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Rev. William Barnett Cooper, M.A., D.D. 

General Secretary to the 


Representative in Canada for the 










ILetpjig: F. A. BROCKHAUS. 
$Efo !orfc: MACMILLAN AND CO. 





















THE Lecture on the Gospel according to Peter 
was given in the Hall of Christ s College on the 
2Oth of November, three days after the text was first 
seen in Cambridge, in response to a general desire 
for information as to the new discovery. It has since 
been corrected and enlarged by the addition of 
some notes, which are placed at the foot of the 
page, with a view to guiding students to various 
sources of information which may yet throw further 
light upon the interpretation of the fragment. 

The Lecture on the Revelation of Peter was 
given before the Divinity Faculty shortly afterwards, 
and was at the time already in the press. 

These editions must be regarded as tentative. 
Our object has been to place the texts without delay 
in the hands of other students. We hope that here 
after they may be expanded in the series of Texts 
and Studies. 

We have to express our best thanks to M. 
Bouriant, not only for the scholarly way in which 
he has published the transcription of the MS., but 
also for the generosity with which he has placed the 
documents at the disposal of scholars : see p. 147 of 


vol. ix. fasc. I. of the Memoirs of the French Archaeo 
logical Mission at Cairo. 

For the rapidity with which this book has been 
published, without (we would fain believe) any con 
sequent loss of accuracy in the printing, our thanks 
are due to the officers and workmen of the University 

POSTSCRIPT. This little book was finally corrected 
for the press when we heard that he, whose latest 
message to us was permission to dedicate it to him, 
had gone to his rest. It was not without expressions 
of misgiving that we had asked to prefix to this hur 
ried work a name which must always be connected 
with the minutest accuracy and the most cautious 
utterances. It is quite unworthy to be dedicated to 
his memory. But we feel that we cannot draw back 
or alter now. As here, so there, his gentle spirit will 
make allowance for us. To his voice we had looked 
forward as the one voice which should tell us, as no 
other could, where we were right or wrong. Now we 
must learn it in a harder school. But it will remain 
a sacred duty to carry out these investigations with 
the patience and deliberateness which his example 
enjoins and his removal has made more than ever 

J. A. R. 

M. R. J. 


Dec. i, 1892. 











ErepON eyArreAiON, d OYK ecriN 



WE live in an age of surprises of surprising recoveries, 
no less than of surprising inventions. Not to go further 
back than the last ten years, our knowledge of the early 
literature of Christianity has been enriched beyond all 
expectation. In 1883 the Greek Bishop Bryennius gave 
us the Teaching of the Apostles ; and in 1891 Mr Rendel 
Harris gave us the Apology of Aristides. We knew the 
fame of both of them with our ears, and when at last we 
saw them we found that all the time they had both been 
lurking among us in disguise. 

During the past week fragments of three early docu 
ments have come to the light : fragments of the Book of 
Enoch, of the Gospel of Peter and of the Apocalypse of 
Peter. The Book of Enoch is prae-Christian; it is quoted 
by S. Jude : we knew it in an Ethiopic Version 1 , but we 
doubted whether we could trust the Version : now we have 
the first 30 chapters in the Greek itself. The Apocalypse 
of Peter may go back almost to the end of the first 
century of our era : Mr M. R. James, of King s, had told 
some of us what it would contain, if it were ever found : 

1 There is also an Old-Sclavonic Version of the Book of Enoch : 
and a critical edition based on the Versions is now in preparation at 


now we have a large fragment of it, and we know that he 
was right. 

But perhaps the most startling of our recoveries is that 
of the Gospel according to Peter 1 . What was known of 
this? Eusebius, the Father of Church History, who 
seems so well to have divined what would be of interest 
to readers who lived fifteen centuries later than his time 
mentioned its name, and gave us too a letter of Serapion on 
its use in church. This letter we must read. It runs as 
follows (Eus. H. E. vi. 12): 

We, brethren, receive Peter and the other Apostles 
even as Christ; but the writings that go falsely by their 
names we in our experience reject, knowing that such 
things as these we never received. When I was with you 
I supposed you all to be attached to the right faith ; and 
so without going through the Gospel put forward under 
Peter s name I said : If this is all that makes your petty 
quarrel 2 , why then let it be read. But now that I have 
learned from information given me that their mind was 
lurking in some hole of heresy, I will make a point of 
coming to you again : so, brethren, expect me speedily. 
Knowing then, brethren, of what kind of heresy was 
Marcion then follows a sentence where the text is faulty : 
I read Marcion with the Armenian Version 3 , against 

1 I take the title from Origen, Comm. in Matth. x. 17, As to the 
1 brethren of Jesus, some say on the authority of the Gospel according 
; to Peter (as it is entitled) or of the Book of James, that they were 

sons of Joseph by a former wife. Cf. Eus. H. E. iii. 3, 2 and 25, 6. 

2 Trap^x"" fJ-LKpo\j/vxia.v, perhaps causes you ill-feeling. 

3 The Armenian Version, made from a Syriac Version which at 
this point is no longer extant, runs literally as follows, Now, brethren, 
that (or, for ) ye see and understand of what heresy was Marcion, 
that (or for ) he contradicted himself and that which he spake he 


* Marcianus, an unknown person, of the Greek text 
From others, he goes on, who used this very Gospel, 
I mean from the successors of those who started it, whom 
we call Docetae ; for most of its ideas are of their school 
from them, I say, I borrowed it and was able to go through 
it and to find that most of it belonged to the right teaching 
of the Saviour, but some things were additions. Thus 
much, says Eusebius, for Serapion. 

Serapion was Bishop of Antioch 190 203, and his 
letter was addressed to the Church of Rhossos, on the coast 
just below Antioch. Now if our Gospel be the one referred 
to by Serapion and we shall see that it bears out his 
description we take it back at once to the 2nd century; 
and we must allow some years at least for it to gain autho 
rity, so that it should be read in church at Rhossos. 

Hippolytus, who wrote a Refutation of All Heresies, 
suggested that the Docetae were well named, because they 
had a SOKOS, or beam of timber, in their eye 1 . A more 
charitable philology derives their name from 8o/cetv, to 
seem. They held that the sufferings of Christ were but 
seeming sufferings. As our Gospel fragment contains just 
the Passion and Resurrection of the Lord, we shall have 
ample opportunity of seeing whether it harmonizes with 
what we can learn of these early Docetae. 

It is now time to come to the document itself. It was 
dug up six years ago in an ancient cemetery at Akhmim 
(Panopolis) in Upper Egypt, and it now rests, I believe, in 
the Gizeh Museum at Cairo. The French Archaeological 
Mission at Cairo have the honour of its discovery, of its 
identification, and of its somewhat tardy publication. 

did not comprehend, this same thing ye learn from those things which 
are written to you, &c. 

1 Hipp. Ref. viii. ad init. 


The first page of the little parchment book, which 
contains our Gospel together with the portions of the 
Apocalypse and the Book of Enoch, contains no writing. 
It seems that the scribe had nothing but a fragment to copy 
from. Thus we are taken back at once, we cannot say how 
far, beyond the scribe himself, who is judged to have lived 
not earlier than the eighth century. 

The second page begins : 

1. "But of the Jews none washed his hands, neither 
Herod nor any one of His judges. And when they wished 
to wash them Pilate rose up. And then Herod the king 
commandeth that the Lord be taken 1 , saying to them, 
What things soever I commanded you to do unto Him, do." 

We begin then after the incident of Pilate washing his 
hands, an incident found only in S. Matthew s Gospel. 
Notice the use to which our writer puts it. Pilate is exone 
rated : the Jews must bear the blame ; they cannot wash 
their hands. Herod s share in the Trial is mentioned only 
by S. Luke. Here the responsibility is shifted from Pilate s 
shoulders on to his. Our writer hates the Jews: his whole 
account is a commentary on the brief sentence of Aristides 
Apology, He was pierced by the Jews. 

2. "And there was come there Joseph, the friend of 
Pilate and of the Lord ; and, knowing that they were about 
to crucify 2 Him, he came to Pilate and asked the body of 
the Lord for burial. And Pilate sent to Herod and asked 
His body. And Herod said, Brother Pilate, even if no one 
had asked Him, we should have buried Him ; since indeed 
the sabbath draweth on 3 : for it is written in the law, that 

1 irap[a\r)[JL]<j)9ijvai is perhaps supported by TrapaXajSovres, Matt. 
xxiv. 27. 2 I know no other instance of crravplcrKeiv. 

3 Cf. Jn. xix. 31, where Syr. Pesch. reads : They say, These bodies 
shall not remain on the cross, because the sabbath dawneth. 


the sun go not down on him that is put to death, on the 
day before the unleavened bread." 

Here is a strange perversion in the narrative. Joseph is 
made to come to Pilate before the Crucifixion. This is ex 
plained when we observe the anxiety displayed throughout 
this document lest the sun should set before the burial took 
place. According to our writer Herod has assumed re 
sponsibility, and so the body must be asked from him. 
This would mean further delay, if the request be put off till 
the hour of the Death. We have here incidentally two 
details helping to exculpate Pilate : Joseph is his friend ; 
Pilate can do nothing without Herod s leave. 

"The sabbath draweth on": literally dawneth : an ex- 
pression in S. Luke xxiii. 54, where the commentators ex 
plain that the Jewish sabbath dawned when Friday s sun 
was setting. Let not the sun go down upon your wrath 
is S. Paul s command in Eph. iv. 26. This may illustrate 
the form of the command : the substance of it is in Deut. 
xxi. 23 (cf. Josh. x. 27), but it there applies to all days alike. 

3. " And they took the Lord and pushed Him as they 
ran, and said, Let us drag away 1 the Son of God, having 
obtained power over Him. And they clothed Him with 
purple, and set Him on the seat of judgement, saying, 
Judge righteously, O king of Israel. And one of them 
brought a crown of thorns and put it on the head of the 
Lord. And others stood and spat in His eyes, and others 
smote His cheeks : others pricked Him with a reed ; and 
some scourged Him, saying, With this honour let us honour 
the Son of God." 

1 Mr Rendel Harris suggests cypWMeN for eypWMeN, from Justin 
A P- i- 35> Staatpovres. Cf. too the cry in Acts of Philip (Tisch. p. 143), 
Zvpare TOI)J fmyovs TOIJTOVS (just before the cod. has evpovres for a-tfpojres). 
"Apw/xei/ would have the support of Isa. iii. 10, "Kpupev rbv SLKOLLOV, 
as Justin read it (Tryph. 137). 

R- J- 2 


For the illustration of this passage we turn to Justin 

Martyr (Apol. i. 35) For > as the P r P het said the ^ 
dragged Him and set Him on the judgement seat, and said, 
Judge for us 1 . This depends on Isa. Iviii. 2, quoted by 
Justin just before: They ask of me judgement, and dare 
to draw nigh to God. The Septuagint Version (and indeed 
the Hebrew text) has, They ask of me just judgement, 
which is still closer to our Gospel. But whence came to 
Justin or to our author the conception that the Lord was 
set upon the judgement seat ? Whence, but from the Gospel 
of S. John? There we read : When Pilate therefore heard 
these words, he brought Jesus out, and sat upon the judge 
ment seat 2 . But Archbishop Whately used to translate 
the words, and set Him on the judgement seat a per 
fectly legitimate rendering of the Greek. So it seems 
Justin Martyr read them : and so too the writer of our 
Gospel, or the source from which he borrowed. 

4. " And they brought two malefactors, and they cruci 
fied the Lord between them. But He held His peace, as 
having no pain. And when they had raised the cross they 
wrote upon it, This is the king of Israel. And having set 
His garments before Him they parted them among them, 
and cast a lot 3 for them. And one of those malefactors 
reproached them, saying, We have suffered thus for the 
evils that we have done, but this man, having become the 
Saviour of men, what wrong hath He done to you? And 
they, being angered at him, commanded that his legs should 
not be broken, that he might die in torment." 

1 Aiaffvpovres avrbv tKa.di.ffav eirl TOV jS^/xaros /cat etirov TZpcvov rjfjuv. 

2 Jn. xix. 13 /cat e/cdtficrej iirl /Scares. Cf. Salmon, Introd. to N. T. 
ed. 4. p. 74 n. 

3 AaxMd" tpaXov. The word Xa%^t6s is a rare one: the earliest 
authority seems to be Justin, who uses it in this connection, Tryph. 97. 


He held His peace, as having no pain is our first sign 
that this is the Gospel of the Docetae. Observe that, to 
make room for this, the words Father, forgive them ; for 
they know not what they do must be omitted. Our writer 
is no friend of the Jews : he would willingly omit a prayer 
for their forgiveness. But it is worthy of notice that the 
words in question, which are found only in S. Luke xxiii. 
34, are omitted there by some very important MSS. 1 , and 
may not have been present in our author s copy of S. Luke. 

Note here, too, one of the many strange perversions in 
this Gospel : in S. Luke one malefactor chides the other : 
here the reproach is addressed to the Jews. Again, the 
breaking of the legs is strangely perverted : but it is 
another echo of S. John. 

5. "And it was noon, and darkness covered all Judaea: 
and they were troubled and distressed, lest the sun had 
gone down, since He yet lived : [for] it was written for 
them, that the sun go not down on him that is put to death. 
And one of them said, Give Him to drink gall with vinegar. 
And they mixed and gave Him to drink, and fulfilled all 
things, and accomplished their sins against their own head." 

Fulfilled all things takes us again to S. John (xix. 28): 
Jesus, knowing that all things were already finished, that 
the Scripture might be accomplished (a respectable number 
of MSS., headed by Codex Sinaiticus, reads fulfilled ), 
said, I thirst... they set on hyssop a sponge full of vinegar 
(again a respectable group of MSS. adds with gall ). This 
last addition is clearly based on Ps. Ixix. 21, They gave 
me gall for my meat; and in my thirst they gave me 
vinegar to drink. S. Matthew also mentions wine mingled 

1 E.g. the Vatican MS., the Codex Bezae at Cambridge, and an 
early corrector of the Sinaitic Codex. 


with gall (xxvii. 34) ; but that is before crucifixion, and is 
his version, based upon the Psalm, of words which S. Mark 
preserves to us more precisely as myrrhed wine, offered to 
lull the pain and refused by the Lord. It seems as though 
the draught here given was intended to hasten death. 

If there is one word in the Canonical narratives of the 
Passion which is calculated to set our minds at rest on the 
question whether our Blessed Lord truly felt the pain of 
Crucifixion, it is the word from the Cross, I thirst. During 
the hours of darkness it would seem that a great spiritual 
struggle was taking place, and this is marked by the quota 
tion of the first verse of the twenty-second Psalm. At its 
close the tortured body for a moment claims and receives 
attention ; and the cry of thirst is heard from the parched 
lips of the Sufferer. The value of this word to us receives 
fresh illustration from the fact that it can find no place in a 
Docetic Gospel, although the writer uses words which come 
before and after it in S. John s narrative. 

"And many went about with lamps, supposing that it 
was night, and fell down 1 . And the Lord cried out, saying, 
My power, My power, thou hast forsaken Me. And when 
He had said it He was taken up. And in that hour the 
vail of the temple of Jerusalem was rent in twain 2 ." 

1 In a document purporting to be an account of the Crucifixion 
sent by Pilate to the Emperor Tiberius, Pilate is made to say that not 
even the Emperor could be ignorant that in all the world they lighted 
lamps from the sixth hour until evening : Anaphora Pilati, B. c. 7 
(Tisch. Ew. Apocr. ed. 2 p. 446 f.). For irfoarro, at the end of the 
sentence, I have written tireadi> re: cf. Isa. lix. 10 /cat ireffovvrai ev 
HCffwpptq, w$ ev fj-evovvKTlu. It also seems an echo of Jn. xviii. 3, 6 
tpXerai fifra (f>a.vuv /cat Aa/x7ra5wi/.../cal tireaav xa/W. 

2 For atfros upas we must read atfr^s uipaj, or perhaps avrijs rfc 
cfyas: ai)r^ is the equivalent in later Greek literature of hclvy (as in the 
modern tongue); cf. Lc. x. 7, at, and xii. 12 (|| e/cetVr; Mt. Me.). 


This is the most startling passage in the document. 
The view that underlies it is that the Divine Christ came 
down upon the Human Christ at the Baptism in the form 
.of a Dove, and departed from the Human Christ upon the 
Cross. Irenaeus, a contemporary of Serapion, denounces 
the doctrine that one Christ suffered and rose again, and 
another flew up and remained free from suffering 1 . 

The power then, so often emphasised in S. Luke s 
Gospel in connection with the person of our Lord 8 , is here, 
by a strange perversion of our Lord s quotation from Ps. 
xxii. i, described as forsaking Him : the Divine Christ is 
taken up, the Human Christ remains upon the Cross. 
Eli, Eli is rendered as My power, My power 3 . We are 
thus confirmed in the belief that this was the Gospel, as 
Serapion tells us, of the Docetae^. 

1 Iren. ill. 12. 2, where he seems to have Cerinthus specially in 
mind, cf. ill. n. i. Compare too his description of the Valentinian 
doctrine in I. 7. 2. 

2 Compare especially Lc. i. 35 the power of the Most High shall 
overshadow thee, iv. 14 in the power of the Spirit, v. 17 the power 
of the Lord was present that He should heal, vi. 19 power came 
forth from Him and healed them all ; also viii. 46 (||Mc. v. 30) : and 
note besides Lc. xxiv. 49; Acts i. 8, viii. 10. 

3 Eusebius, in an interesting note upon the Psalm (Dem. Ev. x. 8, 
p. 494), tells us that Aquila, who strove to give a more literal transla 
tion than the LXX, rendered the words My strong one, My strong 
one (iff-xypt MOU, l^xvpe /xou), but that the exact meaning was My 
strength, My strength (urx^s f*ov, t crx^s fJ-ov). The rendering in our 
text must be added to the list of authorities that support the form Eli, 
as against Eloi, in the New Testament. In interpreting Israel Justin 
(Tryph. 125) says: rb 8t rfK Svva/jus. 

-* For the use of the text in question among the Valentinians, cf. 
Iren. I. 8. 2. We must distinguish these early Docetae from the later 
heretics, who denied the reality of Christ s body: see Dr Salmon s 
articles Docetae and Docetism in Diet. Christ. Biogr. 


6. "And then they drew out the nails from the hands 
of the Lord, and laid Him upon the earth, and the earth all 
quaked, and great fear arose. Then the sun shone, and it 
was found the ninth hour : and the Jews rejoiced, and gave 
His body to Joseph that he might bury it, since he had 
seen what good things He had done. And he took the 
Lord, and washed Him, and rolled Him in a linen cloth, 
and brought Him into his own tomb, which was called the 
Garden of Joseph." 

Here again we have echoes of S. John. He alone 
mentions the Nails 1 : he alone mentions the Garden. 

The Jews rejoiced, when the sun shone out again, be 
cause they found that it was only the ninth hour, and not 
sunset : so that the law might still be complied with. 

7. "Then the Jews and the elders and the priests, 
seeing what evil they had done to themselves, began to 
lament and to say, Woe for our sins : for the judgement 
and the end of Jerusalem hath drawn nigh. And I with 
my companions was grieved ; and being wounded in mind 
we hid ourselves : for we were being sought for by them 
as malefactors, and as wishing to set fire to the temple. 
And upon all these things we fasted and sat mourning and 
weeping night and day until the sabbath." 

The cry of Woe is found in Tatian s Diatessaron, a 
Gospel Harmony made about the middle of the second 
century and chiefly known to us through an Armenian 
version of S. Ephrem s Syriac Commentary upon it. Thus 

1 It is curious that neither here nor in Jn. xx. 25, 2 ; is there any 

reference to Nails through the Feet. In the Anaphora Pilati B 7 

US .reads: And there began to be earthquakes in the hour in 

which the na, k were fixed in the hands and feet of Jesus, until the 

S ITS, T ^ WeVer the earth 1 uake is P^ced later than in 
S. Matthew, who alone mentions it. 


we read l : Woe was it, Woe was it unto us : this was the 
Son of God: ...the judgements of the desolation of Jeru 
salem have come. The Old Syriac Version adds to Lc. 
xxiii. 48, Woe to us: what hath befallen us? Woe to us 
from our sins. And one Latin Codex (S. Germanensis, g,) 
has : Woe to us : what hath happened this day for our 
sins? for the desolation of Jerusalem hath drawn nigh 2 . 

8. " But the scribes and Pharisees and elders being 
gathered together one with another, when they heard that 
all the people murmured and beat their breasts saying, If 
by His death these most mighty signs have come to pass, 
see how just He is, the elders were afraid and came to 
Pilate, beseeching him and saying, Give us soldiers, that they 
may watch His sepulchre for three days, lest His disciples 
come and steal Him away, and~The people suppose that He 
is risen from the dead and do us evil. And Pilate gave 
them Petronius the centurion with soldiers to watch the 
tomb. And the elders and scribes came with them to the 
sepulchre, and having rolled a great stone together with 3 
the centurion and the soldiers they all together who were 
there set it at the door of the sepulchre ; and they put 
upon it seven seals, and they pitched a tent there and kept 

Longinus is the name of the centurion at the Cross in 
the Acts of Pilate. It is of course not necessary to 
identify the two centurions : but we shall see presently 
that the words attributed in our Gospels to the centurion 

1 Eph. Diat. p. 224 (Moesinger pp. 245 f., cf. p. 248). The word 
for desolation is that used for epij^wuts in the Armenian Gospels. 

2 Vae nobis, quae facta sunt hodie propter peccata nostra : appro- 
pinquauit enim desolatio Hierusalem. 

3 The text is here corrupt : for it says that they rolled the stone 
upon the centurion (KCITCI roO KfVTvplwvos). I have ventured to sub 
stitute /nera, together with: cf. Mt. xxvii. 66. 


at the Cross are here assigned to the centurion at the 
Sepulchre 1 . 

9. "And early in the morning as the sabbath was 
drawing on 2 there came a multitude from Jerusalem and 
the region round about, that they might see the sepulchre 
that was sealed. And in the night in which the Lord s day 
was drawing on, as the soldiers kept watch two by two on 
guard, there was a great voice in the heaven ; and they saw 
the heavens opened, and two men descending thence with 
great light and approaching the tomb. And that stone 
which was put at the door rolled away of itself and de 
parted to one side; and the tomb was opened and both 
the young men entered in. 

10. "When therefore the soldiers saw it, they awakened 
the centurion and the elders, for they too were hard by 
keeping watch ; and, as they declared what things they had 
seen, again they see coming forth from the tomb three 
men, and the two supporting the one, and a cross following 
them. And of the two the head reached unto the heaven, 
but the head of Him that was led by them overpassed the 
heavens. And they heard a voice from the heavens, saying, 
Hast thou preached to them that sleep 3 ? And an answer 
was heard from the cross, Yea." 

1 Petronius is a disciple of S. Peter in the Acts of S. Hermione 
(Sept. 4 ). 

The same phrase as in 2; eTrt^wcr/covroj rov ffappdrov, and 
immediately afterwards lirtywrKcv T? Kvpmicf) ; but here apparently from 
Mt. xxviii. i. 

3 When a document of this kind, where the text is frequently 
corrupt, first comes to light, it is difficult to assign to individuals the 
true share of credit for emendations that sometimes arise in common 
but I must mention that I owe to Mr F. C. Burkitt the suggestion 
that the Voice from heaven should be taken as a question. To him 
and to other friends I am very deeply indebted. 


No subject had a greater fascination for the early 
Christian mind than the Descent of Christ into Hades and 
the Harrowing of Hell. The only unmistakeable refer 
ence to it in the New Testament is in S. Peter s First 
Epistle (i Pet. iii. 19, iv. 6), He went and preached to the 
spirits in prison, and The gospel was preached to the 
dead. But it is also possible that the ancient hymn, from 
which S. Paul quotes in Eph. v. 14, Wherefore it saith, 
Awake, thou that sleepest, 
And arise from the dead, 
And Christ shall shine upon thee, 

was intended to represent the triumph-song with which the 
Lord entered the Under-world. 

In seeking the source of the actual words of the Voice 
from heaven, we may note that S. Matthew says that at the 
moment of Christ s Death, many bodies of the saints that 
had fallen asleep arose (xxvii. 52). But we must also com 
pare a passage which Justin Martyr says the Jews cut out 
from the prophecy of Jeremiah in their copies of the LXX. : 
* The Lord God, the Holy One of Israel, remembered His 
dead that had fallen asleep aforetime in the earth of burial, 
and descended to them to proclaim to them the good news 
of His salvation 1 . Irenaeus also quotes this passage several 
times : but we have no reason to believe that it ever 
formed part of the Old Testament Scriptures. But yet it is 
important, if only to shew how much these thoughts were in 
the air in early times : a fact to which further witness is 
borne by the Gospel of Nicodemus 2 , an apocryphal work 

1 See Bp. Lightfoot s note on Ign. Magn. ix. I read with Irenaeus 
TrpoKeKOifj.-rjfj.^wi . This is supported also by Hermas, who says of 
the Apostles (Sim. ix. 16, 5) Koi^BevTes...(.KT]pv^a.v /ecu rots irpoKe- 


2 In the Gospel of Nicodemus II. 10 (Tisch. p. 430), the Cross is 


containing a full description of the Descent into Hell, and 
by the Anaphora of Pilate, to which reference has been 
already made. A few sentences of this last book are worth 
quoting here, as their thoughts are closely akin to those of 
our document. And on the first day of the week, about 
the third hour of the night, the sun was seen as never it 
had shone before, and all the heaven was brightened. And 
even as lightnings come in a storm, so certain men of lofty 
stature, in adornment of apparel and of glory indescribable, 
appeared in the air, and a multitude of angels crying aloud 
and saying, Glory in the highest to God, and upon earth 
peace, among men good will : come up out of Hades, ye 
that have been enslaved in the under-world of Hades 1 . 

In a heretical book called the Wanderings of the 
Apostles, which Dr Zahn says 2 must have been written 

left in the Under-world: and the Lord placed His Cross in the midst 
of Hell (in medio inferni), which is the sign of victory and shall remain 
there even for evermore. 

1 Anaph. PH., B. 8 (Tisch. p. 447). This book has clearly some 
close connection with our document. Beside the striking resemblances 
already cited, we may note that Pilate makes Herod and the Jews 
responsible for the Death of Christ ; and, whereas here the disciples were 
supposed to wish to set fire to the Temple, there all the Synagogues 
in Jerusalem save one are swallowed up in the earthquake. A small 
coincidence of language is found in A. 10 (Tisch. 441) r\v dea<rd/j.ei>os, 
cf. supra 6. We may even wonder whether the earlier part of the 
Anaphora does not preserve details from the still missing part of 
our Gospel: e.g. there is the same use of S. John, and the same 
strange perversion, in the account of Lazarus, who is said to have 
been in an advanced state of corruption, and yet to have come forth 
from the tomb like a bridegroom from his chamber. 

2 Zahn Ada Johannis p. cxliv. On p. 216 he gives the passage 
of Photius, Cod. 114, on these Leucian Acts, which I have cited here. 

Hermas Sim. ix. 6, i introduces the Lord as a Man of lofty 
stature, so as to overtop the tower : and in S. Perpetua s Vision 
(Passio x.) He is represented as a Man of marvellous greatness, so 


before 160, and of which fragments are preserved to us, we 
are told that Christ appeared in various forms to His dis 
ciples, sometimes as a young man, then as an old man, 
then again as a boy ; and sometimes small, and sometimes 
very large, so that at times His head reached even unto 
heaven. Further coincidences tend to shew that this book 
too stands in some near relation to our Gospel. 

ii. "They therefore considered one with another 
whether to go away and shew these things to Pilate. And 
while they yet thought thereon the heavens again appear 
opened, and a certain man descending and entering into the 
sepulchre. When the centurion and they that were with him 
saw these things, they hastened by night to Pilate, leaving the 
tomb which they were watching, and declared all things 
which they had seen, being distressed and saying. Truly He 
was the Son of God. Pilate answered and said, I am pure 
from the blood of the Son of God: but ye determined this. 
Then they all drew near and besought him and entreated 
him to command the centurion and the soldiers to say 
nothing of the things which they had seen: For it is better, 
say they, for us to owe the greatest debt of sin before God, 
and not to fall into the hand of the people of the Jews and 
to be stoned. Pilate therefore commanded the centurion 
and the soldiers to say nothing." ; 

The hatred of the writer to the Jews, which stands in 
striking contrast to the just and measured terms of our 
Evangelists, is nowhere more marked than in the keen satire 

as to overpass the top of the amphitheatre. With reference to the two 
men who support the Lord it is interesting to note a representation in 
early art, in which our Lord in glory stands by and supports a large 
cross, having the angels Michael and Gabriel on either hand. Diet. 
Christ. Antiqq. vol. i. p. 497. Michael and Gabriel come for the soul 
of B.V. Mary in Transitus Mariae B. 8 (Tisch. p. 130). 


of this passage. Pilate once more is freed as far as possible 
from blame 1 . 

12. "And at dawn upon the Lord s day Mary Magdalen, 
a disciple of the Lord, [who] fearing because of the Jews, 
since they were burning with wrath, had not done at the 
Lord s sepulchre the things which the women are wont to do 
for those that die and that are beloved by them, took her 
friends with her and came to the sepulchre where He was 
laid. And they feared lest the Jews should see them, and 
they said, Even if on that day on which He was crucified 
we could not weep and lament, yet now let us do these 
things at His sepulchre. But who shall roll away for us the 
stone that is laid at the door of the sepulchre, that we may 
enter in and sit by Him and do the things that are due? 
For the stone was great, and we fear lest some one see us. 
And even if we cannot, yet let us set at the door the things 
which we bring for a memorial of Him; let us weep and 
lament, until we come unto our home. 

13. "And they went away and found the tomb opened, 
and coming near they looked in there ; and they see there a 
certain young man sitting in the midst of the tomb, beautiful 
and clothed in a very bright robe ; who said to them, Why 
are ye come? whom seek ye? Is it that crucified One? 
He is risen and gone away. But if ye believe not, look in 
and see the place where He lay, that He is not [here] 2 ; for 

The white-washing of the unhappy Roman governor was some 
times carried further still. In the Paradosis Pilati (Tisch. p. 455) 
in answer to Pilate s prayer for forgiveness before his execution by 
Tiberius a voice comes from heaven saying, All generations shall 
call thee blessed. ..for under thee all these things were fulfilled : and 
an angel of the Lord receives his head. 

In Lc. xxiv. 6 we have non est, surrexit in Cod. Sangerm. (g 2 ): 
and perhaps we ought not to add here in this place. 


He is risen and gone away thither, whence He was sent 1 . 
Then the women feared and fled." 

This passage, which opens with clear traces of S. John, 
(compare especially xix. 40, as the custom of the Jews is to 
bury ), is also full of the peculiar phrases of S. Mark. The 
correspondence ends too with the abrupt conclusion of 
S. Mark s Gospel, as we now have it: and there is no trace 
of the twelve disputed verses 2 . 

N^. "Now it was the last day of the unleavened bread, 
and many went forth returning to their homes, as the 
feast was ended. But we, the twelve 3 disciples of the Lord, 
mourned and were grieved : and each one grieving for that 
which was come to pass departed to his home. But I 
Simon Peter arid Andrew my brother took our nets and 
went away to the sea; and there was with us Levi the son of 
Alphaeus, whom the Lord " 

1 With this we must compare the 2oth Homily of Aphrahat (ed. 
Wright, p. 385), And the angel said to Mary, He is risen and gone 
away to Him that sent Him (cf. Jn. xvi. 5). There is reason to 
believe that Aphrahat, a Syrian writer, used Tatian s Harmony : and 
thus we seem to have a second link between our Gospel and that 
important work. 

Whatever be the origin of the addition, it is in direct contrast to 
Jn. xx. 17, I am not yet ascended to the father. In our Book 
however the Ascension of both Christs has taken place already. 

2 Cf. in Me. xvi. 3 ff. rtj cnro/cuX/cm T)/JUV . . .yv yap fj.eyas...veaviaKov 
Ka0rj/j.evoi ...Trpi(3el3\ri/uiti>ov ffro\i]v : and_ compare the last words Z(pvyov 
. . .tyofiovvTO yap with this document ^o^QeiffaL tyvyov. Here as in 
S. Mark there is no record of an appearance of the Lord to the 

3 The twelve disciples is perhaps a mere slip of the author or 
of a copyist : but it is conceivable that Judas too as well as Pilate 
underwent a cleansing process, if indeed he was ever mentioned, in 
our writer s narrative. The reading twelve is confirmed by the 
Apocalypse ( 2) which has the same phrase, we the twelve disciples. 


This broken sentence must remain unfinished, till some 
new discovery tells us what we long to know whether in 
this Gospel the Disciples ever see the Lord. Meanwhile 
we may be grateful that it adds a final proof of what indeed 
is clear enough already to a reader of the original Greek, 
namely our writer s use of the Fourth Gospel. It is probable 
enough that if we knew what followed we should find that 
he had honoured it with the honour which he has given to 
it already with the same impartiality as to the other three 
the honour of misrepresentation. Perversion is a form of 
witness to the thing perverted. 

Now that we have read our new Gospel, what are we to 
think of it ? 

The document will doubtless be subjected to the most 
searching criticism both in England and elsewhere, and it 
would be presumptuous to pretend to give the final verdict. 
But a few general remarks may not be out of place at the 
close of this Lecture. 

And, first, I would call attention to the fact that all our 
most recent recoveries are not entire surprises. Nothing 
wholly new and unheard of turns up as we explore neglected 
libraries or dig in disused cemeteries. The range of Chris 
tian literature in the second century was limited. Eusebius, 
to whose researches we owe a debt of gratitude which can 
never be too generously acknowledged, covered it practi 
cally all by his own reading or by the reports of others. 
It is true that, now that we have entered upon a new field 
of exploration in the tombs of Egypt, there is nothing that 
we need despair of finding be it the Expositions of Papias, 
or the Memoirs of Hegesippus, or the Chronicle of Julius 
Africanus. But again and again our new friend has proved 


to be an old one, whom we knew at least by name. And 
he has fitted in at once into the old surroundings. The 
second century was a book-making age ; but the books 
were very often not original. As Spurgeon used to say of 
many modern books, They stir up our pure minds by way 
of remembrance. Books were made out of books. The 
literary imagination played around the old facts or the old 
records. The Teaching of the Apostles used an earlier, 
perhaps a Jewish, manual : the Apology of Aristides was 
indebted to a book still unrecovered, the Preaching of 
Peter. Each of these in turn was embodied in later works : 
the Teaching was used and used up, as we are told, in 
the Shepherd of Hermas, besides the more obvious places 
where we trace it : the Apology of Aristides lies embedded 
in a religious novel. Similarly, there can be no manner of 
doubt as to whence our new Gospel derived the main bulk 
of its facts and of its language. But as it was a true 
* Apocryphon, the secret book of a sect and not the 
common property of the Catholic Church, its circulation was 
but limited and we cannot expect to find it largely used 
in the later writings which have come down to us. Indeed 
it is surprising that it should have so many points of contact 
as we have already noted with the surrounding literature. 

The second point to which I would call attention is a 
very different one. We are sometimes told that certain of 
the Books of the New Testament are Tendenz-schriften : 
that is to say, they are composed with the aim of setting 
forth at any cost the peculiar view of some special school 
of Christian thought. Well, here we have a good example 
of a Tendency- Writing. It is worth careful study from 
this point of view. Old statements are suppressed, or 
wilfully perverted and displaced : new statements are intro 
duced which bear their condemnation on their faces. No- 


thing is left as it was before. Here is History as it should 
be : Lines left out of the old familiar records. And no 
one who will take the pains to compare sentence by sen 
tence, word by word, the new Lines left out with the old 
* Line upon Line, will fail to return to the Four Gospels 
with a sense of relief at his escape from a stifling prison of 
prejudice into the transparent and the bracing atmosphere 
of pure simplicity and undesigning candour. 

Thirdly, I must try to say a word about the date of our 
new Book. The points in which our writer seems to coin 
cide with Tatian, together with the use of the Four Gospels 
side by side, suggesting that the work is based upon a 
previous Harmony, might make us hesitate to place it 
earlier than c. 170. But on the other hand its seeming 
coincidence with the Leucian Acts, which deserves a full 
investigation, tends to push it back before 160. For the 
whole style of the narrative is much less complex, and 
indeed suggests at once a very early date. In all the 
instances of similarity with other books we cannot prove as 
yet that our author has borrowed, save from the Four 
Gospels. In every other case he may have used some 
source used also by the other writers and now entirely lost : 
nay, in some cases he may be the original authority him 
self. The main views here expounded may be traced back 
even to Cerinthus the opponent of S. John : and we know 
that S. Ignatius strenuously combated Docetic teachers. 
So that we need not be surprised if further evidence shall 
tend to place this Gospel nearer to the beginning than to 
the middle of the second century. 

Lastly, the unmistakeable acquaintance of the author 
with our Four Evangelists deserves a special comment 1 . He 

1 In the margin of the Greek text I have placed references only to 
those lines in which some statement or phrase occurs which is peculiar 


uses and misuses each in turn. To him they all stand on an 
equal footing. He lends no support to the attempt which has 
been made to place a gulf of separation between the Fourth 
Gospel and the rest, as regards the period or area of their 
acceptance as Canonical. Nor again does he countenance 
the theory of the continued circulation in the second cen 
tury of an Urevangelium, or such a prae-canonical Gospel as 
we feel must lie behind our Synoptists. He uses our Greek 
Gospels ; there is no proof (though the possibility of course 
is always open) that he knew of any Gospel record other 
than these. 

And so the new facts are just what they should be, if 
the Church s universal tradition as to the supreme and 
unique position of the Four Canonical Gospels is still to be 
sustained by historical criticism. The words of Irenaeus 
(in. n. 7), as the second century was drawing to a close, 
are as true as ever to-day, and they have received a new 
and notable confirmation by our latest recovery : 

So strong is the position of our Gospels, that the heretics 
themselves bear witness to them, and each must start from 
these to prove his own doctrine. ...Since therefore those who 
contradict us lend us their testimony and use our Gospels, 
the claim which we have made on their behalf is thereby 
confirmed and verified. 

to one of our Four Gospels. Thus the use made of the distinctive 
parts of each Gospel may be seen at a glance. 

R. J. 


1. ON 5 AND CODEX BOBBIENSIS. It seems as though we had 
at last a parallel to the extraordinary interpolation at Me. xvi. 4 
in cod. Bobbiensis (k), an Old Latin MS., which reads, after Who 
shall roll away for us the stone from the door, as follows instead of 
our verse 4: But suddenly, at the third hour of the day, darkness 
came over the whole world, and angels descended from heaven, and 
rising in the glory of the living God ascended with Him; and im 
mediately it became light. This passage clearly cannot belong to its 
present context : but it closely corresponds with the Ascension of the 
Divine Christ from the Cross ; even to the mention of the reappearance 
of the sun. The hour may have been changed, so as to be less 
inconsistent when the passage had got into its new context. 

are as follows : 

i. ffdfifiaTov TTL(f)uffKei....Trpb /cuas r<2v dtyfAWv. The Body must 
not remain unburied after sunset on this day. 

i. TJV 8e /j.eaTj/j.(3pia. The darkness covers Judaea. 

3. eup^dr} upa emrTj. The light returns. 

4. VVKTOS KO.I tyuepas ews rov (rafipdrov. The Disciples fast and 

5. eirl rpets r//iepa?. The Jews propose to watch the Tomb. 

6. Trponas Se CTTL^UO-KOVTOS rov ffapftdrov. The multitude come to 
see the Tomb. 

7. rrj 5 VVKTI y ewtyuaKev 77 KvpiaK-f). The Voice and the Vision. 

8. VVKTOS. They hasten to tell Pilate. 

9. ftpdpov Se rrjs KvpiaKTJs. Mary Magdalen comes to the Tomb 
with the other women. 

10. r\v 8 TcXevraia r)fj.epa rwv dv(j.wv...Tijs eoprrjs 7rai;<7a / u6 7?s. 
Many return to their homes. The Disciples go to the sea. 



We may perhaps arrange them in order thus : 
Abib 14. Preparation . . . . . . . i, 2, 3, 

At even Passover killed. Period of unleavened 
bread begins. 

15. Sabbath. Sheaf waved [4], 6 

1 6. First day of the week. . . . . 5, 7, 8, 9 

17. Second ,, ,, 

1 8. Third 

19. Fourth ,, ,, 

20. Fifth 

21. Preparation . . . . . . .10 

At even Period of unleavened bread ends. 

22. Sabbath [4] 

In 13 the Disciples are still weeping and mourning : so that we 
may explain 4 perhaps as meaning all the days until the second sabbath. 
In fact a w-shaped j3 may have fallen out after rou: so that we might 
possibly restore rov (3 aapfiarov. But this is not necessary, as the first 
sabbath had begun at the time referred to. It is remarkable then that 
the Disciples remain a week in hiding at Jerusalem, and then leave 
it for Galilee without having seen the Lord at all. The first of these 
statements may be suggested by Jn. xx. 26 ; but the second, while it 
might be suggested by the silence of S. Matthew and S. Mark, is in 
direct contrast with Lc. xxiv. 34, 36 and Jn. xx. 19, 26. 

suggested (pp. 20, 22, 26) that the Anaphora Pilati has used this Gospel : 
and this view is confirmed by some Coptic fragments (Revillout, 1876), 
as yet untranslated, my knowledge of which is gained from Mr James. 
In these the same stress is laid on the corruption of the body of Lazarus ; 
and Philip appears together with Herod as plotting against the Lord, 
as in Anaph. Pil. Moreover these fragments seem to be connected in 
method with others which correspond to the Historia Josephi, in which 
we find the one statement which Origen preserves to us from this Gospel 
(see above p. 14 n.) set forth in full. 







OF the two fragments of early Christian literature which 
have just been called out of Egypt, the extract from the 
Gospel of Peter is no doubt the more immediately interest 
ing : and, in the excitement caused by that, the Apocalyptic 
fragment, which follows it in the Gizeh MS., runs some 
chance of being overlooked. And yet, had this latter 
stood by itself, its discovery would have caused a very 
considerable stir in the theological world. No one in 
terested in the history of the Canon of the New Testament 
could have failed to be excited when nearly half of the text 
of the Revelation of Peter was laid before him. 

For this book was one of which we heard much and 
saw very little. It always seemed strange that we were 
constantly encountering its name in early documents, and 
yet, when we came to inquire about its character and 
contents, there were exactly six passages which gave us any 
idea on the subject, while the total amount of the text 
which they preserved may have been eight lines. Curiously 
enough, moreover, modern writers on the subject had hardly 
ventured more than the most general conjectures on these 
fragments, and had not succeeded in drawing from them 
by any means all the information which, scanty as they 
were, they could be made to afford. 


For myself, they had always possessed a curious interest, 
as being the remains of a book once highly prized in several 
important Christian communities, and, more than that, as 
being the relics of the earliest Christian Apocalypse, save 
one, that was ever written: and, in the year 1886, I had 
taken some pains in collecting and commenting on these 
poor relics, and, in particular, in attempting to reconstruct 
by their aid the probable contents of the book, and to 
estimate its influence on later works of the same class. 

In the course of these investigations it became clear 
that the book must have contained at least two ele 
ments, one a prophetical or predictive section, relating to 
the end of the world, the other, a narrative of visions; 
and more particularly, a vision of the torments of the 
wicked, in which various classes of sinners were represented 
as punished in a manner suitable to their offences. It 
became clear, moreover, that certain books showed more 
or less clear traces of obligation to this old Apocalypse : 
in particular, this was true of the second book of the 
Sibylline oracles, the Apocalypse of Paul, and the later 
Apocalypse of Esdras. And, what was interesting from 
the literary point of view, we could trace the influence of 
the Apocalypse of Paul upon almost all the mediaeval 
visions, even in the Divina Commedia of Dante. So that 
through the medium of the Pauline vision, the Apocalypse 
of Peter had had a share in moulding the greatest poem 
of the middle ages. In my recent edition of the Testament 
of Abraham 1 I took occasion to set forth the main lines of 
this view : but it was not possible there (nor will it be, I fear, 
on the present occasion) to set forth, with all the necessary 
detail, the steps which led me to the conclusions which 
I have just stated. But perhaps I have said enough to 

1 Texts and Studies, ii. 2, pp. 23, 24. 


show that the Apocalypse of Peter had for some time 
occupied no small share of my attention ; and I hope this 
will justify the precipitation with which I have ventured to 
attack the newly-discovered fragment. 

It is time, however, to leave generalities and to approach 
details. I propose to divide this paper into three heads 
a practice for which I fancy there are precedents. Under 
the first I shall arrange my account of what was known 
about the book previous to this late discovery. Under the 
second I shall give a translation of the new fragment, with 
a few notes. Under the third I shall try to state what 
new light this discovery throws upon the book as a whole. 

It is perhaps simplest to tell the story of our book in 
the words of the writers who speak of it, arranging them in 
order of date. The first mention (real or apparent) of an 
Apocalypse of Peter is found in the Muratorian Fragment, 
dated circ. 170 200 A.D. The writer has mentioned the 
Wisdom of Solomon: he goes on to say: "The Apocalypses 
of John and Peter only do we receive : which (in the singular) 
some of our number will not have read in the churches." 
Most critics have understood this sentence to mean that the 
only Apocalypses (and the number of Apocalypses was large) 
which the Roman Church received were those of John and 
Peter; and that the latter was repudiated by some Roman 
Christians. But it has been lately urged with great inge 
nuity by Dr Zahn, that there is no reason to believe that 
the Petrine Apocalypse was known at all at Rome; and that 
we ought to suppose that a line has here dropped out of 
our undoubtedly corrupt fragment, and to read: "(There is) 
the Apocalypse of John and of Peter one epistle, which 
alone we receive : there is also a second (epistle\ which some 
of our number will not have read in church 1 ." 
] Zahn, N. T. Kanon, ii. 105 sqq. 


I do not feel convinced that Dr Zahn is right, more par 
ticularly as it seems that we have some reason to believe that 
Hippolytus used our book. 

Of Clement of Alexandria, at the beginning of the third 
century, Eusebius tells us 1 that in his great lost work, the 
Hypotyposes or Outlines, he commented on all the Canonical 
Scripture, not even omitting the disputed scriptures, I 
mean the Epistle of Jude and the rest of the Catholic 
Epistles, and that of Barnabas, and the so-called Apocalypse 
of Peter. 

When we turn to Clement s works, in the collection of 
extracts (either from a lost book of his Miscellanies, or from 
the Outlines] which are called Eclogae ex Scripturis Pro- 
pheticis, we find three separate quotations (and a fourth 
passage repeating one of the three) from this Apocalypse 2 , 
in one of which it is called * the Scripture. 

I shall reserve for the present the translation of these 

S. Methodius of Olympus in Lycia, living at the end of 
the third century, has a fairly long passage identical in part 
with one of the Clementine quotations; and the material 
of this passage is taken, he says, from divinely -inspired 
writings 3 . 

So far, then, Lycia, Alexandria, and probably Rome, are 
witnesses to the early popularity of the Apocalypse. 

In the fourth century we have a critical estimate of the 
book, where we naturally expect to find it, in the Eccle 
siastical History of Eusebius of Caesarea. Twice over he 
gives us his view of the book, based largely on the use or 
non-use of it by earlier Church writers: and it is by no 
means a favourable view. 

1 H.E. vi. 14, i. 2 See Fragments 36. 

3 See Fragment 5 l>. 


In the former of the two passages he enumerates the 
writings, genuine and spurious, which were current under 
the name of S. Peter; of the spurious writings he says: "the 
book, so entitled, of his Acts, and the so-called Gospel 
according to him, and what is known as his Preaching, and 
what is called his Apocalypse these we know not at all as 
having been handed down among catholic scriptures; for no 
ancient Church writer, nor contemporary of our own, has 
made use of testimonies taken from them 1 ." As a matter 
of fact, we know that Clement of Alexandria used both 
Preaching and Apocalypse : still, in its broad lines, the state 
ment is no doubt correct. 

The second of Eusebius s estimates of this book is to be 
found in his famous classification of the New Testament 
writings 2 . The place assigned to it is below the limbo of 
disputed books, but in the uppermost circle of the abode of 
spurious ones, among those which, though certainly spurious, 
or outside the pale, were not of distinctly heretical tendencies. 
Among spurious books let there be classed: the writing of 
the Acts of Paul, and the book called the Shepherd, and the 
Apocalypse of Peter, and, besides these, the Epistle of Bar 
nabas, and what are called the Teachings of the Apostles : 
and besides, if you take that view, as I said above, the 
Apocalypse of John... "^m^. some include in this class the 
Gospel according to the Hebrews. All these will be of 
the number of disputed books. So that Eusebius himself 
applies to this class both the terms spurious and disputed: 
but I think the former more truly represents his own opinion, 
and the softening down of it is a concession to the opinions 
of many of his contemporaries. 

Macarius Magnes, a writer of the beginning of the fifth 
century, furnishes us with two more fragments of our book. 
1 H.E. iii. 3, 2. - H. R. Hi. 25, 4 . 


The nature of his evidence requires a word of explanation. 
His book, called Apocritica, gives a series of objections 
brought by a heathen against Christianity, and the answers 
to these by Macarius. Now the objections are evidently 
genuine, and seem to be taken out of a written work. And 
it is thought very likely that the author of them may be 
Porphyry. In that case, the quotations must be set down as 
a testimony to the currency of our book in the third century. 
The heathen objector adduces the book by way of super 
fluity, apparently not attaching much importance to it. 
Macarius, when he comes to explain the matter, takes no 
pains to defend the source of the quotation : Even if we 
repudiate the Apocalypse of Peter, we are forced by the 
utterances of prophecy and of the Gospel, to agree with the 
Apocalypse of Peter. 

More light on the reception of the book is given us by 
Sozomen in the first half of the fifth century. For instance, 
he says, the so-called Apocalypse of Peter, which was 
stamped as entirely spurious by the ancients, we have dis 
covered to be read in certain churches of Palestine up to 
the present day, once a year, on the Friday during which 
the people most religiously fast in commemoration of the 
Lord s passion 1 . 

This exhausts the list of notices of the book : it is true 
that Rufinus in his version of Eusebius retains the Apo 
calypse of Peter (in H. E. vi. 14) and omits the Catholic 
Epistles: but this is because Eusebius calls the latter dis 
puted in that place. 

Jerome, again, merely translates Eusebius (H. E. in. 3) 
when he enumerates the works attributed to Peter: Ni- 
cephorus, too, copies Eusebius and Sozomen. 

1 Hist. Eccl. vii. 19. 


But a certain amount of evidence remains : we have 
three lists of apocryphal books which mention our Apo 
calypse. The list which goes by the name of Nicephorus, 
and may be placed about SSOA.D., is interesting as con 
taining the name \ve are in search of, and as being a pro 
duction of some one writing at Jerusalem 1 . One division 
of this list is set apart for disputed books of the New 
Testament. These are : 

The Apocalypse of John containing 1400 lines. 

The Apocalypse of Peter 300 

The Epistle of Barnabas .. 1360 

The Gospel according to the Hebrews .. . 2200 .. 

This list gives us really valuable information as to the 
length of the book. We will put next to it a statement 
of similar character from a different source. The Codex 
Claromontanus D. 2 , of St Paul s Epistles, of the sixth century, 
has a catalogue in Latin of all the Scriptures, remarkable 
for many reasons, which Dr Zahn takes to be of Alexan 
drian origin (it is undoubtedly rendered from a Greek 
original) and of the third or fourth century in date. The 
concluding items in this are : 

Epistle of Barnabas 850 verses (i.e. lines). 

Revelation of John 1 200 

Acts of the Apostles 2600 

The Shepherd 4 

Acts of Paul 3560 

Revelation of Peter 270 

A third list, which may be of A.D. 600, and is very 
commonly called the List of the Sixty Books, is less in 
teresting. It gives us, among New Testament Apocrypha : 
1 Zahn, N. T. Kanon, ii. 290 sqq. 


The History of James (i.e. the Protevangelium ). 

The Apocalypse of Peter. 

The Travels, and Teachings, of the Apostles. 

The Epistle of Barnabas. 

The Acts of Paul. 

The Apocalypse of Paul. 

&c. &c. 

Let us summarise the information we have gained from 
all these passages. The Apocalypse of Peter was a Greek 
book containing 270 or 300 lines of the average length 
of a line of Homer (36 to 38 letters) and about a quarter 
as long as the Revelation of S. John ; or, in other words, 
about the length of the Didache as we have it (316 lines) 
or the Epistle to the Galatians (311 lines). 

It probably found a partial reception at Rome in the 
second century ; certainly it did in Egypt, and in Lycia ; 
in Palestine it survived and was still read in church on 
Good Friday in the fifth century. 

It continued to be copied down to the ninth century 
in Jerusalem (for the list of Nicephorus was made for 
practical purposes) : and as we are told that the Gizeh MS. 
is of a date between the eighth and twelfth centuries, we 
may say the same of Egypt. 

But all this while the popularity and reception of the 
book were not universal. If the Muratorian Fragment 
does mention it, it is with a caution : if Methodius quotes 
it, he does so without naming his source : while Eusebius 
and Sozomen are unqualified in their repudiation of it as 
a genuine work of the Apostle, and tell us that the use 
made of it by the great writers who had preceded them 
was practically nil. Macarius would not at all object to 
throwing it over : one of our lists calls it a disputed book, 
another places it among Apocrypha, and the third, whose 


author probably might have accepted it, gives it a place 
among writings which form a sort of appendix to the un 
doubted portion of the New Testament Canon. 

So that, though no doubt it was a popular book, its 
popularity seems to have been almost confined to the less 
educated class of Christians. Clement is no doubt an ex 
ception to this statement : but few writers are less dis 
criminating than he, though there are few who are better 
informed; while, if I read Methodius rightly, he is un 
willing to lay much stress on the source which he uses, and 
uses sparingly. 

I cannot attempt to give anything like a full account of 
what modern writers have written about this Apocalypse, 
albeit the bulk of matter is not very large. J. E. Grabe 
first collected the fragments in his Spidlegium, i. 74. Fa- 
bricius added some notes in Cod. Apocr. N. T., i. 940. 
Liicke, in his Introduction to the Revelation of S. John, 
Lipsius, Diet. Chr. Biogr., art. Apocalypses, Hilgenfeld, 
Nov. Test, extra Can. rec., iv. 74 (1866 and 1883), Dr 
Salmon in a lecture on Uncanonical Books, now embodied 
in his Introduction to the New Testament, Zahn, N. T. 
Kanon, n. 810 820, Robinson, Passion of S. Perpetua, 
pp. 37 ^j, should be consulted: they contain practically 
all that has as yet been said about the Apocalypse of 

It is necessary before we pass to the second section of 
my paper to call special attention to two hypotheses : one, 
put forward by Bunsen in his Analecta Ante-Nicaena, is a 
suggestion that one source which was used by Hippolytus 
in his fragment Concerning the Universe was the Apoca 
lypse of Peter : the other, which is Mr Robinson s, is that 
we may find traces of this same Apocalypse in the Passion 
of S. Perpetua, and in Barlaam and Josaphat. I think the 


new discovery goes some way towards confirming both con 

We will now read the new fragment, which I have 
divided into twenty short sections ; and short notes will be 
given on such points as suggest themselves. My rendering 
will be literal and bald. 

1. " Many of them will be false prophets, and will 
teach ways and various doctrines of perdition : and they 
will be sons of perdition. And then will God come unto 
my faithful ones that are hungering and thirsting and 
suffering oppression, and proving their own souls in this 
life ; and He will judge the sons of lawlessness. 

2. And the Lord said furthermore Let us go unto the 
mountain and pray/ And as we twelve disciples went with 
Him, we besought Him that He would shew us one of our 
righteous brethren that had departed from the world, that 
we might see of what form they were and so take courage 
and encourage them also that should hear us. 

3. And as we were praying, there suddenly appeared 
two men standing before the Lord towards the east, whom 1 
we could not look upon : for there came from their counte 
nance a ray as of the sun and all their raiment was light, 
such as never eye of man beheld, nor mouth can describe, 
nor heart conceive the glory wherewith they were clad, and 
the beauty of their countenance. 

And when we saw them we were amazed : for their 
bodies were whiter than any snow, and redder than any 
rose, and the red thereof was mingled with the white, and, 
in a word, I cannot describe the beauty of them : for their 
hair was thick and curling and bright, and beautiful upon 
their face and their shoulders like a wreath woven of spike- 

1 Italics indicate words supplied where a gap occurs in the MS. 


nard and bright flowers, or like a rainbow in the sky, such 
was their beauty. 

4. When, therefore, we saw their beauty, we were all 
amazement at them, for they had appeared suddenly : and 
I came near to the Lord and said : Who are these? He 
saith to me : These are your brethren the righteous, whose 
forms ye wished to behold. And I said to Him : And 
where are all the righteous, or of what sort is the world 
wherein they are and possess this glory ? 

5. And the Lord shewed me a very great space outside 
this world shining excessively with light, and the air that 
was there illuminated with the rays of the sun, and the 
earth itself blooming with unfading flowers, and full of 
spices and fair-flowering plants, incorruptible and bearing 
a blessed fruit : and so strong was the perfume that it was 
borne even to us from thence. And the dwellers in that 
place were clad in the raiment of angels of light, and their 
raiment was like their land : and angels ran about (or 
encircled) them there. And the glory of the dwellers there 
was equal, and with one voice they praised the Lord God, 
rejoicing in that place. The Lord saith unto us : This is 
the place of your predecessors (perh. brethren) the righteous 

6. And I saw also another place over against that 
other, very squalid, and it was a place of chastisement ; and 
those that were being chastised, and the angels that were 
chastising, had their raiment dark, according to the atmo 
sphere of the place. 

7. And there were some there hanging by their tongues ; 
and these were they that blaspheme the way of righteous 
ness : and there was beneath them fire flaming and tor 
menting them. 

8. And there was a certain great lake full of flaming 

R. J. 4 


mire, wherein were certain men that pervert righteousness ; 
and tormenting angels were set upon them. 

9. And there were also others, women, hung by their 
hair over that mire that bubbled up : and these were they 
that had adorned themselves for adultery : and the men 
that had been joined with them in the defilement of 
adultery were hanging by their feet, and had their heads 
in the mire: and all were saying We believed not that 
we should come into this place. 

10. And I saw the murderers and them that had con 
spired with them cast into a certain narrow place full of 
evil reptiles and being smitten by those beasts and wallow 
ing there thus in that torment : and there were set upon 
them worms as it were clouds of darkness. And the souls 
of them that had been murdered were standing and looking 
upon the punishment of those murderers, and saying O 
God, righteous is thy judgment. 

11. And hard by that place I saw another narrow 
place wherein the gore and the filth of them that were 
tormented ran down, and became as it were a lake there. 
And there sat women having the gore up to their throats, 
and over against them a multitude of children which were 
born out of due time sat crying : and there proceeded from 
them flames (or sparks) of fire, and smote the women upon 
the eyes 1 . And these were they that destroyed their children 
and caused abortion. 

12. And there were other men and women on fire up 
to their middle and cast into a dark place and scourged by 
evil spirits and having their entrails devoured by worms 
that rested not : and these were they that persecuted the 
righteous and delivered them up. 

13. And hard by them again were women and men 

1 See Fragment 4. 


gnawing their lips, and being tormented, and receiving red- 
hot iron upon their eyes : and these were they that had 
blasphemed and spoken evil of the way of righteousness. 

14. And over against these were again other men and 
women gnawing their tongues and having flaming fire in 
their mouths : and these were the false witnesses. 

15. And in a certain other place were pebbles sharper 
than swords or than any spit, red-hot, and women and 
men clad in filthy rags were rolling upon them in torment : 
and these were the wealthy that had trusted in their wealth 
and had not had pity upon orphans and widows, but had 
neglected the commandment of God. 

1 6. And in another great lake full of pitch and blood 
and boiling mire stood men and women, up to their knees : 
and these were they that lent money and demanded interest 
on interest. 

17. And there were other men and women being hurled 
down from a great cliff, and they reached the bottom and 
again were driven by those that were set upon them to 
climb up upon the cliff, and thence they were hurled down 
again, and they had no rest from this torment. 

[These were guilty of lewdness.] 

1 8. And beside that cliff was a place full of much fire, 
and there stood men who had made for themselves images 
instead of God with their own hands. 

19. And beside them were other men and women who 
had rods, smiting each other, and never resting from this 
manner of torment. 

20. And others again near them, women and men were 
burning, and turning themselves and being roasted: and 
these were they that had forsaken the way of God." 

Here we have a fragment of sufficient length to give us 
a fair idea of the contents of the whole Apocalypse. As 



a fact, it does contain something like 140 out of the original 
300 lines of which the book consisted. 

It falls into three parts: the first is the eschatological 
discourse, i : the second, the vision of Paradise, 2 6 : 
the third, the Inferno, 7 20. 

We will take them separately. The first gives the con 
cluding lines of a speech of our Lord concerning the end of 
the world. 

The opening clause recalls, and is doubtless indebted to, 
Matt. xxiv. 24; Mark xiii. 22, For there shall arise false 
Christs and false prophets? But both this and the words 
which follow contain the first of a remarkable series of 
resemblances to the Second Epistle of Peter, which I pro 
pose to collect in a note, in order that we may be the better 
able to realise them 1 . 

1 Apoc. I. Tro\\ol...crovTa.i i/ eu5o7r/3o0r?rai. 

i Pet. ii. I eyevovro 5e KCU \j/ev8oirpo(j)TJTa.i ev ry Xay, wj /ecu ev 
vfjuv Zffovrai, i/ euSoStSoWaXot, and iii. 3. 

1 Pet. ii. I OLTives 7ra/)ei<raoi>(rij> cupeVeis CiTrcoXeias. 

TC\S eavruv i^xaj. 2 Pet. ii. 8 ^vxty 8i.Ka.Lav... 

6 6ebs...Kpu>el rovs vtoi)s TTJS avo/j.ias. 

1 Pet. ii. 3 ois TO Kpifj-a ^/CTraXcu OVK apyei. 

2. TO 8pOS. 

2 Pet. i. 1 8 ffvv avrf oVres ev T$ ayiy 8pei. 
TUV ie\06vTuv OTTO TOU Kbcr^ov. 

1 Pet. i. 15 fJ-era rj}v efj.r]v 

TTOTdTTOl flffl TT]V fJ.Op(p-r]V. 

2 Pet. iii. 1 1 7TOTa7roi)j Set 

7. TOTTOv...avxfJ- r]p6v. 

i Pet. i. 19 ev ai/XMPV TOTT^. 

7 (and 13). o( f3\acr<j> t)fj.ovvTes rty 686v 

1 Pet. ii. 2 Si ofis i] 686j TTJS aXydeias j3\a.<T<t>T)[ji. r]6ri<TeTaL 

ibid. 2i eTreyvuKevai rrjv odbv TT^S 


What the bearing of these resemblances may be upon 
the vexed question of the authenticity of 2 Peter, I will not 
take it upon myself to determine : only, it must be re 
membered that three explanations of them are possible. 
Either the author of the Apocalypse designedly copied the 
Epistle (as S. Jude may also have done), or the Apocalypse 
and Epistle are products of one and the same school, or 
the resemblances do not exist. 

We will return to the consideration of the text. 

Have we any parallel to the fragment of the discourse 
put into our Lord s mouth? No doubt it is ultimately 
modelled on the discourse in Matt. xxiv. ; Mark xiii.; Luke 
xxi. But there is an Apocryphal document which helps us 
here very considerably. It is a book which exists in 
Syriac, Carshunic, and Ethiopia. It has been published 
in Syriac by Lagarde, who has also made a retranslation into 

2 Pet. ii. 9 older Ktfpios. . .ddixovs. . . els wtpav /cpt crewj KoXafo/tt^ous TT]peiv. 

8. /36pj3opOS. 15. eKV\ioVTO. 

2 Pet. ii. 22 els KV\icrfj.6v popfiopov. 
9, IT, 17. Punishment of impurity. 
2 Pet. ii. 10 sqq. Denunciations of impurity. 
15. d^X-^crai/Tes TTJS ecroX^J TOV 0eov. 
2 Pet. ii. 21 vTroarpe^a.i. eK T7)s...ayias ^TO\TJS. 
iii. 2 ei>TO\Tjs TOV Kvpiov. 

To these, the following resemblances in the smaller fragments must 
be added. 

Fragments i, 2. 

The heaven and earth are to be judged. 

2 Pet. iii. to ovpavoi poifr56i> Trape\ev<rovTai.. 

1 2 ovpavol TTvpovfJ-evoi XuflTjcroi/rcu. 

Fragment 6. 

K TUV a/JLapriuv yevvaff&cu (rat /coXdcreis) </>?7<nV. 

2 Pet. ii. 19 y yap TIS r/TTTjTCU, Tovry 


Greek, the original language 1 . Its proper name is The 
first book of Clement, which is called the Testament of our 
Lord Jesus Christ : the words which He spake to His holy 
Apostles after He had risen from the dead. 

Now, I am of the opinion that this book, or at least the 
first fourteen chapters of it, gives us a very fair idea of the 
lost first part of the Apocalypse of Peter. It is expanded 
by various rhetorical additions, from prophecy and gospel, 
but the resemblances are constant, and, I think, striking. 
Let us examine them. 

In the first place, the general complexion of both books 
is the same. Both contain a speech of our Lord dealing 
with the last things : only, that in the Testament is more 

Secondly, the situation seems to be the same in both : 
namely, that our Lord is addressing the disciples after the 
Resurrection. In the Testament, He is questioned by Peter 
and John, in presence of the other Apostles. In the 
Apocalypse, Peter is the questioner; the other Apostles 
are present. But it is not made absolutely clear at what 
point in our Lord s career the vision is being revealed. 
The portion of the book which would have told us is gone : 
yet one touch makes it likely that the time meant is, in 
the Apocalypse as in the Testament, the time after the 
Resurrection. For the Apostles ask to see the glory of 
Paradise, in order that they may thereby be enabled to 
encourage their hearers 2 . This implies that at that moment 
they had already received their commission to preach. 
(Such a commission, be it noted, is given in the opening 
section of the Testament.) The words of Christ Let us 

1 Syriac in Reliquiae Juris Eccl. Antiqiiiss. Syriace: Greek in 
Rel. Jur. Eccl. Ant. Graece. 1856. 



go to the mount and pray ( 2), point in the same 
direction. The date imagined by our author can hardly 
be that of Matt, xxiv., for there the discourse was delivered 
on the Mount of Olives : here the transition to the Mount 
takes place after the discourse is over. 

Thirdly, there are coincidences of language : 


i. Many of them will be false 
prophets, and will teach ways and 
various doctrines of perdition : and 
they will be sons of perdition. 


8. There shall rise up shep 
herds who shall be lawless, etc. 
etc., men of much talk 1 , opposing 
the ways of the Gospel, dishonour 
ing all the way of piety : they 
shall appoint commandments to 
men not according to the scripture 
and the commandment which the 
Father would have. 

3, etc. The expression son of 
perdition is used of Antichrist. 

10. Sons of destruction used 
of the Phoenicians, in the sense of 

8. They shall be upright, pure, 
contrite... many shall be oppressed 
and shall call on their God that 
they may be saved. 

They shall teach them that if 
they prove their spirit* they will 
be fit for the kingdom. 

14. I therefore have told you 
this, that wherever ye go ye may 
prove the holy souls 3 . 

In both documents the actual coming of God is de 
scribed in the most unemphatic way. 

1 TTo\u\a\oL, Lagarde. 

2 lav doKL/j.dcrw<ri. rb irvev/J-a avruv, Lag. 

3 SoKi/j.d(n)TC ras i/ uxas rds 6<r(ay, Lag. 

And then shall God come unto 
my faithful ones that hunger and 
thirst, and are oppressed, and 
prove their souls in this life. 


Apocalypse. Testament. 

i. God shall come. 12. The harvest is come, that 

the guilty may be reaped and the 
Judge appear suddenly and con 
front them with their works. 

Both discourses end at the same point. After the dis 
course in the Apocalypse, the Lord says Come to the 
mount; and then the vision is seen. In the Testament, 
after the mention of the judgment, He says, Turn therefore 
unto the churches, and administer them ; and the rest of 
the book is occupied with legislation. 

I think that considering that the merest shred of the 
discourse survives in the Apocalypse, these coincidences 
are remarkable. But there is more evidence to come. I 
shall ask you to examine with me the Second Book of the 
Sibylline Oracles, a book which is assigned either to the 
3rd or early 4th century 1 . 

Of this book, 11. 6 30, 154 213, contain a description 
of the signs of the end, of which one source is evidently, I 
think, a document resembling the Testament. 

Sib. Orac. Testament. 

21 38. General slaughter, 3, 4, 5. Plagues, famine, unjust 

plagues, famine, destruction of rulers, slaughter: a wicked king 

unjust rulers. in the West : slaughter : 

Sudden peace and plenty. Silver shall be despised and 

A great star in heaven like a gold honoured. Also cf. 8 sub Jin. 
crown 3 . 6. Signs in heaven: a bow, 

[39 154. Poem of Pseudo- a horn, and a torch. 
Phocylides with introduction and 7. Signs on earth: monstrous 

epilogue.] births: children whose appear- 

1 I shall make use of the excellent edition of Rzach, 1891. 

2 The star is modified into a crown, as it seems, in order to introduce 
the poem attributed to Phocylides (56 148): this poem is a collection 
of moral precepts, and the star represents the crown given to the keeper 
of the law of God. 


Sib. Orac. Testament. 
155. Children born grey-headed ance shall be as of those advanced 
(cf. Hesiod, Op. 181). in years: for they that are born 
General affliction. shall be white-haired. 
False prophets. 8. Evil shepherds. 
Beliar (Antichrist). General confusion and wicked- 
Return of the lost tribes. ness : the remnant remain faithful. 
The faithful servants keep watch. 9, 10. The son of perdition 
Elias comes. described. 

The Sibylline book goes on to describe the destruction 
of the world by fire, the resurrection, and the judgment : 
and in this second half has many points of connexion with 
our Apocalypse: as the Testament does not treat of these 
matters we can follow it no further just now. 

Only, let the point which I am trying to enforce be 
borne in mind : the Testament may represent the lost first 
part of the Apocalypse : the Sibyl does use the second part, 
as I hope to shew : also, the Sibyl in her first part resembles 
the Testament. Is it not a priori likely that she uses the 
Apocalypse all through ? 

Two more points in connexion with the Testament, and 
I have done : first it comes to us in a Petrine form, for it 
is attributed to Clement the companion of Peter. (And 
there exists in Arabic and Ethiopic an Apocalypse of Peter 
of which Clement is the ostensible redactor 1 .) So that it is 
linked by this fact with the spurious Petrine literature : and 
additionally by the fact that the two Apostles who are 
specially named as speakers are Peter and John. 

Secondly, though there is as yet no trace of the spread 
of the Testament in the West, I have recently come upon 

i This book is being examined and analysed for me: I hope to 
produce parts of it at a later time. It is my hope that the , 
Apocalypse will be found imbedded in it. 


a fragment in Latin, containing the exact equivalent of 
1 1 and 7 (in that order), namely, the description of Anti 
christ, and the signs upon earth. This exists in an Uncial 
MS. of the 8th century, and, though I possibly ought to 
include it in this essay, I propose to print it in a forth 
coming number of Texts and Studies. My own belief is 
that it is a fragment of the Apocalypse of Peter : and that 
belief I base mainly on analogies in late Apocalypses which 
seem plainly dependent upon that book, and upon the 
great unlikeliness that the Testament was ever known in the 

Returning to the text of the Apocalypse, we find that 
2 5 are occupied with a short vision of Paradise and 
of its inhabitants : and here, if anywhere, our author attains 
to a certain standard of literary excellence, although it 
does not seem as if Paradise were his favourite subject of 

Our illustrative parallels are less numerous here : the 
most striking one is a vision in which Mr Robinson 1 con 
jectured that some trace of the influence of the Apocalypse 
was discoverable, namely, the vision of Josaphat in 
the History of Barlaam and Josaphat 2 . I will translate 
the passages, and call attention (in the notes) to such coin 
cidences of language as exist. 

Josaphat "saw himself caught away by certain terrible 
beings, and passing through places which he had never 
seen, and arriving at a plain of vast extent 3 , flourishing 
with fair and very sweet-smelling flowers 4 , where he saw 

1 Passion of S. Perpetua, p. 37. 

2 Boissonade, Anecd. Graeca iv. pp. 280, 360. 

3 /j.eyia T rjv 7re5m5a: cf. ^yivrov x^pov Apoc. 5. 

4 wpaiois dvdecri /cat \tav eut65e<ri /co/utxrg : cf. yr)v.,.avdou(rav a^a/xuTou 
ftvdecri /cat dpufj.aTwv TrXriprj ibid. 


plants of all manner of kinds, loaded with strange and 
wondrous fruits, most pleasant to the eye and desirable 
to touch l . And the leaves of the trees made clear music 
to a soft breeze and sent forth a delicate fragrance, whereof 
none could tire, as they stirred 2 .... And through this won 
drous and vast plain these fearful beings led him, and 
brought him to a city which gleamed with an unspeakable 
brightness and had its walls of translucent gold, and its 
battlements of stones the like of which none has ever 
seen.... And a light from above ever darted its rays and 
filled all the streets thereof : and certain winged hosts, each 
to itself a light 3 , abode there singing in melodies never 
heard by mortal ears ; and he heard a voice saying : This 
is the rest of the righteous : this is the joy of them that have 
pleased the Lord 4 ." 

Again in a later part of the book 5 , the vision is con 
tinued, thus : 

" He saw those fearful men, whom he had seen before, 
coming to him, and taking him away to that vast and 
wondrous plain, and bringing him into the glorified and 
exceeding bright city 6 . And as he was entering into the 
gate, others met him, all radiant with light, having crowns 

1 cpvra Tra.vTo5a.ira. /cat 7roi/ei \a, Kapirols &voa...Kal BaviMffroa ppl0ovTa : 
cf. <pvTwt> evavOwv /ecu d<p6a.pTWv Kal Kapirbv euXoyrj^vov QtpovTa ibia 

2 cf. Toaovrov dt TJV TO &i>8os cbs /cat <?< was <?/cet0ev &pc(r0(u ibid. 

rvvrj is the word for joy in the Vision 

of Tosaphat) ibid. 

4 c f. euro? ecrrtr 6 TOTTOJ T^ d5c\0wi (?) ^v TW 5iKatu toepu* 


5 p. 360. 

6 virtpXa/j-Trpov : cf. vwipkapirpov ry (purl ilnct. 


in their hands which shone with unspeakable beauty , and 
such as mortal eyes never beheld 2 : and when Josaphat 
asked : * Whose are the exceeding bright 3 crowns of glory 
which I see ? One they said is thine ." 

I think the obligation is really unmistakable here. But 
it may perhaps be remembered, that, in the place where he 
quotes this vision, Mr Robinson establishes a connexion 
between it and the Vision of Saturus. Does that vision 
help us here ? I will quote some lines from it which seem 
clearly to do so. And when we had passed the first 
world, we saw an infinite light. How does this compare 
with the words the Lord shewed me a vast space outside 
this world 1 } ( 5). Again: and whilst we were being 
borne along by those four angels, there was made for us 
(we came upon) a great space, which was like a garden, 
having rose-trees and flowers of all sorts. The height of the 
trees was after the manner of a cypress, and the leaves of 
them sang without ceasing. The flowers and plants of 5 
will be remembered in this connexion. 

After they had passed over the violet-grown stadium 
and come to the city built of light, four angels clothed us 
as we entered in with white garments ( 5 the dwellers 
had the garb of angels of light, 3 all their raiment shone). 
We heard an united voice saying Holy, Holy, Holy 
without ceasing ( 5 all with one voice were praising the 
Lord God) : again we began there to recognise many 
brethren (cf. 2). 

Lastly, at the end of the vision, it is said, we were 
nourished by an unspeakable perfume, which satisfied us, 

1 cf. ov d6i> ^-rjyriffaffOai r6 /cctXXos avruv 3. 

2 o iovs 6(f>da\/j.ol ovd^irore /SporeioL tQedcravro : cf. biroiov 
6<f>0a\/j.6s avdpuir\_uv eupaKfv or e#ecuraro] 3. 

see above. 


( 5 so great was the perfume that it was borne even to us 
from thence ). 

Surely, with these proofs before us, we may safely affirm 
that the Martyrs of Africa had read the Apocalypse of 
Peter, and that Mr Robinson s hypothesis is confirmed by 
the new discovery. 

We must pass to the consideration of the Inferno. 

First, I will examine the contribution of the Vision of 
Josaphat to- the elucidation of this part. After he has seen 
the beautiful city, he is removed 1 , much against his will, to 
the infernal regions. And when they had passed through 
that great plain, they brought him to certain places, dark, 
and full of all foulness 2 , whose horror counterbalanced the 
brightness which he had seen. Here was a furnace kindled 
and aflame with fire 3 ; and a sort of worm, fashioned for 
punishment, crept about there 4 . And chastising powers 5 
stood over the furnace, and there were certain men being 
miserably burned in the fire. And a voice was heard 
saying This is the place of sinners 6 : this is the punishment 6 
of them that have defiled themselves with shameful deeds 7 . 
And thereupon, they led him forth. 

The resemblances here are not so striking, perhaps, as 
in the vision of Paradise, but they are real resemblances, 

We will take next the evidence of the Second Book 
the Sibylline Oracles. The poet has described the destruc- 

1 I.e. p. 281. 

2 cf. axMP*>* vv...<TKaTiv6v, Kara rbv Mpa rov roirov ApOC. 0. 

3 c f irvp <p\ev6/*evov /ecu K o\d{ov otfrorfs 7, and passim. 

*cf. *ir\ipu&ov epTrercD, *ovr,pw ... 5\^ <3P "^ A( 
er/cdrovs 10 : and virb cr/coA^ teoiptrruv 12. 

5 cf. oi /coXa^res ayyeXoi 7 : ^ro avrols ac\OL ?ao 

6 cf. xal TJV TOTTOS /coXaaew? 7- 

7 cf. 10, 17- 


tion of heaven and earth, the resurrection, and the judg 
ment : all, it is then said, will pass through a fiery stream : 
the good will be saved, but the bad will perish for * whole 
aeons : and then the classes of sinners are enumerated 1 . 

Those who did murder, or who were privy to it 3 , liars, 
deceitful thieves, violent house-plunderers, gluttons, un 
faithful in wedlock, those who pour forth wicked words 3 , 
the terrible ones, the violent, the lawless, the idolaters 4 and 
those who have forsaken the great immortal God*, and 
become blasphemers and harmers of the pious 6 , and breakers 
of faith and destroyers of just men 1 : deceitful priests and 
deacons who judge unjustly... worse than leopards and 
wolves, the proud, and usurers who collect interest on 
interest* in their houses and injure orphans and widows 9 in 
every way : fraudulent or grudging almsgivers, those who 
forsake their aged parents, or disobey or curse their parents, 
deniers of a trust committed to them, servants who turn 
against their masters, those who defile their flesh 10 , unchaste 
maidens, causers of abortion^, and those who expose their 
children 12 , and sorcerers, male and female. 

These all shall be brought to the pillar round which runs 
the fiery stream: and them all shall the undying angels of 
the immortal and eternal God, having bound them fast with 
unbreakable chains, chastise most terribly with scourges of 
flame and chains of fire: and then shall cast them into the 

1 1. 255 sqq. 

2 cf. 10 murderers, and those who were their accomplices : 
Stb. = <TVJ>ei.d6Tas Apoc. 

3 cf. 7, 13. 4 cf. 18. 

5 Cf. 20. 6 Cf. I 3 . 

7 cf. 12. 8 cf. 1 6. 

9 cf. 15. 10 cf. 9, 17. 

11 cf. ii. 12 cf. Fragments 3, 5. 

13 Cf. the tormenting angels in 6, 8, 17. 


of night 1 in Gehenna among the beasts of Hell*, many 
and terrible, where the darkness^ is infinite : then follows 
the fiery wheel and river: they suffer triple torment for each 
sin, but eventually a hope of salvation, by means of the 
prayers of the good, is held out (11. 330335). 

The resemblances, or, as I hold them to be, the traces 
of obligation to our Apocalypse in the Sibylline book, are 
fully made out, I venture to think, in the case of the classes 
of sinners: they are not so striking, though they exist, in 
the description of torment. But it is clear that in a poem 
which is dealing in prediction and not describing things 
seen, details of this kind would be out of place. 

Let us pass next to a vision contained in the early 3rd 
century novel (if it be not of the 2nd century) the Acts of 
Thomas 3 . In this, a woman whom S. Thomas has raised from 
the dead, narrates what she has seen in the infernal regions. 
Here again the borrowings from our Apocalypse are so con 
siderable, that I must translate nearly the whole passage. 
The woman says: A certain man took me, who was hateful 
to look upon, entirely black, and his raiment very foul 4 : 
and he brought me to a place wherein were many chasms, 
and much stench 5 and a horrible exhalation proceeded from 
thence. And he made me look into every chasm : and in 
the (first) chasm I saw flaming fire, and wheels of fire were 
turning there*, and souls hung upon those wheels, and wer 
dashed against each other: and there was a great cry in. 
and howling there, but there was none to help, 
man said to me: These souls are of thy race, and 

1 cf<6> 2 Cf. 10, 12- 

3 Ada Thomae, ed. Bonnet, p. 39. 

* The dark raiment of the tormentors 6. The pao, purapa * 
5 5v<ru8ia: so 11. 

eSre: cf. &y** ire^rpexo* ** (K 


number of days they have been delivered over into torment 
and breaking, and then others are brought in in their stead, 
and they likewise are transferred to another place: these 
are they that have perverted the union of man and woman 1 . 
And I looked and saw infants heaped upon one another and 
struggling with one another, and lying on each other 2 . 
And he answered and said to me: These are their children, 
and therefore they are set here as a testimony against 

He brought me to another chasm, and I looked in and 
saw mire z and the worm^ bubbling up b and souls wallowing 
there, and a great gnashing of teeth was heard from them, 
and that man said to me: These are the souls of women 
that have forsaken their husbands and committed adultery 
with other men, and have been brought into this torment 6 . 

He shewed me another chasm whereinto I looked, and 
saw souls, some hanging by their tongue 1 , some by their 
hair*, some by their hands, some by their feet, head down 
wards 9 , and being smoked with fire and brimstone; con 
cerning whom that man that was with me answered me: 
These souls that are hung by their tongue are slanderers, 
and uttered false and shameful words ; and those that hang 
by their hair, it is further explained, were bold-faced people 
who went about bare-headed in the world: those hung by 
their hands were cheats and never gave to the poor : those 
hung by their feet ran after pleasure, but did not visit the 
sick nor bury the dead. 

The woman then sees the cave where souls are imprisoned 

1 cf. 9 , 17. cf. ii. 

3 8, 9, 16. 4 10, 12. 

5 avafiptovTa : cf. dvaira(p\a.{oi>Tos 9, avatfovros 16. 

6 cf. 9. 7 cf . 7 . 
Cf. 9 . >> cf. 9. 


before torment, and, after a short colloquy between her guide 
and the other chastising spirits, is taken back to the world. 

I hope my readers will take the trouble to compare for 
themselves my translation of this vision with the references 
to the Apocalypse which I have printed. To my mind, they 
are conclusive in favour of an obligation to the Apocalypse 
of Peter. 

The next witness to be examined is the Apocalypse of 
Paul; which I may be forced to call simply Paul for 
shortness sake. This book we have in a rather shortened 
text of the original Greek, in a fuller Syriac version, and 
in a Latin version which is the fullest of all. This last is in 
print, and I hope it will be published shortly in a forth 
coming number of Texts and Studies. It is of course 
advisable to quote the Greek where we have it; but it will 
probably be necessary to refer to the Latin too. The 
abbreviations G and L will serve to show which is meant. 

Paul is, as I have elsewhere remarked \ a book of the 
fourth or early fifth century, and a mosaic made out of 
more than one earlier book: and it has already been 
noticed (by Hilgenfeld and Salmon) that the use of the 
name Temeluchus as the name of an angel is a mark 
that the writer had seen the Apocalypse of Peter. For this 
word occurs in Fragments 3 and 5 ; it is really an ad 
jective, and means caretaking : but it is quite peculiar to 
this book, and might well have been misunderstood by a 
later writer. But this mistake of Paul does not seem to 
have been followed up by those who have called attention 
to it. Had this been done, it would have been clear that 
Paul had borrowed much more than one word from our 
Apocalypse; and this we shall see when we come to examine 

1 Texts and Studies ii. 2. 11. 

R.J. 5 


the Fragments. At present we are to look for resemblances 

to the text of the Apocalypse. 

Paul G 19 the place of the just 1 . Apoc. Pet, 5 the place 

of your brethren (?) the just men. 
22 trees planted, full of different fruits. Pet. 5. 
23 the light (of the city) was beyond the light of the 

world. Pet. 5 exceeding bright with light 2 . 
,, 27 when he passes out of the world. Pet. 5 out 

side this world 3 . 

17, 1 8 great is thy judgment. Pet. 10. 
,, 1 8 the souls of the murdered are introduced, cf. 

Pet. 10. 

,, ,,31 there was no light there, but darkness. Pet. 6. 
,, ,, 1 6 a multitude of men and women cast therein. 

Pet. 10 murderers... cast in a certain place 4 . 
,,31 some up to their knees. Pet. 16 up to their 

,, 32 but trusted in the vanity of their wealth. Pet. 

15 that trusted in their wealth. 
,, ,,35 the widow and orphan he did not pity. Pet. 

15 that pitied not orphans and widows. 
,,37 eating their tongues. Pet. 14 gnawing their 

,, 39 being led away into a dark place. Pet. 12 

cast into a dark place 5 . 
40 standing upon fiery spits. Pet. 15 sharper 

than any spit heated 6 . 


0c3s...i 7rep TO 0c3s rou /cooyxov: cf. VTrtpXa/ATrpov TO? 0om. 

3 ^e/>x6/ie os K rov KOCT/JI.OV : cf. ^cros TOV KOffftov rotirov. 

4 jSe/SXTj/n^ovs iv aura? : cf. ^Se/SX^^j/oDS v rivi TOTTOJ, and 12. 

5 airayofj-^vas ev TOTTQ ffKorwip ; cf. /3e/3X?7/^j oi iv TOTT^ GKQTI.V($. 

6 tiravu 6/3eXi cr/ca>i> irvplvuv: cf. dirrepoi...7raj T6s djSeXt cr/cou ireirvpw- 


Paul G 40 these are they that corrupted themselves and 

killed their children 1 . Pet. u these were 

they that destroyed and made abortive their 


L 37 and 39 and worms devouring them. Pet. 10 

and 12. 

,, these are they that demanded interest on in 
terest and trusted in their riches. Pet. 10 
and is 2 . 

,, 38 into this pit flow all the punishments. Pet. n 3 . 
,,40 and beasts tearing them. Pet. 10 being 

smitten by these beasts. 
,, ,,41 there was straitness, and the mouth of the well 

was strait. Pet. 10, u a strait place 4 . 
42 the worm that is restless . Pet. 12*. 
39 girls in black raiment, 40 men and women 
clothed in rags full of pitch and sulphur. Pet. 
15 men and women clothed in foul rags, 
and 6 raiment like the atmosphere of the 

Some little time back I called attention to a conjecture of 
Bunsen s that in the fragment Concerning the Universe Hip- 
polytus might have made use of our Apocalypse. In his 
Missing Fragment of the Fourth Book of Ezra, Professor 

1 avrai daw ai (pOelpaffai eaimxs /rat TO. 
The text of Peter here is partly conjectural. 

" Hii sunt qui usuras usurarum exigentes et confidentes in diuiciis 
suis. Cf. oCrot.. 01.. airaiTOvvrfS TOKOVS TOKWV (16) and r$ irXoury 
avruv TreTrotflores (15). 

3 In istam foueam iniluunt omnes pene: cf. (" <? o ix^P v /coXa 

4 angustia, et angustum erat : cf. tv roirtp Tt$\ipfi6>V. 

5 uermem inquietum : cf. tr/coA^/cup a,]Twv. 



Bensly has shown that one of Hippolytus sources is 
4 Esdras. But I think it is fairly clear that the Apocalypse 
of Peter was another. 

Hades 1 is a place in the creation which is unfurnished 2 , 
a locality underground wherein the light of the world does 
not shine/ so far there is nothing Petrine. Now since no 
light shines 3 in this place, darkness must constantly prevail 
there. This place is appointed as a prison for souls, and 
over it are appointed angel-warders, who administer the 
temporary chastisements of the places in accordance with 
the deeds of each soul 4 . 

* There is one way down to the place, and at the gate, 
as we have learned to believe, there stands an archangel 
with his host... the just are escorted in light to the right... 
and led to a shining place wherein dwell the righteous that 
were from the beginning. And there they enjoy the ex 
pectation of complete joy. But the wicked are dragged to 
the left by chastising angels, not going any longer willingly, 
but being haled by force as captives, and the angels deride 
and reproach them and thrust them downwards to a place 
where they dwell in sight of Paradise and of Gehenna, but 
with a great gulf between them and the righteous. Peter s 
Inferno, it will be remembered, was over against Paradise 
( 6), and was full of chastising angels ( 6, 8). At the last 
judgment all men and angels and demons will join in saying 
Just is thy judgment 5 . Emphasis is laid on the worm of 
fire, not dying nor destroying the body, but continually pro- 

1 S. Hippolyti Opera, ed. Lagarde, p. 68. 

2 TOTTOS aKaTaffKetiaffTos from Enoch xxi. i, 2 (Gizeh fragment). 

3 (fxujrbs fJ.T] KaTaXd/AirovTos : cf. Pet. 5. 

4 &yye\oi <j>povpoi, Trpos rds eKaffruv 7rpoeis diavt/j-ovres rds TiJav T 
/coXcurets: cf. Pet. 6, 8. 

5 /mlav <t><t)vty d.Tro(f>dyt;ovTat....&iKaia. <rov TJ Kpicris cf. Pet. 5, ro. 


ceeding from the body with ceaseless pain. And in general 
it may be said that though Peter is not the only source 
employed, he is most likely one source. 

There are yet two other Apocalypses of a considerably 
later date than Paul, which bear almost as clear traces of 
the influence of the Apocalypse of Peter: these are the 
Apocalypse of Esdras 1 and that of the Virgin. The former 
contains an Inferno scattered in various parts of the book, 
if so confused a patch- work as this document is can be dig 
nified with the name of a book. The torments and sins 
described show one remarkable coincidence with the 
Apocalypse 2 . The latter 3 is one long dreary Inferno of the 
weakest kind, but shows a large number of coincidences. 
It may be worth while to cite some passages when we come 
to discuss the Fragments : but I will ask my readers to trust 
for the present my assertion of the obligations of these two 
documents to our Apocalypse : the evidence which I could 
adduce is not different in kind from that of which I have 
already given a good deal. 

One additional proof of the influence of the description 
of Paradise may here be given. It comes from a book 
variously called the Narrative or Apocalypse of Zosimas 4 , a 
hermit who went to visit the Blessed Ones, the descendants 
of the Rechabites, in their earthly Paradise. He was carried 
over the river which separates the heavenly land from ours 
by two trees which bent down and wafted him over : these 
trees were fair and most comely, full of sweet-smelling fruit 5 . 

1 Tischendorf, Apocall. Apocr. 2433. 

2 See below, on the Fragments. 

3 Not yet printed, so far as I know: it is very common in MSS., and 
I have transcribed it for publication. 

4 To be published in Texts and Studies with other like documents. 
r> ytfjiovra. Kapirbv evwtiias. 


When he arrived in the land he found it to be a place * full 
of much fragrance ; and there was no mountain on one side 
or the other, but that place was a plain full of flowers, all 
begarlanded, and all the land was fair 1 . 

The first man whom he met wore no garments, and 
when Zosimas asked the reason of this, he bade him look 
up into the sky and behold his raiment : and I looked and 
saw his face as the face of an angel and his garment as the 
lightning which shineth from east to west, and I feared that 
he was the Son of God 2 . Compare this with the description 
of Paradise and its inhabitants in Pet. 3, 5. It should be 
recorded here that the author of Zosimas elsewhere borrows 
a sentence from the Protevangelium ; which shows his pro 

In the Ethiopic Conflict of Matthew 3 , the dwelling- 
place of the lost 9! tribes is described (in a passage which 
practically recurs in Commodian s poems 4 ) : and it is said 
that when the wind blows, we smell through it the smell of 
gardens. In our land there is neither summer nor winter, 
neither cold nor hoar-frost, but on the contrary a breath of 
life 5 . 

We must now turn to the discussion of the Fragments. 
Fragments i and 2 are those furnished by Macarius Magnes, 

1 171 6 TOTTOS Selves 7rX?7/)T7S evudias TTO\\TJS, Kal OVK rjv 6 poj ZvOa Kal 
frda, d\\ riv 6 TO TTOS ^/cetvos TreSti/os dvdo(J>6pos, o\os ecrTetpa.vwfj.tvos, Kal 
iracra i) 777 euTrpeTTTjj. 

2 Oea<rai TO Zv8v/j.d /J.QV TTOLOV ianv. Kal Beacra/ULevos v ry ovpavf elSov 
TO irpoffuirov avTov wcret Trpoffuirov ayy\ov (Act. vi. 15) Kal Tb Zvovna. 
avTOv cos affTpair rjv, TJ <f dvaTo\<j}v et s dvcr/ iropevo^vT). 

3 Malan, Conflicts of the Holy Apostles, p. 44. 

4 Instr. ii. i, Carm. Apol. 940 sqq. 

5 I believe it to be the case that the author of the Carmen de ludicio 
Domini used our book; and Commodian may have done so as well; 
but in his case the number of sources used is considerable. 


or rather, by the heathen writer whom he undertakes to 
confute. I will translate and comment on them in order. 

" Let us by way of superfluity cite also that saying in the 
Apocalypse of Peter. It introduces the heaven as being 
about to undergo judgment along with the earth, in these 
terms. The earth, it says, shall present all men before 
God at the day of judgment, being itself also to be judged 
along with the heaven also which encompasses it ." And 
he goes on to inquire why the heaven is to be destroyed 
seeing that it is the Creator s noblest work. Then, in the 
following chapter, we find: "This, moreover, it says, which 
is a saying full of impiety: And every power of heaven 
shall be melted, and the heaven shall be rolled up like 
a scroll, and all the stars shall fall like leaves from a vine, 
and as leaves fall from a fig tree ." With this we should 
compare Isa. xxxiv. 4, where the words are identical, save 
that the powers of heaven are in the plural; and in view 
of this fact, the passage has been looked upon by some 
(e.g. Hilgenfeld) as merely a quotation from Isaiah, and not 
from the Apocalypse. Yet the way in which the heathen 
objector brings it forward, the way in which Macarius 
answers it, the fact that we find it partially quoted in our 
Lord s eschatological discourse (Luke xxi. 26) and in the 
Apocalypse of John (vi. 13, 14), are considerations which, 
when combined, lead me to think that Zahn does right 
when he includes it among the fragments. 

In this prophecy of the destruction of heaven and 
earth, we have, as Dr Salmon has pointed out, a trait 
which is prominent in another Petrine work, the Second 
Epistle, which, alone among New Testament books, predicts 
the destruction of the world by fire. And, further, we 
have a gap at the beginning of our Apocalypse to which 
a prophecy of this sort would be the best possible supple- 


ment. It must have found a place in the prophetic speech 
of our Lord, of which we have the scanty remains in i. 

Moreover, a book which, we have seen reason to believe, 
has used our Apocalypse, devotes some space to a descrip 
tion of the destruction of the world by fire, namely, the 
Second Book of the Sibylline Oracles 1 . Again, S. Methodius, 
who quotes the Apocalypse, lays stress on this point too 2 . 
The third century poet Commodian has a line which seems 
an echo of the prophecy that the heaven is to be judged: 
the stars of heaven fall, the stars are judged with us 3 , and 
certainly Commodian used several apocryphal sources. 

Fragments 3 6 all bear on one and the same subject, 
and may be translated together. 

3. "The scripture says that the infants that have been 
exposed (i.e. cast out in the street at their birth) are de 
livered to a caretaking angel, by whom they are educated, 
and so grow up; and they will be, it says, as the faithful of 
an hundred years old are here." 

Then, in what I take to be a separate extract, though 
hitherto it has been printed continuously with the last 4 , there 
follows : 

4. "Wherefore also Peter in the Apocalypse says: And 
a flash of fire darting from those children, and smiting the 
eyes of the women V 

Here we have, in slightly different language, an extract 

1 11. 190 213. 

2 De Resurr. ap. Epiph. Haer. Ixiv. 31. 

3 Carm. Apol. 1004. 

4 My reasons for making the division are these: (i) the unique MS. 
does not itself divide the extracts. (2) 39, 40 are plainly divided 
wrongly by the editors. (3) The particle Aid has no sense, if connected 
with the preceding sentence. As an extract detached from the context, 
the fragment is intelligible : 48 begins with aurt/ca. 


from our text ( 1 1). It is the only one which is identifiable 
as such among the fragments. 

5 a. "For instance, Peter in the Apocalypse says that 
the children who are born untimely shall be of the better 
part : and that these are delivered over to a caretaking angel 
that they may attain a share of knowledge and gain the 
better abode, after suffering what they would have suffered 
if they had been in the body : but the others shall merely 
obtain salvation as injured beings to whom mercy is 
shewn: and remain without punishment, receiving this as 
a reward." 

5 b. "Whence also we have received in divinely inspired 
Scriptures that untimely births are delivered to caretaking 
angels, even if they be the offspring of adultery. For, had 
they come into existence contrary to the will and ordinance 
of that blessed nature of God, how could they have been 
delivered to angels to be brought up in great quietness 
and refreshment? and how could they with boldness have 
summoned their own parents to the Judgment-seat of 
Christ, to accuse them? saying: Thou, O Lord, didst not 
grudge us that light which is common to all: but these 
exposed us to death, despising Thy commandment ." 

6. " But the milk of the women, flowing from their 
breasts and congealing, says Peter in the Apocalypse, shall 
engender small beasts (perhaps serpents) that consume 
flesh : and these run up upon them and devour them : 
teaching us that the punishment comes on account of the 
sin (i.e. is suited to the nature of the sin). He says that 
they (the punishments) are born of the sins, just as for 
its sins the people was sold, and because of their unbelief 
towards Christ, as the Apostle says, they were bitten by 
serpents (i Cor. x. 9)." 

In Fragments 3 and 5 we have some puzzling problems. 


Let us, if possible, set out quite clearly the assertions which 
are made. 

1. Exposed infants are given to an angel, and educated, 
and attain a condition like that of an aged Christian. 

(Fr. 3-) 

2. Untimely births are given to an angel, and go 
through the experience of life. 

Another class is merely not punished. (Fr. 5 a.} 

3. A certain class of children (probably untimely births) 
is given to angels, even if born of adultery ; and is educated 
in a place of peace : they accuse their parents of exposing 
them to death. 

And for these facts the Apocalypse of Peter, the Scrip 
ture , and divinely-inspired writings are given as autho 

Our text of the Apocalypse tells us about the punish 
ment of the causes of untimely births, but it says nothing 
of infants exposed to death after birth. 

First, can we find reason for supposing that all the frag 
ments which I have quoted here came from the Apocalypse? 
Zahn denies that they do : he attributes Fr. 3 and Fr. 5 b 
to some unknown book l : principally on the ground that, 
reading xli. of Clement as one paragraph, we have 
the same book quoted twice, once without a name, once 
under its proper name : which is impossible : therefore two 
books are quoted. 

But I have already shewn sufficient reason for dividing 
the paragraph into two, as I think ; and with this division, 
the difficulty to a large extent disappears. Clement, in 
two adjacent passages of a continuous text (in which he 

1 He also reads TrapaSLSorai for Trapadidocrdai in 5 a, so as to confine 
the Petrine quotation to the first sentence of the paragraph: but this 
is really quite arbitrary. 


was very probably commenting on the Book of Wisdom) 
has twice quoted our Apocalypse, introducing his quota 
tions in slightly different terms. I think there is no other 
reason for denying the Petrine origin of the passage. 

Let me give my own theory of the reconstruction of the 
Fragments. They belong to the lost part of the Inferno, 
and to the explanations of things seen which must there have 
been given to Peter either by our Lord or by an angel. 
Peter has seen the women and the children born untimely 
(as in n): later on he sees women who have exposed 
their children, instead of suckling them : the milk of these 
unnatural mothers, which ought to have been given to their 
children, has engendered small serpents, which devour 
their flesh (Fr. 6). 

After the vision is over, Peter asks for explanation of 
certain parts of it. He is told, in particular, of the destinies 
of the two classes of children, untimely births, and exposed 
children. The untimely births are given over to a care- 
taking angel, and attain experience, and mature condition 
(Fr. 3, 5 a b). They accuse their parents at the bar of 
Christ (Fr. 5^). The exposed children only gain salvation 
in the shape of immunity from punishment (Fr. 50), pre 
sumably because they have been actually born, and have 
consequently entered the ranks of human life. 

Now to comment on the fragments, and see what can 
be drawn from them in justification of this reconstruction. 

Fr. 3 speaks of the exposed infants being given over to 
the angel, and, in fact, treated in the way elsewhere pre 
dicated of the untimely births. I am forced to regard t 
word exposed 1 as an inaccuracy of Clement s, or else as 
a wrong reading for abortive, which latter word can be 
obtained by a slight change. But the theory that i 

1 tKTtQivTQ. : what is wanted is 


inaccuracy is preferable; because the whole quotation is 
made in the most general terms possible : we have the 
same passage accurately (or more accurately) reproduced 
by Clement himself in Fr. 50 and by Methodius in $b. 

Very likely Clement is here commenting on a passage 
of Ecclesiastes (vi. 3, 4) where a long life and an untimely 
birth are compared together 1 . The words of Isaiah the 
child shall die an hundred years old 2 may be also in his 
mind. Notice that the word faithful occurs in i of our 
text. The clause in which this word occurs corresponds to 
the clause in 50, which is a paraphrase by Clement, in 
order that they may attain a share of knowledge, etc. 

4. The difference of language between this fragment 
and our text might lead one to suspect that the latter is a 
shortened one, or that Clement is quoting from memory. 
If the word flash be original it can be paralleled from 
Paul G 35 3 . Clement goes on to quote a text from 
Wisdom (iii. 7, 8) comparing the righteous to a spark 
among the stubble. 

50, b. The unique word for earetaking ** is made into 
a proper name in Paul and in the later Apocalypse of 
John 5 , and is applied to a chastising angel 6 . But, in 
effect, Paul has done much more than borrow a single 
word : in G 40 we have the following passage, which at 
once takes us back to the source of Fr. 5 b. 

" And the angel said to me These are they that defile 
themselves, and that killed their children. The children 

1 av yevi>r](rri a.vT)p e/caroi , /ecu &nj TroXXa ^aeraL...aiyaidbv virep avrbv 
rb KT/)w/m. 

2 Isa. Ixv. 7. 

5 Tischendorf, ApocalL Apocr. 70 94 : see p. 94. 

6 16, 34- 


therefore came crying : Avenge us of our parents. And 
they were given to an angel, that they should be taken to a 
place of ease, but their parents to eternal fire." In L 40, 
the text is fuller (the Syriac omits the whole section). 

And he answered me : These are women that defiled 
the image of God, (untimely) bringing forth infants from the 
womb, and these are the men that caused the sin. But 
their children appeal unto the Lord God and the angels 
which are over the punishments, saying : Avenge us of our 
parents : for they have defiled the image of God, having the 
name of God, but not keeping his commandments : they 
gave us to be devoured of dogs and trampled upon by swine, 
and others they cast into the river. But those children 
were given to the angels of Tartarus which were over the 
punishments, that they should take them to a place of ease 
and mercy. But their fathers and mothers were taken to 
eternal punishment 1 ." 

Paul does not make it quite clear whether he is speaking 
of infants bora untimely or exposed after birth : his words 
would apply to both classes. But this is of little moment, 
for we are not dealing with a quotation, but with a plagiarism, 

1 Et respondit mihi : Haec sunt mulieres commaculantes (00 pa<roi) 
plasmam dei proferentes (e/crpoWcu) ex utero infantes, et ii sunt uiri 
concubentes cum eis. Infantes autem earum interpellant dominum 
deum et angelos qui super penas erant, dicentes : Nefanda ora (sif. 
read : Vindica nos a) genitoribus nostris : ipsi enim commaculauerunt 
plasma dei, nomen dei abentes, sed praecepta eius non obseruantes 
dederunt nos in escam canibus et in conculcationem porcis: 
proiecerunt in flumine. Infantes autem illi traditi sunt angelis tartari 
qui erant super penas (the Latin invariably changes Temelu 
Tartaruchus), ut ducerent in locum spaciosum misericordia 
autem et matres eorum strangulabantur in perpetuam poenam. 
gulabantur seems to be a rendering of dirtfrxfr^w, whu 
reading for dm7 X 0i?<rai>, the word indicated in the Greek. 


and a certain amount of intentional variation is to be ex 
pected. An authority, cited earlier as having made use of 
our book, mentions both classes ; this is the Sibyl 1 . 

The two offences are specially forbidden in the Didache, 
and in Barnabas Epistle. And no doubt it would be pos 
sible to collect a good deal of somewhat unsavoury evidence 
to show the common occurrence of them in the ancient 
world. The writer of the Letter to Diognetus makes especial 
mention of the freedom of Christians from this form of guilt. 
They marry and beget children, like all the world : but 
they do not cast out the children when born. And the 
Apostolical Constitutions (vii. 3), in amplifying the prohibition 
of these sins in the Didache, add words which recall those 
of Paul and of Clement (Fr. 5 a) For everything that is 
fashioned in the likeness of man, and has received a soul 
from God, if it be murdered shall be avenged, having been 
unjustly slain 2 . 

I may note that, in the tract which Hilgenfeld calls the 
Judgment of Peter and others the Ecclesiastical Canons/ 
the prohibition of these sins is put into the mouth of Peter, 

1 Sib. Or. ii. 280. 6Wat 5 tvi yavrtpi 06/>rovs 

CKTpuffKovaiv, ocroi ro/ceroi)j plTrrovaw a^oytws. 

And in the Pseudo-Phocylides, part of which is interpolated in the 
same book, we have the same two sins mentioned, in a way which recalls 
the Latin Paul, viz. 1. 184. 

/x7/5^ yvvr) (pdeipoi (3pe<pos fyftpvov ZvSodi yaarpos, 

Cf. in escam canibus, etc. of Paul. 

2 (povevdtv ^KdiKf]6r)ffTaL, dSt/cws avaipedtv. It should be remarked, 
lastly, that the use of so strange a word as r^eXoOxos suits well with the 
habit of our author. Other uncommon words used by him are vap- 


which, whether the author intended a reference to the 
Apocalypse or not, is a very appropriate attribution. 

Fr. 6. This belongs to a description of torment seen 
by Peter in a part of the Inferno which either followed our 
text, or has dropped out of it. It almost certainly refers to 
the punishment of those mothers who exposed their children. 
Compare the following fragment from the Apocalypse of 
Esdras (p. 29) "And I saw a woman hanging, and four 
beasts 1 (or serpents) sucking her breasts. And the angels 
said to me : This woman grudged to give her milk, and 
also cast her children into rivers. " 

This quotation throws a good deal of light on our frag 
ment. We see at once that the meaning of it is that the 
milk of those women who exposed their children became 
the means of their punishment. They refused it to their 
children, and it engendered the serpents which devoured 
them. And the principle here inculcated, that the nature of 
the sin determines the nature of the punishment, is one which 
runs through a large part of our Apocalypse, and through 
almost all the later visions. It is an important one, specially 
prominent in Dante s Inferno, and I believe that it origi 
nated with the Apocalypse of Peter. 

Fr. 7. I have added this to the list, without any mis 
givings, for it appears to me to contain a distinct reminis 
cence of 7 and 9 of our Apocalypse 2 . 

Hilgenfeld includes among the fragments a quotation 
twice made by Hippolytus from the prophet, and found 
also in Commodian s Carmen Apologeticum (88690). If 
it is really from our Apocalypse, which, judging from the 

1 Oripia. The Apocalypse of the Virgin contains two or three very 
similar descriptions. 

2 Cf. especially p\aff<j>rifuui>, and ras 5ta K 6ff/Ji.ov rpixw M iropvdav 


terms in which it is introduced, I am rather inclined to 
doubt, it must have formed part of the introductory section 
in which the end of the world was predicted. It runs thus : 
"And another prophet also says: He (Antichrist) shall 
gather all his forces from the East even unto the West: 
those whom he hath summoned and those whom he hath 
not summoned 1 shall go with him: he shall whiten 2 the sea 
with the sails of his ships and blacken 3 the plain with the 
shields of his weapons: and every one that shall encounter 
him in battle shall fall by the sword (Of Antichrist, c. 15 
and 54). 

During all this discussion, I have taken it for granted 
that the fragment before us is part of the Apocalypse of 
Peter ; yet the seer s name is nowhere given. Is it certain 
that it is not meant for the work of someone else? The 
reasons which lead me to suppose that it does belong to the 
Apocalypse of Peter are as follows : 

(1) It is attributed to one of us the twelve disciples 
(an expression which, by the way, occurs in the Gospel also, 
and is inaccurate in both places) 2. 

(2) The author is the spokesman of the twelve disciples 


(3) A passage occurs in it which is substantially iden 
tical with a quotation from the Apocalypse of Peter. 

(4) We know of no other Apocalypse attributed to an 
Apostle which it would be possible to identify with this 
fragment, save, perhaps, the Revelation of Thomas : and it 
is really very doubtful whether that book ever existed. 

It is probable that the lost end of the book contained 

1 ofls KK\r)KOi Kal oOs ou /ce/c\77/coi. 2 "\evKavei. 

3 yiceXccj/e?. The vocabulary is curious, and, so far, is an argument 
for the Petrine origin. The use of KK\^Kot is so odd that one is tempted 
to guess that it is a rendering of a Latin uocauerit. 


the substance of Fr. 6, some explanations of the vision given 
by our Lord to Peter, and less certainly, some account of 
what happens to souls immediately after death. 

I have thus brought to an end a long and perhaps 
desultory investigation of this very interesting fragment. 
Many questions of high importance I have designedly left 
on one side 1 : many more I have, no doubt, failed through 
ignorance to ask. But I have tried to put into the hands of 
students the main results of a somewhat laborious examina 
tion of Christian Apocalyptic literature. And I hope that, 
however unattractive may be the subjects treated by Pseudo- 
Peter and by myself, and whatever the defects of their 
treatment, I have made it clear to students both of theology 
and of literature that they have in this book a document of 
the highest importance. How many of our popular notions 
of heaven and hell are ultimately derived from the Apoca 
lypse of Peter, I should be sorry to have to determine. But 
I think it is more than possible that a good many of them 
are; and that when we sing in church of a land where 

everlasting spring abides, 
And never-withering flowers, 

we are very likely using language which could be traced 
back with few gaps, if any, to an Apocalypse of the second 

1 The relation of the classes of sinners named in the Apocalypse 
to those found in the Didache ; the connexion of the Ritual of the. D 
the Pistis Sophia, and the Apocalypse of Zephaniah with our b 
are among these, as also the questions whether we have reason 1 
suppose that our text of the Apocalypse is a shortened one, and whei 
the author of the Apocalypse did not write the Gospel as well. 

R. J. 


I append a short note on resemblances between the Didache and our 

Didache. Apoc. 

i. ov (f>ovevo~fis 10 

ov /jt,oix evcrei s 9 

ov ira.idofidop /io eis . . . 17 

ov <povevo~eis TKVOV tv (frdopq,, ovot yevvr)6ev airo- 

Kreveis... ii 

ov \f/evdofji.a.pTVpr)0~eis... 14 

OVK <7?7 TrXeoveKTTjs 16 

3- P7^ ? 1 9 

<f)OV03 10 


(f>i\dpyvpos 1 6 

/3\a0-0T7/^a 7, 13 

5. 001/01 IO 

Tropvetai... 9 

\{/ev5ofj.apTvplai... 14 

eXeouvres TTTUXOV 1 5 

T^KVUV, (pdopels TrXafffJ-aros deov (cf. Paul, 
Lat. 40) 1 1 

TOJ* tvfeopevov, KaTcurovovvTes rbv 


TrXofcr^wj TrapdK\rp-oi 1 5 

The jPz^ j Sophia has a certain number of coincidences in vo 
cabulary (especially in pp. 117243 of the Latin translation): the 
words aidv, dpxovres (possibly in Apoc. 5 we should read apxpvTuv 
for apxtpw)i TOTTOS, fj.optpr}, Koayuoj, /c6Xcto"ts, are all prominent. In 
pp. 237 _ 243 a series of sins and their punishments is described : the 
sins are, abusive language, slander, murder, theft, pride, blasphemy, 
impurity. The punishments do not correspond with those in our 
book. However, the general situation is the same; revelations are 
imparted by the Lord to the disciples after the Resurrection. I 
have little doubt that the Apocalypse is, like the Pistis Sophia, of 
Egyptian origin, and that both have connexions with the Ritual of 
the Dead. 


1 ...T[OJV] Se louSatwv ouSeis tvLif/aro Tas ^ttpa?, Mt xxviii 24 
ouSe HpwS^s ovS" ets TWV KpiTtiJv avTOi). /cat fiov\r)9f.vrit)v 
vi\l/acr8ai avicrTYf IleiXdTOS. Kat TOTC KeXevet HpcoSvys o Lc xxiii n 
/3acrtXet>s 7rap[aAry/x]^>^^vat TOV Kvpioi . CITTCOI/ avrots ort 

5 "O<ra e/<eA.eucra vyiui/ Troti^crai aurai, TroiTycrare. 

2 f/ H/cei Se eKe^ Icocn)^) o <i A.os JletXarou Kat roO 
Kvpt ov, /cat eiSws on crTavptV/cctv awrov /xeAXoucrtv iyX^ev 
?rpo5 TOV IletXaTOV /cat ^rr/cre TO o"(o//,a TOU Kvpt ou ?rpos 
ra.^fjv. /cat o 5 UetAaros Tre^ti^as Trpo? HpcoS^v rjT^crfv Lc xxiii 7 

10 avroi) TO O-W/JLO. /cat o HptoS^s e^ ASeAc/)e HctXaTt, ei 
/cat jio; Tts avTov T^Trf/cet, 7^/xet? avVoi/ e^a-TTTo/xei/, eVct Kat 
o-d/SfSarov 7rtc/)ojo-/cet. yeypaTTTat yap ev TW royu.a) lyXtoi Lc xxiii 54 
/xTy 8 j/at eTTt Trec^oveu/xeVa) Trpo /uas TWV d^vfjiutv rrj<i kpj 1 v . 2< 

x x 

3 Ot 8e Xa/?oi/Tes TOI/ Kv piov co^ovi/ avToV Tpe- 
/cat eAcyov ^vpwfjifv TOV viov TOV Otov, t^ovcriav J 
eo~^KdTeS Kat 7rop<f)vpav avToV Trepte^SaXXov, Kat Mcxvi; 
avrov CTTI Ka^e Spav KptVeaJS XeyovTes AtKatw? Jn xix 13 
tve, /3aa-L\v TOV IcrparjX. Kat Tt? airrwf evey/cwv 
20 o"T^>avoj/ aKavOivov eOrjKfv e?rt T^? Kec^aXi^? TOU Kvptou. || 

Kat eVepot ecTTtoTes eve-rrTvov avrov Tats oi/^eo-t, Kat aXXot Ta5 Mt xxvi 67 f. 

2 oi)5 els] oi)5eij /cat] /cat [rcD^] 3 

eiXdrris /cat 5 ei<t\ev(r))ffa 16 

forsitan legendum evpo/m,fj> uel dpufJLff 



Jn xbc 34 o~tayovas avrov epaTrtcrav erepoi KaXa/xw evvo crov avVov 
Kat Ttves avYoV e/xao-Tiov Xeyon-es Tairn? TT; Tt/XT? Tt/x??- 
crayxej TO> vtov TOV $eov. 

4 Kat vJj/eyKov Svo KttKOvpyovs Kat ecrravpcocrav ava 
fj.<rov avruiv rov Kvptov. avros 8e ecrtwVa <Js /u,7/8ei/a 5 
rrovov e^wv. Kat ore upOaxrav TOV (rravpov 
on OTTO S eo-Tiv o ySacriAevs TOU IcrpaTyX. Kai 
ra evSv/Aara t/ATrpocrOtv avrov Ste/xcpto-avro 

Lcxxiiisgff. e^aXov TT avrots. ets 8e TIS rwi/ Ka/covpycuv 
(OVtot(7V avrov? Xeywi/ H//,t9 8ta ra KaKa a Tr 


TToav rt T^St/cTycrev v/xas; Kat ayavaKTT/o-avres CTT avraJ 
Jn xix 32 KeXo;<Tav tVa yu,7^ o KeX.OKOTrrjB fl, OTTOOS /^acra^t^o/xevos aVo- 


5 *Hv Se /io->7/x/?pta, Kat CTKOTOS Kare cr^e Tracrav TT)V 15 
lovSatav Kat eOopv/Sovvro KCU rjywviuiv fjLTJTrore 6 17X105 
eSv, eTrciSTy In ^17 yeypaTrrat [ya p] avrots lyXtov yaTy 
Swat 7rt 7re^>ovei;/xva). Kat TIS avrajv [| etTrev IToTtcrare 
2 9 auroV ^o^-^ A -fTa o^ovs- Kat KcpacravTes eVo ricrav, Kat 

Travra, Kat ereXetwcrav Kara rrjs Kec^aX^? 20 
a /xapr^/Aara. Trcpt^p^ovro 8e TroXXot /xera 

Jn xviii 3, 6 Xv^VCJV VOyU,t^OVT9 OTt VV^ eCTTtl/, CTTCCrai/ T. Kttt O 

Kuptos aveySoiycre Xeycoi/ H Swattts /^oi>, 7y 

/xe. Kat cnrwv dv\ijcf>0rj. KCU avrrj<; 
TO KaTaTreracr/xa TOV j/aoO T^S lepovo aX^/x ts 25 

Jn xx 25 6 Kat TOTE a-Treo-Trao-av TOVS 17X0^5 aVo TWI 

TOV Kvptov, Kat ZOrjKav avrov CTTI Tiys yrys* Kat 77 

2 TLjj.-fiffa.fJ.ev , fors. leg. 

5 fffiwira ws /i^S^ya] ^(TtWTracraj fJL-rjd^v 6 

10 divetStjaev 15 fieee pla 16 tdopovfiovvTO 
17 5ve fors. leg. ^Sycre 17 om. 7<ip 18 

21 Trepiepxovro 22 Zireyav re] eirfaavro 24 aur^s] 


eWo-#>7, Kai <o/3os p-e yas lyevero. rare ^Atos |\a//re Mt xxvii 5 , 
Kai cvpeO-r] wpa Ivdrrj- e^ap^aav Se ot lovSatot, Kai SeSu- 
Kacri TO) Iaja-^0 TO <rc5/xa auToO u/a avro 0a ^, tTretSi) 
0cao-a/xvos ^v oVa aya#a eVoi^crei/. \a(3w Sc TOI/ 
5 Kvptoi/ eXovo-e xat ctA-^cre o-ivSo vi Kat eio-^ yayev ets Me xv 4 6 
iStov ra(/)ov, KaXovyaevoi/ K.-TJTTOV lajo-T/^). , . 

7 Tore ot lovSauoc Kat ot Trpecr^Surepot Kat ot tcpcts, 
tSo vres otoi/ || KaKoV eaurots eVoa/crai/, yp^avro KO7rreo-^at 
Kat Aeyetv Ouat rats a/aapriais yjJuSv ^yyto-ev T) K/atats Lc xxiii 48 
10 Kat TO T A.os Ie/30uo-aA.7;/>t. eyw Se /xera TO>I/ CTatpcov 
Kat TT/ow/xeVot KaTa Stavotav Kpv/36- 

yap VTT auT<m/ (os KttKovpyoi, Kat (us 
ToV vaov ^e A.oi/Ts ep,7rprjarat. CTTI 8e TOVTOIS 7rao"tv evry- 

Kat eKaeoxea TTCVOWTCS Kat 

15 Kat r/xepa? eo? TOT (rarov. cf j n xx 2fi 

8 5ura^^eVTs 8e ot ypap,/xaTts Kat 4>apto"tttot Kat Mt xxvii 

7rpeo-y3uTepot Trpo s dXXtjXovs, aKovo-avrcs OTI o Aaos 

a?ras yoyyu^et Kat Ko7TTTat TCI CTTT]6r) XcyovTes OTI Et Lc xxiii 48 

TO) $ai/aVa> at ToG TaCra Ta /x,eyto*Ta o^/ma yeyovev, tSeTC 

20 OTt TTOCTOV StKatos eo"Ttv I(f)o(3ij0rj(rav ot ?rpcr/?i)Tpoi, Kat 
77/V$oT Trpos HetXaTov 8eo/xevot avTOt) Kat AeyovTcs Ilapa- 
809 ?^ o"TpaTtojTas, tva <^>vA.a^(joo"t TO fjLvrjfMa avrov frrl 
Tpets 77/x[epas], /X^TTOTC eA.^o^Tes || ot fiaOTfjral avrov 
K\if/a>(rw avrov, Kat vTro\d/3r) o Aaos OTI CK 

25 ai/ecTTry Kai TTOIT^O OJO IV T^/xtv KO.KO.. o Sf. 
TrapaSeScoKev aiJTOts TIeTpcai/tov TOV KVTVpt u>va 
o~TpaTta)Tc5v (frvXdcro fW TOV rdffrov Kat o"vv afTots rj\0ov 
7rpf(T/3vTpoL Kat ypapyxaTCts CTTI TO p,v^//.a, Kat KiAto~avTS 
At^ov (jLcyav /XCTO, TOT) KerruptWos Kai TOJV 

30 o jLtov ?ravT6s ot ovTes eKet eOfjKav 7ri rrj aupa TOU 

i eyeiorOv) i evpr)Qr) 5 <ni>36j>t[i ] 

13 evrjo Tevo^ev 1 6 e^vax^vres 22 0yX 

27 crrpaTiwrov 29 /xera] /cara 30 o^iol 

/xaros- Kai 7rexpio-av CTTTCI o-<payiSav, Kai (TK.t]vrjv e/cet 

9 Ilpo/ias Se 7Tt(^ojcrKOvro5 TOV o-a/3/3a.Tov TjXOfv 
o^Xos aVo lepovcraX^/x Kai -n/s Trepi^ajpov, iva 180x71 TO 

Mtxxviiii fj.v7]fj,eiov ecr^paytcr/xeVoi/ 777 Se VVKTI 77 cTrc^ajcrKei/ 77 5 
r), ^vXacro oi/Ttov TCOV orpaTtwroji/ ava 8uo Svo Kara 
zyo,\.v] <j>u>vr) eyevero ev r<3 ovpavw, 
TOVS ovpavovs /cat Svo ai/Spas || Ka 
TroXi; <^eyyo5 e^ovras, Kai eTriVravras TO) rct^xi) 

vos o ySe^SXry/xevos c?rt -ny ^vpa a</> eavrov 10 
e7r^ojp?;a-e Trapa /xepos* Kai o rac^os yvoi-yirj, KOL 
ot veavicrKOi io"fj\0ov. 

10 iSoVreg ovi/ 01 o-rpanwrai tKeivoi e^vTri/io ai rov 

Kai TGI;? 7rp(rf3vTpov<; TTdprjcrav yap Kai 
avroi <^>i;Xao cro^Tes. Kai ecpyyoiyicvwv avrcov a i8ov, 15 
7raA.iv opwo-iv e^cX^ovras aTro ro ra^>ov rpeis ai/Spas, || 
Kai TOVS Swo TOV eVa vVop^owTas, Kai o-raupdj/ aKoAov- 
OOVVTO. at/rois* Kai TOJV /xev Suo TT)V Ke(f>a\rjv xwpov- 
arav /xe^pi TOU oupaj/ov, TOI! 8e ^eipaywyo^/xevoi; vV 
avTtuv vTrepySaiVovcrav rovs ovpai/ou? Kai ^XJDJ/T^S T^KOVOV 20 
[i Pe iii 19] ^ K T( 3 V ovpavuv Xeyovays EK7ypvas rois 


11 5weo-Ke7TTO^TO ow aXA^Aois cKeivoi 
/cai ev^avicrai ravra TW ZleiXara). Kai In S 

<^aiVoi/rai 7raA.iv dvoi^^eVres 01 ovpavoi, Kai aV- 25 
Ti5 KareA^tuv Kai eicreA^cov tis TO jLvrJia. ravra 

s 9 

IO \eldos II fors. leg. virex^p^cre 61/01777 

15 atf-rot] ai> ot 1 6 6 pa(rii %e\66vTOS Avdpes 

17 a,KO\o0oi VTa ig TOV de xeipayu yovfji.ti ov] TOV 5e 

Xetpa r TOV^VQV 20 0wv7? -21,22 Koivu[j.ei>oi$ 

Kai i}TTo.Kor). -fjKoteTO 22 ort Nat] rti/at 


ot ?rept TOV KevTvpiu>va VVKTOS ccrTrcwav 
IleiXaTOV, a<evTS TOV Tac^ov ov e(vXao"o"ov Kat 
o~avTO TravTa aVep etSov, ctywviuJvTes /xeya Xa)? Kai Xe-j 
AXTy&Gs vid<> r)v 6eov. aVoKpi^eis d IIeiXaTO5 (77 Eyco 
5 TOV at/xaTOS TOL mov TOV 0eov- v/xtv 8e TOVTO Mt xxvii 24 
;8oev. ctra Trpoo-cX^dvTes TravTes eSeovTO avTov Kai Trapc- 

KttXoVV KXeVO"at TO) KCVTVplOOVt Kttt TOtS O~TpaTlWTat5 /X^SfV 

etTTctv a eTSov. ^v^ix^epei ya p, ^>ao~tv, yjfjJiv d<^>Xi^crat /xe- 
yi crTryv a/xapTiav p-7rpoo"0V TOV ^eov, Kai /XT/ c/xTrco etv cis 
10 yct^pas TOV Xaov T(3v lovoatwv Kai A.iuao u rjvQ.i, tKtXcv- 
o*V ovv d IlctXaTO? T(3 KevTvpta)v[t] Kai TOIS o"TpaTiwTats 
jixrySev eivreiv. 

1 2 "OpBpov 8e TT^S KVpiaK^? Mapia/x ry MayoaX^v??, 
ixa^Tpia TOV Kvpiov ([^Tts] (^O/^OV/XC VT; 8ta TOVS lovSaiovs, cf. Jn xix 3 
15 eVeiS?) e^Xe yovTO || vVd T^S dpy^s, OVK eTrotTyo-ev CTTI TO) 

/xv7//xaTi TOV Kvptov a etw^eo-av Trotctf at yvvaiKc? eVt Jn xix 4 o 
Tots d7roOvf](rKovo-L Kat TGI? aya7ra>p.eVois avVat?) Xa^ovo-a 
eavr^S Tas <i Xas 77X^6 CTTI TO /xv77/xeiov OTTOV >;v 
Kat e^)Oj8ovvTO /XT) iSwo-ti/ avVa? 01 lovSaiot, 
20 Kai eXcyov Ei Kat /U,T) i/ CKCiVry TTJ ^/xepa 17 eo-Tavpwtfy 
KXavcrat Kat KO^ao-Oai, Kai vvv 7ri TOV /XKJ;- 

TroiT/o-w/xev TavTa. Tts 8c aVoKvXicrei TJ/XII/ Me xvi 3 ff. 
Kai TOV Xitfov TOV Te^eVTa cvri TT/S ^v pa? TOV /x^/xeiov, 
iva to-eX#ovo-ai TrapaKa^eo-^w/xev avVw Kai 
25 TCL o ^eiXo /xei a; ^cyas yap T^V d Xt flos, Kat 

/xr; Tt? 77/xaS iS|7- K 01 " 1 c i ^ Swatxefla, KUV eVt TT^S 
ySctXw/xev a ^epo/xci/ is /xv>y/xoo-vVr;i/ avrov, KXavVo/xev Kai 

KO\ll6u.(.6a. I(JL)S (.\6(DLLV 15 TOV OIKOV T^/XCOV. 

13 Kai aVeX0ovorat evpov Tdv Ta>ov yyvccoy/xcvov- 1 
30 Kai Trpoo-cXflovcrai TrapeKV^av 6K6I, Kai dpcGatv eVeT Ttvci Jn xx 

13 ^? r "Ma 7 5aX t 4 ^ 4 om. ^m 17 > 

j ,,^Lffrfini 27. l8 forS. 


Me xvi 5 f. veavtcTKOV Ka0eo/xevov ju,eo~a> TOV Ta<f>ov, oopatov Kat Trept- 
j3f/3Xr)iJievov \\ (TToXifjv Aa^wrpoTaT^v OO~TIS (17 a^TaTs Tt 
r/XBcLTf.; Ttva ^TCITC; /X7y TO V V crTavpwOevTa CKCIVOV; dvicrTt] 
Kat aTr^A^ev et Se /xr; Trto-TeutTe, TrapaKvi^aTC Kat tSeTe 
TOV TOTTOV tv^a KtTO, OTt ovK lorTtv dv.arTf] yap Kat 5 
aTrrjXOcv CKCI o^ev aTreoTaA??. TO TC at yuvatKes <j>of3r)- 

14 T Hv 8e TeAeimxta ijfjiepa ro3v a^v/xcov, Kat TroAAoi 
Lc xxiii 48 rtves eijpxovTO vTroo-rpi^ovr^ ets TOVS OIKOVS auT(ov, T^S 

eopr^s Traucra/xeV^s. ry/xets 8e ot ScoSe/ca /jLaOrjToi TOV 10 
Kupioi; KXatOjU,ev /cat eAvTrov/xe^a Kat eKaaros XVTTOI;- 
Lc xxiv 14 juevos Std TO O"v/Jif3dv a.TT rjXXa.yrj ets TOV o*/cov avToiJ. eya) 
Jnxxi2f. 8e ^t/>ta)v IleTpos Kat AvSpcas o aSeA^os /xov Aa/3ovTes 
T;/X(OV Ta AtVa aTTijX6afji.v eis TT}I/ OdXao-crav Kat ^v crvv 
Me ii 14 ^tv Aevets o TOV AAxjWov, ov [d] Kuptos.... 15 

4 TTto-reiyerat I Sare 5 ^mi/] forsitan addendum cS5e 

6 0o/3??0e?s 15 om. 6 


r . ..TToAAoi, e auTooi/ ccrovrai ij/ev&oirpofprJTaL, KaiMtxxiv24 
ooovs KCU Soy/iOTa Troi/aAa rrjs aTrooAetas StSam>(n.v e/mvoi Me xiii 22 
Se utoi r^s aTTcoAcias yei/^VovTcu. KCU TOTC eXeucrerat o Jn *vii 12 ; 

/) v > v v / v - N * , x 2 Th " 3 


5 @Xi/3o/j,evov<S) KOL tv TOUTW TOJ ^8tco ra? \j/v^d<; eavraJv SOKI- 2 Th i. 6, 7 
/aa^oi Ta? KCU /cpivct TOUS vtovs TT^S ai/o/xta?. 

2 Kat Trpoo-^ets d Kvptos e^r; v Ayw/i,ev ct? TO opos Mt xxvi 30, 
[Kat] Tjaj/x,e#a. ctTrepxo/xei/06 Se /XCT avroS jy/xeis oi 8a>- 46; Lcix28 

SeKa paOfjTal eSe^^/xev OTTCOS Sei^jy r/^ eva TOJI/ 
10 77/x-(3j/ [TWV] StKatcov TOJV 6^eA.^di/Ta)V (XTTO ToG KOCT/U.OU, iva 
curt TT)(/ fwp<f>ijv, Kol Oapcnj(ravT<; Trapa- 
KOI TOUS aKouoi/Tas ry/^wv 
3 Kai cu^o/xeVwi/ T^/AWV a[^>i/w </> 

0-TO>T65 CfJiTTpOO-OeV TOV KvpLOV TTpOS ?[w, Ois] OVK 

15 Orjfjifv dvripXtyai- e^ pX TO 7"P * 7r ^ [oji^ews 

aKTiv ws TJAibt;, /cat fyu-nvov fy a.v[ruv o\ov TO] cvSu/xa, JJj 
OTTOtoi/ ouSeVoTe 6(f)Oa\fJio<; dv6pu7r[ov cTScv, ouSe] o"To /xa , C 
rj Kap[8t a K<pdW|i TT)V So ^av T/V 



SiSd^wcriv 3 aTToXet ay 







xs diif/ovTas 

7 opous ev^iti/Jifda 

8 c 




. ruv (pr.) 

i ^ a .... of rat 



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eveSe SvvTO, Kai TO KaA[Aos TT/S 7rpo(rd]i//cos || avi 

tSo vTes @a/j./3<a6r)iAW rd /xev yap craj/xaTa avToov 77 

Mt xxviii 3 Tcpa 7rda"r]<s ^dvos Kai IpvOporepa TravTos pdSov, Se TO IpvOpov avTcov T(S ACVKO), Kai a7rA<3<j ov Swa/xat 
e^rjytjo a.a dai TO KaAAos avVuJv 17 re yap KO[j.r) avYaJv ovAr^ 5 
^v Kat dvOrjpd Kai 7ri7rp7rovo~a auTa)i/ TCU TC 7rpoo"a)7ra) Kai 

TOT? WlXOtS, (jOO"7TpCt O~T^>aVOS 6K VttpOOO TttX l OS TTCTrAey- 

Ecclus I 8 /u-evos Kai TrotKtAwv av^wi^, 17 coo~7Tp Ipts ev aept, roiavrf] 

r)v avrwv r) euTrpcTreta. 
Actiiin 4 iSdvTe? ovv auTaiv TO KaAAos K^a/x^Sot yeydva/xev 10 

Trpds avTOi)9, fTreior} d<f>vu> fcfravrjcrav, Kai 7rpoo~eA$wv TO) 
Apoc vii 13 Kvpto) cTTrov Ttves etcriv OUTOI j Aeyet /xot O^TOt eurtv ot 

aSeAc^oi v/xtov ot StKatot (Si/ rJ^eA^o"aTe Tas /xop^as tSetv. 

Kayo) (f>tjv avTa) Kai TTOV ctcrt 7rai/T65 ot SiKatot, r) TTOIOS 
cf. Me x 30 eo-Tiv d atwi/ ev <S etcri TavT^i/ e^ovTes TT/V 8dai/ ; 15 

5 Kai d Kuptos eSet^e /u,ot /xeyto-TOv \wpov CKTOS 

TOVTOU TOl) KOfTLLOV V7rpAaU,7TpOV TOJ ^)(OTl, Kttt TOV ttptt 

TOV 6Kt aKTto~tv TyAiou KardXa/JLTTo/JLtvov, || Kat Tr^v yiyv 
i Pet i 3, v 4 avTTfjv dvOoixrav d/jLapavrots dvOecri, Kai apwyu,aT(ov TrAr/pry 

Kat <f>in"(3v evavucov Kat a^vapTtov Kat Kfipirov f.vA.oyr)[Jivov 20 
TOO-OUTOV 8e ^v TO a^^os ok Kai e<^> ?;/xas eKei- 

Ot 8e OtK7^TOpS TOV TO7TOV KtVoV v8eSv- 

cf. Mt xxii /xevot ^O"av v8v/xa ayye Aoov ^(oTtvalv, Kai o/x.otov ?yv TO 

30; Mcxii v . , ^ , , ^ v , 

25 evouua avTcov TTI vtopa avToov ayycAot oe TrepteTpevov 

avTovs eKetcre to"^ Se T^V >/ Sd^a TOJV CKCI otKryTOpov, Kai 25 
w,ta (bdivn TOV Kvptov ucov avv^>??/xovv, f^>patvo^tcvot 


TOTTOS T(3v apxptov v/xojv Twv StKaiwv 

i/ ews 2 XevKorepov 

4 rcJj Xeu/fc5v 6 /caj> dvdepa 7 uffTrep els 

7, 8 J apSwrraxi OS TreTrXevfj.evos 8 roi.a. UT qv 13 ^//A 

22 S^ ot /c.] dioucfjTopes evdedvpfros 26 roC Kvpiov deov 

28 dpx^pwi ] fors. apxie/^wj , uel ade\(f)uv ut supra 



prjpov TTavv, /cat rjv TOTTOS KoAao-ews- /cat ot KoAa^d^evot 
e/cet Kat ot KoAaovTcs ayycAot o~KOTtvoV etvov avVuji/ TO 
Kara TOV acpa TOV TO TTOV. 

7 Kat Ttves rjcrav CKtt CK T^? -yXwcro-T;? /cpe/xa/xevot- 

Se 7]<rav ot ^Aao"<^>y/xowT6? TT)V oSov TT^S St/catoo"uv^s Mt x.\i 32 
/cat vTrtKeLTO avrot? Trvp (^Aeyo /xcvov /cat KoXa ^oi/ auTou?. 

8 Kat Xt/xvT^ Tt? -^i/ fJifydX-r] 7re7rX7ypa)/xeV7y || fiopfiopov Apoc xix 20 
^Xcyo/xeVov, cv a> ^o-av avOpwTroi, Tivt? a7roo-Tpec/)orTs T?;I/ 

10 St/catoo"vy>yi , Kat eTre/cetyro avrots ctyyeA.ot ^8acravto"Tat. 

9 Ho*av 8e Kat aXAat ywatK9 TWV TrXoKa/xoJi/ er]p- cf. i Pet iii 3 
rrjfJievai txvcorepio TOV (3op/36pov CKCIVOV TOV a^a7rac/)Aa- 

^oi/T09" avT[at] 8e -^o~av at Trpos /xoi^ctav Koap. qOeicrar ot 

8e o~v/XjU.t[^^evTes] avTcov TO) /Mtaa/xaTt Ti75 /xot^cta? CK TOJV 

15 TToSoov [lycrav] K[pe/xa/xevot, Kat] Tas Ke^aXa? cT^ov ei TW 

/3op(3op\u>, Kat TravTe?] eAeyov OVK CTTto Tevo^cv 


10 Kat TOV? Covets e/^AcTTOi/ Kat TOV? 

avTOts /?ySA7iaeVovs ei/ Ttvt TOTTOJ Te^Atu/x,i aj Kat Trc-rrXr)- cf. Mt vii 14 
v l c v Sap Sal xvi 5 


Kttt OVTOJ CTTp6C/)O/XeVoVS tKCl V TV] KO\O.(Tfl 

c avTot? crKOjA^Kcs alo-7rep ve^e Aat M C ix 44 
CTKOTOV?. at Se i^vvat TWV 7rec/)ovev/jiei/cov o~Tojo-at Kat 
eciopd)0-at TT^V Ko Aao-tv eKCtVcoi/ TOJJ/ c/>oveojv eAyov O ^co ?, cf. Apoc xyi 

c r 7 (*=> xvilt 

25 oiKata o~ov 77 Kptcrts. 

1 1 nA^o-tW 8e TOV TOTTOV cKCtvov eTSov ercpov TOTTOV Jl 
eW, ev [w] o tx<*Jp at ^ SvcrwSia TWV KoAao/xeV<oi/ 

I eratpov TOTTWI/ I, 2 

3 (T/coXafoi/Tej 3, 4 r6 fr8u/*a] ivdedvf^va 

13 ot] ^ H cri MMt[tai Tts] /uotxaj] 

15 7ro . . . . K ......... ras 16 

otK Mffrevov tvc\. 18, ig ffvvetfforas atrofo 11 ovrw 

27 om - V 


Kareppee Kat wcnrep XI/JLVT) eytvero e/cet /cctKCt 

vi<rai roV t^copa /^^XP L T( ^ 

vs avrwr TroXXoi TratScs O[ITIV]S uoopot ITLKTOVTO 
\at.ov Kat TrpOT/p^ovro e av[rtov (^Xo yjes 
Kai ras yv^atKas eTrXvyo crov Kara r<2v o<$aA//,a5i/* 5 
Sap Sal xii 5 aurai Se rj&av a[i rot /3pe(f>Y] (f>0etpo]vcrai, Kat KTpo>- 

1 2 Kttt erepot [avSpes] Kat ywatK <j>\ey6fjivoi 
^crav yae^pt TOV >yp.tcrows avrcoi/, Kat /^e/SAr^evoc ei/ TOTTO) 

(TKOTtVU) Kttt jUa<rTlo/ZVOl V7TO 7rVD//.aTa)V TTOVrjpWV, Kttt IO 

ecr^id/Aevot ra CTTrXay^va VTTO crKO)A.r7K(ov aKOt/xryrcov ovrot 

oe rjcrav ot 8to)avTes TOIJ? StKatof? Kai TrapaSoi/res avrovs. 

13 Kat 7r\r)(Tiov eKtVa>i TraXtv yvi^aiKCS Kat avSpes 

/xacrtoynevoi avrajv ra ^f.i\ri Kat KoXa^o/xei^ot, Kai TreTrvpw- 

/x-evov crtSr/pov Kara TOJV o(fiOa.\/ji(Zv Aa/x/3avovTS ourot Se 15 

Act xix 9 jytrav ot /3\acr(f>r}fj(. ija a.vTf<s Kat KaKcos CITTOVTCS rryv o Sov 

14 Kat KaravTtKpu TOUTO)!/ aXXot TraAtv avSpes Kat 
Apoc xvi 10 ywauces ras yXoxrcras at>T<ov /xao"co/x,vot, Kat TTiip <^>A.yd- 

juevov e^ovres ev TW (rrd/xarf ovrot Se rjcrav ot i^euSojaap- 20 

15 Kat ev erepa) rtvt TOTTU) ^aXtKes ^o~ai/ o^vrepot 
^t<j[>a)V Kat Travros o /5eXtcrKov TreTrupco/xevot, Kat yvj/atKes 

Jac ii 2 Kat aVSpes pa K^ pvirapd ei/SeSv/xeVoi cKvA-tovro CTT avrcoi/ 

OUTOI 8e ^crav ot TrXovrowi/TCS Kat rep TrXoura) 25 
7r7rot$OTS Kat p.?} cXe^cravTcs opcfravovs Kat 
a XX a/xeXrfo-ai/Te? r^s 61/70X775 rou ^eou. 

1 6 Ev Se trepa \i/j.vrj /LteyaX^ TT7rXrjptafji.vr} 
Kat atyLtaros Kai fiopfidpov ava^eovros to~T7JKCto"ai/ ai/Spes 

3 TralSes o ..... era . wpot 4 au ....... ey irvpos 

6 rjaav apa ............. v<7at 8 Zrepoi ...... /cai 

17 TrapaS/vres 28 Trt crcrT/j] TTO LOV fors. Triffffrjs /cat #e/oi; 

29 popjSopu) dvaftovres 


Kal ywawces /xe xpt yovdrw ovrot 8e ^aav ot Sai/i ovTS 
Kai aTrarroiWes TOKOUS TOKODV. 

17 [Kai] aAAot aVSpes Kai yuvatKes aVo 
/xeyaAou Karao-Tpec/jo /zei/ot rjp-^ovTO KOITW, Kat 
15 eXavvovro T;TTO rwi e-TrtKei/xeVwi/ ai/a/^^vai ai/w || CTTI TOU 

KpTfJfAVOV, KOI KaT(TTpe^)OVTO fKfWfV KO.TU, KCU TyCTV^t aV cf. Apoc. xi 

OV K eT^ov CXTTO ravT^? r^5 KoXacrcoJS ourot 8e >;o-av ot R om j 26 
/xtavavres ra o-w/xara eaurcov ws yvi/aiK9^6^voi 
al 8e /XCT aurwi/ yui/atKes, aurai ^crav at o-vyKOLfj.r)Oel(raL 
10 aAAr/ Aais oJs av av>}p Trpos ywatKct. 

1 8 Kai Trapa rw /cp^juW) e/cetVa) TOTTOS ^i/ Trvpo? 
TrXeto-rou ye/xoov, KaKei lo-TTyKeto-av ai- Spes otrtves rats iStat? 
Xpo-t ^oava eavrois e-Trot^crav avri ^eov. 

19 Kat Trap e/ccivois avSpe? crepot Kat 
15 paySSovs IXOVTCS Kat aXA.r/Xovs TVTrrovre? at 

Travo/xcvot T^S TOtavTTys /coXacrecos. 

20 Kat e repot TraXiv eyyvs CKCIVCOV ywatxc? Kat 
avSpes ^)Xeyo/xerot Kai crrpec^o/xevot Kat r>/yai/t^oyu. Of 
ovrot Se "^(rav ot a ^e^re? TT)^ oSov rov ^coii. ... Me vh 8 

3 [/cat] #XXot] aXXa 6 /caracrrp^oi To 

i tSi 19 


1. [This and the following fragment probably 
preceded our text.] 

a. Ilcpioucrias 8 eveKev XeXex$a> Ka/ceti/o TO XeXey- 
l*.ivov iv rrj ATroKaXvi/ ei TOV IleYpou. eicmyet rov ovpa- 
vov a//,a rrj yrj KpiBr)arcr6a.i ourcos *H yfj, t^crt, Trapa- 
Travras TO) ^(5 ev 7^/xepa /cpicreoos /cai avTTy /u-eA.- 
Kptvfo-OaL (rvv KOL rco Trepte^oirt ovpavip. Ma- 
carius Magnes Apocritica iv. 6, p. 164. 

$. H y^ 0ew /cpii/o/aeVous KptVews, /xc XXovo-a /cat 
O.-UTI; ovpavio. ut supra, ^/. V. iv. 16, p. 185. 

2. Kcu c/ctvo 8 av$ts Xeyet, o Kai ao-e/3eias /xecrroi/ 
vVap^et TO piy/xa <ao-/coV Kat TaK7;o-eTat 7rao-a 8i;va/xts 
ovpavov, /cat f.\L^Brj(Tf.Ta.i o ovpavos ws y8t^8Atov, Kat 7raj/Ta 
Ta ao-T/oa Treo-eiTat ws <f>v\\a e^ a/u,7reA.oi;, /<at a5s TTLTTTCL 
<f>vX\a aTro 0-UKT79. <^. V. iv. 7, p. 165. 

Compare Isa. xxxiv. 4. 

3. [Probably this and the following fragments are 
to be placed either in or after our text.] 

H ypo.<fnj (770-1 Ta j3pe<f>r) ra cKTf.6f.VTa. Try/xeXou^o) 
7rapa8t 8oo-^at ayyeXa), i;< ou 7rat8eveo-^at Te Kat av^cw 
Kat eVovTat, <pr]crlv, cJs ot KaTov T(ui/ ei/Tav^a TrtcrTOt. 

Clem. Alex. Eclogae ex Script f. Proph. xli. 

4. Ato Kat IleTpos ei/ T^ ATroKaXvi/^et <^77crt Kat 

eKtI/COI/ Kttt 


TrXrjcrcrovcra rows o^>$aX/Aous ruV yuvaiKtSi/. Clem. Alex. 
I.e. Cf. ii of our text. This 4ist section of 
Clement s Eclogae has been hitherto looked upon as 
one and continuous: it appears to me clear that it 
consists of two parts. 

5 a. (cf. 3) AvTtKa o Herpes eV rfj 
O. /3pe<^77 [TCI] ea/A/3Xa>$eVra rrj<; d/xeivo 
\j:od. Trctpasj ravra ayye Xcp T^/xeAou^a) TrapaSt- 
BoarOai, iva yi/a>o"eu>s /xeraXa/3oj/Ta T^S a/Aci voi/os rv^ 
fjLovfjs, TraOovra. a av evra^ev /cat ei/ crco/xart yevo/xci/a ra 
S crepa /AOVV^S 7-175 (Tcor^ptas rcu ^erat, o5s 7;SiK7;/xeVa e\- 
yOevTa, Kol [Atvei (or /xevet) at eu KoXafjews, TOUTO ye pas 
\af36vra. Clem. Alex. I.e. xlviii. 

5 ^. "O^ev 817 /cat T^eXou^ots ayyeXots, Kav CK 
/itot^et as (Scri, ra cxTroriKTO/xcva TrapaStSocr^ai 7rapetX^(/)a- 
/A6V ev ^eoTrj/evcrTots ypo.jj.fjiO.cnv. ei yap Trapa ri)i/ yi/w/xr/i/ 
eytVovro /cat TOV ^ecr/xoi/ TT^S /xaKapias 6KtV^s </)t o-6o)s TOU 
^eoi), TTwg ayye Xot5 raura TrapeStSoro 
?roXX^5 avaTravcrews Kat pao-rcoVr/s ; TTOJS Se 
(rovra <T(f)<j)v CLVTWV TOV5 yovet5 
8iKao"T7yptov e.KiK\rj(TKOv rov Xptcrrov* 2i> 
, <S Kwpte, TO Koti/dv, XeyovTa, TOUTO f&Oevro, K 
S. Methodius, Conviv. Virg. ii. 6. 
6. To 8e yaXa TOJV ywaiKciov peoi/ avro TOOV 
7rr/yvi; ^evoj/, (frrjcrlv 6 Herpes eV TT} 

O rjpia. XCTTTCI crapKO<^>aya, Kat avaTpe^oyTa ets 
Sta ras a/xaprtas ytvco-^at ras /coXao-cts 
8t8ao-/<a)i/. K TCOJ/ a/xapTiwi yevvdo-0at auTa s ^crti/, ws Sap Sal xv 
8ta ras a/xapTtas tTrpdOr] 6 Xads, Kat Sta T^y ts XptcrToi 2 p e t ii 19 6 

aVlO-Tl ttV, OJS (f>7]0-lv O ATTo o-ToXoS, U7TO TO>1/ O<f>(U)V tStt- 

KVOVTO (i Cor. x. 9). Clem. Alex. <?/. ?. xlix. 


7. The following passage may probably contain 
an allusion to the Apocalypse : 

Ei7ro/iev ok KoXacrets curt /^Aacr^/zicov, <\vapias, aVo- 
XaVrwv prj/JLaTaiv, A.oya> KoAao//,ei/a>v /cat 

8e [^. o Trpecr/^irnys : cf. 1.] /cat Sta ras 

KCU TOV KOCT/XOV ras yvvatKas VTTO Swa/xeco? 
r^s 7ri TOVTOt? TCTay/xeDys, -^ Kai T(3 2a/xi^(ov 8wayu.iv 
Trapet^e rats 6pitv, 17x15 KoAaei ras Sta KocrfJiov rpt^wv 
CTTI Tropvfiav opfiwo-a?. 

Clem. Alex. <?/. V. xxxix., xl. The latter half of 
xxxix. should evidently be joined to xl. 



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