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Full text of "The gospel of Barnabas"

iru 



THE 

GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 



EDITED AND TRANSLATED FROM 

THE ITALIAN MS. IN THE IMPERIAL 

LIBRARY AT VIENNA 



LONSDALE AND LAURA RAGG 



WITH A FACSIMILE 



OXFORD 

AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 

1907 



1307 



EMMANUEL 



HENRY FEOWDE, M.A. 

PUBLISHER TO THE UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD 

LONDON, EDINBURGH 
NEW YORK AND TORONTO 



/t, 19 / 



f 90 



PREFACE 

Two articles in the Journal of Theological Studies 
may be said to have paved the way for the present 
publication. The first of these, by Dr. William 
Axon, appeared in April, 1902 ; the second, by one 
of the present editors, exactly three years later. 

The translation of the Arabic glosses was begun by 
Major Marriott, D.S.O., and has been completed by 
Professor Margoliouth (to whose valuable Note on 
p. xlviii we desire here to call attention) : that of the 
Italian text, together with the general editing of 
the MS., is the work of Lonsdale and Laura Ragg. 
The translators have endeavoured to preserve the 
archaic form and something even of the crudeness 
of the original. Where the text follows that of 
the Bible exactly, they have adopted the language 
of the Revised Version, from which also has been 
adapted, with slight modifications, the form into 
which the Scripture references are cast. The more 
obvious important parallels from the Qoran will be 
found either cited or referred to in the footnotes, 
which, for the rest, have been reduced perforce to 
the smallest possible dimensions. 

Appended to the Introduction will be found the 
most important passages bearing on the Barnabas 



a 2 



iv PREFACE 

\ 

controversy from the eighteenth-century writers, 
while the text itself is followed by a full (and, it 
is hoped, accurate) index of Scripture references, 
with such subject-index as was practicable. 

The translators have encountered many unfore 
seen difficulties during the four years in which the 
work has been in their hands ; much of the trans 
lation has been hewn out on pilgrimage, or in small 
hotel rooms, and far from books of reference. 

But the hindrances have been more than matched 
by the generous and ungrudging help that they 
have received, especially from Italian savants, 
whose courtesy is, indeed, proverbial throughout 
Europe. Among those to whom they desire to ac 
knowledge their debt are Padre Minocchi of Florence, 
Professors Guidi and Monaci of Rome, Professors 
Nallino and Cesareo of Palermo, Professor Crescini 
of Padua, and Commendatore Malagola of the 
Venetian Archivio. 

Outside Italy their acknowledgements are due 
first and foremost to Prof. J. Hitter von Karabacek, 
Director of the Imperial Library at Vienna, and 
to his learned and amiable colleague Dr. Rudolph 
Beer, whose kindness has not limited itself to a 
laborious collation of the entire MS. To M. Briquet 
of Geneva thanks are due for an opinion on the 
subject which he has made his own. 

Among English friends they would recognize 
with gratitude the services rendered by Dr. Paget 
Toynbee, whose friendly criticism of their earlier 



PREFACE v 

chapters was of no small value ; by the Rev. H. G. 
Grey, of whose learning they would fain have made 
a fuller use ; and by Prof. F. C. Burkitt, to whom 
they owe several valuable suggestions. The authori 
ties of the Clarendon Press have shown no small 
kindness and patience ; and to Dr. Sanday the editors 
are particularly grateful, since to him they owe their 
connexion with a task which, whatever the character 
of its results, has been to them one of remark 
able interest. The long period over which the work 
has been spread and the difficulties under which 
it has been carried out must be held responsible 
for some of the anomalies and inequalities which 
disfigure it ; but the editors are all too conscious 

o 

of many blemishes and shortcomings in a task which 
none but an expert in two or three different lines 
could hope to achieve to perfection. 

"JL. R 
f* \ ** / 

J \ ^ / 

VENICE, 

All Saints Day, 1906. 




CONTENTS 



INTRODUCTION 

I. Codices of Barnabas . 
II. Subject-matter of Barnabas 

III. The Question of the lost Gnostic Gospel 
Note by Professor Margoliouth 

IV. Extracts from Documents relative to Bar 
nabas . 

CLASSIFICATION OF SCRIPTURE REFERENCES 
DEDICATORY PREFACE, BY J. F. CRAMER 

THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS : PARALLEL 
TEXTS 

GENERAL INDEX. 
INDEX OF SCRIPTURE REFERENCES 
INDEX OF REFERENCES TO THE VULGATE AND 
QOR!N 



PAGES 
ix-lxxvi 
x 
xvii 

xlv 
xlviii 

1 

Ixxvii 
Ixxix 

2-489 
490 

497 

500 



ADDENDA ET CORKIGENDA 

CONSEQUENT ON A COLLATION OF THE TEXT BY L. R. 
Oct. 3, 1906. 

P. 46 (aa a ) expunge note : translate looketh towards Tyre. 
P. 56 (27") note reading transf. to text : note expunged. 
P. 80 (s6 b ) expunge note. 
P. 82 (38*) reading transf. to text ; notes expunged. 

P. 96 (43 b ) 

P. 176 ( 79 a ) [note 2] 

P. 264 (123-) 

P. 268 (125*) 

P. 286 (134*) for quetta in text read quelle. 



INTRODUCTION 



I. CODICES OF BARNABAS. 

i. The Italian and Spanish MSS. : Barnabas in the eighteenth 
century Story of the Italian MS. Story of the 
Spanish MS. Relation of Spanish to Italian Descrip 
tion of the Vienna MS. 

ii. Supposed Arabic original : An hypothesis based on hypo 
theses. 



II. SUBJECT-MATTER OF BARNABAS. 

i. Dependence on the Christian Bible : Use of the Canonical 
Books in Barnabas Dependence betrayed especially in 
the writer s Harmony of the Gospels No first-hand 
knowledge of Palestine in first century Barnabas and 
the Vernacular versions Use of the Vulgate Bearin- 

o O 

on question of authorship. 

ii. Jewish and Mohammedan material: Barnabas and the 
Qoran Use of apocryphal Gospels Use of Rabbinic 
legends Barnabas systematizes and develops hints in 
Qoran Specific points of contact Mohammed and the 
Messiahship Religious practices Traces of later con 
troversy Predestination Mysticism Universalism 
Asceticism of mediaeval type. 

iii. Mediaeval Colouring of Barnabas : Question of an earlier 
Italian MS. Characteristically Italian and mediaeval 
touches Points of contact with Dante The hundred 
years Jubilee Conclusions as to date and authorship- 
Conflicting data Scribe apparently Venetian Arabic 
original improbable. 



x INTRODUCTION 

III. THE LOST GNOSTIC GOSPEL. 

i. Historical notices of the lost Gospel : The Legend of 
St. Barnabas The Gelasian Decree. 

ii. Possibility of its use here : Suggested items possibly drawn 
from it. 

IV. EXTRACTS FROM DOCUMENTS REI^TIVE 
TO BARNABAS. 



I. CODICES OF BARNABAS. 

(i) Bama- (i) Towards the beginning of the eighteenth century the 
bas m the Q OS p e i O j? Barnabas aroused considerable interest among 
century : the learned in England, to whom two different copies of the 
document were known and, to a certain extent, accessible. 
Spanish Qne ofthese was the Italian text, which we now publishjor^ 
the firsttime in the ensuing pages ; the other, a Spanish 
version, professedly translated frorrT the Italian, which has 
since unfortunately disappeared from view. 

Story of Our Italian MS. was acquired in Amsterdam by J. F. 
the Italian Q ramerj an( j j en ^ j^ fam to John Toland in 1709*. Four 
years later, in 1713 (as the dedicatory preface observes 2 ), 
Cramer presented his prize to the illustrious connoisseur Prince 
Eugene of Savoy : and eventually it found its way, in 1738, 
in company with the rest of that prince s library, into the 
Hofbibliothek at Vienna, where it now reposes. 

Further back than the beginning of the eighteenth century 
we have no certain traces of the Codex, though an ambiguous 
reference in the preface to the (now lost) copy of the Spanish 

1 The learned gentleman, says Toland, who has been so kind as to 
communicate it to me (viz. Mr. Cramer, Counsellor to the King of Prussia, 
but residing at Amsterdam), had it out of the library of a person of great 
name and authority in the said city ; who during his life was often heard 
to put a high value on this piece. Whether as a rarity, or as the model 
of his religion, I know not. (Nazarenus, chap. v. Cf. below, p. Ixvii.) 

a See below, p. Ixxix. Denis (see p. Ixxvi) says that Cramer, being in 
reduced circumstances at this time, was glad to sell it to the prince. 



INTRODUCTION xi 

version, seen and described by Sale in 1734, may possibly 
indicate that our Italian MS. was once in the library of 
Pope Sixtus V (1585-9). 

The Spanish MS. was lent to Sale by Dr. Holme, Rector Story of 
of Hedley, in Hampshire. It passed subsequently into the Spanish 
hands of Dr. Thomas Monkhouse, Fellow of Queen s College, MS. 
Oxford, by whom both the text and a translation were com 
municated to Dr. White, Bampton Lecturer in ^784^) 

Dr. White refers to this MS. in the eighth of Kis lectures, 
and appends several extracts from the English translation : 
these, and the four short passages of the original cited by 
Sale, together with Sale s notice in the Preface ( To the 
Reader of his edition of the Qoran, represent the sum of 
our present knowledge of the Spanish version J . 

It will be worth while to quote in full what Sale says 
about the Spanish Preface, especially since it has a bearing 
on the history of the Italian also. 

The book/ he says, 2 ( is a moderate quarto . . . written in 
a very legible hand, but a little damaged towards the latter 
end. It contains two hundred and twenty-two chapters of ) ^X^ 
unequal length, and four hundred and twenty pages; and 
is said, in the front, to be translated from the Italian, by an 
Arragonian Moslem, named Mostafa de Aranda. There is 
a preface prefixed to it, wherein the discoverer of the original 
MS., who was a Christian monk, called Fra Marino 3 , tells 
us, that having accidentally met with a writing of Irenaeus 
(among others), wherein he speaks against St. Paul, alleging, 

1 The will of Dr. Monkhouse, dated July 23, 1792, contains no mention 
of this codex, which he is thought to have presented to his college 
library. All attempts to discover it in Queen s College Library have, 
however, been so far unsuccessful ; and equally fruitless have been our 
inquiries addressed to the authorities of the principal libraries in England 
and on the Continent. 

2 Sale, Koran : Preface To the Reader, sub fin. 

8 The name Marino, Marini, figures very frequently in Venetian annals : 
but the only contemporary friar of that name whom we have noted is 
a certain Maestro Marino dell ordine di S. Francesco, who was responsible for 
an Index of prohibited books published in 1549. It were tempting, did 
chronology permit, to identify our Marino with the notorious Fra Vincenzo 
Marini, who after a series of adventurous frauds was claimed, when 
already condemned to the galleys, by the Inquisitor in Venice, on a 
charge of apostasy. But he was not born until 1573. 



xii INTRODUCTION 

for his authority, the Gospel of St. Barnabas, he became 
exceeding desirous to find this Gospel ; and that GOD, of His 
mercy, having made him very intimate with Pope Sixtus V, 
one day, as they were together in that Pope s library, his 
Holiness fell asleep, and he, to employ himself, reaching 
down a book to read, the first he laid his hand on proved 
to be the very gospel he wanted. Overjoyed at the discovery, 
he scrupled not to hide his prize in his sleeve ; and, on the 
Pope s awaking, took leave of him, carrying with him that 
celestial treasure, by reading of which he became a convert 
to Mohammedanism/ 

Testimony The little we can gather from this descriptive notice is not 

Spanish without interest. The Spanish copy clearly did not correspond 

to the exactly, page for page and chapter for chapter, with our 

MS. Vienna MS., though the differences are very slight indeed . 

Moreover, it was clearly believed by whoever wrote the 

Preface or rather the Title-page to the Spanish copy, that 

his version was a translation of an earlier Italian MS. 2 

Further, it will be observed that he has nothing to say about 

an original Arabic : and that he places a copy whether 

Italian or Spanish is not clear, but probably Italian in the 

library of Sixtus V (prior, therefore, to 1590). j *$& Q { { 

Until the Spanish Codex be found again we cannot form 

a judgement as to its date; Sale s account of its script 

a very legible hand is too vague, and White has not 

described it particularly. It remains to consider whether 

our Italian Codex might conceivably be the book so piously 

filched j^or fabricated) by Fra Marino. The critics of the 

eighteenth century dated it about 1470-80, or a little earlier 3 ; 

1 The Spanish version is described by Sale as a moderate quarto ; the 
Italian is an octavo. The Spanish numbers 222 chapters, the Italian the 
same ; the Spanisli has 420 pages, the Italian apart from the Dedication 
229 leaves, i. e. 458 pages. 

2 At pp. 1-lxv will be found the extant fragments of the Spanish 
version and of Dr. White s translation placed side by side with the corre 
sponding passages of our Italian text. The evidence of these scanty 
specimens would seem not inconsistent with the theory of the Spanish 
title-page : the Spanish often corresponds word for word with the Italian, 
and where it differs (chiefly in the translated passages) tends to be more 
diffuse. 

3 L 6criture est . . . d environ 1 an 1470 ou 1480, La Monnoye, Menagiana, 
t. iv, p. 321. Translated into Italian (in all likelihood from the Arabic) 




INTRODUCTION xiii 

a modern expert would, however, relegate it without hesita 
tion to the following century, on the simple testimony of the 
script and of the paper on which it is written. 

Let us examine the document somewhat minutely. The Descrip- 
Italian MS. (Cod. 2662 Eug. 1 in the Vienna Library) is a ^ n n f a thl> 
small and thick quarto of 255 leaves 2 , bound in thin but stiff MS. 
boards covered with a leathern surface of a dark bronze-green 
colour, simply ornamented with a double gilt line close to the 
edge (the inner line avoiding the corners so as to form a sort 
of triangle), with a floreated centre-piece embossed without 
gilding or colour, but fringed by a double gilded border-line 
somewhat arabesque in character. This binding is, to all 
appearance, oriental. If it be the work of the Prince s 
Parisian binders 3 (as no doubt the outer case is), then it is an 
astonishingly faithful copy of oriental models. As a matter 
of fact it has an almost precise counterpart in the binding of 
a Turkish document of 1575 now in the Archivio of Venice 4 . 

about the middle of the fifteenth century, and copy d a little while after. 
(White, ap. Toland, Nazarenus, Appendix II, p. 9.) The orthography as 
well as the character plainly shew it to be at least three hundred 
years old, writes Toland, 1718: this would mean the first half of the 
fifteenth century (Nazarenus, ch. v). Cramer, whose role was to emphasize 
the importance of the wares he had to dispose of, dated it many centuries 
earlier (see i a , p. Ixxix). 

1 Formerly (as in Denis s Catalogue) No. 1000. The book itself is 
enclosed in an elaborate case ornamented on the sides with the arms of 
Prince Eugene, and lettered on the back : L EVANGELJO DI GIESV \ CHRISTO 

DA S. BARNABA. 

2 There are two blank leaves at the beginning, and three at the end ; 
all the rest have a ruled red margin enclosing a space about 4? x 3 ins. 
Of the ruled pages, the first two are occupied with Cramer s Dedicatory 
Preface ; then follow seventeen leaves not written upon, then the Gospel , 
the first folio of which is numbered 1 in the original (Arabic) numera 
tion, 3 in that of the Vienna librarian Denis, whose numbering we 
have followed in the printed text, noting, however, the mistaken dupli 
cation of fol. 138. Fol. 138 bis = our fol. 139. 

3 The books are profusely bound in Turkey leather, and two of the 
most famous bookbinders of Paris were expressly sent for to do this 
work, 1 writes Lady Mary Wortley-Montngue in 1717. 

4 Capitoli fra Turchi et Venesia confirmati nel 1571 [Arch. Ven. 265]. The 
size is much larger, but the decoration corresponds very closely. This 
document was bound in Constantinople, as is shown by the Turkish 
writing of the period which a rent in the flap of the binding displays. 
It is apparently the official Italian version of the treaty mentioned in an 
extant dispatch of Sept. 4, 1571 [Arch. Ven. : Senate III (Secreta), 
No. 8]. 



xiv INTRODUCTION 

There is no lettering on the back, the width of which is 
1 1 in. ; the measurement of the pages is 6| X4 in. 1 . 

The paper is described by Toland as Turkish, and Denis 
follows him 2 ; but a careful examination scarcely bears out 
this judgement. There are, in fact, two leaves (ff. 107 and 
jo 8) that might be described as { delicately gumm d and 
polish d ; but these are entirely different in character from 
the rest yellow, thin and smooth. All the remaining pages 
are of a somewhat coarse and stout cotton-paper/ and a close 
inspection reveals a water-mark such as no oriental paper ever 
bore. The anchor within a circle, says M. Briquet, is dis 
tinctively Italian ; and the form which that sign assumes in 
the present case belongs, according to the same distinguished 
expert, to the second half of the sixteenth century 3 . 

The handwriting cannot, of course, be of greater antiquity 
than the paper on which it is written, and probability is in 
favour of its being not very much later. The specimen 
photograph which we give of the first page, together with 
one from the middle of the book, will offer fairly adequate 
material for a positive judgement as to the date of the script. 
Its general style will be seen to be that of the latter half of 
the fifteenth century. A fairly close resemblance to it can be 
found in certain Venetian MSS. of 1543, 1563, and 1564 in 
the Archivio di Stato, and of 1550, 1562, and 1567 in the 
Archives of St. Mark s. The most exact parallel that we 
have seen remarkable for the reproduction of the charac 
teristic p and h of our codex is, however, a document in 
the latter collection, which bears the signature Franc 

1 Toland (Nazarenus, App. II, p. 9) gives the measurements as i in. and 
6 x 4 in. respectively. 

8 Toland, Nazarenus, chap, v ; Denis, Codex in turc. charta (quoted 
below, App. D). 

s <L ancre, writes M. Briquet, a 6t< dessinee de plusieurs fa9ons ; le 
style de votre filigrane appartient a une 6poque r6cente et ne remonte 
certainement pas au dela de 1563 ; des yarietes que je possede et qui 
ressemblent le plus aux votres sont de 1588 a 1595. Cf. M. Briquet s 
printed work, Papiers et Filigranes, &c. (Geneve, 1888), where the design 
that comes nearest to ours is one of 1572. There are two specimens 
bearing a resemblance somewhat closer in LikhatschiefFs work, (a) 
No. 624, vol. i, p. 56, dated 1578 ; (6) No. 1858, vol. i, p. 175, dated 1563. 
Urbani (Segni di cartiere antiche : Venezia, 1870) has nothing very near 
the closest are of 1475 and 1482 (p. 32, and tav. viii, nos, 10, n). We 



INTRODUCTION xv 

Vianello, Segretario Ducale, and the date April 15, 1584 J . 
Still, there remain certain puzzling peculiarities in the script 
of Barnabas which might conceivably point to a literary 
fraud 2 . 

This leads us to wonder who was the person of great name 
and authority 3 in Amsterdam from whose library Cramer, 
according to Toland, obtained the book, sometime before 
J 709 4 . Possibly the peculiarities may have some other ex 
planation : but, even if the theory sketched above should 
prove the true one, it still implies a sixteenth-century proto 
type for our codex. ~ 

THUS, the Spanish Title-page vouches for an earlier Italian 
original, and the Spanish Preface throws that original back 
at least 1 20 years beyond the date when Toland came across 
our codex at Amsterdam. That is as far as the external 
evidence will strictly take us. As regards internal evidence, 
the handwriting of our MS. and the paper on which it is 
written carry us back a little further, though scarcely to 
the middle of the sixteenth century, while its style and 
diction, as we shall see later on, would seem (unless they 
are marks of an elaborate literary hoax) to presuppose a still 
earlier prototype. 

(ii) Behind the Italian, the eighteenth-century writers held (ii) Sup- 
that there lurked an Arabic original. ? ose , < * 

A Arabic 

ine Arabic original, writes Dr. White in 1784, still original. 

exists in the East. But White s statement is confessedly 
based on the authority of Sale s Preliminary Discourse, pub 
lished fifty years earlier. The Mohammedans/ says Sale, 5 
have also a Gospel in Arabic, attributed to St. Barnabas, 

have examined, by kind permission of the Director, Comm. Malagola, 
the Archives of the Venetian Senate and Council of Ten for the years 
1540-1600, but the exact counterpart is not to be found there. The 
examples most closely resembling ours are of 1543, 1563, and 1564 in 
the Archivio di Stato, and 1550, 1562, and 1567 in the Archiv. Fabbr. 
S. Marco. 

1 Fasc. I del Processo, No. 185, p. 40. 

2 Especially the variation in the form of m and n. 

3 See below, Extracts, iv. p. Ixvii. 

4 See below, Extracts, i. p. Ixv. 

L Koran, Preliminary Discourse, iv. 



xvi INTRODUCTION 

wherein the history of Jesus Christ is related in a manner 
very different from what we find in the true Gospels, and 
correspondent to those traditions which Mohammed has 
followed in his Koran. 

But when we turn to Sale s own Preface we find him thus 
confessing : * I had not seen " the Gospel of St. Barnabas " 
when the little I have said of it in the Preliminary Discourse, 
and the extract I had borrowed from M. de la Monnoye and 
M. Toland, were printed off. Sale s knowledge, then, of the 
Arabic original, as of all else save what appears in his 
Preface To the Reader, is, after all, secondhand, and based 
on the publications of La Monnoye in 17 16*, and Toland in 
1 7 1 8 2 . And neither La Monnoye nor Toland had seen an Arabic 
copy, though the latter initiated that series of challenges to 
the Moslems to produce one 3 which has been carried on ever 
since, and always without effect : a circumstance which tends 
to confirm the general suspicion that the Moslems themselves 
who boast, under the title of Barnabas, the possession of the 
only true and authentic Gospel, derive their knowledge of 
the existence of the Gospel of Barnabas solely from Sale s 
Preface and Preliminary Discourse, of which they are known 
to possess a translation. 

And so we find that the external authority for an Arabic 
original melts away into the conjecture of Cramer, expressed 
on his dedication-page : Sive Arabice, sive alia lingua, et si 
quis coniecturae locus est, a Sergio Monacho Nestoriano, 
uno e tribus illis Alcorani architectis, compositum . . . in 
Italicum sermonem . . . conversum. 

With the internal evidence 4 , such as it is, we deal below ; 
as also with the negative argument to be drawn from Arabic 
writers. Suffice it here to suggest that that document itself 
offers no independent corroboration to the very natural and 
obvious a priori conjecture of our eighteenth-century critics. 
And we venture to say that if now, at the eleventh hour, 
Mohammedan controversialists should produce an Arabic 

1 In Menagiana, torn, iv (pub. Paris, 1715). 
8 Nazarenus (pub. London, 1718). 
3 See his Queries, printed below, p. Ixix. 

* The Arabic glosses in the MS., according to Prof. Joseph von Kara- 
bacek, are indubitably written by a European hand. 



INTRODUCTION xvii 

JBarnal)as,ttwo\ild. be necessary to test it thoroughly, by 
linguistic and literary as well as by archaeological tests, 
Test that should be hastily assumed as original which might >y 

"prove after aJj_Jo~Hea version madefrom the Italian. 

II. SUBJECT-MATTER OF BARNABAS. 

When we turn from the outward form and history of the 
document to consider its material content, we can distinguish 

O 

at once (i) an obvious and primary dependence upon the 
Christian Bible, and especially upon the four Canonical 
Gospels ; (ii) frequent and voluminous insertions of Jewish 
and Mohammedan matter ; and (iii) traces of hagiological 
and other mediaeval material. It will be convenient to make 
a few remarks upon each of these in turn. 

(i) The very obvious dependence of Barnalas upon our (i) De- 
Canonical Scriptures, more especially upon the four Canonical ^th^ 
Gospels, disposes once for all of its claim to be, as it Christian 
stands, an authentic and independent evangelium. 

Of the thirty-nine books commonly enumerated in our Use of the 
Canon of the Old Testament, no fewer than twenty-two are ~ an ? m . cf 
quoted or referred to by Barnabas, many of them by name. Barnabas. 
In one or two cases our author s memory plays him false, and 
he cites Proverbs as David and Isaiah as Ezekiel, or vice 
versa. But on the whole his knowledge of the Old Testament 
is remarkably full and accurate, showing none of the vague 
ness and egregious blundering of the Scripture allusions in 
the Qoran l . 

His favourite books are David (i.e. the Psalter), to 
which he refers more than thirty times, and Isaiah, quoted 
twenty-five times or more. Next come Genesis and Exodus : 
the former as containing the record of the origines mundi ; 
the latter congenial in virtue of its miracles of judgement. 
The books of the Pentateuch are constantly quoted as Moses . 
The earlier historical books the f Former Prophets are 
cited with some frequency, Kings being apparently ascribed 
to Daniel : the later group is practically ignored, being repre 
sented by a single reference to Chronicles. 

1 See below, ii, on Jewish and Mohammedan Material, p. xxv, 

RAGQ b 



xviii INTRODUCTION 

The Apocryphal Books reckoned, no doubt, with the 
Canon of the Old Testament by the writer of Barnabas 1 
appear sparingly. Citations from Ecclesiasticus and Wisdom 
are attributed to Solomon ; a reminiscence of Tobit is com 
bined in one place with a quotation from Deuteronomy 2 ; and 
there is a reference to the false judgement passed upon Susanna. 

Of the twenty-seven books comprised in our New Testament, 
references direct or indirect may be found to at least nineteen ; 
and these include not only the Gospels which, as we shall 
see, form the fundamental substratum of the whole document 
but also the Acts and the Apocalypse, the Epistle to the 
Hebrews, and the Epistles of St. James, St. Peter, and 
St. John. And, what is in some ways more important still, 
there is a fairly frequent dependence upon the writings of 
that Apostle of the Gentiles whose e erroneous teaching it 
is ( Barnabas professed purpose to combat 3 . We have found 
traces of a majority of the Pauline Epistles 4 . Perhaps the 
most significant instance is that in i8a b , where ( Barnabas, 
while ostensibly quoting from the original passage in Exodus, 
has really the Epistle to the Romans in his mind 5 . 

The comparatively frequent references to the Epistles of 
the New Testament constitute another of the many conclusive 
arguments against the Barnaban authorship of this Gospel . 
It is not merely that the phenomena of Barnabas presuppose 
common material the use, e.g., of an oral tradition used also 
by our Canonical New Testament writers ; a more intimate 
relation to St. Paul s writings and to the Catholic Epistles, 
including 3 St. Peter, is implied by the recurrence of verbal 
coincidences. 
Barna- But the central document for Barnabas is that represented 

1)*1S* * 

Harmony by our four Gospels. And though about one third of the 

of the ^ bulk is derived from other sources, yet the four Canonical 

Gospels may -be, shown to form the fundamental substratum 

pf the entire document. The distinctively Mohammedan and 

Talmudic matter is introduced" as it were 



1 He appears to have used the Vulgate version : see below, p. xxiii. 

2 See 30* fin. ; cp. Deut. xxxii. 39 and Tobit xiii. 2. 
8 See 3* and 33 i b . 

Rom., i Cor., Gal., Phil., Col., i Thess., i Tim. 
6 See note on the passage. 






mostly into discourses put into the mouth of Christ. The 
"Gospels supply the framework of the narrative and a larp-e 
proportion also of the discourses l . Thus, the story begins 
with a combination of the opening narratives of the first and 
third Gospels the Annunciation, Nativity, Circumcision, 
Visit of the Magi, Flight into Egypt, Massacre of the 
Innocents, and the Finding in the Temple 2 . Its central 
portion deals with the prophetic ministry initiated when 
Jesus was thirty years old 3 , and is occupied with journeyings, 
miracles, parables, and ethical and eschatological discourses; 
in which, though a very unscientific harmony of the Gospels 
is implied *, yet the general outline of the canonical narrative 
can be discerned. Finally, the last pages record a Paschal 
Supper, a Betrayal, a Trial and a Crucifixion 5 , to which each 
of the four Gospels has contributed its quota, though the 
sequence is perhaps mainly that of the fourth 6 : and the 
Gospel concludes with a reappearance of Christ to His 
intimate followers and His Ascension into heaven 7 . 

So much for the general outline. It may now be worth 
while to consider one or two passages in detail, in order to 
make clear the author s manner of employing his Gospel- 
material : premising that he uses each Gospel impartially, 
having no animus, e. g., against the fourth as the record par 
excellence of Christ s Divinity. In the res primae, as we have 
seen, he follows very closely the accounts of St. Matthew and 
St. Luke. In other places, as, e. g., the feeding of the five 
thousand and the story of the Passion, he seems to have the 
fourth Gospel chiefly in mind, while not a few passages have 
St. Mark as their immediate basis. 

Barnabas betrays his dependence in various ways. Some 
times when he is ostensibly quoting from the Old Testament, 
we observe that he really has a Gospel passage in mind, as 

1 Needless to say, both narrative and discourses are garbled in order to 
remove all testimony to the divinity of Christ. 

2 See 3 a -9 a . 

3 9% cp. Luke iii. 23. 

4 See below, p. xxi. 

5 Though Judas undergoes the trial and crucifixion in his Master s 
place and likeness, yet in other respects the Gospel narrative is fairly 
closely followed. 

6 See notes on 216" sqq. 7 See 228 b -23i a . 

b 2 



xx INTRODUCTION 

when a citation from ( Isaiah is found to include also the 
evangelist s commentary on the prophet s words 1 . Sometimes 
a narrative, like that of the Samaritan Woman, or of the 
Man born blind, while diverging from the Gospel original 
in characteristic details, follows its outline almost slavishly, 
even to the position of parentheses 2 . Again, the dependence 
of Barnabas on the four Gospels is testified by a series of 
passages in which, quoting from memory, he combines inci 
dents which in the Gospel records are distinct, or confuses 
together two narratives which have but a superficial resem 
blance. 

Thus he groups together the language used at the first 
Cleansing of the Temple (St. John ii) and that of the 
second (St. Matt, xxi) 3 . He combines features of the 
story of the bowed woman in the synagogue (St. Luke xiii) 
with others derived from that of the dropsical man at the 
feast (St. Luke xiv) 4 ; he identifies St. Matthew s centurion 
(St. Matt, viii) with St. John s nobleman (St. John iv) 5 . He 
apparently confounds Simon Peter with Simon the Leper 
and Simon the Pharisee, and so combines the narrative of 
St. Matthew xxvi with that of St. Luke iv 6 . His account 
of the demoniac and the swine is apparently based on 
St. Mark or St. Luke (for there is one madman, not two) ; 
but the phrase before the time is introduced from the 
corresponding passage in St. Matthew 7 . 

In short, no candid reader of Barnabas, furnished with even 
elementary critical acumen, can fail to recognize that our 
document is dependent for the bulk of its matter on the four 
Canonical Gospels of Christendom 8 . 

Barnabas harmony of the evangelistic narratives is a poor 
one, as we have already hinted. Not only does he combine 

1 Cp. the reference in 33 b with Isa. xxix. 13 and Mark vii. 6-10. It is 
only fair to Barnabas to record that in another passage (46*) he carries 
on his quotation of Ps. ex a verse beyond the Gospel quotation. 

2 See 86 a and i73 b . In the latter passage, clearly, the parenthesis, 
though not identical with that of John ix. 33, occupies a corresponding 
place in the narrative. s See 48* tin. 

4 See 49* : cp. Luke xiii. n sqq. and xiv. 3-5 (Matt. xii. n). 
8 See 32 . 6 See 212*. T See 20*. 

8 It is not thought necessary to demonstrate that our four Gospels could 
not be derived from Barnabas \ 



XXI 



and identify similar miracles which in his originals are quite 
distinct, but he mixes up } as we might expect, the Galilean 
and Judaean ministries,, and further adds gratuitously apocry 
phal expeditions to Damascus l and to Mount Sinai 2 . And 
though, here and there, it pleases him to flaunt before us 
seemingly exact notes of timeimplying a definite duration 
of three years for the entire ministry 3 yet the general im 
pression is vague in the extreme, and the general sequence and 
chronological scheme of the Gospels are very largely ignored. 

Further, his geographical ignorance matches his chrono- Barna- 

logical vagueness. This < Apostle, who had wandered up * as " 

11 -ji i -HIT l ignorance 

and clown with his Master through the whole length of of first- 
Palestine, from Damascus and Caesarea Philippi to Mount 
Sinai, is apparently of opinion that one can sail by boat to 
Nazareth 4 , and his narrative suggests such a voyage even 
from Nazareth to Jerusalem 5 ! Evidently he possesses no 
first-hand knowledge of Palestine, still less of Palestine in 
the first century of our era. His horizon, as would be natural 
in a mediaeval writer, is largely occupied with kings and 
potentates and their courts 6 . He has much to say about 
Herod and the Pontiff , about Pilate and the Roman Senate : 
but his enlargements upon Scripture are for the most part 
inappropriate, if not actually compromising. Herod, Pilate, 
and Caiaphas are found frequently hobnobbing together 7 ; 
Caiaphas begs Pilate to procure a decree from the Roman 
Senate making it a capital offence to call Jesus God or Son 
of God ; and this decree is posted up in the Temple, engraved 
upon copper 8 ! Mary, Martha, and Lazarus are proprietors 
of whole villages, like mediaeval signori 9 , and we have, 

1 See i52 b , i 5 6 b . 2 g ce 97 

3 49 b < il secondo hano della sua profetia : 50" il terzo liano deJla 
profetia di iessu. 

1 See i 9 b . s Cp> l6s b and I66 b_ 

6 The references to Herod are numerous, and appear also in parables 
and similes. Barnabas attitude towards kings is well represented by 
the capital R with which the MS. always dignifies the word Re an 
honour not granted even to dio . 

7 See e. g. 96*, io2 b sqq., 2i7 b . 

8 See 104*. This decree is supplemented by another, forbidding to 
contend for Jesus , i73 b , cp. 2i7 b . 

9 See 204 b , and further below, p. xxxix. 



xxii INTRODUCTION 

jmgeneralj an atmosphere of the Middle Ages rather than of 
tlifi-first^ceiffcury. 

Barna- But if Barnabas is ignorant of Palestine and of the first 
and the century, he at any rate possesses, unlike the author of the 
vernacular Qoran, a^first-hand knowledge of the Christian Scriptures. 
" .No one can read many pages of his work without being 
impressed with this. His occasional inaccuracies are out 
weighed by a very general and intelligent knowledge alike 
of the Old Testament and of the New. Whence did he 
derive this familiarity ? What version had he studied ? The 
writer of our Italian document (whether it be the original or 
no) might naturally have availed himself of any existing 
vernacular version. But a comparison of his text with the 
earliest Italian versions seems to show it independent of them 
all. We give two specimens of such comparison below : the 
first from the Magnificat; the second from the Parable of 
the Prodigal. 

MAGNIFICAT. 







lawrertf.xxvii. 


Laurent.x x.vn. 




Matermfs 




Vulgate, 


cod. viii. Lib. 


cod. iii. MS. 


Anon, printed 


printed Bible : 


Barnabas, 


St. Luke i. 46 


Evang. saec. 


Pss. et Evang. 


Bible : Venice, 


Venice, 


4* 


sq. 


xiv. init. 


1395- 


Oct. 1471. 


1490-2. 


Chonosci la 


Magnificat a- 


L anima mia 


Mangnificata 


Magnifica 1 a- 


Magnifica lal- 


grandezza di 


nima mea 


magnifica i- 


alanima mia 


nima mia il 


ma mia cl 


DIO ho anima 


Dominum ; et 


dio & lo spi 


il signore e 


Signore e ral- 


signer : &ale- 


mia heexulta 


exsultavitspi- 


rito eexaltato 


rallegrosse lo 


legrossi il spi 


grosse el spi 


spirito mio in 


ritus meus in 


in dio salute 


spirito mio in 


rito mio in 


rito mio in 


DIO saluatore 


Deo salutari 


mia impero- 


dio salutare 


Dio salute 


dio salute 


mio . il quale 


meo, Quia 


che araguar- 


mio. Impe- 


mia. Impe- 


mia : impero 


ha guardato 


respexit hu- 


dato lumilta 


roche riguar- 


ro ch egli 


che egli ha 


la humilta 


militatem an- 


de lancilla 


do allumilta 


guardo la 


guardato la 


della sua ser- 


cillae suae. 


sua. E questo 


dellancilla 


umilta della 


humilita dela 


ua talmente 


Ecce enim ex 


tucte le gene 


sua chepero 


sua ancilla : 


sua ancilla : 


che saro chia- 


hoc beatam 


ration! ma- 


per questo 


ecco che cer- 


ecco che certo 


niata beata da 


me dicent 


pelloron be 


beata mi di- 


to per questo 


per questo mi 


tutte le na- 


omnes gene- 


ata. 


ranno tutte 


mi diranno 


diranno beata 


tione. 


rationes. 




legenerationi. 


beata tutte le 


tutte le gene- 










generazioni. 


ratione. 



Here it will be seen at once how very free is Barnabas 
rendering when compared with the other Italian versions, 
all of which follow the Vulgate more or less closely, alike in 
order and in choice of words. But, since in so familiar 



INTRODUCTION xxiii 

a passage the scribe or translator might be expected to 
take his own line more irresponsibly, writing on from memory 
without constant reference to his original, it will be better 
to subjoin a short narrative passage. The following table 
(taken, except for Barnabas version, from M. Berger) shows 
the opening of the parable of the Prodigal Son : 




Barnabas, 


Vulgate, 


Italian vers., xiv.cent. 


Provencal vers., xiii. 


i6o a . 


St. Luke xv. 11-13. 


(MS. Riccardi, 1252.) 


cent. (ap. Berger). 


Egli fu uno padre 


Homo quidam 


Uno huomo ebbe 


Un homo era lo- 


di familgia il quale 


habuit duos filios ; 


dui figluoli et disse 


qual aveva ij fiolj e 


haueua dui filgioli 


et dixit adolescen- 


lo piu giovane di 


llo piu 9ovene disso 


he il piu giouine 


tior ex illis patri : 


quelli padre dami 


so pare pare dame 


disse . padre dami 


Pater, da mihi por- 


la parte mia della 


la mia parte de lo 


la mia portione di 


tionem substantiae 


nostra sustantia et 


chastello che mi 


roba il che li dete il 


quae me contingit. 


non dopo molti die 


tocha, e lo pare parti 


padre suo il quale 


Et divisit illis sub- 


raghuno tutte le 


la sustancia e de a 


riceuta la portione 


stantiam. Et non 


parti delle cose sue 


queluy la soa parte. 


sua . si parti he an- 


post inultos dies, 


lo piu giovane fi- 


e dentro briove tor- 


dete in paesse lon- 


congregatis omni 


gluolo et andouo 


mine tute cose asem- 


tano onde sconssumo 


bus, adolescentior 


malandrinando in 


blade inscmbre lo 


tutta la fachulta sua 


nlius peregre pro- 


un paese alungi et 


piu ovene fyo ando 


chon meretrice ui- 


fectus est in regio- 


la distrusse et scia- 


fuore de lo paese o 


uendo lussuriosa- 


nem longinquam, et 


lacqud la sustantia 


spendi la tuta la soa 


mente. 


ibi dissipavit sub- 


sua vivendo lussu- 


sustancia vivando 




stantiam vivendo 


riosamente. 


luxuriosamente. 




luxuriose. 







Here Barnabas has a couple of verbal coincidences with 
the Vulgate portione, which is obvious, though the rest have 
parte, and vivendo lussuriosamente, which is almost inevitable. 
But he characteristically introduces chon meretrice from v. 30, 
and is in every way independent of the other vernacular 
versions : all of which, according to Prof. Berger, are ulti 
mately related to the Provencal type 1 . 

From the specimen verses of the Magnificat one might Barna- 
almost be tempted to go further and claim for Barnabas u se of t)lo 
an independence also of the Vulgate, from which the other Vulgate. 
vernacular versions are translated. But a wider comparison 
disposes at once of such an idea. The__cojnoidenees \Yith_the__ 
actual language of the Vulgate, and that often_Jn^passag__ 

1 S. Berger, La Bible italienne au moyen age (Romania, xxiii, p. 361 sqq.). 



XXIV 



INTRODUCTION 



where it is particularly obscure, are too frequent and too 
precise to leave room for doubt that it was from the familiar 
version of St. Jerome that our writer drew his knowledge 
of the Christian Scriptures. In the footnotes to the text 
we have collected some fifteen instances from the Old Testa 
ment and seven from the Gospels, in which the coincidences 
would seem too striking to be accidental; and it is perhaps 
scarcely hazardous to infer that a more exhaustive comparison 
than it has been in our power to institute would corroborate 
the results so far obtained. The most remarkable instances 
are from the Psalter and Lamentations : 



Bearing 
on the 
question 



Barnabas, 76*. 

lo asscendere nello chor suo diss- 
pone nella ualle delle lachrime. 

Barnabas, n a . 
Auanti lucifero . . . ti o chreato. 

Barnabas, is6 b . 

lo hochio mio he vmo ladro il 
q ualle roba la anima mia. 



Vulgate, Ps. Ixxxiv (Ixxxiii). 6, 7. 

ascensiones in corde suo disposuit 
in valle lachrymarum. 

Vulgate, Ps. ex (cix). 3. 
ante luciferum genui te. 

Vulgate, Lam. iii. 51. 

oculus meus depraedatus est 
animam meam. 



Exodus, Job, Ecclesiastes, and Isaiah contribute other 
striking instances ; but the phenomenon is by no means 
confined to the Old Testament. The praeses of St. Luke ii. 2 
is rendered by preside (5*), the hydria of St. John iv. 28 by 
iclria (86 a ), the probatica piscina of St. John v. 2 by probaticfia 
piscina (67 b ), and St. Luke s videamus hoc verbum (ii. 15) by 
nediamo la parola (6 b ) ; and so on. 

In fine, the version of ( Barnabas is generally free, and 
his quotations are sometimes inexact, through carelessness or 
lapsus memoriae, but ever and again he so faithfully repro 
duces the Vulgate word for word that we may be justified 
in attributing to him a real and immediate familiarity with 
that version. 

The bearing of this on the question of authorship is not 
unimportant. It is too soon to dogmatize; yet the results 
of author- so far obtained seem to point to an author (or translator) for 
our Italian Barnabas nurtured in Latin Christianity of the 



v sc. iwc*. ^ tvkc.u.yrc. fv^cca-k (UJL i f 
INTRODUCTION 

Middle Ages or the Renaissance, and having- a special fami 
liarity with the Psalter, suggestive of that constant use of 
the breviary offices not unknown indeed among the devout 
laity, but more characteristic of priest or monk. 

(ii) The Qoran is full of mangled ancThalf- understood Jewish (ii)Jewish 
and Christian_stories. The generally accepted explanation 



oT this phenomenon is that Mohammed in the earlier stages dan 
of his mission was largely dependent for inspiration on what 
he overheard in streets and bazaars from the lips of the Barna- 
( People of the Book 1 . The theory that he employed docu- ancl t j ie 
mentary sources that he had access, e. g., to the Bible or Qoran. 
a part of it is prohibited by the stupendous inaccuracies 
of which he is guilty in very simple matters, of which 
a typical instance is the identification of Moses sister Miriam 

with the Blessed Virgin 2 = * P 1 ^ 1 **^ Vtux,,~.-4 y.V*-*, b*, MO*>V~V 
\\tnne3iessevirn . - - > - 



Mohammed s early intercourse with eastern Christians and Use of 
with Jews has however left its mark upon his book, alike on f^i^ 
the ascetic and on the doctrinal side ; and, though he knows gospels 
little or nothing of the Canonical Scriptures, the Qoran bears 
a strong impress of Rabbinical lore, as also of heretical 
Christian teaching of the type of the Protevangelium , from 
which Mohammed reproduces certain touches in connexion 
with the Lord s Mother and His infancy. 

Barnabas , on the other hand, is remarkably free from 
traces of pseudo-evangelistic influence, at least as regards 
his record of the Saviour s birth and babyhood. 

The one extra-canonical touch the Birth without pain (5 ^), 
in which, as we shall see, he contradicts the Qoran may 
indeed constitute such a trace 3 ; but on the other hand it_ 
was a part of the accepted tra^ETon__of_j]alin mediaeval 
^hrisiiamty^^ The Rabbinic element mBarnabas is far more Use of 
obvious. In the measurement of the heavens, in which each 
is said to be distant from the next 500 years journey (iu a ), 
we have an exact reproduction of the tradition given in 
the Jerusalem Talmud 4 . In the attribution to Solomon of 



1 See Margoliouth, Mohammed, p. 60 sq., 107. 

5 Qoran, Sur. iii and xix ; cp. Margoliouth, op. cii. p. 6r. 

3 Cp. Pseudo-Matthew, chap, xiii, and see below, p. xlvi. * Ber. ix. 




XXVI 



INTRODUCTION 



j 



o 



magical powers (76*), and the ascription to him of the later 
Jewish formulae of exorcism (7i b ), Barnabas, like the Qoran, 
is following the Talmud : and a similar instance is exhibited 
in the narrative of the somewhat grotesque miracle effected 
by the utterance of the formula ADDONAI SABAOT ! (i67 b ). 
Some also of the puerile legends grouped round the Creation 
and the fall of Satan and of Adam have doubtless a parentage 
partly Jewish. But that the author of Ban 
access to Rabbinical literature would perhaps be difficult to 
prove.. The rilferings supplied by Mohammedan tradition f rom 
the Qoran onwards would be, in all probability, sufficient 
to account for the facts. 

The relation of Barnabas to the Qoran is a matter of con 
siderable interest as regards both similarity and divergence. 
A dozen points of contact have been pointed out in the notes 1 , 
and an exhaustive study would probably furnish at least as many 
again. These points of contact yield varying results. Some 
times Barnabas simply repeats with emphasis the characFeris~fic 
teaching of the Qoran, putting it into the mouth of the 
Nazarene prophet : as in the passage which corresponds to 
the Sermon on the Mount, where the doctrine of Surah 
cxii is preached 2 . Sometimes the parallel is of a rather 
different kind, consisting, for example, in the important role 
played by Gabriel, mentor of Christ in this Gospel as of 
Mohammed in the Qoran 3 , or in the similar description 
found in each book of the way in which the Revelation 
or ( Gospel descends 4 . 

Not seldom, Barnabas gives a more expanded, consistent, 
and definite story, of which the Qoran contains but the germs. 
A typical instance is the story of Abraham s childhood and 
call. In the Qoran, Abraham, by a slight variation from the 
Jewish legend 5 , is represented as mocking his father s idolatry 
and indulging in energetic measures of iconoclasm, and as 
escaping the summary vengeance of the idolaters by a miracle, 
God forbidding the fire to burn 6 . So also here : but in 

1 See the relative Index, p. 500. 2 See 16*, p. 31, note 5. 

3 Barn. 9 b , ia b , 47% 72*, 74% 191*: Qoran, Sur. ii, xcvii, &c. 

4 See 9 b , p. 15, note 6. 

8 See Sale s note on the passage in Sur. xxi. 
6 Sur. xxi and xxxvii. 



i 



INTRODUCTION 



XXVll 



Barnalas all this is related much more amply, consecutively, 
and graphically 1 . 

Similarly in the legend of the fall of Satan : Eblis, in the 
Qoran, is condemned for his refusal to do reverence 



^Barnabas repeats the story more circumstantial lyfand more 
over makes it clear that the call to do homage is anticipatory, 
its object being the massa di terra out of which man is to 
be created 3 . Again, in the Goran s account of the sacrifice 
of Abraham the name of the intended victim is not given 4 . 
The commentators interpret ( Ishmael ; but Barnabas , in 
whom the Ishmael legend is constantly to the fore, has 
Ishmael in the text of his passage 5 . 

In his angelology, again, Barnabas is more definite and 
developed. In both Barnabas and the Qoran angels are the 
recorders of men s good and evil deeds 6 ; in both they receive 
departing souls into their keeping 7 ; in both the archangel 
Gabriel is a prominent figure. But, whereas in the Qoran 
no angels but Michael (Surah ii. 92) and Gabriel are named, 
and it is reserved for the commentators to specify further 
Azrael and Israfil, Barnabas has his list of four favourite 
angels of God, Gabriel, Michael, Rafael, and Uriel 8 , to each 
of whom a definite office is assigned 9 . 

The magic transformation of Judas, and his arrest, trial. 
and crucifixion nThis Master s place 10 , are also, in a sense ; a 
development of hints in the~ZToran7 But in the Qoran itself, 
Chough a, docetic JfassiorT is more than once alluded to H , 
no substitute, as, e. g., Simon the Cyrenian, or Titian , or 
Judas, is named. Here, again, Barnabas performs the part 
of a commentator unless indeed he has been working up a 
separate document now lost to us 12 . 

In eschatological matters Barnalas represents partly an 

1 Barn. 26* sqq. 

2 Sur. ii, vii, &c. s Barn. 36* sqq., 76". 
4 Sur. xxxvii. 5 Barn. 12 . 

6 Sur. 1 ; Barn. i29 h ; in Barn. 193" two guardian angels to every man are 
mentioned. 

7 Sur. Ixxix init. ; Barn. 205". 

8 See 56% 22i b (where the Spanish version has Azrael for Uriel}. 

9 See 228* ; and cp. below, p. xlvi. 

10 See 222 a sqq. u Sur. iii and iv. 

12 e. g. the Gnostic Evangelium Barnabae. See below, p. xlv sqq. 



xxviii INTRODUCTION 

expansion, partly a purification of the conceptions of the 
Qoran. The two are alike, for instance, in the immense stress 
laid upon the Judgement to come one of Mohammed s 
favourite themes l and in the graphic portrayal of its 
terrors; but Barnabas is unquestionably more dignified and 
more convincing. The dramatic period of forty years in 
which nothing is alive but God finds a modified parallel 
in the accepted Muslim tradition 2 , but Barnabas description 
is throughout far more powerful. As regards Hell and 
Paradise there is a considerable divergence. Barnabas Hell 3 
is arranged on a scheme of the Seven Capital Sins, the list 
of which had scarcely attained its final stereotyped form in 
Mohammed s day 4 ; and his Paradise, though he pleads 
earnestly and sensibly for a place therein for the body, is 
a far less sensuous garden of delights than that of the 
Qoran 5 . 

The record of the Annunciation and Nativity supplies 
another point of comparison between the Qoran and our 
Gospel, in which Barnabas triumphs in virtue of his superior 
knowledge of Scripture. In the confused accounts of Surah 
iii and xix, Mary the mother of Jesus is ( daughter of Imram 
(Amram) and sister of Aaron ; and the apocryphal story 
of her nurture within the Temple and betrothal by drawing 
of rods, which, filtered through the pages of Jacobus de 
Voragine, furnished so fruitful a subject for the painters of 
the fourteenth and following centuries, is combined with 
the miraculous help of a palm-tree in her hour of need, 
that suggests the Latona of classical mythology. ( Barnabas* 
adds indeed to his account of Our Lord s annunciation 
touches from the story of St. John the Baptist (whose name 
and personality, for some mysterious reason, he sees fit to 
suppress), and a few touches also from the similar record of 
the Annunciation of Samson 6 . But his narrative, unlike that 

1 Margoliouth, Mohammed, p. 87 ; cp. p. 127, When he talked of the 
Day of Judgement his cheeks blazed, and his voice rose, and his manner 
was fierce. 

2 Sale, Prelim. Discourse, iv. med. ; Barn. 56 b . 

3 See 6o b sqq. and 1 46 b sqq. 
* See below, p. xli. 

6 See i84 b sqq. ; cp. Qoran, Sur. xiii, xlvii, and esp. Ivi. 
See 3 b -4 b , and references given there. 



INTRODUCTION xx i x 

of the Qoran, is based entirely on the text of St. Matthew 
and St. Luke, from which the only positive divergence of 
any importance is the statement already alluded to, that the 
Virgin brought forth her Son senza dollore ; whereas in 
the Qoran l it is distinctly affirmed that the pangs of child 
birth came upon her . Here, then, Barnabas diverges at once 
from the Qoran and from the Canonical Gospels (which are 
silent on the subject) ; and here, if anywhere, we may perhaps 
see a vestige of the lost Gnostic c Evangelium Barnabe 2 . 

With this exception, it is worthy of note that our writer, 
though indeed he lacks any sense of artistic fitness and 
proportion in the matter of miracles 3 , has steered clear of 
those childish marvels of the Profevangelium and its kind 4 
which have left their mark on Surah xix of the Qoran. 

A more crucial point of divergence is that of the doctrine Moham- 
of the Messiah. ^I there is any Messiah in the Qoran, it Sf and 

SOIL of Mary/ the Word pro3lessiah- 



feeding from God.j 5 In Barnabas, on the contrary, Jesus 
is made to deny most solemnly all claim to Messiahship 6 , 
and to on^fpr npnr) M^ammed that title 7 , which he never 
claims for himself in the Qoran. 

* This phenomenon has been accounted for by the hypothesis 
that our Gospel must have been prepared for the use of 
Islam by an ex-Christian still imperfectly instructed in his 
new faith 8 . But though Barnabas certainly knows his Bible, 
better than his Qoran, that carT" hardly be bis reason for 

divergence here. J?he transference of the Messianic "title 



1 Sur. xix. 

2 See below, p. xlv sqq. The idea occurs in the Pseudo-Matthew apocryphal 
gospel (fifth century), chap, xiii, But as there is no defilement of blood 
on the child, so there is no pain in the mother (Eng. Tr. by B. H. Cowper, 
Williams and Norgate, 1870). 

3 He introduces a repetition of the stupendous miracle ascribed to 
Joshua, simply to attest the truth of the story of Haggai and Hosea : aoo a . 

* The bright light surrounding the manger of the Nativity (s b ) a 
natural extension of Luke ii. 9 is found in many of the apocryphal 
gospels : in the Protevangel of James, chap, xix, in the Arabic Gospel of the 
Infancy, chap, iii, and in the Pseudo-Matthew, chap. xiii. (Cowper, op. cit.) 

5 Sur. iii, sub init. 6 See 43", 8s b , ioi b . 

7 See 43 b , 82", 208*. 

8 Cp. Axon : On the Mohammedan Gospel of Barnabas (Journal of 
Theological Studies, Apr. 1902. p. 445). 




xxx INTEODUCTION 

is not an isolated slip of pen or memory,, but of a piece with 
his elimination of St. John the Baptist. "We have observed 
how his account of the Annunciation, obviously taken from 
Luke i. 2,6 sqq., is enriched with touches taken from the 
story of the Forerunner s birth in the earlier part of that same 
chapter. In the Qoran we have an echo of those earlier verses ; 
one of Mohammed s characteristically muddled hearsay 
accounts, in which the angel of the Lord announces to His 
aged servant Zacharias the birth of a son to be named John l - 
in Barnabas neither Zacharias nor John is once mentioned, in 
spite ot the fact that the verses in question seem to have 
been used by our author or his sources. Whether the writer 
of our document found a Gospel ready to his hand which, 
though it used St. Luke freely, for some reason eliminated 
the Forerunner and, finding this, felt at liberty to assign the 
Forerunner s place and words to Christ 2 ; or whether, having 
himself determined to identify Mohammed with the Messiah 
(who is for him always of the seed of Ishmael 3 ), he deliberately 
assigned the place of forerunner to Jesus, and hence was 
constrained to eliminate the Baptist in either casethetwo_ 
phenomena would seem tojbfi_celal p 4 4 """ 

"*" Barnabas^certainly makes Mohammed to be the Messiah : 
does he also, as has been asserted, accord to him the title of 
Paraclete ? No more, we would reply, and no less than does 
the Qoran itself. In a celebrated passage in the middle of 
the short Surah entitled ( Battle Array 5 , Mohammed, having 
possibly in his mind a reminiscence of John xiv. 26, xv. 26, 
xvi. 7, &c., had put into the mouth of Jesus, Son of Mary 
a prediction of himself, in the following terms : Verily I am 
the apostle of God sent unto you, confirming the law which 
was delivered before me, and bringing good tidings of an 
apostle who shall come after me, and whose name shall be 

1 Sur. xix. init. 2 See 43 b , io2 b . 

3 See 45 b , ai4 b , 2i6 b : especially the two last references. Barnabas 
evidently attaches immense importance to this doctrine. 

* It is interesting to observe that Barnabas* never dreams of any relation 
between the titles Christ and Messiah , though al-Masih is the recog 
nized Arabic equivalent of 6 XP ^TOS. The former title he allows (following 
the Qoran as well as the Gospels), styling himself (3*) apostolo di iessu 
nazareno chiamato chrissto ; the latter he rejects. 

8 Sur. Ixi. 



INTRODUCTION xxxi 

Ahmed. The Persian paraphrast directly refers to the 
verses in St. John as supporting- the text, and the Muslim 
commentators are unanimous in a confusion perhaps in 
tentionalof TTf P i K \vTbs (<Periclyte = famous, praised = 
Ahmed l = Mohammed) with the Trapd^ros of our Lord s 
prediction 2 : and hence the persistent Mohammedan tradition 
in India which asserts that the Prophet of Islam is the 
promised Comforter of the Gospel. In the Italian text of 
Barnabas the reference is no clearer than that in the text of 
the Qoran so vague, in fact, as to be unrecognizable. In one 
place, when about to reveal the name Machometo to the 
High Priest,, Jesus is made to say f il nome del messia he 
admiraUle 3 ; but in the passage where the Arabic g-lossator 
has seen a reference to the Paraclete 4 the phrase is uno 
splendore .J~The gloss in question is sufficiently confused. 
It makes splendore equivalent to the Arabic Ahmed , but 
also to the Hebrew Messiah , the Latin Consolator , and 
the Greek Tra/xkATjros 5 . It is presumably to this passage 
and the gloss upon it that Sale is alluding unless he too, 
for once, is quoting from hearsay G when he says : instead 
of the Paraclete or Comforter they have in this apocryphal 
Gospel inserted the word Periclyte, that is famous or illustrious, 
by which they pretend their prophet was foretold by name V 

1 The fullest discussion of this word is to be found in Ibn Taimiyyah, 
loc. citando, iv. 6-8 : Of this word Paraclete in their language several 
accounts are given. Some say it = ->U-i " greatly praising " ; some J^U. 
"praising", some jx.* " strengthener " (perhaps (Jj-*^\ "consoler"): 
some say it means " praise ". The last is preferred by some, who aver 
that it is proved by the words of Joshua, "whoso does well shall have 
a good Paraclete ", i.e. " good praise ".(These words seem to be those 
quoted from Aboth by Buxtorf and Levy : ins E>:pD ib n.ip nn rmn mnrrr) 
and also by their well-known phrase in accosting . . . (the following 
words are corrupt). Those who say it means "Saviour" urge that it is 
Syriac, and derived from parak, "to save", with lit a Syriac expletive 
particle. Those who interpret it " fortifier " say it is Greek. I should 
regard the statement in the Qoran as a deliberate fiction, to which no 
importance need be attached. D. S. M. 

2 See Sale s note ad loc. s See io8 b . * 46 b fin. 

5 See the gloss b on 46 b fin. 

6 It is not clear whether Sale is speaking of the Spanish or the Italian, 
neither of which (as he confesses in his Preface) he had seen when he 
wrote his Preliminary Discourse . 

7 Prel. Discourse, iv. sub init. 



xxxii INTRODUCTION 

A striking parallel has been supplied to us 1 from Ibn 
Hisham s Life of Mohammed, where, giving a somewhat in 
accurate paraphrase of John xv. 18-27, he writes as follows : 

( EPITHET OF THE APOSTLE OF GOD FOUND IN THE GOSPEL. 

I have heard with reference to the revelation made by Jesus 
the Son of Mary in the Gospel unto the Christians, about an 
epithet given to the Apostle of God, in what St. John wrote 
in his Gospel about the testimony of Jesus the Son of Mary 
to the Apostle of God, that he said as follows : 

" He that hath hated me hath hated the Lord ; and if 
I had not done in their presence deeds which none had done 
before me, they had had no sin. But now they have been 
petulant and have thought that they were stronger than me 
and the Lord also. But the word in the Law must be ful 
filled, They hated me in vain, i. e. without cause. And if 
the Manhamanna had come, he that God shall send unto you 
from the Lord, and the Spirit of Equity from the Lord had 
gone forth, he would be a witness for me, and ye too that 
have been with me from of old (would be witnesses). This 
I have said to you that ye should not doubt." 

Now the Manhamanna in Syriac means " praised " (i. e. 
muhammad in Arabic) and in Greek it is BaraglUis 2 ( 

Religious Barnabas, like the Qoran, contains much beautiful teaching 
es on the subject of prayer. The hours of prayer mentioned 
and enjoined in our* Gospel seem to correspond with those 
0f Rurnli xvii. But where Mohammed is vague his decleh- 
sion of the sun is made by commentators to represent two 
distinct hours, (i) just after noon, and (2) before sunset 
c Barnabas is explicit. He enumerates the five traditional 
hours, if not also a sixth 3 . 

Tradition ascribes to Mohammed a modification of the 

1 By the kindness of Mr. F. C. Burkitt, of Trinity College, Cambridge. 

2 Wiistenfeld s edition (Gottingeii, 1860), pp. 149, 150. The only 
Aramaic dialect, says Mr. Burkitt, in which mSnahrulmana is used for 
irapan\r)Tos is the so-called Palestinian Dialect. 

3 The following hours of prayer are mentioned in Barnabas : (a) evening 
(i 4 3 b , 63") ; (6) first star (io6 a ) ; (c) night (140*) ; (d) midnight (87*) ; (e) 
dawn (94 b ) ; (/) midday (97 b , iao b , 172*). If we take note (c) and 
mezzanote (d) as identical wo arrive at the traditional Muslim sallt 
or system of prayer-drill : see Margoliouth, Mohammed, p. 103 ; Sale, Prel. 
Discourse, iv, sub fin. 



INTKODUCTION xxxiii 

Pater Nosier to be used (as no doubt its prototype was used 
by the prophet s Christian neighbours) as a sort of charm or 
incantation against trouble. With characteristic Muslim 
severity this prayer lacks the key- word Our Father . 

A later form expanding the Re nos inducas somewhat 
after the manner of the early liturgies has obscure allusions 
to the errors of certain people who are presumably Jews and 
Christians. ( Barnabas gives a much closer parallel to the 
original prayer, and gives it in its true place after the dis 
ciples request S ignore, insegnaci ha fare horatione l . His 
version, however, still lacks ( Our Father , though its Lead 
us not is not farced, and it concludes with the traditional 
doxology 2 . 

Like prayer, almsgiving and fasting are prominent alike 
in the Qoran and in Barnabas, but though the Christ of this 
( Gospel in his rules on fasting, which are characterized by 
a remarkable degree of common sense, elaborates and makes 
explicit the germ-suggestions of Surah ii, he is not described 
as observing, even prophetically, the formal fast of Islam. 
The fast of Ramadan, ordained in the Qoran 3 as a memorial 
of the season in which the Qoran itself was sent down from 
heaven, is a lunar month of twenty-eight days ; it is in no 
sense a Quadragessima. 4 Jesus and his disciples are in 
fact described as observing the Christian Lent. 

On some points Barnabas exhibits quite unmistakable Traces of 
marks of Muslim controversy subsequent to the age of trov ers y ; 



Mohammed, and shows itselfiir~sucH~sense, antagonTstic^ pre . desti - 
to the letter of the Qoran. The uncompromising determinism 
of Surah xvii 5 , which teaches that every man s fate is 
irrevocably ( bound about his neck , is here replaced by a 
remarkably philosophicaLpladiiiff for the rights of freewill 6 
on which, together with the law of God, Jthe true_doctrmg__^ 
_QJLPredestmation is declared to be based la predestinatione 

1 See 39* ; cp. Luke xi. i. 

2 Matt. vi. 13 (R.V. margin). On the Mohammedan Pater Noster 
see Margoliouth, Mohammed, p. 103, and Abu Dardai, ap. Goldziher, 
Hadilh and the New Testament, p. 19. 

3 Sur, ii. * See 96 b , 97*. 5 Sub init. 

6 See 180* sqq. The doctrine of predestination to reprobation is stigma 
tized as lafede di satana (i8i a ). 



XXXIV 



INTRODUCTION 



ha per fondamento la legie di DIG chon il libero arbitrio 
humano. Here we may see, if we will, Kadarian or 
Motazilite doctrine or the influence of mediaeval Christian 
speculation. 

Mysticism. Similar traces of later doctrinal development, combined also, 
probably, with Christian sentiment, may be discerned in the 
mysticism of Barnabas, as in its universalistic and ascetic 
tendencies. The mystical tendency, so contrary to the stern, 
hard view of the Almighty prevalent in the Qoran, is 
exemplified in the history of Islam by an almost Neoplatonic 
school which appeared comparatively early in Palestine 2 , 
whose disciples held__that^ all things were to be sacrificed for 
L the sake^of union with God, the supreme object of lovST 
And from this followed naturally the ascetic ^tendency to 
a hermit s life of solitary contemplation, so characteristic of 
Barnabas. In Persia and India this mystical tendency took 
the form of Sufism, and verged in the direction of Pantheism. 
In Barnabas, without any observable leanings towards Pan 
theism, there is a succession of noble and beautiful thoughts 
concerning love of God, union with God, and God as Himself 
the final reward of faithful service, which it would be difficult 
to match in any literature 3 . 

Univer- Once more, our ( Gospel exhibits a latitudinarian charity 
teaching, which gives a place side by side with the faithful to virtuous 
Gentiles who have acted up to their lights . On this point 
the Qoran may be said to give an uncertain sound. In Surah 
ii and iv, representing, presumably, more lenient moments in 
the prophet s career, it is suggested that there is hope not 
only for the faithful, but also for Jews, Christians, and 
Sabaeans for those, that is, who believe injGod and the 
last day 4 provided they do righi : but in Surah iii we are 
faced by the uncompromising statement that whosoever 



1 See Sale, Prelim. Discourse, viii ; cp. Encycl. Brit., vol. xvi, p. 592 ; 
Margoliouth, Mohammed, pp. 140, 141. 

3 See Encyd. Prit., vol. xvi, p. 594. 

8 See, for example, 25", 58% i59 b , i85 b , 186 , ai8 b . 

4 On Mohammed s early relations with Christians and Jews see 
Margoliouth, loc. cit., pp. 60, 61, 129, &c., and Encycl. Brit., loc. cit., p. 600 eq. 
The unity of God and the certainty of coming judgement were his two 
great themes ; and these he had in common with them both. 



INTRODUCTION xxxv 

followeth any other religion than Islam, it shall not be 
accepted of him, and at the last day he shall be of those 
that perish. This latter is the doctrine on which Mohammed s 
immediate followers acted. But Barnabas declares unhesita 
tingly that God s saving message is for all 1 ; that man as 
man has an impulse to serve God, an impulse which, though 
obscured, is not extinguished by sin, and that the virtuous 
heathen are objects of God s mercy, and will be enlightened 
at death if not earlier 2 a doctrine illustrated and enforced 
by one of the most beautiful and original of the apocryphal 
parables in the book 3 . 

Finally, there is the ascetic strain in the Gospel , which Mediaeval 
is in strong contrast with Mohammed s own teaching. In as 
his early days, and again in the Meccan period, the founder 
of Islam deliberately restrained his followers from ascetic 
ideals, being resolved to have no monkery in Islam . 4 He 
speaks indeed, in one place 5 , of wife and children as inimical 
to the religious life, but he has no more intention of incul 
cating compulsory celibacy than had Saint Paul, when he 
penned the seventh chapter of his first epistle to Corinth 6 . 

Yet the monastic and eremitic example of the neighbouring 
Oriental Christians had its effect upon Islam, and Sufism, 
with its ideal of mystic contemplation, soon developed a ten 
dency towards the hermit life 7 . Barnabas idea is much 
more unmitigated. Ascetic teaching comes out in searching 
severity of precepts about penitence and humility, about 
fasting, almsgiving, and prayer 8 ; an ascetic rule of life is 
enunciated in the Libreto di hellia 9 ; but the tendency 
bursts forth in joyous exuberance in the stories of the true 
Pharisees , hermits of Elijah s day^ and the anchorite- 
prophets Haggai and Hosea. We are here at once in the 
atmosphere of mediaeval hagioldgy^ The naive and quaintly 
"numerous pietism of these scenes, with their delightfully 

1 See 45 b , 133*. 2 See 8i a sqq. Cp. Acts x. 35. 

3 The Parable of the Fruitful Plant in Barren Soil (8a b ). 

4 See Margoliouth, Mohammed, pp. 88, 151, 173. 5 Sur. Ixiv. 
i Cor. vii. 25 sqq. 7 See Encycl. Brit., loc. cit., p. 594. 

8 On fasting, almsgiving and prayer, as fruits of penitence, see 107* : 
further, on fasting, ii3 b sqq. ; on almsgiving, 130*, i33 b sq. ; on prayer 
88 b sq., i27 b sqq. 

9 See I 5 8 b -i59 b . 

C 2 




xxxvi INTRODUCTION 

extravagant dialogues, transports us now into the solitude 
of the Egyptian desert, where we recognize in St. Anthony 
and St. Paul the first-cousins of Barnabas old and young 
Pharisee 1 ; now again we are carried to the hills and valleys 
of Umbria and Central Italy, where we rejoice in the pious 
extravagances of the heroes of the Fioretti. The Hosea 
of Barnabas has Frate Ginepro s reckless abandon, while his 
master, Haggai , bears a still closer resemblance to the more 
celebrated Fra Jacopone da Todi. The terrible self-depreciatory- 
prayer put into Haggai s mouth 2 breathes the very spirit of 
Jacopone s weird rime, in which he first calls down upon 
himself every imaginable disease 

O signer per cortesia 

Mandarin la malsania 
A me la freve quartana 

La continua e la terzana 

La doppia cottidiana 

Colla grand e idropesia 
A me venga mal de dente 

Mal de capo e mal de ventre 

A lo stomaco dolor pungente 

E n cannon la squimanzia . . . 

and finally entreats the Lord of His mercy to impose on him 
not only all evils in this life/ but in the next all the pains 
that are owing, both for my own sins and those of the souls 
in Purgatory, and also, if possible, for those of the eternally 
damned . . . and that without the thanks of those for whom 
I suffer. 3 

Similarly, but with even more simplicity and freedom from 
self-consciousness, prays Haggai, the poverello of Barnabas : 
1 Pero, Signore, quando tu uoi dare una infermita ad uno tuo 
seruo, arechordati di me seruo tuo per gloria tua ! Whatever 
his date, the author of the Italian Barnabas moves sympatheti 
cally in a mediaeval environment ; in the 



thirteenth century. It may be worth while to consider 
somewhat more particularly this mediaeval colouring of the 
< Gospel . 

1 See 162* sqq. 2 See 197*. 

* Gaspary, Early Italian Literature, Eng. tr., pp. 147, 148 : cf. Barn. 197 . 



INTRODUCTION xxxvii 

(iii) Our MS. dates, as we have seen, from the latter half(iii) Me- 
o the sixteenth century ; and La Monnoye (who regards it as 



about a century earlier) expressly warns us against looking of B *r- 
upon its orthographic and other solecisms as a mark of 
antiquity 1 . Our Muslim friends, on the other hand, would 
claim for the document, in its primitive form, an apostolic 

origin in the first century of our era. The true date lies, , 

we imagine, nearer to the sixteenth century than to the first^ 
"* The external evidence^ for the supposed ( Arabic original Questioi 
we have seen to be of the slenderest order; but before we e arnU 
deal directly with the external evidence on that point it Ita!ia 
rnay not be amiss to consider what can be said for the hypo 
thesis of an earlier Italian document, of which the 
MS. would be a copv. 



The alternative before us would seem to be simple. Either 



there was such an Italian archetype, or else our codex is 
a deliberate forgery of the latter half oTTFie sixteenth century 
(say 1^6^-90), possibly by the hand~oF r Fra Marino^^Eimselrl 
In this case the lost Spanish version will be a~transla,tion 



rnade_fromthe actual Vienna MS., or else a twin-sister, 
(fvf_fhp pamp plabnratp literary hoax. 

The hypothesis of an earlier original of the fourteenth or 
fifteenth century has, at first sight, much to be said for it. 
There is an originality, a naivete, a mediaeval Italian tone 
and atmosphere about the document; and there are, besides, 
certain definite indications which make for an early date. 

Oriental colouring there was bound to be, from the nature Character 
of the subject-matter and the plan of the work. Holy 




Scripture itself, from one point of view, a collection of and 
Semitic literature supplies the ground- work of the book touches . 
and contributes nearly two-thirds of its bulk ; rabbinic and 
Arabian legend again Semitic, Oriental occupies most of 
the remaining space; and, finally, the^whole^jjurpjose and 
tendency of the Gospel is Mohammedan. That in spite 
of all this the style of the book and the atmosphere which 

1 Menagiana, torn, iv, p. 202 (ed. Paris, 1715). L orthographe de ce 
manuscrit est remarquable par ses irregularitez . . . et . . corruptions 
sans riombre, qu on doit regarder plutot comme une marque de 1 igno- 
rance et de la mauvaise prononciation du Copiste, qtie de 1 anciennete de 
l e"criture. 



xxxviii INTRODUCTION 

it breathes should have in them so much of the Occident, and 
of Italy, is the more surprising ; and bespeaks if not a purely 
Italian and mediaeval or renaissance origin for Barnabas at 
least a rare originality and individuality in him who first put 
its contents into their present form l . 

His picturesque eulogy of the bellezza of the summer 
season of fruits 2 voices an experience that is almost world 
wide ; and familiar parallels from the Old Testament will 
at once present themselves 3 . But the passage itself, with 
its ( chontadino inebriato di allegrezza for the harvest that is 
come, making the hills and valleys resound with his singing/ 
somamente ammando le euoi fatiche, might be written 
to-day as a realistic description of the vendemmia in Tuscany 
or the Veneto. The scene in which the story is laid, and the 
exigencies of his subject, leave the author comparatively few 
opportunities for the introduction of local colouring; yet 
there are not wanting in Barnabas illustrations of contem 
porary manners and customs introduced by way of simile 
or metaphor for the most part. And these, though mostly 
inconclusive as evidence, are at any rate not incompatible 
with the conditions of mediaeval or renaissance Italy. The 
expert stone-quarriers * and the references to solid stone 
buildings fare more suggestive of a nation of born muratori 

O ^ OO ^^ i ~ ^ ^ -- ^M i ""^"^""^^^___ 

..than .detent-loving ArabsT Then there are frequenttKough 

O J. O 

(it must be owned) not "very technical references to sailors 
and shipping 6 ; soldiers drill and tiro a segno in time of 
peace 7 ; there is the slave laden with bread for the labourers 
in his master s vineyard 8 ; the energetic treading out of the 
grapes 9 ; the captive bird on a string 10 ; the heavily laden 
pack-horse n ; the peasant who owes a proportion of the 
fruits to his padrone 12 . Some of these are more, some less 

1 This originality extends, as we have seen, to the diction of the 
Scripture quotations. A later writer might be expected to avail himself 
largely of Malermi s printed Italian Bible of 1490, or of the still earlier 
Venetian Bible of 1471. 

2 See i85 b . 8 Cp. e. g. Ps. iv. 7 ; Ixv. 13 : Isa. ix. 3 ; xvii. 10. 
4 See n6 b . 5 See io7 b , 153". 6 e.g. 9i b , log 6 , 127*. 
1 See 153". See 199". See i 35 b . 

10 See ao5 b . See is8 b . 

12 See i3o a : the metayer (mezzadria) system (_?). But the same occurs, 
of course, in the N.T. 



INTRODUCTION xxxix 

suggestive of mediaeval Italy, but all are compatible with it. 
Then there are sketches more elaborately drawn, and in some 
cases more characteristic. There are the large wooden wine- 
casks being rolled about to clean them l ; there is the king 
giving orders to his stable-boy, while the staliero s humble 
friend looks on in awe 2 ; there is a contempt for barley 
bread as ascetic fare 3 ; there are the ladri well kept down 
by the soldiers and hanged at sight if they show themselves 4 ; 
there is a distinction between capital punishments hanging 
for robbery and decapitation for murder 6 ; the arrested 
prisoner questioned~by a magistrate, while a notary to the 
detriment of the prisoner s nerves jots down memoranda of 
the evidence 6 ; finally, there is the proprietorship of whole _ 
villages vested in private persons like Mary. Martha, and 

O f- - -- ^"-~ - __ _ 

TJazarus, more mediaeval than levitical t more natural in 
fourteenth- or fifteenth-century Italy than in first-century 



Other possible data for judgement may be found perhaps 
in the mention of the name (Fenerdi*) of the sixth day of 
the week, in the reference to sugar as a prized article of 
commerce, and in certain specifications of coinage 10 ; or again 
in the exegetical, theological, and philosophical groundwork 
of the book. The doctrine of the painless birth n , already 
mentioned; the identifications of Gospel characters of the 
Maries 12 , of Salome 13 , of the man in the linen cloth 14 ; 
Aristotelian allusions the doctrine of the mean the tripartite 
psychology 15 the form of Ptolemaic astronomy affected by 
Barnabas: if these do not evince a western origin for the 
book (seeing that Aristotle came back to us through the 
Arabs), they bespeak it, at any rate, mediaeval or later. 

These last items bring us at once into contact with the author 

1 See i67 b : in the East skins are used. 2 See 88 1 . 

8 See 23 b : barley is still little used among the Italian peasantry. 

4 See i68 b . 5 See 169". 

6 See i2 9 b . 7 See 2o4 b . 8 See 131*. 9 See 128*. 

10 The most specific reference is that in 57 b , where uno denaro di horo 
sesanta minuti . I have not discovered this absolute use of minuto 
in any dialect ; but Fanfani defines it as <un antica Moneta di vil prezzo 

corrispondente a un quattrino . 
u g ee 5 b_ 12 gee 12g ^ is See 2i6 b . 

14 See 222 a . 15 See iia b . ls See m a , 190 . 




xl 



INTRODUCTION 



of the Divina Commedia; and it becomes natural to ask 



Points of 
contact 
with 
Dante. 



whether Barnabas bears any^_sign of mdebtednesajba Dante 
or viceverga. 

Now there is certainly one striking- though perhaps not 
conclusive verbal coincidence, in the recurring phrase dei 
falsi e bugiardi , which reproduces a cadence of the first 
canto of the Inferno 1 , not to mention the rabbiosa fame 
of the same canto 2 , which is possibly too little distinctive 
to count. So much, however, justifies us in looking more 
closely. The description of the pains and cries j)f the damned 
J^sfrfvnffjy rpmimappnt. olT^nte^acgount in the^third canto 
of the Inferno 3 ; and the more detailed and classified picture 
ofHelTwhich appears later on in the book 4 is extremely 
Dantesque, with its series of circles , its tormenting devils, 
its harpies, its biting serpents, its Tantalus-pains and Sisyphus 
labours, its burning filth . . . and its general principle per 
quae peccat quis, per haec et torquetur. 

The ( neui he giazi intollerabili of yet another passage bring 
us back to the thirty-second canto of the Inferno 5 ; while 
the idea of all pollutions of human sin especially repented 
sin streaming back eventually to Satan is the conception 
which underlies the system of Dante s rivers of Hell, including 
the ruscelletto that trickles down from Purgatory 6 . The 
harrowing of Hell at the coming of God s Messenger, vividly 
described by Barnabas , recalls a famous and beautiful passage 
of Dante 7 . Again, in a quite different context, there is the 
counsel habandonare il perche which suggests Dante s 

State contenti, umana gente, al quia 8 , 

and, more important still, the statement of the impossibility 
of absolution to one who is, at the moment, meditating fresh 
sin so suggestive of Guido da Montefeltro s words : 

1 Barn. 23% 8i b , 225* ; Dante, Inf. i. 72. 
3 Barn. 62 b ; Dante, Inf. i. 47. 

3 Barn. 63*, malladirano . . . il loro padre he madre he il loro 
chreatore ; cp. Dante, Inf. iii. 103, ( Bestemmiavano Iddio e lor parenti, 
&c. Cp. also Barn. 62 b with Inf. iii. 22 sqq. 

4 See i46 b sqq. 5 Barn. 113* ; Dante, Inf. xxxii. 22 sqq. 

6 Barn. 43*, cp. Dante Inf. xiv. 85 sqq. ; xxxiv. 130. 

7 Barn. i49 b , 150* ; Dante, Inf. ix. 64 sqq. 

8 Barn. 95" ; Dante, Purg. iii. 37. 




INTRODUCTION xH 

Ch assolver non si puo chi non si pente, 
N& pentere e volere insieme puossi l , 

and the explanation as old as Augustine, but characteristi 
cally emphasized by Dante of the possibility of different 
grades of glory in Paradise, without envy among the beatified : 
does not ogniuno si chontentera perche hiuui non he inuidia 
at once recall Piccarda s beautiful lines in the third canto of 
the Paradiso 2 ? 

Much, but not all, surely, of the foregoing may be due 
to par materia. And the same may be said of the geography , 
so to speak, of Hell and Heaven. The Qoran recognizes 
seven Heavens in all, of which Paradise is the seventh; 

^^ * *^^_ -* 

Barnabas has nliie Heavens, \vilh__Riradise like Dante s 
Empyrean for the tenth ^ "Again, just as Dante s Purgatory 
s arranged according to the scheme of the seven capital sins, 
so is the Hell of Barnabas (whose system has no place for 
Purgatory) 4 . And though the order of the sins in Barnabas 
differs from Dante s arrangement as indeed from that of 
every known list it comes nearer to that of Aquinas 5 . 

Now if all these details together and they are the fruits 
of a casual examination fail to prove any direct connexion 
between Dante and Barnabas, they, at any rate, make some 
such connexion extremely probable. If they are reminiscences 
of Dante, they are very subtle ones, * avoiding the obvious ; 
if they are not reminiscences, they would seem to point to 
a common atmosphere for Dante and Barnabas, and to carry 
bfl,okJJTfi original Tta,1ja.n Baniaba.mt,Q the fourteenth century. 
And this superficially attractive theory is corroborated by an 
incidental reference to the Jubilee, which, if it-could be 
pressed, would give us a definite date for the origin of 
Barnabas in its present form. Christ, in a prediction of The 
Mohammed s advent, is made to speak of a iubileo . . . che 
hora uiene oerni cento hanni . 6 This cannot be the Hebrew Jubilee. 

o 

1 Barn. s8 b ; Dante, Inf. xxvii. 118. 

2 Barn. 189" ; Dante, Par. iii. 70 sqq. Augustine on John xiv. 2. 

3 Qoran, Sur. ii ; Barn. igo b . 

4 There is no purgatory in the Qoran : it was introduced, however, into 
Islam by Wasil, founder of the Motazilite sect. See Encycl. Brit. vol. xvi, 
p. 592. 5 See the Table in Dr. Moore s Studies in Dante, series ii. 

6 See 85 , 87*. 




xlii 



INTRODUCTION 



Jubilee, which recurred every fiftieth year 1 ; and the Qoran 
is innocent of Jubilees. There remains, then, the Jubilee of 
Western Christendom : and there was only one period, so far 
as we know, when this celebration could have been spoken 
of as recurring every 100 years . The first recorded Jubilee 
that of Boniface VIII in io 



s 



the second, 



J/o 




author- 



Clement VI in 1350. The first Jubilee had been so brilliant 
a financial success that it was decided to shorten the interval ! 
This would give us precisely the first half of the fourteenth 
century as the period in which the passage in question must 
Eave been written, and would make the writer of Barnabas 
l^Lfi. of the firs^ Ttalian "Barnabas) a, mntfimporary of Dante 
Alighieri. 

The internal evidence of the subject-matter would point, 



an Italian original of 1300-50 A. D. : unless, indeed, 
the Jubilee passage is capable of another explanation. 
What have the language, style, and orthography to say ? 
Their verdict, so far as we are able to understand it, is not 
quite conclusive. The scribe of the Vienna MS. was certainly 
a Venetian of the sixteenth or early seventeenth century : to 
him, apparently, are due the Venetian spelling 3 , and the 
frequent grammatical deviations from classical Italian usage 4 . 
To him also may be due the profusion of initial and other 
gratuitous A s after the manner of Catullus Arrius : 

Chommoda dicebat, si quando commoda vellet 
Dicere, et hinsidias Arrius insidias ; 

but this latter characteristic is not distinctive of any dialect 
so much as of a period, being found pretty generally, though 
not quite so intensely as here, in Italian MSS. of the fifteenth 
and sixteenth centuries. 

1 Lev. xxv. ii. 

2 It was, of course, officially alleged in 1300 that the custom was of 
immemorial antiquity, but contemporary evidence seems rather to point 
to its being a new departure. See Ragg, Dante and his Italy, chap. i. 

s e. g. the frequent forms in z, the use of single consonants for double 
and vice versa, the forms filgio, elgie, molgie, &c v the elision of certain 
consonants (e.g. uedoa for vedova ao a ), the curtailing of participles (e. g. 
monta for montato i9 b ). 

4 Especially the use of plural verb-form with singular subject, charac 
teristic of a Veneziano toscanizzante . 



INTRODUCTION xliii 

These solecisms of orthography and grammar apart, the Conflict- 
general style and language of the book resemble Tuscan * 



rather than Venetian J ; and would so far support the evidence apparently 
already drawn from the subject-matter, making our Vienna 
MS. a rather careless sixteenth-century copy, made by a 
Venetian scribe, of an earlier and apparently Tuscan document. 

But the question at once arises, is the toscanita which 
underlies the quaint and curious orthography the language 
of a true Tuscan, or is it literary Tuscan the style affected 
by later Italian writers of whatever district, and fostered 
most conspicuously in the Cinquecento by the illustrious 
Venetian Pietro Bembo : the homage paid by later centuries 
to the genius of Dante and Petrarch ? 2 If the hypothesis 
of an early Tuscan original seems warranted, equally possible 
is that of a Venetian of the sixteenth century toscanizzante. 

In short, some one aboutj[575- possibly the Fra Marino 

oftheSpanish Preface either copiea~out_or invented this 

Gospel of Barnabas 7 ! If he invented it, the more puzzling 
solecisms may, after all, be a clumsy attempt at archaism, 
and the main interest for us will lie not so much in the style 
and orthography of the MS. as in the motives which inspired 
it, and the materials out of which it was fabricated. 

Thus much we may say with confidence. The Italian 
Barnabas is, to all intentsand jjurposes, anoriginj 
it is the work of one who, whether priest orlayman, monk 

1 There is a general consensus of opinion, among the learned Italian 
experts whom we have been privileged to consult, both as to the date of 
the word-forms and style (fifteenth or sixteenth centuiy), and also as to 
the mingling or stratification of Tuscan and North-Italian characteristics. 
Prof. Monaci, of Rome, inclines to a Tuscan original, copied later by a 
scribe possibly of the Emilia. Prof. Cesareo, of Palermo, ritiene certo 
cho la lingua originale sia il toscano, e che il MS. di Vienna (o il suo 
archetipo) sia stato copiato da un amanuente lombardo-veneto il qualo 
introdusse qualche forma propria del suo dialetto. Prof. Crescini, of 
Padua, narrows down the dialectical area to the Veneto, assigning certain 
other characteristics, such as the ft s, to the period rather than to any 
particular district. His provisional conclusions, after a careful study of 
the text, are as follows : (i) The language is apparently Tuscan or literary 
Italian, but the scribe Venetian : the text, therefore, may have been 
originally Tuscan, copied out by a Venetian. But (2) it is just possible 
that a text originally Venetian was afterwards modified in a Tuscan 
sense (toscanissato) . 

2 Cp. especially Bembo s Prose della volgar lingua. 



xliv 



INTRODUCTION 



Arabic 
original 
improb 
able. 



or secular, has a remarkable knowledge of the Latin Bible 
as remarkable, perhaps, as Dante s 1 and, like Dante, a 
special familiarity with the Psalter, jt is the work of one 
whose knowledge of the Christian Scriptures is conTuleralBIy 

~ih advance of his familiarity with the !5criptufes i *orTsTam : 

presumably, therefore, of a renegade from Christianity . "it 
an Arabic prototype should eventually be discovered, it could 

"but serve, we may dare to say, to emphasize the originality 
and individualit^of the first_j.talian translator. But as 
It matter of fact the evidence for an Arabic original is vague 
and fugitive. Experts say that the Italian of our MS. by 
no means suggests or warrants it 2 ; and the external evidence 
is all derived either from the mere conjecture of Christian 
scholars 3 , or from the probably disingenuous assertions of 
Muslim controversialists, who, though challenged again and 

.again during nearly _two_^turies, bave^never yet^producid 

1 His knowledge of Scripture if less discerning than Dante s is equally 
extensive. Dante, it is true, has references to a few books from which 
Barnabas draws nothing, viz. : Esther, Canticles, Zechariah, Judith, 
Maccabees, 2 Corinthians, Ephesians, and Jude ; but against these we 
may place in the other scale Barnabas s references to Amos, Haggai, 
Malachi, and Susanna, and, apparently, the First Epistle of St. John. 

2 On this subject Prof. C. A. Nallino, of the University of Palermo, 
writes : Non vi trovo affatto tracce di arabismi. Prof. Ignazio Guidi, 
of Rome, is of a similar opinion, and points out the frequency of such 
participial phrases as partiti gli angeli , detto quessto , essendo nato 
iessu , &c., le quali non possono esser tradotte a parola dall arabo, 
mentre rispondono benissimo al greco . The linguistic evidence, how 
ever, as Prof. Nallino suggests, is not conclusive one way or the other, 
because, while mediaeval translators from Arabic into Latin give us 
a text full of arabisms, so that their versions divengono d una barbarie 
incredibile, e permettono quasi di ricostruire dovunque 1 originale arabo , 
those who translated into * idiomi volgari , adoperando una lingua viva, 
non osavano farle violenza e procedevano quindi con molta libertii di 
frase nella loro versione . He instances the treatise of az-Zargah on the 
Astrolabe, with its word-for-word Latin version, so different from the 
free Spanish translation made from the same Arabic text under the 
auspices of Alphonso X of Castile. 

3 Cramer, who procured the MS. in Amsterdam before 1709 and pre 
sented it to Prince Eugene in 1713 (see Dedication , p. Ixxix), supposes an 
Arabic original sive alia lingua , and suggests that it was compiled a 
Sergio monacho, uno 6 tribus illis Alcorani architectis . Toland, to whom 
Cramer lent the MS. in 1709, and Sale, who refers to it in the Preface, 
Preliminary Discourse, and Notes to his Koran, also take an Arabic proto 
type for granted, but their evidence is naturally dependent, and in the 
last resort conjectural. See above, p. xvi, and cp. Note, p. xlviii. 




INTRODUCTION xlv 

a copy of Barnabas in Arabic^, and ansjbejjejyecl Jx> owe their 
knowledge of the^_* Gxtspelis existence to the writin 
George~SaTe^which they certainly possess. 



III. THE QUESTION OF THE LOST GNOSTIC GOSPEL. 

(i) The question of a possible Arabic original will always (i) His- 
retain a certain degree of interest, however remote that Notices of 
possibility may seem. But there is another problem con- the lost 
nected with the sources and antecedents of our document 
which is of far deeper and more permanent interest. Does * 
the Italian Barnabas enshrine within its covers the lost "a^a-7 
Gnostic Uospel which Bore tnat name? 



There is aT legendTthat when the relics of St. Barnabas The 
were discovered in Cyprus in the fifth century there was 
found lying onhis breast a copy of the Gospel_oJ SF. Matthew 
written by his own hand ^ Our" Barnabas, though the 
opening section of its narrative is drawn from St. Luke 2 , 
uses St. Matthew preponderatingly in its earlier chapters, 
and possibly, also, in those that follow. 

The so-called Gelasian Decree mentions an Ecangelium The 
Barnabe in its index of prohibited and heretical books 3 : and ^ etum 

1 GeZo.su. 

it is perhaps important for our purpose to note that if the 

Decretum Gelasii is to be dated, as generally supposed, in 
the century after Gelasius, we have testimony here to the 
survival of such an apocryphal Gospel practically in the age 
of Mohammed. 

(ii) It is quite conceivable, then, that some of the apocryphal (H) Possi- 
stories in the Qoran 4 may be indirectly borrowed from this f^uL* 
Gospel. If this be so, then a Christian student of the Qoran here, 
would at once be attracted by the Gnostic Gospel of Barnabas 
if it chanced to fall into his hands. 

Assuming, then, for the sake of argument, that an original 
Gnostic Barnabas, or a Latin version of the same, fell into 

1 Acta Sanctorum, Bolland: Junii. torn, ii, pp. 422 sqq. and 450 (Antwerp, 
1698). The discovery was made, according to the early historians, in the 
fourth year of the Emperor Zeno; i. e. 478 A. D. 

a The Annunciation : Barn. 3 h ; Luke i. 26 sqq. 

3 Decretum Gelasii, vi. 10. * See above, p. xxix. 



xlvi 



INTRODUCTION 



Items 
drawn 

Barnabas. 



the hands of a Christian renegade of the fourteenth or fifteenth 
century just as the Spanish translation (?) of our present 
Gospel fell into Fra Marino s hands in the last quarter 
of the sixteenth it would give him at once a title for his 
great missionary pamphlet, and a vast amount of material 
to work upon. 

To begin with, if Era Marino s story has any value 1 , the 
Gnostic Gospel would contain the substance of the prefatory 
and valedictory denunciations of St. Paul. "What else our 
MS. may be supposed to have preserved of that interesting 
document, may well be left to experts to decide, now that 
they have the text of Barnabas before them. It may, how 
ever, be worth while to collect together a few suggestions, 
some of which may possibly prove useful in view of a more 
searching and scientific investigation than we have found 
practicable hitherto. 

First, then, for the solitary fragment of the original 
Barnabas that remains to us. ~Bapva/3as 6 anoa-ToXos ((fry fv 
s Trovujpais aOkitoTepos 6 riK^o-as. Siori aTifp\Ta.i TrXeoy 
S a^aprias 2 . 

This is quite in the manner of our Italian Barnabas , who 
is full of sententious ethical maxims with a spice of epi 
grammatic hyperbole : and it is in line with his constant 
enforcement of the duty of humility, and his strictures on 
the sins of the tongue. We have not, however, succeeded 
in discovering its exact counterpart in the text. Perhaps 
another will be more fortunate. 

For the rest, apart from the matter clearly derived from 
the Canonical Gospels, an indefinite amount of which would 
inevitably be incorporated in any apocryphal life of Christ, 
we may perhaps see traces of the Gnostic Barnabas in the 
painless Birth and brilliant light already referred to, and in 
details, perhaps, of the Angelology and of the Eschatology. 
Some of the apocryphal miracles, and of the apocryphal 



1 See it cited above, p. xi : if we suppose our Barnabas to have originated 
with Fra Marino, he may yet have found its nucleus (in Greek or Latin) 
in the form of the old Gnostic Gospel, and dressed it up beyond casual 
recognition by the resources of his fertile imagination. 

2 Grabe, Spicilegium i. (ex Cod. Barocc. 39). 



INTRODUCTION xlvii 

parables (several of which are of great beauty), may perhaps 
be due to the same source; which may be responsible also 
for the otherwise inexplicable elimination of St. John the 
Baptist l , and for the prominence throughout the narrative 
of Pilate, Herod, and CaiaphasJ The substitution of Barnabas 
for Thomas (or for Simon ^elotes) in the list of the Twelve 2 
would be a credible expedient in a comparatively late pseudo- 
evangelium, while the non-identification of Judas and Thaddaeus 
is paralleled in early Syrian tradition. The acceptance of 
the Jewish story mentioned by St. Matthew as an explanation 
of the empty tomb 3 would come natural to one whose purpose 
was to combat the orthodox New Testament teaching 
about Christ. But the most striking element of all in this 
connexion is the docetic Passion , in which Judas is arrested, 
tried, and crucified in his Master s place. Of this there are 
but vague suggestions in the Qoran derived, it may be, by 
Mohammed from some snatches of the Gnostic Sarnalas 
overheard and scarcely comprehended : in our Barnabas the 
episode is drawn out with great fullness and remarkable 
dramatic power. 

With these suggestions we prefer to leave the matter in 
the hands of those more competent to deal with it : confident, 
as we have already observed elsewhere 4 , that Barnalas will 
be found to raise problems of considerable importance if not 
to the student of early Gnostic literature, at any rate to the 
_^ildent_of mediaeval th nn gh t } aruj__tL t.lj^sejnjere^j^^hjther^ 
^cademicalty or practically, in thg__j:elations Between Islam 
and Christianity. 

1 St. John being eliminated and his role apportioned to Jesus as 
forerunner of Mohammed, it becomes natural, as we have already sug 
gested, to call Mohammed the Messiah. Moreover, the constant stress 
laid on the descent of the Messiah from Ishmael and not from Isaac 
shows that the identification of Mohammed and Messiah is not due, as 
has been supposed, to mere ignorance of the Qoran. 

2 See i3 b , and the note on that passage (p. 25, note 4). 

3 See 227 a - b . 

4 See an article in the Journal of Theological Studies, April, 1905, 
pp. 424-33. 



xlviii INTRODUCTION 



NOTE BY PROFESSOR MARGOLIOUTH 

Against the supposition that the Gospel of Barnabas ever 
existed in Arabic we must set the argument from silence 
about such a Gospel in the polemical literature of the 
Moslems. This has been admirably catalogued by Stein- 
schneider in his monograph on the sulrject in the Abhand- 
lungen fur die Kunde des Morgenlandes, 1877. Of the 
works enumerated by him, three, belonging to very different 
periods, are accessible in printed editions. Tpthe writers of 
all these treatisesthe Gospel of jBarnabas would have been 




yerywelcome, but the famejrf it hadnot reached their ears. 

The earliest of them is Ibn Hazm (obit. 456 A. H.), wtose" 
Fisal fi-l-milal wal-ahwd wal-nihal was printed in Cairo a few 
years ago (part i., 1317 A.H.) He condemns the four Evan 
gelists with much vehemence, and declares that the names of 
the Apostles are quite unknown. 

The treatise of Ibn Taimiyyah (obit. 728 A. H.) was pub 
lished in Cairo last year : it is called Al-Jawdb al Sahik liman 
baddala din al-Masik. He is far less virulent than his prede 
cessor, and assigns a certain amount of genuineness to our 
four Gospels. But he has no suspicion of the existence of a 
Gospel favouring the Prophet as does the Gospel of Barnabas. 

The treatise of Abu 1-Fadl al-Su udl (composed 942 A. H., 
and based on the earlier work of Abu 1-Baka Salih al-Ja farl) 
was published at Leyden, 1877-92, with the title Disputatio 
pro reliffione Muhammedana adversus Christianas. The author 
deals with the Four Gospels, ^he, genuineness oj^ which_Jie 
appears to assume, though he regara^jhe^Cliiigtia^inter- 
pretation as erroneous. 

A work in which we might certainly have expected to find 
some allusion to an Arabic Gospel of Barnabas, if such 
existed, is the Bibliography of Hajji Khallfah (obit. A. H. 
1067, 1656-7 A. D.). Under the heading Injil he gives the 
names of the four Evangelists, and asserts, as many others 
assert, that the Gospel of Isa Ibn Maryam must have been 
quite different. But he knows of no Barnabas. 

The conjecture that any knowledge which the Indian 



INTRODUCTION x]ix 

Moslems may possess of the Gospel of Barnabas is due to 
Sale s Koran seems to me highly probable, if not certain. 
I am unfortunately not acquainted_gith any Arabic__ot- 
Persian work which makes any allusion to it. 

The notion of conjecturally restoring- the Gospel which the 
Christians were supposed to have altered must have occurred 
to many a Moslem, since conjectural restorations exist in 
Arabic of the Book of Abraham and the Psalms. A Moslem 
who was well acquainted with his own religion would not, 
however, have reconstructed it in the form of a Gospel of 
Barnabas, but in the form of a direct address from the Deity 
to c lsa. It is curious that the author of the remarkable 
Sufi work called The Perfect Man (about 1400 A. D.), 
whose purpose is to show that the Christians will through 
the intercession of Isa be saved, declares that their Gospel 
begins In the name of the Father, the Mother, and the 
Son . From the rest of his discussion he appears to know 
the Gospel only from the Qoran. 

The Arabic glosses to the Gospel of Barnabas cannot 
have been composed by any one whose native language 
was a form of Arabic ; the mistakes both of orthography 
and of grammar being such as betray the foreigner 1 . It 
is possible that the wrong order of the words is in many 
cases due to their being written on the margin of the MS., 
and not therefore intended by the writer. In the notes 
corrections are suggested where the writer s meaning has to 
be divined, and sometimes elsewhere : but it has not been 
thought necessary to correct the glosses systematically. The 
inch at the end of many of the glosses implies that the author 
is quoting from some book, possibly from memory : and that 
book seems occasionally to be the Qoran, of which the 
glossator had some, though no very profound, knowledge. 

1 This fact escaped the notice of Toland, whose erudition was more 
diffuse than exact, as also of La Monnoye, who describes the citations 
Arabes as fort bien e crites (see below, p. Ixxi) ; but the learned Denis 
(see p. Ixxvi) did not fail to observe it. [L. R.] 



INTRODUCTION 



IV. EXTRACTS FROM DOCUMENTS RELATIVE TO BARNABAS. 

A. 
THE SPANISH FRAGMENTS. 

I. THE ORIGIN OF CIRCUMCISION. 



Spanish. 

Entonces dixo Jesus ; 
Adam, el primer hombre 
aviendo comido por engano 
del demonic la comida pro- 
hibida por Dios en el parayso, 
se le rebel b su carne a su 
espiritu; por lo qual jurb 
diziendo, Por Dios que yo te 
quiero cortar ; y rompiendo 
una piedra tomb su carne para 
cortarla con el corte de la 
piedra . Por lo qual fue re- 
prehendido del angel Gabriel, 
y el le dixo ; Yo he jurado 
por Dios que lo he de cortar, 
y mentiroso no lo sere jamas . 
Ala hora el angel le enseno 
la superfluidad de su carne y 
a quella cortb . De manera 
que ansi como todo hombre 
toma carne de Adam, ansi 
esta obligado a cumplir aquello 
que con juramento prometib. 
[ap. Sale, Prelim. Disc., iv.j 



Italian. 

allora disse iessu, adamo 
primo homo hauendo man- 
giato per fraude di satana il 
cibo proibito da DIO nel para- 
disso . si ribelo al spirito la 
charne sua onde giuro dicendo 
per DIO chio ti uolgio talgiare 
. he roto uno sasso presse la 
sua charne per talgiarlla con 
il talgio della pietra onde ne f u 
ripresso del angelo gabrielo . 
he lui risspose io ho giurato 
per DIO di talgiarlo bugiardo 
non sero giamai . allora lan- 
gelo li mosstro la superfluita 
della sua charne he quella 
talgio . he pero sichome ogni 
homo prende charne dalla 
charne di adamo chosi elgie 
obligate di osseruare quanto 
adamo giurando promisse . 

[MS. 22% 22 b .] 



2. ABRAHAM AND THE ANGEL. 



Spanish. 

Dixo Abraham, Que hare 
yo para servir al Dios de los 



Italian. 

.... disse abraham che chossa 
fare debo per seruire lo DIO di 



INTRODUCTION 



Li 



Spanish. 

sanctos y prophetas ? Re- 
spondib el angel, Ve a aquella 
fuente y lavate, porque Dios 
quiere hablar contigo. Dixo 
Abraham, Como tengo de 
lavarme ? Luego el angel 
se le apparecio como uno bello 
mancebo, y se lavo en la 
fuente, y le dixo, Abraham, 
haz com yo . Y Abraham se 
lavo. 

[ap. Sale, Prelim. Disc., iv.] 



Italian. 

angioli he santti proffeti . Ris- 
spose langello ua in quel f onte 
he lauati perche DIG uole parl- 
lare techo . Risspose abraham 
hor chome lauarmi debo; 
allora langelo sell appresento 
chome uno bello giouine he 
si lauo nel fonte dicendo fa 
chossi hanchora te ho abra 
ham . lavatossi abraham .... 
[MS. 30", 3 o b .] 



THE JUDGEMENT ON THE SEEPENT. 



Spanish. 

Y llamo [Dios] a la ser- 
piente y a Michael, aquel que 
tiene la espada de Dios y le 
dixo; Aquesta sierpe es ace- 
lerada, echala la primera de 
parayso, y cortale las piernas 
y si quisiere caminar, arras- 
trara la vida por tierra . Y 
Ilam6 a Satanas, el qual vino 
riendo, y dixole; Porque tu 
reprobo has enganado a aques- 
tos, y los has hecho immun- 
dos ? Yo qiiiero que toda 
immundicia suya, y de todos 
sus hijos, en saliend de sus 
cuerpos entre por tu bocha, 
porque en verdad ellos haran 
penitencia, y tu quedaras harto 
de immundicia. 

[op. Sale on Koran, ch. vii.] 



Italian. 

he chiamato il serpe DIG 
chiamo langelo micchaelle 
quello che tiene la spada di 
DIG [he] disse . questo scel- 
lerato serpe scatia prima del 
paradisso he di fuori talgiali 
le gambe il quale si lui uora 
chaminare si strasini la uita 
per la terra . chiamo DIG dapoi 
satana il quale uene ridendo 
he disseli perche tu reprobo 
hai inganato chostoro he li hai 
fato diuentare inmondi . io 
uolgio che ogni innrtnditia 
loro he di tutti li loro fioli 
che con uerrita farano peni- 
tenzza he mi seruirano . nello 
usscire del chorpo loro hentri 
per la bocha tua he chosi 
serai satio de inmonditie . 



[MS. 43 a -] 



d 2 



Hi 



INTRODUCTION 



4. THE DOCTRINE OF THE MESSIAH. 1 



Translation from Spanish. 

And when Jesus had ended 
his prayer the High Priest 
cried with a loud voice, Stay, 
Jesus, we want to know who 
thou art, for the quiet of our 
people. He answered, I am 
Jesus of Nazareth, born of 
Mary, of the stock of David, 
a mortal man, and fear God, 
and seek his honour and 
glory. The High Priest 
said, It is written in the 
book of Moses that God is 
to send the Messias, who will 
come and declare the truth, 
and will bring mercy with 
him, and therefore we desire 
thee to tell us, if thou art 
the Messias whom we expect? 
Jesus said, It is true that 
God has so promised, but I 
am not he : for he was created 
before me. The High Priest 
said, By thy words andjsigns 
we know that thou art a pro v 
het and a saint ot God; and 
^erefore I entreat "thee^ in_ 
his name and for hissake, 
ffi^ thjru tellus_ how tbe % 
^Tessias will come. Jesus 
answered, As^Goa liveth, I 
am not that Messias which 
the tribes of the earth wait 
for, as God promised by our 



Italian. 

Finita la oratione . il pon- 
tifice disse ad alta uoce fer- 
mati iessu che ci mancha 
dissapere chi se tu per quiete 
della nosstra gente . Risspose 
iessu io son iessu fiolo di maria 
della stirpe di dauit . homo 
che he mortale he teme DIG 
et cercho che sia dato ha DIG 
honore he gloria . B/isspose 
il pontifice nel libro di mose 
he scrito che DIG nosstro deue 
madarci il messia il qualle 
uenira ha nontiarne quelo che 
nolle DIO . he portera al mond- 
do la misserichordia di DIO . 
pero ti prego dici la uerila sei 
tu il messia di DIO che noi 
asspetiamo . Risspose iessu 
elglie uero che chossi ha pro- 
messo il nosstro DIO ma pero io 
no son quello perche elgie 
fato auanti di me he uenira 
dapoi di me . Risspose il pon 
tifice per le tui parolle he 
segni ad ogni modo chre- 
diamo te essere proffetta he 
santo di DIO . pero ti preggo 
in nome di tutta iudea he 
issdraelle che tu per ammore 
di DIO ci dicha chome uenira 
il messia . R/isspose iessu 
Viue DIO alia chui pressenza 
sta la anima mia che io non 



1 In the following extracts matter peculiar to either Italian or Spanish 
is indicated, as far as possible, by italics. 






INTRODUCTION 



liii 



Translation from Spanish. 
father Abraham, saying, In 
thy family I will bless all 
{nEes^ }ut"when God shall 
Take me out of the world 
Satan will again promote this 
cursed sedition, making the 
wicked believe that I am 
the Son of God. My words 
and doctrine will be corrupted, 
insomuch that scarce thirty 
Taithful shall be found._ Then 
will God have mercy on his 
people, and will send his mes 
senger into the ^vorld J by 
whom he hath created all 
things : and he will come 
from the South with power, 
and will destroy Idolaters, 
and take away from Satan 
the empire that he has over 
men, and will bring the 
mercy of God and salvation 
to those that shall believe 
him. Blessed are those that 
shall believe him 



I, that am unworthy to 
loose his shoes, have had the 
favour to see him. The 
President, the High Priest 
and Herod said, Disturb not 
thyself, Jesus the saint of 
God, for in our time there 
will be no more sedition : for 
we will write to the holy 



Italian. 

son il messia il qualle asspeta 
^ tutte le tribu della terra . 
sichome DIO promisse ha il 
padre nosstro abraham dicen- 
do . Nel seme tuo benediro 
tutte le tribu della terra . Ma 
quando DIO mi leuera dal 
monddo satana suscitera di 
nouo quessta seditione malla- 
deta . chon fare credere alii 
empij che io sia DIO he fiolo 
di DIG onde serano contami 
nate le mie parolle he la mia 
dotrina . talmente che apena 
rimanerano trenta fideli onde 
DIO hauera misserichordia del 
monddo he mandera il nontio 
suo per il qualle haffato il 
tutto . il qualle uenira dalla 
parte di mezzogiorno chom 
potessta he disstrugera // id- 
doli chon li iddolatri impero- 
che lui leuera lo imperio ha 
satana che elgi ha sopra li 
homeni . Elgi portera secho 
la misserichordia di DIO in 
sallute de chi li chrederano 
he b[e]ato cholui che chre- 
dera al suo parlare . 

Io indegno di sciolgere li 
suoi chalziamenti . ho hauto 
gratia he misserichordia da 
DIO di uederllo . Risspose 
allora il pontifice con il pre 
side he il Re dicendo non ti 
turbare ho iessu santo di DIO 
perche al nosstro tempo non 
sera piu quessta seditione . in 



liv 



INTRODUCTION 



Translation from Spanish. 
senate of Rome, that by an 
imperial decree none may call 
thee God/ Jesus said, I am 
not comforted with this ; for 

9f" m ^ m 

from whence ye hope for 
^ight, darkness will corned 
But my consolation is in the 
coming of the Messenger of 
God, who will destroy all 
false opinions concerning me ; 
and his law shall run through 
the whole world ; for so God 
promised our father Abraham. 
And above all my comfort is 
that his faith shall have no 
end, but shall be inviolable 
and preserved by God. The 
High Priest said, Will any 
more prophets appear aftet 
tne coming ot tfte Messias ? 
Jesus answered, There will 
come no more true prophets 
sent by God ; but there will 
come many false prophets, for 
which I grieve ; because they 
will be stirred up by Satan, 
by the just judgement of 
God, and they will shelter 
themselves with my Gospel. 
Herod said, How is it the 
just judgement of God that 
such wicked men should 
come? Jesus said, It is 
just that he who believes not 
the truth to his salvation 
should believe a lie to his con 
demnation ; for the world de- 
spiseth the good and believeth 



Italian. 

modo che scriueremo nel sachro 
senato romano talmente che 
per dechreto imperiale niuno ti 
chiamerano piu DIG ouero fiolo 
di DIG . allora disse iessu del 
uostro parllare non mi ehon- 
solo perche doue sperate luce 
uenirano tenebre ma la mia 
chonssolatione he sopra la 
uenuta dello nontio di DIO . 
il qualle disstrugera ogni 
falssa opinione di me he la 
sua fede disscorera he pren- 
dera tutto il monddo . perche 
chossi ha promesso DIO ha 
abraham padre nostro . he 
quello che mi da chonssolatione 
he che la fede sua non hauera 
fine ma sera inuiolata seruata 
da DIO . Risspose il pontifice 
dapoi la uenuta de il nontio 
di DIO ueniraui altri proffeti . 
Risspose iessu non uenira 
dapoi di lui ueri profeti 
mandati da DIO ma uenira 
grande quantita di falssi prof 
feti de il che mi dolgio . perche 
li susciterra satana per iussto 
iuditio di DIO he si choprirano 
sotto pretessto dello euangelio 
mio . Risposse herode chome 
he iussto iuditio di DIO che 
uengino chotali empij . Ris 
spose iessu elgie iussto che 
cholui il qualle non uolle 
chredere alia uerrita per sua 
sallute chredi alia bugia per 
sua danatione . onde ui dicho 



INTKODUCTION 



Iv 



Translation from Spanish. 
the bad, as is seen in the time 
of Micheas and Jeremias ; for 
every one loveth his like. 
The High Priest said, < What 
will the Messias be called, 
and how shall his coming and 
manner of life be known ? 
Jesus answered, The name of 
the Messenger of God is 
Admirable; for God himself 
gave it him after he had 
created his soul and placed it 
in celestial brightness. God 
said, Observe, Mohammed, 
for I will for thy sake create 
paradise and the world with 
a great number of creatures, 
of which I make thee a pre 
sent : so that whosoever shall 
bless thee shall be blessed, 
and whosoever shall curse 
thee shall be cursed. And 
when I shall send thee into 
the world I will send thee for 
my messenger of salvation, 
and thy words shall be true ; 
so that heaven and earth 
shall fail, but they shall 
never fail in thy law. Mo 
hammed is his blessed name. 
Then the multitudes lifted up 
their voices and said, Send 
us, O God, thy messenger ; 
come presently, O Moham 
med, for the salvation of the 
world. 

\_ap. White, Bampt. Led., 1784, 
pp. xxxiii-xxxvii.] 



Italian. 

che il monddo sempre ha diss- 
prezato li ueri proffeti he 
ammato li falssi chome si pol 
uedere al tempo di michea he 
hieremia . Perche ogni simille 
am ma il suo simille . Disse 
allora il pontifice chome sara 
chiamato il messia he quale 
segno dimosstrera la sua 
uenuta . Risspose iessu il 
nome del messia he admira- 
bile perche DIG propio li posse 
il nome quando elgi hebe 
chreato la anima sua . he 
chollochata intuno splendore 
cellesste DIG disse asspeta 
Machometo che per ammore 
tuo io uolgio chreare il para- 
disso he il monddo . he molti- 
tudine grande di chreature 
delle qualli te ne fazo uno 
pressente talmente che . chi 
te benedira sara beneddeto he 
chi te malladira sarra malla- 
deto . quando io ti maridero al 
monddo io ti mandero mio 
nontio di sallute he la tua 
parolla sara uera talmente . 
che manchera il cielo he la 
terra ma non manchera gia- 
mai la tua fede . Machometo 
he il suo nome beuedeto . 
Allora il uolgo leuo le uocj 
dicendo ho DIG mandazi il tuo 
nontio ho machometo uieni 
pressto in sallute del monddo . 

[MS. ioi b -io3 b .] 



Ivi 



INTRODUCTION 



5. THE TRANSFORM ATION OF JUDAS. 




Translation from Spanish. 

Judas came near to the 
people with whom Jesus was ; 
and when he heard the noise 
he entered into the house 
where the disciples slept. 
And God, seeing the fear and 
danger of his servant, ordered 
Gabriel and Michael and 
Rafael and Azrael to carry 
him out of the world. And 
they came in all haste, and 
bare him out of the window 
which looks towards the south, 
and they placed him in the 
third heaven, where he wil]^ 
remain blessing God, in the. 



company of angeTsTtill near 



the end of the world. 

And Judas the traitor en 
tered before the rest into the 
place from which Jesus had 
just been taken up. And the 
disciples were sleeping. And 
the wonderful God acted won 
derfully, changing Judas into 
the same figure and speech 
with Jesus. We, believing 
that it was he, said to him, 
Master, whom seekest thou? 1 
And he said to them, smiling, 
( Ye have forgotten yourselves 
since ye do not know Judas 
Iscariot. At this time the 
soldiery entered ; and seeing 
Judas so like in every respect 



Italian. 

Auicinandossi li soldati chon 
iuda al locho doue hera iessu . 
iessu sentite la uenuta di 
molta gente onde temendo 
se ritiro in chassa he li undeci 
dormiua . allora DIG uedendo 
il perichollo de il seruo suo 
uchomanddo ha gabrielo mi- 
chaelle Rafaele he uriello 
ministri suoi che leuassero 
iessu da il monddo . Venero 
li angioli santi he presono 
iessu fuori per la fenestra che 
guarda ha mezo giorno il por- 
torno . he il chollochorno nel 
terzo cielo in chompagnia di 
angioli benedicendo DIG in 
etterno. 

Entro chon empito iuda 
hauanti di ogniuno nella stan- 
tia doue iessu fu leuato he 
dormiuano li undeci . onde il 
mirabile DIG hopero mirabil- 
mente per modo che iuda fu 
talmente trassmutato nel parl- 
lare he nella facia simille ha 
iessu che noi credeuamo lui 
essere iessu . he lui hauendoci 
desstati ricerchaua doue hera 
il maesstro . onde noi admi- 
rati risspodessimo tu signore 
sei il maesstro nostro hora sei 
smetichato di noi . he lui 
soridendo disse hora sette 
stolti che non chonossete me 



INTRODUCTION 



Ivii 



Translation from Spanish. 
to Jesus laid hands upon him 



The soldiers afterwards took 
Judas and bound him, not 
withstanding- he said with 
truth to them that he was 
not Jesus. And the soldiers 
mocked him saying 1 , Sir, do 
not be afraid ; for we are 
come to make thee King- of 
Israel : and we have bound 
thee because we know thou 
hast refused the Kingdom. 
And Judas said, Ye have 
lost your senses. I came to 
show you Jesus, that ye 
might take him ; and ye 
have bound me, who am your 
guide. The soldiers lost their 
patience, hearing this, and 
they began to go with him, 
striking and buffeting him, 
till they reached Jerusalem 



[op. White, Bampt. Led., 1784, 
p. Iviii sq.] 



Italian. 

essere iuda scariot . he quessto 
dicendo hentro la millicia he 
detero di mano ha iuda per- 
che elgi era in tutto simille 

ha iessu 

Pressero li soldati iuda he 
il ligorno non senza derissione 
. perche elgi chon uerita ne- 
gando di non essere iessu he 
li soldati scernendollo dice- 
uano ho signore no temere . 
perche siamo uenuti per farti 
Re de issdrahelle he ti ha- 
biamo ligato perche sapiamo 
te richussare il reggno . Ris- 
sposse iuda hora hauete persso 
il ceruello, uoi sete uenuti ha 
prendere iessu nazareno cho 
arme he lanterne chome uno 
ladro . he ligato hauete me 
che qui uia guidati per farmi 
Re . allora scampo la pazienza 
alii soldati he chom pugni 
he chalzi inchominciorno ha 
chambiare la moneta ha iuda 
he il chondussero chon furia 
in ierusalem . . . 

[MS. 22I b -222 b .] 



6. THE CRUCIFIXION : SUBSEQUENT APPEARANCE 
OF JESUS. 



Translation from Spanish. 

They carried him to Mount 
Calvary, where they executed 
criminals, and crucified him, 
stripping him naked for the 
greater ignominy. Then he 



Italian. 

.... onde il chondussero allo 
monte chaluario doue si sos- 
pendeuano li malfatori he 
hiuui lo chrucifissero nudo 
per maggiore scerno . iuda 



Iviii 



INTRODUCTION 



Translation from Spanish. 
did nothing but cry out, O 
m.y God, why hast thou for 
saken me, that I should die 
unjustly, when the real male 
factor hath escaped ? I say 
in truth that he was so like 
in person, figure, and gesture 
to Jesus, that as many as knew 
him believed firmly that it was 
he, except Peter : for which 
reason many left his doctrine, 
believing- that it had been 
false ; as he had said that he 
should not die till the end of 
the world. But those who 
stood firm were oppressed with 
grief, seeing him die whom 
they understood to be Jesus ; 
not recollecting what he had 
told them. And in company 
with his Mother they were 
present at his death, weeping 
continually. And by means 
of Joseph of Arimatheas they 
obtained from the President 
the body of Judas. And they 
took him down from the 
cross, burying him with 
much lamentation in the new 
sepulchre of Joseph ; having 
wrapped him up in linen and 
precious ointments. 



Italian. 

ueramente non faceua altro 
che chridare DIO perche mi 
hai habandonato essendo che 
elgie fuggito il malfatore he 
io son ha torto morto . in 
uerita dicho che tanto hera 
simille la uoce he la facia 
chon la perssona di iuda ha 
iessu che li dissepoli suoi he 
chredenti . in tutto chredeuano 
lui essere iessu onde parte si 
partirno dalla dotrina di iessu 
chredendo loro che iessu fussi 
f alsso prof eta . he che chon arte 
magicha hauessi fato li mira- 
choli che fece perche iessu 
haueua deto che lui non 
moriria insino hapresso la fine 
del monddo . perche ha quel 
tempo saria stato leuato dot 
modo ma quelli che restorno 
stabilli nella dotrina di iessu 
loro herano . tanto circordati 
da dollore uedendo loro morire 
cholui che in tutto hera simille 
ha iessu che non si harechor- 
dauano quanto deto haueua 
iessu . pero in chompagnia 
della madre di iessu andorno 
al monte chaluario he stetero 
non sollo pressenti alia morte 
di iuda sempre piangendo . 
ma per uia de nichodemo he 
iosefo di abarimatia impetror- 
no da il presside il chorpo di 
iuda per sepellirlo . onde il 
leuorno di chroce cho tatte 
pianto che certamente niuno il 



INTRODUCTION 



lix 



Translation from Spanish. 



They all returned each man 
to his house : and he who 
writeth, with James and 
John, went with the Mother 
of Jesus to Nazareth. And 
the disciples who did not fear 
God with truth went by night 
and stole the body of Judas 
and hid it ; spreading a report 
that he had risen again, from 
whence sprang great confu 
sion among the people. And 
the High Priest commanded, 
under pain of Anathema, that 
no one should talk of him ; 
and on this account raised a 
great persecution, banishing 
some, tormenting others, and 
even stoning some to death ; 
because it was not in the 
power of anyone to be silent 
on this subject. And then 
came news to Nazareth that 
Jesus had risen again. And 
he that writeth desired the 
Mother of Jesus to leave off 
her lamentation. And Mary 
said, ( Let us go to Jerusa 
lem, to see if it is truth. If 
I see him, I shall die content. 



The Virgin returned to 



Italian. 

chrederia he lo sepellirno nello 
monumento nouo di iosef . 
auedollo inuolto cho cento 
lire di preciosso onguento. 

Ritornossi ha chassa ogni- 
uno . chplui che scriue cho 
ioane he iachobo suo fratello 
andorno chon la madre di 
iessu in nazaret . quelli disse- 
polli che non temauano DIG 
andorno he di note roborno 
il chorpo di iuda he lo nas- 
scosero spargendo fama che 
iessu hera rissuscitato on- 
de pero molta chonfussione 
naque . pero il pontiffice 
chomando sotto pena di hana- 
tema che ueruno parllassi di 
iessu nazareno che pero . naque 
una perssechutione grande he 
molti furno lapidati molti 
basstonati he molti scaziati 
dalla patria . perche non pote- 
uano tacere di talle chossa . 
peruene la noua in nazaret 
chome iessu loro citadino morto 
in chroce hera rissuscitato . 
onde cholui che scriue prego 
la madre di iessu che si ehon- 
tentassi di lassiare il pianto 
perche suo Jiollo //era risusci- 
tato . quessto scnfedo la uer- 
gine maria piangendo disse 
andiamo in ierussalem ha 
trouare mio Jiollo eke . io mo- 
riro uollentieri quando lo 
hauero ueduto. 

Ritorno la uergine chon 



Ix 



INTRODUCTION 



Translation from Spanish. 
Jerusalem with him that 
writeth and James and John, 
the same day that the decree 
of the High Priest came out. 
And as she feared God, though 
she knew the command was 
unjust, she entreated those 
who talked with her not to 
speak of her Son. Who can 
say how we were then 
affected? God, who knows 
the heart of man, knows that 
between the grief for the 
death of Judas, whom we 
understood to be Jesus, and 
the pleasure of seeing him 
risen again, we almost ex 
pired. And the angels who 
were the guardians of Mary 
went up to heaven the third 
day, and told Jesus what was 
passing. And he, moved with 
compassion for his Mother, 
entreated of God that he 
might be seen by his disciples. 
And the compassionate God 
ordered his four favourite 
angels to place him within 
his own house, and to guard 
him three days : that they, 
and they only, might see him 
who believed in his doctrine. 
Jesus descended, surrounded 
with light, into the house of 
his Mother : where were the 
two sisters, Martha and Mary, 
and Lazarus, and he that 
writeth, and John, and James, 



Italian. 

cholui che scriue he iachobo 
he ioane in ierusalem . quel 
giorno nel qualle uscite il 
dechreto del pontifice pero la 
uergine che temeua DIG sebene 
chonosseua il dechreto del pon 
tifice iniussto . essa chornando 
ha cholloro che habitauano 
chon lei che si smentichassero 
suo fiollo . hora chome ressto 
ogniuno DIG che chonossce il 
chore di homeni sa che fra 
il dollore della morte diuda 
che noi chredeuamo iessu 
maesstro nosstro essere . he fra 
il dessiderio di uederllo rissu- 
scitato ci sconssumauano chon 
la madre di iessu pero li an- 
giolli chusstodi di maria uer 
gine asscesero al terzo ciello . 
done iessu staua in chompagnia 
di angiolli he li rinontiorno il 
tutto onde iessu prego DIG che 
li dessi potere di uedere la 
madre sua cho li suoi dissce- 
polli . allora il misserichordi- 
osso DIG chomando ha quatro 
fauoriti angiolli suoi che sono . 
Gabriello, michaele, Rafaelle he 
Vriello che loro portassero 
iessu in chassa della madre 
sua he hiuui il chustodissero 
per tre giorni chontinui . las- 
sandollo solamente uedere ha 
cholloro che chredeuano alia 
sua dotrina . peruene iessu 
circhondato da ssplendore nella 
stantia doue maria uergine 




INTKODUCTION 



Ixi 



Translation from Spanish. 
and Peter. And when they 
saw him, they fell with their 

faces on the earth, as if dead. 
And Jesus lifted them up, 
saying, Fear not, for I am 
your Master. Lament not 

from henceforth, for I am 
alive. They were astonished 
at seeing- Jesus, because they 
thought him dead. And 
Mary weeping said, L3M1 
me, my Son, why, if God 
gave thee r>ower to raise up_ 
me dead, didhe co nsenFthaF 

ThuTshouIdesl; die 



much reproach- and shame f.p 
tny_relations and_friends, and 
so much hurt to thy doctrine, 
leaving us all in desolation ? 

o i~h 





Jesus replied, embracing 
his Mother, Believe me, for 
I tell thee the truth, I have 
not been dead: for God has 
reserved me for the end of 
the world. 

In saying this he desired 
the Angels to manifest them 
selves, and to tell how he 
had passed through everything. 
At the instant they appeared, 
like four suns : and all pre 
sent prostrated themselves on 



Italian. 

chon dui sui sorelle he marta 
chon maria magdallena . he 
lazaro chon cholui che scriue 
he ioane chon iachobo et pietro 
dimorauano . onde per timore 
chasscorno chome morto pero 
iessu leuo la madre chon li 
altri di terra dicendo . non 
temete perche io son iessu he 
non piangete perche son uiuo 
he non morto . stete ogniuno 
grande tepo chome fuori 
di sse per la pressenzza di 
iessu perche ad ogni modo 
loro chredeuano che iessu 
fussi morto. Quando la uer- 
gine piangendo disse hora di 
a me filgiolo perche hauendoti 
dato DIG potessta di rissusci- 
tare li morti . ti lasso chossi 
morire chon uergogna di tuoi 
parenti he hamici he chon 
uergogna della tua dotrina 
che pero . ogniuno che ti 
amma he stato chome morto . 

Risspose iessu abrazando 
la madre . chredetimi madre 
perche in uerita ui dicho che 

10 non sono giamai morto . 
perche DIG mia risseruato 
hapresso la fine del monddo 
he deto questo . elgi prego 

11 quatro anggioli che si sco- 
prissero he dessero tessti- 
monio chome hera passata In 
chossa . onde si scoprirno li 
angioli chome quatro solli 
risplendenti per modo che per 



Ixii 



INTRODUCTION 



Translation from Spanish. 
the ground, overcome by the 
presence of the Angels. And 
Jesus gave to all of them, 
something to cover themselves 
with; that they might be 
able to hear the Angels 
speak. And Jesus said to his 
Mother, ( These are the Minis 
ters of God. Gabriel knows 
his secrets ; Michael fights 
with his enemies; Asrafiel 
will cite all to judgement ; 
and Azrael receives the souls. 
And the holy Angels told how 
they had, by the command of 
God, taken up Jesus, and 
transformed Judas, that he 
might suffer the punishment 
_which he wished to bring on 
.Jesus. And he that wnteth 
said, ( Is it lawful for me to 
ask of thee, in the same man 
ner as when thou wast in the 
world ? And Jesus answered, 
Speak, Barnabas, what thou 
wishest. And he said, I 
wish that thou wouldest tell 
me how God, being so com 
passionate, could afflict us so 
much, in giving us to under 
stand that thou wast he that 
suffered, for we have been 
very near dying. And thou 
being a prophet, why did he 
suffer thee to fall under dis 
grace by [apparently] placing 
thee on a cross and between 
two robbers ? Jesus an- 



Italian. 

timore di nouo ogniuno chassco 
chome morto . allora iessu dete 
quatro lincioli alii angioli azio- 
che si choprissero perche li 
potessero uedere he sentire 
ha parllare . la madre chon li 
chompagni he leuato ogniuno 
li chonfforto dicendo . quessti 
sono li ministri di DIG gabriello 
che anontia li sachreti di DIG . 
Michalle che chonbate chon- 
tra li innimici di DIG . Rafaello 
che riceue le anime di cholloro 
che moreno . he Vriello che 
chiamera ogniuno al iuditio di 
DTO lo ultimo giorno . Narorno 
allora li quatro angioli alia uer- 
gine chome Diohaueua mandato 
per iessuhe chome haueua tras- 
*"f ormato iuda . azioche elgi rice- 
uessi quella pena che haueua 
uenduto ha altri . Disse allora 
cholui che scriue ho maes- 
stro hemi licito dimandarti 
hora chome mi hera licito 
quando habitaui chon noi . 
Bissposse iessu dimanda quello 
che ti piaze ho barnaba che io 
ti risspondero . disse allora 
cholui che scriue ho maesstro 
essendo DIG misserichordiosso 
perche chossi cia tormentati 
facendoci chredere te essere 
morto . he la tua madre chossi 
tia pianto che e sstata uicina 
ha morire . he tu che sei santo 
di DIG tia DIG lassiato chas- 
scare quessta infamia che tu 



INTRODUCTION 



Ixiii 



Translation from Spanish. 
swered, Believe me, Barna 
bas, let the fault be ever so 
small, God chastiseth it with 
much punishment. And as 
my Mother and faithful dis 
ciples loved me with a little 
earthly love, God chastised 
that love by this grief : that 
he might not chastise it in 
the other world. And though 
I was innocent, yet, as they 
called me God, andhisSon, 
that the devils might not v 
mock me on the djy of_ 
judgement, he has chosen 
TTiaj^J^ stmnlrl He_jnocked in 
this world. And this moclE^ 
ing shall last till the holy 
messenger of 



whoshall undeceive^_all be 
lievers/. And then he said, 
SJust art thou, O God ! and 
to thee only belongeth the 
honour and glory, with wor 
ship for ever. 



And then he said, See, 
Barnabas, that thou by all 



Italian. 

sij stato ammazato f ra ladroni 
sul monte chaluario . Uis- 
sposse iessu ho barnaba chre- 
dimi che ogni pechato per 
pichollo che sia DIG il punisse 
chon pena grande . essendo 
che DIG he offesso nel pechato 
onde ammandomi la mia 
madre he li fidelli cho mei 
dissepoli [chon] uno pocho di 
ammore terreno . il iussto DIG 
ha uolluto punire quessto am 
more chon il pressente dollore 
azioche non sia punito nelle 
fiami infernalli . he me che 
innocente son stato nel mon- 
do hauendomi li homeni chia- 
mato DIG he fiollo di DIG . 
DIG per non farmi scernire 
dalli demonij il giorno de il 
iuditio . ha uolluto che io 
sia scernito dali homeni nel 
monddo chon la morte di 
iuda facendo chredere ad ogni- 
uno che io sia morto sula 
chroce . onde quessto scerno 
durera inssino alia uenuta di 
machometo nontio di DIG . il 
quale uenendo al modo sga- 
nera ogniuno che chrederano 
alia legie di DIG di quessto 
ingano . auendo deto quessto 
iessu disse iussto sei signore 
DIG nosstro perche ha te sollo 
si apartiene honore he gloria 
senzza fine . 

He uoltatossi iessu ha cho- 
lui che scriue disse guarda 



Ixiv 



INTRODUCTION 



Translation from Spanish. 
means write my Gospel, re 
lating everything which has 
happened in the world con 
cerning me ; and let it be 
done exactly : in order that 
the faithful may be unde 
ceived, knowing the truth. 
He that writeth said, Master, 
I will do as thou commandest 
me, God willing: but I did 
not see all that happened 
with Judas. Jesus answered, 
Here stand Peter and John 
who saw it, and who will 
relate it to thee. And he 
told James and John to call 
the seven Apostles who were 
absent, and Nicodemus, and 
Joseph Abarimatheas, and 
some of the seventy-two dis 
ciples. When they were come 
they did eat with him; and 
on the third day he com 
manded them all to go to 
the Mount of Olives with 
his Mother : because he was 
to return to heaven. All the 
apostles and disciples wept, 
except twenty-five of the 
seventy-two, who had fled to 
Damascus, with fear. And 
exactly at midday, while they 
were all in prayer, Jesus came 
with many Angels (blessing 
God) with so much brightness 
that they all bent their faces 
to the ground. And Jesus 
raised them up, saying, c Fear 



Italian. 

barnaba . che ad pgni modo 
tu scriua lo euangelio mio in 
tutto quello che he successo 
per la mia habitatione nel 
modo . he scriui similmente 
quello che he hochorsso ha 
iuda azioche li fidelli si sgani- 
no e ogniuno credi alia uerita . 
Risspose cholui che scriue il 
tutto faro piazendo ha DIO 
ho maesstro ma chome sia 
sucesso ha iuda no lo so 
perche non ho ueduto il tutto . 
Rissposse iessu quiui sono 
ioane he pietro che il tutto 
han ueduto e loro ti dirano 
chome he passato il tutto he 
dapoi iessu chomado che 
douessimo chiamare li fideli 
suoi dissepoli . azioche lo ue- 
dessero che pero chongregorno 
iachobo he ioane li sete disse 
poli cho nichodemo he iosef 
he molti altri delli setan- 
tadui he mangiorno chon 
iessu . il terzo giorno iessu 
disse andate al monte olliueto 
chon mia madre che hiuui 
saliro di nouo al ciello ue- 
dendo uoi chi me portera 
al ciello . andorno adonque 
ogniuno eceeto deli setatadui 
dissepoli uinticinque li quali 
per timor herano fugiti in 
damassco . stando ogniuno in 
oratione allora di mezogiorno 
uene iessu chon grande molti- 
tudine di angioli che bene- 



INTRODUCTION 



Ixv 



Translation from Spanish. 
not your Master who comes 
to take leave of you and to 
recommend you to God our 
Lord, by the mercies received 
from His bounty ; and be He 
with you ! And upon this 
he disappeared with the 
Angels ; all of us remaining 
amazed at the great bright 
ness in which he left us. 

[ap. White, Bampt. Led., ut supra.] 



diceuano DTO . onde da il 
splendore della facia sua si 
spauetorno ogniuno he chas- 
scorno chon la fazia in terra 
onde iessu leuatili li cbo- 
forto dicedo . no uolgiate 
temere perche io sono il uos- 
stro maesstro .... 

[Here follow some 120 
words not represented in 
the Spanish.] 

.... la gratia he misserichor- 
dia di DIG resti chon uoi onde 
deto questo . li quatro angiolli 
uissibilmente lo solleuorno al 
ciello . 

[Here follows concluding 
chapter, not represented 
in the Spanish.] 

[MS. 226 b -23I a .] 



B. 

EXTRACTS RELATIVE TO THE < GOSPEL 
OF BARNABAS 

FROM 

JOHN TOLAND S < NAZARENUS 

(Published in London, 1718); and from his MISCELLANEOUS 
WORKS (published posthumously in London, 1747). 

(i) FROM THE PREFACE TO NAZARENUS . 

In the first place you ll find the succinct history 1 of a NEW P. 
GOSPEL which I discovered at Amsterdam in the year 1709. 
It is a Mahometan Gospel never before publicly made known 
3 See Extract iv below (Nas., ch. v). 

e 



Ixvi INTRODUCTION 

among Christians, tho they have much talked about the 
Mahometan s acknowledging the Gospel. I strait sent an 
account of this discovery to his most Serene Highness the 
ever-victorious PRINCE EUGENE or SAVOY, to whom I had 
the honour of writing sometimes by way of his Adjutant- 
General, the Baron de Hohendmf, who comes behind very 
few in the knowledge of all curious and useful books, and 
tis really surprizeing how much the Prince himself has read, 
how minutely, how critically, and in how many languages ; 
considering his perpetual series of action as well in the Court 
as in the camp . . . He s now master of this book, as may be 
seen in the Appendix. 

fn) 

P. xi. Next follows l an account of the TURKISH GOSPEL by Mon 

sieur DE LA MONNOYE (to whom the Baron DE HOHENDORF 
showed it, after the owner had parted with it to PRINCE 
EUGENE) and which I have added as a further illustration of 
the book ; and withall as a confirmation of my own descrip 
tion of it, which I am persuaded the Baron did not show to 
that ingenious Academician. 

(iii) 

FROM A CATALOGUE | OF | BOOKS | MENTIONED BY THE 
FATHERS AND OTHER ANCIENT WRITERS, AS TRULY OR 
FALSELY ASCRIBED TO JESUS CHRIST, HIS APOSTLES, 
AND OTHER EMINENT PERSONS/ CHAPTER XV. BAR 
NABAS. 

Misc.Wks. THE Gospel of BARNABAS. Gelasius in Decreto Indiculus 
080 sq Scripturar. apud Coteler. in Annotat. i. ad Constitut. 

Apostolic. In Catal. libror. Apocryph. Baroccian. post 
Damascenum de mensibus Macedonum. 

This Gospel of BARNABAS is still extant, but interpolated 
by the Mahometans. There s but one copy of it in Christen 
dom, accidentally discovered by me at Amsterdam in the 
year 1 709, and now in the library of his most Serene High- 

1 The reference is to a translation of the passage of La Monnoye given 
by us in the original at p. Ixxi. It formed the second Appendix to 

Nasarenus. 



INTRODUCTION Ixvii 

ness Prince EUGENE of Savoy. But a full account of it is 
to be had in a volume I have written on this very subject, 
entituPd NAZARENUS, or Jewish, Gentile, & Mahometan 
Christianity, &c. } printed twice at London in the year 1718. 

(iv) 

NAZARENUS. 
CHAPTER V. 

But at length (Sir) after wholly despairing of ever haveing Na/ar. 
a better account, it was my good fortune instead of other 
information, to light on the Gospel it self ; and translated 
into Italian, by or for the use of some renegades : for it is 
most certainly the performance of a Mahometan scribe. Yet 
knowing a more particular account will not be ungrateful, 
be pleased to receive it as follows. The learned gentleman, 
who has been so kind as to commun cate it to me (viz. 
Mr. Cramer, Counsellor to the King of Prussia, but residing 
at Amsterdam l ), had it out of the library of a person of great 
name and authority in the said city ; who during his life was 
often heard to put a high value on this piece. Whether as a 
rarity, or as the model of his religion, I know not. It is in 
the very first page attributed to Barnabas, and the title of it 
runs in these words : The true Gospel of Jesus called Christ, 
a new prophet sent by God to the world, according to the 
relation of Barnabas his apostle. Here you have not only 
a new Gospel, but also a true one if you believe the Mahome 
tans. But how honest soever they may be represented, this 
is a topic where none are to be credited without the utmost 
caution ; since, tho every Gospel forbids lying, yet never are 
more lies told than about the Gospel. The first Chapter of it 
begins thus : Barnabas an apostle of Jesus of Nazareth called 
Christ, to all those who dwell upon the earth, wisheth peace 
and consolation. Whatever may become of the truth, this is 
the Scripture-stile to a hair. The book is written on Turkish 
paper delicately gumnrM and polish d, and also bound after 
the Turkish manner. The ink is incomparably fine ; and the 

1 Ho s dead since the writing of this LETTER. [Toland s original note.] 

e a 



Ixviii INTRODUCTION 

orthography, as well as the character, plainly show it to be at 
least three hundred years old. I ever chuse to speak rather 
under than- over in such cases. Any proper name of God, 
and the appellative word Dio it self, are constantly writ in 
red letters out of respect, and so are the Arabic Notes in 
transverse lines on the margin. The contents of the chapters 
are likewise written in red letters, and reach about the twen 
tieth ; a void space being left for the rest before each chapter, 
but no where fill d up. The author of these summaries was 
a zealous Musulman, who charges the Christians all along 
with falsification, from this his only authentic Gospel. But 
they ll be nothing behind hand with him, whenever his Gospel 
comes to be better known. Much care and ornament was 
bestowed upon the whole, and the Arabic word Allah is in 
red letters superstitiously interlined over Dio, for the first 
three times it occurs. The Story of Jesus is very differently 
told in many things from the received Gospels, but much 
more fully and particularly; this Gospel, if my eye has not,, 
deceived me, being near as long again as any of ours. Some 
wou d make this circumstance a prejudice in favor of it, 
because as all things are best known just after tney happen ; 
so every thing diminishes, the further it precedes from its 
original. But in this case the rule will be found not rightly 
apply d, till the book is prov d to be a genuin issue of 
Barnabas. Mahomet is therin expresly nam d for the Para 
clete, as we have been told that he s so esteem d, by all the 
historians of the Mahometan Religion : the Musulmans 
accusing our Gospels of corruption (as I noted before) in the 
1 6th and 26th verses of the I4th Chapter of John ; and 
pretending further that Mahomet s name was struck out of 
the Pentateuch and the Psalms. Mahomet is nam d again or 
foretold in some other places of this book of Barnabas, as the 
designed accomplisher of God s economy towards man. Tis, 
in short, the ancient Ebionite or Nazaren system, as to the 
making of Jesus a mere man (tho not with them the Son 
of Joseph, but divinely conceived by the Virgin Mary) and 
agrees in everything almost with the scheme of our modern 
Unitarians ; excepting the history of his death and resurrec 
tion, about which a very different account is given from that 



INTRODUCTION Ixix 

in our Gospels ; but perfectly conformable to the tradition of 
the Mahometans, who maintain that another was crucify d in 
his stead ; and that Jesus, slipping- thro the hands of the 
Jews, preach d afterwards to his disciples, and then was taken 
up into heaven. 

(v) 

QUERIES TO BE SENT TO CHRISTIANS RESIDING IN 
MAHOMETAN COUNTRIES. 

1. Since we find in all the books of the Mahometans, that Na/ar. 
they believe the Law was delivered from Heaven to Moses, jjj p< 
the Psalms to David, and the Gospel to Jesus, as well as the PP- M M i i- 
Alcoran to Mahomet ; you are to enquire and take due infor 
mation, whether at this time the Musulmans have a Penta 
teuch, Psalms, or Gospel of their own, and how farr agreeing 

or disagreeing with those of the Jews and Christians? 

O O 

Whether they sing- any of David s Psalms in their public 
Service, or read any portions of the Pentateuch ? 

2. Since we find, moreover, that they charge our Gospels 
with corruptions and alteration in many things, and particu 
larly that Mahomet s name was raz d out of em, as likewise 
out of the Pentateuch, and the Psalms, you are to enquire of 
the most learned, judicious, and candid among em, how they 
can prove such Expunctions or Interpolations, if they have no 
authentic Copies to confront with ours ? or, in case they pre 
tend to have such Copies, you are further to enquire, what 
use they make of em ? whether any part of their Gospel be 
ever read in their Moschs ? or whether it is to be perus d 
only by the Clergy and the Learned ? 

3. You are particularly desired to enquire after the Gospel 
of Barnabas : for such a book is in the possession of his 
most serene Highness Prince Eugene of Savoy, and was un 
doubtedly written (I don t mean wholly compil d) by a pro 
test Mahometan ; as the Summaries of the Chapters, and the 
Arabic Notes on the margin of the Italian Translation, are 
the work of a zealous adversary to Christianity. And if you 
shou d happen to meet with this book, you are diligently to 



Ixx INTRODUCTION 

enquire, whether they acknowledge it as divine, whether it be 
the onely Gospel they admit ? or, in case they have any more 
of this kind, whicli are Apocryphal, and which authentic, in 
their account ? 

4. Since we find the Mohametans, in all their writings, 
asserting that other books, besides the four already mentioned, 
were divinely inspired, or sent from heaven to their reputed 
Authors; namely, Adam, Seth, Enoch, Abraham, and more 
such Patriarchs and Prophets : You are to enquire if now 
they either have, or pretend to have, any such books among 
em ? or, in case they have not (as I think they fairly own) 
then by what arguments they would prove, that ever any 
such existed? For I suppose, they lay no stress on the 
numerous books of this sort, that have been forg d by 
the Jews and Christians ; tho, if the Mahometans have any 
of their own, I take em to be some of the Apocryphal 
Jewish or Christian books interpolated, and accommodated 
to the System of the Alcoran Secundum Artem. 

5. Lastly, not only the Gospel of Barnabas, or any other 
Gospel (which in their language they call Al-Angil or 
Inghil] but also their Pentateuch (which they call Al Taurat, 
vulgarly Tevrat) and their Psalms (which they call Zebour) 
with the books ascrib d to those other Prophets (if any such 
they have) are to be procur d or purchas d, according to the 
account you ll be pleas d to send. But in this whole inquiry 
beware of being impos d upon by Christian Arabic books, 
such as the Gospel of the Infancy of Jesus, with diverse 
others of the same stamp. 

6. As for the Mahometans themselves^ who are the proper, 
sjibject of our curiosity, take care to distinguish written^ from 
oral Tradition ; as well ^.s the^persuasion of a particular SecT"* 
from that of the whole body, or even the notion of a private 
man from that of his peculiar Sect. And on these Enquiries 
be sure to ground your answers so accurately, yea so minutely, 
as" expresly to use such forms, as in answer to the first, 
second, third or fourth Queries, or to any part or particular 
of each, distinctly mark d : neither be ever tempted to affirm 
any thing, that may seem to favor the real or fancy d belief 



INTEODUCTION Ixxi 

or byass of the Enquirer ; since Truth ought to be the sole 
object of our Research, and not the service of any particular 
Cause or Person whatsoever. 



C. 

M. BERNARD DE LA MONNOIE S DESCRIPTION 
OF THE VIENNA MS. 

Menagiana, torn, iv, pp. 202-14 (Paris, 1715). 

M. le Baron de Hohendorff, Seigneur Aleman qui joint a 
une noblesse du premier ordre une literature exquise, une 
politesse fine, & une connoissance de livres fort e*tendue, m a 
fait voir PEvangile suppose par les Turcs a S. Barnabe, 
traduit en Italien apparemment de 1 Arabe, vers le milieu du 
quinzieme siecle, & copie un peu apres. C est un manuscrit 
aujourd hui unique 1 , au moins tres rare, qui appartient au 
Prince Eugene dont les recherches pour toutes sortes de livres 
curieux n ont point de bornes. Le volume est un in 8 long 
de six pouces, large de quatres, epais d un & demi, contenant 
229 feuillets, dont les pages complettes sont de dix-huit a 
dix-neuf lignes enfermees dans un quarre trace en rouge. 
Les marges a cote de certains endroits, soulignez dans le 
texte, sont bordees de citations Arabes, fort bien ecrites, rela 
tives a quelques versets de FAlcoran. Le Copiste avoit 
dessein d ecrire en rouge les argumens des chapitres, qui sont 
au nombre de 221, mais il en est demeure au vingt-septieme, 
qu il a mal marque 26, & s est contente de laisser des espaces 
vuides pour les autres. Le papier est d un colon lisse qui a 
du corps. Au devant du livre est ecrit en Latin ce qui suit : 
SERENISSIMO &c. [Dedicatory Preface, see below, p. Ixxix]. 

L ovthographe de ce manuscrit est remarquable par ses 
irregularitez. Les consonnes s y trouvent souvent doubles 
ou elles doivent etre simples, & souvent au contraire simples 

1 He must mean the onely one in Christendom, or he contradicts him 
self : & so must Monsieur Cramer have meant, who knew nothing of the 
age or value of this book but what I told him/ (Toland s note on his own 
translation of this passage in Nazarenus, App. ii, p. 9.) 



Ixxii INTEODUCTION 

ou elles doivent etre doubles. Un mot y est partage en deux, 
& deux y sont confondus en un. Les aspirations superflues, 
& vicieuses, pareilles a celles qu affectoit FArrius de Catulle, 
y sont semees par tout. Nulle observation de Capitales. 
Une ponctuation ridicule qui ne consiste qu en certains gros 
points rouges, placez la plupart du terns au hazard. Elgi, 
molgie, filgio, pilgiare, pour egli, moglie, ffflio, pigliare. Scatiar 
pour Scacciar, scernir & scerno pour sckernir & schema, plaze 
pour place & autres corruptions sans nombre, qu on doit 
regarder plutot com me une marque de 1 ignorance, & de la 
mauvaise prononciation du Copiste, que de 1 anciennete de 
Fecriture. Les chiffres qui marquent les feuillets sont les 
chiffres Arabes ainsi formez i un. r deux, r trois. f quatre. 
o cinq, i six. v sept. A huit. 1 neuf. i . dix. Apres quoi Fon 
combine 1 1 onze. i r douze & ainsi du reste. L ecriture est, 
comme je Fai remarque, d environ Tan 1470 ou 1480 terns 
auquel les Copistes commencerent a mettre les points sur 
les i, ce qui a ete fort exactement observe dans le manuscrit 
dont il s agit. Le mot Dio par honneur y est toujours ecrit 
en rouge. Les Turcs opposent ce pretendu Evangile a nos 
quatre, comme le seul veritable. Barnabe qui se dit charge 
de 1 ecrire, y passe pour un Apotre familier avec Jesus Chrit, 
et avec la Vierge, mieux instruit que Paul du merite de la 
Circoncision, & de Fusage des viandes accordees, ou defendues 
aux fideles. On y voit que les peines infernales des Mahome 
tans ne seront pas eternelles. Jesus Chrit n y est appele 
simplement que Prophete. II y est dit qu au moment que 
les Juifs se preparoient a 1 aller prendre au jardin des Olives, 
il fut enleve au troisieme Ciel, par le ministere de quatre 
Anges, Gabriel, Michel, Raphael, et Uriel, qu il ne mourra 
qu a la fin du monde, & que ce fut Judas qui fut crucifie en 
sa place, Dieu ayant permis que ce traitre parut aux yeux 
des Juifs si ressemblant a Jesus-Chrit, qu ils le prirent pour lui, 
& comme tel le livrerent a Pilate. Que cette ressemblance 
etoit si grande, qu il n y cut pas jusqu a la Vierge Marie & 
aux Apotres qui n y fussent trompez ; mais que Jesus-Chrit 
avoit depuis obtenu de Dieu la permission de les venir con 
soler. Que Barnabe lui ayant alors demande comment la 
bonte Divine avoit souffert que la Mere & les Disciples d un 



INTRODUCTION Ixxiii 

Prophete si saint crussent un seul moment qu il etoit mort 
avee tant d ignominie ? C est, repondit Jesus-Chrit, que 
Dieu ; etant la purete meme, ne peut voir dans ses serviteurs 
le moindre defaut qu il ne le chatie severement; et comme, 
ajouta-t-il, Fattachement pour moi un peu trop liumain de 
ma Mere, & de mes Disciples est une faute devant lui, il 
a voulu les en punir par cette douleur, pour lour sauver celle 
du feu d enfer. A mon eg-ard, tout innocent que je suis, sa 
justice neanmoins offensee de ce que le peuple m appelloit 
DieUj & Fils de Dieu, a ordonne, pour m empocher d etre le 
jouet des Demons au terrible jour du Jugement, que je serois 
le jouet des hommes en cette vie_, lesquels, sur ce que Judas 
est mort en croix sous ma ressemblance exterieure, croiront 
fermement que c est moi qui ai ete crucifie, & demeureront 
tous dans cette erreur, jusqu a ce que Penvoye de Dieu, 
Mahomet, vienne les en tirer. 

Les termes du manuscrit sont trop curieux pour ne les pas 
reprendre d un peu plus loin, & les produire ici tout au long 1 . 
Ce que je ferai en les rapportant premierement avec toutes les 
fautes du Copiste, lesquelles j essaierai ensuite de corrig-er le 
moins mal que je pourrai. 

llitorno la vergine choncholui chescrive I/ejacholo . . . venendo [Cp. MS. 
al mondo sganera ogninno che chrederano alia legie dio di digues- 227 a ~-, 
sl.o higano. 

Get echantillon fera juger de la piece entiere. La meme 
orthographe, les memes fautes y reg-nent d un bout a 1 autre. 
Tout defigure neanmoins qu est ce texte, rien n est plus facile 
que de le retablir en lisant ainsi: 

RUornb la Vergine con colui eke scrive, e Jacobo, . , . quale 
venendo alinondo sgaunera ogniuno, eke credera alia lege dt Dio, 
di questo inganno. 

Mon dessein n ayant ete que de corrig-er les fautes du 
Copiste, je n ai point voulu changer f/omeni en kuomini, moreno 
en muoiono ou murono, lincioli en lenzuoli que j ai regardez 
comme des idiotismes du Traducteur et peutetre aurais-je 
mieux fait de laisser par cette raison dessi, jfnssi, ricevessi a la 
troisieme personne, legie pour legge,Jiolo pour Jigli uolo, &c. 



Ixxiv INTRODUCTION 



D. 

MICHAEL DENIS : 
CODICES MANUSCEIPTI THEOLOGICI 

BiUiothecae Palatinae Vindobonensis (1800), Vol. ii, Pars ii ( Codices 
Polemic!, DCVIII, 1368-73). 

Codex in turc. charta ital. arab. Sec. summum xv. Folior. 
229. 8. calamo currente, charactere atro perscriptus, globulis 
potius quam punctis miniatis interstinctus, paginis omnibus 
linea rubra circumdatis, marginibusque passim Notulis ara- 
bicis eiusdem coloris adspersus hunc Titulum praefert : Vero 
euangelio di essu chiamato chrissto nouo profeta mandate da 
Dio (quae vox per totum cod. miniata) al modo secondo la 
descrilione di barnaba appostolo suo. Barnabae corpus anno 
Chr. 478 sub imperio Zenonis inventum fuisse in Cypro cum 
Evangelic supra pectus, fyov ri orrjflou? TO KOTO MarOaiov 
Euayye\toz> i8ioypa$oy rou /3apva/3a, testatur Theodorus Lector 
L. II. inter Historicos eccl. I. III. Cantabrig. 1720. p. 571 f. 
Idem Georg. Cedrenus ad quartum Zenonis annum, et Alexander 
Monachus Cyprius non diu post inventum corpus in Laudatione 
Barnabae apud Bollandistas ad ii htnii p. 450. EuayyeXtoi; 
iSto^eipoy 6 eeA.a/3oy CLTTO MardaLov etc. adpellans. Inven- 
tionis huius fama ansam praebere potuit Impostori cuidam 
confingendi Evangelium autore, non exscriptore Barnaba, et re 
ipsa tale inter Apocrypha relegatum videmus in Decreto Con- 
cilii Rom. sub Gelasio a. Chr. 496. in Concc. Harduini T. II. 
Col. 941. et memoratum apud Cotelerium PP. Apostolicor. 
Vol. I. p. 196. in Indiculo Scripturar. e Cod. Hegio Paris 
depromto, cui similis etiam in Bodleiana inter Codd. Barocc. 
n. 206. extat. An etiamnum Pseudoevangeliiim istud supersit 
graece aut latine, dicere non habeo ; Mokammedanis certe in 
Oriente innotescere potuit. 

At praecipui illorum Scriptores excitati a Maraccio in 
Refut. Alcorani a p. 15. quatuor solum Evangelia nostra 
enumerant, solus Ahmedus Ebnedrisits quinti de Infantia 
Christi, ut spurii meminit. Necesse est igitur, ut Evangelium 
nostrum Barbaroitalum recentius Abortivum sit nebulonis all- 



INTRODUCTION Ixxv 

cuius Apuli vel Calabri semi MaJnimedani et semi Christiani 
e reliquiis eoriim, quos constat tempore Friderici II. Imp. magno 
numero has regiones coluisse &c., ut visum Lacrozio in lit. ad 
-/. All. Fabricium, Codd. Apocr. N. T. P. III. p. 374, ant, ut 
mihi videtur, effusum ante Mauriscorum expulsionem in 
Hispania, vel in Africae li Dribus. Mo vent me verba Iladr. 
Relandi de Relig. Mohammed. L. I. Traiect. 1727. p. 23. in not. 
Et Evangelium aliquod apud ipsos est, quod ex Scrip/is bonis 
et malis constatum Arabice et Hispanice manuscriptum extat. 
Verum ubi ? Succurrit Georg. Sale in Praef. Versionis 
Anglicae Korani Loud. 1734. 4. ubi narrat : Commodatum 
sibi fuisse ad suas in Koranum commentation es a D. ILolme 
Rectore Hedlejensi in Prov. Hatonia Evangelium Barnabae 
teste Titulo ex Italico in Hispanicum versum ab Apostata 
Mustafa de Aranda Aragone ; in eius Praefatione haec leg i : 
Fuisse Marinum Monachum quendam cupidissimum videndi 
Barnabae Evangelium eo, quod illud citatum invenisset in 
quodam Tractatu Irenaei ex illo S. Paulo contradicentis ; 
Marinum hunc familiarem fuisse Sixto V. Pontifici, et, 
cum die quadam inter confabulandum Pontifex in Biblio- 
theca sua obdormivisset, depromsisse e forulis temere 
Librum aliquem ad fallendum interea tempus^ huncque 
Librum forte fortuna fuisse praedictum Evangelism, unde 
Marinum laetissimum illud manica conditum abstulisse, et ex 
eius lectione ad MoJiammedem conversum etse. Non abstinet 
tialius quin narrationem hanc impudentissimum commentum 
(the most barefaced Forgery} compellat; et merito. Quis 
enim hie Fra Marino, aut ubi Irenaeus Paulo ex Evangelio 
Barnabae contradixit? Exemplar porro nostrum Italicvm 
cum Hiftpanico probe consentire e loco ab Salio ad C. VII 
Korani citato, qui nobis p. 43. legitur ostendo : 

[Here follows parallel Span.-Ital. no. 3 (see above, 
p. li), Judgement on Serpent (in which Denis is 
not perfectly accurate).] 

To conuerrita pro con verita satis probat, Impostorem Barbaroi- 
talum ne quidem intellexisse, quae scribcret. Totum ig-itur 
Fig-mentum ad Africae y ut dixi, litora et Apostatam aliquem 
ablegandum videtur, neutrius ling-ue probe compotem, nam et 



Ixxvi INTRODUCTION 

literae h gutturalis usus intempestivus, qui totum codicem 
pervadit, Italis peregrinus est, et Notae Arabicae marginum 
Barnaham cum Korano conciliare studentes, hominem etiam 
illius idiomatis parum peritum, et in Orthographiam passim 
peccantem produnt. Itaque non erat cur loh. Frid. Cramerus 
tarn insidiosam ei hederam adpenderet, quam hue transferre 
supervacaneum censeo iam vulgatam a Bern, de la Monnole 
T. IV Menagianor. Amst. 1716. p. 323. et ab Fabricio Cod. 
Apocr. N. T. P. Ill, p. 375. Minus erat ut de eo paratragoe- 
diaret loh. Tolandus in Nazareno suo C. II-1X. Et quidem 
Cramerus maxime falsus est e characteris, ut ait, ductu et 
vetustae ortho-graph iae ratione magnam ei antiquitatem tri- 
buendo, dein asserendo nemini Christianorum hoc Evangelium 
adhuc videre licuisse, et eo Muhammedanos tantopere gloriari. 
Fuit Vir hie, dum illud Eugenia Sabaud. 1713 venditaret, 
Hagae Comit. in magna rei domesticae difficultate, destitutus 
stipendio Berolin. Aulae, in qua olim Friderici With. II 
institutor, dein curator negotiorum Amstelodami agebat, neque 
biennio supervixit. Adi de eo, eiusque Scriptis Lexicon Univ. 
lit. K. Codicem nostrum, ut Tolandi verbis c. 5. Nazar. p. 15- 
utar, habuit out of the library of a person of great name and 
authority in the said city (Amsterdam) who during his life was 
often heard to put a high value on this piece. 

Addit Miscell. Vol. I. p. 381. There s but one copy of it in 
Christendom, accidentally discovered by me at Amsterdam in the 
year 1709, and now in the Library of his most serene Highness 
Prince Eugene of Savoy. Pluribus abstineo; nam et Bern. 
Moneta, Tolandusque, et ex utroque Fabricius locc. cilt. tarn de 
totius Codicis ratione, quam de impudentibus eius technis, 
quantum satis est, retulere. 



CLASSIFICATION OF SCRIPTURE REFERENCES 
GIVEN IN THE FOOTNOTES 

(a) A simple reference to the passage as, 2 Kings v. 14 
signifies direct citation of a verse or short passage of Scripture. 

(6) The same in heavy type as, Mark i. 40-45 signifies 
that the passage is the basis of a longer section in Barnabds. 

(c) See is prefixed to the reference when the substance is in 
question rather than the actual words. 

(d) Cp. is prefixed when the reference is less exact ; also when 
a parallel from the Vulgate, Qorau, &c., is adduced. 

(e) When the reference is doubtful a query (?) appears in the 
note. 



DEDICATORY PREFACE 

By J. F. CRAMER 1 

Serenissimo 
Sabavdiae Principi 

EVGENIO 

Heroi invicto, Musarmn 

Herculi, 

Hoc Evangelium Muhammedanum, quod BAKNABAE Apostoll 
Nomen prae sefert. In Italicum sermonem, compluribus abhinc 
seculis, uti caracteris ductus et vetusfae orthographiae ratio r b 
osiendit, \ conversum ; quod Evangelium, sive Arabice sive alia 
lingua, et si quis conjecturae locus est, a Sergio Monacho Nestoriano, 
uno e tribus illis Alcorani architects compositum, adkuc videre 
nemini Christianorum licuit : quamvis hi illnd perquirere et 
inspicere omni ope niterentur : at tandem \ ejusmodi Evangelium 2 a 
quo Muhammedani, tantopere gloriantur, ne existere quidem 
suspicari coeperint : Hunc, inquam, Codicem, manu satis eleganti 
exaratum, et, sicuti constat, Vxicuii: Vt esset Bibliothecae 
quam Princeps Incomparubilis, libris rarissimis, seu typis, sen 
manu descriptis referfissimam, construendam, regio et animo et 
sumptu, suscepit, \ non postremum ornamentum : Et simul suae 2 b 
in immortale MAXIXI HEROIS Nomen perpeluae observantiae, 
pietatis, ac devolissimi pectoris qualecumque Monumentum : 

L. M. Q. 
D. z>. D. 

IOANNES FREDERICKS CRAMERUS 
HAGAE COMITIS a. d. xx lunii 

| cio 10 ccxin. 

1 See Introduction, p. xiii, note 2, and xliv, note 3. 



THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 



3 a Vero euangelio di essu chiamato chrissto nouo 
profeta mandate da DIG al modo secondo la 
descritione di barnaba appostolo suo 

Barnaba apostolo di iessu nazareno chiamato chrissto . ha 
tutti quelli che habitano sopra la tera pace he consolatione 
desidera . charisimi il grande he admirabile DIG a quessti giorni 
passati cia uissitati per il suo proffetta iessu chrissto . in 
grande missericordia di dotrina he miracholi per la qualle 
chossa molti inganati da satana sotto pretessto di pieta 
predichano empiissima dotrina . chiamando iessu fiolo di DIG a 
repudiando la circoncissione pato di DIG* im sempiterno he 
concedendo ogni cibo inmondo fra li quali he paulo he in- 
ganato del quale non senzza dollore io ne parllo . per la 
qual chossa ui scriuo quella uerita la quale ho ueduta he 
sentita nella conuersatione chio ho conuerssato con iessu 
3 b azioche . siate salui he non siate inganati | da satana he 
periate nello iuditio di DIG . pero guardatiue da ogni uno 
che ui predicha noua dotrina contra quello che ui scriuo 
azioche siate salui im sempiterno . il grande DIG* sia con 
uoi he ui guardi da satana he da ogni malle amem . 

I b . in questoprimo chapitolo si contiene la anontiatione delloangelo 
gabrielo ha maria uergine circJia alia natiuita de iessu. 

Questi hani passati fu uisitato una uergine chiamata maria . 
della stirpe di dauit della tribu di iuda per langelo gabrielo da 
DIG . quessta uerggine uiuendo con ogni santita senza ueruno 
scandallo essendo ireprensibile he stando in horatione cho 
ieiunij . un giorno essendo solla hentro nella chamera sua 
langelo gabrielo c he la saluto dicendo DIG sia con te ho maria . 
si spauento la uergine nello aspeto del angelo la quale la 



True Gospel of Jesus, called Christ, a new prophet 3 a 
sent by God to the world : according to the 
description of Barnabas his apostle. 

Barnabas, apostle of Jesus the Nazarene, called Christ, to all 
them that dwell upon the earth desireth peace and consolation. 

Dearly beloved, the great and wonderful God a hath during these 
past days visited us by his prophet Jesus Christ in great mercy 
of teaching and miracles, by reason whereof many, being deceived 
of Satan, under pretence of piety, are preaching most impious 
doctrine, calling Jesus son of God l , repudiating the circumcision 2 
ordained of God for ever, and permitting every unclean meat : 
among whom also Paul hath been deceived, whereof I speak 
not without grief; for which cause I am writing that truth 
which I have seen and heard, in the intercourse that I have 
had with Jesus, in order that ye may be saved, and not be 
deceived | of Satan and perish in the judgement of God. Therefore 3 b 
beware of every one that preacheth unto you new doctrine 3 
contrary to that which I write, that ye may be saved eternally. 

The great God a be with you and guard you from Satan and 
from every evil. Amen. 

I b . In this first chapter is contained the annunciation of tJie angel 
Gabriel to the Virgin Mary concerning the birth of Jesus. 

In 4 these last years a virgin called Mary, of the lineage of 
David, of the tribe of Judah, was visited by the angel Gabriel 
from God. This virgin, living in all holiness without any 
offence, being blameless, and abiding in prayer with fastings, 
being one day alone, there entered into her chamber the angel 
Gabriel c, and he saluted her, saying : God be with thee, Mary V 

The virgin was affrighted 6 at the appearance of the angel; 

a God, great. b The Chapter of the sending down of Gabriel. 

c The coming down of Gabriel to Mary. 



1 Jesus himself is made to deny his Divinity (see 10*, note), ascription 
of which is first attributed to Roman soldiers, 60*. 2 See Gen. xvii. 10. 
3 Cp. Gal. i. 6-8. * See Luke i. 26 sqq. 5 Cp. Luke i. 28 : 

for account of Annunciation in Qoran iii and xix, cf. Introd. * See 

Luke i. 29. 

B 2, 



4 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

confforto langelo dicendo non temere maria . perche tu sei 
grata apresso DIG il quale tia elleta per madre di uno proffeta 
il quale mandera al popullo de issdraelle azioche chaminino 

4 a nella sua legie | con uerita di cuore . Risspose la uergine hora 
chome partoriro fioli non chonoscendo homo . Risspose langelo 
ho maria potente he DIG a che fece lomo senzza homo di 
generare in te lomo senza homo perche apresso lui niente 
he impossibile . Risspose maria io so che DIG he omnipotente b 
pero sia fata la uollonta sua . Risspose langelo hora sie in te 
concetto il proffetta il quale chiamerai iessu he il chustodirai 
dauino he sicera he da ogni cibo inmondo perche elgie santo 
di DIG il fanciulo . se inclino maria chon humilta dicendo echo 
la serua di DIG sia fato secondo la tua parola . partisi langelo 
he la uergine glorificho DIG dicendo chonosci la grandezza di 
DIG ho anima mia he exulta spirito mio in DIG saluatore mio c . 
il quale ha guardato la humilta della sua serua talmente che 
saro chiamata beata da tutte le natione . perche mia fato grande 
lui che he potente che sia benedeto il santo nome suo . perche 
la missericordia sua si esstende di stirpe in stirpe che temono 

4 b lui . ha fato potente la mano sua he ha dissperso il superbo 
nella mente del suo cuore . elgia depossto li potenti della 
loro sede et elgia exaltato li humili . chie stato affamato lia 
rempiuto di bene he li richi lia mandato uoti . perche lie in 
memoria le proinese fate ha abraham he al suo fiolo per sempre . 

II. La amonitione de lo angelo gabrielo fata ha iosef circha alia 
cocetione di maria uergine. 

Auendo conosciuto maria la uollonta di DIG temendo la 
plebe che non si scandalizasero per essere grauida he la 
lapidasero chome fornicharia . ellesse uno compagno della 
stirpe sua homo per nome chiamato iosef di uita ireprensibile 
perche elgi chome iussto temeua DIG . he il seruiua con 



ll ^1 lil 

-k-Jl* 



THE ANNUNCIATION 5 

but the angel comforted her, saying: Fear not, Mary, for thou 
hast found favour with God 1 , who hath chosen thee to be mother 
of a prophet, whom he will send to the people of Israel in order 
that they may walk in his laws | with truth of heart. The virgin 4 a 
answered : Now how shall I bring forth sons, seeing I know 
not a man 8 ? The angel answered: Mary, God a who made 
man without a man is able to generate in thee man without 
a man, because with him nothing is impossible V Mary an 
swered : I know that God is almighty b , therefore his will be done. 
The angel answered : Now be conceived in thee the prophet, whom 
thou shalt name Jesus * : and thou shalt keep him from wine 
and from strong drink and from every unclean meat 5 , because 
the child is an holy one of God. Mary bowed herself with 
humility, saying : Behold the handmaid of God, be it done 
according to thy word 6 . The angel departed 7 , and the virgin 
glorified God, saying : Know, my soul, the greatness of God, 
and exult, my spirit, in God my Saviour c ; for he hath regarded 
the lowliness of his handmaiden, insomuch that I shall be called 
blessed by all the nations, for he that is mighty hath made me 
great, and blessed be his holy name. For his mercy extendeth 
from generation to generation of them that fear him. | Mighty 4*> 
hath he made his hand, and he hath scattered the proud in 
the imagination of his heart. He hath put down the mighty 
from their seat, and hath exalted the humble. Him who hath 
been hungry hath he filled with good things, and the rich he 
hath sent empty away. For he keepeth in memory the promises 
made to Abraham and to his son 8 for ever. 

II. The warning of the angel Gabriel given to Joseph concerning 
the conception of the Virgin Mary. 

Mary having known the will of God, fearing the people, lest 
they should take offence at her being great with child, and should 
stone her as guilty of fornication 9 , chose a companion of her own 
lineage 10 , a man by name called Joseph, of blameless life : for he 
as a righteous man feared God and served him with fastings 

* God is powerful. b Said Mary, I know that God is able to do 

all things. God is great and the keeper. 

1 Luke i. 30. a Luke i. 34. 3 Luke i. 37. * Luke i. 3i b . 

5 See Judges xiii. 4, 7 and Luke i. 15. s Luke i. 38. 7 Luke i. 

4 6 -55 * i.e. Ishmael: cp. ia b , 46*, 156*, 201, 216*. See Deut. 
xxii. 23, 24. 10 See Luke ii. 4. 



6 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

ieiunij he oratione uiuendo delle opere delle sui mani perche 
elgi hera maesstro di leggname . cho tale homo la uergine 
chonoscendo lo ellesse in chompagno he li manifessto il con- 
silgio diuino . iosef essendo iussto quando chonobbe maria 
5 a essere grauida la uoleua habandonare | perche elgi temeua 
DIG . hecho mentre che lui dormiua fu dal angello di DIG 
ripresso dicendo . ho iosef perche uoi tu abandonare maria 
tua cosorte sapi che quanto in lei he opperato he fato 
tutto per uollonta di DIG . la uergine partorira uno filgiolo 
il quale per nome chiamerai iessu il quale custodirai da 
uino he sicera he da ogni cibo inmondo . perche elgie santo 
di DIG nel uentre materno . elgie proffeta di DIG a mandato al 
populo de isdraelle azioche conuerti iuda al chor suo he 
chamini issdraele nella legie del signore chome he scrito 
nella legie di mose . elgi uera con grande potenza che li 
dara DIG b he fara grandi miracholi per la qual chossa molti 
si saluerano . iosef leuandosi dal sono ringratio DIG he per- 
manse con maria tuttj li anni della sua uita con ogni 
sincerita DIG seruedo. 

III. Mirdbile natiuita de iessu he aparitione di angioli die 
laudauano dio. 

Regnaua in quel tempo in iudea herode per dechreto di 
5b cessare agusto . he preside hera pillato nello | sacerdotio di 
ana he chaifa . onde per dechreto di agussto si scriueua il 
monddo pero ogni uno andaua nella patria sua he si apre- 
sentauano alia loro tribu per farsi scriuere . si parti adonque 
iosef di nazaret citta di galilea con maria sua molgie grauida 
per andare in betelem . per essere sua citta essendo della 
stirpe da dauit azioche elgi fusi scrito secondo il dechreto 
de cessare . peruenuto iosef in beteleme per essere la cita 
pichola he grande la moltitudine di chollorro che peregrini 
iuui herano . elgi non trouaua locho pero prese stantia 
fuori della citta intuna stantia fata per ridoto de passtori . 
habitando iuui iosef si adempite li giorni del partorire di 



THE NATIVITY 7 

and prayers, living by the works of his hands, for he was a 
carpenter a . 

Such a man the virgin knowing, chose him for her companion 
and revealed to him the divine counsel. 

Joseph being a righteous man 2 , when he perceived that Mary 
was great with child, was minded to put her away | because he 5 a 
feared God. Behold 3 , whilst he slept, he was rebuked by the 
angel of God, saying, Joseph, why art thou minded to put 
away Mary thy wife 1 Know that whatsoever hath been wrought 
in her hath all been done by the will of God. The virgin shall 
bring forth a son, whom thou shalt call by the name Jesus ; whom 
thou shalt keep from wine and strong drink and from every unclean 
meat 4 , because he is an holy one of God from his mother s womb. 
He is a prophet of God sent a unto the people of Israel, in order that 
he may convert Judah to his heart 6 , and that Israel may walk in 
the law of the Lord, as it is written in the law of Moses 6 . He 
shall come with great power, which God shall give him b , and shall 
work great miracles, whereby many shall be saved. 

Joseph, arising from sleep 7 , gave thanks to God, and abode with 
Mary all his life, serving God with all sincerity. 

III. Wonderful birth of Jesus, and appearance of angels praising 
God. 

There reigned at that time in Judaea Herod, by decree of 
Caesar Augustus, and Pilate was governor 8 in the | priesthood of 5b 
Annas and Caiaphas 9 . Wherefore, by decree of Augustus 10 , all 
the world was enrolled; wherefore each one went to his own 
country, and they presented themselves by their own tribes to be 
enrolled. Joseph accordingly departed from Nazareth, a city of 
Galilee, with Mary his wife, great with child, to go to Bethlehem 
(for that it was his city, he being of the lineage of David), in order 
that he might be enrolled according to the decree of Caesar. 
Joseph having arrived at Bethlehem, for that the city was small, 
and great the multitude of them that were strangers there, he 
found no place, wherefore he took lodging outside the city in a 
lodging made for a shepherds shelter. While Joseph abode there 

God shall send a prophet. b God the giver. 



1 See Matt. xiii. 55. 2 Matt. i. 19. 3 See Matt. i. 20-23. 

* See Judges xiii. 4, 7 and Luke i. 15- 5 C P- Luke { - I 5~ l l- 
Ex. xvi. 4. 7 Matt. i. 24. 8 preside, cp. Vulg. praeside in Luke 11. 2. 

9 Cp. Luke iii. i, 2. 10 Luke ii. 1-7. 



8 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

maria . Fu circondata la uergine da imenso splendore 
he partori il sno filgiolo senza dollore . il quale presse 
nelle bracie sui he riuoltandolo nelli pani lo incline nel 
presepio pe non esser ui locho nel diuersorio . Venero con 
6 a iubillo | una moltitudine grande di angioli nel diuersorio bene- 
dicendo DIG . he anonziando pace ha cholloro che temono DIG . 
Maria he iosef laudauano il signore sopra la natiuita di iessu 
he con somo gaudio il nutrichauano . 

IV. Angioli anontiano alii pastori la natiuita di iesu li quali 
dapoi lo auerlo trouato lo anontiano. 

In quel tempo stauano li passtori uigilando sopra illoro 
greggie chome he chosstume loro . Et hecco che furno 
circondati da inmensso splendore onde apparue loro uno 
angelo il quale benediceua DIG . furno ripieni di spauento 
li pastori per la improuissa luce he apparenzza angelicha 
onde langelo del signore li conforto dicendo . hecho chio ui 
anontio una allegrezza grande perche elglie nato nella citta 
di dauit uno fanciulo proffeta del signore . il quale porta 
grande sallute alia chassa de issdraele, il filgiolo ritrouarete 
nel pressepio con la madre sua che benedice DIG . he deto 
Qb quessto uenero una grande | moltitudine di angioli benedicendo 
DIG . anontiando pace ha cholloro che hano bona uollonta . 
Partiti li angeli li passtori fra loro parllauano dicendo 
andiamo insino in betelem he uediamo la parola che DIG 
per langelo suo cia anontiato . Venero molti passtori in 
belem ricerchando il nouo parto he ritrouorno fuori della 
citta il nato fanciulo secondo la parola del angelo . inclinato 
nello pressepio li fecero adonque riuerenzza he donorno alia 
madre quello che haueuano anontiandoli quello che haueuano 
sentito he ueduto . Maria pero nel chor suo seruaua il tutto he 
iosef ringratiando DIG . Eitornorno li passtori allo gregie loro 
anontiando ad ogni uno quanto ueduto haueuano . pero fu 
rempiuto de timore tutta la montana di iudea he si posse ogni 
homo questa parola sopra il chore dicendo . che pensiamo che 
debia esser questo fanciulo . 



THE ANGELS AND THE SHEPHERDS 9 

the days were fulfilled for Mary to bring forth. The virgin was 
surrounded by a light exceeding bright, and brought forth her son 
without pain l , whom she took in her arms, and wrapping him in 
swaddling-clothes, laid him in the manger, because there was no 
room in the inn. There came with gladness | a great multitude of 6 a 
angels to the inn, blessing God and announcing peace to them that 
fear God. Mary and Joseph praised the Lord for the birth of 
Jesus, and with greatest joy nurtured him. 

IV. Angels announce to the shepherds the birth of Jesus, and they, 
after having found him, announce him. 

At that time the shepherds were watching over their flock 2 , 
as is their custom. And, behold, they were surrounded by an 
exceeding bright light, out of which appeared to them an angel, 
who blessed God. The shepherds were filled with fear by reason 
of the sudden light and the appearance of the angel ; whereupon 
the angel of the Lord comforted them, saying : Behold, I announce 
to you a great joy, for there is born in the city of David a child 
who is a prophet of the Lord ; who bringeth great salvation to 
the house of Israel. The child ye shall find in the manger, with 
his mother, who blesseth God. And when he had said this there 
came a great | multitude of angels blessing God, announcing peace 6 b 
to them that have good will 3 . "When the angels were departed, 
the shepherds spake among themselves, saying : Let us go even 
unto Bethlehem, and see the word * which God by his angel hath 
announced to us. There came many shepherds to Bethlehem 
seeking the new-born babe, and they found outside the city the 
child that was born, according to the word of the angel, lying in 
the manger. They therefore made obeisance to him, and gave to 
the mother that which they had 5 , announcing to her what they 
had heard and seen. Mary therefore kept all these things in her 
heart, and Joseph [likewise], giving thanks to God. The shepherds 
returned to their flock, announcing to every one how great a 
thing they had seen. And so the whole hill-country of Judaea was 
filled with fear, and every man laid up this word in his heart, 
saying : What, think we, shall this child be 6 ? 



1 In Qoran xix the Birth involves pain ; see Introd. 

2 See Luke ii. 8-19. 3 Cp. Vulg. Luke ii. 14 hominibus bonae 
roluntatis. * Cp. Vulg. Luke ii. 15 videamus hoc verbum. 5 Cp. 
Matt. ii. ii. 6 See Luke i. 65, 66. 



10 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

V. Circoncissione di iessu. 

Quando furno adempiuti li giorni otto seconddo la leggie 
7 a del signore chome he scrito nel libro | di mose . pressero il 
fanciulo he il portorno al tepio per circhonciderlo . cir- 
concissero adonque il fanciulo he li posero nome iessu si 
chome haueua deto langello del signore auanti che fusi nel 
uentre concetto . Maria he iosef chonobero che quessto 
fanciulo doueue essere in sallute he roina di molti onde 
temetero DIG . he seruiuano il fanciulo con timore di DIO . 

VI. Tre magi sono guidati da una stella de oriente in iudea he 
trouando iessu li fano riuerenza he doni. 

Regnando herode Re di iudea . essendo nato iessu nelle 
parti orientali tre magi essplorauano le stelle del cielo . 
onde aparue loro una stella con grande splendore pero fata 
fra loro conclusione uenero in iudea guidandoli la stella che 
auanti di loro chaminaua . he peruenuti in gerusalem intero- 
gauano doue hera nato il Re di iudei . il che hauendo intexo 
herode temete he si chomose tutta la citta . conuocho 
adonque herode li sacerdoti he scribi dicendo doue nasscere 
deba Christo . Rissposero loro che doueua nasscere in betelem 
7b perche | chosi he scrito per il proffetta . he tu betelen non sei 
pichola fra li principi di iuda perche di te uscira uno ducha 
che condura il populo mio de issdraelle . conuocho adonque 
herode li magi he li interogo sopra la uenuta loro li quali 
rissposero che haueuano ueduto una stella in oriente . la quale 

11 haueua guidati hiuui onde com presenti uoleuano adorare 
quel nouo Re che la sua stella dimostraua . allora disse herode 
andate in betelem he con ogni diligenzza inuesstigate del 
fanciulo il quale quando lauerete trouato uenite ha dirlo ha me 
perche . anchora me il uolgio andare addorare he quessto con 
ingano elgi parllaua . 

VII. la uisitatione di iessu da magi he illoro ritornare alia 
patria co la amonitione di iessu fatali in sonio. 

Vscirno di ierusalem adonque li magi . et echo che la stella 
che li aparue in oriente andaua auati di loro . uedeudo la 



11 

V. Circumcision of Jesus. 

When the eight days a were fulfilled according to the law of the 
Lord, as it is written in the book | of Moses 2 , they took the child 7 a 
and carried him to the temple to circumcise him. And so they 
circumcised the child, and gave him the name Jesus, as the angel 
of the Lord had said before he was conceived in the womb, ^lary 
and Joseph perceived that the child must 3 needs be for the salva 
tion and ruin of many. Wherefore they feared God, and kept the 
child with fear of God. 

VI. Three magi are led by a star in the east to Judaea, and, finding 
Jesus, make obeisance to him and gifts. 

In the reign 4 of Herod, king of Judaea, when Jesus was born, 
three magi in the parts of the east were observing the stars 
of heaven. Whereupon appeared to them a star of great bright 
ness, wherefore having concluded among themselves, they came to 
Judaea, guided by the star, which went before them 5 , and having 
arrived at Jerusalem they asked where was born the King of the 
Jews. And when Herod heard this he was affrighted, and all the 
city was troubled. Herod therefore called together the priests 
and the scribes, saying : "Where should Christ be born 1 They 
answered that he should be born in Bethlehem ; for | thus it is 7 b 
written by the prophet 6 : And thou, Bethlehem, art not little among 
the princes of Judah : for out of thee shall come forth a leader 7 , 
who shall lead my people Israel. 

Herod accordingly called together the magi and asked them 
concerning their coming : who answered that they had seen a star 
in the east, which had guided them thither, wherefore they wished 
with gifts to worship this new King manifested by his star. 

Then said Herod : Go to Bethlehem and search out with all 
diligence concerning the child ; and when ye have found him, come 
and tell it to me, because I also would fain come and worship him. 
And this he spake deceitfully. 

VII. The visitation of Jesus by magi, and their return to their 
own country, with the warning of Jesus given to them in a dream. 

The magi therefore 8 departed out of Jerusalem, and lo, the star 
which appeared to them in the east went before them. Seeing 

1 Luke ii. 21, 22. * See Lev. xii. 3. 3 See Luke ii. 34. 

* See Matt. ii. 1-9. 5 Matt. ii. 9. 6 Matt. ii. 5, 6 quoting Mic. v. 2. 
7 ducha : cp. Vulg. dux in Matt. ii. 6. s See Matt. ii. 10-12. 



12 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

stella li magi furno pieni di allegrezza onde peruenuti in 
betelem fuori della citta sopra il diuersorio doue nato hera 
8 a iessu uidero | fermata la stella . andorno adonque hiui li magi 
he entrando nella stantia trouorno il fanciulo con la madre 
sua he inchinati li fecero riuerenza . he li apresentorno chose 
aromatice con argento he oro rinontiando li magi alia uergine 
quanto haueuano ueduto . onde dormendo loro furno da il 
fanciulo in uisione confortati di non andare ha herode . pero 
partendosi per altra uia ritornorno ha chasa loro anontiando 
quanto haueuano ueduto in iudea . 

VIII. Tie portato iessu in eggito fugendo. he herode ammaza li 
fanciuli innocenti, 

Vedendo herode che li magi non tornauano si riputo 
scernito da lloro . onde determino di fare morire il fanciulo 
nato . Ma echo che dormendo iosef aparue ha lui lo angello 
del signore dicendo . presto leuati he pilgia il fanciulo con la 
madre he uate ne in egito perche herode uole ociderlo . si leuo 
iosef con grade timore he presse maria con il filgiolo he si 
andorno in egito he hiui permansero insino alia morte di 
herode . il quale riputandosi burlato dalli maggi mando li suoi 
8 b soldati ha ocidere quanti fanciuli | herano nati di nouo in 
betelem . uenero adonque li soldati he ocissero quanti fanciuli 
ui hera chome li aueua comandato herode . onde si adempite le 
parole del proffeta dicendo pianto he lachrime sono grande in 
rama . Rachel piangie li suoi fiolji ma non ui e dato con- 
sollatione perche no si troua . 

IX a . Essendo ritomato iessu in iudea fa una mirabil disputa 
con li dotori sendo peruenuto alii dodeci ani. 

Morto herode . echo langello del signore aparue in sonio ha 
iosef dicendo . Ritorna in iudea perche sono morti cholloro 
che uolgiono la morte del fanciulo . prese adonque iosef il 
fanciulo con Maria essendo uenuto alia heta di hani sete he 
uene in iudea onde intendendo che . Archelao filgiolo di 



MASSACEE OF THE INNOCENTS 13 

the star the magi were filled with gladness. And so having come 
to Bethlehem, outside the city, they saw | the star standing still 8 a 
above the inn where Jesus was born. The magi therefore went 
thither, and entering the dwelling found the child with his mother, 
and bending down they did obeisance to him. And the magi 
presented unto him spices, with silver and gold, recounting to the 
virgin all that they had seen. 

Whereupon, while sleeping, they were warned by the child not 
to go to Herod : so departing by another way they returned to their 
own home, announcing all that they had seen in Judaea. 



VIII. Jesus is carried inflight to Egypt, and Herod massacres 
the innocent children. 

Herod seeing that the magi did not return, believed himself 
mocked of them 1 ; whereupon he determined to put to death the 
child that was born. But behold 2 while Joseph was sleeping there 
appeared to him the angel of he Lord, saying : Arise up quickly, 
and take the child with his mother and go into Egypt, for Herod 
willeth to slay him. Joseph arose with great fear, and took Mary 
with the child, and they went into Egypt, and there they abode 
until the death of Herod : who, believing himself derided 3 of the 
magi, sent his soldiers to slay all the new-born children | in 
Bethlehem. The soldiers therefore came and slew all the children 
that were there, as Herod had commanded them. Whereby were 
fulfilled the words of the prophet, saying : Lamentation and great 
weeping are there in Ramah ; Each el lamenteth for her sons, but 
consolation is not given her because they are not Y 

IX a . Jesus, having returned to Judaea, holds a wondrous dispu 
tation with the doctors, having come to the age of twelve years. 

When Herod was dead 5 , behold the angel of the Lord appeared 
in a dream to Joseph, saying : Eeturn into Judaea, for they are 
dead that willed the death of the child. Joseph therefore took 
the child with Mary (he having come to the age of seven years), 
and came to Judaea ; whence, hearing that Archelaus, son of 



The Chapter of the pilgrimage. 



1 Matt. ii. 16. a Matt. ii. 13, 14. s Matt. ii. 16-18. 4 non 

si trova : sing, verb with pi. subject ; not uncommon in this MS., cp., 
e.g., p. i8o b . * See Matt. ii. 19-22. 



14 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

herode regnaua in iudea ando in galilea temendo di stare 
in iudea he andorno ha habitare in nazaret . chreseua il 
fanciulo con gratia he sapientia auanti Dio he auanti li 
homeni . Essendo peruenuto iessu alia etta di ani duodeci 
asscexe con maria he iosef in Jerusalem per adorare iuui 
ga secondo la legie del signore scrita nel libro | di mose . fata 
la oratione si partirno auendo smarito iessu perche pensauano 
che lui fusi con li parenti ritornato ha chaxa . B/itorno 
adonque Maria con iosef in Jerusalem ricerchando iessu fra 
parenti he uicini . il terzo giorno ritrouorno il fanciulo nel 
tempio in mezzo dotori che dissputaua con loro della leggie . 
he ogniuno si stupiua sopra le dimande he rissposte sui 
dicendo chome polle essere tale dotrina in lui essendo chosi 
pichollo he non auendo imparato leger . il ripresse maria 
dicendo filgiollo che chossa ci hai fato hecho che io he tuo 
padre ti habiamo ricerchato per tre giorni con dollore . 
Bisspose iessu non sapete uoi che il seruitio di DIO si 
deue antepore al padre he alia madre a . discexe iessu con 
la madre he iosef in nazaret he hera sudito loro con humilta 
he riuerenzza . 

X*>. iessu di ani trenta sul monte olliueto mirabilmete riceue lo 
euangelio da langelo gabriello. 

Peruenuto iessu alii hani trenta si chome elgi ha me disse . 
essendo andato sul monte oliueto per racholgere oliue con la 
gb madre . allora di mezo giorno | facendo oratione . quando 
peruene ha quesste parole signore con missericordia fu cir- 
condato iesu da inmenso splendore he da una inffinita 
moltitudine di angioli . li quali diceuano sia benedeto DIO . 
Appresentoli langelo gabrielo chome uno spechio rillucente 
uno libro il quale discexe nel chore di iessu . nel quale conobe 
quello che DIO ha fato . quello che DIO ha deto he quello 
che DIO uolle talmente che oggni chossa li fu nuda he 
aperta . chome elgi ha me disse dicendo chredi barnaba che 



15 

Herod, was reigning in Judaea, he went into Galilee, fearing to 
remain in Judaea ; and they went to dwell at Nazareth. 

The child grew l in grace and wisdom before God and before 
men. 

Jesus, having come to the age of twelve years, went up with 
Mary and Joseph to Jerusalem, to worship there according to the 
law of the Lord written in the book | of Moses 2 . When their 9 a 
prayers were ended they departed, having lost Jesus, because they 
thought that he was returned home with their kinsfolk. Mary 
therefore returned with Joseph to Jerusalem, seeking Jesus among 
kinsfolk and neighbours. The third day they found the child in 
the temple, in the midst of the doctors, disputing with them con 
cerning the law. And every one was amazed at his questions and 
answers, saying : How can there be such doctrine in him, seeing 
he is so small and hath not learned to read 3 1 

Mary reproved him, saying : Son, what hast thou done to us "? 
Behold, I and thy father have sought thee for three days sorrowing. 
Jesus answered : Know ye not that the service of God ought to 
come before father and mother a * ? Jesus then went down with 
his mother and Joseph to Nazareth, and was subject to them with 
humility and reverence. 

X 1 *. Jesus, at the age of thirty years, on Mount Olivet, miraculously 
receiveth the gospel from the angel Gabriel. 

Jesus having come to the age of thirty years 5 , as he himself 
said unto me, went up to Mount Olivet with his mother to 
gather olives. Then at midday | as he was praying, when he 9 b 
came to these words : c Lord, with mercy . . ./ he was surrounded 
by an exceeding bright light and by an infinite multitude of angels, 
who were saying : Blessed be God. The angel Gabriel presented 
to him as it were a shining mirror, a book 6 , which descended into 
the heart of Jesus 7 , in which he had knowledge of what God 
hath done and what God hath said, and what God willeth, inso 
much that everything was laid bare and open to him ; as he said 
unto me : Believe, Barnabas, that I know every prophet with 

* The service of God is not to be left for the sake of one s parents. 
b The Chapter of the coming down of the Gospel. 



1 See Luke ii. 40-51. 2 See, e.g., Ex. xxiii. 15. 3 Cp. Judges 

vii. 15 and Matt. xiii. 54 sqq. * ? Cp. Matt. x. 37. * Cp. Luke 

iii. 23. 6 So the revelation descends, by Gabriel s agency, into the 

heart of Mohammed, Qoran ii, xcvii, &c. : cp. Introd. 7 Cp. 26% 

184", 2i9 b . 



16 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

io conobi ogni profeta con ogni profetia talmente che quanto 
dicho il tutto uscise da quel libro . Riceuto iessu quessta uisione 
he conoscendo di essere profeta mandate alia chaxa de issdraele 
riuelo il tutto ha maria sua madre . dicendoli che doueua 
patire grande persecutione per lonore di DIG he che nom 
poteua piu di continue essere con lei ha seruirla . onde ha- 
uendo sentito questo maria risspose, filgiolo hauanti che tu 
nascesi mi fu anontiato il tutto . pero sia benedeto il santo 
nome di Dio a . Dipartissi iessu adonque quel giorno dalla 
10 a madre per atendere | alia sua profetia . 

XI. iessu mirdbilmente sana uno leprosso he ua sene in ierussdlem, 

Descendendo iessu dal monte per uenire in ierusalem . in- 
chontro uno leprosso il quale per diuina imspiratione chonobe 
iessu essere proffeta . pero con lachrime il pregaua dicendo 
iessu fiolo di dauit habi missericordia di me . Risspose iessu 
che chossa uoi fratello chio ti facia . Risspose il leproso 
signore dami la sanita . il riprese iessu dicendo che sei tu 
stolto, pregga DIG che tia chreato b he lui ti dara la sanita 
per che io son homo chome tu . Risspose il leproso io so che 
tu signore sei homo ma santo del signore pero prega tu 
DIG et elgi mi dara la sanita . Allora iessu sosspirando 
disse, signore DIG omnipotente d per amore di santi proffeti 
tuoi dona la sanita ha quessto infermo . onde hauendo deto 
quessto disse tochando Io infermo con le mani in nome di 
DIG a ho fratelo riceui la sanita . il che auendo deto si mondo 
la lepra talmente che rimase la charne del leproso chome 
di uno fanciulo il che uedendo il leproso di essere sanato . 
10 b con grande uoce ehridaua uieni issdraele ha riceuere | il prof- 
f eta che DIG ti manda e . il prego iessu dicendo fratelo taci 
he non dire niente ma quanto piu preggaua tanto piu ehri 
daua hecho il proffeta hecho il santo di DIG . alle quali parole 
ricorsero molti che si partiuano di ierusalem he entrorno con 



c -:- ool JJL* ^JLi Ul .... c JU. 
d 



JESUS RECEIVETH THE GOSPEL 17 

every prophecy, insomuch that whatever I say the whole hath come 
forth from that book/ 

Jesus, having received this vision, and knowing that he was 
a prophet sent to the house of Israel, revealed all to Mary his 
mother, telling her that he needs must suffer great persecution for 
the honour of God, and that he could not any longer abide with 
her to serve her. Whereupon, having heard this, Mary answered : 
Son, ere thou wast born all was announced to me ; wherefore 
blessed be the holy name of God a . Jesus departed therefore that 
day from his mother to attend | to his prophetic office. 10* 

XI. Jesus miraculously healeth a leper, and goeth into Jerusalem. 

Jesus descending from the mountain to come into Jerusalem, 
met a leper 1 , who by divine inspiration knew Jesus to be a 
prophet. Therefore with tears he prayed him, saying : Jesus, 
thou son of David, have mercy on me 2 . Jesus answered: What 
wilt thou, brother, that I should do unto thee 3 1 

The leper answered : Lord 4 , give me health. 

Jesus reproved him, saying : Thou art foolish ; pray to God who 
created thee b , and he will give thee health ; for I am a man, as 
thou art c V The leper answered : I know that thou, Lord 4 , art 
a man, but an holy one of the Lord. Wherefore pray thou to God, 
and he will give me health. Then Jesus, sighing, said : Lord God 
Almighty d , for the love of thy holy prophets give health to this sick 
man. Then, having said this, he said, touching the sick man with 
his hands in the name of God a : O brother, receive thy health ! 
And when he had said this the leprosy was cleansed, insomuch 
that the flesh of the leper was left unto him like that of a child 6 . 
Seeing which, namely, that he was healed, the leper with a loud 
voice cried out : Come hither, Israel, to receive | the prophet whom 10 1 
God sendeth unto thee 6 . Jesus prayed him, saying : Brother, hold 
thy peace and say nothing, but the more he prayed him the more 
he cried out, saying : Behold the prophet ! behold the holy one of 
God ! At which words many that were going out of Jerusalem 

* In the name of God. b God the Creator. c Said Jesus, I ain 

a man like you. Inde. d And God is powerful over all things. Inde. 

8 God sends. 



1 Mark i. 40-45. 2 Mark x. 47. Mark x. 51. * Or Sir. 

5 For similar denials of Divinity ascribed to Jesus cp. 19", 49 , 54 b , 98", 
99% ii9 b , 219*. 6 2 Kings v. 14. 



18 THE GOSPEL OF BAKNABAS 

iessu in Jerusalem dicendo quello che DIG per iessu haueua 
f ato nel leprosso . 

XII a . primo sermone di iessu fato al popullo mirabile di dotrina 
circha al nome di dio. 

Comosse tutta la citta di Jerusalem quesste parole onde 
tutti concorsero al tempio per uedere iessu il quale iuui hera 
hentrato affare oratione . talmete che apena ui chapiuano 
pero pregorno li sacerdoti iessu dicendo . quessto popullo 
desidera uederti he udirti pero asscendi nel pinacholo he se 
DIO ti da parola parlla in nome del signore . ascexe addonque 
iessu sopra il locho doue li scribi parllauano . he fato segno 
di silentio con la mano aperse la bocha sua dicendo . sia 
benedeto il santo nome di DIO il quale per sua bonta he 
missericordia uolse chreare le sui chreature b le quali il glori- 
fichasero . sia benedeto il santo nome di DIO c il quale chreo d 
ll a il splendore 6 | di tutti li santi he profeti f auanti di ogni chossa . 
per mandarlo in salute del mondo chome parllo per dauit 
seruo suo dicendo . Auanti lucifero in spledore di santi ti o 
chreato . sia benedeto il santo nome di DIO il quale chreo li 
angioli & acioche il seruisero . sia benedeto DIO il quale punite 
he ripi*obo satana con li suoi seguacj non hauendo loro uoluto 
riuerire quello . che DIO uole che sia riuerito . sia benedeto 
il santo nome di DIO il quale chreo lomo del fanggo h della 
terra he il costitui sopra le opere sui . sia benedeto il santo 
nome di DIO il quale scatio lomo del parradisso per hauere 
trasgedito il suo santo precceto . sia benedeto il santo nome 
di DIO che con misserichordia guardo le lechrime di adamo 
he heua primigenitori del genere humano . sia benedeto il 
santo nome di DIO i che con iustitia punite chain fratricida 

a <5jl ->^ 



~i. 

**\ 
4)1. 



FIRST SERMON OF JESUS 19 

ran back, and entered with Jesus into Jerusalem, recounting that 
which God through Jesus had done unto the leper. 

XII a . First sermon of Jesus delivered to the people : wonderful in 
doctrine concerning the name of God. 

The whole city of Jerusalem was moved by these words, where 
fore they all ran together to the temple to see Jesus, who had 
entered therein to pray, so that they could scarce be contained 
there . Therefore the priests besought Jesus, saying : This people 
desireth to see thee and hear thee ; therefore ascend to the pinnacle 2 , 
and if God give thee a word speak it in the name of the Lord. 

Then ascended Jesus to the place whence the scribes were wont 
to speak. And having beckoned with the hand for silence 3 , he 
opened his mouth, saying : < Blessed be the holy name of God. 
who of his goodness and mercy willed to create his creatures b 
that they might glorify him. Blessed be the holy name of Godc, 
who created d the splendour*" of all the saints and prophets lla 
before all things to send him for the salvation of the world, as 
he spake by his servant David, saying : " Before Lucifer 5 in the 
brightness of the saints I created thee." Blessed be the holy name 
of God, who created the angels s that they might serve him. And 
blessed be God, who punished and reprobated Satan and his 
followers, who would not reverence him whom God willeth to be 
reverenced 6 . Blessed be the holy name of Gode, w ho created man 
out of the clay h of the earth \ and set him over his works 8 . 
Blessed be the holy name of God c, who drove man out of paradise 9 
for having transgressed his holy precept 10 . Blessed be the holy 
name of God c, W h with mercy looked upon the tears of Adam 
and Eve ", first parents of the human race. Blessed be the Koly 
name of Godi, who justly punished Cain 12 the fratricide, sent the 

a The Chapter of the Name of God. *> God created all creatures of 

His mercy and goodness. Inde. In the name of God. d He mentions 
in the Psalms : the first creation of God was the light of Mohamrm d ; all 
the prophets and saints it lightened. Inde. e The light of the prophets, 
the apostle of God. * The name of God. * God created the 

angels. Inde. h God created Adam from mud. Inde. l God the 

possessor of vengeance. 

1 Cp. Mark ii. 2. * Matt. iv. 5. Cp. Acts xii. 17. a 

splendore, i. e. Mohammed, cp. i6 b , 4 6 b , called commonly nontio, as i6 b , 3 6 1 , 
41% 74, identified with Messiah, 44% q.v., 87*. Or, The Morning 

Star, Ps. ex. 3 ; cp. Vulg. cix. 3 ante luciferum genui te. Cp. s6 b , 

where Satan s fall is described. 7 See Gen. ii. 7. 8 See Gen. i. 28. 

9 See Gen. iii. 23, 24. " Cp. 4 a b . 31 Cp. 35 b fin. l2 See Gen. iv. n sq. 

C 2 



20 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

mando il diluuio sopra la terra . abrugio tre citta scellerate . 
flagello lo eggito . somerse faraone nel marre rosso" . dis- 
sperse li innimicj del suo populo . chastigo li inchreduli he 
punite li impenitenti . sia benedeto il santo nome di DIG b il 

ll b quale con missericordia guardo | sopra le chreature sui he pero 
li mando li sui santi profeti azioche . chaminasero con uerita 
he iustitia auanti lui . che libero li serui c suoi da ogni malle 
he li dono quessta regione chome promesse al padre nostro 
abrahamo he al suo fiolo per sempre . onde per il seruo suo 
mose ci dono la sua santa leggie azioche satana non ci 
inganasi he ci exalto sopra li altri populi . Ma fratelli che 
faciamo ogi di noi azioche noi non siamo puniti per li 
nosstri pechati he quiui iessu co somo spirito . Ripresse l la 
plebe per auersi possto in obliuione la parola di DIG he sollo 
atendere ha uanita . Riprese li sacerdoti per la loro negligenza 
nello seruitio di DIG he per la loro cupidita terrena . Riprese 
li scribi perche predichauano dotrina uana he lasauano la 
legie di DIG . Riprese li dotori perche hanichilauano la leggie 
di DIG chon le loro traditioni . he talmente iessu sermone fece 
al populo che ogniuno piangeua dal picholo al grande chia- 
mando missericordia he pregando iessu che pregasi per loro . 
saluo li sacerdoti he principe loro che pressero odio ha iessu 

12 a quel giorno per hauere chosi contra sacerdojti scribi he dotori 
parllato . he penssauano sopra la morte sua ma per timore 
della plebe che proffetta di DIG laueuano riceuto non dissero 
parolla . iessu auendo leuato le mani al signore Dio d pregaua 
he il populo piangendo diceuano chosi sia o signor chosi 
sia . fata la oratione iessu discexe del tempio he quel giorno 
si parti di ierusalem con molti che il seguitauano . he li 
sacerdoti diceua f ra loro malle di iessu . 

XIII e . Timor di iessu notdbile he sua oratione he il mirabil con- 
forto dello angello gabrielo. 

Passati alcuni giorni . iessu auendo inspirito chonosciuto 
la uollonta di sacerdoti ascexe sui monte olliueto per fare 



I u lkL 41)1. 
MS. Ripresse riprexe (sic). 



FIRST SERMON OF JESUS 21 

deluge upon the earth l , burned up three wicked cities 2 , scourged 
Egypt 3 , overwhelmed Pharaoh in the Red Sea a4 , scattered the 
enemies of his people, chastised the unbelievers, and punished the 
impenitent. Blessed be the holy name of God b , who with mercy 
looked | upon his creatures, and therefore sent them his holy pro- 11^ 
phets, that they might walk in truth and righteousness before him ; 
who delivered his servants from every evil, and gave them this land, 
as he promised to our father Abraham 5 and to his son 6 for ever. 
Then by his servant Moses he gave us his holy law, that Satan 
should not deceive us ; and he exalted us above all other peoples 7 . 

But, brethren, what do we to-day, that we be not punished for 
our sins ? 

And then Jesus with greatest vehemence rebuked 8 the people 
for that they had forgotten the word of God, and gave themselves 
only to vanity ; he rebuked the priests for their negligence in 
God s service and for their worldly greed ; he rebuked the scribes 
because they preached vain doctrine, and forsook the law of God ; 
he rebuked the doctors because they made the law of God of none 
effect through their traditions. And in such wise did Jesus speak 
to the people, that all wept, from the least to the greatest, crying 
mercy, and beseeching Jesus that he would pray for them ; save 
only their priests and leaders, who on that day conceived hatred 
against Jesus for having thus spoken against the priests, | scribes, 12 l 
and doctors. And they meditated upon his death 9 , but for fear of 
the people, who had received him as a prophet of God, they spake 
no word. 

Jesus raised his hands to the Lord God d and prayed, and the 
people weeping said: So be it, O Lord, so be it. The prayer 
being ended, Jesus descended from the temple ; arid that day he 
departed from Jerusalem, with many that followed him. 

And the priests spoke evil of Jesus among themselves. 

XIII e . The remarkable fear of Jesus, and his prayer, and the 
wonderful comfort of tlie angel Gabriel. 

Some days having passed, Jesus having in spirit perceived the 
desire of the priests, ascended the Mount of Olives to pray. And 

a He drowned Pharaoh in the sea. Mentioned. b The name of God. 
c God saves. d God is sovereign. * The Chapter of Peace (security). 

1 See Gen. vii, viii. * See Gen. xix. 3 See Exod. vii-xii. 

* See Exod. xiv. 21-28. xv. 4, 19. s Cp. Luke i. 55. 6 i.e. Ishmael : 
see 4* and note there. 7 Cp. Deut. xxviii. 13. 8 Cp. Matt, xxiii. 

13-33. 9 See Matt. xxi. 46; Mark xii. 12 ; and cf. John xi. 53. 



22 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

horatione . onde stando la note in oratione la matina facendo 
oratione iessu disse . ho signore io chonossco che li scribi 
mi odiano he li sacerdoti pensano alia morte di me seruo 
tuo . pero signore DIG omnipotente he misserichordiosso a con 
missericordia asscolta le pregiere dello seruo tuo . he salua- 
mi dalle insidie loro perche tu sei mia sallute . tu sai signore 
che io seruo tuo sollo ricercho te signore he parlo la tua 
parola per[che] la tua parola he uerita che dura sempre . 
12 b Dette | queste parole l iessu hecho che li uene langelo gabrielo 
dicendo . non temere ho iessu perche mille uolte millia che 
habitano sopra il cielo chustodiscono le uestimenti tui he 
non morirai insino che non si adempissca ogni chossa . he 
il mondo sia apresso al fine . chassco iessu con la facia sua 
in terra dicendo . ho signore DIG grande b quanto he grande 
la missericordia tua sopra di me he che chossa ti daro signore 
per quanto tu mi hai donate . Risspose Io angelo gabriel 
leuati iessu he arechordati de abraham il quale . uolendo fare 
sachrificio ha DIO de Io unigenito suo fiolo issmaele c per 
adempire la parola di DIG , nom potendo talgiare il cortello 
il suo fiolo per parole mie offerse in sachrificio uno chastrado 
chosi farai adonque tu ho iessu seruo di DIG . Rispose iessu 
uolentieri ma doue trouero lagnello perche non ho danari 
he robarlo non e licito . Apressentoli adonque langelo gabrielo 
uno montone il quale iessu offerse in sachrificio laudando 
he benedicendo DIG il quale he glorioso in etterno . 

XIV d . Dapoi il digiuno di quaranta giorni iessu ellege duodeci 
apostoli. 

13* | Discexe iessu dal monte . he sollo di note passo di la parte 
oltre il giordano he digiuno quaranta giorni he quaranta 
note non mangiando chossa ueruna giorno he note . facendo 
continua oratione allo signore per sallute del popullo suo 
alquale DIG Io haueua mandate 6 . he passato li quaranta 



J 4)1 ^jLkL, 4)1. 

b ^C!l V L*J 4J)1 a UaJL, 4)1. 
d gjjlil g 



1 MS. parole parok (sic). 



GABRIEL COMFORTETH JESUS 23 

having passed the whole night in prayer *, in the morning Jesus 
praying said : O Lord, I know that the scribes hate me, and the 
priests are minded to kill me, thy servant ; therefore, Lord God 
almighty and merciful a , in mercy hear the prayers of thy servant, 
and save me from their snares, for thou art my salvation. Thou 
knowest, Lord, that I thy servant seek thee alone, O Lord, and 
speak thy word ; for thy word is truth 2 , which endureth for ever. | 

When Jesus had spoken these words, behold there came to him the 12 b 
angel Gabriel, saying : Fear not, Jesus, for a thousand thousand 
who dwell above the heaven guard thy garments, and thou shalt 
not die till everything be fulfilled, and the world shall be near 
its end V 

Jesus fell with his face to the ground, saying : great Lord 
God b , how great is thy mercy upon me, and what shall I give thee, 
Lord, for all that thou hast granted me 1 4 

The angel Gabriel answered : Arise, Jesus, and remember 
Abraham 5 , who being willing to make sacrifice to God of his 
only-begotten son Ishmael c 6 , to fulfil the word of God, and the 
knife not being able to cut his son, at my word offered in sacrifice 
a sheep. Even so therefore shalt thou do, O Jesus, servant of God. 

Jesus answered: Willingly, but where shall I find the lamb, 
seeing I have no money, and it is not lawful to steal it 1 

Thereupon the angel Gabriel showed unto him a sheep 7 , which 
Jesus offered in sacrifice, praising and blessing God, who is 
glorious for ever. 

XIV d . After tie fast of forty days, Jesus chooseth twelve apostles. 

Jesus descended from the mount, and passed alone by night to 13* 
the farther side of Jordan, and fasted forty days and forty nights 8 , 
not eating anything day nor night, making continual supplication 
to the Lord for the salvation of his people to whom God had sent 
him e . And when the forty days were passed he was an hungred. 

God is sovereign, God is powerful, and the merciful, and peace. 
b God is sovereign, God is a giver ; magnify God. Mention of the 

sacrifice of Ishmael. d The Chapter of the Table. 9 God sends. 



1 Luke vi. 12. a John xvii. 17. 3 Cp. 22i b , 229*. * Cp. 

Ps. cxvi. 12. 5 Cp. Gen. xxii. 10 sqq. 6 Cp. 46 b , s8 b , 105* 

156% &c. Ishmael is constantly substituted for Isaac as child of promise ; 
alleged justification of this 201 . In Qoran xxxvii the son sacrificed is 
not named, but commentators specify Ishmael ; see further, Introd. 
7 Cp. Gen. xxii. 13. 8 See Matt. iv. i-n and parallels. 



24 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

giorni ebbe fame . se li apresento iuui adonque satana he il 
tento in molte parole ma iessu il scatio in uirtu di parole 
di DIG . partito satana uenero li angioli he 1 minisstrorno 
ha iessu quello che hera necessario a . Ritornato iessu alia 
regione di ierusalem he ritrouato dalla plebe con somo gaudio 
il pregorno che lui stesi fra loro . perche le parole sui non 
hera come di scribi ma herano im potessta perche tochauano 
il chore . uedendo iessu che la moltitudine hera grande di 
quelli che ritornauano al suo chore per chaminare nella leggie 
di DID . ascexe sul monte he tutta la note stete in oratione 
he uenuto giorno discexe dal monte he ellesse duodeci li quali 
chiamo apostoli . fra li quali he iuda quello che fu ucisso sopra 
13 b la chroce . li nomi deli qualli | sono andrea he pietro suo 
fratello pesscatori . Barnaba che scrisse questo con mateo 
il publichano che sentaua in bancho . ioane he iacobo noli 
di zebedeo . tadeo he iuda . Bartolameo he filipo . iachobbo he 
iuda isscariot traditore . alii quali sempre cho li 2 sachreti diuini 
ma il scariot iuda lo fece suo speditore di quello che li era dato 
per ellemosina . ma elgi robaua la decima di ogni chossa . 

XV. Miracholo fato da iessu nelle nozze conu&rtendo la aqua 
in uino. 

Apresandosi la festa di tabernacholi . conuito uno certo 
richo iessu con li suoi apostoli he madre ha noze . onde ui 
ando iessu he mentre che mangiauano mancho alloro il uino . 
si hachosto la madre sua ha iessu dicendo chosstoro non hano 
uino . iessu risspose he che importa cio ho madre mia . 
chomando la madre sua alii serui che quanto chomandassi 
iessu obbedisero . herano iuui sei uasi da aqua secondo il 
chosstume de issdraele da purificharsi per la oratione . Disse 
iessu hempite quelli uasi di aqua il che fecero li serui alii quali 
disse iessu . in nome di DIG b date da bere ha quelli che 



.c JLc jJU JJjl. b 4)1 uili. 



1 MS. he he (sic). a So MS., see note 5, p. 25. 



THE TWELVE APOSTLES 25 

Then appeared Satan unto him, and tempted him in many words, 
but Jesus drave him away by the power of words of God. Satan 
having departed, the angels came and ministered unto Jesus that 
whereof he had need a . 

Jesus, having returned to the region of Jerusalem, was found 
again of the people with exceeding great joy, and they prayed him 
that he would abide with them ; for his words were not as those 
of the scribes, but were with power l , for they touched the heart. 

Jesus, seeing that great was the multitude of them that returned 
to their heart for to walk in the law of God, went up into the 
mountain 2 , and abode all night in prayer, and when day was 
come he descended from the mountain, and chose twelve, whom 
he called apostles, among whom is Judas, who was slain upon 
the cross. Their names | are 3 : Andrew and Peter his brother, 
fishermen ; Barnabas 4 , who wrote this, with Matthew the publican, 
who sat at the receipt of custom ; John and James, sons of Zebedee ; 
Thaddaeus 4 and Judas; Bartholomew and Philip; James, and 
Judas Iscariot the traitor. To these he always revealed 8 the divine 
secrets ; but the Iscariot Judas he made his dispenser of that which 
was given in alms, but he stole the tenth part of everything G . 

XY. Miracle wrought by Jesus at the marriage, turning the water 
into wine. 

When the feast of tabernacles was nigh, a certain rich man 
invited Jesus with his disciples and his mother to a marriage 7 . 
Jesus therefore went, and as they were feasting the Avine ran short. 
His mother accosted Jesus, saying : They have no wine. Jesus 
answered : What is that to me, mother mine ? His mother 
commanded the servants that whatever Jesus should command 
them they should obey. There were there six vessels for water 
according to the custom of Israel to purify themselves for prayer. 
Jesus said : Fill those vessels with water. The servants did so. 
Jesus said unto them : In the name of God *>, give to drink unto 

a A table was sent down to Jesus. Mentioned. Inde. b By the 

permission of God. 

1 Cp. Matt. vii. 28, 29 ; Mark i. 22. 2 Luke vi. 12 sqq. and parallels. 
3 See Matt. x. 2-5 ; Mark iii. 16-19 ; Luke vi. 14-16. 4 Thomas and Simon 
Zelotes are omitted from the list : their places are filled by Barnabas and 
Thaddaeus. The latter, identical in Syn. Gosp. with Judas of James, 
is here a separate person. 5 Unless some words have dropped out of 

the text, fur cho K read some such word as scopri. 6 Cp. John xii. 6. 

7 See John ii. 1-11. 



26 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

14 a mangiano onde portorno li serui da | here al magiore domo . 
il quale ripresse li seruitori dicendo ho serui trissti perche 
hauete serbato il uino milgiore ha questo tempo . perche lui 
no sapeua niente di quanto haueua fato iessu . rissposero li 
serui ho signore elgie quiui uno homo santo di DIG perche 
elgia fato di aqua uino . pensaua il magiore domo che li serui 
fosero ebrij ma quelli che sedeuano apresso iessu auendo 
ueduto il tutto si leuorno di menssa . he li fecero riuerenzza 
dicendo ueramente tu sei santo di DIG uero proffetta mandate 
ci da DIG a . allora chredetero in lui li suoi disscepoli he molti 
ritornorno al chor suo dicendo . sia laudato DIG b che a miseri- 
cordia de issdraelle he uisita la chasa di iuda con amore he 
benedeto sia il santo nome suo . 

XVI c . Mirdbile ammaestramenlo che fece iessu alii apostoli circha 
alia mutatione della mala uita. 

Vno giorno conuocho iessu li suoi discepoli . he ascexe 
sopra il monte he iuui seduto che fu se li auicinorno li suoi 
discepoli et elgi aperto la bocha sua li ammaestraua dicendo . 
grandi sono li beneficij che Dio d cia fato che pero cie neccessario 
di seruirlo con uerita di chore impero che . il uino nouo si mete 
14 b in uassi | noui . che chosi douete uoi diuentare noui homeni se 
uollete chapire la noua dotrina che uscira per la mia bocha . 
io ui dicho in uerita che si chome lomo con li hochij suoi nom 
pote uedere il cielo he la terra intuno issteso tempo che . cosi 
elgie imposibile di ammare DIG he il monddo 6 . non si polle 
amoddo ueruno seruire ha dui signorj inimici luno de lo f 
altro perche se uno ui amera laltro ui auera in odio . chosi 
ui dicho in uerita che nom potete seruire DIG he il mondo 




JESUS CHANGETH WATER INTO WINE 27 

them that are feasting. The servants thereupon bare | unto the 14* 
master of the ceremonies , who rebuked the attendants, saying : 
O worthless servants, why have ye kept the better wine till now ? 
For he knew nothing of all that Jesus had done. 

The servants answered : O sir, there is here a holy man of God, 
for he hath made of water, wine. The master of the ceremonies 
thought that the servants were drunken ; but they that were sitting 
near to Jesus, having seen the whole matter, rose from the table 
and paid him reverence, saying : Verily thou art an holy one of 
God, a true prophet sent to us from God a ! 

Then his disciples believed on him, and many returned to 
their heart, saying : Praised be God t>, who hath mercy upon 
Israel, and visiteth the house of Judah with love, and blessed be 
his holy name. 

XVI c. Wonderful teaching given ly Jesus to Ms apostles concerning 

conversion from the evil life. 

One day Jesus called together his disciples and went up on to 
the mountain 2 , and when he had sat down there his disciples came 
near unto him ; and he opened his mouth and taught them, saying : 
Great are the benefits which God d hath bestowed on us, wherefore 
it is necessary that we should serve him with truth of heart. And 
forasmuch as new wine is pat into new vessels 3 , \ even so ought ye 14 b 
to become new men, if ye will contain the new doctrine that shall 
come out of my mouth. Verily I say unto you, that even as a man 
cannot see with his eyes the heaven and the earth at one and the 
same time, so it is impossible to love God and the world e . 

No man can in any wise serve two masters 4 that are at enmity 
one with the other f ; for if the one shall love you, the other will 
hate you. Even so I tell you in truth that ye cannot serve God and 

God sends. b Praise be to God. The Chapter of l Leaving 

the World. d Magnify the blessings of God. For instance, 

mankind has two eyes, but he cannot look at the heavens and the earth 
at one and the same time, so it is not possible to combine the love 
of God with the love of the world at one and the same time. Inde. 

It is not possible that a slave can serve two masters who are enemies 
one to another, therefore it is not possible for a servant(man) to serve the 
world and God. Inde, 



1 Or steward : the present signification of magiore domo, 3 Cp. 

Matt. v. i sq. 3 Cp. Matt. ix. 17 and parallels. * Matt. vi. 24 ; 

Luke xvi. 13. 



28 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

perche il mondo he possto in buggia cupidita lie malignita . 
Elgie imposibile peroche uoi trouate nel mondo requie ma si 
bene persecutione he dano . seruite adonque DIG he dissprezate 
il mondo che da me trouarete requie per le anime uosstre . 
asscoltate le mie parolle perche con uerita ui parllo, sono 
ueramente beati cholloro che piangiono quessta mondana uita 
perche sarano chonsolati . beati sono li poueri che con uerita 
odiano le dellitie del monddo perche abonderano nelle 
dellitie del regno di DIG oueramente beati cholloro che 

15 a mangiano alia menssa di DIG per|che li angioli li ministrerano . 
Voi sete in uiagio chome peregrini, adonque il peregrino si 
charga di pallazi he champi he altre chosse terene nella uia 
certo no . ma porta chosse legierj he preciose per utillita he 
agillita del chamino hora quessto deue essere lo exempio 
uosstro . he se uollete altro exempio uelo daro acioche fate 
quanto ui dicho . non ui aggrauate il core uosstro di desiderij 
tereni con dirre ho chi ci uestira he chi ci dara da manggiare . 
ma mirate li fiori he alberi con li ucelli li qualli DIG nostro * 
signore ueste he nutrisse con magiore gloria di tuta la gloria 
di sallomone . helgie potente Dio b di nutrire uoi hauendoui 
chreati he chiamati al suo seruitio . il quale per quaranta 
hani dal cielo f ece piouere la mana c al suo populo de issdraele 
nel deserto . he non lascio inuechire ne straciare le loro 
uestimenti essendo loro . seicento he quaranta millia homeni 
senza le done he fanciuli . ui dicho in uerita che manchera 
il ciello he la terra ma non manchera la sua misserichordia 
ha quelli che il temono d . ma li richi del monddo nelle loro 

15 b fellicita sono affamati he pe|riscono . elgi hera uno homo 
richo al quale essendo chresiuto le entrate diceua che faro 
io ho anima mia . io disstrugero li granari perche sono 
picholj he ne faro di noui magiori onde trionferai ho anima 



4)1. b Jjl 

4)1 u_lii ^ \2\) \j>J$\) *\ . ... II ...v^-.) J* *3L5l 11* eU Jyl 



THE SERMON ON THE MOUNT 29 

the world, for the world lieth in falsehood, covetousness, and 
malignity \ Ye cannot therefore find rest in the world, but rather 
persecution and loss. Wherefore serve God and despise the 
world, for from me ye shall find rest for your souls 2 . Hear my 
words, for I speak unto you in truth. 

Verily, blessed are they that mourn this earthly life, for they 
shall be comforted 3 . 

Blessed are the poor 4 who truly hate the delights of the 
world, for they shall abound in the delights of the kingdom of God. 

Verily, blessed are they that eat at the table of God 5 , | for the 15 a 
angels shall minister unto them. 

Ye are journeying as pilgrims. Doth the pilgrim encumber 
himself with palaces and fields and other earthly matters upon the 
way ? Assuredly not : but he beareth things light and prized for 
their usefulness and convenience upon the road. This now should 
be an ensample unto you ; and if ye desire another ensample I will 
give it you, in order that ye may do all that I tell you. 

Weigh not down your hearts with earthly desires, saying : 
"Who shall clothe us 6 ?" or "Who shall give us to eat?" But 
behold the flowers and the trees, with the birds, which God our a 
Lord clotheth and nourisheth with greater glory than all the glory 
of Solomon. And he is able to nourish you, even God *> who created 
you and called you to his service ; who for forty years caused the 
manna 7 to fall from heaven c for his people Israel in the wilderness, 
and did not suffer their clothing to wax old or perish 8 , they being 
six hundred and forty thousand men 9 , besides women and children. 
Verily I say unto you, that heaven and earth shall fail 10 , yet 
shall not fail his mercy unto them that fear him d . But the 
rich of the world in their prosperity are hungry and perish 11 . 
There was a rich man whose incomings increased 12 , and he said, 15 b 
" What shall I do, O my soul 1 I will pull down my barns because 
they are small, and I will build new and greater ones : therefore 

a God bestows and creates ; God is sovereign. b God is powerful, 

God bestows. Mannah and quails. Mentioned. Inde. d I say 

to you this word of truth, (Verily I say unto you) the heaven and the 
earth -will be destroyed, but as for him that feareth God, God s grace 
shall not cease from him for ever. Inde. 



1 Cp. i John v. 19. 3 Matt. xi. 29. 3 Matt. v. 4. * Matt. 

v. 3. 5 ? Cp. Matt. v. 6. 6 See Matt. vi. 25 sqq. 7 Deut. viii. 3, 16. 
* Deut. viii. 4. 9 Exod. xii. 37 ; Num. i. 46, xi. 21 (where number is 

600,000). 10 Mark xiii. 31, c. u Cp. James v. i sqq. ia Luke 

xii. 16-20. 



30 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

mia ho misero che quella note morse . elgi doueua pensare 
ha poueri he farse li amici con le ellemosine delle facolta 
inique di questo mondo perche loro portano li tesori nel 
regno del cielo . Diteme di gratia se uoi daste a bancho 
moneta ad uno publichano he elgi per uno uene donasi dieci 
he uenti non dareste ha cotal homo ogni chossa che uoi 
auesste . Ma ui dicho in uerita che tutto quello che darete 
he lasserete per amore di DIG cento per uno riceuerete he la 
uita etterna a . guardate adonque quanto douete essere contenti 
di seruire DIO . 

XVII b . in questo chapitolo si chonosse cJiiaramente la infedelta 
de christiani he la uera fede di mumin. 

Deto quessto iessu risspose fillipo . noi siamo conteti di 
seruire DIO ma desideramo pero di chonoscere DIO perche . 
Esaia proffeta disse ueramente tu sei DIO asscoxo he DIO 
disse ha mose seruo suo . io sono quello chio sono . Risspose 
16 a iessu ho fillipo DIO he uno j bene senza del qualle non ui e 
bene . DIO he uno essere senza del quale niente he . DIO 
he una uita senza del quale niente uiue d . tanto grando 
che riempie il tutto et he per tutto . il quale he sollo 
senza equalle . non ha hauto principio ne fine 6 hauera gia- 
mai ma had ogni chossa ha dato principio he addogni chossa 
dara fine f . elgi non ha padre ouero madre . non ha filgioli ouero 
f ratelli ne compagni g . he perche DIO non ha chorpo pero non 
mano-ia . non dorme . non more . non chamina . no si moue 



* ^ Jaj 



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THE DOCTRINE CONCERNING GOD 31 

thou shalt triumph, my soul ! " Oh, wretched man ! for that night 
he died. He ought to have been mindful of the poor, and to have 
made himself friends with the alms of unrighteous riches of this 
world ; for they bring treasures in the kingdom of heaven. 

Tell me, I pray you, if ye should give your money into the 
bank to a publican, and he should give unto you tenfold and 
twentyfold, would ye not give to such a man everything that ye 
had ? But I say unto you, verily, that whatsoever ye shall give and 
shall forsake for love of God, ye receive it back an hundredfold, and 
life everlasting * i. See then how much ye ought to be content to 
serve God. 

XVII t>. In this chapter is dearly perceived the unbelief of Chris 
tians, and the true faith of Mumin. 

When Jesus had said this, Philip answered : We are content to 
serve God, but we desire, however, to know God 2 , for Isaiah the 
prophet said : " Verily thou art a hidden God c / and God said to 
Moses his servant : " I am that which I am V 

Jesus answered : < Philip, God is a | good without which there is 16 a 
naught good ; God is a being without which there is naught that 
is; God is a life without which there is naught that liveth*; so 
great that he filleth all and is everywhere. He alone hath no 
equal. He hath had no beginning, nor will he ever have an end e , 
but to everything hath he given a beginning, and to everything 
shall he give an endf. He hath no father nor mother ; he hath no 
sons 6 , nor brethren, nor companions e. And because God hath no 
body, therefore he eateth not, sleepeth not, dieth not, walketh not, 

Verily I say unto you, whatsoever ye give in the path of God, God 
most high shall give you in recompense therefor a hundred better than it. 
b This is the Chapter of Sincerity. c God is hidden. d God is 

one ; He has no peer ; He is true praise be to Him and be He exalted ! 
and good. There is no good save Him. Likewise His life and His 
essence. Inde. e God is greatest. God is of old and everlasting. 

God has no beginning and no end, but He created for everything a 
beginning and an end. * God the great has no father, no mother, no 

son, and no brother. He has no partner, and no body ; for this reason He 
neither eats, sleeps, nor dies. He walks not and He moves not, but is ever 
persistent. He is abstracted from all created things. There is none to com 
pose Him, neither is He compounded of things, but is simple in essence. Inde. 

1 Matt. xix. 29. a Cp. John xiv. 8. * Isa. xlv. 15. Cp. Vulg. 

Vere tu es Deus absconditus. * Exod. iii. 14. 5 Cp. Qorfin cxii : 

Say, God is one God; the eternal God: He begetteth not, neither is 
begotten ; and there is not any one like unto Him. See further, Introd. 



32 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

ma permane in etterno senza simillitudine humana a impero- 
che . elgi e inchorporeo inchompossto he inmateriale di sim- 
plicissima b sostanza . elg-i e tan to bono che sollo la bonta 
lui amma elgi e tanto iussto che quando punisse houero 
perdona non si polle riprendere . in breuita ti dicho fillipo 
che qui in terra nompoi uederlo he chonoscerlo perfetamente . 
ma nel regno suo il uederai per sempre nel quale consiste ogni 
feliccita he gloria nosstra . Kisspose fillipo ho maestro che 

16 b dici elgi e pure scrito in exaia che DIG he pajdre nosstro hora 
chome non ha elgi filgioli . Risspose iessu elgi scritto in tutti 
li proffeti molte parabole che pero non dei tu intendere la 
litera ma il senso imperoche . tutti li proffeti che sono cento 
he quaranta quatro millia che DIG ha mandato c al mondo hano 
oscuramente parllato . ma dapoi di me uenira il spledore di 
tutti li proffeti he santi d he dara lume alle tenebre di quanto 
hano deto li proffeti perche elgie notio di DIG e . he deto 
quessto iessu sospiro dicendo habi missericordia de issdraele 
ho signore DIG f he com pieta guarda sopra abraham he al suo 
seme . azioche ti seruino con uerita di chore . Rissposero li 
suoi discepoli chosi sia signore DIG nosstro g . Disse iessu io 
ui dicho in uerita che li scribi he dotori hano fato uana la 
leggie di DIG con le loro prof etie false h contra le prof etie 
di ueri proffeti di DIG . che pero DIG * he adirato contra la 
chaxa de issdraelle he contra quessta generatione inchredulla . 
piangeuano li suoi discepoli ha quesste parolle he diceuano . 
habi missericordia Dio k abbi misserichordia al tempio he alia cita 

17 a santa he non la dare in obbrobrio delle nationi aziojche non 
scerniscano il tesstamento santo tuo . Risspose iessu chosi sia 
signore DIG di padri nosstri 1 . 

v i k I Ls^- jb jU 41)1. 



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41)1 Jj-y. f -^il ^^^-JPI 4111. 8 JJaL* 41)1. h j^3 41>1 . 

.L^jJI >XJO 1 JUt, iJL* 5->t-o|- JuJ ( j^o jJlisJl M^-S J *)% f. 11 



THE DOCTRINE CONCERNING GOD 33 

moveth not, but abideth eternally without human similitude a , for 
that he is incorporeal, uncompounded, immaterial, of the most 
simple substance D . He is so good that he loveth goodness only; 
he is so just that when he punisheth or pardoneth it cannot be 
gainsaid. In short, I say unto thee, Philip, that here on earth 
thou canst not see him nor know him perfectly ; but in his 
kingdom thou shalt see him for ever : wherein consisteth all our 
happiness and glory. 

Philip answered : Master, what sayest thou ? It is surely 
written in Isaiah that God is our father 1 ; \ how, then, hath he 16 b 
no sons 1 

Jesus answered : There are written in the prophets many 
parables, wherefore thou oughtest not to attend to the letter, but 
to the sense. ^Fpjy.a.11 thp.jjrojjheta. that are one hundred and 
forty-four thousand^whom GodhatE sentc into the world Tiave 
spokeii^darkly^ But after me shall come~tEe Splendour s "oT"aTTi;n e"" 
prophets and holy ones d , and shall shed light upon the darkness 
of all that the prophets have said, because he is the messenger of 
God e . And having said this, Jesus sighed and said : Have 
mercy on Israel, O Lord God f ; and look with pity upon Abraham 
and upon his seed, in order that they may serve thee with truth 
of heart. 

His disciples answered : So be it, O Lord our God s \ 

Jesus said : Verily I say unto you, the scribes and doctors have 
made void the law of God 3 with their false prophecies , contrary to 
the prophecies of the true prophets of God 4 * : wherefore God is 
wroth with the house of Israel and with this faithless generation. 
His disciples wept at these words, and said: Have mercy, God 5fe , 
have mercy upon the temple and upon the holy city, and give it 
not into contempt of the nations that | they despise not thy holy 17 
covenant. Jesus answered : So be it, Lord God of our fathers V 



a God is persistent and everlasting to Him be praise ! and gracious 
and good ; He avenges and pardons. b God is not comprehended by 

the eyes. Inde. God sends. d Said Jesus the Son of Mary : After 
me will come the Light of the prophets and saints. Inde. " The apostle 
of God. f God the merciful. God is gracious. e God sovereign. 

h God is omnipotent. The Jews and they alter the text after it has 
been established. Inde (Qoran v. 45). So and afterwards the Christians lo, 
I am witness and this book alter the words in the Gospel. k God 

the merciful. l The God of our Fathers is sovereign. 

1 Isa. Ixiii. 16, cp. Ixiv. 8. a i. e. Mohammed, see note on io b fin. 

3 Cp. Mark vii. 13. * Cp. note on 46*. B ? Cp. Dan. ix. 16. 



34 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

XVIII a . Qui dimostrasi la persecut ione fata alii serui di dio dal 
mondo he la protetione di dio saluandoli. 

Deto quessto iessu disse uoi non hauete elleto me . ma io 
ho elleto uoi azioche siate mei disscepoli he se 1 il mondo ui 
odiera ueramente sarete mei dissepoli . perche il mondo he 
stato sempre inimicho di serui di DIO . Racordatiue di proffeti 
santi che sono stati ocissi dal mondo talmente che al tempo 
di helia b . dieci millia proffeti per iezabel furno ucissi talmente 
che apena scampo il pouero helia he sete millia fioli di 
proffeti che assoxe il chapitano della millitia di hachab . ho 
mondo iniquo che non chonosci DIO . non temete pero uoi 
perche li chapelli del chapo uosstro sono numerati talmente 
che nom perirano . guardate li passeri he altri uceli deli 
quali non chasca una pena senza la uollonta di DIO . adonque 
DIO C hauera piu chura delli uceli che del homo per il quale 
17 b ha chrea|to ogni chossa . si troua per sorte alcuno homo che 
habia piu chura delle scarpe sui che del propio fiollo no certo . 
hora quanto douete nieno pensare uoi che Dio d habia da 
abandonare uoi hauendo chura delli ucelli he che dicho 
deDi ucelli . una folgia di arbore non chassca senza la uol 
lonta di Dioe . chredetimi perche con uerita ui dicho che 
il mondo ui temera molto se osseruarete le mie parole perche 
se lui no temesse di essere scoperta la mallitia sua non ui 
odiria . ma teme di essere scoperto pero odieraui he perse- 
guiteraui f . se uederete dissprezare le uostre parole dal mondo 
non ui chontrisstate ma cosiderate che DIO he magiore di 
uoi . il quale he talmente dissprezato dal monddo che la sua 
sapienza he riputata pazia . se DIGS soporta com patienza 




1 MS. pese. 



PERSECUTION OF GOD S SERVANTS 35 

XVIII a. Here is shown forth the persecution of the servants of God 
ly the world, and God s protection saving them. 

Having said this, Jesus said : Ye have not chosen me \ but 
I have chosen you, that ye may be my disciples. If then the 
world shall hate you, ye shall be truly my disciples 2 ; for the 
world hath been ever an enemy of servants of God. RemTmber 
[the] holy prophets that have been slain by the world, even as in 
the time of Elijah b ten thousand prophets were slain by Jezebel, 
msomuch that_scarcely did poor Elijah escape, and seven thousand 
sons of prophets 3 who were hidden by the captain of Ahab s 
host. Oh, unrighteous world, that knowest not God ! Fear not 
Jjjgrefore ye 4 , for the hairs of your head are numbered so that 
they shall not perish. Behold tke_ sparrows and other birds, 
ii^I!ljyi et i not one fealh7r^ith^uTthe "will of" God. Shall 
God, then e, have more care of the birds than of man, for whose 
sake he hath created j everything. Is there any man, perchance, 17 b 
who careth more for his shoes than for his own son ? Assuredly 
not. Now how much less ought ye to think that God a would 
abandon you, while taking care of the birds ! And why speak 
I of the birds 1 A leaf of a tree falleth not without the will 
of God*. 

Believe me^ because I tell you the truth, that the world will 
SDa ^ observe my words. For if it feared 



_ 

not to have its wickedness revealed it would not hate you, but it 
feareth to be revealed, therefore it will hate you and persecute you f . 
If ye shall see your words scorned by the world lay it not to heart, 
but consider how that God is greater than you ; who is in such 
wise scorned by the world that his wisdom is counted madness. 
If God e endureth the world with patience, wherefore will ye lay it 



a The Chapter of the appointing (of vicegerents). b In the time of 

Elias the Jews killed ten thousand prophets unjustly. Inde. c God 

is trustee and guardian. God is Lord. Not a leaf falls from 

the tree except by the will of God. Inde. f The world does not love 

God s good servants because it fears that they will reveal its miserable 
condition, and endeavours to bring trouble and evil upon those servants. 
Inde. * God is patient and omniscient. 



1 John xv. r6. a Cp. John xv. 19. 3 i Kings xviii. 4, 13. 

The number there is 100 ; 7.000 perhaps comes from i Kings xix. 18. 
* See Matt. x. 28-30 ; Luke xii. 51-57. 



D 2 



36 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

il monddo perche uorete hatristarui ho poluere he fango della 
terra . nella patienza uosstra possederete la hanima uostra 
pero se uno ui dara uno sciafo sopra una parte della facia 
oflreriteli laltra azioche elgi la percuoti . non rendete malle 
18 a per malle perche | chosi fano ogni pessimo animalle . ma 
rendete bene per malle he pregate DIG per cholloro che 
ui odiano . con il fuocho non si estingue il fuocho ma si bene 
con laqua chosi ui dicho che con il male non supererete il 
malle ma sibene con il bene a . guardate Dio b che fa uenire 
il solle sopra li boni he chatiui he chosi la piogia . chosi fare 
douete uoi bene ha tutti perche elgie scrito nella leggie . 
siate santi perche io DIG uosstro son santo c . siati mondi 
perche io son monddo he siate perffeti perche son perffeto d . 

10 ui dicho in uerita che il seruo studia de piacere al suo 
patrone pero non si ueste chossa che spiazia al suo patrone . 
le uestimente uostre sono la uollonta he ammore uosstro 
guardate adonque di non uollere he ammare chosa che spiazia 
ha DIG e signore nosstro . Voi siate certi che DIG ha in odio 
le ponpe he concupiscenze del monddo he pero uoi odiate 

11 monddo . 

XIX f . lesu predice di esser tradito he dessendendo dal mote Sana 
died leprossi. 

Deto quessto iessu risspose pietro . ho precetore | hecho 
che noi habiamo lasciato ogni chossa per seguirti che chosa 
sera di noi . Risspose iessu in uerita che uoi il giorno del 
iuditio sederete hapresso di me dando testimonio contra le 
dodicj tribu de issdraele . he deto quessto iessu sospiro 
dicendo ho signore che chossa he questa . che io ho elleto 
dodici he uno di loro he uno diauolo . si contrisstorno li dis- 
scepoli in questa parolla onde cholui che scrise questo in sachreto 



J 

41)1. 



THE BETRAYAL FORETOLD 37 

to heart, dust and clay of the earth ? In your patience ye shall 
possess your soul J . Therefore if one shall give you a blow on 
one side of the face, offer him the other that he may smite it 2 . 
Render not evil for evil 3 , for | so do all the worst animals ; but 18 a 
render good for evil, and pray God for them that hate you 4 . Fire 
is not extinguished with fire, but rather with water ; even so I say 
unto you that ye shall not overcome evil with evil, but rather with 
good a 5 . Behold God b , who causeth the sun to come upon the good 
and evil 8 , and likewise the rain. So ought ye to do good to all ; 
for it is written in the law : " Be ye holy, for I your God am 
holy c 7 ; be ye pure, for I am pure ; and be ye perfect, for I am 
perfect d 8 ." Verily I say unto you that the servant studieth to 
please his master, and so he putteth not on any garment that is 
displeasing to his master. Your garments are your will and your 
love. Beware, then, not to will or to love a thing that is dis 
pleasing to God e , our Lord. Be ye sure that God hateth the pomps 
and lusts of the world, and therefore hate ye the world. 



XIX f. Jesus foretelleth his betrayal, and, descending from the 
mountain, healeth ten lepers. 

When Jesus had said this, Peter 9 answered : teacher, | behold 
we have left all to follow thee, what shall become of us 1 

Jesus answered : Verily ye in the day of judgement shall sit 
beside me, giving testimony against the twelve tribes of Israel. 

Ancl having said this Jesus sighed, saying : O Lord, what thing 
is this ? for I have chosen twelve, and one of them is a devil 10 . 

The disciples were sore grieved at this word ; whereupon he 



* For instance, fire is not extinguished by fire, so wickedness is not 
extinguished by wickedness. Inde. b God sustains. c God is 

a friend, and holy, and perfect. d God says in the Towra (Mosaic 

law) Ye children of Israel, be ye Walis (saints), for I am a Wali, and be 
ye pure, for I am pure, and be ye perfect, for I am perfect. * God is 

sovereign. f Chapter of he heals the leper. 



1 Luke xxi. 19. 2 Matt. v. 39. 3 i Peter iii. 9. * Matt. 

v. 44 ; Luke vi. 28. * Rom. xii. 21. * Matt. v. 48. 7 Lev. 

xix. a. 8 Cp. Matt. v. 48. See Matt. xix. 27, 28, and parallels. 

lu John vi. 70. 



38 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

lachrimando interrogo iessu dicendo . ho maesstro inganerami 
satana he pero diuentaro riprobo . Eisspose iessu no ti con- 
trisstare ho barnaba perche quelli che DIG ha elleto auanti 
la chreatione del monddo non perirano . allegrati perche il 
nome tuo he scrito nello libro della uita . consollo iessu li 
discepoli dicendo non temete perche cholui che mi hodiera 
non si atrissta del mio parllare . perche in lui non ui e senti- 
mento diuino alle cui parolle li elleti si chonsolorno . Fece 
le pregiere iessu he li disscepoli suoi diceuano amen chosi 
sia signore DIG omnipotete he misericordiosso a . fata la oratione 
discese iesu del monte con li suoi disscepoli he incontro dieci 

19alepro|si li quali di lontano chridorno . iessu fiolo di dauite 
habi missericordia di noi . chiamoli iessu apresso di se he 
disseli che chossa uollete da me ho fratelli . chridorno tutti 
donaci la sanita . Bisspose iessu de poueri che sete uoi 
adonque hauete perso il ceruello perche dite daci la sanita 
non uedete me homo chome uoi . chiamate DIG nosstro che 
ui a chreato he lui che he omnipotente he missericordioso ui 
sanera b . con lachrime rissposero li leprosi noi sapiamo te 
homo chome noi ma pero santo di DIG he proffeta del signore . 
pero tu prega DIG et elgi ci sanera onde pregorno li disepoli 
iessu dicendo signore habi misserichordia di chostoro . allora 
gemete iessu he preggo DIG dicendo signore DIG omnipotente 
he misserichordioso c abbi misserichordia he ascolta le parole 
del seruo tuo . he per amore di abraham padre nostro he 
per il testamento santo tuo habi misserichordia sopra la 
dimanda di chostoro he donali la sanita . onde hauendo deto 
questo iessu l si uolto alii leprosi he disse alloro andate he 
offeriteui alii sacerdoti secondo la leggie di DIG . si partirno 
li leprosi he per la uia furno mondati onde uno di loro 

19b uedendosi sanato ritorno ha trouare iessu he questo j hera 
issmaelita . he ritrouato iessu se inchino facendo li riuerenza 



U* 41)1. 



1 MS. he si . , 



TEN LEPERS HEALED 39 

who writeth secretly questioned Jesus with tear?, saying: master, 
"will Satan deceive me, and shall T then become reprobate 1 / 

Jesus answered : Be not sore grieved, Barnabas ; for those 
whom God hath chosen before the creation of the world shall not 
perish. Rejoice, for thy name is written in the book of life V 

Jesus comforted his disciples, saying: Fear not, for he who 
shall hate me is not grieved at my saying, because in him is not 
the divine feeling. 

At his words the chosen were comforted. Jesus made his 
prayers, and his disciples said : Amen, so be it, Lord God 
almighty and merciful a . 

Having finished his devotions, Jesus came down from the 
mountain with his disciples, and met ten lepers 2 , | who from afar off 19* 
cried out : Jesus, son of David, have mercy on us ! 

Jesus called them near to him, and said unto them : What will 
ye of me, O brethren 1 

They all cried out : Give us health ! 

Jesus answered : Ah, wretched that ye are, have ye so lost 
your reason for that ye say : " Give us health ! " See ye not me to 
be a man like yourselves 3 . Call unto our God that hath created 
you : and he that is almighty and merciful will heal you b . 

With tears the lepers answered : JWe know that thou art man 
like us, but yet an holy one of God and a prophet of the Lord ; 
wherefore pray thou to God, and he will heal us. 

Thereupon the disciples prayed Jesus, saying : Lord, have mercy 
upon them. Then groaned Jesus and prayed to God, saying: 
: Lord God almTghty^ndTmerciful c , have mercy and hearken to the 
words of thy servant : and for love of Abraham our father and for 
thy holy covenant have mercy on the request of these men, and 
grant them health. Whereupon Jesus, having said this, turned 
himself to the lepers and said : Go and^ show yourselves to the 
priests according to the law of God. 

~The lepers~departed, and on the way were cleansed. Whereupon 
one of them, seeing that he was healed, returned to find Jesus, and 
he was an Ishmaelite. And having found Jesus he bowed himself, 19 b 
doing reverence unto him, and saying : Verily thou art an holy 

a God is sovereign, merciful to everything, the powerful, ordaining. 
Inde. b God the Creator and merciful, and omnipotent. Inde. 

c God is sovereign, omnipotent, and the merciful. Inde. 

1 Phil. vi. 3, cp. Luke x. 20. 2 See Luke xvii. 12-19. 

ro a and note. 



40 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

dicendo ueramente tu sei santo di DIG he co rigratiamento il 
pregaua che il riceuese per seruo . Risspose iessu died sono 
mondati noue doue sono he disse al mondato . io no son 
uenuto per essere seruito ma per seruire pero ua ha chasa 
tua he rinontia quanto DIG a affato in te . azioche chonosscano 
auicinarsi le promesse fate ha abraham he al suo fiolo con il 
regno di DIG . si parti il leproso mondato he ariuato alia 
sua regione rinontio quanto DIG per iessu haueua in lui 
operate . 

XX b. Miracholo nel mare fato da iessu he iessu dichiara doue 
he riceuto il profeta. 

Andosi iessu al mare di gallilea . he monta in naue nauigo 
in nazaret sua cita onde fu fato fortuna grade di mare per 
modo che hera uicino ha somergerssi la naue . he iessu dor- 
miua sopra la proua della naue onde si achostorno allui li 
suoi discepoli he il destorno dicendo . ho maestro saluati 
perche periamo herano circondati da grandissimo spauento 
per il uento grade contrario he strepito del mare . si leuo 
iessu he leuato li hochij al cielo disse ho eloim sabaot abi 
missericordia sopra li serui tuoi . pero auendo deto quessto 
20* iessu su | bito cesso il uento he si f ece tranquilo il mare . onde 
si spauentorno li marinari dicendo he chie chostui al quale 
il mare he il uento obbedisse . Arriuati alia cita di nazaret 
li marinari empirno la citta di quanto haueua iessu operate 
onde fu circondato la chasa doue iessu hera da quanti habi- 
tauano nella citta . he apresentatose a lui li scribi he dotori 
diceuano, noi habiamo intexo quanto hoperato hai nel mare 
he in iudea pero daci qualche segno qui nella patria tua . 
Risspose iesu quessta generatione inchredula segno cerchano 
ma non li sera dato perche niuno proffeta he acceto nella 
patria sua . al tempo di elia molte uedoe herano in iudea 
ma non fu mandate ha nutricharlo seno adduna uedoa di 
sidone . Molti leprosi si trouauano al tempo di heliseo in 



4)1. b 

jLJ p-ill I!A *! 4)1 iLjlSi 411. 



41 

one of God/ and with thanks he prayed him that he would receive 
him for servant l . Jesus answered : Ten have been cleansed ; 
where are the nine ? And he said to him that was cleansed : 
I arn^ not come to be served, but to serve 2 ; wherefore go to thine 
home, and recount how much God a hath done in thee, in order 
that they may know that the promises made to Abraham and his 
son, with the kingdom of God, are drawing nigh. The cleansed 
leper departed, and having arrived in his own neighbourhood 
recounted how much God through Jesus had wrought in him. 



XX b . Miracle on the sea wrought by Jesus, and Jesus declares 
where the prophet is received. 

Jesus went to the sea of Galilee, and having embarked in a 
ship 3 sailed to his city of Nazareth ; whereupon there was a great 
tempest in the sea, insomuch that the ship was nigh unto sinking. 
And Jesus was sleeping upon the prow of the ship. Then drew 
near to him his disciples, and awoke him, saying : O master, save 
thyself, for we perish ! They were encompassed with very great 
fear, by reason of the great wind that was contrary and the roaring 
of the sea. Jesus arose, and raising his eyes to heaven, said : 
Q -Elohim Sabaoth c , have mercy upon thy servants. Then, when 
Jesus had said this, | suddenly the wind ceased, and the sea became 20 il 
calm. Wherefore the seamen feared, saying : And who is this, 
that the sea and the wind obey him 1 

Having arrived at the city of Nazareth the seamen spread 
through the city all that Jesus had wrought, whereupon the house 
where Jesus was was surrounded by as many as dwelt in the city. 
And the scribes and doctors having presented themselves unto him, 
said : We 4 have heard how much thou hast wrought in the sea 
and in Judaea : give us therefore some sign 5 here in thine own 
country. 

Jesus answered : This faithless generation seek a sign, but it 
shall not be given them, because no prophet is received in his own 
country. In the time of Elijah there were many widows in Judaea, 
but he was not sent to be nourished save unto a widow of Sidon. 

a God gives. b The Chapter of the sea. c God of Sabaoth, 

God of Eloin (Elyon). This is the name in the Amran language 
(Hebrew ?). Inde. 



1 Cp. Mark v. 18-20. Q Cp. Matt. xx. 28. s See Matt. viii. 

23-27, and parallels. * See Luke iv. 23-30. 5 Cp. Matt. xii. 38, 39. 



42 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

iudea non dimeno sollo aman siro fu mondato . Allora si 
adirorno li citadini he il presero et il condussero sopra uno 
precipitio per precipitarlo . ma iessu chaminda per mezzo 
di loro si parti da loro . 

XXI a . Iessu sana uno indomiato he sono getati nel mare li porci 
dapoi sana lafiola della chananea. 

Ascexe iessu in chafarnau . he auicinandosi alia cita echo 
che uscite fuori di sepolchri uno il quale hera indemoniato 

20 b he tale che niuna chatena il poteua | tenire he faceua grande 
malle alii homeni . chridauano per la bocha sua li demonij 
dicendo ho santo di DIG perche sei uenuto auanti il tempo 
ha mollestarci . he il pregauano che non li scatiasi . li interogo 
iessu quati herano, risposero sei millia sei cento he sesanta 
sei . si spauentorno li disscepoli quessto sentendo he pregauano 
iessu che si partisse . allora disse iessu doue he la f ede uosstra 
elgie neccessario che si partj il demonio he non io . pero 
chridorno li demonij noi usciremo ma concedicj de intrare 
in queli porci . passceuano iuui uicino al mare quasi dieci 
millia porcj di chananei . onde disse iessu partiteui he hentrate 
nelli porcj . con strepito hentrorno li demonij nelli porcj 
he li precipitorno nel mare . fugirno nella citta cholloro che 
passceuano li porcj he rinontiorno quanto hera sucesso per 
iessu . Vscirno li homeni dela citta adonque he ritrouorno 
iessu he lomo sanato . furno rimpiuti de timore li homeni 
he pregorno iessu che si partisse dalloro confini . partisi 
adonque iesu da loro he ascexe nelle parti di tiro he sidone 
et hecho una dona di chananei con dui suoi fioli uscita 

21 a dal|la patria sua per trouare iessu . auendollo adonque 
ueduto uenire con li suoi disscepoli chrido iessu fiolo di dauit 
habi missericordia de mia fiolla che he tormentata dal diauolo . 
non li risspose pure una parolla iessu perche herano del populo 
incirconcisso . si mosero ha pieta li disscepoli he dissero ho 
maesstro habi pieta ha chostoro echo che molto chridano 
he piangiono . Risspose iessu io no son messo se non al 



THE DEMONS AND THE SWINE 43 

Many were the lepers in the time of Elisha in Judaea ; nevertheless 
only Naaman the Syrian was cleansed. 

Then were the citizens enraged and seized him and carried him 
on to the top of a precipice to cast him down. But Jesus walking 
through the midst of them, departed from them. 

XXI a . Jesus healeth a, demoniac, and the swine are cast into the 
sea. Afterwards he healeth the daughter of the Canaanitess. 

Jesus went up to Capernaum, and as he drew near to the city 
behold there came out of the tombs 1 one that was possessed of 
a devil, and in such wise that no chain could hold | him, and he did 20 b 
great harm to the men. 

The demons cried out through his mouth, saying : O holy one t 
of God, why art thou come before the time 2 to trouble us 1 AnoT ~- fr 
they prayed him that he would not cast them forth. 

Jesus asked them how many they were. They answered : Six 
thousand six hundred and sixty-six. When the disciples heard 
thTs tlfey were affrighted, and prayed Jesus that he would depart. 
Then said Jesus : Where is your faith 1 It is necessary that the 
demon should depart, and" not I. The demons therefore cried : 
We will come out, but permit us to enter into those swine. 
There were feeding there, near to the sea, about ten thousand 
swine belonging to the Canaanites. Thereupon Jesus said : 
Depart, and enter into the swine/ With a roar the demons 
entered into the swine, and cast them headlong into the sea. 
Then fled into the city they that fed the swine, and recounted 
all that had been brought to pass by Jesus. 

Accordingly the men of the city came forth and found Jesus and 
the man that was healed. The men were filled with fear and prayed 
Jesus that he would depart out of~tlfeir borders. Jesus accordingly 
departed~Ti-onTthem and went up into the parts of Tyre and Sidon. 

And lo ! a woman of Canaan with her two sons s , who had come 
forth out of | her own country to find Jesus. Having therefore 21* 
seen him come with his disciples, she cried out : Jesus, son of 
David, have mercy on my daughter, who is tormented of the devil! 

Jesus did not answer even a single word, because they were of 
the uncircumcised people. The disciples were moved to pity, and 
said : O master, have pity on them ! Behold how much they cry 
out and weep ! 

a The Chapter of the demon (Ginn). 



1 Mark v. 1-17 and parallels. 3 Matt, viii 29. 3 See Matt. xv. 21-28. 



44 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

popullo de issdraelle a . allora uene auanti di iessu la dona 
coli suoi filgioli piangendo he dicendo bo fiolo di dauit habi 
misericordia di me . Risspose iessu non e bono leuare il pane 
di mano alii filgioli he darlo alii chani he questo disse iessu per 
la loro inmonditia perche herano dello populo incirconcisso . 
Risspose la dona o signore li chani mangiano le minucioli che 
chasscano dala tauola di loro patroni . allora prese amiratione 
iessu sopra le parole della dona he disse ho dona grade he 
la tua fede he leuato le mani al cielo . preggo mo he poi 
disse ho dona la tua fiola he liberata uatene im pace . si 
parti la dona he ritornando ha chasa ritrouo la fiola che 
21 b benediceua DIG pero la dona dis [ se ueramente non uie altro 
DIG che il DIG de issdrael b . onde tutta la sua parentella si 
agreggorno alia leggie di DIG secondo la leggie scrita nel 
libro di mose . 

XXII c . Misero stato deli incirchoncissi che sono di loro milgiore 
uno chane. 

Interogorno li disscepoli iessu dicendo quel giorno . ho 
maestro perche facesti cotale rissposta alia dona dicendo che 
herano chani . Risspose iessu io ui dicho in uerita che elgie 
melgiore uno chane del homo incirconcisso . allora si atris- 
torno li disepoli dicendo dure sono quesste parole he chi le 
potra chapire . Risspose iessu se uoi considerate ho stolti 
quello che fa il chane il quale non ha ragione per seruitio 
del suo patrone trouarete essere uero il mio parllare . Dite- 
mi il chane chustodisselo la chasa del suo patrone he esspone la 
uita contra del ladro certo si . ma che chosa riceue elgi molte 
batiture he iniurie co uno pocho di pane he sempre mostra 
lieta ciera al suo patrone elgi uero questo . uero he ho maestro 
rissposero li disscepoli . allora disse iessu horra considerate 
quanto ha donato Dio d ha lo homo he uederete quanto he 



4)1 ^JL-,1 ^^e- JlS. 
Jl 31. c 



THE WOMAN OF CANAAN 45 

Jesus answered : I am not sent but unto the people of Israel a . 
Then the woman, with her sons, went before Jesus, weeping and 
saying : O son of David, have mercy on me ! Jesus answered : 
It is not good to take the bread from the children s hands and 
give it to the dogs. And this said Jesus by reason of their 
uncleanness, because they were of the uncircumcised people. 

The woman answered : O Lord, the dogs eat the crumbs that 
fall from their masters table. Then was Jesus seized with 
admiration at the words of the woman, and said : O woman, great 
is thy faith. And having raised his hands to heaven he prayed 
to God, and then he said : woman, thy daughter is freed, go 
thy way in peace. The woman departed, and returning to her 
home found her daughter, who was blessing God/ Wherefore the 
woman said : | Verily there is none other God than the God of 21 b 
Israel b V Whereupon all her kinsfolk 2 joined themselves unto the 
law of [God], according to the law written in the book of Moses. 



XXII c . ^Miserable condition of the uncircumcised in that a dog is **-<- ii_- 
better ih<mthey. 

The disciples questioned Jesus on that day, saying : master, 
why didst thou make such answer to the woman, saying that they 
were dogs 1 

Jesus answered : .Verily I sayunto you that a dog is better 
than an uncircumcised man. Then wereTEe disciples sorrowful, 
saying : Hard are these words, and who shall be able to receive 
them ] 

Jesus answered : If ye consider, O foolish ones, what the dog 
doth, that hath no reason, for the service of his master, ye will 
find my saying to be true. Tell me, doth the dog guard the house 
of bis master, and expose his life against the robber? Yea, 
assuredly. But what receiveth he 1 Many blows and injuries 
with little bread, and Jbe always showeth to his master a joyful 
countenance. Is this true 1 

True it is, master/ answered the disciples. 

Then said Jesus : Consider now how much God hath given d to 
man, and ye shall see how unrighteous he is in not observing the 

* Said Jesus, God has sent me to the children of Israel and to none 
else. Inde. b There is none other God save the God of the children 

of Israel. Inde. c The Chapter of the dog. d God is the bestower. 



1 Cp. a Kings v. 15. 2 Cp. John iv. 53. 



46 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

22* inniquissimo non osseruando il pato di DIO f ato ha ha j braham 
seruo suo . Racordatiue quello che disse dauit ha saulo Re 
de issdraele contra golias filisteo . signore disse dauit il semo 
tuo passcendo le pechore del tuo seruitore ueniua il lupo lorso 
he il leone he robauano le pechore del tuo seruitore . onde 
il seruo tuo andaua he ocideua loro ripilgiando le pechore . 
he chie quessto incirconcisso se non simille alloro andera adonque 
il seruo tuo nel nome del signore DIO a di issdraele he amazera 
questo inmonddo che bestemia il populo santo di DIO . allora 
dissero li disscepoli dici ha noi ho maestro per quale chagione 
lomo deue circoncidersi . Risspose iessu basstiui di sapere che 
DIO lo a comandato ha habraham dicendo . abraham circoncidi 
il preputio tuo he di tutta chasa tua perche quessto he pato 
fra te he me in sempiterno . 

XXIII b . Origine della circoncissione he pato di dio con abraham 
he danatio deli incirconcissi. 

E deto quessto iessu sedete apresso il monte che risguarda- 
tiro 1 . he li suoi disscepoli se li hachostorno per sentire le 
sui parole . allora disse iessu, adamo primo homo hauendo 
mangiato per fraude di satana il cibo proibito da DIO nel 
22 b paradisso . si ribe | lo al spirito la charne sua onde giuro dicendo 
per DIO chio ti uolgio talgiare . he roto uno sasso presse la 
sua charne per talgiarlla con il talgio della pietra onde ne 
fu ripresso del angelo gabrielo . he lui risspose io ho giurato 
per DIO c di talgiarlo bugiardo non sero giamai . allora langelo 
li mosstro la superfluita della sua charne he quella talgio . he 
pero sichome ogni homo prende charne dalla charne di adamo 
chosi elgie obligato di osseruare quanto adamo giurando pro- 
misse . il che osseruo adamo nelli suoi filgioli he di generatione 
in generatione uene lo oblige della circoncisione onde al tempo 
di abraham . pochi sopra la terra si trouauano circoncisi per 
essere moltiplichato la iddolatria sopra la terra . onde DIO 



4)1. 



1 So MS. ? risguardavano. 



OKIGIN OF CIRCUMCISION 47 



covenant of Cod niatlo with Albraham liis servant. lu Tiicmlier 22 ;l 
that which David said 1 to Saul king of Israel, against Ooliaih the 
Philistine: "My lord," said David, "while thy servant was 
keeping thy servant s flock there came the wolf, the bear, and the 
lion and seized thy servant s sheep : whereupon thy servant went 
and slew them, rescuing the sheep. And what is this uncircum- 
cised one but like unto them 1 Therefore will thy servant go in 
the name of the Lord God a of Israel, and will slay this unclean one 
that blasphemeth the holy people of God." 

Then said the disciples : Tell us, master, for what reason 
man must needs be circumcised 1 

Jesus answered : * Let it suffice jou that God hath commanded 
it to Abraham^jaying 2 : " Abraham/circumcise flry^oresTan and 
that of all thy house, for this is a covenant between me and thee 
for ever," 



XXIII b. Origin of circumcision, and covenant of God with 
Abraham, and damnation of the uncircumcised. 

And having said this, Jesus sat nigh unto the mountain which 
they looked upon 8 . And his disciples came to his side to listen 
to his words 4 . Then said Jesus: Adam the first man having 
eaten, by fraud of Satan, the food forbidden of God in paradise, 
hisjjlesh rebelled againsMhe spirit 5 ; whereupon he swore, saying: 22 b 
" By God c , FwilTcut thee ! " And having broken a piece of rock, he 
seized his flesh to cut it with the sharp edge of the stone : where 
upon he was rebuked by the angel Gabriel. And he answered: 
" I have sworn by God c to cut it ; I will never be a liar ! " 

Then the angel showed him the superfluity of his flesh, and 
that he cut off. And hence, just as every man taketh flesh from 
the flesh of Adam, so is he bound to observe all that Adam pro 
mised with anj>ath. This did Adam observe in his sons, and from 
generation to generation came down the obligation of circumcision. 
But in the time of Abraham there were but few circumcised upon 
the earth, because that idolatry was multiplied upon the earth. 



God is sovereign. b The Chapter of the flesh of man. c By 

God (a form of oath). 



1 See i Sam. xvii. 34 sqq. a Cp. Gen. xvii. ir. 3 Translation 

uncertain. Text possibly corrupt. * Spanish Version extant here 

and for so a > b and 43 is given in the Introduction. 5 Cp. Gal. v. 17. 



48 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

disse ha abraham il fato circha alia circocissione he fece lo 
pato suo dicendo . la anima che non hauerra circoncissa la 
charne sua la dissperdero dal populo mio in sempiterno . 
tremorno li disscepoli di timore ha quesste parole di iessu 
perche con empito di spirito parllo . allora disse iessu lasciate 
temere ha cholui che non ha circoncisso il suo preputio 
perche elgie priuo del parradisso . he deto questo iessu di | 

23 a nouo disse il spirito in molti he pronto nello seruitio di DIO 
ma la charne he inferma . debe pero considerare lomo che 
teme DIO che chossa he la charne he doue ha hauto origine 
et doue si ridura . del fango della terra chreo DIO la charne a he 
in quella spiro il spirito uitale con sofiare dentro ui he pero . 
quando la charne impedisse il seruitio di DIO come fango 
deue essere dissprezzata he cochulchata impero che . cholui 
che odia lanima sua in questo monddo la chustodisse in uitta 
etterna . quello che sia la charne al presente li desiderij suoi lo 
manifessta che he uno chrudo innimicho di ogni bene . perche 
sollo lei desidera il pechato . deue adonque lomo per com- 
piazere ad uno suo innimicho lasiare di piacere ha DIO suo 
chreatore b quessto consideratelo uoi . tutti li santi he proffeti 
sono stati innimici della loro charne per seruitio di DIO he 
pero prontamente he con allegrezza andauano alia morte per 
non ofEendere la leggie di DIO . data ha mosse seruo suo he 
andare seruire li dei falsi he bugiari . Recordatiue di helia 

23 b che | fugiua per lochi disserti di monti mangiando sollamente 
erbe uesstito di pelle di chapra . ho quati giorni non ceno . 
o quanto fredo sostene . ho quante pioue il bagnete he per 
spazio di sette hani che dura quella asspra perssecutione della 
immonda iezabel . Racordatiue di eliseo che manggiaua 
pane di orzo uesstendo uillissime uestimenti . io ui dicho 
in uerita che chosstoro non temendo disprezzare la loro 
charne herano con spauento temuti dalli Re he principi . 
questo basterebe per dissprezare la charne ho homeni . ma 
se uoi mirarete li sepolchri chonosscerete quello che he la 
charne . 



4)1 jli.. b JJli. 4)1. 



ORIGIN OF CIRCUMCISION 



49 



Whereupon God told to Abraham the fact concerning circumcision, 
and made this covenant, saying: "The soul 1 that shall not have 
his flesh circumcised, I will scatter him from among my people 
for ever." 

The disciples trembled with fear at these words of Jesus, for 
with vehemence of spirit he spake. Then said Jesus: Leave fear 
to him that hath not circumcised his foreskin, for he is deprived of 
paradise/ And having said this, Jesus | spake again, saying : < The 23 a 
spirit jnjnany is ready in the service of God, but the flesh is weak 2 . 
The man therefore that feareth God ought to consider what the 
flesh is, and where it had its origin, and whereto it shall be reduced. 
Of the clay of the earth created God flesh a , and into it he breathed 
the breath of life 3 , with an inbreathing therein. And therefore 
when the flesh shall jiinder the service of God it ought to be 

spurned ~Iike clay and trampled on, forasmuch as he that hateth 

g 

his soul in this world shall keep it in life eternal *. 

What the flesh is at this present its desires make manifest 
that it is a harsh enemy of all good : for it alone desireth sin. 

Ought then man for the sake of satisfying one of his enemies 
to leave off pleasing God, his creator ? b Consider ye this. All the 
saints and prophets have been enemies of their flesh for service of 
(jrodj: wherefore readily and with gladness they went to their 
death, so as not to offend against the law of God given by Moses 
his servant, and go and serve the false and lying gods s . 

Rejngmber Elijajb J _who [ fled_ijirough desert places of the 
mountains, eating only grass, clad in goats skinT~~Ah, how many 
days he supped not ! Ah, how much cold he endured ! Ah, 
how many showers drenched him, and [that] for the space of 
geven years, wherein endured that fierce persecution of the unclean 
Jezebel ! 

Remember Elisha, who ate barley-bread 6 , and wore the coarsest 
raiment. Verily I say unto you that they, not fearing to spurn 
the flesh, were feared with great terror by the king and princes. 
This should suffice for the spurning of the flesh, O men. But if ye 
will gaze at the sepulchres, ye shall know what the flesh is. 







* God created man from clay. Inde. 



b God the Creator. 



1 Cp. Gen. xvii. 14. * Cp. Matt. xxvi. 41. * Cp. Gen. ii. 7. 

* John xii. 25. 5 Dei falsi e bugiardi = Dante, Inf. i. 72 : phrase 

recurs 8i b and 225* fin. 6 See 2 Kings iv. 42. 



50 

XXIV a . Essempio notabile chome si deue fugire It couiuij he 
chrapule. 

Auendo deto quessto iessu lachrimo dicendo . guai ha 
cholloro che seruono alia loro charne b perche sono sichuri di 
non hauere bene alcuno nel altra uita ma sollo torment! per 
li pechati loro . io ui dicho che elgi era uno richo epulone 
il quale non atendeua se non ha chrapule he pero ogni giorno 
faceua conuito splendido . staua alia porta sua uno pouero 

24 a per nome lazzaro il quale hera pieno di | piage he desideraua di 
hauere quelli minucioli che chasscauano sotto la tauola dello 
epulone . ma niuno ne li daua anziche ogniuno il scerniuano . 
sollo li chani li haueuano misserichordia perche lengeuano 
le sui piage . interuene che morsse il pouero he li angioli il 
portorno nelle bracie di abraham padre nosstro . morse han- 
chora il richo he li diauoli il portorno nelle bracie di sata onde 
riceuendo somo tormento leuo li ochij . he di lontano uiste 
lazaro nelle bracie di abrahamo . chrido il richo ho padre 
abraham abi missericordia di me he manda lazzaro il quale 
sulle dite sui mi porti una goza di aqua . per refrigerare 
la mia lingua che he tormentata in quessta fiama . Risspose 
abraham dicendo filgiolo racordati che tu riceuessti il tuo 
bene in laltra uitta he lazaro il suo malle pero . hora tu 
starai in tormentto he lazaro in chonssollatione . chiamo di 
nouo il richo dieendo ho padre abraham in chaxa mia ui e tre 
mei fratelli pero manda lazaro ha nontiarlli quanto patissco 
io azioche facino penitenzza he non uengino quiui . Risspose 

24 1 habraham loro | hano mosse he li proffeti ascoltino loro . 
Risspose il richo no padre abraham ma se uno morto risu- 
scitera chrederano . Risspose abraham chi non chrede ha 
mose et alii proffeti non chredera tampocho alii morti se 
resuscitasero c . guardate adonque se sono beati li poueri disse 
iessu, li quali hano patienza he sollo desiderano il neccessario 
odiando la charne . ho miseri cholloro che portano altri alia 



J *LJLo^ jj s->^.j (3*f* ylsj jj,.5.;jf> J 



DIVES AND LAZARUS 51 

XXIV a. Notable example how one ought to flee from banqueting 
and feasting. 

Having said this, Jesus wept, saying: Woejojhpse who are 
servants ^ to their flesh b f or they are sure not to have anygood in 
the other life, but only torments for their sins. I tell you that 
there was a rich glutton who paid no heed to aught but gluttony, 
and so every day held a splendid feast \ There stood at his gate 
a poor man by name Lazarus, who was full of | wounds, and was 24* 
fain to have those crumbs that fell from the glutton s table. But 
no one gave them to him ; nay, all mocked him. Only the dogs 
had pity on him, for they licked his wounds. It came to pass 
that the poor man died, and the angels carried_him to the arms of 
^I^ni_xijir_fother. The rich man also~die^Tan3"?Iie devils 
carried him to the arms of Satan; whereupon, undergoing the 
greatest torment, he lifted up his eyes and from afar saw Lazarus 
in the arms of Abraham. Then cried the rich man: "0 father 
Abraham, have mercy on me, and send Lazarus, who upon his 
fingers may bring me a drop of water to cool my tongue, which is 
tormented in this flame." 

Abraham answered : "JSon, rememberjhat thou receivedst thy 
gpodjnjhe_o^erjife_and Lazarus his evfl; ^wherefore, now thou 
ataltjbe in torment, and. Lazarus in consolation? 7 

The rich man cried out again, saying : father Abraham, in 
my house there are three brethren of mine. Therefore send 
Lazarus to announce to them how much I am suffering, in order 
that they may repent and not come hither." 

Abraham answered : ".They | have Moses and the prophets, let 24*> 
them hear them." 

The rich man answered : ^Nay, , father Abraham ; but if one 
deadjshall jtrise they_win_believe." 

Abraham answered: "Whoso believeth not Moses and the 
prophets will not believe even the dead if they should arise c." 

See then whether the poor are blessed/ said Jesus, who have 
patience, and only desire that which is necessary, hating the flesh. 



* The Chapter of the rich man and the poor man. b The best of 

histories and (?) the servant of the body. Abraham said : Who 

ever does not believe the book of Moses and the book of the other prophets 
will not believe him who raises the dead of mankind. Inde. 



1 See Luke xvi. 19-31. 

E 2 



52 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

sepoltura ha dare la charne per cibo di uermi he non impa- 
rano la uerita . anziche quiui stano chome inmortalj . pero qui 
f ano grande chase comprano grand! rendite he uiuono superba- 
mente . 

XXV a . chome si deue disprezare la charne he chome si deue 
uiuere nel monddo. 

Allora disse cholui che scriue questo . ho maestro uere sono 
le tui parolle he pero abiamo abandonato il tutto per seguirti . 
dici adonque come dobiamo hodiare la charne nosstra perche 
ammazarsi non he licito he uiuendo ci bissogna darli il uito . 
Risspose iessu la tua charne chustodissila chome uno chaualo 
he sicuro uiuerai impero che ad uno chaualo se li misura il 
cibo he senza misura se li da fatiche . se li pone il freno 
25 a azioche chamini al tuo mo|do si tiene ligato acioche non facia 
disspiacere ha ueruno . si tiene in uil locho he si bate quando 
non he obbediente . chosi farai adonque tu ho barnaba he 
uiuerai sempre con DIG . he non ui scandalizate per il mio 
parllare perche lo issteso faceua dauit proffetta come lui 
conffessa dicendo . io son chome uno chaualo apresso di te 
he son sempre con te . hora ditemi chi e piu pouero cholui 
che si contenta di pocho ouero cholui che desidera molto . 

10 ui dicho in uerita che se il mondo hauessi intelleto sano 
amodo ueruno congregaria chossa ueruna imparticolare ma 

11 tutto serebe in chomune . ma in quessto si chonosce la 
sua pazia che quanto piu congrega tanto piu desidera . he 
quato congrega per lo altrui charnale riposso chongrega . 
pero basteraui una sollo uesste . getate uia la borsa . sacho 
non portate ne chaciameto nelli uosstri piedi he non pensate 
con dire che chossa sera di noi . habiate pensiero di fare la 
uollonta di DIG et elgi prouedera al bissogno uosstro talmente 

25 b che non ui manchera chossa ue|runa . io ui dicho in uerita 
che il molto congregare in quessta uita da certo testimonio 
di non hauer da riceuere chossa ueruna nel altra b . perche 



Ja^ll] 

,l,,.i il ju*U Ijuk LoUl ^ T^SL. ** ^ Jil eJJ 



OF CONTEMPT OF THE FLESH 53 

O wretched they, who bear others to the burial, to give their flesh 
for food of worms, and do not learn the truth. So far from it that 
they live here like immortals, for they build great houses and 
purchase great revenues and live in pride. 

XXV a . How one ought to despise the flesh, and how one ought to 
live in the world. 

Then said he who writeth : master, true are thy words, and 
therefore have we forsaken all to follow thee *. Tell us, then, how 
we ought to hate our flesh ; for to kill oneself is not lawful, and 
liying we needs must give it its livelihood. 

Jesus answered : Keep thy flesh like a horse, and thou shalt 
live securely. For unto a horse food is given by measure, and 
labour without measure, and the bridle is put on him that he may 
walk at thy will, | he is tied up that he may not annoy any one, he 25 a 
is kept in a poor place, and beaten when he is not obedient : so 
do thou, then, Barnabas, and thou shalt live always with 
God. 

And be not offended at my words, for David the prophet did 
the same thing, as he confesseth, saying : " I am as an horse 
before thee : and am alway by thee 2 ." 

Now tell me, whether is poorer he who is content with little, 
or he who desireth much ? Verily I say unto you, that if the 
world had but ^a sound mind no one would amass anything for 
himself, but all would be in common. But in this is known its 
madness, that the more it amasseth the more it desireth. And as 
much as it amasseth, for the fleshly repose of others doth it amass 
the same. ^Therefore let one single robe suffice for you s , cast away 
your purse, carry no wallet, no sandals on your feet ; and do not 
think, saying : " What shall happen to us 1 " but have thought to 
do the will of God, and he will provide for your need, insomuch 
that nothing shall be lacking unto you. | 

Verily I say unto you, that the amassing much in this life 25 b 
giveth sure witness of not having anythinglib receive in the other b . 



a The Chapter of the control (?) of self. b Verily I say unto you, 

whoever has amassed much riches on earth, this is a witness that there 
is no share for him in Paradise. 



1 Cp. Mark x. 28. 2 Pg. Ixxiii. 22 b , 23* (cp. Vulg. iumentum). 

3 Cp. Matt. x. 9, 10. 



54 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

cholui che ha per patria sua ierusalem no fabricha chase in 
samaria per essere inimicitia fra queste citta intendete uoi . 
si rissposero li discipolj . 

XXVI *. chome si deue ammare DIO lie in quessto cap: si contiene 
la mirabil cotetio di abraha co il padre. 

Allora disse iessu . elgie uno homo in uiagio he chaminando 
scuopre uno tesoro intuno champo che si uende per cinque 
danari . subito lomo chonoscendo quessto uende il mantello 
per comprare quel champo elgi chredibile quessto . Rissposero 
li discepoli cholui che non chredese questo he pazzo . adonque 
disse iessu sarete pazzi uoi se non darete li uostri sensi ha DIO 
per comprare la anima uosstra nella qualle ui sta il tessoro del 
ammore per che lamore he uno tessoro inequiparabile poscia 
che . chi amma DIO suo he DIO he chi a DIO ha ogni chossa b . 
Risspose pietro ho maesstro chome si deue amare DIO con uero 
ammore dicillo . Risspose iessu io ui dicho in uerita che cholui 
26 a il | quale non odiera il padre he la madre con la propia uitta he 
filgioli et moglie per ammore di DIO . che chostui non e degno 
di essere ammato da DIO c . Risspose pietro ho maesstro elgi e 
scrito nella legie di DIO nel libro di mosse . honora il padre tuo 
azioche tu uiui longamente sopra di la terra he de piu dice . 
sia malladeto il fiolo che non hobedira il padre he madre sua 
onde DIO comando che talle fiolo innobediente . fussi ha furore 
di populo lapidato auanti la porta de la citta . hora chome dici 
di odiare il padre he la madre . Risspose iessu ogni mia parolla 
he uera perche non he mia ma he di DIO che mi ha mandate 
alia chasa de issdraele . pero ui dicho che tutto quello che 
hauete DIO ue lo ha donatto d he pero . che chossa he piu 
preciossa il dono ouero il donatore . quando il padre he la 
madre tua cho ogni altra chossa ti e scandalo nello seruitio di 
DIO abbandonali chome innimicj . non disse DIO ha abraham 



J ^ y&\ J u 

6 4)1. d ^ 4)| 



OF LOVE TO GOD 55 

For he that hath Jerusalem for his native country buildeth not 
"TIousl?F4rr-Samaria,~for that there is enmity between these cities. 
Understand ye 1 

Yea/ answered the disciples. 

XXVI a . How one ought to love God. And in this chapter is 
contained the wonderful contention of Abraham with his fath-er. 

Then said Jesus : There was a man on a journey who, as he 
was walking, discovered a treasure in a field 1 that was to be sold 
for five pieces of money. Straightway the man, when he knew 
this, sold his cloak to buy that field. Is that credible 1 

The disciples answered : He who would not believe this is mad. 

Thereupon Jesus said : Ye will be mad if ye give not your 
senses to God to buy your soul, wherein resideth the treasure of 
love ; for love is a treasure incomparable. For_he that loveth 
God hjauiJiQjOprTns. own ; and whoso hath God hath everything *>. 

Peter answered: Ojnasterj^how oughtone to love God with 
true love 1 Tell thou us. 

Jesus replied: Verily I say unto you tluit lie who | shall not 26 * 
hate his father and his mother, and his own life, and children [ t 

_- - -Tfr" 

wife for love of God 2 , that such an one is not worthy to be 



... 

Peter answered : master, it is written in the law of God in 
the book of Moses : " Honour thy father, that thou mayest live long 
upon the earth s ." And further he saith : " Cursed be the son that 
obeyeth not his father and his mother 4 " ; wherefore God com 
manded that such a disobedient son should be by the wrath of the 
people stoned before the gate of the city 5 . And,_nojK.h_QW biddest ^ 



Jesus replied : Every word of mine is true 6 , because it is not 
mine, but God s, who hath sent me 7 to the house of Israel. 
Therefore I say unto you that all that which ye possess God hath 
bestowed it upon you d : and so, whether is the more precious, the 
gift or the giver 1 When thy fatherand thy mother with every 
other thing is a stumbling-block to thee in the service of God, 
abandon them as enemies. Did not God say to Abraham: "Go 

a The Chapter of Abraham and his father fables (name of Surah xxviii). 
b Who loves God has God, and whoever has God has everything. Inde. 
c God loves. d God sends, bestows. 

1 Cp. Matt. xiii. 44. a Cp. Luke xiv. 26. * Exod. xx. 12. 

4 Deut. xxvii. 16. 5 See Deut. xxi. 18-21. Cp. note on 9 b and 

reference there. T Cp. John xiv. 24. 



56 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

essci di chassa di tuo padre he della tua parentella . he uieni 
26 b ha habitare il paesse che | io ti daro he al tuo seme . he per che 
disse questo DIG se no perche il padre di abrahamo hera 
statuario il quale fazeua he adoraua li dei bugiari . onde 
innimicitia hera fra loro talmente che il padre uolsse fare 
abbrugiare il filgiolo . Risspose pietro uere sono le tui parolle 
pero ti prego dici chome scerniua abraham il suo padre . 
Risspose iessu herra abraham di hani sete quando comincio ha 
cerchare DIG pero un giorno disse ha suo padre ho padre che 
chossa ha fato lomo . Risspose il stolto padre lomo perche 
io ho fato te he mio padre affato me . Risspose abraham ho 
padre il non e chosi imperoche ho sentito uno uechio ha 
piangendo dire J ho DIG mio perche no mi hai dato filgioli . 
Risspose il padre elgie uero fiolo che DIG agiuta lomo ha fare 

10 homo ma non ui mette le mani pero sollo bisogna . che 
lomo uadi ha pregare il suo DIG he darli agnelli he pechore he 

11 suo DIG Io agiutera . Risspose abraham quanti dij sono 
ho padre . Risspose il uechio sono inffiniti ho filgiolo . Disse 
abraha ho padre che chossa faro io se io seruiro uno DIG he j 

27 a uno altro mi uora malle perche non il seruiro . ad dogni modo 
uenira fra loro disscordia he pero si fara guera fra li dij . ma 
si per sorte il dio che mi uolle malle ammazera il mio DIG che 
faro io certo he che lui amazera hanchora me . Risspose il 
uechio ridendo ho fiolo non hauere paura perche niuno dio 
fa guera all altro dio onde nel teinpio grande ui sono mille dij . 
con il dio grande bal he mi trouo uicino ha setanta hani 
ne giamai ho ueduto che uno dio dessi uno sciafo all altro dio . 
he pure tutti non seruono ha uno dio ma chi a aduno he chi 
allo altro . Risspose abraham adonque loro hano paze fra 
loro . disse il padre la hano . allora abraham disse ho padre 
chome sono li dij . Risspose il uechio ho stolto ogni giorno 
io fazio uno dio il quale uendo ad altri per comprare il pane 

1 MS. dixe. 



ABRAHAM AND HIS FATHER 57 

forth from the house of thy father and of thy kindred l , and come 
to dwell in the land which | I will give to thee and to thy seed " ] 26 b 
And wherefore did God say this, save because the father of 
Abraham was an image-maker, who made and worshipped false 
gods 1 Whence there was enmity between them, insomuch that 
the father wished to burn his son. 

Peter answered : True are thy words ; wherefore I pray thee 
tell us how Abraham mocked his father. 

Jesus replied 2 : Abraham was seven years old when he began to 
seek God. So one day he said to his father: "Father, what made man?" 

The foolish father answered : " Man ; for I made thee, and my 
father made me." 

Abraham answered : " Father, it is not so ; for I have heard 
an old man weeping and saying : O my God, wherefore hast thou 
not given me children ? 

His father replied : " It is true, my son, that God helpeth man 
to make man, but he putteth not his hands thereto; it is only 
necessary that man come to pray to his God and to give him lambs 
and sheep, and his God will help him." 

Abraham answered : " How many gods are there, father 1 " 

The old man replied : " They are infinite in number, my son." 

Then said Abraham : " father, what shall I do if I shall serve 
one god and | another shall wish me evil because I serve him not ? 27 a 
In jiny wise there will come discord between them, and so war will 
arise among the gods. But if perchance the god that willeth me 
evil shall slay my own god, what shall I do 1 It is certain that he 
will slay me also." 

The old man, laughing, answered : " son, have no fear, for 
no god maketh war upon another god ; nay, in the great temple 
there are a thousand gods with the great god Baal ; and I am now 
nigh seventy years old, and yet never have I seen that one god hath 
smitten another god. And assuredly all men do not serve one god, 
but one man one, and another another." 

Abraham answered : " So, then, they have peace among 
themselves 1 " 

1 Said his father : They have." 

Then said Abraham : " O father, what be the gods like ? " 

The old man answered : " Fool, every day I make a god, which 

1 Gen. xii. i. " With the story which follows (a6 b -3o b ) cp. the briefer 
accounts in the Qoran xxi and xxxvii, where Abraham mocks and 
destroys all the idols except the biggest, is seized, and saved from burning 
by a miracle. See Introd. 



58 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

he tu non sai chome siano li dij . he ponto allora faceua 
uno iddolo quessto disse he di palma quello he di oliua quel 
pichollo he di auolio guarda chome he bello . nom pare che 
elgi sia uiuo certo che sollo li mancha il fiato . Risspose 
abraham ho padre addonque sono senza fiato li dij hora chome 

27 b dano il fia | to he essendo senza uita chome dano la uita . certo 
padre che quessti non sono DIO . se adiro il uechio ha quesste 
parolle dicendo se tu fusi in etta di intellto io ti romperia la 
tessta con quessta scare ma tacj perche non hai intelleto . 
Bisspose abraham ho padre se li dij hagiuta affare lomo 
chome pol essere che lomo facia li dij . he se di legno si fano li 
dij grande pechato he abrugiare il legno . Ma dimi padre 
perche auendo tu fato tanti dij non ti hano li dei agiutato 
affare altretanti filgioli che tu saresti il piu potente del 
monddo . staua il uechio fuori di sse sentendo chossi parllare 
il filgiol il quale sogionse . ho padre il mondo per alcuno 
tempo elgi stato senza homeni . si Risspose il uechio he 
perche . perche disse abraham io uoria sapere chi a fato 
il primo DIO . hora ua fuori di chassa disse il uechio he 
lassami fare pressto quessto dio he non mi dare parolle . 
perche quando tu ai fame tu uoi pane he no parole disse 
abraham . uno belo dio certo che il talgiare chome uollete 
he lui non si difende . Allora il uechio si adiro he disse, 
tutto il mondo dice che he dio he tu pazo dici che no . 
per li mei dei che se tu fusi homo io ti occidiria | he deto 

28 a quessto dete dei * pugni he chalzi ha abraham he Io scazio 
fuori di chasa . 

XXVII a . in questo chapitollo si uede okiaro quanta sia impropio 
il ridere alii homeni he la prudentia di abrd. 

Rideuano li discepoli sopra la patia del uechio he stauano 
admirati sopra la prudenza di abraham . li quali riprese iesu 
dicendo uoi ui sete smentichato le parolle del proffeta che 



1 MS. apparently du. 



59 

I sell to others to buy bread, and thou knowest not what the gods 
are like ! " And then at that moment he was making an idol. 
" This," said he, "is of palm wood, that one is of olive, that little 
one is of ivory : see how fine it is ! Does it not seem as though it 
were alive 1 Assuredly, it lacks but breath ! " 

Abraham answered: "And so, father, the gods are without 
breath ? Then how do they give breath 1 \ And being without life, 27 b 
how give they life ? It is_certain, father, that these are not God." 



The old man was wroth at these words, saying : " If thou 
^pf age to understand, I would break thyjiead with this axe : But 
hold thy peace, because thou hast not understanding !" 

Abraham answered : " Father, if the gods help to make man, 
how can it be that man should make the gods ? And if the gods 
are made of wood, it is a great sin to burn wood. But tell me, 
father, how is it that, when thou hast made so many gods, the gods 
have not helped thee to make so many other children that thou 
shouldest become the most powerful man in the world 1 " 

The father was beside himself, hearing his son speak so ; the 
son went on : " Father, was the world for some time without 
men ? " 

" Yes," answered the old man, " and why ? " 

" Because," said Abraham, " I should like to know who made 
the first God." 

" Now go out of my house ! " said the old man, l: and leave me 
to make this god quickly, and speak no words to me ; for, when 
thou art hungry, thou desirest bread and not words." 

Said Abraham : " A fine god, truly, that thou cuttest him as 
thou wilt, and he defendeth not himself! " 

Then the old man was angry, and said : " All the world saith 
that it is a god, and thou, mad fellow, sayest that it is not. By 
my gods, if thou wert a man I could kill thee ! " | And having said 28* 
this, he gave blows and kicks to Abraham, and chased him from 
the house. 

XXVII a . In this chapter is clearly seen how improper is laughter 
in men : also the prudence of Abraham. 

The disciples laughed over the madness of the old man, and 
stood amazed at the prudence of Abraham. But Jesus reproved 
them, saying : Ye have forgotten the words of the prophet, 

1 The Chapter of the madman. 



60 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

dice . il risso pressente he uno nontio del pianto uenturo, 
he de piu . non anderai doue se ride ma siedi done se piangie 
perche questa uita passa per misserie . allora disse iessu nel 
tempo di mose per il ridere he burlare altri non sapete che 
Dio conuerse in bruti animalli molti homeni di eggito* . 
guardate ha modo ueruno non ridete perche piangerete b . 
Rissposero li discepoli noi ridiamo sopra la pazia del uechio . 
Disse allora iessu io ui dicho in uerita che ogni simille amma 
il suo simille c he in quello si compiazze pero . se uoi non f oste 
pazzi non ui rideresste di pacia Rissposero loro DIO ci 
abia misserichordia d ; disse iessu chosi sia . allora disse filipo 
28 b ho maestro cho|me passo la chossa che il padre di abraham 
uolse fare brugiare il suo fiolo . Risspose iessu uno giorno 
essendo abraham peruenuto alia heta di anni dodecj disse- 
li il padre . dimani he la festiuita di tutti li dei pero andaremo 
al gran tempio he portaremo pressente allo mio dio grande bal . 
he tu ti ellegerai uno DIO perche tu sei in hetta di hauere uno 
DIO . Risspose abraham con ingano uollentieri ho padre mio 
he pero per tempo la matina andorno auuanti di ogni uno 
al tempio . Ma abraham portaua sotto la tonicha una scure 
di asscoxo . onde hentrato nel tempio nello chreserre la 
moltitudine abraham si asscoxe dietro ad uno idolo intuna 
parte osscura del tempio . il padre suo chredeua nel partirsi 
che abraham auanti di lui fussi andato ha chassa pero non 
stete ha ricercharlo . 

XXVIII . 

Partito ogniuno dal tempio li sacerdoti serorno il tempio 

he si partirno . allora abraham presse la scure he talgio li piedi 

ha tutti li iddoli saluo al dio grande bal al quale pose la scure 

appresso li piedi . nel chascare che faceuano le statoe per essere 

29 a uechie he cho | poste di pezzi andorno im pezzi . onde uscendo 



ABRAHAM DESTEOYETH THE IDOLS 61 

who saith 1 : "Present laughter is a herald of weeping to come," 
and further, " Thou shalt not go where is laughter, but sit where 
they^weep, because this life passeth in miseries ". Then 
said Jesus : In the time of Moses, know ye not that for laughing 
and mocking at others God turned into hideous beasts many men 
of Egypt a 1 Beware that in anywise ye laugh not at any one, for 
ye shall surely weep [for it] V 

The disciples answered : We laughed over the madness of the 
old man. 

Then said Jesus : Verily I say unto you, every like loveth his 
like c , and therein findeth pleasure. Therefore, if ye were not mad 
ye would not laugh at madness. 

They answered : May_God have mercy on us d . 

Said Jesus : So be it. 
,. , 

Then said Philip: master, how | came it to pass that Abraham s 28 b 
father wished to burn his son 1 

Jesus answered : One day, Abraham having come to the age of 
twelve years, his father said to him : " To-morrow is the festival 
of all the gods ; therefore we shall go to the great temple and bear 
a present to my god, great Baal. And thou shalt choose for thyself 
a god, for thou art of age to have a god." 

Abraham answered with guile: ""Willingly, O my father." 
And so betimes in the morning they went before every one else to 
the temple. But Abraham bare beneath his tunic an axe hidden. 
Whereupon, having entered into the temple, as the crowd increased 
Abraham hid himself behind an idol in a dark part of the temple. 
His father, when he departed, believed that Abraham had gone 
home before him, wherefore he did not stay to seek him. 

XXVIII e. 

When every one had departed from the temple, the priests closed 
the temple and went away. Then Abraham took the axe and cut 
off the feet of all the idols, except the great god Baal. At its feet 
he placed the axe, amid the ruins which the statues made, for they, 
through being old and com | posed of pieces, fell in pieces. There- 29 a 

a There was a party in the time of Moses who ridiculed people and 
laughed at them ; God changed them into the likeness of brute beasts 
because of their mockery. Inde. b Do not laugh ever, else you 

will weep. Inde. c Like is with like. Inde. d I ask God s pardon. 

e The Chapter of the idol. 



Cp. Eccles. vii. a, 3 and Ecclus. xxx. 10. 



62 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

habraham del tempio fu ueduto da alchuni li qualli suspi- 
chorno che elgi fusi andato ha robare qualche chossa nel 
tempio . pero il tratenetero he hariuati al tempio quando 
uisstero li loro dij chosi roti chom pianto chridorno, uenite 
presto ho homeni . he ammaziamo chostui che a ammazato 
li nosstri dij . chocorse hiui quasi dieci millia homeni con 
li sacerdoti he interogorno abraham della chagione che lui 
haueua disstruto li loro dij . Risspose abraham uoi sette stolti 
adonque uno homo ammazzera DIG elgie stato il DIG grande 
che lia ammazati . non uedete uoi quella scure che elgia 
presso li piedi certo he che lui non uolle compagni . hariuo 
hiui il padre di abraham il quale harecordandosi di quati 
disscorsi haueua fato abraham contra li loro dij . he cono- 
scendo la scure con la qualle abrahamo haueua spezzato li 
iddoli . chrido elgie stato questo traditore de mio fiolo che a 
ucisso li nostri dij perche quessta scure he mia he rinontio 



28 b alloro quanto hera passato fra lui he il suo fiolo . congregor 



no 



adonque li homeni grande quantita di legne . he ligato le 
mani he piedi ha abraham il posero sopra le legne he sotto 
ui posero il fuocho . Echo che DIG per langelo suo comando 
al fuocho che non habrugiasi abraham seruo suo . si accexe 
con grande furore il fuocho he arsse quasi dui millia homeni 
di quelli che haueuano condanato abraham alia morte . abraham 
ueramente si trouo libero portato dello angiolo di DIG apresso 
la chasa di suo padre . senza uedere chi lo portase he chosi 
scapo abra la morte 

XXIX . 

Allora disse fillipo grande he la missericordia di DIG sopra 
chi lo hamma . dici ho maestro chome elgi peruene alia 
cognitione di DIG abraham . Rissposse iessu hariuato apresso 
alia chasa di suo padre habraham temete di andare in chaxa 
pero si disscosto alquanto da chassa he sento sotto una palma . 
doue chosi stando fra se diceua el bissogna che ui sia DIG che 
habia uita he forze piu dello homo posscia che elgi fa lomo . 



ABRAHAM DESTEOYETH THE IDOLS 63 

upon, Abraham, going forth from the temple, was seen by certain 
men, who suspected him of having gone to thieve something from 
the temple. So they laid hold on him, and having arrived at the 
temple, when they saw their gods so broken in pieces, they cried 
out with lamentation : " Come quickly, O men, and let us slay him 
who hath slain our gods ! " There ran together there about ten 
thousand men, with the priests, and questioned Abraham of the 
reason why he had destroyed their gods. 

Abraham answered : " Ye are foolish ! Shall then a man slay 
God 1 It is the great_Gj)d_tha^Jiathslain them. See you not that 
axe whiclr he hatE^near" his feeU CeFtainTt is that he desireth 
no fellows. 

Then arrived there the father of Abraham, who, mindful of the 
many discourses of Abraham against their gods, and recognizing 
the axe wherewith Abraham had broken in pieces the idols, cried 
out: " It hath been this traitor of a son of mine, who hath slain 
our gods ! for this axe is mine." And he recounted to them all 
that had passed between him and his son. | 

Accordingly the men collected a great quantity of wood, and 29 b 
having bound Abraham s hands and feet put him upon the wood, 
and put fire underneath. 

Lo ! God, through his angel, commanded the fire that it should 
not burn Abraham his servant. The fire blazed up with great 
fury, and burned about two thousand men of those who had 
condemned Abraham to death. Abraham verily found himself free, 
being carried by the angel of God near to the house of his 
father, without seeing who carried him; and thus Abraham 
escaped death. 

XXIX a. 

Then said Philip : Great is the mercy of God upon whoso 
loveth him. Tell us, master, how Abraham came to the know 
ledge of God. 

Jesus answered : Having arrived nigh unto the house of his 
father, Abraham feared to go into the house ; so he removed some 
distance from the house and sat under a palm tree, where thus 
abiding by himself he said : " It needs must be that there is a God 
who hath life and power more than man, since he maketh man, 



The Chapter of Abraham. 



64 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

30 a he lomo senza DIG nom polle fare lomo | onde rissguardando 
le stelle la lima lie il solle penso che loro fusero dio . ma 
considerate la uollubillita loro con li suoi moti disse el bisogna 
che DIO no si moua he che neuoli non il scurissca . altrimeti 
li homeni se hanichilarebono onde stando chossi sosspeso . 
senti chiamarsi per nome abraham pero riuolgendosi he non 
uedendo ha parte ueruna niuno disse . ho pure sentito chia- 
marmi per nome abrahamo onde dui altre fiate similmente 
senti chiamarsi per nome abraham . Bissposse lui chi mi 
chiama . Allora senti dire, io son langello di DIO gabrielo 
pero si riempite di timore abraham il quale confforto langello 
dicendo . non temere abraham perche tu sei amicho di DIO 
onde quando spezzasti li dij deli homeni fusti elleto dal DIO 
delli angioli he proffeti . talmente che sei scrito nello libro 
della uita . allora disse abraham che chossa fare debo per 
seruire lo DIO di angioli he santti proffeti . Risspose langello 
ua in quel fonte he lauati perche DIO uole parllare techo . 
Risspose abraham hor chome lauarmi debo; allora langelo 
seli appresento chome uno bello giouine he si lauo nel fonte | 

30 dicendo fa chossi hanchora te ho abraham . lauatossi abraham 
disse langiolo ua sopra quel monte perche DIO te uolle parllare 
hiuui . asscexe come disse langello ha abraham sul monte 
he sentato sopra le sui ganbe diceua fra se . quando mi 
parllera lo DIO di angioli senti chiamarsi chon uoce suaui 
abraha il qualle risspose abraham chi mi chiama . Risspose 
la uoce io son il tuo DIO a ho abraham . Rempiuto di spauento 
abraham chassco la facia sua in terra dicendo chome ti 
asscoltera il seruo tuo che he poluere he cenere . allora disse 
DIO non temere ma leuati perche ti ho elleto per mio seruo he 
uolgio benedirti he farti chressere in molta gente . pero 



GOD REVEALED TO ABRAHAM 65 

and man without God could not make man." | Thereupon, looking 30 
round upon the stars, the moon, and the sun, he thought that they 
had been God. But after considering their variableness with their 
movements, he said : " It needs must be that God move not, and 
that clouds hide him not; otherwise men would be brought to 
naught." Whereupon, remaining thus in suspense, he heard him 
self called by name, "Abraham!" And so, turning round and 
not seeing anyone on any side, he said: "I have surely heard 
myself called by name, Abraham/ " Thereupon, two other times 
in like manner, he heard himself called by name, " Abraham ! " 
He answered : " Who calleth me ? " 

Then he heard it said : " I am the angel of God, Gabriel." 
Therefore was Abraham filled with fear ; but the angel com 
forted him, saying: "Fear not, Abraham, for that thou art friend 
of God ; wherefore, when thou didst break in pieces the gods of 
men, thou wert chosen of the God of the angels and prophets ; 
insomuch that thou art written in the book of life \" 

Then said Abraham : " What ought I to do, to serve the God 
of the angels and holy prophets 1 " 

The angel answered: "Go to that fount and wash thee, for 
God willeth to speak with thee." 

Abraham answered : " Now, how ought I to wash me ? " 
Then the angel presented himself unto him as a beautiful 
youth_,_and washed himself in the fount, | saying : " Do thou in turn 
likewise Jojhyseif, O Abraham." When Abraham had washed 
himself,!he angel said : " Gojup that_mountain, for God willeth to 
^sjpeak-to thee there." 

He ascended the mountain as the angel said to Abraham, and 
having sat down upon his knees he said to himself : " When will 
the God of the angels speak to me ? " 

He heard himself called with a gentle voice : " Abraham ! " 
Abraham answered him : " Who calleth me ? " 
The voice answered : " I am thy God , Abraham." 
^Abraham, filled with fear, bent his face to earth, saying: "How 
shall thy servant hearken_uuto_thee, who is dust and ashes 2 ! " 

Then said God : " Fear not, but rise up, for 1 have chosen thee 
for my servant, and I will to bless thee and make thee increase 
into a great people. Therefore go thou forth from the house of 

tt God is one. 

1 Phil. iv. 3 ( C p. 1 8V * Cp Gcn _ xyiii 21 

EAGG J? 



66 THE GOSPEL OF BAKNABAS 

usscisi di chassa di tuo padre he della tua parentella he uieni 
ha habitare il paesse chio ti daro he al tuo seme . Risspose 
abraham il tutto faro sign ore ma chustodissimi che niuno 
altro dio mi facia malle . Allora parllo DIG dicendo io son DIG 
sollo he non uie altro DIG che me a . io perchuoto he sano 
ammazzo he dono la uitta, conducho allo imferno he chauo 
fuori he niuno polle liberarsi dalle mie mani . allora DIG 
li dete il pato della circoncissione he chossi chonobe DIG il padre 
31 a nosstro abraha | he deto quessto iessu leuo le mani dicendo . 
ha te sia honore he gloria ho DIG nosstro chosi sia . 

XXX b 

Ando iessu in ierossolima apresso la senofegia festa della 
nosstra gente . il che hauendo chonosciuto li scribi he sacerdoti 
si consilgiorno di prenderlo nel parllare . onde si hachosto ha 
lui uno dotore dicendo maestro che chossa debo fare per hauere 
la uitta etterna . Risspose iessu nella leggie chome he scrito . 
Risspose il tentatore dicendo amma il signore DIG tuo c he il 
prossimo tuo . il tuo DIG ammerai sopra ogni chossa con tutto 
il chore he anima tua he il prossimo chome te stesso . 
Risspose iessu, tu hai bene risposto pero ua he tu fa chosi ti 
dicho he auerai la uita etterna . Disse lui he qualle he il 
prossimo mio . Risspose iessu leuando li ochij uno homo 
discendeua di ierusalem per andare in hericho cita riedifichata 
in malladitione . chostui per strada fu preso da ladri ferito he 
spolgiato onde lassandolo mezzo morto si partirno . auene che 
uno sacerdote passo per quello locho onde ueduto il ferito 
passo uia senza sallutarlo . similmente passo uno leuita senza 
dire parolla . aduene che passo uno samaritano il qual uisto 
31 b il ferito si chomosse ha pieta . onde disscexe del suo chauallo 
he preso il ferito li lauo le ferite con il uino he con onguento 
le onse alligandoli le ferite . he confortandolo il posse sopra 
il suo chaualo onde arriuato la sera allo albergo Io dete in 



) Jo.1 131 
b U L-J^I| JUI i-. c lkL, 4)1. 



67 

thy father and of thy kindred, and come to dwell in the land which 
I will give to thee and to thy seed V 

Abraham answered : " All will I do, Lord ; but guard me that 
none other god may do me hurt." 

Then spake God, saying : " I am God alone, and there is none 
other God but me a . I strike down, and make whole ; I slay, and give 
life ^ I lead down to hell, and I bring out thereof, and none is able 
to deliver himself out of my hands 2 ." Then God gave him the 
covenant of circumcision ; and so our father Abraham knew God. | 

And having said this, Jesus lifted up his hands, saying : To 31 a 
thee be honour and glory, O God. So be it ! 

XXX b 

Jesus went to Jerusalem, near unto the Senofegia (= Taber 
nacles), a feast of our nation. The scribes and Pharisees havino- 
_ perceived this^ took counsel to^atchlhim in his talk 3 . 

Whereupon, there came to him a doctor, saying 4 : Master, 
what must I do to have eternal life 1 

Jesus answered : How is it written in the law 1 

The tempter answered, saying : Love the Lord thy God c, and 
thy neighbour. Thou shalt love thy God above all things, with all 
thy heart and thy mind, and thy neighbour as thyself. 

Jesus answered : ( Thou hast answered well : therefore go and 
do thou so, I say, and thou shalt have eternal life. 

He said unto him : And who is my neighbour ? 

Jesus answered, lifting up his eyes : A man was going down 
from Jerusalem to go unto Jericho,^^|y_rebjiiltj.nder_a curse 6 . 
This man on the road was seized by robbers, wounded and stripped ; 
whereupon they departed, leaving him half dead. It chanced that 
a priest passed by that place, and he, seeing the wounded man, 
passed on without greeting him. In like manner passed a Levite, 
without saying a word. It chanced that there pasted [also] a 
Samaritan, who, | seeing the wounded man, was moved to compassion, 3lb 
and alighted from his horse, and took the wounded man and washed 
his wounds with wine, and anointed them with ointment, and 
binding up his wounds for him and comforting him, he set him 
upon his own horse. Whereupon, having arrived in the evening 

a Said God to Abraham : I am one, and there is no God else. Inde. 
b The Chapter of the love of mankind. c God is sovereign. 



1 Gen. xii. i, 2. 2 Cp. Deut. xxxii. 39 and Tobit xiii. 2. s Matt, 

xxii. 15. * See Luke x. 25-37. 5 See Josh. vi. 26 and i Kings xvi. 34. 

F 2 



68 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

chusstodia allo hosspite he leuato la matina disse . habi chura 
di chostui perche io ti pagero il tutto he donate quatro danari 
di horo all inffermo . per lossto disse sta di bono animo che 
pressto ritornaro he conduroti in chasa mia . dimi disse iessu 
quale di chosstoro fu il prossimo . Risspose il dotore cholui 
che fece miserichordia, allora disse iessu . tu iusstamente 
risspondesti pero ua he fa tu il simille . confuso il dotore 
si parti . 

XXXI . 

Auicinosi ha iessu li sacerdoti he dissero . ho maestro elgi 
licito dare il censo ha cessare . Riuoltosi iessu ha iuda he disse- 
li hai tu pecunia he tollto uno danaro in mano si uolse iessu 
alii sacerdoti he li disse . quessto danaro ha una inmagine 
ditemi de chie quessta imagine . Rissposero loro di cessare . 
pero date disse iessu quello che he di cesare ha cessare he 
quello che he di DIG datelo ha DIG . allora confusi si partirno | 
32 a et echo apresarsi uno centurione dicendo . signore il mio 
filgiolo he inffermo habi missericordia alia mia uechiezza . Riss 
pose iessu il signore DIG b de issdraelle ti habia misserichordia . 
partisi lomo he iessu disse asspatami che io uero ha chasa tua 
affare oratione sopra il tuo filgiollo . Rissposse il centurione ho 
signore io no son degno che tu proffeta di DIG uengi alia chasa 
mia basstami la tua parolla che dicessti per sallute del mio 
fiolo . perche il tuo DIG tia constituito signore sopra ogni 
infermita sicome langelo suo dormendo mi disse . Allora 
iessu presse admiratione grandde he uoltato alia turba disse . 
guardate quessto allieno che elgia piu fede di quanti habia 
trouato in issdraele . he uoltatosi al centurione disse uatene in 
paze perche DIG c per la fede grande che tia dato elgia concesso 
la sanita al tuo filgiolo . andosi il centurione he per strada 
incontro li suoi serui li quali li anontiorno chome il suo fiollo 
hera sannato . Risspose lomo ha che hora li cesso la febre; 



THE TRIBUTE-MONEY G9 

at the inn, he gave him into the charge of the host. And when 
he had risen on the morrow, he said : Take care of this man, 
and I will pay thee all." And having presented four gold pieces 
to the sick man for the host, he said : " Be of good cheer, for I will 
speedily return and conduct thee to my own home." 

Tell me, said Jesus, which of these was the neighbour 1 

The doctor answered : He who showed mercy. 

Then said Jesus: j?hou hast answered rightly; therefore go 
and do thou likewise. 

The doctor departed in confusion. 



Then drew near unto Jesus l the priests, and said : Master, is 
it lawful to give tribute to Caesar 1 Jesus turned round to Judas, 
and said : Hast thou any money 1 And taking a penny in his 
hand, Jesus turned himself to the priests, and said to them : This 
penny hath an image : tell me, whose image is it 1 

They answered : Caesar s. 

Give therefore, said Jesus, that which is Caesar s to Caesar, 
and that which is God s give it to God. 

Then they departed in confusion. | 

And behold there drew nigh a centurion 2 , saying : Lord 3 , my 32 a 
son is sick ; have mercy on my old age ! 

Jesus answered : The_Lord_G_od b of Israel have mercy _on .thee ! 

The man was departing ; and Jesus said : Wait for me, for 
I will come to thine house, to make prayer over thy son. 

The centurion answered : Lord 3 , I am not worthy that thou, 
a prophet of God, shouldest come unto my house, sufficient unto me 
is the word that thou hast spoken for the healing of my son ; for 
thy God hath made thee lord over every sickness, even as his 
angel said unto me in my sleep. 

Then Jesus marvelled greatly, and turning to the crowd, lie 
said: ^BhixkLj]iis_siajer^^ faith than all that 

I have round in Israel. And turning to the centurion, he said : 
Go m peace, "Because God, for the great faith that he hath given 
thee, hath granted health to thy son. 

The centurion went his way 4 , and on the road he met his 
servants, who announced to him how his son was healed. 




The Chapter of healing. b God is sovereign. God gives. 



1 See Matt. xxii. 15-22 and parallels. 2 See Matt. viii. 5-13 and 

parallels. 3 Or Sir. * See John iv. 51-3. 



70 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

dissero loro hieri allora di sessta li passo il challore . conobe 
lomo che quando iessu disse il signore DIO a de issdraelle ti 
32 b habia missericliordia | il fiol suo riceuete la sanitta . onde 
chredete lomo ha DIO nosstro he hentrato nella sua chasa 
spezzo tutti li suoi dij dicendo . elgie sollo il DIO de issdraelle 
il uero he uiuo DIO b pero disse elgi niuno manggi il mio pane 
chi non addora il DIO de issdraelle . 

XXXII c. 

Inuito ha dissnare iessu uno perito della leggie per tentarlo . 
andoui iessu con li suoi discepoli he molti scribi per tentarlo lo 
asspetauano ha chassa . onde si posero ha tauola li disscepoli 
senzza lauarsi le mani . chiamorno iessu li scribi dicendo 
perche li tuoi dissepoli non osseruano le traditioni di nosstri 
uechij non si lauando le mani auanti che mangino il pane . 
Kisspose iessu he io ui dimando per che chagione hauete scan- 
ccellato il precceto di DIO per hoseruare le traditioni uosstre d uoi 
dite alii filgioli di padri poueri offerissi he fa uoto al tempio li 
quali fano uoto di quel pocho che doueriano sostentare li loro 
padri . he quando li loro padri uolgiono tuore il danaro chridano 
33 a li filgioli elgie consachrato ha | DIO quello danaro . onde li padri 
patisscono ho falsi scribi hipochriti quel danaro lo spende DIO 
non certo perche . DIO non mangia e chome dice per il seruo 
dauit proffeta . adonque mangero charne di tori he beuero il 
sangue di chasstradi . Rendimi il sachrificio de le laudi he 
offerissimi li tuoi uoti perche . se io hauessi fame non ti 
dimandero niente essendo che ogni chossa he nelle mie mani 
he la abondantia del paradisso he con me . hipochriti uoi fate 
quessto per empire la uosstra borsa he pero decimate la ruta 
he la menta . ho miseri perche ad altri dimosstrate chiarissima 



4il\ ,% l> A*N L^W [,<>. 1 ,->>. Jl. 

** J^ 



SUPPER IN THE LAWYER S HOUSE 71 

The man answered : At what hour did the fever leave him ? 
They said : Yesterday, at the sixth hour, the heat departed 
from him. 

The man knew that when Jesus said : The Lord God a of Israel 
have mercy on thee/ | his son received his health. "Whereupon the 32 b 
man believed in our God, and having entered into his house, he 
brake in pieces all his own gods, saying : There is only the God 
of Israel, the true and Hving^God b . Therefore said he : None 
"shall eaF of my bread that worshippeth not the God of Israel. 

XXXII c. 

One skilled in the law invited Jesus to supper 1 , in order to 
tempt him. Jesus came thither with his disciples, and many 
scribes, to tempt him, waited for him in the house. Whereupon, 
the disciples sat down to table without washing their minds. The 
scrihe~s~called Jesus, saying : Wherefore do not thy disciples 
observe the traditions of our elders, in not washing their hands 
before they eat bread 1 

Jesus answered : And I ask you, for what cause have ye annulled 
the precept of God to observe your traditions d 1 Ye say to the sons 
of poor fathers : " Offer and make vows unto the temple." And 
they make vows of that little wherewith they ought to support 
their fathers. And when their fathers wish to take money, the 
sons cry out : " This money is consecrated to | God " ; whereby the 33 a 
fathers suffer. O false scribes, hypocrites, doth God use this 
money 1 Assuredly not, for God eateth not e , as he saith by his 
servant David the prophet 2 : " Shall I then eat the flesh of bulls 
and drink the blood of sheep 1 Render unto me the sacrifice of 
praise, and offer unto me thy vows ; for if I should be hungry 
I will not ask aught of thee, seeing that all things are in my hands, 
and the abundance of paradise is with me." Hypocrites ! ye do 
this to fill your purse, and therefore ye tithe rue and mint. Oh 
miserable ones ! for unto others ye show the most clear way, by 
which ye will not go 3 . 

a God is sovereign. b The God of the children of Israel is one, 

and true, living God. Inde. c The Chapter of innovation. d Said 

Jesus to the doctors (of the law) of the children of Israel : Why alter ye 
the commandments of God, and follow innovations that ye invent of your 
selves ? Inde. e God eats not. 



1 See Matt. xv. 2-6 and cp. Luke xi. 37-46 ; xiv. 1. 2 Ps. 1. 13, 

14, n, 12. 3 Reading uncertain : perhaps render Which ye yourselves 

wiU not see. 



72 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

la uia per laqual non uollete uedere 1 . uoi scribi he dotori 
ponete sopra laltrui spalle pesi de intollerabil pesso ma uoi 
pero chon uno deto non uollete mouerlo . io ui dicho in uerita 
che ogni malle he hentrato nel monddo sotto pretessto di 
uechij . ditemi la iddolatria chi la fece hentrare nel monddo 
se non la usanza di uechij imperoche . elgi fu uno Re il quale 
esstremamente ammaua il padre suo il quale haueua nome 
bal . onde essendoli morto il padre il fiolo per sua conssolatione 
fece far una inmagine simille al padre he la posse nella piazza 
33 1 * della citta . he fece uno dechreto che ogniuno il J quale si 
auicinassi ha quella statoa per spazio di quindeci cubiti fusi 
saluo . he ueruno per niuno conto il douessi offendere onde 
per il beneficio che ne riceueua li malfatori inchominciorno 
ha offerire alia statoa . rose he fiori li quali per pocho tempo 
si conuerti la offerta in danari he cibi he talmente che . il 
chiamorno DIG per honorarlo la qual chossa de consuetudine 
si trassmuto in legie . talmente che lo iddolo di bal si 
esstendete per tutto il monddo . ho quanto inzio si lamenta 
DIG per esaia proffeta dicendo . Veramente quessto popullo 
mi adora a in uano perche hano scancellato la mia legie dato- 
li per mose seruo mio . he seguitano li traditioni di lloro uechij. 

10 ui dicho in uerita che il mangiare il pane con le mani 
sporche non machia lomo impero che . quello che entra nel 
homo non machia lomo ma quello che uscise del homo machia 
lomo . adonque disse uno scriba se io mangero il porcho he 
altri cibi inmondi non machierano la mia conscieza . Risspose 
iessu, la inobedieza non hentrera nel homo ma usscira dal 
homo dal chor suo he pero sara machiato quando mangiera 

11 cibbo proibito b . disse allora uno dotore ho maestro tu hai 
34 mol | to parllato contra della iddolatria quasi che il populo de 

issdrael habia iddoli he pero ci fai inguria . Risspose iessu 
io so bene che in issdraele ogidi non uie statoe di legno 
ma uie statoe di charne . Rissposero tutti li scribi adirati 



1 SQ MS. : probably we should either omit per, or read, for uedere, andare. 



HYPOCRISY AND IDOLATRY REBUKED 73 

Ye scribes and doctors lay upon the shoulders of others weights 
of unbearable weight, but ye yourselves the while are not willing 
to move them with one of your fingers. 

Verily I say unto you, that every evil bath entered into the 
world under the pretext of the elders. Tell me, who made idolatry 
to enter into the world, if not the usage of the elders 1 For there 
was a king who exceedingly loved his father, whose name was 
Baal. Whereupon, when the father was dead, his son for his own 
consolation, caused to be made an image_like_uiito his father, and 
set it up in the market-place of the city. And he made a decree that 
"every one who approached that statue within a space of fifteen cubits 
should be safe, and no one on any account should do him hurt. 
Hence the malefactors, by reason of the benefit they received there 
from, began to offer to the statue roses and flowers, and in a short 
time the offerings were changed into money and food, insomuch that 
they called it god, to honour it. Which thing from custom was 
transformed into a law, insomuch that the idol of Baal spread through 
all the world ; and how much doth God lament this J by the 
prophet Isaiah, saying : " Truly this people worshippeth me a in 
vain, for they have annulled my law given to them by my servant 
Moses, jindjollow the traditions .of their elders." 

Verily I say unto you, that to eat bread with unclean hands 
defileth not a man, because that which entereth into the man 
defileth not the man, but that which cometh out of the man defileth 
the man. 

"Thereupon, said one of the scribes : If I shall eat pork, or other 
unclean meats, will they not defile my conscience 1 

Jesus answered : Disobedience will not enter into the man, but 
will come out of the man, from his heart ; and therefore will he be 
defiled when he shall eat forbidden food V 

Then said one of the doctors : Master, thou hast | spoken much 
against idolatry as though the people of Israel had idols, and so 
thou hast done us wrong. 

Jesus answered : I know well that in Israel to-day there are 
not statues of wood : butthere are statues of flesh. 

Then answered all tTiescribes in wraTHl r And so we are 
idolaters ? 



* God is worshipped. b The flesh of swine is forbidden. Inde. 



1 See Matt. xv. 7-20. 



74 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

adonque noi siamo iddolatri . Risspose iessu, io ui dicho 
in uerita che il precceto n5 dice addorerai ma dice hamerai 
il signore DIG tuo a . con tutta la anima tua he con tutto 
il chore tuo he con tutta la mente tua . elgi uero quessto 
disse iessu elglie uero rissposero ogniuno . 

XXXIII b. 

Allora disse iessu . in uerita que tutto quello che lomo 
amma per il quale lascia ogni altra chossa che quello he 
il suo dio c he pero . il fornichatore ha per suo simullachro 
la meretrice . il mangiatore he beuitore ha per simullachro 
la propria charne he lo auuaro ha per suo simullachro lo 
argento he horo . he chossi similmente ogni altro pechatore . 
allora disse cholui che lo haueua conuitato ho maestro qual 
he il magiore pechato . Risspose iessu quale he la magiore 
34 b roina di una chassa ; taceuano ogniuno | quando iessu con il 
suo dito mosstro il fondamento he disse . chasscando il 
fondamento subito la chasa he roinata per modo che bisogna 
di nouo hedifficharla , ma chasscando ogni altra parte si 
pote raconziare chossi ui dicho adonque che . la iddolatria 
he il magiore pechato perche priua lomo in tutto di fede he 
consequentemente di DIG onde nom polle hauere niuno effeto 
di spirito d . ma ogni altro pechato lasscia al homo speranza 
di hauere misserichordia he pero dicho che la iddolatria he il 
maggiore pechato , stauano marauilgiati ogniuno sopra il 
parllare di iessu perehe chonosceuano non potersi ha modo 
ueruno pontare . quando iessu sogionse, Racordatiue quello 
che DIG disse he moisse con iossue scrise nella leggie he 
uederete quanto sia graue quessto pechato . Disse DIG par- 
llando ha issdraelle . non ti farai immagine ueruna di quelle 
che sono in ciello ne di quelle che sono sotto il cielo . no ne 
farai di quelle che sono sopra la terra ne di quelle che ssono 
sotto la terra . ne di quelle che sono sopra laqua ouero di 



IDOLATRY REBUKED 75 

Jesus answered : Verily I say unto you, the precept l saith not f) 
"Thou shajtjvorship/ but " Thou shalt love the Lord thy God a -" / * 
with all thy soul, and with all thy heart, and with all thy mind." 
Is this trueT^saicLsIesjis. 
S " P TI Is true, answered every one. 

XXXIII b. 

Then said Jesus : Verily all that which a man loveth, for 
which he leaveth everything else but that, is his god c. And so 
the fornicator hath for his image the harlot, the glutton and 
drunkard hath for image his own flesh, and the covetous hath 
for his image silver and gold, and so likewise every other 
sinner. 

Then said he who had invited him : Master, which is the 
greatest sin 1 

Jesus answered : Which is the greatest ruin of a house 1 

Every one was silent, | when Jesus with his finger pointed to the 34 b 
foundation, and said : If the foundation give way, immediately the 
house falleth in ruin, in such wise that it is necessary to build it 
up anew : but if every other part give way it can be repaired. 
Even so then say I to you, ih^ljdojatry_is_the_greate_st sin, because 
i man_ entirely of faith, and consequently of God ; so 
_have no spiritual affection d . ^Bu^every other sin leavetl 



^ 

-an_ the hope of obtaining mercy : and therefore I say that 
idolatry is thVgreaTest sin. 

All" &E6o3~ aSTazed" a the speaking of Jesus, for they perceived 
that it could not in any wise be assailed. 

Then Jesus continued : Remember that which God spake and 
which Moses and Joshua wrote in the law, and ye shall see how 
grave is this sin. Said God, speaking to Israel: " Thoujhalt not 2 
jiiake to thyself any image of those things which are in heaven nor 
of those things which are under the heaven, nor shalt thou make 
it of those things which are above the earth", nor of those which 
are under the earth ; nor of those which are above the water, nor 



* God is worshipped. b The Chapter of the idolaters. c God 

is sovereign. d The greatest of unlawful things is the worship 

of idols, as that leads out of religion and away from God. Inde. 



1 Deut. vi. 5. 2 Exod. xx. 4-6 and Deut. v. 8, 9. 



76 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

35 a quelle che sono sotto la aqua | perche io son il tuo DIG forte he 
zeloso a che uendichera quessto pechato . nelli padri he nelli loro 
filgioli insino alia quarta generatione . Racordatiue che 
auendo il popullo nosstro fato il uitello he auendo loro addo- 
rato quello . per chomandamento di DIG iosue he la tribu di 
leui pilgio la spada he ne occisse cento he uinti millia di 
cholloro che non dimandorno misserichordia ha DIG . ho 
tremendo iuditio di DIG sopra li idolatrj b . 

XXXIV c. 

Staua auanti la porta . uno il qualle haueua la mano desstra 
ritirata per modo che elgi non poteua adoperarlla . onde iessu 
leuato il chore ha DIG prego he poi disse, acioche chonosciate 
le mie parolle essere uere . io dicho in nome de DIG d homo 
disstendi la tua mano infferma la quale sana disstexe chome 
se giamai non hauesi hauto malle . halloro con timore di 
DIG incominciorno ha mangiare . auendo mangiato alquanto 
di nouo disse iessu, io ui dicho in uerita che saria melgio 
abrugiare una citta che lasciarui una chatiua consuetudine e . 
35 b sopra le qualjli DIG he adirato chontra li principi he Re della 
terra . alii quali DIG ha dato la spada per disstrugere le inni- 
quita f . dipoi disse iessu quando tu sei inuitato ti harechordo 
non ti ponere nel primo locho azioche uenendo uno magiore 
amicho dello osspite . non ti dicha losspite leuate he senta 
piu ha basso che ti saria uergogna . ma ua he siedi nel locho 
piu uille azioche uedendoti cholui che te inuito dicha lieuati 
hamicho he uieni ha sedere qui di sopra . perche allora ti 
serra honore grande perche . ogniuno che si exalta sarra 
humilliato he chi se humillia sera exaltato * . io ui dicho in 
uerita che satana no diuento riprobo per altro pechato che 




JESUS TEACHETH HUMILITY 77 

of those which are under the water. | For I am thy God, strong 35& 

and jealous a \ who will take vengeance for this sin upon the 

fathers and upon their children even unto the fourth generation." 

Remember how 2 , when our people had made the calf, and when they 

had worshipped it, by commandment of God Joshua and the tribe. , -, if . ^ 

of Levi took the sword and slew of them one hundred and twenty * -^ 

thousand s of those that did not crave mercy of God. Oh, terrible -.V-cJ^OtJ 

judgment of God upon the idolaters_ b ! <U-<J- o-i 

++ "~ 

XXXIV c. 6 So <*-- 



There stood before the door one 4 who had his right hand 
shrunken in such fashion that he could not use it. Whereupon 
Jesus, having lift up his heart to God, prayed, and then said : In 
order that ye may know that my words are true, I say, " In the 
name of God d , man, stretch out thine infirm hand ! " He stretched 
it out whole, as if it had never had aught ill with it. 

Then with fear of God_they_began to eat. And having eaten 
somewhat, Jesus said again : Verily I say unto you, that it were 
better to burn a city than to leave there an evil custom 9 . For 
on account of such | is God wroth with the princes and kings 35 b 
of the earth, to whom God hath given the sword to destroy 
iniquities f V 

Afterwards said Jesus 6 : When thou are invited, remember 
not to set thyself in the highest place, in order that if a greater 
friend of the host come the host say not unto thee : " Arise and sit 
lower down ! " which were a shame to thee. But go and sit-in., the 
^meanest place, in order that he who invited thee may come and 
sav_: "Arise, friend, and come and sit here, above!" Tor then 
shalt thou have great honour : for every one_ that.. exalteth_Jum self _ 
shall be humbled, and he that humbleth himself shall be exalted e. 

Verily I say unto you, that ^aJaiTT>ecame not reprobate 



God is powerful and jealous and revengeful. b The judgement of 

God is strict upon the worshippers of many gods. Inde. c The Chapter 
of the inferior (mean). d By permission of God. It is better that 
he should burn the city than that he should set in it an evil innovation. 
Inde. f God subdues and gives. * Whosoever humbleth himself 

God will exalt, and whosoever exalteth himself God humbleth. Inde. 



1 forte he zeloso =fortis, zelotes ; cp. Vulg. Exod. xx. 5. 2 See Exod. xxxii. 
4~6. 27, 28. 3 NB. The number given in Exod. xxxii. 28 is 3,000, and 

Joshua is not mentioned. 4 See Matt. ii. 10-13 and parallels. 

5 Cp. Rom. xiii. 4. 6 See Luke xiv. 7-11. 



78 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

per la superbia sua a sicome dice il prof eta esaia . imprope- 
randollo con quesste parolle . chome ehasscati dal cielo ho 
lucifero che heri la bellezza deli angioli he luceui chome 
la aurora . Veramente in terra he chasscato la superbia tua . 
io ui dicho in uerita che se lomo chonosese le misserie sui 
che sempre piangeria quiui in terra he si reputeria uillissimo 
sopra di ogni altra chossa . non per altra chagione il primo 
36 a homo con sua molgie piansero cento hanni chontinui | dimandan- 
do misserichordia ha DIG b . perche in uero chonossceuano doue 
herano chaduti per la loro superbia . he deto quessto iessu 
resse le gratie he quel giorno fu publichato per ierusalem 
quanto haueua deto iessu con il mirachollo che haueua fato . 
talmente che il populo ringratiaua DIG benedicendo il suo 
santo nome . ma li scribi he sacerdoti hauendo intexo che elgi 
parllo contra le traditioni di uechij si azessero di magiore 
odio . he come faraone indurorno il chore loro pero cerchauano 
hochaxione di amazarlo ma no la trouauano . 

XXXV c. 

Partissi iessu di ierusalem he ando al disserto oltra il 
giordano . he li suoi disscepoli assentati che furno dissero 
ha iessu ho inaesstro . dici chome chassco satana per superbia 
perche habiamo intexo che elgi chassco per innobedienzza 
he perche elgi sempre tenta lomo ha mal fare . Eisspose iessu, 
hauendo DIG chreato una massa di terra d he tasatola per 
uinticinque millia hanni senzza fare altro . Satana che hera j 
36 b chome sacerdote he chapo di angioli . per lo intelleto grande 
che haueua chonobe che DIG di quella massa di terra doueua 
chauare cento he quarata quatro millia . signati con il chara- 
tere della proffetia he il nontio di DIG e del quale nontio 
sesanta millia hanni chreato haueua auanti ogni chossa la 



) ft 



4)1 



SATAN S FALL THROUGH PRIDE 79 

for other sin than for his pride a . Even as saith the prophet 
Isaiah, reproaching him with these words: "How art thou 
fallen from heaven, Lucifer, that wert the beauty of the 
angels, and didst shine like the dawn : truly to earth is fallen 
thy pride l ! " 

Verily I say unto you, that if a man knew his miseries, he would 
always weep here on earCn" and account himself most mean, beyond 
Vvery other thing. ~ For no other cause _did_thg_^rat^man with his 
"wife weep for a hundred years without ceasing, | craving mercy of 36 a 
GcjdA For they knew truly whither they had fallen througTniieir" 
pride. 

And having said this, Jesus gave thanks ; and that day it was 
published through Jerusalem how great things Jesus had said, with 
the miracle he had wrought, insomuch that the people gave thanks 
to God, blessing his holy name. 

But the scribes and priests, having understood that he spake 
against the traditions of the elders, were kindled^wifEPgreater 
hatred. And likePharaohT^ tFey hardened their heart : wherefore 
they sought occasion to slay him, but found it not. 

XXXV e. 

Jesus departed from Jerusalem, an d_ went to the^ desert beyond 
Jordan : and his disciples that were seated round him said to 
Jesus : O master, tell us how Satan fell through pride, for we 
have understood that he fell through disobedience, and because he 
always tempteth man to do evil. 

Jesus answered 3 : God having created a mass of earth d , and 
having left it for twenty-five thousand years without doing aught 
else ; Satan, who was j as it were priest and head of the angels, by 36 b 
the great understanding that he possessed, knew that God of that 
mass_of earth wasjto take one hundred and forty and four thousand / ll 
signed with the mark of prophecy, and the messenger of God e , the 
soul of which messenger he had created sixty thousand years before 



- 



a Inde. Iblis (the devil) was arrogant and was of the unbelievers 
(Surah xxxviii. 74). b Account of the repentance of Adam. The 
Chapter of the worship of the angels. d God created mud (a lump of 

earth). e The prophet (the sent) of God. 



1 Isa. xiv. 12. a Exod. vii. 13, &c. 3 Cp. fall of Satan (Eblis) 

in Qoran, ch. ii, vii, &c. For further ref. see note on 76*. 



80 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

hanima sua a . pero indignato solicitaua li angioli dicendo, 
guardate che un giorno DIO uora che sia da noi riuerita quella 
terra . pero considerate che noi siamo spirito he pero non e 
conueniente di fare tal chossa . molti pero * si scostorno da DIO 
onde disse DIO uno giorno essendo congreggati tutti li angioli . 
pressto ogniuno che tiene me per suo signore facia riue- 
renzza ha quessta terra . quelli li quali ammauano DIO se 
inclinorno ma satana con li suoi consentienti disero . ho 
signore noi siamo spirito he pero no ne iussto che noi faciamo 
riuerenzza ha quelo fango il che hauendo deto quessto . 
satana diuento horido he di asspeto spauenteuolle he bruti 
diuentorno li suoi seguaci impero che . per la loro ribelione 
DIO tiro ha se quella bellezza che chreandoli li haueua donate . | 
onde nel leuare il chapo loro li angioli santi uededo chossi 
spauenteuole mosstro quale hera diuentato satana he li suoi 
seguaci . chasscorno con la fazia in terra per timore b . allora 
disse satana c ho signore tu mi hai iniustamente fato bruto 
ma io ne son chontento perche uolgio scancellare quanto 
farai . he li altri diauoli dissero non lo chiamare signore ho 
lucifero perche tu sei signore . allora disse DIO alii seguaci 
di satana pentiteui he richonoscete me DIO chreator uosstro d 
li quali rissposero . noi si pentiamo di hauerti fato alchuna 
riuerenzza perche tu non sei iussto ma satana he iussto he 
innocente il quale he signor nosstro . Allora disse DIO par- 
titeui da me ho malledeti che io non uio misserichordia e . 
he nel partirsi satana sputo sopra quella massa di terra il 
quale sputo . leuo con alquanto di terra langelo gabriele che 
pero lomo hora ha lonbillicho nel uentre . 



ljui ^^p^jlXJI ^c ^lj . 



MS. peri. 



THE FALL OF SATAN 



81 



aught else a . Therefore, being indignant, he instigated the angels, 
saying: "Look ye, one day God shall will that this earth be 
revered by us. Wherefore consider that we are spirit, and 
therefore it is not fitting so to do." 

Many therefore forsook God. Whereupon said God, one day 
when all the angels were assembled : " Let each one that holds me 
for his lord straightway do reverence to this earth." 

They that loved God bowed themselves, but Satan, with them 
that were of his mind, said : " Lord, we are spirit, and therefore 
it is not just that we should do Teverence to this clay." Having 
said thisr Satan "feecame^Tibrrid^nd of fearsome look, and his 
followers became hideous; because for their rebellion God took 
away from them the beauty wherewith he had endued them in 
creating them. | Whereat the holy angels, when, lifting their heads, 
they saw how terrible a monster Satan had become, and his 
followers, cast down their face to earth in fear b . 

Then said Satan c : O Lord, thou hast unjustly made me 
hideous, but I am content thereat, because I desire to annul all that 
thou shalt do. And the other devils said : " Call him not Lord, 
Lucifer, for thou art Lord." 

Then said God to the followers of Satan : " Repent ye, and 
recognize me as God, your creator <V 

They answered : " We repent of having done thee any rever 
ence, for that thou art not just ; but Satan is just and innocent, 
and he is our Lord." 

Then said God : " Depart from me, ye cursed, for I have no 
mercy on you e ." 

And in his departing Satan spat upon that mass of earth, and 
that spittle the angel Gabriel lifted up with some earth, so that 

^L, ~~~ "" " "*- * - 

therefore now man has the navel in his bellv/ 

W-- - 

* The devil knew that from the body of Adam would come forty-four 
hundred thousand (sic) prophets and of the seal of the prophets, whose 
soul (Mohammed s) God created before all created things seventy thousand 
years (sic). b Showing the worship of the angels. The devil 

was arrogant and was of the unbelievers this is the history. Inde. 
d God creates. e God punishes. 



\ 






37 a 





82 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

XXXVI *. 

37 b Stauano con grande marauilgia li disscepoli | sopra la re- 
belione angelicha . allora disse iessu in uerita ui dicho che 
cholui che non fa oratione he piu scellerato di satana he 
patira mag-lore pene . imperoche satana non hebe auanti 
della sua chaduta niuno exempio da temere ne tampocho 
DIG li mando uenino proffeta ha inuitarlo ha penitenzza . 
ma lomo hora che tutti li proffeti sono uenuti b saluo il nontio 
di DIG il quale uenirra da poi di me perche chossi uolle DIG 
che io prepari la uia sua . he lomo d dicho con tutto che lui 
habbia inffiniti exempij della iusstitia di DIG uiue sichuro 
senza alchuno timore come si non ue fussi DIG . chome di talli 
disse il proffeta dauit ha deto il stolto nel suo cuore non 
uie DIG pero sono choroti he fati habomineuoli senzza fare 
bene alcuno . Fate oratione di continue ho disscepoli mei 
azioche riceuiate perche chi cercha troua . chi bate lie aperto x 
he chi dimanda riceue . he nella horatione non guardate al 
molto parllare perche DIG guarda e il chore f come disse per 
sallomone . ho seruo mio dame il chore tuo . io ui dicho in 

38 a uerita uiue | DIG g che li hipochriti f ano molta horatione per 2 
ogni locho della citta per essere ueduti he tenuti da santi 
dal uolgo . ma il chore loro he pieno di scellerita he pero 
non intendono quello che dimandano . el bisogna che tu 
intendi la tua oratione se tu uoi che DIG la riceua h . hora dite- 
mi chi anderebe ha parllare ha il preside romano houero 
da herode se prima lui no intendessi il chore suo . doue elgi 
ua he quello che lui ua ha fare niuno certo . he se chosi fa 
lomo per parllare con lomo che deue fare lomo per parllare 




jjju ,j\ oUlc 
MS. apertoto. * MS. pero. 



CONCERNING PRAYER 83 

XXXVI a. 

amazement | at the rebellion of the 37> 



angels. 

Then said Jesus : Verily I say unto you, that he who maketh 
not prayer is more wicked than Satan, and shall suffer greater 
torments. ^Because Satan had, before his fall, no example of 
fearimg, nor dioTGfod so much as send him any prophet to invite 
him to repentance : but mannow that all the prophets are come b 
except the messenger of God o who shall come after me, because so 
(Sod willeth, and that I may prepare his way^and man <*, I ga y, 
albeit he have infinite examples of the justice ofGod, liveth carelessly 
without any fear, as though there were no God. Even as of such 
spake the prophet David : " The fool hath said in his heart, there 
is no God. Therefore are they corrupt and become abominable, 
without one of them doing good 1 ." 

Make prayer unceasingly 2 , my disciples, in order that ye 
may receive. For he who seeketh findetlyand he who knocketh 
to him it is opened, and he who askethj-eceiveth. And in your 
prayer do not look to much speaking 3 , for God looketh on e the 
heart f4 ; as -he said through Solomon 5 : "O my servant, give me 
thine heart." Verily I say unto you, as God liveth , | the hypocrites 6 38 
make much prayer in every part of the city in order to be seen 
and held for saints by the multitude : but their heart is full of 
wickedness, and therefore they do not mean that which they ask. 
iFIs needful thatthou mean thy prayer if thou wilt that God 
receive it \ Now tell me : who would go to speak to the Roman 
governor or to Herod, except he first have made up his mind 7 to 
whom he is going, and what he is going to do ? Assuredly none. 
And if man doeth so in order to speak with man, what ought man 

a The Chapter of the forsaking of prayer. b All the prophets of 

God came before me except the Apostle of God who will come after me 
God sent me to declare him true, and to inform the people of his coming. 
Inde. c The Apostle of God. d and mankind. e God is seeing. 

f Do not multiply words in prayer, for God sees your hearts. * By 

God the living. h If you wish God to receive your prayer you must 

make known (or know) your prayer. Inde. 

1 Psa. xiv. i. 2 Cp. Matt. vii. 7, 8. s Cp. Matt. vi. 7. * i Sam. 
B Prov. xxiii. 26. 6 Cp. Matt. vi. 5. 7 Construction 

.awkward : text perhaps corrupt. 



O 2 



84 THE GOSPEL OF BAKNABAS 

con DIG he dimandarli missericordia di suoi pechati . con 
ringratiarlo di quanto lia donate a . io ui dicho in uerita che 
pochissimi fano uera oratione he pero satana ha potesta sopra 
di loro imperoche . DIG non uolle choloro che chon le labre 

10 honorano . li quali nel tempio dimanda le loro labri mis- 
serichordia he il chore chrida iusstitia b . sicome dice ha essaia 
prof eta dicendo leua uia quessto populo il qualle mie mollessto 
perche con le labre mi honorano ma il loro chuore he lontano 

38 b da me . io ui dicho in | uerita che cholui che ua fare horatione 
inconsideratamente che elgi burla DIG . hora chi andarebe ha 
parllare ha herode con le spale auanti he auanti di lui dices! 
bene di pillato preside il quale odia ha morte . certo niuno 
nondimeno lomo che ua ha fare oratione he non si prepara 
elgi uolgie le spalle ha DIG he la facia ha satana he dice 
bene di quello . perche nel chore suo uie lo am more delle 
iniquita delle quali non e pentito . se uno auendoti ingiuriato 
chon le labri te dicesi perdonami he con le mani ti donasi 
uno sciafo chome li perdonareste . chossi DIG hauera misseri- 
chordia di cholloro che chon le labre dichono signore abici 
missericordia he con il loro cuore ammano le inniquita he 
pensano ha pechati noui . 

xxxvnx 

Piangeuano li disscepoli per le parole di iessu . he il pre- 
gorno dicendo signore insegnaci ha fare horatione . Bisspose 
iessu considerate quello che fareste se il preside romano ui 
30a prendesse | per farui morire . he quello issteso fate quando 
andate fare oratione he le uosstre parole siano quesste . signore 
DIG nosstro sia santifichato il santo nome tuo, in noi uenga 

11 tuo reggno . sia sempre fato la uollonta tua he chome si 
fa in cielo chosi sia fata in terra d . donaci il pane per oggni 



CONCERNING PRAYER 85 

to do in order to speak with God, and ask of him mercy for his 
sins, while thanking him for all that he hath given him a 1 

Verily I say unto you, that very few make true prayer, and 
therefore Satan hath power over them, because God willeth not 
those who honour him with their lips : who in the temple ask 
[with] their lips for mercy, and their heart crieth Imt for justice b . 
EveF as he saitii^to Isaiah the prophetTsaying : " Take away this 
people that is irksome to me, because with their lips they honour 
me, but their heart is far from me l ." Verily I say unto you, | that 38 b 
he that goeth to make prayer without consideration mocketh 
God. 

Now who would go to speak to Herod with his back towards 
him 2 , and before him speak well of Pilate the governor, whom he 
hateth to the death 1 Assuredly none. Yet no less doth the man 
who goeth to make prayer and prepareth not himself. He turneth 
his back 3 to God and his face to Satan, and speaketh well of him. 
For in his heart is the love of iniquity, whereof he hath not 
repented. 

If one, having injured thee, should with his lips say to thee, 
" Forgive me," and with his hands should strike thee a blow, how 
wouldest thou forgive him 1 Even so shall God have mercy on 
those who with their lips say : " Lord, have mercy on us," and 
with their heart love iniquity and think on fresh sins. 

XXXVII c. 

The disciples wept at the words of Jesus and besought him, 
saying : Lord, teach us to make prayer V 

Jesus answered : Consider what ye would do if the Roman 
governor seized you | to put you to death, and that same do ye when 39 a 
ye go to make prayer. And let your words be these s : " O Lord 
our God, hallowed be thy holy name, thy kingdom come in us, thy will 
be done always, and as it is done in heaven so be it done in earth d ; 



a God bestows. b God desires not people who require grace from 

God in the temples with their mouth, while their hearts are calling for 
anger from God. Inde. c The Chapter of the prayer of Jesus (Lord s 

prayer). d God is sovereign. 



1 Isa. xxix. 13 and cp. Isa. i. 14 sqq. 2 Lit. with his shoulders in front. 

3 Lit. shoulders. * Luke xi. i. 5 See Matt. vi. 9-13. For traditional 
Mohammedan version of this prayer see Introduction. 



86 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

giorno * he perdonaci li nosstri pechati b si chome noi li per- 
doniamo ha cholloro che pechano contra di noi . he no ci 
lasciare chasscare nelle tentatione ma liberaci dal malle . perche 
tu sei sollo DIG nostro d al qualle si apartiene gloria he hono- 
nore per sempre . 

XXXVIII e. 

Bisspose ioane . ho maestro lassaremo noi di lauarsi chome 
comando DIG per mose . disse iessu pesate uoi chio sia uenuto 
per disstrugere la leggie he proffeti . io ui dicho in uerita 
uiue Dio 8 che io non son uenuto ha disstrugerla ma sibene 
ha osserualla perche ogni proffetta ha osseruato la leggie di 
DIG he quanto DIG per li altri proffeti ha deto f . viue DIG * 
allo quale pressenzza sta la anima mia che niuno | sciolgendo 
uno minimo precceto polle piacere ha DIG . anziche sera minimo 
nel regno di DIG perche non ui auera parte niuna immo ui 
dicho che una sillaba della leggie di DIG non si polle sciolgere 
senza grauissimo pechato . Ma ui hauertissco che il bissogna 
osseruare quello che DIG dice per essaia proffeta con quesste 
parolle . lauatiue he state mondi leuate li uosstri penssieri 
dalli hochij mei h . io ui dicho in uerrita che tutta la aqua 
dello mare non lauera cholui il qualle con il suo chuore amma 
le inniquita . he di piu ui dicho che niuno fara oratione grata 
ha DIG non sendo lauato ma agrauera lanima sua di pechato 
simille alia idollatria * . chredetimi certo che se lomo facessi 
oratione ha DIG chome si conuiene che elgi oteneria quanto 
dimandassi . Bacordatiue di mose seruo di DIG il qualle con 
la oratione flagello Io eggito apperse il mare rosso he iuui 



j]jj ill. 
Li Jl .x!j 

Lo U ^ iib JJJ Jyl U ^^ JU 
J ill 



ilb. h [?j 

^ ill Ju^C ^15 *^>j ^ Ij^C JLo 



THE PRAYER OF CHRIST 87 

give us the bread for every day a , and forgive us our sins b , as 
we forgive them that sin against us, and suffer us not to fall 
into temptations, but deliver us from evil c , for thou art alone our 
God d , to whom pertaineth glory and honour for ever. 

XXXVIII e. 

Then answered John: Master, let us wash ourselves as God 
commanded by Moses. 

Jesus said : Think * ye that I am 
" ^ 



the prophets ? Verily"! say^unto you, as God liveth g, I am not 
cp^e_Jp_d^troy_it,but rather to observe it. For every prophet 
hath observed the faw~of ~God~and all that God by the other 
prophets hath spoken f . As God liveth &, in whose presence my soul 
standeth, no one | that breaketh one least precept can be pleasing 
to God, but shall be least in the kingdom of God, for he shall 
have no part there. Moreover I say unto you, that one syllable of 
the law of God cannot be brok~en~wTfKout the gravest sin. But 
I do you~^ to wit That ~It is necessary to observe that which 
God saith by Isaiah 2 the prophet, with these words : " Wash 
you and be clean, take away your thoughts from mine 
eyes h ." 

Verily I say unto you, that all the water of the sea will not 
wash him who with his heart loveth iniquities. And furthermore 
I say unto you, that no one will make prayer pleasing to God if 
he be not washed, but will burden his soul with sin like to 
idolatry *. 

Believe me, in sooth, that if man should make prayer to God 
as is fitting, he would obtain all that he should ask. Remember 
Moses the servant of God, who with his prayer scourged Egypt, 



God provides. b God pardons. c God keeps. d Thou 

art one our God. " The Chapter of purity. f Said Jesus : 

Of a truth I say to you, by the living God I have not come to change 
the law, but to do the law, and thus all the prophets of God do it. Inde. 
8 By the living God. h Explanation of purity. Inde. Who 

soever intentionally prays without washing is accursed before God like 
an idolater. Inde. 



See Matt. v. 17-19. 3 Isa. i. 16. 



88 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

somerse faraone con lo exercito suo a . Racordative di iosue che 
fece fermare il solle; di samuel che fece spauentare lo in- 
40 a numerabile exercito di filistei . helia fece pioue|re il fuocho 
dal cielo . heliseo risuscito uno morto lie tanti altri proffeti 
santi li quali con la oratione quanto dimandauano oteneuano . 
Ma chostoro in uero non cerchauano loro nele chosse loro . ma 
sollo cerchauano DIG he lo honore suo . 

XXXIX b. 

Disse allora ioane, bene hai deto ho maesstro ma cj mancha 
di sapere chome pecho lomo per superbia . Risspose iessu : 
auendo DIG scaziato satana he gabriel angello puriffichato 
quella massa di terra doue satana haueua sputato . DIG chreo c 
ogni chossa che uiue si de animali che uollano chome quelli 
che chaminano he nuotano he adorno il monddo di quanto 
elgia . Vno giorno si apresso satana alle porte del parradisso 
he ueduto li chauali che manggiauano herba dinontio alloro 
che . se quella massa di terra riceuera hanima sarebe alloro 
graue traualgio he pero lo utille loro saria il chalpestrare 
quella terra per modo che non fusi piu bona da niente | . si 
destorno li chauali he con empito si possero per chorere sopra 
quella terra . la qualle giaceua fra gilgi he rose onde dete 
spirito DIG ha quella parte di terra inmonda sopra la quale 
staua il sputo di satana che gabrielo haueua leuato dalla 
massa . he suscito il chane il quale latrando riempitte li chauali 
di paura he fugirno . allora DIG dette la anima al homo d 
chantando tutti li angioli santi sia benedeto il santo nome 
tuo ho DIG signore nostro 6 . salito im piedi addamo uisste 
in haere una scrita rilucente chome il solle la quale diceua . uie 
sollo uno DIG he machometo he nontio di DIG f 8 onde aperse 
la bocha sua adamo he disse . io ti ringratio ho siggnore DIG e 



d ^\ il jOj*. e U U S JL, il. f il J^ jj^ il 51 fcj| 

il S Jl 

L. il 



THE FALL OF MAN 89 

opened the Red Sea, and there drowned Pharaoh and highest a 1 . 
Remember Toihua, who madeTtlie sun stand still 2 , Samuel, who 
^smote with fear the innumerable host of th~e .Philistines 3 , Elijah, who 
jnade the | fire to rain from heaven 4 ,~Elisha raised^ dead man B , and 4.0* 
so JB^Eg^JOoIjLiLrophets, who by prayer obtaineoTairtFaTthey 
asked. But those men truly did notTseek thelr~own~in their 
matterSjbut sought only Godjind his honour. 

XXXIX b. 

Then said John : Well hast thou spoken, master, but we lack 
to know how man sinned through pride. 

Jesus answered : When God had expelled Satan, and the angel 
Gabriel had purified that mass of earth whereon Satan spat, God 
created c everything that liveth, both of the animals that fly and of 
them that walk and swim, and he adorned the world with all that 
it hath. One day Satan approached unto the gates of paradise, 
and, seeing the horses eating grass, he announced to them that if 
that mass of earth should receive a soul there would be for them 
grievous labour ; and that therefore it would be to their advantage 
to tr^ple_that_p_iece of earth in such wise tftat it should be uo 
more good for anything. | T5e borses aroused themselves and 
impetuously set themselves to run over that piece of earth which 
lay among lilies and roses. Whereupon God gave spirit to that 
unclean portion of earth upon which lay the spittle of Satan, which 
Gabriel had taken up from the mass ; and raised up the dog, who, 
barking, filled the horses with fear, and they fled. Then God gave 
his soul to man d , while all the holy angels sang : " Blessed be thy 
holy name, O God our Lord e ." 

Adam, having sprung up upon his feet, saw in the air a writing 
that shone like the sun, which said : " There is only one God, and 
Mohammed 6 is the messenger of God f e." Whereupon Adam opened 
his mouth and said: "I thank thee, O Lord my God e , that thou 

a Account of the drowning of Pharaoh. b The Chapter of Adam. 

c God creates. d God created Adam. e God is sovereign. f There 
is no god but God, and Mohammed is the prophet of God. g Adam 

saw over the Garden a writing of light saying this sentence, There is no 
god but God, and Mohammed is the prophet of God. 




1 See Exod. xiv. xv. a See Josh. x. 12 sqq. 3 See i Sam. vii. 5 sqq. 
See i Kings xviii. 36 sqq. 5 See a Kings iv. 32 sqq. 6 Cp. i6 b , 

36 b : here first mentioned by name elsewhere 47", 57", 58 b , io3 b . 



90 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

mio che ti sei dignato chrearmi ma dimi ti preggo che chossa 
uole dinontiare quelle parolle . machometo nontio di Dio ab 
uie stato altri homeni auanti di me . allora disse DIG sia tu il 
benuenuto ho seruo mio addamo io ti dicho che tu sei il primo 
homo che io habia chreato . he quello che tu hai ueduto he 
tuo fiolo c il quale stara ha uenire al mondo per molti hamri 

41 a he sara nontio mio d per il qualle ho chrea | to ogni chossa . il 
quale dara luce al monddo quando uenira la chui anima he 
intuno splendore cellesste chollochata sesanta millia hanni 
auanti che io facesi chossa ueruna . prego adamo DIG dicendo 
signore concedime quello scrito sulle ongie deli mei dite 
delle mani . allora DIG dette al primo homo suli diti magiori 
quello scrito . sul dito dela ongia della mano destra diceua uie 
sollo uno Dio e he sulla ongia del dito sinisstro diceua; ma 
chometo he nontio di DIG f g . allora con affeto paterno basscio 
il primo homo quelle parolle he si frego li ochij he disse . 
sia benedeto quel giorno che uenirai al mondo . Vedendo DIG h 
lomo sollo disse non e bene che stia sollo pero feccello dormire 
he pressa una chossta da la parte del chore . riempiendo il 
locho di charne fece di quella chossta heua he detella ha 
addamo per sua conssorte . pose li ambi dui padroni del par- 
radisso alii qualli disse . hecho chio ui dono oggni fruto ha 
mangiare ecceto li pomi he il frumento delli quali disse . 
guardate che ha modo ueruno ne magiate di quessti fruti 1 
perche riuscirete inmondi talmente che io nom patiro il stare 

4lb uosstro quiui . | ma ui scaciero f uori he patirete grande miserie. 



* 4)1 

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L- 4)1 J^-"; 

4)1. 



THE FALL OF MAN 91 

hast deigned to create me ; but tell me, I pray thce, what meaneth 
the message of these words : " Mohammed is messenger of God a b ." 
Have there been other men before me ? " 

Then said God : " Be thou welcome, my servant Adam. 
I tell thee that thou art the first man whom I have created. And 
he whom thou hast seen [mentioned] is thy son c , who shall come 
into the world many years hence, and shall be my messenger d , for 
whom I have created | all things l ; who shall give light to the 41* 
world when he shall come 2 ; whose soul was set in a celestial 
splendour sixty thousand years before I made anything." 

Adam besought God, saying : " Lord, grant me this writing 
upon the nails of the fingers of my hands." Then God gave to 
the first man upon his thumbs that writing ; upon the thumb-nail 
of the right hand it said : " There is only one God e ," and upon the 
thumb-nail of the left it said : <( Mohammed is messenger of God f s." 
Then with fatherly affection the first man kissed those words, and 
rubbed his eyes, and said : " Blessed be that day when thou shalt 
come to the world." 

Seeing the man alone n , God said 3 : "It is not well that he 
should remain alone." Wherefore he made him to sleep, and took 
a rib from near his heart, filling the place with flesh. Of that rib 
"made he Eve, and gave her to Adam for his wife. He set the 
twain of them as lords of Paradise, to whom he said : " Behold 
I give unto you every fruit to eat 4 , except the apples and the corn " 
whereof he said : " Beware that in no wise ye eat of these fruits i, 
for ye shall become unclean, insomuch that I shall not suffer you 
to remain here, | but shall drive you forth, and ye shall ...suffer 41 b 
great miseries." 



Mohammed is the prophet of God. b And when the praise of 

God was ended, Adam asked : By Mohammed the Apostle of God, our 
Lord, who is this ? Inde. c God said : Adam, this shall be one of thy 
sons. When he cometh into the world he shall come as an Apostle from 
us. The creatures have been created on his account. Inde. d The 

prophet of God. e There is no god but God. f Mohammed is the 

prophet of God. 8 God placed in writing on the right thumb of Adam 
There is no god but God, and on the left thumb, Mohammed is the 
prophet of God. Inde. h God sees. And approach not a tree. 

Inde. 



1 Or through whom ; cp. John i. 3. * Cp. John i. g. 3 See Gen. 

ii. 18 sqq. * Cp. Gen. ii. 16, 17 ; for corn as forbidden fruit in 

Mohammedan tradition see Introduction. 



92 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

XL*. 

Auendo chonosciuto quessto satana si arabiaua di sdegno . 
onde si hachossto alia porta del paradisso alia quale staua 
in guardia uno horido serpente il qualle haueua le gambe 
chome chamello he le ongie di piedi tagliaua chome rasoro 
da ogni parte . al qualle disse lo innimicho lassaini hentrare 
nel paraddisso . Risspose il serpente he chome io ti lasciero 
hentrare hauendomi comandato DIG che io ti scaciase ; risspose 
satana . tu uedi quanto ti amma DIG posscia che tia possto 
fuori del paradisso per guarda di uno pezzo di fango quale 
he lomo . pero se tu mi porti nel parradisso io ti faro spauente- 
uolle talmente che ogniuno ti fugira he chossi al tuo piacere 
anderai he starai . Allorra disse il serpe he chome ti poro dentro . 
disse satana tu sei grande pero appri la bocha he io entrero 
nel tuo uentre he chossi hentrando tu im parradisso . tu mi 
42 a ponerai apresso quessti dui peci di fango | che chaminano 
nouamente sopra la terra . allora chosi fece il serpe he pose 
satana apresso heua per che addamo suo conssorte dormiua . 
si apresento satana alia dona chome uno bello angello he 
disseli . perche non mangiate di quelli pomi con il f ormento ; 
risspose heua . il nosstro DIG cia deto che mangiado di quelli 
saremo inmondi he pero ci scatiera dallo parradisso . Risspose 
satana il non dice il uero tu dei sapere che DIG he malligno 
he inuidiosso pero non uolle equalli ma ogniuno tiene per 
seruo . pero chosi uia deto azioche non diuentate equalli ha 
lui ma se tu he il tuo compagno farete al mio consilgio ma- 
giarete di quelli fruti chome deli altri . he non starete 
sogeti ad altri ma chome DIG chonoscerete il bene he il malle 
he farete quello che ui piacera perche sarete equalli ha DIG . 
Allora heua presse he mangio di quelli he desstato il conssorte 
li disse quanto li haueua deto satana il che prese di queli 
porgendoli la molgie . he mangio onde nel disscendere il cibo 
habasso si harecordo le parolle di DIG . onde uollendo im- 
pedire il cibo si posse la mano nella golla doue oggni homo 
haui il segno . | 



SATAN TEMPTETH EVE 93 

XL a. 

When Satan had knowledge of this he became mad with 
indignation. And so he drew near to the gate of paradise, whereat 
stood on guard a horrid serpent, which had legs like a camel, and 
the nails of his feet cut like a razor on every side. To him said 
the enemy : " Suffer me to enter into paradise." 

The serpent answered: "And how shall I suffer thee to enter, 
God having commanded me to drive thee out 1 " 

Satan answered : " Thou seest how much God loveth thee, 
since he hath set thee outside of paradise to keep guard over 
a lump of clay, which is man. Wherefore, if thou bring me into 
paradise I will make thee so terrible that every one shall flee thee, 
and so at thy pleasure thou shalt go and stay." 

Then said the serpent : " And how shall I set thee within 1 " 

Said Satan, " Thou art great ; therefore open thy mouth, and 
I will enter into thy belly, and so thou entering into paradise shalt 
place me near to those two lumps of clay | that are newly walking 42 a 
upon the earth." 

Then the serpent did so, and placed Satan near to Eve, for 
Adam, her husband, was sleeping. Satan presented himself before 
the woman like a beauteous angel, and said to her l : " Wherefore 
eat ye not of those apples and of corn ? " 

Eve answered : " Our God hath said to us that eating thereof 
we shall be unclean, and therefore he will drive us from paradise." 

Satan answered : " He saith not the truth. Thou must know 
that God is wicked and envious, and therefore he brooketh_no_ 
equals, but keepeth every one for a slave. And so heTath thus 
jupoken unto you, in orderjbhat_je mayliot Become equaTto ~hfmT~ 
But if thou anoTtEy companion do according to my counsel, ye shall 
eat of those fruits even as of the others, and ye shall not remain 
subject to others, but like God ye shall know good and evil, and 
ye shall do that which ye please, because ye shall be equal to God." 

Then Eve took 2 and ate of those [fruits], and when her 
husband awoke she told all that Satan had said ; and he took of 
them, his wife offering them, and did eat. Whereupon, as the food 
was going down, he remembered the words of God; wherefore, 
wishing to stop the food, he put his hand into his throat, where 
every^man has the mark. | J,^ 

Chapter of the deprivation of Adam. 



1 See Gen. iii. 2 sqq. a See Gen. ill. 6 sqq. 



94 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

XLI*. 

42 b Allora chonobero di essere nudi ambidui . onde uergo- 
gnandosi loro pressero folgie di ficho he si fecero alle parte 
sachrete uno uesstimento . passato il mezzogiorno hecho- 
ti DIG si scoperse he chiamo addamo dicendo addamo doue 
sei . Risspose lui signore io mi son asscoxo dalla presenzza tua 
perche io he la mia molgie siamo nudi he si uergogniamo 
di apresentarci auanti di te . disse allora DIG he chi uia 
spolgiati della inocenza se no il fruto che hauete mangiato 
per il quale sete inmondi he non potrete stare piu qui in 
paradisso . Risspose addamo ho signore la molgie che tu mi 
hai dato mia preggato ha mangiare he chosi ne o magiato . 
disse allora DIG alia dona perche dessti tal cibo al tuo conssorte . 
Bisspose heua satana mia inganata he chossi mangiai . he 
chome hentro quiui quello reprobo disse DIG . Risspose heua 
uno serpente che sta alia porta di tramontana il porto apresso 
di me . Allora disse DIG ha addamo perche tu ascoltasti la 

43 a uoce di tua molgie he mangiassti | il fruto sia malladeto 
la terra nelle oppere tui . la quale ti produra roue he spine 
onde nel sudore del tuo uisso mangerai il pane . he racordati 
che tu sei terra he in terra ritornerai; he parllo ha eua 
dicendo . he tu che ascoltasti satana he desti il cibo al tuo cons 
sorte starai sotto Fimperio del homo il quale ti tenira chome 
serua he partorirai li fioli con dollore . he chiamato il serpe 
DIG chiamo langelo micchaelle quello che tiene la spada di Dio b 
[he] disse . questo scellerato serpe scatia prima del paradisso 
he di fuori talgiali le gambe il quale si lui uora chaminare 
si strasini la uita per la terra . chiamo DIG dapoi satana c il 
quale uene ridendo he disseli perche tu reprobo hai inganato 
chostoro he li hai fato diuentare inmondi . io uolgio che ogni 
inmonditia loro he di tutti li loro fioli che con uerrita farano 
penitenzza he mi seruirano . nello usscire del chorpo loro 



ADAM AND EVE CONTEMNED 95 



JThen * bothjrf them knew that they were naked ; wherefore, 42 b 
being ashamed, they took fig leaves and made a clothing for their 
secret pai-TsT When midday was passed, behold God appeared to 
them, and called Adam, saying : " Adam, where art thou 1 " 

He answered : " Lord, I did hide myself from thy presence 
because I and my wife are naked, and so we are ashamed to present 
ourselves before thee." 

Then said God : "And who hath robbed you of your innocence, 
unless ye have eaten the fruit by reason of which ye are unclean, 
and will not be able to abide longer in paradise ? " 

* Ada5F"answere3 : "jOJ^oni^ the wife wjiomthou hast given me 
besought me to eat, and so I have eaten thereof" 

Then said Gbcl~to the woman : " Wherefore gavest thou such 
food to thy husband 1 " 

1 Eve answered : " Satan deceived me, and so I did eat." 

" And how did that reprobate enter in hither ? " said God. 

Eve answered : " A serpent that standeth at the northern gate 
brought him near to me." 

Then said God to Adam : " Because thou hast hearkened to the 
voice of thy wife and hast eaten | the fruit, cursed be the earth in 43* 
thy works ; it shall bring forth for thee brambles and thorns, and 
in the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread. And remember that 
thou art earth, and to earth shalt thou return." 

And he spake to Eve, saying : " And thou who didst hearken 
to Satan, and gavest the food to thy husband, shalt abide under 
the dominion of man, who shall keep thee as a slave, and thou 
IHalt bear "children with Travail." 

~~^\An3 having called the serpent, God called the angel Michael. 
him who holdeth the sword of God b , [and] said : " First drive forth 
from paradise this wicked serpent, and when outslde"cut off his 
^egsj^ Jor JiftiFTihalT wish to walk~7 he~must trail his body upon the" 
earth Afterwards God called Satan c, who came laughing, and 
"Ee~Bafd to him : " Because thou, reprobate, hast deceived these 
and hast made them to become unclean, I will that every unclean- 
ness of them and of all their children, whereof they shall be truly 
penitent and shall serve me, in going forth from their body shall 

a The Chapter of the punishment of Adam and Eve and of the serpent 
and Satan. b The sword of God. The curse of God be on 

Satan. This is the story. 

1 See Gen. iii. 7-19. 



96 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

hentri per la bocha tua he chosi serai satio de inmonditie . 
dete uno horibile rugito sata allora he disse posscia che tu 
uoi farm! sempre peggio faro hanchora me quello chio potro . 
43 b allora disse DIG partiti malladeto dalla pressenza mia | allora 
partissi satana onde DIG disse ha addamo [he] heua che ambi- 
dui piangeuano . andate fuori del paradisso he fate penitenzza 
he non si perdi la speranzza uosstra perche io mandero il 
uosstro fiollo . talmente che il seme uosstro leuera limperio 
ha satana dalla humana generatione . perche cholui che uenira 
nontio mio a li donero oggni chossa . asscondetesi DIG he langelo 
michaelle li scatio fuori del parradisso onde addamo riuolgen- 
dosi uiste scrito sopra la porta . uie sollo uno DIG he machometo 
he nontio di Dio b . onde piangendo disse piaci ha DIG ho 
filgiollo mio che tu uengi pressto ha chauarci di misseria . 
he chosi disse iessu pecho satana he addamo per superbia luno 
per sprezare lomo he laltro per uollersi fare equalle ha DIG . 

XLIIc. 

Piansero dapoi ha quessto ragionamento li discepoli he iessu 
piangeua . quando uedetero molti che il ueniuano ha trouare 
perche li 1 principi di sacerdoti fecero fra loro consilgio di 
44 a prenderlo nel parllare . onde | mandorno li leuiti he alchuni 
scribi ha interogarlo con dire chi sei tu . confeso iessu he disse 
la uerrita io no son il messia ; dissero loro, sei tu helia ouero 
hieremia ouero alcuno di proffeti antichi . Risspose iessu no . 
allora dissero loro chi sei dicillo azioche diamo tesstimonio 
ha cholloro che cia mandati . Disse allora iessu io son una 
uoce che chrida per tutta iudea che chrida . aparechiate la uia 
al nontio di Dio de sichome he scrito in esaia . dissero loro 




MS. il. 



MAN EXPELLED FEOM PAEADISE 97 

enterj:hrnugh thy_jgoutb, and so shalt thou be satiated with 
lincleannesses V 

Satan then gave a horrible roar, and said : " Since thou wiliest to 
make rue ever worse, I yet will make me that which I shall be able ! " 

Then said God : " Depart, cursed one, from my presence ! " 
Then Satan departed ; whereupon God said to Adam [and] Eve, 43 b 
who were both weeping: Go_jforthjrom paradise, and do 
^enance,_and_let_ not^your hope fail,_for I will send your son in 
sucITwise that^your seed shall lifVthe dominion of Satan from off 
tEe~Tiuman race: for he wTio shall come, my messenger a . to him 
wTITTgiveraltlhings. 1 " ~ 

~nj67rEfdTnmseTF, and the angel Michael drave them forth from 
paradise. Whereupon Adam, turning him round, saw written 
above the gate, " There is only one God, and Mohammed is messenger 
of God b." Whereupon, weeping, he said : "May it be pleasing to 
God, O my son, that thou come quickly and draw us out of misery." 

And thus, said Jesus, sinned Satan and Adam through pride, 
the one by despising man, the other by wishing to make himself 
equal with God. 

XLII c. 

Then the disciples wept after this discourse, and Jesus was 
weeping, when they saw many who came to find him, for the chiefs 
of the priests took counsel among themselves to catch him in his 
talk *. Wherefore | they sent the Levites and some of the scribes 
to question him 2 , saying : Who art thou ? 

^^us^confessed, and said the truth : I am not the Messiah. 44 a 

They said : Art thou Elijah or Jeremiah, or any of the ancient 
prophetsj 

Jesus answered :___* No. 



^ said they: Who art thou ? Say, in order that we may 

give testimony to those who sent us. 

Then said Jesus : I am a voice that crieth through all Judaea, 
and crieth : ^Prepare ve th^wavjnrthft messenger of the Lord <**," 
even as it is written in Esaias 3 . 



a His prophet. b Inde. There is no god but God, and Mohammed 

the prophet of God. Inde. c The Chapter of the Gospel. d The 

children of Israel asked Jesus, Who art thou? Jesus said: I am a 

voice that cries that they prepare the way of the prophet of God, for he 

shall come. Inde. The prophet of God. 

1 For the Spanish version of this passage see Introduction. 2 Cp. 

Mark xii. 13 ; Luke xi. 54. See John i. 19-27. 



98 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

se tu non sei il mesia ne helia ouero alchuno profeta perche 
predichi noua dotrina he ti fai tenire da piu del messia . 
Risspose iessu li miracholi che DIG fa per le mie mani dimoss- 
trano che io parllo quelo che uolle DIG ne pero mi fazo tenire 
da quello che uoi dite . perche io no son degno di sciolgere li 
leggami delle chalcie houero le choregie delle scarpe del 
nontio di Dio a il quale chiamate messia . il quale he fato 
auanti di me he uenira dapoi di me he portera le parolle 
di uerrita onde la fede sua non hauera fine b . Partironosi li 
leuiti he scribi confusi he rinontiorno il tutto alii principe 
44 b di sacerdoti li quali dissero el | gia il diauollo adosso il quale 
li rinontia il tutto . Allora disse iessu alii disscepoli suoi io 
ui dicho in uerita che li principi he uechij del populo nosstro 
ricerchano hochasione contra di me . disse allora pietro pero 
non andare piu in ierusaleme pero li disse iessu . tu sei stolto 
he non sai quello che tu parlli perche elgie neccesario che 

10 patissca perssecutione molte perche chosi hano patito tutti 

11 proffetij he santi di DIG . ma non temo perche sono chon 
noi he contra di noi he deto quessto iessu si parti he andosi 
al monte tabor doue ascendete con lui pietro iachobo he ioane 
suo fratello con cholui che scriue quessto . onde fato fu una 
grande luce sopra di lui he le uestimenti sue diuentorno chome 
neue biache he la facia sua rissplendeua chome il solle . 
he hecho che uenero moise he helia parllando chon iessu circha 
ha quanto doueua uenire sopra la gente nosstra he sopra 
la citta santa . parlo pietro dicendo siggnore elgie bono il 
stare quiui pero se tu uoi faremo quiui tre stantie . una per te 
una per mosse he laltra per helia he mentre parllaua furno 
choperti da una neuola biancha he sentirno una uoce dire . 



b u 

_A Ijui! (Jjl> 8-iJ.> t5Jl-X-> ,^- LS^^*"} (_S^* 



THE TRANSFIGURATION 99 

They said : If thou be not the Messiah nor Elijah, or any 
prophet, wherefore dost thou preach new doctrine, and make 
thyself of more account than the Messiah 1 

Jesus answered 1 : The miracles which God worketh by my 
hands show_thatl speak that which God_ willeth ; nor indeed do 
f make myself to be accounted as him of whom ye speak. For 
I am not worthy to unloose the ties of the hosen or the latchets of 
the shoes of the messenger of God a whom ye call " Messiah," who 
was made before me, and shall come after me, and shall bring the 
words of truth, so that his faith shall have no end b V 

The Levites and scribes departed in confusion, and recounted all 
to the chiefs of the priests, who said: He hath | the devil on his 44 a 
back who recounteth all to him. 

Then said Jesus to his disciples 3 : Verily I say unto you, that the 
chiefs and the elders of our people seek occasion against me/ 

Then said Peter : Therefore go not thou any more into 
Jerusalem. 

Therefore said Jesus unto him : Thou art foolish, and knowest 
not what thou sayest, for it is necessary that I should suffer many 
persecutions, because so have suffered alljthe prophets and holy 
ones of God. But fear not, for there be 4 that are with us" "and 
there be that are against us. 

And having said this, Jesus departed and went to the mount 
Tabor B , and there ascended with him Peter and James and John 
his brother, with him who writeth this. Whereupon there shone 
a great light above him, and his garments became white like_ / 
snow and his face_^is^ejied_ag_th.e_gun 1 _and lo! there came Moses (V . 
^and JtClijah speaking with Jesus concerning all that needs must 
come upon our race and upon the holy city^ 

T*eteT~spak~e~| saying : Lord, it is good to be here. Therefore, if 
thou wilt, we will make here three tabernacles, one for thee and 
one for Moses and the other for Elijah. And while he spake they 
were covered with a white cloud, and they heard a voice saying : 

The prophet of God. b Jesus said : It is not fitting for me that 

he [? I] should be a servant to (sic) the shoes of the prophet of God, for 
he was created before me and shall come after me, and his religion Avill 
remain for ever. Inde. 



1 Cp. John v. 36. 2 NB. Here, as in 87% 2o8 b , Mohammed is identified 
with Messiah ; in the Qoran Jesus is so called ; and in Barnabas also (3*) 
he is chiamato Christo. 3 ? cp. Matt. xvi. 22-23 5 Mark viii. 13-33. 

4 Cp. 2 Kings vi. 12 and (?) Matt. xii. 30. 5 See Matt. xvii. 1-7 and 

parallels. The specification of Tabor is however later than the Gospels. 

H 2 



100 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

45 a hecho il | senio mio nel quale mi sono chompiaciuto lui 
ascoltate . furno ripieni di paura li disscepoli he chasscorno 
con la facia sopra la terra chome morti . disscexe iessu he 
leuo li suoi disscepoli dicendo non temete perche DIG ui amma a 
he affato quessto azioche chrediate alle mie parolle . 

XLIIIb. 

Disscexe iessu alii otto disscepoli che abasso lo aspetauano . 
he naro li quatro alii otto quanto haueuano ueduto pero si 
parti quel giorno dal chore loro ogni dubio di iessu saluo iuda 
isscariot che niente chredeua . sentosi iessu apie del monte 
he mangiorno di fruti saluatici perche non haueuano pane . 
allora disse andrea tu ci hai deto molte chosse del messia pero 
di gratia dici chiaramente il tutto he il pregorno similmente 
li altri disscepoli . Disse iessu adonque ogniuno che opera 
elgi opera per uno fine nel quale se compiaze . pero ui dicho che 
DIG in uerita perche he perffetto non ha bissogno di com- 
piacimento essendo che in se steso si compiace . onde uollendo 
operare chreo auanti di ogni chossa la anima del nontio suo d per 
45 b il qualle J determine chreare il tutto e . anzioche prendessero 
le chreature in DIG letitia he beatitudine onde il nontio suo 
prendessi dilleto in tutte le sui chreature . le quali ha con- 
stituito serui suoi he perche quessto se no perche chosi elgia 
uoluto . io ui dicho in uerita che oggni proffeta quando he 
uenuto sollo ha una natione ha portato il charatere della 
misserichordia di DIG . pero non si esstendeuano li loro 
sermoni se non ha quello popullo che herano mandati . 
ma il nontio di DIG f quando elgi uenira DIG li dara g chome 
sigillo de la mano sua talmente che . elgi portera la salute 
he misserichordia ha tutte le natione del monddo che rice- 
uerano la sua dotrina . Elgi uera com potessta sopra li empij he 
disstrugera la iddolatria talmente che fara confuso satana 
imperoche . chosi promisse DIG ha abraham dicendo, echo che 



THE DOCTRINE OF THE MESSIAH 101 

Behold | my servant, in whom I am well pleased ; hear ye 45 a 
him. 

The disciples were filled with fear, and fell with their face upon 
the earth as dead. Jesus went down and raised up his disciples, 
saying : Fear not, for God loveth you a , and hath done this in order 
that ye may believe on my words. 

XLIII *>. 

Jesus went down to the eight disciples who were awaiting him 
below. And the four narrated l to the eight all that they had seen : 
and so there departed that day from their heart all doubt of Jesus, 
save [from] Judas Iscariot, who believed naught. Jesus seated 
himself at the foot of the mountain, and they ate of the wild 
fruits, because they had not bread. 

Then said Andrew : Thou hast told us many things of the 
Messiah, therefore of thy kindness tell us clearly all. And in like 
manner the other disciples besought him. 

Accordingly Jesus said : Everyone that worketh worketh for 
an end in which he findeth satisfaction. "Wherefore I say unto 
you that God, verily because he is perfect , hath not need of satis^ 
faction,_seeing that he hath satisfaction himself^ And so, willing 
to work, he created before all things the soul of his messenger d , for 
whom | he determined to create the whole 6 , in order that the 45b 
creatures should find joy and blessedness in God, whence his 
messenger should take delight in all his creatures, which he hath 
appointed to be his slaves. And wherefore is this so, save 
because thus he hath willed 1 

Verily I say unto you, that every prophet when he is come 
hath borne to one nation only the mark of the mercy of God. And 
scrtheir words were not extended save to that people to which they 
were sentT~EuI ^th~e~^essenger"of God^Twhen he"sh"air"come7 God 
shall give to hims as it were the seal of his hand, insomuch that he 
shall carry salvation and mercy to all the nations of the world 
that shall receive his doctrine. He shall come with power upon 
the ungodly, and shall destroy idolatry, insomuch that he shall 
make Satan confounded ; for so promised God to Abraham, saying : 

a God loveth. b This is the Chapter of the creation of the 

prophet of God. c God is perfect. d First of all God created 

the spirit of his prophet. e God arranges. f The prophet of God. 

6 God gives. 



1 Contrast Matt. xvii. 9. 



102 THE GOSPEL OF BAKNABAS 

m 
nel seme tuo benediro tutte le tribu della terra . he sichome 

spezasti li iddoli ho abraham chossi fara il seme tuo . 
Risspose iachobo ho maestro dici in chi e fato quessta pro- 
messa perche li iudaei dichono in ixach he li issmaeliti 
dichono in ismaele . Risspose iessu dauit de chie filgiolo 
he di qual stirpe . Risspose iachobo de ixach perche isach I 
46 a fu padre de iachob he iachob fu padre di iuda della chui 
stirpe he 1 dauit . allora disse iessu he il nontio di DIG* quando 
uenira de qualle stirpe uera elgi . Rissposero li disscepoli di 
dauit onde disse iessu uoi ue inganate perche dauit in spirito 
lo chiama signorre chosi dicendo . ha deto DIG al mio signore 
siedi alia mia destra insino chio pono li tuoi innimici scagno 
delli tuoi piedi . metera DIG la tua bacheta che signoregera 
in mezzo li tuoi innimicj . se il nontio di Dio a il quale chiamate 
messia b fusi fiolo di dauit chome dauit lo chiameria signore . 
chredetimi perche in uerita ui dicho che la promision fu fata 
in ismael he no in isach. 

XLIVc. 

Dissero adonque li dissepoli . ho maesstro elgie chossi 
scrito nel libro di mosse che in isach fu fata la promissione . 
Risspose iessu con gemito elgie scrito chosi ma pero non la 
scrito mosse ne iosue ma sibene li rabini d nostri che non temono 
DIG . io ui dicho in uerita che se uoi considerarete le parolle 
dello angello gabriel trouarete la malitia di nosstri scribi 
he dotori . imperoche disse langello, abraham tutto il monddo 
46 b conosejra chome DIG ti hamma 6 ma chome chonoscerail mondo 
lo ammore che tu porti ha DIG . certo che elgie necessario che 
tu facia qualche chossa per ammore di DIG . Risspose abraham 
hecho il seruo di DIG pronto affare tutto quello che uora DIG . 



1 MS.: ha. 



103 

" Behold, in thy seed I will bless all the tribes of the earth ^and 
at thou hast broken in pieces tlie idols ^ U Abraham, even so shall 
my" seed do." 

James answered : master, tell us in whom this promise was 
made ; for the Jews say^in Isaac/ and the Ishmaelites say " in 
Ishmael." 
" JesulTanswered : David, whose son was he, and of what lineage ? 

James answered : Of Isaac ; for Isaac | was father of Jacob, and 46* 
Jacob was father of Judah, of whose lineage is David. 

Then said Jesus 2 : And the messenger of God a when he shall 
come, of what lineage will he be 1 

The disciples answered : Of David. 

Whereupon Jesus said: Ye deceive yourselves; for David in 
spirit calleth him lord, saying thus 3 : "God said to my lord, sit 
thou on my right hand until I make thine enemies thy footstool. 
God shall send forth thy rod which shall havg_lordship_ m the midst 
of thine enemies." If the messenger of God a whom ye call Messiah b 
were son of David, how should David call him lord 1 Believe me, , . U 
for verily I say to you, that the promise was made in Ishmael, not r^ fr*-/ 

in Isaac. 

XLIVc. 

Thereupon said the disciples: ( O master, it is_th" w "t-faP in 
the book of Moses, that in Isaac was the promise madeV 
" Jesus answeredT^wttinTgroan : IFls~~scTwritten, but Moses 
wrote it not, nor Joshua, but rather our rabbins d , who fear not 
God 5 . Verily I say unto you, that if ye consider the words of the 
angel Gabriel, ye shall discover the malice of our scribes and doctors. 
For the angel said : " Abraham, all the world shall know | how 46 b 
God loveth thee e ; but how shall the world know the love that thou 
bearest to God 1 Assuredly it is necessary that thou do something 
for love of God." Abraham answered : " Behold the servant of 
God, ready to do all that which God shall will." 

* The prophet of God. b Prophet. This is the Chapter of 

Ahmed Mohammed, -the prophet of God. d The Jews change words 

after they have been composed, and afterwards the Christians in the 
same way change them in the Gospel. e God loveth. 

1 See above, 30*. a Cp. and contrast Matt. xxii. 41-5 and parallels. 
8 Ps. ex. i, 2. (N.B. ver. 2 is not quoted in the Gospels.) * Cp. Rom. 

ix. 7 ; Gal. iv. 23, 28, and Gen. xvii. 21. 5 For this accusation of 

falsification see also i6 b , 201% and on Ishmael as Child of Promise, also 
156, aoi b , 216". 



104 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

allora parllo DIG dicendo habraham pilgia il filgiolo tuo 
primogenito issmaele he uieni sopra il monte ha sachrificharlo* . 
chome he primogenito isach se quando naque isach ismaelle 
haueua sette hanni . allora dissero li dissepoli chiara he la 
bugia di nosstri dotori pero dici tu la uerita perche eho- 
nosciamo te essere mandate da Dio b . Risspose allora iessu 
io ui dicho in uerita que satana sempre cercha di scancellare 
la leggie di DIG he pero chon li suoi seguaci hipochriti he 
malfttori . li uni con falssa dotrina he li altri com pessima 
uita hogidi hano quasi il tutto contaminato per modo che 
apena si troua la uerita c . guai alii hipochriti perche le laudi 
di quessto modo seli convertira in ingiurie he tormenti nello 
inferno . io adonque ui dicho che il nontio di Dio d he uno 
spledore e f che dara allegrezza ha quasi tutto quello che ha 
fato DIG imperoche . elgie adornato de spirito de intelleto he di 
47 a consilgio . de spirito di sapienzza he fortezza | . de spirito 
de timore he ammore . de spirito de prudenzza he di tem- 
perie . elgie adornato de spirito di charita he missericordia . 
de spirito de iustitia he pieta . de spirito di mansuetudine he 
patienzza . il quaje ha riceuto da DIG tre uolte piu de quanto 
elgi a donate ha tutte le sui chreature g . ho beato tempo 
quando elgi uenira al monddo chredetimi chio Io ueduto he 
fatoli riuerenzza sichome ogni proffeta Io aueduto . essendo 
che del spirito suo DIG li dono la proffetia . he quando Io ho 
ueduto la anima mia si riempite di conssolatione dicendo . 
ho machometo h DIG sia co te il quale mi facia degno di 
sciolgere li tuoi chalciamenti . perche quessto otenendo saro 
grande prof eta he santo di DIG* he deto questo iessu resse 
le gratie ha DIG . 



4)1 

9 U L 

i 1 ^XUST 8 M 41)1. h J?sr* b. 



f 039 U LJ ^ ^* u>r *c U LJ 



SPIRITUAL ENDOWMENT OF MESSIAH 105 

Then spake God, saying to Abraham : " Take thy son *, thy 
firstborn Ishmael, and come up the mountain to sacrifice him a ." 
How is Isaac firstborn, if when Isaac was born Ishmael was seven 2 
years old 1 

Then said the disciples : Clear is the deception of our doctors : 
therefore tell us thou the truth, because we know that thou art 
sent from God V 

Then answered Jesus : Verily I say unto you, that Satan ever 
seeketh to annul the laws of God ; and therefore he with his fol 
lowers, hypocrites and evil-doers, the former with false doctrine, 
the latter with lewd living^ to-day have contaminated almost all_ 
things, so that scarcely is the truth found . Woe to the hypocrites ! 
for the praises of this world shall turn for them into insults and 
torments in hell. 

I therefore say unto you that the messenger of God d is a 
splendour e f 3 that shall give gladness to nearly all that God hath 
made, for he is adorned with 4 the spirit of understanding and of 
counsel, the spirit of wisdom and might, | the spirit of fear and 47 a 
love, the spirit of prudence and temperance ; he is adorned with 
the spirit of charity and mercy, the spirit of justice and piety, the 
spirit of gentleness and patience, which he hath received from 
God three times more than he hath given to all his creatures %. 

blessed time, when he shall corne to the world ! Believe me that 

1 have seen him and have done him reverence, even as every 
prophet hath seen him : seeing that of his spirit God giveth to 
them prophecy. And when I saw him my soul was filled with 
consolation, saying : " O Mohammed h 5 , God be with thee, and may 
he make me worthy to untie thy shoelatchet, for obtaining this I 
shall be a great prophet and holy one of God*/ 

And having said this, Jesus rendered his thanks to God. 



a Account of the sacrifice of Ishmael. b God sends. c The 

Jews change words after they have been composed, and afterwards 
the Christians in the same way change them in the Gospel. d The 

prophet of God. e Ahmed. In the Arabic tongue Ahmed, in the 
Amran (Hebrew) tongue Messia, in Latin Consolator, in Greek Paracletus. 
8 God bestows. h Mohammed ! Said Jesus : I have seen 

the prophet of God, and I cried and said, " Mohammed, if God permits 
me to serve your shoes I will be the greatest of the prophets." Inde. 



1 Cp. Gen. xxii. 2, and for Ishmael as sacrificed, see i2 b (p. 23, note 6). 
2 According to Gen. xvii. 25, he would be 14 years old. s Cp. io b , i6 b . 
* Cp. Isa. xi. 2. 5 Cp. note on 4o b . 



106 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

XLV*. 

Allora uene langelo gabrielo ha iessu . he li parllo in 
modo che hanchora noi sentiuamo la sua uoce il quale disse, 
leua ti he ua in ierussaleme . si parti adoque iessu he asscexe 
in ierussaleme onde il giorno del sabato hentro nel tempio 
he comincio ha amaestrare la gente . onde chonchorse il 

47 b popolo al tempio chon | il pontifice he sacerdoti li quali si 
hachosstorno ha iesu dicendo . ho maestro cie stato deto 
che tu dici malle di noi pero guarda che non ti auenga qualche 
malle . Risspose iessu io ui dicho in uerita chio dicho malle de 
li hipochriti pero se uoi sette hipochriti dicho contra di uoi b . 
R/issposero loro, chie hipochrita parllaci chiaro . Disse iessu, 
in uerita ui dicho che cholui il quale fa chossa bona azioche li 
homeni il ueda che elgie hipochrita imperoche . il suo hoperare 
nom penetra il chore il quale nom pole uedere li homeni he 
pero lasscia in quello ogni in monddo pensiero he ogni sporcha 
cocupiscienzza c . sapete chie hipochrita cholui che co la lingua 
serue DIG ma chon il chore serue li homeni . ho missero che 
morendo perde tutta la mercede sua d perche in cio dice dauit 
profeta . non ponete la uosstra fiducia im principi nelli noli 
di homeni nelli quali non he sallute . perche alia morte 
perisscono li suoi pensieri ; anziche auanti la morte si trouano 
priui di mercede . perche lomo he chome disse iob proffeta 
di DIG he instabile per modo che elggi non sta giamai intuno 
stato . per modo che se ogidi ti lauda dimani ti uitupera 

48 a he se ogidi ti uolle pre | miare dimani ti uora spolgiare . 
Guai alii hipochriti pero perche la loro mercede he uana d . 
Viue DIG e alia chui pressenza io sto che lo hipochrita he 
ladro he sachrileggio imperoche elgi si serue della leggie 
per parere bono . he roba lo honore di DIG al qual sollo si 
apartiene laude he honore im sempiterno . da piu ui dicho 



HYPOCRISY REBUKED 107 

XLV*. 

Then came the angel Gabriel to Jesus, and spake to him in such 
wise that we also heard his voice, which said : Arise, and go unto 
Jerusalem ! 

Accordingly Jesus departed and went up to Jerusalem. And 
on the sabbath day he entered into the temple, and began to teach 
the people. Whereupon the people ran together to the temple 
with | the high priest and priests, who drew nigh to Jesus, saying: 
; master, it hath been said to us that thou sayest evil of us ; 
therefore beware lest some evil befall thee. 

Jesus answered : Verily I say unto you, that I speak evil of 
the hypocrites; therefore if ye be hypocrites I speak against 
you V 

They answered : * JWho_is_ _a_hypocritej TjslJjusjslAinlyy 

Said Jesus : Verily I say to you, that he who doeth a good 
thing in order that men may see him, even he is a hypocrite, foras 
much as his work penetrateth not the heart which men cannot see, 
and so 1 leaveth therein every unclean thought and every filthy 
lust c . Know ye who is hypocrite 1 He who ^^h_hitong^_ e serveth 
God, but with his heart serveth men. wretched man ! for dying 
he loseth all his reward J . For on this matter saith the prophet 
David 2 : " Put not your confidence in princes, [nor] in the children 
of men, in whom is no salvation; for at death their thoughts 
perish " : nay, before death they find themselves deprived of 
reward, for " man is," as said Job the prophet of God 3 , " unstable, 
so that he never continueth in one stay." So that if to-day he 
praiseth thee, to-morrow he will abuse thee, and if to-day he 
willeth to reward thee, | to-morrow he will be fain to despoil thee. 
Woe, then, to the hypocrites, because their reward is vain d . As 
God liveth e , in whose pre> ence I stand, the hypocrite is a robber 
and committeth sacrilege, inasmuch as he maketh use of the law 
to appear good, and thieveth the honour of God, to whom alone 
pertaineth praise and honour for ever. 



The Chapter of the hypocrites. b Account of the hypocrite. 

c Verily the hypocrites are vile. Inde. d Verily the hypocrites do not 

know. Inde. e By God the living. 



1 Or, he leaveth. 2 Ps. cxlvi. 3, 4. 3 Cp. Job xiv. 2 b . 



108 THE GOSPEL OF BAENABAS 

che lo hipochrita non ha fede a imperoche se lui chredesse 
che DIG uede il tutto b he co tremedo iuditio punisse le 
scellerita . elgi purificharia il chore suo il quale perche 
non ha fede tiene pieno de inniquita c . io ue dicho in 
uerita che lo hipochrita he chome uno sepolchro il quale di 
fuori he biancho ma di dentro he pieno di fetore he uermi . 
se uoi addonque ho sacerdoti fate il seruitio di DIG perche 
DIG uia chreati d he uello chomanda nom parllo contra di uoi 
perche sete send di DIG . ma se uoi fate il tutto per uadagno 
he pero chomprate he uendette nel tempio chome intuna 
piazza no rissguardando . che il tempio di DIG he chassa 
di horatione he non di negotij la qualle conuertite in speloncha 
48 b di ladroni . se il tutto fate per piacere alii home|ni he messo 
hauete in obliuione DIG . chrido chontra di uoi che sette fioli 
del diauollo he non fioli di habbraham il qualle lascio la chasa 
di suo padre per ammore di DIG he uolsse amazare il propio 
filgiollo . guai ha uoi ho sacerdoti he dotori se uoi sete talli 
imperoche DIG ui leuera il sacerdotio . 

XLVIe. 

Di nouo parllo iessu dicendo . io ui propono uno exepio 
elgi fu uno padre di familgia il qualle pianto una uigna he li 
fece una siepe azioche non fussi chonchulchata da animali . 
he inmezzo ui fabricho uno torchulo per il uino onde la dete 
ha pissone ha agricholtori . onde uenuto il tempo di racholgere 
il uino mando li suoi serui li quali uedendo li agricholtori . 
alchuni lapidorno, alchuni abrugiorno he altri di cortelo uissero J 
he quessto molte uolte feccero . Ditemi che chossa fara il 
patrone della uigna sopra li agricholtori . Rissposero ogniuno 
mallamente li fara perire he la sua uigna dara ad altri 
agricholtori . pero disse iessu non sapete uoi che la uigna 
49 a he la chassa de issdraelle he li agricholto | ri sono il populo 



_J| 



See note 6 on opposite page. 



109 

Furthermore I say to you, that the hypocrite hath not faith a , 
forasmuch as if he believed that God seeth all b and with terrible 
judgement would punish wickedness, he would purify his heart, 
which, because he hath not faith, he keepeth full of iniquity c . Verily 
I say unto you, that the hypocrite is as a sepulchre \ that without 
is white, but within is full of corruption and worms. So then if 
ye, priests, do the service of God because God hath created you d 
and asketh it of you, I speak not against you, for ye are servants 
of God ; but if ye do all for gain, and so buy and sell in the 
temple as in a market-place, not "regarding tJmt^J;he_Jtemj:>]e_j)f 
God is a house of prayer and not of merchandise 2 , which ye con^_ 
vert into a cave of robbers 3 : if ye do all to please men, | and have 48 
God out oi your mind ; then cry I against you that ye are sons 




of the devil, and not sons of Abraham 4 , who left his father s 
house for love of God, and was willing to slay his own son. Woe 
unto you, priests and doctors, if ye be such, for God will take away 
from you the priesthood ! 

XLVI e. 

Again spake Jesus, saying 5 : I set before you an example. 
There was a householder who planted a vineyard, and made a 
hedge for it in order that it should not be trampled down of 
beasts. And in the midst of it he built a press for the wine, 
and thereupon let it out to husbandmen. Whereupon, when 
the time was corne to collect the wine he sent his servants ; whom 
when the husbandmen saw, they stoned some and burned some, 
and others they ripped open 6 with a knife. And this they did 
many times. Tell me, what will the lord of the vineyard do to 
the husbandmen? 

Every one answered : In evil wise will he make them to 
perish, arid his vineyard will he give to other husbandmen. 

Therefore said Jesus : Know ye not that the vineyard is the 
house of Israel, and the husbandmen | are the people of Judah and 49 " 1 



a Verily the hypocrites have no faith. Inde. b God regards every 

thing. Verily the hypocrites are iniquitous. Inde. d God creates. 
9 The Chapter of the Sabbath day. 



1 Matt, xxiii. 27. 2 Cp. John ii. 16. * Cp. Matt. xxi. 13 and 

parallels. 4 Cp. John viii. 33-44. 5 See Matt. xxi. 33-41 and 

parallels. 6 Rendering vissero as = viscerorno. 



110 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

di iudea he ierusalem . guai ha uoi perche DIG he adirato 3 
contra di uoi hauendo uisso tanti profeti di DIG per modo 
che al tempo di hachab non si trouaua chi sepellisero li santi 
di DIG . he deto quessto uoleuano prederlo li pontifici ma 
temetero la plebe la quale il magnifichaua . allora iessu 
uedendo una dona la quale dalla natiuita sua staua con il chapo 
inchinato uersso terra . disse lieua il chapo ho dona in nome 
de il nosstro DIG b azioche chonosscano chosstoro che io parllo la 
uerrita he che DIG uolle che io il nontij . allora si leuo la dona 
sana magnifichando DIG . chrido il principe di sacerdoti dicendo 
chosstui non e mandate da DIG il quale non chustodisse il 
sabbato che ogidi ha santo uno inffermo . Risspose iessu 
hora dimi non e licito parllare il giorno del sabato he fare 
horatione per la altrui salute . he qualle si troua di uoi 
che chascandoli il sabato lasino ouero il boue nella fosa non 
il chaui fuori il sabato certo che niuno . he io adonque 
hauero uiollato il giorno del sabbato per hauere dato sallute 
aduna fiolla de issdraelle certamente che quiui si chonossce 
la hipochrisia tua . ho quanti sono hogidi che temono una 
palgia nello altrui hochio che li perchuoti hauendo uno traue 
49 b che li troncha il chapo | ho quanti sono che temono una formicha 
ma no si churano di uno ellenfante . he deto quessto uscite del 
tempio ma li sacerdoti si rodeuano fra loro per nom potere 
pilgiarllo he fame la loro uollonta . sichome hano fato li 
padri loro chontra li santi di DIG . 

XL VII c. 

Disscexe iessu il secondo hano della sua profetia di 
ierussalem he andaua in nain . onde auicinandossi alia porta 
della citta hecho che portauano li citadini al sepolchro Io 
unicho fiollo di sua madre uedoua . sopra dela quale 
piangeua ogniuno onde ariuato hiuui iessu intessero li 
homeni chome iessu galileo proffeta ueniua pero si pdsero 



THE WIDOW S SON OF NAIN 111 

Jerusalem J ? Woe to you ; for God is wroth a with you, having 
ripped open 2 so many prophets of God ; so that at the time_qL 
Ahab there was not found one to bury the holy ones of God ! 

And wh"e"n~Ee had said this the chief priests wished to seize 
him, but they feared 3 the common people, which magnified him. 

Then Jesus, seeing a woman 4 who from her birth had remained 
with her head bent toward the ground, said: Eaise thy head, 
O woman, in the name of our God b , in order that these may know 
that I speak truth, and that he willeth that I announce it. 

Then the woman raised herself up whole, magnifying God. 

The chief of the priests cried out, saying : This man is not 
sent of God, seeing he keepeth not the sabbath; for today he 
hath healed an infirm person. 

Jesus answered : Now tell me, is it not lawful to speak on the 
sabbath day, and to make prayer for the salvation of others 1 
And who is there among you who, if on the sabbath his ass or his 
ox fell intojheditch 5 , would not pull him out on the sabbath 1 
Assuredly none. And shall I then have broken the sabbath day 
by having given health to a daughter of Israel ? Of a surety, 
here is known thy hypocrisy ! Oh, how many are there to-day 
that fear the smiting of a straw in another s eye, while a beam 6 is 
ready to cut off their own head ! | Oh, how many there are that 49 b 
fear an ant, but reck not of an elephant ! 

And having said this, he went forth from the temple. But the 
priests chafed with rage among themselves, because they were not .-. 
able_to_sfi7ft hi rr L_andjto work their_will upon. hjm^ey en, as their /Vv f 
fathers have done against the holy ones of God. -\*^ 

XLYIIc. 

Jesus went down, in the second year 7 of his prophetic ministry, 
from Jerusalem, and went to Nain. Whereupon, as he drew nigh 8 
to the gate of the city, the citizens were bearing to the sepulchre 
the only son of his mother, a widow, over whom every one was 
weeping. Whereupon, when Jesus had arrived, the men under 
stood how that Jesus, a prophet of Galilee, was come : and so 

* God is powerful. b With the permission of God. c The 

Chapter of he produces death out of the living (sic~) (Surah vi. 95). 

1 Cp. Isa, v. 7 (?). a Rendering visso as uiscerato. 3 Matt. xxi. 46. 
* See Luke xiii. 10-16. 5 Cp. Matt. xii. n. 6 Cp. Matt. vii. 4, 5 

(the text is somewhat obscure). 7 The whole ministry is regarded as 

of three years duration ; cp. 5o b . 8 See Luke vii. 12-16. 



112 THE GOSPEL OF BAKNABAS 

ha pregarllo per il morto . che lui essendo profetta il 
rissuscitase il che fecero hanchora li suoi dissepolj . allora 
iessu temete grandemente he uoltatosi ha DIG disse . leuami 
dal monddo ho signore perche il mondo he pazo he pressto 
mi chiamerano DIG he deto quessto elgi piangueua . allora 
uene langello gabrielo he disseli ho iessu non temere perche 
DIG tia dato a potesta sopra ogni inffermita talmente che . 
quanto concederai in nome di DIG b il tutto sera exequito . 
50 a in quessto | iessu dete uno sospiro dicendo sia fato la 
uollonta tua signore DIG omnipotente he misserichordiosso 
he deto quessto si auicino alia madre del morto he com 
pieta li disse dona nom piangere . he preso la mano del 
morto disse, io ti dicho ho giouine nel nome de DIG b lieuati 
su sano . allora risuscito il fanciulo onde si riepite de timore 
ogniuno dicendo DIG ha suscitato uno grande proffeta in noi 
he elgia uisitato il populo suo . 

XL VIII a. 

Si trouaua in quel tempo la millitia di romani nella 
iudea . per essere per li pechati di padri nosstri sudita ha 
loro la nosstra regione . onde haueuano chosstume li romani 
di chiamare DIG he addorare cholui che faceua una chossa 
noua di giouamento al chomune populo . pero ritrouandosi 
in naim di quessti soldati riprendeuano hora uno hora 
laltro dicendo . uno delli uosstri dij uia uissitato he uoi 
no ne fate chonto niuno certo che se li dei nosstri ci uissitasero 
noi li daressimo quanto habiamo . che potete uedere quanto 
temiamo li nosstri dei poscia che alle loro inmagini diamo 
50 b il melgio di quanto habiajmo . sollicito talmente satana 
quessto parllare che suscito nom pocha seditione nel populo 
di naim . Ma iessu non si fermo niente in nain ma si 
uolse per andare in chafarnau . la disscordia di nain ita 
hera che alchuni diceuano elgie il nosstro DIG che cia 



41)1. b 4)1 ib. c s.- -VJ 41)1. 



TUMULT AT NAIN 113 

they set themselves to beseech him for the dead man, that he 
being a prophet should raise him up; which also his disciples 
did. Then Jesus feared greatly ,^and turning himself to God, 
said : Takeme from the worki L _QLord ; for the world is mad, 
and they welhiighjiall me God ! . And having said this, he wept. 
Then came thlTangel Gabriel, and said : O Jesus, fear not, for 
God hath given thee a power over every infirmity, insomuch that 
all that thou shalt grant in the_najne__of_God bjhall be entirely 
Hereupon j Jesus gave a sigh, saying: l"hy 




^ 

be done, Lord God almighty and merciful ". And having said this, 
he drew near to the mother of the dead, and with pity said to 
her : Woman, weep not. And having taken the hand of the 
dead, he said : I say unto thee, young man, in the name of God b 
arise up healed ! 

Then the boy revived, whereupon all were filled with fear, 
saying : J3od hath raised up a great prophet amongst us, and he 
hath visited his people. 

XL VIII d. 

At that time the army of the Eomans was in Judaea, our 
country being subject to them for the sins of our forefattersT" 
1NW it was the~custom of the Romans to call god and to worship" 
him that did any new thing of benefit to the common people. 
And so [some] _ of these soldiers finding themselves in Nain, they 
rebuked now one, now another, saying : One of your gods hath 
visited you, and ye make no account of it. Assuredly if our gods 
should visit us we should give them all that we have. And ye see 
how much we fear our gods, since to their images we give the best 
of all we have. | Satan did so instigate this manner of speaking 50 h 
that he aroused no small sedition among the people of Nain. 
But Jesus tarried not at all in Nain, but turned to go into 
Capernaum. The discord of Nain was such that some said: 
He is our God who hath visited us ; others said : God is in- 

a God gives. b With the permission of God. c God is powerful 

and gracious. d The Chapter of the Magusi (Magi). 



1 The ascription of Divinity is said to have deferred his entry into 
Paradise (iig b ). He solemnly repudiates it before his disciples (55"), and 
the people ( 9 8 a ), and High Priest ^99") , and invokes a curse on those who 
shall put it in writing (s6 b , 219"). 



114 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

uissitato . altri diceuano DIG he inuissibile a per modo che 
niuno Io ha ueduto ne tampocho moisse amicho he seruo 
suo pero non e DIG ma sibene suo fiollo . Altri diceuano 
elgi non e DIG ne fiolo de DIG perche DIG non ha chorpo da 
generare ma elglie grande proffeta di DIG . he talmente 
sollicito satana che il terzo hano della profetia di iessu ne 
hera per nasscere grande roina nel populo nosstro . andosi 
iessu in chafarnau onde auendollo conosciuto li citadini con- 
gregorno quati inffermi haueuano . li quali posero dauanti 
del atrio doue iessu staua allogiato con li suoi discepoli . he 
chiamato iessu di fuori il preggorno per la sallute di loro . 
Allora iessu impose sopra di ogniuno le mani dicendo . 
DIG de issdraelle per il santo nome b tuo dona sallute ha 
quessto inffermo . onde ogniuno fu sanato . hentro il 
sabbato iessu nella sinagoga he iuui concorse tutto il populo 
61 a per | sentirlo ha parllare . 

XLIX c. 

II scriba quel giorno leggete il salmo dauiticho che dice 
dauit . quando pilgiaro tempo io iudicharo la iustitia . onde 
dapoi la letione di proffeti si leuo iessu he fece segno di 
silentio con mani he aperto la sua bocha disse chosi . fratelli 
hauete inteso le parolle che dauit proffeta padre nosstro dice . 
che quando hauera pilgiato tempo iudichera la iustitia . 

10 ui dicho in uerrita che molti iudichano nel quale iuditio 
chasscano loro . non per altro se non perche iudichano quello 
che alloro no si conuiene he quello che alloro conuiene iudi 
chano auanti il tepo . onde DIG di padri nostri ci chrida per 

11 profeta suo dauit dicendo . iusstamente iudichate ho fioli 
di homeni . miseri sono quelli adonque che si pongono sopra 
li angoli delle strade he altro no fano se non iudichare quanti 
passano dicendo . quello he bello quessto he bruto, quello he 
bono q3 to he trissto . guai ha chosstoro perche leuano il 

61 b sce|ptro di mano ha DIG del suo iuditio il quale dice io son 

GJ " il. b 



JESUS PREACHETH AT CAPERNAUM 115 

visible a , so that none hath seen him, not even Moses, his servant ; 
therefore it is not God, but rather his sou. Others said : He 
is not God, nor son of God, for God hath not a body to beget withal ; 
but he is a great prophet of God. 

And so did Satan instigate that, in the third year 1 of the 
prophetic ministry of Jesus, great ruin to our people was like to 
arise therefrom. 

Jesus went into Capernaum : whereupon the citizens, when they 
knew him, assembled together all the sick folk 2 they had, and 
placed them in front of the porch [of the house] where Jesus was 
lodging with his disciples. And having called Jesus forth, they 
^besought hrmjo^ttte_heajth\)fj;hem. Then JesuslaTcfhis hands " 
upon each of them, saying: God of Israel, by thy holy name b , 
give health to this sick person. Whereupon each one was 
healed. 

On the sabbath Jesus entered into the synagogue, and thither 
ran together all the people to | hear him speak. 51 a 



XLIX c. 

The scribe that day read the psalm of David, where saith 
avid 3 : JVhen^I shall find a time, I will judge uprightly/ Then, 
after the reading of the prophets, arose Jesus, and made sign of 
silence with his hands, and opening his mouth he spake thus : 
Brethren, ye have heard the words spoken by David the prophet, 
our father, that when he should have found a time he would judge 
uprightly. I tell you in truth that many judge, in which judgement 
they fall for no other reason than because they judge that which 
is not meet for them, and that which is meet for them they judge 
before the time. "Wherefore the God of our fathers crieth to us 
by his prophet David, saying : Justly judge, O sons of men 4 . 
Miserable therefore are those who set themselves at street corners, 
and do nothing but judge all those who pass by, saying : "That 
^nejs_ftur,_this_one_is ugly, that one is goodjbhis one is bad/ 
Woe unto them, because~they JifTthe sceptre | of his judgement 51 1 

a God is not perceived by the eyes (Surah vi. 103"). b God the child 
of Israel with His permission (sic). <= The Chapter of the judgement. 



1 See note on 49 b . See Mark i. 32-4 and parallels. 3 Ps. Ixxv. a. 
* Ps. Iviii. 16. 



I 2 



116 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

tesstimonio he iudice a he lonore mio non lo daro ha niuno . io 
ui dicho in uerrita che chosstoro tesstifichano di quello che non 
hano ueduto he uero 1 udito he iudichano senza essere con- 
stituiti iudicj . pero sono habomineuoli sopra la terra hauanti 
li hochij di DIG il quale dara tremendo iuditio sopra di loro 
lultimo giorno . guai a uoi guai ha uoi che dite bene al malle 
he chiamate il malle bene perche condanate per reo DIG il 
quale he autore della bonta he iustifichate per bono satana 
il quale he origine di ogni malle . considerate qualle pena 
hauerete uoi hai 2 che elgie horibile chasscare nel iuditio di Dio b . 
che sera poi di quelli che iustifichano lo empio per danari he 
li pupili he uedoe non iudichano . in uerita ui dicho che 
tremerano li diauoli sopra del loro iuditio tanto sera spa- 
uenteuole . Tu homo che sei posto per iudice non guardare 
ha chossa ueruna . non ha parenti he ammicj . non ha 
honore he uadagno . ma sollo guarda con timore di DIG alia 
52 a uerita la qualle ricercherai chon soma | dilligenzza perche 
essa ti hasicurera nello iuditio di DIG b . Ma ti hauertissco che 
senzza missericordia sera iudichato cholui che iudicha senza 
missericordia . 

LC. 

Dimi ho homo tu che iudichi laltro homo non sai che tutti 
li homeni di uno fango hano hauto horigine . hora non sai che 
niuno he bono se non sollo DIG d hode ogni homo he bugiardo 
he pechatore . chredimi homo che 3 se tu iudichi altri di 
uno pechato il chore tuo ha chossa da essere iudichata . ho 
quanto he perichollosso il iudichare ho quanti sono periti per 
il loro falsso iuditio . iudicho satana lomo per piu uille di lui 
pero si ribelo ha DIG suo chreatore e . honde he impenitente 
chome ho chonosciuto parllando io chon lui . iudicho li nosstri 
primi parenti essere bono il parllare di satana pero furno 
scaziati fuori del parradisso he condanorno tutta la loro pro- 



4)1. b 4)1 

51. e JJlb. 4)1. 



1 So MS. : possibly we should read ho uero ( = owero). a So MS. 

conj. he. * MS. : che che (sic). 



CONCERNING JUDGEMENT 117 

from the hand of God, who saith : u I am witness and judge a , and 
my honour I will give to none." Verily I tell you that these 
testify of that which they have not seen nor really heard, and 
judge without having been constituted judges. Therefore are they 
abominable on the earth before the eyes of God, who will pass 
tremendous judgement upon them in the last day. Woe to you, 
woe to you who speak good of the evil, and call the evil good 1 , for 
ye condemn as a malefactor God, who is the author of good, and 
justify as good Satan, who is the origin of all evil. Consider what 
punishment ye shall have, and that it is horrible to fall into the 
judgement of God b , which shall be then upon those who justify the 
wicked for money, and judge not the cause of the orphans and 
widows 2 . Verily I say unto you, that the devils shall trenibia_ai 
the judgement of such, soterrible shallit be. Thou man who art 
set as a judge, regard no other thing ; neither kinsfolk nor friends, 
neither honour nor gain, but look solely with fear of God to the 
truth, which thou shalt seek with greatest~]~dillgence, because it 52" 
will secure thee in the judgement of God b . But I warn thee 
that without mercy shall he be judged who judgeth without 
mercy. 



Tell me, man, thou that judgest another man 3 , dost thou not 
know that all men had their origin in the same clay 1 Dost thou 
not know that none is good save God alone d 4 1 wherefore every man 
is a liar and a sinner *. Believe me, man, that if thou judge others 
oF~a~fault thine own heart hath wjiereof to be judgedT~~On7"iimv 

"^dangerous it is to judge ! oh, how many have perished by their 
false judgement ! Satan judged man to be more vile_than himselfj_ 
therefore^ he rebefled_ agams^GQd, .Jiia, .creator e : whereof he is 

3mpemtent, as I have knowledge by speaking with him. Our first 
parents judged the speech of Satan to be good, therefore they were 
cast out of paradise, and condemned all their progeny. Verily I "say""" 



a God the witness, God the lawgiver. b God judges. c Th<> 

Chapter of the oppressors. d There is none good save God. e God 

creates. 



1 Isa. v. 20. z Cp. Isa. i. 23. 3 Cp. Rom. ii. i. * Cp. 

Luke xviii. 19. 5 Cp. Rom. iii. 4. 



118 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

genie . io ui dicho in uerita chosi uiue DIG a alia chui pressenzza 

10 sto che il falsso iuditio he padre di tutti li pechati b im- 
52 b peroche . niu|no pecha senza uollonta he niuno nolle quello 

che non chonosce . Guai al pechatore adonque che con il 
iuditio sue iudicha il pechato per degno he il bene per indegno 
che pero . riproba il bene he il pechato elleggie certamente che 
sostenira pena intollerabile quando DIO uenira ha iudichare il 
monddo ho quanti sono periti per il falso iuditio he quanti 
sono stati uicino al perire . Faraone iudicho per empio mosse 
he il populo de issdraele . saulo iudicho dauit per degno di 
morte . Achab iudicho helia . nabuchdonoxor li tre fanciuli 
che non uolsero addorare li loro dei bugiardi . li dui uechij 
iudichorno susana he tutti li principi iddolatri iudichorno li 
proffetti . ho tremendo iuditio di DIO peri il iudice ha saluosi 

11 iudichato . he perche ho homo quessto se no perche [in] 
inchonsideratione mallamente iuddichorno li innocentj . Quanto 
poi si auicinorno alia roina li boni per iudichare malle Io 
dimostra li fratelli di iosef che il uendetero alii egitij . haron 
he maria sorella di mose che iudichorno il fratelo . tre amici 

53 a di iob iudichorno Io innocente amicho | di DIO iob . Dauit 
iudicho misfiboset he uria . ciro iudicho daniele per cibo di 
leoni he tanti altri li quali furno uicini alia roina loro per 
quessto . pero ui dicho non iudichate he non sarete iudichati he 
quiui finite iessu il suo parllare onde molti si conuertirno ha 
penitenzza . piangendo li loro pechati he uolleuano abandonare 
ogni chossa per andare chon lui . Ma iessu disse state in chasa 
uosstra he abandonate il pechato he seruite DIO chon timore 
he chosi sarete salui . perche no son uenuto ha riceuere 
seruitu ma sibene ha seruire he deto qssto uscite della 
sinagoga he della citta he retirosi al disserto per fare 
horatione . perche elgi hamaua forte la sollitudine . 



CONCERNING JUDGEMENT 119 

unto you, as God liveth a in whoae presence I stand^false judgement 
is the fatner~oTalTsTns *>. Forasmuch as none | sinneth without will, 52 b 
and none willeth that which he doth not know. Woe, therefore, to the 
sinner who with his judgement judgeth sin worthy and goodness .^- 
unworthy, who on that account rejecteth goodness and chooseth \t\ 
sin. Assuredly he shall bear an intolerable punishment when God t J ( ^< 
shall come to judge tjie ^vorld. Oh, h o w~many have perished 
through false judgement, and how many have been nigh to 
perishing ! Pharaoh l judged Moses and the people of Israel to be 
impious. Saul 2 judged David tobe worthy of death. Ahab 3 - 
judged Elijah, Nebuchadnezzar 4 the three~c1riMrerrwho would not 
worship their lying gods. The two elders judged Susanna 5 , and 
all the idolatrous princes judged the prophets. Oh, tremendous 
judgement of God ! the judge perisheth, the judged is saved. 
And wherefore this, O man, if not because [in] rashness they 
falsely judge the innocent 1 How nearly then the good approached 
to ruin by judging falsely, is shown by the brethren of Joseph, who 
sold him ; to the Egyptians, by Aaron and Miriam 7 , sister of Moses, 
who judged their brother. Three friends of Job 8 judged the 
innocent friend | of God, Job. David judged Mephibosheth a and 53* 
U riah 10 ~! Cyrus 11 judged Daniel to be meat for the lions ; and many 
others, thlTwhich were nigh to TEeTF~ruin for this. Therefore 



I say to you, Judge not and ye shall not be judged c 12 . And 
Jesus having finished his speech, many forthwiET~were converted 
to repentance, bewailing their sins ; and they would fain__h,ajre., 
forsaken all to go with him. But jesus said : Kemain in your 
Tiomes, and forsake sin and serve God with fear, and thus_shall 
""ye be saved; because 1 am not come to receive service, but rather 



And having said thus, he went out of the synagogue and the 
city, and retired into the desert to pray, because he loved solitude 
reath 



By God the living. b By the living God, evil judgement is the 

mother of forbidden things. Inde. Whoever does not deliver judge 

ment against another, will not be condemned by others. 



1 Cp. Exod. v. 8. 2 Cp. i Sam, xviii. 9, &o. 3 Cp. i Kings xviii. 17, 
* Cp. Dan. iii. 19. * Susanna 34 sqq. Cp. Gen. xxxvii. 27. 

7 Cp. Num. xii. i sqq. In the text Maria. N.B. the Qoran seems to 
confuse Moses sister with the B.V.M. * Job iv sqq. 9 2 Sam. xvi. 4. 

10 Cp. a Sam. xi. 15. u Cp. Dan. vi. 16 (Darius). l2 Matt. vii. i. 

11 Cp. Matt. xx. 28. 



120 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

LT a . 

Quando elgi hebe horato al signore . se li auicinorno li 
suoi disscepoli he dissero ho maesstro dui chosse desideriamo 
sapere . luna he chome tu parllassti con satana che pero dici 
lui non hauere penitenzza . laltra he chome uenira DIO ha 
iudichare il giorno del iuditio . Risspose iessu io ui dicho 
53 b in uerita che io | ebi compasione ha satana sapendo la sua 
chaduta et hebi compasione alia humana generatione la quale 
lui sollicita hal pechare . pero feci horatione he digiuno ha 
DIO nosstro il quale mi disse per langelo suo gabriele . che 
chossa cerchi ho iessu he qualle he la tua dimandda . Rissposi 
io, signore tu sai di quanto malle he chagione satana onde per 
le tentationi sui molti perisscono . elgie chreatura tua signore 
il quale tu chreasti pero signore habilli missericordia . Ris 
spose DIO ho iessu hecho che io li uolgio perdonare fa pure che 
lui dicha . signore DIO mio ho pechato habimi misserichordia 
che li perdonaro he ritornero al suo primo stato . mi allegrai 
forte disse iessu quessto sentendo chredendo di hauere fato 
quessta pace . pero chiamai satana il quale uene dicendo 
che chossa debo fare per te ho iessu . Rissposi io farai per 
te ho satana perche non hamo la seruitu tua ma ti ho 
chiamato per il bene tuo . Risspose satana he se tu non 
uoi il mio seruitio ne ne me uolgio il tuo perche son piu 
nobile di te pero non sei degno di seruirmi tu che sei 
fango he io son spirito . lasciamo quessto disse io he dimi 
54 a non saria bene che tu | ritornasi nella tua prima bellezza 
he al tuo primo stato . tu dei sapere che langelo michaele 
ti deue percuotere il giorno del iuditio chon la spada di DIO b 
cento millia uolte . he ogni perchossa ti dara penna per dieci 
infferni . Risspose satana la uederemo chi potra piu quello 
giorno certo chio hauero tanti angioli he iddolatri potentissimi 
in mio fauore che la fara male Dio 1 he chonosscera quanto 
herrore elgi abia fato ha scaciarmi per uno uille fango . dissi 
io allora ho satana elgie inffermo il tuo intelleto pero tu non 



1 So MS. : perhaps we should read faranno male a DIO. 



JESUS HATH PITY OX SATAX 121 

LI a. 

When he had prayed to the Lord, his disciples came to him and 
said : master, two things we would know ; one is, how thou 
talkedst with Satan, who nevertheless thou sayest is impenitent ; 
the other is, how God shall come to judge in the day of judgement. 
Jesus replied : Verily I say unto you I had compassion on Satan, 53 1} 
knowing his fall ; and I had compassion on mankind whom he 
tempteth Jjojiin, Therefore I prayed and fasted to our God, who 
spake to me by his angel Gabriel : " What seekest thou, Jesus, 
and what is thy request 1 " I answered : " Lord, thou knowest of 
what evil Satan is the cause, and that through his temptations 
many perish ; he is thy creature, Lord, whom thou didst create ; 
therefore, Lord, have mercy upon him." 

God answered : " Jesus, behold I will pardon him. Only cause 
him to say, Lord, my God, I have sinned, have mercy upon me, 
and I will pardon him and restore him to his first state." 

I rejoiced greatly/ said Jesus, when I heard this, believing 
that I had made this peace. Therefore I called Satan, who came, 
saying : " What must I do for thee, Jesus 1 " 

I answered : " Thou shalt do it for thyself, Satan, for I love 
not thy services, but for thy good have I called thee." 

Satan replied : " If thou desirest not my services, neither desire 
I thine ; for I am nobler than thou, therefore thou art not worthy 
to serve me thou who art clay, while I am spirit." 

1 Let us leave this, I said, and tell me if it were not well thou | 
shouldst return to thy first beauty and thy first state. Thou 54* 
must know that the angel Michael must needs on the day of 
judgement strike thee with the sword of God b one hundred 
thousand times, and each blow will give thee the pain of 
ten hells. 

Satan replied : " We shall see in that day who can do most ; 
certainly I shall have on my side many angels and most potent 
idolaters who will trouble God 1 , and he shall know how great 
a mistake he made to banish me for the sake of a vile [piece of] 
clay." 

Then I said : "0 Satan, thou art infirm in mind, and knowest 
not what thou sayest." 



a The Chapter of Satan without repentance. . b The sword of God. 



Construction obscure. 



122 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

chonosci quello che tu parlli . allora satana per modo di scerno 
scorlaua il chapo dicendo hor su faciamo quessta pace fra me 
he DIG he che chosa si deue fare dicilo tu ho iessu perche tu 
hai lintelleto sano . Rissposi io dui parolle solle deuesi dire . 
Risspose satana qualli parole . Rissposi io quesste io ho 
pechato abbimi missericordia . Disse satana allora hor uol- 
lentieri faro quessta pace pure che DIG dicha ha me queste 
parolle . hora partiti da me dissi ho malladeto perche tu sei 
scellerato autore di ogni iniustitia he pechato ma DIG he iussto 
senza pechato ueruno a . partisi satana stridendo he disse hel 
64 13 non e chosi ho ies| su ma dici la bugia per fare piacere ha 
DIG . hora considerate disse iessu alii suoi dissepoli chome 
elgi ritrouera misserichordia . Rissposero loro giamai signore 
perche elgie impenitente . parllaci hora dello iuditio di DIG . 



II giorno del iuditio di DIG sara tanto tremendo ui dicho in 
uerita . che li reprobi ellegerebono dieci infferni piu pressto 
che andarui ha sentire parllare chotra di loro DIG adirato . 
chontra deli qualli testincherano ogni chossa chreata . in 
uerita ui dicho che non sollo temerano li reprobi ma li santi 
he elleti di DIG temerano in modo che abraham non si fidera 
della sua iusstitia . he iob non si confidera nella sua inocenza 
he che sto dire . temera il nontio di DIG d imperoche DIG e per 
fare chonosscere la maessta sua leuera di memoria al nontio 
suo f . doue elgi non si harecordera chome DIG li a donato oggni 
chossa . io ui dicho in uerita che parllando io il chore mi 
trema perche saro chiamato DIG dal mondo he pero bissognera 
55 a che io ne renda ragione . Viue DIG g alia | chui pressenza sta la 
anima mia che io son homo mortale chome sono li altri 
homeni . che se bene DIG mia chonstituito sopra la chassa 
de issdraelle proffeta per sallute de inffermi he choretione 
di pechatori . io son seruo di Dio h che pero uoi sarete 



ill. b A 

d ill Jj^. Jjfcj ill. 

8 a. 4lU. h SJU ill J^C Ljl 



SATAN S IMPENITENCE 123 

Then Satan, in a derisive manner, wagged his head, saying : 
" Come now, let us make up this peace between me and God ; 
and what must be done say thou, O Jesus, since thou art sound in 
mind." 

I answered : " Two words only need be spoken." 

Satan replied : " What words 1 " 

I answered : " These : I hav sinned ; have mercy on me." 

Said Satan then : " Now willingly will I make this peace if 
God will say these words to me." 

" Now depart from me," I said, " O cursed one, for thou art the 
wicked author of all injustice and sin, but God is just and without 
any sin a ." 

Satan departed shrieking, and said : " It is not so, O Jesus, | but 
thou tellest a lie to please God." 

Now consider, 7 said Jesus to his disciples, how he will find 
mercy. 

They answered : Never, Lord, because he is impenitent. Speak 
to us now of the judgement of God. 



The judgement day of God will be so dreadful that, verily 

I say unto you, J]i_rejDrobates would sooner choose ten Jiells than_ 
go to hear God speak m^wTattTligainst them C 7 Against whom 
all things created will witness. Verily I say unto you, that not 
alone shall the reprobates fear, but the saints and the elect of 
God, so that Abraham shall not trust in his righteousness, and 
Job shall have no confidence in his innocency. And what say 

I 1 ^Even the messenger of God d shall fear, for that God e , 

to make known his majesty, shall Deprive his messenger f of / ^ 
memory, so that he shall have no remembrance_how that God 
hath given him all things. Verily I say unto you that, speaking 
from the heart, I trembleTecause by the world I shall be called 
*, and for this I shall have to render an account. As 



God liveth s, | in whose presence my soul standeth, I am a mortal 55* 
man as other men are, for although God has placed me as 
prophet over the house of Israel for the health of the feeble and 
the correction of sinners, I am the servant of God h , and of this ye 

a God is just, -without sin. b The Chapter of the resurrection. 

c God is victorious. d The prophet of God. * God [?] f His prophet. 
B By the living God. h Said Jesus, I am the servant of God. Inde. 

1 Cp. 10" and note, 50* and note. 



124 THE GOSPEL OF BAKNABAS 

tesstimonij di quanto dicho chontra li scellerati che dapoi 
della mia partita dal monddo . loro scanccellerano la uerita 
dallo euangelio mio per operatione di satana . ma ritornero 
apresso alia fine he con me uenira henoche he hellia onde 
tisstificharemo chontra li empij il chui fine sera in malla- 
ditione . he lachrimo iessu deto quessto onde piansero chon 
strepito li dissepoli di iessu he leuorno le uoci sui dicendo . 
perdona signore DIG he abi misserichordia sopra la innocenza 
del seruo tuo . Risspose iessu amen amen . 



Auanti che uenga quel giorno disse iessu . precederano 
roine grandi nel monddo imperoche uenira guere chosi chru- 
delle senza pieta per modo che il padre ammazzera il fiolo 
55 b he il fiolo ammazera il padre | per le partialita di populj . 
honde sera dissabitato le citta he possto in disserto le regioni . 
Venira chossi fate pesstilentie ehe non si trouerano chi portj 
li morti ha sepellire per modo che resterano per cibo de 
animalj . ha quelli che ressterano sopra la terra DIG dara 
chosi fata sterillita che sera apretiato il pane piu del horo 
honde mangerasi ogni inmonditia . ho missero secholo nel 
quale no si sentira quasi niuno che dicha io ho pechato habici 
missericordia Dio b ma con horibile uoei bestemierano cholui 
che he gloriosso he benedeto in etterno . dapoi di quessto 
uicino ha quel giorno per quindeci giorni uenira ogni giorno 

i uno segno horibile sopra li habitanti in terra . imperoche il 
primo giorno uenira il solle per i suo ehorsso del cielo senza 
uerruno splendore ma nero chome tentura da panni . he dara 

r gemiti chome padre che ingemisse il fiollo uicino ha morte . 
il secondo giorno la luna si conuertira in sangue he chome 

r rugiada uenira sangue in terra . il terzo giorno le stelle sarano 

uedutte ha pugnare f ralloro chome uno exercito de innimicj . 

56 a f il quarto giorno le pietre he sasi si perchoterano | luno laltro 

6 chome chrudeli innimici . il quinto giorno ogni pianta he erba 

i lachrimera sangue . il sessto giorno risurgera il mare non si 



SIGNS OF THE JUDGEMENT DAY 125 

are witnesses, how I speak against those wicked men who after 
my departure from the world shall annul the truth of my gospel 
by the operation of Satan l . But I shall return towards the end, /) 
and with me shall come Enoch and_JBlijah^_and_we will testif^__vt 



against_thj^jv7ckjd, whose end shall be accursed. Ancf having 
tnus spoken, Jesus shed tears, whereat his disciples wept aloud, 
and lifted their voices, saying : Pardon, O Lord God, and 
have mercy on thy innocent servant. Jesus answered : Amen, 
Amen. 

LIII a. 



( great destruction z 
shall come up_on the world, for there shallbeTwar so cruel and 

^^tllessJjiaJL the father shall slagjjie son, an3~T;hiri3on_j;hail ^lay_ 
the fatherj by reason of the factions of peoples. Wherefore the 
cities shall be annihilated, and the country shall become desert. 
Such pestilences shall come that none shall be found to bear the^ 
dead to buriaL_sojthat they shall be left_asfood for beasts. To 
those who remain upon the earth God shall send such scarcity 
that bread shall be vajued^ajjove gold, and "tEey~sTiaTPeat all 
manner of unclean things. O miserable age, Tri which scarce any 
She shall be heard to say : "I have sinned, have mercy on me, 
God " b ; but with horrible voices they shall blaspheme him who 
is glorious and blessed for ever. After this, as that day draweth., 
nigh, for fifteen days, shall come every day a horrible sign over the 
Tnhabitan s"oF the earth. The first day the sun shall run its course_ 

*m heaveFwithout ligh^jul^blaairas the dye of cloth ; and it shall 



give groans, as a father who groaneth for a son nigh tcTdeath. 
The second day the moon shairBirTurireJ into blood, and blood 



shTall ^ome jlpon" tEe earth like dew. The third day the stars 
shairbe seen to fight among themselves like an~armv ot enemies." 
The fourth day the stones and rocks shall dash Against | each other 56 a 
as cruel enemies. The fifth day every plant and herb shall weep 
blood. The sixth day the sea shall rise without leaving its place 



The Chapter of the resurrection. b God gives. 



1 Cp. 3 a , 23i b . 2 Cp. Matt. xxiv. 6-31 and parallels. The references 
to the Judgement in the Qoran have not much in common with Barnabas: 
see Introduction. 



126 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

partendo dal locho suo per alteza di cento he cinquanta chubiti 

v he staraui tutto il giorno chome uno muro . il setimo giorno 

andera altretanto habasso per modo che apena si potra uedere . 

A lotauo giorno si congregherano li ucellj he li animalli terresti 

s he di aqua apresso luno di laltro he darano rugiti he pianti . il 

nono giorno uenira una grandine chossi horibile che ucidera 

talmente che hapena scampera la decima di quanto uiue . 

i . il decimo giorno uenira chosi horibili f ulgori he tuoni che 

1 1 spezerano he abrugerano la terza parte delj monti . lo un- 

decimo giorno ogni fiume chorera alia riuersa he chorera 

t r sangue he non aqua . il duodecimo giorno ogni chossa chreata 

i r gemera he piangera . il terzodecimo giorno si uolgera il 

ciello chome uno libro he piouera f uocho talmente che morira 

i f ogni chossa uiua . il quartodecimo giorno si fara uno teremoto 

chossi horibile che le cime di monti uollerano per lo haere 

i e> chome ucelj he si fara piana tuta la terra . il quintodecimo 

56 b giorno morirano li an 1 gioli santi he resstera sollo uiuo DIG a 

al quale sia honore he gloria . he deto quessto iessu si per- 

ehose la facia con anbe le mani he dapoi perchose la terra 

con il chapo . he hauendo leuato il chapo disse, sia malladeto 

oggniuno che nelle mie parolle ui metera chio sia fiollo di DIO . 

alle chui parolle chasscorno trarmortiti li disscepoli onde iessu 

li leuo dicendo . temiamo hora DIO se no uolgiamo quel giorno 

spauentarssi . 



Passati quessti segni . starasi quaranta hani tenebre sopra 
il monddo uiuendo sollo DIO c al quale sia honore he gloria in 
heterno . passati li quaranta hanni dara DIO la uita al nontio 
suo il quale risurgera chome il solle ma rissplendente per mille 
solli . il qualle sedera he nom parllera perche stara chome 
fuori di sse . Risuscitera DIO li quatro angioli da DIO fauoriti 
li qualli ricercherano il nontio di DIO d he uedutollo si ponerano 
per quatro parte del locho ha risguardarlo . dapoi dara DIO 
la uitta ha tutti li ang-ioli li qualli chome appe uenirano in- 
torno per circuito dello nontio di DIO . dapoi dara DIO la 



SIGNS OF THE JUDGEMENT DAY 127 

to the heigh , of one hundred and fifty cubits, and shall stand all 
(lay like a wall. The seventh day it shall on the contrary sink so 
low as scarcely" to be seen. The eighth day the birds and the 

"animals of the earth" an5 of the water shall gather themselves 
close together, and shall give forth roars and cries. The ninth 
day there shall be a hailstorm so horrible that it shall kill in 
such wise that scarcely the tenth part of the living shall escape. 
The tenth day shall come such horrible lightning and thunder..,, 
that the third part of the mountains shall be split and scorched. 

The eleventh day every river shallrun backwards, and shall run 
"blood and not water. The twelfth day every created thing shall 

"groan and cry. The tETrteenTh day the heaven shall be rolled 
up like a book, and itshall rain fire, so that every living thing 
shall die. The fourteenth day there shall be an earthquake so 
horrible that the tops of the mountains shall fly through the air 
like birds, and all the earth shall become a plain. The fifteenth 
day the holy angels shall die, | and God alone shall remain alive a ; 56 b 
to whom be honour and glory. 

And having said this, Jesus smote his face with both his hands, 
and then smote the ground with his head. And having raised his 
head, he said : ^Cursed be every one who shall insert into my_ 
sayings that I am the son of God V At these words the disciples 

*lell down as dead, whereupon Jesus lifted them up, saying : |_Let / 
us fear God now, if we would not be affrighted in that day/ 



When these signs be passed, there shall be darkness over the^ 
wOrld forty years, God alone being alive^jto whom be honour and 
glo ry for__e_xex. When the forty years be passed, God shall give 
"Kfeto his messenger, who shall rise again like the sun, but 
resplendent as a thousand suns. He shall sit, and shall not speak, 
for he shall be as it were beside himself. God shall raise again 
the four angels favoured of God 2 , who shall seek the messenger 
of God d , and, having found him, shall station themselves on the 
four sides of the place to keep watch upon him. Next shall 
God give life to all the angels, who shall come like bees circling 
round the messenger of God. Next shall God give life to all his 

a God evcrliving. b The Chapter of the resurrection. c God 

everlasting. d The prophet of God. 

1 Cp. 219 and note on 49 b . 3 i.e. Gabriel, Michael, Rafael, and 

Uriel, see 228". 



128 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

57 a uitta ha tutti li projfeti suoi li quali seguendo addamo 
anderano ogniuno ha basiare la mano allo nontio di Dio a 
rachomandadosi ha lui . Dara dapoi DIG la uitta ad ogni elleto 
li qualli chriderano ho machometo b harecordati di noi . Alle 
cui uoci si desstera la pieta nello nontio di Dio a he pensera 
quello che deue fare temendo la loro salute . Dapoi dara 
DIG la uita c ad ogni chossa chreata he ritornerano al suo essere 
saluo che depiu ogniuno hauerano la uoce . Dapoi dara 
DIG la uita ha tutti li reprobi al chui risurgere per la loro 
brutezza si spauentera ogni chreatura de DIG . he chriderano 
non ci habandoni la misserichordia tua ho DIG signore d 
nosstro . Dapoi di quessto fara DIG risuscitare satana al chui 
asspeto ogni chreatura per timore stara chome morta per la 
horida forma che apresentera . Piacia ha DIG disse iessu 
che io non ueda quel giorno talle mosstro . sollo il nontio 
di DIG a non riceuera timore di chotali figure perche elgi sollo 
temera DIG e . allora langelo alia chui tronbeta sonando sarano 
tutti risuscitati risonera la tronbeta dicendo . Venite al iuditio 
ho chreature perche il uosstro chreatore ui uolle iudichare . 

57 b Apparera nel mezzo del cielo sopra la j ualle di iosafat una 
sedia rilucente sopra la qual uenira una neuola biancha . onde 
chriderano li angioli, sia benedeto te DIG nosstro che ci 
chreassti he saluassti dalla chaduta di satana . allora il nontio 
di DIG a temera imperoche chonosscera che niuno ha ammato 
Dio e quanto si conuiene perche cholui che uolle richambiare 
uno denaro di horo li bissogna sesanta minuti . onde non 
hauendo se non sollo uno minuto non il polle chambiare . Ma se 
temera il nontio di DIG a che chossa farano li empij che sono 
pieni di schelerita . 

LV f . 

Anderasi il nontio di DIG ha racholgere tutti li profeti . 
alii quali parllera he preggera che uadinb insieme chon 
lui ha pregare DIG per li fideli . onde ogniuno si scuxera per 



Jill . b jj^-* b. c aj^ 4)1. (1 lkJL, 



& 



_ u v 

"li f T ^11 i" . 



OF THE DAY OF JUDGEMENT 129 

prophets, j who, following Adam, shall go every one to kiss the hand 57 a 
of the messenger of God a , committing themselves to his protection. 
Next shall God give life to all the elect, who shall cry out : " 
Mohammed b , be mindful of us ! " At whose cries pity shall awake in 
the messenger of God a , and he shall consider what he ought to do, 
fearing for their salvation. Next shall God give life c to every 
created thing, and they shall return to their former existence, but 
every one shall besides possess the power of speech. Next shall 
God give life to all the reprobates, at whose resurrection, by 
reason of their hideousness, all the creatures of God shall be 
afraid, and shall cry : " Let not thy mercy forsake us, O Lord our 
God d ." After this shall God cause Satan to be raised up, at whose 
aspect every creature shall be as dead, for fear of the horrid form 
of his appearance. May it please God, said Jesus, that I behold 
not that monster on that day. The messenger of God a alone 
shall not be affrighted by such shapes, because he shall fear 
God e only. 

Then the angel, at the sound of whose trumpet 1 all shall be raised, 
shall sound his trumpet again, saying: "Come to the judgement, 
O creatures, for your Creator willeth to judge you." Then shall 
appear in the midst of heaven over the | valley of Jehoshaphat 2 a 5?h 
glittering throne 3 , over which shall come a white cloud, where 
upon the angels shall cry out : " Blessed be thou our God, who 
hast created us, and saved us from the fall of Satan." Then the 
messenger of God a shall fear, for that he shall perceive that none 
hath loved God e as he should. For he who would get in change 
a piece of gold must have sixty mites; wherefore, if he have 
but one mite he cannot change it. But if the messenger of 
God a shall fear, what shall the ungodly do who are full of 
wickedness ? 



The messenger of God shall go to collect all the prophets, to 
whom he shanspeak, praying them to go with him to pray God 
jForThTTaitnfuL And every one shall excuse himself for fear ; nor^ 



The prophet of God. b Mohammed ! c God gives. 

d God is sovereign. God is your Lord. f The Chapter of the 
resurrection. 

1 Cp. i Cor. xv. 53. * Cp. Joel iii. a and 12. s Rev. xx. n. 

Rxaa K 



130 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

timore ; viue DIG a chio no ui andaria chonosscendo quello chio 
chonossco . Allora uededo quessto DIG dara in memoria al 
nontio suo b chome che ogni chossa elgia chreato per ammore 
suo . per la qual chossa se li partira il timore he chon ammore 
he riuerenzza andera appresso alia sede chantando li angioli . 

58 a sia benedeto il tuo panto nome ho DIG | nosstro. Apressatosi 
alia sede DIG si scoprira al nontio suo b chome lo amicho si scopre 
allo amicho quando per spazio di longo tempo non si ano 
tieduto . Parlera prima il nontio di DIG c dicendo, io te adoro 
he hamo ho DIG mio he con tutta la anima mia he chuore 
mio ti ringratio . che tu ti sei dignato chrearmi per tuo seruo 
onde facessti il tutto per ammore mio azioche io ti ammasi 
per ogni chossa in ogni chossa he sopra ogni chossa . che 
pero ti ringratij ogni tua chreatura ho DIG mio pero allora 
ogni chossa chreata da DIG dirano . Gratie ti rendiamo signore 
he benediciamo il tuo santo nome . in questo tempo ui dicho 
in uerita che li demonij he li reprobi chon satana piangerano 
talmente che dalli hochij di loro uno uscira piu aqua che non 
ha il fiume giordano . he non uederano hanchora DIG . parllera 
DIG al nontio suo b dicendo tu sei il beneuenuto ho fidele seruo 
mio pero dimanda quanto uoi perche il tutto hotenerai . 
"Risspondera il nontio di DIG c ho signore io mi harecordo che 
tu dicessti quando mi chreassti che tu uolleui far per amore 
mio . il paradisso he il monddo li angiolli he li homeni azioche 

58 b per me seruo tuo ti glorifi|chasero . ho signore DIG mis- 
serichordiosso he iussto d pero ti preggo che ti harechordi della 
promessa fata ha me seruo tuo . Risspondera DIG chome uno 
hamioho che burli chon lo hamicho he dira hai tesstimonij 
di quessto ho amicho mio machometo e . Allora con riuerenza 
dira si signore . Risspondera DIG ua chiamali ho gabrielo . 
Venira langelo gabrielo dal nontio di DIG c he dira signore quali 
sono li tuoi tesstimonij . Risspondera il nontio di mo c sono 
addamo, abraham issmaele moise dauit he iessu fiolo di maria . 



e ill 




MOHAMMED AT THE JUDGEMENT 131 

as God liveth a , would I go there, knowing what I know. Then God, 
seeing this, shall remind his messenger *> how he created all things 
for love of him, and so his fear shall leave him, and he shall go 
nigh unto the throne with love and reverence, while the angels 
sing : " Blessed be thy holy name, O God, our God." | 

And when he hath drawn nigh unto the throne, God shall open 58 a 
[his mind] unto his messenger *>, even as a friend * unto a friend,, 

when for a long while they have not met. The first to speak shall 

1 _ K CL " I - i . 

DC the messenger of God c , who shall say : " I adore and love thee, 
O my God, and with all my heart and soul I give thee thanks for 
that thou didst vouchsafe to create me to be thy servant, and 
madest all for love of me, so that I might love thee for all things 
and in all things and above all things ; therefore let all thy crea 
tures praise thee, O my God." Then all things created by God 
shall say : " "We give thee thanks, Lord, and bless thy holy 
name." Verily I say unto you, the demons and reprobates with 
Satan shall then weep so that more water shall flow from the eyes 
of one of them than is in the river of Jordan. Yet shall they not 
see God. 

And God shall speak unto his messenger 15 , saying: " Thgajgtrt^ 
welcome, O myfoithfulservant ; therefore ask what thou wilt, for 
"tnou shahfobtain all." The messenger of God c shall answer : " 
~L~ord, I remember that when thou didst create me, thou saidst that 
thou hadst willed to make for love of me the world and paradise, 
and angels and men, that they might glorify thee by me thy 
servant. | Therefore, Lord God, merciful and just d , I pray thee that 5S b 
thou recollect thy promise made unto thy servant." 

And God shall make answer even as a friend who jesteth with a 
friend, and shall say : " Hast thou witnesses of this, my friend 
Mohammed ? e " And with reverence he shall say: " Yes, Lord." 
Then God shall answer : " Go, call them, Gabriel." The angel 
Gabriel shall come to the messenger of God c , and shall say : " Lord, 
who are thy witnesses ? " The messenger of God c shall answer : 
" They are Adam, Abraham, Ishmael, Moses, David, and Jesus son 
of Mary." 



* By the living God. b His prophet. c The prophet of God. 

d God the King (Sultan), gracious and wise. e Mohammed friend 

of God. 



1 Cp. Exod. xxxiii. n. 

K 2 



132 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

andera langelo allora he chiamera li sopradeti li qualli con 
timore ui anderano . Apresentatosi loro dirra DIG ui rachordate 
uoi di quello che dice il nontio mio . Rissponderano loro che 
chossa signore . Dira DIO che io habia fato il tutto per ammore 
suo azioche tutti per lui mi laudassero . Risspondera ogniuno 
con noi uie tre testimonij milgiori di noi signore * . Risspondera 
allora DIO qualli sono quessti tre tesstimonij . dira allora 
moisse elgie il libro che mi donassti il primo . Risspondera 
dauit il secondo he il libro che tu mi dessti . Dira allora quello 
che parlla b signore tutto il mondo inganato da satana diceua 
60 a me essere tuo filgiolo he tuo chompagno ma il libro che J tu 
mi dessti chome he uero che io son seruo tuo . he di quanto 
dice il nontio tuo c chonf essa il libro che mi donassti . allora 
parllera il nontio di Dio d he dira chosi dice il libro che tu 
mi dessti signore . deto quessto il nontio di DIO d parllera DIO 
dicendo quanto hora ho fato io Io ho fato azioche ogniuno 
chonossca quanto ti ammo . he deto quessto dara DIO uno 
libro al nontio suo e nel qualle sono scriti tutti li elleti di DIO f . 
onde ogni chreatura farano riuerenzza ha DIO dicendo sollo 
ha te DIO nosstro sia laude he honore perche ci hai donati 
al nontio tuo . 

LVI*. 

Aprira il libro DIO in mano del nontio suo . he il nontio 
suo legendo chiamera tutti li angioli he proffeti he tutti li 
elleti sopra il chui fronte di ogniuno sara scrito la fede del 
nontio di Dio h . he nel libro sera scrito la gloria del parra- 
disso onde ogniuno anderano alia desstra di DIO . Apresso 
il quale sedera il nontio suo he li proffeti senterano apresso 
di lui he li santi senterano apresso li proffeti he li beati 




MOHAMMED AT THE JUDGEMENT 133 

Then shall the angel depart, and he shall call the aforesaid 
witnesses, who with fear shall go thither. And when they are 
present God shall say unto them : " Remember ye that which my 
messenger affirmeth 1 " They shall reply : " What thing, O Lord] " 
God shall say : " That I have made all things for love of him, so 
that all things might praise me by him." Then every one of them 
shall answer : " There are with us three witnesses better than we are, 
Lord a ." And God shall reply : " Who are these three witnesses?" 
Then Moses shall say : " The book that thou gavest to me is the 
first " ; and David shall sny : " The book that^thou gavest to me 
is the second"; and he who speaketh to you shall say b : "Lord, the 
""whole world, deceived by Satan, said that I was thy son and thy 
fellow, but the book that | thou gavest me said truly that I am 59 a 
thy servant ; and that book confesseth that which thy messenger c 
affirmeth." Then shall the messenger of God d speak, and shall 
say : " Thus saith the book that thou gavest me, O Lord." And 
when the messenger of God d hath said this, God shall speak, saying: 
" All that I have now done, I liave done in order that every one 
should know how much I love thee." And when he hath thus 
spoken, God shall give unto his messenger 6 a book, in which are 
written all the names of the elect of God f . Wherefore every 
creature shall do reverence to God, saying : " To thee alone, 
O God, be glory and honour, because thou hast given us to thy 
messenger c." 

LVI e. 

God shall open the book in the hand of his messenger, and 
his messenger reading therein shall call all the angels and 
prophets and all the elect, and on the forehead l of each one 
shall be written the mark of the messenger of God \ And in 
the book shall be written the glory of paradise. 

Then shall each pass to the right hand 2 of God ; next to whom 
shall sit the messenger of God, and the prophets shall sit near 
him, and the saints shall sit near the prophets, and the blessed 



* The book of Moses and the book of David and the book of Jesus the 
son of Mary, on him be peace. b In the resurrection, mentioned. 

c Thy prophet. d The prophet of God. e His prophet. f At 

the resurrection there is mention of the book. Mohammed, peace be on 
him. g The Chapter of the resurrection. h On the day of the 

resurrection all the faithful shall be raised ; on their forehead there shall 
be written with light the religion of the prophet of God. Inde. 



Cf. Rev. vii. 3 ; ix. 4. 8 Cf. Matt. xxv. 33. 



134 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

apresso li santi ondde langelo sonera la tronbeta he chiamera 
sata in iuditio . | 

LVII a . 

Venira il missero he sara chon somo hobrobio hachussato 
da tutte le chreature . onde chiamera DIG langelo michaelle 
il qualle cento millia uolte il perchotera con la spada di Dio b 
perchotera sata he ogni perchossa he per dieci infferni graue . 
onde sera il primo scatiato nello habisso . chiamera langelo 
li seguaci suoi li quali sarano similmete oltragiati he hacussati 
onde langelo michael per comissione di DIG . chi cento, chi 
cinquanta, chi uenti, chi dieci he chi cinque uolte perchotera 
he dapoi disscenderano nello habisso . imperoche DIG dira 
ha loro, lo infferno he stantia uosstra ho malladeti . Dapoi 
chiamerasi al iuditio tutti li inchreduli he reprobi contra de 
li qualli si leuerano in prima tutte le chreature inferiori al 
homo . tesstando auuanti di DIG chome hano seruito chosstoro 
he chome chostoro hano oltragiato DIG he le chreature sui . 
he li proffeti ogniuno si leuera tesstando chontra di loro 
60 a onde sarano da DIG chonda [ nati alle inf ernali fiame . io ui 
dicho in uerita che non passera una parolla ne uno pensiero 
hotioso seza punitione quel giorno tremendo . Vi dicho in 
uerita che il cillicio risplendera chome il solle he ogni pidochio 
che per ammore di DIG hauera lomo soportato si conuertira in 
margarite . ho beati per tre he quatro uolte li poueri li qualli 
chon uera pouerta hauerano di chore seruito DIG imperoche . 
in quessto monddo sono priui di traualgio mondano honde 
di molti pechati sarano liberi he quello giorno . non hauerano 
da rendere chonto chome hano spesso le richezze del monddo 
ma serano premiati della loro patienzza he pouerta . io ui 
dicho in uerita che se il mondo chonosescie quessto lui piu 
pressto ellegeria il cillicio che la porpora li pidochij che 
loro he li digiuni che le chrapulle . quando sera il tutto 
examinato dira DIG al nontio suo uedi ho hamicho la loro 



REPROBATES AT THE JUDGEMENT 135 

near the saints, and the angel shall then sound the trumpet, and 
shall call Satan to judgement. | 



LVII a . 59 b 

Then that miserable one shall come, and with the greatest con 
tumely shall be accused of every creature. Wherefore God shall 
call the angel Michael, who shall strike him one hundred thousand 
times with the sword of God b . He shall strike Satan, and every 
stroke is heavy as ten hells, and he shall be the first to be cast 
into the abyss. The angel shall call his followers, and they shall 
in like manner be abused and accused. Wherefore the angel 
Michael, by commission from God, shall strike some a hundred 
times, some fifty, some twenty, some ten, some five. And then 
shall they descend into the abyss, because God shall say to them : 
" Hell is your dwelling-place, cursed ones." 

After that shall be called to judgement all the unbelievers and 
reprobates, against whom shall first arise all creatures inferior 
to man, testifying before God how they have served these 
men, and how the same have outraged God and his creatures. 
^Aj^ flip prnpliejg every one shall arise, testifying against them ; 
wherefore they shall be Condemned by God j to infernal flames. 60 a 
Verily I say unto you, that no idle word l or thoughf shall pass 
unpunished in that tremendous day. Verily I say unto you, that 
the hair-shirt shall shine like the sun, and every louse a man shall 
have borne for love of God shall be turned into a pearl. 0, thrice 
and four times blessed are the poor, who in true poverty shall have 
served God from the _hearji, fo r i"~iliisjwwkl_ are theydestitute of_ 
^worldly cares, and shall therefore be freed fro m_ many sins, and in 



that djjyjthey shall not have_to_render an_account of how they 
spent theriches of the world, but they shall be rewarded for their 
patience" amTtheirpoverty c . VerTIy~T^8ay unto you, that if the 
world knew this it would choose the hair-shirt sooner than purple, 
lice sooner than gold, fasts sooner than feasts. 

When all have beeu examined, God shall say unto his mes- 




* The Chapter of the wrath of God against Satan and against the infi 
dels in the resurrection. b The sword of God. c Apostleship. 



1 Cp. Matt. zii. 36. 



136 THE GOSPEL OF BAENABAS 

scelleragine quanto he stata grande . perche io chreatore loro 
impiagai ogni chossa chrehata in seruitio loro he loro in ogni 
6 b chossa mi hano dis | sonorato . onde elgie iusstissimo che io 
non habia misserichordia di loro . Risspondera il nontio di 
DIG a elgie uero signore DIG nosstro gloriosso b ne possono ueruno 
tuo ammicho he seruo dimandarti per loro misserichordia . 
imo che io seruo tuo auanti di ogniuno dimando iustitia contra 
di loro . il che deto queste parolle tutti li angioli he proffeti 
con tutti li elleti di DIG . he che sto dire li elleti ui dicho 
in uerita che li ragni le mossce he le pietre et larena chridera 
chontra deli empij he dimanderano iustitia . onde allora fara 
Dio b ritornare in terra ogni anima uiuente inferiore al homo 
he poi manderano li empij allo inferno . li quali nel partirsi 
uederano quella terra nella quale sarano ridoto li chani he 
li chauali he altri uilli hanimali . onde dirano ho signore 
DIG c faci hanchora noi ridure in quella terra d ma non li sera 
choncesso quello che loro dimanderano . 

LVIIIe. 

Piangeuano ammaramente li disscepoli mentre che iessu 
6l a parllaua . he iessu grande chopie di lachri|me uersaua he 
dapoi il pianto risspose ioane . ho maesstro dui chosse dessi- 
deramo di sapere, luna he chome possibile sia che il nontio 
di DIG a il quale he pieno di pieta he misserichordia . quel giorno 
non habia pieta alii reprobi essendo tutti di uno issteso fango 
prodoti . laltra he chome sintende la spada di michaele angello 
essere graue per dieci infferni adoque uie piu di uno infferno . 
Risspose iessu, non hauete sentio quello che dice dauit proffeta 
che . Ridera il iussto sopra la roina del pechatore he Io scernira 
con quesste parolle dicendo . Vedi lomo che posse la sua 
speranza nelle sui forze he nelle sui richezze he si smenticho 
di DIG . pero ui dicho in uerita che abraham scernira suo 



CONCERNING THE JUDGEMENT 137 

senger : " Behold, O my friend, their wickedness, how great it has 
been, for I their creator did employ all created things in their 
service, and in all things have they dishonoured me. | It is most 60 l> 
just, ^therefore, that I have no mercy on them." The messenger 
of God a shall answer : " It is true, Lord, our glorious God b , not one 
of thy friends and servants could ask thee to have mercy on them ; 
nay, I thy servant before all ask justice against them." 

And he having said these words, all the angels and prophets, 
with all the elect of God nay, why say I the elect ? verily I say 
unto you, that spiders and flies, stones and sand shall cry out 
against the impious, and shall demand justice. 

Then shall Godb cause to return to earth every living soul_ / 
inferior to man, and he shall send the impious to hell. \Vho, in ^__ If ""^ 
going, shall see again that earth, to which dogs~and horses and 
other vile animals shall be reduced. Wherefore shall they say : 
" O Lord God c , cause us also to return to that earth d ." But that 
which they ask shall not be granted to them. 



LVIIIe. 

While Jesus was speaking the disciples wept bitterly. And 
Jesus wept many tears. | 

. Then after he had wept, John spake : master, two things we 61 a 
desire to know. The one is, how it is possible that the messenger 
of God a , who is full of mercy and pity, should have no pity on 
reprobates that day, seeing that they- are of the same clay as him 
self? The other is, how is it to be understood that the sword of 
Michael is heavy as ten hells ; then is there more than one hell 1 ? 
Jesus replied : Have ye not heard what David the prophet saith, 
how that the just shall laugh at the destruction of sinners, and 
shall deride him with these words, saying : " I saw the man who put 
his hope in his ttrength and his riches, and forgot God a ." Verily, 
therefore, I say unto you, that Abraham shall deride his father, and 



* The prophet of God. b God is sovereign. c Sovereign ! 

d The day wherein a man shall look on what his hands have sent before 
him, and the unbeliever shall say Would that I were dust ! Inde. 
(Surah Ixxviii. 41.) e The Chapter of the Just One. 



1 Cp. Ps. lii. 7. 



138 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

padre he addamo tuti li homeni reprobi* . he questo sera 
imperoche rissusciterano li elleti talmente perffeti he uniti 
con DIG che non chapira nella mente loro uno minimo pesiero 
chontra la iusstitia di DIG . pero ogniuno dimandera iustitia 
he piu deli altri il nontio di DIG Viue DIG b nella chui 
pressenza io sto che sebene hora piangio per pieta della 
61 b humana naturra | che quello giorno dimandero iusstitia senza 
misserichordia chontra quelli che dissprezano le mie parole , 
he piu del tutto contra cholloro che contamiuerano il mio 
euangelio . 

LIXc. 

Lo infferno he uno sollo ho disscepoli mei . nel quale 
patirano li danati la loro pena in etterno sebene uie sette 
stantie houero regione una piu profonda del altra . honde 
chi andera alia piu proffonda patira magiore pena ma pero 
elgie uerissimo la mia parola della spada de michaele angelo . 
imperoche cholui che fa uno sollo pechato merita lo infferno 
he quello che ne fa dui di dui inferni he degno . pero li 
reprobi sentirano pena intuno sollo infferno quanto se fusero 
diuissi in dieci inferni in cento he in mille . perche DIG 
omnipotente d con la potenzza sua per iustitia sua chosi 
fara che satana hauera tanta pena quanto in dieci cento 
millia inferni si troueria he li altri ogniuno secondo la loro 
scelleragine e . B/isspose pietro ho maestro grande he ueramente 
62 a la iustitia di | DIG pero hogidi sei molto tribulato per quessto 
parlare . pero ci farai gratia di ripossare he dimani ci dirai 
chome he lo infferno . Risspose iessu, ho pietro tu dici chio 
riposi ho pietro tu non sai quanto parli pero chossi hai par- 
llato . Vi dicho in uerita che il riposso in quessta uita 
pressente he uelleno di ogni pieta he fuocho che arde ogni 
bona opera . adonque uie uscito di memoria quanto salla- 
mone proffetta di DIG riprenda lo hotio con ogni proffeta certo 
he che lui dice . per timore del fredo non uolle lauorare la 



41)1. 



CONCERNING HELL 139 

Adam all reprobate men a : and this shall be because the elect shall 
rise again so perfect and united to God that they shall not con 
ceive in their minds the smallest thought against his justice; 
therefore shall each of them demand justice, and above all the 
messenger of God. As God liveth b , in whose presence I stand, 
though now I weep for pity of mankind, on that day I 




demand justice without mercy against those who despise my 
words, and most of all against those who defile my gospel *. 

LIXc. 

Hell is one 2 , my disciples, and in it the damned shall suffer 
punishment eternally. Yet hath it seven rooms or regions, one 
deeper than the other, and he who goeth to the deepest shall suffer 
greater punishment. Yet are my words true concerning the sword 
of the angel Michael, for he that committeth but one sin meriteth__ 
hell, and he that committeth two sins meriteth two hells. There 
fore in one hell shall the reprobates feel punishment as though 
they were in ten, or in a hundred or in a thousand ; and the 
omnipotent God d , through his power and by reason of his 
justice, shall cause Satan to suffer as though he were in ten 
hundred thousand hells, and the rest each one according to his 
wickedness e . 

Then answered Peter : O master, truly the justice of God is 
great, | and today this discourse hath made thee sad ; therefore, we 62 a 
pray thee, rest, and to-morrow tell us what hell is like. 

Jesus answered : O Peter, thou tellest me to rest ; Peter, 
thou knowest not what thou sayest, else thou hadst not spoken thus. 
Verily I say unto you, that rest in this present Jife is the poisonjaf. 
piety and the fire which consumeth every good work/~Have"~ye then 
forgotten liow^SolomonTTJod ^prophet, with all the prophets, hath 
reproved sloth ? True it is that he saith : " The idle 3 will not work 




* On that day intercession shall not avail save from him to whom the 
Merciful One gives leave, and whose word he accepts. Inde. (Surah 
xx. 108.) b By the living God. c The Chapter of severe punishment. 
d God is able to do everything. e . . . . punishment. 



1 Cp. 49 b note. a For detailed description of hell see i46 b sqq. 

s Prov. xx. 4. 



140 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

terra il pigro pero andera ha medichare nel tempo della 
hesstate* . onde disse tutto quello che pole fare la mano 
tua fallo senza riposso . he che dice lo innocentissimo hamicho 
di DIO iob dela uita nosstra . sichome lucello nascie ha 
uollare chossi lomo nascie ha hoperare . io ui dicho in uerita 
che io hodio il reposso piu di ogni chossa . 



Lo infferno he uno chontrario del pavradisso . sichome 
he contrario lo inuerno della esstate he i fredo dal chaldo . 

62 h che pero bissogneria uedere il paradis | so delle delitie di 
DIO chi uollesse narare le misserie dello inferno . ho stantia 
malladeta della iustitia di DIO per malladitione de inffedeli 
he reprobi della quale dice iob ammicho di DIO . hiui non 
si troua hordine ma sempre spauento he essaia proffeta contra 
li reprobi dice . non si estinguera giamai le loro fiame he non 
morira il loro uerme c . he dauit padre nosstro piangendo disse, 
piouera sopra di loro folgori chon saete he solfaro con tem- 
pessta grande . ho misseri pechatori che quiui li uengono in 
fastidio li cibi dellichati le uesste preciose, li delichati leti 
he li suaui chanti di loro armonie . hora che nausea farano, 
la rabisa fame, le fiami ardenti, le brasse che scortichano 
he li crudeli tormenti con ammari pianti . he qui dete l uno 
lameteuol gemito iessu dicendo, ueramente saria melgio di 
non essere giamai formato che patire chosi chrudel tormento . 
onde qui proponetiui auanti uno homo il quale senta 
tormento in tutte le parti del chorpo suo senzza hauere 
niuno che li habia chompasione ma che ogniuno lo scernissca . 
Ditemi non sarebe grande quessta pena . Rissposero li disse- ] 

63 a poli grandissima . allora disse iessu, hora quessta he una 
delitia dello infferno . perche ui dicho in uerita che se DIO 

^L -li*Jl ^ ^ J^ULJ 51 u l J^UI JU U UJL- JlS 

J.*. 51 u-ll 



L. 
MS. udete. 



CONCERNING HELL HI 

the soil for fear of the cold, therefore in summer shall he beg a ! " 
Wherefore he said * : " All that thy hand can do, do it without 
rest." And what saith Job, the most innocent friend of God : " As 
the bird is born to fly, man is born to work V Verily I sayunto 
you, I hate rest above all things. 



Hell is one, and is contrary to paradise, as winter is contrary to 
summer, and cold to heat. He therefore who would describe the 
misery of hell must needs have seen the paradise of God s^ 
delights^ 

place accursed by God s justice for the malediction of the 62 b 
faithless and reprobate, of which said Job 3 , the friend of God : 
" There is no order there, but everlasting fear ! " And Isaiah 
the prophet, against the reprobate, saith * : " Their flame shalljioji. 
be quenched nor their worm die c ." And David our father, weep 
ing, said 5 : "Then shall rain upon them lightning and bolts and 
brimstone and great tempest." O miserable sinners, how loath 
some then shall seem to them delicate meats, costly raiment, soft 
couches, and concord of sweet song ! how sick shall make them 
raging hunger, burning flames, scorching cinders, and cruel tor 
ments with bitter weepin 

And thenTesus uttered a lamentable groan, saying: Truly it were 
better never to have been formed than to suffer such cruel torments. 
For imagine a man suffering torments in every part of his body, 
who hath, no one to show him compassion, but is mockedofall: 
tell me, would not this b3 great pain ] 

The disciples answered : | The greatest. 63 

Then said Jesus : Now this is a delight [in comparison] of 
hell. For I tell you in truth, that if God should place in one 




* Solomon said: It is the condition of the lazy man to do no work in 
winter for fear of the cold, but in summer lie goes round for alms. Inde. 
b The Chapter of hell (Gehenna). c The fire of hell is not quenched 

and its worm never dieth. Inde. 



1 Eccles. ix. 10 (JVulg.). a Job v. 7 (Vulg.). * Job x. 32 (cp. 

Vulg.). 4 Isa. Ixvi. 24. * Ps. xi. 6 (cp. Vulg.). 



142 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

ponesse in bilanzia tutte le pene che ha patito tutti li homem 
in quessto monddo he patirano insino al giorno del iuditio . 
he dalla altra parte ponesse Dio una sollo hora di penne 
inffernalj li reprobi sanza dubio ellegerebono le mondane 
tribulationi . perche quesste del mondo uengono per mano 
di homem a ma quelle uengono per mano de diauoli li quali 
sono senza ueruna chompasione . ho che chrudele fuocho li 
darano . ho che ammaro fredo senza dare temperamento 
alle loro fiami . ho che stridore di denti ho quanti singolti 
he pianti hai misseri pechatori . che non ha tanta aqua il 
giordano quante lachrime oggni momento usscirano dalli loro 
hochij . he qui le lingue malladirano ogni chossa chreato 
con il loro padre he madre he il loro chreatore il quale he 
beneddeto in etterno . 



63 b Deto quessto iessu si lauo con li suoi disscepoli secondo 
la leggie di DIG scrita nel libro di mosse . he fecero horatione 
onde li disscepoli suoi uedendolo chossi aflito non li dissero 
niente quel giorno ma ogniuno staua spauentato sopra le sui 
parolle . quado iessu aprendo la bocha sua disse dapoi il 
uesspro . Quale he quel padre di familgia il qualle cho- 
nosscendo che il ladro uolle rompere la chassa sua che dormisse 
certo niuno . perche elgi uigilarebe he starebe preparato 
per ammazare il ladro . hora non sapete disse iessu che satana 
he chome uno leone che ua rugendo cerchando di deuorare . 
chosi elgi cercha di fare pechare lomo c . lo ui dicho in uerita 
che se lomo facessi chome il merchatore che niente temeria 
quello giorno imperoche bene si troueria preparato . Elgi 
fu uno homo il quale dete pechunia ha uicini suoi azioche 
trafichasero he il uadagno fusse per iussta portione diuisso . 
pero alchuni bene trafichorno talmente che duplichorno il 

Q^ A danaro . ma alchuni sconsumorno la pechunia in | seruitio 




CONCERNING HELL 143 

balance all the pain which all men have suffered in this world 
and shall suffer till the day of judgement, and in the other one 

single hour of the pain of hell, the reprobates would without doubt /^ *. 

~ - 
choose the worldly Jribulations, for the worldly come from the 

"*hand of man a , but the others from the hand of devils, wh6~arelitterly 
without compassion. what^niel fire they sEall give to miserable 
sinners! O what bitter cold, which yet shall not temper their 
flames I What gnashing of teeth and sobbing and weeping 1 For 
the Jordan has less water than the tears which every moment shall 
flow from their eyes. And here their tongues shall curse all 
things created, with their father and mother, and their Creator, who 
is blessed for ever/ 




Having thus said, Jesus washed himself, with his disciples, 63 b 
according to the law of God written in the book of Moses ; and 
then they prayed. And the disciples seeing him thus sad spake 
not at all to him that day, but each stood terror-struck "aT"" 
his words. 

Then Jesus opening his mouth after the evening [prayer], said : 
What father of a family 1 if he knew that a thief meant to break 
into his house, would sleep ? ^TNone, assuredly ; for he would watch 
and si and prepared to slay the thief. Do ye not know then that 
Satan is as a roaring lion 2 that goeth about seeking whom he may 
devour. Thus he seeketh to make man sin c . Verily I say unto you, 
that if man would act as the merchant he should have no fear in that 
day, because he would be well prepared. There was a man 3 who \L- -- 

gave money to his neighbours that they might trade with it, and the 
profit should be divided in a just proportion. And some traded 
well, so that they doubled the money. But some used the money 

the service of the enemy of him who gave them the money, 64 a 



* And he is a child of Adam. b The Chapter of the negligent. 

c And (like) the wiles of the lion which moves to the right and left for the 
chase, thus Satan moves amongst the believers that he may seduce them 
from the straight way. Inde. 



1 Cp. Luke xii. 39. 2 i Pet. v. 8. (?) Cp. Luke xix. 13 sqq. 



144 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

del innimicho di cholui che li dete la pecchunia dicendo 
malle di lui . hora ditemi quando il uicino chiamera li 
debitori in iuditio chome andera la chossa . certamente che 
elgi honorato premio dara ha cholloro che bene negotiorno 
ma sopra li altri sfogera la ira sua nello inguriarli .he poi 
li punira chome nolle la leggie . Vine DIG * alia chui pressenza 
sta la anima mia che il uicino he Dio b il quale ha dato al 
homo tutto quello che a lo homo . con la uita azioche in quessto 
monddo bene uiuendo DIG hauessi le laudi he lo homo la gloria 
del parradiso . onde cholloro che bene uiuono con il loro exempio 
duplichano il danaro perche si conuertono ha penitenzza li 
pechatori . uedendo loro tale exempio he pero sarano di grandde 
premio premiati li homeni che bene uiuono . ma li scellerati 
pechatori li quali con illoro pechare metono quanto DIG li a 
donato d con la propria uita in seruitio di satana innimicho di 
DIG . bestemiado DIG he dando scandollo ad altri ditemi qualle 
sera la pena loro . sera senza missura dissero li disscepoli [ . 

64* LXIIe. 

Debe adonque disse iessu . cholui che uole uiuere bene 
mirare il merchatore il quale serra la botega he la chustodisse 
giorno he note con grande dilligenza . onde di quanto chompra 
riuendendo uole uadagnarui perche quando uede perderui non 
nolle uendere tampocho al suo fratello . hora chosi fate uoi 
perche in uerita la anima uosstra he uno merchatore he il 
chorpo he la botegga . onde quanto essteriormente per li 
sensi riceue he da essa compra he uende . la moneta in uero 
he lo am more guardatiue adonque che con lo ammore uosstro 
no uendete ne chomprate uno minimo pensiero del quale non 
uadagnate . Ma penssando parllando he hoperando il tuto sia 
per ammore de DIG che chossi facendo sarete sichuri quello 
giorno . io ui dicho in uerita che molti fano lauachri he 
uano ha horare . Molti degiunano he fano ellemossine . Molti 
studiano he predichano addaltri il chui fine he abbomineuole 



a ^a. 4Jb. b V;^ it- 

d ^LJfc. jj)l. e J^J] 



EXAMPLE OF THE MEKCHANT 145 

speaking evil of him. Tell me now, when the neighbour shall call 
the debtors to account how shall the matter go ? Assuredly he 
will reward those who traded well, but against the others his anger 
shall vent itself in reproaches. And then he will punish them 
according to the law. As God liveth a , in whose presence my soul 
standeth, the neighbour is God b , who has given to man all that he 
hath, with life itself, so that, [man] living well in this world, God may 
have praise, and man the glory of paradise. For those who live well 
double their money by their example, because sinners, seeing their 
example, are converted to repentance; wherefore men who live 
well shall be rewarded with a great reward. But wicked sinnere, 
who by their sins halve what God has given them d , by their lives 
spent in the service of Satan the enemy of God, blaspheming God 
and giving offence to others, tell me what shall be their 
punishment ? 

1 It shall be without measure, said the disciples. 

LXIIe. 

Then said Jesus : He who would live well should take example 
from the merchant who locketh up his shop, and guardeth it day 
and night with great diligence. And selling again the things which 
he buyeth he is fain to make a profit ; for if he perceiveth that he will 
lose thereby he will not sell, no, not to his own brother. Thus then 
should ye do ; for in truth your soul is a merchant, and the body 
is the shop : wherefore what it receiveth from outside, through the 
senses, is bought and sold by it 1 . And the money is love. See 
Uien that with your love ye do not sell nor buy the smallest thought 
3y~whi(^j-e_cannot profit. _ But let thought, speech, and work be 
all for love of God ; for so shall ye find safety in that day. Verily 
I say unto you, that many make ablutions and go to pray, many 
fast and give alms, many study and preach to others, whose end is 



* By the living God. b God who is near. God gives. 

d God bestows. The Chapter of love. 



Construction obscure. 



146 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

5 a ha|uanti DIG imperoche . lauano il chorpo he non il chore . 
chiamano chon la bocha he non con il chore degiunano 
ha cibi he si riempisscono di pechatij . dano ad altri quell o 
che non e bono per loro azioche siano tenuti per boni . 
studiano per sapere dire he non per operare . predichano 
ad altri contra di quanto fano loro he pero con la propia 
lingua si condanano . Viue DIG a che chosstoro non chonosscono 
DIG chon il chore loro perche . se il chonosscesero lo ammare- 
bono he sichome quanto ha lo homo il tutto lo a riceuto da 
DIG . chossi ogni chossa elgi spenderebe per ammore di DIG . 

LXIII b. 

Dapoi alquanti giorni iessu passo apresso una citta di 
samaritani . li quali non il uolssero lasciare hentrare nella 
citta ne uendere pane alii suoi disscepoli onde iachobo he 
ioane dissero . ho maestro ti piaze che noi preggiamo DIG 
perche mandi fuocho dal ciello sopra di chostoro . Risspose 
iessu uoi non sapete da quale spirito siate guidati pero chossi 
parllate . Racordatiue che DIG uolleua dissperdere niniue per | 
non trouarsi pure uno in quella citta che temessi DIO C . la 
qualle hera talmente scellerata che hauendo chiamato DIG 
iona proffeta per mandarlo in quella citta . da timore di 
quel popullo uoleua fugire in tarsso onde DIG il fece getare 
nel mare he da uno pesscie riceuerlo he getarlo ha presso 
niniue . onde iuui predichando si chonuerti talmente ha 
penitenzza quel populo che DIG li ebe misserichordia . guai 
ha cholloro che chiamano uendeta perche uenira sopra di 
loro essendo che ogni homo ha in se chossa da essere uendi- 
chata da Dio d . hora ditemi hauete uoi chreato quessta citta 
con quessto populo ho pazi che sete certo che no . imperoche 
tutte le chreature unite insieme nom possono chreare una 
noua mossca de niente he quessto he il chreare 8 . se DIG 
benedeto il quale ha chreato quessta citta con quessto populo 



Xj d 



* j 

-1 ^J V^.i eA*^ (J\ UJD^ ^ ! ** cus JL+t* 



WARNING AGAINST VENGEANCE 147 

abominable before | God; because they cleanse the body and not the 65 a 
heart, they cry with the mouth not with the heart ; they abstain 
from meats, and fill themselves with sins; they give to others 
things not good for them, in order that they may be held good ; 
they study that they may know how to speak, not to work ; they 
"preach to others against that which they do themselves, and thus 
are condemned by their own tongue. As God liveth a , these do not 
know God with their hearts ; for if they knew him they would 
love him ; and since whatsoever a man hath he hath received it 
from God, even so should he spend all for the love of God. 

LXIII \ 

After certain days Jesus passed near unto a city of the Samari 
tans l ; and they would not let him enter the city, nor would 
they sell bread to his disciples. Wherefore said James and John : 

9- 

Master, may it please thee that we pray God that he send down 
fire from heaven upon these people ? 

Jesus answered: Ye know not by what spirit ye are led, 
that ye so speak. Remember that God determined to destroy 
Nineveh because | he did not %^one_who_ feared God in that 65 b 
cityc 2 . the wKicTTwas" so wicked that God, having called Jonah 
the prophet to send him to that city, he would fain for fear of 
the people have fled to Tarsus, wherefore~"God caused him to be 
cast into the~sea, and received by a fish and cast up nigh to 
Nineveh. And" lie preaching there, that people was converted to 
repentance, so that God had mercy on them. 

A\ oe unto them that call for vc ii^eancc ; for on tlnMiiselvoH 
it shall come, seeing that every man hath in himself cause 
for the vengeance of God d . Now tell me, have ye created this 
city with this people? madmen that ye are, assuredly no. 
For all creatures united together could not create a single new 
fly from nothing, and this it is to create e . If the blessed God who 
hath created this city now sustaineth it, why desire ye to destroy 

a By the living God. b The Chapter of patience. c The story 

of Yunas (Jonah) is related. d God is an avenger. e If all 

creatures were to be gathered together, they could not create a fly out of 
nothing. Inde. 

1 See Luke ix. 52-5. 2 S^e Jonah i-iii. 

L 2 



148 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

hora quessta citta sostiene perche dessiderate disstrugerla . 
hora perche non dicessti ti piaze ho maestro che pregiamo 
il signore DIG nosstro* che conuertissca quessto popullo ha 
penitenzza . certo he che quessto he il propio del mio 
66 a dissepolo | di pregare DIG per cholloro che li fano malle . 
quessto fece abel b quando il fratello lo hocideua chain 
malladeto da DIO . quessto fece abraham per faraone che 
li tolse la molgie che pero langelo del signore non lo 
ammazzo ma sollo il perchosse de infermita . quessto fece 
zacharia quando per dechreto dello empio Re fu nel tempio 
ucisso . Questo fece ieremia, esaia, hezechiel, Daniele he 
dauit cho tutti li ammici di DIO he proffeti suoi santi . 
Ditemi quando uno uosstro fratello se infermasi di frene- 
sia uoresste uoi hamazzarlo perche dice malle he perchuote 
chi seli apressa . certo uoi non faresste quessto ma sibene 
procuraresste la sanita sua con medicine couenienti alia sua 
inffermita . 



Viue Dio d alia chui pressenza sta la anima mia che il 
pechatore ha infermo lo intelleto suo quando persseguita 
uno homo . Ditemi adonque saria ueruno che si rompessi 
66 b il chapo per staciarre | il mantello al suo innimicho . hora 
chome ha sano lo intelleto cholui [che] si parte da DIO chapo 
della anima sua per offendere il chorpo dello innimicho 
suo . Dimi ho homo quale he lo innimicho tuo 6 certo he 
che elgie il chorpo tuo he ogniuno che ti lauda onde se tu 
auessi sano intelleto . baciaresti la mano ha cholloro che 
ti uituperano he presentaressti doni ha cholloro che ti persse- 
guitano he perchuote hasai perche ho homo . perche quanto 
piu per li pechati tuoi sarai perseguitato he uituperato 
in quessta uitta tanto meno sarai il giorno del iuditio f . 

b ^[3 , Jj>U ^i. c J.JJ1 i iv- . d j-^. j^J. 

u b 



LJjJl ^ v l^^ jjill jUjl dD u^o U 
jjil g^ill j \ dU U&. 



AGAINST VENGEANCE 149 

it ? Why didst tliou not say : " May it please thee, master, 
that we pray to the Lord our God a that this people may be 
converted to penitence?" Assuredly this is the proper act of a 
disciple of mine, j to pray to God for those who do evil. Thus 66 a 
did Abel b when his brother Cain, accursed of God, slew him. 
Thus did Abraham 1 for Pharaoh, who took from him his wife, 
and whom, therefore, the angel of God did not slay, but only 
struck with infirmity. Thus did Zechariah when, by decree of the 
impious king, he was slain in the temple 2 . Thus did Jeremiah, 
Isaiah, Ezekiel, Daniel, and David, with all the friends of God 
and holy prophets. Tell me, if a brother were stricken with 
frenzy, would you slay him because he spoke evil and struck 
those who came near him 1 ? Assuredly ye would not do so; but 
rather would ye endeavour to restore his health with medicines 
suitable to his infirmity. 

LXIVc. 

As God liveth d , in whose presence my soul standeth, a sinner is 
of infirm mind when he persecuteth a man. For tell me, is there 
anyone who would break his head for the sake of tearing | the cloak 66 h 
of his enemy 1 Now how can he be of sane mind who separateth 
himself from God, the head of his soul, in order that he may 
injure the body of his enemy ? 

Tell me, O man, who is thy enemy e ? Assuredly thy body, and 
every one who praiseth thee. Wherefore if thou wert of sane 
mind thou wouldst kiss the hand of those who revile thee, and 
present gifts to those who persecute thee and strike thee much ; 
because, O^maTipDecause the more that for thy sins thou art reviled 
and persecuted in this life the less shalt thou be in the day of ^ 
judgement* . But tell me, man, if the saints and prophets of 



a God is Sovereign. b The story of Abel and Cabel (Cain). c The 
Chapter of patience. d By the living God. e Tell me, son of 

Adam, do you know the truth, who is your enemy ? Yourself and whoso 
praises you. Inde. f The greater your pain and trouble in this world 

owing to your transgression, the less will it be in the next world. Inde. 
Inde. 



1 See Gen. xii. 15 sqq. : but it is for Abimelech he prays (Gen. xx. 17). 
3 Contrast 2 Chron. xxiv. 22. 



150 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

Ma dimi ho homo se li santi he proffetti di DIO sono stati 
persseguitati he infamati dal monddo sebene loro herano 
innocent! . hora che sera di te ho pechatore . he se loro 
com patienzza il tutto soportauano pregando per li loro per- 
sechutori che debi fare tu ho homo degno dello infferno . 
Ditemi ho disscepoli mei, non sapete uoi che semei malla- 
diceua il seruo di DIO dauit profieta he li getaua pietre 
dietro . hora che disse dauit ha cholloro che uoleuano 
67 a ocidere semei . che chossa tie ho ioab che | tu uoi ocidere 
semei lascialo malladirmi perche chossi uole DIO il quale 
conuertira quessta malladitione in beneditione . onde chosi 
f u perche guardo DIO a la patienzza di dauit he il libero 
dalla perssecutione del propio fiolo abssalon . certamente non 
si moue una folgia di arbore senza la uollonta di DIO . pero 
quando tu sei in tribulatione no pensare ha quanto riceui 
ne ha cholui il quale ti tribula ma chonsidera . quanto sei 
degno di riceuere per li tuoi peccati per mano di diauoli 
dello infferno b . Voi sete adirati chontra di quessta citta 
perche non cia uolluto riceuere ne uendere pane . Ditemi 
sono uosstri sciaui chosstoro hauete uoi dato ha chosstoro 
quessta citta . auete uoi dato ha chosstoro il grano ouero li 
hauete haiutati per racholgere il grano certo no imperoche . 
uoi non sete piu stati in quesste parti he sete poueri hora 
perche chosi dicesti . Risspose li dui discepoli signore ha- 
biamo pechato DIO ci habia misserichordia c he iessu risspose 
chosi sia . 



67 b Auicinauasi la passca onde iessu chon li suoi dissepoli 
ascexe in ierussalem he ando alia probaticha piscina . quessto 
nome haueua quel bagno perche langiolo di DIO ogni giorno 
moueua quella aqua onde il primo inffermo il qualle hentraua 
in quella aqua dapoi la mutatione . elgi si sanaua di ogni 




AGAINST VENGEANCE 151 

God have been persecuted and defamed by the world evenjhough 
they were innocent, what shall be done to thee, sinner 1 and if 
tTiey~encl tired all with patience, praying for their persecutors, what 
shouldst thou do, man, who art worthy of hell 1 Tell me, O my 
disciples, do ye not know that Shimei cursed the servant of God, 
David the prophet, and threw stones at him ? Now what said 
David to those who would fain have killed Shimei ? " What is 
it to thee, Joab, that | thou wouldst kill Shimei 1 let him curse 67 
me, for this is the will of God, who will turn this_curse into 
a blessing." And thus it was; for God saw a the patience of 
David and delivered him from the persecution of his own son, 
Absalom. 

Assuredly not a leaf stirreth without the will of God. Wherefore, 
when thou art in tribulation do not think of how much thou hast 
borne, nor of him who afflicteth thee ; but consider how much for 
thy sins thou artworthy to receive at tnehand of the_devilg_ofJ^glJJ^- 
Ye are angry with this city because it would not receive us, nor 
sell bread to us. Tell me, are these people your slaves ? have ye 
given them this city 1 have ye given them their corn 1 or have 
ye helped them to reap it ? Assuredly no ; for ye are strangers 
in this land, and poor men. What thing is this then that thou 
sayest 1 

The two disciples answered : Lord, we have sinned ; may God 
have mercy on us c . 

And Jesus answered : So be it. 



LXV*. 

The passover drew near 2 , wherefore Jesus, with his disciples, 67 b 
went up to Jerusalem. And he went to the pool called ProbaticaV 
And the bath was so called because the angel of God every day 
troubled the water, and whosoever first entered the water after its 
movement was cured of every kind of infirmity. Wherefore 



God sees. b If you are in misfortune do not think of the misfor 
tune and its cause, but think of what the Zabaniyeh (guardians of hell) 
will do to you for your transgression. Inde. e I ask God s pardon. Inde. 
d The Chapter of the pool of water. 



1 See 2 Sam. xiv. 5-12. * See John v. 1-16. 3 Gk. of John v. 2 

has Tjj irpopariKTi : Vulg. probatica piscina. 



152 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

sorte de infferraita onde per quessto stauano grande numero 
de inffermi alia pisscina . la qualle haueua cinque portici; 
uiste hiuui iessu uno infermo il quale trenta otto hanni hera 
stato hiuui infermo di graue inffermita . onde chonosscendo 
quessto iessu per inspiratione diuina hebbe compassione dello 
imfermo he disseli uoi tu sanarti . Risspose lo imfermo signore 

10 non ho homo il quale quando langelo moue laqua mi pongi 
dentro he pero . quando uolgio hentrare uiene uno piu pressto 
di me he ui hentra . Allora iessu leuo li hochij al cielo he 

68 a disse signore DIO a nosstro DIO di pa|dri nosstri habi misseri- 
chordia sopra di quessto infermo . he deto quessto iessu disse 
in nome di DIO b ho f ratello riceui la sanita lieuati he portauia 

11 tuo leto . allora linfermo si leuo laudando DIO he porto il 
leto sopra le spale he andaua ha chasa laudando DIO . cholloro 
che il uedeuano chridauano elgie hogidi sabbato pero non tie 
licito portare il leto . Risspose lui cholui che mia fato sano 
ha deto pilgia il tuo leto he uatene ha chassa . dissero loro 
chie cholui . Risspose lui io non so il suo nome onde fra loro 
diceuano debe essere stato iessu nazareno, altri diceuano non . 
imperoche elgie santo di DIO onde chia fato quessto he trissto 
perche fa uiolare il sabbato . andossi iessu nel tempio he 
hachostosi a lui grande moltitudine per sentire le sui parole 
onde li sacerdoti si rodeuano de inuidia . 

LXVIc. 

Vene ha lui uno di loro dicendo . ho maesstro bono tu 
68t> insegni bene con uerita pero dimi nel paradisso | che mercede 
ci dara DIO . Risspose iessu tu mi chiami bono he non sai 
che sollo DIO he bono d talmente che come dice iob amicho 
di DIO uno fanciulo di uno giorno non e monddo . anziche disse 
li angioli sono reprensibili auanti la presenza di DIO . onde 



41)1. b 41)1 U^. 

J-JJ ,*- d ^ ^ /- ^- 



THE POOL CALLED PROBATICA 153 

a great number of sick persons remained beside the pool, which 
had five porticoes. And Jesus saw there an impotent man, who 
had been there tbirty-and-eight years, sick with a grievous 
"Tnfirmity. Yv hereupon Jesus, knowing this by divine inspiration, 
had compassion on the sick man, and said to him : Wilt thou be 
made whole 1 

The impotent man answered : Sir l , I have no man when the 
angel troubleth the water to put me into it, but while I am coming 
another steppeth down before me and entereth therein. 

Then Jesus lifted up his eyes to heaven and said : Lord our God a , 
God of our fathers, | have mercy upon this impotent man. 68 a 

And having said this, Jesus said : In God s name b , brother, be 
thou whole ; rise and take up thy bed. 

Then the impotent man arose, praising God, and carried his bed 
upon his shoulders, and went to his house praising God. 

Those who saw him cried : It is the sabbath day ; it is not 
lawful for thee to carry thy bed. 

He answered : He that made me whole said unto me, " Pick 
up thy bed, and go thy way to thy house." 

Then asked they him : "Who is he ? 

He answered : I know not his name. 

Whereupon, among themselves they said : It must have been 
Jesus the Nazarene. Others said : Nay, for he is a holy one of 
God, whereas he who has done this thing is a wicked man, for he 
causeth the sabbath to be broken. 

And Jesus went into the temple, and a great multitude drew 
nigh unto him to hear his words ; whereat thepriests were con- 
sumed with envy. 

LXVIc. 

One of them came to him, saying : Good master, thou teachest 
well and truly ; tell me therefore, in paradise | what reward shall 68 b 
God give us 1 

Jesus answered : Thou callest me good 2 , and knowest not that 
God alone is good d , even as said Job 3 , the friend of God : " A child 
of a day old is not clean ; yea, even the angels are not faultless in 



a God is sovereign. b By permission of God. c The Chapter 

of praise. d There is none good except God. 



Or Lord. 3 Cp. Luke xviii. 19. s Cp. Job xv. 14 sqq. (Eliphaz). 



154 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

disse elgi la charne tirra il pechato he racholgie le inniquita 
chome la sponga racholgie la aqua* . confuso pero il sacerdote 
taceua pero iessu disse, io ui dicho in uerita che non uie 
chossa piu perichollossa che il parllare . che pero sallamone 
disse la uita he la morte he in mano della lingua b he uoltatosi 
alii suoi dissepoli iessu disse . guardatiue da cholloro che ui 
beatifichano perche loro ue inganano c . Beatificho con la 
lingua satana li primi parenti nosstri ma misseramente riuscite 
le sui parole . chosi beatifichauano li sauij di egito faraone . 
chosi beatifichaua golias li filistei . chosi beatifichaua quatro 
cento falsi proffeti hachab ma false furno le loro laudi tal- 
mente che peri il laudato con cholloro che li laudauano . j 
69 a onde non senza chagione DIG dice per esaia prof eta . populo 
mio cholloro che ti beatifichano te inganano . Guai ha uoi 
scribi he farisei, guai ha uoi ho sacerdoti he leuiti perche 
hauete choroto il sachrificio del signore . talmente che cholloro 
che uengono ha sachrificare chredono che DIG mangi charne 
chota chome homo . 

LXVII d . 

Perche li dite . portate deli chasstrati he deli tori he deli 
agneli al tempio al uosstro DIG he non mangiate il tutto 
uoi ma fatene parte al DIG uosstro di quanto uia dato . he 
non li dite la origine del sachrificio che uene per tessti- 
fichare la uita donata al fiolo dello padre nosstro abraham . 
onde he la fede con la obedienza del padre nosstro abbraham 
con le promesse fateli da DIG he beneditione datoli non uadino 
in obliuione . che pero per ezechiele proffeta dice DIG leuate 
uia quessti uosstri sachrificij perche le uitime uosstre mi 
sono in abominatione e . che pero se auicina il tempo di fare 



i^l Jls 

U -UI. 

b *JL eLsLJ jJ dUU-o ^ dLj^s. ^jW^L- JU. 
c &ju 

d 

e fcJU vl*-J>. Ujul wil ^Xjl^Js *jj\ u^-a-i-51 ,j *J 4 * U 



THE PERILS OF SPEECH 155 

God s presence." Moreover he said : " The flesh attracteth sin, 
and sucketh up iniquity even as a sponge sucketh up water al ." 

Wherefore the priest was silent, being confounded. And Jesus 
said : Verily I say unto you, naught is more perilous than speech. 
For so said Solomon : " Life and death are in the power of the 
tongue bV" 

And he turned to his disciples, and said : ( Beware of those 
who bless you, because they deceive you . With the tongue Satan 
blessed our first parents, but miserable was the outcome of his 
words. So did the sages of Egypt bless Pharaoh. So did Goliath 
bless the Philistines. So did four hundred false prophets bless 
Ahab 3 ; but false were their praises, so that the praised one 
perished with the praisers. | Wherefore not without cause did God 68* 
say by Isaiah the prophet : " My people, those that bless thee 
deceive thee 4 ." 

Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees ; woe nnio you, priests and 
Levites, because ye have corrupted the sacrifice of the Lord, so 
that those who come to sacrifice believe that God eateth cooked 
flesh like unto a man. 

LXVII d. 

For ye say unto them : " Bring of your sheep and bulls and 
lambs to the temple of your God, and eat not all, but give a share 
to your God of that which he hath given you " ; and ye do not tell 
them of the origin of sacrifice, that it is for a witness of the life 
granted to the son of our father Abraham, so that the faith and 
obedience of our father Abraham, with the promises made to him 
by God and the blessing given to him, should never be forgotten. 
But by Ezekiel 5 the prophet saith God : " Remove from me these 
your sacrifices, your victims are abominable to me e ." For the time 



* Ayyub (Job) said : The flesh of man takes what is unlawful and all 
iniquities as a sponge takes up water. Inde. b Said Solomon : Thy 
life and thy death are in thy tongue. Inde. c Beware of him who 
praises you, because he will seduce you from the way of the truth. 
d The Chapter of the sacrifice. e Said God to the Jews : In anger 

I will take away your sacrifice because with me it is an abomination. 
Inde. 



1 Cp. Job xv. 16. " Prov. xviii. 21. s i Kings xxii. 6. * (?) Isa. 
Cp. Isa. i. 1 1 sqq. ; Jer. vi. 20. 



156 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

69 b quanto mo nosstro ha | deto per ossea proffeta dicendo . io 
chiamero il populo non elleto elleto onde chome dice in ezechiel 
prof eta . DIG f ara uno pato nouo con il populo suo a no sechondo 
il pato che io deti allt padri uosstri il quale non osseruorno . 
he li leuera il chore di pietra dandoli uno chuore nouo he 
quessto sera tutto perche hora uoi non chaminate nella leggie 
sua . onde uoi hauete la chiaue he non aprite anziche inpedite 
la strada ha chi uolle chaminare . si partiua il sacerdote per 
andare doue apresso il santuario staua il pontifice per referirli 
il tutto quando iessu disse fermati che io ti respondero alia 
tua dimanda . 



Tu a me dimandi che io te dicha . che chossa DIO ci dara 
im paradisso ; io ti dicho in uerita che cholloro li quali pensano 
alia mercede non ammano il patrone imperoche . uno passtore 
il quale ha uno gregie di pechore sui uedendo il lupo si mete 
ha diffexa delle pechore ma pero . non fa chosi il seruo il 
quale uedendo il lupo lascia le pechore he fugise . Viue DIO c 
70 a alia chui pressenza io sto che se il DIO di | padri nosstri fuse il 
DIO uosstro che uoi non pensaresste con dire che chossa mi 
dara DIO . ma chome faceua dauit proffeta suo diresste che 
chossa daro ha DIO per quanto elgi mi adato . io ui parllero 
per simillitudine azioche me intendiate . Elgi hera uno Re 
il quale sopra di una strada trouo uno spolgiato da ladri 
il quale hera ferito mortalmente onde elgi li ebe compassione . 
pero chomando alii suoi 1 serui che portassero quello homo alia 
citta he Io churassero il che fecero con ogni dilligenza . he il 
Re presse grande ammore allo inffermo talmente che li dono 
la propia fiola per molgie he fecelo suo herrede . certo he 
che il Re fu somamente misserichordiosso ma Io homo batete 
li serui, sprezaua le medicine, uitupero la sposa, diceua malle 
del Re . he li faceua ribelare li suditj he quando il Re uolleua 
uno seruitio diceua che chossa mi dara il Re per premio . 
il che sentendo il Re che chosa fece elgi ha tanto empio . 



1 MS. SMO (sic). 



AGAINST SEEKING A REWARD 157 

draweth near when tbat stall be done of which our God | spake by 69 l> 
Hosea l the prophet, saying : " I will call chosen the people not 
chosen." And as he saith in Ezekiel the prophet : " God shall 
make a new covenant with his people a , not according to the cove 
nant which he gave to your fathers, which they observed not 2 ; and 
lie shall take from them a heart of stone, and give them a new 
jieart 3 ": and all this shall be because ye walk not now in his law. 
And ye have the key and open not ; rather do ye block the road 
for those who would walk in it *. 

The priest was departing to report all to the high priest, who 
stood nigh unto the sanctuary, but Jesus said : Stay, for I will 
answer thy question. 

Lxvm b . 

4 Thou askest me to tell thee what God will give us in paradise. 
Verily I say unto you, that those who think of the wages love not 
the master. A shepherd who hath a flock of sheep, when he seeth 
the wolf coining, prepareth to defend them ; contrariwise, the 
hireling when he seeth the wolf leaveth the sheep and fleeth 5 . 
As God liveth c , in whose presence I stand, if the God of | our fathers 70 a 
were your God ye would not have thought of saying : " What will 
God give me ? " But ye would have said, as did David his pro 
phet : " What shall I give unto God for all that he hath given 
unto me ? 6 " 

4 1 will speak to you by a parable 7 that ye may understand. 
There was a king who found by the wayside a man stripped by 
thieves, who had wounded him unto death. And he had com 
passion on him, and commanded his slaves to bear that man to 
the city and tend him ; and this they did with all diligence. And 
the king conceived a great love for the sick man, so that he gave 
him his own daughter in marriage, and made him his heir. Now 
assuredly this king was most merciful ; but the man beat the 
slaves, despised the medicines, abused his wife, spake evil of the 
king, and caused his vassals to rebel against him. And when the 
king required any service, he was wont to say : " What will the 
king give me as reward?" Now when the king heard this, what 
did he do to so impious a man ? 

* Account of something other than the law. b The Chapter of the 
children of Israel. God is living. 

1 Hos. ii. 23. 3 Jer. xxxi. 31, 32. 3 Ezek. xxxvi. 26. 

4 Cp. Luke xi. 52. 5 See John x. 11 s<iq. Cp. Ps. cxvi. 12. 

7 Cp. Luke x. 30 sqq. But the parable is apocryphal. 



158 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

Rissposero ogniuno guai ha lui perch e il Re il priuete del 
tutto he lo punite atrocemente . allora disse iessu, ho sacerdoti 
ho scribi he farisei he tu pontifice che senti la mia uoce 

10 ui anontio quanto DIG ui disse per il suo profeta Esaia . 
70 b serui ho | nutriti he exaltati ma loro mi hano dissprezzato . 

Elgie il nosstro DIG quel Re il quale trouo issdraelle in quessto 
monddo pieno di misserie che pero lo dete alii suoi serui . 
iosef moise he haron che il churassero . li prese tanto ammore 

11 nosstro DIG che per il populo de issdraelle flagello lo eggito . 
somersse faraone he dissperse cento he uinti Re di chananei 
he madianiti et li dono la sua leggie facendolo herede di 
quanto habita il populo nostro . Ma chome si porta issdraele 
quanti proffeti ha occisso . quante proffetie ha elgi contaminato . 
chome ha elgi uiolato la leggie di DIG quanti inzio sono parti ti da 
DIG he andati ha seruire li iddoli per il scandalo di uoi ho sacer 
doti . he come dissonorate DIG chon il uosstro uiuere he hora 
dimandate ha me che chossa ui dara DIG nel parradisso . Doueuate 
dimandarmi qual sera la pena che DIG ui dara nello infferno he 
pero quello che douete fare per fare uera penitenzza . azioche DIG 
ui abia missericordia che quessto ui posso dire he ha quessto son 
messo ha uoi . 

71 a LXIX . 

Viue Dio b alia chui pressenza io sto che da me non riceuerete 
adulatione ma uerita . onde ui dicho pentiteui he ritornate 
ha DIG secondo che fecero li nosstri padri dapoi il pechare 
he non indurate il chore uosstro . si sconsumauano da rabia 
li sacerdotj per quessto parllare ma per timore della plebe 
non fecero motto he iessu sogionse dicendo . ho dotori ho 
scribi ho farisei ho sacerdoti ditemi uoi uollete li chauali 
chome chaualieri ma non uollete andare hala guera . uoi 
uollete le uesste belle chome le done ma non uollete lilare 
he nutnchare fanciulj uoi uollete li fruti di champi he non 
uollete choltiuare la terra . Voi uollete il pesscie del mare 
ma l uoi non uollete andare ha pesscare . uoi uollete lo 



1 MS. he ma (sic). 



INGRATITUDE OF ISRAEL 159 

They all replied : Woe to him, for the king deprived him of 
all, and cruelly punished him. Then said Jesus : priests, and 
scribes, and Pharisees, and thou high-priest that hearest my voice, 
I proclaim to you what God hath said to you by his prophet 
Isaiah l : " I have | nourished slaves and exalted them, but they 70 
have despised me." 

The king is our God, who found Israel in this world full of 
miseries, and gave him therefore to his servants Joseph, Moses 
and Aaron, who tended him. And our God conceived such love 
for him that for the sake of the people of Israel he smote Egypt, 
drowned Pharaoh, and discomfited an hundred and twenty kings 3 
of the Canaanites and Madianites ; he gave him his laws, making 
him heir of all that [land] wherein our people dwelleth. 

But how doth Israel bear himself? How many prophets hath he^ 
slain ; how_many prophecieshath h^_jiojitamiiiated ; how hath he 
violated the law of God : how many for that cause have departed 
from God and gone to serve idols, through your offence, priests ! 
And how do ye dishonour God with your manner of life ! And now 
ye ask me: What will God give us in paradise 1 Ye ought to 
have asked me : What will be the punishment that God will give 
you in hell ; and then what ye ought to do for true penitence in 
order that God may have mercy on you : for this I can tell you, 
and to this end am I sent to you. 

71K 



As God liveth b , in whose presence I stand, _ye will not receive 
adulation from me, but truth. W 7 herefore I say unto you, repent 
and turn to God even as our fathers did after sinning, and harden 
not your heart. 

The priests were consumed with rage at this speech, but for fear 
of the common peo^fe-^iey^spaTe not a word. 

And Jesus continued, saying : doctors, scribes, O Pharisees, 
O priests, tell me. Ye desire horses like knights, but ye desire 
not to go forth to war ; ye desire fair clothing like women, but ye 
desire not to spin and nurture children ; ye desire the fruits of the 
field, and ye desire not to cultivate the earth ; ye desire the fishes 
of the sea, but ye desire not to go a fishing ; ye desire honour as 



The Chapter of Alms (?). b By the living God. 



1 Isa. i. a. 3 Josh. xii. 24 (but the number is 31). 



160 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

honore chome citadini ma non uollete charge della ripublicha . 
he uoi uollete le decline he primitie chome sacerdoti ma non 
uollete con uerita seruire DIG . che chossa fara adonque DIO 

71 b di uoi che quiui ogni bene uollete senza ueruno | malle . 
in uerita ui dicho che DIO ui dara uno locho doue harete ogni 
malle seiiza niuno bene . he deto quessto iessu li fu apres- 
sentato uno indemoniato il quale nom parllaua ne uedeua he 
hera priuo dello audito . onde iessu uissto la fede loro leuo 
li hochij suoi al cielo he disse . signore DIO a di padri nosstri 
habi misserichordia sopra quessto inffermo he donali la sanita 
azioche chonosscano quessto populo che tu mi hai mandate . 
he deto questo iessu comando allo spirito che si partise dicendo . 
in uirtu del nome di DIO signore nosstro b parti ti malligno dal- 
LO HOMO . si parti il spirito he parllo il muto uedendo chon 
li suoi hochij . onde si riempite de timore ogniuno ma li 
scribi dissero in uirtu di belzebu principe di demonij scazia 
li demonij . allora disse iessu ogni regno in se diuisso si 
disstrugie he chassa sopra chassa chassca . se in uirtu di 
satana scaciasi satana chome staria il suo reggno he se li 
uosstri fioli scaziano satana con la scritura che li dete salla- 
mone proffeta . loro tesstifichano me scaziare satana in uirtu 
di DIO . Viue DIO C che la besstemia in spirito santo he in- 

72 a remissibile in quessto he nello altro sechollo | perche uollon- 
tariamente si reproba il maligno chonosscendo la reprobatione . 
he deto quessto iessu uscite del tempio onde la plebe il 
magnifichaua pero portorno tutti li inffermi che poteterro 
racholgere . he iessu fata la horatione dete ha tuti la sanita 
onde quel giorno incomincio in ierussalem la millitia romana 
per operatione di satana . ha sollicitare la plebe con dire 
che iessu herra DIO da issdraelle il quale hera uenuto ha 
uisitare il suo popullo . 



4)1. 



DUMB, DEAF, AND BLIND DEMONIAC 161 

citizens, but ye desire not the burden of the republic ; and ye 
desire tithes and firstfruits as priests, but ye desire not to serve 
God in truth. What then shall God do with you, seeing ye desire 
herejevery good without any [ evill Verily I say to you thaT71 b 
GocTwill give you a place where ye^will have every evil without 
any good. 

And when Jesus had said this, there was brought unto him 
a demoniac 1 who could not speak nor see, and was deprived of 
hearing. Whereupon Jesus, seeing their faith, raised his eyes to 
heaven and said : Lord God a of our fathers, have mercy on this 
sick man and give him health, in^order that this people may know 
thattiiouhast sent me. 

And having said this Jesus Commanded the spirit to depart, 
saying : In the power of Hie nameof God our Lord h , depart, evil 
one, from the man ! 

The spirit departed and the dumb man spoke, and saw with his 
eyes. Whereupon every one was filled with fear, but the scribes 
said : In the power of Beelzebub, prince of the demons, he casteth 
out the demons. 

Then said Jesus : Every kingdom divided against itself de- 
stroyeth itself, and house falleth upon house. If in the power of 
"Satan, Satan be castTout, how shall his kingdom stand? And if 
your sons cast out Satan with the scripture that Solomon 2 the 
prophet gayj?_thgm L they testify that I cast out Satan in the power 
of God.__U3 God livethc, blasphemy against the Holy Spirit is 



cithout^cemissionj in this and in the other world; I becausTthe 72 a 

"**% f 

wicked man of his own will reprobates himself, knowing the 
reprobation. 

And having said this Jesus went out of the temple. And the 
common people magnified him, for they brought all the sick folk 
whom they could gather together, and Jesus having made prayer 
gave to all their health : whereupon on that day in Jerusalem the 
Roman soldiery, by the working of Satan, began to stir up the 
common people, saying that Jesus was the God of Israel, who was 
come to visit his people. 



God is sovereign. b By the permission of God. c By the 

living God. 



1 See Matt. xii. 22-31. a The Qoran accepts from the Talmud the 

tradition of Solomon s magical powers : cp. e.g. Q.xxi, xxvii, init., and see 
also 76*. 



BAGO M 



162 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

LXX. 

Partissi iessu di ierussalem dapoi la passca . he hentro nelli 
confini di cesarea fillipi onde auendoli deto lo angelo gabrielo 
la seditione che cominciaua nella plebe . interogo li suoi 
dissepoli dicendo che chossa dichono li homeni di me . dissero 
loro alchuni dichono che tu sei helia altri dichono te ieremia 
he altri dichono uno proffeta delli hantichi . Risspose iessu, 
he uoi che chossa dite chio sia . Risspose pietro tu sei christo 
fiolo di DIO . si adiro iessu allora he chon ira il riprese dicendo 

72 b ua he partiti da me perche tu sei il diajuollo he cerchi di 
farmi scandalo . he minazio li undeci dicendo guai ha uoi se 
chredete quessto perche ho impetrato da DIO una grande 
malladitione chotra di cholloro che quessto chrederano . he 
uolleua scaziare pietro onde li undeci pregorno per lui iessu 
il quale non il scatio ma di nouo il ripresse dicendo . guarda 
che giamai piu tu dicha talle parole perche DIO ti riproberebe . 
pianse pietro he disse signore io ho parllato da stollto pregga 
DIO che mi perdoni . allora disse iessu, se DIO nosstro non 
uolsse mosstrarse ha mose seruo suo ne ha hellia che tanto 
ammaua ne ha ueruno proffeta . uorete uoi penssare che DIO 
si mosstri ha quessta generatione inchredula . Ma non sapete 
uoi che DIO il tutto ha chreato de niente con una sollo parolla b 
he tutti li homeni da uno pezzo di fango hano hauto origine . 
hora chome hauera simillitudine DIO con lo homo . Guai 
ha cholloro che si lassano inganare da satana he deto questo 
iessu preggo DIO per pietro piangendo li undeci he pietro 
he dicendo chosi sia, chosi sia ho signore DIO C nostro bene- 
deto . Dapoi si parti iessu he andossi in galilea azioche si 

73 a smorzase quella opinione uana | che il uolgo comincio pilgiare 
di lui . 



dJLatUI i 
J^l 

Jill b. 



AT CAESAREA PHILIPPI 163 



LXX. 

Jesus departed from Jerusalem after the Passover, and entered 
into the borders of Caesarea Philippi 1 . "Whereupon, the angel 
Gabriel having told him of the sedition which was beginning 
among the common people, he asked his disciples, saying : What 
do men say of me ? 

They said: Some say that thou art Elijah, others Jeremiah, 
and others one of the old prophets. 

Jesus answered : And ye ; what say ye that I am ? 

Peter answered : Thou art Christ, son of God. 

Then was Jesus angry, and with anger rebuked him, saying: 
Begone and depart from me 2 , because thou art the devil | and 72 b 
seekest to cause me offence ! 

And he threatened the eleven, saying : Woe to you if ye 
believe this, for I have won from God a great curse 3 against those 
who believe this. 

And he was fain to cast away Peter; whereupon the eleven 
besought Jesus for him, who cast him not away, but again rebuked 
him, saying : Beware that never again thou say such words, 
because God would reprobate thee ! 

Peter wept, and said : Lord, I have spoken foolishly ; beseech 
God that he pardon me. 

Then said Jesus : If our God willed not to show himself to 
Moses his servant, norTo Elijah whom he so loved, nor jto any 
prophet, will ye think that God should show himself to this 
faithless generation ] But know ye not that God hath created all 
things of nothing with one single word b , and all men have had 
their origin out of a piece of clay 1 Now, how shall God have 
likeness to man 1 ? Woe to those who suffer themselves to be 
deceived of Satan ! 

And having said this, Jesus besought God for Peter, the eleven 
and Peter weeping, and saying : So be it, so be it, O blessed 
Lord our God c . 

Afterwards Jesus departed and went into Galilee, in order that. 
this vainopimon | which the common folk began to hold coiiceriiingjffla 
him might beextinguished. 

The Chapter of the curse upon the Christians (sic). b God created 
everything in one speech with nothing. Inde. c O God, sovereign. 

1 Cp. and contrast Matt. xvi. 13-20 and parallels. 2 Cp. Matt. xvi. 23. 
s So also 219* : see note on 3* (p. 3) and io a (p. 17). 

M 2 



164 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

LXXI *. 

Ariuato iessu nella patria sua si diuolgo per tutta la 
regione di galilea . chome iessu proffeta hera uenuto in 
nazaret onde con dilligenzia cerchorno li infermi . he si 
apressentorno ha lui pregandollo che li tochasi con le mani 
he tanta hera la moltitudine che uno certo richo infermo 
di paralissia . nom potendo farsi portare per la porta fecesi 
portare sopra il choperto della chassa doue iessu staua he 
fato scoprire il choperto si fece challare con linzioli auanti 
di iessu . il qualle stete alquanto sospesso he poi disse non 
temere ho fratello perche ti sono perdonato li pechati . 
si scandalizorno ogniuno quessto sentendo he diceuano he 
chie chosstui che perdona li pecchati . Allora disse iessu 
uiue DIG che io nom posso perdonare li pecchati ne homo ueruno 
ma sollo DIG perdona b . Ma chome seruo di DIG posso pregare 
per li pechati di altri onde ho preggato per quessto inffermo 
73 b he son sicuro | che DIG mia essaudito la mia horatione . onde 
azioche chonossciate la uerita io dicho ha quessto inffermo in 
nome di DIG di padri nosstri DIG di abraham he suoi filgioli . 
leuati suso sano he deto quessto iessu si leuo sano Io inffermo 
he glorifichaua DIG . allora la plebe pregorno iessu che 
preggase DIG per li inffermi che di fuori stauano . onde 
iessu usscite di fuori alloro he leuato le mani disse signore 
DIG delli exerciti DIG uiuo DIG uero DIG santo DIG che non 
morira giamai d . habi misserichordia sopra di chosstoro onde 
ogniuno risspose amen il che deto iessu posse le mani alii 
infermi li quali tutti riceuetero la sanita . onde magnificha- 
uano DIG dicendo DIG cia uissitato per il suo profeta he uno 
grande proffeta DIG cia mandate . 



A PARALYTIC HEALED 165 

LXXI a. 

Jesus having arrived in his own country *, H was spread through^ 
all the region ^fGa]^JiP w *Ht J.esu3_the prophet was come to 
"iSTazaretE Whereupon with diligence sought they the sick and 

bVoughT~them to him, beseeching him that he would touch them 

with his hands. And so great was the multituctethat a certain 
rich man7 sick of the palsy, not being able to get himself carried 
through the door, had himself carried up to the roof of the house 
in which Jesus was, and having caused the roof to be uncovered, 
had himself let down by sheets in front of Jesus. Jesus stood for 
a moment in hesitation, and then he said : Fear not, brother, for 
thy sins are forgiven thee. 

"""Every one was offended hearing this, and they said : And who 
is this who forgiveth sins ] 

Then said Jesus : As God liveth, I am not able to forgive sins^ 
nor is any man, but (tod alone forgiveth^! But as servant of God 
fcan beseech him for^the sins of others : and so I have besought 



lanTfor this sick man, and 1 am sure that God hath heard my 73 b 
prayer. Wherefore, that ye may know the truth, I say to this sick 
man : " In the name of the God c O f our fathers, the God of 
Abraham and his sons, rise up healed ! " And when Jesus had 
said this the sick man rose up healed, and glorified God. 

Then the common people besought Jesus that he would beseech 
God joTjhe sick who stood outside. Whereupon Jesus went out 
unto them, and, having lifted up his hands, said : Lord God 
of hosts, the living God, the true God, the holy God, that never 
will die d ; have mercy upon them ! Whereupon every one 
answered : Amen. And this having been said, Jesus laid his 
hands upon the sick foils, and they all received their health., ~ 
"" TheFeupon they magnified God, saying : God hath visited us 
by his prophet, and a great prophet hath God sent unto us. 



The Chapter of he forgiveth. b Said Jesus : I swear by 

the living God that I cannot forgive any sin ; only God can forgive 
sins. Inde. By permission of God. d God is sovereign, living, 

the Truth, a friend and persisting. 



1 See Mark ii. 1-12 and parallels. 



166 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

LXXII . 

La notte iessu parllo in sachreto con li dissepoli suoi 
dicendo . io ui dicho in uerita che satana ui uolle chriuellare 
chome si fa il formento . onde io ho preggato DIG per uoi 
pero non perira se non cholui che mi tende insidie . he quessto 

74 a disse iessu per iuda perche langelo gabrielo | li disse chome 
iuda haueua mano chon li sacerdoti he li riferiua quanto 
iessu parllaua . chon lachrime si hachossto ha iessu cholui 
che scriue quessto dicendo . ho maesstro di a me qualle he 
cholui che ti tradisse; risspose iessu dicendo ho barnaba 
elgi non e la hora che tu il sapij ma pressto si scoprira il 
scellerato perche mi partiro dal monddo . Allora pianssero 
li aposstoli dicendo ho maesstro perche ci uoi habandonare . 
elgie molto melgio che noi moriamo che essere abandonati 
da te . Risspose iessu non si turbi il chor uosstro he non 
ui spauentati perche io no uio chreati ma DIG chreatore 
nosstro che uia chreati ui chusstodira b . quanto ha me hora 
son uenuto al monddo per preparare la uia al nontio di DIO C 
il qualle portera la sallute al monddo . Ma guardate che 
non siate ingganati perche uenirano molti falsi proffeti che 
pilgierano le mie parolle he contaminerano il mio euangelio . 
Disse allora andrea ho maesstro dici qualche segno azioche 
il chonosiamo . Risspose iessu lui non uera al tempo uosstro 
ma uenira alquanti hanni dapoi di uoi quando sera 

74!) scancellato Io euangelio mio . per modo che appena seraui 
trenta fideli a quel tempo DIG hauera misserichordia del 
monddo onde mandera il nontio suo d . il quale sopra il suo 
chapo si ripossera una neuola biancha onde sara chonossciuto 
da uno elleto di DIG he sera per lui manifesstato al monddo . 
elgi uera chom potessta grande chontra li empij he dis- 
strugera la iddolatria sopra la terra he mi rallegro perche . 
per lui sara chonosciuto DIG nosstro he glorifichato he saro 
chonosciuto per uerace onde elgi fara uendeta chontra di 



SIGNS OF THE MESSENGER 167 



At night Jesus spake in secret with his disciples, saying : Verily 
I say unto you that Satan desireth to sift you as wheat l ; but 
I have besought God for you, and there shall not perish of you 
save he that layeth snares for me. And this he said of Judas, 
because the angel Gabriel | said to him how that Judas had hand 74 ;v 
with the priests, and reported to them all that Jesus spake. 

With tears drew near unto Jesus he who writeth this, saying : 
O master, tell me, who is he that should betray thee ] 

Jesus answered, saying : Barnabas, this is not the hour for 
thee to know him, but soon will the wicked one reveal himself, 
because I shall depart from the world. 

Then wept the apostles, saying : master, wherefore wilt thou 
forsake us ] It is much better that we should die than be forsaken 
of thee! 4 

Jesus answered : Let not your heart be troubled, neither be 
ye fearful 2 : for I have not created _y_ou, Tmt God our creator who_ 
Fath created you will protect you b . As for me, I am now come to 
thVvvgrld to prepare the way for the messenger of God 3 , who shall 
bring salvation tothe world*__ But beware that ye be not 
deceived, for many false prophets shall come 4 , who shall take my^ 
words and contaminate my gospel. 

Then said Andrew : Master, tell us some sign, that we may 
know him. 

Jesus answered : ( He will not come in your time, but will come 
some years after you, when my gospel shall be j annulled, insomuch 74 b 
that there shall be scarcely thirty faithful. At that time God 
will have mercy on the world, and so he will send his messenger d , 
over whose head will rest a white cloud, whereby he shall be 
known of one elect of God, and shall be by him manifested to the 
world. He shall come with great power against the ungodly, and 
shall destroy idolatry upon the earth. And it rejoiceth me because 
that through him our God shall be known and glorified, and I shall 
be known to be true; and he will execute vengeance against 




a Tho Chapter of the sign of the prophet of God. b God creates and 
preserves. c The prophet of God. d God sends. 



1 Cp. Luke xxii. 31. 2 John xiv. 27. 3 See 44* and note there 

(p. 99, n. a). * Cp. Matt. xxiv. u. 



168 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

cholloro che dirano me essere piu che homo . in uerita 
ui dicho che la luna li minisstrera il dormire nella fanciulezza 
he quando sera grande la pilgiera nelle mani sue . guardissi 
il monddo di non scaziarlo perche hammazi li iddolatri perche 
molto piu ne ammazo moise seruo di DIG a he iosue . li quali 
nom perdonetero alle citta che le abbrugiorno he li fanciuli 
ucissero imperoche . ha piaga uechia se li da il fuocho . Elgi 
uenira chon la uerrita piu chiara di tutti li profeti he 
76 a riprobera quello che mallamente ussa il mond do . le tore 
della citta del padre nosstro si salluterano per allegrezza 
he pero quando si uedera la iddolatria andare ha terra he 
confessare me homo chome li altri homeni . ui dicho in 
uerita che sera uenuto il nontio di DIG a . 



Vi dicho in nerita che . se satana intentara che sarete 
ammici di DIG imperoche niuno esspugna le citta propie . 
se satana hauessi sopra di uoi la uollonta sua ui lassarebe 
scorere al piacere uosstro . ma perche chonossce che li sete 
innimicj fara ogni sforzo per farui perire ma non temete uoi 
perche il sera chontra di uoi chome uno chane liggato im 
peroche DIG ha exaudito la mia oratio . Risspose ioane ho 
maesstro non sollo per noi ma per cholloro che chrederano 
allo euangelio dicj chome insidia lo homo il tentatore anticho . 
B/isspose iessu con quatro modi tenta lo empio, il primo he 
quando tenta per se stesso cho penssieri . il secondo he 
75b quando tenta chom parolle he fati | per mezo delli suoi serui , 
il terzo he quando tenta con falsa dotrina he il quarto he 
quando tenta con false uissioni . hora quanto deue essere 
chauto lo homo he tanto piu quanto che elgia in fauore suo 
la charne del homo la quale amma il pechato chome cholui 
che a la febre amma la aqua . Vi dicho in uerita che se lo 
homo temera DIG del tutto hauera uitoria chome dice dauit 
proffeta suo . li angioli suoi mandera DIG" ha te li qualli 



a 4)1 



THE TEMPTER S METHODS 169 

those who shall say that I am more than man. Verily I say to 
you that the moon shall minister sleep to him in his boyhood, and 
when he shall be grown up he shall take her in his hands 1 . Let 
the world beware of casting him out because he shall slay the 
idolaters, for many more were slain by Moses, the servant of God a , 
and Joshua, who spared not the cities which they burnt, and slew 
the children; for to an old wound one applieth fire. 

He shall come with truth more clear than that of all the 
prophets, and shall reprove him who useth the world amiss. | The 75 a 
towers of the city of our father shall greet one another for joy : 
and so when idolatry shall be seen to fall to the ground and confess 
me a man like other men, verily I say unto you the messenger of 
God a shall be come. 

LXXIII b. 

1 Verily I say unto you, that if Satan shall try whether ye be 
friends of God because no one assaileth his own cities, if Satan 
should have his will over you he would suffer you to glide at your 
own pleasure ; but because he knoweth that ye be enemies to him he 
will do every violence to make you perish. But fear not ye, for 
he will be against you as a dog that is chained, because God hath 
heard my prayer. 

John answered : O master, not only for us, but for them that 
shall believe the gospel 2 , tell us how the ancient tempter layeth 
wait for man. 

Jesus answered : In four ways tempteth that wicked one. The 
first is when he tempteth by himself, with thoughts. The second 
is when he tempteth with words and deeds | by means of his 75 b 
servants; the third is when he tempteth with false doctrine; the 
fourth is when he tempteth with false visions. Now how cautious 
ought men to be, and all the more according as he hath in his 
favour the flesh of man, which loveth sin as he who hath fever 
loveth water. Verily I say unto you, that if a man fear God he 
shall have victory over all, as saith David his prophet 3 : " God c 



a The prophet of God. ll The Chapter of appointing a vicegerent. 

God sends. 



1 Cp. the obscure passage in QorAn, liv. init. 2 Cp. John xvii. 20. 

3 Ps. xci. u, 12, 7. 



170 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

chustodirano le uie tue a talmente che no ti offendera il diauollo 
perche . mille chasscerano dalla tua sinistra he dieci millia 
dalla tua destra talmente che ha te non si apropinquerano b . 
anziche DIG nosstro cho grande ammore cd ci promete per lo 
isstesso dauite di chustodirci dicendo . io ti dono intelleto 
il qualle ti ammaesstrera he nelle uie tui che chaminerai 
f ermaro sopra di te lo hochio mio e . Ma che diro elglia deto 
per essaia ; Elgi possibile che la madre si smentichi il fanciulo 
del uentre suo . ma ti dicho che quando essa si smentichassi io 
non mi smeticharo di te f . ditemi adonque chi temera satana | 
76 a auendo in chusstodia li angioli he in protetione DIG uiuo g . 
nondimeno bissogna chome dice sallamone proffeta che tu 
filgiolo che sei andato ha seruire DIG prepara la anima tua 
alle tetationi . Vi dicho in uerita che lo homo doueria fare 
chome il banchiero che examina la moneta examinando li 
suoi pensieri azioche elgi non pechasi chontra DIG chreatore 
suo h . 

LXXIV i. 

Elgi sono stato he sono nel monddo homeni che non 
tengono per pechato il pensiero . li quali sono in grandissimo 
herore; ditemi chome pecho satana certo he che lui pecho 
con il penssare di essere piu degno del homo . Pecho sallamone 
penssando di conuitare ogni chreatura di DIG che pero uno 
pescie il choregete con mangiare quanto elgi haueua prepa- 
rato . onde non senza chaussa dice dauit padre nosstro che 



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SINS OF THOUGHT 171 

shall give his angels charge over thee, who shall keep thy ways a , 
BO that the devil shall not cause thee to stumble. A thousand 
shall fall on thy left hand, and ten thousand on thy right hand, 
so that they shall not come nigh thee b ." 

Furthermore, our God with great love c d promised to us by the 
same David to keep us, saying 1 : " I give unto thee understanding, 
which shall teach thee ; and in thy ways wherein thou shalt walk 
I will cause Mine eye to rest upon thee e ." 

But what shall I say? He hath said by Isaiah 2 : "Can a 
mother forget the child of her womb 1 But I say unto thee, that 
when she forget, I will not forget thee f ." 

Tell me, then, who shall fear Satan, | having for guard the angels 76 a 
and for protection the living God s ? Nevertheless, it is necessary, 
as saith the prophet Solomon 3 , that " Thou, my son, that art come_ 
to fear the Lord, prepare thy soul for temptationsT* Verily I say 
untcTyou, that a" man ought To do as the banker who examineth 
money, examining his thoughts, that he sin not against God his 
creator V 

LXXIV*. 

There have been and are in the world men who hold not 
thought for sin; who are in the greatest error. Tell me, how 
sinned Satan] It is certain that he sinned in the thought that 
he was more worthy than man 4 . Solomon B sinned in thinking to 
invite to a feast all the creatures of God, whereupon a fish cor 
rected him by eating all that he had prepared. Wherefore, not 
without cause, saith David 6 our father, that " to ascend in one s 



a God sent angels to the faithful to keep their paths. Inde. b Said 

God to the believers : Perhaps on their left a thousand misfortunes 
may befall, and on their right ten thousand, yet they shall not reach 
you. Inde. c God loves. d God promised. Inde. e God said to 
the faithful in the Psalms : we have given you wisdom to guide you into 
the true way, and wherever you will go, I am looking upon you. Inde. 
1 Said God, to whom be praise, to the believers : Can it be that the 
pregnant woman forget while the child is in her womb? but if she 
forgets at all, I shall not forget you. K By the living God. h God 
creates. The Chapter of the thought. 



1 Ps. xxxii. 8. 8 Isa. xlix. 15. Ecclus. ii. i. * Cp. 36* sqq. 

and Qoran ii sub init.; vii init. ; xv ; xvii med.; xviii med. ; xxviii fin.; 
see Introd. * Cp. 7i b (note 2, p. 161). Ps. Ixxxiv. 5, 6 (cp. 

Vulg.). 



172 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

10 asscendere nello chor suo disspone nella ualle delle lachrime . 
76 b he perche chrida DIG per essaia proffeta suo dicenddo | leuate 

11 uosstri chatiui penssieri dalli hochij mei . Ma ha che 
proposito dice sallamone con ogni chusstodia chusstodissi il 
chore tuo . Viue DIG a alia chui pressenza sta la anima mia 
che il tutto he deto chontra li chatiui pensieri chon li quali 
si fa il pechato che senza penssare non si polle pechare . hora 
ditemi quando lo agricholtore pianta la uigna profonda elgi le 
piante certo si . hora chosi fa satana che piantando il pechato 
non si ferma allo hochio ouero horechie ma richore al chore il 
quale he abitation di DIG b . si chome disse per mosse seruo suo 
dicendo io habitero in loro azioche chaminino nella legie mia . 
hora ditemi se il Re herode ui dessi in chustodia una chassa 
nella qualle lui uollessi habitare lassaresste uoi hentrarui pillato 
suo innimicho . ouero chollocharui le robe sui certo no . hora 
quato meno douete lassciare hentrare satana nel chore uosstro 
ne chollocharui li suoi pensieri . essendo che DIG nosstro 
ma dato c il chore in chustodia il quale he habitatione sua b . 
guardate adonque che il banchiero chonsidera la moneta se 

77 a he | iussta la imagine di cessare, se lo argento he bono ouero 
falsso he se he di pesso pero molto la riuolgie per mano . 
hai mondo pazzo quanto sei prudente nelli tuoi negotij che 
pero riprenderai he iudicherai il giorno esstremo li serai di 
DIG di negligenzza he inchonsideratione perche senza dubio . 
loro sono piu prudenti li seruitori tuoi che non sono li serui 
di DIG . hora ditemi chie cholui il quale examini uno 
pensiero chome fa il banchiero uno danaro di argento certo 
niuno . 

LXXV*. 

Allora disse iachobo . ho maestro qualle he la examinatione 
di uno pensiero simille al danaro . Risspose iessu, largento 
bono nel pensiero he la pieta imperoche ogni pensiero empio 
uiene dal diauollo . la immagine iussta he lo exepio di santi 
he proffeti che dobiamo inmitarli . he la grauezza del pensiero 
he lo ammore di DIG per il qualle il tutto debe farsi . onde 



4JjL>. b Jill 0,0 ^JlS. C ( aju 4JJ|. d J.;-|\ 



OF KEEPING THE HEART 173 

heart setteth one in the valley of tears." And wherefore doth 
God cry by Isaiah his prophet, saying : | " Take away your evil 76 b 
thoughts from mine eyes ? l " And to what purpose saith Solomon 2 : 
" With all thy keeping, keep thine heart 1 " As God liveth a , in 
whose presence standeth my soul, all is said against the evil 
thoughts wherewith sin is committed, for without thinking it is 
not possible to sin. Now tell me, when the husbandman planteth 
the vineyard doth he set the plants deep ? Assuredly yea. Even so 
doth Satan, who in planting sin doth not stop at the eye or the 
ear, but passeth into the heart, which is God s dwelling b . As he 
spake by Moses 3 his servant, saying: "I will dwell in them, in 
order that they may walk in my law." 

Now tell me, if Herod the king should give you a house to keep 
in which he desired to dwell, would ye suffer Pilate, his enemy, 
to enter there or to place his goods therein ? Assuredly no. 
Then how much less ought ye to suffer Satan to enter into your 
heart, or to place his thoughts therein ; seeing that our God hath 
given c you your heart to keep, which is his dwelling b . Observe, 
therefore, that the banker considereth the money, whether | the 77 a 
image of Caesar is right, whether the silver is good or false, 
and whether it is of due weight : wherefore he turneth it over 
much in his hand. Ah, mad world! How prudent thou art in 
thy business, so that in the last day thou wilt reprove and judge 
the servants of God of negligence and carelessness, for without 
doubt thy servants are more prudent than the servants of God 4 . 
Tell me, now, who is he who examineth a thought as the banker 
a silver coin 1 Assuredly no one. 



Then said James : master, how is the examination of a thought 
like unto [that of] a coin ? 

Jesus answered : The good silver in the thought is piety, 
because every impious thought cometh of the devil. The right 
image is the example of the holy ones and prophets, which we 
ought to follow ; and the weight of the thought is the love of God 



a By the living God. h The heart, the dwelling-place of God. 

God gives. d The Chapter of the lazy one. 



1 Isa. i. 16 (Vulg.). a Prov. iv. 23. 8 Cp. Lev. xxvi. n, ia. 

* Cp. Luke xvi. 8. 



174 THE GOSPEL OF BAKNABAS 

77 b lo innimicho | ui portera penssieri empij chontra il prossimo . 
chonforme al monddo per chorompere la charne he di ammore 
terreno pe chorompere lo ammore di DIG . Risspose bartolomeo 
ho maesstro che dobiamo fare per penssare pocho azioche 
non chassciamo im pechato . Risspose iessu dui chosse ui 
sono necessarie, la prima he exercitarui molto he la altra 
he parllare pocho imperoche . lo otio he una sentina doue 
ogni inmondo penssiero si chongregga . he il tropo parllare 
he una sponga che racholgie le iniustitie . elgie pero 
neccessario che il uosstro hoperare non sollo tengi il chorpo 
hochupato ma hanchora lo animo sia hochupato chon ora- 
tione . perche non bissogna giamai manchare dalla oratione . 

10 ui dicho per simillitudine che elgi era uno homo mal pagga- 
tore onde niuno che il chonossceua uolleua andare ha lauorare 

11 suoi champi . onde elgi chome malligno disse io mi andero 
im piazza ha trouare deli hotiosi che non fano niente onde 
uerano ha lauorare le mie uiggne . Vscite quessto homo di 

78 a chassa sua he trojuo molti forestieri che stauano in otio he 
non haueuano danari . alii quali parllo he li condusse alia sua 
uiggna ma in uerita che niuno che il chonosseua he haueua 
oppere alii mani ui andorno . Elgie satana quelo mal pagatore 
perche da traualgio he lo homo ne riceue le etterne name in suo 
seruitio . onde elgie usscito del paradisso he ua ricerchando 
hoperatori . certamente che elgi mete, in hopere sue cholloro 
che stano in otio siano che si uolgia ma molto piu cholloro 
che no il chonosscono . non bassta a modo ueruno chonossere 
il malle per fugirlo ma bissogna opperare bene per supe- 
rarllo . 

LXXVI . 

Io ui dicho per simillitudine . elgi fu uno homo il quale 
haueua tre uigne le quali chollocho ha tre agricholtori . 
luno de li quali per non sapere choltiuare la uigna produsse 
la uigna sollo folgie . il secondo insegnaua al terzzo chome si 
deueno choltiuare le uiggne il quale hotimamente lo asscoltaua 
78 b il suo parllare he . elgi choltiuo la sua chome lui disse | per 



THE NIGGARDLY, MASTER 175 

by which all ought to be done. Whereupon the enemy | will bring 77 b 
there impious thoughts against your neighbour, [thoughts] con 
formed to the world, to corrupt the flesh ; [thoughts] of earthly 
love to corrupt the love of God. 

Bartholomew answered : O master, what ought we to do to 
think little, in order that we may not fall into temptation 1 

Jesus answered : Two things are necessary for you. The first 
is to exercise yourselves much, and the second is to talk little : for 
idleness is a sink wherein is gathered every~unclean thought, and 
too much talking is a sponge which picketh up iniquities. It is, 
therefore, necessary not only that your working should hold the 
body occupied, but also that the soul be occupied with prayer. 
For it needeth never to cease from prayer. 

I tell you for an example : There was a man who paid ill, 
wherefore none that knew him would go to till his fields. "Where 
upon he, like a wicked man, said : " I will go to the market-place 1 
to find idle ones who are doing nothing, and will therefore come to 
till my vines." This man went forth from his house, and found | 
many strangers who were standing in idleness, and had no money. 78 a 
To them he spake, and led them to his vineyard. But verily none 
that knew him and had work for his hands went thither. 

He is Satan, that one who payeth ill ; for he giveth labour, and 
man receiveth for it the eternal fires in his service. Wherefore he 
hath gone forth from paradise, and goeth in search of labourers. 
Assuredly he setteth to his labours those who stand in idleness 
whosoever they be, but much more those who know him not. It 
is not in any wise enough for any one to know evil in order 
to escape it, but it behoveth to work at good in order to over 
come it. 

LXXVI a . 

I tell you for an example 2 . There was a man who had three 
vineyards, which he let out to three husbandmen. Because the first 
knew not how to cultivate the vineyard the vineyard brought forth 
only leaves. The second taught the third how the vines ought to 
be cultivated ; and he most excellently hearkened to his words ; 
and he cultivated his, as he told him, I insomuch that the vineyard 78 b 



a The Chapter of the one who has knowledge two parables thereof. 



1 Cp. Matt. xx. 3 sqq. But the parable is apocryphal. a Another 

apocryphal parable: cp. (?) Matt, xxi 28 sqq.; or Luke xix. n sqq. 



176 THE GOSPEL OF BAENABAS 

modo che molto produsse la uigna del terzo . Ma il sechondo 
lascio la uigna sanza choltiuarlla spedendo sollamente il 
tempo ha parllare . Venuto il tempo di paggare la pissone 
al patrone della uiggna il primo l disse . signore la tua uigna 
non chonossco chome si deue choltiuarlla pero non ho riceuto 
fruto quessto hano . Risspose il padrone ho pazzo adonque 
tu sollo habitaui il monddo perche non dimandassti consilgio 
al sechondo mio uignarolo . il quale sa bene choltiuare la 
terra certo he che tu mi pagerai . he deto quessto lo chondano 
ha lauorare in charcere inssino che lui pagasi il padrone 
il quale mosso ha pieta sopra la sua semplicita lo libero 
dicedo . Vatene chio non uolgio che tu lauori piu la mia 
uigna basta ha te che io ti dono il debito . Vene il secondo 
al qualle disse il padrone sia benuenuto il mio uignarolo doue 
sono li fruti che me deui . certo che tu sapendo bene podare 
le uigne deue bene hauere prodoto la uigna chio ti chollo- 
chai . Risspose il secondo ho signore la tua uigna he im piedi 
79* perche io non ho talgiato il legname ne disstruto | il terreno 
ma la uigna non ha produto il fruto pero non ti posso pagare . 
onde il patrone chiamo il terzo he chon amiratione disse . 
tu mi dicesti che questo homo al qualle chollochai la seconda 
uigna ti ha maestro perffetamente ha choltiuare la uig-gna 
che io ti chollochai . chome polle essere adonque che la uigna 
chio li 2 chollochai non habia prodoto fruto essendo tutto uno 
terreno . Risspose il terzo signore le uigne non si choltiuano 
sollo chon il parlare ma bissogna ogni giorno sudare una 
chamissa chi uolle farle produre il fruto . he chome produra 
fruto la tua uigna del tuo uignarolo ho siggnore se elgi non 
fa altro che sconsumare il tempo ha parllare . certo he signore 
che se elgi hauesse messo in fati le sui parolle . io che non 
so tanto parlare tio dato il fito per dui hanni lui ti hauerebe 
dato il fito per cinque hanni della uigna . Adirossi il patrone 
he con scerno disse al uignarollo adonque tu hai fato uno grande 
fato ha non chauare il legname he spianare la uigna onde 
se ti deue molto premiare . he chiamato li suoi serui il | fece 



1 MS. pimo (sic). MS. ti. 



THE THREE VINEDRESSERS 177 

of the third bore much. But the second left his vineyard un 
cultivated, spending his time solely in talking. When the time 
was come for paying the rent to the lord of the vineyard, the first 
said : " Lord, I know not how thy vineyard ought to he cultivated : 
I therefore I have not received any fruit this year." 

The lord answered : " O fool, dost thou dwell alone in the 
world, that thou hast not asked counsel of my second vinedresser, 
who knoweth well how to cultivate the land 1 Certain it is that 
thou shalt pay me." 

And having said this he condemned him to work in prison until 
he should pay his lord; who moved with pity at his simplicity 
liberated him, saying : Begone, for I will not that thou work 
longer at my vineyard ; it is enough for thee that I give thee thy 
debt." 

The second came, to whom the lord said : " Welcome, my 
vinedresser! Where are the fruits that thou owest me? 
Assuredly, since thou knowest well how to prune the vines, the 
vineyard that I let out to thee must needs have borne much fruit." 

The second answered: " O lord, thy vineyard is backward 1 
because I have not pruned the wood nor worked up the | soil ; but yga 
the vineyard hath not borne fruit, so I cannot pay thee." 

Whereupon the lord called the third and with wonder said : 
" Thou saidst to me that this man, to whom I let out the second 
vineyard, taught thee perfectly to cultivate the vineyard which 
I let out to thee. How then can it be that the vineyard I let 
out to him should not have borne fruit, seeing it is all one 
soil ] " 

The third answered : " Lord, the vines are not cultivated by 
talking only, but he needs must sweat a shirt every day who 
willeth to make it bring forth its fruit. And how shall thy 
vineyard of thy vinedresser bear fruit, lord, if he doth naught 
but waste the time in talking ? Sure it is, lord, that if he had 
put into practice his own words, [while] I who cannot talk so 
much have given thee the rent for two years, he would have given 
thee the rent of the vineyard for five years." 

The lord was wroth, and said with scorn to the vinedresser : 
" And so thou hast wrought a great work in not cutting away the 
wood and levelling the vineyard, wherefore there is owing to 
thee a great reward !" And having called his servants | he had him 79l> 

1 Or, is alive (?). Text obscure. 



178 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

batere senza pieta ueruna . onde il chonduse in charcere sotto 
chusstodia di uno chrudel seruo . il quale ogni giorno il bate 
he g-iamai per pregi di ammici il uolse liberare . 

LXXVI]>. 

lo ui dicho in uerita che il giorno del iuditio molti dirano 
ha DIG . ho signore noi habiamo predichato he ammaestrato 
per la tua leggie . contra delli quali chriderano insino le 
pietre dicendo quando ad altri predichauate chon la propia 
lingua uoi condanauate uoi ho hoperatori de inniquita . Viue 
Dio b disse iessu che cholui il qualle chonosce la uerita he al 
riuersso hopera che lui sera di graue pena talmente punito . 
che satana quasi li hauera chompassione c . hora ditemi 
Dio d nosstro ha ci dato la leggie per chonosscere ouero per hope- 
rare . io ui dicho in uerita che ogni scienza ha per fine 
la sapienzza la quale quanto chonossce hopera . Ditemi se 
80 a uno sedesi ha menssa he chon | li hochij suoi uedessi cibi 
dellichati ma chon le mani ellegesi chosse inmonde he quelle 
mangiasi non sarebe pazo chostui . si certo dissero li dissepoli . 
allora disse iessu ho pazzo sopra ogni pazzo che sei tu homo 
che chon lo intelleto chonossci il ciello he chon le mani ellegi 
la terra . chon lo intelleto chonossci DIG he chon lo affeto 
uoi il monddo . cho lo intelleto chonossci le dellitie del para- 
disso he cho le hopere tui elleggi le misserie dello infferno . 
Brauo soldato che lassia la spada per chonbatere he porta 
il fodro . hora non sapete uoi che cholui che di note chamina 
dessidera il lume non per uedere il lume sollo ma |sibene per 
uedere la bona strada . azioche sichuro uadi allo hosspitio . 
ho missero monddo da essere mille uolte dissprezato he haborito 
poscia che . DIG nosstro per li suoi santi proffeti sempre ha 
uolluto darli ha chonossere la uia da andare alia patria he 
requie sua . Ma tu malligno non sollo non uoi chaminare 
ma quello che pegio he dissprezzi la luce . Elgie uero il 



c bile sJ ,jl$ sj^i? J^-x-Jj <J-il Ju: ^ "H 4iiL> ( _ 5 ^c J15 

d 



RIGHT USE OF KNOWLEDGE 179 

beaten without any mercy. And then he put him into prison 
under the keeping of a cruel servant who beat him every day, and 
never was willing to set him free for prayers of his friends. 

LXXVII a . 

Verily I say unto you, that on the day of judgement l many 
shall say to God : "Lord, we have preached and taught by thy_, 
kjK." Against them even the stones shall cry~out7sayingT " When 
je prgached_to^ others, with your own tongue ye condemned^your- 
selves, workers of in iquity ." 

As_God livethy said Jesus, he who knoweth the truth and 
worketh the contrary^ shall be punished wTEh "such grievous^ 
jTenalEy that Satan shall almost have compassion on him . Tell 
Tne, now, hath our God given d us the law for knowing or for 
working 1 Verily I say unto you, that all knowledge hath for end 
that wisdom which worketh all it knoweth. 

Tell me, if one were sitting at table and with [ his eyes beheld 80 a 
delicate meats, but with his hands should choose unclean things 
and eat those, would not he be mad? 

Yea, assuredly, said the disciples. 

Then said Jesus : O mad beyond all madmen art thou, O man, 
that with thine understanding knowest heaven, and with thine 
hands choosest earth; with thine understanding knowest God, 
and with thine affection desirest the world ; with thine under 
standing knowest the delights of paradise, and with thy works 
choosest the miseries of hell. Brave soldier, that leaveth the 
sword and carrieth the scabbard to fight ! Now, know ye not 
that he who walketh by night desireth light, not only to see the 
light, but rather to see the good road, in order that he may pass 
safely to the inn? miserable world, to be a thousand times 
despised and abhorred ! since our God by his holy prophets hath 
ever willed to grant it to know the way to go to his country and 
his rest ; but thou, wicked one, not only wiliest not to go, but, 
which is worse, hast despised the light! True is the pioverb of 

The Chapter of the one who has knowledge an evil-doer. b By 

the living God. c Said Jesus : By the living God, whoever has learnt 
the truth and acts contrary to it will have a fearful punishment ; perhaps 
Satan (even) shall have compassion upon him. Inde. d God gives. 




1 (?) Cp. Luke xiii. 26, 27. 

N 2 



180 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

80 b prouerbio del chamello che li spiaze la aqua chiajra per here 
impero che lui non uolle uedere la sua bruta fazia . chossi 
fa lo empio che hopera malle perche elgi hodia la luce azioche 
non sia chonosiuto le hopere sui chatiue . ma cholui che 
riceue la sapienzza he non sollo non hopera bene ma quello 
che he peggio la impiega in malle . he chome cholui che 
dessi li doni per isstrumento da ocider il donatore . 

LXXVIII a . 

lo ui dicho in uerita che DIG non hebe chompassione sopra 
la chaduta di satana . ma sibene sopra la chaduta di addamo b 
he quessto basstiui per chonosscere lo infellice stato di cholui 
che chonosse bene he hopera malle . allora disse andrea ho 
maesstro bona chossa he il lasciare de imparare per non 
chasscare in chotale stato . Risspose iessu, se elgie bono il 
monddo senza il solle, lo homo senza hochij he la anima senzza 
intelleto chosi elgie bono il non sapere . io ui dicho in uerita 
che elgi non e bono chossi il pane per la uita temporale quanto 
elgie bono lo imparare per la uitta etterna . Non sapete 
81 a uoi che | elgie precceto di DIG lo imparare perche chossi disse 
DIG . interoga li tuoi uechij he essi ti ammaestrerano he della 
leggie dice DIG . Fasi ehe il precceto mio ti sia auuanti li 
hochij he sedendo chaminando he in ogni tempo pensi ha 
quello . se adonque elgie bono il non imparare hora potrete 
chonosscere . ho infelice cholui che dissprezza la sapientia 
perche elgie sichuro di herare la uita hetterna . Risspose 
iachobo ho maesstro noi sapiamo che iob non imparo da 
maesstro ne abraham nondimeno santi he proffeti riusscirno . 
Risspose iessu io ui dicho in uerita che cholui che he della 
chassa delo sposo non ha bissogno di essere inuitato alle nozze . 
perche elgi habita nella chasa doue si fano le nozze ma si 
bene quelli che sono lontani dalla chasa . hora non sapete 
uoi che li proffeti di DIG sono nella chassa della gratia he 
misserichordia di DIG he pero hano maniffessto in loro la leggie 
di DIG . chome disse in cio dauit padre nosstro la leggie del 



THE VALUE OF LEARNING 181 

the camel, that it liketh not clear water | to drink, because it 
desireth not to see its own ugly face. So doth the ungodly who 
worketh ill ; for he hateth the light lest his evil works should 
be known l . But he who receiveth wisdom, and not only worketh 
not well, but, which is worse, employeth it for evil, is like to him 
who should use the gifts as instruments to slay the giver. 

LXXVIHa. 

Verily I say unto you, that God had not compassion on the fall 
of Satan^but yet [had compassion] on the fall of Adam b . And 
let this suffice you to know the unhappy condition of him who 
knoweth good and doeth evil. 

Then said Andrew : O master, it is a good thing to leave 
learning aside, so as not to fall into such condition. 

Jesus answered : If the world is good without the sun, man 
without eyes, and the soul without understanding, then is it good 
not to know. Verily I say unto you, that bread is not so good for 
the temporal life as is learning for the eternal life. Know ye not 
that | it is a precept of God to learn ? For thus saith. God : " Ask 81 a 
of thine elders, and they shall teach thee 2 ." And of the law 
saith God 3 : " See that my precept be before thine eyes, and 
when thou sittest down, and when thou walkest, and at all times 
meditate thereon." Whether, then, it is good not to learn, ye may 
now know. Oh, unhappy he who despiseth wisdom, for he is sure 
to lose eternal life. 

James answered : master, we know that Job learned not 
from a master, nor Abraham ; nevertheless they became holy ones 
and prophets. 

Jesus answered : Verily I say unto you, that he who is of the 
bridegroom s house needeth not to be invited to the marriage, 
because he dwelleth in the house where the marriage is held ; but 
they that are far from the house. Now know ye not that the 
prophets of God are in the house of God s grace and mercy, and 
so have the law of God manifest in them : as David our father 
saith on this matter 4 : " The law of his God is in his heart ; there- 



a The Chapter of the Light of the hearts. b God is gracious. 



1 Cp. John iii. 20. * Deut. xxxii. 7 b . 3 Cp. Deut. vi. 7, 8 and 

xi. 18, 19. * Psalm xxxvii. 31. 



182 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

suo DIG he nello chuore suo pero non sera chauato il suo 
81 b chaminare . io ui dicho in uerita | che DIG nosstro chreando 

10 homo non sollo il chreo iussto . ma linseri nel chore suo 
uno lume che li mosstrasi essere chonueniente il seraire DIG . 
onde sebene si hosscuro quel lume dapoi il pechato non si 
esstinse che pero ogni natione ha quessto desiderio di seruire 
DIG . sebene smarissono DIG he seruono li dei falsi he bu- 
giardi . El bisogna adonque che lo homo sia hamaesstrato dalli 
proffeti di DIG perche loro hano chiara la luce di amaesstrare la 
uia . per andare al paradisso patria nosstra bene seruendo 
DIG . sichome he neccessario di essere guidato he agiutato cholui 
che a imfermi li ochij suoi . 

LXXIX \ 

Risspose iachobo . he chome ci amaesstrerano li profeti 
se sono morti he chome sara ammaesstrato cholui che non 
ha chognitione delli proffeti . Risspose iessu elgie la loro 
dotrina scrita onde quella si deue studiare perche quella tie in 
proffetta . in uerita in uerita ui dicho che chi dissprezza la 
profetia dissprezza il proffeta non solamente ma dissprezza | 
82 a hanchora DIG che lo ha proffeta mandate b . ma quelli che 
non chonosscono il proffeta chome sono le natione . ui dicho 
se uissera in quelle regioni homo alchuno il quale uiua chome 

11 dissmostrera il suo chuore non facendo addaltri quello che 
lui non uolle riceuere da altri . he donando al prossimo suo 
quello che lui uolle riceuere da altri non sara chotal homo 
abbandonato dalla misserichordia di DIG . onde se non piu 
pressto alia morte DIG li mosstrera he dara c la sua leggie 
con misserichordia . penssate forsi uoi che DIG habia dato 
la leggie per amore de la leggie d . certo che quessto non e uero 
ma sibene che DIG ha dato la sua leggie azioche lo homo 
hoperi bene per ammore di DIG . onde se DIG trouera uno 
homo il qualle per ammore suo bene operi il dissprezera forsi 



EVERY NATION DESIEETH GOD 183 

fore his path shall not be digged up." Verily I say unto you j 
that our God in creating man not only created him righteous, but 81 
inserted in his heart a light that should show to him that it is 
fitting to serve~~Cro3T Wherefore,even if this light be darkened^ 
after sin, yet is it not extinguished^ For every nation hath this 
desire to serve God, though they have lost God and serve false 
and lying gods. Accordingly it is necessary that a man be taught 
of the prophets of God, for they have clear the light to teach the 
way to go to paradise, our country, by serving God well : just as 
it is necessary that he who hath his eyes diseased should be guided 
and helped. 

LXXIX a. 

James answered : And how shall the prophets teach us if they 
are dead ; and how shall he be taught who hath not knowledge of 
the prophets 1 

Jesus answered : Their doctrine is written down, so that it ought 
to be studied, for [the writing] is to thee for a prophet. Verily, 
verily, I say unto thee that he who despiseth the prophecy despiseth 
not only the prophet, but despiseth | also God who hath sent *> the 82 a 
prophet 1 . But concerning such as know not the prophet, as are the 
nations, I tell you that if there shall live in those regions any 
man who liveth as his heart shall show him, not doing to other^ 
that which he would not receive from others, and giving to his 
neighbour that which he would receive from others, such a man 
shall not be forsaken of the mercy of God. Wherefore at death, if 
not sooner, God will show him and give c him his law with mercy. 
Perchance ye think that God hath given the law for love of the law d "? 
Assuredly this is not true, but rather hath God given his law in 
order that man might work good for love of God. And so if God 
shall find a man who for love of him worketh good, shall he 



a The Chapter of the compassion of God. b God sends. God 

gives. d Didst thou imagine that God sent the law for the sake of the 
law. Nay ; rather he sent it . . service. Inde. 



1 Cp. Luke x. 16. 



184 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

no certo ma sibene lo amcra piu di quelli alii quali lui ha 
dato la leggie . io ui dicho per similitudine che elgi fu uno 
homo il quale haueua grande possesione . onde nel suo terri- 
torio haueua tera disserta che sollo produceua chosse inf rutif eri . 
onde elgi chaminando uno giorno per chotale disserto trouo 
82 b fra chotali piante infrutiferi una pianta | che haueua delichati 
fruti . onde chotale homo disse, hor chome quessta pianta 
quiui produce quessti chosi delichati fruti . certo che io non 
uolgio che sia talgiata he posta al fuocho con le altri . he 
chiamato li suoi serui la fece chauare he ripore nel suo 
giardino . chosi ui dicho che DIG nosstro riseruera a dalle fiami 
inffernalj cholloro che hoperano iustitia siano doue essere si 
uolgia . 

LXXXbc. 

Ditemi doue habitaua iob se no in hus fra iddolatri . he 
al tempo del diluuio chome scriue moisse ditemi elgi dice . 
Noe ueramente trouo gratia auanti DIG . il padre nosstro 
habraham haueua il padre suo senzza fede imperoche faceua 
elgi he addoraua li iddoli falsi . lot staua fra li piu scellerati 
de la terra . Daniele fanciulo con anania azzaria he missaele 
furno chatiuati da nabuchodonoxor talmete che aueuano hetta 
di dui hanni quando furno presi . he furno nutriti fra la 
moltitudine di serui idolatri . Viue Dio d che sichome il fuocho 
83 a arde le chosse aride | he la conuerte in fuocho non rissguar- 
dando allo oliuo houero cipresso he palma . chossi DIG nosstro 
ha misserichordia 6 sopra ogniuno che opera iustamente . non 
rissguardando ha iudeo houero scita ne grecho ouero ismae- 
lita . ma non si fermi qui il tuo chuore ho iachobo imperoche 
doue DIG ha mandate/ il proffeta bissogna in tutto hanegare il 
iuditio tuo . he seguitare il proffeta he non dire perche chosi 
dice . perche chossi proibisse he chomanda . Ma di chossi 
uolle DIG chossi chomandda DIG hora che chossa disse DIG ha 



h JL*JI ij)-,. 

c^ -> V -^ L 

il. f -. il. 



GOD MAKETH NO DIFFERENCE 185 

perchance despise him ? Nay, surely, but rather will he love him 
more than those to whom he hath given the law. I tell you for an 
example : There was a man who had great possessions ; and in his 
territory he had desert land that only bore unfruitful things. And 
so, as he was walking out one day through such desert land, he 
found among such unfruitful plants a plant | that had delicate 
fruits. Whereupon this man said : " Now how doth this plant 
here bear these so delicate fruits 1 Assuredly I will not that it be 
cut down and put on the fire with the rest." And having called 
his servants he made them dig it up and set it in his garden. 
Even so, I tell you, that our God shall reserve a from the flames of 
hell those who work righteousness, wheresoever they be. 



Tell me, where dwelt Job but in Uz among idolaters 1 And at 
the time of the flood, how writeth Moses ? Tell meTTle saith : 
" Noah truly found grace before God 2 ." Our father Abraham had 
a father without faith, for he made and worshipped false idols 3 . 
Lot 4 abode among the most wicked men on earth. Daniel as 
a child, with Ananias, Azarias, and Misael 5 , were taken captive by 
Nebuchadnezzar in such wise that they were but two years old 
when they were taken ; and they were nurtured among the multi 
tude of idolatrous servants. As God liveth d , even as the fire burneth 
dry things | and converteth them into fire, making no difference 83.1 
between olive and cypress and palm ; even so our God hath 
mercy e on every one that worketh righteously, making no difference 
between Jew, Scythian, Greek, or Ishmaelite 6 . But let not thine 
heart stop there, O James, because where God hath sent f the 
prophet it is necessary entirely to denytbjn_eownjudgement and 
to-fallow the prophet, and not to say : " Why saith he thus ? " 
" Why doth he thus forbid and command 1 " But say: " ThusGod 
willeth. Thus God commandeth." Now what said GocTto Moses 



God keeps. b The Chapter of knowledge. c Mention of Job 

and Noah and Abraham and Daniel. d God the living. e God 

the compassionate. f God sends. 



1 Job i. i. 2 Gen. vi. 8. 3 See a6 b sqq. * Gen. xiii. 13. 

5 Cp. Dan. i. 6 sqq. c Cp. Col. iii. n. 



186 

moisse . quanddo issdraele dissprezaua moisse . Elgi non haDO 
dissprezato te ma me hano dissprezzato . io ui dicho in ueiita 
che lomo doueria spendere tutto il tempo della uita sua non 
per sapere parllare ouero leggere . ma sapere benne operare . 
hora ditemi quale he quello seruo di herode che non studij 
de piacere bene seruedolo cho ogni dilligenzza . Guai al 
83 b monddo che | sollo studia de piazere ha uno chorpo che he 
fango he stercho . he non studia ma pone in obliuione il 
seruitio di DIG chea fato ogni chossa . il quale he benedeto 
in hetterno . 

LXXXI . 

Ditemi . sarebe stato grande pechato di sacerdoti se quando 
portauano la harcha del tesstamento di DIG la hauessero lassiata 
chassare in tera . tremorno li dissepoli quessto sentendo perche 
sapeuano che DIG ammazo b oza per hauere mallamente tochato 
la harcha di DIG . he dissero grauissimo sarebe chotale pechato . 
allora disse iessu uiue DIG c che elgie magiore pechato il metere 
in obliuione la parolla di DIG chon la quale haffato il tutto d . 
per la quale ti offerisse la uitta etterna . he deto quessto iessu 
fece oratione he dapoi la oratione disse dimani ci bissogna 
passare in samaria . perche chosi mi a deto lo angello santo 
84 a di DIG | . la matina di uno giorno per tempo hariuo iessu 
apresso il fonte che fece iachob he il donete ha iosef suo 
fiolo . onde essendo affatichato iessu per il uiagio mando li 
dissepoli suoi nella citta ha chomprare il cibo . onde elgi si 
posse ha sedere apresso il fonte sopra la pietra del fonte . 
et hecho una dona samaritana che uene al fonte per chauare 
della aqua . disse iessu alia dona dami da bere . Risspose 
la dona hora non ti uergogni tu che sei hebreo ha dimandare 
da bere ha me che son samaritana . Risspose iessu ho dona 
se tu sapesi chie cholui che ti dimanda da bere forsi che 
tu li dimanderesti da bere . Risspose la dona hora chome 
mi daressti da bere se tu non hai uasso da chauare la aqua 



*Utl ij 

*^ Jf jL1j p 



THE WOMAN OF SAMARIA 187 

when Israel despised Moses ? " They have not despised thee, but 
they have despised me V 

Verily I say unto you, that man ought to spend all the time of 
his life not in learning how to speak or to read, but in learning 
how to work well. Now tell me, who is that servant of Herod 
who would not study to please him by serving him with all dili 
gence 1 Woe unto the world that | studieth only to please a body 83 b 
that is clay and dung, and studieth not but forgetteth the service 
of God who hath made all things ; who is blessed for evermore/ 



Tell me, would it have been a great sin of the priests if when 
they were carrying the ark of the testimony of God they had let it 
fall to the ground 1 

The disciples trembled hearing this, for they knew that God 
slew 1 Uzzah 2 for having wrongly touched the ark of God. And 
they said : Most grievous would be such a sin. 

Then said Jesus : As God liveth c , it is a greater sin to forget the 
word of God, wherewith he made all things ds , whereby he offereth 
thee eternal life. 

And having said this Jesus made prayer ; and after his prayer 
he said : To-morrow we needs must pass into Samaria, for so hath 
said unto me the holy angel of God/ 

Early on the morning of a certain day, Jesus arrived near to the 84 a 
well which Jacob made and gave to Joseph his son 4 . Whereupon 
Jesus, being wearied with the journey, sent his disciples to the 
city to buy food. And so he sat himself down by the well, upon 
the stone of the well. And, lo, a woman of Samaria cometh to 
the well to draw water. 

Jesus saith unto the woman : Give me to drink/ The woman 
answered : Now, art thou not ashamed that thou, being an 
Hebrew, askest drink of me which am a Samaritan woman 1 

Jesus answered : woman, if thou knewest who he is that asketh_ t 
thee for drink, perchance thou wouldestliave asked of him for drink/ iBA/1 LAA/O 

The woman answered : Now how shouldest thou give me to *" \| "~" 
drink, seeing thou hast no vessel to draw the water, nor rope, and 
the well is deep 1 

a The Chapter of the Water. b God punishes. c By the living 

God. d Inde. God created everything in one speech. 

1 i Sam. viii. 7 ; cp. Ex. xvi. 8. "2 Sam. vi. 7. 3 John i. 3 ; 

Ps. xxxiii. 6. * See John iv. 4-20. 



188 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

ne chorda he il fonte he profondo . Bisspose iessu, ho dona 
84 b chi beue della | aqua di quessto fonte di nouo li uiene sete . 
Ma chi beue del aqua chio do non ha piu sete ma ha cholloro 
che hano sete li dano da here talmente che uano in uita etterna . 
allora disse la dona ho signore dami di quessta tua aqua . 
Risspose iessu ua he chiama il tuo marito che ad ambidui 
ui daro da bere . disse la dona io no ho marito . Risspose 
iessu bene hai deto la uerita perche tu hai hauto cinque mariti 
he quessto che hai hora non e tuo marito . si smari la dona 
sentendo quessto he disse signore per quanto uedo tu sei 
proffeta pero dimi di gratia . li hebrei fano oratione sul monte 
sion nel tepio fabrichato da sallamone in ierussaleme he 
dichono che . hiuui he non in haltri lochi trouano gratia he 
misserichordia di Dio a . he li nosstri adorano sopra quessti 
monti he dichono che sollo sopra li monti di samaria si 
85 a deue | addorare quali sono li ueri addoratori . 

LXXXIIb 

Allora dete uno sospiro he lachrimo iessu dicendo . guai 
ha te iudea che ti glorij dicendo tempio 1 di DIO tempio di DIG 
he uiui chome se non ui fusi DIO tutta data alii piazeri he 
uadagni del monddo . perche quessta dona il giorno del iuditio 
ti chondanera allo infferno possciache quessta dona cercha di 
sapere trouare gratia he misserichordia hapresso DIO . he 
uoltato alia dona disse ho dona uoi samaritani addorate quello 
che non sapete . ma noi hebrei addoriamo quello che sapiamo . 
in uerita ti dicho che DIO he spirito he uerita pero in spirito 
he uerita deue essere addorato perehe . la promessa di DIO 
he fata in ierasalem nel tempio di sallamone he non altroue . 
ma chredimi d che uera tempo che DIO darra la misserichordia 



b 4)1 

d JL.^ L-oNI -s. u 

1 MS. tempi. 



THE WOMAN OF SAMARIA 189 

Jesus answered: ( O woman, whoso drinketh of the | water of 84 " 
this well, thirst cometh to him again, but whosoever drinketh of 
the water that I give hath thirst no more; but to them that 
have thirst give they to drink, insomuch that they come to 
eternal life. 

Then said the woman : O Lord l , give me of this thy water. 

Jesus answered : Go call thy husband, and to both of you I will 
give to drink. 

Said the woman : I have no husband. 

Jesus answered : Well hast thou said the truth, for thou hast 
had five husbands, and he whom thou now hast is not thy 
husband. 

The woman was confounded hearing this, and said : Lord , 
hereby perceive I that thou art a prophet ; therefore tell me, 
I pray : the Hebrews make prayer on mount Sion in the temple 
built by Solomon in Jerusalem, and say that there and nowhere 
else [men] find grace and mercy of God a . And our people 
worship on these mountains, and say that only on the mountains 
of Samaria ought | worship to be made. Who are the true 85 a 
worshippers ? 

LXXXII b. 

Then Jesus gave a sigh and wept, saying : Woe to thee, Judsea, 
for thou gloriest, saying 2 : " The temple of the Lord, the temple of 
the Lord," and livest as though there were no God ; ffiven over 



wholly to the pleasures and gains of the world ; for this woman 
in the day of judgement shall condemn thee to hell ; for this woman 
seeketh to know how to find grace and mercy before God. 

And turning to the woman he said 3 : O woman, ye Samaritans 
worship that which ye know not, but we Hebrews worship that 
which we know. Verily I say unto thee, that God is spirit and 
truth, and so in spirit and in truth must he be worshipped . For 
the promise of God was made in Jerusalem, in the temple of 
Solomon, and not elsewhere. But believe me d , a time will come 
that God will give bis mercy in another city, and in every | place 



a God is the way of salvation and compassionate. b The Chapter 

of the prayer-direction and prayer. c God is truth and is worshipped. 
d He altered the prayer-direction after the Gospel in the time of the seal 
of the prophets. Account [of it]. Inde. 



1 Or Sir. 3 Cp. Jer. vii. 4. 3 See John iv. 21-26. 



190 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

85 b sua in altra citta lie in ogni [ locho si potera addorare con 
uerita . lie DID* in ogni locho hauera hacceto la horatione uera 
chon misserichordia . Risspose la dona noi aspetiamo il messia b 
pero quando uenira ci amaesstrera . Risspose iessu sai tu dona 
che debia uenire il messia . Risspose lei si signore . allora 
si allegro iessu he disse per quanto uedo ho dona tu sei fidelle 
he pero sapi . che nella fede del messia si saluera ogni elleto 
di DIG pero elgie neccesario che tu sapij la uenuta del messia . 
disse la dona ho signore forsi sei tu il messia . Risspose iessu 
io son ueramente mandato da DIG alia chassa de issdraele 
ini proffeta di sallute . Ma dapoi di me uenira il messia man 
dato da DIO C ha tutto il monddo per il quale DIG ha fato il 
monddo . onde per tutto il monddo si addorera mo d he riceuera 
misserichordia talmente che lo hanno del iubileo il quale . 
hora uiene ogni cento hani per il messia sara ridoto in oggni 

86 a hanno in ogni j locho . allora la dona lassio la idria he chorse 
nella citta ha nontiare quanto haueua intesso da iessu . 

LXXXIIIe. 

Mentre che la dona parllaua chon iessu . uenero li dissepoli 
he si stupirno che iessu parllassi chossi con una dona ma 
non li dissero niuno perche chosi parllasti cho una dona samari- 
tana . onde partita la dona dissero Maesstro uieni ha magiare . 
Risspose iessu io deuo manggiare di altro cibo ; allora dissero 
fra loro li dissepolli forssi che qualche uiandante . ha parllato 
con ie?su he lie andato ha trouare cibo he interogorno cholui 
che scriue quessto dicendo . elgi stato qui alchuno ho barnaba 
che pero habia da portare cibo al maesstro . Risspose cholui 



4)1. b 

4)1. d JL^^> 4)1 

e JL:1_" 



THE WOMAN OF SAMARIA 191 

_jt will be possible to worship him in truth. And God a in every 85 b t 
place will have accepted true prayer with"mercy/ l^*~3? 

The woman answered : We look for the Messiah b ; when he ---* \/ 
cometh he will teach us. 

Jesus answered : Knowest thou, woman, that the Messiah 
must come 1 

She answered : Yea, Lord V 

Then Jesus rejoiced, and said : So far as I see, O woman, thou 
art faithful : know therefore that in the faith of the Messiah shall 
be saved every one that is elect of God; therefore it is necessary 
that thou know the coming of the Messiah. 

Said the woman : O Lord 1 , perchance thou art the Messiah. 

Jesus answered : I am indeed sent to the house of Israel as 
a prophet of salvation ; but after me shall come the Messiah 2 , sent 
of God c to all the world; for whom God hath made the world. 
And then through all the world will God be worshipped d , and 
mercy received, insomuch that the year of jubilee, which now _ 
Cometh every" hundred years 3 , shall by the Messiah be reduced * 
to every year in every | place. 

Then the woman left her waterpot 4 and ran to the city to announce 86 ft 
all that she had heard from Jesus. 

LXXXIII e. 

Whilst the woman was talking 5 with Jesus came his disciples, 
and marvelled that Jesus was speaking with a woman. Yet no 
one said unto him : Why speakest thou thus with a Samaritan 
woman 1 

Whereupon, when the woman was departed, they said : Master, 
come and eat. 

Jesus answered : I must eat other food. 

Then said the disciples one to another : Perchance some 
wayfarer hath spoken with Jesus, and hath gone to find him 
food. And they questioned him who writeth this, saying : Hath 
there been any one here, O Barnabas, who might have brought 
food to the master 1 



a God is worshipped. b Prophet. c God sends. d The 

prophet of God the worshipped. e The Chapter of absolution. 

1 Or Sir. 2 i. e. Mohammed : see 44* and note there. 3 The 

Hebrew Jubilee came every 50 years (Lev. xxv. n). The Papal Jubilee 
of 100 years seems to have been initiated in 1300 A. D., but the period 
was reduced to 50 years in 1350. See Introd. 4 Jdria : cf. Vulgate, 

hydriam. 5 See John iv. 27-42. 



192 THE GOSPEL OF BAKNABAS 

che scriue non uie stato altri che la dona che uoi uedessti 
la qualle sollo porto quel uasso uuoto per riempirlo di 

86 b aqua . allora stauano chon amirajtione li dissepoli asspe- 
tando lo exito delle parolle di iessu . onde disse iessu uoi 
non sapete che il uero cibo he di fare la uollonta di DIG 
perche non il pane sosstenta lo homo he li da uita . ma si- 
bene la parolla di DIO per uollonta sua onde per quessto li 
angioli santi no manggiano* ma uiuono sollo della uollonta 
di DIO nutriti . he chossi moisse he hellia hanchora uno altro 
siamo stati quaranta giorni he quaranta notte senza ueruno 
cibo . he leuato li hochij iessu disse quanto he lontano il 
richolto . Rissposero li dissepoli tre messi . Disse iessu guardate 
hora chome il monte he biancho di formento io ui dicho in 
uerrita che ogidi se de fare uno grande richolto . he mosstro 
alloro la moltitudine che il ueniuano ha uedere perche la dona 
hentrata nella citta chomosse tutta la citta dicendo . ho 
homeni uenite ha uedere uno nouo proffeta da DIO mandate b 

87 a alia chassa de issdraele he rino|tio alloro quanto haueua 
intesso da iessu . hariuati che furno iuui la moltitudine 
pregorno iessu di stare chon loro il quale hentro nella citta 
he stete hiuui dui giorni . sanando tutti li imfermi he am- 
maesstrandoli del regno di DIO . allora diceuano li citadini 
alia dona noi piu chrediamo alle parole he miracholi suoi 
che non facessimo al tuo parllare perche . elgie in uero 
santo di DIO proffeta mandate l in sallute de chi li chre- 
derano . dapoi la oratione di mezzanote si apressorno ha 
iessu li dissepoli et elgi disse alloro . Questa notte sara al 
tempo del messia nontio di DIO il iubileo ogni hano che 
hora uiene ogni cento hanni d . pero non uolgio che dormiamo 
ma faciamo horatione inclinando il chapo nosstro cento uolte 
fazendo riuerenzza al nostro DIO . potente he misserichordiosso 6 



s ill. 



1 MS. mandate mandate (bis). 



JESUS AND THE SAMARITAN 193 

Then answered he who writeth : There hath not been here any 
other than the woman whom ye saw, who brought this empty vessel 
to fill it with water. Then the disciples stood amazed, | awaiting 86 f 
the issue of the words of Jesus. Whereupon Jesus said: Ye 
know not that the truefood is to do the will of God ; becauseTt 
is not bread J that sustaineth man and giveth hinTlIfe, but rather 
the word of God, by his will. And so for this reason the holy 
angels eat not, a, IvutJiYenourished^ only by the willof God. And 
thus we, Moses 2 and Elijah 3 and yet another, have been forty day_s__ 
andjorty nights without any food/ 

And lifting up his eyes, Jesus said : How far off is the harvest 1 

The disciples answered : Three months. 

Jesus said : Look now, how the mountain is white with corn ; 
verily I say unto you,^that to-day there is a great harvest to be 
jeaped/ And then he pointed to the multitude who had conuTto 
see him. For the woman having entered into the city had moved 
all the city, saying : men, come and see a new prophet sent of 
God b to the house of Israel ; and she recounted to | them all that 87* 
she had heard from Jesus. When they were come thither they 
besought Jesus to abide with them ; and he entered into the city 
and abode there two days, healing all the sick, and teaching 
concerning the kingdom of God. 

Then said the citizens to the woman : We believe more in his 
words and miracles than we do in what thou saidst; for he is 
indeed a holy one of God, a prophet sent for the salvation of those 
that shall believe on him. 

After the prayer of midnight 4 the disciples came near unto 
Jesus, and he said to them : This night shall be in the time of 
the Messiah *, messenger of God, the jubilee every year that now 
cometh every hundred years 6 d. Therefore I will not that we sleep, 
but let us make prayer, bowing our head a hundred times, doing 
reverence to our God, mighty and merciful, who is blessed for ever- 

The angels do not eat. b God sent. c The prophet of 

God. d That the prayer of absolution (sic] in thx- old time came 

at the beginning of every hundred years once, and in the time of the 
apostle it shall be every year. Inde. e God powerful and compassionate. 

1 Cp. Deut. viii. 3 ; Matt. iv. 4. z See Exod. xxiv. 18. 3 See 

i Kings xix. 8. * Other hours of prayer are mentioned 94*" (dawn); 

97 b (midday) ; 106* (first star); I 43 b (evening); 140* (night). If the last be 
dentical with this and with the Muslim prayer before the first watch, 
we may perhaps have all the five hours of Mohammed. See Introd. 
s Cp. above, 44 a and note. Cp. above, 85 b and note. 




194 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

87 b il quale he beneddeto in etterno he pero ogni uolta dire|mo . 
io chonffesso te.Dio nosstro . sollo a . che no hai auto principio . 
ne fine hauerai giamai b . che per tua misserichordia dessti ha 
tutto il principio . he per tua iusstitia darai a il tutto fine . 
che non hai ueruna simillitudine cho lo homo . perche nella 
inmenssa bonta tua non chapisse raoto ouero acidente ueruno . 
habici misserichordia perche ci chreassti he siamo oppere 
delle tui mani c . 

LXXXIVd. 

Fata la oratione iessu disse . Ringratiamo DIO perche cia 
donate 8 per quessta note grande misserichordia . imperoche 
elgia fato ridure il tempo che deue uenire in quessta notte per 
modo che habiamo fato oratione insieme chon il nontio di Dio f . 
he ho sentito la sua uoce . si allegrorno li dissepoli molto 
sentendo quessto he dissero maesstro ammaestraci di qualche j 

88 a precceto quessta notte . allora disse iessu hauete giamai ueduto 
missciare chon il balssamo il stercho . Rissposero loro no 
signore perche niuno he chosi pazzo che facessi quessto . hora 
ui dicho che ui sono al monddo di magiori pazzi disse iessu 
imperoche nel seruitio di DIO messcolano il seruitio del 
monddo . he talmente che molti di uita inreprensibili sono 
stati ingganati da satana . he orando hano messcolate chon 
la loro oratione negotij mondani onde sono in quel tempo fati 
abomineuoli auanti DIO . ditemi quando ui lauate per fare 
oratione ui guardate che non ui tochi chossa inmonda si certo . 
ma che chossa fate quando uoi fate oratione uoi ui lauate 
la anima uosstra da pechati per misserichordia di DIO g . Vorete 
uoi adonque mentre che fate oratione parllare di chosse 
mondane . guardatiue di non farllo perche ogni parolla mon- 

88 b dana si chonjuerte in stercho del diauollo sopra la anima 
di cholui che parlla . tremorno li dissepoli allora perche cho 

a ^L) j *JjL9 j JL! 41)1. b jL) j OjJ 41)1. 

JAcj (^^^pl &\j^\ all!. 
41)1. f 4^1 



PRAYER MUST BE PURE 195 

more, and therefore each time let us say : | " I confess thee our God 87 h 
alone a , that hast not had beginning, nor shalt ever have end b ; for 
by thy mercy gavest thou to all things their beginning, and by thy 
justice thou shalt give to all an end ; that hast no likeness among 
men 1 , because in thine infinite goodness thou art not subject to 
motion nor to any accident. Have mercy on us, for thou hast 
created us, and we are the works of^ thy hand c ." 

LXXXIVd 

Having made the prayer, Jesus said : Let us give thanks to God 
because he hath given e to us this night great mercy; for that he hath 
made to come back the time that needs must pass in this night, 
in that we have made prayer in union with the messenger of God f . 
And I have heard his voice. 

The disciples rejoiced greatly at hearing this, and said : Master, 
teach us some | precepts this night. 88 a 

Then said Jesus : Have ye ever seen dung mixed with 
balsam 1 

They answered : Nay, Lord, for no one is so mad as to do this 
thing. 

Now I tell you that there be in the world greater madmen, 
said Jesus, because with the service of God they mingle the 
service of the world. So much so that many of blameless life have 
been deceived of Satan, and while praying have mingled with their 
prayer worldly business, whereupon they have become at that time 
abominable in the sight of God. Tell me, when ye wash yourselves 
for prayer, do ye take care that no unclean thing touch you ? Yea, 
assuredly. _JBut what do ye when ye are making prayer? Ye 
wash your soul from sins through the mercy of God s . Would ye 
be willing then, while ye are making prayer, touspeak of worldly 
things? Take care not to do so, for every worldly word_ 
"bVcometh | dung o7~the devil upon_ the soul of him~that 88 b 
spealceth. 

TTien trembled the disciples, because he spake with vehemence 

* God is one and of old and for ever. b God of old and for ever. c God 
is greatest, the compassionate and just, and to him be praise. d Chapter 
of the sincere. God bestows. f The prophet of God. Prayer 
is the soul of purity. Inde. 



1 Cp. i6 a and note (p. 31). 

2 



196 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

empito di spirito parllo ho dissoro . ho maesstro che faremo 
noi so quando fa/iamo oratione ci uera uno ammieho per 
parllaro . Risspose iossu lassatclo asspetaro he finite la ora 
tione . Disso bartolomoo ma si scandalizera he si partira 
quando nod era che noi non li parliamo . Risspose iessu se lui 
si scamlalizera chredetimi che lui non sera hamicho uosstro 
ne fidele ma sibene infidelo he compagno di satana . Ditemi 
se noi andasste ha parllare ehon uno staliero di herode he 

10 trouasti che lui parllasi alle horeehie di herode . ui scan 
dal izaresste se lui ui facesi asspetare non certo ma saresti 
chonssolati uedendo uoi lo amicho uosstro grato apreso il Re . 
Klgi uero quessto disse iessu . Rissposero li dissepoli elgie 

89* uerissimo . allora disse iessu io xii dieho m ueri|ta che ogniuno 
quando fa oratione olgi parlla chon mo . elgi adonque iussta 
chossa che lassiate di parllare con mo per parllare chon lo 
homo . elgi chossa iussta che lo amicho uosstro inzio si 
seandalizi perche hauete pin riuerenza ha DIG che no ha lui . 
chredetimi che se lui si scandalizera quando il farete asspetare 
che elgie bono seruo del diauollo . perche quessto dessidera 

11 diauollo che sia abbandonato DIO per lo homo . Vine DIG 
che in ogni bona opera chi teme mo si deue sequesstrare dalle 
hopere del monddo per non chorompere la opera bona . 

LXXXV >. 

Quando uno hopera malle ouero parlla malic . se uno ua 
ha ehore^erlo he impedisse ehotal oppera che chossa fa tale 
homo disse iessu . Rissposero li dissepoli el^i fa bone perche 
elgi seme DIG . il quale sempre ccrcha de impedire il malle 
89 h chome fa il solle cho sempre cercha | di scaciare le tenebre . 
Disso iessu ho io per chontrario ui dicho cho quando uno 
hopera bene ouero parlla bone che chi cercha do impodirlo . 
sotto proiessto di chossa cho non sia milgiore che ol^i seruo 
il diauollo an/.iehe diuentn suo chompa^no . porehe ad altro 
non alodo il diauollo so non ha impedire og"ni bone . Ma 



OF THE TRUE FRIEND 197 

of spirit ; and they Baicl : master, what shall wo do if when we 
are making prayer a friend shall come to speak to us ? 

Jesus answered : Suffer him to wait, and finish the prayer,. 

Said Bartholomew T^BuFwhat if he shall be offended and go 
his way, when he see that we speak not with him 1 

Jesus answered : If he shall be offended, believe me ho will 
not be a friend of yours nor a believer, but rather an unbeliever 
and a companion of Satan. Tell me, if ye went to speak Avith 
a stable boy of Herod, and found him speaking into Herod s ears, 
would ye be offended if he made you to wait 1 No, assuredly ; 
but ye would be comforted at seeing your friend in favour with 
the king. Is this true 1 said Jesus. 

The disciples answered : It is most true. 

Then said Jesus: Verily I pay unto you, | that everyone when 89 1 
he praycth speaketh with God. Is it then right that ye should 
leave speaking witli (j!od in order to speak with man 1 Is it right 
that your friend should for this cause be offended, because ye have 
more reverence for God than for him ? Believe me that if he shall 
be offended when ye make him wait, he is a good servant of the 
devil. For this desireth the devil, that God should be forsaken, 
for man. As God liveth 11 , in every good work he that feareth God 
ought to separate himself from the works of the world, so as not 
to corrupt the good work. 

LXXXVi . 

When a man worketh ill or talketh ill, if one go to correct 
him, and hinder such work, what dotli such an one? said 
Jesus. 

The disciples answered : He doth well, because he serveth (rod, 
who always seeketh to hinder evil, even as the sun that always 
seeketh | to chase away the darkness. 89 1 

Said Jesus : And I tell you on the contrary that when one 
worketh well or speaketh well, whosoever seeketh to hinder him, 
under pretext of aught that is not better, he serveth the devil, 
nay, he even becometh his companion. For the devil attendeth 
to nought else but to hinder every good thing. 

But what shall 1 say unto you now ? I will say unto you as said 



a By the living God. b The Chapter of the difference between 

a friend and an enemy. 



198 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

che diroui hora diroui chome disse sallamone proffeta santo 
he amicho di DIG . de mille che uoi chonossete uno ui sia 
ammicho . Allora disse mateo adonque nom poteremo hamare 
ogniuno . Kisspose iessu, io ui dicho in uerita che 1 non 
uie licito hodiare chossa ueruna se non sollo il pechato . 
talmente che satana nom potefce hodiarlo chome chreatura di 
DIG ma sibene chome innimicho di DIG . sapete perche io uello 
diro perche elgie chreatura di DIG he quanto DIG ha chreato he 
bono he perffeto a . pero chi odia la chreatura consequentemente 

90 a odia il chreatore . | Ma Io ammicho he uno partichollare obieto 
che non si troua facilmente ma facilmente si perde . perche 
Io ammicho non patisse chontraditione contra di quello che 
somamente amma . Vardate siate chauti he non ellegete per 
ammicho cholui che non amma quello che uoi animate . sapete 
che chossa uolle dire ammicho, Amicho non uoi dire altro se non 
medicho della anima . onde sichome raro si troua bon medicho 
che chonossa le inffermita he sapia aplicharui le medicine . 
chosi sono rari li hamicj che chonosscano li herrori he 
sapiano indriciare al bene . Ma quello che he malle molti sono 
che hano ammicj che simulano di non uedere li herrori dello 
ammicho . Altri li esscusano . altri li difendono sotto pre- 
tessto terreno he quello che he peggio ui sono ammicj tali che 
inuitano he hagiutano Io amicho ha herare . il chui fine sera 
simille alle loro scelleraggine . Guardate che non riceuiate 

00 b chotali per ha|mici perche sono ueramente innimicj he chame- 
fiei della hanima . 

LXXXVIb. 

Lo amicho tuo ti sia talle . che sichome uolle choregerti 
chossi riceui la choretione he sichome elgi uolle che tu lasij 
ogni chossa per ammore di DIG . si chontenti hanchora lui 
che tu Io abbandoni per seruitio di DIG . Ma ditemi se Io homo 
non sa ammare DIG chome sapera ammare se stesso he chome 
sapera ammare altri non sapendo hamare se stesso . certa- 

Ji-b Si ill J^li. U. b 



1 MS. che che (bis). 



OF THE TRUE FRIEND 199 

Solomon 1 the prophet, holy one, and friend of God: Of a 
thousand whom ye know, one be your friend. 

Then said Matthew : * Then shall we not be able to love 
any one. 

Jesus answered : Verily I say unto you, that it is not lawful_ 
for you to hate anything save only sin : insomuch that ye cannot^ 
Tiate even Satan as creature of God, but rather as enemy of God, 
"Know ye wherefore 1 I will tell you ; because he is a creature of 
God, and all that God hath created is good and perfect*. -Accord-^ 
ingly^whoso jiateth the creature hateth also the creator. | But the 90 l 
friend is a singular thing 2 , that is not easily found, but is easily 
lost. For the friend will not suffer contradiction against him 
whom he supremely loveth. Beware, be ye cautious, and choose 
not for friend one who loveth not him whom ye love. Know ye 
what friend meaneth 1 Friend meaneth naught but physician o 
the soul. And so, just as one rarely findeth a good physician who 
Tcnoweth the sicknesses and understandeth to apply the medicines 
thereto, so also are friends rare who know the faults and under 
stand how to guide unto good. But herein is an evil, that 
there are many who have friends that feign not to see the faults 
of their friend; others excuse them; others defend them under 
earthly pretext ; and, what is worse, there are friends who invite 
and aid their friend to err, whose end shall be like unto their 
villany. Beware that ye receive not such men for friends, | for 90 b 
that in truth they are enemies and slayers of the soul. 

LXXXVI b. 

Let thy friend be such that, even as he willeth to correct thee, 
so he may receive correction ; and even as he willeth that thou 
shouldest leave all things for love of God, even so again it may 
content him that thou forsake him for the service of God. 

But tell me, if a man know not how to love God how shall 
he know how to love himself; and how shall he know how to love 



a God did not create except with truthfulness (Surah xliv. 39). 
b The Chapter of the friend. 



1 ? Cp. Prov. xviii. 24. 2 Or a possession all one a own. 



200 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

mente elglie impossibil quessto . pero quando tu uoi ellegerti 
uno per amicho perche elglie in uerita somamente pouero 
cholui clie non ha amicho ueruno . Fa che tu prima consideri 
non alia bellezza del parentado . non alia bellezza della 
familgia . non alia bellezza della chassa . non alia bellezza 
delle uesstimenti . non alia bellezza del chorpo ne tampocho 

91 a alle sui belle parolle perche saressti facilmete | inganato . 
Ma guarda chome elgi teme DIG chome elgi dissprezza le chosse 
terrene . chome elgi amma il bene opperare . he sopra il tutto 
chome elgi odia la propia charne he chosi facilmete trouerai 
il uero ammicho a se elgi . sopra ogni chossa temera DIG e 
dissprezera le uanita del monddo . se sera sempre hochupato 
sempre in bene hoperare he il propio chorpo hodiera chome 
chrudo innimicho . Ne pero chotale amicho ammerai talmente 
che lo ammore tuo si fermi in lui perche saressti iddolatra . 
ma ammallo chome uno dono che tia donate Dio b che pero 
di maggiore gratia ti addornera DIG . io ui dicho in uerita che 
cholui che a trouato uno uero amicho che elgi a trouato una 
delitia del parradisso . anziche he la chiaue del parradisso . 
Risspose tadeo ma se per sorte lo homo hauera uno amicho 
il qualle non sia talle qualle hai deto ho maesstro . che chossa 

91 b fare deue lo deue habandonare Risspojse iessu si deue fare chome 
il marinaro fa della naue . il quale ui nauiga mentre che 
chonossce uadagnarui ma quando ui uede perdere la haban- 
dona . chosi farai tu dello ammicho pegiore di te il quale 
in quelle chosse che ti he di scandalo lassalo se tu non uo 1 
che ti lassi la misserichordia di DIO C . 

LXXXYII a. 

Guai al monddo per li scandali . Elgie neccessario che uengi 
il scandalo perche tutto il mondo he possto in mallignita . 
ma pero guai ha cholloro per il quale uiene il scandalo . El 



OF THE TRUE FRIEND 201 

others, not knowing how to love himself] Assuredly this is 
impossible. ^.Therefore when thou choose thee one for friend (for 
verily he is supremely poor who hath no friend at all), see that 
thou consider first, not his fine lineage, not his fine family, not his 
fine house, not his fine clothing, not his fine person, nor yet his 
fine words, for thou ehalt be easily | deceived. But look how he 91 
feareth God, how he despiseth earthly things, how he^oveth good 
works, and above all how he hateth hisown flesh, and so shalt 
thou easily find the true friend a : it he above all things shall 



.Tear God, and shall despise the vanities of the world ; if he shall 
be always occupied in good works, and shall hate his own body as 
a cruel enemy. Nor yet shalt thou love such a friend in such wise 
that thy love stay in him, for [so] shalt thou be an idolater. But 
love him as a gift that God hath given thee b , for so shall God adorn 
[himj with greater favour l . Verily I say unto you, that he who 
hath found a true friend hath found one of the delights of 
paradise ; nay, such is the key of paradise. 

Thaddaeus answered : But if perchance a man shall have 
a friend who is not such as thou hast said, O master 1 ? What 
ought he to do 1 Ought he to forsake him 1 Qb 

Jesus answered : He ought to do as the mariner doth with the 
ship, who saileth it so long as he perceiveth it to be profitable, 
but when he seeth it to be a loss forsaketh it. So shalt thou do 
with thy friend that is worse than thou : in those things wherein 
he is an offence to thee, leave him if thou wouldst not be left of 
the mercy of God c . 

LXXXVII d. 

Woe unto the world 2 because of offences. It needs must be 
that the offence come, because all the world lieth in wickedness 3 . 
But yet woe to that man through whom the offence cometh. It 



a Account of the true friend. Inde. b God bestows. If your 

friend intends to divert you from the right way, leave him if you do not 
wish the grace of God to desert you. d The Chapter of the prevaricator 
(evil-doer). 



Translation uncertain. 2 See Matt, xviii. 6-9. * i John v. 19. 



202 THE GOSPEL OF BAKNABAS 

saria melgio che lo homo hauessi al chollo una pietra da 
mollino he fusi proffondafco nel proffondo del mare che scan- 
dalizare il prossimo suo . se lochio tuo ti scandalizza chauallo 
perche elgie melgio che tu uadi cho uno sollo hochio im 

92 a paradisso che con tutti dui nello inferno . se | la mano tua 
ouero il tuo piedi ti scandalizza fa il simille . perche elgie 
melgio che tu uadi nel regno del cielo con uno piedi he con 
una mano che con dui mani he dui piedi uadi all inferno . 
Disse simone chiamato pietro, signore chome debo fare quessto 
certo he che im pocho tepo saro smenbrato . Risspose iessu 
ho pietro lieua la prudenza charnalle he subito trouerai la 
uerita . imperoche cholui che ti ammaesstra he lo hochio tuo 
he cholui che ti agiuta ha opperare he il tuo piede . he cholui 
che ti ministra chosa ueruna he la tua mano . pero quanddo 
talj ti sono chagione di pechato lassali imperoche tie melgio 
di andare im paradisso ignorante chom poche hopere he pouero . 
che andare nello infferno sauio chon grandi hopere he richo . 
ogni chossa che te impedisse ha seruire DIG scatiala da te 
chome scazia lo homo ogni chossa che limpedisse la uissta a , 
he deto questo iessu chiamo pietro hapresso disse he disse- 

92 b li | se in te pechera il tuo fratello ua choregillo . se lui si 
emenda allegrati perche tu hai guadagnato il tuo fratello . 
ma se lui non si emendara ua chiama di nouo dui tesstimonij 
he di nouo choregilo he se lui non si emendera ua he dillo 
alia chiessa . he se lui non si hemendera habilo per inffidele 
he pero non habiterai sotto lo isstesso teto che elgi habita . 
non mangerai alia isstessa menssa che lui siede he non li 
parlerai . per modo che se tu chonossci doue elgi pone il piede 
chaminando non ui ponere tu iuuj il piedi . 



Ma guarda che tu non ti tengi da milgiore ma dirai chossi . 
pietro pietro se DIG c non ti agiutassi chon la gratia sua saressti 
pegiore di chostui . Risspose pietro chome li debo fare la 



tsJLu.fr (^y) AJJ Ijl L JJL. s^Jl ibLoJl ^ eU.^*j ^ Jv 



OF PUTTING AWAY OFFENCES 203 

were better for the man if he should have a millstone about hig 
neck and should be sunk in the depths of the sea than that he 
should offend his neighbour. If thine eye be an offence to thee, 
pluck it out ; for it is better that thou go with one eye only into 
paradise than with both of them into hell. If | thy hand or thy 92 a 
foot offend thee, do likewise; for it is better that thou go into the 
kingdom of heaven with one foot or with one hand, than with two 
hands and two feet go into hell. 

Said Simon, called Peter : Lord, how must I do this ? Certain 
it is that in a short time I shall be dismembered. 

Jesus answered: O Peter, put off fleshly prudence and stiaight- 
way thou shalt find the truth. For he that teacheth thee is thine 
eye, and he that helpeth thee to work is thy foot, and he that 
ministereth aught unto thee is thine hand. Wherefore when such 
are to thee an occasion of sin leave them ; for it is better for thee to 
go into paradise ignorant, with few works, and poor, than to go into 
hell wise, with greaf works, and rich. Everything that may hinder 
thee from serving God, cast it from thee as a man casteth away 
everything that hindereth his sight a . 

And having said this, Jesus called Peter close to him, and said 
unto him l : \ If thy brother shall sin against thee, go and correct 92 * 
him. If he amend, rejoice, for thou hast gained thy brother ; but 
if he shall not amend, go and call afresh two witnesses and correct 
him afresh ; and if he shall not amend, go and tell it to the 
church; and if he shall not then amend, count him for an 
unbeliever, and therefore thou shalt not dwell under the same 
roof whereunder he dwelleth, thou shalt not eat at the same table 
whereat he sitteth, and thou shalt not speak with him ; insomuch 
that if thou know where he setteth his foot in walking thou shalt 
not set thy foot there. 

LXXXVIII b. 

But beware that thou hold not thyself for better ; rather shalt 
thou say thus : " Peter, Peter, if God c helped thee not with his 
grace thou wouldst be worse than he." 

Peter answered : How must I correct him ? 



* Everything that hinders you from serving (God), leave it as you 
would anything that hinders your vision (lit. falls in your eye ). Inde, 
b The Chapter of the just. God helps. 



See Matt, xviii. 15-17. 



204 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

choretione . Risspose iessu nel modo che tu uoi esserre choreto 
he sichome tu uoi essere soportato chossi soporta altri . 
93 a chredimi pietro che con | uerita ti dicho che ogni uolta che 
tu choregerai il tuo fratello chon misserichordia . riceuerai 
da DIG misserichordia he farano qualche fruto le tui parole . 
ma se tu il farai chon rigore di iusstitia da DIG sarai rigorossa- 
mente punito he niuno fruto farai . Dimi pietro quelli pignati 
di terra che cuoceno li poueri le loro uiuande li lauano forsi 
com pietre he martelli di fero non certo . ma sibene chon 
la aqua chalda . li fasi si spezza con il fero . li legni si 
brugiano chon il fuocho ma lo homo si emenda con misseri 
chordia . pero quando choregerai il tuo fratello dirai fra te 
stesso . se DIG non mi hagiutera faro pegio dimani di quanto 
haffato chostui ogidi . Risspose pietro quante uolte debo 
perdonare al mio fratello ho maesstro . Risspose iessu tante 
uolte quanto uoressti che elgi ha te perdonasse . Disse pietro 
sete uolte al giorno . Risspose iessu non sollo sette ma setanta 
uolte sette li perdonerai ogni giorno* . Perche chi perdona 
li sera perdonato he chi | condana sara condanato . disse allora 
cholui che scriue quessto guai alii principi perche loro anderano 
allo infferno . il ripresse iessu dicendo sei diuentato stolto 
ho barnaba che chossi hai parlato . io ti dicho in uerita che 
non e tanto neccessario il bagno per il chorpo . il freno per 
il chauallo he il timone per la naue quanto elgie neccessario 
per la republicha il principe . he per che chagione DIG b dete 
mosse, iossue, samuel, Dauit he sallamone he tanti altri che 
fecero iuditio . alii quali DIG ha dato la spada per esstirpare 
le inniquita . Allora disse cholui che scriue hora chome si 
deue iudichare condanando he perdonando . Risspose iessu 
ogniuno non he iudice perche al iudice sollo si hapartiene 
il chondanare altri ho barnaba . he il iudice deue chondanare 
il reo chome chomanda il padre che sia talgiato uno menbro 
putrido al fiolo . azioche non si putrefacia tutto il chorpo . 

J J-J ^5* 




411. 



OF FORGIVENESS 205 

Jesus answered : In the way that thou thyself wouldst fain be 
corrected. And as thou wouldst fain be borne with, so bear with 
others. Believe me, Peter, for verily | I say unto thee that every 93* 
time thou shalt correct thy brother with mercy thou shalt receive 
mercy of God, and thy words shall bear some fruit ; but if thou 
shalt do it with rigour, thou shalt be rigorously punished by 
the justice of God, and shalt bear no fruit. Tell me, Peter : 
Those earthen pots wherein the poor cook their food do they 
wash them, perchance, with stones and iron hammers ? Nay, 
assuredly; but rather with hot water. Vessels are broken in pieces 
with iron, things of wood are burned with fire ; but man is 
amended with mercy. Wherefore, when thou shalt correct thy 
brother thou shalt say to thyself: " If God help me not, I shall do 
to-morrow worse than all that he hath done to-day." 

Peter answered l : How many times must I forgive my brother, 
master ? 

Jesus answered : As many times as thou wouldst fain be for 
given by him. 

Said Peter : Seven times a day 1 

Jesus answered : Not only seven, but seventy times seven thou 
shalt forgive him every day a ; for he that forgiveth, to him shall it 
be forgiven, and he that | condemneth shall be condemned. 931* 

Then said he who writeth this : Woe unto princes ! for they 
shall go to hell. 

Jesus reproved him, saying : Thou art become foolish, O 
Barnabas, in that thou hast spoken thus. Verily I say unto thee, 
that the bath is not so necessary for the body, the bit for the 
horse, and the tiller for the ship, as the prince is necessary for the 
state. And for what cause did God b give Moses, Joshua, Samuel, 
David, and Solomon, and so many others who passed judgement ? 
To such hath God given the sword for the extirpation of iniquity 2 . 

Then said he who writeth this : Now, how ought judgement to 
be given, condemning and pardoning ? 

Jesus answered: Not every one is a judge : for to the judge 
alone it appertaineth to condemn others, O Barnabas. And the 
judge ought to condemn the guilty, even as the father commandeth 
a putrified member to be cut off from his son, in order that the 
whole body may not become putrified. 

a Pardon thy brother every day seventy times seven times ; if thou 
forgive, thou shalt be forgiven. Inde. b God gives. 



1 See Matt, xviii. 21, 22. * Cp. Horn. xiii. 4. 



206 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

84 a LXXXIX *. 

Disse pietro . quanto tempo debo asspetare ha pentirsi il 
mio fratello . Risspose iessu quanto tn uoressti essere asspe- 
tato . Risspose pietro ogniuno no intendera quessto pero 
parllaci piu chiaro . Risspose iessu asspeta il tuo fratello 
insino che lo asspeta DIG b . Mancho intenderano quessto disse 
pietro . Risspose iessu asspetalo insino che lui ha tempo 
da pentirsi . allora pietro si atrissto chon li altri perche no 
intendeuano il senso . onde risspose iessu se uoi hauesste intel- 
leto sano he chonosesste uoi essere pechatori nom penssaresste 
giamai . di serare il chore uosstro di misserichordia allo pec- 
chatore pero chiaro ui dicho che . si deue asspetare il pechatore 
ha penitenzza insino che elgia la anima suli denti per spirare . 
perche chossi lo asspeta DIG nosstro potente he misserichor- 
diosso c . Non disse DIG d in quella hora che il pechatore de- 
giunera, fara ellemosine, fara oratione he andera im pere- 
94b grinaggio io li perdonero . perche quessto I molti hano ho- 
perato he sono danati in etterno . Ma disse in quella hora 
che il pechatore si dolera di suoi pechati per me io non mi 
harechordero piu le sui inniquita . intendete uoi disse iessu . 
Rissposero li dissepoli parte intendiamo he parte no . Disse 
iessu quale he la parte che non intendete Rissposero loro . 
che molti li quali hano fato oratione con degiunij sono danati . 
allora disse iessu io ui dicho in uerita che li hipochriti he 
li gentilli fano piu oratione he piu ellemossine he piu degiuni 
che non fano li hamici di DIG . ma perche non hano fede 
nom possono per ammore di DIG pentirsi he pero sono danatj . 
allora disse ioane amaestraci per ammore di dio della fede . 
Risspose iessu elgie hora che noi faciamo la horatione della 
aurona . onde si leuorno he lauatosi fecero horatione ha DIG 
nosstro il quale he beneddeto in etterno . 



f. il. 

il. 



OF PATIENCE WITH OFFENDERS 207 

LXXXIX*. 84 

Said Peter : How long must I wait for my brother to repent ? 
Jesus answered : So long as thou wouldst be waited for. 
Peter answered : Not every one * will understand this ; where 
fore speak to us more plainly. 

Jesus answered : Wait for thy brother as long as God waiteth 
for him V 

Neither will they understand this, said Peter. 
Jesus answered : Wait for him so long as he hath time to 
repent. 

Then was Peter sad, and the others also, because they under 
stood not the meaning. Whereupon Jesus answered : If ye had 
sound understanding, and knew that ye yourselves were sinners, 
ye would not think ever to cut off your heart from mercy to the 
sinner. And so I tell you plainly, that the sinner ought to be 
waited for that he may repent, so long as he hath a soul beneath his 
teeth to breathe. For so doth our God wait for him, the mighty 
and merciful c . God d said not : " In that hour that the sinner shall 
fast, do alms, make prayer r and go on pilgrimage, I will forgive 
him." Wherefore this | have many accomplished, and are damned 
eternally. But he said 2 : "In that hour that the sinner shall 
bewail his sins, I for my part will not remember any more his 
iniquities." Do ye understand 1 said Jesus. 

The disciples answered : Part we understand, and part not. 
Said Jesus : Which is the part that ye understand not ? 
They answered : That many who have made prayer with 
fastings are damned. 

Then said Jesus : Verily I say unto you, that the hypocrites 
and the Gentiles make more prayers, more alms, and more fasts 
than do the friends of God. But because they have not faith, 
they are not able to repent "for Ibve~of God; "and- so they are T 
damned. 
*^ Then said John : Teach us, for love of God, of the faith. 

Jesus answered: It is time that we say the prayer of the dawn 3 . 
Whereupon they arose, and having washed themselves made 
prayer to our God, w ho is blessed for evermore. 

The Chapter of the gracious (one). b God is patient (long- 

suffering). c God is patient and powerful and the compassionate. 

d God pardons. e God the compassionate. 

1 Or No one. ? Cp. Ezek. xviii. 37. 3 Cp. 87* (p. 193, note 4). 



208 THE GOSPEL OF BAENABAS 

XO. 

95 a Fata la oratione di nouo si apressorno ha iessu li j suoi disse- 
poli et elgi aperto la bocha sua disse . apresati ioane perche 
hogidi ti parllero di quanto dimandassti . la fede he uno 
sigillo con il qualle DIG sigilla li suoi elleti . il qualle sigilo 
dono allo nontio suo dalle chui mani ogni elleto ha riceuto 
la fede . imperoche sichome DIG he uno b chosi la fede he 
una c onde hauendo chreato DIG auanti di ogni chossa il nontio 
suo d . ha lui hauanti di ogni altro dono la fede la quale he 
chome uno ritrato di DIG he di quanto DIG affato he deto . 
pero il fidelle per fede uede il tutto melgio che non si fa 
chon li hochij imperoche li hochij possono herrare anziche 
quasi sempre herrano . Ma la fede non herra giamai perche 
ha per fondamento DIG he la sua parolla . chredetimi che per 
fede sono saluati tutti li elleti di DIG . he certo he che senzza 
fede elgie impossibile di piacere ha DIG ueruno . onde satana 
non cercha di scancellare digiuni he oratione ; ellemosine con 

95 b preregrijnagij anziche incitta li inffideli ha quessto perche . 
elgi prende piazere di uedere lo homo hoperare sanzza riceuere 
mercede . Ma prende chon ogni dilligenzza faticha di scacellare 
la fede onde deue essere somamente chusstodita con dilli 
genzza . he la maggiore fortezza sera habandonare il perche 
essendo che il perche scazio lo homo del paradisso . he chon- 
uerti satana di bellissimo angelo in horido diauollo . Allora 
disse ioane hora chome habandonaremo il perche essendo che 
elgie la porta della scienzza . Risspose iessu anziche il perche 
he porta dello infferno . onde se amuti ioane quado iessu 
sogionse quando tu sai che DIG ha. deto una chossa chi sei 
tu ho homo che pero dici . perche ha deto chosi ho DIG perche 
hai fato chossi . dira f orsi il vasso di terra al suo fatore perche 
mi facesti da tenire aqua he non da seruare balssamo . lo 
ui dicho in uerita che bissogna chontra di ogni tentatione 



u Lo] u l !f i 
4)1 Jj-^ 4il jjli. U Jjl 



OF FAITH 209 

XC a . 

When the prayer was done, his disciples again drew | near to 95 
Jesus, and he opened his mouth and said : Draw near, John, for 
to-day will I speak unto thee of all that thou hast asked. Faith J 

jiereby God sealeth his electj which seal he gave toTm"" 
messenger, atwEos^-liaiidir^very one that is elect hath received 
the faith. For even as God is one b , so is the faith one c . Wherefore 
God, having created before all things his messenger d , gave to him 
before aught else the faith which is as it were a likeness of God 
and of all that God hath done and said. And so the faithful by 
faith seeth all things, better than one seeth with his eyes ; because 
the eyes .can err, nay they do almost always err ; but faith erreth 
never, for it hath for foundation God and his word. Believe me 
that by faith are saved all the elect of God. Anjj4_js_certain 
tjbat withoujL_(aith itjs imj3gjsrbje_for__any one to plea.se God \ 
Wherefore Satan seeketh not to bring to naught fastings and 
prayer, alms and pilgrimages, | nay rather he inciteth unbelievers 95 
thereto, for he taketh pleasure in seeing man work without 
receiving pay. But he taketh pains with all diligence to bring 
faith to nought, wherefore faith ought especially to be guarded 
with diligence, and the safest course will be to abandon the 
"Wherefore," seeing that the "Wherefore" drove men out of 
Paradise and changed Satan from a most beautiful angel into 
a horrible devilj 

~Thensaid John: Now, how shall we abandon the "Wherefore 3 ," 
seeing that it is the gate of knowledge ? 

Jesus answered : Nay, rather the " Wherefore " is the gate of 
hell. 

Thereupon John kept silence, when Jesus added : When thou 
kuowest that God hath said a thing, who art thou, man, that 
thou shouldst say, forsooth, " Wherefore hast thou so said, O God : 
wherefore hast thou so done?" Shall the earthen vessel, per 
chance, say to its maker : " Wherefore hast thou made me to hold 
water and not to contain balsam 1" Verily I say unto you, it is 
necessary against every temptation to strengthen yourself with 

The Chapter of surrendering oneself (Islam) to God. b God is one. 
c Account of the religion of Islam. Inde. d God s first creation was 

the prophet of God. 



1 Or, The faith. 3 Heb. xi. 6. 

KAGO P 



210 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

96 a stabillirsi con quessta parolla | dicendo DIG ha chossi deto . 
DIG chossi haffato . DIG chossi uolle che chosi fazendo uiuerai 
sicuro . 

XCI>. 

In quessto tempo grande solleuamento hera per iudea per 
ammore di iessu . imperoche la millitia romana per hopera- 
tione di satana sollicitaua li hebrei chon dire che iessu hera 
DIG uenuto ha uissitarli . onde seditione tale suscito che l 
apresso alia quadragessima tutta la iudea hera in arme tal- 
mente che . si trouaua il fiolo chotra il padre he il fratelo 
chontra il fratello imperoche . alchuni diceuano iessu essere 
DIG uenuto al mondo . altri diceuano no ma elgie fiollo di 
DIG he altri diceuano no perche DIG non ha ueruna similli- 
tudine humana . he pero non genera fioli ma iessu nazareno 
he proffeta di DIG b . he quessto naque per li grandi miracho- 
li che fece iessu . onde per quietare il populo fu neccessario 
chalualchare il pontifice uesstito pontifichalmente chon il santo 
86 1 " nome di DIG tetajgramaton in f ronte . he similmente cha- 
ualcho il preside pillato he herode . onde in misfa si chon- 
gregorno tre exerciti ogniuno di dugento millia homeni da 
portare spada . alii quali parllo herode ma non si haquietorno 
dapoi parllo il preside he il pontifice dicenddo . f ratelli quessta 
guera he suscitata per opera di sata imperoche iessu he uiuo 
al quale dobiamo richorere . he dimandarli che dia tesstimonio 
disse onde chrediamo in lui sechondo la sua parola . pero si 
aquietorno ha quessto ogniuno he depossto le armi si ab- 
brazorno ogniuno dicendo luno allo altro perdonami fratello . 
quel giorno adonque ogniuno si pose nel chore suo quessto 
di chredere ha iessu sechondo che elgi dira . pero dal presside- 
he dal pontiffice fu promesso grandi doni ha cholui che uenisse 
ha dinontiare doue iessu si trouaua . 



o -.vail 



^LJ 



1 MS. che che (bis). 





JESUS HAILED AS GOD 

this word, | saying "God hath so said"; "So hath God done 
" God so willeth " ; for so doing thou shalt live safely. 



XCK 

At this time there was a great disturbance throughout Judea for 
the sake of Jesus : K forthat the Roman soldiery, through_lha 
operation of Satan^stirred upTthe Hebrews, saying that"jesus was 
God c^meJojisitThenT 1 ". Whereupon~"scTgreat sedition arose, that 
""nTgTTupon the Forty days 2 all Judea was in arms, insomuch that the 
r son was found against the father, and the brother againsTTfte" 
brother, for that some said thatJesus was God come to the world ; 
others said : Nay/but he is a son of God 7 ; and otEers saijjjjlay, 
for_God hath no human similitude, and therefore begetteth not 
sons ; but Jesus of Nazareth is a propEet of God"*? 

^And this arose by reason of the great miracles which 
Jesus did. ~~ 

Thereupon, to quiet the people, it was necessary that the high- 
priest should ride in procession, clothed in his priestly robes, with 
the holy name of God, the teta\gramaton 3 c (sic), on his forehead. 96 l) 
And in like manner rode the governor Pilate, and Herod. 

Whereupon, in Mizpeh assembled three armies, each one of 
two Jiujiired thousand men that bare sword. Herod spake to 
inem, but they were not" quieted. Then spake the governor and 
the high-priest, saying: Brethren, this war is aroused by the 
work of Satan, for Jesus is alive, and to him ought we to resort, 
and ask him that he give testimony of himself, and then believe 
in him, according to his word. "" 

So atTnTsthey were quieted, every one ; and having laid down 
their arms they all embraced one another, saying one to the other : 
Forgive me, brother ! 

On_that day, accordingly, every one laid this in his heart^to^ 
^believe^Jesus^^ccording as he shall sayT~And by the governor 
and thehigh-priesTwere offered greaTrewards to him who should, 
come to announce where Jesus was to be found. 



* The Chapter of the greatest tumult. b God to whom be praise. 

c A great name in Israel, (in) the Amran tongue Tetagramat. Inde. 

1 Cp. 50" and note on 49 b . 2 i. e. Lent, not Ramadan, which does 

not extend to forty days, see Introduction. 3 TO Tcrpaypafinarov = 

the Name of four letters mrr (Philo, Clem. Alex., &c.). 



P 2 



212 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 



97 a In quessto tempo noi chon iessu per parolla del | angelo 
santo andassimo al monte sinai . he iuui fece iessu chon li 
suoi dissepoli la quadragessima la quale passata si apresso 
iessu al fiume giordano per andare in ierussaleme . il quale 
fu ueduto da uno di cholloro che chredeuano iessu essere DIG . 
onde chon soma allegrezza chorse sempre chridando DIG 
nosstro uiene he gionto nella citta chomosse tutta la citta 
dicendo . DIG nosstro uiene ho ierusalem preparati ha riceuerlo 
he testo di hauere ueduto iessu apresso il giordano . Vsscite 
della citta ogniuno dal pichollo al grande per uedere iessu 
talmente che la citta rimasse uuota . perche le done portorno 
li loro fanciuli nelle bracie he talmente che si smentichorno 
di portare cibo da manggiare . sentito quessto chaualcho il 
presside he il pontifice he mandorno uno nontio ha herode 
il quale similmente chaualcho per trouare iessu . azioehe se 

97 b aquietasi la seditione del popu|lo onde per dui giorni il 
cerchorno nel disserto apresso il giordano he il terzo giorno 
il trouorno . apresso la hora di mezzogiorno che elgi chon 
li suoi dissepoli si purifichaua per fare la oratione sechondo 
il libro di moisse . si marauilgio forte iessu uedendo la molti- 
tudine che chopriuano la terra di populo he disse alii suoi 
dissepoli . forsi satana ha messo seditione in iudea piazia ha 
DIG di leuare lo imperio ha satana che elgia sopra pechatori . 
he deto quessto se auicino la turba la quale quando il chonobbe 
inchominciorno chridare sia bene trouato te DIG nosstro . he 
chome ha DIG inchominciorno affarli riuerenzza onde iessu 
dete uno grande gemito he disse . leuateui dauanti ha me ho 
pazzi perche ho paura che si apra la terra he diuori me chon 
uoi per le abbomineuoli parole uosstre . onde si riempirno di 
terrore il popullo he inchominciorno ha piangere . 

98 XCIII b . 

Quando iessu leuato la mano in segno di silentio disse . 
Veramente auete fato pechato grademente ho issdraeliti chia- 



JESUS HAILED AS GOD 213 

XCII a . 

At this time we with Jesus, by the word of the | holy angel, 97 ri 
were gone to Mount Sinai. And there Jesus with his disciples 
kept the Forty days *. When this was past, Jesus drew nigh to the 
river Jordan, to go to Jerusalem. And he was seen by one_of 
them who believed Jesug^to^be Go3! W hefeTlpuu pvvith greatest 
gladness ci ylDg evyf r Our God cometH ! having reached the city 
he moved the whole city saying : Our God cometh, Jerusalem ; 
prepare thee to receive him ! And he testified that he had seen 
Jesus near to Jordan. 

~Then went out from the city every one, small and great, to see 
Jesus, insomuch that the city was left empty, for the women bare 
their children in their arms, and insomuch that they forgat to 
take food to eat. 

When they perceived this, the governor and the high-priest rode 
forth and sent a messenger to Herod, who in like manner rode 
forth to find Jesus, in order that the sedition of the people might 
be quieted, j Whereupon for two days they sought him in the 97 1 
wilderness near to Jordan, and the third day they found him, 
near the hour of midday, when he with his disciples was purifying 
himself for prayer, according to the book of Moses. 

Jesus marvelled greatly, seeing the multitude which covered the 
ground with people, and said to his disciples : Perchance Satan 
hath raised sedition in Judaea. May it please God to take away 
from Satan the dominion which he hath over sinners. 

And when he had said this, the crowd drew nigh, and when they 
knew him they began to cry out : Welcome to thee, O our God ! 
and they began to do him reverence, as unto God. Whereupon 
Jesus gave a great groan and said : Get ye from before me, 
O madmen, for I fear lest the earth should open and devour me 
with you for your abominable words ! Whereupon the ^people 

were filled with terror and began to weep. 

t^ 

XCIIIb. 98" 

Then Jesus, having lifted his hand in token of silence, said : 
Verily ye have erred greatly, O Israelites, in calling me, a 



* The Chapter of the Christians. b The Chapter of confession. 



1 See on 96* (p. in, note 2). 



214 THE GOSPEL OF BAENABAS 

mandome homo uosstro DIG he temo che DIG ne dia per quessto 
graue flagello sopra la citta santa . tradendolla in seruitu 
alliena ho inille uolte malladeto satana che ha quessto ui 
chomosse . he deto questo iessu si perchose la fazia chon 
ambe le mani onde si leuo uno strepito de pianto che niuno 
poteua intendere quello che iessu diceua . onde di nouo leuo 
la mano in segno di silentio he aquietato il populo dal pianto 
di nouo disse . io chonffeso auanti il cielo he chiamo in tessti- 
monio ogni chossa che habita sopra della terra che io son 
allieno da quanto hauete deto essendo che . io son homo . 
nato di dona . mortalle . sottopossto al iuditio di DIG a . che 

98 l) patisse le misserie del manggiare he dormire . de | il fredo 
he chaldo chome li altri homeni . onde b quando uenira DIG c 
ha iudichare le mie parole chome spada perchotera ogniuno 
che chrederano me essere piu di homo . he deto quessto iessu 
uisste una grande moltitudine di chauallaria onde intexe che 
il ueniua il preside 1 chon herode he il pontiffice massimo . 
Disse allora iessu forsi che chosstoro anchora sono diuentati 
pazzi . hariuato hiuui il presside chon herode he il pontifice 
scaualcho ogniuno he fecero cerchio ha iessu dintorno . per 
modo che la millitia nom poteua fare stare ha dietro il populo 
che dessideraua sentire parllare iessu con il pontifice . Apressosi 
cho riuerenzza iessu al pontifice il qualle uolleua inchinarsi 
he addorare iessu quando iessu chrido . guarda quello che 
tu fai ho sacerdote di DIG uiuo d nom pechare chontra di DIG 
nostro . Risspose il pontifice hora he tanto chomossa la iudea 
sopra li segni he dotrina tua che loro chridano te essere DIG . 

99 a onde chonsstreto | dalla plebe son uenuto qui chon il presside 
romano he il Re herode . pero ti pregiamo di chore che tu sii 
chontento di leuare la seditione che per te si troua . perche 
parte dichono te essere DIG parte dichono te essere fiolo di 



UU ^nJ! ..^j !)! ** li! ^^s. J15 
-9 LJ! 
411. 
MS. presise. 



CONFESSION OF JESUS 215 

man, your God. And I fear that God may for this give heavy 
plague upon the holy city, handing it over in servitude to ._ 
strangers. a thousand times accursed Satan, that bath moved 
you to this ! 

And having said this, Jesus smote his face with both his hands, 
whereupon arose such a noise of weeping that none could hear 
what Jesus was saying. "Whereupon once more he lifted up his 
hand in token of silence, and the people heing quieted from their 
weeping, he spake once more : I confess before heaven, and I call 
to witness everything 1 that dwelleth upon the earth, that I am 
a stranger to all that ye have said ; seeing that I am man, born 
of mortal woman 2 , subject to the judgement of God a , suffering the 
miseries of eating__and sleeping, of | cold and heat, like other men. 98 b 
Wherefore b when God c shall come to judge, my words like a sword 
shall pierce each one [of them] that believe me to be more than 
man. 

And having said this, Jesus saw a great multitude of horsemen, 
whereby he perceived that there were coming the governor with 
Herod and the high-priest. 

Then said Jesus : JPerchance^ they also are become mad.! 

When the governor arrived there, with Herod and the priest, 
every one dismounted, and they made a circle round about Jesus, 
insomuch that the soldiery could not keep back the people that 
were desirous to hear Jesus speaking with the priest. 

Jesus drew near to the priest)?, with reverence, but he was wishful 
to bow himself down and worship Jesus, when Jesus cried out : 
Beware of that which thou doest, priest of the living God d ! ( Sin fc 
not against our God ! 

The priest answered : Now is Judaea so greatly moved over 
thy signs and thy teaching that they cry out that thou art God ; 
wherefore, constrained | by the people, I am come hither with the 99* 
Roman governor and king Herod. We pray thee therefore from 
our heart, that thou wilt be content to remove the sedition which 
is arisen on thy account. For some say thou art God, some say 
thou art son of God, and some say thou art a prophet. 



a God s judgement. b Said Jesus: When God shall judge on the 

Day of Judgement then our words shall cut like a sword him that believeth 
that I am more than man. c God the judge. d God is living. 



1 See p. 99* and notes on io a , 50*. 2 Or of woman, mortal, &c. 

<tu 



216 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

DIG he parte dichono te essere proffeta . Risspose iessu he tu 
sacerdote grande de DIG perche non quietassti quessta seditione 
sei forsi hanchora tu usscito delo intelleto . adonque le prof- 
fetie con la leggie di DIG nosstro he andata in obliuione ho 
missera iudea da satana inganata . 



E deto quessto iessu di nouo disse . io chonffesso hauanti 
il cielo he chiamo in tesstimonio ogni chossa che habita sopra 
la terra che io son allieno da quanto ha deto l li homeni di 
me essere piu di homo . perche io son homo . nato di dona . 
sottopossto al iuditio di Dio b . che uiue qui chome li altri 
homeni sotopossto alle chomune misserie . Viue DIO alia 
chui pressenza sta la anima | mia che tu hai fato uno grande 
pechato ho pontifice ha dire quello che deto hai . piazia ha 
DIG che non uenga sopra la citta santa grande uendeta per 
quessto pechato . Allora disse il pontifice perdonici Dio d he 
tu pregga per noi . allora disse il presside he herode elglie 
impossibile che Io homo fazia quello che tu fai signore pero 2 
non intendiamo quello che tu dici . Risspose iessu elgie uero 
quello che uoi dite imperoche DIG hopera il bene in Io homo 
sichome satana ui oppera il malle . perche Io homo he chome 
una botegga doue cholui che ui hentra chon la uollonta sua 
hiui hopera he uende . Ma dimi ho preside he tu Re uoi dite 
quessto perche sette alieni dalla nosstra leggie . che se uoi 
legesste il tesstamento he pato di DIG nosstro 6 uoi uederesste 
che . mose fece chon una bacheta conuertire la haqua in 
sangue . la poluere im pullici . la rugiada in tempessta he 
la luce in tenebre . Fece uenire le rane he sorzi in eggito che 
100* chopriuano la | terra . ammazo li primogeniti he apersse il 
mare doue somerse faraone delle qualli chosse niuna ho fato . 
he pure moisse ogniuno conffessa che elglie homo morto 
al pressente . iosue fece fermare il solle he aprite il giordano 

41)1. c * 41)1. 



MS. deto to. MS. peno. 



CONFESSION OF JESUS 217 

Jesus answered : And thou, high-priest of God, wherefore 
hast thou not quieted this sedition ? Art thou also, perchance, 
gone out of thy mind 1 Have the prophecies, with the law of 
so passed into oblivion, (Twretched Judaea, deceived of Satan ! 



And having said this, Jesus said again 1 : I confess before 
heaven, and call to witness everything that dwelleth upon the 
earth, that I am a stranger to all that men have said of me, to 
wit, that I am more than man. For I am a man, born of a woman, 
subjegtjto the judgejnent-Qf^God^ ; that live here like as other men, 
subject to the commonjniserjea. As God liveth c , in whose presence 
my soul standeth, | thou hast greatly sinned, O priest, in saying 99>> 
that thou hast said. May it please God that there come not upon 
the holy city great^yjejageaocj for this sin/. 

Then said the priest : May God pardon us d , and do thou pray 
for us. 

Then said the governor and Herod: Sir 2 , it is impossible that 
man should do that which thou doest ; wherefore we understand 
not that which thou sayest. 

Jesus answered : That which ye say is true, for God worketh 
good in man, even asl^atan worketh evil For man is like a shop, 
wherein whoso entereth with his consent worketh and selleth 
therein. But tell me, O governor, and thou O king, ye say this 
becausejre are_jtraagers to our law : for if ye read tEe 1 testament 
mid CTwonant of our God e 3 y e would see that Moses with a rod 
made the water turn into blood, the dust into fleas, the dew into 
tempest, and the light into darkness. He made the frogs and mice 
to come into Egypt, which covered the | ground, he slew the first- 100 :l 
born, and opened the sea, wherein he drowned Pharaoh. Of these 
things I have wrought none. And of Moses, every one confesseth 
that he is a dead man at this present. Joshua made the sun to 

a The Chapter of the faithful. b God is wise. God is living. 

d I ask God s pardon. e Account of the plague upon Pharaoh and his 
drowning. Inde. 




1 Cp. 98* ; see notes on io a 49 b . 2 Or Lord. 3 See 

Exod. vii. et sqq. 



218 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

il che non le o fato hanchora io . he pure iosue ogniuno 
conffessa che elgie homo morto al presente . helia fece uenire 
uissibilmente fuocho dal cielo he piogia il che non lo ho fato 
io he pure ogniuno chonfessa helia essere homo . he tanti 
altri proffeti santi ammici di DIG che in uirtu di DIG hano 
fato chosse le qualli nom polle chapire lo intelleto . di cholui 
che non chonosse il nosstro DIG a omnipotente he misserichor- 
diosso il qualle he beneddeto in etterno . 

XCVb. 

Pregorno adonque iessu il preside chon il pontifice he il 
Re . che per quietare la plebbe elgi sallisse in locho heminente 

100 b he parllasi al populo . | allora asscexe iessu sopra uno delli 
duodeci sasi che fece chauare iossue alle duodeci tribu del 
mezzo del giordano . quando passo hiui ha piedi sutti issdraele 
he disse ad alta uoce . asscenda in locho alto il pontifice nosstro 
al quale chonfermi le mie parolle . Ascexe adonque hiui il 
pontifice al quale disse iessu dichiaratamete che ogniuno 
intenda . Elgi scrito nel tesstamento he pato di DIG uiuo c 
che DIG nosstro non ha hauto principio d ne fine hauera giamai e . 
Risspose il pontiffice chosi uie scrito . Disse iessu heui scrito 
che DIG f nosstro chon la solla parolla ha chreato ogni chossa s . 
chosi e disse il pontifice . Disse iessu heui scrito che DIG he 
inuissibille h he asscoxo i alia inteligenza humana . per essere 
imchorporeo k he inchompossto senza mutatione 1 . chosi elgie 
uero disse il pontifice . Disse iessu heui scrito chome il cielo 
di cieli non il polle chapire per essere DIG nosstro inmenso m . | 

101 a chosi disse sallamone proffeta disse il pontifice ho iessu . Disse 



1j> 4)1. d (j.x3 -Jill. 

,jb 4)1. f Jli 4)1. 



4J]1. 



CONFESSION OF JESUS 219 

stand still 1 , _and_ opened the Jordan, which I have not yet done 2 .. 

And of Joshua every .one coniesseth thafTTe iiTa dead man at this y 

present. Elijah made fire^ to come visibly__down from heaven*, / ^^/-i-^ 

and rain 4 ,*\yhjcFl havenot done. And of Elijah every one coi^, -/ 

Tesseth that he is a man. And [in like manner] very many other 
prophets, holy men, friends of God, who in the power of God have 
wrought things which cannot be grasped by the minds of those 
who know not our God a , almighty and merciful, who is blessed for 
evermore. 

^~~*\ 

xcvv 



Accordingly the governor and the priest and the king prayed 
Jesus that in order to quiet the people he should mount up into 
a lofty place and speak to the people. | Then went up Jesus on to 100 1 
one of the twelve stones which Joshua made the twelve tribes take 
up from the midst of Jordan, when all Israel passed over there dry 
shod 5 ; and he said with a loud voice : Let our_ priest go up into 
a high place whence he may confirm my words/ Thereupon the 
priest~wenT~up thither ; to whom Jesus said distinctly, so that 
everyone might hear : It is written in the testament and covenant 
of the living God c 6 that our God hath had no beginning d , neither 

shall he ever have an endjL 
^ . ~ 

The priest answered : Even so is it written therein. 

Jesus said : It is written there that our God^ by his word alone 
hath created all things K 7 . 

Even so it is, said the priest. 

Jesus said : It is written there that God is invisible h and hidden 
from the mind of man, seeing he is incorporeal ^ and uncomposed, 
without variableness^. 

So is it, truly, said the priest. 

Jesus said : It is written there how that the heaven of heavens 
cannot contain him 8 , seeing that our God is infinite 1 ". | 

So said Solomon the prophet, said the priest, Jesus. 101 a 

a God is all-powerful and the compassionate. b The Chapter of 

There is no god but God. c God the living. d God is ancient. 

8 God endures. f God creates. * God created everything with 

one word. Inde. h God is not perceived by the eyes. God is 

hidden. k Ho has no body. Inde. l God betrays not. Inde. 

m God is great. 



1 See Josh. x. 12-14. See 200% and miracle recorded there. 

3 See i Kings xviii. 38, 39. * See i Kings xviii. 41 sqq. 5 See 

Josh. iv. 8. 6 Cp. Ps. xc. 2. 7 Cp. Ps. xxxiii. 6. 8 i Kings viii. 27. 



220 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

iessu heui scrito che DIG non ha bissogno imperoche . elgi non 
mangia . non dorme . he non patisse diffeto ueruno a . chosi e 
disse il pontifice . Disse iessu heui scrito che DIG nosstro he 
per tutto he che non uie altro DIG che l lui b . il quale per- 
chuote he sana he fa tutto quello che li piaze . chosi e scrito 
Risspose il pontifice . Allora iessu leuato le mani disse signer 
DIG c nosstro quessta he la f ede mia chon la quale ueniro al 
tuo iuditio . in tesstimonio chontra di ogniuno che chredera 
il chontrario he uoltatosi al populo disse . fate penitenzza 
perche da quanto ha deto il pontifice che he scrito nel libro 
di moisse pato di DIG in sempiterno . Voi potete chonosscere 
il uosstro pechato imperoehe io son homo uissibile . he uno 
pocho di fanggo che chamina sopra la terra . mortale chome 
sono li altri homeni . che ho hauto principio he hauero fine 
101 b he talle che io nom posso chreare una mossca | di nouo . leuo 
le uoci sui il populo adonque piangendo he dissero habiamo 
pechato signore DIO C nosstro contra di te habici misserichordia d . 
he pregauano ogniuno iessu che 1 elgi pregasse per sallute 
della citta santa azioche DIG nosstro adirato non la dessi in 
chonchulchazione delle genti e . onde iessu leuato le mani horo 
per la citta santa he per il popullo di DIG chridando ogniuno 
chosi sia amen . 



Finita la oratione . il pontifice disse ad alta uoce fermati 
iessu che ci mancha di ssapere chi se tu per quiete della nosstra 
gente . Risspose iessu io son iessu fiolo di maria^ della stirpe 
di dauit . homo che he mortale he teme DIG et cercho che 
sia dato ha DIG honore he gloria . Risspose il pontifice nel 
libro di mose he scrito che DIG nosstro deue madarci il messia h 
il qualle uenira ha nontiarne quelo che uolle DIG . he portera 



41)1. d 41)1 

^ 

e A. 4. 3 41)1. 
g 



1 MS. che che (bis). 



CONFESSION OF JESUS 221 

Said Jesus: It is written there that God hath_no jieed, foras-_ 
much as he eateth not,jsleeneth no^and^sufferetjbnot from any 
deficiency *l^~ 

r So~~isit, said the priest. 

Said Jesus : It is written there that our God is everywhere, 
and that there is not any other god but he b , who striketh down 
and maketh whole, and doeth all that pleaseth him V 

,P_ii-it written, replied the priest. 

Then Jesus, having lifted up his hands, said : Lord our God c , 
this is my faith wherewith I shall come to thy judgement ; in 
testimony against every one that shall believe the contrary. And 
turning himself towards the people, he said : Eepent, for from 
all that of which the priest hath said that it is written in the 
book of Moses, the covenant of God for ever, ye may perceive your 
sin ; for that I am a visible man and a morsel of clay that 
walketh upon the earth,|mortal as are other men.) And I have 
had a beginning jmd snail have an end, and [am] such that 
I carinoTcreate a flyj over again/ ~~101 b 

Thereupon the people raised their voices weeping, and said : 
We have sinned, Lord our God c, against thee ; have mercy upon 
us d . And they prayed Jesus, every one, that he would pray for 
the safety of the holy city, that our God in his anger should not * 
give it over to be trodden down of the nations e . Thereupon Jesus, 
having lifted up his hands, prayed for the holy city and for the 
people of God, every one crying : So be it, Amen. y 

XCVIf 

When the prayer was ended, the priest said with a loud voice : 
Stay, Jesus, for we need to know who thou art, for the quieting 
of our nation. 

Jesus answered : I am Jesus, son of Mary , of the seed of David, 
a man that is mortal and feareth God, and I seek that to God be 
given honour and glory. 

The priest answered : In the book of Moses it is written that 
our God must send us the Messiah 11 , who shall come to announce 
to us that which God willeth, and shall bring to the world the 

* God is rich. b Said Jesus : There is no other god save our God. 

Inde. c God is sovereign. d I ask God s pardon. e God is 

powerful. f The Chapter of the Evangelist. 8 Jesus said : I am. 

Jesus, the son of Mary. h God sends a prophet. 

1 Cp. Deut. xxxii. 39. 



222 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

102 a al monddo la misserijchordia di DIG . pero ti prego dici la 
uerita sei tu il messia* di DIG che noi asspetiamo . Risspose 
iessu elglie uero che chossi ha promesso il nosstro DIG ma 
pero io no son quello perche elgie fato auanti di me he uenira 
dapoi di me . Risspose il pontifice per le tui parolle he segni 
ad ogni modo chrediamo te essere proffetta he santo di DIG . 
pero ti preggo in nome di tutta iudea he issdraelle che tu 
per ammore di DIG ci dicha chome uenira il messia . Risspose 
iessu Viue DIG b alia chui pressenza sta la anima mi a che io 
non son il messia il qualle asspeta tutte le tribu della terra . 
sichome DIG promisse ha il padre nosstro abraham dicendo . 
Nel seme tu benediro tutte le tribu della terra . Ma quando 
DIG mi leuera dal monddo satana suscitera di nouo quessta 
seditione malladeta . chon fare chredere alii empij che io 
sia DIG he fiolo di DIG onde serano contaminato le mie parolle 
he la mia dotrina . talmente che apena rimanerano trenta 
fideli onde DIG hauera misserichordia del monddo he mandera 

102 b il nontio suo | per il qualle haffato il tutto . il qualle uenira 
dalla parte di mezzogiorno chom potessta he disstrugera li 
iddoli chon li iddolatri imperoche lui leuera Io imperio ha 
satana che elgi ha sopra li homeni . Elgi portera secho la 
misserichordia di DIG in sallute de chi li chrederano he beato 1 
cholui che chredera al suo parlare . 

XCVII *. 

Io indegno di sciolgere li suoi chalziamenti . ho hauto gratia 
he misserichordia da DIG di uederllo . Risspose allora il ponti 
fice con il preside he il Re dicendo non ti turbare ho iessu 
santo di DIG perche al nosstro tempo non sera piu quessta 
seditione . in modo che scriueremo nel sachro senato romano 
talmente che per dechreto imperiale niuno ti chiamerano piu 
DIG ouero fiolo di DIG . allora disse iessu e del uostro parllare 

b !> 2 ^- 

yjjtf U LJ . d u 



UiUl ^ *U. il $j}) 41)1 Jj-u, i- LJU-o o ~c JUi 
LoU /<* Ja.^> *~~!->} ^ W^ J-* y 
1 bato (sic). 



CONCERNING THE MESSIAH 223 

mercy | of God. Therefore I pray thee tell us thetruth, art thoaJU23_ 
the Messiah a of Goa whom we expect ? 

Jeetts~~"answered : It is true that" God hath so promised, but 
indeed I am not he, for he is made before me, and shall come 
after me V 

The priest answered : By thy words and signs at any rate we 
believe thee to be a prophet and an holy one of God, wherefore 
I pray thee in the name of all Judaea and Israel that thou for love 
of God shouldst tell us in what wise the Messiah will come. 

Jesus answered : As God liveth b, in whose presence my soul 
standeth, I am not the Messiah whom all the tribes of the earth 
expect, even as God promised to our father Abraham 2 , saying : 
" In thy seed will I bless all the tribes of the earth." But when 
God shall take me away from the world, Satan will raise again 
this accursed sedition, by making the impious believe that I am 
God and son of God 3 , whence my words and my doctrine shall be 
contaminated, insomuch that scarcely shall there remain thirty 
faithful ones : whereupon God will have mercy upon the world, 
and will send his messenger | for whom he hath made all things ; 102 b 
who shall come from the jsouth with power , and shall destroy the 
idols with the idolaters ; who shall take away the dominion from 
Satan which he hath over men. He shall bring with him the 
mefc7^of"GT5oTforsalvation of them that shall believe in him. and 
blessed is he who shall believe his words. 

XCVII a 

Unworthy though I am to untie his hosen 4 , I have received 
grace and mercy from God to see him. 

Then answered the priest, with the governor and the king, 
saying : Distress not thyself, Jesus, holy one of God, because 
in our time shall not this sedition be any more, seeing that we will 
write to the sacred Roman senate 5 in such wise that by imperial.^ 
decree none shall any more call thee God or son of God/ 

Then said Jesus e : With your words I am not consoled, because 

* Prophet. b By the living God. c In the Latin tongue laudabilis. 
d The Chapter of Mohammed, the prophet of God. e Jesus said : 

The coming of the prophet of God is our delight, for he, when he comes 
into the world, will remove the false belief in us from the people of the 
world, and his religion will keep the whole world in obedience. 

1 Cp. John i. 15. 2 Cp. Gen. xxii. 18. 3 See note on 49*. 

* Cp. Mark i. 7 and parallels. * Cp. 104% and for similar decrees see 

I73 b , 2i7 b , and Introduction. 



224 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

non mi chonsolo perche doue sperate luce uenirano tenebre 
ma la mia chonssolatione he sopra la uenuta dello nontio di 
DIG . il qualle disstrug-era ogni falssa opinione di me he la 

103 a sua fede | disscorera he prendera tutto il monddo . perche 
chossi ha promesso mo ha abraham padre nostro . he quello 
che mi da chonssolatione he che la fede sua non hauera fine a 
ma sera inuiolata seruata da DIG b . Risspose il pontifice dapoi 
la uenuta de il nontio di DIG c ueniraui altri proffeti . Risspose 
iessu non uenira dapoi di lui ueri profeti mandati da DIG 
ma uenira grande quantita di falssi proffeti de il che mi 
dolgio . perche li susciterra satana per iussto iuditio di DIG d 
he si choprirano sotto pretessto dello euangelio mio . Risspose 
herode chome he iussto iuditio di DIG che uengino chotali 
empij . Risspose iessu elgie iussto che cholui il qualle non 
uolle chredere alia uerrita per sua sallute chredi alia bugia 
per sua danatione . onde ui dicho e che il monddo sempre 
ha dissprezato li ueri proffeti he 1 ammato li falssi chome si 
pol uedere al tempo di michea he hieremia . Perche ogni simille 
amma il suo simille f . Disse allora il pontifice chome sara 

103 b chiamato il messia he | quale segno dimosstrera la sua uenuta 8 . 
Risspose iessu il nome del messia h he admirabile perche DIG 
propio li posse il nome quando elgi hebe chreato la anima sua . 
he chollochata intuno splendore cellesste DIG disse asspeta 
Machometo i che per ammore tuo k io uolgio chreare J il para- 
disso he il monddo . he moltitudine grande di chreature delle 



^ 

y ( j+3 S_li (Sill O-JJ.. \j-~ 




MS. 



THE NAME OF THE MESSIAH 225 

where ye hope forjight darkness shall come ; but my consolation 
is in the coming of the messenger, who shall destroy every false 
opinion of me, and his faith | shall spread and shall take hold of 103* 
the whole world, for so hath God promised to Abraham our 
father. And that which giveth me consolation is that his faith 
shall have no end a , but shall be kept inviolate by God V 

The priest answered : After the coming of the messenger of 
Godc shall other prophets come? 

Jesus answered : There shall not come after him true prophets 
sent by God, but there shall come a great number of false prophets, 
whereat I sorrow. For Satan shall raise them up by the just 
judgement of God <* and tjiey_shalLhideJbhemselves underthe 
pretext of_my gospel. 

Herod answered : How is it a just judgement of God that such 
impious men should come 1 

Jesus answered : It is just that he who will not believe in the 
truth to his salvation should believe in a lie to his damnation. 
Wherefore I say unto you , that the world hath ever despised the 
true prophets and loved the false, as can be seen in the time of 
Michaiah and Jeremiah l . For every like loveth his like f. 

Then said the priest : How shall the Messiah be called, and 
what sign shall reveal his coming s ? I03 b 

Jesus answered : The name of the Messiah h is admirable, for 
God himself gave him the name when he had created his soul, and 
placed it in a celestial splendour. God said : " Wait Mohammed i ; 
for for thy sake k I w j]l to create 1 paradise, the world, and a great 
multitude of creatures, whereof I make thee a present, insomuch 

a The religion of the prophet of God is everlasting, for God Almighty 
shall preserve his religion. Inde. b God keeps. The prophet 

of God, the seal of the prophets. d God s judgement is just. e And 
unto mankind. f Kind with kind (like with like). Inde. * Certain 
of the Jews came to Jesus asking the name of the prophet who will be sent 
in the last times, and Jesus said : God created the prophet at the end of 
time, and placed him in a lamp of light and called him Mohammed. He 
said : " Mohammed, be patient, on your account (I have created) many 
creatures, and have bestowed all on you ; and whoever is pleased with 
you I am pleased with him, and whoever hates you I am quit of him, 
and when you are sent your word will excel all words and your code shall 
last." Inde. h Prophet. Mohammed. k God loves and 

gives. God creates. 



1 Cp. ? Jer. xxvi. 18. 



226 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

qualli te ne fazo uno pressente talmente che . chi te benedira 
sara beneddeto he chi te malladira sarra malladeto . quando 
io ti mandero al monddo a io ti mandero mio nontio di sallute 
he la tua parolla sara uera talmente . che manchera il cielo 
he la terra ma non manchera giamai la tua fede . Machometo 
he il suo nome benedeto . Allora il uolgo leuo le uocj dicendo 
ho DIG mandazi il tuo nontio b ho machometo c uieni pressto 
in sallute del monddo . 



104 a E deto quessto si parti la turba . con il pontifice he | il 
preside chon herode grandi disscorsi fazendo sopra di iessu 
he sopra la sua dotrina . onde il pontifice prego il preside di 
scriuere ha roma nel senate il tutto . il che fece il presside 
che pero il senate ha chompiacimento de issdraele dechreto 
che ha pena della uita . niuno chiamasi iessu nazareno proffeta 
di iudei ne DIG ne fiolo di DIG . il qualle dechreto fu possto 
nel tempio in scritura di rame . partito la magiore parte della 
turba ressto circha cinque millia homeni sanza le done he 
fanciuli . li quali lassi per il uiaggio sendo stati dui giorni 
senza pane perche per dessiderio de uedere iessu si smenti- 
chorno di portarne . onde mangiorno herbe chrude pero nom 
poteuano andare chome li altri . Allorra chonosscendo quessto 
iessu hebe misserichordia di loro he disse ha fillipo doue 
trouaremo pane per chosstoro azioche non perisscano di fame . 
Risspose fillipo signore ducento danari di horo no potera 

104 b chomprare tanto pane che ne tochi uno | pocho pero ogniuno . 
Disse allora andrea elgie quiui uno fanciulo che a cinque pani 
he dui pessi ma che chossa sera f ra tanti . Risspose iessu fate 
sentare la turba li quali sentorno sopra il feno ha cinquanta 
he ha quaranta onde disse iessu . in nome di DIG e he prese il 
pane he prego DIG he poi spezo il pane il quale dete alii 
dissepoli he li dissepoli il detero alia turba . he chosi fece 
delli pessi Mangiorno ogniuno he ogniuno furno satiati onde 



[Ut] filt ijy*. e 4J1 



DECREE OF THE KOMAN SENATE 227 

that whoso shall bless thee shall be blessed, and whoso shall curse 
thee shall be accursed. When I shall send thee into the world 1 
E shall send thee as my messenger of salvation, and thy word 
shall be true, insomuch that heaven and earth shall fail, but thy 
faith shall never" fail." Mohammed is his blessedname. - *^ 7 
Then the crowd lifted up "their voices, saying: r O God, send us " 
thy messenger *>: O Mohammed c come quickly for the salvation of 
the world ! 



// 
" 



XCVIII a 

And having said this, the multitude departed with the priest 
and | the governor with Herod, having great disputations 
concerning jfesus^ and concerning^jis^ _doc_trine. Whereupon" 
*Ehe priest prayedlhe governor "to^rite" unto Rome to the senate 
the whole matter; whicJL thing the governor didj wherefore the 
senate had compassion on Israel, and decreed 1 that on pain of 
death none should call Jesus the Nazarene, prophet of the Jews, 
either God or son of God. Which decree was posted up in the 
temple, engraved upon copper. 

When the greater part of the crowd had departed, there 
remained about five thousand men, without women and children 2 ; 
who being wearied by the journey, having been two days without 
bread, for that through longing to see Jesus they had forgotten to 
bring any, whereupon they ate raw herbs therefore they were 
not able to depart like the others. 

Then Jesus, when he perceived this, had pity on them, and said 
to Philip : Where shall we find bread for them that they perish 
not of hunger ? 

Philip answered : < Lord, two hundred pieces of gold could not 
buy so much bread that each one should taste a | little. Then 104*> 
said Andrew : There is here a child which hath five loaves and 
two fishes, but what will it be among so many 1 

Jesus answered: Make the multitude sit down. And they 
sat down upon the grass by fifties and by forties. Thereupon 
said Jesus : In the name of God e \ And he took the bread, and 
prayed to God and then brake the bread, which he gave to the 
disciples, and the disciples gave it to the multitude; and so did 
they with the fishes. Every one ate and every one was satisfied. 

* God sends. b The prophet of God. Mohammed. d The 
Chapter of food. e By permission of God. 

1 See below, 173", 2i 7 b . See John vi. 5-13 and parallels. 

Q 2 



228 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

disse iessu . Racholgete quello che he auantagiato pero rachol- 
sero li dissepoli quelli minucioli he riempirno duodeci sporte . 
onde ogniuno si tochaua chon mane li hochij dicendo uegio io 
houero insonio he stetero per una hora chome fuori di sse 
ogniuno . per il miracholo grande . iessu dapoi le gratie resse 
ha DIG si lizenzio da loro ma setanta dui homeni non il uolssero 
abandonare . pero iessu chonosiuto la loro fede li ellese in 
dissepoli . 

XCIX. 

105 a Ritirato iessu im parte del disserto chaua in tiro apresso 
il giordano . chonuocho li setanta dui cho li duodecj he 
sentatosi 1 sopra una pietra li fece sedere apresso di lui he 
aperto la bocha sua sosspirando disse . hogidi habiamo ueduto 
una grande scellerita in iudea he in issdraelle he tale che 
hanchora mi trema il chore nel peto per timore di DIG . io 
ui dicho in uerita che DIG he zelosso sopra il suo honore 
he che 2 chome uno ammante amma issdraele b . Voi sapete che 
quando uno giouine hama una dona la quale non ammi lui 
ma altri lei ammi lui mosso ha sdegno amaza il suo riuale . 
chosi ui dicho che fa DIG imperoche quando isdrahele ha 
ammato chossa ueruna per la qualle si smentichi di DIG . DIG 
ha disspersso quella talle chosa c . hora quale chossa he piu 
grata ha DIG quiui in terra del sacerdotio he tempio santo 
non dimeno al tempo di ieremia proffeta . essendo il popullo 
smentichato di DIG he gloriandosi sollo del tempio per non 
esserne uno talle nel monddo DIG suscito la ira sua per nabuch- 

105 b donosor Re di babillonia . he chon | essercito fece prendere 
la citta santa he abrugiarla cho il sachro tempio . per modo 
che le chosse sachre le qualli tremauano li proffeti di DIG 
ha tochare li inffideli pieni di scelleragine le chonchulchorno . 
d abraham ammaua uno pocho 3 piu di quanto si chonuiene 
il suo filgiolo issmaelle pero DIG chomando per hocidere 



j 4J|. 



MS. sentato so. * MS. &e. 3 MS. uno pocho umpocho (sic). 



OF THE JEALOUSY OF GOD 

Then said Jesus : Gather up that which is over. So the disciples 
gathered those fragments, and filled twelve baskets. Thereupon 
every one put his hand to his eyes, saying- Am I awake, ^r 
do I dream ? And they remained, every one, for the space 
oY an hour, as it were beside themselves by reason of the great 
miracle. 

Afterwards Jesus, when he had given thanks to God, dismissed 
them, but there were seventy-two men 1 that willed not to leave 
him ; wherefore Jesus, perceiving their faith, chose them tor 
les. 

XCIX a. 105 

Jesus, having withdrawn into a hollow part of the desert in 
Tiro 2 near to Jordan, called together the seventy-two with the 
twelve, and, when he had seated himself upon a stone, made them _ 
to sit near him. And he opened his mouth with a sighand said : 



day have we seen a great wickedness in Judaea and in Israel, 
and such an one that my heart yet trembleth within my breast for 
fear of God. Verily I say unto you, that God is jealous for his 
honour, and loveth Israel as a lover *>. Ye know that when a youth 
loveth a lady, and she love not him, but another, he is moved to 
indignation and slaveth his rival. Even so, I tell you, doth God : 
for, when Israel hath lovecTanything by reason whereof he forgetteth 
God, God hath brought such thing to nought c . Now what thing 
is more dear to God here on earth than the priesthood and the 
holy temple ? Nevertheless, in the time of Jeremiah the prophet, 
when the people had forgotten God, and boasted only of the 
temple 3 , for that there was none like it in all the world, God 
raised up his wrath by Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, and 
with | an army caused him to take the holy city and burn it with 105 1 
the sacred temple 4 , insomuch that the sacred things which the 
prophets of God trembled to touch were trodden under foot of 
infidels full of wickedness 5 . 

^Abraham loved his sonlshmael a little_more thar^ was_right, 
wherefore God commanded, in order to kill that evil love out of 



a Chapter of the jealousy of God. b God is jealous and loving. 

c God is victorious. d Account of the sacrifice of Ishmael. 



1 Cf. Luke x. i. 2 Text obscure. 3 Cp. Jer. vii. 4. * Cp. 

Jer. xxxix. 8 sqq. and lii. 13. * Cp. Lam. i. 10. 



230 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

quello chatiuo hamore dal chore di abraham . che elgi amazassi 
il filgiolo il che haueria fato se il chortello talgiaua . Dauit 
ammaua absalom forte che pero fece DIG si che si ribelo il 
filgiolo al padre he fu sospesso per li chapelli he da ioab 
ammazato . ho tremendo iuditio de DIG che absalon ammaua 
sopra ogni chossa li suoi chapelli li quali se li cormertirno 
in chorda per apicharlo . a lo inocente iob hera uicino ha 
ammare li suoi sette noli chon tre fiole sue quando DIG il 
dete in mano ha satana che non sollo il priuete di fioli he 
richezze intuno giorno . ma di graue inffermita il perchosse 
per modo che sette hani chontinui usciua uermi dalla charne 
106 a sua . b il padre nosstro iachobo ammaua piu delli altri | fioli 
iosef onde DIG il fece uendere he fece inganare iachob dalli 
isstesi fioli . per modo che elgi chredeua che le bestie haues- 
sero deuorato il suo fiolo che pero stete dieci hanni chom 
pianto . 



Viue DIG d f ratelli chio temo che DIG sia adirato chotra di me . 
pero elglie neccessario che uoi andate per iudea he issdraele 
predichando alle duodeci tribu de issdraele la uerita azioche 
si sganino . Bissposero li dissepoli chon timore piagendo noi 
faremo quanto ci chomanderai . allora disse iessu faciamo tre 
giorni oratione he digiuno he da qui im poi . ogni sera quando 
si uedera la prima stella che si fa una oratione ha DIG tre 
uolte oratione faremo dimandando li tre uolte misserichordia . 
perche il pechato di issdraelle he graue tre uolte piu delli 
altri pechati . chosi sia rissposero li dissepoli . Finite il terzo 
106 b giorno la matina del quarto giorno iessu chonjuocho tutti 
li dissepoli he appostoli he disseli . bassti che con me ressti 
barnaba he ioane uoi altri ui andarete per tutta la regione 
di samaria iudea he issdraelle predichando . peniteza perche 
la scure he possta hapresso lo arbore per talgiarllo . he fate 
oratione sopra li infermi perche DIG* mia dato imperio sopra 



T>*- 




OF THE JEALOUSY OF GOD 231 

the heart of Abraham, that he should slay his son : which he 
would have done had the knife cut l . 

David loved Absalom vehemently, and therefore God brought it 
to pass that the son rebelled against his father and was suspended T"j 
by his hair and slain by Joab 2 . O fearful judgement of God, 
that Absalom loved his hair above all things, and this was turned 
into a rope to hang him withal ! 

a Innocent Job 3 came near to loving [over much] his seven sons 
and three daughters, when God gave him into the hand of Satan, 
who not only deprived him of his sons and his riches in one day, 
but smote him also with grievous sickness, insomuch that for seven 
years following^Qrms came out of his flesli^ 
^75u7lutherJacob loved Joseph more than his other | sons 4 , 106* 
wherefore God caused him to be sold, and caused Jacob to be 
deceived by these same sons, insomuch that he believed that the 
beasts had devoured his son, and so abode ten years mourning. 

CX 

As God liveth^brethren, I fear lest God be angeredj^ainst me. 
ThereforeTye ne~eds musTgoTKrough Judaea and Israel, preaching 
to the twelve tribes of Israel the truth, that they may be undeceived. 

The disciples answered with fear, weeping : We will do what- 
soever thou shalt bid us/ 

""Tlien saId~Jesus : Let us for three days make prayer and fast, 
and from henceforth every evening when the first star shall appear B , 
when prayer is made to God, let us make prayer three times, 
asking Him three times for mercy : because the sin of Israel is 
three times more grievous than other sins. 

SQ lift it^jtnswered the disciples. 

\Vhen the third day was ended, on the morning of the fourth 
day, Jesus called together | all the disciples and apostles and said 106 b 
to them : Suffice it that there abide with me Barnabas andJobnj 
do ye others go through all the region of Samaria and Jud~aea7and 
Israel, preaching penitence ; because the axe is laid nigh unto the 

tree, to cut it down 6 . And make prayer over the sick, because tj 

- _ ^- - T~i TT " * X><X/Vv/*v/^- 

God e hath given me authority over every sickness^. -X ^ 

Account of the history of Job. b Account of the history of Joseph. 
c The Chapter of the evening prayer. d By the living God, God the 

victorious. e God gives. 

1 See above, p. ia b . 3 See 2 Sam. xviii. 9 sqq. 3 See Job i. a-ii. 8. 
See Gen. xxxvii. 5 Cp. 8 7 a (p. 193, note 4). 6 Cp. Matt. iii. 10 

and parallels. 7 Cp. Matt. x. 8 and parallels. 



232 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

oggni inffermita . Disse allora quello che scriue ho maesstro 
se serano interogato li tuoi disscepoli del modo che fare deuono 
penitenzza che chossa rispoderano loro . a Risspose iessu quando 
uno perde una borssa ritorna ha dietro solamete lo hochio 
per uederlla ouero la mano per riceuerlla . ouero la lingua 
per interogare no certo ma tutto il chorpo ritorna ha dietro 
he impiaga ogni potenzza della anima per trouarlla . elgi 
uero quessto . Risspose cholui che scriue helgie uerissimo . 

107 a CI b . 

a Allora disse iessu . la penitenzza he uno rouersio della malla 
uitta perche ogni senso si deue chonuertire al chontrario di 
quanto opero pecchando . perche al dilleto si deue ponere 
il dollore al risso il pianto . alle chrapule li degiuni . al dormire 
le uiggillie . al hotio lo exercitio . alia libidine la chasstita . 
le fabule si conuertino in horatione he la auuaritia in ellemos- 
sine . Risspose cholui che scriue ma se serano dimadati chome 
dobiamo dollersi . chome dobiamo piangere chome dobiamo 
degiunare . chome dobiamo exercitarsi . chome dobiamo stare 
chassti . chome dobiamo fare horatione he ellemossine che 
chossa rissponderano . he chome farano bona penitenzza se 
non saperano pentirsi . Risspose iessu bene hai dimandato 
ho barnaba he uolgio al tutto sodisfare piazendo ha DIG d pero 
hogidi te diro della penitenzza generalmente . he quello che 
ha uno lo dicho ha tutti lo dicho . sapiate adonque che la 
10 7 b penitenza | piu di ogni altra chossa deue essere fata per puro 
ammore di DIG altrimenti sera uano il pentirsi . imperoche 
ui parllero per simillitudine ogni fabricha leuandoli il fonda- 
mento ua in rouina elgi uero quessto . Elgie uero rissposero 
li dissepoli allora disse iessu il fondamento della sallute nosstra 
he Dio e senza il quale non uie sallute . quando lo homo ha 
pechato elgia persso il fondamento della salute sua pero . elgie 
neccessario di principiare dal fondamento . Ditemi se li uosstri 

* (jLo l_^J. b 

c 5-JL-* AJjjJI iJi-XJ y ..v-* C-JJ-^J. I . 



Ll a l. e M- 4)1. 



OF PENITENCE 233 

Then said he who writeth : Master, if thy disciples be asked 
of the manner in which they ought to show penitence, what shall 
they answer ? 

a Jesus answered : When a man loseth a purse doth he turn back 
only his eye, to see it? or his hand, to take it? or his tongue, to 
ask? No, assuredly, but he turneth back his whole body and 
employeth every power of his soul to find it. Is this true ? 

Then answered he who writeth : It is most true. | 



107* 

a Then said Jesus : Penitence is a reversing of the evil life ; for 
every sense must be turned round to the contrary of that which it 
wrought while sinning. For instead of delight must be put 
mourning ; for laughter, weeping; for revellings, fasts; for sleeping, 
vigils; for leisure, activity; for lust, chastity: let story-telling be 
turned into prayer and avarice into almsgiving. 

Then answered he who writeth : But if they be asked, how we 
ought to mourn, how we ought to weep, how we ought to fast, how 
we ought to show activity, how we ought to remain chaste, how we 
ought to make prayer and do alms ; what answer shall they give ? 
And how shall they do penance aright if they know not how to 
repent c ? 

Jesus answered : Well hast thou asked, Barnabas, and I wish 
to answer all fully if it be pleasing to God d . So to-day I will 
speak to thee of penitence generally, and that which I say to one 
I say unto all *. 

Know then that penitence | more than anything must be done 107^ 
for pure love of God ; otherwise it will be vain to repent. For 
I will speak unto you by a similitude. 

Every building, if its foundation be removed, falleth into ruin : 
is this true ? 

It is true, answered the disciples. 

Then said Jesus: The foundation of our salvation is God e , with 
out whom salvation is not. "When man hath sinned, he hath lost 
the foundation of his salvation ; so it is necessary to begin from 
the foundation. 



Setting forth (showing) of repentance. b The Chapter of re 

pentance. c How can he repent who knows not repentance ? Inde. 

d If it please God. e God is peace. 



1 Cp. Mark xiii. 37. 



234 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

serui ui auesse offeso he chonoseste uoi che loro non si dolgiono 
di auerui offeso . ma si dolgiono di hauere persso il premio 
li perdonaresste uoi no certo chossi ui dicho che fara DIG 
ha cholloro che si pentono per hauere persso il parradisso . 
satana innimicho di ogni bene ha pentimento grande di auere 
persso il paradisso he uadagnato lo imferno . Ma pero non 
trouera giamai misserichordia he sapete perche . perche elgi 
10 8 a non ha ueruno ammore di DIG anzi hodia il suo chreatore . 



lo ui dicho in uerita che ogni animalle sechodo la sua 
natura . perdendo quello che dessidera si duole del bene 
perduto . il pechatore adonque che uolle fare uera penitenzza 
debe auere grande dessiderio di punire in se stesso quello che 
chontra il chreatore suo ha hoperato . per modo che elgi 
horando non ardissca dimandare ha DIG il paradisso houero che 
DIG lo liberi dallo infferno . Ma con chonfussione di mente 
prostrato auanti DIG dicha horando . Echo il reo ho signore 
che tia offexo senza ueruna chagione nello isstesso tempo che 
elgi doueua seruirti . pero quiui ricercha che per mano tua 
sia punito quello che lui ha fato he non per mano di satana 
innimicho tuo . azioche non preda allegrezza lo empio sopra 
le tui chreature . chastiga punissi chome ha te piaze signore 
10S b perjche tu non mi darai giamai tanto tormeto quanto merita 
questo scellerato . onde quessto modo tenendo il pechatore 
tanto piu trouera misserichordia apresso Dio b quanto elgi 
dimandera iusstitia . Elgie certo uno sachrillegio abomineuolle 
il ridere del pechatore . imperoche quessto monddo chon uerita 
il padre nosstro dauit lo chiama ualle di lachrime . Elgi 
fu uno Re il quale si adoto per fiolo uno sciauo suo il qualle 
fece signore di quanto possedeua . interuene che per ingano 
di uno scellerato il missero chassco in dissgratia del Re . tal- 
mente che sostene grandi misserie si del uiuere chome del 
essere scernito he robatoli quanto uadagnaua ogni giorno 
lauorando . chredete uoi che talle homo ridessi per alchuno 



OF PENITENT CONFESSION 235 

Tell me, if your slaves had offended you, and ye knew that 
they did not grieve at having offended you, but grieved at having 
lost their reward, would ye forgive them ? Certainly not. Even 
so I tell you that God will do to those who repent for having lost 
paradise. Satan, the enemy of all good, hath great remorse for / y (( *> J 
having lost paradise and gained hell. But yet will he never find \^ .-* 
mercy, and know ye why? Because he hath no | love of God; nay 108* 
he hateth his Creator. *~^ 

PJT a ( \_S\j^-t^-^\- <~2\J 

Verily I say unto you, that every animal after its own nature, 
if it lose that which it desireth, mourneth for the lost good. 

O 

Accordingly, the sinner who will be truly penitent must have 
great desire to punish in himself that which he hath wrought in 
opposition to his Creator : in such wise that when he prayeth he 
dare not to crave of God paradise, or that he free him from hell, 
but in confusion of mind, prostrate before God, he saith in his 
prayer : " Behold the guilty one, O Lord, who hath offended 
thee without any cause at the very time when he ought to have 
been serving thee. Wherefore here he seeketh that what he hath 
done may be punished by thy hand, and not by the hand of 
Satan, thine enemy ; in order that the ungodly may not rejoice 
over thy creatures. Chastise, punish as it pleaseth thee, O Lord, 
for | thou wilt never give me so much torment as this wicked one 108 !) 
deserveth." 

Whereupon the sinner, holding to this manner [of penitence], 
will find the more mercy with God b in proportion as he craveth 
justice. 

Assuredly, an abominable sacrilege is laughter of the sinner : in 
somuch that this world is rightly called by our father David a 
vale of tears *. 

There was a king who adopted as son one of his slaves, whom 
he made lord of all that he possessed. Now it chanced that by 
the deceit of a wicked man the wretched one fell under the dis 
pleasure of the king, so that he suffered great miseries, not only 
in his substance, but in being despised, and being deprived of all 
that he won each day by working. Think ye that such a man 
would laugh for any time ? 

a The Chapter of grief in penitence. b God the compassionate. 

1 Ps. Ixxxiv. 6. 



236 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

tempo . No certo rissposero li dissepoli perche se il Re lo 
hauessi saputo lo haueria fato hammazare uedendollo ridere 
della disgratia del Re . Ma elgie chredibille che giorno he 
10 9 a note lui piajgessi allora iessu lachrimo dicendo* guai allo 
monddo perche elgie sichuro di etterno tormento . ho missero 
homo che DIO nosstro ti haueua elleto quasi chome fiolo donan- 
doti il parradisso onde tu . ho missero per operatione di satana 
chasscasti in dissgratia di DIO he fusti scaziato da il paradisso 
he chondanato al monddo inmondo . doue ogni chossa riceui 
chon traualgio he ogni hopera bona tie robata per il chontinuo 
pechare . he pure ride il monddo he quello che peggio he 
cholui che he magiore pechatore ride piu delli haltri . elgi 
sara adonque chome hauete deto che DIO dara la danatione 
di morte hetterna sopra il pechatore che ride he no piange 
li suoi pechati . 

CIII b. 

II pianto del pechatore . deue essere chome di padre che 
piangia il fiolo uicino ha morte . ho homo pazo ehe tu 
piangi il corpo dal qualle he partito la anima he nom piangi 
109 b la anima dalla quale per il pechato he partito da lei la 
misserichordia di DIO . Ditemi se il marinaro dapoi la naue 
rota per fortuna potessi piangendo richuperare quanto elgia 
perduto che farebe elgi . certo he che dirotamente piangeria . 
Ma ui dicho in uerita che in ogni chossa che lo homo piangie 
pecha saluo quando piangie per il pechato imperoche . ogni 
misseria che uiene al homo li uiene da DIO per sua sallute 
che pero doueria allegrarsi . Ma il pechato uiene dal diauollo 
per sua danatione del homo he lo homo di quello no si atrista . 
certamente che qui potete chonosscere che lo homo dano 
cercha he non utile . Disse bartolameo signore che fara 
cholui che nom pole piangere per hauere il chor suo allieno 
dal pianto . Risspose iessu non tutti quelli che lachrimano 
piangie ho bartolameo . Viue DIO c che si troua homeni che 
dalli hochij loro non usscite giamai lachrima he piansero piu 



OF MOURNING FOR SIN 237 

No, assuredly/ answered the disciples, for if the king should 
have known it he would have caused him to be slain, seeing him 
laugh at the king s displeasure. But it is probable that he would 
weep day and night. | 

Then Jesus wept saying a : Woe to the world, for it is sure 109* 
of eternal torment. Oh wretched mankind, for that God hath 
chosen thee as a son, granting thee paradise, whereupon thou, 
O wretched one, by the operation of Satan didst fall under the 
displeasure of God, and wast cast out of paradise and condemned 
to the unclean world, where thou receivest all things with toil, 
and every good work is taken from thee by continual sinning. 
And the world simply laugheth, and, what is worse, he that 
is the greatest sinner laughejh_mpe_jtha^_th^j:est : _ It will be, 
therefofeT^s ye have said : that God will give the sentence of 
eternal death upon the sinner who laugheth at his sins and 
weepeth not therefor. 

cmt>. 

The weeping of the sinner ought_to be as that of a fathgr_ffiho 
weepeth over his son nigh to death. On rnadness of man, that 
weepest over the body from which the soul is departed, and weepest 
not over the soul from which, | through sin, is departed the mercy 109 Ij 
of God ! 

Tell me, if the mariner, when his ship hath been wrecked by 
a storm, could by weeping recover all that he had lost, what would 
he do ? It is certain that he would weep bitterly. But I say 
unto you verily, tEatin every thing_ wherein a jnan_ ffi^th_jjj 
sinneth^save onlv^whe^^hejweepetEfor his sin. For every misery 
that cometh^to man cometh to him from God for bis salvatio^ 
?6 Ihat ho ought to .jgjoice thereat.^ But sin cometh from the 
Qevil for the damnation of man, and at that man is not sad. 
Xssuredly here ye can perceive that man seieketh loss and not 
profit. 

Said Bartholomew : Lord, what shall he do who cannot weep 

y. - - 

for that his heart is a stranger to weeping 1 Jesus answered : 
^TN ot all THose wh~o shed tears weep, O Bartholomew. As God 
liveth c , there are found men from whose eyes no tear hath ever 
fallen, and they have wept more than a thousand of those who 




* Great lamentation (?). b The Chapter of weeping in repentance. 

e By the living God. 



v 



238 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

110 a di mille di quelli che lachrimano . | il pianto del pechatore he 
uno chonsumamento di hafeto terreno per empito di dollore . 
talmente che sichome il solle chonserua quella chossa che 
sopra si pone da putrefatione . chossi quessto sconsumameto 
chonserua la anima da pechato . se Dio a donassi lachrime 
al uero penitente quanta aqua ha il mare molto piu ne de- 
sidarebe he pero quessto dessiderio . sconsuma quel pocho 
humore che uorebe uscire chome sconsuma una ardente 
fornaze una goza di aqua . Ma cholloro che facilmente si 
prorompono im pianto sono chome il ehauallo che tanto piu 
presto elgi chamina quanto meno he charge . 



In uerita ui sono homeni che hano lo affeto interiore he le 
lachrime essteriori . ma chie quessto uno hieremia trouerasi . 
Nel pianto DIG missura piu il dollore che le lachrime . allora 
disse ioane ho maestro chome perde lo homo piangendo le 
altre chosse che il pechato . Risspose iessu se herode ti donas|se 
110 b in chusstodia uno mantello he dapoi lo leuasi da te haressti 
ragione di piangere . no disse ioane . allora disse iessu hor meno 
ragione ha lo homo de piangere quando elgi perde qualche 
chossa ouero non ha quello che uorebe . imperoche il tutto 
uiene dalla mano di DIG c . adonque DIG nom potra al piazere 
suo dissponere delle chosse sui d ho stolto homo . che tu hai per 
tuo sollo il pechato del quale dei piangere he non di altra 
chossa . Disse mateo ho maesstro tu hai conffessato hauanti 
tutta iudea che DIG non ha niuna simillitudine cho lo homo he 
hora tu dici . che lo homo riceue dalla mano di DIG adonque 
DIG hauendo mani elgia simillitudine chon lo homo . Risspose 
iessu tu sei in herrore ho mateo he molti chossi hano herrato 
non sapendo il senso delle parolle . perche lo homo deue 
chonsiderare delle parolle non lo essterno ma il sensso essendo 
che la uoce humana he chome uno interpetre fra noi he 
DIG . hora non sapete che uolendo parllare DIG alii padri 



a t^Uj ill. b csLJI ^ p,J 

ill XLC ^ J^ d ^1 J-^ cr* J^l^^ *ill u^- 5 ^* ^- 



OF MOURNING FOR SIN 



a consumption of earthly 110 a 



Insomuch that just as the 



affectioja-4j^yehemeuce of sorrow. 




sunshine preserveth from putrefaction what is placed uppermost, 
even so this consumption preserveth the soul from sin. If God a 
should grant tears to the true penitent as many as the sea hath 
waters he would desire far more : and so this desire consumeth 
that little drop that he fain would shed, as a blazing furnace 
consumeth a drop of water. But they who readily burst into 
wee pmg_axie_Jike_the horse that goeth the faster the more lightly^ 
n~e is laden. 



Verily there are men who have both the inward affection and 
thlftmtward tears. But he who is thus^jwill be a JeremiabA In 
weeping, God measureth more the sorrow than^the tears. 
"*~*Then said John : O master, how dftft man lose in weeping 
over things other than sin 1 d&i. J 

Jesus answered : If Herod should give thee | a mantle to keep 
for him, and afterwards should take it away from thee, wouldest 
thou have reason to weep 1 

No, said John. Then said Jesus : Now hath man less reason 
to weep when he loseth ught, or hath not that which he would ; 
for all cometh from the hand of God c. Accordingly, shall not God 
have power to dispose at his pleasure of his own things d , foolish 
man ? For thou hast of thine own, sin alone ; and for that oughtest 
thou to weep, and not for aught else. 

Said Matthew : O master, thou hast confessed before all 
Judaea that God hath no similitude like man, and now thou hast 
said that man receiveth from the hand of God ; accordingly, since 
God hath hands he hath a similitude with man. 

Jesus answered : Thou art in error, Matthew, and many 
have so erred, not knowing the sense of the words. For man 
ought to consider not the outward [form] of the words, but the 
sense ; seeing that human speech is as it were an interpreter 
between us and God. Now know ye not, that when God willed to 




God bestows. b The Chapter of loss in weeping. c Every 

thing is from God. d God to whom be praise, God is possessor, every 

thing is from God. 



1 Cp. Lam. i. 12, &c. 



240 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

nosstri sul monte sina . chridorno li padri nosstri parllaci tu 
lll a ho moisse he non | ci parlli DIG azioche non moriamo . he che 
chossa disse DIG a per essaia proffeta se no che tanto quanto he 
lontano il cielo dalla terra chossie lontano le uie di DIG dalle 
uie deli homeni . he li pensieri di DIG dalli pensieri deli ho- 
meni . 



DIG he tanto inmenso che tremo ha nararlo . Ma bissogna 
che io ui fazia una propositione . Dichoui adonque che noue 
sono li cielli li quali sono distanti luno dal altro chome he 
distante il primo cielo dala terra . il quale he lontano dalla 
terra einqueceto hanni di strada onde la terra he lontana dallo 
piu alto ciello quatro millia he cinquecento hanni di strada . 
io ui dicho adonque che ha proportione del primo cielo uno 
ponto di ago he il primo cielo ha proportione del secondo he 
similmente uno ponto . he chossi tutti li cieli sono inferiori luno 
dello altro . Ma tutta la grandezza della terra con quella de 



lll b tutti li cieli ha proportione del parradisso he uno ponto 



anz 



uno grano di harena elgi smisurata quessta grandezza . Ris- 
sposero li dissepoli si certo . Disse allora iessu uiue DIG c alia 
chui pressenzza sta la anima mia che il tutto auanti di DIG he 
pichollo chome uno grano di arena d . he DIG he tante uoltc 
maggiore quanti grani di harena andaria ha riempire tutti li 
cieli he il parradisso he piu . hora penssate uoi se DIG habia 
proportione chon Io homo che he uno pocho di fango che sta 
sopra la terra . guarddate adonque di pilgiare il senso he non 
le parolle nude se uollete hauere la uitta hetterna . Risposero 
adonque li dissepoli sollo DIG polle chonossere se stesso he 
ueramente he chome disse esaia profeta elgie asscoxo dalli 
sensi humani . Risspose iessu chosi e uero onde quando saremo 
im paradisso chonossceremo DIG chome qui si chonosse il mare 
chon una gozza di aqua sallata . Ritornando al mio parllare ui 
dicho che sollo si de pianggere per il pechato he perche 



4)1. 



OF THE IMMENSITY OF GOD 241 

speak to our fathers on mount Sinai, our fathers cried out: " Speak 
thou to us, O Moses, and let not | God speak to us, lest we die l " 1 
And what said God a by Isaiah 2 the prophet, but that, so far as the 
heaven is distant from the earth, even so are the ways of God 
distant from the ways of men, and the thoughts of God from the 
thoughts of men ? 



God is so immeasurable that I tremble to describe him. But 
it is necessary that I make unto you a proposition. I tell you. / 

x then, that.thejiea.vensa.re nine 3 and_that they are distant from 
another eveiTasJhTfirst heaven iTTHstant from~thTearth, " 

- ^~ ,^L&A/^Q/y 



which is distant from the earth five hundred 



-- - - ^ - 

JLereoretheearth isdistantmm;TTfl 



, . heaven four 

thousand ^niL five hundrgcTvears Journey. I tell yon, nnnnrdiVJ^T 
that [the earth] is in proportion to the first heaven as the point ^ ^(YT) 
of a needle, and the first heaven in like manner is in proportion 
to the second as a point, jmd_sonilarly all the heavens are inferior 
eachj)ne_to the next. But all the size of the earth with that of all 
J[fie heavens isjn proportio^lojmradise_aFa~plimtn""ay > as a grarn~lll b 
o^sand-^^Js this greatness immeasurable 1 * "~ 

The disciples answered : Yea, surely. 

Then said Jesus: As God livethc, in whose presence my soul 
standeth, the universe before God is small as a grain of sand d , and 
God is as many times greater [than it] as it would take grains of 
sand to fill all the heavens and paradise, and more. Xow consider 
ye if God hath any proportion with man, who is a little piece of 
clay that standeth upon the earth. Beware, then, that ye take the 
sense and not the bare words, if ye wish to have eternal life. 

The disciples answered : God alone can know himself, and 
truly it is as said Isaiah 5 the prophet: "He is hidden e from 
human senses." * " 



Jesus answered : So is it true ; wherefore, when we are in 
paradise we shall know God, as here one knoweth the sea from 
a drop of salt water. 

Returning to my discourse, I tell you that for sin alone one 

a God to whom be praise. " The Chapter of the excellency of God. 

By the living (Joel. d God is greatest. e God is hidden. 

1 Exod. xx. 19. 2 Isa ]v _ Qf s Cj) be i OW; p> Igo b 4 Thjg 

tradition of 500 years distance between each heaven is found in Jerus. 
Talmud, Ber. ix. See Introduction. 5 Cp. Isa. xly. 15. 



242 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

pechando lo homo habandona DIG chreatore suo * . Ma chome 
112 a pian | gera cholui che atende ha chrapule he chonuiti . elgi 
piangera chome dara fuoeho il giazio . El bissogna conuertire 
le chrapulle in geiunio se uollete signoregiare li sensi uosstri 
perche chosi lo signoregio DIO nosstro . Disse Tadeo adonque 
DIG ha sensso da signoregiare . Risspose iessu ritornate pure 
la chon dire DIG ha chossi DIG he tale ditemi . lo homo algi 
il senso, si Rissposero li dissepoli . disse iessu si troua homo 
che habia uita in lui he non hoperi in lui il senso . No 
dissero li dissepoli . Voi ue ingganate disse iessu perche 
cholui che he horbo, sordomuto he stropiato doue he il 
senso he quando lo homo he trassmortito . si smarinio allora 
li dissepoli quado iessu disse, tre chosse sono che fa lo homo 
che he la anima il senso he la charne ogniuno da per sse 
separate . chreo DIG b nosstro chome hauete intesso la anima 
he il chorpo ma non hauete hanchora intesso chome chreo 
il sensso . pero dimani ha DIG piazendo ui diro il tutto he 
deto quessto iessu resse le gratie ha DIG he prego per sallute 
112 b del popullo nostro | dicendo ogniuno di noi amem . 



Fata la oratione di haurora . iessu sedete sotto una palma 
he iuui se auicinorno li suoi dissepoli . allora disse iessu 
Viue DIG d alia chui pressenzza sta la anima mia che molti 
sono inganati circha alia uita nosstra . perche he tanto 
chongionta la anima he il senso he la charne che la magiore 
parte delli homeni affermano la anima he il senso una isstessa 
chossa . diuidendola per operatione he nom per essenzza 
chiamandola anima sensitiua uegetatiua he intelletiua . Ma 
in uerita ui dicho che la anima he una che intende he uiue . 
ho sciochi doue trouerano la anima intelletiua senza uita certo 
giamai . Ma trouerasi bene la uita senzza sensi chome nello 
semiuiuo si uedera quando il senso lo abanddona . Risspose 



* il. b Jfla. il. 



THE SOUL AND THE SENSE 243 

ought to weep, because by sinning man forsaketh his Creator a . But 
how shall he weep | who attendeth at revellings and feasts ? He 112" 
will weep even as ice will give fire ! Ye needs must turn revel- 
lings into fasts if ye will have lordship over your senses, because 
even so hath our God lordship. 

Said Thaddaeus : So then, God hath sense over which to have 
lordship. 

Jesus answered: Go ye back to saying, "God hath this," "God 
is such 1 " 1 Tell me, hath man sense 1 

Yea, answered the disciples. 

^ Said Jesus : Can a man be found who hath life in him, yet in 
him sense worketh not ? 

No, said the disciples. 

Ye deceive yourselves, said Jesus, for he that is blind, deaf, 
dumb, and mutilated where is his sense ? And when a man is in 
a swoon 1 

Then were the disciples perplexed ; when Jesus said : Three 
things there are that make up man: that is, the soul and the 
sense and the flesh, each one of itself separate. Our God created *> 
the soul and the^bodyjise have heard, but ye 



^^^ the SenSe> "~^^ rel ofe^o-^o7rW; if God 
1 wmTeTT you aTI7~~~ 

And having said this Jesus gave thanks to God, and prayed for 
the salvation of our people, | every one of us saying : Amen. 11 2 b 

CVIc. 

When he had finished the prayer of dawn, Jesus sat down under 
a palm tree, and thither his disciples drew nigh to him. Then 
said Jesus: As God livethd in whose presence standeth my soul, 
m2ZJJeceivfi(L^ For so closely are the 

eouj and the sense joined together, that the more part of men 
affirm the soul and the sense to be one and the same thing, 
dividing it by operation and not by essence, calling it the sensitive 
vegetative, and intellectual soul 2 . ] J ut verily I say to you, the 
soul is one, which thinketh and liveth. O foolish ones, where will 




a l d CreateS b G d the Creator The Cha P ter f the soul. 

.By the living God. 



M- a A f rm f the Aristotelian doctrine, familiar in 

the Middle Ages, seems to be aimed at. Cp. Nic. Eth. i. 13. 



R 2 



244 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

tadeo ho maestro quando il senso habandona la uita lo homo 
non ha uitta . Risspose iessu non e uero quessto per] che 
113 a lo homo he priuo di uita quando la anima si parte . perche 
la anima non torna piu nel chorpo se non per mirachollo 3 
ma il senso si parte per paura che elgi riceue ouero per 
grande dollore che habia la anima . perche il senso DIG 

10 a chrehato b de dilleto he sollo di quello uiue sichome il 
chorpo uiue di cibi he la anima uiue di chognitione he 
amore . quessto elgie hora rebelo della anima per sdegno 
che elgia di essere priuo del dileto del parradisso per il 
pechato . onde he soma neccessita di nutrirlo di dilleto 
spirituale chi non uolle che lui uiua di dilleto chamalle 
intedete uoi . Vi dicho in uerita che DIO auendollo chreato 

11 chondano allo infferno he alle neui he giazi intollerabili . 
perche elgi diceua di essere DIO ma quando elgi lo priuo di 
nutrimento chon leuarli il cibo confesso di essere seruo di 
DIO he opera delle sui mani . he hora ditemi nelli empij 
il senso chome hopera certo he che elgie chome DIO in loro . 

H3 b imperoche seguitano | il senso habandonando la ragione he 
la leggie di DIO . onde riusiscono abomineuoli senza opperare 
bene ueruno. 

CVIIc. 

Pero la prima chossa che seguita il dollore del pechato he 
il degiuno . perche cholui che uede uno cibo darli inffermita 
perche teme la morte . dapoi il dollersi di hauerlo mangiato 
lo abandona per no inffermarsi . chosi deue fare il pechatore 
che chonossendo il dilleto hauerlo fato pechare chontra DIO 
chreatore d suo seguitando il senso in quessti beni monddani . 
si dolgia di hauere chossi fato perche lo priua di DIO uita e 
sua he li da la morte hetterna dello infferno . Ma perche 

10 homo uiuendo bissogna di quessti beni mondani riceuere 
quiui he neccessario il degiuno . onde uengi ha mortiffichare 

11 senso he chonoscere DIO suo signore f . he quando uedi 



ill. 
jJli. ill. e fU- ill. f ulkL- ill. 



THE SOUL AND THE SENSE 



245 



Thaddaeus answered : master^jyhen the sense le 
a man hath not life. 

*"~Jesus answered : This is not true, because | man is deprived 113 a 
of life when the soul departeth ; because the soul returneth not any 
more to the body, save by miracle a . But sense departeth by reason^ 
nf f<nrjT|j)t, it. rftr.eivgtVL or by reason of great sorrow that the 
soul hath. Fm^a i ^^ flt 1l -G24^r ea ^ l> / or pleasure,_an.d__bj^ 



that alone it liveth, even as the body liveth by food_and the 

is now rebellious 



liyeth by knowledge and hove. j?his 
against the soul, through indignation that it hath at being deprived 
of the pleasure of paradise through sin. Wherefore there is the 
greatest need to nourish it with spiritual pleasure for him who 
willeth not that it should live of carnal pleasure. Understand ye 1 
Verily I say unto you, that God having created it condemned it to 
hell and to intolerable snow and ice ; because it said that it was 
God ; .but when he deprived it of nourishment, taking away its 
food from it, it confessed that it was a slave of God and the work 
of his hands. And now tell me, how doth sense work in the* 
ungodlyj Assuredly ,TFis as God in them : seeing that they follow | 
sense, forsaking reason and the law of God. Whereupon they 113 b 
become abominable, and work not any good. 




CVII o. 

And so the first thing that followethsorrow for sin is fasting^ 
For~TTe" that Seeth" that a certain lood maketh him sick, for that he 
feareth death, after sorrowing that he hath eaten it, forsaketh 
it, so as not to make himself sick. So ought the sinner to do. 
Perceiving that pleasure hath made him to sin against God his 
creator d by following sense in these good things of the world, let him 
sorrow at having done so, because it depriveth him of God, his lifej e , 
and giveth him the eternal death of hell. But because man 
while living hath need to take these good things of the world, 
fasting is needful here. So let him proceed to mortify sense 
and to know God for his lord f . And when he seeth the sense abhor 



a God created the soul, 
fasting. d God creates. 



God creates. The Chapter of 

e By the living God. God is 



246 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

che il senso haborisse li degiunij meti li auanti il stato 
inffernale doue hiuui niuno dilleto ma inffinito dollore | 

114 a se riceue . he met/ill dauanti le dellitie del paradisso le quali 
sono tali che uno grano di una del paradisso he milgiore de 
tutte le dellitie del monddo . che chosi stara quieto facilmente 
perche elgie melgio chontentarsi del pocho per riceuere il 
molto . che essere sfrenato nel pocho he essere priuo de il 
tutto stando in tormento . Vi douete harechordare del 
richo hepulone per bene degiunare perche elgi quiui in 
terra uollendo ogni giorno conuitare delitiosamente . fu 
priuo in etterno di una gozza di aqua . he lazaro chon- 
tentandossi di minucioli quiui in terra in etterno stara nelle 
dellitie del paradisso abondantissime . Ma stia chauto il 
penitente imperoche satana cercha di scancellare ogni bona 
oppera he piu nel penitente che in altri . imperoche il 
penitente lie rebellato he di suo fidato seruo sie chonuertito 
in suo rebello innimicho onde inzio satana . cerchera di fare 
che non degiuni ha moddo ueruno sotto pretessto de im- 

114 b f ermita he quando quessto non uallera lo inuite | ra ad uno 
esstremo degiuno azioche se infermi he poi uiua delitios- 
samente . he questo non consequedo cerchera di farlo ponere 
il suo degiuno sollo nel chorporale cibo azioche sia simille 
ha lui . che giamai non manggia he sempre pecha . Viue 
Dio a che elgie habomineuolle il priuare il chorpo di cibo he 
riepire la anima di superbia dissprezando quelli che non degiu- 
nano tenendosi da milgiori . Ditemi lo inffermo si gloriera 
elgi della dieta che li fa fare il medicho he chiamera pazzi 
cholloro che non stano ha dieta certo no . Ma si dollera 
della infirmita per la quale li bissogna stare ha dieta . 
chossi ui dicho che il penitente non debe gloriarsi dello 
degiuno he dissprezare quelli che non degiunano . Ma deue 
dollersi del pechato per il qualle degiuna . Ne prochuri 
cibi dellichati il penitente che degiuna ma de uilli cibi si 
chontenti . hora dara lo homo cibi dellichati al chane che 



OF PENITENCE AND FASTING 247 

fastings, let him put before it the condition of hell, where no 
pleasure at all but infinite sorrow | is received ; let him put before 114 
it the delights of paradise, that are so great that a grain of one of 
the delights of paradise is greater than all those of the world. 
For so will it easily be quieted ; for that it is better to be content 
with little in order to receive much, than to be unbridled in little 
and be deprived of all and abide m torment. 

T r Yel)ughirto jgmember the rich feaster 1 in order to fast well. 
For he, wishing here on earth to fare deliciously every day, was 
deprived eternally of a single drop of water : while Lazarus, being 
content with crumbs here on earth, shall live eternally in full 
abundance of the delights of paradise. 

But let the penitent be cautious ; for that Satan seeketh to 
annul every good work, and more in the penitent than in others, 
for that the penitent hath rebelled against him, and from being 
his faithful slave hath turned into a rebellious foe. Wheieupon 
Satan will seek to cause that he shall not fast in any wise, under 
pretext of sickness, and when this shall not avail he will invite 
him | to an extreme fast, in order that he may fall sick and after 
wards live deliciously. And if he succeed not in this, he will seek 
to make him set his fast simply upon bodily food, in order that he 
may be like unto himself, who never eateth but always sinneth. 

As God liveth a , it isabominable to deprive the_bod^jof food 



and nliTKe^soul with pride, despising ^them that fast not, and 
holding oneself better {Fan tEey. Tell me, will the sick man boast 
of the diet that is imposed on him by the physician, and call 
them mad who are not put on diet ? Assuredly not. But he will 
sorrow for the sickness by reason of which he needs must be put 
upon diet. Even so I say unto you, that the penitent ought not to 
boast in his fast, and despise them that fast not ; but he ought to 
sorrow for the sin by reason whereof he fasteth. Nor should the 
penitent that fasteth procure delicate food, but he should content 
himself with coarse food. Now will a man give delicate food to 
the dog that biteth and to the horse that kicketh ? No, surely, 



* By the living God. 



1 See above, 23*" (p. 50). 



248 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

morde he al chaualo che chalcitra certo no . Ma sibene allo 
chontrario he quessto bastiui circha allo degiuno . 



115* 

Pero asscoltate che io ue diro del uigillare . perche sichome 
ui ssono di dui sorte il dormire zio e de il chorpo he della anima 
chossi bissogna essere chauti nel uigillare per modo che 
uigillando il chopo non dormi la anima b . che quessto saria 
grauissimo hero re . ditemi per simillitudine elgie uno homo 
che chaminando si percuote intuno sasso il qualle per non 
ui perchuotere piu chon il piedi ui percuote chon il chapo . 
qualle he la chonditione di talle homo . Rissposero li dissepoli 
missero perche elgie ferneticho talle homo . allora disse iessu 
bene hauete rissposto perche in uerita ui dicho che cholui 
che uigillia chon il chorpo he dorme chon la anima he fer 
neticho . he tanto piu difficille da churare quanto he piu 
graue la inffirmita spiritualle dalla chorporalle . onde talle 
missero si gloriera di non dormire chon il chorpo che he 
115 b piede della uitta he non | si hachorgie la sua misseria che 
dorme chon la hanima chapo della uita . il sono della anima 
he la obliuione di DIG c he del suo tremendo iuditio . onde 
la anima che uigillia he quella che in ogni chossa in ogni 
locho chonosse DIO he in ogni chossa per ogni chossa he sopra 
ogni chossa ringratia sua maessta . chonossendo che semprc 
in ogni momento riceue gratia he misserichordia da Dio d . 
onde chon timore di sua maessta sempre lintona la horechia 
quella uoce angellicha . chreature uenite al iuditio perche 
il uosstro chreatore ui uolle iudichare . pero sollita sta sempre 
nel seruitio di DIO . Ditemi che chossa dessiderate piu di uedere 
al lume di una stella ouero allo lume del solle . Risspose andrea 
al lume del solle ho maesstro perche al lume della stella nom 
potiamo uedere li uicini monti . he allo lume del solle uediamo 



ill. 



OF SLEEPING AND WATCHING 249 

but rather the contrary. And let this suffice you concerning 
fasting/ 

CVIII*. U5 a 

Hearken, then, to what I shall say to you concerning watching. 
For just as there are two kinds of sleeping, viz. that of the body 
and that of the soul, even so must ye be careful in watching that^. 
.jyhile the body watcheth the souLslgapnot b . For this would be 
a most grievous error. Tell me, in parable : there is a man who 
whilst walking striketh himself against a rock, and in order to 
avoid striking it the more with his foot, he striketh with his head, 
what is the state of such a man ? 

E ^ Miserable, answered the disciples, for such a man is frenzied. 3 
Then said Jesus : Well have ye answered, for verily I say to 
you that he who watcheth with the body and sleepeth with the 
soul is frenzied. As the spiritual infirmity is more grievous than 
the corporeal, even so is it more difficult to cure. Wherefore, shall 
such a wretched one boast of not sleeping with the body, which is 
the foot of the life, while | he perceiveth not his misery that he 115 b 
sleepeth with the soul, which is the head of the life 1 The sleep 
of the soul is forgetfulness of God c and of his fearful judgement. 
ThlTsoul, then, that watcheth is TEat which in everything and in 
every place perceiveth God, and in everything and through every 
thing and above everything giveth thanks to his majesty, knowing 
that always at every moment it receiveth grace and mercy from 
God d . Wherefore in fear of his majesty there always resoundeth 
in its ear that angelic utterance " Creatures, come to judgement, 
for your Creator willeth to judge you." For it abideth habitually 
ever in the service of God. Tell me, whether do ye desire 
the more : to_seeby the light of a star or by the light of the_ 

sun? 

-* 

Andrew answered : By the light of the sun ; for by the light 

of the star we cannot see the neighbouring mountains, and by the 
light of the sun we see the tiniest grain of sand. Wherefore we 




a The Chapter of sleep. b Whoever serves God with his body, 

without sleeping, must not let his soul sleep with his body. Inde. 
c God is wise. d God is guidance and the gracious one. 



250 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

la minuta harena onde chon timore chaminiamo al lume della 
stella . Ma al lume del solle sichuri andiamo . 



116* 

Risspose iessu . hora chosi ui dicho che douette uigillare 
chon la anima al solle di iustitia DIG nosstro he non ui gloriare 
delle uigillie del chorpo . Elglie uerissimo pero che il sono 
chorporale he da fugirsi quanto piu si pole ma in tutto elgi 
he imposibile . per essere il senso he la charne agrauato da cibi 
he lo intelleto da negotij . onde cholui che uolle pocho dormire 
fugissca li tropi negotij he il molto mangiare . Viue Dio b 
alia chui pressenza sta la anima mia che elgie licito dormire 
alquanto ogni notte ma non e giamai licito . smenticharsi 
di DIG he del suo tremendo iuditio d che il sono della anima 
talle obliuione . Risspose cholui che scriue ho maesstro chome 
poteremo sempre hauere in memoria DIG certo che ci pare 
impossibile . Disse iessu chon sospiro quessta he la maggiore 

116 b misseria che | possi patire lo homo ho barnaba . che lo homo 
nom possi quiui in terra hauere sempre in memoria DIG chreatore 6 
suo saluo cholloro che sono santi . imperoche essi sempre hano 
in memoria DIG perche in loro hano il lume della gratia di DIG f . 
talmente che nom possono smenticharsi di DIG . Ma ditemi 
hauete ueduto choloro che lauorano pietre uiue che per il 
chontinuo essercitio hano talmente imparato ha perchotere . 
che parllano chon altri he tutauia perchuotono il fero che 
lauora la pietra sanza guardare il fero he pure non si per 
chuotono le mani . hora chossi fate uoi dessiderate di essere 
santi se uollete superare in tutto quessta misseria di smemo- 
ragine . certo he che la aqua spezza le durissime pietre cho 
una gozza perchotendoui longo tempo . sapete perche uoi 
non hauete superato quessta misseria perche no la chonossete 
che he pechato . Dichoui adonque che elgie herrore quando | 

117 a uno principe ti dona ho homo uno pressente che tu seri li 



OF SLEEPING AND WATCHING 



251 



walk with fear by the light of the star, but by the light of the sun 
we go securely. 



Jesus answered : Even so I tell you that ye ought to watch 
with the soul by the sun of justice [which is] our God, and not to 
boast yourselves of the watchings of the body. It is jmost true, 
therefore, that bodily sleep is to be avoided as much as is possible, 



being weighed down with food and the mind with business. 
"^erefoi-e let him that will sleep little avoid too much business 
and much food. 

As God liveth b , in whose presence standeth my soul, it is lawful 
to sleep somewhat every night, but it is never lawful to forget 
God c and his fearful judgement d : and the sleep of the soul is such 
oblivion. 

Then answered he who writeth : O master, how can we always 
have God in memory ? Assuredly 



_it_seem 

Jesus, with a siglTT^ Thisis the greatest misery that | man 
can suffer, Barnabas. For man cannot here upon earth have 




L^i eaLur^aiwayarrn memory ; saving them tbati jreholy, for 
they always have God in niemorj, because they have in them the 
Tight ofthe grace of God f . so that^ey^cannot forget^GocL But 
tell me, have ye seen them that work quarried stones, how by their 
constant practice they have so learned to strike that they speak 
with others and all the time are striking the iron tool that worketh 
the stone without looking at the iron, and yet they do not strike 
their hands ] Now do ye likewise. Desire to bebply if ye wish 
tooyercpme entirely this misery of forgeTfulnesZ Sure it is that 
water* cleavetKThe hardest rocks with a single drop striking there 
for a long period. 

Do ye know why ye have not overcome this misery ? Because 
ye have not perceived that it is sin. I tell you then that it is an 
error, when | a prince giveth thee a present, O man, that thou 117 a 







a The Chapter of the neglectful. b By God the living. e It is 

not permitted to forget God and the resurrection. The sleep of [the] 
spirit. Inde. d God is wise. e God creates. f The guidance 

of God. 



252 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

hochii he li uolti le spalle . chossi herano cholloro che si 
smentichano di DIG perche in ogni tempo . lo homo riceue 
da DIG doni he missericordia a . 



Hora ditemi . ogni tempo DIG nosstro ui presenta c lo certo si 
perche di chontinuo ui minisstra il fiato chon il qualle uiuete . 
in uerita in uerita ui dicho che ogni uolta che il chorpo uosstro 
riceue il fiato doueria dire il chore uosstro sia ringratiato 
Dio d . Allora disse ioane elgie uerissimo il tuo parlare ho 
maesstro pero insegnaci il modo di peruenire ha quessto 
beato stato . Risspose iessu in uerita ui dicho che non si per- 
uiene ha talle stato co forze humane e ma sibene per misseri- 
chordia di DIG signore f nosstro . Elgie ben uero che lo homo 
deue dessiderare il bene azioche DIG ge lo dij g . Ditemi quando 
uoi sette a menssa riceuete uoi quelli cibi che uoi non uollete 
117 b tampocho guardare no cerjto . chosi ui dicho che uoi non 
riceuerete quello che uoi non uollete desiderare . potente he 
DIG h dessiderando uoi la santita di f arui santi piu pressto che 
non si sera lo hochio ma azioche chonossi lo homo il dono 
he il donatore . DIG nosstro nolle che asspetiamo he diman- 
diamo . auete ueduto cholloro che si exercitano ha saetare allo 
seggno . certo he che loro saetano molte uolte indarno non 
dimeno giamai uolgiono in darno saetare ma stano sernpre 
chon speranzza da dare nello segno . hora quessto fate uoi che 
sempre dessiderate di hauere in memoria DIG nosstro 1 . he 
quando ui smentichate dolleteui che DIG ui dara la gratia 
di peruenire ha quanto ui ho 1 deto . il digiuno he uigillia 
spirituale he tanto unito uno chon laltro che rompendosi la 
uigilia subito he roto il digiuno . perche pechando lo homo 



JuC ^ 

.J eLJ 



. oj 

MS. uio. 



OF KEEPING GOD IN MIND 



253 



shouldst shut thine eyes and turn thy back upon him. Even so 
do they_err_yvho_ forget God, for at all times man receiveth from 
God gifts and mercy a . 



Now tell me, doth our God at all times grant you [his bounty] ? 
Yea, assuredly ; for unceasingly he ministereth to you the breath 
whereby ye live. Verily, verily, I say unto you, every time that 
"your body receiveth breath your heart ought to say : " Godbe 
thanked !jf " 

Then said John : It is most true what thou sayest, O master ; 
teach us therefore thpwg.y t n attain to this blessed condition. 

Jesus answ~ered: Verily I say to you, one cannot attain to such 
condition by human powers e , but rather by the mercy of God our 
Lord f . It is true indeed that man ought to desire the good in 
order that God may give it him s. Tell me, when ye are at table 
do ye take those meats which ye would not so much as look at 1 
No, assuredly. | Even so I say_unto_you that ye shall not receive 
that which ye will not desire. God is able h , if ye desire holiness, to 
make you holy in less time than" the t^n]dig-xj_jin_eye, but in 
orSer that man may be sensible of the gift and the giver our~God 
willeth that we should wait and ask. 

" HaveTye seen them that practise shooting at a mark 1 Assuredly 
they shoot many times in vain. Howbeit, they never wish to shoot 
in vain, but are always in hope to hit the mark. Now do ye this, 
ye who ever desire to have our God in remembrance i, and when 
ye forget, mourn ; for God_shall give_j_gu grace to attain to all that 
I have said. 

Fasting and spiritual watching are so united one with the other 
that, if one break the \vatchTstraightwi.y the fgsfTaTEjrok en.. For 



* God bestows and is gracious. b The Chapter of government. 

c God bestows. d Every time a breath is taken the heart must 

thank God. e If you wish God to do good unto you, you must desire 

what is good [?]. f God is sovereign and gives. e God is gracious. 

h God is of old. The guidance of God. 



254 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

rompe il digiuno della anima he si smenticha di DIG che 
pero . uigillare he degiunare cie sempre neccessario quanto 
alia anima he ha tutti . Perche ha niuno he licito il pechare* . 
118 a Ma il digiu|no del chorpo he uigillie chredetimi che non 
si polle fare sempre ne tutti possono farlo . chome sono in- 
fermi uechij, Done grauide, uiandati, fanciuli chon altri che 
hano chomplesione debolj . che pero ogniuno sichome ha sua 
propositione l si uesste chossi ellegij il degiuno . perche si 
chome le uestimenta di uno fanciulo non sono habili per uno 
homo di trenta anni chosi le uigilie he degiunij di uno non sono 
per uno altro . 

CXIb. 

Ma guardate che satana fara ogni sforzo si che uoi . uigillate 
la note he poi quando douete per chomandamento di mo fare 
oratione he asscoltare la parolla di DIG uoi dormite . Ditemi 
piazeria ha uoi se uno uosstro amicho manggiasi la charne 
he ui donasi le ossa . Risspose pietro no maestro perche talle 
amicho non si deue chiamare ma scernitore . Risspose iessu 
sospirando tu hai bene deto il uero ho pietro perche in uerita 
11 8 b ogniuno | che uigilia chon il chorpo piu di quanto he necce- 
sario . dormendo houero hauendo agrauato il chapo da sono 
quando elgi fara oratione ouero asscolta la parolla di DIG . 
che tale missero scernise DIG chreatore suo onde di talle 
pechato he reo . Anziche elgie ladro imperoche roba il tempo 
che deue dare ha DIG he il spende quando li piaze he quanto 
li piaze . intuno uasso di hotimo uino uno homo dete da bere 
alii suoi innimicj mentre che il uino fu otimo . ma per uenuto 
il uino alia fece dete da bere al suo signore hora che pensate 
che fara il patrone al seruo quando elgi sapera il tutto he 
il seruo li sera dauanti . certo he che lui lo flagelera he am- 
mazera per iussto sdegno sechondo le legie del monddo . hora 
che fara DIG al homo che il milgiore tempo spende ha negotij 



Conj. proporzione. 



FASTING, WATCHING, AND PRAYER 255 

in sinning a man breaketh the fast of the soul, and forgetteth God. 
5o is it tnat~watchingand fasting as regardeth the soul are 
always necessary for us and for all men. For to none is it 
lawful to sin a . But the fasting j of the body and its watchings, 118 a 
believe me, they are not possible at all times, nor for all persons. 
For there are sick and aged folk, women with child, men that 
are put upon diet, children, and others that are of weak complexion. 
For indeed everyone, even as he clotheth himself according to his 
proper measure, so should choose his [manner of] fasting. For 
just as the garments of a child are not suitable for a man of 
thirty years, even so the watchings and fastings of one are not 
suitable for another. 



CXIb. 

But beware that Satan will use all his strength [to bring it to 
pass] that ye [shall] watch during the night, and afterward be 
sleeping when by commandment of God ye ought to be praying 
and listeningtcTthe word of God. 

~*TelTlne, would it please you if a friend of yours should eat 
the meat and give you the bones 1 

Peter answered : No, master, for such an one ought not to be 
called friend, but a mocker. 

Jesus answered with a sigh : Thou hast well said the truth, 
O Peter, for verily every one | that watcheth with the body more 118 b 
than is necessary, sleeping, or having his head weighed down with 
slumber when he should be praying or listening to the words of 
God, such a wretch mocketh God his creator c , and so is guilty of 
such a sin. Moreover, he is a robber, seeing that he stealeth the 
time that he ought to give to God, and spendeth it when, and as 
much as, pleaseth him. 

In a vessel of the best wine a man gave his enemies to drink 
so long as the wine was at its best, but when the wine came 
down to the dregs he gave to his lord to drink. What, think ye, 
will the master do to his servant when he shall know all, and the 
servant be before him ? Assuredly, he will beat him and slay him 
in righteous indignation according to the laws of the world. And 
now what shall God do to the man that spendeth the best of his 



11 It is not permitted to anyone to do what is unlawful. Inde. b The 
Chapter of time. God creates. 



256 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

he il piu uille ha oratione he studio della legie . Guai al 
mondo perche di quessto he maggiore pechato elgie agrauato 
il chore suo . Addonque quando ui dissi che il risso si chon- 
119 a uerti [ in pianto, le chrapule in degiuno he il dormire in 
uigillie . io ui serai in tre parolle quanto hauete intesso che . 
quiui in terra si deue senpre piangere he il pianto sia di chore 
perche sia offeso DIG chreatore a nosstro . che douete degiunare 
per signoregiare il senso he uigilare per nom pechare . he 
che il pianto chorporalle chon il degiuno he uigillie chorporale 
si pilgi sechondo la chomplesione di ogniuno . 



CXII b. 

Deto quessto iessu disse . el bissogna che uoi cerchate delli 
fruti he erbe da sostentare la uita nosstra perche sono otto 
giorni che noi non habiamo mangiato pane . onde io faro 
oratione ha DIG nosstro he ui asspetaro chon barnaba . pero 
tutti li dissepolj he aposstoli si partirno ha quatro he ha sei 
he andorno sechondo la parola di iessu . Bimasse con iessu 
cholui che scriue onde iessu lachrimando disse ho barna | ba 
elgie neccessario che io ti manifessti grandi sachreti . li quali 
dapoi che io saro partito da il monddo li riuellerai . Risspose 
cholui che scriue piangendo he disse lasami piangere ho 
maestro he alii altri homeni perche siamo pechatori . he tu 
santo he proffeta di DIG non e choueniente tanto piangere . 
Risspose iessu chredimi barnaba che io nom posso piangere 
quanto doueria perche se li homeni non mi hauessero chiamato 
DIG . io haueria ueduto DIG quiui chome si uedera im paradisso 
he saria stato sichuro di non temere il giorno del iuditio . 
Ma sallo DIG che io son inocente perche giamai hebi penssiero 
di essere tenuto da piu di uno uille seruo . anzi ti dicho che 
se io non hero chiamato DIG io saria stato portato im pavadisso 
quando mi partiro dal monddo . che pero non ui andero insino 
al iuditio hora uedi se io ho chagione di piangere . sapi ho 
barnaba che per quessto io debbo hauere grande perssechutione 



JESUS CONVERSETH WITH BARNABAS 257 
time in business, and the worst in prayer and study of_the 



Woe to_jhe worRi. because with ibis laid wUh_jgeater sin is its 
neartweigheddown ! Accordingly, when I said_unto youjbhat 
laughter should be turned | intojweeping, feasts_injto festingj and 11.9 a 
sleepTTnto watching, I compassed in., three words all that ye have 
l^a^ thaFTieTe^lm^earth one ought always to weep, and that 
weeping should he from the hearL because God our creator a is 
offenHecT ;TEat ye ought tojast in order to have lordship over the 
sense, and towatch in order not tosTn ; and^that bodily weeping 
and bodily Tasting and watching should be taken according to the 
constitution of each one. 

CXII b. 

Having said this, Jesus said : Ye needs must seek of the 
fruits of the field the wherewithal to sustain our life, for it is now 
eight days that we have eaten no bread. Wherefore I will pray to 
our God, and will await you with Barnabas. 

So all the disciples and apostles departed by fours and by sixes 
and went their way according to the word of Jesus. There re 
mained with Jesus he who writeth ; whereupon Jesus, weeping, 
said : O Barnabas, | it is necessary that I should reveal to thee 119 l) 
great secrets, which, after that I shall be departed from the world, 
thou shalt reveal to it. 

Then answered he that writeth, weeping, and said : Suffer me 
to weep, O master, and other men also, for that we are sinners. 
And thou, that art an holy one and prophet of God, it is not fitting > 
for thee to weep so much. 

Jesus answered : Believe me, Barnabas, that I cannot weep as / 

much as I oujht. For if men had not called me God, I should _sl 

_M\ i _________ __ --- | ___ ___ _ ^p TJ^JUsT 

have_Jiggn God here as he will be seen in paradise, and should 
have_been safe_not to fear the day of .judgement. But God 
Icnoweth that I am innocent, because never have I harboured 
thought to be held more than a poor slave. Nay, I tell thee that 
if I had not been called God I should have been carried into 
paradise when I shall depart from the world, whereas now I shall 
not go thither until the judgement. Now thou seest if I have 
cause to weep. Know, Barnabas, tn"at fur tEIsI must have 



God creates. b The Chapter of the grief of Jesus. 



258 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

120 a he saro uendu|to da uno mio dissepolo per trenta danari . 
onde sebene son sichuro che cholui che mi uendera sara am- 
mazato in mio nome perzioche DIG mi leuera dal monddo tt . 
he trassmutera il traditore talmente che ogniuno chrederano 
quello essere me . nondimeno morendo lui mallamente staro 
chon quello dissonore molto tempo nel modo ma quando uenira 
machometo sachro nontio di Dio b sara leuato quessta in- 
famia . he quessto fara DIO perche ho chonfessato la uerrita 
del messia . il quale mi dara quessto premio che io saro chono- 
siuto per uiuo he allieno da quella morte inffame . Risspose 
quello che scriue ho amestro di a me chi e quello ribaldo perche 
il uolgio afogare . Taci risspose iessu perche chossi DIO uolle 
he no si polle fare altro c . Ma fa si che quando la mia madre 
sara aflita per chotale chossa tu li dicha la uerita azioche 
sij chonssolata . Bisspose cholui che scriue il tutto faro ho 
maesstro piacendo ha DIO d . 

120 b CXIII . 

Venuti li dissepoli portorno pigne he per uollonta di DIO 
trouorno bona quantita di datolj . pero dapoi la oratione 
di mezogiorno mangiorno chon iessu onde li aposstoli he 
dissepoli uedendo cholui che scriue di malla uolgia . temetero 
che iessu si douessi pressto partire dal monddo onde iessu 
li chonforto dicendo . non temete perche non e uenuto han- 
chora la hora mia che io mi parti da uoi . io staro chon 
uoi hanchora uno pocho di tempo pero hora bissogna che 
io ui hamaesstri azioche andate chome uio deto per tutto 
ilsdraele . ha predichare la penitenzza azioche DIO habi mis- 
serichordia f sopra il pechato de issdraele . Guardissi adonque 
ogniuno dallo hotio he molto piu cholui che fa penitezza . 
perche ogni harbore che non facia bono fruto sara talgiato 
he messo nel fuocho . elgi fu uno citadino che haueua una 
uiggna he in mezzo ui haueua uno horto il quale haueua 



d 41)1 
f 



41)1 Jj-~, ^ix*. c JJJJ^ 41)1 , 



JESUS PREDICTETH HIS HUMILIATION 259 

great persecution, and shall be sold | by one of my disciples for 120" 
thirty pieces of money. Whereupon I am sure that he who shall 
sell me shall be skin in my name, for that God shall take me up 
from the earth a , and shall change the appearance of the traitor so 
that every one shall believe him to be me l ; nevertheless, when he 
dieth an evil death, I shall abide in that dishonour for a long time 
in the world. But when Mohammed shall come, the sacred messen 
ger of God l) , that infamy shall be taken away. And this shall God 
do because I have confessed the truth of the Messiah ; who shall 
give me this reward, that I shall be known to be alive and to be 
a stranger to that death of infamy. 

Then answered he that writeth : O master, tell me who is that 
wretch, for I fain would choke him to death. 

Hold thy peace, answered Jesus, for so God willeth, and he 
cannot do otherwise c : but see thou that when my mother is afflicted 
at such an event thou tell her the truth, in order that she may be 
comforted. 

Then answered he who writeth : All this will I do, master, 
if God please d. 



120 I 

When the disciples were come they brought pine-cones, and by 
the will of God they found a good quantity of dates. So after 
the midday prayer they ate with Jesus. Whereupon the apostles 
and disciples, seeing him that writeth of sad countenance, feared 
that Jesus needs must quickly depart from the world. Where 
upon Jesus consoled them, saying : Fear not, for my hour is not 
yet come that I should depart from you. I shall abide with you 
still for a little while 2 . Therefore must I teach you now, in 
order that ye may go, as I have said, through all Israel to preach 
penitence ; in order that God may have mercy f upon the sin of 
Israel. Let every one therefore beware of sloth, and much more 
he that doeth penance ; because every tree that beareth notgood 
fruit shall be cut down and cast into the fire 3 . 

There was a~crHzen who had a vineyard 4 , and in the midst 



God keeps. b Mohammed the prophet of God. c God s fore 

ordaining is mighty. d Please God. e The Chapter of penitence 

f God is gracious. 



1 Cp. below, 2o8 b and 222" sqq. * Cp. John xiv. 19. = Matt. iii. 10 ; 
Luke iii. 9. * See Luke xiii. 6-9 (expanded). 

S 2 



260 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

una bella pianta di fichi . la quale per tre hanni che uene 
121a il patrone non ui trouo fruto he uedendo ogni al|tro harbore 
f rutare iuui disse al suo uignarolo . talgia quessto trissto legno 
perche elgi hochupa il terreno inuano . Risspose il uignarolo 
non fare signore perche elgie uno bello arbore . tacj disse 
il patrone che io non mi churo di bellezze uane . Tu dei sapere 
che la palma he il balssamo sono piu degni del ficho . ma io 
ne haueua piantato nel atrio di chassa mia uno piedi di palma 
he uno di balsamo li quali haueuo circhondato di mura pre- 
ciosse . ma quelli non frutando ma producenddo folgie che 
se imarziuano he putrefauano il tereno auanti chassa li feci 
ambidui leuare . he hora perdonero ad un ficho lontano da 
chassa che mi hocupa il mio horto he uigna inuano doue 
ogni altro arbore frutificha . certo che io non il soportero 
piu . allora disse il uignarollo signore il terreno he tropo 
grasso pero asspeta hanchora uno hanno perche . io talgiero 
di rami alia fichulnea he li leuero la grassezza della terra 
ponendoui terreno magro chom pietre he chosi frutera . Ris- 
121 b spose | il patrone hora ua he fa chossi che io asspetero he 
la fichulnea frutera . intendete uoi quessta parabola . Rissposero 
li dissepoli no signore pero dichiaracilo . 



Risspose iessu . in uerita ui dicho che il patrone he mo b 
he il uignarollo he la sua leggie . onde DIG haueua im para- 
disso la palma he il balssamo che satana la palma he il primo 
homo il balsamo li quali scazio perche non fecero fruto di 
bone hopere ma dissero parolle empie che chondano molti 
angioli he molti homeni . hora che DIG ha Io homo nel monddo 
in mezzo le sui chreature le qualli tute seruono DIG sechondo 
il suo precceto c he Io homo dicho . non fazendo fruto ueruno 
DIG il talgiarebe chon mandarllo allo infferno non hauendo 
perdonato allo angelo he al primo homo . langiolo punendollo 
in etterno he Io homo temporalmente . onde la leggie di DIG 



PARABLE OF THE BARREN FIG-TREE 261 

thereof had a garden, which had a fine fig-tree ; whereon for three 
years when the owner came he found no fruit, and seeing every 
other | tree bare fruit there he said to his vinedresser : " Cut 121 a 
down this bad tree, for it cumbereth the ground." 

The vinedresser answered : "Not so, my lord, for it is a beautiful 
tree." 

" Hold thy peace," said the owner, " for I care not for useless 
beauties. Thou shouldest know that the palm and the balsam are 
nobler than the fig. But I had planted in the courtyard of my 
house a plant of palm and one of balsam, which I had surrounded 
with costly walls, but when these bare no fruit, bnt leaves which 
heaped themselves up and putrefied the ground in front of the 
house, I caused them both to be removed. And now shall I pardon 
a fig-tree fur from the house, which cumbereth my garden and my 
vineyard where every other tree beareth fruit ? Assuredly I will 
not suffer it any longer." 

Then said the vinedresser : " Lord, the soil is too rich. Wait, 
therefore, one year more, for I will prune the fig-plant s branches, 
and take away from it the richness of the soil, putting in poor soil 
with stones, and so shall it bear fruit." | 

The owner answered : " Now go and do so ; for I will wait, and 121 b 
the fig-plant shall bear fruit." Understand ye this parable 1 

The disciples answered : No, Lord ; therefore explain it to us. 

CXIV *. 

Jesus answered : Verily I say unto you, the owner is God b , and 
the vinedresser is his law. God, then, had in paradise the 
palm and the balsam; for Satan is the palm and the first 
man the balsancu Them did he cast out because they bare not 
fruit of good works, but uttered ungodly words that were the 
condemnation of many angels and many men. Now that God 
hath man in the world, in the midst of his creatures that serve 
God, all of them, according to his precept : and man, I say, 
bearing no fruit, God would cut him down and commit him to 
hell, seeing he pardoned not the angel and the first man, 
punishing the angel eternally, and the man for a time. Where 
upon the law of God saith that man hath too much good in this 



a The Chapter of the repentance of the slothful. b God possesses. 

c All creatures disobey not the command of God only sons of Adam. 
Inde. 



262 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

dice che lo homo ha tropo bene in quessta uitta pero bissogna 
122 a che sia tribul|lato he leuarli li beni terreni azioche operi 
bene . che pero DIO nosstro asspeta lo homo ha penitenzza a . 
io ui dicho in uerita che DIO nosstro chondano lo homo ha 
operare talmente che chome disse iob amicho he proffeta di 
DIO . sichome lo ucello nascie ha uollare he il pessie ha notare 
chossi lo homo nassie allo hoperare . che pero dauite padre 
nosstro proffeta di DIO dice che . le opere dele nosstre mani 
mangiando saremo beati he ci sera bene b . onde ogniuno 
sechondo la quallita sua hoperi . hora ditemi se dauit padre 
nosstro he sallamone suo fiolo hoperauano chon le loro mani 
che deue fare il pechatore . Disse ioane maestro elgie chossa 
choueniente lo hoperare ma quessto deue fare li poueri . 
Eisspose iessu si perche nom possono far altro ma tu non sai 
che il bene per essere bene bissogna che sia libero da 
necessita . onde il solle he li altri pianeti sono sforzati dal 
precceto di DIO talmente che nom possono fare altro onde non 
122 b hauerano merito . Di | temi quando DIO dete il precceto d di 
hoperare elgi non disse . lo homo pouero uiuera nel sudore 
della facia sua . ne iob disse che chome lucello nassie ha 
uollare chossi lo homo pouero nascie ha hoperare . Ma disse 
DIO al homo nel sudore del tuo uisso mangerai il pane . he 
iob disse che lo homo nassie ha hoperare pero cholui che non 
he homo he libero da quessto precceto . certamete che nom per 
altro ogni chossa he preciossa se non perche ui sono grande 
moltitudine di otiosi . li quali se lauorasero chi ha choltiuare 
la terra he chi ha pescare la aqua soma abondantia saria nel 
monddo . della chui penuria bissognera rendere chonto il 
giorno del iuditio tremendo . 




MAN IS BORN TO LABOUR 263 

life, and so it is necessary that he should suffer tribulation |andl22 a 
be deprived of earthly goods^ in ordejvthat bejnay_do good works^ 
TKerefore our God wafteth for man to be penitent a . Verily I say 
unto you, that our God hath condemned man to work, so that, as 
said Job l , the friend and prophet of God : "As the__bjnl ia been 
to fly and the fish toswim, even so is man born to work/ 

So also David 2 our father, a prophet of God, saith : " Eating 
the labours of our hands we shall be blessed, and it shall be well 
with us b ." 

Wherefore let every one work, according to his quality. Now 
tell me, if David our father and Solomon his son worked with 
their hands, what ought the sinner to do ? 

Said John : Master, to work is a fitting thing, but this ought 
the poor to do. 

Jesus answered : Yea, for they cannot do otherwise. But 
knowest thou not that good, to be good, must be free from 
necessity c ? Thus the sun and the other planets are strengthened 
by the precepts of God so that they cannot do otherwise, wherefore 
they shall have no merit. Tell me, | when God gave the precept d to 122 lj 
work, he said not : " A poor man shall live of the sweat of his face " 1 
And Job did not say that : " As a bird is born to fly, so a poor_, 
man is born to work " 1 But God said to man : " In the sweat of 
tTry~iTOTInTenance shalt thou eat bread," and Job that " Man is born 
to work." Therefore [only] he who is not man is free from this 
precept. Assuredly for no other reason are all things costly, but 
that there are a great multitude of idle folk : if these were to 
labour, some attending the ground and some at fishing the water, 
there would be the greatest plenty in the world. And of the lack 
thereof it will be necessary to render an account in the dreadful 
day of judgement/ 



1 God is patient and repenting. b David said in the Psalms that 

if a man be content with what he acquire lawfully with his hand, it 
shall be well for them and the dominion shall be made easy for them. 
c The hest thing is that which comes of free choice, and what is not of 
free choice cannot be good. d God givea and is wise. 



1 Cp. Job v. 7 (Vulg.). Ps. cxxviii. a. 



264 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 



Dicha urn pocho lo homo ha me . che chossa ha elgi por- 
tato nel monddo per la qualle elgi uolle uiuere otiossamente b . 
certo he che lui naque nudo innabile per chossa ueruna onde 
di quanto elgia trouato elgi non e patrone ma disspensiero . | 
123 a deilche bissognera renderne ragione quello tremendo giorno . 
la habomineuole libidine che fa lo homo simille alii animali 
bruti deuessi temere molto perche . lo innimicho he domessti- 
cho talmente che non si polle andare in ueruno locho che 
iuui non uengi il tuo innimicho . ho quanti sono periti per 
la libidine . c Per la libidine il diluuio uene talmente che 
per 1 il monddo hauanti la misserichordia di DIG he talmente 
che . solamente si saluo noe chon ottanta tre perssonne 
humane . per la libidine DIG somersse tre citta nefande onde 
fugite sollo lot chon dui sui filgiole . per la libidine la tribu 
di beniamin fu quasi estinta he ui dicho in uerita che se io 
ui narassi quanti per la libidine sono periti non chaperia il 
tempo de cinque giorni . Risspose iachobo ho maesstro quale 
se intende libidine . Risspose iessu d libidine he uno sfrenato 
dessiderio di ammore il quale non sendo reto dalla ragione 
prorompe lo intelleto he affeto del homo . talmente che non 
chonosscendo lo homo se stesso amma quello che odiare | 
123 b doueria . chredetimi che quando lo homo amma una chossa 
nomperche DIG li abia dato talle chossa ma chome patrone . 
che elgie fornichatore . imperoche la anima la quale deue 
stare unita chon DIG suo chreatore 6 la unisse chon la chreatura . 
che pero si lamenta DIG per esaia proffeta dicenddo . Tu hai 
fornichato chon molti ammatori nondimeno ritorna ha me che 
io ti riceuero . Viue DIG f alia chui pressenzza sta la anima mia 



(jj J. ; >] 



1 So MS. ; conj. peril. 



THE EVILS OF LUST 265 

CXV a . 

Let man say somewhat to me. What hath he brought into the v~J&^*i f^ 
worlcl,_bx.reason_of^ which he would live in idleness? 13 Certain it 
ig_that he wag^ born naked^jmd incapable of anything. Hence, 
of all that he has found, he is not the OAvner", but The dispenser. | 




And be will have to render an jimmr^ thereof in that dreadful day^l23 a 
The abominable lust,_that maketh man like the brute beasts, ought 
greatly to be feared ; for the enemy is of one s own household, so 
Ehat it is not possible to go into any place whither thine enemy may 
not come. Ah, how many have perished through lust ! c Through 
lust came the deluge 1 , insomuch that the world perished before 
the mercy of God and so that there were saved only Noah and 
eighty-threg 2 human persons. 

For lust God overwhelmed three wicked cities 3 whence escaped 
only Lot and his two children. 

Tur liistthe tribe of Benjamin was all but extinguished 4 , 
Ana I tell you_jyjydly_ T 3fca,t fil should narrate to you 
Imve perished tlirniTjrrh 1i]fif, th* flpnr<> n 
"suffice/ 

James answered : O Master, what signifieth lust ? 

Jesus answered : d Lust is an unbridled desire of love, which, 
not beingdirected by^reaspn, bursts the _bounds of man s intellect 
and affections ; so that the man, not knowing himself, loveth that 
which he ougfit to Eate. [ Believe me, when a man loveth a thing, I23 b 
not because Uod hath gifren Him such tiling, but as its owner, he 

isli, fornTcator j_ for that the soul^jvhich ought to abide in union "^^ 
with God its creator 6 , be hath united with tbe creatureT And so i~ 

God lamenteth by Isaiah the prophet 5 , saying: "Thou hast com 
mitted fornication with many lovers ; nevertheless, return unto me 
and I will receive thee." 

livethf in whose presence my soul standeth, if there were 




a The Chapter of the repentance of the sensually impure. b sons 
of Adam, tell me what ye have brought into the world, whereon ye can 
rely and do nothing ? Inde. Account of the family of Noah and the 
family of Lot. Inde. d Setting forth sensual desire. e God creates 
and repents. f By the living God. 



1 See Gen. vi. i sqq. a In Scripture eight: Gen. vi. 18 ; 2 Pet. ii. 5. 

3 See Gen. xix. * See Judges xix, xx. * Cp. Jer. iii. i. 



266 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

che se non fusi la libidine interna del chore del homo che 
elgi non chassceria nella essterna imperoche . leuato la radice 

10 arbore pressto more . chontentisi adonque lo homo della 
molgie la quale lia donato il suo chreatore he ogni altra meti 
in obliuione . Risspose andrea chome si smentichera lo homo 
le done uiuendo nella citta doue ne sono quantita grande . 
Risspose iessu ho andrea certo he che cholui il qualle uiue 
nella citta la fara malle imperoche la citta . he una sponga 
che ritira ogni iniquita . | 

124* CXVI *. 

El bissogna che lo homo uiua nella citta talmente chome 
uiue il soldato . quando elgia li innimici intorno la fortezza 
che ad ogni assalto se difende he sempre teme tradimento de 
citadini . chossi dicho che ogni offerta essterna di pechato la 
ributi he che terni il sensso . perche elgi desidera somamente 
inmonditie ma chome si difendera se elgi non frena lo hochio 

11 quale he . horigine di ogni pechato charnalle b . Viue DIO 
alia chui presenza sta la anima mia che cholui il quale non 
ha hochij chorporali elgie sichuro di non riceuere pena senon 
per terza portione . che quello che ha li hochij ha setima 
portione la riceue . d al tempo di helia proffeta quessto aduene 
che uedendo helia uno ciecho piangere il quale hera di bona 
uitta . lo interogo helia dicendo perche piangi ho fratello . 
Risspose il ciecho io piangio porche non posso uedere helia 

124 b proffeta santo di DIG . allora | helia il ripresse dicendo cessa 
di piangere ho homo perche pechi piangendo . Risspose il 
ciecho hora dimi tu elgi pechato il uedere uno s?nto proffeta 
di DID il qualle risuscita li morti he fa uenire il fuocho dal 
cielo . Risspose helia tu non dici la uerita perche helia 
nompolle fare niente di quanto dicj perche elglie homo chome 
tu . che tutti li homeni no possono fare nasscere una mossca . 
Disse il ciecho tu di quessto ho homo perche helia ti deue 



w_ 



THE LUST OF THE EYE 267 

not internal lust within the heart of man, he would not fall into 
the external ; fcr if the rcot be removed the tree dieth speedily. 

Let a man content himself therefore with the wife whom his 
creator hath given him, and let him forget every other woman. 

Andrew answered : How shall a man forget the women if he live 
in the city where there are so many of them ? 

Jesus replied : O Andrew, certain it is he who liveth in the 
city, it will do him harm ; seeing that the city is a sponge that 
draweth in every iniquity. | 

CXVI a . 

It hehoveth a man to live in the city, even as the soldier liveth 
when he hath enemies around the fortress, defending himself 
against every assault and always fearing treachery on the part of 
the citizens. Even so, I say, let him repell every outward en- 
ticement of sin, and fear the sense, because it hath a supreme 



desire for things impure. But how shall hedeFerTd himself if he 
bridle not the eye, which is the origin of every carnal sin ] b As 
God liveth c in whose presence my soul standeth, he who hath not 
bodily eyes is secure not to receive punishment save only to the_ 
Third degree., while he that hath eyes receiveth^it to the seventh 
degree. 

d In the time of the prophet Elijah it came to pass that Elijah 

seeing a blind man weeping, a man of good life, asked him^saying : 

" Why weepest thou, O brother ? " The blind man answered : 

^1 weep because 1 cannot see Eljjah^the prophet, the_holy one 

" ~~ 



| Then Elijah rebuked him, saying : " Cease from weeping, 124 
O nfan, for in weeping thou sinnest. 

The blind man answered : " Now tell me, is it a sin to see a holy 
prophet of God, that raiseth the dead and maketh the lire to come" 
y>wn from heaven 1 " 

1 Elijah answered : " Thou speakest not the truth, for Elijah is 
not able to do anything of all that thou sayest, because he is a man 
as thou art. For all the men in the world cannot make one fly 
to be born." 

Said the blind man : " Thou sayest this, O man, because Elijah 




* The Chapter on the eye (and) repentance. b The eye is the cause of 
every sensual desire. Inde. c By the living God. d Dialogue of 

Elias and the blind man. 



268 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

hauere ripresso di qualche pechato tuo onde lo hodij . 
Risspose hellia piazese ha DIG che tu dicessi il uero perche 
ho fratello se io hodiasi hellia io hameria DIG he quanto 
piu odiassi hellia tanto piu io hammeria DIG . si adiro forte 
il ciecho incio he disse uiue DIG a che tu sei uno empio adonque 
si amma DIG chon odiare li proffeti di DIG . uatene in bona 
hora chio non ti uolgio piu asscoltare . Risspose hellia fratello 
hora tu poi uedere chon il tuo intelleto quanto sia malle il 
125 a chorporale uedere . perche tu desiderij la ueduta per | uedere 
hellia he odij hellia chon la anima tua . Risspose il ciecho 
hor uatene perche tu sei il diauollo che mi uolle fare pechare 
chontra il santo di DIG . Dete un sosspiro hellia allora he 
lachrimado disse, tu hai deto il uero ho fratello perche . la 
mia charne che dessideri di uedere ti separa da DIG . Disse 
il ciecho io non ti uolgio uedere anziche se io auessi li hochij 

10 li chiuderia per non uederti . Allora disse hellia sapi fratello 
chio son hellia . Rissposse il ciecho tu non dici il uero . Allora 

11 dissepoli di hellia dissero fratello elgie in uerita il proffeta 
di DIG hellia . Dichami disse il ciecho se elgie il profeta di 
quale stirpe son io he chome diuentai ciecho . 

CXVIIb. 

Risspose helia tu sei della tribu di leui . he perche tu uedessti 
nello hentrare il tempio di DIG una dona mallamente essendo 
tu apresso il santuario DIG nosstro ti leuo la ueduta . allora 
il ciecho piangedo disse perdonami ho santo proffeta di DTO che 
125 b io ho | pechato parllando techo . che se io ti hauessi ueduto 
non haueria pechato ; Risspose hellia . ti perdoni DIG nosstro 
ho fratello perche quanto hame chonossco che tu mi hai detto 
la uerrita imperoche . quanto piu hodio messtesso tanto piu 
ammo DIG he se tu mi uedessti quietaressti il tuo dessiderio 
il che nompiazia ha DIG . perche hellia non e il tuo chreatore 
ma si bene DIG c onde quanto per te l io sono il diauollo disse 



1 MS., apparently, parte. 



ELIJAH AND THE BLIND MAN 269 

must have rebuked thee for some sin of thine, wherefore thon 
hatest him." 

Elijah answered : " TVray__i<h_p1pa.gft ^ nr l that thou^be^ speaking the 
truthj_because, O brother, if I should hate Elijah I should love 
God, and the more Ishould hate Elijah tnVmore I should love God." 
"Hereupon was The blind man greatly angered, and said : " As 
God liveth a , thou art an impious fellow ! Can God then be loved 
while one hateth the prophets of GodJ ^Begone forthwith, for 
TViTl not listen to thee any longer ! " 

Elijah answered : "Brother, now mayest thou see with thine 

intellect how evil is bodily seeing! For thou desirest sight to I 

^K- __ 

see Elijah7n3_hates^Elijah with thy soul." 
v "The~~bTmd man answered r"^fow~begone ! for thou art the devil, 

that wouldst make me sin against the holy one of God." 

Then Elijah gave a sigh, and said with tears : " Thou hast / 

spoken the truth, O brother, for my flesh, which thou desirest to _ ^-/-i 

see^separateth_thfip fmm God." /. __ 

1 Said the blind man : " I do not wish to see thee ; nay, if I had 

my eyes, I would close them so as not to see thee ? " 
* Then said Elijah : " Know, brother, that I am Elijah ! " 
The blind man answered : " Thou speakest not the truth." 
Then said the disciples of Elijah : " Brother, he verily is the 

prophet of God, Elijah." 

" Let him tell me," said the blind man, " if he be the prophet, of 

what seed I am, and how I became blind 1 " 



Elijah answered : " Thou art of the tribe of Levi ; and because 
thou, in entering the temple of God, lookedst lewdly upon a woman 1 . 
^thou_being near the sanctuary, our Jjod_took away thy_ sight." 

TheiTthe blind man weeping said : "Pardon me, holy prophet 
of God, for I have | sinned in speaking with thee ; for if I had 125 1 
seen thee I should not have sinned." 

Elijah answered : " May our God pardon thee, brother, because 
as regardeth me I know that thou hast told me the truth, seeing 
that the more I hate myself themore I loveGod^ and if thou 
sawest me thou wouldst still thy desire, which~Is not pleasing jo 
God: FoTTlijasnoTyour creaTor, but "God c~ 



By the lining God. b The Chapter on the body of the idol. 

c God is the creator. 



Text obscure. 



/ u r\ 




270 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

hellia piangendo perche ti dessuio dal tuo chreatore . piangi 
adonque ho fratello perche tu non hai quella luce che ti 
faria uedere il uero dal falsso . che se quella tu hauessi non 
haressti dissprezzato la mia dotrina . onde ti dicho che molti 
dessiderano di uedermi he di lontano uengono per uedermi 
che dissprezzano le mie parolle . onde saria melgio alloro 
per loro sallute di non hauere hochij imperoche . ogniuno 
che se chompiaze nella chreatura sia chi si uolgia he non 
cercha di chompiacerssi in DIO elgi affato uno iddolo nel chore 
suo he habadonato DIO . allora disse iessu sopirando hauete 
126 uoi intesso quanto ha deto hellia . Bissposero li disjsepoli, 
certo che lo habiamo intesso he siamo ussiti di noi chonos- 
sendo che quiui in terra sono pochissimi che non siano iddolatri . 

CXVIIIa. 

Allora iessu disse . uoi dite la uerita perche isdrahele hora 
uolleua stabillire la iddolatria che hano nel chore chon tenire 
me per DIO . li qualli hora molti di loro hano dissprezzato 
la mia dotrina dicedo che io poteua farmi signore di tutta 
iudea chofessando di essere DIO . he che som pazzo per 
uollere poueramente uiuere fra disserti he non stare chontinuo 
fra principi in dellitie . ho infellice homo che precij la luce 
che he chomune alle mosce he formiche he sprezzi la luce che 
he chomune solamente alii angioli he proffeti et santi amici 
,di DIO . se adonque non sera chusstodito lo hochio ho andrea 
ti dicho che elgie impossibile di non precipitare in libidine b . 
onde inzio piangendo ieremia proffeta chon uerita dice lo hochio 
126 b mio he uno | ladro il qualle roba la anima mia . che per 
quessto dauit padre nosstro chon somo desio pregaua DIO 
signore nosstro c che li uoltasse li hochij azioche non uedessi 
le uanita . perche in uero hogni chossa che a fine he uana . 
Ditemi adonque se uno auessi dui soldi da chomprare il pane 
li spenderebe elgi per chomprare il fumo . certo no impero 
che il fumo fa malle alii hochij he non da sostanza ueruna 




OF GUARDING THE EY 

^oncerneth thee, I am the deviL_" said Elijah weeping, "because 
I" turn thee asidejrom thy creator. Weep then, O brotherTbecause 
tRou hast not that light which would make thee see the true from 
the false, for if thou hadst had that thou wouldst not have despised 
my doctrine. Wherefore I say unto thee, that many desire to see 
me and_jcome"from far to see me, wlio~3^spise~my worclsT 
""Wherefore it wenTbetter for them, for their salvation, that they 
had no eyes, seeing that everyone that findeth pleasure in the 
creature, be he who he may, and seeketh not to find pleasure TrT , 
t?od, hathjnade_an_idol ^nlilsTieart, ami forsakenGod.^ 

~Tn"erTsaid Jesus, sighing : Have ye understood all that Elijah 
said 1 

The disciples answered : | In sooth, we have understood, and we 126 a 
are beside ourselves at the knowledge that here on earth there are 
very few that are not idolaters. 

CXVIIK 

Then said Jesus : < Ye speak the truth, for now was Israel 
desirous to establish the idolatry that they have in their hearts, 
in holding me for God; many ofwhbm have now despised my 
teaching, saying that I could make myself lord of all Judaea, if 

1 confessed myself to be God, and that I am mad to wish to live 
in poverty among desert places, and not abide continually among 
princes in delicate living. Oh hapless man, that prizest the light 
that is common to flies and ants arid despisest the light that 
is common only to angels and prophets and holy friends of 
God! 

< jf z _then, the eye shall not_b.e_guarded, O_Andre_w_I tell thee 
that it is impossible not to fall headlonginto lust^T^WEerei ore ^^ 
JTeremiah the prophet r , weeping "vehemently, said truly : " Mine 
eye is a [ thief that robbeth my soul." For therefore did ^avT3" 
our father pray with greatest longing to God our Lord c that he 
would turn away his eyes in order that he might not behold 
"vanity 2 . For_truly every^nwhicliha<l^flTT__RjTfl ia vain. Tell 
me, then, tfonehad two pencetcT buy bread, wouloThTspencT it to 
buy smoke ? Assuredly not, seeing that smoke doth hurt to the eyes 

a The Chapter on light. b Whoever does not keep fast his eyes will 
not escape from the sin of impurity. Inde. God is sovereign. 

1 Lam. iii. 51 ; cp. Vulg. Oculus meus depraedatus est animam meam. 

2 Ps. cxix. 37. 





272 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

ha il chorpo . chosi adonque fazia lo homo che chon la ueduta 
esterna delli hochij he ueduta interna dello intelleto . cerchi 
di chonossere DIO suo chreatore a he il beneplacito della sua 
uollonta . he non la chreatura sia il suo fine che il fa smarire 
dal chreatore . 



Perphe in uerita . ogni uolta che lo homo uede una chossa he 
si smenticha DIO che la ha fato per lo homo elgia pechato . 
perzioche se uno tuo amicho donandoti una chossa che tu 
la tengi in memoria sua . uedendola tu he smentichandoti 

127 a del tuo amicho | tu hai offexo lo amicho tuo . chossi fa lo 
homo che uedendo la chreatura he non auendo in me[mo]ria il 
chreatore che per ammore de lo, homo la ha chreato . elgi 
pecha chontra DIO chreatore c suo de ingratitudine . cholui 
adonque che uedera le done he si smentichera de DIO che 
per bene del homo chreo la dona elgi la amera he dessiderara . 
he talmente prorompera quessta sua libidine che elgi ammera 
ogni chossa simille alia chossa ammata . che percio naque quel 
pechato del qualle he uergogna hauerne memoria . se lo homo 
adonque ponera freno alii hochij suoi dominera il sensso il 
quale non polle dessiderare quello che non lie apresentato . 
he chossi stara la charne sogeta al spirito imperoche si chome 
la naue nom polle chaminare senzza uento . chosi la charne 
senza il senso nom polle pecharre . che sia poi neccessario al 
penitente il conuertire le fabule im horatione lo dimosstra la 

127 b ragione se giamai | non fusi precceto di DIO . perche in ogni 
parolla otiossa pecha lo homo he il pechato DIO nosstro il 
scancella per la horatione d imperoche . la oratione he auochato 
della anima . la oratione he medicina della anima . la oratione 
he diffessa del chore . la oratione he arme della fede . la 
oratione he freno del senso . la oratione he salle della charne 
che non la lassia putrefare di pechato . he ui dicho che la 
oratione he mani della uitta nosstra . onde lo homo che 



b 



THE EVILS OF VAIN TALKING 



273 



and giveth no sustenance to the body. Even so then let man do, 
for with the outward sight of his eyes and the inward sight of his 
mind he should seek to know God his creator a and the good-pleasure 
of his will, and should not make the creature his end, which 
causeth him to lose the creator. 



For verily every time that a man beholdeth a thing and forgetteth 
God who hath made it for man, he hath sinned. For if a friend 
of thine should give thee somewhat to keep in memory of him, 
and thou shouldest sell it and forget thy friend, | thou hast 127 a 
offended a 



.friend. Even so doth man; for when he< 
beholdeth the creature and hath not in memory the creator, who 
man hath created it, he sinneth against God his creator c 




He therefore who shall behold womenjinjLjaliall_forget God who 
for the good of man created woman, hewill love her and desire 
her. And to such degree will this lust of his break forth, that he 

V 

will love everything like unto the thing loved : so that hence 
cometh that sin of which it is a shame to have memon 



Li, then, 

man shall put a bridle upon his eyes, he shall be lord of the sense, j 
which cannot desire that which is not presented to it. For so 
*"hair~the flesh be subject to the spirit. Because as the ship 



sin. 



1 That thereafter it would be necessary for the penitent to turn 
story-telling into prayer *. reason itself showeth, even if it | were not 127 b 
also a precept of God. For in every idle word 2 man sinneth, 
and ourjjodjjlotteth out sin by reason of prayerA For that prayer 
is the advocate of the soul; prayer is the medicine of the soul: 

^ " . ~ ^~ 

prayer is the defence of the heart ; prayer is the weapon of faith, 
prayer is the bridle of sense ; prayer is the salt of the flesh that 
suffereth it not to be corrupted by sin. I tell you that prayer is 
the hands of our life, whereby the man that prayeth shall defend 



* God is the creator. b The Chapter on prayer, 

creator. d God is the pardoner. 



God is the 



1 See above, 107* (p. 233). 
EAGG 



2 Cp. Matt. xii. 36. 
T 



274 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

fa oratione difendera se stesso il giorno del iuditio . perche 
elgi sanera la anima sua da pechato quiui in terra . he 
chonseruera il chore suo che non sia tochato da chatiui desiderij 
offendendo satana . perche retinera il senso nella leggie di 
DIG . he la sua charne chaminera in iusstitia riceuendo da 
DIG quanto elgi dimandera . Viue Dio a alia chui pressenzza 
siamo che lo homo senza horatione . elgie chossi posibile 
che lui sia homo da bene hoperare chome posibile . il mutto | 

128 a narare al ciecho la sua chaussa . chome he possibile la fisstula 
sanarsi senza onguento . diffendersi senza motto . offendere 
senza arme . nauigare senzza timone . he chonsseruare charne 
morta senzza salle perche inuero chi non ha mano nom pole 
riceuere . se lo homo potessi chonuertire il stercho in horo 
he il fango in zucharo che farebe . tacendo allora iessu 
rissposero li dissepoli ogniuno non farebe altro exercitio che 
fare horo he zucharo . allora disse iessu hora perche non 
chouerte lo homo il stolto fabullare in oratione . elgi forsi 
dato da Dio b il tempo azioche elgi offenda DIG certo no . 
percio che principe darebe una citta al suo sudito azioche li 
facessi guera . Viue DIG* che se lo homo chonossese chome 
si trasforma la anima per il uano parllare che elgi . piu 
pressto si troncheria la lingua chon li denti che parllare . 
ho missero monddo perche ogidi non si chongregano li 

128 b homeni per fare | oratione . ma nelli portichi del tempio 
he nello isstesso tempio satana uia il sachrificio del uano 
parllare he quello che peggio he . de chosse che no ne posso 
senza uergogna parllare , 

CXXc. 

II fruto del uano parllare he quessto . che indebolisse lo 
intelleto per modo che non e habille ha riceuere la uerita . si 
chome uno chauallo hasuefato a portare una onzia di bonbaze 
nom pole portare cento lire di pietre . Ma quello che pegio he 
lo homo che spende il tempo in burlle . quando elgi fara 



411. 



PRAYER INSTEAD OF VAIN TALKING 275 

himself in the day of judgement : for he shall keep his soul from 
sin here on earth, and shall preserve his heart that it be not 
touched by evil desires 1 ; offending Satan because he shall keep 
his sense within the law of God, and his flesh shall walk in 
righteousness, receiving from God all that he shall ask. 

As God liveth a in whose presence we are, a man without prayer 
can no more be a man of good works than a dumb man can | 
plead his cause to a blind one ; than fistula can be healed without 128 a 
unguent ; a man defend himself without movement ; or attack 
another without weapons, sail without rudder, or preserve dead 
flesh without salt. For verily he who hath no hand cannot receive. 
If man could change dungTnto gold^ndclay into sugar, \vhaT 
would he do 1 

Then, Jesus being silent, the disciples answered : No one 
would exercise himself in any way other than in making gold 
and sugar. 

Then said Jesus : Now why doth not man change foolish story 
telling into prayer ? Is time, perchance, given him by God l> that 
he may offend God ? For what prince would give a city to his 
subject in order that the latter might make war upon him ? As God 
liveth a , ifjnan knew after what manner the soul is transformed by 
vain talking he would soonerjjite_pff his tongue with his teeth 
than talk. O wretched world ! for to-day men do not assemble 
together for | prayer, but in the porches of the temple and in the 128 b 
very temple itself Satan hath there the sacrifice of vain talk, and 
that which is worse of things which I cannot talk of without 
shame. 
*~~ CXX c. 

Thejruit of vain talking is this,that it weakeneth the intellect 
in such wise that it^ is~not ready to receive the truth ; even_as 
a horse accustomed to carry but one ounce of cotton-flock cannot 
carry an hundred pounds of stone. 

But what is worse is the man who spendeth his time in jests. 
When he is fain to pray, Satan will put into his memory those 

a By the living God. b God is the giver. e The Chapter on speech. 



1 Cp. Qoran xxix. sub fin.: Prayer preserveth from filthy crimes and 
from that which is blameable. 

T 2 



276 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

oratione sataiia li metera in memoria le isstese burle . per 
modo che douedo piangere li suoi pechati per prouochare DIG * 
ha misserichordia he riceuere perdono delli suoi pechati . 
Ridendo prouocha DIG ha ira che li dara flagello he lo ripro- 
bera . Guai adonque ha cholloro che burllano he parllano 
129 a uanamente | . Ma se DIG nosstro ha in habominatione cholloro 
che burllano he parllano in uano . in che chonto tenira cholloro 
che mormorano he infamano il prossimo he in che stato sono 
cholloro che tratano di pechare chome di negotio somamente 
necessario . ho mondo inmondo che nom posso choprendere 
quanto sarai da DIG punito b . cholui che uora adonque fare 
penitenzza ui dicho che elgi deue ha prezio di horo dare le sui 
parolle . Rissposero li suoi dissepoli hora chi chomprera le 
parole del homo ha precio di horo certo niuno . he chome fara 
elgi penitenzza certo he che elgi diuentera hauaro . Risspose 
iessu uoi hauete tanto graue il chore uosstro che io nom posso 
soleuarlo . onde in ogni parolla mi bissogna che io ui dicha 
il senso ma ringratiate DIG che uia datto c gratia di chonossere 
li missterij di DIG . non dicho che il penitente uendi il suo 
parllare ma dicho che quando elgi parlla riputi di getare uia 

10 horo . che pero quessto facendo si chome lo horo si spende in 
chosse neccessarie chossi elgi parllera quando | sera neccessario 
ha parllare . he sichome niuno spende lo horo in chossa che 

11 dia dano al chorpo . chossi non parlli in chossa che li dij 
dano alia anima. 

CXXI a. 

6 Quando il preside ha presso uno reo il quale lo essamini . he 
il cha[n]celiero scriua ditemi chome parlla talle homo . Rissposero 
li dissepolij elgi parlla chon timore he al proposito per non 
dare sosspeto di se . he guarda di non dire chossa che spiazia 



OF THE RESPONSIBILITY OF SPEECH 277 

same jests, insomuch that when he ought to weep over his sins to 
provoke God ft to mercy and to win forgiveness for his sins, by 
laughing he provoketh God to anger ; who will chastise him, and 
cast him out. 

Woe, therefore, to them that jest and talk vainly ! [ But if our 129" 
Goa hath in abomination them that jest and talk vainly how will 
he hold them that munnur^ and_ slander their neighbour, and in 
wnat plight will they be who deal with sinning as with a business 
supremely necessary ? Oh impure world, _I cannot conceive how 
grievously thou wilt be punished by God ! b He, then, who would " 
do penance, he, I say, must give out his words at the price of 
gold. 

His disciples answered: Xow who will buy a man s words at 
the price of gold 1 ? Assuredly no one. And how shall he do 
penance 1 It is certain that he will become covetous ! 

Jesus answered : Ye have your heart so heavy that I am not 
able to lift it up. Hence in every word it is necessary that if 
I should tell you the meaning. Eutjnye t,hankp_tojjod, who hath_ / j* 
given you_c_grace tojuiow the mysteries o God a . I do not say ^Tl^ 
r Hhat the penitent should sell his talking, but I say that when he 
talketh he should think that he is casting forth gold. For indeed, 
so doing, even as gold is spent on necessary things, so he will talk 
[only] when [ it is necessary to talk. And just as no one spendeth 129 1 
gold on a thing which shall cause hurt to his body, so let him not^ 

talk of a thing that may cause hurt to his soul. 
i -- - -- 



e When the governor hath arrested a prisoner whom he examineth 
while the notary writeth down [the case], tell me, how doth such 
a man talk 1 

The disciples answered : < He_tfllkelh. with fear and to the point, 
so as not ._tO-gJY.e_ suspicion of himself, and he is careful not to say 7 

a God is victorious. b wickedness of the world, I cannot know 

how the great God will punish you. Inde. c God is the giver. d The 
Chapter on listening in silence. e The great God gave to the sons of 

Adam two angels, and they write what people do, both of good and of 
wickedness. Inde. 

1 Cp. Mark iv. 1 1. 



278 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

al preside ma cercha de dire chossa per la qualle elgi sia liberate . 
allora risspose iessu quessto doueria fare il penitente adonque 
per non perdere la anima sua imperoche . DIG ha dato * dui 
angioli ha ogni homo per chancelieri . luno scriuendo il bene 
he laltro il malle che fa lo homo . se lo homo adonque uolle 
misserichordia ri[ce]uere missuri il suo parllare piu che non si 
missura lo horo . 



Quanto alia auaritia che si chonuerti in ellemosine in uerita 
ui dicho . che si chome il pionbo ha per suo fine il centro 
chossi lo auaro ha per fine lo infferno c . perche allo auuaro lie 
imposibile posiedere bene ueruno im paradisso . sapete per che 
chagione per che io uelo diro Viue DIG d alia chui pressenza sta 
la anima mia che lo auaro sebene taze chon la lingua . chon 
le hopere dice non uie altro DIG che me imperoche quanto lui 
ha lo uolle spendere al suo piazere non rissguardando hal 
principio he fine suo . che nassie nudo he morendo il tutto 
lassia . hora ditemi se herode ui donasi ha chonsseruare uno 
giardino he uoi uollesste dissponerui chome patroni . non 
mandando ueruno fruto ha herode he quando herode mandasse 
per fruti uoi scaziaste li messi . ditemi uoi ui chonstitui- 
resste Re di quelo giardino ce[r]to si . hora ui dicho che lo 
homo auaro chosi si chonstituisse DIG nelle fachulta sue che DIG 
lia dato . la auaritia he una sette del senso il quale hauendo 
130 b persso DIG per il pechato perche elgi | uiue di dilleto . nom 
potendo dilletarsi di DIG il quale lie asscoxo circha di chongre- 
gare * le chosse temporal: le quali tiene chome suo bene . he 
tanto piu forte quanto piu si uede priuo di DIG che pero . la 
chonuerssione del pechatore he da DIG e f il quale dona la 
gratia dapentirsi . chome disse il padre nosstro dauit, quessta 



1 MS. chongregaregare (sic). 



THE EVILS OF AVARICE X^, 279 ^ ) 

anything that may displease the governor, but. seeketh_to speak 
somewhat whereby he may be set free. 

Then answered Jesus: Tins oughtThe^ penitent to do, then, in 
order not to lose his soul. For that God hath given a two angels to 
every man for notaries, the one writing the good, the other the 
evil that the man doth. If then a man would receive mercy let 
him measure his talking more than gold is measured. | 

CXXII b. 130* 

As for avarice, that must be changed into almsgiving l . Verily 
I say unto you, that even as the plummet hath for its end the 
centre, so the avaricious hath hell for his end , for it is impossible 
for the avaricious to possess any good in paradise. Know ye 
wherefore ? for I will tell you. As God liveth d , m_whosejM-esence 
my soul standeth, the avaricious, even though he be silen.t_with_hjs_ 
Itongue, by his works saith : "There is no other God than I." 
Inasmuch^aiTall that he hath he is fain to spend at his own 
pleasure, not regarding his beginning or his end, that he is born 
naked, and dying leaveth a\l\ 

Now tell me ; if Herod should give you a garden to keep, and 
ye were fain to bear yourselves as owners, not sending any fruit 
to Herod, and when Herod sent for fruit ye drove away his 
messengers, tell me, would ye be making yourselves kings over 
that garden ? Assuredly yea. Now I tell you that even so the 
avaricious man maketh himself god over his riches which God hath 
given him. 

4 Avarice is a thirst of the sense, which having lost God through 
sin because it | liveth by pleasure, and being unable to delight itself 130 b 
in God, who is hidden from it, surroundeth itself with temporal 
things which it holdeth as its good ; and it groweth the stronger 
the more it seeth itself deprived of God. 

And so the conversion of the sinner is from God e f , who giveth 



God is the giver. b The Chapter of the repentance of the miserly. 

e And he is a miser. d By the living God. e God guides to 

repentance. f There is no power except with God. Inde. 



1 See above, 107* (p. 233). 2 Cf. Job i. 21 ; i Tim. vi. 7. 



280 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

mutatione uiene dalla destra de DIG a . El bissogna che io ui 
dicha chome he lo homo se uollete sapere la penitenzza chome 
fare si deue he pero . hogidi rendiamo gratia ha DIG che cia 
fato gratia di chomunichare la sua uollota chon il mio 
parllare . onde leuato le mani horo dicendo . signore Dio b 
omnipotente he misserichordiosso che per misserichordia ci 
chreassti dandoci il grado di homeni tuoi serui . chon la 
fede del notio tuo ueraze . ti ringraziamo di ogni beneficio 
tuo he uolgiamo adorarti te sollo tutto il tempo della uitta 
nosstra d . piangendo li nosstri pechati fazendo horatione he 
ellemossine . digiunando he studiando la tua parolla . 
13]a amaesstranddo | quelli che sono ignoranti della tua uollonta . 
patendo dal monddo per tuo ammore he metendo la uitta 
alia morte per seruirti . tu signore saluaci e da satana da la 
charne he dal monddo . si chome tu saluassti li tuoi elleti 
per ammore di te steso he per ammore del nontio tuo f per il 
qualle ci chreassti . he per ammore di tutti li santi he profeti 
tuoi . Risspondeuano sempre li dissepoli chosi sia chosi sia ho 
signore . chosi sia ho misserichordioso DIG nostro g . 



Fato giorno il uenere di matina per tempo . iessu dapoi 
la oratione chonuocho li suoi dissepoli he disseli . sediamo 1 
perche si chome hogidi DIG chreo lo homo del fango della 
terra 1 chossi ui diro che chossa he lo homo ha DIG pia- 
zendo k . seduti ogniuno iessu di nouo disse DIG nosstro per 
dimosstrare alle chreature sue la sua bonta he misserichordia . 
he la sua omnipotenta chon la liberalita he iustitia sua 1 fece 




1 MS. suoi dissepoli he disse poll he disseli . sediamo : surely a mere ditto- 
graphy. 



OF THE COMPOSITION OF MAN 281 

the grace to repent. As said our father David 1 : "This change 
cometh from the right band of Godj 1 / 

It is necessary that I should tell you of what sort man is, if ye 
would know how penitence ought to be done. And so to-day let 
us render thanks to God, who hath given us the grace to com 
municate His will by my word. 

Whereupon he lifted up his hands and prayed, saying : Lord God b 
almighty and merciful, who iu mercy hath created us, giving us 
the rank of men, thy servants, with the faith of thy true messenger c , 
we thank thee for all thy benefits and would fain adore thee only 
all the days of our life d , bewailing our sins, praying and giving 
alms, fasting and studying thy word, instructing | those that are 131 
ignorant of thy will, suffering from the world for love of thee, and 
giving up our life unto the death to serve thee. Do thou, O Lord, 
save us e from Satan, from the flesh and from the world, even as 
thou savedst thine elect for love of thine own self and for love of 
thy messenger f for whom thou didst create us, and for love of all 
thy holy ones and prophets. 

The disciples ever answered : So be it/ So be it, Lord/ So_be^ 
it, our merciful God . 

CXXIII h 

When it was day, Friday morning, early, Jesus, after the prayer, 
assembled his disciples 2 and said to them : Let us sit down ; for 
even as on this day God created man of the clay of the earth *, even 
so willTTeJl you what a thing is man", if God please k T~ 

When all were seated, Jesus said again : Our God, to shew to 
his creatures his goodness and mercy and his omnipotence, with his 
liberality and justice 1, made a composition of four things contrary 



a God guides whomsoever he pleases. Inde. b God is sovereign, 

omnipotent, the gracious, God gives penitence. Thy prophet. d God 
is worshipped. e God keeps. f Thy apostle. g God is sovereign. 
b The Chapter on liberty (of choice). On Friday God created 

Adam from mud. k If God will. l God is beneficent, the 

gracious, the powerful, good and just. 



1 Ps. Ixxvii. 10 (cp. Vulg.). 9 See note on opposite page. 



282 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

una chompositione di quatro chosse chontrarie luna all altra . 

131 b he le unijte intuno ogeto finalle qualle he lo homo . he 
quessto he la terra, la aqua lo haere he il fuocho azioche 
temperassi luno ha lo altro il suo esstremo . he fece di 
quesste quatro chosse uno uasso quale he il chorpo del homo 
di charne, ossa, sangue medole he pelle chon nerui he uene . 
chon tutte le sui interiore . nel quale DIG chollocho la anima 
he il senso chome dui mani di quessta uitta . dando per 
stanzia al sensso hogni parte del chorpo il quale seli diffuse 
chome holio . he alia anima dette per stantia il chore doue 
unita chon il senso tutta la uita reggie . auendo chosi DIG a 
chreato lo homo b dete nel homo uno lume il quale he chiamato 
ragione . che douessi unire la charne il sensso he la anima 
intun fine di hoperare per seruitio di DIG . onde ponendo 
quessta opera nel paradisso he la ragione essendo sedota dal 
sensso per opera di satana . la charne persse il riposso . il 
senso persse il dilleto del quale uiue he la hanima persse la 
sua bellezza . Resstato lo homo talle il senso che in traualgio 

132 a non si quieta ma cer | cha dilleto . non sendo reto dala ragione 
seguita il lume che li dimosstra li hochij . onde nom potendo 
li hochij uedere se non uanita se ingana he chossi ellegendo 
le chosse terrene pecha . che pero bissogna che per misseri- 
chordia di DIG sia illuminate di nouo la ragione del homo 
ha chonossere il bene dal malle he il uero dilleto d . il qualle 
chonossendo si chonuerte ha penitenzza il pechatore . pero 
ui dicho in uerita che se DIG signore nosstro e non illumina 
il chore del homo niente gioua li ragionamenti delli homeni . 
Bissposse ioane adonque ha che serue il parllare delli homeni . 
Risspose iessu, lo homo chome homo niente gioua per chon- 
uertire lo homo ha pinitenzza ma lo homo chome mezzo che 
DIG di esso si serue . chouerte lo homo che pero hoperando 
DIG chon sachreto moddo nel homo per sallute del homo f si 
deue ogni homo asscoltare . azioche in tutti se riceue cholui 

4)1. b +*\ 4)1 t>U. 

J 4)1. d *LiJ .. e UiJL- 4)1. 



OF THE COMPOSITION OF MAN 283 

the one to the nthprn.m^nnit,ed themjjnjone final object, which 131 h 
is man aud this Dearth, air, waiter, and fire^>-in order that each 
one might temper its opposite. And he made of these four things v 
rViirJi ia Bail s body, of^esh,_boneg7 blood, marrow, a"jT_ 



nerves and veins, and with all his inward parts ; 
God placed the soul and the sense, as two hands of this 
life: giving for lodgement to the sense every part of the body, 
for it diffused itself there like oil. Aud to the soul gave he for 
lodgement the heart, where, united with the sense, it should rule the 
whole life. 

God a . having thus created man b , put into him a ljghjjwhich_is 
called reason which was to unite the flesh, the sense, aiid_the_aojjj 
ioa single"end to work for the service of 



^ * Wh~ereupon, he placing this work in paradise,jind the reason 
beingseduced of the sense by the operation of Satan^ the flesh. 
TnsTitsrest. the sensejost tji^cjeligjrt_whereby itllveth, and the 
soul lost its beauty. 

^* " Man having come to such a plight, the sense, which findeth not ^ 
repose in labour, but seeketh | delightjiot being curbed by reason, 132 a 
Tolloweth the light which the^ eyes show it ; whence, the eyes not 
being able to see aught but vanity, it deceiveth itself, and so, 
choosing earthly things, sinneth. 

Thus it is necessary that by the mercy of God man s reason 
be enlightened afresh, to know good from evil and [to distinguish] 
the true delight cd : knowing which, the sinner is converted to 
penitence. Wherefore I say unto you verily, that__ifGod our 
Lord e enlighten not the heart_of man f the reasonings^gf^ men are 
of no avail. 

1 John answered : Then to what end serveth the speech of 
men 1 ? 

Jesus replied : Man as man availeth naught to convert man to 
penitence ; but man as a means which God useth converteth man ; 
so that seeing God worketh by a secret fashion in man for man s 
salvation f , one ought to listen to every man, in order that among 
all may be received him in whom God speaketh to us. 



a God is the creator. b God created Adam. c God gives 

repentance and shows the true way. d Whom he wishes. e God 

is sovereign. f God works (?) secretly in the sons of Adam. Inde. 



1 Cp. below, i83 b . 



284 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

nel qualle ci parlla DIG . Risspose iachobo ho maesstro se 
132 * per forte uenira uno j falso proffeta he medace dotore sotto 
pretessto di amaestrarci che fare dobiamo . 

CXXIV. 

Risspose iessu per simillitudine . elgi ua lo homo chon la rete 
ha pesscare nella quale molto pessie prende ma quelli che sono 
chatiui li geta uia . Elgi usisse lo homo ha seminare ma sollo il 
grano che chassca in tera bona frutificha . chossi fare douete uoi 
che ogniuno asscoltate he la uerita sollo riceuiste imperoche la 
uerita sollo fa fruto de uit-ta etterna . Rissposse andrea hora 
chome si chonossera la uerrita . Rissposse iessu ogni chossa 
chonffonne al libro di mose quello riceuete per uero . imperoche 
DIG he uno . la uerita he una . onde chonsequentemente la 
dotrina he una he il senso della dotrina he uno che pero . la 
f ede he una a . io ui dicho in uerrita che l se non f usi stato 
scancellato la uerita dal libro di moisse DIG non haueria 
133 a dato ha dauit padre | nosstro il sechondo . he se il libro 
di dauit non fussi stato chontaminato DIG non haueria man 
date ha me lo euangelio . imperoche il signore DIG nosstro he 
inmutabile bc he un sollo parllare affato ha tuti li homeni . onde 
quando uenira il nontio di Dio d uera ha puriffichare quanto 
hauerano li empij chontaminato nel libro mio . Risspose 
quello che scriue, ho maesstro che chossa fara lo homo quado 
si trouera la leggie chontaminata he parllera il falso proffeta . 
Risspose iessu grande he la tua dimanda ho barnaba pero ti 
dicho che in talle tempo pochi si saluano . imperoche non 
chonsiderano li homeni il fine suo che he DIG . Viue DIG e alia 
chui pressenza sta la anima mia che ogni dotrina che suiera 
lo homo dal fine suo che he DIG . che quella he pessima dotrina 
onde tre chosse chonsiderarai nella dotrina zio e lo ammore uersso 
DIG . la pieta uersso il prossimo he lo hodio uersso se stesso . 

JLC j Oo.lj il. 



1 MS. che che (sic). 



THE TRUE TEACHER AND THE FALSE 285 

James answered : O Master, if perchance there shall come 
a false prophet and lying teacher pretending to instruct us, what 132 1 " 
ought we to do 1 

CXXIV. 

Jesus answered in parable : A man goeth to fish with a net, and 
therein he catcheth many fishes, but those that are bad he throweth 
away. 

A man went forth to sow, but only the grain that falleth on good 
ground beareth seed l . 

Even so ought ye to do, listening to all and receiving only the 
truth, seeing that the truth alone beareth fruit unto eternal 
life. 

Then answered Andrew : Now how shall the truth be known ? 

Jesus answered : Everything that conformeth to the book of 
Moses, that receive ye for true ; seeing that God is one, the truth 
is one; whence it followeth that the doctrine is one and the meaning: 

O 

of the doctrine is one ; and therefore the faith is one a . Verily I say 
unto you that if the truth had not been erased from the book of 
Moses, God would not have given to David our father | the second. 133 
And if the book^of David had not been contaminated, God would ^ 
not have committed the~G~bspel to me ; seeing that the Lord our 

f ^Grod is unchangeable ^c, and hath spoken but one message to all 
men. Wherefore, when the messenger of God d shall come, he shalp 
come to cleanse away all wherewith the ungodly have contaminated 

"my book/^ - 

Then answered he who writeth : O Master, what shall a man 
do when the law shall be found contaminated and the false prophet 
shall speak 1 

Jesus answered : Great is thy question, O Barnabas ; wherefore 
I_tell theethat in such a time few are saved, seeing that men dc^ 
not consideTlheir end, which is GocL As GooTliveth e in wTiose 
f^s"elice~Tn7-sonT - staiideth, every doctrine that shall turn man 
aside fromjiis end, which is <3oa7is most eviidp^tritre;^WheTefore 
there are threlTthlngs that thoiTshalt consider in doctrine namely, 
love towards God^ pity towaiolg^one s neighbouj^and hatred towards 
thyself, who hast offended God, and offendest him every day. 

* God is one, one knowledge, one religion. Inde. b God will not 

fail. c God is holy. d The apostle of God. e By the living God. 



1 See Matt. xiii. 3-9 (parable given more fully below, 143* sq.). 



286 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

chai offesso DIG he offendi ogni giorno onde ogni dotrina 
133 b chontraria ha quessti tre chapi fugisila perche he pessima . 



Ritornero hora alia auaritia . he dichoui che quando il senso 
nolle chongregare una chossa ouero tenacemente chonseruare 
dicha la raggione . chotal chossa heuera lla fine certo he che se 
essa hauera fine he pazia ammarlla onde bissogna ammare he 
seruare quello che non hauera fine . si chonuerta adonque in 
ellemossine la hauaritia bene donando quello che mallamente 
ha congregate . he guardissi che quello che dara la mano 
desstra non il sapia la sinistra b imperoche . li hipochriti quando 
fano ellemossina uolgiono essere ueduti he laudati dal mondo . 
Ma in uerita sono uani imperoche per cholui che hopera lo 
homo da cholui riceue la mercede . se lomo adonque uolle 
riceuere chossa ueruna da DIG bissogna che elgi serua DIG . 
he guardate che quando fate ellemossina chonsiderate che | 
134 a date ha DIG quanto per ammore di DIG . onde non siate pigri 
nel dare he date quello che auete del milgiore per ammore 
di DIG . Ditemi uollete uoi riceuere chossa ueruna da Dio d 
chatiua no certo ho poluere he cenere . adonque chome hauete 
fede in uoi se darete chossa ueruna chatiua per ammore de 
Dio e . Melgio saria non dare niente che dare chossa chatiua 
perche non dado hauerete qualche scuxa sechondo il monddo . 
ma dando chossa trissta he seruando per uoi il milgiore quella * 
sera la scusa f he quessto he quanto uio da dire circha la peni- 



^> ... > 

(J?;.~ 11 OJuJ. 



lili 



1 So MS. : conj. qualle. 



OF AVARICE AND ALMSGIVING 287 

Wherefore every doctrine | that is contrary to these three heads 133 b 
do thou avoid, because it is most evil. 

cxxv . 

1 1 will return now to avarice : and I tell you that when the 
sense would fain acquire a thing or tenaciously keep it, reason 
must say : " Such a thing will have its end." It is certain that if 
it will have an end it is madness to love it. Wherefore it behoves 
one to love and to keep that which will not have an end. 

Let avarice then be changed into alms, distributing rightly what 
[a man] hath acquired wrongly. 

And let him see to it that what the right hand shall give the left 
hand shall not know b 1 . Because the hypocrites when they do alms 
desire to be seen and praised of the world. But verily they are 
vain, seeing that for whom a man worketh from him doth he receive 
his wages c . If, then, a man would receive anything of God, it 
behoveth him to serve God. 

And see that when ye do alms, ye consider that | ye are giving 134 a 
to God all that [ye give] for love of God. Wherefore be not 
slow to give, and give of the best of that which ye have, for love 
of God. 

Tell me, desire ye to receive of God anything that is bad I 
Certainly not, O dust and ashes ! Then how have ye ialtirnryoTi 
if ye shall give anything bad for love of God ? e 

*_It were better to give nothing than to give a bad thing ; for in 
notjriving ye shall have some excuse according to the world : TmFv 
in giving^a^worthless thing., and keeping the best for yourselves^ 
whai shall be the excuse ? f 



a The Chapter on almsgiving. If you wish to give alms, you shall give 
with the right hand while your left hand hears (sic) it not. Inde. To 
whomsoever you have done (it) your reward is incumbent on him. Inde. 
A If you desire anything from God, you desire the best of things. If 
you do a deed of charity (almsgiving), give alms of what is good. Inde. 
f According to what religion should he give alms of what is vile? Inde. 
1 If you give unto God of what is vile, what can you say before God 
therewith ? Inde. 

1 Matt. vi. 3. 



288 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

tenzza . Risspose bartolameo quanto tempo deue durare la 
penitenza . Risspose iessu mentre che lo homo he in stato 
di pechato debe sempre pentirsi he fame penitenzza onde 
sichome la uitta humana sempre peccha ehossi sempre deue 
fare penitenzza . se uoi non uollete fare piu chonto delle 
scarpe uosstre che della anima uosstra posscia che ogni uolta 
che si ronpono quelle uoi le rachonziate . | 

CXXVI*. 

Chonuochati iessu li suoi dissepolj . li mando ha dui ha 
dui per la regione de issdraele dicendo andate he predichate 
si chome hauete intesso li quali . inclinandosi limponeua la 
mano sopra il chapo dicendo . in nome de DIG b datte la sanita 
alii inffermi, scaziate li demonij he sganate issdraele di me 
dicendolj quello che io ho deto auanti il ponttfice . si partirno 
adonque tutti saluo cholui che scriue chon iachobo he ioane 
he andorno per tutta iudea predich?.ndo la penittenzza si 
chome li haueua detto iessu . sanando ogni sorte de inffermita 
talmente che in issdraelle si chonfermo le parolle di iessu 
che DIG HE UNO he iessu he profeta di DIG c . uedendo loro tanta 
moltitudine fare quello che faceua iessu circha il sanare li 
inffermi . Ma li fioli del diauollo altro modo trouorno per 
perseguitare iessu he quessti herano li sacerdoti he scribi . 
onde inchominciorno ha dire che iessu asspiraraua alia 
135a monarchia sopra issdraele ma temeua|no la plebe onde sechreta- 
mente tratauano chotra di iessu . Disscorssa iudea ritornonorno 
li dissepoli ha iessu il quale li riceuete chome padre riceue 
li filgioli dicendo . ditemi chome ha hoperato il signore 
DIG nosstro d certo che ho ueduto satana chasscare sotto li 
uosstri piedi he uoi chalpestrallo chome fa il uignarolo la 
uua . Rissposero ho maestro habiamo sanato inffiniti inffermi 
he scaziato molti demonij che tormentauano li homeni . 
Disse iessu Dio e ui perdoni ho frateli perche hauete pechato 



il. 



MISSION OF THE DISCIPLES 289 

And jhja is all float I have to say to you concerning penitence. 
arnabas answered : How long ought penitence to last ? 

Jesus replied : As long as a man is in a state of sin he ought 
always to repent and do penance for it. Wherefore as human life 
always sinneth, so ought it always to do penance ; unless ye would 
make more account of your shoes than of your soul, since every 
time that your shoes are burst ye mend them. | 

CXXVI a . 

Jesus having called together his disciples, sent them forth by 
two and two 1 through the region of Israel, saying: Go and 
preach even as ye have heard. 

Then they bowed themselves and he laid his hand upon their 
heads, saying : In the name of God b f give health to the sick, cast 
out the demons, and undeceive Israel concerning me, telling them 
that which I said before the high priest V 

They departed therefore, all of them save him who writeth, with 
James and John ; and they went through all Judaea, preaching 
penitence even as Jesus had told them, healing every sort of 
sickness, insomuch that in Israel were confirmed the words of 
Jesus that God is one and Jesus is prophet of God c, when they 
saw such a multitude do that which Jesus did concerning the 
healing of the sick. 

But the sons of the devil 3 found another way to persecute Jesus, 
and these were the priests and the scribes. Whereupon they began 
to_savj:hat Jesus aspired to the monarchy overjsraeT BuFthey 
feared | the common people, wherefore they plotted against Jesus 135 
secretly. 

Having passed throughout Judaea the disciples returned to 
Jesus, who received them as a father receiveth his sons, saying: 
1 Tell me, how hath wrought the Lord our God ? * Surely I have 
seen Satan fall under your feet * and ye trample upon him even 
as the vinedresser treadeth the grapes ! 

The disciples answered : O Master, we have healed numberless 
sick persons, and cast out many demons 5 which tormented men. 

Said Jesus : God forgive you , O brethren, because ye have 

a The Chapter of [?] associating others with God. b By the per 

mission of God. c God is one and Jesus is his prophet. d God is 

sovereign. e God pardons. 

1 Cp. Mark vi. 7-13. See above, 99" (p. 217). See above, 

5o b (p. 113 and note). Cp. Luke x. 18. 5 Cp. Luke x. 17. 



u 



290 THE GOSPEL OF BAENABAS 

chon dire habiamo sanato imperoche DIG ha fato il tutto . 
allora dissero habiamo parllato da stolti pero insegnaci chome 
dobiamo dire . Risspose iessu in ogni bona opera dite DIG a ha 
operate he in ogni chatiua dite io ho pechato . chossi faremo 
dissero li dissepoli . allora disse iessu hora che dice issdraele 
hauendo ueduto tanti homeni DIG fare per loro mani quelo 
che DIG affato per le mano mie . Rissposero li dissepoli 
dichono che DIG he sollo he che tu sei proffeta di Dio b . 
Bisspose iessu chon lieta fazia sia benedeto il santo nome 
135 b di DIG che non ha dissprezzato il desside j f io di me seruo 
suo he deto quessto andarno ha riposare. 

CXXVII*. 

Partissi iessu dal disserto he hentro in ierusaleme . onde 
tutto il populo chorse al tempio per uederllo pero dapoi la 
letione di salmi iessu salli sopra il pinacholo doue saliua 
il scriba . he fato segno di silentio chon la mano disse 
sia benedeto il santo nome di DIG c ho f ratelli che cia chreato 
del fango della terra he no di spirito ardente . per che 
pechando noi trouiamo misserichordia hapresso DIG e che 
satana non la trouera giamai perche per sua superbia . 
elgie inchorigibile dicendo sempre essere nobile per essere 
spirito ardente . Auete intesso fratelli quello che dice il 
padre nosstro dauit del nosstro DIG che elgi sie harechordato 
che siamo poluere . he che il spirito nosstro ua he non torna 
onde incio cia hauto misserichordia . Beati cholloro che 
chonosscono quesste parolle perche nom pecherano chontra 
il signore suo in etterno essendo che dapoi il pechato si 
136 a pentono . onde il pechato loro non dura . guai ha chollojro 
che si estoleno perche serano humilliati insino alle ardenti 
brase dello infferno . ditemi fratelli qualle he la chagione 
di essaltarsi uie forsi bene alchuno quiui in terra no certo 
imperoche . chome dice sallamone proffeta di DIG ogni chossa 
che he sotto il solle he uanita . ma se le chosse del mondo 



V; 41)1. b J^-y 15 - C J **! 41)1. 

4lll --J. d +*\ ,-li .-. e ,.^*T 41)1. 



JESUS PREACHETH AT JERUSALEM 291 



sinned in saying " WeJiav^Jiealed,/ seeing if, is Gnrl 

done all. 

----- _ 

Then said they : We have talked foolishly ; wherefore, teach us 
how to speak. 

Jesus answered : In every good work say " God a hath wrought " 
and in every bad one say " I have sinned." 

So will we do, said the disciples to him. 

Then said Jesus : Now what saith Israel, having seen God do 
by the hands of so many men that which God hath done by my 
hands ? 

The disciples answered : * They saythat there is one God alone 
and_ that_thou art God s prophet V 

Jesus answered with joyful countenance : Blessed be the holy 
name of God c , who hath not despised the desire | of me his servant! 135 b 
And when he had said this they retired to rest. 



Jesus departed from the desert and entered into Jerusalem; 
whereupon all the people ran to the temple to see him. So after 
the reading of the psalms Jesus mounted up on the pinnacle where 
the scribe used to mount, and, having beckoned for silence with hia 
hand, he said : Blessed be the holy name of God c, brethren, who 
hath created us of the clay of the earth, and not of flaming spirit. 
For when we sin we find mercy before God e , which Satan will never 
find, because through his pride he is incorrigible, saying that he is 
always noble, for that he is flaming spirit. 

P 7 Have ye heard, brethren, that which our father David saith of 
our God 1 , that he remembereth that we are dust and that our 
spirit goeth and returneth not again, wherefore he hath had mercy 
upon us ? Blessed are they that know these words, for they will 
not sin against their Lord eternally, seeing that after the sin they 
repent, wherefore their sin abideth not. Woe unto them [ thai 136* 
extol themselves, for they shall be humbled to the burning coals of 
hgll- Tell me, brethren, what is the cause for self-exaltation? 
Is there, perchance, any good here upon earth 1 No, assuredly, for 
as saith Solomon 2 , the prophet of God : " Everything that is under 
_the sun is vanity." But if the things of*the world do not give us 

a God is Lord. b God is one and Jesus is a prophet. In the 

name of God. d The Chapter on the sons of Adam. e God the gracious. 

1 Cp. Ps. ciii. 14-17. 2 Eccles. i. a, &c. 

U 2 



292 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

no ci presstano chagione di esstollersi nel chore nosstro molto 
meno ci da chagione la uitta nosstra . la quale he traualgiata 
da molte misserie possia che tutte le chreature infferiori al 
homo pugnano chontra di noi . ho quanti ha hocisso lo ardente 
hestate . ho quanti ha hocisso il gellato he fredo inuerno . 
quanti sono stati hocissi da saete he grandine . quanti sono 
somerssi nel mare per lo impeto de uenti . quanti sono 
morti per pesstilentia . per charestia . perche sono stati 
diuorati da fiere . morsi da serpenti he hopillati da cibi . 
ho infellice homo che si estole auendo tanti chontrapessi per 
essere assediato da tutte le chreature in ogni locho . ma che 

136 b diro della charne he il senso che desside|rano sollo iniquita . 
del monddo che non offerisse se non pechato . delli reprobi 
che seruendo satana persseguitano chi uolle uiuere sechondo 
la leggie di DIG . certo he fratelli che se lo homo chome 
dice il padre nosstro dauit chon li hochij suoi chonsiderasse 
in etterno non pecharia . il esstolersi nel chore suo altro 
non he se non serare la pieta he misserichordia di DIG azioche 
non li perdoni . perche dice il padre nosstro dauit che DIG 
nosstro sie harechordato che siamo poluere he che il spirito 
nosstro ua he non torna . cholui che si esstole adonque nega 
di essere poluere onde no chonossendo la sua neccessita non 
dimanda agiuto che pero irrita DIG suo agiutatore a . Viue 
DIG b alia chui pressenza sta la anima mia che DIG perdoneria 
ha satana se satana chonossesi la sua misseria . he dimandassi 
misserichordia al suo chreatore il qualle he beneddeto in 
heterno . | 

137 CXXVIII c. 

Adonque fratelli io homo . poluere he fango che sopra 
della terra chamino ui dicho che fate penitenzza he chonossete li 
pechati uosstri . io [ui dicho] ho fratelli che satana per uia della 
millitia Romana ui a inganati quando dicesste me essere DIG . 
pero guardatiue di non chredere ha loro perche sono chasscati 
nella malladitione di DIG d seruendo li dei falsi he bugiardi . 



c .^IJI J^ou ill 



JESUS PREACHETH AT JERUSALEM 293 

cause to extol ourselves in our heart, much less doth our life give 
us cause; for it is burdened with many miseries, since all the 
creatures inferior to man fight against us. ^O, how many have 
been slain by the burning heat of summer ; how many have been 
" slamn)y~tiie frost and cold of winter ; how many have been" 

slain by lightning and by hail ; how many have been drowned in 
the~sear by thTTury" ofwinds ; how many have died of pestilence, of 
famine, or because they have been devoured of wild beasts, bitten 
of serpents, choked l by food ! hapless man, who extolleth himself 
having so much to weigh him down, being laid wait for by all the 
creatures in every place ! But what shall I say of the flesh and the 
sense that desire | only iniquity ; of the world, that offereth nought 136 b 
but sin ; of the wicked, who, serving Satan, persecute whosoever 
would live according to the law of God 1 Certain it is, brethren^ 
tnat if man, as saith our father David 2 , with his eyes should con 
sider eternity, he would not sin. 

To extol oneself injone s heart is but to lock up the pity and 
mercy of God, that he pardon not. For our father David saith 3 
that our God remembereth that we are but dust and^that our spirit, 
goeth and returneth not again^ Whoso extolleth himself, then, 

"denieth that he is dust, and hence, not knowing his need, he^ 
asketh not help, and so angereth God his helper a . Ae Uodliveth b 

In whose presence my soul standeth. God wouUl pardon Satan if^ 
Satan should know his own misery, and ask mercy of his Creator,^ 
who is blessed foreverniore. | 

CXXVIII . 137 a 

Accordingly, brethren, I, a man, dust and clay, that walk upon 
the earth, say unto you : Do penance and know your sins. I say, 
brethren^ that Satan^y means of the Roman soldiery, deceived you 
^yhopj" pfV l t 1lQf T "- g (iQ,r! Wherefore, beware that ye believe 
them not, seeing they are fallen under the curse of God d , serving 




a God aids. b By the living God. The Chapter on Thou shalt 

not worship idols. d The curse of God on the polytheists. Inde. 



1 Or obstructed. 3 Ps. . . . ? s Ps. ciii. 14, 15. 



294 THE GOSPEL OF BAENABAS 

chome li imprecho dauit padre nosstro dicendo, li dei delle 
genti sono argento he horo hopera delle mani loro . che 
hano hochij he non uedono, hano horechie he non sentono . 
hano nasso he non hodorano, hano bocha he non mangiano . 
hano lingua he non parllano hano mani he non tochano . 
hano piedi he non chaminano pero disse dauit padre nosstro 
pregando il nosstro DIG uiuo a . similli siano ha loro cholloro 
che li fano he chi si confidano in loro . ho superbia inaudita 

137 b che quessta del homo il quale | essendo chreato da DIG di 
terra si smenticha la sua chonditione he uolle fare DIG al 
suo piacere . onde tacitamente si burlla di DIG quassi dicendo 
non uie uttillita ueruna il seruire DIG . perche chossi dimosstra 
le hopere loro . A quessto ui uolleua ridure satana ho fratelli 
chon farui chredere me essere DIG perche non potendo io 
chreare una mossca he essendo passibile he mortale niuna 
utillita ui posso dare essendo che io di ogni chossa ho bissogno . 
hora chome in ogni chosa ui agiuteria chome he propio di 
DIG . noi addonque che habiamo DIG nosstro grande che il l 
tutto ha chreato chon la parolla sua b si burlaremo di gentilli 
he di loro dei . Fu dui homeni che assiese qui nel tempio per 
horare luno fariseo he laltro publichano . il fariseo ando 
hapresso il santuario he horando chon facia drita disse . io ti 
ringratio signore DIO C mio perche io no son chome li altri 
homeni pechatori che fano ogni scellerita he particholarmente | 

138 R chome quessto publichano . perche digiuno dui uolte alia 
setimana he do le decime di quanto possedo . il publichano 
staua di lontano prostato ha terra he perchotendossi il peto 
diceua cho fazia inclinata . signore io no son degno di guardare 
il cielo ne il santuario tuo perche ho molto pechato habimi 
misserichordia . in uerita ui dicho che il publichano dissexe 
da il tempio milgiore del fariseo imperoche DIG nosstro d il 



d *-XL 4JJ1. 
1 MS. il il (sic). 



THE PHARISEE AND THE PUBLICAN 295 

the false and lying gods; even as our father David 1 invoketh 
a curse upon them, saying: "The gods of the nations are silver 
and gold, the work of their hands ; that have eyes and see not, 
have ears and hear not, have noses and smell not, have a mouth 
and eat not, have a tongue and speak not, have hands and touch 
not, have feet and walk not." Wherefore said David our father, 
praying our living God a , " Like unto them be 2 they that make them 
and they that trust in them." 

"~ T O~pnde unheard-of, this pride of man, who | being created by 137 b 
God out of earth forgetteth his condition and would fain make 
God at his own pleasure ! Wherein he silently mocketh God, as 
though he should say : " There is no use in serving God." For so 
do their works show. To this did Satan desire to reduce you, 
O brethren, in making you believe me to be God ; because. I not 
being able to create a fly, and being passible and mortal, I can give 
"you" nothing of use, seeing that I myself have need of everything. 
How, then, could I help you in all things, as it is proper to God 
to do? 

Shall we, then, who have for our God the great God who hath 
created the universe with his word b , mock at the Gentiles and their 
gods 1 

There were two men 3 who came up here into the temple to 
pray: the one was a Pharisee and the other a publican. The 
Pharisee drew nigh to the sanctuary, and praying with his face 
uplifted said : " I give thee thanks, O Lord my God , because I am 
not as other men, sinners, who do every wickedness, and particularly | 
as this publican ; for I fast twice in the week and give tithes of 138 a 
all I possess." 

The publican remained afar off, bowed down to the earth, and 
beating his breast he said with bent head : " Lord, I amjiot worthy 
t2J^>V np nn flift liPftvpn n ^>r upon thy sanc{/uary,1orl havejuimed. 
much ; have mercy upon me ! " 

Verily I say unto you, the publican went down from the temple 
in better case than the Pharisee, for that our God justified him d , 

" God is living. b God is great, the creator of all, there is no power 

save with God. Inde. God is sovereign d God is wise. 



Ps. cxv. 48. Cp. Vulg. fiant. 3 See Luke xviii. 10-14. 



296 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

iustificho perdonandolj ogni suo pechato . Ma il farisseo 
dissexe pegiore de il publichano perche DIG nosstro il riprobo 
hauendo in habominatione le hopere sui . 

CXXIXa. 

Si gloriera forsi la scure di hauer talgiato la selua doue 
lo homo affato uno giardino . no certo perche lo homo affato 
138 b il tutto he la scure con le mani sui . he tu homo ti glojriherai 
di hauere fato bene ueruno hauendoti chreato DIG nostro 
di fango b . he operando DIG in te quanto bene si hopera . he 
perche dissprezi il prossimo tuo non sai che se DIG non ti 
chonseruasi da satana che saressti pegiore di satana . hora 
non chonossi che uno sollo pechato fece il piu bello angelo 
chonuertire nel piu bruto demonio . he il piu perfeto homo 
che sia uenuto al monddo qual fu adamo il chonuerti in 
missero sottoponendolo ha quanto patiamo chon tutta la 
sua progenie . hora qual dechreto hai tu per il qualle tu 
possi uiuere al piazere tuo senza temere ueruno . Guai ha te 
fango perche per il tuo essaltarti sopra DIG tuo chreatorre d 
sarai prostrate soto li piedi di satana tuo insidiatore . he deto 
quessto iessu fece oratione auendo le mani leuate al signore . 
he il popullo dicendo chosi sia chosi sia . | quando elgi fini 
la oratione dissexe del pinacholo onde li fu apressentato molti 
inffermi . alii quali dete la sanita he si parti dal tempio 
onde simone leprosso il quale iessu haueua mondato lo inuito 
ha mangiare il pane . li sacerdoti he scribi che odiauano 
iessu renontiorno ha la millitia romana quello che iessu 
chontra di loro dei haueua deto . che pero cerchauano modo 
di amazarlo ma non il trouauano perche temeuano il populo . 
hentrato iessu nella chassa de simone si possero ha messa 
he mangiando . hecho una dona per nome maria publicha 
pechatrice che hentro nella chassa he prostratasi in tera 
dietro alii piedi di iessu . chon le lachrime li lauaua he 

] ^ ; UJI tj^. 



JESUS IN SIMON S HOUSE 297 

forgiving him all his sin. But the Pharisee went down in worse 
case than the publican, because our God rejected him, having his 

works in abomination. 

CXXIX <*. 

Shall the axe, perchance, boast itself 1 at having cut down the 
forest where a man hath made a garden 1 Nay, assuredly, for the 
man hath done all, yea and [made] the axe, with his hands. 

And thou, man, shalt thou boast thyself | of having done 138 b 
aught that is good, seeing our God created thee of clay b and 
worketh in thee all good that is wrought? 

And wherefore despisest thou thy neighbour 1 Knowest thou 
not that if God had not preserved thee c from Satan thou wouldst be 
worse than Satan 1 

1 _Now knowest thou not that one single sin changed the fairest 
jingel into the most repulsive demon"? And that the most perfect man 
That hath come into the world, which was Adam, it changed into 
a wretched being, subjecting him to what we suffer, together with 
all his offspring 1 What decree, then, hast thou, in virtue whereof 
Thou mayest live at thine own pleasure without any fear 1 A\ T oe 
unto thee, O clay, for because thou hast exalted thyself above God 
who created thee d thou shalt be abased beneath the feet of Satan 
who layeth wait for thee. 

And having said this, Jesus prayed, lifting up his hands to the 
Lord, and the people said: So be it! So be it! | When he had 139 a 
finished his prayer he descended from the pinnacle. "Whereupon ( I38 * 
there were brought unto him many sick folk whom he made whole, 
and he departed from the temple. Thereupon Simon, a leper 2 
whom Jesus had cleansed, invited him to eat bread. 

The priests and scribes, who hated Jesus, reported to the Roman 
soldiers that which Jesus had said against their gods. For indeed 
they were seekinghow to kill him, but found it not, because they. 
feared the people. 

Jesus, having entered the house of Simon 3 , sat down to the 
table. And while he was eating, behold a woman named Mary *, 
a public sinner, entered into the house, and flung herself upon 
the ground behind Jesus feet, and washed them with her tears, 




a The Chapter on pride. b God created Adam from mud. c God 
keeps. d God is the creator. 



1 Cp. Isa, x. 15. * Cp. Matt. xxvi. 6. s See Luke vii. 36-50. 

4 See John xi. 2. The identification is traditional, but probably not 
correct. 



298 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

chon onto preciosso li ongeua he chon li chapelli del suo 

chapo li sciugaua . si scandalizo simone chon ogniuno che 

mangiaua he nello chore loro diceuano se chostui fosi proffeta 

13 9 b chonosserebe chi he chome he questa dona onde | non si 

laseria tochare . allora disse iessu simone io ti ho da dire 

una chossa . Risspose simone parla ho maestro chio dessidero 

la tua parola . 

CXXX. 

Disse iessu . elgli era uno homo il quale haueua dui debitorij 
luno doueua darli al suo chreditore cinquanta soldi he laltro 
cinque cento . onde non hauendo loro da pagare il patrone 
mosso ha misserichordia ha tutti dui dono il debito qualle . 
he di chosstoro che piu amassi il suo chreditore Risspose 
simone cholui al qualle fu donato il magiore debito . Disse 
iessu tu hai bene deto pero ti dicho guarda quessta dona 
he te stesso perche ambi dui herate debitori ha DIG . luno 
per la lepra del chorpo he laltro per la lepra de la hanima 
qualle he il pechato . DIG nosstro signore mosso ha misserir 
chordia per le mie oratione b ha uolluto sanare ha te il chorpo 
140 a he ha lei la anima . | pero tu pocho ammi me perche pocho 
hai riceuto in dono onde hentrando io in chassa tua no mi 
basiasti ne ongessti il chapo mio . Ma quessta dona uedi 
che subito hentrata in chassa tua sie possta alii mei piedi 
li qualli ha lauato chon le lachrime sui he chon preciosso 
onguento onti . onde in uerita ti dicho che lie rimesso molti 
pechati perche ha hammato molto he uoltato alia dona disse . 
uatene im paze perche il signore DIG nosstro ti ha perdonato 
li tuoi pechati c . ma guardati di non pechare piu la tua fede 
tia fato salua . 

CXXXId. 

Si achostorno ha iessu li suoi dissepoli dapoi la horatione di 
note . he dissero ho maestro chome fare dobiamo per fugire la 
superbia . Risspose iessu hauete uoi ueduto uno pouero inuitato 



JESUS IN SIMON S HOUSE 299 

anointed them with precious ointment, and wiped them with the 
hairs of her head. 

Simon was scandalized, with all that sat at meat, and they said 
in their hearts : If this man were a prophet he would know who 
and of what sort is this woman, and | would not suffer her to 139 b 
touch him/ ( X 3 8bb 

Then said Jesus : Simon, I have a thing to say to thee. 
Simon answered : Speak, Master, for I desire thy word/ 



Jesus said : There was a man who had two debtors. The 
one owed to his creditor fifty pence, the other five hundred. 
Whereupon, when neither of them had wherewithal to pay, the 
owner, moved with compassion, forgave the debt to each. Which 
of them would love his creditor most 1 

Simon answered : He to whom was forgiven the greater debt/ "* ^* 

Said Jesus : Thou hast well said ; I say unto thee, therefore, 
behold this woman and thyself; for ye were both debtors to God, 
the one for leprosy of the body, the other for leprosy of the soul, 
which is sin. 

God our Lord, moved with compassion through my prayers b ,hath 
willed to heal thy body and her soul. | Thou, therefore, lovest me 140 a 
little, because thou hast received little as a gift. And so, when ( I 39*) 
I entered thy house thou didst not kiss me nor anoint my head. 
But this woman, lo ! straightway on entering thy house she placed 
herself at my feet, which she hath washed with her tears and 
anointed with precious ointment. Wherefore verily I say unto 
thee, many sins are forgiven her, because she hath loved much/ 
And turning to the woman he said : Go thy way in peace, for the 
Lord our God hath pardoned thy sins c ; but see thou sin no more \ 
Thy faith hath saved thee/ 

CXXXI<1. 

His disciples drew nigh unto Jesus after the nightly prayer 2 , and 
said : Master, how must we do to escape pride 1 

Jesus answered : Have ye seen a poor man invited to a prince s 
house to eat bread 1 



a The Chapter on the Giver. b God is merciful, God is sovereign. 

God is sovereign and pardons. d The Chapter on the mean (lowly). 



1 Cp. John viii. n. 2 Cp. above, 87* (p. 193, note 4). 



300 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

140 b da uno principe ha mangiare il pane . Risspose ioa | ne ho 
( X 39 ) man gi a to io il pane da herode perche auanti che io ti chonosesi 
andauo ha pessare . he uendeua il pessie alia familgia di herode 
onde esso essendo uno giorno in conuito he auendo io portato 
hiui uno bel pessie mi fece stare ha mangiare hiui . Disse 
allora iessu hora chome mangiassti pane cho inffideli DIG ti 
perdoni a ho gioane ma di a me chome staui tu ha menssa . 
cerchasti di hauere il locho piu honorato dimandassti li cibi 
piu dellichati . parllassti no sendo interogato alia menssa . 
ti riputasti piu degno delli altri di sedere ha menssa . 
Risspose ioane Viue DIG b che io non ardiua di leuare li hochij 
uedendomi uille pesscatore mallamente uesstito sedere fra 
li baroni del Re . onde auendomi donate il Re uno pocho 
di charne parue ha me che il monddo mi chasscasi sopra 
il chapo per la grandezza del fauore che mi fece il Re . 
he dicho in uerita che se il Re fusi della nosstra leggie io Io | 
141 a haueria uolluto seruire tutto il tempo della mia uita . chrido 
iessu taci ioane perche temo che DIG non fazia noi proffondare 
chome habiro per la nosstra superbia . tremorno li dissepoli 
di spauento al parllare di iessu quando elgi di nouo disse . 
temiamo DIG che non ci proffondi per la nosstra superbia 
ho fratelli auete uoi intesso ioane chome si fa nella chassa 
di uno principe . guai alii homeni che uengono al monddo 
perche uiuendo chon superbia morirano chon ignominia he 
andarano in chonfussione . imperoche quessto monddo he una 
chassa doue DIG chonuita li homeni nella quale ha mangiato 
tutti li santi he profeti di DIG . he ui dicho in uerita che 
ogni chossa che riceue Io homo la riceue da DIG che pero 
Io homo doueria stare chon soma humilta . chonossendo la 
su[a] uillezza he la grandezza di DIG c cho il grande beneficio 
che ci fa nutrichandoci che pero . non he licito allo homo 
di dire ho perche chossi si fa he si dice nel monddo . ma 
rissguardare se stesso ripu j tandossi, chome in uerita sie, 
indegni di stare nel monddo alia mensa di DIG . Viue DIG b 



4JJ|. 



JOHN EATETH AT HEROD S TABLE 301 

John answered : | I have eaten bread in Herod s house. For 140 1 
before I knew thee I wont to fish, and used to sell the fish to the C J 39 ) 
family of Herod. "Whereupon, one day when he was feasting, 
I having brought thither a fine fish, he made mestayandeat 
there. 

Then said Jesus : Now how didst thou eat bread with infidels ? 
God pardon thee a , O John ! But tell me, how didst thou bear 
thyself at the board 1 Didst thou seek to have the most honourable 
place 1 ? Didst thou ask for the most delicate food] Didst thou 
speak when thou wast not questioned at the table 1 ? Didst thou 
account thyself more worthy than the others to sit at table 1 

John answered : As God liveth b , I did not dare to lift up my 
eyes, seeing myself, a poor fisherman, ill-clad, sitting among the 
king s barons. "Whereupon, when the king gave me a little piece 
of flesh, -methought that the world had fallen upon my head, for 
the greatness of the favour that the king did unto me. And verily 
I say that, if the king had been of our Law, I | should have been 141* 
fain to serve him all the days of my life. 

Jesus cried out: Hold thy peace, John, for I fear lest God 
should cast us into the abyss, even like Abiram 1 , for our 
pride ! 

The disciples trembled with fear at the words of Jesus ; when he 
said again : Let us fear God, that He cast us not into the abyss for 
our pride. 

brethren, have ye heard of John what is done in the house 
of a prince ? Woe to the men that come into the world, for as 
they live in pride they shall die in contempt and shall go into 
confusion. 

For this world is a house where God feasteth men, wherein 
have eaten all the holy ones and prophets of God. And verily 
I say to you, everything that a man receiveth, he receiveth it from 
God. Wherefore man ought to bear himself with deepest humility; 
knowing his own vileness and the greatness of God , with the great 
bounty wherewith he nourisheth us. Therefore it is not lawful for 
man to say : " Ah, why is this done and this said in the world 1 " but 
rather to | account himself, as in truth he is, unworthy to stand in 141 b 
the world at God s board. As God liveth b , in whose presence my 



a God pardons. b By the living God. c God is great and Lord 

of all. 



1 See Num. xvi. 



302 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

alia chui pressenza sta la anima mia che non si riceue 
chossa chossi pichola qui nel monddo da Dio a . che per 
richopenssa lo homo non debia spendere la uita pe[r] ammore 
de DIG . Viue DIG b che tu non pechasti ho ioane ha mangiare 
chon herode perche DIG ha quessto ti disspose azioche tu fussi 
maestro nosstro he di ogniuno che teme DIG . fate chossi disse 
iessu alii suoi dissepoli che uiuiate nel mondo chome uisse 
ioane nella chassa di herode . quado mangio chon lui il pane 
che in uerita sarete priui in tutto di superbia . 

CXXXII. 

Chaminando iessu per il mare di galilea . fu circhondato 
da una grande moltitudine di gente onde elgi assese sopra 
una nauicella la quale si scosto da terra per se stessa . he 
si ferino apresso ha terra quanto poteuasi udire la uoce di 
14 2 iessu on | de si auicinorno ogniuno al mare he sentati asspe- 
( I 4 1 *) tauano la sua parolla . elgi adonque aperto la bocha sua disse, 
echo che usisse il seminatore onde seminando parte del seme 
chassco sopra la strada il quale . fu chonchulcato dalli homeni 
he mangiato dalli ucelj . parte chassco sopra le pietre onde 
naquendo per non hauere humore fu arsso dal solle . parte 
chassco nelle siepi onde chressendo le spice affochorno il 
seme . he parte chassco in terra bona onde frutificho sino 
al trentessimo, al sessagessimo he al centessimo . Di nouo 
disse iessu hecho che uno padre di familgia semino bono 
grano nel chapo suo onde dormendo li serui del bon homo . 
vene lo innimicho del homo loro patrone he semino lo holgio 
sopra il buono seme . onde quando naque il grano fu ueduto 
grande quantita di holgio nato fra il grano . si hachosstorno 
li serui al suo patrone he dissero ho signore non seminasti 
bono seme nel champo tuo perche adonque uie nato grande 
quantita di holgio . Risspose il patrone buono seme seminai { 
142 h Ma mentre che dormiuano li homeni . il nemicho del homo 
^ I4 uene he semino lo holgio sopra il grano dissero li serui . ti 
piaze che noi andiamo ha chauare lo holgio fuori del grano . 



PARABLES OF THE SOWER AND THE TARES 303 

soul standeth, there is nothing so small received here in the world 
from [the hand of] God a , but that in return man ought to spend his 
life for love of 



As God liveth b , thou sinnedst not, John, in eating with 
Herod, for it was of God s disposition thou didst so, in order that 
thou mightest be our teacher and [the teacher] of every one that 
feareth God. So do, said Jesus to his disciples, that ye may live 
in the world as John lived in the house of Herod when he ate 
bread with him, for so shall ye be in truth free from all pride. 

CXXXII. 

Jesus walking along the sea of Galilee was surrounded by a great 
multitude of folk, wherefore he went into a little boat 1 which lay 
a little off from the shore by itself, and anchored so near the land that 
the voice of Jesus might be heard. | Whereupon they all drew nigh 142 a 
to the sea, and sitting down awaited his word. He then opened his ^ 1 
mouth and said : Behold, the sower went out to sow, whereupon 
as he sowed some of the seed fell upon the road, and this was 
trodden under foot of men and eaten up of birds ; some fell upon 
the stones, whereupon when it sprang up, because it had no 
moisture, it was burnt up by the sun; some fell in the hedges, 
whereupon when it grew up the thorns choked the seed ; and 
some fell on good ground, whereupon it bare fruit, even to thirty, 
sixty, and an hundredfold. 

Again Jesus said 2 : Behold, the father of a family sowed good 
seed in his field : whereupon, as the servants of the good man slept, 
the enemy of the man their master came and sowed tares over the 
good seed. Whereupon, when the corn sprang up, there was seen 
sprung up among the corn a great quantity of tares. The servants 
came to their master and said : " O sir, didst thou not sow good 
seed in thy field? Wherefore then is there sprung up therein 
a great quantity of tares 1 " The master answered : l< Good seed 
did I sow, | but while men slept the enemy of man came and sowed I42b 
tares over the corn." ( Z 4 lb ) 

Said the servants : " Wilt thou that we go and pull up the tares 
from amoutf the corn 1 " 



God gives. b By the living God. 



See Matt. xiii. 1-8. 2 See Matt. xiii. 24-30. 



304 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

Risspose il patrone non fate quessto perche chauarete insieme 
il grano ma asspetate che uengi il tempo del richolto . perche 
andarete allora he racholgerete lo holgio fuori de il grano 
he il ponerete nel fuocho ha brugiarssi . ma il formento 
ponerete nel mio granaro . di nouo disse iessu, elgi ussise 
molti homeni ha uendere fichi onde hariuati loro im piazza 
li homeni che n5 cerchauano li boni fichi ma belle folgie . 
perzio no potetero uendere li fichi li homeni il che ueduto uno 
trissto citadino disse, certo chio posso diuentare richo . onde 
elgi chonuocho dui suoi filgioli he [dete] andete ha racholgere 
grande quantita di folgie chon chatiui fichi . li quali uendetero 
ha precio di horo imperoche li homeni forte si chompiazeuano 
di folgie . onde mangiando li homeni li fichi se inffermorno 
143 a di graue inffermita . Di nouo disse iessu hecho che | uno 
citadino ha uno fonte del qualle tutti li citadini uicini 
riceuono aqua da lauare le loro inmonditie . ma il citadino 
lassia putrefare le sui uesstimenta . Di nouo disse iessu 
elgi usise dui homeni ha uendere pomi, luno uolle uendere 
la scorza del pomo ha pesso di horo non si churando della 
sostanza di pomi . he laltro cercha di donare li pomi sollo 
riceuendo per il uiaggio uno pocho di pane . ma li homeni 
chomprorno le scorze de li pomi a pesso di horo non si churando 
di cholui che li uole donare anzi dissprezandolo . he chossi quel 
giorno iessu parllo alia turba im parabole la quale hauendo 
licenziata elgi andete cho li suoi dissepoli in naim . doue 
risuscito il fiolo della uedoua il quale chon la madre il riceuete 
in chassa ministrandolj . 

CXXXIII <*. 

Si hachostorno ha iessu li suoi dissepoli . he lo interogorno 
dicendo ho maesstro dici la significhatione delle parabole che 
143k tu dicessti alia plebe . Risspojse iessu elgi si hachosta la hora 
di horare onde fata la oratione di uesspro diroui il senso delle 
parabole . fata la oratione si auicinorno li dissepoli ha iessu 
alii quali disse . lo homo che semina sopra la strada, sopra le 



FURTHER PARABLES 305 

The master answered : "JDc^not so, for ye would pull up the 
corn therewith ; but wait till the time of harvest cometh. For""" 
then sKaTTye go and pull up~the tares from among the corn and 
cast them into the fire to be burned, but the corn ye shall put into 
my granary." 

Again Jesus said : There went forth many men to sell figs. 
But when they arrived at the market-place, behold, men sought 
not good figs but fair leaves. Therefore the men were not able to 
sell their figs. And seeing this, an evil citizen said : " Surely 
I may become rich." Whereupon he called together his two sons 
and [said] : " Go ye and gather a great quantity of leaves with 
bad figs." And these they sold for their weight in gold, for the 
men were mightily pleased with leaves. Whereupon the men, 
eating the figs, became sick with a grievous sickness. 

Again Jesus said : Behold | a citizen hath a fountain, from 143 a 
which all the neighbouring citizens take water to wash off their ( 1 4 2 *) 
uncleanness ; but the citizen suffereth his own clothes to putrefy. 

Again Jesus said : There went forth two men to sell apples. 
The one chose to sell the peel of the apple for its weight in gold, 
caring nought for the substance of the apples. The other desired 
to give the apples away, receiving only a little bread for his 
journey. But men bought the peel of the apples for its weight in 
gold, caring nought for him who was fain to give them, nay even 
despising him. 

And thus on that day Jesus spake to the crowd in parables. 
Then having dismissed them, he went with his disciples to ISTain, 
where he had raised to life the widow s son; who, with his mother, 
received him into his house and ministered unto him. 

CXXXIII *. 

His disciples drew nigh to Jesus and asked him 1 , saying: 
O Master, tell us the meaning of the parables which thou spakest 
unto the people. 

Jesus answered : | The hour of prayer draweth nigh ; wherefore 143^ 
when the evening prayer 2 is ended I will tell you the meaning of ( Z 4 2b ) 
the parables. 

When the prayer was ended, the disciples came near to Jesus 
and he said to them 3 : The man who soweth seed upon the road, 

a The Chapter. 



1 Cp. Matt xiii. 10. 3 See above, 87* (p. 193, note 4). a Cp. Matt. 
xiii. 18-23. 



\\ . \ 






306 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

pietre, sopra li spini he in terra bona he cholui che amaesstra 
della parola di DIG . la qualle chassca sopra grande quantita 
di homeni . chassca sopra la strada quando pemiene alle 
horechie di marinari he merchatori li quali . per li uiagii 
longi che fano he per la uarieta di natione che pratichano 
satana li leua di memoria la parola di DIG . chassca sopra le 
pietre quando peruiene alle horechie di homeni di chorte 
perche per la grande chura che loro hano . di seruire il 
chorpo di uno principe nom penetra in loro la parolla di DIG 
onde sebene ui ano qualche memoria . subito che hano qualche 
tribullatione li usisse di memoria la parolla di DIG . perche 
loro non seruendo DIG a no possono sperare hagiuto da DIG b . 

144 a chassca nelle spine | quando peruiene alle horechie di cholloro 
che ammano la propia uitta . onde sebene chressie la parola 
di DIG in loro quando chressiono li dessiderij charnalli sofo- 
chano il seme bono della parola di DIG . perche le chomodita 
charnalli fano abadonare la parolla di DIG . quello che chassca 
in terra bona he quando la parola di DIG peruiene alle horechie 
de cholui che teme DIG . onde fa fruto de uitta hetterna . 
in uerita ui dicho pero che in ogni stato quando lo homo 
teme DIG fara fruto in lui la parolla di DIG . de quello padre 
di familgia ui dicho in uerita che elgie i>io signore nosstro 
padre di ogni chossa per hauere chreato ogni chossa . Ma 
non e padre per natura perche non chapisse motto senza de il 
qualle non si polle generare . DIG nosstro c adoque de il qualle 
quessto monddo he il champo suo doue semina sono li homeni 

144 b he il seme he la parolla di DIG . onde quando sono negligen j ti 
li dottori ha predichare la parolla di DIG per hochuparssi nelli 
negotij del monddo . satana semina herrore nel chore deli 
homeni che pero sono uenuto inffinite sette di scellerata 
dotrina . chridano li santi he proffeti ho signore non dessti 
tu adonque bona dottrina alii homeni perche adonque ui sono 



4)1. 



THE PARABLES INTERPRETED 307 

upon the stones, upon the thorns, upon the good ground, is he who 
teacheth the word of God, which falleth upon a great number 
of men. 

It falleth upon the road when it cometh to the ears of sailors 
and merchants, who by reason of the long journeys which they 
make, and the variety of nations with whom they have dealings, 
have the word of God removed from their memory by Satan. It 
falleth upon the stones when it cometh to the ears of courtiers, 
for by reason of the great anxiety these have to serve the body of 
a prince the word of God doth not sink into them. Wherefore, 
albeit they have some memory thereof, as soon as they have 
any tribulation the word of God goeth out of their memory: 

. for, seeing they serve not God a , they cannot hope for help from 

I Godb. 

1 - It falleth among the thorns | when it cometh to the ears of them 144 a 
that love their own life, whereupon, though the word of God grow 
upon them, when carnal desires grow up they choke the good seed 
of the word of God, for carnal comforts cause [men] to forsake the 
word of God. That which falleth on good ground is when the 
word of Go^__c^mi;bj^JJig :: efty&^f^im who i eafeth" God,_where- 
upon it bringeth forth fruit of eternaTlife. Verily I say "unto you, 
that in every condition when man feareth God theword of God 
will bear fruit in him! 

Uf that lather of a family 1 , I tell you verily that he is God our 
Lord ; father of all things, for that he hath created all things. 
But he is not a father after .the manner of nature, for that he is 
incapable of motion, without which generation is impossible. 
It is, then, our God whose is this world ; and the field where he 
soweth is mankind, and the seed is the word of God. So when the 
teachers are negligent | in preaching the word of God, through 
being occupied in the business of the world, Satan soweth error in 
the heart of men, whence are come countless sects of wicked 
doctrine. 

The holy ones and prophets cry : " sir, gavest thou not, then, 
good doctrine to men? Wherefore, then, be there so many 
errors ? " 



a Who serves not God cannot ask assistance from God. hide. b God 
aids. c God is sovereign. 



1 Contrast Matt. xiii. 37-43. 

X 2 



308 THE GOSPEL OF BAENABAS 

tanti herrori . Rissponde DIG io ho dato a bona dotrina alii 
homeni ma metre che li homeni sono dediti alle uanita . satana 
uia seminato herrori per scancellare la legge mia . Dichono 
li santi ho signore noi disperderemo quessti herrori chon 
disstrugere li homeni . Rissponde DIG non fate quessto perche 
sono talmente uniti per parentado li fideli chon li inffidelj ehe 
si perdera il fidelle chon lo infidele ina asspetate . sino al 
iuditio che aquello tempo si racholgera li inffideli dali angioli 
145 a mei he l sarano scaziati chon satana nello infferno | . onde 
( X 44 ) j- | 30n ^ fid e ]i uen i ran o nel mio regno . certo che molti padri 
inffideli genererano fioli fidelj per li qualli DIG asspeta b ha 
penitenzza il monddo. 

CXXXIV. 

Cholloro che portano li boni fichi sono li ueri dotori . 
che predichano bona dotrina ma il monddo che si chompiaze 
im buggie cercha dalli dottori folgie di belle parolle chon 
adullatione . il che uedendo satana si unisse chon la charne 
he il senso he porta grande chopia di folgie per la quantita 
di chosse terrene nelle quali chuopre il pechato . il qualle 
riceuendo lo homo se imfferma he disspone alia morte hetterna . 
il citadino che ha la aqua he la dona ha daltri per lauare le 
loro immonditie la sua aqua . lassando putrefare le sui uesti- 
menti he il dotore che ha daltri predicha la penitenzza he lui 
145 b sempre sta im pechato . ho | missero perche non li angioli ma 
la sua linggua scriue sopra lo haere la pena che li chonuiene . 
Se uno hauessi la lingua di ellefante he il chorpo restante fussi 
chome una formicha picholo non sarebe mosstruossa chossa 
quessto certo si . hora in uerita ui dicho che elgie piu 
mostruosso cholui che predicha ad altri la peniteuzza ma lui 
non si pente delli suoi pechatj . Quelli du homeni che uendeno 
pomi sono uno che predicha per ammore di DIG onde non 
adulla ueruno ma predicha in uerita . non ricerchando se non 
il nutrimento da pouero Viue DIG c alia chui pressenzza sta la 



ill. b [ } y^>]j^. ill. 

MS. he he (sic). 




THE P&&MSL&& IIN Y^KPIIETED 

God auswereth : " I have given a good doctrine to men, but while 
men have been given up to vanity Satan hath sowed errors to 
bring to naught my law." 

The holy ones say : " Sir,we_walldisperse these errors by 
destroying men." 

*" GocTanswereth : " Do not so, for the faithful are so closely joined _ 
to the infidels by kinship that^the faithful will be lost with_ the 
infidel? T>uT"wait until the judgement, for at that time fchall 
the infidels be gathered by mine angels and shall be cast out 




with Satan into hell, while the good faithful ones shall come 145 a 
to my kingdom." Of a surety, many infidel fathers shall beget _ 
faithful sons, for whose sake God waiteth b for the world to repent. 



CXXXIV. 

They that bear good figs are the true teachers who preach good 
doctrine, but the world, which taketh pleasure in lies, seeketh from 
the teachers leaves of fine words and flattery. The which seeing, 
Satan joineth himself with the flesh and the sense, and bringeth 
a large supply of leaves ; that is, a quantity of earthly things, in 
which he covereth up sin ; the which receiving, man becometh sick 
and ready for eternal death. 

The citizen who hath the water and giveth his water to others 
to wash off their uncleanness, but suffereth his own garments to 
become putrefied, is the teacher who to others preacheth penitence 
and himself abideth still in sin. 

| wretched man, because not the angels but his own tongue 
writeth upon the air the punishment that is fitting for him ! 

If one had the tongue of an elephant, and the rest of his body 
were as small as an ant, would not this thing be monstrous ? Yea, 
of a surety. Now I say unto you, verily, that he is more mon- 
strous who preacheth penitence to others, but himself repenteth 
not of his sins. 




Those two men that sell apples are the one, he who preacheth 
for love of God, wherefore he flattereth none, but preacheth in truth, 
seeking only a poor man s livelihood. As God liveth c, in whose 



u God gives. b God is patient. By the living God 




310 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

anima mia che tale homo non e riceuto dal monddo ma sibene 
disprezato . Ma cholui che uende le scorze ha pesso di horo 
he dona il porno elgie cholui che predicha per piacere alii 
homeni . onde addulando il monddo perde la anima chi seguita 
la sua adulatione . ho quati inzio sono periti . Risspose allora 
146 a cholui che scrilue he disse chome si deue asscoltare la parolla 

f (l\ 

145 di DIG he chome si deue chonossere chi predicha per ammore 
di DIO . Risspose iessu asscoltare si deue cholui che predicha 
chome se parllassi DIO quando elgi predicha bona dotrina . 
perche DIO parlla per la bocha sua . Ma cholui che non 
riprende li pechati hauendo risspeto ha perssone particholari 
adulando . si deue fugire chome uno horido serpente perche 
in uerita lui auellena il chore humano . intendete uoi . io ui 
dicho in uerita che si chome il ferito non a bissogno di belle 
fassie da ligarli le piage sui ma sibene di buono onguento . 
che chossi il pechatore non a bissogno di bello parllare ma 
sibene di bone riprenssioni azioche cessi di pechare . 

CXXXV. 

Disse allora pietro . ho maesstro dici chome sarano tor- 
146t> mentati li danati he quanto starano nello injferno azioche 
) fugissca lo homo il pechare . Risspose iessu ho pietro grande 
he la tua dimanda nondimeno piazendo ha DIO ti rispondero . 
sapiate adonque che lo inffemo he uno sebene ha sette cetri 
luna piu infferiore dello altro l . onde si chome di sette sorte 
sono il pechato che chome sette porte dello imferno lo ha 
generate satana chossi ui sono hiuui sette pene . Perche 
il superbo che he il piu alto di chore sara proffondato nel 
piu basso centro doue passera per tutti li superior! centri . 
patendo hiuui tutte le pene che hiuui sono b . he si chome 
qui cercha di essere superiore ha DIO per uollere fare al 



1 First hand has luno . . . altro ; the second hand has luna . . . 
altra. 



I 



OF THE SEVEN CENTRES OF HELL 311 

presence my soul standeth, such a man is not received by the 
world, but rather despised. But he who selleth the peel for its 
weight in gold, and giveth the apple away, heitjsjvlio^preacheth 
to please men : and, so-flattering the world^hruineth_ the __soul 
t^nOTowetlTlunialteiT! Ah ! how manyhave perished for this 
cause I ~ 

Then answered he who wiiteth | and said : How should one 146 a 
listen to the word of God, and how should one know him that ^45" 
preacheth for love of God 1 

Jesus answered : He that preacheth should be listened to as 
though God were speaking, when he preacheth good doctrine; 
because God is speaking through his mouth. But he that reproveth 
not sins, having respect of persons, flattering particular men^ 
should be avoided as an horrible"serpent, forjri truth he poisoneth 
flTe human heart. 
""""Understand ye ? Verily I say unto you, even as a wounded man 
hath no need of fine bandages to bind up his wounds, but rather 
of a good ointment, so also hath a sinner no need of fine words, but 
rather of good reproofs, in order that he may cease to sin. 

cxxxv <*. 

Then said Peter: Master, tell us how the lost shall be 
tormented, and how long they shall be in hell, | in order that man 146 b 
may flee from sin. 

Jesus answered : O Peter, it is a great thing that thou hast 
asked, nevertheless, if God please, I will answer thee. Know ye, 
therefore, that hell is one 1 ^ yet hath seven centres one below 
another. Hence, even as sin is of seven kinds, for as seven gates 
of hell hath Satan generated it : so are there seven punishments 
therein. 

For the proud, that is the loftiest in heart, shall be plunged into 
the lowest centre, passing through all the centres above it, and 
"suffering in them all the pains that are therein b . And as here he 
seeketh to be higher than God, in wishing to do after his own 

a The Chapter on the pains of hell. b The punishment of the proud. 





1 Cp. above, 6o b sq. In the Qoran the torments of hell are described 
with some vividness : cf. e. g. xxii (close-fitting garments of fire) ; Ivi 
(burning winds, scalding water, and black smoke) ; Ixxvii (dense columns 
of smoke, which afford no shelter from the heat) ; but there is no such 
systematic arrangement, and no elaborate relation between sin and 
punishment, as here. For the significance of the arrangement according 
to the scheme of the Seven Capital Sins, see Introd. 



312 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

suo moddo al chontrario di quello che chomandda BIO . non 
uollendo chonossere superiore ueruno sara hiuui possto sotto 
li piedi di satana he diauoli suoi . che il chalpestrerano chome 
si fa la uua quando si fa il uino he sempre stara in derissione 
^ e scerno ^ e diauolj . a lo inuijdiosso che quiui si rode del bene 
del prossimo he allegra del suo malle . discendera al sessto 
centre he hiui sara da quantita grande di serpe inffernali 
roduto . he ogni chossa che sera nello infferno li parera che 
prendino allegrezza del suo tonnento he che si dolgiono che 
elgi non sia disseso al semitimo centre . che sebene nom polle 
chapire allegrezza ueruna li danati la iusstitia di DIG fava si che 
uedera chossi il missero inuidiosso . chome cholui che in sonio 
li pare uedere uno che lo sprezzi che pero ne sente tormento 
chosi sera lo hobieto al missero inuidiosso . che doue non 
he letitia ueruna li parera che ogniuno prendi allegrezza 
del suo malle he si dolgia che lui non habia peggio a . lo 
hauaro discendera al quinto centro doue patira soma pouerta 
chome patisse il richo hepullone . he li demonij per magiore 
tormento li offerirano quello che elgi dessiderara he quando la 
hauera alle mani altri diauoli chon uiolenzza quello leuerano l 
147 b di mano . con quesste | parole, Rachordati che tu non uollessti 

i -i 

dare per ammore di DIG pero DIG non uolle che tu hora 
riceui . ho infelice homo chome si trouera in quel stato quando 
elgi si harechordera la habondantia passata he uedera la 
penuria pressente . he che poteua chon li beni che allora 
nom polle hauere aquisstare le hetterne dellitie . b al quarto 
centro andera il lusuriosso doue quelli che trassmutorno la 
uia datoli da DIG starano chome grano che si chucini inmerssi 
nello ardente stercho del diauollo . he hiuui sarano abbrazzati 
da horibilj serpenti inffernali . he quelli che chon meretrice 
hauerano pechato tutti quelli inmondi hatti se li chonuertirano 
in unione chon le furie infernalli . che sono demonij chome 
done li chui chapeli sono serpi . li chui hochij sono solfaro 
affochato . la chui bocha he uellenossa . la chui lingua he fiele . 



1 MS. apparently getta kuerano. 



OF THE SEVEN CENTKES OF HELL 313 

manner, contrary to that which God commandeth, and not wishing 
to recognize anyone above him : even so there shall he be put under 
the feet of Satan and his devils, who shall trample him down as 
the grapes are trampled when wine is made, and he shall be ever 
derided and scorned of devils. 

a The envious, | who here chafeth at the good of his neighbour and 147 a 
lejoiceth at his misfortune, shall go down to the sixth centre, and 
there shall be chafed by the fangs of a great number of infernal 
serpents. 

And it shall seem to him that all things in hell rejoice at his 
torment, and mourn that he be not gone down to the seventh 
centre. For although the damned are incapable of any joy, yet 
the justice of God shall cause that it shall so seem to the wretched 
envious man, as when one seemeth in a dream to be spurned by 
some one and feeleth torment thereby even so shall be the object 
set before the wretched envious man. For where there is no 
gladness at all it shall seem to him that every one rejoiceth at his 
misfortune, and mourneth that he hath no worse a . 

The covetous shall go down to the fifth centre, where he shall 
suffer extreme poverty, as the rich feaster 1 suffered. And the 
demons, for greater torment, shall offer him that which he desiretb, 
and when he shall have it in his hands other djivjlg with violence 
Shall snatch it from his hands with these words : " Remember that 147 b 




ffiou wouldeSf nut givetor love of God; so God willeth not thaT(f I 6 *") 
th"ou now receive."" 

Oh unhappyman ! Now shall he find himself in that condition 
when he shall remember past abundance and behold the penury of 
the present ; and that with the goods that then he may not have 
he could have acquired eternal delights ! 

b To the fourth centre shall go the lustful, where they that have 
transformed the way given them by God shall be as corn that is 
cooked in the burnin dun of the devil. And there shall 



be embraced by horrible infernal serpents. And they that shall 
"Have" sinneoT~with harlots, all these acts of impurity shall be 
transformed for them into union with the infernal furies ; which 
are demons like women, whose hair is serpents, whose eyes are 
flaming sulphur, whose mouth is poisonous, whose tongue is gall, 



11 The punishment of the covetous. b The punishment of impurity. 



1 See above, 23 b (p. 50), 114* (p. 247). 



314 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

il chui chorpo he tutto ricinto l di ammi ritorti chome quelli 
148 a che si pilgiiano lo inchauto pessie . le chui | branche sono 
( X 47*) d e grifone . le chui ongie sono rasori . la chui natura di 
g-enitale sensso he fuocho . hora chon quesste si godera og-ni 
lusuriosso le brasse inffernali che serano il suo letto . a Al 
terzo centre disscendera lo acidiosso che non uolle hoperare 
hora qui se fabrichano citta he pallazzi inmenssi . li quali 
fati subito bissogna dissfarli perche una pietra non e possta 
ha missura . le chui pietre gradissime sono posste sopra 
le spalle dello accidiosso il qualle non a libero le mani per 
potere refriggerare il chorpo chaminando he solleuare il 
pesso . essendo che la accidia lia leuato le forze di brazzi 
he li piedi li sono inchatenati da serpi infernalli he quello 
che peggio he . li sono ha dietro li demonij che lo spingono 
he fano chasscare ha terra molte uolte sotto il pesso ne pero 
ueruno lo hagiuta ha leuare . onde stando troppo ha leuare 
dopia soma lie possta . b al sechondo centre disscendera il 
148^ gollosso hora qui uie charesstia talle | che non si mangiaseno 
I47 [che] scarpioni uiui he [se]rpenti uiui . li qualli dano tale tor- 
mento che saria melgio il non essere giamai nato che mangiare 
talle cibo . lie bene apressentato dalli demonij in aparezza cibi 
dellichati ma per hauere mani he piedi liggati chon chatene 
di fuocho . non possono dare di mano ha quello uento che 
li pare cibo ma quello che peggio he . quelli isstessi scorpioni 
che mangia perche diuorino il suo uentre per nom potere 
presto usscire smenbrano le parte sechrete del gollosso . li 
qualli ussciti sozi he inmondi chossi sporchi di nouo selli 
mangiano . lo irachondo disscendde al primo centre doue 
da tutti li diauoli he holtraggiato he quanti discendono 
danati infferiori ha lui . lo scernisscono he perchoteno 
fazendollo inchinare sopra la strada doue passano ponendoli 
li piedi sopra la golla . ma pero nom polle diffendersi per 
hauere mani he piedi liggati he quello che peggio he 
149* nom polle sfogare la ira sua chon ol | tragiare altri per- 
( I 4 8 *) zioche . la sua lingua he hatachata chon uno ancino 



MS. riciuto. 



OF THE SEVEN CENTRES OF HELL 315 

whose body is all girt with barbed hooks like those wherewith 
they catch the silly fish, whose claws are those of gryphons, whose 148 a 
nails are razors, the nature of whose generative organs isfu-eT^ 14 ^ 
Now with these shall all the lustful enjoy the infernal embers 
which shall be their bed. 

a To the third centre_shall go down the slothful who will not work 
nowT Here are built cities aiid immense palaces, which as soon as 
they are finished must needs be pulled down straightway, because 
a single stone is not placed aright. And these enormous stones 
are laid upon the shoulders of the slothful, who hath not his 
hands free to cool his body as he walketh and to ease the burden, 
seeing that sloth hath taken away the power of his arms, and his 
legs are fettered with infernal serpents. 

And, what is worse, behind him are the demons, who push him, 
and make him fall to earth many times beneath the weight ; nor 
doth any help him to lift it up : nay, it being too much to lift, 
a double amount is laid upon him. 

b To the second centre shall go down the gluttonous. Now here 
there is dearth of food, to such a degree | that there shall be 148 b 
nought to eat but live scorpions and live serpents, which give ( I47 ) 
such torment that it would be better never to have been born 
than to eat such food. There are ojFered to them indeed_bythe 
demons, in appearance, delicate meatsT but for that they have 
their hands and~-feefc x t)ound with fetters of fire, they cannot put 
out a hand on the occasion when the meat appeareth to 
them. But what is worse, those very scorpions which he 
eateth that they may devour his belly, not being able to come 
forth speedily, rend the secret parts of the glutton. And when 
they are come forth foul and unclean, filthy as they are, they are 
eaten over again. 

The wrathful goeth down to the first centre, where he is insulted 
by all the devils and by as many of the damned as go down lower 
than he. They spurn him and smite him, making him lie down 
upon the road where they pass, planting their feet upon his 
throat. Yet is he not able to defend himself, for that he hath his 
hands and feet bound. And what is worse, he is not able to give 
vent to his wrath by | insulting others, seeing that his tongue 149 a 
is fastened by a hook, like that which he useth who selleth flesh. ( Z 4 8a ) 



* The punishment of the lazy. b The punishment of those who are 

slaves to the body. 



316 THE GOSPEL OF BAENABAS 

simille ha quello che hatacha cholui che uendde la charne . 
a in quessto maladeto locho uissera una pena generalle cho- 
mune ha tutti li centri chome una misstura di uarij 
grani per fare uno pane . perche il fuocho . il giacio . 
la tempessta . le saette . il solfaro . lo ardore . il fredo . 
il uento . la rabia . il spauento sara il tutto unito per 
iustitia di DIG he talmente che . il fredo non temperera 
il chaldo ne il fuocho temperera il giazio . ma ogniuno 
dara tormento al misero pechatore . 

CXXXVIb 

c In quessta malladeta stantia starano li inffideli in 
etterno . he talmente che se il monddo fussi pieno di 
grani di milgio he uno uccello ogni cento anni ne leuasi 
uno grano per uotare il monddo . se quando fussi uuoto li 
inffideli douessero andare im paradisso loro stariano chon 
149 b dilletto . Ma non uie | quessta speranzza perche nom polle 
(*4 8 ) hauere fine il loro tormento . essendo che per ammore di 
DIG non uolssero ponere fine alloro pechato . Ma li fideli 
hauerano chonfforto perche hauera fine il loro tormento . 
si spauentorno li dissepoli quessto sentendo he dissero adonque 
li fideli deuono andare allo infferno . Rissposse iessu ogniuno 
sia chi si uolgia debe andare allo imfferno he bene uero che li 
santi he proffeti di DIG . ui anderano per uedere nom patendo 
pena ueruna he li iussti l sollo riceuendo timore he che sto dire . 
ui dicho che ui andera il nontio di DIG d per uedere la iusstitia 
di DIG e onde tremera lo infferno alia sua pressenzza . he perche 
elgi hauera charne humana tutti quelli che hano charne 
humana che serano im pena quanto tempo stara il nontio di 
DIG d ha uedere lo imfferno tanto tempo starano senzza pena . 
Ma ui stara tanto tempo quanto tempo ua ha serare he apprire 
150 a li hochij | . he quessto fara DIG azioche ogni chreatura 
( I 49 a ) chonossca di hauere riceuto benefitio dal nontio di DIG d . 



d 41)1 Jj-,,. e ^U^Jl jij JjU 4J11. 

1 MS. iussta. 



GOD S MESSENGER IN HELL 317 

a In this accursed place shall there be a general punishment, 
common to all the centres, like the mixture of various grains to 
make a loaf. For fire, ice, thunderstorms, lightning, sulphur, 
heat, cold, wind, frenzy, terror, shall all be unitedjby the^justice 
of God, and in such wise that the cold shall not temper the heat 
*iior the fire the ice, but each shall give torment to the wretched 
sinner. 

CXXXVI b. 

c In this accursed spot shall abide the infidels for evermore : 
insomuch that if the world were filled with grains of millet, and 
a single bird once in a hundred years should take away a single 
grain to empty the world if when it should be empty the infidels 
were to go into paradise, they would rest delighted. But there is 
not | this hope, because their torment cannot have an end, seeing^ 149 b 
tKaTttTey were noTwiflTng for thelove ot L Tj!od to put an end tQ-.(*4 8b ) 
their sin. . ^- 

J* 



But the faithful shall have comfort, because their torment shall 

The disciples were affrighted, hearing this, and said: So then jj 
the faithful must go into hell 1 l 



Jesus answered : Every one^be he who he may, must go into ?/4- v ^t- 
hell. It is true, however, that the holy ones ajid prophets oi^GocT fj 

shall go there to behold, not suffering any punishment ; jind the^ 
righteous, only^sutt ermg ieai\ AncTwhat shall 1 say 1 I tell you 
that thither shall 66me [even^ the messenger of God d , to behold the 

justice of God e . Thereupon hell shall tremble at his presence. i 

And because he hath human "flesh, all those that have human flesh 
and shall be under punishment, so long as the messenger of God d 
shall abide to behold hell, so long shall they abide without 
punishment. But he shall abide there [only] so long as it taketh 
to shut and open the eyes. | 

And this shall God do in order that every creature may know 150 a 
that he hath received benefit from the messenger of God d . ( J 49 a ) 



* Punishments without number, and he is the son of Adam. b The 
Chapter on the perpetual torment of the infidels. And he is the 

wretched son of Adam. d The prophet of God. e God is just and 

the avenger. 



1 In the Qoran also (cr. xix) the faithful must pass through hell, while 
infidels abide there eternally. 



318 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

quando elgi ui andera tutti li diauoli stridendo cercherano 
di asscondersi sotto le ardente brasse dicendo luno allo altro . 
scampa scampa che elgi niene machometo nosstro innimicho a 
il che sentendo satana si perchotera chom anbe le mani la 
fazia . he stridendo dira tu sei piu nobile di me al mio 
disspeto he quessto he iniusstamente fato . li fideli che 
sono in setanta dui gradi quelli deli dui ultimi gradi che 
hauerano hauto la fede senza bene hoperare . li uni atris- 
standossi del bene hoperare he li altri delletandossi del 
malle starano nello infferno setanta millia hanni . dapoi 
li chui hani andera langiollo gabrielo allo infferno he sentira 
dire . ho machometo b doue sono le promesse f ateci con dire 
che cholloro che hauera la tua fede non starano in etterno 
nello infferno c . allora ritornera lo angelo di DIG al parradisso 
150 h e apressatosi chon riuerenzza al nontio di Dio d li 1 narera 
quanto hauera intesso . Allora parlera ha DIG il nontio suo d 
he dira signore DIG e mio rachordati la promessa fata ha me 
seruo tuo di cholloro che hano riceuto la mia fede . che loro 
non starano in etterno nello inferno . Eisspondera DIG dimada 
quanto uoi ho amicho mio che ti daro quanto dimaderai f . 

CXXXVII*. 

Dira allora il nontio di DIG d . ho signore ui sono deli fideli 
stati nello infferno setanta millia hanni doue he signore la 
misserichordia tua h . pregoti signore che liberi cholloro da 
quelle ammare pene . Allora chomandera DIG alii quatro an- 




e u lkL 4)1. 
A .. Q.ll Joo J-IL* icli-l 8,,. ^ ,O--MJ (jUaJLw 41)1. 



Or hegli : MS. Ae if. 



GOD S MESSENGER IN HELL 319 

c When he shall go there all the devils shall shriek, and seek to 
hide themselves beneath the burning embers, saying one to 
another : " Fly, fly, for here cometh Mohammed our enemy ! a " 
Hearing which, Satan shall smite himself upon the face with both 
his hands, and screaming shall say : " Thou art more noble than 
I, in my despite, and this is unjustly done ! " 

As for the faithful, who are in seventy-two grades, those 
of the two last grades, who shall have had the faith without 
good works the onebeihg sad jttgood works, and the other 
delighting in~~eviT they shall abide in hell seventy thousand 



Q&l^ 
t 



those years shall the angel Gabriel come into hell, and 
shall hear them say : " O Mohammed b , where are thy promises made 
to us, saying that those who have thy faith shall not abide in hell 
for evermore 1 c " 

Then the angel of God shall return to paradise, and having 
approached with reverence the messenger of God d j shall narrate ISO 1 
to him what he hath heard. ( I 49 b ) 

Then shall his messenger d speak to God and say : " Lord, my 
God e , remember the promise made to me thy servant, concerning 
them that have received my faith, that they shall not abide for 
evermore in hell." 

God shall answer : " Ask what thou wilt, my friend, for I will 
give thee all that thou askest f ." 

CXXXVII e. 

Then shall the messenger of God d say: " Lord, there are of the 
faithful who have been in hell seventy thousand years. "Where, 
Lord, is thy mercy h ? I pray thee, Lord, to free them from those 
bitter punishments." 



tt Mohammed the enemy of devils. b Mohammed. Said 

Jesus : After the sinning believers have entered Gehenna, Gabriel comes 
into Gehenna and is faced by the believers, and they say : O Mohammed ! 
where is your promise to those who accept your religion that they will 
not remain for ever in the fire? And if Gabriel informs Mohammed 
of what he has heard from the sinning believers, then Mohammed 
will call to his master (Lord) saying, Lord, thy promise is true and 
thou art the best judge of judges ; then God will send Gabriel and 
Michael and Asrafil and Azrael and they will take them out of the fire 
and place them in paradise. Inde. d The prophet of God. e God is 
sovereign. f God gives. g The Chapter of the intercession of Moham 
med after the resurrection. h God is sovereign and the merciful. 



320 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

gioli fauoriti da DIG che uadino allo infferno he chauino fuori 
ogniuno . che habia la fede de il nontio suo he li ch5ducha 
im parradisso il che farano he chossi sera il uadagno della 
fede de il nontio di Dio a . che quelli li qualli hauerano 
chreduto in lui sebene non hauerano hoperato bene essendo 
loro morti chon quella fede . annderano im parradisso dapoi 

151 a la I pena che io ho deto 

(ISO ) 

CXXXVIII. 

Fata la matina per tempo . tutti li homeni della citta 
chon le done he fanciuli uenero alia chassa doue iessu staua 
chon li suoi dissepoli he il pregorno dicendo . signore habi 
misserichordia di noi perche quessto hano li uermi hano 
roduto il grano he non riceueremo pane quessto hanno nel 
nosstro teritorio . Risspose iessu ho che timore he il uosstro 
no sapete che il seruo di DIG hellia tre hanni chontinuando la 
persecutione di hachab non uiste pane . nutrendossi sollamente 
di herbe he fruti saluatici b . Dauit padre nosstro proffeta 
di DIG dui hani stete mangiando fruti saluatici he herbe 
essendo persseguitato da saul . talmente che sollo dui uolte 
mangio pane . Rissposero li homeni siggnore loro herano 
proffeti di DIG nutriti di dilleto spirituale . he pero bene 
151 b durorno ma chome | farano quessti fanciuli he li mosstrorno 
la moltitudine di loro filgioli . hebe chompassione iessu allora 
della loro misseria he disse quanto tempo he lontano il 
richolto . Rissposero loro uinti giorni . allora disse iessu fate 
si che quessti uenti giorni hatendiamo ha degiunare he 
fare oratione perche DIG ui hauera misserichordia . in 
uerita ui dicho che DIG ha dato quessta penuria perche 
quiui cominzio la pazia delli homeni he il pechato de 
issdraele . quando dissero me essere DIG ouero fiolo di DIG . 
degiunato decenoui giorni la matina del uiggessimo uisstero 
le champagne he choli choperto di grano maturo . onde 
chorssero da iessu he li rinontiorno il tutto il che auendo 



JL* iU! 111. 



crr - ^ 

MIRACLE OF THE HARVEST (J2l)/B50 /" 

Then shall God^jc^mmand the four favourite angels l of God that - ^ 
theY go to hell and take outevery one that hath the faith of his X^ 
m essengeTTlijuriead him into paradise,. And this they shall do. t 

And such shall be the advantage of the faith of God s messenger* 1 , 
that those that shall have helieved in him, even_ though they have 
not done any go.or| wnrfc^ seeing they died in this faith, shall go>. 



into paradise after the | punishment of which I have^spoken/ 151 a 

CXXXVIII. 

When morning was come, early, all the men of the city, with the 
women and children, came to the house where Jesus was with his 
disciples, and besought him saying: Sir 1 , have mercy upon us, 
because this year the worms have eaten the corn, and we shall not 
receive any bread this year in our land. 

Jesus answered : Oh what fear is yours ! Know ye not that 
Elijah, the servant of God^whilst for three years the persecution 
of Ahab continued, saw notbread, nourishingliimself only with 
herbs ami wild fruits b 1 David our father, the prophet of God, for 
two years ate wild fruits and herbs, being persecuted of Saul, 
insomuch thattwice only did he eat bread. 

The men answered : Sir *, they were prophets of God, nourished 
with spiritual^delight^_and_therefore they endured well ; but how [151 b 
shall these Tittle ones fare ? and they showed Tiirn the multitude ^ I5 
of their children. Then Jesus had compassion on their misery, arid 
said : How long is it until harvest? They answered: Twenty days. 

Then said Jesus : See that for these twenty days we give 
ourselves to fasting and prayer; for God will have mercy upon 
you c . Verily I say unto you, God hath caused this dearth because 
here began the madness of men and the sin of Israel when they 
said that I was God, or Son of God. 

When they had fasted for nineteen days, on the morning of 
the twentieth day, they beheld the fields and hills covered with 
ripe corn. Thereupon they ran to Jesus, and recounted all to 

The prophet of God. b The heaviest trial is on the prophets. Inde. 
c God is the Merciful. 




1 viz. : Gabriel, Michael, Rafael, and Uriel, as appears from 22i b . 
N.B. The Spanish version (cf. Introd.) has there Azrael for Uriel, like 
the Arabic gloss here (p. 319). 

2 Or Lord. 

KAGG Y 



322 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

intesso iessu resse le gratie ha DIG he disse . andate fratelli 
he racholgete il pane che DIG uia dato a . Racholssero li 
homeni tanto grano che non sapeuano doue chonsseruarllo 
che fu chagioue di abondantia in issdraelle . Feccero chon- 
silgio li citadini per constituire iessu loro Re il qualle cho-| 

152 a nossendo f ugite dalloro onde li dissepoli penorno quindici 

C J 5 ia ) gi orn i ha trouarllo . 

CXXXIX. 

Ritrouato iessu da quello che scriue he iachobo con ioane 
li quali piangendo dissero . ho maestro perche fugisti noi 
dollenti ti habiamo cerchato he piagendo ti cerchano tutti 
li dissepolli Risspose iessu . io fugi perche io chonobi uno 
exercito de diauolj prepararmi quello che im pocho tempo 
uederete imperoche . si leuera chontra di me li principi 
di sacerdoti chonli uechij del populo he pilgierano potessta 
dal presside romano di ammazzarmi . perche temerano me 
uollere ussurpare il reggno sopra issdraelle . Ma che piu 
io saro uenduto he tradito da uno di mei dissepoli chome 
fu uendduto iosef in egitto ma pero . DIG iussto fara chasscare b 
chome dice il proffeta dauit, fara chasscare nella fossa cholui 
che tende Io inggano al prossimo suo . perche DIG mi saluera c 
152 b dalle mani loro he | mi leuera dal moncldo . temetero li tre 
^ I51 dissepolli li qualli chonfforto iessu dicendo non temete 
perche niuno di uoi mi tradira onde riceuetero alquanto 
chonssolatione . il giorno uenente uenero ha dui ha dui 
trentasei delli dissepoli di iessu pero sedete in damassco 
asspetando li altri . he stauano ogniuno dollente perche 
chonosseuano iessu douerssi partire dal monddo onde elgi 
apperto la sua bocha disse . inffelice certo he chi chamina 
senzza sapere doue ha da hariuare . ma molto piu imfelice 
he cholui che potendo he sapendo di hariuare ha bono 
hosspitio . dessidera he uolle fermarsi nella strada piena 
di fanggo alia pioggia he pericholo di ladri . Ditemi fratelli 
quessto monddo elgi patria nosstra no certo imperoche fu 



41)1. 



JESUS FORETELLETH HIS BETEAYAL 323 

him. And when he had heard it Jesus gave thanks to God, and 
said : Go, brethren, gather the bread which God hath given you a . 
The men gathered so much corn that they knew not where to store 
it ; and this thing was cause of plenty in Israel. 

The citizens took council to set up Jesus as their king ; knowing 
which | he fled from them. Wherefore the disciples strove fifteen 152 a 
days to find him. ** ~ Ti5i a ) 

CXXXIX. 

Jesus was found by him who writeth, and by James with John. 
And they, weeping, said : O Master, wherefore didst thou flee from 
us ? We have sought thee mourning ; yea, all the disciples seek 
thee weeping. Jesus answered : I fled because I knew that a host 
of devils is preparing for me that which in a short time ye shall 
see. For, there shall rise against me the chief priests with the 
elders of the people, and shall wrest authority to kill me from the 
Eoman governor, because they shall fear that I wish to usurp 
kingship over Israel. Moreover, I shall be sold and betrayed by 
one of my disciples, as Joseph was sold into Egypt. But the just 
God shall make him fall b , as saith the prophet David * : " He shall 
make him fall into the pit who spreadeth a snare for his neighbour." 
For God shall save mec from their hands, and | shall take me out 152 ll 
of the world V ( 5i b ) 

The three disciples were afraid; but Jesus comforted them 
saying : Be not afraid, for none of you shall betray me. 
Whereat they received somewhat of consolation. 

The day following there came, two by two, thirty-six of Jesus 
disciples ; and he abode in Damascus awaiting the others. And 
they mourned every one, for that they knew that Jesus must 
depart from the world. Wherefore he opened his mouth and said : 
Unhappy of a surety is he who walketh without knowing whither 
he goeth ; but more unhappy is he who is able and knoweth how 
to reach a good hostelry, yet desireth and willeth to abide on the 
miry road, in the rain, and in peril of robbers. Tell me, brethren, 
is this world our native country 1 Surely not, seeing that the first 



God gives. b God is the avenger. c God keeps. 



1 Cp. Ps. ix. 15 and Ivii. 6. 2 See below, 22i b . 

Y 2 



324 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

scaziato il primo homo nel monddo cliome in essillio . nel 

quale patisca la pena del suo herrore . si trouera forsi uno 

essule cbe non asspiri di anddare alia patria richa ritrouandossi 

im pouerta certo he . che la ragione il niega ma la essperienzza 

153 a il proua perche li ha|matori del monddo non uolgiono penssare 

t 152 *) alia morte . anzi che quando di quella lie parllato non uolle 

sentirne parllare . 

CXL*. 

Credete uoi ho homeni . che io sia uenuto al monddo 
chom priuilleggio che non ha hauto homo ueruno ne tampocho 
lo hauera il nontio di Dio b . essendo che DIO nosstro non chreoc 

10 homo per ponerllo nel monddo ma sibene per chollocharlo 
im paraddisso . certo he che cholui il qualle non spera de 
riceuere chossa ueruna da romani perche sono di leggie alliena 
ha lui, non uolle . lassiare la patria con quanto ha per non 
ui uenire piu he anddarre ha habitare Roma . he molto meno 

11 faria quando si trouassi di hauere offeso cessare . chossi 
ui dicho in uerrita he sallamone proffeta di DIO mecho chrida : 
ho morte quanto he ammara la memoria tua ha cholloro che 
hebero pazze nelle loro richezze . io non dicho quessto perche 

153b io habia da morire | hora essendo che io son sichuro di uiuere 
( I 5 2b ) inssino hapresso le fine del monddo . Ma ui parllero di 
quessto azioche imparate ha morire . Viue DIO d che oggni 
chossa che si fa una sollo fiata malle si fa onde per bene 
hoperare una chossa elgie neccessario di essercitarssi in quella . 
hauete ueduto li soldati che in tempo di paze si exercitano 
fra loro chome se fussero alia guera . Ma chome morira di 
bona morte lo homo che no impara bene morire . preciossa 
he la morte di santi nella pressenza di DIO disse il proffetta 
dauit sapete perche . io uello diro elgie perche si chome tutte 
le chosse rare sono preciosse . chossi per essere rara la morte 
di quelli che morono bene la loro morte he preciosa auanti di 
DIO chreatore nosstro . certo he che ogni chossa la qualle 



Jli. 4)1 




UPON DEATH 325 

man was cast out into the world as to exile ; and therein he suffereth 
the punishment of his error. Shall there perchance be found an 
exile who aspireth not to return to his own rich country when he 
findeth himself in poverty? Assuredly reason denieth it, but 
experience proveth it, because the | lovers of the world will not 153 a 
think upon death ; nay, when one speaketh to them thereof, they ( I 5 2 ; 
will not hearken to his speech. 

CXL*. 

Believe ye, O men, that I am come into the world with a 
privilege which no man hath had, nor will even the messenger 
of God b have it; seeing that our God created not man to set him 
in the world, but rather to place him in paradise. 

Sure it is that he who hath no hope to receive aught of the 
Eomans, because they are of a law that is foreign to him, is not 
willing to leave his own country with all that he hath, never to 
return, and go to live in Rome. And much less would he do so 
when he found himself to have offended Caesar. Even so I tell you 
verily, and Solomon l , God s prophet, crieth with me : "0 death, 
how bitter is the remembrance of thee to them that have rest in their 
riches ! " I say not this because I have to die | now : seeing that 153 b 
I am sure that I shall live even nigh to the end of the world 2 . 

But I will speak to you of this in order that ye may learn 
to die. 

As God liveth d , everything that is done amiss, even once 3 , 
showeth that to work a thing well it is necessary to exercise oneself 
therein. 

Have ye seen the soldiers, how in time of peace they exercise 
themselves with one another as if they were at war? But how 
shall that man die a good death, who hath not learned to die well ? 

" Precious is the death of the holy in the sight of the Lord," 
said the prophet David 4 . Know ye wherefore ? I will tell you ; 
it is because, even as all rare things are precious, so the death of 
them that die well, being rare, is precious in the sight of God our 
creator e . 



a The Chapter on death. b The prophet of God. c God creates. 

d By the living God. e God creates. 



1 Ecclus. xli. i. 3 Cp. below, 228*. 3 Text obscure. 

4 Ps. cxvi. 15. 



326 THE GOSPEL OF BAKNABAS 

inchominzia lo homo non sollo la uolle finire ma si sforza 
che habia buono fine la sua intentione . ho missero homo 
che precia piu li suoi chalziamenti che se stesso imperoche 
154 a quando elgi talgia il pane dilligentemente missu ra hauanti 
che talgi il pano . he talgiato che he chon dilligenza il 
chusisse ma la uita sua che he nata per morire . che sollo 
non more cholui che non nascie . per qualle chagione li 
homeni non uolgiono missurare la loro uitta chon la morte . 
hauete ueduto uoi quelli che fabrichano che ha dogni pietra 
che pongono hano per fine il fondamento . misurando se 
he iussto azioche non chassci il muro . ho missero homo 
che chon soma roina chasscera la fabricha della uitta sua 
perche lui non ha mira al fondamento della morte . 

CXLI a. 

Ditemi quando lo homo nassce chome nassce llo . certo he 
che elgi nassce nudo he quando he posto morto sotto terra 
che auantaggio ha elgi . uno uille linziolo doue he inuolto he 
quessto he il premio che li da il monddo . hora se li mezzi in 
oggni hopera deuono essere proportionati allo principio he fine 
154 b perche chonsseguissca la hopera buono fine | . che fine hora 
t3 hauera lo homo che uolle terrene richezze . elgi morira 
chome dice dauit proffetta di DIG morira il pechatore di 
morte pessima b . se uno homo che choxisse pani ponesse 
traui in locho de fillo nella guchia per chusire le uestimenti 
chome hoteneria la hopera . certo he che elgi indarno operarebe 
he saria scernito dalli uicini . hora no uede lomo quessto di 
chontinuo fare quando elgi chongrega beni terreni . imperoche 
la morte he la guchia que nom pole passarlla li traui di beni 
terreni nondimeno si sforza il pazzo di cotinuo per fare 
riusscire la hoppera . ma indarno he chi non il chrede al 
mio parllare miri alii sepolchri che iuui trouera la uerita . 
cholui che uolle diuentare sapiente piu di ogni altro con 
timore di DIG studij il libro del sepolchro che hiuui trouera 
la uera dotrina per sua sallute . perche elgi sapera guar- 



OF MEDITATION UPON DEATH 327 

Of a surety, whenever a man beginneth aught, not only is he 
fain to finish the same, but he taketh pains that his design may 
have a good conclusion. 

O miserable man, that prizeth his hosen more than himself; for 
when he cutteth the cloth he measureth it carefully | before he 154 a 
cutteth it; and when it is cut he seweth it with care. But his ^53 1 ) 
life which is born to die, insomuch that he alone dieth not 
who is not born wherefore will not men measure their life by 
death 1 

Have ye seen them that build, how for every stone that they 
lay they have the foundation in view, measuring if it be straight, 
that the wall fall not down 1 O wretched man ! for with greatest 
ruin shall fall the building of his life, because he looketh not to the 
foundation of death ! 



Tell me : when a man is born, how is he born? JSurely, he is. 
born naked.. And when he is laid dead beneath the ground, what 
advantage hath he 1 A mean-linen clatdk wherein he is wound: 
and this is the reward which the worjd_gjTe^th_him 

if the means in every work must needs be proportionate 



to the beginning and the end, in order that the work be brought 
to a good end, | what end shall the man have who desireth earthly 154 b 
riches? He shall die, as saith David 1 , prophet of God: " The ( X 53 b ) 
sinner shall die a most evil death V 

If a man sewing cloth should thread beams instead of thread in 
the needle, how would the work attain [its end] ? Of a surety he 
would work in vain, and be despised of his neighbours. Now man 
seeth not that he is doing this continually when he gathereth 
earthly goods. For death is the needle, wherein the beams of 
earthly goods cannot be threaded. Nevertheless in his madness 
he striveth continually to make the work succeed, but in 
vain. 

And whoso believeth not this at my word, let him gaze upon the 

tombs, for there shall he find the truth. He who would fain 

become wise beyond all others in the fear or God, let him jstudy, 

~flie~l)oWl)f"the tomb, fo7~th"ere shall he find" the true doctrine for__ 

"Tns salvation"! For he will know to beware of the world, the flesh, 



The Chapter on death. b The worst death. 



1 Cp. Ps. civ. 35 (?). 



328 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

darssi dal monddo, dalla charne he dal senso . uedendo per 
cibo di uermi chonsseruarsi la charne humana . Ditemi se 
155 a ui fusse una strada | talmente chonditionata che . nel mezzo 
4 chaminado lo homo andassi sichuro ma chaminando alii 
estreme parti si rompessi il chapo che diresste uoi . ueden 
do li homeni chontresstare inssieme he hauere hemullatione di 
anddare piu sulli esstremi per ammazarsi . che stupore sarebe 
il uosstro certo che diressti che sono pazzi he frenetici he se 
frenetici non sonno sono dissperati . chossi elgie uero riss- 
posero li dissepoli . allora lachrimando iessu disse sono pure 
in uerita talli li animator! del monddo perche se uiuessero 
sechondo la raggione . la quale sta nel mezzo dello homo 
seguitariano la leggie di DIG he si saluariano dalla etterna 
morte . ma perche seguitano la charne he il monddo sono 
fernetici he chrudeli innimici di loro isstessi . chontendendo 
de uiuere piu superbamente he lasciuamente luno dello altro . 

CXLIIX 

Vedendo iuda il traditore che iessu hera fuggito . perse 
155 b la speranzza di uenire potente nel mondo | perche elgi teneua 
la borssa di iessu che di quanto li era dato per ammore di DIG 
seruaua . lui speraua che iessu diuentassi Re di issdraelle he 
chossi lui uenire homo potente . onde perssa quessta sperazza 
disse fra se, se chostui fussi proffeta saperia che li robo li 
danari onde non haueria pazienzza he mi scazieria dal suo 
seruitio . chonossendo che io non chredo in lui he se lui 
fussi sauio non fugiria lo honore che DIG li uolle dare . 
pero melgio sera che io mi hachomodi chon li principi di 
sacerdoti he chon li scribbi he farissei he uedi di darllo in 
mano loro che chossi potro hotenire qualche bene l . onde 
fato la rissolutione dete hauisso alii scribi he farissei chome 
la chossa hera passata in nain . li quali fecero chonsilgio 
chon il somo sacerdote dicendo che faciamo noi se chostui 
diuenta Re certo he che la faremo malle . perche elgi uora 



1 MS. bene hotenire. 



JUDAS CONFERRETH WITH THE PRIESTS 329 

and the sense, when he seeth that ^nWsJlffth is reserved f,n he 
food of worms. 

" Tell me, if there were a road | which was of such condition that 155 a 
walking in the midst thereof a man should go safely, but walking ( I54 ^ 
on the edges he would hreak his head ; what would ye say if ye 
saw men opposing one another, and striving in emulation to get 
nearest to the edge and kill themselves ] "What amazement would 
be yours ! Assuredly ye would say : " They are mad and frenzied, 
and if they are not frenzied they are desperate." 

Even so is it true/ answered the disciples. 

Then Jesus wept and said : Evenjo^verilv. arejbhe lovers of___ 
the world. For if they lived according to reason, which holdeth 
"a middle place in man, they would follow the law of God, and ^ 
would be saved from eternal death! But because they follow the 
flesh and the world they are frenzied, and cruel enemies of their 
own selves, striving to live more arrogantly and more lasciviously 
than one another. 

CXLII a . 

Judas, the traitor, when he saw that Jesus was fled, lost the 
hope of becoming powerful in the world, | for he carried Jesus 155 b 
purse, wherein was kept all that was given him for love of God. ^ I54 
He hoped that Jesus would become king of Israel, P"d, p=n ^p - 
himself would be a powerful man. Wherefore, having lost this 
hope, Lc .said within himself: Tf this man were a prophet, ho 
would know that I steal his money; and_sO ^p ^o^d losejoatience 
and cast me out of his service, knowingthat I believe not in him. ^ 
*Anc( it 1 he were a wise man he would not flee from the honour thaj^_ 
*Uod willeth to give himu Wherefore it will be better that I make 
Arrangement with the chief priests and with the scribes and 
Pharisees, and see how to give him up into their hands, for so shall 
I be able to obtain something good. Whereupon, having made 
his resolution, he gave notice to the scribes and Pharisees how the 
matter had passed in Nain. And they took counsel with the high 
priest, saying : What shall we do if this man become king 1 Of 
a surety we shall fare badly ; because he is fain to reform the 



The Chapter on the traitor. 



330 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

riformare il chulto di DIG sechondo il chosstume anticho 
perche elgi nom pole patire le traditions nosstre , hora che 
faremo sotto lo imperio di talle homo certo che periremo j 

156 a tutti chon li nosstri fioli . perche essendo scaziati dal nosstro 
officio ci bissognera mendichare il pane . noi lodato DIG 
hora habiamo Re he presside che sono allieni dalla nosstra 
leggie . li quali non si churano della nosstra leggie si chome 
noi non si churiamo della loro . onde noi potiamo fare quello 
che uolgiamo che sebene pechiamo DIG nosstro he misseri- 
chordiosso talmente a . che chon il sachrificio he degiuno si 
placha ma chostui diuentando Re non si plachera se elgi 
non uedera il chulto di DIG chome scriue moisse . he quello 
che peggio he lui dice che il messia b non uera della stirpe 
di dauit chome cia deto uno suo principale dissepollo . ma 
dice che uenira della stirpe de issmaelle he che la promessa 
fu fata in issmaele he no in issach . hora qualle f ruto nasscera 
se si lascia chostui uiuere certo^he che uenirano li ismaeliti 
in riputatione hapresso Romani . he li darano im possesione 
la regione nosstra onde di nouo issdraelle sara sotto possto alia 
seruitu chome he stato per il passato . onde intessa la propossta 

156 b il | pontifice dete risspossta che bissognaua tratarne cho herode 
he chon il presside . perche la plebe he talmente inchinata 
ha lui che senzza la millitia nom potremo fare niente he 
piazia ha DIG che chon la millitia il potiamo passare quessto 
negotio . onde fato il chonsilgio fra loro deliberorno di pren- 
derlo di notte quando il presside he herode ui ponerano le 
mani . 

CXLIIIc. 

Peruenuto in damassco tutti li dissepoli per uollonta di 
DIG . he iuda traditore quel giorno piu di ogni altro faceua 
dimosstratione di hauere hauto in dollore la abssenzza di 
iessu . che pero iessu disse guardissi ogniuno da cholui che 
senza o chasione si sforzza di farti segno de hammarti . he DIG 
ci leuo lo intelleto che nom potessimo chonossere ha che fine 



JUDAS CONFERRETH WITH THE PRIESTS 331 

worship of God after the ancient custom, for he cannot away with 
our traditions. Now how shall we fare under the sovereignty 
of such a man] Surely we shall all perish | with our children: 156 a 
for being cast out of our office we shall have to beg our I55 
bread. 

We now,jQaised--be. God, have a king andj^governor that are 
aliento our law, who care not for our law, even as we care not for 



theirs! And so we are able to do whatsoever we list ; for, even 
though we sin, our God is so merciful a that He is appeased with 
sacrifice and fasting. But if this man become king he will not 
be appeased unless he shall see the worship of God according as 
Moses wrote ; and what is worse, he saith that the Messiah b shall 
not come of the seed of David (as one of his chief disciples hath 
told us), but saith that he shall come of the seed of Ishmael 1 , and 
that the promise was made in Ishmael and not in Isaac. 

What then shall the fmit be if this man be suffered to live 1 
Assuredly the Ishmaelites shall come into repute with the Romans, 
and they shall give them our country in possession ; and so shall 
"Israel againbe subjected to slavery as it was aforetime/ Wherefore, 
Tiaving heard the proposaTTthe | higtTpriest gave answer that he 156 b 
must needs treat with Herod and with the governor, because the ( J 55 ) 
people are so inclined towards him that without the soldiery we 
shall not be able to do anything ; and may it please God that with 
the soldiery we may accomplish this business. 

Wherefore, having taken counsel among themselves, they plotted 
to seize him by night, when the governor and Herod should agree 
thereto. 

CXLIIIc. 

Then came all the disciples to Damascus, by the will of God. 
And on that day Judas the traitor, more than any other, made 
show of having suffered grief at Jesus absence. Wherefore Jesus 
said : Let every one beware of him who without occasion laboureth 
to give thee tokens of love . 

And God took away our understanding, that we might not know 
to what end he said this. 



God is the Merciful. b Prophet. c The Chapter on the 

Gu g (?). 



1 See above, 46* (p. 103, note 5). 



332 THE GOSPEL OF BAKNABAS 

lui disse quessto . dapoi la uenuta de tutti li dissepoli i 
disse 1 ritorniamo in gallilea perche quessto mia deto lo 
angello di DIG che bissogna che io ui uadi . onde uno 
157 a sabbato di matina peruene iessu in na|zaret . chonossiuto 
iessu da cittadini ogniuno dessideraua di uederllo onde uno 
publichano per nome zacheo di picholla statura . nom potendo 
uedere iessu per la grande moltitudine asscese sopra uno 
sichomoro he iuui haspetaua che iessu passasi per quel locho 
quando andaua alia sinagoga . pero peruenuto iessu ha quel 
locho leuo li hochij suoi he disse . zacheo disscendi perche ogidi 
uolgio habitare in chassa tua . Disscese lo homo he chon 
allegrezza il riceuete facendo uno chonuito splendido . mor- 
morauano li farissei dicendo alii dissepoli di iessu, perche 
he intrato il uosstro maesstro ha manggiare cho publichani 
he pechatori . E/isspose iessu per quale chagione [entra] il 
medicho intuna chassa ditello ha me che io ue diro perche io 
son hentrato quiui . Rissposero loro per medichare li infermi . 
Voi dite il uero disse iessu perche li sani non hano bissogno 
de medicina ma sibene li inffermi . 

CXLIV *. 

Viue DIG t> alia chui pressenzza sta la anima mia . che DIG 
manda c li proffeti he serui suoi al monddo azioche li pechatori 
facino penitenzza . he non mada per li iussti perche loro non 
hano bissogno di penitenzza si chome non ha bissogno di 
bagno cholui che he monddo . ma ui dicho in uerrita che 
se uoi foste ueramente farissei ui rallegraresste che io sia 
hentrato alii pechatori per sallute loro . Ditemi sapete uoi 
la horigine uosstra he perche il monddo comincio ha riceuere 
farissei certo che io uello diro poi che uoi non il sapete . 
pero asscoltate le mie parolle . d henoch amicho di DIG che 
chamino chon DIG in uerita senza fare chonto del monddo 



b > &*> 



4)1. 



1 MS. iessu disse iessu disse (bis). 



THE FEAST OF ZACCHAEUS 333 

After the coming of all the disciples, Jesus said : Let us return 
into Galilee, for thus hath the angel of God said unto me, that 
I needs must go thither. Whereupon, one sabbath morning, 
Jesus came to | Nazareth. When the citizens recognized Jesus, 157 a 
everyone desired to see him. Whereupon a publican, by name C S"*) 
Zacchaeus l , who was of small stature, not being able to see Jesus 
by reason of the great multitude, climbed to the top of a sycamore, 
and there waited for Jesus to pass that place when he went to the 
synagogue. Jesus then, having come to that place, lifted up his eyes 
and said : Come down, Zacchaeus, for to-day I will abide in thy 
house. 

The man came down and received him with gladness, making 
a splendid feast. 

The Pharisees murmured, saying to Jesus disciples : Wherefore 
is your master gone in to eat with publicans and sinnejjj_j 
" J " Jesus answered: For what cause doth the physician 2 [enter] 
into an house 1 Tell me, and I will tell you 3 wherefore I am come 
in hither. 

They answered : To heal the sick. 

Ye say the truth, said Jesus, for the whole have no need of 
medicine, only the sick. | 

CXLIV*. 15 7 b 

(i 5 6 b ) 
As God livethk, in whose presence my soul standeth, God sendeth 

his prophets and servants into the world in order that sinners may 
repent ; and he sendeth not for the sake of the righteous, because 
"they have no need of repentance, even as he that is clean hath no 
need of the bath. But verily I say unto you, if ye were true 
Pharisees ye would be glad that I should have gone in to sinners 
for their salvation. 

Tell me, know ye your origin, and wherefore the world began 
to receive Pharisees 1 Surely I will tell you, seeing that ye know 
it not. Wherefore hearken to my words. 

d Enoch, a friend of God, who walked with God 4 in truth, making 
no account of the world, was translated into paradise ; and there 



a The Chapter on Enoch. b By the living God. c God sends. 

d History of Enoch. 



1 See Luke xix. 2-10. 2 Cp. Luke v. 31 and parallels. s Cp. 

Luke xx. 3, 4 and parallels. * Gen. v. 24. 



334 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

fu trasslato nel parradisso . he hiui pennene inssino al iuditio 
perche hapresso il fine del monddo ritornera chon hellia he 
uno altro al monddo* . onde hauendo chonossiuto quessto 
li homeni per dessiderio del parradisso inchominciorno ha 
cerchare DIG suo chreatore b . perche farisseo propio uolle dire 
158 a cercha DIG nella linggua di chanaam che iuui | inchominzio 
^ quessto nome per scerno de boni . Essedo che li chananei 
herano dediti alia iddolatria che he chulto di mani humane . 
onde uedendo li chananei quelli del popullo nosstro che sta- 
uano sequestrati dal monddo per seruire DIG chome per scerno 
quado uedeuano un talle . diceuano farisseo c zioe cercha DIG 
quasi dicendo ho pazzo tu non hai statoe de iddoli he addori il 
uento pero guarda il fato tuo he uieni ha seruire li nosstri 
dij . in uerita ui dicho disse iessu che tutti li santi he proffeti 
di DIG sono stati farissei no di nome chome uoi ma in fati . 
perche in ogni atione loro cerchorno DIG loro chreatore d he 
per ammore di DIG abandonorno le citta he li propij beni . 
uendendoli he dandoli ha poueri per amore di DIG . 

CXLV e. 

Viue DIG f che al tempo di hellia ammicho he proffetta di 
DIG . si trouaua duodeci monti habitati da diecesete millia 
farissei . he talmente che in tanto numero non si trouaua 
158 b pure uno reprobo ma tutti hejrano elleti di DIG . Ma hora 
che issdraele ha piu di cento millia farissei piazesse ha DIG 
che di ogni mille ne fussi uno elleto . Rissposero li farissei 
indignati hora adonque siamo tutti reprobi adonque tu reprobi 
la relligione nosstra . Risspose iessu io non reprobo ma aprobo 
la relligione di ueri farissei he per quella uolgio morire . Ma 
pero uediamo se uoi sete farissei hellia ammicho di DIG 
preggato da elliseo suo dissepolo scrisse uno libreto pichollo . 
nel quale inclusse tutta la sapientia humana chon la leggie 
di DIG nosstro signore g . si smarirno li farissei setendo nominare 




335 

lie abideth until the judgement (for when the end of the world x*^ >-v 

^clraweth nigh he shall return to the world with~Elijaa~~gTi;rone_ ^jL 
"other ^). And so men, ETtvilSgknowledge of this, through desire of 
paradise, began to seek God their creator b . For "Pharisee" 
strictly meaneth " seeketh God " in the language of Canaan, for 
there | did this name begin by way of deriding good men, seeing I58 a 
that the Canaauites were given up to idolatry, which is the ( 1 57 a ) 
worship of human hands. 

Whereupon the Canaanites beholding those of our people that 
were separated from the world to serve God, in derision when 
they saw such an one, said "Pharisee !" that is, "He seeketh 
God"; as much as to say: "0 mad fellow, thou hast no statues 
of idols and adorest the wind; wherefore look to thy fate and come 
and serve our gods." 

Verily I say unto you/ said Jesus, all the saints and prophets of 
God have been Pharisees not in name, as you are, but in very deed. 
For in all their acts they sought God their creator d , and for 
love of God they forsook cities and their own goods, selling these 
and giving to the poor for love of God. 

CXLVe. 

As God livethf in the time of Elijah, friend and prophet of 
God, there were twelve mountains inhabited by seventeen thousand 
Pharisees ; and so it was that in so great a number there was not 
found a single reprobate, but all were | elect of God. But now, 158 b 
when Israel hath more than a hundred thousand Pharisees, may it ^ I ** * 
please God that out of every thousand there be one elect ! 

The Pharisees answered in indignation : So then we are all 
reprobate, and thou boldest our religion in reprobation ! 

Jesus answered : I hold not in reprobation but in approbation 
the religion of true Pharisees, and for that I am ready to die. 
But come, let us see if ye be Pharisees. Elijah, the friend of God, 
at the prayer of his disciple Elisha, wrote a little book wherein 
he included all human wisdom with the law of God our Lord s. 

The Pharisees were confounded when they heard the name of 



a First dervish. b God creates. c Dervish, in the Amran tongue 
(Hebrew), Farishua (Pharisee). Inde. d God creates. e Tho 

Chapter on the Dervish. By the living God. 8 God is sovereign. 



336 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

il libro di hellia perche per le tradition! loro sapeuano che 
niuno osseruaua talle dotrina . onde uolleuano partirssi sotto 
pretessto di hauere facende . allora disse iessu se uoi sette 
farisei ogni altro neggotio habandonarete per atendere ha 
quessto perche il farisseo sollo cercha DIG . chonfussi adonque 
si fermorno ha asscoltare iessu il qualle di nouo disse . a hellia 
seruo di DIG, che chossi chomincia il libreto, ha tutti quelli | 

15 9 a che dessiderano di chaminare chon DIG chreator b suo quessto 
scriue . chi dessidera de imparare molto pocho temono DIG 
perche ha chi teme DIG bastalj sapere sollo quello che DIG 
uolle . quelli che cerchano belle parolle non cerchano DIG il 
qualle non fa altro che riprendere li pechati nosstri . quelli 
che uolgiono cerchare DIG serino le porte he le fmestre di 
chassa sua perche il patrone non si lassia trouare fuori di 
chassa doue non e ammato . pero chusstodite li sensi uosstri 
he chusstodite il chore uosstro perche DIG non si troua fuori 
di noi im quessto monddo nel qualle he odiato . Quelli che 
uolgiono bene hoperare atendano alloro stessi perche non 
gioua niente guadagnare tutto il monddo he perdere la 
anima sua . quelli che uolgiono amaesstrare altri uiuano 
melgio di altri perche niente se impara da chi sa meno 
di noi . hora chossi si emendda la uitta il pechatore quando 
sente uno peggiore di lui hamaesstrarllo . Quelli che cerchano 
DIG fuggisca la chonuerssatione delli homeni perche moisse 

159k sollo essendo sul monte sinai il trouo he parllo | chon DIG 
chome fa uno amicho che parlla chon lo ammicho . Quelli 
che cerchano DIG una uolta solla per ogni trenta giorni 
usscirano doue sono homeni de il monddo . perche intuno 
giorno si polle fare hopere per dui hanni circha alii negotij 
di cholui che cercha DIG . chaminando non guardi se non 
li suoi piedi . parllando non dicha se non il neccessario . 
Mangiando si leuino da menssa chon fame . penssando ogni 
giorno di non peruenire allo sechondo . spendendo il tempo 
chome tira il fiato . una uesste di pelle di animalli li basti . 



U1 L^bi. b -Jli ^1. 



THE LITTLE BOOK OF ELIJAH 337 

the book of Elijah, because they knew that, through their traditions, 
no one observed such doctrine. Wherefore they were fain to 
depart under pretext of business to be done. 

Then said Jesus : _If ye were Pharisees ye would forsake all 
other business to attend to this ; for thePharisee seekqth God ^ 
"alone. Wherefore in contusion They tarried to listen to Jesus, 
who said again : " a Elijah, servant of God " (for so beginneth the 
little book), "to all them | that desire to walk with God their 15 9 a 
creator b , writeth this. Whoso desireth to learn much, they (sic] ( I 5 1 ) 
fear God little, because he who feareth God is content to know 
only that which God willeth. 

" They that seek fair words seek not God, who doth naught but 
reprove our sins. 

" They that desire to seek God, let them shut fast the doors and 
windows of their house, for the master suffereth not himself to be 
found outside his house, [in a place] where he is not loved. Guard 
therefore your senses and guard your heart, because God is not 
found outside of us, in this world wherein he is hated. 

" They that wish to do good works, let them attend to their 
own~ selves, tor^Jbooteth not to gain thewhole world and 
one s own soul l . 



" They that wish to teach others, let them live better than 
others, because nothing can be learned from him who knoweth less 
than ourselves. How, then, shall the sinner amend his life when 
he heareth one worse than he teaching him 1 

" They that seek God, let him (sic] flee the conversation of men ; 
because Moses being alone upon mount Sinai found him and 
spake | with God, as doth a friend who speaketh with a friend 2 . 159 ^ 

" They that seek God, once only in thirty days shall they come 
forth where be men of the world ; for in one day can be done works 
for two years in respect of the business of him that seeketh God. 

" When he walketh, let him not look save at his own feet. 

WheiT he speaketh,~let~ him n&t speak save that wh ich is 
necessary. 

"When they eat, let them rise from the table still hungry; 
thinking every day not to attain to the next ; spending their time 
as one draweth his breath. 

" Let one garment 3 , of the skin of beasts, suffice. 



* The book of Elias. b God creates. 



1 Matt. xvi. 26, and parallels. 8 Exod. xxxiii. n. s Cf. Matt. x. 10. 



338 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

dorma sopra la nuda terra la massa di terra . per ogni notte 
li basstera dui hore di dormire . niuno hodij se non se stesso . 
niuno chondani se non se stesso . Nella oratione stiano chon 
talle timore chome se fussero al iuditio uenturo . hora fate 
quessto nel seruitio di DIG chon la leggie che uia dato DIG 
per moisse . che talmente trouarete DIG che in ogni tempo 
he locho sentirete uoi in DIG he DIG in uoi . Quessto he 
160 a il libreto di hellia ho farissei pero | di nouo ui dicho che se 
uoi fosste farissei . haresste letitia che io sia hentrato qui 
perche DIG ha misserichordia delli pechatori a . 

CXLVI b. 

Allora disse zacheo . signore hecho chio uolggio dare per 
ammore di DIG quatro uolte tanto quanto per una uolta ho 
riceuto ha ussura . allora disse iessu ogidi he fato sallute ha 
quessta chassa in uerita in tierita che molti publichani, mere- 
trice he pechatori . anderano nel regno di DIG he quelli che si 
riputano iussti anderano alle hetterne fiami . il che intesso li 
farissei si partirno indignati allora disse iessu alii chonuertiti 
ha penitenzza he alii suoi dissepoli . elgi fu uno padre di 
familgia il quale haueua dui filgioli he il piu giouine disse . 
padre dami la mia portione di roba il che li dete il padre suo 
il quale riceuta la portione sua . si parti he andete in paesse 
lontano onde sconssumo tutta la fachulta sua chon meretrice 
160 b uiuendo lussurio|samente . fato fu grande fame in quello 
paesse talmente che il missero andete seruire uno citadino il 
qualle lo messe ha passere li porci nella possesione sua . li 
qualli passendo si chauaua la fame in chompagnia di porci 
mangiando le giande di quercia . Ritornato in se stesso disse 
ho quanti nella chassa de mio padre habondano in chonuiuio 
he io qui moro di fame . io mi leuero addonque he andero dal 
padre mio he diroli padre io ho pechato in ciello chontra di te 
pero . fa ha me chome tu fai ad uno delli tuoi seruitori . 



THE PRODIGAL SON" 339 

"Let the lump of earth sleep on the naked earth.; for every 



night let two hours of sleep suffice. 

"Let him hate no one save himself; Condemn no one save 
himself! 

"In prayer, let them stand in such fear as if they were at the 
judgement to come. 

" Now do this in the service of God, with the law that God hath 
given you through Moses, for in such wise shall ye find God that 
in every time and place ye shall feel that ye are in God and God 
in you." 

This is the little book of Elijah, Pharisees, wherefore | again 160 a 
I say unto you that if ye were Pharisees ye would have had joy ( J 59 a ) 
that I am entered in here, because God hath mercy upon sinners a . 

CXLVIb. 

Then said Zacchaeus l : Sir 2 , behold I will give, for love of God ? 
fourfold all that I have received by usury. 

Then said Jesus : This day hath salvation come to this house. 
Verily, verily, many publicans, harlots, and sinners shall go into 
the kingdom of God, and they that account themselves righteous^ 
shall go into eternal flames. 

" HeaTrrrg th~is7 tEeTPharisees departed in indignation. Then said 
Jesus to them that were converted to repentance, and to his 
disciples: c There was a father 3 who had two sons, and the 
younger said : " Father, give me my portion of goods " ; and his 
father gave it him. And he, having received his portion, departed 
and went into a far country, whereupon he wasted all his substance 
with harlots, living luxuriously. | After this there arose a mighty 160 b 
famine in that country, insomuch that the wretched man went to ( I 59 b ) 
serve a citizen, who set him to feed swine in his property. And 
while feeding them he assuaged his hunger in company with the 
swine, eating acorns. But when he came to himself he said : "Oh, 
how many in my father s house have abundance in feasting, and 
I perish here with hunger! I will arise, therefore, and will go to 
my father, and will say unto him: Father, I have sinned in 
heaven 4 against thee ; do with me as thou doest unto one of thy 
servants." 



* God is the Merciful. b The Chapter of the Fornicator. c A very 
good parable on repentance. 

1 See Luke xix. 8, 9. J Or Lord. * See Luke xv. 11-24 and 

cp. Introd. for various Old-Italian versions of the following verses. 
4 Cp. Vulg. ad loc. : t n coelum, 

Z 2 



340 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

Andossi il pouero onde quessto inteniiene che il padre il 
uedete di lontano uenire onde si mosse ha, chompassione sopra 
di lui . pero uscite li inchontro he peruenuto al filgiollo lo 
abbrazzo he bassio . inchinossi il fiollo dicendo padre io ho 
pechato in ciello chontra di te fa ha me chome ad uno di tuoi 
seruitori . perche no son degno di essere chiamato tuo fiollo ; 
Risspose il padre . non dire chossi ho fiollo perche tu sei mio 
161 a fiollo he non patiro te sta|re in stato de mio seruo . he 
chiamato li suoi seruitori disse portate quiui uestimenti noue 
he uestite quessto mio fiollo he datelli noui chalciamenti . dateli 

10 anello in dito he pressto ammazzate il uitello grasso he 
faciamo fessta . perche quessto mio fiollo hera morto he hora 
he rissuscitato hera perduto he hora he ritrouato . 

CXLVII. 

Mentre si faceua festa in ella chassa . hecho che uene il 
filgiolo magiore ha chassa il qualle sentedo farsi fessta in 
chassa si marauilgio he chiamato uno seruo . li dimando per 
qualle chagione si faceua talle fessta rissposeli il seruo . elgie 
uenuto tuo fratello he tuo padre ha ammazzato il uitello 
graso onde stano in chonuiuio . si adiro forte il fiollo magiore 
quessto sentendo he non uolsse hentrare in chassa pero usscite 

11 padre ha lui he disseli . filgiolo tuo fratello he uenuto pero 
uieni allegrarti chon lui . Risspose il fiollo indignato sempre 

161 b io tio I seruito di bona seruitu he tu non mi desti giamai uno 
** agnello da mangiarllo chon li mei amicj . he quessto trissto 
che sie partito da te sconsumando ogni sua parte chon mere- 
trice . hora che elgie uenuto hai hamazzato il uitello grasso ; 
risspose il padre . fiolo tu sempre sei chon me he ogni chossa 
he tua ma chosstui hera morto he hora he rissusscitato hera 
persso he hora he ritrouato pero bissogna allegrarssi . se adiro 
de piu il fiollo maggiore he disse ua tu trionfa chio non uolgio 
manggiare ha menssa di fornichatori . he si parti dal padre 
senza riceuere pure uno danaro . Viue DIG disse iessu che 
chossi si fa fessta da li angioli di DIG sopra di uno pechatore 
che fazia penitenzza he mangiato che hebero . si parti per 



THE PRODIGAL SON 341 

The poor man went, whereupon it came to pass that his father 
saw him coming from afar off, and was moved to compassion over 
him. So he went forth to meet him, and having come up to him 
he embraced him and kissed him. 

The son bowed himself down, saying : " Father, I have sinned 
in heaven against thee, do unto me as unto one of thy servants, 
for I am not worthy to be called thy son." 

The father answered : " Son, say not so, for thou art my son, 
and I will not suffer thee to be | in the condition of my slave." 161 a 
And he called his servants and said : " Bring hither new robes ( l6 *) 
and clothe this my son, and give him new hosen ; give him the ring 
on his finger, and straightway kill the fatted calf and we will 
make merry. For this my son was dead and is now come to life 
again, he was losFancT ll.ow is fuuud." 

CXLVIL 

While they were making merry in the house J , behold the elder 
son came home, and he, hearing that they were making merry 
within, marvelled ; and having called one of the servants, he asked 
him wherefore they were in such wise making merry. 

The servant answered him : " Thy brother is come and thy 
father hath killed the fatted calf, and they are feasting." The 
elder son was greatly angered when he heard this, and would 
not go into the house. Therefore came his father out to him and 
said to him : " Son, thy brother is come, come thou therefore and 
rejoice with him." 

The son answered with indignation : " I have ever | served 161 b 
thee with good service, and yet thou never gavest me a lamb to ^ 
eat with my friends. But as for this worthless fellow that 
departed from thee, wasting all his portion with harlots, now 
that he is come thou hast killed the fatted calf." 

The father answered : " Son, thou art ever with me and 
everything is thine; but this one was dead and is alive again, _ 
was lost and now is foiin3,__therefore we needs mustrejoice." 

The elder son was the more angry, and said: " Go thou and 
triumph, for I will not eat at the table of fornicators." And he 
departed from his father without receiving even a piece of money. 

As God liveth, said Jesus, even so 2 is there rejoicing among 
the angels of God over one sinner that repenteth. 

And when they had eaten he departed, for that he was fain to 

1 See Luke xv. 25-32. * Cp. Luke xv. 10. 




342 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

uollere antlare in iudea onde dissero allora li dissepoli maesstro 
non andare in iudea perche sapiamo . che chontra di te li 
farissei ckon fl somo pontiffice hano fato chonsilgio . Rissposse 
iessu, io lo so auanti che il facessero ma non temo perche 
chontra la uollonta di DIG nom possono fare niente onde 

162 a faziano | quanto uolgiano che io non temo loro ma temo DIO . 
(161*) 

CXLVIIIa. 

Hora ditemi . li farisei hogidi sono farissei sono serui di 

DIO certo no pero ui dicho in uerita che non uie chosa piu 

pessima qui in terra . di quella che lo homo che si chopre 

di proffesione he habito relligiosso per choprire la sua 

scellerita . io uolgio dirui sollo uno essempio delli antichi 

farissei azioche chonossiate li presseti . Dapoi la partita di 

hellia per la grande perssechutione de iddolatri si dissperssero 

quella santa chongregatione di farissei . perche nello isstesso 

tempo di hellia intuno hano furno ammazati diecemillia 

proffeti li qualli herano ueri farissei b . ando dui farissei 

nelli monti ha habitare he lo uno stete quindeci hanni che 

non sapeua de il chompagno nostante che fussero uicini 

per una hora di chamino . hora uedete se herano churiossi . 

interuene che uene secho in quelli monti onde arnbi dui si 

162 b possero ha cerchajre la aqua he chossi si trouorno . onde 

( l6x ) disse il piu tempato, perche chosstumauano li piu uechij ha 

parllare auanti di ogni altro he teniuano per grande pechato . 

il parllare di uno giouine auuanti di uno uechio disse dicho il 

piu uechio . doue habiti fratello . Rissposse lui mostrandoli 

chon il dito la stantia hiuui habito perche herano uicini alia 

stantia del giouine . disse il uechio quanto tempo he ho 

fratello che tu hiuui habiti . Rissposse il giouine sono quindeci 

hanni . Disse il uechio forsi uenissti quando achab ammazaua 

li serui di DIO . chossie risspose il giouine . Disse il uechio 

ho fratello sai tu chi hora sia Re de issdraelle . Risspose 



THE TRUE AND THE FALSE PHARISEES 343 

go to Judaea. Whereupon the disciples said : Master, go not 
into Judaea, for we know that the Pharisees have taken counsel 
with the high priest against thee. 

Jesus answered : I knew it before they did it, but I do not 
fear, fcr they cannot do anything contrary_Jo_the__will of God. 
Wherefore let them do I all that they desire ; for I fear not them, 

u it n A "= -(i6i a ) 

but tear (jod. 

s; CXLVIII a . 

Tell me now: the Pharisees of to-day are they Pharisees? 
Are they servants of God 1 Assuredly not. Yea, and I say unto 
you verily, that there is no worse thing here upon earth than this, 
that a man cover himself with profession and garb of religion_to_^ 
cover his wickedness. I will tell you one single example ^oTthe 
Pharisees of old time, in order that ye may know the present ones. 
After the dejmrture of Elijah, by reason of the great persecution 
by jd oTateTsTtliatlholy congregation of PhaHseeswa disposed. 
*For in that same time of Elijah there were slainTn one year 
more than ten thousand prophets l that were true Pharisees b . 

Two Pharisees went into the mountains to dwell there ; and 
the one abode fifteen years knowing nought of his neighbour, 
although they were but one hour s journey apart. See, then, if 
they were inquisitive 1 It came to pass that there arose a drought 
in those mountains, and thereupon both set themselves to search | 
for water, and so they found each other. Whereupon the more 
aged said (for it was their custom that the eldest should speak 
before every other, and they held it a great sin for a young man 
to speak before an old one) the elder, therefore, said : " Where 
dwellest thou, brother ] " 

He answered, pointing out the dwelling with his finger : " Here 
I dwell " ; for they were nigh to the dwelling of the younger. 

Said the elder: "How long is it, brother, that thou hast dwelt here]" . , 

The younger answered : " Fifteen years." / <-> 

Said the elder : " Perchance thou earnest when Ahab slew the 
servants of God 1 " 

" Even so," replied the younger. 

Said the elder : " brother, knowest thou who is now king of 
Israel 1 " 

The Chapter on the kingdom (sic). b In the time of Elias the 

Jews killed ten thousand prophets without cause in a single year. Inde. 

1 Cp. i Kings xviii. 4 and 13. The story which follows bears certain 
obvious resemblances to the legend of the hermits SS. Antony and Paul. 
(See Introd.). 



344 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

il giouine ho fratello elgie DIG Re de issdraelle perche li 
iddolatri non regiono issdraelle ma il perssequitano . Elgie 
uero disse il uechio pero ho uolluto dire chi he hora che 
persseguiti issdraelle . Rissposse il giouine li pechati di 
issdraelle persseguitano issdrahelle perche se non hauessero 
pechato . non manderia chontra de issdraelle li principi 
iddolatri . hora disse il uechio qualle he quello principe 
163 a infidele j che ha dato DIG a per chasstigo de issdraelle . Risspose 
il giouine hor chome lo sapero che sono quindeci hanni chio 
non ho ueduto se non te stesso he non so leggere . per il che 
non mi sera manddato literre . Disse il uechio hora chome 
sono noue le tui pelle di pechora chi te le a date se tu non 
hai ueduto homeni . 

CXLIX. 

Rissposse il giouine . cholui che chonsseruo bone le uesti- 
menti allo popullo de issdraelle per quaranta hanni nel disserto 
ha chonsseruato le mie pelli tale quale uedi . allora il uechio 
chonobe il giouine piu perffeto di lui perche lui haueua ogni 
hanno pratichato chon li homeni . onde per hauere la sua 
chouerssatione disse fratello tu non sai leggere he io so leggere 
he in chassa mia ho li salmi di dauit . pero uieni che io ogni 
giorno te faro una letione dichiarandoti quello che dauit dice . 
Rissposse il giouine andiamo hora . disse il uechio ho fratello 
163 b sono dui giorni che io non ho beuto aqua pero cerchiamo uno 
162 pocho di aqua . Risspose il giouine ho fratello hora sono dui 
messi chio non ho beuto aqua pero andiamo ha uedere quello 
che dice DIG per il suo profeta daui . potente he il signore b di 
darci della aqua . onde ritornorno alia stantia del uechio alia 
porta del qualle trouorno una fonte di aqua uiua . disse il 
uechio ho fratello tu sei santo di DIG pero per te DIG a dato a 
quessto fonte . Rissposse il giouine ho fratello tu per humilta 
dici quessto ma certo he che se DIG per me quessto facessi 
haueria fato uno fonte apresso la mia stantia . azioche non 



4J|. 



THE TWO HERMIT-PHARISEES 345 

The younger answered : " It is God that is King of Israel, for 
the idolaters are not kings but persecutors of Israel." 

" It is true," said the elder, " but I meant to say, who is it 
that now persecuteth Israel ? " 

The younger answered : " The sins of Israel persecute Israel, 
because, if they had not sinned, [God] would not have raised up 
against Israel the idolatrous princes." 

Then said the elder : " Who is that infidel prince | whom God 163 a 
hath sent a for the chastisement of Israel ? " 

The younger answered: "Now how should I know, seeing 
these fifteen years I have seen no man save thee, and I know not 
how to read, wherefore no letters be sent unto me 1 " 

Said the elder : " Now, how new thy sheepskins be ! Who hath 
given them to thee, if thou hast not seen any man 1 " 

CXLIX. 

The younger answered : " He who kept good the raiment of the 
people of Israel for forty years in the wilderness l hath kept my 
skins even as thou seest." 

Then the elder perceived that the younger was more perfect 
than he, for he had every year had dealings with men. Where 
upon, in order that he might have [the benefit of] his conversation, 
he said : " Brother, thou knowest not how to read, and I know 
how to read, and I have in my house the psalms of David. Come, 
then, that I may each day give thee a reading and make plain to 
thee what David saith." 

The younger answered : " Let us go now." 

Said the elder : " brother, it is now two days since I have 
drunk water; let us therefore seek | a little water." 163 b 

The younger replied : " brother, it is now two months since 
I have drunk water. Let us go, therefore, and see what God 
gaith by his prophet David : the Lord is able b to give us water." 

Whereupon they returned to the dwelling of the elder, at the 
door whereof they found a spring of fresh water. 

Said the elder : " brother, thou art an holy one of God ; for 
thy take hath God given a this spring." 

The younger answered : " brother, in humility sayest thou this ; 
but certain it is that if God had done this for my sake he would 
have made a spring close to my dwelling, that I should not depart 

God gives. b God is powerful. 



1 Cp. Deut. viii. 4, &c. 



346 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

mi partissi per che chonfessoti auere pechato chontra di te 
quando dicessti che per dui giorni che non haueui beuto 
cerchaui aqua . he me hero stato dui messi senza here onde 
nel mio senso senti alteratione chome milgiore di te . disse 
allora il uechio ho fratello tu dicessti la uerita pero non 
pechasti . disse il giouine ho fratello sei smentichato di 
quanto disse il padre nosstro hellia che cholui che cercha 
DIG deue sollo chondanare se stesso . certo he che lui non 
il scrisse azioche il sapessimo ma sibene azioche lo hoser- 

164 a uassimo . Disse il piu | tempato chonosscendo la uerita he 
( l6 3 a ) l a iustitia del chopagno, elgie uero pero DIG nostro tia 
perdonato a . he deto questo presse li salmi he leggete quello 
che il padre nostro dauit dice . io ponero chustodia alia 
bocha mia azioche la mia lingua non declini im parolle di 
mallitia esscusando chon esscussa li pechati . he qui il tempato 
fece uno ragionamento sopra la linggua he partissi il giouine 
onde stetero altri quindeci hanni ha trouarsi perche il giouine 
muto stantia . Ritrouato adonque disse il uechio ho fratello 
perche non tornasti alia mia stantia . Risspose il giouine 
perche non ho hanchara imparato bene quanto me dicessti . 
hora disse il uechio chome polle essere quessto che sonno 
quindeci hanni trasscorsi . Risspose il giouine le parolle le 
imparai intuna hora che giamai mi son smentichato ma 
non le o hanchora osseruate pero . ha che proposito imparare 
tropo he non hoseruarlo . DIG nosstro non cercha che sia 
bono il nosstro intelleto ma sibene il chore nosstro . onde 
il giorno del iuditio non ci dimandera quello che haueremo 

164 b impara|to ma sibene quello che noi habiamo fato . 

CIA 

Risspose il uechio . ho fratello non dire chossi perche 
tu dissprezzi la scientia la qualle DIG nosstro uolle che si 
haprecij . Risspose il giouine hora chome parllero hora che 
io non chassci im pechato perche la tua parolla he uerra he 
hanchora la mia . dicho adonque che quelli che sano li 



a ,*ic 41)1. t) \jjJl 



THE TWO HERMIT-PHARISEES 347 

[in search thereof]. For I confess to thee that I sinned against 
thee. When thou saidst that for two days that thou didst not drink 
thou soughtest water : and I had been for two months without 
drinking, whereupon I felt an exaltation 1 within me, as though 
I were better than thou." 

Then said the elder : " O brother, thou saidst the truth, there 
fore thou didst not sin." 

Said the younger: "0 brother, thou hast forgotten what our jf 
father Eljjab_ said, that he who seeketh God ought to condema__t/ // 
himself alone 2 . Assuredly he wrote it not that we might know it, 
but rather that we might observe it." 

Said the more | aged_, perceiving the truth and righteousness of 164 a 
his companion : " It is true; and our God hath pardoned thee a ." 

And having said this he took the Psalms, and read that which 
our father David 8 saith : " I will set a watch over my mouth that 
my tongue decline not to words of iniquity, excusing with excuse 
my sins *." And here the aged man made a discourse upon the 
tongue, and the younger departed. Whereupon they were fifteen 
years more ere they found one another, because the younger changed 
his dwelling. 

Accordingly, when he had found him again, the elder said : 
" brother, wherefore returnedst thou not to my dwelling ^ " 

f The younger answered : " Because I have not yet learned well 
what thou saidst to me." 

Then said the elder : " How can this be, seeing fifteen years are 
past ? " 

The younger replied: "As for the woids, I learned them in 
a single hour and have never forgotten them ; but I have not yet 
observed them. To what purpose is it, then, to learn too much, 
and not to observe it 1 Our God seeketh not that our intellect 
should be good, but rather ourhcarfc So. on the dav of jndgm- 

fte will not ask us what we have learned, | but what we have 
3^ 

CIA 

The elder answered : " O brother, say net so, for thou despisest 
knowledge, which our God willeth to be prized." 

The younger replied : " Now, how shall I speak now so as not 
to fall into sin : for thy word is true, and mine also. I say, then, 

ft God pardons. b The Chapter on wealth. 




1 Text chcmge. * See above, i59 b (p. 339). 3 Cp. Ps. cxli. 3, 4. 

* Cp. Vulg. ad loc. : ad excusandas excusationes in peccatis. 



348 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

chomandamenti di DIG scriti nella leggie che deue osseruare 
quelli se elgi uolle poi imparare de piu . he quanto imparera 
sia per osseruarlo he non per saperlo . Disse il uechio ho 
fratello dimi chon chi parli tu che tu pero chonossi non 
hauere imparato quanto dissi . Rissposse il giouine ho fratello 

10 parlo chon me stesso onde ogni giorno mi meto auanti 

11 iuditio di Dio a per rendere ragione di me . he sempre 
sento in me chi esscusa li mei diffeti . Disse il uechio ho 
fratello che diffeti hai tu che stai perffeto . Risposse il 

165 a giouine ho fratello non dire chossi imperoche | son f ra dui 
4 grandi diffeti . luno he che io non chonosco me essere il 
maggiore pechatore . laltro he che io non dessidero fame 
piu di ogni altro penitezza . Rissposse il uechio hora chome 
chonosserai te essere il maggiore pechatore se sei il piu 
perffeto . Rissposse il giouine la prima parolla che mi disse 
il mio maesstro quando pilgiai Io habito di farisseo fu questa 
che . douessi chonsiderare la bonta di altri he la mallitia 
mia che se quessto facessi chonosseria me essere il maggiore 
pechatore . Disse il uechio ho fratello de chi chonsideri bonta 
ouero diffeto su quessti monti che non uissono homeni . 
Risspose il giouine io doueria chonssiderare la hobedienza 
del solle he pianeti che seruono il suo chreatore melgio di 
me . ma quelli chondano ho perche non faciano lume chome 
uoria ho perche scaldi troppo . ho che bagni tropo ouero 
pocho il terreno . onde sentendo quessto il uechio disse 
fratello doue hai imparato quessta dotrina che io mi trouo 

165 b nonanta hanni . delli qualli setanta cinque son stato f ari j seo . 
Risspose il giouine ho fratello tu dici quessto per humilta 
perche tu sei santo di DIG ma pero ti risspondo che DIG 
nosstro chreatore b . elgi non guarda il tempo ma guarda il 
chore onde dauit de quindeci hani piu giouine di sei altri 
fratelli fu elleto Re de issdraele . he diuene proffeta di DIG 
signore nosstro . 



il. b <jJU* 4)1. 

4)1. 



THE TWO HERMIT-PHARISEES 349 

that they who know the commandments of God written in the Law 
ought to observe those [first] if they would afterwards learn more. 
And all that a man learneth, let it be to observe it, and not 
[merely] to know it." 

Said the elder : " O brother, tell me, with whom hast thou 
spoken, that thou knowest thou hast not learned all that I said ? " 

The younger answered : " O brother, I speak with myself. 
Every day I place myself before the judgement of God a , to give 
account of myself. And ever do I feel within myself one that 
excuseth my faults." 

Said the elder: "0 brother, what faults hast thou, who art 
perfect 1 " 

1 The younger answered : " brother, say not so, for that | 
I stand between two great faults : the one is that I do not know 165 a 
myself to be the greatest of sinners, the other that I do not desire ^ 4 
to do penance for it more than other men." 

The elder answered : " Now, how shouldst thou know thyself to 
be the greatest of sinners, if thou art the most perfect [of men] ? " 

The younger replied : " The first word that my master said to 
me when I took the habit of a Pharisee was this : that I ought to 
consider the goodness of others and mine own iniquity, for if 
I should do so I should perceive myself to be the greatest of 
sinners." 

Said the elder : " brother, whose goodness or whose faults 
considerest thou on these mountains, seeing there are no men here 1 " 

The younger answered : " I ought to consider the obedience of 
the sun and the planets, for they serve their Creator better than 
I. But them I condemn, either because they give not light as 
I desire, or because their heat is too great, or there is too much 
or too little rain upon the ground." 

Whereupon, hearing this, the elder said : " Brother, where 
hast thou learned this doctrine, for I am now ninety years old, 
for seventy-five years whereof I have been ) a Pharisee ? " 165 b 

The younger answered: "O brother, thou sayest this in humility, (i64 b ) 
for thou art a holy one of God. Yet I answer thee that God our 
creator b looketh not on time, but looketh on the heart l : wherefore 
David, being fifteen years old, younger than six other his brethren 2 , 
was chosen king of Israel, and became a prophet of God our Lord ." 

* God is wise. b God creates. God is sovereign. 



1 Cp. i Sam. xvi. 7. Cp. i Sam. xvi. 10, ri (where the brothers 

are seven), xvii. la, 14. 



350 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

CLI. 

Quessto hera uero farisseo disse iessu alii suoi dissepoli . 
he piacesse ha DIG che noi potessimo il giorno de il iuditio 
hauerlo per hamicho . Asscese adonque iessu in naue he li 
dissepoli si dolleuano che si haueuano smentichato di portare 
del pane . li ripresse iessu dicendo guardateui dal leuato di 
farissei che sono al tempo nosstro . perche uno pocho di 
leuato guassta una massa di farina . Diceuano allora li 
dissepoli luno allo altro hora che leuato habiamo se tam- 
pocho non habiamo pane . disse allora iessu ho homeni di 
166 a pocha fede ui sete smentichati adomjque di quanto ha fato 
( l6 5*) DIG b in naim doue non hera segno di grano . he di quanti 
mangiorno he furno saturati de cinque pani he dui pessi . 
il leuato del farisseo he la diffidenzza di DIG he pensiero 
di loro stessi che ha choroto non sollo li farissei di q,|sto 
tempo ma ha choroto issdraelle . imperoche li aemplici non 
sapendo legere fano quello che uedono fare alii farissei perche 
li tengono per santi . sapete uoi che chossa he il uero farisseo 
elgie olgio della natura humana . perche sichome lo holgio 
sta sopra ogni liquore chossi la bonta de il uero farisseo 
sta sopra ogni bonta humana . Elgie uno uiuo libro che 
DIG dona al monddo c perche ogni chossa che elgi dice he 
hopera he sechonddo la leggie di DIG . onde chi fa chome 
lui osserua la leggie di DIG . il uero farisseo he salle che 
non lasia putrefare la charne humana di pechato perche 
ogniuno che lo uede se riduze ha penitenzza . Elgie lume 
166 b che illumina la strada di pere|grini perche ogniuno che 
1 5 chonsidera la pouerta sua chon la penitenzza . chonosse 
che in quessto monddo non si deue fermare il chore nosstro . 
Ma quello che fa lo holio marzo il libro choroto il salle 
putrefato he il lume amorzato . quello fa il falso farisseo 
se adonque non uollete perire . guardateui de non fare chome 
fano hora li farisei d . 



THE MARKS OF THE TRUE PHARISEE 351 

CL]>. 

This man was a true Pharisee, said Jesus to his disciples ; and 
may it please God that we be able on the day of judgement to have _ 

c-4 1 . ** 

him for our friend. 
Tesus then embarked on a ship, and the disciples 1 were sorry 
that they had forgotten to bring bread. Jesus rebuked them, 
saying : Beware of the leaven of the Pharisees of our day, for 
a little leaven 2 marreth a mass of meal. 

Then said the disciples one to another : Now what leaven have 
we, if we have not even any bread ? 

Then said Jesus : men of little faith, have ye then forgotten | 
what God b wrought in Nain *, where there was no sign of corn ? 166* 
And how many ate and were satisfied with five loaves and two v 1 5 y 
fishes ? * The leaven of the Pharisee is want of faith in God, and 
thought of self, which hath corrupted not only the Pharisees of this 
day, but hath corrupted Israel. For the simple folk, not knowing 
how to read, do that which they see the Pharisees do, because they 
hold them for holy ones. 

Know ye what is the true Pharisee 1 He is the oil of human 
nature. For even as oil resteth at the top of every liquor, so the 
goodness of the true Pharisee resteth at the top of all human 
goodness. He is a living book, which God giveth to the world c ; 
for everything that he saith and doeth is according to the law of 
God. "Wherefore, whoso doeth as he doeth observeth the law of 

God. The true Pharisee is salt 5 that suffereth not human flesh to 

be putTened__by sin ; for every one who Iseeth him is brought to 
repentance. He is"~a light 6 that lighteneth the pilgrims way, | 
for every one that considereth his poverty with his penitence 16 6 b 
perceiveth that in this world we ought not to shut up our heart. - 5 ) 

But he that maketh the oil rancid, corrupteth the book, putre- 
fieth the salt, extinguisheth the light this man is a false Pharisee. 
If, therefore, ye would not perish, beware that ye do not as do the 
Pharisees to-day d . 




a Chapter on the true Pharisee (dervish). b God is Lord. c God 
bestows. d God defend me from the wickedness of the Pharisee 

(dervish). 



1 Cp. Matt. xvi. 5-12. * Cp. i Cor. v. 6. * See above, isi b 

(p. 321 sq.). * See above, 104 (p. 227). * Cp. Matt. v. 13. Cp. 
Matt. v. 14. 



352 THE GOSPEL OF BAENABAS 

CLII . 

Peruenuto iessu in ierussalem . he hentrato uno giorno di 
sabbato nel tempio se li auicinorno li soldati per tentandollo 
prenderlo he dissero . maestro elgi licito millitare . Rissposse 
iessu la nosstra fede ci dice che la uita nosstra he una chontinua 
millitia sopra la terra . Dissero li soldati adonque ci uoi chon- 
uertire alia tua fede he che lassiamo la moltitudine di dij, che 
sollo roma ne a uintiotto millia dij che si uedono . he seguitaremo 
il tuo dio che he sollo he perche non si uede non si sa doue | 
167* elgie he forssi che elgie una uanita . Rissposse iessu se io ui 
(166*) hauessi chreato chome uia chreato il nosstro Dio b io cercheria 
di chonuertirui . Risspossero loro hor chome cia chreato il 
tuo DIO che non si sa doue elgi si sia dimosstraci il tuo 
DIO che noi diuentaremo iudei . allora disse iessu se uoi 
haueste hochij da uederlo io uelo mosstreria ma perche sete 
ciechi non posso mostraruello . Rissposero li soldati per certo 
che Io honore che ti fa quessto popullo ti deue hauere leuato Io 
intelleto perche . ogniuno di noi ha dui hochij in chapo he ci 
dicj ciechi . Rissposse iessu li hochij charnalli nom possono 
uedere se non chosse grosse he essterne pero nom potrete 
uedere . se non li uosstri dei di legno argento he horo che 
nom possono fare chossa ueruna . Ma noi di iuda habiamo 
hochij spiritualli che sono il timore he la fede di DIO nosstro 
pero potiamo uedere il nosstro DIO in hoggni locho c . Ris- 
16 7 b spossero li soldati guarda chome | tu parlli perche dissprezando 
* li nosstri dei ti daremo in mano di herode che fara uendeta 
delli nosstri dij che sono omnipotenti . Risspose iessu se sono 
homnipotenti chome dite perdonatemi chio li uolgio adorare . 
si allegrorno li soldati quessto sentendo he chominciorno ha 
exaltare li suoi iddoli . allora disse iessu non fa incio bissogno 
di parolle ma di fati pero fate che li uosstri dei chreino una 
mossca che io li uolgio adorare . si sgomentorno li soldati 



JESUS AND THE ROMAN SOLDIERS 353 

GUI*. 

Jesus having come to Jerusalem, and having entered one sabbath 
day into the Temple, the soldiers drew nigh to tempt him and take 
him, and they said : Master, is it lawful to wage war ? 

Jesus answered : Our faith telleth us * that our life is a con- 
tinual waifare upon tneearth. 

~~ "Said the soldiers : So wouldst thou fain convert us to thy faith, 
and wouldst that we should forsake the multitude of gods (for 
Rome alone hath twenty-eight thousand gods that are seen) 
and should follow thy God who is one only, and for that he cannot 
be seen, it is not known where | he is, and perchance he is but 167 a 
vanity. ( l66 "> 

Jesus answered : jf I had created you, as our God hath created 
YOU b , I would seek to convert YOU/ 

They answered : Now how hath thy God created us, seeing it is 
not known where he is ? Show us thy God, and we will become Jews. 

Then said Jesus : If ye had eyes to see him I would show him 
to you, but since ye are blind, I cannot show you him. 

The soldiers answered : Of a surety, the honour which this 
people payeth thee must have taken away thine understanding. 
For every one of us hath two eyes in his head, and thou sayest 
we are blind. ^ 

Jesus answered : The carnal eyes can only see things gross and 
external : ye therefore will only be able to see your gods of wood 
and silver and gold that cannot do anything. But we 




have spiritual eyes, which are the fear and the faith of our God. 
wherefore we can see Oui Gud ilTevery place c . ~ 

The soidiei^-arrewertid : "Beware how | thou speakest, for an thou 167 1 
pour contempt on our gods we will give thee into the hand of ^ 
Herod, who will take vengeance for our gods, who are omnipotent. 

Jesus answered : If they are omnipotent as ye say, pardon me, 
for I will worship them. 

The soldiers rejoiced at hearing this, and began to extol their 
idols. 

Then said Jesus : Herein is not need of words but of deeds ; 
cause therefore that your gods create one fly, and I will worship 
them. 



* Chapter of the Great Name. b God creates. c Spiritual eye, 

fear and religion. Inde. 



1 Cp. Job vii. i. 

KAQQ 



354 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

quessto sentendo he non sapeuano che dire pero disse iessu . 
certo he che loro non facendo una mossca di nouo non uolgio 
per loro habandonare quelo DIG che a chreato ogni chossa cho 
una parolla* . il chui nome sollo a spauentare li hesserciti . 
Rissposero li soldati hora faci uedere quessto perche ti 
uolgiamo prendere he uolleuano esstendere le mani in iessu . 
allora disse iessu addonai sabaot bc onde subito furno spinti li 
soldati fuori del tempio chome se spingono li uasi di legno 
168 ft quando si la|uano per riponerui il uino . per modo che hora 
7 Mi piedi hora il chapo perchoteua la terra senzza che ueruno li 
tochassi . li quali pressero tanto spauento he talmente fugirno 
che non furno piu ueduti in iudea. 



Mormorauano li sacerdoti he farissei fra loro he diceuano 
elgia la sapienzza di bal he asstarot onde in uirtu di satana 
ha fato quessto . aperto la bocha sua iessu disse DIG nosstro 
chomando che no si rapisse la roba del prossimo nosstro . 
onde sollo quessto precceto he talmente uiolato he ehonta- 
minato che ha rempiuto il monddo di pechato he talle che 
non sara giamai rimesso chome si rimete li altri pechati 
imperoche . per ogni altro pechato il dollerssi di quello he 
non farlo piu co degiunare fare oratione he ellemosine . DIG 
nosstro potente he misserichordiosso li perdona cf s . ma quessto 
168 b pechato he talle che non sara giajmai rimesso se non sera 
7 restituito il mal tolto . disse allora uno scriba ho maesstro 
chome ha rempiuto il monddo di pechato il latroncinio . certo 
che hora per gratia di Dio h non ui sono se non pochi ladri 
li qualli non possono tanto pressto farsi uedere che sono dalla 
millitia sospessi . Rissposse iessu chi non chonosse li beni 



tf ^ ^ JTill 
b J~ iLJlll j floic 41). 

c l -1 J Ij^- 



d 

KijJ ill. h 4J)I 



MIRACLE WROUGHT ON THE SOLDIERS 355 

The soldiers were dismayed at hearing this, and wist not what 
to say, wherefore Jesus said : 

Assuredly, seeing they make not a single fly afresh, I will not 
for them forsake that God who hath created everything with 
a single word a ; whose name alone affrighteth armies. 

The soldiers answered : Now let us see this ; for we are fain to 
take thee/ and they were fain to stretch forth their hands against 
Jesus. 

Then said Jesus : Adonai Sabaoth^c ! "Whereupon straightway 
the soldiers were rolled out of the Temple as one rolleth casks of 
wood when they are washed | to refill them with wine ; insomuch 168* 
that now their head and now their feet struck the ground, and ( l6 7 a ) 
that without any one touching them. 

And they were so affrighted and fled in such wise that they 
were never more seen in Judaea. 

CLIII a. ^ 

The priests and Pharisees murmured among themselves and said : 
He hath the wisdom of Baal and Ashtaroth, and so in the power 
of Satan hath he done this V 

Jesus opened his mouth and said : Our God commanded thai^ 
we should not steal our neighbour s goods ^ But this single 
precept hath been so violated and abused that it hath filled the 
world with sin, and such [sin] as shall never be remitted 3 as other 
sins are remitted : seeing that for every other sin, if a man bewail 
it and commit it no more, and fast with prayer and almsgiving, 
our God, mighty and merciful, forgiveth ef> g. But this sin is of 
such a kind that it shall never be | remitted, except that which is 168 h 
wrongly taken be restored. 

Then said a scribe : O master, how hath robbery filled all the 
world with sin ? Assuredly now, by the grace of God h, there are 
but few robbers, and they cannot show themselves but they are 
immediately hanged by the soldiery. 

Jesus answered : Whoso knoweth not the goods, they (sic) can- 



a God created everything in one word. Inde. b God Adonai and 

Shabaot (Sabaoth). Inde. This is the name in the Amran tongue. 

d Chapter of the thief. e God pardons. * God is the merciful. 

g God is powerful. h God guided. 



1 Cp. Matt. xii. 24 and parallels. * See Exod. xx. 15. * Possibly 
a reminiscence of Matt. xii. 31 sqq. 



A a 2 



356 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

nom possono chonossere li 1 ladri . anzi in uerita ui dicho 
che molti robano he non sano quello che fano he pero il 
lore pechato he maggiore de li altri . perche la inffermita 
inchognita non si sana . allora li farissei si hachosstorno 
ha iessu he dissero ho maestro possia che tu sollo in issdraelle 
chonossi la uerita amaesstraci . Rissposse iessu quessto non 
dicho di essere sollo che chonosca la uerita perche questa uoce 
di sollo si apartiene sollo ha DIG he non ad daltri . il qualle he 
la uerita che sollo la uerita chonosse ab onde quando io dicessi 
quessto io saria ladro maggiore perche roberia lo honore di 
DIO . he dicendo di essere sollo che chonossca DIG mi faria 

169 a chasscare J in magiore ignoranzza di tutti . pero uoi facessti 
graue pechato dicendo che io sollo chonossco la uerita . he 
ui dicho che se uoi quessto dicessti per tentarmi che elgie 
maggiore il pechato . allora iessu di nouo disse uedendo 
tutti tacere sebene me sollo non sono in issdraelle che 
chonossca la uerita io sollo parllero . pero ascoltatemi posscia 
che mi hauete interoggato . tutte le chosse chreate sono de 
il chreatore talmente che niente nom polle pretedere niente . 
pero la hanima, il sensso, la charne, il tempo he la roba chon lo 
honnore tutto he chossa di DIG . talmente che non riceuendossi 
chome uolle DIG d si diuenta ladro . he spendendola similmete 
al chontrario di quello che uolle DIG sie similmete ladro . pero 
ui dicho uiue DIG * alia chui pressenza sta la anima mia che 
quando pilgiate il tempo dicendo dimani faro chossi diro tal 
chossa, andero in talle locho . he non dicendo se DIG uora f che 

169 b sette ladri he magiore ladri sette quando spen|dete il milgiore 
tempo al uosstro piazere he no al piazere di DIG g he il piu uille 
spendete per seruitio di DIG che sete ueramente ladri . cholui 
che fa il pechato sia di qualle sorte si uolgia elgie ladro 
perche . elgi roba il tempo he la anima chon la uita sua che 
deue seruire DIG he la da ha satana innimicho di DIG . 



ill. b JL. ill ill jLfcly-j* il. 

_j jJU. ill. d eUL. ill. e 

* ill Li u l. ill ^. 

1 MS. ia. 



OF ROBBING GOD 357 

not know the robbers. Nay, I say unto you verily that many rob 
who know not what they do, and therefore their sin is greater than 
that of the others, for the disease that is not known is not healed. 

Then the Pharisees drew near to Jesus and said : O master, 
since thou alone in Israel knowest the truth, teach thou us. 

Jesus answered : I say not that I alone in Israel know the 
truth, for this word "alone" appertaineth to God alone and not to 
others. For he is the truth, who alone knoweth the truth ab . 
Wherefore, if I should say so I should be a greater robber, for_ 
I should be stealing the honour of God. And in saying that 
I alone knew God I should be falling | into greater ignorance than 169 a 
all. Ye, therefore, committed a grievous sin in saying that I alone ^ 
know the truth. And I tell you that, if ye said this to tempt me, 
your sin is greater still/ 

Then Jesus, Seeing that all held their peace, said again : 
Though I be not alone in Israel knowing the truth, I alone will 
speak ; wherefore hearken to me, since ye have asked me. 

All things created belong to the Creator, in such wise that 
nothing can lay cjajm^to__any_thjng. Thus soul, sense, flesh, time, 
g&ods, and honour, all are God s possessions , so that if a man receive 
them not as God willeth d he becometh a robber. And in like 
nTanner, if he spend them contrary to that which God willeth, he 
is likewise a robber. t I say, therefore, unto you that, as God 
liveth e in whose presence my soul standeth, when ye take time, 
saying : : " To-morrow I will do thus, I will say such a thing, 
I will go to such a place," and not saying : " If God will f ," ye are 
robbers : And ye are greater robbers when ye spend | the better 16 9 h 
part of your time in pleasing yourselves and not in pleasing ^ 
Gods, and spend the worse part in God s service: then are ye 
robbers indeed. 

Whoso committeth sin, be he of what fashion he will, is a robber ; 
for he stealeth time and the soul and his own life, which ought to 
serve God, and giveth it to Satan, the enemy of God/ 



God is knowing. b There is no one else save God. Inde. c God 
creator and owner. d God is owner. e By the living God. f If 
it pleases God. B God is pleased. 

1 Cp. Jas. iv. 13, 15. 



358 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

CLIV*. 

Lo homo adonque che a . lo honore, la uita he la roba 
quando li sera robato la fachulta sua sara apichato il ladro . 
quando li sera robato la tiita sara dechapitato il micidialle 
he qnessto he iussto perche DIG lo ha chomandato . ma quando 
sera robato lo honore al prossimo perche non e messo sopra la 
chroce il ladro . he forsi milgiore la roba dello honore . ha 
forsi chomandato DIG che chi roba la roba sia punito he chi 
roba la uitta chon la roba sia punito . ma chi roba lo honore 
170 a sia saluo certo no J perche per la mormoratione di padri 
9 nosstri non hetrorno nella terra di promissione . ma sibene 
li suoi fioli he per quessto pechato li serpenti ne ocissero 
circha setanta millia del nosstro popullo . Viue Dio b alia 
chui pressenzza sta la anima mia che he degno di maggiore 
pena cholui che roba lo honore di cholui che roba la roba 
he la uita allo homo . he cholui che asscolta il mormoratore 
he similmente reo perche uno riceue satana sopra la linggua 
he lo altro dentro le horechie . si sconsumauano li farissei 
questo sentendo perche nom poteuano chondanare il suo 
parllare . allora si apresso ha iessu uno dottore he diseli 
maesstro bono diame per qualle chagione DIG non choncesse 
il formento he il porno alii nosstri padri . sapendo che loro 
doueuano chassoare certo che elgi doueua concederli il for 
mento houero non lassarlo uedere al homo . Rissposse iessu 
homo tu mi chiami bono ma heri perche sollo DIG he bono c . 
he molto piu heri ha dire perche DIG non ha fato sechondo il 
tuo ceruello . Ma pero ti risspondero al tutto onde ti dicho | 
che DIG chreatore d nosstro nel hoperare non si chonforma 
ha noi . pero non e licito alia chreatura di cerchare il moddo 
he chomodita sua ma sibene lo honore di DIG chreatore d 
suo . onde la chreatura dipendi dal chreatore he non il 
chreatore dipendi dalla chreatura . Viue Dio b alia chui 
pressenzza sta la anima mia che se DIG choncedeua ogni 

)y^" b "f- <uta. 

4)1. d 



JESUS AND THE DOCTOR 359 

CLIV a. 

The man, therefore, who hath honour, and life, and goods when, 
his possessions _are stolen, the robber shall be hanged; when his 
life^is taken, the murderer" shall "EeTieheaded. A~nd this is just, 
for God hath so commanded. But when a neighbour s honour is 
taken away, why is not the robber crucified 1 Are goods, forsooth, 
better Tlian honour? Hath God, forsooth, commanded that he 
who taketh goods shall be punished and he that taketh life with 
goods shall be punished, but he that taketh away honour shall go ^ 
free ? Surely not ; | for by reason of their murmuring our fathers 170 a 
entered not into the land of promise 1 , but only their children. ( l6 9") 
And for this sin the serpents slew about seventy thousand of our 
people 2 . 

As God liveth ^in^wjip^o^iresencemy soul standeth, he that ^ 
steaTeth honour is worthy of greater pumslrnrcnir than he that // 
"robbeth a man of goods and of life. And he that hearkenetti to ^Q^7. 
The inurmurer iFltfewise guilty, for the one receiveth Satan on 
his tongue and the other in his ears. 

The Pharisees were consumed [with rage] at hearing this, 
because they were not able to condemn his speech 3 . 

Then there drew nigh to Jesus a doctor, and said to him : 
Good master 4 , tell me, wherefore God did not grant corn and 
fruit 5 to our fathers? Knowing that they must needs fall, surely 
he should have allowed them corn, or not have suffered men 
to see it. 

Jesus answered: Man, thou callest me good, but thou errest^ 

for God alone is good . And much more dost thou err in asking 
VHy God TmfffnoTdone according to thy brain. Yet I will answer 
thee all. I tell thee, then, | that God our creator d in his working con- 170 h 
formeth not himself to us, wherefore it is not lawful for the creature ( l6 9 b ) 
to seek his own way and convenience, but rather the honour of God 
his creator d , in order that the creature may depend on the Creator 
and not the Creator on the creature. As God liveth b in whose 
presence my soul standeth, if God had granted everything to man, 



* The Chapter on assistance. b By the living God. God is 

good. d God creates. 



1 See Num. xiv. 29, 30. a See Num. xxi. 5 sqq. 3 Cp. Luke xx. 26. 
Cp. Luke xviii. 18, 19. 5 So Qoran : see 41* (p. 91, note 4). 



360 THE GOSPEL OF BAENABAS 

chossa al homo lo homo non haueria honossiuto essere 
seruo di DIG . onde elgi si aueria riputato signore del 
parradisso pero . il chreatore il qualle he benedeto in etterno 
li proibite il cibo azioche lo homo stesse sogetto ha lui . 
he ti dicho in uerita che cholui il qualle ha chiaro il lume 
delli hochij suoi oggni chossa uede chiaro he nelle isstese 
tenebre chaua luce . il che non fa il ciecho onde ti dicho 
che se lo homo nom pechaua non chonossceria io ne tu la 
misserichordia di DIG he la iustitia sua . he se DIG faceua lo 
homo impechabille saria stato equalle ha DIG in talle chossa . 
pero DIG benedeto chreo lo homo bono he iussto* ma libero 
171 a di f are quello che li piaze quajto alia propia uitta he sallute 
ouero danatione . si stupite il dotore quessto sentendo he si 
parti chonfusso . 

CLV b. 

Allora il pontifice chiamo dui uechi sacerdoti sachreta- 
mente . he li mando ha iessu il qualle hera usscito del 
tempio he sedeua nel porticho di sallamone asspetando la 
oratione di mezzo giorno per orare . he appresso disse haueua 
li suoi dissepoli chon grande moltitudine di popullo . si 
apressorno ha iessu li sacerdoti he dissero, maesstro per qualle 
chagione mangio lo homo il formento he il porno . DIG uolsse 
che lui lo magiasse ouero no he quessto dissero tentandollo . 
perche se lui diceua DIG uolsse uolleuano risspondere cho dire 
perche il proibite . he se lui diceua DIG non uolsse uolleuano 
dire adonque lo homo polle piu di DIG posia che hopera 
chontra la uollonta di DIG . Risspose iessu la uosstra dimanda 
he chome la uia sopra il monte che habia alia desstra he alia 
sinistra il precipitio . ma chaminero nel mezzo il che inten- 
dendo | li sacerdoti si confusero uededo che elgi chonosceua 
) ji j oro cn uore . allora disse iessu ogni homo per hauere 
neccessita hopera per suo utille ogni chossa . Ma DIO C il 
quale non ha bissogno di chossa ueruna opero per beneplacito 

U. 



OF THE FORBIDDEN FRUIT 361 

man would not have known himself to be God s servant ; and so 
he would have accounted himself lord of paradise. Wherefore the 
Creator, who is blessed for evermore, forbade him the food, in order 
that man might remain subject to him. 

And verily I say unto you, that whoso hath the light of his eyes 
clear seeth everything clear, and draweth light even out of 
darkness itself; but the blind doeth not so. Wherefore I say 
that, if man had not sinned,_neither^nor thou would have known 
the mercy of God and his righteousness. And if God had made 
man incapable of sin he would have been equal to God in that 
matter; wherefore the blessed God created man good and righteous a , 
but free to do that which he pleaseth in j regard to his own life 171 a 
and salvation or damnation. 




" The doctor was astounded when he heard this, and departed in 
confusion. 

CLV b. 

Then the high-priest called two old priests secretly and sent 
them to Jesus, who was gone out of the temple, and was sitting in 
Solomon s porch l , waiting to pray the midday prayer. And near 
him he had his disciples with a great multitude of people. 

The priests drew near to Jesus and said : Master, wherefore 
did man eat corn and fruit 1 2 Did God will that he should eat 
it, or no 1 And this they said tempting him ; for if he said : 
God willed it, they would answer : Why did he forbid it ? 
and if he said : God willed it not, they would say : Then man 
hath more power than God, since he worketh contrary to the will 
of God. 

Jesus answered : Your question is like a road over a mountain, 
which hath a precipice on the right hand and on the left; but 

I will walkJn the middle. 

* 

When they heard this | the priests were confounded, perceiving 171 b 
that he knew their heart. ( I 7 

Then said Jesus : Every man, for that he hath need, worketh 
everything for his own use. But God c , who hath no need of any 
thing, wrought according to his good pleasure. Wherefore in 




a God did not create Adam except with truth. Inde. b The Chapter 
of the liberal. c God is rich. 



1 Cp. John x. 23. 2 Cp. 42* (p. 93) : for the forbidden fruit, see 

Qoran ii (s. init.) and vii (nut.). The commentators explain it as corn. 
See Sale s note on ii. 



362 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

suo . onde chreando lo homo lo chreo libero azioche elgi 
chonossesi DIG non hauere bissogno di lui . uerbi gratia 
chome fa uno Re il qualle per mosstrare la sua richezza 
he perche li serai suoi lo ammino piu dona liberta alii suo 
serai . pero DIG chreo* lo homo libero azioche molto piu 
ammassi il suo chreatore he chonossesi la sua liberallita . 
che se bene DIG he omnipotente b per non hauere neccessita 
del homo . auendollo chreato chon la omnipotenzza il lasscio 
libero per sua liberallita talmente che potessi resistere al 
malle he fare il bene . che se bene poteua DIG impedire il 
pechato non uolsse chontradire ha la liberallita sua d . perche 
DIG non ha chontraditione azioche auendo hoperato nel homo 
la omnipotenzza he liberallita non chontradi al pechare del 
172 a homo dicho . azioche potessi operare nello homo la missejri- 
^ I?I chordia di DIG he la sua iustitia 6 . he in segno che io dicho 
la uerrita ui dicho che il pontiffice uia mandati per tentarmi 
he quessto he il fruto del suo sacerdotio . si partirno li uechij 
he rinontiorno il tutto al pontifice il qualle disse chostui 
ha il diauollo ha dosso che li renontia ogni chossa . perche 
elgi asspira alia monarchia sopra issdraelle ma DIG li 
prouedera . 



Fata la oratione di mezzo giorno . iessu nel uscire del 
tempio trouo uno ciecho dal uentre della madre sua . lo 
interogorno li dissepoli dicendo maestro chi pecho in chostui 
il padre ouero la madre che perzio elgie nato ciecho . 
Risspose iessu ne il padre ne la madre pecho in chostui ma 
DIO lo ha chossi chreato 8 in tesstimonio dello euangellio . 
he chiamato il ciecho apresso disse sputo in terra he fece 
fanggo he quello posse sopra li hochij del ciecho he disseli . 
ua alia lauanda di siloe he lauati, andete il ciecho he lauatossi 
172 b riceuete il lume . onde ritornando ha | chassa molti che lo 
^ I71 inchontrauano diceuano . se cholui fussi ciecho io diria 



a jjJli. 41)1. b JjJ <J]I. 

c }!)- 4lll. ^ J-i^fr 4lll- 

Vll . f x. 



THE MAN BORN BLIND 363 

creating man he created him free in order that he might know X^,<_*- 
that God had no need of him; Verdi grro?T^-6-4lnth ar King, wh~o"""~ // 

" 



display hTsT : icn^s7*ancrin order that his slaves may love him 
more, iveth freedom to hisslavesg 



"~ God, then, created a man free in order that he might love his_ 
Creator much the more and might knowhis bounty. For although 
God is omnipotent b, not having need of man, having created him 
by his omnipotence, he left him free by his bounty , in such wise 
that he could resist evil and do good. For although God had 
power to hinder sin, he "wouldnot contradict his own bounty d 
(for God hath no contradiction) in order that, his omnipotence 
and bounty having wrought in man, he should not contradict sin 
in man, I say, in order that in man might work the mercy | of 172 a 
God and his righteousness e . And in token that I speak the truth, ( 1 7 ia ) 
I tell you that the high-priest hath sent you to tempt me, and this 
is the fruit of his priesthood. 

The old men departed and recounted all to the high-priest, who 
said : This fellow hath the devil at his back, who recounteth 
everything to him ; for he aspireth to the kingship over Itrael ; 
but God will see to that. 

CLVK 

When he had made the midday prayer 1 , Jesus 2 , as he went out 
of the temple, found one blind from his mother s womb. His 
disciples asked him saying : Master, who sinned in this man, his 
father or his mother, that he was born blind 1 

Jesus answered : Neither his father nor his mother sinned in 
him, but God created him so, for a testimony of the Gospel. 
And having called the blind man up to him he spat on the ground 
and made clay and placed it upon the eyes of the blind man and 
said to him : Go to the pool of Siloam and wash thee ! 

The blind man went, and having washed received light; where 
upon, as he returned | home, many who met him said : If this 172 1 
man were blind I should say for certain that it was he who was ^ I71 



God is the Creator. b God is of old. God is liberal. d God 
is just. God gracious and just. f The Chapter. & G O( J [ s 

the Creator. 



1 See note on 87* (p. 193, note 4). 2 See John ix. 1-24. 



364 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

certo che lui essere quello che sedeua alia porta bella del 
tempio . altri diceuano elgie esso ma chome elgia riceuto 
il lume he lo tratenetero dicendo sei tu il ciecho che sedeua 
alia porta bella del tempio . Risspose lui, io son lui he 
perche . Dissero loro hor chome riceuessti la ueduta . Risspose 
lui uno homo fece fango sputando in terra he quello fango 
mi apossto sopra li hochij he disse ha me . ua he lauati 
alia lauanda di siloe, io son andato he son lauato he hora 
uedo che sia benedeto DIG de issdraelle . peruenuto il ciecho 
nato di nouo alia porta bella del tempio si riempi tutto 
ierussalem di talle chossa onde fu menato al principe di sacer- 
doti . il qualle con li sacerdoti he farissei trataua chontra 
di iessu . lo interogo il pontifice dicendo homo sei tu nato 
ciecho . si rissposse lui . hora da gloria ha DIG disse il 
pontifice he dici qual proffeta tie aparuto in sonio che ti 
habia illuminate . elgi stato il padre nosstro abraham ouero 
moisse seruo di DIG ouero alchuno altro proffeta perche altri 
173 a nom possono fare talle chossa . Risspose il ciecho najto, ne 
habraham ne moisse ne ueruno proffeta ho ueduto in sonio 
che mi habia sanato . ma sedendo alia porta del tempio uno 
homo feceme li andare hapresso he fato fanggo di terra 
chon il sputo suo . mi messe di quello fango sopra li hochij 
he mandomi ha la lauanda di siloe al lauarmi onde andai 
he mi son lauato he ritornai chon il lume deli mei hochij . 

10 interogo il pontifice del nome di talle homo . Risspose 

11 ciecho nato lui non mi disse il suo nome ma uno homo 
che uisste quessto mi chiamo he disse ua he lauati chome 
ha deto quello homo . perche elgie iessu nazareno proffeta 
he santo di DIO de issdrael . Disse allora il pontiffice forsi 
hogidi tia sanato che he sabbato . Risspose il ciecho ogidi 
mia sanato . Disse il pontiffice hora uedi chome he pechatore 
chostui che non hosserua il sabbato . 

CLVII. 

Risspose il ciecho nato . che lui sia pechatore io non 
il so ma quessto so che essendo ciecho lui mia illuminate . 



W 1 -* ^ . V-a^V ? /V. 1> i -^-. 

THE MAN BORN BLIND 365 

wont to sit at the beautiful gate of the temple. Others said : 
It is he, but how hath he received light ? And they accosted 
him saying : Art thou the blind man that was wont to sit at the 
beautiful gate of the temple 1 

He answered : I am he and wherefore 1 

They said : Now how~didst thou receive thy sight ? 

He answered : A man made clay, spitting on the ground, and 
this clay he placed upon mine eyes and said to me : " Go and wash 
thee in the pool of Siloam." I went and washed, and now I see : 
blessed be the God of Israel ! 

"When the man born blind was come again to the beautiful gate 
of the temple, all Jerusalem Was filled with the matter. Wherefore 
he was brought unto the chief of the priests, who was conferring 
with the priests and the Pharisees against Jesus. 

The high-priest asked him, saying : Man, wast thou born blind? 

Yea/ he replied. 

Now give glory to God, said the high-priest, and tell us what 
prophet hath appeared to thee in a dream and given thee light. 
Was it our father Abraham, or Moses the servant of God, or some 
other prophet 1 PWjrthers could not do such a thing. 

The man born blind replied : | Neither Abraham nor Moses, nor 173 a 
any prophet have I seen in a dream and been healed by him, but ^ 12 
as I sat at the gate of the temple a man made me come near to 
him and, having made clay of earth with his spittle, put some of 
that clay upon mine eyes and sent me to the pool of Siloam 
to wash ; whereupon I went, and washed me, and returned with 
the light of mine eyes. 

The high-priest asked him the name of that man. 

The man born blind answered : He told me not his name, but 
a man who saw him called me and said: "Go and wash thee as 
that man hath said, for he is Jesus the Nazarene, a prophet and an 
holy one of the God of Israel." 

Then said the high-priest : Did he heal thee perchance to-day, 
that is, the Sabbath 1 

The blind man answered : To-day he healed me. 

Said the high-priest: Behold now, how that this fellow is a 
sinner, seeing he keepeth not the Sabbath ! 

CLVII. 

The blind man answered l : Whether he is a sinner I know not ; 
but this I know, that whereas I was blind, he hath enlightened me. 
1 See John ix. 25-34. 



366 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

173 b Non chredetero quessto li farissei pero dissero al pon|tifice 
mandissi per il padre he madre sua che ci dirano la uerita . 
Mandorno adonque per il padre he madre del ciecho li qualli 
uenuti li interoggo il pontifice dicendo chostui elgi uosstro 
fiolo . Rissposero loro elgie ueramente nosstro fiolo . Disse 
allora il pontifice elgi dice di essere nato ciecho he hora 
uede chome he sucesso la chossa . Rissposero il padre he 
madre del nato ciecho elglie ueramete nato ciecho ma chome 
elgi habia riceuto il lume noi non sapiamo . elgia hetta lui 
interrogate he ui dira la uerita onde furno licenziati he il 
pontifice di nouo disse al ciecho nato . Da gloria ha DIG 
he dicj la uerita . temetero di parllare il padre he madre 
del ciecho perche hera uenuto uno dechreto dal senate 
romano . che niuno douessi 1 chontendere per iessu proffeta 
de iudei sotto pena della uita il che haueua impetrato il 
presside he pero dissero lui ha hetta lui interogate . Disse 
dicho il pontifice al ciecho nato da gloria ha DIG he dici la 
uerita perche sapiamo quessto homo che tu dici hauerti 

174 a sanato che elgie pechatore . Rissposse il ciecho nato J che 
lui sia pechatore non il so ma quessto so che io non 
uedeua he lui mia illuminate . certo he che dal principio 
del monddo insino ha quessta hora non uie stato piu 
illuminate uno ciecho nato . he DIG non hesaudisse li 
pechatori* . dissero li farissei hor chome fece quando te 
illumine . si marauilgio il ciecho natto allora della lore 
inchredullita he disse . io uelo ho dito he perche di nouo 
me interogate non uollete hanchora uoi diuentare suoi 
dissepoli . Io malladi allora il pontifice dicendo tu sei tutto 
nato im pechato he ci uoi hamaesstrare ua he tu diuenta 
dissepollo di talle homo . perche noi siamo dissepoli di 
moisse he sapiamo che DIG ha parllato ha moisse ma 
chostui non sapiamo doue elgi si sia . he il scatiorno fuori 
della sinagogga he tempio proibiendoli la oratione chon li 
monddi de issdrael. 



1 MS. douessi douessi (sic). 



THE MAN BOHN BLIND 367 

The Pharisees did not believe this; so they said to the high- 
priest : | Send for his father and mother, for they will tell us the 173 b 
truth. They sent, therefore, for the father and mother of the ( I72 
blind man, and when they were come the high-priest questioned 
them saying : Is this man your son 1 

They answered: He is verily our son. 

Then said the high-priest : He saith that he was born blind, 
and now he seeth ; how hath this thing befallen ? 

The father and mother of the man born blind replied : Verily 
lie was born blind, but how he may have received the light, we 
know not; he is of age, ask him and he will tell you the 
truth. 

Thereupon they were dismissed, and the high-priest said again 
to the man born blind : Give glory to God, and speak the truth. 

(Now the father and mother of the blind man were afraid to 
speak, because a decree had gone forth from the Roman senate 
that no man might contend for Jesus, the prophet of the Jews, 
under pain of death : this decree had the governor obtained 
wherefore they said : He is of age, ask him. ) 

The high priest, then, said to the man born blind : Give glory 
to God and speak the truth, for we know this man, whom thou 
Bayest to have healed thee, that he is a sinner. 

The man born blind answered : | Whether he be a sinner, 174 a 
I know not; but this I know, that I saw not and he hath en- 
lightened me. Of a surety, from the beginning of the world to 
this hour, there hath never yet been enlightened one who was born 
blind ; and God would not hearken to sinners a . 

Said the Pharisees : Now what did he when he enlightened 
thee ] 

Then the man born blind marvelled at their unbelief, and said : 
I have told you, and wherefore ask ye me again ? Would ye also 
become his disciples 1 

The high-priest then reviled him saying : Thou wast altogether 
born in sin, and wouldst thou teach us ? Begone, and become thou 
disciple of such a man ! for we are disciples of Moses, and we 
know that God hath spoken to Moses, but as for this man, we 
know not whence he is. And they cast him out of the synagogue 
and temple, forbidding him to make prayer with the clean among 
Israel. 



a Neither was the prayer of the evil-doers but in error. Inde. From 
Surah xiii. 15, where however ^j >sl5sJ! is read. 



368 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

CLVID>. 

Andossi il ciecho nato ha trouare iessu il quale il choforto 
174 b dicendo . in niuno tempo fosti chossi beato chojme sei hora 

(i73 b ) 

perche sei da DIO nosstro benedeto il qual parllo per dauit 
padre nosstro he proffeta suo chontra li amici del monddo . 
dicendo loro malladiscono he io benedissco he per michea 
proffeta disse . io malladisco le uosstre benedictione . perche 
non he tanto chontrario la terra allo haere la aqua al f uocho . 
la luce alle tenebre il chaldo al fredo he Io hamore allo hodio 
quanto ha chontrario DIO il uollere dal uollere del monddo . 
Io interogorno adonque li dissepoli dicendo signore grande 
sono le tui parolle pero dici il sensso perche hora noi no le 
intediamo . Rissposse iessu quando chonosserete il monddo 
uederete che io ho deto il uero . he chossi chonosscerete la 
uerita in ogni proffeta sapiate adoque che tre sorte de monddi 
intun sollo uochabolo si chomprende . luno he chiamato li 
cieli chon la terra aqua haere he fuocho chon tutte le chosse 
inferiore allo homo . hora quessto monddo he in tutto sechondo 
la uollonta di DIO perche chome dice dauit proffeta di DIO . 
175 a DIO lia dato uno precceto il qualle | non preterisscono . il 
sechondo he chiamato tutti li homeni chome se chiama la 
chassa di uno non per li muri ma per la familgia . hora 
quessto monddo hanchora amma DIO b perche naturalmente 
dessiderano DIO . talmente che quanto alia natura ogniuno 
dessidera DIO . sebene herano nel cerchare DIO he sapete 
perche tutti dessiderano DIO perche ogniuno dessiderano l uno 
bene inffinito . senza ueruno male il che he sollo DIO C che 
pero il misserichordiosso DIO ha mandate li suoi 2 proffeti ha 
quessto monddo per sua sallute . il terzo monddo he la 
praua chonstitutione delli homeni di pechare che sie chon- 
uertito in legie chontra DIO chreatore del monddo d . la quale 
fa Io homo diuentare simille alii demonij innimici di DIO . 



^l^i. 4)|. d jJU. 

So MS. 2 MS. suo (sic). 



THE WORLD OF THREE KINDS 369 



CLVIII a . 

The man born blind l went to find Jesus, who comforted him 174 h 
saying: At no time hast thou been so blessed as | thou art now, C X 73 ) 
for thou art blest of our God who spake through David 2 , our /l 
father and his prophet, against the friends of the world, saying : f 
" They curse and I bless"; and by Micah 3 the prophet he said: ^ /* *" 

"I curse your blessing. For earth is not so contrary to air, water // 

to fire, lignTto darkness, cold to heat, or love to hate, as is the will 
that God hath contrary to the will of the world. 

The disciples accordingly asked him, saying : Lord, great are 
thy words ; tell us, therefore, the meaning, for as yet we understand 
not. 

Jesus answered : "When ye shall know the world, ye shall see 
that I have spoken the truth, and so shall ye know the truth in 
every prophet. 

Know ye, then, that there be three kinds of worlds compre 
hended in a single name : the one standeth for the heavens and 
the earth, with water, air and fire, and all the things that are 
inferior to man. Now this world in all things followeth the will 
of God, for, as saith David 4 , prophet of God : " God hath given 
them a precept which | they transgress not." 175* 

The second standeth for all men, even as the " house of such an 
one" standeth not for the walls, but for the family. Now this 
world, again, loveth God b ; because by nature they long after God, 
forasmuch as according to nature every one longeth after God, 
even though they err in seeking God. And know ye wherefore 
all long after God? Because they long every one after an infinite 
good without any evil, and this is God alone . Therefore the 
merciful God hath sent his prophets to this world for its salvation. 

The third world is men s fallen condition of sinning, which, 
hath transformed itself into a law 5 contrary to God, the creator of 
the world d . This maketh man become like unto the demons, God s 



a Chapter of the world. b God did not create save with justice. Inde. 
(Surah x. 5.) c God is best, greatest. d God is the merciful, 

and sends messengers and creates. 



1 Cp. John ix. 35. J Cp. Psa. cix. 28. 3 Mai. ii. 2. * Psa. cxlviii. 6 b 
5 Cp. Rom. vii. 21 sqq. 

EAOQ B b 



370 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

hora quessto monddo DTO nosstro hodia talmente che se li 
proffeti hauessero ammato quessto monddo che chredete uoi . 
certo he che DIG li haueria leuato la proffetia he che sto dire . 
Viue DIG* alia chui presezza sta la anima mia che quando 
uenira il nontio di DIG b al monddo se elgi pilgiassi ammore ha 
17 5 b questo I monddo trissto . certo he che DIG li leuarebe quanto 

(i74 b ) . 

elgia donato chreandollo c he il reprobarebe tanto he DIG 
chontrario ha quessto monddo . 

CLIX d. 

Rissposero li dissepoli . ho maesstro grandissime sono le tui 
parolle pero habici misserichordia che noi no le intendiamo . 
Disse iessu chredete forsse uoi che DIG habia chreato il nontio 
suo e per suo riualle che debia uollere agualgiarsi ha DIG . 
certo no ma si bene chome suo bon seruo che non debia 
uollere quello che non uolle il suo signore . Voi nom potete 
intendere quessto perche non chonossete che chossa sia 
pechato pero asscoltate le mie parolle . in uerita in uerita 
ui dicho che il pechato nom polle nasscere nello homo se 
non per chontradire ha Dio f essendo che sollo he pechato 
quello che DIG non uolle talmente . che quanto DIG uolle 
he allienissimo da pechato s . onde se li nosstri pontifici he 
sacerdoti chon li farissei mi perseguitassero perche il popullo 
176* de issdraelle mia chiajmato DIG fariano chossa gratta ha 
DIG he DIG li premiarebe . ma perche mi perssequitano al 
chontrario essendo che non uolgiono chio dicha la uerita 
chome hano chontaminato il libro di moisse . he quello di 
dauit proffeti he ammici di DIG chon le loro traditioni h he 
pero mi odiano he dessiderano la mia morte . pero DIG lia 
in habominatione . ditemi moisse ammazzo homeni he achab 
ammazzo homeni he adonque quessto tutto uno homicidio 
certo no . perche moisse ammazzo li homeni per disstrugere 



il J^. f [^ ^J U U> Jy*. 

l Jbo il j^j U j 1julj t _ 5 LJ 
juq ^ JiXJl cLJd/- 3 



OF THE NATURE OF SIN 



371 



enemies. And this world our God hateth so sore that if the 
prophets had loved this iworld what think ye 1 assuredly God 
would have taken from them their prophecy. And what shall 



I say! As God liveth a , in whose presence iny soufstandeth, when 
the messenger of God b shall come to the world, if he should con 
ceive love towards this | evil world, assuredly God would take 175k 
away from him all that he gave him c l when he created him, and ( I 74 b ) 
would make him reprobate : so greatly is God contrary to this 
world. 

CLIX a. 

The disciples answered : master, exceeding great are thy 
words, therefore have mercy upon us, for we understand them not. 

Said Jesus : Think ye perchance that God hath created his 
messenger e to be a rival, who should be fain to make himself equal 
with God ? Assuredly not, but rather as his good slave, who 
should not will that which his Lord willeth not. Ye are not able 
to understand this because ye know not what a thing is sin. 
Wherefore hearken unto my words. Verily, verily, I say unto you, 
sin cannot arise in man save as a contradiction of God f , seeing 
ThaT fliat only is sin which God willeth not^j^insormich that all 
thaTGod willeth is most alien from sin s. Accordingly, if our high- 
priesti and priests, wltTT the~PharTsees, persecuted me because the 
people of Israel hath called me | God 3 , they would be doing a thing 176 a 
pleasing to God, and God would reward them; but because they 
persecute me for a contrary reason, since they will not have me 
say the truth, how they have contaminated the book of Moses and 
that of David, prophets and friends of God, by their traditions n , 
and therefore hate me and desire my death therefore God hath 
them in abomination. 

Tell me Moses slew men and Ahab slew men is this in 
each case murder? Assuredly not; for Moses slew the men to 




^C^< ^ 



* By the living God. b The prophet of God. c God is the bestower. 
d Chapter of what is unlawful. e The prophet of God. f Explana 
tion of the unlawful. g The unlawful is what is not willed by God, 
who alone is exalted, and what he wishes is not unlawful. Inde. h The 
Jews change the words after they have been set. Inde. 



1 Cp. io3 b (pp. 225, 226). 
cp. btlow, 178 b (p. 377). 



2 Characteristic Mohammedan doctrine : 

3 See 49 b (p. 113, note i). 

B b 2 



372 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

la iddolatria he chonsseruare il chulto di DIG uero a . ma hachab 
ammazo li homeni per disstrugere il chulto di DIG uero* he 
chonsseruare la iddolatria . onde ha moisse si chonuertite in 
sachrificio lo ammazare li homeni he ha achab si chonuersse in 
sachrilegio . talmente che una opera isstessa feze quessti dui 
chontrarij effeti . Viue DIG b alia chui pressenzza sta la anima 
mia ehe se satana hauessi parllato alii angioli per uedere 
chome loro ammauano DIG che lui non saria riprobato da DIG . 

176 b ma perche cercho | di desuiarli da DIG pero he riprobato . 

I75 Kissposse cholui che scriue hor chome se intende quel deto in 
michea proffeta della bugia che chomando DIG che fussi deta 
per bocha di falssi proffeti chome e scrito nel libro di re de 
isdrahele . Rissposse iessu ho barnaba recita uno pocho tutto 
il sucesso che uederemo la uerita chiara . 

CLX c . 

Allora disse cholui che scriue . Daniel proffetta scriuendo 
li successi delli Re de issdraelle he tirani chossi scriue . si 
chongrego il Re de issdraelle chon il Re di iuda per chobatere 
chontra li fioli de belial che uole dire reprobi che herano li 
amonitj . E hessendo l sentati in sedia ambi dui in ssamaria 
iosafat Re di iuda he achab Re de issdraelle . stauano 
auanti di loro quatro cento falssi proffetti li quali diceuano 
allo Re de issdraelle asscendo chontra li amoniti . perche 
DIG li dara nelle mani tui he disspergerai hamon . Disse 
allora iosafat si troua quiui alchuno proffeta del DIG di 
padri nosstri . Rissposse achab uie uno sollo il qualle he 
177 a nialligno | che sempre mi predice malle il quale tengo in 
p re gi one t e quessto elgi disse elgie sollo perche quanti si 
trouauano herano ammazati per dechreto di hachab onde 
herano li proffetti . chome ci hai deto ho maesstro fuggiti 
sopra li monti doue non habitauano homeni . Disse allora 
iosafat manda qui per lui he uediamo quello che lui dice; 
chomando adonque hachab che fussi menato hiuui michea . 



1 MS. E hessendo he essendo (sic). 



AHAB AND MICAIAH 

destroy idolatry and to preserve the worship of the true God a , 
but Ahab slew the men to destroy the worship of the true God :i 
and to preserve idolatry. Wherefore to Moses the slaying of men 
was converted into sacrifice, while to Ahab it was converted into 
sacrilege : insomuch that one and the same work produced these 
two contrary effects. __j 

As God liveth h , in whose presence my soul standeth, if Satan 
had spoken to the angels in order to see how they loved God, 
he would not have been rejected of God, but because he sought | 
to turn them away from God, therefore is he reprobate. 

Then answered he who writeth : How, then, is to be understood 
that which was said in Micaiah the prophet, concerning the lie 
which God ordained to be spoken by the mouth of false prophets, 
as is written in the book of the kings of Israel ? 

Jesus answered : Barnabas, recite briefly all that befell, that 
we may see the truth clearly. 

CLX C . 

Then said he who writeth : Daniel the prophet, describing the 
history of the kings of Israel and their tyrants, writeth thus : 1 
" The king of Israel joined himself with the king of Judah to 
fight against the sons of Belial (that is, reprobates) who were 
the Ammonites. Now Jehoshaphat, king of Judah, and Ahab, king 
of Israel, being seated both on a throne in Samaria, there stood 
before them four hundred false prophets, who said to the king of 
Israel : Go up against the Ammonites, for God will give them 
into thy hands, and thou shalt scatter Ammon. 

" Then said Jehoshaphat : Is there here any prophet of the God 
of our fathers 1 

" Ahab answered : There is one only, and he is evil, | for he 177* 
always predicteth evil concerning me ; and him I hold in prison. < 
And this he said, to wit, " there is only one," because as many as 
were found had been slain by decree of Ahab, so that the prophets, 
even as thou hast said, O Master, were fled to the mountain tops 
where men dwelt not. 

" Then said Jehoshaphat : Send for him here, and let us see 
what he saith. 

" Ahab therefore commanded that Micaiah be sent for thither, 

a God j s true. b By the living God. c Chapter of the stories 

Micaiah the prophet. 

1 See 1 Kings xxii. 3-31. 



374 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

il quale uene chon le chatene alii piedi smarito in fazia chome 
lo homo die habita fra la uitta he la rnorte . lo interogo 
hachab dicendo dici michea in nome de DIG asscenderemo 
noi chontra li amoniti ci dara DIO in mano le citta loro . 
Rissposse michea ascendi ascendi che bene ascenderai he 
melgio disscenderai . allora li falssi proffeti laudauano michea 
per uero proffetta di DIO he li sciolssero le chatene da li piedi . 
iosafat che temeua DIO nosstro he non fu giamai inchinato li 
suoi ginochij auanti li iddoli interoggo michea dicendo . 
per ammore di DIO di padri nosstri dici la uerita chome tu 
177 b hai ueduto la riuscita | di quessta guera . Risspose michea ho 
iosafat io temo la facia tua pero ti dicho che ho ueduto il 
popullo de issdraelle chome pechore senzza pastore . Ridendo 
allora hachab disse ha iosafat io te lo deto che chostui 
nom predice se non malle pero tu no il chredeui . dissero allora 
ambi dui hora chome sai quessto ho michea . Risspose michea 

10 senti haparechiarssi uno chonssilgio di angioli auanti di 
DIO he ho sentio DIO chossi dire . chi inganera hachab azioche 
asscendi chontra di amon he sia ammazato . onde chi diceua 
una chossa chi ne diceua una altra ; uene allora uno angiollo 
he disse . sign ore io chonbatero chontra di hachab he andero 
ha li suoi falssi proffetti he portero la buggia nella loro bocha 
he chossi asscendera he sara ammazato . il che sentendo DIO 
disse hora ua he fa chossi che uincerai . allora se adirorno 

11 falssi proffetti he il principe loro perchosse la guancia de 
michea dicendo . ho reprobo di DIO quando si parti da noi 
lo angiollo di uerita he da te uene dici quando uene ha noi 

178 a lo angiollo che ci porto la buggia . Rissposse | michea tu 1 lo 
saperai quando scamperai di chassa in chassa per timore di 
essere ammazzato hauendo tu inganato il tuo Re . allora 
si adiro achab he disse prendete michea he le chatene che 
haueua ha li piedi poneteli al chollo he chustoditello chom 
pane di orzo he aqua . inssino alia mia tornata perche 
hora non so la morte che io li uolgio dare . ascendetero 
adonque he sechondo la parolla de michea sucesse il fato 

1 MS. to (sic). 



AHAB AND MICAIAH 375 

who came with fetters on his feet, and 
a man that liveth between life and_dej 

him, saying: Speak, Micaiah, in the name of 




God. Shall we go up against the Ammonites ] Will God give 
their cities into our hands 1 

" Micaiah answered : Go up, go up, for prosperously shalt thou 
go up, and still more prosperously come down ! 
[~ " Then the false prophets praised Micaiah as a true prophet of 
God, and hroke off the fetters from his feet. 

< "Jehosha E hat.\ho^ared nnr ftflcL_and_had never bowed his 
I4iejdjols,_a^k^^ For the love of the 



oTof our fathers, speak the truth, as thou hast seen the issue 177^ 
of this war. 

" Micaiah answered : O Jehoshaphat^I fear thy face, wherefore. 
I tell thee that I have seen the people of Israel as jh^e^jnthojiL 
a shepherd. 

""" Then Ahab, smiling, said to Jehoshaphat : I told thee that 
this fellow predicteth only evil, but thou didst not believe it/ 

" Then said they both: Now how knowest thou this, O 
Micaiah? 

" Micaiah answered : Methought there assembled a council of 
the angels in the presence of God, and I heard God say thus^: 
" Who will deceive A hah t,hat_he may go 




^ slainj" Whereupon one said one thing~and another said 
cuiotherT Then came an angel and said: "Lord, I will fight 
against Ahab, and will go to his false prophets and will put 
the lie into their mouth, and so shall he go up and be slain." 
And hearing this, God said: "Now go and do so, for thou shalt 

prevail ". 

Then were the false prophets enraged, and their chief smote 
Micaiah s cheek, saying : O reprobate of God, when did the angel 
of truth depart from us and come to thee 1 Tell us, when came 
to us the angel that brought the lie 1 

" Micaiah answered: | Thou shalt know when thou shalt flee 178* 
from house to house for fear of being slain, having deceived C 1 

thy king/ 

" Then Ahab was wroth, and said : Seize Micaiah, and the fetters 
which he had upon his feet place on his neck, and keep him on 
barley bread and water until my return, for now I know not what 
death I would inflict on him. 

" They went up, then, and according to the word of Micaiah the 



376 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

perche il Re di amoniti disse alii suoi serui . guardate 
no chonbatete ehontra il Re di iuda ne chon li principi de 
issdraelle ma ammazate il Re de issdraele achab innimicho 
mio . allora disse iessu fermati barnaba qui perche ci basta 
per il proposito nosstro . 



Auete intesso disse iessu il tutto . rissposero li dissepoli 
si signore onde iessu disse la bugia in uero he pechato ma 
lo homicidio he maggiore . perche la buggia he pechato 
proprio de cholui che la dice . ma lo homicidio se bene he 
17 8 b propio de cholui J che il chomete he talle che distrugie la 
^ I77 piu chara chossa che habia DIG qua in terra che he lo homo . 
he alia bugia si polle rimediare chon dire al chontrario di 
quanto sia deto che . lo homicidio non ha rimedio ueruno 
per nom poterssi di nouo dare la uita allo morto . pero dite 
ha me mosse seruo di DIO pecho elgi ammazando quanti elgi 
ammazzo . Rissposero li dissepoli DIO guardi DIO guardi che 
moisse pechasse hobedendo DIO che il chomandete . Allora 
disse iessu he io dicho DIO guardi che quello angiollo pechassi 
che ingano li falssi proffeti di hachab chon la buggia . im- 
peroche sichome DIO riceuete in sachrificio lo homicidio chossi 
riceuete per laude la buggia . in uerita in uerita ui dicho 
che sichome hera il pichollo che fa fare le scarpe sue chon 
la missura del gigante . chossi hera cholui che uolle fare 
sottoponere DIO alia leggie chome elgi per essere homo he 
sottoposto alia leggie . pero quando chrederete sollo pechato 
quello che DIO non uolle trouarete la uerita in quanto che io 
179 a uio deto | . onde perche DIO non he chompossto ne mutabille b 
chossi nom polle uollere he non uollere una chossa perche . 
haueria chontraditione in se stesso he chonsequentemente pena 
he non sarebe beato inffinitamente . Rissposse fillipo ma 
chome se intendde quel deto di amos proffetta che non uie 
malle nella citta che DIO non lo habia fato . Rissposse iessu 
hora qui uedi fillipo quanto he perichollo il fermarssi nella 



OF THE NATURE OF SIN 

matter befell. For the king of the Ammonites said to his servants : 
See that ye fight not against the king of Judah, nor against the 
princes of Israel, but slay the king of Israel, Ahab, mine enemy. " 

Then said Jesus: Stop there, Barnabas ; for it is enough for 
our purpose. 





CLXI*. 

Have ye heard all ? said Jesus. 

The disciples answered : Yea, Lord. 

Whereupon Jesus said : Lying is indeed a sin, but murder is 
a greater, because the lie is a sin that appertaineth to him that 
speaketh, but the murder, while it appertaineth to him | that 
committeth it, is such that it fostroveth also the dearest thingj 1 " 6 ) 
that God hath here upon earthTthat is, man^ And lying can be 
remedied by saying the contrary of that which hath been said ; 
whereas murder hath no remedy, seeing it is not possible to give_ 
life again to the dead. Tell me, then, did Moses the servant of 
sin in slaying all whom he slew 1 



The disciples answered : God forbid ; God forbid that Moses 
should have sinned in obeying God who commanded him ! 

Then said Jesus : And I say, God forbid that that angel should 
have sinned who deceived Ahab s false prophets with the lie ; for 
even as God receiveth the slaughter of men as sacrifice, so received 
he the lie for praise. Verily, verily, I say unto you, that even as 
the child erreth which causeth its shoes to be made by the measure 
of a giant, even so erreth he who would subject God to the law,, as 
be himself as inaiTis subject to tliejaw^ AY hen, therefore, ye shall 
TleTieve that only to be sin whichGodTwilleth not, ye will find the 
truth \ even as I have told you. I Wherefore, because God is not 179 

( I "78*^ 

composite nor changeable 13 , so also is be unable J;o will and not wilj^ 
a single thing ; for so wouTd he~Fave contradiction fn himself, and 
Consequently ^pain, and would not be infinitely blessed. 

Philip answered: But how is that saying of the prophet 
Amos 2 to be understood, that " there is not evil in the city 
that God hath not done^T 
"^TesurTinsweredl ""Now here see, Philip, how great is the 





Chapter on goodness and wickedness. b God is not created. 



1 Cp. i75 b (p. 371). a Amos iii. 6. 



378 

literra chome fano li farissei che si ano fabrichato la pre- 
desstinatione di DIO . nelli elleti talle che uengono ha dire 
infato DIO essere iniussto, simullatore he bugiardo he horendo 
iuditio che sera sopra di loro . pero ti dicho che qui amos 
proffeta di DIO dice de il malle che il monddo chiama malle 
imperoche . se lui hauessi presso il uochabolo de iussti lui non 
saria state- intesso dal monddo . perche tutte le tribulationi 
sono bene che ouero ci purgano il malle che habiamo fato . 
ouero sono bene perche cimpediscono di non fare malle . 
ouero ssono bene perche fano chonosscere al homo la con- 
ditione di quessta uita azioche amiamo he dessideramo la 
179 b uitta heter|na . se adonque amos proffetta hauessi deto non. 
uie bene alchuno nella citta che DIO non lo habia fatto 
haueria dato chagione di dessperatione alii afliti uedendossi 
tribulati . he li pechatori im prosperita uiuere he quello che 
pegio he . molti chredendo che satana hauessi talle imperio 
sopra li homeni temerebono satana he il seruirebono per 
non essere tribulati . fece adonque amos chome lo interprete 
Romano che non guarda le parolle a parllare alia pressenzza 
del pontiffice . ma guarda alia uollonta he negoti de il iudeo 
che non sa parllare lingua hebrea . 

CLXII a . 

Se amos hauessi deto . non uie bene alchuno nella citta 
che DIO non lo habia fato . Viue Dio b alia chui pressenza 
sta la anima mia che haueria fato graue herore . perche il 
monddo non ha per bene se non le scelerita he pechati che 
per uia di uanita si fano c . onde hauerebono molto piu 
hoperato li homeni inniquamente chredendo che non ui sia 
180* pechato he sce[leragine ueruna che DIO non la habia fato 
che trema la terra sentendo quessto . he deto quessto iessu 
subito uene uno grande teremoto per modo che ogniuno stete 
tramortito . li leuo iessu dicendo hora uedete se io ue dicho 



GOD NOT AUTHOR OF EVIL 379 

danger of resting in the letter, as do the Pharisees, who have 
invented for themselves the " predestination of God in the elect," 
in such wise that they come to say in fact that God is unrighteous, 
a deceiver and a liar and a hater of judgement (which shall fall 
upon them). 

< Wherefore I say that here Amos thepropjiet of God speaketh 
f TTnr-^TT .vWh t.y,.. worl.l callenreyjrTfopJlie had used the 
"Tanguage^Fthe righteous he would noThave Jjeen__understood 



__ 

tlie world. For all tribulation^ are well, either for that they 
purge the evil that we have done, or are well because they restrain 
us from doing evil, or are well because they make man to know 
the condition of this life, in order that we may love and long for 
life eternal. | Accordingly, had the prophet Amos said : " There is 
no good in the city but what God hath wrought it/ be had given 
occasion for despair to the afflicted, as they beheld fgemseivesin 
tribulafio^amLsinners living in prosperii^f^nd, what is worse, 
na^yTbelieving Satan to have suclTsovereignty over man, would 
have feared Satan and done him service, so as not to suffer tribula 
tion. Amos therefore did as doth the Roman interpreter, who 
considereth not his words [as one] speaking in the presence of the 
high-priest, but considereth the will and the business of the Jew 
that knoweth not to speak the Hebrew tongue. 



CLXII a . 

If Amos had said : " There is no good in the city but what God 
hath done it," as God liveth b , in whose presence my soul standeth, 
he would have made a grievous error, for the world holdeth not 
for good ought save the iniquities and sins that are done in the 
way of vanity . Whereupon men would have wrought much more 
iniquitously, believing that there be not any sin or wickedness | 
" which God hath not done," at hearing whereof the earth trem- 180* 
bleth. And when Jesus had said this, straightway there arose ^9 
a great earthquake, in so much that every one fell as dead. Jesus 
raised them up, saying : Now see if I have told you the truth. 



4 Chapter on misfortune. b By the living God. c The people of 
the world know no good save what is unlawful, and the foul things of 
the world, and act according thereunto. Inde. 



380 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

la uerita pero quessto bastiui adonque . che amos dicendo 
DIG affato nella citta malle parllando chon il monddo disse 
delle tribulatione le quali sollo li pechatori le chiamano malle . 
Veniamo hora alia predestinatione la qualle dessiderate sapere 
della quale ui parllero apresso il giordano . passato dimani ha 
DIG piazendo a . 

CLXIIIb. 

Andossi iessu al disserto . oltra il giordano chon li suoi 
dissepoli he fato la oratione di mezzo giorno sedete apresso 
di una palma he alia onbra della palma sedetero li suoi 
dissepoli . allora disse iessu tanto he la predestinatione 
sechreta ho fratelli che in uerita ui dicho sollo ad urio 
homo sera notta chiaramente . il quale he quello che 
asspetano le genti il quale li sachreti di DIG li sono tanto 

180 b chiari che uenendo al monddo beati seralno chi ascoltera il 
(170 ) 

suo parllare imperoche . DIG mandera la misserichordia sua 

sopra di loro chome he questa palma sopra di noi . onde si- 
chome quessto harbore ci diffende dal ardore del solle chossi 
la misserichordia di DIG difenderano 1 quelli che chrederano 
in quello homo da satana . Risspossero li dissepoli ho maesstro 
chi sera quello homo che tu dici il quale uera al mondo . 
Kissposse iessu chon iubilo di chuore elgie machometo nontio 
di DIG c il quale uenendo al monddo . sichome fa frutifichare 
la terra la piogia quando longo tempo non ha piouutto . 
chossi elgi sera chagione de bene hoperare alii homeni per 
la abondante misserichordia che portera . perch e elgie una 
neuolla chandida pieno della misserichordia di DIG . la quale 
misserichordia DIG spargera sopra li fideli chome piogia . 

CLXIV<*. 

Vi diro adonque hora . quella pocha chognitione che DIG 
mia choncesso di essa predestinatione . Dichono li farissei 



1 So in MS. 



OF PREDESTINATION" 381 

Let this, then, suffice you, that Amos, when he said that " God 
hath done evil in the city/ talking withjthe world, spake of 



tribulations, which sinners alone 

" Let us come now to predestination, of which ye desire to know, 
and whereof I will speak to you near Jordan on the other side, 
to-morrow, if God will a . 

CLXIII *>. 

Jesus went into the wilderness beyond Jordan with his disciples, 
and when the midday prayer 1 was done he sat down near to a 
palm-tree, and under the shadow of the palm-tree his disciples 
sat down. 

Then said Jesus : So secret is predestination, brethren, that 
I say unto you, verily, only to one man shall it be clearly known. 
He it is whom the nations look for 2 , to whom the secrets of God are 
so clear that, when he cometh into the world, blessed shall they be ] 
that shall listen to his words, because God shall overshadow them 180 h 
with his mercy even as this palm-tree overshadoweth us. Yea, ^^ 9 
even as this tree protecteth us from the burning heat of the sun, 
even so the mercy of God will protect from Satan them that believe 
in that man. 

The disciples answered : Master, who shall that man be of 
whom thou speakest, who shall come into the world 1 

Jesus answered with joy of heart : He is Mohammed 5 , messenger 
of God c , and when he cometh into the world, even as the rain maketh 
the earth to bear fruit when for a long time it hath not rained, even 
so shall he be occasion of good works among men, through the 
abundant mercy which he shall bring. For he is a white cloud 
full of the mercy of God, which mercy God shall sprinkle upon the 
faithful like rain. 



CLXIV d . 

I will accordingly tell you now that little which God hath 
granted me to know concerning this same predestination 4 . The 

a If God pleases. b Chapter on the nation of Mohammed, prophet. 

c Mohammed the prophet of God. d Chapter on predestination. 



1 See on 87* (p. 193, note 4). a Cp. traditional Messianic interpreta 
tion of Hag. ii. 7, &c. 3 See 40*" (p. 89, and note 6 there). * The 

liberal doctrine hero taught is later than the Qoran (cp. Sale, Prelim. 
Discourse, iv. and vii.) : the original teaching is of an absolute predestina 
tion ; cp. e. g. Qoran xvii. sub init. The fate of every man have we bound 
about his neck. See further, Introd. 



382 THE GOSPEL OF BAENABAS 

181 a che ogni chossa sia talmente predestijnata che chie elleto 
nom possi diuentare reprobo . he chie reprobo ha modo ueruno 
non pole diuentare elleto . he che sichome DIO predestino 
il bene chome uia per la qualle chamini lo elleto alia sallute 
che chossi DIO ha predestinate il pechato chome uia per la 
quale il reprobo uadi alia danatione . che sia malladeto la 
lingua che quessto disse chon la mano che quessto scrisse 
imperoche quessto he la fede di satana . ondi chi siano li 
farissei al pressente si polle chonossere che sono fidelli serui 
di satana . a che chossa uolle dire predesstinatione se no uno 
hasoluto uollere di dare fine ad una chossa per la qualle 
ha li mezzi in mano . perche senza li mezzi non si pole 
desstinare uno fine . hora chome destinera la chassa cholui 
che non sollo non ha pietre he danari da spendere ma tam- 
pocho . elgi non ha terra da ponerui sopra uno piedi certo 
niuno . chossi addonque ui dicho che la predesstinatione 
leuando il libero arbitrio che DIO ha donato al homo per 
pura liberallita sua b . he la leggie di DIO certo he che no j 

181 13 predestinatione ma habominatione ueremo ha chostituire . 

(180 ) cne J Q nomo s i a libero lo dimosstra il libro di moisse doue 
quando DIO nosstro dete la leggie sopra il monte sina chossi 
disse . il chomandamento mio non he in ciello azioche tu 
non ti esscusi chon dire . hora chi andera ha portarci il 
chomandamento di DIO he chi ci dara forze da osseruarlo . 
non e tampocho oltra il mare azioche similmente ti esscusi . 
Ma il chomandamento mio he apresso al chore tuo azioche 
quando tu uoi possi osseruarllo . ditemi se il Re herodc 
chomandassi ad uno uechio che diuentassi giouine he ad 
uno imffermo che diuentassi sano il che . non fazendo loro li 
facessi ammazare sarebe iusto quessto . Rissposero li dissepoli 
sarebe iniustissimo he empio herode quessto chomandando . 
allora sospirando iessu disse questi sono li fruti delle traditione 
humane ho fratelli imperoche . dicendo che DIO ha predessti- 
nato il reprobo talmente che elgi nom polle diuentare elleto 
bestemiano DIO per empio he iniussto . che chomanda ha 



PREDESTINATION AND FREE-WILL 383 

Pharisees say that everything hath been so predestined | that he 181 a 
who is elect cannot become reprobate, and he who is reprobate ^ 
cannot by any means become elect ; and that, even as God hath 
predestined well-doing as the road whereby the elect shall walk 
unto salvation, even so hath he predestined sin as the road by which 
the reprobate shall walk unto damnation. Cursed be the tongue 
that said this, with the hand that wrote it, for this is the faith of 
Satan. Wherefore one may know of what manner are the Pharisees 
of the present day, for they are faithful servants of Satan.) 

a What can predestination mean but an absolute will to give an 
end to a thing whereof one hath the means in hand ? for without 
the means one cannot destine an end. How, then, shall he destine 
the house who not only lacketh stone and money to spend, but hath 
not even so much land as to place one foot upon 1 Assuredly none 
[could do so]. No more, then, I tell you, is predestination 1 , taking 
away the free will that God hath given to man of his pure bounty b . 
the law of God. Of a surety it is not | predestination but 181 1 
abomination Ave shall be establishing. 

That man is free the book of Moses showeth, where, when 
our God gave the law upon Mount Sinai, he spake thus 2 : " My 
commandment is not in the heaven that thou shouldest excuse 
thyself, saying : Now, who shall go to bring us the commandment 
of God } and who perchance shall give us strength to observe it 1 
Neither is it beyond the sea, that in like manner thou shouldest 
excuse thyself. But my commandment is nigh unto thine heart, 
that when thou wilt thou mayest observe it." 

Tell me, if King Herod should command an old man to becomo 
young and a sick man that he should become whole, and when 
they did it not should cause them to be killed, would this 
be just? 

The disciples answered : If Herod gave this command, he would 
be most unjust and impious. 

Then Jesus, sighing, said : These are the fruits of human 
traditions, O brethren; for in saying that God hath predestinated 
the reprobate in such wise that he cannot become elect they 
blaspheme God as impious and unjust. For he commandeth the 



* Sotting forth predestination. b God bestows and is munificent. 



1 i.e. in the sense of taking away &c., cp. argument in 183*. The 
construction of the whole passage is somewhat obscure. 

2 Cp. Deut. xxx. 11-14. 



384 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

182 a il pechatore | che nom pechi he pechando che ne faci peni- 
^ tenzza . essendo che talle predestinatione lieua al pechatore 
il potere de l nom pecliare he in tutto il priua di peniteza . 

CLXV*. 

Ma che dice DIG per ioel proffeta sentite . Viue DIG b uostro 
che io non uolgio la morte del pechatore ma cercho che elgi si 
chonuerta ha penitenzza . adonque DIG predestinera quello che 
lui non uora chonsideratello uoi quello che dice DIG he quello 
che dichono li pressenti farissei . de piu dice DIG per essaia 
profeta ho chiamato he non mi hai uolluto udire he quanto 
DIG ha chiamato sentite chome esso per lo isstesso proffetta 
uello dice . tutto il giorno esstendo le mani al popullo che non 
mi chrede ma mi chontradisscono . he li nostri farissei dicendo 
che non si polle ellegere il reprobo che dichono adonque se no 
che DIG scernisse li homeiii . chome scerniria uno ciecho chi li 
mosstrassi il biancho . he scerniria il sordo chi li parllassi alle 
182 b horechie . che lo elleto si posjsi reprobare chonssiderate quello 
che disse DIG nosstro per hezechiel proffetta . Viuo dice DIG b 
che se il iussto habandonera la iustitia sua per modo che 
elgi fara le abominationi elgi perira he non mi harechordero 
piu ueruna iustitia sua . perche chonfidandossi in quella essa 
lo habandonera auanti di me he non il saluera . he della 
uochatione del reprobo che dice DIG per hosea proffeta se 
non che . io chiamero la plebe non elleta la chiamero elleta . 
elgie uerace DIG he nom polle dire bugia perche essendo 
uerita uerita dice c . Ma li pressenti farissei chon la loro 
dotrina chontradichono in tutto ha DIG . 

CLXVI d . 

Rispose andrea . ma chome se intende quanto disse DIG 
.ha moisse che elgi hauera misserichordia . chi lui uora hauere 
misserichordia . he indurera quelli che lui uora indurare . 



1 MS. se. 




NO PREDESTINATION UNTO REPROBATION 385 

sinner j not to sin, and when he sinneth to repent ; while_^uch_182 a 
predestination taketh away from the sinner the power not to sin^ 1 
a^i3~entireiydeprivetirhim ot repentance. 

CLXV a . 

But hear what saith God by Joel 1 the prophet: " As I live b , 
[saith] your God, I will not the death of a sinner, but I seek that 
he should be converted to penitence." "Will God then predestinate 
that which he willeth not 1 ? Consider ye that which God saith, 
and that which the Pharisees of this present time say. 

Further, God saith by the prophet Isaiah 2 : " I have called, and 
ye would not hearken unto me." And how much God hath called, 
hear how he saith by the same prophet 3 : " All the day have, 
I spread out my__hands to a people that believe me not, but ww**,, 
contradict me." And our Pharisees, when they say that the 
reproTJate cannot become elect, what say they, then, but that 
God mocketh men, even as he would mock a blind man who 
should show him something white, and as he would mock a deaf 
man who should speak into his ears ? And that the elect can | be 182 b 
reprobated, consider what our God saith by Ezekiel 4 the prophet: ( l8lb ) 
"As I live, saith God b , if the righteous shall forsake his righteous 
ness and shall do abominations, he shall perish, and I will not 
remember any more any of his righteousness ; for trusting therein 
it shall forsake him before me and it shall not save him." 

And of the calling of the reprobate, what saith God by the 
prophet Hosea 5 but this : " I will call a people not elect, I will 
call them elect." God is true, and cannot tell a lie: for God 
being trutE speaketh truth . But the Pharisees of this present 
time with their doctrine contradict God altogether. 



CLXVI a. 

Andrew replied: But how is that to be understood which Got 
said to Moses 6 , that he will have merry on whom he willeth 
to Kave rnjar-ey- and-wilj^harden whom he willeth to harden 1 ? 

a Chapter on acceptance. b By the living God. c God is truth ; 
God is faithful. d Chapter of predestination. 

1 Cp. Ezek. xviii. 23. 2 Isa. Ixv. 12. 3 Cp. Isa. Ixv. 2. * Cp. 

Ezek. xviii. 24. 5 Hos. ii. 23 ^cp. Rom. ix. 25). 6 Cp. Exod. xxxiii. 
19. and iv. 21, &c. : here cited apparently from Rom. ix. 18. 

KAOQ C C 



386 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

Risspose iessu DIO dice quessto azioche non chredi lo homo per 
propria uirtu saluarssi ma chonossi la uita he misserichordia ] 

183 a di DIO per sua liberallita DIO hauerla donata a . he lo dice 
perche sia fuggito la opinione di altri dij che lui . onde se elgi 
induro faraone lo fece perche elgi haueua flagellato il popullo 
nosstro he cerchato di disspergerlo chon fare anegare tutti li 
fioli massci de issdraelle . che pero fu uicino moisse ha perdere 
la uitta . Vi dicho adonque in uerita che la predesstinatione 
ha per fondamento la legie di DIO chon il libero arbitrio 
humano b . talmete che sebene potria saluare DIO tutto il 
monddo senza che ueruno perissi non il uolle fare per non 
priuare lo homo di liberta . la qualle per fare disspeto ha 
satana li chonsserua azioche quel fanggo sprezato dal spirito . 
sebene pechera chome fece il spirito possi pentirsi he andare 
habitare doue il spirito fu scaziato . Voile DIO nostro dicho 
seguitare cho la misserichordia sua il libero uollere dello homo 
he non uolle chon la omnipotenzza sua abandonare la chrea- 
tura d . onde il giorno del iuditio ueruno potera dire scussa 

183 b ueruna per li loro pechati . essen|do che allora li sara 
2 manifessto quanto DIO ha fato per la loro chonuerssione e . 
he quante uolte li chiamo ha penitenzza . 

CLXVII f. 

Se adonque lo intelleto uosstro non si aquietera ha 
quessto . he uorete di nouo dire perche chossi io ui 
apriro uno perche he quessto . ditemi perche una pietra 
nom polle stare sopra la aqua he tutta la terra sta sopra 
la aqua . ditemi perche la aqua esstingue il fuocho he 
la terra fugisse dallo haere talmente . che la terra, la 
aqua lo haere he il fuocho niuno polle unirli im paze non 
dimeno nel homo sono uniti he pacifichamente si chons- 
seruano . se donque non sapete quessto anziche tutti li 
homeni chome homeni nom possono saperllo . chome chono- 



PREDESTINATION OVERTHROWETH NOT FREEDOM 387 

Jesus answered : God saith this in order that man may not 
believe that he is saved by his own virtue, but may perceive 
that life and the mercy | of God have been granted him by God of 183 a 
his bounty a . And he saith it in order that men may shun the ( l82 ") 
opinion that there be other gods than he. 

If, therefore, he hardened Pharaoh he did it because he had 
afflicted our people and essayed to bring it to nought by destroying 
all the male children in Israel : whereby Moses was nigh to losing 
his life. 

Accordingly, I say unto you verily, that predestination hath for 
its foundation the law of God and human free will b . Yea, and even 
if God could save the whole world c so that none should perish, he 
would not will to do so lest thus he should deprive man of freedom, 
which he preserveth to him in order to do despite to Satan, in 
order that this [lump of] clay scorned of the spirit, even though it 
shall sin as the spirit did, may have power to repent and go to 
dwell in that place whence the spirit was cast out. Our God 
willeth, I say, to pursue with his mercy man s free will, and 
willeth not to forsake the creature with his omnipotence d . And so 
on the day of judgement none will be able to make any excuse for 
their sins, seeing | that it will then be manifest to them how much 183 b 
God hath done for their conversion e , and how often he hath called ^ 
them to repentance. 

CXLVIIf. 

Accordingly, if your mind will not rest content in this, and 
ye be fain to say again: "Why sol" I will disclose to you 
a " wherefore." It is this. Tell me, wherefore cannot a [single] 
stone rest on the top of the water, yet the whole earth resteth 
on the top of the water 1 Tell me, why is it that, while water 
extinguisheth fire, and earth fleeth from air, so that none can unite 
earth, air, water, and fire in harmony, nevertheless they are united 
in man and are preserved harmoniously * 1 

If, then, ye know not this nay, all men, as men, cannot know 



a God bestows and is munificent. b Setting forth predestination. 

c God guards. d And God is powerful over all. Inde. e God 

repents. f Chapter on predestination. 



1 Cp. above, i3i a- ~ b (pp. 281-3). 

C C 2 



388 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

scerano de niente DIO hauere chreato il tutto chon una 
solla parolla a . chorae chonosserano la hetternita di DIO b . 
certo he che mancho potrano chonossere quessto perche 
184 a essendo lo homo finito he chompossto chon il | chorpo il 
l 3 qualle . chome dice sallamone proffeta perche si chorompe 
agraua la anima . he le hopere di DIO che he proportionate 
ha DIO chome si poterano chomprenderlle . Essaia proffeta 
di DIO chossi uedendo essclamo dicendo Veramente tu sei 
DIO ascondito c . he dello nontio di DIO d chome DIO e lo ha 
chreato dice la sua generatione chi la narera . he dello 
hoperare di DIO dice chi e stato suo chonsilgiero . onde DIO 
disse alia humana Natura sichome il ciello he essaltato 
dalla terra . chossi sono essaltate le uie mie dale uie 
uosstre he li pensieri mei dalli penssieri uostri . ui dicho 
adonque che il moddo della predestinatione non he manifessto 
alii homeni sebene il fato he uero di quanto uio deto f . 
deue adonque lo homo per non trouare il moddo reprobare 
il fatto . certo che io non ho giamai ueduto ueruno richusare 
la sanita sebene il modo no chonosceno . chome DIO per il 
mio tochare sani lo infermo che hancor ha me he inchognito . | 

18 4t> CLXVIII e. 

Dissero allora li dissepoli . ueramente DIO in te parlla 
perche homo non ha parllato giamai chome te . Rissposse 
iessu chredetemi che quando DIO mi ellesse per mandarmi 
alia chassa de issdraelle mi dete uno libro chome spechio 
chiaro . il qualle disscese nel chor mio per modo che quanto 
parllo il tutto usisce da quel libro . he quando sera finito 
di usscire quel libro dalla mia bocha sero leuato da il 
monddo . Risspose pietro ho maesstro hanchora quello che 
tu dici hora he scrito in quel libro . Risspose iessu tutto 
quello che io dicho per chognitione di DIO he per seruitio 
di DIO . per chognitione dello homo he per sallute del 

* ,jL. pj^lj ^ Ml] ^ ^ ^ y &\ jAj* L.. 
b jb 4)1. c * alll. 



PREDESTINATION INSCRUTABLE 389 

it how shall they understand that God created the universe out 
of nothing with a single word a ? How shall they understand the 
eternity of God b 1 Assuredly they shall by no means be able to 
understand this, because, man being finite and composite with 
the body, which, as saith the prophet Solomon 1 , being corruptible, 184 a 
presseth down the soul, and the works of God being proportionate r ~ l83 ") 
to God, how shall they be able to comprehend them ? 

Isaiah - , prophet of God, seeing [it to be] thus, exclaimed, 
saying : Verily thou art a hidden God_c ! " And of the messenger 
of God d , TiowHod e hath created him, he saith 3 : " His generation, 
who shall narrate 1 " And of the working of God he saith 4 : " Who 
hath been his counsellor]" Wherefore God saith unto human 
nature 5 : " Even as the heaven is exalted above the earth, so are 
my ways exalted above your ways and my thoughts above your 
thoughts." 

Therefore I say unto you, the manner of predestination is not 
manifest to men, albeit the fact is true, as I have told you f . 

Ought man then, because he cannot find out the mode, to deny 
the fact ? Assuredly, I have never yet seen any one refuse health, 
though the manner of it be not understood. For I know not 
even now how God by my touch healeth the sick. | 



CLXVIHX 

Then said the disciples : Yerily God speaketh in thee, for 
never 6 hath man spoken as thou speakest. 

Jesus answered : Believe me, when God chose me to send me 
to the house of Israel, he gave me a book like nnto a clear 
mirror 7 which came down into my heart in such wise that all 
that I speak cometh forth from that book. And when that book 
shall have finished coming forth from my mouth, I shall be taken 
up from the world. 

Peter answered : O master, is that which thou now speakest 
written in that book ? 

Jesus replied : All that I say for the knowledge of God and 
the service of God, for the knowledge of man and for the salvation 

a God created everything by one word. Inde. b God persists. c God 
is concealed. d The prophet of God. e God, to whom be praise. 

f Concealed predestination. g Chapter setting forth the Gospel. 

1 Wisd. ix. 15. 2 Isa. xlv. 15. 3 Isa. liii. 8. 4 Isa. xl. 13. 

5 Isa. Iv. 9. 6 Cp. John vii. 46. 7 See above, 9 b (p. 15 and note 6). 



390 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

homo tutto uscisse da quello libro che he lo euangelio mio . 
Disse pietro he ui scrito la gloria del parradisso . 

CLXIXX 

Risspose iessu . asscoltate che io ui diro chome he il 
parradisso he chome starano li santi he fidelli in quello 

I85 a senzza fine . che quessto he uno di magiori | beni del parra- 
( l8 4 a ) di sso . imperoche ogni chossa per grade che essa sia auendo 
fine diuenta picholla he niente . il parradisso he chassa doue 
DIG chonsserua b le sui delitie le qualli sono talle . che la terra 
la qualle chalchera li piedi di santi he beati he tanto preciossa 
che una dragma di quella he piu preciossa de mille mondi . le 
qualli delitie il padre nosstro dauit proffeta di DIG le uedete 
perche uelle mosstrete DIG essendo che li fece uedere la gloria 
del parradisso . onde ritornato ritornato in se stesso chon abe 
le mani se chiusse li hochij he piangendo disse . non guardate 
piu ho hochij mei quessto monddo perche tutto he uano senzza 
niuno bene . delle qualli dellitie disse esaia profeta . hochij di 
homo non ha ueduto, horechie non ha udito ne chore humano 
chompresso quello che DIG ha preparato ha quelli che lui 
amma c . sapete perche elgie [che] non hano ueduto sentito he 
chompresso talli delitie elgie perche . uiuendo quiui non sono 
degni di uedere quelle . onde sebene il padre nosstro dauit 

185 b le uedete in uerita ui dicho che lui non le uedete cho | ochij 
humani perche DIG tiro la anima sua ha se onde unito chon 
DIG per lume diuino le uisste . Viue DIG d alia chui pressenzza 
sta la anima mia che essendo le delitie del parradisso inffinite 
he lo homo finite non le polle chomprendere lo homo . si- 
chome uno uasso pichollo di terra nom polle chomprendere 
il mare . guardate adonque quanto sia bello il monddo nel 
tempo de lo hestate quando ogni chossa produce frutto tal- 
mente . che il chontadino inebriate di allegrezza per il 
pressente richolto fa risonare le ualli he monti chon il suo 



All!. 



OF THE GLORY OF PARADISE 391 

of mankind all this cometh forth from that book, which is my 
gospel. 

Said Peter : Is there written therein the glory of paradise 1 

CLXIX*. 

Jesus answered : Hearken, and I will tell you of what manner 
is paradise \ and how the holy and the faithful shall abide there 
without end, for this is one of the greatest | blessings of paradise, 18 5 
seeing that everything, however great, if it have an end, becometh 
small, yea nought. 

Paradise is the home where God storeth b his delights, which 
are so great that the ground which is trodden by the feet of the 
holy and blessed ones is so precious that one drachm of it is 
more precious than a thousand worlds. 

These delights were seen by our father, David, prophet of God, 
for God showed them unto him, seeing he caused him to behold 
the glories of paradise : whereupon, when he returned to himself, 
he closed his eyes with both his hands, and weeping said : " Look 
not any more upon this world, O mine eyes, for all is vain, and 
there is no good ! " 

Of these delights said Isaiah 2 the prophet: 



have not seen, his_earaJiam not heard, nor hath the human"heart 
Tonceived, that which God hath prepared ToTthem that love him <V 
-ftnWye wherefore they have n6T~^e^n7tiear^co1acelved such 
delights 1 It is because while they live here below they are not 
worthy to behold such things. Wherefore, albeit our father David 
verily saw them, I tell you that he saw them not with | human 185^ 
eyes, for God took his soul unto himself, and thus, united with C 1 
God, he saw them with light divine. As God liveth^, in whose 
presence my soul standeth, seeing that the delights of paradise are 
infinite and man is finite, man cannot contain them; even as 
a little earthen jar cannot contain the sea. 

Behold, then, how beautiful is the world in summer-time, when 
all things bear fruit ! The very peasant, intoxicated with gladness 
by reason of the harvest that is come, maketh the valleys and 
mountains resound with his singing, for that he loveth his labours 

Chapter on paradise. b God guards. c God gives life. d By 
the living God. 

* Paradise in Qoran is characterized, as here, by miraculous rivers and 
fruits (Qoran xiii. sub fin. ; xlvii. wied.) : but in place of the spiritual 
tone of Barnabas we have the sensual suggestions of Qoran Ivi. 

2 Cp. Isa. Ixiv. 4 (here cited apparently from i Cor. ii. 9). 



392 

chantare . somamente ammando le sui fatiche . hora chossi 
leuate l il chore uosstro al parradisso doue hiuui ogni chossa 
he fratuossa di fruti proportionati ha cholui che lo ha 
choltiuato . Viue DID* che quessto bassta per chonosscere il 
parradisso imperoche DIG ha chreato b il parradisso per chassa 
delle sui delitie . hora chredete uoi che la inmenssa bonta 
non habia chosse inmensse bone . la inmenssa bellezza non 
habia chosse inmensse belle . guardate che uoi herareste 
grandemente se chredesste che lui non le hauessi j 



186 a 

(185") 

Dio dice chossi allo homo che fedelmente il seruira . io 

chonossco le opere tui che per me hoperi . uiuo in etterno e 
che lo ammore tuo non superera la mia liberallita . perche 
tu mi serui chome DIO chreatore f tuo chonosscendo te essere 
hopera mia . he non dimandi ha me se non gratia he 
misserichordia di seruirmi fidelmente . perche non poni fine 
al mio seruitio essendo che tu dessideri in hetterno seruirmi . 
chossi faro io che ti premiaro chome se tu fussi DIO equalle 
mio . perche non sollo ponero la abondantia del parradisso* 
nelle tui mani . ma donero me stesso ha te in dono . che 
sichome tu uoi essere sempre mio seruo chossi faro sempre 
tua mercede . 

CLXXId 

Che ui pare disse iessu alii suoi dissepoli . de il paradisso 

heui intelleto che possi chomprendere talli richezze he del- 

186 b litie . el bissogneria che lo homo hauessi | tanta chognitione 

1 5 quanto ha DIO se lui uollessi chonossere quanto DIO uolle 

donare alii serui suoi g . hauete ueduto quando herode fa 

pressente ad uno suo fauorito barone chome lui lo presenta . 

Risspose ioane io lo ho ueduto dui uolte he certo che 

a j*. <Ujl). b jJU. 4)1. c ... ~\ 4)1. d dl 

e p^ j iS* ^ f 

4)1. 



1 MS. leveta (sic). 



GOD THE REWARD OF HIS SERVANTS 393 

supremely. Now lift up even so your heart to paradise, where all 
things are fruitful with fruits proportionate to him who hath 
cultivated it. 

As God liveth a , this is sufficient for the knowledge of paradise, 
forasmuch as God hath created b paradise for the home of his own 
delights c. Now think ye that immeasurable goodness would not have 
things immeasurably good 1 Or that immeasurable beauty would 
not have things immeasurably beautiful 1 ? Beware, for ye err 
greatly if ye think he have them not. | 



CLXX d. 186* 

(185") 
God saith thus to the man who shall faithfully serve him: 

"I know thy works, that thou workest for me. As I live eternally 6 , 

thy love shall not exceed my bounty. Because thou servest me 

as God thy creator f , knowing thyself to be my work, and askest 

nought of me save grace and mercy to serve me faithfully ; because 

thou settest no end to my service, seeing thou desirest_to_se_rve_^ - 

me eternally: even so will I do, forT WtH rgwa roT thee as til/ 

thou wert God,%ine equai._ For_no^pnly will I place in jhyjands_ L2 ^j t^^^, 

tSe abundance oL^aradise^but I will give thee myself as a giftjr J2. . 

So Ifiaf7~even as thou art fain^to~~tre~my seivaut for^ever^eigix- / 

"so will I make thy wages^for ever." 



What think ye/ said Jesus to his disciples, of paradise ? 
Is there a mind that could comprehend such riches and delights? 
Man must needs have | a knowledge as great as God s if he would 186 b 
know what God willeth to give to his servants %. 

Have ye seen, when Herod maketh a present to one of his 
favourite barons, in what sort he presenteth it 1 

John answered : I have seen it twice ; and assuredly the tenth 
part of that which he giveth would be sufficient for a poor man. 

a By the living God. b God creates. c God is better. d Chapter 
on paradise. e God is living and of old. f God is the Creator and 

is guidance and merciful. 8 God bestows. 



1 For the mystic tendency of this chapter, suggesting Suffism, cp. 
(p. 55) and i59 b (p. 339) ; and see Introd. 



394 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

bassteria ha uno pouero la decima di quanto li dona . Disse 
iessu ma se uno pouero sara pressentato da herode che chossa 
li dara . Rissposse ioane uno ouero dui minuti . hora quessto 
sia il libro uosstro da studiare per chonossere il parradisso . 
perche quato DIG ha dato a al homo in quessto monddo per 
il chorpo he chome che herrode doni uno minuto ad uno 
pouero . ma quanto DIG dara" alia hanima he chorpo im 
paradisso he chome se herrode donassi quanto elgia he la 
propia uita ad uno suo seruo . 

CLXXIIb. 

DIG dice chossi ha chi lo amma he serue fidelmente . Va 

he chonssidera ho sseruo mio la harena dello mare se he 

18 7 a molta . onde se il mare ti donassi uno 1 sollo grano di 

(i86 a ) 

harena ti pareria pocho certo si . Viuo io chreatore tuo che 
quanto ho donate in quessto monddo ha tutti li principi 
he Re della terra he mancho di quello grano di harena 
che ti darebe il mare risspeto . ha quanto ti daro nel 
parradisso mio . 



Ora disse iessu chonsiderate la abondantia del parradisso . 
perche se DIG ha dato a al homo in quessto mondo una 
oncia di bene im parradisso ne dara dieci cento millia some . 
chonssiderate la quantita di frutti che sono in quessto 
monddo . la quantita de cibi . la quantita de fiori he la 
quantita di chosse che serue lo homo . Viue Dio d alia chui 
pressenzza sta la anima mia che sichome al mare auanza 
harena quando uno riceue uno grano di quella . chossi supera 
la quallita he quantita de fichi ha una sorte de fichi che 
quiui manggiamo . he chosi ogni altra chossa nel parradisso . 
ma de piu ui dicho in uerita che sichome he piu preciosso 
uno monte di horo he margarite de la ombra di una formicha . | 

18 7 b chossi he piu preciosso le dellitie del parradisso ha tutte 
(i86 b ) L_ r 

4)1. b ila- j|j . c L$ k-*- J 

4)U. 



OF THE ABUNDANCE OF PARADISE 395 

Said Jesus : But if a poor man shall be presented to Herod 
what will he give to him 1 

John answered : One or two mites. 

Now let this be your book wherein to study the knowledge 
of paradise/ [said Jesus] : because all that God hath given a to 
man in this present world for his body is as though Herod should 
give a mite to a poor man; but what God will give a to the 
body and soul in paradise is as though Herod should give all that 
he hath, yea and his own life, to one of his servants. 



CLXXIIb. 

God saith thus to him that loveth him, and serveth him 
faithfully : " Go and consider the sands of the sea, O my servant, 
how many they are. Wherefore, if the sea should give thee one j 
single grain of sand, would it appear small to thee? Assuredly, 187* 
yea. As I, thy creator, live, all that I have given c in this world ( l86 
to all the princes and kings of the earth is less than a grain 
of sand that the sea would give thee, in comparison of that which 
I will give thee in my paradise." 

CLXXIIIt). 

Consider, then, said Jesus, the abundance of paradise. For 
if God hath given a to man in this world an ounce of well-being, in 
paradise he will give him ten hundred thousand loads. Consider the 
quantity of fruits that are in this world, the quantity of food, the 
quantity of flowers, and the quantity of things that minister to 
man. As God liveth d , in whose presence my soul standeth, as the 
sea hath still sand over and above when one receiveth a grain 
thereof, even so will the quality and quantity of figs 1 [in paradise] 
excel the sort of figs we eat here. And in like manner every 
other thing in paradise. But furthermore, I say unto you that 
verily, as a mountain of gold and pearls is more precious than 

the shadow of an ant. I even so are the delights of paradise more 187 * 

(i86 b ) 



a God gives. b Chapter on paradise. c God lives, creates, and 

ives. d By the living God. 



1 For the fruits of paradise, cp. Qoran, xiii, xlvii, and Ivi. 



396 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

le dellitie de li principi del monddo . che hano hauto he 
hauerano insino al iuditio di Dio a quando il monddo hauera 
fine . Rissposse pietro nel parradisso adonque anderaui il 
chorpo nosstro che hora habiamo . Rissposse iessu guarda 
pietro che tu non diuenti saduceo perche li saducei dichono 
che la charne non rissurggera he che non ui sia angiolli . onde 
sono priui di andare la anima he il chorpo loro nel parradisso 
he sono priui di hauere alchuno seruitio dalli angioli in 
quessto monddo . sei forssi smentichato di iob proffetta he 
ammicho di DIG che dice . io so che DIG mio uiue b he nel 
nouissimo giorno risuscitaro nella charne mia he chon li 
hochij mei uedero DIG saluatore mio c . ma chredi ha me 
che quessta charne nosstra sara talmente puriffichata che 
non hauera ueruna propieta di quello che hora ha . imperoche 
sera purgata di oggni chatiuo dessiderio he DIG la ridurera 
in talle stato quale hera addamo auanti che pechasse . Dui 
seruono uno patrone intuna isstessa hopera . luno sollo 
188 a uede la opera he chomanda al sechondo he il sechondo ho|pera 
7 quanto il primo chomanda . parui iussto dicho che il patrone 
premij sollo cholui che uede he chomanda he scazij fuori di 
chassa cholui che si affaticho nella hopera certo no . hora 
chome soporterra la iusstitia di DIG che seruendo DIG la 
hanima he chorpo chon il senso del homo . la anima sollo 
uedendo he chomadando il seruitio perche . la anima non 
manggiando pane non degiuna . non chamina . no sente 
freddo he chaldo . non se infferina ne he ammazzata . perche 
la hanima he inmortalle . la quale non patisse pena ueruna 
di quesste chorporalli che per uia di ellementi patisse il 
chorpo . elgi iusto dicho che sollo essa uadi im parradisso 
he non il chorpo che tanto si affatichato seruendo DIG . 
Risspose pietro ho maesstro il chorpo auendo fato pechare 
la anima non deue essere possto im parradisso . Rissposse 
iessu hora chome pechera il chorpo senzza la hanima certo 
elgie impossibile . pero leuando tu la misserichordia di DIG 
al chorpo chondani la anima allo inferno I 



41)1. b 41)1. C Ji-jU 41)1. 



OF THE BODY IN PARADISE 397 

precious than all the delights of the princes of the world which 
they have had and shall have even unto the judgement of God a 
when the world shall have an end. 

Peter answered : Shall, then, our body which we now have go 
into paradise 1 

Jesus answered : Beware, Peter, lest thou become a Sadducee ; 
for the Sadducees say that the flesh shall not rise again, and that 
there be no angels l . Wherefore their body and soul are deprived 
of entrance into paradise, and they are deprived of all ministry 
of angels in this world. Hast thou perchance forgotten Job 2 , 
prophet and friend of God, how he saith : "I know that my God 
livethb; andinjhejast day I shall rise again in myjiesh, and with 
rnTneeyes^I_ghall see God my Saviour c_" ? 

* But believe me, this flesh of ours shall be so purified that it 
sbafT not ^possess a single property of those which jopjyjtjiathj^ 
seeing that it shall be purged of^every 7 evil T desire, and God shall 
TecIucVIt to such a condition as was Adam s 




wo men serve one master in one and the same work. The 
one alone seeth the work, and giveth orders to the second, and the 
second performeth all that the first commandeth. Seemeth it 188* 
just to you, I say, that the master should reward only him who ^ 7 
seeth and commandeth, and should cast out of his house him who 
wearied himself in the work 1 Surely not, 

How then shall the justice of God bear this ? The soul and 
the body with the sense of man serve God : the soul only seeth 
and commandeth the service, because the soul, eating no bread, 
fasteth not, [the soul] walketh not, feeleth not cold and heat, 
falleth not sick, and is not slain, because the soul is immortal : it 

^i^ ^ 1- 

suffereth not any of those corporal pains^whicli the body suffers aj;.,:. 
tTTelnstance ofthe elements^ TFlt^th^nT^ultpr^a^/that the soul 
"alone should^g^lnEo^aTacnse , and not the body, whicliliath wejxied_L 

itself so mucbfrT serving God ? 

"*Teter ans-NverecTr^ t) master, the body, having caused the soul to 

sin, ought not to be placed in paradise. 

Jesus answered : Now how shall the body sin without the 

soul 1 Assuredly it is impossible. Therefore, in taking away God s 

mercy from the body, thou condemnest the soul to hell. | 




God is wise. b God lives. c God guards. 



1 Cp. Acts xxiii. 8. 2 Cp. Job xix. 25-27. 



398 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

188b CLXXIV *. 

(i8 7 b ) 

Viue Dio b alia chui pressenza sta la anima mia che DIG 
nosstro promete la misserichordia sua al pechatore c dicendo . 
in quella hora che il pechatore si dollera de il pechato suo 
per me io non mi harechordaro le inniquita sue in hetterno . 
hora chi mangeria li cibi del parradisso se il chorpo non ui 
andassi la hanima certo no essendo che lei he spirito . 
Risspose pietro adonque magierano li beati im paradisso ma 
chome riusscira il cibo senza inmonditia . Bissposse iessu 
hora qualle beatitudine hauera il chorpo se elgi non mangiassi 
he beuessi . certo he che elgie chonueniente dare gloria ha 
proportione del gloriffichato . ma heri pietro penssando che 
talle cibo riusisca chon inmonditie perche quessto chorpo al 
pressente mangia cibi chorutibilli . hepero chossi usscise la 
putreffatione ma nel paradisso il chorpo sera inchorutibille . 
impassibille he immortalle libero da ogni misseria he li 
cibi . li qualli sono senzza ueruno diffeto non genererano 
putrefatione ueruna . | 

189 a CLXXV a . 

188") 

DIO dice chossi in essaia proffeta scernendo li reprobi . li 

serui mei senterano ha tauolla in chassa mia he starano in 
chonuiuio allegramente chon fessta he suoni de citare he 
organi . he non li lassero manchare chossa ueruna . Ma 
uoi che sette innimici mei sarete scaziati da me doue morirete 
di misseria dissprezzandoui ogni mio seruitore . 

CLXXVI* 

A che serue dire starano in chonuiuio disse iessu alii 
dissepoli suoi . certo he che DIO parlla chiaro . ma ha che 
serue quatro fiumi di preciosso liquore nel paradisso chon 
tanti fruti . certo he che DIO non manggia . li angioli non 
manggiano . la anima non manggia . il sensso non manggia d 



41)1. 



OF THE BODY IX PARADISE 399 

CLXXIV a . 

As God liveth b , in whose presence my soul standeth, our God 
promiseth his mercy to the sinner c , saying J : "In that hour that 
the sinner jshalljament his sin, by myself, I will not remembeTFhis 
iniquities for ever." 



what should eat the meats of paradise, if the body go not 
thither 1 The soul 1 Surely not, seeing it is spirit. 

Peter answered : So then, the blessed shall eat in paradise ; but 
how shall the meat be voided without uucleanness ? 

Jesus answered : Now what blessedness shall the body have if 
it eat not nor drink ? Assuredly it is fitting to give glory in 
proportion to the thing glorified. But thou errest, Peter, in 
thinking that such meat should be voided in uncleanness, because 
this body at the present time eateth corruptible meats, and thus it 
is that putrefaction cometh forth : but in paradise the body shall 
be incorruptible, impassible, and immortal, and free from every 
misery ; and the meats, which are without any defect, shall not 
generate any putrefaction. | 



CLXXV*. 189* 

(i88 a ) 
God saith thus in Isaiah 2 the prophet, pouring contempt on the 

reprobate : " My servants shall sit at my table in mine house and 
shall feast joyfully, with gladness and with the sound of harps 
and organs, and I will not suffer them to have need of anything. 
But ye that are mine enemies shall be cast away from me, where 
ye shall die in misery, while every servant of mine despiseth 
you." 

CLXXVI*. 

To what doth it serve to say, "They shall feast"? said 
Jesus to his disciples. Surely God speaketh plain. But to 
what purpose are the four rivers 3 of precious liquor in paradise, 
with so many fruits ? Assuredly, God eateth not, the angels eat 
not, the soul eateth not, the sense eateth not d , but rather the flesh, 



ft Chapter on paradise. b By the living God. c God the gracious. 
d God and the angels and the spirit and the soul do not eat food. Inde. 



1 Cp. Ezek. xviii. ai, 22. J Cp. Isa. Ixv. 13. 8 So in Qoran, xlvii, 
paradise has four rivers, (i) of water, (2) of milk, (3) of wine, (4) of honey. 



400 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

ma sibene la charne che he il chorpo nosstro . onde la gloria 
del parradisso he per il chorpo quanto alii cibi . he per la 
hanima he sensso in quanto ha DIG he alia chonuerssatione 
di angioli he spiriti beati . la qualle gloria sera melgio 
maniffesstata dallo nontio di mo a il qualle hauendo DIG chreato b 
189 b il tutto per ammore suo chonossce melgio di ogni al|tra 
chreatura il tutto . Disse bartolameo ho maesstro sara he- 
qualle ad ogni homo la gloria del paradisso . se sera hequalle 
non sera iussto he se non sera equalle li minori hauerano 
inuidia alii maggiori . Rissposse iessu non sera equalle perche 
DIO he iusto c he ogniuno si chontentera perche hiuui non he 
inuidia . di a me bartolameo elgie uno patrone il qualle ha 
molti serui li qualli ueste di uno isstesso pano tutti li suoi 
seruitori . onde li fanziuli che hano uesti da fanciuli si 
dolgiono che non hano uesstimenta da homeni grand! certo 
anziche . se li magiori li uollessero ponere le loro uessti 
magiori se adireriano perche no sendo equalle ha loro le 
uesti chrederiano essere burlati . hora bartolameo leua il 
chore tuo ha DIG nel paradisso he uederai che tutta una 
gloria sebene sara ha chi piu ha chi meno . non portera 
alloro inuidia ueruna 

CLXXVIia. 

Disse allora cholui che scriue . ho maesstro il parradisso 
190 a ha elgi lume di solle chome ha quessto monddo . Risspojse 
^ 9 iessu DIG chossi mia deto ho barnaba . il monddo nel qualle 
habitate homeni pechatori ha il solle la luna he le stelle 
che lo adornano . per beneficio uosstro he allegrezza che 
quessto ho chreato io pero chredete uoi che la chassa doue 
habiterano li mei fideli non sia melgio . certo che herate 
quessto chredendo perche io DIG uosstro son il solle de il 
parradisso he il nontio e mio he la luna il qualle da me riceue 
il tutto . he le stelle sono li mei proffeti che ui ano predichato 
la mia uollonta . onde li mei fidelli sichome alloro li portorno 



s, *- . 



DIVERS DEGREES OF GLORY 401 

which is our body. Wherefore the glory of paradise is for the body 
the meats, and for the soul and the sense God and the conversation 



of angels and blessed spirits. That glory shall be better revealed 
by the messenger of God a , who (seeing God hath created b all 



things for lqy_e_of him *) knoweth allllungs betferthan any other 
^reaTurer^ 

Said Bartholomew : master, shall the glory of paradise be 
equal for every man 1 If it be equal, it shall not be just, and if it 
b"e not equal the lesser will envy the greater. 

Jesus answered : It will not be equal, for that God is just c ; and 
everyone shall be content, because there is no envy there. Tell 
me, Bartholomew : there is a master who hath many servants, and 
he clotheth all of those his servants in the same cloth. Do then 
the boys, who are clothed in the garments of boys, mourn because 
they have not the apparel of grown men 1 Surely, on the contrary, 
if the elders desired to put on them their larger garments they 
would be wroth, because, the garments not being of their size, 
they would think themselves mocked. 

Now, Bartholomew, lift thy heart to God in paradise, and 
thou shalt see that all one glory, although it shall be more to 
one and less to another, shall not produce ought of envy. 



CLXXVIId 

Then said he who writeth : O master, hath paradise light from 
the sun as this world hath ] 

Jesus answered : j Thus hath God said to me, Barnabas : 190 a 
" T Tlie_WQrld wherein__y_e__men_that are sinners dwell hath^ the sun ( l8 9*) 
and the moon and the stars that adorn it, for your benefit and your 

adness; for"Ttrt5~hgve I 



"JThmJLye, then, that the house where my faithful dwell shall 
not J)e__better ? Assuredly, ye err, so thinking: for I, your God, 
am the sun of paradise, and my messenger e is the moon who from 
me receiveth all ; and the stars are my prophets which have 
preached to you my will. Wherefore my faithful, even as they 
received my word from my prophets [here], shall in like manner 

The prophet of God. b God, Creator. God is just. 

A Chapter on paradise. e His prophet. 

1 See 41* (p. 91); 57 b (p. 131). 



402 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

la mia parolla li mei proffeti . ehossi nel parradisso delle 
delitie mie riceuerano per loro dilleto he allegrezza . 

CLXXVIII*. 

E quessto bastiui per chonosscere il paradisso disse iessu . 
onde di nouo disse bartolameo ho maesstro habimi pazienzza 
se io te dimando una parolla . Risspose iessu di quello che 
tu dessideri . Disse bartollameo il paradisso elgie grande 
certo imperoche stando in esso si grandi beni lui deue essere 
19 O b grande . Rissposse | iessu il pavadisso he tanto grande che 
9 nom polle homo ueruno missurarllo . Diehoti in uerita che 
noue sono li cielli fra li qualli stano li pianeti li qualli sono 
distati luno dallo altro cinque cento hanni di chamino humano . 
he la terra similmente he disstante dal primo cielo cinque cento 
hanni di chamino . Ma fermati ha missurare il primo ciello il 
qualle he ehossi magiore di tutta la terra chome tutta la terra 
he magiore di uno grano di harena . he ehossi il sechondo 
ciello he maggiore de il primo he il terzo de il sechondo he 
ehossi ogniuno insino allo ultimo ciello sono magiori uno 
dello altro . onde in uerrita ti dicho che il parradisso he 
magiore di tutta la terra he tutti li cielli chome he maggiore 
tutta la terra di uno grano di harena 15 . Disse allora pietro 
ho maesstro il paradisso deue essere maggiore di DIG perche 
DIG si uede dentro . Rissposse iessu taci pietro che tu bestemij 
he non te ne hauedi . 

CLXXIX *. 

191 a Allora uene langelo gabrielo ha iessu . he li mostro [ uno 
spechio rilucente chome il solle nel qualle uisste scrito quesste 
parolle . Viuo io in etterno che sichome he magiore il 
parradisso di tutti li cieli he la terra chome he magiore la 
terra tutta di uno grano di harena . ehossi son maggiore del 
parradisso he tante uolte piu quanta harrena ha il mare . 
quante goza di aqua d sono sopra il mare . quante erbe sono 
a -- b <\ s-. 

A .a. 5,_wu. J^ &*& 



OF THE GREATNESS OF PARADISE 403 

obtain delight and gladness through them in the paradise of my 
delights." 



CLXXVIII a . 

And let this suffice you/ said Jesus, for the knowledge of 
paradise. Whereupon Bartholomew said again : master, have 
patience with me if I ask thee one word. 

Jesus answered : Say that which thou desirest. 

Said Bartholomew: Paradise is surely great: for, seeing there 
be in it such great goods, it needs must be great. 

Jesus answered : | Paradise is so great 1 that no man can measure 19 O b 
it. Verily I say unto thee that the heavens are nine, among which ^ I8 9 ) 
are set the planets, that are distant one from another five hundred 
years journey for a man : and the earth in like manner is distant 
from the first heaven five hundred years journey. 

But stop thou at the measuring of the first heaven, which is by 
so much greater than the whole earth as the whole earth is greater 
than a grain of sand. So also the_second heaven is greater than 
the first, and the third than the_^econd^and so_on, up to the last 
heaven^ each one ^-Likaw.ise greater than the next.^ And_verily 
I_sjiy_to thee that paradise^ is greater^tEaiT all the earth and all uie ^ 
heavens [together], even_as all the earth is greater than agrain 
of sand V 



Then said Peter : master, paradise must needs be greater 
than God, because God is seen within it. 

Jesus answered : Hold thy peace, Peter, for thou unwittingly 
blasphemest. 

CLXXIXa. 

Then came the angel Gabriel to Jesus and showed him [ 191 a 
a mirror shining like the sun 2 , wherein he beheld written these ^ 9 
words : As I live eternally c , even as paradise is greater than 
all the heavens and the earth, and as the whole earth is greater 

than a grain of sand, even so am I greater than paradise ; and as 

^^^^- ^^_^^ ** 

many times more as the sea hathgfatis~oTsand, as there are drops 

of water d upon the sea, as there are [blades of] grass upon the 

a Chapter on paradise. b Paradise is greater. c God lives and 

persists, and is greatest, mighty. d Water. 



1 Cp. above, ni a (p. 241, note 4). 2 See 9 b (p. 15 and note 6 there). 

D d 2 



404 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

in terra . quante folgie sono sopra li arbori . quanti pelli sono 
sopra li animalli he tante uolte piu quanti grani di harena 
andaria ha riempire tutti li cielli he il parradisso he piu . 
allora disse iessu faziamo riuerenzza* al nostro DIG il qualle 
he benedeto in etterno . onde cento uolte inclinorno il chapo he 
si prostrorno ha terra orando nella fazia loro . fata la oratione 
iessu chiamo pietro he ha lui he ha tutti li dissepoli li disse 
quello che haueua ueduto . he a pietro disse la anima tua che 
he magiore di tutta la terra per uno hochio essa uede il solle 
che he mille uolte maggiore di tutta la terra . elgie uero disse 
pietro . pero disse iessu hora tu chossi per il parradisso uederai | 
191> DIG chreatore nosstro b . he deto quessto iessu resse le gratie 
( I9 b ) ha DIG signore nostro c pregando per la chassa de issdraelle he 
per la citta santa . Risspondendo ogniuno chossi sia signore . 

CLXXXd. 

Vno giorno essendo iessu nel porticho di sallamone . se 
auicino ha lui uno scriba di quelli che faceuano sermone al 
popullo he disseli . ho maesstro io ho molte uolte fato sermone 
ha quessto popullo he mie in chapo uno passo della scritura 
che io non la posso chomprendere . Rissposse iessu he qualle l 
he . Disse il scriba quello che disse DIG ha habraha padre 
nosstro . io saro la mercede tua grandde . hora chome polle 
Io homo meritare ; allorra iessu si allegro in spirito he disse . 
certo tu non sei lontano dal regno di DIG pero asscoltami 
che io te diro il sensso di talle dotrina . DIG per esser infmito he 
Io homo finitto Io homo nom polle meritare DIG he questo he il 
102 a dubio tuo fratello . Rissposse il | scriba lachrimando, signore 
tu chonossi il mio chuore pero parlla che la anima mia 
dessidera la tua uoce . allora disse iessu, Viue DIG e che Io homo 
nom polle meritare uno pocho de fiato il qualle ogni momento 
riceue . Ressto il scriba fuori di se quessto sentendo he 



1 MS. apparently quelle. 



OF MAN S MERIT 405 

ground, as there are leaves upon the trees, as there are skins upon 
the beasts ; and as many times more as the grains of sand that 
would go to fill the heavens and paradise and more. 

Then said Jesus : Let us do reverence a to our God, who is 
blessed for evermore. Thereupon they bowed their heads an 
hundred times and prostrated themselves to earth upon their 
face in prayer. 

When the prayer was done, Jesus called Peter and told him 
and all the disciples what he had seen. And to Peter he said: 
; Thy soul, which is greater than all the earth, through one eye 
seeth the sun, which is a thousand times greater than all the 
earth. 

It is true, said Peter. 

Then said Jesus : Even so, through [the eye of] paradise, shalt 
thou see | God our Creator V And having said this, Jesus gave I91 b 
thanks to God our Lord c , praying for the house of Israel and for I9 * 
the holy city. And everyone answered : So be it, Lord. 

CLXXXd. 

One day, Jesus being in Solomon s porch, there drew nigh to him 
a scribe, one of them that made discourse to the people, and said to 
him : master, I have many times made discourse to this people, 
and there is in my mind a passage of scripture which I am not able 
to understand. 

Jesus answered : And what is it \ 

Said the scribe : That which God said to Abraham our father, 
"I will be thy great reward 1 ." Now how could man merit [such 
reward] \ 

Then Jesus rejoiced in spirit 2 , and said : Assuredly thou art 
not far from the kingdom of God ! s Listen to me, for I will tell 
thee the meaning of such teaching. God being infinite, and man 
finite, man cannot merit God and is this thy doubt, brother 1 

The scribe answered, | weeping : Lord, tliou knowest my heart ; 192 a 
speak, therefore, for my soul desireth to hear thy voice. 

Then said Jesus : As God liveth e , man cannot merit a little 
breath which he receiveth every moment. 

The scribe was beside himself, hearing this, and the disciples 



a Prostration. b God is the Creator. c God is sovereign. 

d Chapter on the reward. e By the living God. 



1 Gen. xv. i. 2 Cp. Luke x. 21. * Mark xii. 34. 



406 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

similmente li dissepoli si marauilgiorno perche haueuano in 
memoria . quello che disse iessu che quanto dauano per 
ammore di DIG riceuerebono cento per uno . allora disse se 
uno ui presstasi cento danari di horo he uoi sconsumasste 
quelli danari potresste uoi dire ha quello homo . io ti do una 
folgia de uitte putrefata pero dami la tua chasa che io la 
merito . Risspose il scriba no signore perche lui deue prima 
paggare il debito he poi se lui uolle chossa ueruna li dij chosse 
bone . ma l ha che serue una folgia putrefata . 

CLXXXIa. 

192 b Risspose iesu . bene hai deto ho fratello pero dimi | chia 
( I91 chreato Io homo de niente certo he che elgie stato DIG al 
qualle DIG ha dato b tutto il monddo per suo beneficio . Ma 
Io homo pechando ha il tutto sconsumato perche per il 
pechato tutto il monddo he chontrario ha Io homo . he il 
missero homo non ha se non opere putrefate da pechato 
da dare ha DIG . perche pechando ogni giorno putrefa le 
opere sui che pero esaia proffeta dice . le iustitie nosstre 
sono chome pano messtruato . hora chome potra Io homo 
meritare non potendo sodisfare . he forsi che Io homo non 
pecha certo he che DIG nosstro dice per il proffeta suo dauit . 
sette uolte al giorno chassca il iussto hora chome chassca Io 
ingiussto . he se sono putreffate le iustitie nosstre chome sono 
habomineuolle le iniustitie . Viue DIO C che non uie chossa 
che Io homo debia piu fugire di quessto dire io merito . 
chonossca Io homo ho fratello le opere delle sui mani che 
pressto uedera il merito suo . ogni chossa bona che usscisse 
dallo homo in uerita non la fa Io homo ma le opera DIG nelo 
193 homo | perche Io essere he di DIG che Io ha chreato . quello 
") che fa Io homo he chontradire ha DIG suo chreatore d he 
chometere pechato del qualle non premio ma tormento elgi 
merita . 



. l. c ^ ;ftj. d 

1 MS. : he ma. 



OF MAN S MERIT 407 

likewise marvelled, because they remembered that which Jesus 
said 1 , that whatsoever they gave for love of God, they should 
receive an hundredfold. 

Then he said : If one should lend you an hundred pieces of 
gold, and ye should spend those pieces, could ye say to that man : 
"I give thee a decayed vine-leaf; give me therefore thine house, 
for I merit it " 1 

The scribe answered : Nay, Lord, for he ought first to pay that 
which he owed, and then, if he wished for anything, he should give 
him good things, but what booteth a corrupted leaf! 

CLXXXI \ 

Jesus answered : "Well hast thou said, O brother ; wherefore 
tell me, \ Who created man out of nothing 1 Assuredly it was 1Q2*> 
God, who also gave him b the whole world for his benefit. But ( : 9 Z ; 
man by sinning hath spent it all, for by reason of sin is all 
the world turned against man, and man in his misery hath 
naught to give to God but works corrupted by sin. For, sinning 
every day, he maketh his own work corrupt, wherefore Isaiah 2 
the prophet saith : Our righteousnesses are " as a menstruous 
cloth." 

How, then, shall man have merit, seeing he is unable to give 
satisfaction? Is it, perchance, that man sinneth not? Certain 
it is that our God saith by his prophet David 3 : "Seven times 
a day falleth the righteous " ; how then falleth the unrighteous 1 
And if our righteousnesses are corrupt, how abominable are our 
unrighteousnesses ! As God liveth c, there is naught that a man 
ought to shun more than this saying : " I merit." Let a man know, 
brother, the works of his hands, and he will straightway see 
his merit. Every good thing that cometh out of a man, verily 
man doeth it not, but God worketh it in him ; | for his being 193* 
is of God who created him. That which man doeth is to * 
contradict God his creator * and to commit sin, whereby he meriteth 
not reward, but torment. 



Chapter on the miserable. b God gives. c By the living God. 

d God is the Creator. 



i Cp. Matt. xix. 29 and 15* (p. 30- * C P- Isa - rxx 22 

Prov. xxiv. 16. 



408 THE GOSPEL OF BAKNABAS 

.CLXXXIK 

Non sollo DIG ha chreato b lo homo chome dicho . ma lo 
a chreato perffeto . lia dato tutto il monddo dapoi la uscita 
del paradisso . lia dato c dui angioli che il chustodisscono . 
lia mandate 11 li proffeti . lia donato la leggie . lia donate 
la fede . ogni momento il libera da satana . li uolle dare il 
parradisso . he che piu DIG uolle dare se stesso al homo* . 
hora guardate il debito se he grande il qualle per scanccelarlo 
bissogneria che uoi haueste . homo chreato da uoi de niente . 
che hauesste tanti proffeti chreati quanti DIG uia mandate 
cho uno monddo he uno paradisso he de piu chon uno DIG 
grande he bono chome he il nostro DIG f . he donare il tutto 
ha DIG che chossi sarebe scancellato il debito he sollo ui 
restarebe obliggo de ringgratiare DIG . ma nom potendo uoi 
193 b chreare una | mossca . essendoui sollo uno DIG * il qualle he 
I92 patrone h del tutto chome poterete scancellare il debito uosstro . 
certo che imprestandoui uno homo cento danari di horo settc 
obliggati ha restituirli cento danari di horo . il sensso adonque 
di quessto ho fratello sie che DIG per essere lui patrone h del 
parradiso he di oggni chossa . elgi polle dire quello che ha lui li 
piaze he donare quanto ha lui piaze . onde dicen[do] ha abraham 
io saro la tua mercede grande abraham nom polle dire DIG he 
la mia mercede ma deue dire . DIG he il mio dono he il mio 
debito . pero quando tu fratello predichi al popullo tu de 
chossi dichiararlo quessto passo . che DIG donera 6 allo homo 
talle he talle cossa operando bene lo homo . Quando DIG ti parl- 
lassi ho homo he dicessi ho seruo mio tu bene hai hoperato per 
ammore mio che mercede ricerchi da me DIG tuo * . Risspondi 
signore per essere io hopera delle tui mani non he degno che 
in me ui sia pechato il qualle amma satana . pero signore per 
194 a gloria di te stesso habi misserichordia alle ho|pere delle tui 



a i_JjJ eyUfl 8,^-.. b jJU. 41)1. c ^Viw* ill. 

d J--^. ill. e V t2j ill. f^J*. j s fec ill. 

s x*^ jo.1 ill. h eLJU ill. 

ill. 



OF MAN S MERIT 409 

CLXXXII *. 

Not only hatli God created^ 3 man, as I say, but he created him 
perfect. tTeliath given him the whole world ; after the departure 
from "paradise he hath given him two angels to guard him, he 
hath sent d him the prophets, he hath granted him the law, he hath 
granted him the faith, every moment he delivereth him from 
Satan, he is fain to give him paradise ; nay_ more, God willeth 
to give himself to man e. Consider, then, the debt, if iTfs great ! 
[a deTFpto canceT which ye would need to have created man of 
yourselves out of nothing, to have created as many prophets 
as God hath sent, with a world and a paradise, nay, more, 
with a God great and good as is our God f , and to give it 
all to God. So would the debt be cancelled and there would 
remain to you only the obligation to give thanks to God. But 
since ye are not able to create a single | fly, and seeing there 
is but one Gods who is lord h of all things, how shall ye be ( Z 9 2b ) 
able to cancel your debt ? Assuredly, if a man should lend you an 
hundred pieces of gold, ye would be obliged to restore an hundred 
pieces of gold. 

Accordingly, the sense of this, brother, is that God, being 
lord 11 of paradise and of everything, can say that which pleaseth 
him, and give whatsoever pleaseth him. Wherefore, when he said 
to Abraham l : " I will be thy great reward," Abraham could not 
say : " God is my reward," but " God is my gift and my debt." 
So when thou discoursest to the people, O brother, thou oughtest 
thus to explain this passage : that 2 God will give e to man such 
and such things if man worketh well. 

When God shall speak to thee, O man, and shall say : " O my 
servant, thou hast wrought well for love of me; what reward 
seekest thou from me, thy GodM" answer thou: "Lord, seeing 
I am the work of thy hands, it is not fitting that there should be 
in me sin, which Satan loveth. Therefore, Lord, for thine own 

glory, have mercy upon the I works of thy hands. I94 a 

(i93 ft ) 



a Chapter on the verities of penitence (?). b God is the Creator. 

c God gives. d God sends. e God bestows. f God is 

great and good. K God is one and single. h God is the possessor. 

1 God is sovereign. 



1 Gen. xv. i. 3 Or for. 



410 THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS 

mani . he se DIG dicessi io ti ho perdonato a he hora uolgio 
premiarti rissponda signore io per quello che io ho fato 
merito essere punito he per quelo che tu hai fato meriti 
essere glorifichato . pero signore punissi in me quello che 
io ho fato he salua quello che tu operato hai . he se DIG 
dicessi qualle pena ti pare chonueniente al tuo pechato 
rissponda . quanto patirano tutti li reprobi ho signore he 
se DIG dicessi per qualle chagione ricerchi chossi grande 
pena ho seruo mio fidelle . B/issponda perche ogniuno di 
loro se hauessero riceuto da te quanto ho riceuto ti haueriano 
fidelmente seruito piu di me . he se DIG dicessi quando uoi 
riceuere quessta pena he per quanto tempo rissponda hora 
he senza fine . Viue DIG b alia chui pressenzza sta la anima 
mia che talle homo saria piu grato ha DIG che non sono 
tutti li angioli santi suoi . perche DIG amma la humilta 
uera he hodia la superbia . allora il scriba ringratio iessu 
he disseli signore andiamo alia chassa de il tuo seruo . 
194 b perche il tuo seruo ti dara da mangiare | he alii tuoi 
193 dissepoli . Rissposse iessu io ui ueniro quado mi prometerai 
di chiamarmi fratello he non signore . he dirai che sei mio 
fratello he non seruo . promisse Io homo he iessu ando alia 
chassa sua . 

CLXXXIIId. 

Mentre che mangiauano disse il scriba . ho maesstro tu 
hai deto che DIG amma 6 la humillta uera pero dici chome 
he la humillta he chome si tr