Skip to main content

Full text of "The imperial Bible-dictionary : historical, biographical, geographical, and doctrinal; including the natural history, antiquities, manners, customs and religious rites and ceremonies mentioned in the Scriptures, and an account of the several books of the Old and New Testamen; illustrated by numerous engravings"

See other formats



- -;:-,:- 








iNCi.n>m: THF 





VOLU M K 1. 







NKAKI.Y twelve years have elapsed since this Jiible-Dictionnry was projected, and an 
understanding come to between the Editor and the Publishers respecting its execu 
tion. ( irennistances, however, occurred to prevent the actual commencement oi the 
undertaking so earlv as was intended ; and unforeseen delays have occasionally arisen 
during the progress of publication, prolonging the period of completion considerably 
beyond th - time originallv contemplated. When the design was formed K>lt<> 
( //dopa <l<<t was tin; oiilv English work of the kind, in which the later results of 
biblical scholarship were applied to the elucidation of Scripture; and though others 
have appeared sinee in particular the learned and comprehensive work edited by 
Dr. Smith yet from the plan on which this .Dictionary was projected, and the 
distinctive aims it was intended to reali/.e. there still seems to 1 e a place lett which 
it mav without presumption or needless rivalry endeavour to till. 

The circle through which religious inquiry so far at least as regards an intelli 
gent study of the sacred records has spread itself in this country, is a progressively 
expanding one. There is a constantly growing class of persons in different grades 
of soeietv, who, without any professional study of the languages and literature of 
the llil. le. are yet possessed of sufficient culture, and intelligent interest in sacred 
things, to dispose and enable them to pn.lit by works in which I. ib !i.-al subjects 
are handled in the light of modern learning and research, if not. overloaded with 
scholastic forms of expression, or entering into very minute and lengthened investi 
gations. To a certain extent, and as regards all the greater topics and interests of 
the Bilile. the wants of >uch persons do not materially dilf.-r from those of a vast 
proportion of the ministers of the gospel, who with limited resources, and with 
comparatively lilt It: time for independent research and continuous study, require to 
have at command a store-house of knowledge on biblical subjects in a compendious 
form. And in an age like the present, in which knowledge generally is so much 
increased, in which also speculation in divine things is so rife, and weapons are so 
busily plied within as well as without the pale of the visible Church to undermine 
the foundations and pervert the teaching of the Word of Cod, it is of the greatest 
moment that helps of the kind now indicated should be. amply provided such 
helps especially as combine with the fruits of enlightened and careful inquiry sound 
principles of Scriptural interpretation, and are not too voluminous or expensive to 
be accessible to an extensive circle of readers. 

It was with such views and aims that this ]l]\>l> -l)\ct nn><iv >j was undertaken, 
and has been carried out ; and with reference to these it ought to be judged. It 
were vain, however, to expect that it could preserve throughout a method equally 
appropriate to one and all of its readers. Embracing such a manifold variety ot 

topics, and topics that stand feinted to such distant clinics and remote ages, it could 
scarcely fail that, in the hands even of a single writer, some articles would run out 
to points that may seem to a class needlessly minute, others bearing too much the 
impress of a learned antiquarianisrn, or an argumentative theology ; -and with the, 
employment of a number of writers the probability that such may occasionally 
happen naturally becomes greater. It should not, therefore, excite any surprise, if 
articles on certain subjects should be found which will scarcely be interesting, or in 
some parts altogether intelligible, except to those who have made biblical learning 
their proper study. The work would not accomplish its purpose, without grappling 
with the questions and the difficulties which inevitably require articles of such a 
description while still it will be found that they form no great proportion of the 
whole, and that the work in its general tenor and substance is adapted to the use 
of persons who have enjoyed a good ordinary education. 

Above all other books the Bible stands pre-eminent for its profoundly ethical 
character and aim; keeping constantly in view, amid all its variety of matter and 
form, the high purposes of a revelation from heaven. This it has been the endeavour 
also of the writers of this work to bear in mind, convinced that no defence or elucida 
tion of Scripture will adequately serve its purpose, apart from an insight into the 
spiritual design as well as the supernatural character of revelation. The work, there- 
tore, is based on the inspiration of the sacred volume, as the unerring record of God s 
mind and will to men; and while it does not needlessly obtrude, yet neither does 
it evade, the topics which more peculiarly distinguish it as such a revelation; it 
takes them in their proper order, as forming an integral and essential part of the 
volume which it has for its object to explain and vindicate. In the lives, also, of 
the more prominent actors in sacred history respect has commonly been had to the 
spiritual meaning of their course, and the relations they respectively held to the 
higher purposes of the divine administration. The method, no doubt, carries with 
it certain difficulties and perils: for in the present divided state of Christendom it 
is impossible to traverse thus the wide domain of Scripture without occasionally 
striking on the cherished convictions of some most intelligent and conscientious 
believers. It should be enough, in such a case, if no needle** offence is given (as 
none such, it is hoped, will be found here); for it were an unworthy compromise, 
and unlike the spirit of the Bible, for the sake of a few minor differences to practise 
a general reserve on the great themes of salvation, and treat the several parts of 
revelation merely as the component items or accidental accompaniments of an 
external and lifeless framework. 

In the carrying out of such a plan it will be understood there is at once a general 
and an individual responsibility the one that of the Editor, the other that of the 
several contributors. The Editor is responsible for whatever may be said to bear on 
the professed scope and distinctive principles of the undertaking: the blame is his 
if anything should appear at variance with the divine character and teaching of 
Scripture, inconsistent with the great principles of truth and duty, or palpably 
defective and erroneous in the discussion even of comparatively common topics. 
But within these limits each writer is responsible for his own contributions; and as 
it is of the utmost importance that every article should bear the stamp of its author s 
vein of thought and untrammelled convictions, so there may be occasional expres 
sions of opinion, and occasional interpretations of texts, to which the Editor does 

I EEFACK. vii 

not hold himself committed ; as there may be also in his own portions of the work 
certain things in which sonic- of his fellow-labourers will lie inclined to differ from 
him. But such differences, he is convinced, are comparatively lew, and form no 
serious abatement on the prevailing concord of sentiment. 

The subjects formally treated are such as strictly belong to a dictionary of the 
Bible; but tor the sake partly of convenience, and partly on account of references 
frequently made to them in discussions on the Bible, the books and some of the 
more prominent characters of the Apocrypha are brieHy noticed. The remarkable 
sect ot the EsSEXES, also, belongs to the same class. The names of persons and of 
subjects generally an-, with few exceptions, given as they appeal- in our English 
Bible; and when they happen to ditler from the form found in the original text, 
such differences are carefully noted at the beginning, or in the course of the article. 
As a rule, \vlieneveranythiiig depends on the precise phraseology of the original, 
the original itself is adduced. There are, however, certain subjects in respect to 
which the UMial designation- in our Engli.h Bible are either not sufficiently definite, 
or have now been commonly supplanted by others; Mich as 1 >i:< ALOCJUE, DKLI CK, 
HADES, PALESTIM:, I EXTATKIVH, SANHEDRIM, which are fitter expressions for the 
subjects requiring to be handled under them than any to be found in our English 
Scriptures, and they have a -coi - dinL; l\ been adopted. 

All the names of persons and places contained in the Bible, it is expected, will 
be found in this Dtdionti.ri/; but with a view to economy of space, and a conse 
quent saving ot expeii-e. a considerable number of names of persons, of whom 
nothing particular is known, which appeal 1 only in groups or genealogies, and some 
also ol the more obscure place-., have been <_dven only in an Appendix, with a refer 
ence to the passage or passages where the names occur. The line betwixt these, and 
certain others which have found a place in the body of the work is at times cer 
tainly a somewhat indetinite one; a few. it is possible, might without disadvantage, 
some may even think with propriety, have changed places; but the number of such 
cannot be very many. A second Appendix or Index has been prepared of the 
text- which have received incidental illustration in the course of the work. In 
this li-t such texts only are included as have had some light thrown on their 
meaning, and of these only such as are le immediately connected with the sub 
jects under which they occur, not texts merely referred to, or those which every 
considerate reader might see to be necessarily involved in the treatment of tho>e 
subjects. Iloth lists have been prepared by the Key. Sinclair Manson. 

1 he Editor desires at the close of his labours to acknowledge his great obliga 
tions to the gentlemen who have lent him their valuable and hearty en-operation. 
To some he is more peculiarly indebted, having respectively taken an entire series 
of subjects, relating to specific departments; in particular, the Rev. E. A. Litton, 
who, along with some kindred topics, has discoursed of the life and epistles of 
St. Paul: the Rev. J)r. Hamilton, and Mr. P. II. (Josse. who have respectively charged 

%J O 

themselves with tin- botanical and the zoological departments; and Professors Weir. 
Douglas, and Eadie, who have each furnished a considerable variety of articles on 
topics relating to the ( )ld Testament. Similar mention should also be made of the chief 
writers of the more elaborate topographical articles Dr. Bonar. the Rev. E. Wilton, 
the Rev. .). Rowlands -who have enriched the work with the results of much 
personal observation, painstaking research, and discriminating study, in connection 

i o o . 

viii PREFACE. 

with a large number of places (some of less, some of greater note). Mainly by a 
growing fulness and particularity in this class of subjects has the work come to 
exceed tin- dimensions originally intended; but this enlargement will, it is hoped, 
be found amply compensated by the increased interest and value imparted by such 
contributions. Mr. Wilton was suddenly cut off in the midst of his labours; but 
not without having done good service both here and in his separate treatise (The 
Xc jch, or tfonth Con at I ;/ >f ^cr/jttu/ Cj in vindicating the minute accuracy and 
truthfulness of Scripture. Two other fellow-labourers, it may be added, have been 
called to their rest before this work has reached its completion the Rev. John 
Macdonald and Professor Lindsay. 

All the articles except those for which the Editor is himself responsible are 
marked at the close by the initials of the several writers. He would willingly have 
had more with these, so that less (especially in the earlier part) might have devolved 
upon himself. He owes, however, to his friend and colleague Professor Douglas, 
beside manv contributions on Old Testament subjects, the greater part of the minor 
articles, not initialed, in letter B. Two articles, it will be observed, are from the 
pens of continental contributors those on the books of Isaiah and Psalms and this 
chieflv on account of the extent to which these peculiar and very precious portions 
of Old Testament Scripture have been subjected by the rash speculations and 
disturbing criticism of German theologians. It seemed most for the benefit of the 
work (besides serving as a pleasing link of connection between home and foreign 
labourers in the same great field) that those portions should be handled by persons 
who, from their intimate acquaintance with the theological literature of their 
country, and their own personal eminence in connection with it, might be considered 
in a special manner qualified to do justice to the subjects. Such, beyond doubt, are 
Professors Delitzsch and Oehler. 

Very particular attention has been given to the illustrations, which include 
representations of the plants and animals mentioned in Scripture, its more notable 
scenes and places, eastern garbs and manners, and the remains of ancient skill and 
handicraft, whether as connected with domestic, social, or religious life, in Palestine 
and the surrounding countries. Maps also and plans, of a convenient form and 
carefully executed, have been interspersed to illustrate the topography of some 
special localities. In addition to such pictorial helps, a series of views representing 
some of the places which the Bible narrative has invested with peculiar interest, 
accompanies the work. 

No one who has had any experience in the practical management of such a work 
can need to be told of the extreme difficulty of preventing occasional omissions and 
slips of a minor kind from creeping in. Besides a few errata given elsewhere, 
including the ascription to Professor Porter of a particular view respecting Bozra, 
a few subjects (DiLL, SPOIL, TYPE, WATER, WILD VINE) were by some oversight 
omitted in their proper places. They will be found in a brief Supplement, along 
with an article on KSHTAOL, left in writing by Mr. Wilton, which from its relation 
to ZORAH (also prepared by him, and inserted in its proper place) it has been thought 
advisable to preserve. 




The articles written, b>/ the Editor have no initials attached. 


Author of " English Criticism and the IVnta- 
teuch," "History of the Rise anil Progress oi 
Islamism," ic. 


Author of "The Tongue of Fire," " A Mission 
t) the Mysore," ic. ; Member of the Royal 
Asiatic Society, Fellow of the, Ethnological So 


Of Gonville ami Cains Collect , Cambridge; 
author of " The Treasury of Bible Knowledge, 1 


Authorof "The Promise," "The Desert 
of Sinai, "ic. 

BONOMI, JOSEPH, K. K.S.I.., J. I ,. 

Authorof "Nineveh ami its Palaces," \c. 

BUCHANAN, Ri:v. ROBERT. D.D., . K.I .. 

Author of " Ecclesiastcs: Its Meaning ami its 
Lessons," "A Clerical Furlough in the Holy 
Land," ALC. 


Author of "Sin: Its Causes amlConseiiueiiiv.-." 
"Echoes of the Universe," \.v 


Prebemlarj" of Cork; author of the opening 
Essay in " Gold and the GOSIK-!," " Kssays, Cri- 
tical and Theological." ic. 

DAVIDSON, RKV. A. H., .M.A A. B. D. 

Professor of Hebrew, New College. Kdinl.urgh; 
author of "A Commentary on the Book of 


Professor of Theology, Erlangen; authorof Com 
mentaries on Habakkuk, Genesis, Psalms, Bib- 
lische Psychologie, &c. 

D1CKSON, RKV. WILLIAM P., u.n W. 1>. D. 

Professor of Divinity and Biblical Criticism, 
University of Glasgow. 


Professor of Hebrew, Free Church College, 
Glasgow, and Examiner in Mental Philosophy 
for graduation in Arts in the University of 

DREW, RKV. t;. S., M.A., G.S.D. 

IiicunilH iit of St. -Barnabas, South Kenning- 
ton ; author of "Scripture Lands in Connec 
tion with their History," " Revealed Economy 
of Heaven and Earth," ic. 

KADIK, KKV. JollX, n.n., I.I..P J. E. 

Professor ,,f Theology, United Presbyterian 
Church: author of Commentaries on St. Paul s 
F.pi.-tles to the Ephesians, Philiji]>ians, and 

FA1-DIXO, KKV. F. J., n.n.. M.A.. . F.J.F. 

Principal of Kotherham College, Yorkshire. 


Editor of " Barnes Notes on the New Testament." 


Author of "Tin- Anatomy of Scepticism." 




Authorof "Life in Earnest," "The Mount of 
olives," &c. 


Minister of Free St. Enoch s Church, Glasgow. 


Formerly Missionary in India. 


Authorof "Primitive Itomanism," \c. 


Authorof " Principles of Geology in Relation to 
Religion," "A Treatise on the Lord s Supper," 


Ministerof Free St. Thomas C hurch, Greenock. 


Professor of Theology, United Presbyterian 
church; authorof "An Jmiuiry into the Law 
of Christian Marriage," &c. 


Rector of Naunton. Gloucestershire ; late Fel 
low of Oriel: examining Chaplain to the Lord 
Bishop of Durham; authorof "The Church of 
( hrist," "A Guide to the Study of Holy Scrip 
ture," Sac. 




Professor of Theology and Hebrew, Knglish 
Presbyterian College, London; author of "Pa 
trick Hamilton," "The [Scottish Reformation, 


Principal of the Congregational Institute for 
Theological and Missionary Training, Notting 

Deanof Cashel; author of " Donellan Lectures 
for 1357. 

MAYO, KEY. ( HAS. THEOPORK, M.A., ( . T. M. 

Incumbent of llillinpleii. near Uxbridire 

SAYILE, RKV. P,. WREY. M.A., B. W. S. 

Author of "The Introduction of Christianity 
into Britain, \c 


Rector of Wappenham, Northamptonshire. 


Professor of Divinity and Ciblieal < riticism. 
University of Aberdeen. 


Author of "Xablous and tlu 1 Modern Samari 
tans," "The British .lews/ ic.; Secretary of the 
Syro-Kgyiitian Society, and of the Anglo- Kibli- 
cal Institute. 


Collo.L o. Dnl.lin J. (Jr. M. 

Professor of Oriental Languages, Presbyterian 
College, Belfast ; author of "Critical and E\v- 
getical Commentary on Genesis, "on "Kxodus," 


Professor, University of Tiibingen. 


Professor of Tlieolotry, New College. K.Iin- 

SMITH. .IAMKS, I.K.S.. ,,f Jordan hill J. S. 

Author of " A Treatise on the Voyage and Ship 
wreck of St. Paul." 


Joint author of "Grammatical and Kxegetical 
Notes on the New Testament." 


Professor of Hebrew, University of Glasgow; 



TUN 1 i l: I.N(.KA\ Kl.. I Al.! 

r>KTHi.K.HEM. (Frontispiece). \\". I,, Leiteh \\ . Millet 

A.VTIocn IN SYKIA... II. Warren \\ . Millel . !l!l 

ATHENS \V. L. LeiU-h \V. Kiehards.m i:,l 

Tin: UriNs OK C.ESAKEA Sam. j;,,u-l, ... ,\V. iMii 

TIIK TOWN AND ISTHMTS OK Ci.iuNTH. iVoiu the Acn i|,, , i- s.-tiii. Muu-li.. \V. ."Miller.. ;;.VJ 

UAMASCI-S,.. ...W. n-lliin .1. 11. Kmiut :i:; 

ANCIK.NT Ki-iiKsrs -restored. .}]. Falkenci A\". Ki.-iiardson r.L 7 

THK SKA OF UALILKE, from near the Ruins of .Saphet. . Aaron Peuley ..\V. Itic lianlson r,17 

HK.r.KON. . ..H. ( 1 . Scions .. S. Mrad-haw 7LM 

.TERrsAl.EM, from the Mount of Olives, . ....H. "Warren W. ."Miller.. s7^ 

I I.AN JERUSALEM, Ancient ami Modern, . ..I. l)artlioloine\\ s7ii 

SCKNI. ON THK. KlVKK .JoIiDAN, . . ..SlUll. liollgh W. Kieliardsoll ..")( I 


Page 2:!, column l>, l::tli line from top,/o/ ACIISATII, rnnl ACIISHAPH. 

,, 133, column ", 1.0th line from bottom, /"</ Arnon ran! Aroer. 

., 234, column </, -4th line from top, / <// Porter, ,-i<"l Kosenmuller. 

,, 404, column , -dth line from bottom, /o/ 1 Ge. xxxvi. 4, ,-nnl Ge. xxxvi. II. 

,. .001, column o. .3d lino from bottom, /b/ 1 1 Cli. vi. 21, /Y<W 1 Cli. vi. -IT. 

., . .li ), column a, llith line from top./ )/ 1 1 Cli. ii. 21, i-<<l 1 Hi. ii. 41. 

., .01(1, column ). ilth line from top, fr>;- wives, read sons. 

,, 043, column n. 27th line from top, />>/ 1 Ch. vi. 14, ;-.Y!</ 1 Cli. vi. 14. 

., 093, column a, 4th line from top, /> ver. i!, rer/il ver. 7. 

,, 7(17, column a, 23d line from bottom, for P". cxxviii., /rrc/ Ps. cxviii 

,, 814, column >/, 17th line from bottom, for Abitibii, /" Asahel. 

.. 070, column <, -20tli line from bottom, / -// [\v. I,.], irrnJ f\v. i. y. ! 




AA RON [properly A/nti mi. but derivation and tered on the edge of the desert with the forces of 
lueanin- unknown], the brother ,,f Moses, and the fi,-t Amalek, Aamn again stood beside Moses in the same 
high-priest ammi- the Israelites. He was the eldest brotherly and subordinate relation he and Hnr bear- 
son of Amram and Jnchehed. both of the tribe of Levi. ing up together the hand- of the man of Cod. with his 
and of the mn-t honourable family of that tribe; for. md pointing to heaven, in token of their dependence 
on the occasion of a contest among the tribes as to on the aid of the Most High, and their acknowledgment 
ri-hts and privileges, when each tribe had to be rcpre- of Moses as the special ambassador of Heaven. Kx. xvii. 

sented by its proper head, the tril f Levi was repre- 0. Aamn. however, was not always so steadfa.-t in 

sented bv Aamn. Nu. xvii. 3. He was three years older thus adhering to his place and calling ; and, like many 

thanMoses, Ex. vii.7, and appears to have l>een born either who are fitted by nature for acting only a secondary 

before the cruel edict of Phanmh was issued respecting part, he was too easily nmved by the circumstances nf 

the destruction nf the male children nf the Israelite-, or the nmmeiit. This appeared especially on the occasion 

l>ef ore families were brought into much distress by its nf the general apostasy, which took place during the 

operation. We kimw imthin- nf Aaron s earlier his j absence of Moses on the mount, and when the people 

tory. excepting that he married Elisheba, one nf the prevailed on Aaron to make for them a molten image. 

daughters of Amminadab. ..f the tribe of .ludah. by The elder Jewish writers have laboured hard to vindi- 

whrnn he had four sons. N adab, Abihu. Klea/.ar, and cate Aaron from the charge of idolatry on this unhappy 

Ithamar. Ex. vi. 23; but fmm the time that the divine occasion. He yielded, some nf them have alleged, to 

jmrpnse to deliver Israel fmm the yoke of K-ypt he -an the people s wishes in the matter, only that he- might 

to take effect. Aaron -t 1 next to Moses in the trans- prevent their perpetrating the greater crime of laying 

actions that led to its accomplishment. He had even, violent hands on himself, in ease he had resisted their 

it would seem, set out to consult with Moses upon the importunate demands; others, that he might protract 

subject before the deliverer a] i] -ared upon the Held of the business till Moses should return and am -t its exe- 

contlict : f-r Mose.- was informed bv the Lord at the eution ; and others still, again, that he might render 

burning bu.-h that his brother Aamn was already on the apostasy less complete, by proclaiming a festival to 

t l,,. NV:l y to i -t him. Kx. iv 11 He was then eighty- Jehovah, under the symbol of the calf, not to the calf 

three years old. and it says much at least for his alac- itself iP.ochart. ll ,,r.,s. \. ii. c. 34). Put we find no 

ritv of spirit, and for thi- general vigour of his frame, such palliations of his conduct in Scripture. With its 

that, at so advanced an age. he should have been wonted and stern impartialitv it represents him as 

ready to make common cause with his brother in such having contributed to bring a great sin upon the people, 

a vast and perilous undertaking. and made them naked to their shame before their ene- 

Tn the w,,rk (-f deliverance itself, as in the important mies, Kx. xxxii. 21-25. Moses even speaks of having made 

transactions that followed, the part assign, d to Aaron, , his sin the subject of .special intercession, as being one 

tliou-h inferior to that of Moses, was one of high con- of peculiar aggravation, Uo.ix.20. It was not, however, 

sideration and great influence. As Moses stood in the . that Aamn prompted, or in any proper respect headed 

room of Cod. issuing from time to time the orders of the apostasy ; hut only that he showed himself too facile 

Heaven, so Aamn stood in the room of Moses, and ; in giving way to the evil, instead of using the authority 

acted as his prophet or spokesman to make known to ] and influence he possessed to withstand it. Such, too, 

Pharaoh what Moses put into his mouth, Kx. iv. il-ic,; - appears to have been the part he acted on the next oc- 

vii.1,2. For tins office, it is intimated, he was specially casion of backsliding, when, along with Miriam, he 

qualified on account of his natural fluency of speech, a yielded to a spirit of envy against Moses, and reproached 

talent in which his more gifted brother was peculiarly ; him, both for having married an Ethiopian woman and 

deficient. When the terrible conflict with the king of for assuming too much to himself. Nu.xii. Miriam was 

Egypt was over, and a fresh straggle had to be encoun- j plainly the ringleader in this more, private outbreak. 

Vol.. I. ^ 



since slit: is both mentioned first, and on her, as tin; 
more guilty party, the special judgment of Heaven 
conies <io\vii. 

The only other occasion on which Aaron is charged 
with open transgression was at that feai-ful tumult 
which arose in the desert of Zin, on account of (lie want 
of water, and which overcame even the stronger faith 
and more patient endurance of Moses, Nu. xx.i-13. (Hue 
MOSES.) It betrayed a failure, if not in the principle 
of faith, at least in its calm and persistent exercise. 
And, happening as it did at a comparatively late period 
in the wilderness sojourn, and too palpably indicating 
an imperfect sanctification in the two leaders, they were, 
partly on their own account, and partly as a solemn 
lesson to others, alike adjudged to die, without being 
permitted to enter the promised land. Still, notwith 
standing such occasional failures. Aaron was undoubt 
edly, for the period, a man of distinguished excellence 
and worth, and is fitly designated the saint of the 
Lord," r.s. t-\i. 10. In his appointment to the sacred and 
honourable office of high-priest, we may as little doubt 
that respect was had to his habitual piety, as there was 
to the peculiar gifts and qualifications of .Moses in liis 
destination to the work of mediator and deliverer. As 
high-priest, the privilege belonged to Aaron of drawing 
near to Cod, and ministering in his immediate presence 
- a privilege which emphatically required the possession 
of holiness in him who enjoyed it. This was symboli 
cally represented in the manifold rites of sacrifice, 
washing, and anointing, through which he received 
consecration to the oifice, Le.viii. ix. (Sec J UIKST. ) The 
hallowed dignity of the high-priestly ofiice of Aaron, 
great and honourable in itself, appears yet more so. 
when viewed in the typical relationship which it bore 
to the priesthood of Christ. There were certain obvious 
differences between them, and in these difi erences marks 
of inferiority on the part of Aaron and his successors 
in oitice, which it became necessary to render prominent 
in Xew Testament scripture, on account of the mis 
taken and extravagant views entertained regarding the 
religion of the old covenant by the pharisaieal Jews of 
later times. For this reason, the priesthood of Melchi- 
zedec had to be exalted over the priesthood of Aaron, 
as foreshadowing more distinctly some of the; higher 
and more peculiar elements of the Messiah s priestly 
function, lie. vii. But there still was both a closer and 
a more varied relation between the priesthood of 
Aaron and that of Christ. For it was a priesthood 
exercised in immediate connection with the tabernacle, 
which the Lord had himself planned, and chosen for 
his holy habitation a priesthood which, in every fea 
ture of its character and calling, in the personal quali 
fications required for it, the vestments worn by it, the 
honours and privileges it enjoyed, and the whole train 
of occasional as well as of regular ministrations ap 
pointed for its discharge, had a divinely ordained respect 
to the better things to come in Christ. All were, in 
deed, but shadows of these tetter things ; yet they were 
shadows bearing throughout the form and likeness of 
what was hereafter to be revealed. And it cannot but 
be regarded as a high honour assigned to Aaron, that 
he should have 1 cen constituted the head of an order 
which had such lofty bearings, and was to find such a 
glorious consummation. 

But taken even in respect to its more immediate re 
lations and interests, there was a not unnatural ten 
dency to pay regard to the honour connected with the 

office, rather than to the holiness essential to its proper 
discharge. And so a formidable conspiracy, headed by 
Korah (himself of the tribe of Levi), "Dathan, and 
Abiram, sprung into existence, on the ground that the 
members of the congregation generally were holy, and 
had an equal right to draw near in sacred offices to Cod 
with Aaron and Moses, Nu. xvi. The result was the 
destruction of those who thus conspired, by the imme 
diate judgment of Cod; and occasion was also taken 
from the transaction, by the trial of the rods, to render 
manifest the divine choice of Aaron to the peculiar 
honours of the priesthood, and of the tribe of Levi to 
the discharge of sacred functions. The almond-rod of 
each tribe, with the distinctive name inscribed on it, 
being laid up before the Lord, the rod of Aaron alone 
was found to bring forth buds, and bloom blossoms, and 
yield almonds, Nu. xvii. a miraculous sign that the 
great Civer of life and fruitfulness was to lie with 
Aaron and his sons in their sacred ministrations, but 
not witli those who should presume of their own accord 
to intermeddle with the functions of the priesthood. It 
proclaimed that, in this respect, as in others, the divine 
order must lie kept, if the divine blessing was to be ex 
perienced; and not a greater good could be found bv 
traversing it, but only the loss of that which might 
otherwise be secured. The action of Aaron in the 
midst of the pestilence, which broke out immediately 
after the destruction of the conspirators, had even 
already pointed in the same direction. The people, it 
is said, murmured against Moses and against Aaron, 
and gathered together in a hostile attitude on the day 
after the destruction of Korah and his companv as if 
these two men of Cod had been personally chargeable 
with the evil that had taken place, and had even caused 
the death of those who perished. This was manifestly 
a great aggravation of the guilt which had been incurred, 
and was a virtual abetting, on the part of the congre 
gation, of the sin of the rebels, while the brand of 
Heaven s condemnation was still fresh upon it. One 
cannot, therefore, wonder that a destroying plague from 
the Lord broke out among the people; and the plague 
being stayed, when, at the command of Moses. Aaron, as 
the high-priest, rushed forth with his censer, filled with 
live coals from the altar, and stood between the living 
and the dead, the visible attestation of Heaven was 
given to the acceptance and worth of his priotly inter 
cession, Nu. xvi. 40, 47. 

The only other circumstance of moment noticed in 
the life of Aaron is one that occurred probably at a 
much earlier period than the transactions last mentioned 
the loss, namely, he sustained in the death of his two 
sons, Xadab and A 1 lihn, who were struck dead while 
ministering with strange fire in the priest s office, i.e. x. 
l-. i. Aaron seems to have conducted himself with a 
subdued and chastened spirit on the occasion; bowed 
down beneath the stroke, yet breathing no complaint 
against its severity. His own death, which occurred 
in the last year of the sojourn in the wilderness, when 
he was ] 2-> years old. is said in the earlier notices to 
have taken place on the top of Mount Hor, and in the 

later at Mosera, Nu. xx. 27-29; xxxih. 3S ; coinp. with DC. x. G. 

This Mosera, however, is only to be regarded as the name 
of the encampment at Mount Hor, where the closing 
scene occurred. At the command of God, Moses went 
up to the mount, accompanied by Aaron and his son 
Fleazar, in the sight of all the congregation; and there, 
withdrawn from mortal gaze, under the eye of Heaven, 


and as in the precincts of the upper sanctuary itself. of the mountain ran- 
the venerable high-priest was " gathered to his people." 
after having yielded to Kleazar the consecrated robes 
which he had so long worn as the minister of the earthly 




cs of Aiiti-LibamiSj bursts out 

through a tremendous gorge in the hills, about two 
miles to the north-west of Damascus, and rushes down 
into the plain. The Pharpar. which is identified with 


impressive in tile very silence and secrecy that attended 
it! Nor was it without mysterious meaning to the 
people in whose behalf he had ministered befo 
Lord; for by such a veil being thrown around tl 
cease of Aaron, coupled with the skvev elevation where 
it was a]. pointed to take place, on a " heaven- kissing 
hill," they had the high-priest of their profession asso 
ciated in their minds onlv with living ministrations. 

mity, and pursuing 
south of the cit, s 


Aaron s Tom!.. Mnuit llor. 


his function, wlu-n reaching 
er! v expiring, as ri.-ing aloft 


and were taught to . 
its earthly close, not 
and coinmiii _rling in 
of a higher region. 

AARONITES, mentioned in 1 Ch. xii. - 7, xxvii. 
17, were simply the descendants of Aaron, the meml>ers 
of the priesthood. 

AB, a late name, introduced after tl 
Babylon, for the tilth month of the Jewish year. It 
never occurs under this apix-Hation iu Scripture. (N t 1 

ABAD DON. the Hebrew nam 
bottomless pit in Re. ix. 11 (^-i^t 

to the Cn-ek Apollyon idTroXXru 

plainly but another name for the prince of darkn 

expressing what he is in res] vet to tin 

deadly character of the agencies he employs. 

ABA NA, a river of Damascus, -J Ki. v. 1:2, win-re 
it is mentioned along with Pharpar. another river, by 
Naaman, tin- Syrian general. Tin: name nowhere else 

rse eastward, and to the 
Is what remains of it into the 

the | Bahret-Hijaneh -the southernmost of the three lakes 
de- that lie to the east of Damascus. That part of the 
plain, therefore, in which Damascus lies, and the city 
it-elf, are indebted for the ample s U ],|,lv of water they 
enjoy entirely to the Barada, whose endlessly subdivided 
streams not only lind their way into every field and 

_ irarden around the city, but into 

everv street and every court of a 
house within the city itself. 1 e- 
yond the city its reunited waters 
flow eastwards, ami finally fall 
partly into the Bahrct es-Shurki- 
ycli. and partly into the P.alnvt- 
i 1 Kibliyeh. other two lakes to 
the east of the cit\ ." v Uuclianan s 
Clerical l- nrl>u.<jh.\ 

ABA RIM. the 
mountain chain, on 
Jordan, over against 
of which Nebo 
were so many 

plural word, and signifies the JKIK- 
t"i : /<tf or passi s. In De. \\xii. II", 
.Mount Nebo is spoken of as be- 
lon _riii _; to it : "<n-t tln-e u]. into 
thisiiiountaiu Ab.irim. untoMount 
Nebo;" and au ain. Mount Nebo 
is assoeiat -d with I isu ah in a way 
that indicates the one to have 
I- en only a hiu h- r elevation of the 
; went up from tin- plains of Moab 
Nebo, to the top of I isgah. that 
rho," DC. xxxiv. 1. .Mention is also 

-.I.-. IV-tiv 

sann- ran- 1 : " Mo.-t 
unto the mountain i 
is over a-aiiist .!>] 

made in two pas-au es, Nu. xxi. 11; xxxiii it, of Ije-abarim, 
wliich means "heaps of Al.arim." a particular 
section of the same chain. Tin- chain itself reaches from 
the Dead Sea eastward towards tin- wilderness, and he 
n-turn from longed to what were anciently the territories of Moab 
and Amnioii. 

AB BA. the Chaldaic form of the Hebrew word for 
father. Jn New Testament scripture it occurs in ad 
dresses to ( !od ; once by ( hrist, Mar. \iv. :;r,, and twice 
by tin- apostle Paul, K.J. \iii. 1. . ; (ia iv. (i, coupled with the 
(reek synonvm (7rarv)/<>, as if nothing but the familiar 
ami endean-d expression could adequately express tin: 
feelings of the In art. In the two passages referred to 
pernicious and , ,, st. Paul s writings, the use of the expression is 
regarded as a mark of the filial confidence ami liberty 
In-longing to believers iii gosp el times -- not, probably, 
without some respect to the ancient custom of forbid 
ding slaves to employ the term in addressing their 

for the an-el of the 
i, and correspondin 
-K tlisti-nii, ,-. It is 

occurs in Old Testament scripture, nor is it found in owners. And it is remarkable that while, in Old Tes- 
any other ancient writings. It is now, and has always tament times, the Lord revealed himself as a father to 
if the chief felicitii 

been, one of the chief felicities connected with the 
natural situation of Damascus, that the town itself, and 
the neighbouring district, have- a constant and copious 
supply of water from the rivers that flow through it. 
The Abana, Inung first named in the passage from 
Kings, is commonly identified with the chief river 
Barada. " which, taking its rise far away in the heart 

Israel, even called Israel his first-born, and sometimes 
challenged them to address him by the corresponding 
title, as in Je. iii. -1, Wilt thou not from this time 
crv unto me, Mv Father, thou art the guide of my 
youth T yet, in reality, the saints of the Old Testa 
ment never appear to have done so. Not even in the 
I salms, with all the fulness and fervency of their ilevo- 



tional breathings, lines tho suppliant ever rise to the 
true filial cry of Abba, Father. The spirit of bondage 
still, to some extent, rested upon the soul, and repressed 
the freedom of its intercourse with heaven. The new 
and more filial spirit takes its commencement with 
Jesus, who. even at his first appearance in the temple, 
used the emphatic words, Mi/ Father, Lii.ii.-u>; and in 
all the recorded utterances of his soul towards the sanc 
tuary above, excepting the cry of agony on the cross, 
Mv God. my (Jod, why hast thoii forsaken me?" 
constantly addressed (Jod by the appellation of F.VTHKK, 
Jn. xi. 41 ; xii. J7, 2* ; xvii. 1, ">, A-c. ; Lu. xxii. lii ; xxiii. , !4, 40, &c. 
By the ( )ur i ather." also, at the commencement of 
the Lord s Prayer, lie puts this endearing appellation 
into the month of all his disciples, as by the freedom 
of access to the holiest, which he provided for them by 
his blood, he rendered the use of it suitable to their 
condition. Most fitly, therefore, is the Abba, Father, 
given by the apostle I aul, as the distinctive -symbol or 
index of a true Christian relation. 

AB DON [serviceable]. 1. A city of the tribe of 
A slier, made one of the cities of the Levites, and given 
to the families of Gershom, Jos. xxi. :;o ; l Cli. u. 74. 2. The 
name of one of the judges who, before the institution 
of the kingdom, ruled over Israel. He was the son of 
Hillel, an Kphraimite. and judged Israel for eight years, 
Ju. xii. i:;-i:>. 3. Two other persons are mentioned under 
this name, of whom nothing particular is known, 
1 Cli. viii. :ii> ; x. 30 ; 2 Cli. xxxiv. 20. 

ABED NEGO [the servant of N cg .i], the name im 
posed by the officer of the king of Babylon on Azariah, 
cue of l>aniel s godly companions, D:I. i. 7. He is only 
mentioned in connection with Shadrach and Mcshach, 
who united with him in resisting the decree of Nebu 
chadnezzar to worship his golden image, and chose 
rather to brave the appalling terrors of the fiery furnace, 
from which they were miraculously delivered, Da. iv. L-O. 

A BEL [t;m2^finess, vanity], the second son of Adam 
and Kve. Why such a name should have been confer 
red upon him we are not told. Possibly something in 
his personal appearance might have suggested the dero 
gatory appellation ; or, what is fully more probable, 
this name, by which he is known to history, was occa 
sioned by his unhappy fate, and expressed the feelings 
of vexation and disappointment which that affecting 
tragedy awakened in the bosoms of his parents. The 
rather may this explanation be entertained, as the name 
in Abel s case is not, as it was in Cain s, connected with 
the birth. It is not said, Eve brought forth a son, and 
called him Abel ; but, after recording the birth of Cain, 
and the reason of his being so designated, the sacred 
narrative simply relates of Eve, " And she again bare 
his brother Abel," Go. iv. 2. It was quite natural that 
the vanity which was so impressively stamped upon 
his earthly history should have been converted into his 
personal designation. The notice of his birth is imme 
diately followed by that of his occupation in after life : 
he " was a keeper of sheep," while Cain was "a tiller 
of the ground" two different lines of pursuit, as was 
natural in the circumstances ; but, so far from present 
ing any necessary antagonism, fitted rather to co-ope 
rate and work to each other s hands. Yet out of this 
diversity of worldly pursuit arose, it would seem, that 
deadly strife which ended in the murder of Abel it 
furnished the incidental occasion, though certainly not 
the real cause of the quarrel. " And in process of time," 

it is said, "Cain brought of the fruit of the ground an 
offering unto the Lord. And Abel, he also brought of 
the firstlings of his flock, ami of the fat thereof." So 
far, it might seem, all was quite natural; each took 
a portion of the increase which the Lord had been 
pleased to grant him, in that particular line of husban 
dry to which he had chosen to apply himself, and pre 
sented it as a sacred oblation to the Lord. Yet the 
result was widely different in the two cases; for, it is 
added, the Lord had respect unto Abel and to his 
offering, but unto Cain and to his offering he had not 
respect." There must, therefore, have been some fun 
damental difference, such as made it a righteous thing 
for God to accept the one worshipper and his offering, 
and reject the other. Wherein did that consist* Was 
it in the diverse kind of offering? or in the spirit and 
behaviour respectively characterizing the offerers 

The original narrative is so brief, that it does not 
afford a quite ready or obvious solution of these ques 
tions. It plainly enough, however, charge.-- sin upon 
Cain, and even an obstinate adherence to sin, as the 
ground of his rejection. When by some visible token 
possibly by the descent of fire from heaven, or by a 
lightning flash from between the cherubim at the east 
of the garden consuming the sacrifice the Lord gave 
indication of his acceptance of Abel s offering, to the 
exclusion of Cain s, "Cain was very wroth, and his 
countenance fell. And the Lord said unto Cain, Why 
art thou wroth? and why is thy countenance fallen? 
If thou doest well, shalt thou not be accepted? And 
if thou doest not well, sin lieth at the door. And unto 
thee shall be his desire, and thou shalt rule over him." 
So the passage stands in the authorized English version. 
Some have proposed instead of "sin," to substitute 
"sin-offering;" on the ground that the Hebrew word 
for sin is sometimes put for si/i-ojTcrinr/, and that the 
head and front of Cain s offence was his stout-hearted 
refusal to offer an animal sacrifice for the atonement of 
sin. It is fatal to this view, however, that what were 
distinctively called sin-offerings were only introduced 
at the giving of the law by Moses, till \\hieh time the 
burnt-offering was the proper expiatory sacrifice, and it 
is never designated by the word for sin. There can be 
little doubt that the rendering by sin is to be adhered 
to as correct, only sin is personified as a seducer ; and 
if, in the last clause, the masculine pronoun his is re 
tained, it should lie understood as referring to sin, the 
only proper antecedent, and not to Abel. The more 
exact translation would be, "If thou doest good, shall 
there not be acceptance ? And if thou doest not good, sin 
eoueheth at the door; and unto thee shall be its desire, 
and thou shalt rule over it." The words at the close 
refer to what was said of Eve, in her relation to Adam, 
and Adam s proper relation to her, Ge. iii. 10. And the 
meaning of the whole is, that the real root of the evil, 
which Caused Cain s annoyance and anger, lay with 
himself, in his refusing to acknowledge and serve God 
as his brother did ; that, if he should still continue in 
this refusal, the sin which he cherished would do the 
part of a tempter to him, as Eve had done to Adam 
its desire would be towards him, to lead him astray ; 
but it became him rather to do the manly part, and 
rule over it. 

It thus appears from the narrative itself, that a sin 
ful principle had the ascendency in Cain s bosom, and 
was the real cause of the disrespect that was shown to 
him and to his offering. On the other hand, it was a 



righteous principle in Abel which secured for him a 
place in the divine favour and blessing. Such, also, is 
the testimony of the apostle John, when lie says of 
Cain, " he was of the wicked one and slew his brother. 
And wherefore slew he him? Because his o\vn works 
were evil, and his brother s righteous," i Ju. iii. 12. This, 
however, is still general, and indicates nothing as to 
where we are to seek the righteous principle in the one 
brother, and the unrighteous principle in the other. But 
in the Epistle to the Hebrews more specific information 
is furnishfd, when it is said. "By faitli Abel offered unto 
Cod a more excellent [literally, a greater] sacrifice than 
Cain, bv which lie obtained witness that hi.- was righ 
teous. ( lod testifying of his gifts," lie xi. I. Here the mat 
ter is traced up to its root to faith in the one In-other, 
which rendered him a righteous person, and made his 
offering what Cod could own and bless; and to tin- 
want of faith in the other, which left him in guilt ami 
condemnation. But this faith must have been some 
thing morethana general belief in (lod. and an acknow 
ledgment of him as tin- supreme object of worship, for 
that belonged to Cain as well as to A I>-1. It mu-t have 
been faith in Cod as to the specific kind of wi.rshipand 
service which he had made known to them as accept 
able in his Mght. And MI the C"l!cluMon fore, s itself 
upon us, that the difference in iv>pect to the offerings 
present "d was im accidental thing, but the native result 
of the different states of tli - two lirothers: that A b, T> 
animal sacrifice was on this account more excellent, 
because, it was the expn-s-ion , ,f his faith in Cod a^ to 

sin and salvation, while Cain >t 1 upon tin- ground of 

nature s sufficiency, and thought it enough to surrender 
to Cod a portion of his own labours. (Sec Su RIFia-M 

AH that we know besides of Abel is, that befell a 
victim to the ungodly spite and fiendish malice of his 
brother: "And Cain talked with Abel his brother: and 
it came to pass when they were in the field, that Cain 
rose up against Abel his brother, and slew him." A 
controversy was raised, it would seem, on the principle* 
which respectively animated them, and the different 
courses they pursued ; and. unable to prevail on grounds 
of reason, Cain resorted to the arm of violence, and 
wickedly laid tin- man of faith and righteousness in the 
dust a melancholy sign, at the commencement of the 
world s history, of the deep runted enmity lurking in 
the natural man to the things of Cod. and of the treat 
ment which the children of faith might expect to receive 
from it! It was a fact pregnant with awful meaning 
for the future, that the first righteous man in Adam s 
family should also have become tin- fiivt martyr to 
righteousness; yet it was not without hope, since Hea 
ven distinctly identified itself with his testimony, and 
espoused the cause of injured rectitude and worth. In 
such a case, the ascendency of evil could not be more 
than temporary. 

A BEL, a term occuring in various compound words, 
which are employed to designate certain towns and 
places of more or less note. When so used, however, 
it is generally supposed to be in the sense of grassy 
plain or meadow, of which traces are found in the 
Arabic and Syriac languages. None of the places hav 
ing this word as a part of their designation rose to 
much importance ; ami little more is necessary than to 
notice their distinctive names and their several lo 

A BEL-BETH-MA ACAH. a town in the north of 
Palestine, which is mentioned among the places smitten 

by Ben-hadad, 1 Ki. xv. 2n, and apparently was the same 
with that called AP.EL-MAIM, in the parallel passage of 
Chronicles, -JCii. x\i. 4. It was again taken by Tiglath- 
pileser, who sent captives from it into Assyria, 2Ki. xv. -2 .\ 
It was also the place of refuge to which Sheba the son of 
Bichri repaired, who headed a revolt in the latter part 
of the reign of David, from which it may be inferred to 
have been a place of considerable strength. But by 
the counsel of a sas^e woman the inhabitants were in 
duced to cut off his head, and his cause went down. 

2S:l. XX. 11-L J. 

A BEL-KERA MIM [,,hilnf iln- ruini<ml^\, a vil 
lage of the Ammonites, and according to Kusebius 
about six Roman miles from Philadelphia or Rabbath- 
Anmion. It no doubt got its distinctive name from its 
excellent vineyards ; and for centuries after the Chris 
tian era it is reported to have been Mill remarkable for 
its vintage, Ju. xi. :;:;. 

A BEL-MEHO LAH [;.// of dancing], a village in 
the territory of Issacbar. supposed to have stood near the 
Jordan, celebrated chiefly as having been the birth-place 
of the prophet Klisha. i Ki xix u;. hut also occasionally 
referred to in connection with other events. ,TM. vii. .-. ; 
1 Ki. iv. rj. 

A BEL-MIZ RAIM [plain of the Kywtitins, or, if 
read vvith different vowel points and pronounced with 
the sharper sou nil of . as appears to have been done by 
the Septuagint translators. t/t> monniiii;/ / tl /- . ////<- 
liitii.--]. the name not of a town, but of a thrashing-floor, 
or open flat place. UM d for the purpose of thralling and 
winnowing corn, at \\hich tin- funeral party from Kgypt. 
rested and mourned, when conveying the mortal re 
mains of .Jacob to the biiryinu ground in Maehpelah. 
(!,. 1 11. It is said to have been In ifniitl, that is on the 

ea-t of Jordan; and .Jerome must have been wrong in 
placing it mi the other side near .Jericho. 

A BEL SHITTIM | plain of acacia*], the name of a 
place on tlje east of .Jordan, in the plains of .Moab, some 
times called simply ^hittim, lsii\\n in the time of 
.lo-ephus by the name of Abila, and chiefly remarkable 
as the scene of one of Israel s greatest backslidings and 
most severe chastisements, Nil. xxv. I ; x\\iii III; Mi. vi. .".. 


ABI-AL BON. frc Ami:i.. 

AB1 ATHAR [father of pit ntij], a high-priest in the 

time of David, the fourth in descent from Kli, l S:i. xiv. :; ; 
x\ii. ii- J"; and of that line of Aaron s family which was 
descended from Ithamar. He was the son of Ahimelech 
or Ahiah. as he is called in 1 Sa. xiv. :!. and ex-aped, 
apparently alone, from the fearful slaughter of the 
prier-ts at Nob, which v,as done to appea.-e the cruel 
jealousy of Saul, by the hand of 1 ><>eg the Kdomite. 
l S;i. xxii. He carried with him the ephod, an essential 
part of the high- priest s attire; and not only continued 
to discharge the more peculiar offices of the priesthood 
to the party of David during their persecutions from 
the hand of Saul, but was formally recogni/.ed as high- 
priest after David came to tin- throne. In the mean 
time, however, Zadok, of the line of Klea/.ar, had suc 
ceeded to the highest functions of the priesthood, after 
the death of Ahimelech, and I>avid did not cause him 
to lie displaced: indeed, the priority in some respect 
continued to be held by him, as he is always mentioned 
first when the two are named together. But both Abi- 
athar and Zadok appear to have been regarded as high- 
priests during the greater part of I >avid s reign, -_ Sa. xx. >:>-, 
also viii. IT, where Ahimelech. the son of Abiathar, 



SCCMIS to be an error of the text for Abiathar. the son 
of Ahimeleeh." Toward the close, however, of David s 
life, Abiathar deviated into a wrong course by taking- 
part with Adonijah in his ambitious project to get pos 
session of the throne, hoping possibly to secure for him 
self thereby an exclusive, instead of a divided pontifi 
cate. The reverse, however, took place ; for he was de 
graded from his office by Solomon, and sent into re 
tirement: nor do any of his descendants ever afcerwards 
appear in the highest function of the priesthood. The 
dishonour, then fore, which then befell him and his 
family, is justly marked as among the humiliating pro 
vidences which gave fulfilment to the doom suspended 
over the house of Kli, 1 Ki. ii. -27. In Mar. ii. 2(5, Abia 
thar is represented, in a discourse of our Lord, as hav 
ing been high priest at the time David obtained the 
showhr. ad to eat; while the history in Samuel expressly 
states that his father Ahimelcch was the presiding 
priest with whom David spoke, and from whom lie re 
ceived the hallowed bread. Various explanations have 
been given of this seeming discrepance, but \\ithsolittle 
success, that recent commentators of note have pro 
nounced it to lie still without any satisfactory adjust 
ment. The solution, we are disposed to think, has been 
looked for somewhat in the wrong direction. The state- 
in- nt of our Lord simply affirms, that the transaction 
took place while Abiatbai was apxifpevs, which strictly 
means hiy/i-pt-i>-st. But terms, it is well known, are 
not always used in their stricter sense, and their cur 
rent use at one time very often differs from what it 
becomes or has been at another. In Old Testament 
times the term Iny/i-firi st was seldom employed ; he who 
really held the office was often called, merely by way 
of eminence, the priest us, for example, in the 21st 
chapter of 1st Samuel, which relates the story about the 
showbread, and in the passages referred to above respect 
ing Zadok and Abiathar. An entirely different usage 
comes into view in the writings of the Xew Testa 
ment. There, the term h ujh-pricst is of frequent oc 
currence, but it is often used in a more extended appli 
cation than the emphatic priest of the Old Testament, 
and so as to include any one of priestly rank, who took 
a prominent place in the general management of eccle 
siastical affairs. Hence the word occurs even more 
frequently in the plural than in the singular; as in the 
(lospelof Matthew, where it appears altogether twenty- 
five times, but of these no fewer than eighteen are in 
the plural, though from the adoption of chief priests 
as the rendering, the fact is disguised to the English 
reader. This later usage quite naturally arose out of 
the altered circumstances which sprung up in Judea 
subsequent to the return from the Babylonish exile, in 
consequence of which the more sacred and distinctive 
offices of the high- priest fell comparatively into abey 
ance, and he formed only one of a class, chiefly com 
posed of priests, through whom were administered, not 
only all strictly ecclesiastical, but also a great portion 
of the judicial, functions of the commonwealth. The 
distinction was thus practically narrowed between the 
high-priest proper, and the elite generally of the priest 
hood ; on which account the name dpxiepfis was ap 
plied to them as a common designation. And in this 
we are furnished with a perfectly natural and adequate 
explanation of the difficulty before us. Our Lord 
there, in the application of the term hiyh-priest to 
Abiathar, simply takes it in its current and later ac 
ceptation, as denoting one who, though not precisely in 

the highest, still was at the time referred to in one 
of the higher functions of the priesthood; he was in 
the position of a chief-priest at the time, and took part 
with his father Ahimeleeh in the daily ministrations 
about the tabernacle. In this sense-, the name might 
have been coupled indifferently, either with Ahimeleeh 
or Aliiathar; but our Lord chose to couple it rather 
with Abiathar, when speaking of an action in the life 
of David, because of the (dose, life-long connection 
which he had with David in sacred things, while the 
relation of Ahimelech to David was quite incidental 
and momentary. Thus all becomes plain, and there is 
no need for resorting to the strained and arbitrary sup 
positions which have too commonly been had recourse 
to by commentators. (S /.v PiUKsT.l 

A BIB If/ran ear], the name given to the first month 
in the Jewish calendar. (Sec Mn\TH.) 

AB IEL \fathi-r of strci>;/th\. 1. The name of Saul s 
grandfather, 1 Sa. ix. I. 2. The name of one of the thirty 
most distinguished men of David s army, 1 Ch. xi. :;:>. The 
latter is designated Abi-alboii in 2 Sa. xxiii. 31. a word 
of precisely the same import. 

ABIE ZER [fatlur <>f help], a descendant of Manas- 
seh, and son of Gilead, Jos. xvii. -j, the founder of the 
family to which (iideon belonged, .Ju. vi. n,:;i. It was 
chiefly by the prowess of members of that family that 
(iideon gained the victory he won over the host of 
Midian, and hence the courteous and poetical form of 
the rebuke which he administered to the Ephraimites, 
who afterwards contended with him. on account of not 
having been summoned at first to the conflict : " What 
have 1 done now in comparison of you? Is not the 
gleaning of the grapes of Ephraim better than the 
vintage of Abiezer ? Ju. viii. > that is, your exploits in 
following up the victory, and capturing the two princes, 
Zeba and Zalmunna, bring you more honour than ac 
crues from the victory itself to the kindred of Abiezer. 
AJB IGAIL [fatlur of gladness or j<>y or perhaps, 
after the analogy of some other words, compounded 
partly of abi, my father-gladness]. 1. ABIGAIL. A me 
morial name, commemorative of the joy which the birth 
had occasioned to the father. It is familiarly known 
as the name of Xabal s wife, who, by her prudent and 
active interposition, prevented the mischief which the 
churlish behaviour of her husband toward David was 
like to have occasioned, iSa.xxv.H-12. David himself 
felt deeply indebted to her for the part she acted on the 
occasion, and the advice she tendered; for by her timely 
interference he was saved from the sin of avenging 
himself with his own hand. He took a wrong way, 
however, to show his gratitude, when, after the deatli 
of Xabal, he sent for her, and took her to be one of his 
own wives. 

2. ABIGAIL, found in the Hebrew text with the 
variation ABIGAL at 2 Sa. xvii. 25, though our English 
Bible retains there also ABIGAIL the mother of 
Amasa. In the passage referred to she is called the 
daughter of Xahash, while at 1 Ch. ii. 10, she appears as 
David s sister. Either, therefore, Xahash must have 
been another name for Jesse, which is not very likely; 
or Abigail must have been but half-sister to David. 

AB IHAIL is found in the English Bible as the 
name of a considerable variety of persons ; but in the 
original the word is not always the same, and should 
be read sometimes ABIHAIL [father of lif/ht], in which 
form it occurs as the name of the wife of Rehoboam, a 
daughter, or more probably a grand-daughter of Eliab, 



David s elder brother, 2 ch. ,\i. IS; sometimes ABICHAIL 

[father nf strength], Xu. iii. 3~<; ICh.ii. 2; v. 14; Es. ii.lj. 

ABI HU [father of him, or my father-he, viz. God]. It 
occurs only once in Scripture, as the name of Aaron s 
second son. who along with his brother Nadab committed 
trespass in the sin of offering incense before the Lord 
which had been kindled by strange fire. What is meant 
by strange fire in this connection is, in other words, 
common fire fire taken from some other place than the 
brazen altar before the door of the tabernacle, which 
was kept perpetually burning for the offering of slain 
victims. The priests were expressly commanded to 
take live coals from this altar when they went in to 
burn incense at the golden altar in the sanctuary, 
Le. xvi. 12; first, no, because the fire ever burning 
there had originally come from the Lord s presence. 
Le. ix. 24, and was therefore to lie regarded as emphatically 
sacred fire, fire of Heaven s own kindling : and also, be 
cause it was important to keep up in men s minds the 
connection between prayer (of which the offering of in 
cense was a symbol) and expiatory sacrifice. Only 
when founded in atonement by blood, and sent up as 
on the flame of accepted sacrifice, can it ascend before 
Cod as a sweet-smelling savour. To otter incense, 
therefore, with strange tire, was. in a most important 
particular, to traverse ihe divine appointment, and de 
secrate the hallowed tilings of ( Jod. As a solemn warn 
ing against like corruptions in the future, the transgres 
sors were consumed on the spot by a bolt of fire; and. 
as their presumption or mistake had probably aii-n 
from too free indulgence in intoxicating liquor, an ordi 
nance was immediately issued prohibiting all officiating 
priests from the u>e of \\ in.- or >tn>ir; drink. I,-., \. 1-11. 

ABI JAH, often abhiv\iated into AHIAU or Ai .i.v 
[in y fat her -Jali], expressive in him. \\lio first imposed or 
assumed the name, of filial regard to .lehovah. In the 
more lengthened or ahbreviatt d form it occurs with con 
siderable frc<[uency in Scripture; sometimes as tip- 
name of women, u h. ii. 21 ; - Ch. x\ix. i, but more com 
monly as that of men. 

1. AISI.TAH. the son and successor of IJehoboam. king 
of .ludah, iKi. xv. i; 2 h xiii.i In tin- former of the.-e 
passages. AKI.IAM is the name u>ed instead of Ahijah. of 
which there is no certain explanation, although it pro- 
balilv originated in a mere textual error of < arly date. 
There is an apparent discrepance al>o in regard t his 
mother, between the accounts in Kings and ( hruniel. s. 
In the former, i Ki. xv. 2, it is said, "his mother s name 
was .Maachah, the daughter of Abishalom:" while in 
the other. 2Ch. xiii.2, we read, "his mother s name; was 
Micaiah. the daughter of Uriel of Cibeah." .Maachah 
and Micaiah were obviously but diH erent forms of th. 
same word, and Abishalom was merely a variation of 
Absalom. Of Rehoboam s eighteen wives, two are ex 
pressly said to have belonged to the familv of David, 
2di. xi. i*; and if we suppose, that this .Micaiah or 
Maachah was a third, and that she was the daughter 
immediately of Uriel, remotely of Absalom, his ijrnnd- \ 
daughter, as the term daughter often signifies, we have 
all that is required to make the two accounts perfectly 
consistent. In regard to Abijah himself, it would ap 
pear, from a comparison of the narratives in the hooks 
of Kings and of Chronicles, that he was at first actuated 
by a light and thoughtless spirit, and is hence said to 
have " walked in the sins of his father." iKi. xv. :j, but 
that he afterwards became more interested in the cause 
of God, and in its behalf carried on a vigorous warfare 

with Jeroboam, over whom he gained some marked 
successes. We have no reason, however, to conclude 
from this that his heart was ever affected as it should 
have been toward God, or that his zeal was of the pure 
and elevated stamp of David s. The account in Chron 
icles, 2 Oh. xiii., presents him in a more favourable light 
than the briefer notice contained in the book of Kings ; 
but the account itself, coupled with the reformations 
presently after ascribed to Asa. 2Ch. xiv. 2-;>, plainly im 
plies that his zeal expended itself more on warlike opera 
tions abroad, than on the internal administration of 
truth and righteousness. His reign lasted only for tlrree 

2. ABIJAH. the second son of Samuel, who judged 
in Beersheba, i s.-i. viii. 2 

3. AHIJAH, the eldest son of Jeroboam, who died in 
early youth, and with the commendation of having some 
good thing in him toward the God of Israel, l Ki. xiv. 13. 

4. AlUJAH. a priest of the line of Eleazar. who gave 
for his own and future generations the distinctive name 
to one of the priestly courses, the one to which Zechariah 
and John the Baptist belonged. 1 Ch, xxiv. lo ; Lu. i. ;>. 


ABILE NE, a small province or territory, to the 
north of 1 alestino. deriving its name from the chief 
town belonging to it. Ami. A. The district it-i If is no 
where very exactlv defined; but the position of Abila 
is known to have been on the road from lleliopolis 
iBaalbeci to Dama.-cus. being about eighteen Koinan 
miles north- wi .~t from the hitler, and from the notices 
in .losephus and St. Luke, it is connected with Pales 
tine as a border countrv The territory of Abilene, 
therefore, appears to have been a portion of Co>le Syria. 
stretching along the east of Anti-Lihanus, beyond Da- 
mascus, and reachim.: southwards to the extn mities of 
Galilee and Trachonitis. The only point of interest or 
importance attaching to it. in a hi.-torical or biblical 
ropect. ari>es from the mention made of it in Lu. iii. 1. 
It is there stated, in connection with other notices of 
a like kind. that, at the commencement of John the 
Baptist s ministry. Ly-anias was tetrarch of Abilene. 
This lias been questioned by some neological and infidel 
writers. | ,v comparing together various passages in 
Jos, phiis. they have maintained that, at the time re 
ferred to bv St. I. nke. there was no tc trareh or separate 
governor of the territory of Abilene; that, both then and 
fora eon-iil ral le peril"! before, it had been merged in 
the jurisdiction of one or other of the I lerodian family ; 
and that the only Lysanias connected with it was the 
son of one I t ilemieus. who was killed, afu T a brief n ign. 
upwards of thirty years before the Christian era. Such, 
in substance, are the allegations made by 1 < \\Ytte, 
Strauss, and many others ; but when the matter is 
closely examined, there is found no solid foundation for 
them. The statements scattered through different parts 
of Josephus are of a kind that it is not quite easy to re 
concile and render perfectly harmonious with each other, 
but. when fairly put. they rather confirm than contra 
dict the notice in St. Luke; for, -while .losephus men 
tions the murder of the Lysanias above referred to. by 
Anthony, at the instigation of Cleopatra, he does not 
call him tetrarch of Abilene, nor does he expressly con 
nect that district with him. Lysanias and his father 
are simply styled rulers of Chalcis (Ant. xiv. 7. S -1 ; 
xv. 4, s 1 : Wars. i. ! >, $ 1); and. afterwards, lie even 
pointedly distinguishes between ( halcis and what he 
culled the tetrarchy of Lysanias (Ant. xx. 7, S lj. It 




is quite arbitrary, therefore, to infer, from the notices 
of Josephus, that the Lysanias in question was ever 
tetrarch of Abilene ; or that what Joseplms elsewhere 
terms alternately "the house (or possession) of Lysa 
nias, "and "the house of Zenodorus" (Ant. xvii. 11, 4; 
xv. 10, ]), is to be identified with Abilene. They are 
rather to be connected with the (, halcidene district. It 
is in reference to a much later period to what happened 
in the reigns of Caligula and Claudius, or the period im 
mediately subsequent to the events of gospel history 
that Josephus speaks of "the tetrarchy of Abilene." 
lie names this as a part of the grant bestowed, first by 
Caligula, and then by Claudius, on .Herod Agrippa 
(Ant. xviii. (>, ] ; xix. 5, S 1) ; and it is against all 
probability to suppose that the district should have been 
so called from a Lysanias who had been slain seventy 
or eighty years before, and who, even if lie had been 
exclusive ruler of Abilene (of which there is no evid 
ence), could not have held possession of it above four 
years. Theremusthave been a later Lysanias whether 
a descendant of the other or not from whom the dis 
trict in question derived the name of the tetrarchy of 
Abilene. Wo that, when we find St. Luke speaking of 
a Lysanias, tetrarch of Abilene, at the beginning of our 
Lord s ministry, and Joseplms, at periods varying from 
twelve to twenty years later, speaking of the disposal 
of the "tetrarchy of Lysanias," which he identifies 
with Abilene (Ant. xix. 5, 1), we may assuredly 
conclude, with Meyer (Comin. Lu. iii. 1), that the 
testimony of Josephus really confirms that of the evan 

ABIM AEL [my father front God], the name of a 
descendant of Joktan, Gc. x. 2S, and supposed by some to 
have been the stem-father of the Mali, or Malitse, an 
Arabian tribe. (See Bochart s Phalcy. ii. 24.) 

ABIM ELECH [father of the Kin<j, or simply fat/tcr- 
l in<j], a name probably originating in the desire of 
distinguishing the possessor of it as a hereditary mon 
arch, whose title to the throne was not obtained by 
election, or won by conquest, but held as a matter of 

1. 2. ABIMELECH, the name of a king of Gerar, in 
the land of the Philistines, first in the time of Abraham, 
and again in the time of Isaac, Ge. xx. xxi. xxvi. The 
long interval between the two notices, coupled with the 
circumstances narrated of each respectively, leave little 
room to doubt that the persons mentioned belonged to 
different generations, and were probably father and son. 
It is not unlikely that the name may have been used as 
a designation, less properly of the individual, than of 
the reigning chief in Gerar, somewhat like Pharaoh in 
Egypt. The transactions which the successive Abiin- 
elechs had with Abraham and Isaac will fall to be 
noticed in connection with the lives of those two patri 
archs, as the transactions derive their chief importance 
from the light they throw on the patriarchal relations 
and character. 

3. ABIMELF.CH. The most noted person who bears 
this name in Scripture was the son of Gideon, by a 
concubine in Shechem. After the death of his father, 
he aspired to the place of power and authority which 
had latterly been held by Gideon, and, to secure his 
object, slew, with the help of the Shechemites, all the 
legitimate children of his father, with the exception of 
Jotham, who effected his escape, after delivering the 
memorable and striking parable recorded in Ju. ix. 8-20. 
The threat of retribution uttered at the close of this 

parable against the people of Shechem, and those who 
took part in the atrocious proceedings of Abimelech, 
was signally executed ; for, on the occasion of a revolt 
from his supremacy, the Shechemites suffered most 
severely at his hands, and shortly afterwards he shared 
himself the just reward of his deeds, when, pressing the 
siege of Thebez, he was felled by a stone thrown at him 
by a woman, Ju. ix. r>o. (See GAAL.) 

ABESTADAB [father of free-willingness, or liberal- 
it ij\. 1. A Levite of Kirjath-jearim, in whose house the 
ark remained for a time, i>S:i. vii. 2. One of Jesse s sons, 
i Sa. xvi. s. 3. A son also of Saul, who perished in 
Gilboa, iSa. xxxi. 2. 4. One of the officers in Solomon s 
establishment, i Ki. iv. 11. 

ABI RAM [father of loftiness]. 1. One of the chiefs 
of the tribe of Reuben, who joined in the rebellion of 
Korah, and perished in his destruction, Nu. xvi. (See 
AARON and KORAH.) 2. The name of the first-born 
of Hiel the Bethelite, iKi. xvi. 34. (See HiEL.) 

AB ISHAG [father of error], a Shunammite virgin of 
the tribe of Issachar, chosen by the attendants of David 
to cherish him in his extreme age, and minister to him, 
i Ki. i. 1-4. Though not strictly married to David or ad 
mitted to sexual connection with him, she was yet 
regarded as belonging to the royal household ; and when 
afterwards sought by Adonijah to be his wife, the re 
quest was not only refused by Solomon, but the very 
presenting of it, being regarded as a sign of lurking 
ambition, was visited with the death of Adonijah, 
i Ki. ii. i:i-2.-,. (Sec ADONIJAH.) 

ABISH AI [father of gifts], one of the sons of Zeru- 
iah, David s sister, and a younger brother of Joab. 
Along with his brothers, Abishai attached himself early 
to the cause of David, shared with him in his protracted 
perils and struggles, and became ultimately one of the 
leading men around his throne. From the notices given 
of him, he appears to have been more distinguished for 
his courage and military prowess than for the graces of 
a divine life. On one occasion, when he accompanied 
David to the camp of Saul, and found the latter asleep 
on the ground, he sought permission to embrace the 
opportunity of at once putting an end to the persecu 
tor s life. ISa. xxvi. 5-9. On another occasion, he would 
fain have rushed upon Shimei, when coming forth to 
curse David in the day of his calamity, and inflict on 
him summary vengeance, but was again met by the 
stern resistance of David, 2 Sa. xvi. 9. NVe find him also 
associated with Joab in the crafty and cruel policy to 
which Abner fell a victim, after he had been reconciled 
to David, 2Sa. iii. . ;o. These are the darker spots in the 
history of Abishai, which certainly present him to our 
view as palpably defective in the milder virtues of hu 
manity. But the circumstances in which he was placed 
from early life, it must be remembered, were extremely 
unfavourable for the cultivation of such virtues ; and 
the faith, and devotedness, and chivalrous ardour which 
he displayed in the cause of David, must not be forgot 
ten. None cast in their lot with David more heartily 
than Abishai, or risked more on his account. On one 
occasion, to rescue David s life, he placed his own in 
imminent peril, and slew the Philistine giant Ishbi- 
benob, by whom his uncle was like to have been over 
come, 2Sa. xxi. 15-ir. He was also one of the three who 
broke through the Philistine host, to obtain for David 
a draught of water from the well of Bethlehem, 
2Sa. xxiii. 14-ir. He is specially named in connection 
with the victories that were gained over the Edomites 




and the Ammonites, iCh.xviii. 12 ; 2Sa., as a large | up his voice, and wept at the grave of Abner ; and the 
share of the honour belonged to him. In regard also to j king lamented over Abner, and said, Died Abner as a 
personal bravery and individual exploits, he is ranked fool dieth ? Thy hands were not bound, nor thy feet 
in the second class of David s heroes, and is celebrated put into fetters : as a man falleth before wicked men, 
as having withstood 300 men, and slain them with his so fellest thou," 2Sa.iii :;i-;u The meaning of this dirge 
spear. 2Sa.xxiii is. No account has been preserved of plainly is, that a most unfair advantage had been taken 
his latter days, or of his death. of Abner; that, if the sons of Zeruiah thought they had 

ABISH ALOM [father of peact]. a variation of the a just ground of quarrel with him for the death of their 
name Absalom, 1 Ki. xv. 2, lo.comp. wiiliiCh. xi. 20. ; brother, they should have let this be understood, and 

ABLUTION. S,e WASHINGS, SPRINKLINGS. insisted that Abner lie delivered up to the hands of 

AB NER [fath/r of liyht], son of Ner. and cousin of justice as an offender: but that, instead of this, they 
Raul, the chief general of Saul s armies, 1 Sa. xiv. 50. adopted the treacherous policy of unscrupulous and 
After Saul s death he still adhered to the interests of wicked men. against which even the innocent can pro- 
the family, and used his influence to get Ishbosheth vide themselves with no adequate defence. Why David 
established on the throne of the kingdom, lie con- did not proceed against the perpetrators of the deed, 
tinned to pursue this course for seven years, during but contented himself with lamenting the fate of Abner, 
which time various encounters took place between the and uttering his condemnation of the mode in which 
forces of David and Ishbosheth. and in particular two 
near Gibeon : first a drawn battle between twelve cham 

pions on each side, who mutually slew one another, and 
then a conflict between the two armies, in which Abner 
was defeated. 2 Sa. ii. - .. Ill the pursuit, however, Asahel. to denote whatever is particularly offensive to tl 

it had been brought about, will be considered under the 
life of David. 

ABOMINATION. In certain applications ,,f this 
word in Scripture there is nothing peculiar; it is used 


gious feeliiiL. , the moral sense, or even the natural 
relish and inclination of the soul. Thus Israel is said, 
on account simply of the antipathy created by reverses 
in war. to have been had in abomination by the Philis 
tines. 1 Sa. xiii. 4; and the Psalmist, in like manner, 
was for his distressed and apparently forlorn condition 
reckoned an abomination by his friends, 1 s. Ixxxviii. s. 
The operations of unrighteous principle, the practices of 
manifest corruption and sin such as the swellings of 
pride, lips of falsehood, the sacrifices of the \\ickcd, the 
foul rites of idolatry are stiuinati/ed as abominations, 
I r. vi. in; xii. 22 ; xv. s ; Jo. vi. i;., ,vc. It was a quite natural 
iportunitv to extension of the same manner of speech to apply it to 
At the same outward objects, which were on some account forbidden, 
and to be shunned as evil; for example to the articles 
of food, which the Israelites were prohibited from using, 
I,o. xi. in, ii,. ve. ; to the sacrificial food connected with 
the worship of idols, Y.L-C. ix. 7; and in particular to the 
idols themsel\e.~ of the heathen, to Mile, nil the afmini- 
nvtinii of the. Ammonites. Chemosh the abomination of 

the Moahites, and so oil, 1 Ki. xi. :., 7; 2 Ki. xxiii. l. i ; Jo. 

iv. 1; vii. 

None of these applications of the term can be ac- 

liis perfect cognizance of the fact, that the cause of counted peculiar, further than that they very strongly 

David was in reality the cause of ( iod. So do ( iod to indicate the feeling of repulsion that was. or should be, 

Abner, and more also, except as the Lord hath sworn entertained towards the objects in question. But in 

to David, even so I do to him; to translate the king- connection with the history of the children of Israel in 

dom from the house- of Saul, and to set up the throne Kgvpt. we meet with applications of a somewhat sin- 

of David over Israel, and over Judah." So that, from gular kind. Thus at Kx. viii. Jii, Moses excuses him- 

his own confession, Abner had, for a series of years, self from assembling his countrymen to a great sacrin- 

been engaged in withstanding the claims of one whose cial solemnity in Egypt, because they should sacrifice 

destination to the kingdom he knew all the while to " the abomination of the Kgyptians before their eyes, 

have received the sanction, and even to have been coil- and the Egyptians would stone them. This has been 

firmed by the oath of (iod. In such a case, he doubt- explained by some with reference to the cow, which it 

less well deserved to die; though, as to the manner of was held improper to sacrifice, being sacred to Jsis, so 

execution, the deed, it must be said, was not righteously, that all Kgyptians alike paid a far greater reverence 

but foully done. And it was to show his abhorrence of to cows than to any other cattle" (Herod, ii. 41.) Of 

this, and his freedom from all participation in the the bovine kind male calves ami bullocks only could be 

treachery under which it had been accomplished, that offered in sacrifice. The chief objection to this explana- 

David so bitterly grieved for the death of Aliiier, and tion is, that the Hebrews were under no necessity of 

so pathetically bewailed it. And David said to Joab, coming here into conflict with Egyptian superstition, 

and to all the people that were with him, Bend your and did not, in fact, offer cows or heifers except in a 

clothes, and gird you with sackcloth, and mourn before very few peculiar cases. The offence referred to must 

Abner. And king David himself followed the bier, therefore have attached to the rites of worship, possibly 

and tliey buried Abner in Hebron: and the king lifted to the mode of determining what was properly fit for 

VOL. I. 2 " 

the brother of Joab. fell by the hand of Abner. after 
having been warned in vain to turn back ; and in n - 
venge for this act of bloodshed, which can scarcely lie 
regarded otherwise than as an act of self-defence, Ab 
ner. sometime afterwards, was himself slain by .Joah. 
We must condemn the mode that was taken to inflict 
capital punishment upon Abner; for. as lie had been 
received to terms of peace with David had even been 
authorized to concert measures for bringing over to 
David the tribes that, >till adhered to the house ,,f Saul. 
2Sa.iii.2l it was against all righteous and honourable 
principles to call him back, as .Joab and Abishai did. 
umler colour of friendship, and sei/e th 
plunge a dagger into his heart. 2Sa.iii.-J 
time, one cannot but see in the calamity itself a divine 
retribution not. indeed, for the death of Asahel. hut 
for the opposition to (iud s purpose which Aimer had so 
long maintained, and tin- great sacrifice of life of which 
he had instrumentally been the occasion. It was an 
act of gross sin of which he was guilty, with one of 
Saul s concubines, which at last led to his desertion of 
Ishbosheth, 2Sa. iii. 7, >> ; and in meeting the charge which 
on that account was brought against him, he indicated 




sacrifice (in which the Egyptians were very particular), 
rather than to the kind of animds from which the vic 
tims were selected. The service would somehow lie so 
conducted as to appear an abomination to the people of 
the land. The remarkable sacredness, however, asso 
ciated with the cow in Egypt serves to explain another 
statement made in the history ; namely, that " the 
Egyptians might not eat bread with the Hebrews, for 
that is an abomination to the Egyptians," (io. xiiii. :;i 
For Herodotus states, in connection wiih the prevailing 
veneration for the cow, that therefore no Egyptian 
man or woman will kiss adreeian on the month, or use 
the knife, spit, or cauldron of a (ireok [of course, also, 
of a Hebrew], or taste of the flesh of a pure ox that has 
been divided by a Grecian knife. The peculiar place 
occupied by the cow in their religion rendered foreigners 
unclean to them, and obliged them to eat apart, as the 
Hebrews had to do afterwards, through the distinctions 
of food introduced by the laws of Moses. A still further 
peculiarity noticed is, that every shepherd is an abo 
mination to the Egyptians," Co. xlvi. :;i. The fact alone 
is stated, and no account is given, either in profane or 
,-aeivd history, of the origin of the feeling. Some would 
connect it with the dominion of the Hycsos, or shepherd 
race in Egypt, which had produced a general feeling of 
antipathy in the native mind to the occupation itself; 
others, perhaps more justly, with the dislike and aversion 
naturally entertained, in a cultivated country like Egypt, 
to the wandering and predatory habits of the nomade 
or shepherd tribes. But the fact itself is beyond dispute, 
and is amply attested by the evidence of the monuments, 
on which shepherds are always represented in a low and 
degrading attitude (Wilkinson, Anci-iit- /; v///i . ii. liii. 
On the ground of their prevailing occupation, therefore, 
the Hebrews when they entered Egypt were naturally 
objects of suspicion and dislike to the people of the 
country, though their relation to Joseph secured for 
them the greatest measure of respect and kindness that 
was possible in the circumstances. 

ing and somewhat enigmatical expression occurs pro- 
perl v but once in the English Bible; namely, in the 
address delivered by our Lord to his disciples respecting 
tin; destruction of Jerusalem and the last days, Mut. xxiv. 
i. i; M,ir. xiii. 11. But as there introduced it is given as a 
quotation from the prophet Daniel "When ye shall 
see the abomination of desolation spoken of by Daniel 
the prophet, stand in the holy place, whoso readeth, let 
him understand" although when we turn to Daniel 
the precise expression is not found in the English Bible. 
This arises from the translation of the Septuagint being 
adopted by our Lord ( ; ->ot\vyfj.a Ttjs eprj/j.waeus), the ex 
act equivalent to which in English is abomination of 
desolation," while the original in Hebrew slightly differs. 
Tiie passage actually referred to is Da. ix. 27. where 
our translators render " for the overspreading of abomi 
nations he shall make it desolate." This, however, is 
not the most accurate rendering; it should rather be 
over top of abominations (will be) the dcsolator," or 
destroyer. And so again in two other passages, which 
are generally understood to point to the Maccabean 
times- And they shall place (or set up) the abomina 
tion, the desolator," ch. xi. :t\, ami "till the abomination 
that desolates," eh. xii. n. The chief difference among com 
mentators, as to the meaning of the expression, has 
respect to the point, whether the abomination, which 
somehow should carry along with it the curse of desola 

tion, ought to lie understood of the idolatrous and corrupt 
practices which should inevitably draw down desolating 
inflictions of vengeance, or of the heathen powers and 
weapons of war that should be the immediate instru 
ments of executing them. There appear to be conclusive 
reasons for understanding the expression of the former. 
]. By far the most common use of the term ulo iii! na 
tion or abominations, when referring to spiritual things, 
and especially to things involving severe judgments and 
sweeping desolation, is in respect to idolatrous, and other 
fou! corruptions. It was the pollution of the first temple, 
or the worship connected with it by such things, which 
iii a win ile .-cries of passages is described as the abomina 
tions thai provoked ( Jod to lay it in ruins, 2Ki. xxi. J-l"; 
Jo. vii. id-ii; K/e. v. ii; vii. s, !i, ai-^:i. A in! our Lord very dis 
tinctly intimated, by referring on another occasion to 
some of these passages, that as the same wickedness sub 
stantially was lifting itself up anew, the same retribu 
tions of evil might certainly be expected to chastise them. 
Mat. xxi. i:i. 2. When reference is made to the prophecy 
in I )aniel it is coupled with a word, "Whoso readeth 
let him understand," which seems evideiitlv to point to 
a profound spiritual meaning in the prophecy, >u<-h as 
thoughtful and serious minds alone could appn bend. 
But this could only be the case if abominations in the 
moral sense; were meant; for the defiling and desolating 
effect of heathen armies planting themselves in the holy 
place was what a child might perceive. Such dreadful 
and unseemly intruders were but the outward signs 
of the real abominations, which cried for vengeance in 
the ear of heaven. The compassing of Jerusalem with 
armies, therefore, mentioned in Lu. xxi. 2o. ready to 
bring the desolation, is not to be reganh d as the same, 
with the abomination of desolation; it indicated a further 
stage of matters. 3. The abominations which were 
the cause of the desolations an- ever spoken of as spring 
ing up from within, among the covenant people them 
selves, not as invasions from without. They are so re 
presented in Daniel also, ch. \i. r,o, ;;L ; xii. 9, id; and that 
the, Jews themselves, the better sort of them at least, so 
understood the matter, is plain from 1 Mac. i. ;"i4-fj7, 
where, with reference to the two passages of Daniel just 
noticed, the heathen-inclined party in Israel are repre 
sented, in the time of Antiochus, as the real persons 
who "set up the abomination of desolation and built 
idol altars ;" coinp. also 2 Mac. iv. 1.1-17. (See on the 
whole subject, Hengstenberg on the Genuineness of 
.Daniel, ch. iii. 3; and Cliristoloyy, at Da. ix. 27, with 
the authorities there referred to.) 

A BRAHAM [father of a multitude, previously 
ABRAM, father of elevation, or high father], a son of 
Terah, the tenth in lineal descent from Shem, and a 
native of Ur of the Chaldees. So much is certain re 
specting Abraham s origin and his natural place in tin; 
world s history, but the sacred record provides us with 
no materials for going farther. Of the three sons of Te 
rah, who are mentioned in the order of Abram, Xahor, 
and Haran, it does not positively affirm that Abram 
was the first-born ; and he may have been named first 
merely because he occupied the highest place in the 
divine purpose, and was to be the chief subject of the 
sacred narrative, precisely as Shein is named first among 
the sons of Noah, though Japhet appears to have been 
the eldest. Accordingly, while some hold Abraham to 
have been really the eldest son of Terah, and place his 
birth in the seventieth j-ear of Terah s life, there are 
others, and probably a still larger number, who make 




him the youngest, and even suppose him not to have 
huen bom till Terah was 130 years old. The chief 
ground for this latter conclusion is, that as Terah lived 
till he was -05 years of age, and Abraham was 75 when 
lie left Haran for the land of Canaan, this 75, added to 
1 ->u, would just make the 205 which was the sum of 
Terah s life, and would thus render Abraham s removal 
to Canaan subsequent to his father s death in Haran. 
On the other supposition, that Abraham was born in 
the seventieth year of Terah, the father must have been 
left in Haran by the son, and even have continued to 
linger there for sixty years after the son s departure. 
There is nothing in the Old Testament narrative ex 
pressly at variance witli this, though the natural im 
pression produced by the brief account in ( <e. xi. ol. 3 2, 
is, that Terah s death had actually occurred before the 
removal of Abraham to the land of Canaan. And the 
impression is confirmed by Stephen, who, in his speech 
before the Jewish council, distinctly states, that only 
after Terah s death did Abraham kave Haran, and take 
his departure for Canaan, Ac. vii 4. So that, on this 
view of the matter. .Stephen must either have fol!o\\ed 
an erroneous rabbinical interpretation, or bv the death 

of Terah must be. und T.-i !. not his literal, but his 

spiritual death his relapse into idolatrv. Some adopt 
the one, and some the other explanation; but neither 
view can be regarded as quite .-atisfactorv. Coupling, 
then-fore, the affirmation of Stephen with \\hat sei m.s 
tin natural imp"rt of the original narrative, we are in- 
elined to n st in tile common belief, that Terah died 
before Abraham s actual departure from .Mesopotamia, 
and that consequently Abraham was most probablv 
horn at a comparativi 1\ late period in his father s life. 
This conclusion ; s strengthened bv the collateral cir 
cumstances, that Lot, th" son of llaran, \\hu accom 
panied Abraham into Canaan, appears, at no u lvat 
distance from their entrance into it, as a person in ad 
vanced life, with a family well u rown, and that Nahor, 
the other brother of Abraham, married Mileah. the 
daughter of Haran. These notices seem to imply that, 
llaran had been considerably older than tin- other bro 
thers, and that Abraham may not have been \vrv much 
older than Lot. 

The only express call to Abraham to leave hi- killdn d 
and his country, recorded in Genesis, is the one that 
follows the notice of Terah s d. ath. Go. xii. 1-4; the call 
which Abraham immediately obeyed by removing into 
Canaan. I .ut as it is stated at the close of the preced 
ing chapter, xi. :n, that " Tt rah took Abram his son. 
and Lot the son of llaran. his son s son, and Sarai his 
daughter-in-law, his son A brain s wife, and they went 
forth with them from l. r of tin.- Chaldees. to go into the 
land of Canaan," the earlier Jewish authorities d liilu 
dc Alrakctmo, 15), with whom also Stephen concurs, 
Ac. vii. L , inferred that there was a ]>r ,r call, whether 
addressed to Abraham individually, or to him in com 
mon with his father, as alone adequate to account for 
the movement of Terah, and those about him, toward 
the land of Canaan. That leading, as they did. a 
immade or shepherd life, they should have left the re 
gion of l"r, with the view of settling somewhere else in 
the province of Chaldea, would have been nothing ex 
traordinary ; but that they should have done so with 
the explicit design of migrating into Canaan, a country 
so far distant, and with which they had no natural con 
nection this can scarcely be accounted for, except on 
the supposition of a special call, and a call originating 

on religious grounds. So, also, it seems to be plainly 
implied in Gc. xv. 7, where God says to Abraham. " I 
am the Lord that brought thee out of I r of the Chal 
dees; which is repeated in Xe. ix. 7. if the more 
immediate reason of the movement was. as we may 
naturally suppose, to escape from the idolatrous tenden 
cies which had already begun to manifest themselves in 
their native region, then it is possible enough, that in 
the district of Haran, which was still within the boun 
daries of Mesopotamia, though in the direction of 
Canaan, the family may have found, earlier than they 
at first expected, a place of sojourn, where thev could 
live in comfort, and without molestation maintain the 
worship of God in purity. In that case it might have 
been perfectly natural for them to halt for a time at 
Haran, and might also have been found difficult, from 
the increasing infirmities of Terah. to proceed farther 
till his decease, lint as such a partial separation from 
the original seat of the family was insufficient to accom 
plish the divine purpose, so a fresh, a more imperative, 
if imt also a more specific and individual call came to 
Abraham after the death of Terah ; for it is only to 
that period that we can with any propriety refer the 
call recorded at the U giiining of ( !e. xii. : and we must 
translate, not " now the Lord had said." as in our 
authorized version, but simply "Mow the .Lord said to 
Abram. Get thee out of thy country. 1 \e. 

This call to Abraham undoubtedly forms an impor 
tant era in the history of the divine communications; 
it introduced a class of relations which wen- never, in a 
sense, to wax old. The future revelations of God s will 
to nun always bear, to some extent, the Abrahamie 
I; pe. This a7-ose from the very nature of the relation 
into which, by the divine call, the son of Terah \\ as 
brought. He was constituted. inni\ iduall v. the head 
ot a seed of blessing. (],,. Urst link of a chain that was 
to I m brace the whole multitude of ( I .id s elect : so that 
to the last the relative position ami place of Abraham 
is never altogether lost sight of. Kven believers in 
< hi I i are represented as Abraham s seed, and those 
that fall asleep i u the Lord are spoken of as going to 
Abraham s bosom. Till the time of A braham, the re 
velations of God s character and purposes had been of 
ral nature ; they spoke one language to all man 
kind, and neither disclosed truths nor coin-eyed privi 
leges to i, 7U- portion of the human family which were 
withheld from another. J .ut ties m- -tlmd had proved 
insufficient to keep alive tin true knowledge of God, 
and restrain the prevailing tendency to corruption; it 
left the cords of obligation too loose upon the indivi 
dual conscience to stem the encroachments nf evil, and 
secure tin- transmission from age to age of the principles 
of godliness. This is too amply confirmed bv the his 
tory of the. antediluvian world. Tin-re was light enough 
then to guide those who really sought the way of peace, 
and then; were symbols and institutions of worship 
through which to give practical expression to their faith 
and hope ; but means were still -wanting to form the 
true worshippers, by a special organization, into a dis 
tinct society, oi- to keep them aloof from contaminating 
influences; and the result was a continual decay of 
living piety, ending in such a general dissolution of 
manners, that nothing but the overwhelming visitation 
of the deluge seemed adequate to meet the evil. Kven 
with the advantage on the side of righteousness gained 
by this terrific judgment, the same tendencies soon be 
gan to develope themselves anew after the deluge; 




within ,1 few generations the miracle at Babel was 
necessary to confound the projects of men, combining 
in one va~t scheme to thwart the purposes of Heaven; 
and even the posterity of Sliem, which hail some kind 
of uviieral distinction conferred on it in divine things 
by the prophecy of Noah, was ready to be engulfed in 
the swelling stream of pollution ; for tin. 1 service of idols 
had already commenced among the 1 letter portions of 
that line in the generation to which Abraham belonged, 
Jos. x\iv. 2. Jt was necessary, therefore, to adopt 
another course, and. for the sake of the_y iirral good of 
the world, to select n, ji<trticn f ar channel of blessing. 
This is the principle of the divine government, of which 
Abraham bee, Hue tin- fir-t, lisiirj representative indi 
vidual election to special privileges, hopes, and obliga 
tions ; primarily, indeed, for the behoof of those more 
immediately concerned, but remotely also for the ben<-- 
ht of others, nay. with the express object and design 
that the particular, in this respect,, might become the 
universal. Hence, the call to Abraham has these dis 
tinct and closely connected parts : 1. The elevation of 
himself as an individual, by the free choice of Heaven, 
to the enjoyment of a near and friendly relationship to 
Cod; the Lord reveals himself as in a special sense 
Abraham s (iod, and, in a correspondingly special sense, 
recognizes Abraham as his servant. 2. In visible token 
of this election, and as a sign of the necessary separa 
tion it involved from worldly alliances and the course 
of nature s depravity. Abraham was enjoined to leave 
his home and his kindred, and go forth, under the 
direction of God. into a region wli-re he should dwell 
comparatively alone. . 5. Then, as a compensation for 
what lie had thus to sacrifice of natural good, or rather 
as a proof of the rich and plenteous beneficence con 
nected with an interest in (!od, the patriarch obtains 
th:, promise of a land for a possession, and of a nume 
rous and blessed offspring to inherit it. 4. And, finally, 
so far from having such distinguished honours and ele 
vated prospects conferred on him for any selfish end, 
the blessing, which lie and his family were to be the 
first to enjoy, was for the world at large; he and his 
chosen line were to be, not a fountain sealed up, but an 
ever- flowing channel of highest beneficence; they were 
to be peculiarly identified with the cause of Cod, only 
that this cause might be more successfully maintained, 
and might ultimately diffuse its privileges and blessings 
among all the families of the earth. These points are 
all involved in the call addre.-sed to Abraham, even in 
its earliest recorded form, Ge. xii. 1-t; and subsequent 
communications merely served to bring out more dis 
tinctly its specific parts, or to exhibit the principles on 
which it was to proceed to its realization. 

Such was the word that came to Abraham, when still 
only a Mesopotamian herdsman ; and. romantic as the 
prospect might seem which it held out for his encour 
agement, lie responded at once to the call, by an im 
plicit faith and a child-like obedience. Departing from 
Haran. he took with him his nephew Lot. and all that 
belonged to them. "When, however, he reached the 
land of Canaan, he met with what must have presented 
itself as a staggering difficulty; for he found it not an 
uninhabited region, waiting, as it were, to receive him. 
"The Canaanite was already in the land." 
But a fresh revelation assured him that this should 
prove no insurmountable obstacle, and that he should 
both have that land and a seed to inherit it ; on which, 
we are told, he built an altar to the Lord, who had 

appeared to him, and called upon his name. Hut pre 
sently another difficulty arose. He was not well hi the 
land of Canaan till a dearth set in not a partial scar 
city merely, but "a grievous famine ;" so that, having 
already journeyed well to the south, it seemed the 
readiest mode of escaping the danger which threatened 
him to go down into Egypt. Jn this there was, un 
doubtedly, a partial failure of his faith, as he had no 
divine direction to resort to Egypt ; while the Lord had 
expressly commanded him to sojourn in the land of 
Canaan, with an implied promise of protection and sup 
port. And this false step soon led to another; for, 
going to Kgypt. as he consciously did. without a7iy 
divine warrant, he began to doubt respecting his per 
sona! safety, and fell upon the equivocating device of 
bidding Sarah call him her brother a half truth, indeed, 
but one- that, in the circumstances, involved a whole 
lie. He probably thought that, if her fair complexion 
and comely appearance should attract peculiar regard 
among the swarthy natives of Egypt, Sarah would cer 
tainly resist any offers or solicitations that mi-_dit be 
made to detach her from him, while, being understood 
to be only his sister, there was no temptation, on her 
account, to do violence to him. Nothing, at least, was 
likely to be done in haste, and they could parry any 
proposals that might be made, till it was again in their 
power to leave the land. But the right seems even 
then to have acquired a footing in Egypt, which has 
continued in the despotic countries of the East to the 
present times- the right of the reigning monarch to 
possess himself of any unmarried female in his domi 
nions whose beauty has won his regard. And so. with 
out ceremony, as in the exercise of an undisputed pre 
rogative, the king of Egypt sent and took Sarah into 
his house, for the purpose, doubtless, of undergoing the 
purifications and training that were required to prepare 
her for an alliance with royalty. The Lord, however, 
graciously interposed for her rescue, inflicting plagues 
on the house of Pharaoh, which prompted inquiry, and 
led to the discovery of Sarah s real position. Thus (iod 
acted for his own name sake, and took occasion, even 
from the sins and imperfections of his people, to impress 
more deeply on those who sought to do them wrong, 
their peculiar interest in the favour and proti ction of 
Heaven. I s. cv. ir>. And thus, also, it appeared that 
Abraham s faith, viewed as a principle of righteousness, 
partook of infirmity, and. so far from providing a meri 
torious ground of acceptance, itself stood in need of 

Abraham returned from Egypt richer in possessions 
than he entered it, having received liberal gifts from 
Pharaoh an earnest of what his posterity were one day 
to reap on a much grander scale from Egyptian oppres 
sors. He pitched his tent anew near Hebron, on the 
plain of Mamre, but soon found that the pasture- 
grounds there were too circumscribed for the herds and 
flocks he now possessed, along with those of his kinsman 
Lot; therefore, on the occasion of a strife among the 
herdsmen, Abraham proposed a separation, and left 
Lot to choose the direction he might wish to take. The 
very proposal to exercise such a choice clearly implies 
that the land was still but partially occupied, and that 
large tracts existed as common or unappropriated pas 
ture-ground. The circumstance itself, however, toge 
ther with the actual choice of Lot, Avas a token of God s 
special goodness to Abraham, and his settled purpose 
to fulfil the promise respecting the inheritance ; for, as 




Lot was led to fix upon a place of sojourn -which lay 
actually heyond the bounds of the promised land, this 
land itself now remained for the sojourn of Abraham, 
in pledge of its future occupancy. And hence, imme 
diately after the departure of Lot, nnd pointing to the 
significance of the whole transaction, the Lord appeared 
aLfaiii to Abraham, and said. " Lift up now thine eyes, 
and look from the place where thou art, northward and 
southward, and eastward and westward: for all the 
land which thou seest. to thee will I give it. and to thy 
seed for ever." Go. xiii. 11, 15. 

At no great distance, apparently, from this period, 
another circumstance occurred, which brought out lie- 
fore the people of the land how high a place Abraham 
held in the- consideration of God, and how much, even 
already, he was associated with the divine power and 
blessinir. This was the invasion of the cities of the 
plain by (. hedorlaomer, king of L lam. and others (.s c 
Cili-:i>OKi.AOMF.K) -issuing in the capture of Lot, and 
the taking of much spoil, it was more immediately for 
the sake of rescuing his kinsman that Abraham was led 
to take part in this warlike fray; but, movi d on this 
account b\ a divine imjiiibc. a:s \\vll as a brotherly 
ati rtiou. he sallied forth with his : .] trained servants, 
overtook tin- iiiavaudin. 1 ho-t near I >an. in tin- north of 
L alestine, and, after smiting th m by n -Jit. pursued 
tlieiii to the neighbourhood of I );unascus. recovering 
Lot. and al! th- spoil they had taken fn -m Sodom and 
the other [.laces they had plundered. T ne who],. ,,f this 
sjioil Abraham surrendered to the king of Sodom, in 
token of his free lorn from all sinister motive* in his 
militarv a Iventiuv. and of his so]i nui determination to 
avoid even the appearance of liein^T indebted to the hum 
of such a ]ieo],l,.. JUit one singular and instniethe 
homage he paid in connection v.hh it: he gave tithes 
of all to another kin^. to .Melehi/edek, the kinic of Salem. 
and priest of the Most lli.uh Cod. Thi- .Melchi/, dek 
had gone forth to meet Abraham on his return from 
victorv, and presented him with refreshment in bread 
and wine; theivbv acknowledging Abraham a~. under 
God. the deliverer of the country, and. on account of 
\\liat lie ]i:td done, bestowing oil hilll tile j.riestlv bene 
diction. That Abraham should have received thi* at 
the hand- of Melchizedek, and should also have given 
him the tenth of showed that lie r> co^ni/ed 
in this man. not merely the rightful jiivrogative.- of an 
earthlv j.rincc. but th" character of a true representative 
of the ( of heaven : so that, in payi:i- tithes to him. 
Abraham did homage to (iod. and confessed himself 
but an instrument in the success which had been won. 
(.SVe MKU niziiDKK.) 

Meanwhile, no advance seemed to be making in re 
gard to that part of the divine promise which natu 
rally lay nearest to the heart of Abraham- the posses 
sion of a seed to inherit and transmit his peculiar bless 
ing. The next scene- in the patriarch s life presents 
him to our view as raised to fellowshij. with (lod in 
vision, and giving vent to the lieavv thoughts that 
pressed upon his bosom, on account of his still existing 
childless condition. After (iod had assured him that 
he was his shield and his exceeding great reward, the 
anxious question burst from the patriarch, " Lord (iod. 
what wilt thou give me. seeing 1 go childless, and the 
steward of my house is this Kliezer of Damascus . " 
i.e. xv. >. This drew fr< >m the Lord the solemn assurance, 
that Abraham should have an heir in the proper sense, 
his own veritable offspring; and not only so, but that 

from the seed to be given him there should spring a 
multitude like the stars of heaven. Abraham believed 
the word, contrary though it was to all present appear 
ances, and even requiring at the outset to surmount 
what seemed natural impossibilities; he believed that 
God would do what he said, and "it was counted to 
him for righteousness" that is. his faith in (iod s will 
ingness and power to fulfil the promised good, was taken 
in lieu of such righteousness as might, if he had pos 
sessed it, have entitled him to look for that good as a 
matter of debt. Losing sight of nature and self, lie was 
ready to look for all to the infinite sutiiciency and good- 
ress of God. And so. there being an explicit engage 
ment on the part of God, and a responsive faith on the 
part of Abraham, a covenant transaction was entered 
into, by means of sacrifice, for the jmrposc of ratifying, 
in a formal and solemn manner, what had taken place, 
and still farther assuring the mind of Abraham as to 
the inheritance destined for the promised seed. The 
mat rial< were duinely chosen, and the transactions 
connected with them ordered, so as to be at once sym 
bolical of the future and confirmatory of the ] in sent. 
The larger sacrifices were to con.-i-t of animals three 
years old the three pointing to th-.- three complete 
generations in Iv_rvpt. of \\hich mention was going to 
be made: they were also divided into two equal parts, 
more distinctly to ivpreseiit the two parties engaged in 
the sanctioning of tin- agreement; and then, amid a 
horror of great darkness v.hieh fell uj.oii Abraham 
prefigurative, ash" \\a.- informed, of the troubles and 
conflicts which were, esj.ecially for three generations, 
t" befall liis j iost I ity. and through which the eovoiiant- 
proini-e \vus to pass on t> its accomplishment- there 
appeared " a smoking furnace, and a burning lamj. j.ass- 
ing between, the pieces." This \\.-is the symbol ef the 
Lord s -lory, siib.-tantially the pillar of cloud and fire. 
formally ownintr tin- sacrifice, and doubtless consuming 
it as a whole burnt-ofi ering. And on the sacrificial ac 
tion being closed, tin- Lord expressly assure d Abraham, 
and "made a covenant v,ith him. " that the land in 
which h< lli- n sojourned should become the inheritance 
of his seed, sj.ecifving, as an additional ground of assur 
ance, the Kiimdarii s of tin- hind, and naming the t xist- 
ing tribes by whom it was for the time occupied. 

Notwithstanding, ho\\e\er, this formal and ratified 
eiiient, another long period of inaction succeeded, 
which givatlv tried the faith of A I raham. ami entirely 
exhausted that of Sarah. The conviction at last estah 
lished itself in her mind, that she must now abandon 
all hope of having anv jiersonal connection with the 
promised seed ; and as the word of promise, even in its 
most exj.licit form, had only spoken of Abraham s oii- 
spring. the thought occurred to her. that the maternal 
headship must have been destined for some other than 
herself, and that the nearest connection she could pos 
sibly have with the seed of blessing should be through 
her handmaid. A son thus obtained would be. in the 
strictest sense, Abraham s child, and might be Sarah s 
also by adoption. With this view she counselled Abra 
ham to go in to Hagar. the Kgvptian bondmaid ; and 
j he too readily fell in with the advice. The evil conse 
quences were not long in discovering themselves : the 
maid became elated with the- prospects of her condition, 
and treated her mistress with contempt. Domestic 
brawls ensued, which led to the exjudsion of Hagar 
from the house the providence of God thus setting its 
seal of disapproval on the connection that had been 

A Eli All AM 


formed, and the mode employed to work out the, pro 
mise-. Eut, by divine interference, the insubordination 
on the. part of llagar was quelled, so that she returned 
and bore a sou. .Ishmael. Thirteen years more elapsed, 

during \\hieli everything, as far as we know, moved on 
with perfect equanimity, and the child grew upon the 
affections of Abraham, who, in spite of what had hap 
pened at the outset, had come to l,,,.k upon him as the 
commencement of the promised seed. Eut \\hcu Abra 
ham him.-elf was on the verge of his hundredth year, 
and Sarah was but U n years younger, the Lord again 
appeared to him ; and. as if all were yet to be done that 
was necessary to make good the word of promise, spake 
again of making his covenant with Abraham, and mul 
tiplying him. There, was no repetition of the sacrifices; 
so far. what had taken place before was held to be still 
in force. Hut the ratification of the covenant was cur 
ried to a high -r stage, by the appointment of a sacra 
mental pledg,- and >ymbol of it. in the ordinance of 
circumcision. This was accompanied by a fresh assur 
ance to Abraham that he should have a seed destined 
to grow into vast multitudes; and then came also the 
new and more specific information, that Sarah should 
give birth to a son, who should be the first of the illus 
trious progeny. In commemoration of the happy era, 
and in proof of the absolute cert.aintv of what was 
spoken, the name of the patriarch was changed from 

AiiRAM \Ji uj)i fat In r\ to AlJUAHAM \ftitli- of u iiiulfi- 

f/i li], and that of his spouse from SARAI [my princess] 
into SAKAH [simply pti incess], as henceforth to be related, 
not to one, but to many, destined to become the queen- 
mother of a royal and countless oil spring. The tidings 
appeared at first almost to exceed belief. Abraham 
received what was spoken with a kind of joyful wonder, 
though presently the thought of v, hat w tl s implied in 
respect to Ishmael cast a shade of gloom over the pros 
pect; and when the matter was, shortly after, through 
the visit of the angels, Gc. xviii., brought distinctly before 
the mind of Sarah, she could scarcely believe for joy. 
Eut faith did spring up, through which also she received 
strength to conceive seed ; and in the course of the fol 
lowing year Isaac was born to Abraham, when an hun 
dred years old. and of a mother who was ninety. 

This long delay in the fulfilment of the promise was 
no arbitrary postponement of the expected good, or 
needless prolongation of trial to the faith and patience 
of the parents. It was essentially connected with the 
covenant of promise, to show what kind of seed it was 
intended to secure, or how the seed should be entitled 
to look for its peculiar heritage of blessing. The first 
child of promise was to be, in this respect, a sign to all 
coming generations the primal tvpe of the whole seed. 
And for this two things were necessary ; the first of 
which was, that he should be emphatically the gift of 
God not born in the ordinary course of nature, of the 
will of the flesh (as Ishmael was), but above nature, by 
the special agency of God; for what the covenant 
sought was. not simply seed, but a godly seed, such as 
might be recognized to be properly God s offspring. 
And though, in the great mass of those who should 
afterwards constitute the seed, this divine and distinc 
tive impress could only be of a spiritual kind, yet, at the 
commencement, it was fit that the natural should go 
along with the spiritual, and correctly image it. Eorn 
as Isaac was, none could doubt his connection with the 
special interposition of Heaven: and all future parents, 
who might wish to have their offsuring becominf true 

children of the covenant, were taught to seek for as 
real a work of God to make them so, though of a less 
outward kind. Most needful, therefore, was it for the 
great ends of the covenant, that Isaac, its first and 
typal oflspring. should be born of parents so aged, that 
their bodies were in a manner dead, and were only ren 
dered capable of producing seed by the supernatural 
power of (Jod. Then, f,, r the same ends, another thing 
was necessary that the outgoing of this supernatural 
poWi r should be connected with a corresponding spiri 
tually supernatural slate on the part of the parents. 
The godly seed that \\ as to issue from the covenant by 
the special agency of God, must not be expected other 
wise than as the fruit of a godly parentage ; and hence 
the postponement of the generation of Isaac till Abra 
ham had not only attained to the higher degrees of ex 
cellence, but had also received the rite of circumcision, 
the symbol of a purified condition. It was then only 
that the powers of nature were miraculously \iviiied in 
the aged pair for the production of the promis -d s>-ed : 
and so the child born of them was the proper tvpe of 
what the covenant aimed at, and what the symbolical 
ordinance connected with it indicated, namely, a spiri 
tual seed, in which the divine and human, grace and 
nature, should meet together in producing true subjects 
and channels of blessing. In the Lord Jesus Christ 
these elements were to nu et in their highest de-r. .-and 
most perfect form not in co-operative merely, but in 
organic union; and the result consequently was, one 
in whom perfection was realized, at once the heir and 
the dispenser of all blessings. Eut the same things 
had, in a measure, to be found in the real children of 
the covenant, of every age ; and those in whom they 
were not might indeed be of Israel, but they could 
not be the Israel. 

The supernatural \ i\ ilicatlon of the pow. rs of animal 
life which took place in Abraham and Sarah after the 
full ratification of the covenant, while it accounts for 
the conception of seed by Sarah when past age, also 
explains how she should in her ninetieth year have at 
tracted the notice of Abimelech, king of Gerar, and 
been sought for as an object of desire, Ge. xx. The cir 
cumstance has often been objected to as unnatural by 
infidels and superficial critics, because they overlook 
the most essential fact of the case. In realitv. both 
Abraham and Sarah had come, through the superna 
tural work of God upon their frames, to renew their 
youth. They had returned, in a manner, to the prime 
of life ; and the story of Abimelech s attempt to get 
possession, of Sarah is perfectly in place. The only 
cause for wonder is, that the previous failure of the de 
vice resorted to by Abraham when in Kgypt. should 
not have had the effect of preventing hi in from repeating 
it now. We can only account for his doing so by the 
extreme wickedness which he saw in Gerar, and which, 
as he alleged in his defence, forced on him the convic 
tion, that "surely the fear of God was not there," Ge. 
.\x. n. Like one suddenly cast among lions, he caught 
at what seemed for the moment the only available sub 
terfuge ; and had it not been for the gracious interposi 
tion of (rod, all his hopes had been wrecked a fresh 
proof, even in the father of the faithful, that the stability 
of the covenant rests not on what they are to God, but 
what God is to them! Abimelech was rebuked by (Jod 
in a dream, arid enjoined to release Sarah on pain of the 
most severe judgments. He obeyed; but in turn rebuked 
Abraham for the deception he had practised, though 


the defence offered by the patriarch was received with- vation. Jt was for the purpose of exhibiting outwardly 
out any note of disapprobation. He even bestowtd and palpably the great truth, that God s* method of 
upon the patriarch costly presents, on the ground that working in the covenant of grace must have its counter- 
he was himself in part to blame for what had happened, part in man s. The one must be the ivtlexof the other, 
and that he owed the arrest of judgment to thu inter- ; God in blessing Abraham triumphs over nature, and 
cession of Abraham as a man of Cod; so that they Abraham triumphs after the same manner, in propor- 
parted on terms of friendship, but with an admonition tion as he is blessed. He receives a special ^ift. a child 
to Sarah to cultivate in future a more veiled appear- of hope, from the hand of God, and he freely surrenders 

ratification of the covenant to have occupied a high ditioii and history, of all who should become proper 
moral position, and the procedure of Cod was conducted subjects and channels of blessing he also must concur 
with an especial aim to the securing of personal holiness in the act; on God s altar he must sanctify himself, as 
as the great end of the covenant. The distinctive badge a sign to all who would possess the higher life in Cod. 
of the covenant the sacrament of circumcision was a , that it implies and carries along with it a devout sur- 
perpetual monitor to this effect, calling every one who i render of the natural life to the service and glory of 
received it to put off the old man of corruption, that , Cod." \ 7 y/,o%// of ^ri i ,tun\ i. p. :$:>1K 
he might walk in righteousness before God. The delay j ! ,y this extraordinary demand, therefore, the Lord 
practised in regard to that part of the covenant which sought to complete the instruction which the early cir- 
respected tile promised seed, and the much longer delay cumstances of Isaac s life, as the first ofl sprin^ of the 
tiiat was to take place in regard to that other part covenant, were intended to impart, and to purue the 
which concerned the possession of the inheritance, aflectioii of the patriarch toward his heaven-sent child 
"because the ini(piity of the Amorites was not yet full," from the earthliness and corruption nf nature. Civat 
both pointed in the same direction, since they showed as the trial was, his faith in the truth and faithfulness 
how prominent a place was to be given to moral con- ,,f Cod had grown so much, thai he was found equal to 
siderations in establishing the provisions of tlie covenant, the task. lie believed that as the dead womb of Sarah 
and how far its course of developnn nt was to rise above had been supernatural! y vivified to brine- this child into natural grounds and interests. Abraham him- being, so the dead child himself could he restored to 
self enters int.. thesi views. He asn nds to the , leva- life again when the word and the \\i!l ,.f Cod required 
tion ot the divine plan. Aii jvl.- visit him, as one with it : and in this confidence he procei ded to carry out the 
whom they might now- have familiar converse. The injunction laid upon him up to the last terrible act- 
Lord himself talks with him as a friend, and discloses when the Lord again interposed, and declared his accept- 
to him the secret of lleav.n resp cting the cities of the ance of the surrender that had been mad. in principle 
plain, ( xpivssly because Abraham was now known to and feeling, as equivalent, for the purposes aimed at, to 
lie one who would command his children and his the actual sacrifice. At the same time, a ram was pro- 
Innischold after him, to keep the way of the Lord, to do vided for the burnt- offering in the room of Isaac -a 
justice and jud-ment." Uu. xviii. lu. The patriarch, in more fitting type in this respect than Isaac could have 
turn, pleads with the Lord, in the full consciousness ,,f been of the on, great sacrifice for sin : and the venerable 
his privih-vd condition; yet only in so far as he f. It a father of the faithful was s, nt away from the affecting 
regard to the interests..! righteousness could justly carry scene with the seal of Heaven s highest commendation, 
him- silently acquiescing at last in the destruction of and with the divine oath superaddcd to all the other 
Sodoin and its kindred cities, as in accordance with the bonds of the covenant, that its provisions should be 
demands of righteousness. But Abraham reached the fully earned out. Abraham had now risen to the 
highest stage of spiritual progress and Keif-sacrificing highest exercise of faith and obedience of which he was 
devotediiess to the will of Heaven, w hen. in oliedi- capable, and ill his conduct had giv en the nearest pos- 
ence to the divine call, he went forth to offer up his sible reti.-x of the divine imaging s.. Ion <_r befon hand 
son Isaac on the altar of ( ;.,d. The form in which this that actual surrender to death of the Son, the only Son, 
call came to Abraham made full and touching ivcogni- whom the Father from eternity loved, in order that the 
tion of the gr. atness of the sacrifice it d. mand.d : " fake covenant might be fulfilled, and the way laid ..pen for its 
now thy son, thine <,,J <i son Isaac, w!/ ,,n t/tmi lovcst, members to everlasting life and blessing. There is no 
and get thee into the land of Moriah, and offer him there need, however, when seeking to make out the proper 
for a burnt- offering." It was a trial, indeed, in the significance of this part of A hraham s history, whether 
strongest sense. , such as no parent on earth could ever in its more immediate or its prospective bearing, to lay 
afterwards be called literally to make, since no one ever stress on the precise locality where the transaction was 
should have a son on whose prolonged existence so appointed to take place, or the subordinate circumstan- 
much depended, and be called personally to put an end ces connected with its performance. Whether the mount 
to it. The call might fitly be named a temptation, as , that was indicated to him "in the /,<</ of .Moriah" was 
it not only enjoined the patriarch to go and extin- exactly the same with that, which was afterwards de- 
guish a life incomparably dear to him, but in the very signaled "M<.,iint .Moriah," and on which the temple 
act of doing so to destroy, as it might seem, the very was built, must, from the lack of definite information, 
object of faith and hope, and enact the most revolting remain somewhat doubtful; and even if we could be 
rite of heathenism. Yet, th,, ugh not in outward reality assured of it, the fact would be significant rather as 
-God never intended that "in heart and purpose the i connected with the typical things (if the temple than 
act must be done. It was no freak of arbitrary power with the antitypical in ( hrist ; for it was not on Mount 
to command the sacrifice, nor for the purpose merely of Moriah, the most sacred spot within the city, but m a 
raising the patriarch to a kind of romantic moral ele- | place called Calvary, a place of pollution, without it, 



that Jesus suffered. The particular spot and other in 
cidental circumstances should bo regarded only in the 
light of accessories, since eiUier they, or others not 
materially different, must have accompanied the main 
Iran-action ; this alone is important. 

But few incidents are recorded in the remaining pe 
riod of Abraham s life, Ho removed from Beersheba, 
which seems to have been his settled place of residence 
about the time of the oil . ring up of Isaac, to Hebron, 
where Sarah died, an hundred and twenty-seven years 
old. At her death, and doubtless with reference to the 
future, occupancy of the land by his seed, ho secured as 
his own property a burying-ground in the held of Mach- 
pelah. in \\hic1i, beside- Sarah -, his own remains and 
those of his immediate descendants were laid. Some 
time after this, with the view of securing a suitable 
alliance, he sent by the hand of a trusty servant to the 
land of his kindred, and obtained for his son Isaac, 
K ebekah lo \\ife. Finally, he took to himself a second 
wife. Keinrah. of whose country and connections no 
thing is recorded; but by her ho had several sons, to 
whom, as to Ishmael, he: gave smaller portions, while he 
reserved the main part for Isaac. " lie died in a. good 
old age, an old man and full of years," an hundred three 
score and iifieen. He was buried by his sons Isaac 
and Ishmael in the cave of Machpelah; without an 
epitaph, but with a memorial that shall be ever blessed 
a witness, while living, of the ennobling result that 
flows from a cordial surrender to the call of (Jod ; and 
when dead, still speaking of the goodness which Ciod 
has in store for them who fear Him, and who com 
mit themselves in implicit faith to the direction of his 
word, Ge. xxv. 9, ID. 

AB SALOM [father of prace], a happy name, but a 
sail misnomer for the restless and aspiring youth with 
whom alone it stands connected in Scripture, and ] 
who. after embroiling first a family, then a kingdom 
in turmoil, fell a victim to his own. rashness and folly. 
Absalom was the third son of David, and his only 
son by Maaehah, the daughter of Talmai, king of (ie- 
shnr, 2 sa. Hi. ::. .He was possessed of singular grace 
and beauty, so that he was esteemed when grown to 
manhood the handsomest man of his time. From the 
manner in which he is reported to have cultivated his 
hair, allowing it to grow till it is even said to have 
weighed 200 shekels, -2 Sa. xiv. :><;, it is evident that he 
w-as extremely vain of his personal appearance, and be 
stowed the greatest attention on his exterior. Had his 
vanity, however, confined itself in this direction, it 
would have ended in simple foppery ; but in process of 
time it took a loftier aim. The first occasion that 
stirred his spirit into a flame was. indeed, one of an atro 
cious description, such as might well have thrown from 
its proper balance a wiser and more considerate spirit 
than his. This was the violence done to his full sister 
Tamar by A union, the eldest son of David a violence 
accompanied by such consummate deceit beforehand, 
and such heartless repudiation afterwards, that it cer 
tainly merited the severest chastisement. David, we are 
told, when he heard of what had happened, " was very 
wroth," 2Sa. xiii. 21; but he appears to have taken no 
decided action regarding it unnerved, doubtless, by 
the humiliating recollection of his own recent miscon 
duct in the matter of Triali, which had also been marked 
by extraordinary deceit and violence. The inaction of 
David served as an excuse for the vengeful determina 
tion of Absalom, who could not tolerate the thought 

of such an injury having being done to his sister without 
signal retribution. But the better to effect his object, 
he feigned in the meantime an easy indifference, intend 
ing to compass Jns object in a like crafty and unscru 
pulous manner to that which had been practised by 
Anmon. For two years he restrained the impetuosity 
of his spirit, and at length, when all suspicions of evil 
had been lulled to sleep, he brought his long meditated 
purpose to a head, in connection with a sheep-shearing 
entertainment, which he was going to hold in I .aal- 
ha/or, a place at no great distance- from Jerusalem, 
somewhere between Bethel and Jericho. He invited 
the king himself to this entertainment, not probably 
expecting or even wishing the invitation to bo accepted. 
hut the more effectually to throw all parties oif their 
guard, and prevent the idea from once entering their 
minds that any project of evil was contemplated. 
Accordingly, while David declined going, Anmon and 
the other members of the royal family went: and. in 
conformity with preconcerted arrangements, -when Am- 
non had become intoxicated with wine, he was siain by 
the servants of Absalom. The other brothers wi re- 
seized with consternation on seeing what was done, 
and. apprehending a general slaughter, ran each for 
his mule, and made as fast as possible for Jerusalem : 
but it was soon discovered that their apprehensions 
were groundless, and that the whole -cluine had been 
concerted for the murder of Anmon. It is altogether a 
dismal story, and reveals a state of things in David s 
family which, had it not been disclosed to us by the 
faithful pen of inspiration, we could not have supposed 
to exist, or scarcely even have believed to be possible. 
In attempting to account for it a large portion of blame- 
must undoubtedly be attached to the evil practice of 
polygamy, which in David s family, as in every other 
where it exists, iieces.-arily loosened the bonds of bro 
therhood, and gave scope to feelings of jealousy and 
lust, for which otherwise place could not have been 
found. The children of the different wives living to a 
considerable extent apart, naturally came to look upon 
each other as so many related, yet distinct and sepa 
rate circles: and the differences that existed amount he 
several mothers, whether in original rank, or in con 
jugal regard, could not fail to foster feelings in the 
children adverse to domestic harmony and affection. In 
particular, as Absalom s mother was the daughter of a 
king, and herself also, in all probability, like her chil 
dren, distinguished for comeliness of form, the children 
would readily think themselves entitled to some degree 
of precedence; and this could not but tend to inflame 
the unnatural desire of Anmon on the one hand, and 
on the other deepen Absalom s determination to have 
his revenge. The offence, too, that had been committed, 
was aggravated by a certain measure of insolence and 
presumption in the manner of it. But along with this 
original root of evil in the household of David, there 
was the pernicious tendency of his own fatal backsliding 
in regard to Bathsheba .- a tendency that was sure to 
work with most disastrous effect in his own household, 
as the ill example of the parent naturally gave wings 
to corruption in the bosoms of his children, and ren 
dered him well nigh incapable of administering a vigi 
lant and wholesome discipline. The outburst of wick 
edness, therefore, first in Amnon, and then in Absalom, 
was but the fruit of the great moral defection which 
had tarnished the career of David, arid of which the 
prophet gave him no doubtful intimation, when he 




said, that the Lord would "raise up evil against him 
out of his own house" and that "the sword should 
never depart from it," L Sa. xii. i<>. 11. 

Ju tlie murder of Ainnon, Absalom liad satiated 
his revenge ; but he had, at the same time, sealed his 
exclusion from the presence and court of his father. 
After such an atrocious procedure he durst not appear 
there ; and accordingly he fled to (leshur. and put him 
self under the protection of his maternal grandfather. 
He abode there for three years. Whether during this 
time be kept up any correspondence with parties in 
Jsrael we are not told ; but there can be no doubt, from 
what subsequently took place, that there were not a i 
fe-w at Jerusalem and elsewhere who wished him back ; j 
and the heart also of David, after it had recovered 
from the shock of Anmon s death, again longed after j 
Absalom. .Foab, with his shrewd discernment, was 
not slow to perceive how the current was running: and 
anxious to have the credit of bringing about what he 
judged almost certain ere long to take place, he em 
ploved a wise woman of Tekoah to introduce the mat 
ter in a parabolical discourse to the king, and got him 
virtually committed to the principle of Absalom s re 
call, before the king was aware of his case being 
brought under review. When lie did perceive the 
drift of tin- repr.-sentation. he at onco suspected that 
the hand of .(nab was in tin- device, and was \\ell 
pleased, we mav n-adilv conceive, when lie found his 
suspicion confirmed. He would be satisfied, since so 
sagacious a counsellor had taken the initiative, that the ! 
kingdom was ripe for the return of Absalom, and that 
he could gratify his personal feeling- toward his son. 
without doing violence to the general sense ,,( the com- 
niunitv. .loab was therefore instructed to have A lisa- 
lorn brought back. 2S:i. xiv.21, though the liberty to 
return was coupled \\ith the restriction that Absalom 
should so far confine himself to his own house as to 
refrain from coming into the kind s presence. The 
exiled \outli gladly availed him.-elf of the opportunity 
presented to him : but after his return he felt gall -d by 
the restraint imposed upon him. In truth, it was a 
piece of unskilful management to coupl>- his return 
with such a condition, for it gave to his case an aspect 
of harsh treatment: and the lovers of gay society and 
c. iirtlv manners would bewail it a- a sort of public 
calainitv. that the man above all others titled to shine 
in places of fashionable resort should be kept under 
a cloud of dishonour. The policy adopted was one of 
those half measures, which by w hat, they withhold more 
than undo the eiiect of what ha- been conci ded. And 
when Absalom saw how matters had been workiiiLT in 
his favour, he set his heart upon getting the restraint 
withdrawn. l- or this purpose he sought for an inter 
view with .loab, in the hope that as .loab had so far 
effected his restoration, he might not be unwilling to 
accomplish what remained. Hut in this he was disap 
pointed, .loab had probably by this time discerned the 
dangerous elements that were gathering about Absa 
lom, and had some- apprehension of the improper use 
that would be made of any further indulgence, if it were 
granted. He therefore declined seeing Absalom; but 
the latter, with that mixture of boldness and cunning, 
which appears to have formed so remarkable a feature 
in his character, put his servants on the project of set 
ting fire to Joab s barley field, \\hidi adjoined to Absa 
lom s, and thus in a manner forced .loab to a conference; 
and then, when having taunted Joab \\ith the folly of 

Vol.. |. 

having brought him fn mi a foreign exile only to shut him 
up to an exile at home, he succeeded in getting Joab s 
interest engaged in his behalf, and was shortly after 
wards admitted to the presence of his father. 

Had there been any spark of right principle or hon 
ourable feeling in the bosom of Absalom, the forbear 
ance and clemency which had now been extended toward 
him would have bound him with cords of unalterable 
attachment to the person and throne of his father. But 
the reverse was the case; personal vanity and ambition 
were his ruling principles; and he now addressed him 
self to the work of securing their full gratification. To 
understand aright this part of his career, we must en 
deavour to realize the exact position nf matters at the 
time, and know the materials he had to \\ork upon. 
The eye of Absalom was steadfastly set upon the throne ; 
and as matters then stood, there were many things to 
favour his attempt to reach it. could he only bring into 
play a sufficient amount of skilful management, while, 
if affairs were left to themselves, he had every reason to 
dread disappointment. Kven after Amiion s death he 
was not absolutely the eldest siirviv ing son ; for ( hileah 
was his senior by birth, and. for anything we know to 
the contrary. v\a- still alive. Moiv than that, a pecu 
liar interest huiii;- around another and younger son of 
David. Solmnon. concerning whom words had been 
spoken and names imposed, vv hich seemed too plainly to 
point in tin-direction of the kingdom, and of which Ab 
salom could scarcely be altogether ignorant, IC h. xxii. !i; 
L Sn. xii. _ !, _ . .. Then there was the consideration of his 
own past \\iekedness, which he could not but regard , e- 
an obstacle in his way to the throne by legitimate 
means, especially as the relation of his father to Saul 
had clearly enough shown, that moral considerations 
must here have important weight, and David, with all 
his partial leanings, was not the man to set them wholly 
aside. Such things obviously left but little hope to 
Absalom by a fair and orderly course of procedure. 
Hut. on the other side, he had many advantages. He 
was. if not absolutely the eldest son. at least the eldest 
of any consideration, and the only son by a king s 
dau-hter. l. oyal blood on both sides flovvt d in hi.- veins, 
and his appearance and manners wen- altogether kindly. 
His claims were thus within the very precincts of |. gi- 
timacv : and. if he could but interest a powerful and 
influential party in hi- behalf, a bold and vv i 11 concerted 
stroke of policy miu ht carry him to the summit of his 
wishes. I ut for this, he must inevitably throw himself 
chiefly on the worse elements ,,| society in his fathers 
kingdom. The better portion were too enlightened in 
their views of the constitution of the kingdom, and also 
too sensible of the benefits that had been reaped from 
David s administration, to encourage any policy hostile 
to I (avid s interests, or at variance vv ith the leading prin 
ciples of his government. l!ut there was a, large class 
of another kind an ungodly portion, whom Saul s policy 
had tended greatly to foster, and who, though they had 
yielded to the rising fortunes and military piovvess of 
David, yet must often have sighed, amid his strivings 
after righteousness, for what they would call the good 
old times of Saul. Nay, it is not to be doubted that 
a verv considerable number, both at Jerusalem and 
throughout the land, who had been wont by means of 
corruption and favouritism to secure their own ends, 
till the more stringent and impartial rule of David had 
put a check on their courses, would, in the latter days 
of his kingdom, feel as if they had many a grudge to 



satisfy, and something to hope fi>r liy a change. Such, 
in tin; actual state of things, wen; the elements of evil 
fermenting around Alisaloin, by skilfully working on 
whicli he might hope to make his way to the throne. 
He resolved to throw himself into tlie vortex, and to 
l>ecom> as we iind from the; J salms of David written 
in connection with Absalom s rebellion, lie actually did 
lieeome the head of the ungodlv part} in the kingdom 
- the party that sought to revive the times of Saul, an<l 
strengthen themselves liy worldly resources and ]>lans of 
wickeilness. In those psalms, such as I s. iii. iv. xlii. 
Ixiii. \c., |)avid continually speaks of those who had 
risen up against him. as the patrons of unrighteousness, 
the formers of lies, the enemies of ( iod as well as of 
himself, yea //w enemy on the very ground of his adher 
ence to the cause of righteousness and truth : so that 
he apparently regarded Ahsalom (though in this doubt 
less he was too much swayed by overweening personal 
affection) more as the seduced than the seducer the 
tool of other men s malice and ambition, rather than 
tin; agent of his own. Absalom was precisely the man 
to conciliate the regard, and head the movements of 
this party. lie was as capable as they were of work 
ing by fraud or violence. Then, his love of display, his 
fine chariots and horses, his numerous foot-runners and 
handsome equipages, gratified their carnal tastes, and 
promised, were he on the throne, to throw an air of 
splendour around the kingdom, even beyond what it had 
presented in the days of Saul. Added to this, there was 
his wonderful condescension and grace, his insinuating 
address, liis apparent interest in every one s affairs, his 
readiness to sympathize with them in their matters of 
complaint, and anxiety to right their cause, had he but 
the power to do so ! _ Sa. xv. 1-5. These arts were success 
ful ; the discontented and ungodly party in the kingdom 
had found the man they desired : and it seemed right to 
ha/.ard all in his interest, rather than continue longer 
under the saintly administration of David, and run the 
chance of having a like-minded successor to follow him 
on the throne. 

The mode of carrying the plan into effect was char 
acteristic of its nature: it began with a great lie. Ab 
salom pretended he had made a vow to the Lord in 
Gesliur, which required to be paid in Hebron. What 
it was we are not told ; but in all probability he meant 
a Naxarite vow of separation for a certain time to the 
Lord, \\hieh was to lie begun and terminated in Hebron, 
as a place more suitable than .Jerusalem for such a 
service. It looked suspicious, that Absalom should 
have been so lung in making any mention of such a 
vow, if he really had undertaken it ; but the king des 
cried no danger in the proposal, and gave him leave to 
depart. Presently, however, the secret disclosed itself ; 
so many from Jerusalem and other quarters followed 
Absalom to Hebron, and among these persons of such 
high consideration, including Ahithophel. one of David s 
most trusty counsellors, that the plot was seen at once 
to be widely spread as well as deeply laid. David per 
ceived in a moment, when he heard how matters stood. 
that the old Sauliiu; party, which had been so long 
smothered, had again revived in the conspiracy of Ab 
salom ; and, being confident that all the ungodly ele 
ments around him would draw in that direction, he saw 
that his safety was in flight. At the commencement 
of this flight, the open-mouthed slander and cursing of 
Shimei confirmed him in the fears he entertained, and 
showed how closely connected this outburst of rebellion 

in Absalom was with the smouldering spirit of attach 
ment to the house of Saul. J .ut while he thus had good 
reason to lose confidence; in man, the psalms he indited 
on the occasion strikingly exhibit the trust he still re 
posed in (!od. He rested in the belief, that Ife who 
had set the crown upon his head, in the face of the most 
furious opposition, would vindicate his right to hold it, 
in spite of all that were now against him. And so it 
proved. The success of Absalom, indeed, was alarm 
ingly rapid it seemed as if all was yielding to his touch ; 
.Jerusalem opened its gates at his approach ; and if he 
had followed the counsel of Ahithophel to pursue the king 
at once, and overtake him, when weary and downcast 
with his misfortunes, the triumph, humanly speaking, 
might have been complete. J ut (1ml had provided to 
defeat the counsel of Ahithophcl. The cunning and de 
ceit which had carried Absalom so far on the wings of 
victory, met him in his council-chamber; his own mea 
sure was meted back to him in the skilful part played 
by Hushai, who urged delay : so that time was obtained 
for David and his adherents to rally their spirits and 
concentrate; their forces ; and when the final struggle 
came on, the tried and well-officered bands of David 
completely routed the comparatively raw and undis 
ciplined recruits of Absalom. Absalom himself died by 
the hands of Joab, after having been caught in a thicket 
of the wood by his long hair ; thus falling a victim at 
once to his foppish vanity, and his unprincipled, heait- 
less ambition. 

The most affecting part in the whole story is the 
yearning fondness with which the heart of the royal 
parent continued to go forth toward his unnatural and 
worthless son. To the very last his bowels moved in 
this direction. The charge given with emphatic earnest 
ness before the battle, and heard by all the captains, 
was, "Deal gently for my sake with the young man 
Absalom." After the battle, as the messengers of 
victory came posting on one after another to the seat 
of the king, the first question put to each of them was, 
" Is the young man Absalom safe!" And when the 
sad tale fell on the monarch s ear, never did a more 
piteous lamentation burst from the lips of bereaved 
parent than was then poured forth. () my son Absa 
lom, my son. my son Absalom ! would (iod 1 had died 
for thee, () Absalom, my son, my son !" A wonderful 
fascination must have hung around the man who. after 
such a career, could still be the object of such a clinging 
affection. But Joab had taken greatly better the gauge 
of Absalom s real position and proper deserts; and, 
rightly conceiving that there would be an end to all 
order and rectitude in the kingdom, if such an offender 
should lie allowed to escape, he inflicted the fatal stroke, 
even in the face of the king s pressing injunction. Nor 
did David, on after reflection, condemn the deed; for 
while in his last charge he recounted things in Joab s 
past course by which he had made himself amenable to 
justice, not a word of rebuke is dropped over the part 
he took in the termination of Absalom s mournful 

AB SALOM S TOMB, the modern designation, of a 
kind of sepulchral monument in the valley of .Jehosha- 
phat, which stands close by the lower bridge over the 
Kedron. It consists of a square block, hewn from the 
rocky ledge, to which it originally belonged, ornamented 
on each side with engaged columns of the Ionic order, 
and surmounted with a circular building, which runs 
up into a low spire. The whole elevation is about 




forty feet, and in the interior there is a small exca- j cality, excepting that to our apprehension (whether it 
vated chamber. How this composite structure should : may lie so in reality or not) it must be thought of as at 
have; come to lie associated with the name of Absalom the farthest possible, remove from the heaven of light 
is unite unknown. But there can be no doubt it be- and glory therefore, most naturally in the heart of the 
longs to a much later period, ami it certainly has no , earth. It would seem to be some relief to apostate 

spirits to be allowed to leave this 
lowest hell though they cannot 
thereby escape from the worse hell 
of their own bosom and to prose 
cute schemes of mischief in the dif 
ferent spheres of terrestrial life and 
agency. "Within curtain limits this 
permission is granted them, not on 
their own account, but in subservi 
ence to the purposes of Cod s moral 
government among men. And when 
these shall have been accomplished, 
the bars of their eternal prison-house 
shall be finally closed upon them, and 
their doom iu it rendered only more 
intensely miserable by reason of the 
wickedness they had practised on 
earth, _ IV. ii.l; ,Tm!ci;;Ue. xx. in. 

In a more general sense the term 
nli/M or d,cj> is used of the state of 
the dead, in the passage paraphrased 
by St. Paul from Deuteronomy, and 
applied to our Lord s profoimdcst 
humiliation " Who shall descend in 
to the deep (the abyss) that is. to 
ring up Christ again fnun the dead," 11,,. x. r. In 
lying, Christ s bodily part descended into the lower 
that "style of parts of the earth; and his soul also is conceived of as 
going downwards cut off for a time from the land of 
the living; although in reality it entered into a state of 
most blessed re] lose, and enjoyed the sweets of paradise. 
So that nothing detinitelv local is to be inferred from such 
language as to the abode of departed spirits. (Sr, HAIIKS.) 
AC CAD, one of five cities that were built by Nim- 
rod in the land of Shinar 

tion with that pillar which Absalom i 

neted for himself in the king s 
obinson regards it as belonging t 

minLTled Creek and Kgyptian art which prevailed in the 
oriental provinces of the Unman empire." He thinks 
it probably of the same age as the architectural re 
mains of I etra : and certainly not reaching farther back 
than the age of the llerods. 

ABYSS, the Knglish form of the Creek &,1vffffo<;, 
which means literally wit/tout huttoin, hence profound, 
di i/i. In the authorized version it is rendered deep 
in Lu. viii. :>1 ; Uo. x. 7, and Lot to mlt us pit, or pit, 
in all the other passages where it occurs, and \\liich 
are found only in Uevelat mn eh. ix. ],_ , ii; \i. r, ir,&e. The 
word had been employed by the (Jreek translators 
of the Old Testament, chiefly as an equivalent for the 
Heb. 2"irr (tehom), as at (Je. i. "2; vii. 11 ; Job xxviii. 

] I, &c. So used, it jilaiuly denoted a huge, and ap- 
parciitly fathomless assemblage of waters, whether 
covering the surface, or concealed within the bowels of 
the earth. And from this the transition was natural 
and easy to the innermost parts of the earth itself, or 
the regions generally of the lowest depths the depths 
of utter darkness and irrecoverable perdition. 

It is in this sense the terms d<:i*p and b<jttoml ~tsx pit, 
corresponding to the original term abys,t, are always 
used in New Testament scripture; and it had cer 
tainly been better if the one term of the original 
(<tbijs) had always appeared in our English Bibles. 
The (lemons in the poor Cadarene maniac besought 
the Lord, when he was going to dispossess them, that 
he would not cast them forth into the abyss, Lu. viii. 31, 
that is, would not remand them to the dark and dreary 
abode, which is their proper habitation, and which is 
always represented as in the lowest conceivable depths. 
Nothing is thereby determined as to the precise lo- 

that a remarkable pile of 

It is 

cient buildin 

[3.] Aker-koof. (Jhesney s Euphrates Expedition. 

known by the name of Al-cr-loof, and situated in Sit- 
tacene, about nine miles west from the Tigris, may be 
the remains of the ancient city. But nothing certain 
can be ascertained on the subject, especially as so little 
is known of the original place itself. 

L n 


AC CHO [Ilch. ^y, probably aun-hcated], n seaport 

\vitliiu the territory of tin: tribe of A slier, and about 
:!<i mile- to tin 1 smith of Tviv. It was never won 
from tin- hands of its original occupants, ,Ju.i:a. Its 
earlier naiin 1 with Greek and Roman writers was Ak< . 
but ultimately it was c oniinoidy known under that of 
I tolemais, which it derived from 1 toleniv, the first 
Kgyptian king of that name, who greatly improved and. 
strengthened it (Strain), xvi. ^77; I Hod. Sic. \i.\. \\ ,\ ; 
1 lin. \d.t. ll tst. v. ] .); 1 Mac. x. fjii, &c.); but among 
Furopeans it is better known by the name 1 of >7. Jcitii 
/Acre. It is associated \\ith no important event in 
Old Testament history, and in the Xe\v is only men 
tioned once. when, in connection with the journeying 

of I aul, it is saiil " \Ve came to Ptolemais, and salu 
ted the brethren, and abode witli them one day," Ac. xxi. 7. 
[t acquired its Europea-n name from having- been as 
signed by the crusaders to the knights of St. .lohn, by 
\\hoiu it was held for the best part of a century, but 
was again re-conquered by the Mahometan ]>ower in 
12iM. With tin.: native population, however, it lias al 
ways gone by the name of Akka, and is therefore, as 
remarked by Mr. Stanley. " a remarkable instance of the 
tenacity with whii-h a Semitic name has outlived the 
foreign appellation imposed upon it. Ptoleniais the 
title wliich it bo7 e for the many centuries of ( hvek and 
Human sway dropped off the moment that sway \\as 
broken; and in the modern name of Acre, the ancient 
Accho. derived from the heated sandy tract on which 
the town was built, reasserted its rights" (Sinn! and 
Palestine, p. 2iM). The harbour of Accho is shallow, 
and can only accommodate vessels of comparatively 
small burden; but. such as it is, it renders the place of 
considerable importance, as there is no haven nearly so 
good in the immediate neighbourhood. It was hence 
designated by Napoleon the key of Palestine, and in 
his ambitious designs upon Fgypt and the Hast he made 
a vigorous attack with the view of getting possession of 
it. I!ut it made so gallant a resistance under the able 
command of Sir Sidney Smith, that the French were ob 
liged to desist. It has since been the subject of several 
sieges, and has suffered much from the vicissitudes of 
war. So late as 1840, it was bombarded by Admiral 
Stopford. in connection with the operations which were 
then carried on for restoring Syria to the Porte. The 
trade, however, for Syria is now chicHy connected 
with ]5eyront, and Acre has become relatively of much 
less importance. The existing population is reckoned 
about 12, mm. ,,f which one-third are Turks. The 
period of its peculiar glory was that of the thirteenth 
century, when, for a time, it formed the great strong 
hold of the crusaders gibbon s Jlitstori/, eh. lix.) 


ACEL DAMA, properly HAKAI,-DEMA [sn---^pr. 
ft fid of blood], the name given to the plot of ground 
wliich was purchased with the reward of Judas treach 
ery, Ac. i. i!. Its position is no further described, than 
that it is said to have belonged to the "Potter s Field." 
This undoubtedly identifies it with the valley of Hin- 
nom ; for what was called emphatically the Potter s 
Field was, from ancient times, associated with that val 
ley. Je. x-x. The portion of the valley of Hinnom which 
forms the southern declivity from .Mount Zion, was 
very anciently used as a burying- place, and is studded 
with tombs, chiefly hewn out of the rock, but in winch 

nothing of any historical interest has yet been found. 
The tombs themselves are rude and untasteful ; one of 
these, about half way up the hill, and directly oppo 
site the pool of Siloam, stands, according to tradition, 
in the midst of the Aceldama of Scripture. .Jerome 
connects it with the same spot, in his Oiiomanticoii : 
and nearly all the earlier, as well as the later travellers, 
notice it in their descriptions of Jerusalem. Maunde- 
ville, Sandys, and .Manndrcll each speak of it as usid 
for purposes of burial in their day. We select only one 
of the latest accounts: " It is a long, vaulted building, 
of massive masonry, in front of a precipice of rock, in 
which is apparently a natural cave. The interior is 
excavated to the depth of some twenty feet, thus form 
ing an immense charnel-house. At each end is an 
| opening, through which we have a dim view of the in- 
| terior ; the bottom is empty and dry, with a few half- 
decayed bones scattered over it. The charnel-house is 
, first mentioned by IMaundeville. The bodies of the 
dead were thrown loosely into it; and the soil was be 
lieved to possess the remarkable power of consuming 
them in the short space of forty-eight hours (Sandys). 
Tile place does not appear to have been used for burial 
for more than a century, though some travellers affirm 
they have seen bodies in it within the last twenty 
years." (M urniij a Jfnitd-/ioo/,- for ^//, in and I al x- 
ti iic, by Porter.) 

ACHA IA, in the classical p< riod of ancient < freece, 
. was a comparatively small province in tin; north-west 
of the Peloponnesus, extending along the Corinthian 
Gulf for about (\~> English miles, with a breadth varying 
[ from 12 to 20. Hut as used in Xew Testament scrip- 
tnre, the name includes a great deal more; it compre 
hends the whole of the Peloponnesus, and the greater 
part of Greece proper, with the adjacent islands; so 
that the regions of Achaia in St. Paul. L <:<.. xi. in, 
are very much the same with the regions of classical 
(ireece. This change was introduced after the con 
quest of that country by the 1 omans not immediately, 
however, hut after various temporary arrangements had 
run their course. Shortly before the gospel era. the 
whole of Greece was divided by Augustus into three 
provinces, the most southerly of which was called 
Achaia, comprehending, as already stated, nearly all 
that was wont to be understood under the general name 
of Greece; while to the north lay, first Macedonia, and 
then Epirus. The boundaries between the three 1 pro 
vinces are nowhere exactly defined. Achaia, in the 
large sense now mentioned, was at first constituted a 
senatorial province, and was accordingly governed by 
proconsuls. P>ut Tiberius changed it into an imperial 
province, when, as a matter of course, the government 
came to be administered by proprietors (Tacit. An. i. 
70). Xot long afterwards, however, it was again re 
stored to the senate, and was presided over by a pro 
consul down even to the time of .Justinian (Suet. Claud. 
c. 2.")). The events related in the Acts of the Apostles 
occurred, some of them before, and some of them after 
this latter change; and nothing but the most minute 
faithfulness and accuracy could have prevented the 
sacred historian from falling into error in the use of 
the terms. It was for a time supposed, even by some 
able commentators, that an error had been committed 
at ch. xviii. 12, where Gallio is represented as the pro 
consul of Achaia, and alterations of the text were sug 
gested to put the matter right. P>ut more careful in- 
quiry fully justified the accuracy of tin: historian, which 


is the more remarkaUe, as it was only five or six years 
previous to the transactions recorded in Acts xviii. that 
the province of Achaia had been restored to the senate. 
ACHAICUS, the name of a believer in the region 
of Achaia. and a delegate to the apostle Paul from the 
church of Corinth, icv xvi. 17. Nothing further is known 
of him. 
A CHAN, also written ACIIAR, ich. ii. :. which means 
(roiiMiny or disturbing; and the probability is, that this 
slight change in the name was introduced for the pur 
pose of rendering it significant of the character and 
historv of the unfortunate individual it refers to. Acli 
an was the son of Carmi, of the tribe of .ludah, and 
at the taking of Jericho was guilty of a trespass, in 
what is called " the accursed thing," J.s. vii. 1 ; that is, 
lie secreted for his own personal advantage a portion 
of the spoil of the place ivix. a P>ahylonish garment. 
L iMI shekels of silver, and a wedge of goldi, which had 
been all put under the divine ban, and solemnly devoted 
to the Lord. This ban had been put up.n the people 
and possessions of Canaan generally, but in a mop- t?pe 
cial and emphatic manner it \\as laid on .lericho, as 
the first-fruits of the land, to show, as Hen^st.-nberg 
justlv state-- (C/,jvV<>/. .)/ (/. iv. <i>. "that the former 
possessors of the lan.i were not exterminated by human 
caprice, but bv the vengeance of Cod; that their land 
and their goods were not liestowed upon th.- Israelites 
as -poil. but as a lief \\hich He had reclaimed, and 
which He could now 1 est .w upon another vassal, to see 


tial part of God s policy toward Israel, to treat them as 
one compact body a regularly organized whole to 
whose common welfare or adversitv each individual 
contributed, and in which also he, more or less, shared: 
individuals could not expect to attain to blessing apart 
from the whole, nor the whole apart from the faith and 
integritv of individuals. To impress this upon them 
from the first, as a matter of vital moment, terrible 
things in righteousness were done, and among these the 
disaster arising out of the sin of Aehan. The people 
were made to feel, that the infection of a single mem 
ber of the bodv was fraught with peril to the whole, 
and doubtless also more thoughtful minds were smitten 
with the conviction that, though but one man had 
committed the particular sin condemned, the tendency 
to fall in the same direction was far from In ing confined 
to him. 2. The other question connected with the case 
of Aehan has respect to the severity of the judgment 

not onlv the culprit himself, but his entire familv. and 

everv living creature in his possession, being doomed to 

of this undouhtcdlv was the same with that which in 
volved the people evnt rally in Achan s guilt the close 

between one portion of the covenant people ami another. 
Standing under one covenant bond, each was, to a cer 
tain extent, responsible for another s behaviour : and the 
moral interconnection necessarily assumed its strictest 

called to yield." The sin of Aehan. therefore, was, .fa 
very heinous description; it was a virtual infraction of 
the terms on which Canaan was granted to the children 
of Israel, and turned to a selfish account what should 

to the express enactments of Moses. DC. xxiv. ir,, were not 
to be put to death for their children, nor children for 
their parents. P.ut the bond was still a very < lose one, 
and from the natural tendency of the heart to imbibe 

It carried also the spirit of idolatry in its bosom, and 
implied that, as the deed was done in secrecy, the Cod 
of Israel could neither see nor regard. Such a spirit. 
manifesting itself at such a time, required to be met 
with the most severe rebuke, as pregnant (should it 
prevail i with mischief to the- whole community of Israel, 
and subversive of the design for which they were to be 
settled iii Canaan. Accordingly, a repulse was ap 
pointed, under 1 rovidciiee, to be sustained at Ai, to 
bring out in a palpable form the fact that there was 
something essentially wrong with the people; and w hen 
this had produced its due impression, and a general 
terror was spread among them, they were directed to 
the sin of Aehan as the cause of the whole evil. Th 
actual discovery of the offender was obtained by casting 
the lot, who then made full confession of his guilt, and 
was presentlv afterwards, with all his family, and even 
his cattle, stoned to death and burned to ashes by Un 
assembled congregation of Israel. 
The melancholy history of Aehan gives rise to two 
questions:--!. Why should the sin of Aehan have been 
imputed to the congregation at large, so that, on its 
account, the whole should have suffered a defeat i It 

the parent turned aside to iniquity, the members of 
his household should be found free from the contamina 
tion. The rather so. as then, greatlv more than now. 

living example of its head for the character it assumed. 
If. therefore, it might be too much to affirm, in regard 
to the case before us, that every member. if Achan s 
family participated in his transgression, and hence 
shared in his condemnation, we may. at least, say that 
the .-;, //-, / of Aclian was but too probably characteristic 

tioiis of the inevitable ruin sure to overtake families, if 
sin should get possession of those who stood at the head 
of them, tin- entire household and property of Aehan 
\\ei-.- surrendered to destruction. Thus, in both the re 
spects adverted to. the divine procedure is capable of a 
perfect justification ; and the severity of righteousness 
displaved in it was fitted to exert a most salutary and 
wholesome influence upon the families of Israel. 
A CHISH, the import of which is uncertain, occurs 
as the name of a king of Cath. at whose court David 
twice sought and found protection, i Sa. xxi. in-i:. ; xxvii. 2; 
and probably also of another king of < lath, to whom, at 
a considerablv later period, the servants of Shimei tied, 
!Ki.ii.:;:i. The reception given by the former to David 
will be noticed in tin account of David s life. 
ACH METHA, the; ancient and scriptural name of 
Kcbatana. the metropolis of Media. It occurs, how 
ever, onlv once, i<;/r. vi. _ , where we are told, the decree 
of Cvrus respecting the restoration of the Jews was 
found "at Achnietha, in the palace that is in the pro 
vince of the Medes." In the Apocrypha and -losephus. 

in the strict and proper sense in such a sense as 
Adam s sin is imputed to his posterity, or the righteous 
ness of Christ to his people. The connection in this 
case could not, from the nature of things, be nearly sc 
close. P.ut the divine procedure clearly showed that 
there was a connection, and one that could not exist 
without a certain participation in the guilt, and a con 
sequent liubilit.v to the punishment. It was an esscii- 



Kcbatana is the name used. Th;it it was .1 strongly 
fortified jilacc is evident from many notices in ancient 
history; sncli as, that, after the disastrous battle of 
Arbela, Harms fled thither, as to a place of compara 
tive safety (. \rrian, A t/>. iii. 1!M; that Alexander trans 
ported to it, the plunder he had taken at 1 ahylon and 
Siisi. & . The building "f the walls of the citv. which 
probably formed the most important part of the fortifi 
cations, is ascribed, at the commencement of the apo 
cryphal book Judith, to Arphaxad. .Hut who this king 
Arphaxad might be is quite ; and Herodotus 
makes Dejoces the chief founder of the city, as a place 
of note and security, and represents it as having been 
surrounded by seven concentric walls, each inner one 
rising with its battlements above the one immediately 
before it (h. i. 7*K J ut this is onlv to be taken as a 
matter of report by some it is even held to be entirely 
fabulous: and certainly it does not square well with 
the account of Polvbius, who states that the city had 
no walls around it, but possessed a citadel of enormous 
strength. It is unnecessary here to enter into anv fur 
ther details on the subject, as nothing depends on it for 
the illustration of Scripture. The common tradition 
identifies the modern Hamadan with the ancient Eeba- 
tana. which stands on the slopes of the Elwand, the an- 

Hamadan, ami Ruins of the Castle of Darius. Chesnej 

cient Orontes, in the province of Irak. It is in a fine 
elevated position, and is said to have been the chief 
summer residence of the Persian kings, from the days 
of Darius to those of Ghengis Khan. The ruins show, 
besides the so-called palace of Darius seen in the view, 
the tombs of Esther and Mordecai, and of the philoso 
pher Avicenna. The present population is said to 
number from 40.000 to 4f>.0<H>. 

A CHOR [f/ ijtJili <>;/]. a valley near Jericho, so named 
from having been the scene of Achan s punishment, 
Js. vii.-j i- . c. It never occurs again in the history, but 
is employed as an image by the prophets Isaiah and 
Hosea, when depicting the better days in prospect for 
the people of God, which should, as it were, reverse the 
evil that had taken place in the past, and turn it into 
experiences of blessing, is. ixv. 10, "The valley of Achor 
shall be a place for the herds to lie down in" a place 
of peaceful rest, instead of, as in the days of old, a 

scene of disquietude and sorrow; n<>. ii.i.i, "T will give 
her the valley of Achor for a door of hope" in other 
words, I will bring to an end the tribulations arising 
out of sin. and substitute; in their room the joyful anti 
cipations of uninterrupted life and blessing. 

ACH SAH \<ui anklet], a daughter (.f Caleb. In 
conformity with customs not unusual in ancient times, 
she was promised in marriage by her father to the man 
who should take the city of Kirjath-sephir, or i >ebir. 
This feat was accomplished by Othniel. the nephew of 
Caleb, who accordingly received Achsah for his wife. 

JDS. XV. Ill, 17; .Til. i lL , l. i. 

ACH SAPH [uichantment], a town in the tribe of 
A slier, Jos. xi. 1 ; xix. >; supposed by some to be the 
same as A echo, and by others as Ach/ib. The latter 
supposition is certainly improbable, as Ach/ib is also 
mentioned in Jos. xix. 20. 

ACH ZIB [deceptive, lyivy], the name of two towns, 
of which very little is known. 1. A place situated 
in the tribe of Judah, the precise locality of which is 
no\\here defined. Jos.xv.44. 2. Another, and appar 
ently more considerable place, within the boundaries 
of the tribe of A slier, about 10 miles to the north of 
Acre. The Israelites were at first unable to drive 
out the Philistines from it, Ju. i. ?,\, and nothing is after 
wards mentioned of it in par 
ticular. It still survives under 
the name of Dsiii. 

ACEE OF LAND, as used in 
Scripture, is a less exact term 
than an English reader miu lit 
suppose. It is properly a i/iikr, 
namely, such a c|iiantity as a 
yoke of oxen might plough in 
a day perhaps from a half to 
three-quarters of an imperial 
acre, i s.i. .\iv. n ; is. v. IM.&C. 


the name commonly used to 
designate the fifth book in the 
New Testament scriptures. 
It obtained this title at a very 
early period, though sometimes 
the epithet / "/// was prefixed 
to apostles, and sometimes also 
it was reckoned among the 
gospels, and called the li nxpcl 
of the Holy Ghost, or the Gos- 
pd of the Resurrection. The 

common designation, however, has always been that 
which is still in use; and the early and all but unanimous 
tradition of the church assigns its human composition to 
the pen of the evangelist Luke. This tradition is sup 
ported by various grounds of an internal kind. 1. Ac 
cording to the preface it purports to have been written bv 
the same person who composed the third gospel, and for 
the more immediate benefit of the same individual (Theo- 
philus); and by the concurrent voice of all antiquity 
that Gospel is attributed to St. Luke. 2. There is a 
striking similarity in the style of this book and of the 
third Gospel, such as might naturally be looked for in 
the writings of the same author : the dialect, like that of 
the Gospel, is in general less Hebraistic than that used 
by the other evangelists, and it contains a considerable 
number of words and phrases which are rarely, often 
never, found in any other books of New Testament 
scripture, except the Gospel of Luke. As many as 

s Euphrates Expedition. 


fifty of these have been pointed out (see, for example, if what we had chiefly to look for here were a historical 

Davidson s Introd. 1.) 3. In the latter part of the account of the life and labours of our Lord s apostles 
narrative, from eh. xvi. 10, onwards, the writer usually ; after he had left them ! Were that all, every one must 

includes himself in the party of Paul, and speaks as one be struck with the extremely defective nature of the 

who had been an eye-witness of many of the transae- work, and must also feel that in its object it occupies a 

tions which took place; so, in particular, lie writes at much lower position than the Oospcl of which it pur- 

ch. xx. 5 : xxi. 1 ; xxvii.: xxviii. Now, we know of no ports to lie the continuation. P>ut by the sacred histo- 

other person who was on such a footing of intimacy rian himself, the two are most closely connected to- 

ain I companionship with St. Paul, of whom this can be gether : The former treatise have 1 made. O Theo- 

properlv understood, but the evangelist Luke. Me philus, of all that Jesus began both to do and teach :" 

cannot, with some in later times, understand it of it was but the bi<jinniii<i of his mediatorial agency that 

Timothy; for at ch. xx. 4. i>. Timothy is mentioned the historical account in the dispel had embraced, 

among others who accompanied Paul into Asia, and though it reached from his birth to his resurrection ; 

who, it is said. " going before tarried for us at Troas." and now such is the fair inference from the words 

implying that the historian was a different person from taken in connection with what follows \arnl the position 

any of those specified. Xor can we, with others, sup- of the verb. ijptaTO. before .Jesus, in the original, makes 

pose Silas to have been the person so identifying him- the inference still more obviously natural than in the 

self with the apostle.; for Silas is once and again spoken translation now, in this second account we proceed to 

of in the third person, and in ch. xv. - 2, \\henfirst exhibit the continued operation of that agency, and the 

never have done of himself, as a "chief man among great subject of the evangelist s delineations the real 

the brethren." Then, though Luke is ma meiitioind spring of the movements he describes ; only .b-sus w ith- 

by name in the history, yet we know from tin- allusions drawn within the veil, ami from tin- sanctuary above 

in tin- later epi.-tles of L aul, that lie was a bosom-friend operating by the grace of his Spirit upon the souls of 

and close companion of tin- apostle; in Phile. -J 1 h>- is men, and actually setting up tin 1 kingdom, which it was 

nairn-d as one of his " fellow-labourers, in Col. iv. 1 1 the purpose of his mission to establish in the world, 

as "the beloved physician." and in -J Ti, iv. 11 as the Hence, as justly stated by I .aitmgarten. who, in his 

one faithful friiiid who abode with him to tin- last. work on the Acts, has the merit of aw akening atteli- 

whi-n so many forsook him. So that not only had tion to this higher aim of the book, Jesus, as the already 

Luke gone with the apostle into Italy, but he continued exalted king of /ion, appears, on all suitable occasions, 

to hold with him there a peculiarly close and endearing as the ruler and judge of supreme resort ; tin- apostles 

relationship; ami the whole of tin- incidental notices are but his representatives and instruments of working. 

concerning him. and the relation In- held to the apostle. It is He who appoints the twelfth witness, that takes 

tli! -place of the fallen apostle, eli. i. 2-1; lie who. having re 
ceived the promise from the Father, sends down the 

could ha\c written, such an account of tin- life and Holy Spirit with power, di. ii. :i:i ; He, who comes near to 

labours of Paul as is found in this book. ! turn the people from their inii|iiities and add them to 

As to the sources from which St. Luke drew his in- tin- membership of his church, ch.ii.47;; lie who 
formation, and respecting which ( lerman critics have works miracles trom time to time by the hand of tin- 
been wont to discourse at great length, though to little apostles : who sends Peter to open the door of faith to 
pur] lose, tlii -re is no m-i d to go into any particular in- tin- ( i entiles ; who instructs Philip to go ami meet the 
(|\iii\. For the hitter half of the book, the man. who Ethiopian; who arrests Haul ill his career of persecution 
was tin- bosom friend of tin- apostle to whom it all re- and makes him a chosen vessel to the (! entiles ; in short, 
lati-s. ami himself also the almost constant eye- witness w 1m continually appears presiding o\er tin- atl airs of his 
of the transactions described, had m> occasion to go in church, directing his servants in tlieir course, protecting 
ipii-st of original sources ; he had these beside him. at tin m from the ham Is of their i in mies. ami in the midst 
lir-t hand. And as regards the historical details given, .if much that was adverse, still giving efi ect to their 
ami the discourses recorded in the earlier part, there ministrations, ami causing tin- truth of tin- gospel to 
can be no reasonable doubt that he took sulistantially grow and bear fruit. \Ve ha\e tin TI -fore in this book, 
the sa course with this portion of his narrative, that not merely a narrative of facts, which fell out at tin- 
he did in narrating the events of our Saviour s life beginning of tin- Christian church, in connection more 
namely, sought ami obtained "a perfect understanding especially with the apostolic agency of IVtei and I aul, 
of them from those who were eve-witnesses ami min- but we have, first of all ami in all, the ever-present con- 
isters of the word," I. u. i. _ ,::. \Yhile in all things guided trolling administrative agency of tin 1 Lord .Jesus Christ 
by the supernatural direction of ( !od, lie could not. on himself, shedding birth the powers of his risen life, and 
that account, be the less, but would rath r be the more giving shape ami form to his spiritual and everlasting 
careful, to make use of the most authentic means within kingdom. If this leading idea is kept in view, it will 

his reach for knowing precisely all that In- undertook present the I k of Acts to tin- mind as in scope ami 

to relate 1 of the hist planting of the Church of Christ. aim perfectly akin to tin- (lospels, and will also supply 

Of this we shall be the more satisfied, when we re- a connecting thread to bind together into a consistent 

fleet upon the high design with which he wrote this whole the apparently isolated ami somewhat occasional 

sequel to his gospel histois. A somewhat partial and notices it contains. Nor, if contemplated in the light 

superficial viesv has very commonly been taken of the nosv suggested, will it appear accidental, that tin- his- 

book. The very name- gisen to it " Acts of the Apos- tory should terminate with Paul s work at I tome, as it 

ties" --is itself a proof of the undue regard that has been commences with the work of the twelve in Jerusalem : 

had to the merely external aspect of its contents, and has for the commission of Christ to hi: 

also served to perpetuate the tendency so to view it, as that tln-y should preach the gospel 



beginning at Jerusalem ; and in Kome, the centre and 
c:i]iit;il ul tin; heathen \\orld. the different nations might 
In- said tn have th- ir representation. Tin- truth of tin 
gospel, when oner fairly planted there, might well In: 
regarded as in the act of taking possession of the world. 
It i- prohable, however, that other and more personal 

call, as then understood. At the close; of this period 
there were churches not only in Jerusalem, but also in 
Samaria and Galilee, < tesarea. Antioch, and still more 
distant regions, eh. ix. :!i; xi. lo, L-I. Another and third era 
commences with tin; conversion of Paul, and the admis 
sion of the family of Cornelius into the bosom of tin: 

reasons conspired to induce the evangelist to conclude Church, which were probably not far asunder, though 
his narrative \\heii it reached the period of Paul s im- we may suppose the conversion of Paul to have been 
Hue. That period formed a s 
as well as a long pause in the aji 

> ur.s ; anil wi 


the. future, the evangelist might deem it proper to bring 
his account to a close. 

When we turn from the great design and object of 
the book, to think of the precise period and order of its 

It is for the most part but an approximation that can 
be attained ; and commentators ditler considerably in 
respect to the dates they assign to specific facts. Since 
tin careful investigations of Wiesler, however ((Jlirono- 
loyie d i> Apostolwchen Zeitultcrs), there has been more 
of general agreement as to the leading points. Taking 
the vulgar era of our Lord s birth as three or four vears 

somewhat earlier. The great advance now made was 
the opening of the door of faith to the Gentiles, simply 
.> Gentiles; that is, without having submitted to cir 
cumcision and passed through the Jewish yoke. The 
apostles knew from the first our Lord s intention to ex 
tend the blessings of the gospel to the Centile portion 
of mankind ; the original commission given to them 
before lie left the world was to make disciples of all 

to the year . >>> or o7 ; the council at 
decide respecting circumcision probably 
nit the year ;"id, before which Paul s first 
missionary tour had been accomplished, and shortly after 
which his second tour commenced. It was during the 
year (id that Felix was superseded by Festus, at which 
time Paul was, and hail for two years already been in 
bonds. In the following year he arrived at Home, and 
continued, with the degree of liberty granted him, to 
preach the gospel there for two years more ; so that 
about the year ( > ) the sacred historian concluded his 
narrative, and most probably about the same period 
gave it forth to the world. 

.nts comprised within the thirty- three years 
over which the history stretches, may not unnaturally 
bo ranged under three great divisions. Paley, in his 
Evidences, eh. ix.. has adopted this division (coupling 
it, however, with quite improbable dates), and since his 
time it has been very commonly recognized. T]n: first 
period embraces the strictly Jewish age of the New 
Testament church the period during which the preach 
ing of tin- gospel was confined to the circumcision, and 
the converts to the faith consisted only of believing 
Jews. This stage reaches to the death of Stephen, 
cli. vii., and probably occupied the first six or seven vears 
of the Church s history. The xtc.imd stage alivadv 
prepared for by the nature of Stephen s j preaching 
began with the persecution which ensued on his death, 
and which dispersed many of the disciples through Sa 
maria and Galilee, and, in the case of some, as far as 
Antioch, Cyprus, and Phenice. Wherever they went, 
we are told, they j (reached the word," and witli a 
success which far exceeded their expectations ; but it 
was still only to the Jews, eh. xi. l<, at least to none but 
the circumcised ; for the Samaritans also shared in the 
benefit, though they held only a sort of intermediate 
position between the Jewish and Gentile portions of the 
world. I Jut in this ease they were reckoned as more 
properly belonging to the Jewish, since they practised 
circumcision, and so came within reach of the gospel 

Put the idea seems still to have hung upon their minds, 
that to receive the Christian faith the Gentiles must 
first submit to the yoke of Judaism. Now, however, 
by the descent of the Spirit on the family of Conidiiir-. 
while still uncireumcised. and by the calling of one \\ho 
was to be sent as an apostle especially to the uneircum- 

eised Gentiles, the bonds were in a manner burst, and 

event at Jerusalem, and a few other occurrences about 

the same period, t 

rtions of the Acts 

taken up in tracing the progress of this last phase of 
things, as connected with the life and labours of him 
who was more especially charged with its accomplish 

lieside the benefit yielded by the book of Acts from 
the account preserved in it of these successive stages in 
the early history and planting of the Christian church, 
it contains materials, more particularly in its later por 
tion, of immense value for establishing the authenticity 
and genuineness of the New Testament writings. It 
has been by means of a minute and careful comparison 
of the accounts in these with the allusions in St. Paul s 
epistles, that a most convincing, and, we may say. an 
irrefragable argument has been formed in proof of the 
historical verity of both. It is to Paley that the honour 
is due of exhibiting this proof, and establishing the- 
argument grounded on it in a manner which leaves little 
to be supplied : ami his Hunt: Paidiini: svill ever remain 
a monument of his fine discrimination, practical saga 
city. and solid judgment. If the original writings of 
the New Testament had been more studied on the Con 
tinent in the spirit and principles of this work, many a 
vain and groundless theory would have been checked 
in the bud. 

The more special helps for the study and interpreta 
tion of the book of Acts are, beside the general com 
mentaries on the New Testament, the work of P>aum- 
garten already referred to. now translated, and forming 
part of Clark s Foreign Library a work in some parts 
fanciful, in others prolix and involved, but abounding 
with profound thoughts, and pervaded by an elevated 
spirit; Biscoe 011 the Jlistory of the Acts confirmed 
from other authors; Neander s History of the Planting 
i if tin Christian Church In/ the Apostles (forming part 
of Clark s P>iblical Cabinet); TIte Life and Letters of 
the Apostle Paul, byConybeare and Howson ; "Wiesler s 
Chronologic; Hackett s Exegetical Commentary; Alex 
ander s Commentary, &c. 



A DAH [ornament, comeliness] occurs as the name 
of one of the wives of Lamech, <Je. iv. ii; and also one 
of the wives of Esau. Gc. xxxvi. 4. The latter seems to 
have been originally called Judith, Ge. xxvi. 34; but, in 
accordance with a practice quite common in the East, 
with a change of state there was assumed a change of 

A DAM [to be rid. or, as some put it, earth-red, 
ruddi/], the name given to our first parent, and from 
him the common designation in Hebrew of mankind at 
large. It seems at first thought somewhat strange, 
that the head of the human family should have received 
his distinctive name from the affinity which he had, in 
the lower part of his nature, to the dust of the earth 
that he should have been called Adaui, as being taken 
in his bodily part from adama/i, the ground ; the more 
especially as the name was not assumed by man him 
self, but imposed by (iod, and imposed in immediate 
connection with man s destination to bear the image of 
(iod: "And (.iod said, Let us make man (Adam) in 
our image, after our likeness," \c. This apparent 
incongruity has led some, in particular Kiehers (Die 
Scltiififunys, Paradieses nnd Siindjlutkcs <i<sckickt<\ 
p. 1 (i3), t<> adopt another etymology of the term to make 
Adaui a derivative of danuth ( ;rO, to //>: liic< . to 

res mile. Delit/.seh. hwever, in his / .<//.// <A"<j;l "J !/i . 
/;//,/. (System dcr Hi/,/. Psychologic, p. l .<>. has objected 
to this view, both on grammatical and other grounds ; 
ami though we do not see the force of his grammatical 
objection to the derivation in question, yet \ve think he 
puts the matter itself rightly, and thereby justilies the 
received opinion. Man got his name A dtuu from the 
earth, ad iut ih, not because of its being his character 
istic dignity that (iod made him after his image, but 
because of this, that God made after his image one who 
h:id 1). en taken from the earth. The likeness to ( iod 
man had in common with the angels, but that, as the 
possessor of this likeness, he should be Adam this is 
v. hat brought him into union with two worlds the 
\\orld of spirit and the world of matter rendered him 
the centre and the bond of all that hail been made, the 
titling top^ of the whole work of creation, and the 
motive principle of the world s history. It is precisely 
hi* having the image of (iod in an earthen vessel, that, 
while made somewhat lower than the angels, he occu 
pies a higher position than they in respect to the affairs 
of this world. 1 s. viii. , j ; HLMJ. .">. 

To pass, however, from the name to the reality, the 
account given of Adam in Scripture must always be 
interesting and important, from the relation in which, 
as the first man. he stands to all the families and gene 
rations of mankind. In this respect the subjects of chief 
moment connected with his history divide themselves 
into three parts : 1. The simple fact of his creation at a 
definite stage in the natural history of the world. 2. The 
state in which he was created, with the constitution 
of things under which, in that state, he was placed. 
. {. The loss of his original condition by transgression, 
and the immediate and remote consequences thence 

1. In regard to the first of these points, the repre 
sentation given in the lirst chapters of Genesis is, that 

Adam was absolutely the first man, and was created 
by the direct agency of (iod ; that this act of creation, 
including the immediately subsequent creation of Eve. 

A as the last in a series of creative acts, which extended 

Vol.. I. 

through a period of six days (whether natural days or 
not will be the subject of future inquiry under the 
article CREATION); and that, as everything up to this 
consummating act had been made with a view to the 
future support and well-being of man. so, when Adam 
and his spouse were brought into being, they were 
placed over all as the proper heads of the world, and 
had its best things subordinated to their use. This 
scriptural account is. of course, entirely opposed to the 
atheistic hypothesis, which denies any definite hi giii- 
ning to the human race, but conceives the successive 
generations of men to have run on in a kind of infinite 
series, to which no beginning can be assigned. Such 
a hypothesis, originally propounded by heathen philo 
sophers, has also been asserted by the more extreme 
section of infidel writers in Christian times. lint it 
will scarcely rind any advocates in the present day. 
The voice of tradition, which, in ; ll the more ancient 
nations, uniformly points to a comparatively recent 
period for the origin of the human family, has now re 
ceived conclusive attestations from learned research and 
scientific inquiry. Not only have the remains of human 
art and civilization, the more they have been explond, 
yielded more convincing evidence of a period not very 
remote when the human family itself was in infancy, 
but the languages of the world also, when carefully 
investigated and compared, as they ha\e of late been, 
point to a common and not exceedingly remote origin. 
" It is no longer probable only," ways Sir William Jones, 
"but absolutely certain, that the whole race of man 
kind proceeded from Iran (in Western Asiai as from a 
centre, whence they migrated at tirst in three great 
colonies, and that those three brandies grew from a 
common stock which had been miraculously preserved 
in a general convulsion and inundation of this globe." 
And Hiinseii, writing still later, states it as "the result 
of the most accurate linguistic inquiries, that a regular, 
not stray coincidence merely, has been proved to exist 
between three great families of language spreading from 
the north of Europe to the tropic lands of Asia and 
Africa a coincidence not in radical words only, but 
even in the formative words and inflections which per 
vade their whole structure, and are interwoven, as it 
were, with every sentence pronounced in each of their 
branches. All the nations." he adds. " \\hieh. from the 
dawn of history to our days. ha\e been the leaders 
of civilization in Asia. Knrope, and Africa, must con 
sequently have had one beginning." The same conclu 
sion substantially is reached by Dr. Donaldson, who. 
after staling v,hat has already been accomplished in 
this department of learning, expresses his conviction, 
on the ground alone of the affinities of language, that 
"investigation will fully confirm what the great apostle 
proclaimed in the Areopagus, that (iod hath made of 
one blood all nations of men for to dwell on all the face 
of the earth" (AViw Ci-nti/lnx. p. P.M. The conclusion 
is still further confirmed by the results that have been 
gained in the region of natural science. The most 
skilful and accomplished naturalists such as Cuvier. 
Rlumenbach. Pritchard have established beyond any 
reasonable doubt the unity of the human family as a 
species (see particularly Pritchard s History of Man) ; 
and those who have prosecuted geological researches, 
while they have found remains in the different strata 
of rocks of numberless species of inferior animals, can 
point to no human petrifactions none, at least, but 
what appear in some comparatively recent and local 

ADAM 20 

formations - a proof that man is of too late an origin 
for liis remains to have mingled with those of the ex 
tinct animal tribes of preceding ages. 

So far, therefore, the account given in Genesis of the 
origin of the human race l>y the creation, last of all, of 
a human pair, stands accredited and established bv the 
most careful investigations of human reason. Tradition, 
learning, science, in their matnrest form, here pour in 
their contributions to support the testimony of revela 
tion. And for another form of the atheistic, or at least 
antiscriptural hypothesis, that the human family, in 
stead of being all descended from one pair, may have 
sprung from several pairs created in different quarters of 
the globe, or possibly not so created, but developed by 
spontaneous generation out of some inferior species of 
the animal creation as regards this aspect of the mat 
ter, the same reasons which meet the other form of 
objection are equally applicable here ; for a variety of 
original pairs either developed or created is entirely at 
variance with the established result of a single species, 
at once essentially different from all others, and, at the 
same time, knit together by the bonds of internal affini 
ties of thought and speech, and issuing from a common, 
not very remote centre. Science generally can tell of 
no separate creations for animals of one and the same 
species; and while all geologic history is full of the 
beginnings and the ends of species, "it exhibits no 
genealogies of development" (Miller s Testimony of the 
RucJcs, p. 201 ). So that the natural history of man in the 
Bible, as embodied in the account of Adam s creation 
and its results, is the only one that is borne out by the 
deductions of science and learning. And that, when 
created, he must have been formed in full maturity, as 
Adam is related to have been, was a necessity arising 
from the very conditions of existence. To have been 
able even in the most favourable circumstances to meet 
the demands of nature, and provide for the support of 
himself and his offspring, he must have had from the 
first what others can acquire only by degrees the 
strength, the sagacity, the prudence, which belong to 
the manhood of life. Had he been created otherwise, 
or had he even been placed, when created, in a situation 
ill adapted to the comfortable maintenance of life, 
where should have been for him the divine wisdom and 
beneficence ? And how could existence have been pre 
served without a succession of miracle s ? The earth at 
large required to undergo a process of preparation, in 
order to become a fit habitation for a being of such 
capacities and wants. And not only so, but the parti 
cular region where the first parent of the human family 
was to be located, must also have required (if goodness 
presided over his destiny) to be the most select and 
fertile spot within its bounds. Accordingly, when God 
had formed man, he placed him in the garden of Kden, 
which he had specially prepared for him, with fruitful 
herbs and trees, and whatever was good for food and 
pleasant to the eye. 

2. We turn now to our second point of inquiry the 
state in which Adam was created, and the constitution 
of things under which in that state lie was placed. 
The introduction of Adam and Eve last in the order of 
creation, implies, as already stated, the relative supe 
riority of the species to which they belonged ; they 
appear as the culmination of a creative series. This 
impression is confirmed and deepened by both the 
accounts given in the two first chapters of Genesis of 
Adam s creation. That in the second chapter, which 


relates more especially to his bodily organization and 
his animal life, still indicates his place to be above the 
rest of the animal creation. " And the Lord God," it 
is said, "formed man of the dust of the ground, and 
I breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man 
became a living soul." The material, indeed, out of 
which the formation was made, is earthly "dust of 
the ground," though of that ground the finer particles ; 
and the result produced, so far as here indicated, is not 
specifically different from what belonged in general to 
I the animal creation; for in the case of the inferior 
\ orders also, it is given, ch. i. 21, as the result of the creative 
act, that each after its kind became " a living soul," or 
"living creature," as our English Bible there renders 
the Hebrew phrase. We may not. then-fore, sa\ that 
Cod s having breathed into man s nostrils the breath of 
life, and thereby made him a living soul or creature, of 
itself rendered him essentially higher and better than 
the orders that preceded him. "But still there is a 
manifest diflerence, and on his side a marked superiorit v 
not merely in his being produced as the last and 
crowning act of the creative energy of God, but also in 
the very mode and style- of his creation. The living 
creatures generally, which were formed to dwell upon 
the face of the earth, are represented as coming forth 
from the earth when impregnated with the creative 
power of God s Spirit, and assuming as they rose into 
being their severally distinctive forms, like so many 
items in a great mass of animal existence. But in the 
case of man it is not the spirit-impregnated earth that 
brings forth; it is God himself who takes of the earth. 
and by a separate individualizing act, fashions his 
frame, and breathes into it directly from himself the 
breath of life ; a distinct personality, and in the attri 
butes of that personality, a closer relationship to God. 
a form of being that might fitly be designated " God s 
offspring." Ac. xvii. IN. This is plainly what the narrative 
of Adam s creation ascribes to him, in contradistinction 
to the beasts of the field. And so it was understood 
by Elihu, in Job xxxiii. 4, when he said, " The Spirit 
of God hath made me, and the breath of the Almighty 
hath given me life" i.e. so made and so enlivened 
me, that I have in me somewhat that is of God, and 
can again give it forth for the understanding and profit 
of others. 

This, however, becomes still more plain the incom 
parable greatness and superiority of nature in Adam. 
and through him in humanity at large, impresses itself 
upon us yet more forcibly in the other account of his 
creation, which has for its leading aim the exhibition of 
that wherein he differed from the inferior creatures. 
After the earth, at the divine bidding, had brought 
forth these, the Lord said, "Let us make man in our 
image, after our likeness: and let them have dominion," 
&c. "So God created man in his own image, in the 
image of God created he him ; male and female created 
he them." Here the prominent point obviously is, not 
man s relation to the living creaturehood, Init his rela 
tion, as the highest of earthly creatures, to God the 
resemblance of the created to the Creator. And in 
giving expression to this, it will be observed, two terms 
are used, "in our imarje, after our likeness, " which, 
though nearly related in meaning, are not quite iden 
tical. The one has respect more to the form, the other 
to the substance or ground on which that form is based ; 
man was constituted in his being the shadow (so tzclem 
originally imports), the visible reflex of God, and, in 




order to lie this, he received the impress of his likeness. 
It may seem to savour of the carnal to speak of a form 
in (rod, as if it ascribed to him something like corporeal 
lineaments. But possibly such an impression only 
arises from our imperfect conception of spirit, which, 
while opposed to corporeiety, may be perfectly compa 
tible with form; and certainly, what seems implied here 
as to form in God, is in other parts of Scripture dis 
tinctly indicated ; as when the 1 salmist gives vent to 
the expectation of his heart, in the words, "1 shall be 
satisfied when I awake with thy form:" for so it should 
be rendered, r.s. xvii. i;.. Undoubtedly, however, the 
resemblance to Deity, in which man was made, has 
respect, primarily and fundamentally, to the soul; like 
(iod he was formed with an intelligent, rational spirit, 
with an understanding and a will of its own, capable of 
going forth in free and controlling agency upon all 
around it, and disposed by the innate bent of its facul 
ties to employ its powers to wise and righteous ends. 
The implantation of such a spirit in man is what ren 
dered him as by right of nature, the lord of this lower 
world, and, as such, the representative of Deity. Hut 
a spirit so formed required for its calling and destiny a 
corresponding framework a body skilfully adapted to 
be the organ of its communications with tin- external 
wiii-ld, to express its feelings and execute its purpi -e- : 
so that if his spirit is the immediate likeness or image 
of (Joil, his body is the imau e of that ima _ r e ; and in 
what he does through the instrumentality of this body 
-in the aet -d iv>nlts of his thoughts and inclinations 
there was from the first designed to be. and there 
should in reality ever have been, exhibited a shadow of 

Such, according to the account in ( leiiesis. is thehi jb 
place assigned in the work of creation to man, primarily 
as an intelligent and moral being, and secondarily as 
possessing a fitting bodily organization. As the two 
were by the divine Architect linked together into mi - 
compound personal being, so in both man holds the 
same relative superiority ; in his bodily structure, not 
less than in his intellectual and moral nature, he is the 
crowning act and issue of creation. And it is singular. 
that in this respect also modern science lends its confir 
mation to the handwriting of Moses. It has discov 
ered, by searching into the remains of preceding au es 
and generations of living creatures, that there ha.-- been 
a manifest progress in the succession of beings mi the 
surface of the earth a progress in the direction of an 
increasing resemblance to the existing forms of Inum, 
and in particular to man. Tin.- human form was the 
archetypal idea or exemplar that was from the first in 
the divine mind, and which, by successive acts of crea 
tion, it was ever approximating, till the period of full 
realization arrived. J!ut the connection between the 
earlier and the later, the imperfect and the perfect, is 
not that of direct lineage or parental descent, as if it 
came in the way merely of natural growth and develop 
ment. The connection, as Agassiz has said in his 
Principles of Zuoloyy, "is of a higher and immaterial 
nature; it is to be sought ill the view of the Creator 
himself, whose aim in forming the earth, in allowing it 
to undergo the successive changes which geologv has 
pointed out, and in creating successively all the differ 
ent types of animals which have passed away, was to 
introduce man upon the surface of our globe. Man is 
the end toicard which the animal creation has tended 
Jrom (he first appearance of the first palaeozoic fishes." 

Thus there appears a remarkable analogy between the 
works of God in nature and his operations in grace ; 
the earlier creations typified man, much as afterwards 
the earlier dispensations typified the God-man. The 
advent of man, simply as such, was the great event 
prefigured during the old geologic ages. The advent 
of that divine Man, who hath abolished death, and 
brought life and immortality to light, was the great 
event prefigured during the historic ages. .It is these 
two grand events, equally portions of one sublime 
scheme, originated when God took counsel with himself 
in the depths of eternity, that bind together past, j ire- 
sent, and future the geologic with the patriarchal and 
the Christian ages, and all together with that new 
heavens and new earth, the last of many creations, in 
which there shall be no more death nor curse, but the 
throne of God and the Lamb shall be in it. and his 
servants shall serve him. " (Miller s Testimony of the 
Rocks, p. 21 (\.\ 

The divine record says nothing of the personal ap 
pearance of Adam when he came from the hands of his 
Oeator ; but fashioned, as he was, by the immediate 
agency of God. and standing chief among the produc 
tions which were all pronounced "vcrv good." we 
cannot doubt that in form and aspect be belonged to 
the highest type of humanity. The region, too. where, 
according to all the indications of modern research as 
well as of ancient tradition, the human family had its 
first local habitation. fa\ ours the supposition. The exact 
site of Paradise has. by subsequent changes on tin earth s 
surface. IK-CII hopelessly placed beyond the reach of our 
investigations, but there can be no doubt that it lay 
somewhere within that district of Western Asia in 
which the Caucasian territory is situated ; and from 
the earliest periods to the present times the Caucasian 
type of man has always been placed by naturalists in 
the highest rank. The sculptured figures in the ancient 
Assyrian. Grecian, and even Kgyptian remains bear 
much of this cast; and in proportion as the offshoots of 
the original race receded from that Caucasian centre, 
and planted themselves in the more distant extremities 
of the globe, they liecame deteriorated in appearance. 
It is. therefore, in perfect accordance \\ith all that we 
know, and have reason to believe, that the first pair 
\\ei-i-. even in a physical respect, cast in the finest 
mould of humanity, and that there is more than poet 
ical sentiment in the delineation of Milton, when he 
described them as 

" I lit- luvrlie.-t pair 

That ever yet in love s embraces met ; 
Adam, the goodliest IIIHM of mm >inre liurn. 
His si nis ; the fairest of her daughters, Kve." 
That the intellectual and moral condition of Adam 
was correspondingly high is still more certain - it is 

: matter of positive revelation. The divinely-formed 

image of Godhead, like every workmanship of God, 

could not ]>c otherwise than in its own nature perfect 

very good" especially in those higher elements 

; which constitute the distinctive excellence of man, and 
the more peculiar resemblance of Deity. Hence it is 
written, "God made man upright "intellectually and 
morally a pattern man : nothing awry in his constitu 
tion or character ; the powers of his nature rightly 
balanced, and hence clear in his perceptions, solid in his 
judgment ; above all, sound and healthful in the spiri 
tual temperament of his soul. The evidence of this 
appears in the whole account given of Adam s prim- 

, eval condition. God familiarly converses with him, as 



finding in him a lit image and representative of himself; 
and Adam proves capable of understanding, and learn 
ing from his divine Teacher. Not only does lie enter 
intelligently into the instructions given him respecting 
his business and calling in the garden of Kden, hut the 
Lord caused the inferior creatures that had been made 
to come before him, to see what lie would call them; 
and whatsoever Adam called every living creature, that 
was the name then-of." The meaning plainly is, that 
the Lord knew he had discernment to perceive the dis 
tinctive natures of each, and the skill needed to express 
this in appropriate designations; a reach of thought, 
and especially a power of embodying thought in utter 
ance, which many have deemed too high for primeval 
man . lUit in this they are again rebuked by the pro- 
founder philosophy of recent times, which justly refuses 
to take its gauge of original and proper humanity from 
the half-brutali/.ed forms of savage life. "According 
to my fullest conviction," savs William von Mumholdt. 
one of the greatest students of the philosophy of lan 
guage, "speech must be regarded as immediately in 
herent in man; for it is altogether inexplicable as the 
work of his understanding in its simple consciousness. 
We are none the better for allowing thousands and 
thousands of years for its invention. There could be 
no invention of language unless its type already existed 
in the human understanding." Strictly speaking, how 
ever, man did not need actually to invent; lie had but 
to tread in the footsteps of his divine Teacher. God. 
according to the inspired record, first spake, addressing 
himself to that type of language which was imprinted 
on the human soul, and Adam caught up the lesson : 
he formed his speech after the pattern set him by God. 
And looking, as Adam could then do, into the nature 
of things with a cloudless intellect and an untroubled 
bosom, the language in which, as deputed lord of crea 
tion, lie designated the various creatures presented to 
him, we may well conceive, was most aptly significant 
of the respective qualities of each, and afforded ample 
illustration of his own quick discernment and pene 
trating insight. 

But the survey which Adam was thus called to take 
of the inferior creation served, in another respect, to 
bring out his high position ; for, while lie saw in the 
creatures qualities fitted to subserve his purposes, and 
so far must have looked upon them with complacency, 
he recognized, at the same time, their essential inferior 
ity to himself in. none of them was there found a 
nature like his own, or an individual fitted to be a meet 
associate for him. Yet they had each their own proper 
associates the male with his female; and the thought 
could scarcely fail to press itself on his bosom, why 
should he not also, amid the wealth of creation, have a 
mate provided for him t The bountiful Author of his 
being, however, was himself conscious of this need, and 
proceeded to meet it in a manner alike singular and 
edifying. He did not set about an entirely new crea 
tion, which would have marred the unity of the pair, 
as together representing complete humanity, and would 
also have exhibited woman in an attitude of too great 
isolation and independence ; but He cast Adam into a 
profound sleep, during the unconsciousness of which a 
rib was taken from his body, and formed into a woman: 
thus, in the very mode of her formation, imaging her 
true position and calling in relation to man first her 
secondary and dependent place, as derived from him, 
and for the purpose of entering as a handmaid into 

the sphere already occupied by him then, her finer 
susceptibilities and more delicate structure, as fashioned 
out of matter refined into human flesh; and, finally, 
her adaptation for awakening and reciprocating the 
tenderer feelings of nature, as having been developed 
from that part of Adam s body which lies near to and 
envelopes the heart. These were great and fundamen 
tal lessons for all times. And Adam again discovered 
his high intelligence and profound discernment, when, 
on the presentation to him of this fitting partner, he at 
once exclaimed, " This now is bone- (or more exactly, 
"this is the time/ spoken in contrast to preceding 
occasions, when nothing suitable was found, " this is 
the time, bone")- of my bone, and flesh of my flesh." 
So, as he had given names to the other creatures, 
expressive of their respective natures, he does the same 
also with his wife : " She shall be called woman (islta), 
because she was taken out of man (/*//); that is. her 
name, indicative of her nature and her place, must bear 
the impress of him from whom she has been derived - 
her standing must still be in closest connection with 
him, and in dependent, though free and willing, subjVc- 
tioii to him. 

Now, that this corporeal and intellectual elevation 
was accompanied with entire moral purity, appears, not 
only from the capacity shown for free intercourse with 
God, and the disposition to fall in with all his arrange 
ments, but also from the express statement respecting 
both, that "they were naked, and were not ashamed." 
In other words, they had no consciousness of guilt : 
sin, as yet. wrought not in their bosoms, and they were 
not afraid lest their naked bodies should disclose what 
they would wish to have concealed. Truth alone was 
in their inward parts the truth of pure and holy love ; 
and nothing but this could be mirrored in the features 
or the movements of their external frames. 

Such, according to the sacred narrative, was man s 
original state ; and in regard to the constitution under 
which he was placed, it was, first of all, one of high 
privilege and enjoyment. His relative means and ad 
vantages corresponded to his elevated personal condi 
tion.. The lordship of all was committed to him ; and 
the region in which he was to have the seat of his do 
minion, the garden formed for his immediate occupa 
tion, was emphatically a region of life and blessing. 
Copious and refreshing streams watered it ; herbs and 
trees of every kind, fitted to minister to his support and 
gratification, grew within its borders; and in the midst 
of all the tree of life, capable, whether by inherent virtue 
or by sacramental grace, to sustain life in undecaying 
freshness and vigour; so that provision was made, not 
only for the preservation of his being, but also for the 
dew of his youth ever abiding on him. But. secondly, 
along with this, his position was one of responsibility 
and action. He was not to dwell in an idle and luxu 
rious repose. The garden itself was to be kept and 
dressed, that it might yield to him of the abundance 
and variety which it was capable of affording ; and 
from this, as a select and blessed centre, he was to ope 
rate by degrees upon the world around, and subdue it 
to himself make it a sort of extended paradise. It is 
to be understood that the work thus devolved upon him. 
if the original constitution of things had stood, would 
have involved no toilsome or oppressive labour, but 
merely regular and active employment, such as is need 
ful for the healthful condition of the human frame itself, 
and the happy play of all its faculties ; and it implied, 


besides, the dignity and honour of being a fellow- worker 
with God, in carrying the appointed theatre of man s 
existence to the degree of perfection which potentially, 
indeed, but not yet actually, belonged to it. Finally, 
there was in Adam s original position the danger in 
herent in the possession (pf a will entirely free, and 
having within its reach an evil as well as a good. 
The charge, to keep the garden, in part betokened 
this, as it pointed to the possibility of some unholy in- 

pf Coil and the 
if a tree, beside 

the tree of life, designated "the tree of the knowledge 
of good and evil. still more distinctly betokened it: 
and. most of all. the explicit charge given concerning 
this tree : - -" Of the tree of the knowledge of good and 
evil thou shalt not eat: for in the day that thou eatest 
thereof thou shalt surely die. Whether the tree might 
possess in itself noxious properties, which, on the par 
ticipation of its fruit, would by natural efficacy work 
the fatal issue here threatened or whether it was an 

trusion being attempted on the order 
well-being of the world. The existence 

innocuous tree, set up merely as th 
so that the infliction of death shou 

test i if allegiance, 
1 come simply as a 

moral result through the 
be n-irard -d as in some 

speeial visitation of < tod- may 
doubtful: though the 

discredit on the 

dness of Cod. as if lie had wi 

analogy of th - tree of lit .-, which semis to have had 
quite peculiar life-sustaining virtu.- implanted in it. 
(;.. iii. -I , and the further analogy of God s dealings gen 
erally, in which entirely arbitrary appointments, not I interposed the threatened penalty of death as a bar t 
grounded in the nature of things, are ran-ly. if ever, the proposed eating of th- fruit, directly denying th 


results, which has now become the normal one for man 
kind at their entrance into the world, the fall of our 
first parents has acquired for their posterity the most 
painful interest. The history is a very brief one. and 
in that respect is in striking contrast with the vastness 
and multiplicity of its results. The story begins by 
telling us of the serpent, that there was a subtlety or 
cunning in it above the other beasts of the field ; and 
as the story proceeds, and informs us how the serpent s 
subtlety displayed itself, the impression is forced upon 
our minds, that there were in it more than bestial pro 
perties that the serpent was but the cover and instru 
ment of a higher power; for the part acted by it here 
lay beyond the sphere of things properly belonging to it. 
or to any other beast of the field. A broad line of 
demarcation separated the whole of them from Adam, 
as Adam himself had recogni/.ed when the creatures 
jKissed in review before him: none of them were capable 
of becoming associates to 1 
reason. .Here, however, tin 

nt - r ets the faculty of 

speech imperfectly, it might be. and no doubt actually 
was. as compared with man s yet such as to render it 
capable of intelligent utterance, and talking familiarly 
with Kvo. Not only so. but the thought suggested in 
what was spoken was a thought of evil, first reflecting 

from man what was in itself ifood. and then, \\lu-n Fve 

made, appear to favour the supposition of some inherent 
noxiousness in the tret: of knowledge itself. Hither 
way, however, the existence of this tree in the midst of 
the garden, with the condition and penalty hung over 
it. tin: perfect freedom granted to Adam to keep or 
violate the condition, and the- foreknown results in 
which this constitution of things was to issue, involves 
the threat question of the origin of evil, which must 
ever remain for man. in the present life, an inscrutable 
mvsterv. A] part from the difficulties of that question, 

and looking simply to matters as they st 
that Coil saw meet to suspend the wh 

d, it is clear 
hole of Adam s 

state and prospects on an alternative but an alterna 
tive which imposed no hardship, and in which he was 
at perfect lib -rtv to take tin- one side or the other, as 
his own heart miirht incline. A certain /<</ <( disad 
vantage nn-rely attended tin- side of obedience; In- 
could not know evil, as, perhaps, it was known by 

fact that there should ho a penalty, as Cod had 
declared. This betokened both an exercise of intelli 
gence and a spirit of malice in the serpent, such as 
could not properly belong to any of the creatures which 
wen- not made in the image of God s rational nature, 
and yet wen- in their own place very good. \\ e need 
not wonder, then-fore, that the ancient .lews, both in 
their sacred and their rabbinical writings, held Satan 
to have been here the prime agent ; so that the name 
(pf the old serpent, the dragon, and s\n-h like, came to 
be synonymous with tin- deceiver, or the devil. The 
allusions of New Testament scripture confirm this view 
of the matter; in particular, our Lord s words to the 
.lews. "Ye an- of your father tin - di-vil. and 
the lusts of your father ye will do. He was a murderer 
from the beu r inninu r . and abode not in the truth, becau>e 
there is no truth in him. When he speaketh a lie. he 

speaketh of his own 

for he i 
thus th 

superior intt lligences, if lie abstained from partaking "f it." The connecting 

the tree of knowledge: but. in the fulness of l>les.-iir_ r lying, as the means by which the evil was 

a liar, and the father of 
charvv of murder with 

around him, and the active operations in which his 
nature might find genial employment, tin-re was enough 
to satisfy every just desire, and, with the plenteousiiess 
of what he had, to prevent any craving desire for what 

and re] presenting this combination of falsehood and 
murder as having been manifested from the beginning, 
clearly points to the hi-torv of the fall, and identifies 
the part there ascribed to the serpent with the agency 

his heavenly 1 ather thought fit to withhold. Granting, i of the devil. So also d ( 
therefore, that somehow opportunity and freedom to sin Paul in 1 Cor. xi. 3, when 

< the allusion of the apostle 
the beguiling (pf Kvo by the 

were to be given to man, and that the alternative of 
falling through sin, as well as of standing through 
righteousness, must have been placed before him, we 
cannot con -eive how it could have been done on a less 
exceptionable footing, or coupled with an easier condi 

: ,. The sacred narrative does not inform us how long 
Adam and his partner continued in their original state. 
From no child, however, having been born to them till 
after they had lost it. the natural inference is, that the 
unfalleii period could not have been of very long dura 
tion ; and as it is the fallen state, with its disastrous 

serpent through subtlety is connected with the deceitful 
working of satanic agents generally, and in particular 
with Satan s transforming himself into an angel of 
light, vur. 12-i.v Compare also such passages as Mat. iii. 
7; 1 Jn. iii. S ; Ke. xii. J ; in which the same allusion 
is manifest. 

We are warranted to assume, then, that the prime 
actor in the history of the fall on the side of evil was 
Satan under the disguise of the serpent some such 
disguise being necessary in the yet uncorrupt world, 
that the temptation might acquire the requisite body 

and form. Under this wicked 





by an inversion of the natural order of things raising 
a beast of the field out of its proper place, leading the 
irrational to presume to advise and guide the rational. 
And as it began, so it proceeded; for there was another 
in version of the proper order, in the woman whose name 
and calling alike bound her to follow and not to lead, 
to act in connection with and dependence upon her 
husband, not in disregard and despite of him of her 
own will venturing to partake of the tree, and thereafter 
persuading him to follow her example. The weaker 
thus, in violation of Heaven s fixed appointment, usur 
ped the place of the stronger vessel, and in the very 
quarter of danger and conflict assumed the province of 
giving law and counsel, instead of waiting to receive it. 
man, by improperly yielding to her own more 


impulsive nature 

man by not less improperly 


yielding to the direction and example of his wife both 
by losing hold of tin; eternal truthfulness of ( Jod s Word, 
and departing from the order he had prescribed for 
their observance, fell from their high estate, and in 
volved themselves in guilt, shame, and death. The 
consequences soon became apparent. The guilty pair 
piv.-ently knew that they were naked; consciousness of 
sin made them dread lest indications of irregular desire 
should appear in the unveiled body; and they sought 
to cover their nakedness with garments of fig-leaves. 
I Jut still they were not protected ; for the sound of the 
divine footsteps in the garden awoke the cry of guilt 
in their bosoms, and they fled into the covert of the 
trees to hide themselves. But this also failed ; and 
they were dragged forth to receive the fatal sentence, 
which doomed them and all their posterity to suffering 
and death, tempered, however, by the blessed promise 
that mercy was to arrest the full execution of the 
penalty that the woman should give birth to a seed 
which should bruise the serpent s head; in other words, 
should have an offspring, by and in whom the evil now 
introduced should be again abolished, and the author 
of the evil himself crushed in his dominion. The 
mise undoubtedly implied a spiritual victory deliver 
ance not simply from the effects of the fall, but also 
from the sin and guilt, in which the essence of the evil 
and the triumph of the tempter really stood ; so that 
the promised reversion of the evil necessarily carried 
redemption, in the higher sense, in its bosom. And 
on the ground of the redemption thus dimly indicated 
in the first promise, the Lord gave the fallen pair 
a real clothing a clothing of skins, derived from slain 
victims, and fitted to serve as a suitable covering for 
their bodies, because the sacrifice of the animal life had 
already been taken as a covering for their guilt. (Sec 

With the introduction, however, of this new consti 
tution of grace and hope for the fallen, the pristine state 
of things, even in outward form and appearance, had 
< f necessity t<> be abolished. Having lost the righteous 
ness with which access to the tree of life was inseparably 
connected, Adam had also to lose his place in Paradise, 
the gate of which was thenceforth barred against him ; 
and in the way to the tree of life there was planted a 
flaming sword, to guard against intrusion into the 
sacred territory; while cherubim of glory took the place 
of man within, and kept up the testimony from God, 
that the living creaturehood of earth, and pre-eminently 
man, its constituted head, were yet destined to occupy 
the region of pure and blessed life. (See CHERUBIM.) 
All that we are told further of Adam and his partner 

is associated with the bestowal of a succession of names. 
First of all, a new name was given by Adam to his wife : 
"He called his wife s name EVE (lifc\ because she was 
mother of all living." Jt was the expression of faith 
and hope amid the gloom and desolation of the fall. 
Life, it virtually said, is yet to prevail in the midst of 
death, yea, and rise above it; she who has been the 
occasion of letting in the power of the adversary to 
destroy is now, through God s grace, to be the channel 
of introducing a seed of life and blessing. The name 
therefore, as has been justly said by Delitxsch, "bears 
the impress of the promise ; it stands in contradistinction 
to the original iaha (woman), a proper name, and desig 
nates the peculiar individual position of this first of 
women, in reference to the entire future of the history 
of salvation." The next name imposed was that given 
to the first-born of the human family, C.vix [//often] ; 
given by Kve, however, it would seem, rather than by 
Adam, and apparently indicating her confidence that 
she had already got the commencement of that Peed 
of blessing which was to be truly a divine gift, and was 
to prevail over the tempter. Sad experience came in 
to correct this natural and joyful expectation ; it taught 
both father and mother, by terrible deeds of sin, that 
in the bosom of their own offspring there was to be a 
serpent s, as well as a woman s seed, and that the former 
was even to have fora time the precedence in place and 
power. ABEL [emptiness, ran it;/] was the name given 
to the next child, though we are not told for what pre 
cise reason it was imposed, nor at what particular time, 
but most probably it came (as already suggested under 
the life of Abel) after his untimely end. and as an ex 
pression of the grief and disappointment which it oc 
casioned in the hearts of the parents. But the next 
name reverses the picture, and is, perhaps, the most 
interesting of the series, on account of the cheering light 
which it throws on the state and feelings of these pro 
genitors of the human family. When another son was 
given to them after the death of Abel, they called his 
name SETH [set or appointed] ; "for God had appointed 
them another seed instead of Abel whom Cain slew/ 
Ge. iv. 25. And in the genealogical chain which links 
together Adam and Christ, and of which the first grand 
division is given in ch. v., it is this son whom Adam 
and his wife called Seth, that was accounted to them 
for a seed; "as if his progeny before this were not to 
be reckoned ; the child of grace had perished, and the 
other in a sense was not. Adam, therefore, is here 
distinctly placed at the head of a spiritual offspring 
himself with his partner the first link in the grand chain 
of blessing." (Ti/pofoyi/ of Scripture, i. 276). Other 
sons and daughters, we are told, were born to Adam, 
though no specific information is given respecting them ; 
and his whole term of life is stated to have been 930 

This primeval history is inwrought with several 
grand moral principles, to say nothing of its incidental 
lessons. 1. It teaches the original righteousness of 
man s nature, and his possession of life pure, blessed, 
everlasting as the proper heritage of righteousness. 
2. The righteousness and life, it further shows, were 
suspended on a condition, the easiest that can well be 
conceived a condition, therefore, eminently reasonable 
and just ; so that, if Adam, with his finely balanced 
mind anil high moral nature, should fail to keep it in 
the face of one temptation, humanity at large may 
justly be inferred to have Ijeen also incapable of keeping 




it ; the natural man in his best estate, and with every 
advantage on his side, could in no circumstances have 
abidden in holiness. 3. Whatever mysteries lie in the 
background, defying the reach of our present powers of 
insight or reason, the loss of the original good, we 
again learn, as to its immediate origin, came from the 
abuse of that freedom which was essential to man s in 
tellectual and moral nature as the image of Godhead, 
and which, viewed in connection with the perfect know 
ledge he possessed as to the consequences of obedience 
and transgression, rendered the blame entirely his own. 
4. Adam and Eve having been constituted the living 
root and responsible heads of the human family, their 
fall necessarily became the fall of mankind; every child 
of humanity thenceforth must enter the world an heir 
of sin and death. 5. And since this fall was permitted 
to enter through one man, only that the hope of reco 
very to another and more secure state of blessing might 
lie brought in, this hope, in like manner, must lie made 
to stand in one, a second Adam, though in nature and 
sufficiency unspeakably higher than the first; for thus 
only could any prospect be afforded to the world of 
righteousness and life being regained. So far, therefore, 
Adam was "the type of him that was to come;" the 
representative character sustained bv the one was the 
imago of that to be sustained by the other; and the 
root of being, which in the first man so soon turned into 
evil for his natural offspring, becomes in the second 
man, the Lord from heaven, for all spiritually related 
to him, the sure ground of a life that cannot die, and 
a glory that is imperishable. 

ADAM, ADA.MAH, A DA MI, different modifica 
tions of the same word, occur as names of cities in Pa 
lestine, of which nothing of any importance is known 
the first in Jos. iii. (j, of a town on the Jordan ; the 
second in Jos. xix. :5(J, and the third in Jos. xix. :>:j. of 
towns in tin; tribe of Xaphtali. 

ADAMANT, one of the hardest and most costly of 
the precious stones, and often used as a symbol of im 
penetrable or enduring firmness. It is found only in 
the English BiMe at E/.e. iii. \> and Zee. vii. <), but in 
both cases as the translation of shell it ir, which is also 
rendered diamond. This latter is now generally re 
garded as tin; proper rendering of the original. 

A DAR, the name given to the last month in the 
Jewish year. (Fee MONTH.) 

AD ASA, a place not far from Beth-horon, nowhere 
mentioned in Old Testament scripture, but celebrated 
in later times as the place where Judas Maccabeus routed 
the Syrian general Xicanor, i .Mac. vii. to, seq. 

AD BEEL [sorrow of God], a Hebraism, perhaps, 
for very great sorrow, the name of Ishmael s third son, 

Go. xxv. 13. 

AD DAN [probably calamity, but somewhat uncer 
tain], possibly a variation of ADDON [lord or master], 
for both Addan and Addon occur as the name of one 
of the returned exiles from Babylon, No. vii. ci; Ezr. ii.59. 

ADDER. 1 n the English Bible this is the rendering 
of four distinct Hebrew words, 3yc, 2j? (achskoov); ;is 

(pethcn], oftener rendered asp; jysv (tziponi), oftener 
rendered cockatrice; and w ; (shepipon). Each of these 
doubtless signifies some kind of venomous serpent. 

Among the various tribes of animals which are ini 
mical to man, there is none that can compare with the 
venomous snakes for the deadly fatality of their enmity: 

the lightning stroke of their poison- fangs is the unerring 
signal of a swift dissolution, preceded by torture the 
most horrible. The bite of a vigorous serpent has 
been known to produce death in two minutes. Even 
where the consummation is not so fearfully rapid, its 
delay is but a brief prolongation of the intense suffering. 
The terrible sympti >ms are thus described : A sharp 
pain in the part, which becomes swollen, shining hot, 
red, then livid, cold, and insensible. The pain and in 
flammation spread, and become more intense ; tierce 
shooting pains are felt in other parts, and a burning fire 
pervades the body. The eyes water profusely: then 
come swoonings, sickness, and bilious vomitings, dif 
ficult breathing, cold sweats, and sharp pains in the 
loins. The skin becomes deadly pale or deep yellow, 
while a black watery blood runs from the wound, which 
changes to a yellowish matter. Violent headache suc 
ceeds, and giddiness, faintness. and overwhelming ter 
rors, burning tltirst. gushing discharges of blood from 
the orifices of the body, intolerable fetor of breath, 
convulsive hiccoughs, and death. 

From these circumstances we see how appropriate an 
emblem was a poisonous serpent of any insidious deadly 
enemy, and in particular of sin. and of Satan, the arch- 
destroyer. (.S(( SERPENT.) 

The agent of these terrible results is an inodorous, 
tasteless, yellow fluid, secreted by peculiar glands seated 
on the cheeks, and stored 
for use in membranous 
bags, placed at the side 
of each upper ja\v. and 
enveloping the base of a 
jr.] Poison bag and fang of Cobra, large, curved, pointed 
tooth, which is tubular 

(Xo. ;">). These two teeth, or fangs, are capable of 
living erected by a muscular apparatus under the power 
of the animal, when they project at nearly a right angle 
from the jaw. 

The manner in which the deadly blow is inflicted is 
remarkable, and is alluded to in Scripture. When the 
rage of the snake is excited, it commonly throws its 
body into a coil more or less close, and raises the ante 
rior part of its body. The neck is now flattened and 
dilated, so that the scales, which ordinarily lie in close 

[C.] Naja liaje Nnja Mpudians. Leu;;th about 4 feet. 

contact, are separated by wide interspaces of naked 
skin. The neck is bent more or less back, the head pro 
jecting in a horizontal position. In an instant the whole 
fore part of the animal is launched forward towards 
the object of its anger, the erected tooth is forcibly 

A DDEll 


struck into the flesh, and withdrawn with the velocity 
of :i thought. Xo doubt the rage whieh .stimulates the 
action calls forth an increased action of the poison- 
glands, by which the store-sac is filled with the secre 
tion. The muscular contraction which gives the rapid 
blow coiupressc-i at the same instant the sac, and as 
the acute point of the fang enters the flesh, the venom 
is forced through the tubular centre into the wound. 

It is impossible to say with certainty what particular 
species is indicated by each Hebrew word. It has been 
supposed that the adtxltoov is a species of Naja or 
hooded snake, probably X<i /a tt<ij> ; that the jt thni 
may be the butan of the modern Arabs ( Vipcra hbdinu) ; 

[7.1 Horned Viper- -CVrcsfcs cormUus. Length about 14 inches. 

and that the shepifon is the Cerastes, or horned viper. 
The fzijiOiii seems not to have been identified. 

The achs/ioov is alluded to but once in Scripture, 
viz. in 1 s. cxl. 3. "Adders poison is under their lips;" 
a passage which is cited by Paul, Ko. iii. is, among 
others, to prove the utter corruption of man, and his 
apostasy from (lod. It is equivalent to saying, "Their 
speech is wholly and intensely wicked." 

The pcthen is mentioned in the following passages : 
In De. xxxii. 33, where its venom is used to express 
the excessive vileness of the ( entile world; Job xx. 
] 1, ] I!, where it expresses the doom of the wicked man 
(in the former of these verses the poison-fluid is called 
"gall," doubtless in allusion to its yellowness 1 ); Ps. 
Iviii. 4, where the indifference of this species to the 
arts of the charmers (to be described presently) repre 
sents the stupid deafness of sinners to the warnings and 
invitations of the Holy Spirit ; Ps. xci. 13, where, in 
prophetic promise, the Lord Jesus is assured of victory 
over Satan ; and Is. xi. 8. where the absence of all 
liurtf ulness from the millennial earth is expressed by 
the immunity of a little child playing over the hole in 
which the pel lien lurks. 

The word tzipoin occurs as follows : In Pr. xxiii. 32, 
the insinuating character of the love of strong drink, 
and its dreadful result, are compared to the treacherous 
death-blow of a glittering snake; Is. xi. 8 (see above); 
Is. lix. ;", apostate Israel is described as producing 
nothing but wickedness as if one should hatch eggs 
and they should prove to contain venomous adders ; 
Je. viii. 17, here the indifference of this viper (like the 
jxtlu n) to the psyllic art, is used to express the cruelty 
of the Chaldean invaders, not to be thwarted or evaded. 

But a single notice occurs of the shepipon, viz. in 
( le. xlix. 17, where the traitor- character of the tribe 
of Dan the first outbursting of the power of Satan in 
apostasy in Israel- is compared to an unseen adder in 
the path, which causes the overthrow of the mounted 
horseman, A curious illustration of this danger is 
given by Henuiker: " I was hurrying forward, when 

on a sudden my camel stopped short; I spoke to it. 
but without effect; I goaded it gently, but in vain ; at 
length I struck it, and it immediately threw itself vici 
ously upon its side, flinging me with considerable force. 
. . . The cause was its refusal to pass by a small snake 
that lay coiled up in the path." 

The subject of serpent- charming, alluded to in the 
negative descriptions of the pc.tkcn, I s. Iviii. t, and the 
l:i/n>ni, Jo. viii. 17, as well as in the epithet "deaf." ap 
plied to the former, is one involved in much obscurity. 
[The term dtf, it may be noted in passing, like that 
of "stopping the ears." is merely metaphoric. None 
of the serpent tribe have any external auditory orifice, 
nor the least appearance of a tympanum. The story 
which Calmet cites, of the adder clapping one ear on 
the ground, and stopping the other with the tip of its 
tail, is a sheer absurdity. | i rom time immemorial it has 
been a well-known fact that certain persons have exer 
cised a wonderful power over the most venomous ser 
pents. Multitudes of modern observers have describ.-d 
the practices of the snake-charmers in such terms as to 
leave no doubt of the fact. One instance may suitico 
for illustration. INIr. Gogerly, a missionary in India, 
says, that some persons being incredulous on the sub 
ject, after taking the most careful precautions against 
any trick or artifice being played, sent a charmer into 
the garden to prove his powers : " The man began to 
play upon his pipe, and proceeding from one part of the 
garden to another, for some minutes stopped at a part 
of the wall much injured by age, and intimated that a 
serpent was within. He then played quicker, and his 
notes were louder, when almost immediately a large 
cobra- di-capello put forth its hooded head, and the 
man ran fearlessly to the spot, seized it by the throat. 
and drew it forth. He then showed the poison-fangs, 
and beat them out; afterwards it was taken to the 
room where his baskets were left, and deposited among 
the rest." "The snake-charmer," observes the same 


Indian Serpent Charmers. Luard s Views in India, and 
Solvyn* Himlous. 

writer, " applies his pipe to his mouth, and sends forth 
a few of his peculiar notes, and all the serpents stop as 
though enchanted ; they then turn towards the musician, 
and approaching him within two feet, raise their heads 


from the ground, and bending backwards and forwards 
keep time with the tune. When he ceases playing 
they drop their heads and remain quiet on the ground." 

It niav be observed that the different species of Naja 
(cobra- di-capello, hooded snake, spectacled snake), and 
of Cerastes (horned viper), arc those which manifest an 
interest in musical sounds, and are capable of being 
charmed." [i . n. c.] 

AD LN"A [slvmli-i , pliant], the name of one of 1 >avid s 
chief captains, of the tribe Jieuben. H li. xi. i 

ADINO THE EZNITE [hlsplutsurc-fJic-spca;-], the 
chief of J)avid s heroes, called also the J achmoiiite. 
who is said to have lifted up his spear and slain : <(Ki 
men at one time, -. Sa. .\xiii. s. (Sec J ASHOHKAM.) 

AD MAH [/((/], one of the cities of the plain, that 
perished in the destruction of Sodom and ( !oiiiorrah. 
It seems to have been of small size, and is seldom ex 
pressly mentioned, but occurs in ( .<-. \. lii ; xiv. _ . s ; 
De. x\i.\. i : 1 . ; Ho. xi. 8. 

ADO NAI, the Hebrew word for LOUI>. and by the 
Jews ;i!wavs substituted for .) KlIoVAII in the reading 
of the Hebrew Scriptures. The practice is of old stand- 
in _r. and seems even to liave been in existence at the 
time of the Septuagint translation of the ( >ld Testament. 
some Centuries before the liirth ot ( hrist. It appears 
to have arisen out of a superstitious dn -ad of pronoun 
cing in a light or irreverent manner what \\as regarded 
as the more p, culiar name of (!o<l. and thereby incur 
ring the ^uilt denounced in the third commandment. 
With very few exceptions, our translators have followed 
tlie example of the Septuagint, and rendered Jehovah 
as well as Adonai by Lord. t>Vf LuRD and J F.llov.ui. i 

ADO NI-BEZEK [/.-,/ ,,f lit:d-]. IV/.ek was a 
Canaanitish town, somewhere either within or on the 
confines of the territory of Judah. In the first chapter 
of . Judges an account is e-iveii of the capture of the place 
by the men of Judah, and of w hat befell its king A doni- 
be/.ek. \\"heii the\- eot him into their hands, it is said, 
they cut oil his thumbs and his great toes. requiting 
the same measure to him that he had dealt t<> others. 
"Threescore and ten kings," he said, "having their 
thumbs and their great toes cut "i! . gathered under my 
table" a shocking example of petty lord.-hip and bar- 
harous cruelty. The kin us, of course, w ho were subjected 
to this inhuman treatment, must ha\e lieeii chieftains. 
rather than kinus, in the ordinan sense ot the term, 
heads of little townships or clans; they could imt other 
wise have fallen in such numbers under the sway of such 
a little tyrant as Adoni - he/.ek. I .ut however small 
their jurisdiction, they certainly had a right to look for 
more considerate and gentle treatment than they iv 
ceived from their conqueror; and he became at last sen 
sible of his enormity, and recognized the divine retribu 
tion in the severity inflicted upon himself ; for he added, 
" As J have done, so hath ( Jod requited me. i >\ the vic 
torious party he was taken to Jerusalem, where he died. 

ADONI JAH [Lord-J<-/wral,}, the son of David by 
Haggith, born in Hebron, and the next in order to 
Absalom. He :>.-ems to have partaken, to a consider 
able extent, both of the faults and of the superficial ex 
cellencies of Absalom. Some time after the death of 
Absalom, and on the ground of his being the eldest 
that survived of David s family, lie also laid claim to 
the ri jit of succession t > the throne, and when his 
father was sinking under the infirmities of age, he took 
steps to have his claim established. Like Absalom, he 
was a person of graceful extc rior and attractive man- 

VOL. I. 


! ners ; and with the view of drawing around him a party, 
and pushing his way to the throne, lie prepared for 
himself chariots and horses, and footmen to run before 
him, l Ki. i. ">,(- . It is possible, and seems indeed to be 
implied, that David had not been at sufficient pains to 
cheek these indications of an aspiring disposition in A d- 
onijah at their commencement ; and no attempt appears 
to have been made to meet the advances Adonijah was 
visibly making toward the throne, by an explicit an 
nouncement of the divine purpose in behalf of Solomon. 
That the will of (MM! in this respect had been intimate 1 
at a comparatively early period, and that David s deter 
mination also was taken, is evident; but only a limited 
number, it \\onld appear, had been fully let into tie 
secret, until the plans of Adonijah had ripened, and he 
was actually proclaimed king at Kn-rogcl. It is oniy 
in this way we can explain the adherence of such men 
as Abiathar the priest and Joab to Adonijah. They 
were not likely to have taken part in his design, if they 
had distinctly understood that the matter of the succes 
sion was already definitely fixed, both on (iod s part 
and on l>avid s: and so when the open proclamation of 
Adonijah as khiL; roused David and those about him 
iVi.iii their supiueiie.-s, and Solomon was oflieially con 
secrated as successor to his fatln r. the party of Adoni 
jah melted awav from him, and he himself (led to lay 
hold on the horns of the altar, as one who had no hope, 
even for his life, but in the mercy of Heaven It had 
been well for him if this spirit had continued to hold its 
swav; as he was forgiven for the past, so he might have 
lived on peaceably in the future. Hut an aspiring dis 
position again broke out in him; and after relating 
to Hathshoba what reasons he had. from priority of 
birth, for expecting the kingdom, and from the senti 
ments of the people evnerallv being on his side, he got 
her to ask for him Ahishag to wife.>. In this 
request, coupled probably with other things that ap 
peared in Adonijah, Solomon descried the old spirit of 
, ambition watching its opportunity t" grasp after the 
dominion, and gave orders for his instant execution. 
If in this the procedure of Solomon should seem some 
what hasty and violent, it must be remembered that, 
from the altered circumstances of modern times and 
Kuropean manners, we are scarcely competent judges ; 
ind that, according even to still prevailing notions in 
the l- .ast. such a request as was made by Adonijah 
would be regarded as trenching on the prerogatives of 

the reigning sovereign. Solomon, there is _: I reason 

to think, acted from necessity rather than from choice. 

ADONTRAM|/o,Vo//;y/ ( /].appa7vutly contracted 
in some passages into A null AM, - Si. xx. 24;1 Ki. xii. 18; and 
again changed into HADOHAM. at h. x. l*j the name of a 
principal officer in the times of Solomon and Kehoboam. 
who had charge of levies and tributes. On the occa 
sion of the revolt which took place at the commence 
ment of llehoboam s reign, he was sent to communicate 
the king s mind to the people, and was stoned to death 
in the uproar that ensued. This probably arose, less 
from the offensive nature of the reply given to the 
people s demands, than from the general odium which 
Adoniram had drawn upon himself in connection with 
the heavy exactions that had been laid upon the people. 
As being at the head of that department, he would 
naturally urge on the matter as vigorously as possible, 
and he consequently drew upon himself the popular fury. 

ADONI-ZE DEK [lord ,,f rlyl.trrmisnmx. or upri(/J,t 
lord], the kiiiLr of Jerusalem, at tin- time when the 




Israelites invaded the land of Can;, an. The name is 
substantially (if the same import with tli;,t which was 
borne, at a much earlier period, bv the ruler of what 
there is every reason to believe was the same place. Mel- 
elii/.ed. k, \\hich means Iclnrj of riyhtcousncsa, was, in 
Abraham s day, kin^ "I S.-dem, whieli is understood to 
have been tile original designation of .lemsali in ; and 
it wo\ild seem that succeeding rulers of the place had 
made it a point of honour, or regarded it as a matter of 
policy, to keep up the ancient title, or one of its syno 
nyms. |>nt, unfortunately, they had not been equally 
careful to keep up the reality which the name indi 
cated. Melclnzcdek was actually a righteous king, and 
a priest of the most high God, but since his days cor 
ruption of all kinds had made fearful progress in the 
land of Canaan; and from the active part which Adoni- 
zedek took in resisting the purposes of (Jod toward 
Israel, we can have little doubt that he was concerned 
in all the abominations for which summary judgment 
was inflicted on the people of the land, lie and the 
surrounding tribes belonged to the race of the Anior- 
ites, who appear to have occupied nearly all that part 
of ( anaan which afterwards fell to the tribe of Judah, 
and of the fulness of whose iniquity at the time of the 
conquest special mention is made. What more imme 
diately, however, brought Adoni-zedek and the neigh 
bouring princes into conflict with the Israelites, was 
their combined determination to destroy the Gibeonites 
for having made a covenant of peace with Joshua. For 
this purpose, headed by Adoni zedek, they laid siege to 
Gibeon; but tidings we7-e sent by the besieged to Joshua, 
who, in consequence, fell upon the combined forces of 
the Amorites, utterly discomfited them, and put Adoni- 
zedek and the other princes to death, after having 
dragged them from the cave in which they had found a 
temporary asylum, Jus. x. 1-27. It was on this memora 
ble occasion that Joshua is related to have called upon 
the sun to stand still, that he might have time to com 
plete the victory he had won over the enemy. (For the 
consideration of this point, sec JOSHUA.) 

ADOPTION", as a term, occurs only in the New 
Testament, and with reference to the relation in which 
the people of (Jod stand to him. as his children by 
grace, the objects of his special love and favour. The 
original word, i LoOecria, denotes properly the act of re 
ceiving into a family one who does not belong to it by 
birth: literally, placing such an one in the position of 
a son, or setting him among the children; then, by 
transference, the condition or privilege of the adopted 
child sonsfti/i. The practice, in its merely human con 
nection, was evidently of very remote origin, as appears 
from the readiness with which Abraham first, then. 
Sarah, thought of another than their own actual off 
spring being admitted to the standing of a child, and 
constituted heir of the family name and possessions, 
Ge. xv. 2 ; xvi. 2. We have also early examples of adoption 
in the case of Moses, who was taken by Pharaoh s 
daughter, and brought up as her son; and of Fphraim 
and Manasseh, the sons of Joseph, to whom their 
grandfather Jacob gave a place among his own chil 
dren, as entitled to rank with them in the promised in 
heritance, Go. xlviii. "), o. In some countries adoption has 
been formally recognized and regulated by law. It was 
so both among the Greeks and Romans. The right of 
adoption was somewhat restricted by the Greeks, at 
least by the Athenians, with whose usages in this re 
spect we are best acquainted; for onlv an Athenian 

citizen could be adopted by any one, and that only 
when the person adopting had no offspring of his own. 
An Athenian citizen was obliged to divide his property 
among his own children, liy the Roman law the right 
of selection was less limited, but it also proceeded on 
the principle that the adoptive father had no son of his 
own, and no reasonable expectation of having any. 
The act of adoption lutd to be done under the authority 
of a magistrate; and, when thus legally done, it con 
stituted in law the relation of father and son precise] v 
as if the adopted son had been born to the father in 
lawful wedlock. If the father had a daughter, the 
adopted son stood to her in the relation of a brother ; 
and if the father died intestate, the same son succeeded 
to the property as heir at law. There appears to be an 
allusion to this right of the adopted child to the name 
and possessions of the father, in the reference that the 
apostle Paul makes to the custom of adoption, K<>. viii. 


In Scripture the people of ( !od are constantly spoken 
of a.s his children, the sons and daughters of the Lord 
Almighty; as such, not by nature, but by grace not 
by birth, but by a sovereign act of favour on God s 
part. It is as marking this distinction that the word 
adoption has its special significancy ; it expresses at 
once the nature of the privilege and the manner in 
which it is bestowed. It is peculiarlv a Xew Testa 
ment term; for, though the idea of sonship often occurs 
in the Old Testament in connection with the chosen 
people, it is only by the revelation of Jesus Christ that 
we have clear!} explained to us on what ground, in 
what way, and to what extent, this privilege can be 
enjoyed by fallen creatures. 

The word adoption occurs only in five instances. P,<>. 
viii. 1.1, 2. !; ix. I ; (ia. iv. . , ; E]>. i. > ; but the subject is often 
referred to elsewhere, and is presented under a varietv 
of aspects. On God s part, adoption is represented 
1. As having its origin in his eternal counsel and pur 
pose, Kp. i. 4, .">. 2. As flowing immediately from Christ 
and the union of his people with him, Jn. i. 12; Ga. iii. 21;: 
iv. i, ">. Hence the parallel between the relation of the 
Father to Christ and to his people, Jn. xx. 17 ; Christ is 
their elder brother, Ru. viii. 29; they are joint-heirs with 
him, Ho. viii. 17. . As sealed by the work of the Holy 
Spirit, producing in them the character and disposition 
of children, Jn. i. 12,13; Ko. viii. ii-it); Ga iv. 0. 4. As con 
summated at the resurrection, P.O. vu. 23. On the other 
hand, the privilege of sonship, as enjoyed by God s 
people, includes 1. The love and favour of God in a 
special and pre-eminent degree, i Jn. iii. i; Ep. v. i; .in. xvii. 
23, - ! >. 2. Fatherly provision, protection, and discipline 

at God s hand, Mat. vi. 31-33; x. 29,30; He. xii. 5-S*. 3. Access 
to God with filial confidence, Ro. viii. I. ., 2(i, 27 ; 1 Jn. v. M ; 
Mat. vi. 8,9. 4. The inheritance of future glory and 
blessedness. Ro. viii. 17, 1^ ; P.e. xxi. 7 ; 1 To. i. 4. 

Christian adoption is to be distinguished 1. From 
the sonship of Adam, who is spoken of a.s the son of 
God, Lu. iii. 3S, because, as the first man, he derived his 
being immediately from the hand of (Jod, and was 
made in God s image and likeness; this was the son- 
ship of creation. 2. From the sonship ascribed, in a 
still more limited sense, to the whole human family. 
They are all the offspring of (Jod, becaxise in him they 
live, and move, and have their being, Ac. xvii. 28, 29. 
3. "From the sonship or adoption ascribed to the ancient 
people, Ex. iv. 22, 23 ; Jo. iii. 10 ; Ro. ix. 4. This, as regarded 
the nation at large, and the earthly inheritance which 


they eiijuved, was only a typical adoption the shadow, 
and IK it the substance. The true saints of Cod, indeed, 
iu Old Testament times, had a spiritual sonship. essen 
tially the same as that which is enjoyed under the 
gospel; though, in the measure of its manifestation to 
them, and of their present enjoyment of it, it fell far 
short of the Christian privilege. Ga. iv. 1-7 

Old Testament believers could nut have more than a 
very partial revelation of it; for the grace and love of 
Cod were not manifested with any such distinctness as 
they now are, in the person, and work, and word of 
the Lord Jesus. The law, under which believers were 
then placed, naturally tended to product; a spirit of 
bondage and fear; its effect upon the conscience, to 
some extent, interfered with the freedom uf sonship. 
Hence they are compared to the heir while he is a child, 
under tutors and governors, kept undir restraint no 
better than a servant, as regards the present enjoyment 
of his privilege, though in reality lord of all. Add to 
all this, that the Holy (llmst was not yet given; the 
dispensation of the Spirit had not yet come; tin eom- 
munication of grace ami of spiritual light to the souls of 
believers was comparatively limited and partial : and 
it will be manifest how imp-rlVet must ha\v ln-i n their 
under.-tanding and enjoyment of the privilege of son- 
ship, though it did really belong to them. 

Jt is otherwise with New Testament believers. In 
the gospel they have a clear discovery of the riches of 
God s "frace, as well as of his gracious purposes uf kind 
ness toward those who enjoy this particular privilege, 
and of the ground and manner of their entei- m^ into it, 
through the mediatorial work of ( hrist. JVsides. alont: 
with this revelation, they have the gift of the Spirit, in 
all the fulness of his gracious influences, to open their 
understanding, and to bear witness with their spirit 
that they are the children of (iod. Tims they receive 
the adoption of sons, as regards the actual enjoyment of 
it. See the contrast between the law and the gospel, in 
this respect, strikingly illustrated in < lal. iv. [w. I.. | 


ADRAM MELECH [,,ui : /n(iic nc t <,f llr l-ing, spl n- 
tl ,,1 klii<j\. 1. The name of one of the idol-deities that 
were worshipped by the Assyrian colonists who occu 
pied the land of Israel after th captivity of the ten 
triln s, ^KI. xvii. 31. The Sepharvites burned their children 
in the fire to him, whence Adrammelech may In- in 
ferred to have been substantially identical with Moloch 
iSelden. hi; Diis Si/riis, i. .. Some have also sought to 
connect the worship uf Adrammelech with that of the 
Min-wurship of the .Persians: and still a^ain with that 
of the Chronos of the (ireeks; but these are rather 
speculations than opinions resting on any sure historical 
grounds. 2. The name of one of the sons of Senna 
cherib, who, along with his brother Share/. -r. murdered 
his father, when engaged in an act of worship, i Ki xix. :::. 

ADRAMYT TIUM. sometimes also written ATKA- 
MYTTii M. and ADKAMYTTKOS, a town of Asia Minor, 
in the province of Mysia, situated over against Lesbos, 
on the river ( aicus. and at the head of the bay, which, 
from the town, was called Adramyttcnus. It was in a 
vessel belonging to the port of Adramyttinm that "Paul 
embarked at Caesarea for Italy, AC. \xvii. >, from which 
he was afterwards transferred to an Alexandrian ship. 
It is said to have derived its name from Adramys. a 
brother of Crn-sus, king of Lydia. I .ut, if such was 
originally the case, the town appears ultimately to have 
assumed a Greek, rather than an Asiatic character. 


An Athenian colony is related by Strabo to have set 
tled at it. and a party from Delos also emigrated thither 
(Thucyd. v. 1). It is known to have been a flourishing 
seaport in the times of the kings of Pergamos : and so 
recently as the seventeenth century it still carried on ;i 
considerable trade in boat-building (Pococke s Trunlt, 
u. 2, ] i) ; but it has now become n comparatively poor 
and filthy village ^Fellows Asin Minor}. It is still 
called Adramyt or Endramit ; but there are no remains 
about it of ancient grandeur. 

A DRIA, also HADKIA, properly the gulf that lies 
between Italv on the west, and the coasts of Dalmatia 
and Albania on the east. It \\as often, however, re 
garded as a sea. part of the Ionian, and vci y commonly 
the Latins called it Mar> Super u m, the t. pper Sea, in 
contradistinction to the Tyrrhenian, which they desig 
nated Marc Infcrain. the Lower Sea. Adria. or lladria, 
was rather the (ireek than the Latin name for it. As 
to the limits which the I fadriatic was understood to 
embrace, these appear to have been extremely variable. 
Strabo and Plinv placed them at the point where the 
heel of Italv approaches nearest to the coast of (i recce, 
and form- a sort of strait, not more than forty miles 
wide; but very ancient writers, in particular Scylax, 
represented the Adriatic as all one \\ ith the Ionian Sea. 
Kveii Strabo speaks of the Ionian as part of the Adri 
atic ; and Ptolemy liii. 1> designates the sea which 
washes the (. astern shores of P.ruttiiim and Sicily the 
Adriatic (TO AopianKov Tri\ayos i . The term thus came 
to comprehend the whole of that part of the Mediter 
ranean which lies around the southern coast of Italy ; 
so that, when the writer of the Acts speaks of the ship 
in which Paul sailed being tossed about in Adria, 
shortlv before she struck on the coast of Malta, he uses 
language in perfect accordance with the current geome 
trical phraseologv ; and the term Adria in Ac. xxvii. 

1~ , gives no countenance to the idea that the scene of 

the shipwreck was not Malta but some small island far 
up in the LTulf. (See- Smith s Voi/ti;/ (t /nl S/tijiwrcck of 
St. 1 niJ. where this point, and many others connected 
with it. arc most carefully investigated.) 

A DRIEL \ilx-lc <,f<;,,<l\. the p< rsun tu whom Saul 
L ave in marriage his daughter Merab. after having 
promised her to l)avid. 1 S:i. \viii l<>. Five of his sons 
were slain in connection with the request of the ( iibeoii- 
it"s for exemplarv punishment on Sauls bloody house, 
2Sa xxi.8. They are called AdricTs sens, which Michal, 
not Meral , bare to liim ; for wliich .s< c MICHAL; and 
fur the slaughter itself, se< ( II:KNITKS. 

ADUL LAM. 1. A \vrv ancient town. situated in what 
was afterwards the plain country of the tribe of .ludah, 
Js. xv. :;:., but which is mentioned as a well-known place 
at a much earlier period. Gc. xxxviii. i, r_ . At the time 
of the invasion of Canaan by the Israelites, it is placed 
among the royal cities, which had each a king of its 
own. Jus. xii. i. >; and after the revolt of the ten tribes it 
was one of th" places which llehoboam fortified, 2Cli. 
\i. 7. At a later period still it is referred to by the 
prophet Micah. cli. i. i:., and, according to the common 
rendering, is called "the glory of Israel. P>ut it is 
scarcely possible that this can be the correct meaning; 
as, from anything known respecting Adnllam, it would 
savour of extravagance to designate such a place em- 
phaticallv the glory of Israel; the more so as the city 
belonged to the territory of .ludah, and not to what, in 
the days of Micah, went by the name of Jsrael, the 
name commonly appropriated to the ten tribes. The 



more proper rendering is that which is given in the 
margin, " tho glory of Israel shall come to Ailullain;" 
and the meaning of the clause seems to lie, that the 
nii H of rank and wealth, who might be said to consti- 
tali 1 Israel s glory, should be driven southwards as far 
as Adiillain, liy the victorious hosts that were to break 
in ii|x>H them from the north; for Adullam lay in tin; 
south-west portion of .hidah, not very far from (Jatli, 
and the passage in which this announcement occurs 
contains an account of the troubles and calamities that 
were to sweep over the land Ly the northern invaders, 
first in the case of the house of Israel, and then in that 
of Judah. 

2. ADM, i, AM, a cave, the favourite haunt of .David, 
to which he retreated in the time of greatest danger, 
and whither also his parents and others went down to 
join him, after he had escaped both from Saul and from 
the king of (lath, lSa.xxii.i-n, has often been supposed 
to belong to the neighbourhood of .the city of the same 
name; but this is altogether improbable, as the situa 
tion of the citv was not in a mountainous and rugged 
district, where caves naturally abound, but in a com 
paratively plain, and level tract of country. And it is 
certain that modern travellers have found no caves near 
the site which is supposed to have been occupied by 
Adullani. capable of affording a safe retreat for David, 
and for holding, as we are told were for a time lodged 
in it, 400 men. The old tradition, which places this 
cave in a valley near the Frank mountain, not far from 
the Dead Sea, known by the name of Wady Khureitun, 
seems to indicate the proper locality; and it also accords 
best with the fact, that David, on escaping from it, is 
represented as passing into the confines of Moab, which 
lay on the other side of the Dead Sea, and leaving there 
his father and mother, 1 Sa. xxii. :(, 4. This cave is in a 
deep ravine, surrounded on each side by precipitous 
rocks, and capable of being approached only on foot, 
along the side of the cliffs. Dr. Robinson was not able 
himself to visit it, but his companion had done so, and 
fully confirmed the description given of it by Irby 
and Mangles. These gentlemen, who were not aware 
of this being the reputed cave of Adullani, prose-lit 
such an account of it as most strikingly accords 
with the purposes to which it was applied by David. 
They say: "It runs in by a long, winding, narrow 
passage, with small chambers or cavities on either side. 
AVe soon came to a large chamber, with natural arches 
of great height ; from this hist were numerous passages, 
leading in all directions, occasionally joined by others 
at right angles, and forming a perfect labyrinth, which 
our guides assured us had never been thoroughly ex 
plored, the people being afraid of losing themselves. 
The passages were generally four feet high, by three 
feet wide, and were all on a level with each other. 
The grotto was perfectly clear, and the air pure and 
good." One can easily perceive how admirably adapted 
such a vast and curiously constructed cavern would be 
as a hiding-place for David and his persecuted band ; 
and with what facility they could lie concealed, as on 
one occasion they did, iSa. xxiv., in some of those dark 
transverse passages, while Saul came in to the mouth 
of the cave, and knew not that he was at the mercy of 
those whose life he was pursuing. It is the more pro- 
liable that this was the cave of David s peculiar resort, 
as it lay only about six miles to the south of Beth 
lehem, his native place; and nothing was more likelv 
than that, while tending his father s nocks, he should 

have made himself intimately acquainted with a cavern 
so near at hand, and so remarkable in its structure. 

ADULTERY is a wilful broach of the marriage 
vow by either of the parties contracting it ; and, accord 
ing to the original ideal of married life, presented in the 
formation of one man and one woman, joined by the 
ordination of Cod into one flesh, such a breach is made 
whenever, on the one side or the other, there is sexual 
intercourse with a third party. The junction of the pair 
into one body or flesh comes, in that case, to bo virtually 
dissolved. As this is the view implied in the original 
constitution of the human pair, so it is that which is 
expressly exhibited in New Testament scripture. In 
the deliverances pronounced, first by our Lord, and then 
by the apostle Paul, on the subject of marriage, it was 
not the introduction of something new which was set 
forth, but the assertion and re-establishment of what 
was from the beginning ; and no distinction is made be 
tween the two parties, as if what were adultery in the 
one might not be sufficient to constitute adultervin the 
other. There is one and the same law for both. In 
answer to the question put to him by the Pharisees, 
" Is it lawful for a man to put away his wife for every 
caused" our Lord answered, Have ye not read, that 
Ife which made them at the beginning, made them male 
and female . And said. Fur this cause shall a man leave 
father and mother, and shall cleave to his wife; and they 
twain shall be one flesh. Wherefore, they are no more 
twain, but one flesh. What, therefore, (Jod hath joined 
together, let not man put asunder. 1 And when, with 
the hope of eliciting some modification of this deliver 
ance in behalf of the husband, the further question wa; 
asked, " Why did Aloses then command to give a writ 
ing of divorcement, and to put her away ?" Jesus re 
plied, " Moses, because of the hardness of your hearts. 
suffered you to put away your wives : but from the be 
ginning it was not so. And 1 say unto you, Whoso 
ever shall put away his wife, except it be for fornication, 
and shall marry another, committeth adultery ; and 
whoso marrieth her which is put away, doth commit 
adultery," Mat. xix. 3-9. in perfect accordance with this, 
also, is the doctrine laid down by the apostle Paul, 
K\<. v. L .-,-:;:; ; i Co. vii. i-i:j ; i Ti. iii. T>. But while, doctrinally, 
the teaching of both covenants is the same in this respect, 
and, according to the fundamental law of both, it is 
adultery in the man as well as in the woman to have 
commerce with another person than the one proper 
spouse, practically, a difference on the man s side was 
admitted in ancient times. In consequence of the in 
troduction of concubinage and polygamy, from which 
even the chosen seed did not remain free, that only 
came to be regarded as adultery which involved a frau 
dulent intermingling of seeds such an intercourse as 
exposed a man to the fatherhood and charge of an off 
spring that did not belong to him. A married man, in 
this view of things, might have more wives than one 
without being an adulterer ; he might also have carnal 
intercourse with a person not espoused or married to 
him, and still not be deemed liable to the charge of 
adultery, for no neighbour was thereby wronged in his 
conjugal rights, or had a spurious offspring fathered 
upon him : there was fornication, but not, in the con 
ventional sense of the term, adultery. The crime of 
adultery was limited to the case of those, whether men 
or women, who, when married or betrothed to one 
party, had sexual intercourse with another ; though, in 
the case i if the man, only if this other was also a mar- 




ried or betrothed party : but not so in the case of the 
woman, because the wrong in her ease was equally 
done, whether the person with whom she transgressed 

in which the rigour of 

either upon 

the male or the female guilty of incontinence. 

In Greece and Rome the law respecting adultery was 

were single or married. In short, it was the condition | not uniform, either in the provisions enacted or in the 

of the female which determined the legal character of manner of enforcing them. T 
adultery: if she was not betrothed or married, neither competent to the husband, if 1 
she nor the person having intercourse with her was 
counted liable to the charge. And among the Greeks 

his evil course, to take 
.- putting him to death. 

tli countries it was 
tooted the adulterer 
ummary vengeance on him, 
But he might also take a 

and Romans the same view substantially obtained- pecuniary compensation ; or he might institute a legal 
adultery was simply the violation of another man s U 
or the corruption of his seed. 

process against either of the offending parties, and, if 
the guilt was established, the parties were placed very 

Why the divine legislation should have allowed a much at the mercy of the husband, though not to the 

extent of allowing him to fall upon them with a knife 
or a dagger (Demos. Kara Xfeu />. 5; 1M. In the time of 
Augustus a law was enacted at Ifoiiio. called the Julian 
law. which introduced various regulations as to the 
mode of conducting prosecutions against adulterers; 
ta- ! and the penalties it enacted, in of conviction, were 

practical treatment of the matter in the man s case. 
differing so materially from the woman s, and from the 
view exhibited in the ideal set up at the creation of the 
first pair, will be considered under the subject DIVOKCK. 
But in regard to the act itself of adultcrv. understood 
in the sense now explained, the law of the Old 

death, both for the adulterer and for the adulteress. 
Lo. xx. 10. This, indeed, was required !>v the theorv <>f 
the constitution, which, being framed with a view to 
he securing of a commonwealth conformed to the fun 
damental laws of the two tables, could not tolerate the 
deliberate breach of any of the greal commandments. 
Death was the penalty attaehfd to the open violation 
of each of them. It is not expiv-.-lv >aid in the passage 
of Leviticus how the per-ons guilty of adultcrv wi r. i . 
be: shun; but in De. xxii. L -J- -I, where the l ;l \v i- airain 
enacted, the additional case is .-uppo.-ed of a betrothed 
damsel having been guilty of the crime, and both par 
ties are adjudged to death by stoning. The case of 
such ] persons, and that of those who violate. 1 the sanc 
tity of the marriage vow, were >o m-arlv akin, that the 
.lews of our Lord s time could scarcely be said to err. 
when they affirmed, respecting adultery in general, that. 
.Moses commanded the person guiltv of it to be .-toned 
to death, Jn. viii.,3. It does not appear, however, thai the 

with the third 

part of her property, and liability to banishment to 
some remote place: for the man. the loss of half his 
property, with a like liability to banishment. The 
times were, however, too degenerate to admit of such 
a law being generally enforced : profligacy of every kind 
not only kept its ground, but grew more shameless, in 
spite of the law. till the spread of ( hri-tianity leavened 
society with a better spirit, and rendered more strin 
gent measures practicable. By a mistaken policy, how 
ever. ( on>tantine introduced the old .le\vi.-h law, and 
mad the offence capital. Justinian somewhat modi 
fied the statute, by -ending the adulteress, after being 
scourged, to a convent, allowing the husband to take 
her out within the period of two years; and, failing 
this, she was compelled to as.-ume the habit, and spend 
the remainder of her life in the convent. 

Such barbarous practice s as cutting off th 
ears of the guilty partie- do not appear to 
ever formally enacted, either among the H 



e nose and 
have been 
ebrews or 
ported by 

even that death in any form, was u.-uallv inflicted on 
adulterers. Too commonly a sense of guilt on the j,art 
of those who had the administration of the law com 
mitted to them, would restrain them from executing 
the judgment written; and as. in the majority of cases, 
it was likely to be left much in the hand- of the injured 
party, it was natural that he -diouhl ^eii -rallv take the 
milder course which the law allowed, of ridding him- 
self of the culprit by a bill of divorcement. Accord 
ingly, we read of no case in Old Testament scripture 
in which a woman taken in adultery was actually put infamy th 
to death; and Lightfoot (//<//. //./;. mi Mult. xix. M honour up 
te.-tities that, amid all his multifarious residing in the scarcely s; 
rabbinical writings, he had never met with an in.-tanco 
mentioned of an adulteress being capitally punished. 
There might, no doubt, be cases of the kind, though no 
notice is taken of them either in the sacred or the rab 
binical records; and the allusion in IV. vi. }-2- .\~>, to 
the implacable spirit of revenge which the conduct of 
the adulterer might expect to awaken in the bosom of 
the injured husband, plainly indicates that the ag 
grieved party sometimes took the full scope which the 
law allowed him, of recompensing for the loss of domes 
tic peace and honour he had sustained upon the head of 

to h 

I tiodorus d. M 

dally inflicted upon the female in 
male was simply beaten with roil-, 
alr-o said to have .. nctioiied it; an 
both in Scripture if..r example, ! ./, 
the classics . Yir- . ./. / . vi. -\:^, to s 

been the punishment spe- 
LTV pt. while the 
The Persians are 
references exist, 
xxiii 2~>) and in 
h personal muti 

the offender. Yet, from the comparative seclusion in 
which women lived in Palestine, coupled with the license 
practically allowed in respect to concubines and di 
vorces, the probability is, that the cases were very rare 

lations as not unknown. But they arc probably to be 
understood as only among the indignities which an in 
jured husband was deemed at liberty to inflict, and by 
which, occasionally at lea.-t. he -ought to consign to 
1 person who had brought shame and dis- 
n his family. In the ( hri>tian code, we need 
scarcely sav. no corporeal inflictions are prescribed. It 
has higher weapons to \\ield than the carnal sword; 
and its prime object is rather, by means of nobler in 
fluences, to prevent such crimes from blotting the face 
of society, than smiting them with specific penalties 
when they have appeared. It speaks only of separa 
tion, or put tin ( _r away, as the ultimate remedy in the 
hand of the injured party: and even that is rather men 
tioned as a right that may be used, than as a measure 
that must in every case be adopted. 

TIIK TRIAL OF Ann.TKUY, or the bringing t< the test 
f a special religions service a woman suspected by her 

husband to have been guilty of unfaithfulness, is the 
most peculiar thing connected with this subject in the 
legislation of the Old Testament. The prescription 
for it is given in Xu. v. ll-. Sl. Attempts have been 



made l>y various writers (lists of whom may lie found 
in Kitto s Cyclopedia, here, and in Winer s Ilcal-Wor- 
tii lmi-Ii, under " Khchruch") to establish a substantial 
agreement between the prescriptions of .Moses in this 
matter and the ordeals practised among barbarous and 
heathen nations ; and it lias been thought that the 
main object of the one, as \\ell as of the others with 
which it is compared, was to give the suspected person 
an opportunity of vindicating her innocence, by a sort 
of oath of purgation, so solemnly administered, that, if 
not innocent, she would almost certainly shrink from 
the trial. There may, undoubtedly, lie sonic measure 
of truth in this view. Moses, in this, as in so many 
other things, may have been led by God to build upon 
a foundation already, to some extent, laid in the prac 
tices of surrounding nations, rather than prescribe what 
was absolutely ne\v. ISut a general resemblance is all 
that can, witli any truth, lie supposed to have existed; 
and, for much that is peculiar in the ordinance before 
us, we must look to the nature of the theocracy itself, 
and the great end aimed at in all its institutions. 
Adultery, it must be remembered, was the only sus 
pected crime for which such an ordeal was appointed by 
Moses, and not. as among other nations, one of several 
which were placed iu the same category ; and in this 
case, also, the one suspected crime for which such an 
ordeal was instituted was, liy the prescribed ritual, 
brought into a connection with the ministers and the 
sanctuary of God not common elsewhere. Here it was 
a strictly religious matter, and differed materially from 
the kind of voluntary, hap-hazard trials in other lands. 
The ground of the prescribed trial for suspected adul 
tery - as, indeed, for the Mosaic legislation generally 
upon this subject stood in the sort of married rela 
tionship, the solemn covenant-engagement between God 
and Israel. The great national covenant was to have 
its parallel in every family of Israel, in the marriage-tie 
that hound together man and wife; and hence, even in 
Moses, Nu. xv. 3<, as often afterwards in the prophets, 
unfaithfulness to God is exhibited under the image of 
a wanton breach of the marriage- vow. With such a 
close relation between the individual and the general, 
it was especially necessary to have the connection be 
tween man and wife placed under the sanctions of re 
ligion, guarded on every hand with most jealous care, 
and rendered practically, as far as possible, an image of 
the behaviour that should lie maintained between Israel 
and God. There was the more propriety in this, as it 
was in connection with the propagation of a godly seed 
that the covenant proposed to reach the great end it 
contemplated, of blessing the world. Adultery, there 
fore, as being not only the breach of the fa mily com 
pact, but an image also and a prelude of the breach of 
the ii itiunal compact, must be visited with death; and 
even the strong suspicion of its having been committed, 
where no actual proof of guilt could be obtained, must 
be brought as by appeal to God, that he might either 
vindicate the innocence, or, by special visitations of 
judgment, establish the guilt of the suspected party. It 
was only, as the language implies, when then; wore 
grounds for very strong suspicion being entertained, 
that the matter was to be made the occasion of such a 
solemn appeal ; and, when it was demanded, the hus 
band and wife were to go together to the sanctuary, 
bringing what is called alike her offering," and "an 
offering of jealousy, vcr. i.v - .">. They were both to bring 
it, although it was more properly the woman s offering 

than the man s, as appears from its being consigned to 
her while the priest was going through the appointed 
ritual, vcr. 1*. Jt was merely a cor ban or meat- offering, 
consisting of the tenth part of an ephah of barleymeal, 
but without the usual accompaniments of oil and frank 
incense, which were symbols, the one of the Holy Spirit, 
tin; other of acceptable prayer. The absence of these 
denoted that it was a matter of doubt whether such an 
offering a symbol of good works, as all meat offerings 
were had any real connection with the Spirit of grace, 
or could rise with acceptance before God ; it was to be 
an offering presented, as it were, at a venture. Comiiiir, 
then, with this in their hands, the woman was solemnly 
set by the priest before the Lord, made to understand 
that she had come to transact with him; her head- 
covering, the distinctive badge of her chastity, was 
next taken off, being meanwhile suspected to have lost 
her title to wear it; then the meat-offering was put 
into her hands, as one maintaining her innocence, and 
claiming the privilege to present to God the symbol of 
a righteous life; while, on the other hand, the priest, 
representing the interests at once of the jealous hut- 
liand and the jealous God of Israel, stood in front of 

; her with the symbol of the curse. This consisted of 
holy water- most probably water taken from the laver 

j before the door of the tabernacle mingled with dust 
from the floor of the tabernacle, with a reference to the 
dust mentioned in the original curse which was pro 
nounced upon the serpent and his seed. On this ac 
count, not only was the water to lie put into an earthen 
vessel earthen, as contradistinguished from something 
of higher mould -but was also designated litter, since 
it was employed in connection with a humiliating trans 
action, and for the purpose of working (on the supposi 
tion of guilt having been incurred) a painful result. The 
priest then, with this symbol of the curse in hix hand, 
standing before the woman with the symbol of right 
eousness in Iters, pronounced over her the following ad 
juration : " .If no man have lain with thee, and if thou 
hast not gone aside unto uncleanness under thy hus 
band (so the words should be rendered, meaning, 
while under law to him), be thou free from this bit 
ter water that causeth the curse. But if thou hast gone 
aside under thy husband, and if thou be defiled, and 
some man have lain with thee while under thy husband, 
the Lord make thee a curse and an oath among thy 

; people, by the Lord making thy thigh to rot, and thy 
belly to swell ; and this water that causeth the curse, 
shall go into thy bowels, to make thy belly to swell, 
and thy thigh to rot." To which the woman was to 
say "Amen, amen;" and the priest accepting this re 
sponse as a protestation of the woman s innocence, 
finished the ceremony, by first blotting out the curse 
with the bitter water, then waving the meat-offering be 
fore the Lord, burning a portion of it on the altar, and 
giving the woman what remained of the bitter water to 
drink. The matter was thus solemnly left in the hands 
of God, the Supreme Judge and Arbiter of causes. If 
he saw that the suspicion was groundless he would also 
see to it, that "the curse causeless should not come;" 
but if otherwise, then rottenness and corruption was to 
sei/e upon the culprit in those very parts of her body 
which she had prostituted to purposes of iniquity; her 
moral depravity should find its meet recompense and 
image in a corresponding outward depravation. This, 
of course, could only happen if the Lord really lent his 
countenance to the transaction, and was ready, by his 




special providence, to carry into effect what was done 
in his name. But the entire covenant made with Israel 
proceeded on the ground of such a real presence and 
such a special providence on the part of God; and if 
undoubted proofs of this appeared in the more general 
affairs of the covenant, it were unreasonable to question 
the appearance of the same here, as often as circum 
stances might call for the divine interposition. That 
no instances are on record of the waters of the curse 
having been administered and taken effect, is no evi 
dence of such an event never having occurred: for, in 
the nature of things, they must have been of very rare 


ready indicated, unfaithfulness to covenant-engagements 
ou the part of the people of Israel. In the later prophets 
of the Old Testament a charge to this effect, ami under 
this form of representation, was with great frequency 
brought against the covenant- people, Jo. iii 1-11 ; ]:/ xvi 
xxiii., Ilns. i. ii. iii. The same lanu f ua _;e is occasionally 
found in the New Testament, as \shen our Lord charges 
the people of his day with being "an adulterous gene 
ration;" and in the symbolical language of the Kevv- 
latioii, as the true and faithful church is presented 
under the image of the Lamb s wife, so the corrupt and 
apostate church is characteri/. -d as a spouse giving her 
self up to the seductive arts and forbidden pleasures of 
aditlterv ; oiilv, on account of the greater guilt con 
nected with such a course in Is ew Testament times, the 
stronger figure of a harlot is more cuinnionly employed, 
and an "unfaithful wife is exchanged fora "mother 
of abominations," Re. xvii. ]-:,. 

ADUM MIM, found only twice in Scripture, ,T,,s. xv.r ; 
xviii. 17, and each time in connection witli M A.u.r.n, IJO DHJ 
nji, or (iKC iit, the ascent of Ada/nni! in. The word Adum 
mini itself means rednesses, or / <l i-urt/ix. not \\ithoiit 
reference, it has been thought, to the shed, ling of blood, 
of which the place in question was the frequent scene. 
It lay in the neighbourhood of Jericho, iu the direction 
toward Jerusalem, a district which has always been the 
favourite haunt of robber-, whence our Lord took it as 
the scene of the parable of the good Samaritan, who 
rescued the man that fell amoii^ robber-; and Jerome 
expressly interprets the word (which he writes yl(Zoi(M.) 

by bloods, " because," say- he, " much hi 1 was shed 

iu it by the frequent assaults of robbers" (/; / ml 
/-, /(.-;/. cviii. i 1 Ji. 1 iiit that, the place derived its name 
in this way mu>t be regarded as quite uncertain, and 
indeed not very probable. It is nr>iv likely that the 
colour of the ground, or some such natural circum 
stance, uave rise in the designation. The ancient char 
acteristic, however, of that, part of the road between 
Jerusalem and Jericho ha- been retained to compara 
tively recent times; for the complaints of travellers 
have, scarcely yet ceased as to the depredations of rob 
bers in that quarter. 

ADVOCATE. This word occurs only once in the 
Knglish Piihle, i Jn. ii. i, as an appellation of the glorified 
Saviour, " If any man sin, we have an advocate with 
the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous." It is there 
used, however, as the rendering of a Greek word which 
occurs more frequently -7ra/)d/c,\?;Tos, paraclete but 
which is always rendered elsewhere COIilfortcr. It is 
one of those complex words for which it is impossible 
to find an exact parallel in the Knglish language, or 
indeed in almost any other. Literally, and originally, 
it denotes a person called to one s aid, as does also the 

Latin word advocatus, from which our word advocate 
comes ; but then the specific purposes for which per 
sons might be thus called are so various, that the word, 
in consequence, acquired a variety of secondary mean 
ings. It might designate one who svas called in to 
assist as a witness, or one who. in a legal difficulty, was 
applied to for advice a consulting lawyer, or one who 
pled the cause of a client in open court; or still again, 
one who, in times of trial or hardship, sympathized 
with the afflicted, and administered suitable direction 
and support. The Latin advocatus, also, was used iu 
all these shades of meaning except the last; and it was 
not till the latter days of Koine, till the republic had 
given way to the empire, that it came to signify the 
public pleader or orator (Smith s d r. ainl Until. A nt.) 
In this sense it was not used by Cicero, though the cor 
responding word 7ra/)d\ \7;ros had long before been so 
employed in Greece by Demosthenes; for example, at the 
beginning of his speech, Tra/ia. Trapo-Tr/ia. It was quite 
natural, therefore, for the fathers to understand the 
word, when applied to Christ, in the sense of advocate, 
which man v of them did, although, iu our use of the term 
advocate, regard is had more to the simple pleading of 
a cause in court, less to the e eneral guidance and man 
agement of the cause, than they were wont to associate 
with the term. 1 oth shade s of meaning should un 
doubtedly be included in the idea we form of Chri-t as 
our advocate in the heavenly places. It presents him 
to our view as charging himself with the interests of 
his people, and e.-peciallv when they fall into sin, ainl 
are in danger of bavin*-;- sentence passed against them, 
interposing in their behalf, and. through the merits of 
his death and intercession, averting the evil. Kvcn 
before he entered within the veil, he gave a striking 
exemplification of what, in this department of his me 
diatorial work, he would do for them, when he said to 
I eter, "Simon. Simon, behold Satan hath desired to 
have you, that lie may sift you as wheat, but I have 
prayed for thee, that thy faith fail not." 

It is obvious, however, that this sense of the word 
/iiit-itrliti is scarcely proper, if understood of the Holy 
Spirit, to whom it is applied in the other passages where 
it occurs, .In. xiv. i<!; xv :ii i; xvi. 7. To a cei tain extent there 
was a resemblance bet wee n what the I lojy Spirit was to 
do for the di-ciples after ( hrist had withdrawn his per 
soiial presence from them, and what Christ himself had 
till then been doinu ; and hence, in the first of the 
passages above referred to, the Lord said he would 
pray the Father to scud t In -in minl/ii r paraclete, imply 
ing that the Spirit should, in a sense, fulfil the part 
v\ hich Christ himself had done; but this, manifestly, 
with respect to the directing, sustaining, and comfort 
ing influence Christ had exercised amoir^ them rather 
than to any distinct advocacy In; had plied in their lie- 
half. Accordingly, the Greek fathers generally gave 
the word in the Gospel of , loh n a meaning more adapted 
to this aspect of the matter; they threw into it, indeed, 
very much of the sense of ntnifurt, or consolation, which 
the cognate verb and nouns have in New Testament 
and Hellenistic (Ireek. Following them, our transla 
tors have rendered the word there by comfnrtfr, which 
is perhaps as good a single term as could be found. 
It has, however, the disadvantage of presenting only a 
part- though undoubtedly a most prominent part -of 
the complex idea which the original word conveys; and 
along with or under the comfort which was to be con 
nected with the presence of the Spirit, there should also 



be associated in our minds the strengthening and moni 
tory aid which, as the representative and gift of ( hrist, 
hu was intended to minister. In the words of Arch 
deacon Hare, who, in his Mission <if t/tc Comforter, 
note K, has given a discriminating outline of the litera 
ture on the subject, and a sensible view of the subject 
itself, " We should bear in mind that the Spirit is the 
Comforter, in the 1 primary as well as the secondary sense 
of that word, and that In; did not coinc merely to con- 
solethe disciples for their loss, hut mainly to strengthen 
their hearts and minds, by enabling them to understand 
the whole truth, and to feel the whole power of the 

JENON, a place, at which John is said to have 
baptized, and the locality of which is no further indi 
cated than that it is described as^ near Salem, 
Jn iii.L 1 ::. The reason a -signed for its being chosen as 
a place for the ad mil list ration of baptism is that. " there 
was much water there." And indeed the name, which 
is simply the Chaldee word for spi iny* 1 71; "y ), plainly 

implies as much. ]Jut the precise spot is still involved 
in uncertainty, It could not be quite near to the .Tor- 
dan, otherwise the waters of that river would rather 
have been resorted to for baptism. The probability is 
that it lav considerably to the north, and towards 
Galilee, if not actually within its borders, as the later 
labours of the Baptist undoubtedly embraced the re 
gion which belonged to the jurisdiction of Philip. 


AG ABUS, the name of a prophet in the Christian 
church at Jerusalem, who, on two several occasions, is 
mentioned as having come from Jerusalem to other 
places, and delivered a very specific prediction. The 
first of these took place at Antioch. notlony apparently 
after Paul had been brought by Barnabas to make that 
the scene of his regular ministrations. Along with 
some others who are also said to have possessed pro 
phetical gifts, Agabus appeared at Antioch, and " sig 
nified by the Spirit that there should be great dearth 
throughout all the world : which came to pass in the 
days of Claudius Ca sar," Ac. xi.2s. It is matter of his 
torical certainty that the reign of Claudius was marked 
by the frequent prevalence of famine. \Ve have dis 
tinct notices of at least three one more especially in 
connection with Greece, another with Koine, during 
which the emperor was openly assaulted, and in some 
danger of his life (Suet. Claud, c. IS), and a third 
which pressed heavily upon Judea and the parts around. 
Josephus mentions the last, which, in point of time, 
was one of the earliest occurrences of famine in the 
time of Claudius, probably about A.I). 44. and states 
that the queen of Adiabene, who was at Jerusalem 
during the calamity, showed great liberality and vigour 
in endeavouring to mitigate the evil, and even sent for 
supplies to Alexandria and Cyprus (Ant. xx. 2, M. 
That special respect might be had in the prophecy of 
Agabus to this local dearth may readily be admitted, 
can scarcely indeed be doubted, from the practical ap 
plication immediately made by the disciples at Antioch 
of the knowledge communicated to them in behalf of 
the brethren in Judea; for. in anticipation of the ap 
proaching evil, they resolved on sending thither a con 
tribution. But still there is no reason why the pro 
phecy, which has quite a general aspect, should (with 
Lardner and many commentators on the Acts) be con 

fined to that comparatively restricted theatre of the 
famine. We should rather regard the spirit of prophecy 
in Agabus as following up the testimony of Jesus, and 
giving indication of the immediate approach of one of 
those signs of evil which were to precede and herald 
the downfall of the Jewish state. There .should first be 
famine, our Lord had said, in divers places, .Mat. x.\iv. 7 ; 
and Famine, in a very marked and distressing manner. 
Agabus now announced was on the eve of breaking 
forth. In this form of evil tin; period of judgment, which 
was to have so fearful a termination, v\as presently to 
make a commencement; and the disciples at Antioch. 
rightly conceiving, both from the nature of pn.plieev. 
which, in revealing the future, al-.vavs has an eye espe 
cially to the kingdom of God. and from the peculiar 
relation of Judea to the coming judgments of heaven, 
that, however widely the famine might spread, it was 
sure to make its appearance- possibly its earliest and 
severest appearance in Judea. deemed it a matter of 
Christian duty to gather up something beforehand for 
their brethren in that region. Thrrc they knew the 
carcases more especially was. and there should the engh > 
assuredly be gathered together. Still, not there alone: 
the world generally was to have experience of famine. 
as we have good reason to believe it soon had, though 
not always at the same moment. And we thus see 
how, without any straining, the prophecy of Agabus 
had at once a general and a special application, and 
how naturally the disciples at Antioch should have 
turned their regards toward Judea. when they heard 
the announcement that a season of famine was ready 
to come on the world. 

The other occasion on which Agabus came down from 
Jerusalem and delivered a prophecy, which presently 
pa-sed into fulfilment, was probably about sixteen years 
later, when Paul was at ( a-sarea. on his way to Jem 
salem for the last time. Tarrying there- for some dav- 
with Philip the Evangelist. Agabus came from Jeru 
salem, and having taken Paul s girdle, and bound his 
own hands and feet, he said, Thus saith the Holy 
Ghost, so shall the Jews at Jerusalem bind the man 
that owneth this girdle, and shall deliver him into the 
hands of the Gentiles, " Ac.xxi.ll. In this prediction 
again Agabus treads closely on the footsteps of Jesus, 
in the great prophecy respecting the time of the end. 
Mat. xxiv., and announced that what was there said of 
( hrist s followers going to be delivered up to be afflicted, 
or even killed, should now take effect at Jerusalem on 
the apostle of the Gentiles. It doubtless pressed upon 
the spirit of Agabus. as well as upon those who heard 
the announcement, as a sign that Jerusalem was fast 
filling up the measure of her sins, and that the day of 
vengeance must be drawing on. We hear no more of 
this prophet : but. from the two instances recorded of 
his supernatural insight into the future, we can have no 
doubt that lie was one of those who received the Spirit 
in peculiar measure, as promised to the disciples for 
the purpose of showing them things to come, Jn. xvi. i;j. 

A GAG, derived, it is understood, from an Arabic 
verb, which signifies to burn, to be fervent, and con 
sequently bearing, as a noun, the import of the fiery, or 
xplmdid one. It occurs only as the name of the king 
of Amalek, Nu. xxiv. ~; iSa. \v. s^scq.; find the question 
is, whether it is to be understood as a proper name, the 
distinctive appellation of a particular king, or as a name 
of dignity applicable alike to a succession of Amalekite 
kill s , The latter supposition is undoubtedly favoured 




liy the reference to A gag, for the first time, in the pro 
phecy of Balaam, Nu. xxiv. 7, where speaking of the might 
and glory of Israel s future king, he says, " His king 
.shall be higher than Agag." If understood of a single 
individual, this allusion would he in ill keeping with 
the ro- t of the prophecy, which is of a strongly ideal 
and elevated nature, and would also hut poorly illus 
trate the peerless honour of him who was to be exalted 
to the dominion over God s heritage. Besides, as the 
name A , r ag itself, from its most probable import, very 
well suits as a general name of dignity for the head of a 
warlike and impetuous race like the Amalekites, so it is 
in perfect accordance with the prevailing usage of those 
times, that the Amalekite kings should have had such 
a common designation. Of a similar kind was the Pha- 
raoh of the Egyptians, Abimelech of the Philistines, 
Mclchizedek or Adoni-zedek of the Jebusites. <\e. Jt 
was only falling in with this general custom when the 
heads of the royal line in Am.alek took the name of 
Agag. So that, when we- come to the historv in 1 Sa. 
xv., where the triumph of Israel over the Amalekites is 
recorded, the Ai:ag spoken of should be understood pre- 
eisi-lv as the Pharaoh in Ex. xv.; lie was for the time 
being the reigning head of the Amalekite race; and it 
would appear, from the words of Samuel to him (ver. : >: , 
"As thy .-word hath made women childless, so shall 
thy inotlier lie childl --- among women"), In- bad ki-pt 

Up the tierre character of those who bo;t-te 1 ill the 
name of the ." . / one. But he at length reaped as be 
sowed; ;uid. though fragment-; of the race of Amalek 
still sur\ ived, no future Au a_ r ever appears in coniiec- 
tion with their hi.-t"ry. 

AGAG 1TE is found, Ks . m. i, K> : viii .::,:,; ix.-ji, in con 
nection with liaman, the enemy of Mordecai. .losephus 
explains it us a synonym of Amalekite, and so it pos 
sibly was: but we are without the proper materials for 
either invalidating or substantiating the explanation. 

AG AP^, the Creek term for lv feasts, or feasts 
of charity, as they are called in St. .hide s epistle. (> <:<. 

AGATE is idven in our version, after the Septuagint 
(uxd77/?i and Vuluate, as the rendering of the Hebrew 
X 2 ; ; . Kx. xxviii i: 1 ; \\.\i\. i-. Theseare the only two passages 

where tin- 1 1 eb re w slici occurs, both times as (lie name 

of olle of the precious stolleS ill tile hiu ll priest s bl ea-t 

plate. I .nt in other two passages, is liv I . ; Ezo. xxvii fi, 
the word < /" < is used in our English Mibles, not how 
ever as the translation of the same Hebrew word, but 
for one entirely dillerent, kadcod (->,*< *} a proof how 

arbitrarily sometimes the meaning of such specific terms 
was fixed. Modern interpretation is rather disposed to 
identify the ktidcod with the ruby than with the a jate, 
so that there will only remain the two passages in Kx- 
oilus as those in which mention is made of the au r ate; 
and even for this we are entirely dependent on the 
authority of the Septuagint translation. Hut, mi the 
supposition of the au ate being really the stone meant, 
we may simply state, that the term is a general name 
for the class of semi | llucid stones which in this coun 
try usually go by the name of Scotch pebbles. They 
are composed of crystal intermixed with earth, in diffe 
rent forms ami proportions, variegated with veins and 
clouds. They are usually arranged according to the 
different colours of their ground, and thus divided into 
a variety of species, into the description of which it is 
needless to enter here. They were found in Egypt, 
Vol.. I. 

usually of a reddish colour, veined with white, and in 
many other countries. The name aijutc, in Greek 
achutts, is said to have been derived from the river 
Achates in Sicily, in the bed of which they were found. 
Specimens of ancient agates, of various kinds, and often 
beautifully engraved, have descended to modern times, 
and are to be met with in antique collections. 

AGE is used in a great variety of significations 

often in the sense of a lifetime or a century ; sometimes 
in the restricted sense of personal maturity, as when we 
say of such an one. that he is of age. Jn. ix. L I ; but most 
commonly in contradistinction to infancy or youth, and 
as indicative of the more advanced period of human 
life. To distinguish this from the other senses of the 
word, the epithet old is commonly prefixed; and. with 
reference to age in this sense, tln-iv is scarcely any pe 
culiarity in Scripture that calls for particular explana 
tion. It frequently gives expression to the respect that 
is due from youth to old age, and even enjoins it as a 
matter of obligation : as. Lo. xix. 32, " Mef ore the hoary 
head thoushalt stand up. and honour the face of the aged." 
But this has also been the common feeling and judg 
ment of mankind, even in heathen states ; and probably 
amon<_r the Egyptians and Creeks of ancient times, and 
the Chinese and .Mussulmans of the present, a simple 
respect for the hoary head of av;e has been carried as 
high as it usually was amon^ the Hebrews ; for. among 
the Hebrews, the moral element came in here, as in 
other thiiiLTs. to qualify considerations of a merely na 
tural kind. Thus Solomon, while be pronounces the 
hoary head to be "a crown of glory," adds the impor 
tant qualification, "if it be found in the way of right 
eousness." I r. xvi. :;i ; and Job also speaks of "the au ed 
rising and standing up" at his presence, rh. \\i\. S, imply 
ing that there were higher elements than a<_re entering 
into the account that should be made of the social rank 
of individuals. But still age had, anionu the Hebrews, 
as it must have in every well-constituted community, a 
character of weight attached to it. unless when this may 
have been forfeited by a course "f profligacy or crime. 
In ordinary circumstances, the prolongation of life to 
an advanced period was always regarded as a mark of 
the divine mercy and loving kindness: it was the sub 
ject even of special promises, Xi-c. viii. t ; ,I.,ln. . -I; [., \lvi I; 
u hile the cutting short of life ill the midst is represented 
as the proper portion of the wicked. I .s. lv. L .-J ; cii. jt. 
I>ut this was only what mi^lit be called the normal 
condition of things ; and many circumstances mi^ht 
arise to prevent its being carried uniformly into extcu- 
tion. If God s covenant with Israel, pledging long life 
and prosperity to those who remained steadfast to its 
engagements, h;ul been maintained in its purity and 
completeness by the great mass of the people., the ex 
ceptions, either on the one side or the other, would 
ha\ e been comparatively rare : but. with the manifold 
imperfections and disorders that too commonly pre 
vailed, it is only what ini _dit have been expected, if 
premature death should sometimes have befallen the 
comparatively good, and if extended age was often 
reached by those who should have been cut oil in the 
midtime of their days. Still, for the most part, even 
in this respect, the Lord knew how to distinguish be 
tween the righteous and the wicked : it was usually 
made to go well with the one and ill with the other. 

AGES OF THE WORLD. In various passages 
of Scripture, mention is made of ages with reference 
to the history of the world, and God s successive dis- 




pensations in connection with them. Kp. ii. ~; iii. , 21 ; 
I ni. i. a;, also in the marginal reading of Ps. cxlv. 13 and 
Is. xxvi. I The word would, however, have lieeii found 
in a Ljreat variety of otlier passages, if a more literal 
and uniform rendering hail been adhered to ; for often 
where it;/i n might, and sometimes also should have been 
found, our translators have adopted w<>rl<ls. The ori 
ginal word (aJidiv, aiuivts), in its primary meaning, de 
notes continuance of time ; hence an age or extended 
period of the world s history, then the world itself as 
composed of a succession of such ages: finally, the suc 
cession apart from the world, amounting in the sum to 
an indefinite prolongation eternity. It is sometimes 
difficult to sav, in which precisely of these senses the 
word is employed ; and examples may be found of all 
of them in Scripture. \ cry commonly the meaning is 
expressed with substantial acenracv by irnrhl - as in 
the phrases, " the cares of this world," the children 
of this world," "tin- god of this world," ,\.c.. Mat. xiii. 22; 
Lu. xvi. t; 2 Co. iv. i; the world being contemplated with 
respect to its present corrupt and perishable state, the 
existing nu e. In many passages, agnin, the nicamng 
substantial] v coincides witli eternity, contemplated 
either as past or future from before time, or to beyond 
it, for ever. Kp. iii. II; .In. ix. ML ; Ln. i 7i>; - I c. iii. is ; 
I I i. i. 17, &.C. But ill such passages as IIo. i. 2, through 
wliom also he made the worlds ;" cli. vi.:>, "the powers of 
the world to come ;" Kp. i. 21, "the world that is to come." 
and a few more of like import, it would perhaps have 
been better to substitute age or ages instead ; for in 
such eases the reference is not. as the mere English 
ivad-T miu lit iie apt to imagine, to the material fabric 
of things, but to its divinely appointed form and con 
stitution. The world, or age to come, was a familial- 
expression among the Jews for the Messiah s kingdom; 
and in the New Testament it is employed partly in re 
gard to the kingdom as now established, and parti v in 
regard to its future development the age of glory. It 
is used in this latter sense by our Lord. Mat. xii. .32 ; 
Mar. x. 30 ; Lu. xx. :;. . The ages of the world are. therefore. 
the great cycles, whether of degeneracy and corruption, 
or of progression and development, through which it 
has been destined to pass, and in part has passed, al 

AGONY is the term used by the evangelist Luke 
to express the state of mind in which our Lord was 
when he entered oil his last sufferings, Lu. xxii. 41. The 
English word directs our thoughts upon the mere suffer 
ing experienced more than the original, dyuvia, which 
expresses more immediately the terrible mental stru^u le 
or conflict through which our Lord was passing, and 
only as subordinate to that indicates the sense of pain. 
Wherein precisely the struggle consisted, the evangelist 
is entirely silent ; but he gives us some idea of its fear 
ful nature when he tells us that, in conseqiuncc, "his 
sweat was as it were great drops of blood falling down 
to the ground;" that is, a heavy sweat, not wholly of 
blood, but of water intermingled with blood. ]f it had 
been simply Mood, the as it were (ucrd} would not have 
been used ; and if there had not been blood actually pre 
sent, we can see no proper reason why mention should 
have been made of it ; nor, apart from some intermin 
gling of real blood, would the description convey the 
idea of extreme anxiety and distress of soul which was 
evidently meant to be indicated. What fell, therefore, 
was sweat, but sweat mingled with blood. Much the 
same impression also is conveyed by another particular 

in St. Luke s account of this terrible moment in our 
Lord s history the circumstance of an angel appearing 
from heaven to strengthen him ; and still further, by 
the prayer, mentioned in all the three gospels, which 
lie thrice uttered with intense earnestness, " Father, ij 
it be pnssililf, let this cup pass from me;; nevertheless, 
not as I will, but as thou wilt." The symptoms and 
effects only have been discovered to us ; but from these 
we can easily perceive how mighty a conflict agitated 
the soul of the Redeemer a conflict which it is impos 
sible to resolve into the anticipation of mere bodily 
suffering and outward indignity. We are constrained 
to look beyond this to the awful consciousness of human 
guilt which then began to press in its full weight upon 
the heart of Jesus, and filled bis human spirit with in 
describable horror, on account of the evil involved in 
such guilt-bearing. But it is not for us to penetrate 
further, or to attempt to lift the veil which the pen of 
inspiration has allowed to rest on this part of the l\e- 
dcemer s internal history. 

AGRICULTURE. Under this head we propose to 
give a brief account of some of the more distinctive pe 
culiarities which attached to the cultivation of the land 
in those countries of which the V.ihle speaks, and more 
particularly in Palestine. There are points of agree 
ment in the agriculture of all nations, general conditions 
necessary to be observed by those who. in any region, 
would obtain a return of produce from the earth. To 
these it is needless to refer here. It is understood that 
the ancients as well as the moderns, the Hebrews as 
well as other people, had to till and manure, and sow 
their ground, when they expected to derive from it a 
fruitful produce ; to keep under the weeds, that would 
otherwise choke the vegetation; to observe the proper 
seasons both for sowing and reaping; and to take the 
requisite measures for securing, thrashing, and disposing 
of the respective crops. But, in connection with these 
common operations, there are some things characteristic 
of the East which do not precisely hold of the West ; 
and some things also which distinguished the portions 
of the East with which we have now to do, in ancient 
times, from what belongs to them in the present day. 
It is such only that require any special notice. 

In all countries the climate must exert a modifying 
influence on the kind of agriculture that is pursued in 
them : and in eastern countries generally, in Palestine 
among the rest, the heat and dryness which prevail 
during a great portion of the year naturally call for 
some peculiar modes of treatment : not nearly to such 
an extent, however, as in Egypt on the one side, or in 
Assyria on. the other. In these regions the rains are 
greatly less frequent than in Palestine, and if cultiva 
tion is to be carried on over any considerable tract of 
country, irrigation by means of canals and aqueducts 
is indispensable. When Babylonia was in its state of 
ancient richness and prosperity, the country was all in 
tersected with these channels of artificial irrigation, the 
remains of which are still to be seen in the present 
day : and in Egypt they have been maintained in great 
variety and abundance from the earliest times. While 
these countries require to be thus supplied with mois 
ture, in order to sustain vegetation through the long- 
continued droughts of summer, they also have the 
means of furnishing it, in such large rivers as the Eu 
phrates, the Tigris, and the Nile. But in Palestine the 
streams are all small, with the exception of the Jordan ; 
even it does not contain any great volume of water, and 




it flows besides, during tlie main part of its course, in 
so depressed a channel, that the waters could not be 
conducted over any extent of surrounding country. 
Artificial irrigation, therefore, never appears to have 
been much practised in Canaan ; and the few aqueducts, 
eif which the remains have been noticed by travellers, 
seem to have been chiefly for the purpose of driving 
mills, supplying dwelling-houses, or occasionally per 
haps watt-ring orchards. The passages often produced 
in proof of agricultural fertility by artificial means of 
irrigation, i s. i. -j- is. xxx. -2:,, evidently refer to the natu 
rally fructifying influence of streams and rivers. The 
country possesses natural advantages which, without 
such expedients, rendered it capable of general cultiva 
tion and fruitfulness. Its mountainous character serves 
te. abate the temperature, while it also enriches the 
country with many brooks and rivulets. Even in June-. 
Dr. Robinson writes, respecting what he experienced at 
Jerusalem, "the air was line, and the he. a not oppres 
sive. The nights are uniformly cool, often \\ithaheavv 
dew; and our friends had never occasion to dispense I 
with a coverlet upon their beds durinur summer." Then, 
the rains are more freepuelit and contiiuud than in many 
oth T eastern countries. Those which in Si-riptuiv are 
<-,-ille-e| the- Hii /y rains, commence usually about the lath r 
half of Oe-tol.e-r. y,-t not setting in so h<-a\ily, or pre 
vailing so continuously, but that durinu the intervals 
seed-corn mav be- deposited in the- ground. Acconl- 
in-ly, it is about the- end of October, or in the earlie-r 
part eif November, that wheat begins to be- sown, and 
the sowiiiLT is continued, according to the demands 
of climate 1 and either circumstances, till the approach of 
winter. The proper seed-time for barley is in January, 
and tei about the middle of February. The rains in- 
e-rea~e, ami often fail heavily during the last five or six 
weeks of the year; but. after the- turn of the- year, they 
mode-rate, and only come- at intervals till the end eif 
March, when they usually cease, though there are occa 
sional showerseven in April and .May. The crops thus 
obtain, in ordinary seasons, enough of moisture to bring 
them to maturity, if the seed has be en ce.nimitti-d at the- 
proper time- to the ground. They ripen early ; the bar- 
lev, in the more forward districts, be-in-.; commonly 
re-adv for the sickle.- about the- eml of April, and the 
wheat nearly a fortnight late-r: but in the- more- hilly 
districts two or three weeks more must be aelded to the 
account. On the .".th of June-, Dr. Robinson found 
the- people at Hebron gathering their wheat harvest: 
while, e.n the 1 Jth of May. the thrashing floors at 
Jericho hail nearly completed their work. 

The chief crops raised in i ale -tin,- were undoubtedly 
barley ami wheat ; fn.m these were: derived the common 
bread of the country. Oats are not grown there, but 
are occasionally found in other parts e.f Syria. Men 
tion, however, is occasionally made of other kinds of 
produce, such as beans, lentiles, cummin, cucumbers, 
flax, &,.. ., Jos. ii. C; Ilo. ii.5; 2Sa. xvii. 2S; xxiii. 11 ; but they 
appear to have existed only in small quantities, not in 
such abundance as to tell materially on the; general 
produce of the country. From the subdivision of the 
land among all the families of Israel, and the pains 
taken to secure the perpetuity of heritages, the farms 
must, for the most part, have been small, and particular 
fields could seldom exceed a few acres. Names occa 
sionally occur in history those, for example, of Ijoaz 
and Barzillai who had comparatively large possessions, 
and a considerable number of persons in their employ ; 

but such instances must have been rare ; and the larue 
proportion of lands in cultivation were undoubtedly 
such as a single family, with the aid of a hired servant 
or two, could conveniently manage. We are led te. ex 
pect, therefore, that the mode of cultivation would be 
simple, and that no approach would be made to the 
scientific skill which the energy of the European mind 
has introduced inte> the implements and uvm nil re 
sources of husbandry. 

Such, certainly, is the case. The farming imple 
ments which were anciently used in Syria and the East, 
and svhich. indeed, have retained their place to the pre 
sent day. are of a comparatively rude description. It 
is to the monuments of Egypt that we are chiefly in 
debted for our representations of these; but, as Kgvpt 
stooel at the head of the ancient worM in agricultural 
matters, there is every reason to believe that, for the 
districts of Syria and the Mast, the same representations 
are eejvally suitable-. No. ii exhibits prebablv one of 

tin 1 most improved ]>lu>jh& of those- times, as it has 
both a well-pointed share, and a plough- tail with two 
handles, though these are certainly not adjusted so as 
to give the ploughman much command over the share. 
l le.ii _dis of simpler construction were ne> doubt then in 
use-, as they are eve-n now. in various parts of Asia. 
Sir ( . Fellows, in his Excursion in Ax/a Min<>r, gives 
a representation of the- plough that he? found used in 
.Mvsia. in l s :Js, with its several parts and accompani 
ments (No. KM. "This pie. ugh." h - says, "is very 

[10 1 rieiu;;li. I VlldWS 1 Asia Mine 

simple, and seems only suiteel to the light soil which 
prevails here. It is held by one hand only. The shape 
of the share varies, and the: plough is frequently used 
without any. It is drawn by two oxen, yoked from 
the pole, and guided by a long reed or thin stick, which 
has a spade or scraper feir cleaning the share. Ploughs 
of this description appear often te. have be-en made of 
the trunk eif a young tree, which had twe> branches 
running in opposite directions, the trunk serving for 
the pole; and of the two branches, one. rising upwards, 




the < 

or iron, entered the ground, an 
]>ut most commonly the several 

the shai 


separate pieces ol timber, and joined together. 
appear always, however, to have been of very imperfect 
construction, and in Palestine ami the adjoining coun 
tries were almost invariably drawn bv oxen. Such is 
the general practice also in the present day, though 
occasionally camels and asses are employed in the ser 
in Scripture, nor is there 

ithcr, covered with bron/o practice of pulling up by the roots, instead of cnttiii" 
the corn, also prevailed to a considerable extent in 
ancient times. The corn seldom yields so much straw 
as in this country, and pulling is resorted to in order to 
obtain a larger supply of fodder. Maundrell thus de 
scribes the practice as he noticed it in 1<i!7: "All 
that occurred to us new in these days travel was a par 
ticular way used by the country people in gathering 
their corn, it being now harvest time. They plucked it 
up by handfuls from the roots, leaving the most fruitful 
fields as naked as if nothing had ever L.TOWII on them. 
This was their practice in all the places of the East that 

in Italy, to plough in | I have seen ; and the reason is, that they may 1< 

anything on the ancient monuments corre 

It seems to have been common in 

,-d, care having first been taken, after the first 

11). It is known that the elder Roman 
writers considered harrowing after sowing a proof of 
bad husbandry (Coliua. ii. -1 ; Pliny, 11. A , xviii. 20). 
The lighter form of the ancient and eastern plough, 
which a man can easily lift in his hand, also suited this 
method better than the heavier ploughs which are used 
in this country. The yuails used in Palestine, in earlier 
as well as later times, appear to have been somewhat 
larger than the one represented in the woodcut. Maun- 
drell, in his Travels, tells us that he found them about 
eight feet long, tipped at the smaller end with a sharp 
point ; while the larger, which was about six inches in 

if their straw, which is 
very short, and necessary for the sus 
tenance of their cattle, no hav being 
here made. I mention this." he adds, 
"because it seems to give light to 
that expression of the Psalms, cxxix. (;, 
which withereth before it be plucked 
up, where there seems to be a mani 
fest allusion to the custom. This 
undoubtedly is the; correct meaning 
of the expression ; and the real allu 
sion is lost sight of by the rendering 
in the authorized version, "before it 
groweth up. It grows, but withers 
before; the plucking time comes: an 
emblem of the premature decay and fruitlessness of the 

The tln-asltiiifj of the corn partook, and in Syria still 
partakes, of the same rude and simple style of operation 
which characterizes the general husbandry of the East. 
The sheaves were carried straight from the field, either 
in carts, or, as more commonly happens in the present 
day, on the backs of camels and asses, to the thrashing- 
floor. What was used for this purpose was some open 
and elevated spot, where there was a free circulation of 
air, formed into a circular shape, and pounded or beaten 
into a hard consistence. On this open space the sheaves 
were spread out, and sometimes beaten with flails a 
method practised especially with the lighter kinds of 
grain, such as fitches or cummin, Is. xxviii. 27 but more 
generally by means of oxen. For this purpose the oxen 
we iv yoked side by side, and driven round over the corn, 

[12.] Egyptians Reaping. lloselliui. 

circumference, had an iron spade or paddle. One can 
easily understand how such a weapon might do execution 
in more important labour than that of urging oxen in the 
plough, as Shamgar is reported to have killed six hun 
dred Philistines with one of them, Ju. iii. 31. 

/iaijiiii / in .Palestine was frequently done by the 
sickle, to which reference is occasionally made in Scrip 
ture. But there can be little doubt that the modem 

[13.] Pulling Corn and Binding Sheaves. -Description de 1 Kgypte. 

by a man who superintended the operation, so as to sub 
ject the entire mass to a sufficient pressure, as shown in 
No. 14: or the oxen were yoked to a sort of machine 
(what the Latins called trilnihun or tntJica), which 
consisted of a board or block of wood, Avith bits of 
stone or pieces of iron fastened into the lower surface 
to make it rough, and rendered heavy by some weight, 
such as the person of the driver, placed on it; this was 



dragged over the corn, and hastened the operation. 
Is. xxviii. 27 ; xii. 15. The same practices are still followed. 

of oxen, but very rarely. Dr. Robinson describes tho 
operation as ho witnessed it near Jericho : " Here there 

only mules and horses are occasionally employed instead ; were no less than five floors, all trodden by oxen, cows, 

lli.l Treadins out tho Corn with Ox-n. -Wilkinson. 

and younger cattle, arranged in eaeli case live abreast. | 
and driven round in a circle, or rather in all directions, 
over the floor. The sled or sledge is not here in use. 
though we afterwards met with it in the north of Pales 
tine. P>y this process the straw is broken up and 
becomes chuff. It is occasionally turned with a laru r e 
\\oodeii fork, having two prongs ; and, when sufficiently 
trodden, is thrown up with the same fork against the 
wind, in order to separate the <_ f rain. 
which is then gathered up and winnowed. 
The \\hole process," he adds, "is exceed 
ingly wasti ful, from the transportation of 
the corn on the backs of animals to the 
treading out upon the bare ground" (vol. 
ii. j). 111). During this operation the 
Mahometans, it seems, generally observe 
the ancient precept of not muzzling the 
ox while he treadeth out the corn: but 
the Greek Christians as commonly ki > [> 
them tiiditly muzzled. 

Two thrashing instruments, still used in 
Asia Minor, are exhibited in No. lf>. One 
of them exactly resembles the ancient tri- 
Indiun. It consists of two stout boards firm- JK, 

Iv joined together at a convenient angle; 
the under side of the one that rests on the ground 
being set full of sharp flints or agates. To this 
machine the animals are yoked by means of ropes. 
The other is simply a roller formed of the trunk of a 
tree, with a pole to which the animals are attached. 
The roller is merely dragged over the irruin. without 

The wtnncviincf, it may also lie noted, went along 
with the thrashing. As, from time to time, the mass of 
chaif, straw, and corn was tossed up with tin: pitchfork, 
the lighter particles were curried awav bv the \\ind; 
and when the wind was not sufficiently strong to ell ect 
the separation, a winnowing-shovel (TTTVOV) was em 
ployed to throw it more forward against the wind, and 
create an additional ventilation (No. 17). .I v this 


Thrashing Instruments of Asia Minor. Fellows. 

revolving ; the driver occasionally sitting on it to in 
crease its weight. 

In the Egyptian sledge or wain, represented in No. 
Ki. the sledge, it will be observed, was fixed upon a 
few wooden rollers, which were armed with iron rings, 
and sometimes also serrated edges, for the purpose of 
chopping the straw and bruising out the corn. 

Thruslun;, ith tho Slotlge. L Univera rittoresciue. 

means the heavier particles fell by themselves at a 
shorter distance from the winnower. It is this part of 
the process that is referred to by John the Jiaptist, 
when, speaking of the spiritual purification to lie ef 
fected bv the coming of the Messiah, he said, Whose 
winnowing-shovel [so it should be, not fan TTTI IOV] is 
in his hand, and he will thoroughly purge his floor," 
Mat. iii. I - . In addition to thc^e winnowing processes, a 
sieve was also employed to separate the corn, not so 
much from the chaff, as from the earthy and other fc > reign 
ingredients that mi j ht be mixed with it. Reference is 
made to this, Am.K !i, when the Lord says, I will 
command, and I will sift the house of Israel among all 
nations, like as corn is sifted in a sieve, yet shall not 
the least grain fall to the earth" the earthy and 
heavier portions being, in this operation, the particles 
to be detached by falling through; and since no grain, 
in the figure hero employed, was to be allowed to fall 
to the earth, it was in eif ect to say that all should lie 
preserved. Our Lord also refers to the same operation 
when he says to Peter, "Simon, Simon, behold Satan 
hath desired to have you, that he may sift you as wheat," 
Lu. xxii. 31. 

It is manifest that, where fields of any extent were 
in cultivation, these thrashing and winnowing processes 




must have taken a considerable time, ami the owners 
would coiise<|uentlv need to keep eareful watch over 
their thrashing-floors till the whole was finished. Espe 
cially would this need to be done where hostile tribes 

or wandering Araks were in the neighbourhood. Ac 
cordingly, we find Dr. Robinson stating, respecting the 
thrashing-floors around Hebron, and in the region of 
Caza, that the osvners came every nil/lit and slept on 
them, as a security against law less depredations. "We 
were," lit: says, "in the midst of scenes precisely like 
those of the book of Ruth; where Boaz winnowed bar 
ley in his thrashing-floor, and laid himself down at 
night to guard the heap of corn" (vol. ii. p. 446). 

The grain thus thrashed and winnowed the crop of 
the season was laid up in granaries, whence it was 
taken to be sold or used, as occasion required. No. 18 
represents the storing of corn in Egypt, where, from 
early times, it is known to have been largely practised. 

(18.1 Vaulted Granaries. -Wilkinson. 

Reference is frequently made to it also in Scripture, 
but without any distinct indication of the kind of places 
employed for the purpose except that from 1 icing 
familiarly called barns, it may be inferred buildings of 
some sort were usually adopted, Do. xxviii. S; rr. iii. io ; 
Mat. vi. 20; xiii. 30; Lu xii. 18. Subterranean grottoes or 
cellars are known to be largely employed now for this 
purpose in some places in the East (Russell s Aleppo, i. 
77) ; but there is nothing in Scripture to indicate the 
existence among the Israelites of granaries of that de 
scription. That, in the better periods of Israel s history. 
grain was produced in very considerable quantities 
notwithstanding the imperfection in the implements 

and the arts of husbandry admits of no doubt. Many 
notices, both in profane and sacred writers, show that 
Palestine was long distinguished as a grain country ; 
and the remains of constructed along the sides 
of mountains, on a basis of mason- work, for the purpose 
of retaining the soil, and rendering them capable of 
bearing a crop, still attest the spirit of enterprise and 
activity which at one time characterized the agricultur 
ists of Palestine. That the country now lies in such 
comparative barrenness and desolation is a witness, 
more immediately, of the arbitrariness and abuse of 
Turkish misrule, and remotely of the judgment of 
Heaven on the sin and apostasy of those who caused 
the Lord to turn against them and become their enemy. 
That better times are in store for the land may justly 
be anticipated ; but that it will ever be a very favour 
able region fur the exercise of agricultural skill, and 
the raising of agricultural produce, in the sense now 
understood regarding such things in the more fertile 
and industrial countries of the world, is against all 
probability. The climate and the soil of Palestine are 
alike hustile to such an expectation ; even, in the mo-t 
favourable circumstances, the most that can be looked 
for is an improved mode of cultivation, and a certain 
moderate decree of fruitfulness. 

A GUR,, a word of unknown import, and the name 
of a teacher, otherwise also unknown, whose words, 
addressed to Ithiel and Teal (most probably his pupils!, 
form the thirtieth chapter (if the book of Proverbs. 
Many conjectures have been formed in regard to the 
name some identifying it with Solomon, and many 
explanations given of the insertion of the words of this 
chapter under that name; but, as nothing has been 
certainly ascertained, it is needless to recount what has 
been attempted. The chapter itself con 
tains a fresh collection of proverbial utter 
ances, much in the style of Solomon s : and 
they are called massa, not strictly prophecy, 
as in the authorized version, but burden, or 
weighty deliverance, probably because of the 
important matter they contained, or because 
of the heavy issues that, to a certain extent, 
were wrapped up in them. The word is often 
used to designate the message of a prophet, 
but only when the message delivered was 
predominantly of a severe nature, fraught 
in some respect with heavy tidings ; so that 
it was not so properly the prospective import 
of the words spoken the predictive element 
in them -as that which gave them a weighty 
and judicial aspect, on account of which 
they were termed a matna. The same name 
on another, but quite parallel ground, is here 
applied to the utterances of Agur. 

A HAB [brother of father], the son and successor of 
Omri, himself the seventh king of Israel as a separate 
kingdom, reigning from about 91$ to 897 before Christ, 
twenty -one years and some months. The name of 
Ahab is in some respects the blackest in the whole list 
of Israelitish monarchs; it bears upon it the darkest 
stain of infamy. Jeroboam, indeed, had the bad pre 
eminence of beginning the course of idolatrous defection 
from the true worship of Jehovah; he was emphatically 
" the man who made Israel to sin;" but the still worse 
pre-eminence belongs to Ahab of having turned what 
was but a tendency in Jeroboam s policy into a grievous 



reality, of proceeding from a corruption in worship to 
the worship of corruption itself. For thus the sacred 
historian draws the distinction between Ahab and the 
other kings of Israel: " He did evil in the sight of the 
Lord above all that were before him. And it came to 
pass, as if it had been a light thing for him to walk in 
the sins of Jeroboam the son of Xebat, that he took to 
wife .Jezebel, the (laughter of Ethbaal, king of the 
Zidonians, and went and served Baal, and worshipped 
him. And he reared up an altar for Baal in the house 
of Baal, which he built in Samaria," i Ki. xvi. 30-3. . The 
tiling in which Ahab, under the influence of his heathen 
wife, went so far beyond his predecessors in iniquity 
was, his openly establishing the worship of Baal, and 
consecrating, as we afterwards learn, 400 priests for 
this false worship, while the priests and prophets of 
Jehovah were cut oft , iKi. \\iii. Nothing so flagrant as 
tins had been done before. The sin nf Jeroboam and 
his ii imediate followers consisted in corrupting the 
worship of Jehovah by setting up images in Dan and 
Bethel, which, indeed, was so cxpivssly contrary to the 
law of Muses ainl the fundamental principles of the 
theocratic constitution, that it is often branded us idola 
try and heathenism. Even Jeroboam himself was bv the prophet Alii j ah with haviir_r " gone and 
made him other gods and molten imaires to provoke 
the Lord to anger," IKi xiv.9. Apparently this is at the 
outset the very sin of Ahab the worship of other L ds 
besides Jehovah. But it was not so in reality. Jero- 
bo;im and his ;idlieivnts did not intend to set up another 
object of worship than Jehovah, but they so depraved 
tin- worship, and t, r ave such false representations of his 
character and service that Jle refused to own it: it was 
not He they worshipped, but other gods. They hail 
excuses and sophistical explanations by which they en 
deavoured to show that, while they formally departed 
from the ritual of Moses in some unimportant parti 
culars, they still kept to the one irreat object of worship, 
and were- servants of the livinir God. In reference to 
such pretexts it is said, _ Ki. xvii ;>, "And the children 
of l.-racl covered words (so the exact rendering isi that 
were not so. over the Lord their God, and built them 
liijli places, 1 &c.; that is, the\ veiled the true character 
of their corruptions in worship bv false and deceitful 
interpretations of God s "Word and their own procedure, 
much a< the L omanists do now. And the Lord, strip 
ping off this tliin-y veil, disregarding all their vain ex 
cuses, charged ujiiin them as direct apostasy and falling 
of! tn heath, nism what was substantially of that descrip 
tion, though formally it was different. Ahab, however, 
followed out the tendency of Jeroboam s course to it< 
natural results; he did not sin by halves, like his pre 
decessors, but, casting oft all disguises and restraints, 
lie openly set up the worship of Baal, as if Baal and 
Jehovah were but one (rod, or Jehovah, in so far as he 
was different, were to have his claims disallowed. And 
this, of course, involved the further step of giving up 
all that was peculiar in the worship of God- the dis 
continuance of the stated feasts, the substitution of 
heathenish for the Levitieal rites of sacrifice, and the 
introduction of many foul abominations. It was Jeze 
bel, rather than Ahab, who was the active agent in 
bringing about this religious revolution; his guilt con 
sisted in weakly allowing himself to be led by the will 
of a corrupt and imperious woman to subvert the prin 
ciples of the constitution he was bound to uphold. We 
read of moments of relenting on his part, and occasions. 

when better impulses prevailed over his spirit, but none 
in hers; she "strengthened herself in her wickedness. 
But a stronger than both mingled in the conflict; and 
not only did the brave, dauntless, single handed Elijah 
stand his ground against all their machinations, but he 
was enabled also, by the special help vouchsafed to him 
from above, to pour confusion on their policy, to pro 
cure the destruction of Baal s worshippers, and fear 
lessly pronounce the doom of Ahab and Jex.ebel them 
selves, as destined to a violent and ignominious end. 
Even before this end was readied, Ahab and his part 
ner had practically to own themselves vanquished ; for 
the purpose they had formed to supplant the worship 
of Jehovah by that of Baal was ultimately resiled from: 
the stern witness-bearing of Elijah and of the faithful 
remnant that adhered to him, seconded, as it was, by 
the appalling judgments of Heaven, held the impious 
monarch in cheek, and won for the worshippers of Je 
hovah a freedom and security in their obedience to the 
covenant which was denied them at the outset. The 
terrible fate, too, of Ahab and his wife, both of them 
slain, as Elijah had foretold, and their blood licked by 
dogs on the field which their wickedness ha 1 imbrued 
with the blood of the guiltless, read a salutary lesson 
t<> future times: so that the worship of Baal was never 
a _ r ain S o openly practised and so fiercely prosecuted. 
It <till. however, covertly held its place: and. from the 
references in the later prophets, n,,, " It shall be 
at that day. saith the Lord, thoti shalt call me Ishi 
[///// ltn.Ji<iit(l\, and shall call me no more Baali [mt/ 
/- <"(/]." Am v. -. .-i-^r; /ec. \i;i L>, it appears that in the reli 
gion which commonly prevailed there was a recognition 
of Baal as well as of Jehovah. The people, it would 
seem, formed a sort of compromise between the two, 
abandoned the exclusiveness of the, true worship, and 
only regarded the religion of the old covenant as one 
form of the honia jv that miidit be paid to the (iod of 
heaven, while Baal s was another. Thus practically 
the worship of Jehovah was made to shake hands with 
heathenism : and the leaven introduced by Ahab and 
his guilty partner was never wholly pur^ -d out, till the 
dissolution of the kingdom scattered to the winds all 
the ha>e compromises and attendant corruptions which 
had so long held their place against every warning and 
remonstrance. (> " J K/KI:I:I.. KU.IAH.I 

2. AHA]:, son of Kolaiah, a false prophet, who, along 
with another of the name of /edekiah, uttered pre 
dictions that Were fitted to deceive the Babylonian 
exiles, Jc xxix. Jl. Jeremiah wrote a letter to the chil 
dren of the captivity, partly to warn them against 
giving heed to the predictions thus addressed to them, 
because they were false, and denouncing the judgment 
of Jleaven against those who uttered them, <-h. xxix 4- . . i. 

AHASUE RUS, according to the Hebrew A hash- 
rcri is/i, of which many modifications and not a few 
derivations have been produced. It is needless to give 
more than the last, also probably the most correct, from 
Gesenius "The true orthography of the name has 
come to light of late from what is called the cuneiform 
writing, in which it is written Kksliyarsha or Khshwcr- 
shc. This appears to be an old and harsher form of the 
Persian word for lini-kin i. In imitation of this harsher 
form, the Greeks formed the word Xt.rxcs; the Hebrews, 
by prefixing aleph prosthetic, made Akhushwcrosh. In 
stead of the letters of softer pronunciation, s and sh, 
which the modern Persians use, the ancients enunciated 
much harsher sounds." The Syriac version writes it 


Ac/ts/tircsli, Mul the Septuagint A(r<70i;i7/>os. The name 
occurs three times in Scripture; first, in ] >a. ix. ], 
where it is said, that " Darius, the son of Ahasuerus, oi 
the seed of the .Modus, was made king over thu (. lial 
deans;" again in Kzr. iv. (i, where the adversaries of tilt 
returned Jews are represented as writing an accusation 
against them in the reign of Ahasuerus ; and lastly, in 
the hook of Ksther, in which Ahasuerus is inven as the 
name of the great iMedo- Persian king who reigned 
from India unto Ethiopia, and who, in a freak of vanity 
and caprice, put away his queen Vashti aTid married 
the Jewess Esther. It is impossible that the three 
persons thus successively designated by the name of 
Ahasuerus can have been the same; indeed, it seems 
next to certain that the whole three were different. He 
who was the father of the person designated in Daniel 
Dariua the Mede, whether he might be alive or dead at 
the time of the conquest of Babylon, was not, at least, 
recognized a:; king over the Chaldeans, and could not 
have been the Ahasuerus to whom, some years after 
wards, the adversaries presented their accusation against 
the returned Jews; and the events recorded in the book 
of Esther belong so manifestly to a period considerably 
posterior to that of the return from Babylon, that the 
Ahasuerus there mentioned cannot, with the least show 
of probability, be identified with either of the other 
two. The only question of any moment connected 
with them is, What names in profane history corre 
spond with thu one thus variously applied in Scripture ? 
"Who, in the Medo- Persian dynasty, are to be under 
stood as answering to the first, to the second, and to 
the third Ahasuerus of sacred history? The question 
has been variously answered, and even in the latest 
investigations is still receiving different solutions, for 
which the tangled web of Greek Persian history (full of 
apparent or real inconsistencies), and the attempted de 
cipherings of the Assyrian inscriptions, afford ample 
scope. The subject is encompassed with too much of 
the conjectural and the uncertain to render it advisable, 
or even practicable within any reasonable hounds, to 
present an outline of the manifold explanations and 
adjustments that have been resorted to. As matters 
yet stand it is needless to go beyond a statement of 
what seem the greater probabilities of the case. It is 
probable, in regard to the word itself (AhashvciM : :h. 
Khshyarsha, or Xerxes), that, somewhat like the Pha 
raoh of Egypt, the Abimelech of the Philistines, &c., 
it had an appellative import, and may consequently 
have been applied by foreigners as a proper name to 
several individual kings, whose special names and char 
acteristics were but partially known at a distance. 
But, as regards the three applications found of it in 
Scripture, it is probable that the first named, the father 
of the Median -Darius, was the Astyages of profane 
history (Astyages, Cyaxares, and Ahashverosh being 
but different names of the same person, or forms of the 
same name); that the second, who appears in Ezra as 
the successor of Cyrus, is the vain, arbitrary, and hair- 
brained Cambyses; and that the third, the equally ca 
pricious and luxurious husband of Vashti and Ksther, 
the lordly monarch of all the countries lying between 
India and Ethiopia, the magnificent banquet-master, 
who entertained his nobles and princes for an hundred 
and fourscore days, showing them the riches of his 
glorious kingdom and the honour of his excellent ma 
jestythat this was no other than the Xerxes so cele 
brated in Grecian history for his pomp and luxury, his 


countless retinue of servants and soldiers, and almost 
incredible displays of passion and of pleasure. The 
probable period and the apparent circumstances of the 
time accord best with those of his reign; and the at 
tempts which have been made to associate the events 
narrated in .Esther with Artaxerxes Longimanus or 
Darius Ilystaspes have never succeeded in obtaining 
general credit. Some historical points of a collateral 
nature will lie touched upon in connection with ESTHKK, 
the DARIUS who became master of Babylon, CYRUS 
the author of the decree for the restoration of the Jews. 
and the Jew MORIH .CAI, who rendered such important 
services, first to the king of Persia, and then to his own 
countrymen when their lives were sought to gratify the 
cruel ambition of Hainan. 

The AIIASUKKUS mentioned in Tobit xiv. ~[~i, in con 
nection with the destruction of Nineveh, must be un 
derstood to be the same that is mentioned in J)a. ix. 1, 
the Astyages or Cyaxares already referred to of profane 

AHA VA [derivation and meaning uncertain], a river 
beside which the Jewish exiles who accompanied Ezra 
from Babylon assembled, and from which they set out 
together on their march to Jerusalem. It is both called 
the river Ahava and the river that runs to Ahava, 
Kzr. viii. if>, 31. The conjectures that have been made 
respecting the precise stream and place meant have 
attained to no certainty. In all probability it was one 
of the smaller rivers that flowed into the Euphrates in 
the direction nearest to Palestine. 

A HAZ [possessor], son and successor of Jotham. 
the eleventh king of Judah, who reigned for sixteen 
years. Apparently some error has crept into the text 
of 2 Ki. xvi. 2, which gives twenty as the age at which 
he ascended the throne, while his son Hezekiah is af 
firmed to have been twenty-five years old when he suc 
ceeded his father Ahaz, rh. xviii. 2. Dying, as Ahaz did, 
at the early age of thirty-six, Hezekiah, according to 
the above statement, must have been born to him when 
he was but eleven years old. This is incredible; and 
it is therefore probable that the number twenty-five 
given by the Septuagint, Syriae, and Arabic versions 
at the parallel passage, 2Ch. xxviii. I, was really the age 
at which Ahaz ascended the throne; so that his death 
would take place, not in his thirty- sixth but in his forty- 
first year. The notices given of his conduct in sacred 
history present him to our view as an extremely weak, 
hyocritical, pusillanimous, and idolatrous sovereign. 
His religi( m was such as naturally springs f n >m the fears 
if guilt when guided, not by an enlightened knowledge 
of God, but by the false and gloomy lights of super 
stition. Departing from the law of God, and following 
the perverse procedure of the kings of Syria and Israel, 
he fell into many heathen abominations, and even made 
his son pass through the fire in sacrifice, 2Ki. xvi.3. In 
his mistaken zeal, also, for a worship not authorized in 
the law of God, he caused an altar to be made after the 
pattern of one he had seen in Damascus, and which, 
no doubt, was of a more ornate description than the 
brazen altar made after the pattern shown to Moses in 
the mount, ver. 10-10. (Sre AI.TAK.) But, like all who 
nave tried the same wilful and superstitious course, he 
failed in the go-eat object he had in view; in the time 
danger his confidence forsook him. Terrified at the 
threatening and combined aspect of the kings of Syria 
and Israel, he foolishly resorted for aid to the king of 
Assyria, and even robbed the temple to pay for his 



assistance thus, to get relief from an immediate evil, 
from which, too, the Lord by the prophet Isaiah gave 
him the assurance of a safe deliverance, is. vii., bringing 
his kingdom under tribute to the Assyrian monarchy. 
The stem rebuke of the prophet for this distrust of 
Jehovah does not seem to have awakened him from his 
dream of mingled worldliness and superstition. He 
died to all appearance as he lived ; and the kingdom 
was only saved saved even then but for a time from 
the consequences of his sinful and base procedure, by 
the believing and magnanimous conduct of his son 

[whom the Lord prjtsi.issi.s or upholds]. 1. A king of 
Israol, the son of the idolatrous and wicked Aliab. 
His brief history is given in 2 Ki. i.. together with 
the concluding verses of 1 Ki. xxii. That such a 
name should have been appropriated to the eldest son 
of such p., king, shows with how little meaning the 
mo>t significant names were sometimes imposed among 
the ancient Israelites, and with how little effect as 
regards the character of him who bore it; for this 
Aha/.iah trod, as far a- he well could, in the footsteps 
of his father Ahab: he walked, 1 it is said, "in the 
way of his father, and in the way of his mother, and 
in tlie way of Jeroboam the son of Xehat, who made 
Israel to sin." His reign only lasted two years; and. 
in addition to the general account given of its per 
verse anil idolatrous character, only two specific acts 
are noticed respecting it. The first is his joining with 
Jehoshaphat, king of Judah, in a project for building 
ships of merchandise to trade to Tarshish: but the 

project miscarried, a-; tli 

were shattered bv a 

tempest at K/.ion-gaber. This disaster came, we are told 
in the book of Chronicles, more peculiarly as the judg 
ment of Heaven on the king of Judah. for entering 
into so close an alliance with one whose intimacy he 
ought to have slimmed; for a prophet of the name of 
Klie/er prophesied on the occasion against Jehoshaphat, 
and said. " Hecause thou hast joined thyself with Aha- 
/.iah. the Lord hath broken thy works," ach.xx. 37. The 
king of Judah, in consequence, broke off the alliance, 
and refused to have any further commercial dealings 
with Aha/.iah, iKi.i. !:>. The other circumstance parti 
cularly noticed in the history of Ahaziah is. his having 
fallen down through a lattice in the upper chamber 
of his house, by which he sustained very serious injury; 
so that he sent to inquire of Baal-zebub, the god of 
Kkruii. whether he should recover from the evil. It 
was this fresh manifestation of the heathenish spirit, 
which had been so awfully rebuked in the death of his 
father Ahab, that again awoke into living force the re 
solute spirit of Elijah. The messengers of the king were 
met by the prophet on their way to Ekron, and sent 
back to their master with the solemn charge and an 
nouncement, " Is it not because there is not a god in 
Israel that ye go to inquire of Baal-zebub, the god of 
Ekron? Now, therefore, thus saith the Lord, thou 
shalt not come down from that bed on which thou art 
gone up, but shalt surely die." The reception of this 
message, instead of humbling the king, and leading him 
t > seek in a penitent spirit after the God of Israel, only 
kindled his indignation against Elijah, whom he readily 
understood to have been the author of the communica 
tion, and led to the successive despatch of three com 
panies of soldiers, charged with the commission of 
bringing the prophet to Samaria. Of these, the two 

first were consumed by fire from heaven; but on the 
third captain assuming a humbler attitude, and not 
commanding, but intreating the prophet to accompany 
him, Elijah complied; and beside the couch of Ahaziah 
repeated afresh the word he had at first put into the 
mouth of the king s messengers, declaring that, as Aha 
ziah had virtually disowned the existence of a God in 
Israel, he should not recover from the illness under 
which he laboured. And so it proved: by severe acts 
of righteousness he was made to know that there was 
a God in Israel, to whom the issues of life and death 
belonged. And the lesson, though too late in being 
learned for his own good, was not altogether in vain for 
his successors; for the more rampant idolatry that had 
been introduced by Ahab and Jezebel might be said 
to die with Ahaziah future kings on the throne of 
Israel sinned after the pattern of Jeroboam rather than 
that of Ahab. 

2. AHAX.IAII, called also AZARTAH, was the son of 
Jehoram, king of Judah. He was the nephew of the 
former Ahaziah. and probably was named after him; 
for his father Jehoram married a daughter of Ahal>, the infamous Athaliah. ]n the book of 
Kings he is said to have been twenty-two years old 
when he began to reign; but, in 2 Ch. xxii. 2, it is made 
fort >/ and two undoubtedly a corruption of the text, 
arising from the substitution of the Hebrew c, the let 
ter for forty, instead of ;, which represents twenty; 
for his father Jehoram only reigned eight years, and 
ascended the throne at the au r e of thirty-two making 
together forty. -jCli. xxi. >; so that Ahaziah could by no 
possibility be forty-two when he succeeded his father in 
the kingdom. His reign was short and unhappy. In 
the course of the first year of it he went to visit his 
uncle Joram, the son of Ahab, who had been wounded 
by the Syrians at Ramoth-Gilead; and while there he 
fell among the victims of Jehu s revolt. He was not 
actually slain, indeed, upon the spot, but died presently 
after, at Megiddo, of the wounds he had received. This 
is distinctly stated intlie book of Kings, -_ Ki. ix. L 7, which 
is more full and explicit in its account of the circum 
stances than the narrative in Chronicles. In the latter 
there is some vagueness: and there appears also a sin 
gular looseness and variety in the application of names 
to this unfortunate king. In eh. xxi. 1". he is called 
Jehoahaz; but in eh. xxii. 2, the name Ahaziah is given 
to him, on the occasion of his ascending the throne; 
while presently, in ver. G of the same chapter, he is de 
signated Azariah. Perhaps this variableness in respect 
to the names associated with him was intended to be a 
sort of reflection of the outward weakness and insta 
bility of his character and government; but, as to the 
formal ground of it, it has its explanation in the sub 
stantial agreement of all the names referred to. They 
are but different modes of expression for the same idea; 
AHA/.IAH means the possessed, or upknldi.n by the Lord; 
AZARIAH, the helped of the Lord ; and JEHOAHAZ is 
merely a transposition of the two words of which 
Ahaziah is composed Ahaz and Jab. or Jehovah. 
Like the other, it points to the Lord s holding fast; 
but, alas! from the want of right principle in the man, 
tlie name, in all its forms, was like a satire on the 
reality: instability, not holding fast, abandoned to his 
enemies, not possessed by the Lord, was the motto 
that might fitly have been written over his histoiy. 

A HI [brother] occurs once, by itself, as the name of 
an individual, ich. vii . s>; but more frequently it has 



another term appended to it. asjA, Lord; ion, mother: 
azc.r, hol]>; ltil. Jew; liiuJ, junction or union; examples 
of which, and various other compounds of AMI, arc to 
lu: found among the names of Old Testament scripture; 
hut we notice, onlv those of whom any particular inci 
dent-; are recorded. 

AHI JAH, or Alil Ail [brother of the. Lnl\. ap 
pears to liave heen a name in frequent uso amon<j 
Jews, as examples occur of a consideralile number of 
persons to whom it is applied, i Ch. viii. 7;xi. 36; xxvi. 20, &e. 
But the only person of anv note who bore the name 
was the pp phet of Shiloli, who first announced to Jero 
boam his destined elevation to the throne, and after 
wards denounced in severe terms the guilt of Jeroboam 
to his wife, when she went to inquire concerning the 
life of Aliijah, the son of Jeroboam, and foretold also 
the certainty of this child s death. 1 Ki. xi. 29-30; xiv. 2-1G. 
On both of these occasions he acted an important part, 
and gave abundant evidence of being a true messenger 
of God. (Sec JKKOBOAM.) lie lived to a great age; 
as, at the time of the visit of Jeroboam s wife, his eyes 
are said to have been set. by reason of his age. 

AHI KAM [Iji-of/nr j ri.;iiif/ l j>, or d ration], the 
son of Shaphan, a person of note in the time of Josiah 
and immediately subsequent periods. He was one of 
four persons sent by Josiah to inquire at the prophetess 
iiuldah respecting the book of the law. 2Ki.xxii.12; and 
in the corrupt and perilous times that followed, he 
acted a< the faithful friend and protector of the prophet 
Jeremiah. .To. xxvi. 2i ; as did also his son Gedaliah, who. 
under the Chaldeans, became governor of Judea, Jo. 

xxxix. 14; xl. ."!,(), &c. 

AHIMA AZ [brother f-f anger, choleric] was the 

name of one of Zadok s sons, who was employed in car 
rying messages between David and the party that stood 
faithful to him in the time of Absalom s rebellion. 2Ra. 
\v. 27, 30; xvii. 17, 20; xvi;i i:-2!>. At that period he showed 
great steadfastness in adhering to the cause of David, 
and hearty zeal in endeavouring to advance its in 
terest-; ; but nothing further is recorded of him. Two 
others are found bearing the same name the father- 
in-law of Saul, iSa. xiv. so, and a son-in-law of Solomon, 

1 Ki. iv. 15. 

AHI MAN [niij Brother, " ^"J? i.e. who is :ny fellow!} 
one of the seed of giants, or Anakim, who remained 
still in the land of Canaan at the time it was entered by 
the children of Israel. He dwelt in Mount Hebron 
with his two brothers, from whence they were driven 
by the valour of Caleb, who got possession of their in 
heritance. There can be little doubt that the name of 
Ahimaii was uiveu to the chief of the three, to denote 
his supposed invincible might. The passages that refer 

to him are Nu. xiii. 22; Jos. xv. 1 4; ,Tii. i. 10, 20. 

AHIM ELECH [Hay s In-other], the great-grandson 
of Eli, air! the son of Ahitub, supposed by some to 
be the same with the AHIAH mentioned in 1 Sa. xiv. 
X, ]^, though he may have been a brother, but the 
priest who presided at the sanctuary in Nob, when 
David, fleeing from the presence of Saul, obtained the 
show-bread for the relief of his present necessities, and 
the sword of Goliath for his protection, iSa. xxi. i. The 
immediate consequences of the transaction in respect 
to Ahimcleoh were of unhappy moment, as it furnished, 
through the malignant testimony of Doeg, the ground 
of a charge of conspiracy with David against the life 
and crown of Saul, on which Ahimelech and the priests 
at Nob were ruthlessly put to death. That there was 

most cruel injustice in such treatment there can lie no 
doubt; for, whatever sins of a more general kind there 
may have been in those descendants of Eli, rendering, 
it may be, some fresh manifestation of divine severity 
a matter of righteous retribution, in the particular act 
referred to there was not the shadow of an evil design 
against Saul and his house. It was rather in deference 
to existing authorities than in defiance of them that the 
transaction was accomplished. So arbitrary and unjust 
was the sentence felt to be that the captain of the guard 
even refused to put it in execution, and the work of 
destruction was handed over to Doeg, who carried it 
out with true Edomite malice and revenge. In the 
higher aspect of the matter, also that which concerned 
the violation of a standing order in regard to the con 
sumption of the show-bread the part acted by Ahi 
melech received its justification in the appeal made to 
it by our Lord as a rule and precedent in like circum 
stances for future times, Mat. xii. 3; Mar. ii. 2.~>. The Lord 
always desires mercy rather than sacrifice; and the 
ritual prescription that the shew-brcad should be eaten 
only by the priests, while imperatively binding in ordi 
nary circumstances, was yet properly allowed to give 
way when the urgent wants of David called for imme 
diate relief. So both David and Ahimelech concluded 
at the time, with a true insight into the nature of the 
divine institutions; and the principle which formed the 
ground of this conclusion was distinctly announced by 
our Lord as a fundamental one in the divine adminis 
tration, and one that admitted of various applications. 
Ahimelech therefore stands fully acquitted for the part 
he took in ministering to the necessities of David, al 
though other defections in him and those about him, 
mav justly have rendered them liable to the special 
judgments of Heaven. (For the mention of Abiathar 
instead of Ahimelech, M.-r. ii. 20, see under AIJIATHAK.) 

In two pa-saifes, -jsa. viii. 17; iCh. xxiv. (i, :>,\, Ahimelech, 
son of Abiathar, is mentioned along with Zadok as fill 
ing the higher places of the priesthood in the time of 
David. This must either be a textual mistake for Abi 
athar, the son of Ahimelech, or Abiathar must have 
had a son named Ahimelech after the priest of Nob, 
who, in the latter period of David s reign, came to be 
recognized as the virtual head of the priesthood in that 
line. This is quite possible, though the other supposi 
tion seems rather more probable, since, even at the close 
of David s life, Abiathar appeared still capable of taking 
an active part in public affairs, and continued to bear 
the designation of Abiathar the priest, iKi.i. 7. 

AHIN ADAB [brother of nobility}, one of the twelve 
officers, presidents of so many districts, who had by turns 
for a single month to keep the table of Solomon supplied 
with provisions. Ahinadab s district was Mahanaim, 
on the south-east side of the Jordan, iKi.iv. 14.. 

AHIN OAM [brother of c/racc, or brother s d<.liyht\ 
occurs as the name of a wife of Saul, 1 Sa. xiv. 50; and also 
of a wife of David the mother of Amnon, his first 
born son ; and when the Amalekites took Ziklag she 
was among the spoil, but was again recovered by the 
skill and prowess of David, i Sa. xxv. 43; xxvii. ,3; xxx. 

AHI O [his brother, brotherly], one of the sons of 
Abinadab, who, along with Vzziah, drove the new cart 
on which the ark of the Lord was placed when con 
ducted from Gibeah toward Jerusalem. Ahio went in 
front, probably for the purpose of guiding the oxen, 
and did not share in the calamity which befell his In-o 
ther Uzzah, 2Sa. vi. 1-1. 



AHITH OPHEL [brother of folly, foolish}, a some- there was also a high-priest of this name under Jothan, 
what singular name for one whose sagacity ami piu the son of Amariah, ifh. vi. 11,12. 

deuce raised him to the highest place among the conn- AHO LAH ami AHO LIBAH, two fictitious or sym- 
sellor.5 of David. He comes for the first time into ! bolical names, under which the prophet Ezekiel, in the 
notice in connection with the unnatural revolt of Ab- i 23d chapter of his hook, delineates the story of Israel 
salom: ami it is trivuii as an evidence both of the cun- [ and Judah, with special reference to their defections 
ning policy of Absalom and of the strength of the con- , from the love and service of God, and the heritage of 
spiracy he" had formed, that Ahithophel had been won evil which this drew upon them. AIKH.AH, which means 

her tent her own (that is), as 01 

ie a severe blow to have lost his support. 

supplication, " <) Lord, 1 pray thee, turn the counsel of 

tent with her, and with that the true symbols of wor 
ship, and divinely authorized medium of access to (!od. 
This difference however appears, in the description of 
the prophet, as little more than a theoretical one: it is 
no farther made account of, than as aH ordiii _T a ground 

against all human expectation, it proved not so much, j i Der, am 

liowever, from the failure of politic shrewdness or dis- j to her the pre.cedence in guilt and punishment. C or- 
ceniment 011 the part of Ahithophel. as from the con- ruption reached its maturity sooner in that ]>oriion of 
fusion that was poured into the counsel chamber of those the covenant-people than in the other, and, as a natn- 
\vith whom he was associated. The counsels he gave, first ral coiise pieiice, divine retriiiutiou also sooner ran ;t< 
that Absalom should -o in to his father s concubines, course: but as this had no elfect in deterring the other 

and then that they should instantly pursue and attack 
the army of David, were both entilely suited to th 
emergency: as it was only by bold and unscrupulou 
measures, such as tl 
so wicked a cause wa 

portion from following in the same career of degeneracy, 
so the same disastrous results ensued, only by a slower 
process of development. Accordingly, the symbolical 

1 bv Ahithophel, that delineation ends in respect to both with the exhibition 
-ain even a temporary 

f total disgrace and overwhelming ruin. 

success, r.y the one advice he sou-lit to shut effectu- AHO LIAB [futh<r is tent], the name of a skilful ar- 
allv the dour against all reconciliation with the king, , tificer of the tribe of Dan, who, along with Bc/alecl, 
and bv the other, had it been followed, he would in all was employed in construetiii- some of tin; more ornat 
probability have utterly discomfited the k m_ himself, parts and furniture of the temple. For this, not only 
But (lod liad determined to defeat the counsel of Alii- were his natural and acquired gifts called into reqtiisi- 
thophel; and the strata-em he had planned of pursuing tioii, but he was also furnished with special endowments 
instantly after David was, throu-h the artful policy of from above for the occasion, Kx. xxxi. l-C;xxxv.3t. 
[ I ushai, rejected for a more cautious and dilatory course. AHO LIBA MAH [tnd of the Jilyh-jtlacc], one of 
Ahithophel, mortified at the slight thus put upon him, lean s wives, the dau-hter of Anah the Canaanite. 
and no doubt also anticipatin_- the disastrous result This, however, is only the name given to her in ( Je. 
which was sure to overtake such unskilful leaders, forth- , xxxvi. -2: for, when originally mention.-!, she is called 
with returned to his house and han-ed himself, 2Sa. Judith, the dau-hter of lieeri the Hittite. For ".he 
xvii. 23 a striking example of the insufficiency of mere two names of the father. , ANAII: but. in iv-anl to 
worldly wisdom to -uide itself ari-ht in times of trial the wife, it is remarkable that all the three wives of 
and perplexity, and of tin- folly v. nicli imi-a inevitably, Esau appear with two different names and that, in the 
in the loin: ran, appear in the conduct of everyone case of each, the new names appear in the genealogical 
who has no hi-her principle to follow than carlldy table of eh. xxxvi. Judith has the additional name of 
honour or ambition! When pietv was in the ascend- , Aholibamah, P.ashemath the Hittite of Adah, and Ma- 
ant, Ahithophel s sa-acity led him to fall in with the halath the Ishmaelite of Bashemath. The only way of 
spirit of the times, and he became a chosen counsellor explaining this, and it is a quite natural way of doing 

ance with the native bent of his mind, he threw off the that still very commonly obtains in the East. Of this 
nask, and trusted his sagacity would equally guide him custom Sir J. Chardin remarks -"The women change 

their names more frequently than the men. Women 

to fortune in the cam]) of the ungodly. But he for-ot 
that in this he had to do with One who brings to nought 
the understanding of the prudent, and takes the wise 
in their own craftiness. His wisdom could avail nothing 
against the purposes of Heaven; and of him, as of the 
fool, it might be said, "he died for want of wisdom." 

AHI TUB [In-other of yoodncsn], the son of I hinehas, 
Eli s son, and the father of Ahimelech, 1 Sx xxii >.i, ii; 
the father also of Zadok, -js.i. viii. 17; ich. vi. fi,&e. ; and 

who marry airain, or bind themselves to any fresh en 
gagement, commonly alter their names on such changes." 
It was the more likely, also, that new names won" 

>e mi] 

>osed oil Esau s wive; 

d from 

quarters distasteful to Isaac and Kebekah; and the new 
name might be designed to indicate that, with the 
change of relationship, there should be also a certain 
change in the views and feelings of the parties entering 



into it. But OH the supposition (if the new name 
having boon assumed at marriage, it was natural that 
that name should have been given at the mention of 
the marriage ; while, afterwards, when the genealogy 
of the families was presented, it was not less natural 
that the original name should lie adhered to. This is 
precisely what we iind in the book of Genesis. 

AHUZ ZATH [/< >(, <,</"/(], the friend" or favourite 
of the Ahinielech v, ho reigned at Gera in Isaac s time. 
The Septuagint explains it by i>v/-i.<payuyos [/jr tile s /nan], 
the person who conducts the bride from her father s 
house to her new abode. As employed, Ue. xxvi. 2fi, it is 
probably meant to describe Ahu/./.ath as one of those 
about Abimeleeh in wlmni he reposed confidence, and 
who could negotiate for him in any delicate affair, such 
as that which concerned the differences that had arisen 
between his servants and those of Isaac. (<SVc 1>AAC.) 

A l [niins\. a royal city of the C anaanites, to the 
east of Bethel; sometimes written I LAI. and so written 
more frequently in the original Hebrew than in the 
English Bible. It was a place evidently of great anti 
quity, as mention is made of it at the first appearance 
of Abraham in the land of Canaan, (ie.xii. s ; xiii. ;i. It 
was not, however, a large place, even at the time of 
the invasion of Canaan by the Israelites ; and is spoken 
of as of such limited dimensions and slender defences, 
that two or three thousand men might readily make 
themselves masters of it, J"s.vii.:>. This confidence, in 
deed, proved to be misplaced; yet not from any misap 
prehension as to the magnitude of the place, but from 
the sin which had been committed by the Israelites, 
and which, in righteous judgment, was made the occa 
sion of spreading fear and confusion through their ranks. 
"When the sin was put away, the capture of Ai became 
an easy matter. Though laid in ashes by Joshua, it 
appears to have been afterwards rebuilt, as in subse 
quent times it is mentioned among the cities of ,Judea, 
Is. x. :;; Kzr. ii. :is; No. vii. :;>; but modern research has failed 
to discover any ruins near Bethel bearing a name ap 
proaching to that of Ai. After carefully exploring the 
whole district, llobinson states that he came to the 
conclusion of assigning as the probable site a place with 
some ruins south of Deir Diwun. It is an hour distant 
from Bethel, having a deep wady on the north, and two 
smaller wadies on the south, in which the ambuscade of 
the Israelites might easily have been concealed. 

A IN, or EX, a fountain, and is probably used in 
that sense, Nu. xxxiv. n, of a specific fountain, one of 
those that contributed to form the river Jordan; or if 
of a town, then probably of one situated on such a 
fountain. In Jos. xv. o2, and other places, it does 
occur as the name of a city belonging to the tribe of 
Judah; but most commonly it occurs in composition 
with other words, denoting places which were in some 
way remarkable for the fountains connected with them, 
as Engedi, Enmishpat, Enrogel, &c. It was also the 
Hebrew word for eye. 

A JALON, or AI JALON, [a lanje star/], the name 
of several village*, which, however, were of no note ; 
one in the tribo of Dan, Ju.i.35; another in the tribe of 
Ephraim.; another in the tribe of Zebulun, 
Ju. xii. 12; and still another in the tribe of Benjamin, 
1 ch. viii. 13; but it is chiefly remarkable as the name of 
the valley over which Joshua prayed God to cause the 
moon to stand still, in the day of his victory over the 
combined forces of the Canaanite kings, Jos. x. 12. It 
appears to have been a valley in the neighbourhood 

of that Ajalon which belonged to the tribe of Dan. 
llobinson found in the supposed direction a village 
called Yalo, which he conceived to be the modern re 
presentative of this Ajalon; and on the north of it lav 
a broad and very fertile valley, the same, in all pro 
bability, that was referred to in the address of Joshua. 
Yalo lies on the road from .Ramleh to Jerusalem, 
about midway between them, and two miles or so from 
Amwas, the ancient Jsicopolis. 

AKRAB BIM [.<i;,i-ji!<jitx] gave the name to an nsrcut 
or chain of mountains on the southern border of Pales 
tine, stretching towards the Dead Sea. It is supposed 
to have been so called from being infested by scorpions. 
Its position is not very definitely marked in Scripture, 
Nu. xxxiv. 4; Jus. xv. :(; Ju. i. ;;; and the precise ridge to be 
understood by it is not certainly known. 

ALABASTER [d\d/^ao-r/;os, in the common Greek 
dialect and the New Testament, but in older Greek 
aXd/BaffTos, and in some authors as plural, dXd/3a<jT/mJ 
was originally the name of a nick, the compact and 
fine-grained gypsum fn/pscoiis alaiasttr. Jt differs 
from marble in the calcareous matter being combined, 
not with carbonic, but with sulphuric acid, and in it< 
incapacity for receiving so fine a polish. It approached, 
however, in hardness to the marble; and by the Greeks 
was sometimes called i/in/.v. and by the Latins murmur 
oiii/cJiitifi. It is of a whitish colour; and was chiefiv 
prized by the ancients on account of its adaptation for 
vases, urns, jars, and boxes for holding perfumes and 
ointments. So much was it used for these purposes 
that the term alabaster passed into a common designa 
tion for vases and articles appropriated tu the reception 

[19.] Egyptian Alabaster Vases. British Museum. 

of the costlier perfumes, though they were often made 
of glass, ivory, and other substances, as well as of the 
alabaster rock. The expression even occurs in Theo 
critus of golden alabasters (xpvael a.\d.j3a<7Tpa, Jrfyl. xv. 
114); and specimens of them, of various kinds of stone 
and other materials, have been found in the Egvptian 
tombs. Vessels of this description were commonly 
made of a tapering shape, not mifrequently with a long- 
narrow neck, as may be seen from the above woodcut. 
It will thus be readily perceived how the woman in 
the gospels who came to anoint Jesus with some pre 
cious spikenard, might, in her anxiety to have the work 
done, break some part of the alabaster vase or box, in 
stead of taking time to open it, and get at the contents 
in the more regular way, Mat. xxvi. ~; Mar. xiv. 3. It is 
perhaps not very probable that she would have taken 
such a course if the vessel had really been of alabaster, 
as in that case it would both have been in itself of 




Alexander the Great. 

some value, and would have been less easily broken ; 
but if made of glass, as it most likely was, the method 
she adopted on the occasion would be quite natural. 

ALEX ANDER, THE GREAT, as he has been usually 
styled, is not expressly named in the canonical Scrip 
tures, though he is more than once referred to in con 
nection with the kingdom which he was destined to 
establish in Asia; and in 
the first book of Macca 
bees is explicitly men 
tioned, ch.i. i- 8. IntheSth 
chapter of Daniel s pro 
phecies, the king or king 
dom of Grecia is sym 
bolized bv the he-gout 
which came from the 
West, and which ran 
with violence against the 
ram that symbolized the 
Medo- Persian kingd< >m, 

beat it down, and destroyed it; and a remarkable 
horn, that appeared between the eyes of the he- 
goat is distinctly explained to represent the first 
head or founder of that Grecian kingdom, vcr.21. Jt 
is impossible to understand this of another than 
Alexander; and there are other passages which also 
point, though less explicitlv, in the same direction. 
In particular, the symbol of the leopard, ch. vii. (>, which 
had four wings on its back, ami four heads in front 
the image of the third great worldly dominion, 
beginning witli the Chaldean; and the kingdom of 
brass, represented by the belly and thighs of the vision 
exhibited to Nebuchadnezzar, ch. ii. 32, 39, found their real 
ization in the kingdom which had its foundations laid, 
a/id its character formed, by the military prowess and 
European policy of Alexander. On this account alone 
a certain acquaintance with the life and exploits of this 
singular man are iieces.-urv to the proper understanding 
of Scripture. J5ut this is still further important and 
necessary, on account of the influence which the con 
quests of Alexander exercised over the future affairs of 
the divine kingdom; for the institutions and govern 
ment planted by him in Asia, introduced a powerful 
European element into the simplv eastern relations, 
amid which hitherto the covenant-people hail been 
placed, and in their experience linked the Asiatic to 
the Grecian modes of thought and expression. It turned 
henceforth the main current of Jewish enterprise and 
colonization chiefly in a westerly direction; and even 
brought them at length so much into contact with a 
( irecian population and Grecian culture, that Greek came 
as naturally to be the original language of New Testa 
ment scripture, as He-brew had been that of the Old. 

The person who was the primary agent in effecting 
this revolution was the son of Philip of Maeedon, and 
was born in the year 3 .If 5 B.C. His father had already 
made himself master of all Greece, and had also bcirmi 
to cast his eyes upon the vast dominion of Persia in the 
East, when the hand of death cut short his ambitions 
projects. Alexander, however, who inherited the fa 
ther s ambition, and possessed more than the father s 
military skill and accomplishments, combined with sur 
passing energy of character, promptly took up the pro 
ject of avenging on Persia the ancient wrongs of Greece, 
and got himself created by the Grecian states general 
of the forces which were destined to that mission. Pro 
ceeding thus at the head of a large and well-disciplined , 

army, and furnished with all needful appliances, his 
inarch through Asia seemed indeed to be with the spring 
and velocity of a leopard; the luxurious and debilitated 
monarchy of Persia fell as a helpless prey into his hands, 
and the whole of the East and Egypt became in a com 
paratively brief period subject to his sway. From his 
fiery temper, however, and his irregular habits, lie was 
better fitted for achieving conquests than establishing 
a compact and enduring dominion; and dying, as he 
did, after a reign of little more than twelve years 
dying, too, in the midst of revels and debauchery he 
left behind him an empire in Asia the elements of which 
necessarily hung somewhat loosely together, P>ut withal 
they took root ; and the supreme power in the Syrian 
part of the empire being continued for generations in 
the hands of men who were ambitious of treading as 
far as possible in the footsteps of Alexander, the new 
channels of civilization and commerce which he opened 
were preserved and deepened; so that, when at length 
the dominion passed o\er to the Romans, the Grecian 
culture and impress had been too deeply stamped upon 
the region to lie greatly affected by the change: and, 
while the persons who administered the LTO\ eminent 
were Roman, the administration itself, the language, 
the literature, the manners retained much of their 
Grecian character. 

The leading object of the policy of Alexander and 
his successors in Asia wa-; to secure the political and 
social ascendency of Greece. This required the strong 
arm of war in the first instance; but the penetrating 
mind of the conqueror readily perceived that more than 
this was needed to accomplish the end in view, and 
that the footing primarily gained by the s\vord must be 
kept and consolidated by more permanent and vital 
influences. Accordingly, every encouragement was 
from the first given to the settlement of Greeks in Asia, 
and to the adoption of Greek culture and manners by 
Asiatics. Alexander himself married first one eastern 
princess (Roxana), then another (Parysati.-o, and eighty 
of his generals and 1(1,000 of his troops followed the 
example of their leader by marrying Asiatic wives, and 
received presents for doing so. On the other side, large 
numbers of Asiatics were enrolled among his troops, 
and initiated into the Macedonian tactics and discipline. 
Greek cities were founded partly by him, but in still 
greater number by his successors, which, as from so 
many centres, diffused throughout the East the lan 
guage and customs of Greece. By the overthrow, also, 
of Tyre on the one hand, and the establishment on the 
other of Alexandria, with its facilities of communication 
with the East by the wav of the Red Sea, a new direc 
tion was given to the commerce of the world. This 
now was laid open in a manner it had never been before 
to ( Jreek and also to Jewish enterprise. P.oth at Alex 
andria and in other Greek settlements the Jews had 
equal rights and privileges granted them with the 
Greeks, being permitted to live in the free enjoyment 
of their religious customs, and to use without restraint 
the advantages for trade and commerce which their 
position afforded. The account given by Josephus 
(Ant. xi. 8) of the reception which Alexander met with 
at Jerusalem by the high-priest, and the interview held 
between them, is probably in great part fabulous; but 
the indulgence there spoken of as having been accorded 
to the Jews, and the rapid increase and prosperity 
ascribed to them afterwards in connection with Gre 
cian rule and institutions, admits of no doubt. How- 


ever little, therefore, it mi^ht (alter into the projects of 
Alexander and those who were chiefly instrumental in 
perpetuating and extending his policy in the East, a 
very important influence was thereby exerted on the 
external relations of the covenant -people; and when 
the tilings of thi; old economy came to be supplanted by 
those of the gospel dispensation, changes of place and 
position, of language and modes of thought, press upon 
our notice, which ever remind us of the conquests of 
Alexander the Great, and of the revolution effected 
through his p. licy over that part of the world where 
the ancient people of God were chiefly located. Then 
more especially, and through this instrumentality, it 
was that Japhet came to dwell in the tents of Shem, 
and began to exercise that mediate and directive sway 
over the affair; of the divine kingdom which is one of 
the great characteristics of later, as compared with 
earlier times, Gu.ix. 27. 

ALEX ANDER (P.ALAs^, a pretended natural son 
of Aiitiochus Epiphanes, but of doubtful parentage, 
who makes a considerable figure in the history of the 
Maccabees, and in Josephus. In opposition to Deme 
trius Soter, he laid claim to the kingdom of Syria, and 
obtained a temporary success ; but he was ultimately 
defeated by Nieator, and fled into Arabia, where he 
was murdered by the emir Zabdiel, who sent his head 
as an acceptable present to the king of Egypt. He 
only reigned four years over Syria, and was altogether 
selfish in his views, and voluptuous in his character (see 
1 Mac. x. xi., and Josephus, xiii. 2). 

ALEX ANDER (.LvN.VKrsi, a personage distin 
guished in apocryphal history, a prince of the J\lac- 
cabeaii family. (See MACCABEES.) 

ALEX ANDER, the name of four persons in gospel 
history: 1. The son of Simon the Cyrenian, who was 
compelled to bear, for a portion of the way, the cross of 
Jesus, Mir. xv. 21. That the father should thus have 
been designated from the son renders it probable that 
the son had become a person of note among the dis 

2. ALEXANDER. A leading Jew, apparently of the 
kindred of the high-priest, and of the sect of the Sad- 
ducees, who took an active part in endeavouring to 
silence the apostles, when they preached Christ and the 
resurrection, Ac. iv. o. 

3. ALEXANDER. A Jew at Ephesus, for whom the 
Jewish party there were anxious to secure a hearing 
in the midst of the commotion which took place on ac 
count of the success of Paul s preaching, that he might 
offer certain explanations in their behalf, Ac. xix. 3:5. As 
the effort, was unsuccessful, it is impossible to say what 
line of defence Alexander would have taken up, or to 
what precise party he belonged. 

4. ALEXANDER. A coppersmith, who had professed 
to embrace Christianity, but who afterwards, along 
with Hymeneus, fell into grievous errors, and acted the 
part of an enemy of the gospel, iTi. i. ai; i-Ti. iv. 11. It 
is probable that this person had his settled residence in 
Ephesus, as it is only in the epistles to Timothy, who 
had been sent to labour for a time there, that he is 
expressly mentioned by Paul; though the allusion in 
the second epistle seems most naturally to imply that 
the apostle had met him also in Rome. The false 
opinions he had adopted are not particularly described ; 
but, from being coupled with Hymeneus, who, in one 
of the passages referred to, is represented as denying 
the doctrine of the resurrection, and saying that it was 


past already, 2Ti. ii. is, the probability is, that both 
Alexander and Hymeneus were tinged with that Gnostic 

spirit which sought continually to impair the realities 
of gospel truth, and to sublimate them into certain 
lofty but vain speculations. They would hold, it is 
likely, that the resurrection of the believer was his 
being raised by the knowledge of the truth into a 
higher sphere; and this would probably be coupled 
with the usual Gnostic licentiousness, of holding all 
such privileged to follow freely the promptings of their 
own spirit, wherever that might lead them. In such a 
case, we can easily understand how Paul should have 
wo earnestly warned Timothy to be on his guard against 
persons of so subtle, sophistical, and dangerous a spirit. 
ALEXAN DRIA, a celebrated city and seaport of 
Egypt, situated on the Mediterranean, about 12 miles 
west from the Canopic mouth of the Nile. It was 
founded, B.C. 332, by Alexander the Great, upon the 
site of the small village of Rhacotis (Strabo, xvii. c. i. ii), 
and opposite to the little island of Pharos, which, even 
before the time of Homer, had given shelter to the 
< .reek traders on the coast. Alexander selected this 
spot for the Greek colony which he proposed to found, 
from the great natural advantages which it presented, 
and from the capability of forming the dee]) water 
between Rhacotis and the isle of Pharos into a harbour 
that might become the port of all Egypt, lie accord 
ingly ordered Dinocrates, the architect who rebuilt the 
temple of Diana at Ephesus, to improve the harbour, 
and to lay down the plan of the new city; and ho 
further appointed Cleomenes of Naucratis, in Egypt, to 
act as superintendent. The lighthouse upon the isle of 
Pharos was to be named after his friend, lleplnestion, 
and all contracts between merchants in the port were 
to commence "In the name of Hepluestion." The 
great market which had hitherto existed at ( anopus 
was speedily removed to the new city, which thus at 
once rose to commercial importance. After the death 
of Alexander, the building of the city was carried on 
briskly by his successor, Ptolemy Lagus, or Soter, but 
many of the public works were not completed till the 
reign of Ptolemy Philadelphia. The city was built 
upon a strip of land between the sea and the Lake 
Mareotis, and its ground plan resembled the form of a 
Greek chlamys, or s< >ldier s cloak. The two main streets. 
240 feet wide, left a free passage for the north wind, 
which alone conveys coolness in Egypt. They crossed 
each other at right angles in the middle of the city, 
which was three miles long and seven broad, and the 
whole of the streets were wide enouu li for carriages. 
The long narrow island of Pharos was formed into a 
sort of breakwater to the port, by joining the middle 
of the island to the mainland by means of a mole, seven 
stadia in length, and hence called the Heptastadium. 
To let the water pass, there were two breaks in the 
mole, over which bridges were thrown. The public 
grounds and palaces occupied nearly a third of the whole 
extent of the city. The Royal Docks, the Exchange, 
the Posideion, or Temple of Neptune, and many other 
public buildings, fronted the harbour. There also stood 
the burial place for the Greek kings of Egypt, called 
"the Soma/ because it held " the body," as that of 
Alexander was called. On the western side of the 
Heptastadium, and on the outside of the city, were 
other docks, and a ship-canal into Lake Mareotis, as 
likewise the Necropolis, or public burial place of the 
city, There were also a theatre, an amphitheatre, a 



gymnasium, with a large portico, more than 600 feet 
long, and supported by several rows of marble columns ; 
a stadium, in which games were celebrated every fifth 
year; a hall of justice; public groves or gardens; a 
hippodrome for chariot races; and towering above all 
was the temple of Serapis, the Serapeum. The most 
famous of all the public buildings planned by Ptolemy 
Soter were the library and museum, or College of Phil- 

osophy. Tliey were Imilt near the royal palace, in that 
part of the city called ISruchion, and contained a great 
hall, used as a lecture-room and common dining-room ; 
and had a covered walk all round the outside, and a 
seat on which the philosophers sometimes sat in the 
open air. Within the verge of the Serapenm was a 
supplementary library, called the daughter of the former. 
The professors of the college were supported out of the 




/// O |!Arsmprt:m ,*$$*^TS*Sr o Sfmmv ^L^J^rj U ^ 

V7 f V~y L_J I.Mn-;pmii ^ - ^- t; 

p .iblie income. The library, which was open equally to 
all, soon became the largest in the world, being aug 
mented in succeeding reigns until it contained 7< | IMHHI 
volumes, including 2(111/101) volumes of the library of 
Pergamos, which .Mark Antonv had given to Cleopatra 
in reparation of the loss by the i n\- diiring the war 
between Julius Ca-sar and the inhabitants of the city. 
Alexandria became so illustrious for its schools, that the 
most celebrated philosophers, and men eminent in all 
brandies of science, resorted thither for instruction. 
The astronomical school, founded by Ptolemy Phila- 
delphus, maintained its reputation till the time of the 

The lighthouse at Alexandria was not finished till 
the reign of Ptolemy Philadelphia, B.C. 2S4 2H>. It 
was Imilt by the architect Sostratus. The royal burial 
place was ;dso finished in this reign, and Philadelphia 
removed the body of Alexander from Memphis to this 
city, which the conqueror himself ha 1 planned, and 
hither pilgrims came and bowed before the golden sar 
cophagus in which the hero s body was placed. Seleu- 
o;is Cybia-actes, li.c. 54, is said to have stolen the 
golden coffin of Alexander. The Ptolemies reigned 
over Alexandria 2! 2 years, and on the death of Cleo 
patra, B.C. !50, the eitv came under the rule of the Ro 
mans, who rendered it a most extensive market for 
grain. The emperor Claudius, A.I). 41-55, founded 
the Claudian Museum; and Antoninus, A.IX 1<>2-218, 
built the Gates of the Sun and of the Moon, and like- 

wi<e male a hippodrome*. At the great rebellion of 
K^ypt, A.D. 2 .7, Alexandria was besieged by Diocle 
tian, when, in commemoration of his humanity in stav 
ing the pillage of the city, the inhabitants erected an 
equestrian statue, now lost, but which there is little 
doubt surmounted the lofty column known by the name 
of Pompey s Pillar, the base of which still bears the in 
scription, "To the most honoured emperor, the saviour 
of Alexandria, the unconquerable- Diocletian." 

Alexandria was the, seat of many terrible massacres, 
the most severe of which those under Ptolemy Euer- 
getesll. or Physeon, B.C. 145, and under Caracalla, 
A.D. 21 1 - so entirely depopulated the city, as to render 
it necessary to invite strangers from various countries 
to re-people it, and thus to restore its former splendour. 

Although Alexandria is not mentioned in the ( >ld Tes 
tament, and only incidentally in the New. Ac. ii. if); vi.O; 
\viii.2i; xvvii.C), it is most important in connection with 
the history of the Jews, and from the foundation of an 
independent sect of the Jewish religion. The Jews, 
being highly valued as citizens, were encouraged to 
Kettle in the new colony, and a large part of the city 
was, allotted to them. Of the three classes into which 
the population was divided namely, the Macedonians, 
the mercenaries, and the native Egyptians the Jews 
were admitted into the first class (Hecataeus in Josephus, 
c-mt. A p. ii. 4), having equal rights with the Greek 
inhabitants, while they were governed under their own 
c ide of laws by their own governor, termed alabarclM 


An<, . C.T snr erected for them a pillar of brass, declar 
ing their privileges as citizens (Josephus, Ant. xiv. 
e. viii.) Amongst their numerous privileges was that of 
the custody of the river Xile I.Iosephus, nmt. A p. ii. M. 
Thev had ma.iv line .-ivna^ o^iies in the citv, and like 
wise one at Jerusalem, together with an academy for 
the instruction of their youth in the law and in the 
Hebrew language. The Jews of this synagogue were 
among the most violent opponents of Stephen, Ac. vi.d. 

Jn the reign of Tiberius, A.D. "Hi, the Jews in Alex 
andria numbered about one-third of the population, as 
they formed the majority in two wards out of the five 
into which the city was divided, and which two were 
called the Jews wards. Notwithstanding many per 
secutions and massacres, they continued to form a large 
proportion of the population, and retained their civil 
rights till A.. 41.1, when 40,000 of them were expelled 
at the instigation of Cyril, the Christian patriarch ; but 
they recovered their strength, and appear to have lie- 
come very numerous at the time of the Saracen con 

In the list of Alexandrian authors is Jesus, the son 
of Siraeh, who translated into ("{reek the book of Wis 
dom, or Ecclesiasticus, B.C. 1:5:2. A hundred and fifty 
years later, the Alexandrian Jews had taken such a 
high literary position, that even the Greeks acknow 
ledged them as the first writers of the Alexandrian 
school. Philo, the historian of their sufferings under 
Fla vus (Philo, M. Place, de Lc</.), occupies the highest 
rank amongst the scholars of the Jews, and his writings 
raised the school of Alexandria to a place equal to that 
it had attained under the first two Ptolemies. In the 
history of philosophy and religion, the writings of Philo 
must always command the student s most careful atten 
tion. It was at Alexandria that the Greek version of 
the Old Testament, called the Septuagint, because sup 
posed to have been translated by seventy or seventv-two 
learned men, was made at the instance of Ptolemy 
Philadelphus, according to the authority of Aristeas, 
and after him Josephus (cont. Ap. ii.) This historv, 
however, is now considered doubtful, but there are 
good grounds for believing that this early translation 
had a place in the famous library. 

Alexandria is reported to have enjoyed the ministry 
of the evangelist Mark, A.D. 59-60, who is also said to 
have suffered martyrdom there, and to have been suc 
ceeded by Anianus. Apollos was born at Alexandria, 
Ac. xvUi. -21. We have an instance of the attention paid 
by the Christian school at Alexandria to copying the 
books of Holy Writ, in the very ancient MS. now 
extant in the British Museum, called the Alexandrine 
IMS., bearing to be written by Thecla, a lady who lived 
early in the fifth century. The Christians of the present 
day reverence the churches dedicated to St. Catharine 
and St. Mark. The last is celebrated for the tomb of 
the evangelist, whose body is said to have been carried 
away by the Venetians. The Copts are the possessors 
of this church, and they say that a picture which it 
contains, representing the archangel Michael with a 
sword in his hand, was painted by St. Luke. 

A.D. CIS, the Persians entered Alexandria, and soon 
held all the Delta. A.D. 04u, 22d December, after a 
siege of fourteen months, the city fell into the hands of 
the Arabs. Amron-ibn-al-Aad, the conqueror, wrote 
to the caliph, Omar III., that he had taken a city in 
which he found 40uO palaces, 4()00 public baths, 400 
theatres, 12,000 sellers of herbs, and 40,000 Jews pay- 


ing tribute. Such was the store of wheat that he sent 
on camels backs to Medina, that the Arabian historian 
declares, "that the first of an unbroken line of camels 
entered the holy city before the last camel had left 
Egypt." When Alexandria was taken, Amrou set his 
seal upon the public library and the other public pro 
perty of the city. John 1 hiloponus begged that the 
hooks might be spared ; but, on applying to the caliph, 
Omar ordered the whole to be burned. Amrou obeyed, 
and sent the books to the public baths of the citv, 
which were heated by them for the space of six months, 
A.D. 642. Alexandria remained under the government 
of the caliphs till A.n. !24, when it was taken by the 
Mogrebeens, or Western Arabs ; after which it suffered 
many changes and revolutions, so serious to its pro 
sperity, that in one year, 1)28 (according to Eutyrhu.-i, 
above 200,000 of the inhabitants perished. 

Napoleon Bonaparte took Alexandria in 1 79*, and it 
remained in the possession of the French till thev sur 
rendered to the British, September 2, 1801, when they 
were finally expelled from the country. Amon^ the 
trophies taken was a sarcophagus (now in the Briti>h 
Museum), bearing the name of Amyrta-us, and sup 
posed to have subsequently contained the body of Alex 
ander the Great. 

.Mohammed Ali dug a canal, called El Mahmoudieh, 
in compliment to Mahmoud, the father of the present 
sultan Abd-el-Mejid, which opened a water commu 
nication with the Nile, entering that river at a place 
called Fouah, a few miles distant from the citv. All 
about the city, but particularly to the south and east, 
are extensive mounds, and fragments of ancient luxurv 
and magnificence, granite columns, marble statues, and 
broken pottery. Among this last are frequently found 
the handles of amphorre, stamped with a device signifi 
cative of the place, and with the name of the archon who 
was governor at the time the amphone left the shores 
of Greece. It would appear, from the great number of 
these handles that have been picked up, that the Alex 
andrians carried on an extensive trade in the various 
wines produced on the volcanic soil of the Greek island- . 
Houses are now being built by foreign merchants at 
some distance from the thickly inhabited part of the 
city, especially along the banks of the canal, and there 
is a constant digging among the ruins of the ancient 
city for building materials, many a piece of Grecian art 
being broken up to make lime. It was from one of 
these excavations that the colossal foot presented to 
the British Museum by Mr. Harris, was saved from 
the lime-kiln. This foot probably belonged to the statue 
of Jupiter Serapis, from the temple already mentioned. 
In 1 854, in preparing foundations for a new building, the 
workmen turned up some massive remains, supposed 
to be those of the celebrated museum and library. 
Mr. Francis Power Cobbe gives, in the Atlicnrruiii, 
April 3, 1858, an account of the discovery of a kind 
of sepulchral Greek chapel, excavated in the rocky 
elevation on which Pompey s Pillar stands. It is a 
very irregular cross. In the north transept there is 
an apse or niche, with small Ionic pilasters at the sides. 
The chamber opposite this is about twenty feet loner 
and eight feet wide ; and on each side, and at the end, 
is a double row of deep holes, thirty-six in number, 
in the walls, for the insertion of the coffins or mummy 
cases something between a Roman columbarium and 
a modern English vault. The chancel contains some 
frescoes and Greek inscriptions much effaced, but on 



the apse is still visible a picture of the miracle of the ( tained at least 000,000 inhabitants when in its 

loaves and fishes. On the walls of the chancel arch 
are two life-size figures, one bavins, wings, the oth 

being Christ restins. 

The attitudes and 

Modern Alexandria contains about 40,000 inhabitants 
( Hogg s 17s/; to A hxandriu ) the J ews numbering only 
500 (St. John s Eyypt and Moltamnnd A li. ii.); but it is 
again fast rising into importance as a seat of commerce 
and the grand road to the East. The modern city of 
Under the immediate successors of Alexander, the ] Alexandria is surrounded by a high wall, built by" the 
free population of Alexandria numbered,iino ; and, | Saracens between A.D. 1200-1300. Some parts of the 
including slaves, it has been calculated to have con- i walls of the old city still exist,, and the ancient vaulted 

draperies are simple, resembling the inferior Pompeian 


reservoirs, extending under the whole town, are almost 
entire. The ancient necropolis is excavated out of the 
solid rock. The excavation is described bv I )e Tott as 
200 feet long by 4o feet wide. Jt has several opening s 
at the sides, forming subterranean streets, containing 
horiy.oiital niclies, -_"l indies square bv i feet deep, nar- 
rowed at the bottom, and separated from each other bv 
partitions in the rock 7 or s indies thick, for the re 
ception of the mummies. The situ of tliat part known 
to have been Uhacotis is now coscred bv the sea; but 
beneath the surface of the water are visible the remains 

of ancient Iv_ryptian statues and columns. 

[Arrhin, 111,, iii.-vii.; Aiiiini inns ManvUinus, 111,. \xii.; Hi..]. 
Sic.; Strain), lib. xvii.; Quint. Curt.; Justin; I HMS.III.; Jose- 
I lms, Ant.; Kusrli. I . ,;- . //;.-/. ii. li! ; Alnil I haiT, DVII, ix.; Ali- 
ilallatif. cup. ix.; .J. .M;tla!:i ; (iildi.n, caps. In, _ -, ,,| : Wilkin 
sun s 77,, /,.,-,- Sharpe- s ///.-/ ,//; fy,/,,/ \ |.i i, j 



ALLEGORY occurs only once in all Scripture, and 
in that one place owes its existence to a scarcelv accu 
rate translation. The pa-^au e is ( la. iv. 21, where, with 
reference to the story of Ha-ar and Ishmael. Sarah and 
Isaac, as an embodiment of spiritual truth, tin- apostle 
says, "which tilings are to be alleu ori/ed " ( arivd ixnv 
d\\r)yopoviu.fva), or tran.-fern-d to aiiotlier and higher 
line of things not precisely, as in the authorized ver 
sion. " are an allegory." For an allegory, in the strict 
and proper sense, is a narrative either expressly feigned 
for the purpose, or. if describing facts which really took 
place, describing them only for the purpose- of repre 
senting other things than the narrative, in its imme 
diate aspect, brings into view; so that the narrative is 
either fictitious, or treated as if it were so. the second 
ary or moral import being alone regarded. St. Paul, 
however, as Bishop Marsh justly remarks (Lecture v. 
on the Interpretation of the IllfJc], "did not pronounce 
the history itself an allegory; he declared only that it 
was allegorized. It is one thing to say that a history 
is allegorized, it is another thing to say that it is alle 
gory itself. If we only allegorize a historical narra 
tive, we do not of necessity convert it into allegory. 
And though allegorical interpretation, when applied to 
history, may be applied either so as to preserve or so 
as to destroy its historical verity, yet, when we use the 
verb allegorize as St. Paul has used" if, the allegorical in- 

Voi.. i. 

terpretation is manifestly of the former kind. In short 
when St. Paul allegorized the history of the two sons of 
Abraham, and compared them with the two covenants, 
he did nothing more than represent the !ir.--t as tvpes, 
the latter as antitypes." Hisnbject was >imp]y to state 
that tile portion of Old Te-tanieia hist. .rv referred to 
was of the nature of a revelation concerning the great 
things of salvation, and to indicate u hat, were the truths 

which. wht .n spiritually under-l I, it \vas intended to 

convey; namely, that tin: real seed of < !od in everv a^e 
is, like Isaac, begotten by the special agency of God, 
and as such, is free to serve and honour him; while 
those who, like Ishmael. are born merely after the flesh, 
who have in them nothing more or higher than nature 
has conferred, are in bondage to corruption, and can 
be no more than nominally children of God. 

Neither in this passage, nor in any other part of New 
Testament scripture, is a \\arrantgiveii for that alle 
gorical mode of interpreting the historical portions of 
the Old Testament which prevailed in earlv times, and 
readied its climax in the writings and school of Origcn. 
I v that mode the script lira! narratives were held some 
times to IM,- unreal accounts as regards the letter; but 
more commonly they were treated pr.-ei>elv as if they 
were such, being accoimno. la ed to things, not simply 
involving higher exemplifications of dhine truth and 
principle, but totally different in kind, consequently 
arbitrary and capricious in the particular use made of 
them. The actual source of such interpretations lav, 
Hot in Scripture itself, but in the allegori/.inu s of Philo 
and tlie later Platonists generally. The only allegories 
to be found in Scripture are its parabolical representa 
tions, such as, in the Old Testament, Canticles, Psalm.; 
xlv. l\xx., Isa. v. 1-7, and in the New, tile parables 
of our Lord. In these there is an immediate or osten 
sible representation of certain circumstances and trans 
actions, simply for the purpose of giving an exhibition 
of another, though corresponding class of things, in a 
different and higher sphere ; and but for the sake of the 
one the other would not have been introduced. (Sec 

ALLELUIA, or II.m.Ki.riA, a Hebrew word, sig 
nifying Praise yi> the Lord. It was a common form of 
adoration and thanksgiving in the Jewish worship, as 
a] (pears from its frequent employment at the beginning 





and the close of Psalms, iv cvi. cxi. cxiii. cxvii. 

from the earthly it is transferred l>y St. .John to tlie 

heavenly temple, Re. xix. i,:i, 1,0. 

ALLIANCES. Under this term mav 

xxxv.; and i pertain to the family the law was perfectly explicit: 

hended the relations, whether of a political or a social 
nature, which the people of (iod were, or were not, per 
mitted to form with strangers national alliances, and 
alliance s l>y marriage. In regard to the former, nothing 
\ ery definite was laid down in the legislation of Moses, 
except a< regards the original inhabitants of the land 
of Canaan. M ith them the Israelites were enjoined to 
make no league, pulilic or private, but to carry into 

Israel, the covenant-people of Jehovah, could lawfully 
enter into no marriage- covenant with the daughter of n 
strange god ; for this was to poison the life of the cove 
nant-people at its very fountain-head. The whole char 
acter and aim of the covenant protested against alliances 
of such a description, and they were both expressly for 
bidden in the law, Ho. \i 
as violations of the fun< 

Iiant, Kzra i\. x.; Ni l . xiii.; 

open to members of the covenant to marry wives from 
other nations, on the understanding that the persons i 

effect the decree of Heaven, which doomed them for wedded renounced the gods and corrupt manners of 
their enormous sins to utter destruction, Do. vii 2 ; Ju. ii. 2. [their country, and embraced instead those of Israel. 

What was said respecting the surrounding nations bore 
upon the religion and manners prevalent among them, 
rather than upon the people themselves: Israel was not to 
copy after their idolatrous and sinful practices, but still 
was, if possible, to cultivate peaceful and friendly rela 
tions with them. This possibility, and the prospect of 
it in a way honourable to Israel, was even 
held out as a promise by the lawgiver, dependent on the 
fidelity of the people to their covenant-engagements. 
In that case, (lod should give them favour among the 
nations, should even put the fear of them upon the 
nations, and should enable them to lend to these as 
haying more than they themselves might need, and 
standing in such relations to others that the latter 
shoulel be disposeel to receive help at their lianels, Uo. ii. 
L . I; xv. (!; Go. xxvii. > .}. So that, if it wa.s a part of Israel s 
calling to dwell in some sense alone, anel not to be 
numbered with the nations, they were not the less ex 
pected and bound to cultivate friendly relations with 
those around them, and to seek their good. No other 
wise, indeed, could they fulfil their mission as destined 
to give light and blessing to the world. Accordingly, 
when the commonwealth of Israel was fully established 
in Canaan, and it was numbered in the community of 

Of this various examples occurred, and some are ex 
pressly noticed in particular, Ilahab, Kuth, Zipporah. 

AL LON-BACH UTH [oak <,fwccpin<j], a place near 
Bethel where Deborah, Ucbekah s nurse, was buried. 
Go. xxxv. s. The place is remarkable for nothing else, 
and never occurs ai, r ain. 

ALMOND. The almond (.\mi/<j<llH* 
belongs to a botanical family, Amygdalea-, the mem 
bers of which are widely diffused, and most of them 
very popular. They are all shrubs, or at the utmost 
trees of unambitious stature, such as the sloe, the: 
plum, the cherry, the peach, the cherry-laurel. The 
fruit of this family consists of a two-lobed kernel, in 
closed in a shell, which again is surrounded by a drupe 
or juicy covering. In some members of the family this 
pulpy covering, when ripe, is remarkably rich and suc 
culent, as in the case of the peach and nectarine, and 
the more liquiel an el acidulous cherry ; but the drupe of 
the almond is dry and coriaceous, and the kernel alone 
is valued. In England, in favourable summers, the 
almond matures its fruit; but we are chiefly familiar 
with it as a kernel, or as a nut divested of its soft 
outward coating. All amygdaleous plants contain in 
their blossoms, leaves, and fruit, a perceptible trace of 

nations, formal alliances sprung up between it and | a peculiar principle, with the aromatic gust of which 
others, which were not denounced as in themselves every one is familiar, but -which usually occurs asso- 

wrong : if they erred, it was only in respect to the ex 
tent to which they were carried, or the consequences 
which they were suffered to entail. The alliance be 
tween Salomon anel Tyre, establisheel and continued for 
perfectly proper and even sacred ends, bears through 
out the aspect of a legitimate character, i Ki. v. 2-12; ix. 27; 
and in later times, it is charged as a special ground e>f 
judgment against Tyre, that she had not remembered 
the brotherly covenant, Am. i. 7. The other alliances of 
Solomon, those with Pharaoh of Egypt and several 
states in the neighbourhood of Palestine, are represented 
in a less favourable light, simply because he allowed 
them to entangle him in a sinful compliance with their 
idolatrous practices and licentious system of concubin 
age. And such undoubtedly was the general tendeney 
of the political alliances of the Israelitish people in 
later times : they leel to too close an imitation of heathen 
manners, and ultimately to too great dependence upon 
heathen counsel anel support, and so became among the 
more immediate causes that led to the degradation and 
overthrow of the kingdoms both of Israel anel Judah. 
The prophets are consequently full e>f reproofs and warn 
ings on the subject, ami some of their more striking and 
pungent delineations, such as Eze. xvi. xxiii., Ho. v., 
turn especially on the improper character anel disastrous 
results of those heathen alliances. 

In respect to the other form of alliances those which 

laboratory, and under the 
infmitesimally diffused as 

ciateel with one of our deadliest poisons. This prussic 
aciel, however, in nature s 
hand of the Creator, is so 
seldom to exert a noxious influence. The cook or con 
fectioner puts a fragment of cherry-laurel leaf into his 
elainty dish, and gives it that agreeable sou)i<;on so dear 
to epicures; and the manufacturer of liqueurs digests 
in alcohol the kernels of the poach, the nectarine, or 
cherry, and produces the costly noyau, ratafia, and 

The almond is diffused 

culture f r< > 

Spain, and is found to bear fruit well on 

i China to 
ith sides of 

the Mediterranean; but there is no region where it 
thrives better than Syria, or where it is so truly at 
home. Accordingly, when Jacob was sending a j ire- 
sent of those productions of Canaan which were likely 
to be acceptable to an Egyptian grandee, "the best 
fruits of the land, besides balm, and myrrh, and 
honey, he bade his sons take " nuts and almonds," 
Go. xliii. 11 ; and the original name of that place so en 
deareel to bis memory as Bethel, originally called Luz, 
was probably derived from some well-known tree of 
this species; for there can be little eloubt that luz, 
amongst the Hebrews, as amongst the modern Arabs 
(who call it louz), was one of the names for the almond- 
tree, Ge. xxviii. in. If so, they were rods not of " hazel" 
(as the authorized version renders), but of " almoiieV 


luz, which Jacob employed in his singular experiment on 
the flocks of his father- in- law at Padan-aram, Go. xxx. 37. 
To this day "Jordan almonds" is the recognized mar 
ket-name for the best samples of this fruit, in common 
with Tafilat dates, Eleme figs, &c. The name, how 
ever, is little more than a tradition. The best "Jordan 
almonds come from Malaga. 

/ ^" 

fl x t^^r^" 

With its oblong oval, sharpened at one end and 
rounded at the other, the shape of the .almond-nut is 
remarkably graceful, and it was the pattern selected 
for the bowls of the golden candlestick, Kx. xxv. 31-37 ; 
xx\vii. i~; unless, indeed, we suppose that tlie entire 
fruit was re]. resented in its ripe .and opening state, 
displaying the pointed nut within, which would be a 
peculiarly elegant design for the cup of an oil cande 
labrum : the round sarcocarp containing the oil, and 
the flame-shaped nut of LTold emitting the liu ht from 
its apex. Amongst o;ir designers the almond still does 
good service; although in I .ritish ornamentation it, 
yields to the national .-vmhol the oak, with its beauti 
ful acorn and cup. Hut it is worthy of notice that 
pieces of crystal, called " almonds," are still used l.v tli" 
manufacturer in the adorning of cut-glass chandeliers. 

The rod of Aaron \\hich miraculously budded and 
bore fruit in a single ni _dit, yielded " almonds, Nu. xvii s 

As we have mentioned, it is extremely probable 
that lu; was one of the Hebrew names for the almond ; 
but in the Old Testament it is usually called shakal 
(T5li ; ), "the waker, from its being the earliest tree that 

awakes from the winter s sleep. Hence it is employed 
as an expressive emblem in the outset of .Jeremiah s 
prophecies: "The word of the Lord came unto me, 
saying, Jeremiah, what seest thou? And I said, I see 
a r.>d of an almond tree. Then the Lord said to me, 
Thou has rightly seen : for 1 will be carli/ awake with 
respect to my word to perform it, Je. i. 11, 12-Dr. K. 
Henderson s translation. In Syria, the almond blossoms 
in February (Schubert s 7iVtV. in <la* Moi-t/cnhiiid} ; 
and in the squares and parks of London, as early as 
March or April, its welcome harbinger anticipates the 


boldest of our native foresters, and brings to the frost- 
bound citizens good tidings of the spring. 

But not only is it Flora s precursor among the trees; 
its blossoms expand weeks before its leaves. This pro 
pensity to display its blossoms on bare branches the 
almond shares with several of its kindred : and, as a 
parallel to Solomon s image, we may refer to its cousin- 
german the sloe, in our own cold dime so familiar, with 
its snowy petals sprinkled on the black and dead-look 
ing boughs. To this it has usually been supposed that 
the royal preacher alludes in his description of old au e, 
"when the almond tree shall flourish," EC. xii. -i, the 
blossoms on the leafless branches denoting the beauti 
ful crown which surmounts the unverdant trunk of ad 
vancing years. To this it has of late been objected 
that the blossom "is not white but pink, or rather 
partly pink and partly white." (I .onar s Dem rt of 
Sinai, p. 354 ; Balfour s / hints of the JU/>/<: ) As far 
as concerns the colour of the blossom, the criticism is 
entirely just, and the compilers, who have followed 
one another in speaking of the "snowy" or "silvery" 
almond flower, are altogether wrong: but we fancy 
that the force of the comparison lies, not in the tint of 
the flower, but in its beauty and its loveliness. " The 
hoary head is a crown of glory," l r. x\i. :;i ; but an 
eastern crown was usually not white, but goldi n. \ et 
who can find fault with the metaphor. The hoary 
locks are the crown of old au e, and the almond blossom 
is the garland of winter. Often have we seen its hardy 
petals doiir.; battle \\ith snow-storms ami sleet; and 
though the hoar-frost was on its branches over- night, 
its frank and fearless smile was ready for the morning s 
sun. How pleasant if we could always carry the meta 
phor a little farther: "The hoary head is a crown of 
glory, if it be found in the way of righteousness." In 
such a case, " the flourishing of the almond tree" would 
be the blossom of immortality : and on behalf of the 
old disciple we should rejoice because " siiinnn T is near" 
-- a brighter association than that which is contained 
in Moore s well known lines: - 

"Tin hope, in iln-irns, of a liaj^irr hum, 

Tint ali _ ]it- mi misiTv s l.n.w, 
S] .ring s nut of the sil\.T\ alniunil tl.mri 
That 1.1 us on a kalKsss Louyh." 

However, it is ri _rht to add that Uescnius adopts a 
less poetical ]vnderiii _r. "and the almond is spurned, 
rejected by the old and toothless man, although in 
itself a delicious and much-pri/.ed fruit. [.i. ii.j 

ALMS, AI.MS-DKKDS. The word all, if is not only 
equivalent in meaning to the (i reek ( V^/.ux-cc?/, of \\hioh 
it is the uniform rendering in Scripture, Ma. vi. 2, 3, Ac. 
iii. i!, &< ., but is also derived from it : it is the same word 
in an abbreviated and modified form. As found in the 
old Saxon translation it comes pretty near the original, 
(rlincssan, which, in the (Jerman, became changed into 
alni wn; in Wicklifl e s translation it is given a/nnxxr; 
in Scotland aicntoiis is still familiarly used ; but in Eng 
land it passed first into ahum (which is the form em 
ployed by Tyndale), and then, by further contraction, 
into alma. It is really, therefore, a singular, though 
it has the form of a plural, word. The Kngli.-h term 
so far ditt ers from the (Jreek original, that it bears only 
one of the two significations which belong to the other ; 
t\eri/j.o(n vrj first denotes pity, then the special exer 
cise of pity, which consists in bestowing charity on the 
poor, while our word afins is confined to the bestowal 
of charity. Hence, to mark this more definitely, the 


word deed or di-uts is sometimes added to it, us at Ac. 
ix. ,)(>, where it is said conccniin^ Dorcas, tliiit "sin: 
was full of alms-deeds which she did." \Vliat its done, 
however, or given in this respect, is no further entitled 
to tlio name of alms, than as it may he the expression 
of a feeling of ninvy toward the destitute. 

In every age the readiness to bestow alms upon the 
really necessitous has formed a distinguishing charac 
teristic of the goodness which is required and com 
mended in tho Word of (iod ; luit there can be 710 doubt, 
that the attribute of beneficence liolds a. more promi 
nent place in the New Testament than it did in the 
Old. Under the dispensation brought in by Moses 
there was less room for the development of such a virtue 
than commonly exists in Christian times; nor had it 
motives to present of nearly such commanding energy 
for the grace- of liberality as an; now exhibited in the 
gospel. From the general distribution of property in 
Israel, and the precautions taken to prevent the aliena 
tion of inheritances on the one hand, as well as the 
undue accumulation of wealth on tin: other, cases of 
extreme poverty, or forms of pauperism, must have 
been comparatively rare. Indeed, if the laws estab 
lished by Moses had been faithfully administered, and 
the polity in its main provisions had been wrought in 
any measure according to its idea, there would have 
been such a general diffusion of the means of support 
and comfort as must have rendered scenes of destitution 
almost unknown. .For, along with an ample territory, 
the people of Israel were assured by the covenant of a 
special blessing upon their fields and labours, and were 
solemnly engaged to the practice of that righteousness 
which is itself the best safeguard against misery and 
want. It was clearly enough foreseen, however, by 
.Moses, that the ideal lie set before them would bo but 
imperfectly realized; and therefore, while legislating 
for the existence and perpetuation of a state of things 
which should well-nigh have excluded poverty, and 
rendered alms-giving a work of supererogation, he yet 
anticipated the Frequent occurrence of circumstances 
which should call for the exercise of a bountiful dispo 
sition. He even announced it as a matter of undoubted 
certainty that the poor should never cease out of the 
land;" and " therefore "such was the obligation he 
imposed for all times there fore I command thee. 
saying, Thou shalt open, thine hand wide unto thy 
brother, to thy poor, and to thy needy, in thy land." 
l)c. xv. 11. The command was not only to give alms in 
such a case, but to give liberally, and to do it in an 
ungrudging, compassionate spirit, " not grieving when 
they gave" (as it is urged in. ver. 10), and so "the 
Lord their God should bless them for this thing in all 
their works, and in all that they put their hand to." 
Many other instructions of like import are scattered 
through the Pentateuch, accompanied by considerations 
drawn both from the past history of Israel and from 
the expected future ; and certain specific provisions 
were even made for the regular distribution of alms on 
a large scale among the poorej members of the com 
monwealth. The institution of the sabbatical year was 
of this description, since the foremost reason for its ap 
pointment was, that the poor of the people might 
eat," Kx. xxiii. 11. Such, also, were the gleanings of corn 
and fruit which were annually to lie left on purpose that 
the stranger, the fatherless, and the widow miulit par 
ticipate ill the bounties of the season. T)u xxiv. l!)-L"j; and 
still more, the tithings every third year which were to 1 

be laid up in store, that "the Levite, the stranger, the 
fatherless, and the widow, who were within their gates, 
might come, and eat, ami be satisfied," DU. xiv. 2S, 2!). A 
most benign and charitable spirit, it thus appears, per 
vaded the legislation of Moses. Tho people could not 
enter into the genius of the institutions lie set up with 
out being led to seek their prosperity and well-being in 
connection with showing mercy to the poor. The writ 
ings of the prophets also re-echo the instruction, while 
they show how grievously the spirit of the Mosaic polity 
in this respect was violated. "The oppression of the 
poor," robbing the fatherless and the widow, binding in 
stead of breaking every yoke, and refusing to deal out 
their bread to the hungry, are among the heaviest 
charges brought against the leading members of the 
community, and are specially mentioned amon _r the 
sins which drew down the judgments of Heaven, 
Is. Iviii. i-7; K/.e. xviii. 7; Am. ii 7, iVu. 

"With the commencement of the gospel age a new era 
in almsgiving, as in the spirit of kindness and good- will 
generally, dawned upon the world. This had at once 
the spring of its activity and the pattern of its working 
in the personal history and mission of the Lord Jesus 
Christ, which, with special reference to tins subject, is 
summed up by the apostle in the memorable words, 
that " though he was rich, yet for our sakes he became 
poor, that we through his poverty might be made rich." 
The seeming paradox which the same apostle applied 
to himself, "poor, yet making many rich," had un 
speakably its highest exemplification in Christ pri 
marily, indeed, and mainly in respect to the spiritual 
benefits which more especially constitute the well-being 
of an intelligent and accountable creature, vet not with 
out regard also to the lower comforts which are required 
to meet their bodily wants. Is ot a few of hi:; most 
striking miracles were wrought for the purpose of 
making provision for these in times of emergency; and 
in healing the sick, opening the eyes of tho blind, re 
lieving those that were oppressed, of the devil, He acted 
as the bestower of bounties the same in kind as those 
ministered to the poor by the alms of the rich, only far 
superior in degree. In his teaching, too, He gave a 
prominent place to exercises of beneficence in this direc 
tion ; as when He exhorted the disciples to "give alms 
of such things as they had:" nay, to give with such 
pure and single aim that their " left hand should not 
know what their right hand did," and on objects so ut 
terly poor and destitute as to preclude the hope of any 
other recompense than that which should await them 
at the resurrection of the just ; above all, the emphasis 
He laid upon alms-deeds and other offices of mercy to 
the poor of the flock in the grand delineation of the 
mud judgment, in which they are made to stand as the 
test of preparation for the kingdom of the Father, 

Mat. vi.:i; xxv. 31-4.".; Lu. vi. . !.">; xi. 41; xiv. I, 1 :, 14. It is impos 
sible, therefore, to look to the example or to the teach 
ing of Christ impossible yet more, to come under the 
influence of his own, free, generous, self- sacrificing love, 
without feeling convinced that almsgiving must form a 
distinguishing characteristic in his genuine followers, so 
far as they may have the means and the call to mani 
fest it. If any doubt could have been entertained upon 
the subject, the records of the apostolic church would 
have been sufficient to dispel it, exhibiting as they do, 
simultaneously with the gift of the Spirit and the ex 
perience of life and joy in the hearts of believers, an 
amazing outburst of liberality towards the poorer mem- 




bers of the body. The common faitli in Jesus, and the 
full indwelling of his Spirit, made them feel as " of one 
heart and one soul," members together of a select 
brotherhood ; so that it seemed no more than just, that 
the superfluity of some should go to relieve the neces 
sities of others. And recognizing this as an abiding 
relationship, and the claim arising out of it as one that 
must be ever responded to in the church of Christ, they 
presently appointed a distinct class of officers (deacons) 
to take the oversight of the matter, and see to it that 
none of the really destitute were neglected in the daily 
ministrations. Thus aim-giving was from the first 
identified with the church of Christ, ingrafted, we may 
say, as an essential element into her constitution ; and 
no one who is at all acquainted with the early history 
of the church can be ignorant what a powerful element 
it proved in subduing the opposition of the world, and 
winning aliens to the fold of Christ. 

It is not, however, the simple fact of such a spirit of 
charity springing forth with the establishment of the 
Christian church that demands our regard, but the 
healthf ulness of tone and practical sagacity that char 
acterized its development. lioth in respect t<> -iver 
and receiver there was an admirable balancing of prin 
ciples and duties. On the one side all was perfectly 
free and spontaneous. The necessity of giving, how 
ever generally felt, was not imposed as a condition of 
membership, far less was any attempt made to impose 
a definite proportion of income, like the old law of 
tithes, as the amount that must or (nujht to be contri 
buted by the richer members of the church forth.- relief 

of their | rer brethren. "Whiles it remained," was 

the word of Peter in the first testing case that arose 
about the matter of giving, "was it not thine own! 
and after it \\as sold, \yas it not in thine own power." 1 
Ac. v. i. Without constraint of any kind, but the con 
straint of inward principle and feeling, it was left to 
themselves to determine whether they should give at 
all to the common fund, or to what extent they should 
give. And, in like manner, the- apo.,t!e Paul, when 
pressing on the church at < orintli the duty of contri 
lulling to the poor saints at .Jerusalem, was careful to 
urge it upon tln-ir consciences, not as .-peaking by com 
mandment, but simply "as a matter of bounty," and 
to "prove the sincerity of their love." Sought thus, 
on the one side, as the fruit of a willing- mind, and 
urged by arguments of moral suasion, all occasion was 
cut off. on the other, for claiming the benefactions of 
the rich as a right to be possessed, or leaning on th.-m 
as an excuse for improvidence and sloth. The alms 
giving laught and exemplified in the apostolic church 
has nolhing in common with tin; confiscating and level 
ling doctrine of Socialism. It did not merge the indivi 
dual in the community, or transfer to the one what, by 
natural ri-ht and lawful possession, belong,-,! to the 
other: and recognizing thus the rights of the indivi 
dual, it, of necessity, also recognized the imperative 
obligation of each member of the church t- support 
himself and those dependent upon him, by his own 
exertions; and only in the event of this failing or 
proving inadequate, gave him a title to look for aid 
from the treasury of the church. Even in the first 
ardours of Christian charity, distribution was made, 
not to all indiscriminately, but to such merely as had 
need. A-.-, ii. r>. Afterwards, it was distinctly announced 
that if any one would not work (provided he was cap 
able of doing so), neither should he eat, iTU. iii. id; and 

by proclaiming the elevated principle of ics being 
" more blessed to give than to receive," Ac. \\.sr-,, the 
recipient of charity was made to occupy relatively an 
inferior place : all, even those in the humbler ranks of 
life, were taught to aim at the nobler distinction of 
doing something to relieve the wants of others, rather 
than being indebted to others for their own relief. 
Hence, nothing can well be conceived more alien to the 
spirit and genius of Christianity, as exhibited in the 
acts and precepts of the apostolic age, than such alms 
giving as might encourage an idle vagrancy or thrift 
less improvidence, even in individuals, and, still more, 
as might foster a imndii-dnt ord* /, making choice of 
poverty and dependence as a thin^ of merit, and for its 
own sake to be desired. Nor is it a greatly less palp 
able misreading of the apostolic history, in this respect, 
which is made by communist leaders, and by certain 
theologians (such as T.aur and Xeller), when it is held 
that in the primitive church there was a virtual aboli 
tion of the rights of prop.-rtv. 

The church of the apostles in this mailer of alms 
giving, while it is a witness against these flagrant per 
versions and false theories, is also, it must be confessed 
with sorrow, a model which no longer finds in Christen 
dom its proper living exemplification: it is at most seen 
only in broken lines and partial resemblances. As the 
church -Tew and expanded in the world, it naturally 
became more difficult to keep up, in its life and vigour, 
the spirit of brotherly love, of \\hi.-h Christian aim-- 
-i\ in- is to so lar-e an extent the expression. But for 
-en. rations the characteristic was more or less pre 
served in all the churches, and many noble manifesta 
tions of liberality continued from time to time to be 
given. In Justin .Martyr s time it was the re-ular 
custom afier di\ine service to allow the rich and such 
as were willing to give according as they were severally 
minded: and the collection was deposited with the pre 
siding minister oi- bishop for the relief of orphans and 
widows, or tlio-ie \\lio, thnmgh disea-e or any other 
cause, had fallen into straits, and pi-r.-ons -enerallv in 
indigent circumstances (A/ml. fi7). The departure 
from apostolic order indicated here, in giving the alms 
of the church to th.- pa-tor, instead of to deacons or in 
ferior officers appointed for th,- purpo-e, could scarcely 
have become common in .lu-tin s time. It may have 
arisen in certain places partly from the difficulty of 
getting a separate class of officers to mana-e it, and 
partly, it may be, from a disposition to have it placed 
in connection with the highest office and ministrations 
in the church. There can be no doubt that, at a some 
what later period, when the hierarchical spirit became 
more fully developed, the alms of the church came also 
to be considered as eucharistical offerings, and lost their 
character as simply acts of beneficence. They were of 
the things that pertained to the altar, and hence in 
their administration were regarded as properly belong 
ing to priestly functions. This was an obvious departure 
from the simplicity of the gospel, and proved in after- 
times one of the greatest sources both of the influence 
and of the corruption of the clergy. I ut a deviation 
not less marked took place in another direction, when 
the state formally embraced Christianity, and by civil 
enactments enforced the observance of what was at 
first, and in its own nature properly is, a free-will ser 
vice. The citizens, simply as such, then came to be le 
gally bound to support their own poor: and, reciprocally, 
the poor began to claim as a right their title to share 



in tin; possessions of the rich. The spontaneous, conse 
quently religions, character of the public alms for re 
lieving tin; necessities of the poor, thus fell into abey 
ance; and, excepting in so far as the hierarchical spirit 
prevailed to possess, itself of funds that were considered 
strictly ecclesiastical, all became matter of state regu 
lation and official routine. That it should have so be 
come, is undoubtedly a striking proof of the influence 
which Christianity exercised on the world, ;uid draws a 
broad line of demarcation between the times before and 
subsequent to the gospel; for heathendom knew of no 
such provision for the wants of the poor as, since the 
establishment of Christianity, has in most Christian 
countries found public recognition in the laws of the 
state. I .ut if the world may he said thereby to have 
gained, the church certainly has lost, and no longer 
realizes - at least in the manner she did at first the 
ideal of a just representation, of the mind and will of 
Christ. F<>r as He, to use the words of Baumgarten, 
" in the days of his flesh sought the needy and the sick, 
and kindly ministered help and consolation, so it is his 
will that his church shall exemplify the same spirit to 
wards the poor and afflicted, and substitute its offices 
of charity for his own gracious words and helping hand. 
To this end He has promised, through the Holy Spirit, 
to make the church the abode of that all-subduing Live 
which is able to relieve the wants of the whole world. 
If the church would be true to her lord, and obey the 
impulses of this divine love, she would become more 
deeply conscious of her own wonderful organism, as it 
was in apostolic times; and meeting the wants of the 
world in the power of this spirit of active benevolence, 
she would win myriads of hearts now bound by Satan 
and fettered by sin, and gain greater victories than were 
achieved in her earlier conflicts with pagan Koine. 
And who shall estimate how much the church suffers, 
both in her im\ard character and her external pro 
sperity, by neglecting this important part of her mission ? 
Shrinking from the work imposed upon her for the re 
lief of human woe, and transferring it into an organism 
not endowed with the requisite qualifications for its 
proper performance, is it astonishing that that which 
should prove itself the most vital and powerful organ 
ism in the world ha< become so much like a mere 
mechanism, 07 rather, indeed, like a lifeless corpse 

The merit belongs to Dr. Chalmers of having first, 
in recent times, drawn public attention to this subject: 
and the preceding remarks are but the echo of many 
powerful statements and appeals which he made in re 
gard to it. He had the singular merit, also, of prac 
tically proving among the; neglected and miscellaneous 
population of a city, as well as in his writings eloquently 
expounding, what he called the omnipotence of Chris 
tian charity," and the vast difference both in character 
and results between the charity of law and the charity 
of the gospel. There may, indeed, be a degree of 
exaggeration in the evils he ascribed to the existing 
poor-law system; but no one who has been called to 
take part in its administration can refuse to own that 
there is a painful amount of truth in his representations, 
and that it is not without reason he asks, " With what 
success can one acquit himself as a minister of the 
New Testament in the presence of a temptation, by 
which every peasant of our land is solicited to cast 
away from him the brightest of those virtues wherewith 
the morality of the sacred volume is adorned ? By what 
charm shall lie woo them from earth, and bear their 

hearts aspiringly to heaven, while such a bait and such 
a bribery are held forth to all the appetites of earthli- 
ness? or, how can he rind a footing for the religion of 
charity and peace in a land broiling with litigation 
throughout all its parishes, and where charity, trans 
formed out of its loveliness, has now become an angry 
firebrand for lighting up the most vindictive passions 
and the fiercest jealousies of our nature V (Christian 
an/l Civic Economy of Lunje Town.-*, c. 10.) 

In the meantime the churches of Christ collectively, 
and individual Christians, where the poor-law system 
prevails should adapt themselves to their position and 
circumstances not renouncing the law of Christ, not 
ceasing their almsgiving ax Christians, hut seeking 
rather to turn it into such channels as open for it the 
fittest employments. In the present state of evangeli 
cal Christendom, especially in the existing condition of 
its large towns, it may well be doubted whether there 
is enough of living Christianity in its churches, and of 
co-operative love, to enable them adequately to under 
take the oversight of the poor, if such a charge were to 
be devolved upon them. J .ut while they are neither 
called nor permitted to assume this charge, there is a 
great deal with which they may charge themselves ; 
and if not in ineetiiig the lower wants relieving the 
bare necessities of the poor around them, yet in minis 
tering to their substantial comfort in times of trouble 
and distress, and in providing for their higher interests, 
by contributions for schools and hospitals, reformatory, 
missionary, sanatory institutions, ample scope will still 
be found, as well for particular churches as for single 
indisiduals giving alms of such things as they have. 
Dislocated as matters in many respects are, it shall not 
be for want of opportunity, if any Christian person or 
community fails to give evidence of a Christian spirit 
by devising liberal things, and turning "the mammon 
of unrighteousness" into an active instrument for ad 
vancing the cause of Christ, and elevating the condition 
of the poorer members of society. 

ALMUG TREE. In the commission which Solo 
mon gave to Hiram, we find him saying, " Send me also 
cedar trees, fir trees, and algum trees out of Lebanon," 1 
L t li. ii. s; but, in executing the commission we are told 
that, whilst Lebanon supplied the firs and the cedars, it 
was from Ophir that Hiram s navy fetched the alguins 
or almugs, iKi. x. n ; 2Ch. ix. 10. And as there can be 
little doubt that Ophir was a port in the Red Sea or the 
Persian Gulf, there can be equally little doubt that the 
almug was some prized wood of Eastern Asia. The 
purposes for which Solomon used it were to make "pil 
lars for the house of the Lord, and for the king s house," 
as well as "harps and psalteries," iKi. x. r. . Its east 
ern derivation, together with a costliness entitling it 
to be named alongside of "precious stones," has sug 
gested the famous sandal -wood of India, and there 
are many presumptions in favour of the conjecture: 
such as the remote period at which the wood has been 
known and valued its early introduction into Indian 
architecture its employment in the manufacture, not 
only of boxes and cabinets, but musical instruments 
and the fondness of Solomon and his contemporaries for 
other fragrant kinds of timber, such as the pine and 
the cedar. 

Randal-wood (tin.ntalum album}, giving name to the 
natural family of Santalacese, is a native of the moun 
tains of Malabar. It grows to a height of twenty-fi ve or 
thirty feet, and would probably attain a loftier stature 



vvere it not for the temptation of its costly timber. The 
outer portions of the trunk have little fragrance, but 
nothing can be more delightful than the perfume of the 
inner layers, especially towards the root; and, which is 
no small recommendation in regions alive with white 

Sandal-wood Santalum album. 

ants, it is said to defy the attacks of all insects. At 
a distant period the portals of the temple of Sonmauth, 
in Gujerat, were adorned with gates of sandal-wood, 
l x feet high by I;"* broad, and . ! inches thick, carved in 
elaborate arabesques. These were carried ott in loiM 
by Malmiood of Ghu/.nee. to adorn his tomb in this 
famous fortress of Afghanistan, and there they remained 
till Ghu/.nee was dismantled by the British in 1>1 
They were still in perfect preservation, and were re 
stored to tlie idol-temple with much pomp and circum 
stance by the Karl of Kllenboroiigh. [.I. 11.] 

ALOE. Our usual association with the aloe is phar 
maceutical, and far from agreeable. The bitter purga 
tive of the apothecary is an extract from th Aloe sjii- 
cuta, A. socotrina, A. indica. &c., plants of the liliace 
ous order, and with the general appearance of which we 
are sufficiently acquainted through their representative 
and ally, the stately Yucca yloriusa. Those stiff tin- like 
specimens which, under the name of American aloes" 
(A /uri 1 amci icana), keep their station throughout the 
summer in green tubs on well- trimmed lawns, but \shich 
are expected to blossom no more than the painted cl.c- 
v<iux-dc-frisc on the wall above them, belong to the 
amaryllid order. Between these aloes and the aloes 
of the Bible there is no connection whatever. The lat 
ter are what the Hebrew original denominates (ihaliui 
and (i/xrlot/i (c ^nx and jv>r"iXb "This (or lign-aloes, 

T-; T-; 

as it is sometimes called) was undoubtedly a fragrant 
wood which the Jews received by importation from the 
Kast, and the Indian name of which the Hebrews 
adopted. Called aijila in Malay, and ilica in Hin- 
dee. and ayura in the ancient Sanscrit, it was called 
<t/iloth by the Jews, and d\6rj by the Greeks even 
as it is still called af/alic/nt by the Arabs. It is by no 
means improbable that this fragrant wood was yielded 
by several kinds of tree; but the late lamented Dr. 
Forbes Royle has succeeded in identifying it beyond all 
dispute with the Ar/uihtria ar/allocfia (more properly 
A . ayallochum). See Royle s Jlimalni/rin Mountains, 

p. 171. and Plate 3(3. This is an immense tree, of the 
order Aquilariacese, growing on the mountainous re 
gions south and east of Silhet. Portions of the wood 
become gorged with a fragrant resin, and (in common, 
probably, with the similar wood of another tree) are 
pounded, mixed with a gummy substance, and burned 
by the Chinese in their temples. This aloes or eagle- 
wood (so misnamed by the Portuguese confounding the 
Malay ai/ila with the Latin uijaila), was a favourite 
perfume of the emperor Napoleon 1.. and was frequently 
burned in his palaces. 

From Pr. vii. 17. and Ps. xlv. 8, we find that it was 
customary to perfume couches, wearing apparel, &e.. 
with odoriferous substances, one of which was lign-aloes. 

Describing the coronation of the king of Abyssinia, 
Bruce mentions that he was anointed, then crowned, 
and finally " fumigated with incense and myrrh, aloes, 
and cassia. (See Mant. on J .tdlid xlv.) 1 ut by far 
the worthiest and most memorable use made of this pre 
cious perfume was on the occasion mentioned, .In. xix. :; . , 
where we are told that Nicodemus, having obtained 
leave to bury the body of Jesus. " brought a mixture of 
myrrh and aloes, about a hundred pound weight," and 
placed it in and around the winding-sheet in which the 
precious remains were enveloped. The quantity here 
mentioned is very great, and it is likely that the less 
expensive invrrh bore a large proportion to the aloes, 
the best samples of which were worth their weight 
in irold. ]!ut on such occasions Hebrew affection, and 

sometimes, perhaps, Hebrew ostentation, were exceed 
ingly lavish. Thus eighty pounds of spices were used 
at the funeral of Rabbi Gamaliel, the elder ; and 500 
attendants followed the bier of Herod, carrying spices. 
(Wetstein in Jo. xix. : .!<; Josephus, Antiy. book xvii. 
8, 3.) [- "-J 

AL PHA. the first letter in the Greek alphabet, cor 
responding to the Hebrew al<ji/i ; and, indeed, our word 
alphabet is simply made up of the two first names of 
the Greek letters, alfiha-litla. As previously among 
the Hebrews, so among the Greeks and Romans, the 


letters i if tl)i alphabet wei e employed as numerals ; 
:ui< I hence it, became quite natural t<> use the tirst and 
tin; last, (ifji/Ki and oi/ur/d, fur tin: commencement and 
(lie conclusion of a scries, or quite absolutely for first 
and last. So tiiev are used liv our Lori! in the Apo 
calypse, when He styles himself "tin 1 Alpha and the 
Omega," lie. 17 ; x\i. <i; xxii. I. 1 !, and explains it in the two 
latter passages liy the synonyms "the beginning and 
tlie end, "the tirst and the last. The representation, 
InweyiT expivssed, has respeet to what ( hrist is citun- 
<iH>i: it indieates. not simply that fie is the first ami 
the la.-t of a series, l.ut ihat the whole has in Him alike 1 
its commencement and its termination. He originated 
the present order of things, ami He will also bring it to 
the proper issue ; s:> that the end shall correspond to 
the beginning", and he all very good. 

ALPHyE US.or A L 1 > 1 1 vA S.the father of the second 
.lames, who is commonly called Junns the Less, to dis 
tinguish him from the more eminent apostle, James the 

son of /ebedee, M:it. \. : ,; Miir. iii. 1<; Lu. vi. 1.".. As James 

is also represented as the son of that Mary who was 
sister to utn- Lord s mother, whose hushand is usually 
called Cleophas. .Tn. six. 2fi; Lu. xxiv. 10; Mat. T. 3, it would 
appear that Alpheus and (. leophas are luit different 
names for the same person. In Jn. xix. 2.~> it is not 
pj-operly Cleophas, hut Clopas (KXwTras) that is nsed ; 
and the probability is that Alpheus and Clopas are 
equally derived from the FTehrew ^Sr: (h ttphai), the one 

from dropping the aspirate, and making Alpha-us, the 
ether changing it into /, or hard c, and making Clopas. 
It would seem, however, that there is another Alpheus 
mentioned in New Testament scripture, the father of 
Lev! or Matthew, Mar. ix. .i; Miit. ii. 1 1. P>ut in this case 
nothing whatever is known of the father excepting the 
simple fact of his having had such a son; while in re 
spect to the former Alpheus, supposing him to he the 
same with Cleophas, we know besides that he was among 
the early disciples of our Lord, and along with another 
disciple had the memorable interview with Jesus on the 
way to Kmmaus, immediately after the resurrection, 
Lu. xxiv. 

ALTAR is the English form of the Latin at tare, 
which, in the strictly classical writers, occurs only in 
the plural, hut in later times was familiarly used also 
in the singular. It was a derivative of alt us (high or 
loftv), and hence designated the erection to which it 
was applied as emphatically a height. So, indeed, did 
the other Latin word, which is of like import, and was 
more commonly used uni, derived from aipu, I raise, 
or lift up. The two words in Latin were often inter 
changed, as if entirely synonymous ; hut properly altar e 
was a high altar, and am- simply an altar the former 
such as was dedicated only to the supreme gods, while 
the latter was common to them and inferior ohjects of 
worship (Virgil, Eel. v. *>,"). The term most commonly 
employed in Creek is quite similar in its meaning and 
derivation /3co/^6s, originally signifying an elevation of 
any sort, hut afterwards appropriated to the particular 
height, or erection raised for divine worship. The 
Hebrew word p~s (bamath) or jV-D (bamot/t), from 

T T T 

which probably the Creek was derived, has the sense of 
/ii;ifi-/if(icc, on which sacrifices were so often presented 
to Jehovah as well as to false gods, that the term hiyh- 
places came to denote, not merely the heights them 
selves, but aLo the altars, with their sanctuaries and 

[27.] Altars on High Places. Kerr Porter s Persia 

discovered itself in Israel, to resort to heights for the 
purpose of offering it, it would seem that some instinc 
tive feeling in men s bosoms led them to associate sacri 
fice with an elevated position, as the fittest theatre for 
its presentation, and that something of that description, 
if not naturally provided, should be artificially con 

structed. It is probable that this feeling arose from 
the idea of the local habitation of deity being in the 
heavens above ; whence sacrifice on a height seemed 
in closer contact with the object of worship, or the 
mind more readily followed it to its proper destination. 
]ii the pure worship of Jehovah, who ever represented 
himself as the Cod of the whole earth, and present with 
his people wherever they might perform acceptable 
service, we could not expect much regard to be paid to 
thoughts and feelings of that nature: indeed, they are 
plainly discouraged, as inevitably tending to superstition 
and idolatry. Nor was any encouragement ever given 
to the use of costly materials or elaborate workmanship 
in the construction of altars. In this respect, there 
was the reverse of uniformity in the altars of heathen 
antiquity: they existed in a great diversity of forms, 


I instruments of worship, erected on them: whence they 
could lie spoken of as being built or removed, 1 Ki. xi. 7 ; 
2 Ki. xxiii. l,"i. The proper name, however, for altar, in 
the Hebrew worship, was -^-^ (iiiisbi .aclt}, the sue ft - 

ji<-hi</-i>l<i.e.< , derived from the verb /<> sacrhici; ; corre 
sponding to which is the word commonly used for 
rendering it in the Septuagint, ^r<jtacrT?;/HOj . from 
bi crta, sacrifice. It indicated nothing as to the form or 
position of the object it was applied to, but simply 
characterized it as the place or structure which was set 
apart for the presentation of slain victims to Cud. 

Looking to the general import, however, of the 
names anciently employed to designate the place of 
sacrifice, coupled with the tendency, which so often 



and constructed sometimes of the commonest, some 
times of the costliest materials. Those here exhibited 
from some of the older nations of the world, are evi 
dently specimens of comparatively simple structure. 

, r 

rising from the rudest style of art to the most ornate, I workmanship thereof," 2Ki. xvi. 10. But it probably did 

not differ materially from some of those here exhibited; 
though it must have been greatly more attractive in 
form and appearance than that hitherto standing in 
the court of the temple at Jerusalem, for Ahaz to have 
taken the strong step of removing the latter from its 
wonted place, and on his own authority substituting 
another in its stead. The Lord had himself prescribed 
the form of the altar 011 which he wished his people to 
present their offerings; and it was an evidence of a 
presumptuous spirit on the part of Aha/. - a fruit, in 
deed, of that vacillating, temporizing, and superstitious 
policy which characterized his whole procedure to in 
troduce such an innovation in worship, and stamp on 
the very altar of Jehvoah the impress of heathenism. 
No wonder that a mark of reprobation is set upon him 
when pursuing such courses ; and so it is said, with em 
phasis, " This is that King Aha/," 2 ch. .\x\iii. 22. 

It does not appear that any particular form of altar 
had been delivered to the true worshippers of (!od 
down to the period of the giving of the law ; and. as 
When any circumstance occurred, or some transao far as can be gathered from the records of the patri- 

tion was entered into, which seemed to call for the pre- | archal religion, the simplest structures seem to have 

sentation of sacrifice, if no fixed altar was at hand, a 

temporary one was immediately raised of the sods or 

Altars. 1 and 2, Assyrian : 3, Persian 

1 30.] Babylonhm Altars. From an engraved gem ami cylinder. 

stones which were found upon the spot; but those 
erected for regular service, in connection with some 
statue or temple, were usually constructed of brick or 
of stone occasionally in a square, but more commonly, 
at least among the (Greeks and Romans, in a round 
form, and very often adorned with sculpture of the 
most tasteful and elaborate description, while others 
appeared without any ornament whatever. Specimens 

Greek ami Roman Altars 

have been preserved of both kinds, as those in Xo. 31, 
of the square form one quite simple, another more 
ornate, and a third highly decorated; others are given 
in Xo. 3 J, and are at once round and ornate. 

We have no description of the altar which was seen 
by King Ahaz at Damascus, with the beauty of which 
he was so struck that he obtained a pattern of it, and 
caused Urijah the priest to have one made at Jeru 
salem, " after the fashion of it, and according to all the 
Vol.. 1. 

\Uars. 1, Ktruscan; 2, Circular Greek ; 3, Tlonian Tripod. 

been deemed sufficient. P>ut, at the institution of the 
tabernacle worship, specific instructions were given for 
the erection of the altar, or, as we may rather say, of 
the two altars; fur two structures under that name 
were recognized in the furniture of the tabernacle- the 
altar of burnt-offering and the altar of incense. It, was 
llie former of these, however, that was emphatically 
called the altar, as it was on it that all sacrifices of 
blood were presented, while the other was simply placed 
as a stand or table within the tabernacle for the ofli- 
ciating priest to use in connection with the pot of in 
cense;. In regard to this altar, prior to any instructions 
concerning the erection of the tabernacle, and imme 
diately after the delivery of the ten commandments 
from Sinai, the following specific directions were given : 
"An altar of earth shalt thou make i;nto me, and 
shalt sacrifice thereon thy burnt-offerings," &.c. ; "And 
if thou wilt make me an altar of stone, thou shalt not 
build it of hewn stone; for if thou lift up thy tool upon 
it, thou hast polluted it. Neither shalt thou go up by 
steps unto mine altar, that thy nakedness be not dis 
covered thereon," Ex. xx. it- 20. There is here an evident 
repudiation of all pomp and ornament in connection 
with this altar of burnt-offering the preferable material 
to be used in it being earth, or, if stone, yet stone un 
hewn, and consequently not graven by art or man s 
device. The reason of this cannot be sought in any 


general dislike t<> tin- costly and ornamental in divine 
worship ; for. in the structure of the tabernacle itself, 
and, still more, afterwards in the erection of the temple, 
both the richest materials and the most skilful artificers 
were employed. It is rather to be sought in the general 
purport and design of the altar, -which was such as to 
consist best with the Simplest form, and materials of 
the plainest description; for it was peculiarly flic mo 
nument and remembrancer of man s sin the special 
meeting-place between ( !od and his creatures, as sinful ; 
mi which account it must be perpetually receiving the 
blood of slain victims, since the way to fellowship with 
God for guilty beings could only be found through an 
avenue of death. And because the altar must thus lie 
ever bearing on it the blood-stained memorials and 
fruits of sin, " what so suitable for the material of which 
it should be formed as the mother-dust of earth, or 
earth s rough, unpolished stones, taken just as Cod and 
nature provided them . For thus the worshippers might 
most easily discern the appointed place- of meeting to 
be of God s providing, and His in such a sense that no 
art or device of theirs could be of any avail to fit it for 
the high end it was intended to serve : nay, that their 
workmanship, being that of sinful creatures, must tend 
rather to pollute than to consecrate and enhance the 
medium of reconciliation. Materials directly fashioned 
by the hand of Cod were the most suitable here ; nor 
tin so of the more rare and costly descriptions, but the 
simple earth, made originally for man s support and 
nourishment, and now become the witness of his sin. 
the drinker- in of his forfeited life, the theatre and home 
of death."-- (Ti/poloyy, ii. p. 286. 1 

Tn the directions afterwards given. Ex. xxvii. 1-s, for 
the construction of the altar that was to be placed in 
the outer court of the tabernacle, it may seem strange 
that no explicit mention is made either of earth or of 
stone. It was to be made of boards of shittim or acacia 
wood, overlaid with brass, to be in form a square of 
5 cubits, or about S feet; in height 3 cubits, or some 
where about ~> feet, and with projecting points or horns 
at each of the four corners. It was to be made " hollow 
with boards," and Jewish writers have held, apparently 
with reason, that this hollow space between the boards 

[33. j 

Altar of Burnt-offering. Meyer s Bibeldeutungen. 

pace between the hoards, over which the utensils for fire and a 
placed, while 

_ .... -k grating, with the proj 

Kx. ixvii.4, 5. 

i the carchb or ledpe itself, projectinx from th 
is the incline toward it on one side, for the 

formed of earth or stonis. 
c d, are the horns or corner projections of the 

was to 1)0 filled with earth or stones when the altar was 
fixed in a particular place; so that the original direc 
tion applied also to it, and the boards might be regarded 
as having their chief use in holding the earth or stones 
together, and supporting the fire-place, with the fuel and 
the sacrifice. Having an elevation of no more than 
44 or 5 feet, no steps could be required for the officiating 

priest, a mere ledge or projecting border on the side 
would be quite sufficient, with a gentle incline towards 
it formed of earth or of stones. This seems rtally to 
have been provided by the original construction of the 
altar, according to the now commonly received interpre 
tation of Kx. xxvii. 4. 5, where it is said, And thou 
shalt make for it (the altar) a grate of network of brass ; 
and upon the net shalt thon make four brazen rings in 
the four corners thereof. And thou shalt put it under 
the carcob (circuit or border, as the word seems to mean) 
of the altar beneath, that the net may be even to the 
midst of the altar." That is, as V. Meyer has, we be 
lieve, correctly explained it (Bibeldcutungcn, p. Jill ). 
there was to be a sort of terrace or projecting board 
half-way up the altar and compassing it about, on which 
the priests might stand, or articles connected with the 
offerings might be laid, and this was to be supported 
by a grating of brass underneath, of net-like construc 
tion, as exhibited in No. 3:!. 

This pattern probably approaches nearer than any 
other that has been presented to the alt^r nrijinaliv 


Altar of Burnt-offering. Friederich s Symbolik. 

formed to accompany the tabernacle. The older, and 
still very prevalent idea of its structure, differed chiefly 
in regard to the network of brass, which it regarded as the 
grating for the fire, and furnished with four rings that it 
might be sunk down within the boards and at some dis 
tance; from them, as exhibited, for example, in No. 34, 
taken from Witsius, and often reproduced with little 
variation. The chief objection to this form is. that it places 
the network of brass near the top and within the boards, 
instead of being, as the description seems to require, 
from the ground upwards to the middle, and conse 
quently without a support, in short, for the projecting 
carcob, not for the fire and the sacrifice. The things 
connected with the fire are not minutely described, but 
are included in the enumeration given at ver. 3, "And 
thou shalt make his pans to receive his ashes, and his 
shovels, and his basons, and his flesh-hooks, and his 
fire-pans; all the vessels thereof thou shalt make of 
brass." The probability is that there was no grating 
upon the top, but simply the pans for fire and ashes 
resting upon stone or earth within the boards, and 
which might thus be easily scraped, or removed for 
cleansing, as occasion required. In the last figure, the 
four corners are made to assume a crooked or horn-like 
shape; and in that respect, perhaps, it differs to the 
better from the former, which, in other respects, we 
deem greatly the best. It is possible, indeed, that the 
projecting corners might have been called horns with 
out actually having the crooked shape of a horn ; they 
might have been called such simply as abrupt and 
pointed projections. But, on the other hand, Josephus 
in his description of the altar connected with the Hero- 


dian temple (tobequoted presently), distinctly indicates 
the horn-like appearance of the corners ; and the pro 
minence given to them, not only at the erection of the 
altar, but also in the more important sacrifices, in which 
they were uniformly touched with the blood, Ex xxix. r2; 
Le. iv. 7,c., seems most easily explained by a reference 
to the idea which the name in its natural meaning 
suggests. In Scripture a horn is constantly used as a 
symbol of power and prevailing might ; and the culmin 
ating points of the altar, where God revealed himself 
in mercy to inquiring sinners, might fitly be made to 
assume the appearance of horns, not merely for orna 
ment, but, along with that, for the purpose of symbol 
izing the strength and security of the divine protection 
which was extended to those who came to share in its 
provisions. Hence, to lay hold on the horns of the 
altar was but another name for grasping at the power 
and protection of Deity. 

In the arrangements made for adapting the instru 
ments of worship to the larger proportions of the temple, 
the altar of burnt-offering necessarily partook of the 
general character of the change. It became now a 
square of ~2(> cubits {from > to :;."i feet), instead of .",. 
and was raised to the height of Id cubits ; it was made 
also entirely of brass, but in other respects it was pro 
bably much the same. And the altar attached to the 
temple of Herod, we learn from .losephus, a-ain greatly 
exceeded in its dimensions that of the temple of Solo 
mon. Before the temple," says he ( li"<(;x v. fi. <!i, 
"stood the- altar, ]~> cubits high, and equal in length 
and breadth, beinu each way "in cubits. It was built 
in the figure of a square, and it had corners like boms 
(literally, jutting up into horn-shaped corners /orpa- 
rot(5?s irpoa.vf:*x.uv ywvias), and the passage up to it was 
by an insensible acclivity." This was, no doubt, with 
the view of meeting the requirement in Kx. xx. _>! ; and 
in like manner, for the of comjihin- with the 
instruction to avoid any hewn work, it was, we are 
told, "formed \\ithout any iron tool, nor was it ever so 
much as touched by such iron tool." In this latter 
statement the .Misehna agrees with .losephus: but it 
differs materially as to the dimensions, making the 
base only a square of , J j cubits and the top of 2(j ; so 
that it is impossible to jironoiinoe with certaintv ujtou 
the exact measurement. I tut there can be little doubt 
it was considerably larger than Solomon s, as it wa-s a 
leading jiart of Herod s ambition, in his costlv repara 
tion of the temple, to make all its external jn-oj^irtions 
sujierior to that which had preceded. And it had, we 
are informed, what must also in some form have lie- 
longed to the altar of the fii-st temple, a jiijie connected 
with the south-west horn, for conveying away the blood 
of the sacrifices. This discharged itself by a subter 
ranean passage into the brook Kednm. 

It was a marked peculiarity in the religion of the 
Old Testament, and besj>oke an essential difference be 
twixt it and the religions of heathendom, that it not 
only prescribed so definitely the form of the altar to be 
used in sacrifice, but allowed only of the erection of 
one such altar. On special occasions, such as the dedi 
cation of Solomon s temple, when the one altar proved 
insufficient for the numerous offerings that were pre 
sented, the circumstances were justly deemed sufficient 
to warrant the temporary consecration and use of an 
other, iKi.viii. 04. And in times of general backsliding 
and disorder, such as occurred in the life of Samuel, 
when the tabernacle itself had fallen asunder, and still 


more in that of Elijah, when the very foundations were 
out of course a certain freedom was required, and used 
also by prophetical men who strove against the evil of 
the times, in respect to the employment of occasional 
altars for the service of God. F.ut these were seasons 
of emergency, and as such, exceptions to the general 
rule. In ordinary cases the ottering of sacrifice even 
to the true God. and without any intermixture of super 
stitious rites, elsewhere than at the one altar of burnt- 
oftering, is always marked as a relative- defection from 
the pure worship of Jehovah: and this, no doubt, 
chiefly because of its tendency to mar the idea, of the 
divine unity, and lead to the introduction of other gods. 
There might seem, at first thought, to be no necessary 
connection between the two; the one God of Israel 
might have been worshipped, it may be imagined, as 
well at a thousand altars jn the land of Canaan as He 
is now in a thousand churches of Christendom. So, 
doubtless. He might: the freedom granted to the patri- 
archs in the erection of altars, and the divine accept 
ance which crowned their worship, is undoubted evi 
dence of its possibility. Hut the tendency was all in 
the other direction; for the spirit of heathenism vas 
the deification of nature in i!s varied aspects, and even 
separate localities ; and during the ages when that spirit 
acted like a moral contagion, the most, etfeetual wav of 
checking its influence was to concentrate the greater 
rites of worship into a single spot to stamp upon the 
national mind the idea < if one God, by the palpable and 
ever-abiding tart of His one templeand one altar. Once 
l -t i *iich a multiplicity of shiin.s as heathendom 
boasted of possessing, and its multiplicity of gods would 
have followed as an infallible sequence. Therefore, 
while it certainly was a restraint upon the spirit in 
regard to fellowship with Heaven a restraint which 
persons of ardent piety could scarcely help at times 
longing to have removed it was still, upon the whole. 
I tetter than such liberty as was sure to di -generate into 
license. And the restraint itself was greatly lightened 
to earnest and reflecting minds : it was even turned into 
an occasion of elevating their views concerning God, 
and raising their spirits to more habitual commerce with 
Heaven, by the consideration, which was grounded in 
the v.-ry nature of the Levitieal institution, that every 
believing Israelite, wherever he mi-lit be, bad his re 
presentation in the priesthood that daily ministered at 
the one altar, and an interest in tin- nioniin- and even 
ing sacrifice which was there perpetually proceeding. 
Infinitely better than the possession of many tutelary 
deities, with their local altars, was for him the thought, 
that the praise and worship of the whole covenant 
people was ever waiting for (bid in /ion, and that from 
/ion this God ruled to the very ends of the earth. 

In regard to the typical import of the altar of burnt- 
offering, or its bearing on Christian times, it should un 
doubtedly be viewed in its totality, and not, as was the 
custom with the elder typologists, considered piecemeal, 
that in every individual part a separate and diverse 
representation may be found of the person or work of 
Christ. It is easy, in such a way, to find a great va 
riety of resemblances between the old and the new; to 
see, for example, in the materials of the altar, a lire- 
figuration of the humanity of Christ in the horn, of his 
divinity in the hollowness between the boards, of his 
emptying himself of heavenly glory, and so on. I5ut 
such resemblances are of little worth, being quite 
superficial in their nature, and obtained in too much 

( >< s 

isolation from the one grand aim of tlie altar 
we have primarily to ascertain, and mainly to found 
upon, is tlie leading design, with which the altar was 
set up in com -ction with the symbolical religion of the 
old covenant. In that respect it formed the appointed 
medium of communication between a holy God and 
sinful man; its materials, its structure, the sacrificc.- 
hlood presented on it, were all adjusted with a view to 
its prop T adaptation to this end : and in tlie great idea 
which it thus embodied, \\e readily discover a funda- 
mental agreement with the character and mission of 
Christ. hi him now is found the appointed medium 

What ! natcd struiitjc tin-, rendering the incense produced by 
it an unhallowed offering. It was for this offence that 
Nadab and Abilm were visited with the stroke of death, 
1,0. x. i, sci)., because attempting to break the link that 
connected the offering of incense with the altar of 
burnt- offering. And still further, to indicate the con- 
f nretion between the two altars and their respective 
offerings on tlie great day of atonement, the horns of 
the altar of incense the altar, as it is called, before the 
Lord, !.> . in front of the most holy place, I.e. xvi. is, lit, 
were to be sprinkled with the blood of atonement, 
as well as the mercy-seat. 

All clearly and distinctly 

of int. [-course bctueeii tin 

him, but through him alone, can the sinner s guilt be 
atoned, and hi- services of faith and love rise with ac 
ceptance to the Father: so that what purposes the 
altar served to the Old Testament worshipper, the 
same, and in a far higher manner, does Christ serve to 
the believer in the gospel: and the oiieiie-s of the ap 
pointed medium of sacrificial worship in former times, 

has now also its counterpart iu the one name given mercy-seat, implied that the offering presented on it 

had to do with the more inward part of religion, and 

imported that this altar, and the incense appointed to 
lie ever ascending from it, were, in a manner, nothing, 
except as connected with and based upon that altar, in 
the stricter sense, on which sacrifices of blood were 
continually presented, and the fire was kept perpetu 
ally alive that had been sent down from above. 

The mere circumstance of this altar being placed 
within tlie sanctuary, and directly in front of the 

in the person of Christ, his humiliation from the highest God. than its first initiation into his service. The 
to the lowest condition, his vicarious intercession, and ; same impression, also, is conveyed by the richer and 
much besides; but lire-indications of such specific more ornate appearance it presented - its coating and 
points in the Christian scheme are to be sought in crown of gold, as if signs of honour, not of humiliation, 
other parts of the Tabeinacle worship, rather than in ; were becoming in connection with the service to which 
the altar itself, which forms the common basis and it was specially appropriated. These impressions are 

portal of them all. (See TYPES, TYPOLOGY.) confirmed, when we look to the service itseli the 

2. AI.TAK or l.NC KNSK. another instrument of wor continual presentation of incense before the throne of 

ship, hearing the same general name of altar, differed God; for of what was this a symbol but of acceptable, 

in its use, from believing prayer! So Old Testament worshippers 

materially both in its structure an 

that already noticed. In form it presented the ap- themselves understood ; as we learn from the Psalmist, 

pearanee <>t a sqiiare- 
like ho\-. standing erect, 
1 cubits or j\ feet in 
height, with a top 21 
inches square, surroun 
ded with a crown of gold, 
and formed of hoards all 
covered with gold. At 
the four corners it had 
also what were called 
horns, Ex. xxx. 2. (The 

when lie entreats that his prayer might be set before 
(Ind as incense (literally, "Let my prayer, incense, 
be set before thee," Ps. cxli. 2), and from tlie action no 
ticed in Luke i. 10, in which the people are reported 
to have continued praying without, while Zecharias 
was offering incense within the temple doing for 
themselves in the reality what he was doing for all the 
people in symbol. Hence, too, in 1 ev. v. 8, viii. 3, 4, 
the frankincense or sweet odours offered by tlie angel 
on the golden altar, are expressly called "the prayers 
of saints." Was it not a most fitting emblem of 

.-npposed form of this altar is represented. No. ol). It prayer in its truest and largest sense, as the child-like 
could not be strictly termed an altar, in the sense of \ outpouring of the heart s feelings and desires toward 
nm&eacA (sacrificing place), for it was not for the pre- its heavenly Father? Like the fragrance of the 
seni.dion of slain victims but was merely a bearer or | sweetest spices, these are the expression of the spirit 
stand for the incense-pot within the tabernacle. It of life which, through Divine grace, has come to live 
stood, however, iii a very close connection with the and breathe in the children of faith; and not less 
altar of burnt- offering, and on that account, probably, grateful than the one to the natural sense of man, is 
had the same general name applied to it ; for the pot or j the other to the heart of God. But to be this it must 
censer which was to stand on it was every morning and In- the genuine breathing of a true spirit of life nor 
evening to he taken by the officiating priest, and replen- only so, but this life kindled as with live coals from the 
ished first with live coals from the altar of burnt- offering, altar of sacrifice- drawing alike its vitality and its 
and then with a handful of sweet spices or incense. fragrance from believing contact with the one great 

This done, it was to be placed on the altar of incense, medium of atonement and intercession. In that altar 
which stood in the sanctuary, immediately before the of incense, therefore, together with the place and order 
veil, causing to ascend, as it is said. Kx. xxx. v " a per- of service appointed for it, there is a solemn and in- 
pctual incense before the Lord throughout their gene- struct! ve lesson for the church of every age, showing 
rations." This perpetual incense, rising within the I how prayer must be, as it were, the daily breath of the 
tabernacle, thus formed a sort of accompaniment to the believing soul, must be ever ascending from those who 
hurnt-oiTering perpetually ascending without; one fire spiritually dwell in the house of God; and that to get 
slowly consumed both ; and any fire employed to raise and to maintain it in real efficacy, there must be an 
the cloud of incense in the sanctuary, except what had incessant repairing to the one great act of sacrifice. 
been taken from the altar of burnt- offering, was desig- which has been presented through the blood of Christ. 



Altars, in tlio modern sense, as part of the furniture 
in certain Christian churches, do not come into con 
sideration here ; since, at whatever precise period intro 
duced, they are certainly subsequent to the Christian 
era. and have nothing properly to countenance them in 
the writings of the New Testament. For the altar 
spoken of in lie. xiii. 1<>, of which Christians have a 
right to cat, as contradistinguished from those who 
served the tabernacle, is manifestly Christ himself 
Christ considered as the spiritual food and nourishment 
of the soul, and so placed in contrast with the fleshly 
and outward ordinances to which the adherents of 
.Judaism still clung. 

AM ALEK [supposed t<> lie derived from am. people, 
and fi iqak, to lick up], occurs uiilv once as the name of 
an individual : it is in the genealogy ,>f Esau s offspring, 
at Cm. .\\xvi. 1<>. \\hereTinina. the concubine of Eli- 
phaz, Esau s son. is said to have borne him a son. Ama- 
lek. Certain traditions, however, have been raked up 
from among the Arabian-:, which point to an earlier 
Anialek, of the fifth generation from Noalu anil who is 
Mipposed to have been the founder of a tribe of Amalek- 
ites. that made ;-omc figure in very remote antiquity: 
and are also, it is allied, referred to in a few passagi s 

of Scripture. Thouuh Ceseiiius. however, with Le 


( lerc, Michaclis, and several other nun ot eminent 
learning, liave adopted this view, there seems no solid 
foundation for it so far a- Scripture is concerned: and 
it calls for no farther consideration here 

AMAL EKITES. an ancient nomadic tribe, who are 
found at various points in Arabia IVtr.-ea. raiuriiiLr 
from tli> south of Palestine to the neighbourhood of 
Sinai. The notions formed of them in Scripture are 
somewhat embarrassing ; but are still, when caivfullv 
considc red, perfectly compatible with the id, a of their 
being the otl spring of the grandson of Esau it on! v it is 
supposed (what involves no improbability), that while 
they ]elonged to the common stock of the Ed> unites, tli.-v 
formed to some e\ti nt a tribe by themselves, and con 
sequently* sometimes acted in concert with the other 
Edomites. and sometimes appeared as occupying an 
independent position and territory of their ov. n. I .ut 
in th> several notion u iven of tliem. they appear in close 
connection with tin- Edomite territory: and. though 
found in different quarters, like oth,-r tribes of pnda- 
torv habits, the western juris of .Mount Seir seem to 
have furnished their nioi-e r, -ular haunts. 

A very earlv notice occurs of them in < ic. xiv. 7. in 
connection with the invasion of Chedorlaoiner, and the 
kiii _ r s who were confederate with him. which has been 
held by the authoritii s j;;~t referred to. to imply their 
existence as a people even in the time of Abraham, it 
is there said of the marauding host, that "they re 
turned and came to Enmislipat. which is Kadesh. and 
smote all the country of the Amalekites. and also the 
Anioritt s. that dwelt in I la/.e/.on-tamar." I .ut a 
marked di>linction is to be noted here between the 
Amalekites and the oilier tribes specified: it is only 
the, rotutir;/ of the Amalekites that is said to have 
been smitten, \sliile in regard to the Aniorites and the 
various tribes mentioned in ver. f. <i, \\lio had suf 
fered in the southward march of the invaders, it is the 
people themselves that were smitten. This cannot be 
regarded as accidental: it is plainly intended to fix 
attention only on the tract of country which was 
afterwards known as that occupied by the Amalekites; 
and it is denominated from them rather than from 

those who originally possessed it. merely because it 
could thereby, in the time of the Israelites, be more 
readily identified. This is the more probable us. in re 
spect to the place mentioned immediately before, the 
later designation is given as well as the earlier, and 
given first : Enmishpat (well of judgment), which is 
Kadesh its proper name being Kadesh. but Enmish 
pat came also to be given to it. on account of the 
judgment afterwards inflicted there upon Closes and 
Aaron. Nu. \x. 1-1:1. Nor is there any great diHiculty 
in another passage, which has also been urged as indi 
cating the extreme antiquity of the Amalekites as a 
people. It is where .I alaam, looking upon Amalek, 
took up his parable concerning them, and said, "Ania 
lek. the first of the nations, but his latter end shall be 
that he perish for ever." Nu. xxiv. iii. The question 
here is, in what sense are they designated the first 

absolutely, or relatively to the point of view of the 
speaker. Tin 1 latter is clearly the most natural suppo 
sition, especiallv when the concluding part of the an 
nouncement is taken into account, that thev are destined 
to perish for ever. Why Because, like Moah and the 
other tribes spoken of iii the context, they took up the 
position of enemies against the people of ( !od. For this 
their latter end was to become one. not of strength and 
li lory. but of extinction: and the natural inference 
therefore is. that when they are mentioned as having 
been the first. H is not prioritv of existence as a people 
that is meant, but priority in that enmity which formed 
their most marked characteristic, and which was to 
pmve the cause of their ruin. Thev had taken the lead 
in opposition to Cod s cause and people, and. as ex 
amples of the divine /<. titti/nilx, a pre-eminence was 
also to be appointed them in judgment utter extinc 
tion was to be their lot. This is the view thai best 
accord.- with the connection, and with the whole stsle 
of Balaam s prophecies ; audit is that which ancient 
Jewish and Christian interpreter.- put upon it. Thus 
the paraphrase of ( inkelos. on tli< nrxt vj tin. iiatcnit. is 
"the he /i lining of the wars of Israel:" .Jonathan, and 
the note of the Jerusalem Tar^ urn have, " the first of 
the peoples who wauvd war against the house of Israel." 
And. in like manner. Jerome explains, "the lirst of 
the nations who attacked the Israelites." 

llowe\er I .alaam may have learned the facts of 
Israel s historv. there can lie no doubt that IK: had ob 
tained a considerable acquaintance with them: and in 
this deliverance upon Amalek lie points to the part 
which Amalek had taken aft r l.-rael had escaped from 
the bondage of Egypt, ami were marching as a penpK 
to occupy th- place that had been de.-tined for them. 
When the\ w.-re .-till only at Ilephidim, one of their 
earliest encampments, the Amalekites gathered their 
forces together, and came forth to attack them. K\. \\-\\. 
>., sc<] That the attack was made in a very bitter spirit, 
and aimed at nothing less than the defeating of Cod s 
purpo-es by the virtual destruction of his peculiar people, 
is evident from what is said by the Lord to Moses, after 
the assailants had been discomfited by Joshua, "Write 
this for a memorial in a. book, and rehearse it in the 
ears of Joshua: for 1 will utterly put out the remem 
brance of Amalek under heaven;" and also from what 
Moses himself said in respect to the altar he raised on 
the occasion " He called it Jehovah nisi (Jehovah 
mv banner), for he said, Because the hand vi/.., of 
Amalek was upon the banner of the Lord (so it should 
be rendered), the Lord will have war with Amalek from 


generation to generation." Acquainted, from his rela 
tionship to Ksan, with the peculiar promises made to the 
seed of Jacob, but with the Ksau-like spirit of envy in 
its rankest form, Amalek sought, at what seemed a 
favourable juncture, to lav his hand, as it wen , on the 



e people whom C 
protect and Mess 

culous passage through the Ked Sea, and tin: destruction 
of the host of Pharaoh. Therefor,-, divine retribution 
in its severest form must overtake him : Amalek, as a 
nation, must perish from the face of the earth. 

induct of Amalck on the occasion referred to, 
id respecting it. were not lost sight 
called into remembrance in one of 
sses of Moses. While the dying 
a legacy of kindness for the Edom- 
ites generally, and for the Kgyptians, notwithstanding 
all tin- wrongs that had been stitl ered at their hands 
c Thou shalt not abhor an Kdomito, for he is thy 
brother; thou shalt not abhor an Kgyptian, because 
thou wast a stranger in his land"). IV.xxiii r, he said re 
specting Amalek. " IJeinember \\hat Amalek did unto 
thee bv the way, whenye were come forth out of Egypt; 
how he met thee by the way. and smote the hindmost 
of thee. all that were feeble behind thee, when thou wast 
faint and weary : and he feared not Cod. Therefore, it 
shall be, when the Lord thv Cod hath given thee rest 

endorsed l>v the successive generations of the tribe, who 
had always showed themselves ready to join hands with 
whatever adversary might rise up against Israel. The 
hostility <>f such a people was evidently of a kind that 
could not be conciliated; it could be mastered only by 
the people themselves being destroyed; and such now 


elivered into the hands of Saul. 

He failed to execute it so fully as he should have done ; 
yet their power as a separate people was from that time 
completely broken: and the predatory incursions they 
made upon the smith of Judah in the time of l)a\id, 
with the retaliations luj practised upon them, were but 
as the smoking tail of an expiring firebrand, ISa. xxx. 
Kor henceforth they disappear from the Held of history, 
with the exception of a small remnant some\\here on 
Mount Seir, who are simply mentioned as being put 
to the rout in Ile/ekiah s time by certain of the tribe 
of Simeon, and finally despoiled of their territory, l cii. 
iv. -I- , 43. So that the Word of Cod here also stood fast; 
and the first of the surrounding tribes who impiously 
sought to measure their strength with the cause and 
people of Cod were likewise the first to lose their na 
tional existence. 

In an earlier article, AGAC;, we had occasion to 
show- that this name was rather indicative of the royal 
dignity of the chief of the Amalekites, than the designa 
tion of any individual possessor of the throne. It was 
ised in a similar manner to Pharaoh among the Egyp- 

ound about, in the land which tians, and Abimelech among the Philistines; and was 

itself expressive of the fierce and warlike character which 


from all thine enemies i 

the Lord thy God giveth thee for an inheritance to pos 
sess it. that thou shalt blot out the remembrance of was cultivated alike by prince and people. 
Amalek from under heaven," Du. xxv. 17-10. The peculiar may consult particularly Hongstenherg .- 

guilt and malice of the Amal-kites, it will be observed. 

d a 

make a cruel and unprovoked attack, but had also cast 
off tlie fear of Cod, whom they had sufficient means of 
knowing: and hence -though only, of course, on the 
supposition that the same spirit should continue to 
animate them as a people -the Lord took Israel bound 
to make them monuments of the righteous judgment of 
Heaven. Too clear evidences were given of the conti 
nuance of such a spirit ; for they appear to have con 
tinually hung 011 the march of the Israelites, and joined 
with the Canaanites in the first encounter with the 
Israelites on the borders of Canaan, Xn. xiv. i:;-45 ; and 
after the people were settled in the land, they made 
incursions, along with the Midianites and the children 
of the Kast, destroying, on the southern portions of the 
land, the increase of the earth, and leaving it behind 

them little better than a desert. Ju. 

At that 

time they sustained a great defeat through Cideori, and 
for a considerable period are no more heard of . 15ut that 

uf t/ie Pentateuch, vol. ii. p. 247. English translation; 
also Kurtz, History nf the Old Covenant, vol. iii. p. 1, 
s. 1.] 

AMA NA [confirmation], mentioned as a mountain- 
top in Canticles iv. S, apparently one of the Lebanon 
range, and supposed by some also to be the same with 
the river Abana, -2 Ki. v. 12. Possibly the mountain 
may have been that from which the river derived both 
its source and its name. But this is matter merely of 

AMARIAH [spokctt uf by Jc.horah], the name of a 
great number of persons, none of whom, however, at 
tained to eminence, i ch. \i.7;v: 

AM AS A [ourdiii], 1. A son of Ithra, or Jether, by 
Abigail, the sister of Zeruiah, and consequently cousin 
of Joab, but apparently an illegitimate son, as it is not 
said that Abigail was the wife of Ithra, but merely 
that he went in unto her, and she bore him Amasa, -2S;i. 
In the passage just referred to the father is 
called Ithra an Israelite, while in 1 Ch. ii. 17 he is 
designated Jether the I shmaelite. Various explanations 
have been given of this discrepance : and among later 

they still retained their former enmity, and only watched , critics the tendency seems to be to regard the text in 

their opportunity, may be certainly inferred from what 
we otherwise know of them, and especially from the 
notice u iveii in connection with the earlier victories of 
Saul, in which, after mentioning what lie did against 
the Philistines. Moab, Ammon. Edom, and the kings 
of Zobah, it is added. "And he gathered an host, and 
smote the Amalekites, and delivered Israel out of the 
hands of them that spoiled them." i Sa. xiv. 4-;. Then came 
the special charge of Samuel t<> Saul to go and utterly 
destroy Amalek. l Sa. xv. 3, grounded formally on what 
Amalek had done to Israel at his departure from Egypt, 

nit on that, it must be rememberei 

sanctioned and 

Samuel as a corruption ; not only because it differs from 
the reading in 1 Chronicles, but because, on the sup 
position of the father having been an Israelite, there 
would have been no occasion for mentioning it. He was, 
in that case, one of her own people ; but if, on the other 
hand, he was an Tshmaelite, this was so peculiar a cir 
cumstance that it naturally called for remark. It is not 
improbable that this solution may be the correct one; 
yet it is also possible that the name of Israelite may- 
have been applied to him as indicating that he merely 
belonged in general to the covenant people, not to the 
tribe of Judali in particular : and his being also called an 




Ishmaelite may denote, what the word sometimes indi 
cates, Ju.viii.L 4, that he followed the customs and man 
ners of the Ishmaelites. Though he was an Israelite by 
birth, he was an Arab by his mode of life : and so, his 
Israelitish birth might on this account also require to 
be noted. Anyhow, it is clear there was something- 
irregular and unhappy in Amasa s parentage and birth. 
And one can easily understand how this may have led 
to some estrangement between him and his mother s 
kindred, and how. in the distractions that arose in the 
kingdom. Amasa should have l>een found to espouse the 
opposite side from that which was headed by David and 
the sons of Zeruiah. No mention is made of him in 
the earlier struggles and conflicts of David s life: and. 
even after David came to the throne, it is only svith the 
outbreak of Absalom s rebellion that he rises into notice, 
and then as appointed bv Absalom to the chief command 
of his army. Absalom would not have thought of set 
ting Amasa so high in office unles- lie had been already 
known as a man of superior energy and valour: nor is 
it likely he could have -ot him to accept of th- appoint 
ment unless there bad been some secret grudge in his 
bosom - a conviction of bis merits having been over 
looked, or his person treatt d uitli disregard, by l>avid 
and those about him. To David himself it must have 
been an affecting thought, that, while a son headed the 
rebellion, a nephew was placi-d over the forci s by which 
it was hoped to carry the project into effect, and lay at 
once the life and the empire of David in the du.-t. It 
is possible, too, that sonic conviction of wrong, or at 
least of ungenerous behaviour towards Ama-a. may 
have had its share in the motives that prompted David, 
after th" armv of the rel>c!s had been overthrown, t" 
huld ..ut pn>|><>-als of honour and advancement t" 
liis nephew. lie then at last n co-ui/ed Amasa a- \\\- 
kinsman, and sent to him the gracious message, " Art 
thou not of mv bone and of my flesh : ( iod do so to me, 
and more also, if thou be not captain of the h"st l>efore 
me continually, in the room of .Joab, -i Sa. v,\ i::. This, 
however, was a rush to th.- opposite extreme; for. what 
ever reasons there mi-lit be t" dispose the kin- to super 
sede .loab in the chief command, certainly Amasa. fresh 
from the crime of an active participation in the rebel 
lion, which had shaken the kingdom of David to its 
verv foundation, was not the man to take his place, .loab 
had indeed sinned against the king s command regard 
ing Absalom, and had sorely lacerated the parent s 
heart bv violently terminating the guilty career of the 
son. It was when still smarting under this severe 
wound that David sent such proposals of advancement 
to Amasa: so that a sense of injury sustained at the 
hand of Joab, as well as. it may be, a consciousness of 
former injury or ne-leet shown to Amasa, tended to 
produce this recoil in the heart of the kin-. I .ut .loab 
proved again too strong tor his master; he saw the ad 
verse turn which affairs were beginning to take; and 
when Sheba s rebellion broke out. and Amasa, who 
had been sent to quell it, was slower in his movements 
than was expected, .loab seized the opportunity, when 
suspicions were entertained of his faithfulness or energy, 
and Amasa himself was off his guard, to thrust a dagger 
into his heart, -J.Sa. \x. :>-l<>. On. loab s part, doubtless, it | 
was a most unprincipled and cruel act, and could not 
but call forth at the time the mournful lamentation of 
David, as it afterwards received at the hands of Solomon 
its meet retribution. Yet, as regards Amasa himself, 
when we think of the countenance he had given to the 

! wicked rebellion of Absalom, and the impious attempt 
he had made to cast to the ground the crown set by 
God himself on the head of David, it were hard to say, 
without other evidence of godly sorrow and repentance 
than is found in the sacred narrative, that Amasa de 
served a better fate. Thousands of lives had been 

I sacrificed through that treachery and revolt which he 

abetted; and unless deep contrition had penetrated his 
soul, condign punishment, rather than the most marked 
promotion, was the kind of treatment he had reason to 
expect. Still, if such punishment was to have been 
awarded, it should have been administered in another 
manner, and inflicted by a different hand. 

2. AMASA. the name of an Ephraimite chief, who 
earnestly urged the dismissal of the prisoners whom 

1 Pekah, king of Israel, had brought captive from .ludah, 
JCh. xxviii. l: 1 . 

AMAS AI. probably a variation of the name 
Amasa. It is used of at least four different persons, 
but of whom nothing very particular is known, i cii. \ii 

! ; vi. _ .-, ; xv -jl : . Cli. xxix. 1-. 

AMAZIAH [stringthfitdl of the /,/</], 1. The name 
of one of the kings of .ludah the son of ,b,ash. lie 
ivi-ned twenty-five years, from about n.c. X>> to M>;. 
1 1 is ]ei-n was of a verv mixed description, both as to the 
measures pin-sued under it and the results with \\hich 
thev were attended. His first step of a public nature 
was to punish those \\lio had conspired and murdered 
his father : and in this part of his procedure he- is com 
mended for his justice, as taking vengeance only upon 
the -\iiltv. and sparing their children, who had no par 
ticipation in the crime. When he found himself firmly 
seated upon the throne, he set about reducing the 
Kdomites to obed u nee: for during the miserable admi 
nistration of .lehoraiu. the son of Jehoshaphat, these 
had caM off their allegiance to .ludah. and had doubt 
less often been renewing their predatory incursions into 
the .lev. i>h territory. So feeble, however, had the king 
doni of .ludah become, that Ama/iah \\as afraid to \en 
lure on this undertaking with such forces as lie could 
raise amoli- his o\\u people; and he hired \\ith an 
hundred talents of silver an hundred thousand troops 
from the kin- of Israel. It is the first instance on 
record of a strictly mercenary army employed by the 
covenant people. And it was in itself a false step; for 
it necessarilv brought the kingdom of .ludah into a 
dangerous alliance with the corrupt court of Israel, and 

placed the one in a kind of dependence Upon the other 
A prophet, therefore, n moiistrated a-ainst it, foiv- 
warin d Ama/iah of the certain withdrawal of the divine 
favour if lie leaned upon such auxiliarii s. and assured 
him of success if he put his trust in Cod. and went tor- 
ward with thi resources which were more properly his 
own. In compliance with this counsel, he dismissed 
the Israelitish troops, who uere greatly olli-nded at the 
treatment they met with, and revenged themselves by 
spreadin- havoc and desolation through various cities 
on their way back. Ama/iah, however, succeeded in 
his expedition : the Kdomites were defeated in a great 
battle in the valley of Salt, \vith the loss altogether of 
twenty thousand men: and their chief city, Selah (or 
1 etra), was taken and garrisoned by -Jewish soldiers. 
Hut while on the held of battle he prevailed, he was 
himself conquered by the idolatry of Kdom. At the very 
time when the Ciod of his fathers had given him a dis 
tinguishing token of his favour and efficient help, he fell 
off from his allegiance, and did service to the gods of 



his prostrate enemies. It was a display of weakness 
and inconstancy which it is difficult to account for, 
unless it were from tlie false policy of which too many 
examples have been given in later times of seeking to 
conciliate the conquered to his sway l>y paying homage 
to their superstitions. On this second, and still worse 
defection from the right path, a prophet again came to 
him with the word of admonition, reproving him for the 
palpable folly of .seeking after gods, which could not 
deliver their own people out of his hand." But Amaziah, 
elated with success, and confident of the wisdom of his 
policy, refused now to listen to the friendly monitor 
who spake to him even threatened him with chastise 
ment if he should persist in his remonstrances ; and was 
left to know in bitter experience the truth of the pro 
verb, that " He who harderieth his heart shall fall into 
mischief." Such, the dishonoured prophet assured him, 
would be the case. He knew, "he said, "that God had 
determined to destroy him, because he had not hearkened 
to the counsel given him." And so it proved ; for, in the 
pride of his heart, Amaziah sent a challenge to Joash, 
the king of Israel, the ground of which is not stated, 
though it probably arose out of the exasperation pro 
duced by Amaziah s treatment of the forces he had 
hired from Joash, and the disorders that followed. 
Joash, however, was rather disinclined to enter into 
direct conflict with Judah, and, by a parable, endea 
voured to dissuade Amaziah from his purpose : but in 
vain. The king of Judah was bent on measuring his 
strength with the king of Israel; and. doing so without 
any just cause, and in defiance of the counsel of Heaven, 
he was smitten before his adversary, and was carried 
by Joash in triumph into his own city, Jerusalem. 
Amaziah had his life spared ; for Joash was satisfied 
with having thoroughly humbled him, and returned 
from Jerusalem with much treasure and a number of 
hostages. But the kingdom never recovered, in Ama 
ziah s time, the blow thus inflicted upon it ; and he 
himself at last fell, like his father, a victim to a con 
spiracy formed against his life. He appears to have 
got notice of it in time to flee to Lachish ; but the con 
spirators followed him thither, and despatched him. He 
was buried in Jerusalem : 2 Ki. xiv. , 2Cli. xxiv. 

2. AMAZIAH, a priest in the house of the golden calf 
at Bethel, in the time of Jeroboam II. The only thing 
besides recorded of him is the offence he took at the re 
proofs and predictions of the prophet Amos, whom he 
would fain have silenced, or remanded to his native 
country, as one spreading disaffection against the 
king s government. The interference of Amaziah only 
drew from the prophet a fresh rebuke, and a solemn 
denunciation of coming judgment upon him, and 
upon the whole people of Israel, Am. vii. 10. i". 

AMBASSADOR, a person formally deputed by a 
king or state to carry some message of importance, or 
transact some official business in the name of the party 
he represents. From the comparatively isolated posi 
tion of ancient Israel, and the relation in which they 
stood to the surrounding countries, the employment of 
ambassadors could not be a stated or even very fre 
quent practice ; but circumstances did occasionally 
arise which led to its adoption, as when David sent 
ambassadors to Hanun, king of the Amorites, to 
congratulate him on his ascension to the throne, and 
Hiram for a like purpose sent them to Solomon, 2Sa. x. L> ; 
iKi.v. i. Sometimes they were sent both from and 
to the kings of Israel and Judah, on more question 

able errands for conducting negotiations that should 
not have been entered into; but, for whatever purpose 
sent, it always was the part of an ambassador to per 
sonate the authority he represented, and the reception 
given or withheld from him was necessarily regarded 
as virtually given or withheld in respect to the party 
whose representative he was. 

The word occurs but once in Xew Testament scrip 
ture, - Co. v. 20, and is there employed hy the apostle 
1 aul to designate the nature and dignity of the office 
exercised by him and all properly qualified preachers 
of the gospel. They are ambassadors for Christ, in 
his stead and on God s behalf, beseeching all men to be 
reconciled to God. It presents a striking view of the 
importance and dignity of an evangelical ministry, and 
should have its effect in imparting gravity, seriousness, 
j and fidelity to those who exercise it, as well as awaken 
ing earnest consideration and ready acquiescence from 
those among whom it is exercised. 


AMEN, a Hebrew word, transferred first to the 
Greek, then to the Latin, whence it has passed into 
most modern languages. Commonly it is regarded as 
primarily an adjective, signifying Jinn, faithful, sure, 
as when used by the glorified "Redeemer in lie. iii. 14, 
where he styles himself "the Amen, the faithful and 
true witness." But even here it may be quite fitly 
taken as an adverb in the sense of verily ; as also in 
Is. Ixv. 1(J, where it is employed as an epithet, tJn 
God of the verily. The verily, He who is absolutely 
and emphatically such, as Hengstenberg has justly re 
marked, "is He who in all he says, whether in dis 
closing the depths of the heart, or in giving forth 
threatenings and promises, can always add with the 
fullest right the verily ; while, in regard to everything 
that a short-sighted man may speak, there constantly 
goes along with it a mark of interrogation, and the 
more so, indeed, the more confidently he speaks." 
I Icnce, it is very frequently used by our Lord, espe 
cially in connection with those utterances which refer 
red to the deeper things of God, or the things which 
were apt to awaken the incredulity, if not the opposi 
tion, of flesh and blood. On this account, also, it oc 
curs most frequently, and often in a reduplicated form 
in the Gospel of John, which records more of such dis 
courses of our Lord than any of the others. In its 
more common and popular use, its object is to express 
an assured belief of something that has been spoken, 
whether by one s self or by another, or the earnest 
desire and expectation of something that has been 
announced ; therefore importing, so it in, or so be it. 
It is hence fitly used at the close of a prayer, or by way 
of response to the prayers presented by others ; in which 
there is no difference among Christians, except in re 
gard to the extent to which the responsive Amen 
whether with suppressed or distinctly uttered acquies 
cence should be admitted in the services of the sanc 
tuary a difference, at most, but of form. 

AMETHYST, the Greek term ( A^Ovaros), for 
the Heb. ncSntfj au ^ thence derived into the English. 

and other modern languages. The stone so designated 
was one of those which entered into the high-priest s 
breastplate the ninth in number; and is supposed to 
have derived its name from some imagined property in 
regard to dreams (the Heb. root signifying to dream), 
as the Greek did in regard to drunkenness. The stone 




so called, like the hurl) of the same name, was eon- to them." On this account they were not to be 

ceived to act as a sort of charm against intoxication, received into the congregation till the tenth generation; 

and wine-bibbers are reported to have usually worn it Do. xxili. 3, which is further explained by saying in ver. 6, 

about their necks. Of course, it was from no such " Tlu.u shalt not seek their peace nor their prosperity 

ideas that the stone in question was admitted into the all thy days for ever" a perpetual interdict. And so 

sacred breastplate; but merely from its having are- the matter was understood in Xehemiah s time; for it 

cognized place among the precious gems. is there recorded that on a certain day "they read in the 

The amethyst is a transparent gem, exhibiting a book of Moses in the audience of the people; and 

sort of purple appearance, composed partly of a strong therein it was found written that the Ammonite and 

blue and of a deep red, but these variously propor- the Moabite should not come into the congregation of 

tioned, and the purple accordingly presenting different the Lord for ever," N e. xiii. i. It may well be doubted, 

tinges from the violet to the rose colour. The oriental however, if tl 

species of this gem ; it is even the hardest substance 

ssiiig (.if Israel. The ancient .Jewish writers eer- 

known, next to the diamond. The ground of its com- tainly did not sei understand it; they considered the 
position is alumina, intermingled with small propor- prohibition only as referring to the full ri-dits of citi- 

tions of iron and silica, whence it is closely related to 
the sapphire. The European or western amethvst is 
not much harder than crystal, and is indeed a sort of 
rock-crystal, or variety of quart/. This species is to 
be found in considerable abundance in must countries 
of Europe, and is that which, both in ancient and b 
modern times, has been must frequently e-mploved fur 
articles of jewellery. To which kind that in the l.r.-ast 
plate of the high-priest belonged, we have no means of 

AMMIX ADAE [pcoplt >,f liberality, bounteous], 
occurs to say nothing of its occasional appearance 

zenship, not to the privilege of entering into the bond 
and blessing of the covenant: and justified their view 
both by the ease of Ruth, and by the general principles 
of the theocracy. They said, as quoted by Ainsworth 
n lie. \xiii. :;, "All heathens whosoever, when they 
come proselytes, and have taken upon them all the 
commandments \\hich are in the lav, ; likewise bond 
servants when they are made free , lo . they are as 
Israelites in all respects. Nu. iv. 15, and it is lawful for 
them to come into the congregation of the Lord imme 
diatel. And the proselyte or freed man may marry 

in some genealogical table 
name of one of the ancestors of l>a\M. the father of 
Elisheba. who became the wife of Aaron; and in ( a. 
vi. ]-J the chariots of Amminadali are spoken of ap 
parently as an image "f fervent action and lightning 
speed. It is probable there was sonic person of that 

a daughter of Israel ; and the Israelite may marry her 
that is a proselyte or made free; except of four people 
only, which are Anmioii, Moab, Kdom, and Egypt; 
for these- people, when any (.f them becometh a prose 
lyte. h.- is an Israelite in all respects, save in the case 
of entering into the congregation of the Lord. The 
Ammonite and the .Moabite are forbidden for ever 

name who gave occasion to the proverbial use of the the males, but not the females. We have it as a tra- 

expression. but no trace is found of him in history. dition from Mount Sinai, that the Ammonite is the 

AMMOX [originally I .KX A.MMI, Gc MX. :;-, son ,,f male, and the .Moabite is the male, that is forbidden 

in;/ relative, then for the descendants I .KNE AMJIOV, for ever to marry a daughter ..f Israel, though it be his 

CHILDKK.N or A.M.MON. or A.M.MOM i i;s], tl 
of one of the sons of Eot. Ge. xix. S.s. Their 01 
territory, after they became a people, lay toward tl. 
east of I alestine, beyond the river .Jabbok. having the 
possessions of Keuben and Cad upon the west. and. 
those of Moab on the south, bounded by the river 
Arnon. It would appear, however, that they \\ere not 

sons son, to the world s end. Ihit an Ammonitess 
nal and a Moabitess arc lawful immediately, as the other 
people." According to this view, \\hich seems to be 
grounded in reason, and supported by the facts of his 
tory, what is meant by entering into the congregation 
ot the Lord, is complete identification as a people, 
admission to a place and standing as members of the 

the original occupants of the region, but wrested it commonwealth of Israel: this is what was to be re- 

from the /am/.ummim. a race of giants. Do. ii. w, fused to the Ammonites and Moabites, so long as the 

and thereafter settle. 1 down in it. and grew into a con- peculiar constitution of Israel stood, but without pre- 

siderable people. The Israelites approached the b,,rder judice to the reception of believing individuals to the 

of their territory, when on their way to the possession spiritual benefits of the covenant. 

of Canaan, but did not actually interfere with any In reality, however, the Ammonites, as a people, were 
part of it- at least with no part that at the time was as little disposed to ask, as the Israelites to give, a corn- 
held by them; though a portion of what was taken mon participation in national honours and advantages. 
from the Amorites that, namely, lying between the The unbrotherly and hostile spirit which they evinced 
rivers Arnon and Jabbok- was afterwards claimed as at the outset was transmitted as a heritage to future 
by right theirs, Ju. xi. 12. They appear, however, to generations, and exploded in many fierce encounters. 
have taken a very active part in the efforts that were Shortly after the children of Israel had entered on their 
made by the tribes ,,n the farther side <>f Jordan to , new possessions, they were assailed, and kept for a 
>ppose the march of the Israelites, and crush their time in a sort >,f bondage, by the Ammonites, ii 

hopes of entering the land of Canaan. For, in the junction with the people of Moab and Amalek, Ju. iii. 13. 

prohibition laid down by Moses as to receiving the The oppression proved but temporary, as the enemies 

Ammonites into the congregation of the Lord, it is were again driven back with great slaughter. But at a 

stated as the ground of the prohibition, that "they had subsequent period, probably about a century and a half 

not met them with bread and water by the way, when later, and as a chastisement to Israel for their spiritual 

the Israelites came out of Egypt;" not only so, but "had defections, the Ammonites again rose to the ascendant, 

hired/ that is, had gone along with Moab and Midian at least in respect to the Israelites beyond the Jordan! 
in hiring "against them Balaam, the son of Beor, j and pressed heavily upon them. It was on this occasion 

VOL. I. 





that the Israelites, in tin: depth of their distress, called 
in the ;iid of .lephthah, whose sinister birth and some 
what lawless character would, lint for the emergency 
of tlie time, have disposed them t<i slum any intimate 
eonneetioii with liim. \\ hen he had assumed the com 
mand of the Israelitish host, he sent a challenge to the 
king of the Ammonites, demanding to know the grounds 
of his quarrel with the covenant people ; which was an 
swered hv calling to remembrance an alleged wrong 
that was sustained by Ammon at the hands of the 
children of Israel when they came out of Egypt- the 
seizure, already referred to. of a portion of their terri 
tory. This charge was repelled by Jephthah, in a de 
tailed recital of the circumstances relating to Israel s 
progress toward ( anaan, and of the exact position of the 
Ammonites at the time as to the portion of territory in 
question. The matter, therefore, came to a conflict, in 
which the Ammonites sustained a complete defeat, .Ju. xi. ; 
Kilt in process of time the old spirit again revived. In 
the age of Saul the Ammonites appear among the ene 
mies over whom lie gained decisive victories, 1 Sa. xi. ll ; 
and though David endeavoured to cultivate friendly 
relations with them, he so completely failed in his de 
sign, that it was from them he received some of his 
greatest provocations and deadliest assaults, 2Sx x.; I M. 
ixxxiii. 7; and from him, in return, that they met with 
their most dreadful castigation and humiliating reverse, 
Jrta. xii. . <!- :n. Still, they were not wholly subdued. Even 
in the next reign they had so far regained their posi 
tion that Solomon obtained SOUK; of his many wives 
from them : and receiving these not like Ii uth, humble 
converts to the truth of (Jod, but with all their idolatry 
cleaving to them he reared for them, in defiance of all 
reason and the whole spirit of the theocracy, "a temple 
to .Molech, the abomination of the children of Ammoii," 
i Ki.xi.:. In the eye of Heaven this was the saddest victory 
ever gained by the Ammonites over the children of 
Israel, audit could not fail to draw down the inflictions 
of its righteous displeasure. The rending of the king 
dom soon followed, and the permanent depression of the 
house of David. During the decline and fall of the 
kingdom, the Ammonites from time to time renewed 
their hostility; though, from their diminished strength, 
they rather aided the attempts of others than made anv 
vigorous assaults of their own, 2Ch. xx. ; Jo. xlix. i- Am. i. i:; ; 
Kze. xxv. 3-0 ; and, at the return of the Jews from Bal >vlon, 
they showed their spite by endeavouring, though in 
vain, to arrest the building of the temple. Some of the 
exiled Jews had found refuge among them during the dis 
persion, and, it would seem, had intermarried with them ; 
so that a considerable portion of the heathen leaven, 
which it cost Ezra and Xehemiah such difficulty to get 
purgei 1 out, was derived from this quarter, E/.r. x.; Xc. xiii. 
At a later period, in the time of the Maccabees, vari 
ous battles were fought with them, in which success 
was chiefly on the Jewish side; but amid the changes 
that ensued, first under the Grecian, then under the 
Koman supremacy, the Ammonites, in common with 
the -.mailer tribes in their neighbourhood, lost their 
independent position, and gradually became amalgam 
ated with the general Arab population. In Origen s 
time their country was comprised under the common 
title of Arabia. 

AM NOX [faMfuJ], David s eldest son, by Ahinoam 
tli Jezreelitess. lie was born at Hebron. Nothing- 
is recorded of him except his atrocious conduct toward 
his half-sister Tamar, which cost him his life, 2Sa. xiii 

14, - !). The circumstances connected with it and his own 
unhappy end. are noticed under ABSALOM. 

A MON [workman, arcliit<ct~\, was borne as a name 
by various persons, two of whom are little more than 
mentioned, I Ki. xxii. 20 ; 2( h. xviii. _ ;"> ; Xt>. vii. ;V>, and a third 
is only mentioned to his discredit. This was the son of 
.Manasseh, and his successor on the throne of Judah. 
His reign commenced about n.c. <>14, and ended miser 
ably in the course of two years. In his personal conduct 
and public administration he followed the worse, not the 
later and better .part of his father s procedure, restoring 
idolatry in its most obnoxious form, ami with its wonted 
abominations, ills servants conspired against him. on 
what grounds is not stated, and killed him in the palace ; 
but the people of the land, not participating in their views, 
conspired in turn and slew the murderers, 2 Ki. xxi. w- X. 

A MOXl, the name of one of the Egyptian deities. 
The references to it in Scripture are somewhat 
obscured to the English reader by the word, through 
an old misapprehension, being unfortunately trans 
lated, instead of being taken as a proper name. Thus, 
in Jer. xlvi. 25, "Behold, 1 will punish the multitude 
of Xo" should be, "Behold, I will punish Amon 
of Xo" the god that was peculiarly worshipped 
there; after which naturally follows 1 haraoh, and 
Egypt generally, as alike doomed to severe chastise 
ment. So, again, in Xahum iii. 8, "Art thou better 
than populous Xo?" is properly, "Art thou better than 
Xo- Amon ? " the city which was devoted to the worship 
of Amon, Ezo. xxx. 1"). Xo is the same as Thebes, where, 
it is well known, the deity whom the Greeks compared 
or identified with their Jupiter was worshipped with 
much devotion. They called him Ammon or Jupiter- 
Ammoii; but on the Egyptian monuments the name is 
written A inn or Amn-lie (Amon the Sun), and was 
supposed by the Greeks and IJomans to be represented 
under the figure of a human form with a ram s head. 
But this, though still often repeated, has been proved 
by the more accurate investigations of modern times to 
be a mistake. It was the god Ncph, sometimes written 
Knepli, and by the Greeks Chnoubis, who was so repre 
sented, and the proper seat of whose worship was not 
Thebes, but Mero e, and who also had a famous oracle 
in the Lybian. desert. The Amon of Thebes, king of 
gods," as he was called, always had the form simply of 
a man assigned him, and in one of the characters under 
which he was worshipped appears to have been virtually 
identified with the sun, in another with the Egyptian 
Pan (Wilkinson s Manners and Customs of the Egyp 
tians, ch. xiii.) Being represented as the king of gods, 
and holding a supreme place in the mythology of Egypt, 
we can easily understand why he should have been 
specially mentioned in Scripture when the gods of 
Egypt are singled out for vengeance. The worship paid 
him, like that of the worship generally which was cele 
brated in Egypt, partook of much that was impure, as 
well as frivolous and absurd. 

AM OBITE [more properly EMOUITE (Sept. A/mop- 
paioi\ probably meaning mountaineer], one of the ori 
ginal, and, indeed, by much the largest and most 
powerful of the original tribes that inhabited the land 
of Canaan before the Israelitish conquest. The terri 
tory they occupied lay toward the soxith, and so early 
as the time of Abraham they were met with about 
Hebron and Hazezon-tamar. At the time of the 
conquest, they are represented as having five kings, 
whose respective scats were Jerusalem, Hebron, Jar- 



muth, Lacliish, and Eglon, Jos. x. 5; and they had also 
possessed themselves of considerable territory on the 
other side of the Jordan, where Sihon and Og latterly 
reigned. Xu. xxi. 21-24. Partly from being so numerous 
and powerful a tribe, and partly also from their occu 
pying that portion of the Canaaiiitish territory with 
which the covenant people came into earliest and closest 
contact, the Amorites are sometimes spoken of as if 
thev were the only inhabitants of the land. Go. xv. if> ; 
xlviii. 22; Do. i. 20. And their strength and valour, as well 
as numerical greatness, is particularly mentioned by the 
prophet Amos: " i destroyed the Amorite before them, 
whose height was like the height of the cedars, and he 
was strong as the oaks," rh. ii. y. 

The Amorites were the descendants of Emor. the 
fourth son of Canaan, and seem early to have attained to 
a bad pre-eminence among tin. Canaaiiite progeny, for 
the corrupt and dissolute manners which distinguished 
the race. In the time of Abraham their iniquity was em 
phatically noticed, though it had not become full, except 
in the case of those who inhabited the fertile plain where 
Sodom and Gomorrah stood ; and these, for a warning 
to the rest, were made monument.- of divine judgment. 
What effect the warning might have, had at the time, 
or how far its voice may have reached, we have no par 
ticular means of ascertaining, as the chosen seed wi re 
soon afterwards entirely removed from the region. l ,u; 
at the period \\hentliev returned, under the divine guid- : 
ance. to get possession of the land, we are distinctly in 
formed that the rankest corruptions had again taken root . 
amongst the Amorites. as well as the other inhabitants, 
and that the time of retribution had come, [ hat portion 
of them. howe\er, w ho dwelt on the east side of Jordan, 
being beyond the limits of the land properly destined for 
the children of Israel, \\civ not necessarily included in 
the doom which was pronounced upon the occupants of 
Canaan, and niiu ht ha\e been spared, if thev had lis 
tened to the dictates of wisdom and discretion. Moses, 
on approaching their territory, sent a message to Sihon, 
king of Heshbon. simply requesting permission to pass 
unmolested through his borders. But this was sternly 
refused, and all the forces of Sihon were presently 
gathered together to cut off the host of Isra, 1. It ended, 
however, in the destruction of Sihon and his people, as 
a similar conflict shortly afterwards also terminated with 
Og. king of I .ashan. the other chief of that section of the 
Amorites; and the tract of country, thus cleared of its 
former occupants, was divided among the tribes of IJeti- 
beii, Manasseh, and ( Jad. as being peculiarly suited for 
the pasturage of cattle, in which they were richer than 
the other tribes, Xu \\\U. This was done at their own 
request, and in connection with many protestations on 

their part, and solemn vows exacted from them, that 


they would remain faithful to covenant engagements, 
and consider themselves one with their brethren in 
worship and polity, notwithstanding the natural boun 
dary-line of the .Ionian lying between them, Jos. xxii. 
But in the result it turned out rather unfavourable to 
the higher interests of the portion of the people located 
there. Their greater distance from the sanctuary their 
more isolated position in respect to their brethren, and 
greater exposure to heathen and warlike neighbours on 
the east and south, tended to keep them morally lower 
than the rest of the tribes excepting Dan, upon the 
extreme north and subjected them also to more fre 
quent hostile incursions. 

The Amorites within the bounds of Canaan proper. 

headed by their five kings and subordinate chiefs, made 
a stout resistance to the arms of the Israelites; but 
without avail : their time had at length come, and no 
power or resources at their command could save them. 
They were not, indeed, utterly exterminated ; but they 
henceforth existed only in fragments or detached por 
tions, and were chiefly confined to the more mountainous 
parts of the country, Ju. i. :ii-::ii. Occasional skirmishes, 
it would seem, still took place between them and their 
conquerors ; for it is noted in Samuel s time, as a thing 
distinctive of the period, that there was then peace be 
tween Israel and tin 1 Amorites. i Sa. vii. 14. This was not 
equally characteristic of the age that followed: for the 
Cibeonites. who Were of the stock of the Amorites, 
were so severely and unjustly dealt with by Saul that 
a divine judgment was afterwards sent to avenge 
it. 2S;i. x\i.; and 1 avid made war upon the Jebusites, 
another section of the old Amorite race, and wrested the 
stronghold of /ion out of iheir hand. 2S;x. v. c.-ii. It was 
from one of these Araunah, the Jebusite that Oavid 
afterwards obtained the site for the future temple (,<> 
An A IN A ID. Tlii last notice that, occurs of them is one 
given in ooini! ctioii \\ith the ]-ei_ni of Solomon, to the 
etli-ct that he imposed a tribute upon them, alony- 
with the remnants of the otlu r native tribes still exist 
ing in the land, l Ki. i\. L H. They must by that time have 
become comparatively few in number, and thenceforth 
ceased to be regarded, or at least taken notice of, as a 
separate people. 

A MOS [zr.y, burden], the 1 n.phet of Tekoa, a 
town of Jiidah. formed one of that remarkable group 
of prophets \\ho appeared during, and shortly after 
the reign of I /./iah [llosea, Isaiah. Mieah]. Of his 
personal condition and history, our information, though 
it embraces only a l < w li ading facts, is larger than 
in the case of some other of the prophets. For these 
ancient men of Cod were truly worthy of the name. 
With them ( iod was all in all; and everything per 
sonal to themselves was kept ill the hack - ground, 
exci pt in so far as it might help to illustrate the 
message with \\hich thev were intrusted. 

I. Untruc/< i <if the (inns: itut imm/ ,s- ///,, iiiul dan- 
y<rs. Amos appeared at a -Teat crisis in the history 
of Israel. The virgin dan-liter of Israel had fallen. 
With the ivi j;n of Solomon the power and grandeur 
of the nation had passed away. Iml. ed. before Solo 
mon died the seeds of national dissolution had been 
scattered abroad; and they had ever since been rising 
ainl ripening into an abundant harvest of evils. The 
separation of the ten tribes from Judah, viewed only in 
its political aspect, was in itself a fatal blo\\ to the 
pro eminence which David had won for Israel overall 
the surrounding nations. His kingdom, divided against 
itself, was no longer formidable ; and it was not long 
before a succession of revolts, on the part of the tribes 
he had subdued, reduced it again within its ancient 
narrow boundaries. J>ut this was not all. The sepa 
ration of the ten tribes was followed by results still 
more fatal. Jn order to maintain their political inde 
pendence of Judah and of the house of David, it was 
necessary to break up the religious unity which was 
represented and maintained by the one temple, and the 
great annual gatherings of all the males of Israel 
within its walls. By withdrawing the ten tribes from 
the place in which Jehovah had specially chosen to 
set his name, and erecting two rival sanctuaries at 




Dun and Hi.-t.lirl, where, in direct violation of the 
second commandment, Jehovah was worshipped under 
an animal form, .lerolioam. the son of Nehat. while 
appuivnth yielding oiilv to the demands of jiolitieal 
necessity, stnu-k with fatal rtl ret at the ascendency 
ami free action of those religious feelings ;ind comic 
tions, which, though often ignored hv the mere poli 
tician, are the oiilv stalile foundation on which can In- 
reared the glory or happiness of a nation. NTnr \\eiv 
the fatal results of the measures of Jeroboam confined 
to the kingdom of the ten tribes. The people of .ludah, 
though still clinging to Jerusalem as tin- centre of their 
religious woiship, and s ill faithful to the divinely 
chosen house of Duv ul. conld not, and did not remain 
uncontaminated by the evil example of their neigh 
bours and brethren. _ \mono- them, too, the worship 
on the high places superseded in a great measure the 
wor-hip of .leliovuh in /ion: and at last, even the 
abominations of Baal and Ashtoreth were imported 
from the iioi-thern kingdom, chiefly through the in 
fluence of the family of Ahab, with vvliich the house 
of David had foolishly and sinfullv entered into close 
alliance. Thus the house of l.-rael. in both its branches, 
sank deeper and deeper, until they List almost entirely 
their distinctive character as God s chosen people, and 
He was compelled to say of them, as He does by the 
mouth of the prophet Amos, "Are ye not as children of 
the Kthiopiaiis unto me. O children of Israel T Am. ix. r. 
But Cod did not cast away his people whom He fore 
knew. From the regions of the north lie stirred up a 
mighty nation, and called it to his foot, and bade it 
execute his wrath upon apostate Israel. And within 
Israel He caused the voice of the prophet again to he- 
heard with power; by the mouth of his servants he 
laid bare his people s sin, pointed to the overhanu-in^ 
cloud of wrath which was ready to burst upon them, 
and called on them by a timely penitence to avert 
the impending doom. 

Xo reader of Scripture can fail to remark the won 
derful harmony with which this twofold operation upon 
the part of Cod was carried forward. Both parts of 
it were essential to success the external and the in 
ternal. The one without the other would have failed 
to wake up de-ad Israel. In vain would Adonai have 
.stirred up the armies of the north, and led them for 
ward even to the borders of his chosen heritage, had 
not J .hori.t.h at the same time summoned forth his pro 
phets to proclaim to Israel that these armies were his 
that He led them 011, and that a return to him 
was the only way of averting the threatened destruc 
tion. 1 And equally vain would it have been for .Jehovah 
to summon forth his prophets and put in their mouth 
words of loud warning and earnest expostulation, had 
not Acloiiai, at the same time, stirred up the armies 
of the north to come, and by their dreaded presence 
give power to the prophets woi\U The movements of 
Cod s armies muse be explained by the representations 
of his ambassadors ; and the representations of his 
ambassadors must be enforced by the movements of 
his armies. The consideration of this harmonious opera 
tion of God beyond and within Israel, will help to ex- 

plain that wonderful revival of prophetic activity which 
distinguished the reign of L zziah and his immediate 
successors. For it was then that the great Assyrian 
power begun to menace Israel; and the earlier con 
flicts with the surrounding kingdoms of Syria, and 
Ammen. and Moab, and Kdom, and 1 hilistia were 
not remembered, every eye being turned to that cloud 
in the north, at first no bigger than a man s hand, 
which was gradually spreading wirier and wider, and 
threatening to cover with its black .-hade the whole- 

It is true that when Amos prophesied, the danger 
from Assyria did not appear imminent to the mass of 
his countrymen. I nder Jeroboam the kingdom of the 
ten tribes had risen from the prostration consequent 
upon the successful assaults of ilazael and the armies 
of Syria. And in the joy of victory over enemies close 
at hand, whom they regarded with all the animosity of 
an ancient rivalry, they marked not the onward ad 
vance of a more distant though more formidable foe. 
Am. vi. But the prophet of the Lord saw not with the 
eye of a common man. Already he beheld Israel pros 
trate, and trampled under the chariot of the Assyrian 
invader; and. with loud call, he tried to wake up the 
j slumbering nation, Am. 

II. Jioiudies proposed: teaching of the prophets. 
But how shall Israel be saved from the overwhelm 
ing rush of the northern host? Fvcry one who reads 
carefully the writings of this period must be aware that 
this was the great question which pressed for an imme 
diate solution. It was so. even when Amos wrote, to 
the far-seeing prophet himself, and very soon thereafter 
to the whole nation. Many were the replies which tlii.-- 
question called forth, traces of which we find in the 
historical and prophetic scriptures. With a large party, 
especially in the southern kingdom, the policy most in 
favour was. to call in to their aid the armies of Kgypt. 
the only great pc.v.vr which was strong enough to enter 
into conflict with the northern invader. And hence 
the many and earnest denunciations of this party and 
this policy, which we meet with in the writings of the 
prophets denunciations which were- all tin.- more- vehe 
ment the more dangerous the policy they contended 
against, and the more specious and plausible the argu 
ments by which it was recommended. Certainly no 
thing could be more agreeable to those politicians, who 
thought only of averting the present danger, heedless of 
the remote consequences of the policy thev pursued, 
than the suggestion, that safety for Israel was to lie 
found in the rivalries of Assyria and Egypt. But the 
prophets, who looked deeper than the common sort of 
thinkers, saw in this specious and temporizing measure 
and saw truly, as experience proved nothing less 
than the renunciation of Jehovah, and the ruin of Israel. 
But what then ? Did the prophets of Jehovah rest satis 
fied with denouncing the policy recommended hv others . 
Had they no policy of their own \ The}- had ; and in 
the writings of Amos and his contemporaries we find 
the principles of their policy fully unfolded. And what 
was their policy / What were the measures they re 
commended as alone sufficient to meet the demands of 
the crisis ? They may all be summed up in a few words : 
Return unto the Lord, and He will return unto you. 
Strange policy this wherewith to meet the intrigues and 
the arms of Assyria. We can scarcely wonder that the 
prophets who recommended it were looked upon as a 
class of one-ideaed and impracticable people, far behind 



the age, whom it was useless to argue with, and neces 
sary to get rid of as soon as possible. 
But let us trace the operation of this despised policy 
as we find it developed in the writings of the prophets. 
We find it branching out into two different directions, 
and thus furnishing an antidote, and the only antidote, 
to the two great evils which were destroying Israel. 
These evils were unrighteousness and division, and the 
antidote to these, obedience to Jehovah s law and faith 
m Jehovah s promise. Why was it that Israel, once a 
great power on the earth, had now become the pivv of 
every invader.- It was because unrighteousness, like a 
slow poison, was eating away, and division, like a sharp 
sword, had cleft asunder the strength of the nation. 
And of what avail the armies of Egypt to counti-ract 
the working of that poison, or to heal the divisions of 
the house of Israel ! Far different must be the remedy. 
What was wanti-d, as the prophets clearly saw. was 
moral power and union: and thrso were to be found 
only in Jehovah - in his law and in his promise. K\vrv 
other remedy they knew to be utterly inadequate. 
But though the prophet- knew \\vll that theirs was 
the only effective remedy, they had no t xpectation that 
it would at once commend itself to their hearers. Such 
radieal measures as they urged are rarely had recourse 
to by a nation, till every other measure has been tried 
in vain, and the nation has been brought to the brink 
of ruin. The rotten foundation usually remains un 
heeded until the .-uperstructuiv. so often patehed, and 
plastered, and painted, falling in ruins, lavs it bare, and 
reveals to every eye the folly ami infatuation of the 
short-sighted occupants. Such the prophets already 
foresaw would be the fate of Israel. They had little 
hope ,,f a thorough reformation, until e\erv sort <>f prop 
and patchwork had been tried in vain, and Israel had 
again learned, by bitter experience, that in Jehovah 
alone help was t" lie found, lit nee the darkne.-s which 
overspreads the greater part of their prophecies. There 
was nothing in the present or in the near future in 
cheer and encourage: it was only in the far distance 
they marked some faint streaks "f li_ht. piv-age- 
happier day. 
111. <. liai-art n- and emit ,</.-: nf In- /,r<>j,/t<-ri/ nf A mos. 

- If HoW We take Up the boi.k "f the |i|Mphet AllloS, 

we shall find that the preceding investigation liar- IP it 
been fruitless. Regarding it as a \\h..]e. the prophecie- 
are, for the mo.-t part, of a dark and gloomy character. 
The wrath of Jehovah is not turned away, but his hand 
is stretched out still. Lvery means of awakening peni 
tence has been tried, and tried in vain. .Ichovah has 
wrought in mercy and in judgment: but both have proved 
equally ineffectual, ch. ii. u-ll; Hi. . ; iv. f,-u. His forUar- 
ance and long-suffering, instead of leading to repent 
ancc, have been despised, cli. vi. :i, i) ; and now there is 

never find him brooding over the 
even his darkest predictions are t 
ances of a man of faith, who is nol 
and things in the face, having con 
who inaketh all things work for got 
him. He had, indeed, a tender he; 

uturc despairingly : 
vidently the utter- 
afraid to look men 
idence in that Cod 
d to them that love 
rt, and he loved his 
wed his tenderness 
icy, or to blunt the 
i he felt inwardly 
bare the wounds of 

>e of being listened 
ot on that account 
nd address to them 
v. 4, so. And he en- 
:>eal by reminding 
imitv, who Jehovah 
-at things Jle had 
Id. ch. ii. !>, and what 

nation, ch. vii. -2,:,; but he never alh 
of heart to degenerate into efl emiu 
sharp words of reproof with whit- 
constrained, divinely called, to lay 
his country. 
But though Amos had little hoj 
to by the rulers of Israel, he did i 
refuse to obey the divine impulse. ; 
another call to rtturn to Jiliont/i. ch. 
forces this call by many a stirring ap 
them, in language of wonderful sub] 
is. ch. iv. i:: ; v. ,&c : ix.. .,(,, and how gr 
done for his people in the days of c 

evils their revolt from him had allx-au^ orougm, upon 
them. cli. iv. (sic. To enlarge their views of the divine 
glory, he frequently introduces the names Adonai and 
Cod of Hosts, names by which the Lordship and all- 
embracing Sovereignty of Jehovah are most fittingly 
expressed. The compound name Adonai- Jehovah is 
with him. as with others of the prophets, a special fa 
vourite, because by this name Cod is described at once 
in his distance- and in his nearness in his might and in 

his love. 

Nor did he stop here. Not satisfied witli a general 
call to return to Jehovah, as the one essential condition 
of safety, he proclaimed clearly, and in language which 
none could mistake, what is implied in such a return. 
The-e tv\o things are implied tin reformation nf the 

national morals, and the rK-nmstructinn and extension 

nf tin: l>ari<lir i injiiri-. Like Isaiah, and almost in tin- 
very words which that greatest of all the prophets after 
wards employed, he taught the impotence of the cere 
monial part of religion when separated from the moral, 
ch. v. -_ l,ic.; declaring that a deep moral change was tin- 
great desideratum, tin.; one tiling needful, apart from 
which there was no hope for the nation. " Seek good 
and not evil, that ye may live, and so the Lord, tin- 
Cod of Hosts, .-hall be with you. Hate the evil and 
love the good, and establish judgment in the gate; it 
may be that tin- Lord Cod of Hosts will be gracious 
unto the remnant of Joseph." ch. v. H, 15, The oppres 
sions and wrongs done to the poor and helpless he 
again and again denounces with peculiar Vehemence, 
ch. ii. ii; v. r, .Mj ; viii. I. 
But the moral change which the prophet demanded 
could not stand alone. It must have its root in an 
earnest .-eeking after Jehovah, and its fruit in the re 
union of Israel into one people, and the restoration of 
the ancient monarchy in the line of David. Tin: altars 
at I)an. and Bethel, and Beersheba must be broken in 
pieces, ch iii.i-l;iv.! ; v..i;vii. 10, and united Israel again throng 
the courts of /ion. Though Amos addresses his pro 
phecies chiefly to the northern kingdom, yet again and 
again he loses sight of the unholy separation, and speaks 
as if the two kingdoms were yet one, ch. iii. l;v. iV27; vi. l ; 
viii. M. And he closes his prophecy with a joyous anti 
cipation of the time when "the tabernacle of David that 
is fallen shall be raised up, and the breaches thereof 
shall be closed, and all the nations around shall again 
submit themselves to the rule of David s line, ch. ix. n, &o. 
This is the strictly Messianic- part of the prophecies 

but very faint hope of any immediate change for the 
better, ch. v. 1. .. Many dark days are still in store for 
rebellious Israel : even the captivity is already clearly 
foreseen, ch. iii. n-i:i: v. ,, vi. 14; It is only towards 
the close of the prophecy that the language becomes 
bright and hopeful, ch. i\. 11-1:,. The prophet expresses 
his firm faith in Jehovah, and in the glorious future 
reserved for humbled and penitent Israel. But though 
Amos prophesies, for the most part, of national disaster 
and overthrow, vet in no part of his writings do we 
discover any traces of a dull, desponding spirit. He 
seems to have been by nature a man of strong mind, 
and by grace a man of bright and firm faith. We 



(if Amos. What was the view which lie himself took 
of the- .Messianic. kingdom we know not: but we cannot 
doiilit that this part of his prophecy receives its ulti 
mate fulfilment, not in any visible restoration of a tem 
poral sovereignty, but in the spiritual triumphs of Him 
who is the I rince of Peace, ami in the universal exten 
sion of that kingdom which is righteousness, and peace, 
and joy in the Holy Ghost, ch. ix. 11, 1. , compared with 
Act> xv. it;. 

This prophecy of the revival of the 1 >;i\ idic kingdom, 
and the renewed subjection of Edom and all the nations 
around to the yoke of Israel, connects the close of the 
book with its commencement, and furnishes an argu 
ment for the unity and mutual connectedness of all the 
parts of the composition. The short predictions with 
which the book begins, against Damascus, and Tyre, 
and 1 hilistia, ami Edom. anil Moab. ami Animon, are 
bv no means to be viewed apart and out of connection 
with the prophecies which follow. .For these are re 
garded by the prophet, not as independent states, but 
as states which had either formed part of the empire 
of David or had been bound in close alliance with it. 
That anci nt union hail been broken, and the relation 
of subjection or friendship had given place to one of 
rivalry and unnatural and violent hostility, ch. i. 3, <>,!>, &u. 
To the re-establishment of the Uavidic empire, it was 
necessary that these states should be humbled ; and 
this accordingly is the substance of the prophecies 
against them, from eh. i. 3 to eh. ii. 3. The result of this 
humbling we find in the close of the book, in which it 
is prophesied that Israel, penitent and again united 
under the sceptre of David, "should inherit the rem 
nant of .Kdom and all the nations oil which Jehovah s 
name had been called," i.e. all the nations which had 
formerly been subject to the theocratic kingdom of 
David. This kingdom re-established. Assyria would 
no longer be formidable, and .Egypt would no longer be 
sued for help. Wider and wider would the boundaries 
of this divine kingdom and its beneficent influence ex 
tend, until all the earth should be filled with the know 
ledge <.if Jehovah as the waters cover the sea. 

IV. Personal character and history of Amos. Who 
is the man who gives utterance to these great thoughts? 
The prophet Amos is distinguished from most of the 
other prophets by having received no regular pre 
paratory training for the work to which he was sud 
denly called. .1 le was neither prophet nor prophet s son 
(or disciple), but had been all his life occupied with cattle, 
and with the cultivation of sycamore trees, ch. vii. li. 
It has been doubted whether Amos belonged to what may 
be called the middle or the lower class of society. The 
determination of this question depends upon the meaning 
which i;, assigned to an expression (c" :pw ; D S 2> trans 
lated in our version, "a gatherer of sycamore fruit." 
It has been thought that when Amos uses these words 
of himself, he means that he belonged to the very poorest 
class of society, by whom alone the sweet but coarse fruit 
of the sycamore was commonly eaten. But it is quite 
evident that Amos in this passage describes, not the sort 
of food he ate, but the occupation in which he was en 
gaged. And the sycamore fruit does not appear to have 
been so contemptible as it is sometimes represented, as 
we find it in Scripture associated with the fruit of the 
vine and the olive. rs. ixxviii. i: ; i ch. xxvii. 28. On the 
whole, we are inclined to believe with the Targuniist 
that Amos did not belong to the lowest da>s, but was 

1 himself the proprietor of a sycamore plantation, aiiel 
also of the flocks and herds he speaks of. 1 Notwith 
standing his not having received the customary train 
ing in the schools of the prophets, it is evident that 
there was nothing in his appearance or manner of ad 
dress to give indication of this, as the priest of Bethel 
evidently regards him as a member of the class of pro 
phets, and depending for his subsistence on the exercise 
of his prophetic powers, ch.vii. 12. And it seems to have 
been in reply to the insinuation conveyed by the words 
of Amaxiah. Go and mt bread," See., that Amos gives 
the account of himself contained in ver. 14. He: tells 
the haughty priest that he is no prophet l>y trade - that 
he does not prophesy as a means of procuring a living, 
but in obedience to the command of Jehovah, who has 
called him away from his ordinary occupations for the 
express purpose of making known his will to his people 
Israel: so far from prophesying for his bread, he has 
left all to obey the heavenly impulse. 

The township of Tekoa was the ordinary residence of 
Amos, a district with which were associated some stir 
ring recollections of the olden time, which could not 
fail powerfully to affect the character of its population. 
The town was situated on high ground, and from its 
walls the eye might range over a wiele prospect, includ 
ing part of the Dead Sea and the mountains of Moab 
(liobinson, i. 4S ib At not more than two hours dis 
tance northward, and quite in view, was the town of 
Bethlehem, ennobled by so many sacred associations. 
In the immediate vicinity had been wrought, not more 
than a century before Amos prophesied, a great work of 
Jehovah in his people s defence, the invading armies of 
Ammon, and Moab, and Edom being discomfited and 
destroyed, not by the sword, but by the prayers e>f 
Jehoshaphat and his people ; on which occasion it was 
that that pious king uttered the memorable words 
Hear me, Judah, and ye inhabitants of Jerusalem, 
Believe in the Lord your God, so shall ye be established; 
believe his prophets, so shall ye prosper," 2 Ch. xx. 20. 
We cannot wonder that this hallowed region should 
have been the birthplace of one of the Lord s prophets. 

It was while Amos was pursuing his wonted occu 
pations in this district that he felt himself divinely im 
pelled to leave home and friends, that in Bethel, the 
head-quarters of Israel s apostasy, he might lift up his 
voice for Jehovah, and warn Israel of the coming wrath. 
Bv nature he was endowed with a strong and resolute: 
spirit. Though we know nothing of his parentage, we 
canne>t doubt that he was early instructed in the law 
and ways of the Lord. The associations of his birth 
place must have rendered this instruction peculiarly im 
pressive. As he wandered in the wilderness of Tekoa. 
and thought of Bethlehem and the family of David, now 
brought so low, and the glory of Israel a memory of the 
past, his spirit would burn within him. that the 
days of eild were brought back, and that another king 
after God s own heart were enthroned in Zion over 
penitent and united Israel ! The war between Judah 
and Israel, which took place under Amaziah, the father 
of TJzziah, and which issued so disastrously for Ju 
dah, 2 Ki. xiv. 13, must have deeply affected him ; and his 

1 The Hebrew word -,~i in Amos i. 1, is found elsewhere only in 
1 Ki. iii. 4, " Mesha, king of Moab, was a sheep-master." The noun 
a -V is found in net other passage, but is explained from the Arabic. 
Had Amos lieen merely a hired servant, it is not probable that his 
duties would have been of so multifarious a descriptiem. 



anxiety would be greatly increased by the now alarm 
ing aspect of affairs in the north, and the utter unpre- 
paredness of his countrv, divided and degenerate, to 
ward off the threatened danger. It was probably after 
some such preparation as this that he received the 
divine call to go and prophesy to Israel. 1 

In the time of Amos the prophetic class had greatly 
degenerated. From the words of Amaziah, the priest 
of ISethel, we conclude that prophesying had become 
as it were a trade, and that many enrolled themselves 
among the prophets, nut with a view to the religious 
improvement of themselves or others, but only to get a 
living in a way which was. perhaps less laborious and 
more agreeable than other occupations allowed of. It 
was probablv to mark his condemnation of this gross 
perversion of the prophetic institution, that Jehovah 
raised up .Vinos from among the herdsmen of Tekoa to 
be the bearer of his message to Israel. Amos executed 
the commission intrusted to him with fearless courage. 
Like another man of (iod. whose name is not recorded, 
1 Ki. xiii. 1, he went up from .Judali to IVthcl, and there, 
in the verv head-quarters of su]n r.-tition, and before 
the men highest in power, lie declared the- word of .le- 
liovah, ch. vii. in. He counted not liis life dear unto him. 
The high-priest s warn HILT to tlee he ivplii d to only by 
denouncing the divine judgment on him and his house. 
How long he remained in IJethel we know not. 

V. Tlu buuk i if Ainnti, its sfjii.cini characteristics, 
date, authenticity, <tud canonii-ul unt/t t/ tt//. The book 
of Amos, as it is now arranged, \\as probably written 
after his return to .ludah. and contains the subr-tance 
of his prophetic discourses in the form of a coiitinuou.-- 
composition. It is usually divided into two parts, 
ch. i. vi. and eh. vii.-ix.. the latter containing the 
notice of liis journey, and an account of the visions, by 
means of which the announcements lie was to make 
of divine judgment were apprehended by himself more 
vividly, and communicated in a more lively and impres 
sive wav to others. The last live verses, containing 
tile strictlv .Messianic part of the book, ought perhaps 
to form a separate division. 

Of the subject-matter of the book we have already 
given an account. The language is pur.-, though not 
without certain peculiarities which, it has l>een supposed, 
bear the character of provincialisms. The vigour and 
liveliness of the style is maintained throughout. Not 
a few vivid pictures are scattered <>\vr the book, ch.i. - , 
iii. 12; v. in; vi.:i, in: occasionally the thoughts and lan 
guage almost ei|ual the sublimity of Isaiah. The whole 
of the last chapter is not surpa.-si-d. < ither in thoughts 
or in language, bv any other portion of equal length of 
the prophetic writing. 

The date of the composition of the book as it now 
stands is probably posterior to the earthquake men 
tioned in ch. i. 1 as having happened two years after 
the word of the Lord came to Annx. I rohably. as has 
been supposed, he, regarded that terrible earthquake, 
the memory of which was long preserved. /CL-. xiv. :,, as 
a sign from heaven confirmatory of his words- the divine 
echo of his denunciations. And as. amid the excite 
ment and consternation caused by such an event, the 
Ephraimites would probably be more willing than for- 

1 The exact date nf the mission of Ains cannot lie assigned; 
it must, however, lie placed in the beu innini; of the eighth cen 
tury before Christ, Uzxiah beinfj then king of Judah, and Jere- 
boain II. king of Israel, Am. i. 1. 

merly to give ear to the divine message, the prophet, it 
may be, availed himself of this favourable disposition 
to repeat his appeals to them, not now- in person, but 
by a written summary of the prophecies he had formerly 
addressed to them in vain. It is certain that we meet 
with references to the earthquake in all parts of the 
book. Everywhere the prophet regards it as the sym 
bol and the presage of the more terrible judgments 
which impended over Israel, ch. i. -2; ii.ll; iv. 2, ii; v. s; vi. 11; 
viii. v ; ix. ],.-). 

( >f the authorship of the book there is no doubt. Its 
internal character is in perfect harmony with the uni 
form testimony of tradition. In everv pa ox- Me discover 
tile mind and hand of a man familiar with agricultu 
ral and pastoral pursuits, ch. i. 2; ii. i;i; iii. i,;., 12; i\. i; \. n;, i;i; 
vi 1L ; vi:. 1; viii. 1. 

The canonical authority of the bo.ik is likewise be 
yond question; and the great thoughts to which it gives 
such fervid utterance are not less precious to the church 
now than when Amos wrote.- That .lehovah. our cove 
nant ( iod. is also Cod of nature and of nations, shaking 
tlie mountains and ruling amid the crash of empires; 
that all the evils which have e\er atilicted or do now 
afflict the church (low from one source separation from 
lehovah and that these evils can be removed onh by 
re-union with him and faith in him: that the sacrifices, 
however eostlv. of the \ \ ] iri o hteous and ungodly are an 
abomination to .lehovah: that sin is never so hateful to 
.lehovah as when found in his own people, ch. iii. 2; that- 
national safety and u reatni ss depend not on external 
alliances but on righteousness and union within ; that 
cnieltv and covetousness destroy a people more surely 
than tlie as.--a.ult of the most powerful enemies, ch viii. l,\c ; 
that n-\ er.-es and disasters, whether befalling individuals 
or nations, are Jehovah s calls to self searching and 
penitence, ch. iv. f>,ic.; that Jehovah will not consent to 
acct-pt a divided homage, ch v I, . ; that no policy is so 
destructive as the temporizing policy which regards only 
the present eiuer-vncy. to the in -leet of .vreat principles 
and permanent interests ; that Jehovah s covenant with 
l>a\id and Isni -l in New Testament language, with 
Christ and his church shall stand for evermore, ch. ix. 8; 
and that neither tin- opposition of his enemii s. nor the 
unfaithfulness of his people, though they may retard, 
shall ultimately prevent the fulfilment of all its con 
ditions and proini.-es : these are truths w Inch can never 

grow old, which belong t one age or dispensation 

of religion, but an- the common property of all ages, 
and the only true foundation of the progress and hap- 
piin ss of mankind. |Th - most elaborate commentary 
on the book of Ames in recent times is that of J >r. 
Custav I .aur iCiesseii. 1M7>. See also the Commen 
taries on the Minor Prophets. | |n. II. w.| 

A MOZ Ivr.N. yti-u-ii;/]. the father of Isaiah, often 

confounded with the prophet Amos by the Creek 
fathers, who studied the Old Testament only through 
the medium of the Septuagint translation, in which 
the two names, quite distinct in Hebrew, are repre 
sented by the same letters A.aa S. [l>. li. W.) 

AMPHIP OLIS [composed of a</ and rroMi, rovivl. 
tlie cit//\, a city of (I recce, the capital of the eastern 
province of Macedonia. It had its name from its posi 
tion being situated on an eminence, round which the 
river Strvmon flows, so that the site of the town had 

- There are two quotations from Amos in the New Testament, 
Acts vii. -12; xv. 10. 



the appearance of a sort of promontory. Jt was 
about three miles from the sea; and, standing in a 
pass \vhirh traverses the mountains that border the 
Strvmonic (Julf, it occupied a very important and 
commanding position, since oiilv by it could any 
available communication be kept up between the gulf 
and the plains in the interior. It had also in its vici 
nity the gold and silver mines of [ angaeus, and large 
forests of ship-timber. It was the Athenians who 
properly laid the foundation of its future greatness and 
prosperity ; for, about the year J ,.c. -}:>7, they sue- 
c edeil, though not without considerable loss of men 
and treasure, in planting a colony there, \\hich soon 
attained to a flourishing condition. It fell afterwards 
into the hands of Philip of Macedon, and. for more 
than a century and a-half before the Christian era, was 
included in the Roman empire. It had the privileges 
of a free eitv. It stood on one of the public highways 
( Via E<jnatia\, and was passed by Paul and Silas when 
journeying from Philippi to Thessalonica, Why they 
did not also remain there, and endeavour to lay the 
foundation of a Christian church, we are not told; it 
is merely said that they passed through it, Ac. xvii. i.; 
but, from its being immediately added that, after 
passing through it, "they came to Thessalonica, where 
was a synagogue of the Jews," we may with some pro 
bability infer, that one reason, at least, of so short a 
stay being made at Amphipolis consisted in the cir 
cumstance of there being no Jews in it, or too few to 
form the proper nucleus of a Christian community. No 
subsequent notice occurs respecting it in Scripture, nor 
does it make any figure in ecclesiastical history. A 
miserable village now occupies the site, called Ycni- 
/ /</, "new to\\n." and another wretched village near 
it. called by the Turks Yam liull ; and a few remains are- 
still to be seen of the ancient town. 

AM RAM. [ -fH iqilv (if exaltation], a son of Kohath, 
and father of Moses and Aaron. His wife, it is said, 
was his father s sister, Ex. vi.20; if sister in the strict 
sense, then she must have been within the degrees 
afterwards prohibited. I.e. xviii. ii> ; but possibly the term 
is used in a looser sense. He lived to the age of one 
hundred and thirty-seven. 

AM RAPHEL [meaning unknown], king of Shinar, 
or Babylonia, in the days of Abraham, Go. xiv. 1,9. He 
is known only as one of the four kings from the north 
east, who made a predatory incursion into the land of 
Canaan, and were overthrown chiefly through the 
valour and energy of Abraham. 

AMULET, som. sort of superstitious ornament, 
used as a charm against evil influences, such as were 
supposed to come from enchantments, demoniac agen 
cies, noxious stars, epidemic diseases, or what in some 
eastern countries has been from time immemorial the 
source of greatest anxiety, the evil eye. The articles 
most commonly used for this purpose of guardianship 
in ancient times, were gems and precious stones, par 
ticularly ear-rings, or pieces of gold and silver, on 
which frequently magical fornmlze were inscribed, and 
which were carried about the person. The English 
word nowhere occurs in Scripture : but the word &*crh 
(lehaskim], found in Ts. iii. :>0, and translated in 
our version ear-rings, is now generally understood to 
have the meaning of amulets; for the word is else 
where used in the sense of incantations, magic, and 
was hence naturally applied to what was supposed 

magically to counteract the influence of such things 
an anti-spell. The precise object indicated by the 
word may still have been ear-rings. A ben Ezra 
considered them to be pieces of silver or gold with 
charms inscribed on them ; but ear-rings were, as they 

|3C.] Egyptian Ear-ring Amulets. Wilkinson. 

still indeed are, in very frequent use for such purposes, 
and hence they formed part of the idolatrous trappings 
and furniture which Jacob commanded his household 
to put away, Go. xxxv. 4; only, if car-rings were the 
articles intended by the prophet, it must be in the 
superstitious sense now indicated. ]t was probably 
with the view, in part, of weaning the Israelites 
from this form of superstition that Moses instructed 
them to wear fringes upon the borders of their gar 
ments, with a ribband of blue, "that they might 
look upon it, and remember all the commandments of 
the Lord and do them, and might not seek after their 
own heart and their own eyes, after which they used 
to go a whoring," Nu. xv. .>, :!9. That is, apparently, in 
place of certain idolatrous or superstitious badges, 
which they were wont to carry about them, as means 
of safety and protection, they were now to substitute 
those fringes, simply as remembrancers that they were 
under the care of (Jod, and were in all things to follow 
the path of his commandments. But so strong was the 
tendency in the false direction, that the very ordinance 
intended to preserve them from superstition was itself 
turned into an occasion of fostering it, and the border- 
fringes became practically amulets. Thus, one of the 
Rabbinical authorities writes, on the passage above 
cited, "When a man is clothed with the fringe, and 
goeth out therewith to the door of his habitation, he is 
safe, and God rejoiceth, and the destroying angel de- 
parteth from thence, and the man shall be delivered 
from all hurt, and from all destruction" (R. Mena- 
ehem). The same foolish and superstitious use was 
substantially made of other two or three passages of 
the law, Ex. xiii. 9; Do. vi. 8; xi. IS; in which, with the view 
of enforcing upon the people the necessity of being at 
great pains to remember and observe the statutes im 
posed upon them, they were told to bind them as signs 
upon their hands, and put them as frontlets between 
their eyes ; that is, to be as careful and constant in 
their regard to them as if they actually had them em 
blazoned on these conspicuous parts of their body. 
This, however, they understood in later times to refer 
to the mere writing out on bits of parchment certain 
passages of the law, and binding them on their hands 
and heads as sacred charms. (See FRONTLETS, FKIXGES. ) 
It was not, however, among eastern nations merely, 
or the Jews, who caught the infection of their idolatry, 
that the use of amulets prevailed the evil had spread 
far and wide tJirough the heathen world generally ; 
and in the earlier ages of Christianity we find it press 
ing into the church, as one of the relics of superstition 
to which the people fondly clung, even after they had 
forsaken the grosser forms of idolatry, and to which 
they sought to give a kind of Christian direction. 
Pendants and preservatives, called periammata and 
phylacteria, were quite commonly worn by converts 




from heathenism, having a text of Scripture or some [ and iu the same locality has been discovered in recen 

other charm written on them, as a security against 
danger, or a means of defence from disease and other 
dreaded evils. Augustine, in his epistle to Posidius, 
speaks also (J f ear-rings as being worn by some pro 
fessing Christians for like purposes, and which the 

times, about ten miles S.S.W. of Hebron, near to Shoco. 

A NAH [nvj> 

. ( /), a person who is once repre- 

is more specially named a grandson of Seir. and MHI of 

Zibeon, whose daughter 

>ne of th.o wives of 

insisted on retaining because such things were not 1 Ksau, ch. xxxvi. 2, 24, 2.1. That this is the true statement 
specifically condemned in Scripture. Hence the fa- of tlie case, and not, as commonly given, that there are 
tilers often denounce the practice, and the church even two Anahs, appears thus: ["he Anah in ver. _ and ver. 
sometimes interposed its authority with those who per- i 25 must be the same: for each is declared to be the 
sisted in it. ^ The Council of Laodicea (about tlie father of Aholibamah, Esau s wife. Hut the same Anah 
middle of the fourth century) designated amulet bands must be identical with the Anah in ver. _>!. for the one 
"chains and fetters to the soul," and prohibited all as well as the other was the son of Ziheon. Hence, 
clergymen from wearing them on pain of excommunl- when Anah K first mentioned in the genealogy at verse 
cation (Canon 36). Clirysostom, in several of his homi- Jo among the sons of Seir. it must be sons in the wider 

Ill Augustine, I .asil, and others, like passages occur, that this Anah is assigned to three different tribes 
I .ut. unfortunately, the remedies prescribed by those : In Genesis xxvi. :!1. where he is Krst mentioned, he i. 
father, to meet the evil approached to,, closely to the called a Hittite; in xxxvi. _ . he is represented as the 
; itself; and th sign of the cross, on which they son of Zibeon the Ilivite; and at ver. _ I of the same 
laid such peculiar str. ss, and the use of the sacramental chapter he is numbered among the descendants of Seir 
elements, especially of the consecrated bread, and hit- ; the Horite. Occurring as these different designations 
l r! . v " tai l men s bones, came to be turned very do at sucli comparatively short intervals, it seems evi- 
much t.^the same purposes U s had \\..nt to be served j dent that tliey must have presented n.> difficult v to those 
by ear-rings, texts of Scripture, and other pendant who were conversant \\ith the circumstances of the 
charms. \\ her. n nestles it may change the time, and that they app ar strange to us merely because 

form, but the r. aiity remain.- : in one shape or another, we are so far removed fn. m th. se. In regard to Horite. 
it must have its amulets. however, there is no proper ditlieulty: for this is simph 

" modem Kgypt, amulets, very similar in form to an ap|iellative, signifying mountainm; r trot/laditc. 
those employed by tile ancient Jews and earl\ Chris- as the ancients call, d it appli. d to those who ]i\vd in 
tia:.-. are in common use. The most esteemed of all rocky regions, and occupied eaves instead of houses. And 
lu<i<il>.<. or charms, we are told by Mr. Lane, is a jnus- i then of the two other designations, Ilivite and Hittite. 
1, ih. or copy ,,f the Koran. I ,, it. as also to several it i.- to be noted that the one appears to have been the 
other charms especially to scrolls of chapters from the more general and the other the more specific genealo 
Koran, or names of the prophet MTV peculiar efii- gical distinction. Hittiti is undoubtedly used a< times 
eacy is attributed: they are esteemed preservatives in a somewhat comprehensive sense, as including various 

il>es or communities, \\ith their several kin--. ,r, w j |. 
other things. The names or passages written for such I 2Ki;iKi.x >. Hence also, when the prophef K/.e- 
purjioses are first covered with waxen cloth, to preserve ki.-l proceeds to give ;UI allegorical representation of 
the writing from injury or pollution, then inclosed in a the waywardness and guilt of the covcna7it-pcople, he 
ease- of thin embossed gold or silver, which is attach. -d be-ins by saying, "Thy nativity is of the land of ( . 
to a silk string or a chain, and generally hung on the naan : thy fa tin r was an Aniorit". and thv mother was 

in Hittite," \: /c xvi :; as if these two names were 
comprehensive of all the ( anaanite race. When, there 
fore, the wife of Ksau is fir.-t nit ntioiied in the history, 
(u. \\M.:;l, s!ie i- simply designated as the daughter 
of one. who belonged (o the Ilittites the object being 
to indicate that she v, as il < anaale te bv birth, and of 
that extensive branch which wi nt bv the "-eneral name 

cni Kt:yjiti;in Aiaulut. Lanu. 

In Ion-ing to the Hivite section of the Hittite species. 

right side, above the gin lie. X<>. :\~ exhibits three of i ll> ngstenberg, .1 nlli> nt n . ii.. / /.. vi.) 

these. ! he central one is a thin, fiat case, containing Another r, markable thing connected v.ith this Anah 

a folded pap. r: it is about the third of an inch thick, is the double name he seems to have borne. It is only in 

The others are cylindrical cases, \\ith hemispherical the genealogical table that he appears under the name of 

ends, and contain scrolls: they are worn by many Anah; for in tlie liistory, Ge. xxvi.^t, where the marriage of 

women, as well as children: but those of the poorer his daughter with Ksaii is mentioned, he is called Pi:r:i;i 

sort have them of a somewhat different description. the Hittite. The word / ar! means fonfan itx, the man of 

A NAB [probably j,la<; i.f </wy/,.s], a town in the 
mountainous district of .ludah. from which, as from 
Hebron, and other places. Joshua cut oft the 
Anakim, Jus. xi _>!. A small place of the same name \ that iniite obscures the li dit it serves to throw on the 

VOL. I. n 

introduced which explains tin; matter though it is 


peculiarity referred t<>. Tin- notice is, i i was this 
Aiiah tliat fund tlir warm springs [so, it is now gene- 
rallv agivcd. the word -hould In- rendered, not mules] in 
thu wilderness, as In- feel the asses of Xibeon liis father." 
The spring- iut:iint are supposed to lia\e Keen these 
afterwards known \>\ the name <>t Callirhoe. \v;irin 
springs tu the south easl of the I lead Sea. lying in :> 
secluded place, which could only lie reached by a nar 
row x.i/.gag | path along the edge of a precipice. This 
path opens into a vallev, which is crowded with different 
sorts of canes, a > pens, and palms, ami into \\ Inch various 
warm springs precipitate themselves; they do so in 
such quantities, that Irliy and .Mangles say. on reaching 
a j)artic;ilar shelf of the rock. " We found ourselves at 
what might In: termed a hot rivi iv so copious and rapid 
is it. and its heat so little abated. This continues, as it 
passes downwards. Ky its reevhing constant supplies of 
water of the same temperature. We passed four almn- 
daut sprinu -. all within the distance "f half a mile, dis 
charging themselves into the str< am at right angles to 
its course." Supposing these to he the springs dis 
covered I iy Anah a- is every way probable one can 
easilv understand how. both from their inclosed situa 
tion, their extreme copiousness and their singular 
warmth, the disco\ervof them should have been noted as 
a remarkable circumstance in his life, and should have 
led to his being thereafter familiarly designated lieeri 
the man of the fountain. At the same tune, when his 
name was given in the genealogy, it fitly appeared, not 
under this somewhat accidental appellative, but as that 
which originally and properly distinguished him 

A NAK. AX AKIM. The singular word (male means 
iucl- -clniiii: and. in the plural, iim/. ini is understood to 
have denoted persons with marked necks, /our/-, t, <!,-< il. 
and then, by way of eminence, a race of men with long 
necks and of gigantic stature, who inhabited Hebron 
and the surrounding country at the time the Israelites 
entered the promised land. The name always appears 
either as flic non.i f A nulc. Xu. xiii. 33; Jos. xv. i-t; Jn. i. 20; 
or A> sons of tin A nn/. /m, ])c. i. L xi.x -: or simply Aiutkiat. 

Dr.ii 10,11, - l;.Ii is.xi.-Jl , J-J; xiv.l-i; so that it is doubtful whether 

they were descended front one of tin; name of Anak, or 
bore the name of sons of Anak. and Anakim. merely from 
their being men of lofty stature. In Jos. xv. 1". Arba 
is called the father of Anak. which makes it probable 
that the Anakim sprung 
from Arba: and the imme 
diate children of Anak 
\\ei-eSlu shai. Ahiman. and 
Talmai. The report of 
their "Teat stature at lirsi 
inspired the Israelites with 
terror, and was one of the 
circumstances which led 
them to rebel against the 
word of Cod at their first 
approach to the land of 
* anaan. Nu. xiii. :;.: Hut 
afterwards these Anakim 
were driven from their pos 
sessions by Joshua, and 
seem to have been extin 
guished a- a people. CXCCpl 
ing that a few families of 
the race e-ontinued to exist in the country of the 1 hilis- 
tines. out of wlmm doubtless came the afterwards famous 

(loiiathof (lath. Those people are depicted on th< 
Kuvptian monuments as a tall, light- complexioned race. 
In the liii-roglvphic inscription they are named Tan- 
malm, which may be the Egyptian rendering of the 
Hebrew word Talmai, allowing for the interchange of 
the liquid / for . so constant in all languages. The 
figure is from a picture on a wall of the tomb of Oimenep- 
thah I., supposed to represent a man of the tribe of 
Taimai, one of the sons of Anak. (See Ci ANTS.) (]>ur- 
ton s / . .rr( r/itu Hicrogtt/phica.) [.I. ];.] 

ANAM MELECH [compounded ],robably of anam, 
a statue or image, and nnl< ///. a kinu . idol-god, or kinglv 
image], applied as a name to the peculiar deity wor 
shipped by the people of Sepharvaim. The worship 
paid him was closely allied to that which is more com 
nionly known as belonging to the Syrian .Moloch: for 
his devotees caused their children to pass through the 
lire. 2Ki. xvii. ;a. Various other derivations of the name; 
have been given, and conjectures thrown out as to the 
deity, and the particular forms of idolatry connected 
with it: lint as nothing certain has boon established, 
it is needless to yo into detail,-. 

ANANI AS. 1. A member of the original < hristian 
community at Jerusalem : in which, for a time, he oc 
cupied an honourable; place, till his unhappy aberra 
tion from the path of uprightness, with the fearful 
retribution it provoked, brought over his name the 
shade of a perpetual infamy. Ac. v. l-ll. .He and his wife 
Sapphira arc striking examples of the mischievous re 
sults which will sometimes arise, even now. from the 
endeavour to carry profession beyond principle --from 
people aiming at being accounted better in the church 
than they really are. That, to a certain extent, these 
persons had come under the influence of the truth, and 
had sincerely made up their minds to take part with the 
followers of Jesus, there can be no reasonable doubt. 
In formally enlisting themselves among the number of 
the little coinpanv. they showed their readiness to 
brave opposition and to encounter obloquy for the sake 
of Jesus: and. in following the example of others an 
example which they were equally as free t-> shun as 
to follow by disposing of their property to make a 
contribution to the common funds of the church, they 
proved their willingness to make at least snmr temporal 
sacrifice for the welfare of their poorer brethren. Their 
hearts, in short, wen: to a certain extent alive to the 
faith, and moved by the benignant impulses, of the 
gospel : but still not sufficiently moved to dispose 
them to take, by the largeness of their benefactions, 
the place which their wealth and consideratiem seemed 
to indicate as proper for them. They would therefore 
compromise the matter between their worldliness on 
the one 1 side, and their Christian reputation on the 
either - pait with a certain portion of the money they 
received for the properly they had sold, and make it 
appear as if that portion fornieel the whole proceeds of 
the sale. Whether they had calmly weighed what 
this compromise inveilveel, or had, without clue eoii- 
sideratiem. resorted to it as from the sudden impulse 1 of 
a worldly instinct, it plainly eliel involve a sacrifice of 
right principle a mournful disregard of truth and recti 
tude, such as, if a.llowed to proceed in the church, would 
have brought within her pale the hypocrisy, the fraud, 
the selfishness, the false show anel parade of the world. 
Thi i e fore, it was met with a searching exposure and 
an appalling rebuke. How the falsehood anil fraud 
intended to be practised on the- occasion by Ananias 



and Sapphira should have come to light, is not stated. 
Possibly something in their previous character had 
given rise to the suspicion that they were going he-re to 
play a deceitful part, and may have led to investiga 
tions which established their guilt: or. without any 
previous inquiry and formal evidence, supernatural 
discernment may have been imparted to the apostles, 
enabling them to penetrate through the fal-e guise 
tint was assumed, and. bring to light the real state of 
the case. However it mav have been, by tin- time 
that the contribution came to b.- laid at the apostles 
feet -and it appears to have- been done, wh>-u they were 
solemnly met to receive the free-will otf .-rmgs of the 
brethren Peter was in a condition to charge Ananias 
with deliberate fraud, in pretending that what he now 
offered was the whole he had received by th- sale of 
his property. In making this charge the only thing 
that seem- p-euliar is the stn ngth of the language em 
ployed by the apostle. He asked Ananias, --\Vh\ 
hath Satan filled thine heart to lie to the Holy Cho.-t. 
and to keep hack part of the pri v?" And. aft r re 
minding him that it was entirely in hi-- o\\n power t.. 
sell the properl r i t. and when sold to g-i\ part 
or the whole as he himself might determine, tin- apo-tle 
again charge., him with Iv mj. " not unto men. but unto 
Cod. The special aggravation of the sin is thus made 
to stand in the religious character of th" transaction 
in th gilt b -ni _! presented a- an oil . -ring to (lod. and an 
otleriii _ which, a- made, carried a falsehood in it- 
front. Tip- apostles were acting on the occasion in 
their official capacity: they were -ittin u as the Spirit s 
agi its and representatives, to receive th--alin-<>f the 
church: so that what he said and did to them w as in el lee t 
said and done to the Lord it was a daring attempt to 
praet : -e imposition on the || Chost. Ananias him 
self could not be ignorant of this; he inu-t have felt 
that lie was in a manner defiling the sanctuary .f ( !ud, 
and provoking the eves of his -j l .rv : consequently, hi, 
heart must have been previ"U-ly strung to a very con 
siderable hardih I in evil; he must so far have sur 
renderee 1 himself to the spirit of covetousness, that it 
might be said e,f him. as of oni in tin- iatte-r stages of 
degeneracy, Satan hail entered his heart to tempt him to 
siie-h ungo. iliin-ss : Hut the,- bringing of 
this charge against Ananias, ami ban- both the 
reality and tin- In inousm--- of his guilt, i- tin- who].- 
that St. I eter does on the occasion ; tin-re is no intlie 
tion of corporeal judunnnt fioin his hand, no threaten 
ing; c\vn of any such a~ beitm n-adv to d.-se- -inl from 
the prese-ui-e of Cod: and had iiodmne interpositieen 

folleiWV l. tlie Utmost that We call slippos.. likely to 

have happene-d in tin- way of judicial proceeluiv. would 
ha\. he-en tei e-ast him out of the church as unworthy of 
a place- in the heeu~e of tin- living Cod. | ,ut. as a seal 
to tin- condemnation that was pronounced upon his sin 
as a warning to others who might in future 
bring corruption into tin- spiritual community of be 
lievers as a sign rais -d by the hand uf Cod at tin- com 
mencement of the- New Testament church, to testify of 
the guileless simplicity and incorrupt sincerity which 
should belong to all who join themselves to its member 
ship -the doom of death instantly fell upon the con 
victed transgressor. \Ve need not be too curious in 
inquiring how this death was brought about: whether 
the startling discovery of his guilt that was made all at 
once to 1 mrst on him, may have itself operated like a 
convulsive shock, or. along with this, some- miraculous 

j agency may have suddenly arrested the pulse of life: 
, the result in either case, especially when taken in con 
nection with what presently after befell his wife, must 
be ascribed to the direct interposition of Cod. Ana- 
I nias first, and then his wife Sapphira. who became his 
. partner alike- in guilt and punishment, perished under 
tlie ju lgmcnt of Cod. as the corrupters of his infant 

< no cannot but mark a close resemblance between 
, what thus took place at the commencement of the 
Christian church, and the mournful occurrence that 
struck terror into the members of the Israelitish com- 
monwealth. shortly after th-ir entrance within the 
boundaries of Canaan. it was as a holy community 
tln-y went thither, and were to he made possessors of 
tin- [and. a- Coil s special witnesses against the crime- 
and abominations that polluted it: precisely as it was 
by being a holy temple to the Lord, and keeping itself 
separate from the corruptions of the world, that the 
church of tin- New Testament was to make- ln-ad against 
tin- peiwe-i-s of e\ il anil brim,; all under its swav. In the 
eilie case, howe-ver. as well as in the other, the world 
eiite-r.-d with its pollutions at tin- very threshold of tin- 
history : ainl heith tinn-s in a similar guise-, as a spirit 
of eovetousnoss. clinging to tin- mammon of unright- 
teou-nes-;. and cloaking itself over with hypocrisy and 
guile-. The trans_:r. -,-o|-s in tin- am-ie-nt community. 
Achan and his family, were, by tin- spee-ia! interposition 
e>f (oid. drag".. -el to liuht. and consigned to destruction; 
and . \naiiia- and >apphira. tin- transgressors in New 
Testament times, were by a like interposition detee-feel 
ami punished. Tin- immediate - II) cf -. t o, of the diyim- 
interposition were much alike-: a salutary fear of 
s m was struck into the respective communit i -s, and 
tli" hearts ot all more thoroughly roused in behalf of 
tin- interests of ri-_hte-ousne -ss. Hut, unfortunately, the 
- in both cases pro .id but of temporary dura 
tion Tin- awful warning given against sin fell into 
, oblivion : ami before the apostles had hni-ln-d their 
; course, asin former til nes before Joshua liad been gathered 
to liis fa tliers. many forms < if corruption had gained a fool 
ing within tin- s.-icre-d territory. Tin- last testimony 
from tin- ham! of the apostle-, who, mi this occasion, 
so ste-rnlv r. buk. -el the- incipient e\il tin- second 
Kpi-tle of I eter hail for its chief objc-cl tin- lifting of 
a loud and einpha ie warning a-_ain-t tin- hypocrisy 
ami guile, the licentiousness ami corruption, which were 
air. ady making tln-ir appearance among the chm-cln-s of 
( hrist. and wlm-h In- foresaxy were ele stim d to become 
yet more rampant. Still, the- first great practical tcs 
timoiiv was in. t in vain: it stand- as a finger- post for 
all who have eyes to see it. and makes clear as noon 
day tin- purpose of Cod to r. co-jni/.e- onlv siie-h as true- 
members of his church who have left behind tlie-m the 
corrupt ie ins of the world, and in godly sincerity- an- 
yielding themselves to his service. 

Certain petty and frivolous objections, which have 

been raiseel mi tin- subject 1 iv rationalist inte-rpn-ters. 

so eibviouslv ari-e from partial or mistaken views of 

the- transaction, or of St. 1 i-te-r s conduct in relation to 

j it. that they deserve no particular notice-. 

2. AN \.vi.\s. a Jewish disciple at l>amascus, to 
whom tin- Lord appeared in a vision, and instructed 
him to go w he-re- Saul of Tarsus at the time was, that 
he might lay on him his hands, and impart to him anew 
his sight. Ae-. i\. in-17. Ananias expressed his astonishment 
at receiving such a commission, having heard only of the 




fiery y.eal \\itll which Saul llild been persecuting the 

church nf Christ, ami of the authority with which, for 
that end. he had come armed again.-t tin- disciples in 
I ).-ima-cus. I . .it his fears and suspicions v.viv laid to rest 
liv tlii- di\inc , that this man had now become 
a chosen vessel to hear the name of Jesus before tile 
I it ntilcs, and kings, and the children of Israel, and to 
> inter great things for its sake. i!e accordingly went 
as coinmaiuled, and hoth restored sight to Saul through 
the imposition of hands, and received him by baptism 
into the ( hristiuii cuiiiinuiiity. Nothing farther is 
known fur curtain of Ananias, nor have we anymore 
specitic information than that given above of his posi 
tion in the church at I >amascns. Tradition has .sought 
to cumpeiisite for this defect by telling us that be be 
came hi>hop of I>,-un.iscus, and of course, like all 
apostles and primitive bishops, died a martyr. P>ut no 
credit is due to such legends. 

3. AXAMAS, the high-priest at the time of St. Paul s 
seizure and appearance before the Sanhedrim at Jeru 
salem. Ac xxiii.2. We learn nothing more of him in the 
New Testament than that on Paul declaring he had 
lived in all yood conscience before Cod till that day, 
he commanded those beside Paul to smite him (show 
ing himself to be, at least, a person of violent temper 
and coarse manners), and that he afterwards went down 
to C;esarea with certain elders, to lay a regular charge 
i f sedition against the apostle, Ac. xxiv. i. Various notices 
are given of him in .losephus. and they fully confirm 
the idea conveyed of his character by what is written 
in the Acts, lie had been nominated to the office of 
high -priest by Herod, king of Chalcis, in A.D. 48, but 
was afterwards oblig.-d to go to Home and defend himself 
against heavy charges that were brought against him 
(Ant. xx. f). 2 ; also li. !). There, however, he was ac 
quitted, and it is supposed resumed the office of high- 
priest "ii his return to Judea, lint shortly before the 
departure of Felix he was deprived of the office ; and 
after carrying on a series of lawless practices by the 
hands of what Joseplms calls "very wicked servants." 
he was himself at last killed, by the Siearii. or zealot- 
robbers (Ant. xx. S. ^ ; also <i. -1). He appears to have 
been altogether one of the most worthless and desperate 
characters that ever filled the office of high-priest. 

ANATH EMA [(Jr. avdOe/na. from the verb dvari- 
OTJ.LU. to lay up or suspend J was, properly, anything 
presented as a gift to a temple, and hung up there as a 
sacred memorial. When used, however, in this general 
sense, as it often is in the classical authors, it is written 
\viih a long f. dvd8rj/jLa; and as such it occurs only once 
in the New Testament, at Luke xxi. 5, where the 
disciples remarked to the Lord concerning the temple, 
"how it was adorned with goodly stones and gifts 
tdvaOr/naffi). Things given up to Cod in this sense 
were esteemed honourable as well as sacred ; they were 
associated with the more gracious and benignant aspect 
of his character. T5ut as his character has another 
aspect that, namely, which it assumes when brought 
into contact with incorrigible and hardened iniquity, 
calling forth severe and punitive justice- so if, with 
respect to this aspect of the divine character, any per 
son or object were solemnly given up to God, it would 
be indeed for God s glory, but for the dishonour and 
destruction < .f what was so surrendered. And this is the 
idea of the clicrcm ( = nr), the religious curse of the 
Hebrews, to which commonly in the Greek translation 

of the Old Testament, and always in the original of the 
New, the word a.vdOep.a corresponds. It denoted some 
thing, not merely dedicated to d od, but forcibly dedi 
cated to him something that had been withdrawn 
from his service and worship, so that he was not glori- 
fiedi/i it, and was again, by the ha nils of another, devoted 
to him, that he might be glorified upfin it. This is a 
kind of consecration peculiar to the liible. as the view 
of the divine justice, or righteousness, on which it is 
based, is only found there; heathenism never attained 
in this respect to any proper knowledge of Deity. And 
the thought it presents is, certainly, a very solemnizing 
one; bespeaking, as it does, the setting apart of things 
or persons from a common to a sacred use, hallowing 
them in a sense to the Lord, in order that he may 
consume them, or otherwise pour upon them his righ 
teous indignation. Hence we have the singular expres 
sion, not unusual in the original Scriptures, " Accursed 

I to the Lord" (n wS fcHpj ^- xxvii. _>;, L<<) ; JOB. vi. 10,21), but 
T i - : 

in our translation softened iuto ; ,mh phr.-;si sas devoted 
lo the Lord," or consecrated to the Lord." On the 
first historical occasion that this kind of consecration 
was put in force, dcxtroy is the word used in our version, 
though it does not convey the precise idea of the ori 
ginal. The circumstance is recorded in Numbers xxi. 
1-3, "And Israel vowed a vow unto the Lord, and 
>aid. If thou wilt indeed deliver this people into my 
hand, then J will utterly destroy [T, ;^r,~. i will make 

a chc rcm or anathema of] their cities. And the Lord 
hearkened unto the voice of Israel, and delivered up 
the Canaanites; and they utterly destroyed [made an 
anathema of] them and their cities ; and h-- called the 
name of that place Jformak [the anathematized, or 
devoted to destruction]." It is evidently not simple 
destruction that is here described by the putting under 
ckcreii) or anathema, but the doing of this as a sacrifice 
to God an act justified and demanded by the interests 
of holiness and one, therefore, which required to be 
performed in a peculiarly solemn frame of mind, free 
from carnal passion and selfishness of spirit. 

Such is the idea of the Old Testament ckcrcm or 
anathema ; whatever was put under it was entirely 
withdrawn from its human use. or natural relationship. 
and given wholly to the Lord to be employed in his 
service, if capable of such employment: if not. to be 
utterly consumed. Hence, what was thus devoted 
could not be redeemed; it could not. by any ransom or 
substitutionary arrangement, betaken back and applied 
to ordinary purposes; it must either be reserved for 
strictly sacred uses, or, if unfit for these, devoted to 
destruction. "No devoted thing [lit. "nothing that 
is chcrcm"] shall be sold or redeemed ; it is most holy to 
the Lord. None dt \oted. which shall be devoted of 
men. shall be redeemed, but shall surely be put to 
death," Le. xxvii. 2*. 2!). Hence it was that when the Ca 
naanites, as a people, were, on account of their flagrant 
enormities and foul abominations, put under the same 
ban as those- mentioned above that dwelt about Hormah, 
extermination was the necessary result : they were se 
parated to the Lord sacredly destined, in a manner, to 
the severity which their sins had provoked consigned 
to perdition. And as a clear sign to the Israelites 
themselves that such was the nature of the decree which 
they had to put in force against the Canaanites; that 
what they had to do in this respect was strictly a work 
of God, and that everything they might acquire by 


doing it the hind, the cities, the goods, which reverted he does it like those Jews, in regard to himself, when, 

to them for a possession were properly the Lord s, speaking of his deep sorrow on account of the apostate 

and came to them as a sacred dowry from his hand ; condition of his countrymen, and his fervent desire for 

as a sign of all this, .Jericho, the first city in the land their salvation, he says. "For I could wish \or more 

which they had to attack , had the anathema laid upon exactly. I was wishing implying that the act was in 

it in the most stringent manner, and the most comprc- process of forming itself, but remained incomplete, was 

hensive form. Xothing belonging to it was to be appro- checked by some counter- consideration) that I myself 

priated as the people s own; the treasure was to be brought were anathtma from Christ fur my brethren, my kins- 

into the Lord\s house ; and all that could be consumed men according t> the flesh." Ku.ix.:;. The expression 

houses, garments, and the inhabitants themselves, with has given rise to much disputation, and many attempts 

tlie, exception of 1 ahab utterly made an end of. In have been made to draw it into an inferior sense than 

like manner, and with ref. ivnce specifically to idols, it what the words seem naturally to import. Hut such 

was said, "Andtho i shah not bring an abomination attempts are to be discuura-vd. as tendir."; rather to 

into thine house, and In conn- a cursed thing [an ana- embarrass than to explicate the subject. Let it onlv be 

thema. or clu.rcm] like it: tlnm shah utterly detest, uuderst 1. that the apostle is himself in the highest 

and thuti utterly abhor it; f.,r it. is cftcrcm," Ik. mood of spiritual feeling, and. in consequence, capable 
vii. I D. It is wroiiu to -av ot such cases that it is simplv . of beinu; fullv sympathized with hv such only as are 
the vile and execrable nature of the object that i- indi- familiar with the nioiv elevated frames uf the Christian 
cated. and that then- is no idea of consecration to the life. Let it be mid. rstood. further, that the thought 
Lord ; the general principle still holds good, that every- expressed is not a decision foimally come to. or a 
thim, r i^ i- ni is must holy to the Lord. (Inly, in the purpose cahidv entertained and brought forth into 
case of .-inful persons and polh;t.d objects, the conse- deliberate action, but rather a sentiment slim d in his 
cration was with a view, not to honourable and !>!> .--,,[ bosom by tin- agony ,,f unutterable sorrow a wish 
service, but to the exhibition of divine justice in their cherished and \vt au f ain repressed, as if it mu>t not pass 
destrud IK vend the n-gion ,,f thought and feeling. Let this 
In the X> w Testament use of the \\ord <innf/f //< only be understood as to the state of mind here indi- 
the idea ,,f consecration i-. perhaps, less prominent cated by the apostle, and tin-re v. ill be found in it no- 
thai i in th" old T< .- tame) it cfm ciii, though it i- still in- thing either inconceivable or absolutely singular. It 
eluded : only, the thought is turned somewhat more upon is ju.-t that state of rapt devotion so finely de-i-rib. d 
the execrable nature and fearful doom of tin ubject of b\ Hac-oii. a- sometimes attained by "Cod s elected 
it. It occurs altogether only live or six tim -. and saints, who have wished themselves ra/.cd out of the 
in on,- i,f these it i-- a company of Jews who use it. book of life in an ecstasy of , harity and feeling of 
so that it i.- not bro i .j1it into contact with any Chris- infinit.- communion" a f"< lin-.; as if life would be 
i ment. "( i-rtain .!< \v s 1 pound theiu-e .v , < under intolerable to them, sliould the common well -being of the 

ill our version (literahy. anath matizcd briptherli 1. after which they so ardently lon jvd, fail 

themsi Ives], "saving that the\ wo\:!d neitlnr eat nor to he reali/.ed. It is this asp-ct of the matter which 

d -ink till they had killed Haul." Ac. x iii I J; that i-. in such a case, should be contemplated as alone present 

they devoted thein.-ely,- in this way to destruction, if to the mind; and to brim.; into view the physical ami 

they should P -ile IP in executing the purpose they had moral ruin, the final despair and wretchedness of th" 

formed respecting Haul. Hruhahly. as the providence lost as if this were the alternative which were almost 

of ( (}. bvivmovin"; Haul suddenly to a distance from preferred hv the individual to his existiii" state and 

them, rendered the execution of their scheme imprac prospects were entirely to mistake the r, al condition 
ticable. they would hold themselves released from the j and temper <,f -oul expressed on such occasions. 
p naltv they had voluntarily incurred. Hut tlr- feel- Tin- olln r passages in which St. Haul emplovs .-ma 
in-; which prompted them to enter into the engage- thema point more distinctly to the moral guilt of the 
m. nt was doiibtle-s nmcii tin- same as that which subject of it. and his fit destination to the heav n.-t 
animated tin- conspirators a_;"ain-t Herod s life; of curse. "No one." In- savs, 1 Co. xii.:i, ".-.peaking in 
whom Josephus tells us that, when detected and sei/.-d. ( oid s Spirit, calls Jesus anathema;" he cannot po sihly 
" tin v showed no -ha me f, ,r what tln-v wen- about, nor think and speak of him as a tit object of di\ in,- e.xecra- 
did they deny it : but exhibited their da-j^vr.-. and pro tion. Hut. at the commem-emeiit of his epistle to the 
t sted that tin- conspiracy tiny had sworn to wa- a (Jalatians, the apostle himself twice over pronounces an 
holy and pious action : that what they intended to ,1,, anathema upon the person, be he man or angel, who 
was not for gain, or for any indulgence to their pa-- should com- preaching another gospel than that which 
sioiis, but principally for those comm- ii customs of he had himself preached ; thereby solemnly consigning 
their country which all the Jews were obliged to ob- such a person, as guilty of the greatest impietv, to tin- 
serve, or else to die for them" (Ant. xv. S. <; . The idea justice of Cod for everlasting reprobation ; ami. at the 
In re. however misapplied as to its particular direction, close of his first epistle to the Corinthians, In- breathes 
was still that of the religious curse, devoting to (Jod as by forth tin- weight v utterance. If any man love not the 
a sacred act, and for the infliction of the heaviest doom, Lord Jesus Christ. l -t him be anathema maranatha." 
what, in the circumstances, was deemed unworthy of Here, au ain. from the idea of its being supposed to be 
life. So, in the bosom of those who conspired against contrary to the proper spirit of an apostle that he 
Haul, the sentiment seems to have been, Let our life be should wish any one to become, in the full and proper 
forfeited to Clod, as a thing which he may justly exact sense, an anathema, the import of tin- expression has 
at our hands, if we withhold our hand from compassing been softened to mean simply that such an one should 
the death of such a miscreant. be excluded from the Christian communion that lie 
It is the apostle Haul himself who. in the other has no proper right to a place among Christ s flock. 
places referred to, makes use of the anathema. Once lint there is no evidence of the word anathema being 



so u.-M-d in Scripture, nor is there auv need for resorting 
to it here: since, if it is the revealed will of Cod that 
they \\lio arc destitute of love to .lesus should he 
doomed to tinal p< rdition. there can he nothing im 
proper in an apostle, nor even in the most MTaphic 
hosom in hea\en. \\ishiug it to he so. It is hut pray 
ing that Cod s vul! he done. Besides, such a diluted 
meaning would leave altogether unexplained the con 
nect in u r so closely together of the two Aramaic words, 
iiiid.tlii aid. and iiKiranatlni. Such a connection, espe 
cially in an epistle written not to a Syrian but to a 
Crcciau community, seems to demand that the words 
he take n in their fullest sense, and also to imply that 
they were words < ither themselves in familiar use with 
the Christians, or grounded upon some well-known 
[passage of Scripture which uas thereby recalled to 
iln ir mind. Mui un-utha i.- tlie Syriac phrase for tin- 
Lord mines; and, to place this in such immediate con- 
junction with the announcement of an anathema, and 
to do so in one of the last sentences of the epistle, was 
to remind the disciples, in the most impressive manner, 
that the curse as well as the blessing has its operation 
in the kingdom of Christ, and. so far from ceasing at 
the moment of his coming, only rises then to its highest 
development: so that it behoves all to look well, in 
tin: meantime, to the reality of their interest in Christ, 
and their love to him. The apostle does not, indeed, 
overlook the blessing: for. in the very next verse, he 
pra\s that the grace of the Lord Jesus Christ might be 
with them. But, knowing as lie did, that there were 
many elements of corruption working in the church at 
Corinth, he gives special prominence to the other and 
darker a>pect of tlie matter: and. in doing so. he ex 
actly follows the example of the prophet .Malachi, whose 
closing announcement regarding the coming of the 
Lord may be said to form the ground of the apostle s 
representation: for. while there making promise of the 
Lord to those that feared his name, as coming to hh ss 
his heritage, he, at the same time, proclaims the neces 
sity of a great and general reformation, if this result 
was to be generally experienced: but, if it failed, if 
there should i:ot he a real turning of hearts to the Lord, 
then the coming would be to smite the earth with a 
chcrcm. or anathema. Because the danger was no great 
of a disastrous result, this was the last thought the 
prophet left upon the members of the old covenant in 
connection with the subject. In like manner here, and 
on the same account, the apostle makes it one of his very 
latest and most impressive utterances to tlie church at 
Corinth. The anathema therefore, in this case also, is 
the solemn adjudication of the characters named to the 
doom of perdition, as fit objects of the punitive justice 
of Cod -pronounced now. in order that those who were 
in danger of incurring it might hasten their escape from 
the wrath to come. < Lightfoot correctly indicated this 
interpretation of the passage, and the allusion it con 
tains, to .Mai. iv. _ -(!, but improperly and unnaturally 
limited its application to the Jews. Ilengstenherg. 
in his C/iristoloyy, justly cxcepts to that part of Light- 
toot s interpretation.) 

There can be no doubt, however, that while the word 
anatftema in the NYw Testament, as cherem in the Old. 
always hears the higher sense we have ascribed to it. 
and a direct reference to the judgment of Heaven upon 
the abominable and reprobate, a certain change was 
introduced both by the ecclesiastical authorities in the 
use of anathema, and by at least tlie later Kabbinical 

writers in the u.^e of i-hiruu. Both terms came to he 
applied to church censures to excommunication in its 
lighter or heavier form. What was strictly called the 
chcrcm was the final sentence of excommunication, after 
lighter censures had proved unavailing: and it con 
tains (as given, for example, by Buxtorf, in his Lc.x. 
(. Imld. Tul ni,. el lialjbhi.. or in a more accessible work, 
liy Brown, in his .liititjitit-im of ///- J, V ;s, ii. 2^7} a 
revolting and detailed multiplication of all imaginable 
curses and inflictions of evil on the head of the un 
happy subject. But the name was also applied to other 
forms of censure on the part of the synagogue. With 
the fathers, anathema was used indiilerently of excision 
from the church, and separation from Cod : sometimes 
the one explanation is given and sometimes the other, 
as may he seen by consulting Suicer s T/i -Mnrufi on the 
word. Theodoret even explains the "Let him he ana 
thema," in ] Co. xvi. -2 2. by "Let him be removed 
from the common body of the. church "erroneously, 
we certainly think: but it shows how soon the word 
had come to receive this lower application. Jn tin- de 
crees of later councils, and with Komish writers gene 
rally, to In: anathema, is but another term for being 
excommunicated, or cut of! externally from the num 
ber of the faithful. 

AN ATHOTH [(inswn-x to i,rai/n:i], occurs a.> a 
personal name in some of the genealogies, icii.vii. 8 ; 
No. x. in; but it is chiefly known as a Levitical town, 
Jeremiah s birth- pi, uv and proper residence Je. i i. 
Very little besides is known of the town itself, 
though it is occasionally mentioned, ^ S:i xxiii, 27 ; 
Ezr. ii. u;j; and so much identified had it become in 
later times with the prophet, that in Jerome s day it 
went by his name: "Anathoth. <|u;e hodie appellatur 
Jeromia- (Onomast.) It layabout three or four miles 
north of Jerusalem: and is supposed to have been the 
same with the Anata discovered by Proft ssor IJobinson. 
which is at the distance of an hour and a quarter from 
Jerusalem, and stands on a broad ridge of hills, from 
which one looks down upon the eastern slopes of the 
hilly ground of Benjamin, and sees as far as the valley 
of the Jordan. It is now a mere village, of some fifteen 
or twenty houses, but possesses remains of ancient walls 
and of foundations that seem to have borne houses of 
respectable size. 

ANCIENT OF DAYS, an expression applied to 
Jehovah thrice in a vision of Daniel, cli. vii. <j, i?,, >;>, appa 
rently much in the same .sense as Eternal. The ex 
pression viewed by itself is somewhat peculiar; but it 
is doubtless employed by way of contrast to the succes 
sive monarchies which appeared one after another rising 
before the eye of the prophet. These all proved to be 
ephemeral existences, partaking of the corruption and 
evanescence of earth : and so, when the supreme Lord 
and Covernor of all appeared to pronounce their doom, 
and set up his own everlasting kingdom. He is not un 
naturally symbolized as the Ancient of Days one who 
was not like those new formations, the offspring of a 
particular time, but who had all time, in a manner, in 
his possession one whose days were past reckoning. 

AN DREW [Gr. AvSpeas], one of the earliest dis 
ciples of our Lord, and latterly one of his twelve 
apostles. He had previously attended the ministry of 
John the Baptist, but clave to Jesus, after the Baptist 
distinctly pointed him out as the Lamb of Cod. Jn. i. :!.-,- 40. 
He was a fisherman of Bethsaida. and the brother of 
Simon i eter. Xo sooner had he found satisfaction in 



his own mind respecting the Messiahship of Jesus than [ other passages, however, in \\liieh the rendering un jilis 

he sought for his In-other Simon, whom lie presently i is sometimes preserved, but in which the reference still 

brought to Jesus, and who. in like manner, became a is to U-ings or agencies of an earthly kind, not to those 

disciple of the Xazarene. It was some time, however, : possessed of angelic natures, Of that description pro- 
before either Andrew or Simon left their regular occu- i bably is 1 s. civ. -I. quoted in He. i. 7. "who maketh 
pation. and gave themselves to constant attendance ; his angels spirits, his ministers a rlamini; tire: for the 
upon the ministry of Jesus. And even after they did rendering. " He maketh winds his messengers" or angels, 
this, extremely little is recorded of Andrew, who seems , certainly appears to tit in most naturally with the train of 
to have been much inferior to his brother in thosequali- i thought in the psalm, and also to serve best the purpose 
fications which are required for taking a lead in public for which it is introduced in the epistle to the Hebrews, 
affairs. He is mentioned individually on but three Of the same description are those passages in v.hieh 
occasions once, when the difficulty presented itself of the term is applied to prophets, as pel-sons commis 
feeding the five thousand that waited on ( hrist. and sioned bv (Jod to deliver messages in his name: thus 
when he signified that a lad was there who had five Haggai is called the Lord s angel, cli. i. i:i (mmsenycr in 
barlcv loaves and two fishes. Jn. vi.U; again, when he Lnirlish version*, as is Messiah s forerunner in .Mai. iii. 
took some part in introducing certain (Irctks to Jesus. 1 : and the epithet is even applied to Israel u enerallv. 
who were anxious to see him .Fii. \ii. > : and tinallv. with reference more especially to his prophetical calling. 
when, ahum 1 with Peter, James, and John, he went pri- as appointed bv ( iod t" IK- the liu ht and benefactor t 
vateK to Jesus to get a fuller revelation of his mind the \\orld. Is;i. xlii. in. So. again, and with reference 
respecting the destruction of the temple-buildings, M:u merely to anothi-r a-pect of the i It-legated trust com 
x.n. :; This wa.- the onlv occasion on whieh Andrew initted t<> the covenant- people, there an- passages m 
is related to have been admitted with the other three which the priesthood lias the term applied to it: as at 
to a more private int. rvit-w with Jesus, and t" witness Mai. i: . 7. "The priest s lips should keep knowledge, and 
a manifestation of his divine fulness, which was with- thi-v should seek the law at his mouth: for he is the 
held from the re-i . l- nr anything; farther, we knew angel (English version, messenger) of the Lord of hosts. 1 
simplv that Andrew took part with his brethren in their This plainly is said. ii"t of each individual priest, but 
apostolic labours, and shared the common perils of their of the priesthood as a bodv : collectively they were the 
calling: but in what precise departments of labmir. r Lonl .- authorized ministry, his anu el to make known 
throiurh what spet itic trial.- and ditticulties. we have no to the people the things pertaining to his will and w .,r 
information in Scripture t.r in other reci mis < >t authentic ship. And the same explanation substantially i- to be 
history. Trailition. in one of its forms, speaks of hi- given of a passage in Lcclesiastes. often little under- 
having gone preaching the gosjK 1 to Seythia ; in another, stood, di \ i-ii : "\\ hett thoii vowesl a vow unto ( !.tl. 
to Or.eee; in -till other-, to A-ia M i nor. I hrai e. \c. defer ni.t topa\ it: for he hath no pleasure in fools 
i l- .useb. I/ in/, iii. I: t<n),hrnn. "/ . lli<rai . / tirriji. ; pay that v\ h u-li thou ha.-t vowetl. 1 letter is it that ihon 
\icf]ifi. ii. ! "> : and finallv reports him to hav. -ntt ered should, -i not vow. than that thou shoiiltlest vow and 
martyrdom at 1 atra- in Achaia. on the peculiar form of! not pay. Suiter not thy mouth to cause thy flesh to 
cross, / I . / iii i-ii,*..-!!/!! i X . which --til! bear.- hi- nam. . sin: inither say thou before the aii^cl ti;at it was an 
I lilt no trace is found of these traditions till a e, .nipara- error : that is. neither ra.-hly utter with thv lips what 
lively kit 1 period : and it is impossible to tell what tie thon hast not moral strength ami fixedness of purpose 
-, ive of credit, or whether anv cn-tlit whate\t-r. is .hi. enmrjli to pi-rforni : nor if tlioit shotlldest have uttered 
to them. Mention is made by .-ome early writers of ;l it U" before the priesthotitl. the Lord s delegated niinis- 
iiook call -d the Act- of Andrew." and also of -i try to attend to such things, and say it was an error. 

"Gospel of St. Andrew," but both win- held by the thinking to -vt oil bv an easy confession, that thou 

church to be spurious productions, and have li.nj qnce hadst don. \\roiiu; in making the vow. These later 
|ierished. uses of the word iimjil. in the ( >ld Testament, to denote 

ANDRONICUS [man conijmroi-}. a kinsman and those who were delegated by the Lonl to tit, prophetical 

or prie-tlv work strictly, indeed, in each case, the 
work of authoritative instruction and oversight serve 

linguist led hi m-. If in the faith and labours of a ( hri-tian also to t \ plain the peculiar expression in the addresses 
life, that he had acquired a name among the apostle.- to the seven churches of A-ia in the Apocalypse, which 
generally. In calling A ndroniciis his fellow prisoner, were sent t<> "the angels of the churches." r rom the 
the apostle must have referred t<> some previous part of Old Testament usage, which i.- here undoubtedly fol 
his history, when they had suffered together for the lowed, the word determines nothing as to the question, 
cause of ( hrist : for at the time he wrote to the Roman.- whether what is m. ant by <i,u/<l was one individual or a 
he was not in bonds. I ,... xvi. 7. collection of individuals: it simply designates the party. 

A NER [meaning uncertain], a Canaanite chief, who. whether consisting of one or more, to whom belonged 
with Esi-hol and Mannv. joined Abraham in pursuini; the authoritative instruction and oversight of the (Jhris- 
the host of ( hedorlaomer. Gc. xiv. ; also the name of a ti;l!1 immunity in the several churches, and by the 
Levitical town in tin- tribe of Munasseh. i ch. vi. ;... VC1 7 name suggests the greatness and responsibility of 

ANGELS [in Creek 77 (-\ot. and in Ht-bn-w = ^ c . the trust. 

( leiierallv sjieaking, however, when angels are men- 

Mlakiui]. Both the Greek and Hebrew terms originally ti ,, lu . (1 in Scripture, it is with reference to sup,-rhuman 
ini]iort any kind of pel-sons or agencies sent forth me*- existences rational and immortal beings, but ttjjirltf. 
seHi/ws/andthey are occasionally employed in Scripture ;ls contradistinguished from men in Mesh and blood, 
in this original sense, though usually, in such cases, the the tenants of regions suited to their ethereal natures, 
rendeiing in our Knglish version is not angels, but mes- not occupying a local habitation mi earth. Yet. even 
sengers. (For L-X. Job i ll, l Sa. xi. :!; Lu. ix .v>.) There arc when thus limited, there is considerable latitude in the 



expression, ;u;il several orders of being are comprised 
in it. 1. First, there are those more commonly under 
stood liv the expression the aii jvls of heuvcii, or of 
God, ;is they are called, Mat. xxiv. 30 ; xiii. -II ; Jn. i. r>l ; M.-it. 
&\ii. 30. They are nanu d in eonnection with heaven, 
as having their more peculiar abode then. 1 , where are 
also the brighter manifestations of the divine presence 
and glory, ami which is always represented as, rela 
tively to this world of ours, a higher and more blissful 
region. God s angels, also, they are emphatically called ; 
not merely because they derived their being from him, 
and are sustained by his power for this belongs to 
them in common with all creation -but more especially 
because th^y are in ;: state of peculiar nearness to Cod, 
and are his immediate agents in executing the purposes 
of his will. It is as possessing the ministry of such 
glorious agents, and possessing it in vast numbers as 
well as invincible strength, that lie takes to himself 
the name of " the Lord of hosts the head of angelic 
myriads, who ever hearken to his voice, and are ready 
t ) fulfil his pleasure. 2. Then there are the angels of 
darkness, vvlio are scarcely ever designated simply angels, 
or the angels, but usually with some qualifying terms, 
indicative of their real character and position such as 
" the d vil s angels," as contrasted with the angels of 
God; or the "angels that sinned," "that kept not 
their iirst estate," in contradistinction, as well to what 
they themselves once were, as to the party that remained 
steadfast, M:,t. xxv. II ; -2 IV. ii. -I ; Jink (i. :j . Finally, there 
is tlte angel, by way of eminence one who, from the 
epithets applied to him, and the acts ascribed to him, 
appears to be infinitely raised above all besides who 
b,:ar the name of angel designated sometimes "the 
angel of the Lord s presence," "the angel in whom his 
name is," "the angel of the covenant and Lord of the 
temple," " .Michael the archangel." I.-. Km. :> ; K\. xxiii. L>I ; 
Mill. iii. 1; Juleii, &i ., and represented as offering up the 
prayers of God s people, discomfiting their enemies and 
symbolically taking possession of the whole world as 
his proper heritage. Re. viii. 3 ; xii. 7 ; x. 2. It is uniformly 
but one being to whom such peculiar acts and designa 
tions are ascribed ; they are never spoken of as belonging 
to a company, or as .-shared by one in common with 
some others ; and, as they clearly imply divine proper 
ties, and performances strictly mediatorial and redemp 
tive, they can be understood of none but the Lord Jesus 
Christ. lYeci-ely as he was called //,,> apostle and 
high-priest of our profession." from being in these 
respects the original and perfection of which others 
were but the copy ; so in a sense altogether peculiar he 
bore the name of angel, because he was, as no other 
could be, the delegate of .Heaven to sinful men "He 
whom the Father sent" to reveal to them his counsel, 
and for ever establish the covenant of their peace. 

It is only to those comprised in the first of these 
three divisions that the name of angels is distinctively 
appropriated, and respecting whom wo have now to 
adduce the testimony and information of Scripture. 
This may be. briefly presented under two points of in 
quiry - first, What, according to the revelations of 
Scripture, is their own state! and then, What, in rela 
tion to us, is their proper function and employment . 

1. In regard to the iirst point, the language of Scrip 
ture always pre>ents the angels to our view as in the 
most elevated state of intelligence, purity, and bliss. 
.Kndowed with faculties which fit them for the highest 
sphere of existence, they excel in strength, and without 

injury can endure the intuition of God, Ps. ciii. 20 ; Jiut. xviii. 
10. In moral excellence they are equally exalted, and 
are therefore called emphatically "the holy angels," 
"elect angels," "angels of light," Mar. viii. ^s ; rri. v. 21; 
. Co. \i. 11; and are represented as ever doing the will of 
God-- doing it so uniformly and perfectly that we can 
seek for nothing higher and better in ourselves than to 
aim at being like them. Nor in the sphere of their 
being and enjoyment is there aught of want or disorder; 
all is in delightful harmony with their natural and 
moral perfections ; and to have our destiny associated 
with theirs - our condition made equal to theirs, in its 
functions of life and elements of blessing- is set forth 
as the very glory of the resurrection-state to which 
Christ has called us, Lu. x.\. "i; ; Iiu. xii. 22. The two, indeed, 
may not be in all respects identical; but that which 
is exhibited as the pattern cannot, in any essential 
respect, be inferior to what is to be fashioned after it. 

That the angelic state was from the first substan 
tially what it still is can scarcely be doubted, from the 
general tenor of the scriptural representations. Yet. 
in these a certain change is indicated ; not, indeed, 
from evil to good, or from feebleness to strength, but 
from a state in which it was at least possible to fall, to 
another in which this lias ceased to be possible to a 
state of abiding holiness and endless felicity. The 
actual fall and perdition of a portion of their number 
implies that, somehow, the possibility we speak of did 
at one period exist ; and the angels that kept their first 
estate, and have received the designation of elect augx Is 
yea, are ranked among the ministers and members 
of Christ s eternal kingdom - must have made- some 
advance in the security of their condition. And this, 
we naturally think, must infer some advance also in 
relative perfection; for absolute security to rational 
beings in the enjoyment of life and blessing we can 
only conceive of as the result of absolute holiness ; they 
have it they alone, we imagine, can have it in whom 
holiness has become so deeply rooted, so thoroughly 
pervasive of all the powers and susceptibilities of their 
being, that these can no longer feel and act but in sub 
servience to holy aims and principles of righteousness. 
So far, therefore, the angels appear to have become 
what they now are that a measure of security, and. 
by consequence, a degree of perfection whether in 
spiritual knowledge or in moral energy is now theirs. 
which sometime was not. 

1 rom the representations of Scripture, there is room 
also for another distinction in regard to the state of 
angels, though, like the one just noticed, it cannot bo 
more than generally indicated or vaguely apprehended. 
The distinction we refer to is a diversity in rank and 
power, which, there seems ground for asserting, exists 
among the heavenly hosts. There are indications in 
Scripture of something like angelic orders. For. though 
the term archanycl cannot be applied in this connec 
tion, being used only as the designation of a single 
personage whom we take to be the Messiah vet the 
name Gabriel (hero, or mighty one of God ), assumed 
by the particular angel who announced to Zacharias 
the birth of John the Baptist, Lu. i. in, seems to import 
that he stood in some nearer relationship to God than 
others ; it appears to distinguish him, not from men- - 
for his angelic nature alone was there a sufficient dis 
tinction but from other angels less elevated in power 
and glory. So also, in IJe. xviii. 21, we read of "a 
mighty angel," as if all were not precisely such. Then, 


ia various places there is an accumulation of epithets, as these, "The angel of the Lord onciunpt-th round 
as of different orders, when, referring to the heavenly about them that fear him. and dclivereth them;" "He 
inhabitants, as in Kp. i. L U, :>]. where Christ is said to shall give his angels eharire concerning thee to keep 
be exalted above all prineipality. and power, and thee in all thy ways : they shall bear thee up in their 
might, and dominion, and every name that is named. . hands, lest thou dash thyfootagahista stone, l s. xxxiv : : 
not only in this world, but also in that which is to ! \ci. 11,1^. Similar representations ,,f angelic agencv 
coine;" and in 1 Pe. iii. 2 2, where he is again said, in ! are contained in New Testament scripture, and occupy, 
his heavenly exaltation, to have "angels, principalities, indeed, a more prominent place, in conformity with the 
and powers made subject to him. P>ut if such expres- general character and design of the gospel to render 
sions, appear to render probable or certain the existence more patent the connection between this lower world 
of some kind of personal distinctions among the angels and the world of spirits. So that it is onlv what mi^ht 
of glory, it leaves all minuter details respecting it uniler have been expected beforehand, when we learn that 
a veil of impenetrable secrecy. And to pn-mne. like our Lord, in the days of his flesh, was from time to 
the ancient .Jews, to single out four, or seven primarv time ministered to bv the anircls ; that, on ascending to 
anu els : or. like the IJabhins. to distribute the ang.-!i - the regions of glory, hi had the angels made subject to 
hosts into ten separate classes: or. still again, with him for carrying forward the operations ,,f his king- 
many ot the Scholastics, to distribute them into nine dom : that various commission^ of importance were 
orders or choirs, each consisting of three classes, rcgu- executed through their lustrum, -ntalit v during the life- 
larly -raduated in knowledge and authority, is vainly time of th" apostles; and that, gcnerallv, the doeti-ine 
to intrude into those things which eye hath not seen, concerning tin-in is aniinunoed. for the comfort of be 
am! to attempt being \\ i>e above what is \\ritteii. lievers, " that they are all ministering spirits sent forth 
< alvin. with his accustom. -d sense and -ravity. remark- to minister to those \\ h aiv lieii-s , ,f salvation." M,,r i. i : ; 

"If we would I >e truly wise, we shall give no heed Lu. xxii. 4:i; Mii. ii. n>; 11V. iii. -Jl ; Ac xii.;IIe.i II. 

to those foolish notions \\hieh liave been d. -liv. red by In regard, how.-v.-r. to the kind of services \\hi.-h are 

idle nii ii concerning angelic orders, \\ithmit warrant actually rendered to believers by the ministry of angels, 

from the Won! of Cod" i //i.v . i. o. II. |i. or the ben-tit- \\ hicli may ju-tl\ lie expected from it, 

[n whatever the distinctions among angels mav con- we know too little of the nexus which binds together 
sist. or to whatever extent it may reach, it cannot in in anv partieular ease the world of sense with the 
the least interfere with the happiness tln-y individuallv world of spirits, to be able with much accuracy to de- 
enjoy. For this happiness arises, in tin- first instance, termine. Negatively, we can so far define as to exclude 
from e.ieh bein^ in a proper relation to the < livat ( entre from the field of their agency the actual communication 
of life and blessing ; and then, from their In in-; ap of life and grace to the soul. Nowhere is this ascribed 
pointed to occupy such a sphere, and take part in such to them in Scripture ; on is uniformK 
services and employments, as are alt"-vt!n -r adapted to re], resented as an es.-eiitiallv divine work, and therefore 
tlnir state and faculties. Th. s,- fundamental condi- not to lie accomplished by a created agency. leather. 
tions l)eing preserved, it is easy to conceive how certain Son. and Sjiirit are hen- the onlv effective agents, 
diversities, both in natural capacity and in relative po- working, in so far as subordinate means are employed, 
sition. may bo perfectly compatible with their mutual through a human, not an angelic instrumentality, in 
satisfaction and general \s< 11- beiiiLT. and mav even con- connection with the word and ordinances of the e. "spel. 
tribute to secure it For it. may tend to the happy The things \\hich coin.- \\ithin th - -pin iv of an- lie 
order am! adjustment of the several parts. ministration bear incidentally upon the work of salva- 

J. The information of Scripture is ^om, -what more tion, rather than directly touch it ; and. as regards the 

varied and s|iecitic upon tin- othi-r point of inquiry ordinary history of the Church and the common experi- 

their proper function and i mployiii, lit in relation to enee of believers, they have to do with the averting of 

us; for it is with this that we have more especially to evils \\hich miirht too seriouslv afled the interests of 

do. In not a few passa-vs tin ir kn-A l,-d-_v of \\hat righteousness, or tin- bringing about of results and ope- 

pi-rtams to affairs on earth is distinctly intimated; and rations in th - \\orld which are fitted to ],roinote them. 

their inteivst also in it is expressed, as yield in u r an occa- When it is r, 11,-cted how min-h even the children of ( Jod 

sion of joy, or a deeper insight into the purposes of an- dependent u],,,n circumstances of <j-,,od ,,r evil, and 

<!od. Tin!-, they are spoken of as frequently taking how much for the cause of ( ;<!, whether in tin- world 

part in communications made fr,,m heaven to earth at lar-v or in th<- case of .-in-le individiials. oft -n turns 

as desiring to look into the things which concern the upon a particular event in providence, one can easily 

scheme of salvation as learning from the successive s,-e what ample room tin-re mav be in the world for 

evolution of the divine plan more than tin v otherwise such timely and subtile influences as the quick messengers 

knew of (Jod s manifold wisdom -as rejoicing together of li .;ht are capable of impart in- . It mi-Jit be too 

at the birth of Jesus, and even over the return of indi- much to sav. as has occa.-ioiiallv been said by divines, 

vidual wanderers to his fold, 1 Pu. i. 12; Ep. iii. Hi; Lu. ii. 13; that all the beneficent powers of nature are under an- 

xv. in. I !ut there are other passages in which they are gelic direction, and that every auspicious event is owing 

represented as directly and actively ministering to the to their interference ; there are, at least, no sufficient 

good of believers, and shielding or delivering them from grounds in Scripture mi which to build so sweeping an 
the evils incident to their earthly lot. The office of. inference. Rut, on the other hand, it is equally possible 

angels in this respect was distinctly understood even in to err in the opposite direction; and as Scripture gives 

Old Testament times, as is implied alone in the name us clearly to understand, that there are myriads of an- 

the "Lord of hosts." so often given there to (lod in liis gelic beings in the heavenly world, who are continually 

relation to the covenant-people in the frequent inter- I ascending and descending on errands of mercy for men 

position of angels to disclose tidings or accomplish on earth, it may not be doubted that, in many a change 

works of deliverance and in such general assurances which takes place around us, there are important opera- 

VOL. I. 12 


t ions performed b\ them, as well as by the ostensible 
actors and by the material agencies of nature. 

Jiut whatever individuals or the: collective body of 
believers may owe to this source, there arc certain laws 
and limitations under which it must always be under 
stood to be conveyed. The fundamental ground of 
these is, that the e-tiicieney of angels is essentially dif 
ferent from that of the several Persons of the <iod- 
hcad ; it is such merely as one finite being is capable 
of exercising toward another. Consequently, it never 
can involve anv violent interference with the natural 
(towers of thought and reason in those who are the 
subjects of it; it must adapt itself to the laws of reci 
procal action established between finite beings, and so 
can only work to the ha. id. or set bounds to the actings 
of nature-, cannot bring into play elements that are ab 
solutely new. Hence, as a further necessary deduction, 
all that is done bv angels must be dene in connection 
with, ami by means of natural causes: and only by 
intensifying, or in some particular way directing these-, 
can thc-v exert anv decisive influence on the events in 
progress. Thus, at the Pool of Jic-thesda the angel s 
power wrought through the waters, not independently 
of them; at He-rod Agrippa s death, through the worms 
that consumed him; at the jail of I hilippi, through the 
earthquake that shook the foundations of the building; 
and if thus in. these more peculiar, certainly not less in 
the more regular and ordinary interpositions of their 
] lower. J^>ut this take s nothing from the comfort or 
efficacy of their ministrations ; it only implies that these 
ministrations are incapable of being viewed apart from 
the channels through which they come, and that the 
beings who render them are not to be taken as the 
objects of a personal regard and adoring reverence. 
Hence, while the hearts of believers are cheered by the 
thought of the ministry of angels, the worshipping of 
angels has been from the first expressly interdicted, Col. 

ii. 1- ; Ue- sxi .ft 

\ arious fanc ful and groundless notions have been 
entertained on the subject of angelic ministrations, and 
still to some extent prevail ; such as that a part of their 
number are separated for the special work of praise: in 
the heavenly places, and observe hours of devotion; 
that angels act as a kind of subordinate intercessors, 
mediating between believers and Christ ; that individual 
angels are appointed as guardians to particular persons, 
or (as it has sometimes been believed) that each indi 
vidual has both a good and a bad angel attending on 
him in particular. Of such notions, this latter id, -a of 
guardian angels to every believer, and even to every 
child, is the only one that in Protestant countries can 
be said now to find support; it is based more especially 
on the saying of our Lord in ^lat. xviii. 10, "Take 
heed, that ye despise not one of these; little- ones; for I 
say unto you, that ill heaven their angels do alwavs 
behold the face of my J- ather. which is in heaven." ( tin- 
Lord, however, is not speaking he-re of little children 
as such, but of his disciples under the character of little 
children (whom, in humility aiiel lowliness of spirit, he 
had presented as their proper type) ; nor does he speak 
of individual relationships subsisting between these and 
the angels, but rather of the common interest they have 
in angelic ministrations, ready to be applied as ench one 
of them has need. JUit of a separate guardianship for 
each individual, there is not a word dropped he-re, nor in 
any other part of Scripture. Even in Ac. xii. 7, where 
a very special work had to be dune for Peter by the 

hand of an angel, there is nothing of the historian s own 
that implies any individual or personal relationship of 
the one to the other; the angel is not called Peter s 
anu el. nor is the angel represented as waiting upon him 
like a tutelary guardian; on the contrary, he is desig 
nated "the angel of the Lord," and is spoken of as 
coming to 1 eter to do the particular office required, 
and departing again from him when it was done. Jt is 
true, the inmates of .Mary s house, when they could not 
credit the report of the damsel, that Peter himself was 
at. the door, said, as if finding in the thought the only 
conceivable explanation of the- matter, " Jtishis angel." 
But, as Ode lias justly remarked (f)i A-nyJla, viii. 
c. 4), "Jt is not everything that is recorded by the 
evangelists as spoken by the .lews, or even by the 
disciples of Christ, which is sound and worthy of credit. 
Nor can what in this particular case was true of Peter 
be: afthmed of all believers, or ought it to be so. And, 
indeed, that Peter himself did not believe that a par 
ticular angel was assigned to him for guardianship, 
clearly enough appears from this, that when Peter got 
out of the prison, and followed the angel as his guide , 
he did not as yet know it to be true that an angel was 
the actor, but thought he saw a vision : and at length, 
after the departure of the angel, having come to 
himself, he said, Xow, 1 know of a surety that the 
Lord hath sent his anf/d, and delivered me from the 
hand of Herod. " (For evil eir fallen angels, sec 




ANKLET; an ornament inaele of gold, silver, or 
ivory, and worn about the ankle by the gayer portion 
of the female sex in various oriental countries, both in 
ancient and in modern times, for the purpose chiefly of 
attracting notice, and drawing upon them the eyes of 
men. They were so constructed as to produce a sort 
of tinkling noise when the persein walked; and. though 
they are not expressly named in Scripture, yet they are 
undoubtedly referred to by Isaiah, when, annmg other 
excesses in the use of female ornaments, he describes 
tin; daughters of Zion as " walking and mincing as the} 
go, and making a tinkling with their feet," ch. iii. 1C. 
.It has been supposed that they are also alluded to in 
the Koran, (c. xxv.), where, amid various injunctions re 
specting proper modesty of attire and behaviour, women 
are ordered "not to make a noise with their feet, that 
their ornaments which they hide may be discovered." 
Such is Sale s translation; but Savary renders, Let 
them not move about their feet, so as to allow those 
charms to be seen which ought to be veiled," so that it 
may well be doubted if the passage contains any allu 
sion tei anklets. Ornaments of this description, how 
ever, were undoubtedly in frequent use among many 
of the ancient nations, and to this day still exist in 
Fgvpt, India, and elsewhere throughout the East. 
Specimens are given of them in the ring form by Wil 
kinson (Ancient Egyptians, iii. 375), and by Lane in his 
Modern Eyyptiana, iii. App. A. He says of them 
" Anklets (klnilklu d] of solid gold or silver, and of the 
form here sketched, are worn by some ladies, but are 
more uncommon than they formerly were. They are, 
eif course, very heavy, and. knocking together as the 
wearer walks, make a ringing noise ; hence, it is said 
in a song, The ringing of thine anklets has deprived 
me of reason. " He adds-, a little further on, that 


" small kku.lkli.dlii of iron are worn by many children. 
Jt was also a common custom among the Arabs for 
girls or young women to wear a string of bells on their 

feet. 1 have seen many little girls in Cairo with small 
round bells attached to their anklets." He thinks that 
it i> to anklets of thi- description that the prophet Isaiah 
probably alludes in the pa. age above referred to; but 
that mav lie doubted. 

AN NA, .laughter of I hanuel. of the. tribe of Ash, r, 
and. at the period wln-n she is mentioned in the gospel 
narrative, a widow of tip- advanced a-.- of ei-htv-four. 
She is described as a prophetess, n,,i probublv from anv 
ivgular or stated manifestation of prophetic -ifts. but 
because she was one of those whose hearts were more 
st.-adfastly .-,-1 on the e\|iectatioii of .M. ssiah .- advent. 
and. by the superior grace conferred on In r. was enabled 
to announce his presence when h-- aetuallv appear.-d in 
the temple, and broke forth on the occasion in words 
of thanksgiving and prai -. ; . IT. That .-In- should 

have been enabled at such a time to lake this part, 
indicated tin- possession of a certain measure of the 
prophetic spirit. The more peculiar notice, however, 
which is given of this pious woman, is contained in the 
words, " She was of a -n at age, an I hail lived with an 
husband seven years from h, r vir- initv. and di-part>-d 
not from the temple, but served ^(!od) with fa.-tin-s 
and prayers night and day." The meaning of thi- 
statement plainly is. that Anna had lived but seven 
years in the married state; that having th--u lost her 
husband, in-tead of marrying a -a in. or takin- up with 
other things, she devoted herself to a life of fastin- and 
I .raver, continually attending upon ih-- ministrations of 
the sanctuary. Not that she actually had apartments 
in the temple buildings for tin-re is no n a-on to sup 
pose that any females had such but that she stated! v 
presented herself there aiiio-i- the wi.rshipii.-i>, and 
took part in the services which were proceeding. Lv.-n 
from the earliest times then- seem to have- be. n pious 
females dedicating themselves thus to a sort of priest 
like consecration and constant service; for at Lx. 
xxxviii. ,s the l.-iv.r of brass is said to have been made 
out of the mirrors of the women who dailv assembled 
at the door of the tabernacle; it is, literallv. the serv 
ing-women who served. Anna, in her latter years, 
joined herself to this class ; and in answer to her faith 
ful and devoted service, had the high honour conferred 
on her of becoming one of the immediate heralds of the 
Saviour of the world. 

AN NAS, called in Josephus ANA.NTS, is first men 
tioned by St. Luke along with Caiaphas, as being to 
gether high-priests at the period when John the llaptist 


entered on his ministry, Lu. m. >. Ik- is mentioned a 
few years later in the narrative of our Lord s last suf 
ferings, not as the high-priest, but as the father-in-law 
of Caiaphas, who at the time held the office, and as 
having a considerable sway in the management of 
affairs, for when Christ was sei/ed by the band of offi 
cers he was first led away to Annas. .In. xviii. i;;. And 
again, at a period somewhat, though not verv much 
later, he reappears in the narrative of St. Luke in 
connection with the persecution of the apostles, and is 
styled simply the high-priest, while Caiaphas. John, 
and Alexander are coupled with him as his coadjutors 
and kindred, Ac. iv. G. l ,y comparing the history of 
Josephus (Ant. xviii. ~2. 1 ; xx. In, ]). we learn that, 
during the active ministry of our Lord, and for some- 
years afterwards, the office of high, priest, in its stricter 
sense, was tilled by Caiaphas. Ilia the term lii-li- 
priest I- " AlUATHAKI was v.ry commonly used of those 

: who, though not in possession of the office, shared with 
Is possessor the bight r places of judicial power and 

authority; for. as matters st 1 in the apostolic age, 

the men- work .-f ministering in holy things, peculiar to 
the high-priest s office, comprised but a small part of 
the prerogatives connected with it. And there never, 
perhaps, was a person who. for a longer pt riod, and 
with a more influential sway, exercised those accessories 
of priestly rank than the Annas before us. He had 
been himself hi-h priest fur upwards of twentv vears, 

: and no fewer than five of his sons, and his son in law 
Caiaphas. successively held the office, so that, he could 
scarcely fail to be regarded as a sort of perpetual hiidi- 
priest: so far. ind.-i-d. as adiuini -tratioii was concerned, 
the virtual hi-h priest, whether he was aetuallv in the 
office or not. This sufficiently explains whv he should 
have b,-, n called high-priest along \\ithCaiaphas. bv 
Luke, and why so promim nt a share should have been 
ascribed to him both by Luke and John in the transac 
tions of the gospel era. And then- is no need fur -oing 
into the ( mc.stiuii whether he may not have held the 
official presidency f the Sanhedrim, even when lie had 
a.-ed to bo hiuh priest; a ijuestioll which then- an- 
not sufficient materials for determining, and one on 
which, in such a case as thi.-. noihin- can be said to 

ANOINT. ANOINTINC. The practice of anoint 
ing with oil. or with oil in I. -mi in-led with certain per 
fumes, seem.- to have been of great antiquity in the 
warm regions of the Smith and Last. Its use falls into 
luo leadin- di\i.-ions the common and the sacred; 

th n- b. in- designed for purposes of in vigoration or 

refreshment, the other as a symbol and m.-aiisof con 

I. Probably the earliest authentic notice or repre 
sentation of the use of oil for any special purpose, is 
that in the history of Jacob, when, afti r his n markable 
dream at IVthel, lie pound oil on the stone that had 
served him for a pillow. This belongs to the religions 
use of oil; but as the ivli-ioiis in this, as in other things, 
doubtless had its foundation in the natural, no reason 
able doubt can be entertained that the patriarchs were 
then in the habit t.f employing it on ordinary occasions. 
In Kgypt the practice of anointing, at least the heads 
of persons, was so common in ancient times that it ap 
pears to have been among the civilities which were 
shown to guests when they entered the house where 
tliev were t<> be entertained. 



The pru-eticc was equallv common among the Greeks. 
In tlu: apostolic age it was so common among the Jews 
of Palestine that our Lord could notice the omission of 
it by Simon the Pharisee as a plain mark of coldness, 
if not a breach of civility, I.u. \ii. m. Put the unguents 
u-ed en such occasions in later times seem to have 
been perfumes rather than 
u they were 
in which the 

fragrance of the perfume 
was regarded as the more 
peculiar excellence. Such, 
especially, were those con 
tained in alabaster boxes 
or port elain vas s, whi< h 
had MI strong an odour, 
and in which the several in 
gredients were so finely 
blended, that the vessel has 

been known to retain its scent for hundreds of years. 
in the simpler and earlier form, however, in which 
the custom of anointing svas practised, the oily sub 
stance appears to have been the principal, if not the 
only article employed; and the main object in using 
it was the preservation of the health and elasticity 
of the bodily frame. .For this it was serviceable in 
the hot and arid countries of the East. The clothing 
there is necessarily thin, and the exposure to heat 
and sand naturally induces a feeling of lassitude, or 
sometimes of irritation, which the application of oil 
is titled to relieve. The strong evaporation, also, 
caused by the heat, requires to be met by oily and 
odoriferous unguents. "Anointing the skin prevents 
the excessive evaporation of the fluids of the body, 
and acts as clothing in both sun and shade." (Living 
stone s Travtla in > s . Africa, p. 24(i.) In like manner 
the elder Xiebuhr testifies that in Yemen, where the 
climate is only some degrees warmer than in Palestine, 
the anointing of the body is believed to strengthen 
and protect it from the heat of the sun, by which the 
inhabitants of this province, as they wear but little 
clothing, are very liable to suiter. Oil, by closing up 
the pores of the skin, is supposed to prevent that too 
copious perspiration which enfeebles the frame. When 
the intense heat comes in they always anoint their 
bodies with oil." The allusions to the practice, in Old 
and New Testament scripture, are of great frequency, 
although, in by far the greater number of instances, it 
is evidently spoken of as a species of luxury, as con 
nected with refreshment, invigoration, and gladness 
still more than with health, and therefore, in all proba 
bility, consisting in the application of / rfn ,,u il_ oil, and 
that not so much to the body generally as to the head. 
In a variety of passages it is directly mentioned as a 
source of hilarity and joy, as -in Ps. xxiii. 5, Thou 
anointest my head with oil:" Ps. xlv. 7: Pr. xxi. 17, 
" He that loveth wine and oil shall not be rich;" ch. 
xxvii. it, " Ointment and perfume rejoice the heart." 
In another set of passages the disuse of it in times of 
mourning is represented as a fit and proper thing, 
among other signs and accompaniments of grief; as at 
1 Sa. xiv. -2, where the widow of Tekdah, when disguis 
ing herself as a mourner, is enjoined not to anoint her 
self with oil: and in like manner Daniel, when engaged 
in exercises of fasting and humiliation, tells us he did 
not anoint himself at all, ch. x. 3; comp. also Is. Ixi. :i ; 
Mi. vi. 15; Mat. vi. 17. In still another class of 

the use of oil with the sick is spoken of as customary 
and proper, partly, it would appear, as a medicament, 
and partly as a proof of kind and sympathetic treat 
ment, Is. i. (i; Mar. vi. i:j; Ja. v. 14. In these two latter 
cases, which mention the use of oil in immediate con 
nection with the cure of the diseased the miraculous 
cure in one of the cases at least, if not in both there 
is probably some reference to the symbolical import 
which oil came to bear in things pertaining to the glory 
and service of (Jod, so that they may in part be referred 
I to the next division. 

2. It is rather singular that the first instance on 
record of the religious use of oil that already referred 
to, of Jacob s anointing the stone at IJethol has respect, 
not to a person, but to a thing. It was evidently de 
signed to be a formal consecration of the stone, or the 
spot where- it lay, to a sacred purpose ; though, under 
what consideration oil was employed to that end, and 
why oil rather than several other things that might be 
named, no indication whatever is given in the narrative. 
The intercourse with Egypt had as yet scarcely com 
menced on the part of the chosen family ; and there is 
no ground for affirming it to have been derived from 
that quarter ; we might rather suppose it had descended 
from the rites and customs of primeval times. It is 
certain, however, that oil was used at a very earlv 
period in Egypt for purposes of consecration. Monarchs 
at their coronation were thus set apart, and were called 
"the anointed of the gods." So we are told by Wil 
kinson, (ch. xv.), who adds, "With the Egyptians, as 
with the Jews, the investiture to any sacred orlice, as 
that of king or priest, was confirmed by this external 
sign : and as the Jewish lawgiver mentions the cere 
mony of pouring oil upon the head of the high-priest 
after he had put on his entire dress, with the mitre and 
crown, the Egyptians represent the anointing of their 
priests and kings ujter they were attired in their full 
robes, with the cap and crown upon their head. Some 
of the sculptures introduce a priest pouring oil over the 
monarch, in the presence of Thoth, IIor-Hat, Ombte, 

41. J IIor-Hat and Thoth pouring emblems of life and purity 
over Ainuimph III. Wilkinson. 

or Nilus. which may be considered a representation of 
the ceremony before the statues of those gods. The 
functionary who officiated was the high-priest of the 
king. He was clad in a leopard skin, and was the 
same who attended on all occasions which required 
him to assist or assume the duties of the monarch 
in the temple. They also anointed the statues of 



the gods; which was done with the little finger of the but sealing to them the spiritual qualifications needed 
right hand." for its efficient discharge. Hence, after describing the 

The formal agreement above noticed by Sir (J. Wil- preparation for the oil which was to be used in the 
kinson, between the use of oil among the Egyptians work of consecration, it is said, " And thou shalt sanc- 
and the Israelites in consecrating to an office, may un- tify them, that th. y (the sanctuary anil its furniture) 
doubtedly be regarded as evielence that the .Mosaic may be most holy ; whatsoever toucheth the m shall be 

holy. And thou shalt anoint Aaron ami his sons, and 
consecrate them, that they may minister unto me- in 
the priest s office." K\. xxx. ;;i, :;n. 

In later passages of Scripture-, the meaning of the rite 
is brought out still more- distinctly, and its respect to 
the gift of the Holy Spirit left without any doubt. 
Thus, when Saul was anointed to be kin-. Samuel 
addeel. "And the Spirit of the Lonl shall come upon 
thee. i s.i. x. i;. And when 1 aviil was appointed in the 
room of Saul, we are t.ild, "Then Samuel took the 
horn of oil. and anointed him in the midst of his bre 
thren : and the- Spirit of the Lrd came itpeni I >avid from 
that day forward udong with the- si-n he t^ot the- thin- 
signified) : but the Spirit of the Lord departcel from 
Saul," i Sa. xvi. i:;-i i having forfeiti d his right to the 
blessing, his fonner anointing now became to him but 
an empty ceremony. The same connection is brought 
[42.] A kiuganmiitingthustatueof the j.; Kluim. Wilkinson. " lltil .v Isaiah proj)hetically of the Messiah, when he 

introduces tin- latter as speaking. "The Spirit of the 

prescription was framed with some regard to the observ- Lord <!o.l i.- upon me. because he hath anointed me to 
anre-s in Kirypt ; for by the time the former was insti- preach good tidings to the meek," 1.- Ixi. ] a causal 
tilted, the Israelitish people had been long habituated to connection: th.- Spirit i- upon me-. f,,rnx> he- hath 
the cu.-tom- of Kgypt : and it was the- part of wisdom, anointed me- ; for. in M. ssiah s case, the re- could be no 
whensettingupabetterpohty, to take ad vantage of what s--paration between th. form and the reality. Inde-e-d. 
existed there, so far as it i-oulel be- safely employed, in the actual history of Jesus, the- form itself fell into 
I .ut then it must be- b..rm- in mind, that the- formal abeyance, the- reality al. -in- conies into view : without 
coincide lice- in such cases by no mean.- argued a siibstan- any external anointing, the Spirit of tin- Lord descended 
tial agreement, and that the- ival in. anin- of the- ol>- upon him without measure. I .ut the- projilu t spake 
se-rvaiie-.- in the two cases may have been very dill, r- fromth. Old Testament point of view, in which e\t rv- 
enl it must, indeed, have been so; for all symbolical thing presented itself under the aspect of shadow ami 
institutions necessarily derive- tln-ir eli.-tine-tiv.- value- s\inbol. When Ne-w Te r tame nt times come these tall 
and signitiance from the character of the- ivligiem away, while tin- language- derived from them is still 
with which the-y are- associated : they in some- often retained. Hence, in Ac. iv. J7. tin- apostles, in 
respect or another, it.- spirit and design: and between their address to Ciod, say of Jesus, "Thy holy e-hild 
the Kgyptian and the- Jewish ivli-ion, there was this whom thou hast anuinttd ;" and still more- e xpr. -slv 
-rand fundamental disparity, that the- one was only a I oter, ill his speech to Cornelius, " God Jto<?(i t^ JCSUH 
deification of nature-, while the- other was throughout of Na/.areth with the Holy Chost and with power," 
moral, based on the spiritual and righteous cliaracter of A.-. \ . :.-. So also of < hristiaiis -,-m-rally. it is saiel by 
<; "d. Hence the consecration of a king or a statue by I aul. "II.- who hath amiinted us is God," 2 Co. i. 21 ; 
tin- etliision of oil in an Kgyptian temple had notliing and by John. " Ve have an unction from th.- llolvOm-. 
eif what may be e-all.-d the- ntnru/1// *!,,; ,1 about it : it and ye know all things." l .In. ii. Jn. 

merely indicated to the spi-ctators that the- subje-ct of it The- ]iractie-e- of anointing with oil as regards persons 
was re-cognix -el by the- god e.f the temple-, and was in < >ld Testament times, was almost entiivly ce.nlined 
treated with that mark of per.-mial consideratiem which to those who attaim-d to the- higher oflice-s of king ami 
it was u.-ual for men in their dwellings to bestow on priest. Then- is only om- di.-tinct occasion on record, 
such perse ms and things as tiny .-..u-ht specially to in which anointing is mentioned ill ei.nnec.tion with the 
honour or exalt. The king so anointed was solemnly designation of a pniphet ; it is in respect to Klisha. 
recognized as the guest and protege of the- lord of the- wh.-n chosen to take- th.- pla.-e- of Llijah. iKi.xix. Ui; 
temple- : the statue was se-t apart for. and so far id.-nti- ami it was so on that particular occasion, probably be 
lied with, the god it represented, and be ah wen- cause, in the- peculiar ciivuinstane. .- of tin- time, the 
stamped as tit for their respective destinations. Hut in call to prophetical ministrations as.-unu-d more than 
the true religion some-thing more and higher was in- usually the character of a specific office or function to he 
volved in the act of consecration. The article or sub- discharged. Klisha was, in a manner, t> judge- fur Ood 
je-ct was brought into contact with the holiness of Je in Israel, and to exercise a kind e.f supernatural autho- 
hovali. and was made- a vessel ami instrument of the ritv and ce.ntrol. L\e-n in this case, however, it may 
Spirit of (lud. Hence-, anointing with oil in the times be- doubted whether there was any actual effusion of oil, 
if the olel covenant was always a symbol of the gift ami whether the casting of Klijah s mantle over Klisha 
ami grace of the Holy Spirit in the case of inanimate- die! not itself constitute the act of anointing. For. that 
objects imparting to them a ceremonial sac-redness, so as the- term was sometimes employed even in ( >ld Testa- 
to fit them for holy ministrations ; and in the case of ine-nt times, whe-n there was no actual administration 
persons, not only designating them to a sacred office-, of ejil, is evident freim Is. xlv. 1. where- ( \rus is spoken 


of as anointed liy (Jed. Jf oil was used, it would pn>- 
li;it)ly be nut simple oil, but, as in tlu; ease of the priest 
hood, a compound of various sweet spices mixed with 
olive oil. These are called in our version staete, 
onycha. and galbamun, Kx. xxx. :H; but tin; names are 
somewhat conjectural; and nothing further can IK: 
affirmed regarding the compound, than that it was 
doubtless formed in such a manner as to yield the most 
fragrant and refreshing perfume ; so that, irom its de 
lightful and exhilarating influence on the bodily sense, 
it might aptly image the blissful ciiirt of the Spirit s 
grace on the soul. 

After the explanations that have been given, it is 
scarcelv necessarv to do more than notice, that the 
terms Mixxiuli and C/n ixt have become per.-onal desig 
nations of the Redeemer, simply on the ground of his 
anointing in the spiritual sense. (>Vc ; CiiuisT.) In an 
inferior sense, both priests and kings were called the, 
Lord s anointed ones, or his Messiahs, as it might be 
rendered (for example. [.,0. vi. 22; 1 Ch. xvi. 22). Tint the 
distinct;\ e nan!" of // .Me>siah. or Anointed < hie, came 
in the later books of Old Testament scripture to be ap 
propriated to Him, on whom the hopes and expectations 
of (Jod s people were hung, 1 s. ii. 2; Da. ix. 2.">, 2ii. 

ANT Ir^:;. netnCdah], the name of a family of 

four- winged insects t Formicada-). very numerous in 
species, and abundant in every country in the world 
except the Arctic regions. The ants, more than any 
other insects, manifest that division of the body into 
segments which characterizes their class (inacctani, cut 
into) ; the abdomen is connected with the thorax by an 
exceedingly slender pedicle, and frequently the former 
division of the body is subdivided into segments, which 
are connected only by a similarly attenuated thread. 
This remarkable appearance is, doubtless commemorated 
in the Hebrew name, from s^*, ntiuiiil. to cut off. to 
circumcise, tie. xvii. n. 

To some of our readers it may seem strange that 
ants should be considered four-winged insects, whereas 
they may have never seen a winged individual among 
the thousands of ants they may have looked upon. 
The fact is, this tribe presents the curious anomaly 
(paralleled also in the Termites, or white ants, of another 
order) of three forms of individuals we might almost 
say, three sexes. The males and females arc furnished 
with four wings on their leaving the chrysalis state, but 
soon drop them spontaneously. These are compara- 

mt are considered as iniper- 

at all. These- are sexless, 
fectly developed females. 

JS o insects are more deservedly celebrated than tlicso 
for that wonderfully elaborate instinct which imitates 
the actings of reason, and that not the reason of the iso 
lated and selfish savage, but of the civili/.ed man, living 
in society, and labouring with self-denying toil and 
well-directed energy for the general benefit of the com 
monwealth. In the societies of bees, there is the sem 
blance ot a central authority, \\hich we have agreed to 
call the ijnii ii, and so those -industrious insects are poeti 
cally assumed to live under monarchical government; 
but 110 such conspicuous personage exists in an ant s 
nest, and these may be considered true republicans, 
who carry on their labours without guide, overseer, 
or ruler," I r. vi. 7, prompted by the unerring instinct 
implanted in the sensorium of each. 

Ill two passages of the book just cited, I r. vi. f,-s ; 
xxx. 21, _ .">, the ant is held up as an example of diligence, 
and, according to the plain sense of the words, of that 
prudence which provides in a time of plentv for the 
season of scarcity. Thus Solomon, in the former pas 
sage, sends the sluggard to the ant for wisdom, which 
provideth her meat in the summer, and gathereth her 
food in the harvest. And Agur, in the latter passage, 
extols their exceeding wisdom, because, though little 
and not strong, "yet they prepare their meat in the 

These statements have acquired a more than usual 
measure of notoriety, because it has been supposed that 
they present an example of popular error in natural 
lii.-tory. which the investigations of modern science have 
refuted. A great multitude of ancient writers have as 
serted that ants store up grains of corn in their nests, 
gathering them in the harvest ; and modern popular be 
lief has continued the assertion, adding to it the remark 
able circumstance that the plumule, or germinating 
point, is carefully bitten out of every grain, before it is 
committed to the subterranean granary, lest it should 
sprout and become unfit for food in the damp earth. 
"Any one," says Addison, in his interesting paper, No. 
l;j(J of the (liiardian, "may make the experiment, and 
even see that there is no germ in their corn." 

Now the precision of mi idem science has shown that 
our European ants do not eat corn ; but that they do 
take care of, and carry to and fro. objects which in 
shape, size, and colour bear so close a resemblance to 
grains of wheat, as readily to deceive a cursory observer. 
These objects, however, are the pupw of the young Ijnx.d 
in their cocoons. It has hence been somewhat hastily 
concluded, that the whole belief of antiquity on the sub 
ject has been erroneous, and that the statement, though 
backed by the authority of the sacred writers, must be 
consigned to the category of vulgar errors. 1 

We had need, however, to be very sure of our facts 
when we attempt to correct the Spirit of God. Neither 
Solomon nor Agur expressly names corn," as stored 
up; "food," "meat," are the general terms used ; and 
though harvest is named, it may be understood only as 
the time when the "food, whatever it be, is abundant. 
It is now known that European ants subsist largely on 
the saccharine juice secreted by aphides, and exuded by 
the latter expressly at the solicitation of the former: nay, 

tively few in number; but there is another race, which 
are the workers, and which constitute the main body 
of the teeming population, which never have any wings 

ANT 0. 

the highest authority on the subject. 31. Huber, con 
firmed by others, has ascertained that the ants ii/ip)-isu 
a number of aphides in their nests, to s/ i-vc Jtirhir/ the 
u-i liter for t/icir suf>i>Ii/, like milch cows in a paddock. 

But we have evidence bearing on the question still 
more directly. Colonel Sykes, an accomplished zoolo 
gist, finds an oriental ant which literally bears out the 
statements of Solomon and Agur: he has named it Aftu 
providers. The following note from his diary illus 
trates the habits of this interesting species: 

"Poonah (India), June 111, LvJl*. In my morning 
walk 1 observed more than a score of little heaps of 
grass-seeds (jiuiticiiiii} in several 
places, on uncultivated land 
u.-ar the parade ground ; each 
heap contained about a hand 
ful. On examination J found 
they were raised bv the above 
species of ant. hundreds of 
which were employed in bring 
ing Up the Seeds to the surface 
from a store below: the urain 
had probably got wet at the 
S"ttiiiL, r in of the monsoon, 

and the ants had taken advantage of the first sunny 
day to bring it up to dry. The store must have 
l>eeii laid up from the time of the ripening of the 
grass-seeds in January and February. As 1 was 
aware this fact militated against the observations of 
entomologists in Kurope. ) was careful not to deceive 
myself by Confounding the seeds of :i /.nitii-unt with 
the pupa- of the insect. Faeh ant was charged with 
a single seed: but as it was too wei-hty for many of 
them, ami as the strongest had some ditticultv in scaling 
the perpendicular sides of the cylindrical hole Lading 
to the nest below, many weiv the falls of the weaker 
ants with their burdens from near the summit to the 
bottom. 1 observed they never relaxed their hold ; and 
with a perseverance atl-rdin^ a useful lesson to hu 
manity, steadily recommenced the ascent after each 
successive tumble, nor halted in their labour until they 
had crowned the summit, and lodged their burden on 
the common heap." "On the ]:;thof October of the 
same year," adds the same naturalist, "afu r the closing 
thunderstorms of the nions. ;..n. I found this species in 
various places similarly employed as they had been in 
June preceding : one h -ap contained a double handful of 
grass seeds. It is probable the At tt jtrvridcmii* a 
field species of ant. as 1 have not observi d it in houses." 

The I, , v. T. \V. Hope, an entomologist ,,f known 
eminence, in a memoir on the same subject, comments 
on the abo\e statement. lleoius man\ authors, not 
only of classical antiquity, but IVrsian and Arabic 
writers, who maintain that ants collect and store up 
their food, contrary to the belief of modern entomolo 
gists. Then lie observes : " It Colonel S\ k, s is accur 
ate in his statements and he can scarcely be other 
wise, for he has specimens of the seeds he saw the ants 
bringing up from below to the heap on the surface of 
the earth, specimens of the grass producing the seed. 
and he wrote down in his diary the same day the facts 
as he had witnessed them - 1 think it will be seen at 
once that his facts tend to confirm the opinion of the 
ancients, that ants provide against a season of need, 
call it winter, or any other season. . . So little is 


known respecting the economy of our indigenous in 
sects, and even less regarding exotic species, that it 
would ho rash to hazard a decided opinion concerning 
them. And it will be borne in mind (as we lind to be 
the case among some species of birds and mammalia), 
that a habit which characterizes a species in a particu 
lar climate, is no longer the characteristic of that species 
in a different climate. The same species of animal that 
hybernates in extra-tropical climates no longer does so 
within the tropics. It will be borne in mind also that, 
in the great family of the ants, the species of some 
genera may have a provident instinct, and others bo 
destitute of it. ... I think it probable that the ant 
of which Solomon has made mention belongs to the 
gums Atta."- 

It may not be out of place to adduce the parallel 
economy , fa tribe of insects, which, though they belong 
to another zoological order, so greatly resemble ants 
in their most remarkable peculiarities, as to be popu 
larly associated with them. We refer to the -white 
ants (Termites*, so abundant in all tropical countries. 
These, too, lorm populous societies, living in common 
wealth, in elaborate structures, which are constructed 
by the united labours of the whole. We have not any 
detailed accounts of the oriental species; but in the 
minute and careful description, by Smcatlnnan. of the. 
African kinds, he speaks of their magazines of stored 

| |ji Hill-t of Termites, or Wliite Ants <.f AfnVa.-Sine.itlim.-ir. 

food. These are chambers of clay, always well filled 
\\ith provisions, -which to the naked eve seem to consist 
of the raspings of wood, and plants which the termites 
destroy: but are found by the microscope to be princi 
pally the gums and inspissated juices of plants. These 
are thrown together in little masses, some of which are 
find 1 than others, and resemble the sugar about pre- 
s. rved fruits: others are like tears of gum. one quite 
transparent, another like amber, a third brown, and a 
fourth <i\iite opaque, as \\e see often in parcels of ordi- 
narv gums." \ ] . 11. (;.] 

ANTEDILUVIAN AGE. There are certain dis 
tinctive characteristics of the age before the flood, as 
exhibited in the brief narratives of that period in Old 
Testament scripture, which will be more advantageously 
considered together, than distributed into separate ar 
ticles. They fall naturally into two divisions those 
which respect the divine administration toward man, 
and those which respect the conduct of men toward 
(iod and toward each other. 

1. The divine administration during the antediluvian 
period of the world s history, appears to have been 

ANTUDILT: v i A x AC; 


eharaeteri/cd above all subsequent ages ]>y the general 
mildness and forbearance that distinguished it. "Whether 
it might be. that tin, Lord thought good, for the better 
display of Ms paternal character, to ]. strain the natural 
consequences of tin 1 fall till tin- moral had more fully 
developed themselves, or because the infancy of the 
human race, required to have indulgences extended to 
it which in after auvs were wisely withheld, there 
eertainlv are appearances that, seem to mark a rc- 
straint on the judicial procedure of Cod. and a singu 
lar extension of merely natural powers and liberties. 
Thus, then: is almost an entire absence of the stringent 
enactments and penalties of law. In the facts of crea 
tion, and the dispensations of (loci consequent oil the 
fall, clear indications had been given to men of the 
greater landmarks of duty; and until it was seen what 
use should be made of these, the more specific forms of 
prohibition and command were fitly kept in abeyance. 
It was not vet the proper period of formal law. I lence, 
when Cain was found guilty of the atrocious murder of 
his brother, the sentence pronounced against him was 
very different from that afterwards, promulgated - 
Whoso sheddeth man s blood, by man shall his blood 
lie sheil," Ge.ix.O; it simply involved an exclusion, from 
the society of his kindred, the necessity of retiring to a 
distance from their common, residence, and a conse 
quent aggravation of the difficulties attendant on the 
cultivation of the .-oil for his support: the earth," it was 
said. " ; should henceforth not yield unto him her strength, 1 
that is. he should find it more difficult than formerly, 
from the disadvantages of his position, to obtain the 
means of sustenance by the labour of his hands, lint 
when he complained of the severity of this sentence, and 
urged the possibility of his being fallen upon and de- 
stroved as a common outlaw, ho was so far reassured 
by the declaration, that sevenfold vengeance was to be 
taken of any one that might kill him for the murder of 
.Abel, Uu. 1:>. And so throughout the generations 
that followed, great leniency was exercised in regard to 
the infliction of judgment a leniency which was abused 
only to the more prolific growth of wickedness and 
crime, and which in the long run so palpably failed in 
its object, that it required at last to )K: supplanted by 
the terrors of the most overwhelming judgment. 

Another striking proof of the mild and beneficent 
rule in natural things, which characterized the divine 
procedure during the antediluvian period, appears in 
the longevity of the patriarchs who then lived. The 
term allotted them was, on an average, fully ten 
times as large as that which in Liter ages has been 
assigned as the measure of human life on earth. And 
one can easily perceive the mercifulness of the arrange 
ment, as it gave to the original members of the human 
family, who had everything to learn for themselves, 
the advantage of a protracted experience to mature 
their skill and knowledge, and ample opportunities for 
imparting to others the benefit of their acquisitions. 
In regard, however, to the question, how the longevity 
itself may have been produced, and wherein lies the 
constitutional difference, as to human life, between the 
antediluvian and subsequent periods of the world s his 
tory, all must be matter of conjecture. Instances have 
occurred in comparatively recent times of persons living 
to th.- age of l.V) and upwards, while again individuals 
have born known to go through the whole cycle of 
youth, manhood, and old age, and die at little more than 
:2i> years old. The diversity in these cases is relatively 

as great as between the prolonged age attained by the 
antediluvians and the reduced longevity of modern times; 
while, in the one class of cases as well as the other, we 
are without any principle to account for the difference. 
1 ossibly. a very minute difference in the temperature 
of the antediluvian world, or of the ingredients entering 
into the composition of the atmosphere, may have been 
perfectly sufficient to account for the lengthened period 
which thi human frame usually survived then, as com 
pared with the limits prescribed to it now. 1>ut how 
ever produced, the facts referred to are sufficient to re 
move all objection against it on the ground of natural 
impossibility ; and in the peculiar circumstances of the 
human family at that early period, it was worthy of the 
divine benignity to extend the term of life greatly beyond 
the limits within which it has been ultimately confined. 
We have no very exact data for ascertaining what 
influence the longevity of the antediluvians might have 
had upon the population of the world, or at what rate 
of progress the population may have proceeded as com 
pared with modern times. Most extravagant calcula 
tions have sometimes been made upon the subject : and a 
recent popular commentary tells us. that the population 
of the world at the time of the deluge "has even been 
estimated as high as two millions of millions, that is, 
more than two thousand times the number of its present 
inhabitants, after the work of increase has been going 
on for thousands of vears. Such calculations are too 
extravagant to deserve refutation, and they derive no 
countenance whatever from the sacred records of the 
period. These not only leave altogether unnoticed any 
bearing the longevity of men might have upon the ratio of 
increase, but they contain notices which appear to in 
dicate that the ratio was by no means great. For ex 
ample, the birth of Seth the son who was given to our 
first parents in the room of Abel does not take place 
till 130 years after the creation ; and though we cannot 
doubt that there were births in Adam s family of which 
no express notice is taken, yetwhen the third son specified, 
the one child of hope and blessing after Abel, stands at 
the distance of nearly a century and a half from the 
commencement of the human family, it is impossible to 
avoid the conviction that the births were compara 
tively few and far between. Then, in the representa 
tions given of antediluvian times, there is nothing that 
seems to indicate a wide dispersion of inhabitants over 
the surface of the earth, nor is there any appearance of 
distinct nations or kingdoms. On the contrary, the 
human family presents still the appearance of a kind of 
unity divided, indeed, into two great sections, the Cain- 
ites and the believing portion, or followers of Abel; the 
latter, however, ultimately merging again, almost en 
tirely, into the former a state of things which can 
scarcely 1 10 conceived of, either on the one side or the other, 
as embracing a very extensive circuit, or even admitting 
much diversity of classes or interests. And still fur 
ther, mention is made in those early records of only 
one centre of religious worship that, namely, of the 
divine presence towards the east of the garden of 
Eden, from which Cain is said to have gone out, Go. iv. Ki ; 
and also of but one preacher of righteousness (Xoah\, 
from the time that the work of judgment was distinctly 
announced and the general call to repentance began to 
be pressed upon the world. These things, taken collec 
tively, seem to leave little room to doubt that the race 
of mankind was of comparatively limited amount down 
to the close of the antediluvian period, and was spread 


over no very extensive range of territory. This also is progress indicated in antediluvian life : but the advanee- 
the result which physical considerations might have ment in natural skill and resources was accompanied 
led us to arrive at as the most probable : since it is but with a fearful progression in moral evil. It would seem 
very gradually, and in consequence of changes and ac- that the superiority of the elder, the (Aiinite branch of 
eretions forming through successive ages, that the soil the human family, in inventive and useful arts was 
of the earth became properly fitted for the support of turned into an occasion of domineering pride, and vio- 
man and beast. At first, it is probable, a limited por- lent usurpation and wrong toward their fellowmen. 
tion only of its surface was capable of yielding a fair For. immediately after the notices given of their work- 
produce : and when, with tin; general thinness and manship in brass and iron, and apparently in efficient 
poverty of the soil, we take into account the compara- connection with these, the inspired narrative proceeds 
live want of skill and resources that must for a con- to make mention of deeds of outrage and bloodshed, 
siderable time have e.xi-ted as to its proper cultivation. tie. iv. 21-24. And when this line of procedure was once 
it is against all reasonable belief to suppose, that the generally entered on. we can readily conceive how the 
first inhabited region should have been equal to the forbearance and benignity which characterized Un 
comfortable support of what would now be reckoned a divine administration, the comparative freedom that 
numerous and teeming population. The necessities of was enjoyed from the restraints and penalties of law. 
the time may rather be said to have demanded a slow rate and the protracted duration of human life, \\ould tend 
of increase, and a population far from densely compacted : to swell the tide of the world s d,pravit\. and make tin- 
it may even be regarded as an e.-sential proof of the worse portion of mankind in a great degree indifferent 
divine lieni- nity toward the inhabitants of the antedi- to the consequences of their proceedings. The e-oodn-ss 
luvian world, to have restrained both their numbers, and of Cod. instead of leading men to repentance, was only 
the territory they occupied, within comparatively mode- taken as an encouragement to sin. and nursed the law less 
i^te limits. ness of their spirits to proceed to further excesses. 

1. Tin- characteristics on tin- other side, those which Tln-n- were, doubtless, checks of various kind- intt r 
appeared in the conduct of men toward Cod and toward posed rebukes and judgments in providence, from 
each otln-r. were far from presenting a proper cor- time to time administered, that ought to have arn st.-d 
ivspondence with the procedure of Cod. If the one the pi ogress of iniquity. Among the more remarkable 
was marked by its mildness and benignity, the other of these was the pn>t< -t raised against the prevailing 
wa- not less marked by its general lawlessness and vio- wickedness by the piv eminently godly lit ,- of Enoch, 
leiice. This is the leading feature that is brought out and the loud warnin- note ,,f coming judgment which 
in the history of antediluvian times, although otln-r lie uttered before he was translated. Nor \\as his 
points are incidentally noticed. It is evident from translation itself a more marked seal of the divine ap 
what i- recorded, that eonsiderabli advance was made pr,,\al ,.f the piety which distinguished Enoch, than a 
din-in---; tin- period in the art- of civilization and im condemnation of the evil courses a- ain-t which he had 
provement ; and so far from emerging out of a state of habitually \\itnes.-ed. Hut whatever means of a re- 
barbarism, in which men burrowed underground, and pressive or reformatory kind were used, tiny all tailed 
ed on roots and spontaneous products of the earth. of the proper etli-ct. Tin- ungodly section of tin- human 
they appear tV mi tin- tir.-t in tin- exercise of intelligent family continually encroached upon the other: so that 
foresight, and tin- possession of a certain degree of at la,< it is said, " the sons of Cod saw the daughters of 
civilization, which only required to -row in the niulti- men that they w, re fair, and to-k to them wives of 
tnde and variety ,,f it- resources. Cain, tin- tir-t son all which they chose." (!< vi -j ; by forbidd. n alliances 
of tin- human pair, became a tiller of the -round, as his they broke down tin barriers that should have con- 
brother Abel was a feeder of -lie,p both doubtless tinned to separate the good from the evil, and gave 
taught how to [Mil-sue their respective occupation- by rise to a uen.-ral deprivation of order and rectitude. 
their common p.-uvnt. When Cain was forced l.\ hi- That this is the meaning of the statement there can Le 
unnatural crime to retire to some di-tance from the little doubt . Some of tin- earlier fathers held, that by 
original centre of the human family. In- did not betake the sons of Cod hen- the an-el- were to be understood, 
to the manner- of savage lit ,-, but built tor himself a Mid that, in consequence of unnatural loves formed b,- 
city. It must, of course, have been a city of -mall tween tlnm and those daughters of men a Titanic 
dimensions, reseiiihiin- more what we understand by a brood w viv produced, an offspring of -i-antic strength. 
village: but in its ven projection it implied a certain and of equally gigantic wickedness. Thi- opinion, which 
degree of knowledge and art. an appreciation of the ad at intervals ha- always had it.- advocates, has recently 
\anta-_esof social life. and. at tin- same time, perhaps l>een revived, and with considerable ardour maintained by 
an effort to alleviate by means of human companion- certain Lutheran theologians lin particular. Haiimgar 
ship the apprehensions and consequences of guilt. This ten. Kurtz. Delit/.sch. and Stier). Tiny arum- that the 
last may even have been the more immediate prompter term sous of Cod" was never applied to believers 
of the undertaking : hut skill and art must have l>een at among nn-n till a comparatively late period: that it 
hand to second tin- design and bring it into shape, nm-t. therefore. ha\, been used with inference to the 
Other things came afterwards the invention of instru- angels: and that these may in certain circumstances be 
ments of music, of harps and organs, tools of brass and capable of maintainin--; -,xual intercourse with persons 
iron, and not only the cultivation of the vine, but the on earth, and producing seed by them. Hut this is 
manufacture of wine from it- fruit, of which the sad at variance alike with reason and revelation. Neither 
incident in Noah s declining years proved too mournful nature nor Scripture in such a way confounds heaven 
a witness. There can lie no doubt, therefore, that the and earth, one species with another. Even among the 
antediluvian period was one of civilization, and. in the living creatures that on earth are capable of producing 
(. ainite line especially, one of invention and progress. offspring, it is the settled law of nature, that each 

It were well, however, if this were the only kind of propagates only after its kind: and it were an un- 




heard of travestying of such :i general law, if angelic 
beings, tlie tenants (if an entirely different sphere, were 
to become the parents (if a fleshly offspring by daugh 
ters of nieii. I .esides. it is nut simply the producing "! 
offspring that the words speak of. hut marrying wives, 
whieh can only lie predicated of men in flesh and blood ; 
while of the angelic state it is given as a distinguishing 
characteristic, that they \\lio possess it " neither marry 
nor are given in marriage." The sons of Cod. there 
fore, must be a portion of the human family itself (m-c 
SONS OF (!oi; they were simply the better portion of 
Adam s descendants, who. though not hitherto nor 
usually in that early age called expressly God s sons, yet 
here fitly have their position and calling designated by 
this its higher relationship, in order to indicate more 
emphatically the degeneracy and the guilt involved in 
wedding themselves to those who knew of nothing better 
or higher than what belonged to them as the daughters 
of men. From Seth downward*, that smaller section 
of the human family had stood apart from the rest, 
and were honourablv distinguished by their relation to 
the worship and service of < iod : they had all along 
borne /ti.i name, and represented li m interest in the 
world. I .ut now. at length, the distinction between 
them and others gave way : they caught the general 
infection, preferred beauty to godliness, followed the 
\\ill of the flesh instead of the will of Cod. What 
could then be looked for but rampant iniquity, and 
total dissolution of manners! This result the sacred 
narrative marks when it savs, " And also after that, 
when the sons of (.iod came in unto the daughters of 
men. ami thev bare children to them, the same became 
mighty men. which were of did. men of renown: that 
is. renowned for their great and heaven-daring wicked 
ness, which reached its maturity only after the intermar 
rying of the more select with the looser portion of man 
kind. The salt had lost its savour, and all rushed head 
long to ruin : a memorable and instructive warning to the 
people of (iod in every age ! And a warning, doubt 
less 1 , intended to tell with special effect upon the chosen 
peopU; of Israel, to keep them from those promiscuous 
alliances with the heathen around them, which ulti 
mately proved one of their deadliest snares, Kx. xxxiv. i.\ ir>; 
l)o. vii. :), &c. 

Thus ended the moral and religious constitution of 
things in the world before the Hood. The corruption that 
wrought in man s nature proved too strong for the bar 
riers raised against it. and the reformatory discipline 
under which it was placed. Another phase of things 
must needs be introduced, if Cod s purpose to provide 
a seed of the woman, destined to bruise the head of the 
serpent, should not fail of its accomplishment. And 
as preparatory to this, the remnant that was still left 
in the person and house of Xoah must be preserved. 
and the destroying judgment, long threatened but still 
delayed, be at last executed upon the ungodly race, 
who had resolutely defied Cod and hid repentance from 
their eyes. In that judgment the old world perishes, 
that other forms of administration, better adapted to 
the existing condition of human nature, might have room 

to develop themselves. 

used only by the apostle John, and by him four times 
in the singular, i .hi. ii !,, -2-1 iv 3, i; Jn. v. 7, arid once in 
the plural, i .in ii. i. The interchange between the sin 
gular and the plural is itself a clear proof, that when 
the singular is employed, it is not to In: understood as 

denoting the same kind of exclusive personality which 
is indicated by the Christ. ISefore the close of the 
apostolic age. St. John found what he meant by the 
antichrist already realized in a number of individuals. 
Ye have heard." says he. "that antichrist cometh, 
and already many have become antichrists" (so the 
words in i Jn. ii. 1* should be rendered); they had IJCCOM? 
such, having originally professed to belong to the Chris 
tian community, but afterwards, in accordance with 
their real principles, separated themselves from it. 
This seems to imply, that what the apostle meant by 
antichristianism was some sort of apostasy, or deprava 
tion of tin? faith, which rendered those who fell into it 
really opponents of the truth of the gospel df Christ, 
though without setting themselves in format contrariety 
i to it. They did not avowedly abjure the Christian 
name, but they evacuated it of its proper and essential 
elements. And so we are taught more expressly in the 
other passage*, \\hich describe the antichrist as deny 
ing that Jesus is the Christ." "denying the Father and 
the Son," "not confessing that .Jesus is of Cod," or 
i "not confessing that Jesus is come in the flesh" this, 
i he emphatically adds in his -Jd Kpistle. ver. 7. "is the 
deceiver and the antichrist." The doctrinal error de 
nounced in these expressions might almost seem to be 
identical with Judaism, since the unbelieving portion of 
the Jews denied Jesus to lie the Christ, or to be of 
Cod. Yet it could not be the apostle s design to speak 
simply of Jews, since such would never have been re 
presented as going forth from the Christian communi 
ties; nor would it have been at all a natural form of 
expression to say of them, that they did not confess 
Jesus to have come in the Hesh. or to be of Cod. The 
"not confessing" rather points to the defective and 
essentially hollow nature of the faith maintained, than 
to its formal contrariety to the truth of the gospel: the 
parties in question made some pretensions to this, but 
they did not, in any proper sense, confess that Jesus is 
of Cod, and that he has come in the flesh; and so they 
virtually denied both the Father and the Son. or were 
ignorant of the true nature and mutual 7-elations of both. 
i It is, indeed, scarcely possible to understand the expres 
sions used, coupled with the assertion that there were 
1 many to whom even then they applied, but by supposing 
that the apostle alludes in them to those who became 
infected with the Cnostic spirit, and who were thereby- 
led, not formally to disavow the name of Jesus, but 
in some sense to deny the realities of his being or 
passion ; explaining away either his proper humanity 
or his essential divinity, and, by means of docetic 
appearances nr shadowy emanations, substantially 
making void the true doctrine of the incarnation. \\ e 
! know, from other sources, that a tendency of this de- 
scription manifested itself at a very early period among 
the Asiatic churches, although the regular development 
of the Cnostic svstems belongs to a later time. And 
\ St. John stamps even the first imperfect exhibitions of 
the tendency, which struck at the historical basis of the 
Christian faith, as the manifestation of the spirit of 

Ft is clear, from this comparison of the statements in 
John s writings, that it is equally against the apostle s 
! use of the word antichrist to regard it as denoting, in 
its primary application at least, either one who avows 
himself the enemy of Christ or one who usurps the 
place of ( hrist. I .oth of these opinions found an early 
advoeacv in the Christian church, and still have their 



respective supporters. Tcrtullian, expressing the f< inner 
view, asks, " Who are the antichrists luit those \vlio 
t:ik(! the part cif rebels toward Christ " (l)c J ru s< . 
Jftent. c. 4) ; and the other is exhibited by Hippoly- 
tus, when he describes the antichrist as " wishing in ail 
things to make himself like the Son of God" (L),: Anti- 
c/irintij, % ii) : also in the Aclin Martyr., which desig 
nate antichrist a quasi- Chrixtw. The Greek preposi 
tion an>i. iu composition, no doubt, often denotes sub 
stitution, the taking the room of another, and often 
also direct and formal opposition. So far as the com 
position of the word is concerned, the antichrist might 
have been either tin.- one or the other. But the con 
nection in which the word is used indicates a somewhat 
different shade of meaning: it imports a species of op 
position, indeed, rather than of substitution for it is 
against all evidence to suppose that, in the apostolic age. 
many had appear -d anion-j the churches setting them 
selves forth to be Christsi ; yet a covert and virtual. 
rather than an avowed opposition an opposition in re 
spect to the realities of the faith combined with a pro 
fessed friendliness in its behalf. Had the opposition been 
of a different kind, had it betokened an open resistance to 
tlie claims of Jesus, or a total renunciation of the Chris 
tian name, the persons could not have been characte 
rized as emphatically dcccil rrs, and warned against as 
peculiarly dangerous to the floek of Christ. 

It thus appears to be beyond any reasonable doubt 
that, in St. s use of the term <i n 1 i< l< ri,<i . th -iv is a 
reference to the early hen-tics, who sought, bv philoso 
phical subtleties, to explain away, after one fashion or 
another, the facts of the incarnation, and infringe upon 
the true doctrine of our Lord s person. In several of 
the fathers we find this view expivsslv stated. Thus 
Cyprian ,/; ji. Ixxiii. l- li. uh.n writing of the heretics 
of his own day. refers to 1 .In. iv. : ,. and asks " How 
can they do spiritual and divine tiling- who are ene 
mies of God. and whose breast the spirit of antichrist 
has possessed " In like manner. < Kcumeniiis thus en- 
deavours to ex]iress tin. mind of the apostle. " lie de 
c-lares antichrist to be already in the world, not corpo 
really, but by means of those who prepare the way for 
his coining, of which sort are false apostles, false pro 
phets, and heretics." This last ({notation, however, 1>\- 
its peculiar form of expression, points to another opinion 
which also prevailed from the earliest times : viz. that > 
the broachers of hen-sv and corruption in the apostolic 
and immediately subsequent times. \vi re but prelimi 
nary exhibitions of the antichristian power heralds i 
and forerunners of the anticipated evil, rather than the 
evil itself. They are said to have been the antiohrNt. 
yet not corporeally -not in that personal and concen 
trated form which the antichristian power wa~ expected 
to assume at a future time. and. as was thought, imme 
diately before the second advent of the Lord. Some 
individual, it was conceived, should then arise, who. 
by way of eminence, should he fitly called the antichrist, 
and who, before being destroyed by the victorious energy 
of Christ, should both utter the most horrid blasphemies 
against the .Most High, and practise the greatest enor 
mities upon the saints (Justin Martyr. Tr>//>}i. 110; 
Aug. DC Ci>-. !),!. xx. !_>. "!.>. &c.i Tint this view- 
was founded, not solely, or even chieHy, on the passages , 
in John s epistles which expressly mention the anti- j 
christ, or antichrists ; it came rather from connecting 
these with the descriptions in Daniel and the Apoca 
lypse of the great God- opposing power, that should per 

secute the saints of the Most High, and of St. 1 aul s 
"man of sin" in 2 Th. ii. :>-8. it would be too wide 
an inquiry to enter here into the investigation of this 
subject, which has proved the occasion of a voluminous 
controversy. We may state, however, that so far the 
fathers, and those who have followed them in later 
times, base right upon their side, in that thev regard the 
descriptions f St. John as belonging to the same class, 
and substantially parallel in import, with those in 
2 Thes. and the other passages referred to. Thev were 
probably wrong it certainly is our conviction that 
they were \\n.ii _j in connecting the man of sin. the 
lawk-s one. the God-opposing head of the mystery of 
iniquity, with a single individual instead of an incorpo 
rated system, the growth of ages, and reaching its 
height only through a course of circumstances favour 
able to it- development. This seems the natural and 
proper import of the description in the Second Lpistle 
to the Thessalonians. where the evil is represented as 
the result of a ureat defection from the laith t/ic apos 
tasy, by way of eminence, of which the elements were 
already in operation, and hence had formed the subject 
of the apostle s expostulations and warning s. The 

same holds. We believe, of the descriptions given ill 
1 >aniel and the Apocalypse, when they are carefully 
examined : so that a svstem of error and corruption, 
culminating sometime in a particular form, and directed 
by a powerful head, appears to have been indicated in 
the descriptions in question, not the rise of a single in 
dividual of preeminent wickedness. Hut. with this 
i-xccption. the \ i.-w under consideration rests on a solid 
foundation. St. John s antichrists were corrupters of 
the faith: and St. Paul s man of sin and nivstcry of 
iniquitv are. in lik.- manner, the perfected result of an 
apostas\ from the faith. Then, as the spirit of anti 
christ, in the one apostle, invoh.d some kind of anti 
thesis in doctrine and practice to Christ, a certain use 
of Christ s name with a design entirely subversive of 
( hrist s cause; so. with the other apostle, the power 
described is portray, d as the opposer > c ii TiKti/J.fvos l, 
aspiring against all authority to the highest place of 
honour and glory. Yet. with this unholy and presump 
tuous daring uifnr/. there was to be no open defiance 
of things sacred in /<<// ; for the power is represented 
as developing itself bv a invsten of iniquity (that is, 
by subtle and hypocritical pretences, cloaking the most 
unhallowed and selfish aims), and by signs, and lying 
wonders, and all deeci\ ableness of unrighteousness. 
Not only so. but it is spoken of as seating itself in the 
temple of (Iod. by which can only be understood, in 
Christian times, the professing church of (Iod. as in 
that also alone can be found the theatre of a wide 
spread apostasy from the faith. The general idea, 
therefore, is the same in both sefs of repiesentations, 
though, in the descriptions of St. Paul and the Apoca 
lypse, the features are more darkly drawn and strikingly 
portrayed. And if we may not say, as possibly it 
were wrong to say. that in the Romish apostasy and 
its papal head, there is the complete and final realiza 
tion of the predicted evil, it still is there that the terms 
of the description are most fully met. and the features 
of the mournful picture most palpably exhibited. 


ANTIOCH fAvrtoxeia), the name of two cities, 
both of considerable note. 

1. Avrmcfi i\ SYRIA, for long the capital of the 
Greek kinjrs of Svria. Tt lav at the distance of about 



l>oo miles from Jerusalem, north- west : iiinl was situated 

upon tin < h-ontes, on tin.; left bank of the river, anil 
near tli" point where it turns from a northerly to a 
westerly direction. The winding of the ((routes, 
from . \ntioeli to the sea, is fully -Id miles in length: 
hut the distance l>y the roail is somewhat under 2(1. 
I ts situation was altogether happily chosen. It stood 
14:011 a beautiful and fertile plain. a.l>ont 10 miles in 
length. l>v half as many in breadth ; and on eaeli side 
of this plain rose ranges oi hills on the Miuth those of 
( lasiiw, whieli reached an elevation of ."Jnoo feet ; and on 
Hi" north th" heights of A maims, which were connected 
with the lofty and extensive range of Taurus. TJie 
neighbourhood of these hills, and of the Mediten anean 
Sea. imparted a freshness and salubrity to the climate 
of Antioch which few Syrian towns enjoyed, and its 
copious Mipplv of watt-)-, which is said to have furnished 
almost every house with a fountain, rendered it little 
inferior in that respect to Damascus. Its commercial 
advantages! also were great : for, on the one side, its 
ri\er. navigable below the citv. brought it into easy 
communication with the trallic of the Mediterranean : 
while, oil the other, it was conveniently situated for a 
it-true caravan trade with the countries in the interior, 
especially in the direction of Damascus and the East. 

The site, therefore, was well chosen for a flourishing, 
healthful, and agreeable city: it was particularly so, 
when viewed as the capital of the Greek-Syrian mon 
archy ; since it stood mid- way between the eastern pos 
sessions of the kingdom and those which lay along the 
Mediterranean Sea. As a convenient and pleasant 
residence it was accordingly lixed upon by Heleucus 
Nicat.or, who named it from his father, Antiochus, and 
laid its foundation as a city immediately after the battle 
of Ipsus in B.C. 301. It was onlv, however, what 
formed ultimately about a fourth part of the city that 
was built in the time of Seleucus. Other three parts 
were successively added, the last by Antiochus Epi- 
phanes ; on which account it had the name of Tetrapolis 
applied to it. Some of its chief embellishments were, 
due to Antiochus ; and in particular a magnificent street 
of about four miles in length, with double colonnades, 
and crossed at right angles by other streets. Subsequent 
monarclis added to its public buildings, among which 
was a fine museum built by Antiochus Phiiopater. In 
its more flourishing periods the population must have 
been very large; as many as 100,000 persons are said 
to have been slaughtered in it by the Jews in a single 
day, 1 Mac. xi. 47 ; even in the age of ( hrysostom, centuries 
after its more peculiar glory had passed away, it is sup 
posed to have contained about 200,000 inhabitants. 
From the first the Jews formed a considerable propor 
tion of these, and enjoyed equal privileges with the 
Creeks. They had an etlmarch of their own (Josephus. 
]\ itm, vii. .3). About B.C. <i-l it fell, with other parts 
of Syria, into the hands of the Romans, but was allowed 
to retain its self-government ; and several of the Roman 
emperors are known to have expended large sums in 
embrilishing it. It shared also in the architectural 
prodigality of Herod the Great. (See HKKOD.) 

About the commencement of the Christian era An 
tioch appears to have lost little of its greatness and 
refinement. Cicero speaks of it as being in his day 
a place of high culture, renowned for the cultivation 
of art and tin: possession of men of learning (Pro A /- 
chia, $ ,). It was not le.-s renowned, however, for its 
luxurious living, its effeminate manners, its gay and 

, jocular humour, and, worst of all, its gross superstition 
and licentious idolatry. Is ot only did the city itself 
contain the usual incitements to false worship, with 
their accompanying pollutions, but in the immediate 
neighbourhood, and forming, indeed, a kind of suburb 

: of the city, was the village of ).)aphne, with a famous 
temple and grove of Apollo. "The temple and the 
village," says Gibbon (c. 2:5), "were deeply bosomed 
in a thick grove of laurels and cypresses, which reached 
as far as a circumference of ten miles, and formed in 
the mo^t sultry summers a cool and impenetrable shade. 
A thousand streams of the purest water, issuing from 
every hill, preserved the verdure of the earth and the 
temperature of the air ; the senses were gratified with 
harmonious sounds and aromatic odours; and tin; 
peaceful grove was consecrated to health and joy, to 
luxury and love. The vigorous youth pursued, like 
Apollo, the object of his desires ; and the blushing maid 
was warned, by the fate of Daphne, to shun the folly 
of unreasonable coyness. The .soldier and philosopher 
(he adds) wisely avoided the temptation of this sensual 
paradise, where pleasure, assuming the character of re 
ligion, imperceptibly dissolved the firmness of manly 
virtue." They certainly would have been wise to avoid 
the contaminations of such a place ; but how many of 
them actually did so, and what a pernicious, corrupting 
influence it must have exerted upon the manners of 
Antioch, which from its proximity to this infamous 
but attractive centre of heathenish pollution was called 
Kpidaphnes, may readily be conjectured from the known 

\ influence of far inferior temptations in modern times, 

i and also from the fact, mentioned by Gibbon, that this 
very place, which was so destructive to decency and 
virtue, not only enjoyed a stated revenue of thirty 
thousand pounds sterling for public pleasures, but was 
continually receiving fresh gifts from nobles and em 
perors to increase the splendour of its buildings, and the 
attraction of the adjacent grounds. It gives one a high 
idea of the assailant vigour and regenerating power of 
( hristianity, that in the face of such powerful means 
and corrupting agencies, it could even, within the limits 

| of the apostolic age, find in Antioch one of its firmest 
strongholds ; from thence, also, near the commence 
ment of the following age. derive, in the person of 
Ignatius, one of its most heroic martyrs : and in the 
course of two centuries more, so completely turn the 
tide against the long-continued and richly- endowed 
idolatry of the place, that when the emperor Julian 
went, on the occasion of the annual festival, after huge 
preparations, and with apparent enthusiasm, to pay his 

1 devotions to the Daphnian Apollo, no offering was pre 
sented along with his "but a single goose, provided at 
the expense of a priest, the pale and solitary inhabitant 
of the decayed temple" (Gibbon). That Julian also 
should have attempted to revive the glory of a shrine, 
which even heathen writers had characterized as a 
nursery of licentiousness and vice, is an instructive 
commentary 011 his pretensions to purity, ami his boasted 
regard for the sanctities of the old worship. 

At the time when Antioch came into contact with 

i Christianity, it was probably as large in population, and 
as flourishing in appearance, as at any former period . 
for though it had ceased to be the capital of a separate 
kingdom, it was liberally supported and encouraged by 
the Romans; and some of its costliest works owed their 
existence to the munificence of the Roman emperors 
such as the baths of Caligula. Trajan, and Hadrian. 




the granite pavement of the great street by Antoninus , tinned outside the pale of the church ; ami Chrvsostom 
Pius, the palace built by Diocletian. Xc. From its own speaks of 3000 regular paupers receiving aliment from 

importance, therefore, as the finest and largest city in 
that part of Asia, and also from its commanding position 
between Asia Minor on the one side, and the regions of 
Syria on the other, we can readily understand lio\v the 
first heralds of the gospel should have sought, at an 
early period, to carry there the tidings of salvation, 
and lay the foundations of a Christian church Indeed, 
the Lord appears to have directed the course of his 
providence so as to secure an eariv introduction of the 
gospel into Antioch : for the disciples, who had been 
scattered abroad on the persecution following on tin- 

death of Stephen, went, we are t 
preaching the Word, though still only to the .lews. 
Ac. \i. ID. Presently, however. some who were "f ( yprns 
and ( vrene proceeded a step farther, and r-pake also to 
the (i recks. The labours of both partii s were remark 
ably blessed, so that " a great number" are said to 
have believed and turne 1 to the Lord, (hi hearing "i 
such a result, the apostles sent forth P.aniaha.-. him.-elf 
al-o ,-i man of Cvprus, to carry forward the work that 
had be. ii so auspicio .i.-!y begun, and to orgai 
church at Antioch. After labouring in this eapaeiti, 
for some time alone, he went to Tarsus. \\hei-e Paul 
had been residing, and brought this per.-oii to aid him 
in tin; work of -tahlishing a church at Antioch. Their 
joint ministry was continued fora w hole year, and with 
such success that the church became di.-tin^iii-hed for 
tin; variety of it.- uit ts. its libi-ralitv of spirit. and it- 
forwardne-s in the cause of Chri.-t. i If its own motion 
it ,-ent forth Paul and Uarnabas on their tii-.-t mi-.-ioiMrv 
tour. Ac. \in i; and from the in 
cidental not ices found n^pect inn- 

it ill the Act.S of the Apo.-tle-, 

it i.i clear that tile church at, 

Antioch continue. 1 throughout 

the apostolic au (1 , as we know 

it remained long afterwards, a 

centre of vigorous Christian oper 

ations. It i- noted the dis 

ciple- Were first called Chri-t ian - 

there 1 , Ac. .\i. -ii a result , it is 

vcrv commoidy supposed, of the 

satirical and scurrilous spirit 

for which the Antiochians were 

proverbial. Put this mav very 

w.-ll be doubted ; for it is in 

immediate connection uith the 

rapid growth of the church it.-elf 

that the notice is eiveii. and i! 

looks rather as if the disciple- 

in their youthful ardour and 

y.e;d assumed the name to themselve... than had it thru.-t 

on tlie.m from without. Nor dors the name betray any 

thing of a contemptuous or sneering spirit: on the con 

trary, it is the fitting designation of the people of 

Christ, as being all partakers, in a mea.-uiv. of that 

Spirit which rests in its fulness upon him. And ac 

cordingly, it was no sooner formed than it be^an to be 

everywhere appropriated by believers as their common 

appellation, l IV. iv. ir, ; AC. xxvi. 2-. 

After the jmblic recognition of Christianity, Antioch 
took rank with Jerusalem and Alexandria as the seat 
of a patriarchal see. In the time of ( lirysostom it is 
said to have contained lnO,(i(Ki Christians, with about 
as many more, who, whether avowed pagans or not, con 

the church, while still there were numbers of unre 
lieved poor i /lorn. -Jii. in Mut/t.) The city muttered 
greatly by earthquakes, and partly through these, 
partly through the desolations of the .Persians under 
Chosroes. it had sunk so low in the time of Justinian. 
that it required to be nearly rebuilt, it never regained 
its former importance, and had its share in all the 
vicissitudes that passed over the district in which it is 
situated conquered by the Saracens, reconquered by 
the Greeks, again in the hands of the Mahometans, 
for a time held by the Crusaders, regained anew b the 

lil. as far as Antioch follower.- of the false Prophet. It is now. and has b 

for a loii .; period, little more than a village, bearing the 
Syrian form of its ancient name. Ant<ik nlt, and con 
taining a few thousand inhabitants. So recently, how 
ever. as iMliJ, when it was again visitt d by a destruc 
tive earthquake, in which thousand- of li\i s were lost. 
it i.- .-aid to have contained about I!(I,IMI(I inhabitants. 
Many broken and scattered remains of its ancient 
givatnos an 1 -till to be seen ainon-; its ruiiis. The few 
Chri-tians in it ha\e no church: and the only external 
mark that appears to have survived of its ancient 
Christianity, is the name thai i.- borne by the eastern 
or Alepp.. gate. It is called aft< r St. Paul, Hub 

sometimes coupled with Phry-ia. sometimes with Pisi 
dia. 1 tolemv even assigns it to I amphvlia; but this 
mu-t have been a mistake, a.- Pi.-idia la/ between 
I amphvlia and Phrvgia. and Antioch stood on the 
hordt is of th.- latu-r. Strabo connects it with Phrygia. 
who also tells us that it \\as founded by a colony from 
Magnesia on the Maander. (hi the defeat of Antio- 
chu.-ni. by the Ponians. in I,. . UMI, it was transferred, 
alone- \\ith a considerable territory in Asia .Minor, to 
the dominions of Kuniene.- II. of IVrgamos. The whole 
district was in process of time added to the I toman 
empire, and Aiitioch was made the seat of a procon 
sular goveriiiiu-nt.. It had the Italian rights conferred 
on it. which put it constitutionally on a footing of 



equality with the Italian towns, and it was also called 
Ciesarea. Such was its rank and position when visited 
by tin; first heralds of the gospel. Paul and Barnabas. 
Though far from rivalling in si/.e and importance the 
Syrian Antioeh. which had sent them forth on their 
missionary tour, it still was undoubtedly a place of 
some note, and must have possessed a pretty numerous 
population. The sacred historian speaks not only of 
its having a Jewish synagogue, but also a considerable 
class of religious proselytes, or fearers of Cod, Ac. xiii. 
Id, i:;, who joined in the services of the synagogue. To 
this class, it would appear, the greatest part belonged 
who joined themselves to Paul a.nd Barnabas; and 
though these ambassadors of Christ themselves were 
soon obliged to depart on account of the bigotry and 
violence that were exhibited by the unbelieving portion 
of the Jews, yet they were enabled to leave behind 
them a baud of steadfast diseipbs of the faith, who 
are said to have been "filled with joy and with the 
Holy Ghost." 

No further notices occur in New Testament scrip 
ture of the church planted in this Antioeh : nor does 
it figure in the ecclesiastical history of the first 
centuries. We know little more of it than that it j 
formed one of twenty churches in Pisiditi, which 
were- each presided over by a bishop. Modern research, 
conducted first by the Uev. F. Arundell, British chap- ; 
lain at Smyrna, and more recently by Mr. Hamilton, j 
has identified the site of Antioeh with a place called 
Yalobateh, 011 the north-west border of Karamania. 
near Lake Kgerdir. There have been found at it the 
remains of several large buildings, of which one ap 
pears to have been a spacious church, another a temple, 
possibly that of Men Arcajus, who was peculiarly 
worshipped there ; and as many as twenty arches of a 
vast aqueduct exist in a state of comparative perfec 
tion. Descriptions of these may be found in Arundell s 
Discoveries in Asia Minor, 1834 ; and Hamilton s Re 
searches In Asia Minor, Pont us and Armenia, 1842. 

ANTI OCHUS does not occur as the name of any 
individual in the canonical writings of the Old or New 
Testament, but from the frequent mention made of it 
in the apocryphal books of the Maccabees, and the re 
ference in the prophecies of Daniel to a particular king 
who was to bear the name, it is fit that a brief account 
should here be given of the Syrian kings who, under 
the name of Aiitiochus, came more or less into contact 
with the covenant people. There were altogether 
thirteen of this name, who belonged to the Greek- 
Asiatic kingdom. 

1. ANTIOCHUS I., surnamed Xotvr, the son of Scleu- 
cus Nicator, one of the generals of Alexander, scarcely 
requires to be noticed, as, from having his possessions, 
in the first instance, assigned him in Upper Asia, and 
afterwards, from being almost constantly engaged in 
contests, partly for the kingdom of Macedonia and 
partly with the Gauls in Asia Minor, he played no part 
in connection with the territory of Palestine. 

2. ANTIOCHUS II., surnamed Tfieos, son of the pre 
ceding, who succeeded his father B.C. 200 or 2(>1. was. 
in like manner, involved in continual broils and war 
fare. Ptolemy Philadelphus of Egypt gained such ad 
vantages over him that his kingdom became greatly 
weakened. And having concluded a peace with Ptolemy 
on condition of putting away his wife, Laodice. and 
marrying Ptolemy s daughter Berenice, the former 
succeeded, a few years afterwards, in effecting her re 

union with Aiitiochus, but only to murder both him 
and Berenice. This took place in B.C. 24(.i, after An- 
tioehus had reigned between fourteen and fifteen years. 
It appears to be to this king of Syria that prospective 
allusion is made in Da. xi. 5, where the king s daughter 
of the south (Egypt) is spoken, of as coming to the 
king of the north (Syria) to make an agreement; and it 
is said that she should not retain her power, but should 
IK: given up. 

3. ANTIOCHUS, surnamed I/IK (jreat, the next in order, 
was not the son. hut the grandson of the preceding, the 
son of Seleucus Callinicus, who attained to the throne 
after the death of an elder brother in the year Ji.C. 223. 
He was then only fifteen years old. His reign com 
menced prosperously, though for this prosperity he was 
greatly indebted to a cousin, Aclueus, who generously 
took his part. Possessions in Asia Minor were re 
gained that had been appropriated by Attains, king of 
Pergamos; the provinces of Media and Persia were also, 
after some reverses, recovered; and a successful con 
flict was entered into with Ptolemy Philopater of Egypt, 
for the provinces of Coele- Syria, Phoenicia, and Pales 
tine, which had once belonged to the Syrian dominion, 
but latterly had fallen into the hands of the king of 
Egypt. But this was only a temporary success as re 
gards his struggle with the king of Egypt ; for Aiitio 
chus suffered a severe defeat the year afterwards, li.c. 
217, and was obliged to give up his claim to the pro 
vinces in question. About thirteen years after, and 
when Egypt had a boy of five years old for king 
(Ptolemy Epiphanes), Antiochus again entered into a 
war with that country and regained T alestine and 
Coele-Syria, though he afterwards made a peace with 
Ptolemy, gave him his daughter in marriage, and gave 
also those two provinces as her dowry. The Jews gave 
him valuable assistance in that war with Egypt, and 
obtained in return important privileges from him 
(Josephus, Ant. xii. 3, 3). At a later period still, he 
came into conflict with the Romans, and was defeated 
in a succession of battles, lost a considerable portion of 
his territory, and had such a heavy tribute to pay 
(15,000 Euboic talents), that he was tempted to lay his 
hands on the treasures of a temple in Elymais. which 
cost him his life ; for the people rose up against him 
and put him to death, B.C. 187. This appears to be 
the king of the north that is referred to in several verses 
of Da. xi., beginning at ver. 11. 

4. ANTIOCHUS, surnamed Epiphanes, and also on 
coins Tlieos, was the one who beyond all the rest figured 
in Jewish history; not, however, as the friend or ally of 
the covenant people, but as their bitter and relentless 
enemy. In his youth he had been given by his father as 
a hostage to the Romans, but was released through the 
kindness of his brother Seleucus Philopater, who sent 
his own son in his stead. In the same year, B.C. 175, 
Seleucus himself was murdered by one Heliodorus, who 
seized upon the throne, but was speedily dispossessed 
by Aiitiochus. His sister Cleopatra, who had been 
married to the king of Egypt, having died, Antiochus 
laid claim to the provinces of Caele-S3 : ria and Palestine. 
The raising of this claim led to a war against Egypt, 
which was prosecuted through four campaigns in those 
provinces (during the years B.C. 171-168), and was 
at last carried into Egypt ; but the Romans there in 
terposed, and obliged Aiitiochus to desist. It was in 
the course of those campaigns for the conquest of Crele- 
Syria and Palestine, that he practised the cruelties upon 




the Jews which are recorded in the books of the Macca 
bees, and which gave rise to the heroic strivings for inde 
pendence that issued in a state of comparative, though 
but temporary freedom. Antiochus twice got possession 
of Jerusalem ; but his insane attempt to extirpate the 
Jewish religion, and establish in its stead that of the 
Greek divinities, roused the national spirit against him, 
and his troops, under the command of Lysias. sustained 
a severe defeat. When hastening from the eastern parts 
of the kingdom to revenge this disaster. Antiochus 
died at Tabie in Persia, in a state of madness. There 
can be little doubt that he is the person specially re 
ferred to in several passages of the book of Daniel, 
cli. viii. _ 3-. :>; xi 31, scq : which describe, p respectively, 
the violent and sacrilegious proceedings of a Syrian 
king against the covenant people and the sanctuary 
of God. He not only killed multitudes of the peo 
ple in Jerusalem, but also suppressed the Jewish 
worship, and defiled the sanctuary by introducing 
into it the statue of Jupiter Olympus ; so that for a 
time the adversarv triumphed, and in the temple of 
God In- exalted hims -If against what wa- tlnn-wor 
shipped and adored. 

5. ANTim iirs V.. sin-named J-. njntfor. was tin -son of 
Kpiphanes, a bo\- of nine years old when he succeeded his 
father, and he only reigned two years ii ..r. I l 1-1 1;-_ >. 
The government was more that of Lvsias, who as 
sumed tin- guardianship of tin- voiin^ kin-_. than of tin- 
king himself, and for both the one and tin- other it soon 
calm: to an end: for. after various conflicts with tin- 
Jews and others, they fell into tin- hands of Demetrius 
Soter. of Ivjvpt. who appeared as a claimant for the 
kingdom of Syria, and wen- put to death. 

6. Avnorurs VI.. simiaim-d 7 /"</.v. was tin- son of 
Alexander P.alas. who claimed to be the son of Antio 
chus Kpiphanes. and was killed in his efforts to make 
g 1 his title to the throne. Nor did tin- son suc 
ceed in establishing his kingdom: for. though In- had 
the support of Jonathan and Simon, tin- Jewish leaders, 
and also won tin- homage of tin- larger part of Syria. In- 
was killed by Trypholi. who had professed to espoii.-e 
the interest of tin- ymni^ kin_ r . This Ti-yplmn was in 
turn killed bv tin- ii -xt who bore the name and ac 
quired the dominion. 

7. ANTI"(-IU;S VII.. .-nrnamed > /(/ .-. was a younger 
son of Demetrius Soter, and obtained po-ses.-ioii of tin- 
throne in B.C. 1:57. The Jews. win. had !u -en /.-alous 
supporters of tin- opposite interest, suffered severely at 
his hands : ami, after a long siege. .It rusali m was take n 
bv him in B.C. ] ,: >. He did not. however, press his 
victorv. but granted them an honourable peace. Ib 
afterwards fell fighting against the Parthians. In tin- 
last chapters of 1 Mac. an account is jiveii of the 
earlier transactions of this kind s rei^n : but the history 
abruptly terminates. It is needless to prosecute tin- 
historv of this race of nionarchs farther, as it is little 
else than a historv of civil broils and contentions, and 
the chief actors came greatly less into contact with tin- 
affairs of Palestine, than those who belonged to the 
earlier half of the series. 

AN TIPAS, a faithful martyr at Pergamos in Asia 
Minor, lie. ii i:;-, hut we know nothing more of him. And 
it may be questioned, perhaps, whether Antipas was 
the actual name of the person referred to, and not 
rather an epithet indicative of the steadfast resistance- 
he made to the evil-doers and corruptions around him; 
for the word means against all; and possibly this, like 

the name Jezebel in the next address, was a designation 
of character, not a proper name. 


ANTIFATER. a son of Herod. Sec HKKOUIAN 

ANTIPATRIS, a city built by TIerod the Great, 
and called after his father (Josephus, An/, xvi. fi, 2 : 
Win-iS. i. -J], 1M. It is reported to have been built in 
the plain C apharsaba "the finest plain in the king 
dom." well supplied with water, and having in its 
neighbourhood groves of large trees. Elsewhere the 
historian describes the site of this plain and city to 
have lieen not verv far from the sea of Joppa (Ant, 
xiii. l. i. 1 1. from which it was distant about 1 Ju stadia.. 
We learn also from Ac. xxiii. .">!. that it lay mi the. 
road between Jerusalem and Ca-sarea. from which an 
ancient itinerary makes it distant -<> Human miles. 
It has been ascertained that the ancient name ( jiphar 
saba still e\i>ts in the plain \\heiv Antipatris stood, 
under the Arabic form of Kefr Saba. in the province uf 
Nabulns. The Crusaders erroneously identified the city 
with Arsuf. a place much nearer the shore, and the 
mistake has been kept up till comparatively recent 
times i Ii obinson s {{(searches, iii. p. b">i. 


APES occur in Scripture only in connection uith 
the merchant- ships of Solomon, which are said in their 
Tarshish trade to have imported them among other 
rare pruductions, i Ki X.L-J; L Cli ix.L l. The word eni- 
jiluved for these in the original is the plural of t-pp 
(leu/ill*, which a p| tears in Sanscrit and Malabar as l. d/ii. 
and in (In-ek as /, //TTOS. /vy) ; io9. Kn.ioi. There can be m> 
doubt that the word is ri jhtlv translated HJHX; but as 
nothing is said of the particular species of apes referred 
to. of the countries uheiice thev \\ere brought, or the 
purposes to which they \\ere applied, we deem it i|uite 
unneces-.-irv to enter into the natural histor\ of the 
animal. Nothing of importance could be derived from 
such an ini|iiirv for the iilustratioli of Scriptiu-e. As 
ape- abound in Africa, and various species of them are 
indigenous to the countries which lie along the African 
side of the 1, ed Sea. it is probable that they \\ere <>b 
tained from some port in that region. It is certain 
that several classes were known to the ancients, and 
were chiefly derived from Kthiopia (I lin. viii. Ml); 
specimen- of them, with IOUL; tails, were exhibitt d in 
the games celebrated at Home, both by Pmnpey and 
Ca-sar (I lill. viii. l! : Solinus. />< i.ll inj,.} They ap 
pear to have been eliieflv pri/.ed as natural curiosities 
or monsters: and as such, in all probability, they were 
found anioni: the importations of the Tarshish navy of 
Solomon. But no particulars are known to us beyond 
tiie fact ol such importations. 

APHAR SACHITES. the name of one of the sec 
tions of colonists brought by the kinu f of Assyria to 
people Samaria, after the captivity of the ten tribes, 
K/.r.v.c Their original place and historv are altogether 
unknown. A I IIAKSATIK il HKS. in K/.r. iv. . . is probably 
but another form of the same name. 

APHAR SITES appear to have been a distinct 
tribe from the preceding. K/r. iv.n. but closely allied to 

APH EK \xtrni /th ; hence applied as an appropriate 
designation to a fortified town). Three places, ap 
parently, though not unite certainly, all distinct, are so 
designated in Scripture: one in the tribe of Asher. 
which at first the tribe was unable to get possession of. 


Ju. i. :, Mini posMbly tin- same as the village Afka. in 
Lebanon, men tinned hv Burckhardt ami other*: another, 
near which IVidiadad was defeated liy the Israelites. 
I ;\i XX.L I I, which seems to have lain much farther south. 
though its locality is left very undefined : and another 
in the tribe of Issachar. not far from Je/n >]. in the 
neighbourhood of which the Philistines once and again 
encamped before joining battle with Israel, l Sa. iv. l ; 
;,xix. 1. 

APOCRYPHA, properly concealed or hidden, hut 

from t-arlv times n.-ed as a designation of writings. 
which stand in a certain relation to the canonical Scrip- 
tures, while still thev want canonical authority. It is 
not quite certain on what grounds the term came to he 
so applied, and various reasons have lieen assigned. 
The most probable account seems to be that it was. in 
the iirst instance, used to denote writings secret as to 
their origin and contents. Then, as the canonical Scrip 
tures Were the writings publicly read and appealed to 
as standards of faith and dutv. those other.- were also de 
nominated apocryphal, as being tilted for use; in private, 
butnot entitled to occupy a recognized place among writ 
ings strictly authoritative and divine. The word, how 
ever, often received a more extended application, and 
characteri/ced writings which were of spurious origin, and 
objectionable in character. it is no\v. and for long lias 
been appropriated, by way of eminence, to certain books 
that came into existence between tin close of the Old 
Testament canon and the commencement of the Gospel 
dispensation. They are the two books of Ksdras, Tobit. 
.Judith, the sequel of Ksther. Wisdom. Ecclesiasticus, 
Barueh, the Son- of the Three Children, the Story of 
Susanna, the Jdol Inland the Dragon, the Prayer of 
.Manasses. and the two books of .Maccabees. These 
productions have come down to us only in the Creek 
language, and have noplace in the .Jewish canon. But 
they have existed from the earliest times in the Greek 
scriptures of the Old Testament, the Septuauint. and 
appear there interspersed among the other books, as if 
there was no essential difference between them. 

This intermixture of thetv.o classes of productions 
in the Septuagint proved to be an unfortunate circum 
stance for the \ iews of the ancient church. The Greek- 
speaking Jews still had a measure of acquaintance with 
the Hebrew liibles. and could thus readily distinguish 
between the Scriptures which composed the canon of 
inspiration and the subsequent additions. But com 
paratively few of the ( hristian fathers knew anything 
of Hebrew: they could usually go no nearer to the 
original than the Creek scriptures, and thus naturally 
fell into the mistake of putting the apocryphal, much 
on a footing with the canonical, writings. Portions, at 
least, of the one class, as well as the other were fre 
quently read in the churches: and books so read, whether 
strictly authoritative or not. went hv the name of 
canonical, the term meaning, however, nothing more 
than that they belonged to the list of works adapted for 
use in the public worship of God. When the question 
was, what, in the stricter sense, we re the canonical books 
of the Old Testament, the Apocrypha was not reckoned 
in earlier times for example, in the enumeration of 
the Jewish Scriptures by Melito of Sardis. as given by 
Kusebius (AVr/. ///V. iv. iihi. and by Ori gen. as also 
given by Kusehius (i v . 2;")). But the apocryphal writ 
ings gradually crept into use. The councils of Car 
thage in : , .i7 ami ll .i prohibited any ],,,,,ks from bein<_r 

publicly read which were not canonical, and at the 
same time included most of the Apocrypha among the 
canonical specifying Judith, Tobit, Wisdom, Kcclesi- 
aslicus. the two books of Maccabees. Augustine ex 
ercised a preponderating influence at these councils, and 
unfortunately on this subject he Vas disqualified, fYom 
want of Jewish learning, for being a safe guide. He 
seems, indeed, to have been perfectly aware that the 
apocryphal books were not included in the Hebrew 
canon, and in regard to some of them occasionally takes 
notice of the fact. But he does not on this account 
allow any exception against their sacred character; he 
quotes from Baruch as a genuine production of Jere 
miah, in contrariety to some, who attributed it to his 
scribe (De Cir. xviii :j:ji ; and names Tobit. Judith, 
the two books of Maccabees, the two of Ksdras, Wisdom, 
and Ecclesiasticus, as strictly authoritative productions, 
and the two latter as even worthy of being placed among 
the prophetical 1 1)<: JJac. C /irinHnna. ii. 1 3). Jerome in 
this contrasted favourably with Augustine, a distinc 
tion he doubtless o\\ed chiefly to his more accurate 
learning. According to him. that alone is canonical 
which is given by inspiration of God: and though, as 
he says in his introduction to Judith, the church reads 
that and other books of the Apocrypha, it is "only for 
the edification of the people, not to establish the au 
thority of ecclesiastical doctrines." In the famous 
Proloyus Gahatux he enumerates the twenty-two book s 
of the Jewish canon, and adds. Whatever is beside 
these, is to be placed in the Apocrypha and is to be 
read only for edification." Paiffmus, his contemporary, 
was of the same mind, and expressly distinguishes 
between those books by which matters of faith are to 
be established, and others "not canonical, but ecclesi 
astical (mentioning various books of the Apocryphal, 
which the fathers wished, indeed, to be read in churches, 
but not to be produced for authoritative decisions in 
matters of doctrine (K.i-pos. in Kymli. Aj><j*t. 2H1. The 
Benedictine editors of Jerome say, in their Prolegomena 
to his Translation (Of>. vol. iii.), that "the apocryphal 
books were not for some time after the age of Jerome 
and Kuffmus received into the sacred canon." quoting 
an old MS. of the Vulgate Bible in proof: and they 
affirm that the writings to which was assigned the 
weight of canonical Scripture "consisted of such as 
composed the canon of Hebrew verity, in which the 
books called either apocryphal or ecclesiastical by the 
fathers were never reckoned. Xow. however (they 
add, to save their Catholic orthodoxy), that they have 
been received into the ecclesiastical canon without 
difference as to authority, they deserve equal regard 
with the other books from all the truly pious, who glory 
in adhering to the decree of the council of Trent re 
specting the canonical Scriptures." 

The two great authorities of the Uoman church 
having thus assumed different positions respecting the 
writings of the Apocrypha, different views continued 
to be set forth from time to time on the subject. Gre 
gory the Great, treading in the footsteps of Jerome, 
clearly distinguishes between the apocryphal and cano 
nical, as between the human and divine; when he 
cites from "holy Scripture, it is always the inspired 
books that he refers to (Moral, in Job, viii. c. 28, v. c. 
~[: >}; but when he appeals to the first book of Maccabees, 
it is coupled with an apology for making use of writ 
ings which have no proper authority, but are only for 
edification (Ibid, xix i:>). Later writers are also to be 

A POC Ull VI 11 A 


ArocHRYi HA 

found ;it intervals expressing opinions at variance with j the New Testament, cany us directly lack to what 
their proper canonicity. Bede for example, in the eighth had been written in Malachi, and those who went 

century distinguishes properly between them and the 

sacred writings 

t. in Ajmc. iv.t; and Nicolas 

de Lyra, in the fourteenth century, one of the great 
authorities of the Catholic church, refers to the distinc 
tion drawn by Jerome between canonical and non- 
canonical, but states that it had commonly been lost 
sight of, and represents the canonical as in all things 
surpassing the others in dignity (I } r<f. in T<ib. \c.> 

before him, T.u.i. \7,&c. Equally striking is the apparent 
oblivion of the Apocrypha in the last hook of Scrip 
ture the Apocalypse which gathers its imagery and 
language from all the earlier revelations of Cod. but 
takes no contribution from the writings composing the 
Apocrypha. 4. In these apocryphal writings them 
selves als 

How, may naturally be asked, should the Romish a deficiency in respect to originality, majesty, simplicity, 
church, in the face of so many conflicting testimonies, and power. Nor have they, like the sacred books, any 
have elevated the Apocrypha at the council of Trent proper connection among themselves ; they are without 
to a level with the inspired writings? It was certainly 
lone in the face of one of her favourite maxim- tin- 
unanimous consent of the fathers; but this was coun 
terbalanced by the desire of retaining the support \\hieh 
the Apocrypha yielded to some of the Romish tenets, 
and by determined <ppo- ,tion to the Protestants, \\lio 
had unanimously excluded the Apocrypha from tin- 
canonical Scriptures, though in certain quarter- it was 
allowed to be read for edification. Romi 

tics have sometimes endeavoured to i;-ive a modified 
view of tii-- Tridi-ntine council, by distiim ui*hiiiir be 
tween canonical of the first and canonical of tin- se 
cond rank, and holding that the decree of the council 
does not oblige one to .-...-sign the Apocrypha to a 
higher than tin- .- condary place. P.ut tin- lanyuaue is 
too explicit to admit of such an interpretation, and 
hence it has never been generally n-cogm/ed. 

In regard to tin- question it-elf, uh.-thor tin- Apo 
cr\pha .-Innild he admitted into the Old Testament 
canon or excluded from it. tin- fo!le>uinu r may be tak. n 
as a brief summary of the reasons for iiiaintainiiiy; the 
negative side: 1. There i.-. first of all. tin- hi*torieal 
argument against it it was not received as authorita 

tive Scripture by tlmse \\ln> had intrusted to tlnm the tobulus in tin I* 
formation of the < >\,[ T,-. lament canon. Nor have whom the first 1 
tin- Jews at any period of their hi*toiy put the apo 
cryphal writings on a level with th"*e of the sacred 
books. Jo.-ephus expressly di*tingui*hes them from 
the latter; 1 hilo never refer.- to them ; and tin- Jewish 
authorities of later time*, so far from >houin--; any de 
sire to exalt the Apocrypha unduly, not unt n-qin-ntl v 
point to it as among the differences subsisting between 
them and Christians uin-anin^. of course, Romish 
Christian* , that they reject, while the others receive, 
as authoritative the apocryphal books. _ . Then, then- referred 
is the entire silence of our Lord and the apostles re 
specting them. | ,y the.-e the scriptures of the ( Md 
Testament are quoted \\ith endless frequency, but 
never tin- Apocrypha. The Jcwi.-h cation jn-t as it 
stood was recogni/.td and sanctioned as tin Word of 
Cod by the founders of tin- Chri-tian church, and all 
not belonging to it was by implication excluded. For. 
the character ascribed by them to the Jewish Scriptures 
was distinctive and peculiar: it neither was nor could 
be shared in by any other writings, otherwise a charge 

of unfaithful dealing in regard to the letter of Scripture to time has been waged within the bonne 
must have lain against the spiritual guides of the j tantism, as to whether the Apocrypha shoi 
Jewish people, which is ne-u-r brought. :i. The writ 
ings of the New Testament stand in immediate juxta- 

any regular plan or progressive order, but are simply 
an aggregate of human production*. And the ditle- 
rence ill these respects betwixt them and the canonical 
Scriptures is plainly indicated in the writings them- 
selves ; for the son of Siraeh claims nothing higher 
than tlie merit of learning and wisdom prais. - the 
learned, indeed, as in his day the highot class. 1 n.I.aml 
cli. xxxix.; and in 1 .Mae. iv. -l<>. ix. -J7. xiv. II. the 
ias- period subsequent to the clo.-ing of the canon appears 
to be regarded as a poor and depressed one. as com 
pared v.ith those that had cnjo\,d propln tic gifts. 
.". They contain things utterly at \ariamv with the pro 
per character of a divine revelation fables, falseh Is, 

and errors of doctrine. Thus the angel in Tobit. who 
at last declares himself t" be Raphael, had at the 
first yjve n him.-elf out to be A/arias, the son of Ana 
nias the ( ireat. Judith imt only a< ts throughout a de 
ceitful part, but even prays ( iod to own and make use of 
her deceit, c-li. ix in. The two hook- of .Maccabees contain 
various historical errors and contradictions - as in ivyard 
to Judas, who is *aid in tin- first book t" have died in 
tin- l.VJel year, while in tin- Iir*t chapter of the second 
book In- is represented as joiiiin- in a letter to Ari*- 
i y. ar : so in r. gard t Antioe-hus, 
k represents to have died in Kly- 

mais, and the s.e-ond t,, have perished in the- mountains 
after having been repulsed at IVr*e polis. Then, there 
an- the ridiculous fables of the ti.-h in Tobit, , 
of Jeremiah s taking tin- ark and altar to .Mount Pis- 
_ r ah. and hidiny tlnm in a cave, -. Ma.- ii. ; of ! ..! anil 
the- I>,agon. and. indeed, the- whole story of Judith 
si-ems little else- than a fable-, as there is no perioel in 
tin- hi.-tory of post- Pabylonish times to \\hich the 
trail-actions narrated in it can with any probability he 
f alms. too. and tin- worth of 

human righteousness, are sometimes discoiirseel of in a 
,-tylc little accordant with the spirit of the- I ible-; anil 
even the- he -tie T parts of tin- apocryphal books have not 

a little- heterogeneous matter mixed up with tin- ir 1 

contaiiie-il in tin 111. 

Cpon the whole, therefore, tin re is ample reason, 
in a doctrinal as well as histe.rical respect, to justify 
tin- Protestant churches in cxcluelin^ tin- Apocrypha 
from the sae-ivd cainm. anil to e-omlemn Rome for re- 
it. In tin- controversy also, which from time 

f Pn.tes- 
be benine! 

up with the- books of Scripture, it seems obvious that 
tin- grounds which decide the one question should also 

position with those of the Old ; the commencement of : be held decisive of the other. For, whatever secondary 

the go-pel history resume 
communications when- the 

the thread of the divine 
later prophets of the pre- 

>r incidental benefits may be derived from the study 
if the aprocyphal books as the w.inl e.f man. they 

ceding dispensation dropped it: and. as if nothing of should, as a general rule, be placed in no such dangerous 

inspired matter came between, the first utterances of j proximity to the Word of Cod. What is emphatically 
Voi, 1 14 




Th . Hook of God s revelation should stand alone in 
its sacrediu ss before tin; world; so that none may lie 
tempted to confound with it what neither possesses the 
same divine character nor is five from the infusion of 
human error and corruption. " Kcclesiastical approval 
and usage," as stated in ller/og s /: itci/c/. regarding 
the last controversy of this de script ion. is indeed a 
weighty consideration : hut if the usa jv has be en proved 
wrong, a tiiousand years continuance would not make 
it right. And the charge s preferred against tho Apo 
crypha, have not been satisfactorily answered. 

APOCRYPHAL LOOKS, with reference to New 
Tishtiiiriil times, as understood by the ancients, com- 
]>ri>e various classes of writings sometimes genuine 
productions, though not of apostolical authority, such 
as the Kpi.-tio ,i| Clement, or liie Shepherd of Hennas; 
more commonly spurious productions, like the Prote- 
vangelium of James, the A})()Stolical Constitutions, the 
Preaching of .Peter, ^c., falsely assuming the name, or 
pretending to represent tin: views and sentiments of 
the founders of the Christian church; and sometimes 
also the dangerous books composed by Gnostic specu 
lator.- and heretical teachers, with the view of propo- 
irating their tenet.-. I nelue weight was occasionally 
attached to certain of the .-e productions by some of the 
fathers of the Christian church, and the spurious have 
sometimes been considered a-; genuine; but no serious 
attempt has been made to exalt them to the rank of 
sacred Scripture, although the things contained in sonic; 
of them have been held by Romanists for apostolical 
traditions. 15ut we are not called to any investigation 
of this point hen . 

APOLLO JSITA, a city of Macedonia, in the district 
of Migdonia. and somewhere about 30 Ifoman miles 
from Amphipolis. Paul and Silas took it on their way 
to Thessalonica, from which it was distant about 37 
Roman miles, Ac. xvii.i. They appear to have made no 
slay in it. 

APOL LOS, a Jew of Alexandria, who took a pro 
minent part in the vindication of the truth and cause of 
Jesus. lie is first mentioned in Acts xviii. 24, where 
he is described as a gifted and persuasive orator, and 
mighty in the Scriptures. He had come to Ephesus. 
probably about A.D. 5(3, for what specific reason is not 
stated : hut when there he gave evidence at once of his 
oratorical powers, and of his zeal in the work of the 
Lord, by holding disputations with his countrymen in 
the synagogue. He had been instructed, we are told, 
in the way of the Lord before coming to Epliesus, and 
"spake and taught diligently the things concerning 
.lesus (for so the correct reading is in ver. 25). Yet 
his knowledge of these things was still imperfect, for he 
knew, it is said, only the baptism of .John. It is not 
[uite cei-tain. however, how much of defect is indicated 
in this statement. It cannot we ll be understood as 
importing simply, that he knew only of Jolm s testi 
mony respecting the immediate approach of Messiah, 
and his baptism of repentance as a preparation for 
it. For such knowledge had been far too limited 
as a basis for controversial discussion, and diligent 
teaching of the things concerning Jesus in the synagogue. 
The probability rather is. that he was acquainted 
generally with the facts of Christ s history, and was 
penetrated with a conviction of his being the Messiah 
promised to the fathers; but was still ignorant of the 
proper results of Christ s mission, in respect to the gifts 
of grace provided for his people, and the new constitu 

tion of the; divine kingdom in him. That it was some 
thing more than a merely reformatory work, which 
Christ came to accomplish; that not repentance alone, 
but remission of sins also was now to be preached in 
his name; that in him the whole of the typical eco 
nomy had found its completion, and a new order of 
things, with its appropriate ordinances, and manifold 
endowments of the Spirit suited to them, had been in 
stitutedall this A polios had yet to learn when he 
came to Ephesus, although he knew enough to make 
him a formidable opponent to his unbelieving country 
men. I iiit in Acjuila and Priseilla, recent converts of 
St. Paul, lie met with more enlightened believers, who 
were at once. able and willing to instruct him in the 
way ol the Lord more perfectly; and when he had re- 
< ei\. d tliis fuller instruction he .-et out for the regions 
of Achaia, which for the present were deprived of the 
benefit of Paul s ministrations. There he laboured for 
some time with great success, (specially among the 
lews, whom, it is said, he mightily convinced, Ac. xviii. :. -; 
and at Corinth the impression he made was so deep, 
that a party began to form themselves under his name-. 
This, along with other sehismatical courses of a like 
kind, the: apostle relinked in his first epistle to the 
Corinthians, but he gives to A polios the honour, con 
ceded in such terms to no other fellow- labourer, of 
watering the seed which he himself had sown. Xot 
only so, but as a proof of the; confidence he had in 
his teaching, and of the benefit he expected it to yield 
to the church, he urged Apollos at a later period to re 
turn again to Corinth, after the divisions in it had been 
rebuked, and, as he might reasonably hope, were likely 
to be- healed. 1 Co. xvi. 12. A polios, however, declined, 
probably from a feeling of dislike at the dl.-sensioiis 
which his former presence had in some derive occa 
sioned. The only other notice we have of him is in 
Titus iii. 13, from which it would appear that he had 
been labouring in Crete. An ancient tradition has re 
presented him as ultimately going back to Corinth, and 
becoming settled pastor or bishop of the place, but this 
rests on ne> good authority. His appearance in the 
Christian territory, and the sphere he occupied there, 
must be regarded as somewhat peculiar. He took a 
kind of independent position, while still he got his more 
special instruction not from an apostle, but from two 
converts of an apostle, and after getting this, he does 
not seem to have felt himself called to plant churches, 
but gave himself (though not as an ordinary assistant) 
to the work of carrying forward what Paul had be gun. 
Such he probably saw to be the sphere of Christian 
action most suited to his powers and advantages; and 
there can lie little doubt, that in cleaving to it as he 
did. he nobly served his generation according to the 
will of God. " 

APOL LYON [destroyer], applied as a proper name 
to Satan in Ee. ix. 11. (&-e Utvii,.) 

APOSTASY [f alien u awai/- namely, from the true 
faith and worship of God|. The term is applied in an 
emphatic manner to a great and general defection in 
the- Christian church, by St. Paul, in 2 Thcs. ii. 3. (Sec 

APOSTLE [Cr. dTrocTToXos], one sent forth with 
any special message or commission. So it is used in 
I he Septuagint, i Ki. xiv. r>; is. xviii. 2; and in a few passages 
also in the new Testament, .in. xiii. 10, where our Lord says 
generally "the apostle (person sent) is not greater than 
he who sent him;" and 2 Co. viii.2:!; riii. ii. 25, where persons 




deputed by churches on special errands are called their 
apostles, or messengers. These are too often loosely con 
founded together, but the name in its more distinctive 
and peculiar sense, as descriptive of one holding office in 
the Christian church, was applied only to those who were 
Christ s ambassadors his ambassadors in the stricter 
sense his chosen delegates to disclose his mind to men. 
and settle the affairs of his kingdom upon earth. I mler 
him they occupied the highest official position in the 
church, and while they had some things in common with 
ordinary ministers of the gospel, their more distinc 
tive characteristics belonged exclusively to themselves. 
1. They stood alone in respect to the manner of their 
appointment: it came from wit/miif, direct from Christ 
himself, while in all other cases the appointment of 
riders was to spring up from witliin the- church. The 
original twelve: were all called and designati d t-> th ir 
office by Christ, while still no organi/.ed society or 
church in the ordinary s. use existed. When one was 

to be ordained in the i in of Judas, the company 

of disciples did nothing further than choose two from 
their number \\lio had the external qualifications ne- 
ci iry for the work; but left the actual s. lection 
in the hands of the Lord, to be decided by lot. 
Ac.i.-Jl. And I "aid once and a^ain point-: to his im 
mediate disinflation bv Christ as the primary and 
most e-sential element in his title to the apostle- 
ship. <; . i .I- -: Ro i.l; [Co. .xv. i. He so puts the question 
as plainly to indicate, that it he had not received his 
calling from Christ lie could have had no right to th - 
place of an apostle. And this necessarily arose from 
the pro] H -r destination of the apo-tles, which was, in 
Christ s name t lay the foundations of the Christian 
church. It was their part to form and organize the 
society of tin- faithful: and consequently th -y must 
themselves have a prior existence in their official ca- 
pacity they must hold din ctly, not of the church. 1 ut 
of Christ. It is otherwise with the ordinary ministry ; 
the Lord bestow- the gifts necessary for its exercise, 
but it is tin- part ! the church to recognize th.- bestowal 
of the gifts, and call those who have ive. iv.-d them to 
the work ; so that "the ministry does not sustain tin- 
church, but the church the ministry." "J. The number 
also of the apostles is a siu ti of their singular and special 
calling, as ciintradi.-tingnished from the regular and 
permanent "tli.vrs of the church. I heir number is a 
fixed one the tn ilcf so fixed, doubtless, with refer 
ence to the twelve tribes of Israel, that, the several 
constituent parts of the covenant-people inin ht see 
themselves represented in the apostleship. Not oulv 
was this historically the original number of the a] ".-ties 
chosen by the Lord, but ideally also it continued the 
same; and in the apocalyptic vi-i"ii. when tin- church 
presents itself to view in its perfected condition as a 
glorious building, its walls appear resting "on tw i Ive 
foundations, which had on them twelve names of the 
twelve apostles of the Lamb," lie. xxi. 11. In reality, 
after the calling of Paul to the office, there were thirteen 
in the office ; precisely as in Old Testament times there 
were thirteen tribes after the elevation of two of .Joseph s 
sons to the rank of separate tribal heads, though twelve 
remained still the ideal number. Put this. a<. r ain. dis 
tinguishes the apostles from all the abiding rulers of the 
church, who require to be progressivly multiplied, as 
the church itself grows in extent. >. The distinction 
is equally marked in the power and authority that 
belonged to the office. Tin- apostles were authorized to 

settle everything in the church as by divine right: the 
Lord himself spake and acted thr< >ugh them. Hence St. 
Paul charges the Corinthians to acknowledge that the 
things which he wrote to them were the commandments 
of the Lord. K o. xlv. ::r, which was but a particular 
mode of claiming the power granted to the apostles col 
lectively by the Lord, when he gave them authority to 
bind and loose in the things of the kingdom. Mat. x\iii, is , 
Jii.xx.^i-L :i. This plainly required the higher endow 
ments of the Spirit infallible guidance, and marked 
them as extraordinary, not as regular and permanent 
oilicers in the church. Their singular power in this 
respect had its signature in another the peculiar com 
mand given them over the more remarkable operations 
of the Spirit. Miraculous gifts were not altogether con 
fined to the apostles: but they had them in largest 
measure, and to them, it would appear, belonged ex- 
( hi.-ively th- 1 power of imparting such gifts by the laying 
on of their hands. No e\ ii lei ice whatever exists of any 
besides the apostles having been empowered to confer 
the Spirit in this manner. F.veii I hilip. with all the 
grace bestowed mi him. and the wonderful edicts 
wrought by him in Samaria, could prevail nothing here ; 
only when the a]" >:!]. s I tt -r and .lohn went and laid 
their hands on the disciples did the Spirit come with 
his supernatural opt rations. And such things were 
doubtless among " the signs of an apostle." which St. 
Paul appeals to as haui:^ been \\nn;-ht by him among 
the Corinthians. L Co.xii.i^; it was through his instru 
mentality that such :; rieh illusion of spiritual gifts 
came down upon the members of the i hmvli. -1. Th" 
apostolic office, w ith all the powers and privileges belong 
ing to it. in tin.- al.-o \\.-is singular, that it In re r. -peet 
to the whole Christian church. There wa> nothing local 
or particular in their destination : their lield was to he 
the world, like the church whi -h they were appointed 
to found. They were each to the entire < hii.-tian com- 
munitv what elders or episi opoi \\ere to the particular 
communities over which they pre.-idi d- in which sense 
alone Peter and John alike designate themselves ciders, 
i IV. v. i; -. .111.1. So that, as on oilier accounts, on this 
also, apostles could have no successors ; for no particular 
section of the church could have the right to appoint 
officers to so indefinite a sphere of action ; and bishops, 
successors of the apostles, would be virtually diocesans 
without a diocese. 

It PUI ins to have been but jraduallv that the full im 
port of their calling opened itself out to the minds of t he 
apostles, especially in to its world- wide aspect 
and b< ariii _T. For a number of vt ars they continued 
in a compact body about Jerusalem ; and it was through 
the evangelistic y.eal of others rather than flu inselves 
that tin- sphere of their operations in the first, instance 
was made to embrace a larger compass. Tiny had, 
no doubt, a LTreat work to do in Ji riisalem. and ample 
opportunities of testifying of the things respecting the 
kingdom, on account of the constant resort of Jews from 
all quarters to that centre of religions worship. Kven 
while residing there they could come into contact with 
men from nearly every part, of the known world: and 
probably the time they actually spent together at Jeru 
salem, in availing themselves of these opportunities, 
and building up the church of Christ in its original 
In ime, was not more than the exigencies of the case 
actually required. Put it was not the less necessary, 
that other portions of the field should be occupied; and 
in the providence of Cod circumstances were made to 




arise, ami agencies were employed, winch in a manner 
compelled the apostles to extend their operations, and 
go to some distance fnun Jerusalem. Tin: fruits that 
sprang from the dispersion attendant on the death of 
Stephen, the labours of Philip in Samaria, then the 
message from Cornelius, followed immediately after by 
the conversion and missionary labours of Paul, contri 
buted, step by step, to give the truth of the gospel a, 
wider diffusion, and to call forth the apostles to superin 
tend and direct its establishment in ditK-rent regions. 
As these operations in the foreign Held increased, the 
presence of the apostles elsewhere ihuii at Jerusalem 
must have been mure frequently re<|iiired: and though 
\ve cannot attach much credit to the traditions which 
have 1 been handed down, respecting the several countries 
to which they are said respectively to have carried the 
gospel, then- yet can be no reasonable doubt, til at most 
of them, before they died, had travelled into other lands, 
and contributed to plant in them Christian elm relies. 
We know for certain of John s connection with Asia 
-Miner, uf Peter s with P>abylon, of Paul s with the 
regions of the "UVst: and though similar information 
lias not reached ns concerning the rest, we may justly 
conclude that their /eal led them severally to take a 
part in th" ifreat outward movements for the diffusion, 
of Christianity. 

The term APOSTLE is once, though only once, in 
Scripture applied to our Lord; in lie. iii. 1 he is called 
the "apostle, and high- priest of our profession. It 
merely turns into a personal designation the idea of his 
being the One emphatically sent by the Father to reveal 
his mind and accomplish the work of reconciliation, 
eomp. Jn. iv. :;!; v. L :;, ic. 


APPII-FOR UM, or Fuuru-Arpn, a market-town 
on the Appian Way. at the distance of 43 Roman miles 
from Iv ome. It is understood to have derived its name 
from the Appius Claudius Caucus who constructed the 
Appian Way. somewhat more than three centuries before 
the Christian era. It grew up to be a considerable town, 
and enjoyed municipal privileges. From the account 
of Horace (Sat. i. f>>, it seems to have been, the usual 
resting-place of travellers, at the close of the first day s 
journey, on the way from Home to P.rundusiuin. And 
standing, as it did, on the border of the Pontine Marshes, 
where travellers commonly entered on a canal that ex 
tended to near Tarracina. it became very much a town 
of boatmen and innkeepers. The only notice of it that 
occurs in sacred history is in connection with St. Paul s 
journey to Rome after his shipwreck. He was met on 
his way at Appii- Forum by certain brethren from Rome, 
Ac. xxviii. is, who had somehow got intelligence of his 
approach. He appears to have made no stay in it. The 
place has long since fallen into total decay, and its site 
is only marked by certain ruins, which are found on 
each side of the road, and by the forty-third milestone, 
which still keeps its place. 

APPLE. Xo word is more loosely used than this 
and its equivalents in various languages. For instance, 
the Romans called almost every kind of globular fruit 
jioniuni, apples, pears, peaches, cherries. &c., not even 
walnuts exeepted (see Facciolati Lexicon) ; and we 
ourselves speak of love-apples, earth-apples, oak-apples, 
pine-apples, when we mean the tomatum, the tuberous 
root of the bunium, the spongy excrescence which grows 
on the leaves and branches of the oak, or the most ex 
quisite of all fruits, the Peruvian nnanassa. Like the 

Arabs, who apply the name indiscriminately to the 
lemon, peach, and apricot, as well as the true apple, it 
is probable that the Hebrews employed their n*]8P> (t<*J~>- 

jiiMc/i) in n, wide and comprehensive way to denote anv 
round, and fragrant fruit - the root being ;, to 

breathe; but it may be questioned whether they had 
much acquaintance with the true apple, the Pj/rna 
mulus of Liuniuus, which is a native of more northern 

]n his account of Alexander Janna-us. Josephus tells 
us, " Mis own people were seditious against him ; for at 
a festival which was then celebrated, when he stood 
upon the altar, and was going to sacrifice, the nation 
rose upon him, and pelted him with citrons ; for the law 
of the Jews required that at the feast of tabernacles every 
one should have branches of the palm tree end citron 
tree" (Antiq. book xiii. eh. 115). This passage shows 
not only that the thick" or umbrageous trees of 
Lo. xxxiii. -10, suggested to Jewish minds the citron, but 
it also proves how plentiful in the Holy Land was the 
citron tree, when every worshipper could be furnished 
with a living and fruit-laden branch of it. Xor can 
there be any reasonable doubt that the lappuach or 
"apple" of Scripture is the citron, which, besides its 
former abundance in Palestine, admirably bears out 
the allusions of the sacred writers. The citron, or 
Citrus mcdicaso called because it was from Media 

[47. J 

that the Romans first received it belongs to the natu 
ral order of Auruntiaceas, a delightful group, including 
the orange, the lime, the lemon, and the shaddock. 
With its dark, glossy, laurel- look ing leaves, its ever 
green branches, often bearing simultaneously ripe fruits 
and newly opened flowers, and thus vouchsafing to the 
pilgrim who rests in its deep shadow the twofold re 
freshment of a delicious banquet and a fragrant breeze, 
the citron may well claim pre-eminence among the 
trees of the wood," Ca. ii. :;. 

" As the citron tree among the trees of the wood, 
So is my Beloved among the sons : 
I sat down under his shadow with great delight, 
And his fruit was delicious to mv taste." 



placed in the common treasury, as part of the provision 

for the poor of the congregation." Their anxiety to 
obtain them with the stalk still adhering, is no doubt a 
faint effort to secure the "thick" branches and "boughs 
of goodly trees" mentioned in Le. xxiii. 40. 

In our own country there is a large consumption of 
the various species of the citrus family. The citron 
itself, with su-ar and water, furnishes 

In our own climate on a summer s day the fragrance 
of a flowering orange or citron tree, wafted through the 
open casement or through the door of a conservatory into 
a cool apartment, is one of those exquisite visitations 
which, lending an exotic richness to the air, add luxury to 
the shade, and till with southern day- dreams the moments 
of reprise. But in glaring climes shade and greener v 
are everything; and describing a fairy-like eastern 
garden, the traveller says, "It was passing pleasant frigeivnt beverage; its rind and pulp are candied and 
to stroll along these paths, all shadowy with orange ! converted into sweetmeats, and its essential oil is ex- 
trees, whose fruit, like lamps in a night of green. | tensively employed in perfumery. Of the juice of lemons 
hung temptingly over our heads. The fragrance of and limes, until of late, thousands of gallons were yearly 
large beds of roses mingled with that of the orange required for our navy, where it greatly contributed to 
flower, and seemed to repose on the quiet airs of the avert the ravages of such scorbutic disorders as last 
calm evening. In the midst of the garden we came to eeiitury often converted a ship of war into a floating 
a vast pavilion, glittering like porcelain, and supported hospital : and in the form of crystulli/.cd citric acid, it 
on light pillars, which formed cloi.-ters surrounding an is .-till indispensable. For oranges, sueli i.- the demand 
immense marble basin, in the centre of which sparkling that it was calculated that in 1N~>1. 
waters gushed from a picturesque fountain. Through 
the clear depths of the water gleamed shoals of gold and 
silver ti-h." (Warburton s CVwce< an<l. Cross.) \Ve 
need not say that the apple in-- i- by no means re 
markable for tin- depth or deliciousne-s of its shade. 

Abounding in malic and citric acid, the juice of the 
orange and its congeners is one of the most agreeable. 
antidotes which the I nator s bounty has provided 

aicainst the exhausting thirst and incipient fever of 
sultry climes. A settler in the torrid swamps of the 
Amazon will devour a do/en o rank s lie fore his morn in LT 
meal ( \ ni;n : /r i//> tin 1 Ania^jii. iii the Home and Co 
lonial Lilirary "i, and in tropical regions such acidu- like its parent, tl 
lous fruits are invaluable on aecoimt of their aini-tVbnle 

\irtlles. The.-e XVelV doubtless Well klloXVlltotho He 

many as 

-> >. 1 !l!,:jHii were entered for home consumption an 
t stimate. however, in which lemons are included. - 
( Pereira s Ma/ii ia M alien ; M (. uiliich s I>icti<j,iar>/ of 

Ti,e apple. ]iroperly so called \Piir us -main."), is now 
cultivated in Pale-tine. In the month of March, Schu- 
d rt found the country around I .ethlehem and Hebron 
embellished xxith liloss.iming finiit-trees. amongst which 
he observed the apricot, the pi ar. and the apple (Itiise 
in das Mimjniland}. It is not unlikely that it was 
first introduced by monks from Western Europe. At 
all events, the apple does not occur native in Palestine, 
di tree, in our o\\n hedgerows. 

The amelioration of this unpromising plant, and its 
gradual elevation into the Nexvtown pippin and the 

f Normandy, are amongst tin- most won- 

pri/.cd the pleasant pun^-nt odour emitted by the rind. 
Macrobius speaks of "citrosa ve-tis," shoxxinn that it 
was usual to keeji citrons in xvardrolies for the sake of 
their perfume; and. likt the mo 1,-rn oriental ladies, 
whose fax mi rite \ inai jrette i- a citron, in our oxvn coun 
try txvo or three centuries ajo an orange wa 
monlv used as a scent-bottle, that it max" often be sei n 
in old pictin-es of our queens and peeresses. It xvas 
also believed to hax e a disinfecting potency; and during ! 

tlie plague of London, people xxalked the -tr-els smell- 

ing at 


derful triumphs of horticultural skill, and are si-ni- 
[icanf examples of the rewards xvith \\hich a bountiful 
Yeate.r i- ready to <TO\VH industry and perseverance. 
London Horticultural Society s Catalogue enunie- 
1 |o.i xarieties of apple as noxv knoxvn in Europe 
"in and America: and in his elaborate Jlri it/i I mii if" /// 
seen |ls">]), Mr. Kobert Hog u r describes !M J sorts as more 
or less cultixated iii P.ritain. 

Although it is so usual to speak of the forbidden 
fruit of paradise a- an "apple." xve need hardly say 

>ing with these medicinal and that there is nothing in Scripture to indicate what kind 

find such expivs- , ,f tn e was "the tree of the knowledge of good and evil." 
I .ut in the fabled "apples of di-eord." and in the golden 
apple \\hich Paris u axv to the ;_o Mess of luxe, thereby 
kindling the Trojan xvar, i- it not probable that the. 
prini Aal tradition ri appears of 

"the fruit 

of tl.;tt f. irl iic ill. -11 nvi>, \\linHi mortal tast.; 
lin.irjlit il,-aili iniei tl,,. w,,vl,l, ami all our woo?" [J. n. | 

APPLE OF SODOM is a name given to a fruit 

i." oh. vii. <:. 

Understood as belonging to this beautiful family 
then; is a peculiar felicity in the compari-on, "A word 
fitly spoken is li 

apples which gm \\inu on tl 

citrons of gold in salvers (or baskets* 
of silver," Pr. xxv. n. The famous L: 
givxv in the gardens of the Hesperid 
ably either citrons or oranges. 

The late amiable and accomplished Lady Callcott. 

who beguiled years of in validism compiling A Scripture i <lissolve into smoke 
Herbal, I nit who \\ill by no means give up the apple Fantastic as is hi 
as one of the trees of the Ilible. mentions that, as th 

shores of the 1 lead Sea. .losephus says 
that the asb.-s ,,f th,- five cities "still grow in their 
fruits," "which have a colour as if tip y \\vre tit to be 
eaten, but if you pluck them with your hands, they 
ad ashes" ( \\ ,irit. book iv. ch.S, 4b 
theory, the latter portion of his 
tatement is by no means fabulous. At Ain -Tidy, 

modern Jews still use citrons at the feast of tabernacles, Professor Pobinson found several specimens of the tree, 
"in London considerable sums of money are expended i from ten to fifteen feet high. " The fruit greatly resem- 
in importing them of the best kind, for the purpose. | bles externally a large smooth apple or orange, hanging 
They must be without blemish, and the stalk must still : in clusters of three or four together : and when ripe is of 
adhere to them. After the feast is over, the citrons a yellow colour. It was now (May Id) fair and delicious 
are openly .-old, and the money produced by the sale is , to the eye, and soft to the touch ; but on being pressed 


nr struck, it explodes \vii.h u pull , like :i bladder or pufi- 
l.all. leaving in : he hand onlv the shreds of tin- tliiu 
7-iud iiinl a few lilires. It is indeed fillr l chiefly with 
;, like, i bladder, which gives it the round Conn : while 

in the centre a sm:ill slender pod run-; through it from 
tlie stem, and is connected by thin filaments with the, 
rind. The, pod contains a small quantity of tine silk 
with seeds. The Aral* collect the silk and twist it 
into matches for their guns : preferring it to tho com 
mon match, because it requires no sulphur to render it 
combustible." -- (Bihlical Researches, -id edit. vol. i. 
[>. t 2 3. See also Irby and Mangles Travels, cli. viii.) 
This would appear to lie the A.-f/ jiiaa i/ii/antca (Linn.), 
which is described and figured by Prosper Alpinus, 
under tho name of the " I .eid el ossar." -(Hist. Xaf. 
.K;/i/f>fi. Lugd. i .at. 173, ). pars 1, 4:j.) Ij. n.] 

A QUILA AND PRISCIL LA, husband and wife, not 
to he separated here, as they are always united together 
when mentioned in saeivd Scripture. Priscilla is the 
diminutive of 1 risca. which indeed was the proper name 
of the spouse of Aquila, and in all the better authorities 
is the name actually found in R<>. xvi. :}, as it is also 
in - Ti. iv. Ill : but Priscilla seems to liave been more 
commonly used by way of familiarity or endearment. 
And as she is commonly named first, it is natural to 
suppose that she was, if not actually the first convert of 
tlie two (for that can only be matter of conjecture), at 
least the most active and devoted belie\er. When the 
two are first mentioned in the sacred narrative, it is in 
the character of Jews, who had been driven from Home 
by the decree of Claudius (noticed by Suetonius, Claud. 
e. _ ".), which compelled Jews. 011 account of certain 
disturbances said to have been raised by them, to leave 
th" city. Aquila and 1 riscilhi took up their abode at 
Corinth, and were found by the apostle Paul there, 
on the occasion of his first visit to the city, Ac.xviii.2. 
It seems not to have lieen a common faith, but rather 
:i common occupation, which first brought them together 

that, namely, of tent-makers; for Aquila is simply 

designated a .lew of 1 ontus. and as a Jew an exile from 
Rome, not as a believer in Christ, when Paul joined 
himself to the household, and wrought with them at 
the tent- making. P>ut Aquila and Priscilla soon 
became among his most devout converts; and in his 
iirst epistle to the Corinthians, he sent a salutation, not 
only from Aquila and Priscilla iwho were then -with 
himV but also from the church in their house." Pein _ 
at Ephesus, when A polios Iirst appeared there, they 
proved of eminent service to him by tin: fuller instruc 
tions they Wi re < nabled to impart to him in the Chris 
tian faith. Ac. xviii. ii. Further on still, when Paul wrot 
his epistle to the Romans, he sends one of his tenderest 
salutations to Aquila and Priscilla, whence they must 
by that time have removed thither: and speaks of them 
as having for his life laid down their own necks. " 
Itn. xvi. !. By and by they appear to have again lei t 
Rome, for in the second epistle to Timothy. <-h. iv .1:1, a 
salutation is conveyed to them as in the immediate 
neighbourhood of Timothy, who was at the time so 
journing about Ephesus. PossiMy their reception of 
the Christian faith rendered it somewhat difficult for 
them to earn a livelihood, or even to carry on their 
trade in peace ; and this may have necessitated frequent 
changes in their place of abode. Put whether such mav 
have been the case or not, there can be no doubt that 
they were in private life among the steadiest adherents 
in early times of the cause of Jesus, and contributed 
not a little, by their exemplary conduct and self-sacri 
ficing zeal, to aid its propagation in the world. 

AR [city], the ancient capital of Moab, the city by 
way of eminence ; sometimes also called Ar of Moab. 
Xu. xxi.i. i _ >; Dc.ii.o. It stood upon the southern shore 
of the river Arnon, at the distance of a few miles from 
the Dead Sea, and nearly on a line with the middle 
part of that sea. Its later name was Rabbath-Moab, 
and tin. ruins, which are about a mile and a half in 
circuit, still bear the name of Rabha. The remains of 
a temple are found among them, and some Corinthian 
pillars (Robinson, Researches, ii. ~>(> ( .n ; but as a whole 
they are of little importance. In Jerome s time the 
place, which was then tin: seat of a bishop, commonly 
bore the name of Areopolis, which, as Jerome remarks, 
was simply a compound made up of the Hebrew and 
Greek words signifying city. 

ARABIA [Hcb. a-vj, from ri3"vj, , an arid, s/tri/r 
T-: TT-: 

tract], the name of an extensive country of SAY. A.-ia. 
between 12 35 and 33 J 45 N. lat., and 33 50 and 
51J 3 55 E. Ion. As at present known, it is bounded. 
X. by Palestine and Syria; E. by the Euphrates, the 
Persian Gulf, and the Arabian Sea: S. by the Ai ahian 
Sea anil the Sea of Bab-el- Mandeb ; and W. by the 
Red Sea and Egypt. Greatest length, from its Egyp 
tian frontier to the Arabian Sea, nearly 1700 miles: 
greatest width. 1400 miles: area, about l.lon.iMMi so. 
miles. A range of mountains runs nearly south-east 
from the Dead Sea to the Sea of Bab-el- Mandeb. 

Owing to the difficulties in the way of a complete 
exploration of Arabia, we still remain imperfectly ac 
quainted with it. Travellers have but partially pene 
trated a short distance from the coast, and the only 
European who lias as yet crossed the country from sea 
to sea. is Captain Sadleir, who, in LSI!*, proceeded 
from El Katif, on the shores of the Persian Gulf, to 
Derrayeh. and thence to Yembo, on the Red Sea. Not 
withstanding the deficiency of precise observations, we 


know that Arabia lias no considerable, and scarcely dering tribes, who had neither towns nor other ii.xed 

any permanent rivers or lakes, and that taken collec- habitations, but dwelt wholly in tents, like their de- 

tively it is a dreary waste of arid wilderness, naked seendants, the modern .I .edouins. 

ruck, rough stones, and drifting sand, with occasional The part culled the Haiiran or Syrian Desert is 
green spots and cultivated valleys, which, however, strewn with the ruins of towns and villages V recent 
bear but a small proportion to the sterile wastes. The traveller. Mr. Cyril Graham, has discovered numerous 
desert of Ahkaf (waves of sand), X. of Hadramaut, is , inscriptions in Greek, Palmyrene. and in an unknown 
of a peculiar character, swallowing up everything which character; and also the remains of some very ancient 
tails into it. The liaron von Wrede threw into the cities, built of lar-e square stones ,,f basalt, nni ted with- 
saiid a weight with sixty fathoms of line attached to out cement. Lie deseribes the houses as perfect, even 
it, and saw the \\hole disappear in five minutes. to the stone doors, whieh turn on pivots let into the 
Ihe southern desert does not possess a single foun- lintel and sill. These cities are in the country of Og 
tain of water, and there are no rivers or perennial kin- of Bashun, one province of which contained " three- 
streams throughout the continent. The sandy plains score "Teat cities with walls." besides "unwalled towns 

[the IVhama. which have been left by the retiring a great many." [)e. iii. I,:,, i Ki. iv. 13. (Set [Lu HAN ) 

of the sea. as well as the sands of the interior, produce Farther south is I m-cl-Gama!. whieh Mr Graham is 

same plants as in North Africa, and whieh form disposed to identify with the P,eth-gamul of Jeremiah 

for the camel. I he Miamas are occasionally re- ch. xlviii. L-:J (liuyal Society ,.f Literature MavlH 1S58) 

ieyed by wadie, or valleys with little .streamlets aiuong 2. ARABIA FKLIX, or M- //,,;. .as the most south- 

lls or watering-stations ern district, and was bounded. Iv by the Persian Gulf 

carefully preserved, the tanks being .Hen built of stone. S . by the Arabian Sea, and W. bv the i;,d Sea Yemen 

\ Vutcr Ls t! " Ull : st vuluallk l"-"lnv t" the Arab, and ail(1 Hadramaut (Hazannavcth." Go x art formed part of 

the possession ui a well has often caused disputes and t he Arabia Felix of Strabo and Ptolemy, whieh pro- 

"I""" Tehamas, |, aMv c ,, lnpri sed the whole of Hedjaz and Oman, with 

where watered or eultivated, and the valk-ys i,: the , )art ,,f Kl-Ahsa and Xedsjed. Within its boundary 

were Seba ana Sheba, whose kings are mentioned h, 

x r i^;; u "trv was long distnguishuint.. two parts- tlu , 1Valms< Uxil , (1; :m ., ,.,. h is Mlni| ; M ., cam(j 

m! " ;t I>- and Arabia Felix. To these Ptolemy, thu ,,, (lf .,.,,, v ,,,., visilc . ( , S(illll ,,, K , ,.. x 1> ., ( ., i 

thu - V 1 Alexandrian geographer, add, d a third dis- lvl . This district is now called Kl- 1 l,dja/. ,the land of 

tnet. determuiing the Uurtlieru limit, which he nan,..! piLrimaue.. on accounts the citic^ of M . -v.-. the l.irtll- 

Arabia Petnea. -Maculloeh U/,^/. y^d.) considers that ,,l ;u ,, all ,| M,,i; n:l . the burial-place of the prophet 

.d existence ,1,..,,,- the Aral,, Mahomet, the founder of the .Muslim religion. It is 

themselves, an,l that the ancient Aral.ic (livisions of ,,,.,^1,,] ,.],;,,;, ,,, | >lmia ,.ii;,. s . ),,,, thu inhabitants 

the country are as identical as the j., ople and the Ian- daim desn nt fnun .loktan. soli of Kb, r Uo s ,, w ho 

guage with those existing at the present day. The erected a kingdom in Yemen. They have always lived 

Arabia of the Hebrews included only the tract between m , iti( . s .,,, ,,,, , ,. , inu . t ised agriculture 

I alestuie and the Kcil Sea. known as the peninsula of and commerce, and Were anciently reputed very wealthy 

Mount Sinui, though the term Kedcm, " the East," pro- (1 . liny , HI, v i.l. Ha.lramaut. along the southern bor- 

bably referred to Aral ,ia Desertu. Knsebius, an, 1 other .lers of Arabia, was. aud ind, ed still is. marked l,y the 

ancient authors, eunsidered as parts of Arabia the cities ] ar ,r,, numb, r ,,f .lews that dwell there Lieutenant 

beyondJordan, aud of what they called the third 1 a- \Vellsteddiscovercd at Hadramaut ruins called Kakab- 

stine. lo these we may add yet another namely. ( .l-llajar (the excavation in the nick) consisting of a 

" lu<1 " th " Nilu :u11 lh " i; " s - jStralKi, wall :5(H.r4i.i feet liigh, and flanked with square towers. 

XV1L r - u - whu h - l> > U " ant-icnt writers, is \Vithi,, t ]^ entrance w;us an inscrii.tiuii in characters 

always called the Arabian Desert, v.hile that on the J> inehes long. 

west of the Nile is called the Libyan Desert. Arabia Felix was rich in -ems and gold, 1 Ki x 10; 

L.ABABIA DK.SEUTA lay t<, the X., and was buun.led, KZC. xsvii. - anl in spices, odoriferous shrubs and fra- 

v by the Euphrates, aii.lW. by the ^muuntains of Gilea<l. grant gums, Kx. xxx. 3,-Ji,:;i. The riehes aud luxuries 
It included the northern parts of the elevated table- . enumerated by ancient writers were not, however, all 

land known at the present day as Xedsjed and El- A lisa, native products of the country; but a, they reached 

and of the surrounding belt of plain country ealled Palestine aud l- .gvpt through Arabia, they were sup- 

Gaur or Tehama. whieh varies in width from one to po.sed to have been found there. 
two days journey, to less than a mile. The hills of :>,. ARABIA L KTIl.KA. or//,, /, </; so called from its 

Oman form the east shoulder of the table laud, aud the ( .;u I KTIIA . the Selah of llo!v\\ rit. -Ki.xiv.r; 

plains ,-f KI-Ahsa terminate its inclination towards the [s .xvi.i, is now called Hagar or II ad jar. \\hich si-nilies 

Persian Gulf. The characteristic features of this table stone or rock the peninsula between the gulfs of Sue/, 

land are extensive deserts of moving sand, with a few and Akabah. and bounded X. bv Palestine and Egypt. 

thorny .-limbs aud an occasional palm tnv and spring The modern Jiurr-et-tour-Sinai. Desi rt, of .M,,unt Sinai, 

of brackish water. .Icr, miah most truly describes the the scene of the wanderings of the tribes of Israel, is 

desert, i-h.ii.6. Tudmor or .Palmyra was on the north- nearly identical with the Arabia IVtrau of Ptolemy, 

east frontier. 1 Ki. i\. is ; _ cii. viii. 4. I aul resorted for It coniprellendcd the Syrian Desert, the countries of 

a time to that part of this district which was near to theCushites, Moabitesj Edomites, Xabatheans, and 

Damascus, Ga.i.17. The early inhabitants of Arabia around the southern coast of the Dead Sea to the K ed 

Deserta were the L ephaim, the Einim, the Zu/im, and Sea and Kgy|it. the Hivites, Amalckites. Miilianites, 

Xam/.ummim. Ge.xiv.;,; De.ii. m. 11, succeeded by the Am- and the desert of Mount Sinai. In this district were 
monites, the Moabites, the I- .dumites, the Hagarenes, , situated Kadesh-barnea. Pharan. L ej.hidim. E/ion- 
the Xabatheans, the peopl... ,,f Kedar, and many wan- i gaber. Pithmah. Oboth, Arad, lleshliuii, &c., and 


A It A I .I A 

Mounts Sinai and Jlor. The chief characteristics of j 
Arabia IVtra a arc wile lerncsses of rocks and craggy 
piveipiees. interspersed \vitli narrow detiles and innu 
merable xmdy valleys, many of \\liii-li arc nearly as 
barren as the rocks. The valley of tin- mountain-range 
Kt-Tigh ail ords tine springs and excellent pasturage. 
I hat of Wady Kept. supposed valley of Kephidim. near 
Jobel Mousa, is described as most delightful: and 
\Vady e 1 Sheik, ami its continuation \Vady Kciran (/ - 
rail, Xu. xiii. ::), present a succession of gardens and 
date plantations, almost every one of -which has a well. 
About thirty- three miles S. K. of Ayoun Mousa (the 
fountain of Moses), is the well of iiawarah, the IMarah 
of Serijjtnre; and about MX or seven miles S. of this is 
Wady Giirundcl, supposed to be the Kiim of Moses. 
Tho.-e ]iarts of the country remote from the ocean are 
rocky and mountainous. The southern coast is a wall 
of nuked rocks, with here and there a low sandy beach 
totally devoid of herbage. The mountains, brown and 
bare, rise one behind another to the height of 1000 or 
15HO feet, 

C/iiinili . The climate of Arabia resembles greatly 
that of .North Africa, varying according to the elevation, 
soil, and proximity to the sea. It has its dry and rainy 
seasons; in the mountains of Yemen showery weather 
prevailing 1 regularly from .June to September, and in 
the east, at Oman, from November to February. The 
neighbouring plains are rarely visited by rain. About 
the period of the summer solstice the deserts suffer from 
the fearful blast known us the simoom or hot poison 
wind from the south, called by the Turks Samyeli. 

M incra l<ii/i/. Although at present there are neither 
gold nor silver mines in Arabia, there can be little doubt 
that Yemen once yielded gold. There are some iron 
mines to the north of Yemen. The onyx and an inferior 
description of emerald are also found in the same dis 
trict. The other minerals are basalt, blue alabaster, and 
several kinds of spai-s and selenite (Niebuhr). 

Botany. Among the vegetable products are the 
manna of commerce, nutmegs, dates, 2 Ch. xxxi. r>, cocoa 
and fan-leaved palms, banana, sugar cane (Arrian), 
tamarind, coffee, the cotton tree, various hard woods, 
melons, Xu. xi . >, and pumpkins, all of which arc indi 
genous, or have grown in the valleys from the earliest 
ages: with thes. grow lavender, wormwood, jasmine, 
and other scented plants. Likewise the fig, vine, 
pomegranate, orange, lemon, quince, plantain, almond, 
(ic. xiiii. 11, apricot, acacia vera, castor- oil plant, senna, 
white lily, aloe, I .s. xlv. s, scsamum, all kinds of grain, 
tobacco, indigo, and different dye herbs, with nume 
rous M.rls of fruit and vegetables. To these products 
are to lie added spicery, balm, myrrh, Go. xxxvii. 25, be 
sides frankincense, Ex. xxx. si, and many other aromatic 

Zoology. The most remarkable of the domestic ani 
mals are the camel, the horse, the ass, Gc.xii. i<i; xxx. 43; 
xxxvii. 2. ), and broad-tailed sheep, 2Ch. xvii. n. There are 
also humped oxen, like those of Syria, and the goat. The 
horses are of two kinds, those used for the purposes of 
labour, and the true Arab horse of the desert, descended, 
they say. from the breed of Solomon, and of which they 
pretend to have preserved the genealogy unbroken. 
This breed is not by any means numerous; Burckhardt 
supposed that throughout the country the number did 
not exceed f^.oOO. Of the two varieties of ass, one is 
peculiarly strong and courageous, and most valuable in 
travelling. The beasts of burden are oxen, mules, 2 Ki. 

v. 17; i C b. xii. in, and camels. The camel is so important 
to the Aral) that it may well be termed by him the 
ship of the desert. It is the most frugal of all domestic 
animals, costs less than a horse to keep, carries a greater 
wei-lit. and can endure greater fatigue. From its fru- 
L .alitv and laboriousness is derived its name, ycmd, 
eaniel. which signifies " to requite." because more than 
any animal it requites its master. In Cairo the widow, 
at the funeral of the husband, cries. tliou camel 
of the house," or, O thou who liearest the burden of the 
house. On the removal of a trine, the camel carrier, 
the furniture and the tents, is. \.\.\. 0; Jc. ii. 2:;; Ks. viii. in. 
The she-camel furnishes the people with milk. Among 
the wild animals are the leopard, hyena, panther, 
j-iekal, jerboa, wolf. fox. boar. apes, wild asses, wild 
oxen, goats, and antelopes. Serpents and lizards 
abound. Nn. \-.i. i.i;, as do likewi>e land and sea turtl s. 
In the fertile districts domestic fowl, pheasants, par 
tridges, guinea fowl, pigeons, and a species of quail, 
are plentiful. The most celebrated bird is the locust- 
destroyer, a species of thrush, called by the natives 
KUniar-mof/. The ostrich, named by the Turks the 
camel- bird, inhabits the desert, and eagles build in the 

Oriyin of flu: Arabs. Arabia was originally peop]. d 
by Cush, the son of 11am. and his descendants, GO. x. 7, 2"- 
:;ii, who were succeeded by the posterity of Xahor, Abra 
ham, and Lot. the various tribes thus formed, of what 
soever denomination, being now comprehended in the 
general name of Arabians. These peoples arc divided 
into those who dwell in houses and towns, and those 
who live in tents in the open country or desert; and 
so striking are the differences between, the two divi 
sions as to leave little doubt of their distinct origin, 
each class still retaining the distinguishing features 
which marked it in the earliest times. The native 
writers describe two classes of settlers, the old tribes, 
now extinct, descended from the sons of Iram (Aram), 
and the present inhabitants, divided into the pure, de 
scended from Joktan, and the Most- Arabi. the mixed or 
naturalized Arabs, said to be descended from Ishmael, 
by a daughter of Modad, king of Hedjaz. The tribes 
of Mahrak and Dhofar speak a language called Khkili, 
which circumstances combine to identify with the 
Hamyaritic, the general language of Southern Arabia 
before the time of Mahomet, but it does not follow, on 
this account, that they are a distinct race, and it has 
been surmised that they are only descendants of the 
portion of the population who rejected Islamism in the 
first instance. Jews have always been numerous in 
Arabia, but it is probable that the majority are not 
Israelites by descent. In Yemen, the native Je\\s still 
form a considerable community, and towards Asir are 
the warlike tribes of the Belli Holiab. Xu. x. 2;>: Ju. iv. 11, 
and the Beni Arhab (Rechab), Je. xxxv. 10. 

Government and Character of the Arabs. The head 
of each tribe is called a sheikh, or elder, and the gov 
ernment is hereditary in his family, but elective as re 
gards the individual. In character the Aral) is proud of 
his descent, generous, hospitable, intelligent, eloquent, 
and fond of poetry. His hospitality is such, that he 
kindles beacon-fires on every hill to conduct the way 
faring traveller. On the other hand, he is superstitious, 
dishonest, holding robbery to be a right, irascible, vin 
dictive, and unforgiving, all quarrels being hereditary. 
The war of the two horses, Dahes and Ghebra. about 
a contested race, lasted forty years ; that of Basus 



AH Alii A 

it remained until the taking f the city l>y Houlakou. 
grandson of .Jciighis Khan. A.D. l-_>r, i. I nder Caliph 

Arab tents are pean history. 

rkest peri 
The ambassadors and agents 

f Al Ma- 

et nioun had orders to collect the most important books that 


sprung from killing a camel which had drunk at a for 
bidden spring, and raged many years, during which 

nearly all the principal men of the tribes engaged were llaroun al Kaschid. A.D. rsU-809, Al Amin, M^-lV 
cutoff . Niebuhr esteems the Bedouin as the only true and Al Mamoun. M3-33. the Arabs rose to great 

Arab- -the "wild man" fulfilling his destiny, Go.xvi. ].ower, and attained such high literary and scientific 
IO-IL , still preserving his liberty, each tribe living apart eminence, that the court at Bagdad became the centre of 
and in tents, and retaining the habits of h; s fore- learning and civilization at the dark 
fathers, E/.r. via. Ji; Jnbi. i:>: Is xxi. i:;. 
from liu to 3d feet long, and not m< 
high. They are of goats or 
camels hair cloth, and black or 
brown in colour. Ca. i.5 (Plinv, 
Xut. Hist, vi.i Each tent is 
divided into two jiarts. one of 
which is for the women. \Vhen 
encamped, the tents are ar 
ranged in a ring, the inclosuiv 
within serving as a pen for the 
cattle. The Arab../ the desert 
has never been subdued by any 
conqueror, the most ancient and 
powerful tribes at i-nee retirini; 
into the desert when attacked 
by a foreign enemy, .], xlix. - 
The Arab of the towns, in con- 
eiice of commerce and of 
intercourse with strangers, has 
lt many of his peculiar traits, 
and his character is much de 
teriorated, beinic not only dis 
honest, but deceitful and un 

Kd ujwn. The Arabian-- 
seem to have regarded Mecca 
and the Kaaba. or S|iiare. with 1 
tlu; earliest times. Mecca is as>"i1 
where Ishmaol was saved, and when 
and was buried; and the sacred /em/em 

be the Well pointed out I V tile allgel. Til 

also assert that the Kaaba was built by 

to I 

lin-s from 
e the spot 
- Hagar died 
is believed to 
e Mahometans 
S.-th, of stone 

and clay. and. bein^ destroVeil by the deb:g", was re 
built by Abraham and Nniia-l. 10,(KlO angels being ap 
pointed to guard it. In religion, the ancient Arabians 
were pure Saba-ans, worshipping one < lod. and regard in-- 

the sun, i n, and stars as .-uhordinate intelligences. I n 

course of ages this i-eligimi became 1 -s pure; innumer 
able angels w. readmitted into their worship, 3 ln being 
enshrined in th- Kaaba as tutelary guardians of the 
Arab year: other deities were gradually added, and 
even the Virgin Mary with the infant .Je.-us was carved 
on one of the pillars of the Kaaba as an object of ador 
ation. Other religions \vere also established, until, at 
the time of the birth of Mahomet. A.D. . .70. the people 
were nearly equally divided into Sab;ean.-. dews. Ma- headc 
gians. and Christians. Arabia became united in tl 
Moslim faith, A.D. i ;_ . . 

History.- Tlie Arabs have a variety of traditions n 
speeting Abraham, Moses, Jethro, Solomon, and othi 

could be discovered; and tin- literary relics of con 
quered prov inces were laid at the foot of the throne as the 
most precious tribute. The caliphs disseminated 1< a ruing 
throughout their whole dominions, first in Africa, where 
they built many universities, and thence through Spain. 
To the Arabs we owe the system of arithmetical char 
acters m.w in u< -iieral use; and in astronomy, chemistry, 
algebra, medicine, and architecture, they were un- 
e |ualled. It is worthy of remark that, numerous a ; are 
the b-autiful specimens of Saracenic architecture of the 
middle ages in the countries concpiered by the Arabs, 
no remains of the period are found in Arabia herself. 

Notwithstanding the rapid and extended conquests 
et the Arabs. Arabia their mother country has always 
escaped being conquered in turn. She has onlv suf 
fered Uvo revolutions since the time of Mahomet, both 
of a religious character. The first the objects of 
which wen to alter tlie ceremonial, rescind the prohi 
bition of wine, and prevent the holy pilgrimages was 
v Krmath, .\.n. V.HI, and desolated the country 
for more than sixty years. The second, at the begin 
ning of the last century, to reform the abuses that had 
encroached upon the pure doctrines of Mahomet, was 
headed by Abd-el-Wahab. The Wahabee doctrine 

Scripture personages; but we have no knowledge of any ; made great progress, and at the beginniii / of the present 
perfect history of the country: although a few fixed | century both Mecca and Medina were in the hands of 

periods have been ascertained which would be of use as 
data for comparison. In the fourth century A.IX, a ki 

the \Vahabees. In I*]:;, Mahomet Ali conquered and 

expelled them from the western coast; but the sect is 

of Yemen embraced Judaism and persecuted the Chris- \ still extensive at NYd-jed. though its power and num- 
tians, putting several thousands of them to the sword. 

A.D. (532-33, the successors of Mahomet removed 

the seat of the empire from Medina to Damascus, and i been estimated at between ll,0no,0(iu and 12,000,000, 
thence, by Al Mansur. A.D. 7(53. to Bagdad, where I but the data are quite uncertain. 

bers are on the decline. 

The present population of the whol 

of Arabia has 




Mantifactur S and Trade. Gunpowder was known 
to the Arabs at least a century before it appears in 
European historv; and we owe to them the introduc 
tion and cultivation of the sugar-cane. The mechani 
cal arts, however, are at the lowest point with them, 
all handicraft occupations being esteemed as degrad 
ing. The IVdouins know little else than the tanning 
of leather and the weaving of course fabrics; they have 
a few blacksmiths and saddlers. In \Tementhereare 
workers in glass, gold, and silver; but the artificers in 
the precious metals arc .ill .lews and Iranians. 

Although the pearl banks in the Persian Gulf yield 
a considerable revenue, and the fishermen on the south 
coasts of Arabia collect an abundance of both ambergris 
and tortoise-shell, it is now known that the valuable 
commodities anciently supposed to be the produce of 
Arabia, were imported from India, ( aramania, and 
elsewhere. Aden was the ancient centre of traffic be 
tween India and the Jted Sea, and Oherra. on the 
Persian Gulf. The transit trade enriched Arabia, until 
the passage round the Cape was discovered; but steam 
navigation has restored the ancient route for travellers, 
and the railway and the telegraph may yet revive the 
commerce of the country. 

Of all nations, the Aral is have spread farthest over 
the world, colonies being found in every region from 
the Senegal to the Indus from the Euphrates to Ma 
dagascar ( RiKer. / rd/.-n.nilc, th. ii.) Throughout their 
wanderings they have preserved their language, and 
peculiar manners and customs, many being precisely 
the same at this day as are described in Scripture, de 
monstrating the stationary nature of the usages and 
habits which form the general character of the East 
(Laberdei, and rendering an intimate knowledge of 
this people essential to the biblical student: while 
their language. 1 icing closely allied to the Hebrew, 
affords a most important aid in illustrating Holy 

[Herodotus, T/nd ni. 107-113; Stv.ibo, lib. xvi.; Biodorus, ii. ; 
Pliny, .Y< /. //;.-/. v. xii. xix.; Abul Phara^ius ; Abul Feda ; Ami. 
Mi . , ii. ; II ilerbelot ; Hucliart, Hirrn:<ii<-<>i>, lib. iv. cap. ; 
8 j.le e Koran ; A!i |j<-v s Koror,; Burekbardt s; Niebuhr s 
Voyugeen Arabia, and Description </ I Arabie; I.aborde, Journey 
thi-in -.ik Af iii ,,, Pitrcea; WelL-tjd s Trards ni Arub nj; Robinson s 
BMicul Rif.archf.s: Crichton s Hist, of A / / / Wolf s Missionary 
Jour, if >j. [J. B.] 

ARABIC LANGUAGE. This language, as is well 
known, is the great living representative of the class of 
languages usually called Semitic, to which the Hebrew 
also belongs. And it is the fact of its close relationship 
to the Hebrew, and its consequent value to the expositor 
of the Old Testament scriptures, that entitles it to a 
place in a work such as this. 

Of the general characteristics of the Semitic lan 
guages some account will be given in another place. 
(See HEBKF.W LANGUAGE.) Our object at present is to 
point out the special relation in which two of these lan 
guages, the Arabic and Hebrew, stand to one another, 
and thus to indicate the nature and extent of the as 
sistance which we may expect to derive from the study 
of the one in enlarging our knowledge of the other. 

Independently, indeed, of its connection with the 
Hebrew, the Arabic language has many claims on the 
attention of the student; and these, though the expo 
sition of them is not our principal object, must not be 
left altogether unnoticed. 

1. The lanr/nayc itself is very remarkable: its dic 
tionary is of wonderful extent, whilst its grammar is 

4 A If A 1 1!C LANGUAGE 

most simple and regular, and at the same time makes 
ample provision for the expression even of most deli 
cate shades of thought. 

2. Xo lanrjuaije has been spoken over a leinjer portion 
of the earth a surface. Erom its home in the deserts it 
has extended its conquests beyond the Indus on the 
east, and to the shores of the Atlantic on the west; and 
southward it is even at the present day making con 
siderable advances, spreading over the central regions 
of Africa, and even beyond the equator. ( liarth s 
Travels iii Africa, iii. -\(>i>.) 

3. The extent and varietij of tli.c Arabic literature. 
Few languages have embraced such a large and varied 
field of literature as the Arabic, though the days of its 
power have passed away. During the middle ages, it 
may be confidently affirmed that as many books were 
written in Arabic as in all the other languages of the 
earth taken together, and these books embraced every 
department of knowledge. (Compare Hammer-Purg- 
stall s great work, in Gorman. On the History of the 
Literature of the Arahia tus.) And the influence of this 
wonderful mental activity is felt even to the present 
day. Our obligations to the Arabian writers, not only 
for much positive knowledge, but, what is of still more 
consequence, for helping to communicate to the Euro 
pean mind that impulse, which has resulted in the ad 
vanced knowledge and civilization of modern times, are 
well known. These obligations are not mere matter of 
history; our very language bears in its composition, and 
will continue to bear as long as it endures, evidence of 
the mental power and superiority which distinguished 
the Arabians of the middle-ages. (Trench s Enyiish, 
Past ami Present, p. 7.) 

1. The historical associations of the Arabic language 
constitute for it another claim on our interest. It was 
the language of those sons of the East whose wisdom 
had become proverbial three thousand years ago. It 
was the language in which Mohammed promulgated that 
system of mingled truth and falsehood which occupies so 
large a space in the history of the world, and which 
even now has not ceased to influence the destinies of 

I ut not to dwell on these topics, we return to what 
constitutes the principal claim of this language on the 
attention of the student of Scripture, viz. the close 
affinity in which it stands to the Hebrew, and the valu 
able aid which it furnishes in the interpretation of the 
Hebrew Scriptures. 

What is the relation in which the Hebrew and Arabic 
languages stand to one another? Are they sister tongues, 
or is the one the parent of the other? If the latter, to 
which is the position of priority to be assigned . These 
are questions which have been very variously answered. 
Formerly there was no hesitation in assigning the prio 
rity to the Hebrew; at present the prevailing sentiment 
of Semitic scholars seems rather to favour the priority of 
the Arabic. The latter is very decidedly the view of 
Kodiger, the distinguished professor of oriental lan 
guages at Berlin, formerly at Halle. 

There are two acknowledged facts, the one of which 
seems to favour the former of these views (the priority of 
the Hebrew), as the other seems to favour the latter (the 
priority of the Arabic). The one fact is that, while the 
commencement of the existing Hebrew literature dates 
from the fifteenth century before Christ, the commence 
ment of the existing Arabic literature dates only from 
the fifth century after Christ. It seems scarce credible 



that the Hebrew literature should be two thousand 
years older than the Arabic, and. notwithstanding, 
that the Arabic language 1 should be older than the 
Hebrew. The other fact, which seems to lead to a con 
clusion just the reverse, is that the modern Arabic bears 
a much closer resemblance to the Hebrew than the an 
cient Arabic does. 

A little consideration, however, is sufficient to show- 
that neither of tlu facts just mentioned, however strik 
ing arid decisive they seem at first glance, is of itself 
sufficient to determine the question of the relative anti 
quity of the two languages. The Arabic language had 
its home among a people who lived secluded from the 
other nations of the world, and preserved during many 
centuries the simple manners of their ancestors, un 
tainted by the corrupting influence of foreign associa 
tions. And. therefore, we cannot at once pronounce 
untenable the hypothesis, that among that simple se 
cluded people was preserved during many ages a form 
of the Semitic tongue, more closely approaching to the 
original than those forms which we find prevailing 
among the Hebrews, Chalde^s, and Syrians nations 
which acted a much more proniini lit part on the world s 
stage, and were much more powerfully acted upon by 
foreign influences. On the other hand, the fact that 
the Hebrew language accords with the modern in some 
forms in which it differs from the ancient Arabic. .Iocs 
not at all necessitate the conclusion that it must have 
_ f oiie th roii nil a series of changes similar to that through 
which the Arabic has passed. We have no iva-on to 
beliey,- that the ||.-hi"-w ever was so highly cultivated 
and so larg.-K developedas the Arabic. And therefore 
we do not hesitate to accept as sufficient the solution 
of the difficulty which is suggested by Kwald: "In 
nmltis lingua rec.-ntior ad ea ivdiit qua- politior > : cul- 

tior mutaverat." .1 //</( < li- i i,intnr. i. > <: and i ipar. 

Himself s Phil, "f // i,--f iri/, i. ls-j.1 

We believe tllC Hebrew to be tile cllU.T sister of the 

Arabic. In the latter \\v find the original S, untie 
language much more fully developed than in the former, 
and larger provision made for the exact and discrimi 
nating expression of the various shades of thought. 
Much that the Hebrew leaves to be caught- up from the 
tune, manner, gesture, is formally expressed in the 
Arabic. There is also very little of composition about 
the Hebrew literature, as is evident even from our own 
version. Its great thoughts are expressed in the sim 
plest way. The Arabic, though also simple in it- 
structure, is far more artificial than the Hebrew. The 
thoughts which it expresses arc more formally con 
nected and regularly subordinated. When we first 
meet it iu history, it has evidently lost much of the 
antique simplicity ami artl^ssn. ss which we mark at 
once in the Hebrew writings. It is less the pure un 
restrained outflowing of thought. It has been more 
wrought upon, and shaped and moulded. 

At the same time, while we believe the Hebrew lan 
guage, as a whole, to be a more ancient form of the 
Semitic language than the Arabic, we are quite pre 
pared to admit that there have been preserved to us in 
the Arabic, probably from the operation of the causes 
already mentioned, not a few forms which approximate 
more closely to those of the original language than the 
corresponding forms in Hebrew. 

But, though scholars may differ as to the relative 
position and antiquity of the Hebrew and Arabic, there 
is no doubt that the two languages are very closely 

allied, so closely that it is impossible to have a thorough 
mastery of the one language without being at the same 
time acquainted with the other, at least in its general 
principles and leading forms. To the Hebrew student 
especially, a knowledge of Arabic is of great import 
ance, as the limited extent of the ancient Hebrew 
literature is the occasion to the expositor of many diffi 
culties, for the removal of which he must carefully 
gather in. and make diligent use of. all the aids within 
his reach. 

I. Points of resemblance lutwcin the H>>>rcw and 
Aruolc. Comparative philologists have discussed the 
i question whether the dictionary or the grammar fur 
nishes the better test of the relationship of languages. 
In the investigation of the Semitic languages this ques 
tion has no place: as the resemblances between all these 
languages in dictionary and in grammar are alike num 
erous and decisive. 

1. Dictionary <// rout resemblances. The greater 
number of the Hebrew roots are found also in Aiabic, 
and each bearing a signification either identical or evi- 
d< nth related. In both languages the roots consist 
usually of three letters : and tin re is the same distinc 
tion in sense between the three classes of roots techni 
cally called middle A, middle I-:, and middle V . The 
pronouns and numerals are substantially the same. 

Krom the copious dictionary of the living Arabic 
language we mav. therefore 1 , draw larm- materials for 
the use of the Hebrew lexicographer. It is a necessary 
consequence of the ancient Hebrew writing- be in^ so 
tew and at the same time so varied in their character, 
that many Hebrew roots are met with only once or 
twice, and the lexicographer has then fop . in many 
cases, great difficulty in determining their exact signifi 
cation, in such cases it is the siiir^vstion of common 
sense that lie should turn to the Arabic dictionary, in 
which he will probably find the root of which he is in 
doubt, with its various significations aim. -\ed : and. 
from a comparison of he will usually be able, if 
not absolutely t" determine the signification of the root 
in 11. -brew, at least to arrive at a conclusion in which 
he may for the present acquiesce, until some new source 
of illustration is opened up to him. Though this course 
of procedure, which seems to be the dictate ,,f common 
sens.-, was once condemned by many Hebrew scholars, 
among whom Gussetius, whose lexicon is still valuable, 
was probably the most eminent, it is now universally 
adopted, and has been the means of eliciting many im 
portant results. 

Hut the Arabic dictionary has been of good service 
not only in determining the signification of rare 1 He 
brew roots, but also in throwing new light upon roots 
which are neither rare nor of doubtful signification. It 
is now the ivcogni/.ed duty of the lexicographer, not 
merely to collect the various significations of each root, 
but to arrange these significations in the natural and 
probable order of their development: or. if a root has 
only one signification, to explain as far as possible how- 
it came to bear it. It is obvious, however, that in order 
to do this with an} approach to accuracy, a range of 
observation much more extensive than is furnished by 
the scanty remains of the ancient Hebrew literature is in 
dispensable. Hence the extreme importance of the Arabic- 
dictionary to the Hebrew lexicographer, who is able, as 
is evident even on a cursory inspection of such a lexicon 
as that of Gesenius, to draw from thence a new and large- 
store of materials. Take for example the Hebrew 


1 1 < i 


verb. j,"v; ; i,-. /" xaral. This verb, like many others, is 

not met with in Hebrew in the simple kal form. Why 
so For what reason is the hiphil form preferred? 
We find the explanation in the Arabic, which has 
preserved the simple form lost in Hebrew (? MI J , umplus 
if patldus fuit), and thus enables us to decide that the 
original signification of y"i ; y-i is to make wide, to 

enlarge; hence, to e,i-tricat>\ to (Jel!r<r, to xa-re. 

Again, then- are other roots in Hebrew which are 
found to bear two or more significations so widely 
different, that it is scarcely possible, by any exercise 
of ingenuity to trace them to a common origin. Turn 
ing to the Arabic dictionary \\e find that what appears 
in Hebrew as a single root is in reality two. Tims 

-\an = jkz* and .jui.; > -MI = Oj-=* :UH u**r^ 

(See Gesenius, Ltlinjel/. pp. I i. I! . 1 ) 

Indeed, so fully recognized at the present time is 
the value of the Arabic language in determining and 
illustrating the signification of the Hebrew roots, that it 
is perhaps more necessary to caution against the abuse 
of this valuable aid than to recommend its use. By 
the German scholars especially, the Arabic has often 
been repaired to for aid when no aid was needed. If 
the signification of a root is already sufficiently deter 
mined by the usage of the Hebrew Bible, we must not, 
as has sometimes been done, ransack the cognate lan 
guages for some new rendering, unsupported by Hebrew 
usage, but more consonant with the dogmatic preposses 
sions of the interpreter. We cannot lint think that 
something of this sort has been done by the majority of 
modern expositors in affixing to the root nTi iu Is. hi. 
In. the signification of exult. * 

2. Resemblances in grammatical formations. These 
are not less marked than the resemblances in root- 
forms. In both languages we have the same distribu 
tion of the letters into radicals and serviles (the only 
difference being that in Arabic Plie is a servile, He not, 
while in Hebrew it is just the reverse); the same close 
connection between verb and noun; the same use of 
fragmentary pronouns, prefixed and affixed, in the in 
flection of the roots; in the verb a similar system of 
conjugations, modes, tenses, &c.; in the noun corre 
sponding forms and inflections; in the numerals from 15 to 
10 the same peculiarity of the masculine gender being 
represented by the feminine form, the feminine by the 
masculine; and in the particles <>f most common oc 
currence a very close correspondence. The principles 
by wliich the syntax of both languages is regulated are 
also the same. In both the subject of the sentence fre 
quently stands absolutely at the beginning of the sen 
tence; when it does not, the predicate usually precedes it: 
in both the adjective stands after the substantive which 
it defines or characterizes : in both the tense usages, 
though by no means identical, can be shown to rest 
upon the same principles : in both a verb is often fol 
lowed by its cognate noun either with or without an 

1 In comparing Hebrew and Arabic roots, tlic student must 
remember that the law of the eorresiiondence of sounds, wliich 
is exemplified in other cognate languages, is found operating 
also in these, inasmuch as the Hebrew .1 corresponds to the 
Arabic ?!,, and the Arabic ah to the Hebrew x ; and likewise 
that we observe in the Arabic, though not, so strongly as in the 
Syriac, a tendency to transform the sibilants into linguals ; </< 
being frequently changed into (I, ,} * into /, z into ilh (\\ 

adjective: in both comparison is expressed by means of 
the preposition "from: 1 in both two nouns in construc 
tion often stand for a noun and adjective, or simply 

| for an adjective: in both the numerals higher than 

j units are for the most part followed by a singular noun. 

| Such resemblances as these might be multiplied ; 

| but the above are sufficient to show how closely the 
two languages are allied in structure, as well as in 

II. Points of difference between the Hebrew and Ara 
bic. The study of these will be found of not less 
consequence in ascertaining the principles of the Semi 
tic language,, than the study of the points of resem 
blance. For a principle is always the better understood, 
when it is seen working not always in the same direc 
tion, but in different directions, and under different in 

1. Jtoot differences. When we find an Arabic root 
consisting of the same letters as a Hebrew one, we must 
not at once conclude that both have the same significa 
tion. We must not overlook the changes caused by 
the influences of place, and time, and circumstance. 
The two roots were once, indeed, identical in significa 
tion they had the same starting point; but from that 
point onward they have been acted upon by different 
influences, these influences modifying the original signi 
fication, sometimes indeed very slightly, but sometimes 

I so decidedly as to render it doubtful whether roots 
which now- stand so far apart could ever have been one. 
For example, no roots are more common in Hebrew 

than the verbs ^Sri- ne went, and -i^n, he spoke. But 
"I - T 

ti;rn to the Arabic lexicon. We disc-over indeed cor 
responding roots; but how different the significations 
attached to them ! The former, we find, means in 
Arabic he perished; the latter, he arranged, he ruled. 
How do we explain this . It is the part of the lexico 
grapher to trace back these different significations to a 
common root; and in the attempt to do so he is often 
led to important results which would otherwise have 
escaped his notice. The truth is, if we found in Arabic 
I the same roots bearing exactly the same significations 
; as in Hebrew, the comparative study of these languages 
I would lose much of its importance. It is from the 
study of their differences that the most valuable results 
have been obtained. 

2. Grammatical differences. Not a few ; of the forms 
and inflections of the Arabic grammar appear to he 
older and more original than the corresponding forms 
in Hebrew. For example, the pronouns of the se 
cond person in Arabic, ant a, anti, . . . antum, antun- 
na, are older than the Hebrew forms atta. att, attem, 
atten. So the suffixes Tea, ki,....kum, kunna, are 
older than lea, k. kern, ken. It is evident that the 
Hebrew katalt was originally katalti. as in Arabic, 
because we find that form still preserved before the 
suffixes : for the same reason ketaltem must be a cor 
ruption of ketaltum (the Arabic form). The vocaliza 
tion also of the Arabic seems purer than that of the 
Hebrew, e.y. Ar. ytiktul, Heb. yiktol; Ar. kutel, Heb. 
kotel; Ar. kattala, Heb. kittel, &c. So the diphthongs 
ai, an. retained in Arabic, are corrupted into ae, 6. in 

Again, in Arabic we find a much larger development 
of many Hebrew formations. Much that seems some 
what fragmentary and isolated in Hebrew appears 
in Arabic systematically wrought out and completed. 




This is seen in the various forms of the Arabic future 
tense, of which v.v have the germs in the long and short 
future of the Hebrew : in the regularity with which the 
passive formation by means of the vowel u is carried 
through all tin- conjugations of the verb which are cap 
able i if receiving a passive signification: in the case 
terminations of the noun, of which in Hebrew we 
have only the first beginnings: perhaps also in the 
larger use of the dual number. 

-Many parts also of the Arabic grammar, which seem 
most distinctive and peculiar, nu .v be traced to prin 
ciples, the operation of which we observe also in He 
brew. The must remarkable of these is the mode in 
which plurality is usually expressed, viz. bv means of a 
feminine singular abstract iiutin, technically called the 
jiliiruliti j riii-tiiii. This formation, indeed, is not pecu 
liar to tile Arabic, nor even to the Semitic languages 
(Qmisen s Philosophy nf L ltii er.tal Jlistory, i. 2i> 2). but 
in Arabic it seems more regularly and widely developed 
than in any other language. In Hebrew, examples of 
the converse, i.e. of the plural form employed to de 
note a singular idea, are more common. In b. th the 
ideal predominates over tin- real. 

With regard to the structure and connection of 
sentences, in Arabic the van con- -cutive disappears; 
but instead of it we find ether forms uf constrtietion, 
which show that the two tenses have substantiallv the 
same import as in Hebrew. There i- al-o a larger use 
of the substantive verb a- an auxiliary. Thus, as in 
Syriac, a pluperfect tense is formed bv means of it; and 
it is al.-o found -landing before the future to describe 
past continued, or habitual action, 

l!ut. not to delay longer on details, it only remains 
to remark in general, tint the Arabic is distinguished 
from the Hebrew by hein^ less slit! and formal and 
more flexible, abounding in vowel sounds. In both 
each syllable begins with a consonant: hut in \rahie 
no syllable either begins or ends \\ith two consonants. 
In both tile syllable which ends with a consonant most 
frequently takes a short vowel; but the A rabie ditl ers 
from the Hebrew in admitting the short \o\\,l also 
into the unaccented open syllable, I.e. the syllable 
ending with a vowel. Such differences in the lan 
guage have their rout in the character of the people. 
The Arabic is the language of a [ 
impulsive: the Hebrew, of a peopl 

In connection with the Arabic language on^ht to be 
studied the Kthiopie, which in some , ,f its forms ap 
proaches still nearer to the Hebrew. The fraginentarv 
Himyaritic inscriptions, when discovered in larger num 
bers and fully investigated, will probably be found to 
present the Arabic language in its oldest form. Con 
nected with these are the inscriptions found on Mount 
Sinai, which are still in process of decipherment. 

I l lic Arabic dictionary \\1ii, -h is perhaps most accessible is 
K re Hag s, larger and smaller. The best grammars are Do Sacy s 
and Mwald s, e u-h in two volumes. Of the staallor sort the best is 
thatof Caspuri, by \Vri-ht of Dnlilin. Humbert * <:ii,-ixt>-, lt ,itlt>i\* 
excellent; but . \niol. 1 s ha.s the adxaiitag-; of having a lexicon 
attached. The student may also avail himself of Professor 
Wright s J:,; M I,, in /,,-,- * ,;<;< ,-: ,-fionn : and of the Arl, ,<: R<n,l 
infj L-ttOn*, published by Ji.-c. -ter. Compare also Hclniltens 
On,ji,,i-s If /,,-tin and Dixwrtalio 7V,.,,?. / /,</. ,!, ,,li/itnt. L tuym, 
Amlicie; Professor Robertson s (Kdinburh) Dixxtrtatio dr Ori- 
<jii<ctt A,itl jni/<it> Li,, t n"i A,-i(l,lf,i ; and the notices of the Arabic 
language in Iliiverniek s In/i-tjiJci-tlf,,, (Clarke s Library); and 
similar works.] In. it. w. 1 

: ARABIC VERSIONS. Of these, printed and un- 

, printed, there is a considerable number; none, however, 
embracing the whole of the Scriptures, and few so an- 

, cieiit as to render the study of them a profitable labour 

i to the biblical student. 

Christianity does not appear at any time to have taken 
deep root in the peninsula of Arabia. We read, it is true, 
in Scripture, Gu., of a journey of 1 aul into Arabia 
soon after his conversion, but to what part of Arabia 
lie repaired, or whether his residence there resulted in 
the conversion of any to the Christian faith, is unknown. 
" His object does not seem to have been the preaching 
of the gospel, but preparation for the apostolic work" 
lAlford). It is certain that in the sixth century, the 
greater number of tin 1 Arabians were still pagans. 
And though scattered here and there over the penin 
sula wo do find tribes and families ef Christians and 
.lews, and read also of churches erected in various 
parts, even in the extreme south, and of bishops ap 
pointed to minister in them, yet no such decided sue 
cess was achieved as in the adjacent regions of Syria. 
Mesopotamia, and Egypt. (I ococke. > /.<c. Hitt.Arali. 
pp. l: o. ];;7. cd. li;.",n; Xeander, iii. 1.", !. Trans.; 
Sale s A o,v. Prel. Dis. g 1.) It is scarcely matter 
of surprise, then fore, that we have no undoubted evi 
dence of any translation of the Scriptun s into Arabic 

having been executed before the time of Mohammed. 

Sei ih\ Davidson s Rililical Crit. \. *2i>5.) Thcodoivt 
and Chry---tom make mention of translations into the 
Latin, Coptic, IVr.-ian. Syrian. Indian. Armenian, and 
Kthiopic languages, but they make no mention of transla 
tions into Arabic. (See the passages quoted in U aiton. 
PC ib <i<ini< unit, v. $ 1.) Yet. when we consider that 
some of the Arabian trib. s had at an earlv pcrioci 
been converted to Christianity : that Christian assem 
blies were held, in which a- somhlies the public reading 
of the Scriptures in the native language alwavs fornu d 
part of the service: and more especially when we take 
into account the influence which ( hristianitv. as well as 
.lud.ii-m. exercised on the teaching of MI bammed and 
the doctrines of the Koran. \\e cannot but conclude 
that jiart at I . i-t of tin- Christian and .lewish Scrip 
tuivs had been translated into Arabic before his time. 
Whether, however, this conclusion be well founded or 

not. is of n i-eat moment, as no such tran .-lation. if 

it ever existed, is now extant. 

It is to the ri*e and wonderful extension of the Mo 
hammed. m religion, and the consequent elevation of 
the Arabic laiiuruaov to a rank among the languages of 
the earth, at least equal to that of the Greek and Latin, 
that we are indebted for the versions of Scripture in 
that language of which we are now in posses.-ion. In 
a short time it almost superseded the Svriac language 
in the north, and the Greek and ( optic in Kgvpt ; so 
that it became necessarv. for the maintenance of Chris 
tian worship in those n gion<, to have the Scriptures 
translated from languages which were falling into dis 
use into the southern tongue which was so rapidly 
supplanting them. Even in distant Spain this neces 
sity was felt: and one of the earliest Arabic versions 
we read of was from the pen of a bishop of Seville, who 
lived in the beginning of the eighth century. ^Wal 
ton s Pro!, v. 1. it.) 

It is unnecessary to give any detailed account of the 
versions which thus came into use. For. as might be 
anticipated from the circumstances in which these ver 
sions originated, most of them were derived not directly 



from the original hut from sonio other translation, Sy- 
riae, Greek, or Latin, and arc of little importance, ex 
cept for the criticism of the versions from which they 
were taken. Those again which have come directly 
from the Hebrew of the Old Testament, and the (.{reek 
of the New, are none of them older than the tenth 
century, ;ind cannot therefore possess the same autho 
rity or excite the same interest, as the other versions 
which have descended to us from a much higher an 

The Arabic translation of the Old Testament, con 
tained in the London I olyglott. consists of various 
parts written by different authors, of whom, with one ex 
ception, not even the name is known. The one author, 
whose name is known, is R. Saadias, distinguished by 
the title Gaon or Haggaon, the Excellent, who rose to 
high eminence among the teachers of the Jewish 
schools or colleges in Babylonia in the beginning of 
the ton tli century. It is supposed that he translated 
the whole of the Old Testament into Arabic; but if 
this supposition be correct, the greater part of his trans 
lation has been lost, all that is now extant being the 
Arabic Pentateuch, printed in the Polygiott Isaiah, 
printed at Jena. 1790-91, and Job. still in manuscript. 
His translation of the Pentateuch, though free and dis 
playing a strong tendency to modernize ancient ideas 
and modes of expression, and also occasionally to 
modify doctrinal statements, ought not to be called a 
paraphrase, as it is for the most part sufficiently exact, 
and does not occupy larger space than the other more 
literal versions. .Its modernizing character may be 
judged of by the following examples: And God willed 
that there should be light, Gc. i. ?>; this is an account of 
the production, kc. (Eng. ver. " these are the generations 
of," &c.) Gc. ii. 4; Enoch walked in obedience to God, 
Go.v. 22; sons of the nobles with the daughters of the 
common people ("sons of God with daughters of men"), 
Ge. vi. 2; cursed be the father of Canaan ("cursed be 
Canaan "), Go. ix. 25; The Eternal ("I am that lam"), 
Ex. iii. 14 ; punishing the faults of the fathers with the 
children ("visiting on the children"), Ex. xx.r>; do not 
swear falsely by the name of God thy Lord, &c. Ex. xx. r. 
It has been remarked (see Pococke s Introd. in Walton s 
Polyijlott, vol. vi.) that he avoids what are called the 
anthropomorphisms of Scripture, substituting "the angel 
of God," or "the voice of God," or some such expres 
sion, where the Hebrew has God or Jehovah, as in Ge. 
iii. 8 ; xi. 5, &c. Frequently in giving names of places 
or nations, he substitutes the modern for the ancient 
name, as in Ge. x., into which he introduces Greeks, 
Turks, Franks, Slavonians, Chinese, &c. 

The only other part of the Polygiott Arabic version 
translated from the Hebrew, is the book of Joshua, 
which closes with a statement to that effect ; and this 
statement is quite borne out by an examination of the 
translation itself, though there are passages in which 
it seems to have been interpolated from the LXX., 
as in eh. vi. end, and xxiv. 30. it is evidently not 
from the pen of Saadias, though it agrees with his 
translation in some particulars, as in substituting mo 
dern for ancient names (e.f/. Sham for Canaan, ch v.n, 
&c. ; Irak for Shinar, eh. vji. 21 ; Nablous for Shcchem, ch. 
xxi. 21.) The translator, whoever he was, does not ap 
pear to have been a person of much capacity, as he 
makes the absurd blunder of taking the geographical 
name Shittim for a common noun, and translating 
"the unbelievers a translation, however, which proves 

that he must have had an unpointed Hebrew MS. be 
fore him, ch. ii. i ; iii. i. 

The other books of the Old Testament, with the ex 
ception of 1 Ki. xii. -2 Ki. xii. 10, which Rodiger refers 
to a Hebrew original, are translated cither from the 
Peschito version or from the LXX.; Job, and most of 
the historical books from the Syriac ; the Prophets, 
Psalms, and books of Solomon from the Greek. In 
the New Testament, the Gospels are translated from 
the Vulgate, and the other books, though not at second 
hand, are too modern to lie of much value. For details 
with regard to these and the other Arabic versions, 
printed and imprinted, not forming part of the London 
I olyglott, the student is referred to such works as Wal 
ton s Prolegomena, Davidson s Biblical Criticism, and 
the Introductions. [n. it. w.] 

AR AD, the name of a Canaanite city somewhere on 
the southern border of the Promised Land. In the Eng 
lish version it is sometimes unhappily taken for the name 
of a man " king Arad," instead of "the king of Arad," 
Nu. xxi. i; xxxiii. 40; while, again, in other passages Arad 
is represented as a city, Jos. xii. it; Ju. i. i<;. There can be 
little doubt that it was the name of a city, though the 
exact site of it is not certainly known. In the passage 
of Judges referred to it is spoken of in connection with 
the wilderness of Judah ; and there is much probability 
in the conjecture of Robinson, that a hill on the wav 
from Petra to Hebron, called Tel Arad. may indicate 
the region where it stood. This accords pretty well 
also with the notice of Eusebius and Jerome, who make 
the place twenty miles from Hebron. 



AR ARAT [the root uncertain, but supposed by 
Gesenius to be Sanscrit, and to mean holy [/round], 
a province in Armenia, upon whose mountains the ark 
of Noah rested, Ge. via. 4. The mountain known as 
Ararat, lat. 39 30 N. ; Ion. 44 35 F., is about 
35 miles south-west of Erivan, and 150 from Frzeroom, 
and forms the termination of a range of mountains 
connected with the Caucasian chain, the eastern and 
north-eastern base being washed by the river Aras 
(Araxes). The mountain consists of two conical peaks, 
the highest of which, according to Dr. Parrot, is 17,323 
English feet above the level of the sea, and 14,320 feet 
above the plain of the Aras. The lesser peak, which 
joins the higher by a gentle descent, is 13, 100 feet above 
the sea, and 10,140 feet above the plain of the Aras. 
The two peaks, in a direct line, are about 36,000 feet 
apart. The summit of the highest peak is a slightly 
convex, and nearly cruciform platform of about 213 
English feet in diameter, composed of eternal ice un 
broken by rock or stone. The entire upper region, from 
the height of 12,750 English feet, is covered with per 
petual snow and ice, immense avalanches being fre- 
rruently precipitated down its sides. On one side of the 
greater Ararat is a chasm having the appearance of the 
crater of a volcano, which Tournefort describes as 
blackened by smoke, and from which Dr. Reineggs 
states that he saw fire and smoke issue during three 
successive days in 1785. In 1840 the whole region of 
Ararat was visited by an eruption and earthquake, 
which continued at intervals from the end of June to 
the middle of September. Dr. Wagner, who visited 
the spot in 1843, furnishes an account of that event as 
related by Sahatel Chotschaieff, brother to Stephen 
Aga, village elder of Arguri, and confirmed by other 


ll J 


eye-witnesses. The substance of the account is, that i 
on July 2d, half an hour before sunset, the atmo 
sphere clear, the inhabitants of Armenia were frightened 
by a loud thundering noise in the vicinity of the Great 
Ararat. During an undulating motion of the earth, 
lasting about two seconds, which wrought great destruc 
tion, a rent was found in the end of the great chasm about 

y miles above Arguri, out of which rose gas and vapour, 
hurling with immense force stones ami earth over the 
slope of the mountain down into the plain. The vapour 
rose higher than the summit of Ararat, and appears to 
have been wholly of aqueous composition. It was at first 
of various colours, principally blue and red. but whether 
names burst forth could not be ascertained. The air 

was filial with the smell of ^jlj.ln 

\%.i.^ 11 in i * 1 1 1 1 L:H .-UK 11 i rvjliuiui . Lin lli Mllll.. 

lieavx-d, and the earth -hook with unremitting tliundi 

,he shower of mnd and stones had tvascd, the village 

of Ar_niri. and tlie monastery and chapel of St. James, 
were to be seen. all. a]oi r _r \s hh their inmates i.einj 

n- plain, and partly slopped up the bed. and altere 

e course of tlie small ri\vr Karasu. 

iiic UUIUMU 01 me. .-man iner rvarasu. i ms sueam 01 
mud was three times repeated, and was accompanied 
by subterranean noises (Wagner s A - !,> mid, </, ,,i 

Tournefort mentions, that the miildle region or Arai-at. 
even to the borders of the snow limit, is inhabited by 
tiger.-, and that he saw them within 7 M > van Is of him. 
Ker Porter. Morier. Smith and Dwight, and Layard. 
have supplied most graphic dc-c-riptions of Ararat and 
the adjacent country, and all travellers in that district, 
whether before or since tlie earthquake of IMu, have 
been equally surprised and filled with admiration at the 
sublime form of the mountain, and tlie awe-inspiring 
radiance of its peaks. Near the base of Ararat at 
Korvirah is the celebrated Armenian church, as well as 
the prison of St. Gregory, the apostle of Armenia. The 
prison is a narrow cave about 30 feet deep. The plain 

b raz 

I l>i\an. and the valley of the Aras. are extremcly 
leautiful and fertile, hut the climate is not healthy. 

The \nnenians assert, that in order to preserve the 
ark of Xoah, no one i, permitted to reach the top of 
the mountain. They therefore deny the practicability 
of the aseeht ; ne\ ertheless the attempt has been made 
at various periods, though for a long time unsuccess 
fully. In 1 7* " the enterprising French traveller Tourne- 
Fort, after unremitting exertions, and 7-epeatcd attempts, 
failed in reaching the top. About forty years ago the 
Turki.-h I asha of llaya/eed fitted out an e.\]>editi(ni 
well su|iplied with huts and provisions, but. after sr.f- 
tVri !;_< severely, tlie explorers failed. Some ten years 
afterward a party, headed by a ( iei-man. Professor 
I arrot. of the university of I orpat i.lonriefi, in Russia, 
made a fresh and well-sustained effort, and after two 
previous failures, actually readied the summit on !>th 
I (cfoher. l.s-jjt. 

The observations effected by Parrot have been fully 
confirmed by another Russian traveller. If. Abich, 
who. v, ith six companions, readied the (op of the Great 
Ararat Vtiihout difficulty. July H! , IMfi. He reports 
that, from the valley between the two peaks nearly MMMI 
feet above the level of the -ea. the a.-cent can witli 
facility be accomplished. It would appear even that 
the ascent is easier than that of .Mont I!lanc; and the 
best period for the enterprise is the end of July or 
beginning of August, when there is annually a period 
of atmospheric quiet, and a dear unclouded sky. 

Another Russian. ~\\ . AntonomofY, has also ascended 
to the top; and an Englishman, named Seymour, ac 
companied by a guide to tourists, named Orvione, and 
escorted by four Cossacks and three Armenians, 
claim-* likewise to have ascended the mountain, and to 
have reached the level summit of the highest peak on 
1 Tth September, 1S40. (See extract from a letter in the 


L t-iucity, a St. Petersburg journal. Athenaeum, Xo. I 
]n:!."i, p. !U-f.) 

All eastern countries point to some mountain within 
tlit-ir lioiinils or vii:inity coniieete<l l>y tradition with 
the deluge. On the road to Peshawur and Cabul there | 
is the Sufued-Koh, or \Vhite Mountain, on one Hide, and 
the hill of Xoorghill, or Koorner. on the other, lielievod : 
by the Afghans to be the mountains of the ark. There [ 
is also Adam s Peak in the island of < Vvl.m ; but tho 
nio.-t piv\alcnt tradition fixes on the mountains which 
separate the southern part of Armenia from Mcsopu- 
tamia. and the lam ! of tin- Km ds. whence Kardu, 
or Carducha-au range otherwise Cordian. ( orevnean. 
or Cn!y,vaii. I .ei-osus and Abydenus give very full i 
descriptions of the delude, perfectly consonant with the ! 

Mosaic account. They name Armenia, as the resting- 
place of the ark. mention the report a report accredited 
by Chrysostom and other writers that the remains were 
stil! existing when th.-y wrote, and that the natives 
made bracelets and amulets of its wood. Xicolaus 
Dainaacenus calls the mountain ou which the ark was 
carried iiaris (-.hip) : Kpiphaniiis .-tyles it Lubar. and 
the Xen.lavesta Albordi (Cory s Ancient Fi-nyiiinifiS. 
p. -JK, . !:>. : ,4. 49). The Chaldean or Targum version 
of the Bible called that of Onkelos, reads Mount 
Kardu for Ararat, and another Targum version, called 
that of Jonathan, reads, by mis-spelling. Kadrum 
Mountains (Ainsworth s Tmrtlx in A aia Minor, &c.) 
Kardyou, in the Chaldee. is said by Buxtorf to be synony 
mous witli Armenian. Erponins Arabic version of the 
Pentateuch, and the Book of Adam of the Sabeans, read 
.Ic oel el Karud the mountain of the Kurds. The 
Koran says, " tlie ark rested on KI ,)udi," a mountain 
east of .le/.irah ilin Omar (Be/abde), in the country of 
Mosul, on tlie Tigris; at the base of the mountain is 
a village called Karya Themaneen, the village of tlie 
eighty the number saved from the deluge according to 
the Mahometan belief. In the neighbourhood of El 
.Itidi was the Xestorian "Monastery of the Ark," de 
stroyed by lightning A.D. 77<J. Ararat is called by the 
Turks Aghur Dagh, the great m< nmtain ; by the modern 
Armenians. Macis ; by the Persians, Asis, tlie happy 
or fortunate mountain, and Koh-i-Xuh, Xoali s moun 
tain. Tlie city of Xakhchevan to tlie east of it, and 
about ](K miles from Erivan, is, acce,rding to tra 
dition, and as its name also imports, the first place of 
descent, or permanent resting- place after the flood. 

The only passages in the original text in which Ararat 
occurs, are Go. viii. 4; -2 Ki. xix. 37 ; Is. xxxvii. 38; 
Je. li. -27, and in the apocryphal book of Tobit. In 
tho Vulgate the word in ~2 Ki. and in Isaiah is rendered 
Armenia. In no place in the Bible is it given as the 
name of a mountain :" The ark rested . . . . upon 
the mountains of Ararat." Go. viii. t ; the sons of Senna 
cherib escaped into the land of Ararat " (rendered Ar 
menia), -JKi. xix. 3-; is. x.\.\vii.>; "the kingdoms of Ararat 
Miuni (the Minegas of Xicolaus Damascenus) and 
A>hehenaz," Jo. li. 27; Is. xiii. 2-4; and "mountains of 
Ararath, Tobiti. -21. Armenian writers mention that; 
Ararad was an ancient province of their country, sup- 
|)osecHo be the same as Kars Bayazeed, and part of 
Kurdistan ; and Moses ( horeiicnsis contains a tradition 
that tho name of Ararat is derived from Araii, a con 
temporary of Semiramis. who was killed in battle with 
the Babylonians, whence the province was called Araii- 
Arat tlie ruin of Aral. Thus, both from holy writ 
and local tradition, the land of Ararat may be satisfac- 

torily identified with Armenia, although the precise 
n sting place of the ark cannot be defined with an equal 
approach to certainty. 

rr.mmefnrt.V Vn.imjc <1<,r,x (,- Lrrnnt ; Sir li. K. IWters Tni- 
-; .M, .riu. s Travels; J Jiu,il,,,l<lfs I- ,;,,, ,,/x A.-i" 1 1 ;,.< Rich s 
Ki nli-tan; V.m lloll ; .M. St. intake s .]/, > Armenia- 
.Munt.riih s Tour throwjh A:erM!juH, Journal Gwj Soc vol. iii 
Kiimoir s .4 Kin Minor; Wafer s Rase ,!, ,/, , Ararat Ilu- 
l.ois } ,,,,, <<(,,, du Cauca** ; l>k- BwMgnnr, dc* Ararat durch 
H. Abich, .St. Petersburg, 184 j. J [., ,. i 

ARAU NAH [written also AAUNAH, 2Sa. x-xiv. n;,i*,2o, 
and in 1 Chronicles, ch. xxi. 15, ORNAN], the proper name 
of a Jebusite, at whose thrashing-floor the plague, in 
David s time, was stayed. Tlie ground was aft. i-wards 
bought as a site for the temple. 2(1,. iii. i ; and from the 
frank and liberal manner in which Araunah acted on 
the occasion, the natural inference is, that, though a, 
.Jebnsite by birth, he had already become an Israelite 
by embracing the faith of his conquerors. 

AR BA, an ancient name for Hebron which sec 


ARCHELAUS, son of Herod tlie Great. Stc 
ni-:i:oruA\ FAMILY. 

ARCHIP PUS, a person mentioned in Col. iv. 17, as 
one to whom a solemn charge was to lie addressed re 
specting the fulfilment of his ministerial duties: And 
say to Archippus, Take heed to the ministry which 
thou lias received from the Lord, that thou fulfil it." 
What precisely was the office he held, and whether the 
sphere of its operations lay in Colosse or in Laodicea 
(which is mentioned in the verse immediately preced 
ing) is not quite clear: and the records of Xew Testa 
ment scripture supply no collateral information on the 
subject. From tlie earnestness of the charge, and the 
admonitory form given to it. there is some apparent 
ground for inferring that a lack of fidelity had begun to 
discover it>e]f in Archippus. 

ARCTU RUS, the constellation called by the Latins 
Ursa Major, the Great Bear, usually designated in this 
country the Wain, and in Job ix. 9; xxxviii. 32, adopted 
by our translators as the proper equivalent of the 
Heb. wy or i ash or aish. The best lexiconraphers 

T ~- 

of the present day concur in this view. (See Gesen. 
Th<s. at the words.) 

AREOP AGUS [Mam-hill], or the court which was 
held on that part of Athens. See ATHENS. 

AR ETAS, the only person mentioned under this 
name in Scripture is one who is also styled king, and 
is represented as being in possession of the city of Da 
mascus, 2Co.xi.32. The allusion to him comes in quite 
incidentally, while St. Paul is relating the struggles and 
dangers through which he had passed in the course of 
his apostleship ; and we are not told either on what 
account the title of king was applied to Aretas, or how 
ho should have held at the time referred to the govern 
ment of Damascus. It appears, however, that Aretas 
as quite a common name among Arabian princes ; one 
is mentioned in 2 Mac. v. S. a contemporary of Antio- 
ehus Epiphanes ; another is discoursed of at some length 
by Josophus, Ant. xiii. 13, &c., who flourished from 
seventy to eighty years before the Christian era. The 
An-tas referred to by the apostle was beyond doubt the 
king of the Xabathean Arabs, whose daughter had been 
married to Herod Antipas. Certain misunderstand 
ings arose between him and his son-in-law about their 
respective territories, and these were greatly aggravated 
by the wicked conduct of Herod, in divorcing the 




daughter of Aretas, and assuming his brother Philip s 
wife, Herodias. A war in consequence broke out 
between the two parties, in the course of which the 
army of Herod sustained a total defeat. He then 
sought the intervention ami aid of Tiberius C ltsar. who 
ordered Vitellius, at that time president of Svria, to 
take Aretas dead or alive. Yitellius was on his way 
to execute this order when lie heard of the deatli of 
Tiberius (which took place in .March. A.D. 37>. and he 
abandoned the expedition. These warlike operations 
occurred much about the time when it is probable St. 
Paul made his visit to Damascus: and it is quite pos 
sible though we have no historical notices to furnish 
us with certain information uii the subject -that in the 
course of them Aretas had pushed his advantage against 
Herod so far as to gain po,->sion for a time of Da 
mascus, and appoint over it his etlmaivh or local gover 
nor. \Vie.-eler. in his Clironoloyy of tin Ajjostvlic A*/ . 
adopts rather the supposition, that Caligula, who. in so 
m.iny things, reversed the polii-y of his pivdec, --or 
Tiberius, mav have conferred on Aretas the sovereignty 
of Damascus Various cireiim -tani-es tend to ivndt r 
tliis idea quite prnbalile, < >[>;, ially as it is known he 
so far went counter to th- plans of the preceding , m- 
pi-ror, as to banish Herod . \ntipas. and raise to honour 
his rival and n<-ph> \v. II, rod A^rippa. .Mr. Howsoii 
also seems inclined to fall in \\ith this latter view ivol. 
i. p. 88). Hither of tin- two suppositions mi-dit be suf 
ficient adequately to account for the connection of 
Aretas with Damascus at the time of the apostle s 
sojourn in it; hut hi- allusion to the historical circum 
stance is at once so entirely incidental, and so elo-dv 
entwined with his own per-onal knowledge and experi- 
enee, that it may justly be held independent of suppoi-t 
from any extraneous sources. It mav \- added, that 
by comparing tin- two accounts of what befell the 
apostle on the occasion, Ac. ix. . :;-_ ,"-; :;<_ <>. xi. :;_ , :;:i, the verif 
ableness of both is confirmed. The historian Drives it 
in the most general manner: the .1, \\ s sought to kill 
Paul, watched the city day and iii-lit in order to ae- . 
conipli.-h tlieir purpose, and to a\oid their vigilance he 
wa- let down from the citv wall b\- iii u hl in a ba-h> t. 
The apostle himself. \\lio nattirallv was somewhat more 
specific, mentions the additional circuin-tauees that the 
etlmarcli of the city liad been got interested against 
him, so as even to station guards to apprehend him: 
and that not by night only, but through a window 
niamely, in a house on tin/ wall of the citvi lie was let 
down in a basket, and escaped. 

AR GOB [heap of atones, * >m//\. a region ,,n the east 
of .Jordan, belonging to the territory of ( )g, king of 
Liashan, and said to contain sixty cities. De.iii i, i::. It 
fell to the trilie of Maiiasseh. and was taken possession 
of by .lair, and the towns in it came to be known as 
HAVOTH-.JAIK. which see ; also I >A-IIA.N. 

ARIEL. [1 i ni of God, that is. very mighty hen,). 
In 2 Sa. xxiii. 2o it is said of I .eiiai i i that he slew 
"two lion-like men (two ariols) of Moah." JSut in 
Is. xxix. 1. 2 it is applied to a city the city where 
David dwelt, by whicli we must doubtless understand i 
Jerusalem. Why it should have been so called is a 
matter of some doubt, and different reasons have been 
assigned by commentators. Hut the probability is that 
it is used as an epithet, to denote the strong and vic 
torious might, which, under < !od. belonged to that citv 
as the chosen residence of David a might, however, 
which was now departing from it on account of the sins j 
VOL. I. 

of Davids successors, and hence the prophet goes on to 
represent it as beleagured and distressed. The same 
term is also, in Eze. xliii. l/i. Itj. applied to something 
about the altar, most probably the hearth or fireplace ; 
but on what account is not known. 

AR IMATHE A, the city of that .Joseph who had 
the courage to ask, and the honour to receive for 
burial, the body of our Lord. lint, like himself, the 
place where he dwelt is wrapped in obscurity. It never 
occurs again in the evangelical history : and it is no 
further described, when it does occur, than as a citv of 
the dews, Lu. xxiii. 51. The Sept. form of Ramathaini, 
LS:i !. i, is Armathaim. which has been supposed to be 
the original of Arimathea : and both alike have been 
identified with IJamleh. a village about S miles south- 
east of Joppa ; with Hamah. and various other places. 
The matter is still under dispute, and apparently nothing 
certain can be fix, d. - (See Staid, y s xinai itml 1 a/i.s- 
tin>. p. 224.) 

ARISTAR CHUS. a Macedonian, one of Paul s com 
panions in travel and spiritual labour. Ac. xix. 2i>; , 
and at last, it would soem. his companion in tribulation ; 
for in ( ,,]. iv. ]u he designates him \\iafdlow-prisoner. 
\\ e have, however, no account of his apprehension, or 
of any charge laid a- ain-t him: audit is possible, as 
.Meyer suggests, that he may have voluntarily shared 
with the apostle in his imprisonment. The same term 
is applied in I hilenion. via-. _::, to Hpaphras; whence, it 
has been suppo>ed. that the t\\o faithful and attached 
friends may have alternately participated in the apostle s 
bonds. If so, we have in such fellowship one of the 
finest exemplifications of the depth and tenderness of 
Christian -ympathy. I .ut the supposition cannot be 
regarded as !,v anv means certain. 

ARISTOBU LUS, not personally, but his house 
hold form- the subject of a salutation in IJo. xvi. Id. 
It is possible that he may have been dead, or may have 
remained a n unbeli.-xer. \\hile hi.- faniilv embraced the 
( hri-tian faith. Nothing is known of him individually. 

ARK, the rendering of -^p, tjxil. is the scriptural 

designation of two vessels, very different in si/e, and 
also in structure the mighty bark of Noah, and the 
little cofi; T of bulrushes, in which the infant Moses 
floated upon the waters of tae Nile. The etymology of 
the original is unknown; and it can. therefore, be only 
matter of conjecture why the same term should have 
had such different applications. lint for the oidvoiie 
of tile two that is of any moment here the AUK OF 

ARK OF THE COVENANT. The II, .brew term 
tor ark in this seii-e is "-ix. tiron, which signifies a 

wooden chest of any sort, corresponding to the Latin 
area, and our ;7\ or chest. As connected with the 
sanctuary of ( Jod it receives it- IP an r determination 
from the epithets attached to it. and the [dace it was 
appointed to occupy. It is called "the ark of the 
testimony," K\. \xv. H; also the ark of the cove 
nant. Nu. x. :;.; : !><. xxxi. L D, ,u-., anil more generally 
"the ark of Cod." l.Sa. iii. 3; iv. ll,&c. The specific pur 
pose for which it was made, was to preserve, as a sacred 
deposit, the two tables of the covenant-- the law of the 
ten commandments. And as these commandments 
were emphatically the terms of Cod s covenant with 
Israel at Sinai, and the tables on which they were 
written the tables of the covenant, F.x. xxxiv. _"; Tic. iv. i. i; 
ix. o, 11, so the ark into which they were put, was fitly 



designated the ark of th-.; covenant." These same 
commandments were also, in a peculiar sense, God s 
testimony hi* testimony in respect to his own holiness 
an 1 the people s sin and as containing- such an awful 
testimony, the sacred chest was with eijual propriety 
designated "the ark of the testimony." The materials 
of which it was made were shittim, or rather acaeia 
wood the timber used in the fabrication of all the 
furniture of the tabernacle ; but tin: boards formed of 
this wood for the ark were overlaid withhold, both 
within and without, Ex.xsv.ll. -It was of an oblong 
form, 2.1 cubits long by 1 } broad, that is about -H feet 
by about 2!, surmounted by a crown, or raised and 
ornamented border, around the top. The dimensions, 
therefore, were comparatively small : and it is necessary 
to suppose that the two tables of the covenant should 
have been placed edge- wise within this chest ; otherwise 
it could not have been large enough to admit them. 
Over these tables was placed the lid of the ark, called 
the capordli, or mercy-seat. And at cither end, look 
ing toward each other, were two composite figures, 
called cherubim if or which see under CHERUBIM). It is 
a question, whether the tables of the law alone occu 
pied the interior of the ark, or whether it contained 
besides the rod of Aaron and the golden pot of manna. 
In He. ix. 4 the two latter are coupled with the tables 
of the covenant, as alike related to the ark, "wherein 
was the golden pot that had manna, and Aaron s rod 
that budded, and the tables of the covenant." But at 
1 Ki. viii. 9. it is stated, that when the ark was brought 
into the temple of Solomon there was "nothing in it 
save the two tables of stone, which Moses put there at 
Horeb." And the language used respecting the other 
two articles in the original passages does not seem to 
indicate an actual deposition in the ark. The pot of 
manna was laid up before the testimony to be kept," 
Ex. xvi. :u. In like manner, Aaron s rod that had budded 
was "brought before the testimony to be kept fora 
token against the rebels," Nu. The expression, 
"before the testimony," in both cases points to a posi 
tion in the most holy place, and in the immediate 
presence or neighbourhood of the ark, rather than 
within its boards precisely as the vail, also, which 
separated the holy from the most holy place, is de 
scribed as being "before the testimony," Ex. xxvii. 21. 
The Jewish tradition, however, has been, that the little 
pot of maiiiia and Aaron s rod were also put within the 
ark ; which, as a matter of fact, one can readily enough 
suppose they might be, were it only for the sake of 
better preservation. In that case, the passage in 1 Ki. 
should merely be regarded as indicating what were the 
contents of the ark, according to the ultimate arrange 
ments adopted for the temple yet without implying 
that in this, as in some other points, they may actually 
have slightly differed in the tabernacle. So Delitzsch at 
He. ix. 4. Either this view must be taken, or it must 
be supposed that, in the epistle to the Hebrews, the pot 
of manna and Aaron s rod are associated with " the ark 
in the looser sense not as being actually in it, like the 
tables of the covenant, but forming, along with them, 
and it, a kind of sacred whole." 

There can be no doubt, however, that the proper 
contents of the ark were the two tables of the covenant, 
and that to lie the repository of these was the special 
purpose for which it was made. Simply as containing 
these, it formed the most hallowed portion of the furni 
ture in the tabernacle was the peculiar shrine of God- 


head so that with it the presence of Jehovah was more 
especially associated, and an irreverence done to it was 
regarded as done to the Majesty of heaven. Hence the 
awful .solemnity with which it was to be approached, 
and the severity that sometimes avenged any improper 
familiarity with which it might Ue treated, Nu. iv. 20; i Sa. 
vi. v.i; 2 Sa. vi. o. Rightly considered, this was fitted to give 
a sublime view of the character of the Old Testament 
religion, and placed it at an immeasurable distance from 
the idolatrous religions of heathendom. These, too, had 
their sacred shrines, and shrines that occasionally took 
a form not very dissimilar to the ark of the covenant; 
1 nit in reality how different ! " The innernu >st sanctuary 
of their temples," says Clement of Alexandria, respecting 
the Egyptians, "is overhung with gilded tapestry; 
but let the priest remove the covering, and there ap 
pears a cat, or a crocodile, or a domesticated serpent 
wrapped in purple." In other places, they only so far 
differed, that, instead of these inferior creatures rever 
enced as symbols of Deity, there was usually a statue 
of some sort representing the person of the object wor 
shipped, and supposed to be peculiarly identified with his 
presence and power. In Egypt itself some of the sacred 
shrines, or arks, we are told by Wilkinson, contained 
the emblems of life and stability, and others presented 
the sacred beetle of the sun, overshadowed by the 
wings of two figures of the goddess Thmei, or Truth 
(Ancient Egyptians, v. 275). Here however, in the 
centre of the Old Testament religion, the mind was 
earned far above all such inadequate symbols and im 
perfect representations of Deity, which were greatly 
more fitted to mislead and degrade its views regarding 
the true object of worship, than to give them a proper 
character and direction. The aspect in which God 
was here presented to men s spiritual contemplation 
and religious homage was that of the moral lawgiver 
revealing himself as the Holy One and the Just, him 
self perfectly good, and demanding a corresponding 
goodness from his covenant- people ; so that continually 
as they drew near to the place of his sanctuary, the 
worshippers were called to think of Him as the consum 
mation of all excellence, and to aim at a resemblance of 
the same as the design of all the privileges they enjoyed, 
and the services they engaged in. Nothing could show 
more clearly than such a deposit in the ark of God, the 
essential difference between the Mosaic institution and 
the rites of heathenism, and how, with all that it pos 
sessed of the symbolical and the ritual, there still lay at 
its foundation, and breathed throughout its services, an 
intensely moral and spiritual element. For it was this 
that gave the tone to everything prescribed in the 
ceremonial of worship, and that should have character 
ized with its spirit of holiness every act of homage and 
obedience performed in compliance with its enactments. 
If this, however, had been all that belonged to the 
ark, and characterized the religion which was con 
nected with it, a most important and necessary element 
had been wanting, which is required to adapt the 
worship of God to the circumstances of sinful men. 
It must have tended to overawe their hearts and keep 
them at a distance from God, rather than to draw them 
near to him ; for the tables of testimony continually 
witnessed against their guilt, and proclaimed their lia 
bility to condemnation. Hence, the ark was furnished 
with a plate of gold upon the top, which, from the 
name given to it, and the purposes to which it was ap 
plied, served to present an entirely different aspect of 



the character of Ciod from that mainly exhibited in the 
tables of the covenant. This plate was called the 
caporcth or coreriay, not simply, however, in the sense 
of a mere top or lid to the ark and its contents, but 
rather on account of its concealing and putting out of 
view what these disclosed of evil. It was the i\a<rrr]- 
pLov or propitiatory (as the Septuagint renders it) the 
>iii. rc>/-scat, in connection with which the pardon of 
guilt was to be obtained. It was therefore an atone 
ment-covering, and was the appointed place on which 
the blood of reconciliation was annually sprinkled on 
the great day of atonement, to blot out all the trans 
gressions which tin; law of the testimony underneath 
was ever charging against the people. On account of 
this important relation of the caporeth to the sins of 
the people, on the one hand, and the forgiveness of 
(lod upon tlie other, it is never represented merely as 
the lid of the ark, but has a separate place assigned it 
in the descriptions -iveii of the sacred furniture, Kx. 
xxv. 17;. \xvi.34, ic., and sometimes even appears as the 
most peculiar and prominent thing in the most holv 
place, i.,. \\; 2. In 1 ( h. xxviii. 11. this place i- even 
denominated from it " the house of the propitiatory," or 
atonement-house. Thus, \\hilethe ark. as the deposi 
tary of the two tables ,f the law, kept up before Israel 
a perpetual te -t inn >ny to the holine-s of ( lod s charac- 
t r nay. exhibited this as the very -round of all the 
revelations he made t" l-ra. 1. and of the service he 
required at their hands bv lueans of tlie propitiatorv, 
whicli formed its covcriiiu- above, it not less prom; 
nentlv displayed the pardoning mercy of (1ml. which, 
in accordance with the prim- covenant, the covenant of 
proini-e. he was ever ready to impart to those who wen 
coii-cious of sin. and sou- lit to him with true peiii ten ee 
of heart. (Set Kl ASTS. DAY OK AfONEMKNT.) 

The history of this ark is in perfect accordance with 
its intcnselv moral character. Its usual and stated 
residence was in tlie h"ly of holies f the tabernacle; 
hut, to a certain extent, it hail a separate place and 
history. As the more peculiar symbol of the L.rd s 
piv-eiicc, it was borne by the priests, in advance of 
tin. whole host, Nil \.:;:;: Do. i. 33; on which account also 
the word is used in 1 s. cxxxii. S. Arise, () Lord, 
into thy rest, thou. and the ark of thy strength." In 
the passage through the Jordan, it was at the presence 
of the ark that the waters he-;an to be cut off from 
above, and oidv when it was withdrawn from the 
channel of the rivt r that the waters returned to their 
wonted course, .j,.s. iii. 1 1- 17. lint at a future time, when 
Israel had corrupted their ways before God, and treated 
with contempt the holiness embodied in the ark as 
a revelation of his character, it was found to carry in> 
charm with it when brought upon the field of battle: 
the -reat end of its appointment was frustrated by the 
uickcdness of men, and the Lord, to revenge the <|uar- 
rel of his injured holiness, "delivered his strength 
into captivity, and his glory into the enemy s hand-," 
I -..; iS:i. iv .11. The ark thus taken by the Phi 
listines, though it did not continue long in their pos 
session, still remained for years in a state of separation 
from the tabernacle; it was only restored to its proper 
place in the tabernacle, after, through the strenuous 
efforts of David, the interests of godliness had been 
ai_ r ain revived, It was afterwards transferred, 
along with the other sacred furniture, to the temple 
erected by Solomon, where it appears to have remained 
(for the passage in :M h. xxxv. >, in which Josiah com 

mands the priests to put it in its place, and not to bear 
it oil the shoulders, can only be understood of some 
custom that hail crept in contrary to the law. or. it 
may be, some temporary removal for repairs) till the 
period of the JJabyloiiish exile. I .ut then again the 
aggravated and inveterate sins of the people drew down 
the divine vengeance, and the ark. instead of proving 
a bulwark of strength and safety, itself perished in the 
general conflagration. The tradition of its having 
been removed by Jeremiah before the conquest of Je 
rusalem, and deposited in a cave on ]\lount I isgah. 
- M;u-. ii.4, is undoubtedly fabulous. As the temple itself 
was burned with tire, so we may certainly conclude 
was the furniture contained in it. And though we 
have the be.M -rounds for believing, that in the con 
struction of the second temple most of the articles be 
longing to it were made a- near a-; possible after the 
pattern of those in the first, vet there is some -round 
for thinking thai the peculiar sacredness of the ark and 
it-; contents stood in the wav of its re- construction. 
Kor Josephus expressly ti .--titles, that the most holy 
place of the second temple was empty i II "/.-. v. .">. fi 1 . 
and Jewish writers generally represent the absence of 
the ark from the second temple as one of the great 
signs of its inferiority to tin- first. They state, that in 
place of tlie ark there was an altar-stone slightly ele 
vate, 1 above the floor, on which the hi-h-prie.-t -4,, inkled 
the blood on the day of atonement. This cannot, 
however, be regariled as certain: and there an- writers, 
among others J rideaux (( mnn < ///, sub anno fi(>n. 
who maintain that there was an imitation also of the 
ark in tin- second temple, since it was re iuiivd for the 
Mated service of the law. The testimony of Josephus 
seems too explicit to admit of that supposition : but if 
not the ark. certainly some sort of sub-titute for it 
mu-t be supposed to have been in the nio-t holy place. 
otln rwise it could not have been possible for the later 
Jews to keep the -ivat day of atom nn-nt. which y< t, we 
know, they were wont to do. 

The relation of the ark of Cod to articles, some 
times designated by a like name among the heathen. 

i can in n<> respect 1 < regarded as close: it lias more 
and greater points of diver.-ity with them than of 
similitude. The shrines of Egypt, .-ay- Sir ( . Wil 
kinson, "were of two kinds; the one a - ort of canopy, 
the other an ark or sacred beat, which may be termed 
the -TI at shrine. This was carried with great pomp 
bv tlie prii -1s. a certain number bein- seKcted for 

; that duty, who. supporting it on their shoulders by 
means of long staves, passing through metal rin- s at 
the side of the sled-e on which it stood, brought it into 
the temple, where it was placed on a stand or table, in 
order that the pn scribed ceremonies might be performed 
before it" (vol. v. ch. xv.) Even in external form there 
is but a slender resemblance- between such shrines and 
the ark of the covenant. The following cut from 
Wilkinson is perhap.- tin- one that conns nearest to it. 
The two figures without (a and l\ are taken t<> be repre 
sentations, one of the king, (lie other of the sphinx, and 
the two winged figures within are forms of the goddess 
Thmei or Truth resembling cherubim, says Wilkin 
son, but the resemblance is certainly a very faint one. 
even externally, and in its design and object entirely 
different. The boat-like form of the structure also, 
which is common to it witli other Egyptain shrines, has 
no parallel in the ark; and the practice of carrying 
forth the shrines as preparatory to their being placed 


ll l 

iu a conspicuous position, where they might receive tlio 
marks of homage and veneration paid to them, is 011- 
tirc-ly tlie reverse of what was prescribed respecting 
the ark of the covenant. It was set in the secret place 

of the Most High; and was not allowed to be carried 
thence except for purposes of travel, and even then 
only when it had been wrapped Tip in coverings that 
concealed it from the eye-; of the people. As regards 
its sacred deposit the tables of the law ---and the rela 
tion in which these and it together stood to the whole 
Mosaic worship, there is not only, as stated before, 
nothing similar in the religions of ancient heathendom, 
but much that is strictly antagonistic. \Ve are there 
fore of opinion, that a great deal more has often been 
made of supposed resemblances between the ark, and 
certain things in the temples of .Egypt and elsewhere, 
than the actual circumstances of the case can fairly 

ARK ITES, a tribe of Canaauites, mentioned in Ge. 
x. 17; 1 I ll. i. l. i, among the other races that peopled 
Phoenicia and Palestine. Their chief city, with which 
at once their name and their territory were associated, 
is generally agreed to have been the Akra or A era 
which lay near the base of Lebanon, on the north-west 
side, between Tripolis and Antaradus (Pliny, v. 1(5; 
Josephus, Ant. i. 0, 2). Tt was distant thirty -two Ro- 
man miles from the latter place, and latterly received 
the name of Ca. sarea Libaiii. Its ruins were seen by 
Shaw and P.urckhardt. 

ARM, the more common instrument of human 
strength and agency, is very often employed in Scrip 
ture as a symbol of power. The arm of God is thus 
used as but another expression for the might of God, 
Ps. ixxxix. 13; is. liii. i,&c. ; and to break the arm of any one 
is all one with destroying hia power, Ezo. xxx.2i. Such 
expressions as "making bare the arm," or "redeeming 
with a stretched- out arm," refer to the action of war 
riors, or other persons employed in vigorous and ener 
getic working, who must have full and free scope for 
their arm, in order to accomplish the purpose on 
which they are intent; when spoken of Cod. it is, in 
plain terms, to give a striking, triumphant display of 
the divine power and glory. 

ARMAGED DON [mountain of M^/iddo], occurs 
only once as a compound proper name in Scripture, and 
that in the figurative language of prophecy. Re. xvi. in. 
Historically, however, Megiddo (whether as a hill, or a 
town built in its neighbourhood) is connected with a 
memorable and mournful event -the overthrow and 

death of .losiah by the host of Pharaoh, 2Ki. xxiii. 29, So 
.Not only did this event cause great distress and lamen 
tation at the time, as is particularly mentioned in 2 Ch. 
xxxv. 2~>, and awakened in men s minds sad forebodings 
respecting the future, lint in /ec. xii. ] 1, it is incidentally 
referred to as one of the greatest instances of general and 
heartfelt grief on record : " There shall be a great mourn 
ing in Jerusalem, as the mourning of iladadrimmon in 
the valley of Megiddon." In the Apocalypse the reference 
is not to the mourning connected with the event that took 
1 place at Megiddo, but to the event itself namely, tin; dis 
comfiture of the professing church or people of (bid, as re 
presented by.) osiali and his army, by the profane worldly 
power. On this account it served to the eye of the apo- 
calyptist as a fit type of a similar, but much grander event 
ill the far-distant future, in which the ungodly world 
should rise up with such concentrated force as to gain the 
ascendency over a degenerate and corrupt, though still 
professing church. This spiritual crisis is appropriately 
called the battle of Armageddon, since in it the old 
catastrophe at Megiddo should, in a manner, ho enacted 
over again; and the mention of it is, therefore, fitly 
introduced by the significant warning, " Behold, I. 
come as a thief; blessed is he that watcheth, and 
kecpeth his garments, lest he walk naked, and they 
see his shame." (See Eahbairn on ProjJtcri/ in its JJia- 
tiiictlvf Xttture, &c., p. 4iM.) 

ARMLET. See BRAC i : i , i :r. 

ARMS, ARMOUR. The weapons, defensive and 
offensive, in use amongst the nations of antiquity men 
tioned in Scripture, are. on the whole, essentially the 
same in all ; the general species undergoing modifica 
tions according to age ami country. It is only in a few 
instances that national usages, entirely peculiar, are- 
found to prevail. In the following remarks, we shall 

Greek heavy-armed "SVarriur. Hope. 

endeavour to give a description of ancient armour, under 
its principal heads ; noticing, as we advance, the subor 
dinate peculiarities which distinguished one nation from 
another, or the same nation in different periods of its 

P>y way of introduction, we present our readers with 
a figure of a Greek heavy-armed warrior, attired for 

battle, whose equipment may lie taken as a, standard 
with which to compare ancient armour in general 
(Xo. 52). It will be perceived that it consists of six 
distinct portions: first, the spear (^yx 05 - 56pv. hasta, 
Heb. -c -\ or jvirK or. sometimes, two spears, in the, 

right hand ; secondly, the helmet (Kopvs, Ki veij, yalca, 
y^i- ) i thirdly, the shield (dffTris, discus Ovpe6s, 
scutum, i.e. the Roman shield (Kp. vi. ir.K j~, ,-tjy), 

supported on the left arm ; fourthly, the sword (i<f>os. 
ijludhis, anri), suspemled on the left side by a licit, 

which passed over the right shoulder: fifthly, the cui 
rass (6J}pa^. I ji ica. ?vn i ; ), covering the hodv. with 

its zone or girdle, ifci ij. *-i ivjidaiil. -\vx> : and sixthly. 
the greaves (i;i>r)/juofS, <jcr<_n . --? ), which protected 

the legs. Sandals in this figure are wanting. The por 
tions of armour were put n in an order the reverse <>f 
that here mentioned. P,v the shield and cuirass the-e 
warrior- were distinguished from the light- armed troops. 
who were protected ni -relv bv a garment of cloth or 
leather, and who fonidit with dart-, .-tones, l.o\\-, and 
slings: and from the /, It ix ai i TT> \raircui, a descrip- 
tion of soldiers found in the later Creek armies, anil 
who. instead of tile large round shit-Id, carried a small 
one (called 7ri \T77i, and in other respects were more 
lightly equipped than tlie heavy - armeil soldiers 
(oTr.V rcut. 

Tn Xo. 53. copied from the arch of Septimus Severus 
at Rome, a Roman soldier of that au e is represented. 


dagger, knife, falchion. pole-axe, battle-axe, mace or 
club, and lissan, a curved stick, still in use among the 
modern Ethio])ians : and defensively, with a, helmet of 
metal, or a quilted head -piece ; a cuirass, made of metal 

[. 3. j JJiiinan SoltlitT. Bartoli H Arch of Severus. 

Tin- several parts of the armour will be seen to cor 
respond with those of the Creek hoplite, except that, 
in place of a sword, the Roman bears a dagger (/ud^atpa, 
jiiti/in) on his right side : and instead of greaves wears 
breeches, and sandals (i-n/ii/n ). \>,y St Paul, in a well- 
known passage, Kp. vi. 11-17, all the parts of the Roman 
armour, except tlu spear, are mentioned. 

AVith respect to the eastern nations ; the Egyp 
tians were armed, offensively, with the bow, spear, two 
species of javelin, sling, a short and straight sword, 

\--syri.iii S]i..-:i.nnrx 

plates, i.r quilted with metal bands ; and an ample 
shield. But thev had no greaves, nor any covering for 
the arms, save a -hort sleeve, which was a part of the 
cuirass, ami extended about half-way to the elbow 
(Wilkinson. .lin i /:/i> Egyptians, i. p. Jl .M. The arms 
of tin- early Assvrians wen- the s]>ear. the bow. the 
sword, the dagger, and the battle-axe. The sliic, is 
not toiind in the most ancient monuments as an Assy 
rian weapon: it was perhaps introduced at a later 
period. Tin- .\--vnan warrior was protected by a 
helmet and shield ; and. according to th" nature of the 
.-er\ice he hal to j n rt oriu. sometimes \\ith a coat of 
scale armour, reaching down to the knees or ankle-, 
and sometimes with an embroidered tunic, probabh of 
felt or leather. They wore sandals: and the spearmen 
and slingers had irrcaw-. which appear to have been laced 
in front. ( Layard, AV, /<// nml //.,- /. /;<<///(.<. ii. c. I 1 . 
In the armv of .\i-r\e.-. the Assyrians wore helmets of 
brass, and carried shields, spears, daggers, and wooden 
clubs knotted with iron (Herod. 7, (53) ; the Persians, 
with the exception of the (lub. were similarly equipped 
i Ibid. c. til). Of the Babylonians, too. these were no 
doubt the ordinary weapons. Nos. ,~> 1 and fi."i represent 
:ui Assyrian spearman and Egyptian heavy-anned 
soldier attiivd for battle. 

We n ow proceed to a more minute description of the 
several portions of armour, as they are given above; 
adopting the ordinary division into iliffittt tri and (>f- 

/ ;/.-// . 

I>KIT.NSIVK AKMHTK. 1. Tin > /</</</. The ancient 
warriors chief defence was his shield, the form and 
material of which were various. Tin- Kgyptiari shield 
was about half the soldier s height, and generally 
double its own breadth. It was probably formed of 
wicker-work, ora wooden frame, and was covered with 
bull s hide, having the hair outwards, with one or more 
rims of metal, and metal studs. In form it resembled 
an ordinary funereal tablet, bein^ circular at the sum 
mit, and square at the base; and near the upper part 
of the outer surface was a circular cavity in lieu of a 



boss, tin- sides of which were deeper than its centre 

where- it rose nearly to the level of the shield fNo. :jd 

i). For what purpose this was intended is uneer 

tain. To the inside of the shield was attached a thong, 
by wliii-li tli -y suspended it upon their shoulders ; and 
a handle, witii which it was grasped (No. 5t), figs. 2,3). 
Some of the lighter 
bucklers were furnished 
with a wooden liar (Xo. 
;")ti, fi^. }) placed across 
the upper part, which 
was held with the hand. 
Sometimes the Kgvptian 
shield was of extraordin 
ary si/. 1 , and pointed at 
the summit : hut instan 
ces of this kind are ran 
(Wilkinson, i. e. 3). 

The shields of the 
Assyrians, in the more 
ancient bas-reliefs, are 
either circular or oblong; 
sometimes of gold and 
silver, but more fre 
quently of wicker-work, covered with hides; they were 
held bv a handle fixed to the centre. The round 

square projection, like a roof, at right angles to the 
body of the shield; which may have served to defend 
tin heads of the combatants against missiles from the 
walls of a castle. (Layard, Nineveh, ii. c. 4). 

The Hebrews had four designations for the shield; 
H3V, tzlnnak, pc, ma/jen, &-<tf, sheict, ,-prD, soMra/t. 

T- I"T T 

The tzinnah was a large shield, covering the whole 
body, the maycn a smaller one ; the former probably 
used by the heavy- armed, the latter by the light- armed 
troops (iKi. x. 10,17; Ezok. xxxix. 9). The shclet seems to 
have differed but little from the murjin. (It occurs onlv 

| ,7.1.] Shields 1, Assyrian. 2,3. I orsmn. Layard, Kerr Porter. 

ill the plural number. 2 Sa. viii. 7; 2 Ki. xi. in). The word 
.yilx rult. is found only in Ps. xci. 4. The larger shields 
were usually of wood, covered with hides ; it was com 
mon to smear them with oil, that they might glitter in 
the distance, and resist moisture, Is. xxi. . Brazen 
shields appear to have been the exception ; the whole 
of the giant s armour, 1 Sa. xvii. .->,<;, was of this metal. 
Shields overlaid with gold were the ornament of princes, 

shield is often highly ornamented. The shield used 
in a siege covered the whole person of the warrior, and 
was furnished at the top with a curved point, or a. 

[CO i Greek Shield (Clipcns).-Hopc. 

1 Ki. x. in, or their immediate attendants, 2 Sa. viii. : ; and 
were sometimes employed to decorate the walls of 
palaces, i K\. xiv. 21;. The shields of David were sus- 



pended, as a memorial, in the teniplo. During a march 
the soldier carried the shield on his shoulder, covered 
with a piece of leather, as a protection against the dust, 
Jer. xxii. fi ; and, in the conflict, on his left arm. (See 
Winer, Real-Worterbuch, s. r>.} 

The large shield (dcrirU, dipcu.<) of the ("! reeks and 
Romans, was originally of a circular form ; and in the 
Homeric times, was large enough to cover the whole 
liody. It was made, sometimes of osiers twisted toge 
ther, sometimes of wood ; covered with ox-hides, seve 
ral folds thick. On the centre was a projection, called 
6u<pd\os, ui/tiio, or Loss, which sometimes terminated 
in a spike 

After the Roman soldier received pay, the clipeus 

The helmet of the Egyptians was usually of linen 
cloth quilted, which served as an effectual protection to 
the head, without the inconvenience of metal in a hot 

climate. Some helmets descended to the shoulder, 
other.; oiilv a sln>rt distance In-low the ear: and the 
summit, terminating in an obtuse point, was ornamented 
with two tassels, of a green, n d. or Mack colour. No 
Kgvptian helmet occurs with a crest. 

\Vhetherthe lleLrews wore helmets of this kind is 
uncertain. They seem to have Lceii commonly of 
bra-s, i s.i; Lut <>f what particular form we have 
no account. 

The form of the (I reek and Roman helmets (ircpi- 
Ke<f>a\a.ia, Kp. vi.i?) is so well known as not to require 
further notice. 

was discontinued f"r the xcntti.ii>. tfiyi us: of oval or 
oblong form, and adapted to the shape of the body. 

Significant devices on >hieMs are of ^n-at antiquity. 
I- .aeh Roman soldier had his name inscrilied on his 
shield. St. I aul, r.p vi. Hi, uses the word (A /wos rather 
than d.TTris. localise h-- i< de.-eriLinu p the armour <>f a 
Roman soldier. 

2. Tin Il.Im t. The Assyrian hc-lmet assumed dif 
ferent .-hapes in diti ereiit au es ; Lut the earli>-~t, and 
properly Assvriau form, was a cap of iron, terminating 
aliove in a point, and snmetimes furnished with Haps, 
covered with metal scales. pn>ti ding the ears, the Laek 
of the head, and falling over the shoulders (No. _ , 

tig. i). Sometimes plain circular caps, fitting closely to 
the head, were worn (No. tlii, ii-. L ). At a later period, 
this primitive form was varied with a curved crest or 
plume, which exhibits considerable variety and even 
elegance (Xo. G 2, fig. :)). 

I ll I 1. i;<p]ii:in lii ln.rt 2, 3, ( Jivoli HehuejU He] 

.".. Tli Cuirass or l ,i-if> j>/<t/>. I he skins of beasts 
were prohablv the earliest material used to protect the 
body. These were soon abandoned for the coat of 
mail, of which there were various kinds. The K-_r\ ptiaii 
cuirass consisted of about eleven horizontal rows of 
metal plates, \\ell .-eeinvd by brass pin< : and at the 
hollow of tin throat a narrower range of plates was in 
troduced, above which were two more, completing the 
collar, or covering the neck. The breadth of each 
plate or scale was little more than an inch, twelve of 
them sufficing to cover the front of the body ; and the 
sleeves, which were sometimes so short as to extend 
less than half-wav to the elbow, con.-isted of two rows 
of similar plates. .Most of these cuirasses wire without 
collars. In length the cuirass may have been little 1. ss 
than two feet and a half; it sometimes covered the 
thigh nearly to the knee; and in order to prevent its 
pressing too heavily on the shoulder, it was bound with 
a girdle round the waist. The thigh, and that part of 
the lindv below the girdle, were usually protected with 
a kind of kilt, detached from the cuira.-s. Such was 
tho covering of the heavy-armed troops. Hut with the 
light-armed infantry, and, indeed, among the Asiatic 
nations in general, the quilted linen cuirass was in 
much request (IFerod. 2. 1S:2): and the epithet \<co- 
OiOprjZ, which occurs more than once in Homer, indi 
cates the use of it among the early ( mx.-ks. In the 
tombs of the kings near Thebes, a coat of mail, of the 
description first mentioned, is represented ; it is com- 


luitt-lv ml. yellow, and irrcen ; each 

C)6. ] Assyrian Cuirass. I.:iynr<l. 

ttires. At a later period other kinds were used , the 
scales were larger, and appear to have been fastened to 
bands of iron or copper. The armour was frequently 
ciul Missed with groups of iigures and fanciful orna 
ments. Not unfrequently the warriors are dressed in 
an embroidered tunic, probably of felt or leather, and 
sufficiently thick to resist the weapons then in use. 
Their arms wore bare from above the- elbow, and their 
legs from the knees downwards, except when they wore 
the long coats of mail reaching to the ankles (Layard, 
Xiiu.i, ii. c. 4). 

The Hebrew >"-i c ; , sJtiryoit, or coat of mail, was 

seems to have been a sort of coat, and, were it not so 
highly ornamented, might be considered a vest, to ho 
worn beneath the cuirass. It is made of a rich stuff, 
worked or painted, with the figures of lions and other 
animals, such as are common upon the Greek shield 
and is edged with a neat border (No. 05, fig. 2). It may 
have been intended as a substitute for the heavy coat of 
mail. (Wilkinson, Ancient Egypt. i.c.3). Occasionally, 
corslets were worn, reaching only from the waist to the 
upper part of the breast, and supported by straps over 
the sin mldiT, which, from the sculptured representations 
ot them, appear to have been faced witli metal plates. 

On the bas-reliefs of Nineveh, the warriors who 
fought in chariots, and held the shield for the defence 
of the king, are generally seen in coats of scale armour, 
which descend to the knees or the ankles. In excavating 
tiie earliest palace of Nimroud, Mr. Layard discovered 
a quantity of the scales used for this armour. Each 
scale was separate, and was of iron, from two to three 
inches in length, rounded at one end, and squared at 
the other, with a raised or embossed line in the centre ; 
and some were inlaid with copper. They were pro- 

Vssyrian Cuirass. Layard. 

Virgil (.En. 3, 467) speak 

coat of mail coin- 

scales. The vulnerable part was where the scales were 
connected, or where the coat of mail joined on to the 
other parts of the armour, \ Ki. xxii. :u. Of linen, or 
quilted cuirasses, no mention occurs in Scripture. 

The Greeks and Romans occasionally used the linen 
cuirass, but it was soon superseded, first, by cuirasses 
of horn, composed of small pieces, fastened, like fea 
thers. upon linen shirts, the hoofs of animals being 
sometimes employed for this purpose; and then by the \ 
metallic scale armour. Of this then- were two kinds: 

f Antoninus and Trajan. 

1 of rings, hooked into each other (faricait: 

mii<\, which may have been a species of chain- 

the 0wpa XeTrtowros, the scales of which resembled mail : such as was worn by the "Roman hastuti. 


Besides the flexible cuirass, the ( ! reeks and Romans. superior officers. It was composed of leather, and the 
especially in early times, wore one composed of two sole was thickly studded with lar u -e nails (Juv! Hi, -J4v 
solid plates: one for the breast, and the other for the ! OFFENSIVE WEAPONS. ]. Th<> $icn/.- The r>vn- 

tian sword was short and straight, from two and a half 
to three feet in length, having apparently a double 
edge, and tapering to a sharp point. It was used to 
cut and tlirust : but sometimes it was held downwards, 
and used as a dagger. The handle was plain, hollowed 
in the centre, and gradually increasing in thickness at 
either extremity; sometimes inlaid with costly stones, 
precious woods, or metals. That worn bv the kiny in 

; .Mi! Cnirass-3 il m, 

back, fitted to the shape of the body, and joined by his girdle was frequently surmounted by one or two 
bands over the shoulders. < > H tlie iM,t side of the heads ,,f a hawk, the symbol of the sun. a title <_iven 
I ody the plates w, re united by hinges; and mi the to the I .-vptian monarehs (No. 7 _ . n M n. 
left, they were fastened by means of buckles. Maud- The >w,,rd thus worn was in r. ality a dag-cr. which 
of metal, terminated bv a lion s head, or some other was also a connnon Kgvptian weapon. It was much 
device, often supplied the place of the leathern straps smaller than the sword": about t, n or seven inches in 
over the shoulders ; and here, too. in front, the l. oiuan leii-th, taperm- -radually to a point. The haii.lle. 
soldier was accustomed to wear his decorations ,,f like that of the sword, was generally inlaid : the blade 
nour. A beautiful pair , f bronze shoulder- hands, was of hronzo, thicker in the middle than in the edges, 
found, A.D. Is-Jii, ,.;,! the river Siris in Southern 
Italy, i- preserve! in the I .riii-h Museum. Around 
the lower edge of the cuirass were attached -traps. 
four or }i\e inches lung, , ,f leather, or perhaps of f, It 
(rl/tcv), and covered with small plate.- of metal. Tht-e 
strajis were partly for ornament, and partlv fora |u-..- 
tccti,.n to the lower par; f th.- bod\ . 

I. Qnarcs. The l^-ypt ians. as has been observed, 
l ^ 1 "o -iva-.. : . Assyrians ,,nl\ ..ecasimiallv so. 
<>n the sculpture- of Kouvunjik. 
spearmen and ^lingers appi ar \\ith 
greaves, probably of h-ath- ror brass. 
which w. iv laced in t r>nt !,.i\ ard. 
.Yi/i>r>fi. ii. c. -I i. ( loliath s ^reave> 
were of brass, i s.i : and such 
pn.bably were in use among the 
Israelites. Amon-- the ( 1 reeks ami 
Ifomans greaves were made of 
bron/.e. of bra--, of tin. and some- 

/ \ 

and slighth grooved in that pail. It \\as inclosed in 
a leathern sheath i\o. 7-. Ii.-s. L , :;i. 
times of silver or gold, u-ith a lining \ \u falchion, with a single ed-v. intended only for 

of leather, felt, or cloth. They " Assyrian O reave, cutting, was borne by li-ht as well as heavy armed 
were usually secured with straps troops: the blade was of iron or bron/e. the handle of 

round the calf and the ankles. They were LTaduallv w "" " h " ni (N "- "- "" ll - 

abandoned by the Roman soldier; and un.ler the em- T1 " Ass ynans vvore swords and (lasers very similar 

perors were chiefly worn hy the gladiators. l " th " st " f tllr l < v P^>ns. with handles elaborately 

5. From tlie -reave, must be distinguished the war- ornamente(l ( ^nerally two, and sometimes three, .lag- 

koe (nsD, Is ix.6 sceCesen. Lcsicon.sub race), calwa ^rs appear mscTte,! inonesheath which was then passed 

through the -irdle (Layard, \in;.l<. ii. c. 4). The 

The Roman cali-a was a heavy shoe, worn by the sword of the Hebrews probably resembled that of other 
mmoii soldiers and the centurions, but not bv tlie eastern nations. It hung on tin- left side, in a girdle, 






l Sa. xvii. :iii. and was sometimes two-edge 

lie iv \"~}, Ju. iii. if!. The Greek and l\o 

had a straight, two-edged blade, of nearly equal width - venting it from escaping from 

from hilt to point. It was worn in a scabbard on tl " 

Swords, various. -Layard, Uotta, Kerr Port 

(/iaxtt pa. puyio Persia. , aci/iaccs, Hor. Od. i. 11 , /), 
which was worn on the right. The LXX. generally ren 
der 3-,,"!, clurcii. by the word fjLO.-xa.ipa: and this latter 

is the expression usually employed in the Xeu Testa 
ment, EI>. vi. 17. -Mdxcupct, or fiityio, however, property 
signifies a dagger or two-edged knife, sueh as is worn 
at this day among the Arnauts, the descendants of the 
ancient Greeks. Among the later Jews, the Roman 
stca, or curved dagger the chosen weapon of assassins 
came into use. 

2. The Sjiiur, Javelin, tic. This weapon was com 
mon to ail the nations of antiquity. The Egyptians 
used a spear of wood, with a metal head, between five 
and six feet long. The head was of bronze or iron, 

Egyptian Javi-lin=. Sjiear and Dart heads. Wilkinson 

usually with 

edge, like that of the Greeks 

sometimes used as a spear for thrusting; and some 
times it was darted, the knob at the extremity pre- 

the warrior s grasp. 

Lighter javelins, of wood, tapering to a sharp point, or 
with a small bronze point, were also in use (Wilkinson. 
Ancient /- , ////</. i. c. :>). 

The spear of the Assyrian footman was short, scarcely 
exceeding the height of a man ; that of the horseman 
appears to have been considerably longer. The iron 
head of a spear from Ximroud has been deposited 
in the British Museum. The shaft was probably of 
some strong wood, and not a reed, like that of the 
modern Arabs (Layard, Xincvch, ii. e. 4). How the 
several terms (rSZ\ r jn, Vp, and yr: ^ which, in 

the Old Testament, are used to denote a spear or 
javelin, are to be distinguished, is uncertain. These 
weapons were used more commonly for thrusting than 
for throwing. They had a wooden shaft, ISa. xvii. 7, 
and a brazen or iron head, L-SI. xxi. i<; ; and were fur 
nished at the other extremity with an iron spike, cap 
able of being used against an enemy, - Sa. ii. - 3. The 
only peculiarity which the Greek and Roman spears, 
which were of various kinds; --lancca, pilitni (peculiar 
to the Romans), jar. id um, &c. present, is the amen- 
tiiui, a leathern thong attached to the middle of the 
shaft, and used to assist the warrior in throwing: of 
this no trace appears in the Egyptian or Assyrian 
sculpture s. 

;5. The Bow. This was a principal weapon of the 
Egyptians, Assyrians, and Hebrews; as it was, in after 
times, of the Saxons. 
The Egyptian bow was 
a round piece of wood, 
from five to five feet and 
a half in length, either 
almost straight, and 
tapering to a point at 
both ends, or curving 
inward in the middle 
when unstrung. The 
string was fixed upon a 
projecting piece of horn, 
or inserted into a groove 
or notch of the wood at 
either extremity. lu 
stringing it, the lower 
point was fixed on the 
L; round, and the knee 
being pressed against 

the inner side, the string was passed into the notch. 
Their mode of drawing it was either with the fore 
finger and thumb, or the two forefingers ; and, like 
the old English archers, they carried the arrow to the 
ear, the shaft passing nearly in a line with the eye ; a 
much moi-3 effective mode of using this weapon than 
that adopted by the Greeks, who drew the string to the 
body (Horn. //. 4, 123). Indeed, the how was more 
characteristic of Asia than of Europe : the Greeks and 

but the weapon had no spike at the other extremity Romans never attached much importance to it. though 
[ffavpuTTJs} by which to fix it into the ground. (See hoth had in their armies a corps of archers, who were 
ISa. xxvi. 7.) The javelin, lighter and shorter than the usually Cretans. In the army of Xerxes, on the con- 
spear, was also of wood, and similarly armed with a trary, nearly all the troops were armed with the bow 
two-edged metal head, generally of an elongated (Herod. 7, 01-80). The Egyptian how-string was of 
diamond shape : and the upper extremity of the shaft \ hide, catgut, or string ; among the early Greeks it was 
terminated in a bronze knob, surmounted by a ball, ! usually of twisted leather (vevpa j3oeia). The arrows 
to which were attached two thongs or tassels. It was ! varied from twenty- two to thirty-four inches in length ; 

.some were of wood, others of reed; frequently tipped 
with a metal head, and winged with three feathers, as 
on our own arrows. Sometimes, instead of the metal 
head, a piece of hard wood, tapering to a point, was in- 

On the bas-reliefs of Nineveh, the Assyrian archer 
is seen equipped in all respects like the Egyptian. The 
bows are of t\vo kind-: one long and slightly curved, 
the other short, and almost angular: the two appear 

sertcd into the reed; and sometime-, a piece of tlint 
supplied its pla< v. 

K.-i -h bowman \va> furnished with a capacious quiver, 
about four inches in diainc 1 - >-. c.intaini:i _ r a plentiful 
supply of arrows. ("nlike the Creeks, w] i carrie<l the 
quiver on their shoulder, tin: Ivjyptian a rein, r, v, hen 
cir/a -ed in combat, had it sillily 1 , nearly hori/ontallv, 
liencatli his arm : the sculptures, indeed, both K_ \ ptian 
and Assyrian iLayard. XimctJt, ii. p. ."..">> also repre 
sent the quiver a- restm^ on tin- back : but thi- was 
probably only during a maivh. or when the arrow.-. \\ re 

79 JVr-iun. itli How nnd l.Miivor. 

to havi been carried at the same time bv those wlio 
ton-lit in chariots. The quivers appear sluii j; o\ er the 
back: and, like the Iv_r\ j.tiaii. the arcln r draws the 
;irro\\ to the cheek or th , -ar. \\"heii in battle, it was 
customary for th-- \\arrior to hold two arrows in reserve 
in hi- riu ht hand : they were placed within the fingers, 
and did not interfere with the motion of the arm when 
dra A iii _ r ttie how. A leather or linen guard wa- fa-- 
teiced by traps to the inside of the left arm, to protect 
it when the arrow u as di -charged i La van 1. \i~n. ii. c. 4 ). 

[77. J Kgyptiau Aivhcr and Quiver. Wilkinson. 

not required. It wax closed by a lid or cover, which, Th( , Hehrew .j,, lW was sometimes of metal, ss.-i.xxli.3s; 

like the quiver itself, was highly decorated. ^ wh( , n j was R , treading jt . an( , whal 

The bow, when not used, was kept in a case, intended iso ; casiollallvren(leml to &uUhe how, literally means 

to protect it against the sun or damp, and to preserve A , M 

... 11. [ to tread it (rrp TH, Ps. vii. 12; iCh. v. 18). \\hen not 

its elasticity. It was always attached to the war- v 1 -- -T 

chariots; and across it lay another large case contain- in use, it was kept in a case, I lab. iii. .>. The arrows 
ing an abundant stock of arrows (Wilkinson, Ancient were probably of reed, and were sometimes poisoned, 
f/ypt. i. c. >). i jubvi. i. Whether they were ever tipped with combus- 

Al {MS 


tible materials (" liery darts," Kp. vi. n;) is uncertain; 
though snme have discovered in Ps. vii. ] 2 an allusion 
to this practice. Among the Israelites, the Beiija- 
mites, l I ll. via. in, and of the other nations of ( aiiaan 
the Philistines, l Sa. xxxi. :;, and the Klamites, u.xxii.o, 
were celebrated as archers. 

The Scythian and Parthian bows, and generally those 
of the ancient cavalry, were in the torm of a Unman ( : 
those nf the Greeks had a double curvature, and 
were composed of t\u> circular pieces, often made; of 
born (Kif>as, rortin), united in the middle. 

1. Tin l^linij ty^p. o-0c-i 5o; ?7>. This \\eapon wa.- 

in common use among the Egyptians, Assyrians, an< 
Hebrews ; and afterwards the light-armed troops of 
the Greek and Unman armies consisted, in great part, 
of slingers. The sling was made sometimes <>f leather, 
and sometimes of a doubled rope, with a broad thong 
in the middle to receive the stone. Tt had a loop at 
one end, by which it was (irmly fixed to the hand, 
the other extremity i.-capinu from the grasp n-< the 
stone was thrown. As a supply of missiles, the Egyp 
tians carried a bag of round stones hanging over the 
shoulder; while, on the sculptures of Nineveh, a heap 
of pebbles, ready for use. lies at the feet of the slimier. 

their not having been permitted, when 

children, to taste their food, until they had dislodged it 

Komun Slingcr. Column of Antoninus. 

o. The Battle-axe and Mace. Allusions to these 
weapons have been supposed to occur in Ps. xxxv. 3 
V~OJD> trdyapts, Herod. 4, 7(^, Prov. xxv. is (<, 

LXX. poiraXov). and Ps. ii. !. liut to what extent 
they were in use among the Hebrews is uncertain. 
The Egyptian battle-axe occurs frequently on the sculp 
tures. Tt was about two nr two and a half feet in 
length, and witli ;i single blade : no instance being 
found of a double axe, resembling the bijtcimis of the 
Romans. The blade was secured by bronze pins, and the 
handle bound in that part with thongs, to prevent the; 
wood from splitting. The soldier, on a march, either 
belli it in his hand, or suspended it on his back, with 
the blade downwards. In shape the blade resembled 
the segment of a circle, divided at the back into two 
smaller segments, whose three points were fastened to 
the handle with metal pins. Tt was of bronze, and some 
times of steel ; and the length of the handle was double 
that of the blade, and sometimes even more. 

The illustration, Xo. 83, represents a Uoman soldier 
in the act of slinging; lit has a provision of stones in 
the fold of his pallium or cloak. 

Besides stones, plummets of lead, in shape like an 
acorn, were thrown from slings, and could be sent to a 
distance of b OO feet. The Hebrew light-armed troops 
commonly used slings, -jKi. iii. LT ; ; it was the favourite 
weapon of the Benjamites, who could sling equally well 
with either hand, Ju. xx. id. Shepherds used it to 
drive oil beasts, l S;i. xvii. 4i>; and with what precision the 
stone could be cast, appears from the encounter of 
David with the giant. 

The sling does not appear to have been in use among 
the early Greeks : at least no mention of it occurs in 
the Iliad. Afterwards the Aearnanians, and then the 

Achacans, attained the greatest expertness in managing j The Egyptian pole-axe was about three feet in 
it ; but of all the peoples of antiquity, the natives of length, with a large metal ball, to which the blade was 
the Balearic Isles (Majorca and Minorca 1 ) enjoyed the fixed. It is usually seen in the hand of chiefs, 
greatest celebrity as slingers. Their skill is said to \ The mace was similar to the pole-axe, but without a 


Egyptian 15attle-axes, Maces, and Club. Wilkinson. 

, Uattle-axcs. 3, Pole-axe. 1. Maces. , ,, Curved Club. 


Made. It was of \\ood, bound with bronze, about two 
and a half feet in length, and furnished with an angular 
piece of metal projecting from the handle, which may 
have been intended as a guard. Another kind of mace, 
of frequent occurrence on the sculptures, had no ball: 
and though not so formidable, must have been a more 
manageable weapon than the former. These maces 
were borne by the heavy-armed infantry ; and each 
charioteer was furnished with one or more, which he 
carried in a case attached, with the quiver, to the side 
of his car. 

( )n the monuments is sometimes seen a curved stick 
mow called by the Arabs //,-> /,<. i.e. tonguei, which 
was probably used both as a missile, and as a club in 
close combat. It was about two feet and a half in 
length, and made of a hard wood resembling thorn 
(Wilkinson, Anc u.nt E<jijj>>.. \. c. :j). 

The Chaldaie battle-axe- -r^in 1 ;) are mentioned 
b\ Jt. rciniah. cli. xlvi. L L . 

At an early period royal armouries c^-s^ TC 1 ap- 
pear established. >,.., _-K: . \x . i.; . 

ARNON [rti.s/iiitj. ruarin j\,\\. torrent-stream, which 
aiK.-iently formed the northern boundary of the Moabite. 
and the southern of the Aniorite territory. Nn. \\i. i;; ; 
xxii.oO; Do ii.24,J(i,&j It rises in the mountains of 
(>ilead. near Katraiie. and (lows by a circuitous route 
into the Dead Sea. The lied oi the river is rocky, and 
its course lies sometimes through narrow ami precipi 
tous ravines. In summer it becomes nearly dried up, 
but in winter forms often, what its name imports, and 
what many large blocks aloii^ its course tossed con 
siderably abo\e the proper channel clearly evince it to 
be. ;i riishiirj- torrent. The modern name ot the wadv 
is Modjeb or Mojib. Descriptions are Liven of it in 
the Ti-avds ii llurckliardt. and of Irby and Mangles. 

AR OER | /</.<</ or ,i- . ///]. the name of several towns 
mentioned in Scripture-. 1. The first is one on the 
north of iht; river Arnon. and is mentioned anioiiu the 
cities taken from Sihon. kin:; of tiie A monies, and 
afterwards a-si-_ncd to the tribe of Keilben. Ii.- 

J.,s. xiii. l(j It -I |. however, close on tin; border 

of Moab, and inJcivmiah, cli. xlviii. in, is brought into 
notice in c. iiinectioii \\ith the desolations nt that coun 
try, lint it is not expressly said to have belonged to 
the territory of Moab. 2. A town of this name is 
connected with the tribe of ( iad. as one of several 
towns built by that tribe after the conquest of Canaan, 
Nil. x\\n :;). In Jos. xiii. 2, i. it is described as beinu 
"before Kabbah," mcaniii -;, probably, that it lav on 
the road from Palestine to Kabbah, or somewhat to the 
west of it. Nothing beside., is known of it. 3. There 
uas also an Arnnn in the south of the tribe ,,f Judah. 
one of the places to which David sent portions alter his 
victory over the Amah-kites at Ziklau. 1 >.i. \.\x. >. It 
is supjiosed by Dr. Kobinson to have been situated in 
a broad wadv. bearini; the name of Ararah. about 
20 geographical miles to the south of Hebron. I It- 
found then- remains of old foundations, and various 
pits, apparently dug for the reception of water. 

AR PAD. or A K I ll A D. a Syrian city, somewhere in | 
the neighbourhood of H.amath, with which it is always | 
associated in Scripture as having alike fallen under j 
the stroke of Sennacherib, _ Ki. xviii. :;i; Is. x. !>; xxxvi. KI. | 
Various places, more or less known, have been fixed 
upon by different writers as probably the same with it. 
but certainty has not yet been gained. 

: ARPHAX AD [meaning uncertain], son of Shem, 
I born two years after the flood: he was the father of 
Salah, and lived till he was 4o6 years old. Josephus 
represents him as the stem-father of the Chaldeans 
(A itt. i. (i. -4). which is thought by some to be favoured 
by the etymology of the compound word arpa-kcshad, 
probably Chaldee- boundary. (See Ciesenius, Lc.c., and 
Bochart. Pluilcy. ii. 4.) 
ARROW, tset Amis. 

AliTACHSHASHTA, Ezr. iv. 7, 8; vii. 7; other variations are 
those of the Armenian. Artun/tfi; and of the Persian, 
Arttu fis/ut^. It is supposed to be compounded of two 
words sis, r nifyiny strait;/ and kiiuj. which nearly accords 
with the explanation of Herodotus (1. \ i. <i,S), who 
makes it "ui-eat warrior." The name, which thus ap 
pears to have been a sort of title, seems beyond doubt 
to have been applied in Scripture to more persons than 
one. though commentators are not altogether agreed as 
to the kind s meant on the ditl erent occasions on which 
it is emoloyed. The tir-t Artaxerxes, mentioned in 
Kzra iv. cannot, as Jo>ejihus imagined (Anf. xi. 2. 1), 
l>e Cambyses, but nui-t rather be the pseudo-Smerdis, 
who tor a >hort time obtainetl possession of the throne, 
and who was succeeded by harius H\sta-pes, i;.c. Ci 2 2. 
In Kzra also. ch. iv. 24, Darius ajijiears as the suc- 
cessor of th - Artaxerxes previmi.-K mentioned. It 
was duriiiL; the time of that monarch, that the opera 
tions connected with the building of the telnple at 

Jerusalem were most completely suspended; which per 
fectly accords with the supposition of its being the time 
of the usurpation of the pseudo-Smerdis, as the disorder 
and feebleness at the centre could scarcely fail to make 
themselves felt in the provincts. The supposition is 
further confirmed by the mention of an Ahasuerus 
Aha-hverosh i in verse i, ulm appears to have come 
bet\\ecn ( vru- and the Artaxerxes mentioned in the 
latter part of the chapter. Hut the Artaxerxes men 
tioned in K/.ra vii. 1, in the seventh year of whose 
reign K/.ra \\ent up to Jerusalem \\ith a >econd com 
pany of Israelites, must have been a different person. 
In all probability this was the Artaxerxes I .oiigimanus 
of the ( Jreeks, the same who is also called Artaxerxes 
in the bonk of Xeheiniah. Jle ascended the throne 
in li.c. Ml. Some have endeavoured to identify the 
Arta\tT.xe> of K/.ra with \er.\cs; but as there is every 
reason tor believing this monarch to be the Ahasuerus 
of K/IM i\. ii. it is not probable that lie should be 
.-poken of in the ;-ame book under two such different 
names. Hut as this part of sacred history is very frag 
nieiitary. and has nothing in common with \\liat re 
mains of the profane history of the period, as it i> also 
without any distinct specification of dates, it is impos 
sible to attain to more than a probable opinion as to 

the preei.-e persons indicated by the >everal names; 
and there will always, perhaps, be some room for dif 
ference of opinion mi the Mibject. The later authorities, 
Winer, Hertheau, < ieseliius, Bertholdt. .Vc., make out 
the coiTe.spondencc in the manner briefly given above. 

ARTEMAS, the name of a Christian, whom St. 
Paul had si nut.; thoughts of sending to Crete, when 
Titus was labouring as an evangelist in the island, Tit. 
iii. i-j; but of whom nothing further is kno\\n. 

ARU MAH, a town near Sheehem, at which Abime- 
lech encamped, .In. i\. n. Nothing further is known of it. 

AR VAD [probably wanderiny- place, or /i/acc for 
fvL j divcf}. the Aradus of the CJreeks an island, with a 


town on it of the same name, on the coast of Phoenicia. 
and according to Stnilio originally occupied, and tlio 
town built, by Sidoniau fugitives (xvi. -. s 1 < 1 -1 V 
The island was little more than a rock, of aliout a mile 
in circumference, with steep side.-, and with lofty houses 
erected on it. Antaradus mi the i.]>|iositi- coast, also 
la-longed to it. It is referred t< in K/e. \xvii. \ 11 ; 
from which it appears that its inhabitants had a con 
siderable share in the navigation and commerce of the 
L ho nieiaus. They would seem for a time to have had 
a king of their own (Arrian, Ah.c. ii. 90); and even in 
the time of the .Maccabees they t onned so considerable 
a stat . that the Roman consul is represented as hav 
ing made known to them the alliance entered into 
with Simon Maccabeus, i Mac. xv. ss I ts modern name 
is Ruail, and from the good anchorage it affords on the 
side toward the mainland, it is still frequented. The 
inhahitants. who mimlier near IDIHI. are chiefly em 
ployed as pilots, shipbuilders, and sailors. A good 
many of the coasting vessels are huilt there. 

A SA [ItcaUii i, or j,/ii/K, ri(i)i.], the name of the son 
and successor of Abi jail, and the third king of Judali, 
after tlie separation from Israel, 1 Ki xv. ; i? Oh. xvi. He 
reigned forty-one years, the comnieneeinent of whieli 
is variously assigned to <j ,r>, $~>S, !>tj" n.e. in 1 Ki. 
xv. In, he is said to have had the same mother as his 
father (ver. 2), namely. ]Maachah, the daughter of 
Ahishaluin. Tliere can be little douht that his grand 
mother is there meant, and that she is designated his 
mother, because, heinu himself a comparative youth 
when he ascended the throne, she was assumed as the 
Hi /Hi ufi, or reigning queen, the queen-mother in this 
case, who was to have a recognized place of honour and 
influence around the throne. But this arrangement 
did not continue long : for Asa proved to he of a better 
spirit in religion than those who immediately preceded 
him on tlie throne of Judah : and setting his heart on 
the removal of the badges and instruments of idolatry 
out of the land, he also removed Maachah from the 
place ho had at first assigned her in the kingdom, be 
cause she had made an idol in a grove (or, as it should 
rather he, to Ashera, the Sidonian Venus, i Ki. xv. i. fV 
This idol Asa caused to be cut down, and burned 
beside the brook Kidron. Other reformations were 
carried forward by Asa, and all the more flagrant 
abuses rectified, only, it is said in 1 Ki. xv. 14. the 
high places were not removed ; while, on the other 
hand, in 2 Ch. xiv. -2. the high places are among the 
things mentioned as having been taken away. The 
same apparent contradiction occurs in the case of 
Jehoshaphat, compare -2 Ch. xvii. and xx. 33. And the 

most natural explanation seems to be, that the high 
places were of two sorts one kind appropriated to the 
worship of false deities (hence sometimes connected 
with the Ashera images, as at 2 Ch. xvii. 6), which 
would be abolished along with the grosser forms of 
idolatry ; and another in which the worship was 
avowedly paid to Jehovah. The latter, as only an 
irregularity in form (though one that was very apt to 
degenerate into more serious error), might be tolerated. 
at least for a time, even in a reforming age ; and such 
seems to have been the case in the time of Asa. The 
liiu h places were removed in so far as they had been 
employed in the service of false gods; but they were 
allowed to continue as convenient meeting-places, where 
the people had been wont to assemble for the purpose 
of doing homage to Jehovah their zeal not being yet 

1 ASA 

strong enough to carry them as often as they should 
have gone to Jerusalem. Asa appears to have been 
cliielly engaged during the first ten years of his reign, 
which were years of external peace, in the prosecution 
of those religious reforms: but in the eleventh year a 
formidable adversary appeared in the person of Xerah, 
the Ethiopian, who came against him. it is said, "with 
an army of a thousand thousand, and three hundred 
chariots, :M h. xiv. d. It seems to have been simply a 
marauding expedition : for no reason is mooted in eon- 
nection with the political relations of tlie two countries 
tn warrant Mich a hostile imaMon. But it was de 
feated of its object : for Asa and his people, without 
neglecting military preparations, east themselves on the 
divine protection, and obtained a decisive victory over 
the enemy. This gratifying result was blessed to the 
further spread of godliness at home ; for, .seeing that 
(lod was with them. Asa and the more faithful portion 
of the people devoted themselves anew to the work of 
reformation, to which they were also stimulated and 
encouraged by the address of Azariah the prophet, on 
their return from the conflict, 2Ch. xv. !->. They were 
now joined by many out of the other tribes, who aloni: 
with tlie people of Judah and Benjamin kept a. gram I 
festival of joy and thanksgiving in the fifteenth year of 
the reign of Asa. 

The festival now mentioned was probably, in a reli 
gions point of view, the crowning period of Asa s reign : 
at least, after this, partial defections begin to appear, 
which u row at length into manifestly improper courses, 
llaasha, king of Israel, jealous of the prosperity of the 
kingdom of Judah, and anxious to impose a check on 
the influx of people to it from the northern parts of 
Israel, set about fortifying Ramah, which lay on the 
north of Jerusalem, and commanded the main road in 
that direction. This is said to have been done in the 
thirty-sixth year of the reign of Asa, L Ch. xvi. i ; but as 
Baasha beu an to reign in the third, and died in the 
twenty-sixth year of Asa s government, i Ki. xv. _ %:;:;, 
there must be some mistake in the period assigned for 
the fortifying of If amah : or, perhaps, the thirty-six 
vears mentioned must be understood, not of the reign 
of Asa, but of the separate existence of the kingdom of 
Judah. over which he reigned. Such is the view taken 
by some commentators, which, at all events, brings the 
circumstance to much about the time when it must 
have taken place, namely, to the sixteenth or seven 
teenth year of Asa s reign. What we have chiefly to 
notice, however, in connection with it, is the question 
able policy of Asa to counterwork the hostile attempt 
of Baasha. He entered into a league with Ben-hadad 
of Syria, and prompted him with gifts of money to 
make war upon Israel. This had the desired effect of 
compelling Baasha to desist from the fortification of 
Ramah; but it indicated a misgiving of heart in Asa 
himself, in respect to the great source of strength and 
hope, and drew down upon him the solemn rebuke of 
heaven. The rebuke was administered by the mouth 
of Hanani the prophet, who charged him with having 
exhibited a spirit of distrust toward God. and unduly 
relied on the king of Israel ; in consequence of which 
he declared, there might certainly be looked for the 
occurrence of future wars, though none such have been 
expressly recorded. Asa was irritated, not humbled, 
by the rebuke thus administered to him ; he even so far 
departed from the better spirit that had animated his 
earlier years, as to lay violent hands on the prophet. 


ASH 1)01) 

and cast him into prison, L di. xvi. in. This, it may be 
hoped, was only a temporary outburst of unsanctified 
passion. I.ut we have no reason to think that Asa 
ever properly recovered his lost ground ; and his case 
must be added to the number of those who. though 
they may not whollv depart from the faith, yet have 
their strength weakened in the way, and end their spi 
ritual course very differently from the manner in \\liich 
it was begun. For Asa. we are informed, acted op 
pressively to others, as well as to Hanani ; and in his 
latter days, when afflicted with a disease in his feet, lie 
gave way again to the same distrustful -pirit. for which 
lie had been rebuked by the prophet; he sought to the 
physicians, but not to the Lnl. He appears to have 
been a man more distinguished for the soundness of 
his understanding in spiritual things, than fur tin H\ rli 
ness or vigour of his faith. He clearlv perceived the 
sin and folly of idolatry, and so far a< concerned tin- re 
moval of it> abominations. his measure- were promptly 
taken and resolutely pursued. I .ut in the steadfast 
and onward prosecution of the good his heart faltered, 
and when the work of external ivform was accom 
plished, it seemed as if }\<- had nothing more to do for 
Cod: i-onsec|ueiitly hi- i n-ouraded i-ather than ad 
vanced: and onlv on the- ne^athc side fulfilled the 
covenant into which In- entered alonu with lu< peojile. 
"to seek the Lord Cod of their fatliers with all their 
heai t, and all their soul," -ih \\ i; It u a.- :\ marked 
and mournful failing, but one that unfortunately has 
too maiiv exemplifications in every a^v of tin- church. 

AS AHEL [muili uf <.<>d], ne phev, of David, and 
brother of .li.ab and Ahi-hai. 1 1 is chiel peculiarity 
was hi.- swiftness of foot, whieh probablv .-a\ed l.;m in 
maiiv an em-ountei-. hut at last co.-t him hi> life : for in 

hi- hot pursuit after Abller, lie MiH elvd llilll.-elf to lie 

thru-t tln-oii-li by the spear of the Jiving but .-till 
valiant chief. _ Sa. ii (Si \ ! 

ASAPIl!. , ,vm///,/-oiT-,/A,Vo, j. 1. A Lcvite. anelson 

of 1 iarachia.-. U li vi .:;.; \, 17 111 "J I ll. \\i\. I .O he i> 
designated a seer, whose etiusimis, aloii-_r with tho.-e of 
I >avid. were adapted to the celebration of ( [oil s piai- 

ill song. This 110 doubt refer- to eel-tain of the p-;dlll- 

as the com])o.-itioii of A.-aph. Twi-l\e of these bear 
his name I salin b. and all from Ixxiii. to Kxxiii. in 
elusi\e. 1 1 i.- therefore to rate the place and calling of 
Asa])h too low to characterize him a.- simply an eminent 
musician, and on this a. -count appointed to preside over 
tlie choral M-rvici-s instituted bv 1 >a\ id in connection 
with the tahemacle-worship. He had (|ualitications of 
a higher kind for such a service, beinu one to whom tli-- 
Spirit of (iod uave LTrace to indite -acred songs, as well 
as to direct and iv-rulate- the ehantiiiLT "f .-neb soii^- in 
the service of the sanctuary. Kve-n of his sons, who 
inherited a portion of hi- spirit, alonu with those oi 
lleman and Jcduthun, it is said that they " were sepa 
rated bv 1 >a\ id to prophesy with har]>s, with psalteries, 
and with cymbals," i ch xxv. l, indicating the important 
nature of the work gi\vn them to do. and the high 
position of the persons appointed to perform it. The 
separation of the Asaph familv for this work seems to 
have been perpetuated for many generations (for we 
read of them still in K/r. ii. 41 : Xe. vii. 4 It, though, 
doubtless, it was the official charge only in connection 
with the choral services of the temple, not the higher 
endowments bestowed at first on the family, that is to 
be understood as thus descending to a late posterity. 
2. Beside the Asaph of David s time, there was one a 

recorder to King Hezekiah, 2Ki. xviii. is, and another a 
keeper of the royal forests under Artaxerxes, No. ii. s. 


AS ENATH. an Egyptian term, and the name of 
the daughter of I otipherah, priest of On, who became 
the spouse of Joseph. (Sec JUSKPH.) It is generally 
supposed that the latter part of the name is that of the 
goddess Xcith, the Minerva of the Egyptians : and the 
compound term is by Ceseiiius conceived to mean, she 
tr/in is of A //<. .lablonski interpreted it to mean 
worsttippir >.>f Xi ith. In such a matter, certaintv is 

ASH. hi the derisive description of the idol-maker. 
K xliv. 1 1. we are told 

He howrtli him ilnwu ev.laix 
lit- taki/th the e-yiuvs-. ami I!K- eak. 
Whirl, ho s;ivni;theiH-th fur himself aiiUMij; the trees t .f tin- 

furest ; 
Ik- jilanti-tli an n*/t. ami tin- vain doth nourish it." 

The Hehn -\ i- X (orcn). which probablv sutlX ested to 

translators the Latin <>rn u? ; but we have no evidence 
that i ither the manna ash (Oi nus ( tirujxtn}, or our 
own noble a-h tree (Fraxinus uccflsloi ), is a native of 
Palestine. Martin Luther translates it fidin; the 
Dutch version Jm lolmboomi. and the oldest of all. 
the Septuagint, jitm (Trirr?). whit-h. as usual, is fol 

lowed bv tile X lllu ate (fii liUf. [.I. II. | 

ASHDODf/o/v/rt a/y./r^-r. cast l< ]. the Azotus of the 

Cr.-ek- and Unmans, modern name Ksdud. 1 Mac iv if, : 

A.-, via in; a cit^ of the 1 hilistines, on the sea-coast, 

about mid -way between ( !a/.a and Joppa, and the 

apital of one of their live states, ,I.. S xiii. ::-. I Sa. vi 17 

n the di\i-ion of Palestine amon^ the twelve 

tribes, Ashdod wa- assigned to the tribe of .ludah. 
.!-- \. i7; but it n maiiied tor many generations in the 
hands of it- ancient inhabitant^. It was there that 
the ark of Coil was dishonoured bv bein^ carried as a 
trophy into tin- tempi- of a heathen deity : but there 
al.-o that the superior miidit and -l.rx ,,f the Cod of 
Israel became manifest in the prostration of Damon s 
image in the temple, i Sa. \ i \V!ieii the I liilistincs 
generally wen- subdued by the Israelites, this town 
must al-o have been subject to their sway; but we 
read of no special acts of violence of marks of subjuga 
tion being inflicted upon it till the time of I /./.iah, 
who "broke down tin- wall of Ashdod and built cities 
about it." 2C li. xxvi i;. Even this did not prove more 
than a teniporarv humiliation: for upwards of a cen 
tury later, it withstood for twenty-nine years the force 
of Iv-rypt, the longest sie^e on record, though at last it 
was taken by I .-animeticus about i;.c. (i:>l) ; and when, 
more than a century later still, tin- .lews returned from 
Mabylon. the population of Ashdod was in so flourish 
ing a condition, that the women of the place became a 
snare to them, and for taking wives from Ashdod thev 
incurred the severe reproof of Xehemiah, No. xiii. 23, 24. 
To have been able to survive such changes and assaults, 
prove-; it to have been a place of great strength, and 
well situated as to the general sources of prosperity 
and greatness. I .ut its decav was only a question of 
time. The prophets gave clear intimations of its ulti- 

mate ruin. Jo. xxv. UH; Am i. --, &c. ; and in the wars of the 
Maccabees it suffered so severely that even then the 
predictions appear to have been in good measure ful- 
iilled, i JIac. v. o>.; x. 77, seq.; xi.4. In the gospel age, how 
ever, it was still a place of some note, and was bestowed 
by Augustus a* a gift on Salome (Joseph, xvii. l.>, 5h 



Jt, was amonu the places visited l>y Philip the evan 
gelist, Ac. viii. 4i>; and became at an early period tin- 
seat ni a Christian church. A bishop from A/otus 
was present at the councils of Nice and Chalcedon, also 
at those of Seleiicia and Jerusalem. Hut this is no 
proof of any great importance having at the time lie- 
longed to the place in a political respect. From the 
dawn of European civilization, it lias been knov.ii only 
as an Arali village, situated on a grassy hill, and pos 
sessing in its environs the remains of former greatness. 
So it is described liy irby and Man- les. wh.) detected 
among the ruins broken arches and fragments of mai ble 

ASH ER [lap,ni. fortunate], the son of Jacob by 
Zilpah. the handmaid of Leah,, 13, and the patri 
archal hea.d of one of the twelve tribes. The bless 
ings pronounced, iirst by Jacob, and afterwards by 
Moses, upon this tribe, consist chiefly of a play on the 
import of the name Asher, and an indication that the 
reality should correspond with the happy omen implied 
in it: there should belong to the tribe a rich portion 
and a numerous ollsprinir. Gc.xlix.20; l)e. xx\iii. 24. The 
tribe soon began to realixe this description : for, though 
Asher himself had only four sons and one daughter, 
who became the heads of so many families, Xu. xxvi. 
4i-!i;, yet by the time of the departure from Egypt, 
they were 41,;1(M strong, and at the numbering toward 
the close of the wilderness sojourn, they ranked the 
fifth of the tribes in multitude having 53,400 full- 
grown men, On the division of the Promised 
.Land, their portion was assigned them in one of the 
most fertile regions, stretching along the sea-coast be 
tween Carmel and Lebanon, and bounded on the east 
by the territories of Zebulon and Xaphtali. The in 
heritance, however, was but partially conquered at the 
first, ,lu. i.:u,:>2; and there is reason to believe was never 
by any means fully possessed, especially on the northern 
side, which stretched within the boundaries of the Zido- 
nians. There seems no proper ground for excluding, 
with Kitto, the district proper of Zidon from the inherit 
ance of Asher: the passage, in particular, of Jos. xix. 
25, seq., seems plainly to favour the common view. In 
a moral aspect the proximity of Asher to the idolatrous 
and dissolute superstition of the Zidonians must have 
been anything but favourable to their spiritual health : 
and as some of the worst abominations that flowed in 
upon the covenant-people had their origin in that quar 
ter, we may well conceive that the Ashorites, who were 
the nearest to the region of pollution, were also among 
the first to fall under its corrupting influence ; the more 
so, as the corn, the wine, and the oil, which their ter 
ritory yielded in such abundance, must naturally have 
led them to cultivate a close commercial intercourse 
with the populous but non-agricultural districts of Tyre 
and Sidon. Accordingly, the Asherites never appear 
taking any prominent part in the religious struggles of 
their country; the great deliverances all came from 
other quarters. 

ASHES have a considerable place in the symbolical 
and descriptive imagery of Scripture, and usually in a 
somewhat different way from what the usages of mo 
dern European society would naturally (suggest. The 
custom of burning a taken city has been common in 
all ag.-s: and so to reduce a place or country to ashes, 
is a general and well-understood expression everywhere 
for effecting a complete destruction, or producing a 
total desolation. Thus, also in _> IV. ii. *;. - turning 

the cities of Sodom and Gomorrah into ashes," Kzo. Hut by far the most frequent figurative em 
ployment of the term in Scripture is derived from the 
practice, which from the earliest times prevailed in the 
liast, of sitting down among ashes, or covering one s 
self with ashes, as a symbol of grief and mourning. 
Thus Job in the time of his calamity sat down among the 
ashes; and when expressing at the close the pungency 
of his contrition for past sins and shortcomings, he said 
" he repented in dust and ashes," <-h. ii *;x!ii. <;. A great 
variety of allusions have reference to this custom. 
Ka. iv. i; Is. Iviii. ; >; Ixi. : .-, Jo vi. 20; Mat. xi. 21. c. Sometimes the 
image is carried a little further, and persons are spoken 
of as tatln;/ ashes, turning them not only into a sort of 
attire, but even into an article- of food, iv c ii. <; is. xiiv. 20; 
It is the deepest misery and degradation that is meant 
thereby to be expressed. These are the more peculiar 
allusions of this sort in Scripture; but occasionally also 
reference is made to the light and comparatively worth 
less nature of ashes especially of such ashes as form 
the refuse of wood which may lie driven about by the 
wind, or heedlessly trodden upon by the foot of man. 
In this respect Abraham spoke of himself as dust and 
ashes," and the wicked are represented as " ashes 
under the soles of the feet" to the righteous, <;e. xviii 27. 

ASH IMA, the name of a divinity worshipped by 
the people of Hamath, and of doubtful origin. It is 
mentioned only once in Scripture, > Ki. xvii. :>.(>. Some of 
the rabbinical Jews report that the deity was wor 
shipped under the form of a goat, and a goat without 
wool. -If so for the tradition cannot be relied on 
with any certainty it was probably one of the wide 
spread forms of the Pan \\oi-ship of heathen antiquity. 
Various other conjectures have been thrown out, on 
which it is needless to enter, as none of them have 
been established. 

ASH KENAZ, the proper name of a son of Gomer. 
and grandson of Japhet, Gc. x. :;. In Je. Ii. i>7, it is 
coupled with Ararat and Minni, apparently as the 
name of a province and people somewhere about Ar 
menia. The modern Jews have identified it with Ger 
many, but this is universally regarded as an entirely 
erroneous application of the term. 

ASH PENAZ. chief of the Mahyloiiian eunuchs, to 
whom was committed the charge of Daniel and his 
companions, Da. i. .",7. 

ASH TAROTH, or AS TAPOTH, one of the ancient 
towns in the district of Bashan, and one of the seats of 
Og, the king of that region at the time of the conquest 
of Canaan. He is said to have dwelt at Ashtaroth. 
and at Edrei. Do. i. 4; Jos. ix. uijxii. 4. Tn the subsequent 
division of the land it fell to the half-tribe of Manas- 
seh. and was made a Levitical city by being given to 
the Gershonites, Jos. xiii. ?>i; iCh. vi.7i. The name was in 
all probability derived from the female deity that from 
remote times usurped so much of the worship which 
prevailed in the Syrian portions of Asia. (See ASHTO- 
KKTH.1 The place is reported by Jerome to have stood 
about six miles from Edrei: but the site has not been 
identified in modern times. 

ASH TAROTH-KARNA IM, or Ashtaroth of the 
Two Horns, the Horned, mentioned in Ge. xiv. 5, as one 
of the cities occupied by the Ilephaim, and smitten by 
Chederlaomer and his host, is generally supposed to be 
the same place as that simply called Ashtaroth. The 
name Kurnaini was probably applied to it from the 



identification of the goddess Ashtoivth with the moon, j verbs "to serve, worship, seek to. o-o after, o-o a whoi-in-- 

or from the ox-head symbol used in her worship, it is after, put away." Me.: but never to "set up" or "cast 

also supposed to be the same that in later history was down," to "adorn" 1 or to "break in pieces." And we 

called simply Karnaim. i Mac. v. 2fi, 43 (Josephus, A lit. rind the same distinction observed in the use of the 

xii. 8. S -L Xc.i But this cannot be reckoned certain. corresponding plural wliich is associated 

ASHTORETH, the great goddess of the Canaanitish only with the verbs "serve" and "put awav." 

nations i\arapTTj 77 /j.fyicrTt}. Sanchon.), the partner of : i he true explanation of the plural forms Baalim and 

Baal, with wh,.se worship that of Ashtoreth was fre- | Ashtaroth is very much the same as that of the plural 

queiitly associated, hi the only two passages, in which form iiL.hini. Thev describe these false o-ods, or the 

the singular form of the name appears in the Hebrew . powers which these u ods represent and embodv. in the 

Scriptures, IKi.xi. r,,. !3, and- Ki.xxiii.l:;, it is followed by the wide extent of their influence, and the varied forms 

title God of the Zidonians, from which it is evident of their manifestation (comp. Movers, J>1,~ / i ,i >iii:iii; 

that Zidou was one of the principal seats- probably the vol. i. p. 172-17-")). If this be so, we have in the prevail- 

principal seat of lier worship in Canaan: a conclusion in- use of the form Ashtaroth anotlier evidence of the 

vvhich quite accords with the statements of the Creek predominance of the Ashtoivth worship aiiion^- tlie 

and Uomaii writers, and with the monumental evidence nation- of Canaan.- 

furnislied by the inscriptions which still survive in the I he important question now presents itself. What 

Phoenician tongue iCesenius, .!/<,,/. Phan. and This.) was the character of tliis worship, of tin wide pivval- 

|The longest and m...,t imjiorlaiit of these inst rip- enec of wh , the most ancient times we have 

tions wliich ha.-; yet b en brought to !i_dit. i- that on so d< I M- i- a question to \\hicli we 

tlie sarcophagus of a kin^ railed Ksiimna/ar. to u ivc a perfectly satisfactory reply, partlv 

accidentally discovered at Xidon in the lie Hebrew Scriptures \\hirii constitnti our 

of l,x r i.". The inscription records the building of a principal source of information, heinu oriuinallv intended 

tempi. for the worship of Astarte by the king and for the use .if those who were tliemselves for the most 

l i- ; mother, Am-Astarte by nam.-. who was h.-rsrlf a [.art well ac mainled with the character of t lie Aslitor- 

! has lie n tran-lat.-d by eth rites, present u- rather with general statements 

several scholars. Th.- translation of 1, odi-vr \\ill be than with any detailed account of these rites, and partly 

found in tl;. /;-....- ; ,i f .M.i, . ix. i; 17- because of the confusion introduced into tin notices, if 

But the worship of Ashtoreth \\ ;uis om- this s ch ma\ 1- gathered t n-m the Creek 

fined within the narro\\ limits of Phu-nicia. We have and Itoman writers, b\ the desire of these writers to 

scriptural evii leiici I er the whole of coniu - of the Ashtoreth worship with rites 

Canaan. For we iiml it prevailing not only among the of their own, which seemed to them l.> have a similar 

Philistines on tin I ewise origin and import, thou.i h the resemblance of the one 

in the region east of .Jordan, where it n iken to the other was by no means perfect. Still, tlie re a iv 

I m root at :: very early period, i ,M! i-oiirln-ioii-, on the correctness of which 

of that region bein-- called by the name of Ashtoreth. we may reh with contideiice. 

; Me. i. 1; J..s. i.\ in; xii.4; xiii [:;, i; n ...;; \i. 1 1. 1 Tlie first jiassage in \\hich the name Ashtaroth, as 

tt is remarkable, however, that in the name of this the name of a heathen -odde-s. appear- is. In. ii. 1:1. 

city, Ashtaroth or A hteroth- Karnaim, tlir goddess where we are told h<iw tin- i-i aelite- served Jehovah 

name Ashtoreth appears n-.t in its singular but in its all the days of Joshua, and all the davs of thr elders 

plural form. This is true likewise of the goddess-name th ii outlived Joshua : but on their death "there arose 

it^rli. whii li is met with more i n quently in tin- plural iieratioii after them uliich kin-w not Jehovah, 

form Ashtaroth than in the singular form A.--htoi-rth, llor yet the works \\hich he had done f-,|- j-rarl 

eonip. Ju. ii I i. in. k Jeho\ah and served I .aal and Ash- 
It is e\ id, .nt that the use of this form must lie ex taroth." (. omjiare with this Ju. x. (i, "And the children 
|ihdn.-d in the same wav as the use of the correspond- of Is] evil again in the sight of J.hovah, and 
iii j; plural form I .aalim, witli which it is so fi-e.juentlv servetl Baalim and Ashlar-. ;b. and the L;ods of Svi ia. 
associated. Xow, that the plural fonn Baalim does not and the ;ods of /idon. and the gods of Moab," .V;-. 
denote, a- (n-enius and otlu-rs have supposed, ima-jv- 1 Voin tli. se passages it appears that amon-; the multi- 
orothermaterials}-mbols,rcj)reseiitative< if the presence tud>- of gods \\oi-shipprd by the grossly siipi-rstitimis 
and attributes of Baal, apprars from the di-iincti,,n and degra<led nations of Canaan \\hni Nra.-l invaded 
which is uniformly observed ln-twt-.ii the Baalim and and conquered their land, Baalim and Ashlar. .th held 
the ^y^n rteVT, mutzeboth habaal, tin- images or 1; " ~ l I 1 1 " 1 - l l(1 " llc : ^ the -Teat male divinity. 

the other as the great f. male divinitv. This worship 

"f tl;.- Hiinyariti 

- It is worthy of reni.irk, that tlio author of the books (if Kiir. s 
ums carefully to a\<.i,l tin- usi- of these plural forms. Ho is 
(Z,:ttxchr,}t dtr It. M. (1. x. C,-_ ). It i.-- certain that it, was lik,-- tho only one of the sacred writers wlo employs the singular form 

wist? i-arried we-twanl, alon- th.- shores of the Mediterranean, of the name A-htoivth, and he never employs the plural Ash- 
by the Ph.enici.-tn colonists. And in Assyria we find in j; j taroth, whieli almit! ;i]ipears in the other hooks of Scripture, 
repute "our lady" Isehtar. who was tli-- same, | So in his ref.-reneus to the worship of JJaal. we find the singular 
the two names l.ehr. in their essential elements identical (Haw- i form of the nam- introduced more than thirtv times, the plural 
linson s Ilerodutiis, i. C,Jl-0:;ii). | f,,rm only (.nee (1 Ki. xviii. Isj. 




iiicr. they traced the operation of a twofold generating 

male and female 

sh nations named 
liaal, i.e. the lord or husband, or when conceived of 
rather as a power than as a person, Baalim ; the latter 
receive ! the name Ashtoreth or Ashtarotli a, name, of 
tlie origin and signification of which no probable ac 
count lias yet been given. To the united operation of 
these two gods or powers they traced all the evolutions 
of nature and of providence. The- one was the great 
father, and the other the great mother of all To these, 
therefore, they bowed themselves down in worship, they 



offered sacrift 

whatever means might seem to their 

most effectual to gain their favour. 

We know little of the various forms under which 

Ashtoreth has 


Iso been, connected with the moon : 

and this connection rests in part upon a scriptural basis. 
Vet the statements of Scripture, usually appealed to on 
this point, are by no means very clear and decisive, 
Iiu.iv.19; xvii. :;;; L Ki. xvii. Ki; 2 Cli. xxxiii. . !-">. It is 
certain that Baal and the sun were not identical: the 
former name Baal being a name of much larger import. 
The sun, doubtless, was regarded as Baal, but not as 


Phoenicians had 

or gods 

i historian Sanchoniathon that 

called Baal-shcmen and Baal-hamon ((.le?-. Mon. PJifii .), 
and it is probable by these names the sun is to bo under 
stood. But the name Baal, without any such addition, 
is not to be so restricted. On the contrary, there is at 
least one passage of Scripture in which Baal seems to 
be expressly distinguished from the sun, " Ki. xxiii. 5: 
"They burnt incense to Baal, to the sun, and to the 
moon," ifcc. And certainly in the numerous passages 
in which not the singular but the plural form Baalim 
is used, we are constrained 1 

her images had the head of an ox; whence perhaps the j much wider significance. 

name Ashtaroth-Karnaim, i. . Ashtarotli of the Horns. Still it must be allowed that, especially in the 


1 powers supposed to reside in the divinity. 
Perhaps it was a natural consequence of the concep 
tion which lay at the root of their superstition, that the 
rites by which these divinities were worshipped .should 
frequently have been of a most gross and lascivious de 
scription. This we know was the case, even at the 
earliest period. Xo sooner had Israel entered the land 
of ( anaan, than we find them seduced and entangled by 
attendant upon tho worship of 
And doubtless these orgies are 
specially referred to in those scriptures which speak of 
the horrible abominations which had drawn down the 
righteous vengeance of Jehovah, and doomed the Canaaii- 
itish nations to utter destruction. It is not necessary 

the lascivious orgies 
Baal-peor, Xu. xxv. i-:>. 

that we should 
able practices. 

;o into detail in describing these abomiii- 
The notices of them which we find in 

heathen writers, and which amply confirm the state 
ments of Scripture, are well known, and need not here 
be repeated. 

which Ashtoreth held among the Caiiaanitish objects of 
worship, and the rites by which she was thought to be 
appropriately honoured, will sufficiently explain the use 
of her name as a common iionn in various passages 

difficult to account for. Jt arose from the natural ten 
dency of the human mind to materialize and localize, 
and to give visible form and shape to its vague and 
shadowy conceptions. There is no doubt that the wor 
ship of the heavenly bodies can be traced back to a very 
ancient period, but it docs not seem to have been the 
earliest form of idolatry among the Canaanitcs. It 
seems rather to have been a later growth partly 
natural, partly stimulated by contact with other nations. 
However this may be, it could have been no difficult 
matter to engraft the worship of the sun, moon, and 
stars on the simpler system in which Baalim and 
Ashtarotli were the great objects of worship. What 
more fitting representative and embodiment (so to speak) 
of the great Father than the glorious and beneficent 
orb of day, the source of light, and life, and beauty? 
And then, this step being taken, the lesser of the two 
great orbs became the natural representative and em 
bodiment of his female companion Ashtoreth. And 
the early and wide-spread belief of a close and myste 
rious connection between heaven and earth, between 
the stars above and the course of nature and providence 
in the earth below, would necessarily tend to confirm 
and perpetuate the connection thus established. 

of Deuteronomy, \ii.i:j ; xxviii.4, is, 51, to denote the ewes In the mythologies of all nations, we find the same 

of the flock rcncres pccuris, as (Jesenius explains it, close connection between the heavenly and the earthly. 

fe tnellce greycm propayantes. Thus the great goddess of the Egyptians, Isis, whose 

Such being the place of Astarte among the Syrian I character and worship seem to have resembled in many 

divinities, we cannot wonder that she should some 
times lie represented by western writers as the Juno, 
sometimes as the Venus of Syria. 2 There is no doubt 
that there were combined in her character and worship 
some of the attributes of both these goddesses. She was 
the great goddess the consort of the lord and king of 
gods and men: and she was the great mother the 
source of generation, power, and fruitfulness. 

1 Compare Lucian, \\--p, 
dotus (i. !!>:>), sipiVia. i 

2 Ot =i Attpooir-s.v, 01 us Hftiv, 01 at TV,V a/>%K; xati ir-ripfMtTa, 
rutriv j iyfSii Txpxa-^vffKv ai-rixv ZKI futriti mu.ii^ja-i. Plutarch, 
quoted l.y Selden, l>f Dlis Syris. See also the other passages 
from the ancients, quoted in that treatise, and likewise "by 
Geseninx, 77,. s., and Winer, Hi-nl-Wiirtfrlini-k. 

parts those of Ashtoreth, was in ancient times regarded 
sometimes as representing the earth, sometimes the 
moon, sometimes as the common mother of all (Jablon- 
ski, Pant /i,. sEyypt. ii. S, 17, 21). The same is true of 
the Greek goddess Aphrodite, who seems to have been 
originally the same as the Syrian Ashtoreth, as indeed 
the very name Aphrodite may possibly indicate. But 
on this we need not enlarge. 3 

3 " Quis nescius est coelum et terrain ab idolorum cultoribus 
misceri soiita?" Selden, De J)iis Syr is, synt. ii. cap. 2. With 
regard to the origin of the name Aphrodite, it may possibly be 
a corruption of Ashtoreth : rn~i" - fi-pB?i 3" tlle transposi 
tion of "i and ji, and the change of -j (= ji in Syr. and Arab.) 
into g, with which 7: is closely allied. (Compare Sehultens, 
Opera J/m. p. 28-.) The tradition with regard to the origin of 
Aphrodite, it is more probable, had its source in the name, than 
the name in the tradition. 




This being so, it is probable- that by the queen of 
heaven, mentioned by Jeremiah, vii. is, and xliv. 17, 18, as 
A chief object of worship t~> tlie Jews, and especially to 
the Jewish women of his day, we are to understand 
Ashtaroth. which name, it is somewhat remarkable, 
is nowhere found in the prophetic Scriptures. Mill we 
cannot draw from this fact the conclusion that the title 
<[ueun of heaven would have been equally descriptive 
of the AshtoreLh of earlier times. Jt is not till very 
late in the history of Israel, that we find mention made 
of tiie introduction of the worship of the host of heaven, 
i Ki. xvii. Ki; xxi. :;,;>; x.\iii. i,:,. KC. And it is not improbable 
that the influence of tiiis worship, which some have 
connected with the presence of the Assyrians in Pales 
tine, mav have modified the conceptions f irmed of the 
ancient divinities and the leading attributes with which 
they were invested. 1 

With regard to the f.irms and observances which 
accompanied the wor.-hip of Ashtaroth, we have no de 
tailed information in .Scripture, ! r the iva-.m already 
4 iven. \Veivad in one pass;i--e of a house "i 1 temple 
of Ashtaroth, ISa. xxxi.ln; in aiiotlier of a high plate or 
artificial eminence erected for her worship, -K. s i 
lint the two loealitn - which arc most frequently men- 
t: mod as the scene of th-- anci 

high hill and the shade of the green tree, iv. xii. . ; . Ki. 
!Lvi.4,ic. It is probable that the \\orship of i aalim 
was more fr.-qu< ntly connected with the former of i In se 
localities, tirj worship <>: Ashtaroth v. itli the latter: 
but the two divinities \\eiv so closely allied in characti r. 
in t!ie [)owers attrilnited and tin- worship presented to 
them, that the symbols of their presence were often 
erected on the same spot, and both r< ceived at one and 
the same time the homage and lh< gifts of their wor 

One ijii -stioii of importance remains. \\hat were 
the symljols emploved to i IK, ix out tin spot where these 
divinities were supposed to be specially prc.-ciit ; This 
leads us to investigate the meaning of a word .if fre 
quent occurrence in Scripture, with regard to v, hich 
there has been very great diti eivnce of opinion amon- 
Hebrew scholar* the Word ,-|1w X- -(-/"-/a. 

Tim- - jii-iii.-ipal opinions liave been propounded : 

1. That Ashera means i/rurc. This i; the mo : -t 
ancient \ie\v, being that of the LXX.. and it was fol 
lowed liv the translators of our version. 

2. That A-dn-ra was a goddess-name, nearly identieal 
with Ashtoreth. This \ i.-w i- in substance that of 
( leseliius. 

. ,. That it wa.; a -vmbolie fi-un-. at first nothing 
more than the stock or stem of a tree fixed in tin- 
ground, afterwards some- wooden pillar or ima-_re, more 
artificially prepared and adorned, i Ki. xxi. 7. Of tho^e 
who hold this view, some, with whom we have no 
hesitation in agreeing, regard the Ashera as the svm- 
bol of the goddess Ashtoreth : others, as Movers, deli) 
the existence of any such connection, distinguishing be 
tween Ashera and Ashtoreth as two separate divinities. 

1 In He. iv. I .i, ,-incl x\ii. :;. iiu-iitiiiii is made of the worship 
of tliu host ( heaven, luit <>nly as a possible contingency, not a 
realized f.ict . Tlu-n- i- no -ood evidence th:it Ashtaroth- Karnaim, 
or tin.: two honie.l .\.--litaroth, has any reference to the moon. 
fSanchoniathon, in Kusi-b. P?,i;>. EfU,.l. J>. :>S, edit, loss.) I!e- 
M.lus, the name is evidently desei-i]itive, not of the form under 
which the goddess was usually worshipped, but of a special and 
distinctive form- peculiar to that city or re-ion probably a 
form similar to that under which Isis \\-.\A worshipped by the 

1. With regard to the first and most ancient of these 
views, it is now abandoned by nearly all who have 
made accurate inquiry into the subject. There is not 
a single passage in which the adoption of the rendering 
" urove" is unavoidable ; and there are many passages 
in which that rendering is altogether inadmissible. For 
example, we find the Ashera frequently connected with 
the verbs n w y> ^" make, 1 Ki. xvi. Uo; - Ki. x\ii. Ki; xxi. :>; 

_ Ui. xxxiii.:;; T zyr,, to set tip, 2 cii. xxxiii. iti ; N yjrij to 

; bring out. - Ki. xxiii. t>. \\ e find an Ashera forming the 

j wood on which a single o.x was sacrificed, Ju. vi. ^i;; 

1 another set up in the city of Samaria, 2Ki. xiii. r,; and 
another in the temple of Jehovah at Jerusalem, L Ki.x.xi.7. 
We Mid Asherim under green trees, and covered over 

j by curtains or tents t2 n> wrought for them by their 
female attendants and worshippers. In all these cases 

, the rendering " grove is quite unsuitable. And even 

j the passage which is most frequently appealed to in 

[ defence of that rendering, Do. xvi. 21, " Tliou shalt not 
plant (v-j;;> thee an A*lu r.i, any tree r. j, - v ?2b near the 
,-diar of Jehovah ; neither shalt thou sot thee up a stone 
pillar" (r^X -b is re-ally, when closely examined, rather 
adverse to it than otherwise. The most obvious mean 
ing is. Thou shall not plant, l>u. xi. r>. near the altar of 
Jehovah an Ashera formed out of any tree, nor set up 
anv stone pillar: and the natural conclusion even from 
this passive. whi.1i alone gives even the semblance of 
support to the rendering " grove," is, that the Ashera 
was a wooden pillar, or trunk of a tree, perhaps of 
some peculiar and well known form, to wh:ch a sym 
bolic character of some kind was attached a conclu 
sion borne out by other passages of l>euti i on,. my, cli. LV.2.S; 
.. -., i;t-. x\:x n;, in which the idol pillars or images 
are described as chiefly of two sorts, " wood and stone ; 
bv the former of which we ma;, Mipposc the Ashera to 
be meant, by the latter, the ri^aC, with which, not 
onlv in the passage now under consideration, but in a 
multitude of other-, the Ashera stands in close and 
immediate connection. 

L . Neither have we any authority for regarding the 
A<hi-ra as a goddess worshipped by the ( anaanites. 
either the goddess Astar n- or any other. The passage 
which seems most strongly to support this view is 
1 Ki. xviii. 1! , where we read of Elijah s encounter 
with the prophets of li.utl, four hundred and fifty in 
number, and the prophets of the Ashera, in number 
four hundred. At t ir.-t glance thi- passage would seem 
to present A-h.-ra as a goddess, the companion of I .aal, 
and nearlv equal in rank. lint on looking liack two 

chapters to the account which the historian uives of 
the inU-oduction by Ahab of the worshi]) of liaal and 

1 of the Ashera, w find there is a clear distinction drawn 
between them: for it is said, "Ahab setup an altar 

to I .aal in the house of liaal . . . and Ahab made 
I- -; ) the Ashera," L Ki. xvi. 32,33, plainly distinguishing 

between TJaal. the divinity in whose honour altars 
i were erected and temples built, and the Ashera, a 
J thing mud and fashioned by human hands. 

:i. This leads to the true view of Ashera, as an idol 
svmbol, and more particularly a symbol of the goddess 
Ashtoreth. That the Ashera had some intimate con 
nection with the worshi]) of Ashtoreth, is evident from 
the passage just remarked on, i Ki. xviii. 1 . , and many 

others. Ju. vi. 2. .; 1 Ki. xvi. :;:;; -J Ki xvii. M, Ki; xviii. 4; xix. :!,&c., 



in which it is mentioned tilling \vitli P>aal or the 
s > !in J~O""> just as Ashtoreth is in other passages. 

Sou also 2 Ki. xxiii. 7, for a notice of the Ashera- rites. 
Mut at the same time \ve must lie careful not to con 
found the Asliera with the goddess Ashtoreth; for the 
Scripture never does. The latter (Ashtoreth or Ashta 
roth) the Scripture always speaks of as a divinity, /<;/ 
fi,iri <? df/ff, and si rvid dint irort/ii/ijird by the blinded 
heathen (see the passages already quoted): the for 
mer ithe Asliera i as a material svmlioi, a (ree, a trunk, 
which is planted \y^i, made \ --ry >, *et up (sS.1 
-v:yr:>; in only one passage, 2 CIi. xxiv. IS, is it eon- 
ueeted with -!2>- t" serve, l!ie s\mbul being put for 

the divimtv. A^ain, the Ashtaroth Israel is com 
manded to jiut away (-vcn); the Asherim to cut 

down (p-i2 yTj) and burn with lire U-p -^ nyS), just 

as they were enjoined to j>ut <"// Baal from among 
them, but to I) i calc ui pu.c<:s n", ; ) the pillars of Baal, 
which were of stone. Moreover, the Asherim are con- 
stantlv connected with a.ltars, images, and other mate 
rials of idolatry: the A-htaioth never, Ex. xxxiv. 13; Do. 
vii. I-: xii.3,&c. 

\\ e are thus led to {he conclusion that, just as the 
!72"C of stone was usually the symbol of Baal, so the 

Asliera of wood was the symbol of Ashtaroth. And 
this conclusion is quite in harmony with what we learn 
from other sources as to the nature of the idol symbols 
which were in use in most ancient times. (Potter s 
Greek A, />!</. 1. -l-i:>, -1-1\>; Sale s Koran, Prel. Disc, 
i 1 : ."Movers, i. fiG J; Euseb. I>,;rp. Enni j. p. 35, 99.) 
Thcv were nothing more dignified than stocks and 
stones. Tlu; reason why the symbol of Baal was 
of stone, that of Ashtoreth of wood, is perhaps to be 
found in the difference of sex ; the stone representing 
the idea of strength, the tree that of fruitfulness. 

[n. ii. w.] 

ASIA; the origin of the name is involved in ob 
scurity, but as a designation, along with Europe and 
Africa, of one of the greater divisions of the known 
world, it began to come into use in the fifth century 
[i.e. In the X ew Testament, however, it is used in 
a narrower sense, as it also very generally was among 
the ancients, sometimes for Asia Minor and sometimes 
for pro-consular Asia, which latterly included the pro 
vinces of Phrygia, Mysia, Caria, and Lydia (Cicero, 
Pro Flacco, c. 27). But the province was originally 
not so extensive; and even afterwards Phrygia is oc 
casionally mentioned in another connection with Ci- 
licia. for example, as when Cicero charges Dolabella 
and his qua-stor Verres with ravaging Phrygia, during 
the time that the former held the province of Cilicia 
Verres, Act. ii. 1, c. 38). So in Acts xvi. G, Phrygia 
is distinguished from Asia, as if it did not properly 
lielong to the province so designated: and so also in 
ch. ii. 9, 10. In these passages it is probably used, 
as it appears also to be in the Apocalypse with 
respect to the seven churches of Asia, for the compa 
ratively small sea-board district, which comprised My 
sia, Ionia, and Lydia, and which had Ephesus for its 
centre and capital. 

ASIA, SEVEN CHURCHES OF. Sse their names. 
ASIARCH^E, AS1ARCHS, or rulers of Asia, ren 
dered in the English version the chirf of Asia, Ac. xix. 31, 
were the annually appointed governors of the cities in 
] m )-ci insular Asia. They had the superintendence of the 
public games and religious rite* in honour of the gods 
and the emperor, which they had to conduct at their 
own expense. Hence, only wealthy persons could hold 
the office, and in respect to social position they must 
always have been among the chief men of the place. 
K.ach city, it would appear, cho.-o one of their own 
number witii a. view to the office, and out of the whole 
number thus chosen, ten were selected by the assembly 
of deputies, who formed a sort of council of Asiarchs, 

j and one was nominated to be the ( resident <>r head of 
the body, it is disputed whether the title Asiarch be 
longed only to this president, or to the whole ten. Tin; 
language in the passage above n fcnvd to from the Acts 
of the Apostles seems to favour the idea that they ex 
isted in considerable numbers; so that either the whole 
body must have had the title of Anarchs, or the title 
must have been kept up by way of courtesy, toward 
those who had formerly enjoved the dimiitv. One 
Asiarch alone is noticed in Eusebius as having had 
the charge of matters at the trial of Polycarp (L ccl. 

I Hist. iv. 15); but this, as \Vincr remarks, may simply 
have arisen from one being appointed to look after 
that particular business, while for the public so 
lemnities generally others may have been associated 
with him. Indeed, the notices that have come down 
to us regarding the office an; so incidental and frag 
mentary, that it is not possible to decide with confi 
dence on the details; and it is not improbable that the 
customs and mode of procedure regarding it differed at 
one time as compared with another. 

ASKELON [Heb. ASHKF.LOX, probably miyration], 
one of the chief cities of the Philistines, on the sea- 
coast between Gaza and Ashdod. It lay within the 
compass of the territory of Judah, and was about 
,} 7 gei ^graphical miles south-west of .] erusaleni. Derketo, 
which seems to have been the same with Atergatis, 
was the deity chiefly worshipped there, under the form 
of a female head and shoulders, tapering away into a 
fish s tail (Lueian, De Dca Si/rin, xiv.) There was pro- 
bably some affinity between this worship and that of 
Dagon, the tutelary deity of Ashdod. The city had 
not only the advantages of a seaport, but also stood in a 
fruitful region, prolific even in some of the finer pro 
ductions, such as vines and aromatic plants (Pliny, xix. 
32 ; Strabo, xvi. 759). It was strongly fortified, and 
from its position must have been the theatre of many a 
conflict, especially during the wars that were carried on 
between Egypt and Syria. It was sometimes subject 
to the one and sometimes to the other, 1 Mac. x. N);\i. i;<> ; 
xii. :;:; (Josephus, Ant. xii. 4, 5). Herod the Great was 
born there, and he afterwards adorned it with baths, 
colonnades, and other ornamental works (Joseph. Wars, 
i. 12, 11). After his death his sister Salome made it 
her residence, having obtained from Augustus the use 
of a palace. It continued to be a place of considerable 
importance in later times, and is often mentioned in 
the history of the crusades. Richard held his court 
within its walls. In the time of Sandys (A.D. 1G10) it 
still was the seat of a garrison, although it had other 
wise, he tells us. become a place of no importance. But 
it has 1. mg since fallen into decay and ruin. Richardson 
found "not an inhabitant within its walls" (Travels, ii. 


); and I obinson s companion, Mr. Smith, who j tended by the word -i riy (/:uhor), in Ju. v. in, "Ye 

(Rf search r$. n. 2l!(l). Compare Zee. ix. 5; Zep. ii. 4: Am i. 8. i -, , T , , - 

* OAT . T3T3T-T3 i i A i! XT i i j region, a rocky \\ iklcmcss. Its hoofs are long, hollow 

ASNAPPER, designated the Great and the Noble, i 

is mentioned in connection with the introduction into ! 
Palestine of the different tribes from the East, who 1 
were sent to take the place of the exiled Israelites, Ezr. 
iv. 10. He is not called king of Assyria., and it is more 
than probable that ho was onlv a prince or satrap of 
the empire, who had the charge of this particular busi- j 

ASP (,-. jicfhcn). a venomous serpent. (Sec ADDEU.) 

ASS l,vr:r, humor, he-assi, ( TN, utliim-, she-ass^, 
(-\--, a//!, , ass-colt i. The most familiar species of the 

genus Asiiuis, belonging to the- horse family (Eijuid;t^, i 
of which tin: generic di.-tin lions are, a short, erect; 
mane, a tail furnished \\itii a terminal tuft (if hairs, i 
and a tendency to a banded or striped, ratlier than a 
spotted arrangement in the colours. 

Tlu: prohibition nf th- use of horses (sec Housi- .i to 
Israel. caused the ass to } held in higher estimation 
than it holds hi oi,r times. It \\as. at hast down to 
the dav> of Solomon, the principal beast of burden. 
lint we must not attribute this election wholly to th- 
absence or scarcity of the- horse. for in Western Asia 
the ass is still largely used for tin- saddle. Though 

inferior in dignity to the horse, he is still in his native beneath, with very sharp edges, a, peculiarity which 

regions a very superior animal to tin- poor, weather- makes it sure-footed in ascending and descending steep 

beaten, stunted, half-starved beast of our commons, mountain passes, where the flat hoof of the horse would 

Chat-din and oth.-rs describe tin- Arabian ass as a be insecure. It prefers aromatic, dry, prickly herbs to 

really elegant creature. Th.- coat is smooth and dean, the most succulent and tender grass : is fond of rolling 

the carriag- is erect and pn>ud: the limbs are d. an. in the dry dust : slitters but little from thirst or heat ; 

wdl-foni: d. and muscular, and are well thrown out in drinks seldom and little ; and seems to ha\e no s.-n.-ible 

walking or gallo] perspiration, its skin In inu r hard, tough and insensitive. 

Asses of this Arab breed are used exclusively for All these characters writ the arid rocky wildernesses of 

the saddle, and are imported into Syria and Persia. Persia and Western Asia, the nati\e country of this 

where they are highly valued. t^]ieciallv bv the mollahs valuable animal. 

or lawyers, the sheiks or r. lu ious teachers, and dd. rly |,ik,. all other ouadrupeds. except the cloven-hoofed 

persons p.f th.-- opulent classes. They are fed and ruminants, the ass wa- und. an bv the .Mosaical law; 

dressed with the same care as horses, the head-gear and it is recorded as a proof of the extremity of famine 

is highly ornamented, and the saddle is covered \\ith to \\hidi tin- inhabitants of Samaria were reduced, 

a fine carpet. They are active, spirited, and yet siitii- during I .. nhaihid s siege of that city, not only that 

ciently docile. ass -j f|,. s ], W as eaten, but that the head, a part \\hidi 

Other breeds are equally useful in the more humble would yip-Id but little fli-sh, was sold for fourscore 

labours of ploughing and carrying biirilp-ns. pi, e.-s .if .-il\i ;-. j Ki. vi. _. .. 

White asses, distinguished not only by their colour. .Notwithstanding what has been said above of the 

but by their stature and symmetry, are fivi|Up-ntIy seen universality of the use of tin- ass for the saddle, the horse 

in Western Asia, and are always more highly esteemed was emploved in tin.- Gentile nations for the carrving of 

than those of more ordinary hue. The editor of the warriors and pt rs,,ns of royal digmlv. And from 

Pictorial li tUt says, that these "are usually in every Solomon, \\hotirst broke the dixine prohibition, down- 

res]H-ct the finest of their species, and their owners ward, horses formed part of tin- royal state in .ludali 

certainly take more pride in them than in any other of and Israel. Therefore it is adduced as an example of 

their asses. They sell at a much higher j price: and the lowliness and meekness of Him \\h \\astocome 

those hackney ass-men who make a livelihood by the Anointed King of Israel, that lie should "ride 

hiring out their asses to persons who want a ride, upon an ass. and upon a colt, the foal of an ass," 

always expect better pay for the white ass than for [ Zuc. i\. (i. 

any of the others." After describing their more highly | An ass was chosen, in the sovereignty of Clod, to 

ornamented trappings, lie observes, "but above all, rebuke the covetous eagerness of I Salaam for reward. 

their white hides are fantastically streaked and spotted human reason and speech being miraculously conferred 

i v 

with the red stains of the henna plant, a barbarous on her for the occasion: - "The dumb ass, speaking 

kind of ornament which the Western Asiatics are fond with man s voice, forbad the madness of the prophet," 

of applying to their own beards and to the manes and ^iv.ii.ii ,. A solemn lesson, teaching us of how little value 

tails of their white horses." Col. Hamilton Smith in God s sight are gifts, compared with obedient love. 
thinks that this red-spotted character is what is in- It is supposed by some that the atlu ii was dislin- 



Lruishod from the /,<//,/,./ not merely !>y sex (though tin- 
word is feminine), but liy breed: that it was a superior 
race, ol.t;iiiii-d hv crossing tin- domestic with the wild 
ass, ))</</!. Thus the possession of (il/nniif/i would 
always imply. riches or dignity. Tin- circumstance, 
however, that Job had his calamity .".mi of 
these utlnniutli, and 10(111 afterwards, seems to us to 
militate strongly against the supposition that these \vi r 
the offspring of the /mr/i, unless that shy and swift 
animal was far more abundant then tliau it is now. 

In Is. xxi. 7, "11 chariot of asses" is seen l.y the 
watchman: ami as it is in connection with the Fall ol 
I .aliylon. perhaps it was a mode of draught peculiar 
to the ^icdes. No pictorial representation exists, so 
far as we are aware, of asses yoked to a chariot, either 
in the monuments of ancient lv_-ypt or of Assyria. Put 
it is curious that among the tributary nations that 
swelled (he anuv of X < rxes, .Herodotus enumerates 
" Indians" (meaning by that term a people from the 
banks of the Indus, whom he mentions between the 
M udes and the ISactrians), as yoking wild asses (pro- 
k-iblv the t/Ji<>t>r-l-hur) to their v. ar- chariots. (Sec the 
following article.) [p. II. (;.] 

ASS, WILD [ x -i2. perch; -, ^y, <<m/J. Then 

seems L f ood reason to believe that at lea:-t four wild 
species of Asinua exist in Western Asia, \\7.. the 
Creator wild ass, ///.<.;- //// / , or </.:/ ///(/?>/ (.1. licml- 
IIHX)\ the kltu i- of Persia (A. litininr} ; the <m;i<-r, 
L- iuluit, or cross-barred wild ass (A. <>iia;/c> ) of Tar- 
larv and Northern Persia: and a species recently de 
scribed by M. Ceoff. St. liilairc. under the name of 
A. JtCi/ii/i/iiiK, from a specimen sent to the empress 
of the French from Egypt. It is intermediate be 
tween the yhoor-l hur and the horse, agreeing with 
the former in colour and in the possession, of a dorsal 
line, but of much smaller size. It is supposed to be a 
native of the Syrian desert. 

Each of these is characterized by threat fleetness, so 
that it is very difficult to overtake them even, with the 
swiftest horses. Colonel Sykes says that a friend of his. 

[S6.J Creator Wild Ass or Bziggetai .-lainus heiiiwim*. 

in his morning rides, was nscd to start a particular wild 
ass (probably of the first-named species), so frequently 
that it became familiarly known to him; he always 
gave chase to it; but though lie piijucd himself on 
being mounted on an extremely fleet Arabian horse, be 
never could come up with the animal. Sir Pobert 
Xcr Porter has graphically described his fruitless chase 

of the 1,-fiin; when mounted on a " very swift Arab. 
The /<.//, ,-/;/ has the same habits. 

Colonel II. Smith, a high authority, considers the 
/,( ,;// to IK; the <tli<><>r-klinr, and the arud to be the 
kliH.r. Jf this be correct, we must suppose either that 
the l nliiii was unknown to the Hebrews, though it 
was well known to the ( i reeks, or which is more 
likiiy that it was confounded with the llmr. The 
i//n>:>r-!.-/ii/r is mouse-brown, with a broad dorsal stripe, 
but no cross stripe on the shoulders; the //// / is of a 
li .rht reddish colour, becoming gray beneath and behind, 
with neitbi r stripe nor cross: the /.-n/i/aii is silvery 
white, with a coffee-coloured dorsal stripe, and a cross 
strii e o\cr the shoulders. 

The notices of these animals in the sacred Scriptures 
are allusions to their indomitable love of freedom and 
hatred of restraint, Go. xvi. l^, when- Islnnael is described 
literally as "a wild-ass man," J"l> xxiv. > xxxix. 5; to 
their self-will, Jul. .\i. 1:! ; .)(.-. ii.i l; to their silence- when 
their wants are satisfied. Job vi. r> ; to their fondness for 
wild and lone places, Ps. civ. 11; 1.x xxxii. 11; to their soli 
tary habits. Ilo.viii. j; and t.> their custom of standing 
on elevated places, Jc. xiv. (!. 

It has been common to consider the domestic ass as 
the progeny of some one or other of the wild species, 
originally caught and subdued by the power of man, 
and trained in the course of generations to subjection 
and servitude; and this because it has been assumed, 
as if it were a self-evident truth, that man could have- 
come into possession of the numerous animals which 
constitute so many valuable domestic servants, in no 
other way than by reducing them from a primeval con 
dition of freedom to bondage. It is acknowledged that 
the wild types of many of our domestic creatures are 
either not to be found, or not to be satisfactorily identi 
fied; but a sort of necessary existence is demanded for 
them: and efforts are made to unite the domestic ani 
mals now with one, now with another, species which 
is known in an unsubdued state. Our neat cattle, 
sheep, goat, log, and cat, are familiar examples of 
animals whose wild parentage is altogether unknown. 
In the case of the horse and of the ass, we have indeed 
wild as well as tame individuals existing at the same 
period ; but it is quite as legitimate to assume that 
the former are the progeny of individuals which have 
emancipated themselves and have maintained their 
freedom, as that the latter are descended from captive 
parents- supposing, what is by no means proved, the 
specific identity of the wild and tame races. 

To us, however, it seems highly probable that many 
animals were, originally created in the condition which 
we call domestication, and in no other; and were from 
the very first given by Cod to man, as his humble com 
panions and servants, .liven in Eden the duty of man 
to dress and keep the garden, implies the use of im 
plements; and still more does the command to "till 
the ground," which was imposed on him when he fell. 
Cut, as has been well shown, these implements could 
not have been of his own invention and manufacture, 
j since the first would require the existence of ready-made 
i implements to construct them; and therefore we are 
1 compelled to, what, indeed, is entirely conso 
nant with all we are taught of the condition of the newly 
created man that such mechanical aids as were needed 
for the due performance of the duties imposed upon him, 
together with skill to use them, were bestowed on him 
from the gracious hands of his Creator. If this be a 




reasonable conclusion, it seems only a legitimate fol 
lowing up of the same piocess of reasoning, to presume 
that docile and subject animals were given him at 
the same time. It, for example, a plough was put into 
his hand, that a yoke of cattle 
accompanied it ; if agricultural 
products were to be gathered, 
that an ass or two would be 
provided to carry the fruits of 
the earth; if the wool and the 
milk of tho flock were to form 
an important portion of his de 
pendence, and particularly if 
a Limb was appointed to be a 
frequent sacrifice, that a flock 
of sheep would be furnished for 
his care, and probably a dog to 
guard them from the wild 
beasts, now alienated from, and 
inimical to, man. 

Accordingly, the very first 
picture of human life subsequent 
to tho expulsion from Kdeii, 
which the Holy Spirit has 
drawn, presents us with this v, 

condition of things: Abel 

was a kecpirof sheep," and the sacrifice of "the first 
lings of his flock" was a regular act of worship. 

To come to tin- subject of this article: the manner 
in which it is spoken i.f in the sacred Scripture, appears 
more favourable to the notion that the wild ass is an 
emancipated domestic ass, than that the latter is a re 
claimed wild one. Jehovah himself, in the magnificent 

re pi f of Job out of the whirlwind, n.-ks, " \Vlio h.dh 

sent oil the wild ass (the /,<)</!) free or who hath 
loosed the bands of the \\ild ass (the i ti-u 1) . " It may 
be said that this is only a fk iirative way c.f ; 
inj; the condition of the creature: but certainlv the 
words imply a state of servitude anterior to its t"iv dom. 
The question, ill whatever way it lie decided, does not 
touch the other question, of the speciiic identity of 
certain wild and tame races. Whether, for example, 
the tame ass is specifically identical with the Iclmr, does 
not depend on the relative priority of the conditions of 
servitude and freedom. \ i . II. <: j 

ASSH UR. a son of Shem. from whom the name 
Assyria is derived. Go. x 11-22. (> ASSVIIIA.) 

AS SOS, or AS SUS, a city of Mysia, in Asin Minor, 
on the Adramyttian Culf, \\ith the island Le>hos 
lying over against it. It stood on the height above (lie 
harbour, occupying a strong natural jio.--ii.ion, which 
was also well fortitii d by art; and the town appears 
to have been for long :i flourishing and well- fre 
quented sea-port. It occurs in the history of St. Paul s 
travels, when (.11 his way from Crcece to Jerusalem 
for the last time. His companions took ship at Troas, 
while he went on foot and joined them again at Assos, 
Ac. xx. i:;, 1 1. Tho vessel, it would appear, had to touch at 
Assos, and as to reach it she had to sail round the pro 
montory of Loetuni, 1 aul took the straight route on 
foot from Troas to Assos. which was only about half 
the distance (20 Roman miles), which he could easily 
accomplish in the requisite time. There are still numer 
ous remains of the ancient town, one of the most re 
markable of which is what is called the Street of 
Tombs, extending to a great distance on the north-west 
of the citv. and each tomb formed of one block of 

i granite. These, and tho other remains, consisting of 
strong walls, theatres, temples, & .., have been de 
scribed by Fellows in his A tut Minor, p. ;V2. A stone 
found in its neighbourhood, called the Assian stone. 

$ &f?$: 

* h 

Tli- AcrulK.lUt.f Assei 

was mm h used in ancient times for coffins, 1 ring re 
markable for its Mesh-consuming projtcrtv. Thev were 
hence named *air< ji/i<t;/i, flesh-consumers, which came 
by and by to be applied to stone coflins generally. Tho 
j rojierty in the As.-ian stone is understood to have 
been derived from its limestone ingredients; lint there 
\\:is J.l obably some exaggeration ill the ,-nppesed jioWiT 

ami rajiiditv with which it acted on tho bodies com 
mitted to its kci ) 

SYRIA, and the Ass 1 ! HI AX KMT! ;:[ .. lloth. as will as the 
people, are designated in Hebrew Asshur, from Asslmr, 
Sin m s son: in the Vulgate it is rendered liy Assur and 
As yrii; by the Creeks Assyria d toleiny, vi. 1) and 
Aturia .Strabo. xvi. /Jo"/), Athuria ( 1 Hon. ( a --. xviii. 
_ >>, b-, in/ merely the dialectic exchange of ,s- into /. 
Kie-h mentions Ninu-oiid on the Ti-i- s. 1 < tucen five and 
six hours north-east of Mosul, which tho Turks said 
Al Athur, or Ashur. from which the whole; country 
was denominated" (Rex/dam in h imlixta>i, ii. 12!: 
Abu el I Yilahi. A moiiLC classical writers the words Assy- 
ria and Svria are fivqut ntly found interchange .1 (Strabo, 
xvi. c. i.), and some modern commentators have con- 
jee tund that thi- is likewise; the case in Scripture 
(Ilii/.ig, Ik jriff d. Krltlk Alt. Test. p. 93, Heidelberg, 
1831; H.ndtrson on Isaiah, }>. 17: , London, 1S40). 

The lion was the emblematic symbol of the Assyrian 
empire, !>;i. vii. I. Tlie .-ymbolic form of the bull miard- 
inu the entrances at the ]S"inevite palaces, according to 
some, was adopted by the king of Assyria, in allusion to 
the name of the jicople: "For the h:dl is called xrlmnr 
and tour, fell, .win-/ the dialects of th.e Semitic idiom, 
as Assyria, Aschoiir, and Aturia. The addition of the 
article before these words would produce llaschour or 
Hatotir. Thus the goddess JIathor. borrowed by Egypt 
from Assyria, is rejiresented under the form of a cow. 
This Hathor is the same as Venus; and the dove con 
secrated to this goddess in Syria and Cyprus, is called 
l/i/ir, like the bull or cow" (A. de Longperier, Notice 
(/..-; A tit! /. A;.*. /><!/>. Pcrs. <t J!<h. dti Music dn 
Lourrc, !!d edit. 1S.>1). 

ASSY:; i A 



The country or monarchy of Assyria, or A>svria 
Proper, was originally of I nit small extent, ami had 
not, like Babylonia, any ureat natural frontiers to do- 
tern line, its limits, while the sites of the cities founded 
by Asshur are as yet uncertain. It is stated to have 
heen " bounded on the north by Mount Niphatos and 
part of Armenia,: on the east by that part of Media. 
which lies towards Mounts Chalioras and Zagros; on 
the south by Susiana, as well as part of Babylonia; 
and finally, on the west by the Tigris (Chcsney s 
Stirrry <>f Jlv.pliratts, i.; Ptolemy, vi. 1. ; Pliny, Xal. 
.//tat. v. !: >.; Str.-iho, xvi. c. i.) It very nearly corre 
sponds to the modem Kurdistan with :i part of the 
pashalic of Mosul. Of Asshur s cities the site of Jle- 
hoboth has heen shitted everywhere, hut \ve learn 
from Chesney. that " on the right hank of the Euphra 
tes, at the north-western extremity of the plain, of 
Shinar. and > . miles south-west of the town, of Mayadin, 
are extensive ruins, around a castle, still hearing the 
name of Kehoboth." The ruins of Kalah Shergat, on 
the right bank of the Tigris, have with great proba 
bility been identified with the ancient (Ains- 
worth. Trait.-!. Lund. (lioy. Society, vol. i.\.) Nimroud has 
been identified with Resell (Surrey <>f Jiuphrat.; Jour. 
]!<t>/. (r tof/. Focti/i/, ix. .]. > and sequel of Rawlinson s 
^, o/rs; Xcnophon. AinJt. b. iii.): and the site of Nine 
veh may now ho spoken of with certainty. The con 
clusive identification of the sites of Erech, Accad, and 
(Vdneh, the frontier towns of Nimred s kingdom, would 
mark the southern boundary of Assyria. Ercch is 
believed to lie the modern "W ark ah, the Orchoe of the 
( i reeks (Eraser s Mesopotamia and Assyria, p. l J;>; 
Ohesney ; Rawlinson s Outline of Assyrian History, 
Trans. Roy. fric. Lit. 2d series, vi. 1); Accad or Aceur, 
supposed modern Akkerkuf (Ainsworth s Researches in 
Assyria); and t alneh is fixed by the concurrence of a 
great mass of authority, ancient and modern, at what 
was the ancient Ctesiphon, on the banks of the Tigris 
about 13 milt.-:- below Bagdad, the surrounding district 
being called by the Greeks Chalonitis. The site was 
afterwards occupied by El Madair. This site does not 
agree with that mentioned by Chesncy, who identifies 
it with the modern Charchemish, supporting his con 
jecture by the note in Calmet that its name implied 
last built town," or " border town." 

Ptolemy divides Assyria proper into six provinces: 
Arrapaehitis (from Arphaxad ? Go. x. 22-24, Vater on 
Genesis, i. 1;">1) 011 the north; Oalakine, or Oalachone 
(Strabo), perhaps Chalack. 2Ki. xvii.o, on the south; 
Adiabene Chadyab, or Hadyab ; Arbelitis, in which 
was Arbela, now Arbil, where Alexander defeated 
Darius: and south of this, Apolloniatis and Sittakene; 
the capital of the whole country being Xineveh, on the 
east bank of the Tigris. Mr. Ainsworth states (Re 
searches in Assyria, Lond. 1838), that "Assyria, in 
cluding Taurus, is distinguished into three districts; by 
its structure into a district of plntonic and metamor- 
phic rocks, a district of sedentary formations, and a 
district of alluvial deposits; by configuration into a 
district of mountains, a district of stony or sandy 
places, and a district of low watery plains; by natural 
productions into a country of forests and fruit-trees, 
of olives, wine, corn, and pasturage, or of barren rocks; 
a country of mulberry, cotton, maize, tobacco, or of 
barren clay, sand, pebbly or rocky plains; and into 
a country of date trees, rice, and pasturage, or a land 
of saline plants. The vegetation of Taurus is remark 

able for the abundance of trees,, shrubs, and plants in 
the northern, and their comparative absence in the 
southern district." When Alexander the Great de 
signed to build a fleet he was forced to nse cypress 
brought from Assyria, and from the groves and parks, 
as there was a scarcity of timber in Babylonia (Arrian 
/;/. Alc.r.. lib. vii. ; Strabo, xvi. 1, 12). "Besides the 
productions above enumerated, Kurdistan yields gall- 
nuts, gum-arabic-, mastic, manna, madder, castor-oil, 
and various kinds of grain, pulse, and fruit. There 
are naphtha springs on the eastern shores of the Tigris. 
The animals of the mountain district include bears, 
panthers, wolves, lynxes, foxes, marmots, dormice, 
fallow and red deer, roebucks, antelopes, and goals. 
In the plains are found lions, tigers, hya-nas, jerboas, 
wild boars, beavers, camels," t \.c. (Ainsworth); the 
sculptures also show us sheep, oxen, horses, dogs, hares, 
partridge s, and pheasants. To the north is a mass of 
mountains with snowy peaks; on the west is the impe 
tuous Tigris (Hiddekel, Gc. ii. H;D;i. x. 4), across which, 
28 miles by the river below Nineveh, is the celebrated 
dyke of solid masonry called Zikru-1-awnz. The stream 
when full rushes with great force over this obstruction; 
7 miles lower down there is another dyke, Xikr Ismail, 
but in a dilapidated state. In its progress the Tigris 
receives from Assyria two mountain streams, the Great 
and Little Zab, the Sykos and Capros of the Greeks. 

ASSYRIAN EMPIKE. As the sovereigns of Assyria 
increased their possessions by conquest, the name of 
the parent country was given to each new acquisition, 
so that the limits of the empire varied at different 
periods ; and even long after it was overthrown, the 
name was retained in Mesopotamia and Babylonia. 
Thus, Isaiah describes the Assyrians as beyond "the 
river" (Euphrates), ch. vii. 20. Nebuchadnezzar, though 
ruling at Babylonia, is termed king of Assyria, 2Ki. 
xxii. 2U; and Darius, king of Persia, is called king of 
Assyria, Ezr. vi. 22. The empire under Tiglath Pileser 
comprehended not on!} Assyria proper, the moun 
tains of Kurdistan, and the country between Kur 
distan and the Caucasus, but likewise Media, Syria, 
and the northern part of Palestine. Shalmaneser added 
Israel, Sidon, Acre, and Cyprus to the empire. The 
Assyrian empire attained its greatest limits under the 
ChaldaBO - Babylonian rule, in the time of Nebuchad 
nezzar, when it comprised all "Western Asia as far 
as the Mediterranean and confines of Egypt. Evid 
ences of the sway of the Assyrians still exist in the 
pillars, boundary tablet*, and inscriptions at [Mount 
El wand (ancient Orontes); Behistun; the pass of Keli 
Shin; on the shores of Lake Van: at Nahr-al-kelb, 
tablets with portrait of king \a cast of one in the British 
Museum] ; at Lamaka in Cyprus, tablet with portrait of 
the same king (the original in the museum at Berlin}; in 
the desert between the Nile and the Red Sea; at Dash 
Tappeh in the plain of Mirgaudab; one on the banks 
of the Euphrates; some at Mel Amir; and the broken 
obelisk at Susa. Though many of the inscriptions are 
the chronicles of Median and Persian sovereigns, they 
still mark with certainty the extent of the preceding 
Assyrian empire. 

History. "Out of that land went forth Asshur, 
and builded Nineveh, and the city Eehohoth. and 
Calah, and Heseri, between Nineveh and Calah : the 
same is a great city," Ge. x. 11-20 (Aspin, A nal. Un- 
Hist. i. 297). Of the sons of Shem Scripture has 
recorded nothing except of Asshur. but of him the 




record is of the highest importance, as it fixes the : Assyrian monarchy took place 22S4 B.C. The Armenian 
epoch of the kingdom of Assyria. It may be inferred historian Eusebius places it 1340 years before the first 
from Genesis that Asshur had originally dwelt in the Olympiad, or 211(5 B.C. xEmilius Sura, quoted by 
plains of Sliinar, and that he led a company or tribe Paterculus, says it \vas 2145 B.C. An extract from 
from Babel, travelling up the Tigris and settling in Polyhistor, found in the Armenian Chronicle, and be- 
the land to which he gave his name, Assyria being the ; lieved to be an extract from Berosus, the ancient na- 
Greek derivative from the Hebrew Asshur. Some , live historian, contains a table from the dynasties of 
adopt the marginal reading, "he (Nimrod) went out the old Assyrian empire, assigning the date of each, 
into Assyria;" but the verse in Micah, eh. v. 0, strongly and the computation of the whole inves the epoch 2317 
corroborates the received text, " And they shall waste B.C. as that of the foundation of the first nionaivhv. 
the land of Assyria with the sword, (tad the land of This date differs so immaterially from that of the Bib- 
Nimro l in the entrance thereof," a passage which im- lical chronology, that it would not be unreasonable to 
plies distinct founders for the separate kingdoms of assume that Ninus may have been the great-grandson, 
Nineveh and Babylon, which were both united in the or. at all events, no very remote descendant of Asshur. 

Assyrian monarchy about the time of this prophecy. 
Mow long Asshur lived, or how far he established his 
power, are not to be learned from the sacTed narrative. 
After the foundation of the kingdoms of Nimrod 
and Asshur, we meet with no direct mention in Scrip 
ture of either Nineveh or its king for a period of lotin 


Abydenus. in the Armenian edition of Kuscbius Chro- 
r.iflr, j places Ninus sixth in descent from Belus, the 
first king of the Assyrians: and the editor, in a note 
produces some passages from .Moses Choronensis and 
others, to show that such was the general opinion 
among the Armenians (Cory s I raynu Htf, p. Gin. This 

th -r learned men are inclined account, which makes Ninus contemporary with Abra 

ham (Cory. p. 3 p), the tenth generation from Shem 
(I ctavius says Abraham was born in the twenty-fourth 
year of Semiramis reign, lib. i. c 2) perfectly accords 

the two kingdoms, hut merely throws the date of their wiih t! 

duration of the Assyrian empire, which, it 
origin forward. In Genesis xiv. 11, Chedorlaomer. is generally agi-eed, did not exceed 1300 years from its 
king of Klam tin the south of Persia), held five petty rise to the fall of Sardanapalus. about ,Mi4 BO., but 

" urine 

twelve years, 


mentioned as being in league with Amraphel, 
kiii .: of Sliinar, who (.losephus, Anti*/. lib. i. e. 10 
was ;i commander in the Assyrian armv, and likewise 
with Arioch, king of Kllasar, Kl-Asar may not this be 

which Kusehius says lasted llilO years (Cory, p. 7-1 . 
Jf we reckon backwards 13<K.) years, we shall find that 
the reign of Ninus commenced 1 lo years after Nimrod 
began to be mighty on earth. Some have inferred from 
the statement of Berosus that Ninus was the son of 

It is probable that these kings were Ximrod; hut ind, peiioVntlv of this tl 

Assyrian satraps or viceroys, according to the subse 
quent Assyrian boast. "Are not my princes altogether 
kings? Is \v Towards the cl 

we au ain meet with traces of Assyria as an independent 
and formidable state. Balaam the seer, addressing the 
Kenites, a tribe of highlanders east of the Jordan, took 

of the Armenian chroniclers is highly corroborative of 
the hypothesis that Babylonia and Assyria were orgin- 
f the- Mo.-aic age, ally two distinct kingdoms, and it is likewise perfectly 
consistent with the authorities who ascribe the founda 
tion of the Assyrian empire to Xinus. Asshur was the 
founder ,,f the iitoitm-c/iy only of Assyria, but the be- 

in his rei jn. 

Ninus confirmed the magnitude of his domination by 

continual possession until he had subdued the whole (if 

up this parable, "Strong is thy dwelling- place, and thou ginning of the empire, Eze. xxiii. 23, may In. computed 

puttest thy nest in a rock. Nevertheless the Kenites from his descendant Ninus. \sh.. was king of both As- 

shall be wasted, until Asshur shall carry thee away syria and Babylonia, which were for the first time united 
captive." And his subsequent parable of \eiigeance 
upon Assyria: " And ships .-hall come from the coast 
of Chittim. and shall atHict Asshur," N u. xxiv. 21-24. We 

also find that shortly after the death of Joshua, the the East. His la.-t war was with Oxyartes or Zoroaster, 

Israelites submitted to the arms of Chushan-rishathaim, king of the Bactrians (Justin, lib. i . c. 1 i, whom he at. 

king of Mesopotamia, which was then a separate govern- last conquered through the expedients of Semiramis, 

incut from Assyria, Ju.iii.7-io, though Josephus calls wife of Mellon (Diod. Sic. lib. ii. c. 1>. Ninus suhse- 

him king of Assyria (Ant. \. : >, 2). Psalm Ixxxiii. ,s (jueiitly married Semiramis, who succeeded to his throne. 

says. " Assur also is joined with them" against Israel. In the course of a reign of forty-two years (Africanus 

but we have no other express mention of the Assyrian and Eusebius) this queen, the first on record, helped to 

kings, until the reign of Jeroboam II. (&> > it. CO, al- consolidate the oldest empire named in history. Her sou 

though we are not without allusions to the state (.f Ninyas was the next king of the empire, and has been 

the kingdom during the latter part of this period, Go. identified with Chedorlaomer, king of Elam, Go. xiv., 14,5, o ; 

xv.l8;Ex.xxiii.31;lKi. iv.21-24;lCh.xviii.3;Ps.lxxii.8. This ter- : Is.x.8; (Shuckford s .SVtr. and J rof. Jlist. Con. b. vi.) 

minates what may be styled the first historical period He died after a reign of thirty -eight years, transmitting 

of the Assyrian empire according to Scripture. Before to his successors an empire so well constituted as to remain 

entering upon the second period, which is derived from in the hands of a series (.f kings for thirty generations. 

Holy Writ, with some aid from profane historians, it is Although we have no direct history of the acts of any of 

desirable to supply a brief history from the Greek and these sovereigns, beyond those sure indications of their 

Armenian writers. 

rule afforded by the sculptures and inscriptions which 

According to Scripture, Nineveh was founded by As- have been found in Persia, Media, Armenia, Cojle- 
shur about 2230 B.C., but according to Diodorus iSieulus, ; Syria, and Cyprus, the records of other nations furnish 
quoting Ctesias, it was founded 21S3 B.C. (lib. ii. c. 1). - occasional gleams of information connected with As- 
Herodotus is silent upon this point, but Africanus, svria. 
quoted by Syneellus, states that the foundation of the Scripture tells us of Jacob s visit to his uncle Laban 

VOL I 19 


in Mesopotamia, lie. xxix. in, and of the servitude of the 
Israelites under Chushan rishathaim, about 1 K><) IU ., 
Ju. iii. i-: . I leykab, king of Armenia, after a protracted 
contest, subdued Amyntas, seventeenth king of Assyria; 
but his successor, P.elochus, recovered his territory, and 
killed Heykab (Cory s / ray. p. 72, 73, 77). The most 
interesting revelations are likely to result from the read 
ings of Egyptian monuments, some of which leave it 
beyond doubt that Mesopotamia was conquered, and 
siege laid to Nineveh and Babylon, by the Egyptians, 
between 1100 and 1300 B.C. (Birch s Ohgcrvationx on 
Obdisk oft/a Al Mtli/an, and on (he Talild of Karnalc, 
Tran*. Roy. Sor. Lit. 2d series, vol. ii. p. 218, 
317,315: Lepsius Attsmilit. t. xiv; Vyses Journal. 
vol. iii.) The Egyptian monuments do not as yet fur 
nish us with later data connected with Assyria, but it 
was under the reign of its early kings that I amesos the 
Great (Sesostris of the Greeks! pursued his conquests 
in the .East far beyond Assyria. Plato makes the 
kingdom of Troy at the time of Priam. 1184 B.C., a 
dependant of the Assyrian empire (D< Ley. lib. iii. 68/5; 


I oJlin, vol. ii.); and J >iodorus says (lib. ii. c. 2) that 
Teutamus, the twentieth from Ninyas, sent 2(1,000 
troops and 200 chariots to the assistance of the Trojans, 
whose king, Priam, was a prince under the Assyrian 
empire. Herodotus says nothing of Assyria until he 
begins to relate how Media became a nation. Thus, 
he says, when speaking of an event which happened 
71 1 B.C., that the Assyrians had ruled Tppcr Asia r>20 
years before that: (Clio, xcv.) a discrepancy from the 
statements of other writers, to be easily reconciled by 
the supposition that Ctesias dated from the earliest 
establishment of the monarchy, while Herodotus con 
fines himself to the establishment of the great empire 
over Central Asia. 

The historical period, properly so called, of Assyrian 
history begins with the fall of the first empire under 
Sardanapalus, whose true name was perhaps Asser- 
Iladan-Pul, syllables which we shall find used in many 
of the names of the later kings. His throne was over 
turned by the MedeS; commanded by Arbaces, who made 
himself king of Assyria about .C. 804. After tho 

[83.] An Assyrian King in his Chariot of State ftfimroud). Layar.l s Monuments of Xineveh v 

death of Arbaoes the Mode, the Assyrians made them 
selves again independent. The first of the new line of 
kings was Pul. 1 Oh. v. -2ft, in whose reign Menahem, king ! 
of Israel, provoked a war with Assyria, is.c. 773. He j 
conquered Tipsah or Thapsacus on the Euphrates, and [ 
put the inhabitants to death with great cruelty, 2 Ki. xv. 10. j 
The following year Pul marched into Samaria, and the j 
Israelites purchased a peace at the price of 1000 talents j 
of silver. B.C. 7- r >3, Tiglath-Pileser, or Pul-Asser, the 
next king of Assyria, also found an excuse for invading 
Samaria. In the civil war between Israel and Judah, 
when the Israelites called to their help the king of Syria, 
whose capital was Damascus, Aha/,, king of Judah, 
sent a large sum of money to purchase the help of the 
Assyrians. Tiglath accordingly led an army against 
Syria, conquered Damascus, and slew lie/in the king. 

He entirely vanquished the Israelites, and took from 
them the larger part of the kingdom. He then added 
to the Assyrian empire not only Syria, but Gilead and 
Naphtali, on the east of the Jordan, and Galilee to the 
north, leaving to the Israelites only the province of 
Samaria. He carried his captives to the farthest end 
of his own kingdom, the banks of the river Kir, which 
flows into the Caspian Sea. Ahaz, king of Judah, went 
in person to Damascus to pay homage to the Assyrian 

conqueror, 2 Ki. xv. 20; xvi. 5-10; ICh. v.2C; 2Ch.xxviii.lfi. 

Shalrnaneser. the next king of Assyria, B.C. 734, is also 
called Shalman by the prophet Hosea, and Enemessar 

Phe name of this king, inscribed on pavement slab, and on 

labs built into the walls of the palace at Nimroud, is conjee 

urod to be Till or Tiglath-Pileser. Translation of names in 

fjav. ird s Mnrimiif-ntf "f N 



by To bit, oh. i.-2. In the Canons of Syncellus and J toleinv Lachi.-h in pi 
he is called Nabonassar v Cory. Anc. L<ra<j. p. 78, 7!M. terms of suli 
In the ninth year of his reign lie led an army against treasury, and 
Hoshea, king of Israel, which was now reduced within 
the limits of Samaria. At the end of three vears he 
had wholly conquered this people, 
carrying away into captivity the 
chief men of the ten tribes. He 
placed them at Halah near 
Xineveh, at Habor on the river 
Gozan, and in some of the cities of 
the Modes, and settled Cutheans 
from r.abylonia in their place, 
L Ki.xviii !i-ii; xvii. .>(). lie also con 
quered Sidon and Acre, and the 
island of Cyprus. Tyre alone hold 
ing out against a siege (Menander 
in Josephus, .\nti</. x. 1 1, 2). Shal 
maneser died before the removal 
of the Israelites was 
and the prisoners wen 
as a present to his 
Hi), x.ii. Sennacherib, ( 
by Hosea, succeeded Shalmaneser 

(IJ.C. 7- > <>). GeSClliuS is disposed 

to identify him with the Sardana- 
palus who is said to have built 
the cities of Anchiale and Tarsus 
in( ilicia (Arrian. /;>/><</. ufAli.r. 
ii. 5; Strabo, xiv. 4, ,S>. He com 
pleted the deportation of the 
Israelites, and then invaded Judea. 
in tin; fourteenth year of the reign 
of He/.-kiah (H.c.71 1>. He marched 
without interruj)tion through 
Galilee and Samaria, which we 
Assyria, and entered the country , 

and .Migron. He laid up hi- carriages at Michmash a- 
he came ujion the hill country around Jerusalem. 
The people tied at his approach, and all resistance 
seemed hopeless. While Sennacherib was besie _ r inu 


i. Hezekiah sent messengers to make- 
ion, and lie had to drain his own 
borrow from that of the temple, to 
raise the tribute exacted. :>nn talents of silver and ."0 
talents of gold. I.e. about .f2o i>.8."0,; it ll. 

11 now provinces of \\\n In the meantime Sennache