retlrrng In 1975 Will have the supervlS.J 
direction. control and overall planning responslbllttu . f 
realizing the hospital s pallent care obJechves This rQ 
ponslblldy Indudes a 237-bed active treatment hosplt, 
as well as facilitating the Integration of 100 chroOi 
rehabilitation beds and 230 nursIng home beds A m3J 
renovation and expansion program of all facilities hi 
been granted approval 
Education should mclude tralmng at the Master s levt! 
but a Bachelor of Nursing SCience degree In a person WI 
progressive leadership qualities will be conSidered Pn 
fesslonal nursing expenence IS also reqUired Salary 
negotIable. 
The hospital places considerable emphasIs on contlnL 
109 education programs for all staff. and has establìshe 
relationships with many community agencies to provld 
specialized types of services on a contractual basIs. 
Medicine Hat IS the energy capital of the West. ar 
offers excellent swimming skIIng. boating. etc on I 
doorstep_ A Community College and other educatIOn 
and cultural facilities abound m the commumty 


Reply in confidence, giving full derails, re 
gardlng educalion, experience, job re/ared ac 
compllshmenrs and references 10: 


Executive Director 
Medicine Hat General Hospital 
5th Street SW 
Medicine Hat. Alberta 
T1 A 4H6 


GENERAL DUTY 
REGISTERED NURSES 


CERTIFIED NURSING AIDES 


Required lor a 135-bed active treatmen 
Hospital located in a modern city 01 somt 
6500 people, just lorty miles south 01 Ed 
monton and with easy access to lake an< 
mountain resort areas such as Banff anc 
Jasper. 


Salaries presently under negotiations E
 
cellent personnel policies and Iringe be 
nefits available. 


Kindly apply 10: 


Director of Nursing 
Wetaskiwin General Hospital 
5505 - 50 Avenue 
WETASKIWIN. Alberta 
T9A OT4 


JANUARY lÇ 



, 



 


" 


A great 
place to 
W'ork...a 
fun place 
to live. 


I 
I 
I Many girls will tell you Toronto 
I IS a fun place to live But have 
I IOU heard about the new 
I Northwestern General Hospital? 
i We'll soon be opening a new 
120-bed facility designed to 
I the Fnesen concept. 
Besides Ideal nursing 
I 
onditlons. the benefits we 
provide are what you would 
expect from a progressive 
expanding hospital. 
We have openings for RN's In 
all areas and are particularly 
Interested in applicants for our 
Intensive care units 
Our Director of Nursing 
will gladly give you all the 
information you want to know 
About our hospital and even 
about our city 


"fJRTHWESTERN GENERAL HOSPITAL 
2175 Keele St Toronto Om 


\lUARY 1975 


I. 


Public Service 
Canada 


Fonction publique 
Canada 


THIS COMPETITION IS OPEN TO BOTH MEN AND WOMEN 
NURSING OPPORTUNITIES IN THE NORTH 
Starting salary up to $9,488 
(UNDER REVIEW) 
(Plus Northern Allowance) 
HEALTH AND WELFARE CANADA 
Medical Services 
Various locations in the Yukon and N. W.T. 
An opportunity to see parts of Canada few Canadians ever see and to utilize all your nursing 
skills. Nurses are required to provide health care to the inhabitants located in some settlements 
well north of the Arctic Circle. Radio telephone communication is available. Join the Northern 
Health Service of the Department of Health and Welfare Canada and discover what northern 
nursing is all about. 
Candidates must be registered or eligible for registration as a nurse in a province of Canada. 
be mature and self-reliant. For some positions. mid-wifery. obstetrics, pediatrics or Public 
Health training and experience is essential. Proficiency in the English language is essential. 
Salary commensurate with expenence and education. 
Transportation to and from employment area will be provided; meals and accommodation at 
a nominal rate. 


HOW TO APPL Y: 
Forward "Application for Employment" (Form PSC 367-4110) available at Post Offices. 
Canada Manpower Centres or offices of the Public Service Commission of Canada to the: 
DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND WELFARE CANADA 
MEDICAL SERVICES - NORTHWEST TERRITORIES REGION 
1401 BAKER CENTRE -10025 - 106 STREET EDMONTON. ALBERTA TSJ 1H2 
Please quote competition number 74-E-4 in all correspondence. 
Appointments as a result of this competition are subject to the provisions of the Public 
Service Employment Act. 


Nursing Education Positions 
Division of Continuing Education 
University of Victoria 


Applications are invited for two Nursing positions associated with a new six month 
program entitled "Post Basic Course in Psychiatric Nursing for Registered Nurses" 
beginning in 1975 - exact date is to be announced. 
1. Psychiatric Instructor - Coordinator - 9 month appointment 
Major duties include: 
a. orientation to the sponsoring educational institution and the clinical facilities to be 
used for student experience. 
b. planning of courses. learning objectives, and student evaluation techniques. 
c. development of appropriate clinical learning experiences. 
d. participation in student selection. 
e. implementation of the course. 
f. completion of necessary reports and records. incfuding follow-up Gvaluation. 


2. Psychiatric Clinical Instructor - Half-time - 7 month appointment 
Major duties include: 
a. orientation to the program and tothe clinical facilities to be used for student experience. 
b. helping develop appropriate learning experiences with cooperating clinical facility. 
c. assisting with course planning and implementation, as required. 
Nursing instructors must be eligible for registration in B.C. Positions - available 
immediately Salary - competitive 
Direct applications with complete resume to: 
Mrs. F .B. Collins, Program Officer 
Division of Continuing Education 
University of Victoria 
P.O. Box 1700, Victoria. B.C. V8W 2Y2 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 51 



THE LADY MINTO HOSPITAL 
AT COCHRANE 


invite applications from 


REGISTERED NURSES 


54-bed accredited general hospI- 
tal. Northeastern Ontario. Compe- 
titive salaries and generous bene- 
fits. Send inquires and applications 
to: 


MISS E. LOCKE 
Director of Nursing 
The Lady Minto Hospital at 
Cochrane 
P.O. Box 1660 
Cochrane, Ontario 
POL 1CO 


PUBLIC 
HEALTH 
NURSES 


Required for the Sudbury and 
District Health Unit 


Apply to: 


The Director of Nursing 
SUdbury and District Health Unit 
1300 Paris Crescent 
Sudbury. Ontario 
P3E 3A3 


REGISTERED NURSES 


Registered Nurses required for large 
metropolitan general hospital 
Positions available in all clinical areas. 
Salary Range in effect until December 
31, 1974- 
$665.00 - $830.00. Starting rate de- 
pendent on qualifications and experi- 
ence. 


Apply to: 
Staffing Officer-Nursing 
Personnel Department 
Edmonton General Hospital 
Edmonton, Alberta 
T5K OL4 


52 THE CANADIAN NURSE 


ST. MICHAEL'S HOSPITAL 
Toronto, Ontario 
invites applications from 


REGISTERED NURSES 


for 


INTENSIVE CARE 
and "STEP-DOWN" UNITS 


Planned onentatlOn and in-serVice programme will ena- 
ble you to collaborate In the most advanced of treatment 
regimens for the post-operative cardlo-vascular and 
other acutely III patients. O1e year of nursing expenence 
a reqUirement 


For details apply to: 
The Director of Nursing, 
SI. Michael's Hospital, 
Toronto, Ontario, 
M5B 1W8. 


NORTH NEWFOUNDLAND & LABRADOR 
requires 


REGISTERED NURSES 
PUBLIC HEALTH NURSES 


InternatIOnal Grenfell Association pro
ldes 
medical services for Northern Newfoundland 
and Labrador. We staff four hospitals, eleven 
nursl ng stallons. eleven Public Health units. 
Our main lBO-bed accredited hospital IS 
sItuated at St Anthony. NewfoundlamJ. Active 
treatment IS carried on In Surgery. Medicine. 
Paediatrics. Obstetrics, Psychiatry. Also. 
Intensive Care Unit Orientation and In-Service 
programs. 40-hour week. rotating shifts. living 
accomodatlOns supplied at low cost. PUBLIC 
HEALTH has challenge of large remote areas 
Excellent personnel benefits Include liberal 
vacatIOn and sick I eave. Salary based on 
Government scales. 
Apply to: 
INTERNATIONAL GRENFELL ASSOCIATION 
Assistant Administrator of 
Nursing Services. 
St. Anthony. Newfoundland. 


REGISTERED NURSES 


Required 
For fully accredited recently expanded 200-bed 
hospital. situated on beautiful 


LAKE OF THE WOODS 


Starting salary $B50, increasing to $915 January 
1, 1975 and $945 April 1 , 1975. 
Allowance given lor past hospital experience. 
ShIft differential and annual increments. 
Vacancies in medical. obstetrics and progressive 
coronary care units. 
37'/2-hour week. 
Excellent personnel policies. 


Apply In writing to: 
Mrs. B.G. Schottroff 
Director of Nursing 
Lake of the Woods District Hospital 
Kenora, Onterio 


CHALLENGING POSITION
 
! 


FORA 


CREATIVE PERSON 


Educational Co-ordinator to be responsible Ie' 
inservice education and program developmen II 
This is a new senior position within the nursin 
diviSion of an agency covering a rural and urba " 
population of near1y 300,000. Applicants shoul, 
have a minimum of five years nurslr1Q experienc, 
- Bachelor's degree considered, Master's dE. 
gree preferred. Salary competItive. 


Apply to 
(Mrs.) Dorothy M. Mumby, B.Sc.N., M.A. 
Director of Public Health Nursing 
Middlesex-London District Health Unit 
346 South Street, London, Ontario 
N6B 1B9 


UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL 
SASKATOON 
SASKA TCHEWAN 


Positions are available for 


REGISTERED NURSES 


for the Psychiatric ward, also other 
specialized and general areas. 


Apply to: 
Employment Ofticer, Nursing 
University Hospital 
SASKATOON, Saskatchewan 
S7N OW8 


WEST COAST GENERAL HOSPITAL 
PORT ALBERNI. BRITISH COLUMBIA 


requires the following qualified Nursing Person- 
nel: 


OPERATING ROOM SUPERVISOR 
INTENSIVE CARE UNIT NURSE 
OPERATING ROOM NURSE 


Personnel policies as per RNABC Contract. 
This is a 139 Acute. 30 Extended Care Fully 
Accredited Hospital on Vancouver Island Excel- 
lent recreational facilities and within easy reach of 
Vancouver and Victoria. 


Apply: 


Director of Nursing 
West Coast General Hospital 
814 - 8th Avenue North 
Port Alberni, B.C., V9Y 4S1 


JANUARY 19 



What's a big com pan 
like Upjohn doing 
in nursing s ' rvic ' s! 


(Simpl
. W
're in it to h
lp you and h
re's how.) 


If you're a Nursing Supervisor we can complement your staff 
when shortages occur by providing competent R.N :s, 
R.NA./C.N.A./L.P.N:s or Nurse Aides. 


If you're a nurse interested in working part-time to supple- 
ment your family's income, we offer you the opportunity to 
select hours and assignments convenient to your schedule, 
not ours. 


If you're a Discharge Planning Officer or Home Care Co- 
Ordinator, we are a reliable source for home health care 
with whom you can trust your outgoing patients. 


If you're an inactive nurse temporarily out of touch with 
nursing, we can offer patient care opportunities which will 
enable you to re-enter your profession. 


I We think that it is important for you. the Registered 
I Nurse, to understand why The Upjohn Company's 
subsidiary. Health Care Services Upjohn Limited. 
has become. involved in nursing. Our concept of 
part-time nursing services has proven to be an 
important adjunct to the delivery of health care. 
Our interest is in assisting the Medical and Nursing 
Professions by providing additional qualified 
R.N.'s. R.N.A./C.NA/L.P.N.'s and Home 


------ 
1a1


 
--- 


Health Care Personnel to serve the commu- 
nity. If you would like more information about 
the work that we are doing across the country 
and how we can help you. contact the Health 
Care Services Upjohn office nearest you. 
Ask for the Service Director. She is an R.N.. 
and you'll both be speaking the same lan- 
guage. Look for us in the white pages and in 
the yellow pages under "Nurses Registries:' 


HEALTH CARE SERVICES UP JOHN LIMITED 


With 16 offices to serve you across Canada 


ictoria 388-6639 Winnipeg 943- 7466 St. Catharines 688-5214 Montreal 288-.r! 14 
ancouver 731-5826 Windsor 258-8812 Toronto East 445-5262 Trois Rivieres 379-.B55 
dmonton 423-2221 London 673-1880 Toronto \\est 239- 7707 Quebec City 687-3434 
algal) 264-4140 Hamilton 525-8504 Ottawa 238-4805 Halifax 425-3351 
(Operating in Ontario as He S Upjohn) 
NUARY 1975 THE CANADIAN NURSE 53 



McMASTER UNIVERSITY 
SCHOOL OF NURSING 


Co-ordinator. Basic Sciences Program 
(not necessarily a nurse) required as soon 
as possible for a School of Nursing. within a 
Faculty of Health Sciences. The School is 
an integral part of a newly developed Health 
Sciences Centre where collaborative rela- 
tionships are fostered among the various 
health professions. 


Requirements: Ph.D. or equivalent.mclud- 
Ing a broad understanding of biomedical 
sciences. experience in teaching (including 
small group tutorials. use of instructional 
media). Coordination and leadership of 
biomedical faculty resources, supervision 
of technicians and demonstrators. contribu- 
tion to curriculum development. 


Application, with a copy of curriculum vitae 
and two references to: 


Dr. O.J. Kergm. Associate Dean (Nursing) 
Faculty of Health Sciences. 
McMaster University. 
Health Sciences Centre, 
1200 Main Street West. 
HAMILTON. Ontario. 
LaS 4J9 


COLLEGE OF 
NEW CALEDONIA 


A comprehensive regional College in 
Prince George, British Columbia, re- 
quires 


NURSING 
FACUL TV 
Positions available as of April, 1975 to 
help develop a new two year R.N. Dip- 
loma Program. This program will begin 
in September 1975. Applicants should 
be prepared to teach basic nursing 
concepts and skills at the diploma 
level. 
We offer: 
Excellent frrnge benefits 
Relocation allowances 
Excellent salary commensurate 
with qualifications 
Qualifications: 
Masters or Baccalaureate 
Degree in Nursing. 
Experience in Bedside Nursing. 
Applicants should submIt a curriculum vItae 
and names of three references to: 
Dr. F.J. Speckeen. Principal 
College of New Caledonia 
2001 Central Street 
Prince George, B.C. 
V2N 1P8 


54 THE CANADIAN NURSE 


DIRECTOR 
OF NURSING 


The Darmouth General Hospital and Com- 
munity Health Centre. Dartmouth. Nova 
Scotia is scheduled for opening in the 
spring of 1976. and requires a Director of 
Nursing immediately. 
The hospital will open in phase 1, with 114 
beds and a large ambulatory care facility. 
The candidate should possess training at 
the baccalaureate level with registration. or 
eligibility for registration in Nova Scotia. 
The candidate should possess a minimum 
of five years administrative experience at a 
senior level, in an active treatment hospital. 
This position offers a great challenge to the 
candidate seeking an opportunity to be a 
member of a team developing an innovative 
approach to patient care. 
A curriculum vitae along with required sal- 
ary should be submitted, in confidence, to: 


THE ADMINISTRATOR 
DARTMOUTH GENERAL HOSPITAL 
AND COMMUNITY HEALTH CENTRE 
P.O. BOX 1016 
DARTMOUTH 
NOVA SCOTIA 


THE MONTREAL 
CHILDREN'S HOSPITAL 
REGISTERED NURSES 
NURSING ASSISTANTS 


Our patient population consists of 
the baby of less than an hour old 
to the adolescent who has just 
turned seventeen. We see them in 
Intensive Care, in one of the Med- 
ical or Surgical General Wards, or 
in some of the Pediatric Specialty 
areas. 
They abound in our clinics and 
their numbers increase daily in our 
Emergency. 
If you do not like working with 
children and with their families, 
you would not like it here. 
If you do like children and their 
f
milies. we would like you on our 
staff. 
Interested qualified applicants I 
should apply to the: 
DIRECTOR OF NURSING 
Montreal Children's Hospital 
2300 Tupper Street 
Montreal 108. Quebec 


OKANAGAN COLLEGE 


Kelowna, British Columbia 


POSITION: 
Coordinator of Nursing Education 
DUTIES: 
To plan. organize and develop a two year Registered Nursing program. The first 
class is tentatively scheduled to begin training in September, 1976. Duties tc 
commence as soon as possible. 
QUALIFICATIONS DESIRED: 
M.Sc.N. or equivalent. Experience in several nursing fields; curriculum plannin
 
training and/or experience; supervisory experience. Capable of developing anc 
maint
ining good relationships with students, staff, cooperating hospitals and other 
agencies. 
SALARY AND WORKING CONDITIONS: 
in accordance with academic faculty scales and agreements. 
OKANAGAN COLLEGE 
is a multi-discipline institution offering technical, vocational and academic program
 
in several centres throughout the Okanagan area of British Columbia. The R.N 
program will be located at the Kelowna Centre of the College; close liaison with othel 
College Centres will be required. 


APPLICATIONS: 
The Principal, 
Okanagan College, 1000 K.L.O. Road, 
Kelowna, B.C. V1 V 4X8 
CLOSING DATE: 
15 February, 1975 


JANUARY 1f 



DIRECTOR 
OF NURSING 


equired effective March 1. 1975 This pos- 
ion carries responsibility for the coordina- 
on of all facets of nursing services within a 
5-bed accredited hospital. Preference 
Iven to applicants with University prepara- 
on in Nursing Administration or successful 
upefYIsory and nursing administration ex- 
enence. 


pply in writrng. stating experience, qual/fica- 
ons, references and date al/ailable to: 


Administrator 
St. Therese Hospital 
SI. Paul. Alberta 
TOA 3AO 


Refresher Course (in French) 


TB? . . . TODAY? 


and 


RESPIRATORY DISEASES 


March 8 - 14, 1975 
Château du Lac Beauport, Québec 
JOint prOlect of CTROA & QUEBEC CHRISTMAS 
SEAL SOCIETY Laval Umversity. 



'ease contac.: 


Mrs. Fernande Hamel 
Library Pavilion 
Room 2417 
Laval University 
Ste-Foy, Quebec 


QUEEN'S UNIVERSITY 
SCHOOL OF NURSING 


Faculty Openings 



uly 1975 for Lecturers. Assistant or Asso- 
Iciate Professors for basIc undergraduate 
[programme in nursing of adults, maternity 
nursing and community health. Master's 
Idegree in clinical nursing and successful 
'experience required. Preference given to 
preparallon as a family nurse practitioner. 
'Salary commensurate with preparation. 
Apply to: 


Dean. School of Nursing 
Queen's University 
Kingston. Ontario 
K7L 3N6 


NUARY 1',-, 


Some nurses are just nurses. 
Our nurses are also 
Commissioned Officers. 


. LHe L , P (\')1 ,r Id J:(\, 
-, 0, u -- ar '" 5 r 
P 1 U cers OU,HI _ or I 1 __cr 
prefer' or Can,,'"' 
'1 Forces bases a I O'vèr Cané''ia DO 
Olt r parIS 01 tht= -,
 
It 1e... decide ) 
p"r II.!.P hf Lan .lpp Ie r-. 
Ira 'ling . ,'h no lo
 "If pa or pr, "
1t
 Promol ')n :", 
abl as " as j!r r er ce'" the beLome '" 
r<>'oreme"t bene",,:; "e Jdl'1g a lIe me pe'1Slon at d r'lUL, 
la' !han In r 'lan Ille 
,ou \.ere a nu"_ ,n .he C.lI1 d,a n Forces . J WL.l.J t 
 
d;:)
 
I person d(',ng a'1 espec,a. responSible re,^,ard'''1 a'1d 
wort I 
hlle Job 
For lull Informa..on -v'lte tr"3 D,mC,')' of RecUit '19 and Splec 
Inn d/lonal Defence Headquarters Ottawa On'::Jr/o KIA 0"2 


..J$,.. 
t

_ 


*r 
":.,*e 


Cet involved with the 
canadian Armed Forces. 


"MEETING TODAY'S CHALLENGE IN NURSING 


QL'EE
 ELIZABETH HOSPITAL OF '10'\ TREAL 
CE:\'TRE 


A Teaching Hospital 
of McGill University 


requires 


REGISTERED NURSES 


AND 


REGISTERED NURSING ASSISTANTS 


Quebec language requirements do not apply to Canadian applicants. 


. 255-bed General Hospital in the West end of Montreal 
. Clinical areas include Progressive Coronary Care, 
Intensive Care, Medicine and Surgery, Psychiatry. 


Interested qualified applicants should apply in writing to: 


QUEEN ELIZABETH HOSPITAL OF MONTREAL CENTRE 
DIRECTOR OF PERSONNEL 
2100 MARLOWE AVE., MONTREAL, QUE., H4A 3L6. 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 55 



WE CARE 



 



 


HOSPITAL: 
Accredited modern general - 260 beds Expansion 
to 420 beds in progress. 
LOCATION: 
Immediately north of Toronto 
APARTMENTS: 
Furnished - shared. 
Swimming Pool. Tennis Court, Recreation Room. 
Free Parking. 
BENEFITS: 
Competitive salaries and excellent fnnge benefits. 
Planned staff development programs. 


Please address all enquiries to: 
Assistant Administrator (Nursing) 
York County Hospital. 
NEWMARKET, Ontario, 
L3Y 2R1. 


UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 
SCHOOL OF NURSING 


Rapidly growing, well funded School requires a semor 
faculty member to fill the newly established position of 


ASSISTANT DIRECTOR 


Functions will be to assist in the over all operation and 
development of the School and the Faculty. 


A doctoral degree desirable. Master's degree. and suc- 
cessful experience in administration and nursing education 
are essential. 


APPL Y TO: 


DR. MURIEL UPRICHARD 
PROFESSOR AND DIRECTOR 
SCHOOL OF NURSING 
UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 
VANCOUVER, B.C. 
V6T 1 W5 


Call collect 604-228-2595. 


56 THE CANADIAN NURSE 


UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 
SCHOOL OF NURSING 


Requires 


ASSOCIA TE 
or 
FULL PROFESSOR 


To take complete charge of a large and successful pro- 
gramme of Continuing Education in Nursing. 
Candidates must be nurses with at least a Master's degree 
and successful eX F. erience in the direction of continuing 
education essentia , 


Generous salary and fringe benefits. 
Apply to: 


Muriel Uprichard. Ph.D. 
Director 
School of Nursing 
University of British Columbia 
2075 Wesbrook Place 
Vancouver, B.C. 
V6T 1 W5 


SCHOOL OF NURSING 
UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 


Vancouver, B.C. 


Rapidly growing, well funded school requires FACULTY at 
all levels from Instructor 1 to Full Professor for Bac- 
calaureate and Master's programmes. Applications are in- 
vited from male or female nurse specialists in all climcal 
fields but especially: 


CHILD AND MATERNAL HEALTH 
NURSING SERVICE ADMINISTRATION 
NURSING CONSULTATION 
CONTINUING EDUCATION 
COMMUNITY HEALTH NURSING 


Master's degree and successful nursing exp
rience essen- 
tial, Doctoral degree desirable. 
Salaries and fringe benefits excellent. 


Apply to: 
MURIEL UPRICHARD, PH.D. 
PROFESSOR AND DIRECTOR 
SCHOOL OF NURSING 
UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 
VANCOUVER, B.C. 
V6T 1 W5 


JANUAR\ l' 



-' 
, '...... "".,t 11 
, "....... I I I' 
'.. . . . I ':.. I' 
_. '...... .,. i ''., 
...- ,......"I.'U" 
- , '........1 1 ', 
.. .. "'I....il ll :. 
". . ,,".....,1', 
J f'" 
 '. . . . . .' " 
......."""'- It 1 .... \ 
7' --..,.............:. 
.. 


.... 


.. 


.tÞ.it _ 
THE SCARBOROUGH 
GENERAL HOSPITAL 
invites applications from: 
Registered Nurses and Registered Nursing Assis- 
tants to work in our 650-bed active treatment 
hospital and new Chronic Care Unit. 
e orfer opportunities 10 Medical Surgical. Paediatric and Obstetrical nursing 
ur specialties include a Burns and Plastic Unit. Coronary Care. Intensive Care and 
eurosurgery Units and an active Emergency Department 


i Obstetrical Department - participation in "Family centered" teaching 
program. 
Paediatric Department - participation in Play Therapy Program. 
, Orientation and on-going staff educatIOn. 
Progressive personnel policies. 
he hospital is located in Eastern Metropolitan Toronto 
l or further information. write to: 
The Director of Nursing, 
SCARBOROUGH GENERAL HOSPITAL 
1)050 Lawrence Avenue. East, Scarborough, Ontario 



p;@ 


ORTHOPAEDIC 10<: ARTHRITIC 
HOSPITAL 

r
 


43 WELLESLEY STREET. EAST 
TORONTO. ONTARIO 
M4Y 1H1 


Enlarging Specialty Hospital offers a unique 
opportunity to nurses and nursing assistants 
I interested in the care of patients with bone and 
joint disorders. 
Currently required - 
Registered Nurses and Nursing Assistants for all 
units 

 Clinical specialists for Operating Room, Intensive 
: Care, Patient Care and Education 


INUARY 1975 


Serve Canada's 
native people 


.. 


.. 


---- 


1 


.... 


J 


. 
In 
a well 
equipped 
hospital. 


. .." Heatth and Welfare 
Canada 


Santé e1 Blen-ëtre social 
Canada 


,---------------
 
I Medical Services Branch I 
I Department of National Health and Welfare I 
I Ottawa, Ontario K 1 A OK9 I 
I I 
I Please send me information on hospital I 
I nursing with this service. I 
I Name: I 
I Address: I 
City: Proy: _ 

_______________J 
THE CANADIAN NURSE 57 



HEALTH 
SCIENCES CENTRE 
INTENSIVE CARE NURSING 


.Myocardial infarction 
. Arrhythmias .Pacemakers 
. Renal Failure . Trauma 
. Respiratory Failure .Shock 



-.--... ......-- 



-- 


, I 


I 
ID 

::E 

-'...I... 


"' 
\ 


. 

 


y-; 
.- 


I. 


-".. 


- 
. .. 


gf 


.. 


.. 


." 


r 


24 BED INTENSIVE CARE UNIT 


in a 


1,400 BED UNIVERSITY-AFFILIATED HOSPITAL 
OFFERS 
A 12 MONTH CLINICAL COURSE 
IN INTENSIVE CARE NURSING FOR ALL 
REGISTERED NURSES ON STAFF IN THE 
INTENSIVE CARE UNIT 


Opportunities To Learn- 
- Nursing care of critically ill 
- Resuscitative measures 
- Use of monitoring and other advanced equipment 
- Multidisciplinary approach 
Through - 
- Four weeks of planned orientation 
- Supervised clinical experience 
- Continuing In-service program 
- Series of comprehensive lectures 

 Concentrated study and hard work 


For further information write to: 


L 


Course Co-ordinator 
Intensive Care Nursing 
Health Sciences Centre GH601 
700 William Avenue 
Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3E OZ3 


.8 THE CANADIAN NURSE 


UNIVERSITY OF 
ALBERTA HOSPITAL 


EDMONTON. ALBERTA 


invites applications from general duty nurses 


Opportunities for Professional development In 
general and specialty areas of Medical and Sur- 
gical Nursing. Paediatrics. Obstetrics. Psychiatry. 
Operating Room. Renal Dialysis Unit. and Extend- 
ed Care. 


Planned Orientation Program. 
In-service Education Program. 


Salary commensurate with education and expe- 
rience. 
For further information write to: 


EMPLOYMENT SUPERVISOR - NURSING 
UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA HOSPITAL 
84 Avenue & 112 Street 
Edmonton, Alberta 


CARIBOO c,
 D1t 
COLLEGE 
- :l'J' 

 
KAMLOOPS 8 C Z 
LI.. 


4 -' 0 
BRITISH ....., 
COLUMBIA 
c5' 0 0 
"'=> SC
 


requires 


Nursing Instructors 


Qualifications: 
1) An M.A. degree is preferred but consideration will be given to persons 
with a Baccalaureate degree 
a) Service and teaching experience In Psychiatry 
b) Service and teaching experience in Medical- Surgical Nursing 
c) Eligibility for registration In British Columbia. 


Duties: (to commence April 1 , 1975) 
1) Classroom teaching 
2) Climcalteaching and supervision 
3) Participation In curnculum planmng. and other faculty activities 


Mail applications together with curriculum vitae and letters of 
reference to: The Principal. Cariboo College. Box 860, 
Kamloops. British Columbia, V2C 5N3. 


JANUARY 1 



REGISTERED NURSE 


3 have opportunities here for an experi- 
ced registered nurse. Our nursing 
laries are established through agree- 
mt with the A.A.R.N. 



 have a very acllve 230-bed hospital in 
ntral Alberta. If you are interested in 
re information regarding Red Deer and 

 Red Deer Health Care Complex, 


;"'ase write or call: 


Personnel Director 
Red Deer General Hospital 
Red Deer, Alberta 
Tel.: (403) 346-3321 


REGISTERED NURSE 
CRITICAL CARE PROGRAM 


e 51 Mlchaers Hospital Campus ollhe George 
own College 5 Nursing D,vision announces the 
enng ot an Indepth program utilizIng an hells- 
,. apprcach tothe care ollhe crillcally-III patient. 
anced theory is closely correlated with ad- 
ced clmlcal practice. 
_ program - 5 months in duration - IS offered 
Ice annually, ,n February and August. 

 year 5 recent pursmg practice and current 
Istratlon as a nurse is mandatory. Enrolment 
oited. 
further information, contact; 
The Registrar 
St. Michael's Hospital Campus 
The George Brown College 
P.O. Box 1015, Station 'B' 
Toronto, M5T 2T9 
Phone: (416)-967-1212-local 269 


The Brome-Missisquoi-Perkins 
Hospital 


requires 


1 Day Supervisor 
1 Night Supervisor 
Registered Nurses 


lease write to; 
Director of Nursing 
Brome-Missisquoi-Perkins Hospital 
950 Main Street 
Cowansville. Quebec 
J2K 1 K3 


-.lLJARY 1975 




v-\. GENEN4t 
Q
 [j a 

 
 
!o<.i -::::. 
iE 
 

 !I 
 
1; & 

-'1-1J ':.
 
'D TEACH\
(, 


Quebec's Health Services are progressive! 


So 


. 


. 


IS 


nursing 


at 


The Montreal General Hospital 


a teaching hospital of McGill University 


Come and nurse in exciting Montreal 


;';ìÎlf\\ 
l_U" 
\--f 
"

 


The Montreal General Hospital 
1650 Cedar Avenue, Montreal, Quebec HJG IA4 


Please 'ell me about hospital nursing under Quebec's new concept of Social and 
Preventive Medicine. 


Name 


Ad dress 


Quebec language requirements do not apply to Canadian applicants. 


L_______________________________J 
THE CANADIAN NURSE 59 



BRANDON GENERAL HOSPITAL 
SCHOOL OF NURSING 


NURSE TEACHER 


FOR 


TWO YEAR DIPLOMA PROGRAM 


POSITION AVAILABLE FEBRUARY 1, 1975 
IN 


OBSTETRICAL NURSING 


aUALIFICA TIONS: 
Baccalaureate Degree in Nursing IS required. Preference given to 
applicants with experience in Nursing and Teaching. 


Apply in writing stating qualifications, expenence, references to: 


PERSONNEL DIRECTOR, 
Brandon General Hospital. 
150 McTavish Avenue East, 
Brandon, Manitoba. 
R7 A 2B3. 


NURSE CLINICIAN 
(Clinical Nurse Specialist) 
for the area of medical-surgical nursing IS required at: 
TRAIL REGIONAL HOSPITAL 
an active 238 bed referral hospital located in the heart of the West 
Kootenay skiing country. This is an area noted for the accessibility 
of all forms of outdoor activity. 


JOB SUMMARY 
A non-supervisory position with direct responsibility to the Director 
of Nursing. 
The successful applicant will work closely with the Charge Nurses 
to 
. Assist staff in determining priorities of care 
. Develop therapeutic nurse-patient interaction 
. Co-ordinate nursing inservice programmes 
. Orientate new nursing personnel 
This is a day-duty position with weekends off. however. some 
flexibility in hours of work is anticipated. 
QUALIFICATIONS 
. Clinical expertise and teaching skills 
. Ability to develop interpersonal relationships 
. Preparation at University level preferred 
. Registrability in B.C. is required 


SALARY: (commencing January 1975) $1350.00 per month 


Apply In writing to: 
DIRECTOR OF NURSING 
Trail Regional Hospital 
TRAil, B.C. - V1 R 4M1 


HEALTH 
SCIENCES 
CENTRE 


WINNIPEG, 
MANITOBA 


.' . 


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Jt 


\, 


o 


'=- 


" 



 


t 


'\ 


o 


60 THE CANADIAN NURSE 


THIS 1345 BED COMPLEX WITH AMBULATORY CARE CLINICS. AFFILlATE[ 
WITH THE UNIVERSITY OF MANITOBA. CENTRALLY LOCATED IN A LARGE 
CULTURALLY ALIVE COSMOPOLITAN CITY. 


INVITES APPLICATIONS FROM 
REGISTERED NURSES SEEKING PROFESSIONAl: 
GROWTH, OPPORTUNITY FOR INNOVATION. AND JOE 
SATISFACTION. 
ORIENTATION - Extensive two week program::lt full salary 
ON-GOING EDUCATION - Provided through 
active in-service programmes in all patient care areas 
opportunity to attend conferences. institutes. meetmgs of professional 
association 
post basic courses in selected clinical specialties 
PROGRESSIVE PERSONNEL POLICIES 
salary ba5ed on experience and preparation 
paid vacation based on years of service 
shift differenllal for rotating services 
10 statutory holidays per year 
insurance. retirement and pension plans 
contract under negotiation effective March. 1975 
SPECIALIZEO SERVICE AREAS include orthopedics, psychiatry. post 
anaesthetic. emergency. intensive care. coronary care. respiratory care, dialysis, 
medicine, surgery, obstetrics. QynaecoloQY. rehabilitation. and paediatrics. 
ENQUIRIES WELCOME 
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION PLEASE WRITE TO: 
PERSONNEL DEPARTMENT. NURSING SECTION 
HEALTH SCIENCES CENTRE, 
100 WilLIAM AVENUE, WINNIPEG MANITOBA R3E OZ3 


JANUARY l' 



· REGISTERED NURSES 
are invited to apply for positions in 


at 


NURSING 
INSTRUCTOR 
MENTAL 
HEALTH 
The DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND SOCIAL DEVELOP- 
MENT. Inter-regional Operations/Selkirk Mental Health 
Centre, Selkirk. Manitoba requires a person to plan and 
implement instructional courses within the general 
framework of programs offered by the School of Nursing. 
Responsible for: Carrying out a theoretical instructional 
program; clinical supervision and instruction of students 
within a clinical or community setting; evaluation and 
counselling of students, and the administering of examina- 
tions and maintenance of records. Incumbent will partici- 
pate in curriculum development. 
R. N. and/or R. P. N. plus at least two years' experience as a 
Nursing Instructor. Bachelor of Nursing or other additional 
education plus experience preferred. 
SALARY: $9,336 - $11,904 per annum. 
Apply in writing, immediately. referring to No. 1325. 


INTENSIVE 
CARE UNITS 
. MEDICINE AND 
GENERAL SURGERY 


Toronto 
General Hos p ital 
O n i vers i ty 
Teaching Hospital 


. located in heart of dov'J:1town Toronto 
. within walking distance of accommodation 
. subway stop adjacent to Hospital 
. excellent benefits and recreational facilities 


(() MANITOBA 
CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION 
ROOM 154. LEGISLATIVE BUILDING. 
440 BROADWAY, WINNIPEG. MANITOBA R3C ova 


apply to Personnel Office 
TORONTO GENERAL HOSPITAL 
67 COLLEGE STREET, TORONTO, ONTARIO. M5G 1 L7 


VANCOUVER 
GENERAL HOSPITAL 



 


Invites applications for 


REGULAR and RELIEF 
GENERAL DUTY 


Nursing positions in all clinical areas of an active 
teaching hospital, closely affiliated with the University of B.C. 
and the development of the B.C. Medical Centre. 
1974 Salary Scale $850.00 - $1,020.00 per month 
For further information, please write to: 
PERSONNEL SERVICES 
VANCOUVER GENERAL HOSPITAL 
855 WEST 12TH AVE. 
VANCOUVER, B.C. 


I.,IUARY 1975 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 61 




 



 
- - 


;..r 


.A \ i.... 



 2 
I .... 


We invite applications from 


REGISTERED NURSES 
FOR GENERAL DUTY 


in all patient services areas including I.C.U./C.C.Unit. This is an 
opportunity to be on staff when we move to this new 138 bed 
General Hospital. which will be early an 1975. 


Successful applicants will be paid prevailing Ontario salary rates as 
well as other generous fringe benefits and in addition you will have 
the opportunity to work in a brand new building with modern equip- 
ment and beautiful surroundings. 


Apply in writing to 
The Director of Nursing 
Kirkland and District Hospital 
Kirkland Lake. Ontario 
P2N 1 R2 


NlJRSES 
fOI. 
O\TERSE1\S 


Experienced nursö needed to \\ork in Bangladðh. Latin 
America. and Africa. Become involved in preventive. 
curative and training health programmes. 


T\\o year contracts \\ ith CUSO. 


Transportation costs paid. 


Contact: 


rusn HEALTH - 13 
151 Slater Street 
Ottawa KIP 5H5 


62 THE CANADIAN NURSE 


POST GRADUATE 
COURSES 


The following courses in this modern 1200 bed teach- 
ing hospital will be of interest to registered nurse!: 
who seek advancement. specialization and profes. 
sional growth. 


. Cardiovascular-Intensive Care Nursing. This 
is a 22 week clinical course with classes 
commencing in February and September. 


. Operating Room Technique and Manage- 
ment. This 24 week clinical course commences 
in March and September. 
. 


For further information and details, contact: 


Recruitment Officer - Nursing 
University of Alberta Hospital 
Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2B7 


MEMORIAL UNIVERSITY 
OF NEWFOUNDLAND 
SCHOOL OF NURSING 


is expanding its B.N. program, extra mural courses an< 
continuing educational program. Positions are availabll 
August 1, 1975 for faculty who are expert in teaching, cur 
riculum development and one of the following areas. 


NURSING OF ADULTS 
MATERNAL-CHILD NURSING 
NURSING OF CHILDREN 
MENTAL HEALTH NURSING 
COMMUNITY NURSING 
NURSING RESEARCH 
CONTINUING EDUCATION 
CO-ORDINATOR FOR POST-R.N. B.N. PROGRAM 


Applicants should direct enquiries to: 


Miss Margaret D. McLean 
Director. School of Nursing 
Memorial University of Nfld. 
St. John's, Newfoundland A1C 5S7 


JANUARY 1 



. 


City of Regina 
HOME OF THE 1975 
WESTERN CANADA SUMMER GAMES 
REQUIRES 
PUBLIC HEALTH NURSES 


City of Regina 
HOME OF THE 1975 
WESTERN CANADA SUMMER GAMES 
Requires 


)UTIES: Carry out a variety of duties relating to 
generalized community health nursing program 
ithin a designated district of the City. 
lUALIFICATIONS: Must possess a Degree in 
tJursing with a major in Public Health Nursing or a 
I:ertificate in Public Health Nursing. This employee 
nust be eligible for registration with the Saskat- 
lewan Registered Nurses' Association. 
;ALARY: R.N. with Certificate in Public Health 
itJursing: $767.00 to $940.00 per month. R.N. with 

)egree in Nursing: $821.00 to $1,006.00 per month. 
IIOTE: The incumbent in this position must pos- 
ess a valid operator's license and a car and will be 
ompensated by a monthly car allowance. 
pplications and inquiries should be directed to 
The Personnel Department, 
City Hall, 
P. O. Box 1790, 
Regina, Saskatchewan, S4P 3C8 
or Phone 522 -1621 extension 248 


ASSISTANT DIRECTOR OF 
PUBLIC HEALnt NURSES 


DUTIES: Required to assist the Director of Nurses In the 
promotion of the quality of Public Health nurSing In the 
community and the development of staff. Assists in 
planning and directing the activities of nursing staff in 
designated areas. Orientates new staff and keeps them 
informed of standards and policies of the organization. 


QUALIFICATIONS: A Baccalaureate Degree with pre- 
paration in Public Health Nursing, supervision and ad- 
ministration. Thorough knowledge of the principles, 
practices and techniques of Public Health Nursmg, 
supervision and administration. Minimum of three (3) 
years experience in Public Health Nursing Including ex 
penence in a Supervisory Capacity 
SALARY: From $939.00 to $1,154.00 per month. 


Applications and inquiries should be directed to 
The Personnel Department, City Hall, 
P. O. Box 1190, Regina, Saskatchewan, S4P JCB 
Or Phone 522-1621 extension 248 


SCHOOL OF NURSING 
DALHOUSIE UNIVERSITY 


Halifax, N.S. 


FACUL TV POSITIONS 
A number of positions will be available in 1975 for well-qualified faculty to participate in a 
progressive undergraduate and graduate program. 
The baccalaureate program for basic and R.N. students is integrated around an holistic 
developmental concept of human beings in health and illness. A graduate program is 
planned to start in September, 1975. 
Other plans for the development of the School make Dalhousie a challenging place for 
faculty committed to the continual improvement of nursing's contribution to health care, 
and wanting opportunity to develop their own professional interests. 
Minimum requirement - Masters degree 
Apply to: 


Ms. Muriel E. Small 
Acting Director 
School of Nursing 
Dalhousie University 
Halifax, N.S. 
83H 3J5 



UARY 1975 


THE 
AI'tAOIAN NURSE b3 



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GENERAL STAFF NURSES 


required for 


RECI NA CEN ERAL HOSPITAL 


openings in 011 departments 


Salary - $775. - $900. 


Recognition Given For Experience 
Progressive Personnel Policies 


Apply: 


Personnel Department 
REGINA GENERAL HOSPITAL 
Regina, Saskatchewan 
S4P OW5 


R.N.'S 


The Royal Alexandra is a friendly place to work; a modern 
progressive 1000 bed teaching hospital in the "just-right- 
size" city of Edmonton. Alberta. 


Fully accredited, the Royal Alexandra offers challenging ex- 
perience, on-going in-service programs, generous fringe 
benefits and competitive salaries. All pre
ious exp
rience is 
recognized. You may skate, ski and curt inexpensively. Ed- 
monton-is within easy driving distance of many lakes where 
you may enjoy the sunny Alberta summer. 


Vacancies exist in most areas including ICU, a.A. & Psy- 
chiatry. 


Salary Range for General Duty. $900 - $1075. 


For InformatJon pl.... writ. to: 


Director of Nursing 
Royal Alexandra Hospital 
10240 Kingsway Ave. 
EDMONTON,ALBERTA 
T5H 3V9 


64 THE CANADIAN NURSE 


Index 
to 
Advertisers 


January 1975 


Abott Laboratories . . . . . . . . . .. 2 
Astra PhannaceuticaJs Canada Ltd. ...............1 I 
Canada Manpower Centre .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 
I 
Department of National Defence. . . . . . . . .. ..... .55 I 
I 
Health Care Services Upjohn Limited . . . . . . . . . .53 


Heelbo Corporation 


......... .16 
. .,8 & 37 
.... ., .47 


I C N Canada Limited 


Lanzette Products . . . . 


J.B. Lippincott Co, of Canada Ltd. 


.32 & 33 
. .. ...49 


McdoX 


The C.V. Mosby Company. Ltd. ..... .39.40.41,42 


The Nurse's Book Society. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 


Psychiatric Nursing 


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Pose} Company 


. .15 


W.B. Saunders Company Canada. Ltd. . .. .Cover IV 


White Sister Uniform. Inc. 


. . . .5. Covers II & III 


1dn'rti.\ing /\1cU/ugcr 
Georgina Clarj..,e 
The Canadian Nurse 
SO The Driveway 
OUa\\a K2P I E2 (Ontario) 


Alh'ertisillg Representaflw's 
Richard P. Wilson 
219 East Lancaster Avenue 
Ardmore, Penna. 19003 
I 
'kphone. (21"1 \1id\\a
 Y-I-I-lJ7 


Gordoll lïftïn 
2 Tremont Crescent 
Don Mills, Ontario 
rdcphollc (-1-16)-1--1--1--4731 


Member of Canadian 
Circulations Audit Board Inc. 


EæEJ 


JANUARY 19 



The 


FEe 2 7 1976 


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February 1975 Ç7 


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Use of the MINI-BOTTLE drug delivery 
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The 
.Canadian 
:Nurse 


ð 

 


. monthly iourn.tI for 'he nurses of Canada published 
n English and French editions bv the Canadian Nurses' Association 


Volume 71, Number 2 


February 1975 


19 Guidelines for Quality of Care 
in Patient Education 


. _ . . . . B.K. Redman 


22 Insulin Goes Metric: A Time for Review .............. E. Laugharne 
25 Project Alternative: 
The Road Away From Isolation 


M.D. Jones 


28 Critique: Nursing Research 
Is Not Every Nurse's Business .......................... J. Ramsay 
29 The Author of "Nursing Research Is 
Not Every Nurse's Business" Replies .................... M. Hayes 
30 The Nurse and the Grieving Parent. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H. Eifert 


34 Ostomy Skin Barriers for Decubitus Ulcers 


. R. Greene 


The views expressed in the articles are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the 
policies or views of the Canadian Nurses' Association. 


4 Letters 43 Research Abstracts 
9 News 44 Dates 
36 Names 46 Accession List 
38 Books 64 Index to Advertisers 


Executive Director: Helen tC Mussallem . 
Editor: Virginia A. Lindabur, . Assistant 
Editors: Liv-Ellen Lockeberg, Dorothv S. 
Starr . ProductIon AssIstant: Mary Lou 
Downes _ Circulation Manager. Beryl Dar- 
ling . AdvertIsing Manager: Georgina Clarke 
. Subscription Rates: Canada: one year 
I Sb 00; two years. Sl1.00 Foreign: one year. 
Sb,50; two years. S12.00. Single copies. 
S 1.00 each. Make cheques or money orders 
payable to the Canadian Nurses' Association. 
. Change of Address: s'X weeks' notice; the 
I old addre>s as well as the new are necessary. 
together with registration number in a pro- 
vincial nurses association where applicable. 
Not responsible for journals lost in mail due 
to errors in address. 


Manuscript Informalion: "The Canadian 
t'<urse" welcomes unsolicited articles. All 
manuscripts should be typed double-spaced 
on one SIde of unruled paper leaving wide 
margins. Manuscripts are accepted for review 
for exclusive publication. The ed,tor reserves 
the right to make Ihe usual editorial changes. 
Photographs (glossy prints) and graphs and 
diagrams (drawn in india ink on white paper' 
are welcomed with such articles. The editor is not 
committed to publish all articles sent 
nor to Indicate definite dates of publication. 
Postage paid in cash at third class raIl' 
MONTREAL. P.Q. Permit No. 10.001. 
50 The Driveway. Ottawa. Ontario. K2P 1 E2 
C> Canadian Nurses' Association 1975, 


Ert. "}rial I 


During the past months, TV and r) ws- 
papers have recorded sevel G in- 
stances of prominent individuals '^ 10 
faced health threats with courage 911d 
forthrightness. The wives of the prt. - 
dent and vice-president of the UnitE:-I 
States have spoken openly aboL 
breast cancer; Canada's governor- 
general has resumed his duties while 
still recovering from a cerebral acci- 
dent; the prime minister's wife has 
been frank about her need for psychiat- 
ric help. These individuals, and many 
others known personally to nurses. are 
examples of courage. 
We require the same qualities of 
courage and honesty to evaluate per- 
sonal ways of living that risk our pres- 
ent state of health, and to take action to 
reduce these risks. Fear of ill health is a 
gloomy sort of motivation. How about 
professional pride as a motivator? 
Nurses are health teachers. In this 
issue, Barbara Redman writes about 
nursing care standards for patient edu- 
cation (page 19). We know the value of 
the teacher as an example, a role 
model of health. Is this the push each of 
us needs to examine her life-style and 
decide where it needs improvement? 
Disregard the superficial goal of 
youthfulness and beauty: are you 
overweight in terms of good health? 
Are you of normal weight but flabby 
and out-of-condition? Are you dead 
tired every night? Do you puff on the 
second flight of stairs? Fatigue and de- 
pression are a cycle; one feeds the 
other. Exercise and weight control lead 
.0 an alternate cycle: energy and op- 
timism. 
It takes guts to cut down on eating 
the sweets, pizza. or cream sauce you 
enjoy; to stop smoking after years of 
depending on the comfort of nicotine; 
or - somehow - to find time to exer- 
cise more. A calendar that will help you 
carry out your decisions about a health- 
ier life-style has recently been pub- 
lished by Health and Welfare Canada. 
Sprinkled through the days and 
months of 1975 are reminders about 
less smoking, drinking, and eating; 
buckling up seat belts; swimming and 
boating safety; exercise; and house- 
hold accident prevention. 
Over 5 million copies of the fold-out. 
poster-type calendar were distributed 
in the magazine supplement of Cana- 
dian newspapers the last week-end of 
1974. If you want a free copy. write to: 
Information Directorate, Health and 
Welfare Canada. Ottawa. K1 A OK9. 
Raise your consciousness of health. 
You can have easier breathing. freer 
movement. a trimmer waist. and a 
great feeling of well-being. - D.S.S. 
THE CANADIAN NURSE 3 


FBRUARY 1975 



letters 


{ 


Letters to the editor are welcome. 
Onlv signed letters, which include the writer's cûmplete address, 
will be considered for publication. 
Name will be withheld at the writer's request. 


Guidance for health 
I ....as delighted to read the article. "Lum- 
bar Pain Linked to Hypokinesia" (No- 
vember 1974). To me. it was another en- 
couraging note in the process of 
consciousness raising and strengthening of 
the nurse' 
 role as a health promoter. It 
....as also practical guidance to the nurse to 
move toward this goal. because it encou- 
raged her to examine the effects that her 
work has on her own health. 
If }'ou as a nurse are trying to strengthen 
your role as a health promoter. tell others. 
It is a great coffee time topic. Share with 
your peers the creative ways you have 
found to promote your own health and ask 
for their ideas. We need to talk over with 
each other, not only the physical effects 
our work has on our health. but also the 
p
ychological consequences, 
The public does not allow the physical 
educator to forget his need to be a role 
model. Who would listen to a fat. inflexi- 
ble, uncoordinated. physical education 
teacher? People believe what they see. so 
we. too, must earn the right to be heard. 
There is still hope for 
s to solve some 
of the large problems facing us in nursing. 
such as the lack of job satisfaction and the 
...tress of modern hospital work .... ith its 
increasingl} dehumanizing effects. 
It is simplistic to think in terms of one 

l1lution to the
e problems. We need to try 
a variety of approaches. Emphasizing the 
nurse's o....n health ....ill strengthen her role 
as a health promoter and should free her to 
move .... ith more conviction in both her 
professional and personal environments of 
health-related matters. - Ellie Robson, 
Vallcou\'er, B.C. 


Nurses "baby" patients 
After reading the article: "Poor Baby: the 
nurse and feminism" b) Dorothy Starr in 
the March 1974 issue of The Canadian 
Nurse. I was forced to make an observa- 
tion on the .tttitudes of nurses here toward 
their patients. Most nurses in our hospital 
"baby" their patients. making them 
spoiled and totally dependent on them for 
their ph) sical and emotional needs. 
I am thankful to Starr for pointing out a 
mistake that we as nurses are committing 
unconsciously. I entirely agree with the 
remedies she has prescribed to help us 
avoid "poor babying" another person. 
As a junior nursing student. I feel the 
need to improve the quality of nursing care 
we nurses are giving our patients. I re- 
commend that all nurses. student nurses 
4 THE CANADIAN NURSE 


especially. should read the above- 
mentioned article. for I believe they would 
learn and benefit from it. - Areli R. de 
Vera, Philippine Union College School of 
Nursing, Manila Sanitarium and Hospi- 
tal. Manila. 


Author disagrees with reviewer 
I noted with interest the review of my 
book, Maternity Nursing. in the Novem- 
ber 1974 issue. 
The statement made by Genevieve 
Appleby. that I failed to discuss the con- 
troversy regarding sodium intake during 
pregnancy. is incorrect. Please refer to 
page 126 in m) book, where the subject is 
discussed. Appleby should be requested to 
retract her statement. -Constance Lerch, 
R.N., B.S.Ed., RUI/nemede, N.J. 


Nurses' job satisfaction 
I feel compelled tq respond to Ms. 
Dufour's article "The System Needs to be 
Changed!" (Nov. 1974). She appears to 
perceive job satisfaction in a simplistic 
manner. Her recommendations state "job 
satisfaction can result from a change in the 
time periods of the present shifts and from 
an improvement in the patient assignment 
and staff patterns." I do not believe this is 
the crux of the problem. nor that these 
changes will achieve job satisfaction. 
Herzberg's theory indicates that two in- 
dependent sets of factors intluence job sat- 
isfaction and performance. The motiva- 
tional factors are related to job satisfac- 
tion. These are achievement. recognition. 
the work itself. responsibility. and ad- 
vancement. The second set of factors - 
the maintenance ones - are company pol- 
icy and administration, supervision. sal- 
ary. interpersonal relations. and working 
conditions. Deficiencies in these are re- 
lated to dissatisfaction on the job. How- 
ever. improvement in these latter areas 
does not produce job satisfaction: it merely 
reduces some of the dissatisfiers. 
Dufour's article focuses on mainten- 
ance factors. Such improvements as she 
outlines may reduce the dissatisfiers. but 
will not, in themselves. produce job satis- 
faction. 
A system is a series of interrelated parts. 
coordinated to achieve a set of goals. The 
goal of the nursing department is patient 
care. Nursing activities are the interrelated 
parts. The nurse. therefore. is the system, 
and only when she recognizes this total 


involvement and develops appropria, 
responsibility will there be change or ir 
provement. 
"The work itself" is one of the motiv' 
tional factors. In nursing. the work itself' 
nursing practice. Dufour states. "Ear 
awakening of patients may not be the pc. 
icy in all institutions. but personnel I 
many hospitals still feel the patient must I, 
given the opportunity to wash befol 
breakfast." This. to me. is a reveali: 
statement. Hospitals rarely have polici 
of this nature; this is a practice or ritual t
, 
nursing staff sustain and perpetuate. It 
one of the many rituals nursing staff pt: 
fOnTI that may have little relation to t 
patient's actual needs. Progressive nursil, 
administrators who attempt to change SUi. 
rituals rarely achieve the active SUpP( i 
and cooperation of their nursing staff. I 
I do not believe job satisfaction w 
occur for the nurse until she learns to foc 
on the patient's actual nursing needs aJ 
determines priorities accordingly. Profe. 
sional persons aim for excellence in mai 
taining professional standards and in P{ 
forming meaningful work. When the nur 
functions as a professional and critical 
examines her practice. work will becor 
more meaningful. The resultant improv, 
work, based on activities determined I 
the patient's needs. may then provide jo' 
satisfaction. I 
This type of nursing practice may th 
produce changes in patient assignment a 
scheduling. and ultimately changes in t 
system. I do regret. however. that I s 
little evidence of such critical examinati, 
and action taking place by nurses in hosl 
tals. -D. Wvlie, Assistant ExecutivE: L 
rector, Patieñt Care, Sunnvbrook Medic 
Centre, Toronto, Onto 


RNs in doctors' offices 
I have been following with much intere 
the letters to you in recent issues concer 
ing the RN in a doctor's office. 
I suppose I have not been too observa 
before now. but I was shocked to lea: 
that many .. nurses" in offices are n 
nurses at all. although they give inje 
tions, do other nursing treatments. ar 
constantly give information and medic 
direction over the telephone. On questio 
ing others on the subject. I have foUl 
this is frequently the case. 
I did not realize. until I started workil 
for a general practitioner. how much n 
nursing knowledge would be used. Th 
(Continued on page 
FEBRUARY 19; 



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health departments should be looking at 
this as a means of better patient care. 
As RNS. we should ask our associations 
to help keep our standards on a high level 
in this field. I don't believe that untrained 
personnel doing nursing tasks are part of 
this standard. 
I would be most interested in hearing 
from anyone who ha!. some ideas on ho\\- 
this matter could be pursued. 
- Marjorie E. Payne. RN. /943 
Nicholas Rd.. R.R. #3. Victoria, B.C. 


letters 


(Comm/lnl from pi/!i(' 41 
"nowledge i'i es
ential when sortIng out 
the urgent from the non-urgent. helping 
the ne\.\ mother \\-ith a problem. explain- 
ing slowly what the doctor has just told 
the patient. giving directions for te"ts and 
explaining why the test is nece
sary. and 
handling emergencies in the office. The 
li<;t is endless. 
We should be working toward improv- 
ing these office situations. I hope all 
doctors will soon realize the value of the 
RN in the office. Perhaps the government 


Agrees with Quebec RN 
I am \.\ riting in respon
e to the letter from 
the nurse in Quebec. in\\- hich she remarks 
on the situation there that requires a nurse 


'f}..
' 
,... 
/'; 
 
 
tt, · I 1 \\

ONT SUTTON <ommam" "'''.he<! pea' 
.J 
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school, ski shop and full range of facIlities. 
great snow and supenor grooming' 


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PRIVATE CHALETS... APARTMENTS... 
SKI DORMS. .. 
SUTTON 
TOURIST 
INFORMATION 
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P.O. Box 418 
Sutton, Quebec 
Reservations: 
514/538-2646 
514/538-2537 


1200 accommodations 
within 12 miles 


Package deals including meals, 
ski lessons and lift tickets. Let us 
know the kind of accommodation 
you wish and rest assured of our 
full cooperation for a pleasant 
stay. 


6 THE CANADIAN NURSE 


to belong to the registered nurses' as"o( 
tion befure she can practice as an RN CL, 
ters. Nov. 1974. p. 4). 
I fully agree with her remarks and fee 
is high time that nurses got together ' I 
right the deplorable situation exi<;ting : , 
many parts of Canada. which fon:e... u...: 
join our professional association before 
can practice as registered nurse
. 
Here in Nova Scotia. we are in the sal 
boat. We must pay the Registered Nursl 
Association of Nova Scotia $50 yearl) j' 
to call ourselves R:"oIs. I feel stronglv th 
after studying and \\-or"ing for tw
):thnl 
or even five years as the case may be. a 
successfully pa
sing the R"J exams. \.\e 
not owe anyone $50 yearly to practice 
RN s. This situation works a particu 
hard!.hip on nurses moving from provin 
to province. as in the case of a friend 
mine who has paid $100 already this Yf 
just for the right to wor" as an R:-J ($50 
Alberta in January. then another $50 
Nova Scotia in May). 
When I wor"ed in Ontario and was re 
istered for $5 in 1969 and 1970. I enjoy 
every benefit that I do in Nova ScotIa ' I 
$50. If our provincial association we 
required to convince us that tho 
deserve our support. perhaps the 
would be some incenti ve for them to I 
something for us. 
The Canadian Nune would prohablv 
a much better magazine if it had to C<ll 
paign for our suhscriptions. rather th, 
enjoy a captive audience of nurses \.\ ho 1 
not have a choice about belonging to thl 
associations and receiving th
 m'ã g a7in 
I hope you will print my leller. and th 
any RNs in Nova Scotia \.\ ho are intere.,,, 
in seeing membership in the RNA:"oIS mal 
voluntary will write to me, - Margar 
MlicClihe. R.N., Bm: /62. Ri\'er Joh. 
Nom Scotia. 


Journal not meeting needs 
We find that The Canadian Nurse is nl 
meeting our needs. 
There are a number of good thmgs abol 
The Canadian Nurse. It is a way of "eel 
ing up-to-date with new publications an 
also with any research that is being dom 
We believe there should be more artidf 
covering the broad aspects of nursing fror 
the point of view of both education <In 
practice. We would also li"e to see mOl 
variety in each issue. 
The Nursing Times from Britain has e) 
cellent nursing articles. We suggest tho 
The Canadian Nurse seek more ad vel 
tisement" as a source of increased income 
If we were not forced to buy Th 
Canadian Nurse through our annúal rf 
gistration dues, we would not subscribe t 
it voluntarily. We hope these commenl 
are helpful to you in upgrading OL 
professional journal. - Walter Colt 
President, Yarmouth Branch, Registem 
Nurses' Association of Nova Scotia. 
 
FEBRUARY 197 



Because you're 
really se ions 
about your 
profession, 


. you know how important It is to stav on top ot advances in nur
ing care- 
especiall} as nurses assume more and more responsibility. Easier said than done? 
hen If vour 
chedule hardly lets you pick up anv other journal than the one you're 
reading nov.. ....e'd like to suggest another that can provide a better balance to your 
regular reading. 


Thl' Nursing Clinics of North America combine the best features of books and 
Journals, making them unlike any other climcal penodical: 


. Each issue is devoted to only one or two central topics. leaders in nursing 
practice and education are selected as guest editors to oversee each symposium. 


. All articles are wrilll'n expressly for the Nursing Clinics. Contributors are chosen 
tor their expertise and acti
 ity in the subject at hand. 


. The Nursing Clinics carry no lellers, columns or advertising. We otfer a welcome 
change ot pace trom ot
er professional journals 


. Each issue is published hardbound. With its symposium format, each volume is a 
monograph that takes a permanent place in your nursing lIbrary. 


. The Nursing Clinics are published only four times a year. That way issues don't 
pile up-or compete with month Iv journals for your attention. We keep you 
intormed of changes in nursing.... ith each change of season. 


. Thev're a trusted source of continuing education. Since their inception In 1966 
thousands ot nur<oes ha\e come to relv on the Clinics tor accurate and timely 
intormation. They keep YOll as intormed a
 todav's graduate 


This year's issues will feature the following s}mposla: 
Marth: Intensive Care of the Surgic .II Patient 
June: The Handltappt'd '\iur'e \/aternitv Nur,ing 
5eptt'mber: Kldnev and UrologIC Nursmg I Human Sexuality 
December: Operatmg Room Nursing 
Community Health NUf\ing In Canada 
It takes more than just texts and Journals to keep the serious nurse fully intormed 
Enter your subSCription to the Nursing Clinics tor 1975 and find out. 


----------------------------
 
CN 275 

 W. B. Saunders Company Canada LTD. 
. 833 Oxford Street, Toronto 18, Ontario M8Z 5T9 


Yes! Enter m} subscnptlon to the Nursing Clinics ot North America tor 
one year beginning with the March 1975 is
ue. 
[' I enclose check for $15.15. 
o Please bill me. 


"'ame 


Address 


City 


Prov 


Zone _ 



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YOll ti Ille 
Pampers construction 
helps prevent moisture 
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and soiling linens. As . 
result of this superior 
containment, shirts, 
sheets, blankets and 
bed pads don't have to 
be changed as often 
as they would with 
conventional cloth 
diapers. And when less 
time is spent changing 
linens, those who take 
care of babies have 
more time to spend on 
other tasks. 


Instead of holding 
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hydrophobic top sheet 
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PROCTER. GAMBLE CAR. :!1 



news 


I 
'Jomen's Status Is Issue 


II Nursing: ICN Director 


('neva, Switzerland - "The status of women is not only a social issue: it is a 
lirsing issue. too." said Adele Herwitz, executive director of the International 
Úuncil of Nurses (IC:><). 
She made the statement in announcing 
it International Nurses Day 1975. cele- 
tued in most countries on Ma
 12. the 
niversal) of the birth of Florence 
ghtingale. \\.ill focus on the theme 

 ñtern
tional Women' s Year. ,. The 
1Îted Nations ha
 declared 1975 
ternational Women's Year. 
"There are exceptions. of cour
e. but in 
lJst countries the nursing profession is 
Irgelv female:' ICN's executive director 
)int
d out. ., Another reason for nurse 
volvement in the issues that \\.ill receive 
ention in 1975 is the recognition by 
rses of their responsibility as citizens for 
pporting action to meet both health and 
cial needs of the public, The question of 
men's role in modern societv comes 
to lCf'.:'S position 6n human rights in gen- 
al. 
"Man) of the nursing profession's con- 
uing problems are a reflection of the 
Ie traditional1\- accorded to women:' 
clared Her\'. itz. This has affected. for 
ample. the salar} levels in nursing. and 
is made it difficult (0 achieve recognition 
f the need for universit\ education for 
Jrses. and the need for "nurse participa- 
L'n in poliC},- and decision-ma"ing in 

alth matters. she said. 
"The action that \\.ill be taken b} IC\,s 
I member associations on International 
uße
 Da\. and throughout 1975 will 
11) accof'ding to the 
 particular 
ocial 
mditions of each countn. ICN's focu, 
ill be the promotion of eq"ualit) in ever} 
'spect bet\\.een men and \\.omen a
 this 
Tecls Ihe nursing profession and as this 
lects the nUßing and health care availa- 
e to all members of society:' concluded 
erwitz. 


luebec Nurses Say Membership 
'n Hospital Boards Is Worthwhile 
rtawa - Folio\\. ing the election or ap- 
>intment of more than 160 nurses to 
)ards of public hospital centers in 
uebec. L'infirmière canadienne sur- 
:BRUARY 1975 


ve)'ed them (0 find out \\. hether these 
nurses believed such experience \\-as 
worth\\. hile, Three-qudrters of the nurses 
responding (0 the questionnaire said the) 
\\.ould a(.'cept board respomibilit\ again. if 
the) had it to do over, 
The survey questionnaire was sent by 
L'infirmière calladielllle to 137 of the 
nurse-board members. 77 replies \\.ere re- 
ceived. about a 56 percent return. In an 
article in Ihe Februarv IY75 issue of 
L 'illfirmière calladiellll
. staff members 
Nicole Blais and Diane Groulx summarize 
the 77 questionnaire replies and dra\\. a 
profile of the nurses who served on hospi- 
tal boards 1973-4. 
Most of the nurse-board member, oc- 
cupied admini'itrative positions in nursing 
at the time of their election or appointment 
to the board. In most cases. the) \\ere 
elected by the professional council of the 
hospital. and the) belie\ed they \\ere sup- 
ported by nurses in the election, Nurses are 
less well represented on hospital boards in 
large centers. such as 
10ntreal and 
Quèbec City. and in the eastern to\\. nships. 
than in the Sud de Montréal or Saguena)'- 
Lac-St-Jean region
. 
Respondents said the} tit easil) into the 
ne\\ administrative structure: they said 
their professional experience had prepared 
them to assume this "ind of responsibility. 
The) participated in board discussions and 
estimated that their point of v ie\\ \\ as well 
respected. 
Half of the re"pondents believed the 
board structure \\ a., eftective and d(.l1lo- 
cratic. and others thought it \\.as more 
or less effective and more or less demo- 
cratic. In general. respondents said the 
doctors on the board did not have more 
influence than other board members. 
The nurses expressed some ambival- 
ence about their rapport \\ ith the groups 
they repre
ented. They \\ere not sure for 
whom they spoke. However. they said 
(Continued on page /6) 


International Women's Year 1975 


The United Nations' logo for Interna- 
tional Women's Year 1975 is a dove. 
symbolizing peace. The genetic sign 
for \\.oman. a 
phere that repre'ents 
the \\orld, and the mathematical sign 
for "equal" are integral parts. 
 


ONQ Makes 37 Recommendations 
On Community Health Nursing 
Montreal, Que. - A brieffrom the Order 
of Nurses of Quebec (ONQ) to the provin- 
cial Ministry of Social Affairs contains 37 
recommendations for improving commu- 
nity health nursing. The brief \\.as made 
public at the O:'liQ annual meeting in 
November 1974. 
The 50-page document details the func- 
tions of communit) health nurses in the 
care of 5 population groups: mothers. in- 
fants and preschool children. school age 
children. adults. and aged persons. 
The proclamation of the Quebec Health 
and Social Serv ices Act in 1971 placed 
departments of community health \\ ithin 
31 hospital centers in Quebec. Directors of 
nursing service in these hospitab. were. 
thus. made responsible for community 
health nursing. including maternal and 
well-baby care. and school nursing. 
Some of the recommendations in the 
o:-:Q brief refer to the supervision and di- 
rection of community health nursing. In- 
cluded in them are: 
. Programs in nursing care in community 
health should be directed b) a coordinator 
of communit)' health nun.ing who i1> di- 
rectly responsible to the director of nursing 
care: 
. Each nursing program [ that is. the five 
groups mentioned above] should be di- 
THE CANADIAN NURSE 9 



rected by a nurse who is directly responsi- 
ble to the community health nursing coor- 
dinator; 
. The coordinator and the chief of the de- 
partment of community health should be at 
the same level in the hierarchy; and 
. The nur
ing care programs in commun- 
ity health should be adapt
d to the nee
s of 
the population in the soclo-health regIOn. 
Approval of the brief by the ONI.) bureau 
(board of directors). which was given in 
October. 1974. makes it the official posi- 
tion OfONQ. A copy of the brief. in French. 
is available from CNA Library, The brief is 
not yet available in English. 


employee and coordinator for all sub- 
committees. 
The subcommittee'
 objectives are: 
. To examine the underlying causes of 
shortages of nurses in hospitals in New 
Brunswick and to recommend solutions to 
overcome these shortages. Possible fac- 
tors to be examined include employing 
situation. remuneration. social conditions, 
and innovative programs. 
. To examine the projected requirements 
for nur
ing manpower necessary to meet 


needs over the next 3 to 5 years; 
. To examine the projected supply of nUl 
ing manpower over the next 3 to 5 ye.H 
. To review the policies and practices 
the use of nursing manpower in Ne 
Brunswick hospitals. 
To assist the subcommittee. the Nc 
Brunswick Association of Register!' 
Nurses' nursing committee has set up 
task committee to look into the u
e ( 
nurses and the nonnursing functions pc 
fornled by RNs. (Continued on pURe J, 


Ontario Nurses' Union Ups Fee, 
Sets Up 2 New Regional Offices 
Toronto. Ollt. - At its annual meeting on 
14 December 1974. the Ontario Nurses' 
Association (ONA) approved a dues in- 
crease from $5.50 per month to $9. the 
immediate establishment of 2 new re- 
gional offices in Thunder Bay and Ottawa. 
and the enlargement of staff in Hamilton. 
London. and Toronto. 
By mid-January 1975. the ONA had a 
staff of 2U persons. The UNA's annual 
meeting approved the appointment of 
Anne S. Gribben as its chief executive 
officer. 
Jean Lowery. Etobicoke department of 
Health. was re-elected president for a sec- 
ond term; Berenice Hicks. St. Mary's 
General Hospital. Kitchener. was chosen 
president-elect; and Sharon Thompson. 
Porcupine Health Unit. was naJ11
d 
secretary-treasurer for a second term. 
The ONA now comprises 132 local as- 
sociations. representing 16.400 registered 
and graduate nurses, It was sponsored by 
the Registered Nurses Association of 
Ontario to assume the collective bargain- 
ing function. 
ONA was certlltect as a lal10r umon In 
January 1974 and represented nurses in 
province-wide negotiations with the 
Ontario Hospital Association during the 
spring and summer of 1974, (News. 
August 1974. page II. and September 
1974. page 12.) 


5 Nurses Named To Committee 
On Nursing Manpower in N.B. 
FredericTOn. N.B, - Five nurses have 
been named by the provincial department 
of health to serve on a 9-member subcom- 
mittee on nursing manpower. The sub- 
committee will report to the provincial 
Coordinating Committee on Health Man- 
power. 
Nurse members of the subcommittee are 
Myrna Sherrard. who is chairman of the 
subcommittee; Eva O'Connor; Claudette 
Redstone; Gail Dennison; and Lorraine 
Mills. Other subcommittee members are 
Inez Smith. RNA: Dr. Carl Tra
". adminis- 
trator; Dr. T.L. Creamer. physician; and 
Bryan Ferguson, department of health 
10 THE CANADIAN NURSE 


Official Notice 
of 
Annual and Special General Meeting 
of the 
Canadian Nurses' Foundation 


In accordance with Bylaw Section 36. 
notice is given of an annual and special 
general meeting to be held April 2, 
1975. commencing at :WOO hours at 
CNA House. 50 The Driveway. Ot- 
tawa. Ontario. The purpose of the 
meeting is to receive and consider the 
income and expenditure account. bal- 
ance <;heet. and annual reports. and to 
propose changes required to reduce 
co
ts. giving particular attention to the 
membership structure. board of direc- 
tors structure and activities. and ad- 
ministrative policies and procedures. In 
this regard. the meeting will be asked to 
con<;ider and approve the following re- 
solution passed by the board of direc- 
tors. 


.. BE IT RESOLVED That the By- 
law
 of Canadian Nurses' Foundation 
be amended as follows: 
(a) Section 6(a) of the Bylaws is hereby 
amended to read: 
6. The prescribed membership fee 
for each class of member shall be as 
follows: 
(a) Regular Members: An annual 
fee of $10.00 per member; 
(b) Section 9 of the Bylaws is hereby 
amended to read: 
The affairs of the coporation shall be 
directed by a Board of five (5) Direc- 
tors who shall be members of the 
corporation. A majority of the Di- 
rectors shall constitute a quorum. 
(c) Section lO(ii) of the Bylaws is 
amended to read: 
10 Oi) Only the Regular Members 
shall vote on the election of Direc- 
tors, 
(d) Section 13 of the Bylaws is amen- 
ded to read: 
13. Meetings of the Board of Direc- 
tors may be held at any time and 
place on a direction by the Chairman 
of the Board or on a requisition in 


writing by any three (3) members of 
the Board. The secretary shall. upon 
receipt of such a direction or requisi- 
tion. summon a meeting of the 
Board by notice served upon the se- 
veral members of the Board at the 
address in Canada provided by each 
for this purpose. At least fourteen 
(14) days notice shall be given of 
any such meeting of the Board of 
Directors. 
(e) Section 51 (a) of the Bylaws is 
amended to read: 
51. The following shall be Standing 
Committees of the Corporation. The 
Chainnan and members of each 
Standing Committee shall be mem- 
bers of the Canadian Nurses' Foun- 
dation appointed by the Board of 
Directors at the first meeting of the 
Board of Directors following each 
Annual General Meeting of the 
members . 
(a) Selections Committee. There 
shall be three (3) members of the 
Sections Committee including the 
Chairman. all of whom may be St:- 
lected from the Board of Directors. 
The Selections committee shall re- 
ceive and consider all applications 
for bursaries, scholarships. and fel- 
lowships for graduate study in nur- 
sing. After considering such appli- 
cations. the Selections Committee 
shall report to the Board of Directors 
with its recommendations as to 
whom bursaries. scholarships and 
fellowships should be awarded. and 
the suggested amount of each such 
award. 


All members of the Canadian Nurses' 
Foundation are eligible to attend and 
participate in this annual and special 
general meeting - Helen K. Mussal- 
lem. Secretary -Treasurer, Canadian 
II/urses' F ollndation. 


FEBRUARY 197' 



How come you're probably 
IRilying a lot more income tax 
I thãn a man who makes the 
same money you do? 


You're probably paying a lot more tax because he's putting his money into a Registered 
Retirement Savings Plan and you're not. 
The sad fact is that too many bank and trust company managers 
think that women don't understand financial matters. 
As a result, most working women simply don't realize 
that probably the best thing they can do with their money 
taxwise is to put it into an RSP. 
Depending on your taxable income and what kind of 
pension plans you have, you can end up paying as much 
as 30% less income tax with an RSP deduction. You can 
get up to a $1,000 or more tax refund cheque from the 
government. 
Even if you don't have any ready cash to put into an RSP, 
you can use whatever qualified stocks and bonds 
or trust and deposit certificates you have 
to get a big tax refund. 
You can probably even borrow the 
money to get into an RSP from 
Guaranty Trust. And wind up 
earning a good deal more than 
the after-tax cost of your loan. 
Most important, when you finally 
stop working or need money for something really important, you'll 
have the money put away. 
It's all fully explained in a comprehensive, 
yet delightfully simple new book that's free 
from Guaranty Trust. 
There's one catch though. Mter March 1, 
the government won't let you into an RSP 

at will do you any good on your 1974 
mcome tax return. 
So drop into your local Guaranty Trust 
branch or send in the coupon and we'll get an 
RSP book off to you right away. 
It could be the difference between 
thinking about what you're going to give the 
government, or looking forward to what the 
government is going to give you. 



 



 


.
.. 


d}f
f/ 
--
--11t, 

 



 


 


u 
_ vu- ," 


.. 


P; 
t
t-:=ore tax I 
I than a man who makes the same money I do. I 
Please send me the free book. 
I Name: I 
I Street: I 
I City. Province:_ Code:_ I 
Mail to: RSP Infonnation Centre, 
I Guaranty Trust, P.O. Box 328, I 
Richmond Hill, Ontario L4C 4 Y 6 I 
I Guaran1y/ 
 I 
1.____ Trust
 I 



New 9th Edition! 


Shafer et a 


Anthony-Kolthoff New 6th EditIon! 


TEXTBOOK OF ANATOMY 
AND PHYSIOLOGY 


A tradition of excellence has been estab- 
lished through 8 editions of this leading text. 
The 9th edition is no exception, for it adds 
fresh features and a wealth of new informa- 
tion based on recent findings. As in previous 
editions, outline surveys introduce each 
chapter; outline summaries and review 
questions conclude each chapter. Diagrams 
and tables appear in nearly all chapters with 
suggested readings, abbreviations, prefixes, 
and glossary. New material includes: altered 
states of consciousness and the "emotional 
brain"; biofeedback training; physiological 
changes that occur during meditation (yoga); 
and more. In conveying ideas, the authors 
hope to "help students see science for what 
it is-a continual asking of questions and 
searching for answers, not merely a collec- 
tion of facts and final answers." Once again. 
Mr. Ernest W. Beck has enriched the text 
with a number of new drawings. 
By CATHERINE PARKER ANTHONY. R.N., B.A.. 
M.S.; with the collaboration of NORMA JANE 
KOL THOFF. R.N., B.S.. Ph.D. April. 1975. Approx. 624 
pages. 8" x 10". 335 figures (144 In color). including 
239 by ERNEST W. BECK, and an insert on human 
anatomy containing 15 full-color. full-page color plates. 
with six in transparent Trans-Vlslon@ (by ERNEST W. 
BECK). About $13.15. 


New 9th Edition! ANATOMY AND PHYSI- 
OLOGY lABORATORY MANUAL. By 
CATHERINE PARKER ANTHONY, R.N., B.A., 
M.S. April, 1975. Approx. 224 pages, 8" x 10", 
115 drawings, 69 to be labeled. About $6.55. 


MEDICAL-SURGICAL NURSING 


The latest edition of one of the field's leadinç 
texts features a new, larger format, neVI 
easy-to-read type, new information on ecol. 
ogy and health, and much more! This revisior 
includes: 
· an important new chapter on ecology anc 
health that reflects current thought on thi
 
vital issue 
· an extensive new chapter (the largest ir 
the text) on neurologic diseases 
· a new chapter on musculoskeletal dis- 
orders and injuries 
· an expanded chapter on reproductive dis- 
eases 
· a revised chapter on urinary diseases in- 
cluding cardiovascular physical assess men 
Greater depth in physiology, pathophysi- 
ology, and nursing assessment is noted 
throughout the text. New illustrations stress 
this greater depth. 
By KATHLEEN NEWTON SHAFER. R.N., M.A.; JANET 
R. SAWYER. R.N., Ph.D.; AUDREY M. McCLUSKEY, 
R.N.. M.S.. Sc.M.Hyg.; EDNA lIFGREN BECK, R.N.. 
M.A.; and WILMA J. PHIPPS, R.N.. A.M. April. 1975. 
Approx. 1,056 pages, 8'1'" x 11" , 608 illustrations. 
About $17.35. 


WORKBOOK AND STUDY GUIDE FOR 
MEDICAL-SURGICAL NURSING: A Patient- 
Centered Approach. By ALMA JOEL 
LABUNSKI, R.N., B.S.N.; MARJORIE 
BEYERS, R.N., B.S., M.S.; LOIS S. CARTER, 
R.N., B.S.N.; BARBARA PURAS STELMAN, 
R.N., B.S.N.; MARY ANN PUGH RANDOLPH, 
R.N., B.S.N.; and DOROTHY SAVICH, R.N., 
B.S. 1973, 331 pages plus FM I-VIII, 7%" x 
10W'. Price, $6.70. 


New 6th Edition! 


Matheney- Topalis 


PSYCHIATRIC NURSING 


This carefully revised edition provides stu- 
dents with clear insights into the very latest 
thoughts in this vital area of nursing. Using 
a behavior-centered theme, the authors fo- 
cus on community involvement and examine 
the role of the psychiatric nurse as both a 
hospital practitioner and an integral mem- 
ber of society. Expanded chapters on crisis 


management, drug dependency and suicide' 
(both in and out of the hospital setting) fur- 
ther emphasize this role. 


By RUTH V. MATHENEY. R.N.. Ed. D.; and MARY 
TOPALIS. R.N., Ed.D. Guest contributor: JEANETTE 
A. WEISS, R.N., M.A. July. 1974. 440 pages plus FM 
I-XIV. 7" x 10", Illustrated. Price, $10.00. I 
I 



\Jew 9th Edition! 


Mereness- Taylor 


ESSENTIALS OF 
PSYCHIATRIC NURSING 


Carefully reorganized and updated, this new edition 
presents a complete overview of the field of psychi- 
atric nursing to help students gain the background 
they need to work effectively in this field. The open- 
l ing section provides a foundation for understand- 
ing the development of personality. the cause and 
Iprevention of mental illness. and communication 
theory. Section II incorporates the principles of 
I Psychiatric nursing and provides a basis for the 
nurse to act as therapeutic agent in a variety of 
,situations. In Section III. frequently encountered 
" psychiatric entities are discussed including the 
cause and treatment of withdrawal. depression, 
elation. suspicion. neurosis, personality disorders, 
toxic and organic brain disorders and behavior dis- 
orders. Section IV surveys community psychiatry 
and includes new material on suicide prevention 
centers, outreach clinics and walk-in clinics. The 
final section traces the historical development of 
psychiatric nursing and considers the legal aspects 
lof work in this field. 
IBy DOROTHY A. MERENESS. R.N.. Ed. D.; and CECEUA 
I MONAT TAYLOR. R.N.. M.S. July. 1974. 356 pages plus FM 
I-XII. 7" x 10". 26 illustrations. Price. $10.00 
I 


A New Book! 


Whaley 


UNDERSTANDING 
INHERITED DISORDERS 


Basic concepts of inherited diseases are introduced 
in this book by first presenting general principles 
and then outlining their applications and excep- 
tions. Comprehensive coverage includes: the 
physical basis of inheritance; gene transmission 
in families; single gene disorders: chromosome 
aberrations; genes and immunity; genetic equi- 
librium; heritability of common diseases and dis- 
orders; etc. A glossary of terms facilitates use of 
the text, and the appendices include the genetic 
code, blood group systems, and dermatoglyphics. 
Since many inherited disorders are indistinguish- 
able from those due to environmental causes, the 
effects of environment of the individual through- 
out a lifetime are included-particularly those 
which affect the developing organism. 
By LUCILLE F. WHALEY. R.N.. M.S. June. 1974. 220 pages 
plus FM I-XII. 6'/2" x 9'12', 121 Illustrations. Price. $11.50. 


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PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION 
IN ARITHMETIC, DOSAGES, 
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This updated review of basic arithmetic includes 
"old" and "new" math, as well as newer logarithms 
for division and subtraction. The text describes 
Centigrade and Fahrenheit temperature scales, 
apothecaries, metric and household systems of 
measurement and the problems encountered in 
conversion from one system to another. The stu- 
dent is introduced to mathematical problems in- 
volved in administ,ering medication; for added I 
relevance, these incorporate both new and com- 
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on ratio and intravenous solutions. Sufficient cov- 
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determine if he needs more time with the material l 
at hand, 


By DOLORES F. SAXTON. R.N.. B.S.. M.A.. Ed.D.; and JOHN 
F. WALTER. Sc.B., M.A.. Ph.D. June, 1974. 66 pages plus FM I-X. 
7" x 10". Price. $5.00. 


A New Book! 


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PROBLEM-ORIENTED MEDICAL 
RECORD IMPLEMENTATION 
(Allied Health Peer Review) 
This new text provides a clear and direct methoc 
for effective use of the patient's records. A "how- 
to-do-it" manual using the "Problem-Orientec 
Medical Record" method organizes patient infor- 
mation according to a patient's data base: problerr 
identification worksheet; a written plan for each 
proposed problem solution; a continuous written 
evaluation of each problem; flow sheets or graphs; 
and an automatic, updated index. This process 
obligates the present health care team to docu-' 
ment objective data and to clearly describe infor- 
mation from all sources, e.g., previous physicians, 
family members, and agencies. It details system, 
implementation in hospitals (private, university,' 
and psychiatric), episodic care facilities, physi- 
cians' offices and community services including 
nursing homes and extended care facilities. 
By ROSEMARIAN BERNI. R.N.. M.N.; and HELEN READEY,I 
R.N.. M.S. October. 1974. 183 pages plus FM I-XIV. 7" x 10". 14 
illustrations. Price. $6.25. 



New Book' 


Davis-Kramer-Strauss New 2nd Edition' 


Brunner 


NURSES IN PRACTICE: 
A Perspective on Work Environments 
lis new book fortifies students with some- 
ing that's vitally important: a sense of per- 
>ective. Rather than presenting nursing as 
should be, the authors discuss the way it 
pointing out all the "externals" along the 
!ay: lack of autonomy, society's attitudes 
ward the role of women . and the care 
IJmponents offered by other health profes- 
ional s , since the nurse's key value is her 
Jility to coordinate these components. An 
Jtstanding feature of this collection of arti- 
les (12 original. 5 previously published) is 
3 abundant use of field notes-a traditional 
.search tool. but a new teaching strategy. 
'his empirical approach allows students an 
'{ewitness vantage point to a wide range of 
,ursing situations, and the actions and 
"teractions which affect them. 
I 


f MARCELLA Z. DAVIS, R.N.. Ph.D.; MARLENE 
,RAMER. R.N.. Ph.D.; and ANSELM L. STRAUSS. 
,'1.0.; with 11 contributors. February, 1975. Approx. 
'2 pages. 6 3 /'" x 93/.... About $7.30. 


ORTHOPEDIC NURSING: 
A Programmed Approach 


The primary objective of this book is to assist 
the student in learning principles of ortho- 
pedic nursing care. The text assumes basic 
knowledge in anatomy, physiology, medical 
terminology, and nursing skills. Material is 
included on joint motion. basic body me- 
chanics, classification of fractures, stages 
of bone healing, complications of fractures, 
treatment of orthopedic conditions, princi- 
ples of nursing care of both surgical and of 
non-surgical orthopedic patients. Revisions 
include: increased emphasis on the nursing 
process; expansion of the section on pre and 
post-operative care of the orthopedic patient 
to include greater depth on techniques; in- 
creased material on care of the surgical ortho- 
pedic patient to include more emphasis on 
care; greater emphasis on pathophysiology 
in the section on arthritis; and a new section 
on total hip replacement. 
By NANCY A. BRUNNER. R.N.. B.S.N.. M.S. February. 
1975. Approx. 208 pages. 7" x 10". 126 illustrations. 
About $7.10. 


New Book! 


Hilt-Schmitt New 8th Edition' 


ORTHOPEDIC NURSING 


:JEDIATRIC ORTHOPEDIC NURSING 


his comprehensive text presents thorough 
overage of areas relevant to pediatric ortho- 
,edic nursing. including: the history of pedi- 
tric orthopedic nursing; anatomy and 
'hysiology of the musculoskeletal system; 
lommon pediatric orthopedic diseases and 
isorders; nursing care of children in casts; 
'actions used in care and treatment of chi 1- 
'ren; use of restraints; the immobilized child; 
laintenance of muscle function; activities; 
I races, crutches, and prosthetic devices; 
nd more. Specific emphasis is placed on 
le use of Bradford Frames, nursing care of 
le child in traction, and emotional support 
',f the child and parents. Other highlights 
:lclude nursing ca
e plans, home care in- 
,tructions, and more than 270 illustrations. 


'y NAfIICY E. HILT, R.N.; and E. WILLIAM SCHMITT. 
r.. M.D. January. 1975. Approx. 224 pages. 7" x 10". 
91 illustrations. About $11.55. 


Larson-Gould 


This new edition presents a comprehensive 
resource on orthopedics applicable to nurs- 
ing at all levels. It has been completely re- 
vised and updated to include current 
information on body mechanics, behavioral 
aspects of rehabilitation, metabolic disorders 
of bone, and total hip and knee joint replace- 
ment. Other areas discussed include: care of 
patients in casts, traction, and braces; sur- 
gical patients; trauma to bones. joints, 
and ligaments; arthritis; bone tumors; in- 
fections of bones; congenital deformities; 
developmental diseases; cerebral palsy; 
neuro-muscular affections; operative pro- 
cedures; and legal liability of nurses. 


By CARROLL B. LARSON. M.D.. F.A.C.S.; and 
MARJORIE GOULD. R.N.. B.S., M.S. April. 1974. 488 
pages plus FM I-XII. 7" x 10". 672 illustrations. Price, 
$12.55. 



news 


(Continued from paKe 10) 
RNABC Adds Four Non-Nur'ies 
To Its Board Of Directors 
Vancou\'er. B.C.- The first 4 non-nurse 
director
 of the Regi!>tered Nurses' As- 
sol:iation of British Columbia took up their 
appointments at the January 1975 meeting 
of the hoard of directors at provincial 
headquarters in Vancouver. They are: 
Vakri Laxton. executive director of 
Action B. c.. representing the provincial 
government; Clive Lytle. assistant 
secretary-treasurer of the B. C. Federation 
of Labour; Ada Brown, president of the 
B.C. Branch. Con
umers' Association of 
Canada; and Dolores Holmes. a Van- 
couver lawyer, appointed from among 
nominees suggested by RNABC districts 
and chapters. 
The appointment of non-nurse 
directors was made possible by 
amendment of the Registered Nurses 
Act, approved by the provincial gov- 
ernment at the request of the RNABC. 
and subsequent amendment of the 
association's constitution and bvlaws. 
Other members of the board o'f directors 
are the association' s 6 elected officers and 
the 12 elected di!>trict presidents. 


Anthropologist Named to ONQ 
Administrative Committee 
Montreal, Quebec - The sixth member of 
the administrative committee of the Order 
of Nurses of Quebec (ON<.,>) is Guy 
Dubreuil. professor of anthropology 
at the University of Montreal. Dubreuil 
was named by the government to 
represent the public on the ONQ'S 
administrative committee. f(\[merly 
called the executive council. 
Names of the five other committee 
members were included in news of the 
ON<.,> annual meeting (Jan. 1975. page 9). 


Alberta Universities Unite 
On Degree Program For RNs 
Calgan;, Alberra - The University of 
Calgary and the Univer
ity of Alberta have 
e
tablished a cooperative program that 
will allow practicing registered nurses in 
Calgary to pursue a U of A nursing degree 
at the U of C campus. 
The program commenced with one 
course in the fall session 1974 and con- 
tinued in the winter session with 2 courses 
being offered. Most of the courses will be 
in the evening. although some may be 
scheduled in the day, depending on the 
response. 
To obtain a U of A nursing degree under 
the guidelines of the new program, appli- 
cants must complete 12 full courses. 
16 THE CANADIAN NURSE 


which nonnally requires 2 calendar years. 
Several courses presently offered by the 
University of Calgary may be accepted for 
transfer of credit to the degree program. 
Courses that are not offered by U of C will 
be taught by U of A instructors in Calgary 
on a part-time basis. 
Marguerite Schumacher, director of 
University of Calgar) .!> school of nursing. 
stresses that the continuing education 
program with the U of A is being provided 
on an interim basis only. and does not 
eliminate the need for the U of C to de- 
velop a similar program of its own. 


CNAs Win Human Rights Decision 
On Equal Pay With Orderlies 
Edmonton. Alberta - The Alberta Human 
Rights Commission has decided in favor 
of'ã group of certified nursing aides, who 
claimed they were not receiving the same 
pay as certified nursing orderlies. although 
their jobs were essentially the same. The 
claims were filed by the certified nursing 
aides in April 1973. and the Human Rights 
Commission's decision wa!> reported in 
The Edmoll1on Journal of 2 December 
1974. 
The certified nursing aides who filed the 
complaints were employed at the Royal 
Alexandra Hospital. Edmonton. but the 
Alberta Hospital Association has recom- 
mended that all hospitals in the province 
pay nursing aides at the orderlies' rate of 
pay. 
The predominant rate of pay in Alberta 
for nursing orderlies ranges from $590 to 
$635 a month. while nursing aides were 
paid $480 to $560 a month. Since the nurs- 
ing aides who filed the complaint were 
employed at the Royal Alexandra. they 
will be paid at that hospital's rate for nurs- 
ing orderlies, which is $626 to $681 a 
month. 
The certified nursing aides belonged to 
a collective bargaining unit and were 
locked in to a contract with differential pay 
scales. so they went to the Human Rights 
Commission to plead for equal pay for 
equal work. The case is believed to set a 
precedent for Canada. 


Year of Advanced Clinical Studies 
Begins at Univ. of Manitoba 
Winnipe!?, Man. - Eight registered 
nurses with experience in community 
health nursing began a year of advanced 
clinical 
tudies I November at the Univer- 
sity of Manitoba. 
This program is intended to extend the 
nurses' knowledge and skills so they can 
work confidently in a primary care setting; 
for example. they will have primary con- 
tact with persons who come with medical 
complaints to clinics, and will follow the 
health of special groups in the community. 
who need above average attention. 
During the first five months ofthis prog- 


ram. the nurses attend lectures at the uni. 
versity and gain practical experience ... 
primary care in hospital outpatient de- 
partments. geriatric centers. psychiatric 
and rehabilitation clinics. 
The last seven months will consist, 
supervised field experience in the seuin
 
in which the nurses are employed. The\ 
are being supported financially by vario
, 
health agencies. and have agreed to prac. 
tice their expanded skills in a specifiec 
community for at least a year after gradua- 
tion. 
This program. which is being coordi. 
nated by Professor Mary Peever of the 
school of nursing, is intended to be an 
interim program until its content is incor. 
pora
ed into the university's bachelor of 
nursmg program. 


HSC Women's Auxiliary Puts Out 
Italian Primer for Medical Use 
Toronto, 01lt. - The women's auxilial) 
of the Hospital for Sick Children (HSC). 
Toronto, ha
 sponsored preparation of a 
booklet "Perché Siete Qua?" ("Why Are 
You Here?"). an Italian primer for medi- 
cal personnel_ 
The book provides basic vocabulary and 
key expressions that the health profes- 
sional will need to conduct a medical ex. 
amination. There are also personal phrase" 
of reassurance. such as "Don't worry. we 
will take good care of you. .. 
A single copy of the booklet is available 
on request. free of charge. to any doctor 01 
medical profe
sional in the hope that it will 
help Italian-speaking Canadians com- 
municate their health needs and avert po- 
tentially dangerous misunderstanding of 
medical instructions. 
Address requests to: Department of 
Public Infonnation, The Hospital for Sick 
Children. 555 University Ave.. Toronto. 
ant. 


(Continued from page 9) 
they had obtained some changes in the 
organizational plan of the hospital. 
Application of the new Quebec law 
governing health and social services, 
which was effective December 1971. re- 
sulted in reconstruction of the manage- 
ment boards of health institutions. [he 
new structure assures board representation 
of groups of individuals and institutions. 
such as universities. local health and social 
centers. consumers, professionals, non- 
professionals. and doctors, in the man- 
agement of hospitals. 
However, it does not guarantee particI- 
pation of nurses. unless they are elected by 
the hospital's consultative council of pro- 
fessionals. or are appointed by one of the 
other groups mentioned. The Order of 
Nurses of Quebec has strongly urged its 
members to inform themselves and to or- 
ganize for these board elections. c;.. 
FEBRUARY 1975 



, IUI 
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THE CANADIAN NURSE 17 



fact. more than that. A team's function 
depends on some common definition of an 
area of care. Without more clarity than 
now exists. it is difficult to see how educa- 
tion therapy will become a professional- 
level service. 
Gross errors in health teaching can now 
exist. probably more by omission than 
commission. although neither has been 
adequately studied. A humorless example 
is that the Patient's Bill of Rights. which is 
meant to represent a reformulation of the 
contract between health professionals and 
institutions and patients. is probably not 
understandable to someone with less than 
a post high school reading level!5 


Definitions and standards 
For purposes of professional practice. 
patient education ought to be defined as 
learning (change in behavior) brought 
about by contact with a health care worker 
or agency. As a therapeutic tool. teaching 
is aimed at individuals with normal contact 


be accomplished by the patient. a task that 
could not be accomplished in the time and 
with the expertise ofthe usual client-health 
professional relationship. 
Expertise is really the crux of the matter; 
without it. all the time in the world is of no 
use. Yet virtually no one has systemati- 
cally tested the limit of the amount and 
kind of patient education that can be pro- 
vided as part of the usual care given by a 
staff adequately prepared to educate. sup- 
ported by a well-developed institutional 
policy and program. 
Guidelines in terms of patient care out- 
comes are rare. Perhaps the most explicit 
has been Green. who proposed cost benefit 
measures for health education. and sug- 
gested that 50 percent success rates are the 
mode. if not the mean. for serious health 
education programs. 6 


Process criteria 
Meanwhile, process uiteria seem use- 
ful. at least as a focus. for describing the 


The age of patient education is upon US, and we're not 
ready. . .. Recent changes in nurse practice acts in sev- 
erallocations have made more explicit the inclusion of 
patient or health education. 


with reality. and its goal is not reconstruc- 
tion of personality. 
The common ploy of limiting the defini- 
tion to those learnings intended by the pro- 
fessional clearly eliminates responsibility 
for the often potent informal. unintended 
learnings that occur. But what difference 
does it make to the patient if learning was 
or wasn't intended? 
Of course. not all this service ought to 
be included in the definition of separately 
reimbur
able patient education. Influence 
is an inevitable part of the professional- 
client relationship; the time and influence 
of that relationship must be used as part of 
a consciously planned therapeutic pro- 
gram. But. it is also possible to define those 
times in which a major learning task must 
20 THE CANADIAN NURSE 


full range of needs for the patients an in- 
stitution serves and for setting priorities 
for practice. 
The following process is suggested: 


I. Document the need for teaching for all 
rational patients and for families of 
nonrational patients. 
2. Develop a priority system for meeting 
patient education needs. 
3. Ensure that all patients and/or their 
agents have adequate understanding 
and skill to carry out prescribed treat- 
ments safely. including medications 
that will be self-administered. 
Medical regimens often introduce power- 
ful therapeutic agents that are new to pa- 
tients. Many have no reasonable way of 


learning how to avoid the dangers of such 
agents. unless they are provided with in- 
struction (not just information). 
4. Ensure adequate skill and understand- 
ing in doing self-care activities. to the 
extent that the contract with the patient 
reqUIres. 
Adults are largely responsible for the 
health aspects of their daily living func- 
tions. Illness often requires aid with those 
functions. But the goal is to return that 
responsibility to the individual. He retains 
the right to perform those functions as he I 
wishes, unless affected by law or by a I 
contract with a health professional for ser- 
vices. 
5. Demonstrate evidence of adequate skill 
in the process of teaching: I 
. obtaining and using assessment of 
client readiness (motivation and al- 
ready existing skills and knowledge); I 
. articulation of dear goals that reflect I 
client readiness and desired medical 
outcomes; 
. facility with a range of instructional 
methodologies and ability to match I 
them to the kind of learning to be ac- I 
complished; and 
. obtaining and interpreting evaluative 
data with ability to make correction in 
the teaching process, suggested by t 
data. 


Category of needs 
To develop a priority system for meet- 
ing patients' needs for education (the sec- 
ond step), needs might be categorized in 
the following way: 
Acute educational needs exist when a 
lack of understanding is causing psycho- 
social anguish and/or physical l 
danger. 
Preventive educational needs exist 
when a condition of some threat is' 
likely to occur to an individual or group 
who has little skill for handling it. The 
seriousness of the threat and the proba- 
bility of its occurring both vary. 
Maintenance educational needs eXlSI 
for those living with medically derived I 
alterations in their living patterns. whc 
will need more or less frequent reteach- J 
ing. and those for whom a deficit Of l 
FEBRUARY 197! 



understanding and skill is causing diffi- 
culty with normal developmental tasks. 
Ithough not inclusive. some brief patient 
) amples may help to clarify this category 
'stem. An acute educational need caus- 
g psychosocial anguish can be seen in 
e explosive tension that can build in the 
mily of a patient who is at home after 
yocardial infarction. if neither the pa- 
nt nor the family understands the nature 
. the disease or the physician' s instruc- 
Jns. An acute educational need causing 
Iysical danger can be present when' a 
Iitient \\- ho is on anticoagulants has a seri- 
'" bleeding episode and doesn't know 

 \\- to handle it or how to dist I':uish it 
m'minor bleeding episodes. 
Preventive needs vary in their predicta- 
lity. but obvious examples include those 
I'rsons who rate very high on risk factors 
Ir cardiovascular disease or diabetes and 
ho can be taught to reduce these risks and 
recognize the disease at its early stages. 
he maintenance category of educational 
I
eds recognizes that many persons with a 
1 1ron ic disease. who are on a long-term 
I edical regimen. will decrease their de- 

 e of compliance. Reteaching. usually 
1mbined with screening for complica- 
ns. can boost that compliance. A person 
. hose social competency and understand- 

 llg is minimal (such as a mentally retarded 
ult) may well need periodic education at 
es of change and stress. such as becom- 
g a parent. 
These categories are quite fluid and 
metimes not mutually exclusive. But 
ch a system allows priority setting ac- 
rding to an estimate ofthe seriousness of 
e difficulty. It should also allow analysis 
the nurse' s pattern of respond ing to 
eds. For example. are maintenance and 
eventive needs too often allowed to be- 
rne acute? 


esired and undesired effects 
Among health professionals. the most 
vious goal of patient education is com- 
liance with treatment regimen and with 
ther desirable health behavior. The 
eakness of this goal can be its closed 
oor attitude toward incorporation of the 
atien" s goal. even though this incorpora- 
BRUARY 1975 


tion frequently constitutes an important 
element for motivated learning. The no- 
tion of "intelligent" compliance needs to 
be further articulated. Such compliance 
includes the client's goals and leeway in 
which he makes decisions. Training of pa- 


is to document evidence of a core of prac- 
titioners able to practice patient education 
according to standards. And a third is pro- 
vision of high-q uality. effective health 
educational services to persons of all 
socioeconomic status. educational level. 


Gross errors in health teaching can now exist, proba- 
bly more by omission than commission. although 
neither has been adequately studied. 


tients for home hemodialysis. home trans- 
fusions for hemophiliacs. and so on have 
reminded the medical community that pa- 
tients can be taught to take a great deal of 
responsibility. 
Patient education can serve as a cost 
containment measure Its effect on psycho- 
social well-being. including comfort. has 
been fully debated but not supported with 
much empirical evidence. 
Some undesired effects seem to have 
been overestimated. and others seriously 
underestimated or ignored. There is con- 
cern about the ability of patients, who have 
additional information and skills. to 
evaluate the services of health care givers; 
it is feared that they will judge from super- 
ficial knowledge of the full complexity of 
the situation. 
Simple learning failure implies that the 
learning goal was not reached. and so the 
problem to which it was a solution is left 
unresolved. But it is indeed possible to exit 
from an education program in worse shape 
than one entered. by the development of 
incapacitating confusion or severe conflict 
between what one was taught and how one 
or one's significant others believe in liv- 
ing. The patient can become a victim if 
members of a health team vary signific- 
antly in their expectations and demands of 
him. 7 


Tasks before us 
Health professionals have several tasks. 
One is further development and validation 
of standards of care A closely related task 


cultural background. and place of resi- 
dence. 


References 
I. PohI. M.L. Teaching acllVllIes of the 
nursing praclilioner. Nurs. Res. 14:4-1l. 
Winter 1965. 
2. Duff. Raymond S. and Hollingshead. 
Augusl B. Sickness and society. New 
York. Harper and Row. 1968. 
3. Korsch. B.M. and Negrele. V.F. Doctor- 
palienl communication. Sci. Amer. 227: 
66-74. Aug. 1972. 
4. United States. Department of Health. Edu- 
calion and Welfare. Nalional High Blood 
Pressure Educalion Program. Executi.'e 
summary of the Task Force Reports 10 the 
H)pertenslOn Information and Education 
Advisory Committee. Wa!>hington. U.S. 
Gov!. Print. Off.. 1973. (DNEW Publica- 
tion No. (NIH) 74-592) 
5. Jepson. H. A study of the comparison of the 
education level of patients to the readability 
level of the patients' bill of rights. :-.1 in- 
neapolis. Uni"ersity of Minnðota. School 
of Nursing. 1974. (Unpublished Plan B. 
paper. ) 
6. Green. L. To\\-ard cost-benefit evalualions 
of health education: 
ome concepts. 
methods and examples. Health Educ. 
Mono. 2 Supp. I, 1974. (/11 press) 
7. De- Nour. A. K. et al. A study of chronic 
hemodialysis leams - differences in l'pin- 
ions and expectalion!>. J. ChrvlI. Dis. 
25:8:441-8. Aug. 197
. ç.. 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 21 



InJWln 
oeJ metric 
ð rme fOr reulew 


For most diabetics, a concentration of 100 units of insulin per cc (U-l 00 insulin) is 
the simplest and safest concentration. It is compatible with the metric system and I 
reduces the volume of the injection. The introduction of U-l 00 gives the nurse an 
opportunity, not only to review her own knowledge of insulin use in diabetes, but 
also to assess the diabetic individual's understanding of it. 


Elizabeth Laugharne 


Few. if any. nurses do not know the date of 
the great breakthrough by Banting and 
Best that provided us with an injectable 
insulin. It has been estimated that 
25,000,000 lives have been saved since 
insulin was discovered.' Diabetics now 
live full lives with a life span almost equal 
to the nondiabetic. 2 
The first insulin was crystalline insulin. 
which had a short action of approximately 
4 to 6 hours. It is obvious what difficulties 
this presented, and. although diabetics in 
1921 were quite prepared to take more 
than one injection daily. the advent of the 
longer-acting insulins was welcomed. 
In the past 50 years, medical research 
has made greater progress than in the past 
1,000 years. With the development of the 
electron microscope. we have learned the 
structure of the insulin molecule. 3 We 
know that proinsulin is a precursor to 
insulin. 4 With this additional understand- 


Elizabdh Laughame (R.N.. Toronto General 
Ho
pital 
chool of nur
ing) is nurse- 
coordinalOr of the Tri-Ho
pital Diabetes Edu- 
cation Centre for New Mount Sinai Hospital, 
Toronto General Ho
pital, and Women'
 Col- 
lege Ho
pital in Toronto. She is chaimlan. pro- 
fe

ional health .... orkers' section. Canadian 
Diabetic Association. and a member of the Al- 
lied health profö
ional section. American 
Diabetes Association. 


22 THE CANADIAN NURSE 


ing and knowledge, we are able to make 
much better insulins today. resulting in 
fewer problems and better control of dia. 
betes. 


A time for review 
The difficulties inherent in assurin!' 
adequate instruction to ensure a proper un 
derstanding of the unit strength of insulit 
are well documented. 5 . 6 To teach that "; 
unit is a unit is a unit" has been one of thl 
greatest challenges to the nurse teachin! 
the diabetic. We have had confusion re 
suiting from different unit strengths. sucl' 
as 20 units per cc. 40 units per cc. and 8( 
units percc. Now. in 1974. we have U-IO( 
insulins (100 units per cc). Nurses ma
 
well ask: "Who needs another kind 0 
insulin?" I 
Perhaps this is an appropriate time t< 
review the kinds of insulin available ill 
Canada and their mode, peak. and dura 
tion of action. (Figure I.) This is a goo< 
starting point. Many diabetics and nurse 
are found lacking when asked the ques 
tions: "Is timing of insulin important?' I 
and "Is it necessary to eat breakfast im 
mediately after taking insulin?" The an-I 
swers to these questions lie in a good un- 
derstanding of insulin action. 
Nurses should also know the meaning 0 
unit strength of insulin. One unit of insulit 
is a measurement of weight - 24 mg. 0 
insulin crystals. The type of solution it 
FEBRUARY 1975 



FIGURE I 
Insulins Available in Canada, and Their Action 
Duration of Action Peak Period of Insulin 
if injected at 


Insulin 


Type 


Regular (Toronto) 
Neutral 
Semilente 
NPH 
Lente 
Protamine Zinc 
Ultralente 


fast 
fast 
fast 
medium 
medium 
long 
long 


Up to 8 hours 
Up to 8 hours 
12-16 hours 
18-24 hours 
18-28 hours 
36 hours 
36 hours or more 


8A.M. 
9 a.m.-1 p.m. 
9 a.m.-1 p.m. 
10 a.m.-2 p.m. 
4 p.m.-8 p.m. 
4 p.m.-8 p.m. 
10 p.m.-4 a.m. 
10 p.m.-2 a.m. 


6 P.M. 
7 p.m.-11 p.m. 
7 p.m.-11 p.m. 
8 p.m.-Midnight 
12 mid.-6 a.m. 
12 mid.-6 a.m. 
8 a.m.-2 p.m. 
8 a.m.-12 noon 


t,hich the crystals are dissolved provides 
ihort-. medium-. or long-acting insulins. 
'-he unit strength IS the concentratIOn per 
,ubic centimeter. 
A study by the American Diabetes As- 
ociation and insulin manufacturers in the 
Inited States and Canada concluded that. 
'or most diabetics. a concentration of 100 
nits per cc (U-I 00 insulin) would be the 
'implest and safest concentration. It would 
Iso be compatible with the metric system 
lod would reduce the volume of the injec- 
iOn. In April 1974, Connaught 
_aboratories sent out information regard- 
Ing these insulins to every phannacist. 
Ilospital. and physician in Canada.7 Man- 
Ilfacturers of syringes. such as Becton- 
')ickinson Co. Ltd.. began to prepare for 
he changeover with production of U-100 
isposable and reusable syringes. 


'Jroblems 
Despite careful planning, this change 
as been fraught with problems. U-80 and 
-40 insulins are still available. Health 
rofessionals. hospitals. and manufaclUr- 
rs of syringes have admitted that avail- 
bility of other unit strengths has made 
'hem slow to change over. There has been 
ittle infonnation for the lay person. and it 
as been generally agreed that the hoped- 
or impact of U-I 00 insulins did not occur. 
Press reports concerning a shortage of 
nsulin have only made the situation 
orse. because of some panic buying of 
nsulin by diabetics. Syringes have been 
ifficult to obtain. This has been partly due 
EBRUARY 1975 


to drug wholesalers wanting to move exist- 
ing stOl:b before buying U-I 00 syringes. 


The challenge for nursing 
A great deal of effective patient educa- 
tion can and should be carried out by indi- 
vidual nurses. The challenge of U-IOO 
gives the nurse an opportunity. not only to 
review her own knowledge of the use of 
insulin in diabetes. but also to assess the 
understanding of the diabetic. All 
insulin-dependent diabetics should have 
their equipment checked at least once as 
they change over to U-I 00 insulin. 
This provides nurses with the opportu- 
nity to review such aspects as: 


o Does the diabetic understand unit 
strength? The author has found that few 
lay people and some health professionals 
have diffIculty grasping the fact that the 
unit dose wIll not change with U-100. For 
example. an intellIgent. well-educated 
diabetic who is taking 45 units of U-80 
asked. "Will I take 45/80 of 100 as my 
new dose?" The unit dose remains the 
same; this should be stressed to health pro- 
fessionals and nurses. 
o Has the diabetic a good understanding 
of injection technique. that is. angle of 
injection and rotation of sites? Ideally. in- 
sulin should be injected into any sub- 
cutaneous fatty tissue at an angle of 
60-90 degrees for an adult. 8 
In making this assessment the nurse is 
afforded an opportunity to observe 
whether the proper equipment has been 


obtained and to watch the diabetic drawing 
up his insulin. It also gives a chance to 
inquire whether old equipment has been 
discarded. Many diabetics have been 
hesitant to do this. 
o Do the diabetic and the nurse know how 
to mix insulins? The new U-IOO insulins 
have a neutral pH and are more stable. thus 
making mixing insulins less problematic. 
Mixing insulins can be readily taught and 
easily unders(Ood, if it is necessary to mix 
them. However. many nurses are unaware 
of the mixing techniques and should re- 
view this before attempting to teach any- 
one the technique. 
Usually the practice is to draw up the 
cloudy insulin first. follo"ed by with- 
drawal of the clear insulin. Contamination 
of insulin should be avoided at all costs. 
One or two practice sessions seem to be all 
that is necessary. 
o Does the diabetic understand the mode. 
peak. and duration of action of his insulin? 
Can he identify his insulin by name? Does 
he read the label when purchasing his insu- 
lin? Has he ever made a mistake? The 
labeling on the new U-I 00 insulins makes 
it imperative that each person read the 
label prior to the use of any insulin. Color 
coding of insulins will be discontinued: the 
new labels" ill be black and" hite. Nurses 
must stre"s the importance of label read- 
mg. 
o Does the diabetic understand the impor- 
tance of dietary baldnce and timing of 
meals? Again. this gives the nurse an op- 
portunity to review with ever) diabetic the 
THE CANADIAN NURSE 23 



understanding of the use of insulin and 
point out that insulin should be given each 
day at the same time. give ortake an hour. 
By and large. it is recommended that 
breakfast be eaten after injection. How- 
ever, in some home situations when nurs- 
ing service is not available early in the 
morning. it is quite possible for the 
insulin-dependent diabetic who takes lente 
insulin to have breakfast fIrst. while await- 
ing the arrival of the teaching nurse. 
Medium-acting insulins. such as lente in- 
sulin. do not begin to act until approxi- 
mately 2 hours after injection. 


Summary 
Inservice programs on V-IOO insulin 
have been set up in many hospitals. de- 
partments of public health, and visiting 
nurse agencies. When V-IOO has been 
suggested to the physician or diabetic. 
there has been no resistance. U-40 and 
U-80 insulins will be phased out of pro duc- 
tion in the coming months. It would be 
uneconomical for the Connaught 
Laboratories to continue producing all 
three unit strengths. 
Patient education can and should take 
place whenever and wherever there are 
encounters between nurses and patients. In 
this way. nurses can assist the health team 
in making the changeover as smooth as 
possible. At no time in the past. perhaps. 
have nurses had such an opportunity to 
coordinate efforts with other health 
professionals. We can assist local pharma- 
cists. physicians. and diabetics to under- 
stand the need for and benefits of V-I 00 
insulin. There is no doubt that a diabetic 
can function well if given an explanation 
of control that is straightforward and 
meaningful. 


References 
I. Liebel, B.S. and Wrenshall. G.A.,lnsulin. 
Toronto, Canadian Diabetic A
sociation. 
1971, p. 15. 
2. Ibid. 
3. Steiner. D.F, et al. Isolation and properties 
of proinsulin. intennediate forms. and 
other minor components from crystalline 
bovine insulin. Diabetes 17: 12: 725. Dee. 
1968. 
4. Ibid. 
5. Watkins. J.D. et al. A study of diabetic 
patients at home. Amer. J. Pub. Heal1h 
57:3:452-9, Mar. 1967. 
24 THE CANADIAN NURSE 


I-
 - 
 
-> .
 . 
..... .- , IP... - ... - - , 
.. . . . . . i 
.fole 
!u.n Jlamme . Semdente Ultralenlf 

ulm ' TorllltD 7"1c Insuila Insulin 
sullo NPH 
.*'...""... ..... - Itsuho 
'- --..-s- a. _... 
100 100 100 1QO 100 100 
I 
lente Insulin losulln ToronlD -- 100 Semdeote '/osu' I Ultraleote losulio "PH Insuhn . 
I""...... 
_ Something new tOO-unit insulins""" 


U-l00 insulin is clearly labeled in black and white. 


Stertle 0151' 3sable PLASTIPAK Insuhn Synnge Needle Unol 1 cc (100 Unit) 


- 


II
"
III 1111 1111 ui. .11. '"' "
 

 u:L.
. oD LQ-h 

 _Ç)::i 


11 


.. ' 


Reusable Synnge 
1 CC (100 unol) YALE Reosable Glass Synnge wIth 2-unol graduatIons 


_ - 10 20 30 40 
O e-o""70 tRT "9 (,) I(,)U UNII::' 
-...... t 1..'.!l!!It!h!.! I t!.
tllll.I.IJ.ll
 1!!.ll!
}!
 I !.!!.I.I!III 1 cc 


-1 t
 


Aeusablf" S
'm
 ,;:. 
035 cc (3
 ),.LE Reusable Glass SYringe wllh 1-umt graduations 


) -I f 
U 


-,..1' D '0 Ui .0 2. SO 35 
-. /11111....11111111111111111111111111 


Becton, Dickinson & CO. ,Canada, Ltd. 


Disposable and reusable syringes for 100-unit insulin are compared with the size of a 
35-unit syringe. 


6. Watkins. J.D. and Moss. Fay T. Confu
lon 
in the management of diabetes. Amer. J. 
Nun. 69:3:521-4. Mar. 1969. 
7. Romans. R.G. Something nn> - /()()-lInit 
in.fu/ins. Toronto. Connau8ht 
Laboratories. /974. 
8. Tri-Hospital Diabetes Education Centre. A 
manual lor diabetics. Toronto. Tridec. 
1974 
 


FEBRUARY 1975 



Project Alternative: 


the road away 
from isolation 


The author describes why therapeutic social groups for long-term psychiatric 
patients sometimes don't work, and what makes them successful when they do. 
Project Alternative resulted in reduced rehospitalization, and staff were excited 
with the ne\\< life-style their clients adopted. 


Project Alternative is a therapeutic 
'oup. conceived and put into action by 
'cupational therapists. to help 'Women. 
ho are isolated by long-standing 
>ychiatric problems, move slo'Wly into 
)mmunity activities. What sort of person 
Sally Bra'Wn. a t
pical member of Proj- 
ct Alternative? Sally is not unlike our- 

Ives in man} 'Ways. She lives in a mid- 
Ie-class residential area with her husband 
If manv years and their two. three. or four 
hildre
. She struggles 'With the same 
roblems of food prices. laundry, and car 
ools. She appears some'What flustered. 
ltigued. poorly organized, and generally 
bit of a 'Wreck. But don't 'We all. at one 
me or another? 
No. there is a difference. After years of 
pparently successful marriage. Sally has 
ecome paralyzed by guilt. emptiness. and 

ar. The children have their 0\\ n special 
nterests and friends. Her husband seems 
Jtally absorbed by his job. She cries a lot 
nd is afraid to leave the house or ans'Wer 


lo
ra J. D. Jonö (P.O.T.. Uni\emlY of 
ommo) \\'a
 direclor of Ihe depanmenl of 
ccup..uional IherJpy and speech Iherdpy al 
)na\
<J Civic Ho
pilal .... hen Projecl Allerna- 
\e begJn. She no", livö ....ilh her family in 
'
orth V JnC(1Uver. Brili
h Columbid. 
, 
IEBRUARY 1975 


Moyra J.D. Jones 


the phone. Every task - even the simplest 
domestic chore - seems fantastically dif- 
ficult. Sally is more miserable than she had 
ever believed possible. 
The cast of Project Alternative changes. 
of course. The group often includes the 
single parent whose economic dilemmas 
add a special dimension to the problem. 
Many unmarried. middle-aged 'Women 
suddenly feel their lives lack purpose and 
gratification. 
Occupational therapists and other health 
care 'Workers have frequently seen Sally 
Bro'Wn. She \\aits anxiously in the outpa- 
tient psychiatric clinic. Perhap
 she is 
f"miliar because 'We kno\\ her from many 
short admi
sions to an inpatient facility. 


needs or to interact 'With others as an in- 
teresting human being in her own right. 
She is visited regularly by her family. who 
seem helpless to understand her needs. 
She is desperately anxious to go home. 
With medication and scheduled visits to 
return to see her doctor as an outpatient, 
she does go home. 
Hospital - home - hospital - home: 
The tragic cycle repeats itself 'With devas- 
tating regularity. consuming Sally. her 
fanúly. and the health care 'W orkers in 
costly frustration. 


Rehabilitation 
What can Project Alternative do for 
Sally Bro'Wn? The theory inherent in the 




ob>
ob>

 
Unless our patients are functionally prepared - not 
intellectually, but functionally prepared - for the 
goals we suggest, they will fail. and as therapists we 
have failed them. 




ob>



 


On the psychiatric unit. Sail} Bro'Wn is a 
model patient. quiet. trying desperately to 
please. just '"in for a rest. .. 
She relates to staff members in a super- 
ficial manner and is unable to articulate her 


use of a social club as therap} revolves 
around the significance of the social ad- 
justment of the psychiatric patient as a 
component of the rehabilitation process. 
The program must be relevant to the 
THE CANADIAN NURSE 25 



patient's needs of that moment. and must 
have validity from the patient's point of 
vie\\'_ 
The good intentions of countless social 
activitie<; have been \\'recked on this criti- 
cal shoal. The best of bingos. picnics, 
bo\\'ling parties. and dances have failed- 
and failed miserably - because staff 
members responded to their conception of 
the patient's needs. If he's busy and doing 
fun thing!>. he .... ill feel meaningful as a 
person. This is not only an outdated and 
erroneous concept. but a cruel one, 
The patient's integration \\'ith the family 
and, ultimately, into the social community 
is a desirable goal of therapy. Ho....ever. it 
is not unusual for therapists and public 
health nurses to see very ill clienb going 
through the motions of homemaking. 
When asked by their doctors if they can 
manage to care for their homes and 
families. and participate in social ac- 
tivities, many \\,omen .... ill reply affinna- 
tively. Their ability to persevere \\'ith 
domestic tasks often masks the degree of 
their psychological problems from family 
members and mediL"al teams for long 
periods. Through appropriate therapeutic 
intervention, social undertakings can be 
attempted.... ith some degree of success as 
the patient begins to function more nor- 
mally_ 
Consideration of the patient's priorities 
for her life is important. For example. 
\\'hen \\,e talk to a patient about returning 
home after hospitalization. do ....e really 
con!>ider \\,hat this means? When \\,e refer 
a client to a community facility. are \\,e 
a.... are of its location. its programs. and its 
attitudes to....ard persons \\'ith psychiatric 
problems'! Do \\,e remember our feelings 
\\'hen \\,e last enrolled in a sports club. 
attended a convention or reunion, or ap- 
plied for a ne\\, job'! Unless our patients are 
filllctiolla/ly prepared - not intellectually. 
but functionally prepared - for the goals 
\\,e !>ugge!>t, they \\,ill fail. and as therapists 
\\,e have failed them. 
Anne Cromn 1\1osey. ppting tor a blO- 
p<;)ocho:o.ocial model of treatment for pa- 
tients as an alternative to the medical 
model, states: --Man has the right to a 
meaningful and productive existence. This 
includes the right not only to be free of 
di!>ease but to participate in the life of the 
community. General aim<; of rehabilitation 
26 THE CANADIAN NURSE 


1 


I 
. Deviations in psychosocial develq;, 
ment can be altered with time; 
. Subskill!> fundamental to matullI 
ada p tive skills must be acquired in 
II 
sequential manner; 
. Mature psychosocial skills can be ac 
quired through participation in situation 
that simulate normal interactions bet\\'eel 
individual and environment; and 
. Community-based developmenta 
groups could provide the most socially ac 
ceptable. financially feasible. and long 
tenn .forum for change. 
Project 
Project Alternative was designed tl 
serve a female clientele: these womer 
\\'ere. on the average. about 42 years ol( 
and had long histories of depression as , 
primary or secondary diagnosis. All pa 
tients \\,ere a high rehospitalization risk 
Most of them were functioning at a 10\\,er. 1 
than-average level. and were experi I 
<6'

.q-.q-.

.q-..q-.q-..q-..q. 


need to be translated into dearly defined 
and concrete kno\\, ledge. skills and 
attitudes. "J 
If patients are encouraged to participate 
in activities and programs \\, here they 
kno\\, no one. trust no one. and do not feel 
secure. they \\,ill be frightened and resis- 
tive. The raison d'être for the program is 
destroyed. Development of the therapist as 
a significant person in the patient's view is 
critically important to the therapeutic pro- 
cess. This is equally true of personnel in- 
volved in community programs \\'ith less 
overtly therapeutic objectives. 
The health profe:o.sionals on the 
psychiatric inpatient unit sa\\, Sally Bro\\, n 
come back into hospital. go home. and 
then come back as a patient again. She 
lacked the skills, kno\\, ledge. and attitudes 
to participate in the life of the community. 
We asked ourselves ho\\, \\,e could help 
Sally Bro\\,n use the community facilities 
available to her. ho\\, she could make 


Project Alternative was designed to serve a female 
clientele; these women were, on the average, about 42 
years old and had long histories of depression as a 
primary or secondary diagnosis, All of them had a 
high risk of rehospitalization, 


..q-.


 


friends and ease her extreme isolation. She 
needed a selected social group. one that 
could provide mutual support and learn- 
mg. 
Therapeutic social clubs are not ne\\, 
and. in fact. proliferate in most com- 
munities, so it \\,as important to discover 
\\, hy they had not proven successful in the 
rehabilitation of the long-term psychiatric 
patient. We identified 3 deficits: 
o AÎler referral of the client. there rarely 
appeared to be sustained medical input to 
the community group; 
o Clients refused to participate or discon- 
tinued attendance after a fe\\, sessions: and 
o Emphasis \\,as usually placed on the 
activity offered. 
In considering Project Alternative. 
treatment \\,as planned around the folio\\,- 
ing theoretical base: 


encing difficulty interacting with 
others. All complained of isolation. fear, 
and hopelessness. Most of them had 
participated in regular medical pro- 
grams for many years. They had little 
insight. were poorly motivated. and 
were considered by fe\\, staff members I 
to be challenging. or to have good re- 
covery or improvement potential. 
Preliminary discussions with personnel 
from the local YM- YWCA indicated their 
interest in a socialization project. and their 
ability to provide facilities. equipment. 
and personnel. They had experienced a ' 
high failure rate in involving this type of 
client in their traditional programs. They I 
\\,ere excited about liaising with personnel I 
from the hospital on an ongoing basis. 
Special funding for transportation. 
lunches. appropriate clothing. and other 
FEBRUARY 1975 



L usual expenses ",as provided by the aux- 
þry organization of the hospital. 
IChoice of personnel ",as undoubtedly 


 deciding factor in ensuring success of 
t. project. Social group leaders must 
ve a high degree of tlexibility and be 
per organizers. This organizational abil- 
must be extremely subtle in terms of its 
I JViousness and its timing. Most readers 
e familiar '" ith fantastically planned 
ents in ",hich no patient involvement 
,as evidenced. 
Leaders must have a consistency in their 
proach to therapy. and they must be 


as a client -centered therapy. A high degree 
of permissiveness was built into the 
project. In Carl Rogers' vie"" the per- 
missi"e attitude "rests on the propo- 
sition that the client has basic poten- 
tialitie'i ",ithin him for growth and de- 
velopment. The main function of thera- 
p) IS to provide an atmosphere in which 
the client feels free to explore himself. 
to acquire deeper understanding of him- 
self. and graduall) to reorganize his 
perception of himself and the world 
about him." 2 
Program flexibility ",as important to 


r,..q...q.




 


Patients saw themselves in a pattern of behavior 
based on actual experience. This felt more comfort- 
able. realistic. and in keeping with the person the 
patient felt or perceived herself to be. They became 
ex-patients. 


''''

.

.Q-o<b><Q"><Q">4Q> 


illing to be involved in the experience on 
continuing basis. They must have a 
nuine regard and concern for the patient. 
upled ",ith an a",areness of the patient's 
int of vie",. They must have the ability 
evoke trust in the patient. They are op- 
mists ",ith infmite patience. And the) are 
ery. very rare! 
The project originally consisted of 10 
eekly sessions. As the group developed. 
is "'as increased to 2 meetings per ",eek. 
r a total of:W sessions for each segment 
fthe program. The group met for approx- 
ately t",o to t",o and one-half hours. 
eluding tmnsportation to and from ac- 
vities and lunch periods. Transportation 
nd lunch ",ere considered critical points 
the program and ",ere given special at- 
ntion from staff members. 
Maximum attendance for each group 
as 10 members. Each segment of the 
'rogrdm v.as open-ended: that is. mem- 
rs continued in the program for addi- 
ional sessions if this seemed desirable. 
nd ne", members joined at the beginning 
f each ne", segment. No changes in staf- 
mg occurred until the program "'as ",ell 
stablished. 
Project Alternative functions primanly 
EBRUARY 1975 


allov. the clients to develop the therapeutic 
situoltion to meet their own needs. There- 
fore. although a ",ide variety of activities 
",ere explored. there ",as no overt pressure 
on patients to acquire skills or even be- 
come involved in an activit) per se. 
S",imming. yoga. slim and trim. folk 
dancing. luncheons. discussions. and 
tours formed parts of the program. No 
particular attention "'as paid to ho", ",ell a 
group member s"'am. for example. but 
great care ",as given to preparation of the 
facilit) . transportation arrangements. 
explanation of the day's activities. and 
continuit
 of the presence of significant 
figures. Frequently. this involved hours 
on the telephone. in face-to-face con- 
tact. and accompan} ing participants to 
the facilit). 
It did not take long to discover that pa- 
tients like Sally Bro", n kne", almost no- 
thing of their community's resources. 
They hadn't the faintest idea hov. to go 
about traveling by bus. and almost none 
had their o",n transportation. They "'ere 
terrified of becoming lost. of approaching 
strangers for advice. and, generally. of 
appearing out-of-step or inappropriate. 
This fear caused them to decline social 


opportunities. making it all too easy for 
staff and group members to feel they didn"t 
care or ",ere poorly motivated. 
As the project proceeded. positive at- 
titudes predominated mer negative feel- 
ings as each success'" as experienced. Pa- 
tients sa", themselves in a pattern of be- 
havior based on actual experience. This 
felt more comfortable. realistic. and in 
keeping'" ith the person the patient felt or 
perceived himself to be. They became 
ex-patients. 
Participants began comparing their 
thoughts and feelings ",ith others. Much 
time ",as spent telephoning back and forth 
to confirm dates, attendance. dress. and so 
on. They began accepting responsibility 
for ho", they spent their time together. and 
became a",are of the "'ealth of community 
resources. Senior members telt com- 
fortable in helping ne\\ members adjust. 
Some group members began participat- 
ing in activities outside the confines ot 
their home and family. Incredibly. some 
developed "friends for the first time" - 
their description of a successful social 
InteractIOn. 


Summary 
Project Alternative is a joint hospital- 
community social club offering therapy to 
v.omen ",ith long-term psychiatric disor- 
ders. It has proven successful due to con- 
joint planning and implementation. 
Infinite attention has been la" ished on 
support of the clients until psychosocial 
changes in behavior v. ere achieved. 
Emphasis has been on development of 
information, abilities. and values neces- 
sar) for pmducti"e living in the commu- 
nity _ Project Alternative has given the...e 
women a health model to consider as an 
alternative to continuing hospital de- 
pendency and isolation in their homes. 
References 


1_ 
lo
e}. Anne Cronin. An dternü.ti\e: the 
biop,,}chosociü.1 model. Amer. J. On/lp. 
Therap\ 2fU: 1!7-40. Mü.r_ IY74. 
, Roger\. Carl R_ Cliel/l cel/ll'red Iherop'- 
BO\lon. Houghton 
lifflin. IY51. \-'<' 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 27 



A rebuttal to Marjorie Hayes' article "Nursing research is not every nurse's 
business," which appeared in the October 1974 issue of The Canadian Nurse. 


Critique: nursing research is not 


every nurse's business 


Hayes argued that research is not the busi- 
ness of every nurse, but only of those who 
have methodological and statistical 
!>ophistication. Her point was well made. 
In fact. the strongest support for that point 
comes from the errors about methodology 
within the text of her paper. In view of the 
increasing significance of research within 
nursing. it is essential that the misconcep- 
tiuns produced by Hayes be clarified. 
Hayes stated that research within nurs- 
ing was first the domain of other discip- 
lines and that, "as a result," this led to a 
time of highly" controlling" experimenta- 
tion, which progressed to every nurse be- 
coming a researcher. This may be an error 
in syntax. for otherwise Hayes was di- 
rectly attributing to the scientists this 
period of highly controlled research by 
nurses. followed by every nurse being ex- 
pected to be a researcher. 
This. of course. is pure conjecture. No- 
where has it been established that there 
ever was a time of highly controlled ex- 
perimentation within nursing, nor that a 
sizable number of nurses believe that all 
nurses should be researchers. nor that 
these scientists could alone be responsible 
for such a sequence. 
Hayes also stated that nurses believe 
research is the means to separate nursing 


Jamce Ramsay (RN, Winnipeg General Hospi- 
tal School of Nursing; B.A.. University of 
Manitoba. is currently a student in the facuIty 
of grdduate studies, U
iversity of Manitoba. 
28 THE CANADIAN NURSE 


Janice Ramsay 


from all other fields. If this is indeed the 
view of nurses. it is naive. Research is a 
tool used by a profession to explore prob- 
lems and to answer questions. It provides 
the opportunity to grow toward indepen- 
dence. However. in the scientific world. 
independence is not synonomous with 
isolationism. 
History has demonstrated. again and 
again. how one discipline has developed 
out of another. For example. psychology 
came into being because of specific ad- 
vances within physiology. Furthermore. 
each discipline. if it hopes to make any 
headway. must use knowledge of current 
advances in several other disciplines. A 
good example is medicine' s use of the 
achievements from physiology. anatomy. 
and chemistry. So. given that indepen- 
dence is achieved. nursing cannot be iso- 
lated from all other disciplines and still 
expect to remain viable. 
Hayes stated that there are two types of 
research. One is basic or pure and the other 
applied. It is at this point that the greatest 
departure from convention exists. A great 
many researchers do pure research. but 
would be unable to identify with the de- 
scription of pure scientists given by 
Hayes. These researchers do not see them- 
selves as frivolous scientists doing re- 
search for pleasure. with no regard for the 
current state of the world. 
On the other hand. Hayes portrays ap- 
plied researchers as those industrious sci- 
entists pursuing "real" problems. In real- 
ity, the applied researcher examines a 


specific problem. and the resulting con-, 
elusions are usually limited to those 
specific conditions under which that prob- 
lem occurs. 
An applied problem would be to deter- 
mine what conditions produce depression 
in Jane Smith. It might be found that rain} 
weather on weekends is invariably ful- 
lowed by depression in Jane. This is cer- 
tainly not the only condition that produces 
all depression in all other persons. So the 
finding that bad weather produces depres- 
sion is relevant only in a limited context. 
The pure scientist, on the other hand. 
approaches a problem with the goal of 
finding general principles that can be ap- 
plied to a large number of situations. In the 
example. the pure scientist might seek to 
determine all conditions and combinations 
of conditions that could produce depres- 
sion. These findings would then be relev- 
ant for a wide range of situations and indi- 
viduals. 
Another example is that of an applied 
researcher who might try to determine 
what happens to a specific object as it falls 
from a specific height. A Newtonian pure 
researcher would. however. look for a law 
of gravity. 
Once the true difference between pure 
and applied research has been established, 
it is easy to see the absurdity of the state- 
ment that' 'the pure scientist has no obliga- 
tion to produce useful findings that would 
allow him/her to end up with true. reliable 
data; the applied researcher. on the other 
hand. is committed to concrete. applicable 
FEBRUARY 1975 



Idings." The difference between pure 
fd applied research cannot be expressed 
terms of reliability of data. Every re- 
fiarcher. whether pure or applied. strives 

r reliability of results. 
Unless results occur consistently. the 
Ilenomenon is the result of a combination 
I errors rather than the planned experi- 

ental manipulation. As a hypothetical 

 ample. consider how little faith there 
. uld be in an experiment that found con- 
,tions A + B produced cancer. if those 
me results could never be reproduced 
'ter the initial experiment. 
If pure scientists were not obligated to 
')me up with useful. reliable data. we 
ould be at the technological level of the 
ark Ages. If we waited for the applied 
fsearcher with his concrete or reliable 
indings. we would be little more ad- 
i:mced and would be completely occupied 
1)lving specific problems without for- 
IlUlating the many laws and principles by 
"hich we live. 
For Hayes to suggest that nurses restrict 
,lemselves to applied research is to im- 
:ose limits that would soon stifle scientific 


growth. There is not and never will be any 
reason why nurses cannot become in- 
volved in pure research. 
As nurses must, according to Hayes. be 
involved in applied research. then they 
must "produce only usable data," that is. 
data that can be applied to solve a problem. 
Therefore. nurses have confined them- 
selves to "descriptive studies" to avoid 
failure in doing applied research. If this is 
true. they have failed to avoid failure. as 
the descriptive method - or. as it is cor- 
rectly called. the case history method - 
has the least reliability and generality of all 
methods of experimentation. It seems 
more likely that nurses have used this 
method so rigorously because they lack the 
knowledge to do otherwise. 
Nurses must recognize those problems 
that are not testable and those that must 
wait until technology has advanced. For 
example. it might be interesting to ex- 
amine a unit of memory. but curiosity will 
have to wait on advances in neurophysiol- 
ogy and psychology. 
Hayes said that nurses also must know 
when they can relax scientific rules to 


solve a problem. Relaxation of the sCIen- 
tific method leads to unreliable results and 
this. as we have seen. is quite undesirable. 
It is not possible to relax scientific rules of 
experimentation and still have good re- 
search. This is analogous to relaxing asep- 
tic technique in the operating room and yet 
still striving for good operative technique. 
Some problems just cannot be solved. and 
relaxing experimental technique does not 
make them more solvable. hjust produces 
unreliable results with no advances in sci- 
ence. 
According to Hayes. nurses with the 
skills for doing research should be offered 
special programs in faculties of nursing. 
Hence. a selected number of nurse
 will 
become researchers. having been taught 
methodology and statistics by the nursing 
faculty. But who will teach the teachers? 
So far. nursing has demonstrated only 
the beginnings of willingness to do re- 
search but not yet the capacity for 
methodologically and statistically sound 
research. Ç> 






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:!: 

 Marjorie Hayes, the author of II Nursing research :
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: is not every nurse's business," replies: :
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1: Having an opinion and being willing to examine it in the Perhaps Ramsay would assert that this concern is unrelated to 
: 
1: public's eye is. I would hope. an objectivf' of the "Opinion "pure" or "applied" research but. in relation to my defini- .:' 
:- page" of The Canadian Nurse. I appreciate J. Ramsay's tions. it is. .:. 

 thorough review, even if I continue to assert my belief. Ramsay states I implied that nurses should restrict them- :
: 

: I could not agree more with Ramsay that I was trying to selves only to applied research. In the context of providing :!: 

: prove that research is a tool that could provide the opportun- data related to sound hypotheses. I still argue it would be 
: 

: ity for independence. However, I accept that independence is better. But I would rather use the entire concept and state that :
: 

: not synonymous with isolation. and it was not my intent to nurses must collect data in a sound methodological way. I :
: 
:!: imply the latter. strongly agree that. "it is not possible to relax scientific rules :!: 

 Unfortunately. Ramsay and I are to stay at odds on t
e of experimentation and stilI have good research." :
 
.:. difference between pure and applied research. Research IS Unfortunately. there is a widespread idea that anyone can '.' 
:
 being done every day in laboratories and/or other isolated go into research on nursing as long as she/he is a good and :
: 
:!: settings that continue to produce useless data for the sake of intelligent nurse. The whole reason for my article was to put 
: 
:!: simply producing information. "Milking" health insurance before the nursing public my concern that everyone cannot :
: 
:!: data for the sole ambition of ascertaining possible correla- even make use of research data. let alone do research. unless :i: 
:
: tions. without a concrete hypothesis or model. is producing more avenues are provided to learn research methodology 
: 
.:. data without an associated obligation to society at large. and use research data. .:. 

 
 

 
 
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FEBRUARY 1975 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 29 



II 
II 


The nurse and the 


grieving parent 


When a child has a fatal illness, parents must come to terms with their anticipated 
loss. One cannot provide a happy ending for such an episode. But, if we can help 
parents cope so they can provide the love and care their child needs, we, too, may 
feel less helpless and more fulfilled in our role. 


W ORI\.ING WITH THE: PARENTS Of A 
child who ha
 an illness that will 
probably be fatal can be disturbing for 
nur
es. T0 many nurses, the ideal parent is 
one who is calm, rational. helps in the 
therapeutic process, supports the child. 
and does not show exces
ive grief. Most 
nurses have no difficulty working 
ith such 
parents. dnd feel the parents are a part of 
the team caring for the child; good rela- 
tions between parents and staff ensue. 
When parents demonstrate anger, de- 
nial. or acute grief. nurses may respond 

ith anger or hostility. Understanding of 
the process of anticipatory mourning can 
help us to work in a more supportive way 
with parents, 
Donna was 18 months old when she was 
admitted to hospital. After several days of 
tests. a malignant growth was diagnosed. 
When her mother was informed of the 
diagnosis. her response was to say. in a 
voice ten
e and controlled. that she had 
lost a previous child and she wasn't going 


The duthor (R.N.. The Hospital for Sid, Chil- 
dren School of Nursing. To;onto: B.N.. 
:\1cGiIl University; M.A.. r..e.... York Univer- 
'ityJ is A,sio;tdnt Professor. School of Nursing. 
The University of British Columbia. Vdn- 
couver. British Columbld. 
30 THE CANADIAN NURSE 


Helen Eifert 


to go through that again. She stated she 
was going home and would never return to 
see the child again. The nurses' immediate 
response to this mother was one of anger, 
and a belief that she 
as an unnatural 
mother who cared more about her<;elf than 
her child. 


T HEORIES AND RESEARCH ABOUT pa- 
rental grieving may assist us to under- 
stand parental behavior. and help us pro- 
vide 
hat parents need in these situations. 
Futterman et al suggest 5 sequential steps 
in the process of anticipatory mourning: I 
o Adnowledgment: becoming progres- 
sively convinced that the child'" death 
is inevitable. 
o Grieving: experiencing and expressing 
the emotional impact of the anticipated 
loss and the physical. psychological. 
and interpersonal turmoil associated 
with it. 
o Reconciliation: developing a perspec- 
tive on the child's expected death. 
which preserves a sense of confidence 
In the worth ofthe child's life and in the 
worth of life in general. 
o Detachment: withdrawing emotional 
investment from the child as a growing 
being with a real future. 
o Memorialization: developing a rela- 
tively fixed conscious mental represen- 


tation of the dying child that will endure 
beyond his death. 
Initially. one might feel that the mother 
described was already at stage four, de- 
tachment. But. in fact. the person who is 
coping relatively well with the grieving 
process balances detachment with con- 
tinued emotional investment in the dying 
child. and participation in his care. The 
total denial. even of the child's existence 
and bond to mother, suggests the mother is 
running away from the pain that acknow- 
ledgement of the diagnosis would create 
Previous experience with loss of a loved 
one. and especially loss of another child. 
makes it likely that the new experience 
will revive all the anxiety and grief of the 
previous experience. One writer described 
what he called the .. vulnerable child 
syndrome."2 According to this writer, ont: 
type that fits this pattern is the child 
ho 
represents to the parent a figure from the 
past who died prematurely. 
One might hypothesize that the mother 
described above had, throughout the 
child's short life, been fearing just such an 
event - that is. that this child too would 
die. The diagnosis of a fatal illness caused 
all the previously submerged fear and 
worry to surface. and the mother's initial 
reaction 
as to escape from feeling... 
ith 
which she could not cope. 
FEBRUARY 1975 




urses. too. suffer anxiety and grief in 
ring for dying children. The} lad.. the 
me emotional investment in the child 
at a parent ha
, but there is still a prevail- 
g feeling of sadness at a child's dying. 
ur feeling of anger at a parent. such as the 
Ie described. may be a reflection of our 
\'n feeling of hopelessness in the face of 
ath. 


[ -'IT POSSIBLE TO PROVIDE HELP to a 
'Jarent who is unable to face the impend- 
Ig death of a child? Can \\,e help the 
arent come to terms \\, ith grief suffi- 
'iently to be able to continue
to provide 
ve and emotional support to the child'? 
\ ould it be better if some mothers were to 
o a\\,ay and never return'? 
With our knowledge of child de1lelop- 
ent. we can assume it is be!olt for the child 
have continued support and love from 
er parents. If this is accepted. then a first 
im \\,ould be to help the parent come to 
rms with her over\\, helming feelings. to 
.ilk about her fear. anger. and anxiety. 
nitially. this means letting her know that 
ou recognize her inability to face her 
hild's impending death. 
Parenthood at any time includes some 
egree of anxiety. and in healthy parent- 
ood this anxiety is used to motivate the 
>arent to care for and protect the child. In 

ddition, parenthood is fraught with poten- 
ial or actual guilt feelings that one is not 
joing all the things one should, and that 
wmetimes parents are short tempered or 
lad., knowledge. resources. and time to 
meet all their children's needs. Normally. 
these feelings are kept in perspective and 
parents recognize that they have needs of 
rheir own and limitations in their child- 
rearing abilities - and that the children 
are doing quite well anyway. 
When a child becomes ill, the anxiety 
and guilt can easily surface and distort 
parental functioning. One task of nurses 
and others working with parents of dying 
FEBRUARY 1975 


children is to avoid any behavior that 
might increase the parents' guilt feelings. 
In times of cri
i
. parent!ol may be h
pe"'en- 
sitive to any sugge!oltion of inadequac
 or 
omissions in the present or past care of the 
child: since they are already accusing 
them
el1le!ol. they are only too ready to pick 
up implied criticism from (Hhers. It is un- 
helpful to d\\,ell on past behaviors when 
\\,hat is needed is de\elopment of func- 
tional. helpful behavior for the pre
ent. 
To get bad.. to the 
ituation de
cribed: 
anger and accusation \\,ill not help either 
mother or child. Letting the mother Io..now 
that you understand how ovem helmed 
and helple\s she feels may help her ac- 
Io..nowledge the child's prognosis. The nurs- 
ing staff. too, need a chance to say ho\\, 
they feel. to discuss their anger and dis- 
quiet. and to learn ho\\, to cope \\, ith their 
feelings. 


W HE:-- A CHILD H<\S A FATAL ILL-';ESS. 
parents must be helped to come to 
terms \\'ith their anticipated loss. Their 
coping abilitie
 may be severely strained 
by this crisis. \V e have all seen some of the 
\\, ays parents try to regain some sense of 
control in this situation: by searching far 
311d near for other medical opinions. by 
partiçipating in the child'!oI care by helping 
with treatments. and by becoming in- 
volved in other hO!olpital activitie!ol. For 
many. it is a time for rea
ses!oling \-alues 
and thinlo..ing about the meaning of their 
live
. Futterman and Hoffman have \\'rit- 
ten about some of these processes as they 
sa\\, them. 3 
The mother described \\,as able to come 
to terms \\, ith her feelings sufficiently to be 
able to return and help care for her child. 
As she grieved for this child, she also 
mourned for the child she had lost earlier 
and finally began to come to terms ",ith 
that loss. 
One cannot provide a happy ending for 
such an episode. But if. \\hen \\'orlo..ing 


\\, ith parents \\, ho are !oIuffering the lo!ol!ol of a 
child. we can help them cope and reestab- 
lish equilihrium !oIO they can provide the 
love and care their child needs. \\'e. too. 
may feelle!ol!ol helples
 and more fulfilled in 
our role. 


References 


Fullam.ln. E.H. er .d. P,nenl.d anticipJh'I'Y 
mourning III Schoenherg. B P.\\"dlOsocial 
aspects (lftermillal care, edited h y Schl>en- 
berg e[ al. t\ev. ... orl... Columbia Univer
i[} . 
IY7:!. 
..., Green, \Iorris. ReaClions 10 [he threatened 
luss of a (.'hild: a vulnerdhle child '} ndrom.: 
Pediatric nldnJgemen[ (If [he d} ing child. 
PJrl 3. Pt'tliatrÙs 3.t \:58 -ö6 . Jul. 196-1. 
3. FullennJn, E.H.. and Hoffman. I Cri\ls 
and adapta[lon In [he fillnilie\ uf fa[ally III 
children. III Anthon}. E. James. Tht'impad 
(If tlisell\e alltl tletllh. edited b} E.J. -\n- 
thony dnd C. I\.ou\Xrnil.. voL:!. :-':ev. ... l'rl.. 
Wiley. 1973. 


<; 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 31 



Lippincott audio / visual medi, I! 


..., 
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A LIPPINCOTT 
LEARNING SYSTEM 


l!8 A multimedia, self-instruction pro- 
gram in the principles, basic proce- 
dures and manual skills fundamental 
to patient care. 


Developed and programmed by the University of Wis- 
consin-Milwaukee School of Nursing. Project Director, 
Elizabeth A. Krueger, R.N., Ed.D. 
The LLS program consists of: Color 35mm filmstrips and 
synchronized audio cassettes that present cognitive and 
motor skills in step-by-step sequence, with muttiple- 
choice reinforcement; Student Guide/Workbooks that 
include lists of prerequisites., behavioral objectives, in- 
structions, required practice materials, and exercises; 
Teacher's Guides that include diagnostic tests, syn- 
opses, written tests and answers, motor performance 
tests. Required equipment: Any automatic 35mm film- 
strip projector, and a special cassette player (Educas- 
sette) designed for multiple-choice response. 
Available LLS units: Anatomical Terminology and Joint 
Classification. Management of the Environment. Body 
Mechanics. Making a Bed. Vital Signs. Care of the Mouth. 
Bowel Elimination. Care of the Skin Oral Medication. 
Parenteral Medication. Range of Motion. Management 
of the Environment: Medical and Surgical Asepsis. 


r 


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dmi EXPERIENCES IN 
CLINICAL NUijSING 


Audio filmstrips, in color, that dramatically recreate 
life-threatening patient problems requiring 
immediate nursing assessment and action. I 
This series of 35mm audio filmstrips, in color, 
covers critical situations where immediate recog- 
nition of problems and appropriate intervention are 
essential. Each film pauses at crucial decision 
points, asks a question and allows time for the 
student to analyze the problem and make a de- 
cision before the film proceeds. Each situation 
stimulates reaction and logical thinking. The stu-' 
dent becomes involved and motivated; learning 
becomes a dynamic experience-so does teaching! I 
New programs - just released 
GI/GU RENAL CARE RESPIRATORY CARE 
Peptic Ulcer Nasotracheal Suctioning 
Peritoneal Dialysis Oxygen Therapy 
Indwelling Urinary Catheters Aerosol Therapy 
Deep Breathing and Coughing 
Bronchial Drainage 


Other available programs 
RESPIRATORY CARE 
Reaction to Crisis 
Bag Breathing 
Suctioning 
Cuff and Cannula 
Ventilator Checks I 
Ventilator Checks II 
Cardio-Pulmonary 
Resuscitation 
A Case Study 
CARDIAC CARE 
Anticipating the Problem 
The Pacemaker Patient 
External Pacing 
Digitalis and Quinidine 
Elective Countershock 
Congestive Heart Failure 
Emergency Countershock 
A Case Study 
dmi Experiences in Clinical Nursing filmstrips are produced by 
Decision Media, Inc. and are compatible with most existing 
filmstrip projection equipment. 


NEUROLOGICAL CARE 
Establishing the Baseline 
Coma 
Seizure 
Head Injury 
Hemiplegia 
Spinal Cord Injury 
Post-Craniotomy 
A Case Study 


POST SURGICAL CARE 
Protecting the Patient 
Anesthesia 
Respiration 
LV. Therapy 
Hemorrhage 
Shock 
The Heart 
A Case Study 



ee a varle 


· HYSICAL EXAMINATION FILMS 


'A series of 12 sound motion pictures in color with 
Iphysical examination procedures correlated with the 
:::ontent of Dr. Bates' book, A Guide to Physical Exami- 
i"lation. (Films may be used to supplement any text on 
the physical examination.) Average running time: 10 
inutes. 


. Examination of the Head and Neck 
. Examination of the Thorax 
Examination of the Heart 
, . Examination of Pressures and Pulses 
. Examination of the Breasts and Axillae 
. Examination of the Abdomen 
. Examination of the Male Genitalia. Anus and Rectum 
. Examination of the Female Genitalia, Anus and 
Rectum 
. Examination of the Peripheral Vascular System 
Examination of the Musculoskeletal System 
. Examination of the Neurological System (Part I and II) 
. Special Procedures of the Pediatric Physical 
Examination 


IProduced under the supervision of Barbara Bates, M.D. 
I (Special procedures of the Pediatric Physical Exami- 
,nation supervised by Robert A. Hoekelman, M.D., 
Associate Professor of Pediatrics. University of Roches- 
ter, School of Medicine and Dentistry.) 
Each title is available in 16mm sound, or Super 8mm 
'(magnetic and optical) for Fairchild, Kodak and Techni- 
color cartridges, or on reels. 
fnstructor's manual available: "A Visual Guide to Physi- 
cal Examination: A Motion Picture Film Series." 


MULTIPLE BIRTHS: TWINS 


New in the Human Birth Films Series 


In dramatic live action . . . this close-up. full-color 
(sound or silent) film of the delivery of twins offers 
students an opportunity for a rare learning experience. 
(Running time: about 5 minutes.) 
Available in 16mm sound, or Super 8mm sound (mag- 
netic or optical) for Fairchild. Kodak and Technicolor 
, reels. Also available in a silent version with superim- 
posed titles in 2 Technicolor silent cartridges or 1 Kodak 
cartridge. 
Other available Human Birth Films: Vertex Delivery. 
with Forceps. Vertex Delivery, Spontaneous. Breech 
Delivery. Assisted. Breech Delivery, with Forceps. 
Breech Delivery, Extraction. Cesarean Delivery. 
Available in separate Super 8mm film loops (sound or 
silent). or on one 16mm sound film showing all presen- 
tations. 


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earning nee I S 


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LIPPINCOTT 
SUPER-8MM FILM LOOPS (Silent) 
Procedures in Patient Care: Wound Care (8 loops). 
Urinary Catheterization and Care (9 loops). Injection 
Technic (9 loops). Drainage, Suction, Irrigation: Pul- 
monary and Gastric (15 loops). Lifting and Moving Pa- 
tients (6 lOops). Positioning and Exercise (3 loops). 
Hygiene (3 loops). Asepsis: Medical and Surgical (9 
lOops). Bedmaking (6 lOops) Each Film Loop: $21.50 
Lippincott film loops can be displayed with the Techni- 
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For additional information on LLS, dmi Experiences in 
Clinical Nursing, Physical Examination Films, 
Human Birth Films, or Lippincott Film Loops, 
please write: 


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SERVING THE HEALTH PROFESSIONS IN CANADA SINCE 1897 
15 HORNER AVE. TORONTO, ONTARIO M8Z 4X1 (416) 252-5211 



Ostomy skin barriers 


for decubitus ulcers 


A specialized treatment for one condition can sometimes be adapted for others. 
Karaya powder and other skin barriers used in enterostomal therapy. are finding 
a rightful place in the treatment of decubitus ulcers. 


Many nc\'- skin barriers are available to 
treat the excoriated skin around colos- 
tomies. ileostomies. and so on. Although 
ll
ed primarily to protect the skin around 
...tomas and to promote healing of reddened 
areas underneath, these barriers can be 
successfully applied to decubitus ulcers. 
We are not far enough along in our pro- 
gram of healing t!ecubitus ulcers with 
karaya to have gathered much data. but the 
results at our ho...pital so far have been 
encourdgmg. 


Karaya procedure 
Prior to the actual treatment. the fol- 
lowing are important: 
I. CultUrl' of infl'C1l'd arl'as, subse- 
quently done ever} two weeks until the 
area is clear of infection. 
2. Measurl'ml'1lt of thl' lesions, to pro- 
vide a base for comparison and for setting 
a goal for complete healing. Measure- 
ments are then done periodically to en- 
courage patient and staff. 
3. Provision of a high protein dil't, to 
rebuild cells systematically. 


Ruth Greene (R.N.. Royal Victoria Ho"'pital 
...chool of nur...ìng, Montreal: E.T. - Enteros- 
tomal Therapist - Clevdand Clinic. Cleve- 
land. Ohio) is assistant director of the inservice 
education department. Saint John General 
Ho...pilal. Saint John. Ne.... Brunswick. 
34 THE CANADIAN NURSE 


Ruth Greene 


The treatment itself follows the karaya 
procedure outlined in box. on page 35. 
Once treatment has begun. and as new 
epithelial tissue forms around thc wound 
edge, we advance the karaya gum ring to 
surround the unhealed portion of the le- 
sion. Karaya rings. with various inside 
diameters. can be obtained. or large rings 
can be cut to fit and the end... pressed to- 
gether to seal them. 


John 
Our first patient was a 30-year-old male 
with multiple sclero...is who had deep ul- 
cers on his buttm:b and hips and smaller 
lesions on his inner knee.... 
John S. was not a good candidate. as it 
was difficult to set goals and be enthusias- 
tic about healing. He knew his condition 
was deteriorating. He was very depressed 
and really did not care if his ulcers healed. 
as their healing would not make him well. 
A high protein diet was ordered for him 
but John just picked at his tray and insisted 
his wife bring him root beer and french 
fries. She did thIs almost daily. 
Even under these circumstances. im- 
provement has been noted in the lesions. 
The procedure was started 22 June 
1974. when the lesions \'-ere measured. 
They were again measured 18 September. 
and the treatments were continued. The 
following measurements in inches show 
the improvement that had taken place 
during those three months. 


22 1um' 


Ri!?ht hip 
Left hip 
C (Jccr r 
Right kllee 
Left "-llee 


] .00" 1( ] .f10" 
2.7S 00 1( 2.75 00 
I. SOoo x I. 2S oo 
1.50" " 1.00 00 
.7S"" x .75" 


18 September 
Right hip 2.75" 1( 2.2S" 
Left hip 2.2S oo x I.SO"" 
Co("(.u 1.00" 1( .75 00 
Right kllee .7S"" 1( .SO" 
Left kllel' healed 
No record of depth of ulcers was made. 
but they were deep and are filling in well. 
John is reluctant to be turned and will 
work himself onto his right hip. which ha... 
been slow to heal. 
Culture reports showed infection in the 
large deep areas on his hips and buttocks 
and. although reports have varied. they I 
still show some moderate growth of 
staphvlococcus aUrl'us. 
None of the barriers used is sterile. nor 
is the karaya powder: but aseptic technique 
is important nevertheless. 
Karaya sheets (8" x 8") were used on 
John's buttocks as he had smaller open 
areas surrounding the large one. and red 
skin in between the areas. 


Elaine 
Our second patient. a 55-year-olt! fe- 
male, was admitted after it became increas- 
ingly difficult to look after her at home. 
Elaine B. was obese. crippled with arthri- 
FEBRUARY 1975 



s, contused. and belligerent when 
Irned. There were multiple breakdown 
eas on her body but few deep ulcers. 
She had two large raised areas on the 
lack of her head, which were partly necro- 
c tissue and partly oozing pus. These, 
,hen debrided. were 1/1" deep and 3/4" 
ross. Afrerthree weeks oftreaunent they 
rc now pin-head size. We discontinued 
I
ing karaya nngs. as they melted too 
uickly, but did use two pads (If Reston. 
One breast fold was red and oozing. 
Ith a large necrotic area on the lower part 
f the breast which. when debrided. was 
14" deep. We used karaya rings and Re- 
ton to try to keep the fold surfaces apart. 
\fter six weeks. pink and healthy tissue 
overs the area. 
Elaine's groin areas were raw, but not 
'eeply excoriated. We discontinued 
l araya rings as they melted also but. wit.h 
ontinued treatment and Saran. the area IS 
lOW healed. We just sprinkle it with 
,araya powder to prevent further brea"- 
,Iown. 
Saran Wrap has been taped with I" 3M 
j 'licropore tape on those areas where it 
ended to come loo!>e. Skin Prep was used 
IS a preventative on normal and/or red- 
ilened skin to form 3 pro(ective coating. 
(araya powder was sprinkled on small. 
)pen. red areas. We applied Skin Prep on 
op and allowed it to dry. 
All areas originally open are now 
lealed. after one to two months, but 
laine's general condition is so poor that if 
,.2h. turnings are not scrupulously carried 
mt. new areas start breaking down. 
Treatment has been applied to three 
lther patients who had ulcers on coccyx, 
heels. and ankles. These lesions have been 
mailer in diameter and depth than those of 
'john and Elaine. and have healed 4uickly. 



upplies available in Canada 
All ostomy centers (Montreal, Toronto. 
Jttawa. and others farther west) and most 
surgical supply companies carry or can get 
he various skin barriers that are manufac- 
,ured. Enterostomal therapist
, of whom 
there are some 20 in Canada, can give 
further information and in
tructions on 
these products. 
A few karaya products are listed below: 
o Narww karay.a rings with various in- 
side diameters from .5" to 2.5". 20 to a 
box. They are available from Hollister 
ILtd.. 332 Consumers Road, Willo'Wdale, 
Ontario. 
'FEBRUARY 1975 


o Karaya rings or wafers. with various 
inside and outside diameters. 10 to a pac"- 
age; karaya sheets 8" x 8"; or karaya 
powder in a 2.5 oz. squeeze bottle. These 
are available from United Surgical 
Co./Canadian Howmedica Ltd., 90 
Woodlawn Road West. Guelph. Ontario. 
or from Atlantic Surgical Co.. 1834 Lans- 
downe Avenue, Merrick, New York. 
We are trying skin barriers other than 
karaya rings on those areas where the rings 
melt: 
o Stomahesive (E.R. Squibb & Sons. 
Ltd.) 3" x 4" or 4" x 4". This is thin. 
has a shiny surface. will not readily melt, 
and is not softened by the irrigation fluid. 
Although more expensive than most bar- 
riers. it can be left on longer provided the 
seal is not broken between it and the skin. 
The center needs to be cut to the exact edge 
of ulcer, but a paper pattern of the hole size 
could be made to eliminate measuring 
each time it is changed. 
o Colly-see Is (Mason Laboratories - 
Willowgrove, Pennsylvania. U.S.A.). 
These are thick, blue, and come IO to a 
package in various outside diameters T' to 
6". Again. the center requires cutting to 
exact size of ulcer. They adhere to damp 
skin. so should be dampened on both !>ide
 
and allowed to become tacky before apply- 
mg. 
o SIo.in Prep (United Surgical Co.) is a 
collodion-like substance that leaves a 
shiny. protective film. This is meant for 
reddened areas only. and is used alone or 
on top of karaya powder. [( stings on raw 
skin, but is not harmful. Mus( be allowed 
to dry. Do not use under other skin bar- 
riers. Skin Prep comes in spray can or a 
bottle with applicator. 
03M Micropore Tape. in I" and 2" 
widths. is easy to apply in that it rips eas- 
ily. leaves no irritation on skin, peels off 
easily, yet gives a good seal. [( was used 
on areas where the Saran was apt to come 
off. 


Summary 
In the short time we have been using this 
procedure, we have found it worthwhile. 
It takes time to do the treatment. but it is 
done only once a day. compared with the 
conventional qAh. treatments. 
We shall conlinue to use slo.in barriers in 
treating patients with s"in ulcers and rec- 
ommend that nursing personnel institute 
the procedure on their patients with similar 
problems. i;l 


THE KARAYA PROCEDURE* 
Surgical debridemenl. if indicdled. is done 
fIrSt. Slrict a
eptic (echnilJuc i
 used 
throughout the kdraya procedure. While 
adaptations are made for each patient, Ihe 
basic 
teps are these: 
I. Irrigate ulcer and surrounding skin 
gently with approximately 250 cc. 
pHisoHex solution (2 oz. pHisoHex (0 
4 oz. n0l111al saline) using an Asepto 
syringe. Gently c1ean.,e surrounding 
skin with a gauze sponge. using a cir- 
cular motion. 
2. Irrigate with approximately 250 cc. 
normal saline solution. It is important 
to irrigate sufficiently to remove all of 
Ihe pHisoHex solution. 
3. Irrigate twice with 3lìt hydrogen 
peroxide solution. Completely dry the 
surrounding skin with sponge, taking 
care not to touch the surface of (he 
ulcer. Leave ulcer site moist. 
4. Apply karaya gum ring to skin, mold- 
ing il to fit clo\ely around edge of 
ulcer. 
5. Sprinkle karaya powder on ulcer, cov- 
ering the entire surface with powder. 
6. Cut a hole in the middle of a sheet of 
Reston (polyurethane foam pad with 
adhe
ive backing) the .,ize of the karaya 
gum ring. Apply Reston to the skin 
around wound so that Reswn fits 
around the karaya gum ring. This pad- 
ding prevenls prðsure on the ulcer and 
distributes body \'eight around the 
site. For very large wounds. more than 
one sheet of Reston may be necðsary 
to relieve pressure. If 
o, place one 
sheet directly on top of another. 
7. Cover opening in Reston with Saran 
wrap to con(ain drainage from ulcer, 
and to provide a window through 
which ulcer can be visualized. 
Repeat steps I through 7 every 24 hours 
Lift the Saran wrap every 8 hour
 and add 
karaya powder to the wound. Extensive 
oozing can be expec(ed during (he first few 
days. Since karaya swells with moislUre, 
drainage may seem profu
e_ Daily irriga- 
tions \,ash off most of the karaya. Do not 
attempt to remove any karaya that adheres 
(0 (he wound following gentle irrigation. 


* Wallace, Gladys; Hayter. Jean: .. Karaya 
for Chronic Skin Ulcers," American Jour- 
nal of Nursing. volume 74 #6. June 1974, 
p. 1097. 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 35 



names 


Canadian nursing has lost one of its best 
Io..nown and most respected nurses. Helen 
McArthur Watson. a former president of 
the Canadian Nurses' Association (1950- 
54) and national director of the nursing 
'iervice of the Canadian Red Cross 
Society. died in Guelph. Ontario. 17 
December 1974. 
Dr. Watson was the first nurse to re- 
ceive an honorary citation from tlie 
CN.'\.. in 1971. She had received in 
11)57 the highest intenlational nursing 
award. the Florence 
Nightingale Medal. 
from the International 
Committee of the 
Red Cro
s. In 195R, 
she received the 
Coronation Medal, 
and in 1964 had 
conferred on her an 
honorary degree of 
Laws from the University 




., 

\ 


Doctor of 
of Alberta. 
A pioneer from the beginning of her 
nursing career. Dr. Watson was a public 
health nurse in rural Alberta and. many 
years later. was relief coordinator for the 
League of Red Cross Societies in war-torn 
Korea. Before becoming national director 
of nursing service of the National Red 
Cross. Dr. Watson had been director of the 
University of Alberta school of nursing 
and director of the public health nursing 
division of the Alberta provincial depart- 
ment of health. 
In the words of Louise Miner. who was 
presiJent of CNA when the honomry cita- 
tion was conferred. Helen McArthur 
Watson 'Was OOa person whose country is the 
world and whose religion is to do good." 


Glenna Rowsell (R.N.. SI. John's General 
Hospital school of nursing; Dipl. Clin. 
Supervision. Dipl. Nurs. Educ.. and 
Admin.. University of Toronto; Dipl. Pub- 
lic Health Nursinj:(. University of Ottawa) 
has resigned as part- 
time consultant in 
social and economic 
welfare for the 
New Brunswick 
Association of 
Registered Nurses. 
She now devotes full 
time to her position 
./ of employment re- 
lations officer with the Provincial Collec- 
tive Bargaining Councils of New 
Bruns'Wick. 
36 THE CANADIAN NURSE 


'C 



... 
'. 
...... 


Rowsell was formerly director of the 
school improvement program of the Cana- 
dian Nurses Association (CNA). prior to 
which she had been associate director of 
the school of nursing of SI. John's General 
Hospital. Active in association work. she 
is currently member-at-Iarge of the CNA 
board of directors. representing social and 
economic welfare. 


The Montreal Children's Hospital Centre 
has announced two appointments: 
Margaret 'reton (R.N.. B.S.N.. Univer- 
sity of British Columbia school of nursing) 
as assistant director of nursing, staff edu- 
cation. Prior to her current appointment, 
she was inservice coordinatorforGlendale 
Lodge. Victoria, British Columbia. 
Elizabeth M. Kannon (R, N.. 51. Mary' s 
Hospital school of nursing. Montreal: 
B.N.. McGill University; M.Sc.N.. Uni- 
versity of Colorado, Boulder. Colo.) as 
associate director of nursing. division of 
ambulatory services. Until recently. she 
had been in charge of emergency at the 
Boston Children's Medical Centre. 


Helen Gemeroy (R.N.. Provincial Hospi- 
tal school of nursing. Ponoka. Alberta; 
B.A.. Sir George Williams University. 
Montreal; M.A.. Columbia University, 
New York) associate professor. school of 
nursing. and, director of nursing - 
psychiatry. Health Sciences Centre Hospi- 
tal. University of British Columbia. has 
added to her responsibilities those of as- 
sociate professor in the faculty of medicine 
at UBC. 
According to 
UBC school of 


Gemeroy. because the 
nursing is under the 
faculty of applied 
science, and the di- 
rection of the Health 
Sciences Centre 
Hospital comes 
largely through the 
faculty of medicine. 
communication be- 
\ tween nursing and 
. .... medicine is com- 
plex. Her honorary appoIntment to the 
faculty of medicine has served to sim- 
plify this situation and. thus. indirectly 
benefit nursing. 


(ijjJ..... 


.JIÞ 
'" 


Nora J. Earle (Reg. N.. Hamilton General 
Hospital school of nursing; B. N.. McGill 
University) has been appointed advisor in 


nursing in the Ontario Ministry of Correc- I 
tional Services. She was fornlerly as-I 
sociate director of nursing. ambulatory I 
services. at the Montreal Children's HOS- , 
pital. 
The Memorial University of Newfound- 
land school of nursing has announced the I 
appointment of several faculty members: 
Marilyn Avery (B.Sc.. Memonal U; 
M.S.N.. New York Medical School) is 
assistant professor. She has been on the j 
nursing staff of Flower and Fifth A venue 
Hospital. New York. and Stanford Uni- 
versity Hospital. Stanford. California. I 
More recently. she has been a nurse- 
instructor at the Brockville Regional I 
School of Nursing, Broclo..ville, Ontario. 


-) 


.... 
or-' .. 


- 


.... 



 


.,.. 


,.... .""- 
P. Bruce-Lockhart 


M. Avery 


Patricia Bruce-Lockhart (B. Sc. N.. 
Simmons College, Boston). lecturer. has 
been a staff nurse with the department of 
health and hospitals. division of commun- 
ity health nursing, Boston, and the 
Victorian Order of Nurses. SI. John's. 
Evelyn Butler (R. N.. General Hospital 
school of nursing. SI. John's; B.N.. 
McGill University) is coordinator of the 
family practice program. She has been a 
staff nurse and clinical instructor at the 
General Hospital, SI. John's, and a staff 
nurse at the Scarborough General Hospi- 
tal, Scarborough. Ontario. 
Dawn Marie Hanson (R.N., SI. Mary's 
Hospital school of nursing. Montreal;: 
Dipl. Comm. Health, University of 
British Columbia school of nursing. Van- 
couver; B.N.. Memorial Universitv), lec- 
turer, has been staff nurse at SI. Mary's 
Hospital in Montreal. SI. Joseph's Hospi- 
tal in London, and SI. Paul's Hospital in 
Vancouver. Prior to her current appoint- 
ment. she was nursing ínstructor at the 
Grace General Hospital. SI. John's. 
Violeta E. Ribeiro (Reg. N., Toronto 
General Hospital school of nursing: 
B.N.S.. Queen's University school of 
I 
FEBRUARY 1975 



. rsing. Kingston: M.S., Boston Univer- 
ty school of nursing) is assistant profes- 
)r. Her nursing career has been chiefly 

voted to public health and has brought 
I er to Toronto, Moose Factory. Hamil- 
m. and Kenora in Ontario. and to 
'arbonear in Newfoundland. 
.. Mary Victoria Tiffin 
(B.Sc.N.. Univer- 
sity of Toronto. To- 
ro
to, Ont.) is a lec- 
turer. Her prior ex- 
perience has been 
t that of staff nurse. 
Grace General Hos- 
pital. St. John's, 
Newfoundland. 
Laura Hope Toumishey (S.R.N., 
annus Nursing College and Groote 
chuur Hospital. Cape Town, South 
frica; S.C.M.. Robroyston Hospital, 
:ilasgow. Scotland: B. N.. "v1emorial 
niversity of Newfoundland) is a lec- 
rer. Since coming to Canada. she has 
een on the nursing staff of the Montreal 
ìeneral Hm.pital. Victona General Hos- 
',ital in Halifax. Toronto General Hospi- 
.11. and St. John' s General Hospital. She 
as abo been an instructor at the Grace 
-Iospital. St. John's. 
yce Zadroga (R.N., Crouse-Irving Hos- 
ita I 
chool of nursing, Syracuse. New 
fork; B.S.. M.S., Syracuse University 
chool of nur!>ing) is assistant professor. 
;he has been a 
taff nurse and a clinical 
.Istructor at the Crouse-Irving Hospital in 
'yracuse and an instructor at Boston 
niveßit) school of nursing. 


" 


.., 

 


-Ielena Friesen Reimer (R.N.. Winnipeg 
:Jeneral Hospital school of nursing; 
3.N.. McGill University; M.A., Uni- 
er.sit} of Chicago: LL. D.. Uni- 
versitv of Win- 
nipeg) ha
 been 
conferred the 
medal of the Order 
of Canada. the high- 
est of Canadian 
honors. In October. 
1974. she received 
- , an honorary doctor 
I . 'c.i of laws degree at 
he Univcrsit} of \Vmnipeg. 
I Reimer' s nur
ing career has been a truly 
'llternational one: first with l"NRRA and 
hen \\ ith \\ HO. 
he has worked in Egypt 
l10d Palötine. in Formosa (then a province 
'lfChina). in Cambm.lia. and once again in 
Egypt. In 1l)5X she became secretary- 
,registrar of the Association of Nurses of 
1he Province of Quebec (now ONQ). a post 
she held until her retirement in 1970. 
Now living in Winnipeg. Reimer h12s 
hecome a memher of the Manitoba Citi- 
zenship Council and the \Vinnipeg Senior 
!Citizens Council. She also attends univcr- 
i,ity to enrich her know ledge of art and 

political science. 
!FEBRUARY 1975 




, 


'- .- 
 

 

 


New appointments to the faculty of the 
nursing program of Grant MacEwan 
Community College. Edmonton. Alberta. 
have been announced: 
Jeanette Boman (R.N.. University of 
Alberta Hospital, Edmonton; B.S.N.. 
University of Alberta) has had experience 
in general duty nursing in medicine. 
surgery. and intensive care. She teaches in 
the areas of medicine and surgery. 
Isabelle Darrah (R. N., Edmonton Gen- 
eral Hospital, B.S.N., University of 
Alberta) has had experience in clinical 
nursing. After working as a head nurse, 
she taught psychiatric nursing and nursing 
fundamentals. 
Mary Dawson (R. N. , Misericordia 
Hospital. Edmonton; B.A. in Social 
Work, Utah State University. Logan) has 
had experience in clinical nursing. includ- 
ing two years of volunteer work in the 
West Indies. and in psychiatric social 
work. 
Sheila Gravelle (R.N.. University of 
Alberta Hospital, Edmonton; B.S.N., 
University of Alberta) has had experience 
in medical-surgical nursing and has 
studied cardiovascular intensive care nurs- 
mg. 


.,,' 
" 
- ... '- ,.-
 
.. 

- 
.- .. 

 
( / "I. t '.. 
J 
M. Dawson S. Gravelle 


"'" 
"..

 
"
 J ' 
t. 
.
 \-J .- 


'..,ri\ 



 


;:.- 
....
 
\-- 

 


M. Meyer 


S. Whytock 


Marilyn Meyer (R. N.. Calgary General 
Hospital: B.S.N.. University of Alberta) 
has had experience in clinical nursing and 
has taught obstetrics and gynecology. 
Camille Romaniuk (R. N. . Edmonton 
General Hospital; B.S.N.. University of 
Alberta) has had experience in general 
duty nursing. nursing administration. and 
public health nursing. 
Sandra Whytock (R.N.. Wellesley 
Hospital. Toronto; B.S.N. University of 
Alberta) has had experience in clinical 
nursing and has taught nursing fundamen- 
tals, medical-surgical nursing. and inter- 
mediate surgery. 


Jennifer MacPhee (S.R.N..Radcliffe In- 
firmary, Oxford. England) has been ap- 
pointed provincial nursing consultant with 
the St. John Ambulance Association in 
Nova Scotia. She will travel through the 
province to promote teaching of both pa- 
tient care and child care in the home. as 
well as encourage groups to take an in- 
terest in this training as a service to their 
communities. 
MacPhee has worked at the Grenfell 
Mission Hospital in St. Anthony, 
Newfoundland. and at the Halifax Civic 
hospital. 


The Saskatchewan Registered Nurses' 
Association has announced two new ap- 
pointments, effective I November 1974: 
Catherine O'Shaughnessy (R. N. . St. 
Mary's Hospital school of nursing. 
Montreal; B.Sc.N.. St. Francis Xa\ier 
University. Antigonish. N .S.) is executive 
assistant in the SRNA office. She is cur- 
rently completing thesis requirements for 
the master of education degree at Univer- 
sity of Regina. 
O'Shaughnessy has for several years 
been associated with the Regina Grey 
Nun's Hospital school of nursing. as in- 
structor, assistant director. and Jirector. 
Most recently. she was a research officer 
with the Saskatchewan department of 
health. research and planning branch. 
Norma Hopps (R, N.. Regina General 
Hospital school of nursing; B.S.N., Uni- 
versity of British Columbia) is nursing 
consultant with the association. She has 
worked at the Regina General Hospital as a 
medical instructor and head nurse. and as 
assistant director of nursing at the South 
Saskatchewan Hospital Centre. Wascana 
Division. Regina. 
Hopps has recently returned from 
Nigeria. where she served with Canadian 
University Service Overseas as nurse tutor 
and nurse administrator. 


Marie Anne Toupin (R.N.. Pasqua Hospi- 
tal. Regina; B.N.. McGill University; 
M.S. Denver Medical Center of the Uni- 
versity of Colorado. Denver) has been ap- 
pointed director of nursing at Burnaby 
General Hospital. She has held supervis- 
ory positions in the Royal Victoria Hospi- 
tal. Montreal, and University d Alberta 
Hospital. Edmonton. 


Marielle Lalonde (Reg. N.. Ottawa Uni- 
versity school of nursing) has been ap- 
pointed director of a demonstration project 
for Planned Parenthood of Ottawa that is 
designed to reach the French-speaking 
population of Ottawa and neighboring 
eastern Ontario communities. She will 
work with executive director Mary Mills 
and Planned Parenthood Ottawa' s board of 
directors. ,.;q 
THE CANADIAN NURSE 37 



books 


I 


Scientific Principles in Nursing, 7ed.. b) 
Shirley Hawke Gragg and Olive M. 
Reð. 563 pages. St. Louis, Mosby. 
1974. Canadian Agent: Mosby. 
Re\'iewed h\' Shirle\' BartlC\'. Teacher, 
Mi
erinmlia GeneTal Hospital School 
of Nursing. Winnipeg, Manitoha. 


I"he authors suggest a variety of selected 
physiologic. psychologic. and sociologic 
concepts that will supply the nursing 
student and practitioner with a rational 
approach to planning patient care to meet 
the needs of the individual as he responds 
holistically to his en vironment. It is 
intended that the student will be led to 
apply scientific principles. through 
problem-solving activities. in using the 
modified adaptation model described in a 
beginning chapter. The book covers the 
concepts well and provides a sound basis 
for problem solving. 
In attempting to define nursing. the 
authors expound on Henderson's defini- 
tion. then conclude that no one has yet 
adequately döcribed ho.... and why nurs- 
ing is specifically unique and different 
from other human services. Adaptation 
and Selye's "stress of life" is discussed 
briefly in chapter I. and these concepts 
are related to the nursing process and 
personal and community health. The 
organizational charts provided and the 
agencies for health care described are 
those existing in the U.S.A.. but know- 
ledge of the basic setup of ho"'pital 
departments. and their relationship is 
helpful for beginning health workers. 
Unit two begins with a discussion of 
adaptation as a basis for patient care; at 
this point the authors touch briefly on 
both Helsen's adaptation-level theory and 
Roy's four modes of adaptation. which 
seem pertinent. Chapter 13 in this unit. 
"Planning Nursing Care." is easy to 
understand; it has basic definition of 
nursing process. where to find pertinent 
information. and a well-developed case 
study on which a sample plan of care is 
based. 
In units three to six. an attempt to 
present the independent nursing roles. 
follo....ed by the dependent and collabora- 
tive roles. has been made at the cost of 
organization. The beginning student may 
find it difficult to follow the text. as 
information on a particular topic is spread 
throughout the book. For example. Chap- 
ter 4. .. Rehabilitation." deals briefly 
38 THE CANADIAN NURSE 


with posItIoning in illness; coping with 
musculoskeletal deterioration (range of 
motion exercises. with illustrations) is 
covered in chapter 19, follo....ed by 
chapter 20 where adaptation to dying is 
discussed; long-term illness is singled out 
in chapter 33. 
The authors have fulfilled their objec- 
tive: a text that will provide ways of 
translating concepts into nursing be- 
haviors through problem-solving ac- 
tivities. This book would be useful for 
supplying nursing students and prac- 
titioners with a rational approach to 
planning patient care that meets the needs 
of the individual as he responds to his 
en vironment. 


Understanding Inherited Disorders by 
Lucille F. Whaley. 211,1 pages. St. 
Louis, Mosby. 1974. Canadian Agent: 
Toronto, Mosby. 
Reviewed bv Peggy-Anne Field. As- 
sociate Professor. School of Nursing, 
University of Alberta, Edmonton, 
Alberta. 


This book is intended as a resource for 
health professionals who are not geneti- 
cists. but who work with families who 
have members with an inherited defect or 
disease. 
The first part of the book deals with the 
fundamental mechanisms of heredity and 
the application of the principles to defects 
and diseases. Following this geneml 
introduction. specific instances of single 
gene disorders and chromosomal aberra- 
tions are discussed. The last section deals 
with genetic inheritance and equilibrium, 
interuterine diagnosis of defects, and 
genetic counseling. including the prob- 
lems of ethical management. 
In the early chapters. each new term 
introduced is italicized and a definition of 
the term given. In later chapters, when 
less common terminology is employed. a 
cross-reference to the original definition is 
supplied. Explanations are simple and are 
linked to clinical examples 
Diagrams are well chosen and mm- 
plement the written text. For example. in 
discussing gene inheritance. the Punnett 
square and a diagram of genes during 
meiotic division are both used. This aids 
in interpreting infonnation presented in 
the Punnett square. Similarly the dia- 
gram illustrating the metabolism of 


phenylalanine shows clearly how blocks 
at different points in the metabolic path- 
way produce different. but related. clini- 
cal syndromes. II 
The symptoms, diagnosis, and treat- . 
ment of inherited diseases are outlined. 
Obscure conditions are dealt with brieflv; 
more commonly seen diseases and defeét
 
are discussed in some detail. 
The section on counseling, ethics. and 
construction of a family pedigree pro- 
vides a useful overview. but not sufficient 
detail for those persons engaged in these 
activities. 
The book is highly readable. Inher- 
itance can be understood without a strong 
mathematical background. It provides a I 
simple. but sufficiently detailed. intro- 
duction to inherited disorders for tho<,e 
who have contact with affected children 
and their families. It is to be recolll- 
mended for those who seek a relatively 
simple explanation of a complex subject. 


Special Needs of Long-Term Patients by 
Carolyn B. Stevens. 288 pages. 
Philadelphia, Lippincott, 1974. Cana- 
dian Agent: Lippincott. Toronto. 
Reviewed by Sybil Markmât::. 
Teacher, Nursing program. GeorRian 
Community ColleRe, Orillia. Ontario. 


The author, ....ho is a licensed practical 
nurse. has aptly stated her purpose in the 
preface: "This book \\as ....ritten .... ith one 
purpose in mind - to promote a better t 
understanding of long-term patients and to 
(hopefully) give an insight into their prob- 
lems and their needs. .. 
The book has little ne.... material on ac- 
tual nursing care. but what is presented is 
done in a different manner than IS usual. I 
This is particularly noticeable in the first 
t....ochapters, ....hich deal. primarily. ....ith 
interpersonal relationships. The personal 
descriptions of long-term patients may be 
felt. by some. to be framed in rather 
"familiar" language. Ho....ever. they ap- 
pear to be ....ritten ....ith much love and I 
understanding of each individual patient 
and his family. 
Throughout the chapters. this personal 
approach covers all aspects of nursing care 
necessary for the extended care patient. 
What may be more important. nursing at- 
titudes. both positive and negative, are 
discussed. 


(Contillued Oil pag'> -101 
FEBRUARY 1975 



118w.
 

 Q 
. L 
....- 1 1 
CW - 

-- 1D 
- 
 


OUT 


IN 


FRONT 


PregnIlllCY 
.nd 
FamiJ!.!,!eallb 


00 


n-a.MoI...,.....;..... 


CONCEPTS BASIC TO NURSING 
Pamela Milchell 
Focuses oll-Ihe IOterpersanal and IOteliectual skIlls basIc to making decIsIons about the nursIOg 
care needed by patients to cape wIth the changes In dady loving brought about by the" state at health or 
Illness 


384 pages - $10.95 
THE NURSE'S GUIDE TO DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES, 3/e 
Rulh French 
The purpose 01 thIs book IS 10 explain the data used and procedures carned DUlIn Ihe cllmcal 
labaralary and 10 departmenls 01 radIology and nuclear medIcIne. relatIng them to nursIng care II 
cantalOs the latest matenal'-of partIcular Slgnillcance In the rapIdly changIng fIelds of chemIstry and 
Immunohematology 


358 pages - soft cover - $ 6.55 


DYNAMIC ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY, 4/e 
L. L. Langley. Ira T eltord & John Chrislensen 
RevIsion of a popular. superbly wnUen and Illustrated two-calor text lor the combIned anatomy and 
phYSIology CourSe Anatomy and physIology are Integrated throughout to highlIght and clanty the" 
interrelatIonship ThIs book has greater depth than mast teXIs in thIS market yet dlfflcull concepts are 
explained In a comprehensIble manner 


gOO pages - $15.35 


IT'S YOUR BODY 
Lawrence M. Elson 
Presents an overview 01 the argamzation of the body. basIc terminology. and an Intraduchon to 
cells and tissues thIS book proceeds to the study of bOdy structure through the regIonal approach In 


,,'fAr n... 
l'oL R & 


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addlilon to numerous line drawmgs and diagrams the book IS Illustrated wIth an atlas of x-rays. 
includIng contrast medIa to demonstrate visceral structure 


645 pages - $13.60 


PREGNANCY AND FAMILY HEALTH - Vol. 1 The Child. 
bearing Family 
Belly Anderson. Mercedes Camacho and Jeanne Slark 
This programmed book IS the I"st of a Iwo-valume senes on the chlldbeanng family ThIs volume 
covers the normal maternIty cycle The programmed malenalls a mlXlure 01 linear and branch-type 
supplemenled by same straIght text General concepts related to lamoly health are Integrated WIth 
matenal on the maternity cycle 


450 pages - $ 7.15 


MATERNITY NURSING TODAY 
Jay Clausen. Margaret Flock. Bernie Ford. Manlyn Green and Elda PopIel 
DIscusses maternity nursing from a family approaCh and gIves covelage to such current social 
Issues and phenomena as abarllOn communes and the single parent lamlly Themes throughoullhe 
book are Ihe nurslOg process nurslOg care ollhe lamoly as a whole the use of sell In nursIng the 
normal mofher and newborn. and hIgh nsk mothers and Infants 


950 pages - $14.25 


CYCLOPEDIC MEDICAL DICTIONARY, 12/e 
Clarence W. Taber 
ThIS amazmg reference work wrth over 40.000 entnes has been praIsed for ItS convenIent sIZe the 
completeness of ItS defInitIons. and the broad range of medIcal. nursIng and allied sClentlllc Ileids whIch 
are covered It gIves more nursing procedures lhan are usually found In nursIng handbooks and 
individual dIseases are covered In terms ot etIology. symptoms. laboratory hndongs treatment and 
nursing care 


1,754 pages _ $10.25 


Spring will be a little greater this year 


INTERRUPTIONS IN FAMILY HEALTH DURING PRE- 
GNANCY - Vol. II The Childbearing Family 
Belty Anderson. Mercedes Camacho and Jeanne Slark 
ThIs IS the second of a twa.volume programmed senes an the choldyeanng famIly and covers the 
high nsk pregnancy All the material has been class tested and Includes behavlaural obJecllVes. 
glossanes and ple- and post-tests which make the bOOks Ideal as supplements revIews or tor 
sell-study 


480 pages Itent.)- $ 8.75 


NURSING CARE OF THE ALCOHOLIC AND DRUG ABUSER 
Pamela Burkhalter 
ThIS unique book provIdes the nurse wIth In-depth material covenng the dynaml
 and charactens- 
tICS 01 alcohol alcoholism. drug abuse and drug abusers. as well as the nursong care Inlerventlons 
whICh are applIcable 


384 pages (tent.) - $ 8.25 


MATERNAL AND INFANT CARE 
E/,zabelh Dickason. Martha Schull 
EmphasIzes the rOle of the nurse as educator 10 the held 01 malernal/lnlant care MUCh attentIon IS 
also given to lamlly planning. preparallOn for parenthood abortIon adoptIon toster care and Ihe 


For more information, contact - 


a 


. 


. 


. 


. 


prob'ems 01 the 0"1 of wedlock mother 


578 pages (tent.)- $13.25 


DERMATOLOGY AND SKIN CARE 
John Parflsh 
ProvIdes knowledge about the skm In an Interesting readabte. and sImple manner The book 
begins at a SImple level assumIng little or no medIcal background It bUIlds vocabulary and explaIns 
basIc medical concepts as It progresses Inflammatoon. Immunology healing. allergy and other 
concepts are Introduced 


224 pages (tent.)- $ 7.65 


COMPREHENSIVE PEDIATRIC NURSING 
Gladys Scipien. Martha Barnard. Marilyn Chard. Jeanne Howe and Palricia Phitl,ps 
To meet the extensIve changes In pedlafrlcs and In nursmg Ihe editors of this new book have 
designed ItS content In the form belief that comprehensive pediatric nursIng must be derived from an 
understanding of Chold and famoly development a knowledge of normal and pathologIcal embryology 
anatomy and physiology and Ihe applicat,on of Ihe nursing prnrp<s In the care of rhlldlen 
1,156 pages (tent.) - $18.65 


Prices are sUbJect to change without notIce. 


Irj 'i I 
C:je 
 
I." . 


College Division 
McGRAW-HILL RYERSON LIMITED 
330 Progress Avenue 
Scarborough, Ontario 
M1P 2Z5 
'fEBRlJARY 1975 


Representing in Canada: 
McGraw-Hili Book Company 
F.A. Davis Company 


THE CANADIAN NlJRSE 39 



[bOOkS 


(C"'lli/ll/t''' }mlll p"Re 38/ 
The chapter on "Common Treatments" 
is particularly \\-ell \\-ritten and covers 
clearly and concisely such diverse subjects 
as fecal impaction. decubiti. and bandag- 
ing of legs. 
As \\-ell as \\-riting about the geriatric 
patient. the author provides a chapter on 
" Youth and Chronic Illness. " This chap- 
ter not only covers the physical and 
psychological problems of the young. but 
also discusses the patient as a sexual being 
- a point many nurses and doctors df' not 
consider in caring for these patients, 
Again. the last chapter. \\-hich is on 
death. does not say anything particularly 
ne\\-. but rather states simply how each 
individual patient and nurse approaches 
this inevitable part of life. 
This book may not be of any particular 
interest to those nurses in a university set- 
ting: it is \\-ritten for the basic practitioner. 
It could be recommended as a resource 
book for first-year diploma nurse students. 
and those in registered nursing assistant 
programs. 
It may be of particular use to nurses who 
are instituting inservice programs in 
homes for the aged and nursing homes. 
and \\-ho are working with nonregistered 
nurse aides. The basic nursing care is in- 
formative. and attitudes to\\-ard patients 
and their families are presented (both posi- 
tively and negatively) in an open. forth- 
right manner. 


About Bedsores: What You Need to Know 
to Help Prevent and Treat Them by 
Marian E. Miller and Marvin L. Sachs. 
4S pages. Philadelphia. Lippincott. 
1974. Canadian Agent: Lippincott. To- 
ronto. 
Reviewed bv Walter E. Bohonis, Nurs- 
ing Instructor, Misericordia General 
Hospital School of Nursing, Winnipeg, 
Manitoba. 


This book is directed to all members of the 
health team \\-ho come in direct contact 
with the patient. Basic concepts that are 
essential in the prevention and treatment of 
bedsores are \\-ell presented. 
The first half of the book defines bed- 
sores and discusses the physiological 
changes that cause them. The photo- 
graphic presentation is excellent; it helps 
the nurse better understand why the patient 
gets a bedsore. 
The remainder of the book deals with 
the prevention and treatment of bedsores. 
This section stresses nursing knowledge 
that is essential to prevent them. Once 
again. the illustrations are excellent in 
40 THE CANADIAN NURSE 


stressing the essential concepts. which 
other texts have done \\-ith words alone. 
How often have \\-e assumed that an 
alternating pressure pad is the key to treat- 
ing bedsores? The authors explain that this 
device is likely to increase the time needed 
to care for the patient and is not as suitable 
as a good mattress and bed surface. 
The material in this text is presented in a 
simple and easily understood manner. and 
is valuable as a reference in both the class- 
room and clinical area. Good nursing care 
is the essential, underlying key to the pre- 
vention of bedsores. The authors do an 
excellent job oftelling us \\-hat nurses need 
to kno\\- to prevent and treat bedsores. 


Smoking: Behavior Modification Pro- 
gramme by GJ. Kleisinger. 33 pages. 
Regina. Prairie media and resource sys- 
tems. 1973. 
Reviewed by Mary Lou Downes, Pro- 
duction Assistatzt, Canadian Nurse. 


The author states. "This program has been 
designed. by using the basic principles un- 
derlying human behavior. to maximize 
your chances of changing your smoking 
habit. .. .One of the goals of this pro- 
gram is to separate your smoking behavior 
from those unconscious actions which 
accompany your smoking habits." 
The technique of this "stop-smoking" 
program differs from others more widely 
known in that the smoker does not stop 
"cold turkey." but gradually decreases 
his cigarette consumption while altering 
his behavior. The smoker is allowed one 
cigarette per hour on Day I of the pro- 
gram. This amoung gradually decreases to 
o consumption on Day 21. A cigarette ma} 
be smoked only on the hour, If the hour is 
missed for any reason. the smoker must 
wait until the next hour. The effect of this 
is to change cigarette use from a desirable 
time to apermissible time. thereby making 
cigarettes a task rather than a pleasure. 
The pamphlet is clearly laid out and is 
quite easily understood. The reviewer 
tried the program with two other smokers. 
The reviewer's habit has not ended. but 
consumption has decreased from 20 to 10 
cigarettes per day. The second person 
trying the program abandoned it after a 
week to try another method. 


Correction 
Under the title "Literature Available" 
in the New Products section of the October 
1974 issue. The Canadian Nurse told 
readers about a 61-page booklet entitled 
Recipes for C01l1rolled Fat Diets. We 
neglected to add that this booklet. publish- 
ed by the Ontario Hospital Association. 
costs $. 7S per copy. We regret any in- 
convenience this has caused our readers 
and the Ontario Hospital Association. 


The third person was successful ir. 
eliminating cigarette consumption com- 
pletely. She reports no withdrawal symp- 
toms. and no desire for a cigarette. despite 
being exposed to smokers on a regular 
basis. She reports that she had previously 
tried several other methods with no suc- 
cess and says this is an almost painless way 
of ridding oneself of the cigarette habit. 
This pamphlet should be of value to 
anyone who seriously wishes to discon-' 
hnore "noking. ! 
Interpersonal Change: A Behavioral AP-I 
proach to Nursing Practice, by Maxine' 
E. Loomis and 10 Anne Horsley. 182 
pages. New York. McGraw-Hill. 
1974. Canadian Agent: McGraw-Hill 
Ryerson. Scarborough. 
Reviewed by Merina Dobson Hilton, 
Senior Instructor, Psychiatry, School 
of Nursing , VatlcouverGeneral Hospi- 
tal, Vancouver, R.C. 


This is a practical guide for professionals 
interested in the clinical application of op- 
erant theory. especially in the practice of 
nursing. The book is theoretically based 
on a sound researchable frame\\-ork from 
which to develop a practical application. 
Each aspect of the theory is follo\\-ed by 
concise guidelines with apt and detailed 
examples. 
The book successfully implements the 
theory of behavior modification by a skill- 
ful presentation of practical problems. It 
begins by outlining the philosophical con- 
siderations. and then deals with the oper- 
ant pattern of discriminative stimulus. re- 
sponse. and their consequences. The au- 
thors deal effectively with the issues of 
control. how to do it. and the rationale for I 
using the outlined techniques. They also I 
carefully and successfully deal \\-ith the. 
application ofthe problem-solving process 
to ensure safe and therapeutic application. I 
The book offers a comprehensi ve ap- 
proach for two categories of behavior fre- 
quently confronted by professionals: the 
depressed. self-destructive and the! 
bizarre. The section on the application of 
this method with groups is informative for 
informal psychiatric or formal non- 
psychiatric groups. but unfortunately it 
fails to offer anything on formal psy- 
chiatric groups. 
However. the section on the application 
\\-ithin a "token economy" is basic. con- 
cise. and adequate. The book concludes 
with an interesting chapter on promotion 
of mental health and primary prevention in 
family. work. and social settings. 
The book is a must for anyone genuinely 
interested in involvement with interper- 
sonal change. Its only drawback is that it is 
too complex for basic students. Although 
the theoretical presentation is somewhat 
complex. the book is informative. interesl- 
ing. and vital. "d 
FEBRUARY 1975 



Bastic hosiery . 


Now nobody need know she's wearing 
support hosiery_ Bauer and Black make a 
complete line of attractive and fashionable 
Elastic Panty Hose and Cosmetic Sheer Stock- 
ings. All provide firm, medically correct "grad- 
uated compression", the kind of support she 
needs for improved circulation. 
Very simply, "graduated compression" is con- 
trolled compression at the ankles, with diminish- 
ing pressure up the leg. Because Bauer and Black 
Elastic Hosiery is made with stronger, tougher 
yarns, your patient will get up to twice the com- 
pressio1l that ordinary support hosiery would 
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So now that 
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feet, you can hon- 
estly tel] her that 
Bauer and Black 
Elastic Stockings 
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will allow her to 
feel much better- 
without detract- 
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Just because her 
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BAUER & BLACK* 
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MRS. R. F. JOHNSON 
SUPERVISOR 


N 


CHARLENE HAYNES 



\10
 
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\UOHN,L.P.N. 


GENEROUS NEW GROUP DISCOUNTS on all 
Items shown, fur !s.oup purchase:., graduat'lJ ti;lft fa\/ur
. etc 
6-11 Same Items, DeducI10%; 12-24 Same Items, Deducl15% 
25 or More Same Items. Deducl20% B 


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M.I.I 
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IT'S EASY TO ORDER REEVES NAME PINS FOR YOURSELF OR FRIENDS! 
Choose style you want, shown left Pnnt name (and 2nd bottom leU Attach extr,a sht:et for addlbonal 
lIns 
hne ., d . dJ do I d r b I Ch k Ih' NOTE SAVINGS ON 2 IDENTICAL PINS more eon
..enl 
boxe 


I esue on Ie mes e ow ec 0 er In 0 In 
5 on chart. clip this section and attach to coupon spare in case af lass. 
RING,______________________ 2nd LINE,________________ 
METAL METAL BACAGROUNO tEmRING PRICES 
DESCRIPTION COLOR fiNISH COLOR COLOR EniraYlIIII lI.. EIIlrnell2lilis 
(Plo"I<1 
ALL METAL.. _ Smooth, rounded o Duotone Doe. D Black o I Pin 2.35 DIPm '10 
corners Choose PoliShed, Satm or o Gold o Polished not o Ok Blue o 2 PtnS 315 o 2p.n. 1.9S 
new Duotone combining satin o Sliver OSatm apply DWhllf' lAme nal't1el IWmerIJI
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background with polished edges. 
PLASTIC LAMINATE... slimmer. Doe. o
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broader: engraved thru surface to nol nol o Green o 2 Pms 1.95 o 2 Pins 2.90 
.)ntrastmg core color. Beveled apply apply o Blue White (Wine 
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border matches lettering. o Cocoa letters only 
METAL fRAMED ClassIc o Gold Polished While o Black DIP," 2.35 o I Pin J.I0 
"sign; snow-white plastic with OSlrver frame only o Ok Blue D2Pms3.85 o 2 Pins C.95 
nooth, polished beveled frame. only IwmenameJ lumenl " 
MOLDED PLASTIC.. . Simple. smart, Does Doe. White o Black o I Pin U, DIPin 1.8, 
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NURSES PERSONALIZED t --- 
ANEROID SPHYG. - - 
A superb Instrument especially designed 
for nurses by Reister Exacta, precision 
craftsmen In W. Germany. Easy.to.attacl1 
Velcro\WI cuff, hgl1twelghl. compact, fits / 
Into salt slm.leather zippered case 
21,/2'/ x 4" x 7". Dial calibrated .- 
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A Wise investment for a lifetime 
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No. 106 Sphyg.... 39.95 ea. 


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An outstandmg value' Excellent Qual- 
Ity Clayton Aneroid Sphyg Irom 
Japan Meets all U S. Gov specs 
:t:3mm accuracy, guaranteed 10 
years Black and chrome manometer 
cal to 300mm Velcro
 grey cuff. 
black tubing. soft leatherette llpper 
case measuring 21,.2' J( 4" It 7" Servo 
Iced In USA If ever needed Clayton 
No. 4140 Nurses Stetl1escope Hess 
Inltlalsl and Scope Sack Included ISI 
below IIghO FREE gold initials I 
case and Scope Sack Here IS a sensl 
ble, practical. dependable kit lust 
light for every nurse I 
No. 41-10 B.P. Sel.. . 
32.95 set complete 
Sphyg. only No. 108. . . 25.95 wilh case 


Duly free 


CAP ACCESSORIES 



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CAP TDTE keeps your cops cris
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wilde stored or carried. Flexible clear plastic, wl1ite 
 
tnm, lipper, carrying strap, l1ang loop. Stores flat. Also . 
ff)r wiglets. curlers, etc. 81,/2'1 dia.. 6" l1igl1. 
No. 333 Tole. .. 2.95 ea. Gold inll. SO.ITole 

 WHITE CAP CLIPS Holds caps 
tllmly In p'ate
 Hard.to-hnd white bobbie pms, 
enamel on fine spring steel. Seven 2" and four 
, J" clips mcluded In plastic snap box. 
. No. 529 Clips 75c per box (min. 3 boxes) 
. MDLDED CAP TACS 
 
Replace cap band mstantly Tmy plastic tac, ? -;;. __ ., 
damty caduceus Cl100se Black, Blue, White .... 
or Crystal wltl1 Gold Caduceus. Tl1e neater. - 
way to fasten bands. _ 
 
No. 200 - SeiDl 6 Toes. . 1.25 per sel '.' _, . 
 
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I lewelry-quahty T acs witl1 gllppers, holds cap 
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ITEM 


COLOR I SI2E QUANT. PRICE 
I I 
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--- 


. 
I INITIALS os desired, - - _ 
TO ORDER NAME PINS, fill oul all informalion in box,lop 
I nght, clip out and attacn to this coupon. 
, Please add SOt handling/postage 
I er Ie e $ Ion orders totalling under $5.00 
N(' COD's, or bllhng to individuals. Mass. residents add 3% S T 


Use extra sheet for additional items Or orders. 


Send to 


Sireet 


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Your 
i Inilials 
Engraved 
t Free! 
ope Sack 
__ 
 alf Price 


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Free Initials R with v.our own 
Littma
!J Nursescopef 


Famous Llltmann nurses' dla 
pl1ragm stethoscope . a fine 
precision instrument, with high 
sensitivity for blood pressures. 
apical pulse rate. Only 2 OlS., fits 
in pocket. wltl1 gray vinyl anti 
collapse tubing, non cl1ll1mg epoxy 
diapl1ragm. 28" overall Non.rotat. 
ing angled ear tubes and cl1est 
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of 5 Jewel.hke colors: Caldtone, 
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FREE INITIALS! Your mitials en. 
graved fREE on cl1est piece; lend 
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No. 2160 Nursescope incl. 
Free Initials. . . 16.SO ea. 
SCOPE SACK See special half price 
offer in Scope Sack box below. 
wl1en ordered with any scope. 


-IMPORTANT: New "Medallion" styling Includes tubing m colors to match 
metal Darts If desired. add $1. ea tu pllce above; add "M" to Order 
No. 21GO!!!) on coupon. Duty free 
LITTMANN CDMBINATION STETHDSCDPE 
Maximum sensitivity lrom tl1ls fme professional mstrument Con. 
vement 22" overall lengtl1, weigl1s only 31;2 Ol Cl1rome blnaurals 
fixed at correct anji!le. Internal spring, stainless cl1est piece, I 
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dlapl1ragm, 1\-4' bell Removable non-cl1dl sleeve Gray vinyl tubing 

w: 

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e29.70ea. Duty free 


LITTMANN PEDIATRIC STETHDSCDPE 
Same as above, except smaller cl1est piece for use wltl1 Inlants and 
small cl1lldren. Diapl1ragm 1%'1 dia., bellI \-111. Ellack tubing. Includes 
2 free Imllals engr. on cl1est piece 
No. 2111 Ped. Sleth . . . 29.70 ea. 


Duty free 
CLAYTDN DUAL STETHDSCDPE 
llgl1tweight dual scope Imported from Japan; tllgl1est 
sensitivity for apical pulse rate Chromed bmaurals 
 nd /" 
chest piece wltl11Yø" bell and I Y.'I diapl1ragm, 
grey antl.collapse tubmg. 4 Ol , 29" long. Extra " . 
ear plugs and dlapl1ragm included. !!! imtials 
 
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No. 413 Duol Slelh... 17.95 eo. free 
LIGHTWEIGHT CLAYTDN STETHOSCOPE 
Our lowest cost preCIS11J1I 
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SCDPE SACK neatlycolllesandprolecls 
Nursescope or any scope. Double.tl1lck frosled 
flexible plastic, white vinyl blndmg. 4Y2" x 9\7". 
Your own imtlals l1elp prevent loss 
No. 223 Sack. . . 1.00 ea. (Deduct 50_ wl1en or- 
"ered with any scope above). Gold inìtials, add 50c. 



 
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onum 
(
 band and clip. 5" long, U.S made. battenes included (re- 
placement batteries available any storel. Your own hght, gift boxed. 
No. 001 Penlight. . . 4.29 U. Your Inlllals enlraved, add 50_ per lip' 


I 


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SCISSORS ard FORC
PS 
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eg ;::r
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LISTER BANDAGE SCISSDRS 

 3%" Minl.sclsslJr; Tmy, l1andy, slip II , 
uniform pocket or purse. Choose Jeweler 
BeL gold or gleaming cl1rome plate fmish 
No. 3500 3%" Mini. . .. . 2.75 
Ño. 4500 4'12" size, Chrome only. ..2.95 
No. 5500 511 2 '/ size. Chrome only. . . 3.25 
No. 7027%" size, Chrome only... 3.75 
5Y2" OPERATING SCISSORS 
 
Polished Stainless Steel. straight blades. - 
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No. 705 Sharp I Blunt points. . . 2.95 
No. 706 Sharp/Sharp poinls . . . 2.95 
No. 7104 ' /2" IRIS Scis., Stainless, Straight. . .3.75 
No. 712 5h" Littauer STITCH Scis.. Stainless. 3.75 

 
ELLY FORCEPS 
-;-- 
 So l1andy tor every nurse l Ideal for clampmg 
.\
 NO.o;5


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I
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tl,. 
:2:'. 4.49 
/') 
.R No. 725 Curved, Box Lock. . . . . . . . 4.49 
No. 741 TI1umb Oresslne; forcep, Serrated. Straight, 5Y2". . 3.75 
No. 744 Spane;e, Serrated, Straight. BOl Lock. 9" .. .. . . . 6.80 
No. 734 Backhaus Towel Clamp. BOl lock. 5'12" ..3.75 
3 .nll.als .ng....d an .ny abaft, add 50. par Inslrum.nl. 


MEDI-CARD SET Handiest relerence 
ever' 6 smootl1 plastic cards (31/!J" J( 5Y2'/) cram- 
med wdl1 mformatlon, Includmg EQuivalencies of 
Apotl1ecary to Metnc to Housel1old Meas. Temp. 
'C to of, Prescnp. Abbr., UrinalysIs, Elody Cl1ern., 
Blood'Chem, liver Tests, Bone Marrow. Disease 
Incub. Periods. Adult Wgts, etc. All In wl1ite 
vinyl holder wltl1 gold stamped caduceus 
No. 2B9 Cord Set. . . 1.5D ea. 
Your initials gold-stamped on holder. 
add SO_ per set. 
., .' . 
revent stams and wear I b '----' 
. @ Smooth, phable pure wh
te vtnyl. Ideal _ 
If)w.cost group gifts or favors. .,. ] 
1 ' No. 210 ( Irill1'), two compartments 
\ wltl1 flap, kold stamped caduceus . . . . 
. Pockel of 6 for $1.50 , 
') NI. 191 Ileft) Delule Saver, 3 comDt I I J 
cl1anRe pocket & kev cham . . - L--L-.. 
Packet of 6 for $2.98 
8DA Nurses' POCKET PAL KIT 
Handiest for busy nurses. Includes wMe 
Deluxe Pocket Saver, wltl15 1 12"llster SCissors 
(botl1 sl10wn above), Tn Color ballpomt pen 
plus l1andsome little pen IIgl1t. . all silver 
flnisl1ed. Cl1ange compartment, key cl1aln 
No. 291 Pal Kit. . . . . . . . 6.50 eo. 
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waterproof timepiece Raised easy.to read wl1lle numera 
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research abstracts 


arns, Patricia. Challges ill the llmOll1lt 
and IIature of COlltllcts of cardiac sllrgi- 
wi plllielltsfollolt'ing transfer from all 
ilitellSÎ\'e care lI11it. Toronto. Ontario. 
197
. Thesiq 1\1.5c.:-':.) U. of Toronto. 


e problem posed for this study.... as the 
I Tcrences that occurred in the .1InOUnl 
d nature of contacts of cardiac-
urgical 
'ients follO\\ ing transfer from an inten- 
'e care unit IICl') to a general care.... ard. 
('WI. and the palients'
 reaction
 to these 
fferences . 
Th
 objectives of the slUdv .... ere 10 iden- 
"y the f
)lhm ing: the change
 in the total 
Jlount of palients' contacls in the ICl and 
e Gn\; diftàences in Ihe nalure of the 
mtacis in these 1\\0 .m
as: .... ilh v. hom 
jlienh hJ.d contacts; lenglh of time con- 
cts \\ere maintained: and b) \\hom and 
).... conlJ.ds \\ere inilialed. 
Patient cl'ntact .... as detined as an l'verl. 
lsil) obsen able interactil'n bet\\ een the 
lient J.nd \lIher pe
on'i (including other 
lien" and vanl'u
 categories of hospital 
r
onnd) . 
Sixleen patienh undergoing dortic- 
)wnar) b) pJ.ss 
urger: ....ere studied. 
onpanicipant obsenation \\a
 carried 
t for de
ignJ.kd period
 on 10 patients in 
Ie ICt.: and Gn\ 
 and l'n another () palients 
.h on the Gn\ Inten ie.... s \\ ere hdd 
ilh all 16 patients after the obsen alion 
_riod
. Data \\ere anahzed according to 
redetermined calegl'riés of care. 
 
Re
ult
 indicaled the 1'011\).... ing differ- 
ncö bet....een the ICU and the GCv.s: total 
mtact lime and number l'f contact
 \\ere 
duæd tin mosl patienl
 fl'llO\\ ing Irdns- 
r; the nature of the cl'ntacts changed 
'mm mainl) for technical procedures 
nd 
asic care in the ICl to mainl) for ba
ic 
are and social contacts on the GC\\ ): con- 
cts for supportive care cl'nstituted a 
mall pen:entJ.ge of the contacb in both 
reJ.s: hl)spital personnel \\ ith \\ hom pa- 
ient
 \\ ere in contact changed from mosth 
lrofes
ionnal in the ICl' 
to mo
th noo- 
lrofes
i\mal per
ons afler transfÚ: con- 
Kh .... ith other patients increa
ed on the 
.JC\\. and. in the ICU. patients ....ere better 
1ble to use nl'1l\erbal clues to attract the 
tatr
 attention. 
The folio.... ing similarities exisled: con- 
lacts \\ ith persl'nnel ....ere predominantly 
)rief in both unit
. u
uall) under 5 min- 
IJle
. all hough a small number of contacts 
l' slight Iv longer duration occurred in the 
Ct.:. Ct)ñtact
 
 \\cre initiated mainh bv 
tJ.ff in both units. During l'bserva'tion. 
,EBRUARY 1975 


patients reacted to the difference in as
is- 
tance available follo\\ ing transfer b) pas- 

ive compliance. The) made fe.... requöls 
for more contacts \\ ith personnd than 
\\ere prmided. even ....hen experiencing 
considerable discomtl)rt. 
Certain needs for further contacts ....ere 
identified on theGn\s. These ....ere mJ.inl) 
for the relief of pain and tiredness: assis- 
tance .... ith activit\ ; hv gienic and technical 
procedures: and infl;r
lation about activ- 
it). a\ailable medication
. and the regime 
to follo\\ afler discharge fwm hospital. In 
addition. patients needed oppl'rtunities to 
discuss the experience of heart 
urger) and 
its social implications. 
The cl'nclusil'n
 
uggested b) the dala 
are: 
. certain barriers tl' cl'mmunication be- 
t\\ een palient
 and 
tatl ex ist as a röult of 
the l'rgdnizalil'n of patient and ...taft" con- 
tach; 
. brief cl'ntacts l'n the Gn\ 
 allo\\ !-owff 
onl)' limited llppurtunitit:s for a

ö...ment 
of patient needs. resulting in much patient 
di
comfort IhJ.t might pl'
sibl) be al- 
lev iated; 
. increased an areness of pain and fatigue. 
accompanied by decrea...ed as
istanc
 fl'l- 
ltm ing Iransler. increa
es negali\e emo- 
tiona(reaclil'ns. 
uch a
 depr'es
ion: 
. lad, of opportunities fl'r patienh 10 di
- 
cuss the experience of heart surger) al...l' 
re
ults in undesirJ.ble emotionJ.I reactions; 
and 
. more specific pJ.ti
nt teal"hing I
 r
- 
quired on Gnh. 


Gillis. Sr. Loretta. Thl'lffi'ClS of an a//lOll/a- 
tic ami deli/Jeratil'e prOCl'.H of nuning 
actÎ\'i t\" on [1atiellls' /Ilahiltn' to slelp, 
Bl'ston. :\1,1

.. 1972. ClinicJ.I paper 
(:\1.5. (Nursing)) BoslOn L'. 


Thi
 '\tudv focusö on Ih
 kinds of ac- 
ti\ itie
 carried l'ut b) nurs
s in röpon...e 10 
the \erhal and n01l\abal b
ha\ iür of pa- 
lients \\ ho are unable [(J sleep. It is de- 
signed 10 explon: Ihe i1l\e
tigator's belief 
that ddiberati\t: Io.ind... of nur
ing acli\ ilies 
are more etkcti\t: than aUI\lmat1c Io.ind
 l'f 
acti\ ities in relie\ ing p.lIi
nt
' inahilil\ to 
sleep. 
One medical and 1\\ 0 sur
i\.'J.llInils of a 
general hospital compri
ed the 
Iud) .lr
a. 
The 
Iud) \\as conducted bt:t\\et:n 2
:OO 
hours and ,tOO hours_ All patienls \\ho 
sunulloned a nurse during the pre\ iou,l} 


menl10ned times and nights compri
ed Ihe 

tud) sample. All sample members .... ere 
assigned 10 the control and experimentdl 
group
. 
ineteen palient
 \\ere included in 
Ihe stud): lOin the control group and 9 in 
the experimental group. 
In the experimental group. the invcs- 
ligalor ascertained the meJ.ning of the pa- 
lienb' di"tre<;s. Ihen carried out an acli vitv 
to relieve the distress. In the \.'onlrl'l group. 
the imcstigator ob
erved the interaetion 
bet\\ een th
 patienl
 and the nurses and Ihe 
initial re...ulls of Ihe interaction. At slan- 
dard intenals in bl'th control and experi- 
mental grl'ups. the investigator checlo.ed 
Ihe patients for ..,igns of sleep. All interJ.c- 
lions and ob

nJ.ììon'i \\ ere later dnJ.I) z
d 
10 determine \\ hich kind
 of nursing ac- 
tl\itie
 relie\ed palienl
' inabilit} to 
le
p 
mo..,t effecti\d) . 
To determine iflhere \\ere am relation- 
ship bel\\een the Io.inds of nür
ing ac- 
ti\Ïtie
 and rdid from sleeples
ness. the 
fnllo\\ing data \\ere e'\amined: 
I. obsen
tion of patient \\ hen nurse en- 
lered patient', room after call light 
sounded. 2. Ihe aClivil
 carried l'ul b
 Ihe 
nur,c in rt:
pl'ns
 tt) p.llient"s cO\11pl.1iIll
 
üf !-oleepk,...
nö
. 3. the resulls ot Ihe ac- 
li\ il
 cdrried out in response to patienr" 
 
inabilit) 10 sle
p, 
The dala \\ere Ihen anal
zed for an) 
correlation het\\e
n the Io.inds l'f nursing 
J.ctivities cJ.rried till! and the effects of 
the
e activilies t!Jl Ihe pJ.lients' ahilit) t\) 
steep. All 10 patiellls in Ihe conlrol group 
\\ae given 1l1
dication. .3 pati
nb ....
re 
l)hs
n
d to be ...tel'ping in t!Jle-half hl'ur. 
and no J.dditional pJ.lients \\ere asleep in 
l'ne hour. T\\t) pJ.lienls in the experimental 
group \\ere given medicalion
. I} \\ere oh- 
sened sleeping in one-half hour. and all 9 
\\ ere still asleep al the one-hour chcclo.. 
The findings of this ...Iud\ indicate that 
palients' conîplJ.ints of inJ.hilil) 10 sleep 
\\ere considered tl' he indication
 tÌJr Ihe 
giving of medications b) the nursö in- 
\olved \\ ith the control group of patients. 
The findings further indicate that \\ hen th
 
specitic m
aning of a patient" s indbil il
 10 
sleep \\ as nl't a
cerlained b
 the nurs
. the 
patienl did nol experience rdief from his 

Ieeples
ne
s. even \\ hen m
dication \\ a
 
g1\en. 
, Ho....e\er. \\hen the 
peciflc meJ.ning of 
Ihe patient" 
 inabilil) to 
le
p \\ as a
cer- 
tain
d and dn acti\ it) carri
d out to relieve 
his 
Ieepk
snes." as III the e'\perimcntal 
gwup. the finding
 
ht)\\ Ihal Ihe pJ.lienl 
\\ J.s relie\'
d J.nd slept. ...:. 
THE CANADIAN NURSE 43 



Next Month 
In 


The 
Canadian 
NLrrse 


o The Canadian Nurses' Foundation 
h Its Members 


o The Administrator: 
the Real. the Ideal 


o Write for the Reader 


o Control: Cigarettes 
and Calories 


ô 

 


Photo Credits 
for February 1975 


:\1ilkr Services. 
Toronto. Ontario, Cover I 


Women's College Hospital. 
Toronto. Ontario, p. 24 


44 THE CANADIAN NURSE 


I 
: ' 


dates 


February 17-21, 1975 
Occupational Health Nursing course. Uni- 
versity of Toronto. Toronto. Further infor- 
mation from: Dorothy Brooks. Chairman, 
Continuing Education, Faculty of Nursing, 
University of Toronto. 50 S1. George Street, 
Toronto (Tel. 928-8559). 


April 2-4, 1975 
Pediatric intensive care nursing conference 
at the Hospital for Sick Children. Toronto. 
Emphasis on cardiac surgery, neurosur- 
gery. respiratory problems. and other 
stressful situations. For information write: 
Director of Nursing Education. The Hospital 
for Sick Children. 555 University Avenue, 
Toronto, Ontario, M5G 1 X8. 


April 3, 1975 
Canadian Nurses Association will hold its 
annual meeting at the Chateau Laurier, 
Ottawa, Ontario. 


April 11-12, 1975 
Workshop - Education for Childbirth - for 
health professionals and interested citi- 
zens. Featured speaker - Dr. Murray 
Enkin, McMaster University. Further infor- 
mation from Dr. Shirley Alcoe, Faculty of 
Nursing, University of New Brunswick. 
Fredericton, New Brunswick. 


April 17-18, 1975 
Family centered maternity care sym- 
posium, Foothills Hospital, Calgary. For 
further information wnte: Brian Wright. 
Coordinator inservice education, Foothills 
Hospital, Calgary, Alberta. 


April 17-18, 1975 
National League for Nursing regional as- 
sembly, Chicago, Illinois. Theme: "Con- 
sumer concerns for the delivery of health 
care - reality or fantasy?" For information 
write: Convention Services, National 
League for Nursing, Ten Columbus Circle, 
New York. N.Y.. 10019. 


April 21-23, 1975 
Ninth annual conference of Operating 
Room Nurses of Greater Toronto to be 
held at Skyline Hotel, Toronto. Address 
inquiries to: Dixie O'Sullivan, Convener, 
Publicity Committee, OANGT, 624 Tedwyn 
Dnve, Mississauga. Ontario, L5A 1 K2. 


May 6-9, 1975 
Alberta Association of Registered Nurses 
annual convention to be held at the 


Calgary Inn, Calgary, Alberta. The theme 
is "Nursing Power." 


May 7-9,1975 I 
Registered Nurses' Association of Britist, 
Columbia annual meeting, Peach Bowl 
Penticton, B.C. 


May 7-9, 1975 
l.,i:irrliology '75," an advanced program to 
nurses and doctors interested in cardial 
care. Humber College of Applied Arts anc 
Technology, Highway 27 and 401, Toronto 
Information available from: ConferenCI 
and Seminar Office, Humber College, P.O. 
Box 1900. Rexdale, Ontario. M9W 5L7. I 


May 22-23, 1975 
Seminar on principles of sterilization, care' 
of infectious materials, chemical disinfec 
tants, and care of surgical instruments, te 
be held in Oshawa, Ontario. For informa 
tion write: Gail tv' cDonald, The Doctor J.O 
Ruddy Hospital, Whitby, Ontario. 


May 26-30, 1975 
Canadian Public Health Association 66tt 
annual conference, MacDonald Hotel 
Edmonton, Alberta Theme is "Prioritief 
for Prevention." Address inquiries to: cp 
55 Park dale Avenue, Ottawa, Ontario. 


June 1975 
S1. Joseph's School of Nursing Alumnae 
Victoria, B.C., 75th anniversary reunion 
For further information, write to: Ms. Phylli
 
Fatt. 4253 Dieppe Rd.. Victoria, B.C.. 


June 3-6, 1975 
Canadian Hospital Association nationa 
convention and 32nd annual meeting wil 
be held in Saskatoon, Sask. 


June 11-14, 1975 
The annual meeting of the Registereo 
Nurses Association of Ontario will coinCidE!! 
with ANAO'S 50th birthday. The meetin
[ 
and anniversary celebrations are to be ali i 
the Royal York Hotel, Toronto, Ontario. 
August 10-16, 1975 
World Federation of Mental Health,1 
congress in Copenhagen, Denmark! 
Theme is "Mental Health and Economic' 
Growth." For information write: WFMH 
World Congress - Copenhagen 1975 The 
Congress Secretariat: Danish Association 
for Mental Health, 15. Fredericiagade, DK 
1310 Copenhagen, Denmark. 
 
FEBRUARY 1975 



New...ready to use... 
"bolus" prefilled syringe. 
Xylocaine100 mg 
(lidocaine hydrochloride injection, USP) 


For 'stat' I.V. treatment of life 
threatening arrhythmias. 


\ 


o Functions like a standard syringe. 

. 
o Calibrated and contains 5 ml Xylocaine. 


o 


Package designed for safe and easy 
storage in critical care area 


" 
\ 


o 


The only lidocaine preparation 
with specific labelling 
information concerning its 
use in the treatment of cardiac 
arrhyttlmias 


+.L 
<0 

 

(<' 

o 
o 
? 


an original from 
.
S T I
A' 


Xyiocaine Ii 100 mg 
(lidocaIne hydrochloride on,ecllon U S p ) 
r'DICATIO"'S-X\Jocain
 admmistered intra- 
venously b specdicall\' indicated in the acule 
management ore I) 
cnlncular arrhvthmlas occur- 
ring dunns cardiac manipulation. such as cardiac 
surgery: and(2) life-threatemngarrhythmias. par- 
ticularly those which arc venlncular in origin. such 
as occur during acutc myocardial infaruion 


CO....TRAI....DlCATlO'S-Xvlocaine is contra- 
indicatcd (I) In patients "-ll.h a known hIStory of 
hvpencnsitivit)' to local anesthetics of the amide 
.\pe: and (2) in patients ",ilh Adams-Stokes svn- 
dromc or wuh sc\'C'rc d
grct'S of sinoatrial atno- 
ventricular or intravcntncular block. 


\\AR'I
CS-Constant monnonng with an elec- 
trocardiograph is essential in the proper adminLS- 
tralion of X vlocaine intra'\lenousl'\l. Si2ns of 
xces- 
sive depresSion of cardiac conducu';it'\l. such as 
prolongalion of PR interval and QRS com pIe. 
and the appearance or aggra" ation of arrh} thmias. 
should be followed by prompt ce.salion of Ihe 
intravenous infusion of this agent It is mandatory 
to ha'\le emerg
nC\o resuscitatIVe equipment and 
dru
s immediately available to mana,ge possible 
adverse reactions in'\lol'\ling the cardiovascular. 
resplratol) or cenual nervous systems. 
Evidence for proper usage in children IS limited 
PREC-\L TlO'S-Caullon should be employed 
in the repeated usc of Xylocaine in pati
nts with 
scycre Ii\'eror renal disease because accumulation 
may occur and ma'\llead to toxic phenomena. since 
Xvlocame IS metabolized main Iv In the fj"'er and 
e.creted by the kidnev. The dru
 should aJso be 
used with caution in patients with hvpovolemia 
and shock. and all forms of heart bloek (see CON- 
TRAINDICATIONS AND ""ARNINGS) 
In patients with SinUS bradycardia th
 adminis- 
IrauonofX"localne Intravenouslv for the elimina- 
lion of '\Ientncular eCl.Oplc beats without prior 
acceleration in hean rale (e.g. b\' isoproterenol 
or b) electric pacing) may provoke more frequent 
and scrious ventncular arrhythmias. 


AD\ ERSE REACTIO'S-Systemic reaclions of 
the foliO\> in
 1\ pes have been reported 
(I) Cenlral Nervous System: h
htheadedn
. 
dro,,'sIßcss; dizzine1S: apprehension: 
uphona: 
tinnitus: blurTed or double \o'ision: vomiting: sen- 
salions of heat. cold or numbness: twitching: 
tremors: con\o'ulslons: unconsciousness: and respi- 
ratorv depression and arrest. 
(2) CardlO\o'ascular S"stem: hypotension. car- 
diovascular collapse: and bradycardia which may 
lead to cardiac arrest 
Ther
 have been no reports of cross s.ensltI'\Iuy 
between Xylocaìne and procaìnamldc or bet\o\een 
X,,'locaine and qumidine. 


DOSAGE A'O AO\IJ"STRUIO....-SiDgle 
InjeCtion: Th
 usual dose is 50 mg to 100 mg 
administered inlravenously under ECG monitor- 
ing This dose ma'\l be admimstcred at the rate 
of apprOJLlmat
ly 2S m@ to 50 mg per minute. 
Sufficle-nt lim
 should be allowed to enaÞI
 a slow 
CIrculation to carry the drug to the site of action 
If the .mllal '"jeclion of 50 m
 10 100 m
 does 
not produce a desired response. a second dose may 
be repeated after 10-20 minutes. 
NO MORE THA" 200 MG TO 300 \!G OF 
XYLOCAINE SHOULD BE ADMINISTERED 
DURING A ONE HOUR PERIOD 
In chddren experience with the drug is limited. 
Continuous Infusion: Following a single lnJecuon 
in those patients In whom the arrhythmia tends 
to recur and who are incapable of receiving oral 
antiarrhythmic therap"_ intravenous infusions of 
X}Jocain
 mav be administered at the rate of I 
mg to 2 mg per minute (20 to 25 ug/kg per minute 
in the a\o'erage 70 kg man). Intravenous .nfusions 
ofXvlocaine must be administered under constant 
ECG monitoring to avoid potential overdosage 
and toxiczty. Intra\o'enous infusion should be ter- 
minated as soon as the patient's basic rhythm 
appears to be stable or al the earliest signs of 
toxicitv. It should rar
ly be ncces.sary to continue 
intra"enous infusions beyond 24 hours. As soon 
as possible. and when indicated. patients should 
be changed to an oral antlarrh"thmlc ag
nt for 
mamtenance therapy. 
Solutions for intravenous infusion should be 
prepared by the addition of one SO ml single dose 
vial of X}Jocame N or one 5 ml X"locame One 
Gram Disposable Transfer S'\Innge to I liter of 
appropnatc so'uhon. This will pro'\lid
 a 0 1% 
solution: that is. each ml will contain I mg of 
"v!ocaine HC\. Thus I ml to 2 ml per miDule 
will pro-ide I m
 to 2 m
 of Xvloeaine HCI per 
minule 



accession list 


Puhlil:ation... rcn
ntl) rel:eived in the 
C.\Iladian :\!up;ö' A:-:-ol:iation library are 
a\aildble 01110011 - .... ith the exception of 
item:- marJ"ed R - to CNA member:-. 
...chools of nur...ing, and other in:-titutions. 
Item
 marJ"ed R includc reference and ar- 
hivc material that docs not go out on loan. 
Theses. also R . are on Rö
rve and g() out 
on Intcrlibran Loan ,101\ . 
Requc:-t for loans. maximum 3 at a 
timc. :-hould be made on a :-tandard inter- 
lihrar) Loan form or on the .. Rcqllcst 
Form for Acce......ion List" printed in this 
l"IIC. 
If) OU \\ i...h w purcha:-c a boo,," contact 
)011 local booJ"...tore or the puhli...hcr. 


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I"" \',"\ill,!! n'\tu,,"h Îll thc \lIltl/r.- a \111\('\. h\ 
I II, ille I 'loner ,md '\udre) f SpC.:ll1r '\tldlltd. 
(õ.L SOlllhcrn Rcginll
1 l:du':dl,on Bo
rd. IY74. 
IIXp. 
46 THE CANADIAN NURSE 


16 Qualill A,\\u/"{/I/( e fol' Nursing Cal'e In\l{l/(le. 
Ocl. :!V-3I, IV73, I\an\il\ Cill', '.to. Pmcl'l'ding'. 
K,tIl'd' Cil). J\.I.... Americdn NUhC" A"o.-iatlon. 
IY74. 14Xp. 
17. \'ull'ilioll al/d din Ihaa[l\"; re}l''''I/('e dicli(l//((I"I". 
:!ed.. o
 Ro",lindd T L
gud dnd Virginia S. Claudio 
dnd Vklona F Thidc Sdlllt Luui'. Mo'oy. 1974. 
J2Yp 
I X OJjì,'e alld a'.'(J( iatÙIII dirl'c/Ory. TOlOnlo. 
Cdllddi,1Il H'''pildl t>,.,,,,,,iaJion. IY74. ?Jp. R 
IY. Or
(//,i:llIi(l/' (/lid I'r","is;,,,, of nm,m,m;I\' medi- 
cal,en'ice.' Th,' I'roaedillg' ofa syml'o.\",m Ireld al 
Ihe Will/,ipeg Clillic. OCI. 3(), 1967. Winnipeg. 
Winmpcg Clinic I'!hX. II'!p 
20. Parlial/lnllan [lwcedu,..'. o
 J
me' D""ell. 
Olld"d. Cdn
didn Union 01 Puoli.: Employee'. 1974. 
hip 
21. Perail'ed I/(""!.for led,ll;' al.\[leciali.'I., ill nun- 
ing ,a/"(' 01 hO\l'ltall
ed pal/('I/I'. 0) Helen H. 
Rurn,ide. :\Ie\\ Yorl.. Nationdl LCdgue for Nur,ing. 
dY72. 1lJ74. 701" 
.:!.:!. P/allijiniTiOIl (,t OrXlll';\lltioli tie".. ...en..Ù"e\ tie 
g..../((Irie; rtll'[lort ,I" UII comile {r etl'erl\ dl' rOMS. 
Gcn"\c. Orgdlli'dlinn mundi,tle de Id "mté. IY74. 
4Yp. (Serie de rdpport' le.-hniqu", no. 54H) 
2.
. PI"'"I/IIK 10" Iteallh; de\'('/opmel/llllld al'l"ica- 
tiOIl of '0, illl cltal/g,' Ilreor\", b) Henril. L Alum. 
Nc" Yorl.. HUllldn S.:icn.:e' Prc". d974. 6221'. 
24 Preci."le "';m ,IIH IIll1lade\ de, hirurRie, pdr 
1. 
I d':OIllOc e( J.:\' De'lIIollh 2éd. P
ri,. Lalllarre- 
Pf\in
t. 1'!7:!. dlJ67 4411'. 
25. P,.,,("eedil/
., ,
f 1511t Ql((/(/n'l/l/ial COl/gre..... 111- 
1,'maliO/wl COIIl/(il '1 Nlln,'.'. .\1nico CilL 13-IX 
If</\' IV73. Gcn"'a. Imerndliolldl Coun.:il of Nur,e,. 
IY74. 1'!2p 
:!6. [lI//I'er\lI,' "I collège, dll Cal/llda. IV7.J 
Ott.." d. puolié" ",.n.lo,mement p
r A",,,,iatton de, 
Uni\er,ilc' el Collegc, dll Candd
 el St
ti,tique 
CUlddd. IY74 575p R 


PAMPHLETS 
27. Ha..;c /,ron'dllre\ for la!.il/g .\ltll/lIll1tiOI/ 
tltn"lIOld m"l/Jllrel1lel//> al/(l \eI/Sili,'i1.\' Ilrre.\hofd 
/1,,'a,"rel1lell/.' lI'illt a If,'dlnlllic T \1. lIIodd 5X.10. 
5xx(} or 'i8XtJIA erremal demal/dpacell1a!.er. 
1\1
lIoll. OnL. :\kdlwnk olTdllddd lid.. IY70. revi- 
,ion A. IY7J. 241'. 
2x. 4 I,ri<,/ 10 II". \1il/;Mer of PIII>li< Heallit. 7 he 
.\'01"({ Scol/a COIIl/cil oj Healllr. al/(l lire NOI"({ SCOlIll 
HClilth S(,r1i('e
 lint! 11l\llrallL"e COIn/lli"Bio" ("Ollt erll- 
il/
 II/( Ir,'allit I/('ed, oj 11r,' agl'll. Hdlifdx. Regi'lered 
;-';ur',', '\"",'idlion of No\
 S.:"lid. IY74 5p. 
2'!. {_a "'1111/1" ,., It' 10;.';1': alljollrd' I",i el dell/a;l/. pdT 
Fr
I1Ù G,"
crt,. Rn"dle'. IY7J. 42p. 
JO. Food lor II". IIorhl".' II/"'
n', o
 :\1d\"ell S. 
Sle" 
rt. '\1<'" ',.rl.. Puolie '\ffuir, COlllllllllec. 
d%7 :!4p. (Puoli,' aff
ir, pdmphkt no. 511) 


Registered Nurses 


Your community needs the benefit 
of your skills and experience. Volun- 
teer now to teach Patient Care in 
The Home and Child Care in The 
Home Courses. 0 



oo
 


31. Leri'llle e/l"l11ologi'l"e ,Ie, lerme.' lI/edicGJH. pa 
M. La.:omoe. Pari,. Lamarre-Poind!. 1971 
1'.85-104 
32. Nil/lh rel,orl 'ifWor/d Heallh Orgalli
lIliO/1. E I 
penCommiueeO/ITllberclI!t"i.,. Gellcva. IY74 40p 
!Technical report ,erie... no. 55:!) 
.'13. SllIl/dards ofnunillKfo,. nll/"\/IIK hOIl/<'.\ /II ^o 
Scolill a.' recnllllnel1lled b\' RegÜlered Nllne< As 
socialion ofN'J\'a Scolill. Hdlifa\. Regi'lereJ Nurs< 
A,,,,,,ialion of Nov
 S.-OIid. 1974. 261'. 


GOVERNMENT DOCUMENTS 
ClIl/lIda I 
34. Ad\i...orv Coundl onlhe Stdlu... of \\omen. Re 
port 1973/74. Oll
"d. IY74. h. n.p. I 
35. Heallh 
nd Welfdre Canddd. A,lIItn;s ofdllra 0' 
lIunillg l'en0/1I/'" (CCDO 313 I from Ih,' ;ob \"(/..,(/'C 
slln'ey, 1.\1 qllllrler IV71 - 41h 'I"lIrter 1i)73. b' 
H"
k,, Rme Inldi. Ottd"a. IY74. 271'. (Heallh IIldn 
po"er report 110.9-74) I 
36. -. De.'('/ol'mel/l il/ Nomedical ellgÙleerillg " 
ClI//lllla. m,/IIl'ollerllllllgOl'ernmel/laCli.ilið. oy B 
Leullg. Olld"d, 1974.241'. (Health manpo"er repor l 
I 
8-74) 
J7. -'. Edllcaliol/ alld I"l'gilialioll of.,elecled hellilitl 
. . C " I . 
 B I 
O(,(,Uplltl(lll
 III 1Illtllll: 11I1,..\lllg mClnpower. lJ\ I 
Leung. Otta"d, 1974 161'. (Health lIIanpo"crrepon I 
no. 7-74) 
38. - Pilol .'I(n-ey '1 IW'I';wlllteml"'l<IÍ<" abonion 
ClJl1Il1Iiuee.\. BrilÜIt ColumNa. 1i)71-1Y72. Ottdl\ 
Information Callad
. 1974 441'. 
J'!. -. SlIpl'ly projl'CIIOII' to IYXI.- .\ele(/ed Irellllh 
l1Ial/l'oll'er wlegorin. Ottd\\d. IY74, IYp. (Heallh: 
lIIanpl"'er report no.4-74) 
40. Ldoollr Canada. Women', Buredu Till' 1(/\,' rt 
Illtillg 10 II'or!.illg 11'011/('11. 2ed. Ottal\d. IlIform
lion 
CamJda. 1973. 271'. 
41. 1""1 Offi.:e. Report. 1973. Oll
\\a. 1974. 141' 
4:!. -. Rewe 'Iliad 2; I/lle p"blicllliolll'réparée I'"I' 
Ie P"ogral1ll1le d' apprecllIlIO/1 de la qualile dt 
IIIédicalllel/l.'" Olldl\d. InfornlJtion Can,lda. IY7 
2371'. , 
4J. Seaetdry of SI
[e. Edu"
lion Support Brdn.:h I 
The orgal/i
{/lit>l1 al/d admilli.\lraliOIl 'if educatiol/ ;n 
Ca//lllla, o
 Da\id \lunrne. Olla"a. Informdtion i 
Canad
. 1974. 21Yp. 
Quebec 
-4. :\lini,lere dc, Aff
lre, ",..ia"',. \/Ilril;'>11 ell 
IIIilieu ,colaire. Québe.: (ville). 1974 ". \.1'. 


STUDIES DEPOSITED IN CNA REPOSITORY COLLECTION 
45. C olllporlelllell/.f Ilraal'euli'lue, dc t illli,.IIIiere 
l'erl"fl'li o ll du IIIalad,' IIIe/llal, p
r J)cni,e p
ul 
!\lonlre..1. 19?J. 911' R 
46. l/IIam,'dill/" carl' A n'search a/l(l {lemOI/Slra- 
lioll projecl. l\elOlt"lla {lIId di'lricl. Compiled oy 
Eli
e Cldrk. ....""mnd. B.C. IY74. II II" R 
47. LiteratllYt.' YlTieu. mailltllulIII}( the ("ompetenn' 
'1 hmllh proJenimw,",. I Y7(). 73 , o
 !\.Idrg,tre[ S. 
Ne
l
n V d,,..omer. Ulli\er,il
 ..f Briti,h C"lumbld 
D,vi,ion of Conlinuing fdul"dli.'n in Ihe He..hh S.:i- 
en.:",. IY74. 201'. R 
4.
. Rt'pfJrt Oil filldÎIlI("\ c1a IUI1Ùmlll \11I1"i'Y ("lJlll"erll- 
il/g Ihe Calladiall ,\"lIn,'.\' FO/ll/dll/ioll. b
 B
rodra 
-\r.:hiodld. On'm
. C
lIddi
n :\Iur,e,' Founddtion. 
1'!74. 421'. R 
-1'!. 4 \Iud, ollh,' }inl cla.H '1l/unil/R aHi.,/(tI/H /(I 

rud/l(/I" lrolll HUIIII,," College 01 Apl,l;ed .41'1\ ",/(I 
Teclmolog", 0) I"I
 Smilh. Rexd
k'. 0111.. Heallh 
Sciencc Oi\ "inn. Humoer College 01 Applied Art
 

nd Te.:hnolog)'. ly74. 491" R '"" 
FEBRUARY 1975 



NURSING AND PLANNING 
OFFICER 


Applications are invIted for the position of Nursing and Planning Officer for the 
Emergency Health Services Division, Nova Scolla Department of Public 
Health. Halifax, Nova Scotia, 


MINIMUM aUALIFICA TIONS: 
Ie. Sc. (Nursing) or R.N. with post graduate training in Education. Administra- 
tion or Public Health and three years experience. 


OUTIES: 
To assist in the development and maintenance of emergency health planning 
and training In Nova Scotia. 


SALARY: 
Commensurate with qualifications and experience. 
Full Civil Service Benefits. 


Competition open to both men and women. 


Applicalions may be obtained from the N.S, Civil 
Service Commission, P. O. Box 943, Johnston Building, 
Halifax, N. S.. B3J 2V9, and from the Provincial 
Building, Sydney, Nova Scotia. 


FOOTHILLS HOSPITAL 
Calgary, Alberta 
Advanced Neurological- 
Neurosurgical Nursing 
for 
Graduate Nurses 
a five month clinical and 
academic program 
offered by 
The Department of Nursing Service 
and 
The Division of Neurosurgery 
(Department of Surgery) 


Beginning: March, 1975 
September, 1975 


Limited to 8 participants 
Applications now being accepted 


For further information, please write to: 
Co-ordinator of In-service Education 
Foothills Hospitol 
1403 29 St. N.W. Calgary, Alberta 
T2N 2T9 


fEBRUARY 1975 


I 


r e 
et 


b1. 


SKIN-CONFORMING KARAYA BLANKET 
PROTECTS SKIN AROUND WOUND SITE . DIRECTS 
DISCHARGE INTO ATTACHED COLLECTOR. 


I 


" 


-- .............. 


. 


- 



 


I 


KEEPS FLUIDS AWAY FROM 
PATIENT'S SKIN AND GUARDS AGAINST 
IRRITATION AND CONTAMINATION. 


Odor-barner. translucent Drainage Collector holds exu- 
date for visual assessment and accurate measurement 
There are no messy. wet dressings to handle 
View wound through Access Cap Remove cap for 
wound examination and drain tube adjustment There is 
no need for painful dressing removal. 
Supplied sterile. for application in O,R, or patienfs room. 


The better alternative 
to absorbent dressings. 



 Wnte for more information 
.1 !jQ


ê!

WIIiOWdale. Ont M2J IPB 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 47 



classified advertisements 


ALBERTA 


ONTARIO 


] 1 


REGISTERED NURSES required lor 30 bed AccredIted Gen- 
eral HospItal Apply to AdmInistrator. Our Lady of the Rosary 
Hospllal. POBox 329. CaslOr. Alberta. TOC OXO 



EGISTERED NURSES reqUIred lor 70 bed accredited aclt.e 
treatment Hosplta1 Full tl'Tle and summer relief All AARN per- 
sonnel policies Apply In wntlng to the- Director of Nursing. 
Drumheller General Hospllal Drumheller. Alberta 


GENERAL DUTY NURSES reqUIred for 50-bed hospItal In cen- 
tral Alberta. half way between Calgary and Edmonton on main 
hIghway Salanes and personnel pohcles as set by AARN 
agreement Reslder.ce accommodation available Cat "act Mrs 
E Harvie. R.N. Administrator. Lacombe General tiospltal. 
Lacombe Alberta. TOC 1 SO 


BRITISH COLUMBIA 


Applications are Invited for a very Interesllng and challenging 
new poMlon. we require a B.C. REGISTERED NURSE 10 assIst 
the Nur.ze Administrator 10 be classified as eo "Head Nurse 
Preference VoIIII be ç;lven one \!'11th pnor Ernerç;ency or Obstetnc 
Nun;.Inç; expenence and havlllÇ succesztully completed the 
Nursmç; UnIt Administration cour
e The ho
pltal IS a newly 
opened one situated on the Yellowhead Hçh""ay. 80 mlle
 north 
of Kamloop
 B C The e.rea ,
 eo vac.ë:.110ners pë:.radlse both In 
Summer and Winter. RNÞ.BC salary scale and fnnç;e beneftts 
appllc.e.ble Please reply to- Mrs. K Rice. Nurse Þ.dmlnlstrator 
Dr Helmcken Memonal Hospital. Clearv-ater. Bnbsh Columbia 


ADVERTISING 
RA TES 


FOR o\LL 


ClASSIFIED ADVERTISING 


$15.00 for 6 lines or less 
$2.50 for each additional lIne 


Rotes for display 
advertisements on request 


Closing dale for copy and concellalion is 
6 weeks proor to 1 st doy of publication 
month. 
The Conad,an Nurses' Association does 
not review the personnel policies of 
the hospitols and ogencies odvertising 
in the Journal. For authentic information, 
prospec,ive applicants should apply to 
the Registered Nurses' Association of the 
Province in wnich they ore interested 
in working. 


Address correspondence to: 


The 
Canadian 
Nurse 


9 


50 THE DRIVEWAY 
I OTT AWA, ONTARIO 
K2P IE2 
48 THE CANADIAN NURSE 


I I 


BRITISH COLUMBIA 


EXPERIENCED GENERAL DUTY NURSES AND LICENSED 
PRACTICAL NURSES required for small upcoasl hospital Sal- 
ary and personnel policies as per RNABC and H E.U. contracts 
Residence accommodallon $25 00 per month T ransportattOn 
paid from Vancouver Apply to Director of Nursing. SI. George s 
Hospital. Alert Bay. Brrtlsh Columbia. VON IAO 


GENERAL DUTY NURSES for modern 4 '-bed hOspItal located 
on the Alaska Highway Selary and personnel pohcles In 
accordance with RNABC Accommodation avadable In res... 
dence. Apply. Director of NursIng Fort Nelson General Hospital. 
Fort Nelson. BrIlish Columbia. 


GENERAL DUTY NURSES, for modern 35-bed hospital located 
In southern B C. s Boundary Area with excellent recreation faci- 
htles Salary and personnel policies In accordance With RNABC 
Comfortable Nurses s home. Apply Director at Nursing. Bound- 
ary Hospital. Grand Forks. British Columbia 


EXPERIENCED NURSES (eligible tor B.C registratIon) required 
for 409-bed acute care. teaching hospital located In Fraser 
Valley. 20 mlfUJtes by freeway from Vancouver. and within 
easy access of vaned recreatlona1 tacllttles E)(cellent Onenta- 
toon and Contl1lJ1ng EducatIOn programmes Salary 5985 00 to 
$1.163.00 OlnlCal areas Indude MedIcIne Generel and Spe- 
cialized Surgery. Obstetrics. Pedlatrrcs. Coronary Care Hemo- 
dlalvsis. Ref1ablhtatlon. 0 eratlnQ Room. IntenSive Care Emer- 
gency PRACTICAL NURSES (ell!jlble for B.C. Licensel also 
reqû,red Apply to Nursing Recruitment. Personnel Departmen 
Royal Columbian Hospital. New Westminster. British Columbia 
VJL3W7. 


NEW BRUNSWICK 


THREE FACULTY MEMBERS needed July 1 1975 to replace 
tacuhy members gOing on one-year sabbahcal and two-year 
study leaves. Preparation and experience desirable In maternal. 
Infant and In medical-surgical nursing. Increasmg enrolment will 
pem'llt retention 0' nght persons at end ot these penods Extras 
we have to oHer are an excrtlng new cumculum approach a new 
well-equipped self-instructional labOratory. a new hospital. and 
the advantages of IIvlflg In a beautdul small C1ty Address: Dean 
Faculty of NurSing. The University of New Brunswick Fredenl.- 
ton. New Brunswick 


NOVA SCOTIA 


REGtSTERED NURSES and PSYCHIATRIC NURSES. General 
Staff positions available," this modern 270-bed psychlatnc hos- 
pital located In the Annapolis Valley Orientation and Inservlce 
provided Excellent personnel policies Salarv according to scale 
For further information direct inquiries to The Director of Nursing. 
Ki ngs County Hospital. Waterville Nova Scotia 


ONTARIO 


DIRECTOR OF NURSING requlled oy expandIng accredIted 
300-bed Chronic Illness and Convalescent Hospital located In 
North\l'óest Metropolitan T oronlo Please reply '" confidence 10 
Director of Nurses. The T cronto Hospital Weston Ontarro 
M9N 3M6 


OPERATING ROOM STAFF NURSE requlled lor fully accredi: 
ted 75-bed Hospital BasIc wage S68900 wIth conSideration for 
expenence; also an OPERATING RDOM TECHNICIAN. baSIC 
wage $526.00. Call tIme rales a....lable on request Wnte or 
phone the _ Director of NurSing. Dryden District General Hospital 
Dryden. Ontario. 


REGISTERED NURSES 101 34-bed General Hospllal. 
Salary $850.00 per month to $1.02000 plus expenence al- 
lowance Excellent personnel policies Apply to. 
Director of Nursing. Englehart & District Hospital 
fnc.. Englehart. Ontano. POJ 1 HO. 


I I 


REGISTERED NURSES reqwred for 107-bed accredited Geo I 
ral Hospital. BasIc salary comparable to other Dntano HO
plta 
with remuneration for past experience_ Yearly Increments 
progressi.e hospital amIdst the lakes and streams of N(\rthw' 
tern Ontano. Apply to. Director of Nurslf'lg. laV'
ren 
Hospllal Fort Frances. Ontano. P9A 2B7 


REGISTERED NURSES required for our ultramodern 79-t I 
General Hospital In bIlingual community of Northern Onla 
French language an assel. but not compulsory Salary IS $8 
to $1030 monthly with allowance tor past experience anI 
weeks vacation after 1 year Hospital pays 100 0 0 of U H I 
Life Insurance (10.000). Selary Insurance (75 0 '0 01 wages 10 
 
age of 65 with U I C car\'e out). a 354 drug plan and a L 
care plan Master rotatIOn In effect Rooming accommodatN 
aV8.llabie In town Excellent personnel policies Apply 
Personnel Director. Notre.Dame Hospital P 0_ Box 8
 
Hearst Ontano 


REGISTERED NURSES AND REGISTERED NURSI
... 
ASSIST ANTS tor 45-bed HospItal Salary rang 
mclude Qenerous experience allowances R N r 
salary,$gl5 to $1.085.. and R N A s salary $650 to 5r I 
Nurses residence - pnvate rooms with bath - $60_ per mOt" 
Apply to The Dlreclor 01 NursIng GeralClton Dlstnct Hospl 
GeralClton, Ontano POT 1 MO 


REGISTERED NURSES FOR GENERAL DUTY, I.C.t 
C.C.U. UNIT and DPERATING ROOM required f I 
fully accredited hospital. Starting salary $850.00 '" 
regular Increments and with allowance tor expe 
ence Excellent personnel policies and temp_ra 
residence accommodation available Apply tó TI 
Director ot Nursing. Kirkland & District Hosp,t. 
KI1dand Lake, Cnla"io. P2N 1 R2 


QUEBEC 


REGISTERED NURSE reqUIred for co ed children z zumrr 
ceomp m the Lë:.urenbans (seventy miles nor1.h 01 Montreal) trc 
JUNE 20 1975 to I'.UGUST 20 1975 Call (514) 688 1753 
"nte CI'.MP MAROMI'.C 4548 8th Street. Chomedey. La. 
Quebec. H7W 21'.4 


I I 


SASKA TCHEWAN 


REGISTERED NURSES urgently needed for active 47-bo 
northern hospital Especla1ly Interesting to those who like vane 
and emergency care In nursing Apply 10 Director of Nursing. r: 
Joseph s Hospllal. lie à La Crosse Saskatchewan, SOM IC( 


II 


UNITED STATES 


R.N.'s - Openings now available In a variety ot areas of a .
 
bed teachIng and research hospItal alhllated wIth the school 
medicine ot Case Western Reserve Umverslty New faal. 
opemng In the spring. Personahzed orientation. excellent sa1al 
full paid benetlts and housing available In hospital resldenc 
Will assist you with H 1 Visa for Immigration A license In Ohio 
practice nursing IS necessary for employment For furth 
information wnte or phone. Mrs Mary Herrick. Personr'1 
Department. SaInt Luke s Hospital 11311 Shaker BI.d Cle. 
land OhIo. 44104. Phone Monday - Fnday g AM. - 4 P 
 
1-216-368-7440 


REGISTERED NURSES: Exællent oPPOrtumt,9S ,n a Ian 
e)(pandmg & progressive hospital located In the heart 
Callforma near the finest educalronal and recr.:eatlonal actlvltlf 
where the climate IS mild the year round Gooð'startlng salanf 
and liberal employee benefits Write Personnel Dept SUltl 
HospItals. 2820 L St.. Sacramento CalifornIa g5816 


FEBRUARY 197 



HUMBER fít\ 1 1 
,COLLEGE 
 


Req..res 


TEACHERS OF NURSING 


I 10 teach nursing theory and practIce for the nursIng dip- 
""a program. ExpertIse and teachrng expenence rn any 
'the fotloy,,,ng areas would be a dehnlte asset. paedoat- 
ncs. menial health. obsletrlcs and medical-surgIcal nurs- 
! rng. ApplIcant should have BSCN wIth alleast two years 01 
!' Sing practICe 
I 


Please reply in writing with resume and other reqUIred 
informa"on to: 


Penonnel Relations Centre 
Humber College 01 Applied Arts and Technologr 
P.O. BOI 1900. Reldale, Ontario 


I We are rnterested '" Male and/or Female applicants 


R.N. 's, NURSING ATTENDANT. 
O. T. AIDES. C.N.A's, 
PSYCHIATRY AIDES 


Newly established Day Hospital in 
Community Mental Health Centre. 
Emphasis placed on Therapeutic 
Community, Unique opportunities. No 
shift work. Mondays through Fridays. 
hours 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. 


Please apply fo: 
Dr, EDMOND RYAN 
Execurlve Director 
Cumberland Mental Health Centre 
88 Charles Street 
Amherst. Nova Scot.. 


THE LADY MINTO HOSPITAL 
AT COCHRANE 


inVite applications from 


REGISTERED NURSES 


4-bed accredited general hospi- 
tal. Northeastern Ontario, Compe- 
titive salaries and generous bene- 
tits_ Send inquires and applications 
to: 


MISS E. LOCKE 
Director of Nursing 
The Lady Minto Hospital at 
Cochrane 
P.O. Box 1660 
Cochrane. Ontario 
POL 1CO 


:BRUARY 1q75 


I I 


UNITED STATES 


UNITED STATES 


RN's and LPN's - UnIverSIty HospItal Nortn. a 
leachIng HospItal of the Unoverslty 01 Oregon MedIcal 
School has openongs '" a variety of HOSPItal ser- 
Vices We offer competitive salaries and excellent 
fr"'ge benellts. Inquires should be directed 10 Gale 
RankIn. Dorector of Nurs,ng 3171 S W Sam Jackson 
Park Road, Portland Oregon 97201 


TEXAS wants you I If you are an RN. experienced Or 
a recent graduate come to Corpus Chris" Spark"ng 
CIty by the Sea a clly bUlld'"g lor a beller 
future where your opportu miles for recreation and 
studies are limitless Memonal Medical Center 500 
bed gene rat teaching hospital encourages career 
advancement and provides In-SerVice orientation 
Salary Irom 568200 (0 59.t0 00 per month com 
mensurate with education and experience Differential 
'or evenmg shiftS available Benefits Include holi- 
days sick leave vacations paid hasplfallzatlor 
hf'alth hfe Insurance penSion program Become a 
vital part 01 a modern up to-date hoSPltRI INn Ie or 
call collect John W Gover Jr Director of Per 
sonne I Memorial MedIcal Cenler POBox 5280 
Corpus Christ, Te
as 78405. 


STATE a= ALASKA - PUBLIC HEALTH NURSE WIth MCH 
e.penence to dltect MaternaJ and Inlant Care ProJect on Juneau 
Alaska Co""fJe!ltlve salary An Equal Opportunoty Employer 
Contae:! Margaret Crawford. MCH NurSIng Consultan\, Depart- 
ment 01 Health & Social ServICes Pouch H-06B Juneau Alaska 
99811 


Get what you've 
always wanted 
from nursing 



 
]J 


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Like a wealth of professional experience 
to enrich your career. 


Nursmg has a lot to offer Remember? 
But sometimes you can get so stuck in 
a rut you almost forget those exciting 
challenges that made you choose a 
nursing career in the first place. 
With Medox. you can revive those 
challenges. 
Since Medox serves almost the 
entire spectrum of nursing services, 
you can get more variety of 


assignments in a month than you 
could in a year back in that 
comfortable rut Operating room. 
Intensive Care Cardiac Unit. Pediatric 
care. 
There's more to nursing than 
punching a time clock 
With Medox. there can be a lot 
more 


MEDoX] 


a DRAKE INTERNATIONAL company 


CA
.USA.UK.AUSTRAl
 


THE CANADIAN 
URSE 49 



REGISTERED NURSES 


required for 


- modern 45 bed acute care general hos- 
pital in Southwestern B.C, 
- R.N.A.B.C. Contract in effect 
-. 1975 Salary $942.00 - $1,112.00 
(Cost of Living Adjustment to be applied 
March 1 1975) 
- Recognition for previous experience 
- Residence available 


Please Contact: 
Director of Nursing 
Nicola Valley General Hospital 
Merritt, B.C. 
VOK 2BO 


NORTHERN NEWFOUNDLAND 


reqUires 


REGISTERED NURSES 
PUBLIC HEALTH NURSES 


StaH nurses for St. Anthony. New hospital of 
150 beds. accredlled Active Ireatment in Surgery. 
Medicine. Paedlatncs, Obstetncs Psychiatry. 
Large OPO and leu Onentation and In-Service 
programs, 40-hour week, rotating shifts. PUBLIC 
HEALTH has challenge of large remote areas 
Furnished living accommodations supplied at low 
cost. Personnel benefits include liberal vacation 
and sick leave. travel arrangements. Staff RN 
$637 - $809. prepared PHN $712 - $903, steps 
for expenence. 


Apply 10: 


INTERNATIONAL GRENFELL ASSOCIATION 
Assistant Administrator of 
Nursing Services 
St. Anthony, Newfoundland 
AOK 4S0 


FISHERMEN'S MEMORIAL HOSPITAL 


requires 


OPERATING ROOM 
AND 
OBSTETRI CAL 
UNIT NURSES 


IN-SERVICE EDUCATION DIRECTOR 
SHIFT SUPERVISOR 


Apply to 


The Director of Nursing 
Fishermen's Memorial Hospital 
Lunenburg, Nova Scotia 


50 THE CANADIAN NURSE 


nurses 


who want to 


nurse 


At Yor"- Central you can join an 
dctive. intere
ted group of nur
es 
who \\ant the chance to nurse in it
 
broadest sen
e. Our hospital i
 
pröently expanding from 126 beds 
to 400 and i
 full) accredited. 
Nup,ing is a profession we respect 
and we \\ere the fiN to plan and 
develop a unique nur
ing audit 
sy
tem. There are opportunities for 
gaining \\ ide experience. for get- 
ting to "-no\\ patient
 as well a
 
staff. R.:'I1. salarie
 range from 
5850. to 5 )(>20. per month. Credit 
allo\\.:d for relevant previou
 hospi- 
tal ex pcrience. 


Situated' in Richmond Hill. all 
the cultural and entertainment faci- 
litie
 of Metropolitan Toronto are 
available a fe\\ miles to the 
South, .. and the \\inter and 
summer holida\ and \\ee"--end 
pleasures of Óntario are ea
ijy 
dccc<'
ible to the North. If you are 
really interested in nursing. you are 
needed and will be made \\elcome. 


Apply in per
on or by mail to the 
Director of Personnel. 


YORK 
CENTRAL 
HOSPIT AL 


RICII\10'D HI! I. 
O'I-\RIO 
L-J.C -J.Z3 


GOOD THINGS 
HAPPEN 
WHEN YOU HELP 
RED CROSS 


Refresher Course (in French) 


TB? . . . TODAY? 


and 


RESPIRATORY DISEASES 


March 8 - 14, 1975 
Château du Lac Beauport. Québec 
Joint project of CTRDA & QUEBEC CHRISTMAS 
SEAL SOCIETY. Laval University. 


Please contact: 


Mrs. Fernande Hamel 
Library Pavilion 
Room 2417 
Laval University 
Ste-Foy, Quebec 


HEAD NURSE 
INTENSIVE CARE UNIT 
REQUIRED IMMEDIATELY 


Baccalaureate degree preferred 
with broad nursing experience, 
Remuneration will be consistent with ex- 
perience. 
Present salary range $11,976.00 - 
$14,040.00 per year 
January 1st 1975 - $12,756.00 - 
$15,180.00 per year 
Generous fringe benefits. 


Apply in writing sending complete re 
sume to: 
Director of Personnel 
Stratford General Hospital 
Stratford, Ontario, N5A 2Y6 


FEBRUARY 19:' 



'areer opportunities as 
lurse practitioners 
n primary care 



cMASTER UNIVERSITY 
,:DUCATIONAL PROGRAMME 
:OR FAMILY 
JRACTICE NURSING: 



ext Program: Session Beginnrng Fall 1975 - 
'rospectlve Candidates may apply until June 30. 
975. 
I tequirements: Current Canadian Registration 
ponsonng by a medical co-practitioner. One 
ear work experience In nursing. 


"or further informatIon and applIcatIon forms 
1Irite to: 


Ms E. Mary Buzzell, Director, 
Family Practice Nurse Programme. 
Faculty 01 Health Sciences. 
MtMaster University, 
Hamilton, Ontario. LBS 4J9. 


I THE MONTREAL 
I CHILDREN'S HOSPITAL 
REGISTERED NURSES 
NURSING ASSISTANTS 


.Jur patient population consists of 
he baby of less than an hour old 
o the adolescent who has just 
urned seventeen. We see them in 
Intensive Care. in one of the Med- 
Ical or Surgical General Wards. or 
.n some of the Pediatric Specialty 

 reas. 
hey abound in our clinics and 
heir numbers increase daily in our 
mergency. 
1 you do not like working with 
-hildren and with their families, 
, ou would not like it here. 
II you do like children and their 
families. we would like you on our 
I staff . 
Interested qualified applicants 
. should apply to the: 
DIRECTOR OF NURSING 
Montreal Children's Hospital 
2300 Tupper Street 
Montreal 108. Quebec 


BRUARY 1975 


POST-DIPLOMA NURSING PROGRAMS 


Ryerson s Post-diploma Nursing programs in Pediatric Nursing, Psychia- 
tric Nursing, and Adult Intensive Care offer graduate nurses the opportu- 
nity to become more effective prolessionals in these branches of nursing 
practice, Each program is endorsed by the O.HA, O.MA. and RNAO. 
and is com prized of approximately 15 weeks of full-time study. The curricu- 
lum structure provides for a unique balance of clinical experience. and 
classroom instruction - highlighting courses in nursing, pathology, and 
the humanities and social sciences. 


Applicants must have obtained the Ryerson diploma in Nursing (or equiva 
lent) and be registered or eligible for registration in Ontario. An additional 
prerequisite to the Psychiatric program is experience in this phase of 
nursing during diploma studies. 


For detailed program information, please contact. 


. 


RYERSON POL YTECHNICAL INSTITUTE 


Office of Admissions 
50 Gould Street. Toronto M58 1 E8 Ontario 
Telephone: 595-5027 



glJmølJt 
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GENERAL DUTY 
REGISTERED NURSES 


CERTIFIED NURSING AIDES 


Required for a 135-bed active treatment 
Hospital located in a modern city of some 
6500 people. just forty miles south of Ed- 
monton and with easy access to lake and 
mountain resort areas such as Banff and 
Jasper. 


Experienced nurses are need- 
ed to work in Africa. Asia. 
Latin America. and the South 
Pacific. 
Become involved in public 
health. primary care. and 
training programmes. 
Two year contracts. 
Contact: CUSO - Health -14 
151 Slater Street 
Ottawa. Ontario 
KIP5H5 


Salaries presently under negotiations. Ex- 
cellent personnel policies and fringe be- 
nefits available, 


Kmdly apply 10: 


Director of Nursing 
Wetaskiwin General Hospital 
5505 - 50 Avenue 
WETASKIWIN. A!berta 
T9A OT4 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 51 



UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL 
SASKATOON. SASKATCHEWAN 


RequIres 


REGISTERED NURSES 


for 


PEDIATRICS and other services. 


Policies according to S.U.N. contract which inclu- 
des a cost of living clause. 


Apply to: 


Employment Officer. Nursing 
University Hospital 
SASKATOON. Saskatchewan 
S7N OW8 


QUEEN'S UNIVERSITY 
SCHOOL OF NURSING 


Faculty Openings 


July 1975 for Lecturers, Assistant or Asso- 
ciate Professors for basic undergraduate 
programme in nursing of adults, maternity 
nursing and community health. Master's 
degree in clinical nursing and successful 
experience required. Preference given to 
preparation as a family nurse practitioner, 
Salary commensurate with preparation. 
Apply to: 


Dean. School of Nursing 
Queen's University 
Kingston, Ontario 
K7L 3N6 


GENERAL DUTY NURSES 


Required immediately for acute care gen- 
eral hospital expanding to 343 beds plus 
proposed 75 bed extended care unit. 
Clinical areas include: medicine. surgery, 
obstetrics, paediatrics, psychiatry, activa- 
tion 8. rehabilitation, operating room, 
emergency and intensive and coronary 
care unit. 
Must be eligible for B.C. Registration 
Personnel policies in accordance with 
R.N.A.B.C. contract. 
SALARY: $850 - $1 020 per month 
(1974 rates) 
SHIFT DIFFERENTIAL 


APPL Y TO: 
Director of Nursing 
Prince George Regional Hospital 
Prince George. B.C. 


52 THE CANADIAN NURSE 


REGISTERED NURSES 


Registered Nurses required for large 
metropolitan general hospital. 
Positions available in all clinical areas 
Salary Range in effect until December 
31,1975, 
$900. - $1,075, Startinq rate de- 
pendent on qualifications ánd experi- 
ence, 


Apply to: 
Staffing Officer-Nursing 
Personnel Department 
Edmonton General Hospital 
Edmonton. Alberta 
T5K OL4 


ST. MICHAEL'S HOSPITAL 
Toronto. Ontario 
invItes applications from 


REGISTERED NURSES 


for 


INTENSIVE CARE 
and "STEP-DOWN" UNITS 


Planned orientation and In-serVice programme will ena- 
ble you to collaborate In the most advanced of treatment 
regimens for the post-operative cardlo-vascular and 
other acutely III patients. One year of rnrsmg experience 
a requirement. 


For details apply to: 
The Director of Nursing, 
SI. Michael's Hospital, 
Toronto, Ontario. 
M5B 1 W8. 


REGISTERED NURSES 


Required 
For fully accredited recently expanded 200-bed 
hospital. situated on beautiful 


LAKE OF THE WOODS 


Starting salary $850, increasing to $915 January 
1. 1975 and $945 April 1 , 1975. 
Allowance given for past hospital expenence. 
Shift differential and annual Increments 
VacancIes in medical. obstetrics and progressIve 
coronary care units. 
37'/2-hour week. 
Excellent personnel policIes. 


Apply in writing to: 
Mrs.B.G.Schottroff 
Director ot Nursing 
Lake of the Woods District Hospital 
Kenora, Ontario 


REGISTERED NURSE 


We have opportunities here for an exper I 
enced registered nurse. Our nursin I 
salaries are established through agree' I 
ment with the AAR.N, 
We have a very active 230-bed hospital ir I 
Central Alberta. If you are interested i, 
more information regarding Red Deer anI 
the Red Deer Health Care Comple) 


please write or call: 
Personnel Director 
Red Deer General Hospital 
Red Deer. Alberta 
Tel.: (403) 346-3321 


I 
I 


II 


Director 
of Nursing 


Applications are invIted for this position in a 10( 
bed fully accredited hospital. ExpansIon of Am 
bulant, Rehabilitative Care and diagnostic area! 
to be undertaken In the near future. I 
Individuals possessing a SSc in Nursing and ex 
perience In Nursing Adminostration preferred 
Qualified interested persons are requested te 
supply a resume containing details of education I 
 
training and experience. and date of availabilit} I 
for employment to: 
Administrator, I 
Dawson Creek and District Hospital. 
11100-13th St.. 
Dawson Creek, B.C. 
V1G 3W8 


The Brome-Missisquoi-Perkins 
Hospital 


requires 


1 Day Supervisor 
1 Night Supervisor 
Registered Nurses 


Please write to: 
Director of Nursing 
Brome-Missisquoi-Perkins Hospital 
950 Main Street 
Cowansville, Quebec 
J2K 1 K3 


FEBRUARY 19' 



hat's a big company 
like Upjohn doing 
in nursing services! 


(Simple. We1re in it to help you and herels how.) 


If you're a Nursing Supetvisor we can complement your staff 
when shortages occur by providing competent R.N.'s, 
R.N.A. / C.N .A.ll.P.N.'s or Nurse Aides. 


If you're a nurse interested in working part-time to supple- 
ment your family's income, we offer you the opportunity to 
select hours and assignments convenient to your schedule, 
not ours. 


If you're a Discharge Planning Officer or Home Care Co- 
Ordinator, we are a reliable source for home health care 
with whom you can trust your outgoing patients. 


If you're an inactive nurse temporarily out of touch with 
nursing, we can offer patient care opportunities which will 
enable you to re-enter your profession. 


We think that it is important for you. the Registered 
Nurse. to understand why The Upjohn Company's 
subsidiary. Health Care Services Upjohn limited. 
has become.involved in nursing. Our concept of 
part-time nursing services has proven to be an 
important adjunct to the delivery of health care. 
Our interest is in assisting the Medical and Nursing 
Professions by providing additional qualified 
RN.'s, RN.A./C.N.A.lL.PN.'s and Home 


---- 



 
-.- 


Health Care Personnel to serve the commu- 
nity If you would like more infonnation about 
the work that we are doing across the country 
and how we can help you. contact the Health 
Care Services Upjohn office nearest you. 
Ask for the Service Director. She is an RN.. 
and you'll both be speaking the same lan- 
guage. Look for us in the white pages and in 
the yellow pages under "Nurses Registries:' 


HEALTH CARE SERVICES UP JOHN LIMITED 


With 16 offices to serve you across Canada 


Victoria 
Vancouver 
Edmonton 
Calgar} 


3
8-6639 
731-5826 
423-2221 
264-4140 


Winnipeg 943-7466 St. Catharincs 688-5214 
Windsor 258-
812 - Toronto East 445-5262 
London 673-1880 Toronto We"t 239-7707 
Hamilton 525-8504 Onawa 238-4805 
(Operating in Ontario as He S Vpjohn) 



Iontreal 
Trois Rivieres 
Quebec City 
Halifax 


288-4
 14 
379-4355 
687-3434 
425-3351 


'BRUARY 1975 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 53 



Nursing Education Positions 
Division of Continuing Education 
University of Victoria 


Applications are invited for two Nursing positions associated with a new six month 
program entitled "Post Basic Course in Psychiatric Nursing for Registered Nurses" 
beginning in 1975 - exact date is to be announced. 
1. Psychiatric Instructor - Coordinator - 9 month appointment 
Major duties include: 
a. orientation to the sponsoring educational institution and the clinical facilities to be 
used for student experience. 
b. planning of courses, learning objectives, and student evaluation techniques. 
c. development of appropriate clinicalle...rning experiences. 
d. participation in student selection. 
e. implementation of the course. 
f. completion of necessary reports and records. including fOllow-up evaluation. 


2. Psychiatric Clinical Instructor - Half-time - 7 month appointment 
Major duties include: 
a. orientation to the program and totheclinical facilities to be used for student experience. 
b. helping develop appropriate learning experiences with cooperating clinical facility. 
c. assisting with course planning and implementation, as required. 
Nursing instructors must be eligible for registration in B,C. Positions - available 
immediately Salary - competitive 
Direct applications with complete resume to. 
Mrs, F ,B. Collins, Program Officer 
Division of Continuing Education 
University of Victoria 
P,O, Box 1700, Victoria, B.C. V8W 2Y2 


"MEETING TODAY'S CHALLENGE IN NURSING" 


QL'EEN ELIZABETH HOSPITAL OF MO
TREAL 
CENTRE 


A Teaching Hospital 
of McGill University 


requires 


REGISTERED NURSES 


AND 


REGISTERED NURSING ASSISTANTS 


Quebec language requirements do not apply to Canadian applicants. 


. 255-bed General Hospital in the West end of Montreal 
. Clinical areas include Progressive Coronary Care, 
Intensive Care, Medicine and Surgery, Psychiatry. 


Interested qualified applicants should apply in writing to: 


QUEEN ELIZABETH HOSPITAL OF MONTREAL CENTRE 
DIRECTOR OF PERSONNEL 
2100 MARLOWE AVE., MONTREAL, QUE., H4A 3L6. 


54 THE CANADIAN NURSE 


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CANADA 


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THIS IS 
THE 
WORLD OF CARE: 


Provid i ng nutriti ous 
food for school chil- 
dren and pre-schoolers, 
health services for the 
sick and handicapped, 
facilities and equip- 
ment for basic school- 
ing and technical train- 
ing, tools and equip- 
ment for community 
endeavours. Your sup- 
port of CARE makes 
such things possible for 
millions of individuals 
around the world. 





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each year would do it!! 
! 


63 Sparks OTTAWA (Ont ) Kl P 51 


FEBRUARY 1 



A hrand-new Appointment... 


Senior 
Lecturer in
- 
Diploma 01 Nursing 


An exciting new challenge... 
In 1976 the Preston Institute of Technology 
will pioneer a new facet of nurse education in 
Victoria. Working with the full endorsement 
and support of two of Victoria's larger general 
hospitals the Institute will establish a three 
year Nursing Diploma Course on its 
new Campus. 
This Appointment represents a real R · 
challenge to a University or College Graduate, e '" IUne '.... utl f}" ... 
either male or female who will develop the I I , I VI f, 
course with full support from leading nursing 
interests in Victoria, administer the 
programme and assume the duties of Senior 
Lecturer in Charge of the Department of 
Nursing. 


The Institute... 


The Preston Institute of Technology is one of 
the well-established Colleges of A,dvanced 
Education in Victoria. with Degree and 
Diploma courses in Applied Science, Art & 
Design, Business Studies, Engineering, 
Physical Education and Social Work, and 
Certificate courses including Occupational 
Health Nursing. 
Today, having outgrown the original facilities, 
it now occupies a new location in the 
"green belt" some 20 kilometres from the 
Capital City of Melbourne - population in 


excess of two and a half million. The 
Institute now has the most up-to-date 
facilities and equipment available and is 
situated in approximately 40.5 hectares 
(100 acres) of bushland setting - magnificent 
tor study yet only minutes from the bustling 
suburbs and supporting hospitals. 


A permanent appointment is desired with a 
salary range envisaged between SA 15.361 
to SA 17 ,890 annually. 
The Institute is prepared however, to 
consider a two or three year teaching 
contract; in this instance Citizens of the 
United States could be eligible for exemption 
from both U,S. and Australian income tax. 
The salary for an overseas appointee will be 
calculated from the agreed date of 
embarkation. 


Relocation assistance... 


The Institute has established allowance 
schemes covering relocation expenses for 
your family and your household goods, an 
immediate superannuation insurance cover, 
and assistance with accommodation and 
housing loans. 


For more information about the Institute, the Course. workmg and 
living conditions please write to the Staffing Officer. 
A Senior Member of the Institute will be travelling overseas, 
early in March, 1975 to meet interested people, who should apply 
for an interview before February 21, 1975. 


PRESTON INSTITUTE of TECHNOLOGY 


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BRUARY 1975 


Plenty Road, Bundoora, 
Victoria, Australia 3083 



 
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THE CANADIAN NURSE 55 



WE CARE 


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HOSPITAL: 
Accredited modern general - 260 beds Expansion 
to 420 beds in progress. 
LOCATION: 
Immediately north of Toronto. 
APARTMENTS: 
Furnished - shared. 
Swimming Pool Tennis Court. Recreation Room. 
Free Parking, 
BENEFITS: 
Competitive salanes and excellent fringe benefits, 
Planned staff development programs. 
Please address all enquiries to: 
Assistant Administrator (Nursing) 
York County Hospital, 
NEWMARKET. Ontario, 
L3Y 2R1. 


POST GRADUATE 
COURSES 


The following courses in this modern 1200 bed teach- 
ing hospital will be of interest to registered nurses 
who seek advancement, specialization and profes- 
sional growth. 


. Cardiovascular-Intensive Care Nursing. This 
is a 22 week clinical course with classes 
commencing in February 
r . ptember. 


. Operating Room Technique and Manage- 
ment. This 24 week clinical course commences 
in March and September, 


For further Informal/on and dela/ls. conlacl: 


Recruitment Officer - Nursing 
University of Alberta Hospital 
Edmonton, Alberta T6G 287 


56 THE CANADIAN NURSE 


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THE SCARBOROUGH 
GENERAL HOSPITAL 
invites applications from: 
Registered Nurses and Registered Nursing Assis- 
tants to work in our 6S0-bed active treatment 
hospital and new Chronic Care Unit. 
We"bffer opportunities in Medical. Surgical, Paediatric, and Obstetrical nursing 
Our specialties include a Burns and Plastic Unit. Coronary Care. Intensive Care and 
Neurosurgery Units and an active Emergency Oepartment 


. Obstetrical Oepartmenl -' partlclpallon In "Family centered" teaching 
program. 
. Paediatric Department - participation in Play Therapy Program. 
. Orientation and on-going staff eliucatlon. 
. Progressive personnel policies. 
The hospital is located in Eastern Metropolitan Toronto. 
For further information, write to: 
The Director of Nursing, 
SCARBOROUGH GENERAL HOSPITAL 
3050 Lawrence Avenue. East. Scarborough, Ontario 


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GENERAL STAFF NURSES 


required for 


RECINA CENERAL HOSPITAL 


openings in all departments 


Salary - $775. - $900, 


Recognition Given For Experience 
Progressive Personnel Policies 


Apply: 


Personnel Department 
REGINA GENERAL HOSPITAL 
Regina, Saskatchewan 
S4P OWS 


FEBRUARY 197 



PAEDIATRIC 
SUPERVISOR 


: cellent opportunity m a lully accredited 333-bed 
IctlVe treatment hosp,tallocated in the Toronto- 
-faminon area. 



esponslble lor administration and nursing care 
a 45-bed mixed medical-surgical paediatric 
mit Good clinical background in Paediatric Nur- 
ing IS essential. 
- cellent salary anc:! WOrl<Ing conditIOns. Further 
lormation will be lorwarded on receipt 01 
omp1ete resume 01 education and experience. 


. 'leply to: 

. I PERSONNEL MANAGER 
Oakville- Trafalgar Memorial Hospital 
327 Reynolds Street 
Oakvllle, Ontario 
L6J 3L7 


I 
I 


GENERAL DUTY NURSES 


MEDICINE 
PAEDIATRICS 
CHRONIC & REHABILITATION 


IREQUIREMENTS: 
- 


:;urrent Ontario Registration as a Regls- 
- ered Nurse. 


Inquiries may be directed to: 


Mrs. J. Stewart 
Director of Nursing 
Oshawa General Hospital 
24 Alma Street 
OSHA W A. Ontario 
L1G 2B9 


j 


DIRECTOR 
OF NURSING 


Required effective March 1. 1975. This pos- 
ition carries responsibility for the coordina- 
tion of all facets of nursing services within a 
75-bed accredited hospital. Preference 
given to applicants with University prepara- 
tion in Nursing Administration or successful 
supervisory and nursing administration ex- 
perience. 


Apply in writing, stating experience, qualifIca- 
tions, references and date available to: 


Administrator 
St. Therese Hospftal 
St. Paul, Alberta 
TOA 3AO 


I 8RUARY 1975 


SOme nurses are just nurses. ì \ 
Our nurses are also 
COmmissioned Officers. 


Nurse" 
re Jer 1 special people In the Car 3d an Forcps 
They earr an Officers salary enjoy an O,flcers pr" ,''-'rjeS 
and live In Officers' Quarters (or In Cl' .an aLcJïmodabuII " ." 
prefer) on Canadian Forces bases all over Canada and In mar 
other parts of the world 
If they decide to specialize the\l can applv for postgraduate 
training wIth no loss of payor pn Jlleges Promotion IS baSL
 on 
ability as well as length of service And they become eligible for 
retarement benefits (Includang a lifetime penSion) at a much earlier 
age than In cIvilian life 
If you were a nurse In the Canadian Forces you would be 
a special person dOing an especially responSible rewarding and 
worthwhile lob 
For full information. wnte the DIrector of RecUltmg and Selec- 
tion National Defence Headquarters Ottawa On/ano KIA OK2 


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Cet involved with the 
canadian Armed Forces. 


I. 


Public Service 
Canada 


Fonction publique 
Canada 


THIS COMPETITION IS OPEN TO BOTH MEN AND WOMEN 
NURSING OPPORTUNITIES IN THE NORTH 
Starting salary up to $9,488 
(UNDER REVIEW) 
(Plus Northern Allowance) 
HEALTH AND WELFARE CANADA 
Medical Services 
Various locations in the Yukon and N.W.T. 
An opportunity to see parts of Canada few Canadians ever see and to utilize all your nursing 
skills. Nurses are required to provide health care to the inhabitants located in some settlements 
well north of the Arctic Circle. Radio telephone communication IS available. Join the Northern 
Health Service of the Department of Health and Welfare Canada and discover what northern 
nursing is all about. 
Candidates must be registered or eligible for registration as a nurse in a province of Canada. 
be mature and self-reliant. For some positions. mid-wifery. obstetrics. pediatrics or Public 
Health training and experience is essential. Proficiency in the English language IS essentfa/. 
Salary commensurate with experience and education. 
Transportation to and from employment area will be provided: meals and accommodation at 
a nominal rate. 


HOW TO APPL Y: 
Forward "Application for Employment" (Form PSC 367-4110) available at Post Offlces, 
Canada Manpower Centres or offices of the Public Service Commission of Canada to the: 
DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND WELFARE CANADA 
MEDICAL SERVICES - NORTHWEST TERRITORIES REGION 
1401 BAKER CENTRE -10025 - 106 STREET EDMONTON, ALBERTA TSJ 1H2 
Please quote competition number 74-E-4 in all correspondence. 
Appointments as a result of this competition are sublect to the provisions of the PublIc 
Service Employment Act. 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 57 



BRANDON GENERAL HOSPITAL 
SCHOOL OF NURSING 


NURSE TEACHER 


FOR 


TWO YEAR DIPLOMA PROGRAM 
POSITION AVAILABLE FEBRUARY 1, 1975 
IN 


OBSTETRICAL NURSING 


aUALIFICA TIONS: 
Baccalaureate Degree in Nursing is required. Pr
ference given to 
applicants with experience in Nursing and Teaching. 


Apply in writing stating qualifications, experience, references to' 
PERSONNEL DIRECTOR, 
Brandon General Hospital, 
150 McTavish Avenue East, 
Brandon, Manitoba, 
R7 A 2B3. 


SCHOOL OF NURSING 


Assistant Director 


and 
Instructors 


required for August, 1975 
in a 2 year Nursing 
diploma program. 


Qualifications 
Assistant Director - Master degree in Nursing Education, prefer- 
red. with experience in Nursing Education Administration and teach- 
ing and at least one year in a Nursing Service position. Eligible for 
registration in New Brunswick. 
Instructors - Bachelor of Nursing with experience in teaching and 
at least 1 year an a Nursing Service position. Eligible for registration 
in New Brunswick. 


Apply to: 


Harriett Hayes 
Director 
The Miss A. J. MacMaster School of Nursing 
Postal Station A, Box 2636 
Moncton, N.B. 
E1C 8H7 


58 THE CANADIAN NURSE 


MATER PUBLIC HOSPITAL 
SOUTH BRISBANE, AUSTRALIA 


COME TO SUNNY QUEENSLAND 


NURSE TEACHERS WANTED 


FOR THEORETICAL & CLINICAL AREAS: 
IN GENERAL AND PAEDIATRIC NURSING; 
At Basic & Postbasic levels. 


Apply - 
Director of Nursing Services, 
Mater Misericordiae Hospitals, 
South Brisbane, Old. 4101, 
Australia. 


McMaster University 
Medical Centre 


We would like to discuss a senior nursing position with you. 
Our Patient Care Co-Ordinators have clinical and adminis- 
trative responsibility for their own units. They are directly 
accountable for staff performance and development, in- 
service education and for the quality of patient care through 
the implementation of nursing standards. Resource people ! 
are available as these responsibilities are not usually within I 
the scope of the traditional "head nurse". 


If you are looking for an added challenge and dimension in 
your work. write us with details of your past experience and 
your interests. For qualified candidates cross appointments 
in the School of Nursing at McMaster University may be I 
recommended. 


Send your letter to: 
Manager, Employment & Staff Relations 
McMaster University Medical Centre 
1200 Main Street West 
HAMILTON, Ontario 
L8S 4J9 


FE8RUARY 19: 



NURSING EMPLOYMENT 
OPPORTUNITY 


SYNDIC 


o 


THE OROER OF NURSES OF QUÉ8EC 


RESPONSIBILITIES 
ResponSible for the application of the law COncerning the Committee on 
Discipline. 
Conducts enquiries. 
Prepares official complaint. 
Informs the public. organizations. members and other corporations according 
to established procedures and legal requirements. 
Verifies that members have taken the oath of office. 


aUALIFICA TIONS 
Candidates must be bilingual and possess. 
. broad nursing experience 
. knowledge of psychology. interviewing methods and allieO skills 


ApplicatIons containing tull intormation must be received before 
February 28. 1975. 


The Executive Director and 
Secretary of the Order 
4200 Dorchester Blvd. West 
Montreal H3Z 1V4, Oué. 



 


REGISTERED NURSES 


WELCOME 


to 


"THE NEURO" 


A Teaching Hospital 
of McGill University 


Positions available 
for nurses in all areas 
including Operating Room 
Individualized orientation 
On-going staff education 


(Quebec language requirements 
do not apply to Canadian applicants) 


Apply to: 


The Director of Nursing, 
Montreal Neurological Hospital. 
3801 University Street. 
Montreal H3A 284 
Quebec, Canada. 


(U]@ 


1260 BED HOSPITAL ADJACENT TO 
UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA CAMPUS OFFERS 
EMPLOYMENT IN MEDICINE, SURGERY, 
PEDIATRICS, OBSTETRICS, PSYCHIATRY, 
REHABILITATION AND EXTENDED CARE 
INCLUDING: 


. INTENSIVE CARE 
. CORONARY OBSERVATION UNIT 
. CARDIOVASCULAR SURGERY 
. BURNS AND PLASTICS 
. NEONATAL INTENSIVE CARE 
. RENAL DIALYSIS 
. NEURO-SURGERY 


Planned Orientation and In-Service Education 
programs. Post graduate clinical courses in 
Cardiovascular - Intensive Care Nursing and 
Operating Room Technique and Management 
Apply to: 


RECRUITMENT OFFICER - NURSING 
UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA HOSPITAL 
112 STREET AND 84 AVENUE 
EDMONTON, ALBERTA T6G 2B7 


1 8RUARY 1975 


UNIVERSITY OF 
ALBERTA HOSPITAL 
EDMONTON,ALBERTA 


e 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 59 



R.N.'S 


HUMBER MEMORIAL HOSPITAL 


The Royal Alexandra is a friendly place to work; a modern 
progressive 1000 bed teaching hospital in the "just-right- 
size" city of Edmonton, Alberta. 


200 Church Street, Weston, M9R 2N7 
Telephone (416) 249-8111 (Toronto) 


Fully accredited. the Royal Alexandra offers challenging ex- 
perience, on-going in-service programs, generous fringe 
benefits and competitive salaries. All previous experience is 
recognized. You may skate, ski and curl inexpensively. Ed- 
monton is within easy driving distance of many lakes where 
you may enjoy the sunny Alberta summer 


Registered Nurses 


and 


Registered Nursing Assistants 


Required for all Nursing Units 
Intensive-Coronary Care, Psychiatry, Med.-Surg. etc. 


Vacancies exist in most areas including ICU, a.A. & Psy- 
chiatry. 


Excellent - Orientation Programme 
- Inservice Education 
- Continuing Education 


Salary Range for General Duty: $900, - $1075. 


Recognition given for Recent and Related Experience 


Director of Nursing 
Royal Alexandra Hospital 
10240 Kingsway Ave. 
EDMONTON,ALBERTA 
T5H 3V9 


Salaries Reg. N. Jan. 1 st, 1975 - 915. - 1,115. 
April 1st, 1975 - 945. - 1,145. 
R.N.A. Jan, 1st, 1975 - 686. - 728, 
July 1 st, 1975 - 738. - 780. 


For Information please write to: 


Contact 
Director of Nursing 


VANCOUVER 
GENERAL HOSPITAL 



 


Invites applications for 


REGULAR and RELIEF 
GENERAL DUTY 


Nursing positions in all clinical areas of an active 
teaching hospital, closely affiliated with the University of B.C. 
and the development of the B.C. Medical Centre. 
1974 Salary Scale $850.00 - $1,020.00 per month 
For further information, please write to: 
PERSONNEL SERVICES 
VANCOUVER GENERAL HOSPITAL 
855 WEST 12TH AVE. 
VANCOUVER, B.C. 


60 THE CANADIAN NURSE 


FEBRUARY 1 



REGISTERED NURSES 
are invited to apply for positions in 


MEDICINE AND 
GENERAL SURGERY 


at 


Toronto 
General Hos p ital 
O n i vers i ty 
Teaching Hospital 


. located in heart of downtown Toronto 
. within walking distance of accommodation 
. subway stop adjacent to Hospital 
. excellent benefits and recreational facilities 


apply 10 Personnel OffIce 
TORONTO GENERAL HOSPITAL 
67 COLLEGE STREET, TORONTO. ONTARIO, M5G 1L7 


--.... 



 


.. 


A\ 


.. 


I -;t 1.-. 


We invite applications from 


REGISTERED NURSES 
FOR GENERAL DUTY 


in all patient services areas including I.C.U.lC.C.Unit. This is an 
opportunity to be on staff when we move to this new 138 bed 
General Hospital, which will be early in 1975. 


Successful applicants will be paid prevailing Ontario salary rates as 
well as other generous fringe benefits and in addition you will have 
the opportunity to work in a brand new building with modern equip- 
ment and beautiful surroundings. 


Apply in writing to 


The Director of Nursing 
Kirkland and District Hospital 
Kirkland Lake, Ontario 
P2N 1 R2 


HEALTH 
SCIENCES 
CENTRE 


WINNIPEG, 
MANITOBA 


. 


\ 


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. 


:0.- 


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, 


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I 
,.BRUARY 1975 


THIS 1345 BED COMPLEx WITH AMBULATORY CARE CLINICS, AFFILIATED 
WITH THE UNiVERSITY OF MANITOBA. CENTRALLY LOCATED IN A LARGE. 
CULTURALLY ALIVE COSMOPOLITAN CITY. 


INVITES APPLICATIONS FROM 
REGISTERED NURSES SEEKING PROFESSIONAL 
GROWTH, OPPORTUNITY FOR INNOVATION, AND JOB 
SATISFACTION. 
ORIENTATION - Extensive two week program at full salary 
ON-GOING EDUCATION - Provided through 
active in-service programmes in all patient care areas 
opportunity to attend conferences, institutes, meetings of professional 
association 
post basic courses in selected dinical specialties 
PROGRESSIVE PERSONNEL POLICIES 
salary based on experience and preparation 
paid vacation based on years of service 
shift differential for rotating services 
10 statutory holidays per year 
insurance. retirement and pension plans 
contract under negotiation effective March. 1975 
SPECIALIZED SERVICE AREAS include orthopedics, psychiatry, post 
anaesthetic, emergency, intensive care, coronary care. respiratory care, dialysis. 
medicine. surgery, obstetrics, gynaecoloQy, rehabilitation. and paediatrics 
ENQUIRIES WELCOME 
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION PLEASE WRITE TO: 
PERSONNEL DEPARTMENT, NURSING SECTION 
HEALTH SCIENCES CENTRE. 
700 WILLIAM AVENUE, WINNIPEG, MANITOBA RJE OÜ 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 61 




u
 
ORTHOPAEDIC k ARTHRITIC 
HOSPITAL 

I'V 


NORTH YORK GENERAL HOSPITAL 
INVITES APPLICATIONS FROM: 


REGISTERED NURSES AND 
REGISTERED NURSING ASSISTANTS 
FULL AND PART-TIME POSITIONS 


N.Y.G.H. is a 585-bed, fully accredited. active treatment hospital 
located in North Metropolitan Toronto offering opportunities in all 
services. 
The Hospital embraces the full concept of Progressive Patient 
Care featuring a Self Care Unit and a Psychiatric Day Care 
Program. 
Our Nursing Philosophy focuses on the patient as an individual and 
recognizes the importance of continuing education for the 
improvement of patient care. 
An active Staff Development program focusing on individual 
learning needs is maintained, 


43 WELLESLEY STREET, EAST 
TORONTO, ONTARIO 
M4Y 1H1 


Personnel Department 
North York General Hospital 
4001 Leslie Street 
Willowdale. Ontario 
M2K 1E1 


Enlarging Specialty Hospital offers a unique 
opportunity to nurses and nursing assistants 
interested in the care of patients with bone and 
joint disorders. . 
Currently required - 
Registered Nurses and Nursing Assistants for all 
units 
Clinical specialists for Operating Room, Intensive 
Care, Patient Care and Education. 


Apply to: 


SCHOOL OF NURSING 
DALHOUSIE UNIVERSITY 


Halifax, N.S. 


FACUL TV POSITIONS 
A number of positions will be available in 1975 for well-qualified faculty to participate in a 
progressive undergraduate and graduate program. 
The baccalaureate program for basic and R.N. students is integrated around an holistic 
developmental concept of human beings in health and illness. A graduate program is 
planned to start in September, 1975. 
Other plans for the development of the School make Dalhousie a challenging place for 
faculty committed to the continual improvement of nursing's contribution to health care, 
and wanting opportunity to develop their own professional interests. 
Minimum requirement - Masters degree 
Apply to: 


Ms. Muriel E. Small 
Acting Director 
School of Nursing 
Dalhousie University 
Halifax, N.S. 
B3H 3J5 


62 THE CANADIAN NURSE 


FEBRUARY 19: 



CARl BOO 
COLLEGE 



(c,

 _ 
8 C 
o -" 
o 

c5f 
fy
 


KAMLOOPS 


BRITISH 
COLUMBIA 


requires 


Nursing Instructors 


Jualifications: 
An M.A. degree is preferred but consideration will be given to persons 
with a Baccalaureate degree. 
a) Service and teaching experience in Psychiatry 
b) Service and teaching experience in Medical- Surgical Nursing 
c) Eligibility for registration in British Columbia. 


Duties: (to commence April 1, 1975) 
I Classroom teaching 
I Climcalteaching and supervision 
I Participation in curnculum planning, and other faculty activities 


Mail applications together with curriculum vitae and letters of 
,reference to: The Principal. Cariboo College, Box 860. 
Kamloops, British Columbia, V2C 5N3. 


UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA 
SCHOOL OF NURSING 


FACUL TV POSITIONS 


Faculty members required for positions in four year basic 
and two year post-basic baccalaureate programs. Applic- 
ants should have graduate education and experience in a 
clinical area and/or in curriculum development, evaluation or 
research. Must be eligible for Alberta registration. 
Personnel policies and salaries in accord with University 
schedule based on qualifications and experience. 
Apply In writing to: 
RUTH E. McCLURE, M.P.H. 
Director, School of Nursing 
Clinical Sciences Building 
University of Alberta 
Edmonton, Alberta 
T6G 2G3 


18RUARY 1975 


Dr Welby is a 
NURSE 


. . . 


It seems clear from 
watching this program 
that poor Dr Welby is 
spending 2/3 of his 
time NURSING. 


The nursing profession at 
the ROYAL VICTORIA HOSPITAL 
is concerned about this. 
We are reviewing nursing 
roles in depth in this 
teaching hospital center, 
and we feel that we can 
relieve Dr Welby of his 
non-doctoring functions. 


You are invited to join 
an extensive change 
program in the nursing 
profession at the 
ROYAL VICTORIA HOSPITAL. 


Areas wnere you can be a 
part of the change program 
are, Medical and Surgical 
Specialties, Intensive Care 
Areas, Operating Room, 
Psychiatry, Obstetrics, 
Emergency and Ambulatory 
Services. 


No special language 
requirement for Canadian 
Citizens, but the opportunity 
to improve your French is 
open to you. 


For Information, Write To: 


Anne Bruce, R.N., 
Nursing Recruitment Officer 
Royal Victoria Hospital 
687 Pine Avenue West 
Montreal, Quebec, Canada 
H3A 1A1. 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 63 



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of providing health 
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I Medical Services Branch I 
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I Please send me more information on career I 
I opportunities in Indian Health Services. I 
I Name: I 
I Address: I 
City: Pray: _ 

_______________J 


64 THE CANADIAN NURSE 


Index 
to 
Advertisers 


February 1975 


Astra Pharmaceuticals Canada Ltd. . . . . . 45 
Baxter Laboratories of Canada. . . . . Cover IV 
Canada Manpower Centre 17 
The Clinic Shoemakers . 2 
Colgate-Palmolive Limited . . .. . . . 41 
Department of National Defence . . . 57 
Guaranty Trust Company of Canada. . . 11 
Health Care Services Upjohn Limited. . 53 
Heelbo Corporation . . .. IS 
Hollister Limited _ _ . 47 
Eli Lilly and Company (Canada) Ltd, . I 
J.B. Lippincott Co. of Canada Ltd. 32 & 33 
McGraw-Hill-Ryerson Limited 39 
MedoX 49 
Mont Sulton ... . 6 
The C.V. Mosby Company. Ltd. 12. 13. 14. 15 
Preston Institute of Technology. . . . 55 
Procter & Gamble . . . . 8 
Reeves Company 42 
Ryerson Poly technical Institute 51 
W. B. Saunders Company Canada. Ltd. . . . . . 7 
White Sister Uniform. Inc. . 5. Covers II & III 


AdvertisinR Manager 
Georgina Clarke 
The Canadian Nurse 
50 The Driveway 
Ottawa K2P I E2 (Ontario) 


Ad
'ertisillg RepresentatÜ'es 
Richard P. Wilson 
219 East Lancaster Avenue 
Ardmore. Penna. 19003 
Telephone: (215) 649-141)7 


Gordon Tiffin 
::! Tremont Crescent 
Don Mills. Ontario 
Telephone:(416) 444-4731 


:\1ember of Canadian 
Circufation
 Audit Buard Ine. 


GæEJ 


FEBRUARY 1
 



The 

 I 
Nurse 


... 


. 



 


I 


March 19 5 ",. 


, 


the case of the warm moist compress 


... 


U.'H VERS ITY OF 
NU OTTAWA 
RSIfJG LIBRARY 
I fJ!TAWA. ONT. 
IIJ óN5 
"-3-74-CN-IN'J. 


DO r
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OUT Of liBRARY 


'
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4 
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-...... 


A) Style No. 44483 
Sizes 5-15 
Royale Corded Tricot 
White, Yellow about $24.00 


\ 
-\ 
B) Style No. 44888 
 r 
Sizes 3-13 
Royale Seersucker, 
100% Woven Polyester 
White, Yellow about $24.00 


B 


C) Style No. 44463 
Sizes 3-13 
Royale Corded Tricot 
White, Yellow 


\ 
17 


I
 I ,","ITE 
HÐ SISTER 
CAREER APPAREL 



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See our new line of Whites and Water Colours at fine stores across Canad 



.E:RTA VERNON GUELPH TORONTO 
-- The Bay Uniforms Professional The Bay 

L ARY 
ay VICTORIA HAMILTON Eaton's & all suburb stores 
) i Uniforms The Bay Beube's of Hamilton Robert Simpson Co. 
's Eaton's Eaton's Uniform Centre 
hrtone Walker Ltd. Lady Mae Uniforms Ltd. Florence Nightingale Shop Uniform Specialty 
111;ons-Sears Ltd. Miss Frith Millinery Lockharts Ladies Wear 1254 Bay St. 
g > Uniforms Ltd. Simpsons-Sears Ltd. The G. W. Robinson Co. Ltd. 372 Queen St. w. 
>P.>NTON MANITOBA Simpsons-Sears Ltd. Uniform World 
ay BRANDON KINGSTON WELLAND 
's The Specialty Shop Simpsons-Sears Ltd. Uniform & Maternity Shoppe 
hrtone Walker Ltd. THE PAS Uniform Shop WINDSOR 
Is\Uniform Shop Shirl's Boutique KITCHENER Adelman's Dept. Store 
-rt/.ons-Sears Ltd. PORTAGE LA PRAIRIE Eaton's Simpsons-Sears Ltd. 
TBRIDGE Marr Fashions Ltd. Uniforms Professional Uniform Centre 

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Uniform Centre WINNIPEG Simpsons-Sears Ltd. PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND 
11 ;ons-Sears Ltd. The Bay 
Eaton's LONDON CHARLOTTETOWN 
OOMINSTER Rose Lee Fashion Uniforms Eaton's Eaton's 

jRiCk Ltd. 265 Kennedy Robert Simpson Co. Fashion Shoppe 
-I I Style Shop 837 Sherbrooke St. Uniform Centre 

[CINE HAT Simpsons-Sears Ltd. Uniforms Unlimited SUMMERSIDE 
II Style Shop NEWMARKET Smallman's Ltd. 
:I:DEER NEW BRUNSWICK Dawson's ltd. 
ay FREDERICTON OAKVILLE QUEBEC 
Levine's Ltd. Professional Beauty Supplies BEAUCE COUNTY 
U ISH COLUMBIA Simpsons-Sears Ltd. ORILLIA Boutique Venus 
IE)TSFORD MONCTON The Stork's Nest Confection Simone 
sn's House of Uniforms Eaton's OSHAWA CHICOUTIMI 
George Battah Ltd. 
'FIABY Simpsons-Sears Ltd. Eaton's Simpsons-Sears Ltd. 

;ons-sears Ltd. SAINT JOHN Simpsons-Sears Ltd. Spécialités Suzette Inc. 
II .IW ACK Calp's Ltd. Ward's Dry Goods JONQUIÈRE 
l\nn Uniform Shop Lady in White Boutique OTTAWA Créations & Uniformes Louise 
IR ST. JOHN Simpsons-Sears Ltd. The Bay Ltée 
)ql Dress Shop NEWFOUNDLAND C. Caplan Ltd. MONTREAL 
B,)N Simpsons-Sears ltd. The Bay 
Idard Fashions CORNER BROOK Uniform World Eaton's 
IltOOPS Sutton's Style Shop OWEN SOUND Uniform Boutique 
ay GRAND FALLS Sylphene's of Owen Sound 5729 Côte des Neiges 
11 'ons-Sears Ltd. Riffs Ltd. PETER BOROUGH 575 Maisonneuve Blvd. W. 
Talk Uniforms ST. JOHN'S Uniform Shop 800 St. Catherine St. E. 
.LWNA The London, New York & Paris Simpsons-Sears Ltd. QUEBEC CITY 
)ori Specialty Association of Fashions Ltd. RENFREW Boutique Marie Hélène 
nons-Sears Ltd. NOV A SCOTIA Uniform World lingerie Laurette 
IUHEED ST. CATHARINES Les Magasins Mile Uniforme 
e ay ANTIGONISH Eaton's Plaza d'Uniformes 
"'CTON Wilkie Cunningham Magder's Uniform Shop Maurice Pollack Ltd. 
ay DARTMOUTH Simpsons-Sears Ltd. Simpsons-Sears Ltd. 
\lICE GEORGE Jacobson's of Dartmouth C. Wallace & Co. Le Syndicat de Québec 
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stoke Co-op Associates Robert Simpson Co. Ltd. Uniform Shop THREE RIVERS 
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ay SYDNEY SCARBOROUGH Salon de Couture St-Phifippe 
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IHERS Uniform Shop Uniform World SASKA TCHEW AN 
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'REY Simcoe Uniform Shop PRINCE ALBERT 
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ce Co-op Associates Simpsons-Sears Ltd. H. Shapiro & Sons Ltd. Fashion Uniforms Ltd. 
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e ay Uniform Shoppe Eaton's The Bay 
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Sl 


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PROMINE T DEALERS listed alnhabeticallv bv nennranhir. Inr.atinn 



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THE 
CLINIC 


TItADEMNiIII.S REO US "AT on .. CANADA UAOE IN USA 


\ 


SHOE 
p.k

WhÃtt@ 


SOME STYLES ALSO AVAILABLE IN COLORS _ SOME STYLES 3' L - 12 AAAA-E about 2395 to 2995 
For a complimentary pair of white shoelacas, folder showing all Ihe smart Clinic styles, and .Isl of slores selling tham, write 
THE CLINIC SHOEMAKERS · Dept. CN-3, 7912 Bonhomme Ave. . St. louis, Mo. 631m 



The 
Canadian 
,Nurse 


ð 

 


A monthly journal for the nurses of Canada published 
I in Eng';,h and h.nch .d;l;on, b, Ih. Canad;an Nu".,' '"ocial;on 
Volume 71, Number 3 March 1975 


'19 The Case of the Warm 
Moist Compress. . . . . _ . . . . _ . . .. .......... .J. Moore, M. Weinberg 
l2 The Canadian Nurses' Foundation 
I Is Its Members... " .. ., . . . .. . . . .. . . .. .. . .. .. . .. '" . .H.D. Taylor 
'Z4 Write for the Reader, He May Need to Know 
What You Have to Say ........ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . .EX 0 Farrell 
9 CNA Financial Statement 


3 Control: Cigarettes and Calories. . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . , . . . . . . . . .0. Birch 
36 The Administrator: the Real, the Ideal .,......,......... .R. Bureau 
I 8 I Can't Quit Now! .. .. .. _ ... _ . _ _. .. . '" ., . . .. _. . . .. . .e.G. Klute 


The views expressed in the articles are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the 
policies or views of the Canadian Nurses' Association. 


4 letters 44 Names 
9 News 49 Research Abstracts 
14 Dates 51 Books 
16 In A Capsule 58 A.V. Aids 
42 New Products ';9 Accession list 


Executive Director: Helen IC Mussallem . 
Editor: Virginia A. Lindabury. Assistant 
Editors: Liv-Ellen Lockeberg, Dorothy S. 
Starr. Production Assistant: Mary Lou 
Downes . CirculatIOn Manager: Beryl Dar- 
ling . Advertising Manager: Georgina Clarke 
. Subscription Rates: Canada: one year 
$6.00; two years. $11.00. Foreign: one year, 
$6.50; two years, $12.00. Single copies: 
$1,00 each. Make cheques or money orders 
payable to the Canadian Nurses' Association. 
. Change of Address: Six weeks notice; the 
old address as well as the new are necessary, 
together with registration number in a pro- 
vincial nurses' association, where apphcable. 
Not responsible for iournals lost in mail due 
to errors in address. 


Manuscript Informallon: "The Canadian 
Nurse" welcomes unsolicited articles. All 
manuscripts should be typed double-spaced. 
on one side of unruled paper leavlOg wide 
margins. Manuscripts are accepted for review 
for excl usive publ ication The editor reserves 
the right to make the usual editorial changes. 
Photographs (glossy prints) and graphs and 
diagrams (drawn in indIa ink on white paper) 
are welcomed with such articles. The editor is not 
committed to publish all articles sent. 
nor to indicate definite dates of publication. 
Postage paid In cash at third class rate 
MONTREAL. P.Q. Permit No. 10.001. 
SO The Driveway. Ottawa, Ontario, K2P 1 E2 

 Canadian Nurses' Association 1975. 


Editorial I 


When a new method of preparing 
warm moist compresses was intro- 
duced recently at Glenrose Provincial 
General Hospital in Edmonton, the 
nursing staff had mixed reactions: 
some preferred it to the traditional 
method. others believed it to be in- 
ferior. This difference of opinion 
prompted the hospital's nursing proce- 
dure committee to conduct a study to 
find out just which method was more 
effective and efficient. 
Our feature article this month. "The 
Case of the Warm Moist Compress." 
by Jannice Moore and Maureen Wein- 
berg, describes how this study was 
carried out, and reports the findings. As 
well as determinin
 which method is 
superior, the investigators found suffi- 
cient evidence to warrant their ques- 
tioning the length of time compresses 
should be applied. 
This study shows the importance of 
questioning and evaluating new 
methods or equipment that may be in- 
troduced into the clinical setting. And, 
as the authors say, it also shows the 
value of reexamining time-honored 
procedures to make sure our nursing 
practices provide maximum effective- 
ness. Too often, procedures become 
sacred cows that seem to defy 
scrutiny. 
Described by the authors as a "small 
study," this nursing research has all 
the components necessary for suc- 
cess: it was initiated by staff nurses 
who questioned which procedure was 
more effective; it was conducted in a 
setting conducive to research; it was 
carried out by RNs in the practice set- 
ting; and its actual focus was the pa- 
tient - the chief beneficiary of the 
study's results. 
Authors Moore and Weinberg note 
that their study involved a small sample 
of patients. Other investigators should 
replicate this research. they say. to find 
out if the results are similar in other 
settings. 
Their point is well taken. If studies 
are not repeated as often as they 
should be. they tend to remain isolated 
examples of what can be done. Con- 
sequently, as one U.S. researcher 
commented, we do not yet see exam- 
ples of clinical nursing research that 
have compelled some widely adopted 
improvement in patient care. 
So, RNs are needed to repeat this 
study. How about you? Underneath it 
all, are you really a frustrated gum- 
shoe? If so, collect your curiosity. your 
desire to improve patient care, and 
your magnitvi.ng Iglass and get going. 
Happy sleuthing. - V.A.L. 
THE CANADIAN NURSE 3 



o\Rc..:H 1975 



letters 


{ 


Letters to the editor are welcome. 
Only signed letters, which include the writer's complete address, 
will be considered for publication. 
Name will be withheld at the writer's request. 


Comments on "Lumbar Pain" 
I certainly enjoyed reading the article. 
"Lumhar Pain Linked to Hypokine
ia" 
(November 1974). I am an active phy- 
siotherapist presently lecturing in a 
"back education unit" for back patients. 
I felt the material was well written and 
researched. Being a physiotherapist and a 
specialist in therapeutic exercise. I would 
like to make a few comments on the 
authors' choice of exercises. 
Exercise #3. in which a person alterna- 
tively arches his back and then makes it 
hollow. is one in which the second part or 
hollowing is detrimental to a person' s 
back. The holltming promotes excessive 
hyperextension of the lumbar spine. in 
which the posterior intervertehral joints of 
the 
pine are being jammed together; this 
gives incredsed back pain. 
Also. all the ahdominal exercises 
should have fir
t incorporated # I , or the 
pelvic tilt. in them. This puts the back in a 
better position to increase abdominal 
strength. I stress pelvic tilt in all postures. 
sitting. walking. and activity. 
The bilateral leg-lifting exercise. #5. 
places a tremendous strain on the back. 
Anyone doing this exercise will automati- 
cally hyperextend his back to keep his 
legs elevated. I personally do not give any 
exercise to my back patients or anyone 
else. which increases the lumbar curve 
that is seen so often in bad posture with 
weak abdominals, -Iris Weverman. 
M.C.P.A., Toronto, Olltario. 


The nurses of the corrective ortho"pedic 
unit at the Centre hospitalier de 
rUniversité Laval reply: We appreciate 
the comments made br Weverman and 
agree with the points .
he mentions . We 
failed to stress that the back should touch 
the floor before exercises I, 2, 3, and 4 
(p. 3D-/). This is almost as important in 
exercise 5 (p. 3/). 
Weverman savs that she never recom- 
mends exercise" 5, and we a!?ree that 
persons with pain in the back region 
should not do this exercise. The abdomi- 
nal muscles must be strong alld active to 
be able to do it. 
As for exercise 3 (p. 29). Weverman 
savs she doesn't recommend the hollow 
position of the back. She is teaching 
exercises for persons v.'ith back pain. We 
agree that persons with back problems 
should not do this exercise as we de- 
scribed it; they should do the arching and 
return the back to a flat position, but not 
do the hollowing. 
4 THE CANADIAN NURSE 


We were 
'\.'riting about primary prevol- 
tion. not secondarv prevention. We thank 
her for drawing these points to our 
attention and to t/wt of readers of The 
Canadian Nurse. 


Case of the missing rungs 
As a retired nurse of many years' experi- 
ence. I look forward to my issue of The 
Canadian Nurse every month. There is at 
least one article per issue that provides 
much food for thought in my leisure hours. 
I feel I must comment about the article 
"An Experiment with the Ladder Con- 
cept" by J.A. Hezekiah (Jan. '75). since it 
has occupied. to date. more of my leisure 
time than I am willing to spend! 
Like most people. I usually read 
through paragraphs on numbers and statis- 
tics rather quickly. skimming to the con- 
clusions; however. with Hezekiah's arti- 
cle. I became entrdnced with the numbers. 
I kept turning them over in my mind and 
finally resorted to a paper and pencil. Al- 
though I have read widely on the ladder 
theory. Hezekiah' s ladder would appear to 
have built-in landings, missing rungs. 
people walking backward up the ladder. 
and some dark areas at the top of the stairs. 
Perhaps Hezekiah could comment on 
my rough calculations. Of the 21 graduat- 
ing RNAS. 9 students (430é) fell off the 
ladder somewhere above the landing re- 
served for RNAS. This type of career mobil- 
ity is 
urely not what is meant by "vertical 
career mobility." 
According to my calculations. rough as 
they may be. more than these nine students 
fell off the ladder. Although the numbers 
given by Hezekiah are perhaps incom- 
plete. I am missing at least one student and 
possibly more who "missed" the landing 
reserved for RNAS. If this is not so. then 
approximately 990é of the students who 
began as RNs graduated as RNS. This is a 
rather startling (but pleasing) retention rate 
- or did more RNS fall off the ladder? This 
would again tend to negate the belief that 
this is "vertical career mobility." 
The third result of my playing with 
Hezekiah's numbers is that I am unable to 
find one student who began as an RNA and 
went on to RN studies. If this is so. is this 
career mobility? 
Although I find the concepts outlined in 
the article interesting. progressive. and 
worthy of future study. I feel that the 
"pioneering and risk-taking" was done by 
the hand-picked group of students who 
began (backward or forward) to climb a 


ladder with mis
ing rungs and secret Ian! 
ings at such a high risk of falling off! I . 
Of course. I do not have the full resul. 
of Hezekiah's study. and I look forward 
her comments. -Isabel Hamilton Smit,' 
Ontario. I 
The author replies 
It was most rewarding to me that my artic I 
merited so much of Isabel Hamill<1 
Smith's leisure time. I 
There appears to be some confusi<i 
with the interpretation of the statistics pr'i 
vided. A significant question is also rais<: 
with regard to reclarification of the co 
cept of vertical mobility. I 
The project (acknowledging its limit 
tions). examined only the first class ,I 
nursing assistants who shared a commq 
semester with nursing diploma students 
Eighteen students enrolled in the initi 
class. Six withdrew for a variety , 
reasons. One of the 6 transferred to tl l 
nursing diploma program, thus leaving I 
students. Nine diploma students transfe! 
red to the nursing assistant program. brin 
ing the total to 21. Attrition in the diplon 
program was not the object of the proje( 
thus. data regardmg thIs were not pr' 
vided. 
The 9 students (43%) transferred fro 
the nursing diploma program were a 
cepted as respected and creditable pa 
ticipants in the nursing assistant prograr 
This is consistent with our philosophy. 
Vertical mobility provides for mov, 
ment up and down. It is not meant to I 
restrictive to anyone group. Although 01 
experiment was partially motivated by tl 
idea of upward mobility. from the outs 
we facilitated movement in either dire 
tion. This permitted students to achie' 
realistic learning goals. without the net 
for unnecessary repetition. 
As a point of interest. 2 nursing assista 
students (class of '73) are currently enre 
led in the nursing diploma program; I 
addition. 6 to 12 nursing assistant studen 
from other programs enroll each year 
the nursing diploma program. and credit 
given to them for nursing theory ar 
practice. - Jocelyn A, Hezekiah, Chai, 
man, Nursin!? Programs, Health Scieno 
Division, Humber College of Applied Ar 
and Technolo!?y, Rexdale, Onto 


Help wanted 
The alumnae of SI. Joseph's Hospit 
School of Nursing in Peterboroug 
(continued on page I 
MARCH 19i 



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ABBOTT 


THE VENIPUNCTURE SPECIALISTS 



I letters 


(Continued from page 4) 
Ontario. are attempting to locate current 
addresses of former graduates to assist 
in compiling material for the school ar- 
chives. A committee i
 presently working 
to prepare a publication of school annals to 
include memorable events of the history of 
our school. 
Graduates are asked to contact: Annals 
and Archives. c/o Sister Margaret 
McDonald. So!, 566. Mount St. Joseph. 
Peterborough. Ontario. K9J 6Z6. - M. 
C o/leen Shaughnessy, C o-Chainnan. 
Annals & Archives CommitTee. 
PeTerbnmugh, Ontario. 


Proposed timetable not realistic 
I would like to comment on Nan-Michelle 
Dufour's views in "The system needs to 
be changed!" (Nov. p.13) 
Dufour says, .. If shifts were to begin at 
0900. 1700. and moo, think of the pos- 
sibilities." My endeavors in this sense 
have been in vain. Without being pes- 
simistic. I can think of many disadvan- 
tages. 
According to the author. patients not 
booked for early morning procedures 
could be awakened at a reasonable hour. 
Ridiculous! Patients in our hospital are 
working people who are used to getting up 
around 0700 to start work at 0800. 
Even in hospital. they are hungry about 
0700 or 0800. Once awake. the patient 
waits for the nurse and his breakfast. As 
soon as his hunger is satisfied. he can rest. 
and dress later if he wishes. 
Think of the nurse. perhaps a married 
woman and mother of two. Her children 
will not shut off their .. music box" be- 
cause mother wants to sleep late. And. 
would her husband eat his breakfast alone 
while he gets his son ready for school 
about 0830? Or. should we rather change 
the husband's and school's timetables? 
What about the baby's schedule? 
If the afternoon shift begins at 1700. the 
day shift is over then. The nurse who stops 
work at this hour would have to get home 
(1720), prepare dinner( 1740). and shower 
and dress (1820). before eating with her 
family. 
After the meal is finished and the dishes 
are done. the sitter arrives. It is almost too 
late to enjoy a social evening out. Is this 
race against time ever finished? 
If work begins at 0100 - at last. a 
reasonable hour. However. to end night 
duty at 0900 would be discouraging. The 
nurse who is free at that hour could al ways 
shop before going home to rest. 
In conclusion. the advantages do not 
outweigh the disadvantages. If we do want 
6 THE CANADIAN NURSE 


other timetables. let us suggest something 
else. - Mireille Vachon. Relief Team. 
Hôtel-Dieu Notre-Dame de Beauce, St. 
Georges, Quebec. 


Book review ending misplaced 
I was disappointed when I saw that the 
summarizing paragraph to my review of 
Technical Nursing of the Adult (Nov. 
1974) was misplaced. Unfortunately. the 
paragraph was included at the end of the 
following bonk review, which made both 
reviews 
omewhat confusing. - Kathryn 
Rae/l, Edmonton, Alfa. 


Office nurse gains understanding 
I am writing in answer to the article. 
"Registered nurses in office practice." 
(November 1974. page 18). I have been an 
office nurse for aimost 25 years and be- 
lieve that a nurse working in this capacity 
greatly contributes to mankind through her 
professional skills and medical know- 
ledge. If. through office nursing. I have 
lost some knowledge of hospital proce- 
dures and skills. I have. on the other side 
of the picture, gained tremendously in 
medical knowledge and in understanding 
of human relationships. 
Perhaps nurses do not realize the 


MOVING? 
BEING MARRIED? 


Be sure to notify us six weeks in advance. 
otherwise you will likely miss copies. 


Attach the Label 
From Your Last Issue 
OR 
Copy Address and Code 
Numbers From It Here 


NEW (NAME) /ADDRESS: 


Street 


City 


Zone 


Prov./State 


Zip. 


Please complete appropriate category: 
D I hold active membership in provincial 
nurses' assoc 


reg. no./perm. cert.! lic. no. 
D I am a Personal Subscriber. 
MAIL TO: 
The Canadian Nurse 
50 The Driveway 
OTTAWA. Canada K2P tE2 


I 
I 
I 
number ot nursmg procedures that are c- 
ried out in a doctor's office - applyiJ/ 
dressings, giving injections. taking v 
no us blood. doing hemoglobins aq 
urinalysis. taking blood pressures. assi" 
ing the doctor with minor office surge 
and the application of plaster casts to fra" 
tured limbs. Many times a prelimina, 
medical history is taken by the nurse. TI , 
office nurse must abo draw on her medic 
knowledge to give advice to patient: 
cither in the office or over the telephont 
An office nurse work'i long and arduOl; 
hours. many times without having a coff!1 
break or a full hour lunch period. . 
Hospital nurses have the help of ce' 
tified nursing aides who do much of tt! 
nursing care for the patient. while the re 
istered nurses does more in the administr. 
tive field. I 
I am loo9c in favor of a doctor emplo 
ing a registered nurse in his office to gill l 
to patients her nursing skills and knm 
!edg 7 in an area of ." out of hospit.al" nur I ' 
Ing. a most Important fIeld ( 
medicine. -Anne Jensen. RN, EdmolltOf. I 
Alliafa. I 
I 
In reply to the concern of Margan I 
Fredeen of Saskatoon, ("More AbOl I 
Office Nurses," Letters. Dec. 1974) abOl 
the placement of nonregistered nurses i I 
doctors' offices and other responsible po
 
itions such as nursing homes. I can onl 
think that the registered nurse is a dyin 
species! I 
Our problem is that we have no unifOl I 
mity in defining our duties. which mal 
vary from province to province. If I have I 
plumber in my house doing ajob and I as 
him to attach two wires for me. which he i I 
well equipped to do. he reacts in horro ' 
and states that the electrical union woul, 
have his neck! 
Unfortunately. the nursing profession i 
mainly composed of women. Our sisters ii 
other activities are consolidating thei' 
forces. but we are lagging behind badl. 
while our profession is insidiously take 
over by the stronger. but less qualified 
unions and associations. 
What we need is a simple job descrip 
tion of the things we, and we alone, an. 
qualified to do. The registered nurse is no' 
only taught procedures. but also under' 
goes exhaustive study of the backgroum 
and implications of anatomy and physiol 
ogy - not to mention pharmacolog) 
chemistry. biology. and allied subjects 
We are not mere mechanics with a fev 
months of superficial training! 
Using our education as background. .1 
guideline of duties could be prepared ami 
any infringement be reported to a govern 
ing body. Threats to our profession Shouk l 
incur the wrath of every registered nurse ir 
the province. If effecti ve protests could bt I 
organized. these incidents would eventu 
alÌý be few and far bet\\een. and our pro 
fession would have a chance of survival. I 
MARCH 197
 
I 



letters 


POSEY SAFETY VESTS 



s for our medical dllie
, the doctor
. I 

ider e\ er
 one "the enemy'" espe- 
, I) ""here mone
 i, concerned. With 
t and highl) technical procedures, and 
I and highly dangerous drugs, the pub- 
I mu
t be protected from inadequately 
ned personnel. In the final instance, 
dut
 and loyah) is to the public. Who 
,etter able than \\.e to judge the haml that 
'. result from an untrained hand'! - En;d 
rr;s, RN, Toronto. Omar;o. 
I 


The Posey Patient Restrainer is one 
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Since the introduction of the 
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the Posey Company has specialized 
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which provide maximum patient 
protection and ease 01 care. To in- 
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always specify the Posey brand 
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The Posey Patient Restrainer with 
shoulder loops and extra straps keeps 
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and provides needed security. There 
are eight different safety vests in the 
complete Posey line. #5163-3131 
(with ties), $9.45. 


CJ image is too "all-knowing" 
_t of all. I ""ould like to thank you for 
Ir January editorial. I am sending my 
er to :\1r. Trudeau and my money to 
ICEF right a\\.ay. 
fhe reason for this letter though i
 m\ 
Icism of your magazine. Why 
do I fe
1 
SI frustrated. guilty, and (already) obso- 
1'. \\ hen I read your articles'! The) are. on 
I ""hole, good pieces of ""riting and re- 
. S rch, and many interest me in an abstract 

y. BUI I am a young nurse with three 
lß' experience"" ho has chosen to marr) 
t am no\\. expecting my first baby. 
The door to postgraduate education is 
nlv closed against me for an indefinite 
I Ie: since my 
husband is just beginning 
career and ""e may ne\er be able to 
ord my postgraduate education. ) ""ant 
I experience the career of a \\. ife am.l 
I.ther and yet YOl!, and man) nurses I 
I ole spoken to. make me feel guilty. ) love 
. ..ing. "-01 ) ""asting m) talents. my 
t ining. the great potential I once had? 
More and more, your magazine is filled 
,th articles that cater to B;\Is and instruc- 

 ) in e\er} level of education in nur
ing, 
u are missing most of your readers. 
'nat about the hospital-trained nur
es 
o are slogging a""a} in miserable 
Jutines, in mismanaged hospitals. faced 
th those seemingl
 insoluble people 
Joblems and administration problems 
ery da)? \\ hat about the part-time 
rses and full-time mothers'! What dbout 
ones ""ho don't ""ark and see nursing 
d education sliding past them and leav- 
g them behind'! 
Are nurses not interested in other things 
sides nursing'! Don't the) participate in 
, rts, in the arts. in religious acti\itie
, in 
litics'! Aren't there an) philosophers. 
.lUre lover
, health nuts'! Aren't there 
y nurses \\ ho fail. "" ho feel over- 
helmed, ""ho make mistakes'! 
The Canadian Nurse image is too all- 
owing. too infallible, 
nd narrow. 
meho"" . Could"" e soften it up a bit'! And 
n some of those R\J mothers out there 
nd a little support to someone ""ho is 
eling very left out'! - Dorothy 
cFarlw.e. R.N.. Quehec. 
.RCH 1975 


..J 


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THE CANADIAN NURSE 7 



for relief 0f postpartum discomforts 
only Tucks babies 
tender tissues two ways 
as a soothing wipe...as a cooling compress...and as often as st)e likes 


Tucks medicated pads give your postpartum 
patient more relief, more often than ointments or 
aerosols because pads can be used more ways. 
Cooling Tucks medication can be applied by 
using the pad as a compress. Or the pad can be 
used as a wipe to both soothe and cleanse. As a 
wipe, it lets her avoid the mechanical irritation of 
harsh, dry toilet paper. A Tucks pad under her 
sanitary pad prevents chafing too. 
Tucks medication gives prompt, temporary 
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In addition, Tucks medication is buffered to an 
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their normal acid defenses. Prescribe Tucks pads 
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news 


WT Nurses' Ordinance Passed, 
'WTRNA Applies To Join CNA 


tall'a, Ontario - An "Ordinance Respecting the Nursing Profession in the 
Jrth\\cst Territories" (N\\T), which \\as proposed by the Northwest Territories 
'gi\tered Nurses' Association ('IIWTR
A). was approved by the Territorial Council 
21 Januar). '"The executive met soon after the ordinance was passed and \\-rote 
apply for membership in the Canadian Nurses' Association, ,. Leone Trotter. 
TR'IIA president. told The Canadian Nurse in a telephone interview. 


Trotter said that. in April 1974. the gen- 
I membership of 1'<\\ TR '\;A directed the 
ecutive committee to apply for C:'I:A 
mbership as soon as legislation \\as 
ssed. At the June 1974 board meeting. 
A directors voted to assist the '\;\\ TR'IIA 
th a grant of $15.000. (Ne" s. Sep- 
ber 1974. page 7.) 
The new legislation gives 
\\ TRNA 
> authority to grant or revoke certif- 
tes of registratiun to nurses practic- 
in the Territories and the right to 
-cipline members of the profession. 
rses in the North\\ est Territories are 
first professional group north of the 
th ParaIlel to gain control over the 
istration of me
lbers. 
. 'We \\ iIl certainly be issuing :\" T 
rses' regi!o.trations in 1975. perhaps by 
mmer:' Trotter told The Canadian 
rse. "We will begin registering as soon 
the machinery is ready." AIl members 
the association' s executive committee 
practicing nurses. she said. so associa- 
n \\ork has to be done in off-dut) time. 
e :\\\ TR'II-\ is advertising for a part-time 
oistrar. using .Vell's of the North, a 
\\ spaper that is distributed all over the 
rritories. 
There are approximately 250 nurses 
ployed in the Territories, about 150 of 
om are employees of the federal gov- 
I ment. Th
 majority of :\WT nurses are 
I ad) members of the 'II\\TR
A. Trotter 
id. Nurses in the Territories are pres- 
ti) registered \\ ith one of the 10 provin- 
I registering bodies. 
When the ordinance "as passed. 
'TR'\A received congratulatory tele- 
ams from C'I: <\ and the Registered 
rses' Association of Ontario. and tele- 
one calls from the Alberta Association 
Registered '\Jurses and from Harriet 
rrari. 'I:\H regional nursing officer 
r the federal government. Trotter 
pres,ed appreci..I!ion for the support 
\TR'\-\ received from the 
1I1l1nissioner for the '\" T and from 
RCH 1975 


Health and Welfare Minister 
larc 
Lalollde. 
"We certainly received support from 
Territorial Council members. too,"' she 
said. "The councillor for YeIlowknife 
brought our ordindnce for\\ ard on the 
orde
 paper. so it \\as considered in 
January. And from the beginning of the 
current session of Council. Lena 
Pederson, the Eskimo councillor from 
Coppermine. asked questions about 
\\- hen the ordinance \\-ould be 
presented. .. 
After the nurses' ordinance had re- 
ceived first and second reading. Trotter 
and Jeanette Plaami. secr
tary of 
'IIWTR;o.JA. appeared on the witness stand to 
answer questions from the Council. \\- hich 
met as a committee of the \\ hole. "One of 
the counciIlors questioned the amount of 
responsibility given to the nurses' associa- 
tion in the ordinance. with only the ap- 
proval of the Commissioner required:' 
Trotter said. "But nurses became the first 


in the Territories to have a professional 
Act. .. 
The N\\TR;o.JA held its founding meeting 
in April 1974. (News. June IY74. page 8.) 
Since that time. Bob Creasy. a social 
worker\\- ho is assistdnt director of the :-;WT 
Department of Social Welfare. has rep- 
resenteå the public on the association's 
board of directors. 
The ordinance provides that '11\\ TR'\A 
shaIl conduct business under the b) la\\ s 
approved b) its general members in April 
1974 until regulations under the ordinance 
can be draft;d and approved by the :\" T 
commissioner. Because of extremel) high 
travel costs. :'I,\\TR'\A proposes to hold a 
general meeting every 2 years. but it ma) 
be necessary to hold one sooner for the 
purpose of presenting draft regulation to 
general membership for approval. Trotter 
told The Canadian Nurse. 


ONQ Teleconference Discusses 
Delegation Of Medical Acts 
Hull. Quebec - More than 2.500 Quebec 
nurses participated in a province-\\-ide 
information day. held simultaneously in 
10 centers across the province by a 
telephone hookup. The topic of the 
conference. held on 24 January 1975 by 
the Order of Nurses of Quebec (O'llQ). 
concerned medical acts delegated to 
nurses. 
Although the list of medical acts to be 
delegated to nurses in Quebec wiIl not be 
(conllnued on page /2) 


CNA Membership Grows By Nearly 7,000 Last Year 
In mid-January 1975. the Canadian Nurses' Association had more than 104.000 
members. Membership figures for 4 years, 1971-4. are compared below. listed bv 
provincial associations. 


1971 1972 1973 1974 
British Columbia 11.905 12.530 13.389 14.646 
Alberta 9.754 10.216 10.060 10.698 
Saskatche\\-an 6.075 6.253 6.470 6.617 
Manitoba 5,466 5.719 6.007 6.284 
Ontario 11.579 11.829 13.183 14.534 
Quebec 32,198 33.391 35.196 38.084 
Ne\\- Brunswick 3.856 4.145 4.339 4.540 

ova Scotia 5.072 5.273 5.263 5.360 
Prince Edward Island 725 755 803 842 
Newfoundland 2.243 2.204 2.442 2.519 
88.873 92.315 97.152 104.124 
I 
THE CANADIAN NURSE 9 



Nurses Submit Resignations 


Fredericton, N.R. - By 31 January 1975, over 90 percent of New Brunswick's 
registered nurses had submitted their resignation,s. 
ffective on dates between I and 1.5 
February. The nurses had requested the provmClal treasury boar
 to r
op
n th.elr 
contracts. which expire March 1976 and August 1976. and bnng RNs salanes mto Ime 
with tho
e of nonprofessional hospital workers. 
Although the nurses' contracts allow for 
renegotiation of salaries with the consent 
of both partie
, treasury board refused tu 
consent to it. Premier Richard Hatfield 
told the nurses that he would not appoint a 
special conciliation board for their dis- 
pute. 
A staff member of the nurses' collective 
bargaining councils told The Canadian 
Nurse. "It's like a kick in the face. The 
Premier today announced an interest-free. 
$7.5 million loan to Bricklin Industries 
[makers uf an experimental 
purts car]. 
There is money for cars. but not for 
nurses. 
In the fall of 1974. the Canadian Union 
of Public Employees negotiated a contract 
that gave nonprofessional huspital 
workers a 65 percent increase over 2 years. 
According to a brief submitted to the trea- 
sury board by the New Brunswick Nurses' 
Provincial Collective Bargaining Councils 
in December 1974. nonprofessiunal 
workers, such as some orderlies. will earn 
more than some registered nurses by July 
1975. 
In their brief. the N ,B. nurses asked for 
salary adjustments of 32 percent plus a 
$500 cost-of-living bonus, to provide rela- 
tivity between nurses' and nonprofes- 
sional workers' salaries. 
With nurses' resignations effective the 
next day, a Fredericton hospital declared a 
state of emergency on 31 January. 
(continued on page /2) 


To Protest Pay Inequities 


Que. Nurses' Union Celebrates 
IWY With Monthly Contests 
Montreal. Quebec - The United Nurses 
Inc., a professional union that has over 
6.000 female nurse members, is conduct- 
ing monthly contests during 1975 to cele- 
brate International WOJTlen's Year (IWY). 
Members of the United Nurses Inc. and 
other nurses in Quebec are invited to enter 
the contests, 
Union officers have selected a theme for 
each month. related to equality, develop- 
ment, and peace in social. cultural. and 
economic affairs. as set forth in the IWY 
goab. January's contest topic was the 
hobb} least related to nursing; Fehruary 
was sports; and March's topic is dis- 
coveries and innovations to improve care 
of the sick. In succeeding months. themes 
will include music. social laws, and plastic 
Each month a 4-member jury will 
select the entry that is most original. 
10 THE CANADIAN NURSE 


interesting, and appropriate to the theme 
of the month. A mcmorial plaque will 
be awarded to the winner. who will 
compete with the other II monthl} contest 
winners for a grand prize to be awarded in 
December 1975. 


Fed. Nurses Reject Contract 
In uNurse Help Nurse" Vote 
Ottawa. Onto - Nurses employed by the 
federal government overwhelmingly re- 
jected a 2-year contract offered by the 
treasury board. The nurses voted in a amil 


ballot that was completed on 31 Janui 
1975. 
Ruth Sear. Ottawa. who is p2 
chairn1an of the federal nurses of Can<, 
and chief negotiator during contract tal 
 
called the vote a "nurse help nurs l 
movement. 
According to Sear, the 1.600 nurses 
jected the contract offer because '"It' 
were not at all satisfied to be tied t( I 
2-year contract in depressed areas wh,i 
nurses have not had a chance to have thl 
salaries reassessed and to catch up." s,1 
told The Canadian Nurse that fedcl 
nurses' salaries are depressed in 
AtlantÏl: provinces. Manitoba. a 
Saskatchewan. II 
"This is the first time that federal nur: 
across Canada have united to support th 
colleagues who receive smaller salaries 
doing exactly the same work. If we . 
cepted the 2-year contract offered. II 
would depress their salaries even more ll 
she' said. 
The contract that was rejected by I 
nurses continued the regional rate stll 
ture present in the 1973-4 contract t 


Nurse Who Sculpts Wins Prize 


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Lucienne Chevalier. a nurse from Montreal. makes sculpture as a hobby. She 
submitted some of her piel'es in the January contest of the United Nurses of 
Montreal and won first prize. Chevalier is shown with two of the more than 1,000 
pieces of sculpture she has made. 


MARCH 19 



I cJired 29 December 1974. The rejected 
Ciltract contained salary increases be- 
, tl:::en 10.5 and 36 percent in the first year. 
l 6J between 8 and 17.5 percent in the 
'ond year. 
" ate in 1973. federally employed nurses 
)töted an arbitration award that failed to 
Ie nurses financial parity with their pro- 
lilcial counterparts. The Canadian 
Irses' Association and provincial 
rses' associations supported them in the 
)test. (News. December 1973. page 7.) 
that time. a spokesman for the federal 
Irses told The Canadian Nurse. "In 
'paratlon for future negotiations. it can 
anticipated that federal nurses will be 
sidering the strike route in preference 
arbitration. .. 
After they rejected the contract in 
mary 11)75. federal nurses faced a prob- 
n: their employers designated up to 
1 [I-thirds of the nurses as essential. 
I rse'i designated essential do not have 
I right to strike. 
At -press time. talks were going on in 
etings between representatives of the 
I rses and their employers - treasury 
]Td and federal departments. such as 
I alth and welfare. penitentiaries. and 
terans affairs. When mutually satisfac- 
t y de<;ignations of essential nurses have 
en worked out. an application for con- 
iation procedure w ill go to the staff rela- 
,ns department of the federal govern- 
:nt. 
It is expected that conciliation will be 
up by mid-March. A maximum time of 
weeks is allowed for the complete con- 
iation procedure. Nurses not designated 
essential would be legally able to strike 
. a) s after the concil iation report is re- 
lsed - approximately the second week 
April. 


J berta Task Force Studies 
'ursing Skills, Programs 
110111011. Alberta - A task force on 
rsing education in Alberta has been es- 
li,hed and its 13 memhers appointed, 
nounced Ad\anced Education Minis- 
Jim Foster on:! I Januar} 1975. Six of 

 ta.,k force's I3 members are nurses. 
Formation of the task force follows a 
licy announcement last year that prep- 
s tion of health manpower was trans- 
red from the department of health and 
cial development to the department of 
vanced education. which is concerned 
th all post-secondary education in 
berta. 
The purpose of the task force. Foster 
id. is to examine nursing education in a 
oad context. 
tore specifically. the task 
rce \\ ill identify the competencies and 
ill., rcquired b) nursing graduates. and 
dte these to program considerations for 
levels of nursing preparation. It \\ ill 
\ .0 examine i'isues as<,ociated with man- 
Iwer supply and demand. standards. and 
1 . RCH 1975 


the preparation of nurse educators. 
The task force met for the first time on 
28 January. The members are expected to 
complete deliberations by 30 June and 
hring forward their report by 31 August 
1975. 
Chainnan of the 13-member task fon.'e. 
which is representative of institutions and 
associations concerned. is Dr Walter 
Johns. ft)rmer president of the University 
of Alberta. Nurse members appointed in- 
clude: Ruth Palfrq,. nurse clinician. 
Foothills Hospital. Calgary; Lillian 
Rutherford. director. Mount View and 
Foothills Health Units. and Dr. Joanne 
Scholdra. chairman of the School of 
Health Sciences. Lethbndge Communit) 
College. Lethbridge. Other nurses ap- 


pointed to the task force arc: 
targuerite 
Schumacher. director of the School of 
Nursing. Univeßity of Calgary. Calgary; 
Bet!} Sellers. nursing 'iavice con'iultant. 
Alberta Association of Registered Nurses. 
Edmonton; and Doris Stev"enson. director. 
Holy Cross School of Nursing. Calgary. 
Nonnurse task force members are: Pat 
Frederickson. Alberta Certified Nursing 
Aide Assoc.. Wetaskiwin; Ethel Marliss. 
CBC consumer affairs commentator. 
Edmonton; Dr. Arnold Murra). Grande 
Prairie; Dr. Bernard Snell. executive 
director. University of Alberta Hospital. 
Edmonton; Bert Briens. Alberta Assoc. of 
Registered Nursing OrderIie'i; and Dr. Joe 
Woods worth. department of educational 
psychology. University of Calgary 



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school, ski shop and full range of faclhtles 
great snow and supenor grooming' 

 
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Reservations: 
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1200 accommodations 
within 12 miles 


Package deals including meals, 
ski lessons and lift tickets. Let us 
know the kind of accommodation 
you wish and rest assured of our 
full cooperation for a pleasant 
stay. 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 11 



news 


ONQ Teleconference 
(continued from paRe 9) 


available before March. nurses at the 
information day learned about the 
principles guiding discussions between the 
ONQ and the Corporation of Physicians of 
Quebec (cPQ). 
Jules O. Duchesneau. legal counsel for 
the ONQ. reviewed the legal responsibility 
of the nurse in relation to delegated 
medical acts. He said that the two criteria 
by which she can judge whether to perform 
delegated acts are knowledge and 
competence. 
Sister Anicet Guay. a member of the 
joint ONQ-CPQ committee on delegation of 
medical acts. said that the discussions be- 
tween doctors and nurses about the dele- 
gated acts are not negotiations between 
two professions: the preoccupation of the 
joint committee is to assure the public of 
efficient care of high quality. She said 
that. for each of the acts studied. the ques- 
tion has been: do nurses have the prepara- 
tion to do it? 
Dr. André L1pierre. presenting the 
physician's point of view. spoke of the 
conditions under which the acts should be 
delegated: the education. knowledge. 
competence. and experience of the nurse. 
and environmental factors. such as suffi- 
cient securit). adequate equipment. and a 
back-up system. 


Nova Scotia Nurses' Association 
Establishes Placement Service 
Halifax, N.S. - Placement Service. a 
new service to members. was initiated in 
February by the Registered Nurses' 
Association of Nova Scotia (RNANS). E. 
Margaret Bentley. RNANS employment 
relations officer. '-Vho is directing the 
placement service. says that this new 
service fills a long-felt need in the 
province and will be 
f benefit not only to 
RNAT\lS members. but to all who employ 
nurses. 
Placement Service lists all known 
nursing vacancies in all clinical areas of 
nursing in Nova Scotia. and in all pat1s of 
the province. Professional credentials. 
including references. of nurses listed with 
Placement Service are assembled and kept 
up-to-date. This record can be sent to the 
prospective employer at the nurse's 
request. saving repeated requests to 
previous employers or schools of nursing 
for references and record-;. 
Another feature of the service will be 
offering assistance to nurses in evaluating 
their qualifications. in relation to the 
requirements of nursing positions in '-Vhich 
they might be interested. Counseling on 
professional problems is available. 
12 THE CANADIAN NURSE 


Acute Stroke Unit Opens At Sunnybrook 


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Sunnybrook Medical Centre. Toronto. opened its 5-bed acut
 stroke unit in .Janum:y 
1975. Designed to provide intensive observation of stroke patIents for bo!h dIagnosIs 
and thempy. the unit has sophisticated equipment. such as intmcramal pressure 
monitors. Through the acute stroke unit. specialists from many disciplines hope 
c 
provide new knowledge and insight into one of the commonest causes of chr?nI.l, 
disability. Shown in the unit' s central nursing station are. left to right. Dr. Vladlmll l 
Hachinski. depat1ment of neurology; Barbara Doughty. staff nurse; and Dr. John W 
Norris. depat1ment of neurology. Sunnybrook Medical Centre. Toronto. 


(continued from page /U) 
Resignations withdrawn 
At press time - Most nurses had with- 
drawn their resignations and gone back 
to work under orders from the New 
Brunswick Supreme Court. 
The COUt1 issued a 2-day injunction or- 
dering nurses from the Victoria Public 
Hospital. Fredericton. and the Hotel Dieu 
Hospital. Campbellton. to return to work. 
After a hearing. a second injunction with- 
out a time limit was issued; nurses were 
told that other injunctions would follow if 
other resignations were implemented. 
Glenna Rowsell. employment relations 
officer of the Provincial Bargaining Coun- 
cils of New Brunswick. told The Canadian 
Nurse: "The nurses are very discouraged. 
We will be surprised if we retain the pres- 
ent quota of nurses in this province. and 
we may not attract nurses from other pro- 
vinces where salaries are higher this 
year. '. 
Rowsell said that the provincial treasury 
board has promised to stat1 negotiations 
early for the 1976 contract and to go to 
binding arbitration if necessary. New 
Brunswick labor law says that if the em- 
ployer doesn't want to go to arbitration. 
there is no arbitration. 


., But they have already promised us tt I 
the arbitration procedure will be used t' 
the nurses. if necessary in 1976. 11 ' 
would be the first time treasury board h, 
gone to arbitration. if we use the prO( 
dure." she said. 
Rowsell also said that treasury bo
1 
has indicated that they are willing to t. 
after the nurses have gone back to WOI 
"But we don't know what this \\ 
mean." she told The Canadian Nurse. 


Four Representatives Of Publi 
Appointed To Bureau Of ONC 
Montreal, Quebec - Four persons h.. 
been named by the Quebec Professic 
Board to represent the public on the bure 
(board) of the Order of Nurses of Quet 
(ONQ). They are: Guy Dubreuil. profes! 
of anthropology at the Université 
Montréal: Pierre-Paul Paquin. president 
the Quebec Bakers Association; Sim 
Beaulieu. chartered accountant; a 
Louise Savard. Office of the Secretary 
State. Government of Canada. 
Dubreuil is also a member of the 0 
administrative committee. (News. Ft 
ruary 1975. page 16.) 


MARCH 19 



. 
nursing 
texts 


. - . 


. 


. 


.1 
your side: 


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At the 
. 
nursing 
station 
and on 


-. 


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I, 


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in the 
ER, CCU, 
and ICU; 


and in 


.. 


. 


Wood: NURSING SKILLS FOR ALLIED HEALTH SERVICES. 
Volume 1ll 


Just published, this self-study guide outlines "level II" skills for the LPN/LVN and RN: 
aseptic technique. preparation and administration of medications, urinary catheterization. 
hot and cold compresses, pharyngeal suction. tracheostomy care, tourniquets, smears and 
cultures, skin tests, immunizations, and more. A complete unit for each skill includes 
performance objectives, vocabulary, step-by-step instructions. Illustrations, a posHest, 
preparation for a performance test, and a performance checklist. Volumes 1 & II contain 
"level II" skills for the beginning practitioner. By Lucile A. Wood. RN, MS. Volume III: 449 
pp. 336 ill. Soft cover. About $7.75. Just Ready. (Teacher's Guides available for all three 
volumes. ) Order #9602-3. 
Volume I: 394 pp, 281 U1. Soft cover. $5.15. May 1972. Order #9600-7. 
Volume II: 374 pp. 279 ill. Soft cover. $5.15. May 1972. Order #9601-5. 


Mercer & O'Connor: FUNDAMENTAL SKILLS IN THE 
NURSE-PATIENT RELATIONSHIP: A Programed Text. 
New Second Edition 


A unique learning guide for developing interpersonal communication skills. A sequence of 
241 situations teaches you what to say and do when similar instances arise on the job. The 
program and concluding test can be completed in 8 to 10 hours. By Lianne S. Mercer. RN. 
BSN. MS; and Patricia O'Connor. PhD. 216 pp. lIIustd. Soft cover. $4.90. July 1974. 
(Teacher's Guide available.) Order #6266-8. 


, 


Luckmann & Sorensen: MEDICAL-SURGICAL NURSING: 
A Psychophysiologic Approach 
This massive text scrutinizes all aspects of modem nursing practice. Step-by-step specifics 
for nursing measures are described. and their rationale explained. Pathophysiology and 
preventive care are emphasized. By Joan Luckmann. RN. MA: and Karen Creason 
Sorensen. RN. MN. 1634 pp. 422 III. $20.35. Sept. 1974. Order #5805-9. 


Phillips & Feeney: THE CARDIAC RHYTHMS: A Systematic 
Approach to Interpretation 
After examining the dynamics of the normal heartbeat, the authors then analyze the more 
complex abnormal rhythms. The effects of the autonomic system and cardiac drugs are 
described. By Raymond E. Phillips. MD: and Mary Kay Feeney. RN. BSN. 354 pp. 928 UI 
$12.40. Oct 1973. Order #7220-5. 


Frederick & Kinn: THE MEDICAL OFFICE ASSISTANT: 
Administrative and Clinical. Fourth Edition 
Here's valuable insight into the most effective ways of handling the administrative and 
clinical responsibilities of nurses and office assistants, including everything from diets to 
letter writing to diagnostic laboratory procedures. By Portia M. Frederick. CMA-AC; and 
Mary E. Kinn. CPS. CMA-A. 740 pp. 215 U1. 16 color plates. $14.20. Sept 1974. 
(Teacher's Guide available.) Order #3862-7. 


Nemir & Schaller: THE SCHOOL HEALTH PROGRAM. 
New Fourth Edition 


The child's health problems; the importance of health services, health instruction, and 
healthy environment; and physical and emotional development are covenid-along with 
discussion of nutrition, mental health, allergies and skin problems. By the late Alma 
Nemir. MD; and Warren E. Schaller. HSD. 569 pp. l1lustd. $11.85. Jan. 1975. (Teacher's 
Guide available.) Order #6748-1. 


office 
vvork. 
----------------------------------- 
!
W.B. SAUNIRS COMPANY CANADA lTO. 


o

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::
OM8Z:
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IT". NAME I 
I ,0 receIve titles on 3D-day approval, I 
please fill in order numbers below: 
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I 0 Please bill me 0 Check enclosed- I 
L Saunders pays postage & handling if check accompanies order .J 
------------------------------------------------- 



dates 


April 2-4, 1975 
Pediatric intensive care nursing conference 
at the Hospital for Sick Children. Toronto. 
Emphasis on cardiac surgery, neurosur- 
gery, respiratory problems, and other 
stressful situations. For information write: 
Director of Nursing Education, The Hospital 
for Sick Children, 555 University Avenue, 
Toronto, Ontario, M5G 1X8. 


April 3, 1975 
Canadian Nurses Association will hold its 
annual meeting at the Chateau Laurier, 
Ottawa, Ontario. 


April 6- 10. 1975 
American Association of Neurosurgical 
Nurses annual meeting, Hyatt House, 
Miami Beach, Florida. For information 
write: Kathleen Redelman, Secretary, 
American Association of Neurosurgical 
Nurses, 428 East Preston Street 
Baltimore, Md., 21202, U.S.A. 


April 18-20, 1975 
Five-year reunion of Saskatchewan dip- 
loma nursing graduates of 1969. For infor- 
mation, contact Ms. S. Carlson, 2314 East 
Hill, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, or phone 
306-374-3023. 


April 21-22, 1975 
Budget workshop for administrators and 
directors of nursing, Calgary Inn, Calgary. 
For information write: Alberta Hospital 
Association, 10025-108th Street, Edmonton, 
Alta. 


April 22, 1975 
"First Forum" on basic issues in 
Emergency Medical Services, Chicago, 
Illinois. Sponsor: Public Safety Officers 
Foundation. Contact: Sharon Sparacino, 
PSOF, Suite 2024, 307 North Michigan 
Ave., Chicago, III. 60601. 


April 25, 1975 
Renfrew County Chapter of RNAO presents 
Dr. Hans Selye at Pembroke Senior Public 
School, Pembroke, Ontario. Further infor- 
mation from: Olive Poff, 133 Morris St., 
Pembroke, Ontario. Phone: 613-732-9496. 
14 THE CANADIAN NURSE 


April 29-June 17, 1975 
Workshop: Human sexuality and family 
planning (8 consecutive Tuesday even- 
ings) at University of Toronto, Faculty of 
Nursing. For information write: Dorothy 
Brooks, Chairman, Continuing Education 
Program for Nurses, 50 St. George St., 
Toronto, Ont., M5S 1A1. 


May 5-16, 1975 
May 26-June 6, 1975 
Workshop: Analysis of the process of 
psychiatric nursing. Sunnybrook Hospital, 
2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto. For infor- 
mation, write: Dorothy Brooks, Chairman, 
Continuing Education Program for nurses. 
50 St. George St., Toronto, Ont., M5S 1 A 1. 


May 7-9, 1975 
Registered Nurses' Association of British 
Columbia annual meeting, Peach Bowl, 
Penticton, B.C. 


May 10, 1975 
Seminar on problems of relationships 
within the medical field, to be held at 
Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario. 
Sponsored by Nurses' Christian Fellowship 
in Kingston. For information write: Sandy 
Stewart, 289 MacDonnell Street. Apt. 5, 
Kingston, Ontario. 


May 14-17, 1975 
Association for the Care of Children in Hos- 
pitals annual conference, Sheraton-Boston 
Hotel, Boston. Theme: Listening to children 
and their families. For information write: 
Anita Giovannetti, Publicity Chairperson, 
1975 ACCH Conference, Instructor, 
Boston University school of nursing, 635 
Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, Mass. 
02115, U.S.A. 


May 15-16,1975 
Conference at McMaster University 
Medical Centre, Hamilton, Ontario. Theme: 
"Issues in interprofessional education for 
health care practice - interdisciplinary or 
undisciplined?" For information write: Anne 
Myers, Master of Health Sciences (Health 
Care Practice) Programme, McMaster 
University, Faculty of Health Sciences, 


1200 Main Street West. Hamilton. Ontan, 
L8S 4J9. 


May 18-21, 1975 
National League for Nursing Convention 
New Orleans, La. Theme: Operatil 
Update. For information write: Conventic 
Services, National League for Nursing, . 
Columbus Circle, New York. N.Y.. 10019 


June 2-4, 1975 
Postgraduate refresher course in pediatr 
rehabilitation for nurses, physiotherapist I 
occupational therapists. For informatic 
write: L. Hamilton, Education Departmer 
Ontario Crippled Children's Centre, 3
 
Rumsey Road, Toronto, Ontario. M4 1 
1R8. 


June 5-6, 1975 
Seminar on obstetrical and neonatal car l ' 
plications, School of Physiotherapy ar 
Occupational Therapy, McGill Universitl 
Montreal, Quebec. For information writ 
Valmai Elkins, 315 Victoria, Montreé 
Quebec, H3Z 2N1. 


June 10-12, 1975 
Final reunion of graduates of the Hote 
Dieu St. Joseph School of Nursin! 
Bathurst, N.B., to coincide with Bathur
 
Festival Week. For information writ, 
C. Morrison, Chairman, Reunion 75 Comm 
tee, School of Nursing, Chaleur Gener 
Hospital, Bathurst, N.B. 


September 24-26, 1975 I 
Institute on progressive extended car'l 
Calgary Inn, Calgary. For informatic 
write: Alberta Hospital AssociatiOl 
10025-1 08th Street, Edmonton, Alta. 


October 19-24, 1975 
Institute on health care administratior l 
Banff Springs. For information write 
Alberta Hospital Association, 10025-1 08t' 
Street, Edmonton, Alta. 
December 3-5, 1975 I 
Alberta Hospital Association annual meetl 
ing and convention, Edmonton. For infor' 
mation write: Alberta Hospital Associatior 
10025-1 08th St. Edmonton, Alta. 
 
MARCH 197!1 
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in a capsule 


Champagne cork may be hazardous 
You're celebrating during the holidays, 
and - pop - out tlic
 the champagne 
cork. Well, just make sure it isn't pointed 
toward yourself or someone else. That 
cork is a dangerous missile, according to a 
report in the Journal of the American 
Medical A.mJCiarion (Dec. 23. 1974). 
Sherwin H. Sloan, MD. an ophthal- 
mologist, said he began noticing a series of 
serious eye injurið at the Jules Stein Eye 
Institute at the University of California at 
Los Angeles Medical School. All the vic- 
tims had been struck in the eye by cham- 
pagne corbo 
" All but one were men - men seem to 
do most of the champagne-opening - and 
most had been slruck in the left eye. .' said 
Dr. Sloan. He believes that the left eye is 
struck most often because of the bottle's 
po
ition while being opened by a right- 
handed person. 
The results were severe: Of 14 cases 
treated at the institute in a recent 3-year 
period, 3 patients lost the sight of the in- 
jured eye. Three others have considerable 
permanent vision lo
s due to injuries to 
cornea or macula. All 14 had corneal abra- 
sions, 10 had hyphemas. 3 developed 
permanent macular damage. I had recur- 
rent hyphemas, and 2 sustained severe ret- 
inal detachments. 
In 1967, two British investigators rl;- 
ported nine similar eye injuries. They es- 
timated that a champagne cork may be 
backed by pressures of up to 100 atmos- 
pheres. 
All the California victims had been 
struck by the newer plastic "corks." but 
the injury with a genuine cork would be 
similar. Dr. Sloan said. He offers two 
safety suggestions. The first is for caution- 
ary labeling on all champagne bottles. 
The second suggestion is for greater care 
while opening champagne bottles. (A third 
sUl?l?estion would be to give up 
champagne. - Eds.) 


Adverse reactions to Lomotil 
Children may have adverse reactions to 
the antidiarrheal agent Lomotil 
(diphenoxylate hydrochloride with at- 
ropine sulfate). and relatively small doses 
may be toxic. This comment was made by 
Dr. Gary Wasserman. a Kansas City 
pediatrician, in an interview published in 
the 7 October 1974 issue of the Journal of 
the American Medical AS.wciation. 
Dr. Was
erman doð not berate the 
agent, which he call
 a "fine drug." but 
16 THE CANADIAN NURSE 


he does advise caution. He also suggests 
that physicians prescribing the drug for 
adults should limit the number of tablets 
to lessen chances of accidental ingestion 
by children. In one instance, a child 
swallowed 150 tablets, and . "that's far 
more than would be needed to treat an 
episode of diarrhea in an adult," he said. 
Dr. Wasserman added that parents should 
be warned not to play doctor and give the 
drug to an ailing child. 


Liver tumor linked to the pill 
Benign liver tumors have been found in II 
women at the University of Louisville who 
were taking oral contraceptives. Six of the 
women presented with hemorrhaging from 
a ruptured tumor; one died. The other 
tumors were detected incidentally during 
abdominal surgery. Six additional deaths 
have been reponed throughout the world. 
This information. which appeared in the 


January 1975 issue of AORN (official jour 
nal of the Association of Operating RoO! 
Nurses). was reported at the America 
College of Surgeons meeting recently b 
E.T. Mays, M.D. 
The II women were between the ages ( 
22 and 47 and had been taking the pill a 
average of five years. There was no corn 
lation established between length of tilT' 
on the pill and the tumor mass. One patiel 
had been on the pill only six months. 
Dr. Mays advised women taking the pi 
who experience persistent. severe abdon 
inal pain to consult their physician. Ar I 
lump or masS in the abdomen in the rig I 
upper quadrant should be reported. I 
He suggested that the oral contraceJ 
tives that cause thickening of the veins ar 
arteries in some women might restri 
blood tlow to the liver. resulting in liv 
damage. He stressed that there is no sol 
evidence that oral contraceptives cau' 
liver cancer. 




 .
 
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The 


case 


of the warm 


moist compress 


Are nursing procedures based on tradition or clinical evidence? The nursing 
procedure committee at Glenrose Provincial General Hospital, Edmonton, 
Alberta, compared the efficiency and effectiveness of the traditional method of 
preparing warm moist compresses with a new method, using prepackaged 
compresses heated by an infrared bulb. Their study raised questions about 
nurses' methods of doing procedures. 


Jannice Moore and Maureen Weinberg 


A new method of preparing warm moist 
compresses. using an infrared bulb to heat 
water or saline compresses prepackaged 
in aluminum foil (the Curity Thermal 
Pack System) was recently introduced at 
our hospital Comments by staff who 
used the new system indicated a variety of 
opinions on how it compares to the 
traditional method that uses a compress 
tray to which a solution and dressings are 
added. The nursing procedure committee 
agreed to conduct a study to determine 
which of these two methods was more 
effective and efficient. 


Review of the literature 
From a review of the literature. it 
appeared that no study of this nature had 
been previously done. There were several 


Jannice Moore (B.Se-N., University of 
Saskatche'Wan) 'Was a supervisor at the 
Glenrose Provincial General Hospital. 
Edmonton. at the time this stud} 'Was done. 
She is presently enrolled in the Master's 
program in health services admimstration. 
University of Alberta. l\laureen Weinberg 
(S.R.:\I. and S.c.
1.. \Yahon Hospital. 
Liverpool. England) is a supervisor at the 
Glenrose Provincial General Hospital. 


.o\RCH 1975 


studies involving warm moist com- 
presses. but they compared various 
methods of application. all within the 
method we have called traditional. These 
studies indicated wide variations in 
methods of heating the solution. materials 
used for the compress. and methods of 
maintaining the temperature .1.2 
Another s[Ud}. comparing the effec- 
tiveness of various insulating materials in 
maintaining compress temperature. found 
aluminum foil to be the most satisfactory 
insulator. Heat retention was positively 
affected by the addition of an external 
heat source. such as a hot 'Water bottle. 3 A 
number of sources \\-ere consulted to 
detennine what temperature 'Was adequate 
to produce the desired therapeutic effect 
without causing injury to the skin: n 
None of these indicated an optimum 
temperature for compresses. The Petrello 
stud y 3 considered the lo\\-er limit of an 
adequate compress to be 98.6 degrees F. 
Most sources cited 111.2 degrees F. as 
the law est temperature that might cause 
injury to the skin. 


Hypotheses and limitations 
We selected the following variables for 
study: temperature. moisture content. 
sterility. nursing time. and cosL We 
THE CANADIAN NURSE 19 



assumed that Curity prepackaged dress- 
ing!> contain a standardized amount of 
moisture. We did not attempt to measure 
the physiological effects of the two tYPð 
of compresses. 
Only selected variable costs. such as 
supplies. labor, and maintenance of 
equipment. were measured. Fixed costs. 
such as the Thermal Pack machine. 
reusahle equipment on trays. autoclave 
operation. and transpoI1ation of supplies 
within the hospital. were not measured. 
We hypothesized that the traditional 
method would sustain heat longer, 
contain more moisture. be less sterile. 
more time consuming. and more costly 
than the Curity method. 


Study method 
One registered nurse performed all 
compresses to minimize the differences in 
working speed that might have heen 
encountered if several nurses were used. 
To eliminate time discrepancy. a 
standardized procedure v. as developed for 
each type of compress. 
Although the Curit) literature states 
that the compresses will reach 14-0-150 
degrees F. in 5 minutes. we found in our 
pretrials that in 5 minute'i the temperature 
did not exceed 10ó degrees F. For the 
purpose of this study. we found that 
heating compresses R minutes resulted in 
an adequate temperature. 
There was some variability among 
compress heat lamps. This is a drawhack 
of the Curity system; it is difficult to 
determine the exact temperature of the 
compress in an actual practice situation. 
If left too long. the compress could 
become too hot: there is no alarm 
indicator on the equipment. In the 
interests of safety. we recommend use of 
a timer with a buzzer and suggest that the 
nurse plan her work so she is occupied in 
the patient's room while the compress is 
heating. 
After initial trials. compresses were 
done twice daily on 2 patients for a period 
of 3 days. u'iing each method once every 
day. Both patients received saline 
compresses. A thermometer was inseI1ed 
into the center of each compress. and the 
20 THE CANADIAN NURSE 


111 
110 
109 
108 
107 
106 
..... 105 
QJ 

 104 
c: 

 

 103 
no 
LI.. 
V> 102 
QJ 

 
OJ 
QJ 101 
-c 
100 
99 
98 
97 
96 
95 
0 


FIGURE 1 


Temperature Maintenance of Curity 
and Traditional Compresses * 


. 
\ 
\ 
\ 
\ 
\ 
. 
\ 
\ 
\ 
\ 
\ 
\ 
. 
, 
, 
, 
'. 
"\ 
, 
\ 
"\ 
'" 
., 
, 
"\ 
., 
, 
'.- 
-... 
... 
..... 


2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 H 


Minutes from initial contact 


_ .curity 


.. each temperature 
indicated is the mean 
of si x trials. 


_m____n T radi tional 


temperature was recorded to the nearest 
degree F. on initial application and at 
I-minute intervals until the reading was 
less than 98 degrees F 
Moisture content was measured by 
weighing a wet compress. heating it to 
evaporate the liquid. weighing it dry. and 
calculating the percentage of total weight 


due to moisture. Sterility was determine. 
by obtaining a culture just prior to placin 
the compress on the patient. 
The procedure was divided into seven; 
paI1s. and nursing time for each paI1 wa 
recorded to the nearest second. The tim 
required to heat the compress or solution 
and the actual time the compress was leI 
MARCH 197 



the patient were not included in total 
me. because in actual practice the nurse 
ould be otherwise occupied during these 
riods. 


indings 
The data that we obtained indicated 
at the traditional method maintained a 
eat ranging from 107.6 degrees F. to 
7.5 degrees F. for 8.7 minutes. while the 
urity method maintained a range of 
09.8 degrees F. to 97.7 degrees F. for 
3.7 minutes. as shown in Figure J. The 
aditional compress has a mean moisture 
ontent of 81. 361ìé compared to the Curity 
d!ine compress at 72.881ìé and the Curity 
.lain compress at 66.489é. All 
ompresses of both types showed no 
lacterial growth. 
Nursing time was broken down as 
hown in Figure 2. Preparation and 
leanup times specified whether or not a 
liressing tray was required to cleanse the 
ea prior to application of the compress. 
or an area requiring no cleansing. the 
I unty method saved 5 minutes and 15 
I econds of nursing time. When a dressing 
ray was needed. the Curity method saved 
minute 24 seconds. 
The total variable cost of one traditional 
ompress, including the dressings. labor 
ost of preparation. laund
1 cost. and 
abor cost of administration. was $1.50. 


The total variable cost of one Curity 
compress. including dressings. labor cost 
of preparation. laundry cost. machine 
maintenance. and labor cost of 
administration. was $1. 28 for a saline 
compress. $1.60 for a saline compress 
requiring a dressing tray for cleansing. 
$1.08 for a plain compress. and $1.40 for 
a plain compress requiring a dressing 
tray. 
In summary. our findings indicated that 
the Curity method sustains more heat for 
a longer period of time. is less time con- 
suming. and less costly in most cases than 
the traditional method. The methods are 
equally aseptic. The traditional compres
 
contains more moisture. 
We concluded that the Curity method is 
more effective and efficient than the 
traditional method of applying warm 
moist compresses. Because the study was 
conducted with a small sample of patients. 
it should be replicated to determine the 
findings in other settings. 


Discussion 
An important question is raised by this 
study. Nurses have traditionally applied 
compresses for 15 to 20 minutes. Because 
the purpose of a warm moist compress is to 
increase circulation to promote healing. 
the effect of the compress is counteracted 
when the compress temperature drops be- 


FIGURE 2 


Activity 


Traditional 


Nursing Time for Compresses 


Curity 


Set up tray 
Prepare patient 
Prepare and 
apply compress 
Remove compress and 
reapply dressing 
Clean up 


with without 
dressing tray dressing tray 
5 min. 11 see. 4 min. 1 min. 23 see. 
2 min. 39 see. 2 min. 21 see. 2 min. 21 see. 
min. 3 see. o min. 49 see. o min. 49 see. 
1 min. 43 see. 1 min. 27 see. 1 min. 27 see. 
2 min. 11 see. 2 min. 46 see. 1 min. 32 see. 
12 min. 47 see. 11 min. 23 see. 7 min. 32 see. 


MARCH 1975 
I 


low bod) temperature. This study showed 
that with the traditional method the 
temperature falls below body temperature 
after 8.7 minutes. 
If the compress is continued beyond 8.7 
minutes. evaporation occurs and actually 
cools the body surface. thus negating the 
purpose of the procedure. This effect can 
be avoided by changing the compress 
every 8 minutes to maintain adequate heat. 
However. the nursing time required then 
increases. and the cost of the procedure. as 
we have defined it. increases correspond- 
ingly. This study points out the impor- 
tance of questioning and reexamining time- 
honored procedure'ò to be certain that our 
nursing practices maintain maximum effec- 
tiveness. 


References 
L Shdool1. \:oJa S. Sterile v. arm v.et 
l."(Jmpresses. Amer. J VUß. 59:982-
. Jul. 
1959 
.., Glor. Beverly A.K. ano Estes. Zane E. 
:\loist s'Jal..s: d survey of clinical practices. 
NlIrs. Res. 19:5:
63-5. SCpl./OCI. 1970. 
3. PetreI/o. Juoith .\1. femperature mainten- 
ance of hot moist compresses. Amer J. 
NlIrs.73:6:105U-I.Jun.1973 

. Fuerst. Elinor V. ano Wolff. LuVeme. 
FlIIlClamentalç oj nursing: the humanities 
and the sciences in nur.fitlg. 3eo. 
Philaoelphia, LippinwlI. 19M. p. 519 
5. Brunner. Lillian S. et al. Te{tboo/... of 
meåical-,furgical nursing. Philaoelphia, Lip- 
pincott. 1964 p. 26. 
6. 
loritz. A,R. ano Henriques. F.C The 
relative importance of time ano surface 
temperature in the causation of cutaneous 
bums. Amer. J. Pathology 23:695-720, 
Dee. 19
7. 
7. Fraser. Robin. Raoidnt heat bum.. ano 
operating theatre lamps: a stuoy (If the heat 
requireo to cause tissue necrosis. Med. J. 
A US!. I: 1199-1202. Jun. 17, 1967. 
8. Quinones, CA. ano Winl..elmann. R.K. 
Changes in sl..in temperature v. ìth v.et 
oressing therdpy. Arch. Derm. 97:70H-11. 
Dee. 1967. 
9. Watemlan N.G. et a!. Effects of \oarious 
ore"sings on sl..in ano 
ubcutaneous 
temperdtures. A comparison. Arch. SurR. 
95:464-71. Sep. 1967. (
.. 
THE CANADIAN NURSE 21 



The Canadian Nurses' 


Foundation 


is its members 


Increasing numbers of nurses are seeking advanced study to prepare for new 
nursing roles. The membership and support of Canadian nurses are needed to 
help the Canadian Nurses' Foundation fulfill ifs purposes of providing 
scholarships and grants for nursing research. The president of CNF's board of 
directors outlines the bylaw changes proposed to conserve existing funds and 
provide new revenues. 


Helen D. Taylor 


Are you a member of the Canadian 
Nurses' Foundation? Your personal mem- 
bership and supJXn1 are needed if the CNF 
is to fulfill its purposes of providing schol- 
arships for nurses to undenake study for 
academic degrees and grants for research 
in nursing science. Increasing numbers of 
nurse-; are needing and seeking advanced 
study to adequately prepare themselves for 
new nursing roles; a record number of re- 
quests for fellowship applications and in- 
fonnation has been received this year. 
In 1973. a national survey was con- 
ducted by questionnaires on CNF's pur- 
poses and effectiveness. which were di- 
rected to nurses across the country. Re- 
spondents said that CNF is. indeed, playing 
a significant role in providing scholarships 
to nurses undenaking advanced education. 
Reasons given in suppon of this belief can 
be grouped in three main categories: 
. CNF scholars are making imponant Con- 
tributions to the nursing profession in 
Canada; 
. CNF demonstrates nurses' belief in fund- 
ing their colleagues and strengthens the 


Helen D. TdylorCR.N.. The \1ontreal General 
Hospitdl school of nursing: B. N.. McGill U.) is 
director of nursing. Jewish Generdl Hospital. 
Montreal. She is 1st vice-president. Canadian 
Nurses' As
ociation. and president. Canadian 
Nurses' Foundation board of directors. 


22 THE CANADIAN NURSE 


grounds for future s
)licitation of fund 
from other sources; and I 
. CNF is imponant in influencing the nurs 
ing profession to consider the educational 
needs of its members. 
CNF directors accept these reasuns an 
are endeavoring to assure a viable futur 
for the Foundation. Federal and provincia 
funding is limited and. even if funds fron 
these sources become more available it' 
future years. still more will be needed. T( 
date. the CNF has given $468.000 in schol 
arships to nurses for advanced academic 
degrees. I 
The Canadian Nurses' Foundation is ( 
nonprofit. charitable organization incor 
porated under Letters Patent of the Canad. 
Corporations Acr. As such. CNF is permit 
ted to issue receipts for income tax pur 
poses to members and donors. Under th( 
Act. expenditure of revenue must be di 
rected toward fulfillment of the purpose- 
of the organization; for this reason, schol 
arships must be allocated each year a: 
long as the CNF remains viable. I 
The CNF is not bankrupt. as some nurse
 
might have believed. However. the Foun 
dation will only be able (0 continue t( 
respond to its purposes if present and fu. 
ture members offer greater suppon thar 
they have in the past. In 1974. provincia 
associations - Albena. Saskatchewan 
Manitoba. New Brunswick. Nova Scotia 
and Prince Edward Island - gave gener.1 
MARCH 197
: 



Q, donations to the Foundation. Without 
t
 support of these associations. and that 
qothers ....ho have made previous dona- 
t'ns, the C'\F might well ha\e ceased to 
e "t. 
The importance of membership to our 
F.Jndation cannot be overemphasized; in 
ft. C'F revolves around its membership. 
[redors are nominated from C""F mem- 
trship. Members ultimately determine 
\10 shall serve as directors. Elected direc- 
t.s. in tum. stand accountable to mem- 
tr... for their deÔsions and overall man- 

ement of corporate affairs. In short. the 
r:mbers are the Foundation. 


fur funds 
In addition to the $468.000 awarded in 
holarships. C
F has received fees and 

.nations in excess of $150.000 that have 

en retained b
 the Foundation for future 
cocrations. This amount.... as allocated to 
..F's four funds: general. scholarship. re- 

arch. and capital trust. according to C
F 
"Iicies and contributor stipulations. The 
gregation of funds is essential if re\enue 
1J.llocated by donors to specific funds and 
therefore. not available for the general 
'Irposes of the organization. Donations 
located to C'IIF'S scholarship fund or re- 
arch fund are devoted specifically to the 
I nual scholarship program and to re- 
arch grants respectively. Due to the cost 
undertaking research. grants for re- 
arch have yet to be a\\arded. 
Revenue to CNF's general fund. com- 
sed of membership fees and donations 
pulated for this fund, is used for the 
neml purpose of the organization, that 
. operational costs such as staff salaries 
d co<;t of meetings. Money given to C'\F 
at is not stipulated is deposited to the 
pital trust fund. according to policies set 
the C
F directors. This capital trust 
nd is des:gned to accumulate donations. 
I that its income will eventually provide 
I the needed money for administrative 
penses. scholarships. and research 
nts on a yearly basis. The capital trust 
nd has grown to approximately $70.000; 
is gro....th is most encouraging. 
. RCH 1975 


The directors are committed to improv- 
ing the operational efficiency of the Foun- 
dation by decreasing expenditures and in- 
creasing revenues. It is anticipated that 
improved operdtions .... ill conserve exist- 
ing funds and provide ne.... revenue for 
C
F's annual scholarship program and fu- 
ture operations. A ne.... application proces- 
sing procedure. designed to reduce ad- 
ministrative costs. ....a<; implemented I 
November 1974. 


Bylaw changes 
The directors .... ill pre.;ent b
 I a.... 
changes to membership for apprmal at the 
annual general meeting in April 1975 It is 
proposed that the C:>O;F selections commit- 
tee be reduced to 3 membe.s from 7, and 
the board of directors be reduced to 5 from 
9. The DJF board of directors \\ill be 
nominated from CNF membership onl
 and 
the requirement for c"' <\ representation on 
the CNF board will be eliminated. It is 
anticipated that this.... ill circullnent prob- 
lems pertaining to C",F elections. 
C:>.IF directors \\ill propose that iees be 
increased from $5 to S 10. in the bdiefthat 
members.... ill understand the rationJ.le for 
this proposal. A further reduction in ex- 
penditures is expected through holding the 
C;\;F annual general meeting in conjunction 
\\ith the CNA annual meeting each }ear. 
This should aha enable more nurse.; from 
across Canada to attend and participate in 
each Foundation annual general meetmg. 
All nurses are urged to support the 
Canadian Nurses' Foundation by becom- 
ing members. In recent years. memorial 
and honorarium donations have been in- 
creasing. Individual contributions from 
nurses and nonnurses given "in memory 
of. . ." represent a more lasting memorial 
than flo....ers and are an appropriate and 
constructive form of remembrance. Hon- 
orarium gifts to o.lF in recognition of indi- 
vidual nurses' participation in public ap- 
pearances and lectures are a)<;o a construc- 
tive form of tribute. 



 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 23 



WQlte 
OQ the QeaðeQ, 
he may neeö to know 
what you have to say 


Elizabeth Kinzer O'Farrell 


The how-to aspects of developing a meaningful manuscript 'and the publishing 
process for a journal article are described for should-be nurse authors. 


Writing for publication has become a 
necessary and increasingly imponant con- 
sideration for the professional nurse in 
modem nursing practice for two distinct 
and important reasons. First. if nursing is 
to achieve its long-range goals and objec- 
tives in the struggle for recognition as an 
independent health profession, a current 
and expanding body of knowledge specific 
to nursing and developed by nurses is es- 
sential to meet the criteria for such recog- 
nition. Second. and perhaps more peni- 
nent to immediate nursing objectives. 
sharing new nursing knowledge in a 
rapidly changing health care system is 
mandatory to the delivery of quality pa- 
tient care. While the mandate to share new 
nursing knowledge is not new and has long 


Elizabeth Kinzer O'Farreli. R.N.. formerly 
Editor of the Journal of Nursing Administra- 
tion, is a freelance editor and writer working 
from her home in Tucson, Anzona. Prior to 
joining JONA, Mrs. O'Farreli was Managing 
Editor and Business Manager for The Journal 
of Nursing Education. This anicle is adapted 
from a paper presented September 26. 1973. 
Tele-Conference Series in Continuing Educa- 
tion. cosponsored by the Colleges of Nursing, 
University of Arizona. Tucson. and Arizona 
State University, Tempe. It is reprinted, with 
pelll1ission. from the Journal of Nu.rsing Ad- 
ministration, September-October. 1974. 
24 THE CANADIAN NURSE 


been recognized by most professional 
nurses. writing skill and the how-to as- 
pects of developing a meaningful manu- 
script have not usually been included in the 
nurse's preparation for practice. The result 
all too often is readily apparent not only to 
the editor or publisher working with nurs- 
ing manuscripts. but also to many capable 
and experienced nurses who fail to share 
their knowledge and experiences "ith 
their colleagues simply because the task 
seems too great or because they do not 
know where to begin or hO\\ to proceed 
with a writing project. 
Is writing for publication really as dif- 
ficult as many should-be nurse authors 
tend to make it? Certainly there is no de- 
bate even among experienced authors. 
Writing effectively is not easy. and a writ- 
ers' workshop specifically designed to de- 
velop writing skill is a wonhwhile project 
for any continuing education program for 
nurses or as a senior seminar for nursing 
students. Perhaps more important for busy 
practitioners. a practical discussion on the 
how-to aspects of developing a publish- 
able manuscript may be rewarding and need 
not reqUIre more than a one- or two-hour 
classroom discussion period. Such a dis- 
cussion. prepared as a paper and presented 
during a one-hour continuing education 
program. is presented in this anide. While 
the anicle is necessarily brief and the re- 
marks apply primarily to developing the 


manuscript for a journal article, much I 
what has been said also applies todevelo 
ing a book manuscript or writing a COIl 
prehensive and meaningful report, 


Preplanning a writing project 
How does one begin a writing proje( 
Certainly a writing project. like me 
wonhwhile project
, requires a great de 
of time. thought. and careful preplannil 
if the desired result is to be achieve 
Perhaps the best place for the writer 
begin is to ask himself a difficult but it 
ponant question to answer honestly. D(. 
hal'e something 10 say that a reader mig 
need 10 know? In theIr eagerness to I 
published. many writers either fail to a: 
themselves this important question or f; 
to answer it honestly. with the unfortuna 
result that they devote a great deal of tin 
and energy to a project that may never g 
off the ground. Fortunately. they usual 
have not wasted their time or energy. sim 
good "riters are rarely born that wa: 
Good "riters become good write 
through writing experience. and a secor 
or third attempt to be published may 1 
more rewarding. 
The second question the writer shoul 
ask himself in the preplanning stage 
equally important. Who needs 10 kno 
what I have 10 say? The success or failu, 
of a writing project may depend on tt 
writer's careful analysis of his answer II 
MARCH 19;, 
I 



(,., que
tion. Who is the intended reader? 
'hat 
pecifically is hi
 orientation. and 
ny i
 the topic to be discus
ed likd} to be 

 interðt or important to him? \\ hen 
tbe questions have been an
\\ered. the 
I xt quðtion follO\\s logicall
: WhaT pub- 
ther sen'es The intended audience? 
While it ma) seem premature to explore 
.: matter of a pos
iblc publi"her in the 
:planning stage for a .... riting project. the 

e .... riter .... ill do a little re"carch on thi" 
utter before he begin,; to develop hi
 
bnu\cript. The format and nature of the 
tlcle
 regularly publi
hcd in a target 
urnal or periodical prmide a valuable 

lÏde for the ....mer and may 
pare him 
..nsiderable grief as \\ ell. For example. a 
Irsing journal b} name obviously serves 
nursing audiem:e. but it doe
 not nece
- 
!rily se
ve eve!) nurse. The trend in mod- 
n nursing is tlmard 
pecialization in 
Ie area of nursing practice. :--Jursingjour- 
lIs are follO\\ ing this trend, and their 
Iblisher
 have established their editorial 
)jective
 accordingly. The nur
e author 
10 a
:>umes that her article is 
uitable for 
I)" nursing journal bearing the name i
 
.eI) to ....ait \\eeks for a publishing deci- 
.m only to be re.... arded by a typical mes- 
Ige from the editor: "We appreciate your 
terest in submitting the enclosed manus- 
I ipt to us. but.. ." 
It is 
ad. but unfortunately it is also true 
,J! not just a fe.... well-....ritten manu- 
:ripts spend man) weeks on a busy 
jitor's desk pending a publishing deci- 
on. This is particularl} true of manu- 
ripts of a professional or highly technical 
ture. Such manuscripts usually are re- 
e.... ed b} a panel of ad\ isors qualified to 
aluate the validit
 and potential value of 
,e content to the audience to be served 
fore a publishing deci"ion i
 made. Oc- 
sionally. if a manuscript is particularly 
ell \\ ritten but deemed inappropriate for 
e audience served by the publisher. the 
itor .... ill take time to 
uggest a suitable 
ublisher or to explain in detail.... h) the 
anu
cript is deemed unacceptable. But 
US} editors u
uall
 are not so inclined. 
rimaril} becau
e author
 are expected to 
lect an appropriate publisher to reach 
eir intended audience. Sampling a few 
rticle
 in recent is
uc
 of a target journal 

ually .... ill reveal the nature and orienta- 
on of the audience 
erved. and noting the 
rnlat customarily used by the publisher 
presenting bibliographies. footnotes. 
nd similar material provides a useful and 
mesaving guide for the writer in prepar- 
g his own manuscript. If stilI in doubt 
fter such a sampling. the \\ise writer will 
o one step further and write to the editor. 
,riefly describing his topic and inquiring 
l\ARCH 1975 
I 


about the editor'
 interest in the project. A 
favorable re
pon
e provides additIOnal in- 
centive and the writer is ready for the next 
step to be taken. 


Organizing the material 
The importance of preparing a \\orking 
outline can hardly be news 10 should-be 
authors. They have been hearing about 
....orking from a detailed outline dating 
back to their first Engli
h composition 
course in junior high :>chool or earlier. Yet 



' 



o many manuscripts submitted to pub- 
lishers retlect so little organization of the 
content and continuity in the discussion 
that the matter of preparing and working 
from a detailed outline bears repeating. 
little purpose is served in dwelIing on this 
subject. however. and perhaps a more 
practical discussion might be to describe 
an organizational structure that works for 
an effective article or report and why. 
If the project is intended for a profes- 
sional audience and the writer has ans- 
wered the first question honestly. he prob- 
ably is writing about the results of a re- 
search project or describing a new method 
of accomplishing an objective based on his 
experience with that method. In either 
case. reporting the results of a study is by 
no means the same thing as making the 
study, The reader is unlikely to have either 
the time or the inclination to follow a wri- 
ter through a step-by-step or blow-by- 
blow discu
sion of the details. A reader 
wants to know what the writer thinks he 
should know at the outset of the discus- 
sion. He will be interested in the details 
and the writer's analysis of them only in 
direct proportion to his interest in the re- 
sults and their potential value to him in his 
own particular work environment. 
An organizational structure that works 
in making and reporting a study might be 
described by comparing the process to 
building a pyramid. The foundation or 
base of the pyramid is the research and 
cataloguing of relevant details supporting 
the study objectives. The middle section or 
body of the pyramid is a step-by-step 


analysis of the details and data gathered. 
and the apex is the result or conclu
ion 
drawn from the analysis. The researcher, 
like a builder. identifies his objective and 
begin
 with the foundation - with the 
details and facts supporting his objective. 
He then works stone-upon-stone through a 
comprehensive analysis of the data 
gathered to the conclusions to be drawn 
from them. In reporting the study. he de- 
scribes his objective and reverses the pro- 
cess. He begins at the apex. with the con- 
clusions drawn. and works back through 
the analysis of the data to the details or 
foundation supporting the study objective. 
While it may be stretchmg the point a 
bit. the reader might be compared to a 
tourist viewing a pyramid for the first 
time. The tourist's initial reaction is why. 
Why was it built; what purpose did it 
serve? Only if the tourist is genuinely in- 
terested or archeologically inclined....iII he 
bother to explore further to learn how it 
was built. and the wise writer will recog- 
nize this very human reaction to d new idea 
and develop his working outline accord- 
ingly. He first describes his objective 
briefly and lists the reasons his report may 
be important to the reader. Next he lists the 
results or conclusions drawn from the 
study or experience. He follows this with 
the supporting data and his analysis of 
them. keeping the orientation of the target 
audience in mind (e.g.. charts and tables 
reflecting voluminous statistical data and 
research terminology have little value or 
interest to a nonresearch-oriented audi- 
ence). The relevant details and nitty-gritty 
infonnation likely to be useful to a reader 
seeking additional information come next. 
and the conclusion once again refers to the 
study objective and the writer's rationale 
for reporting the study. A working outline 
prepared in this manner provides a logical 
presentation of the discussion material. 

10re important. it serves to clarif) the 
writer's thinking, and the next step is to 
develop the manuscript using the outline 
prepared as a guide. 


Developing the subject 
As mentioned earlier. wntmg effec- 
ti vely is not easy. It is not as difficult. 
however. as many inexperienced writers 
tend to make it. The effective writer ob- 
serves and folIows three basic but impor- 
tant rules in developing a publishable 
manuscript. First. he develops his discus- 
sion logically, always keeping his in- 
tended reader in mind. Second. he gets his 
main points across promptly and force- 
fully. Third. he keeps his language 
natural. The writer who has done his or her 
preplanning carefully and is working from 
THE CANADIAN NURSE 25 



a well-organized and detailed outline is 
well on the way to observing the first t\\O 
rules. The third rule. however. deserves 
further discussion. If there is a single mes- 
sage more important than all others forthe 
would-be author, it can be summed up in 
one sentence: Write for The reader; he may 
need 10 knolV whaT you are Trying to say. 
Not just a few writers. perhaps in an 
attempt to appear scholarly. tend to garble 
their message with polysyllabic words. 
with research jargon that means nothing to 
the nonresearch-oriented reader. and with 
complex or overlong sentences well 
sprinkled with commas and parenthetical 
phrases. Such manuscripts impress no 
one. Far worse. they fail to communicate 
worthwhile ideas unless the reader has the 
patience to extract the ideas from the wel- 
ter of words that surround them. Unfortu- 
nately. some of the worst offenders are 
graduate students. particularly doctoral 
candidates. and library shelves in univer- 
sity settings are lined with dissertations 
rarely used as resource material simpl} 
because they are unreadable. This situa- 
tion in nur
ing obviously reflects countless 
hours of invaluable research literally lost 
to a profession in which none can be 
"pared if its members are to achieve their 
professional goals. Although it is true that 
writing for one's own edification has some 
reward. writing for publication is writing 
for the reader. and the author who writes 
for rhetorical display usually has only 
himself for an audience. 
Much might be said in this discussion 
about grammar. punctuation. spelling. 
etc.. but these topics might better be dealt 
\\ith in a writers' workshop. Perhaps all 
that need be said in this area is to avoid 
words and phrases of obscure meaning 
and. when in doubt about spelling. use a 
good dictionary. There is no disgrace in 
being unable to spell. but the writer who is 
unaware of the problem and repeatedly 
misspells words in common usage has a 
serious handicap. A good dictionary is an 
essential tool for any writer. and the wise 
writer uses it often in preparing his manu- 
script. 


Preparing the manuscript 
The next step in a writing project. of 
course. is the actual preparation of the 
manuscript. Fortunately the desirable way 
to prepare and submit a manuscript is no 
more difficult. time consuming. or expen- 
sive than a haphazard way. The margin of 
difference. however. is enonnous when 
considered from the publisher's point of 
view. A poorly organized and carelessly 
prepared manuscript on an important topic 
may become a source of considerable extra 
26 THE CANADIAN NURSE 


work. worry. and fru.,tration for the author 
as \\ell as the publisher \\ hen and if such d 
manuscript is accepted. For this reaSon. it 
is usuall} a good prdctice to prepare a first 
draft of the manuscript and to put it aside 
for a few days before preparing the manu- 
script to be submitted to the publisher 
selected. Although this practice is obvi- 
ously time consuming and a few experi- 
enced authors ma} find it unnecessary. 
most writers are well advised to pause in 
their project and to carefully review and 
edit a first draft of the manuscript to be 
certain that the material is logically or- 
ganized and presented and that nothing has 
been left to the reader's imagination. 
Although not all publishers subscribe to 
the same set of rules for preparing a manu- 
script. there are certain rules basic to the 
publishing industry that all writers should 
know and observe in preparing their manu- 
script. The first and perhaps most impor- 
tant rule is that all material. including 
footnotes. quotations from the published 
works of others. case reports. legends for 
illustrations. bibliographies, and reference 
lists. be typed in double space and on one 
side of the paper only. Margins of no less 
than one inch all around should be allowed 
for the editor's and the printer's markings. 
The paper used 'ihould be the standard 811z 
x II size and of an opaque quality that will 
take ink or ink eradicator. 
The second rule is that manuscript pages 
be numbered consecutively throughout the 
manuscript and preferably in the upper 


right-hand comer of the page. Handwrit- 
ten corrections in the copy are acceptable 
if limited to a few \\ords on the page and 
legibly made in ink. but if additional mat- 
erial is to be inserted. the pages on which 
the insertions are to be made should be 
retyped and the additional pages numbered 
and inserted so that all copy reads consecu- 
tively. 
Manuscripts that include illustrations. 
charts. or graphs should clearly indicate in 
the text where such material is to be in- 
serted. The type for most tabular material 
must be set separately. and it is usually 
best to clearly identify and prepare such 


material on a 'ieparate page. Photograph 
particular'} require special handling in th I 
reproduction process, and care should b 
taken to identify and protect prints frOJ 
damage in transit. Photographs should b 
glossy. black and \\hite prints for best re 
production results. Paperclips usuall 
leave an imprint and should never be a
 
plied directly over a photograph. Whe 
more than one photograph is to be used. 
is usually best to identify them lightly 0' 
the back with a soft pencil or felt tip pen t, 
prevent erron. in matching the photograp, 
with the appropriate legend during th 
production process. 
The matter of selecting an appropriall 
format \\as mentioned earlier. but a hi 
more might be said regarding preparilìl 
the manuscript for bibliographies and re 
erence lists. The correct "pelling of auth( 1 
names and titles of books or articles shoul 
be checked carefully and the com pie' 
publishing data included. Inexperience 
authors frequently omit page numbers f.1 
references cited, and this requires extll 
time and effort to supply such informatic l 
later when queried by the editor. , 
Finally. one further matter might t 
mentioned. Quoting extensively from tt 
published works of others is a poor pm. 
tice and is seldom recommended. When' 
is deemed necessary or desirable to do 
 I 
rather than paraphrase such material. it 
I 
mandatory for the author to obtain writtt, 
permission from the original publisherarl 
to submit such permission with the mam I 
script. Publishers. in compliance will 
copyright laws. seldom accept a mam\ 
script without the necessary pemission It 
ter in hand or without some indication th: 
the permission letter has been requestl 
and will be forthcoming in the foreseeab 
future. The belated handling of this matt I 
is likely to result in prolonged delays \\hi I 
the author waits for the origin 
publisher's permission to use the materi<J 
The number of words that may be quot( 
verbatim from published works will va 
from publisher to publisher. but II 
number likely to be unchallenged is 2(1 
\\ords or less. It should be remembere 
however. that the source of all quoted m' , 
terial should be indicated in the text al 
documented with complete publishil ' 
data in a footnote or reference list. 


The publishing process 
One might reasonably expect that tl l ' 
author whose manuscript has been a 
cepted can relax at last and begin to enj<! 
the fruits of his labor. but this is seldom tl l 
case. The author usually knows his subje l 
matter too well or has lived with his proje 
too long to be completely objective abo 
MARCH 19: 



.... .... ork. A di,cu......ion thdt ...eerns per- 
ectl
 dear to an author may not be so clear 
) hi... Ie...' \\ell-informed reader, and the 
le,t step in a ....riting project is the editing 
'wee....... Who is the editor: what does he 
0: 
The editor.... primar) function. of 
our...c. is to generate and select appro- 
riate material in keeping \\Íth the journars 
ditorial objecti\e.... After selecting a suit- 
ble manu...cript. the editor ....orb .... ith the 
uthor on an
 further de\dopment 
kcmed nece"ar
 to darif) the discussion 
lr10 impw\e the general organization and 
i ,re...entation of the ...ubject matter. Unfor- 
undte!) man
 .... riter... \\ ho ha\e prepared 
\h:Jt the
 belíe\e to be a \\ell-organized 
nd ....ell-\Hitten mdnu,aipt are anno
ed 
mu e\en angr
 \\hen the manu...cript is 
eturned to them hea\ il
 edited and \\ ith 
llall} l,'hange... recommended. While this 
11.1\ be lInder,tanuable. it i... ,eldllm .... j,e 
.or the author to qU.lrrel \\ ith hi... editor. not 
)ecau...e the editor i, ah\ a
' right but be- 
'au,e the editor i..., or ,hould be. regarded 
" the :Juthor"... mentor and partner in a 
)uhli...hing project. The editor ...ene... both 
11Ithllr :Jnd reader. and hi... t.l...k i... to .ls...ist 
he author in pre...enting the ui...cu......ion ...0 
hat it m.l) be rc.ldil) undeNood h
 the 
menueu JÙIUL'r. 
Certainl) the euitor i... not al....a)... right. 
-Ie aho ma} he a hit more hea\ 
 handed 
ith a hlue pencil th.ln i... ab...olutel) neces- 
ar) . but th-.: \\ i...e \Hiter carefull
 rt;\ ie\\ s 
j, euitor', note" queric.... and recom- 
lIenued change, \\ ith a \ ie\\ to developing 
poli...hed and highl) readable final manu- 
.:npt. E4ually unfortunate. many inex- 
erienced \\ riter.... perhaps in fear that their 
lIanu,cript might ...till be rejected. accept 
n} and all change... recommended by the 
ditor.... ithout que...tion. Thi... too is under- 
tandablc perhap'. but it is a... foolish for an 
uthor to accept all recommended changes 
ithout que...tion a... it i... to arbitrarily ac- 
cpt none of them. In the final anal}sis the 
uthor is re...pon...ible for \\ hat he says. 
0\\ ....ell or dear!) he <;dYS it fOi the 
articular audience to be served. ho.... ever. 
s the editor', re...pon...ibility. and the edit- 
ng proce...... e......entially is a service both to 
he author and to his intended reader. 
The next step in the editing proces... is to 
repare the final manuscript for the 
rinter. This. of course. is done b\ the 
.:ditor. and the author at last can rel
x. A 
rief di<;cussion or O\en ie\\ of the produc- 
ion process. ho....ever. ma) be useful and 

rhaps e'plain ....h) the final manuscript 
or a journal article ...ubmitted in January 
ilia) not be published until June or July. 
urely it mu...t seem to the author that his 
nanuscript could be ...et in t)pe and pub- 
-\ARCH 1975 


lished in a matter of ....eeks ra:her than 
months. What happens next. and \\ hy does 
it take so long? 


The production process 
The lead time required in the production 
process for most journals is approximately 
four months. While the process is not es- 
sentiall) different from that used by most 
ne.... ...papers. the various steps to be taken 
in the production process for a journal re- 
quire wnsiderabl) more time and attention 




 


to detaiJ.... After the final editing and 
printer in...tructions ha\e been specified on 
the manu...cripts scheduled for a given 
i...sue of the journal. the ....ork must be 
gathered and sent 10 the compositor. Ap- 
pro,imately one month must be allO\\ed 
for the t)pe to be set. proofread. and cor- 
rected as needed. The art.... ork for illustra- 
tions and design... to be u...ed throughout the 
issue mu...t be prepared for reproduction 
and collated \\ ith the appropriate te,t. 
:'I:e,t. the la)out for the issue must be plan- 
ned and sample page... made up. The ...am- 
pie page... in turn must be proofread and 
checked for details before the printing 
form... are prepared. The pre...",,\ork. cut- 
ting. and binding complete the production 
proce....... but mailing labels must still be 
afthed to individual copies and the journal 
distributed to sub...cribers in the time allot- 
ted for the production process. Since most 
journals have an e...tabli...hed publishing 
date for each issue. the publisher also must 
build in a one- to t\\o-....eek buffer time 
period in any or all of these steps for un- 
foreseen dela) s. not the least of \\ hich 
might be .I labor ...trike b} anyone or more 
of the service group... involved. Thu.... the 
three- to four-month lead time for the pub- 
li...hing process is both realistic and neces- 
saf) if deadline dates for each step of the 
process are to be met. But there are other 
reasons for publishing delays as well. 
A ,>ucces...ful journ:J1 usually has articles 
scheduled for publication several issues in 
ad\ance. The final manu...cripts for such 
article... are held in the publi...her" s article 
bank. and ne.... manuscripts are scheduled 
in turn as space becomes available Occa- 


sionally a particularly timely article may 
be published out of turn. but this is seldom 
done. for obvious reasons. The publisher's 
authors are as important to him as are his 
subscribers. and the author whose manu- 
script has been waiting too long for space is 
likely to look else\\ here for a publisher for 
the next manuscript developed. It will be 
obvious to readers that the publisher has a 
substantial investment in his authors and 
that he is likely to be more than a little 
anxious to accommodate them with the 
ear!ie
t publishing date possible. The 

pace available in anyone issue of most 
journals. however. is necessarily limited 
by cost factors and a predetermined format 
for the publication. Scheduling an article 
for a specific issue. therefore. may not be 
feasible or possible for several months 
after the final manuscript has been submit- 
ted. and the four-month lead time for the 
production process is compounded b) ad- 
ditional delays in scheduling the article for 
the issue in ....hich it is to appear. 


Conclusion 
Is the end result for a wntmg project 
worth the time and effort involved - is the 
author compensated for his efforts? \10st 
professional journals pay their authors a 
small honorarium based on a predeter- 
mined price per \\ord or printed page. 

lonetary compen
ation for authors. how- 
e\er. .... ill vary from journal to journal. and 
the \\ riter primarily interested in such 
compensation is ....ell advised to inquire 
about this matter prior to submitting a 
manuscript to the publisher he ha... 
selected. 
Perhaps in concluding this discussion a 
better question might be posed: Is the con- 
siderable time and effort required of the 
,,'riter in a publishing project justified for 
the busy nurse in modem nursing prac- 
tice? Undoubtedl) there are still many 
nurses .... ho \\ould say no. But the nurse 
\\hose \\ell-\\ritten and informative article 
ha... recently appeared in her professional 
journal thinb it is. The editor and pub- 
lisher \\orking with nursing manuscripts 
think it is, and certainly the reader who 
needs to know what the nurse author has to 
say thinks so too. <,:,:, 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 27 



The 
Canadian 
Nurse 


50 The Driveway, Ottawa K2P I F2, Canada 


ð 

 I 
I 
I 


Information for Authors 


Man uscri pIs 


The Canadian Nurse and L'infirmière canadienne welcome 
original manuscripts that pertain to nursing, nurses, or 
related subjects. 


All solicited and unsolicited manuscripts are reviewed 
by the editorial staff before being accepted for publication. 
Criteria for selection include : originality; value of informa- 
tion to readers; and presentation. A manuscript accepted 
for publication in The Canadian Nurse is not necessarily 
accepted for publication in L'infirmière Canadienne. 


The editors reserve the right to edit a manuscript that 
has been accepted for publication. Edited copy will be 
submitted to the author for approval prior to publication. 


Procedure for Submission of 
Articles 


Manuscript should be typed and double spaced on one side 
of the page only. leaving wide margins. Submit original copy 
of manuscript. 


Style and Format 


Manuscript length should be from 1.000 to 2,500 words. 
Insert short. descriptive titles to indicate divisions in the 
article. When drugs are mentioned, include generic and trade 
names. A biographical sketch of the author should accompa- 
ny the article. Webster's 3rd International Dictionary and 
Webster's 7th College Dictionary are used as spelling 
references. 


References, Footnotes, and 
Bibliographv 


Reterences, footnotes, and bibliography should be limited 
28 THE CANADIAN NURSE 


to a reasonable number as determined by the content of tht 
article. References to published sources should be numbere< 
consecutively in the manuscript and listed at the end of tht 
article. Information that cannot be presented in forma 
reference style should be worked into the text or referred t( 
as a footnote. 


Bibliography listings should be unnumbered and place< 
in alphabetical order. Space sometimes prohibits publishinl 
bibliography, especially a long one. In this event. a note i: 
added at the end of the article stating the bibliography i: 
available on request to the editor. 


For book references, list the author's full name, boo
 
title and edition, place of publication. publisher, year 0 
publication, and pages consulted. For magazine references 
list the author's full name, title of the article, title of mag 
azine, volume. month, year. and pages consulted. 


Photographs, Illustrations, Tables, 
and Charts 


Photographs add interest to an article. Black and whitt 
glossy prints are welcome. The size of the photographs i: 
unimportant, provided the details are clear. Each phot( 
should be accompagnied by a full description, includinl 
identification of persons. The consent of persons photo 
graphed must be secured. Your own organization's fom 
may be used or CNA forms are available on request. 
Line drawings can be submitted in rough. If suitable, they 
will be redrawn by the journal's artist. 
Tables and charts should be referred to in the text, bu 
should be self-explanatory. Figures on charts and table 
should be typed within pencil-ruled columns. 


The Canadian Nurse 
OFFICIAL JOURNAL OF THE CANADIAN NURSES' ASSOCIATION, 
MARCH 19751 



CNA Financial Statement 


- 
- 


CANADIAN NURSES' ASSOCIATION 
STATEMENT OF INCOME AND SURPLUS 


Year Ended December 31, 1974 
(with comparable figures for year ended December 31, 1973) 


Less: reserved for Nonh\\<est Territories Registered 
Nurses' Association 
Surplus at end of year ..................................................... 


1974 1973 
$ 888.904 $ 830.736 
40,820 43.978 
299,264 264.594 
8.127 11.934 
2.552 
1.237.115 1.153.794 
568,306 529.808 
222.422 212.666 
7.943 11.708 
113.175 116.170 
25.658 18.489 
23.176 21.281 
2.319 1.309 
20,663 25.714 
47,130 40.464 
5,000 5.000 
9.725 7.825 
12.061 16.547 
35,387 30.574 
6,645 8.108 
8.747 5.030 
70.256 67.974 
5.320 7.929 
602 6.970 
948 345 
367 
31.867 31.867 
1.217.717 1.165.778 
18.869 
1.954 4.334 
2.000 
20.823 6.334 
1.23H.540 1,172.112 
1.425 18.318 
-- 
8. 693 40 . 397 
66.475 51.968 
75.16H 92.365 
73.743 74.047 
948.074 874.027 
1.021,817 948.074 
15.000 
$1.006.817 $ 948.074 
THE CANADIAN NLJRSE 29 


:evenue: 
MembershIp fee<; 
Subscriptions 
Advenising 
Sundry income . . . . . . . . . . . 
Government grant rc :'I:ational Conference on 
!'Jur.,cs for Communit) Service - net 


'xpenditure: 
Operating e'penses: 
Salaries .............. 
Printing and publications 
Design and graphics 
Postage on journal 
Computer service '" 
Committee meetings 
Translation services .......... 
Commission on advenising sales 
Affiliations fees - I.c.;>.j. . . . . . . . .. .. . 
- Canadian Council on Hospitdl 
Accreditation . 


Professional <;ervice<; 
Staff travel 
Office expense 
Books and periodicals 
Legal and audit 
Building services 
Sundry '......... 
Furniture and fixtures 
Landscaping and improvements 
Insurance . . . . . , . . . .' '" 
Deprecidtion - C.N.A. House 


on-operating expenses: 
1974 convention ...... 
Canadian Nurses' Foundation - administration ....... 
- grant to Research Fund 


Loss before items belO\\ 
C.;>.j.A. Testing Service - per statement 
Investment income . . 


Net income for year ". 
Surplus at beginning of year 


ARCH 1975 



CANADIAN NURSES' ASSOCIATION 
BALANCE SHEET 


as at December 31, 1974 
(with comparable figures for year ended December 31, 1973) 


Current Assets 
Cash in bank . . . . . . . 
Short term deposits plus accrued interest 
Accounts receivable 
Membership fees receivable 
Prepaid expenses 


Sundry Assets 
Marketable securities - at cost (quoted value 
$9.957; 1973: $15.170) ....... ...... .. 
Loans to member nurses plus accrued interest 


ASSETS 


Fixed Assets 
eN.A. House - land and building - at cost 
less accumulated depreciation on building ..................................... 
Furniture and fixtures - at nominal value .......... . .. ................ 


30 THE CANADIAN NURSE 


Approved on behalf on the Board: 


HUGUETTE LABELLE 
HELEN K. MUSSALLEM 


President 


Executive Director 


1974 197 
$ 97.132 $ 6.85( 
712.593 720.46( 
51.280 47.18. 
10.852 16.93( 
10.292 9.66<.1 
882.149 801.09
1 
3.779 3. 77( 
 
9.088 6.75(1 
12.867 10.5"1 
519,932 551.8((1 
I I, 
519,933 551.801, 
$1,414.949 $1.363,41:' 
I 


MARCH 1975 



CANADIAN NURSES' ASSOCIATION 
BALANCE SHEET 


as at December 31, 1974 
(with comparable figures for year ended December 31 1973) 


LIABILITIES AND SURPLUS 


Deferred subscription revenue 


1974 1973 
$ 20.863 $ 23.65
 
27.500 28.000 
- 
4R.363 51.65
 


(urent Liabilities 
Accounts pa}able and accrued liabllitie.. 


lortgage Payable - 6 314 c ( due 1976- 
pa}able in monthl) instalment
 of 
$3.5
8 to include principal and 
interest 


344.769 


363.704 


_serve for support to :-.Jorth\\e
t T errilOrie
 
Registered Nurses' Association 


15.000 
1.006.817 
$1.414.9
9 


948.074 
$1.363.432 


'uplus 


We have eXdmined the balance sheet of Canadian Nurses' Association as at December 31. 
1974. and the statement of income and surplus for the }ear then ended. Our examination 
included a general revie\\ of the accounting procedures and such tests of accounting 
record" and other supporting evidence as \\e considered necessary in the circumstances. 


In our opinion. these financial statements present fairly the financial position of the 
As!>ociation as at December 31. 1974. and the results of its operations for the year then 
ended. in accordance \\ith generall} accepted accounting principles applied on a basis 
consistent with that of the preceding year. 


GEO. A. WELCH & COMPANY. OTTAWA. 
CHARTERED ACCOUNT ANTS 


February 3. 1975 


<\RCH 1975 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 31 



CANADIAN NURSES' ASSOCIA nON 
BALANCE SHEET 


as at December 31, 1974 
(with comparable figures for year ended December 31, 1973) 


ASSETS 


Current Assets 
Cash in bank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Shon term deposits plus accrued interest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Accounts receivable . ........._ 
Membership fees receivable 
Prepaid expenses 


Sundry Assets 
Marketable securities - at cost (quoted value 
$9.957; 1973: $15.170) .... _ _ . _ _ . _ _ . . . . . _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Loans to member nurses plus accrued interest .............................. 


Fixed Assets 
C. N. A. House - land and building - at cost 
less accumulated depreciation on building . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Furniture and fixtures - at nominal value ...... 


Approved on behalf on the Board: 


HUGUETTE LABELLE 
HELEN K. MUSSALLEM 


President 


Executive Director 


30 THE CANADIAN NURSE 


1974 19731 
$ 97.132 $ 6,85
. 
712,593 720,46( 
51.280 47,18 L j 
10.852 16,93! 
10.292 9,661, 
882.149 801.09:1 
3.779 3, 77 l 
 
9.088 675( 
. I 
12.867 --"" 53f l 
519.932 551.80C 
I I 
519.933 551.801 
I 
$1.414.949 $1.363.43: ' 
, 
I 
I 


MARCH 1975 



CANADIAN NURSES' ASSOCIATION 
BALANCE SHEET 


as at December 31, 1974 
(with comparable figures for year ended December 31, 1973) 


LIABILITIES AND SURPLUS 


Crrrent Liabilities 
Accounts pa
able and accrued liabilitiö 


1974 
$ 20.863 


Deferred subscription re\enue 


27 .500 
-- 
4!L363 


ortgage Payable - 6 3/4(( due 1976- 
pa)able in month I) instalment
 of 
$3,548 to include principal and 
interest 


344.769 


!.erve for support to :-.Jorth\\ est T erritorie.. 
Registered Nursö' Association 


15.000 
1.006.817 
$1.414.949 



rrplus 


We ha\ e examined the balance sheet of Canadian :-.J urses' Association as at December 31 . 
1974. and the statement of income and ..urplus for the }ear then ended. Our examination 
included a general revie\\ of the accounting procedures and such tests of accounting 
record, and other supporting evidence as \\e considered necessary in the circumstances. 


In our opinion. these financial statements present fairly the financial position of the 
Association as at December 31. 1974. and the results of its operations for the year then 
ended. in accordance \\ith generally accepted accounting principles applied on a basis 
consistent \\ ith that of the preceding year. 


GEO. A. WELCH & COMPANY. OTT A W A. 
CHARTERED ACCOUNTANTS 


February 3. 1975 


<\RCH 1975 


1973 


S 23.654 


28.000 
--- 
51.654 


363.704 


948.074 
$1.363.432 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 31 



CANADIAN NURSES' ASSOCIATION TESTING SERVICE 
STATEMENT OF INCOME AND SURPLUS 


Year ended December 31, 1974 
(with comparable figures for year ended December 31, 1973) 


Revenue: 
Examination fees 


Interest earned ..............,............................................... 


Expenditure: 
Salaries ......... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 
Board a

 committee meetings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Item wntIng ................................................................ 
Operations (data processing. printing. 
warehousing) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Consultants ............................................. _ . . _ _ _ 
Rent .... .. .. .. .. .. ... ... ...,... ... ...... . . ..... ... .. .. .. ., .. .' " .. . 
Translation ................................................................. 
Office supplies and stationery _ _ _ _ _ _ , . . , . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Postage and express ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Telephone and telegraph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 
Staff travel ................................................................ 
Equipment maintenance and rental . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Books and periodicals ., . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Furniture and fixtures ........................................................ 
Miscellaneous ............ _ _ _ . 


Net income for year ............................................................. 


32 THE CANADIAN NURSE 


I 
1974 197. 
I 
$303.703 $287.95 
i 
5.691 2.8Ç 
309,394 290.84' 
142.656 115.4:' 
37.834 26.0il 
19.123 18.8
1 
I 
70.326 62. 91 i 
4
 
7.869 7.8(1 
705 3.3
 
4.765 3.8: 
2.472 3.9(1 
2.737 2,4 
1.628 2.21' 
866 1.0: 
467 7: 
7.700 
1.553 1.2. 
300.70 I 250,4< 
- 
$ 8.693 $ 40.3' 


MARCH l c , 



control: 


cigarettes & 


calories 


The key to prevention of weight gain when you stop smoking is careful monitoring 
of calorie levels. The author warns: make sure you don't increase food 
consumption to make up for cigarettes. 


). }OU want to stop smoking. but you 
IJn't "ant to get fat. Many smolers hide 
'hind the idea that. if they give up 
noking. they will gain weight. which is 
st as bad for them. But it is estimated 
at smoking 20 cigarettes daily is as hard 
1 your body as being 100 pounds 
lerweight! 
For ex-smokers. the key to prevention 
. "eight gain is careful monitoring of 
dotie levels; make sure you don't 
crease food consumption to make up for 
garettes. Most smokers who give up the 
Ibit find themselves battling not only the 

sire to smoke but a powerful desire to 
it. Here is a 5-step approach to weight 
)ntrol for those who "ant to stop 
noking without gaining weight. 


ep 1: Analyze your body 
The body is so individual that it is 
ifficult to establish a .. right". size for 
lost people. Calipers are probably the 
105t careful way of detennining your 
egree of fatness. These tools to measure 
ody fat are generally available in univer- 
ties. YM and YWCAs. and health 
udios. 
It is also necessary to examine your 
ody build. The stocky muscular 
lesomorph will never be a slender. bony. 
ctomorph. nor will the rounded. plump 
MRCH 1975 


Diane Birch 


endomorph ever achieve ectomorphic 
status. Nothing short of actual starvation 
will achieve such drastic changes; even 
then. body build will remain the same. In 
working with overweight persons. I have 
often found that their goal was unrealis- 
tic. Sophia Loren could never resemble 
Cher Bono. despite all the diets in the 
world. Be realistic in your "eight evalua- 
tion. 
Figure J is a chart of approximate 
desirable weights. A quick rule of thumb 
in determining frame size for "omen is to 
measure your "rist. Six to six and 
one-half inch
s is average; below that. 
small; and above that. large. The height is 
in 2-inch heels. The weight is "ith 
clothes. Perhaps an even better "ay to 
judge ideal "eight is to recall the \\eight 
at which you felt most comfortable in the 
past. 


Diane Birch (B.Se. (nutrition). 
tarianopolis 
College. Universit
 of Montreal: R.P.Dt.) has 
I.\orked as a therdpeutic dietitian at OUdl.\a 
General Hospital. and nutritioni,t for the 
Eastern region of the !\till.. Foundation of 
Ontario and for the Ottal.\a Carleton Regional 
Area Hedlth Cnit. She is presently a free-lance 
nutriti<>nist carl) ing out several community 
projects in the Otta....a area. 


Now that you have a good idea of 
yourself. start asking yourself how you 
look to the world. Are you overweight. 
living only to eat'? Or perhaps you had no 
weight problem \\ hile you were smoking. 
Do you remain sleek and slender while 
munching a chocolate bar or gaIn pounds 
just passing the cake counter? With this in 
mind. place yourself on the following 
vertical axis. 


Slim 


x 
I Fat 


Step 2: Analyze your food personality 
Are you a junk food fan "ho "ould 
rather have dessert than dinner. or french 
fries and a cola rather than a "ell- 
balanced meal'? Are you an individual 
THE CANADIAN NURSE 33 



\\ ho mU...1 h;lv
 nUlritiou... mcat... and 

11.ll"b. ncvcr ...kipping hrcJ"fa
l. drin"- 
ing 
oft lhin!..... or calmg chocolal
 har
'! 
Plac
 
ourwlf onlhc ti,lIowing horillmlal 
axl.... 


Fal 


Jun" 


-x 
\hll 


Food 


Step j: Find your p.utner 
Place Ih
 1\\0 a\e... tog
lher and find 

our qUJdrJnl 


Slim 


1-.11 


Jun" 


-x 
\\-ell . 


Food 


I 
X-- x 
I 
Fal 


Ha\e sc\eral friends go Ihrough SI
ps 
1 Jnd 2. ;\Ild find a partner in the same 
area l\f the quadrant in \\ hich 
 I\U fall. 
;'1;0\\ 
1\U can r
all
 help each olh
r. 
There i... nothing quile .1" fnhtr.lling .1... 
tr: ing 10 lo...e \\eighl \\Ïlh som
one \\ho i... 
in a different quadrant. Jun" tì.\od ealers 
ma
 di...li"e the piou... altitude... of Ihose 
\\110 cat \\
II: ;1 fat perM\n is upset b
 the 
...Iimlme... \\ho claim to ne
d diet help. 
The ,lim e\-smoker. \\ ho 
at... .I choco- 
34 THE CANADIAN NURSE 


laiC har and enjoy
 it. a...sume
 Ihal the far 
ex-smo"er should not wanl a chocolate 
har and. abovc all. should not hrca" down 
and cat it. Th
 key concept III Ihi... buddy 
syslcm is cmpalhy and tOlal und
rsland- 
ing. "Slim" will n
v
r undersland Ihe 
tcmplalion "Fat"' is facing or the hunger 
shc fecls. 


Step 4: Find your calorie needs 
Why do smo"er... who kick thc habil 
g.tin weigh!? Why do individuals claim 
that Ihey cat the way Ihcy have for years 
and yct arc now gaining weight'! A 
smo"er who adds cven one apple per day. 
to compensate for the changc in smoking 
hahit. i... adding 70 calories per day. In 50 
days, Ihis add'i up to 3500 calories and 
becomes one extra pound of body weight. 
Five candies pcr day add up to IUO 
extra calories: a gain of one pound per 
month. 12 pounds a year. If an ex-smoker 
\\ho is gaining weight eliminates the 
apple al 70 calories. then she stops 
gaining and maintains her present \\eight. 
To elicit a \\eighl loss. another 70 
calories must be eliminated. It i
 twice as 
h.lrd 10 lose \\eight as il is to gain it! 
No particular caloric level will guaran- 
tee to reduce \\
ight. The calories needed 
for each individual var
 greatly. A quic" 
rule of thumb is to eSlablish your basal 
melabolic needs. 
l\1ultipl
 your present \\eight hy 11 
and. if a \\oman. decrease this by 10 per 
cent. This is the number of calories 
required just to maintain nonnal body 
function. :\ten hJve higher basal 
metabolic needs than women: due to their 
greater amount of muscle lissue. l\1us- 
c1e... burn more energ
 Ihan do fat cells. 
If 
Oll are in good ph
...ical condition. 

ou hurn up caloric... more quidl
. This 
is \\h
 exercise is imperJti\t
 for the 
dieter. :'I.... \\e age. \\e require less. so cut 
.5 calorie
 for each 
ear from 25 to 45. 
then 15 calories for each 
 car up to 65. 
Men must lake off 10 calories for each 

earover 25. 
NO\\ add calories according to acti\it} 
le\el: 30e'} if you are sedentar): 50lle for 
light \\or!..: 75C7r for moderJte \\or": and 


100lk for strenuou
 work. Most peopl' 
fall into the light work or totally sedentar 
calegory. Do nor fool yourself in! 
thin"ing you do moderale m:tivilies unle
 
you spade the garden weclo.ly or polh 
floors a couple of times per week. Siltin 
at the main desk or ta"ing temperalures 
lighl \\ork. Lifting patienls i
 modern1 
activily. 


Now calculale your 
this example. 
Jane Jones 5' I" tall 
37 years old 
125 Ibs. x II = 1375 
minus IO l /c 137 


needs. followin 


1251b
 
light activily 


123R calories 
decrease by 12 years x 5 calorie.. 
60 calories 


1178 calories 


Add 5090 for 
activity 


589 calories 


Total need 1767 calories 
To reduce 10 Ibs. in 10 wee"s or I II 
per week she needs 500 fe\\er calories pt 
day. 


1767 
-500 


1267is JJne's reducin 


level. 


Some P eo p le c1allnlo gain on amthin 
- - I 
over ROO calories. Probably they don' 
really see \\ hat they are eating: they ma 
also rely on caloric tables that are plus 01 
minus 10 percent correct. 
In addition. one portion of meat in 
caloric table is 3 to oJ ounces. One portio 
to an individual mav mean 12 ounce
1 
. I 
Restaurants usually overfeed us. and 
stea" may be I 0 or 12 ounces. \\ hich i 
MARCH 197 



Iround 1.000 calories. One restaurant 
nain's hamburger has 1.000 calories by 

e1f. 


tep 5: Start losing 
J For 3 days. eat nonnally and record all 
lIe food you eat. 
IJ Analyze the record to determine \\ here 
ou can cut calories. 
J Eliminate only the determined number 
f calories; everything else should remain 
,le same. 
J Develop a pattern of eating at regular 
ltervals with the same basic foods 
lcluded. for instance. a sandwich and 
lilk every day at lunch. (This makes it 
asier to he sure of your approximate 
ltakc. ) 
] Do I/ot count calories daily. 
] Do not \\eigh yourself daily. Daily 
.:adings only exhibit \\ater loss, not fat 
.JSS. Weighing yourself once a week is 
ufficient. 
] Increase energy expenditure by walk- 
ng 20 minutes extra per day or increase 
xercise or spon activity. Don't overdo 
1e exercise or you will be ravenously 
;ungI) . 
] If you are consuming under 1.500 I 
alOlies per day. use a good multiple 
itamin and mineral preparation; it IS 
lifficult to consume all the necessary 
'it:unins and minerals in less than 1.500 
,alories. 
]J Keep in constant touch \\ ith your diet 
IJanner (Step 3) and seek his/her help 
,Iefore it's too late. 
b Remember this technique leads to a 
1,10\\, steady \\eight loss. Great losses are 
Iften due to water loss. You should lose I 
02 pounds each week. 


iummary 
, The 5 steps to control weight gain 
\'hen you stop smoking are: define your 
'ody type. analyze your food personality. 
"ind a diet panner. identify your caloric 
leeds. and lose the desired weight. '
 


\1ARCH 1975 


FIGURE I 


Desirable Weights for Persons Aged 25 or Over 


Height 
(with shoes on) 
2-inch heels 
Feet Inches 


Small 
Frame 


Women * 


Medium 
Frame 


large 
Frame 


4 10 
4 11 
5 0 
5 1 
5 2 
5 3 
5 4 
5 5 
5 6 
5 7 
5 8 
5 9 
5 10 
5 11 
6 0 


Height 
(with shoes on) 
1-inch heels 
Feet Inches 


92- 98 
94-101 
96-104 
99-107 
102-110 
105-113 
108-116 
111-119 
114-123 
118-127 
122-131 
126-135 
130-140 
134-144 
138-148 


Small 
Frame 


96-107 
98-110 
101-113 
104- 116 
107-119 
110-122 
113-126 
116-130 
120-135 
124-139 
128-143 
132-147 
136-151 
140-155 
144-159 


Men 


Medium 
Frame 


104- 119 
106-122 
109-125 
112-128 
115-131 
118-134 
121-138 
125-142 
129-146 
133-150 
137-154 
141-158 
145-163 
149-168 
153-173 


large 
Frame 


5 2 
5 3 
5 4 
5 5 
5 6 
5 7 
5 8 
5 9 
5 10 
5 11 
6 0 
6 1 
6 2 
6 3 
6 4 


112-120 
115-123 
118-126 
121-129 
124-133 
128-137 
132-141 
136-145 
140-150 
144-1 54 
148-158 
152-162 
156-167 
160-171 
164-175 


118-129 
121-133 
124-136 
127-139 
130-143 
134-147 
138-152 
142-156 
146--160 
150-165 
154-170 
158-175 
162-180 
167-185 
172-190 


126-141 
129-144 
132-148 
135-152 
138-156 
142-161 
147-166 
1 51-170 
155-174 
159-179 
164-184 
168-189 
173-194 
178-199 
182-204 


* For women between 18 and 25, subtract one pound for every year under 25. 
(Reprinted with permission from the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company.) 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 35 



The 


administrator: 


the real, the ideal 


This article is translated and adapted from an address presented by the author II 
the annual meeting of the Association of Health and Social Service Administrator 
of Quebec. She describes how nurses perceive the administrator and what rol 
they expect him to play. 


Rachel Bureau 


Of the nearly :W,OOO male and female 
nurses currently practicing in Quehec hos- 
pitab, all have their own perception of the 
role of the hospital administrator, and have 
definite expectations of him/her. 
Whcn vi"iting nuI'c.. in th
' \,Iriou.. rc- 
gion.. of thc pre!\ incc. I ljuc'itioncd th
'1lI on 
their perccption" of thc role of thc adillin- 
istnttor. SOIllC of their COllllllcnt.. \\cre: 
. The administrator i, an important and 
remote person. 
. The administrator has to be fair in select- 
ing priorities. 
. The administrator is important for nur<,- 
mg. 
. The administrator. in spite of his 
numerous functions. is concerned with the 
ordinary employee. 
. The administrator is a person\\. ho, too 
often. works for the gallery - for pres- 
tige. 
. The administrator? I don't know the per- 
son. 


Rachel Bureau (R.N., HÔpital SI. Fr.mçois 
d'A....j..e. Quéhee) is public health nurse 
educator with Ihe Quebec Chrislma.. Seal SOCI- 
elv, Inc. and WdS pröident of the Order of 
Nurses of Quebec IY71-.t. 


36 THE CANADIAN NURSE 


I 
These diversities in perception could. i 
many instances, be due to the personalit 
of the administrator. I should like to ,har 
certain themes that recurred during thes I 
conversations. 


An ear less than attentive 
First. the ears uf the administrator ar 
not always as responsive to the requests 01 
the nursing staff as to those of the ph} si 
cians or the "big boss," the Quebec De 
partment uf Social Affairs. Many illustra 
tions of this were related to me. 
For example. in some institutions i 
,cems almost impo<,<,ible for a nurse to ge 
an appointment with the administrator It 
discuss an important subject. yet it appear 
to be easy enough fora physician to do so. 1 
In the case of.r
search pro)e
ts, it woul
 
seem that medlcme has pnonty when I 
comes 10 available resources. Nurse 
rarely benefit from such funds. evell 
though. more and more. they want 10 un 
dertake the research that must be done 11 
improve quality of nursing care. Perhap, 
this is the field where the ear of the ad I 
mini<,trator is least attentive. 
The competition. if indeed it exists. i
 
an unequal one. On the one hand. physi.' 
cians can threaten to leave if they do no 
MARCH 1971 
I 



. in their case. On the other. salaried 
urses, unaccuslomed 10 !>uch tactics. cannot 
10 Ihe same to defend their righls. This is 
\ here the Jdministrator's abil it
 to be im- 
lartial is so important. 


letween budget and patient care 
Another source of irrilation. perhaps J 
najor one. exists, and it is lme that the 
Idminislrator cannot avoid. For nurses. 
he budget seems too oflen to have prece- 
lence o\er Ihe care of the sick. They find il 
lifficult to accept the budget as a reason 
"or refusing 10 hire enough competent staff 
o meet the needs of patients, or for not 
!btaining Jppropriate malerial to facilitate 
heir \\ ork (e\en 10 such a small item as an 
'Iectric fan for a nursing station \\ here Ihe 
1eal is unbearable). On the other hand. 

quipment \\ orth thousands of dollars 
,tands idle every da). 
Anolher point having to do wilh fi- 
lances fruslrales members of the nursing 
profession. This is the difficulty some of 
them have in being released from \\ork 10 
participate in professional activities of the 
Order of Nurses of Quebec or to attend 
professional seminars. Nurses do not \\ish 
to be cloistered: they .... ant to keep Up-Io- 
date and acquire new kn<.mledge. To do 
0;0. they have to get apprO\al from Iheir 
employer ....ho. unfortunately. does not 
ah\ays see merit in Iheir case. 
I believe thaI nurses \\ant more than 
anything else to have the administrator un- 
"'dersland the area of expertise of each 
health professional and 10 ensure that each 
respects the independence of the other. 


Nursing service director expects. . . 
The nurse with the most realistic pen:ep- 
tion and the most clear-cut expectations of 
the administrator is the director of nursing 
services. She administers a service repres- 
enting about 70 percent of all staff in a 
hospital cenler. ....hich includes almosl 85 
percent of Ihe professionals who \\ork 
there. 
The director of nursing service!> has 
high expectations of the administralor- 
perhaps even .... ishes he were a superman! 
, She would like 10 be assured of his' 'pres- 
ence" in tenns of both quanlity and qual- 
! it). and of his a....areness of the problems 
, MARCH 1975 


thaI confront her daily. For example. in 
institution.. .... ith no interns. residents. or 
d<.\Llors on call. nurses are obliged to make 
medical decisions in certain situations 
\\ here it is impossible to reJch a ph
 sician. 
In too many institutions, the nurse must 
filllhe role of pharmacist after 5:00 P.
1. or 
on \\eekends. If she \\ere to make a mis- 
take. where would the responsibility lie"? 
Quite often. too. a nurse is confronted 
\\ith the folh\\\ing dilemma after 
5:00 P. ''-: to do either Ihe .... ork of a dieti- 
liJn. a ph} siotherapist. or an inhalation 
therapist. or to penalize the patient. 
The supervising nurse sometimes ad- 
mits pJtients in the evenings or at night and 
even has to look for a chart in the record 
room. This basic nursing dilemma is dealt 
\\ ith b
 \1ary Bracket!.' \\ ho speak<; of the 
overa\ailabilit\ of the nurse. 
The nursing sen ice is fortunate if it 
does not ha\e to plug a leaking pipe or 
keep poorly operating heating equipment 
functioning after regular on ice hours. 
These are minor. everyda) problems. yet 
the) often prevent members of the nursing 
profession from fulfilling their real func- 
tion of restoring the sick person to the 
condition where nature can do its 
work. 2 
A presence that seems to hover some- 
\\ here between nursing service and the 
administrator is the provincial department 
of social affairs. The admini..trator who 
\\aits too long for direction from that de- 
partment before acting seems too indeci- 
'iive. He should be more independent 
where the \\elfare of the sick is concerned. 
The members of the nursing profession 
expect even more of the administrator. 
They want the administrator. who under- 
stands the real role of the director of nurs- 
ing services. to have the department of 
social affairs make her salary match those 
of other directors. Naturally, it \\ould not 
be a question of a salar) matching that of 
the medical director! 
Could it be that, in spite of equal compe- 
tence and often heavier respom,ibilities 
than those of other directors. the director 
of nursing services earns a salary lower 
than theirs because of the female character 
of the profession'? 
Above all. the director of nursing wants 


the administrJtor to be a real head: one 
\\ ho plans. directs. Jnd controls the \\ork 
of his subordinates. and \\ho has the 
cJpacity 10 moti\ ate the management 
team. 
If the director of nursing services ex- 
pects all these talents in one person. she is 
also conscious of the heavy respon- 
sibilities placed on the administrator. His 
most faithful colleague probably is the di- 
rector of nursing services. for her attenlion 
most directly focuses on Ihe ultimate goal 
of the institution. She has no ambitions to 
take his place but. rather. \\ ants to become 
a full partner in the management team. 
Administrators should be alert to prob- 
lems that may arise concerning acts dele- 
gated 10 members of the nursing profes- 
sion b) the Professional Corporation of 
Physicians of Quebec. Physicians and 
nurses have \\orked together tor se\eral 
months to establ ish a I ist of these acts, and 
they have succeeded in defining the area of 
independence and competenCe of the pro- 
fessions concerned. 
In summary. nurses expect the hospital 
administrator to be responsive to the needs 
of all his employees. He should be: 
. a leader who is receptive to the express- 
ed needs of nursing staff: 
. a negotiator on their hehalf with the de- 
partment of social affair'i and the board of 
directors: 
. an arbitrator between the nursing dnd 
medical professions: and . 
. an infonned spoke'iman for nursing in 
the multidisciplinary and administrative 
communications network. 


References 
I. Br.ld.ett. M.!t) E. The nur
ing prionty in 
the hospital nurse'
 rolc. /11 \jalion.!1 
Le.!gue for 
ul>ing. Dept. of Hospit.!1 
Nursing. Blueprint for progress in hospital 
nursing. Proceedmgs of the 1962 Region.!1 
conferences 
pons(lred by the Dept. of Hos- 
pitJI !\Iursing. National League for NUl>ing 
and Ihe Regional Councib of Stale Leaguö 
for :\ursin!!. '\:e\\ York. cl963. p. "!.3-7. 
'\ :'II ighlingale. Rorence. ,votes VII IIl1rsillg.- 
\l'hat it is. alld ,,'hm it is IIot. 1 ed. London. 
Harrison. 1859. 


THE CANADIAN NlJRSE 37 



I can't quit now! 


In a matter of life and death, it may already be too late to help. Resuscitation may be futile. The 
author shares her sense of frustration and futility with those who may face a similar situation. 


Thi... per...onal experience deab \\ ith the 
ath:mpted re
u
citation of a pcr
(Jn vcr) 
do...e to me and my real."tions and feeling.... 
a
 a human being and a... a nur...e, during 
and after the nisi
. In recounting it, I hope 
to 
ho\\ others the feelings of inadequac). 
the indeci...ion. and ambivalence 01...- 
...ociated \\ ith facing a medical crisis \\ith a 
loved one. 
:\1) life changed 
o abruptly and com- 
pleh:l
 that I doubt I will be able to forget 
that da
, \\hich started off as a very happy 
one m our live.... \1) fiance and I haJ just 
bought a small cabin in the \\ood
 of 
northern Quebec \\ e had ...pent thi
 day 
dearing the land and planning our future. 
\\-e \\ere v"orking deep in the bu...h. \\ith 
no other person within mile
. There \\a
 a 
magnificent sense oftogetherne

 bet\\een 
John and me. and betv"een u... and nature. 
I can remember how delighted John \\01... 
at m} exuberance v" hen I v"a
 chopping 
down my fir...t tree. It \\a
 dn experience I 
had never had in \le\\ York. and I v"as 
thrilled. We 
pent long hours that day 
chopping down trees and cutting down the 
overgrown, waist-high \\eeds. Finally, we 
took a coffee break. during which \\e dis- 
cu
sed our many plans for our hideaway in 
the woods. 
I was physically exhausted and 
ug- 
gested that we quit. John wouldn't hear of 
it. I can remember him saying that we had 
to do as much as possible before winter 
...etUed in. Those were John's last v"ords. 
After a few minutes. I felt guilty about 


Carnl)n G. I\.lute (R.!\;.. Jer...cy City :'\1edical 
Center Ho...pital ...chool of nUNng, Jer...ey Cit}. 
:\.1.: B.S.. Richmond College. Staten bland. 
N.Y.) i... employed at 
ount Sinai Hn"'pital. 
Stc. Agathc. Quebec. 
38 THE CANADIAN NURSE 


Carolyn G. Klute 


röting \\hile he \\as \\orking. so I forced 
m)...c1fto go had, to \\ork. I \\aved to him 
a... I L'ame out of the cahin. I \\ anted him to 
kno\\ I \\a...n't a quitter. John \\as cutting 
do\\ n the \\eeds on the far ...ide of the cabin 
\\ ith a ...cythe. He ...miled and v"aved back. 
He \\01'" happ) that I \\a...n't quitting. 
I ...et to \\orlo. chopping a path to the 
(Juthou...e on the near ...ide of the cabin. It 
v" a... ...0 peaceful and silent - all I could 
hear \\as the ...ound of m) dipper... and the 
,,\ ish of hi... ",'y the. 


Premonition 
Less than fi..e minute... later. I had an 
inexplicahl) bad feeling. I didn't knov" 
v" hat \\01... \\rong. but ...omehov" I kne\\ that 
something \\as. 
I dropped m) dipper... and ran to the 
other ...ide of the cabin. I saw a flash of 
John.... red ...hirt on the ground. I called 
him. He didn't an...v"er. 
Initially, I v" as terrified. What had hap- 
pened? Had be heen dttaL'ked by a wild 
animal. shot b} a hunter. .? I could feel 
my heart beating ver} hard and fast as I ran 
to John. He was just lying there with one 
hand still grippmg the scythe. My God, 110 
-he's dead! It can't be. Ijust saw himfi
'e 
minutes aRo, and he "'as .fine. Now he's 
dead? This can't happen tnJohll, not to my 
John. 
In an instanl.l v"as kneeling beside him, 
feeling for a pulse. looking at his dilated 
pupils. Cardiac arrest! 
The nur...e in me took over v"ithout my 
hdving to think about it. A 
harp blov" to 
the chest, tilt the head back. pinch the 
nostrils. two quick breaths, begin cardiac 
compression. Repeat cycle. 
On the first cardiac compression I felt 
the sickening crack ofrib
 breaking. Calm 
down, Ret hold of wJUndf. You must keep 


your. mind thinkinR clearly - John neee l 
your help. The cracking ribs unnerved m,1 
more than it 
hould have. Shortly afterth I 
it hit me - v"hat really was happening I 
There I was. alone. miles from 01 
where. trying to ...ave John' slife \\ ith notl 
ing but my two hands and my breatl 
Hov" I \\ ished \\e were in a coronary car 
unit. instead of here in the v"oods. TI 
desperation of the situation broke dov" 
my defenses. I started to cry. to sob i I 
betv"een breathing for John. I kept \\(Jr
 
In!!, and tried to thinlo. dearl". I 

 J I 
What wa... the proper ratio. an}v"ay? I 
couldn't remember for ...ure. I had ah\a\ 
re...uscitated \\ith a team. but ...omewhe
\ 
sometime. I had learned the compre...sior 
respiration ratio fur one person \\orlo.in 
alone. I decided on 5: I. and stayed v" it 
that: at least, I think I did. 
Ten minutes pa.,sed. Why wasn't he re 
sponding yet? Could he still hear me'? I 
kept calling him, begging him to \\ake up 
Please, John, please lI'aJ..e up. There I 
wa.,. an experienced. crisi.,-urientel. 
nurse. and I could not compr.::hend v"ha 
\\a., happening. I had 
een death so man: 
times: but \\ hen I sav" it th
t dOl} , I couldn'l 
and v"ouldn't accept it. Pretty soon. he'! 
come around, I knol\' he wil/. Have to J..eel l 
trying, lean' t quit noli'. 
B) nov". I had worked up a good .,\\eat 
It wa., getting cold and starting to drizzle I 
In betv"een breaths. I had heen screamin! 
for help. There's /10 one withillllliles, hem 1 
can anwme hear me? What ifno one come
 
ulltil tomorrow? Should I stop? Can j 
real/y let John die? What if he Ii
'es {/II(, 
he's nothing more than a vefietable? Oh 
God. someone, please hear me! 
A thou.,and thought., and question- 
raced through my mind. I \\as losing con- 
trol of m} self. I v"ent on like this for nearl} 
MARCH 1975 



hour. I guess. I had not been able to 
Jke the deci
ion that John's life had 
ded here and nO\\. I could not be the 
II':. 


'elp at last 
Finall}, I heard the sound of a car ap- 
Jaching from a distance. I intensified 
y screams. Help is coming - now we 
In sm'e John. As the sound drew closer. I 
le", I had been heard. 
"IJext. I sa\\ t\\O young men running up 
... hill 10 \\ here \\ e \\ ere. I ,>creamed to 
em that John had had a cardiac arrest and 
plea
e help me. The young men neither 
JOke nor understood English, and m} 
10\dedge of French \\as limited. I 
àI1ted them to take over. to help me, but 
e
 just stood there looking at this hyster- 
,al girl \\orking on a dead man. Right 
,"'a
, I kne\\ the
 couldn't help, so I beg- 
,
d them to get a doctor. One stayed, one 
,oft. 
In my limited French, I told this young 
:Ian ho", to do artifical respiration \\ hile ( 
,id cardiac massage. He tried. but he sim- 
I) had no idea. It wasn't effective - the 
hest \\asn't rising. I shoved him out ofthe 
..Iy and took over again. I didn't even 
pologize for my rudeness. After all. he 
I.lS trying, He stepped back and ",atched. 
eeling, rm sure. completely inadequate. 
Perhaps 15 minutes later. the ambul- 
nce came. I sa\\ three men running up the 
till. one carrying a small oxygen tank. 
"hank God, 1101
' I hm'e help. Now it will 
-ealright. Again. ( \\anted these people to 
ake over, but I said nothing. 
I kept \\orking. ( \\atched one man slap 
he oxygen mask over John's face. Don't 
he\' /..nOl
 anything? What good will that 
10 if he's not breathing or circulating? I 
\ent back to \\ork - no", close to being 
l)sterical. but I didn't ha\e the time for 
hat. I kept on resuscitating, \\hile two of 
he men got the stretcher. As \\ell as I 
:ould, I kept \\orking as \\e moved slowly 
)0\\ n the hill. 
The driver, \\ ho, fortunately, spoke 
English. told me to get in the front. I did. 
The other man got in the back \\ith John. I 
:hought he \\ould no\\ take over. but I 
looked and he \\as doing nothing, I begged 
him to please breathe for John - please. 
So he did. Then I begged him to do cardiac 
massage. I don't know \\hat ratio he was 
using, if any. Could it be. as it seemed. 
,that he had never done this before? 
,\-\ARCH 1975 
I 


Thnn/.. God, there's the hospital. Now, 
finally. we can save John. The code team 
will be Imiting - defibrillator, IV. ad- 
renalin, endotracheal rube, monitor - fi- 
nally. we'll have It all. We rolled the 
stretcher into the hospital - I kept on 
resuscitating as \\e \\ent. We \\ent to an 
elevator and stopped. An elevator! What 
for? Weren't all emergency rooms on the 
ground floor? Not this one. (llater learned 
it "' as a psychiatric hospital.) 
We arrived. Hang on, John, ir'sO.K.- 
we're here The code team is waiting be- 
hind those doors. They will do everything 
they call. They will save you, I know they 
will. I half expected to be stopped firmly 
by a nurse saying that I \\ould have to \\ait 
outside, please. I \\ asn 't stopped. 
The doors flew open. No code team. no 
nurses. one doctor. not even a crash cart! 
What kind of hospital is this. anyway'? 
This doctor in his starched white coat took 
his stethoscope from his pocket. He didn't 
start screaming orders. or push the 
"panic" bunon. or get excited - he just 
took out his stethoscope. He didn't even 
ask me ho\\ long ago this had happened. 
\\hether there \\as a history of heart dis- 
ease, ho\\ old is the patient - nothing. He 
put the scope to John's chest and listened. 
He looked up at me. took the scope from 
his ears, and said. '1"m sorry." You're 
sorry.' What do \"ou mean? Is this all there 
is? Aren't we going to try? Can't we please 
at least try? You're sorry! 
Suddenly. my knees felt \\eak ",ith the 
finality of his '1"m sorry
'" I nearly col- 
lapsed. M) God. for nearly t\\O hours I 
had worked on John. to bring him here to 
hear this doctor sa} he was sorry! 
I \\anted to scream and throw things. I 
wanted to \\ rap the stethoscope around 
"I'm sorry's" neck. Instead. I \\alked out of 
that room and this time I \\3.'> hysterical. 
fl<ow. at least I had the time to be. John really 
\\as dead. 
I went to the lobby - I sat. ( \\alked, I 
sobbed, I thought. One of the young men 
offered me a cigarene. Hand rolled and 
strong, it burned my throat. It felt good. I 
\\as so upset and frustrated at this point 
that I did not know \\hat to do. I blamed 
the doctor for eve!) thing. but especially 
for giving up on John. He didn't even try! 
He \\ as sorry! 
I sat in that lobby - soaking \\et. dirty, 
sobbing, alone. Someone had called my 
friends, Maddy and Eddy. Oh, please 


hurry. I really need to see your familiar 
faces. I \\aited about another hour for my 
friends. 
I can remember thinking that (must not 
upset these friends \\ ho \\ ere close to 
John. HOII' should I tell them? What can I 
say? I didn't know. As I sa\\ them coming 
to\\ard me, I lost control. I embraced them 
both and blurted out that John \\ as dead. 
Vel} subtle. Eddy \\ent to see the doctor, 
and 
Iaddy and I hugged each other and 
cried and cried. It hurt; no pain can ever be 
worse. 
A policeman came. Through a trans- 
lator, he asked me so many stupid ques- 
tions. Please lem'e me alone. We \\ere in 
the same room \\ here John. covered \\ ith a 
red blanket. lay on a stretcher. Can' t we go 
somewhere else? I don't want to see John 
co\'ered with a red blanket. Finally, ",e 
started the long drive home. It was still 
rammg. 


Acceptance 
This all happened just over a year ago. 
When I think back on it no\\ , one thing has 
,become clear to me. John \\as beyond 
help, anyone's help. \\hen I found him. 
There's no question in my mind about 
that anymore. Maybe I should have just 
accepted that and sat down and cried. But I 
didn't. I had to try to save him. Had I 
kno\\ n \\ hat \\ ould happen at the hospital. 
honestly, I don't kno", if I would have 
tried so hard. Had I not been trained in 
resuscitation, I would have been spared an 
enonnous amount of frustration. I felt 
guilty for a\\ hile - guilty because I had 
failed, guilty because I didn't find John 
soon enough. guilt} because I reacted ",ith 
more heart than head. 
I no longer feel guilty. I think that. 
given the impossibilities of that day. I tried 
to the limit of my abilities. If this same 
thing happened tomomm, I guess I \\ould 
have to react in the same \\a}. 
It is hard to give up on someone you 
love, It is really impossible to be the one 
",ho sa\s: "O.K., that's it. he's dead."' 
Someone else must do this. 
I learned \\ hen training for a nurse that it 
is not a good idea to nurse someone close 
to you. I never reall} understood \\hy. 
No\\ I kno\\ \\hat \\as meant. because 
there are times when. no matter \\ hat your 
training or experience is. you redlize that 
you are a human being first and a nurse 
second. 



 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 39 



The LÏppincott 
ltlanual or Nu.-sÏug PractÏ 
A unique, ready reference for safe, effective pati ent care 


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18 SPECIAL NEEDS OF LONG-TERM 
PATIENTS 
Stevens 
Informal and delightful. with a wealth of 
practical information not found in standard 
texts! 
288 pp. 


ill us. 


1974 
paper, $5.90 



new products 


{ 


Descriptions are based on mformation 
supplied by the manufacturer. No 
endorsement is intended. 


Disposable suction collection unit 
Economy. combined with practicality. are 
features of a new disposable suction col- 
lection unit available from Davol. Inc. 
Economy is achieved by the canister's de- 
sign. using plastic material. thus making 
more efficient use of raw materials and 
keeping selling price low. It eliminates the 
problems of reusables, such as risk of 
cross-contamination and cost of reproces- 
sing, and wear-related operational prob- 
lems. such as vacuum loss. breakage, and 
clogging. 



 


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,',' 


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ZI,O" ..." 
_;;aD. 
"00 , ) i f 
"1110 . 
naG 
- )!lII, .. ....-- 
'400 .a 
:::: I i 
IDD. 
... 
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Special stainless steel brackets are sup- 
plied for adaptation to all common hospital 
suction sources. A bracket with anti-tip 
floor stand is also available. Large. prom- 
inent calibrations (to 2000 cc.) on the 
brackets allow readings from a distance of 
10 feet. 
For information. write: Davol Inc.. 
Providence, Rhode Island 02901 or Enns 
and Gilmore, 1033 Rangeview Road. Port 
Credit. Ontario. 


Biogastrone 
Biogastrone is indicated as specific 
therapy for patients with confirmed be- 
nign gastric ulcer. Its use promotes 
healing without the need of special 
dietary measures or bed rest. Evidence of 
its local action on the gastric mucosa is 
42 THE CANADIAN NURSE 


sho\\-n by increased secretion of mucus 
and favorable modification of its molecu- 
lar structure, prolonged life of gastric 
epithelial cells, and prevention of back- 
diffusion of hydrogen ions. 
Patients must be carefully evaluated and 
monitored while under Biogastrone 
therap). The drug should not be pre- 
scribed for patients suffering cardiac. 
renal. or hepatic failure. 
Biogastrone tablets are scored. each 
containing 50 mg. carbenoxolone sodium 
B.P. For information write: The Wm. S. 
Merrell Company, 2 NoreIco Drive. 
Weston. Ontario. M9L I R9. 


Medication carts 
A new series of medication carts feature 
cassettes that can be removed from either 
side for efficient patient bin exchange. 
They also serve as organizers in the 
pharmacy. by keeping bins together in 
one stack for easier filling. 


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This series also has the exclusive 
Macbick locking system. a 7"-deep nar- 
cotics drawer with additional independent 
lock, a 7"-deep supply drawer. and a 
pull-out tray for Kardex file that leaves 
the work surface clear. 
For details. write C.R Bard (Canada) 
Ltd.. I Wests ide Drive. Etobicoke. Onto 
M9C I B2. 


Draining-wound management system 
The Hollister draining-wound managt, 
ment system helps protect against ski 
irritation by collecting exudate away fro!, 
the wound; helps isolate wound frOl' 
external environment; permits immedia, 
access for observation and treatment; an! 
permits disposal of exudate without ha' 
109 to strip away adhesive-held dressings 
I 


.If 


\0. 


Components are in sterile peel-pack I 
for operating room or postoperative ap 

kation. 1 
The supplier is Hollister Limited. 33 1 
Consumers Road. Willowdale. On 
M2J IP8. 1 


Posey turn-and-hold decubitus pad 
A new decubitus pad. designed for turning, 
holding. and pulling patients. has beel 
developed by the J.T. Posey Company. 
The Posey turn-and-hold decubitus pat 
can be used to turn the patient on his sid. 
and. when secured to side rails. will hoh 
the patient in that position. 


I 
T
e pad. made of 72 ounces of Kode I 
per lInear yard for effective pile and den I 
sity, is available in three sizes: No I 
6325-24" 30, No. 6341-30 x 40. and No I 
6361-30 x 60. For further information I 
write: Enns and Gilmore Limited, 103:: 
Rangeview Road, Port Credit, Ontario. 
MARCH 197!1 



- 


... 


..-- 


- 



 

...." 


I 
1attress prevents decubitis ulcers 
,"he Equi-Spension Floatation System 
'1attress is a combination water and air 
, nit that inflates to the same size and shape 
s an ordinary mattress. It sets on top of 
I xisting mattresses and takes regular or 
itted contour sheets. It has 3 separate in- 
lependent sections. each holding about 6 
.allons of water. The air frame surround- 
ng it is inflated by using a vacuum cleaner 
n reverse. or by any small hand or foot air 
lump. The vinyl covering penn its easy 
leaning. 
For information write Thermo- 
:yronics. Inc. 275 Route 18. East 
bmswick. New Jersey 08816. 


l'1odular weight system 
=hick Orthopedic's new modular weight 
.ystem for lower extremity exercise is de- 
.igned to fit any patient. It is ideal for 
mgoing physical therapy programs. 



 



 


Comprised of a five-pound weight boot 
l1nd five-pound. modular. add-on weights. 
Fhe system features adjustable Velcro 


osures for sure. quick fit. The sturdy 
VInyl boot and modular weights are easy to 
jean. The components are interchange- 
able; thus. large inventories are not neces- 
sary. The boot and weights are durable 
;:nough to be used over and over again. 
For information. write J. Stevens and 
Son Co.. Ltõ.. 2050 Kipling. Toronto. 
,Ontario. 
\iARCH 1975 
I 


, 


Thorax Cut-A-Way 
The Thorax Cut-A-Way has been de- 
veloped as an aid for external cardiac 
massage. The life-size model of a cross- 
section of the lower half of the sternum 
closely resembles conditions found in an 
adult. It shows blood flow and the 
corresponding amount ejected from the 
heart when the correct pressure is exerted 
on the heart. When pressure is relaxed. 
the model shows the return of venous 
blond to the heart. 


J 




 
! 
 
..J- 


....... 
......- 


'f.. 


..... 


L- 
, 


... 


The trammg of correct cardiac arrest 
revival procedures and other related 
symptoms is effectively conducted 
through use of the Thorax Cut-A- Way. It 
weighs 7lbs. 
The Thorax Cut-A-Way is available 
from Safety Supply Company. 214 King 
Street East. Toronto. Ontario. M5A !JS. 


Pre-gelled disposable electrode 
Monitrode. Ine.. has developed a 
chloride-free gel media for use in Mini- 
trode electrodes. which eliminates poten- 
tial irritation during normal periods of 
application on infants. 
The Mini-trode may be used 5-7 days 
\\ ithout removing from the infant. with 
continued high performance as the 10"' 
offset potentials permit long-term accu- 
rate measurement. Pre-gelling all 0\\ s 
quick application. Mini-trode's pad adhe- 
sive is strong enough to resist unusual 
turning of infant or tugging on lead wires. 
The pad is not loosened by expmure to 
\\.ater. 
Mini-trodes electrodes are packaged in 
a moisture-proof. high-vac bag. freshness 
guaranteed for a year. Mini-trodes are 
designed for maximum infant comfort. 
simplicity of use and minimum cost. and 
are readily adaptable tfl all types of 
monitoring equipment. 
For information ",rite Monitrode. Inc.. 
782 Burr Oak Drive. Wcstmont. III. 
60559. U.S.A. 


Next Month 
In 


The 
Canadian 
Nurse 


. Rape Victims - 
The invisible Patients 


-
 


. How The Leukemic Child 
Chooses His Confidant 


. The Hyperkinetic Child 


· How Children See Nurses 


ð 

 


Photo Credits 
for March 1975 


Sunnybrook Medical Centre 
Toronto. Ontario. P. 12 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 43 



names 


Frances Moore (R.N.. B.Sc.. University 
of Alberta) previously assistant director of 
nursing. was recently appointed director 
of nursing. local board of health. Calgary 
Health District. Calgary. Alberta. 
An active member of the Alberta Asso- 
ciation of Registered Nurses. she was its 
president from 1965 to 1967. As Its past 
president. she served as chairman of the 
liaison committee of the Alberta Medical 
Association. Alberta Hospitals Associa- 
tion. and the AARN. She was chairman of 
the nursing practice planning committee 
from 1971 to 1974. and is currently a 
member of this committee. 


"- 


.,
 
l 


,.
 f->. 


- 


- 


.. 
F. Moore 


M.R. Thompson 


M. Ruth Thompson (R.N.. B.Sc,N.. Uni- 
versity of Alberta; M.A. Columbia U.. 
New York). died in Edmonton 15 January 
1975, She had retired in 1971 as director of 
the University of Alberta Hospital school 
of nursing, having filled that post since 
1954. 
During her professional career.. Thomp- 
son had been inslructor in nursing at the 
Archer Memorial Hospital. Lamont. and 
at the University hospital. Edmonton: a 
nursing sister during World War II. serv- 
ing on the hospital ships Lady Nelson and 
Letitia; and director of nursing at 
Belleville General Hospital and at the 
Victoria General Hospital. London. 
Ontario. 
At the time of her death, .she was 
on a committee engaged in writing the 
history of the school of nursing of the 
University of Alberta Hospital. 


Helen Evans (Reg. N.. Toronto General 
Hospital school of nursing; B.Sc.N.. Uni- 
versity of Western Ontario. London; 
M.S.. Boston University) has been ap- 
pointed assistant director of professional 
standards, College of Nurses of Ontario, 
Based in Toronto throughout her nurs- 
44 THE CANADIAN NURSE 


ing career. Evans was for several years 
director of nursing education. The Hospi- 
tal for Sick Children, before becoming as- 
sisIant chairman. nursing, at the Gerrard 
Campus of the Ryerson Poly technical 
Institute. a position she held prior to her 
current appointment. 


Jerry Miller has been appointed director. 
communication services. the Registered 
Nurses Association of British Columbia. 
succeeding Claire Marcus. who recently 
resigned from that position. 
Miller has been assistant director. cor- 
porate communications. Occidental Life 
Insurance Company. Los Angeles, and. 
since coming to Vancouver. has been in- 
formation officer for the Electrical Con- 
tractors Association of British Columbia 
and for the Workmen's Compensation 
Board. 


Jackie Robarts (Reg. N.. Hamilton Civic 
Hospital school of nursing; B.Sc.N.. 
University of Toronto) has been 
appointed principal of the North 
Campus (Rexdale) of the Humber 
College of Applied Arts and Techno- 
logy. Formerly director of the Osler 
School of Nursing 
in Weston, Robarts 
has worked at the 
Hamilton Civic 
Hospital and has 
been director of 
nurs ing of the 
Public General 
oJ t Hospital in Chatham. 
· Ontario. She is 
currently completing studies for her 
master's degree in education at the Ontario 
Institute for Studies in Education. 



""" "" 
I 
i;' .,. 


Mary L. Richmond (R. N .. V ancou ver Gen- 
eral Hospital; B.N.. McGill University. 
Montreal: M.A.. Columbia University, 
Ne.... York) has become the first director of 
educatioflal resources at Royal Jubilee 
Hospital. Victoria. B.c. 
Earl ier in her career she was educational 
director and then director of nursing at the 
Royal Jubilee Hospital. later becoming a 
member of the faculty of the McGill 
School for Graduate Nurses in Montreal. 
In 1964 she ",as appointed director of nurs- 


ing at the Vancouver General Hospita' 
Prior to her current appointment. Rid, 
mond had been in New Zealand on 
traveling scholarship to discuss nursin 
service .... ith professionals in the heal! 
field. 


Eleanor MacDougall (Reg.N.. Otta" 
Civic Hospital school of nursing; Cel 
Clinical Teaching. University of Torontl 
Dipl. Publ. Health, University of West ell 
Ont
rio) has been appointed assistant d 
rector of the Victorian Order of Nurse
 
She is responsible for personnel. 
MacDougall has been associate 
with the VON for many year
 
first as staff nur
 
in Gall. Ontaric 
She went on t 
Dundas as nurSt 
in-charge. then t 
Calgary as distri, 
director. later bl 
coming region< 
director for Albert; 
Saskatchewal 
Manitoba. and branches in OntarÌl 


&, 

 -
 


Pierrette Levesque (R. N.. HÔpital S 
Michel-Archange. Québec; B.Sc. Inf 
University of Montreal; M.S.N.. Catholi 
University of America. Washingtor 
D.C.) has been appointed director of th 
school of nursing. Laval Universit} 
Québec. Recentl: 
the director of nurs 
ing service. Hôpita 
St-Michel-Archangl 
in Quebec. she ....a 
earlier an assistan 
professor at thl 
Laval Universlt
 
school of nursing 
Levesque is presi 
dent of the Women's University Club 01 
Quebec. 


-- '" 


-\ 
- 


\ 


, 


. \ 


John E.A. Baker (Reg. N,. St. Joseph's Hos 
pita} school of nursing. Peterborougt 
B.Sc.. Trent University, Peterborough) ha 
been appointed director of nursing at thl! 
Douglas Memorial 
ospital. Fort 
rie. HI, 
was formerly coordinator of nursing ser 
vices. Addiction Research Foundation 
Toronto, 
 
MARCH 197 



TURNING PROBLEMS INTO OPPORTUNITIES- 
THAT'S 
NURSING 
LEADERSHIP! 


/ 


A New Book! 


Hoffman et al 


SPATIAL ANALYSIS OF THE ELECTROCARDIOGRAM: A Program 
Step-by-step instructions and specific, related illustrations make this new text a 
valuable learning tool. In programmed form, three sections provide the material 
necessary for spatial analysis of any electrocardiogram. 
By IRWIN HOFFMAN, M.D.; JULIEN H. ISAACS, M.D.; JAMES V. DOOLEY, M.D.; PHIL 
R. MANNING, M.D.; and DONALD A. DENNIS. Ph.D. March, 1975. Approx. 160 pages, 
7" x 10", 199 illustrations. About $7.30. 


New 2nd Edition! 


Anderson 


WORKBOOK FOR PEDIATRIC NURSES 


This workbook examines growth and development in general, and then presents 
exercises on nursing care of the hospitalized child at every age level, from 
infancy through adolescence. Emphasis is placed on the effects of family, 
environment. and nurse on child. 
By NORMA J. ANDERSON, R.N. June, 1974. 200 pages plus FM I-X. 7W' x fOW', 21 
illustrations. Price, $6.05. 


New 3rd Edition! 


Ingalls-Salerno 


MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH NURSING 


This new 3rd edition is a completely unified presentation of obstetric and 
pediatric nursing. New material includes: new charts, discussions and tables; 
three methods of pelvic measurement; new information on birth control and 
abortion; and more! 
By A. JOY INGALLS, R.N., M.S.; and M. CONSTANCE SALERNO, R.N., M.S.; with 2 
contributors. June, 1975. Approx. 704 pages, 7" x 10". About $12.55. 


A New Book! 


Ingalls-Salerno 


MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH NURSING STUDY GUIDE 


Directly correlated with the above text, this new workbook provides methods of 
evaluation and review; and helps to stimulate additional reading and further 
investigation by students. 
By A. JOY INGALLS, R.N., M.S.; and M. CONSTANCE SALERNO, R.N., M.S. June, 1975. 
Approx. 225 pages, 7
" x 10Y, ", 40 illustrations_ About $4.70_ 


MOSBY 


TIMES MIRROR 


THE C V MOSBY COMPANY L TO 
86 NORTHLINE ROAD 
TORONTO. ONTARIO 
M4B 3E5 



TURNING PROBLEMS INTO OPPORTUNITIES- ; 
I 


A New Book! 


Goerzen-Chinn 


REVIEW OF MATERNAL AND CHILD NURSING 


In question and answer form, this new text presents a comprehensive review of 
the elements of maternal and child nursing. The authors provide lucid 
discussions covering: family and culture; human sexuality and family planning; 
nursing management in risk situations; etc. 
By JANICE L. GOERZEN, R.N., B.Sc.N.: and PEGG Y L. CHINN, R.N., Ph.D. April, 1975. 
Approx. 256 pages, 7" x 10". About $7.30. 


A New Book! 


Kneisl-Ames 


MENTAL HEALTH CONCEPTS IN MEDICAL-SURGICAL 
NURSING: A Workbook 


. 
This workbook otters a practical way to help students apply mental health- 
psychiatric nursing concepts in the care of medical and surgical patients. 
CAROL REN KNEISL, R.N., M.S.: and SUE ANN AMES, R.N., M.S. September, 1974. 160 
pages plus FM I-X, 7%")( 10U,", 23 illustrations. Price, $5.80. 


New 2nd Edition! 


Given-Simmons 


GASTROENTEROLOGY IN CLINICAL NURSING 


Emphasizing the "why" and "what" of nursing actions, this new text provides 
the student with a practical guide for care of the patient with gastrointestinal 
disorders. The authors offer a systematic approach to each condition discussed. 
By BARBARA A. GIVEN, R.N., B.S.N., M.S.: and SANDRA J. SIMMONS, R.N., B.S.N., 
M_S. June, 1975. Approx. 336 pages, 7")( TO", 70 illustrations_ About $8.40. 


A New Book! 


Dreyer et al 


A GUIDE TO NURSING MANAGEMENT OF 
PSYCHIATRIC PATIENTS 


Based on actual clinical cases, this unique workbook can aid students in the 
application of psychiatric nursing techniques. Topics covered include: legal 
aspects, patients with problems related to alcohol and drug abuse, behavior 
disorders in children, and more. 
By SHARON DREYER, R.N., M.S.: DA VID BAILEY, Ed. D.: and WILLS DOUCET, M.Ed. 
January, 1975.246 pages plus FM I-X, 7%" x lOW: Price, $6.25. 


A New Book! 


APPLIED BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION 


In a variety of settings. this new text covers the application of various behavior 
modification techniques. Each chapter considers needs, population, and appro- 
priate target behaviors for that particular setting (home, school, mental 
institutions, mental health clinics, etc.). 
Edited by W. DOYLE GENTRY, Ph.D.: with 8 contributors, May, 1975. Approx. 176 
pages, 6" x 9", 4 illustrations. About $6.25_ 


A New Book! 


PAIN: Clinical and Experimental Perspectives 
Presenting research material from many disciplines, this unique new book offers 
experimental and clinical studies in the area of pain. The text emphasizes the 
measurement of pain. the correlates, and variables used to manipulate pain 
reaction. 
Edited by MATlSYOHU WEISENBERG, Ph.D. June, 1975. Approx. 472 pages, 7"x lOW', 
86 illustrations. About $11.00. 



THAT'S NURSING LEADERSHIP! 
Mosby texts provide the background. 


A New Book I 


CLASSIFICATION OF NURSING DIAGNOSES 


This new text presents the proceedings of the First National Conference on the 
Classification of Nursing Diagnoses. It represents the first attempt at collectively 
classifying health problems and conditions which nurses face in practice. 
Edited by KRISTINE M. GEBBIE, R.N.. M.N.; and MARY ANN LA VIN, R.N., M.S.N. Jan- 
uary, 1975.172 pages plus FM I-VI/I, 6" x 9". Price, $7.10. 


A New Book I 


Bailey-Claus 


DECISION MAKING IN NURSING: Tools for Change 


This new text offers unique approaches to solving patient-care and management 
problems. Actual case studies are presented as detailed examples of how to 
apply concepts of problem-solving and decision making in the delivery of 
health care. 
By JUNE T. BAILEY, R.N., Ed.D.; and KAREN E. CLAUS, Ph.D.; wIth 4 contributors. 
June, 1975. Approx. 168 pages, 7" x 10", 63 illustrations, including 29 drawmgs by BEE 
WAL TERS. About $5.55. 


A New Book I 


Davis et al 


NURSES IN PRACTICE: A Perspective on Work Environments 


This new text is a collection of articles which presents the work of nurses in a 
variety of settings. The authors present special insights in the nurse's lack of 
autonomy; the attitudes concerning the role of women today; and more. 
By MARCELLA Z. DAVIS, R.N., D.N.S.; MARLENE KRAMER, R.N., Ph.D.; and 
ANSELM L. STRAUSS, Ph.D.; with 11 contributors. January, 1975. 274 pages plus 
FM I-XIV, 6'!4" x 9
". Price, $7.30. 


A New Book! 


O'Brien 


COMMUNICATIONS AND RELATIONSHIPS IN NURSING 


A comprehensive guide to common factors in communication. this new book 
offers students practical discussions on: commonalities of human nature relevant 
to communication; basic facets of communication skills; 10 "communications 
interactions"; etc. 
By MAUREEN J. O'BRIEN, R.N., M.S. May, 1974. 180 pages plus FM I-X1I, 5W' x 8W'. 
Price, $5.55. 


A New Book! 


Hilliard 


ORIENTATION AND EVALUATION OF THE 
PROFESSIONAL NURSE 


This new book presents an effective alternative to the high cost of long term 
orientation programs of professional nurses to clinical areas of the hospital. 
Content is designed to ease transitior from student to practitioner and to provide 
easy reference to hospital procr-' dnd policies. 
By MILDRED HILLIARD, R.N.. B.S., M.S. August, 1974. 168 pages plus FM I-X, 7W' x 
lOW', 31 fIgures. Pnce, $6.25. 


A New Book! 


Bregman 


ASSISTING THE HEALTH TEAM: An Introduction 
for the Nurse Assistant 
Designed to help the student understand his or her role as a nursing assistant, 
this new text includes basic instruction in anatomy, physiology, vital signs and 
patient needs. 
By MARUA S. BREGMAN, B.S., R.N. May. 1974. 200 pages plus FM I-XIV, 1" x 10", 190 
illustrations. Price, $6.85. 


IVIOSBV 


TIMES MIRROR 


THE C. V MOSBy COMPANY, LTD. 
B6 NOATHLINE ROAO 
TORONTO. ONTARIO 
M4B 3E5 



TURNING PROBLEMS INTO OPPORTUNITIES- 
THAT'S 
NURSING 
LEADERSHIP! 


A New Book' 


Williams 


ESSENTIALS OF NUTRITION AND DIET THERAPY 


Pertinent to health workers at all levels, this new text develops basic 
concepts of nutritional science and diet therapy. Its broad coverage 
includes physiologic as well as sociological factors relevant to growth 
and development. The first section provides a thorough introduction to 
human nutrition. Part two considers the food environment while the 
third section provides a basic manual of clinical nutrition. 
By SUE RODWELL WILLIAMS, M. R. Ed., M.P.H. May, 1974.342 pages plus FM 
I-XII. 7" x 10",33 illustrations. Price, $7.10. 


A New Book! 


Williams 


SELF STUDY GUIDE FOR NUTRITION AND 
DIET THERAPY 
Although specifically correlated with ESSENTIALS OF NUTRITION 
AND DIET THERAPY, this new guide can be used with nutrition and 
diet therapy books at all levels. It makes use of a combination of review 
quizzes. multiple choice and discussion questions, and study projects 
to reinforce understanding and application. 
By SUE RODWELL WILLIAMS, M.R.Ed., M.P.H. May, 1974.208 pages plus FM 
I-VIII, 7" x 10",37 illustrations. Price, $5.55. 


New 5th Edition! 


Williams 


Mowry's BASIC NUTRITION AND DIET THERAPY 
In the style of previous editions, this new text offers current nutrition 
and diet therapy information. Revisions of Recommended Dietary 
Allowances made by the Food and Nutrition Board in 1973 are 
presented here, along with their broad implications. The Basic Four 
Food Groups has been enlarged, and a new section on community 
nutrition has been added to bring this edition entirely up-to-date. 
By SUE RODWELL WILLIAMS, M. R. Ed., M.P.H. February, 1975.216 pages plus 
I-XII, 6W' x 9W', 5 illustrations. Price. $6.25. 


New 3rd Edition! 


Guthrie 


INTRODUCTORY NUTRITION 


This new edition of a popular text presents relevant nutrition 
information in a direct and extremely readable style. Part I - Basic 
Principles of Nutrition - includes discussions of all major nutrients. 
Part 2 - Applied Nutrition - deals with the application of basic 
principles of various nutritional situations. Part 3 - Appendices - 
includes a glossary and numerous tables. 
By HELEN ANDREWS GUTHRIE, B.Se., M.S., Ph.D. March. 1975. Approx. 576 
pages, 7" x 10", 159 illustrations. About $11.50. 



 


-

- 


MOSBY 


TIMES MIRROR 


THE C V MOSBY COMPANY, L ro 
aa NORTHUNE ROAD 
TORONTO. ONTARIO 
M4B 3E5 



research abstracts 


,(kerman, Winona Hulse and Lampart, 
, Rhona Eudoxie. Guidelines to a,uisT in 
decision-making by healTh agency per- 
sOli/lei regarding utili-:.ation of The 
cardio-pulmonan reslI.fÒtation Team. 
Buffalo. New York. 1972. Study 
(M.S.) State U. of New York at 
Buffalo. 


{egistered nurses often have a greater role 
In the final deci
ion to call or not to call the 
I . I 
!'mergency cardlO-pu monary arrest team 
,han any othcr group of health \'.orker. The 
'lroblem investigated \'.as: \'.hat are the 
driablö that affect a registered nurse' s 
'lecision to call or not to 
call the cardio- 
JUlmonar\' arrest team \'.hen she finds that 
I patient "is without obvious vital signs? 
\urses indicated \'.hether or not they 
vould consider physician' s order. 
lauent's age. prognosis. condition. per- 
.onal 
tatu
. family's loss. family's v.:ish. 
'l<1tient's religion. and \'.ere asked 10 indi- 
'ate other pl
ssibIe variables. 
H
pothöes \\ere: 
I. The nurse will generally give morc than 
'lIle basis for her decision to call or not to 
"all the cardio-pulmonary resuscitation 
eam unles
 the reason is that it v.:as so 
Irdered by the phy
ician. 

. In mo
t instances. nursö will consider 
10th the clicnt's age and prognosis in mak- 
mg their decision to call or not to call the 
:ardio-pulmonary resuscitation team. 
], The nurse"s number of years of profe
- 
,ional education will not significantly af- 
fect her deCIsion to call the team. 

. The longer the years of practice. the 
;more clearly defined are the bases for her 
'decision-making to call or not to call the 
I..:ardio-pulmona
y resuscitation team. 
15. The nurse' s perceptions of the effec- 
,tiveness of the procedure itself will affect 
her decision to call the team. 
I A sample of 78 registered nurses in a 
Iteaching and a nonteaching hospital in 
'Canada and a teaching and a nonteaching 
'hospital in the United States were inter- 
'viev.:ed. An interview schedule was used 
to collect information. opinions. and 
nurses" statements about their beliefs with 
regard to cardio-pulmonary resuscitation. 
The fiN three hypotheses were substan- 
tiated. the fourth was not substantiated. 
and the fifth \'.as not adequately tested. 
As a result of the study. it is recom- 
mended that nurses increase their input 
into policy-making and participation in 
decision-making about terminally ill pa- 
MARCH 1975 


tients. so that individual nurses will not so 
often face problematic decisions about 
cardio-pulmonary resuscitation in the 
practice situation. In addition. nurses 
should attempt to ensure that teaching 
programs on cardio-pulmonary resuscita- 
tion are planned and implemented so that 
no nurse will be expected to function in the 
cardio-pulmonar} resuscitation situation 
without ...ufficient understanding of the 
procedure and skill in the techniques. 
Further studies should be done with 
larger samples and in more varied settings. 


Watts, Judith Mary E.An etploralOry sTudy 
to identify preconception cOlllracep- 
Tive patterns of abortion patients. 
Vancouver. B.C. 1974. Thesis 
(M.Sc.;\J., U. of British Columbia. 


The purpose of this study was to add to 
the understanding of problems v.:ith con- 
traceptive use by describing contraceptive 
practices. attitudes. and knov.:ledge of 
abortion patients." Women having abor- 
tions \'.ere ..elected as subjects because of 
their apparent contraception difficulties. 
The study \'.as considered of value to 
nurses. who are in a good position to 
provide contraception services to people. 
Thirty subjects \'.ere randomly selected 
from patients having D & CI a.'>piration 
abortions as in-patients in a large urban 
British Columbia hospital. Data \'.ere 
gathered using a semi-strul"tured ques- 
tionnaire in a single intervie\'. held the 
evening before the abortion. 
A large amount of data \'. as gathered on 
contraceptive use. of which the folio\'. ing 
items are of partil'ular interest: 
I. The women having abortions to 
deal \'. ith un\'. anted pregnancies varied 
\'.idely in terms of age. marital status. 
education. and occupation. The largest 
number \'.ere in their 
Os and many (over 
half) had stable relations with their sexual 
partners. 


1 + 


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your sleeve 
to save a life... 


BE A BLOOD DONOR 


2. Almost all subjects had used con- 
traceptives at some time and many (over 
half) used them at the time of conception 
of the pregnancy being terminated. Five 
subjects experienced contraceptive failure 
with IUDs. 
3. Many subjects indicated ambival- 
ence about thc use of and responsibilit) 
for contraception. They frequently 
wished to share responsibility for choos- 
ing contraceptive... \'.ith their partners. but 
often did not do so. 
4. Most subjects \'.ere not \'.ell in- 
formed about contraception. Their 
sources of information \'.ere varied and 
their parents tended to be inconsistent as 
sources. 
5. Users of contraceptives at the time 
of conception tended to be older. have 
more stable relations ....,ith their sexual 
partners. be more regular and effective 
contraceptive users. and not have de- 
pended on parents as sources of con- 
traception information. Nonusers tended 
to be younger. have less stable relation- 
ships with their sexual partner. be less 
regular and effective contraceptive users. 
and have depended on parents for con- 
traception information. 
Some implications drawn from the data 
follow: 
. Women having contraceptive problems 
come from many settings and back- 
grounds. Therefore. efforts to improve 
contraceptive use must be varied and 
flexible to reach all people \'. ith con- 
traception needs. 
. Effective l:ontraceptive use appears to 
be influenced by feelings about indepen- 
dence and responsibility. and of ::omfort 
with onc"s sexuality. Consequently. con- 
traception services need to include oppor- 
tunities to deal \'.ith these broader issues. 
. Contraception kno\'. ledge is often li- 
mited. and effective sources of informa- 
tion are not found consistently in our 
societ}. Professional effort is needed to 
ensure good contra<.:eption edu<.:ation that 
can supplement \'.hat is learned from 
parents. 
Areas recommended for future study 
include more thorough investigations of 
attitudes toward and kno\'. ledge of con- 
traception and their effects on practice. 
Also. comparison studies of contraceptive 
use by other groups of \'.omen are 
needed. as are experimental studies to test 
the effectiveness of contraception educa- 
tion and <;ervices. .,,;. 
THE CANADIAN NURSE 49 




 


, 
"""Ie- 


/ 


MRS. R. F. JOHNSON 
SUPERVISOR 


IN 


-- 


CHARLENE HAYNES 


, . I' 


/, 


.../u- 


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books 


dring for Patients with Chronic Renal 
Disease: a Reference Guide for Nurses 
edited by Ginny L Han
en. 132 
pages. Philadelphia. J.B. Lippincott. 
197
. Canadian Agent: Lippincott. 
Toronto. 
ReJ'iewed h\' Carmelita S. Tolentino. 
Instructor in Medical-Surgical .Vurs- 
in8, Health Sciences Cell1re School of 
Nlirsing. Winnipeg, Manitoba. 


1 the preface. the editor statö that the 
hdterial in thi
 book is from an intensi ve 
lue COUP.ie presented to nurses caring for 
l.ltients "ith chronic renal di'iease. in 
ochester in the fall of 1971. The editor's 
lJ.in purpose is for the book to be used 
a'i self-instructional material and as a 
l-ference guide. primarily for the nurse in 
lie dialysis unit and the nen nurse being 
,riented in the unit." Her main objective 
that "nursing care of patient
 with 
nronic renal disease "ill be improved 
nd \\ ill become high quality. .. 
Thi
 book brings together material 
'om physiology and pathology; it is "ell 
rganized and easy to read. It has 
Ifomlation involving all aspects of care 
f a patient "ith chronic renal disease. 
Icluding diseases leading to its deve/op- 
lent. diagnosis. conservative manage- 
lent. dietary or nutritional aspects of 
lerapy. and dialysis both in hospital and 
homc. 
I Several" riters have contributed to the 
oot... In the chapter. ., Nursing Care in 
}ialysis:' the author of this particular 
ection has given necessary attention to 
le desirable traits and "t..ills a nur
e must 
ossess to work in this highly specialized 
rea. Information about common medical 
nd nursing problems that arise in dial
sis 
; "ritten in graphic form for easy 
ading. but more could ha\e been 
lc1uded on the pathophysiology. 
The material on "Home Dialvsis" and 
'Nursing Management of Hom
 Dialysis 
caching" provides a good example for 
e reader. especiall) the checklist for 
redialysis assessment of patients and the 
hort qui
zes to evaluate the teaching and 
e learmng that have tat..en place. 
In the chapter on "Psychosocial Prob- 
ms related to Chronic Hemodialysis:' 
e author describes in detelil the problems 
he. patient has to cope with and four 
laJor stresses arising from these prob- 
ms. She also list
 some principles that 
an be used by the nurse as guidelines to 
eet these needs. 
As a reference book for any nUße who 
.\ARCH 1975 


is caring for patienb \l<ith chronic renal 
disease or who is "orking in a dialysis 
unit. it is excellent: it i
 abo a good 
resource book for students. 


Intensive and Rehabilitative Respira- 
tory Care, 2ed.. hy Thomas L. Petty. 

04 pages. Philadelphia. Lea & 
Febiger. 1974. Canadian Agent: 
\lacmillan. Toronto. 
Reviewed by Marjorie C. Anderson. 
AssiS1a1l1 Professor. Schoolof,Vursing. 
University of CalRary. CaIRar:-'. Alta. 


In this second edition. the author again 
aims to bring to those health care profes- 
sionals interested in respiratory care. an 
up-to-date approach to the management of 
the patient in acute and rehabilirative 
phases of respiratory failure. A section on 
respiratory problems in the pediatric and 
elderly age group. and their management. 
increases the comprehensiveness of this 
edition. 
The first section of the book discusses 
methods of care for acute respiratory fail- 
ure. The rationale that this care should be 
carried out in a respiratory intensive care 
unit is backed by longitudinal research 
studies that indicate nearly 80 percent sur- 
vival rate for \ ictims with respiratory fail- 
ure thus cared for. 
The methods of acute respiratory care. 
including care of the tracheostomy and its 
ever-present complications. are based on 
the model developed at the University of 
Colorado Medical Center. The rationales 
for the interventions chosen are ph) siolog- 
ically sound. Further. these rationales are 
backed b} systematic research that began 
nearl) 10 years ago. 
Discussion in two successive sections. 
"Clinical Application" and "Special 
Problems of the Young and Old" is di- 
rected mainly to the physician. Medical 
interventions for major respiratory dis- 
eases. such as chronic airway obstruction 
and reversible obstructive airway disease. 
elre discussed. and also less commonly 
seen respiratory problems. 
Throughout the text, the multidiscipli- 
nar} approach to respiratory care is stres- 
sed. Thu
. the role of the nurse in both the 
acute and rehabilitative phases of respira- 
tOI) care is strongly emphasized by this 
author. The nurse is seen to be actively 
involved in the meticulous tracheostomy 
care. the management of respiratory sup- 
port systems. and the chest physiotherapy 
necessary for all patients in the acute phase 


of this illness. Her major role is continued 
in the rehabilitative phase. 
A systematic home care program ha
 
been designed and tested by the Colorado 
center. The program. as outlined in the 
fourth section of the book. i
 based upon 
education. breathing retraining. and phys- 
ical conditioning. with the use of portable 
oxygen therapy to facilitate the latter. The 
nurse is active in all phases of the inhospi- 
tal teaching program. and home follow-up 
is done by the public health nurse. 
A 4-year study demonstrated that this 
rehabilitation program decreased the rate 
of pulmonary function decline and the 
number of hospital da}s. while increasing 
patients' exercise tolerance and level of 
daily activity. 
Because chronic airway obstructive dis- 
eases are one of the most rapidl} growing 
health problems in the United State'i and 
Canada today. a pùblication that deals 
practicall} "ith this problem is timely 
The ultimate goal is prevention and early 
identification of the disease. "ith de- 
velopment of effective methods of care for 
patients before advanced disease and disa- 
bility develop. However. effective 
methods of care to bring benefit to patients 
alread} burdened by severe degreö of 
chronic air"ay obstruction are important. 
This text has done much to achieve this 
end. 


Practical Concepts in Human Disease 
by Hannon C. Bickley. 332 pages. 
Baltimore. Williams & \vilkin
. 
197
. Canadian agent: Burns & 

lacEachern. Don Mills. 
Re\'iewed b\' Mari!\-n A \'en. Assistall1 
Professor, School tif Nursi;lg, Hemor- 
ial UniJ'ersity. St. John's. Nj1d. 


This boot.. provides a ne" approach to the 
subject of pathology Although short. it 
covers a "ide spectrum of common dis- 
eases in a concise and factual manner. By 
stating the learning objectives of each sec- 
tion and summarizing content in tabular 
form. the boot.. enables the student to re- 
view quickly. 
As the author states. the content in- 
cludes "material generally considered 
. core' in the subject of pathology. with a 
few nontraditional subjects added for good 
measure. .' These nontraditional subject" 
include topics pertinent to the health of 
today's society. such as smot..ing. al- 
coholism. drug abuse. and fluoridation of 
public water supply. 
THE CANADIAN NURSE 51 



Although it assumes that the reader has 
a good grasp of medical terminology. this 
book would be an excelIent text for the 
serious layman who is concerned about the 
health of his community. For the health 
professional. it is a good resource and 
means of quick review. 
However. this book is not thorough 
enough for a basic nursing text on pathol- 
ogy. From it we can learn how a disease 
affect<; the internal physiology of the pa- 
tient. but not necessarily the presentmg 
symptoms or discomforts. In terms of 
nursing needs. this book would be useful 
as a reference. quick reviev.. or sup- 
plementary text. 


Psychosocial Aspects of Maternal-Child 
Nursing, by Gladys B. Lipt...in. If1Q 
pages. St. Louis. Mosby. 1974. Cana- 
dian Agent: Toronto. Mosby. 
Revie.....ed by Sarla Sethi, Assistant 
Professor, School of Nursing, The 
University of Calgary, Calf?ary, 
Alberta. 


This book is written to enhance the 
nurse's understanding of psychosocial 
aspects of the entire maternit} c}c1e. 
Significant portions of the book are 
devoted to a discussion of growth and 
development from the newborn to the 
adolescent. 
The historical overview in the first 
chapter is concise. but interesting and 
informative. In reading through the book. 
one gets the feeling of involvement with 
the subject matter and a desire to improve 
services for the mother and her child. 
The author has illustrated the steps of 
the nursing process by the use of case 
histories to define nursing diagnoses. 
goals. actions. and outcomes of the 
situation. This approach makes the sub- 
ject matter more meaningful and chal- 
lenging. 
Principles from various theories. such 
as crisis theory. role theory. ada f tation. 
and developmental tasks are wel integ- 
rated in the presentation of the material. 
The emphasis throughout the book is on 
recognition of psycho-social needs and 
provision of non judgmental care. Another 
encouraging aspect in this book is the 
author's emphasis on prevention of prob- 
lems by providing anticipatory guidance. 
according to the assessed needs of the 
mother and her child. She stresses health 
teaching and guidance. rather than the 
performing of certain technical tasks. 
during the nurse's interaction with her 
patient. 
In the chapter. "Preparing Couples for 
Labor and Delivery'" the author discus- 
ses psychoprophylaxis (Lamaze method) 
in clear. simple language; the nurse 
should find it easy to implement in 
guiding expectant parents. 
The book also briefly discusses such 
52 THE CANADIAN NURSE 


concepts as sex education and the school 
child. maternal deprivation, and the ter- 
minally ill child. 
Because the author's idea<; are clearly 
discussed, reading is easy. infonnative. 
and interesting. The material in this book 
IS pertinent and current. 
This book is a valuable addition to the 
recommended list of readings for students 
of diploma and baccalaureate programs. 
It also provides a wealth of infornlation to 
nurses already functioning in maternal 
and child nursing. 


Liaison Nursing; Psychological Approach 
to Patient Care, by Lisa Robinson. 238 
pages. Philadelphia. Davis. 1974. 
Canadian Agent: Scarborough. 
McGraw-Hili Ryerson. 
Reviewed by Dororhy Froman, 
Psychiatric Nursing Instructor, 
Misericordia General Hospital School 
of Nursing, Winnipeg. Manitoba. 


The author's purpose is to present and 
clarify the importance of the role of the 
liaison nurse in the general hospital 
setting. The author defines the liaison 
nurse as one primarily trained in 
psychiatry v. ho ". . .brings her expertise 
into the general hospital to provide care 
for the mentally disturbed patient suffer- 
ing frum a physical illness and also to aid 
the patient who develops an iatrogenic 
illness brought on by the stress of 
disability and hospitalization." 
The book is divided into three sections. 
Section I, Theoretical Framework. traces 
the development of liaison nursing 
through the author's personal clinical 
experiences and a review of the literature. 
The theoretical aspect revolves around the 
concept of anxiety and how it surfaces in 
fairly predictable behavioral patterns. 
These concepts form the basic philosophy 
for reduction of anxiety through the use of 
short-term therapy. 
Section :2 deals with "Process in 
Liaison Service." Dr. Robinson discus- 
ses the hospital as a social system. with 
reference to professional and nonprofes- 
sional v.ort...ers. the patient. and the ways 
in which these numerous individuals 
relate to one another on an interpersonal 
basis. She indicates hm\, the liaison 
<;ervice can provide the means by which 
more meaningful interaction and relation- 
ship can be developed within the social 
system. 


St.John Ambulance 


needs Registered Nurses to volun- 
teer their services to teach Patient 
Care in The Home. Will you help? 
cont

"1 0 
St
n
bulance 


Section 3. Clinical Problems. de, 
with the various "problem" patier 
commonlv referred to the liaison nurs 
Some exa'mples of these are: the preopel 
tive patient. the dying patient. the chro 
ically ill patient. and the patient's famil 
Many good suggestions for helping p 
tients deal with their feelings are pI 
sented in this section. Every nurse rea 
ing the boot... \\, ilI recognize "problerr 
patients she has known. 
Dr. Robinson never loses sight of t\ 
humanity of people. Her st} Ie of v. ritil 
is clear and dov. n-to-earth. The book 
sprinkled v.ith clinical examples th 
bring alive the concepts she is presentin 
This book should be a ., must'" ( 
everyone's reading list. I highly recO! 
mend it. 


Medical-Surgical Nursing: 
Psychophysiologic Approach by Jo. 
Luckmann anJ Karen C. Sorense 
1,634 pagö. Philadelphia. W.ì 
Saunders. 1974. Canadian Agel 
Toronto, \V.B. Saunders. - 
Revie.....ed by Marf?aret Arklie, Le 
turer in Nursing, DalhouÜe UnÏl'e 
sin', Halifcu, Nova Scotia. 


The authors' stated purpose is 
provide a textbook of medical-surgic 
nursing that meets the requirements 
current nursing practice." They ha' 
carried out this purpose. 
The book is divided into three maj 
sections. Sections I and :2 inclue 
material on stress. adaptation. theorie
 
disease. illness. homeostasis. al 
disturbances of homeostasis. The autho 
have covered these areas well, 
particular the unit on stress and ti 
chapter on immobility. 
Section 3. the major focus of the boo 
deals with "Specific Problems 
Medical-Surgical Nursing Practice." TI 
units on cardiovascular disease ar 
respiratory disease are excellent. Theya l 
comprehensive and include anatomy al 
physiology. drugs used in clinical car 
and diagnostic methods. surgery. nursir 
care. and patient teaching. A strong poi 
of this section is its emphasis on tl 
psychosocial impact of illness on tl 
patient. 
I have one major criticism of the boo 
The infonnation in the chapters on II 
urinary system. burns. and the reprodu 
tive system is brief and limited in i 
scope . 
The layout of the book is good. TI 
method of marking important points 
remember is excellent. An introductio 
study guide. and learning objectives a 
included at the beginning of each uni, 
which would be helpful to the stude I 
nurse. Reference material. which 
included at the end of each unit. is curre 
and comprehensive. The index 
(continued on page j 
MARCH 19: 



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books 


(continued from paf!.e 52) 
extensive and there is frequent cross- 
referencing between units. 
Thi<; book would be an asset to any 
nurse. It is an excellent basic text for 
baccalaureate nursing students. At 
present. this is one of the best books in 
this area of nursing. 


Theoretical Foundations for Nursing edited 
by Margaret E. Hardy. 490 pages. New 
York. MSS Information Corporation. 
1973. 
Reviewed b... S, Jov Winkler, Associare 
Professor, Schoof of Nursing. Univer- 
sity of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Man. 


This book of readings presents and ex- 
amines theories. theory development. and 
several concepts generally used as founda- 
tions for nursing courses. The readings are 
drawn from a wide variety of sources. and 
both the health professions and social sci- 
enc:;:s are represented among the con- 
tributors. Classic articles and recent re- 
considerations of particular theories are 
induded. along with several original pa- 
pers. The editor provides guidelines for 
reading the articles. a way for a reader to 
evaluate theories commonly used. and in- 
troductory evaluative articles to 3 of the 
boo" 's 6 sections, The compilation overall 
is thought-provoking and stimulating. 
Theories in varying stages of develop- 
ment are presented. along with articles on 
the basic concepts of stress. adaptation. 
and crisis. The article delineating the prob- 
lems involved in using stress theory as a 
basis for nursing intervention is particu- 
larly useful. 
The apparent intended goal of this selec- 
tion of reé!dings is to assist nurses to make 
judgments about the rationale identified 
for care. so they may "act knowledgeably 
and responsibly in their everyday work." 
An example of critical evaluation of one 
nursing theory is provided. However. if 
the author is referring to the average nurse 
currently in practice. I believe it would be 
difficult for such a nurse to use the book in 
the way intended. 
Implicit in the editor's approach. as pre- 
sented in the kevnote article. is the belief 
that any theory C'an be evaluated by a simi- 
lar process regardless of content. if one 
examines the underlying assumptions. 
The high cognitive level evidenced in the 
"eynote article and its tightness and com- 
pression of ideas would make it difficult to 
follow without a sound research and 
theoretical background. and even more 
difficult to apply the approach in evalua- 
tive reading of theories. The lack of such 
background could lead to misconstruing 
54 THE CANADIAN NURSE 


certain of the aspects discussed. such dS 
the concepts of mental illness, given as 
examples. 
Every article has merit. and certain arti- 
cles are valuable reference sources for the 
a..erage practicing nurse. but those are 
readily available elsewhere. This book 
would be a useful reference for teachers in 
baccalaureate programs, and for graduate 
students focusing on the study of different 
theoretical frameworks. 
The printing of the book itself is dis- 
tracting. with various formats. sizes. and 
quality of print in different sections. The 
price asked seems disproportionate to the 
quality of production. 


Nursing Leadership in Action; Principles 
and Applications to Staff Situations, 
2ed.. by Laura Mae Douglass and Em 
Olivia Bevis. 214 pages. St. Louis. 
Mosby. 1974. Canadian Agent: 
T omnto. Mosby. 
Reviewed b,' Mar.\' Warnock, Nursing 
Service Director, Royal Victoria Hos- 
pital. Montreal, Quebec. 


The first chapter. . 'Theoretical framework 
for the nurse-leader'" provides the key 
hypothesis that forms the premises upon 
which the following six chapters are 
based. 
Nurses today are expected to be leaders. 
Leadership, to be effective and satisfying 
to both employer and employee. is a 
learned behavior pattern and not a simple 
matter of inadequate. on-the-job training. 
The book deals in depth with the princi- 
ples of teaching and learning. and covers 
assessment. formulation of objectives. 
moti vation and reinforcement. establish- 
ing the learning environment, learning ac- 
tivities. and evaluation. 
A discussion of predicti ve principles of 
effective communication between indi- 
viduab and groups deals with perception 
of self and others; reinforcement and feed- 
back: communication strategies: goal set- 
ting. achievement. and evaluation: effec- 
tive direction gi ving: patient-centered con- 
tent; reporting: and general problem- 
solving conferences. 
Material on predictive principles for 
delegating authority covers agency 
structure, job descriptions. policies and 
procedures. inve
tment of authori.ty. 
assignment makIng. and measunng 
results. Predictive principles for 
evaluation deal effectively with com- 
mitment. standards of practice and 
criteria of evaluation. and disposi- 
tional acti vities. 
Predictive principles for changing are 
covered under the following headings: 
basic ground rules. conditions necessary 
for changing. basic organizational patterns 
for changing, and basic planning strategies 
for changing. 
Predictive principles of leadership be- 
havior looks at the fundamentals of leader- 


I 
ship: awareness of self. knowledge of th 
job. mutual respect. open channels ( 
communication. "nowledge of particl' 
pants' capabilities. and environment. As ilj 
the preceding 6 chapters. application 0, 
principles follow the pattern of problem I 
principles. and prescription. 
This book is a valuable asset to al 
nurses, particularly those in charge of staf 
development. 


Clinical Pharmacology in Nursing by Mor 
ton J. Rodman and Dorothy W, Smith 
701 pages. Philadelphia. J.B. Lippin- 
cott. 1974. Canadian Agent: Lippin- 
cott. Toronto. 
Reviewed by Ale)' P. Thomas, Lec- 
turer, School of Nursing, University 0) 
Manitoba. Winnipeg, Manitoba. 


The main aim of this book is to providc' 
infonnation about modern medications tol 
suit the needs of nurses who are caring fOIl 
patients in various clinical situations. Tht 
authors recognize that the nurse's respon-, 
sibility does not end with administering
 
drugs: she must possess the necessary' 
knowledge about their effects on the pa-: 
tient. Often the nurse must also teach the 
patient and his family the proper use of 
drugs to produce maximum therapeutic 
benefits. I 
With this lofty conception of the crucial 
role that the nurse has to play in the health 
care system. the authors have not chosen I 
to present detailed data about individual 
drugs of each class. but rather to enlighten I 
the nurse about the reasons for the use of 
different classes of drugs in treatment. On 
the whole. the authors have been success- I 
ful in carrying out this task. 
A brief historical introduction to phar- 
macology is followed by discussion of 
general principles of pharmacology; drugs 
that affect mental and emotional function 
and behavior: drugs used in musculo- 
skeletal disorders. neurological disorders, 
pain. inflammation, allergy and related 
disorders. endocrine disorders. infections. 
diagnostic tests; and drugs acting on the 
autonomic neuro-effectors. the heart. and 
circulation. 
Discussion of drugs used for diagnostic 
purposes will be valuable to both the 
graduate and student nurse. Discussion of 
clinical nursing situations. which appear I 
in several chapters. are presented with 
clarity and insight and will be useful for 
self-learning. 
At least some readers may find the 
lengthy discussions on anatomy. physiol- 
ogy. and pathophysiology - sup- 
plemented with diagrams - somewhat re- I 
dundant in a book on pharmacology, as 
these areas are fully covered In other nurs- 
ing texts. 
There is a surprising neglect of drug 
dosages for children. There IS no mention 
of children's dosage of such widely used 
(continued on page 56) 
MARCH 1975 



New... ready to use... 
"bolus" prefilled syringe. 
Xylocainé100 mg 
(lidocaine hydrochloride injection, USP) 


For 'stat' I.V. treatment of life 
threatening arrhythmias. 


\ 


o Functions like a standard syringe. 
'iì' 
o Calibrated and contains 5 ml Xylocaine 2%. 


o 


Package designed for safe and easy 
storage in critical care area 


o 


The only lidocaine preparation 
with specific labelling 
information concerning its 
use in the treatment of cardiac 
arrhythmias. 


" 


+
 
<0 

 

 
't-<<, . 
"'0 
o 
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an original from 
...
 STir ..., 


Xylocaine 
 100 mg 
(lidocaIne hydrochlonde inJectIon U S p ) 
INDICATIONS-Xylocaine admmislered mtra- 
venouslv is specificall
 indicated in the acute 
mana
cmcnl of( I) ventricular arrhythmias occur- 
rin
 during cardiac mampulation. such as cardiac 
surgery: and(2) life-threatemng arrhythmias. par- 
ticularly those which arc venlncular in origin. such 
as occur during acute myocardial mfarcuon 


COII.TRAINDICATlO:-;S-Xylocaine IS contra- 
indicatcd (I) in palicnlS with a known history of 
hvpersensitivity to local anesthetics of the amide 
h'pC; and (2) in patients with Adams-Stokes 5\'0- 
dTomc or with RvC're dc
J"C'es of smoalnal. au"JO- 
ventncular or mtravcnuicular block 


WAR
l--'GS-Constanl monitoring with an elec- 
trocardiograph is essential in the proper admims- 
tration of X ylocame intravenously. Signs of eJlíces- 
sive depression of cardiac conducltvnv. such as 
prolongallon of PR Interval and QRS complex 
and the appearance or aggravation of arrhythmias. 
should be followed bv prompt cessation of the 
Intravenous Infusion of this agen[ It IS mandaton 
to have em
r
ncy resuscitative equipment and 
dru@:s immediately available to manage possible 
adverse reactions invoh ing the cardiovascular. 
respiratory or central nervous systems. 
EVidence for proper usage m children is hmited 
PRECAl:TlO!'ooS-Cautlon should he emploved 
In the repeated use of Xvlocaine in patients wnh 
se
ere liver or renal disease because accumulation 
mav occur and may lead to toxic phenomena. since 
X) Iocaine IS metabolized mainl" In the liver and 
excreted b} the kidnev The dru
 should also be 
used with caution m patients with h)povolemla 
and shock. and all forms of heart block (see CON- 
TRAINDICATIONS AND WARMNGS) 
In patients with sinus bradvcardia the admims- 
trallon ofXvlocaine intravenouslv for the elimma- 
tion of ventricular ectopic beats without pnor 
acceleration in hean rate (c.g bv Isoproterenol 
or by electric pacing) may provoke more frequent 
and serious ventricular arrh\-'thmlas. 


-\0\ ERSE REACTIO....S-Svslemlc reactions of 
the following tvpes have heen reported. 
(I) Cenlral Nervous Svstem, lighlheadedncss. 
drowsiness; diuincss: apprehension: euphoria: 
tinnitus: blurred or double vision. vomitm
; sen- 
sations of heal. cold or numbness: twitchmg; 
tremors: convulsions: unconsciousness: and respl- 
ratorv depression and arrest. 
(2) Cardiovascular System: hypotension: car- 
diovascular collapse: and bradvcardia which may 
lead to cardiac arrest. 
There have been no repons of cross sensitivity 
between Xvlocaine and procamamlde or between 
X)locaine and quinidine. 


DOSAGE AND ADMI:\ISTRATlO"ll Sinel
 
Injection: The usual dose is 50 mg 10 100 mg 
administered intravenously under ECG monitor- 
In
. This dose may be administered al the rate 
of approximately 25 m
 to 50 mg per minute. 
Sufficient time should be allowed to enable a slow 
circulation to cam the drug to the site of action. 
If the initial injection of 50 mg 10 100 mg docs 
not produce a desired response. a second dose may 
be repeated after 10-20 minutes 
NO MORE THAN 200 MG TO 300 MG OF 
XYLOCAINE SHOULD BE ADMIJ'oõISTERED 
DURING A ONE HOUR PERIOD 
In children expenence with [he drug is limited. 
COblilRlous Infusion: Following a single mjection 
in Ihose patients in whom the aJThythmia tends 
to recur and who are mcapable of receiving oral 
antiarrhvthmic therapv. intravenous infusions of 
X vlocaine mav be administered at the rate of I 
mg 10 2 mg pcr minule (20 to 25 ug/kg per mlnule 
in the average 70 kg man). Intravenous infusions 
ofXylocaine must be administered under constant 
ECG monitoring to avoid potential overdosage 
and toxicitv. Intravenous infusion should be ter- 
minated as soon as the patient's basic rhvthm 
appears to be stable or at the earhest signs of 
toxicity. It should rarely be necessary to continue 
intravenous infusions beyond 24 hours. As 500n 
as possible. and when andlcated. pallents should 
be changed to an oral antiarrh)1hmic agent for 
maintenance therapy. 
Solutions for mtravenous infusion should be 
prepared by the addition of one 50 ml single dose 
vial of Xylocaine 2tt or one 5 ml Xylocaine One 
Gram DISposable Transfer S".ringe to I hter of 
appropriate solution. This will provide a OJ<<I 
solution: that 15. each ml will contain I mg of 
Xylocaine HCI. Thus I ml to 2 ml per minute 
will provide I mg to 2 mg of Xylocaine HCI pcr 
minute. 



books 


(continued from paRe 54) 
drugs as aspirin. Although there is a brief 
discussion of drug interactions in an early 
chapter, incompatibility is not discussed in 
any systematic way. 
Some may also question the author's 
categorical assenion that "no medication 
should ever be administered without a 
doctor's order" (p.70). Although the 
nurse should not usurp the doctor's role. 
there are exceptional circumstances when 
the nurse may be called on to administer 
medications without a doctor's order. One 
might also take exception to the inter- 
changeable use of "antineoplastic drug.... 
and "anti-cancer drugs" (p. 635-40). 
The statement that "estrogens are not 
"nown to cause cancer in human patients" 
is likely to raise Canadian eyebrows be- 
cause there is growing scientific evidence 
suggesting involvement of estrogen in 
cancer causation. The Canadian 
government's reluctance to impon DES- 
fed U.S. beef into Canada is the direct 
consequence of the growing scientific 
knowledge linking DES with cancer. 
However. these are minor flaws in an 
otherwise well-written and valuable text- 
book. 


Basic Psychiatric Concepts in Nursing 3ed. 
by Joan Kyes and Charles K. Hofling. 
527 pages. Philadelphia. J.B, Lippin- 
cott, 1974. Canadian Agent: Lippin- 
cott. Toronto. 
Reviewed b\' Gail Gitterman, Instruc- 
tor, Nursi;lg Department, Ryerson 
P olytechllical Institute, Toronto. 
Ontario. 


The authors' objectives are to present a 
clear description of psychiatric theory and 
to present nursing care material that will 
enable the reader to move from the theoret- 
ical to the operational level. As it applies 
to the medical model. the authors have 
achieved their purpose. 
The book's contents travel from simple 
to complex theory. and from a health to 
illness theme. The reader is introduced to 
mental health concepts and personality 
theory, and then proceeds to explore the 
neuroses and the p
ychoses. 
Information is presented clearly. and 
ample opponunity is made of presenting a 
case study to relate the nursing interven- 
tion to psychiatric theory. For example, 
the dynamics of hysterical neurosis is out- 
lined along with symptomatology and 
nursing principles. A case study follows of 
a young girl suffering from conversion 
neurosis. which indicates the nursing care 
and the thinking on which the nurse based 
her actions. As well. the authors use case 
56 THE CANADIAN NURSE 


studies liberally to help the reader gain a 
clear understanding of the dynamics of 
various psychopathologies. 
The authors have earnestly attempted to 
display the imponam:e of nursing inter- 
vention in the psychiatric setting. and also 
the importance of applying psychiatric 
principles to a variety of nursing environ- 
ments. The impact of this attitude is 
somewhat dissipated within the context of 
the medical model. 
I would recommend this book, as it is 
designed. for the undergraduate student of 
nursing. The readings included at the end 
of each chapter are eclectic and valuable 
and. therefore. offer the student much 
more than what is contained between the 
covers. As a basic textbook for a course in 
psychiatric nursing. it has much merit. 
Along with it, I would encourage the use 
of material that would expand on nursing 
theor) . 


Operating Theatre Technique, 3ed., by 
Raymond J. Brigden. 698 pages. 
Edinburgh, Churchill Livingstone. 
1974. Canadian Agent: Longman. Don 
Mills. 
Reviewed by Paulette Parker, Teacher 
OR and RR. Algonquin College Nurs- 
ing Program. Parkdale Campus, 
Ottawa. Ontario. 


This book is an improvement over the first 
and second editions. It is a comprehensive 
text for both the graduate nurse in the 
operating room and for students whose 
curriculum includes the operating room 
experience. 
Although it goes into detail about setups 
and equipment used for each type of 
surgery. the book deals essentiall) with 
the fundamentals necessary to understand 
how the operating room functions. It cov- 
ers design of the rooms and specialized 
equipment. 
The text outlines safety measures for the 
staff and the patient. which are of particu- 
lar interest to the student in her understand- 
ing of the operating room. These will. of 
course, help to influence the student's 
preoperative care of the patient. 
The author gives a brief description of 
the surgery. the position the patient is 
placed in, the setup used, and then a brief 
outline of the procedure. This is a good 
quick reference for the student going to 
observe the surgery. 
The chapter on anesthetics is of benefit 
to all nurses; it covers the importance of 
maintaining a good airway. and gives two 
methods. This section also explains 
clearly the importance of not talk ing while 
the patient is being anesthetized, because 
it is felt that the patient's hearing can be- 
come more acute during induction. 
The section defining technical terms is 
good and will benefit all who come in 
contact with the operating room. In this 
edition, there is a new section on cardiac 


arrest. which is basic but concise enoug 
for most graduates to understand. 
The author certainly has updated severa 
aspects of this text. The book can be usel' 
by both students and staff in the operatinl 
room. 


Essentials of Psychiatric Nursing, 9cd., b. 
Dorothy A. Mereness and Cecdi 
Monat Taylor. 356 pages. St. Louis 
Mosby, 1974. Canadian agent: Mosb) 
Toronto. 
Reviewed by Dorothy M. Pringle. Di 
rector, Laurentian University. Schoo 
of Nursing, Sudbun', Ontario; for 
merh Clinical Coordinator 
Psychiatry, Holy Cross Hospital, Cui 
gary. 
I 
The latest reVISion of this standan 
psychiatric text incorporates few change 
from the 1970 edition. It continues to be 
oriented largely to the management of pa 
tients who are hospitalized for severa 
months in large psychiatric institutions 
The book covers the waterfront 01 
psychiatry and psychiatric nursing amI. a' 
a result, is superficial in many areas. par- 
ticularly those related to personality de 
velopment and current psychiatric treat 
ment modalities. 
In the preface. the authors explain that 
they have reorganized and updated the, 
content, recognizing that much pre,ent- 
day treatment is not hospital based. In real- 
ity, they devote 141 pages to inpatient 
treatment specifically and 24 pages to the 
community. For instance, insulin shock 
therapy is described in 4 pages and family I 
therapy in less than a page. 
A statement of beliefs basic to psychiat- I I 
ric nursing, which is included at the begin- 
ning ofth
 text. is a valuable dddition. The I 
philosophy of man as a unified system and I 
the implications of this for psychiatric 
nursing are well described. In this section, I 
nursing is described as a process through 
which the patient develops a more po..itive 
self-concept and better interpersonal rela- 
tionships. It is unfortunate that the re- 
mainderofthe book is not built upon these 
statements. Perhaps future editions \A ill 
extend this approach and result in updated 
nursing diagnoses and approaches. 
Beyond the first chapter. there is a recur- I 
rent theme that nurses are not agents of 
therapy in psychiatry, but rather managers 
of the environment. while the social wor"- 
ers, psychiatrists. and psychologists con- 
duçt any psychotherapy in which the pa- 
tient is involved. 
The chapters on mental health and men- 
tal illnös. developing self-understanding. 
the therapeutic use of self. and some as- 
pects of communication theory and s"ills 
l:ontain material that is easilv com- 
prehended and could be helpful to begin- 
ning students. The chapters on working 
(continued on page 58) 
MARCH 1975 



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. Clinical studies have shown that SELSUN controls up to 
95% of simple dandruff cases' and 87% of cases of 
seborrheic dermatitis 2 . 
Controlling seborrhea is vital to best results in treating such 
skin conditions as acne, blepharitis and otitis externa, 
. Precautions and side effects: Keep out of the eyes; burning 
or irritation may result. Avoid application to inflamed scalp 
or open lesions. Occasional sensitization may occur. selenium sulfide lotion, Abbott Standard. 
No more reliable dandruff 
treatment anywhere 


1. Slinger, W.N. and Hubbard, D.M., Treatment of Seborrheic Dermatitis with a Shampoo containing 
Selenium Sulfide, A.M.A. Arch. Dermat. & Syph., 64:41. 1951. 
2. Bereslon, E.S., Use of SelenIum Sulfide Shampoo in Seborrheic Dermatitis, J.A.M.A.. 156:1246, 
1954. 


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books 


(continued from paKe 56) 
with patients in hospital settings are dis- 
guised with behavioral titles. 
In fact. they are oriented to traditional 
treatmcnt and labeling of psychiatric ill- 
ness, such as schizophrenia or manic de- 
prösive psychoses. There are useful sug- 
gestions in these areas but nothing new or 
imaginative. The case studies are of ex- 
treme pathology and describe only etiol- 
ogy and behavior. not nursing care. These 
chapters contain good hibliographies of 
past and current journal articles. 
In summary. this text. although revised. 
is still outdated in many aspects of its pre- 

entation. Nursing students could usc parts 
of it as a reference. but it is not recom- 
mended as a text for students in up-to-date 
psychiatric nursing courses. 


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brightly lit room. Front projection is 
available with an auxiliary attachment. 
Easy to use in any situation. this unit is 
said to be ideal for presentations in 
classrooms and for training programs. 


PORTABLE TAPE SYSTEM 
o Medical Translator. a new system that 
enables emergency room staff to com- 
municate immediately with Spanish- 
speaking patients. is available from Teach 
'em Inc.. 625 North Michigan Avenue. 
Chicago. Illinois 60611. U.S.A. 
This system. which features an addi- 
tional tape loop permitting nurses and 
doctors to ask questions and give 
Spanish-speaking patients directions. 
eliminates the need for interpreters. It is 
operated by dialing the statement or 
question desired and pushing a button for 
playback. An off/on volume control 
switch is the only other control on the 
unit. 
The Medical Translator system in- 
cludes a lightweight tape unit and case. 
long-I ife battery. two pre-recorded belts 
58 THE CANADIAN NURSE 


with 50 statements and questions re- 
corded in Spanish. and cue cards showing 
the English equivalents of the statements 
and questions. 


LITERATURE AVAILABLE 
o What You've Wanted to Know about 
He/ping the Handicapped, But Were 
Afraid to Ask is a pocket-and-purse-sized 
guide that answers such questions as what 
to do when coping with dressing. toileting. 
and feeding a handicapped person. the best 
and easiest method for gettmg a wheel- 
chair into a car and even "how to over- 
come your embarrassment. ., The booklet 
to help volunteers overcome their fear and 
apprehension is available free of charge 
from the March of Dimes. 12 Overlea 
Blvd. Toronto Onto 


o Metropolitan Life has published in 
French and English. a new booklet 
Mothers at Work. The l6-page pamphlet 
covers such topics as shortcuts to lighten 
housekceping taslo.s. parent-child rela- 
tionships. effects on the family when 
mother goes to work outside the home. 
and precautions to maintain the mother's 
health. 
The back page of the booklet has space 
to list essential telephone numbers and the 
suggestion that children should be taught 
how to telephone for help in an emer- 
gency. 
The booklet is available free of charge 
from: Metropolitan Life. 180 Wellington 
Street. Ottawa. Ontario. KIP 5A3. 


accession list 


Publications recently received in the 
Canadian Nurses' Association library are 
available on loan - with the exception of 
items marked R - to CNA members. 
schools of nursing. and other institutions. 
Items marked R include reference and 
archive material that does not go out on 
loan. Theses. also R. are on Reserve and 
go out on Interlibrary Loan only. 
Requests for loans. maximum 3 at a 
time, should be made on a standard Inter- 
library Loan fonn or on the "Request 

onn for Accession List" printed in this 
Issue. 
If you wish to purchase a book. contact 
your local bookstore or the publisher. 


BOOKS AND DOCUMENTS 
I. Anricof!\'ulsanr therapy. Pharmacological basis 
and practice. by Mervyn J. Eadie and John H. Tyrer. 
Edinburgh, Churchill Livingstone. 1974. 204p. 
2. Basic physiology and anatomy. by Ellen E. Chaf- 
fee and bther M Greisheimer. 3ed. Toronto, Lip- 
pincott. cl974. 559p. 
3. Becoming a nurse; the registered nurses' view of 
general student nUrse education, by Nelida Lamond. 


London. Royal College of Nur\ing dnd National 
Council of Nurses of the United Kingdom. cl974. 
9Op. 
4. Bm..el function in hospital patiem.<. by Le,lie I 
Wright. London, Royal College of Nursing. 1974. i 
124p. (The ,tudy of nursing care project repons. 
Ser.l.no.4) 
5. The Ciba ColleCllon of medical illustrations. 
Vol.6 Kidneys. ureters and urinllrv bladder. b)' 
Frank Henry Netter. Summit, N.J., Ciba Phar-, 
maceulical. cl973. 295p. R 
6. Community health sen'ices in the health care de- 
. I 
Iil'ery Hstem. Papers presemed at four open forums 
at Biennilll Com'ention, MIt1ßl'apolis. Ma\' 6-10, 
1973. New York, National League for NUl>ing.' 
c1974. H6p. 
7. Dietary control of cholesterol: 10w-slllurated{1II 
meal plans for the elllire family model 
memu/delicious recipes/calorie-cOlltro//ed diets 
Muntreal, 1973. 47p. 
8. Documents de référence de la Conférence I 
panaméricaine sur la PlanijìcatÏcm du Personnel de 
la Sanré liere. Otrawa. 10-/4 sept. 1973. Washing- 
ton. Organi
ation panaméricaine de la Santé. 1974. , 
3v. 
9 The arug. the nune. the pal/em. by Mdry W 
Falconer et al 5ed. Toronto. Sdunders. 1974. 621p 
Bound with: Current drug handbook. 
10. EssllYs in science and philosophy. by Alfred 
Nonh Whitehead. New York. Philo,ophical Library, 
cl947 34Hp. 
II. The fitne,çs myth: a new approach to exercise. by 
Fern Labo. Toronto. Lester and Orpen.cI974. 152p. 
12. Folioofreporls. 1974. Montreal. A'5ociationoft 
Nurses of the Province of Quebec. 50p. I 
13. Gowland and Cairney' s anlltomy lInd physiologv 
for nurses. Sed. rev. and ed. by W.E. Adams and 
D.W. Taylor. Christchurch. New Zealand. Peryer. 
1974. 52Hp. 
14. Insects and disease, by Keith R. Sno",. London. 
Routledge and Kegan Paul. c1974. 20!ip. 
15. An inrroduction to communÌl\' work, by Fred I 
Milson. London, Routledge and Kegan Paul. 1974. 
153p. I 
16. An introduction to human physiolog_\. by David 
F. HOlTobin. Philadelphia, Davis. c 1973. 17t>p. I 
17. Laboratory manual in ptrysiology lInd anatomy. 
with studv guide questions and practical applica- 
trons. by Ellen Chaffee. 3ed. Toronto. Lippincott. I 
c 1974. 236 p. 
18. Labour force and world popuilltion growth. I 
Geneva, International Labour Office. 1974. 78p. I 
(Bulletin of labour statistics. Special edition) 
t9. Main d'oeu\'re et croissance démngraphique 
mondiale. Genève, Bureau international du Travail, I 
1974. 78p. (Bulletin des statlsl1ques du travail. 
Édition 'péciale) 
20. Manual for nurses in fami/\- and communit) 
health, by Helen Cohn and Joyce E. Tingle, 2ed. \ 
Boston, Little. Brown. 1974, 99p. 
21. Manuel de /'infirmier en psychilltrie. par Paul 
Bernard. 2éd, Paris. Masson. 1974, 434p. 
22. Membership directory. Chicago, III., American 
Library Association, 1974. 272p. 
23. Menral health concepts in medical-surgical nul's 
ing; a workbook, by Carol Ren Knei,1 and Sue Ann I 
Ames. St. Louis. Mosby. 1974. 159p. I 
24. Nurse - I want my Mummy! By Pamela J. 
Ha"'thorn. London, ROYdl College ofNur
ing. 1974. 
(continued on page 60) 


MARCH 1975 



Your patients 
will amaze 
you . . . 


" 
t. 


... 
)0 


". 


---.. 


... 


... 


.... 


, 


I
 
- 


-. 


, 


\ \
 11 


 \. . 
 
. "J
1 
so will retelast J
 

 ,
,. 
I 
Your patients will be back to normal in no ..
 
\ , 
nothmg happened. 'I' 
 
NOT SURPRISING. . ..' " ' 
RETELAST is so comfortable and gives 
I
 " 
such fast relief. Moreover. RETELAST !J.; " 
costs up to 40% less than any other 
 . , 
dressing or traditional bandage. ! 



 OCTO LABORATORY LTD. 
\
 Laval, Quebec. 
eR CANADA PHARMACAL co LTD.. 
Toronto. Ontario. 


DEMONSTRATION 
AND FOLDERS 
UPON REQUEST 



accession list 


(({mIUllled from palie 511} 


 I p. ( rh
 ,luJ\ 01 nUNng 
ar
 proi

1 r
pon'. SeL 
I. no. .1) 
:!5. Le ll11nitrg en 'ìlllllè Cfll11l1lllll11Ulllirl' \1l'lnOlre 
pre
entl' all milli
/re des Ajjaires .",ciales. :\Iomreal. 
L .Onlre Je, Infirmière, el In'irmier, Ju Quebec. 
1974. 
Ip. 

6. Le Illlrsillii el ialoi canadiellne. par Shirl
} R. 
GooJ el Jdn
1 C K

L TraJuil par Magdcleine 
Deldnd :\Idilhiol \Iomredl. EJilion, HRW. d974. 
174p. 

7. !\III"illg lellllef.\lrip illacl"m; prillciple.
 alld ap- 
plicaliolllo 
taff si/llations. bv Ldurd 'l.lae Dougld" 
dnJ E. \1 Olivid Bevi, 
eJ. SI. Loui,. :\Io,by. 
1974. 
14p. 
21L Oh"'l'lrll"S illlnlraled, b
 \Idllhe\\ :\1. Gdrrey el 
al. 2eJ. LonJon. Churchill Living'lone. 1974. 538p 

9. Orientll/ioll alld em/llalioll 01 lire profe,,-,Ùmal 
Illlr.\e. b\ :\IiIJreJ Hillidrd. SI. Loui,. Mo,by. 1974. 
16Xp. 
.10. Precis de liaialrie, par I:ric :\Idnin el Jean- 
Pierre JunoJ. Pan,. Ma"on. 197.1. 415p. 
.11. TIr" pron'H of ."aft l/t','e/opmelll; compOllelll.' 
forchalllie, by Helen M. Tobin. el al. SI. Loui,. !\.10.. 
\to,b}. 1974. 174p. 
.1
. Rapporl. 1974. :\Iomredl. I\''''cldtlon Je, In- 
flrmière, el Infirmier, du Qu
be<:. Sip. 
.13. Reporl. 1973-4. Ollawa Imemational Develop- 
ment R
'ean'h Cemre. 1974. HOp. 
34 Reporl of COImcil Oil Co/[e,liiale Edllcatioll for 
.VII"illli 21sl,Weelillli, Apri13-5. 1974. Atlamd. Gd.. 
Soulhern Regiondl EJucation Board. 1974. 1.14p. 
35. RespOIlSl' 10 cllllllgillii IIeet/
. Papers presellled 
al Ihe Iwelflh cOllferellce of Ihe Cor",cil of Bac- 
calallreale allli Hlliher Deliree Programs, Dl'IlI'er. 
Colorado, ,"'fanh 20-22, 1974. 

\\ York. Naliondl 
L
dgue for Nursing. d974. 7.1p. 
.16. Rocaherlllll orl les Irihllialiolls d'IlI'" jellne in.f;r- 
miÚe clre
 les pionllier.< de {' Abilihi. pdr Nicole de 1.1 
Chevrntière (B
rilh) :\Iomredl. Sondec c 1974. 

OXp. 
.17. Scientific prillciple< ill nllrsinli, by Shirley 
Hd\\ke Grdgg dnd Olive 1\1. Reð. 7ed. SI. Loui,. 
:\to,by. 1974. 563p. 
38. Tellder Im'in,! greed; 11011 lire incredihly Illcra- 
li"e Illlrsillii home "Illdlo/n" is etploililili 
Amaica's old people alld de.fralldillii liS a/[, b
 Mary 
AdelaiJe M
ndd,on. 
e\\ York. Alfred A. Knopf. 
1974. 245p. 
.19. YOllr flllllre in Illlnlllii careen. by Alice :\1. 
Robin,on dnd Mdry E. Rere\. Ne\\ York. Ri
hdrd, 
Ro,
n. 1972. Il.1p. (Careers in deplh nt'. 99) 
40. Wrilill!: for re.."I,s in hlt.<illl'.u, liOlertlmem allli 
Ihe profeuions. by David W. Ewing. Toronto. 
Wiley. 1974 466p 


PAMPHLETS 


41. Baccalallrellle edllcalioll in Illlrsing; la'y 10 a 
prnfessÙlIlal career in Illlrsillg - 1974-75. New 
York. Ndti,'ndl LedgU
 for Nursing. Dep\. of BdC- 
l'aldureate and Higher Degree Programs. 1974. 
3p. 
R 
42. Ba.
ic edllcalion ofllllrsinii persollnel in Canada. 
Address by Helen Kalhleen '\1u"dllem 10 King's 
Fund Semindr of NUr\cs. London. England. 1974. 
60 THE CANADIAN NURSE 


Olld\\a. 1974. 9p. 
4.1. Board ml'mhers' halldhooC Vdncouver. Regis- 
tered Nurscs ASS<lCldll<ln <I' BritISh Columbia. 1974. 
15p. 
oW. COllllilulion. T<lronto. Ontdrio NUr\es Assncia- 
tion. 1974. 32p. 
.t5. Continuing edUclltioll progrlllll.\ ;,i BritÜh 
Columhia. Polides. proCf'd.lres, crileria fvr ap 
prom/, V dncouV
r. Regi'lered "IIurses A'sncidtj<ln 
nf Brilj,h Cnlumbid. 1974. Hp. 
46. How /(I conducl beller performance appraisal 
Imen.ie....
. bv Rnb
n L. Nnland dnd Joseph J. 
:o..1oyldnd. Springddle. Conn.. Motivation. 1970. 
cl967. .lIp. 
47. The nune in priman- hl'allh care; a re,-ie.. of 
recemlileralllre. hv Phyllis E. Jnnes. Toronto. 1974 
17p. 
41\. Nurses' liuide 10 Calladian druli legislalion, by 
David R. Kennedy. Toronlo. Lippincoli. cl973. 
17p. Publi
hed for u<;c with Rodman, Monin J.. 
Phdrmdcology dnd drug therapy in nursing. 
49. R,'commelldlllion< of loim C ommillee on Ihe Et- 
Pllnded Role of Ihe Nurse in British Columhia. 
Vdncouver. 1973. 6p. 
50. Recommendalion,
 of .ValÙmal Conference on 
School Heallir. Olla...a. Octoher 29-31. 1972. Ot- 
ta\\d. \1
tropolitan Life Insurdnce Co.. 1973. Sp. 
51. Selecled readillliS from open curriculum lilera- 
IlLre. All llllllotaled hihlioliraph\". Ne\\ York. Na- 
liondl Led/we for :'IIursing. cl974. I1p. 
5
. Summar\" oflhe reporl ofCommis.'ion on Educa- 
lioll for Heallh Adminislralioll. Ann Arbor. !l"lich.. 
HCdhh Admml\trallon Press. 1974. 16p. 
5.1. Toda\"'s cOllcepllwl framework: il< relaliollSlrip 
10 Ihe curriculum de"elopmem process. by Genrude 
Tnrre, and Helen Yura. Ne\\ York. Depl. of Bac- 
cdlaur
dte dnd Higher Degree Prograrm. Ndtional 
Ledgue for Nursing. c 1974. I 
p. 


GOVERNMENT DOCUMENTS 


Canada 
54. Dep!. of Labour. M,'a."llYing Ihe qUlllil\' of...ork- 
illii life. Proceedilliis of S,",IIposium Oil Social ""Ii- 
ClLlon of Worl.illg Life. Olla"a, March 19 a",1 20. 
1973. Edited by I\lan H. Ponigal. Olla\\a, cl974. 

I\Op . ."IIe\\ Resedrch Initialives. Research and 
Devcl<lpmem Program." 
55. H
dhh dnd Welfare Canadd. Cateliories of .lema I 
ll/nillllries in Callada hy pr(l\'ince - 1973. b} 
Beverly Du Gd' and B Leung. Olla\\a. 1974. :!Jp. 
(Heahh manpo\\er repon no. 10-74) 
56. Reporl of IlIIerdeparlmemal Commillee on Ihe 
Nur.
;'lg Group. Olla\\a. 1974. 44p. Chairman: D.B. 
D
\\ ar. 
57. Summan' record of Federal-Prowillcial 
EmerlielllY Heallh Sen'ices Directors Conference, 
OCI.3-5. 1973. Olld\\a. Emergency H
ahh Services. 
Hedllh and \\elfare. Canada. 1973. 85p. 


Registered Nurses 


Your community needs the benefit 
of your skills and experience. Vol un, 
teer now to teach Patient Care in 
The Home and Child Care in The 
Home Courses, 0 
contaYl-"" " 
St
n"Ambulance 


I 
58. Melric Cnmmlssion. HOI"'o II rtIealltll\pe SI 'I 
slyle guide. Olldwa.lnlormallon Canadd. cl974. 5 \ 
 
59. 
ational Sci
nce Librdrv. Heallh Sciem 
Resource C
mre. Conferenn' proceedillli< in I I 
Ireallh sciellces Ireld h\' lire National SI iellce Lihrar 
ml. I. Onawd. 1973. 656p. R I 
60. Recreation Canada. Proliress reporl on Nalion! 
Conference on Fi/rll'lS alld Heallh. Ollall 
Dec
mher 4-6, 1972. Olla\\a. 1974. 17p. I 
61. SCience CnuncII nf Canada. Facls alld filillYe' 
Olla\\a. 1974. 17p 
62. - Commillee on Heahh Scien
es. Science J 
heallh <en'i(es. Ond\\d.lnformation Cdnada.cl9 
14Op. (Science Council <If Candda. R
pnn no. 2 
63. Secretary of State. The orliani
(l/ion alld ú\ 
millislralÙm of ('(I",'mioll ill Callada. by D3' fI 
Munroe. Ollawa. In'nrmdtinn Canada. 1974. 219j1 
64. Slatisliq
e C
n

a. Dir(,(:/i
'es eldefillitionSPO' I ' 
Ie rapporl d ac/ll'l/e des hopllll/it 1972. 011311 
InfofITIdtion Canada. 41p. 


Quehec 
65. La\\" ,tdtules. elc. Officialltmliualie act; b, 
110.22. Don Mills. Onto CCH Canddian lid.. 197 
41p. , I 
66. Mini,tère des Affdire, \ociale,. Direcli. 
d' Agrement des Etabli

ements. Lisle ties cenlr. 
hospitaliers delellam WI permi.< delit're ell ,'erlu de. 
"Loi SUr les sen'ices de sanlé elles 
erl'ices SOciOJ I 
(L.Q. 1971, ch. 48)"', Quebec. ville. 1974 IOlp 
Ullited Slales 
67. National Institule, of Heallh. Clinical Cenle 
Nursmg Depanment. A new dimensioll ill Ihe care. 
hospital patients ullder .,'reu; a nlllllidi.
ciplilla' 
pmiem care Sll((
\'. U.S. Depl. of Heahh. Educali( 
and Welfdre. Public Hedhh Service. 1974 32( 
(U.S. DHEW publicdti<ln no. (NIH) 74-621). 
68. Nalional Librdry of :\1edicine. Li,eralul 
searches. Bethe,dd. :\Id.. 1974. Literature sean 
no. 74-20. Adverse effech of oral contraceplive 
65p. Literature 
earch no. 74-22. Nutrition for II: 
aged. 14p. R I 
69. Public Health Service. The heallh consequenCf 
of smol,ing. Beth
sda. Md.. 1974. 137p. 


STUDIES DEPOSITED IN CNA REPOSITORY COLLECTIO I 
70. Priorité au IIur.
inli .Ian.> r ae/i.'ile de r illfirrnier 
deche.'el. M<lntreal. Universite de Montreal.lnstin 
Marguerite d'Y<luvilie. 1967. 
Op. '-Travail de n, 
cherche préseme à I"InstilUl Mdrguerile d'Youvill' 
affiliee à J'Universite dc M<lntréal comm, 
complémenl au cours qui conduit au Baccalaureal i 
Sciences Infirmières," R 
71. Resistance in Ihe psychntherapell/ic imenie' 
with a depressed palient. by Nonna Ste\\an. Sa 
FrancIsco, 1974. :!Jp. Study done forcomprehensi\ 
examindtion MSN degree Univ. of Calif<lmia. Sa I 
Francisco. R 
72. A unit-dose dmg dislrihulion sySlem for Ihe 011 
tawa General Hospilal; a cosl-henefiT lInaluis. b. 
Parminder Singh. Olla\\a. 1974. 53p. Managemel 
Engineering Servil'es. General Ho'pilal. 011.1\\3 
study with cooperation of Nursing Depanment. R 


AUDIO-VISUAL AIDS 
73. SOflomed (serie 2, no. 3) Montreal. Associatiorl 
des Médecins de langue française du Canada. 1974. 'I 
casselle Cole A Pontages corondriens liable ronde) 
- Cole B. I. Etude de la fonction hepatique. 2 
Thymoanaleptiques. <' 
MARCH 1975, 



What the well-bandaged 
patient should wear: 


Bandafix is a seamless round- 
woven elastic "net" bandage, 
composed of spun latex 
threads and twined cotton. . 


Bandafix stays securely in 
place; there are eight sizes, 
which if used correctly will 
provide an excellent 
fixation bandage for 
every part of the 
body. 


I Bandafix does not change in 
the presence of blood. pus, 
serum, urine. water or any 
liquid met in nursing. 


Bandafix has a maximum of 
elasticity (up to lO-fold) and 
therefore makes a perfect 
fixation bandage that never 
obstructs or causes local 
pressure on the blood vessels. 


Bandafix saves time when 
applying, changing and 
removing bandages; the same 
bandage may be used several 
times; it is washable and 
may be sterilized in an 
autoclave. 


Bandafix is not air-tight, 
because it has large meshes; it 
causes no skin irritation even 
when used for the fixation of 
greasy dressings. The mate- 
rial is completely non-reactive. 


Bandafix is an up-to-date 
easy-to-use bandage in line 
with modern efficiency. 



 


,Bandafix replaces hydrophilic 
gauze and adhesive plaster. 
is very quick to use and 
has many possibilities of 
application. It is very suit- 
able for places that otherwise 
are difficult to bandage. 


, . / 
i
:(

 


Bandafix is economical in use, 
not only because of its rela- 
tively low price but because 
the same bandage may be 
used repeatedly. 


. 


""- 


Bandafix does not fray, 
because every connection 
between the latex and cotton 
threads is knotted; openings 
of any size may be made with 
scissors or the fingers. 


. 
. 


andafix* 


Distributed by 


Now available 
Ready to Use" 
Bandafix 
. Pre-measured 
. Pre-cut 
. 14 different applicatIons 
. IndivIdually illustrated 
peel-open packages 


IDNiHN[ID 


1956 Bourdon Street Montreal, PQ H4M 1V1 


*Registered trademark of Continental Pharma 


RCH 1975 


THE CANADIAN NlJRSE 61 



the wo 


VIEW WOUND SITE THROUGH ACCESS 
CAP. REMOVE CAP FOR EXAMINATION AND 
DRAIN TUBE ADJUSTMENT. 


O U
OS I 
G
 
 



 
THE HOLLISTER DRAINING-WOUND 
MANAGEMENT SYSTEM 


KEEPS FLUIDS AWAY FROM 
PATIENT'S SKIN AND GUARDS AGAINST 
IRRITATION AND CONTAMINATION. 
Skin-conforming Karaya Blanket protects skin around 
wound site. It directs discharge into odor-barrier, translu- 
cent Drainage Collector which holds exudate for visual 
assessment and accurate measurement. 
There are no messy, wet dressings to handle or change 
. . no need for painful dressing removal. 
Supplied sterile. for application in O.R, or patienrs room. 
The better altemative 
to absorbent dressings. 



 Wnte tor more Information 
.1 !jQ


2!

wlllowdale, Onto M2J IPS 


62 THE CANADIAN NlJRSE 


Request Form 
for "Accession List" 
CANADIAN NURSES' " 
ASSOCIATION LIBRARY 


Send this coupon or tacSlmlle to 
LIBRARIAN, Canadian Nurses' Association, 
50 The Driveway. Ottawa K2P 1E2, Ontario. 
Please lend me the followang publications. listed an the .............. 
.. ... ...... ..__ .... .......m__. issue of The Canadian Nurse, 

r"'
dd--
Y' name to the waiting list to receive them when 
available. 
Item Author Short title (for identification) 
No. 


Request for loans will be filled in order of receipt. 
Reference and restricted material must be used in the CNA 
library. 
Borrower ............... .................. .......... .......................................... 
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Position ....... '" ................. .... ... ... ..... ......... ... ..... .................. .......... 


Addre ss ... .... ........... ....... ..... ...... ... .... .... ........... ............... .......... ..... 


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Date of request ............................................................................ 


I 


...t.J 


.. 


..
 


.. \ 


MARCH 197 



I classified advertisements 
I I 


ALBERTA 


.. 


'
EGISTERED NURSES required lor 70 bed accredoted ac!tve 
ealment Hospital. Full time and summer retet All MRt:! per- 
nnel policies Apply In wnbng 10 the: Dffeclor 0' Nursing 
umheller General HosPItal. Drumheller. Alberta 


,rEGISTERED NURSE requored by 2
bed actIVe treatment hos- 
Italfulltlme. All A A.RH personnel pOlicM!S. nurse's residence 
v8llable Apply to' Doreclor 01 Nursing, Raymond MuniCIpal 
osp,tal. Raymond Alberta 


71-bed active treatment hosprtal requores NURSES FOR 
,'ENERAl DUTY, O.R.. and INTENSIVE CARE NURSING, 
Ight member medical stall. Personnel pollCM!s per A A.R.N. 

reerrent - starting at 5900. per month. This hosp
aI is 
)Cated In the southern part 01 the proVInce (30 miles east 01 
ethbndge) whICh enJOYS a lalrty moderate wanter dlmate. Easy 
ccess 10 winter and summer recreatIonal actlVltM!S Apply' 
Jlrector of Nur
lIng. Taber General Hosprtal Taber. Alberta. 
OK 2G0 


BRITISH COLUMBIA 


JPERATING ROOM NURSE wanted lor acllve mo- 
ern acute hospital Four Certilled Surgeons on 
Uendlng slall. Expenence 01 trainIng desJrable. 
ust b.. eligible lor B.C Reglstrallon Nurses 
sldence avaIlable. Salary according to RNABC 
'ontract Apply 10. Doreclor 01 Nursing, Mills Mem- 
nal Hospital. 2711 Telrault 51.. Terrace Bnllsh 
. umbia. . 


ADVERTISING 
RA TES 


FOR ALL 


CLASSIFIED AD\ ERTISING 


$1500 for 6 lines or less 
$2.50 for each addilional line 


Rates far display 
advertisements on request 


Closing dale for copy and cancellatian is 
6 weeks prior 10 1 sl day of publicalion 
month. 
The Canadian Nurses' Assaciatian does 
not reView the personnel policies of 
Ihe hospilals and agencies adverlising 
in the Journal. For outhen'ic informal ian, 
prospeclive applicanls should apply 10 
the Registered Nurses' Association of the 
Province in which Ihey ore inleresled 
in working 


Address correspondence to: 


The 
Canadian 
Nurse 


ð 

 


50 THE DRIVEWAY 
OTTAWA, ONTARIO 
K2P 1E2 


MRCH 1975 


BRITISH COLUMBIA 


CLINICAL COORDINATOR requored lor an 87-bed acule care 
hosp
aI with expanSion plans to Indude 120 beds. localed In 
the Northwest of B.C. Thirty-seven and one-hall hours. 5 day 
week. lIVIng accommodatIOns avaolable. RNABC contract IS '" 
ellect DutM!s to commence May 1. 1975. DUTIES: Coordlnallon 
01 all in-ServICe educatIon reqUIrements ot the hOSpital, 
Indudlng audio-vISual equipment and technlCoan. The regular 
updating 01 policy and procedure manuals In the hosp
al. w
h 
the assistance 01 the sUperVIsory slall. Planning scheduled 
hours 01 wer!< Must be willing 10 continue Updating hersell 
through anendence at offered continUing educahon courses. 
The ability to work well With hosprtal personnel and the publoc is 
essentoal. Will act as Dorector 01 Nursing In her absence. 
aUALlFICA TIONS: Registered Nurse In Br
ish Columbia 
Administrative and/or University training In this field is essentlaJ. 
A sound dinlcal background in the hosprtal field IS essential. 
Apply In wr
K1g 10: Mrs. S. Thompson. Director 01 Nursing Mills 
Memorial Hospital. Terrace. Bntlsh Columbia. 


REGISTERED and GRADUATE NURSES required lor new 
41-bed acute care hosprtal. 200 miles north of Vancouver. 60 
miles lrom Kamloops lIm
ed furnished accommodatIOn avaola- 
ble. Apply. Direclor 01 Nursing. Ashcroft & Dlstnc! General HospI- 
tal. Ashcroft. Br
lSh Columbia 


1\PpJlcatlons are InV1ted for a very Interesting and challenging 
new pos
lOn We requore a B.C. REGISTERED NURSE to assist 
the Nurse Administrator to be classrtled as a Head Nurse' 
Prelerence will be çlven one with pnor Emerçencyor Obstelnc 
Nursonç expenence and haVlnç successfully completed the 
Nursonç Unit AdministratIOn course The hospital IS a newly 
opened one sotuated on the Yellowhea<l Hlçhway. 80 miles north 
of Kamloops. B.C. The area is a vaCG,tioners paradise both an 
Summer and Winter RNABC salary !X:ale and tnnçe benefits 
applocable Please reply to: Mrs. K Rice, Nurse Admlnl!:trator. 
Dr Helmcken Memonal HoSpItal, Clearwater. Bntish Columbia. 


RE GISTERED NURSES are Invited 10 apply 10 this actIve 
Regional Relerral Hosprtal,n the B.C Intenor The hosp
al has 
40D-beds and an expansIOn programme underway. All clonical 
speclalhes are represented and provide opportunities for vaned 
nursIng experience. RNABC conlractln effect. B.C. registratIOn 
IS required. 1975 stall nurse rate IS $985.00 to $1.163.00 per 
month. Please dorect all correspondence to: Dorecror ot Person- 
nel SerVIces Royal Inland Hospotal. Kamloops. BntlSh Colum- 
bia. V2C 211 


EXPERIENCED NURSES (e
glblelor B.C. reglstralion) requoret1 
lor 409-bed acute care, teachong hospilal located in Fr
ser 
Valley, 20 minules by freeway lrom Vancouver. and wllhln 
easy access of vaned recreatlonaJ facdltles. ExceUent Onenla- 
lIOn and Cormurg Educabon progra'T1mes. Salary $985 00 to 
$1.163.00 Oneal areas oncIude. Mecicne, General and Spe- 
cialized Surgery. Obsletrics, Pediatrics. Coronary Care. Hemo- 
d.alysis RehabllltallOn. Opera"ng Room. Inlenslve Care. Emer- 
gency PRACTICAL NURSES (eligible lor B.C. License) illso 
reql1,red. Apply 10: Nursing Recruitment. Personnel Department. 
Royal Columbian Hosprtal. New Wesrmlnster. Bnllsh Columbia. 
V3l3W7 


REGISTERED NURSES AND NURSING SUPERVISORS re- 
quored by a lOQ-be<l acute care and 4D-bed exlended care 
accredited hosprtal Must be elIgible lor B.C. registratIOn. 
SUperviSOry applicants must have expenence In administrative 
or supervisory nursing. R N. s salary $985. to $1,163. and 
Supervisors salary $1.181. 10 $1 391. (RNABC Agreement- 
1975) Apply '" WritIng to the: Dorector 01 Nursing. G R. Baker 
Memonal Hospital. 543 Front Street. Quesnel. Br
ISh Columbia 
V2J 2K7 


GRADUATE NURSES - looking lor variety in your work? 
Consider a modern lD-bed hosp
allocaled on a beautiful fiord- 
type ,nlet 01 Vancouver ISland s west coast. Apply' Admlnlstralor, 
Box 3 Q 9 Tahsis antlsh Columbia. VOP IXO. 


EXPERIENCED GENERAL DUTY NURSES AND LICENSED 
PRACTICAL NURSES reqUIred lor small upcoast hosprtal Sa
 
ary and personnel pollcM!S as per RNABC and H E.U. contracts 
Residence accommodation $25.00 per month Transportation 
paid from Vancouver. Apply 10: Doreclor of Nursmg. St. George's 
Hosprtal Alert Bay. Brdlsh Columbia. VON IAO. 


GENERAL DUTY NURSES AND LICENSED PRACTICAL 
NURSES: For modem 13D-bed accredited hospital on Van- 
couver Island. Resort area - home 01 Ihe Tyee Salmon Four 
hours Iraveliing time to City 01 Vancouver. Collective agreements 
wIth ProvincIal NursIng AssocIatIOn and HospItal Employees 
UnIOn Residence accommodatIOn available. Please direct 
Inquires 10: Doreclor 01 Nursing ServICes. Campbell River & 
DistrICt General Hospllal 375 - 2rd Avenue, Campbell RIver. 
B"tish CoIumtxa. V9W 3VI. 


i I 


BRITISH COLUMBIA 


GENERAL DUTY NURSES lor modem 41-bed hospital located 
on the Alaska HIg,way. Salary ard personnel polICies In 
accordance with RNABC. Accommodabon avalable In rest- 
dence. Apply: Dorecror 01 Nursing. Fori NelsOn General Hospital, 
Fort Nelson. B"tlsh CoIumtxa. 


GENERAL DUTY B_C. REGISTERED NURSES, lull acaedoled 
39-bed hosprtal Comlortable nurses' residence RNABC Ag- 
reementln ellect. Apply: Mrs. E NeVIlle. R.N.. Director 01 Nurses. 
Golden and DIStrICt General Hospital. P.O. Box 1260, Golden. 
Brrtosh CoIumIJoa VOA 1 HO. 


GENERAL DUTY NURSES required lor 3
bed extended care 
unit '" N W. B.C. Good recreatlonaJ facIlities and resKSence aval. 
lable. RNABC policies In ellect. Apply to: Dorector 01 Nursing. 
Kdlmat General Hospital. Kdlmat. Br
lsh Columbia. V8C IE7 


GENERAL DUTY NURSES reqUired tor an 87-bed acute care 
hosprtalln Nonhern B.C. residence accommodations aVljllabie 
RNABC policies In ellect Apply to. Dorector 01 Nursing. Mills. 
Memonal Hospllal, Terrace Bntlsh Columbia. vaG 2W7. 


MANITOBA 


UNIVERSITY FACULTY - PosnlOns avaolable lor a baccalau- 
reate program In Pnmary Care Nursing. (Nurse Practitioner), 
RestoratIOn of Health In Nursing. AmelioratIOn 01 Illness and 
DISabIlity In N....slng ConservatIOn of Health In Nursong. Preven- 
tion 01 Illness and Dlsablloty In NurSIng, PromollOn 01 Heanh in 
Nursing. QualoficatlOns requored are Masler s Degree and/or 
Doctoral plus leaching experience. Rank and Salary to commen- 
surate w
h Education and Experoence. Contact: Dr. Helen P. 
Glass Dorecror. School 01 Nursing. The UniverSIty 01 Man
oba, 
W,nnopeg, Manitoba. Canada. R3T 2N2 


NEW BRUNSWICK 


THREE FACULTY MEMBERS needed July I. 1975. 10 replace 
laculty members gOIng on one-year sabbatical and two-year 
Study leaves Preparallon and e'penence deSIrable In matemal- 
infant and In medical-surgical nursing. IncreaSing enro1ment wi" 
perm
 retenllOn 01 right persons al end of Ihese penods. Extras 
we have 10 offer are an eXCJI.ng new cumculum approach. a new, 
well-equipped sell-instructional laboratory. a new hosprtal. and 
the advantages of liVIng in a beautdul, small City. Address: Dean, 
Faculty 01 NursIng. The UniverSlfy 01 New BrunswIck, Frederic- 
lon, New Brunswick. 


NOVA SCOTIA 


REGISTERED NURSES (4) requored lor 5S-bed hosp
aI Salary 
commensurate with experience and establIshed rates Usual 
Innge benefits. Residence accommodatIOns available Apply: 
Admlmstrator or Dorector ot NursIng, Queens General HOSpital. 
Box 370. lIverpool. Nova Scolla. BOT 1 KO. 


ONTARIO 


DPERATING ROOM STAFF NURSE requored tor lully accredi- 
ted 75-bed Hospital BasIc wage $689 Oú With conSlderalion for 
e.penence: also an OPERATING RODM TECHNICIAN, baSIC 
wage 5526.00. Call lime rates available on request Wnte or 
phone the. Dorector of Nursing, Dryden DISlnct General Hospital, 
Dryden. Ontano 


REGISTERED NURSES lor 34-bed General Hospital 
Salary $915.00 per month to $1,115.00 plus expenence 81- 
lowance I::xcellenl personnel policies. Apply to: 
Doreclor 01 NurSing. Englehart & Dlstnct HospItal 
Inc.. Englehart, Ontano. POJ 1 HO. 


REGISTERED NURSES reqUired lor our ultramodern 79-bOO 
General Hosprtal In bilIngual communIty 01 Northern Onlano 
French language an asset. but not compulsory Salary IS 5855. 
to $1030 monlhly with allowance lor past experoence and 4 
weeks vacation aller 1 year. fiosp
al pays 100 0 0 01 O.H./.f'.. 
Llle Insurance (10 0(0). Salary Insurance (75 0 0 ot wages to the 
age 01 65 With U I.C carve-out) a 354 drug plan and a denIal 
care plan Master rotation In effect ROOming accommodations 
available in town. Excellent personnel pohaes. Apply to: 
Personnel Dorector. NoIre-Dame Hosp
al. P.O. Box 850. 
Hearst. Onlano. 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 63 



ONTARIO 


REGISTERED NURSES are required immediately lor OUI tully 
accredited Ihlrty two bed complex ard aClive treatment hospital 
located In beaulifuJ northern Ontario. Our starting salary IS 
5656.00 monthly w
h allowance lor past expenence ard lour 
weeks paid vacation aher one year Hosp
aI pays 100". 
O.H./.P.. excellent pension plan and ten statutory holidays per 
year. Apply to: The Director 01 Nursing, Homepayne Community 
Hospital, Hornepayne. Ontano. 


REGISTERED NURSES AND REGISTERED NURSING 
ASSISTANTS for 45-bed Hospital Salary ranges 
Include Qenerous expenence allowances. R.N.'.s 
salary 5915. to 51 065.. ard RNA:s salary 5650. to 5725 
Nurses residence - prIVate rooms with bath - 560 per month. 
Apply 10: The Director 01 Nursing Geraldton District Hospital. 
Geraldton, Ontano. POT 1 MO. 


REGISTERED NURSES FOR GENERAL DUTY, I.C.U., 
C.C_U. UNIT and OPERATING ROOM require<1 for 
fully accredited hospital. Starting salary 5650.00 ...tft 
regular increments and with allowance for expen- 
ence. Excellent personnel policies and temporary 
residence accommodation available. Apply to: The 
Director 01 Nursong. Kirkland & District Hospital. 
Kuldand lake. Ontano, P2N 1 R2 


PUBLIC HEALTH NURSE - GREY-OWEN SOUND HEALTH 
UNIT has an opening lor a qualified PUBLIC HEALTH NURSE_ 
If you are Interested In obtaining more In'ormatlon about this 
position please contact: Miss E. DaVIdson. B.Sc.N., Director 01 
Nursing. Grey-Owen Sourd Health Unot. County Building, Owen 
Sound. Ontano, N4K 3E3. 


PUBLIC HEALTH NURSE reqUIred lor generalized programme 
in combined rural and urban area In Southern Ontario. Allowance 
lor experience ard/or degree. Generous Innge benefits ard car 
allowance. Apply to: Supervisor 01 Nursing, Miss Mane I. Elson 
Elgln-St Thomas Heallh Unit, 2 Wood Street. St. Thomas. On- 
lanD. 


LAURENTIAN UNIVERSITY Inv
es appicants lor 197
76 
session to teach 10 all clinical nursing fields including pnmary'" 
care_ New basIC B.Sc.N. cUrriculum and open curnculum 
approach to post-R-N. degree programme. Master's degree in 
clirocal speciality ard bilingual (French-English) preterred. 
Opportun
y to become bilingual provided. Salary and rank 
commensurate with qualifications and experience. Young 
friendly unrvers
y serving north-eastem Onlario. Apply to: Ms. 
Dot Pnngle Director, School 01 Nursing. laurentian University. 
Ramsey lake Road. Sudbury. Ontario. 


RN lor lamlly-type coed camp in Northem Ontano. Approx. 80 
campers: ages 14 to 16: June 23 to Aug. 11: pnvate room ard 
board plus salary. Wr
e/phone: CAMP SOlELlM, 566 Melrose 
Avenue, Toronto, Ontano, MSM 2A6. (AC 416) 761-5156. 


QUEBEC 


REGISTERED NURSE required lor co ed chlldren's summer 
camp In the Laurentian!; (seventy miles north of Montreal) 'rom 
JUNE 20. 1975 to AUGUST 20, 1975. Call (514) 686 1753 or 
wnte: CAMP MAROMAC, 4546 6th Slreet, Chomedey. laval, 
Quebec, H7W 2A4 


We require the servoces 01 a GRADUATE NURSE lor a summer 
poSition at The Quebec Camp lor Diabetic Children Inc. In 
Ste-Agathe-des-Monts. lor the periQ(!. exterdin!! Irom June 
30th to August 16th 1975. Salanes are based on current 
accepted levels. Only bllin9ual applicants will be considered. 
Enquiry should be made to: Dr. Mimi M. Belmonte, 2300 Tupper 
Street. Room 448. Montreal, Quebec, H3H 1 P3. 


Montraal Graduate Nurses Club, 1234 BIShop Streel, Down- 
town Montreal Furroshed Single Rooms lor rent WIth kitchen 
prIVileges. linen Supplied. Reasonable rales. Telephone: (514) 
866-9077. 


"NURSES FDR CHllDREN'S SUMMER CAMP" 1111 
QUEBEC. Our member camps are located in- the 
lauren
lan M
untalns and Eastern Townships. within 
100 mile radius of Montreal All camps are accred. 
Ited members 01 the Quebec Camping Association. 
Apply to: Quebec Camping AssociatIOn, 2233 Bel- 

á

I
t
enue. Montreal 261. Quebec. or phone 


SASKATCHEWAN 


TWO REGISTERED NURSES required Immediately lor a 
1 
bed General Hosptlal in Southern Saskatchewan. Salanes 
as per SUN. ard S.HA contracls. Residence available within 
the hospital ApPly: Director 01 Nursing. Fillmore Unoon Hospital 
Fillmore. Saskatchewan. 


64 THE CANADIAN NlJRSE 


I I 


SASKATCHEWAN 


URGENTLY REQUIRED - Two lull time General Duty 
Registered Nurses. Duties to commerce as soon as possible. 
Salary as per SRNA agreement Residence available. For more 
particulars please contact: Daisy Frostad. DON, Kincaid. 
Saskatchewan. SOH 2JO. Telephone: 264-3233. 


R.N. raqulrad Immedlataly - Porcupine Carragana Union 
Hosptlal reqUires General Duty Registered Nurse Immediately. 
Salary scale and fnnge benelits as negotiated by S.U.N. Modern 
20-bed hospttal Near ProVIncial Parle ProgressIVe community. 
Apply, In writing, to: Administrator, Porcupine Carragana Union 
Hosp
al, Box 70. Porcupine Plain. Saskatchewan, SOE 1 HO. 


I I 


UNITED STATES 


R.N.'s - Openings now available In a vanety of areas 01 a 456 
bed teaching ard research hospital affiliated wIth the school 01 
medicine 01 Case Western Reserve Unoverslty. New laCllity 
opening in the spnng. PersonalIZed onentation, excellent salary, 
full paid benefits ard housing avaolable in hospital residence. 
Will assist you with H 1 visa tor immigralion. A license in Ohio \0 I 
practice nursing IS necessary lor employment For further 
In'ormatlon write or phone: Mrs. Mary Herrick, PersonnfH 
Department. Saint Luke's Hosp
al, 11311 Shaker Blvd., Cleve- ' 
lard. Ohio, 44104. Phone: Monday - Fnday, 9 A.M. - 4 P.M., 
1-216-368-7440. 



 


Get what you've 
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Like a wealth of professional experience 
to enrich your career. 


Nursing has a lot to offer. Remember? 
But sometimes you can get so stuck in 
a rut you almost forget those exciting 
challenges that made you choose a 
nursing career in the first place. 
With Medox. you can revive those 
challenges. 
Since Medox serves almost the 
entire spectrum of nursing services. 
you can get more variety of 


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assignments in a month than you 
could in a year back in that 
comfortable rut Operating room. 
Intensive Care_ Cardiac Unit. Pediatric 
care. 
There's more to nursing than 
punching a time clock. 
With Medox, there can be a lot 
more. 


I 
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[MEUoX] 


a DRAKE INTERNATIONAL company 
CANAOA.USA.UK.AUSTRAUA 


MARCH 197! 



UNITED STATES 


4'. and LPN's - Unoversity HOSPital North a 
)Ching Hospital 01 the Unoverslty 01 Oregon Medical 
f hOOI. has openings In a variety 01 Hospital ser- 
es. We offer competitive salaries and excellent 
nge benefits. Inquores should be directed to Gale 
nkln, Dorector 01 Nursing. 3171 S W Sam Jackson 
k Road. Pol!Jand. Oregon. 97201. 
XAS wants you! II you are an RN. experoenced Or 
. oent graduate come to Corpus ChristI. Sparkhng 
y by [he Sea a city bUilding tor a belter 
ure where your opportunities for recreation and 
dies are limitless Memonal Medical Center. 500- 
j general. teachmg hOSPital encourages career 
ancement and provides in-service onentatlon 
ary Irom $682 00 to $940 00 per month com- 
nsurate with education and experience Differential 
evemng shiftS. available Benefits Include hoh- 
Y5. SICk leave. vacations paid hOspitalization. 
alth life Insurance. pension program Become a 
al part 01 a modern up-to-date hospital write or 
" collect John W Gover Jr. Dorector 01 Per- 
nnel MemOrial Medical Center. POBox 5260 
, s Christi. Te><as. 76405 


REGISTERED NURSES 


Registered Nurses required for large 
,metropolitan general hospital. 
Positions available in all clinical areas. 
Salary Range in effect until December 
31,1975. 
$900. - $1.075. Starting rate de- 
pendent on qualifications and experi- 
ence. 
I 


4pply to: 
StaHing OHicer-Nurslng 
Personnel Department 
Edmonton General Hospital 
Edmonton, Alberta 
T5K OL4 


SCHWEIZERISCHE PFlEGERINNENSCHUlE 
SCHWESTERNSCHUlE UND 
SPITAL. ZUERICH, SCHWEIZ 


We are looking for our medium-sized hospital to 
complete our staff 


NURSES WITH DIPLOMA 


with knowledge of German. 
We offer pleasantteam-worll. favourable possibil- 
ity for lodging and boarding as well as regular 
worlling time. 
Applicants should submit wnllen otters with 
specification about education and activity to 


Schweiz. Pflegerinnenschule, 40 Car- 
menstr., z. Hd. Personalchef. CH-8032 
Zuerich. 


MRCH 1975 


"MEETING TODAY'S CHALLENGE IN NURSING" 


QUEEN ELIZABETH HOSPITAL OF l\tONTREAL 
CENTRE 


A Teaching Hospital 
of McGill University 


requires 


REGISTERED NURSES 


AND 


REGISTERED NURSING ASSISTANTS 


Quebec language requirements do not apply to Canadian applicants. 


. 255-bed General Hospital in the West end of Montreal 
. Clinical areas include Progressive Coronary Care, 
Intensive Care, Medicine and Surgery, Psychiatry, 


Interested qualified applicants should apply in writing to: 


QUEEN ELIZABETH HOSPITAL OF MONTREAL CENTRE 
DIRECTOR OF PERSONNEL 
2100 MARLOWE AVE., MONTREAL, QUE., H4A 3L6. 


THE MONTREAL 
CHILDREN'S HOSPITAL 
REGISTERED NURSES 
NURSING ASSISTANTS 


This 
Publication 
is A,railable in 

II(
ROFOIl'1 


Our patient population consists of 
the baby of less than an hour old 
to the adolescent who has just 
turned seventeen. We see them in 
Intensive Care. in one of the Med- 
ical or Surgical General Wards, or 
in some of the Pediatric Specialty 
areas_ 
They abound in our clinics and 
their numbers increase daily in our 
Emergency. 
If you do not like working with 
children and with their families. 
you would not like it here. 
If you do like children and their 
families. we would like you on our 
staff. 
Interested qualified applicants 
should apply to the: 
DIRECTOR OF NURSING 
Montreal Children's Hospital 
2300 Tupper Street 
Montreal 108. Quebec 


...from 


Xerox 
University 
Microfilms 


300 North Zeeb Road 
Ann Arbor, Michigan 48106 
Xerox University Microfilms 
35 Mobile Drive 
Toronto, Ontario, 
Canada M4A 1 H6 
University Microfilms limited 
St. John's Road, 
Tyler's Green, Penn. 
Buckinghamshire, England 
PLEASE WRITE FOR 
COMPLETE INFORMATION 


THE CANADIAN NlJRSE 65 



REGISTERED NURSE 


We have opportunities here for an experi- 
enced registered nurse. Our" nursing 
salaries are established through agree- 
ment with the A.A.R.N. 


We have a very active 230-bed hospital in 
Central Alberta. If you are interested in 
more information regarding Red Deer and 
the Red Deer Health Care Complex, 


please write or call: 


Personnel Director 
Red Deer General Hospital 
Red Deer, Alberta 
Tel.: (403) 346-3321 


REGISTERED NURSES 
GENERAL DUTY 


Required for modern, fully equipped 28-bed 
hospital, with two Medical and one Dental 
staff. Salary per Union agreement. 


Excellent personnel policies Accommoda- 
tion available in residence. 


Apply to: 


Administrator 
KIPLING MEMORIAL UNION HOSPITAL 
Box 420 
KIPLING, Saskatchewan 
SOG 2S0. 


FUN FLON GENERAL HOSPITAL 
FUN FLON, MANITOBA 


Opportunities are available in this modern 
125 bed hospital in the summer and winter 
vacation land of Northern Manitoba lor 
suitably qualified nurses. Vacancies exist 
for: 


Night Supervisor 
Nursing In-Service Instructor 
General Outy Nurses - all services 


Good salary and working conditions, ac- 
commodation available in the residence. 


For further details apply- 
Personnel Office 
Flin Flon General Hospital 
Flin Flon, Manitoba 
R8A 1 N2 


66 THE CANADIAN NlJRSE 


UNIVERSITY NURSING 
FACULTY POSITIONS 


Maternity, Paediatric, 
Medical-Surgical, 
Psychiatric 


Master's degree and teaching experience re- 
quired. Excellent personnel policies and frin\!e 
benefits. Rank and salary commensurate with 
education and experience. Positions available: 
Fall,1975. 


Write to: 
Dean 
Faculty of Nursing 
University of Toronto 
TorontD, Canada 
M5S 1A1 


Psychiatric 
Nurse Co-Ordinator 


WOOOSTOCK GENERAL HOSPITAL 


The 220 bed acute treatment. WoodstocK General Hosp'- 
tal. IS In the process 01 establishing a Psychiatric Un
 to 
proVide services for Oxford County, and requires the ser. 
vices of a senior, experienced nurse co-ordinator to assist 
in its establishment and operation. 
Qualifications reqUired are registration or eligibility for re- 
gistration as a nurse in Ontario - a number of years of 
progressively responsible experience In a psychiatric hos- 
p
al or un
. plus post graduate training to at least the B.Sc. 
N.level. 
Salary will be appropnate to Qualifications and experience, 
a liberal fringe benefit program Including opPortunities for 
further training will be available to the successful applic- 
ant 


Apply 8. soon 8. pos.,ble to: 
Personnel Officer 
WOOOSTOCK GENERAL HOSPITAL 
270 RIDDEL ST., WOODSTOCK, ONTARIO 


DIRECTOR OF NURSING 


Applications are invited lor this position in a new 
and modern 50 bed general hospital located close 
to the Foothills and Rockies, 70 miles south 01 
Calgary . 


Successlul supervisory and nursing administra- 
tion experience or university preparation in nurs- 
ing administration is desirable. 


Please address applications or enquiries to: 


Administrator 
Claresholm General Hospital 
Box 610 
Claresholm, Alberta 
TOL OTO 


GENERAL DUTY NURSES 


Required immediately for acute care gen- 
eral hospital expanding to 343 beds plus. 
proposed 75 bed extended care unit. 
Clinical areas include: medicine, surgery, 
obstetrics, paediatrics, psychiatry, activa- 
tion & rehabilitation, operating room, 
emergency and intensive and coronary 
care unit. 
Must be eligible for B.C. Registration 
Personnel policies in accordance with 
R.NAB.C. contract: 
SALARY: $850 - $1 020 per month 
(1974 rates) 
SHIFT DIFFERENTIAL 


APPL Y TO: 
Director of Nursing 
Prince George Regional Hospital 
Prince George. B.C. 


II 


REGISTERED NURSES 
GRADUATE NURSES 


and 
REGISTERED NURSING 
ASSISTANTS 


II 


required lor 


FIVE SUMMER CAMPS 


Strategically located throughout Ontano 
and near 
OTTAWA. LONDON. COLLINGWOOD 
PORT COLBORNE. KIRKLAND LAKE 
(accredited members- Ontario Campinu Associalion) 
Applications InvIted from Nurses interested in supervisory. 
assistant and general cabin responsibilities in the field of 
rehabilitatIOn 01 physically handicapped chddren. 


Apply in writing to: 
Supervisor of Campinu and Recreltlon 
Onlario Society for Cnppled Children 
350 Rumsey Road 
Toronto. Ontario 
M4G 1R8 


CONESTOGA COLLEGE OF 
APPLIED ARTS AND TECHNOLOGY 


The College invites applications lor Faculty positions 
in our various Nursing Divisions which are located in 
Cambridge, Guelph, Kitchener-Waterloo and Strat- 
lord. We have an immediate opening in our Guelph 
Nursing Division lor a laculty member to teach lirst 
year nursing students. 
Candidates must have a B.Sc.N. Degree or equival- 
ent. and at least two years nursing experience. Salary 
will be commensurate with background and experi- 
ence. 


Applications, In wrIting, should be torwaTded 
to: 


Mr. Pat Mansfield 
Conestoga College of Applied Arts 
and Technology 
299 Doon Valley Drive 
Kitchener. Ontario 
N2G 3W5 


MARCH 197=1 



ENJOY 
NURSING 
AT 
VICTORIA 
If OS PI TAL 
LONDON 
ONTARIO 


Apply To:- 


Director of Nursing, 
Victoria Hospital, 
London, 
Ontario, 
N6A 4G5. 


Name: ................... ................ 


Address: ................................ 


Reg.N.D 


R.N.A.D 


RCH 1975 


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Quebec's Health Services are progressivel 


So 


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IS nursing 


at 


The Montreal General Hospital 


a teaching hospital of McGill University 


Come and nurse in exciting Montreal 


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The Montreal General Hospital 
1650 Cedar Avenue, Montreal, Quebec H3G IA4 


Please tell me about hospital nursing under Quebec's new concept of Social and 
Preventive Medicine. 


Name 


Address 


Quebec language requIrements do not apply to Canadion appliconts. 


L_______________________________J 
THE CANADIAN NlJRSE 67 



UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL 
SASKATOON. SASKATCHEWAN 


Requires 


REGISTERED NURSES 


for 


Specialized and General areas 
Policies according to S.U.N. contract 


Apply to: 


Employment Officer, Nursing 
University Hospital 
SASKATOON. Saskatchewan 
S7N owe 


THE LADY MINTO HOSPITAL 
AT COCHRANE 


invite applications from 


REG ISTERED NURSES 


54-bed accredited general hospi- 
tal. Northeastern Ontario. Compe- 
titive salaries and generous bene- 
fits. Send inquires and applications 
to: 


MISS E. LOCKE 
Director of Nursing 
The Lady Minto Hospital at 
Cochrane 
P.O. Box 1660 
Cochrane, Ontario 
POL 1CO 


NORTHERN NEWFOUNDLAND 


requires 


REGISTERED NURSES 
PUBLIC HEALTH NURSES 


Staff nurses for SI. Anthony. New hospital of 
150 beds, amedlled. Active treatment in Surgery, 
Medicine. Paediatrics. Obstetrics, Psychiatry. 
Large OPO and ICU. Orientation and In-Service 
programs. 4O-hour week, rotating shifts. PUBLIC 
HEALTH has challenge of large remote areas. 
Furnished living accommodations supplied at low 
cosl. Personnel benefits include liberal vacation. 
and sick leave. travel arrangements. Staff RN 
$637 -$809. prepared PHN$712-$903, steps 
for experienæ. 


Apply to: 


INTERNATIONAL GRENFELL ASSOCIATION 
Assistant Administrator of 
Nursing Services 
SI. Anthony, Newfoundland 
AOK 4S0 


68 THE CANADIAN NURSE 


EXPERIENCED 
O.R. TECHNICIAN 


Required to assume charge of operating 
room in small but busy acute-care hospital. 
Duties will include care and servicing of 
anaesthetic equipment and surgical ins- 
truments, and assisting in surgical procedu- 
res. Some general duties also included. Sa- 
lary in accordance with Newfoundland 
rates. 
Please apply to: 


Miss M. Leach 
Director of Nursing 
Paddon Memorial Hospital 
International Grenfell Association 
Happy Valley. Labrador 
AOP 1EO 


QUEEN'S UNIVERSITY 
SCHOOL OF NURSING 


Faculty Openings 


July 1975 for Lecturers, Assistant or Asso- 
ciate Professors for basic undergraduate 
programme in nursing of adults, maternity 
nursing and community health. Master's 
degree in clinical nursing and successful 
experience required. Preference given to 
preparation as a family nurse practitioner. 
Salary commensurate with preparation. 


Apply to: 


Dean. School of Nursing 
Queen's University 
Kingston. Ontario 
K7L 3N6 


DIRECTOR 
OF NURSING 


Applications are invited for this 
position in the 62 bed accredited 
Nipawin Union Hospital in a progres- 
sive community of 4,500 with complete 
recreational facilities and nearby 
resort area. Supervisory experience is 
essential, Diploma in Nursing Unit 
Administration or equivalent is desira- 
ble. 


Apply in confidence to: 


Administrator 
P.O. Box 2104 
Nipawin. Sask. 
SOE 1 EO 


ST. MICHAEL'S HOSPITAl 


Tororoto. Ontario 
Invrtes applications from 


REGISTERED NURSES 


for 


INTENSIVE CARE 
and "STEP-DOWN" UNITS 
I 


, 
Planned OrientatIon and In-serV1ce programme win ena. I 
ble you to coflaborate ,n the most advanced 01 treatment , 
regimens for the post-operative cardia-vascular and I 
other acutefy dl patients. One year of nursing experience I 
a reqUirement. 


For derails applr to: 
The Director of Nursing. 
51. Michael's Hospital, 
Toronto, Ontario, 
M5B 1 we. 


The Brome-Missisquoi-Perklns 
Hospital 


requires 


1 Day Supervisor 
1 Night Supervisor 
Registered Nurses 


Plellse write to: 
Director of Nursing 
Brome-Misslsquoi-Perkins Hospital 
950 Main Street 
Cowansville. Quebec 
J2K 1 K3 


ROYAL JUBILEE HOSPITAL 
SCHOOL OF NURSING 


requires 


NURSING INSTRUCTORS 


for 


Medical SUl1lcsl Nursing 
Pedlstrlc Nursing 
P1ychlstrlc Nursing 


Quallflcllllonll: 
Baccalaureate Degree & expenãnce eligibolity for 
B.C. registratIOn. 


Apply to: 
Director of Education Reaourcn 
Royal Jubilee Hospital 
Vlctorta, B.C. 
V8R 1J8 


MARCH 197. 



Some nurses are just nurses. 
Our nurses are also 
COmmissioned Officers. 


Nurses are.very special people In the Canadian Forces 
They earn an Officer's salary. enjoy an Officer's privileges 
and live In Officers' Ouarters (or in civIlian accommodation if they 
prefer) on Canadian Forces bases all over Canada and In-many 
other parts of the world. 
If they decide to specialize. they can apply for postgraduate 
training with no loss of payor privileges. Promotion IS based on 
ability as well as length of service And they become eligible for 
retirement benefits (including a lifetime pension) at a much earlier 
age than in civilian hfe. 
If you were a nurse in the Canadian Forces, you would be 
a special person doing an especially responsIble, rewarding and 
worthwhIle job 
For full information, wnte the O"ector of Recuiting anC1_ Selec- 
t/on. NatIonal Oefence Headquarters, Ottawa. Ontario KIA OK2 




 

 
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Cet involved with the 
canadian Armed Forces. 


I . Public Service Fonction publique 
Canada Canada 
THIS COMPETITION IS OPEN TO BOTH MEN AND WOMEN 
NURSING OPPORTUNITIES IN THE NORTH 
Starting salary up to $9,488 
(UNDER REVIEW) 
(Plus Northern Allowance) 
HEALTH AND WELFARE CANADA 
Medical Services 
Various locations in the Yukon and N. W. T. 
An opportunity to see parts of Canada few Canadians ever see and to utilize all your nursing 
skills. Nurses are required to provide health care to the inhabitants located in some settlements 
well north of the Arctic Circle. Radio telephone communication is available. Join the Northern 
Health Service of the Department of Health and Welfare Canada and discover what northern 
nursing is all about. 
Candidates must be registered or eligible for registration as a nurse in a pro
inc.e of Canad?, 
be mature and self-reliant. For some positions, mid-wifery, obstetrics, pedlatn
s or Pu
llc 
Health traininQ and experience is essential. Proficiency in the English language IS essential. 
Salary commensurate with experience and education. 
Transportation to and from employment area will be provided; meals and accommodation at 
a nominal rate. 


HOW TO APPLY: 
Forward "Application for Employment" (Form PSC 367-4110) available at Post Offices, 
Canada Manpower Centres or offices of the Public Service Commission of Canada to the: 
DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND WELFARE CANADA 
MEDICAL SERVICES - NORTHWEST TERRITORIES REGION 
1401 BAKER CENTRE -10025 - 106 STREET EDMONTON. ALBERTA TSJ 1H2 
Please quote competition number 74-E-4 in all correspondence. 
Appointments as a result of this competition are subject to the provisions of the Public 
ServIce Employment Act. 


"ARCH 1975 


The 
Executive 
Nurse 
A Three-day Seminar 
for 
Directors, 
Assistant Directors, 
Supervisors, 
Head Nurses 
and 
Team leaders 


Seminar objectives include: 
. learning fundamental management con- 
cepts. 
. detecting climate on a unit. 
. developing a plan of action for managing 
the nursing unit. 
1975 SCHEDULE 
Mar. 19-21 Montreal. Que. 
April 2-4 Toronto, Ont. 
Sept. 23-25 Sudbury, Ont. 
Oct. 7-9 Toronto. Ont. 
Nov. 18-20 Montreal, Que. 


The Educator- 
Manager 
A Three-day Workshop 
for 


Inservice 
Education 
Co-ordinators 


Seminar objectives include: 
- defining the dual role of educator and 
manager. 
- matching styles of managing, teaching 
and learning. 
- gaining skill in identifying educational 
needs. 
- developing skill in designing and im- 
plementing educational programs 
1975 SCHEDULE 
May 7-9 Toronto. Ont. 
Oct. 20-22 Toronto. Ont. 
Tuition of $75.00 covers class materials, 
instruction and coffee breaks and is tax 
deductible. 
THE EXECUTIVE NURSE and THE 
EDUCATOR-MANAGER are available on a 
CONTRACTED basis in English and French. 
For more inlorméJtion write or call: 
R.M. BROWN CONSULTANTS 
1701 Kilborn Ave.. Suite 1115 
Ottawa, Ontario K1H 6M8 
telephone: (613) 731-0978 
THE CANADIAN NURSE 69 



ST. BONIFACE GENERAL HOSPITAL 


Invites applications from 


REGISTERED NURSES 


for the following areas: 


General Medicine - shift rotation - day to night. 
General Surgery - All shifts. 
Orthopedics - Permanent evenings - day to 
night. 
E.E.N.T. - All shifts. 
Pediatrics - Day to Evening and day to night. 
Intensive Care Areas - Day to night rotation. 


PINse epply to: 


STAFFING CO-ORDINATOR 
NURSING SERVICE DEPARTMENT 
ST. BONIFACE GENERAL HOSPITAL 
409 TACHE AVENUE 
WINNIPEG, MANITOBA - R2H 2A6 


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THE SCARBOROUGH 
GENERAL HOSPITAL 
invites applications from: 
Registered Nurses and Registered Nursing Assis- 
tants to work in our 6S0-bed active treatment 
hospital and new Chronic Care Unit. 
We'tJffer opportunatles in Medical, Surgical. Paediatric, and Obstetrical nursing. 
Our specialties Include a Burns and Plastic Unat. Coronary Care. Intensive Care and 
Neurosurgery Units and an active Emergency Department. 


. Obstetrical Oepartment - parUclpatlon In "Family centered" teaching 
program. 
. Paediatric Oepartment - participation In Play Therapy Program. 
. Orientation and on-going staft education. 
. Progressive personnel policies. 
The hospital is located in Eastern Metropolitan Toronto. 
For further information, write to: 
The Director of Nursing, 
SCARBOROUGH GENERAL HOSPITAL 
3050 Lawrence Avenue. East, Scarborough, Ontario 
70 THE CANADIAN NURSE 


INTENSIVE 
CARE NURSING 


We are now accepting applications for Registered Nurse 
positions in our Intensive Care Areas which comprise the 
following: 


. An integrated surgical open heart team. 
. Acute coronary care. 
. Acute respiratory care. 
. Intensive neurological care. 
. Acute renal dialysis program. 


A 12 month clinical course in Intensive Care Nursing for 
Registered Nurses employed in the Intensive Care Units is 
available. 


PIN" epply to: 


STAFFING CO-ORDINATOR 
ST. BONIFACE GENERAL HOSPITAL 
409 TACHE AVENUE 
WINNIPEG, MANITOBA - R2H 2A6 


EXTENSION COURSE IN 
NURSING UNIT ADMINISTRATION 


Registered Nurses employed full time In management posillons may apply 
for enrolment in the extension course in Nursing Unit Administration. A 
limited number of registered psychiatric nurses may also enrol. The program 
is designed for nurses who wish to improve their administrative skills and is 
available in French and in English. 


The course begins with a five day intramural session in late August or 
September, followed by a seven month period of home study. The program 
concludes with a final live day worl<shop session in April or in May. The 
intramural sessions are arranged on a regional basis. 


The extension course .n Nursing Unit Administration is sponsored jointly by 
the Canadian Nurses' Association and the Canadian Hospital Association 


Registered Nurses interested in enrolling In the 1975-76 class should submit 
applications before Mey 15th. Early application is advised. The tuition fee of 
$200.00 is payable on or before July 1 st. 


For eddlrlonellnformetlon end eppllcetlon forms dIrect enquIrIes to: 


Director. 
Extension Course in Nursing Unit Administration. 
25 Imperial Street. 
Toronto. Ontario. M5P 1C1. 


MARCH 19- ' 



hat's a big company 
like Upjohn doing 
in nursing servic ' s! 


(SimpI2. W2 8 re in it to h21p you and h2re ' s how.) 


If you're a Nursing Supervisor we can complement your staff 
when shortages occur by providing competent R.N .'s, 
R.NA.lC.N.A.lL.P.N.'s or Nurse Aides. 


If you're a nurse interested in working part-time to supple- 
ment your family's income, we offer you the opportunity to 
select hours and assignments convenient to your schedule. 
not ours. 


If you're a Discharge Planning Officer or Home Care Co- 
Ordinator. we are a reliable source for home health care 
with whom you can trust your outgoing patients. 


If you're an inactive nurse temporarily out of touch with 
nursing, we can offer patient care opportunities which will 
enable you to re-enter your profession. 


We think that it is important for you. the Registered 
Nurse. to understand why The Upjohn Company's 
subsidiary, Health Care Services Upjohn Limited, 
has become.ìnvolved in nursing. Our concept of 
part-time nursing services has proven to be an 
important adjunct to the delivery of health care. 
Our interest is in assisting the Medical and Nursing 
Professions by providing additional qualified 
RN.'s, RNA/C.NA/LPN.'s and Home 


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Health Care Personnel to serve the commu- 
nity. If you would like more information about 
the work that we are doing across the country 
and how we can help you. contact the Health 
Care Services Upjohn office nearest you. 
Ask for the Service Director. She is an RN.. 
and you'll both be speaking the same lan- 
guage. Look for us in the white pages and in 
the yellow pages under "Nurses Registries:' 


HEALTH CARE SERVICES UP JOHN LIMITED 


With 16 offices to serve you across Canada 


Victoria 
Vancouver 
Edmonton 
Calgary 


388-6639 
711-5826 
423-2221 
264-4140 


Winnipeg 943- 7466 St. Catharines 688-5214 
Windsor 258-8812 Toronto East 445-5262 
London 673-1880 Toronto West 239- 7707 
Hamilton 525-8504 Ottawa 238-4805 
(Operating in Ontario as HCS Upjohn) 


Montreal 
Trois Riviere
 
Quebec City 
Halifax 


288-4214 
379-4355 
687-3434 
425-3351 


tARCH 1975 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 71 



WE CARE 



 



 


, 
, 


.... 


HOSPIT AL: 
Accredited modern general - 260 beds Expansion 
to 420 beds in progress. 
LOCATION: 
Immediately north of Toronto. 
APARTMENTS: 
Furnished - shared. 
Swimming Pool. Tennis Court. Recreation Room 
Free Parking. 
BENEFITS: 
Competitive salaries and excellent fringe benefits 
Planned staff development programs. 
Please address all enquiries to: 
Assistant Administrator (Nursing) 
York County Hospital. 
NEWMARKET. Ontario, 
L3Y 2R1. 


DIRECTOR OF NURSING 


Required for the Charlotte Eleanor Englehart Hospital, 
Petralia, Ontario to assume duties on or before April 1. 
1975. 


This is a 63 bed fully accredited acute care hospital which 
prides itself on its ongoing progressive training program- 
mes and the fact that it provides much higher than average 
T.L.C. to its patients. The successful applicant will be 
expected to use her ingenuity in continuing and developing 
further these philosophies despite a tightening of govern- 
mental monies available. This position should be of interest 
to nurses with several years experience at the Head Nurse 
or Nursing Supervisor level. Preference will be shown to 
applicants with further formal education in the field of 
nursing administration. 


Applicants must be eligible for registration in Ontario. 
Salary commensurate with training and experience. Appli- 
cations stating experience, education, references and 
salary expected should be directed to: 


Robert P. Finlayson 
Administrator 
Charlotte Eleanor Englehart Hospital 
Petrolia, Ontario 


72 THE CANADIAN NURSE 


UNIVERSITY OF WINDSOR 
SCHOOL OF NURSING 


Faculty Positions 
Available for 1975-76 


School of Nursing Offers: 
- Four-year B Se N. Honors Degree lor Grade 13 graduates 
- Three-year B.Se N Honors Degree lor Registered Nurses 
- One-year Public Health Nursong Diploma lor Registered Nurses 
- (Also have plans lor Graduate Programmes In Nursing) 


Due to expansion, faculty positions are available In the 
following areas: 
- Fundamentals of Nursing 
- Medical-Surgical NursIng 
- Parental and Child Health Nursing (ObstetrICs and Nursing 01 Children) 
- Community Health Nursing 
- Mental Health and Psych..t"c Nursing 
- Advanced Nursong and Introduction to Research 
- Introouctlon to Principles and Practices 01 Teaching and Administration 
- Continuing Education 


Qualifications: 
- Prelerably. Masters/Doctoral Degree ,n Nursing 
Rank and Salari commensurate wIth QuahllcatlOns. and are ne\jObable 


Write: 


Director, School of Nursing 
University of Windsor 
Windsor, Ontario, N9B 3P4 


Post-Basic Course 


in 


PSYCHIATRIC NURSING 


for 


Registered Nurses 


currently licensed in Manitoba or eligible to be so licensed 


The course is of nine months duration and includes theory 
and clinical experience in hospital and community agen- 
cies, as well as four weeks nursing of the mentally retarded. 
Successful completion of the program leads to eligibility for 
licensure with the R.P.N.A.M. 


For further information please wrIte no later than June 15/75 
to: 


Director of Nursing Education 
School of Nursing 
Box 9600 
Selkirk, Manitoba, R1 A 2B5 


MARCH 197! 



SPECIAL NURSES 
FOR SPECIAL PATIENTS 


If your nursing experience has become just a 
matter of daily routine, then it's time to think about 
it. 
Maybe you feel that your patients are just num- 
bers. .. that your involvement with them is too 
limited. . . that you are ready for a change because 
you no longer feel the same sense of achievement 
and personal commitment in your present posi- 
tion. . . 


Right now, our Nurse Coordinators in Winnipeg, 
London and Halifax are standing by for your phone 
call. They will be pleased to give you further 
information on the variety of distinctive job benefits 
and they can even look into specific requests you 
may have.. such as having working hours 
arranged to suit your needs. 


Now it's really time to think about it! 


If you are thinking about a new approach to 
nursing, then you are ready to become a special 
nurse for special patients. 
The patients at Department of Veterans Affairs 
I Hospitals across Canada need special care. 
In these hospitals, nurses work in well-equipped 
surroundings where specialized treatment is pro- 
vided in a pleasant atmosphere. They are special 
nurses. 
OVA hospitals offer job security in a congenial 
climate that encourages nurses to give psycholo- 
gical as well as physical care to their patients. 


Call collect: 


Halifax: 


London: 


Mary Johnson 
Camp Hill Hospital 
Phone: (902) 423-1371 
Helen Conn 
Westminster Hospital 
Phone (519)432-6711 
Ann Bowman 
Deer Lodge Hospital 
Phone: (204) 837-1301 


Winnipeg: 


The nurses are employees of the Public Ser- 
I vice of Canada which provides: 
. Excellent pension plan 
. Favourable working hours 
. Attractive fringe benefits 
. Relocation expenses 
If you are ready to consider this new approach to 
nursing, why not discuss it frankly with our own 
people who have been specifically assigned to 
help you. 


For information about employment 
in Department of Veterans Affairs Hospitals 
elsewhere in Canada, call collect: 
Susan Champion 
Department of Veterans Affairs, Ottawa 
Phone: (613) 992-3248 


All positions are open to both men and women. 


1+ 


Public Service 
Canada 


Fonction publique 
Canada 


RCH 1975 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 73 



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We invite applications from 


REGISTERED NURSES 
FOR GENERAL DUTY 


in all patient services areas including I.C.U.lC.C.Unit. This is an 
opportunity to be on staff when we move to this new 138 bed 
General Hospital, which will be early in 1975. 


Successful applicants will be paid prevailing Ontario salary rates as 
well as other generous fringe benefits and in addition you will have 
the opportunity to work in a brand new building with modern equip- 
ment and beautiful surroundings. 


Apply in writing to 
The Director of Nursing 
Kirkland and District Hospital 
Kirkland Lake, Ontario 
P2N 1 R2 


FOOTHILLS HOSPITAL 
Calgary, Alberta 
Advanced Neurological- 
Neurosurgical Nursing 
for 
Graduate Nurses 
a five month clinical and 
academic program 
offered by 
The Department of Nursing Service 
and 
The Division of Neurosurgery 
(Department of Surgery) 


Beginning: March, 1975 
September, 1975 


Limited to 8 participants 
Applications now being accepted 


For further information, please write to: 
C
-ordinator of In-service Education 
Foothills Hospital 
1403 29 St. N.W, Calgary, Alberta 
12N 219 


74 THE CANADIAN NURSE 


I 
I 
HUMBER MEMORIAL HOSPITAL I 


200 Church Street, Weston, M9R 2N7 
Telephone (416) 249-8111 (Toronto) 


Registered Nurses 


and 


Registered Nursing Assistants 


Required for all Nursing Units 
Intensive-Coronary Care, Psychiatry, Med.-Surg. etc. 


Excellent - Orientation Programme 
- Inservice Education 
- Continuing Education 


Recognition given for Recent and Related Experience 


Salaries Reg. N. Jan. 1 st, 1975 - 915. - 1,115. 
April 1st, 1975 - 945. -1,145. 
R.N.A. Jan. 1st, 1975 - 686. - 728. 
July 1 st, 1975 - 738. - 780. 


Contact 
Director of Nursing 


UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 
FACUL TY OF NURSING 


BACHELOR OF SCIENCE 
IN NURSING: 


The Undergraduate Programme leading to a B.Sc.N. degree involves two 
curriculae: 
1. Four year course -the maJonty of students enrolled In the course 
enter dorect from Grade 13, but a number with post-seconc:iary education 
are also admitted. 
2. Three year course - for graduates of diploma schools of nursing. The 
forst and second year of this course are also available on a part-time 
basis. 
Both courses provide a professional preparation which includes qualification 
for nursing in both the hospital and public health field. In both curriculae 
humanities and sciences is associated with the study of nursing. The 
four-year programme prepares the student for registration under the Nurses' 
Act of the Province of Ontario. 


MASTER OF SCIENCE 
IN NURSING: 


Offered by the Faculty of Nursing through the School of Graduate Studies. 
this programme offers opportunity for the preparation of nurses to provide 
leadership in planning and giving high quality care. Three areas of 
specialization are offered at present: medical-surgical, community health 
and mental health-psychiatric nursing. Each candidate's programme is 
individually planned; electives in the functional areas of education and 
administration may be selected. A thesis is required and involves the 
investigation of a nursing problem in the area of the student's clinical 
specialization. 


, 
MARCH 19i' 



CLINICAL CO-ORDINATOR 
Permanent Evening 


R.N.'S 


The Royal Alexandra is a friendlY place to work; a modern 
progr
ssive 1000 bed teaching hospital in the "just-right- 
size" dty of Edmonton, Alberta. 


Post Basic Preparation and 
Administrative Experience Required 
at 


Fully accredited, the Royal Alexandra offers challenging ex- 
perience, on-going in-service programs, generous fringe 
benefits and competitive salaries. All previous experience is 
recognized. You may skate, ski and curl inexpensively. Ed- 
monton is within easy driving distance of many lakes where 
you may enjoy the sunny Alberta summer. 


Toronto 
General Hospital 
O n i vers i ty 
Teaching Hospital 


Vacancies exist in most areas including ICU, O.R. & Psy- 
chiatry. 


Salary Range for General Duty: $900. - $1075. 


. located in heart of downtown Toronto 
. within walking distance of accommodation 
. subway stop adjacent to Hospital 
. excellent benefits and recreational facilities 


For Informetlon pIMa. wrIte to: 


apply ro Personnel Office 
TORONTO GENERAL HOSPITAL 
67 COLLEGE STREET, TORONTO, ONTARIO. M5G 1L7 


Director of Nursing 
Royal Alexandra Hospital 
10240 Kingsway Ave. 
EDMONTON, ALBERTA 
TSH 3V9 


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ST. JOSEPH'S HOSPITAL 
TORONTO, ONTARIO 
invites applications from 
REGISTERED NURSES 


. We offer opportunities in Emergency, Operating Room, P.A.R.. Intensive Care Unit, Orthopaedics, Psychiatry. 
Paediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynaecology, General Surgery and Medicine. 
. We offer an Orientation program and opportunities for Professional Development through active In-Service programs. 
. We offer - Toronto - with some of Canada's finest Theatres, Restaurants and Social events. 
. We offer progressive personnel policies. 
. We offer a starting salary, depending on experience. of: 
effective April 1, 1975 - $945 to $1,145 per month. 
. We offer monthly educational allowances up to $120. per month in addition to the above starting salary. 


Apply to: 


Miss M. WOODCROFT 
Associate Director of Nursing Service 
St. Joseph's Hospital, 30 The Queensway, Toronto, Ontario M6R 185 


L. 
RCH 1975 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 75 



SCHOOL OF NURSING 


Assistant Director 


and 


Instructors 


required for August, 1975 
in a 2 year Nursing 
diploma program. 


Qualifications 
Assistant Director - Master degree in Nursing Education, prefer- 
red, with expenence In Nursing Education Administration and teach- 
ing and at least one year in a Nursing Service position. Eligible for 
registration in New Brunswick. 
Instructors - Bachelor of Nursing with experience in teaching and 
at least 1 year in a Nursing Service position. Eligible for registration 
in New Brunswick. 


Apply ro: 


Harriett Hayes 
Director 
The Miss A. J. MacMaster School of Nursing 
Postal Station A, Box 2636 
Moncton, N.B. 
E1 C 8H7 


REGISTERED NURSES 


UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA 
SCHOOL OF NURSING 


FACUL TV POSITIONS 


Faculty members required for positions in four year basic I 
and two year post-basic baccalaureate programs. Applic- I 
ants should have graduate education and experience in a 
clinical area and/or in curriculum development, evaluation or 
research. Must be eligible for Alberta registration. 
Personnel policies and salaries in accord with University I 
schedule based on qua1ifications and experience. 
Apply in wriring ro: 
RUTH E. McCLURE, M.P.H. 
Director, School of Nursing 
Clinical Sciences Building 
University of Alberta 
Edmonton, Alberta 
T6G 2G3 


1260 BED HOSPITAL ADJACENT TO 
UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA CAMPUS OFFERS 
EMPLOYMENT IN MEDICINE, SURGERY, 
PEDIATRICS, OBSTETRICS, PSYCHIATRY, 
REHABILITATION AND EXTENDED CARE 
INCLUDING: 


. INTENSIVE CARE 
. CORONARY OBSERVATION UNIT 
. CARDIOVASCULAR SURGERY 
. BURNS AND PLASTICS 
. NEONATAL INTENSIVE CARE 
. RENAL DIALYSIS 
. NEURO-SURGERY 


Planned Orientation and In-Service Education 
programs. Post graduate clinical courses in 
Cardiovascular - Intensive Care Nursing and 
Operating Room Technique and Management. 
Apply to: 


RECRUITMENT OFFICER - NURSING 
UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA HOSPITAL 
112 STREET AND 84 AVENUE 
EDMONTON, ALBERTA T6G 2B7 


76 THE CANADIAN NURSE 


UNIVERSITY OF 
ALBERTA HOSPITAL 
EDMONTON,ALBERTA 


e 


MARCH 191 



Government of 
Newfoundland & Labrador 
MENTAL HEALTH 
NURSING CONSULTANT 


Applications are invited for a new post as Consultant in the Mental 
Health Division of the Department of Health. The Nursing Consul- 
tant will worl< with a multi-disciplinary group of Consultants in the 
Division. 
The duties and responsibilities will be oriented towards the clinical 
aspects of nursing in programs relating to prevention, treatment, 
rehabilitation and the continuity of care. The Consultant will be 
concemed with existing mental health services in hospitals, and 
I community clinics and with the mental health components of other 
I community agencies, the schools and special services such as 
I programs for the aged, the retarded and other developmental disor- 
ders. 
I Opportunities will be provided for involvement in university tea- 
I ching, and research and in the development of new mental health 
I services throughout the province. 
Salary within the range $14,076 - $17,966. 
I Qualifications - eligibility to register in Newfoundland. A Masters 
I degree in psychiatric nursing or some equivalent combination of 
education and experience. 
Full public service benefits apply with annual and sick leave with 
pay, provincial statutory holidays and contributory pension plan. 
Financial assistance towards re-Iocation is available. 
Applications end lor requests for Informet/on should be forwarded to: 
C.H. Pottle, M.D., F.A.C.P. (C.) 
Director 
Mental Health Services 
Department of Health 
Chimo Building, Crosbie Road 
St. John's, Newfoundland 


SHERBROOKE HOSPITAL 


SHERBROOKE.QUEBEC. 
invites applications from 


REGISTERED NURSES 
GENERAL DUTY 


138-bed active General Hospital; fully accredited with 
Coronary, Medical and Surgical Intensive Care. 
Situated in the picturesque eastern Toymships, 
approximately 80 miles from Montreal via auto route. 
Friendly community, close to U.S. border. Good 
recreational facilities. Excellent personnel policies. 
salary comparable with Montreal hospitals. 


Apply to: 


Director of Nursing 


SHERBROOKE HOSPITAL 


Sherbrooke. Quebec. 


VANCOUVER 
GENERAL HOSPITAL 



 


Invites applications for 


REGULAR and RELIEF 
GENERAL DUTY 


Nursing positions in all clinical areas of an active 
teaching hospital. closely affiliated with the University of B.C. 
and the development of the B.C. Medical Centre. 
1974 Salary Scale $850.00 - $1,020.00 per month 
For further information, please write to: 
PERSONNEL SERVICES 
VANCOUVER GENERAL HOSPITAL 
855 WEST 12TH AVE. 
VANCOUVER, B.C. 


RCH 1975 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 77 



DIRECTOR OF NURSING 


Director of Nursing is required immediately for The 
Provincial Hospital located in Saint John, New Brunswick. 
The Provincial Hospital is a 614 bed psychiatric facility 
encompassing an Active Treatment Unit and an Extended 
Care Unit. 
Responsibilities include planning, organizing and co- 
ordinating all activities of the Department of Nursing. The 
Director will be part of the senior management team involved 
in the planning activities of the hospital. 
The Director should be registered with the New Brunswick 
Association of Registered Nurses, or eligible for registration. 
A baccalaureate degree in Nursing with post-graduate study 
and considerable experience in Psychiatric Nursing is es- 
sential. Progressive experience in a supervisory position is 
desirable. 
Salary is to be discussed. 


Interested applicants should send resume to: 
W.J. Holloway 
Administrator 
The Provincial Hospital 
P.O. Box 3220, Postal Station B 
Saint John, New Brunswick 



Q
 
ORTHOPAEDIC 60:: ARTHRITIC 
HOSPITAL 
'VI
 


43 WELLESLEY STREET, EAST 
TORONTO, ONTARIO 
M4Y 1 H1 


Enlarging Specialty Hospital offers a unique 
opportunity to nurses and nursing assistants 
interested in the care of patients with bone and 
joint disorders. 
Currently required - 
Registered Nurses and Nursing Assistants for all 
units 
Clinical specialists for Operating Room, Intensive 
Care, Patient Care and Education. 


HEALTH 
SCIENCES 
CENTRE 


WINNIPEG, 
MANITOBA 


( 
\
.
. 


,. 


.. 


" 



 


" ,. 



 


'" 



 


.. 


\ 


THIS 1345 BED COMPLEX WITH AMBULATORY CARE CLINICS, AFFILIATED 
WITH THE UNIVERSITY OF MANITOBA, CENTRALLY LOCATED IN A LARGE, 
CULTLiRALLY ALIVE COSMOPOLITAN CITY. 


INVITES APPLICATIONS FROM 
REGISTERED NURSES SEEKING PROFESSIONAL 
GROWTH, OPPORTUNITY FOR INNOVATION, AND JOB 
SATISFACTION. 
ORIENTATION - Extensive two week program at full salary 
ON-GOING EOUCATION - Provided through 
active in-service programmes in all patient care areas 
opportunity to attend conferences, institutes. meetings of professional 
association 
post basic courses in selected clinical specialties 
PROGRESSIVE PERSONNEL POLICIES 
salary based on experience and preparation 
paid vacation based on years of service 
shift differential to r rotating services 
10 statutory holidays per year 
insurance, retirement and pension plans 
contract under negotiation effective March, 1975 
SPECIALIZEO SERVICE AREAS include orthopedics, psychiatry, post 
anaesthetic. emergency, intensive care, coronary care, respiratory care, dialysIs, 
medicine, surgery, obstetrics, gynaecoloQY, rehabilitation, and paediatrics. 
ENQUIRIES WELCOME 
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION PLEASE WRITE TO: 
PERSONNEL DEPARTMENT, NURSING SECTION 
HEALTH SCIENCES CENTRE, 
700 WILLIAM AVENUE, WINNIPEG, MANITOBA R3E OZ3 


78 THE CANADIAN NURSE 


MARCH 19: 



VACANCY 
SUPERVISOR FOR OPERATING ROOM 


Qualification Requirement: RN plus four years Operating Room experience. Operating 
Room Post Graduate desirable plus administrative ability. 
Hours: Day Shift, however. hours are not necessarily 8:00 a.m. - 4:00 p.m. 
Salary Scale: $9,440.00 -$11.999.00 per annum. 
I Excellent working conditions and fringe benefits such as four weeks annual vacation, 
Pension Plan, Group Life Insurance, etc. Residence Accommodation available at a 
nominal cost per month. Assistance with travel expenses available depending on terms of 
i contract. 
Apply to: 


(Mrs.) SHIRLEY M. DUNPHY 
Director of Personnel 
Christopher Fisher Division 
Western Memorial Hospital 
Corner Brook, Newfoundland 
A2H 6J7 


VACANCY 


Instructor for Nursing III area of a two year program 


Required Qualification: Baccalaureate Degree in Nursing. 
Excellent fringe benefits such as twenty days Annual Vacation, Pension Plan, Group Life 
Insurance, etc. 
Residence accommodation available plus transportation allowance. 
Salary negotiable depending on qualifications and experience. 


Apply to: 


(Mrs.) SHIRLEY M. DUNPHY 
Director of Personnel 
Western Memorial Hospital 
CORNERBROOK,NEWFOUNDLAND 
A2H 6J7 


.RCH 1975 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 79 



, 


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 caupan taday. 

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I J' I <'
 /../ Medical Services Branch I 
I . f \: ..,1' Department of National I 
I . Health and Welfare 
I 
,' Ottawa, Ontario K1 A OK9 I 
I I 
I Please send me more information on nursing I 
I opportunities in Canada"s Northern Health Service. I 
I Name: I 
I Address: I 
City: Prov: _ 

---------______J 
. . Health and Wetfare Sante et Blen-ëtre social 
Canada Canada 


80 THE CANADIAN NURSE 


Index 
to 
Advertisers 


March 1975 


Abbott Laboratories. . . 
Astra Pharmaceuricals Canada Ltd. 
Baxter Laboratories of Canada .. . 
The Clinic Shoemakers 


.5. 57. Cover 4 
..55 
. .53 
.. .2 
'" .69 


Department of National Defence . . . . . . . . . 
Health Care Services 
pjohn Limited 
Heelbo Corporarion . . . . . . . . . . 
Hollister Limited .... 


ICN Canada Limited 


.. 71 
. .18 
.. .62 
. .8. 15.61 
.. .17 
,.40&41 
.. .64 


Eli Lilly and Company (Canada) Ltd. 
J. B. Lippincott Co. of Canada Ltd. 
MedoX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Mont Sutton . 


.. . . . .11 


The C. V. Mosby Company. Ltd. . . . . . .45. 46. 47, 48 
Nordic Biochemicals . . . . . . . . . . . .59 
Posey Company .... . . . . . . . . . . .. ..........7 I 
Reeves Company . . . . . . . . . . . .50 
W. B. Saunders Company Canada Ltd. . . . .13 I 
White Sister Uniform. Inc. ........ .1, Covers 2 & 3 


Advertising ManaRer 
Georgina Clarke 
The Canadian Nurse 
50 The Driveway 
Ottawa K2P tE2 (Ontario) 


Advertising Representatives 
Richard P. Wilson 
219 East Lancaster Avenue 
Ardmore. Penna. 19003 
Telephone: (215) 649-1497 


Gordon Tiffin 
2 Tremont Crescent 
Don Mills. Ontario 
Telephone:(416) 444-4731 



1ember of Canadian 
Circulations Audit Board lnc. 


ImEJ 


MARCH 19i 



The 
.1. 
Nurse 


APR 2 3 1975 


. 



 


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April 1975 Ç7 


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A) Style No. 44934 
Sizes 5-15 
Royale Supreme Plain 
Tricot Knit 
White 
About. . . $25.00 
Royale Corded Tricot 
Cantaloupe 
About. . . $25.00 


A I 
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B) Style No. 44964 
Sizes 3-13 
Royale Supreme Plain 
Tricot Knit 
White 
About. . . $20.00 


\ 
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Welcome the Spring Season with 
one of our newest cantaloupe wa 
colours or our sparkling whites. 
From White Sister, of course. 


c 


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C) Style No. 4460 
Sizes 12-20 
Royale Corded Tricot 
White, Yellow 
About. . . $20.00 



 


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UVHITE 
SISTER 


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CAREER APPAREL See our new line of Whites and W
tpr Cnlnllr
 ::It finp c:tnrpc: 
rrnc:c: r.
n:u 



New... ready to use... 
"bolus" prefilled syringe. 
Xylocainé100 mg 
(lidocaine hydrochloride injection, USP) 


For 'stat' I.V. treatment of life 
threatening arrhythmias. 


\ 


o Functions like a standard syringe. 
éR' 
o Calibrated and contains 5 ml Xylocaine
2%. 


\ 
, 


o Package designed for safe and easy 
storage in critical care area 


o The only lidocaine preparation 
with specific labelling 
information concerning its 
use in the treatment of cardiac 
+,J.. arrhythmias. 
<'0 

 

 
<<'. 
""0 
o 

 


an original from 
.
ST Ir.
 


XylocaineJ!. 100 mg 
(lidocaIne hydrochforode Injection U 5 P ) 
"DICATIO'S-Xvlocaine adminIStered intra- 
vcnous)" LS specificallY mdlcated In the acute 
managcmcm of( I) ventricular arrhvthmias OC\.ur- 
ring during cardiac mampulauon. such as cudiac 
surgerv; and(21 lire-threatening arrhythmias. par- 
ticularly those which are ventricular in origin. such 
as OCCur during acute myocardial infarctIOn 


CO'TRAI'\DlCATlO,,"S--Xvlocame is contra- 
indicated (I) In patients \\ nh 
 known hlStorv of 
hypersensitivity to local anesthetics of the amide 
type; and (2) in patients with Adams-Stokes syn- 
drome or with se"crc degrees of sinoalnaL atrio-- 
ventricular 01 mtravenl11CuJar block 


",AR'
GS-Constant monitoring '\\nh an cl<<- 
trocardio
raph i5 essential in the proper admrniJ- 
tration ofXylocainc intravenouslv. Sip1s of exces- 
sive depression of cardiac conductivitv. such as 
prolongation of PR interval and QRS complex 
and the appearance or aggravation of arrhythmias. 
.hould be rollowed by prompt cessation or the 
rntravenous infusion of this agent It i5 mandatory 
to have emergency resuscitative equipment and 
drugs immediatelv available to manage possible 
ad"erse reactions involving the cardiovascular. 
respiratory or central nervous n"stems. 
Evidence for proper usage in children is limited 
PRECAUTIONS-Caution should be emploved 
in the repeated use of Xylocaine in patients with 

vcrc li\'cr or renal disease because accumuJatJon 
mavoccur and may lead to toxic phenomena. since 
Xvlocaine LS metaboliud main)\' in the liver and 
e;creted bv the kld""v The drug should also be 
used with caution in patients with hypovolemia 
and shock. and all rorms or heart block (see CON- 
TRAI"IDlCATIONS AND WARNINGS). 
In patients With sinus bradvcardia the adminIS- 
tration ofXvlocaine intravenousl\- for thc elimina- 
tion of ventricular ectopic beaÍs without pnor 
acceleration in heart rate (e.g by isoproterenol 
or by electric pacing) may provoke more frequent 
and senous ventncular arrhvthmlas 


AD\ ERSE REACTIO'llS-Svstemlc reactions or 
the rollowing IVpes have been reponed. 
(I) Central Nervous System. lightheadedness. 
drowsiness: dizziness: apprehension: euphoria: 
tinnitus: blurred or double vision: vomiting: sen- 
sations of heat. cold or numbness: twitching: 
tremors: con" ulsions: uncon.sciousness
 and r
pi- 
ratorv depr
lon and arrest. 
(2) Cardiovascular Svstem: hypotension: car- 
diova
ular collapse: and bradvcardia which mav 
lead to cardiac arrcst 
There have been no reports of cross sensitivity 
between X)locaine and procainamide or between 
Xvlocaine and qurnidine. 


DOSAGE A"ID AD;\II
ISTRATIO"-Si
e 
Injection: The usual dose 15 50 mg to JOO mg 
administered intravenouslv under ECG monitor- 
ing. This dose ma)' be administered at the rate 
of approximatcl" 25 mg to 50 mg per minute. 
Sufficient Ume should be allowed to enable a slow 
circulation fO earn fhe drug to the sitc of action 
If ,he ini',al injection or so mg to 100 mg docs 
not produce a dcsired response. a second dose may 
be repeated aftcr 10-20 minutes 
NO MORE THAN 200 MG TO 300 MG OF 
XYLOCAINE SHOULD BE AD\fINISTERED 
DURING A ONE HOUR PERIOD. 
In children experience with the drug is limited 
Continuous Infusion: Following a single injection 
in those patients in whom the arrhythmia lends 
to recur and who arc incapable of recelvmg oral 
anliarrhvthmic therapv. intravenous infusions of 
Xylocaine may be administered af the rafe of , 
mg to 2 mg per minute (20 to 25 ug/kg per minute 
in the average 10 kg man). Intravenous infusions 
ofXylocaine must be admini5tered under constant 
ECG monitoring 10 avoid potential overdosage 
and toxicity. [nua"'enous infusion should be ter. 
minated as soon as the patient's basic rhvthm 
appears to be stable or at the earliest signs of 
toxicity. It should rarely be necessary to continue 
intravenous infusions bcvond 24 hours As SOOn 
as possible. and when indicated. patients should 
be changed to an oral antiarrh)1hmic agent for 
maintenance thcrapv. 
Solutions for intravenous infusion should be 
prepared by the addition or one 50 ml single dose 
vial of Xylocaine 2% or One 5 ml Xvlocaine One 
Gram Disposable Transfer Svnnge to I liter of 
appropria.e solution This wIll provide 0 0.1'1 
solution: that is. each ml WIll contain I m
 of 
XylocalDe HC!. Thus I ml to 2 ml per minute 
will provide I mg to 2 mg or Xvlocaine HCl per 
minute. 



Help us with our International Women's Year Project! 


The Ca[ladian Nurse and L'infirmière can
dienne want to docu- 
ment instances of sex discrimination in health care so that action 
can be taken to correct it. 


Are women discriminated against in health care? As patients? 
As nurses? 


We invite nurses to send us examples of discrimination. Use the 
form below. and. please, sign it. Your identity will not be revealed 


Return the form not later than 30 June 1975, to: 
Canadian Nurses' Association 
Director of Information Services 
50 The Driveway 
Ottawa, Ontario K2P 1 E2 


Incident: 


In your opinion how does this incident show discrimination against women] 


Are you:Da nurse, 0 a patient. 0 other (specify) 


2 THE CANADIAN NURSE 


APRIL 19 



The 
Canadian 
Nurse 


ð 

 


A monthly journal ior the nurses of Canada published 
in English and French editions by the Canadian Nurses' Association 


Volume 71, Number 4 


April 1975 


21 The Nurses of Brochet 


25 A lEAP with LIP. . . . . . . 


29 


Rape Victims - 
the Invisible Patients 


35 Report: CNA Directors 
Meet in Ottawa. . . 


I 39 Changing Staff Behavior 


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .H. Brigstocke 


. . . . . . . . . . .R. Edmunds. D.L. Smith 


. . . . . _ .. ........ V. Price 


...... .N. Blais 


41 How Children See the Nurse .........................c. Turcotte 


. . .M.K. Eriksen 


The views expressed in the articles are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the 
policies or views of the Canadian Nurses' Association 


4 letters 49 In A Capsule 
11 News 50 Research Abstracts 
44 Dates 52 Accession List 
46 New Products 72 Index to Advertisers 


Executive Uirector: Helen Ie Mussallem . 
Editor: Virginia A. Lindabury . Assistant 
Editors: Lh,-Ellen Lockeberg, Dorothy S. 
Starr . Production Assistant: Mary Lou 
I Downes . Circulation Manager: Beryl Dar- 
ling . Advertising Manager: Georgina Clarke 
. Subscription Rates: Canada: one year 
S6.00; two years. S 11.00. Foreign: one year 
S6.50; two years, S 12.00. Single copies: 
S'.OO each. Make cheques or money orders 
payable to the Canadian Nurses' Association. 
. Change of Address: Six weeks' notice; the 
old address as well as the new are necessary. 
together with registrallon number in a pro- 
vincial nurses' association where applicable. 
Not responsible for journals lost in mail due 
to errors In address. 


Manuscript Information: "The Canadian 
Nurse" welcomes unsoliCIted articles. All 
manuscripts should be typed. double-spaced. 
on one side of unruled paper leaving wide 
margins. Manuscripts are accepted for review 
for exclusive publication. The editor reserves 
the nght to make the usual editorial changes. 
Photographs (glossy prints) and graphs and 
diagrams (drawn in india ink on white paper) 
are welcomed with such articles. The editor is not 
committed to publish all articles senl. 
nor to indicate definite dates of publication. 
Postage paid in cash at third class rate 
MONTREAl. P.Q. Permit 'Jo. 10.001. 
50 The Dllveway Onawa Onlallo K2P' E2 
IC> Canadian Nurses Association 1975. 


editorial 


A few months ago. a man who was 
already on bail after three offences, 
was charged with raping a young 
woman after breaking into her apart- 
ment and threatening her with a knife. 
The Crown attempted to obtain a court 
order to require the accused to stay in 
jail until his trial, to be held two months 
later, but the presiding judge allowed a 
defence bid to free him on bail. The 
Crown was unable to show that releas- 
ing the accused would be contrary to 
the public interest. (Globe and Mail 5 
Sept. 1974.) 
In another case, a man who was 
convicted of beating and indecently 
assaulting a 9-year-old girt was given a 
15-weekend jail sentence, i.e., he had 
to spend 15 consecutive weekends in 
jail. (Globe and Mail 10 Jan. 1974.) 
On the other hand. two men who 
robbed a man of $130 last July and 
struck him in the shoulder with a small 
knife were each sentenced by the 
judge to five years in the penitentiary. 
One is forced to ask, after noting 
these court decisions and others that 
appear with increasing frequency in 
the press, just how serious the crime of 
rape is held by the courts - and, in- 
deed. by society - even though the 
offence comes under the Criminal 
Code. There seems to be little recogni- 
tion that the act of rape is so psycholog- 
ically traumatic for most victims that 
they seldom recover completely. For a 
woman, rape IS the worst act of vio- 
lence. 
And there are other legal injustices 
for rape victims. As the law stands, de- 
fence lawyers are free to harass rape 
victims by interrogating them about 
their past sexual experiences, how 
they felt as they were being raped, and 
so on. Realizing that they will be sub- 
jected to this further torture, many vic- 
tims refuse to testify. 
Also, rape victims are forced to sup- 
port their testimony with medical evi- 
dence to show the existence of 
bruises, cuts, and semen. As an editor- 
ial in The Globe and Mail pointed out 
recently, at least three U.S. states have 
amended their laws to prevent this. 
Before the federal election last July. 
federal Justice Minister Otto Lang an- 
nounced that he was considering 
amendments to the Criminal Code to 
make legal proceedings fairer for rape 
victims. His intentions are commend- 
able, but his nonaction is deplorable. 
The Justice Minister is presently 
being pressured by the federal advis- 
ory council on the status of women to 
introduce amendments to the section 
of the Criminal Code that deals with 
rape and sex o!fences. I hope he will be 
further pressured bv the readers of this 
column. - VAL. 
THE CANADIAN NURSE 3 


MIL 1975 



letters 


{ 


Letters to the editor are welcome. 
Only signed letters, which include the writer's complete address, 
will be considered for publication. 
Name will be withheld at the writer's request. 


Disagree with editorial 
On the subject of world nutrition (Editor- 
ial,The Canadian Nurse, January 1975).1 
would like to bring to your attention that 
the nutritional survey done in Canada re- 
cently shows malnutrition among man
. 
1 am not in favor of Canadian organiza- 
tions or the government spending money 
to provide f
d for other nations when it is 
unlikely that the bulk ever reaches the 
needy. Governments of these nations 
spend money on arms while you ask Cana- 
dians to feed their starving masses. Give- 
away foodstuffs of tel"! reach the 
I
ck 
markets because there IS poor supervISIon 
of distribution. 
Instead. 1 would prefer the Canadian 
Nursö' Association to promote better 
food habits among Canadians, starting 
with the nurse
. Nurses. who are either 
underweight. overweight. or folIowing 
faddish diet
. lose their credibility when 
teaching patients good nutrition that they. 
themsc I ves. obviously do not folIow. 
Should nurses not lead by good example at 
home'? - C.R. Ballantyne, Burnaby, 
British Columbia. 


1 feel I must voice some criticism about 
the stand you took in your editorial. 
As so-calIed 
rofessionals. nurses 
should at least attempt to understand the 
consensus arrived at by other professionals 
such as engineers. physicists. economists. 
or statesmen. concerning world food prob- 
lems. Most of these agree that the earth is 
being depleted very rapidly of its re- 
sources. and unless some measures are 
taken immediately. we will all suffer the 
consequences. It would seem more ap- 
propriate for nurses to work toward 
economic controls. whether it be family 
planning or curbing of hospital expendi- 
tures. rather than to attempt to feed ever- 
growing populations with ever-dwindling 
food supplies. as the sensationalism of 
radio and TV reporting would have us do. 
- Stella Lawand, Montreal, Quebec. 


Your editorial in the January issue did not 
stimulate me to write to the Prime Minis- 
ter. Instead. 1 got hot enough under the 
collar to reply to you with the following: 
Sending grain to the starving nations is 
just like putting a soother in a baby's 
mouth. We are not getting at the root of the 
problem. I place sending $1. to UNICEF in 
the same category. 
4 THE CANADIAN NURSE 


Why are there so many mouths to feed 
to begin with'? Is there any more we can do 
to help them solve this basic problem? 
Perhaps these millions have to starve to 
make them realize the need for birth 
control. I am more in favor of supporting 
programs such as CIDA and cuso. which 
are education-oriented. Teach them to 
help themselves. 
While rm on the subject. let's look at 
what is happening in our own country: 
Why do so many teenage girls have to 
deliver one child before I. as a public 
health nurse. can get to them to talk about 
birth control? With all the restrictions on 
sex education in the public school system. 
plus the limitations on birth control adver- 
tising. I am unable to reach these girls 
before it is too late. 
Occasionally 1"11 have an opportuniry to 
talk to a girl while rm treating her for 
venereal disease. However. I'm usualIy 
too late. (I have several records to prove 
this statement.) Who is teaching their male 
sex partners some sexual responsibility 
and/or methods of birth control? I have not 
found a means to do this. 
I hope that this may not be as great a 
problem in all parts of this country; how- 
ever. it exists in this community. I know 
from previous expenence that It eXIsts In 
other communities in northern Saskatche- 
wan. Is this a problem that is limited to 
northern Saskatchewan, all northern 
communities. only specific provinces. or 
does it exist right across Canada? 
Another thought: What is Canada doing 
to encourage its citizens to use birth 
control? If Canada does not soon develop 
some specific means of encouraging birth 
control in all sectors of our society. we will 
eventually be faced with the same prob- 
lem: How do we feed our starving mil- 
lions? - Mary L. Toews, PHN lV, 
Saskatchewan. 


I applaud the sentiment expressed in 
Virginia Lindabury's January editorial. in 
which she summons us to action for the 
world's starving people. She suggests that 
we each send $1. to UNICEF and write a 
letter to the Prime Minister demanding an 
increase in foreign aid in the form offood. 
Unfortunately. such an attitude fails to 
consider the scope of the problem and the 
realities of the present global situation. 
First. such action. in the long term. does 
more harm than good. An escalating popu- 
lation size increases further - in effect. 


more people suffer. Second. dependenc 
of a nation on an external food supply rob 
that nation of motivation to exercise th 
right and potential to problem solve. Th 
concepts of effective helping are bein 
clearly articulated in nursing. How is 
then. that when considering a nation. I ar 
called upon. as a member of the CNA. t 
ignore those concepts? 
My major concern. however, is thi 
such an approach reinforces the mentalit 
that a solution merely requires giving 
little more of the "things" we posseS5 
Consequently. having dealt with the prot 
lem 'to our moral satisfaction. life is a 
lowed to carry on as before. A stand of thi 
nature is nothing less than selfish an 
hypocritical. 
The only hope rests in arousing. not 
guilty conscience that is assuaged by gi 
giving. but in arousing critical evaluativ 
thinking about a life-style with values tho 
create situations in which many suffe' 
With such analyses. rationality can sure! 
only be satisfied by a global conceptu. 
framework in which we must. undoub 
edly. change our criteria for wh, 
constitutes a quality life. - Mauree 
Murphy, Student - M.Sc.N. Yr. j 
University of Western Ontario, Londor 
Ontario. 


Editor's note: 
Certainly long-range solutions are ro 
quired to help solve the world food shol 
age. 8 ut does that mean we must igno 
the short-term solution of providing; 
much food as possible to those who a 
starving'! I cannot accept thIs. 


Enjoyed January editorial 
Thank you for your good editorial (, 
January 1975. 1 was so happy to see IT 
journal showing a constructive concern fl l 
the starving people of the world. 
May 1 add to your two suggestions as 
what we can do? Many of us can support l 
child (or children) through an agenc 
such as Foster Parent's Plan. The Christi< 
Children's Fund. or World Vision 
Canada. Those already involved wi I 
children in this way can assure those wi 
are not that there will never be anything 
their mail boxes that will bring greater jl l 
than do the letters received from a spo 
sored child. - Margaret E. Pardy, RI 
Barnfield, British Columbia. 
(continued on page 
APRIL 19: 



A FRESH NEW LOOK FOR SPRING 


BY 
DESIGNER'S CHOICE 


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letters 


(continued from page 4) 
To the "down under" RNs 
After reading the letter from 7 RNS in 
Australia (Letters. Jan. 1975, p. 6). I feel 
that I must reply. I am a Bntish nurse. 
now working in Canada. 
Before coming to Saskatchewan. I ap- 
plied for registration and was told I would 
have to take an examination, but only on 
general nursing. It turned out to be 3 days 
of exams in surgery. medicine. pediatrics. 
obstetrics. and psychiatry! 
I had never studied psychiatry and. un- 
fortunately. failed this subject twice. I was 
then informed that I must take some les- 
sons. but had to make my own arrange- 
ments for this. This is what I did, and I am 
now registered in Saskatchewan. 
I suppose I'm one of the lucky ones, 
because one woman I kno\.\> lacks obstet- 
rics. but can't get into a center to take it. 
No room! She is an SRN. with postgraduate 
work in chest and OR supervision. She now 
works at 10 percent less than other RNS. 
but is doing the same work. if not more. 
due to her postgraduate experience. 
Fortunately. the Saskatchewan Regis- 
tered Nurses' Association has written 
regulations that list the requirements 
for overseas RNS applying for registra- 
tion. Even so, why should British nurses. 
many with extensive postgraduate expe- 
rience in various fields. have to take these 
exams, plus the 10 percent cut in salary? 
To those 7 Canadian R:-.J
 "down un- 
der, ., I would say: I am glad that you now 
know what we have to go through when we 
come to Canada. Welcome to the club! 
We know that the provinces don't want 
just anyone coming in. but surely each 
individual should be talo..en on her own 
merits and then go on from there. h is 
certainly something to think about! - 
Marilyn Dearden, RN, SRN. SCM. Director 
of Nursing, Chief Executive Officer. Lady 
Minto Unioll Hospital. Edam. Sask. 


Insulin goes metric 
We were interested in the article 
., Insulin Goes Metric: A Time for 
Review" by E. Laugharne (February 
1975. p. 22). In our hospital. we found 
this same lack of knowledge about the 
new IOO-unit Insulin preparations. 
We decided to have a seminar on the 
topic at Loyalist College. which is now 
the major health science teaching facility 
in the Belleville area. The seminar was 
cosponsored by the local branch of the 
Canadian Diabetic Association (CD A) and 
the area hospitals. 
CDA notified all known diabetics in the 
area. as well as their families and friends. 
6 THE CANADIAN NURSE 


We notified doctors, pharmacists. the 
public health unit. the Victorian Order of 
Nurses. the home care office. and the 
inservice education directors of each 
hospital. Two weeks' notice of ttie 
seminar was given in advertisements that 
appeared in all local newspapers. The 
local radio station gave free an- 
nouncements. 
We decided to have a panel 
presentation. as this would enable the 
audience to ask questions of professionals 
or nonprofessionals. We have found that 
it is effective and informative to have 
diabetics and parents of diabetic children 
on the panel. along with a doctor or 
dietician. Diabetic teenagers are also 
included. as they have their own set of 
problems and are great at helping each 
other. 
The response to the seminar was 
excellent. and revealed a real concern on 
the part of public and professionals alike. 
However. some diabetics at the seminar 
were still not entirely convinced about the 
need for change nor the continued use of 
the same dosage in units. We believed it 
wise, therefore. to follow up the program 
with a catchy. slogan-type advertisement 
in all the newspapers: 


Notice to Diabetics 
With Your New lOO-Unit Insulin 
And Your New lOO-Unit Syringe 
Continue Taking the Same Number 
Of Units of Insulin 
This does not ignore the fact that. from 
time to time. some patients require a 
change in dosage. Most diabetics keep in 
touch with their doctors for needed 
verification of dosage. 
We have been asked to present this 
seminar in another area. and there is 
doubtlessly a real need for something 
similar to be undertaken in any area 
where there are diabetics. We have a 
professional responsibility to ensure that 
the public understands important health 
care changes. - Josephine Reddick. RN. 
SRN. SCM. Nursing Teacher. Loyalist 
College of Applied Arts and Technology. 
Belleville. Ontario. and R. Gordon 
Romans, M.D.. Consultant. Insulin 
Division. Connaught Laboratories. 
Toronto. 


Laurels 
I enjoy receiving and reading The Cana- 
dian Nurse each month. It is stimulating. 
informative, and up-to-date. The nursing 
staff in the homes for the aged across the 
province are encouraged to use this 
magazine as reference material for inser- 
vice training programs in the nursing unit. 
I wish you continued success in such a 
worthwhile endeavor. - Muriel J. 
Maxwell. Nursing Consultant. Senior 
Citizens' Bureau. Ontario Ministry of 
Community and Social Services. Toronto. 


Be considerate to nonsmokers 
Recently. I attended a meeting of th l 
Order of Nurses of Quebec. where man 
persons were smoking. The committee rc' 
sponsible for organizing meetings such al 
this goes out of its way to secure an attrae' 
tive hall that has proper acoustics and corr: 
fortable seats. But the committee member. 
tend to forget that the quality of the air 
also closely related to the comfort of th' 
participants. We should realize that mOl 
and more persons have developed a ser; 
sitivity to smoke and are genuinel' 
bothered by it. I 
I realize that this harmful and abusi\, 
habit is now well established; nevertht 
less, I believe that a profession such 
i 
ours. which is dedicated to the health an 
well-being of people. should set the exarr 
pIe and show some consideration to th 
nonsmokers until our governments intn 
duce legislation to ban smoking in publi 
places. - P.A. Paré. Public Healt ' 
Nurse. Quebec. 


Journals available 
I would like to hear from anyone intereste' 
in receiving my complete set of H' 
Canadian Nurse journals from the yea 
1970 to 1974 inclusive. I 
I am willing to pay the require 
postage. - B.J. Ford, R.R. # . 
Moncton. New Brunswick. 


Where is the nurse who cares? 
In "Caring Begins in the Teache 
Student Relationship" (Dec. 1974 
Daphne Walker Mesolella asks. "Wher, 
is she? Where is the nurse who feels. an 
who cares about me as a person?" I woul i 
like to know the answer to that questior! 
too. On a gynecological floor where I wa, 
a patient. the patients seemed to have th , 
same conditions as we encountered when 
was a student. but there the similarit 
ended. 
When nursing education started to brea 
from the three-year basic hospital traininf 
we were assured that the "new" nurs 
would be aware of the patient as a . 'whol 
person." For a few years I believed thi 
was a realistic aim. But what has goo 
wrong with the education system? In m 
recent experience. to the head nurse I Wé 
a name on the bed. to the RN I was a narr 
on the medicine card. and to the nursin 
assistant I was a nuisance. 
Should a fourth-day postoperative hy: 
terectomy keep two students busy for tt 
day because they were assigned to "d 
whatever she wanted them to do?" Hu 
should one react when the nursing assi' 
tant contaminates everything on the steri 
tray before she even starts to do your al 
dominal dressing? Should a patient t 
given scissors and told to "clip herself 
for her prep? (She became an abdomin. 
surgery case and had her operation witho ' 
further preparation.) 


(continued on page,' 
APRIL 197 



You should know about a new concept in contraception 
Cu-7@(Copper Seven) 
intrauterine copper contraceptive 


How does Cu-7 work? Copper provides the major con- 
traceptive effect. not the inert plastic 7 - shaped carrier. 
The effect is local and non-systemic, The minute quantity 
of copper released daily by Cu-7 is only 2 - 3% of the 
usual daily dietary int
ke of copper. 
How effective is Cu-7? Simply, Cu-7 is virtually as effec- 
tive as "The Pill". 
Who can use Cu-7? Cu-7 can be inserted into most 
normal women whether nulliparous or multiparous. The 
small diameter of the inserter usually permits insertion 
without cervical dilation and usually with little or no 
patient discomfort. The flexible 7 shape is highly com- 


Searle Pharmaceuticals 
Oakville, Ontario 


t'Rll1975 


patible with the uterine environment, ensuring a high 
retention rate. 


What are the future effects of Cu-7? Following proper 
insertion, Cu-7 is immediately active, rarely expelled and 
usually easily removed, Cu-7 is unlikely to affect future 
fertility. Studies have shown that most women wishing to 
become pregnant did so within four months after removal 
of Cu-7. 


Do you desire further information? Further information 
is available to all registered nurses by writing Searle 
PharmaceuticalS, Oakville, Ontario. 


Note: This space is paid for by Searle Pharmaceuticals as an 
educational service to the nursing profession and does not 
constitute a solicitation or recommendation for use of Cu-7. 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 7 



letters 


(continued from page 6) 
What has happened to the basic rules of 
hygiene? The public health regulations 
would not permit a waitress to work in a 
restaurant with the careless hands and hair 
care that were seen in the nursing staff. 
No nurse. even of the old school. wants 
to reverse the changes in nursing educa- 
tion. I believe care could now be excellent. 
but somewhere along the way the em- 
phasis seems to have been misplaced. 
Most patients do not expect hotel ser- 
vice. which was once the criterion of care 
on private service. If that type of service is 
expected now. it is the fault of the profes- 
sion for not educating the lay population 
about good hospital care. The admission 
unit at the Halifax Infirmary. described in 
the December 1974 issue of The Canadian 
Nurse seems a good way to help the patient 
understand the hospital. My orientation 
was done by another patient in the ward! 
When we were paid a pittance compared 
to present-day salaries. we were proud and 
responsible members of our profession. 
Now nurses are receiving the well- 
deserved remuneration that compares 
more favorably with other professions. 
But what has happened to their pride and 
sense of responsibility? Somewhere. the 
pendulum must have swung too far. Nurse 
educators. can you not do something to 
balance the scale? - Gladvs Creelman 
Workman, Yellowknife, N.W.T. 


Response to Mustard Report 
We believe that public health nurses play 
an important role in community health. 
Their role is largely omitted in the com- 
munity health centers outlined in the report 
of the Task Force on Health Services in 
Ontario. the "Mustard Report." 
Community health centers will be effec- 
tive for those families who appreciate 
good health and the importance of main- 
taining it. However, the families who have 
neither the understanding nor motivation 
to carry out good health practices are. for 
the most part. overlooked. 
There will always be people who. 
through ignorance or lack of interest. will 
not turn to primary care centers for the 
purpose of maintaining optimum health. It 
is only through consistent. conscientious 
contact with these people in their homes 
that adequate supervision of health needs 
throughout the life cycle of both individu- 
als and families may be achieved. 
The Mustard report recommends that 
., provision of health care be based on a 
continuing health professional/patient re- 
lationship that is characterized by mutual 
confidence and understanding. . ." We 
do not think the centralized clinic will pro- 
8 THE CANADIAN NURSE 


vide this to the degree already attained by 
public health nur,
es. 
The introduction to the Report states 
". . . the public is highly critical of the vir- 
tual disappearance of the person-to-person 
element in the practice of medicine" 
(p,3). We do not see that the new center 
will alleviate this problem. The PHN has 
attempted to provide the security of a one- 
to-one relationship; this can best be 
achieved in the person's own environ- 
ment. 
If. as proposed. the health care plan "is 
to evolve from existing arrangements." 
we strongly recommend that public health 
nursing services be further studied to en- 
sure that we do not lose all the benefits and 
strengths presently offered by the existing 
<;tructure. 
Individuals in the geriatric age group 
often need a nurse's opinion and support 
before they will seek medical help. To 
persons in this category. the community 
health center may seem distant. and even 
frightening. 
In conclusion. although we agree with 
many of the principles in the report. we 
feel that extensive and comprehensive 
public health home visitIng must 
continue. - V. Krmpotich, President, 
Nurses' Association Algoma Health Unit. 
Local 62, Sault Ste. Marie, Onto 


Editor's Note: A dLrcussion of the Task 
Force report by its chairman, Dr, Fraser 
Mustard, and 3 nurses was reported in 
News, December /974, page /2. 


Against two-year program 
I have yet to read a convincing article on 
the merits of the 2- year program of nursing 
instruction. Bernice Donaldson's com- 
ments on this subject (Letters, January 
1975. p. 6) have prompted me to write this 
letter. I found all her defences of this pro- 
gram shallow, and she convinced me all the 
more that the 3-year. hospital-based pro- 
gram is better. I am a graduate of the latter 
program and feel most fortunate to be so. 
I disagree with Donaldson's statement: 
"Poor products are not necessarily the 
fault of the program. but rather of the qual- 
ity of teaching." Not so. If the program is 
poor. which I consider the 2-year plan to 
be. poorly trained students will result. re- 
gardless of how good the teacher is. Two 
years of sitting in a classroom. be it in a 
university or in a vocational school. can 
not replace the valuable practical experi- 
ence gained in a 3-year. hospital-based 
program. as there is no replacement for 
practical experience. 
Two days a week at a hospital. under 
ideal conditions. do not begin to teach 
these girls the full responsibility of nursing 
that will be required of them on gradua- 
tion. Many of these 2-year graduates say 
they do not feel prepared or confident 
enough to take on these responsibilities 
when they graduate. The patients, too. 


"'n" ,hi, '"k of confidence, .nd m} 
plain openly about it. Is this not Pro
' 
enough that the new program is poor? 
There is good and bad in both systerr' 
and with the products turned out by boll 
systems. But the 3-year. hospital-bast 
program is far superior to the 2-year pnl 
gram, Granted, we did spent a lot of ext I 
working hours at the hospital; at the time 
begrudged this. but I realized on gradu,t 
tion that these were valuable learning e; 
perience hours. There is no replaceme 
for experie:lce. and the more one has I 
graduation. the more confident one feels 
go out and carryon one' s nursing caree 
To Donaldson's question. "How pr, 
pared were you when you began your nur 
mg career?" I respond -" A heck of a I.: 
better than the girls of today are, thar 
goodness!" I 
How can these educators defend the 
2-year programs when. after the end of 
years training, some of these RNs ha\ 
never catheterized a patient. have givt ' 
only. a few needles. have never suctionedj 
tracheotomy. and so on? Do they call th 
being prepared as an RN? 
It's about time that these nur
 
educators woke up and saw the light all 
quit defending their obviously inferi. 
2-year nurse-training programs. --CatP 
Rathwell, RN, Masset, British ColumbÙ 


Objects to nurse on TV program 
Last evening my TV was tuned in to! 
episode of CBCs Performance Serie ' 
called "Last of the Four Letter Words. 
After the first act. I turned it off becau 
what I saw made me mad! 
I became angry because of the Cruf 
heartless way in which nurses and oth I 
hospital employees were portraye. 
Example: nurse rips covers off patient ar 
stabs her with a 50 cc. syringe ' 
medication. Patient collapses onto fio 
only to be dragged unceremoniously on 
stretcher by nurse and insolent-lookiI 
orderly. who lolls against stretcher. 
Although I realize that the playwrig 
was probably trying to portray tl 
emotions and impressions of a terminal 
ill patient. I cannot tolerate the portra} 
of such shoddy nursing behavior beil 
foisted onto a naive and unsuspectir. 
audience who may not be able 
distinguish fact from fantasy. 
Point: Is the CNA or any other nursil j 
association ever asked for technic 
assistance or advice on nursing by any 1 
show? If so. somebody goofed on tt, 
one! I 
God help us all if we, as nurses. a, 
really as crass as this portrayal! God he' 
us even more if this is the impression t i 
general public has of nurses! - Lyd' 
Ziola, RN, Surrey, B.C. 


'The Canadian Nurses' Association h 
not been askedfor assistance or advice 
nursing by any TV station. - Ed. 
APRIL 19 



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news 



ritish Nurses Vote 
n Withdrawal From ICN 


I 
I 
I 
ondon, England - The Royal College of Nursing (Rcn) is holding a special general 
leeting on 16 April 1975 to consider a resolution to give notice to the International 
'ouncil of Nurses (IcN)of its intention to withdraw from membership effective 31 
)ecember 1975. 
The College's official bulletin. The 
'cn Nursing Standard, says the 
ithdrawal is recommended by the 
:ouncil of Rcn "because it [Rcn] 
elieves the role that the ICN is still 
triving to fulfill is unrealistic in the 
'orld of today. .. 
The Standard says. "To fulfill this role 
le ICN must make financial demands on 
s member associations that divert. to the 
Jpport of an international body. money 
'quired to advance the work of the 
ssociations at national level. and to 
'(tend services and facilities for their 
wn members. On a cost/benefit 
ssessment the Council [of the Rcn] can 
o longer justify the dues at present paid 
y the Rcn to the ICN. nor contemplate 
lie proposed increase in these dues. .. 
The ICN was established in 1899 under 
movement headed by a British nurse. 
thel Gordon Bedford-Fenwick. At 
resent a British nurse is second 
ice-president of ICN. another is a 
lember of the board of directors. and a 
lird is a member of the professional 

rvi
es committee. These nurses will 
ave to resign their positions if the Rcn 
ithdraws from the international 
rganization. Withdrawal from ICN would 
so effect the Rcn's membership in 
'gional European nursing organizations 
lat have membership in (CN as an 
I igibtlity requirement. 
Voting on the resolution is by 
ten dance at the special meeting or by 
ving a proxy vote to one of the Rcn's 
icials. President of the Council of Rcn 
Sheila Quinn. who was executive 
rector of ICN from 1967 to 70. 


:NA Urges Health Promotion 
\) Reduce Cost of Cures 
ttawa - One long-tenn method of cut- 
ng costs in the health care industry is 
feater emphasis on health promotion and 
-evention. This will reduce expenditures 
I the curative system. according to 
uguette Labelle. president of the Cana- 
Ian Nurses' Association (CNA). 

)RIL 1975 


CNA was one of 6 representatives of the 
health industry invited to a meeting in- 
itiated by the federal government to bring 
together principal groups in society to dis- 
cuss inflation and to explore ",ays of re- 
straining it. 
Labelle and Executive Director Dr. 
Helen K. Mussallem represented CNA at 
the meeting at the Skyline Hotel. Ottawa. 
on 4 February 1975. 
The CNA president pointed out that nurs- 
ing is a responsible profession that recog- 
nizes the necessity of providing the best 
possible health care at the lowest cost. In 
spite of this. she said. it is unlikely that 
nursing salaries will remain constant in the 
face of continued increases in other sectors 
of the economy. since recent increases 
serve mainly to close the gap between 
nursing and comparable groups. 
Other long-term methods of cutting 
costs. according to the CNA president. in- 
clude development of extended care 
facilities to reduce the use of more expen- 
sive acute care facilities. and more effi- 
cient use of existing manpower. resulting 
in increased productivity of the nursing 
profession. Measures intended to counter 
or correct inflationary trends in health care 
costs were suggested by the CNA president. 
One of these was a s}stem of "holding" a 
number of beds in acute and extended care 
facilities. so that these could be made im- 
mediately available during an emergency 
to the sick or aged. who wish to remain in 
their own homes as long as possible. 
Labelle also suggested that. at the pres- 
ent time. a great deal of nursing manpower 
and. therefore. money is wasted in carry- 
ing out nonnursing tasks that could be 
done by less highly qualified personnel. In 
addition. she suggested hospitals could be 
planned or redesigned to include labor- 
saving features. which would reduce the 
workload of the nursing staff. 
Government representatives at the 
meeting were Minister of Health and Wel- 
fare Marc Lalonde. President of the Treas- 
ury Board Jean Chrétien. and Minister of 
Veterans Affairs D.J. MacDonald. 
In addition to CNA. the health sector was 


represented by the president and chief ex- 
ecutive officers of: the Canadian Medical 
Association. the Canadian Hospital As- 
sociation. the Canadian Phannaceutical 
Association. the Canadian Dental Associ- 
ation. and L' Association des médecins de 
langue française du Canada. 


Unusual Risk To OR Nurses, 
Anesthetic Cases Hazardous 
Ottawa - Operating room nurses are 
among 3 categories of health professionals 
subject to unusual risk because of repeated 
exposure to anesthetic gases. according to 
a report prepared for Health and Welfare 
Canada. The report is the ",ork of a 3-man 
committee set up to investigate possible 
occupational hazards faced by health per- 
sonnel working in hospital operating 
rooms. 
According (Q the committee's report. 
which was released in the fall of 1974. 
anesthetists are subject to the greatest risk. 
followed by operating room nurses. and 
then surgeons. According to the commit- 
tee. preliminary studies have shown that 
women exposed to anesthetic gases are 
particularly susceptible to a higher inci- 
dence of spontaneous abortion and offetal 
abnornlalities. No one gas could be in- 
criminated: halothane. nitrous oxide. 
methoxyfluorane. and ethrane all carried 
an occupational risk from repeated pro- 
longed exposure. 
Since these gases will probably con- 
tinue to be used extensively for some time. 
the committee considered various alterna- 
tives that could be employed to eliminate 
or reduce the occupational hazard in- 
volved. It concluded that direct venting of 
gases to the outdoors is the simplest and 
most effective means of reducing the ex- 
tent of exposure. A description of a safe 
and adequate venting system is included in 
the report. 
In October 1974. the Canadian Nurses' 
Association was infonned of the results of 
the committee's investigations. The ex- 
ecutive committee of CNA. which met on 
January 30 and 31. 1975. discussed the 
report and believed it should be brought to 
the attention of nurses. 
One of the committee members was 
Abram Ber. M.D.. Department of Anaes- 
thesia. Reddy Memorial Hospital. 
Montreal. Dr. Ber was the author of an 
earlier report to the Committee of Stan- 
dards of Practice. Canadian Anaesthetists' 
Society. In his report. Dr. Ber stated: 
THE CANADIAN NURSE 11 



news 


"Until recently. the subject of pollution 
and anesthetic gases has received little at- 
tention. but now there are few of us left 
who would deny that we are. indeed. faced 
with an occupational exposure hazard." 
He cited studies indicating a higher-than- 
average incidence of the following health 
problems among anesthetists: spontaneous 
miscarriage. liver damage. chronic renal 
failure. and immunosuppression. 


MARN Covers Active Members 
For Professional Liability 
Winnipeg, Man. - All active practicing 
members of the Manitoba Association of 
Registered Nurses (MARN) are covered by 
a group professional liability insurance 
plan purchased by the association. MARN 
directors approved purchase of the insur- 
ance plan. which became effective I 
March 1975. 
A resolution passed at the 1974 annual 
meeting of MARN asked that members' 
needs for liability insurance be assessed. 
with a view to providing such coverage in 
1975. Responses to a questionnaire. in- 


New Racing Model Wheelchair 


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Two wheelchair racers. Lee Martin. right. and Randy Reeves. use chairs designed 
and produced by The Hospital for Sick Children. Toronto. specially for patients with 
muscular dystrophy. The chair is a brace designed to prevent spinal curvature; the seat 
is a plastic shell shaped to the desired curvature of the nonnal spine. A two-layer inner 
padding is fitted to the body of the individual child. The wheelchair's seat can be 
removed and used as a car seat. There are 13 patients using the chair; they range in age 
from 8 to 14. All of them enthusiastically endorse the new chair that enables them to 
sit comfortably for 14 hours at a time. as opposed to 3 hours in the old type. 


12 THE CANADIAN NURSE 


cluded in the December 1974 issue of the 
MARN bulletin. Nurscene, indicated that 
members were overwhelmingly in favor of 
purchase of liability insurance. subject to 
the board of directors' approval of financ- 
ing from general funds, The directors gave 
approval at the board meeting on II Feb- 
ruary. 
The insurance will be in the name of the 
Manitoba Association of Registered 
Nurses. and any registered nurse who is an 
active practicing member in good standing 
is covered under the blanket policy. The 
policy will protect each nurse "for hel 
legal liability for bodily injury. sickness 
or death as a result of rendering or failing 
to render professional services in her prac- 
tice as a registered nurse." 
The coverage is 24 hours per day and 
includes legal costs. The limits provided 
are $100.000 coverage for an occurrence 
invol ving one person. and $300 .000 "' hen 
more than one person is involved. Indi- 
vidual enrolment in the MARN insurance 
plan is nor required. 


Nursing Service, Education 
Aided By Joint Appointments 
Ottawa - Joint appointments in nursin
 
service and nursing education enhance reo 
lationships and increase interaction. Dr 
Jannetta MacPhail told some 115 Ottawa. 
area nurses at a workshop marking tht 
50th anniversary of the Registered Nurses 
Association of Ontario. 
Dr. MacPhail is professor and dean of 
Frances Payne Bolton school of nursing 
Case Western Reserve University. am 
head of nursing at the University Hospi 
tals. Cleveland. Ohio. She spoke 01 
promoting collaboration between nursin! 
education and nursing service during thl. 
workshop in Ottawa on 24 February 1975., 
"Representatives of nursing service am 
nursing education organizations canno 
learn to respect and trust each other an.1 
commit themselves to common goals. i 
they do not have opportunities to intent( 
and get to know each other." MacPhai 
said. 
She described 3 types of joint appoint 
ments that she and her colleagues de 
veloped during research on the problem 0, 
collaboration. They are: 
. Shared appointment. in which the co
t i 
shared. as well as the responsibility fe l 
education and service. in such positions 31 
school departmental chairperson-directc 
of a clinical nursing division. or facult 
member-nurse clinician; 
. Clinical appointment or a "Ieadershir 
clinical" appointment in nursing educ:' 
tion held by leaders in nursing service wh, 
are paid fully by the service agency an' 
have their primary responsibility in sell 
vice; and I 
. Associate appointment in nursing se 
vice. which is given to all faculty membel 
(continued on page 1/ 
APRIL 1971 



. 


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\FIL 1975 


Follow 
the 
Leader 


"Follow the leader" - a fun 
game for children! The spirit of 
inquiry sometimes exhibited in 
childhood games is a spirit which 
carries an individual as far in life 
as he wants to go. But when it's 
time to put away toys, "Follow 
the leader" is no longer a game, 
but a key to success in a grown- 
up world. The demands on both 
follower and leader are real and 
intense, 


Leadership bears important im- 
plications: understanding, experi- 
ence, knowledge, insight, . . and 
responsibility. It requires that 
you prepare students for the day 
when they too will lead. You 
have but to lend them your 
seasoned experience backed with 
a strong curriculum. For years 
Mosby books have been leaders 
in many areas of nursing. This 
year heralds an exceptional 
selection of trend-setting texts. 
Follow the leader today-for 
continued good leadership 
tomorrow! 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 13 



New 9th Edition! 


Textbook Of 
Anatomy And 
Physiology 


Anthony-Kolthoff 


New 9th Edition! 


Anatomy And 
Physiology 
Laboratory 
Manual 


Anthony 


Newly Revised! 


Slides 


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I 


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-.. 


1 


...... 
-. . 


14 THE CANADIAN NURSE 


This new 9th edition of a popular text upholds the tradition of excellence 
and adds fresh features and a wealth of new information based on recent 
findings. As in previous editions, outline surveys introduce each chapter; 
outline summaries and review questions conclude each chapter. Diagrams and 
tables appear in nearly all chapters with suggested readings, abbreviations and 
prefi xes. and glossary. 
New material includes: brain waves. altered states of consciousness, and the 
"emotional brain"; biofeedback training; physiological changes that occur 
during meditation (yoga); and more. 
In conveying ideas, the authors hope to "help students see science for what it 
is - a continual asking of questions and searching for answers, not merely a 
collection of facts and final answers." Once again, Mr. Ernest W. Beck has 
enriched the text with a number of new illustrations. 


By CATHERINE PARKER ANTHONY. R.N., B.A., M.S.; with the collaboration of 
NORMA JANE KOL THOFF, R.N., B.S., Ph.D. April, 1975. Approx. 624 pages. 8" x 
10",335 figures (144 in colorl. including 239 by ERNEST W. BECK, and an insert on 
human anatomy containing 15 full-color. full-page plates, with six in transparent 
Trans-Vision GÐ (by ERNEST W. BECK!. About $13.10. 


This traditional supplement to TEXTBOOK OF ANATOMY AND PHYSI- 
OLOGY, rewritten to reflect up-to-the-minute information in the text, retains 
the flexibility and time-saving effectiveness teachers have appreciated through 
eight previous editions. It still provides a complimentary answer book and a 
generous list of suggestions for films to show as supplements to lab 
experiments. It also includes new experiments that explore: 
** ABO and Rh blood typing 
** Bleeding time 
* * Change in arterial pressure, and whether or not it is 
followed by a change in heart rate 
Estimation of normal and abnormal blood pressure 
Effect of Valsalva maneuver on central venous pressure 
and on the volume of blood returning to the heart 


** 


** 


By CATHERINE PARKER ANTHONY, R.N., B.A., M.S. April, 1975. Approx. 224 
pages, 8" x 10", 115 drawings. 69 to be labeled. About $6.55. 


to> 


These color slides (reproductions of key illustra- 
tions in the book) fUlly complement and clarify 
the text. Ten new slides have been added to the 
set, four of them devoted to the material on stress. 
(For example, one of the new stress slides clearly 
details the "fight or flight" syndrome observed in 
alarm reaction responses). For easy use, each slide 
is titled and keyed to the text by both figure 
number and page number. 


i 


,- 


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---- 


f 


Forty 2 x 2 teaching slides in color. sUItable for use with any 35mm projector. April, 
1975. About $42.00. 



New 6th Edition! 


Medical- 
Surgical 
Nursing 


Shafer-Sawyer- 
McCluskey-Beck- 
Phipps 


Labunski et al 


Workbook And 
Study Guide For 
Medical-Surgical 
Nursing: 
A Patient-Centered 
Approach 


New 2nd Edition! 


The Vital Signs, 
With Related 
Clinical 
Measurements: 
A Programmed Presentation 
Mcinnes 


New 2nd Editionl 


Essentials Of 
Communicable 
Disease 


Mcinnes 


With continued improvement in quality, authority and relevance, this new 
6th edition offers: a new, larger format; new easy-to-read type; new chapters 
on ecology and health, neurologic diseases, musculoskeletal disorders and 
injuries. You'll find increased emphasis on physiology, nursing assessment and 
pathophysiology - all enhanced by many new illustrations. 
Instructors who have used previous editions of this text know why it rapidly 
became the leader and the standard by which other texts were judged. But a 
constantly changing world demands new answers to old questions and to 
questions yet unasked, and leadership must be continually re-earned. We feel 
that the new 6th edition of MEDICAL-SURGICAL NURSING measures up 
better than ever before. You'll see why when you take a closer look at the 
book itself. 


By KATHLEEN NEWTON SHAFER, R.N., M.A.; JANET R. SAWYER. R.N., Ph.D.; 
AUDREY M. McCLUSKEY, R.N.. M.S., Sc.M.Hyg.; EDNA L1FGREN BECK. R.N.. 
M.A.; and WILMA J. PHIPPS, R.N., A.M. April. 1975. Approx. 1,056 pages, 8%" x 11", 
608 illustrations. About $17.30. 


This patient-centered workbook encourages use of problem solving tech- 
niques. Students are given opportunities to apply basic science principles to 
patient care, to make nursing diagnoses and plans for immediate and 
long-term care. Designed to supplement Shafer et ai, MEDICAL-SURGICAL 
NURSING, it is equally effective with any up-to-date medical-surgical text. A 
comprehensive bibliography provides reference for further study. 


By ALMA JOel LABUNSKI, R.N., B.S.N.; MARJORIE BEYERS, R.N., B.S., M.S.; 
LOIS S. CARTER, R.N., B.S.N.; BARBARA PURAS STELMAN, R.N., B.S.N.; MARY 
ANN PUGH RANDOLPH, R.N., B.S.N.; and DOROTHY SAVICH, R.N., B.S. 1973,331 
pages plus FM I-VIII, 7%" x 10%". Price, $6.70. 


An effective programmed format explains basic concepts and scientific 
rationale as it familiarizes students with the use of common equipment and 
teaches them the manipulative skill they need to accurately measure vital 
signs. This new edition incorporates new material on fetal heart rate and 
measurement of central venous pressure. Reorganized bibliographies to be 
used as special section references and improved programming make this 
edition systematic as well as comprehensive. 


By BETTY MciNNES, R.N., B.Sc.N., M.Sc.(Ed.l. January, 1975. 130 pages plus FM 
I-XIV, 7" x 10",45 illustrations. About $6.60. 


Updated and revised, this concise, new edition presents basic information on 
communicable diseases still surrounding us in the world today.Sections cover 
bacterial diseases, enteric diseases, viral diseases, arthropod-borne diseases, 
diseases caused by fungi, and Helminth infections. Sections on "Treatment 
and Diagnosis", and "Prevention and Control" have been updated, and the 
section on "Nursing Care" has been clarified and enlarged. 15 organized 
tables, with both revised and new material, are included for quick reference. 
By MARY ELIZABETH MciNNES. R.N.. B.Sc.N.. M.Sc.(Ed.l. June, 1975. Approx. 416 
pages, 6%" x 9%", 53 illustrations. About $11.25. THE CANADIAN NURSE 1S 



Fig. 8-8. It is advis- 
able to request 
parents of infants to 
return to the of- 
fice for cast removal 
with the child hun- 
gry. A bottle may 
then be given during 
removal and reappli- 
cation. This will 
usually be a source 
of comfort to the 
mother as well as to 
the child! (From 
PEDIATRIC 
ORTHOPEDIC 
NURSING.) 


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A New Book! PEDIATRIC ORTHOPEDIC NURSING. This 
comprehensive text covers nursing care requirements, tech- 
niques, and essential background knowledge necessary for 
this specialty. By NANCY E. HIL T, R.N. and E. WILLIAM 
SCHMITT, Jr., M.D. January, 1975. 268 pp., 301 illus. 
$13.60. 


New 2nd Edition! ORTHOPEDIC NURSING: A Program- 
med Approach. With increased emphasis on the nursing 
process and greater depth in techniques of pre and 
post-operative care, this programmed text offers new and 
updated information in orthopedic nursing. By NANCY A. 
BRUNNER, R.N., B.S.N., M.S. February, 1975. 234 pp., 
126 illus. $7.10. 


A New Book! PLANNING AND IMPLEMENTING NURS- 
ING INTERVENTION. This unique new text explores 
concepts of stress and adaptation, problem solving, and 21 
nursing problems. By DOLORES F. SAXTON, R.N., B.S., 
M.A., Ed.D. and PA TRICIA A. HYLAND, R.N., B.S., M.S., 
M.Ed. January, 1975. 200 pp., 46 iIIus. $6.05. 


A New Book! FUNDAMENTALS OF OPERATING ROOM 
NURSING. Designed for students with no previous OR 
experience, this text covers basic principles and background 
material - from the patient's initial visit to the physician's 
office, preoperative hospitalization. basic intraoperative 
care, to post-anesthesia recovery. By SHIRLEY M. 
BROOKS, R.N. July, 1975. Approx. 240 pp., 207 iIIus. 
About $7.30. 


New 3rd Edition! SURGICAL TECHNOLOGY: Basis for 
Clinical Practice. This new edition presents rudiments of 
operating room technology. from broad conceptual aspects 
to application of the latest technical advances. By MARY 
LOUISE HOELLER, D.C., R.N., B.S.N.Ed.; with 5 contrib- 
utors. August, 1974.398 pp., 295 iIIUs. $11.50. 


A New Book! EMERGENCY CARE: Assessment and 
Intervention. This comprehensive presentation offers in- 
depth coverage of related physiologic and pathophysiologic 
considerations, along with intervention guidelines. Edited 
by CARMEN WARNER SPROUL, R.N., P.H.N. and 
PA TRICK J. MULLANNEY, M.D.; with 32 contributors. 
September, 1974.420 pp., 122 illus. $13.15. 
New 3rd Edition! CHILDBIRTH: FAMIL Y-CENTERED 
NURSING. This new edition presents nursing concepts 
necessary for nursing intervention in childbirth. By 
JOSEPHINE IORIO, R.N., B.S., M.A., M.Ed. January, 
1975.480 pp., 199 illus. $9.40. 
16 THE CANADIAN NURSE 


New 9th Edition! ESSENTIALS OF PSYCHIATRIC 
NURSING. The authors cover personality development, 
communication skills as a therapeutic tool, and use of self 
in therapy in one-to-one and group relationships. By 
DOROTHY A. MERENESS, R.N., Ed.D. and CECELIA 
MONA T TA YLOR, R.N., M.S. July, 1974. 368 pp., 26 
illus. $10.00. 
New 6th Edition! PSYCHIATRIC NURSING. Using a 
behavior-centered theme, the authors focus on community 
involvement and examine the role of the psychiatric nurse 
as both a hospital practitioner and an integral member of 
society. By RUTH V. MA THENEY, R.N., Ed.D. and 
MARY TOPALlS, R.N., Ed.D. Guest contributor: 
JEANETTE A. WEISS, R.N., M.A. July, 1974. 454 pp., 
illustrated. $10.00. 
A New Book! HUMAN SEXUALITY IN HEALTH AND 
ILLNESS. This new practice-oriented text will assist health 
professionals in helping clients cope with interferences in 
sexuality and sexual function. By NANCY FUGA TE 
WOODS, R.N., M.N. June, 1975. Approx. 256 pp., 7 illus. 
About $6.80. 
New 9th Edition! SELF-;rEACHING TESTS IN ARITH- 
METIC FOR NURSES. This new edition continues to help 
students develop a strong background in basic applied 
arithmetic, in class or by independent study. Effective 
organization of previous editions has been retained. By 
RUTH W JESSEE, R.N., Ed.D. and RUTH W McHENRY, 
R.N., M.A. March, 1975.228 pp., 15 illus. $6.25. 
New 3rd Edition! CLINICAL NURSING TECHNIQUES. 
This new edition continues to provide explanatory text and 
meaningful illustrations of techniques used in nursing. By 
NORMA DISON, R.N., B.A., M.A. May, 1975. Approx. 
336 pp., 689 illus. by MARITA BITANS. About $8.90. 
New 3rd Edition! BASIC CONCEPTS IN ANATOMY AND 
PHYSIOLOGY: A Programmed Presentation. This manual 
teaches the facts necessary for developing a clear under- 
standing of the human body. By CA THERINE PARKER 
ANTHONY, R.N., B.A., M.S. July, 1974. 190 pp., 54 illus. 
$6.60. 
A New Book! UNDERSTANDING INHERITED DIS- 
ORDERS. The author introduces basic concepts of in- 
herited diseases by first presenting general principles and 
then outlining their applications and exceptions. By 
LUCILLE F. WHALEY, R.N., M.S. June, 1974. 232 pp., 
121 illus. $11.50. 


MOSBY 


TIMES MIRROR 


THE C, V MOSBY COMPANY, L TO. 
B6 NORTHLINE ROAO 
TORONTO ONTARIO 
M4B 3E5 


APRIL' 



news 


(continued from page 12) 
who guide students in practice or research 
in the clinical setting. 
I "It is important that a shared appoint- 
ment be viewed as one job and that reason- 
able expectations be set. to prevent role 
':)verload. role ccmflict. and role am- 
I 'biguit y :' MacPhail said. 
One of the major contributions made by 
';he nursing service person in a clinical 
IPpointment is to ensure that the quality of 
I;are given to patients is desirable for stu- 
Jents to observe and emulate. The 
Jrivileges of the clinical appointment in- 
,'lude participation in general and clinical 
-acuIty meetings. gaining knowledge of 
md contributing to curriculum develop- 
nent. serving on committees. and par- 
icipating in educational and social ac- 
ivities for the faculty_ 
The major responsibility of the as- 
ociate appointment in nursing service for 
he nursing education person is to influ- 
'nce the quality of care and attitudes of 
,gency staff to promote an exemplary 
earning climate. The privileges afforded 
Lre for practice and research. and to par- 
'icipate on agency committees and work 
l,roups that are designed to enhance care. 
I MacPhail and her colleagues in the Case 
l'Vestern Reserve project tried to develop 
lelationship between nurses in the univer- 
'ity school of nursing and the university 
.ospitals so that nurse educators could in- 
luence nursing care in the settings used 
lor students' practice. and so that nursing 
ducators and administrators in nursing 
'ervice could work together toward their 
ommon goals. even though their primary 
oals differed. 


onference On Child Abuse 
,ttracts 150 Nurses in PEl 
harlottetown. PEl - A conference on 
hild abuse attracted 150 Prince Edward 
öland nurses. There were so many par- 
ipants that the conference. first held in 
ecem ber 1974, had to be repeated. 
Nurses employed in hospital pediatric 
lits and outpatient departments. public 
alth nursing units. and other health 

encies involved in child care attended 
e 2-day conference. It was planned by 2 
service coordinators: Joanne Burke. 
tlblic health nursing. and Betty 
lacEachern. Prince Edward Island Hos- 
tal. The program was taped. and these 
pes are now available to nurses and other 
ofessionals on request. 
Conference participants made 5 rec- 
inmendations for nurses in PEl. These 
cl uded: 
Through personal involvement and 
'RIl1975 


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- registered nurses are there in Canada? 
.., are practising nurses? 
. . " male nurses? 



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k . h . al ? ., . ') . bl " h I h ? 
- wor In OSpit s.... In pnvate practice" . . . In pu IC ea t .... 
in schools? 


The answers to these - and hundreds of such questions - are 
all contained in Countdown '74. 
Countdown was a project undertaken a few years ago by the 
Canadian Nurses' Association to gather and publish the first 
comprehensive statistical survey of Canadian nurses. 
Countdown '74 is the updated version of this book - more 
than 100 pages - chock-full of valuable and interesting nursing 
statistics. A must for all libraries - an invaluable reference for all 
nurses who wish to be knowledgeable about nursing. 


Only $5.00 a copy. 


To receive your copy as soon as it is off the press. just fiH out 
and mail this coupon. 


---------- 
Yes. J would like to recei\'e Countdown '74. Send 
copies at $5.00 each to: 


Name 


Address 


Code 
Pa\"l1/em enclosed 0 


ð '
1
ADIAN NURSES' ASSOCIATION 

 50 The Driveway, Ottawa, Ontario K2P lE2 
---------- 
THE CANADIAN NURSE 17 



news 


through their professional organization. 
nurse3 should support fonnulation of pro- 
vincial laws for the protection of the 
abused child. and for the rehabilitation of 
his parents. 
. Hospital liaison nurses should visit 
high-risk families whose children are 
treated in the outpatient department but are 
not admitted to hospital. and who are 
missed by the usual referral methods. 
. Parents of hospitalized children should 
have continued opportunity to learn 
through hospital-based parents' classes. 
. Each nurse should be alert to the prob- 
lem of child abuse and should follow 
through to help both the child and his par- 
ents. 
Copies of the full recommendations 
were forwarded to directors of nursing in 
the general hospitals and agencies rep- 
resented al the conference. 


Canada Pension Plan Amended 
Ottawa - The Canada Pension Plan has 
been amended by Parliament (Bill C-22) to 
provide equal benefits for the spouse and 
children of a deceased contributor male or 
female. Bill C-22 became law when it re- 
ceived royal assent on 27 November 1974. 
Nurses joined the protest against the 
discriminatory nature of the previous Pen- 
sion Plan benefits (Letters page 5. and 
editorials pages 3 and 29. October 1973). 
Several provincial nurses' associations 
supported the changes in the pension plan, 
The Canada Pension Plan covers Cana- 
dians in all provinces and territories except 
Quebec. The Quebec Pension Plan was 
similarly amended. effective I January 
1975. 


N.S. Nurses Recycle Uniforms 
Halifax. N.S. - Nurses in Nova Scotia 
have sent 1.100 pounds of unifonns to the 
Unitarian Service Committee (use) during 
the past year. in response to a plea for 
used, but still serviceable. unifonns. The 
Registered Nurses' Association of Nova 
Scotia says the unifonns are still arriving 
for the use. 
The uniforms are shipped by use to 
hospitals in Lesotho. a small. developing 
country in Africa. 


Government Drug Study Reveals 
1:2 Canadians Pop Pills Daily 
Ottawa - Approximately lout of every 2 
Canadians uses at least one drug daily. 
according to the preliminary report of a 
study on the use of nonprescription drugs 
in Canada. 
18 THE CANADIAN NURSE 


The report describes patterns of house- 
hold and individual drug usage measured 
during the spring of 1974 on a national and 
provincial basis. It also examines patterns 
of multiple drug usage. Four professors 
from the Faculty of Administrative 
Studies. York University. Toronto. are 
carrying out the study for Health and Wel- 
fare Canada. 
Vitamins accounted for the vast propor- 
tion of daily drug usage reported by re- 
spondents to the study; 37lk of respon- 
dents report using vitamins on a daily 
basis; approximately 79c use cold 
medicines daily. and approximately 109c 
use cough medicines daily. 
Of persons responding to the study. 
969c reported using at least one remedy 
within the preceding year. and two-thirds 
used 3 or more of the 9 remedy types 
studied. Virtually the entire population 
sampled makes use of one or more of these 
remedies during the course of the year, 
with the majority using several types. 
The first part of the study. designed to 
identify the extent of use of nonprescrip- 
tion drugs. was conducted by a mail sur- 
vey to which nearly 3,000 households, 
comprising approximately 10.000 indi- 
viduals, replied. Data is provided for such 
drugs as laxatives. analgesics. cough and 
cold remedies. nighttime sedatives. and 
vitamins. 
Further studies in progress include an 
investigation in depth of the reasons for 
use of nonprescription drugs by the public. 
and continued study of the use of drugs by 
the public. 
Phase 2 of the study. which is scheduled 
to begin shortly. is designed to expand and 
validate statistically the knowledge 
gathered in phase one with representative 
samples of the population. In addition. 
phase 2 will begin investigation of the 
methods of promotion associated with 
these products. and will examine their im- 
pact on use and reasons for use of these 
products by Canadians. 
Copies of the first report are available 
on request to Information Services. Health 
and Welfare Canada. Ottawa. Canada. 
KIA OK9. 


Acupuncture Is A Medical Act 
But Onto Insurance Doesn't Pay 
Toronto, Om. - Ontario Minister of 
Health Frank Miller said, in a statement 
issued in January. 1975. "I have 
:oncluded that the intentions of the 
College of Physicians and Surgeons of 
Ontario to enforce strict medical control of 
acupuncture in the province is the correct 
course of action." 
He continued. however. . 'I also want to 
reconfinn that. until the therapeutic values 
of acupuncture have been conclusively 
established. the government does not 
intend to include services for acupuncture 
as insured benefits under the Ontario 


Health Insurance Plan." 
According to Miller. the College uf 
Physicians and Surgeons of Ontario 
designated acupuncture as a medical act 
and outlined conditions for its practice in 
June 1974. The College's conditions 
were. briefly. that acupuncture was to be 
practiced only by. or on written referral 
from. a physician legally qualified and 
licensed to practice medicine in Ontario. 
Miller said. "Of prime concern is the 
danger of acupuncture being used before a 
medical diagnosis of the individual's 
condition has been made. There seems 
little doubt that acupuncture can have the 
effect of blocking off. or masking. the 
painful physical symptoms of an ailment. 
While this may be useful and desirable in 
some cases. it can lead to an ailment 
continuing and becoming progressively 
worse. .. 
He also spoke of "reports that 
elementary rules of hygiene have been 
disregarded by acupuncturists. with the 
obvious risk of infection. such as 
hepatitis. .. 


Canadians' Smoking Habits 
Relatively Unchanged 
Ottawa - Smoking habits of Canadians 
remained relatively unchanged from 1972 
to 1973. according to statistics recently 
released by Health and Welfare Canada, 
The latest figures show that nonsmokers 
outnumber smokers in Canada: 53 percent 
of the population 15 years of age and over 
does not smoke at all and 60 percent of the I 
population over 15 does not smoke cigar- 
ettes regularly. that is every day. 
A slightly greater percentage of Cana- 
dian Women over the age of 15 were 
smokers in 1973 (36.3 percent) than in 
1972 (35.7 percent) continuing a trend 
evident since 1965. especially in the age 
group 15 to 19 years. Of Canadian mer 
over the f1ge, of 15, 42.2 percent wert 
nonsmokers In 1973, compared to 42.t 
percent in 1972 and 34.8 percent in 1965. 
Statistics. prepared for the Non- 
Medical Use of Drugs Directorate by 
Statistics Canada indicate that those "he 
do smoke. however. appear to be smokin
 
more cigarettes per day. There has been é 
rise in the percentage of smokers havinf 
from II to 25 cigarettes a day and a de. 
crease in the percentage of the ones smok 
ing from I to 10 cigarettes a day. Tht 
change of the percentage of heavy smoker' 
(more than 25 a day) was negligible, 
The increase of the number of cigarette' 
smoked every day by regular smokers am 
the fact that few smokers are able to stay ir 
the category of occasional smokers indi 
cate the strong dependency produced b
 
nicotine. 
The report on smoking habits of Cana 
dians (1973) is available on request fror 
Health and Welfare Canada, Healt 
Protection Branch. Ottawa KIA OL2. 
 
APRIL 197
 



Roots make a very comfortable 
shoe for the hospital. Admit it 


Supported arch. 
When you step off the number of 
miles your job calls for on hard hos- 
pital floors your arches need our 
support. 


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Naturally shaped toes. 
Because your feet are less crowded 
they're more comfortable. Better 
circulation of air keeps your feet 
cooler, too. 



 
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r ots 


natural footwear 


Gently recessed heel. 
It eases you into a slightly straighter 
stance to give you a more natural, 
less tiring. way to walk. 


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To
ain leathers. 
Naturally-finished skins with no 
cosmetic cover. Pores stay free to 
breathe: one more benefit for cooler 
feet. 


Rocker sole. 
Body weight should shift from the 
heel. along the outer foot to the big 
toe for lift-off Curved sole means 
easier lift-offs. 


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Craftsmanship. 
Two generations of Canadian shoe- 
makers (a father and four sons) 
guide Roots production. much of 
which is still done by hand. 


City feet need Roots. 


Vancouver, Calgary. Edmonton. 
London, Toronto. Ottawa. Montreal. 
Check the White Pages or ask 
Directory Assistance for new listings. 



'" 


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Ahhh...thafs nice. 


HEELBO n , and the new "supercushioned" HEELBO FLAIR 
are the only protection for decubitus ulcers that allow your 
patients to walk in comfort and safety. 
The slim, natural shape gives patients a firmer footing. so 
that during late hours and on weekends they can man- 
age better alone. 
Like the original HEELBO, the FLAIR has a patented, 
warm, comfortable lining of brushed Acrilan. n , Heal- 
ing is more rapid, because there are no straps or 
bindings to restrict blood circulation. 
But only the new FLAIR has an extra deep "arm- 
chair" of foam with higher sides for an important 
extra edge of protection. 
Leading institutions have given HEELBO 
excellent evaluations. Now you can give 
HEELBO comfort and protection to 
you r patients. 
After all, it shouldn't be just the doctor 
who can make your patients say 
"Ahhh." 


HEELBO and the new FLAIR are 
made of washable Acrilan with a 
st ain-resi stant foam cushion, and 
can b e autoclaved. One size fits all 
adults. heels or elbows. In blue or 
yellow, 3 dozen pairs per case, 


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FLAIR on elbow 


FLAI R Inside-out 


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Heel co 


Heelbo CorporatIon P.Q, Box 950 Evanston, Illinois 60204 


r--------------------- 
I Please send me a free sample and price list. 
I Name: 
I Title: 
I Hospital: 
I Address: 
I City: S tate: Zi p: 
I Preferred Dealer: 
I 
I Heelbo Corporation P.O. Box 950 Evanston. Illinois 60204 



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_ast March, the author spent two days at the nursing station in Brochet, one of the 
110st isolated in Canada. He had a glimpse of how two young nurses cope with life 
n a small Indian settlement. 


-lilary Brigstocke 


. L Y:'oJ:'oJ LAKE. L 't
:'\! LAKE. THIS i... 
Brochet Nursing. I have urgent 
raffic for you. All stations stand b}. We 
_ant to clear the line to speak to the RC\IP. 
wo men required. O\er." 
The radio crackled and hummed \\ ith 
tattc as the nurse in charge of this remote 
tat ion in north\\est Manitoba. 
ancashire-bom Christine Johnson. tried 
1 make contact with the Royal Canadian 
tounted Police detachment at L} nn Lake, 
orne 150 miles to the south, It \\asn't an 
as) job. Communications \\ere bad and 
ad been for da)s. Outside the station it 


mar} Brig
\()c"e i
 \1edia Coordinator 
Heahh). Information Dircctorate. HC.Jhh and 
'dfare Canada. OUa\\a. 
PRIL 1975 


\\a
 blowing a blizzard and visibilit) \\as 
dow.n to a couple of hundred yards. 
Luckil}. no violence \\as involved in 
this case. The two hefty constablö. \\ho 
arrived later in a ski-equipped Cessna 
\\ hen the \\'eather cleared. had merely to 
escort an old Indian back to hospital. 


B ROCHET IS A S:\IALL I'DI"-'\! com- 
munit) - mostly Chipewyan and 
Crees - that lies about 750 miles north- 
\\est of Winnipeg and just south of the 
North \\ est Territories border. In the old 
days there \\ere Eskimos as \\ell. bur 
the) have disappeared. The \\ hite man 
came here in the late 1850s. \\ ith the estab- 
lishment of a Hudson's Ba) post. The 
Roman Catholic church founded a mission 
in 186 I. 


The Indians. nearl) 1.000 of tht:m. live 
b) and large by fishing dnd trapping. In the 
\\ inter Brochet i
 acces...ible onl) b) air 
and by "cat" train. There are no road.. as 
such. There is a good air ..trip. dnd a 
. 'feeder" link from Lynn Lake - rejoic- 
ing in the name of Calm Air - pro\ ides a 
dail) service for connecting fligh" to 
points south. 
In late :\larch last )ear. I spent t\\O da}
 
at this nursing station. \\ hich is one of the 
most isolated an) \\ here in Canadd. and got 
a glimp...e of ho\\ t\\O young nurses - one 
English and the other Canadidn - coped 
\\ ith life (some of it ver) much in the fa\\) 
in a small Indian ..ettlement. Indeed, one 
'iometime, feeh this sen.,e of isolation in 
the northern pdrts of the pfl1\ inces more 
than in the Arctic regions \\ here COI11- 
THE CANADIAN NURSE 21 



munications. by and large. are surpris- 
ingly good. As Chris Johnson said. "We 
need a better telephone sY'item. not only 
for emergencies. but also to keep us in 
personal contact" ith the outside world." 
Communication with the outside world 
gives these nurses a feeling of security as 
welI. for today. more than ever before. 
there is a restlessness in the Indian com- 
munities and an atmo
phere of uncer- 
tainty. Violence abounds. sometimes re- 
sulting in death, 
The Brochet nursing station is highly 
operational with no frilIs. reminding one 
of life aboard a "artime destroyer. It con- 
sists of three trailers joined together in 
T-shape formation. One trailer holds the 
nurses' living quarters. which consist of 
t....o bedrooms. a bathroom. and combined 
kitchen and living area. The other units 
hold the storeroom. administration sec- 
tion. ....aiting room. .lOd clinic. At the back 
of the station. a few yards a....ay. is a 
vi,itor's trailer that is welI equipped and 
self-contained, 
In comparison. much larger and more 
luxurious nursing stations can be found in 
the north: for instance. Fort Resolution. on 
the southern side of Great Slave Lake. and 
Fort Providence on the Mackenzie River. 


L tFE [\; THESE ISOLATED STATIOf\:S 
is one of peab of activity and 
stretches of boredom (and lots of it). 
spiced on occasion with an element of 
danger. A few da}s before ....e arrived. a 
young Indian "as brought into the clinic in 
the early hours of the morning with severe. 
self-inflicted gunshot "ounds. There was 
nothing that could be done for him except 
to ease the pain and pray. He died on the 
'itation. The RC\1P fle\\ in fulIy armed. as 
they have to do when such incidents occur. 
to remove the body for post-mortem and 
inquest. 
This is not the kind of job for an inex- 
perienced girl with d couple of years' 
classroom training in some southern 
hospital. It demands emergency room 
experience in a large hospital. an ability 
to make decisions quickly and correctly. 
and. above alI. an ability to keep a cool 
head. 
Johnson. who was in charge at the time. 
obviously has these qualifications. Born in 
22 THE CANADIAN NURSE 



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Christine Johnson, at Brochet, trying to 
get through by radio-telephone to her 
headquarters at Thompson, Manitoba. 


19.t6. she recei ved alI her education, in- 
cluding midwifery. at large hospitals in the 
United Kingdom. She also ....orked among 
the g)p
iö in the Vale of Evesham before 
coming to Canada to ....ork for the Grenfell 
Mis
ion in Labrador and. subsequently. 
for Medical Services. Department of 
National Health and Welfare. in northern 
Manitoba, She was assisted at Brochet. 
by 24-year-old G"enda Peters from 
Winnipeg. ....ho received her education in 
neatb} St. Boniface. 
As we accompanied these nurses on 
their visiting rounds in the community - 
much of it b} skidoo. which they drive 
with considerable verve - ....e caught a 
glimpse of what the daily routine is like for 
these nurses. An interpreter is brought 
along. in this instance the Indian janitor of 
the station \\ho doubles as mayor of the 
community. 
:\lany of the ca'ies ....e saw involved 
children" ith chronic chest colds that had 
been neglected and were developing into 
bronchitis and even pneumonia. Infected 
ears are a bit of a problem. especialI} if 
there is resistance to pcnicilIin, Gastroen- 
teritis and allied illnesses also present dif- 


. 


ficulties because of poor water supplie\, 
one of the key problems in the north. There 
are eye injuries and dental emergencies: 
fortunately. Johnson has had some train- 
ing in dental extraction and in inserting 
temporary fillings. 
In dealing with patients "ith tuber- 
culosis. she finds it is the older persons 
who are difficult to treat. They tend [0 
neglect their anti-tuberculosis medication. 
particularly if they are out on trap lines. 
"We try to get them x-rayed once a year. 
and Treaty Day is a good time as they are 
alI in one spot." she said. 
Many nurses prefer to get their patients 
to come to the clinic. but "house calls" 
are essential as the nurses can 
ee what the 
domestic situation is like and have some 
., feel" of.... hat is going on in the commun- 
ity. Personal contact is essential even if 
there is a language and cultural barrier 
among many of the older generation. 


.. 


O NE OF THE BIGGI:ST PROBLE\tS for 
nurse!> in these remote settlements. 
particularly in the northern parts of the 
province. is violence in one shape or 
another. A combination of alcohol and 
firearms produces lethal situations. Gun- 
shot wounds. resulting from fights after 
excessive drinking. are high in the casu- 
alty list. Pàrticularly at weekends. Some 
inhabitants go to the nearest liquor store 
and bring supplies back by the easeful for 
the rest of the community. 
Brochet went "dry" this past summer. 
by order of the community council. HO\\- 
ever. like Prohibition in the United States 
in another era. this may aggravate the situ- 
ation rather than improve it. Loopholes 
"ill be found. and local stills can produce 
inferior liquor. perhaps causing blindness 
and even death. 
There are. of course. other accidents I 
that require immediate aid. such as fingers 
cut off by an axe. a foot caught in a trap. 
exposure. and broken bones and facial lac- 
erations caused by fighting - indeed. the 
kind of cases one ....ould find in an 
emergency ward of a large city hospital, A 
pàtient may be brought in ....ith stomach 
pain and must be diagnosed. In the "book 
of rules." patients \\ ith ill-defmed 'i)'mp- 
toms such as this should be evacuated to 
the closest hospital. folIo" ing consulta-I 
APRIL 1975' 



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< The living quarters of a modern nursing station of 
the non-trailer type, which are now being built in 
the north. This one is at Fort Resolution on the 
south shore of Great Slave Lake and serves a large 
Indian community. Nurse Joyce Atcheson. of 
Edmonton. selects music for the radio and record 
player. Outside. the temperature was -34.4 C. 



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This patient will be cared for in the well- 
equipped clinic in the nursing station. 
 



 


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< "Just look this way. now." Johnson examines the 
eyes of an old woman, during her daily house visits 

 to the Indian community. With her is an Indian 
i'1terpreter. 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 23 



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Johnson starts her house rounds with a pair of 
crutches for an Indian woman. In the background 
is the nursing station. consisting of three trailers. 
( On the left is the nurses' living quarters. 


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Johnson takes a pair of snowshoes with her as she 
makes her house calls in case the machine breaks 
down and she has to make her way back to the 
station on foot. > 


tion with the nearest medical supervisor; 
however. it may be impossible to make 
radio contact and the weather may be too 
bad to fly in a plane to evacuate the patient. 
A decision has to be made and the nght 
treatment given. 
Expectant mothers about to give birth or 
with prenatal complications. such as 
bleeding and vomiting. are brought to the 
station in the middle of the night. Many 
nurses in charge of northern stations are 
British. Australian. or New Zealanders 
because they have the qualifications. 
Canadian nurses are acquiring these skills. 


T HE NURSING STATION IS THE back- 
bone of the northern health service. 
be it in the provinces or the Yukon and 
Northwes[ Territories. In the NWT and the 
Yukon. for instance. there are about 40 of 
these stations. Many ofthe trailer units are 
located in settlements with a population 
range from 150 to 1.000. Over the whole 
of Canada there are 212 stations. with 41 
percent of them in remote areas. 
The turnover rate for nurses is high. as 
nurses do not stay more than two years on 
the average. The stations are equipped 
with outpatient facilities. inpatient beds 
for the severely ill. and living quarters for 
the staff. Generally. they are staffed with 
one to three nurses. depending on local 
conditions. 
As for the nurse herself. she must wear 
many hats and wear them proficiently. 
Among other things. she should be a good 
diagnostician. be able to render 
emergency treatment (like [he shooting in- 
cident mentioned earlier), be versed in 
preventive medicine. be skilled in mid- 
24 THE CANADIAN NURSE 


... 


. . 



:,.. 


wifery. be capable of extracting teeth if the 
occasion demands. take x-rays and be able 
to glean infonnation from them. perfoml 
minor laboratory procedures. and. most 
important. possess skills and aptitudes in 
counseling individuals with emotional 
problems. 
This is the clinical side. Above all. the 
nurse must be imbued with a sense of dedi- 
cation. for this is not a job for the faint- 
hearted. These nurses have much respon- 
sibility thrust on their shoulders. as can be 
seen at remote outpo
ts like Brochet. 
Doctors are supposed to visit the sta- 
tions at regular intervals and, in theory, 
they are always at the end of the radio- 
telephone (there are not many land lines) if 
consultation is required. 
In practice. however. this is not always 
the case . Weather. which is so changeable 
in the north, can preclude-a doctor flying to 
a station; because of atmospheric condi- 
tions. communications can be difficult and 
sometimes completely impossible for days 
on end. The nurse can be left to look after a 
desperately ill patient. knowing full well 
there is no chance of evacuating the patient 
by air. She is on her own, sometimes mak- 
ing life or death decisions. 
The outpost nurse has to deal with day- 
to-day situations. which she will not find 
in any job description. that require great 
tact and forbearance. a good sense of 
humor (she will be lost if she hasn't got 
that attribute). considerable tolerance of 
the frailties of others. and an understand- 
ing of alien cultures. She must show firm- 
ness to those who would test strength of 
character and resolve. and a warmth of 
personality that is so necessary when deal- 


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ing with people who are shy and initially 
suspicious of her. Above all. she must 
have common sense in dealing with situa- 
tions that don't necessarily demand the 
"book" answer. 


T HERE IS UNDOUBTEDLY a challenge 
in this kind of work for the right 
type of person; however. in recruiting 
nurses for the outposts. there is a need 
to guard against the type of salesmanship 
that glosses over the difficulties and in 
doing so paints a more rosy picture than it 
is. a kind of "Call of the Wild" picture. It 
is a tough job in tough surroundings. and 
only those who believe that they can meet 
this challenge should apply. There must be 
proper screening of candidates by qual- 
ified persons who have worked and lived 
in the north for some years. The full facts 
should be given to applicants as to what 
they are getting into. otherwise the whole 
object of the exercise is defeated from the 
start. False impressions can do irreparable 
harm. 
The whole 4uestion of salaries. holi- 
days. and allowances must remain a major , 
consideration in recruiting northern 
nurses. Working conditions a
d housing. I 
especially in isolated areas, must be safe I 
and satisfactory. Nurses should derive, 
professional satisfaction from their job. 
and this pFOblem is fully recognized. 
The nurse's position should be a pres-. 
tigious one. for she is an ambassador in 
the north. Her relations with Indian and 
Eskimo communities may well govern the I 
attitudes of these people roward health 
servIces in these remote regions of 
Canada. 
 
I 
APRIL 1975 



A 
8
 with blP 


The director of nursing and the recreational therapist designed a Life Enrichment 
and Activation Program (LEAP) for patients in the Lethbridge Auxiliary Hospital, 
an extended care facility.The LEAP staff position was funded by a Local Initiatives 
Program (L1 P) grant. The LEAP staff member helped paraprofessional staff carry 
out the enriched activities she devised. 


I 

ean is an attractive, 20-year old girl with 
I;erebral palsy whose parents cared for her 
u home until a year ago. As they ap- 
::!roached their mid-60s. they could no 
onger care for their daughter at home on a 
full-time basis. So. following a hospitaliz- 
'Uion for constipation and gastrointestinal 
pset. Jean was transferred to extended 
'are. She appeared to enjoy the activity of 
he hospital and the companionship of staff 
md patients. 
Jean had been in hospital almost 10 
nonths .... hen. one Monday morning after 
ler usual weekend at home with her par- 
'nts, she began to behave in an unusual 
nanner: refusing to eat. crying. kicking. 
nd throwing herself about on the floor. 
ier speech is always difficult to under- 
tand. but in her excitement it was almost 



osemary Edmunds (R.N.. Royal Alexandra 
lospital. Edmonton: cert. in psychiatric nurs- 
Ig. Alberta Hospital. Ponolo.a. Alberta) was 
\\a} from nursing for 23 years. After her 
u
band's death 5 years ago. she reentered 
ursing and worked on a medical unit at the 
niversit} of Alberta Hospital before joining 
Ie staff of the Lethbridge Auxiliary Hospital to 
ssist in implementing the life enrichment and 
ctivation program. Donna Lynn Smith is di- 
ctor of nursing at the Lethbridge Auxiliary 
lospital. She wrote "Wild Land: a 
ental 
lealth Resource." which was published in The 
anadian Nurse in June 1974, 
PRIL 1975 


Rosemary Edmunds and Donna Lynn Smith 


unintelligible. A telephone call to her par- 
ents helped to shed some light on the situa- 
tion. 
When Jean' s behavior was described to 
her parents. they said she had tantrums 
many times while living at home. When 
she became upset or frustrated she threw 
herself out of her wheelchair onto the floor 
where she would kick and flail around. 
hurting herself or anyone in her path. She 
would sometimes refuse. or become un- 
able. to void and would have to be taken to 
the hospital for catheterization. Over the 
past few months. when it came time to 
return to the hospital on Sunday nights. 
Jean would have a tantrum; the night be- 
fore. she had misbehaved so severely that 
her mother told her she could no longer 
come home every weekend. 
Her parents said they controlled this be- 
havior at home by taking her to her room: it 
would sometimes take several hours be- 
fore she was able to go to sleep or rejoin 
the family. This had been the case the 
night before. and when she finally re- 
turned to the hospital. she was sullen. un- 
happy. and worried. The tantrum ....e wit- 
nessed in the morning was our first en- 
counter with this behavior. which. for 
Jean. had become a habitual means of 
dealing with situations in which she felt 
out of control. 
We were grateful for the information 
gi ven to us by Jean' s parents and told them 
that. with their help and permission, we 


would like to help Jean learn to deal with 
frustration in a manner that would not be 
potentially harmful to herself or others. 
Her parents agreed to meet us the next 
evening to discuss our proposed program. 
In the meantime. being exhausted. they 
asked that Jean not be allowed to phone 
them. 
We had dealt with Jean' s immediate be- 
havior in a way similar to that used by her 
parents: lowering her to the floor where 
she could hurt herself least and offering no 
positive reinforcement. such as additional 
attention. until she had calmed herself. 
Afterward. ....hile helping her to wash her 
face. we explained that we had spoken to 
her parents. and that they ....ould be in to 
see her the next day. We told Jean that we 
would talk to her about how she felt. but 
that the tantrums would not be permitted. 
Jean is a sensitive and thoughtful girl. 
and already felt badly about her behavior; 
we told her we would work out a plan with 
her to help her learn a . 'safer way of get- 
ting mad." After taking her to the recrea- 
tion department for morning coffee. we 
began to formulate a care plan. using a 
token system. 


The care plan 
Jean was to receive tokens to encourage 
certain behavior. For things she wanted to 
do or for misbehavior. she would have to 
pay tokens. We hoped this would encour- 
age her to save tokens as she increased 
THE CANADIAN NURSE 25 



FIGURE 1 


Tokens were earned for: 


Tokens were paid for: 


Dnnk 1 cup fluid in room 
Void 
Help dress herself 
(panties and slacks) 
Complete dusting 
(1 hall) 
Strip own bed 
Help prepare for bed 
(panties and slacks) 


1 token 
1 token 
1 token 


1 token 


1 token 
1 token 


Keep mouth wiped 
(in workshop) 


1 token 


independent activity and did things that 
were required of her. It would also allow 
her to earn time at home and a trip to Red 
Deer to see a dear. old friend, The number 
of tokens for the trip was purposely kept 
low - well below what it was possible to 
earn - so she would not be discouraged. 
In deciding which behavior we should 
reinforce or discourage. our goal was to 
help Jean work toward accepting respon- 
sibility for her feelings. actions. and as 
much of her own care as possible. 
(Figure J.) 
We used picture wheels and poker chips 
as tokens and placed a supply of them in 
the different places where Jean spent most 
of her time - her room. the office on her 
floor. and the occupational therapy work- 
shop. Her roommate volunteered to help 
keep track when necessary and to tell staff 
when Jean had earned tokens, An occupa- 
tional therapy worker gave her an attrac- 
tive needlework purse to keep tokens in. 
26 THE CANADIAN NURSE 


1 phone call per day 
Extra phone calls 
Break rules -Dining room 
-Workshop 
Hurt self 
Tantrum (Needlessly 
disturbing others. 
Complaining about phone 
calls and going home.) 
Supper at home 
Weekend at home 
Trip to Red Deer 


5 tokens 
10 tokens 


2 tokens 
5 tokens 
1 0 tokens 


10 tokens 
20 tokens 
100 tokens 


The system worked well. Jean's be- 
havior was good and she made a real effort 
to save tokens, She even volunteered to 
stay in hospital. rather than go home for 
the weekend. two weeks following the 
start of the program, if there were any 
chance that she might not have enough 
saved for the trip to Red Deer. Monday 
morning. 2 ....eeks after the system started. 
she looked rather dejected and we knew 
that something was.... rong, 
When Rosemary talked to her. Jean said 
she felt the token system was childish. 
Between them, they decided that the sys- 
tem had helped give Jean the self- 
discipline to adjust to not going home each 
weekend, and. with encouragement and 
support, she could carryon without the 
system. It would be reinstituted agai!l if 
Jean needed help. 
It is now several months since we 
started the program with Jean. There has 
been no further problem of refusing to 


return to the hospital after a weekend or 
evening out. Jean even accepted the ide.! 
of her parents leaving the city for a 
6-month vacation. 
Her most difficult periods, as with any- 
one e1
e. are w hen she has her feelings 
hurt. or people treat her as if she were not 
intelligent. 


The LEAP 
Rosemary's work with Jean is one ex- 
ample of the Life Enrichment and Activa- 
tion Program (LEAP) in our hospital. for 
which a Local Initiatives Program (LIP) 
grant was used. 
Local Initiatives Programs are intended 
to meet community needs and to create 
ne.... employment opportunities. Like 
many other extended care facilities. our 
hospital has a high ratio of nonprofessional 
nursing assistants to registered nurses. 
Active physio. occupational. and recre- 
ational therapy departments help to meet 
many patient needs. but the leadership to 
support the goals of these special therapies 
and to assume the full nursing role in life 
enrichment and activation comes from the 
registered nurse. She must be an expert in 
assessing patient needs and in identifying 
health potentials. Our life enrichment and 
activation program was intended to pro- 
vide support and impetus to these aspects 
of the nurse's role. 
The LEAP was designed b} Donna, the 
director of nursing, in cooperation with the 
recreational therapist; a proposal .... as 
submitted to the Department of !\1anpO\\er I 
and Immigration. Once the program had 
begun, Donna served as a resource person 
in helping to identify priorities, set goals. 
locate necessary reference material. inter- 
pret the program to hospital administratIon I 
and staff. and to share supportively in the 
ups and downs that are an inevitable part of 
any experimental venture, 
At first. Rosemary. the LEAP nurse. 
found the unstructured time a\ailable to 
her not only unfamiliar, but worrisome. 
APRIL 19751 



Vas it really working to sit down with a 
Jatient long enough to have a meaningful 
'onversation. particularly when the other 
I taff were busy? Was it fair to spend more 
ime with one patient than another? 
One goal of the program was to increase 
ne amount of professional nursing atten- 
ion available to patients. The LEAP nurse 
rffered life enrichment activities to pa- 
ients who were unable to benefit from 
;:,creation and rehabilitation programs al- 

ady offered. especialIy persons who 
lere severely \\ithdrawn. confused. con- 
med to bed. or depressed. * Once assess- 
1ent and goal setting had taken place 
lrough observation and interaction with 

 e patient. nursing care approaches were 
lUght and delegated to nonprofessional 
aff members. The continuing supervi- 
'on of the professional nurse was essen- 
a\. so the effectiveness of these ap- 
roaches could be evaluated and modifica- 
ons made as necessary. 
Planning \\ ith Jean to set up the token 
stem and explaining to other staff mem- 
rs the reasons for it and the way it was to 
ork \\ere the responsibility of a profes- 
onal nurse. Dispensing the tokens and 
ncouraging 'l.nd praising Jean for desir- 
ble behavior could be carried out by 
hers. once this had been done. Only with 
ntinuing supervision and involvement 
. the professional nurse could the deci- 
on to discontinue the token system at the 
propriate time have been made. 


Is. X. 
The work Rosemary did \\ith M
. X. 
rther illustrates this point. 
1s. X was 
agnosed as having multiple sclerosis 
'er4 years ago. She managed fairly well 
home until problems arose \\ith urinary 


The objectives. aCllvIlles. and means of 
asuring progress of the Life Enrichment and 
-!i\ation Program are a\ailable from the au- 
rs 


)RIL 1975 


retention. bladder infection. and spasms 
that did not respond well to opium and 
belladonna suppositories. At the time of 
admission to the general hospital. her left 
leg was weaker than her right; she was 
complaining of generalized weakness and 
difficulty in coping at home. She shuffled 
when she attempted to walk \\ith the help 
of a walker. 
Ms. X. is a small. attractive. 55-year- 
old woman. who has become accus- 


tomed to attention because of her health 
problems. She had developed certain 
personal routines. which were difficult. 
sometimes impossible. to carry out \\ith 
available staff in our setting. For in- 
stance. she was to walk with assistance. 
and she preferred to do so in the middle of 
the night. 
Relationships between 
1s. X. and staff 
members were breaking do\\n; each saw 
the other as unreasonable and inconsider- 


FIGURE 2 


Ms. X's morning self-care program 


1. Detach catheter bag from bed and attach leg bag, which can 
be left on until bedtime. 
2. Place her housecoat and shoes where she can slip into them 
by herself. Leave clean towels for her in the bathroom. Place 
wooden arm chair and overbed table in such a position that 
she can retum to them with her walker. 
3. Leave signal cord within reach at all times, or remind her 
about it. 
4. She will then get up by herself, put on her housecoat and 
shoes, walk to the door, open the door herself, then walk at 
least to the office and back. (The goal is to increase this 
distance). 
5. She will return to her room, go to the bathroom where she will 
place the signal cord across her walker, sit down on a straight 
chair and bathe herself. (Her back, feet and peri-care can be 
done when it is convenient for the nurse to come.) 
6. She will dress and re1urn to the wooden arm chair in her room 
for breakfast. 
7. Check to see if the signal light cord is within reach. This 
will eliminate a lot of her apprehension and tension. 
When she knows what to expect, what is expected of her. and 
is urged to be independent whenever possible, but is offered 
help when necessary, she will probably be more relaxed. This 
will make her less demanding, more anxious to be indepen- 
dent, and help to decrease bladder spasms. 
Encourage her to do thing
 for herself. Give her a chance 
and then give help, if néeded. 
This plan is intended as a guide. Whatever variations of this 
routine work out better for the staff and for Ms. X. would be 
preferable. 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 27 



ate. To ease the situation. she and her 
husband were asked to consider a program 
that would help her to be more self- 
sufficient. to do her own morning care. 
and to get her walking more. They were 
prepared to try it. 
Rosemary worked with her for 10 days. 
for an hour or so each morning. During 
that time. Ms. X. did everything she could 
for herself or. at least. tried it before being 
helped. Her daily schedule and activities 
were studied. and the easiest ways for her 
to move from place to place were worked 
out. If one method did not work. another 
was attempted until she had a fairly ac- 
ceptable routine. The main thing was that 
Ms. X. learned to do things in a different 
way or in a different sequence. if she found 
it necessary to change for some reason. 
Her routine became more flexible. 
A detailed self-care plan was prepared, 
so both Ms. X. and those assisting with her 
care could refer to it. The portion of this 
plan relating to morning care is shown in 
Figure 2. 
A tendency for nursing assistants to in- 
terpret the self-care instructions rather 
rigidly was a temporary problem that left 
Ms. X. with the feeling that she could not 
ask for help when she needed it. By slight 
changes in the wording of the plan, and 
through discusssions with the staff mem- 
bers. Rosemary was able to interpret the 
intent of the plan more fully. We observed 
a beneficial change in the attitude of both 
Ms. X. and the staff members. 
Near the beginning of this enrichment 
program. Ms. X's book club came to the 
hospital for their monthly gathering, to 
incl ude her. At that time. it was doubtful if 
she could sit up for more than an hour. In 
her sel f-care program, the goal was to ha ve 
her ready to go out on pass for her next 
book club meeting. 
It was stressed frequently that. before 
doing something or going someplace with 
her walker. she should plan it out so she 
would know what she was going to do and 
how. We urged her to be prepared for 
28 THE CANADIAN NURSE 


something unforeseen and. instead of get- 
ting in a panic about trivial things. to relax 
and wait for help. 
Ms. X. progressed well. Time was ap- 
proaching for the next book club meeting 
and. although she had fallen and hit her 
head a week previous to the meeting. she 
was looking forward to the evening out. 
Her husband brought clothes for her to 
wear. she had her hair set, and her husband 
made other necessary arrangements. She 
went to the book club. was out for 3 hours. 
and thoroughly enjoyed herself. The com- 
pany was pleasant. the food was delicious. 
and the evening out was a success. Even 
before that evening arrived, she and her 
husband had been making plans to go out 
two evenings later to a stage production. 
and, the following day. out as guests for 
Sunday dinner. 
Ms. X. continued to take part in com- 
munity activities. thus increasing her po- 
tential for health. She requested the re- 
moval of her catheter and has managed 
satisfactorily without it. The continuing 
challenge is to coordinate community re- 
sources and assist the family to obtain the 
services of a live-in housekeeper. which 
would allow Ms. X. to return home. 
Ms. X. falls occasionally. or bends 
down for something and cannot get up 
again. She feels that this is something she 
can overcome, by being more careful and 
planning ahead. She has been out for some 
long weekends. goes out every Sunday for 
church and dinner. and is. on the whole. 
happier and more self-'mfficiem. The time 
spent in planning and implementing thi!> 
self-care program was a good investment. 


LEAP activities 
As the weeks passed. Rosemary logged 
her activities. Items from her journal. 
which illustrate the variety of activities 
that were part of our enrichment program, 
included: 
o Took 3 patients to see several nursing 
homes in the community. One saw several 
friends and another feels better about 


transferring to a nursing home. after 
seeing the accommodation. 
o Started placing calendars at each bed- 
side table to help patients orient them- 
sel ves . 
o Another group of 5 patients started. We 
talkeq about colors; Ms. M. knew most of 
them. Ms. Q. all of them. Ms. P. seemed 
to look and try to respond but didn't quite 
make it. Ms. A. could not see most of the 
colors. and Ms. C. identified one color a
 
"dark red." but did not recognize orange 
or brown. 
When asked their favorite foods. Ms. 
M. immediately replied. "lemon pie. 
which we don't get here." Ms. P. said 
something like "shoosh," Ms. A 
"sandwiches." and Ms. C. did not reply. 
o Mr. N. is really on the prowl. needin
 
someone with him all the time. We havl 
designed a program to increase his abilit) 
to concentrate and his attention span, bu' 
I'm not sure we can get him to listen lon
 
enough to get his cooperation. 
o Catalogues obtained and placed in thf 
office for patients' use. 
The unstructured time of the LEAP nurSf 
had rapidly filled; there were more thar 
enough demands to keep one nurse busy 
The problem became one of assignin! 
priorities. and deciding which activitie
 
should be or remain the responsibilit
 
of the nurse in the program and whict 
might be delegated to or shared witt 
others. I 
The LEAP provided an opportunity (( 
identify 
eeds a.nd resources, and to expe
1 
iment with a different role for a nurse III 
our hospital. We are able to u"e what w, 
learned last year as we implement our see 
ond program in January 1975. 


APRIL 197 



Rape victiml 


the invi/ible patientl 


Rape crisis workers see an extensive part of their client's ordeal. In this article, a 
worker at the Calgary Rape Crisis Centre shares information on rape, rape victims, 
and the legal process, and some concerns about medical contributions to the 
victim's recovery. 


. got the door open and ran down the hall. 
;creaming and banging on doors. He tack- 
led me onto the floor and covered my 
Inouth. Nobody came. He dragged and 
I'arried me back. I thought. "He'll never 
Irust me He'll kill me now/or sure." I was 
o frightened I wet m\"self. - a victim 
dentifies the worst part of a 4-hour ordeal. 


Rape is a terrifying experience. It 
auses the victim acute mental distress and 
has long-tenn. disruptive effects on her 
l ife. From the victim's viewpoint. report- 
ng her rape commences a long process 
nvolving herself. her experience. and her 
lapis!: it is exacerbated by her gnawing 
Ixiety that people will not believe her. 
The woman who comes to the hospital 
mergency room to establish the evidence 
I,f rape is doing a courageous thing. She 
eeds help. and deserves respect. 
In Calgary. reported rape increased 
7C/c bet"een 1973 and 1974. and has 
ro"n 527C/c since 1968. Canadian figures 


ern Price. the mother of daughters aged 17 
nd 18 yeaß, is a geological technician. She is 
member of the Calgary Rape CrisIs Centre. an 

sociate director of the Calgal) Binh Control 
ssociation. a director of the Albena Family 
lanning Association, and the Albena board 
presentative on the Family Planning Federa- 
on of Canada. She describes herself as a 
perpetual night school student" and is in a 
'ogram leading to a B.Sc. in geology. 
RIL 1975 


Vern Price 


show a slower. but steady increase. These 
statistics reflect increased urbanization. 
transient youth. changed attitudes toward 
sex. changed life-styles for "omen. and 
women's increased willingness to report 
rape. An apparent change in the nature of 
rape - toward greater violence and more 
sexual humiliation of victims - is fright- 
enmg. 
Fortunately for women. medical atti- 
tudes to the experience of rape seem to be 
changing. We now have the compassion 
expressed by persons such as psychiatric 
nurse Ann Burgess and sociologist Lynda 
Holmstrom: "Three assumptions underlie 
the theoretical framework of counseling 
the rape victim: a) the rape represents a 
situational crisis for the victim that is dis- 
ruptive of her life-style; b) the victim is 
viewed as a consumer of emergency health 
services - medical and psychological; 
and c) crisis management of the rape vic- 
tim is actually the practice of primary pre- 
vention of psychiatric disorders." 1 
Contrdst the above with a medico-legal 
presentation in 1958 b} Dr. D.F. 
Sutherland. which begins "Sexual of- 
fences. including rape. give rise to an ex- 
tremely distasteful situation for all "ho 
become involved. This distaste is shared 
by the medical practitioner who is called 
on to collect and interpret the physical 
evidence. "2 
Emerging in North Amenca are two 
compatible attempts to aid the rape victim 
in her crisis: a comprehensive treatment 


and counseling protocol. and follow-up 
system "ithin medical facilities; and au- 
tonomous rape crisis services. providing 
long-term support. advocacy. accompa- 
niment. and referrals. A priority of the sec- 
ond group is the encouragement of and 
active lobbying for the first type of service; 
this includes convincing government rep- 
resentatives that funds should be allocated 
for this work. 
Though the law apparently treats rape 
seriously. rape may now be called ,.the 
safest crime'" Estimates of the rate of 
reported rapes vary from I in 3 to I in 20. 
The generally accepted figure is I in 5. 
Police classify some reports as 
"unfounded:' that is. not genuine. In 
others. there is not sufficient evidence for 
trial. the suspect is never apprehended or 
identified. or the charge is reduced to 
attempted rape or indecent assault. When 
a charge is laid and continues through to 
trial without the witnesses dropping out. 
the conviction rate varies from l8C/c 
(Toronto) to 42% (Canada).3 In Canada. 
few convicted rapists are given suspended 
sentences. 
Therefore. assuming a reporting rate of 
I in 5. an .. unfounded" rate of 20lJ(-. a 
charge rate of 30lJ(-. and a conviction rate 
of 40%. only 2 rapists in 100 will serve 
prison sentences for their crime. Clearly. 
tightening up the end steps of this process 
will not greatly alter this ratio. We can 
affect steps I and 2 by encouraging and 
supporting women who report rape. by 
THE CANADIAN NURSE 29 



taking more of these women seriously and 
making every effort to record their evi- 
dence. and by extending our concept of 
what constitutes rape. If we do this. we can 
make rape a vastly more dangerous crime 
to commit. 


Rape crisis centre 
The Calgary Rape Crisis Centre began 
offering services a year ago. The first 
counselors had experience in peer counsel- 
ing. crisis intervention. and sexuality in- 
volvement as volunteers with the Calgary 
Birth Control Association. a feminist- 
oriented service that occasionally saw 
sexually abused women. 
Our first year in the Rape Crisis Centre 
was a learning process. We owe much to 
the sheer guts of the victims who allowed 
us to share their feelings and experiences. 
Often we didn't know answers. but we 
tried faithfully to find out. By now. we 


are social work students. In communities 
with a law school; women students may 
become involved. 
We have one male volunteer who helps 
with community education. He doesn't 
want to counsei clients. and we would 
probably require that a male counselor be a 
professional- discriminatory. indeed! In 
the past. we learned together. sharing re- 
search and discussing cases. Now that 
there is a new generation of volunteers, we 
will begin training sessions in peer counsel- 
ing and data about rape. Anyone planning 
to work with victims should attend a trial. 
Principles of peer counseling are hon- 
esty. confidentiality. openness. and con- 
cern. The counselor's similarity to the 
client in sex. age background. and experi- 
ence let them share a common data base. 
The counselor has a special store of infor- 
mation that the client needs to make deci- 
sions. Outside of her problem area. the 


The victim percei ves rape as an act of violence. not as 
a sexual act. 


have a sizable body of knowledge and em- 
pathy to give our clients. We are involved 
primarily with victims. but we are also 
attempting to provide community educa- 
tion on prevention: self-protection for 
women. and changing attitudes for men. 
A 24-hour answering service keeps a 
duty roster of pairs of volunteers. We an- 
swer phone calls at any time. and go to meet 
with a rape victim who is in the crisis 
stage. in a public place of her choosmg. In 
a noncrisis situation. we encourage the 
victim to come to our office to talk. One of 
the assets of a rape crisis center is that it 
can relegate to secondary importance 
whether or not a victim was "legally" 
raped. and treat any cry of rape as a call for 
help. 
The Calgary Rape Crisis Centre now 
has about 20 volunteers. a full-time coor- 
dinator who is a fonner policewoman. and 
a social work student doing a practicum. 
Volunteers need patience; there is much to 
learn. and there are long waits between 
clients. Counselors need a calm. sym- 
pathetic. nonjudgmemal attitude. and 
maturity. Most of our younger volunteers 
30 THE CANADIAN NURSE 


client is probably as capable and loveable 
as the counselor, perhaps more so. 
Making contact at the same level. the 
counselor can validate the client's feelings 
by showing her that what happened to her 
matters. and that she is worth taking seri- 
ously. The counselor owes her honesty. 
Don't let her kid herself. Gently express 
concern for her in a "what if' question. A 
critical point occurs in recognizing when 
the client should be referred for profes- 
sional counseling. 


The victim's choices 
A counselor must help a victim under- 
stand her choices. Decisions. such as 
whether to report her rape. must be hers 
alone. She has choices: to report fonnally. 
report infonnally (so that police have in- 
fonnation for their file on sex offenders). 
or not report at all. Vancouver's Rape Re- 
lief says. "We can assist her decision 
somewhat by giving practical infonnation 
as to what may happen if she does. but we 
cannot provide guarantees or promises. 
No matter what she decides. remind her 
that she has your support in her decision 


and that any decision she makes is the right 
one for her. .. 
Support may entail emotional support, 
accompaniment. and advocacy. We may 
go with her to court. police. and medical 
appointments. Especially if she is young 
or has difficulty understanding. she ma} 
want us to ask questions for her and iener- 
ally make sure she is treated with respect 
and fairness. 


I avoided men and neglected my appear- 
ance. For a 101lg time I was so afraid 0) 
appear:ng provocative that I changed a 
lot. - This woman was evicted from hel 
apartment when a neighbor claimed thaI 
the police arrival was a drug raid. She die 
not argue or regain her damage deposit. 
A rape counselor should be able tc 
spend several days on each case. in bits am 
pieces. This is another reason for a tearr 
approach. so that at least one person whc 
knows her is available to the victim at all 
times. Psychological support includes lis. 
tening to her feelings. and may extend te 
other areas of her life as well. Before coun 
appearances. we make sure she know! 
what to expect and we review her story 
Because the crisis goes on and on. client
 
and counselors become friends. an< 
follow-up is high. 


The ordeal of rape 
There are 3 or more stages of reaction I< 
rape: acute distress and grief; pseudoad 
justment and suppression. a trouble( 
stage: and, finally. resolution and integra 
tion. Although little research was doni 
before 1970. a number of recent observa 
tions support these findings. 4 ,5 
Because of the availability of abortion 
and new preventive medication. preg. 
nancy from rape is no longer the terror tha 
it was a short time ago. 
I could not believe that he could do thing, 
like that and let me live to tell about it. 
Women tell us that. during rape, the: 
instinctively fear for their lives. The rapisl 
appears powerful. irrational. and out 0 1 ' 
control. Surely a sex act that rams 
woman's tampon into the rear of her vag 
ina can be called "out of control. "6 Th 
victim perceives rape as an act of violence 
not as a sexual act. If her family an 
friends focus on the sex. they will nc 
understand her; they will not even be talk 
ing the same language. 
One of her concerns will be that the 
will reject her because she is "despoiled.' 
APRIL 197 



Ii; 
 
./1/ (\\ " 
I :\1 

 '\ 
jJ
) 
r
 \ 
'/'f \ 
} '\ 


1 
& 
i. f 
I. I 
, -. 
i 
.' 
\ 
- 
,
 
 


I 


. 



 


I' 



 
 , 

... \ 
-::J-!- 


"'''-. 


,-- 
../ 


,\ 


.= 


/ 


\\' . 


J 


This happens. in varying degrees. A hus- 
band may always suspect that his wife 
provoked her rape. Young women have 
been ordered to leave home. 
Offences that are classified as gross in- 
decencies. such as oral and anal sex. are 
,
. PRIL 1975 


regarded much less seriously in law than 
rape. although at one time they were 
punished. even if both parties consented. 
It seems that anal intercourse with a male 
is more puni!.hable (14 years maximum 
sentence) than it is with a female (5 years). 


Yet. subjection to acts that many victims 
regard as perversions may be more trauma- 
tic than rape. 
A victim we saw had cried and choked 
through a long period of fellatio. \\hile 
the man controlled her by pulling her hair. 
This man first had vaginal intercourse. 
then ejaculated in her mouth and hit her in 
the face \\hen she spat out the semen. We 
saw a second of his victims, and have 
reason to believe that his pattern contained 
a deliberate attempt to make the victim 
s\\allow the evidence. Pathologists have 
speculated that "serious" rapists may 
have vasectomies. believing this \\ ill 
eliminate the evidence. 


Medical care 


I guess I expected they would make me feel 
better. 


Rape counselors are concerned about 
the medical treatment given to their 
clients. We feel there should be both a 
forensic examination for evidence. and 
treatment offering care and comfort. Three 
basic issues are: who should provide a 
sexual assault treatment service. and ho\\ 
it should be funded; whether police should 
automatically be called in; and what sort of 
services should be provided. 
At least one hospital in each city should 
provide 24-hour special services for sexual 
assault victims. A salaried doctor seems 
the best answer to the reality that giving 
medical testimony in court is time- 
consuming and causes a doctor in private 
practice to lose money. An alternative 
might be to have medicare or some other 
plan reimburse a realistic amount for court 
appearances. 
Courts are more impresse
 by the evi- 
dence of gynecologists. but these men 
often feel that their time could be used for 
more vital reasons. In a feminist view. a 
\\oman's physical integrity is a vital con- 
cern. and a man who makes women his 
lifework and livelihood should recognize 
this. Certainly. a rape victim is not so 
deserving of help as a woman with cervical 
cancer; ho\\ever. she is more in need than 
a woman having a healthy. wanted preg- 
nancy. 
Police should not be called in without 
the victim's full understanding and con- 
sent. and a victim should never be made to 
feel that. unless she reports her experi- 
ence. medical personnel will do nothing 
for her. A hospital that puts great emphasis 
THE CANADIAN NURSE 31 



on reporting to the police should have 
something in addition to offer the victim. 
If the sole medical emphasis involves find- 
ing the' 'mark of the rapist'. on her body. 
can we wonder that a victim thinks of 
herself as dirtied and despoiled? 
These are questions rape crisis workers 
ask about emergency room care: 7,8 
o Does a victim receive supportive coun- 
seling by a nurse. social worker. chaplain. 
or volunteer specially trained to be sensi- 
tive and infonnative? 
o Does she receive the same quality of 
care and acceptance that other ER patients 
receive? 
o Does she have a long wait because she 
is a low priority patient? Does she wait 
alone? 
o The chances of pregnancy from rape are 
similar to those from other unprotected 
intercourse; the chances that the victim is 


victim who isn't injured and doesn't want 
to report? Is she believed. in this case? 
o Do staff make sure that she knows what 
to expect in the pelvic exam? Is she asked 
if she has ever had a pelvic before? 
o Are victims referred to another hospi- 
tal? What transportation is used. and who 
pays? 
o Would ER nurses be willing to testify in 
a rape case? 
o Who creates the attitude in the ER - 
doctors. or nurses? 


Jane, a Rape Victim 
Jane was what police call a "good 
rape." Let's look at her experience and the 
seven months it took to complete the legal 
processing of her case. 
Jane, age 22. moved to Calgary from 
another province; she came with her hus- 
band. who deserted her 13 months before 


Jane talked to the rapist. trying to get him to hear her as 
a person. He told her to shut up. 


already pregnant may be slightly greater.!>I 
Do ER staff members ask her about men- 
strual cycle and birth control? Is the rape 
victim asked if she has previously taken 
"morning after" medication. before she is 
given it? Does she receive an explanation 
of its side effects? 
o Is a follow-up appointment for tests 
made for her. if she has no doctor? 
o Is she pennitted to read the medical 
report of her examination? This will allow 
her to make a wiser decision about legal 
process. and reassure her while she awaits 
the trial. 
o Is the patient given an antiseptic 
douche? Probably she wants to douche and 
shower more than anything else. Is she 
offered a chance to wash up? Safety pins? 
Mouthwash. if she was subjected to oral 
sex? Water or coffee to drink? 
o Is it ascertained if she has a place to go 
after she leaves the ER? Money to get 
there? 
o Though a victim should not wash. 
douche. comb her hair. or fix her clothing 
before examination. is the ER staff repelled 
by her appearance? If she has tidied her- 
self. mightthey think: "Her hair isn't even 
mussed" ? 
o Does the ER have anything to offer a 
32 THE CANADIAN NURSE 


she was raped. When her husband left her. 
she was depressed; she lacked job skills to 
support herself and hertwo small children. 
She received tranquilizers and advice from 
a clinic physician. and she enrolled in a 
vocational school. which placed her in an 
office job in a large department store. She 
left her children with a neighbor while she 
worked. 
One Friday night at 9:00 P.M. as she left 
the employee entrance of the store. she 
saw that she had missed her bus. Her 
neighbor would be annoyed. Jane stuck 
out her thumb. A car with a male driver 
stopped. 
A'3 She was climbing in. she smelled 
liquor. so she told him her destination was 
a dozen blocks away. instead of further 
out. She was tired. So he wouldn't make a 
pass. she turned and stared out her win- 
dow. The car speeded up and she felt pres- 
sure at the side of her throat; she held very 
still. He was holding a knife. 
He drove to an area she didn't know. 
where dark industrial buildings seemed to 
be under construction. The car stopped on 
gra vel. 
The man told her to take off her clothes. 
and tied her hands together with the laces 
from her shoes. She talked. trying to get 


him to hear her as a person. He told her to 
shut up. 
She lay rigidly on the ground. and he 
held the knife blade across her throat. He 
threatened to hurt her if she didn't spread 
her legs. He couldn Ot come. and ordered 
her to respond. using obscene language. 
Jane told him she couldn't respond be- 
cause she was too frightened of the knife. 
If he would take it away from her throat. 
she would cooperate. 
Afterward. he drank. and let her sit up 
with her jacket around her shoulders. He 
talked a great deal. sometimes incoher- 
ently or abusively. Jane heard only some 
of it: she was brooding about her chances 
of being let go. At one põint he cried. and 
said hi
 wife had left him. taking their 
child. She told him she understood. that 
she was in the same situation. He said all 
women were alike. that it didn't have to be 
her. any cunt would have done; she merely 
made it easy for him. 
He now made fun of her. telling her he 
had seen her around and knew where she 
worked. He raped her agam. then let her 
dress. She left her shoelaces on the 
ground. 
They drove to where she could see the 
lights of an all-night grocery store. The 
man told her he knew where to find her and 
that he would kill her if she told the police. 
He demanded "You liked it. didn't you?" 
Jane nodded. He let her out of the car. 
Jane tried to remember the car licence. 
but could only retain the last two numbers. 
She tidied her clothing and combed her 
hair. then walked to the store, asked to use 
the bathroom. and phoned her babysitter 
from the pay phone. She apologized. and 
said there has been some trouble. but she 
would come for her kids as soon as she 
could. The neighbor was angry. but said 
the children were in bed; Jane could leave 
them until morning. Jane didn't have 
much money and thought the rapist might 
be watching. so she didn't call the police. 
She took a taxi to the closest hospital. The 
time was after midnight. 
She told the triage nurse. "Please. can 
you help? A man just raped me." This was 
Jane's "first report." evidence that she 
took the first reasonable opportunity to 
report her rape; it is an exception to the 
prohibition against hearsay evidence. The 
triage nurse will be asked to testify to what I 
Jane said and did. If the nurse had asked: 
"Were you raped?" and Jane said. 
"Yes." this would not be acceptable evi- 
dence. 


APRIL 1975 



The nurse asked if she was hurt. and 
asked her consent to call the police. Jane 
had always assumed that in an emergency 
she would get police help. She waited for 
the police to arrive, alone in a cubicle. She 
had never been a crying woman. but she 
started to shake. She felt helpless and dirt- 
ded; she blamed herself for hitch-hiking. 
I She also felt angry. that it was unfair tor 
, her to have such a terrible life" with no one 
to trust and rely on. 
The police were in unifonn; they were 
young and courteous. Jane told them her 
story. and they expressed approval of her 
reactions. They asked several times if she 
knew the man previously. The nurse took a 
brief history. asking the time of Jane' s last 
period and her last intercourse. Jane was 
embarassed to reveal that, although she 
\\-as separated. she still took the pill. 
Finally. a gynecologist arrived to ex- 
amine her. He appeared to be in a bad 
mood as he asked the physical details of 
Ithe rape as a guideline in looking for sub- 
stantiating evidence. He became more 
I sympathetic as he examined her. noting 
marks on her wrists and a break in the skin 
,of her throat. \\- hich agreed with her story. 
of a knife. Fortunately. the knife could not 
have been very sharp; the mark was mostly 
from pressure. 
There were small contusions on her 
bad. and buttocks from lying in fine 
gravel. and there was dirt in her vulva. 
There was a red mark inside her right 
thigh; her labia and vagina were not in- 
jured. The doctor took a sample of her 
vaginal fluids and cervical mucus: he and 
the policeman waiting outside identified 
he slide. Jane's panties were ta
en for 

vidence. and her pubic hair was combed 
or foreign material. 
The doctor noted that Jane occasionally 
"hook. Her emotional condition was not 
I
ood evidence; the law assumes she may 
ake this. Jane was advised to have a 
"heckup for YD in 6 weeks. but didn't. 

inally, she was given an antiseptic 
'louche and a basin of water to wash in. 
The police took her home at 3:00 A.M. 
fhey said they would pick her up again at 
0:00 A.M. and take her to the station. Jane 
t:t the alann and went to bed; she was 
.\orrying about having to tell her gossipy 
.abysitter. because she needed the 
oman's services, and about having to 
Hiss a day from her new job. Her super- 
isor especially distrusted employees who 
nissed Saturdays. Under this, she felt ex- 
lausted. numb. and despairing. 
tPRIL 1975 


At the police station the next morning. 
she met the morality detectives who would 
investigate her case. They were older. ex- 
perienced. and nice. Again. she told her 
story and answered many questions - 
some seemed unfairly personal, and she 
didn't understand the reason fonhem. She 
hesitated; they told her that this rapist 
might repeat and the next girl might not be 
so lucky. This was a powerful appeal be- 
cause of Jane's own fear for her life. She 


forget. to do better at work. and pay more 
attention to her children, who were acting 
neglected. 


The legal process 
A month passed. Two policemen 
brought a subpoena to Jane's house. for 
the preliminary hearing in Provincial 
Court. Here. the Crown presents its case 
before a judge. who decides if there is 
sufficient evidence to commit the case to 


She felt helpless and dirtied; she blamed herself for 
hitchhiking. She also felt angry, that it was unfair for 
her to have such a terrible life, with no one to rely on. 


read a typed statement and signed it. No" 
she was committed to testify if a charge 
was laid. If this became psychologically 
impossible. she might have to appear be- 
fore a judge and ask his pennission to 
withdraw. 
Jane's wrists and throat were photo- 
graphed. She looked at pictures of known 
sex offenders. but didn't recognize any. 
The detectives drove her to the industrial 
area. with a dog. After a long search. the 
dog located the shoelaces. A few days 
later. they drove her out again. to see if she 
could find the place after dark. but she 
couldn't. 
There was a suspect from her descrip- 
tion of the car and license fragment. but 
there was no one at his residence. On 
l\1onday. Jane went to work and explained 
her problem. in confidence. to her super- 
visor. At home. that night, she thought the 
rapist might have traced her from work to 
her home. She didn't go to bed that night, 
and dozed, fully dressed. the next nights. 
The rapist was arrested. and she picked 
him out of a lineup. with great anxiety. He 
was charged and released until the trial. 
Jane thought now that he knew her name, 
and she was listed in the phone book. She 
did not want to move from her house; it 
would be expensive and would mean new 
babysitting arrangements. She was paid by 
the hour and was penalized fonhe time she 
had missed from work. She put extra locks 
on her doors. She imagined him talking 
about her. sneering. She made an effort to 


trial in Supreme Court. The defence 
lawyer has a free hand in cross-examining 
the Crown's witnesses. 
Jane expected this to be a bad experi- 
ence. She knew that the police had investi- 
gated her. including questioning the 
babysitter about her behavior. If the ac- 
cused could afford it. a private investigator 
might have done the same. She worried 
that the defense lawyer would know she 
was pregnant when she got married. had 
occasionally gone to cabarets with her 
classmates. and had one brief sexual rela-